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Full text of "The recluse, a fourteenth century version of the Ancren Riwle;"

1 



TT—--T A-.- 



MA 21 1920 



THE RECLUSE 



A FOURTEENTH CENTURY VERSION 



THE ANCREN RIWLE 



CKITICALLY EDITEl) BY 



JOEL PAHLSSON 



BY DUE PERMISSION OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL FACULTY OF LUND TO 

BE PUBLICLY DISCUSSED IN ENGLISH IN LECTURE HALL VI, 

SEPTEMBER 21ST. 1SI18, AT i 0'CLOCK P. .M. FOR THE 

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



[■ OT T"" 

^U N 1 V E R 6 » T T^' 



LUND 191J? 

PRISTEI) BV H.AK.VN OHI.HSOS 



THE RECLUSE 



A FOURTEENTH CENTURY VERSION 



THE ANCREN RIWLE 



cniTIlALLY EDITEI) BY 



JOEL PAHLSSON 



LUND 1918 

I'K1NTEI> BY HAKAX OHI.SSON 



DEDICATED 



ANNA C. PAUES 



420774 




tO <^wl« <h»> «o Wt^ . 4X\y Qi«r Aatt^ :;uicV gm/h^ fclKt 

c^rf? iciuif 9 mAn fr|o<e tni^it,., 

apiuc tricit^ <ji« -*c lcfVnArftnr tHv-tc. Scrttnimr 

^?ti|^ •^tt^ co ^d&ajKiU O&ufc |»»n {ioxna. m tnT V^ijjf 
Woti |rttw -trrtxniifS' ^QMtotrw u|^fcu.> 

tt\ SomS *>tffilf9nitt- ortV <WV' .ytu fi^tln IjffltctK- 
50ti|\tA" ^Trt- ^ ^ ^ur <sOflr; ;^p^Gt pd C^ 
1««)^ U^tvaS^ (b^ (tV) tjl^^^ -ro ttun, [tt| fe 
a^ jcdl^ M»» Atllnmoi Itcrm 
VoCi^ rC». <Mtti^ t;5i^ l«maV>4»«y»nV. 'V. 
f. 4). ^i^^ctty^ Ut ^ |»ftr fMti *VMt H*V> 
i^^T^^^ V«r tfc^ttt^ l^ m<»fen ;.>« p^^^a- ' 
4a5p a<9 l^ A^^^ «iSo^. on p^f «nAtU ;a nttftai 
»Vt<fab^ Ho ife im ttt^^.Sfelto trrtr loiuzy ya nxna. ^ Wrf» 
pa» fij^ tn" (F^t^fa^ Ij^ Ihtp^ tp [»f>iMi ^"i ^afei» 
(^'te «f<ttn<;^ V}^3 Ktf^ t^|in^cjt<! 1»^ Vf'^ 
«ftriSm »t «e ^fowe> «tt^ .^ (ftf Itftl^feoi p HltaP^i 
tnf<&m lttal^^bj«*r af tt" (y»ui« m^ <j^ p h^ti^ • l^MI. 
Gm «ntut t^f^nov^ 3r^ |:H»r bi«f/Wiga fr*- yofu 
tr^wim o^ Kztn . Gj^ttigizft itfi tx> fei«*|tr' V tnttxo^ 

Optn' (fslimt Ajj wftr yottfkyra (TO ±'|<*ilW&- Ht® 
to Ki'«>t^r4»' fjA|ttift t(tp£ . fijjL Ift; Xngiian ya. afjn ' 

m»q«(«sr ftrfe» All*^ ^Iv«=aT. ^W* ^p M>t«,\W 
^^ 9tt^Hfirti4^ ^a^m V^<fjnx%%a,y9c-%i9 tn 



7f'ti(^fS^l^-n}Wfnn.fa,4mt^fhi^^t%g7v^ 
fVf W"*- OtiH:.. >kfnr|f|^'rTMiatril^jn^ (^ Ht 

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tti ^T^^Sa^ 4t^^« nn^ Ccn |bj, m' mp<^tfrta ^j^E 

tr^Sin .VS' ^ti^u^ <50J^ ftt^Jjfbj<s^<$c tt^ ifarrC 

itton wf^ VB*«»*— /W'^ >fetlli«t(5nitifr^rrti4artm-^i ' 
tttft^-jjA;^ -u^ Jhn ^tmcfJttrtnSb.- ^ (jitmro.^W" 

tU-lir fttttJlH •^AtfeiL^rfettCt <5a^ yo. i 
tHllt tnA kj o p ttafST' jOni UicffcxL (Ti^tia SSifr 4^K 



_ , .. {OMA 

-co Dc^nA. tt- /5 Y<w liiui Ua|Ut<(i tn fb^ 



PREFACE. 

The late versiou of the Aucren Riwle. pubHshed now for 
the tirst time, is found on pp. 371 a — 449 a of MS. Pepys 2498 
in the hbrary of Magdaleue College, Cambridge. It was not 
until 1902 that the real coutents of the volume were discovered 
and made known by Miss A. C. Paues of Newuham College, 
Cambridge, who iu that year gave a sliort accouut of the MS. 
in vol. XXX of the EugUsche Studien together with two brief 
extracts from the 'Rechise' as specimeus. In the summer of 
1905 I obtained my first introduction to the MS. through her 
kind assistance when I copied the text of the Recluse' and 
revised it in part. In 1907, 1908 and 1910 I undertook further 
revisions of my transcript, on tlie two latter occasions making 
my corrections on the actual proof-slieets. 

lu the catalogue of the Pepysian collectiou iu the collector's 
own handwritiug the MS. has beeu eutered as follows: Wickliffe's 
Serm f on i/ Epistles, Gospels, & Psalms-MSS . 1552 \ 2498. 
As mentioued above, a description of the MS. was given by Miss 
Pades, Engl. Stud. XXX. 344—346-, and further iu her A four- 

' 1552 crossed over. 

' An account of the contents of the M.S. is given there. The varioii.-' 
pieces contained in the volurae begin and end as follows : 
1. -MS. p. 1 a— 43 a: 

begins: Of jie godhede of oure lorde suete jesu crist god 
almij th * 

UUre suete lord Jhesu crist vpe his godhede he was tofore all 
creatures. 



nlmiVh: a snmll hole in the leaf baii effaceJ the la.st letter. 



Joel Pftlilssoii 



teenth centun lCnglish Biblical Version, Upsala diss., Canibridge 
1902; again bv W. H. Hulmb, The Middle-English Harrowing of 



ends : Anil \>e lioly gost heni wiwsed iVc tau^tte and confernied her Sar- 
niouJi Jjorou; Miracles Jiat jesus dude for hem, , 
Here enden l)e Goapels anhundrep and sex. oute nomen pe passioun 
of Jesu crist 

Do so Jiat god be pi frende, * 

2. p. 45 a— 212 b. '• 

begins: iVlAny Men [)ere ben pat han wil to lieren rede Romaunce & 

geste \iat is more j)an ydelschipp 
ends: God sende vs his grace so to despenden his jift |)at we moten 

comen to his bhsse Amen, 

Of {)e holy omehes now j wil blynne: 

God bringe vs to {)at blissei pece ioye is euece jnne, 

3. p. 212 b— 226 b. 

begins: Here bigynnen good tecliinges of wise Men w i [) I)e 
ten hestes aftejward.distinctelich expouned, 

OAlamon seiji in alle l)i werkes {)enke on pe ende & pou sclialt 
neueje don synne. 
ends: god vs I)ider brynge for his grete merci AMEN. 

" I" e c o m a u }i d e m e n 1 5 e x p o u n e d i h e r e e n d e « j 5 o u s e i e, 
vnto 1)6 blis of heuenei god vs wisse \ie weie, 

4. p. 226 b— 263 b. 

begins: "I>apocalips on englisshi makel) here gynnyng 

After 1)18 synful lyf: god graunt vs good wonyng 

OEint Poule seij) liapo.s/le liat alle fo [lat willen priuelich leuen 
in Jesu crist 
ends : and duellen wij) hym wij^outen ende Amen, — 

i>e Apocalips on englisschi here now raakel) ende, 
Vnto fe blis of heuen- god graunte vs gcace to wende, 

5. p. 263 b— 370 a. 

begins: Of fe sautere on englisch: here is pe gynnynge, 
VVil) ]>e latyn bifore! it Gregories expounynge 

JjEatus vir qui non aliijt in c o n s i 1 i o iiupiorMw 
ends: Jis is {le l)ileue catholyk pe whiche bot iif vche Man it bileue 
stedfastlich and strongelich he ne may noujth be saued. — 
Ter quinquagenos cantat dauid ordine psalmos, 
V e r 8 u s b i s ni i 1 1 e . s e x c e n t u ni . s e x c a n i t i 1 1 e, 



• Here — frende: the letters in this passage, whieh are orn.imented with 
red strokes, diflfer from the rest of the MS. in form and size. 

•• At the top of the page in a hand from the XVIth century (comp. p. x): 
Mirror, or glasse to Looke in; 



Hell and Gospel of Nicodeiuus E.E.T.S., E.xtra Series 100. \k 
XXXIV — XXXVI. For the sake of coiivenience I here reproduce 



6. p. 371 a-44;t a. 

begins : riiE c t i il i I i g u n t t e, J n c a ii t i c i s c a n t i c o r h m . s p o n s a 

a (1 s p o n -s 11 »1 . 
ends ; J^at }»oil ^if it be his suete wille liaue uiercy on lieiw for liis dere 

Moder loue Anien, 

"1*18 good book Reclusei here now uiake{) ende. 

Vn to j)e blis of heuen i god graunte vs gcace to weiide . 

7. p. 449 a-459 b. 

begins : "Of oure lefdy Marie'- bigynneji now here|)e pleynt 
I>atof j)e passionof hirson sche teldewit/i hert feynt 
OVre swete lefdy seint Marie goddes moder of heuene 

ends : [lat lyue|) and regnej) \vi{) outen ende Anien 

l'e passiouii as oure lefdy seif) '■ of .lesu ende{) here, 
Jn to |)e blisse of heuen; vs bringe it all in fere . 

8. p. 459 b-463 b. 

Nicodemus Gospell ; 
l)egins: Pe gode Man & [)e noble Prince Nichodemus. 
ends : seij) a Pater noster and an .Aue Maria, 

Of |)e vprist of Crist: as NichodeniMS gan telle, 
Here now inake ich ende ; god schilde vs all from helle 
p. 463 b— 4t>4 (prayers). 

1. begins: SWete fader of heuene haue nierci on me synful wreche 
ends: i<: niake me on of jii sfruauntj ^if it be J)i swete wille Amen, 

2. hegins: SWete lorde jesu crist goddes son of heuen J biseche pe in- 

wardlich mercy 
ends: and sende nie grace l)e forto loue & serue ouer al [)ing .\raen 

3. begine: SWete lorde jesn crist fader & son A holy gost als wislich 

as [)ou madest al [>e werlde of noujtli. 
ends : ygraced lonl mercied worschiped and hei^ed mote [)ou be of 
l)e grace l)at l)ou me haat ysent and sendest Amen, 

4. begins: Lfifdi seint Marie als wis as l)ou art Moder of niercy, & may- 

den & wyf 
ends: biseche hym pat he wll haue pite and mercy on me . ^if it be 
his swete will Amen, 

5. begins : ALle halewen j hiseche 30U for jesu cristes loue 

ends: biseche hyra l)at he wil liaue pite & mercy on me ^if it be 
his wille .Xmen . 

Explicit. 



VI .Toel Pfililsson 

part ol' their statemeiits and add ti few suppleuieutary reuiarks 
as to tbe general character of the MS. and mj' method of treating 
the text. In order to give some idea of the appearance of this 
interesting volume I have appended a photographic reproduction 
of tlie upper j^art of p. 40(1 of tlie MS. 

.Indging from the writing as well as from a note on p. 370 
of the voluine — given below p. xi— Miss Paues {op. cit. p. lviu) 
cousiders the MS. as belouging 'to about the year 1400'. As 
stated by Huhne, the MS. is a large folio on vellum, consisting 
of 232 leaves (fol. 22 only a half-sheet) — besides two paper 
fly-leaves at the commencement aud two at the end of the 
volume — arranged in quires of eight leaves each, as is shown 
by catch-words, which oecur with perfect regularity on every 
sixteenth page, except at the eud of the third aud the twenty- 
third quires, which coutain 14 and 11 leaves respectively. The 
MS. is uumbered by pages in a receut handwritiug, evideutly by 
Daniel Waterlaud (Fellow of Magdalene CoIIege, 1683—1740); 
the tirst leaf of every quire also bears its number in pencil. The 
size of the page is uow 13 Vie X 9 '"Ae inches, but iu the re- 
binding the margins of many of the leaves have more or less 
been cut off. The writteu matter is iu two columus. measuring 
llVsX4 iuches each, each column coutaining 54 lines, aud 
separated by a free space of Vs inch. The pages are ruled and 
the columns marked off in pale violet ink, in some places very 
distinct, in otliers hardly visible. The handwriting, dating 
apparently from the close of the XlVth century, is clear, fairly 
large. the same throughout, though with shght variations in the 
size and form of the letters. The ink is generally a deep black 
at times shading off into Ijrowii. In several iilaces where the 
parchmeut is comparatively thin, tlie iuk has ruu through the 
leaf. Occasioually the writiug is somewhat faiut, often it seems, 
owing to the nature and preparation of the parchment; every- 
where. however, it is quite legible. Headings, Latin quotatious 
aud now aud then English words aud phrases are in red iuk 
(iudicated iu my priut by spaced out letters). In the same 
colour are inserted raarginal notes of varying size giving the 
names of the supposed authors of the quotatious. 



Rechisp VII 

The MS. is oruaniented iii the foilowing way: 

1. The beginning of each separate work (except the last 
two) in the volume is marked by iarge capitals elaborated with 
great care and taste, varying in size from 2 "/le X 2 \iie to 
1 ' 16 X 1 ' iB inches (12 to 6 MS.-lines deep). The letter itself is 
in blue and red with the interior profusely adorued with patterns 
of leaves and twisted designs in red, or red and violet on a 
backgrouud Uned in red. The iuitials of 'papocalips' p. 226 b. 
and pe sautere' p. 263 b. are, however. altogether different, 
being dehcately traced in black, the former ornamented with 
heads of a mau and a dragon, the latter embellished with a 
dragon-desigu. These seem to have been left uufinislied, as the 
paint has never been tilled iu. 

2. Sectious aud subdivisions of each separate work are 
marked with smaller initials. which are geuerally 2 — 4, very 
often 3 MS.-liues deep, but iu the 'Recluse' and the two texts 
foUowing their depth is ouly 2 iines. These initials are in blue 
with the interior adorned iu much the same fashion as the larger 
ones, and framed in by red strokes (indicated in my print by extra 
large capitals). 

3. Shorter paragraphs are opeued by small uuornamented 
initials also in biue, about the height of one Uue. lu the text 
they act as introductions to Latin quotations. (Indicated by fat 
letters). 

4. Black capitals, or eveu ordiuary small letters at the 
beginniug of words are occasiouaily ornamented with red strokes 
(instauces of these in the 'Recluse' are noticed in the foot-uotes). 

The capitals aud paragraph-marks (^), generaliy iu blue or 
in blue and red ahernateiy (Techinges of wise men), have been 
inserted after the text was writteu. Tiiis is proved by the fact 
that iu case of the rubrics small guide-letters in black or red 
are still clearly distinguishable iu tlie margin, while the position 
of a paragraph-mark is iudicated by double slantiug liues, which 
may still be traced under the red or blue colour. lu the latter part 
of the Techinges of wise men', iu 'papocahps' aud 'pe sautere', 
pp. 221 — 370, the space left for these rubrics has not always 
been utilized as was originally inteuded, roughly drawn capitals 
iu black or red, oue in violet. probably by a later haud, occupy- 
ing the plaee nf the inore elabnrately drawu characters, some- 



VIII Joel PAhlsson 

times eveu these have uot beeu iusertetl, leaviufj; bluuk spaues. 
lu 'pe sautere' a lai-ge initial (7 — 5 liues deep) was iuteuded to 
be placed at the beginning of the following psalms (uuinbere<l 
according to the MS.): 26, 38, 52, 68, 80, 97, 109'. The large 
rubrics, a descriptiou of which is giveu above (p. vii), are some- 
times foUowed by a character of fair size aud careful ornameii- 
tatiou. 

The catch-words are geuerally franied in l)y rough orua- 
meutal borders ending iu a naive representation of a mans liead. 

The correctious wliich occur: erasures, niarks of transiiosi- 
tion, deletions and insertions, are all, as far as 1 can ascertaiu. 
the work of the original scribe, though occasionally the ink is 
somewhat faiut. Geuerally a caret (A) marks the place of an 
insertion, sometimes, however, the stroke of some long letter, 
for instance {), auswers this purpose. 

In additiou to the above-mentioned marginal notes (p. vi) 
and other iusertions iu the originai handwritiug, tiie M8. shows 
a great many entries, made at later times by various hands and 
in various shades of ink. Thus the inside of tbe cover bears 
the classmark N" 2498. in red ink iu Pepys's haud wntli the 
uumber 13 iu small biack characters a little to the left. On 
the recto of the tirst fiy-leaf occur the following uumhers: 

1376. B. 

1369 B. 1.533. 
in com|)aratively recent handwriting (16 — ISth century); tlie two 
first of these have beeu crossed out with black, the latter with 
red ink. The verso of the leaf has the following uote by 
Waterland, given by Hulme, p. xxxv: The.se Sermons are not 
Wicklifs. Neither Matter, nor Style, nor Manner are af aU like 
his: neither was the Author any WicMevite. Indeed, the Language 
Seems to be older than Wickliff. Ou the recto of the second 
fly-leaf, which is now loose, occurs a table of contents, also in 
Waterland's hand and quoted by Hulme, p. xxxv. For the 
sake of completeuess I reproduce it here : 



' Dominus illuniiniitio niea, Dixi custodiam vias, Dixi insipiens in conle, 
Sa)unm me fao, Exultate Deo, Cantate Doniino, Dixit Dominns domine. 



Recluse IX 

The Contents. 

1. Tlie Histonj of the Life oj Christ, with a comment there- 
upon. j). 1. 

2. The Mirrour. heing a Comment ^ upon the Gospels, throughout 
the year. p. 45. 

3. Sayings of xcise men. 212. 

4. The ten Commandments. 217. 

5. A Comment upon the Apocatypse. 227. 

6. The Psalter in English. irith Gregorys Comment. 263. 

7. The CanticJe, Conjitelior tihi <('c. 361. 

8. The Song moses. p. 362. 

9. The Cantide q/ Isaiah. 364. 

10. The Song of ^n^A<"v. S68. 

11. The Magnifc.at — 368 

12. The nunc dimiftis. 368. 

13. The Athanasian CreeiJ. 369. 

14. The Canticle upon the Mass. 371. 373. 
Several OhJ Kides. 371 &c. 

To the verso of ttie satne leaf is pasted a 'portrait' book-plate 
of Pepys's — designed by G. Kneller and engraved by R. R. 
White — with the inscription : 

8AM . PEPTS . CAR . ET . lAC . ANGL . REGIK . A . SECEETI8 . ADMIRALI.£. 

and the niotto : mens cujusqce is est quisque, resembling the one 
noted and reproduced by W. S. Haedy, Book-plates, pp. 216 — 218. 
Another 'iittle piate' with the initials s.p.. encircled by anchors 
and ropes and bearing tlie above-mentioned inscription, is pasted 
on to the last page of the volume, of which half of tlie second 
cohimn lias been left blank. On the first fly-leaf at the end 
occur the following supplementary notes on the conteuts: 

triests, their duty and pririleges p 103. 104. 
Baptism, its cerenionies. 117. 
Testament-making p. 122. — 
Obedience of tvives. 127. huxom. — 
Sacramental Body and Btood of Xt, p. 168. 
Purgatory. p. 213. 
CanouieaJ Hours. 376. 



X .loel PAhlsson 

lu uumerovis places in tlie text occur nwrginaiiu, cousistin;; 
of hauds — some of which are doubtloss the work of tlie ori- 
ginal scribe — aud other marks to attract tbe attentiou of the 
reader, glosses aud uotes of various contents; often the word or 
passage iu the text veferred to is also underiined. The frequent 
occurreuce of one haud calls for special uotice; it dates, as 
M. Paul Meyer tells me, from about 1600, aud Miss Paues considers 
it to be Stephau Batman's {op. cit. p. lvii). Ver^' ofteu he uses 
an artificial mode of writiug, evidently an attempt to imitate the 
early Enghsh oharacters (priuted in my text by spaced out ita- 
tics). We may notice tiie following entries in this hand. On 
page 44, which has originally been left blank (as ah-eady stated, 
fol. 22 is only a half-siioet ol' oue colunui, with tbe euding of 
'pe gospeis' ou p. 43): 

aud then: 

Let reason Rule the, y' this booke 
shall reede: 

Miche good matter .^-halt thoiv finde 
in deede 

Thoivghe some hee iU. doo not the 
reste dispi-}C 

Consider of the tyme, else thoiv 
art not iviy 

P. 370 b. — left blank by the origiual scribe, with 'pe sautere' 
ending on col. a — lias the following notes: 

• 3*/ ^"^'' ^%* hoohe, don take his flight. 
on Stephan hatman let it lipite: 
^it came to jiasse, and yt is trwe 
J ivill not c.hange yt, for no neive 

A learned pastor, this booke did tnake 

and in those daies. taken Jor great snpiens 

The vewe dooth vrge a Christian too quake 

fhe sight of souch hlinde ignorance. 

WJio woJde not hut wayle souch a hlindnes 

that hathe benne the cavse of mrc.he wretchednes. 



Recluse xi 

The first part is veri good 

thowghe a irorde or ftco doo varie 

The second is not sound 

smatile truthe dooth carie 

Yet as tlie one. without the other thoiv caunot bee 

Else /alshod toith trwthe mixed thow cannot see, 

To answer fhe ennemy thoiv maiste be boulde 
When theirr owen penns svch errowres haue tolde, 
Teare not this book. buf kepe it in store 
thow maiest else fwzwe /or knoweng o/ more. 

The age o/ this book. by con/erring w\th 
an other coppy, was wretteti when 
k henry the . 4 . had husines agayste 
the welshmen. An" 1401 1- 

Shorter notes iu this hand are often fouud throughout the volume 
and when they occur iu the text of the Reciuse', their preseuce 
has beeu iudicated at the foot of the page. 

The codex is bouud in brown leather. On the front-cover 
is iniprinted one of Pepyss smalier book-plates (p. ix), which 
shows his connection with the Admiralty, while a differeut plate, 
including the motto quoted above, acts as ornament to the other 
cover ; the back of the volume is labelled : 

wickleep's 
seshon's 
• • : MS : -• 



There remaiu only a few words to be said as to my method 
of treating the text of the MS. As is easily perceived, the scribe 
worked in a perfectly mechanical manner, and accordingly the 
results are sometimes most ridiculous. His careless blunders not 
ouly in the Latin quotations but even iu the English text itself 
frequently present nonsense to the reader. There was therefore 
in my npiniou ouly one way opeu to the editor — that of giving 



XII Joel Pftli)ssiiii 

tlie text exactly as it stands in the MS., and tliis seems to me 
to be clearly the best method to emploj' in a work oi" this isind. 
Consequeutly my objeet has been to give an exact reproductiou 
of tlie MS., retaining even the most palpable errors of the scribe 
without eniendation. The pnnctuation of the MS. is also adhered 
to. I have generally expanded tiie signs of abbreviation (deuoting 
the letters added in italics), but when an expansion lias seemed 
extremely uncertain, if not altogetiier impossible, owing to the 
corruption of a word or passage, I tiiought it necessary to keep 
the mark of coutraction as uearly as my typographical resources 
would allow. In the MS.-readings: jhu, jhc, xps etc. tlie apparent 
h, c, X aud p are rendered by e, s, ch and r; initial i? by F; 
( I reproiluce as &, (C as &c; tlie barred 1 and h are kept. 

Frequently letters at tbe end of a word — in some cases 
in the middle as well — have tags or tails, whicli I have care- 
fully noted in my copy. As these, however, often occur in 
places where tliey can have no meaniug at all, and as more- 
over I could fiud no means of indicating them in the text of 
my edition, they have been altogetlier disregarded. 

I may liually draw atteutiou to tlie fact tl)at my interpre- 
tation of certain symbols may not always seem consisteut. It 
has often been difhcult to decide wiietlier certain initial letters 
are iutended for capitals or not, particularly in the case of j, J 
and w, VV. Tiiese characters are very much alike in form if 
used as capitals or as small letters; often my decision has beeu 
infiuenced by tlie size, ia some cases bj' the coutext, and I ouly 
wish to point out that the type J represents au intermediate 
form which passes into either the capital or the small letter. 
The MS. contains different forms of the same character, for in- 
stance, there are two types of A, B, N; e, r, s, v, 3 aud four 
of D; partly from typographical reasons they have all in my 
transcriptiou beeu rendered uniformly. There is besides,. as is 
usual, a close resemblance, often leadiug to confusion between 
c : t, e : o, n : u. The supposed inteution of the scribe has in 
all cases been my guide. Some few doubtful cases I have re- 
marked in the foot-notes. MS.: penahce, temptacioiis etc. I 
expand : penauwce, temptaciouws. 



Recluse. xiii 

In common witli the corrections, the erasures have been 
subjected to a luinute examination and I have made a record 
of them even wheu they only serve as corrections or emendations 
o£ miswritten or in other ways faulty letters. In several places. 
however, I have not been able to make sure whether there is an 
actual erasure or merely a flaw in or injury to the parchment '. 

As usual, separate words have very often been run together 
and, ou the other hand, the component parts of one word have 
been sundered; such irregularities are everywhere retained iu this 
edition. In some cases, however, where a word has been cut in 
half at the end of a Une or when two words have been run 
together and subsequently separated by a short, often very faint, 
perpendicuiar stroke — probably by the original scribe — no 
notice has been taken. 

Whenever a marginal note has been injured by the knife 
of tlie binder, the sign has marked the place of injury. 



In couclusion it is my desire to acknowledge with gratitude 
the kindness of all those who have rendered assistance in the 
preparatiou of this edition. I am highly under obligation to 
the Master and Feliows of Magdalene Coilege for permission to 
pubiish the text and for granting easy access to the MS. To 
the Librarian aud Staff of Uuiversity Library, Cambridge I am 
greatly indebted for various acts of kindness and courtesy; my 
thanks are especially due to Mr. A. Rogers for much help and 
many useful suggestions in the course of my work ou the MS. 
From mv former teachers E. A. Kock and E. Ekwall, Professors 



' I especially draw the attention to a larjje erasnre. noted on p. 194. 
I have latterly consulted Miss Paues on the question and sbe writes to me, 
'I ilo not think it is an actual erasure; the place feels rongher to the touch 
when compared with the rest of the parchment; the scribe niay have used 
the puuiice-stone. The colour of the nine lines is also darker than the resf 
of the page. The vellum in that portion is also thinner, as can be seen by 
hoMiiif: up the leaf to the liglit." 



XIV .loel Pfthl».Hon 

of the University of Lund, I have on niauy occasions received 
valuable hints and criticisin. Finally I beg to tender iny sincere 
thauks to Miss Paues who has, ever since she suggested tliis work 
to me, foUowed it with unfaihng interest and generously giveu me 
encouragement and assistance whenever I have apphed to her. 

Thk Editor. 



THE RECLUSE 



RE c t i ^ d i 1 i g u u t t e , J n c a n t i c i s c a n t i c o r «/ >h . 
sponsa ad sponsum . Est rectum gramaticu w -. 
r e c t u »« g e o m 6 1 r 1 u »i . r e c t u /*; t h e o 1 o g i u m , & 
5UHt differencie totide»» regularw?» . De recto theo- 
logio sermo uobis est cuiws regule due suHt! unao 
circa cordis direccionem, Altrra versatur circa ex- 
te/-iorpOT rectif icaciouem , Recti diliguwt te, Lorde ^ 
sei|) goddes spouse to her derworjje spouse . |)e ri^th louen f)e. 
Hij ben ri^th fiat lyuen after ri^th reule . Many dyuers reules . * 
\)ere ben . ac two pere beu among alle fiat ich wil uow speken lo 
of at |)is tyme {lorous \)e grace of god & of his dere moder 
narie . })at on reulet) l)e hert aud makej) it euene wi|) oute 
knoost a«d do}^e of poujth iuwif) aud bywraiej) \)e . & sei{) to |)e . 
here l)Ou synnest oiper wise ne may it uou.^th beu . ])is reule 
is euere iuwil) \te &, reule|) ^e hert as it auith to doue, Hec 15 
est caritas illa quam describit apostolus de corde 
puro.& consciewcia boua . & fide uou ficta*. ^ {)is 
reule is * charite of schire hert and clene iuwij) and trewe byieue, 
Misericordia»» tuam scientibus te \>er fidem non 
fictam.iustam viam id est vite rectitudinem.hijs^o 



• p. 371 a. At the top ot the page in a XVI th century hand, as 
noted above: Tlie Canticle vpon <he Masse, worth the keping, to answer 
■their witfitll blindnes . <t- svtnwhat strainge. 

' gramaticum : between a and m tr.ices of erasure. 

• Capitals and several small letters at the beginning of words on this 
page slifjhtly ornamented in red. 

' The stop in reil ink. 

' ficta: between i and c (on era8ure(?)) traces of erasure. 

' reitle is: on / and « traces of erasure. 

1 



2 Joel PAlil.ssoii 

(|ui recti su»t corde «jui omiies voluwtates suas diri- 
fj; u H t a (1 r e g u 1 a «M d i m i n e v o 1 u n t a t i s . J s t i d i c u » t u r 
u o u i a 1 1 li o n o lu a s i t e . V n d e P s a 1 ra i s t a . B e n e f a c d o- 
miue bonis & rectis corde.Jsti dicuHttjr vt glo?-ient»r 

5 t e s t i w! o n i a . V i d e 1 i f e t b o n e c o n s c i e n e i e ' G 1 o r i a m i n i 
ni nes recti corde Quos silicet rectificauit regula 
i 1 1 a s u )) ji r e m a , r e c t i f i c a ;; s o m m e s . d e q u a A u g u s t i n m s 
dicit. Nicliil ]ieti'nd»w nisi regula ' Magisterij -. k. 
Apostolus ^ . om«cs iu eade?» regula \)ermvL\\eamus . 

10 &c . // 5T l^at ol)er is al ui|i outen & reuiel) })e body jiat techel> 
hou meu schullen beren hem . \vi{) * outen howe, eten . drykeu . 
wirchen . hggen aud fasten . biddeH & stodien, 
H e c e s t e x e r c i c i o c o r p o r i s q u e i u x ; r/ A p o s / o 1 m m 
modicum * valet liec est regula recti Mecliamiti 

15 quod sub geometrio recto continet</r . ^ jiis reule uys 
nou^tli bot forto seruen l^at oljer . for Ijat ol^er is as lefdy of liouse . 
and jiis reule is as liifteu forto seruen hir to wille aud forto 
reulen I^e hert wil)inne . Now to onehch men & wymraen & to 
alle ol)er l^at desiren forto seruen god what \)at is soure reule 

20 se .schullel) risth wel wilen . bol^e l^e jnuer & pe vtter for hir sake . 
as vche man & vche M'o»anan may best seruen lie juner.for 
alle men & wymmen moten liolde o reule wil^inne, 
Quantuj» ad puritatem cordis circa quod versatur 
tota religio, ^ |iat is . alle nien owen to holden ou cleuuesse of 

25 hert & ou^porte^ l^at is to louen god ouer al l)inge . & l)ine euene 
cristen as l)i seluen . l^at is wiile hem come to bhsse wi]) l)e and * 
helpe hem bodilich ^if ^ou may and gosthch . and bidde fast for 
hem . & teche hem ^if l)Ou canst bettre l^an hij . Ac ^if it be a wicked 
man oil^er a womman of lyf holde {)e out of his compaiguye bot sif 

30 it be forto amenden hym . k elles he takel) synne of hym . as seint 
Pouie sei]) aud settel) an ensample and seil) . ri^th as a gret fat ful 
of doghse takeji souryng of a lytel gobett I risth so doostou of liyra . 
Aud jif it be a raan l^at 1)0U moste lyue by hym and erne \i\ susten- 



' regxda: ul touclied up iu blacU iuk; l on erjisure. 

- migisferij : the tirst i over an expuncted e. 

' Apostolus: A, ji, o, s touched up in black iuk; o on erasure. 

•* ici/): w probably on erasure. 

' nioiUcum: over ic traces of erasure. 

" p. 371 b. 



Recluse 3 

aii«ce of hym; bidde fast for hym lint god amende hym ;if it be his 
wille . aud keepe \>\ne hert clene & schire iuwij) & wij) oute . cleue & 
white f/Y/m s^Mine . And ^if l)iue hert wi|)nyme|) |)e of anysynue; 
go & amende it wi^) schryft . For nol^ing ne mai<e|) |)e liert wronge 
bot synne one . Forto ri^thten liir & makeu liir snielio . jjat lougel) 5 
to vche ordre & to vclie reiigiouu . |)e goode & ail |)e streug|)e . 
|}is reule nys uouitli of niannes fyndels . Ac it is of goddes 
hestes . & jjcrfore it most [)e better ben ykept . & wi[) [^e more 
bisyuesse . And fierfor it is encre juwi]) & reule|) \)e hert and 
seij) to [)e . here pou synuest it ne may be uo» o[)ere, lO 

Quautuin silicet ad obseruaucias corporales. &c, 
51 pat is bodilich keepyuges after |)e vtter reule & [^is is 
mawnes fyndels . & for nou^th uys it ymade bot forto serueH \ie 
jnner to maken hirt- to suffrew hardesehipes . wakyng . fastjMig . 
wirchyug . & o[)er penauMces to done . Ac mauy ne may nou^th 15 
suffreu harde als wel as many . Aud [^e/fore l)is vtter reule mote 
be chauuged after vche mawues mauwe as he may serue god best . 
For suwMue be{) stronge & suwme be[) vnstrouge of compIexiouM 
& of body boj^e . and mowen paye god ful wel . summe wi{) lesse 
penaunce [)an su«mie moweu . Suinme is clerk oi[)er clergesse . 20 
aud [)erfore iiij moteu |)e more wircheu [)au [)e lewed & siggen . 
Summe ben olde & nou^th louelich . Aud suwme ben ^onge k louelich • 
& moteu haue [)e better warde . & [^e better & [^e bisilier ben aboute 
forto kepeu bem seluen . And for[)i schal vchone holde pe vtter reule 
after schriftes rede of gostlich meu & vvyse . And [)e seruauntes jiat 25 
knowen |)e mane?"e * of hem & witen her strewgj^e . peU hij schuUen 
seruen hem hij moweu pe vtter reule chaunge» after wisdom . Ac by 
my red nomau schal make none avow to do no[)iMg bot do als wel 
as he may . For ^if he make avow and breke it; he syunes dedlich . 
And perfore do |)at he may as he liadde made avow . And ^en 30 
he ne do it nou^th . he ne synnes nou^th dedlich Bot ^if he wil 
make Professiouw to lyue onelich lyf . to [)re [)inges he moste 
make auow . To doue obedience to his bisshope . And to chastite . 
And to helde [)e stede stille pere liis bisschop hym do|)e [)at he 
ne schal neuere |)e;me bot for nede oue, * For who so bihote[) :!5 
god a l)iug . he it wil askeu as biheste . And ^if it be nou;tli 

' «intiere: iinder the n an acci-.lental curl. 
' p. 372 a. 



4 Joel l'iih!ason 

biliotcn : liij niowen do at her lyiiynge of niete . k drynli . it 
werynge . bedes bidden so many as hyra lyst . oi|)er on l)is wyse . 
|)ise ben alle in free wille . Ac charite l^at is loue and lowenesse . 
lete litel of oure selueu, trewelich helden jie ten hestes . schrift 
5 & penaunce . Jiis is |ie moste penauwce pat mau raay do . forsake 
.synne . For [)ere ben mauy [jat doue peuauwco jiat ne forsaken 
nou^th lier synue . Ac l^at no stondej) in no stede forto haue auy 
raede in |5e blis of heuene . Do penau«ce and oper goode werkes . 
|)at god haj) coraaunded bo|)e iu l^e olde law^e & in Jie newe . 

] And |)erfore vche raan it mote holden for J)ise reuleu \ie hert . 
And of lier rculyng is ahwest al ' jiat j wil wryte . Bot in }pe 
formest of |)is boke & in l)e last eudyuge . .Jn l^e first deel jcliil 
wrj^te 30ure seruise to ouelich men k w\'mraeM & to alle ])at it 
wil vsen and may goode it is . ^if any raan askel) of what ordre 

15 36 ben as mamy foles willen ? AusuereJ) on l)is mauere k sei|) 
pat 36 ben of seint james ordre l^at for his holyuesse ^ was cleped 
goddes brolier . And pau askef) hym of wliat ordre he is . & where 
he fyndel) ° ordre in holy wrytt & ri^th Religiou» . Ac seint jarae 
sei\) and make]) ofte pis eusaumple . jie ^ guatte foiowe]) l)e flesche . 

20 ^at is* to saye^. Many raakeu mychel strengl^e liere leste is seiut 
jame sei]), Religio munda il' inmaculata apud deum 
patre»? hec est: Visitare Pupillos k viduas in tribu- 
lacioue, ^ Jiis is . ri^th religiouw & wil^oute werarae is pat . l)at 
can helpeu faderles children d- widewen . Hij beu faderles childer 

2.5 l)at han forlorne pe fader of Iieuene for synne And hij ben 
widewen Ijat haue forlorne iier spouse Je.<fu crist Jjorou^ dedlich 
s^mue . AIso l^an he ])at can fede ])ise wi]) hol}' lore ^ and ])orou 
holy techynge brynge hem '^ a^ein to her fader and to her " 
spouse . ])is * is pe hei^est Religiou» pat is . Aud ])us descrvueli 

30 seint jarae Ordre and ri^th Religioun . Aud l)e laste deel to onelich 
Men & wyraraen . & to alle o])ere |)at wille]) kepeu bem cleue out 
of synue & fram \te werlde For seint Austyn sei]! A gaderyug 



' al, holynnsse, lore: traces of erasure on l. 

' fyndej)-. e indistinct; the letters squeezed together, the word being 
the last in the line. 

■^ After I>e: gnal crossed out and expuncted. 
* is, saye, Jiis: on s traces of orivsure. 
^ hem: on h traces of erasure. 
° her: traces of erasure on e. 



of wicked folk [jat he clepe|) pe werlde . \>at god ' bidde|i vs 
forsake . Ac nou^th \te goodes of |)e werlde . For none ue may 
wel lyuen aud serueu god bot ^if hij han her sustenaunce And 
better is to erueu it [)au to bidden it . bot ^if - were a Prechoure 
& preched goddes woord fraiu touu to toun so ^&t ^ ne my.ith 5 
nou^th for stody ernen it And ^utt Peter & Poule erueden her 
mete wi[) her houdes and preched from cite to cite . For Poule 
sei|) . \>at he ne ete neue»-e maHues mete bot ^if it were his 
vnjionkes . Ac J nott ^if \iere be any man [lat wil haue hei^er lyf 
in 1)6 ' bhsse of heueue Jian hij hau . lian it is slik he take an lo 
hei^er lyf iu |ie bhsse of heue l.)an hij hau had . Ac euer be vche 
man jiat he ne bigile nou^th seluew as he niay ful H^thlich forto 
desire so holy lyf . Ac biseeke he god (lat he sette hym pere {lat 
it is best for hym . & kepe hym [lan froni Meridiane [je deuel pat 
wil schewe hym to hym as a goode Aungel . & so bigile{) he 1.5 
many . Aud Poule clepel) hym Aungel of liith . pere ben two 
manere of wyinmen Jiat ben trewe prelates and prechoures . \)'\se 
two hane \>e hei^est dale in heueue . And ^ef he be proude • 
ooueitouse oifier leccherous and losenio«<r . als longe as he vse]) 
any of I)ise synnes . he is a fals prophete and heretike and 20 
ypocrite . & on of antecristes prophetes and his prechoure seint 
johu {)e ewangehst it sei{) in ^e Apocalips . And Jierfor vche mau 
|)at wil queme god kepe hj'm fro»» swich jiat oJ)er dale is to 
alle men Jiat kepej) hem hem clene out of synne & J)us seint 
jame distinkteji ordre noiJ)er white ne blak Ac ofte he seij) iu J)is 26 
booke \)e gnat sweloweji J)e Hee . Poule J)e first onelich man . 
nou^th Poule Jie Apostle . Aresiue . Makeryne . Sare . Siucletice and 
many oJ)er wiji her grete Matten J^at hij layen june & hard hayren . 
neren nou^th Jiise of goode ordre . Many wenen Jiat Jie ordre 
sittej) in Jie couel o\\itr in J^e kirtel . nay it nys uou^th so . Ac 30 
hij mowen boj^e wel weren And goddes spouse sittej) by hym seluen 
and .syngej), Nigra sum setformosa, ^ Jch am blak and 
fair . Foul wiji outen & vnworjii to J)e weride . bri^th & scheue 
wijiinne . And Jius ansuereji to Jie askers and seij) Jiat ;e ben blake 
porou3 J)e grace of god & of seint james ordie J)at he wrott last. 35 



* MS. : godde with rfe expuncted. 

' Between 31/ and irere a word consistinj,' o£ two or three letters erased. 
Similariy between Jiat and ne, 1. 5. 
' p. 372 b. 



C, ,I.,el 1'nlil.sson 

I n in acvila t u»/ sc custodire ab lioc seculo,/ 51 p^^ 
is lic liat kcpej) hym cleue & vuwemmed fmm jie fil|)e of bis 
werlflo |)<it is ristii ordre Ac ])ere many ben to gedre & ben clo|)ed 
iu o clo|)ing in tokne [)at liij scluilden be of on wilJ & ou loue . 
5 k vche wil as o\)er wil ' And |ius it is in coueut . Looke uow f)at 
hij ne leiie noustli And ^if ])at hij ne beli nou^th so . it nys bot 
treccliorie & gyle, Hem were better to kepen swyno oi|)er- gees . 
Michee \)e prophcte askej) what is ordre aud ansuerej) h}'»; self 
l)e/-to & seil) |)us, 

10 Indicabo tibi o homo quid sit bonuwp. c^ (|uid deus 
requiret a te vtiq»e faeere iudiciuw \- iusticiawi 
& solicite ambulare cujb domrno deo tuo. ^ Jchil seie 
]ie he seiji what god aske[) of [lee man do wele & deme ]iat euere 
l)i seluen be pe werst . & foloWiO god in loue & in drede . And 

15 pere ])is is . ])ere is ri^th ordre & risth religiou« & elles it nys non 
ordre ^ ne no Religiouw seint Mathew sei]) . 

V e * V o b i s S c r i b e . ,P h a r i s e i . Y p o c r i t e . q u i m u « d a t i s 
q u o d d e f o r i s esf c a 1 i c i s & p a r a s p i d i s . j u t u s a u t e w 
pleni ou))?i sj^^w/cicia similes sepulchris dealbatis, 

20 51 Seint iratheu sei]) in ]ie godspel . Acursed be 30 ypocrites 
|)at maken fair wi]ioute« and ben l)ornes wi|)iune . for 30 Ijen liche 
])e beriels ]iat is whited wi]) outen and roten ])ing wiliinue . Al 
|)at euere goode religious do])e oijier were]) it is goode for it is 
bot a stole to tymber wi]) ])e junere reule ])at reule]) ]ie hert . ■' 

25 Now ich to deele ])is booke on . viij . distyncciouHS l^at ich 
clepe parties . and vchoue speke]) by hym self of sunderlich 
])iuges . & vchone falle]) after o]ier . & ])e latter ytied euere to ])e 
first pe first deel spekejj of ^oure seruise . |iat o])er is hou 36 
schult wi]) fyue wittes witeu wel ^oure hert " ])at ordre & ri^th 

30 ReligiouH iV- .soule lyf li])e jnne . And in ])ise parties hep chapiters 
fyue after ]ie fyue wittes ])at wite]) l^e hert as wakemen |)at beu 



' /(•//: »■ pi-obaWy 011 crasure. 

- oif/er on erasure. 

•^ p. 373 a. At the top of the page in the above mentioned XVIth 
centurv hand : An olde supersticitts rule n'l>ich requireth ifiseli/ 
too lie readd, nf the Masse.((- purgatorie.'. 

* In the tnai^gin: MathejKf. 

^ In the XVIth eenturv hand: Weray trirn, to qnalifije a Papist. 

" hert: e and r separated by erasnre. 



trewe . j>e jtridde deel is of al maiipre fillies . And |ie fierlie deel 
of fleschlich fondynges and gostlich bo|ie aud confort a^eijjs 
hein & sahie . Jje Kft deel is of soln-ift . \)e sexte of Penauuce . 
pe seuen|)e of schire hert whi men owen to loue god & hou . |)e 
ei^tte]) deel is al of J^e vtter reule . hou eten . hou drj^nken . and 5 
J)at fallel) J^erto . & what J^inges 36 mowen vnderfonge & helden 
& haue . pere after of clo]ies & of ^oure werkes . as schauynge . 
polhwg and bloode letynge, 

Amorowe whan ie arise|) . bhsse]) ^ou & sei{) . jn uo»HiKe Jiafris 
& filij & spiritM.v sancti Anie», And bigywue]) onou . Veni 10 
creator spiritus, wi[) |ie versett . & jie orisouM wi|) vp heueande 
honden & eisen toward pe heuen . bowieand on knewes . \iere after 
als 3e diitte 30U sei|i alway . Do?h /ne jesu chrisfe fili dei 
viui niiserere nobis qui de virgine dignatus es nasci 
miserere uobis, 51 And sei|) l)ise woordes al way til {lat ;e . 
ben di^th ' . & haue]) |iise wordes niychel iu vse whejier 36 gon or 
36 sittew . als often as 36 may {lencheu \)ere vpon . Aud whan 36 
ben al di^th . springeji on 30U lialy water ^if ^e it haue Aud 
l^encheji on goddes fleselie and his derworjii bloode whan 36 comen 
toforne an autere and sigge]) [)ise gretynges, & ^if 36 baue noue 
aute?-e makel) an autere of ^oure hert as god biddel) makej) myne^ -'^ 
autfj-e of er])e, 

Aue principiu») nostre creacionis . 
Aue precium no.y/re redempcionis. 
Aue viaticum no.«^re peregrinaciouis . 

Aue premiuw no.N/re expectacionis . ^° 

Aue gaudiuw no.«<re glori f icacionis . 
Tu* esto no6/r«m gaudiu») qui es futurus premiuw. 
sit nos/ra in te gloria per cuwcta sempcr secula. 
A m e » . M a n e u o b i s e u »w d »j / u e u o c t e »j o b s c u r a »m r e- 
m o u e o m M e d e 1 i c t u «( a b 1 u e . ^ p i a ni m e d e 1 a m t r i b u e . ^o 
Gio»ia tibi dorwjne qui natus es de virgine cum 
]ia/re \- sancto spiritu in sempitfrna secula Amen, 
5f And also seiji [lise atte leuaciou» of |)e siesse . tV- also after 

' (H}th: 3 by correction. 
' myne: « by correction. 

' The column divided in two with the passage: Ti« esto — no (in »io- 
&isci(ni, 1. 2!t) Rtanding to the right of tlie lines beginning with Aij«. 
' p. 37.! b. 



8 Joel Pihlsson 

30ure Couf itcov . wlian 36 beu }'houseled . Aud after falle]) on 
kuewes bifore |)e heiie roode wi|i jiise gretynges in monyinge of 
|)e fyue wouwdes |)at he suffred for 30U . 

Adorani((.v te doniine \- beuedicinii/s til)i (|uia per 
5 saMC^ani cruce»n tuaw rederaisti muwdum.Tua»! 
crucew» adoramu.s . i| u i passus es pro nobis.Salue 
crux sawc^a.O crux liguuw, ^j And wil) |)ise woordes 
betep 50ure bi-eest, Et quod non valet vis humana sit iu 
tuo nomine, Aud who so ue cujaie pe fyuel seie l)e first 

10 Adoramus.til he cu«ue jie o|)er fyue . fyue sil^es kneleaude . & 
bhsse 30U waj) vchoue of l)ise gretynges . it wil) l)ise woordes . 
Miserere nostri qui passus es pro nobis, betel) ^oure 
breest & kyssel) pe er|)e & croyce it wi}) ^oure l)ombe . Aud l^ere 
after gretel) oure lefdy wi^) fyue Auees . Aud after to alle 

15 HalewcH . And po halewen l^at ^e han most ' sett ^oure liert vpou . 
vuto pe auter [>e ra{)er ^if it is j'l)alewed . And |)ere after onou 
ri^th siggel) oure lefdy Matyns on pis wise . 3if it is werkeday 
fallel) lo 1)6 erl^e . Aud ^if it is haly day bowel) sumdel dou/nvard 
wil) lie . P a t e r u o s t e r . \' l)e . c r e d o . aud lie . A u e m a r i a . 

20 And l)an hastihch ri^tte}) 30U vp ward att . Domine labia mea 
Aperies, Aud make]) on -. ^oure moul» a croice wip l)e l)ombe . & 
att.Deus in adiutorium, a large croice wi^) l)e {^ombe & wi^) 
two fyugers from 1)6 forhede douH to l^e breest . Aud falle]) to 
l)e erlie ^if it is werkeday wil).Glo?-ia patri, & ^if it is 

25 haliday bowe|) doujjward . & pus dol^e at vche.Gloria pa^ri. 
aud at l)e gyn n}'«g of pe . V e u i t e , & att . V e u i t e a d r e m m s . 
& att Aue maria, & whare ^e herel) her name kuele]) or loutel) . 
and att . J e .? u . also . i*c att vche . Pater noster, \mt fallel) to l)e 
boures & euerych t^^de . aud atte last vers of euerylch psalme & 

30 of euerylch ympne wi^) outew psalme . Beuedicite, . At alle })ise 
3if it is haly day bow^e]) . adouwward & ^if it is werkeday fallel) 
to l)e erpe & at euerylch tyde att. Deus iu adiutorium, makep 
a croice as j . haue seide . & wi}) . Meraento, fallep eue)'e adoune . 
& wil) l)ise woordes . Nascendo forma»» suwpseris . & kysse]) 

Sb \>e erl)e . aud also iu Te deu»; laudani!/.* . att . n 0« abhor- 
ruisti virginis v teruw* . aud iu l^e Messe crede . at . ex Maria 



' most: very imli.stinct, possibly e. 
- make/i on written closcly together. 



virgine.and att.howfo factus est, kisse|) \>e eY\)e and 
sei|i 3oure tydes sunderlich as for[) as ;e inay . jn his tyme . 
Matyns by ni;th in wynter . jn somer iu pe daweyuge, pe wynter 
bigynne|i at holy roode tyde in heruest and laste]) vnto ester . 
Pryme in wynter erhch . jn somer by forjie Mornes and.Pre-5 
ciosa . {)pre after . 3if 3© haue uede to speken 30 may siggen it 
biforne onon after Matyus ^if it so nedej) & elles uou^th, ^ Onou 
after mete whan 30 hane sleptte - while pe Somer lastej) & in 
wynter also sei|) J^e tyde of None at Jie nynj)e houre . Aud euere 
att o psalme sittej) & att anoper stondel) ^if ^e beu in eise [terto 10 
forto done it whan 36 eten twies . & euere wijj.Gloria patri. 
AriseJ) oi|)er knelej) c^c att euerych tyde seij) a. Pater uoster . 
atte gynnynge aud an . Aue . aud att pre tydes sei]) ^oure . Crede, 
Att Matyns . Att Pryme . & att complyn . wit7*-Jje^. Pater ^ nostrv . 
And after . Preciosa . holde|) sileuce ^if 56 may . ue spekej) bot 15 
to god o\\wr of hym to heui * J^at haue wille to heren it . & of 
his Moder jrarie . saiej) ^oure Placebo tofore complyu Aud 
Dirige after wij) \)re lessous . & ^if 3e ben on eyse seij) alle 
nyne '" . And namehch ^if it be haly day & feste of ix lessons . 
Vche ni^th for alle cristene soules aud for ^oure frendes soules . 20 
& \>ere 30 schulden seie Gloria p^^ri.^e schulleu seie.Re- 
q u i e ui e t e r n a m & c, Att . P 1 a c e b o . sittej) . att . M a g n i f i c a t . 
stoude|) . & atte Dirige^ sittej) bott atte Lessons & Miserere 
mei deus. & fjam.Deus raisereatur' nos/^ri stondel) al 
out . iV: att . Benedictus . & atte Orisouns . ou ui^th oi\ter in {)e 25 
Moruynge after [^e suffrages sei|t [le cowi mendacioun *, sitt- 
ande . kneieande . oi[)er stoondaude [je Orisouws, [)e seueu 
psalmes seit) kneleande oi[ier stondeude wi|) [)e Letauy, att 
vudertyde . oi[)er whan \>e preestes doue pariscli Messe & \>e 
fiftene psalmes ^if --e wille[) oi[)er whau ^e come[) in to chirche 30 
as oure lefdy dude . pere were fyftene Greces in [le comyuge iu 
to [)e Temple . & att vchoue sche seide a psahno at liire comynge 

' p. 374 a. 

' slejitte: over thc p a commalike niark. 

' Pater: P on erasnre. 

* to hem inserted above tlie line. 

' nyne on erasurcv'). 

° Diriye: on D traces of erasiire. 

'' misereatur: sereatur on erasure. 

" commendacioun: comiiie possibly on erasure. 



10 .lucl PAhlsson 

in lo 1)0 Tcnijile . l);in s(m|i |)eni on |)is wise . l^e Hrst fyue for 
30ure selueu . l^e o\)er fyue for lioly chirche l)at is for alle cristen 
men . And |)e [iridde fyue . for alle l)e soules \mt ben iu Purgatorie . 
l)e tirst fyue \vil).Gloria pa^ri . Kyrie eleyson . chris/e 
6 e 1 e y s o n . K y r i e e 1 e y s o n . P a t e r n o .<? ^ r r . S a I u o s f a c 
s e r u o s t u o s it a u c i 11 a s t u a s & c . o r a c i o . I) e u s c u i 
propriuw e.vi misereri sempe»" & parcere &c, l^at ol^er 
fyue wil) . liyrie elcyso» . chris^e ele.j/soM . kyrie e^ei/son. 
Pater.Aue.Donjiue fiat pax in virtute tua.oracio 

loEcclesie tue quesum?<.<? doniine preces placatw.s ad- 
mitte, &c lie l)ridde fyue . wi^) llequie»» eternaw? . Kirie 
eleyso»( christe ele.//.soM . Kyrie ele//soK . A porta in- 
f e r i . E r u e d o m / n e a h i »j a s e o r m ?»? . o r rt c ? o . F i d e 1 i u wi 
deus oninium conditor . &c . Alle Religiouse auitten to ben 

15 in bedes in l^at vche tyme l^at jesus crist suffred pyne for vs, 
on ' |)is wise 39 may ^if 36 wil sigge ^oure pater nos^res Al 
mi^tty god fader & son & holy gost as 30 ben l)re Pe?-sones in o 
god and as 30 ben of mi^th . of wisdom . & of loue . & l)at miith 
in holy wrytt is turned to 1)6 fader . & wisdom to \)e sou . & loue 

20 to 1)6 holy gost 3iu6 me o reule ^ in l^ise Iire l)inges . my^th forto 
serue 1)6 . wisdom forto kuowe fie . loue \- wille forto doute l^e . 
niy^th \)at ich may do . wisdom l^at ich cuHue do . loue |)at jch 
wil do al l)at 1)6 leeuest is . as l)0u art floure of al goodenesse . 
Aud also wisse as pere nys uo godeuesse wane l)pre l)ise l^re ben . 

25 my^th . wisdom . & looue . yfestned to gedres . [lat 1)0 ^eete in me 
1)6 holy Trinete . l^re . Pater nos^res . and l^re . Auees . Versi- 
culus . Benedicamws pa/rem & filiu?» cu»; sancto sp^- 
r^7u . &c . oracio . Om«ipo<ens sempitrrne dcM.* qui 
dedisti nobis famMlis tui.s, 

30 Ihesu crist |)ine ore for myne syunes 1)0U hongedest on roode 1 
for 1)0 ilch fyue wouwdes pat l)Ou on erpe bleddest hele roy blody 
soule l)at ich am wi|) ywounded l^orou^ myne fyue wittes in J^e 
worschipi") of liine fyue woundes . & l^at it mote so be fyue 
1'ater-^ no,s^/res.& fvue Auees '^ Om7?is te)-ra adoret 



' on: between (on erasvire(?;) and n :i blank, large enough for about 
two letters, \vl\icli are possibly erased. 
' 1). 374 b. 
" Pat, Auees on crasure. 



Reclnse 11 

t e d e u s . it c . o r a (• / o . D e M s q u i s ti n c t a m c r u c e »» a s c e h- 
d / st i . 

For |ie seuene ^iftes of jte holy gost |)at vchon mote habben . 
and for \ie seuen tydes |>at men reden & syngen iu holy chirche 
|iat ich mote in hem slepen or waken . And for jie seue boonen 5 
in {)e Pater noster a^ein jje seuen dedhch svMues ftat ftou witie 
me wi|) {jem aud wi|) all her braunches . And ^iue me J)e seuen 
heienesses |iat {)ou haste bihoten |)iue chosen in |)e blisse of 
heuene . seuen .Pater nostres.it seuen .Auees.Emitte spi- 
litum tuum & creabuwtM»" . &c . oracio . Deus cui om«e 10 
cor patet . &c . orrtcio . Ecclcsie tue quesumus dom/ne 
&c . oracjo . Exaudi quesuniMs domine supplicum pre- 
c e s . & c . 

For \te ten hestes Jiat ich haue broken summe oi|)«- alle . and 
vutreulich ti[ied in bote . of Jiat ilche breche forto sau^tten wiji 15 
\tee derwor|)i lorde, ten pater nosters . & ten auees . ve?'si- 
c « l M s . E g o d i X i d »» j n e m i s e r e r e ni e i \- c . o r ^y c / o . 
DeMS cui p;opriuOT est misereri . kc, 

lu |ie worschijTp of pee lorde & of j^i raoder Jiarie and Peter & 
Poule . it aile \\\ne Apostles |)at . J . mote oueral folowe her lore . 20 
\- J)Orou3 her praier haue \>e twelue bou^es {lat blosmen of cliarite 
as seint Poule write|) derworjje lorde . twelue . Pater nostres . & 
twelue . Auees . Annunciauerunt opera dei kc.oracio. 
Exaudi nos deus noster apostolorMm &c . 
Lorde in \ie worschipp of J)ee & of Jii moder aiarie & aile J^ine 25 
Halewen fyue.Pater nos/res . & fj^ue . Aues . Letamini in 
domtno &c . oracio . OmwiMm sanctorum intercesso- 
r M m & c, 

For aile Jie Jien & wymmew J)at me any liarme Iian done oiJ)rr seide . 
oijier wolde . lorde ^if it be J^i suete wille for-;iue it hem . And for 30 
alle I)at me any goode hau done . o\\tcr seide . o\\ter wolde suete 
jorde helpe hem ^if it is J)i wille . Aud for all Jiat wirchen |)e seuen 
werkes of Mercy.Ad te leuaui . Ky rie ele//.*on . Chr «s<e 
eleysoM . Kyrie elc_(/soH . seue pater nosfres . k seuew Auees . 
Dispersit dedit pauperibMs, Retribuere digware, 36 

For alle Jiat ben seek & sory & for alle J)at ben in prisouH in 
cristendom & in hej^euesse of * cristen folk . & for alle [)at ben 

' p. 375 a. At the top of the page in the XVItli oentury liand: 
Supersticion. 



12 ,Tocl PAhlssdii 

iu stronge teinptaeiouw . iV for aiie |)at ijeu iu goode iyf jiut god 
helde liein pere juue . \- jio ]n\t l)eu iu o|)er god amende hem ^if 
it his wiit be . fyue . pater nostres . k fyue . Auees . Leuaui 
oculos lueos . icyrie eleyson chrisfe elei/so)! . kyr\e 
f> eleysoH . ('ouuertero dow(/ne vsq )(f r/ !(0 . Prete«de do- 
mine m i ,i c r i c o r d i a m , 

For alle ])e soules |iat Ijeu for|) fareu in pe bileeue of |ie foure 
godspeliers jiat holdeu vp ai cristewdom . lV: iu l^e liei^enesse o£ |)e 
uyne woordes [^at meu clepeu [je nyne ordres of auugels . nyue . 

10 Pater nos/res . aud . ix . Auees . De p?-ofundis clamaui . 
Kjirie eleyson . christe eleyson . kyrie cJeyson . pater 
noster . Requie«i eternam . Fideliuj» deus omn\um cou- 
ditor, 
Atte Messe wlian \)e pree.st heuej) vp goddes flesch aud liis bloode 

16 sigge]! l)is Aue salus mujidi . verbu;» pai^ri s . hos tia 
vera . viua caro.deitas iutegra . verus liomo.aud l)an 
fallel) adouue wil) liise gretynges . A u e principiu»» nostre 
creacioni s . Tu esto nostrum gaudiu?)*, Mane nol)iscu«( 
dojwine . Gloria tibi do«i /ne . Si q uis est locus est iu 

20 ine (juo veniat iu me deus meus.quo veuiat deus 
a u t m a n e a t i n m e d e u s q u i f e c i t c e 1 u m k t e r r a m . 
Jta ne domine est quicqMrtm iu me (juod capiat te . 
quis michi dabit vt venias in cor meu»« & iuebries 
illud.vt bonum vinum amplector te quid n\ich\ es . 

25miserere.misere.Mesereremei deus secundummag- 
nam miseriGordia,m tuaw, al out l)e psalme & atte ende . 
Gloria ^atri . christe audi uos . twies . pater noster. 
C r e d o . c a r n i s r e s u r e c c i o n e »* . S a 1 u u ;;/ f a c p o p u I u ui 
t u u m d omine . doce m e f a c c ?• e v o 1 u u t a t e tn t u a m . 

30 Dom/ue exaudi or«c/oHem meam.Et clamor meus 
ad te veuiat, 

Ooncede quesuin«s oniMipo/rws deus vt quem enig- 
matice k sub alieua specie couceruimMs quo sacra- 
m e » t a 1 i t e r c; i 1 ) a m u r i u t e r r i s f a c i e & f a c i e j« enm 

.35 V i d e a m H .s' e o s e c u r i e s t v e r a c i t e r & r e a 1 i t e r f r u i 

inereamMr iu celis.per eundem dominum nostrum . kc. 

^ After 1)6 Mcsse kyssel) \)e ev\)e . for^etel) al l^e werlde k he\\ 

out of 30ure seluen liere is sprinkelyuge of loue . l)ere biclyppel) 

30ure lemman in to ^oure breestes boure liat is li^th of lieuene 



Recluse 13 

aud liolde^i hym fast ' forto {tat 30 haue geten of hym al |iat 
;e willen, 

Aboute siidday who so may |)enehe[) |)an on goddes roode . as 
mychel as he mest may . o\\)rr can . iV- on his pyne . cJc his passiouw . 
and bigyuneli \)0 ilch fyue gretynges |)at ben wryten toforne . \- o 
also kuelej) to vchoue and bhssefi 30U as it sei|i . ^- betefi ^oure 
breest and makej) a ■.viseHch booue, 

AdoramMs te chrts/e & benedicim!<5 tibi Tuaw cru- 
cem adoramM5 . Salue crux sancta.O crux lignuw.A 
arise|) jiau & bigynneti |)e Anteme.Salua nos chrf.s^^e p^'/- 10 
virtutew . wi|) \>e token . & sigge[i stoudynge [^is psalme . Jubi- 
la te . wij) . Gloria pa <ri.it [lau |)e auteme euer |)Us.Salua 
nos* chrj.*<e.aud blisse[) 30U wi[).qui saluasti petru»» 
in raari miserere nobis. and bete[) ^oure breest . it [)an falle[) 
douM & sigge[) . chru-^^e audi uos . je.s^u chrisfe audi nos . 15 
kyrie e\ei/son . christe eleyson . ^ Kyrie ele?/5ow . pate»- 
uostcr . & ne nos . Protector noster aspice . & respice* 
deus facie»» chris/i tui.Deus qui sanct&m crucem 
ascendisti . And eft bigyuue[) . Adoramws . as ie dude bifore 
{)e psalme . and \te orisouH iV- [)e anteme . aud |)us sei[) [^ise fyue 20 
psalmes . Jubilate . Ad te leuaui, Qui confiduwt. Do. 
»i/ne noM est exaltatu w . Laudate dotninuiu .in sanctis 
eiMs.Jn vchone of [)ise psalmes ben fyue verses . [)e orisouws . 
Deus qui sanc^am crucem . Adesto doinine deus qui 
pro uobis.Deus qui vnigeniti.Juste judex . wi|) . () 2.5 
beata trinitas. And who so ue cuuue |)ise fyue . so seie he euerc 
on til he cuMne pe o[)er . & ^if hem l^euclie to longe . so leten hij 
[)e psalmes, aud |)us ^e raowen saien ^oure auees ^if 36 willen, 
Lefdy seint Marie for [lat ilch mychel blisse [)at [)ou haddest 
inwi[) [)e in pnt ilch tyme [)at jcsms crist goddes son took flesch :!0 
it bloode in [le & of \>e after [)e aungels gretynge vnderfonge 
[)ise gretynges of me wi|) |)at ilch . Aue, \- make me to telle litel 
of my selue . & of vche blisse outewil) . aud enfo!<rme me inwij) 
and erne me |)e blisse of heueue als wisse as iu [lilk flessche [)at 
he took of [)e nas neue?- no syuue ne in [)ine as ich leeue cleuse 35 



' fast inserted above the liiie. 

' Salua nos on erasure. 

' p. 375 b. 

* After respice a small hole in >IS. 



14 .I.i(.l PAhlsson 

iiiy soule of Hesclilich syniics \- l)ygyiine f)e. Aiie.to. (\ominus 
t c (• 11 ;// . in stede of Anteme . & af ter |)e psalme al out . M a g n i f i c a t . 
fyuc si|>es ^if |)at 30 wil sei{) . & after vehone au . aue . |)e anteme . 
Spiritus sanctus superueniet iu te . Aue maria.gra- 
Sciiim' tuam quesunM<s domine mentihus nosfvis iii- 
f uiiclc . \- c, 

Lefdy seint Jiary for |iat ilch mychel biisse |)at |)0U haddest wiian 
Jiou seh bi blisful son borne of l)i clene body to make« hele wi]) 
l)ine holy maydeiihede & moderhede . halewe me liat am l^orou; 

10 witl brolcen eV: l^oroui dede . & ^iue me gmce in heuene to see l)i 
blisful iore aud |)i Maidenes - worschipp . sif it be l)i swete sones 
wille . to maiie me wor|)i to be blissed in her felawrede Aue 
maria.Ad domznMin cu;;; t ri bular er . A u e regina ce- 
Ior«H( aue domina an geiorww . Egrediet?/;- virga de 

15 radice jesse.Deus qui virginalem aulam, 

Lefdy seint Marie for pat ilch mychel blisse p&t pou. liaddest 1)0 
l)Ou sei} l)i derworl^e sou ^ after his de]) arisen to blisful lj'f . his 
body bri^tter l)an l^e suwne . leene me to day wil) hym arisen . 
bodilch^d^jen gostlicl» lyueu in \)i felauschipp ou ende forto ben 

20 in blisse wi^) iiym in beuene . for l)at ilch mychel blisse l)at l)Ou 
haddest leuedy of his l)lisful arysynge . after my sorouies l^at ich 
am jnne lede me to blisse.Aue maria . Retribue seruo 
tuo . aud fyue Auees, al out.Gaude dei genitrix virgo 
i n m a c u 1 a t a . E c c e v i r g o c w c i p i e t •V: p « r i e t f i 1 i u w . & 

25 V o c a b i t u r n o m e w eius e m a n u e I . D e u s q u i d e b e a t e 
M a r i e v i r g i u i s v t e r o . 

Lefdy seint Marie for Jiat ilch mycliel blisse l^at 1)0U haddest 1)0 
1)0U seis lii blisful son liat l)e jewes l^russschen * and duden to 
delie . & wendeu haue wrou^th wi|) * hym as wi]) auol^er man 

30 wil) outen hope of vp arisynge sei^ hym wurliilich & semelich 
stei^e '' vp to l^e blisse of heueue on holy l^ursdayi .liue me grace 



' (/raciam : g smaller than the other letters in the line; between this 
and the followin;; )■ a blank seems to have been left, possibly for the pnr- 
pose ot changing the g into a capital. 

■ Maidenes: the last e iuserted above the line. 

" After son a small hole in JLS. 

* On different lines: J»-uss sclien. 

^ p. 376 a. 

" After sfei;,e tlie hole, noted above, p. 13,1". 



Rediise 15 

to werpe \vi|> hym ' al [le werlde vmler foote & stei^e \vi|) hym 
hei^elich whan j dy^e gostlich on domesday l)odiUch to |)e heuene 
riche hlisse. Aue maria.Jn conuertendo . fyue Aues . 
Gaude virgo gaude dei . Ecce concipies in vtero \- 
p a r i e s f i 1 i u w & v o c a h i s n o m e n e i u s j e *■ « m . D e u s (] u i -5 
salutis eterne, 

Lefdy seint Mary for ])at ilcli mychel bhs J^at fullild al [te werlde 
of blis & vnderfeuge [^e in his vnimete bUs & wi[) hise b Usfu l 
armes sett |)e iu \>i throue & quenes croune vpon {jine heued 
bri^tter |)an \>e su«ne . heuenUch quene vnderfonge {)ise gret}'nges 10 
of rae here on er|)e . [)at j may bUsfuUich grete pe in heuene • 
Aue Maria.Ad teleuaui, fyue Auees . Aud here saili forl^e 
30ure Auees an hundre|) oil^e?- fyft\- . oi[)er |)ries fj^fty, Alma 
rederaptoris mater.Ecce ancilla do»(«ui.O saMc^a 
virgo virginu»«, oi[ier . O siaria pi jssima, iif ^e wil ^e raaj* 1.3 
saie vche psalme fyue si[)es . for [ie psalmes be[) nempned after 
oure leuedies name after [)e fyue lettres who so uyme[) seme . aud 
aUe [)ise fyue orisouns after hire hei^est bUsses . & so it erne[) by 
fyue And telle [)e Autemes and [)0u schalt fyude in hew fyue 
gretyuge iif ie wiUe[) seggen hem do[)e write hem . And vche 20 
man sigge as hym bere[) on hert best: for [)e more |)at a man 
doo|)e * pe more gmce god hym 5iue|) . Ac looke euere [)at uomau 
ydel be Ac wirche oi|)er bidde . Ac looke [)at he do euer su/wwhatt 
{)at god may oft awaken . \)e houres of \>e holy gost sif 36 \viUe|) 
siggen hem sigge|) vche tyde of hem bifore oure leuedies tyde . 25 
30ure graces sigge[) stondynge bifore jiete . & after as 30 owe . and 
\vi|) |)e . Miserere . go[) toforne ^oure autere and whan 36 drj'nken 
blisse[) it . & sei[p [)us. Benedicite dowiiuMs . Potum nosfrum 
filius dei benedicat . Jn nowiine pa/ris & filij & spi- 
riiua sanc/i Amen, And blisse|) 30U afterward \vi[) Adiuto- 30 
riuoi Qostrum in uo/wiHe domjni.Qui fecit celum & 
terrara . Sit nomen do»n/ni benedictu m . Ex lioc nuwc 
& V s ([ M e i n s e c « 1 /< m , 
whan * 56 go to ' bedd aui^th oi[)pr iii [le euenyuge falle[) on 



' Between lii/m and al: m erosseJ over and expuncted. 
' duo/ie: probably so; however, the third ehnracter looks like an e. 
' tclian: w faintly written and a biank left, evidently fiirenteringaninitial. 
' to: only the upper half of visible, the hole noted above, p. 14,17, 
reappearing here. 



16 .loel Piihlsson 

knees and [leiicliel) wliat ^e hane |)at day done and trespassed 
a^eius oure lorde & criej) hym ierne inercy and for^iuenesse . & }it 
}G hane any goode dede done . |)oniie{) liyin of his ^ifte . for 
wi[) outen hym 50 may no|)ing wel done ne J)enchen . & sigge|) 

eMiserere mei deus . kyrie elev.^ow . chr?.v/e elei/soti. 
kyrie e^ei/son . l'atpr nos^er . Credo . carnis resurec- 
cionew.Saluos fac seruos tuos & Ancillas tuas. 
Deus cui proprium est &c. stoudynge sei|i |iis. Visita 
domine habitacionew ista?«. And after wi{) jire croices in 

10 |ie forliede w\p \ie |)ombe .cl)ris/us vincit.chr?s/us regnat. 
chr/.v/us imperat.and lian wil) a large croice as att.Deus 
in adiutoriuMj . wi|) |^)is clause, Ecce crucew domini fugite 
partes aduerse vicit leo de tribu' juda.radix dauid 
Alieluya, And j)an foure crosses wif) |iise foure clauses, crux 

15 fugiat omi/e malignu;/; . Crux est reparacio vevum . 
Per crucis l)oc signuw fugiat procul omne maliguu/w. 
Et per jdem signu»? saluet«<r ({uodque beniguuwj, Aud 
after {lat . Ju nomiwe pa/ris & filij, ^c, on ^oure self & on 
ioure bedde . & as forp as }e may ne do 36 uouith bot sleepe, 

20 Hij pat ne cuwnen nou^tli her natyns sigge]) hij her pater 
noster . {)ritty * for jiatyns aud l^ritty . Auees, And after vchone . 
Gloria pa/ri . ^if hij cunne . & an orisouM who so can . con- 
c e d e n o s . oi\)er .Deus cui proprium.Benedicamws do- 
mino . Deo grar-^as . & anime omwi«<m fidelium defu>ic- 

25 iov nm, At |ie endynge of vche tyde {lat 36 saie or what 36 seie 
late{) eucre {lat be {)e laste woorde & . Benedicite dominus . 
Deus det viuis graciam.defuMctis veuiam& requiejw, 
k c . At euensoug sei{) twenty . att vche tyde fyftene . & att Matyus 
sei[).Domine labia mea a])eries . Deus in adiutorium . 

30 And at vche tydc . Dcus in adiutoriu?«. . Att complyn . con- 
uerte nos, byfore.Deus in adiutorium . as me do{je at {)e 
seruise of oure lefdy . Jn stede of {)e seueue psalmes . {n-itty pater 
nr).*/res . and . Auees . Jn stede of {)e fyfteue psalmes . fyftene . 
pater nos/res . and . Auees . and euere.GIoria pa/ri . atte 

3-5 nende . Atte commeudaciouH {)ritty .pater nostves . aud . Auees, 
Atte . placebo . teu . atte . Dirige . twenti . pater no,v/res . & 



' p. 376 b. 

' jmter Jiostec /;)■/ (in [iritty) on erasure. 



RtH-lu.se 17 

Auees Who so is seek lete of hiilf . \- ^if he is ri^th seek lete 
of al . and take ' his sekenesse iu - |ioiemo(lenesse . cV gladlicii . 
And also herieli [)at hoiy chirche rede|) aud synge|i in vche tynie 
as it owe to ben yseide . And lokej» |iat ^oure |pou3ttes ne he 
nou^th flyttande . |)an ^if ^e for ^enieleshede forgluffe|) wordes o 
o\\ior mysnymet) verses . lene|) 30U doune to |)c erj)e wij) |)e honde . 
And for mysnymynge schewe|) oft in schrift ^ouro ^eraeleshede . 
J)is is now pe first date of [^is booke, 

VChe man fonde to keepe pe tydes . Midni^th pe motu- 
yuge . Pryme . Vuderue . Midday, Noue . Euen- 10 
souge.and complyn, Att Midni^th: l^encheli ^ & haue|) iu 
inynde . hou jesus crist was borue of his moder . And [^au he took 
out of helt his chosen . And att Midni^th.he schal ^iue |ie 
dome, as cassiodre fie Pope sei[) . for [lat tyme iu Egipt he slou; 
al \)e first bi^ete of Mau and beste whaw he ladde for|) his folk, i") 
Aud in J)e . Mornynge . |ienk hou [^e jewes pleied wi[) hym 
abobbed . and atte Morowen . he aros fram de[) to lyue bitweue 
j)e ni^th and [le day . And seiut Austin sei[) [lat [lan he speke 
first . Att Pvyme.haue iu myude hou he schewed hym to [)e 
Maudeleyne . and he was brou^th bifore pe Barre tofore Pilate 20 
And how Pilate acouped hym . pis Pryme.is |ie first houre 
after pe sunne arisynge . whau [)e day & [)e ni^th be[i yliche 
longe . |)at is twelue houres in [le day aud twelue iu [le ni^th . 
And sif })at 36 wil keepe * [)ise houres . waite[) eue;e Somer and 
Wynter whan [)e sonne is euen in [)e Est & [)au take to [)iue 25 
houre'' att Prime . |)e first houre after and parte so [line houres 
til [)0U come til [li twelue houres . aud make at [li twelue[i houre 
complyu . as for|) as [lou may gcsseu it . Aud ^if [)0u haue will 
to done it! god wil wisseu [)e hou [)0U may best queme hym . 
And [lau [le tweie houres after pryuie . is cleped Vuderue . -w 
[lenche |ian hou he seut wytt & wisdom iu to his Apostles and 
hou he was scourged atte Pyler and crouued wi|i [loi-nes bitweuc . 
Vnderne . aml . Midday . [lat is [le [)ridde houre after [)at mou 



' Betwoen tal;e ainl his: /ii crossed oiit aml ex)iiinclcii. 
' in ailileil above tlie linc. 

" fteiiche/i: tlie (iret three letters faintly crosseil llironixli. 
* p. 377 a. On this page down to the end of Mook I several lotlei-s 
at tlie besrlnnlnji of words marked wltli red strokcs. 

'• pine houre riin totretlipr, beinsr tlie last wonls iii tlie linc. 



18 .locl 1'jililHsim 

clepeli in lioly chircbo 1)6 sext houre |iat is |ie Micldei of \ic day .' 
whan |io sunne is att pc hei^est of |ie day . lie iienge vpon |ie 
roode for vs . and liat tynie he took flesche and Ijloode of |iat 
lioure lmue|i in mynde as mycliel as }e may . k lienclie|) opon his 
r, passiou« . and liencheli it is |ie hattest of [le day . and bitokneli 
|iat his loue was bote and brennande vn to vs . and so schulde 
oure loue be to hym ^if we loued hym ari^tb as we au^tten to 
done . And jie [iridde houre afte^- Midday . jjat is cleped . hora 
nona . pe nynlie houre jesus crist iaf vp liis gost in to his fader 

1(1 hondes and ^ian he bisouith for hem Jiat dude» hyin to [le deji 
jiat ne wisten nouitli what liij duden Jiat were |)e symple folk . 
for lie clcrkes wisten wel iu her hertes [)at he was goddes son 
by his wordes and by his werkes . Ac [lan her hertes weren so 
harded in synue [lat hij hadden lorue [le knowyuge of hym . 

15 And [lan an houre bifore [lat [le sonne go doune in [)e west [)at 
is [le . elleueu[)e houre^. [lan he made his sopeere : and 
turned [jan his blissed body in to Ijred ■' and his bloode in to 
wyue ^ and saf it to his deciples . and [)an he was taken adoune 
of [jo roode . [)e tw'elue[)e houre . is complyn whan [)e su«ne 

20 go[) adouM eueu in [)e west, aud [jan he was buried . And [)at 
tyme he swatt bloode and water vpon [)e Mouwt of Olyuete and 
made his bisechynge to his fader . And Salamon ^ sci[) . Sowe [ji 
sede att Morne and wi[)drawe nou^th jiine hande att euene for 
[)0u noste whe[]er schal sooner come vp . for ^if [)at on faile[i [lat 

2'> o[)er wil come vp And iif hij comen bolie so mychel is [le better 
for [)an he seip [)0u schal gadre jie niore fruyt By seede is 
bitokued goddes woorde, Bidde to god in [jc Mornynge . [jat is [le 
seede [lat [)0U schalt sowe for [lan is best tyme . and wi[idra\ve 
[le no^tb in [le euene tyde . for sif [jou spede noith at pat ou [lou 

:!o sciiait at |iat o[ier . Nou [)ise houres [lat ich haue spoken of . vche 
niaii |iat lia|i laken cristcndom owe to haue hem in mynde . * 
as for|i as lie may oi|io' in [lou^th oi[ier in dede . [lat is be in 
biddynge . and wite 30 wel wlio so hali hcm in niynde \vi|) goode 



' The .stop in red ink. 
- cUeuenJtc houre on erasiiie. 

■' to hyiHl .inil in fo iripic nndcrlineil and botween tlie coliinins iii llii 
X\'llh eenturv han<l : i/ou ftii/lr. 

' In the nKir<.'in: 8 a I a in o » . 
=■ 11. ;!77 b. 



RiTlnse in 

wille . god iiyl nou^th leteii l^at he iie wil hcipen hym ' att his 
uede and teche hym as is hest for hym hojie to lyf & to soule . 
Nou to |)e houres of |)e day men may comen hot nou^th to Jie 
houres of jie Planeetes . for |)at tyme he was jiyned . jie houres of 
|)e Planeetes acorden wit) |)e houres of j^e day . pe Pianeetes ben •'> 
|)at l^e dayes in |)e weeke ben cleped after pat is [le sonne and 
|)e Mone and jie fyue sterres l)at stonden low^er l^an any o])ere 
sterres . Biddeji for hym jiat |iis ordeinde & made for t^e loue of 
god, Here endeji l^e first Book.- 

OMni * custodia cnstodi cor tuu>n quia ex ip.so lo 
vita procedit 51 ^Viti al mane*e warde witet) wel ^oure 
hert for soule lyf is in hir ^if sche is wel ywited . Jje het wardeyns 
ben |)e fyue wyttes . ^ Sei^eynge, Spekynge, Herynge, 
S m e n y « g e , and vche lymes F e 1 y n g e . And suwwhat we schul I 
spcken of alle . for who so witet) fise wel he do|)e Salamons bode . i5 
for 3if he wite|) wel his hert . he witet) wel his soule * hele . for 
[le bert is a ful wilde beste and maket) many wilde lepes as seint 
Gregori seit» . H Nichil'' corde fugacius. f[ Jjat t^'''' ".^'s 
nol)ing l)at atfleinel) a man so sone as his hert . Dauid goddes 
prophete pleyned hym sutntyme t^at sohe wos atstirte hym : it 20 
seide.Oor'"* meuw dereliquit me.^I V^^ 's myne hert is 
atstirt me . & eft he blisse]) hym and seiti tuvt sche is comen a^ein, 
inuenit' seruus cor meuw, 51 Ijorde he seide ich haue 
yfounde myne hert m}- seruaunt . wel were hym liat my^th so 
saie now whan |ie holy man & so wyse and so war iete hire 25 
atstirten . Sory may lian anoticr be for her fli;th . And where 
abrake sche fram dauid ^* |)e holy kyng and prophete: god it 
wott att liis ei^e firle fat he sei; tiorou; a biholdynge as ^e schuil 
heren here aftcr . Fortii my leue bretieren and sustren . witeti ^^'^' 
-,ouro ei^en and clotie 30U to fnldo Mak .V white '' . |)e hlak cloti :;o 



' iril hclpiu lii/ni on t-rasure. 
' Krasiiip. 

" In tlic iunrsin: Salam witli llio last two stinkos nf tlir ni ciit away. 
* nonle .iildcd above tlic linc. 
G r e g 
r i II s 

In tlie niargin: Daui witli trarcs of e;nsnro hctwoen u aml i. 

Iii tlie niarsin: Daui 

iliiiiid: ihin on cr.isiiio. 

irliitr: li afM<''l aliovo llio lino. 



20 .Incl PAlilsson 

l»itokiie|i |i(' croice wiliinne and \vi|i fniten . pat iiij lien iilak aiid 
VMWOi']ii to |ie werld ' aml snie|ie anii wliite inwi|i |iat is ^ Jie 
solje . .Suwaue |iat jesus orist iia|j out cooled 30U of {le werlde 
|iorou3 glemes of grace . \>re croices . [lere ben red & blak and 
6 wliite . J)e rede croice is likued to niartirs jiai scheden lier bioodc . 
|)e biak croice is likued to heni [lat dnne her penaunce in jie 
werlde for fonle synnes . ]je wliite croice Ionge|) to white Mayden- 
liode and cliastite and clennesse {lat is mychel jiyue forto holden . 
White clo{i is ' likned to {le white croys for it take{) sone fiil{ie . 

II) and is wers to loken to . * and do{)e niore harme to {le ei^en to 
biliolden it . |)e '' blak olo{i bitokne{i jic hlak croice for it dope 
lesse harine to {)e ei^en "^ to biholden and is {likker aieiu pe 
winde aud wers to see {)orou5 and holde{) his hewe better . J)fir- 
fore looke 36 be clo{)ed to folde white wi{)inne tt blak wi{)Oute 

lA and vnwor{)i to {le weride . Aud schete{) wel ^oure wyudow'es and 
3oure dores {lat beu ^oure fyue wyttes . Aud now we wil spekeu 
of {le fyrst {jat is oure Ei^en, Looke {jat 36 wite hem ri^th wel 
{lat {je hert atstirte nousth as dude of Dauid {je kyng . aud make 
oure soule seek . For alsoue as he is oute [jan is oure soule seek . 

20 ])erfore ue be{j uou^tli outward ue tellynge . ue leiiynge . ue fliker- 
ynge . for {lat is a^ein kyude . For vukyudelich it were {jat {le 
ded spake wi{i {je quyk . ded is vche mau and Avomman {lat ^iuen 
hem to god forto beu his spouse a^ein werldelich men and syune . 
for it ne falle{) uou^th iu her mou{)es now swich speche bot al 

25 to worschipp of her spouse . for werldelich meu ben here quyk 
{lat 3iueH hem to pe werlde aud to synne, 

MUudus gaudebit &c . / 51 Oure lorde sei{) to his deciples . 
30 schult wepen and sorow^eu . & pe werlde schal make 
ioye aud blis . aud ^oure wepynge schal towj-ne to ioye . aud her 
■AO ioye to sorou^ aud wo . J)e werlde is cleped wicked cristeu men 
and synne {lat come{) of oure seluen . forsake {)at and nou^th {)e 
{ling {)at god hap made for {le . For vvi{) outen {)i sustenauwce ne 



' mrld: r iiulistiiict, sqiieezoil in lietween e. aml /. 

'^ A crease, extending froin is slantwise down ti> tlie riulit .aernss four 

lia.s made several words indistinct. 

" is added above the line. 

■* .\fter the stop tlie sign : in red inU. 

' p. 378 a. 

° MS.; eiyem witli the last stroke of the m expuncted. 



Recliise 21 

may lioii ueuer wel serueu Aud froui [le werlde we uioteu kepeu 
vs 3if we wil queuie ' god Aud bot ^if we uiay anieudeu heui . 
we owe to bidde for hem to god pat he aiueude hem ^if it 
be liis wiH, 

LEue sir wil summe saie . is it uow so yuel forto lokeu outward 5 
J aud gou to solas & to games aud to karoles . ^e leue bre|)ereu 
aud sustreu for yuel pat [lere couie|3 of . For seiut Austyu sei|i 
so hij schuileu karolen iu helle hij |)at karoleu liere for delytt 
of body aud of werldelich pinges . Aud so hij schulleu Ijot hij 
amendeu hera here bytymes aud a pa rty jchi lt telle ac ai ne lO 
may j^iiQujtb . And uaraelich to ^onge mew and wywuien aud to 
olde also . [)at [le 3onge ue take noue ensample of hem [lat hij 
mowen weren hem by . for lif auy mau vndernymel) hew |)an hij 
seien also swipe lool hij done also pat pat - cuwuen more goode 
|)an j can . aud better ben |)an ich am . je {lat wille[) do wel . ne \h 
5iue() uo keep herto . for [)e wise folow3e[) wisdom and uou^th 
folye . au olde man oi|)er au olde wommau may better do suich 
{)iuges |)an a 3onge . ac wi[) outeu yuel ue uiay uoi[ier doue it . 
nyme[) now goode ^eme what yuel ha[) comeu of lokiwg out ward 
& namelich of wommaM . Ac al [le wo [iftt euer was . & 3Ut is . tV 20 
euere schal be . al com of si^tli & [lat it so be . loo here [le proue . 
Lucifer [lot was [le fairest ' auugel iu heueue [lorou^ a biholdyuge 
[lat he bihelde vpou hym self fel in to a weellate [)ere of aud 
80 in to pride . and bicom of [le fairest aungel of heuene |)e 
foulest deuel of helle . Looke uow what liym bifel for his si^th . 25 
Eue oure aller aioder [le first [ling [lat brou^th hire to synne was 
Iier ei^e [lirle, 

VJdit igitwr Mulier qwod bonum esset liguum ad 
vesceudum & pulchrum oculis aspectu qwe delec- 
tabile & tulit de fructu & commedit dedit qwe viroso 
s u , 51 t>is is [lus to saie . Eue bihelde [le forboden appel and 
sei3 it faire and fenge to deliteu hir iu [le si^th . And in [le 
biholdyng took her lust [ie/-to . aud uame & ete [lere of . iV [lan 
took \- 3af it Iiire lorde . Loo holy wrytt hou it speke[i openlich . 
aud hou inwardelich it tellc[) |ie/e of . how first si^th bigan bo[)e 35 

' riueme: ovfr 7 a foiiiiiia like maik. 

' Imt: probalily 90; tlie crcase, iiote<l aliove, p. 20 2, makes tlie word 
illegible. 

» p. 378 b. 



•_'•_> Joi-I Pahlsson 

of aiiiigcl \' ot' iiiiiM ))orou3 ii wownnau |)us ^edc it iirst bifore 
and inade {ie waye to yuel lust . Aud corae|) |)e deede l^ere after 
|iat al nian kynde it felel) ^utt to |)is day . and schal do til |)e 
day of donie . and sunime wi|) outeu ende . pis appel niy leeue 
frendcs l)itoiine|) al ping |iat lust falle]) to and delices of .synne . 
Wiian liou man bilioldest |ie womnian oi|)er |)0U wowanan |)e 
man . |)0U a rt i n Eues_ poynt pou lolcest on l^e Appei . |)at is ou 
1)1 de|) . Wlio so hadde seide to Eue first whan sche cast hire 
ei^e vpon l)e Appel . Eue l)ou loi<est on 1)1 del) . A: l^erfore turne 

10 1)6 awayward . My leue sir sche wolde haue seide l)0u iiaste wronge . 
pis Appel \)ai j loiie vpon was forbodeu me to eten . & uou;,tl) 
to blholden . pus wolde Eue oure alder noder haue ansuered . 
Aud so lchdrede me ^utt pat Eue hal) many sones and douittren 
bope l)at wolden sigge on l)is wise . wenestow l^at ich lepe vpon 

15 hy)H pei; ich looke opou liym and seie 1)0U haste wro«ge . More 
wonder bifel whan sche loked opon l^e Appel and tooke delytt 
in l)e lokyng and Imn ete jierof, 

|Ui videri^ Muliei^ew; ad(j' . ^ Who l)at seel) a wom- 
nian forto couelten iiir.onon;' lie hal) forleyn hire onou 

20 iu""liis liert . Sclie fel to 1)6 Appel . And fro l^e Appel in to l^e 
wo of liis werlde . And was \iere jnue uyue hundrel) wynter 
and more . Aud fro \te sorous of l)is werlde iu to pe pyue of 
helle . & l)ere sche was foure l^ousande wyuter aud more and 
hire spouse also . And alle l^at comen of i)ym i*t of hirc and iutt 

25 schulden haue doue to |iis day & euer more for l^e bytt of au 
Appel . iie hadd lie grett mercy of god l^at seut adouue hls swete 
son jesu crist forto takeu oure Hesche & oure bloode aud dyed 
vpon |ie roode for vs and many peynes suffred for vs er he ^ede 
to lie deli . huuger k l^rust and mauy sorou.^es forto ameude [le 

30 lust & 1)6 llkyuge l^at Adain i*c Eue hadden . For vnderstoude 30 
wel be ne deied for 110 synue bot for l^at Ac l)is de^) was so 
preciouse pat it - uiy^tli suftise for mo werldes aud syune [lau 
may be uoumbred aud deliuer n)an of alle sywues and of alle 
pyues . pe bigyuuynge aud l^e rote of al l)is was fiirst a li^th si;th 

35 of 1)6 ei^e . Aud as mew ofte seieu of lltel comel) mychel . pau 
may vche feble iuan i»^- wowmau l^at is borne in synne haue 
niychel drede whan hij l^at were l^an n)ade l)orou3 god . aud clene 

' Tlic : has :i iicciilinr .>ilKipo. resenihling a n)Oilt>rn mark of exclaaiatioii. 
" p. ;i7tt a. 



Q' 



Kecluse 23 

were \vi|) outen corrupciou» Hou [lat hij were bigiled aud brou^tli 
iii to gret synue |)at spred ouer al |)e werlde 

EGressa est diua filia jacob vt videret Mulieres 
alienigenas, ^ A Maiden also dyne [^at was Jacobes 
dou^tter it te\\e\) iu holy wrytt {)at sche ^ede to biholdcn vncou{)e ;> 
inen . ac it ' were - wymmew . rind what weue ^e |)at coni \>ere 
of . |)orou-; l^at biholdyuge ' sche les her Jiaideuhode, and was 
made au hore jjcre after were treul^es * broken of hei^e Patriarkes . 
and a mychel burgh; forbreut . aud pe kyng* and his son ysleyH . 
and pe wymraen of |ie burgh^ }'taken were aud yladde for[) and lo 
made hoores . her faders and her bre[)eren uoble Princes were 
outiaw^ed aud al j)is nas nou^th by her wille ac al a^ius hir^ 
wille for a kyng [)at was * cleped Semor hadde a son pat hiith 
Sicheu * . aud he vvas * of a no{)er lawe [)an sche was . nousth 
circuTOcised caste his ei^en vpon hire and rauisshed hire a^eins I5 
liire wille . sche was * defouled & made an hoore . Looke uow {tus 
3ede out liir * si^th . J)is and o[)er goddes aungel dude wrj^te forto 
warueu o[)er wymmeu of " her si^th . Also Bersabe [)at was Vrries 
wyf stoode att a welle and wessche her legges . Aud Dauid sloode 
iu his ciiaumbre aud sei; hire . aud tooke of [lat si^th swich a •jo 
delytt [)at he dude \iere |)Orou3 [)re dedlich synnes . Tresoun and 
spouse breche . aud Mansiau^Ui . and al [lorou; [)at first si^th so 
holy kyng as he was * aud goddes pjophete . Now conie[) a feble 
man |)at holde|) hym Iioly for he ;ia|3 a wide hoode and longe 
sleuen . & wil seen iouge wymmen and sei[) [)at hij moweu seeu 25 
hol}' men wel ynou; . 3e swich as he is for his wide hoode and 
his longe sleeue uo wommau ne ieue none swich . and also wym- 
men to desireu to seen faire uien . ue desire it nou^th . |)enche 
on goddes prophete and ou his derlynge by who?» god seide 
hym self . :io 

INueui viruw secuftduin cor rneuH;, i^ .Jch Jiaue i'ou»/den 
a man seide god after inyue hert Now [lis nian [lat gud iivui 

' men . ac it on crasure. 

' ipere: tlie letters run togi-tlier, tlie wonl beinf: the lasl in llie line. 

' bihoUli/nge: ppssibly: hiheUhjtvjt: 

* On s in Iritifies, Siihrn, iras (1. H, U>, 2;$\ ir in iriis (I. 13\ </ in 
kyni/ trace» of erasure. 

' hif inserted ahiivc aii erased wunl. 

" o/ on erasure. 



21 .I.ii-l I':tlilsson 

self so niyiliel |iraise(l lioroii; u si^tli of iiis ei;e castyiige opoM 
a wowniaii . [lat wesclie hire self forles his hert, aiid foi^ate hym 
self so luit he dude ' ))re dedlich synnes ou Bersabe spousebreche 
on \'rrie his trewe kni^th tresouw & niaunes slau^th for he dude 
T) iiyin to dcde and vclie o\iere . |)0 [^at ben synful - wrecches beu 
so fiHiJL' iiaitly to cast ;oure ciicn vpon a wu»nnan . And |)wfore 
icli rcdo vclie uian k wo/;nnan |iat desiren to l)en goddes spouse 
|iat iiij |iencheu lierc vpon . And also meM oilie?' wymmew [lat 
lyucn in jie werlde iian gret nede to ke])en hem f)nm suich 

lu siitlites . 3if |)at liij willeu beu ysaued . For alle Jie syuues )iat j 
spake of toforue aud uow last alle comeu of a li^th siith . for it 
was gy/aiyng and roote of all, And ^ierfore for ))at wywiuieu 
vnwriien Jiem to men so jiat liij weren gretlich ytempted aud 
synncdeu ))e>e jjorou;! it was comauwded in ))e olde lawie in jie 

]o name of god ))at ^if ^ auy pytt were . what so it wcre . jjat it 
scholde ben wrei^en ])at no beste fel ))e/-e jnue . Aud ^if any 
vnl)ilcd it [lat a beest fel )»,')e iniie! be ))at it vuhiled scholde 
a(|uyte jie bccst . Now is ))is a sui)ie dredeful ))ing to wo;«man 
|iat sclic hire to ma«ues ei^eu . for sche is bitokued by )ie wrei^e- 

■-'II ynge of )ie pytt . pe putt is hire faire nebbe l)ire white swire . 
bire ly^tli lates . bire bondes uf sclic boiulel . ^if sche holde)) for)) 
in liis siith . ^iitt bire wordes be]) putt . and al )i«t fallcj) to hir 
|iat nian is ytempted of . Al oure lorde clepe)) ■* putt . |)is putt he 
comaundcji ))at it be hiled . lest beestes fallen \iere jnne and 

•j-j drenchen in synne . Beest is ))e beestlich mau ))at ue ))euche]) 
uouitli on god . ne uote]) uouith hise wyttes as a mau ou^tte to 
done to goddcs worschip and to his oweu uote . Ac seches forto 
falle in ])is putt ))at ich speke of sif he it fynde open.Al ])e 
dome is wel strong to hem ])at opeuen J^e putt for hij schulleu 

:i() ^elden ))e beest pni is falleu \wre inne . for sche is gylty of his 
de]) bifore oure lorde Aud schal for his soule ausuere ou domes- 
day and ^elde ))e beestes lure . & sche na)) nou} to ielde bot hire 
selucu : strongo ielde is ))is wi)) alle : k goddes dome aud his 
heste is ))at sche it scbal ^elde ou al manr;e . \'uderstonde sche 

:io wel it schal be wlden for scbe opencd ])c ]iutt ]iat it adrcywt 

' p. :J7» b. 

' si/nful: y piobably by conectioii. 

■" Helow of -— -yif enxsnre. 

' tlrj/fji: l .«eejiis to be corrected frniii /i. 



jiint' . |)0u [lat viihiles |)e putt . & doos aiiy liing wliar |iorou3 |iat 
mau is auy |iing of |ie ateinpted fleschlicb |i(re |iou it wilt nou^th 
drede [tis dome gretlieh ^if he is yfouded of [le so |iat he syune 
dedlieh iu auy maue>e [ter-, it ue be uou^th wif) \>e . bot wille to 
|ie ward, for |)e foudvHge aros first of fie [lorou^ |)i dede! be al 5 
siker of tie dome pou schaU it ^elde for |ie pyttes opeuyuge . 
Aud bot J)0U be schryueu [lere of \)0\i schalt ' abugge be [)0U 
ful syker . For meu seieu abywoorde pe houude wil ju pere he 
fyndel) open, 

PUdicus- oculus iiipiidici cordt.v esl ininiicus \-c. ui 
51 J)at |ie mouji ne may for schame {)e hith ei^e speke|i it . And 
it is as eraude berer of |ie ii^th hert . Ac now {ifre beu suwnne wym- 
meu |iat uolde for uo|iiug do '■' fil|ie wifi mau . Ac hij ue reccheu 
ueuer |)ei; mau be teuipted of hem . Ac seiut Austyn sei|i . |iise 
two beu in ou wiilynge aud liabbyHge . wille forto beu ywihied 15 
as wel as forto habben, 

NO u * s o ! u w a p p e t e r e set a p p e t i v e 1 1 e c r i m i u o s u ;w 
est . 51 Kuowe mau oi|ier haue wilie to beti ykuowe of 
man aud sechen \)ere after bo|)e it is ou aud dedlich syune 

OCuli;^ prima tela suwt adulterijT H Eiseu bej) arewen " 20 
of pe first Armes of leccheriel For so as meu fi^tteu \\i\> 
\ne maue/e of wepen . v,ilh schetyuge . wif) spere . k wi|) sweerd 
Also ri^th wi|i |)at ilch wepen fi^ttej) [)e flesche a^eius \te soule 
Jjat is wi{) h^th ei^e as schote of Arewe . And witi spere of wou«d- 
yuge woorde . aud wi|) sweerd of dedUcli houdelyug . Aud of 25 
|)ise falle|) ofte styukyuge leccherie vpou hem jiat schuldeu be 
goddes spouse . First he schete|i his arewen of li.Uh ei^eu . for as 
1)6 Arewe is yfet)cred aud flei^eli li^tlich: so doli |ie schote of 
|)e ei^e aud stike|) in |)e hert . pere after he schake|i liis spere jiat 
is schakyug woord . And tie swerd of dedlich houdelynge smyteti ;!ii 



' |). 3«0 a. 

' In the iniii-j;in: gusti witti part of tlii' </ ciit hwhv. 

' do aJdeil above tlie line. 

' In tlie margiQ: gusti 

In the mari^in: ^ with the lirst stroke of thc m :unl ii lUt awav. 

UM.v . 

" arewen: only tbe upper half of tlie « visible. Traces of an era.<iire. 

extenilin); acro.Ms three lines. 



clel)es dynt on goddes spouse so liat lic iinikc]) of liire Jie deuels 
Hoore . And it is so|) weilaway Nei^ is it ydo wij) hem |)at comel) 
so neii to gyders . And ji^-rfore bo|ie raan & wommau, wite]) wel 
30ure ei^en . for al Jiis wo come|i tirst of |)e ei.^en . Nis he nouith 
;"> a mychel fooie |)at whan fe citee is biseged al aboute wi|i stronge 
euemyes l^at lioidel) hym openHch for|) in |)e kyrneis of \)e wal . 
lest |)at swn (juere] o\\\er sum arewe ^af hym dejies dynt . Siker- 
licli as icli wene jie fende schete|) mo querels to lioraeiicli wyra- 
men pan to ' an liundre|) leuedies in Jie werlde . pe kirneis of 

10 30ure castels ben ^oure doores k ioure wyndowes, and |)o ben 
30ure fyue wyttes . And [lerfore schete hem fast lest [le deuels 
<|uerels ne hyrtt 30U nou^th . For his querels be|) fondynges bol^e 
bodiiich and gostlich . For sone so |)e ei^e is ybly«ded jie herte 
is sone out'?-comen . and ybrou^th sone [lorou^ synne to grounde . 

15 OJcut Mors per peccatuw in orbera ita per has 
kJ fenestras intrat in mentein, 51 ^^ de{) come]) tirst 
in to l)e werlde l^orou^ synne! Also l)orou3 l)e ei^e comeli del) in 
to l)e soule, Lorde * crist . what vche luan wolde scheten fast her 
wyndewes and hij ray^tten scheteu out del) of fleschlich lyf . 

•jo And a man oil^er a wowman pat schulde serue god ne wil nou^th 
scheten her ei^en fram soule del) . And wel hij mowen ben cieped 
piries of soule del) . for many man c^ womman han ben sleyn 
l)orou3 hem bol^e gostlich and bodilich . porou^ al holy wrytt it 
is techynge and warnynge of kepynge of ei^en 

2-") A CTerte' oculos meos ne videant vanitatem, 51 ^"od 
JL\. seil) Dauid weude away niyne ei^en fram |ie dwcle of liis 
werlde i^v: his vauitees, 

PEpigi'' fedus cuw oculis raeis nec cogitarera <lc 
virgine, 51 Jo^ sei|) jch haue niade forward w/tA myne 
:it) ei^en l^at j ne schal raysl^encheu . God it wot he seide ful wel . 
for after 1)C ei^e conieli Jie liou^th . and |)ere after l^e <le<le . And 
|)at wist .)eren)ye \te prophetc lul wcl JK/t niencd ' hyni |ius \" seide, 



' An ei-asiirc, fxtendin'.' fi-nm to shintwist- (Idwii ti> tlii' l<.'rt across 
tlir<>c lines. 

- p. m) h. 

■' In the mai<;in: Dailid 

■* In the niai-gin: Jo ii 

' iiiewp: llie thinl leUcr appariMitly it. 



OCulus' iiieus depredatus est aHiwam nieaw, 
^ Weyleway he se\^ myne ei^en ban robbed my soule . whau 
goddes pcophete made swich a mone of hise ei;en : what werestou 
|)an uiay a synful man make for his o[\irr a womman . whan 
goddes prophete \mt was halewed in his Moders wombe and mvith 5 
uou^th syuue dedHch . f)e wise mau aske{) in his book }\i [lat auy 
ping harme|) fie mau o\[)er pe wowjmau more |)au her ei^eu, 

OCulo^ quid uequiw.v totam faciem lacrimare facit 
qMam vidit . 51 Alle \)e leer schal flowe |)e teres for \)e 
e\}e si}ih . uow we haue spokeu of |ie ei^eu . speke we now of jie lO 
ojier wyttes, 

SPellvng i*e smecchyng beu iu [le mou|ie bol>e . as siUh iii |ie 
ei^eu . Ac we schullen leteu of Smecchyng Aud speken of 
Speliyng iV: herynge . Spekyuge iV: herynp; comeu bojie iu mene 
to gidres . Aud Ijerfore bolie man & womma» avise liem wili whom 15 
{)at hij speken of f]l[je or of werldelich [linges . for |iise [linges ne 
falleu uou^th to swich meu to spekeu of ue lieren, And [lerfore 
whau hij schuli spekeu wip mau oi|)er wi|i wo//iniau . makeli vpou 
lOu |)e tokue of [le hol}' croice . aud speke|) wili lien) iu goddes 
drede, Aud }\i hij schulleu spekeu to preest hij oweu to saieu 20 
her . Couf iteor ■' . aud after Benedicite dojKJUws, Aud [jau 
here|) woordes [)at be[) uedeful to heren . it ausuere[) hym schorte- 
lich \)ere nede is . aud in sobre woordes aud faire . so pat whan 
36 go() away [jat he ne cuwue by 30U goode ne qued, ue preyse 
30U uc lak 30U . bot eueue bitwene two . 0\\>er while mauy meu & 25 
wymmeH whan meu speken to hem to techeu iiem : hij willen 
liaue a^ein o woord two oi[ie/' [)re . Aud bicomen his siaister [)at 
is comCH forto techeu hem . \- woldeu by her tale beu yholden 
wyse . Aud na[)eles her woordes willen * techeu what hij ben . Aud 
|)orou3 [)at hij wenen to be wise yholdeu . men vnderstonden [lat m) 
hij beu soltes . ]"or hij bunteu after prys . \ hij caccben folye . 
for whau hij gou from hem . hij wille|i saieu [lis man oijirr [lis 
womuiau is of mychel speche . Eue belde louge tale wi[) [le ueddre 



') In tlic inarj;in: Jereuiia.s' . 

') In the iuargin: UUJ»S sapie«s 

") Confiteor: Confite oii erasiire. 

') p. 381 a; woordes mllen partly uffHCL'<l. 



2X .Incl I':Milsson 

iii |iarii(lys ;uul tolde hym al |ie lessou liat gtxl ' liaild rorliodeu 
liein furlo eteu oi' [^e Appel . Aud ' so Jie ueddre vnderstoode 
l)0rou3 her woordes onou riith her feblesse . and her brotylnesse 
of fallynge . And foude way porous her mychel speclie hou he 
6 schulde brynge bire to forlerues.se, 

OUr?! lefdy seiut Mary ne dnde uou^tb so . ac sche dudc al 
o\)er wise . ue telde sche l)e auugel uo tale . Ac asked bym 
scbortlicb l)iug l^at he ne coul)e . Aud l^^^rfore vche mau & wow- 
mau folowe oure lefdy and uouitb pe k^el dame Eue . Forlii 

10 wi]) whom pat iee speke holdel) 30U euere stille . bot sif iee knowe 
heni jie better \ia.t 30 scbuUe speken to . And ue bel) uou^tb of 
beuue kyude . For l)e henne wban scbe hali leide an eye sche 
kakek']) it out . & lian come]) {ye keme and berel) avvay ber eiren . 
|iat sche scbulde brynge forli (juyk briddes of ^if liat sche lielde 

15 bire stille . Ri^tb also fro l)e kakelaude mau oil^e?- wo»nnan liat 
kakelel) ydel speche l)e deuel bereli away hrim bem alle her goode 
werkes . [^at scbulden iif bij heldeu bem stille . liereu hem vp to 
heueue ward . pe wrech Pedder make]) more uoise aud cry of bis 
sope . pau a riche Merceer of al his derworlie ware . And nal^eles 

20 to gostlicb men spekel) and askel) bem conseil . aud telle|i bem 
tales of 3oure spouse . And bij to 30U . bot kakeleli uou^tb of uon 
ol^er piug . for ^if ^ee do ^ee breke sileuce . For it ne fallel) uou^tb 
to goddes spouse nol)ing to speke bot of her lemma» Jesu. crist . 
aud l)iug l^at fallel) to his worsebipp . Aud whau ^ee scbulleu 

25 schryue 30U looke l)at it be to gostlicb meu aud to uoue olier . and 
uamelicb wymmeu . And biddel) bem jnwardelich for goddes loue 
|)at bij baue 30U in mynde in her byddynges . for lie godspel seili, 

SEt u)ulti veuiuwt ad vos in vestimewtis Ouiu/H 
intriusecus aute)/( suni lupi rapaces, 51 Oure lorde 
30 seil) . witel) 30U & bel) war . for mauy comel) to 30U iu white 
clol^es as scheep . & belj vudernel)eu rauissbande wolnes . Aud 
.silicn [lat god bym seluen warueli vs l)cre of ! we oweu l^e better 
to be war of hem aud kepe vs fram bem . Werldelicb men leuel) 
•' lytel . & religiouse wel lesse . Ne wilne[) nou^tb to speke wil) bem to 
35 Michel . And whan 36 speke wil) auy suich be|i in drede lest 36 
schutt agylt ^oure spouse . Eue wi[) outen drede spake wi[) [le 

' MS.: godd with tlie secoiid d expuncted; in the foUowing Hne the 
word staiiding below godd is And, the d of which, evidently by a mistake of 
tlie corrector, hiis also been dotted out. 



Recliise 29 

iieddio . ' Aiul ouie lefily was a dradde to sjjeke wi|i Gabriel |ie 
Auiigel . Mau oi|)f/- wowiuau |)at wil be goddes spouse . j rede he 
ue speke iiou^th in pryuete bot ^if ho haue wituesse noi[)^ [tat 
on ne {)at o\)ere . for \)ere may neuwe conie goode of ou noi|)«" 
p«»tye forto be longe in talyuge aud ofteu . Als wel jren owen ; 
to flei^en it for gosthch foudynges and bodihch bol^e as for 
sclauudre . For pe trewe is ay mystrowed . and {je les is often i 
ieued And re trewe bilowen for defaut of witnesse . And ^e yuel 
ble{)eHch bileued . And {«'/fore schulde {)e goode haue euere wit- ^ 
nesse a^eins wicked oue>-troweyuge . And ^if it falle so {)at a man in 
oi{)e>- a woramau be enclosed out of \>e chirche {lirle ne holde hij 
no talynge wi{) noman ne no wo»«man bot oulich wi{) her spouse 
jesu crist . And bere{) perto reuerewce for {)e sacrement . ^ To 
hir seruau«t at {)e hous {)irle . to o\iere at \te parloures . speke iie 
owe 3e nou^th bot att {)e {)irles . Sileuce euere holde{) att {)e Mete . 15 
For si{)en opere Religious it holden . ^e owen to holdcn it {)e 
better . ^ii }e han dere Gestes do{)e ^oure seruauwt in stede of 
30U gladen hem . Aud forto vnsperre ^oure {)irle oues or twies 
and make{) signes toward hem of glad chere . for su/»tyme curt- 
eisie is yturned to yuel . jn - Onelich Mannes hous oiper wom- 20 
mans owe mychel to ben on vche friday holden silence bot ^if 
it be dubble fest . And {)au holde{) it su»h o{)er day in {)e weke . 
|)f)fore in Adueut aud ymbriuge dayes . Wedenysday and Friday 
and saterday . Ju pe Lenten . pre dayes iu {)e week holde{) silence . 
Aiid in al {)e suei^eng week . Aud on Ester Euen to ^oure se/-u- 2.5 
au«t 30 may speke wi{) loude woorde what 30 wille{) . And ^if 
any o frende 30U come[) . here{) his speche aud Ansuere{) hym 
wi{) loude woorde . And {)onke[) hym mychel . A foole he were 
[)at mi^th grynde whete and grinde{i ' grauel, whete is holy 
speche as seint Anselme sei[) . And he gryiide[) grauel [)at chaule{) ^o 
of ydel speche and werldelich {)ine two cheken beu [)e two gryndel 
stoues . {)e Tunge is [)e clappe . And [)erfore ^if 36 wil be 
goddes spouse . Looke [)at ^oure chekes ne gryjide nou^th bot 
soules hele And [)at iu alle ^oure fyue wyttes ne be nou^th 
yfounden bot soules foode, And [)au chese 30 [)e better part as god ;!.-, 
hym self sei{) \)&t pe Maudeleyn dude . Sche ne {)0U3th 011 kyn 

' p. 3Hl 1.. 

' jn (./ a corrcction in fHii)ter iiik for f) .idded nhove tlic line. 

■' ijrindrp: tlie livst lctter morc rcscinbliii!.' »•. 



;!() .T.,cl IViIilssdii 

lU' i>ii nDiu; fi-|ielicli goode bot onclicli ' on liyiu . And Murtlia 
lier sustcr was aboute cr|ielich tiinges . and iaf al hire besynesse 
forto serue pou«e men . And whan sche blamed Marie hire suster 
for sche sett hire douue att jesu cristes feete to heren hyin siieke 
.'■) and nolde helpe hire suster forto distten her alder mete . - And 
martha blamed liire . Je.vus crist Ansuered for ' hire and seide . 
martha . Martha |nis ^ \ud sche hal) chosen [lo better pat and it 
ne schulde nou^th be bynomen hire . Now ■' who so takeli hym to 
nny degre out of pe cowanuue Poeple forto scrue god and ne 

1(1 i1o|k' noufith as sche dude . [lat is . iiuej) no keep to erl^elich |iing 
bot onelich^ to haue*' al her blis and al her foode in hymi hym 
were better ben in |ie werld and done as Martha dude til ]iat god 
sent liem jie grace [lat hij mi^tten come to [lat o\)ore . And biseken 
fast ny^th and day iif |)at it were his swete wille to sende hem 

16 |iat grace [lat hij myittew come to li«t ilche degre forto quemen 
hym as |)e best manere were, And |)an hij schullew haue grace 
forto (lueme hym wel better j^au pat liij seden to hei^e degre by 
her owen wille^^.for pe deuel is ful queyat and puttep a man to 
hei^e degre of hei^e lyf . forto make hym \)e faster iu his seruise 

20 as ;e schult heren here after . And pis semej) now in l)is werlde 
for non dar saye pe sope . And prriore ich rede |)at vche man 
liolde liym paied wij) his state what so it be tyl god wil sende 
hym bettre And |)an dot^e he wel . J . ne speke nou^th of |ie state 
of ])e synne . for out of J)at state . j . rede fat he hi^e hym als 

25 sone as god sendes hym g?'ace . Ac womman ne owe nou^tli to 
prechen bot ^if sche be t)e ouer holyer . for seint Poule forbedeli 
hem . bot raan ne forbedel) he uouith . Ac he seit) . How niay a 
man preche bot he be sent . 

iredicabunt nisi niittantur Et 

niitto vos sicut oues in medio 

lu"por?«w . ^ pat i.s liou may a inan preche bot he be sent of 

god . Ijoo sei|) oure lorde . J sende wu as a scheep amonge wolues . 

Aud vnderstonde ^ee wel . jiat \)cre nys non scnt of god ff^t is 



QIT o ra o d V e r o p i 
i t e r u ?H . e c c e e g o 



' oneliilr. a ilut iiinloi- llic r, iiossilily tci indicatc (>x|i\inrtion. 

^ II. 382 a. 

■' fiir a<lilcil aliovc llic liiic. 

■* /tua: a (iot, piolmbly accidental, iinder tli(> first stioke of tlio h. 

'' On »• in now, h in ouelich, tiie first l in irille traces of erasnre. 

" Altci- liniic: h cx|uinct(.'d. 



Kecluse 31 

proiide oi\>rr coueitouse oi|ier leccherouse ' . oilier losenioure . 
oi|)e>' fast holdaude her goodes . For hij ben Antecristes p>oplietes . 
And ypocrites . And Heretikes . Ne ben lier wordes neuer so goode . 
Hij schulle/; take no stede . For hij ne lyue nou^th after lier - 
speche Antecrist schal speke faire woordes aud make ^ hym poppe 5 
hfU^- and l^i«wi|i he schal disceyue \)e folk, 

QUare* enarras iusticias meas & assumis testa- 
mentuw meum per os tuu»! . ^ J)at is whi tellestou 
my ri^thwisenesse . and takes my testament iu jii raou|)e . l)0u j^at 
folowes 1)6 compaign}'e of Hoores aud l^eues . Jiei; suich myster in 
meu spekeu goddes woord I men taken ensaumple ^ att her lybb- 
ynge . aud nou^th att ber woord And here l^e proue pere of . pe 
grete olerkes and [le Maisters l^at dudeu je.*u on Roode . Hij weren 
swich mysters meu . And l^erfore l^e folk tooken ensample att her 
werkes . & nou^th att her wordes . For hij p>echedeu " goddes i.'. 
woord wel to lie poeple . Ac hij ne lyueden uou^t \iere after . 
And |)erfore lie folk took eusample att her Hbbynge and nou^th 
att her prechynge . And ])e;fore liij ^edeu to helle wili hem . and 
;utt doue aud scliullen tyl god haue seut his grace vn to hem . 
for it sei]) att hem bigan pe feil) . And att hem it schal eude . i^ 20 
jesus crist badd his decipies done as hij seiden bot nou^th as 
hij doue 

MUlieres" non perniitteudo docere.^fNo womman 
nc preche bot sche be lie holyer holdeu ne teche 3^6 ne 
schuUe nol)iug swere bot nay . & ^e . sikerlich as god biddeli ^^ 1*6 25 
godspel . 36 . 36 . & nay . nay . pat is to saie . nay wi]) |)iue hert . 
& nay wil) l)i moul) . And also . 36 . 36 . Nal^eles techen 36 may . bot 
ri^th siker is it nou^th . Onelich man & womman ne owen to chas- 
tise uon bot lier owen seruaunt^ For oft liorou^ swich chastisynge 
arisel) wrajilie oitier fals loue . bitweue man and womman, md 

AD * suwmuw vos volo esse rari 1 i uq »/«s . j tem pau- 
ciloquas . ^ Jie wise sei|i jchill |iat 36 speke seeld and 

' lecchetousc : trnces of crasiiro 011 le. 

' her iiiidcd nbovc the line. 

' .\t the end of this line in MS. a cros.s iielwcen thc cohinins. 

' In the inar<;in: ;auid witli ernsiirc ninlcr «ii. 

■' e>i.iaumple : ji over an erascd I. 

■'■ |). .3H2 b. 

• In Ihc mar<;in: P a U I « .< , 

" In the mnririn: 8enec«; 



:!•-> .Ilicl PAhlHSOIl 

litL'1 . For miiny |iulteu her woonle.s forji att viuuyitli . Aiul so (liulfii 
jobes frendes |)at seeten stille a seuene ny^th by liym er hij l)igu« 
nen to speken . ac |)0 hij liadden ygonne . hij coul^en nou.^th ly«ne, 

CEnsura' silencium nutritura est verbi.^I MiJence 
is Foster Moder and bryngeli for]) chauel * . \)(d is gode ^ 
spoche ' and mou^th * worj) , and on oper luaner iie sei|i, 

IUge'' silenciu?» cogit celestia meditari . ^I pat is . 
loMge l)0U3ttes aud will yholden bryngen pe tiou^ttes toward 
heuene . As ^ee seej) b\' ensaumple . Att water milnes Bien stoppen 
III [le water and it arise|) vpward So schuidew \)e woordes been seel- 
den and wel bisett . And |)erfore stoppe)) ^oure [^ouitli from |)ing 
as 36 wille]) jiat hij clymben vp toward lieuene and nou^tli fiei^ew al 
to |ie werlde . For men saien . mo men slen wi|) woorde |)an wiji knyf . 

MOrs' \ vita in manibj«5 lingue . pat is lyf and 
ilcji is in |)e Tunge sei^) Salomon pe wise, 
Qr i ^ c u s t o d i t o s s u u ??! c u s t o d i t a w i )y/ a m s u a m . 
Wlio |)at witeli wel his mou|) . wite]) ^ wel his soule, 
S.ItMit'" vrbs patet & absqMe MurorwjK ambitu' sic 
\- c ff y)at is as l)e citee l)at is \x\\) outen wal may sone be 
•jii nomeu . ri^th so it iarep of Maunes citee and wowmaHues l^at ben 
her bodj^es liit '^ may sone be ouercomeu bot ^if lie keepe liis mouli . 
U i M u r u ;/; s i 1 e u c i j n o « habet p a t e t i u i m i c i o c u 1 i s 
Ciuitas Mentis. 51 P^t is wlio so holdel) uou^tli his 
woordes . he is as a burgh^ wif) outen wal . Aud l)e fende wi|i 
his felawschipp eutrel) '- iu atte ^ate vn to f^e hert and robbe|) 
hym of alle his goode werkes: .Tn^-' vitas Patrum . it telle|) '* 



Q' 



' In the inargin: Gr egorius, 

- cliauel: the foni-th letter i^esemble.s n. 

" goile: on erasnre ; soniewhat indistinot. 

* spcche: erasnrc above and below; l)etween Kpcrhi- anil niiil n wonl 
con.sistinfr of tliree or fonr letter.s erased. 

^ mon}th: tlie lirst stroke of thc m fiiinlcr tlian tlic nthrrs, 

" In tlie niariiin: GregorillS, 

'' In the margin: Sillamow 

" In the margin: Gvegor ins , 

" icitep: i alniost effaocil. 

'" In the niargin: G r e gO r /?( .'•■, 

" hit by correction; (7 in a ilitfercnt hanil inobalily on erasnrc. 

'" enfrep: n ahno.st obliteratcd. 

'■' Jn on erasnrc. 

'* p. 38.3 11. 



Recliise 33 

of an holy inan jiat luen comen to and praiseden * wel a man 
l)at lyued holy lyf vu to hym . Ac he was of mychel speche . 

Boni vtiqwe set habitacio eoTitm non hnbet ianuaw 
intrrtt & asinum soluit. 51 3® goode hij ben ac her 
moujie ue lia]) no ^ate . for who so wil may go jn and lede for[i 5 
l)e asse . l)at is l^e vnwise souie, 

SJ<|uis cupiens se religiosujw esse k now refrenaws 
linguawi suam se^ seducens cor suuw(.vana est 
religio . 51 pat is ^if any weue pat he be religious and ne bridlel) 
nou^th his tunge fram ydel speche his religlouw is fais . Bridel u> 
ue syttet) nou^th one in l^e siouj) . ac it gej) al aboute \\e eren . 
Aud so it mote fare by raan . He moste bridel alle his fyue wyttes 
for alle hij ben in l^e heued . Ac of l)e tunge is mychel doute for 
it slydre]) al in wete . For oft we Jjenchen to speke bot litel, And 
after on woord glytt forl> ano|ie>- li^thlich And so we ben brou^th 15 
ior\> in to ydel speche er euere wite we. 

IN* multiloquio now deerit peccatum, 51 Ne may 
uou^th mychel speche be wil» outew synne . For fram sol^e it 
glytt iu to fals . & out of Mesure in to vnmesure . Men seel) ofteu 
of dropes wexen * a mychel floode and drenchen l^e londe Jiere Jie 20 
goode corne is sowen . so it fare}) here on |)is manere . Often l^orou; 
mychel speche is l)e soule adreynt and lese^ her fruytt . pat ben 
her goode werkes . so l^at longe it is er it may comen a^ein in 
to 1)6 state l)at it * was aforne, 

ET o s n s / r H m t a n t o e s t a b e o I o n g i n q u w; qudntum 2-5 
i n i n i c () p r o x i m u n» . t a n t u »i q m c m i n m .v e x a u d i t m r 
i n p r e c e q m a n t w »i a m p 1 i u s i n q u i n a t « r i n I o q u c i o n e . 
51 Seint * Gregori in his Dialouge * seil) Jiis . As nere as ourc 
moul^es ben to werldelich fil|)e and to pinges l^at beu werldelich . 
as fer it is fram god whan we speke to hym . For we casten 30 
hym away . Ne wil he nou^th heren oure steuen . for oure mouI) 
stynkel) vpon hym fouler lian any roten dogge. 



' After praiieden: a expuncted. 

* In the margin: Salamow, 
' tcexen: n alraost effacetl. 

* it: on t traces of erasure. 

■' In the inargin: Gregort i/.* . 

* Dialougei the sixth letter apparently >i. 



34 Joel Pihlsaon 

SJ exteiideritis manus ve.v/ras auertaw oculos meos 
ii V o b i s . iV c u >« m u 1 1 i p 1 i c a u e ?• i t i s o r a r t o ri e s n o n 
exaudiaw vos . // ^ pat is liei; 30 holde vp soure liondes aiid 
nuilfe many folde ioure boones jchiH turue myne ei^en fram 30U 
6 ward . And j nylle 30U nou^th yheren ^ee [lat playen wi)! |)e werlde 
for 30ure hondes ben blody . By iiowdes in hol}' wrytt . is bitokned 
hor werites and by bloode ' is bitokned synue, 

INiquitatej»" si aspexi in corde meo no» exaudiet 
dominus . 51 pat is ^if .t loke to wickednesse [lat is cousente 

10 pe/to! god ne here]) me no^th Ac ^if we be in ^ neuere so grett 
synne : and we ■• biseche hym jiat he deliuer vs wi|) goode wille ; 
t)at he here[) and elles uou^th . Oure iefdy seint Jiarie we rede in 
holy wrytt . [)at sche ne spake bot foure sylies and jio were 
woordes of gret my^th, 

15 \ D^ Mariawj in sem])iterno verbo dei facti suraw.v 
X~\. vt ad vitam reuocemi/r.responde verbuw & sus- 
cipe verbuw.& profer verbum & concipe dominum*, 
^ VVhan sche ansuered |)e Auiigel Gabriel [)e woordes were so 
my^tty . whau [)«t sche seide Ecce ancilla dom^ni, [)at god- 

20 des sou of lieuene bicora ma» . And [)e lorde [)at alle [^at ben iu 
heuene & in erpe ne my^th nou^th ouercomen . sche ouercom wi|> 
\)at woord And biteut liym in her naidens wombe [)at al [)e 
werlde my^tli nou^th at holden . J)at oper woorde was of mychel 
my^tli also, 

26 T TOx eius .iohrt««em exultare fecit iu vtero matris 

V sue . 5T Whan sche com to Eii^abeth and spake to hir . [)e 

voice of hir made seint jolm to styren in his Moder wombe . J)e 

I, [)ridde woord was atte Bridale att Architryciyttes^^ hous whan sche 

^ seide . son hem faile[) wyne . And att [)at woord he turued water 

30 to wyne, pe fier[)e woord was [)an sche myssed hir sou aud after- 
vvard fonde hym in [)e Temple [lere lie desputed wi[) [le Maisters 
of pe law^e . and [)au god bou^ed hym to a Smythe and a woin- 
man . Looke now how seeld speche l)a|) mychel strenk[)e . 



' bloode: the second neaily cfliice<l. 

' In the margin : D a U i d 

' in added above the line. 

* p. 383 b. 

° In tlie ni.aisin: ber 

" dominum 011 erasure. 



Recluse 35 

VJr' lingosus no« dirigetw;- in terra . 51 Man ne 
wommau of fele woordes ne schullen neuere lede ri^th lyf . 
pat is to saye of ydel speeche and of werldelich, 

DJ X i * c u s t o d i a m v i a s m e a s ' . v t n o « d e 1 i n c ] « n m 
in lingua mea. ff pat is to saie . j schal keepe my 5 
wayes so {)at j schal gete my pes wip my tunge to comen to {)e 
blisse of heuene, 

CUstus* justicie silencium, 51 pe tylyng of ri^thwise- 
uesse is silence . and he [)at silej) brywgef) soule hele . 
IUsticia* inmorlalis est. 51 Ki.^thwi.senesse is vndede- 10 
Hch Salomon seip . hope and silence be[) to gedres and in l)em 
schal stonde gosthch streniil^e . For who so is mychel stille & 
lioide}) silence longe . he may speke sikerlich to god whan pat 
he biddet) hym any {ling and hope |)at he schal wel spede iif he 
bidde ri^thfuilich . and wiselich . for |)ise two ben coupled to gedres . 15 
Jn hem schal be al oure streMgfie a^ein pe fendes fondynges 
and his wyles . Hope is a swete spyce for it spyces pe herte in- 
wif) a^ein al pe bytter {^at |)e body drynkej) . Wbo so chewel) spyces 
he holdej) his mou|) to gedre pat pe strengj^e ne go nousth out . 
And 3if he ne do pe bret) got) out . Riith so he {)at openef) his 20 
mouj) wi{) mychel werldelich speche . spytte{) out hope . and lesej) 
\>e strenkpe l^at he schulde haue to god and strenkpel) ® hym to 
\>e fende ward . what makej) vs strong a^ein \)e fende bot hope 
of hei^e mede as men seij) . ^if hope ne were hert to brast . A 
swete jesu ])'me ore how stont " hem pat ben in al wo wi[)0uten 25 
hope and [^e hert ne may nouith brest . 

MOn** hafcetis liuguam vel aures prurientes &c, / 
51 fjat is ne haue ^ee noit^c/' tunge ne ere to werldelich 
speche . l^at is ydel tofore god . 

CO n t r a r i o r « »j e a d e m e s t d i s c i p 1 i n a , 51 Of silence aud 30 
of speche nys bot a lore for hij ben euer goande to giders '' 



' In the margin: psalm with the la.st stroke of the m cut away. 

' In the margin: psalm 

' meas- e almost effaced. 

' In the margin: ysay~ 

" In the margin: aolom' with the last etroke of the m cut away. 

" p. 384 a. 

■ atont: the last letter rendered imlistinct hy an elahorate cnrl. 

* In the margin: n i 



36 J(i('l Piililsson 

51 Speke we now of " yuel speche ])at is \)re folde j-del . & yuel . 
& attry . J)e first is yuel . [ie o|)0r is wers . |)e Ijridd alder werst . 
ydel sj^eche is al \mt no good corae]) of to goddes worsci)ipp 
and to note of niaunes soule ne to heip of heni sehien to god 
5 ward ne to her euen cristen, 

DE' oiuni verbo ocioso reddes racionew in die 
judicij 5T Of vche ydel woorde sei|) oure lorde 1)0U 
schalt ^eide reiienynge wlii it is yseide it for what l^ing . Xow 
si|ien |iat ",ee schuti ^elde relieuynge of vche ydel woord . liou 

10 wil it {)an be of [le werk |iat is attry speche and foule . nouith 
ouelich til hem jiat speken it Ac to hein {jat lieren it . Aud 
also of Leccherie and Glotonye . and o\ter i\\\)e, Swich . speches 
beu alle schraped out of goode uiaHues mouj) and wommaus . 
Hou au^tt it jian to ben to sieu and wywimen jir/t ^iue»! 

16 hew; to ordre . Forso|ie mycl)el auitte»? hij to sperren her fyue 
wyttes jierfro . Attry speche is heresye foul . {jwertouer & les- 
yuges . bakbitynges . and Losengerye . Alle Jjise beu wicked he- 
resyes . [)is ne regne[) nou^th in Eugelonde . ^ pe losengece 
ablyndej) {)e nan . and puttef) |)e Pryk in liis eise . J)e bakbiter 

20 chewej) mawnes flescli opon fryday . and pykej) wi|) his blak byl 
vpon Jje quyk Caroynes as J)e deuel of helle hym biddej) . Wolde 
he 3utt gon to ded flesch it were J)e lesse tale peroi . J)at is wolde 
he speken of hem l^at roteu in synne : J)e lesse harme it were . 
Ac he dojje to hem Jiat aren (|uyk in goddes si^^^uise . He is to 

25 bolde a Raue« \- to ^yuer, 

NI'] V i d e a t u r ^ h e c m o r t a 1 i t a s m i n u s d i c e n s i n 
Esdra q^od Melchias edificauit portam ster- 
coris . No??!e« . chorus dnniino in corjiore filius Reab . 
ifl e .y / . m o 1 1 i s p « / r i s nam* v e n t i s a q u i 1 o d i s c i p a t 
30 ]) I u u i a s a d f a c i e n s t r i s t i s I i n g u a m d e t r a h e n t e m * , 
^ J)ise two mysters Men beu J)e deuels gouge fermers and fermen 
his gonge schame it is to seieu . ac jutt it is fouler 1o done it . 
For so he dol^e als oft as he wi|i lesynge hyle]i mannes synne |)at 



1 e 

In tlic maigin: , ; the first letter uncertain. 
ei , 

^ In the nia)-gin, a hand pointing. 

' videatur: a hy corjection. 

■* MS. : ))rls nii 

' (letraheniem : h pip.^sihly a correction. 



Rerluse 37 

stynket) foule vpon god . pus hij ben euere besy in her foul 
inyster . Her l)y men niay knowen j^e synne of hem by fiat god 
sei|i in {ie godspel . Losengerye is \>re fold . [)e tirst is yuel . |)e 
oper is wers ' and |)e {iridd alderwerst . 

VE - i 1 1 i s q u i p o n u h t p u 1 m i 1 1 o s ^ fcc . V o. i 1 1 i s (| u i 5 
dieunt bonutn malu»n.& malum bonum poaentes 
luce»! thenebras.& tenebras lucewi.hoc.de.detrrtc- 
toribMs & adulatoribM* conuenit . 51 pe first is . ^if maii 
is goode p/«j'se hyw» bifore hym & inake hym better Jian he is . 
And 3if he do[)e wel oi]^er sei|) . heuet) hyra vp wi|) praysyuge lO 
biforne hym . pis man god acursefi, J)at ojier is . ^if [lat a man 
do{)e yuel or se\\) yuel \>en it be so open synne J)at he ue may 
it no^th wi{) sigge . And [)an bifore hym make[) his yuel lesse [lan 
it is . and sei|) [lat it nys nou^th so yuel as aieu sei[) of ue artou 
nou^th in [)is [le first . ne pou oe schalt nou;th be [je last . And 15 
conforte[) hym in [)is syune so [)at he holde|) |)e lesse tale ^ere 
of . And sei[) to hym also |)0u haste niany fereu . lete god ywor[)e 
ne gostow nou^th al oue mauy nian do|)e mychel wers [)an [)ou 
haste ydone . Jie [)ridde is alderwerst [)at forp*rt)-se|) [le aiisdede . 
as he \)at sei|) to a aian [)at robbe|) his pouer men . oi[ier do[)e 20 
harme to o\>er and holde[) wi|) hym & sei[) . Sir [)ou dooste wel . 
Alle her chateux ben [)ine aud her bodyes att [)ine owen wille . 
jt fare[) by [je Cherle as by [)e wy[)ye . [)e more meu croppea it . 
[)e more it wexep And [)us it is by al [)ing [)at meu holde[) wi[) 
A no[)er in his yuel [)at he do|)e . 25 

ADulancium* lingue alligant homiwem in pec- 
catis . 51 Jjus pe fykelers hilen \ie stynk [^at it ne may 
nou^th styuken . and [)at is |)e werst [)ing [)at is . For ^if [)at hij 
wisten hou \)&t it stank : hem wolde wlaten wi|) al . and amenden 
hem [)an suwjtyme \>ere of . 30 

CLemeus* homicidior«m duo gene^a dicit esse 
PetrMs . & eor?<»i pare»» esse peuam voluit qui 
corporaliter occidit. \- qui detrahit iratri . & qui 
videt &c . 5T Bakbiters ben two Maufre . [)e first is yuel . [)c 



• p. 384 b. 

' In the margin : j e ,v u s 

' pulmHlos: under the second / a dot, probably accidental. 

' In tlie inargin: Augiistinus . 

■'■ In the margin : Petr«5 



38 .Tod Pablsson 

latter is wers . |)e lirst coine|i ul openlich iunl .speiieli yuel aiid 
sei|) out his atternysse als myciiel as he can and niay . And J)e 
latter comel) forj) on o\ier mautTe and bigyuuel) forto syijeu er 
lii j it willel) bigynnen and maliel) a longe proloug ' tofore al 
5 aboute er it come forj) p&i yuel ])at hij ])enchen forto spelceu . 
Aud liij malien niauy ensamples forto ben yleued ])e better . Aud 
\vhaj( it schal comen for]) ])an it is yuel attyr so weylaway . He 
seij) wo is me ])at lie lia]) suich woord . Jch was many tyme aboute 
forto haue stiiled it . iif ich hadde misth . Ac uow it is so fer 

10 for]) gou . ])at j ne may nouith and ])at me sore rewe]) . And longe 
it is agon ])at icl) it wist first Ac euere ich haue stilled it vn to 
now, Ac l"or me scl)ulde it nouith haue comen for])er . Ac uow it 
is so ferforj) brousth ])at j ue may it - nou^th wi])sal<en . And 
])e»"fore n)e is ful wo . yuel meu sei]) Jjat it is . and lUtt it is wel 

li') wers . wel wo is me J^at ich it schal siggen . and so]) it is . aud 
]iat is myliel sorous . ])ise bef) ueddres . SaloiDOw speke]) to vche 
Man a)jd womman aud bidde]) hem kepe hem wel fram hem . and 
3iue hem to her lemma»i Jesu crist })at l)us faire speke]) to 30U 
aud clepe]) 30U his schewer 

20 '^Elatus^ sum syou ^elo magno, ^ Vnderstonde]) 
A^ whas spouse 30 beu ^if 36 kepe]) 30U ari^th to hym . Aud 
biholde]) hou louelich he speke]) to 30U Jch am Jelous of ])ee 
syou he sei]) . Syon ])at is schewer ou oure tunge . Loo ^utt it hym 
|)enche]) ])at he seij) nou^th ynou^ whan he seij) . jch am jelous 

25 ouer 1)6 . bot ^if he seie J)frto wij) niychel jeiosie.^elo magno . 

EGo* sum deus ^elotes . 5T Jt'li ^"1 l'e Jelous god l^at 
am jelous ouer my lemman, 

AUris^ 3elo audit omwia.vbi araor ibi oculus, / 
^ Salomow sei|) . J^e jelous ere herej) al J)ing J)ere^ as is loue^ . 
30 J)ere is liis ei^e " . Wyte ^ee wel ^ee J)at beu his lemmans . his 
ei^e is euere to 30U ward aud biholdej) ^if ^e ^iue any louelates 
to auy J)i»«g bot to bym . ^elatus est syou . He is is jelous of 
J)e Syou . pat is his schewer . And he seij) to pe . ^iue me Jii loue- 
lates . 36 . to me and to nou ojier . 

' proloug: the sixth letter resembles n. 

- p. 385 a. 

" In the niargin: 3 ^l'^ ^ !''<'' *> 

* In the niargin: ExodM.? . 

^ In the margin: Salamow, 

" (.)n r in Jierc, ! in loue, ei} iu ei--,e traces of erasure. 



Recliise 39 

OSteude' miehi faciewi tuawi, ^I l>fit is to saie schewe 
itie l)i loue uebb . and seche nie uou^th outward . Ac seche 
me in [line hert ^if Jiou be trewe to me as spouse owe to ben . 
Ne |ienche|) no M-o«der [ian . liei; hij ben mycliel out of [le werlde . 
\vi|) hert . Jch am schame fast he sei[) . .t nylle nowhare clyppen my 5 
lemnia« bot - in deerue stede . and [lat wyte vche ^ man tosofie . pe , 
more [lat ^oure {louittes ben to er|)('lich * jiinges . ]te lesse is jie loue of I 
50ure lemman inward werldelich jiinges . j . clepe l^at synne fallej) to, 

QUi exteriori oculo uegligeutfe*- vtit/o- . insto dei 
judicio inleriori cecatMr . 5T Who so* ^emeleslich witeli 10 
J»e vtter ei^en; jjorouj goddes riithwise dome he ablyMdel) pe jnner 
|)at he ne may see god gostlich . ne louen hym . For after {lat 
men louen hym |3e?e after men felen his suetnesse . more o\\>e)- 
lesse . Als sone as a sian oijier a womman herej) any speche [lat 
drawej) a sian o\\)er a wowmau fram her spouse . also smertly 16 
do|)e 30U f)ennes wi{) jiis vers, 

DEclinate* a me Malignil & scrutabor maudata dei 
mei, 51 Groo away fro me l)0u wicked mau . & j schal re- 
herce [le comaundement^ of my god, 

NArrant' michi fabula cionesl set uou vt lex tua, 20 
^ Ilij tolden me fables . bot nou^th |)i lawse " . pan go{) to 
50ure spouse wi{) . Miserere raei deus, oilier wil» ioure . Pater 
u o s t e r . 5if ^e ne cuwne it nou^th . For {)at is |)e best |)at ie may 
pan done . for [)orou5 * ansueres a^ein \>ere au^tt arise suw sparkel . 
and |)is worde is goode to w-ywmen {lan hij ben in swich cas . 25 
And per auenture he wil saie . j nolde for no good {lenchen yuel 
to \>ee ward . Ac \\eh ich schulde dye leuen ich mote non is wers 
{)an me . for^iue me p\s and j nyl nomore . So may falle sche 
forieue it li^thlich for his faire speche . and speke{) for{) wi{) hym . 
Ac euer is his {^ou^th in his last speche Aud {lau whau he is ao 

' In the margiii: Jn cantici.v, 
' bot: on b trares of erasure. 

* vehe: traces of erasure on v. 

* erpelich: the curl ovcr f), remlered as e, possibly only the upper 
part of an unlinished l. 

■■^ so\ the letters written tofietlier, separated liy a slight crasure. 

" In the margin: dauid 

' In the margin: dauid 

" law-,e : squeezed together at the end of the line. 

* p. 385 b. 



10 Juel l'alilss(in 

f^oii away swich |)0U3ttes wil lasteii iu her hert aud wexe|) uiore 
k more Aud euere 1)6 leuge?- 1)8 wers it is . Aud so it fareli of 
man by wowmau whau sche speke]) faire & caste]) euchesouu . 
and sei|) sche ne dar uou^tli . By her tale sche wolde }ii sche 
.'-, durst and draweli hyui to liire ward wi|) loose woordes . and l)at 
drawe]) a mau ou liirc . Aud )irrfoi'e seie schorthch naye atte 
first and quyte 30U of heui . And .1 rede for auy faire speche liat 
vche man and womman be war and looke how dere ^oure souie 
was bousth . and sette pere on prys . Aud bot ^if l)at se mowe 
10 haue more licrfore pan he pat bou^th it ^af lierfore! ne selle it 
uouith so iiithhch to his enemy . for a lytel lykyng aud ^iuol) 
keep hou ^oure spouse clepel) 30U, 

EN^ dilectus meus loqwitur michi, surge propera 
amica mea . ^ Looke ich here my spouse clepe]) me . ich 
1.5 mote gon . ^e . gol) swi^je to ^oure dere spouse, 

SU r g e * p »■ p e r a A m i c a m e a . c o 1 u m b a m e a . f o r ui o s a 
mea.osteude michi faciem tuam . sonet vox tua 
in auribws meis . ^ fome to me my lemmau . my culuer . 
my schene speuse ' . schewe * me lii loue nel)b and l)i leuesom 
20 leere . turne ])e to me 1)0U Ijat wilues speke wi]) non bot wili me . 
fji steucM is me swete and \n l^ou^th schene, 

VNde^ & subditur vox tua dulcis &C.5T Speke to liym 
aud haue hym to le»iman pat is l)ousande sil^es fairer l^an 
1)0 suHne . pus louelich ^oure lemman jesus crist speke]) to 30U . / 
2.5 ^y Ac herkne]) now ano{)cr speche al awayward fr«m pis and 
al ^ o grym to hem ' l)at schulden ben his lemmans, 

SJ* ignoras te o pulchra inter Mulieres egredere^it 
vade post vestigia greguwi tuorMm . & pasce edos'" 
tuos inxta thabernacula pastorwm . / 51 3^^ 1?^^ knowest 



' In the margin: Jncan; 

' In the margin: jncan^ with slight tracea of erasure below. 

° sjieuse: the fourth letter looks more like n. 

* schetre: on h traces of erasure. 

^ In the iiiarnin: jucantj ; faint traces of an erased Je c:m be 
distinguished below. 

" al: a corrected from o. 
' hem: em on erasure(?). 

* In the margin : J n C a n t ; ti-aces of an erased J below. 
° egreilere: de partly effaced. 

'" erlos: e almost effaced. 



Kecluse 41 

nou^tli l)i seluen [iou faire wywmaii oilie;- Luaii amowg o\y')e . and 
noste nouitb wlias spouse |)0U art and schuldest ben . |)ou J)at 
art here among w^vmmen and fiou were amonge Aungels |)an |)0U 
mi^tb knowe Jii seluen . as J^ei^ be seide . J)ere scbulde [li fairnesse 
btel be seeue . And ^if |)0U art me trewe as .spouse ou; ' to bene . 5 
3if J)ou ha.ste it for^eteniaud litel letest pere ot . Egredere . he 
seij) _Q__£ryiiL^goo out be sei|i & folowe lierde of gett . {^at ben 
flesch lustes [lat stynken as gett doue - . and vndo . ' \ti tyches 
J)at ben l)i fyue wittes |)at beu suete to god ^if hij ben wel kepte . 
As Ticbes ben swete flesche tyl hij ben souge . and as of a Tyche lO 
comel) a syi/kande gott . so dooj) of a Lust a stynkande l\'ky«g 
to god . Feede he sei|) {)ine ei^en wi{) oute totynge . [)ine ereu wi{) 
oute heryuge . pi mou{) wift oute spekyuge {lat is to seie of fil{)e . 
{)ine hondes wip outew hondeiynge . pi uose wi{) outew smellyuge, 
And also alle \>\ wittes fram fll{)e of S3'une and all {)iue lymes . 15 
For ri^tb as {)ou seest of a 3onge tycbe come{) a Stynkande gott . 
so of au ei^e si^th come{) a stynkande likyng . oi{)«- of an herynge . 
& 3Utt more of felynge . whej^er euer any mau oi{)er womman 
hadd any swich fondyuges for auy suicb tokenyuges {)at ^af hem 
to swich tollynge and peckande outward as a wanton Brydde in 20 \\ 
a Cage {)at {)e Catt com and lau^t bym in ber cloches whe{)er it * > 
ferde euere {)us of anj- onelich man oi|)er womman {tat pecked 
so outward {lat {le catt of helle {lat is pe deuel of helle cora and 
reut out her soules . out of her bodyes and bare it vn to heUe '. 
3is god it wott ha{) it and {lat is barme [^e more . 3utt he sei{) . 25 
Egredere, Goo out be sei{) as dude jacobes douitter . pat is to 
saie leue my coufort and take {)e werldes confort . for j warne {le 
{)ou ne schalt nou^th haue bo{)e my confort & {le werldes . fjou 
\>&t schuldest be my spouse schal tow * folowe ^eett of helle {jat 
ben fleschlich lustes, 30 

Osculet«r^ osculo oris . ^ ()at is cusse me lemman 
wi{) cusse of * {li mou{) MOu{ie alder swettest . |)is cusse my 
leue bre{)eren and sustren is a swetnesse of hert and a delytt 

' MS. : ouytt with tt expnncted. 
' done: on d traces of erasure. 
' p. 38<> a. 

* schal toic on flifferent lines. 

5 T »v. • cob,.,, 

In trie inarsin: . (.'1 
IS 

* fusse of added above the line. 



42 .Tofl IVlhlssun 

of vmnete swete |iat al werldolicli saiiour is bitter |iere aieins . 
\v. wi|i |)is cusse ne cusse[i he uon liat loueu any |)ing bot hym 
oi[)e/' elles * [^at hij louen it for liym . nnd in hyni, For Salamou 
seil).3'f l'e wardeyus wenden out . jiaii is jio hous yuel yioi<ed . 
5 Oure fyue wittes ben oure wardeynes of oure lious liat is oure 
body . Now 56 han herde of speilyng pat fallel) to l^e niou|)e . & 
now we wil s[)e]ien of sinoliyHge, 

DIO - odoril)/Y.v 110)? sago niinis cum assu»t non 
respuo.cu/H absiut non reliiKjUO, 51 Of sniel ^ seil) 
10 seiut Austyn ne fyude j . bot litel iif it l)e ueis ou goddes halue 
& iif it be fer me ue recche . 

EKit* pro suaui odore fetor, 51 Oure lorde seil) A^ein 
swete smelles liij schullen liaue stenches . aud of l)is l^ing 
beti war . J)e deuel wil make?i a J^iug to styuli for men schulden 

15 nou^tli noten it '' And he wil also niake swete smelles ® aboute 
liyin l)i";e he duellel) . for meu schulde wenen and vnderstonden 
luxt it cora fro god And l^at he loued hem so wel and pat hij 
weren lioly, so liat iiij my^ttew haue a lykj^wg ' \iere jnue of 
pryde . Ac Aile swicli Tretevales of liy);; ben brou^th to nou^th 

20 l)orou3 haly water . and wi]! kuelynge . and Crouchynge Aicn 
stenche 1 l^enche on god hou he was done on l^e roode vpoK pe 
Mount of CaUiarie . and hefeled [le stenche pere of ded bodies 
l)at laien \)ere & stunken & roteden abouen erl^e and stunken vpou 
l)ym so foule & he\) nousth squaymous . And also he was pyned 

25 in liis siitli whan pe jewes blyndfeldew hym & butfeteden l)ym 
aboute jie Chekes and badden hym " rede who smott hy»t . And 
also whan he ho«g on ])e roode he was pyned in his sisth whan 
])e " wepe for hera l^at duden hym on lie roode and for vs wrecches 
jiat done hym on l^e roode al day . And l)e bloode and l^e water 

30 come)( bol^e to geder in his eiien aud he ujiith nouitli wipe« it 



' elles: over e a curl, evidently the upper part ot au unfini.'^hed l. 
' In the margin: ugustinus 
' smel possibly on erasure. 

* In the maigin : ... 
ici t: 

'■^ it: t a. correction, apparently for A. 

° smelles: m touched up. 

■" p. 38() b : li/ki/ng : tlie third letter very indistinct, possibly acon-ection iorb. 

" h;/m added above the line. 

" hi- partly etVaced. 



Recliiso 43 

oiit . And also of his Moders teres an<l ot' hise deciples |iat lie 
sei; were flowen from hyra . And also his frendes Jiat he dyed 
fore sei^en |)e lere ' of hym \>at he huu^tli so dere . And pat liis - 
dej) aud his * f>yne [lat lie sufEred stoode |ian in so htel stede . for 
\)ere biieeued uon in iiym bot his sioder aud be peef . For al jje 6 
pyne [jat he suffred ^utt was [jis \)e most pyne fiat he liadde for 
jiat pyned hym more j)an al {)e tourment l^at {)e jewes hyra du- 
den . And al j)is was to iiueu vs bri^th si^th of hym . Jjeuehe no 
Man ne uo wowman long {jat wil beu his spouse [^eis * hij ben 
mycbel al one & out of felawschipp of \)e werlde . For ^if hij lO 
louen hym al pe solas iu * {)is werlde is bitter to hem . pe jevves 
smiten h^-m & beten hym in [le mou|) and spatten " opon hym 
and he feled galle opon his tunge . J)au owe we wel to stoppen 
oure moul) fram i\\\)e . sif we [)eHchen wel here opou . And al \)\s 
he dude forto lerne vs f»at we schulde uou^th grucchen for mete 15 
ne for drynk . And sif a sian oi\>er a wo;«mau were bischett hij 
au^tten ra|)er dyen in pe pyne \)an ben to gredy and to maken 
men to saie J)at hij ben gredy . De|) me owe to flen as forfi as r 
men may wij) outen sclaunder . Ac er J)at he arered any sclauuder 
hij ou^tten to dye aiartir iu her ueseise . Nis it uou^th gret synue 20 
|)at meii saien Jiat hij beu gredy oi\)er dauugerous . ^if hij weren 
in t)e werlde hij mosten sumtyme ben apaied wij) lesse . Wharto 
schal a man gon in to stede of meseise forto sechen ej^se . for 
ich vnderstonde ^ere ben sumrae fiat wil secheu more lordeschipp 
and ladyschipp f)an hij myitten haue hadde pe;- auewture . ^if j)at 25 
hij hadden ben in \)e werlde . J rede vche man oiper woHnnan . 
5if any wil goo to swich degree of Religioun . Jjenche what hij 
|)enchen oi\\rr what hij schulden ))enche?t . for risthfullich her lyf 
.schulde be sorou; aud wo here on er{)e . & elles ' ben hij nou^th 
jhesus deciples bot ^if hij sechen as he dude . 3if bij sechen after 30 
eyse of body hij ben Antecristes p/oplietes . for her lyf is contrarie 
a^eiu jesMS cristes lyf . And \)erioTe wlio so wil ^iue hym to parfyt 

' lere: of the second letter, whieh inu^-t have been e or o, only faint 
traces left. 

' his: s ahnost effaced. 

' his: under h a curl, probably the beginning of another letter. 

* Jiei^: i inserted above the line; ahnost obliterated. 
' in: n partJy effaced. 

* spatlen : on « slighl traces of erasure. 
' p. 3»7 a. 



44 .Tocl Piihlsson 

lyf . lie inote take sorovi; A: wo in pacience . & biwepe iiis synnes 
and o|ier niewnes forto hane mede of lier lewnnan . and be wi)) 
liyin in pQ blisse of lieuene . Hym seiueM liad iiere al manere 
stormes . Vpbraydynges . Schemes . Teenes . and aile sorow^es |)at 
6 euer niy^th men lieren . 

ET* factus suw sicut liomo non audiejis! k non 
hafcens in ore suo redarguciones.^I Jcii lielde me 
stillft as doumbe & deef l)at had non ausuere . })an l^eis man vs 
mys<loo oiJ)er uiyssigge . pis is oure lemmans saw^e penche on 
10 me liou j was biseie for pi loue ^- take ensaumple atl me, 

PE fyfte wytt is mychel nede & gret drede forto witen wel . 
for it is in alle ^e o\)er J^at is vche lymes felynge . And 
periore oure lorde wolde be most p3'ued |)e;e jnne . For in J^is 
wytt lie ne liadde nouith pyne in o stede . ne iu two . ac in alle 

15 stedes . and iutt in his sely soule he was pyned \>re folde pnt 
smott hym to jie hert as a spere . His iioders pyne & sorouie . 
and 1)6 Maries . and iiis deciples l^at ne leueden hym nomore for 
he ne halpe nou^th hym seluen att pat gret nede . And of pe 
forleruysse of hem \)at duden hym to [le ded . l)is styked euere 

20 in his soule, 

I U a s i - i n q u i t m e m b r i s f I e r e s e v i d e t «< r . & c . ^ For 
so ful of sorou3 nas neuere man l^at he swatt bloode . Ac 
his' Anguiscli was so gret in his soule ar he com to l)e pyne 
l)at lie swete of bloode ran adoune of his blissed bod_y l^at it 

25 stoode vpon l)e erl^e as bloode dropes al abouteu hyra vpon l)e 
gras . l)ere he kneled . and so largelich he swatt l^at it ran adouw 
by hym as goutes and stremes of bloode for di-ede and sorou^ 
l)at he hadde a^ein pe dep . and l)at nas no wonder . for euere 
1)6 quycker flesche \)e strenger is pe pyne . A litel prickyng in I)e 

30 eiie derel) more JDan a gret wounde in j^e hele . Vche iia^nes 
tiescli and wommans was as nouith a^ein l)e tenderhede of his 
fiescli . for it was taken of a clene Maydens blode . and naydens 
fiesch is ^ tenderer l)an a nol^er wommaus . Ensaumple l)at liis 
fllesche was quyk! a Man ]ete\) hym bloode vpow pe hole half 

35 forto drawe a way pe sekenesse of pe seek half . Aud in al pe 
werlde nas yfounde an hole half on noman forto ben yleten 

' In the margin: dauid . 

- In the iDargin: Augustinus. 

" is bv correction. 



Q' 



Recliise 45 

bloode 011 for [le sekenesse |)at niaii lay jnne for his synne . bot 
jesus crist oure leche jiat iete hym bloo<le nou^th in ou stede . 
Ac ou fyue half . grete woujjdes and brode for oure fyue wyttes . 
|)at we haue misspeuded in fleschlieh likyuges . And werldelich 
desires wif) outew |ie woundes in |ie heued and \te rewful garses 5 
jjat he hadde . J^us \>e hole half drou; ' \ie sekenesse fmin vs 
and heled vs ^if we wil oure selue» \mt is to saye . ^if we wil 
folowe his waies and done after his techynge . And bot;, ^if we 
wil . we bileue still in oure sekenesse . And in al liiuge we mote 
louen hyn» and dreden hym . By bloode is bitokned synue in 10 
holy wrytt . Ac vnderstondej) here whan a nian is laten blode . 
he holde|) hym pryue in chaumbre . and iren bryngen hym bred 
and wyne oiprr ale to couforteu hym for his bloode letynge . 
And he l^at is lorde of alle lordes and kyng of alle kynges |)at is 
Jesus crist whan he was leten bloode . was he hudd in chawibrel 15 
naye it was vpon an hei^ huH in |)e hattest of 1)8 day . And what - 
3af men hym to mete oi[)er to drynk . noi|)«- wyne ne ale bot a 
lytel soure aysyl and stynkeande galle whan he seide me {)rustes . 
Where was euere ^men to any blode letynge so pouer pitaunce . 
who so grueche|) |)an for mete oi\^er drvnk . he offerej) [)an oure 20 
lorde |)is bitter drynk & li|)er . as \ie jewes duden . and he is \)C 
jewes make . And |)e ))rust pwt he hadde was for oure soules to 
brj'nge hem to his blis . And vnderstonde|) wel |)at vche soure 
hert and grucchynge is to hyw bitterer {)an \)e galle was . ne be 
we nousth J^e jewes make god it wott ich hadde leuer were he 25 
my bro|)er oi|)er mj' suster see hj-m honge gyltles . J^an one tyme 
kysse so as ich wolde mene Aud also vche onelich man & 
womman schulde vche day schrapeu her putt god it wott . pat 
putt was wel yordyned for hem . for it wil make hem harde honden, 

MEmorare^ nouissima & ineternuw no« peccabis 30 
&c, 51 Haue here de|) in mynde . and [)0u schalt neuer 
S3'nne, And many meu & w}'mmen hane gi'et gladnesse of her 
faire hondeH and fallen in to lykyng of pride . Nou nys |)ere 
nou^th bot ijeef) sme{)e and soft inwi|) . iV [)olemo<ly a^ein yuel . aiid 



' p. 387 b. 

' irhat: t on erasure. 

. I .1 . Sa 

In tlie luargin: 



tr, Joel Pfthlsson 

scliciiic, nnd teone . And |ian ben ^ee .le.^us cristes ' deciples . and 
elles nouith . |)is is now l^e ridd ' dale of ioure ' booke . Dauid speke|> 
of oneiich nien and wywinen Jmt bitter ben and waymody of iiert 

S.Imilis* factus sum Pellicano solitudinis &c 51 Jch 
am liclie '' lic Pellicane "^ |)at is a weymode bridde and •' s\e\) 
hcr liriiliies for tecne . and after smytel5 hire seluen to jie hert ' . 
it arerej) hem wi|) her bloode . pat is J)e weymode man oi|)er 
woOTman |)at take|) hem to sej-ue god j^at slen her briddes . Jjat 
ben her goode werkes l^oroui her grette hert . For alssone as hij 

10 sywnen dedlich : Alle her werkes * J)at ben goode dyen '•* . and t)e 
wykked^" quyken " . Doo |)an as |)e Pellicane '^ do{)e . be|) sory aud 
schryue|) 30U . ond |ian hij qwyken aiein, Riith as a man [^at is ^•'' 
blody is griselich bifore mannes sisthl riith so is man |)at is in 
synne to goddes si^th . And nomau ue may^* wel iugge bloode atte 

15 Bar])o?(is ar it l)e colde . nomore ne may a nan o\\>er a wowman 
iuggen hem selueu tyl l^at her bloode is hott in wraj^pe oi{)er 
in any o\)er synne als longe as hij bet) in Any likywg to \)e synne . 
Ac whan \)e hete is ypassed pan {jeHche on jesu cristes passiouw . 
And whatt sorou; & wo he hadd for Adams synue . for pat synne 

20 brousth hym to al {^at pyne {lat he suffred And charge piui his 
pyne . & looke l)an what {)0U arte . {lou nart bot ert^e aud no goode 
nast of \)\ selue» And ^if fou wilt t)us deme t)i seluen t)0u schait 
haue g?-ace of god forto wi{)stoude {)at ilche vice {)at {)0U baste 
ne be it uenere so strong . And {)0U wilt folowe \)ere opon wi|> 

25 biddynge jcrue . And oft t)enche on seint Petre 1)6 worde {jat he 



' cristes: the second .s appaiently on erasure. 

' Between ridd and dale erasure^?). 

' ■joure: re partly effaceil. 

* In the niargin: Dau with the last stroke of tl)e u cut away. 

■"^ liche : lich on an erasure e.xtending down across and, which stands 
below in the foUowing line. 

" Pellicane: traces of erasure on P. 

' hert: e partly effaced. 

" u-erkes: es squeezed together. 

° di/en: on dy traces of erasure. 
"^ irykked: tri/k on erasure. 
" quijken: u inserted above the line. 
'" Pellicane: on ne traces ot erasure. 

" p. 388 a. Several letters at tlie beginning of words jip. 388, .38<> 
ornamented with red strokes. 
'■* niay: a altered froni e. 



Kechise 47 

seide to hym jio he hiy iii prisouw aml was so fehle for hunger 
|)at he niy^th nou^th wel speke And ^utt oure lorde com to hym 
and badde hyw hidde vn ^ to hyin ^erne . And so mote we do 
in wel aud in wo alway biddeu to hym . And eufire pe more 
anguisch fiat we haue |)e faster we schulde hidden vn to liym . 5 
for {lan hereli he soonest onre hiddynge . For vnderstonde wel 
l)is poynt po Jmt ben his cliLidei" lie nyl nou^th delyueren hem 
\)erot als longe as hij mowen suffren it . For it is al for her goode . 
For \)e more sorou; |)at a man suffreli here for his loue 1 |)e uerre 
hym he schal come . and l)e nerre hym pat he eomel)! l^e morc 10 
ioye he scbal haue . For \)ere ne may non come to parfit lyf 
bot 3if he haue mauy sorouses bofje ia body and in soule . As 
jesus crist hadd hyni seluea and as hise chosea . Wene -,e lian 
|)at a man schal come to parfit lyf for l)at he bicome|i a niaii 
of ordre : Nay |)e heiier J)at he clymbe|) \>e ferrer he is [lerfro 15 
bot 3if he rewle hym by wisdom and b}' queyntise . And |ian wil 
god sett hym \)ere as best is for hym . And ^if he goo by his 
owen wille olpcr by ot^er manues teehyng aud nou^th by skyl . 
\)e hei^er pat he clymbel) pe wers he queme|) god . ^^nderstoude 
|)at wel vche man whan ich speke of oneiich men oi\)er of Ancres . 20 
takej) it oq non o])er maner ()au j speke it here . For als gret 
myster hafi o man come to blisse as anol^er . Whi I ne hal) nou^th 
a lewed man als gret myster come to god as a Clerk . Als grett . 
3if he looke to hym . for als dere bou^th god on as a nol^er . Ac 
he ne ^iuej) nou^th als gret gr«ce to on as to a nol)er Jwfore 25 
\)ere he ^iuel) his grace . he ^iuel) more after l^e goode wille \)&n 
after J^e dede . And l^at he seide vnto samuel \)e prophete . whan 
he badde hym enoynt Dauid to be kyng ouer his folk . He seide 
j . ne chese nou^th myne men by her strengpe - ne by her fair- 
hede . Ac j chese hem by her goode wiU . Now vnderstondel) l^at 31) 
a maMues body is cleped in holy wrytt sumtyme an hous . and - 
suwtyme a Citee and suwtyme goddes teniple and holy chirche . 
Jjan ri^th as ^ee see l^at an Ancre is bischett ia aa hous and may 
nou^th out . ri^th so is vche mannes soule bischett iu his body 
as an Ancre . Aud l^erfore vche mau lered and lewed ^if he wil 35 
(jueme god aud be his decipio lielde hyn) in his hous . Schete 

' nt ahove the liiie. 

' p. 388 b; strengpe: e n writteii clo.sely togelher. 



N 



D 



48 Joel Pilhlsson 

his (lores and liis \vy«dowes fast |iat ben liis fyiie wyttes . liat he 
take no hkyng to synne ue to werldehch liynges . and |ian iie is an 
Ancre and wel better quemel) god l)an liij j^at byschetten heni and 
taken hem to hei^e lyf . and ben weridelich . pat is setten her hertes 
vpoii wcrldelicli |)inges . for liij quenien htel god oi[>er nouith, 
I". uio ' i)otcPt duobji* do?ninis se?-uire &c, ^ Nomau 
sei|) oure lorde may serue two lordes to querae . pat is to 
saie . Noman may serue god and Mammona . p&t is riciiesse . Ac 
do as Dauid sei|), 

10 T^.Juicie - si a 111 uan t nol i te cor aiiponere . .tc . 51 3'f 
JL/ ricliesses fallen vpon a Man ne sette he nou^th liis hert \)erQ 
opon . Ile l)at wil goo to hei^e lyf take ensauinple att l^e apostles . 
And looke hou hij lyueden after |)e best man<>)-e to ()ueme god . 
For hij ben foundemeut of al holy cliirche . ])at is a gaderynge 
:j|/ 15 of goode folk in goddes uarae l^at is lioly chirclie . k uon ot^ere . 
pise chirches t)at l)ise men done make ^ is cleped au hous of orisouw, 
^Oiuus* luea doraus oracionis vocabit«r . ^ Myne 
hous seip oure lorde is lious of OiisouH . And l^ertorc vche 
mawues body is cleped hous . for it schulde be fulfilde of biddynges 

20 to hym . Now l)ise Apostles were proued in 1)6 werlde . Hij nere 
nou;,th bischett and duellede» amonges men iu sorou; and in wo 
in l)is werlde . aud tau^tten })e folk and lyuede» after iier tecbyngc 
l)at J)e folk myitli take ensample of hem forto do wel . And ne 
schal a man neuer loue god parfitelicli . bot ^if he do so . For 

25 Jesus crist seide to Peter |)ries Louestow me . Aud Feter seide 
Lorde l)ou wost l^at j loue pe . And l^au ^ seide jesus . fede my 
scheep . And to john his derlvHge he seide also . Aud so schulde 
vche man do l)at hym loued putt liym in perile forto saue his 
folk . Look liow l)0u woldest do ^if l)ou were wi|) l)e kyng aud 

30 louedest hym ! Jjou woldest auuter l)i lyf forto saue his lyf and 
l)is worschipp . More au^ttestou pan forto aunter lie forto saue 
je.-us cristes lyf and his worschij5p . l^at ^af his lyf for pe . His 
lyf liou sauest whaii l)ou helpest a maH out of syune in als 
mychel as in lie is . For he dyed for synue . And so he seil) hym 

' In the iDargin : dom i niis . 

- In the inaifjin: dauid 

' tnake: after tlie last letter a short w.ivv line, possibly meant for n. 

■* In the niargin : d m M) ii s 

' l>aii : a seeins to be a correction for c. 



Recliise 49 

self . who so do|)e dedlich syniie he do|)e hyiu on |ie roode . ' 
And lian vndestoude wel pis . Jie kyng ue may nou^th saue Jiee 
in bataile so fer for|)e ))ou mi^tli auntre pe for his loue . Ac 
|)e kyng of heueue jesus crist [lou ne may ueuere auntre pe so 
fer ioT\) in bataile for his loue |)at he ue may wel saue [le fiat 5 
non enemy schal deren pe . And so he seide hym sekien to \>e 
hoiy prophete })at lyues man in paradys . Hely he seide wostow 
nou^th wel \)&t ich ara wi[) pe . And als longe as ich am wili |)e 
uoif)e>" jew ne sara^ene ne may nou^th ^ deren pe . Goo a^ein 
\>em and chese pe o\)er prophetes . also dauid seif) . lO 

SPerabo* in deo &* non timebo quid faciat michi 
caro, ' ^ pat is . bileeue in god & . J . ne schal uou^th drede 
what no fiesche may do to me . 3if •'^'ly harme falle jie bodihch . 
it is for |ii goode for he suffred bodilieh hame for [le . And he 
wil aiowen Jie it better lian alle \)e kynges of erfie willeu o'i\)er 16 
moweu . Ac vnderstonde wel Slee pe ne schal nomau . aunter 
|)0U \)e neuer so fer for his loue til tyme be [)at he wil haue \ie 
til hym . ^ii it so be J^at 1)0U rewle \te by wisdom & queyntyse . 
Ac vche man pat scbal seruen his lorde owe to take liise termes 
in tyrne as he may hym best serue . And so do vche man to 20 
god . aud haue |)ise verses in hert . 

Nunc* stude.uunc ora nunc cum feruore labora.'' 
Sic erit hora breuis.& labor iste ieuis, 
51 Now stodie . now bidde . now wirche . And so schal J)e })enche J)e 
day schort & ^e werk li^th . Take uou^th to mychel of ojjing . bot 25 
euere as |)i wytt is scharpest . vse as J)ise verses seien & [)an may 1)0U 
wel queme god . 51 Now forf) in oure matere liat we spake of bifore of 
wra{)l)e . And ou l)is manere deme l)i seluen whan l^e lust is ouer as 
men sei|) . Lete lust ouCT-goo & eft it wil l)e lyke, as l)e versifiour sei}) . 
Impedit^ ira auimum.ue ]iossit cernere verum,30 
5[ Wra{)|)e ablyndel) \)e hert ei^en l^at we ue may uou^th iugge jje 
soo|)e . 

' p. 389 a. 

' vouyih: omj on erasure; 5 S(|ueezed in hetween u and t. 

' i^Perabo: bo inserted above tlie line. In tlie inargin: dfiuid. 

* «f- added above tbe line. 

' In the margin: versus 

• The two lines of verse connected by a bitr angular inark. 
' In the margin: versus 

4 



oO Joel Pfthlsson 

MAgiiii quedani est trausf ormans natura)n huma- 
nam 5T Wra|)|ie forschape{) l^e nian and o|ir/- synnes also 
in to hestes kynde, 

HOmo^ cuOT in liouore e.vset uom inteilexit compfl- 
>■ a t M ,•* e s t i u m e H t i s i n s i p i e n t i h ?/ .9 & s i m i 1 i s f a c- 
tus est illis, ^ Man whan lie is houen vp in to worschip ue 
knowe|) nouith hym selueu he is iikned to a Mere . Looke wlian 
a jian is wro]) . biliolde his semblaunt . of Mouf) . oE ei^en . and alle 
hise lates . aud j)ou may deme hym pan out of his wytt . Bedes 
10 ne may he none bidde bot as he |)at is went in to woluen kynde, 
Ira furor breuis est &c . ^ Wral^jie is a woiieseiiip l^ar turnet> 
man in to beeste, ^ 

E8t enim homo animal raaiisuetu/« natura. By 
ri^tli skyl man schulde be Milde . for sone so he lesef) liis 
15 myldeschipp he lesel) his junocent kynde . nys |)e;-e paii no|)ing 
1 best bot late reu{)e falle ouer |)e hert . Ano|)er lieuche a^ein wra|)|)e 
3if men myssaien [le oifier Misdone l^e . [lan l^enclie {lat {lou art 
erjie . and to er{)e [lou schalt turne a^ein . And lienclie jian what 
men done ou jie er|)e . Men spylteu 011 [le er|)e . [jenche jiat ^if 
20 raeu duden so wi{) \>e mcu duden |)e erjie kynde for so men done 
ou |)e er[)e . Aud \)an ^if pou berkest a^ein Jiou arte lioundes 
kynde . & ^if |)ou stj^ngest a^ein wi|) attry woord . |)an artow neddro 
kynde and nousth jesus cristes spouse . Jjenche wliat Jii spouse 
dude wlian men dude«. liym sclieme and teene . how myldelicli 
25 he it suffred . 

jTi iantquani ouis ad occisionem ductet.s est k 11011 
apcruit os suujh, ^ ])at is whan men ladden hym to 
pylie and duden hym to?/niient . nomore ne quei^tte he Jiau a 
lombe . Ful feble and lejii is he iu goddes seruise pat Jie wyndc 
30 of a woord may cast in to synne . Jn oper halue he is dust aud 
vnstable Jiat doune bloweji ' aisone for |)e puf of a wyudes blast . 
aud J)au heuej) it vp Jiat schulde be putt vnder foete . And beren 
vp hym toward heuene . Ac it is wonder of oure gret Mauscliipp 
Jiat we charge so mycliel of Jiis werlde Jiat nys noust bot sty»kc 
3.5 ande tofore god . Seint Marie . seiut Andrew mi^th suffreu Jint 
Jie roode bare hym vp toward heueue . Also oper Martirs Jiat badd 



Q' 



* In the niarftin : d a U i d . 

' p. 389 b. 

' blonrp on erasiire. 



i 



Recluse 61 

wil) folden houden for her enemyes and knelande as seint Stenene 
wban me« stonedew hym in |)e mon|ie and oue>al ^\i we couJ)e 
goode aud vnderstondynge hadde ari^th of god we wolde |)Onken 
hem of {)e gret godenysse |)at hij done vn to vs . for ])e gret 
mede \)&t we schull ' haue [)p?-fore . we wolde |iouken hem wif) 5 
wel goode wille . pou seest wel pat J)0u art endetted to hem here 
pat doue j)e bodilich goodel more pan owestou Ioucm and helpen 
hera |)«t doue ^e gosthch goode nyllen hij ne wiliew hij, & \w,r- 
fore loue hem for je,vu cristes loue {)i spouse For ^if [jou louo 
hym [)ou wil loue hem \)&t he biddej) ^e loue & bidde for hem . lO 

DJlige iuimicos tuos &c, 51 Loue l)ine enemyes he seij) and 
do hem goodo . and for her loue god schal ^iue Jiee gostlich 
mede & bodilich bo|)e more |)an for pine frendes . For liine fre>ides 
done for pe . and 1)0U for hem . what mede wiltow ask \iere of 
of god 15 

IMpius velit nolit \c, ^ \)e wicked seiti oure lorde 3iue|) 
vs pyement nyll he ne will he all {)at done vs harme all is 
goode to vs 3if we willej) taken it |)olemodelich . & jjenche - on 
\ie holy man jn vitas patrum l^at kissed his hondeu and blissed 
hym for [lat he hadd hurt hym wijj hem . And so J rede {lat we 20 
do . blisse we hem and saie to hem . wel is me for jje gode . l^at 
l)0u doos to me . Ac me is wo for liine harme for it Js game to 
me and ernest tq^pe . pise holy meu poledeu woundes for oure 
lordes loue . and we lete ^&t we ben holy . aud saie pat we louen 
hym . And we ue may nou^th j)olen Jje puffe of a wyndes blast . 25 
Aud |)at is gret tokne |)at |)ere is litel charite in vs . 

QUid' irritaris quid iu amaris aut verbi flatu») 
qui nec caruem wlnerat nec iuquinat mentem, 
51 pere is litel loue of charite |)at puffel) out for a litel wynde . for 
noiJwT it woujjdej) l)e flcssche . ne tiie|) vs bot ^if we wil oure .30 
seluen . And luen seieu often by ensample . l^ere liat mychel fyrc 
is . it wexel) wi{) \)0 wynde more & more . And so schulde pe fyre 
of breunande loue do [^at we schulden haue to oure spouse jesn 

' Between schu/f aml /iai*e begiDs a tear, extending across tliree lines 
slantwise down to the left ; before the leaf was iised, the tear was sewn 
iip; now the holes are empty, the thread being worn away. Xothing has 
been written across it. 

' p. 3!»0 a. 

' In the margin: liard . 



52 Joel Pflhls.son 

crist wexeu rnore it more . for suich w ynde of wordes aiul of 
ojier harmes . Ano\)er ensample . A ma« pat were in prisouji for 
gret dett . And a nan com to liym wij) a Bygyrdei fol of siluer . 
& dussched it doune vpou hym Imt he my^th l)e deliuered \tere 
5 ]iorou3 . peii it ^af hym a ful yuel strok . and hurtt hym sore . 
lor |io ghulnesse Jiat he schulde be deliuered lierjjorou^ . he wolde 
forieten liis hurtt . .\nd it nolde nou^th greue hym bot lytel . We 
l)en alle iu gret dette of synnes to oure lorde . and \)C7-iore we 
crie to hym ^erne iu jie . Pater noster . wlian we saie . & 
10 dimitte nobis debita no.<t/ra &c . & in [le Godspel it sei|) . 
Dimittite & dimittetfo- vobis . ForiiueJ) . & j schal foriiue 
30U wiltow better forward . {lou arte endetted to me . of mauy 
synnes and fele, 

POneus^ in thesauris Abyssos.- glosa crudeles 
quib?/.? donat^ Milites suos, ^I God do|ie in lii.s tresore 
[)e yuel of jie vnwrast maw, to oure biheue . to aquyten vs out 
of bis dett . 

SJ m i li s * f a c t u s s u m P e II i c a n . ^t c . 51 Jie Pellicane is 
a Bridde J)at leeue is to wonen one . aud sche is a lene bridd . 

20 And so schulde vche man and womman . j^at schulde be goddes 
spouse holde hem oue bot whan tyme were . Jiat is holde hem 
out of Jie felawschipp of j)e werlde . And hij schulden fasten in 
Biesure forto kepe hem lene |3at her flesche ne oue?'3ede hem 
nou^th . Jjat is Jiat hij ne fellen nousth in to foule synnes of 

25 Leccherie . oil^er of Glotonye ^if Jiat hij weren of hott complexiouH 
so {)at liij mi^tteu nou^t wel chastisen her fiesche so liat it ne 
were nou^th Jie soules Maister 

ludith clausa in cubic?<lo ieiunabat oraMib^^s dieba^.s- 
vite sue,'^ ^ Judith was bitent in al her lyf and lad hard 

30 lyf . Fasted . waked & trauailed \- so fallet) fierto vn to goddes 
spouse to done . and nousth putten hem in sty forto fatten as 
Hogges . 



' In the maigin: uid 

^ Between Ahyssos. nnd glosii the tear, noted above, p. 51,.'), reappears. 
On this side of the leaf the thread still exisls. 
' dnnat: t apparently on erasure. 
* In the margin : ^u i d 
' p. 300 b. 



Recluse 53 

IX^ liiiluiiidiincia pnnis & su pe;-f luitate vini &c . /' 
Gret plente of bred aud superfluite of wyn maden Sodom \- 
Gomorre |)at hij fellen in to synne of leccherie . And pat was |ie 
most enchesou« of iier forlerenysse . Tueie manrre nen and 
wynimen |ie>-e ben jiat gon to hei^e lyf forto serue god {lat hym 5 
selueu speke|) of in pe passiouw . 

WLpes foueas liabent volucres celi nidosl filius 
autem ho»Mi«t's now habebat vbi caput suuh; 
suum recliuet, ^ Foxes han her holes . And bryddes han iier 
nestes . Ac mawnes son ne haji nouith where on he may leggen lO 
his heued . By |)e Fox is bitokned fals sien & wymmen . j)at 
schapen hem to hei^e degre er J^at hij ben cunnande . and biconieu 
\>an ypocrites . and bigilen symple aien . aud hem seiueu alder 
mest . For j^iise ben euf^rniore gederj-nge and setten her hertes 
in - er[)elich J)iuges . and to vul^ewes And cracohen ai to hem |)at 15 
hij mowen repew and renden . pise ben likued to fie fox pat frete|) 
heunes and gees . and ha|) a symple semblaunt . aud is J^eis ful 
of gyle . And so doue hij raaken hem hoiy . and ue ben nousth . 
hij wenen to bigilen god . as hij done symple folk . tut pur lamowr 
de dieu soit . Hij willej) saien al be it for l)e loue of god . ^e swich 20 
willej) trauaile ful litel Jiej-fore . And ^if jie fox do yuel . ^utt men 
sayen wers by hym . And so done iien by hem ]>at ben bidande . 
swich mew wenden in to Hole as kyng saule dude . He wewt 
|)ider jn forto make foule pere jnne . And so done hij [lat taken 
holy lyf forto filen it . For Saul went forto seche Dauid forto 25 
haue slayu liym . And Dauid weut in to hole forto hyden liym 
frnm hym . as it telle|) iu Libro Regum, And so done summo 
maken hem holy . for hij moweu |)e bettre doue her queedschippes 
and fulfilleH her wiU |)an iif hij wcren in \)e werlde . For hij 
hopej) t)at Mcn uylle]) nou^th haue no gret suspeciouw vn ' to 30 
hem . as men wolden haue ^if hij weren werldelich . Who so come|) 
and goj) to heni; be hem wel war of her pryue synnes; For 
seint john Jie Ewangelist goddes * derlyng spekep of a Beest Jiat 
comej) vp out of Jie erjie and dude make a lyknesse of auoJ)er 
Beeste . J)at aros out of J)e erj)e aforne hym J)at was slayn and .■5.5 



' In the margin : S a 1 a m « , 

' Between in anJ er/ietich: h oroyse<l oiit. 

' vn added above tlie line. 

' MS. : fjtjdddes with the second d expnncted. 



54 .loel PShlsson 

quyketl a^ein . And it was comaunded l^at \>ere ne scliuide be 
non noi))rr litel ne mychei [)at it ne schnlde haue jie Merl; of 
\)>\t oijier i« ^ pe honde . oi\wr in [je forlieued . And ^if hij noldc 
nou^tli take |)e sierk hij schulde be slayn . and sif he took it he 

6 3ede to helle . pat Beest bitoknel) Leccherie . And is seide by waie 
of holy chirche a^eiw autccristes comynge . ])at non ne scl)al be 
avaunced to holy chirche . bot it be jioroui kynred . oi|)er [lorous 
scruise of grete lordes . oi|)er [)orou3 Simon^-e And al jiis schulde 
goo |)prto more - for bodilich sustenauHce and worschipp of J^e 

10 werlde . })an for any loue pat hij han to god Aud J)e Merk iu l)e 
honde bitokne]) |pat hij scholden doue her leccherie pryuelich 
first . and so hij schullew forlese . \>e knoweynge of god . And [lorou^ 
[)at blyndnesse [^at [le deuel ha[) ablent hem hij schullen done 
her leccherie openlich . And [)an han hij [)e jierk in [)e foi-hede . 

15 And [jan ne schal nonaan durre speke of God for hem . pat hij 
ne schullew done hem to \)e de[) . pise ben Heretykes and fals 
prophetes . and ypocrytes seint john sei[) . And [)ise he sei|) ne 
mowen nou^tli ben ysaued . for [)orou3 her Leccherie hij bej) bi- 
comen proude . & coueitouse . and ^'^surers . and Marchaundes . of 

20 Mennes soules . and of wymmens as god sei[) in his godspelt . 

EGo^ sum pastor bonus & cognosco Oues meas & 
cognoscuMt me raee &c, ^ Jch am a goode shepehirde 
and knowe wel my schepe and myne schepe knowen * me . ])e 
goode hirde 3iue[) his soule for his scheep . Jje Marcl)a«te ne '' 

25 3iue[) no keep to [)e scheep for it ne falle[) nou^th vnto hym . 
Ne nomore [)an done hij For hane hij her delices here . hij ne 
holden uo tale swich myster men . For hij han forsaken pat streytt 
waie [)at li|) to heuene and taken to [le hei^e waie [lat lede[) to 
helle as [je Godspel sei[) . 

30 ARta^^estviaqueducitadceluwi, ff God sei[) [)e weyc 
x\. is streytt vn to heuene and litel folk go]) |>rre jnne . And 



' p. 391 a. Capitals and occasionally small letters at the beginning 
of words on this page slightly ornaniented with red strolies. 

' Between tnore s,d6. for : porou--, faintly crossed over. 

' In the margin : Aominus 

* Between hwwen and r.ie : wel strucli out, first in black and subse 
queiitly in reil ink. 

' ne added above the hne. 

" In tlie luargin: do)/r('nMS 



Recluse 55 

wide VII to helle and Michel folk gol) \\rre jnne . And vche inan 
be war of [lis poynt . Hij |)at forsakeu |)e werldes catel and bidden 
her mete [^at hij ue bicomen nou^th losenio«/-s for hij ne schul- 
den glose no Diau ue uo woniman . And ))an pcr aueuture may 
bifaiie J)at ^if hij seiden pe soj^e ^if hij cou|)e; hij ne schulden 6 
nou^th be welcome ^if hij coiueu ano|)er tyme . For werldelieli 
meu aud wymmew ne louen none so{)e saw^es . bot al putteu hem 
to Mercy and nol^ing to rijthfulnesse * . And it were iupossible 
\)&t |)ise schuldeu beu ysaued . For holj' wrytt sei{) . 3if «an schal 
be saued he mote vnderstonde bo{)e . And |)at makej) J)at mcd lO 
bicome» losenioures and defautt of cuMuyng and grace . for hij 
ne * wirchen nou^th wiselich by cu;mynge & by queyntise . 
Sapieucia & Prudencia, bot iif hij han {)ise two .J nolde 
nou^th 3iue a nedel ^ for al her werk as to come to p«rfit lyf forto 
loue god . And se>ue hym ne schal neuer Man ne wowmau wi{)- 15 
outen {)ise two . for nomore is {)at on wor{) wi{)Outen {lat oper . 
\)&n hope wi{)outen drede . wisdom {)at is Jesus crist . hym self . 
Looke {»at {)ou seche after his law^e bo|ie {)e hard & pe nesche 
pat is {)e ri^thwisenesse & {le Mercy . and looke what he bidde{) 
\)e do for he speke{) diuersJich . And ne holde nou^th to hard ou 20 
o woord {lat he^seT^) tyl {)ou haue pe proue per of . ri^th wel . for 
he sei{) iu {)e godspell, 

SJ* oculus tuus scandali^at te &c.5I 3'f l*'"® ^'5^ 
sclaunder {)e . putt it out . ^if pou do so bodilich {)0u errest . 
Ac it is {)us vnderstonden . ^ii {)0U seest a si^th {)at {jou haste 25 
any likyng to sywue oi{)er may haue {)Orou3 {)at si^thl wi{)drawe 
\)\ne e\}e . and pan puttestow it out . & so do of alle {)ine lymes, 

PRudencia . \>&t is queyntise . pat is {lat {lou be queynt in 
discreciouH . pat is euene bytt beute nou^th to mychel ne 
to litel iu no{)ing {lat {)0U schalt done . And namelich to gon to 30 
any ordre oi{icr schape to hei^e lyf er {)0U haue proued {)i self. 
And 5Ut \>e\} {)ou haue proued {)i seif . ^utt goo \>erto in gret 
drede, and bot -M {)0U do {)us {)ou ne quemest uou^th god And 
{lerfore ^if {)0u wilt queme hym {lou most taken au euene weye 
in jMesure bitwixen hope and drede . Of ))is wisdom and {)is 35 

' M.S.: n}tliu:isenesge, wise being crossed out nnd ful wrilten above. 

« p. 391 b. 

' nedel: e l written together. 

♦ In the margin: Dom/nus 



56 Joel PiMilsson 

queyiitise telle|] 8aloinoii . Saule . on Kbru.Abutens siue 
abusjo, ^ pat is ou oure tunj^e uote iuge . and so done hij . 
for hij beren fals name . pe goode niau & )ie goode woomraaw 
hide[) hem and done goode werkes . ]jat is takeli no ))ray.syuge 
6 to heni of her werkes |'at hij done . And Jian fki^en liij vpward 
to {le heuene ward as |ic bridde dojie . And Jiat hij seche no 
praysynge here lor her goode dedes \)At hij done . lian mowen 
hij seien as job sei|i ', 

REposita- est hec spes mea in sinu meo, 51 lJ«t is 
niannes hope is hidde in his bosome, Bosome fiat ^ bitoknet) 
siker stede jiat is in je*u crist Ne wille here no praysynges for 
iiou^th [lat |)ou doost and |ian ben |iine goode dedes hudde and 
3if |)0U lokest after praysynge . Loo what god sei|) in pe godspell, 

AMeu* dico vobis receperuMt* mercedem" suam, 
5f J saye 30U forso|)e liij lian resceyued her Mede " here . ^ii 
{)0U doo |)i werkes openlich herp [lou doost mychel better p&u 
}\f 30U * dudest so |)at noman wist it . ^^if [1011 take no likiHg to 
pi seluen . bot do it in })at entent for |iat hij schulden " doue J)e 
better {)er {)orou3 {)at " seen it . Seint Poule telde his goode dedes 

20 pat he " dude openlich tofore {)e folk iu {)at maupre hou he 
fasted . hou he dude penau«ce Aud his anguische {lat he hadde 
al he telde . Briddes whan hij flei^en ^' hei^e . liij ue ben nojiing 
agast Ac {)ei3 al hij fleiseu '" hei^e sut hij moteu come dou» to {)e 
er{)e to her mete . And {lan liij ben agast last hij schulden be 

25 taken wi{) suwiwhat . And \icriore hij pikke» o pikkyng after her 
mete aud lokeu vp as suijie . Aud so scholde vche mau do {)at 
wolde seruew god . He moste do as {)e bridde do{)e wi{) his susten- 

' Job seip on erasure. 

^ In the margin ; J O b 

" pat: the second letter very indistinct. 

* In the margin: DowniMS 

' recepenmt: the tliird e possihly a correction. 

" niercedem: the last m touched ii(). 

' Mede: Me on erasure; m apparently by correction. 

' After 501« a dot, possibly the remains of an erased letter. 

" schulden: e indistinct, written together with n. 
'° per poroH} p (in pnt) on erasure. 

" p. 392 a. Capitals and occasionally sinall letters dowu to the lirst 
Latin quotation adorned with red strolces. 

" Jleiyen: between e and n slight traces of erasure. 
" flciyen: on / tracos of erasure. 



Reclnse 57 

aunce liat he sclial liaue of pe er^ie . hen cupr a gast of {)e 
deuels w yles lest he cacche hyni . Anr] {icrfore jie broode ende of 
jiine hert is sett vpward in |ii body & pe smal dounward in token- 
yng fir/t fou schalt uue alle {ii wordes and alle [line [lou^ttes vp 
to heueneward . And vn to [lis werlde barelich \n sustenaunce as ' 6 
fiou may best serue god For god ^iueli a inan sum tyme riches 
forto prouen iiyni hou he wil dispenden it . And summe lif hij 
weren pouer . liij ne schulden nousth wel quemeu god . And suwnne 
5if hij weren riche - hij ne schulden quenien hym so wel as hij 
done in her pouerte Ac nyme|) jeme her to . pere ben in fiis lo 
werlde fonre mane?"e folk . Riche and riche . And peie ben Pouer . 
and pouer . p&t is pouer here aud in helle bojie . And Riche and 
riche . pat is Riche here and Riche in Jje blisse of heuene botie . 
And |ie/-e ben Riche and Pouer . Jiat ben hij J^at ben Riche here 
and gou to helle . And \)ere ben Pouer & Riche . Jjat ben hij [lat 15 
ben Pouere here and gon to heuene . Jjis raanere folk ben in jiis 
werlde . Ac euere hauejj [lis in soure hert [lat 39 no good doue of 
30U selue« for so biddeli oure lorde . 

CUm om«ia benefeceritis dicite^ a me & invtiles 
serui sumus.^ Jjat is to saie whan 30 hau wel done 20 
saie]! Jiat ^ee ben ydel . ^ii [lat ^ee wil tiei^en hei^e as pe bridde 
dojie jiat haji Htel fiesche as [le Pellicane jiat is a lene bridde, & 
nou^th as pe Ostryk . Jmt makej) semblaunt as * he scliulde * tiei^e 
Ac euere his feet ben on pe erfie . Aud so done werldelich men 
And wy»Mmen here . makeu sembiaunt forto flei^e hei^e wi{) holy 25 
lyf . Ac euere her hert is sett on bodilich delices Jiat maken her 
bodyes heuy and fatt as god sei|) |)orou; {le prophete, 

INcrassatus est dilectus meus & recalcitrauit, ^ My 
lef is fatted aud wynse{) wi{) {)e heles . As {)0U sette a fatt 
Mare [lat is ydel . Swich Men {)ei3 hij wenen to flei^en hij ^o 
fallen alway doune . Ac [)e gode gostlich Man & wowmian 
sette{) hei^e his hert ^ in swete {)0U3ttes to Je.vu crist his spouso 
as \)e brydde [lat sitte{) on grene tre aud syngep Mery . Bridd 



' as: on 8 slight traces of erasure. 

' ri>/ii/ apparently on erasure. 

' dicite: between i and c a letter (probably 

* as: on s slifrlit traces of erasure. 

' schulde: on /1 and / traces of erasure. 

' hert probably on erasure. 



58 .loel 1'ihlsson 

lia|i iicst Iiarrl oiil\vi|i and scliari) and snie|)e aiid soft iii- 
wi|) . So inote vche Man and ' \vo?Hinau be liard outewi|) wi|) 
pynsynges of fiesehe in hiddynge and in wakyuge . and euere hxye 
pe wreeiie |)at god lia|) takeu for synne stille in jiine hert as 
6 a ston And [lat schal helde l)e f?Y7in synne and no|iing better . 
And looke J^at {)ou he wi|)iune smej^e and soft wij) swete [jou^ttes . 
iind goode willes to ^oure spouse Je.su crist Aud saie to hym 
as spouse owe to done to o\^cr, 

FOrti tudiuem * meani ad te custod iani . 51 ]'<it is j 
schal wite niy streng|)e to |)ee lorde . J)0 pat ben werldelich 
luen hij maken her uest al frrtuiward J^is . Fair & srael^e outwij) 
And hard & seharp inwi[) . And |)ise schulleM late briuge for[) 
any goode briddes [^at beu goode werkes, 

IN uidulo meo iiioriar ^I pat is ich derne my nest as 
done wormen . Ac doumbe bestes Ierue|) wisdom [lat deruel) 
in hi.s nest a derwor[)e 3ymme stou . ])at no[)ing may harme 
his briddes . ne uo[)iug may nei} \>e ston . pat derwor[)e symme 
ston is jesus crist [lat is derwor[)e ouer alle ^ywme stoues [lat non 
attre of syune ne ' may uei^en . he is cleped |)e achate . do[)e hyni 

20 in 30ure ueste [^at is in ^oure herte . [leuche what pyne he liadde 
on his fiessche wi[) outen . hou swete and hou softe he was in- 
wi[) * euere whau mau dude hym [)at WOU3 And |iou schait dryucH 
out attry synne . for be it neuere so bitter pyue [lat [^ou [)olest . 
he |)oled inore for [)e And [)au schal al [)i pyue [)enche [)e li^th 

25 namelich ^if {lou [^enche wel [^at he was gyltles and we ben gylty . 
And 3if [lou haue pis ston iu \n nest [)at is in [)i hert ne |)ar [)e 
noping dreden [)e attrj' nedder of hello who so ue inay nou^th 
haue it in his hert! haue it outwi|) . Looke opou [le Crouche & 
make on jie [le tokue . and make ofte [le tokue of [)e crois opon 

30 hem . And |)enche we opon [le harde peynes [lat oure spouse suf- 
fred for vs \>ere opo« and lyue hard lyue . And penche ofte ^ [)e 
gret godenesse [^at he haj) doue vn to vs and oure trespas toward 
hym Aud crie hym mercy and schryue vs often [)at we be Nidyf 
l)at slou5 Oloferne . For Nidyf on Ebru is schrift 011 oure tunge 



' p. .392 b. 

■■' In the inai-giii: dauid. 

" ne atldecl above the line. 

■* iniiijr. originally two words, connected by a liyplien. 

^* of(e probably on erasure. 



Recluse 59 

l)at sle|) ^ |ie deuel gosHich . For [li seien Men her . ("onfiteor* . 
and schryuen hem ofte to slen Oioferne ^ j^at is \te deuel . For 
so seieu Men it is A name stynkynge in helle secMMd«m 
nominis ethimologiam . Oiofernus . id esf . olens in 
inferuo secMHdj<m interpretacionem infirmaus vitu- 6 
luOT sagiuatum . Olofernus is |)e fende pat make|) feble 
aud vnstrouge . And fatt Chalf to wildej) \>&t flesche soue so it 
euere fatte[) {^orou; mete . oiper |)Orou3 dryk . oil^er borou^ eise . it 
bicomej) wilde as j seide tofore Jucrassatw.v esf dilectws 
meus . &c . For sone so pe fiesche haj) his wille he rigole|) aiein 10 
1)6 soule as a fatt nare and ydel . Aud * l^erfore j rede l)at vche 
man teme it ful wel so sone it awildc}) wil) harde discipline oiper 
penaxce wiselich & warlich for j^e godspel seil), 

HAbete* sal iu vobis in omni sacrificio offeretis 
sal, ^ pat is . Hauel) salt in 30U iu al sacrihse ^at }e do 15 
to me . Lookel) l^at l^ere be salt wi^) al . Salt l)itokue|) wisdom . For 
salt sauel) aud sauoures . Aud so it farel) by wisdom . Al [^at 
euere do we to god bot l^ere be wisdom wil) al it ne queme]) 
hym nou^th . Flesche wil sty«ke & brede wormes bot it be salt . '^ 
Also al t)at we do to god . penauwce or any ot^er l)iug wi^ outen 20 
wisdom . it stynkel) opon god Aud pe?'fore it sei}) toforne pou 
mostest haue wisdom v,i\) \)e and queyntise . For l^at on nys nou^th 
woT\) wil)outen l^at ol^er . And l^erfore it is goode l^at Men siue 
goode keep to l)is poynt for l)e godspel seil) pus, 

QUodcumq/^e'' pecieritis patrem in uomine meo2o 
dabit vobis, 5T pit is what ^e aske of my fader ' iu 
my name 30 schulleu it haue . biddel) ^* l^at ^oure ioye be fulfilde . 
He biddet) hem asken jiany vnderstouden l)is woorde amysse . 
J)0U moste taken it on pis manere . Looke what jcsus oue on 
englisch is . it is als mychel to saie as saueoure . Looke liat \)0U 30 
ne aske nou^th bot saluaciouw of soule principallich tirst & l^at 



' slefi: the third letter not quite clear. 

' Confitfor on erasure. 

' Olofeme: seeins to be a correction. 

* p. 393 a. 

' In the inargin: downi/(S, 

" In the mar<;in: (iominus 

' fatler: (l apparently eorrected. 

' At the beginning of tliis ilS.line in the margin, a hand pointing. 



• GO Joel FAhlsson 

J)i ioye bc lultild . aiid so iic liadde to bis deciples . iiiddc|i |iat 
30ure ioye be fuitiid . Also lie sei|i in a no|ier godspel wiian [lat 
is deciples bigan to stryuen wliicli scliulde l)e Biaister wliaii Je.vus 
was went frr/m liem . Aud jesus toolie a childe and brouitli 
5 amonges hem and seide to hem . Lete|i be al ])is J saie iou for- 
sofie wlio |ir(t .scliai conie» in to |ic lili.s ol' lieuene lie nioste be 
as |)is cliildo is . Aixi wlio jiat 3iuc|i any jiing to ])is cliilde lie 
^iueji it nie . Also jiis most be talien on ])is manfre . |)0u mostest 
be loliies as ])e ' childe is . and li^tlilicli for^iuen ])i wra])])e And 

10 lielp ])e>-e |)ou seest J^at nede is blelielich . And je.s-«s seide to his 
deciples . 3e clepe me soure laaister and ich am redy to serue 
30U alle . And ])an he tooke water & wesche lier feete, ^ Now 
wliat })ing l)at ])ou ^iuest to a man oijjer a womman ])at iii {)at 
mane?-e is a childe ]iou ^iuest to hym . And wdio ]iat dojie ]iat nan 

16 oi]ie?' womman any harmel lie touchej) ])e Peerle of cristes ei^e . 
And so he sei]) hym seluen . And ])at is non bot ])e Jiarfytt aian 
in hym as hise apostles weren . Anofier Je.ms sei]) what 36 ^iuen 
])e leste of myne 36 ^iuen it me . J)at ben sren & wymme« vnder 
liis law^e fiat loue» - hym & dreden hym . Vnderstonde]) wel ])at 

20 hij lyueH after ' lustes of her flesche ne ben nou^th vnder his 
law^e . Ac vuder ])e fendes law^e hij ben . for god liaj) forboden 
nan Lustes and lilcynges of his fJesche And ^if ])0u susteynes 
hem ])ou susteynes ])e fendes childer . And ])erfore ])0u it schalt 
abuggen . For alle J^e creatures ])at hep vuresonable schulle»i abug- 

25 gen jiat hij ban sustened goddes enemj^es . pe sujuie . and ^e 
Moone . k all ])e o])er Planetes, Wenestow passe quyte ])an J)0u 
|)at art a beste resonable wi])oute pyne and pou susteue goddes 
enemye . Goddes enemy is vche Man pai willes & woldes li]) in 
sywne & l)a]) likyng ])^)-to . Jn ])e Jiridde Godspel oure lorde sei]) . 

30 wl)at pai 36 3iue in my name Michel schal be ^oure mede, And 
now vnderstonden suwjme [^at to whom Jiat hij ^iuen her Almes 
in his uame Jiat hij schullen hane gret inede {lerfore Ac liij vn- 
derstonden wrong . To swich may })0u ^iue ])ine Almes . ])0u schalt 
be pyned |)erfore . 3'f ]>ou ^iue a Man any ])ing for his loue and 

35 he be in dedly synne & ])0u it wost ])0U sustenest hym in his 
syune . And god ne may nou^th chastise hyni for ]ie . For ])ou 

^ Jje: e on erasure. 

^ louen: tlie second letter not (|uite clear; possibly e. 

' p. 393 b. 



Recluse 61 

makest liis body so strong ftat he Iioldef) his synue forj) . And 
god wolde chastise hym |)orou3 pouerte & meseise . and lie ne 
may uou^th for [te for [tou holdest hym vp . Aud |ia-fore [lou arte 
coupable of jie syuue pat he dolte . 

COnseucieutes & agentes pari pena puuieutur, ^ |je 5 
consentaude & J)e dede doer schullen haue o peyue . And 
|)0U ne my^th nou^tb excuse \>e \)at [>ou narte couseutaude to his 
sywne whan |)at jjou ^iuest hym so {)at he is ^e leuger sustened 
in his syuue . Ac Man wil ansuere on pis wise & seie . j . nott 
uou3th by hym bot goode . And \>e'r-, he ue wite it & his hert lO 
for^iue hym . pat it is so . he nylle it uou^th witeu . Ynderstoudef) 
wel l)at he is coupable & by jiis ensaumple |)0u may wel see . 
J^ooke iier<' whan {)ou schalt bugge any {)iug here iu |)is werlde . 
Looke pat Jiou wilt avise |)e ful wel er J)ou paie pi siluer {)at 
|iou be nou^lh bigyled . Nille nou^th vche mau do I)us p&t goode 15 
can . Aud bot ^if |iou wilt looke ais besilich aboute gostlich pinges . 
elles holdestou better bodilich \nng Jian gostiich . Aud so ne dojje 
god nou^th ne none of hise . He bidde{) pat {)0U schalt wiselich 
3iue l)ine almes . Be{) war vche Dian of J)is poynt And chargeb it 
ii-,th wel . For j warue 30U wel . god it chargel) gretlich Now hou 20 
schaltou l)an ^iue liine Almes whau he sei|) liat l)Ou ^iuest iu my 
uame as liou doost of liat ol^er . Look what his name is . Saueoure . 
Iiat is to saie . Looke Itat pou ^iue l^at 1)0U ^iuest ' to hem Jiat ben 
iu waie of saluaciou« aud vnderstonden his law^e . And ^if pi 
cftiscience for^iue \)e {^at he nys nou^th . Fonde to brynge hym 25 
in to 1)6 law^e ^if J^ou may wi[) any queyutise . And god wil ^elde 
it l)e . Ac despise hym uou^th for \>o\i nost what his wille is . For 
swich may his wille be . liei^ he bc ri^th a synful Mau . god inay 
soue amende hym, bot susteyne hym nou^th iu his synne, And 
vnderstoude we! ^if liou susteyue a wicked Man . oiper a wommaw 30 
iind f)OU it wost . Jiou dooste more harme to god l^an l)Ou susteyned 
oil^ier jew oii)e>- Sara^ene * . For god seil) a wicked cristeu Man 
schal be in more pyue l)au oilier of hem . Aud sil^eu l^at god 
schal 3iue hym more pyue \>&n may liou wel wite he greue]) god 
more . Aud so 1)0U may lian wel wite l^at liou greues god more aa 
5if t)0U susteyne hym . J ue speke nou^th of synful mcu . for {lece 

' p. 304 a. 

' .\ slight erasure, extending from below Sarayene sbintwise down 
ncross tbe foUowing Hne. 



()2 Joel riUilssoii 

iiys noii of vs |iat we ne bo synfiil . Ac .i speke of wicked Men 
& cowinune synners . for hij willet) niake god a fals Man \n as 
mychel as in hem is . Jjat saien ^if it were .so as holy wrytt sei]) . 
nonian sciiulde be saued Oi|)ef god nyl nou;th forlesen |)at ho 
6 dere boustli . Oij^er j^at seien . Ood tooke alle out of helle And att 
Domesday he sclial make aW goode, And also . Goo ich where j 
goo . .7 ne goo iiou^th al one . [jise ben Men [jat wil fordo f)e 
iaw^e . ])at god haj) made and his woorde . Also hij willej) fordo ifc 
maken iiym a lei^er iu as mycliel as in iiem is . And liij scliulle|) 
10 failen of her purpose . for god sei|) pis iu l)e godspei, 

CE 1 u »( ' & t e r r a t r a n s i b u h t v e r b a a u t e lu m e a uon 
trausibuMt, Heuene and er|)e schullen - passen ac myne 
woordes schullen neuere passeu, 51 Seint Austyn seiji |)ei3 1)6 
flesch be oure foo ^ it ^ is comauded * pat weschutl holden it " 
15 vp eueu ' bitwene two neil^er to wel ne to \vo done it for it 
is fastned wi]) 1)6 derworl^e gost goddes * owen . fourme . for we 
may sone l^orou; vnwisdom sle l^at ou \vi|) l^at ol^er, 

NA t u r a " m e n t i s h u m a u e q u e a d y m a g i n e »h d e i 
creata est & sine peccato est.Augustinus deus 

20 maior &o, ^ And l)is is on of 1)6 most wouder on erl^e pat \ie 
hei^est l)ing after god hym self [)an is MaHnes soule . as sein 
Austyn wytnessel) . .Jt schal be fest so fast to l^e flesche l^at uys 
bot foule fen aud erlie . liat l^orou; [j^^t ilch fastnynge it is so 
fast yl^oiuiden fjat it folowet) \)e flesche forto quemen it in his 

25 foule kynde . Aud goji out ot' his oweu heueulich ky«de fofto 
payeu hir i*c wrat^ljes her schaper l^at hire schoope lyche hj^m 
self pat is 1)8 kyng of heuene & of erj^e . Jjis is a wouder & ouer 
wowder . and an hokerlich wonder seil) seiwt Austyn '" Ac for l)is 
poynt it was i is . God wolde nouith liat it lepe in to pride ue 



' In the niargin: n ?( s witli tlie first stroke of tlie n cut away. 
' Heuene and crjie scliul (in sdinllen) on erasure. 

' foo: tl)C last letter inflistintt, tlie word being the last in the line. 
* it not quitc clear. 

' comanded: the iifth letter looks like ii. 
° it added above the hne. 

' euen: over e a curl, evidently the upper part of an unfinished b. 
" Between goddes and ou-en: spouse crossed over; this and the following 
oicen niarked to be transposed. 

° In the margin: M^ustillUS 
■° p. 394 b. 



Becluse 63 

wilne to clymbe as Lucifer dude pat uas wipouten ciiarge . And 
t)prfore lie fel adou»j iu to lielle And god pcro fortyed liym to a 
clott of i:ieuy erfie as uieu done a beeste l)at is a raylier and wil 
ble[ielich goo fram his felawes sieu t\'en to a kibber oif)er scha- 
kelen it [jat he ne goo uoustli fj-ain his felawies fjis is pat job 5 
sei{) in his book 

QUi^ fecisti ventis id est spiritubjts pondus &c 
5[ Lorde he sei|) |)0 haste ymake to hem birjjen to fleiie 
wi|) soule . {)at is [)e heuy flei^e [)at alway drawe]) douHward vnto 
his foule kynde . Ac poroui |)e heisschep - of hir it schal bicomo lO 
ful li^th . 3e li.itter ^au pe wynde & bristter {)au \)e suwne . And 
it be so {lat hij ne foloweu nouith |)e fleiie to swi[)e iu to |)e 
lowe kynde . pan j rede for his loue [jat sche is j'liciie to . ne 
lete nou^th [le Hei^e haue of hire [je Maistrie . For sche is here 
in vncou{) [)ede yputt in a Prisoun it in a qualme hous . jt nys 15 
uou^th yseeu hou hei} & of what dignite [lat sche is in her owen 
londe . 3if \>^ flesche ue haue uou^th [le Maistrie . pe flesch is 
here an hame to hir as er[)e [)at is in evpe and as Men seien on 
engliseh . Cok is kene on his oweu dunge hyll . & [lat is wel seeii i 
on [)e flei^e . Jt ha[) to mychel Maistrie se weilaway [le while And 20 
Dauid likne[) oiielich sian and womman to \ie PeHicaue & to \ie 
ni^th foule [)at wonep vnder Euesyuges And name bere[) of Ancre . 
For Ancre holde[) {)e schippe and kepe[) it fram stormes . So vche 
Man & womman [lat 5iue[) hym to parfyt lyf & ordre schulde holdc 
vp holy chirche |jat is likned to seiut Peter schii?p . Hij schulden 25 
lyuew so holy lyf [lat hij kepten holy chirche [lat ben cristen 
MBU frara stronge temptaciouijs of [)e fende And of [le werlde & 
of 1)6 flesche And \)e commune Poeple schulde holden [^em vp 
wi[) her Almes bodilich . So schulden hij ben besy ni^th and day 
to holden hem vpp gostlich for pis name Ancre crie[) euermore 30 
l)us . Looke |i((t [)0U holde forward |)at [)0U haste taken on honde 
to holde hem vp gostiich as hij doue [le iwdilich . pis falle[) to 
alle Men [)at lyue[) b)" Mennes Almes . Hij taken |)us oii houde 
tofore god as ' all men of holy chirche doue . And * as [le ni^tli 
foule flei3e[) by nysth and take[j her pray So schulde vche Man 35 

' In the margin: job . 

' heijschep: s squeezeU in lietwecn 5 and e. 

' as: s indistiuct; blotted. 

* And: An on erasure. 



64 .I..el 1'iM.lsson 

\ wdwman do |i;it iie.siio|i foito serue god Fleifie by iiy^tli vi) 
towaril lier spouso je.s-u crist forto take her pray of liyni )iat is 
soules foode & bodilich ' bo|)e porou; goode jiou^ttes of loue long- 
yiiges . iV- in bedes l)iddynge . |iis ny^th is day . And ny.ith whan 
5 Man oi|)er wo/Hnian ha|) deuociouw as is in ])ryue stede . as it 
sei|) bifore ynou; of Pryuetc, 

VJ g i I a u i - it f a c t u s s u ?>j s i c u t P a s s e r s o 1 i t a r i u s i ji 
tecto, ^ .Tcli wake sei]) Dauid as J)e sparowe pat wone|) 
oue vuder roofe . pe sparewe haj) |)ise * fire propertees . scl^e is 

10 euere chiterande Aud sche haf) [)e fallande yuel . Aud sche bredet) 
blel^elich in [^e hous euesynges . Jiat \ie sparewe is chiterande 
liitoknel) vcl)e Man \- \vo;)/man |)at desiren for to queme god 
schulden eumiiore be spekande of god . oiJ)er biddande oi\)er 
lienchande on here spouse jesu crist in londe and in watere . 

15 And in alle stedes haue in mynde in al |)ing [^at a Ma» do|)e . 
Jiat 1)6 sparewe ha)) |)e fallaude yuel bitokue|) l^at vche Man scliulde 
be fallande to god ward pat is lete litel of hym self And be 
meke & mylde a^ein alle sorou^es as je.^us crist was . Whan |)e 
sparewe Tuake|) her nest in |)e euesyng sche drawe]) first out o 

20 strow and si|)en a nol^er aud makeli her nest and bringeji for|) 
her briddes . And iif J^e Euesyng be hard sche bidej) werst aboute 
f)e first strowe er t)at sche haue it out . And (^an come{) ano|)er 
li^thlicher . Ri^th so fare)) jesus crist by vs {)at ben iu sywue . He 
wolde make his uest in oure hert and woneu \>ere and briuge * 

25 for)) his briddes . Ac for oure foule synues he ne raay nousth . 
What dope he ))an . He byuyme)) vs first oure ))0U3ttes first on & 
))an a no\)er ))at we han to synue . Aud ))au ))e hkynge . And ))an 
))e synue . And so htel i*i: htel he come)) iu to oure hert And 
make)) his nest ))ere . and brynge)) for)) his briddes . \>at ben goode 

30 werkes . And sif it be so ))at we ben harded iu synne! lie ha)) 
))e more trauaile . aboute vs to bringe vs out \tere of . As seiut 
aucrnsthiiis ^ witnesse)) . he mi^th better make al jic werlde of nouith . 



> p. 395 a. 

' In the iiiargin: dauid. 
" Jjise added above the line. 

* brivge: over ri a dot; apparently mistaken for y. 
' aM</ustinus in fainter ink added between the cohimns with a caret 
to marlv the insertion ; jirobably tlic sanic liand. 



Recluse 65 

and arere a sian iram (le|) to lyue ! jia« bringe a siau out of pe 
lest synne J)at bis liert is sett opon . for lie haji ^iuen uian his 
free wiH Irelicli forto chese \vhe|)er he wil |)e yuel or [le goode . 
And he haj) ^ouen vs knowleehyng of bo|)e and tokenynge . And 
sette irt oure free wille forto chese pat on oi|)er pat o|)er . And 5 
l^erfore he wil [)at we bidde hym ierne of helpe ' and liau he 
wil helpe vs J)at we schulle chesen in |)e goode . aud elles nou^th 
bot 5if it be porou} oure biddynge . o\\ier summe o\)er {)at bidden 
for vs p&t loue|) vs . Aud so he comep iw to oure hertes aud 
bringej) for|) |ian goode werkes to his worschipp & to oure note 10 
|)at l)en his briddes, 

Eccus vigilaui honestas &c . ^I NoJ)ing ne atanieli - wilde 
flesche so wel as wakyuge . |)an ^if ^oure ffesche be wilde 
wake|) aud biddej) fast . as oure lorde se\\\ |)is l^orou^ Salomon 
in his prouerbes ^ . who [lat arisefi erlich and seche^) me . he schal 15 
fynde me . wakynge is mychel pjoysed in hoh" writt . 

V.Jgilate* & orate ne intretis in temptaciouem. 
51 Wakef) seij) oure lorde and biddel) {)at ^e ne falle in 
no fondynge, 

MEdia" nocte surgebani ad coufitendum tibi &c . 20 
^ J schal arise att Midni^th and schryue to [le se\p dauid 
to god . Oure lorde sei|i iu |ie Godspel . wakef) att Jiidni^th & att 
cok erowe and in |)e Mornyng . for se ne wite whan \ie lorde 
wil come, 

BEatus" quem inuenerit vigilan tew? . 51 Blissed be he 25 
|)at J fynde wakynge iu {)e tirst tyme . oi|)er iu \\e secouHde . 
oif)er in |)e [iridde . Jjat is l)e Mawnes elde . jn \ie 30u|)e . oi|)er in 
)ie Midilel . oi|)er in ^e last ende . He wake|i wel [lat kepe|) hym 
out of dedlich synue . |j:in fynde|) oure lorde hym wakyng whau 
he come[) . whan Moyses ledde [)e folk out of Egipte iu to wil- 30 
dernes.se . god fedde hym wi]) Manna . And he jjat Ia\' iu his 
bedde after [^e sunne arisyng liadde iio niete J^at day . for it went 

' lielpe: the tirst three letters .squeezed together at the end of the line. 
' ataiiurp: p. 395 b. 

' prouerbfs: b touched up or corrected. 

' In the margin: Dom/nMS with traces of era-sure below s. 
'■" In the margin: Daui with i" partly cut awav; a letter ,'//?: era- 
8cd below. 

" In the margin: Dom/n 



fi6 Joel PAIilsson 

|iiui o wiiy . Aiul als nivcliel liadde Iie fiat gadered aii handful 
as he [lat s*1'1p'"''<1 ^ slytful . i^i: vcho Man niost gederen for hym 
seluen . Oure lorde hyni self tau^tt vs to arise erlich {loroui his 
erlich arisynge frain de|i to lyue . And also whan he went wi[) 
5 his deciples he aros in \ie Jiornynge and badde his bedes to his 
fader for vs . 

PKrnoctauit in oracione . ^ Wake]) and bidde|) by 
urAh iie l)iclde|i vs . And as he tau^tt he dude hytn seluen 
l)o))e in tecliynge iV in dede . And so schulde euerych goode techer 

iti do in dede |iat he teche|i . and namelich sien of ordre |iat lie 
uister laken on honde . Ac ich ani adradde it fare|) now by many 
of hem as god seide to [le clerkes of .lewrie Jie ' grete Jiaisters 
and seide hein an ensaumpie Jt was a Jian |iat badd his o son 
do [lat . and he seide he wolde do it . And he badde his olier son 

16 and he seide he uolde do it and dude it And he [lat seide he 
wolde do it dude it nomth . and he asked hein whejier was better 
to prai.sen . Aiid jie siaisters seiden he i^at dude it . And |iat is 
bitokned by eueryche Man jiat goti to onlre and to heiie lyf &. 
dope nou^th as he schulde do . ne ne bereli hym Jiere after uo- 

20 more {lan he dude . Alle we ben goddes sones lettred and lewed . 
And |)e symple nau is adradd - to goo to hei^e lyf and to ordre . 
Ac he do|ie it in [le dede as ferforlie as he may . [lat bitokne|> 
\y.it oper son |iat seide he nolde nouith done it und dude it . Ho 
is better to prf/ysen lian |ie clerk [lat takej) on hoMde to done it 

25 and ue do[)e it nou^th . Also it is bitokned by ]ie .Jewes and by 
|)e Sar^ines . pe Jewes token vnder honde to seruew god aud ne 
duden it nousth . aud |ierfore he parted hem tVrtm hym, And \>e 
Sariines duden it . & he ^af heni his grace . Now viij . Jiinges [lere 
ben [lat techen vs to wake and be waker iii goddes seruise . pis 

30 scbort lyf ]iat laste]i bot now . Jje stronge waye [lat we haue forto 
gon . And for [le gret good Jmt we schull: haue peroi }U ]iat \ve 
dispenden ])is litel tyme and [)is schortt here to goddes worschipp . 
Oure synnes Jiat ben so many . I)e]) ])at we ben syker of and we 
ne wite[) what tyine |)at it wil come . .-\nd vnsyker whider [)at we 

35 schuileH . goo wot we neuer . [le hard iloine aiid |)e stronge on 
domesday and streytt and so narcwe wi]) al |)at we scliulleH ieldeii 



pe: the lower curve of the e effaceii. 
p. ;«)i') .a. 



Recluse 67 

rekeiiynge of euecvch ydel {lou^th . What schal be |ian of wicked 
willes and dedes |ie godspel sei|), 

DE' omHi verbo oeioso reddes raciouewj in die 
judicij, Jtpm * capilli de capite* noMperibunt. 
id est cogitacio uon euadet inpunita . 5T O^ vche ydel 5 
woord we schult ^eide rekenynge . 3^ ■ l^e leste her of jiiue hede 
ne schal nou^th ben vnpunysched pat is to saie ]ie leste [lou^th 
t)at euere |)0U * {jou^ttest 

QUid'" facies in iila die quande exiget«r a te 
om«e tempus qualiter sit a te expensum . & vs- lO 
qMC ad minimaw cogitacioue»i. 5T Hovv scliahow do |iat 
ilche day whan vche tj^me jiat {)ou haddest here schal he asked of 
\te how {)ou it haste dispended . 3e 1 so fer for|) vu til it come to \>e 
last * |)0U3th [lat euer |iou [jou^ttest . |)e seuen|)e [)ing stire]) vs to 
waken . J)e sorou; of helle \ieie ])ise f)inges beu iu fie vnymete pynes . 15 
[)e sorou; of vchone laste]) wij) outeu ende . And J^e vnymete bitter- 
uesse . J)e . viij . [)ing is hou mychel is l)e aiede in J^e heueue . Aud 
who so haj) ])ise . viij . ])inges often in mynde . hij wille]) schakeu 
of hym sleep of sleufi iu stille ni^ttes whaw siau ne see]) nousth 
])at letteji hyin . For uo])ing l^au berej) witnesse of god bot goddes 20 
oweu Aungels ])at is in swich tyme ydone . for ])ere nys nousth 
forlorne as by day . For ])at \>\ng fiat is doue in pryuete . is soule 
foode . And })an ben Auugels helpeande to hym more ])au by day . 
whan |ipre is lettynge of many [liuges, 

OKacio Hester placuit Regi assuro, ^ |)e quenes 25 
boone Hester plesed [le Kyng Assur . Hester ou Ebru bitok- 
ne]i \>e boone ]iat Jien biddefi ou hidels . Assur on Ebru is on 
Englisch oure lorde, 

VT ' q u i d a u e r t i s m a n u )/< t u a w? 1 A: d e x t e /• a ui t u a mj 
de niedio sinu tuo iu finewi, ^ J^at is whi drawes- 30 
tow * fiine honde and ^utt fii ri^th honde of f)i bosome on ende . 

' In the niargin : n M s 

' Jtem : on J tracea of era.-'nre. 

' cajnte: I alinost effaced. 

* pou: originally poiij, faint traces of an erased 3 heing visible. 

•'■ In the margin: ' with the first stroke of the 111 cnt awav. 

m M n 

" last: a corrected, probably from e. 

' In the margin: auid 

* p. .3ft6 b. 



fi8 .loi-l rilhlsson 

|)at ii;tli liimilo l)iti>kne|) l)ine goode werkes . ]io.some bitokne|) 
pryiiete . o\\wr siker stede l)o|)e . whi drawestow out \ luakes ende 
\trre scliulde be non ' . sif it were hydde, \mt is whi takestou 
praisynge of |)i sehien and takes })i niede |)at ende|) here . 
fi A M e n * d i c o v o b s * r e c e p e r u m t m e r c e d e «« s u a >m . 
l\ ^ |)at is |)ou |)«t schewes \t'\ goode dede . l)0u has resceyued 
l)i mede forsol^e . ])at is i^riuete . as ich seide of bifore . Bosome is 
siker stede bitokne|) liat is sette l)i bedd in siker stede . [lat is in 
Jesu crist . for sikerer stede ne wot j non . l^at wilnel) nouith to 

10 be praised here of nol)ing liat we done ne take}) non to 50U 
seluen . bot al ^iue hym l)e Biaistrie . For jiei^ ^e be schett in soure 
chaumbre ^e ma}' resceyue ^oure mede here poroui ioure likiMg 
And 36 may saie ^oure Hedes in 1)6 cojnmune . & 3Ut 36 may take 
30ure mede in heuene l^erfore, And 30 ^iue oper Men goode en- 

!•'> saumple to do wel |)ere ryst dubble mede and treble, 3'f \>^ feude 
I)utt any kikyug in |iine hert |)at l)ou letest wel of als smertlich 
))utt it to jesu crist . aml liciirlie ^if |ii)u haste auy l)ing wel ilone . 
it is his werk and nou^th (lino . ])ou wost wel it ne fallel) nou^th 
to l^e for to take likyug to |)e, for a werk l)at ano|)er man dol)e, 

20 1\ /T A g n a * v e r e c u n d i a e s t g a u d i a a g e r c . A: 1 a u d i b ?/ s 
i.VJ. inhiare vmlc celu?» merere potuit nimiu//* tran- 
sitorij fauoris querit . ff Michel gooile seip (iregori it is to 
do wel . and to do wbarfore to haue [le blisse of heuene . aud l)an 
wil sellen it for a wyndes puff of praysjMige here . And l^at may 

25 be bitokued of Moyses goddes prophete whan he drou^ out his 
honden of his bosome as he stode biforne ourc lorde vpon 1)6 
hult . Jt semed as it hadd ben of 1)6 spitel yuel, And pat was for 
he schulde take no praisyng to hym seluen to fer forl) . And it 
bitoknel) l^at suich biddynge and goode dedes doynge in l^at 
' 30 manere ben foule tofore god, 

DEcorticauit^ ficuw ineu/;/ iiudans spoliauit cam . 
k ])roiecit alibi facti suiit Rami eius.ctc.^I Oure 
lorde sei|) hij han bipiled my fygere aud rcnt away al lie rynde . 
and {)e ■bow^es liat schulden be grene ben bicomen al drye . aml 



' schulde hc n (in non) on erasure. 
' In the margin : dom i n M s . 
' MS. : vobs or volis. 
* In the miirgin : G r e g o r / « S 
' In the niai-gin: Job. 



Q: 



Recluse 69 

white roudes jicre jniie . pis is derlc to vnderstondeu . Ac ich it 
wil opeue» . J^e fygere bitoiine|) cristen Mau & wowimau . And \)&n 
is fe tigere ypiled whau goode dedes beu yopeued j)orou3 iikyng . 
Jjat is \)e lyf oute . aud pe dep is perc juue . uoi|)er it ue beref) 
fruyt ne it ue greuel» ac biconie)) white rondes . To noJ)iug nys 5 
it {)an wort) bot to |)e fyre . pe bow^es wlian it adedej) . it whitej) 
outwil) and driej) inwi|) . aud kestej) his rynde . Aiso goode dede 
adede|) whau it is vnhiled . Jjat hilef) it . is pe rynde & holde|i * 
it iu streug|)e . for whiles l)at is hidde . it is grene aud likewor|)i 
to goddes ei.^en . for grene is pe colour \)at is most likewor|)i t.o lo 
|)e ei^e . And whan it is drie it is uou^th worl) bot to |)e fyre of 
helle . pe first pylyng of al {)is nys bot a litel likynge of pride . 
|)at is a wellate of hym seluen . nys pis gret reu|)e . ue beu hij 
vu cely J)at wij) goodes of heuene gete[) hem helle . Oure lord 
liknel) goode dede to gold hoord who so fyudet) it he hide|) it . 15 
em- qui iuueuit homo abscoudit^ Gold hoorde 
is goode dede and is eueued to heuene for raeu it l^ugge]) 
wifr al, 

DEpredari^ desiderat qui thesauruwt publice i« 
via portat, ^ Jjat is he |)at bere|) tresore in })e waie J^at 20 
is ful of l^eues : hym lyst to ben yrobbed Al |)is werlde uys nouith 
bot a waie to helle oi{)er to heueue . aud is bisett ful of helle 
Micbers ])&t robben alle [)e golde hoordes j^at hij mowen vnder- 
3eteu . aud namelich of hew \>&t ^elpeu her goode dedes . Jienche 
on pis ensauOTple . A Sooper ^at bere)) soope aud nedeles criej) 25 
out on his goode by J^e stretes as he goj) . And a riche jiarchaunde 
gof) forj) al stille . Herkue|) what bifel of Eieche J)e kyng for pat 
he schewed his celle of Aromau«ce his derwort^e {)iuges . Comew 
{)eues and robbeden hym \ieroi . Nys nou;th ywriten of j^e {)re 
kynges |)at preseuted oure lord \ie \)Te law^es, 30 

PRocidentes* adoraueruwt eu;» & apertis thesauris 
suis obtulerunt ei munera.auru/n.thus & siirrawj, 
^ pe \ire kynges |)at hij woldeu offre to oure lorde . Hij heldeu 
it ewre hidd . Loo hou goo<ie it is to be one and yhudd bo|)e in 
J)e olde Jaw^e & iu j)e newe it schewe|), whan a man scbal bidde 35 

' p. 397 a. 

' In the marnin: (\nniinus. 

' In the martiin: Gregor/w.v. 

* In the marjiiin: do»iil\us 



70 ,locl r:ililssnn 

his beiles |)at he iie be nouitli ylutted and |iat wil beii herd ot' 
god . For aiiionge folk ue schewe|i lie nou^lh bio|)elieh iiis pryue- 
tees to nonian, & |)erfore in |)e olde law^e whan hij l)adden her 
bedes ' . hij wenten in to [^e feeido for no|iiHg schulde letten hem . 
5 And \iere god scbewed hy»i to heni . and grfauited hem her aslcyng . 

Etrressus est ysaac in Agrum ad nieditandu»? . (|Mod 
e i f u i s s e c r e d i t u m c o n s u e t u d i n e >m . 51 Ysaac [^e Patri- 
ark forto |)enche onelich ou god went in to jio feeld and ])ere 
he niett wij) Rebccha . |iat is goode grace, 

10 "[) JOiieccha . No«?eH . interpretatwr multu»* dedit.& 
a\ quicquid hab»< ment'^ .kc. ^ Also Jacob |)at oure lorde 
scliewed liyni iiis nebbe schaft . and ;af his blissynge . and turned 
uame better . Also l)y Moyses and Ilely - goddes derwor|)e frendes . 
l)at god often scliew'ed bym " to . liij drowen hem in to onehch 

16 stedes whan hij badden her bedes to god . Ac hij neren nou^th 
bischett ue Iieldeu hem alway stille in ou stede . liij iedeu amoug 
j)e poeple . and taustteu hem hou hij schulden kepeu goddes law^e . 

SEt jeremias solus sedet, ^ Jeremye satt oue aud telde 
whi forre oure lorde ha)) tilled bym ful of his jiretenynge, 
20 /^tTi-a cownuunicacioue replesti me . ^ Wel were hym 
V^ ]iat were fultilde of his |)retenynge as he was . For \)ere 
schal ueupr man wel serue god ne kepe hym out of synne . bot 
he be fulHIde of his liretenynge . ]jat is . j^at he haue |)e drede of 
god iu his hert . And lieucbe opon |ie wreche |)at he hat) taken 
25 for sy«ne, 

IEremie quis dedit michi foute»» lacrimar»?», ^ |>at 
is who schal iiue me {^e welle of teres to biwepe slayn folk . 
Vt lugeam in terra f il . t'-' . &c . ^ pe mest dale of {)is 
werlde is slayn l)oroui dedlich synoe . To his wepynge l^e pcophete 
80 biddol) onelich stede witterlich . who t)at schal biwepeu his syuueM 
aud ol)er mennes he moste seche onelich stede, 

SEdeliit homo solitariM.v & tacebit & leuabit se 
supra se . 51 Who tiat wis so do he most sitten one and 
boide hvm stille . and so hei;en hvni self abouen hvm self . 



bede.t: d seeins to Iie on eriisure. 
Hely: Ue on erasure. 
p. 397 b. 



Recluse 71 

BUniUH est sub sileucio prestolari salutare dei, 
5[ Goode it is to speken and to bisechen \>e grace of god 
{)at men may bere goddes ^ok . bam his 30u|ie . He bevej) goddes 
3ok irnm his 30u{)e {)at letes his 3'uel and nyl do it no more . 
For he bicomejj ionge t^orou; newe h i 5 

BE a t i * q u i p o r t a u e r u h t j u g u m d o m / n i a b a d o 1 e s- 
cencia sua.dabit percucienti se maxillam&sa- 
turabitur obprobrijs . 51 He Jiat wil so do . bedef) ior^ his 
cheke a^ein his mysdoer as it sei{) in po sautere . poe beu two 
{)ewes . {)olemodenesse & edmodenesse . {jolemodenesse is p&t man lo 
suffre{) \)at meu done hj'm yuel . Edmodenesse is {)at maw suffrep 
\>&t meu myssiggen hym . seint John {)e Baptist by whom oure 
lorde seide, 

INter- natos Mulior«Hi uo« surrexit maior .Joh««we 
Baptista . ^ ])at is to saie . amonge alle [^at euer were borne 15 
of womraaw ne aros non hei^er psin seiut johu {)e Baptist.no'. 
J)is mote be vuderstouden ou {)is mauere . for in {lat tyme pat 
he was . pere nas non better {)an . for Je.vus crist sei{) also of seint 
john \)e Ewangelist . 

INter^ ceteros magis dilectus . ^I JJiit is among alle o{)er 20 
he is moste biloued . Also {)at is vnderstonden by {)at tyme 
also . for who {)at wil loue god now as hij duden . hij mowen ben 
hei^ed * as hij ben now . pan seint .Jolin Baptist sou^th onlich 
stede sete flei^ he his owen kynde {)at were holy and chosen * of 
god And \te'\} al were he porous myracle bi^eten . ^utt ne durst 25 
he nou^th dwelle amonges hem ne amonges o{)ere lest lie schulde 
haue tiled his lippes {)orou5 foule speche, 

BE "^ michi quia pollutus labijs ego sum &c . 51 Wo 
is nie he seide for ich am amonges men {)at hane foule 
lippes, 30 

QUia in meilio populi polluta ho/<entis lahia ego 
SUOT vel habito, 51 I>at is ich am amowges folk \ia.t foulen 
Her Ivppes wi|) foule speche forso{)e take Metal . golde oi{)er siluer: 

' In the margin: Jere 

' In the niar^in : D m J n 

" In the niargin : D Hi /' n M S 

♦ p. 398 a. 

' Between ihosen and of slight traces of erasnre. 

' In the n)ari.'in: aias 



72 JoL'! PAlilsson 

yrne o\])fr steel and laye it by a liinj; Jiat is rusty . and it schal 
drawe rust \u're of ^if hij iis^eii to s^eder longe . and so dojie 
vche goode Man ct woiHnian takeli rust of synne ^if |iat hij hen 
in fehle cowpaignye |)at is leef forto speke foule speche . & iutt 
6 ])e deede is wers . For|ii flei^ seint John in to wildernesse k |)ere 
he hisate |ire hei-,enesses . ()n Jiat he fuUed oure lorde . and he 
schewed hym [le lioiy Trinite . |ie fader in his steueue . J^e holy 
gost in Cuiuer wise . And |ie son in liis honde \)ere . And f)erfore 
he liadde [)ise pryueleges of prechoure . Merytt of Martirdom . And 

10 Maydens mede . Crovue opon crovne Ac for jiis poiwt ue schal 
noinan bischete hym |)at he ne come nou^th araong |)e folk . for 
he ne dude nou^th so . he ^ede aboute and preched \\e comynge 
of jesu crist for lie was cliosen |)rto . And aiso |)ere ne vvere bot 
{)re p7-echoures |)at ben cleped roote of prechyuge John j)e Baptist 

15 he preehed of penauwce and he dude it in dede . for in gestes 
it tellej) . who J)at ordeyned a law^e hym self schulde stonde 
perto . and do do it in dede lif l^at cas fei . Aud so dude seiut 
John . He was ordeyned of god to be his furgoer and preche of 
peuauwce . aud l^erfore he dude it in dede . And so schulde vche 

20 prechoure do J)at he seide do in dede . Aud jesus crist was au- 
ol)er prechoure and he preched o£ Mercy and he dude it in dede . 
Who |)at asked hym of help he halp hem . and souith where |)at 
Men wolde haue Mercy . forto ^iue it hem. so hym was leef for 
to do mercy . And atte last he ^af his lyf forto saue oure soules . 

25 And so he biddej) |)at we schullen done forto saue oure broper . 
He is ))i neiibur and |)i hrolier l^at helpej) |)e out of synne . And 
|iat ^iuel) |ie ensampl in wel lybbyuge |)at {)0u schuldest do also . 
He nys nouith l)i neiibur l^at lyue]) in yuel lyf . ne l)ou ne schalt 
hym : uousth ' loiie bot forto helpe hyni out of synne ^if })ou 

30 may . And iif 1)0U ne niay . Kepe pe out of his compaignye . and 
ue helpe hym no])ing to bodilich susteuauuce wharl^orou^ [)at 
l)ou be - susteyner of synne . 

EG e s t a s " k i g n o m i n i a e i 1 1 u i d e s e r i t d\si'iplinam . 
\c, 51 ■'" l'<it chapitre |iou sciialt fynde |)is . ^^if a wise Man 



' nou^th: no on eiasnre. 

' p. 39S b. At the Ijottoni of the pajre, between the cohimns, a hand 
pointing iipwaals. 

° In the niar"in: Salomo» . 



Recluse 73 

goo amonge |)e compaignie of foles lie make|> liem wers |>an liij 
weren . ;if he be iecclioi/r oi|)er lei^er . oi|i^r ' wliat fole |iat he be . 
he is \ie boicler |)orou3 hym . aud harde|) hym pe niore in his 
sy»me, Aud [irrfore he sei|) he is liche to iiem and to her damp- 
naciouH bot ;if it be forto amende hem . ac for no|iing ne drawe 5 
uou;th to Michel to hem . lest pou appaire [)i seluen, 

CUn* SfflHC^o sanctas erisl & cu»; viro innoceHte 
innocens eris.& cum electo electus eris.&cu»j 
peruerso peruerteris ^ Be wij) holy |iou schalt be holy . 
and be wi|> jnnocent J)ou schalt be jnnocent . Be wi|) chosen [lou 10 
schalt be choseu . and be wif) schrewes {^ou schalt ben a schrewe . 
of |)is [ling ich rede vche Man be war lest {lat he ne take no 
synne on |)is manere, 

ATteudite* a falsis prophetis &c, ^ Oure lorde sei|i . 
kepe 30U from fals p»-ophetes . by her wordes and by her 15 
werkes ^e schuH knowen hem, seint john [ie ewangelist sei|) Jiat 
alle coramune lecchoures . and alle proude Men . and coueitouse 
Men . And Losenio«rs . alle ben fals p?-ophetes . And namelich wen 
of (.>rdre bot hij ben chosen . And Salomon clepef) pise wycked 
Mcn for {lise wolde envenym al a cuutre on of hem . Poule was 20 
pe l^ridde pr^^choure . And preched of loue and charite . & he 
sei|) jiis woord . 

MJchi* autewi absit gloriari nisi in cruoe domini 
uos/ri Je.vu chrt.s/i ^ pat is . Blis be done away 
from me . bot onelich in jesu cristes roode . He loued so god and 25 
his euene cristeue |)at he ^ede among {le Sar;ines and spake 
goddes word Aud hij beten hym wi{i ^erdes . And {le jewes beten 
hym wi{) Staues . And ^utt he nolde nou^th leten . And {le Clerkes 
wolden haue done hym sworne opon |)e Book . [lat he ne schoMo 
nou^th haue spoken of Jesu crist and hij acurseden hym & alle 30 
Jesus deciples . and putten hem out of her synagoge fiat is to 
saye out of {le cowmune poeple {lat is now cleped holy chirche 
a gaderyuge of Cristen folk . and fiemeden hem, ^e schullew 
fynden it in {lis (Jodspell. 



' oiper: i inserted above the line. 

- In the niarjiin: dauid 

' In thf mar^in : d >M i U /( S . 

* In the iDiirsiir] P a n ! 1/ .« . 



74 .Tofl Pfthlssoii 

Cl 111 ' vcnerit ptiracl i tuK i|ue»j ego initta;w vobis . 
Jkc, \)rre 3^ schullen fyudc Jjat Jesus crist warned hem 
|)ere of er lie dyed vpon |)e roode . And he seide hem what 
Clerkes - sehulden done hem . He warned hem bifore |)e/e of for 
8 hij ne schulden uou^tii hen abaisclit whan it come . Now after 
|iise Men it were best forto done . For [^e fou»dement of ^ oure 
lawie al is sett in |)ise \n-e poynt3.Mercy-41enaunce.and loue . 
wharfor a man mote done after all pise |ire prechoures . And nouitli 
ciiarge [^at on al one . Now ich vnderstonde |)at ^if a Man wil * 

10 iooke after l^e libbynge to corae to |)e bhs of heuene porou;, . J)e 
hest ensample were after lesu crist hym seluen ]jat ich vuder- 
stonde ()at was Peter & Poule for hij beu princes of alle jje 
Aposties . Now was |iis Petwes lyf . Peter wrouith for his Mete 
and preched jje folk . \- iic seide hym seluen . Haue ich a kirtel & 

15 a Mantel . J . kepe nomore . And bred he seide ich haue ynous . and 
suwtyme wortes . And Poule p/-eched also and sei|i |)at he ne ete 
neuej-e nannes mete bot iif it were his vn|)onkes |iat he ne hadde 
no space forto ernen it . And ich vnderstonde \wt liij were nen of 
holy chirche . pis.j.saye for \)at Men sayen uow. Jt ne fallelj nou^th 

20 a Man of lioly chirche to wirche for his Mcte and erne his Mete wij) 
his honden . Jn on Manere liij seien sol^e . liij ne au^tten nouith to 
taken her sustenaunce of auo|)er Man and erne her sustenauMce 
neuer lie hitter . bot ;if Iie ^af it for [)e loue of god and took scars- 
licli his susteuau/ice perof . And by goddes ordiuau«ce and by hise 

2n Apostles & by |)e lyf jjat hij lyueden he ne schulde take of a Ma»e 
risth nousth l)ot scarslich her sustenaunce and ^iue l)at o])er for{) . 
and ;ut hyni were better erne it {)an take it . for he schal see l)is 
[lat vche Man schal be besy forto ausuere for hym seluen . And 
-,if he take otjer mennes charge opon hym . aud neue>e latter 

30 mede forto bidde for hem . bot sif he be {)e warrer he may li^th- 
lich falle in Rirage* whan he comej) to acounte bot ^if his acounte 
be ))e better arayed Seiut Siluester l)e Pope lire hundrel) iere 
after liat je.s-us crist died on l)e Roode he vvas l^e first Man {lat 



' In the niaigin: downiMS. 
- Clerkes: l piobably coriecteii froiii /1. 
» p. 399 11. 

* MS.: trel with / over the expuncted e. 

' Between Rirage and whan: w expuncted. To the end of the colunin 
capitals marl<ed with red strokes. 



Recluse 75 

resceyued londes & Reutes ' . Aud pnn seide a voice ahouen pat 7r ^-^ 

hij alle lierden |)at wereu in |)e chirclie of Eouie whan l)e Pope 

Siluester was at his seruise . Xow is veuym pult in holy chirche 

& Jifrfore ich wot wel [)at god ordeyned it neuere . Ac he suffred 

it forto beu ordeyued And Sikiester it ordeyued |)an . For pan 5 

sien of holy chirche weren wedded aien ais wel as ot)er . Seint 

iiark made a cobier a Bisschop [)at hadde a wyf & childer of 

Ahsauwder Aud [^an Sihiester ordeinde }\t pat hij woldeu liaue 

J)e Loudes & Jje Rentes pat nen wolden iiuen hem . pat hij schul- 

den ben chaste , Aud iif [jat hij wolden holdeu her wyues : hij 10 

ne sciiulden haue uone loudes ne Reutes and hij chesen forto 

ben chaste for gret charge * of wyf & of Childer Au he gmunted 

l»em t)an aud sett swich a payu ^ere opou {)at iif a preest lay 

by a sengle wenche . he schulde haue ten sere peuauwce . aud vche 

3ere of ^e ten ^ere : [^re Mone|)es faste bred & watere . bot J)e 1-5 

seueMdaies . & J)e heise feste ^ dayes & J)au hij schulden eten a 

porciou« of fysch . .Ju pe canouu in Decree . hij Jiat willen looke 

^ere after hii schullen fynden it . Aud J)is he ordeyued for a 

sympie preest . And iif he be of hei.^er dignite * J)e niore penauMce . 

Aud me J)enche J)at it were better J)at hij haddeu wyues hem 20 

selueu J)a« Jiat hij tooken o\ier mennes wyues oi^er lejwmaus for 

god haj) forboden vs bo{)e J)ise horedom & spousebreche boJ)e in 

pe elde law^e & in ^e newe . lawe . Vche Man Jiat herej) J)is laye 

his honde on his hert fiif he be ordred and looke how he felej) 

hym . i . warue hem wel goddes woord schal stonde on what 2-5 

manere so hij it turnen it schal stonden as he J^ouith, 

TOta^ die verba mea execrabautwr, 5T P^t is al day 
hij turnedeu myne wordes aieinward aud alle her Jjou^ttes 
weren in yuel . Jjise Meu Peter i^ Poule wroustteu for her mete . 
Hij maden basketes and Pauylouues . Aud fmm Morn vuto vu- 30 
derne hij wrou^tten . And so dude oure lefdy after J)at hire son 
was wewt vp fyfteue jere, And tVam vndru» to noone hij p?Yche- 
den t)at we clepe "^ uow myd ouer uoone J)at is J)e nyuj)e lioure 



' Eentes: the secoiid e toucheil up. 

' p. 399 b. 

' MS.: festes with s expuncted. 

' dig'te on erasure at the end of the line. 

' In the margin: Dau 

" cUpe: c by correction^?. 



7f? .7(.ol PAhlsKon 

of |ie day . For at |iii( lioure .lesiis crist ilifil . Aiul |Kin liij ^eilen 
& Vjadden her herberewe to poue/e raen . And oii iii^th liij weren 
in biddynge bot wh.in hij niosten nedes siepe . And after liewj 
were good to take ensample wlio |)at mi^th pise Men hadden \)e 
6 ri^tli rewle of lioly chirch na|)eles by lieryng as men ^ sei|i and 
by wordes . \- by werkes . men forsaken mychel |5is chirohe . and 
uainelich lie lered . And drawen fast to ano|)^r chirche |)at schal 
comen {)at Antecrist schal be jiaister of . pat is of alle proude 
Men k of coueitouse Jien . k Leccherous sien |iat l)en commune- 
10 lich here jn dauid .sei)) he hated |)is chirche and so schulde vche 
Man |iat wolde be goddes deciple . 

01 ) i u i - e c c 1 e s i a w m a 1 i g n a n c i u )h \- c u /« i m p i j ? n o n 
sedebo . ^ Jjat is . .i . hated \)e forwaried chirches . And . j . 
ne satt nouitii wi|) |)e wicked, Oure lefdy was mychel one J)e 
16 aungel fonde hire al one, 

IN g r e s s u s ' A n g e 1 u s a d e a m d i x i t A u e m a r i a r i a 
gracia plena dominns tecuw, 51 I>e Auiigel com jn to 
hir it sei|i jian sche was mychei one . Jn holy wrytt we ne fynde 
jiat scho spake bot * foure sijies . Napeles sche taust many holy 

20 Man and spak to hem often . Ac jiise foure si|ies Jiat sehe spake 
beren gret charge and weren of mychel my^th . & jierfore mcu 
redet) of hem in holy wrytt . God hyni seluen he was one & went 
in to wilderne.sse forto do penau«ce . And ])ere |ie fende tempted 
hym . And |iat was in {ie last endynge of bis lyf |ire ^ere & more 

2,5 er he dyed to ^iue vs ensample jiat we ne schulden nou^th schape 
vs to hastilich to hei^e degre of ordre er jiat we were wel proued 
in jie werlde {loroui temptacions more and inore . and j^at we were 
stronge |iorou3 goode werkes . to we be worjii to come to hei^er 
degree in lyue in goode lyf and fonde forto do as we hadden 

30 taken {ie ordre and bei^e lyf . and Jian wolde * god putt his honde 
{lerto and help vs . Ac^ uow many gon to ordre er {lat hij^ beii 
proued . And {lat is wel seen now in {)is werlde by her berynge 
for god lette{) hem {terfore go after {ie lyndynges of her hert . 



' men: n apparently a correction. 

" In the inargin: daui 

" In the niar<rin: dowiinMS 

* p. 400 a. 

■'' /irm irolde nin together nt tlie end of tlve line. 



Recluse 77 

ET ' d i 111 i s i e o s s e c h k d « m d e s i d e r i a c o r d i s e o r ;/ m 
ibuwt in adiu uencionil)M.« suis . 51 J lete hem go 
after pe desires of her hert hij schullen gon in her fyndyuges, 

INnocens- oinni verbo credit &c . 51 Jje Junocent leue|^> 
vche woord aud in jjat he is a foole sei]) Saloinon for hoiy 5 
wrytt defendej) it 

KarissiMi'' nolite oniHi verbo credere ic . 5[ M^ne 
frendes ue icue|) uousth alie woordes . fje queyut and [)e 
wyse lokef) his waie toforne er iie goo . for he drede[) pyne . 
Wysdom wil pat [)0u avise [^e what spiryt speke]) to [le Quo 10 
s j) ) rifn q u i s q u e 1 o q u a t u r , 

DKciiua'* A malo \- fac bonuw.^I Wifiilrawe [)e fram 
yuel \: do \)<i goode . Yuel wirche[) [)e iiau oi[)er [le wowmau 
[)at w-irche[) wi[) hasty wille, For he pat nys nouith abidande 
iio[)e a pert folie Man of yuel queyntise |)at is ypocrisye bat 15 
feiseue^) hym symple . Swich ben forto haten . for god warie[) liem 
in \)e godspel . aud sei[) [)us . 

VE vobis ypocrite, 51 Hij |)at ben of lytel witt speken 
folie iV heresie . Ac [)e wise vuderstonde[i wysdom iu al [lat 
he schai do aud avise|) hym ful wel er lie agynne auy [)ing And 20 
|jeuche[) whrtt wil come of [le endyng . Now nys nou so grel folie 
as Man to putt hym to hei^e degree er [lat be be proued . for he 
mou sone repent hym bot ^if he wirche wiselich . Oure lord seide 
pis eusample to [)e Maisters of |)e jewes |)at tamtten * his lawie . 
Jt was a Man and bad his o son done [)at . & he seide he wolde 25 
done it . Aud he bad his oper sou & he seide he uolde uo^th 
done it . And he [)at seide he nolde nouith done " it dude it Aud 
he [)at seide he woide done it dude it uou^th . And he asked hem 
which was |)e better to praiseu aud hij seiden he [)at dude it, 
And [)at he seide by iiem |)is niay be vnderstoiulen iu [)is mauece . 30 



' In the niargin: auid 

' In the margin: ' witli o aml m partlv cut awav. 

m o u 

' In the mar^iii: with tlie tirst stroke of tlie m cut awav. 

inou 

* In the maigin: a U i d 

* taUytten: the tirst lettcr verv indistinot. the befriiiiiint: of the wonl 
being alinost effaced. 

* p. 400 b. , 



78 .Toel PAhlsson 

])e Jewes tokcn viiderhowde to seruej; god aiid liij nc duden it 
nou^th, And |)e Sar^ines seiden hij noiden . and hij senieden hym . 
Also it may be seide by eristen aien f)at now ben . by neri of 
ordre |)at hun taken vnder iionde to done goddes eomaundement 
T) iV teclien |)e commune poeple . and liij ne dQne it nouith . Ac pe 
syniple Meu ])at louen god & dreden hyra . hij nyilen nousth gon 
to l)at ordre for dredo of |)e hei^enesse J)erof . Ac hij seruen hym 
ais wel as i)ij mowcn and done it hi ^ dede after ber power as 
hij iiadden taken |iat ordre . Jjise jren quemen god And |)e ol^er 

10 ne quenien hym nou^th , for hij ne done nou^tli [^at l)ij luin taken 
on lionde to do . Anol^er ensaumple lie sei)) . ^if |)0U come to a 
Bridale ne sette |)e nou^th in |)e liei^est stede an Auntre lif \iere 
come anol)er better {^an ])0U 1 for l)an worfiestow putt adoune and 
pan wil ])i nebbe rede . Al ])is is seide by hem l^at settew hem 

15 seluen in liei^e degre of ordre er hij ben proued And to alle 
oper ]iat to any mane/-e degre gon out of J^e commune poeple . 
Wl)an hij lian cauitt a ooope hij wenen pat l)ij ben aboue« And 
tnany of hem ben wers J^an hij wereu whan ])«t - hij weren in 
])e werlde . For in many poyntes hij trespassen Jiat hij nyten 

20 nousth of . ne willen nounh vnderstonden it . for hij gon recche- 
leslich J)erto . And for ])at hij raowen listhlich haue her sustenaunce 
so . and wi{) more e3'se ])an liij trauaileden in ]3e werld And ])er- 
fore god letej) liem wor])e . & ne helpe{) he«j nou^th . pat is . ne 
sende]) hera nou^tb his grace of ri^th knoweynge . Als sone as it 

25 conie]) in his liert . nay he seiji it is good to serue god, Loo he 
sei|i ])e MQudeleyn ches ])e better part and nott neuere how sche 
chees . ne what scbe dude . And so he go]) forji to hei;e lyf . And 
he nott neuere where he schal bigynne forto serue god . And ])er- 
fore hij bicoraen losenio»rs . And losengen Men for her sustenauHce . 

80 and bigylen bojie heiu k hem seluen aldermest . For Meu synuen 
vpon hera and wenen liat hij ben goode Meu and mycliel good 
cunnen ol' Jie law^e of god . And ])an hij cuwnen wel lesse {)an 
hij . For 3if hij cou])en good hij nolden nouith done so as hij 
done . hij wolden erne her Mete aud seruen god so . tyl ])at god 

35 wolde sette hew as hij weren worlii . for he wott best ])at vche 



' /n .i(i(leil abiivo tlie line. 
•- Jint ud.lcd ubdvo tho line. 



Man au^tt to trauaile fov her susteuaunce and ' non^tli hidde it 
bot 3if he ne my^th nou^th erne it for selcenesse oi|ipr for elde 
oi|)er croked * . and bot ^if iie were prechoure and trauailed fram 
touH to tou« and preched . Aud ^utt it were for hewi bettere [lat 
hij erned it [lau fat hij badden it ^if hij miith per-, he were a 5 
preest . Nereu uou^th Peter & Poule Prestes . sis forso|)e AIs gode 
j trowe as any were si{)en . pan mi^th a no{)er Preest wirche . Jt 
schulde kepe hyni out of of slau|)e . For ydelnesse and Este . Aud 
Ese . ben j^e deuels Baners . And what man oij^er wowman pnt he 
fyndel) any of j)ise Merkes jnue; l)e n)ay wende jn and out as lO 
he wil . For [lorou; [^ise j^re hij bicomeu fals prophetes . And 
Heretikes and ypocrites And losenioures . And |)ise ben pe werst 
manere folk p&t pere beu . for god hym self in |)e godspel acnrse|) 
hem as 30 han wryten toforne in j)is book Now also je.vus crist 
hym seluen suffred hunger aud j^rust to ^iue vs ensample j^at 15 
we schnlde teme oure bodyes ^if hij weren to fatt . J)at we n^i^th 
haue hujjg^^)- aud ^irust after his blis as he hadd forto bringe 
vs |ierto ; 

BE a t i ■' q u i e s u r i u w t & s i c i u h t J u s t i c i a m . &c . ^ Blissed 
ben hij [)at hau hunge^e and prust after ri^thwisenesse . 20 
Also whan he schulde bidde his bedes . he went vp vnto hilles 
from his Apostles . By Hilt is bitokned hei^e Ma)M)es lyf . pnt is 
t^enche hei^e and h'ue lowelich and {)olemodelicli . For to swiche 
Men hap pe deuel envie . And ppre is god next and stonde|) bisidc 
hem . aud ^iueji hem bodilich streng|)e and gostlich boj^e . And 2.5 
swiche Meu may done wi|) god al |)at hij willen liat ordeynen 
her lyf by wysdom and cjueyntise 

irociens* inter hotnines fui miuor homo recessi . 
^ J)e ofter j was aniouges Men [le lesse Man j was whan j 
went fram hem . Hou mi^th he seie |iis woorde skilfullioh for he 30 
wr/s more hei^ed ^ tofore god and |ie bettere loued |ian he schulde 
haue ben and he ne hadde U0U3 comen an)onge hem . and ben 
one for he tau^tte |)e folk . For \)\s skyl it may be seide [lat vclie 

' i>. 401 a. Capitals and occasionally small letters at the begiiining of 
wonls ornamented witli red strokes. 

' crokeil: traces of erasure on d. 

' In the niarfiin: do>ntn«<s 

* In the niar^'in: Jeren)/rt,v 

'- hei-,e<l: tlie second e inserted in red ink ahove the line. 



Q' 



«0 Jocl IVll.lssou 

Miui |ieiiclie wlian |iat lie lia|> liest ilone t)at lie is ydel as he 

dude wliaii he liadd tau.Ut jie lolk . paii he quemed god best 

and liau iie |)0U3th |iat he was ^-del, wau ne owe take no wel late 

to liym sehien as oure lord seil) . 

6 /^ V m oiiinin benef ecer i tis discite a ine (S: iwvtiles 

] \_J scrui suni«.v.51 |)at is whan ;e han wel doue saie 36 

I ben ydel . |)ut is kuowe |i«t we he uou^th prtrfit to god als louge 

1 as we ben Pilgrymes ix |iis weride aud jiat we beu vnsuffisaunt 

' to affye vs in oure werkes . ' 

10 TT^CclesiastJCM*" . uec oblecteris in turbis assidua 
JHi est euim cowmissio . 51 I>at is . a aian schal neuwe 
l)euche good amoug folk . for }^cre is euere synne . pe Steuene 
of lieuene seide vn to vs areseine . 

FVge honiiwes & saluaberis . fl^ Jiat is tlei^e Jien and 
|)ou schalt he saued . and eft liat voice seido . fuge . tace . 
<l uiesce . flei^e . & be stille . and woue stille in o stede stedfast- 
lich out of Men . Now ^e han forhise bo^ie of |ie elde lawe and 
of Jie newe how good it is to ben one . Al |jis Ouynge nys nou^th 
elles hot flei^e |ie coiuiiaiguye of wjcked^Meu & wicked wyjHmen, 

20 ]iat god in fie godspel hal) forboden jie And kepe jie in good 
corapaignye . And |.iau mi^ttow lerne good & do good . Eot resouws 
liere beu whi vche Mau au^tte to nyme ^eme \ie bettpr to hym 
selueii . J saie hem schortlich . nymej) Jje better ^eme to hem . And 
Jiere j speke schortlich pere stodie ^e lengest . For Jiat stodiynge 

aS schal briuge 30U jn to vnderstondyuge better J^an forto rede forj) 
a|)ing hastilich . And anojier ^if j schulde write J)e al . it were 
ionge er j schulde come to Jje ende . 3'f a wilde LyouK com 
reunande in jie stretes . nolde nou^th vche Man schete his dores 
\- iiis wyndowes fast . 

30 OObrij- estote k vigilate iu oraciojiib?(s quia ad- 
k3 u e r s a r i u s \- e s t e r d i a b o 1 u s t a m q « « Mi L e o r u g i e n s 
eirenit querews que>« deuorat cui resistite fortes iu 
fide. 51 B^l) sober and wakej) in hiddyjige for ^oure aduersari 
l)e feude go|i abouten in \>e stretes for to loken whain he may 

85 deuouren a^ein wham stondej) ' 36 stronge in feil) . Anol)pr resoun 
J)e apostle seiji, 

' p. 401 b. 

' In tlie ni;irf.'in: .V U g 

^ stondep: ji seeins to liave been squeezed iu sub.sequently. 



Recluse 81 

HAbein?<s' tbesaurum istu;« i ii vasis fictilib(/s 
^ Wbo so bere[) habway in a brotil vessel as glas in gret 
lironge it may li^tlilich breken . & - so done we . we bere halyway 
in a brotyl vessel . wel brotiler pan [ie glas pat is maydeuhode 
oi{)er chastite in oure brotile He aboute . For maydenhode may 5 
neuere ben ybett and it be ones ybroken nomore l)an |)e glas . 
Ac 3ut it breke[) wi{) wel lesse J^an [le glas . For gias ne breke[) 
noujth bot iif it be wij) sumwhat . and {)at brekej) wij) a stynk- 
ande wille . ac pat may be made hole a^ein sif it laste nousth 
longe . Jje proue here of . John ^e good godspeller pou^t haue lO 
broken his Maidenhode whau {lat he was wedded and afterward 
was mayden, 

Virginew' virgini cowmendauit, 51 Maideu was bytau^tt 
niaideu seij) oure lord 

IN'' muwdo pressura»» in me autem paceiu ha^etis, 15 
5[ Jn l)e werlde is |)rong sei{) oure lorde & in me 36 schulle 
fynde pes . pe [)ridde . heuene is hei^e & heni is Htel ynou^ to 
werpen al pe werlde vnder * foote ^at clymben schal so hei^e, 

VJdi*' Mulierem Amictam sole & lunam sub pedibM.s- 
eius, f Seint Johu seij) in [)e Apocalips he sei^ a womman 20 
clo[)ed in |)e suwne & [)e Mone vnder her fete . By [)e sujjne is 
bitokned ])at vche ri^thwise Man owe to ben ycIo[)ed in so[)e . 
Suime [)at is jesus crist he is suMue of ri^thwisenesse . Looke we 
l)au [)at [)e sunne be nou^tb derk in vs porou^ no dedlich synne . 
By |)e Mone is bitokned [)e richesse of [)is werlde [)at wane[) & 25 
wexe[) as do{)e [)e Mone . And sif we ciymben hei^e we moten 
haue hem vnder fote . pat is ne setten nou^th oure hertes vpon 
hem . and ne take nomore of hem [lan uede is vche Man after 
[)at his state ' aske[) . pis word is fe[)ered . nyme ^eme vche man 
what his state ou^th forto ben j ne speke nou^th \>at a Man 30 
ue may haue good yuou^ and queme god ful wel ^if * he wil . 



' In the niar<|in: apos/ol«S 

' <t added above the line. 

" In the margin: domtUMS 

* In the margin: domniMS with s partly cut away. 

' p. 402 a. 

' In the margin: hn»nes 

■ state: te on era.sure. 

" Between ^-.if and he : we crossed over. 



82 Joel PAhlsson 

Bot he |)at wil be iu state as he ouitte to ben Look to goddes 
holy Halewen & take ensaraple att hem . For alle \>e worschipes 
of J)is werlde hij setten att nou^th aud alle Jpe richesses . And att 
lesse [jan nouith . For hij briugen a jian to nousth . |)at is to 

6 synne and after to pyne wi|) outen ende bot -^if hij ^iuen |>o 
bettere kepe to her honde and gon [^e wiseiicher . Jjc fier|ip 
resoun is . Ri^tli gentil sien ne schulden wij) riit * bere none purses 
ne bagges for it fiillel) to begenyldes to beren hein . And goddes 
spouse is gentil sche ne .schal bere nofjing bot as a gentil man 

10 au^tt to do . Jt falle|) to burgeys to bere purs J^at is to saie, her 
hertes ne au^tten nou^th to be sett in no weridelich [jiuges . A 
Man J)at can k haj) grace niay haue good & niychel rychesse J^ei^ 
hc ne sette nousth his herte gretlich \wre vpon . pe fyft resouw 
is . Kiche mcu niaken large lyueree and good Men & wywiraen 

16 niaken large relyf, 

ECce- relinquimM.s^ omMia & secuti sura»/.<! te. Lord 
seide seint Peter we han forsaken alle l)inges aud ' folowen 
1)6 . What forsook Peter bot an olde nett . uay it n^-s nousth al so 
in jie forsakynge of werldelich good . For hij wrou^tten for her 
20 Mete in pe werlde . Ac J^us it is . We schuH forsaken alle Manere 
vices and folowen |)e lorde bo{)e here and in heuene as none ne 
may bot Maidens oue, 

HJ i s e c u w t M r a g n u m, (j u o c u k q m r i e r i t v t r o q u e p e d e 
i(/ es< . integritate cordis & corpo?-is. ^ pat is no« 
25 ne may folowe hym in hert & in body & in soule bot Maydens . 
pe sexte resou« is . to be pryuee wif) god oure lorde, 

DU c a m * t e i n s o 1 i t u d i n e m & i b i 1 o q u a r a d c o r 
tuum, ff Jchille lede pe sei]) oure lorde in to p?-iue ^ 
stede . and j^rre jchille louelich i^- blel^elich speken vn to [le for 
30 me is lo|) prees 

EGo dominiis in ciuitate nou egredior . ^I pe seuent 
resou)( is forto be bri^th in heuene . pe eiitted resouM is 
forto haue quyk boue« " . Lokel) l)crfore l^at ^e ben Ester . Ester 



' rht squee/.ed toiiether at the end of the line. 

' In the niaitrin: e tr i 

' and: n seenis to have heen squeezed in between a and d. 

* In the niargin : :nMS 

« p. 402 b. 

" bonen: j)robably so; r apparently added subsequently. 



on yuoliscli is als niychel to sayne as liydd . sche was assurs 
quene And assur ou yngliscli is as my^tty . sche red al hire folk 
fra/H ]\e de|i {lorou; her bone . for |)e kyng herel) her bone and 
gr«unte[) hir what sche wil habbe . ])at In-toknefi Men ' & wyjwmen 
\)Rt ben in clene lyf . for iiichel 1'oik bej) ysaued {)0rou3 swich 5 
mennes biddynges . Ilester was siaradoches dou^tter, Maradoche 
spellej) . Amare conterens inprudentem, pat is totreden 
{)e schenieful . Schemeful beu hij [lat any l)ing speken to swich 
Men oiJ)ec wytHmen bot good . ^if [)ere do|5e any so . hij be{) pan 
Maradoches- dou^ttere . pat is bitterlich vndernyme|) hem and lO 
seit) {)is vers, Narrant' michi iniqui fabulaciones 1 set ~j 
noMvt lex tua, Lorde hij tellen to me fables* and nou^th pi ' 
\a\\}e . o\\ier per jjis vers, 

DE cl i n a t e ^ A ni e m a 1 i g n i & s c r u t a b o r m a n d a t a d e i 
mei . / ^ })at is go|) fro me ^e wicked and j schal reherce 15 
fie comauwdement; of niy god And sei[) |)is vers |)at hij mowen 
heren it weudef) away f>ara hem . Semel) hadde dc{) aserued and 
he cried mercy . And salamon for^af it hym vpon a forward 
pat he helde hym att home in jerMsalrm . And he brake forward 
for he went out after his {)ralies & he was sone biwraied vnto 20 
Salamon Aud he was done to {)e de{) . pis Seme{) bitokne{i Man 
o\\ter woMiman p&t ha{) trespassed a^eins god . Salamon is oure 
lorde . keep 50U wel in^joure— h©us-{»at is jer«.9aleni ^oure body 
schete{) wel soure fyue wyttes & }& schull lyuen . For Salamon 
oure lorde ^iuel) sone Mercy att swiche a forward {)at se ne trespas 25 
nomore . For ^if {)e fyue wyttes gon out {)at schulden ben att 
home and ^eme as wel pat {lere were jnne {^erfore ^if hij gon 
out {)e hous is yuel ykept . [^crfore ne lete{) hem nousth out for 
^emeleshede so {lat hij ne ben nou^th ytempted to \ie de{) . Holde 
30U jn as {leues \>&t ben flowen to holy chirche . for iif hij gon ?.o 
out \iere nys nou^th bot honge . Jje sfiarowe ha{) {)e fallandc yuel . 
So moten we haue fleschlich fondynges and gostlich bo{ie forto 
harden vs & maken vs stronge . for we schulden elles leten to 
wel of oure seluen . and bicomeH to wilde . .\.nd {)prfore it is god 



' MS.: Mem with tlie last stroke of the m e.xpuncted. 

' Mnrarloches : M touched up. 

' In the inargin : d a U i d 

* fables: over a tlie upper part of an iiiilinished letter (6). 

' In the margin : d a U i d 



84 .I(X-1 Pililsson 

jjat \ve fallen iloiunvard A: be lowe of herte . For sif god lete vs 
haue all oure wille i we ne schuld nouith knowen oure sehien . 
A^eiu all temptaciouws here is remedie good . Ne wene nou of 
heise lyf \)at he ue schal bene ytempted . For jje heifier of lyf ^ 

5 aud Jje better jiat god louel) h®'" \>^ more hij moten ben ytem[)ted 
& Jje streuger more [lau jje lejji . Aud here eusample . ])e lieiier 
t)at ))e hul is j)e rao wyndes beu \)ere on . By hvR iu holy wrytt . 
is - bitokued hei.se lyf pe hei.^er maw of lyf \)e mo puffes of 
fondyuges ben vpou l)ym & l^e stronger . 

lonr^Uuc* maxime inpuwgnaris tu«c te iupu«g«r/ri 

JL uo« seutis, 51 Seke man lia[) two states [)at ben ri^th 

dredeful . as seiut Gregori sei[) Jjat on is whau he fele[) noust 

his oweu sekeuesse Aud for |)i ne seche() he uou^th |)e leche ne 

[)e lechecraft ne ne aske|) no ma^nies red ne uo couseil and so 

15 asteruep he ferelich er ho it weue . J)is is he |)at ue felcj) no 
fondyuges as * |)e aungel sei[) iu [)e Apocalips 

DJcis quia diues sum & nulliM*' egeo & nescis quia 
miser es \- pauprr k secus. ^T pus |)0U seist j)e uys 
no nede medicine . Ac [)ou art !)iynde in lierte aud ne seest 

20 nouith [)at [)0U art pouer & naked of alle goode [)ewes . & of 
liolynes & of gostlich werkes . Jjat o|)er dredeful astate is |)at seke 
man ha[) & is al froward [)is o[)er . [)at is [)at he fele[) so mychel 
anguissch p&t he ue may [)ole [)at meu houdle his sore ne come 
[)ere nei^ forto helen it Jjis is he [)at fele[) so many fondynges . 

25 & is so adrad [jat god ue loue[) hym uou^th [)at no gostlich 
confort ne may hym gladen ne make hym to vuderstonden |)at 
he may for hem [)e better ben yholpen . Ne tellep it in |)e godspetl 
pat an Aungel ledd oure lorde je.vu crist iu to wilderuesse forto 
beu ytempted of [)e fende, 

30 TPVUctus est ie.^MS in desertu)« a spiritn vt tewpta- 

JL/ retur a diabolo. ^ Ac Iiis temptaciouw |)at he ne misth 

nou3th syuuen was ouelich \vi[) outen . Vnderstonde[) alderhrst 

[)at two raaner temptaciouws \)ere ben & two raaner fondynges 

" pe vtter & [)e jnner Aud bo[)e beu of many manr/e . pe vtter 



' p. 403 a. 

' is: on s slight traces ot erasure. 
' In the margin: Gregorius. 
* as: on s traces ot' eraaiire. 



Recluse 85 

fondyiige is |)at |ie likyng comel) of . o\\>cr myslikyuge ' . as of 
sekenesse niyseise scheiue and vnluippe aud vche yuei j)at \ie 
flessche fele|i . wiJiinueH hert sore greme oiper tene oijip;- wralif^e 
for \n\t he is pyned in his body . wi|)onte« ben fiise foudynges 
his hele of body Mete drynk oi|)fr clojiinge . o\\ier }\{ a man is 6 
yloued raore Jian anojjer & more hoideu by it doue good more 
{)an anof)er . oi{)e;- forto ben yworschiped of man o\\)cr of wom- 
man . Jiise ben fals fondynges iuwij) {)at comew of lykynge and 
{)is dele is f)e jnuer temptaciou»* aud is wers |)au pe vtter aud 
swikeler [^an \^e o\\er half & soner bigilej) mcu and wy»«raen aud 10 
bo|)e beu o temptacioun & oi|)er is - wi|)innen & wi|)outen for [lat 
on is liknge & |)at o|)er is raysHkynge . and boJ)e j)ise ben of two 
dalen ac hij ben cleped I^e vtter for hij bigynnew euer wi^) oute» 
and eutre« \v\p jnnen . for I^e vtter piwg is \ie fondyng . Iiise fond- 
ynges comen o\per while of god as of sekenesse k of frendes 16 
def) . and oiper while it comef) hem selueu . pouerte . myshappe & 
oI)C)' swich myslikyng of woord o\\)er of dede oil^er of \>e o\\ier 
of I)iue . I)is is al myslikyng . & I)ise comen of god sumtyme . liele 
also and eise of man praysynge oilier ygoded of suw man . Jiise 
comeu also of god ac uomtli as done \ie oper wij) outen . ac wij) 20 
alie I)ise he fondel) mau . hou |)at he dredef) hym & louel) hy»« . 
pe jnner fondyuges ben of mysHkynge vnpewes oil^er to hem 
ward . o\\)er swikel l^ouittes to hem ward {^at men I^enchen \)Sit 
hij ben good for it is to her likynge . And \)\se jnner fondynges 
comen of J^e fende . of I^e werlde & of oure flessche oil^er while . 25 
To 1)6 vtter te/Hptaciou«s is nede pacience I)at is I^olemodenesse . 
& to pe jnner is nede wisdom & gostlich streugjie . We schulleM 
now speken of pe vtter & techen & techen hem I^at han hera 
how l)at hij raoweu Jiorou; goddes grace finde remedie . 

BIO a t u s V i r q u i s u f f e r t t e m p t a c i o n e >m q m o h » « m 30 
cum probatus fuerit accipiet coronam vite q;<am 
repromisit' deus diligen ti b«.9 se. 51 Blissed & celi he is 
I)at hal) in teraptaciou» polemodenesse . for wha« he is yproned 
it seil) he schal beu ycrouned wi^) I^e crowne of lif I^at god ]v<i\) 
bihoteu to his lef ychose . For also prouel) god his lemman as 35 



myslikynge: e probably by correction. 

p. 403 b. 

At the bet;inning of this M.S.-line, traces of erasure. 



86 Joel l^fililsson 

|)e goldesmyth|)e dolie |)e golde in |)e fyre . pat fals goldc go|) to 
nousth . & 1)6 good golde coinel) out trier & bri^tter [^au it was 
toforne sekenesse is apyne & a brennynge to polien ac no|)ing 
ne ciense|) fire l)e gold ac sekenesse dol^e 1)6 soule . 3© sekenesse 

5 j saie t)at god sendes ' nou^t sekenesse pat suwme ban . for many 
niaken hew seek for her fole iiardischippes and |)orou3 vncuwn- 
yuge . aud swiche sekeuesse ne quemel) nou^t god . Now how 
schaltou knowe l)ise two maneres of sekenesses . sekenesse l)at god 
sendes & sekenesse l^at comel) of oure seiuen . Sekenesse l^at god 

10 sendel) is l)is l^at come|) opon |)e sodeynlicli & nou^th l^orou; 
l)ine oweu makyng . for to make liem seke for greme oi|)er wral^pe 
|)at hij taken to liem oil)e>' l^orou^ to mycliel mete oi|)er drynk 
oil)er porou, to gret fastynge o\\)cr \>otou} iemeleshede l^at hij 
gon in to sum stede & caccl)en suw hyrt l)orou3 her owen defaut 

15 i^c myskepynge & \)\s is al for defaut of wisdom & queyntise & 
on mauy ol^er maneres it conie|) to man A: to wojnman . it ^if 
it come on any mauere {)at hij ne * hane nou^th kepte hem as 
hij au^tten to done . swich manere sekenesse ne querael) nou^tb 
god o\\ier to loMge wakynge oiper slepe to longe and wexel) heuy 

20 l^erfore . Now remedie a^eiu sekenesse l^at god sent is l)oleraode- 
nesse aud be pacient l^ere jnne and l)0«ke god ^erne \)Ht he wolde 
so visite \>e and proue l^e And of l)e sekenisse pat comel) of ^i 
seluen crie hym ^erne mercie aud for^iuenesse of ^ l^at l)Ou l)aste 
l)Orou3 l)iue owen defaut so anientisscht l)i body l^at 1)0U ne may 

25 nou^th serue h^^m as 1)0U au^tte to doue . Biseke hym l^at he 
forsiue it pe & ^iue J^e grace l^at l)ou may amende it a^eins hym . 
-,if it be his wille . & be pau l^olemode for l^e mede is mychel 
liat lili to lie l)olemode Man oil^er wowman . for he is euened to 
martir.])us is sekenesse soule Hele & salue of her woundes and 

30 kepel) l)at hij ne cacchen nomo as god seil) l^at hij schuldeu sif 
sekenesse ue letted it . Sekeuesse makel) mau to vnderstonde what 
l)at he is & tp knowen hyra seluen . And he is good maister l^at 
betel) man fofto lerue hou mi^tti is god . and hou brotel n)an is . 
& l)e blis of l)is wrecched werlde Sekenesse is lii golde srayl)l)e 

35 l)at in l)e blisse of heuene ouer gildej) |)i coroune , for l^e raore 



' sendes: the Becond e partly effaced. 

- p. 401 a. At the end of tlie line, erasure. 

' nf addcd abovc tho Hnc. 



Recluse 87 

l)at |)i sekeuesse is pe besier is \>i golde sinyl){)C . and l^e lenger 
pat it lastel) \ie bri^tter it waxe|) to siartirs euenyuge l)oroii5 a 
\vo |)at l)ou haste here aud takes it wip good wilie . what is more 
gracii to l)e l^at haddest descrued & of erued l)e pyue of helle 
werlde wili outeu eude & may passe |)at liorou^ a htel wo here . 5 
Nolde» men tellen hym alder mau luaddest liat forsoke a buiiet 
for a speres wounde . A nedel prickyug for a byheuedyuge . A 
betyuge for au hougynge opou |)e galewe trees of helle . god it 
wott alle pe wo of liis werlde uys bot as a schadewe to l^e leste 
pyne of helle . Al nys uouith so niychel as a hlel dewes drope 10 
a^eiu al ^e grete see . Jiat go^) al aboute l)is werelde . and aile l^e 
waters \terio . He pat may l^an atstirteu l^at ilche grisehch wo and 
liat heteUch pyne porom a litel sekeuesse here seiy may l)e saie 
pat lie is . 

ON o\wr half lerueli here mauy folde froueren a^eiu lie vtter 15 
foudynge Jiat comel) of maHues yuel for liise opw ben of 
goddes sonde . Who {^at euer mj^sseil) l)e oilier mysdope l^e nyme 
3eme and vnderstonde liat he is lie tiie liat \Ase Lorymers han l)at 
hij fileu 1)6 yrne wi^) and makeu it bri^th . so doue hij . hij beu 
pe file l)at filel) away al l)e rust of pi soule {)at is syune and 20 
briitteu ' l)i soule and freteu hem seluen allas liat while as l)e 
file do|ie 

ANolier penche who so euere any wo do^ie lie scheme . grame . 
oilicr teeue . he is goddes ierde - & god betel) l^e \vi\) hem 
\- chastises as ^e fader dol^e his leue childe wili lie ^erde for he 25 
se\\> |)at he dol)e so l)orou5 seint jones moulie iu l^apocalips 

EGo-' cjuos amo arguo & castigo 51 Hem he seili l^at 
j loue hera j wil nymen & cbastise . j warne 50U fora he 
ne bete[) none here bot hem t)at he louel) uoraore l)au l)ou w'oldest 
beten a fremde childe l^ei^ al it agylte . Ac uousth ne ]ete\) he 30 
wel of |)is l)at is cleped goddes ^erd . for as pe fader whan he 
h&\> beteu lie childe wili pe serde werpeli it away so dojie oure 
lorde werpel) lie vnwrast man oi|)er woffiman liat he ha^) beten 
\\'i\> his dere lef childe doune iu to \te pyne of heU, 
Virga furoris mei assur &c. ^] For l)i elles where, 35 



' hriytten: the second t almost effaced. 

» p. 404 b. 

' In the margin: \n a\)OCalipsi, 



88 Joel Prthlsson 

M.Iclii' vindictain & ego retribuain 51 l'"t 's • niyne 
is lic wreclie X- j it schal ^elde . As l)ei3 he seide ne wreke 
uou^th lii seUiea ne guccliet) nou^th . ne warieli nou^th whan a 
man giltej) 30U ac jjencheli |)at lie is ^oure faders^erde & liat he 
5 wil 3elde hyin ^crdes seruise . liat is caste hem in to \)e pyne 
oi' helle hot 31!' iiij amendeu hem here . as jie fader Ijroweli a 
way jje ^erde whan he has beten his ders chiid And ne be|) 
nou3th {)an as vntau^t ciiildren and froward l)at cracchen a^ein 
& bitcH opon |ie ^erd . Ac do^ie as |)e debouer childe do|)e ^if J^e 
10 fader bete]) hym wi]) l)e ^erde he kissel) it it so do ^e . For so 
biddej) ^oure fader l^at 30 ne kisse nou^th wil) niouli one ac \v\\) 
loue of hert hem pat lie betel) 30U wi|i, 

DJligite- inimicos ves^-os . benefacite hijs qui 
o d e r u »i t v o s & o r a t e p >• [) r' ;■ s e (| u e « t i b m s v o s & 

15 ealuwpnian tib?<s vos./ ^ll^is is goddes biddywg lirtt hym 
is wel leuer |iat ^e dude l^an 36 eten harde brede & dranke w'ater 
or wered |je liard haire oifip;' 3utt any ol)er penau«ce . for of alle 
penauHces j)at is [^e raost . Louel) ^oure fooraen, lie sei]) . \' do|)e 
hem good l^at werel) vpe 30U & ^if 36 elles ne mowen . biddep 

20 fast for he»! pat 30U auy yuel doue oi])e/- myssaien dope as t^e 
apostle lernel) . Ne ^elde ^e nou^th yuel a^ein yuel ac ^eldej) euer 
good a^eiu yuel, as dude oure lorde hym self & alle his holy 
halewen & ^if 30 lioldew |)us goddes heste l)au ben 30 his dere 
childrcH liat kissew {le ^erd {)at he ha|) 30U wi|i ibeten . Now saien 

2.") oilier M'hile summe . his soule o\\ier hir jcliill wel louen ac his 
body i)i none wise . & pat nys uou^th to siggen pe soule & ^e 
body nys bot o man & bot^e hew tyt o dome . wiltou I)an delen 
a two |)at god haj) ysamened he forbedet) it & seit), 

Quod^ detjs coniuwxit hojwo non separet.^TNe 
wor{)e * nomau so wode {lat lie to dele a two {)at god l3a{) 
yfastned to gedres. 

Inposuisti^ homiwes supercapita nos/ra.^J)ou haste 
ysett men abouen oure heuedes lorde . pat is to saie {)0u haste 
sett men vpon vs to done vs harn)e and teue forto prouen vs. 



' In the margin: dominus . 
' In tlie margin: dow/uMS, 
» In the margin : d m i n U S 
* p. 405 a. Ne irorjye rim together. 
'^ In tlie niiirgin: dauid 



Recluse 89 

TransibiniM.v' per ignem & a([uani . ^ We sclmllen 
passen by tire and by water . [)at is to saie [toroui fire of 
fondynges . & [lorou; water of anguissch (.t sorou^es . Jjenche .uitt 
on l)is M'ise . l)at childe }it it spurne|) on sum |)ing oijjer hirteji 
it men beten [lat [^ing |)at it hirte[) opon . & [le ehilde is paied 5 
and fofieteli al his hirtt t<: stilie[) his teres . for |ii frouer ^oure 
seluen 

Le t a b i t u r - i u s t u s c u wi v i d e r i t ' v i n d i c t a m ^ For god 
schal done on donies day as [^ei^ lie seide [)us . doustter 
hirte [)is ■* [^e . dude he pe spurne» in wral^l^e o\per in herte sore . lO 
in scherae oil^er in any tene . Looke douitter hou he it schal 
abiggen . Aud \)ere }e sciiulle seeu lie deuels so beten liem wi[) 
her baterels l^at wo hep hem . and ^e schult ben ypaj^ed . pis 
leue[) and ^e schull ben ypaied per of . For ^oure will aud goddes 
wille schutt ben so bounden to gider [)at 36 schutl wii as he l& 
wil, and he as se wil . And ouer alle ol^er l^ouittes l)enche[) euere 
on goddes pyne and in al ^oure anguissch l^at he l)at made al 
[)e werlde of nou^th & weldel) it att his wille . wolde for his 
[)ralles \to\en swich schenschipes . hokers . buffetes and spatelynges . 
blindefeliinge . liornen corouuynge . [)at sete so iu pe heued [)at 20 
[)e bloode stremed adoune . And his swete body bounden uaked 
to a piler and beten so . liat pe derwor[)e blood ran adoune ou 
vche halue . pat attry drynk [nit men hym seuen po hyra [)risted 
opon [)e rode her heuedes schakende opon hym on hoker and 
gradden so loude . Lo here he l)at helel) ol^er meu & may nou^th 25 
heleu hyra seluen . turnel) l^ere vp . whan ich speke hou pat he 
was pyned in alle his fyue wyttes . And ;e schull: seen hou litel 
pat it rechel> to ^ his wo . Al oure wo . sekeuesse & ol^erwhat of 
worde oi^er of werk and al })at nan niay l)oiien a^ein l)at [lat he 
poled " ^nd ^e schul ^ seen hou litel it is perto . and nameiich 30 
5if 36 {)enche l)at he was lol^les and al ])al he suffred nas nou^tli 
for hym selueu bot for vs. For lie ne agylte neuere And ^if 



' In the inarKin: dauid 

' In the margin: proplie/a, 

' viderit: from e ii slight erasure, extending down across two line^^ 

' f)is: on s traces of erasure. 

'' Between to and his: al crossed over and expuncted. 

" On d in poled, l in schul slight traces of erasure. 



flO Joel PAhlsson 

\ve |iolen ' \vo . \ve liaiie wers cle.scrued . iV: al \nit \ve |iolyeu it is 
for oure seluen. 

Go[) now giadlicher - l)y stronj^e waie A: Ijy swynkelul toward 
|)e heiie feste of heuene \)ere as oure glad frendo"'' oure 

6 come iiepel) . pise * besie werldelich - sien gon by {)e grene waye 
toward lie galewes & pe dej) of helle . better is to goo to heuen 
[laii to helle . better is to goo to n)yr|)e wi]) meseise " ^an to wo 
wil) eise . nouith for p&n wrecched werldelich men biggen derrer 
helie |)au goode ineM done heuene, 

10 T TJa'' impiovMJ» couplawtata lapidih«.v'' . \i] cst. 

V duris affIicc?onibi/s, ^ ])e waye of ]pe wicked is sette 

ful of stones [^at is mauy hard trauailes & l^ou^ttes hij han for 

])e goodes J^at hij gaderen here . jjiug to so[)e wite se A mys 

worde J^at ^e ])olie|) . A daies longyuge . a sekeuesse of a stouude . 

15 Jjei", mau cheped of 30U on of l)ise atte day of dome |)at is \)e 
mede |)at arisej) \)ere of . 3e noldeu it selleu for an liuudre]) 
l)0usande werldes of goid i'or |)at schal be joure songe 

LEtati*^ suiuM.v p?-o diebi<.v (luibws uos humiliasti 
auuis quib((.v vidiinus uiala, |)at is . wel is vs mj' 

20 lorde for lio ilclie ^eres liat we were seke .inue & haddeu sore & 
sorou",e Vclie werldelich wo is goddes soudes Mau . And hei^e 
Manues messaHgere Meu oweu hei^elich to vnderfongen & inakew 
hym gladd chere & namelich ^if he is pryue wi]) his lorde . And ' 
who was pryue wi|) \)e kywg of heueue while ' l^at he woned here 

25 in ert^e t l)a« was l)is soudes Man . sorouf, . & wo . J)at is l^e wo of 
})is werlde it ne com ueuer fraui hyiu here vutil his lyues eude. 
J>is Messagere what telle]) he vs . He speke]) to vs on l)is wise, 
God as he loued me seut me to his lef frende . mI come and 
my wouyuge Itei.; 30U it ])cuche attry and hard it is good aud 

30 heleande . Nere jiat |iing griselich in it self whiche |)at men ne 

' Jiolen: above the hne, between e aml )i, :i cunimalike niark, possibly 
nieant for ;'. 

" On the second l in (jladVtcher, n in frcnde, I< in hise, d in irerldeUch 
traces of erasure. 

° me/seise: p. 405 b. 

■* In the margin: Salam with the last two strokes of the m cut away. 

" lapidibns : over p faint traces of an erased letter. 

" In the margin : d a U 

' A red blot, half erascd, oxten^hnf; froni And slantwise down to tlie 
left across thrce lines, has made e in white indistinct. 



Recluse 91 

iui^tli nou^tb wel bilioldeii pe schadewe were so kene and so hote 
Jiat 36 ne miith nou^th w/t/i onten hirt it liolien ! what wolde ^e 
l)au segge of [lat ei^eful * l)ing liat l^e scliadewe com of . j . saie 
3oa forsolie al lie wo of Ijis werlde l^at eue»e was or euere schal 
be til |ie day of dome l^ei^ it were al in on . ^utt ue were it bot 6 
a schadewe to pe iest pyne of helle . Jch am |ie schadewer seil) 
lie Jiessagere pat is - werldelich wo . Nedelich he sei|) ^e mote 
vnderfonge rae oitier Itat griselich wo . {)at ich am of sciiadewe 
For who so vnderfonge|) me gladlich & makel) me gladd chere : 
my lorde sendel) hym worde |)at he is quite of liat ilche wo l^at 10 
ich am of schadewe . pus spekel) goddes siessagere to vs . for \\i 
seil) seint jauogx' 

OMne' gaudium existimatc cum iu tewptacjowes 
varias iucideri tis, ^T Al blisse holdep it brelieren to* 
fallen in diuers fondynges l^at is in ])e vtter * and iu l^e juner 15 

OMnis* discipliua iu presenti videtwr no« e^se 
gaudij se^ meroris postmodj/w fructuw &c, 51 ■'^lle 
1)6 fondynges l^at we beu now wil) yfonded liat vs " jjenchen 
wepe dt uou3th wynne : afterward it iMrnel) ' to wele and to blisse . 
My leue frendes }i\ie\> good kepe herto for |jis is a liing liat 20 
dope mychel harme and reuel) a man grete mede, 
Popule* meus qui te beatificant illi te decipiunt 
51 pis is ^ goddes word {jorou^ ysaie . who ^&t pnnseli 30U 
tofore 30U and sei\) wel is |)e moder liat l)e bare and to goder- 
hele were liou borne in l)is werlde . l)ise " ben l)ine traytours 25 
seil) oure lorde, 

Q« « » fl m " d e 11 s d i s s i p a u i t s s a e o r « »i q u i h »« i « ?'- 
bus placent confusi su)it quoniam (\eus spreuit 



' MS.: heiyful with /1 expuncted. 

' is on erasure. ^ 

» In the margin: Ja alniost effaced. \jMne: 3f altered from m. 

* An interlinear erasure has effaced l in to i^partly) and v in vfter. 
' In the margin: paulus 

" vs partly effaced. 

* p. 40G a. 

* In tlie margin: ias. 
" is possihly on erasure. 

'" Jii.se: i inserted above the line. 
" In tlie margin: uid 



92 Joel Pfthlsson 

eos . 51 ^^'1'' 1'^' l'^'''l l'i'ake her bones for liij ple.seden to men . 
hij bew confounded «iod lia|i forsaken lieni 

VE^ vobis curw oni«ibMs hominihus benedixeri tis . 
V . s . h . &c . ^ Acursed be ^e Jtat alle Jieu biis for fiorou;, 
5 l)at blissynge hij maken 30U fals prophetes ns her faders 
werew . on {)is manere 36 nioten vnderstonden |iis . Wiio ]uit 
loue[) pe more & blissej) for \n catel for hij ho])en to liaue su»^ 
goode of j)e [le more |)Orou3 her Losengerie fau 3if hij seiden 
J)e 1)6 sol)e . And ^if hij hadden |ii catel hij maden htel fors of 

10 \)i soule oij^pr of |)i body . pise ben [^ine traytoMrs . Aud {)at bliss- 
inge l)at l)ou takest of hem . bringe|) l)e to deceyt & puttej) be 
in to a pryde |)orou3 a wel late |)at 1)0U latest of l)i seluen for 
l)at l)Ou arte so praised . And to bodilich harme bol^e . for hij 
bigileu 1)6 of \>\ catel . For l)orou3 her praysynge l)ou ^iuest hewi 

15 1)6 gladlicher of jii good.it |)at 1)0U iosest for hij ben ypocrites * 
and fals prophetes . And ^if l)ou wost pat hij ben swiche . 1)0U 
schalt be pyned l^erfore 1)0U susteynest hem iu her synne l)at 
is iu her ypocrisie . & arte coupable forto be dawipned l)orou3 
hera . Now he\i war of alle swiche . j . rede . for gregori sei]) pat 

20 swiche men & wymmen l)orou3 her faire speche leden l^e folk in 
a greties waye toward helle . For greue waie is soft & fair & so 
ben her wordes . And pprfore sei|) jeremye pe prophete . saye pe 
folk her sof^es . pat is saie hem bo]ie l^e hard & \)e nesche pat 
is speke bol^e of \)e merci of god & of his ri^thwisenesse to geder . 

25 And l)an may he l)at here\) it take which waie l^at he wil . 
whel)er he wii go to helle oil^er to heuene it is in his fre witl, 
for god ha]) ^ouen liym leue to ehese & ha]) warned hym of his 
harme . wharl)orou3 hym l)ar wite nou bot his fre wiU ^if l^at he 
wil alvvay take pe brode way pat hp to hell and leten ])e narou^ 

30 waye l^at li]) to heuene as alle l)ise werldelich men doue . And 
3if a man speke pus of god ])an puttes he hym seluen out of 
perile tofore god . 

NOw 1)6 jnner fondynge is to fold als wel as ])e vtter in 
aduersite & prosperite . l)at is in wele & in wo . \- bol^e l)ise 



' In tlie margin sonie illegil)lo letter.^, possibly 

letter partly ciit aw:iy and s(V) apparently corrccted froni g; a lettei-, half 
erased, above. 

' i/pocrites: es possibly on erasure. 



Recluse 93 

kyiiclelen [le ' jiuier foiidynge . Aduersite is mysliiiyuge . And 
prospmte is likyng \mt likene|) - to syune . ]jis j saie for {)is 
poynt . for \)ere is likyuge Ijat Jieu fongeu mychel mede fore . as 
likynge iu god & i» |)at jiat falleli to liym . pe jnuer foudyug is 
two folde fieselilich & gostHch . FlescheHch as of leccherie & glo- 5 
tonie o\\)er slou|)e . (Jostiich as pride . onde . wraj^tie coueitise . 
])ise beu |)e jnner foudyuges |)e seuene heued synues aud her 
foule kyudles ffeschlicii fondyuges luay beu euened to fote 
wouude . And gostlich foudynges Jiat is more drede of'' for [)e 
l)eril ma\' beu ' eleped breest wounde . Ac vs l)enchet) gretter lO 
lleschlich temptaciouHS for l)at we fele hem aud pe oppr J^ei^ [)at 
we haue hem \ve ne fele hem noufith . & beu {^eif, grete and 
griselich iu goddes eiseu, aud beu for ])i mychel to dredew ^e 
more . for fie o]^er |)at Mcn feleu willew schewe leche & salue . 
Ac pe gostHch hurtes ne t^encheu vs uousth sore aud perfore we 15 
ne seche»' uo sakie of schrift & drawen to J)e de|) er meu lest 
wene . Now willeu ' suwnue saie on t)is mauei-e . ^e t ich am vucu«n- 
ande . j gmunte wel t)is hot o t)ing j chiHe aske t)e . hou & on 
what manere is a mau cuHuande . J chille segge \)e go we first 
to werldelich cu«nyuge . ^if t^o schalt lerne auy werldelich t)inges 20 
])0U raoste haue tiise l)re poyutes . pou nioste haue will & loue 
to lerue it & l)an siue besilich ^i stody l^erto oil^er elles ne schal- 
tow ueuer cu«ne it . And pei} Jie penche hard atte first tyme . 
l)oroui w\\\ and loue l)at |)0u haste forto ierne it . 1)0U entres ju 
litel and Htel . Aud atte last \)e tienchel) it li.^th ^ ynow^ . Aad 2-5 
ri^th ou l)is maue?-e it iare\> by goddes law^e . ^ii pou wilt cuwne 
it and lerne hou l)ou may saue t)i soule . l)ou mostest haue l)ise 
lire . Wilf <fc loue to god . & |)au stodye ierne aboutew what piug 
pat he hal) forboden " |)e . & what he hat) bidden \>e do . And 
lian he schal sende pe cunnyug ynou; . liat al cuwnynge comel) 30 
of . l)at is to saie ^if 1)0U be in good wille for after lii will to 
hym ward he sendel) tie gr«ce and cuwnynge . Now ^if liou wilt 
nou^th 3iue t)i stody forto bryuge bot^e t)i body & \)i soule to 



' p. 406 b. Iii the lefthaml bottora-coiiuT, a hand pointing. 

' Ukenejr. ne inserled ahove the line. 

' o/ — ben probably on erasiire. 

' willen: on e traces of erasiire. 

' li-Jh : traces of erasure on ih. 

' Between forboden and ]>c : me ciossed over. 



94 .loel P:\lilsson 

blisse as jiou doost to bodilich sustcnauiico |iat schal faile ! J)is 
sian oi|ier wowinan ne inay nou^th saie skilfullich |)at hij ne 
loueH |)e werlil niore |iau god Aud pnn jiei^ he reue |)e l)e l)ing 
jiat |iino herte falle|) to most ue blame hyni nouith . 3if 1'' willo 

6 falle to l)e werld 1)0U mostest l)an haue \>e blis of {)is werlde . 
and 1)6 pyne wi|) outen ende . Oil^er l)ou ' moste haue wo & sorou^ 
here k blis wili outew ende . For ich warne 30U forsolie ne may 
uoma»« liauo . |iat is al liis wille here and elles whare For god 
seil) . noman ne may serue two lordes to queme liat is pe werlde 

10 and god . Now may vche man wel seen ])at man mote do l^at in 
hym is . For vche man iV- wowman whan hij comen in to \)\s 
werlde and beu of age hane her fyue wyttes and knoweyng of 
yuel and of good and wiR aud skil forto reule hem by . & mowen 
3iuen hem pan to whel)6??- liat hij wiile« . to good oil)er to qued . 

15 Novv 36 l)at ne euMnen nou^th ue ^ ne willeu nou^th lerne hou 36 
mowen smie god & quemen hym . 36 ne schulle» nou^th onelich 
be taken for vncu/Miandnisse ac 36 schullen be taken for men 
l)at despisen god . For wel wott vche man ^if liat he hadde a 
seruauwt liat coujje nouith serue hyni no wolde nou^th lerne . 

20 he wolde saye ])at he hadde despytt of hym and putte hym a 
way iram hym . Now do we {jan to god as we wolde ptit god 
dude to vs . & make we hym no wers \>an oure sekieu . And ^utt 
he wil saueu vs lian and helpeu vs . And skyl it wolde pat we 
maden hym better ^ Ac wolde we make hym so good as oure 

2.5 seluen . J . ne can fynde nomau ue neuere ne coul^e . and he 
schulde liaue a seruaunt l^at be proue hym er he made hym 
pryue wip hym ^if lie were goode & trewe k profitable to hym 
And 3if he sei^ })at he were nou^th . he wolde putt hym away . 
and take anol^er . Ne blame nomau god l^an l^ei^ he do so . for he 

30 seil) he wil assaye his seruaunt^ er l)at he ^iue hem auauncement . 

AR g e n t u »1 * i g n e e x a m i n a t u »i p r b a t u »n t e r r e )) m r- 
gatum septupluw; . ^ pat is siluer ytried wij) fyre proued 
\>re sil^es seuen fold oilier liere oil^er iii purgatorie . And al l)is 
gret puregeyng is in a niujmes wille . for swiclie wille may a 



' p. 407 a. 

- ne: on e tiaces of erasure. 

° hetter: on the lower part of h a halferaseil blot. 

* In the inarffin: dauid, 



Reilnse 95 

ma» haue liere to god \)nt he wil pMcge hym here \vi|) sekeuesse 
& trauaile & niauy o\)er hannes . so \)at lie sehal haue a glad- 
nesse gostlich in |)e pyue |)at he [joles here so |iat hij ne schul- 
len uou^th deren hyw . & so he ha|> done \vi|) many and ^utt 
dope vche day & dra\ve|) hem softhch vn to hym and al wi|) 5 
lyst . for 1^)6 goode wiH pat hij han to hym . iV |)at was seeu by 
{)e maudeieyne whan pat hire bro|)er was ded . sche com to hy»» 
«& wepe . & for he sei^ hir wepe . he wepe wil» hir i»c arered hire 
brot)e?- als smerthcli . Nomore ne may he suffre now \>at we 
sovowe . & we han goode wille vu to hym as sche hadde bot lif lO 
he alegge it alsone . Aud ^if we gon to ^ purgatori we schulle»» 
be pyued wi|) outen any solas nylle we ne wil we . And many 
seyen wel werc me mi^th ich come |)ider |)at my soule mi^tii be 
pyned j)ere . Wostow 3ian what J)i soule is . |)i soule is pi iyf 
whau pe soule is oute of body . what pyue felej) a mawnes body 15 
J)an . pi body nys bot a clof)iug to \A soule as cloj^ing is here a 
clo{)ing to t)i bodj' . And inore harme it wolde - do pe to be 
beten on |)i naked body pan whan |)0U art cloj^ed Men sej) whan 
j)e fader wil do Jje moder bete hir childe sche wil bidde \ie 
childe crie & bete it on \)e clo[)es . pan may we say pat god 20 
loue[) vs as pe moder do{)e j^e chiide ^ [)at bete[) on his clo|)es 
whan he bete|) vs here vpon oure bodyes & uou^th opon oure 
naked soule . take we [)an his betynge louelich . Holy sien & 
wymmeH of alle fondynges were« strongest yfonded & hem to 
goderhele lor in \>e fi^th a^ein hij bi^eten [)e blisful kempen 25 
coroune . Loo \>e'r-, hou he mene[) hym in Jeremie, 

PErsecutores* nos/ri velociores aquilis celi super 
niontes persecuti suwt nos in deserto subsidiati 
suHt nobis.^I fwt is oure wi[)erwyMnes beu swifter [)au ernes 
opon \te hilles . hij clymben after vs & \wre hij fi^tten wi[) vs 30 
and 3Utt in [)e wildernesse hij spyen vs to slen . Oure wi[)erwyn- 
nes ben [)ise [)re . pe lende \>e werld . oure flesche as ich er 
seide . Li^thlich ne may nouith a man witen o\\)er while which 
of [)ise vs werre|) for vche oue helpe[) o[)er . pei; [)e feude egge 



• p. 407 b. 

' wulde: on ir a lilot pnrtly erased. 

' childc: traces of erasure on c. 

' In the mar^iin : Je 



<)6 .locl Pfthlsson 

vs to priiJe . to \vra|i|ie . oi|i*7- onde . & to her attri kyiulels ttat 
bea here after yuempned . pe Hessche puttej) |ie>-to swetuesse & 
softnesse . & ese . J)e werlde bidde]) inaH * wisshen werldelich wele 
and o\)er swich vay« glories Ijat bi duelle|) cauiouns to louieu & 
5 so hij don . |)ise fon he seij) folowen vs ou hilles it waiten vs 
iiou Imt iiij moweu vs liaruien . HuH [)at is holy iyf bitolcned 
|iere [)e deuel eusautes oft beu strengest . By wilderuesse is bi- 
toicned onelich lyf . For also as iu [)e wildernesse beu wilde bestes 
\- willeM nouith [)oleH maMues anoliiwg ac flen whan |)at hij 

10 lie)H heren . ri^th so schulden ouelich Bien & wywmeu ben wilde 
ou [)is wise . <fc [)an hij ben swete & lef to oure lorde . & swete 
hym |3euche|) hew . for wilde flesch is swetter [)au olier fiesch . 
Ju [)is wildernesse went oure lordes folk as Exode telle[) toward 
[)e blisful loude of jerw.wlem |)at he hew hadd bihoten . aud of 

15 alle [iat weuten out of Egipte ue couiew bot two to Jeviisaleai . 
Josue i*i: Oalaphe pat god ne slou^ hem for her synue . of sex 
huudre|i [)0usaude of sieu wi[i outen wy/Huien \- children . & 
seruauHts . so hard - [)e„deuel tempted hem iu wildernesse . And 
[lere it was bot fourti dayes iourne hij wereu fourty wynter iu 

20 goynge and al for her synue aud her grucchi«g J)erfore be|) 
war who [)at seche[) onelich lyf er he be proued for he may 
li-ithlich myskarien for [le deuels assautes ben hard [)ere it queyut . 
And alle goddes childer takeu [)e waye toward [)e heiie blis of 
jen^salem abouen . pat is [)e kyngdom of heueu [lat he ha[) bi- 

25 hoteu bis choseu . J rede [)at we go wel warlich . for iu pis waie 
[)at uys bot wilderuesse beu yuel bestes mauy . pe Lvouh of 
pride . pe Neddre of attri oude . pe Vnicorue of wra[i|)e . J)e 
Bere of heuy slou[)e . Fox of wisshyuge . Sowe of seuernesse . 
ScorpiouH wi[) [)e tail of styugynge leccherie . J)ise ben Jie seueu 

30 hede synues , 

PE' LyouH of pride lia|i * fele whelpes Vana gloria. vayu 
glorie . pat is a Mau [)at lete[) wel of hym seluen &, of [liug 
[)at he de|)e and wold ben yp)-rtsed [lere of wi[) word oijier \v'\p 
aqueyutauHce . oi|)e)- [lorou; Maistrie [)at lie can do more [)au 



' man: m partly effaced. 
» p. 408 a. 

' In tlie Diargin: perbia in fainter black ink, aiiparently in a ilif- 
ferent hand. 

* liaj) : over a flislit erasure. 



Kfchise 97 

ano|ier . \- \ns i\ri\\\o\> myehel to religioii» Aiul \tero it biconiel) 
als wel as who so putt agoKi ringe in a swynes nose . for nomore 
bicomef) it vn to hem be wel ypaied iif raen p/aise hem yuel 
ypaied ^if Men mysprased hym & saie nou^tli al Iiis wilt, Judig- 
nacioun is anojie»- whelp . Jjat is |)at hyw |ienche|) scorne of any s 
l)iug {)at he see|) by o\)er oi|)pr here]) and ne kepe|) noufith be 
chastised of lower l)an he is . Ypocrisie is anol)e>' whclp |)at 
U3ake|) hym better liau he is . Presuwpcioun. auo|)er . |)at is nyme|) 
more on honde |)an he may do . oi\ter is to ouer trosty of goddes 
mercy oi|)er to bolde toward hym . oij^er to trosti opon hym lo 
seluen . o\\)er entermetej) hym of [)ing \vit ne falle|) nousth to hym . 
Jn t'is poynt han |)ise clerkes sett hem hij pat seien \>&t noman 
schulde pjTche of god bot ^if he were ordred Ac hij ne loken 
nou^th l)ere what her ordre is For j saie hem forsol^e peiy \)&t 
he be a Pope . oil^er Bisschope . Mouk . oif)er Frere . & he be in 15 
dedlich sywne . he is out of ordre . & ferrer frrtm l^e grace of 
god fian a lewed Man l)at uon ordre hal) taken of holy chirche 
bot his cristendom & is in clene lyf And j saie 30U forsol^e god 
holdel) better by pe foulest myster Man liat lewed is & kepep 
hym out of dedlich synne & louel) god & dredel) hyw . lian of 20 
alle Men \)at haue taken ordre & dignite and lyueu after her 
fieschlich likyuges . for hem ne louefi he ri^th nou^th . for hij ben 
his enemyes & werren . a^eins hyra als longe as hij han l)at wille . 
& alle l)at susteynew hem schuti it abuggen . And god vouches 
better saf \)a.t swich a lewed Man speke of hym . fian auy of hewi 25 
as ' 36 * han in l)is boke tofore l^at he wil reproceu hem whi 
liat hij speken of hym, aud seint Austin seil) \)&t we clerkes 
lerne for to go to lie pyne of helle . and lewed folk lerne to go 
to lie ioye of heuene . 

Effusa* est contencio super principes & errareso 
fecit eos &c . ff Strif and wral^l^e is 3ote« opon pe priuces 
& made hem forto erren out of pe ri^th waie . J)at is to saie hij 
3auen heni to delices of her bodies and god lete hem han her 
wille and after kast hem to helle, 



^ as: a partly effaced. 

' p. 408 b. 

' In the margin: pA^almts/a, 



98 Joel Piiblsson 

ET' ailiuuit |i:uiprreH) de iiiopia, ^ And iie liaip |te 
poupre out of lier inesaise and suwnie wil saie where lered 
he of diuinite . liou Ijicomej) hyni forto speken of god her to Hl) 
gode answere . where ierned Peter & Poule diuinite . Jerome & Am- 
fi brose and Gregori . of whow ierned |)ise Men . whel^er comen hij 
to lier wytt j^orou;, \>e holy gost . o\])er l)orou5 stody of gret 
clergie . J saie {)at iiij hadden it of god & nou^tli fioroui her 
stody ne I^orou, lier lernynge . it ich vnderstonde |iat J^ise were 
good Men . for by hem is holy chirclie yreuled now . Aud icli 

10 vnderstonde & wott wel |)at god is now als redy for to helpe 
lewed men as he was l^au J^at liym wil loue & serue And wite 
3e wel l)at it is now als mj-chel nede as it was pan l^at liastise 
l)e clerkes wif) l^e lewed Men forto schewe his myth as he ha]) 
alway done lier toforne . for holy wrytt is ful l^erof I^at sei^) whan 

15 syune rai;th nousth be chastised wi]) man . god it chastised And 
loke now ^if synne may be chastised wij) Man . nay it is meyn- 
tened by hem l^at schulden ben heuedes and chastisen it . so \)nt 
it is |)e more for summe |iat holde« mennes wyues & le*Hmaus 
& liij han siluer for to ^iuen . hij han leue for to serue j^e deuel 

20 al att her wille . And sumrae seyn pat hij han ben atte holy 
chapiter & made her pes liat hij mowen holden her le?>aiian & 
lyuew in l)e deuels seruise att her lyk\^uge . And perfore j raay 
saie hardilich & vche raau J^at kuoweynge ha|) of god {)at he it 
wil chastise . for biguwnen he hal) . For ])\s loiide is departed in 

25 l)re . in wynners & in defendours . & in assaillours . pe wynners 
1)0 ben l)e cojHmune poeple & hi] han beu chastised wil) hunger . 
|)e defendoures l^at ben l)ise grete Lordes l^at schulde)? defende 
1)6 commune poeple . hij han ben chastised wij) liongeynge . ct 
draweynge . here is proue of ynoui alle Men it witew wel . ])e 

30 assailours l^at is pe clergie l^at schulde teche bolie l)at on & I)at 
ol)er pe law^e of god & chastise he)w ^if l)at hij dude;» amysse . 
And as by sisth in fie werlde hij pat* schulden beu chastisoures 
ben meynteuoMres ^ of sywne and hij ben vnchastised 5utt . Bot 
drede hew nousth pere of god ne ha\t nou^th for^eteu hem . Jje 

35 wil penche opon hem whan he sq\i his tyme . .4c ^if jesus hadde 



In the iiiargin: V salm i sf (l , 

p. 409 a. 

meijntenomes : .s po.s.aibly a corroction. 



Recluse 99 

a trewe prelate he wolde rajie»- be lionged & drawen [ifrfore [lau 
he suffred his lord be so reuileil as he is . Aud ich am riith 
siker he ue schulde nou^th repeuten hym liei^ he ^ede to |)e dej) 
twrfore uomore pau ope;- holy sieu han toforn hym . Now go we 
a^ein to oure matier . Juobedieuce liat is he jiat nyl nou;th be 5 
tau^tt of his OuerUng ne of his vuderlyug . ue beu buxum to 
his prelate ne parischen to his prcest ^if hij beu of good raauers 
And 3if he ne be iiue worschipe to j)e ordre & nou^th vn to 
hym for god forbede|) |)e his compaiguye bot in hope for to 
ameuden hym . Mau be buxum to his siaister pe Maideu to lur 10 
dame . |)e iower to pe heiser . Loquacitate, pat is he pat is of 
mychel speche . 3elpel) . deme[) . hiel) oi|)erwhile . vpbraidej) . chidej) . 
stirel) lei^tter . Blasf emie, pat is he [^at swerel) grete oj^es ^ . {)at 
bitterlich curse|) oi|)er mysseil) by god oi|)er by auy of his Halewen 
for any J)ing J^at he sel) oij^er herej) . po\ep oi|)pr redej) . jupacient 15 
p&t is he |)at nys nou^th liolemode a^ein all sorou^es & alle yuels. 
Co7etumacie [)at is l)iug l)at a mau ha[) iu hert for to done be 
it good be it qued l)at no wiser red may hym out bryuge of l^at 
riot . Contenciow. pat is stryf to ouercomeue ^at ou [^enchel) 
wh«n he ha^) ouercomew & [lat o]^er is crauant . & he naister 20 
of pe ple . & criel) as champiou» |)at he hali ygeteu \>e place . 
And si|)en vpbraidep al [)at yuel - [^at he may ' on [)at o^er bi- 
[)enchen . & euere [)e more hij seien pe better it like[) hem [^eis 
it be of [)ing [)at was biforn honde araeuded fele ^eres . Her 
amouge ne risel» nou^th one bitter wordes ac ben ful stynkeand*. 25 
schemeles & schendeful . & sum tyme wi[) grete opes many & 
proude . Here to falle[) eueuiwg of hem seluew of her cowmuue 
saw^e . Hij [)at gon to schrift wi[) swich mou[) . hij ne han uo 
will to herie god wi[) song oijier biddyuge to hym of any bone . 
for her mou[) stiuke[) fouler tofore god [)a« any roteu dogge . 30 
Seuiblaunce* is auo[)er whelp . [)«t is wi[) sigues . bereaude hei^e 
[)€ heued . crenge wi[) [le swire . Loken on side . Biholden on 



• ilS.: hofes with h crossed out. 

' yuel: ij altered, probably from q. 
' may: ij apparently a correction. 

* sti/nkeand: over the first ii a curved stroke, evidently the beginning 
of an untinished k. 

' Seniblaunce: S on erasure. 



inn Jocl Pi'.lil.ss.in 

lioker . wviik \\i|) |iiit oii ei.^e . bciule \vi|) |)e moul) . iiuikeii mowe . 
scornen o\\i>r wif) houde oil)er wif) heued . Suetelich syugeu . 
werpen legge ouer o\ier sittand . gou styf as hij werew stichen . 
oiljer gou stoupeande for pride . loue lokyug opo» meu oi|)er Man 

5 opow wowman . speken as jnuoceHt . whlispew for pe nones ' Alle 
pise & mauy rao clejjed to ouer girt as meuiuge . oi|)er heiseinge . 
iu pinchinge . iu girdels girdynge of^ damoiseis . wise uebbes de- 
peyutyuge ' wi]) sj'»2ueres ciaustringe oiper foule fiitterjmge . 
teywtoure* of here bei^es •'' . liteiuge ^ . browes wliineriug oi])e/- 

10 beucheu hem vp ward wi|) wete striky«ges Many |)f-/'e ben |)at 
come;* from pe welle of pride . of heise lyf . of hei^e kynde . of 
fair clo{) . of wytt . of streug|)e . of lioiy l^ewes come}) pride Ac 
I)ere j goo swi{)e . stody 39 louge . for j go h^th and do bot 
nempue hem . And of o word ^e niay fyude ten oil^er twelue . 

15 Ac wlio so ha)i any of pise j^at ich haue yuempned hij han 
pride hou so her kirtel is ischaped .'^e . |)ei3 hij makeu sleues ' 
of |)e side gores aud feden |je lyouji whelpes iu lier breest |)at 
is in Iier hert 

PE neddre of attri oude Iiali liise kyudlen . jugratitudo, 
Jjat is he pat nys nou^th ykuowen of goode dede |)at men 
done hym o\}^er ]eie\) htel |)ere of oj^er for^ete]) it wij) alle j ne 
segge nou^th one . |)at meu done hym . ac |)at god dolie hym 
oiJ)er haj) ydone iiym vuderstondef) ^if a man were w'el be|30U3th 
meu nymel) here of litel ^eme of ))is vn])ewe and is {jei^ lol^esf 
2r, to god & most a^ein his grace .Raucor sine odio^ pat is 
hatynge of gret hert and berej) it in hert . Al is attri to god 
l)at^ hij euere wirchen . pe l^ridd is of|)enchiuge of o])ers goode . 
pe fierj^e is gladschipj) of o]iers harmcs li^end oil^e)- gabbende 



' no/ties: p. 409 b. 

' girdynge of run closely togetlior. 

' depeyntynge : the fourth letter look.s like 0, the lower curve of the e 
probabl}' being effaced. 

* teyntoure: the first letter nncertain; possibly c. 

•■■ hei^es: the fir.st letter indistinct, thc lower part hein}.; blotted. 

" liteinge: li possibly corrected froiu h. 

' sleues: the third letter not quite clear. 

' lopest: est prohably on an erasure extending down across ne od (in 
sine odio), which stands below in the following line. 

' pat: on a traces of erasure. 



Recluse 101 

opon hym ^if hym mystyde . pe fyft is wrayynge . pe sext is 
bakbitynge . vpbraidynge . oi[)e/- scornynge 

PE ' vnieorne of wrajilie pnt ha|) |ie liorne in pe heued |iat 
he sle|) wi|i |i£jt he may come - by . ha|) |)ise whelpes . pe 
first is cheste . |)al oper^ stryf . Anope/- wodeschipp . biholde pe 5 
eise & {)e nebbe whau he is wro[) . biholde pe contenau»?ce * opon 
his lates oi|)cr on hir . biholde hou pe mou[) ge[) & [lou may 
iugge [)at hij ben wode & chau»(ged out of mannes kynde in to j 
bestes kynde . For kynde of man aujtt to ben mylde . pe fyft 
whelp is strokes . pe sext is wil {)at yuel bitidd on hem oi[)er lO 
opon her freudes . o\])er on her godes . and do for wra[){)e amysse . 
& ieten forto done we) . forgon n)ete oi\ter drynk wreken hem wi[) 
teres ",if hij elles ne moweu . & wij) wariynges to tereu her here 
for tene . oi[)er ou o{)er manere harmen hem in soule & in body . 
pise ben omicides & mur[)erers of hem seluen . 15 

PE* bere of slou[i hap [lise whelpes Torpor . is {)e first [lat 
is wo . {)at ha{) wleche hert " {)at schulde brewnen al in {le 
loue of god . |)at o{)er is . Pusillanimitas ' pa is to pouere 
hert & to arow^e wi{i all any [ling to vndernyme»? iw hope* of 
goddes help . & in trust of his suete grace & nouith of her 20 
streng{)e . pe [)ridde is.cordis grauitas, pat is while he 
wirche{) good wi{) heuy hert & grucchyMg pe fiert)e is ded sorowe 
for losse of any werldelich [ling oi{)er of frendes . oi\)er of pench- 
inge bot for sy»ne pe fift is ^emelesschip to siggen oiber to done . 
oi\>er mysbisene . oi[)er [)encheu . oi{)er myswiteu [)iug [)at he ha[) 25 
to 5eme, pe sext is wanhope of goddes mercy aud of his help . 
& |)is is werst of alle . For it to frete[) god . & tochewe{) his 
mercy & his grace, 

Pe fox of wisschinge ha|i [lise wlielpes . Treccherie & (tIIc . 
pise gon wide & her strenglie fals witnesse . o{)er {)at do|i 30 

' In the margin, jis p. 96, n. 3: Jra 
' coDie: m touched up. 

" /ml oj/er run together at the enii of the hne. 
* contenaunce: aii squeezeil together. 
'■ In the margin, as n. 1 : accidia 

" wleche hert run together at the end of the line ; e in hert almost 
effaced. 

' PusilMnimitas: as touched up or corrected. 
" p. UO a. 



102 Joel Pfililsson 

Syuionye . Gouel . Okor . Fastschipp Piuchiug . Sywuyug of her 
goodes . o^eueuiwge oi|)e>- laueuinge . inansaust . oij^er while \)\se 
vujiewes is to |)e Fox yeueued for mauy resoues . to wil ' we 
siggeu raychel . gyle is in |)e fo.x aud so is iu t)e wisschiuge of 

5 werldelich goodes, to bi^eten hem . Jje fox astranglej) al a flok 
l^eis he ne uiay bot ou soukeu . And also a wisscher- aske|) J^at 
many l^ousaudes mystten be filled^ of Ac \)er-, his hert to brest 
he ne maj' bryuge ou hym selueu bot o mawnes deie . Al |)at a 
man oil^er a wowmian wilne|) more pan he uiay scarshch leden 

10 pe lyf by vchone after his state . is bigyuny«g & roote of dedHch 
sywne . Jjat is ri^th rehgioun l^at vchone after his state boi'owe 
of l)is wrecched werd als litel as he leste may of Jiete . dryuk . 
oijier cloj) . And alle ojier {^inges . NoteJ) J)at j sigge vchon after 
his state for J)at worde is fej)ered ^e may J)at wyte ^e wel fynde 

15 iu u)any wordes mj-chel streugj^e aud vnderstoudyug . For sif j 
schul writen al louge it were er icli com to J)e eude . 

PE sowe of fiiueruesse is glotonye pat haj) many pigges . & 
|)us hij ben ycleped pe first ete to erlich anol^er to late . 
Jje |)rid to hastilich . pe fierj^e to fleschlich . pe fyft to mychel . 
20 pe sext to ofteu . & in dryuk more * J)an iu mete . Of J)ise j speke 
schortlich . for vche mau may vuderstoude iu his oweu wytt J)at 
it is a spice of dedlich sy«ue . aud ^if he be custuiuable l^erto 
it is dedlich . 

PE scorpiou of styukaude Leccherie uyl ich uousth uempuy . 
for J)e foule fiij)e of J)e foule name for it miith doue harme 
iu to clene hertes . Ac Jiise J)at ben cowmune whiche pat lueu 
kuowej) wel Jie more harme is to mauy . horedam aud spouse- 
breche . gederinge bitwixeu sibbe fieschlich o\\>er gostlich pat is 
in many mauere dedlich . J)at is to hau wille to J)at fillel) wij) 
30 skilles setinge J)at is whan J)e skil & J)e^ wille acorden & J^e" 
hert ue wij^seij) ' it nou^th bot wilnel) it & 3erue|) it Jiat Jie flesche 
prikej) aud huntej) \iere after wiji woweyuge wiji lokynge . wij) 



' to u-il wiitti'11 closelv to^ether. 

^ MS.: ifhissclier witli the first h expuncted. 

' MS.: fiUend with n expuncteil. 

■• morc: r a corroction for J>. 

" J)e: e partl y cflaced. 

" p. 410 b. 

' MS.: wil) seiji, connected by ;i liyphen. 



Recliise 103 

tollynge . wili gydy lauUter . wi[t hore ei^e . \vi|i inany li^tli lates 
wi|5 3ift . wi{) collyng.wi^) loue speehe . wi|i cusse wi|) gropynge . 
sett stede & tyine for to come« pis is al dedlich syuue of [)ise 
nieu . hij moteu wi|)drawen hem [)at nyllen nou-;th in |)at foule 
til[)e fallen as seint Austyu seij) 5 

DJmissis ^ occasibws que solent adituw aperire 
peccatis potest consciencia esse incolurais, 
5[ f)at is . who [tat wil his inwitt witeu al cleue fer he most flei^e 
J)at fetles {)at is wone oft to ben yopened . pat jugonge [^at letel) 
jn synne . J . ne dar nousth for drede speke |)ere of ne writen . 10 
lest o\}ev beu ytewpted pcre of . Ac ich warne 50U of her gidilich 
kyndels and gidilicli liitters For hou so it euer is yqueyut it is 
dedlich synue ^if it be wakeand and willes wip fleschlich likyng 
bot 5if it be in wedlok . And bot hij it tellen openlich iu schryft 
as hij it deden |)at felen hem gilted . elles hij ben ydampned to i& 
l)e pyne of helle forto echen j^at fyre . Nou it is to witen whi 
icb haue ynempned pride to LyouK aud alle l)ise oper diuers 
bestes wip outen pis iatter . whi Leccherie is likned to [le scor- 
pioun Loo here pe skiH . pe scorpiouw is a worme \)at ha\) sum- 
del 1)6 heued likued to womman . and nedder it is bihynde»? and 20 
makel) fair semblaunt it Hkelel) wili |ie heued and styuget) wi}) 
[le tayl 

QUi* apprehendit* raulierejw est quasi qui appre- 
hendit scorpionewi . ^ Who so takel) a wowmaw on 
honde he takel) as he toke a scorpiouw Jtat wolde styngen hym . 25 

5f pis leccherie is {)at deuels best . p&t he lede]) to chepynge & 
to vche gaderynge & he chepe{) it to sellen and biswikel) many 
forwhi l)at hij ne biholden nou^th l)ot pe fair heued pat heued 
is pe gynuyng of al galnesse of s^^nne & ])e likyng wliile it 
lastel) {)at hem lienchel) swil^e swete . {)e tayl is lie ende pere of 30 
{)at is sore oflienchyng & styngel) lierwil) attre of bitter byrew- 
ynge & of dede . bot sikerlich hij mowen siggeu l)at l)e tayl 
swich yfyndel) er l^at attre a ge{) Ac ^if it ne smert hem nou^th 
1)6 tayl & {)at attry eude . {lan is it forto eche wi^) \)e pyne of 
helle And nys he nou^th a foule chapman whan he wil buggeu 35 



' In the inargin: Angustinif.'^. 

- In the margin: SalaniO», 

' appreliftidit: between h and e traces of erasure. 



104 Jofl P:'ililsson 

an Ox . oi|)er an liors . ^il' lie nyl nou^lh bihelilen bot |ie heucil 
one . And 1'orl^ii whan |)e deuel bedel) forl) his beste & chepef» it 
to sellcn . lic hidej) enrre \^e tayl & schewel) for[) |)e heued . Ac 
go 30 ai abonte» i'*: lokel) toward [lat ende . & to \>e gynnyMg & 
5 hou |)e tayl styngel) . ' And swil^e flei^e ]irrfi-anuvard ]ial }e ne 
be non^th yattred . 

M.T leue childer |)e;-e we gon in wiidernessc w?t/i goddes foik 
toward jerM«deni jjat is toward |)e holy londe |)at is [)e 
hei^eriche of heuene . in J)e waie J)iderward beu l^illech bestes & 

10 pillich worraes . ne wot ich no synne |)at it ne niay leide to on 
of |)ise seuene oiper to her strenes . Vnstedfast bilene a^ein holy 
lore uys it of pride . .inobedience ne falle)) it to sigaldrie fals 
takynges leuynges fals sweuenes & all wichcraftes nymynge 
of housel in any heued synne . oiJ)er in any o\>er sacrement . 

15 nys- it a spice of pride |)at Men clepen . Presumpci 0, ^if Jian 
wot what sy«ne it is . &' ^if a man wot* it nouith . [lan is it 
lemeles vnder |)e synne of sIou[)e . He is slow J)at nyl nouht 
seke remedie to hym selueu . oi[)er helpe o\)er sif he may oit^er 
can of her yuel & of her lere of soule . J)is sian o[\)er wowman 

20 is sleyu for defaut of ^emynge . ty|)ing . amys ne comej) ^ it of 
onde . oil)ef atholde fyndels lanf' amys nys it coueitise oi|)er j^ift . 
And atholde oliers hure nis ' it stronge rifeling . 3'f ^an ^emeles- 
lich make any J^ing wers |)at is ient oi|)er tauit to witen * j^au 
hij wenen l^at owen it nys oi\)er treccherie . oi|)er semeles slaustt . 

25 AIso reccheles hest o\per yplisth folilich trewj) . longe beu vn- 
bisschoped . falslich go to schrift o\\-ier to longe abiden . ne teche 
|)e pater no.itev & pe crede to god childe . Jjise & l^eliich oper ben 
ylaide to sleuj) |)at is pe fier|)e Moder of |)e seuen synnes Jiat 
fordope childe wi|) drynche . oi|)cr fordo|)e |)at no childe raay on 

30 hir ben ystrened . fjise ben mansleers vnder 1)0 |iat ben ywriten 



' p. 411 a. 

^ nys : y probably by correction. 

' «6 added above the line. 

* MS.: whot witli h expuneted. 

^" comef) : J> toucljed up or conected. 

° lant: nt on erasure. 

' nis: ni possibly by correction. 

' witen: on i traces of erasure. 



Recluse 10» 

And here a Man niay ^if he wil of alle mauer syunes take eu- 
sample by l)ise seue« bestes. 

PKoude Meu ben [ie deuel Beemers & drnweu wynde jnward 
& outward of werldelich^ worschipes [mt gadre}) it inward 
aud puffe)i it outward as benier dolie make|i noise & loude drem 6^ 
to makeu her gle . Ac ^if hij wel bi[iou3tteu hem ou goddes bee- 
mers atte day of dome of aungels pnt sclmllen comeu ou foure 
half {le werlde and seien . ariseji ^ee dede & comeli to |ie dome 
pat 3ee mowen sore adreden forto ben ydawjpned ^ere no proude 
Bemer ne schal ben ysaued 3'^ ^ij wel bi{iou3tten hera on [lis lo 
hij nolden nou^th bloweu in fie deuels dy?«rae beme . of [lise 
beraers speke|i Jereraie, 

ONager- salitarius in desiderio a«i»ie sue attrrtx- 
uit ventum amoris sui, 5T Of {>e wynde draweynge 
jn for |ie loue of werldelich ernynge . * suwme ])f)e beu jogeloures 15 
pat cuwne seruen of nou ojier gle bot* make cherres & wrencheu 
wi{) moul) mys stulleU wi|i {le eiien . of liis myster pan serueji 
^e ondeful vnseli in [)e deuels court to bryngeu on lauitter her 
oudeful lorde Biholde nou of |)ise hou hij faren whan jiat hij 
hereu \te good hij wreuchen away and stoppe?? her eren |iat hij 20 
ne heren it nou^th . ac |ie loue a^ein Jiat yuel is eucce yopened 
redj' [lau he wreuche|i |ie mouji whan he turnel) [le good vu to 
yuel . And ^if it is sumdei yuel raake[) it wers . pise ben for- 
quiders her owen prophetes . pise bodeu toforue hou [ie deueleu 
schuUeH rapehch glutten hem [lorou^ her grennyng . & hou hij 25 
schuUen hera seluen grewnew & maken lo[ily serablauwt for [le 
raychel anguisch in [ie pyne of helle . Ac hij beu )ie lesse to 
witen for [lat biforue honde hij leten her myster to maken gryra 
chere *, 

PE wra|i[)eful biforc [le fende skirrae[i wi[) swerd & wi[i knyf . 30 
llij ben his knyf werpers k plaiers wi[) swerdes and beren 
hem by [ie scharp ordes vpon [)e tunges . Swerd & knyf oi[)er 
be[) keruande . worde \)sxt hij werpe[) fram hera & kerue[i toward 



• icerldelich : the second letter, wliich is run togetlier with the followiny 
)-, the syllable being the last in the line, loolis more like o. 

' In the margin : Jererajas, 
' p. 411 b. 

* gle bo (in bot) on erasure. 

'•" chere: on the lirst e traces of erasure. 



10r> .T(.i>l rs^lilsson 

oljcr . Aiul liij beden' bou jie deucl scbullen playe \\i|i beui \vi|) 
ber scbarpe cloches . aud crokes . & skirmen vvi|) hem al abouten 
it dunehen bem as pilclic cloutcs vciie vntoward ojjer . & \\i|i 
belle swerdes smyten hem |iorou;, out |i:it l)eu |ie keruande pynes 
i> ot' belle, 

SLeu{)e lij) ;uul .siepeji «n lie deuels barme as iiis dere der- 
lyng . i |)e deuel lai|) his totel toward his ere & totelej) bym 
al J)at he wil . For so it is sikerlich who so is ydel of good wer- 
kes |)e deuel totelej) hym ^erne & \>e ydel vnderfonge]) louelich 
10 his lore . Ydel & ^emeles |)is is jie deuels barme slepe . ac bij 
scbull: on domesday arisen gr\'»imelich & abrayen wi[) |)e drede- 
ful drem of 1)8 aungels bemen . & iu helle wonderlich awaken, 

SVrgite Mortui qui iacetis in sepulcbris.surgite 
& venite ad iudiciu»? saluatoris, 51 I>e coueitouse 

1.5 jian ba|) swich a bay {)at be li|) euere in \)e askes & askes al 
ahouteji bym i)c bisilicb stirej) bem to rokely bem to hepes & 
blowel) l)(?re jnne & blyudel) hym seluen . po|)erel) & makel) l^ere- 
inne figwres of augryme to rekenen And pis is al 1)6 conions 
blis . And ^e fende biholdel) |)is game» and lei^el) l^at he brestes . 

20 Wel. may vche wise nau wite pat gold & siluer uys askes . & 
ablewte vche sian Jiat bem - jnne blowen & bolnel) bym liorou; 
hem in hert pride And al l^at he rokelel) & gaderel) to geders & 
atholde}) of auy l)ing nys bot askes, ^ uiore l^au it nedel) to hym . 
& it schal in helle worl^en to frouden & to nedders . & be as 

25 ysaye \ie prophete se\\> bis couerture & his wbittel schuUen he?t 
of wormes 

SVbter* te sternet«r tinea tt operimentum tuum 
vermis, 51 I>e gloton is \>e feudes Mauwciple he stykel) 
euer i« l^e seler . oil^er m pe kychin his hert is \n \)e disches . his 
30 l)0U3th is in l)e nappes . his lyf is iw l)e tuwne . bis soule is in 
l)e crokke . lle comel) bifore bis lorde bismoked & bismered . A 
dische iw his on ho«de a scbale in bis ol^er . & biboldel) his gret 
wombe & pe fende ]e\}e\> . \ms pjrcbel) vs god l)orou3 ysaye . 

• beden : d touched up or corrected. 

■' liem : i a correction on erasure. 

» p. 412 a. 

■* In the miirgiu: aias 



Recluse 107 

SErui' nioi comedent vt vos esurietis, Myne 3ien 
schullew eten & soure schulle» haue hungere and 30 schuUen 
ben \te fendes fode werlde wi]) outen ende, 

Q\'autu>«- se glorifieauit & in delicijs fuil tantu»i 
d a t e i 11 i 1 r ni e n t u w & 1 u c t u w i n a p o c a 1 i p s j c n- 5 
tra vnum poculum quod miscuit miscite ei duo,5T Jon 
pe ewrtngelist seif» ^iue |)e gloton |ie coppe he fiat wil euere 
drynk . Coppe in glotonye ^iue hy/» wellande bras to drinken & 
}ete\> it in his wide (^rote ^at he swelt inwi|)' on iiue hym to 
|)illich is goddes dome in \>e Apocalips. 10 

PE Lecchoures* iu \te deuels Court han ri^th her owen name 
for in |)ise grete Courtes pat iren clepen Lecchoures Jjat han 
forlorne schame [^at secheu hou hij raowen most Leccherie done 

DE continewtibt/s dicitM/.Hij suwt qui cu»» Mulie- 
ribw.* noH sunt coinquinati, ^T I>e lecchowrs in pe 15 
deuels court defoulej) hem selue» foulelich . & her felawes alle 
styken of Jiat filfie & payej) wel his lorde wi{) l)at stynkyug bre{) 
better J)an he schulde wi|) any recles . Jt paie]) wel pe deuel |)at 
hij ben strongelich pyned . & [^at is wonder for her pyne is \)e 
more for hem . And J)erfore ^e deuels haten hem . & han gret 20 
envie to hera . And \te more pyne j^at ^e soules han pe bettere 
it likej) J)e deuels . And ^er-, her pynes schal pyne» hem . Hou 
J)ise lecchowrs stynken . Jn vitas patru»» it tellej) J>at J)e 
Aungel schewed it vn to an holy man J)at helde his nose for 
J)e proude lecchowr J)at com ridawd* J)ere & nouith for J)e roten 25 
cors J)at he halpe J)e Errayte to beryen . Ouer alle oJ)er J)an han 
{)ise J)e stynkeandest pyne in helle J)at so baj)en hem in Lecche- 
rie . for \>e deuel schal pyne hem wij) J)at stynk . Summe Man 
oiJ)er womma» wene Jirtt hij schnU in \te first ^ere . whan J>at hij 
bigywnen to serue god ben hardest ytemptedt uay it nys nou^th 30 
so . noiJ)er in Jje first ne in J)e secou«de . & also whan hij han 



" In the niargin: aias 

• In the marsin: . , with a pnrtlv cut awav. 

* apo*'/olM.* 

' Between intcip and on a blank, large enoujjh for about five letters; 
no traces of erasure are distinguishable. 

* Lecchoures: the second c appears merely as a blot on the h and ia 
evidently squeezed in subsequently. 

' )-iV/and: diid squeezed tofrether, the word being the last in tho line. 



108 .loel 1'Ahlssnn 

serued god fele ^eivs . & lier tewptacions beii awaye . hij beu 
adradde |)at god ha|) for^eten hern . & ne loue]! hew nou^th . it 
ha|i forsakon ' hem . Nay in \)e first serc ue in jiat o|)er nys it 
hot iiai play . ac nyn3e|) seme hou it tare)) by a forbiseu whau 
5 a Jian wedde|) liis wyf il- iiolde|i liir al softelicli fiat |)ei3 sche 
trespas he ne talve|i uo ienie jiere of Ac fonde|) to ih"awe her 
loue to hym so |iat sche loue liym inwardHcii i» hert . And whau 
he vnderstonde[) t^at sche loue|i hym wel |ian whan sche mysdo|)e 
he schal reprouew hire k chastise liir louelich . k sett sum ey^e 

10 to hir k chastise hire so . Aud sche no loue|) hym neuer \)e lesse 
peU |)at he do hir duresse i^- - bynyme hir her vnj^ewes . And ]iat 
he do{)e liire duresse he dol^e forto turuoH her loue f»'am hym- 
ward and turnefi to j)e grym tol^e . And he see]) |)an {)at sche ne 
loue|) hym neuer pe lesse & pat he vnderstondej) for wel ne for 

15 wo l)at sclie nyl uousth chauugen her loue ac euere dope better* 
and l)ette?- . Jjan wott he wel l)at sche loueli hym faililich . And 
l)an le ]ete\) of al his reddure & turneli al |ie wo to wel & to 
wynne al her lyf tyme . So dofie Je,9us crist oure spouse drawe|) 
vs first wili loue tyl fiat he se |)at we loue hym wel . & forbere|) 

20 vs l)at we ne be nou^th yfouded to oft . Ac afterward he wil)- 
drawel) hym & ]ete\) vs ben yfonded forto loke sif oure loue be 
stedfast And whan he wott & seep \)at it is stedfast . pan he siuel) 
vs pes al oure lyf * As whan he lesse his folk fro»? Pharaon out 
of Egipt loude he dude for hem al l^at hij wolden & ledde l^em 

25 porou3 pe rede cee drie fote by . xij . waies . & bitwuxen vche 
waye stode ^e cee vp as a wal for vche kyude of l^e . xij . kyndes 
hadde a waie by hym one . Aud Pharaon com after and his folk 
& adreynt vchone and her vitaile & lier arraure com al vp to 
his folk And whan hij comen in to wildernesse he ^af hem 

30 hunger & prust \- many werres and on ende he ^af hem eise & 
rest . & wele & wyuue to hem l)at were pacient . <t al her hert 
wille til l)at hij kepten his comauwdemeHto And hij |iat grucche- 
den & wrabbeden a^ein he slou, hem, Jjus oure lorde drawel) l)e 
feble & pe meseyse & l)e 3onge out of l)is werlde softlich & al 



' forsalken: p. 412 b. 
' & probably by correctioii. 

' befter: probably so; the first t hardiy distinguisliable, being writteu 
together with e; the word is the last in the line. 

■* oure lyf rnn toget!:er at the end of flie line. 



Recluse 109 

\vi|i lyst, & sone so he seej) liem liarded he letc|) wern» awakeu 
it techet) hem to fiitten .t wo |)olyen & after longe swynk he 
^iuel» he»« swete reste . ^e here J sigge in p\s werlde er hij comen 
to heuene . And l)au hem lienche|) so goode |ie rest after ^e 
swynk . pe eise after |)e myseise hem l)enche[) fiau so good A; so 6 
swete, 

NOu ben in Jie sautf^re after |)e temptaciouHS [le vtter & pe 
jnner ]->at temej) alle l)e olier foure dalen l*c 1)us to dele|) 
heiM . fondyHges li^th & derne . fondyHge li^th X" openlich . i^- al is 
vnderstonden ' here jnne, 10 

NOn- timebis a timore noctttruo a sagitta volawte 
in die a uegocio perambulawte iu tenebris ab 
i ncursu . & demonio meridiano, 5J Of fondynges li^th & 
derne seil» Job l)is word . 

LApides' excauent aque & allimoue paulata terra 15 
consumitw?-, 51 Li.^th dropen l)irlen l^e fiynt pat ofte falleu 
|)ere on . & so li^th derne foudynges offallen a trewe hert oft 
Li^th fondynges & ope» he seil) also . Lucebit* enim post 
seraita.uys no^t so mychel doute of . 

VE n i t ^ m a 1 u m s u p c »• t e & n e s c i s o r t u >h e i m .< . ^ Ysaye 20 
seil) . yuel come vpe pe & 1)0U wost uouitb his wexinge . 
stronge temptaciouns & derue is ek pat job menel) hym of . 

INsidiati* sunt & pceualeruwt & noM erat qui fer- 
ret auxiliu»! . ^ Jjat is myne fon wayten rae wi^) trecherie 
& gyle & tresouw & strengl)en jn vpe rae as \)e wal were to 25 
broken & \)e ^ate open . pe first & pe l^ridde fondynge ' of [lise 
foure ben almest vnder |ie juner . Aud |)e secouude k \>e fierpe 
ben vnder l^e vtter & hep almest bodilich & e\ie forto felen . 
Jje ol)er two ben gostlich & l)e * more forto dreden . ior^i many 
l)at hij ne weneu nou^th beren in her hert lie lyouws whelpes & 30 
lie uedders kyndels l^at forfreten pe soule as Salaraon seil) 



' vnderstoniden : p. 413 a. 

' In the niHrgin: dauid. 

' In the raargin : J o b 

* In the margin: Job. 

' In the margin: ysayas. 

' In the margin : J o b . 

' fondi/nge adiled abovo tlie line. 

" /'(" added above the line. 



110 .lofl PAIilsson 

TKaxerunt' lue & ej^o non dolui . wlneraueruHt me 
& ego no« sentiui, ff Ilij drowen me & j ne made no 
sorow^e hij woundedeM me & j iie feled it uouith Osee seili, 

ALieni - commederuHt rol)ur eius & ipse nesciuit. 
^ J)at is vnheltie forfreete pe streng|)e of his soule and he 
nyst it nou^th . And iut is most drede of whan \)e fendo of helle 
eggef) a sian to |)ing pat is swi|)e goode wi)) alle & his soule 
help & peis it tju-ne]) dcdlich . & so he dojje als oft as he ne may 
opon Man wi|) yuel ky|)e pis strengj^e . Xay he seij) j ne may 

10 bringe hym to syHne oiper hir jjorou} glotonye ne leccherie . Ac 
jchilt do as |)e wresteler wrenclien hem {)iderward as hij mesf 
drawen, & werpen hein on \)at on haif . & brayde hem ferhch 
adoune ar liij it ar.st wenew . And egge|) liem to so '^ mychel ab- 
stine?;ee |iat liij ben [)e vustronger in * goddes seruise . & leden so 

15 hard ]yue & ])ynen ,so pe lykhr/m . {)at \)e soule asteruel) . He bi- 
holdel) anol)rr l)at lial) a rewful hert & a soiousful & hab forsaken 
pe werlde |)at is sywue '. se he sei|) jchilt maken hem to revvful . 
k hi ;j sen ])ouf)-e Jien hane gret defaut . A seynt siarie sei]) he 
oilir)- sclie nyl nonian lielpoi l)is man . Jien woldew me i^" ich 

20 badde he>» . & l^riugej) hem on to gedren so l^at liij lete» goddes 
scruise & wexcH werldelich so mychel j^at hij schnlle/j ^iuen •■ 
hem to werldes aghst & |)enchen |)e lesse on god ^ & raaken feste 
god it wott . Ac swich feste makel) summe l)e deuels hoore & 
forschepel) of lier soules pat was goddes spouse l^e deuels hous- 

25 bonde o\per his wyf of hclle . perfore vche nau susleyne hem 
seluen as hij mowen best serue god & ne carcH nousth to mychel 
for non ol)^)* so [^at hij gederen pe more l)p/-fore . As summe 
willen saye . hadde j l^at o\)er hane . l^an wolde j serue god wel . 
k whan hij comen l^erto l^an se/-uen hij hym " wers \)au hij du- 

30 den aforne . Ac sif 1)0U see Mcn oil)e)- wywmen \ii defautt . haue 



' In the i))argin; SalaraoH. 

' In tlie niargin: Osee, 

' MS.: so to with niarks of transposition. 

■* in abovo thc linc, ta, on tlie line, being crossed over and expnncted 
below. 

'■ -yiuen : c jiartly effaced. 

" p. 418 b. The npper part of some letters in the topline cut away. 
Siniilarly p. 414 a. 

■ Between lii/in and iiers: pe crossed over and expuncted. 



Recluse 111 

wille forto helpen hein . ^if 1)0U ne inay ^^- hidile fast for heni 
J)at god seude heni g>-ace to suffre her penauwee iu liolemode- 
nesse to goddes worschip & to note of her soules fjou dooste 
|)an wel better |)an [lou niadest fie forto gadre & gyue for \)C 
loue of god & |)eMche what jesus erist seide to aiartha for sche & 
wfls an houswyf & gedred forto ^iuen, 

MArtha' martha . aiaria optima?« \tarteni eleg/t, 
5T Marie ha|) chosen l)e better part & it ne schal nou.^th 
be bynome» hir . Lokel) l^at none erpehch liiuges ne lette 30U 
forto seruen god att tyme & att termes l^at l)Ou haste sett as 10 
l)ine hert forsiuel) pe fiat |iou may best h^^m serue . & seche after 
wisdome & queyutise . for pat on nys nou.^th wi() outew l)at ol^er . 
Swich gaderiug makejp hem to vnderstonde flaterers & heriep 
he»» & heuel) vp her almes . i*i- hij leten good [lere of ^ & fallen 
in to filt)e of synue pere l)orou3 . Aud summe seieu on scorue l» 
l)at svvich uen & wywmen gadren hoord, ne lenep nou^th pat 
fende ' . Dauid * clepel) hym . Demonio meridiano . pat is 
bri^th schyuaude deuel . & poule clepel) hym aungel of h^th . For 
swich ofte he makel) hym & schewel) hym to mauy & bigilel) 
hew . Ne si^th liat 36 sen in sweuene ne tellel) it for nou^th for 20 
it nys nou^th bot his gyle . bot ^if it be \)e better Man oit)er 
wojxman pat al her hert han ^ouen to god . & wirchen al l^at hij 
done by wisdom and queyntise . Hem ne schal he neuer bigile, 
Bot loke pat non ne trost opon her holynesse . For he hal) ofte 
bigiled jien of holy lyf & brou^th hem to helle for hij foIowedcH 25 
her owen wille . and rewled hem nou^th by wisdom & queyntise 
as hij schulden haue done <& |)erfore hij ne quemeden nou^th 
god . forpi . & hij hadden quemed hym . hij ne schuldeu nou^th 
80 han ben lorne . jn vitis patrum it tellel) |)at a Jian was 
i« wildernesse* & lyued holy lyf . & a Man cou) to hym & wepe 3(> 
as mysaise * vpon hvm & bysou^th hym herberewe . And l)c 
good Jian wende he ' hadd ben a goode aungel ct herberewed 



' In the niargin : doniinus 

' />ere 0/ run togetl)er, being the last worde in the line. 

" fende: the second e ahnost effaoed. 

* Duuid: ttid almost effaced. 

' irildernesse: iril indistinct; i7 touched up. 

" mi/saise: ij apparently altered from i. 

' he: h bv correction. 



112 Jt>.'l PAlilxson 

hy»j' & by liis fader lie wyst Jjat it was [le deuel" for he^made 
hym forto slen his . Ano\)er jian l)at Hved holy^ lyf he made 
hym to 3iueM all his fader good for jie loue of god to pourve 
inen . ^V: atte hist inade hyiii to done a dedheh synne by a wo»k- 
5 man & brou^th liym in to wanhope iV: dyed in Jjat foule synne 
for he hadd so oft seide hym so|) toforue honde of many fiiwges 
\ al to biswiken hym oii ende 

HEre|) now liow ^e schuH witen 30U wi|) liis wrenciies . to 
suwnne he comej) on l)is wise & losangel) . \- l)oIemodehch 

10 s[)ekel) to hem i^ niene|)* her nede of charite . & is more aboute 
to queHchen charite . & summe wominan he is aboute» to dow 
iiir fiei^e help of Jian, l^at sche falle|) in to dedlich sore . l^at is 
slauitt . oi|)er in to suHJine ol^er synne . And so he wil do Man 
fleiie l)e fehiusciii]) of womman to done iiyin do wers oil^er briwg 

16 liyw in to dedlicii liouUtes pat hij nc ;iue no ^eme l^erto . Aud 
suwime iie dope so haty sy»ne l^at Ijij han ouer gret l^ouith of 
ol^er Men J^at" fallel) iw .synne Man scliulde wepe for liem it saie 
as l)e holy man seide, 

IIjIc liodie i ego cras. ^ Jt was telde liyin of l^e fal of liis 
brol^er l^at dude a dedlicli synne by a w-omman . Weilaway 
1)0 seide . strougelich was he tempted ar lie fel . He fel to day 
jch may to morne . p&t is to .saie als vnstrong am ich as he was 
3if god ne kepe me l^e better 

NOw of many temptacions liaue ich yspokeu . noustli forl)i . 
l)at Meu schuH fallen \)ere jnne . Ac l)at ait l^at Men wil) 
ytewipted ne may ich nou^tli nempny hem . Ac ' of \)\se pdt ich 
haue ynempned fewe l^ere beu uow iu l)is werlde l)at hij ne ben 
wi]) l)ise ytempted . For he ha^) so many boistes ful of his letewarye 
1)6 lil^er lecbe of helle he l^at forsakel) on he hedep hym tovp * 
30 anojipr . pe pridde . {)e fierl^e . & so alway ioT\) forto he come to 
ou l)at he vnderfongel) & l)er wil) he bigilel) hym . penehel) liere 



' hi/m : y iiulistinct, partly effaced. 

' ilenel: l touched up. 

■' /le: c almost effaced. 

* p. 414 a. 

■'' menep : the third letter resembles u. 

" pat added above the line. 

' Ac: on c traces of erasure. 

■^ forji added ahove the line. 



Recluse 113 

on \>e tale of [)e Ani|ioiles jjat seint Austyn tellej) he niett a 
deuel aud bare a gret book . att bis rugge . & be badde many 
Ampoils aboutew bym . And seint Austin asked bym what he 
was and wbider he scholde gon . And he seide he was a deuel 
& schulde go to \>e Abbey forto ^iuen pe Monkes of bis drynk . 5 
What is l)at book jiat [lou berest be seide . Aud he seide [)e names 
of ' which {)at he teniptet) & fallef) poroui hym . Aud he asknd 
hym iif he were ou^t iu his book . & he seide ich hope wel pat 
pou be . And seint Austin loked & he fonde hym pere jnne for 
he hadde for^eten his complyn oti atyme ^-nseide And seint lo 
Austiu - badde hym go jnder ^&t he schulde go & come a^ein by 
hym . ct be dude so . & seint Austyn ^ede & seide his complyu ' . 
and pe fende com a^ein to bym . And Austyu asked hym what 
he hadde done . And he seide hij weren so stedfast in goddes 
spruise pat be ne mi^th nouUh done to hem . And Austyu took 15 
his book & fonde t^at he was oute . owe seide {le fende hastow 
t)us bigiled me & went hyw away as an olde schrewe . , 

ON o\)er half owe to confort vche Man & wowmau whau hij 
ben ytempted . ^ee witej) wel whan a toure is ywonnen . 
Mcn oweu nou^tb jian forto ^iuen a sau^t perto ue to {je cite '. 20 
nomore pe helle werrowr assailep wij) fondynges hem [lat he haf» 
ac doJ)e he«i J)at he ne ha|) nou^th . For whi . who |)at nys nou^th 
yfonded sore . he may be adradde \>at he is wonuen, 

PE {)ridde confort is \)&t oure lorde hym self sei{) in {)e pater 
uoster & teche{) vs bidden &ne nos inducas intemp-26 
tacione»?, pat is lorde ne suffre nou^th {)at pe fende* lede vs 
a long in to temptaciou;* . Looke{) nyme{) ^enie . he nyl nou^th 
{)at we biddew hym {)at we be nou^th ytempted for \>at is oure 
purgatorie & oure clensynge fyre ac {)at we ne be nou^tb a * longe 
brou^tb \)eTP june wip consent of hert & wi{) skilles ^etyinge . — 30 

PE tier{)e is \)e sekernesse " of goddes iielp in \ie H^ttyng a^ein 
as seiut poule sei{) Fidelis' est deus qui noluit nos 



" o/ added above the line. 

' AttsHn: the second letter more like n; s a correction, apparently for /. 

' comiplyn: p. 414 b. 

• fende: n partly effaced. 

' a apparently by correction. 

" sekertiesse: r in fainter ink adde<i above the line. 

■ In tbe maniin : p a U 1 ?< S 



114 .Toel riililsson 

tewptari vltra <.\uitm possuniMs' &c . ^ (iod lie sei]! is 
trewe for he nytt neuer jiat deuel tempte vs oue/-j)at* he see)) 
|)at we mowe suffere» ac iu jje temptaciouw he hal) sett a 
footemerk as J^ei;, he seide tempte liym so fer & no ferrer . 
6 & bo fer he ^iue]) vs strengl^e to wi|)stonde . & [)e fende may uo 
ferrer priice {)an l)e merii Gregori seij) . 

DJabolus* Wcet af f licc/owes iustorww sempcr appe- 
tat euw & a deo potestatejw noM accipiat ad temp- 
tacionis articfdMm noM conualescit . formidari igitwr 

lonon qui nichil nisi perraissus agere valet, 51 ]je fift 
confort is J^at |)e fende ne may do nojjing to* vs bot by goddes 
leue-^ & {)at was wel yschewed" as [^e godspel sei]) wlian j)e 
deuelen pat oure lorde cast out of a nan . a legion . sex l)Ousande . 
& ' sex hundret) . & ' sexti aud sex crieden & seiden to oure lord . 

16 OJ eicis nos hinc mitte nos in porcos, 51 Silien l)ou 
k3 dryuest vs hewnes lorde do vs in to pise swyne it he 
graunted hem . Looke hou \)&i hij ne mi^ttew nou^th wi{) outew his 
leue gon in to pe swyne . & 1)6 * swyne ouow ri^tli ruwnen in to 
l)e cee & adreynt hew seluen . seint narie so hij stonken ou l^e 

20 swyne pat hem was leuer to drenchen hem seluen l^an to bereu 
liem abouteu . and an vnsely synful man bare liem in his breest 
& name neuer ^eme of hera . Al l^at lie dude to Job . euer lie 
narae leue pere of toforne at oure lord pat tale l^at is in |)e 
dialoge look pat se cuwnen hou lie Iioly Man seide to l)e deuels 

25 nedder . 

SJ licenciaw accepisti ego now prohibeo,^! 3'^ po^ 
hast leue to stynge . stynge ou fast and bede forli his cheke . 
& pan hadde he no my^th bot one forto enticen hym l^f^rto . 
Nomore ne hap he on vs bot sif oure bileue crook and whan 
30 god 3af hym leue of his dere frende whi is it bot for her mychel 
goode . I)ei3 al it greue hem sore. 



' posswnns: ss touched up in black ink. 

' ouerjjat: on u' trace.s of erasure. 

" In tlie inargin : G r e g r / M »' , 

* to: possibl}' by correction. 

^ leue: ue squeezed together; probably a correction. 

" yscheived: che on erasure. 

' & added above the line. 

* p. 415 a. 



Rechise 115 

PE sext confort is whaa |iat oure lord [loleji [)at we ben 
yterapted he playe|) wi|) vs as pe moder dojje wi^ her sowg 
derlyng [)at flei^el) fnmi hym & lete[) hym sytt al one . Aud whan 
\>e childe ' ne seej) hire nou^th it clepe|3 dame . dame . & loke[i 
;erne abouten it wepe[) a while . & [jau his moder come[) to hym 5 
wi[) sprad armes & wipe[) his eiieu . aud kisse|) hym . & clyppe[) - 
hyra . Also oure lorde lete[) vs ywor[)e oi[)e»- while it wi[) drawe[) 
his grace fmm vs & his confort and we ben [)an al one & feleu 
uo sueteuysse •'' in noping [jat we wele do ne sauoure of hert . 
Aud \>e\} iu {)at ilche poywt ne loue[) he vs neuer [)e lesse . Ac he 10 
it do|)e for mychel loue [)at vnderstonde we wel [)at dauid sei[) . — 

NOn* mederelinquas vsquequaque, ^ hovde sei[) dauid 
ue lete me nou^th a longe . Loo whau he wolde he lete 
dauid ac uouith a long . sex ^ enchesons [)ere * be[) whi god lete[) 
vs one & wi[)draw^e[) his grace fram vs, J)at on is ' [)at we ue 15 
proude nomth . for ^if his gmce were alwa[) wi|) vs we my^th 
li^thlich fallen [lorou^ a wellate of oure seluen, Auo[)er enchesou« 
is [)at we may knowe oure ow^en feblesse & oure mychel vnstrewg[)e 
Gregori sei[) 

MAgna* perfeccio est sue iwperfecciouis coguicio, 20 
51 J)at is mychel godenysse is to knowe wel oure wayke- 
nesse aud oure oweu vustreng[)e 

ECce iutemptatM.s qualis sit. ^ J^at is . vnfouded nott 
ueuer where [)at he is . ne in what state . for he ne knowe[) 
nouith ^ hym seluen Austyn seij) . 2& 

MElior " est auiraM.y cn\iis est infirmitas nota 
q»<a»» cui scrutatMr celorw/H fastigia & terrarwm 
f u«dameu ta . 51 Jiat is better is a sian to seche his oweu 
feblesse . & his owen vustrengl^e . [)au forto meteu hou hei^e is 



' ihilde: e effaced or possibly erased. 

' clyppep : ly seems to be a correction for h. 

' sitetenysse : the third letter uncertaiii; looks more like o. 

* In the margin : danid. 

" sex: se alniost erased. 

" />er«: on the abbreviation-raark for er traces of erasnre. 

' i«: s apparently by correction. 

" In the margin : gregorjM.-'. 

■' p. 415 b. 

"• In the marjjin : Augu.stinus. 



IK) .Toel PShlsson 

jje heuene . & ' hou depe is l^e erl^e . for whan two beren a birden 
to gider ])aii wot neuere |iat on hou heuy it i.s . Ac whan jiat on 
it letej) jian wot lie |iat it bere]) liow heuy it wexe|) . Also whan 
god berej) wi|) vs oure tenij)taciou« |)an wite« we neue/"e hou 

r> iieuy it wei^el) ne what it is . Aud forl^i he letej) vs one ftat we 
niowe wite« what we beren for |iat we schullew |)e ^erner clepen 
after hyni . & crien loude opon hym til [lat he come to vs . ^U 
he is longe helde it wel vp |)rrwhile.s . For who so is siker of 
good helpe k }e\de\) jiei; vp Jie Caste to his wi|)erwynnes* ! swi|)e 

10 mychel he is to blamcM . Jt tellep it was an holy Bian & he sei, 
in \)e west so many ferdes of deuelen a^eins hem ^ to fi^tten wi|) 
hem . whan he * he was in bis te»«ptaciouH pat he les his streng|)e 
of his bileue . and his felawe seide vn to hym . Look by esten k 
l)ou schalt seen we hane more on oure half \mn hij ben forto 

15 helpen vs 

Plures nobis quam cum illis . ^ pe [iridde |)ing is |)at we 
ne ben neuere alto siker . for sikernesse sterue|) ^emeles . & by 
J)is streng|)e jnobedience super episto\&m ad Roraauos. 

COnteutuw nutrit resoluta securitas.^Tps fierfie is 
l)at oure ioi'de hide|) hj^m frrnu vs |)at we seche hym |)e 
^eruehcher . \- elepe . & wepe after hym as J^e childe dojie after 
\>e dame . ^ J)e ijit is ^ Jiat we a^eins his a^eincome vnderfonde 
hym t)e gladlicher ct make J)e more ioye of his comynge . ^T pe 
sext is J)at whan we hane ycauit hym J)e ^ernelicher & |)e wil- 

26 licher witew hym . & saien to hym .tenui te nec dimittam, 
j schal holde J)e my lef & j . ne schal uou^th lete pe . pise sex 
enchesons schuUen holden vs vp a^eins alle fondyuges wi|) con- 
fortes toforne, 51 pe seuent confort is . hou J)ise holy men of holy 
lyf weren ytempted now to seint peter pe hei.sest 

30 TT^ Cce^ sathan expetiuit vos ut cribraret sic?^^ tri- 
i-i ticum, ^ Loo seide oure lorde to seint Peter . Sathan is 



' & aclded above the line. 

'' Originally tvipertmjnes ; between » and e a l)orizontal stroke, a second 
n probably having been Bqueezed in. 

" hem: e on erasure. 

* After lie tl)ree letters, of whicli the lirst is »> and tlie last possibly 
n or u, erased. 

' is added above the line. 

« In tlie maigin: domin 



Recluse 117 

^erne aboute to tille \te out of myue ychosen . Ac ich haue bi- 
sou^th for pe pat \>i biieue ne crook nouUli aloug . ftat is p&t {)0U 
ne faile nomth in bileue . ^ Poule hadde tlessche prickyng of 
leccherie & of pride iw his soule . & he bede god deiiuere hym 
\>ere of . ' 5 

D.Vtus'- est michi stiniulus carnis mee.^I And he bad 
oure lorde deliuer hym and he seide |)at he nolde & seide . 
Sufficit'' tibi gTdcia mea nara virtus in infirmitate 
pf rf icitM/- . 51 Jjat is my grace schal kepe pe fiat {tou be nou^th 
strong* iu vnstrenglie . Seint sare was tempted jiritteue ^ere of 10 
hire flesche Ac for pe gret anguish aros pe mykei mede nolde 
sche ueuere bidden ones deliuer hir \)ere of Ac bad oure lorde 
3iue hire strengj)e to wifistowde {)at gret anguissch, 

D.V michi domine virtutem resistendi.^I And atte 
jjrittene .^eres ende com ^e fende vnto hir in a bloo Man- 15 
nes liknes & seide to hir . Sare {lou haste ouercomen me . And 
sche answered hastilich a^ein & seide {)oa hxt foule pef Ac ha{) 
je^s ray lorde . Looke now \)ere he wolde haue putt hire iu to 
pride forto liaue hadde a litel wel late of her seluen . & |)at was al 
\>&t jesus crist tau^t * his deciple whan he dude wonders for hem . 20 
pat hij ne scliuldeu haue no gladnesse in hert per of . bot hij 
schulde» ben giadd l^at hij were» chosen to \)e blis of heuene . 
pis he tau^tte and p/eched hem often . Ac do we as seiut Sare 
dude in al J)ing pat we do o\\)er p&t he dope for vs 3'"^ ^^'® l^® 
streng|)e & fie Maistrie to swete jesu of heuene . Antoyne and alle 28 
J)ise o|)er hou wereu hij ytempted . Ac for \)e gret mede J)at aros 
in Jie fondynge a^ein . hij it suffreden louelich . & jjwporoui weren 
hij proued trewe champiouws . & so of serueden coroune op Co- 
roune as J)e Goldsmyth purgej) pe gold in J)e fyre also doJ)e god 
hise ychose in J)e fire of fondynges 30 

PE nynj)e coufort is . 3if Jje fende greuejj Jie Jjou greuest hym 
wel raore & sorer for pre resou«s" Jiat as < )rigine tellej) be 

' p. 416 a. 

' UAius: the upper part of L/A cut away. 

' In the niargin: llMS, with the first stroke of the n cut away. 
♦ strong: tr somewhat indistinct, being written over the downstroke 
ot I> (in I>at] in tho line above. 

■' tau-yt: the lirst stroke of u almost effaced. 
" resouns: the fiftb letter looks like ti. 



118 ,Ioel Pahls^.on 

lese|) liis powere . For to vche synne he do|ie al ' liis powei' 
forto tempte« . pat o\)er he echeji his pyne . pe l^ridde he for- 
fretep his hert of sore greme J)at he is ouercomen . Wiian he is 
ouercomen he lese[) his streng{)e & is sore aschamed and agremed 
5 |)at he has so liithlich lorne al his trauaile and is oue/-come« 
\- braydej) |)e corowne of blis nou^th on ne two . Ac doj)e as oft 
as 1)0U ouercomest hym als fele corounes J)ou haste . Jjat is als 
fele worschipes in j^e blisse of heuene seint Jiernard seit), 

QVociens- viucis tocieus coronaberis ^ Jje tale Jn 
vitis patru)/), .it witnessel) |)at an holy Man tauit his 
deciple & as he tau^tt hy/n he fel on slepe & his deciple stode 
bifore h^^m and sumtynie he liou^th to hane waked hym . and 
suwtyme he jiouith to haue gon to his bedd . ct atte last he sette 
hym adoune . & his Mai.ster a wooke att uiydni^th it bad his grome 

15 go slepe . * & he dude so . and his Maister fel on slepe also . And 
alsone hym l^ousth |)at he W'as brou^th iu to a faire grene place . 
& l)e?-e he seii au aungel brynge achayer . and seueue faire Corouues 
pere opon . & \)ai\ seide ])& aungel vn to hym . pise hal) ])\ deciple 
erned while pat pou slepe . Aud he awoke & cleped his grome 

20 and asked hym vvhat he dude whiles |)at he slepe and whi l^at 
he satt whan pat aros . & stode whan he leide hym . Aud his 
grome seide j poust to haue waked l)e . and for liou slepe so swete 
j ne mi^th nouith for rewj^e . & [)an j l^ouith to haue gou to my 
bedde . & j nolde nousth bot sett me douue by [)e . pau asked 

25 his maister hym hou ofte he oun-com his [)0U3th . & he seide 
seueu si[)es . And [)an wist his maister wel [)at po were pe seuen 
Corounes [)at his deciple hadde erned while [lat he slepe for [)at 
he ouercom hym seluew aud wi[)stode [)e feude . AI lius in [)e 
temptaciouM arise[) oure mede Poule sei[) . 

30 "jVTEmo* coronabitMJ" nisi legitime certauerit . Ne 
1. ^ schal uone ben ycorouned * bot ^if lie stronglich & trewlich 
fi^th a^ein . his flessche . [)e fende . and [je werlde . who [)at fi^ttel) 
treulich a^ein [)ise [^re & namelich aiein \\e flessch k wifjsigge [)« 



' al ailded above the lino. 

- In the margin: ard?<.v 

" p. 416 b. 

* In the inargin: paulw.v 

' i/corouned : the first o inserted above the line. 



Recluse 119 

gj«unt \)ere of . ne prikk it neurr so bard . pan beu hij je.^us 
cristes frendes and done as he dude hongen ou pe roode, 

C\'ni gustasset aeetuf» noluit bibere. ' He sraelled |)e 
bitter drynk . & nolde it nou^th dryuken jiei; h a l)rist were . 
pei3 a sian oi\)cr a wowraau Jirest in |ie lust and ^ pe fende 6 
bedej) hy»n his haiyway . Jienche pat \iere is galle vnder . and 
better it is to ben oft^rest Jjat to beu yattred . Lete lust ouer go 
& eft it wil pe hke . While ^echinge lastet) it is gode to rudden . 
ac after it sraerte)) . weleway [lat while . Many ben so sore ofrest 
and drinkej) hastiiich & ue felen it nou^th . so hij glutten it jn 10 
;ernelicli . And after felen pe sraert & gyHuen l^an to sorowe & 
raaken reulich chere . ac f»n is to iate . Ac nou^th for Jian better 
is late l)an neuere . After yuel {law is goode penaunce spewe out 
pat venj^ni to \\e p*eest ar it wilde . for ^if it wildel) it wil brede 
f)e de[) . 16 

A3ein alle temptaciouns & namelich a^ein fleschlich bef) vnder 
goddes grace holy raeditaciouns . goode felawschippes . & 
biddiwge & hardy bileue . fastyng . wakynge . Aile pise beu armes 
iw t)is fisth . iV' bodilich swyuches . & also speke to suw oper per- 
whiles pat fe temptaciou;* lastef) . Lowenesse & aH gode fewes 2o 
ben armes in fis h^th . Ac who fat werpet) away his wepen pat 
he schulde ti^th \\i\) .- hy lyst ben ywounded . Holy meditaciouws 
tiat is fe«che in goddes passiouw & in o\ter goode t^ou^ttes 

MOrs tua mors domini nota culpe gaudia celil 
judicij terror' figantuw mente fideli^I |)e«che 25 
on t)ine synnes . on pe ioyes of heuene . on \te pynes of helle . 
on t)i de\) . on goddes del) ou fe rode . & ou fe pyne [^at he sutfred 
for t)e on domesday . opon fiis fals werlde . What it is . & what is 
his mede . & what t>ou owest god for his gode dede . What he 
hat) done for fe . how vnkynde l)Ou haste ben a^eins hym . Vche 30 
one of t)ise wolde haue a longe poyntynge . Ac whan we fencheM 
on fe joyes of heuen god wold * schewe hem to vs here in sum 
wise to men . & of pe pynes of helle & schewed hem to vs here 
as schadewe . for alle werldlich ioyes fat euer wore . & now ben . 



' In the upper curve of d, partly blended with the downstroke of J* 
in /'«»5 in the Hne above, hole erased in the leaf. 
» p. 417 a. 

' terror: the laet r apparently on erasure. 
' ipold: d added above the line. 



120 .loel l'ilil»80ii 

& euir schuH ben vntil iloinesilay . nys bot a scl)atle\ve to |)e lest 
ioye of beueue . Ne alle |)e werkleiich pynes ne ben bot a scha- 
dewe to pe le4t pyne of helle . We beu here in |)e see of pis 
werlde & stonden on j)e brynk of |)is see . Be we uouith eschu 
6 of |)e schadewe . |)e hors [lat stonde[) opon J)e brynk & is eschu 
for |)e schadewe n)ay li^thlich falle in to |)e pytt . And so raoweu 
we 5if we beu adradde of ])e wo of l)is werlde {)at is bot a scha- 
dewe listhlich fallen iu to |)at wo p&t al (^e wo of pis werld nys 
bot a schadewe to . as Job sei|) . he {)at doutej) ^e hore frost \)e 

10 snowe schal fall opon hym pat he seij) here by hem [lat ben 
adradde of pe wo of {)is werlde . ])e wo of helle schal falle opon 

., hem . A gret fole is he |)at flei^el) |)e peyutyng ou a wal for \>e 

l\ griselichhede J^ereof Al l^e wel of p\s werlde nys bot a schadewe 
to \>e lest blis of heuene . & also al pe wo to ' pe lest pyne of 

15 helle . Nousth onely holy meditaciouns of oure lorde &- of oure 
lefdy his moder Mary & of hise holy halewen ac doue holy 
l^ouittes suw while helpeu iu foure mane/e a^eiu fleschlich temp- 
taciouws . dredeful, wouderful . gladful i^i: sorou^ful . Jjise a Mau 
schal arere oi\)er whhile in his hert . or nede come |)enche what 

20 wolde done ^if J)at we seiien openiich de|) stonde toforu vs . \- 
Tpe deuel of heile •' as he dofie ^ dernelich iu \)e * fondynge . it 
5if oure hous brent ouer vs . pise beu dredeful pou^ttes . Won- 
derful as \>eiy pou sei^ jesu. stonde bifore \>e & asked pe what {)e 
were leuest after pi saluaciouM . & badde \)e chesen wi{) l)i fiat 

2-5 [)ou wit)Stowde ® \)\ teraptaciou« . And ^if j)ou sei^ witterlich ali 
J)at in heuene weren & in helle . Gladful as ^if J)e com bode pat 
pe best frende |)at pou haste were ychoseu pope porou^ Steuene 
of heuene .' Sorou^ful as ^if {)ou herdest saye {)at . {)at man |)at 
{)0U louedest most were feerlich ded . adrei)it oiper mur{)ered . 

30 oi\)er auhouged . o\\)er brent . Svvich {lou^ttes oi{)er while wrekeu 
out fleschlich temptaciouHS . Hoiy bedes of goode sien oi{)e)- of 
wymmew pe fende doute{) swil^e mychel hem . for i)ij Ijynden 



' to added above the line. 

' <f- added iibove the line. 

" of )iel (in helle) on erasure (?). 

■* After dojie: ofte expuncted. 

' pe added above the line. 

° mpstonde: ]> inserted above the line. 

' p. 417 b. 



Recluse 121 

hym \- brenneM liyni Jn vitas patru»» it telle|) |)at an lioly 
MHu PuplinMS lay in his bedes . & [le fende com pere for|) ouer 
hym tlei^eande by julius heste Cesar . And |iis^ Mawnes bedes as 
hij steisen vptoward - god bounden hym so f)at ten dayes hij 
heldeu hym ^ere stille p&t he ue mi;th nomth away. Seint Mar- 6 
garete bonde Ruffyu as meu redeu iu her lyf |)at was Barabub 
bro{)er . to ^ Seint Bertlemew as he lay iu his bedes [^e deuel 
seide l)iue bedes breuuen me & byndeu me 

INcendunt me orac/ones tue ^ Aud who {^at may wij) 
bedes haue teres . he maj' haue of god al {)at he wil . ^if he lO 
bidde ri^thfullich . And it owe to ben ygmunted * aud pe/-fore 
sechef) afterwisdom {)at ^e ue bidde hym uoj^ing bot sif it be 
wiselich ybedeu . for ^if he graunted it . he wer^ a more fole {)an 
anoper Man . ^e ne sep no wise Man f»at wil gmuut any {)ing {)at 
Me askeu hyt» bot ^if he se {)at it may wel be done . And elles 16 
he were a fole ^if he g;auuted it . 3^ i a more fole {)au he {)at 
bere{) a Babyl . ])eriove in soure biddynge biddep so {)at ^e ne be 
nomth aboute to make god a fole •'' For ^if ^e do it wil falleu 
opou 3oure seluen . For he ne wil graunt no{)iug bot his ri^th- 
wisenesse & his mercy mowen acorden pere june . Ac euere he 20 
helde{) more here to pe uiercy {)au to \)e ri3thwiseue.sse . & {)e/'fore 
vche Jian bidde wiselich j rede & soule hele for holy wrytt sei{i 

OUacio leuit lacrima cogit . U pe good bede softe{i 
god \- make{) hym mylde to vs . as man {)at ha{) a sore & 
is auoyut . it softe{) hym . ac oure teres pricken hym . aud \eten 26 
hym neuer haue rest til {)at he haue ^iuen vs al {)at we askeu 
5if it be skylful . 

COnturbasti cupita dracouis in aquis/ Whan {)e deuel 
assaile{) 50U . caste{) out scoldywg water opon hym as raen 
done att Castels opo;< her euemyes . For \>ere [lat water come{) . 30 
\>e fende fJei^ep sikerlich . lest his heued schulde beu yscolded 
Castel is vche manues body . Aud iif ^oure castel be wel kirnelde . 
& wel warnyst wi{)inue {)at is wi{) good werkes . & depe diched 
al aboute pe wall . {)at is ()olemodeuesse . ]ian is ^oure Castel 



' pis: at tlie end of the word faint traces of an erased e visible. 
' vjitoirard: to inserted aliove the line. 
' to added above the line. 
* i/graunted: e touched up. 
" a fole run together. 



122 Joel PiUilsson 

careles . Jje fende aiay loiige assaile 3011 A: lese ail iiis assautes 
as men se|) often . a litel ' ravn felle]) a gret wynde . so - done 
bedes and teres wij) al feiien J^e deueis l)lastes and |)an conie)) 
j)e suwne and scliinel) after and mai<el) ai fair & drye . And 
6 so do{)e \>e sofi su«ne jesus crist ^iuet) li^tli & suetnesse to J^e 
.soule 

Oracio'' humilitatis penetrat nubes &c.5II>e boue of 
pe symple Man & wowman [^at is lowe of hert percet) lieuen, 

MAgna* virtus pure oracionis que ad dominum 
intrat & mandata p^ragit vbi.caro ppj-uenirc* 
nequit . ^ Michei is l)e misth of \)e schire l)one l^at fleiiel) vp 
tofore god and dol^e ])at erande so wel jiere |iat l^e fiesclie may 
nou5th comew . ]mt almiitty god iia|) writeu al |)at iie sei]) in pe 
boolce of lyf as seint Bernarde witnessej) and sendel) adouw his 
15 aungel to done ai pat lie wil . 

REsistite*^ diaboio i*t fugiet a vobis . ^ Stondel) a^ein 
jie deue and he fleiiel) fram 30U . stondel) iiou . Resistite ' 
iu fide . ^ Stoudej) aiein .strongeiich in l)e bileue . bet) liardy 
of goddes help & penchel) liou le])! he is l^at no strengl^e ne hat) 
20 bot of hym selueu . He ne may do no more bot putte forl) his 
aped ware & t^retew " vs to biggeu l^erof . Lei^el) hym t^an to scorne 
stoudep a^ein stiflich in ])e biieue and he holdet) hym as schent 

SAncti^ prr fidew viceruwt regna . 51 pise hoiy hale- 
wen ^" ouercomew t)orou3 bileue [lat hij hadden Alle his wiles 
26 of sywne . for he ne comet) nou^th bot l)orou3 SN-nne 

WE hoidet) hym " mychel of pride whan he bilioldet) to 
grete god hou litel he inade liym in a poucre MaidcHs 



' litel: over t tlie upper part ol' aii uiiUiiished letter (0. 
" p. 418 a. 

" In the marsin: with s and m partlv rut away; an erasure, 

" mon 

extending about an inch along the edge ot' the page. ( )n O traces of erasure. 

* In the uiargin: Ugustinuti 

^" peruenit-e: the fourth letter looks more Hke n. 

° In the margin: acobfl*' witli erasure below. 

' In the margin : ,e t r M 6' 

° preteu : pret on erasure. 

° In the niargin : P a U 1 M S with P partly eut away. 
" Between haleicen and ouercomen: al expuncted and crossed over. 
" hym: hi/ partly effaced. 



Reiluse 123 

wombe . ct nou^th for his goode ac for oure good dede k seide 
and [)oled pvue \- wo for vs . pe chynche ne kept pat non ue 
hadde of his good bot al hym seluew vvolde it haue . so ne dude 
oure lorde nou^th . For ^utt whan he hadd pa/ted wiji vs here of 
his good After he U^th adoune in to helle to \>e free ' prisouw 6 
and delt hem \wre of his good . We fynde in holy Mennes lyues 
[)at au ancre had almest lorne l)e ei.^e of hir bileue for a quayer 
pat on of hire susters wolde liaue borowed at liir and sche nolde 
nou^th lene it hir, And t^ffore bel) war ^e pat wil ben gostlich 
Men & wymmen ^e pat desireu forto beu goddes childer bef) war lo 
|)at ne hoide uo gostHch {)iug fro nomau pat may do auol^er 
Man good ais wel as 50U J)at 50 ne be redy at helpe hyni wij) 
al at his nede wytt oiper any o{)er {)ing for Salamon sei[) |)ou ne 
schalt nou^th sellen pi wytt for god it ^iuej) \)e . & leuep forto 
parten mp oj^er . ^if l)Ou can more pan anoj^er - ne ^utt of bodilich 15 
l)ing [lat {)0U haste more {lau pe uede bilioue}) . pou art adetted 
perto . For god ha{)„ja3ade [)e his reue and his spe«ser for {)0U 
scboldest dispenden it to his worschipp and to note of {)i soule . 
for {lou ue haste nou^th here a ferping wor|) of good {)attow ne 
schait ;elde rekenyug pere of straitlicher pan any reue schal hou 20 
it is dispended And of {line fyue wyttes bou pou haste dispended 
hera in ydelnesse oi\)er in goddes worschipp and to {line owch 
note . do {)au as {)e reue do{)e . ^^l^Js owen of owen j rede as 
god bidde{( iu {le gospel make 30U frendes wi{) mawmona . {)at is 
i'iches 3iue it as it comel) & holdel) uomore paw nede{i . 25 

WHo may {)an oi^er dar holde wra{){)e in his hert . {)at bi- 
holde{) hou {)e gret god com adouw in to er{)e to make 
{)refold sau^tnesse . bitwene god & man . bitwene Man & aungel . 
and bituene «au & man . And after his arisyng fram de{) to lyue 
whau he com to his deciples {)is was his gretynge P a x v o b i s . 80 
pat is pes & sau^tuisse bitvvene 30U . And nyme{) ^eme whan {^at 
lef frendes departeu vche fram o^er . pat last word pat hij seyeu . 
p&t Meu best athold . And oure lorde left his leue frende here in 
er{)e in vncout^e {)ede . and pe last word {)at he seide vn to hem 
whon he went f/am hem he seide |)is worde vn to hem . Pa- 35 
cem relinquo vobis.pacem meam do vobis./f[ pat 
is . sau^tnisse j . do amonges 30U . and my pes j leue vvi{) 30U, 

^ free: the thinl letter looks like a badly made o. 
' p. 418 b. 



124 Ju.l l'i\l.ls8on 

IN' hoc coguoscetis si discipuli niei sitis si dilec- 
c i o u e »« 11 d i u u i c e m h a b u e r i t i s . 51 Ky \>at 30 schuH 
knowe sif 56 ben my deciples . ^if \)at 36 loue to gider . Jiis was 
his druery- & his meric |jat lie sett opon hem . for je.s«s crist is 
•"> al pes . & Uith . & loue ])rre is his wouyng stede, 

IN pace factw.* est locus cius.ibi cowfregit potew- 
cias arcu»» gladiuwj sculum & belluwi, / ^ Pes k sau^t- 
nes is godes * stede . and where so J)is pes is . it bry»«gej) to nou^th 
alle \)e deuels wiles & his wrenches . and al his strengjje '. it brekej) 

10 his bowe ()at ben his ■* derue fondynges . & his swerde . pat ben 
temptacions keruynge \- nei^e of kywne . Ne wot 36 UOU3 wel pere 
men fi^ttel) in strowge ' ferdes als longe as hij holden hem to 
giders hij ne mowen uou^th ben ouercomew . Also it farej) gost- 
hch for al {)e deuels entent iV his bisinesse is abouten forto de- 

15 parten mewnes hertes it wywanens k cast wra|)[)e ])ere sau^tnesse 
schulde be amouges goddes childer . For he ne hal) noue envie 
bot to hem . & sone after his wral^j^e amouges hem . he dope ^ 
hym bitweue ouon ri^th and slele|) ' on vche half adouue ri^th . 
,.,i For{)i att doumbe beste leruel) wisdom for hij hau pis worschipy) 
liso whau hij schullew beu assailed of lyouw oi[>er of bere . hij gadereu 
hem to gyder & maken schelde of hem seluen . & perwhiles hij 
beu all syker . And ^if auy be so vnsely J)at he wende out he is 
yschent ouom ri^th . also ^if men gon in a slider waye & vche 
holde o|)ers honde hij mowen gou pe sikerHcher . 

25 /^Vm^nos vobis pe»* oiacionem. opem co<MungimH,<f 
V>< pe)' lubricuwi quas adinuice»n mauH*' tenemMS 
vt tanta quisque amplius roboret«<r qwauto alteri 
vnitwr. 51 AIso iu stronge wyndes & swift wateres J^at Men Moteu 
euer waden . ^if mauy hoiden to geders her houden and on falle 

30 he is sone holpen vp . & ^if he be one he ge}) soue away . 

' In the m.irgin: dom iniis'. 
'' druery: e added above tlie line. 

" godes: d tainter, added above tlie line; and e riin together; on e 
and s traces of erasure. 

' his: in fainter ink added above the liue. 

" strrmge: og run together. 

" p. 419 a. dope: do partly effaced. 

' slelep: the iirst l somewhat faintly added above the linc. 

" In the margin: Gregor/»«S. 



Recluse 125 

VE' soly i|uia cu»( cociderit uo» hahet subleuan- 
te»».^ Wo is hyra he seij) jiat falleji iV- is al one for he 
ne ha|i who hym arerefi . Ac he nys no^th one Jiat haj) god to 
fere . Aforbisen takeli . Grut cleuel) to geder . take dust & rowe it . 
it altoblowel» . An hondeful of ^erdes wliile hij ben to giders hij o 
nyllen nou^th breken . A tree jiat wil falle men vndersetten it 
wij) anofier . & ^if Men twynnen hew hij fallen . Ac many Men 
and wywmen jiat schulden ben iu loue to geders in compaiguye 
hij ben sarapsones foxes jiat werew tyed to geders by \)e tailes 
& in vche tayl a blasme brennaude whan pe Philistiens & he lO 
weren wrol^e . He tooke alle pe foxes pat he mi^t and knytt hem 
to geder by |)e tailes & bonde a blasme of fyre in vche tayl & 
drof hem |)Orou5 - her feldes and .so brent vp alle her cornes ' . 
& her vynes . nymej) goode ^eme what l)is be to siggen . Men 
tiirnen oft pe nebbe to |)ing {)at Men louen . & awa\'ward fro [)ing 15 
pat Me« haten . Tayl bitokue]) ende . who so wil fian be tyed to 
gider as his foxes were for nou wolde [liderward l^at oper wolde 
bot al froward, & ysett |)an fire in pe ende liat is wra[)l3e . {)at is 
|)e fyre of helle . Ai [jis is ywriten here for jjat vchou schulde 
loue to geder as goddes decipies duden . & namelich |)ere it owe 20 
to ben . pat is in wedlok . \" i» ordrc & iw religiou» . For pere is 
{)e deuel most aboute to sundren it . & |iere schulde Man & wowj- 
man fastest cleuen to gedres in god and biseke hyw p&t he helde 
hem to gedre & pan hij mowen ben syker l^at he schal heipen 
hew 3if hij wil bidden hym of helpe pere of & elles nou;th , & 25 
be|) nou^th as Sampsones foxes . non ne wolde as o])er wolde . & 
3if 36 holde 30U to gedres as holy wrytt sei|) . 

M\' 1 1 i t u d i n i s c r e d e n c i u w e r a t c r v n u >« & animsL 
vna . ' 51 I)at is mychel stedfast bileue schal be in on hert 
i^ in o souie . For |)erwhiles l^at Men hoiden to giders ne may :(0 
Jje fende no{)ing done & fiat lie wott ful wel . And \ieriore whan 
any frende sclial sende vu to o|)er . Loke |)at pe .sondes Man be 
■wel syker and recorde it often er * he go . for a litel clout may 
make a foule spott . And ^if any frendc blame o\)er for Iier mys 

' In the inargin : S a I a m M 

' pormy. the tirst nearly effaced. 

' coTJiea: N partly effaced. 

' p. 419 b. 

'" er: over e a curved 8troke resembhn^' a contractionmark. 



12<; Joel PAhlsson 

berynge . oil)er for lackes |)at hij baii warneli bem ror bij ne seen 
it no.^th hem seUie« . ponke|) bem ierne \vi|) J^is psabne, 

COrripiet' me iustM.« \ti miifericordin & i«crepabit 
me oleum autem peccatoris now inpugnet caput 
6 raeu»M, ^ He ])at blame|) me forto amewcle me hym icli owe to 
louew & cuMne byni |)onke more l)an f^e sywner I)at seip me softe 
wordes after my wille, 

MJ''liora su«t wlnera corri pio^tis quam oscula 
blandiewtis, ^ Bettpre ben l^e blameande wordes liat 
10 ben seide forto amende« me ', l)an cusse |}at is fykel . l)at is to 
saie pan be l^at folowel) al my wille . And l^erfore seil) 8alamo« . 
chastise \>e wise Man i^- lie wil loue pe afterward l^e bettere ne 
be non so bolde ne so fole bardy forto resceyue goddes tiescbe 
& his blode in wral)l)e ne ^utt in non oper synne . ne loke toward 
15 hym l)at con) adouH to make l^re fold sauituesse, 

BE a t i p a c i f i c i qunniam f i 1 i j d e i v o c a 1) u /* t « r . 
^ Blissed ben l^e peisible of bert for bij scbulleH ben cleped 
goddes sones . And wbo l^at may do l)is poynt . be l^at na^) noufitb 
agylt drawe l)e gylt toward hym forto make hyra pat hal) agilt 

20 come to ameudemewt & to loue pere be nolde nouith toforne . \- 
so be aknowen his owew gylt . l^at is an heise staire to god ward 
& mychel mede lil) l^erfore . And for l)e gret raede l^at fallel) l)er- 
fore . a sian oil)e?' a womman owe to strengl^e hem l^e more l^erta 
forto done it 

25 wbo * so be slow k slunibry l^at seel) bou beisy oure swete lorde 
was je.*us crist bere on er|)e for oure uote 

EXultauit vt gigas ad curreudam viam pertrwn- 
siuit bene faciewdo.^I And after al l^e o])er swynk ]^at 
be swank in 1)6 last endynge of bis lyf . ol)er Men ban rest whan 
30 hij ben late« blode and holden ' bem pryuelicb in cbanibre cV 
comew bot litel in |)e liitb . And he was laten bloode opow lie 
Mount of Caluarie . pider he went on beii * wban he wolde be 
letew blode . & ^utt in l^e battest of l)e day . forto schewe to vs 



' In the margin: dauid willi some letters, probably daii, erased 
below. 

^ At the beginning of tbe line space seema to bave been left for in- 
eerting an initial. 

° holden: hol squeezed togetber at tlie end of the line. 

■* MS.: hei}e with e expuncted. 



Recluse 127 

hou hot his loue was! to vs it hou brennande . & pere he was 
laten bloode on fyue stedes brode woundes & depe wi|i outew 
alle \te rewful garses . iiere was a gret swynk . And a^ein sluggers 
& slepers is his erlich arisinge ham ded to lyue ' . and also whan 
he went wij) iiise decipies . he ros vp erJioh & went fmm iiem .- 5 
& inade his prayers to his fader for vs . wel au^tte we jjan forto 
trctuaile for oure selueu, and arisen erlicli forto seruen hym for 
it is al oure oweu profit, 

A3ein coueitise is his niychel poue/te on erjje here {lat wex 
opon oure lorde euere leng«-e more and raore . For |io he i» 
was borne so michel place ne hadde he nouith pat his litel swete 
body mi^th lye opon . so narowe was pe stede pere he was borue, 
J»at vnne{)e joseph & his moder seten \iere opo» and laiden hym 
in a cracche wi|) cloutes jie godspel tellej) . 

PAnnis* euw inuolui t, 51 pus he was clo{)ed pai cloj^ej) \r, 
])& sunne ■* . pere after pouerlici) fedde wi{) pe mylk of a 
maiden* aud ^utte wite iee |)at Jiaidens han lesse* nilk pan o{>er 
wywmen han . and after in litel stede leide in a credel . & ^utt 
si()en he meue{) hyw* {)at he ne hadde ^ no\i}t so mychel where 
opon he miith leggew his hede, 20 

F.Ilius* ho»wiMJS no« h«/'ebat vbi caput suum recli- 
net . 51 pus pouer he was of jn . & of clo{)iug . And of mete 
nedeful {)at opon palme sonenday al day he stode k preched in 
jerM.*flIem in {)e temple . And at euen wha he hadde done he 
stode and loked longelich aboute hym And no» ne wolde bidde 26 
hym to mete ne to herberewe . and peh hij hadden wolde hij ne 
durst nousth for {)e clerkes and pe siaisters of {je lawse . And {)an 
be }ede to Bethauye ^ & his deciples wi{) hyra vn to Marthaes 
hous and his deciples breken {)e eres as hij ^eden by \te waye 
for hung<>;-e And * uitt hij weren chalanged of (ie Clerkes {)at hij so 



' On Ij/tu traces of correction. 
' p. 420 a. 

" In the margin: 'UMS 

♦ sunne on an eraaure extending down across of a mai (in tnaiden) 
and han les (in /e««e), which stand helow in the two following lines. 
" hadde: a added above the line. 
" In the Miargin: nws with n half cut away. 
' Bethanye : n touched up. 
" Atul: An ahuost effaced. 



128 .Toel Pfthlsson 

hadden broken |)e lawse for |)at hij gedreden lier niete opon J)e 
sabate day . And ^utt alj)ermeste pourrte com after pan whan he 
henge naked opo« \>e rode and mened hym of |)ryst & he [)at 
al made of nou.^th ne hadde bot a fote of erpe to ^ dyen opon 
5 as by mawues wene . & |)at was more to his pyue . whan jie kyng 
|)«t al pis werlde may welde & heuene & heile att liis wille 
nadde nomore goode in l)is werlde vu bileued is he |)at mychel 
wissche|) of werldelich wele . 

A3ein glotonye is his pouer pitauHce on \>e roode . Tuo manere 
Bieu han nede to eten wel & drynken . Sw^^ukeande Jien . 
k bloode leteu iieu . Look liat day pat he was sore trauailed & 
leteu blode . Look what men ^af hyw to drywk o\per to mete . 
Meu 3af hyw bot a litel galle iu a spouwgo . Look J)an who wil 
grucchen iif he t)e«che wel l^ere opou of vusauoure metes & 
15 drywkes . 

A3ein leccherie is his beryug ou erlje ol" a cleue maydeu . 
& al was clene \)at he ledde wi}) hym . And his hard betynge 
atte pyler ^at so he was beteu & f orwouwded . l^at f ram his hede - 
to his fote nas nou^th als raychel skyn hole opow hym as sien 

20 seien . pat men misth sett on a uedel poynt l^at it nas to broken . 
aud summe of pise holy men seieu {)at he hadde a Legiou of 
woundes . sex l^ousand . & sex hundref) . & sexti and sex . Who 
pim pat is tempted of leccherie . sett j)is wel att his hert and it 
wil drawe out pe likynge of leccherie . A^ein ail dedhch synnes 

25 {)at werrej) vs seint Peter se\]}, 

/^ TTr/.v/o ' iu carne* & vos eadem cogitacioue ar- 
V>< J. X inemini, 51 Arme{) 30U sei|) seint peter wij) l^ouit of 
jesu crist pat iu oure flesch was so ypyned 

Recogitate qualem apud semetipsum sustiuuit 
contradicctiowem vt uon f atiget . ^T penchel) whan 
56 gon & fi^tten a^ein pe deuel . hou oure lorde wij)seide ^ his 
wille of his flesche . 



to added above the line. 

p. 420 b. 

In the niarsiin : P e t r M S . 

carne: ne on erasure. 

wipseide: p added above the Hne. 



Recluse 129 

Non^ du»« eniwj vsqwe ad sanguiuem- restitistis 
^ ^^*' "® han 36 nomth wi{)stonden tyl scbedy«g of ^oure 
blode . as he dude for vs . wil we clepe hyni to help he is euer 
redy biforue vs atte Messe and schewe{) hym as ^ei} he seide . 
Loo me here in present . Telle to me what f)Ou wilt . jchill sine 5 
pe strengjje to wi|)stonde . {)e fende and alie his wiles . & in what 
stede \iat we clepe to hym he is eue?-e redy . 

Metati sumji.v castra iux/a iapidew adiutorjy' petro 
philistim veneruwt . ^ Lorde seie j ^iue ray strengj^e 
to \>e . Ijou |)at art ston of help . toure of treu|)e . castel of streug|)e . 10 
pere \)e fende ne may nou^th do wip h sautes . pis is taken out 
of Reguw . J)ere |)e folic of jsrael loged hem . by pe ston of help . 
And J)e Piiiiistiens comeu [)at ben vnwisttes . afe{) on ebru . is 
new wodeschipp . and it tellej) {)at jsrael weut sone ^e rygge . & 
foure J)0usande iu pe fi^th weren sarrelich ynomen and pal was 15 
for hij were flecchaude . And J)erfore in ^oure anguisch stondej) 
stiflich a^ein wij) gode josephath pat sent sondes many to [)e 
kyng of heuene« after socoures, 

IN nobis quidem no« est ta«ta fortitudovtpossi- 
mus huic mMltitudini resistere que'irruit super^o 
nos set cum ignoramM.s quid agere debeam«<s.hoc 
solum ha6em«s residui.vt ocmIos nosiros dirigamws* 
ad te . seq'* hec dicit domiUMS nobis nolite timere 
& ue paueatis hanc mMltitudiuew . now enim Yestra 
pungna se^ dei ton<«m modo confideuter state & 25 
videbitis auxilium domini super vos credite iu do- 
mino deo ves/ro & securi eritis. / ^ Ju vs nys nou^th 
derwor{)e lorde {)at we mowe wi{)stonde t)e deuels ferde ac whan 
we be so bistad [)is one we mowe doue heuen vp oure ei^en * 
toward \te mylsful lorde . {)0U sende vs socoures . sif he ne here{) 30 
vs nouUh crie we Ludder . & {)rete " {)at we wil ^elde vp pe 
castel bot iif hei^e \)e swi{)er wi{) his helpe . Ac hou ansuered he 
\)an pe goode J0sepha{): nolite timere, ne be ^e nou^t aferde . 



' In the margin : p a U I M S . 

' aanguinem: the second n by correction. 

• qite: e seems to be a correction for i. 

• difigamuB: the first t adtied above the line. 

'•' Between ei^en and toicard: to struclc over and expuncted. 

• p. 4-21 a. 

9 



130 Joel PahlsBon 

ne drede ^e 3011 nouUli . pe fi^th is niyne & nou^tb ^oures . stondel» 
sikerlich wiih stedfast bileue and 30 ben alle syker . for |)e feude 
ne may noping done to vs als long as we stonde . \>\s is j)e fendes 
woord porou3 ysaye,, 
5 TNcuruare' vt transeamws, ^ Stoupe he sei{) & lete me 
X ride . j nyl nou^tli ride longe . pou may schouue me adoune 
he sei|) wi|) sehrift . ])us wil J)e fende seie ne ieuef) liy»» nou^tli 
he is a li^er sei|) seint Bernard 

NOn^ wlt tj-ansire sel residere.^ Nille he uou^t 
wenden ouer ac he wil sytte wel fast Jiere was a wowman 
l)at ieued hym so . and bowed adoune & lete hym lepe vp A; 
|)0U3th to liaue schriuew hir on |)e Morne . & sche dude it eft & 
sche fel in fuU woue . & he rode opon hire twonty wynter . And 
ne hadde ben a miracle pat sche sei^ he schulde l)aue riden hire 

15 so {)at he schulde haue tor{)led adoune wi{) hire iw ^ to helle pytt 
And {)erfore holde we vs vp stedfastlich in \)e bileue for it bringej) 
to nou^th alie {)e deuels wiles . Haue stedfast bileue as holy 
chirche bileue{) and lete away alle wicche craftes alle tiliynges . 
alle sweuens . & alle fals si^ttes {)at holy men dreden . For {)e 

20 fende ha{) many bigiled {)ere {)orou3 . for \>ere nys non {)at in his 
sotile temptacions may atstonde bot one in {)e bileue . And ])e7- 
fore we most fast biseche god {lat he streng{)e oure bileue as his 
apostles bedeu hynj . for ^if {)e feude may vnderstonde {)at oure 
bileue failej) {)an wexe{) his mi^th . We rede in Regu?» {)at jsbosett 

25 made a wowauan l)is ^ateward {)at wyndewe|) whete . and sche fel 
on slepe & jsboset was wi{) inne . And {)an com recasbesoues & 
wen jn & slou^ jsboset . jsboset on ebru is pe bymased jiau to 
saie on english {)at a myddes his wi{)e>-wy»nes leide hym to 
slepeu . wowjman ^ateward is his wittskil {)at sehulde departeu \\e 

30 whete fram \ie chaf . pe whete is his goode werkes . chaf is ydel 
{)0U3ttes * & speches . pis skil {)at schulde be strong as Man ^ and 
whan he vnstreng{)ed {)an he is womman ^ Jiat is \>e bileue faile{) . 
pis 3ateward {)au slepe{) sone whan he gynne{) consenten ta 



' In the margin; vsayas. 
' In the mai>;in: BeruardltS 
' m addeii above the line. 
■* pou-^ttes : the first t not clear. 

" Over a in itan, 6 and n in iivmman sraall holes, owing to an 
erasure on the otlier side of the leiif. 



Recluse 131 

synne |ian pe lust go{) jnw(/rd and |)e delit wexeli . Jjan recabesones 
^&t ben pe deuels barnes of lielle gon jn & sleu ^ douwri^th })at 
vnseii bymased soule gregori sei|) . 

IGniuie* ferie est vitawj carnis dileccionis per- 
forare.^Ipe fende jiorou^ stikej) |)e cher whan \)e deht 5 
smite|) to \ie hert aud {)at is |)orou3 ^enielesschipp . gregori sei{), 

ANtiqus' hostis mox vt mentem occisam iwueuit 
ad ea»» in quibusdam occasionibw^ loquturws 
venit.& quedani ei de gestis preteritis ad memoria»n 
reducit . audita quadam verba indecenter resonat.io 
putrau'.& deteriorate sunt citatrices mee . cicatrix 
ergo quippe figura . figwra est wlneris . Cicatrix ergo 
ad putritudiuew redit quando peccati wlnws quod 
per peuitenciam sanatuw est ad dilecciouem sui 
animuw cowcutit, ^ pat is whan ))e olde vnskil Hstnefi toward 16 
oure j)0U3ttes and herej) hem spekeu of fleschiich t)inges . & 
speke{) 1)US \)e olde swike towai'd |)e hert of wordes {)at he hap 
byforne oi{)er si^ttes {)at he haj) seen bifore o\\ier of her owen 
synnes J)at it suwtyme wrou^t al pis he putte]) forj) to pe doted 
soule so t)rtt ))e sywnes {lat bifore were« bett ben opened and 20 
ymade uewe . {)at he may wepe & sorou^e yuou^ & seie wi)) p\s 
psartue 

PVtrueru» t * & corrupte su«t cicatrices mee. Wei- 
laway myne woundes \>&t weren faire heled ben gedred 
newe {)orou5 syune . & gynue{) to roten . |jat is whan pe elde 25 
synnes coraen in inynde . & {)at is {)orou3 slou{)e pat he falle{) in 
ydel {lou^ttes . 

ISboset inopinata morte>n nequafiuam subcu»iberet 
nisi ad ingressum mewtis Mulierem custodiam de- 
putasset, ^ And al {lis vnhap come{) {)orou3 \ie ^ateward slepe 30 
{lat is wommanlich & ^ scliulde be manlich . & {)at is for defaut 
of bileue pat ouercaste{) bo{)e Mau & womman . & namelich a^ein 
{)e fondynges \mt jsbosett died jnue . pat is ^emeleshede . Look 



' p. 421 b. 

' In the margin : < with G partly cut awav. 

g; 

• In the margin: g ; 

♦ In the raargin : d a U ^ 

' Belween <t and schulde traces of erawure. 



132 Joel P&hlsson 

liou oure enemj' is wayk & lepi . nj's li iiou;! au viihardy eanipion 
jiat smite|) toward |je fote of his ' enemy . Kor tiesche iust is 
cieped foote wounde . For as oure fete hereu vs wliider J)at we 
wil gon . 80 doue oure flesche kistes . Ac ne drede we vs nou^th 
6 ful sore - bot ^if l)at pe delit smyte tovvard pe he hert and gynne 
to wexen more & more . Ac [jau drynk of pe atter . ])at is penche 
on |)e passiouw of jesu crist . & do penauwce & dryue out jjat 
attri swelly«g fmm pe hert . pat is . J)euche on attry pyne pat 
.lesus drank opon l^e rode for oure sywnes . pride . onde . wraj^pe . 
10 hert sore for werldelich Jjinges . drery for loue longyug wisschynge 
of Catel . J)ise ben hert wou»den, •' pise ^iuew depes dynt onon 
whan \ie foote smyt l^iderward [^au it is to dreden . pat is 1)6 lust 
oil)c/- lie loue . 

REmedie a^eiu pride is lowenesse . ..V onde salue is felau^- 
schipp . wralil^e salue is loue*.& suffre |)at siau raisdo l)e . 
Asein sloul^e is redyuge . spckynge of god & of gostlich werkes . 
a^ein coueitise is free of hert . a^eiu glotonye fastynge . a^ein 
leccherie flei^e out of l^e feble compaignye pere it may be done . 
& bidde fast to god ni^th & day pat he sende l^e grace to wij)- 
20 stondeu it . 

WHo so wil be lowe aieiu pride |ienclie hou mj-chel hyni 
faileli of holynesse & of gostlicb l^ewes . 3utt lieuche virhat 
1)0U hast of \)\ seluew pou art of two dele of body & of soule . 
& in oiper ben two l)inges l)at mowen michel meken \)e ^if 1)0U 

25 liuest good kepe vn to hem . ju l)i body is fill^e & vnstrengl)e . 
Look in pe fairest stede of al \)'i body l^at is l)i nel) . what comel) 
out l)ere of berel) it wyn beryen oil^er smel of Aromance . pe 
breren beren rosen . pi flessche * what berel) it . out of pi uose 
ne comel) nousth bot slj'me . ne artow nouitli bot wormes n)ete, 

30 Operua fluiuduw . vas stercorwm . esca vermiuwj, 
k3 ^ Now a fleiie may dere l)e & make l^e to blenche wel owe 
1)0U to be proude . Biholde to pise holy aieu bou hij fasteden . 
& wokeu . & iw which t)-rtuail liat hij weren . i^: so may poii kuowe 
pine owen vnstrenglie . Ac l^at awildej) vs liat we be clouwben 



' his: i added above the line. 
^ ful sore run closely together. 
' p. 422 a. 
* loue added above tlie line. 

l blotted ; over e the upper part of an unlinished letter. 



Recluse 133 

hei^e & liecfore biholde doujnvanl tt |)0U sehalt see what tion art 
seij) sei)jt austiu, 

IN c e n c i u »w et>f e 1 e c c / o « i s r e s p e c t /* *• i n f e r i o r i s s i t 
cautela que humilitatis considerac/o stqjerioris. 
5[ J)at is biholde vn to [lise holy raeu t^at ben of hei^e lyf & 6 
t)ou may loke |)an hou lowe j)ou standes forbi hij ' doue . Faste 
a seuen ni^th brede & water . wake pve niUh . what wil it vn- 
strengjie pi body pan may jiou wel see J)at iu t)i flesche is filpe 
and vnstreng|3e . And in pi soule ben oj^er two f)inges . for^eting 
& vncunnyng . & h^th forto casten in to synne . And j)erfore bi- lO 
holde to [line synnes . drede {)i feble kynde and seie wili |)e hoiy 
Man j)at raen telde hym j^e fal of his felawe, 

ILle hodie ego cras. 1f Als vnstrong ara ich as he was . 
he fel to day & j may to raorowen & biwepen his vnhappe . 
& dreden j^at so tni^th bitiden hy»» ^if god ne helde hym vp 15 
wij) his grace Bernard seit) . 

SVpe/-bia est appetitM.* proprie exceliewcie hurai- 
litatis cowtemptxs eiusdew . 5[ Also as pride is willyng 
of worschipp & hei^enesse . riith so is lowonesse wilhng of lowe- 
nesse & to be litel holden . & as pride is rote & hede of alle 20 
vices : so is - lowenisse rote & heued of alle vertues . 

QVi^ sine humilitate virtutes co»gregat est qiiasi 
(jui in vento puluerew portat.^T I>^t is who [jat 
beret) ve/tues in hym wipoutew lowenesse it faret) by hyra as 
who bare dust iu {)e wynde . for t)is lowenesse no gnare ne raay 25 
ne may it athoide pat is non of ]^e deuels wiles ne raay liyra 
deren . Seint antoyne it witnesset) t^at god schewed al t^e werlde 
vnto . & pan he sei^ it sett al ful of deuels gnares . tt fan he 
seide vn to oure lorde . A lorde he seide hou rai^th euere any 
passen att t^ise and witen hyra f^Yun hem . & ourc lord seide to 30 
hyra . J)e f oleraode Man . For ^e lowe Man of hert is so litel J)at 
no gnare raay atholde iiym . & |)erto eke he is so strong pat al 
gostlich strengt)e couiet) J^erof cassiodre seit) . 

OM/iis* fortitudo ex hurailitate &c, 51 Al gostlich 
strengt^e coraet) of lowenisse . 35 

' hij on eraaure. 

' p. 422 b. 

' In the margin: gregorius , 

* In the raargin: cassiodorM.v 



134 Joel PAhlsson 

VBi' huinilitas . ibi sapie/icia, ^ ])ere iowenesse is - 
J)ere is wisdom . & \)pre \>&t is wisflom \jere is [le faders 
strei)g|)e . Hou dofie pe wresteler he nymet) lOme what tMrne \)&t 
his felawe can uou^th . & [lerwi]) he castef) hy . Also oure lorde 
5 sei^e hou |)e fende cast alle to helle l)orou3 pe pride l^at was in 
adam . And [lan seide oure lorde j schal werpen hym wit) a turne 
t)at he ueuer ne knew ne neuo- schal . And oure lorde strei^tte 
hym so lowe by \>e er|)e \>a.t \)e fende ne knew hym nousth & 
t)at is cleped ^e fallande turne . & tJ^rwit) he bigiled hym and 
10 cast hym & ouercome hym . & alle his wiles er he wist . And 
3utt vche day he is bigiled wi|i t«it ilcli t^one of [le t)olemode 
Man & womman 

OMne sublime vident oculi eiMs.^y Holy sien \)at 
holden liew lowe & litel of hem selue» & -yhien hem nouith 
15 vnto \)e werlde . pe wilde bore ne may nou^lh come vnto hew . 
Hij ben carelcs of iiis tosshes . & fjcrfore vche man bilieide his 
blak . & nou^th liis white . pe wliitu wil hygile l^e ciie oure 
lord seit), 

DJ s c i t e a m e q u i a ni i t i s s u m k h n m i 1 i s c o r d e , 
f[ Lernet) of me to be mylde . for ii'h am meke & mylde . 
For in t^ise laen f8.t ben mylde lie ne heldel) uou^th drope 
meel of his grace ac foloweand he lieldet» iw hem his gmce, 
^Vi^emittis fontes iu co>»uallibMS &c ^ pou makest 
welle lorde in \)e valeie . & hert bolnen & heuen as hil . 
26 taSe me a bledder and * blowe it and it wii fieten pricke ^er 
inne wi|j a nedel & it gofi* al out & sinket) . And so it farej) by 
pryde . als longe as a Man \ete\) wel of bym seluen t)an he is 
blowen as bledder Ac lete hy»i loke wittcrlich what he is & his 
tayl * wil falle 
80 "TJRide salue is t)is . Felawschipes & loue ot^er MCHnes goode & 
iT it is t)ine owen . & wille hem goode pere my^th failet) . For 
so naycliel strewgt^e ha{) loue fat it maket) ot^ers good his gode . 



Q 



' In the margin : S a I a m )? . 

' lowenesse is run together at the end of the line. 

' In the margin: dnuid. 

* From and, the last word in a line, a large erasure, extenJing over 
the whole of the following line dowu to goP, which standti in tlie iniddle 
of the next. Comp. p. 130, n. 4. 

' p. 423 a. 



Recluse 136 

Loue o]tere Mewnes gode ^ & it tumel) to [le . Lord what manj' 
ben in |)is werlde as ich vuderstonde wolde wel loue pat [)ing 
here on erjie pat al |)ing were his jtat it touched 

ALia bona si diligis tua facis. sif pou hast onde of 
o|)ers goode |)0u attres [je wi[) halyway . & wouwdes pe vfip 6 
salue . J)i salue it is iif |)0u it loues . & pi streng[)e a^ein |)e 
fende . iif ^ou loue witterHch nomore schal flesclilich foudynges 
dere \te t)an gostlicli . Looiie \tat we wil [)at vche nian & wowman 
{)at loue|) vs . loued hem . Helpe o\>er forto haue defaut [Mroi \>i 
seluew . An Ancre was ahnest dampued for pat sche nolde nou^th io| 
lenen a «[uayer fram fer to loiieu on, 1 

Wni\t\)e salue is j)olemodenesse {)at men owen to han aiein 
yuel . pre staires {)er bien |)at lougen to wrajjj^e . }it |)ou 
be fjolemode a^ei» wraj)|)e an heise staire it is ^if J)ou J)ole pole- 
modelich harrae |)at meu done [)e . wel * heiier it is . & more mede 16 
li|) pofore ^if [)0u ne haue nousth agylt . And alder bei^est ^if {)ou 
it l)ole for {)i good dede . Ac many wil saye j raade neue^e fors 
and ich hadde agylt . Ac for j ne haue ^ nouith dese>-ued it . 
it do|)e rae pe more harme . pou pat so seist ' chese on of {)ise 
two . whel^er {)at {)e is leuoe to be judas felawe . oi\)er jesus cri- 20 
stis* felawe judas was houged for his gylt . & jesws crist giltles . 
He \)at myssei{) {)e oi|)e>- misdo{)e {)e he is \)i file . for pe file file{) 
away al {)e rust of pe soule . For al {)is word is goddes smi{)e 
to smi{)e wi{) his chosen . & his belys {)at he blowe{) wi{) {)at beu 
his wicked sien & wymmen {)at clenseu his childer and bri^tten 2S 
hem whi schult we be waryand hem {^at done vs good . ^if we 
weren wel avised we aujtten * to blissen hem & biddew for hem 
fast for \)e good {)at hij done vs . wolde {)e yrue ^if it cou[)e 
speken warien \)e fyle pat it clensed nay bot it were a gret fole, 

ARgentum probatum vocauit eos.^THe clepe[) hise 30 
siluer proued iif pat we wil come to oure spouse . we mote 
beu yproued as [)e siluer is in {)e f\'re . so we raote ben yproued 
in \te fyre of fondynges. 



' gode: the secoml letter more like e. 

' icel: w partly on erasure. 

' ne haue addeil ahove the line; on e in haue traces of erasure. 

* cristii: the last is in somewl^at fainter ink aiMed above the Hne. 

' airMen: ii-J S(|ueezed together at tl)e end of the line. 



1.^6 .loel Pflhlsson 

Q\' i (1 g 1 ?• i a t M r i ni p i »< .s s i li e i p .•.- o f a c i t f 1 u g e 1 1 a t u m 
pater vester/^ jjenche on \)\s ensample, on domesday 
is day sett forto ^elde vche iia»* ' after p&t he ha|) deserued . 
dope he {)e pan wrowg |)at demes l)e or {)at day come . for j^an 
f) is ri^th sett vn to alle wen . for two |iinges god ha]) holdcn to 
hyin seluen worschipe & wrechc. 

Mc"l)i vindictam ego retri l)ua>H . ^I Myne is jie wreche . 
3 it schal 5elde . 
GLoriam inea))) alteri non daho.^TMy hlis and my 
glorie .1 ne schal siue to iian Now {)ise Men l)at wral^l^en 
hem here of harmes pat men done hem - and of wronges and 
l)ise men also l^at desiren forto haue Lordeschippes oucre ol^er 
& haue ati Men vnder foote for her ryches . ])at on wil bynyme 
god l)e wreche l^at fallel) to hym . & pat ol^er his glorie {lat is 
lo his blis . And so wolde Lucifer haue done . And \)eriore ])e harme 
fel opon hym seluen . he bicom of l^e fairest aungel ^* of heuene 
pe foulest deuel of helle . and so schult aJt done l)at hy»; folowen 
bot 5if hij amenden hem here whiles |)at hij lyuen . for allo swich 
Men wil bynymew god wip strengl^ie al |)at falleji vn to hym 
20 dauid sei]), 

LA c u »i a p e r u i t & e f f o d i t e u m k i Ji c i d i t i n f o u e a >w 
quawj fecit . f[ Hij niadeu a graue and dalf it . aud fel 
hem selue« in l)e diche. l^at hij maden . & so it schal fare by 
vche wicked laan & womman . ]je harme l^at hij wolde done to 

26 oper . it schal falle to hem seluen here oilier elles where . For 
atte day of dorae l)0u schalt seen hou l)e deuels of helle schullen 
beten he»w \w l^at ben l)ine enemyes & haii done lie harme here 
5if pat pou 5iue l)e wreche in to his honde . for we schull ■* wil 
as god wil . and he schal wil as we wil . 

30 OLoul)e salue is l)is gostlich gladnesse l)orou5 hope of gret 
k3 ipede l)at \ve schull haue l)orou5 redyng . {lorou^ holy l^ou^ttes . 
oil^er of mawnes moul)e to here * Meu schutt ofte lete biddynges 
forto heren and forto reden . for porou^ heryng & redyng comel> 
J)e deuociouM . and ^iuel) good kep to l)ise verses . 



' p. 423 b. 

' hem: m appareiitly touclied up. 

' aungel; u by correction. 

* u:e schul/ rnn together. 

' hcre: tbe lirst e corrected or toncbed np. 



Recluse 137 

N u « c s t u (1 e . n u w c o r a . n u w c c u w f e r u o r e 1 a b o r a ; 
Sic erit liora breuis & labor iste leuis. 
^ Jiat is now stodye . now biseche now wirche euere as [li wytt 
is scharpest and so schal [le |)enche jie day schort & J)e werk 
H^th, & 

SEinpcr in manu tua sacra sit leccio tenenti libruwi 
sorapnMS subripiat & cadentew faciem sawc^a 
suscipiat, ^ Holy redynge euere be iu jjine honde pat {)i uebbe 
falle sleping ' opon |)e pe holy pagyu . Ac euere as a man may 
do best and best wille ha)) so holde hym . pat is to saie in 10 
biddyng oif^er in heryng o\\icr in redyng oiper in spekyng oifier 
in [)0U3th of goddes passiouM, 

SAlue a^ein coueitise is largesse frenesse of hert . najjeles a 
3ian may be to fre as seint Gregori sei[) . Jiete and drynk 
bl3'udes pre tymes h^th Jjou^ttes h^th wordes . and seching of 15 
lustes ac vnderstondej) \>ere ben J^re degrees of flescHch fondynges 
on is cogitacio . ano[)er affectus . |)e {)ridd consensus, 
cogitacio . J)at ben h^th [^ou^ttes |)at ne hirten nouith pe soule 
bot hij bispatte?» it as Heiies done confiteor seruej) pere of 
crouohynge & knelyng & culpyug atte breest done hem away 20 
affectus . {)at is whan pe jjou^th go]) inward and pe delytt 
wexet) and pe lust jjan wexe[) wouHde and depej) inward in to 
1)6 souie & pat is after. [)at [)e lust go[) . pau is nede to crie 
Sane me dofHine hele nie lorde for ich am wounded iu to 
my soule, 25 

R^^^ben primogenitws meus now crescat ruben, 
51 Rede [jou^th [)0U biody delytt ne wexe [)ou neuere con- 
sente, Jiat is ne consente [)ou neuere [)erto . ne drawe uon vniust 
vpe [)e as [)ing \<iit were ainased . and ii[)e adou» and lete[» hyw* 
vp & seif) erauant . J)an he bicome[) neer [)at aforne stode fer 30 
and bite[) de[)e bytte [)at stode arst fer fro 30U dauid sei[), 

ER u e a f r a m e a d e u s a w i »j a m * ni e a m & d e m a n u 
canis vnicawi meaw.^I Whau |)e dogge of helle come[) 
als smertlich stonde a^ein ne loke nousth what he what he wil 
do ac nyme ono« ^e roode staf iu [)ine honde & in p\ mou[)e . 3.> 



' p. 424 a. 

' hi/m added above the line. 

* animam: a stroke across the first a seetns to have been erased. 



138 Joel rihlsson 

l)at is make on l)e pe merk of \>e croice arise vp smertlich & 
stir pi selue» holde vp fiine ei.^eu & |)ine howden after socours ' 
wi)) Deus iu adiutorium . Veni creator sp/rtiws . Exur- 
gat* deus & dissipemtMr . Saluum me fac.Dojnine quid 

5 multiplicati, Ad te leuaui ocmIos meos. Saiep |)ise Psal- 
mes . & 5if 50U ne come nou^th sone help crie|) ludder wi|) good 
hert .Vsquequo domine obliuisceris me. pater noster. 
Credo . Aue maria, And smertlich falle|) . a doune to J)e erpe 
aud braidej) vp \>e roode staf castej) hym a furwe half \)e heile 

10 dogg pat nys nou^th elles bot blisse al aboute J)e and spytte 
hym amydde J^e berd & scorne hym [lat he wolde wij) so litel 
hire {)i soule goddes spouse . bihode what he payed deme opon 
hir * prys and be euere |)e derere for fiat sche * coste dere ne 
selle hir uou^th for so litel to his fo . [lat he paied so mychel 

16 fore his owen hert blood & make hir nou^th pe deuels hore . 
to litel hij mowen do Jiat ne mowen nou^th heuen vp lier pre 
fyngers & nempue goddes passiouw ^ his derwor[)e bloode & crepe 
ia to his' wouwdes as [je prophete sei|i . 

INgredero' petram absconde fosse humo ^ Go in to 
1)6 ston and in to {le doluen erlie, 

FOderu«t* manus meas & pedes* meos dinumera- 
uerunt om«ia ossa mea, ^I Hij dolue» niyne feet & 
myne houden & rekened rayne bones . 3e ^e nayles weren ragged 
biforeu for hij weren of a wowmanes makyng & bare» l)orou5 
25 in to ^e tree skyn . & flesch . & bon . al fiat hij stoden on . & l)er- 
fore 1)6 prophete biddel) pe crepe in to pe doluen erpe, 

COlumba mea iu funeribws petre & cauernis ma- 
cerie ^f Michel loued he pat culuer l)at he made swich 
hidels to hir . po l)at he clepel) culuer looke pat hij han 
.30 culuer kynde wil) outen galle . liat is wiltouteH bitttvnesse of hert 



• socours: the second o proliahly a correction. 

' Exurgat: between u and r traces of erasure. 

' hir: r apparently by correction. 

■■ sclie added above the line. 

' passioiin : 2)as ahnost effaced. 

" p. 424 b. 

■ In the marpiin: prophefa. 

" In the margin: dauid 

" pedes: the lirst e looks like 0. 



Recluse 139 

& hlpe of synue . come p&u boldelicb to bym & make schelde of 
his passiouw . o\per ^utt iu wille to leteu her synne als sone as 
god seude{) bem his g/-ace wbau |iat liij hau bisou^tb \tere after 

DAbis scutuw cordis laborewi tuu?«.^Lord t)OU scbalt 
3iue me hert a schelde a^ein {)e fende wi{) his swyukful 5 
pyne . He scbewed it to vs witterlich ynou.; [lat be is oure scbelde, 
pe fi^t |ierof makej) hym agast & bryngej) byw att fli.^th . & iif 
30ure tewfptacioun go so ferfor|) takep seint Benett salue nou^th 
so mycbel as be dude . for he tooke so mychel J)at rigge & wombe 
brusten ou blode . ac wit) a smert discipbne ^ o\>er to drawe out lo 
of bkyng ^if J)ou werest j)e siepeande he wil come vpe \)e for 
deiytt is dedHcb \\i\> outen dede so ferforj) it may go and last, 

NVmq«<a»» eniw iudicaudo est dileccio esse mordia 
racjo recluditMr- & negat assensuw . ^ Wban ^e 
skyi ' fi^ttej) no lenger a^ein |)an it is dedlich For in {le ginnyng 15 
trede \te nedder ou jje bede er |)at be were to bolde ^e pro- 
pbete seij). 

BEatus* qui tenebit k allidet paruulos suos ad 
petra»» . ^T BHssed be be seij) \ie prophete pat brekej) to 
pe ston atte flrst skirminge, 20 

IN* canticis capte vobis wlpes pa?-uulas quidam. 
enim, ^ pe first prickyng sle{) pe vyne [)at ben oure soules 
pat mote« han mychel tilying as fte vine of all trees it most 
haue mooste cost and it ne may nouitb beren hym * seluen . 
nomore ne may a man beren hym seluen, ue kepen hyin bot 25 
l)orou3 |)e g?-ace of god . And wel more keping & tilying it mote 
haue pau \\e vine and li^tblicb |)0u may sle \)e vine . & 3ut wel 
li^tblicber may J)e soule be sleyn . And [^wfore & for many oj^er 
enchesous man is likned to |)e viue . pe fende is bere kynde bi- 
hynde . & ' asse bifore . pat is le|)i bifore & stronge bihinde . & 30 
{)erfore smyte hym opon |ie schulders for he is t)i«g pruddest & 



' discipline: the second i aiUIed above the line. 

' recludituT: over the c a short perpendicular stroke, evidently the 
upper part of an untinlshed /. 
' skyl: k indistinct. 

* In the margin: dauid. 

* In the niargin: ju canttci.v. 

* hi/m : ij on erasnre. 
■ li. 425 a. 



140 Jool PAhlsson 

hym is schanio lc)]icst . j)at is atte iirst whan he teiiiptel) stonde 
stiflich a^ein wi|) gods passioun & lie fiei^el) als swi|)e . & of })at 
synue he ne sciial nomore tempte J^e . Ac anol^er may for ^ere 
ben fele of lieni . A lefdi seide a spark brou^th al hir hous on 

6 brennyng & so it farej) ofte of Htel comej) mychel . j)erfore vche 
Mau & womman be|) wiir of j)e deuel, he is redy to blowen it & 
kyndle|) it more and more . k ])^rfore que«che]) it onow ri^th wi]) 
jesus cristes bloode for it is goddes ri^thful dome a man J^at nyl 
nou^th whan he may he ne schal nouith whan he wold Also 

10 a^ein coueitise ])enche hou pouer jesus crist was att his bereynge 
he ne hadde none hous to be borne jnne ne no clo])ing forto 
ben ywounden jnne and pouerlich was sustened afterward and 
afterward his moder susteined hym wi]) her rok for sclie spau ])at 
tyme And after more pouerte wlian he henge on ])e rode naked . 

16 A ^^iti leccherie ])enche opon his betynge wi]) scourges knotted 

j\ ,1 a\. & take 1)6 a discipline oil^er two . & ])at wil drawe ])e likyng 

fram ])iue hert And bidde fast to jesu crist & he schal deliuer 

])e & l)ou bidde wip good will, er {)ou lest wene for ])at sywne 

ne may noman wiJ)stonde wi])0utew his gmce bot hij j^at ben 

20 chaste of kynde . o\\\cr ])orou3 art ])at is to vnderstonde by art 
])at hij deliten hem i« o])er ])inges & ])e/-fore hij ne han no will 
\>erto . oi\)er useu letewaries to fordone her ky?Kle, 

A3ein glotonye be]) sober . faste]) gretelich for ])at is ])e best 
medicine \)ere aicins & J^enche]) opon ])e mej^fuluesse of 
25 je,>.u crist whan he heuge opou pe rode Aud he asked a drynk 
& hij ne ieuen bot a litel galle & eysil & myrre menged to 
gedre . & he wi])drou3 hym & nolde nou^th drynk it J^ei^ al he 
were of |)rust . 

NOw we schuU telle of schrift two ])inges nyme]) ^eme of 
schrift . pe first of which nii^th it is . pat o\)er what it 
schulde be . Now jchille dele ])is on sextene partyes as men 
breken bred to childer pat bot ^if {)e bred were broken to hem 
hij mistten dyen for hunger, Schrift ha]) niany mi^ttes . Ac jchil 
tellen bot of sex pre to {)e fendo & J)re to oure seluen schrift 
35 schendel) ^e fende & tohewe]) of his heued & to dreue]) al his 
feerd . And oure seluen it wasshe]) of al oure fill^e . & ^eldej) vs 
{)at we hadde lorne k make]) vs goddes childer . Judyf is schrift 
on oure tunge l)at* is ])e fende whan mcu scheweu her sywnes 
p. 425 b. Near tho left hnnd bottomcorner, a haiid pointing upwards. 



Q 



Recluse 141 

to pe prfest & ben sori l^frfore J)au schendeu hij Jie feude whan 
a Man is in wille to doue his synnes noniore [)at ra|)er he wolde 
dyen & drawej) out al [>e rote of pe hkyng |)an is his heued of . 

COmpuHCte scieucie iu cubiculo abscidit caput, 
^ Ae 3Utt he nys nou^th al fulhch slayn, 6 

VAga o vna mulier ebria . irf es^ . judif fecit in 
dorao regis nabugodonosor , ^ pat is erpe mouJ)e do 
out al |)at heued al \>e gynnyng & al as it was |)au he fiei^el) & alt 
his wrewches & all his wiles as judif dude Oloferne Also judas 
Machabeus who stoode aieins hyw also \>e folk iu . judicu»» lo 
asked whan josue was dede who schuide beu her leder 

i\'is erit dux nostrum judas ascendit &c . ^ Oure 
lorde seide late judas go bifore 50U and j schal take ioure 
enemyes iu to ^oure haudes what is |)is to saie . Josue spelle)) 
liele and judas schrift as judif do[)e |)an is josue ded whau pe 15 
soule is siayn j^orous synne & is quyked a^ein poroui schrift . 
For schrift is baneoure & beref» |)e bauer bifore goddes ferde & 
bynyme)) pe fende his loiide . Judas to drof al pe loude of 
Chanaan bodiUch aud so do|)e sclirift gosthch 

OMnia in cowfessione lauaHtw)- glosa co)(fitebimMr 20 
tibi deus cowf itebimwr, 5T pis was bytokued pat judif 
wesche & despoiled hir of widewen schrude [^at bitoknef) synne 
<fe clo|)ed hir in haliday weden 

LAuit corpus suuw & exuit se vestimewtis vidui- 
tatis . johel sei[) . 25 

Redda»» vobis aunos quos commedit locusta & 
bruc?«,s" . rubigo & erugo, ^ Schrift seldej) vs al oure 
lorne . pis was bitokned [)at judif schredd hir wij) haliday weden 
ovrnement; bitokne() bhs as oure lorde seij), 

ERunt sicut fueruMt & proiec^-^.&c. 51 ^chrift schal 30 
make {)e Man swich as he was er he synued . pe J^ridde 
])ing endej) hem bo|ie for it makej) vs goddes childer . Judas 
biiate beniamyn of jacob his fader to ben his ri^th honde sone 
pat is of |ie eritage of lieuew . now jchil tcUen hou 56 schullcH 
go to schrift 3-5 

SChrift schal be wrayful . |)0U schalt biwraie j)i seluen & non 
ol^er as summe wil saien {^us ich it dude |)Orou3 oper oi^er 
J)e fende it maked me done . J)us Adam and Eue wered hem . 



142 Joel PilUsson 

Adam wytt his sywne opon Eue ' aiul - Eue opoii \)C iiedder ])e 
feude 116 iiiay streiigjie iion to sy«iie liei^ jiat he egge heni \)erto 
ac wel wele he lete|) liere of whau raeu seieu o fore he is proiide/ 
for hij 3iuen hyin streng|ie (lat ua|i non i)ot onlicii [)orou3 oure 

5 seluen . ^if Jiou witest [)i synne oii pine vnstreng|)e l)0u puttest 
l)i synne on \)e fader pat made jie . ^if t)0u seist f)0u * ne haste 
no cuwuywg 1)0U puttest [li sy»nie on |)e son liat bou^th pe . ^if 
1)0U seist l)ou iie haste iio grace * liou puttest \)'i sywne on \ie 
lioly gost & ou alle l)ise \)re \wn gabbest for sif l)Ou wiit bidde 

10 hem . hij beu redy to ^iuew lie strengl^e witt & gmce, ^if jiou 
bidde v/ip good wille k folowe it in dede als forl^e as l)0u may. 
for at domesday [lou schalt" fynde alle {)ise lire a^eins pe )\i pou 
woldest excusen [le in p\s mauere . Nay \iou schalt saie l)us by 
myne vnwraist wille j l^ei^e to l)e fende & to his wrenclies 

15 poule seil) 

SJ' uosmet ipsos dii udicaremi<r iio« vticjj^e iudica- 
mtir, 51 3'^ we wraie vs iiere & deme wel oure selueu we 
schull be quyte atte mychei dome l^ere seiwt auselme sei|) l)ise wordes, 

H.J n c ** e r u u t a c c u s a n c i a t e r r e u s s u p r n i r a t ?/ ^' j u d e x . 
s u b t r a p a t r i n m s h o r r e u d u ;« c h a o s i n f e r n i i n t (/ s 
vrens couscieucia.foris ardeus muwdMspeccatorsic 
deprehensus iu qMam partew se preraet. ff Ou doraes- 
day schal pe deuel of helle stonde ou |]i ri^tli l)alf pine blake 
synnes on [li ieft half & biclepe {>e of lii soule mxrjier and ri^th- 
26 wisenesse \icre al redi pat uo reu})e nys wi]) forto biwraie pe 
abouen {le . \)e erfje deiner dredeful to biholde & storne . for als 
sof t as he is here . als sterue he is l^ere . pe p?'ophete seip here . 

AGnus^ dei qui iollit, ^ Here he is lombe & liere lyou» 
for he wot alle oure gyltes Biuelien vs [le wide Jirote of 



' Eue: E on erasure. 

^ and: on a aml d traces of erasure. 

' p. 426 a. 

* pou: a correction, probably for a. 

^ grace on erasure. 

° pou schalt run together. 

' In the raargin: ?au !«.>.' with a half cut away. 

' In the martrin: ' with the tirst two strokes of the m cut awav- 
ra M S 

° li\ the niargin: proj)hecia 



Recluse 143 

helle redy to swelewe vs . And oure conscience |)at is oure inwit 
breuuande wi|)iuuen vs & al \te werlde on fyre aboute» vs . pe 
syuful [ms bisett to wbicli of |iise may he turnen hyiu: nys here 
bo berne & herc {)at wo Word fat griselieh word [)at sorou^ful 
word \iat god schal seye, 6 

ITe' maledicti in ignem eternutw- qui prepw/atus 
est diabolo & angelis ei«s, ^ Go|) ^e awaried out of 
myue ei^en si^th in to \>e fyre pnt euer schal last {jat was niade 
for pe deuel & for his auugels for ^e fordude my dome J)at j 
demed man to f^t was to iyuen in sorou;, and wo here in |)is i(> 
werlde and after come to my blis . {)erfore ^e schult now haue 
l)e deuels dome to brewne wi[) hvm wijioutew* ende . pan schulleu 
|)e synful crien swich a cry jiat beue» and er|)e may agrisen 
of l^at iich ■* cry . * 

Ascondit* homo tribunal mentis sue si illud cogi- 15 
tet qwod oportet eum exhiberi ante tribunal 
chr/s<i.assit accusat)-ix cogitacio testis consciewcia 
carnis timor, 51 pat is |)enche man on domesday Austiu sei|) . 
For sJcytl sitte|i ' \)('re on dome settel come|) \)ere after l)is [jou^th 
& accuse[) hym k sei[) [)us J)0u dedest [^ere & pere & on Jiis wise . 20 
His witt biknowe|) al soj) it is & mychel more . After \>at {)an 
schal drede cpme & bynde hem {^orou^ hest of domes sian, 5utt 
uys he noujth ypayed pei^ hij ben ybounden ac bidde{) pyne & 
sorou3 wirche in hem al {)at he can & may . pyne wi{) outen & 
sorou3 wi{) inuen . who so deme{) {)us * hym seluen here sal{) he 25 
is for {)e prophete sei{) . 

NOn* iudicnbit deus in idipswm . ^ God uyl uou^th 
{)at a Man for o synne be twies yiugged 
SJ aecusat deus excusat in vite viam,^ 3'^ 1'0" 
biwraye \<e here god wil were [le \\eve, 30 



' In tl)e inargin : d »« / n M s 

' eternum: on n traces of erasure. 

' iDiJtoutea : on e traces of erasure. 

* ilch afldetl aV)ove tlie line. 

' p. 42i; b. 

' In the uiargin: kngusit inus . 

' sittep: over s slipht traoes of erasure. 

" Between Jms and /lym: tripinnen struck over. 

' In the niiirpn: prophe/a. 



144 Joi-1 rahlsson 

SChrift sclial be bitter a^ein pnt fie synno wos swele . JudyJ; 
\)at spellet) schrift was siarachies dou^tter . And judas |)at 
spellel) schrift also wedded Othomar . Bitter aud sorou^ in .schrift 
l)at ou coniel) vvil) pat ojier . pat on wi|) |)at o\ier uys nou^th 
f> worl)e . Judif and Marachie bol^e ben sauen iu fi^th Phares and 
^ariiu nymel) here foure piuges to stire 30U to make sorou^e . 
3if a Man hadde lorne fader & Moder . wyf & childe & brol)er 
.suster \- alie his frendes . and alle in on tyine nolde he uou^th 
be sory . God wott lie may be wel sorier ^iat hal) lorne god his 

10 fader & luarie his moder aud holy chirche iiis spouse . l^at he ne 
hal) no good of nou^th l^at hij done \wre jnue . Alle l^e aungels 
of heuene l)at wereM his frendes toforne . Alie haleweu iiis bre- 
peren & his sustren . Alle hij ben to hym als fremde & dede' as 
in hym . he hap sleyn he»« aud lyuel) iu lol) of hem alle 

15 /^Miies- amici eius spreueruwt eum & facti suwt ei 
V>/ iwimici, ^ AUe pat weren his frendes alt spyen opon 
hym . his children dyeu liat ben his good werkes al cleue, aud 
3utt opon al l)is li}'»« selueu pat was goddes childe & lyche to 
hyin . makef) hym pe deuels barne of helle & bicomep liche hym, 

20 TTOs^ ex Tpatve diabolo estis.^3^ t)en pe deuels childer 
V of helle & he is 30ure fader seit) oure lorde in pe godspell . 

LV c t u w * V n i g e n i t u »M f a c t i b i p 1 a n c t u ??( a m a r u wi , 
51 Make bitter nan as wowman dof^e for hir child l^at seel) 
it dj'e toforue hir . Now by l)is worde.^bot ^if a jiau wepe als 
25 mychel for his synnes as pe wyf dol^e for hir childe for sche 
\ete\) teres wil^outen raesure and bot ^if a Mau dude so for his 
.synnes he nere uou^th verray repeutiiuwt . Nay it nys uou^th so . 
Ac 1)0U schalt wil raake sorou^ & haue doel ^ & ioye l)e iu god 
as 1)6 prophete seil), 
30 /^Audete' in domiuo semper & delectare in deo 
VJl it i p .■? e d a b i t t i b i p e t i c z o »» e s c o r d i s t u i , 51 pat is * 

' dede: under tlie second e a dot, probably accidental. 
' In the margin: jerem;aA', 
' In the margin: domillMS. 

* In the margin : J evi mi as 
'^ p. 427 a. 

° doel: the second letter not quite clear; ■written together witli the third. 
' In the margin: prophe^a 

* Between is and ioye two strokes going almost perpendicularly across 
the line. 



Recluse 145 

ioye |)e in pe lorde & delite |)e in god & he schal ^iue |)e Jje 
askyng of {)ine hert Now here be|) tway coutraries . glade \te iw 
god & sorou^e for (liue synnes . & a iian may nou^th haue boj) 
att ones . and bofie we moten haue at ones on Jiis manere . wil 
be sori for Jii syune & glade \>e aiwaj' in god pat is haue hym 5 
alway in J)ine hert & in |)i mynde in al |)at {)0U doost . ^ AnoJ)e>- 
euchesouw forto maken sorou;, . A aan |)at were dampned for a 
murdre forto ben ybrent oijip/- anhonged . pou ^&i doost a ded- 
lich synne J)OU mur|)erest goddes spouse J)at is pi soule . pou art 
dampned to ben ybrent & anhouged opou pe galewes of helle lo 
for (lou chaffares |)an wi|) \)e fende as }'saye seip, 

PEpigimMs' cuw morte & cum inferno ruini!/.s pac- 
tum. 5T pat is J)0U haste treujie ph^th & made dede forji- 
ward wij) \>e fende . he ^iuej) J)e syune & J)OU hym J)i soule . For 
synne is his chaffare J)at he chaffarej) wij) . al, pe Jiridde enche- 15 
souw . a Man ()at hadde ai J)e werlde in welde & forlese it al att 
o tyme for his quedschipp hou woide his hert att * stonde . Nou 
vche man J)at lij) in dedlich synne he ha|) forlorne J)e kyugdom 
of lieuen . & oure iorde je,yu crist J)at is J)Ousa/(de hundrej) fairor 
J)an heuene & erj)e aud al J)e werlde . pe fierjie euchesoii is whi 20 
a man miith make sorowe, 

e n i m c h r j s < i a d b e 11 u »; e o « u e u c i o &c . 51 pe 
kyng of J)e londe haj) bitau^tte his dere childe a kni^th 
fofto wyten & ^emen and his enemy comej) & ledej) hym awai 
and to werray opou his fader . nys uou^th J)is kni^th sory . So it 25 
farej) here pe fader of heuene haj) bitau^tt vchon of his childer 
an auugel forto witen & warden & elles yuel vs schulde bi- 
stonden . Ac we putten hym away J)orou3 synne & maken hym 
fol sori in ais mychel as iu vs is . And oure eup/ych to swich a 
gentil wardeyn ^iuej) to litel reuereuce & cu/mej) hym to litel 30 
J)ank for his seruise . J rede J)rtt we do vs in his warde * & be 
ful tender ouer hym to helden hym wij) vs . swich enchesons 
pere ben & many oJ)er whi \tat a man au^tte * to wepen for his 
synnes . For god do[)e wij) vs as a Man J)at haj) an yuel dettowr 
takej) often Oten for whete . so do()e oure lorde of vs . wij) risth 3& 



Q^:; 



' In the margin : \' s a y a S , 

' att: the first t somewhat indistinct, the letters being sqneezed together. 
' p. 427 b. 

* au}tte: a unusually large, apparently a correction, possibly for o. 

10 



146 Joel PAhlBson 

\ve scluilde ^elde liym blode for blode . aud [lei} oure blode a^eiu 
his blode may be sette ' at ali^th prys . Ac he do^e as pe yuel 
dettoMr dojie takej) oure teres for his blood . & 3utt he is ful wel 
ypayed . he wepe opou |)e rode . on ia^ar . on jer!«.9alcra . for ()|ie/' 
5 Mennes synnes . wepe we for oure owen . Jn vitis patruw it 
telle{) an holy inan preehed & seide wepe we for oure sywnes 
lest |)at oure teres ne sej)en vs i« helle, 

SOhrift sehal ben hole |iat is al holelicii made al to o siau . 
pat is whau 50 corae toforne hyra l^ut schal schryue 50U . 

10 3e schull telle hyra al holelich jiat corae|) |)aM to ^oare mynde & 
nousth wi{)holde su»w & telle suw . pe pouer wowmau whan sche 
raake|) fair hir hous sche dol^e out al J)e grettest first & after pe 
smaller & |)an j^e dust arist to swipe sche HasscheJ) on water so 
do 36 whan se swepe ^oure hous pat is ^oure bodies \)Rt is goddes 

15 temple puttefi out first pe grete & l^an |)e o|)er & after \)e dust 
of li^th J)0U3ttes . ^if hij passen forj) to swi[)e flasshej) T^ere opoM 
teres J)at 30 ne ablynde nou^th Jie hert ei^en - . pe Man Jiat haj) 
raany dedlich wouwdes & do{)e hele hem &i\ bot on & diej) for J^at 
ilch on als wel he my^th dye on ' alle . A schipp wiji many holes 

20 stoppe alle bot on & it sywkej) for J^at ilche on als wel it ray^th 
drewchen on alle . Men tellen of an holy Man {)at lay on his deji 
bedd & his Abbot com to hym . & asked ^if J)at he were clene 
schriuew & he seide ^e* bot a syune he dude in his childehede . 
pe Abbot badde hym telleu it & he seide nay it nas no fors 

25 J)ereof . & algate his abbot gate it out of hym & Jian he dyed 
and a ni^th he com to J)e abbot & seide ne hadde he nou^th 
tolde hyw Jiat synne he hadde gon to helle & also anoJ)er for 
he had uoJ)er tyme neded a Man forto drynkeu . & a leuedy 
also for J)at sche lent a pouer wommau her cloJ)ing on opon an 

30 halyday was nere dampned to J)e pyne of helle 

SJ consciencia desit pena satisfacit^I 3'f ^' con- 
sciewce for^iue Jie J)at J)ou nart iu no peril of soule {)au is 
wel . so pat \)P7-e ne be no ^emeleshede . pat is J)at \>o\i haste 
sou^th ' als ferforJ)e as Jiou canst and may, 



' Over sette traces of erasure. 

' After eiyn an erasure, going slantwise down across the foUowing line. 

' on: under n a dot, probably accidental. 

* 3« added above the line. 

» p. 428 a. 



Reclnse 147 

SChrift schal be naked pat is nou^th be saumpled fair & hende- 
Hch Ac saie \>e wordes after pe werkes for {lat is tokne 
of ' hatynge . }U |)ou hatest |)i syune whi spekestow good pere 
of saie out |ii fiili astow wilt schende \ie fende . sir ich haue 
yhadd a le>?ima« oijier ich haue ben a woHmau foule of my 6 
seluew . pis nys nousth uaked schrift . ne bicloute it * nou^th ac 
saie sir goddes mercy & |iine ich am a foule hore o\\)er a foule 
lecchoure a stronge |)eue a^eines my lorde Jjei} to foule Mcn may 
saie ac holde pe for swich in hert for ynou^ it is to saye so \>&t 
pi schrift fader vnderstonde what J)Ou woidest menen . Sex {)iwges lo 
fallen to schrift . |)at meu clepen circuwstaunce ' . fat ben tagg es 
on ynghssch j ne cau nQue o{)er yugUsch pere ot ■ 1T On is f)is 
\)e persone pat {)0U doost \)e synne wi{) al oiper who it dude ^if 
it be a wowimau . saye {»us jch am a wowiman & schulde wi{i 
ri-,th be more schameful {lan a man . Jch haue spoken . done as j 15 
dude for {ti my sy»ine is pe more p&n of a Man . for it bicome{) 
wers in my mou{)e . a Maideu . a wyf . a Nunne . an Ancre . A 
womman ^at Mau leue{) so wel & han ben arst ybrent & au^tten 
beu \)e better ywar . sir it was swiche a Man . Monk . Frere 
Preest clerk wedded Man nou^th nempny \)e name bot * swich 20 
ordre for ^e hei^er degre {le more is pe synne . Stede . sir ich 
dude i« suich stede in chirche bihelde hym atte auter . j bihelde 
wrastelynges fole gamens & ydel oiper spoken bifore Religious 
\)ere men schulde nei^en holy {)ing hondled hym . ^ pe tyme ich 
was of swich elde {)at ich au^tte {)e wiselicher haue ywited me . 26 
ich it dude in lenten & on halyday whau o^er Men weren atte 
chirche ich was sone ouercomen & {)e syune is {)e more p&u ich 
hadde ben cast wi{) strengpe j bi{)0U5th me wel hou yuel it was 
to done . and dude it neuer pe latter . pe manere . sir on {)is wise 
{)us j lered first & vsed it for{) ou {)us fele wise {)us foullich 30 
schamelich . j sou^th delytt hou ich mi^th best paie my lust . 
Taie is &no\)er . tellen hou oft {)us oft yspoken yseide les . 
pou5th {)U9 fele {^ou^tte . for^emed {)ing {)at my^th haue holpen 
man oiper for^eten {)ing . lau^en * eten dronken lesse oiper niore 



' tokne of ron together. 

' bicloute it run togetber at the end of the line. 

• circumstaunce: i added above the line. 

• bot: t a correction on erasure. 

• MS.: lawitten with tt ezpuncted. 



148 Joel P4hl88on 

|)an hij liadde» ncde to jjus ofte in \vral)|)e si|)l)e>e ' j was last 
schriuen, 

CAuse whi |iou «ledest it oi\ier yholpe perto porou^ wham it 
higan . .leh it dude for - dehte of yuel loue . for hi^ete . for 
5 drede . for ffaterynge . jcfi it dude for yuel \)eiy Jiere com non of . 
ni h^th lates toUed hym vpe me oitier loose ansueres . for wrajijie 
ich it dude forwlii lie yuel laste]) ^utt . ])us le|ii wos uiyne hert 
seie |)us vchon after oper .leremie sei[), 

Effunde* sicut aqua cor tuum.^TAs water schede out 
\)\ne hert whi hiddeji * he as water . for oyle whan it is 
schadde fie licour leuej) jjere inne * . & of wyne pe sniel, & of 
Milk pe hew ae water ge\) out al clene & ^if jiou ne doost nousth 
so loo hou god I)reteue{) ])e . 

ECce^ego ad te dicit Aominus ostendam gentibMS 
nuditatem tuaw regnis tuam ignoni i niam k pro- 
iciam super to Abhominaeiones tuas.^I poi^ noldest 
nou^th vnwrie \)\ self & l^erfore j schal schewe all J)ine qued- 
schippes to a\\ kyngdomes on er{)e & of heueu & to helle and 
trusse al in \i\ nekk as a \)el & cast pe adouw in to helle witi 
20 al to geder . 

QVid' cowfusionis qui ignoniinie eru»t quando 
dissipatis folijs & dispersis vniuersa nudabitwr 
turpitudo fames apparebit &c. 51 What schame schal be 
j)ere & what schendelik vvhan al schal ben vnwrien nousth onlich 
26 of dede ac of word & of j^ou^th & wrongen out al pe ruse . 

OMne* tempus inpensum requiretMr qualiter sit 
expensum, ^ pe schal vche tyde & vche tynie ben yre- 
kened hou it is dispended qwando dissipatis folijs. He 
loked hou Adam & Eue gedreden leues to hile \\\\) her kyke- 
30 ham . pus doue Meu now after hem Iiiden her fill^e, 



' sippen: tlie foiivtli lettor looka like r; poasibh' corrected. 

' p. 428 b. 

' In the niarj^in: je\'e\T\ias, 

* biddej) : under the hrat d a dot, probably acciilental. 

' ^ere inne run together. 

' In the margin: domniMS, 

' In the margin: .Bemardus, 

' In tbe margin: .Anselmws, 



Recluse 149 

DEclinantes' cor suuwi iu verba malice ad excu- 
sandas excusacjones in peccatis . 51 Hij bowen her 
liertes vnto wordes of wickednisse forto liile hem in her synnes 
& so done raen now . Jjei^ he wot his nei^bur iu sywne & he 
mi^tl) techen hym & couf)e hou he mi^th amenden hym . 3e . he 6 
sei^ god amende atl . alle ben w-e synful . Aud he seip soj) per 
auentwre pei^ pat ojjer lye in synne & hym [)e«che{) wel pat he 
nys nousth iu |)at synne for he hap ^&t happe pat he kepej) hy»i 
out pere of {)orou3 cuwnywg J)at he ha|) . ^if ))at o^er coupe \)at 
he can he schulde kepe hyra bettwe tian he dope . And he is in lO 
gretter synne pan he is & vnderstoudej) it uou^th for he is out 
of loue & charite For god biddej) {)at he schal helpe his hroper 
in al pat he can and may Aud he sej) his brot)er lye iu synne 
& cou[)e heipe hym & couseil hy»n & nyl uou^th in t»at he is in 
more symie J)an he . for {)at is {)e - grettest ' synne \)&t is . For 15 
do j neuer so many good dedes & j be out of charite & of loue 
al nys nou^th as to saiuaciouw per auenture pe lesse pyne he 
may haue Look pau what it is forto go reccheleslicl) for|) and 
mi^th teche his broper k nyl uou}th j rede pat vche nan charge 
J)is poynt . /, ■• Schrift schal be oft ymaked & pertore seij) dauid 20 
\n \>e sautere, 

CO n f i t e b i m M r * t i b i deus c o « f i t e b i ra m )- . / fl We scliutl 
schryue to \)e lorde we schu}l * schryue to {)e lorde twies 
he it sei{) for we schull ofte go to schryft . and oure lord seide 
bj'm seluen to his deciples, 26 

EAmus' iterutM iu judeam<[I Gro we efte seide oure lorde 
iu to jude . jude spelle|) schrift and Galibe wel forto lerne . 
And so he ^ede ofte {lerfore out of oalile in to jude . For after 
bapteme it is {le sacremeHt {)at {)e fende hate{) & so ha{) hym 
seluen ben akuoweu ^if it be done as it au^tt forto be to holy 30 
Men often For sum schrift quen)e{) hym . pou wilt wassche {)ine 
honden twies on a day . aud wilt nou^th wasche {)i soule pat is 

* In the margin: .dauid 

' pe: p apparently a correction. 
' p. 429 a. 

* The strokes in red ink. 

^' In the margin: dauid. 
' schuif added above the line. 
' In the margin : d o W / n M S , 



150 Joel PAhlsson 

goddes spouse oues in a week to goddes clene clippynge .Con- 
fiteor Crouchynge Culpynge atte breest al is lielpyng & dope 
awai venial synnes . Ac eaer is schrifl |)e hede of alle, 

SClirift schai be on hast ymaked, ^if it come by ni^th in \ie 
mornynge . ^if it conie by day scliryue hym er {jan lie go 
to slepe what Man durst siepe whan he se|) liis dedhch fo holde 
a swerd ouer hym forto slen hym . Oure dedlicli fo is |)e fende 
& he stont ouer vs euer more redy wlian we beu in dedlich 
synue to smyten vs adouw in to helle nere j^e gret mercy of 

10 god {)at holdep vs vp to Joke ^if \>&t we wil amenden vs . Aud 
many {)at slepej) so in ' her sy«ue & nappe|) on heile brynk 
torple|) in ar hij last wene . Js pere any wan now |)at fel in a 
diche Jjat wolde aske red whau he schulde arise Men wolde holde 
hym for a fole and more {)an wode . A * womman \)&t hal) for- 

16 lorne her uedel sechej) it ouon ri^th & turnej) vp vche straw in 
{)e hous til sche haue it fouMden . A souter {)at haj) forlorne his 
al he sechef) ' it onow ri^th . Bot god almistty * schal ligge seuen 
dayes er he be sou^tli \iis nys nou^th wel * done, 

CJircuwdederuwt® me canes multi.^ Mauy houwdes 
sei}) dauid han bisett me . whaw gredy houndes coinew uys 
it nou^th uede of ^erd to smyten hem away hij woldew elles 
bynymew a Man al {^at he hadde . AIs ofte as f)e houwd of helle 
come{) to 30U smyte hym ou \>e snoute pat he ne bynyme 30U 
nou^th 30ure good werkes . for l)orou3 ^oure good werkes ^e schuit 

25 be fed ' of god more oi|)e;- lesse after J)at hij ben . Smyte * hym 
pau on \)e snoute wij) {)e ^erde of ^oure tunge pat is telle al {)at 
he can for pat is hyra dynt lopest . An houwde {)at frete{) leper 
raen beten hym onow ri^th for mychel fole he is {)at abide{) til 
a morewen for {^an he hap for^eten it & do{)e it efte \ie souer . 

30 perfore atte first tyme bete{i {)e houwde of helle & \)&n he wil 
be {)e sorer adradd to comew a^eiu to \)e . Nyne resouws \iere beu 



' in added above the line. 
' 4 a correction on erasure. 
" On sechej) traces of erasure. 

• alm^tfy. on the first t sliglit traces of erasure. 
' wel: on l traces of erasure. 

• In the margin: dauid. 

' be fed run together at the end of the line. 

• p. 429 b. 



Recluse 151 

whi a sian an^t go sone to schrift . Ou is \te pyne p&t okeret) 
for synne is j)e deuels ' gouel |jat he siuej) to oker . he 3iue|) vs 
syune & \ve hym oure soules . pe lengere we lyen {)ere inne \>e 
more we fallen in Oker a^eins hym \ii\t is to ben ypyned here . 
oiJwT in purgatorie . oiper in helle . 6 

EX- vsuris & iuiquitate redimet &e.^ Anoper \)e 
niychel lere \>at we lesen for alle oure goode dedes beu 
lorne [^at we done as forto haue any mede fore iu ^e bhs of 
heuene, 

ALieni' co»MmederuMt meuw robur &c, ^I Straunge^io 
han eteu my streiigt^e for no^iing pat j do is hkeworfii to 
god ne hym ne queme[) . 51 pQ {jridde dep pat is vnsiker for he 
nott 3if he schal pat day lyuen vn to euen 

ECtus filij ne tardas qui ad domiuum vesf^ &c, 
5f pe fierj)e p&t is sekeuesse . for {)an may a Man nou^th J5 
{lenchen bot one on his yuel more [)an on his sywues 

ECtus sanws confiteberis vt viu*^. &c.fpe fifte after 
fal . schame is to hgge longe & uamehch in stynche . Now 
nys \iere no|)ing \)at sty«ke{) so foule as synne 

SVrge qui dormis . ^ Arise ^ }e J)at slepeu, pe sext is {lat 20 
pe wouwde wexej) euer more and more and wers to helen, 
PKincipi coMstalere medicina paratM>-,^pe seuenp 
is . \)&t is yuel wone . & bitokeuer La^ar Jiat stank in \)e 
byriels to schewe \)at it is strowg to brynge a Man out of yuel 
wone . Oure lord dude foure j^inges er he arered hym . he 25 
kneled and helde . vp his honden . & wepe . & cried loude to his 
fader to schewe hou yuel it is to come out of louge liggeyng 
in synne, 

IVam* dif ficile surgit quew moles male cowsuetu- 
dinis premiti ! ff pat is hou arewelich he arisej) Jiat vuder 30 
woue of synne lij) so longe 51 pe ei^tted resouw is . ^at synne 
nys nou^th sone ybett drawej) anoJ)er & J)e Jiridde & pe fierj)e . 



' deiifls: over « a coninia like mark. 

' In the marj^in: dauid 

' In the margin: J eremias 

* Straunge: on S erasure. 

' Ai-ise: on A traces of erasure. 

• In the margin: SiUgustinus 



152 Joel Pihlsson 

& so \)e last is wors |iMn |)e first for [ie depper a Maii wadeji iii 
pe fendes se>-uise . pe iatter lie comeli vp . gregori sei|i, 

Pecoatum' quod per penitenciaw now diluitwr mox 
suo pondere ad aliud traiiit.^Ipe nynjie resouM |)e 
5 liei^er & \ie soner a nan bigywne[) to done liis penauwce . {)e 
lesse he ha|) to beten iu pyne of pwrgatorie * and \)e more hei^ej) 
his io}'e in heuene . pise beu pe . ix . resons whi a Jian au^tte l)e 
souer arise out of his synne, 

SChrift owe to be done edomiicli pat is lowelicli lete litel of 
liym seluen as pe pujjlicane dude tiat com in to \)e Temple 
& leide hym adoune on pe erpe & lete |)at lie nas nou^th wor{)i 
to lolcen vpward to heuene so gretlich liym {)0U3th jjat he hadde 
agylt god . And no^t as fe Phariseu |)at com in to \)e Temple & 
seide lorde j pauke pe . j . faste twies iu [)e wek . & j ^iue myne 

16 tipes of al [)at me newe|) by J)e ^ere j ne am nou^th swich as 
3one Puplicane ^onder And oure lord sei]) |)at he ^ede out synful 
& pe Puplican sy«nes were for^ouen hyw . pe Phariseu was a 
mau of Religiou» & clerk & pe Puplican was a cowmuue Mau 
of pe poeple * . and lyued hy his chaffare . Meu seeu l)ise herlotes 

20 & |)ise beggers done opon hem ragges & hidew her good clopes 
3if |)at hij han any . & crien fast opon pe riche men ^ after good 
& so geten good of hem pu.s \)e lowe Man of hert bigilel) god 
al day ^ and getej) of his goode pat is puttej) fort) his sore & 
hailse{) hy»j by his dep on {)e rode . by his derwore blode . by 

26 his raoder teres . by \)e raylk [)at he souke of her swete tates . 
by hir sorou^es p&t sche hadde for hym . by his dere spouse \)nt 
is cleue soule . by alle his aungels . by alle his halewen |)at he 
help hem for her loue ^e seen also ^ere a Man siue]) gladlich . 
alie beggers * gederen to hym . Now nys t^ere noraan so large ne 

30 so leef to 3iuew as hym is . for he seche|) oueral where pat he 
may ^iuew his gode For hym is an huudret) so leef to ^iuew as 



' In the marjjin: gvegorius . At the edge of tho page, jnst 
below the marginal note, a d{?) faintly visible. 
' pnryalturie: p. 430 a. 
' MS.: a uan of pe commune poeple with tnarks of transposition. 

* men added above the line. 

' al day run together at the end of the line. 

• alle heyyers run together at the end of the line. 



Recluse 163 

vs is for ^ to askeii hyin . Najieles sian schal nou^th al waj- lialsy 
bym as ich haue yseide bot iw nede jjan haise hym als mychel 
as J)0U may to lcepe j)e out of sywne . Aud eueryche day {jou may 
charge hym Jius & saie |)us ^if it be his swete will nou^th so 
straitlich as wbau pou art ytewpted hard . Ac so as |)0U biddest 6 
pine bedes saye it vche day & j)an may |)0U say it redilicher 
whau t)OU haste nede & it wil queme hym ful wel . For |)e more 
t)attow art aboute forto oue;-comen |ie fende . f)i flesche & pe 
werlde wij) wisdom & queyntise & streug|)e . [)e better it \ike\) 
liym & |)e more lie * wil helpen \ie ^if it be so pattow ^iue al pi lO 
strewg[)e vn to hym . & lete alway pwt |)ou may do no good dede 
of |)i seluen bot {)orou3 his grace And |)an ne schaltow neuer 
ben ouercomew . And many wil saien her holynesse forto ben 
yprrtised & J)au it is yuel Ac pou may saie what |)0U doost to 
pi pryue frendes in hope fiot hij schutl ' do |)e better & to oper 15 
also iu ftrtt iich mauere & do more note & querae god better })au 
J)0U heled it & uolde it nou^th siggeu . Ac iu none o\)er manere 
Poule telde alle his goode dedes in prechynge as he precl)ed for 
so be seij) in his pistles 

SChrift schal be schameful & bitoknel) Jirtt [le folk of jsrael 20 
went J)orou5 pe rede cee . })at we raoten jjorou} rudy scheme * 
& penawce [)assen to pe blis of l)euene Goode riitb is p&t we ben 
aschamed tofore sian |)at for^eten \)e schame Jiat we duden bifore 
goddes ei^en poule -sei}), 

NA m * o TO w i a n u d a t a s u w t & a p e r t a o c m 1 i s e i »/ *• a d 26 
quew uobis &c.5I For al piug is uaked toforn his ei^en 
J)at we schuit rekenen wij) al . of al oure penauwce sche is J)e 
raest deel . Austiu seij) . 

VErecundia* pars est rauxitwa peni tewcje . &c . 51 Seint 
Bernard seip I^ere nys no ^iranie ston so likeworj)! to n)aw- 30 
nes ei^en as J)e nebbe J^flt is rody & rede for his synnes tofor 



' is for added above the line. 

' he inserted above the hne, it, on the line, being crossed over and 
expuncted belnw. 

' p. 430 b. At the bottoin of the page, between the cohinin.s, a hand 
pointing upwards to tbe right. 

* MS.; sclte ine, connected by a hyphen. 

" In the niargin: .PaulMS, 

" In tbe margin : .AugMS^iwMS. 



154 .Tool P&hlssoii 

goddes eiien . for it likef) god almi^tten so wei pat alie \)at beu 
in heuene han gladnesse pere of . Schrift is a sacreniewt pat h&\) 
|)e hknesse outwit) |)at it schewe|) inwit) . for {)e soule {)at nas bot 
dede . hap ycaustt quyk rode & fuir hewe . Schrift achal be drede- 
5 ful as jereiuie sei|), 

QVociews' eo«fessus sum videor michi^ non esse 
co«f essM.s" , 51 piit is als ofte as j was scliryuew j helde 
me vnschryuen . for euer ich was adradd J)«t som what ich 
hadde forsetew Austin sei|) . 
10 \ 7E " laudabiles hominum vite now r^Miiota niiser?- 
V cordin discucias eam, ^I I>e best muu t)ot euer Hued 
here on erpe . wo schulde hym wore and he schulde ben yiugged 
after* goddes ri^thwisenesse, 

SEt niisericorrfia superexaltat judiciuw*, pat is 
t)e mercy wei^ef) euer more to vs ward & ouer got) alle his 
juggement} als longe as we ben here in fis lyue . trespas we 
neuer so grethch we may haue merci & we willeu, 

SChrift schal be sorou^ful . who so seif) as he can and dot)e 
as he may . god ne bit nomore . Ac hope & drede schulleM 

20 euer be ylyu)ed to gedre & t^erfore \n fe olde lawe it w«s co- 
mauwded ]^&i two gryndel stoues noman schuld deprtrten liew 
asundre . pe net)er stou t^at iit) stiile k beret) heuy charge bitok- 
nej) pe drede of god tiat schulde euern)ore be stille m mawnes 
hert . for |)at schal tei^eu hew fram sywne as a bonde dogge fat 

25 is ti^ed . And fe * ouer stou \)ai got) aboute l)itoknet) fe meray 
to 3iuen a Man eusaumple to stiren hym in goode werkes . & 
hope to haue gret raede ferfore & t^rtt we schul suffre here hard 
to be quite of harder . pise two nomau ne parte hew asuwdre 
hope & drede . ^ For ^&i on wif) outew fat ot)er uys nou^th worj) 

30 to vs, 

' In tlie iiiargin : .leremias. 

- wicli/: (in m sliglit traces of erasure; pni!nil)ly a correction, 

" In tlie margin: .A.\lgustinus, 

* after: only ttie upper half of the a vi.sible, a reil blot l)et\veen the 
lines baving boen erased. On the lower part of ./ in judirium, which stamis 
below after in the following line, begins an erasure of a large red blot, ex- 
tending slantwise down to the left across nine lines, whereby several letters 
have been affected. 

" pe: over P the abbreviationmark for er seenis to have been erased. 

" 1). 431 a. At the bottom of the page, a hand pointing upwards. 



Recluse 165 

SPes' sine timore luxiiriat i« presumpcione.Timor 
siue spe gene/-at in presumpcione.^T Drede wi[) 
outen hope makej) nian vntrusten . & hope wijjoutew drede make{) 
Man ouer trusten, & vutrust & ouertrust [lise ben pe deuels 
trystes . astow seest an hunter whan he sclial hunte & sette[) his 6 
nettes & his gnares . And j)an hunte{) aboute for to dryue pe cely 
bestes t)iderward . for ^if hij comen [jider he is siker of hem . 
So it farep by [je feude whan hope & ouerhope \>[se ben his 
tristes . For may he brynge a Man in to wanhope \>at he hope 
p&t he nys nou^th worJ)i to haue pe mercy of god . pe fende lO 
biddel) no better . he is J)an siker of hym . Oiper ^if he may 
bryuge hym in to oucrhope . so pat he lye iu his syune & haue 
it in vsage, And J)aM he seij) {)ise wordes god is merciable . he 
nyl forlese uon p&t he dere bou^th . He bou^th atl cristen folk . 
& he sei|) soj) . & he is disceyued iu jiat ilche seggeyug . He bou^th lo 
alle cristen mcu . bot fals cristen Men ne bou^th he nousth . for 
whi hij ben out of his law^e . & non ue schal be saued bot hij 
\)&t ben fouwden vuder pe law^e of god f)at he hap ordeyned . 
And summe seien also . go j where j go j ne schal nou^th go al 
one . And he sei|) soj) God is bo{)e lord of helle as pe kyng of 20 
Engelonde is lord in his owen londe bo{)e of yuel mcu & of 
goode . |)e good he sauej) after his power & \>e wicked he doj^e 
in his prisouw tyl tyme pat hij schulle« beu anhoHged oipei- to 
drawen . And so do|)e oure lord po p&t ben founden vnder his 
law^e hij schul * comen to hym vn to his blis . wi() outeM ende 25 
And hij \)&t ben founden out of ^e lawse j)at he hap ordeyned 
in holy chirche he schal cast hem in to pe prisouw pat is fie 
pyne of helle wij) outew ende . And an holy man sei{) . ^if he 
scbulde go to helle . he wolde pere com non bot he . For euerich 
soule fiat J)ere comej) schal be as a brewnande broude . And j)e 30 
mo brondes p&t ben on pe fyre {)e hatter is pe fyre . pere ben 
5Utt anoper mane?-e of Men [)at saien were it so as holy writt 
sei|) uomaw schulde ben ysaued . and here hij lei^en . For alle 
Men schutt ben ysaued . For hij J)at heu takew iu dedlich synne 
hij ue beu none Meu for hij chaungeu hem in to bestes kynde, 36 



' In the margin: gregorjMS, 

' .-Vfter scliul, the last word in the line, a short stroke lesemliling a 
hyphen. 



156 Joel P&hls8on 

HOmo' cuDi i 11 honore esset &c,^Mim whaii lie is iu 
worschipp & vnderstondel) hym - iiou^th he is hkued lo a 
iiero for he dojje a^eins kyude in als mychel as he synue|) . Aud 
suwme ' seien Leccherie is kyndelich sywne & hij lei^eu aperte- 
5 lich . for {)at synue & vche sywue is vnkyMdeHch & here [le proue . 
God is kyude & Man is hche hym & god nj^s nou^tli ciiaungeable 
pat he ha|) made ben chauugeable . pan Mau iu his owen kyude 
is iiche god |)at is kynde . and whan iie do|)e a dedlich sy;me 
he makej) hym iiche pe deuel & iu p&t iie make|) hym viikynde- 
10 lich. Also Men seien it is a sywne \Mt schai sonest be for^ouen . 
Ac god ne for^af neuer . o . synne by it one for whan lie for^iuej) 
011 he for^iuej) alle . for who |)at is gilty iu ou he is gylty in alle 
for he is out of loue & charite . & god iie toke iieup/'e so luychel 
wreche in erjpe as for leccherie, 

offendit in vno reus est in oMjwibM.'; . ^ And^ 
'god sei{) aiso pat heuene & erpe schal passe & his word 
sclTal stoude . J . rede l)at liij ^iuew gode kepe to |jis word {)at 
seien ^if holy writt were sojje nomau schuhle be saued . Aud here 
liij wille{) make god fals iu als mychel as iu hem is . For he 
20 sei|i noman iiiay nouwibre fie folk |)at schal be saued bot he al 
oue . J . warue 30U wele |)ise beu wicked Mcn & god ne vouches 
iiou^th saue |)at liis word be spokeu to hem |)e prophete sei[) . 

AD h e r e r e f a c i a w 1 i u g u a w t u a w p a 1 a t o t u o quia 
doiii?«.y exasperaus est.^IJ schal sei^) oure lorde felteu 

26 \)\ tuuge '•" to |)i palate of fii mou{) for J)e hous is sclirewed To 
swich Men ^if {)at hij schulde ben yholpen . it most be {)orou3 
queyntise oiper {)orou3 niiracle . For |)orou3 holy writt telle hem 
neuere so mychel l^erof an auntre it is gret ^if euere schufl hij 
doue \)e better . Ac uou^th for |ian . j . ne saie nou^th {)at hij ne 

30 mowen wel beu ysaued ^if {)at hij wille{) hem selue« . Aud {)erfore 
j rede {lat vclie Mau & womman payue liem {lei-to {)at hij mowew 
ben ysaued & swiche mcu & wymme» eu egre god forto take 
wi-eche of hem, 



Q.^« 



' In the margin : d a M t d . 

' hym added above the line. 

" p. 431 b. The upper part of several letters in the tophue cut away. 

* And: d a correction; the lower part on erasure. 

" tunge: M seems to be a correction. 



Reclnse 157 

SE c u n d u »j ' m ?/ 1 1 i t u d i n e w i r e s u e n o w ([ u e r e t . 51 God 
he seif) nyi nouith sechen after pe michelliede of his v\Ta{){)e, 
Pl ! o p t p r - q u i d i r r i t a u i t i m p i «« .v d e m m d i x i t e n i m 
in corde suo no» requiret,5Ipe wiclced he seif) whi 
an egrep he god . for he sei|i in his hert he uyl nousth eft secheu 6 
ne so straitiich as men seiji J)ise two vnjiewes robben god to 
gretlich . for {^at on reuej) god his ri^th dome . & |iat oper alto- 
chewej) his mprcy & slen hym in als mychel as iu liem is . ^\{ 
|)0U hoidest god to nesche biliolde vn to liis auugeis pe fairest 
jjat were in heuene bicome» ^e foulest deuels of helle for he 10 
hadde a litel lykyng ' \)&t he was fair . And he desired for to be 
euen wij) god and he ne dude it neuer in dede bot he ^ woide 
haue done it ^if |)at he hadde my^th Aud here mav' se see [le 
p)-oue fau a Jiaw ma}' be lorne als wel porou^ a wille as poroi 
a dede . wenestow pat he wil niore spare me oi^er ^e {)an he 15 
dude his auugels . Also looJi to.Adam & to Eue for f)e bytt of 
an Appel lyued here . nyne huudre)) wynter & two & |)ritty . in 
sorou3 & in wo & neuere low^e leistter . and foure j)ousaude wyn- 
ter & sex hundre{) & foure was iu helle & pere schulde haue ben ! 
wij)0uten ende ne hadde je.<us crist dyed for hym opou \)e rode . 20^ 
And also loolv to Noes fliod, uere of al {)is wide werlde saued 
bot . viij . soules foure meu & foure wymmen . AIso his folk |)at 
he ladde out of Egipte all were slayn for her synne . Daton & 
his kynde \)e erj)e opened & hij fellen adouw in to helle And 
Abiron k his kynde brend wi[) [^e fyre |)at com of her rechels . 25 
Fatt his brotwv hij helden a^ein Moyses . Also Moyses dude houge 
tvventi hundrej) & mo for t)at hij layen by commune wymmew . 
& on slou3 a Man & a womman . as hij layen to gedre . And 
Moyses blissed hym & al his kynde vn to |)e nyn|)e kue . porou^ 
goddes comauwdemeMt Laie|) [^ise in ^oure hertes & {)at schal 30 
kepew 30U tram sywne . 3'f l>ou art in wanhope of his mercy . 
loke to Peter |)at forsoke hym [^ries in on ui^th . & |)e pel also 
|)at henge on his ri^th side . also to dauid . to |)e mavdeleyn pat 
hadd in hir seuew maisters deuels . and vche a deuel hadde a 

' In the inargin: dauid: over a an erased letter (a?) is partly 
visible. 

' In tlie niargin: dauid 

• lylkyng : p. 432 a. 

* he added above the line. 



168 Joel PililsHon 

LegiouM as sutnine of [)ise clerkes seien sex {lousande & sex 
liun(lre[i & sexti & sex . & liere a Maii niay fynde mfircy & in 
niany stedes in holy wrytt, 

SChrift schal he wise & to wise Man yuiaked . nou^th to olde 
sott ue to 5ong prest uou^th to songe of wytt j mene ne 
velaious & {)at he cuMue kepe hym seluen, in cleue lyf . For 
hou schal he techen ano^er |)at can nou^th techen hyni seluen . 
Bygywue att pride & go so douMward . & pe spices & {)an |)e ten 
hestes & |)an |)ine fyue wittes, 
10 OChrift schal be so{) ne lei^e nou^th on J)i seluen, Q\'i' 
kj causa humilitatis mewtitur fit quod p?-ius non- 
fuit.i(? es^ . peccrttor , ^ pat is he |)at lei^ej) opon hym seluen 
for mychel lowenesse makej) hym synful {lei^ he arst uere, 

BO n o r M H) m e r i t u m est c u 1 p a >« c o g n o s c e r e v b i c m 1 p a 
n w e s t . 51 Goode it is to ben aknoweu of {ye lowe nau of 
hert gyit ])(>re non is-.for often we agyit {)at we ne wot nou^th 
of * and wenen to done a litel sywne & we done a gret sy«ne & 
wei^eu it lesse {)an we schulde & {)at is als yuel oi{)er wers seie 
we {)an as Anselme sei{) . 

20 TT^ C i a m ^ b o n u »« vestrmn i t a e s t a 1 i o m o d o c o r r u p- 
I -i tum vt possit now placere aut certe displices 
d e . 51 Ju vs nys uo gode dede for oure good is goddes . & oure 
syunes ben oure owen And whan j do pe gode {)at god ha{) seut 
me suw yuel of myne is euere menged \)ere amowg and forfrete{) 

25 it . for oi{)er ich it do vngladlich oij^er to late . oi{)er to ra{)e . 
oiper to litel . oi{)er to mychel . oi[)er j lete wel \)ere of [^ei^ j wolde 
{)at non it wist . oi{)er ich wolde \ta.t Meu it wist oi{>er j do it 
schemeleslich oi{)er vnwiselich . & {)us euermore sum yuel of myue 
is meuged wi{) pe good {)at god ha{) sent me {)at litel j may praise 

30 my seiuen oi{)er nou^th seint raarie whau swich holy meu seideu 
{)us by hem seluen what may we wreccheii p&n saye Poule sei{) . 

SCio'' noM est in me hoc est iu carue mea bonum. 
// 51 Jii me sei{) seiut Poule nys no good dede {)at is in my 



' In the uaargin: \xignstinus 

* is: s possibly corrected. 
" p. 432 b. 

* In the margin: ,Auselm 
' In the margiu : P a U 1 M s , 



Recluse 159 

flesche Nou pan \)ere nys non o|ier bot take an euew wa\'e of 
mesure eupr bitwene hope & drede . nou^th drede hym to mychel . 
ne hope to raychel in his mercy J^at we ligge pe lenger in oure 
synnes for ' hope of his mercy, bot haue swich drede to hym as 
|)e good wyf ha|) to hir housbonde, [lat is a ioue drede for loue 5 
Jiat sche hati to hyw . sche dredej) hir to agilten hym . and pei} 
sche agilt hym sche nyl nou^th tlei} Imm hym nomore wil god 
\>at we do . For agylte we hy»>» ueuer so raychel ^ut he wil jtat 
we come to hym aud {)e more [.lat we hau agylt hym . pe gladder 
he is of oure come aiein to hyt» and turne oure hertes to hym 10 
for he se\\) hym seluew in \)e godspel . He is gladder of o syuful 
Man jjat comel) to hyra aud doj^e hs penauce here . |)au of an 
hundref) aile bot on ri^thful pat ueuer dudeu penaunce, jt mote 
ben vnderstoudew in pis manere . childer |)&t dyen er |)an hij ben 
cristened * hij ne done no gode werkes naj)eles hij ben ristbful 16 
{)orou3 her cristewdom . also Men {.)at iyen in her synne til pe last 
endynge & \)&n han grace of repeutauwce ac hij ne han done no 
gode werkes here whare of hij owen to resceyuen auy mede of 
in heuene bot tiorou;, lier repentauwce and after her repentauwce 
here whe{)er it be litel o\\}er^ mychel . for so sory may a man 20 
be o'\\)er a wowmau {)at hij han agylt her lorde {lat he wil ^iue 
hem ful hei^e mede in blis ac god sei{)* {)is worde, 

REtribuet* vnicuique '\uxta opera sua,^pot is he 
sciial 3elde vche man after his werkes and ^ertore j rede 
\)&t vche Mau be aboute to do good werkes als many as he mai 26 
hym seluen . & ne trust nou^th to gretlich to o{)er racMnes werkes 
& fonde forto wite which ben \)e sex werkes of mercy & do hem 
for \)ere of schal he be chalenged . pat is fede \)e huugri & clot)e 
\ie naked & ^if \)e {)rusti a drynk and herberewe pe herbereweles . 
& visite \)e seke & \)e prisou«s and seiut austin sette{) {lerto \)e 30 
seuenpe berie ^e dede {)ise {)at haue nede . & ^iue uou^th hefw 
\)&t ban ynou3 for of he/« gete ^e bot litel mede . And ^if any 
is t)e crasker for wel fare forto doue synne tiorou^ t^at t)OU ^iuest 
hym . {)ou may li^thlich gete pe pyne for hym & uo good for 



' /<»"■ f probably a correction over a half-erased letter. 

' cristemd: i added above the line. 

' p. 433 a. 

* sei;^: i added above the line. 

' In the margm : d a U t d . 



160 ,Ioel PAhlsson 

\)on sustenes hyin in liis synne for wel fare lie ne may non^th 
tempre hym selucM . & also ne troste nou^th to gretlicii in her 
biddyHges so |iattow do Jii seiuen [le lesse j rede Of swich inen 
he is more ioyful |iat is [lo Man |)at forsal{e|3 his synnes & do{)e 
5 here good werl^es nio JDan he dude yuel werkes . as poule dude, 

SChrift owe to beu willes & weldes & uoufith draweii of |)e 
pattow canst saj'e Men ue schult nouith aslien bot in nede 
one for yuel Jiat may come ^ere of bot ^if it be J)e wiselicher 
asked . Ac his schrift fader owe forto aske hym ^if he wot which 

10 ben \>e dedhch synnes & {)e ten comaundement^ . and J)e tweiue 
Articles ^ of \ie fei|) {)at ben in his crede . And ^it he ne can hem 
nou^tii he is endetted forto techen hem hym . & his pater noster 
namelich for his bileue is comprehended in pe pater noster . of 
alie bedes it is jpe best And his fyue wittes he owe forto reiierce 

16 hem hyin ^if he vnderstonde |iat he ne can hem nou^th . for oft 

|- men seien ou olde " Englisch . he [lat wil nou^th whan he may . 
he schal nou^th whan he wolde . ne more foly ne mai be Jian 
sett god tenne for [le te/ine is in goddes honde . And (^erfore 
reche]) [lerto wlian he bedeji it redy And elles" pou may ioke eft 

20 jiere after a good while er it come & Poule seiji whnn he bedeji 
|ie his grrtce reche {)erto wi{i bojie |iine liandes }'\f Jiou wenest 
wel to do austin sei{), 

Coacta confessio deo noM piace t , 51 ^^'hrift yneded * ne 
quemej) nousth god Ac bettere is late {lau neuer Austin sei{i, 
26 IV T V mquam^ s e r a p e n i t e « c i a s i t rt w e n v e r a . ^ Nis 
i.^ uou^tli to iate schrift {)at is so|ilicli ymaked Ac better is 
as dauid sei|), 

REfloruit* caro mea & ex voluwtate mea coufite- 
bor ei, ^I p^t is j schal florie my flesch and wi{i my goode 
30 wille schryue me, 

FLores^ apparueruHt in terra iio.«/ra, ^ Jjat is floures 
schewed faire iu oure ' londe . Jjat is to saye gode werkes 

' Articles: l po.ssibly corrected froni b. 

' olde: the first letter uacertain; possibly e. 

' p. 433 b. 

* In the margin: augJ 

' In the margin: dauid 

' In the marfrin: .T n cajlt; 

' oitre above the line, her, on the line, being crossed over below. 



Recluse 161 

han schewed hem iii oure londe J)at is oure bodies . He Jmt goj) 
v,\\> good wille to schrift iie dojie a way his foule clo{)ing f^at is 
synne and clojtes hym newe |)at is in goode werkes . he taiiet) 
god vn to hym for his dehces he sei{) is to wone wif) Man, 

IN libro sapiencie & delicie me esse cum filijs ho- 6 
minis ^ Schrift owe to be oweu . nomaw ue schal biwraie 
o[)er . Ac many cuwuen nou^th eiles sci)ryueu hem bot hij uempny 
oJ)er . Ac by name ue schull l)ij uou^th nempuy hew . Robert ne 
WiliiaHi . Ac hij schullew sa\-e what ordre he is of sionk oiper 
Frere . Bisschopp oijier Clerk . Wedded nan oipe?' wowman for Jje 10 
hei^er ordre or dignite \)e more is ^e s\'nne 

SChrift schal be stedfast wille to lete pe s\mue & holde |ie 
penauMce . ynou^ is |)at he seie to J)e preest ich am in wille 
to lete my sywne |)orou3 goddes grace, & ^if j falle to eome a^ein 

VAde' & noli amplius peccare.^T Loo aske|) god uomore 15 
sikernesse bot goo & wil sj^nne noraore. 
SChrift owe to be bi{)0U3th bifore longe of fyue {)inges . gadere{) 
;oure syunes of alle ^oure eldes and so vpward pau pe 
stede and iu vche elde . aud bigynne att childehode & so vpward . 
and pere after {)iue fyue wittes & by all - |iiue lymes suudrilich . 20 
tymen & stedes . nou ^e han pe sextene stiches jiat ben \ie sextene 
dolen J)at ich bihiitte 30U to tellen 30U schrift . pis pat ich haue 
uow seide is bihouelich to alle Men & is pe fift dele of J)is book 

NOw to Men & wywmen \tat willen ben parfytt in goddes 
seruise oij^er sechen after j)at lyf . pride . gret hert . onde . 26 
oiper wral)|)e sloupe . semeleshede ^ of ydel speche & ydel pou^ttes . 
and ydel hereynges . fals gladj'nges . heuy mournywges . \'pocrisie . 
mete . drynk to litel oi|)er to mychel . grucchyuge . & grym chere . 
silence breken . si^th to longe to any Jiiug bot to god . & to his 
worschipes . houres & bedes mysseide wifi outen ^eme of hert 30 
oi|)er in vntyme suw fals * word of piay . of lei^tter . schedvng 
o f crummes Lete |)inges moulen . clofies vnwassheu . & vnsewed . 
broken nappe . oi|)er . dische . oi{)er spoue . ^emeles witen any {)ing 
J)at Men wij) faren . keruynge for ^emeleshede . of pellich J)inges 



In the margin : d m 2 U M S 
tJnder all a red stroke. 
^emeleshede : on 5 traces of erasure. 
p. 434 a. 



162 .loel PiUilsson 

scbriue|) 3011 . for per nys non so litel |iing (iiit jie deuel ne 
abreue|j it on his book . nou^th ^e lest drepe of ale o\\ier of ani ^ 
lykowr |)at may man * to heipe . Ac schrift & sorou^ of hert it 
schrape)) a way al clene, ])an ich rede pat vclie man oijjer wow- 

6 man ^iue hym als litel to writew as he lest may . Aud wymmeu 
he\) war whan ^e gon to schrift of fleschhcb •'' fondynges go|) to 
non bot ^if ^e wot wel |)at be be gosthch man . bot it be iu doute 
of de{) . & 56 ue may haue uou o\\er |)us }e may \)an saie Flesch- 
lich foudyuges gon to fer vpe me, pat icli hadde oipe»" ich haue 

10 my feblesse, goj) to swipe vpe me for myne foule ^outes as \>e\} 
ich bunted \)ere after, ^if ich were wyse it ne schulde nou^th 
so ich am a ferde 1)6 deHt in [lou^tb laste|) to longe & so ofte 
\)at it come)) to skilles }etinge ne dar ich bidde 30U non ojjerewise 
do to none ^onge prestes * ne to olde . bot ^if \>&t liij ben pe 

15 bettere, Ac wban ^e come to a good gostlich Mau telle]) out {)an 
^&t foule filfie so openlicb Ijat 30U {)euclie \)at }e hyrt his eren . 
Li^th giltes beu for^ouew 30U onow ri^tb . Alsoue as 36 ape)"sceyueM 
it falle]) adouM to |)e er\>e & seggej) ich haue agylt lorde & seip, 
niea culpa, lorde ich crie |)e mercy pe preest ne J^ar uou^th 

20 legge opon 30U no penau«ce bot litel for swieh giltes a . pater 
noster . oi})er a psalme . Ac in * pe Absoluciouw he schal saie 
{)us AI pat 36 euer don mote stonde 30U in remissiouw of ^oure 
synnes & bauej) doue, 

NOw vcbe mau of \)e commuue ® poeple ne can nou^th saye 
al \)\s {)at is writeM in p\s book ne on {)is manere . {)erfore 
hij motew done {)us whan bij gon to schrift . bij moste»» bil^ewcheu 
hewj bifore longe bisilich & gadereM to gedre as hij naowen & 
cuwnen & telleu \)e seuene dedlich syuues . pe ten comaundemewt^ 
her fyue wittes bou hij han dispended bem, ^if bij cujiuen bem 
30 uou^th her schrift fader mote techen hem & he is eudetted 
^erto & 36 askew hym hem . & ^oure bileue he owe to teche 30U 
also . & 3if 36 ne aske nou^th . ne he ne teche{) 30U nou^th pan 
schal it falle as god se\\) in \)e gosspell . whan \)e blinde lede{> 



' ani added above the line. 

- tiian: a corrected from e. 

" fleschlicli : on tlie second ch traces of erasure. 

■* prestes: the first s touched up. 

' At the end of this MS.-h'ne, an erasure between the columns. 

° cominune: u probably by correction. 



Reclnse 163 

J)e blinde . bofie falleu in \te, diche . And so schuiiew hij falle in 
to \)e dyclie fiat is iu to |)e pyne of helle for ^emelesiiede ' {jat 
56 uo woldeH uousth secheu t>at god ha\> forboden 30U to done . 
3ef \)e preest sef) \)at }e hep vucunuaud * & nyl nou^th teche 30U . 
bo|)e 3e ' schullew gou o waye j saie 30U forsofie & who \)nt seij) 5 
50U oper he lei^ej) apeKelich & desceyuej) 50U bope in body & in 
soule for bo|)e scliutl beu ou wij) outew ende . For als wel schal 
J)e body be pyned atte day of dome as Jie soule as hij ben* 
here & in J)at ilcli elde pat iesus crist was whan he died iu J)e 
state of I)ritti wyutere schal vche nan & womman arise Man in 10 
his lyknesse & womman in her liknesse . Ac al is cleped iian in 
holy wrytt for al comew of Jiau . Aud whan }e hau telde als 
raychei as ^e can . pan hauej) a drede in ^oure liert J)at ^e ne 
ean uou^th teiie aile ^oure defautes . & sorou^eji . & a wiH to leten 
50ure* t/'espas for euer ais forJ)e ® as 56 may, so J)at ^e woide 16 
raj)er suffre ded J)an do it au}' more J)orou5 J)e grace of god & 
Jian haueji a stedfast biieue Jie)-wiji al J)at god wii for^iue 50U atl 
50ure trespas ^if 56 be iu J)at wiiie J)at ich haue iseide to forne 
& elles nou^th . & here eusample & proue gode ynou^ . 3e wot 
wei 5if a Mau haue stiked 50U & comej) & askej) 50U for^euenesse . 20 
ais longe as ye seej) J)at he is in wille forto stike 50U eft 56 ne 
wil nou^th for^iuew it hvTn \)ei} he ask 50U forjiueuisse Aud ^if 
56 dude me Jienche Jiat 30 were more J)an a fole . Now wij) euetych 
dediicii syuue J)at a Mau doJ)e he doJ)e god on Jie rode in als 
mychel as in hym is for he dyed for synne . & he wot J)i Jiou^th 26 
& J)i witt Jiat J)ou wilt done hym eft on rode . he were a more 
fole pan J)ou by als myciiei as he is wiser J)an J)0u ^if he for^af 
it J)e And Jierfore ue J)euche noman of foi-^euenesse ' of synne 
of god als ionge as he ne haji wiU to leten i)is synne ne no 
sorou3 * J)wfore for i)e mote haue boj^e oiJ)er eiles it uys nou^ti) 30 
worj) J)at he dojie . Now on Jiis manere is J)e scliortest schrilt Jiat 



' jemeleshede: originally two words, connected by a hy|ilien. 

' p. 434 b. 

' 3«: 3 a correction on eraaure for s(?) 

* ben: e partly effaced 

' 30Mre: 5 probably by correction. 

" forpe: tlie seconil letter indistinct, blotted. 

' foryiienesse : tlie seventh letter not quite clear. 

' sorony. the s<'con<l u by correction. 



164 JcH-l l'flhlHsoii 

is j saie 5011 forso|)e Ac a Man luay go oft to sclirift |)at lij)e in 
iiis synne forto aske conscil hou lie niay wi))stoiide synne he 
niay haue |)e soner grace to leten his synne, Atter schrift falleli 
to speken of peuau«ce pat dude bote & \ns is pe sext dele of 
6 oure book, 

AL [lat Men done licre of goode werkes to kepen heni tV«m 
sywne al is strong ' penaUMce & niartirdom to hem \)at 
kepeH hew out of dedlich synne for hij hongeH wi|) jesu crist 
on |)e rode as Poule seij), * 
10 OJ* compatim«?- conregnabi ni ;/>■ 51 J'"^ is to saie, ^if 
k3 \ve scotti wi{) iiyni here of his P3'ne on erjie we schuti scotti 
wi|i hyu) of his blis in lieuene for ()i seij) seint Poule, 

MJclii* aute»« absit gloriari nisi in cruce domtni 
no^/ri ie.yu chrts/i . 5T And al holi chirche it sei|). 

15 1VT**s autewi gloj-iari oportet in cruce dowini no*<ri 
l^ je.«u chrtsd.^Al oure blis & al oure gladnesse mote 
be in jesu cristes rode . pis woord likne)) to alle Men & namelich 
l)at gon to ordre & porfytt lyf whas blis auitte al to ben in 
goddes rode liolelich . Now jchil tellen of [ire niancre of goddes 

20 ycorne, // pat on beu iikned to good Pilgrin^es . pat oper to dede 
Men . pe J^ridde to hongen on rode wi|) lier goode wille wij) jesu 
crist . pe first ben good . pe o\}er ben better . pe jiridd ben al per 
best . to \)e first se\\> seint Peter, 

OBsecro^ vos tamqM(/»M aduenas & peregrinos vt 
abstineatis vos a carnalibMiV desiderijs que mi- 
litaut aduersus awiwam . ^ Jch halsi 30U lie sei{) as good 
Pilgrymes j)at 36 wipiiolde 50U fram flessches lustes [)at arisen 
a^ein ^e soule . pe good Pilgryme holdej) euere * forp his ri^th 
waye . \ie^ he se oiper here ' ydel gameMS * & wouders by {)e 
30 waye he ue wi{)Stondet) no^t as foles done ac holdeji for|) liis 



' MS.: st^ttff, the Uist wonl iii tlic line, "iiy ninninu ovcr into the margin. 
" p. 435 a. At the bottom of tlie page, a hand pointins upwards 
between the columns. 

' In the niargin: paulM*\ 

* In the niargin: paulMS 

* In the margin : p e t r M .v 

" Between euerc and forp: wo crossed over. 
' here added above the line. 

* gameas: a corrected, probably from o. 



Recluse 165 

waie & hei^ef) toward his gyst . he iie bereji nou^th wip hym bot 
scarsHch ' his spendynge, ue clo()ing bot J)at hyw nedej) als M^th- 
Uch as he may . J)i.se ben [)i.se holy Men [lat beu in ^e werlde 
hij ben {)(?re as Pilgrymes & wip good lyf ledy«ge here gou to 
\)e blisse of heue/i as poule seif). 5 

NOii' h«i!)em«.« hic mauentem Ciuitatew set 1'utu- 
raw iuquiriui«.v . ^ Here haue we uo wonyiug ac we 
secben auoJ)p)- \>ai is to comeu & libben by \)e lest |iflt hij mowen 
libben here pe'\} bij ben \ti \)e werlde bot doue as \>e Pilgryme . 
For Pilgrime go\> * wi|) myehel trauaile to seche good haleweu 10 
as seint jame & oper & ue haji no l^ousth bot pat he were \\ere . 
So doue gode men in \)e werlde bau uo j^ouith bot al vp toward 
heueue & hou f)at hij moweu queme god to come \>idev forto 
tinden god hym self & his moder siarie & alle his holy halewen 
to lyue wifi hew wi|) outew ende . pise nen finden seiut juliaues 15 
herberewe f^at way feraud * neu clepen to . pise ben good ae ^utt 
ben oJ)er bettcre . for pei^ al ben hij Pilgrimes & gon forf» in J)e 
werlde hij bicomen burchmen . for of sum piwg {)at hij seen in 
\)e werlde hij leten good |)fTof * aud atstoude * sum del . & mauj' 
|)iug fallel» to bem {)orou3 which hij beu yletted so J)at more 20 
barme is hij comew late hom & suwme neuer, " who is |ian more 
out of |)is werlde J)au pe go.ode Pilg)-ime Jiat ha|) jiis werldes 
good vnder honde & louej) it uou^th ac ^iuej) it as it come)) & 
goj) vntrussed li^thlich as Pilgrim . pise beu good ac pise ben 
better |)at pe apostle spekej) of & seij), 25 

MOrtui' estis & vita vestrR abscondita est cu/h 
chri.?/o iu deo & cuw apparuerit vita vp.v^ra 
tuwc vos apparebitis cuwi eo in gloria,^3® ^^^ dede 
30urc lyf is yhudde w\\t crist in god & schal springen afte;- J)e 
daweyug after ni^ttes Jiesternes Aud wij) hym ^e schul spriugen 30 
clerer & bri^tter J)an pe suwne in his blis . po |)at ben \)m ded . 



' scarslieh: over a era.iure. 
' In the niarsin: paulw.v 
" gofi: p a correction for s. 

' Froin tlie end of tliis MS.-line, between tlie colunins un erasure, 
partly effacing d in ferand and / in Iiexof. 

' atstonde: the tirst t inserted above the line. 

* p. 435 b. 

' In tbe inargin : a,\tost o\us 



166 Jin'1 l'ililstioii 

her lyf is hei^er fiaii |ie Piij^ry»? . for lie liati inaiiy lettyiiges fiat 
Jie dede ne h!i|) uo.^th For ^e dede iie holde|i no tale liei} he lye 
vnheried & rote abouew erjie praise liyin oi|>e/- iaiv hyin do iiym 
schame al hy»w is yliciie leef . pis is a sely de\) fiat inalcel) quyk 
6 Man . viud silcerlich who so is |)us ded in |)is werlde pat is jjat 
lie ne holde{) no tale l^ei} mcu mysdone hym o\per myssayen 
hym . haue he sorou;, . liaue he wo . he }jo|) euennore for|) & ^iue]) 
uo tale l)ere of .Ju |iis Biau oit^er wowinaw liue|) god as seiwt 
poule seij), 

lOTTJuo^ ego iani no« ego.viuit aute?« \n me chri- 

V stus, Jch liue nou^th ich ac oist liuej) in me as |)ei3 

he seide werldelich speches & werldelich {)0U3ttes & alle werlde- 

lich l)inges alle j finde ded iw nie for alle myne wittes ich haue 

30uew to crist hym forto seruew & heriew & louew f)us is euereych 

15 Religiouw ^if hij liuew aristh as Religious austt to done- . J)us 
hij beu ded to \)e werlde & quyli in crist . pis is an hei^ staire 
Ac 5ut |)ere is an hei^er . Ac wbo stood euf-re |)pre iune god it 
wott pat is he \)at seide l)us . ' 

MJ c h i a u t e m a b s i t g 1 o r i a r i n i s i i u c r u c e d o w /' n i 
nos^ri Jesu chris^i per quew ni ?'c/u muwdus 
crucifixMS est & ego muwdo. ^ pat is he |)at seide |)us 
crist me schilde forto haue any blis in pis werlde bot onelich 
iu .lesn cristes rode my lorde |)orou3 whom |)e werlde is me 
vuwor{)i here as )ief l^at is honged a lord hel ^e stode he ]^at 

26 spak on \ns wise . pise ben j^at no gladnesse han here in her 
hert bot whan hij han sorou^ & wo for jesu cristes loue . pese 
stonden hei^est & pise ben pe good Men pat speken fast of her 
lorde & many scornes & many schames han Jierfore . & \)at is al 
pair gladuesse & l^erfore hij uyllen nou^th leten it for now harme 

80 l)at man may dow hem \)e\~i hij dedeu hem to |)e de\) l^erfore . 
pis staire is l)e hei^est staire of ali |)e oper & \)\s a Man may 
haue pat liuel) iw \)e werlde & trauailej) for his mete as Poule & 
Petere dudew ^if hij willel) . for hij nere in uon o\)er* Religiouw 



' In the margin: paul«S 

^ done: the third letter originally m, the last stroke of which haa been 
altered into e. 

' The stop in red ink. 
* p. 436 a. 



Recluse 167 

bot lyuedeu amoug \te cowraune pople ' & wrou^ttew for her mete 
& ledeu aboute & tau^tteu \>e cowmune poeple . pe pilgrim |)at 
is in \>e werlde many tj'me he is yletted to gou his io«rne to 
heuene & pat is for non oper \nng pat he is letted bot for he 
ne sette}) uou^th al his witt & al his loue jn je.su crist . Ac pe b 
dede ue }\ue\\ uo tale of uo schame ne of no worschipe . ne of 
hard ne of nesch ne of wele ne of wywue bot suffre|) al iu 
pacience . Ac he j^at hongeji liat is he [lat is glad of swich scha- 
mes & sechet» \>ere after al forto do liis lordes worschipp [)ise 
haw hyre ouer hyre . for hij ne ben neuere gladd bot whan hij 10 
han soroui . & wo for cristes loue her lorde, hou schal it ben of 
hem . p&t han her blis hei-e summe in likyng of flesche . smwme 
in werldes duele summe in o\)er wickednesse . bot ^if hij amende 
hem in [)is lyf hij ne mowen neu«e come to bHs bot ^if hij 
forsakeu it * entierlich forsope by no worde j)at men may finde 15 
in holy writt . for who so wil go wi|) Jesu crist he most folowe 
his wayes . for he it seit) who \iat wil come vvi|) me take pe croice 
opon his bak & folowe me . pat is suffre sorou^ & wo |)olemode- 
Uch & be pacient ^ere iuue . Many seien hij wolden ble{)ehch 
I)oleu flesches hardeschij)S ^ ac schame & tene ne mowen hij in 20 
noue mauere {lolen . Ac [)ise ue ben bot half honged on goddes 
rode bot ^if \>at hij ben di^th forto polen bo[)e, 

VTilitas* & asperitas,^ Schame & tene pise two seif» 
seint Bernard ben two ledder steles pat gon vp toward 
heuet» als euen as hij mowen . bitwene J)ise two ben alle good 25 
pewes sette as stakes iu pe ledder pat Meu gou vp by . And 
dauid hadde \)\se two schame & teue . ^tei} al were he kyug he 
clombe vpward by p\se two & seide bodilich to oure lorde 

VJde humilitatewi meam & laborew meum &c, ^[Bi- 
holde lord quoj) he & se my lowenesse & my swynk & 80 
for^iue me alle myne synnes . Note{) wel {)ise two wordes pat 
dauid seij) . Se my swj'nk & my pyne & my sore & my sorou} & 



' pople: apparently so; the second letter possibly e with the lower 
curve effaced. 

' it added above the line. 

• flesches hardeschips run together at the end of the line. 

. I »u • fernard .,, ., 

' In the margin: ; witli s partly cut away. 



168 .lot^'1 PaliUsun 

niy lowenesse a^eiu \v0u3 & scheme . bo|ie |iise biiioMe iu me (juol) 
dauid goddes deriyng . j haue |)ise two ledder slcle.s. 

DJuiitte vuiuersa delicta mea . ^ Ltue byhy«de nie 
quo|i he iV- werpe away all: my synnes iV aiie my gyltes 
6 pat ich be li^tted of al lier heuynesse pat icli may li^thhcli stei^e 
vp to lieuene by [)is ledder . pise two schame & tene were Elyes 
wheles }^at he went vp ijy bremiande vn to pr/radys . Fire is ' 
liote & rede . by j)e Iicte is euerych wo vuderstonden j)at |)e 
fiesclie felef) & by lie red schame Ac |)ise two faren as wheles 

10 dou turuen euere aboutew . & ue stonden nou^th stille . so done 
pise two gou & comeu sone . & ne lasten noue while l)is is also 
bitokued bi cherubyus swerd J)at is bifore paradis ^ates |)at is al 
breMuaud & wheleaud aboutew . & non ue come|) vu to paradys 
bot l)orou3 sorou3 & scheme |)at ouerturne|i li^tlich as |)e wlie 

16 doj^e & ne lasteli no whiie . And uas goddes rode yrudded & 
yreded wif) his derwor|)e blode forto schewen on hym selueu |)at 
pyne & sorou^ & wo schulden beu yfastned wi|) scheme . nys it 
wi-iten by hym selueu, 

FA c t u s e s t o b e d i e n s p a t r i v s q m e a d m r t e m m o r t e »i 
autew crucis, , 51 P^' is he was buxum to his fader 
nou^th oue to fe de|) ac to J^e dej) on pe rode . By pat he seij) 
first de]3 is pyne vuderstonden . & by \)at he sei)) de|) on rode is 
scheme bitokned for swich was goddes de|) ou rode pyneful & 
schemeful . ouer alt ol)er . wlio so euere diep in god & on goddes 

26 rode pise two he raost l)olien scheme for hj^m * & pyne . scheme 
j clepe to be * holde»^ vnworpi & Utel holdeu by & suffre mauy 
dauwgers of hem pat per aueuture mi^th haue ben vnder hem 
& serued hem . ju pise two l^inges is al penauwce . & a^eiw pise 
two ben gladuesse & blis ordeyude . a^ein soheme worschipp a^eiu 

30 pyue delytt iu ioye . & blis & rest wil) outen eude ysaye sei|), 

IN * t e r r a i u q u i t '^ s u a d u p p 1 i c i a p o s s i d e b u w t ^ Hi j 
scbulle« seij) ysaye in her owen londe weldew tofolde blis, 
a^eius two fold wo . \)at hij drei^en here . 



' p. 436 b. 

- hym : on h tracea of correction. 
" be: e apparently by correction. 
* In the margin: ysayas, 
" inquit : t on era.sure. 



Keoluse 169 

IAcobi * . inali iiioliil li«Aent in oelo houi vero iiichil 
in terra, ^ For as \>e yuei ne liau no lott in heuene . 
nomore ne han Jie good no lott i« erlie ne {lenche uoman louge 
\)e\} he suffre \vo & scheme & teue iu vucou|) pede & iu vucoujj 
londe for so ha|) many gentil nau & wowmian jirtt ben in vncou|) 6 
{)ede done . whan hij han comew iu to viicoul) londes & han no 
speudynge hij nereu no|)ing aschamed to done what Meu wold * 
bidden hem doue . And so mote vche Man swvMk oute & at home 
rest . Nis he nou^th a feble lcnisth {lat sechej) rest iu |)e fi^th & 
ese in \tn place . 10 

MJIicia* est vita ho»jiH/s supfir terraw, ^ Al j^is lyf 
is a kuisthschip * |iat fi^tte^) here ou er|)e as job wituesse|) 
ac after |)is fi^th ^if we wel fi^tten eise & rest abiden vs at home 
\n oure * owen londe pat is heueii riche . Lokej) uow hou witter- 
lich oure lorde hj^m self witnesse|i. 16 

CVm* sederit filius homiMis in sede magestatis 
sue sedebitis & vos i udicawtes . Beda . in sedibw.* 
(|ui es iu perturbata i ii judic?'o honoris emineucia 
co/wmeudatur . ^ Whaii j sitte forto demew seit) oure lorde 
3e schull sitteii \v\p me in dome & deme wij) me al J)e werlde 20 
\)iiX .schullen ben ' ydempt kyuges kaisers . kni^ttes * & olerkes . 
Ju sete is eise & rest & bitokuefi j)e swynk pat is here . Jn pe 
worscliip of \>e dome |)at hij schulleH demew bitokue{) hei^eschipp 
& worschipful ouer alt . Vuderstonde|) a^ein P3'ne pnt hij suffreu 
here & scheme for goddes loue myldefullich & {)olemodelich hij 25 
schulleH haue hei^eschipp & worsohipp . Nis pere nou^th {lan bot 
fiolen gladlich & louelich for bi god hym seif is writen, 

QVod pir [lenam ignominiose passionis veuit ad 
glo/iam resurecciowis, ' 51 P^^ 's {)orou3 schemeful 



' In the niar^'in: jacobi. witli ./ partly effaced; below the mai- 
ginal note a sniall hole. 

' wold: tlie second letter reseinbles e. 
' In the marjrin: Joi). 

* kniytlischip: originally two wnnls, connected by a liyphen. 
- p. 437 a. 

* In the margin: dowjUMS, 

' beti: originally bem with the la.st stroke of the w erased. 

" kni^^ttes: i added above the line. 

" resureccionis: the tirst c seems to be a correction for t. 



170 .locl Pahlssc.n 

pyue lie coiii to l)lisful arist . iiys no woiuler jian l^eii we wrecche' 
syuful suffreM liere pyne iif we wil ou douiesday blisfullich 
arisen & so we mowen f)orou3 bis grace ^if we wil biseen oure 
sehien, 
6 /^uoniawi- si co»j))lan tati siinM.»- siniili tud i ni niorttA- 
y^ eius siniul & resu reccionis erimMs . ^ ])at is . ^if 
we ben y yuiped to f)e liknesse of goddes dep we schuli ben 
lyche to his blisful arist . pat is to saie . ^if we lyue in schame 
& iu pyue for his loue . in which two |)at he died . p&n schulle« 
10 we ben yliche to his blisful arist . oure bodies bri^th as is werlde 
wiJ)outen ende as seint poule witnessej), 

SAluatorem' exspectaniM.s- qui reforinabit corpus 
humilitatis nostre coMfiguratuw corpori clari- 
t a t i s .s u e ^, 51 Lete oper asemiui her bodyes toforne houde abide 
16 we oure hele and \>B.t schal asemy oure bodyes after his owen . 

SJ compatimMr conregnabiniM.s, ^ 3'^ ^e ()oly wi{) 
hywi . we schull: blissy wi{) hym . Nis {)is good forward . wot 
crist uys he no good felawe j^at wil nousth als wel stoude to 
{)e harrae as to J)e by^ete, 

20 TLlis solis prodest sauguis christi qui voluptates 
X deserunt k corpus a f f liguwt, ^T ^od schadde his blode 
for alt ac to hem it is \vor[) p&t flei^ew fleschlich likynges & 
pyne» * hem seluen fram sywne to wil)Stoude it . Aud nys it any 
wonder . uys god oure heued & we his lymes . pau his lyme nys 

26 he nou^th {)at ne ha|) non ache vnder so sore akeaude heued . 
whan \>e heued swetej) alle pe lynies sweten . And \)at lyme {)at * 
ne swete{) nou^th it is tokne {)at he Ieue{) in pe sekenesse . Aud 
oure heued swatt blody swette for oure sekeuesse to turne vs 
out of \)e londe yuel \)Ht alle londes laien on & lyen ^utt many . 

30 Jje lyme |iat ne swetej) nou^th iu swywkful pyne for his loue . 
tokne it is {)at he leue{) in his sekeuesse . Nis \)ere no bet {)an 
bot forto kerue it {^eii it penche sore . for bettere is fynger ' of 



^ ivrecche: the first c corrected from e. 

' In the margin: paulws. 

■' In the iuargin : p a U 1 »/ S , 

•* sue : u a correction on erasure for / or s. 

' pyfien ; on p traces of erasure ; y added above the hne. 

" p. 437 b. 

' fynger: on g traces of erasure. 



Recluse 171 

|)an it euer ake . Quemel) he wel god Jjat J)us bilyme|i hym seiuen, 
|)at lie nyl nou^tli swete nay god it wot he, 

OPortebat christum pati & sic int»v?re iu gloriam 
suam,5[Seint Marie merey it mote so be it sei|) |)at 
crist schulde suffre pyue & passiouw ' & haue in gon in to his 5 
riche & on nou o\)er wise ^ and we wrecched synful wil wi[) eise 
ste^e ' to l)e sterres J^at ben so l^ei^e abouew vs . & so swipe rnichel 
worp . And Jian ne may nou^tli a litel cote areren wi{)outeM 
swynk . ue nou.ith a paire sciiou haue wi|) oute buggyuge . oiper 
we ben conions pat wenen wif) listl) chep bugge so heise blis* & 10 
alle p\se hoii halewen bou^tte» it so dere Neren nou^th seint 
Petre & seiut Andrew ystrau^tt opou pe rode ^eriove seiwt laurence 
on \>e gredire * & loj^les maidews tetes ycoruen of & towij^ered 
on wl)eles . & heuedes ycoruen of . Ac oure sotschipp is so mychel 
^at we holde to wel by oure seluen & hij weren lyche to wis 15 
5ep childer \>at han riche faders ® l)at willes & weldes to tere» 
her olde clof^es forto haue uewe . Oure olde kirtel is oure flesch 
^&t we of Adam oure olde fader han . & \>e newe we schutl 
vnderfonge of god oure riche ' fader in l^e arising at domesday 
whan oure flesch schal be bri^ter f^an \>e suwne ^if p&t is to * 20 
torne ® here wi|) wo . & wif) sorous of hem pat her kirtel to teren 
ou |)is wise seif) ysaye, 

DEferetH»"' munws dowtno exercituum a popwlo 
deuulso & dilacerato a populo terribili '. fl Folk 
to lymed & to torne & wonderful schal to oure lorde make pre- 25 
sent of hem seluen . pat ben Men & wy»wmen {)at heve wit)stonden 
her fle.<3ch likynges & folowen god in sorou^ & iu wo . wi]) good 
wille . Hij teren her olde kirtel forto haue a uewe of her fader 



' MS.: passioun <£• pyne with marks ot" transposition. 

' wise: ise on erasure. 

' «feje: the first e altered from i. 

• blis: i altered, probahly from I, the erased upper part of which is 
faintly visihle. 

' gredire: d apparently by correction. 

• faders: ders .«queezed together at the end of tlie line. 
' riche added above tlie line. 

' to addeil above the line. 

• torne : tlie word, squeezed togetl)er at tlie end of the line and appa- 
rently corrected, is soraewhat indistinct. 

'" In the margin: ys&yas. 



172 .loel PAlilsson 

fjat is lier Flessclie . hc cle|)e|i liem Wdiulerfnl fulk . For . for liein 
is |)e fende adradd for |ii lie meiieil liym .luli to oure lorde & 
seide, 

PKIlcin pro pelle &e . ^ pat is iie wil ^iue fel for fel . 
jie olde for {)e iiewe as fiei.s lie seide . ne schaine)) * me 
nou^th to ussailen hyw for he is of pe totorne folk |iat terej) 
his olde kirtel & to rende|i fie olde pilche of his dedlich fel . * 
for jie vndediich . pat is |)e new fel fsit schal schiue ' seuen fold 
hristter pnn |)e su»jne . Ese and fleschest ^iise hen |)e deuels 

10 merkes . Whan he see() jjise in Man o\]^er in womman . he wot wel 
pat pe Castel is . \)ere in pe totorne folk he missej) his merkes . for 
in hem be see]) goddes baneres ju-iitled vp and t^erfore he haj) 
mychel drede fiere of as ysaye * witnesset) . My leue sir saie» 
suwme & is it good now to Mau oi|)er wowinan to done hem 

16 seluew so wo . & |)0u ^elde me answere of two Men J)at beii seke . 
pat on forberef) of mete & of drynk aud drynke)) bitter dryuk 
aud so wexe}) hole . & |iat ojier takej) al jiat his hert stondej) to 
& sterue]) onon riith . whejier loue|) hyiu selue» more & is wiser 
of t)ise two who is pat nys seke of .sywne . & god for oure seke- 

20 uesse drank bitter drynk on rode . & we ue wil uou^th bitters 
biten for oure seluew . Nis ])ere non ofier sikerlich his folower . 
we mote be wif) pyne & wo . & elles ne come we nost t)ere he 
is . / 51 Leue sir saien summe wil god so wrekefullich wreken 
hym of synne . ^e Maw oit^er wowman look now hou he it hatet) . 

26 Hou wolde a Mau bete \)a,t ilcb t)iug self & he it hadde t^at for 
gret hate bete Ji^reof fe schadewe & att pat hadde \)erto any 
liknisse . God fader al my^tty hou bitterlich bete he his derwor{)e 
son Jesu crist oure lorde \)at neuere ne hadde synne . & we schul 
ben yspared \)at beren ou vs his sones de^) . pe wepen tiat slou} 

30 hyw \)&t was oure synnes . & he ue hadde nou^th of synne bot 
schadewe one . & he was in \)at ilche schadewe so wouderlich & 
so sorou^fulhch ypyned pat er it com j^erto for t)i'eteuy«ge {'ere 
of he bisou^th his fader to deliuer hym ^ev of, 



• schamep: sch possibly on erasure. 
■' p. im a. 

' MS.: schinen with n expuncted. 

* Between ysaye iiiid witnessep: seip struck over. 



Recliise 173 

TR i s t i s ' e s t a w i »m a rn e a v s q ?/ e a d m o r t e »i . p a t ^ r ni i 
si possibile est transeat a me calix iste,^ Sore 
(luod iie ieh ani adradde a^eius ))is p3'ne . niy fader ^if it may 
l)e spare nie at fiis tyme . pei? : |)i wille be done & uou^th myne 
euer hif) derw(ir(ie fader . for \)i ne forbare he hym nou^th |)at . 6 
Ac laide opon hywi so bitterhch ^at he bigan crie \vi|) rewful 
steuen Heioy . lieloy . Lama^abathany . Mi god sii god mv derwor)) 
fader iiastow al forsakeu me ()ine ou lepy son [lattow betest so 
iiard . For al |)is ne lete he nousth ac bete hym so lowge - & so 
swij)e grimlich |)at he starf on |)e rode, 10 

DJsciplina pacis mee super euw.^Ipus oure betynge 
fel opon hy»w . for he dude hywi bitwixeu vs & his fader 
|iat l)ret vs forto smyte/i as jie moder ftat is rewful do{)e hir 
bitwene her childe . & pe sternesse of pe fader whau he ' it wil 
beten . pus dude oure lorde je.sus crist keped on hym selueu j^ 
de|)es dynt to schildew vs peiho biissed be mercy for whore so 
mychel dynt is it bultej) * Siein to hew! J)at nei^ stonden . sojielicb 
who \)SLt is nei5 hym |)at kepej) pe heuy dynt it wil bulten opon 
hym & it nyl neuere greue hym . For \)erhy he may see ^if |)at 
lie stonde nei,; hym . ^if it so be \>at he suiire so sorou; & wo 20 
gladlich and |)olemodelich for his loue pat {)oied for hym .so 
hard dyntes forto brynge J>e & me <& alt sieu . |)at ben vnder his 
law^e to \)e blis of heuene & take vs fram * pe pyne of helle, 
For al oure pyue {)at we may suffre al uys bot as a litel dust 
of bultynge . a^ein \ie wo j^at he suffred, ^e seieu mauy . what 25 
is god \}e better f^at j pyne for his loue . Leue Man & wo»wman 
god t^enchej) good of oure good for oure good it is ^if we doo " 
\)at we owen . NimeJ) now ^eme of l)is ensaw»ple . A Man pat were 
went in to fer cu»»tre & Meu com & telde hyra pat his spouse 
were ' sore ' alonged after hym * & wij) outen hym ne '" mi^th 30 

' In the niargiu: n (* S 

' longf 8(|ueezed together at the enrt of the line. 

' p. 438 b. 

* hultep : on h traces of erasure. 

' fr&m : the abbrevlation-mark for ra on erasare. 

' doo: after the last letter an accidental short stroke down below tlie line. 

' tcere: ere on erasure. 

* sore: e on erasure. 

' hym: m nearly effaced. 

'•' ne: the lirst letter originally m with the last stroke altered into e. 



174 .loel P4hl88on 

iioniaii gladen hir selie is so pou^t opon his ioue |iat sciie were 
bicomen al lene nolde iiym uou^tli better lilcen Jian nen seide 
liym fiat sche were wedded to o\>ev and forhored liym , & lyued 
after her deiices, 

6 fl' Also lie lorde of |ie soule spouse Jmt seeli al |)at sciie dojje 
\)ei} he sitte liei^e he is ful wel ypaied fiat sche moMrue after 
hym . & he wil hi^e to hir raychel \>o jje swi|)er wij) ^eme 
of his gmce . oi|)er feccheu hir along vn to hyra to glorie & to 
blis wi]) outew eude ne gi-ope ^ he»? nou to nesche ne to softe j 

10 rede to biswiken liem seiue/* . for non ne schal witen hem clene 
in chastite for \)\ng J)at liij raowe»? * wij) outew two |)inges as 
seint Alrede sei|) & wrot to his suster . on to \)e body anofier to 
jie soule . pat is pynsyng in flesche wi)) fastyug wakyng & disei- 
plines wi[) hard weryng & hard lair ^ & grete swynkes . pat oper 

15 is hert j^ewes f)at longej) to |)e soule . deuociouM . rewfuls loue . 
Jiolemodenesse & o\)er swich vertue, . Now her? may a nan ask 
5if god .selle his gmce . nys his grace to ^iuew my leue childer 
\)e\} cleunesse of chastite be nou^th b}' meded ac ben ^euen of 
his grrtce pe vngracious stondej) |)ere a^ein & makej) hem vnworJ)i 

20 to haue so hei^e J)ing J»at nillej) nou^th swynken J)erfore . blej)elich 
J)olen hard bitwene delices & eise & fiesch est who was euer 
chaste . who bred eaere fyre inwij) hem bot ^if hij brent . pot J»at 
plaief) nyl it beu oue?'Iaden o\per cast J)erinne colde watere oijier 
wijidrawe Jie brondes . pe wombe pot |iat vvalleji of* netes & 

2.5 niore of drynkes J)ise ben uei} neisboMrs to Jiat tou^ lym J)at hij 
delen Jier wiji pe^ breune of her hete . Ac many Jie more harme 
is ben so Heschlich wise & dredeu hem so gretlich Jiat her heued 
schal aken . & her body schulde febli to swijie and witien so her 
hele [)at J)e gost vnstreng[)es and wexes seek in synne . And J)o 

30 J)at schulde lechen her soules wiji birewsyng of hert & pynyMge 
hij bicome» Phisiciens & bodilich leches, dude so seint Aga^ [lat 
ansuered & seide to oure lordes sonde . Jiat brou^th salue to hen 
her tetes, 



' grope: the third letter uncertain. 

' moiven : w touched up. 

' lair: r touched up. 

* p. 439 a. 

' pe added above tlie line. 



Reclnse 175 

MEdiciua»»' carnale»» corpo/i ineo namquam ad- 
hibui . 51 p"* is . Flesschlich niediciue sche seide ne desired 
ich neuere . Ne tellej) men of pe \>re holy mcu l)at were duellande 
to gedre . & [lat ou was ywoned for his colde Mawe to noten hote 
spices & was S(|uaymoi*s of mete & drynk . & {le o|ier to pen hij 5 
weren seek nomen neuw ^eme what was liole ne what was vn 
hole to eteu ne to drynken . Ac uomen euere for|) what so god 
hem sent . ne madeu hij neuere streugpe of cetewale ne of gyn- 
giuer ne of clowes gilofre . Aud on a day hij alle pre were fallen 
on slepe in her gardyn & he jjat was oorne of mete & of dryuk lo 
lay bitwixen hem two . And an holy mau fram fer sei^ hou Jiat 
oure lefdy com a douw fram heueue & tweie Maidens wi|) hir & 
\>&t on bare as it* warea box wi|i letewarie wi|i a st}'k of gold 
& putt iu pat oues moujie of l)is letewarie . And pe Maiden ^ede 
to hym fiat lay a Midde . nay qno^ * oure lefdy he is his oweu 15 
leche . goo ouer to Jje prid . An holy Man stode & bihelde al l)is . 
Napeles whan lie seek hau at honde Jjat wil doue he»« good hij 
it mowen wel noten . Ac to desiren it gretlich ue schal uoman 
ich rede . For ^if pat hij beu augri and desiraud gretUch it uys 
nou^th good to qMcme * god And his deciples speken of soules * 20 
lecheeraft . & ypocras & gaiiau of bodiiich lechecraft ac pat on 
was better lerned of cristes lechecraft Jian l)at ol^er & proued 
|)at tleschlich wisdora is dej) to \te souie, 

PRudencia carnis &c . /51 Job* procul odoramus 
belluw, / 5T Jo*^ seij) who \)&t dredel» fiesches yuel er it 25 
come |ie soule waxef) seek jifrjiorou} & we J)olen soule yuel to 
astirteu flesches yuel al day . as J^ei^ it were better to Jiole seke- 
nesse . hede ache . grindyng in J)e wombe Jian Jiole it nou^th . For 
als longe as Jie tlesche haji his likyng & helj)e . he is Jiral vnder 
synne . & J)is ne saie j uou^th so J)at wisdom & mesure be euere 30 
ykept in bojje parties pat Moder is & norice of good Jjewes . Ac 
we takew oft wisdom & nys non . Forsojie j saie wisdom is Jiat 
euere a Man do soule hele . Ac whan mcu mai nou^th bojie 



' In the margin; Agatha 

' it: i effaced. 

' MS.: (j"p the laat word in the line. 

* MS.: q^me the lasit word in the line. 

' soules: over o tbe upper part of an unlinished letter (l). 

• In the margin: Job, 



176 .loel Prtlilwon 

lioldeii it is l)0'tter take Jie soule hele ' & |iat is risthvviserJonne * 
l)ifore flessches hele & chese bodilicli liyrtt {)an |)orou3 stroug 
foiidyng soule hirt Nichodemw.f broustli to smerew oure lorde au 
hundre)) wei^ttes of Mirre & of aloes )ie hitter spices . & bitoknej) 
h bitter swynkes & flessches ' pynsyng . hundre|) . is ful tale . & notej) 
jiis ful . ])at is to saie |)at Man schal fullich P3'ne bis flesche als 
niychel as he may ))olen . And iu {)e wei^yng is bitokned mesure 
& wisdom . And ))at vche Man & womman * proue to wirche by 
wisdom & Mesui'e ^ what \Kii hij Mowen best done & liou seruen 
10 god . pat is pyne nou^tii [w body to mychel ne make it nou^th 
to craske, bot euere bitwene two holde it as it mai best serue 
god . Now we han seide of bitte»-iiesse outwij) . seie we now of 
hitternesse iiiwili .suHiwlu/t, 

R.J^th as NichodeiiiM.s- hrousth smerieis to sinere wiji je.^us 
body ri^th so brousth pe [ire Maries derwor|)e aromauMce 
for to smeren his body, NimeJ) uow good ^eme . Jjise |)re Maries® 
l)itokiieJ) {)re bitternesses for synue . For jiis name Marie spellef) 
bitternesse as Marath & Mariath done . pe first is bitteruesse of 
for))enchiiig of synne wlian {le synful turiie|) liym fram synne . 

20 & J)is is bitokened by Marie Maudeleyne [lat fiorou} forJ^eHchiwge 
and bitteruesse of dede bote pe syuful is ytMrned to oure lorde . 
And Jjis is vnderstouden by jje first Marie Maudeleyn . And by 
goode ri^th . For liorou^ mychel bitteruesse & birewsyng sche lete 
hir sj^mnes & turned to god . And forpi l)at suwme mi^tten {lorou} 

26 to mycliel bitternesse fallen in to wanliope Maudele^^n spellej) 
toures . Hei^enesse is to liir yseide . porou^ jiat is bitokned hope 
of hei^e mede of heuerie . pat o|)e>- bitternesse is wresteling a^ein 
fondyuges & jiis is bitokned by fiat oper Marie jacobi . Jacob is 
als mycliel to saie as wrestler . & is ful bitter to maiiy {lat ben 

30 ful forj) iw t)e waie toward heueu . for hij moten passen by 
many hilles & wrestlen a}ein many fondynges for as seint 
Austin seit). 



' p. 4.S9 b. 

- MS.: niihwise dome, connected by a hyphen. 

' MS.: felessches with the first e expuncted. 

* & toomman added above the line. 

" MS.: Mesure d- wisdom with marks of transposition. 

° Marie.s: M on erasure. 



Recluse 177 

PHarao' coutetnptws surgit in scancialuw . ^ Whiles 
Jiat \>e folk of Jsrapl * were iu Egipt vuder pharaoos honde 
ue iedde ' lie " ueuwe ferde til [lat hij Hei^ew iram hym . & [)an 
wif) al his streng|>e iie went after hem . so dojje pe fende als 
longe as aian ..<: wownnan jyen iii syune he nyl nou^th assailen 6 
hem Ac wlian hij departen fram hyw & bigynnew to serue god 
pan he arere|) his baneres \>at ben mauy te»iptaciou«s & fondynges 
bo{)e bodilich and gostlicli . 

SAnguiuew* fugies & sanguis p^osequetto-.^ Klei^e 
biode & blode wil euer folowe j)e . by blode is b^-tokned * lo 
sy«ne . fieiie sj'«ne & sy«ue wil euer folowe |)e pe good Mau & 
wo»Mmau is eue?'e silser of alle fondynges . sone so [)ot on goj) 
anoper comep . pe pridde bitternesse ^ is lougynge toward heueue 
And in |.)e endyuge of ftis lyf whan any is so heise pat he haf) 
hertrist on entes vnj)ewes & is as he ware in heuene ^ates . & 15 
alle weridelich {)inges hywi J)inlce{) bitter, Aud {)is is {le {)ridd 
bitternesse . & is vnderstowden l)y Salomee . for Salome spelle{) 
pes . & 3ut hij pat han rest & pes & hen clene inwi{) iutt hij 
han in her hert bitternesse of loue {)at wi{)holde{) he»M fram . 
For 3if her loue here were ended {)an hij miitten come» to blis 20 
{)at hem longe{) to . pus loo in eue?yche state regne{) bitternesse 
{lat a Man ha{) of werldelich {)inges . & longynge . Nyme|) now 
good ieme after bitternesse come{) swetenesse . for as {)e gospel 
telle{) . pe {)re Maries broustten swete Smerels aromaunt^ to smeren 
ouie lorde By aromauwt^ {)at is swete is vnderstonden swetnesse 26 
of deuociouM of hert . pe Maries it bou^tten, pat is {)orou3 bitter- 
nesse a Man mote come to swetnisse . By {lis name Marie nymep 
euer bitternesse Jjorou^ Maries boone atte Bridale was water 
jnurued in to wyne . pat is to vnderslonden {)orou3 boone of 
bitternesse {)at me« mote drei^en . for god suffred bitternesse for 30 
vs . & so mote we for oure selueu . And {)an wil god make {)e 
hert {lat werisch as watere . pat is whan he ne ha|) no sauo«)- in 

' In the margin: augM.9/t«MS 

' Jsrael on an erasure extending down across dde (in ledde\ which 
ftands below in the following hne. 

' he: M the end of the word a long letter seenis to have been erased. 
* In the margin: e^ehiel with i corrected. 
' hytokned: by partly effaced. 
' bitlteniesse: p. 440 a 

12 



17« Joel Pfthlsson 

iioii^lh l)at lie ilol)e . pim l^orou;, tc«aaile of penaunce & of gret 
biddinge god it turnet) iu to wyne . pat is in to .swetnesse of 
hert & delytt in god . forlji seil) pe wise nan, 

VSqut' in tewpore sustinebit paciencia & po.-'<ea 
reddic/i) jocuHditas, ^T P*t is polemodelich l)oly bitler- 
uesse awhile \- |)ou schalt sone }^ere after haue ^elde in blisse, 
tobie se\]), 

/^Vi posf tempestatew tranquillu»» facit & po-st 
y^ lac?-iujacionew) & fletuw exultacione»/» iufuHdit 
10 ^ pfflt is blissed be |)ou lorde {)at raakes stille after tempest . & 
after weping waters makes blisful myrl^es, 

SAlamow esuriews & amar'^ pro dulci sumit . ^ 3'^ 
t)ou art of hungred after l^e swete . bitterlieli jio inost byten 
first pe soure, 
isTBo mlchi ad montem mirre & ad coUes thui"is. 
X 5T J • wil goo seif) goddes spouse bi pe hil:l of rechels . b)' lie 
doune of Mirre . By rechels is bitokned swetnesse . & by myrre 
bitteruesse . pat is to vuderstowdeu iif l^at hij wil coinew to lie 
blis of heueu . hij rnote suffre here sorous & wo often be sei|i in 
20 \\at loue book, 

QV e e s t i s t a que a s c e w d i t p e r d e s e r t u m s i c u t v i r- 
gula fumi ex^ aromatibMS mirre & thuris, ^ Who 
is t)is \)at sti^el) vp l^orou} desert as a litel ^erd smoky for l)e 
smel of mirre & rechels . Nou menew hem sumrae & saien hij 

2.T ne mowen haue ^ uo swetnesse of god wil^inne» ' hem . ne ben 
hij nojiing awondred l^ereof . Hij it* mote« first abuggen wip 
bitternesse of sorous & of trauaile no^t \y[\) euerych bitteruesse . 
For sujwme gon fromward god \v'\\) bitternesse & sorow^ l)rtt hij 
han . for hij uebel) nouith pacient iu her anguisch bot chidande 

30 wil) god & wrabbaude a^eins hym & saieu whi farel) god l)us wili 
me . Jn sory tyrae was j borne . swich wordes hij seieu & mauy 
o|)rr . And liise suffren bitternesses & sorow^es & gon from ward 
god wil) al . .Jt is write« in \)e godspel \)Ht \)e pre Maries comea 
to ward \)e se[)ulchre, 



' ex: e possibly by oorrection. 

•> p. 440 h. 

" irij)innen : irip apparently on erasure. 

* it added above tlie line. 



Recluse 179 

VT V e n i e n t e s v n g e r e n t i e *' » m 110« v t r e c e d e u t e s , 
51 pise Jiaries Jiat speile|) bitte/nesse weren coniaude to sniere 
oure iord & uon^th goande a waiward Al |)at Meu fioleu for his 
loue al strecchef» hy»» to vs ward & inalie|i hym swete & soft . 
as J)iug \)at is smered is soft & li|ie & uesche to hondlen . And 
nas hym selueti bischett in a Maydens wombe p&t is a narewe 
stede . so raote vche Man bischetten hy»! |mt wil wel kepe« his 
soule . pat is he mote bischetteM his fif wittes streitlich {lat hij 
ne go nou^th out bot al to goddes worschip . And ^ienche uoman 
louge |)ei3 he be schett irnm werldelich {linges whan pe lorde 10 
of heuene & of al |)e werlde bischett so ' longe hym for oure 
uote & |)an after {loled mauy bitteruesses for vs . Jt nys no won- 
der Jian l^ei} we pole bitternes for oure seluen . And also he was 
laide in a cradel . & opon pe rode he was bischett . Now J)ou may 
answere me & saie he ^ede out of bo|)e . 3^ ■ so do {)0U . go out 15 
as he dude wi|) outeu breche & left hew al hole . & so we scholde 
do whan fie gost went out atte last endyuge of oure lyf . whan 
[)e soule wende{) out of fie body [lat is his hous . pat is as \>e 
vtter wal of {)e Castel wende out cleue of syune & {)an wende 
we wel out . Al J^is Jiat .j. saye of flesche pynsywges nys uousth 20 
yseide for good Men <fe wymmen pat ben in clene lyf ac for Men 
ife wymmen j)at lyuen in \\e werlde & gropew hem to uesche . cfe 
for hew |)at bigy/meu to goo to hei^e lyf . For whan Meu settew 
a 5onge ympe mcu setteu it aboute wi{) tJorues for pat no bestes 
ne schulde comew f^erto . And so it is good |)«t vche Man & wo?wmau 25 
sette su»»me hardscbippes abouteu hem lest J^e deuel wil ou^th 
suacche to hem ward |)at he may hyrt hywi so \)at he ne dar 
nomore come to hem ward a^ein Ac j rede pat noman ne sette 
hym bot in Mesure ne charge hem nou^th to gretlich atte first . * 
Ac litel & htel . & so more & more, ^if pat hij takew al {)ing iu 30 
Mesure . Ac of al penau«ee fian is biddynge good . & wif) al wo 
|)at }ou comet) f*n be|) glad & \etep litel of ^oure selue» & ^if 
36 ben ysette wij) {)ise two {lan be 36 wel & 36 mowe {)oly daungere 
of 30ure vnderlinges bletielich & louelich . & {lau mowe ^e saie 
wi{) |)e lefdy t^at sei{) in her loue book . 3-5 

VEnit delcctus meus saliens mowtibMS & trausi- 
liens colles,5I My lef sche sei{) come{) lepeande ouer \>e 

' so: over s the iipper part of an unlini.^ilied letter ,r. 
' p. 441 a 



180 Joel rilhlsson 

dounes cV- oue?-lepe[) (le hilles . Idy dounes is bitokiied hij ' jiat 
leden hei^est lyt" . And hylles ben hij |5at beu in * lower lyf . Now 
sehe sei|) pai hir lef comet) lepeande ouer pe dounes . liat ben 
hij |)at ben to troden here vnder Me«nes fete as jesus crist wa£ 

6 & suffren {)oleinodehch & wij) goode witt scheme & pyne & ben 
glad t)cre of And sche seij) he ouftrlepel) Jie hiiles pat ben hij 
ftat ben in lower lyf l^at mowen nou} {^oly scheme & pyne ne 
ben to troden vnder MCMnes feet her lef ouerlepep l)ise . for he 
ne trostes uou^tli to hem . for iie feblesse ne may nouith |)olen 

10 swich tredyng . t^ Iierfore he lepe{) ouer hem & forbercj) hem til 
pat hij ben hei^er & lete[) hem haue suw likenesse of iiym as it 
were a schadewe Astow seest }pe hilles stonde vnder jie dounes . 
so done hij . vnder fongew pyne & wo first Ac nou^th wi{) goode 
wille for hem [^encheti f^at it greuet) he»! gretlich . napeles ahvay 

15 hij it suffren . & al liat nys bot as aschadewe to je.-u cristes pyne . 
ac pe dounes beu gladde fat hij it hane & fonken it hyni fast 
t)at he sendel) it he;« & fe gladder hij ben . Jjise ben euere 
honged wit) jesu crist & felen l)at he feled. Swich a douue was 
tie good Poule for he sousth ene?-e \)er he mi^tli haue most sorou; 

20 for t)i he seide, 

DE i c i m M r ' s e t n o w perimns m o r t i f i c a c i o n e >» j e s u * 
i« corpore nostvo circuwf ereutes vt & vita je,-u 
in cor po)'i b«<.? nnsfris mauif estet«<r, ^ Al wo (luot) he & 
al schame we tiolien * ac t)at is oure self \)at we beren ov oure 
25 bodi jesu cristes de\) liknesse pat it be seen sotiilich in vs . wick 
was his det) on rode god it wot pat t)us dol^e . he proue]) his 
loue toward oure lorde . Louestow me . sif [lou loue me loue wil 
schewe hym wit) werkes outwili . 

PRobacio dileccjowis exhibicio esf operis.Jtem 
amor om«ia facilia reddit, ^ Ne be ueuere \)\ng so 
hard loue listtet) it . & softet) & swetet) it . what \)o\e\) Man & 
womman for fals loue, & more wolde t>oIeu, what is more wonder 
l)an pis . pat siker loue & trewe loue & swete loue ne mowew 



' hij added above the line. 

- ben in on eiasure. 

' In tlie margin: paulMS. 

' Jesw: the last letter nearly effaced, 

^ n-e polien run together. 



Recluse 181 

nou;tli maistrie vs as loue pat is lals . nou^th for jjan a goode ' 
Man tellef) \>at he kuew su»i Mau pat wered - fie haire ' next hym 
& pe bryny aboue» it . & bonde his myddel wij) brode bondes 
of yrue & [)icke so p&t \>e swete \)ere of was passiou;» to jjolen . 
i 5Ut he fastet) & wakej) & swynkej) & ^ut he menef) hym pat 5 
it ne greued hym nou^th & bad his schrift fader often teche 
h}'m hou he mi^th his body pynen & wepe to liis schrift fader 
& seide god had for^eten hy»i for pat he sendeji hy»« no michel 
sekenesse & al pat is bitter for oure lordes loue al hyw |)euche[) 
swete . god it wot pat makel) loue . For as he seide oft for no 10 
t)ing p(it god may do to hym of harme Ijei; he wolde castew 
hym to helle ne mi^th he ueuere findeM in hert to loue»» hym 
pe lesse . And also it was swich a wommau ^&t dude litel lesse, 
pere nys nou^th bot {)onke god [^at ^iuet) hew {)at strengj)e . And 
knowe we [^olemodehch oure feblesse* Loue we otiers goode & 15 
so it is oure owen . For as seiMt Gregori seit) f^t of so mychel 
strengt^e is loue |)at it maketi o\iers good oure good \vi\t * oute» 
trauaile . Here is \)e sext dele of \)\s book, 

SEint Poule seif) \>at a.U oure hardschipes & alt oure fleschlich 
pynsywges & all bodilich* swynkes al is as nousth a^eiu 20 
loue l)at schiret) & bri^ttet) \)e hert. 

EXercitaci'o'corporis ad niodicum* valet pieatas 
autem valet ad omnia.^Ipat is bodilich bisischippes 
is litel worf) ac swete & schire hert is good vpe al fing- 

SJ '•' liugwis hominfim loquar & angelorMm &c . Jtem 25 
si distribuero omwes facMltates meas in cibos 
pauperum caritatem autew non hrtiuero uichil vaichi 
prodest ^ pat is \)en j cou|)e mawnes langage & aungels^" & 



' goode: oii the flrst o traces of erasure. 

' p. 441 b. Fn the left-hand bottom-corner, a hand pointing upwards. 

' haire: a a correction for e. 

* feblesse: l inserted above ihe line. 

* Xt the end of this MS.-line in the margin: gegO/"/t«S 

* In the margin, as noted above: pau with the last stroke of the 
u cut away. 

' In the margin: pau 

" CiXercxtacw — modicuxa on eraaure. 
' In the margin: pau 
'° aungels: tlii- sei-oiid li-tter look.< like n. 



182 Joi-I PAhlsson 

l)ei; wh (lude opn» niy bofiy al |)e pyne \ passiouH \>at body 
nii^th polye \- ^af niy body to brennew . & liei^ ich ^af to pouer 
al f)rtt ich hadde & j iie hadde nousth loue J)e>"wi|) to god & to 
myne euen cristen iu iiym & for hym . ai were yspilt . For als 
5 fie hoiy Abbot Moyses se\\) . Al |)e wo & al |)e hard jjat we l)olien 
in oure flesche . & al ' |)e good |)at we euer done . Alle swich |)inges 
ne beu bot as loomes to tilen wil) Jje hert, 3'f ^" ^x ue corue . 
ne a spade ne dolue . & \)e plou} ne eri^ed who woide holde hem . 
also as nomaw ne ]oue{) lomes for hew seluew ac for \)at Men 

10 wirchen wi|) liem . also no Heschlich pynywg nys nou^th to loue« 
bot for \)at god l)e ral)er loke|) Ijiderward wi^) his grace & makel) 
lie hert schire & of bri^th si^th p&t none ne may l^at hal) any 
Bioniyng of vnt^ewes of werldelich l^iwges For l)is ioue ablindel) 
so 1)6 hert ei^en \>at he ne may knowe god ne glady of his 

15 sisth . Schire - hert as seint Bernard se\\) n)akel) l)ise two l)i«ges . 
pat is al pat \)on doost do it onelich for l^e loue of god oil^er 
for ol)ers good & for his biheue, * haue in ai fiat l)OU doost on 
of l)ise two enteutes . oil^er bol^e & I)an doostow wel . for pe iatter 
fallel) Im to pe first . Haue euer schire hert l)us & do al pat \)0U 

20 wilt . haue wleche hert & al turnel) vn to yuel p&t l)ou doost, 

OMnia muwda muwdis.coiuqMinatis autem nichil 
est raundum Aposto^MS Augustinus . habe cari- 
tatew & fac qwicquid vis voluwtate videlicet racio- 
«is, ^ Ouer alle l)i«ges l)el) besy forto haue schire hert . Jch 
26 haue yseide biforne ^iat se ne loue nol^ing bot god . & pat l)iag 
l)at helpel) 50U toward hym, Austin seil) to oure lorde, 

MJnus te amat qui preter te aliquid amat quod 
uoM propter te amat, ^I pat is lord })e lesse he louel) 
\)e l)at auy louel) bot \)e . bot loue for pe & iw \)e, Schireuesse of 
30 hert is goddes loue one . & l^at is al pe strengpe of al Religiou» 
& of al ordre, Plenitudo legis est dileccio, 51 Loue Klleli 
l)e lawse seij) seint Poule, 

QVicquid precipitwr in sola caritate soIidatMr 
51 Alle goddes hestes beu sett in loue . Loue one schal be 

' In tlie marjiin, as noted above: -^ witli (/ |)artlv cut away. 

ses ./ I . 

Ber 

' In the niarKin, as above: , with a letter {»i?^ erased after the 

'^ 11 a r d 

first syllable. 

' p. 442 a. 



Recluse 183 

leide in seint Mi^els \vei3e ' for hij pnt most louen schullen be 
inost in blis . & nou^th hij ^&t lyuen hardest lyf for loue it ouer- 
wei^ef) Loue is heuew stiward for his mychel frenesse for he ne 
wif)liolde|) nou^th ac ^iuej) al \)at he haj) & hym selue« . & elles 
iie kept nousth god of fiat hirs were . 51 God ha{) agon oure 5 
loue mychel . he haf) 5<>uen vs & more he haf) bihoten vs . & 
mychel ^utt ofdrawej) loue . & al pe werlde he ^af vs in Adam 
oure fader And al f^at is in j)e werlde he warpe vnder oure feet 
bestes foules er [)at Adam foigylt it. 

OMnia sub pedibws eiws oues & boues &c, ^ And ^ut 10 
iil |)rtt t)ere is seruej) \>e good to pe soule biheue . & sut j)e 
evpe . suwne & mone & al {)at pere is seruej) t^e mek . & ^ut he 
depe more . no^t onelich saf vs al t)is . Ac ^utt he ^af vs al hym 
selucM perto * . so hei^e ^ift nas neupr ^oueii to so lowe wrecches 
t)e apostle sei{), 15 

/^ T TRts<?<s dilexit ecclesiam & dedit semeti psi/ m 
V^ A A p/o ea, 51 (^rist seij) seint Poule loued so his le»»man 
\)&t he 3af for hir ^e prys of hj^m seluew . Nj'meJ) now good ^eme 
whi Jien owen to loueM hym as a Man \)nt wowej) as kyng {)at 
loued a lefdy of ferne londe & sent hire mauy sondes biforne 20 
\)&t wereH patriarkes & prophetes of \>e olde testaraewt wi|) lettres 
enseled and on ende ^ he com hym seluen & brousth {)e gospelles 
as le//res * yopened & wrott wi{) his owen blood salut^ to his 
lemman . & loue gretynge forto wowen hir wi{) . & hir loue forto 
hau in welde . Her to falle{) a tale a wrei^cn forbisen . A lefdy 26 
was wi() hir fon bisette al aboute & hir londe al destreued '' & 
sche al pouere wit^inne an ev\>en castel And al mi^tty kyuges 
son was so vnymete swi(ie his loue turued opon hir loue & seut 
bire sondes And ^af hire mauy faire ^iftes & socom/s of lyues 
help of his hei^e hirde to holden her castel, Aud sche vnder- 30 
fenge al as reccheles & so was harded hire hert \)&t ntnth he 
neuer be pe neer of hir loue . What wiltow more he com hym 
self on ende and schewed hir his faire nebb as he {)at was of 

' ni^els wei}e on erasure. 
' J5erto: to on erasure. 

' ende: n corrected froni r, of whicli the lnwer part of the downstroke 
has been erased. 

♦ MS.: Ires the last 'vord in the Hne. 
» p. 442 b. 



184 .loel P:\lilsson 

alle Meii fairest to bilioldeii & spak to liir so sweteiicli >!« wordes 
so luery tiat he uii^tli j^e dede arereii to l^^ue . aiid he \vrou3tl1 
many wonders . & dude many inaistries totorne her ei^en . sehewed 
hir his mi^th telde hir his l<yngdoni . bede to maken hir quene ' 
6 of al pat he hadd * . & al Jjis ne halp nousth nys liis hoker won- 
der for sche uas ueiter worl)i to ben his honde mayden . Ac so 
debonairte wij) loue ha|i ouercome» hym {)at he seide on ende 
Dame \iou art werred & |)ine fon ben so strowge fjat \)ou ne may 
noues waies wij) oute« myue help atflen hem |)at iiij ne moten 

10 do {)e to schame & to dej) . And jchiit for \)i loue nyme |)is fi^th 
vpe me aud so rede l)e of alle |)iue fon [)at p\ de|) sechen . Aud 
j wot wel {)e so|)e fiat j schal bitweue hew uyme dej)es wounde . 
and ich it wil take wij) gode wille forto haue j)i loue & |)ine liert 
my swete iemma« . Now lian biseche j \)e for |)e loue |)«t j . kifie 

15 to l)e . pat l)Ou loue me after my defi sil)l)en \tou ne wilt nou^th 
lyues, And \>\s kyug dude al t)is . redd hir of hir ^ fon & was 
hym self so wonderlich ytogged & pyned & pan sleyn ou ende 
& {)orou3 Biiracle aros fram ded to lyue . Nere uou^th t)is lefdy 
ouer vnkynde bot ^if sche loued hym l^ere after in al l)ing. 

20 T^Js kyng is je.yus crist goddes sou of heuew * \)at al l)us wou^et) 
X'^ oure soule l)at \\e deuel hadde bisett iu his bandou« . pau 
as gode werrowr au^tt to doue jesus crist dude seut first many 
messangeres & fele* dudew dede for his lewmans loue to proue 
his loue & drawe hir loue to hym ward & schewed porou^ kui^t- 

25 schipp \)at he was loue worfji As suwme kni^ttes werew wonte 
to done hem iw to toMrnammt^ ® for her lewmans loue . so dude 
jesas crist lete t)irlen ' his scheld ou vche half as kene kni^th 
His schelde l^at wered his godhede {lat was his hkh«m pat was 
ysprad opon {)e rode brode as scheld abouen . his strei^t '^ armes 

30 & narewe bynepen . as by mawnes wene pere was nou^tii o fote 



• MS.: qne the last word in the Hne. 

'' hadd: between /( an<l a traces of erasure. 

" of hir added above the Hne ; in the margin opposite, a small i-ross, 
probably to mark the omisBion. 

* heuen squeezed together at the end of the line; the second e partly 
effaeed. 

' fele: le on erasure. 

° MS.: towmamt-., the last word in the line. 

' pirlen : over r the upper part of an unfinished l. 

' strei-yt: 5 inserted aliove the line. 



Recliise 185 

brode opon \\e erjie . Ac \ns schelde ne had no sides . pat is 
bitokned {)at iiis deciples p&t schuide haue stouden bj' hym it 
ben his * sides HoweM * iram hym & leften hym as fremed as |ie 
gospel seijj, 

RElicto eo omwes fugeruHt, 51 lli.i forsoken liym aile i*e 5 
fiedden, away tVam hy»» for he ne lialpe nou^tli l)y»i selue» 
iu fiat gret nede Jiis schelde is ^ouew vs a^ein atl tewptac/ons 
as jerem/e seij), 

DA b i s ' s c u t u ;m c o r d i s \ahorcm . tuum . v t p o s t s c u t o 
bone voIuH<rt<is . coroMa.'?^/ . nos . ^T Nou^th pis scheld 10 
on sclielde{) vs fmm atl yuels ac il crounej) * vs iw heuene, 
OCuto* bone voluwtat/s tue coronasti nos, 51 P^t is 
k3 wif) pe scheld of pi good wille J)ou haste ycrouned vs . 
Scheld he seide of good wille for wiiles he j)oled \>e * de{), 

OBlatus est quia voluit.^THe offred hy»j seluen for vs 16 
for he wolde so . Now saien suwime whi ne rai^ttestow wij) 
lesse greue han yredd vs' fram helle . 3is J wis wel li^thlicher 
ac he nolde for whi forto bitaken vs from euerych tellyng a^eiws 
hyw of oui-e loue pat he so dere bou^th . Mew buggen lijith cost 
a piug . t)at men letew litel of . And he bouith vs wi{) his blode . 20 
derrer \)ing nas neuer non bou^th so dere ne neuer ne schal 
after And al forto drawen oure loue to hyw ward t^at cost hywi 
so sore . Jn scheld beu \tre l^inges pe tre . \>e le{)er . & pe colours . 
Also was jesus cristes schelde . pe tre of \)e rode . pe lejier of 
his body . & coloured \v\\> his blode, {)at hiwed it so fair . Also 26 
after kene kni^ttes dep sien howgeu his schelde in chirches in 
tokne . Also |)e croice is sett in chii-ches in swich stede as men 
mowen sonest seen it for to penche \>erby on je,m cristes kni^t- 
schipp \>&t he dude on rode for his lemman, Biholde \>ere on 
hou he bou5th hir loue . He lete t)irlen his schelde opon his side 30 
to schewe hir his hert p&t sche mi^th sen hou openlich he loued 
hir & to drawen her loue to hym, 

' his ailded above the line. 

' p. 443 a. 

' In tlie margin: Jerevnius 

* crounep : c a correction on erastire, poi^siblj' for r. 
' In the margin; dauid. 

* ]je added above the line. 
' MS.: ti? 



186 .loel Pithlsson 

FOiire lieued loiies Meii Hixlew iii Jiis werltle Bitwene goode 
felawes . Bitweiie Man & wowjman . Bitwene wyf & childe . 
Bitweue bodi & soule . pe loue \)at oist haj) to his lewinan ouer- 
gojj att l)ise foure . Men seieii he is agood felawe |)at lai|) liis 
6 wedde in ^e jewrie to aquiten out his felawe . God ahni^ttv leide 
hyw self in pe jewerie for vs & dude his derwor[)e hody on pe 
rode for vs to aquiten his lewman out of [)e jewen honden . 
Neuer 3ut ne dede no frewde swich a fordede for ano{)er . Miehei 
loue is bitwene Mau & womman . ac pei} sche were ywedded vnto 

10 hyin sche mi^th bicome so wiciied & so longe sche miith bihoren 
hym wif) o^er men p&t pen sche wolde comen a^eiu he wolde 
hire nou^th . For \)i crist loue|) raore his lemman . for |)ei3 his 
lemman haue hored hym wi|) \\e fende fele ^eres & daies ; his 
mercy is to hir euere ^are whaw pat sche wil comew hom & letew 

15 |)e fende . Al fiis he sei])^ hym seluew |)orou5 Jeremie |)e prophete, 

SJ " dimiserit vir uxorem suaw &c.tu aM^em forni- 
cata es cum mwltis amatoribj^.s to?)ien reuertere' 
ad me dicit dominus, ^ ^eit he sei|) al day J^ei^ l)ou haue 
vnwrastlich done bitjtrne j^e & come a^ein welcom schaitow be 
20 to me, 

YMmo & occurrit prodigio veniewti . ^ 3^*^ !*■ seil) he 
ernej) a^eiu hir ^ain come . & werpe|) his armes * abouten 
her swire who wolde aske more mercy . 3ut more wonder is . 
Haue his lemman hored hym wi|) ueue?- so mauy dedlich syiaies 

25 als soue as sche comej) a^ein to hyin he make{) hir newe Maiden . 
seint Austin seij) so Miehel Depa?-tyng is bitweue kuowleching of 
Mau & womman . and god & his lewimau . pat is }^e knowleching 
bitwene man & wowmau [^at Man makep of a Maideu wyf And 
goddes knowlechiwge bitwi|)eu hym & his lemman inake|) of wyf 

-30 maydeu, 

REstituit iuquit job gen^^s iutegre . &c . 51 Good 
werkes & trewe bileue . j^ise two Maken maydenhede in 
soule . Now of pe j^ridd loue |)«t is bitwene wif & childe . pe 
childe {)ot hadd swich yuel liat it bihoued haue a ba|)|)e of blode 



' p. 443 b. 

'' In the niargin: Jerem with the last two strokes of the m cut 
away. 

■' tamen re (in reuevtere) apparently on erasure. 
* armes: on s slight traces of erasure. 



Recluse 187 

er \>at it were hole . niichel Jie Jioder loued it \i(it wold make it 
a batifte iu her blode forto heleu it wifi al, Jjis dude oure lorde 
to his lewman ()at was seek of syime & so ysoiled t)e>-ewi|) pat 
nofiing mi^th eleuse liir bot blode ' for so it wolde his loue 
makeu vs bajit^e Jxre of ybhssed be be euere . For [ire baj)es he !> 
dijth to his iewman forto wasschen hir jnne white & fair to bis 
clene ciippynge . pe first is baptesme . pat o])er is teres juner 
o\\ter vtter ^if sche be yfiled after fie first hnpe . pe |iridde is 
Jesus cristes biood Jjat boldej) bope lie ot^er as seint Jon sei|i i« 
{)apocaiips . lo 

QVi* dilexit nos & lauit nos a pccc«tis nos^ri.s in 
sanguine suo.^I He louej) vs more paw auy moder do|) 
pe childe for he it seip hyw seluew J)oro5 ysaie, 

NVmqMirf' potest mate?- obliuisci filij vteri sui 
& si illa obliuiscatMr ego now obliuiscar tui, 15 
5T May moder he sei|) for^eten hir childe . ac jjei;, sche do j ne )nay 
nou^th for^eten my lewiman neuere . & seip |)e resoun whi . J n 
manibws meis scripsi ter, Jcli haue he seide ypeynted pe 
inwi}) myne honden . & so he dude wij) rede blode opon {je rode . 
A sian knittej) his girdel forto haue mynde opou a l^ing . Ac 20 
oure lorde forto haue vs in nienyng dude t)irlen his houden & 
his fete & his side for \)at h nolde neuer for^etew vs . Now of pe 
fiert^e loue \>at fe soule louet) \)e body so strongelich wi^) alle & 
ri^th sori beu in departyng as ri^th leue frendes whan hij schuliew 
departen asundre . Ac oure lorde witi i)is good will departed his 26 
soule from his body forto briwge his spouse iw to f^ blis of 
heuen, * to hym \v[\) outew ende tJere to duellen . pus jesus cristes 
loue passel) alle loues fat aien fynde on eT\)e . & wiji al fis loue 
5ut he wowet) hir more on pis wise, 

PJ loue he seif) oij^er it is forto ^iuew oitier it is forto sellen . 30 
oiper it is to take wi^) strengjie . ^ii it is forto ^iuew . where 
mai * pnu better bisett it \)&n on me . Ne am icl) kyug fairest 
ne am ich kyng richest . ne am ich hei^est in kyude . ue ani ich 



' blode: e nearly efiaced. 

' In the margin: iohannes 

' In the margin : -_ with the second » partly cut away. 

' p. 444 a. 

• mai added ahove the line. 



188 .loel PAlil«t.on 

wisest . ne am icli Man liendest . ne ain icli m\ii treest . lor so 
nien sei|) by large Man . fiat ne can nouith atiiolden . |)at hal) |)e 
honde [lirled as ich liaue, ue am icli alder |)ing swettest . ne am 
ich nan |)at neue?- schal d^-e . & |)us aile [^e resouws wlii Meu owen 
5 to ioue me . Aud fiou may finde in me chastite & al manere 
cienuesse for uon ne may louen me ^ bot iiij liolden heni cleue . 
3if \>i loue uys nou^th to ^iueu ac wilt l^at Men buggew it 3if it 
schal be selde it owe forto be bou^tli w-i|) loue oi{)er wif) suwwhat 
elles . Men sellen wel loue for loue & so men oweu to sellew loue 

10 & for no{)i«g elies & ^if j^ine is to selle so icl) haue bou^th w'\\> 
loue . For |)e liede loues pat ben ich ^ haue yliidd toward J)e meste 
of hem aile . ^if [)ou seist fiou uylt nou^th lete it so listh chep 
& wilt i)aue more . J)erfore saie what is sclial be sett (^ereon fere . 
for fiou ne may no^t nemi)uy so n^ychel . p«t j uyli ^iue J)e more 

16 wiltow casteis wiltow kyngdomes . wiltow al |)e werlde . jchiile do 
J)e better . jchitl malce pe queue in heuene riche blis . Jjou schait 
J)i seluew ' fold bri^tter Jian J)e suwne . non yuel iie sclialtow felen 
ue no J)iug ne scheme J)e . ne no weljie ne sclial faile Jie . al J)i 
wille sehal be wrou^th in lieuene & in erjie . ^e & ^et in helle . 

20 ue schal neuer J)inlc so mycliel J)at j nilt ^iue J)e more for J)i 
loue . vn raetelich . vu euewlich . vn endelich al cressus wele . al 
Absolon fairnesse Jiat als oft as he euesed hym . his her J)at was 
corue« of was selde for an huwdreji siches of siiuer . as asailes* 
swifteschip Jiat strof wiji J)e liertes eruynge al Sampsones strengj)e 

25 J)at sIou3 a Jiousande of his fou at o tyme wij) outew fere cesars 
prelais al Alisauudres praisyng Moyses hele . uolde a Man for on 
of J)ise 3iue al Jjat he hadd & al f)is uys nousth worJi a nedel 
a^ein my body J)at j wil liuew for J)i loue . 3if J>ou arte so wode 
& out of J)i wytt J)«t J)ou forsakest al J)is fair bi^ete wij) al manere 

30 helj)e Lo icli hoide here griselich Jie swerd of vengeauwce abouen 
|)ine heued to todelen lyf & soule & caste he»» bojie in to Jje 
pyne of helle to be J)e deuels hore wijiouten eude . ^ in pyne & 
in sorou3 . Answere now ^if J)0U caust a^ein me oijier ^iue me Jii 
loue J)at j desire so mycliel nou^tli for my good ac for Jiine owen 

' me: over m the upper part of an unfinished letter (6). 

' Between ich and liam: it expuncted. 

' seltien: l touched up. 

' asailes: i inserted above the line. 

- p. 444 b. 



Recluse 189 

goode . Loo lius oure lorde \vowe|t vs . To hard hert lie haji ' ftat 
ne niay nou^th wi|> swich awowier - turnen ^if hij wele ttenchen 
\)\se \n-e ^iinges wiiat he is . & whal sche is . & hou mychel is pe 
loue of so hei^e Jiinge as lie is toward so * lowe [)ing as sche is 
for t)i sei|) dauid 6 

NOn est qui se abscoudat a calore eii^s^I Nis uon 
{)at he ne mote louten to hyw waid and ioue»? pe sof)e 
suMue |iat was stiewen * vp on hei^e opon jie hattest on pe day . 
forto schewen hou hot his loue w-as to his iemman forto drawen 
her hert to hym as \ie godspel sei|). lO 

IGnew veni mittere in tcrra»» & quid volo nisi vt 
ardeat, 51 Jch com he seif) to bringe fire in to er{)e . pat is 
brennande loue in to er|)elich hertes . And what ^erne ich elles 
bot t)at it brenne . wleche hert is hym Io{) as he seij) {)orou3 seint 
jon \>e ewrtngelist in {)e Apocalips, 15 

VTinawj* frigidus e.f,<fes aut calidus set quia tepi- 
dus es i»!cipia»n te euomere de ore meo,^ Jch 
wolde he seide vn to his ]e»wman {)rtt pou were al hote * in my 
loue oi()e;- ai colde . Ac for {)at {lou art al wleche bitwene two . 
pat is noi{ie»- hote ne colde {)0u makest me to wlaten . & j schal 20 
spew [le out bot ^if {)0U bicome hatter . Now ie hau herd my 
leue childer whi & hou god is to loue»;, 

FOrto teude iourc fyre {)at bitokne{) loue gedere{) wode wi{) pe 
pouere wo»>!man of Sarept pat burgh^ {lat is on englysch 
tendyng . 25 

EN inquit coligoduoligna.^l Lorde sche seide to hely 
{)e prophete . Loo j . gadre tweie trewes . pe two trewes 
bitokne{) ' \\e rode . pat o tre {lat stode vp ri^th . & {)at o{)e»- {)at 
lay ouer {)wert * wi{) \)0 trees weschut tenden fyre of loue iuwi{) 
oure hertes . pat is {)enche hou he spredde his armes to taken 30 



* )utp: p corrected froni .(/, the lower curve of which has been erased. 
' aicoic-.,er: the Ia.st letters squeezed together at the end of the line. 

* 80 on erasure. 

' stieiren: i inserted above the line. 

• In the margin: Johannes, 

• hote: t corrected from /, the upper part of which i)as been erased. 
' Between bitoknep and pe: i (or the first stroke of another letter) 

expunctcd. 

' l>irert: on p traces of erasure. 



190 .Toi'l l'ililssoii 

vs to liy»» . And bowe|) adouM \vi|) \)e heued to gcaiite vs |iat we 
asken hym . Sikerlicli j saie ^if hely |)at is oure lorde fiude vs 
so gederend trees to geder bisihcli . he wil duelle« wip vs & ^iue 
vs inany folde ' his g/ace as hely dude wi[) |)e pourre wowmaw 
r> in sarept p&i he fonde f)ise two treen gederande . Fyre gregays 
men maken - of rede ma«nes blode & pat ne may ' not)i«g 
aquewchen bot Mugge * & aysil & seide as Mew seijj . Gregeys fyre 
is |)e loue of jesu crist & 50 it schuli * maken of rede mawnes 
blode * |)at is jesus crist yreded wi{) his owen blode opon {)e tre 

10 |)at schal make sareptiens jjat is tendyng fyre wit) fyre gregeyws 
\>at salamow seif) {)at no waters ne may quewchen, pat is no 
werldelich tribulaciouws ne tewptaciouws may derew a Man fro 
\)at ilche loue . ne hym quewchen ^if it be wel ytended . Ac kepe|) 
30U fmm \)\se j)re t)i«ges Mygge & aisel ' & sonde . Mygge bitoknet) 

16 stynk of synne & on sonde wexef) no good t^at bitokne}) ydel- 
nesse . Aud ^erlore stii'el) 50U quiklich iw good werkes & di-yuet) 
out {)ise two . pe \iv\dd fiing is aysel & \)at bitoknep soure hert . 
of nyt^e & of onde . Vnderstonde|) pis word whan pe ondeful jewes 
offredew oure lord |)is soure drynk opon \)e rode . pan he seide, 

20 l)is word Consuwmatuw est, neuer er quoj) he was j ful 
ypyned pat is to saie her ondeful hertes duden hym more harme 
l)an al his pyne . & ^utt sif a Man haue sore swonken & atte 
nende ha\) his hyre ^ut hyw l^enchet) * his trauaile wel bisett . 
Oure lord tyled here after oure loue mo [)au fritty ^ere & swawk 

25 ^eriore ful hard & for all kept he ^ bot loue for his hire Ac in 
{)eendyng of his lyf whan Maw schulde ^elde werkmen her hyre 
look what hij ^olden hyra for pyemeut of houy loue eysel of 
soure nyj)e . & galt of bitter onde . oowe quot) oure lorde . Con 
sumraatuwj est.Al rayne swynkes on ert^e . & al my pyue on 

30 rode . ne scheraet) ne deret» me a^ein \)\s . pat hij beden me pus 
soure hyre of nyfie and onde . Now j saie 50U for sot^e alt swicii 

^ folde : the second letter looks like e. 

' maken : a possibly a correction. 

' may: a a correction, probably for e. 

* migge: the first g corrected, probably from s. 

^ schull: sc a correction for it. 

' p. 445 a. 

' aisel : e not quite clear, written together with l. 

' PencheP : over J> the upper part of an unfinished letter (/()• 

' After he a siiiall hole. 



Recluse IW 

jieu & wymen J)at han swich uy{>eful liertes & ondeful to her 
euencristen . offren jesu crist pis bitter drynk and greue// god 
more {)an hij ^at oftredejj hym pan {)at diyuk on rode . for pat 
most nedes be done for god wold Jjat it were so . And J)«t aian 
o\\)er were oudeful now ue wolde he nousth Aud {^erfore hij 5 
greueu liym fie more . 3'^ oure enemyes greuew vs & done vs 
harme salamoH techej) vs what we schulien done. 

SJ'esurierit inimicws tuus ciba illuwi.sisititpo- 
tuw da illi.sic.eniw.carboues ardentes cowgeres 
super caput eiMS . 51 3^^ N ^^o huwgret) ^iue hyw mete . to 10 
his t)rust 3iue hym dryuk of |)iue teres wepe for his synne & so 
{)0u schalt seif) salamon reclen on his heued hote gledes . pat is 
to saie {)0U schalt tende liis hert to louew pe . For hert is in holy 
wr3'tt by heued vnderstonde» . For pus wil god saie att« dome . 
whi louedestow \te Man oijper pe womman . sir for hij louede» ij- 
me . pere is ^olden loue for loue . j ne owe nou^th ^ere mychel 
to selden for J)0u ^oldest prtt J)ou au^ttest . 3'f |iou saie sir . j . ' 
ioued hym for ^i loue . J)at loue he owe pe & he pe wil ^eldeu . 
Mygge is as j seide p&t aquenchef) gregeys fyre . pat bitokneji 
stynkeande flesches loue & pat aquewchej) gostlich loue . And by 20 
gregeys fyre is bitokned hote loue in je.«u crist as he hadde to 
vs & to his deciples . 

NJsi' ego abiero paraclitws non veniet &c.5Ipat is 
bot 5if^ j parte frara 50U J)e holy gost Ipat is ray faders 
& myne may nou^th comew to 50U . Ac whrtn ich am departed 2) 
fram 50U . j wil sende 50U \)e holi gost . |)at is loue . nymej) now 
3eme hij loueden so jesu crist pat was her Maister bodilich {)at 
hij ne mi^th nou^th hane pe holy gost for |)e loue })at hij hadden 
to hym er \)at he was departed fram hem . Look \>au J)ou Man 
oi^er wommau Jiat louest here fleschlich loue & han gret desire 30 
to comen to gedre . hou schulde J)an \>e holy gost come to hem 
& dwelle wij) hem, Jtat han sette her hertes on erj)elich Jjinges 
& erj)elich loues . whan \>e holy gost mi^th nou^th come to jesu 
cristes deciples whiles J)at jesus was wij) hetn . pat was hywi 
.seluet» boJ)e fader & son & holy gost . For hij loueden his body :)•> 



' In the niargin: salamOM 
• p. 445 b. 

' In the margin: domJUMS 

' %if added above the hne. 



192 Joel PSlilsson 

]iat liij liadde)! in prcsent \)ere hij ne niiitte» nou^th hane [le 
holy gost tyl \i(d he WrtS went iram heni . J rede nan k wowman 
be vvar here of |)at hij setten her loue ari^th . For bot ^if hij 
hane \)e holy gost hij ne comen neuere in j)e bhs of heuene, 
6 And Als longe as Mau oiper womman han sett her hert in any 
erpelich |)ing hij ne mowen neuer haue \)e holy gost . pat is to 
saie bot ^if he loiie it for god . & in god, Loue J)i frende in god 
& \>'\ne enemye for |)e loue of god and J)e goodes in {)is werld 
in god to haue pi sustenaunce J)ere of astow seest J)at |)ou niay 

10 best serue god . Haue |)an schire hert & clene loue to alle nen . 
& |)an makestow o))er mewnes good |)ine oweu . as seint Gregori 
sei|) . Charite ' j^at is cherete of lef {)ing & dere . vnwor{)i he makel) 
god pat anj' |iing louej) more t>an hyw . He pat wil loue ri^th . 
he ne may loue bot hym one . for so he louel) loue \iat he inakej) 

)5 loue his euenynge . ^e . 3Utt j dar saye more . He make[) hir his 
Maister & dojie al {)at sche - biddel) hym do as \)en he nedes 
moste, May . j . proue l)is . 3^ '■ trewlich by his owen wordes . ))at 
he .seide to Moyses \)at hym moste loued 

D.J ni i s i i u X < a V e r b u m t u u »! . n o w d i c i t p r p c e s , ff Jch 
had he seij) mi^th to wreke me of [li folk \)at greuen me . 
ac |iou seist me . j . ne schal uou^th & astow seist it schal ' be . 
Loo men seimi loue bv-ndej) witterlich . & soj^lich it bynde[) god 
|)at he ue may no[)ing do bot by loues leue . j^e proue here* of 
for neu J^enchen wonder {)erof ysaye seij), 
2o T^ownie* nore est qiii consurgat & teneat te . ^ Lorde 
l^ w'iltou * smiten sei{) ysaye weileway |)0u mi^th wel smyten 
\)e)-e nys non J^at \)e holdej) . as pei} he seide ^if any loued [le 
ari^th he mi^th holde [le & lette [le to sniyten in genesis, 

FEstina' &c. non potero ibi quicq?«am facp)e donec 
egressus fueris illie . 51 pat is whan oure lorde wolde 

' Charite: on h traces of eiasure. 

'' sche: over c a curl, probably tlie upper part o£ an untinislied h. 

' schal: a by cofrection. 

* here : on It traces of erasnre. 

^ In the margin, partly below the bottom-line of the page: ysayas 

with the lirst y slitrhtly blotted. 

" p. 44(5 a. 

U o" e 
' In tlie marjiin probably: '^ .-, with »(.?) partlv cut awav; the letter 

follnwinf; o is lilurred and shows traces of erasure; s'-* has beeu added lielow. 



Reclnse 193 

biseucheu sodoine & Gomorre [lere Loth his freude was june 
Jjerfore he seide to Loth weude out of {)is cite For {jerwhiles 
\)at {)0u art here june j ne may doue hew bot good . Nas f^is 
wiji loue bouwdeu whrtu he ne mi^th uou^tli wrekeu hym ou 
swich a cite for loue [jat he hadde to o Mau . Aud pat cite was 6 
more as Platou a clerk sei|) |)au Aufrike and Europe . & now it 
is cleped fie rede see, wiiat wiltow niore Loue is his Chaumber- 
leyn . his conseiler his spouse . He ne may uou^th wif)hele tVani 
hir ac tellej) hir al ^&t he {^enchep . pe proue here of in genesis, 

NOn* celare potero abraham qiie gesturws sum, 10 
Ne may ich seide oure lorde helen wif) abraham ping f^at 
ich f)enche to doue . uay he seide on uon wise Nou cau he loue 
\)&t {lus spekej) & pus dofie to alle pat iiyw louew . Ben hij uou^th 
grete foies ^at leten his loue & his bhs |)at he haf) disth hem 
to . t)at uo tuuge ue may tellen . ne hert peuchew . ne ei^e seen 15 
{)at letej) - al pis for a htel werldelicli loue here seil) ysaye . 

OCulus^ uoM videt dew* absqwe te . que preparasti 
diiigeMtibMS te . & A.postolus . OcmIms no« videt. 
uec auris audiuit nec i» cor ho»winiS ascewdit &c. 
^ pis loue is |)e ri^th rewle \)at rewlef) {)e liert, 20 

COufitebor tibi iu direcciowe . iri est.in regulacjoMe 
cordis exp/obacione malorMJ» . generac^o qite uon 
direxit cor suuw & uom est creditw* cum eo &c.ff pis 
is J)e ri^lh loue (^at reule}) \)e hert wi|)iuuen pat euere owe to 
ben in worschipp ykept Jiis is {)e seuenl^e dele of t)is book . 2.5 

NOw jchil telleu on of |)e si^ttes \)at seiwt john pe ewangelist 
sei{) in \)e Apocalips . An Angel* seide vn to hym on of 
pe seueu auugels which |)at bare \ie seuew Phioles of goddes 
wral){)e seide to me . Come wi{) me & j schal schewe \ie {)e Lombes 
spouse & his wyf . & he lad me in my gost vp to au hei^ mou«- 30 
tayne & schewed me \)e Cite of jerxsalem comande adoune fmm 
heuene aud it i)adde \)e bri^tnesse of golde, & his li^th semed 

' In tlie iiiargin: ^ with the tirst stroke of the n(?) cut away. 

- leteP : over p a comma-like mark, probably the upper part ot an 
nntinisbed letter. 

* In the marjtin: •' with the last n half cut awav. 

as 

* Angel: the second letter originally m with the last stroke altered 
into g. or possibly Anfiel with a third stroke squeezed in to make Aungel. 

13 



194 Joel Pfihlssou 

as prpciouse stoues of jasjiar k of cristal . i»c it liad a gret wal 
& an hei;, Jiat hadde \>e twelue kywdes of pe childer of jsrael 
\>eie opow writew . And iw }ie Est side |)re ^ates . & to \ie west- 
ward lire ^ates . And to jje north \)re sates . & toward |ie south 
6 \)Te 3ates . And Jje wal of pe cite hadd twelue fouwdement} . & in 
hem vvere twelue names writen of \)e apo^fles . & of J)e lombe . 
And he pat spak ' wip me hadde a ^erd of golde for to mete»» 
pe cite and |)e ^ates . & \)e wai . Aud pe Citee was sqwflre and as 
l)rode as it was longe and he mett pe cite wit) a ^erd of gold 
10 and [le lengl^e of |)e Cite was twelue |)ousau pase aboutew And 
|ie iengfje & pe hei^t & \)e brede ben euene . and he mette pe 
walies an huiidref) & foure & fourty coutes on hei^th of Man & 
of Aungel, 

PAt 1)6 Anugel ledde me seint joliu sei|) to - l^e grete mouw- 
tayne & hei^e forto see |)e spouse of lie lombe bitokne]) 
hem j)at beu {^orou} pe g?-«ee of god in hei^enesse of iyf mowen 
haue knoweynge of \>e glorie & of 1)6 blisse of lioly chirche . 
pat li^th as of preciouse stones of jasper & of cris ^ of iasper & 
of cristal * bitoknet) veHu of holy cliirche l)at is coufermed iu 

20 pe grenehed of pe bileue & iu clenuesse of Baptesrne & iu hete 
of 1)6 werk of schrift . pe gret hei^e wal bitokuel) jesu crist ^at to 
alle is keper . pe . xij . ^ates bitokuel) \)e . xij . apostles . & pe . xij . 
names writew bitoknel) pe . xij . olde faders of pe olde lawe 
patriarkes & prophetes pat p7-opheciede« er \)e apos^les prechedeH ' . 

26 pe \)ve 3ates to pe Estward bitoknet) pe law^e of pe trinite \)at 
was telde vn to \ie jewes of which he was boru of as vu to his 
manhede . pe pre ^ates of \)e soutl) bitoknel) \)e i>rechinge l^at 
was preched to pe sarsines pe l)re ^ates of \)e uort) bitoknej) hem 
pat comew to bileue sipl^ew \\at jesus crist took fiesche and bloiie . 

30 pe l)re ^ates of \)e west bitokuel) pe prechiuge |)rtt liel_y &, Ennok 
schullew prechen & turuen \)e folk to god . J)e brede of lie Cite 
bitokue{) |)e fai{) of jesu crist . ]ie . xij . fouwdeme^t^ l^at l)e .xij^. 

' p. 44G b. 

- to: t partly effaced. 

' of jasper & of cris the last woids in the line. 

* Apparently a large erasure, extending over the whole width of the 
cohimn for nine hnes, from of jasper & of cristal to Pe pre yafes fo pe 
Estirard. 

* Tlie hole, noted above, p. 190, 25 reappears here. 

* xij : on / traces of erasuie. 



Kecluse 195 

names were writew june bitoknef) pe twelue apostles And pe 
lombe bitokne{) \>e . xij . Patriarkes [lat heldeu vp fte fuiji of je^u 
crist t)at in her tyme was to comew pat \>e . xij . aposdes heldeu 
after his comyng . pat is pat we holde uow . pe reed of gold 
bitokuej) holy wrytt in whicb j)e witt of god is & |)at is tokued 5 
by [)e gold . pe mesure of pe citee bitokne() \tat oure lorde ^iuep 
fie law^e in hoiy chirche as vcheou may bere & ordeiude & deuised 
\)e degre iu hoiy chirche |)e which vche Mau owe wel to kepen 
as maydenhode . & ciennesse iu widewehode & ri^thful weddyuge . 
pe foure sides of |)e cite bitokuef) pe stedfast bileue . hope . & 10 
charite . & good werkes . pe more \iat Meu bileue« . pe more meu 
takeu . j)e more pat nen hope« [)e raore sieu loueu . pe more pat 
sieu louen t)e more me« doue iu werk Aud |)is is \>e \eug\ie & 
\ie i)rede & |)e hei^tte j)at ben euen . For by jje leugt)e is bitokued 
\)e longe lastynge vn to his lyues ende . prtt \>e augel mett \)e 15 
wal an hundret) & four & fourty ^ Coutes bitoknej) pe/fecciouw 
iu good werkes after pe ten comandemewtes - of god & \^e 
gospelles t)orou5 which mau come|) to pe»"feccion of aungel & J)at 
is bitokned by pe mesure of Mau & Aungel . 

PE wal is of jaspe?- & \>e cite in hyw self is al gold tried 20 
liche vn to bri^th glas & clene . pe fouwdementi ben sette 
ful of al manere p;eciouse stoues . pe first fouwdemcHt is Jasper . 
pe secouwde Saphire . pe |)ridde Calcedoyne . pe i\erpe Emeraude . 
pe fift Sardouiche . pe sext Sardyue . pe seuen|)e Gristolite . pe 
eiitte}) Beryl . pe nyu|)e Topas, pe tieul^e ('risopas . pe elleueu[)e 25 
•Jacyukte, & \>e twelft^e Amatiste, 

PAt t>e wal is of jaspec & fe Cite of golile bitokne|i hem pat 
schuldew gouernew oper '' iu holy chirche schuldew ben of 
stedfaster bileue and of jjei.ser lyf as t>e jasper is aourued wif) 
gold pat \)e fouwdemewt} of pe Cite werew bisett \\\\i preciouse 30 
stoues bitoknet) pat pe Pa/riarkes werew alfui of gode Vertu; . 
Jasper fat is vertuouse bitokuet) stedfast bileue As Abraham 
was . Saphire |)at haf) }?e colowr of pe ayre bitoknet) hewi \iat ben 
in heije hope as seint Poule was }^at seide \)at oure conuersaciouw 
was in heuene . Calcedoyne [^at hati f^ colowr of gold & wexej) 36 



' p. 447 a. 

' comatidementes : tbe liftli letter looks like h. 

' o/ier: p apparently by correotion. 



196 .Toel Mhlssoii 

\ii ynde bitokue|p lie»! |iat ben in sol^efast t'iii|i & charite k folowen 
|3e wayes of je.*u crist |)at cornet) out of lie est . Jacinlcte Jjat 
chaunget) wi|) pe ayre Ac in briitnesse it is clere & ain\'dward 
derk bitokne]) |)e wise Jiaisters in lioly chirche J)at cu«nen stable 
6 Men \)at ben vnstable Amatiste \iat is a purpre & haj) |)e colour 
medle of violet & of Rose & kastes a flambe fr^ra hyw bitoknel) 
hem f)at han ' Memorie of |)e kyngdom of heuene and desiren 
|)e felawschippes of auwgeis & Martirs & confessowrs & |)ere of 
iiij han J)e eoiour medle as purpre . violet & Rose & putten her 

10 charite to her enemyes and biseche« for hew . And in {)e tueiue 
5ates ben tuelue Margarites And \>q stretes of pe cite ben of gold 
clere as glas . & j ne sei^ no temple in |)e cite . And |)e aungels 
of |)e cite hane no myster of suwne ne of Moone for pe brifitnesse 
of god it li3tte|) & pe lombe is his Lanterne . & \)e folk schal gon 

15 in his ii^th . And fie kynges of ev])e scliult berew in hym her 
glorie & lier honoMre . Aud |)e ^ates ne schutt nou^th be schett 
on ni^th . for l)e»-e ne schal be no ni^tl) ne no foule |)ing ne schal 
come \)ere inne ne non pat make^) foule lesynges ne non bot 
his uame be write» \n \)e book of lif of \>e lowbe, 

20 T^At ^ere ben . xij . Margarites in |)e ^ates bitoknel) hein wliich 
X'^ oper schul comew in to hoi}'^ chirche schul i)en clere of 
ve?-tu3 . pe stretes of pe cite bitoknej) ^ symple folk in holy chirche 
j)at beu abrode i»» |)e werld & han her wyues & her riches . Hi.i 
schutt beu als clene as gold l^orou^ werkes of eliarite pat hi] 

25 schutl comeH to t>orou3 clere vnderstondynge . Hij schutt bene 
clere as glas t^oroui junocence of baptesme . oit^ec t^orou^ verray 
schrift in ri^th bileue . pat he ne sei, no temple \)ere juue bitoknet) 
t)at holy chirche schal haue no myster of orisouMS ne of sacrifise 
whan it is gloritied ne it ue ha^) no * myster of sunne ne of 

30 moone pat is to saie it ne schal haue no^ myster of prechowr . 
ne of prelate forto techen it & kepen it . pat pe mcw schult gon 
in his h^th and fe kynges schutl brynge to hem her glorie 
bitoknet) \)B,t a^ein tie endyng of \)e werlde schal wexe» religiouw 
& schuil forsaken er|ielich blisses for hope of heise blis jiat eue?"e 



' Jian : betweeii « and n traces of era.snie (imssibly of the downstroke 

of;i). 

- p. 447 b. 

' no: the first letter orijrinally iii. tlie last ilownstroke of which has 
been altered into o. 



R^cliise 197 

schal laste . Aud {)e ^ates ne schullew uou^th ben yschett on ni^th 
bitoknej) |)at no IribulaoiouM ne anguisch . ue destourbauwce as 
oure lorde suffred here in |)is lyf . pat no filf)e ne sclial coine 
\>ere ne no« bot his name be writew in |3e book of lyf of pe 
lombe bitoknej) |)at non ue schal entren bot he be clene {)orou5 o 
biode of jesu crist & f)orou5 pe sacremeMt of holy chirehe . And 
bot 5if he haue ordeyude his lyf to je.su crist here in erpe J)at 
was write» for vs opo« {)e croice He schewed me a clere flode 
as Cristal \)&t com out of f)e sege of god & of j^e Lombe Amyd 
pe strete of pe cite . & a bofie halue J)e Flum is pe tree of iyf lO 
{)at berej) fair fruytt ^ & vche mone{)e seldef) his fruyt . And pe 
leues of \)e tre ben to hel{)e of mcu . Aud neue/- after ne " schal 
be uo malisoun . Aud ^e sege of god & of ^e lombe schal be 
jiennne . and his smiauwt^ schull ben seruaude hy»j & hij schutt 
hen in his face . & his name schal be in her forheuedes . And 16 
ni^th ue schal uomore ^ be . And it ne schal haue * no mister of 
li^th . ne of lanterne ne of suwne for Jje lorde god sehal h^tten 
it & hij schuH regnen wij) outeu ende . 

BY \)e Flum of pe water of lyf is bitokned \>e ioye t)nt neue?- 
schal faile . By j^e sege of god bitokne]) halewen porou, 20 
whiclie \te o\)er comeH to grace & to glorie . And J)at is |)at pe 
hlum comej) fram pe sege of god & of pe lombe . By |)e wate/e 
of lyf \)at is clere as cristal bitokne|) \)e glorie For[)i j^at fiorou^ 
water of baptesme it was wunuew to siau . pat o party of \ie 
Hum bitoknef) |)e folk p&t were bifore er cristendom come . And 26 
f)at o\)€r partie \)e nen ))at comen in \)e newe lawe . Aud opoM 
boJ)e parties was |)e tre of lyf for bo[)e Jjat on & ^at oper ben 
saued |)orou5 pe bileue of fte oroice \)at is preched J)orou5 \)e xij 
apos^les . pat it ^eldej) vche * monej) his fruyt . bitoknej) |)at {)orou5 
\)e po/riarkes * & fie prophetes . & \)e apostles iu al tymes were 30 
«u»wme brou^th to J)e ri^th bilene . J)e leues of J)e tre bitoknej) 



' fruytt: y probably by correction. 
' ne : n partly efiaced. 

' nomore: tbe second seems originally to bave been e; r probably 
si|uee7,eil in subsequently. 

♦ hnue: a touched up. 
' tc/ie: vch on erasure. 
' p. »48 a. 



1W Joel Pfthlsson 

\)e coinauwdeiue«t5 of je.vu crist iu [te gospel . t)at beii worjie to 
bel|)e of mea ^if hij beii ykepte Jiat ueue/emore ue .schal be 
uo wariyug in \)e cite bitokne|) l)rtt neue?" after ne schal be uo 
syHue ne pyne for synne pat goddes sege & |)e Lombe schal 
6 ben in Ipe tre . bilokne|) \}at att we schuU beu saued ))orou3 jesu 
crist on pe croice . And none ue may come to bUs i)ot l)ere porou^ 
Aud we beu his semauwt^ & \)ere we schuH s^cueu hym w\\) 
auwgels m\> outew ende . pat he seide hij schuli seen his face & 
his name schal be writen \n her forhede . |)at bitoknel) |)at is 

10 writen in pe gospel l^at is lyf pat euer schal laste . pat he be 
knowen of ' god \)at \s sot^efast je.*us cnst {)at |)0U seutest . And 
iu auo|)er stede it seij) he |)al abow^ej) hym {)oro3 me j schal 
abow^e hytw by fore ray fader in heuew, And t)at is {^at he sei{) 
hij ne schull haue no mister of li^th ne of lanterne ne of sunne 

16 as it is seide bifore . And |)e Aungel seide me l)ise wordes ben 
ri^th so|)e write hem . And ^e lord god of spirit^ j)at sent his 
aungels to his prophetes . forto schewe to his seruau/it^ [ling \)at 
sone most be doue . & stoude l)ou j coine hastilich . blissed he is 
p&t kepe\) \)\se wordes & \)e prophecie of l)is boke . Aud . j . jon 

20 after pat j hadd herd pis fel adouue forto honourew l)e aungel 
t)at hadde scbewed me pis . Aud seide to me loke t^at \)0U ue do 
it uou5t for ich am goddes seruauwt astow art . JO\'e & bhs schal 
be to hew l)at kepew |)ise wordes of \)\s boke & worschipen god, 
What it wolde meneM may raeu sone vnderstonden by |)«t |iat 

26 is seide bifore & |)erfore j nyl nou^th rehercen it . And seint jon 
.seif) iu \)at oite schal come none houwdes . \)at beu mysbileuand 
Men l)at done as pe houwde dofje . whau he b&\) eteu to myehel 
he caste^) it & gop a^eiw & etep it . So done mysbileuand Meu 
schryuew hem & resceyuem jesu crist & holdew euere forj) her 

30 sywue . pise ue schull uou^th comen iu l)at cite For hij beu wers 
l)au o\\)er jewe oil^e*- Sara^eue and greuew - god wel more . ue 
MHusleers . ue lei^ers '^ . oit^er \)0 pat dien liere in dedlich sjmne . 
hij ue come nou^th iu \)nt oite . ne non bot ^if he entre in by 
tie 5ates . pat is bot ^if he do as holy chirciie biddel) hywi he ue 

:i5 may neuer come t^ere june . 



' of: f blotted. 

' y)x'uen added above the line. 

^ lei-^ers: under the first e a dot, probably accidental. 



Recluse 199 

NOw to Jieii & wy?«nien jjat ben bischett hij ne schulleM beu 
j'houseleti bot fiftene sifjes in |)e ^ere . at md wy«te?-day . 
|ie . xij . day . candehues day . jie sonewday niydway bitweue jjat 
& estre oi^er opou oure lefdy day ^if it be nen \tat soue«day . 
estre day fie [irid soueMday \>ere after . holy [lursday . wytsoueM- 6 
daj' . Jiidsoinerday . seiwt irarie day |)e Maudeleyn ' . pe assu»«pciouH 
of oure iefdy . pe natiuite of hir . seint Jii^^els day . alle Halewen 
day seiwt andrew day . A^ein alle j^ise dayes bej) clene schriuen 
it take{i disciplynes of ioure sekie» and of none o|)er . & forgoji 
30ure pitau/ice a day frnm ester to boly pursday . Ju heruest lO 
etef) ilche day |)ries bot friday one & yiubryng dayes . & vigiles • 
pe goyng dayes ne in \\e adueut ne scliult ie nou^ti) bot nede 
it niake ete twies, 

PE o\>er half ^ere ^e scliuit fasteu al out bot seue?« daies & 36 
ne schutl ete uo fiesch bot sekeuesse it make . bot 30 haue 16 
leue ne faste|) uou^th to bred & watere . aud suwme ancres maken 
her boord wift her gestes & |)at is mest a^eins ancres ordre & 
vncomeHch . uen han ofte herd ^at pe ded spak wi\> |)e quyk . 
Ac {)at hij eten \\i\) hem haue meu nou^th herd of . Hij ue schutt 
make uo gestenywges . for it wolde oi\>er wliile ietteu hem of 20 
lieuewlich {)0U3ttes . Hij han chosen Maries dele J)e Maudeleyu & 
^eriore hij owen to ^iuew her liertes to no[)iwg bot to god . And 
3if any blamej) hew god wil weren liem as he dude |)e Mavde- 
leyn . ^if liij liau rentes to lyuew by . sende liij |)an out her almes 
priuelich . Bestes ne schutt hij none lml)beu bot a oat . ne cliaf- 26 
faren ne schutt hij nou^th ne next ^oure fiesche ue were{) no 
lynuen clo{) bot it be \)e grettere . Ne werej) uon * yrne ne haire . 
ne betej) 30U nou^th wi|) scourges bot it be wip schriftes red . 
Kepe}) 30U warme in wynter & do{)e grete werkes . ne gadere[) 
uo|)ing to hoord of no rynges ne brooches ne non o\ter J)ing . 30 
pe gretter werkes pat ^e don \>e better it is . And ^if ^e niay 
lyue by ^oure werk ne spendej) non o|)er while {wit it lastej) . 
bot sende|) it for[) as it come|) and be\) nou housbonde ne hous- 
wyf to holde no|)ing . ^iue 30U al to ^oure lemman Jereiuye biddej) . 
ne be ^e neuer ydel . ne lerne|) noue children . ne sende|) none •ib 
lettres . ne vnderfongej) none lettres . be|) ypoUed iu l^e ^ere fiftene 



' Mauldelei/n : p. 44i< b. 

' «011 : the lirst n prohably by correction. 



200 Joel Pfthlsson 

si|)es . «& roure si|)es yleten l)lo(le aiid orter ^if it is nede . Aud 
whan se ben vleteH blode pve dayes restej), For better is rest o 
day oil)er two . J)an a seuewui^tli for niys^eniyuge of ^oure seluew . 
And |)au takej) v/i]) ^oure seruauwt & glade|) 50U . Ancre |)at ua{) 
6 uou-,th to libben by . it nedet) |)at hij han two seruaunt} . on at 
home ano|)er oute . & by pe waye as hij gou . ne done hij nou^th 
bot biddeu her bedes . ne ne si)eken hij to nomau by [^e waie 
bot {)ider {)at sche is sent go . ne takej) not)iug to holde of uomaM 
ne of no wowraan . ue noit)er of tje sej-uauwt} ue ' bere non 

10 vncout) tales t)at mi^th auy tjing stireu her hertes, ^ iram god 
vvard . ne he]^ nou^th lei^ynge ne lokyng to noinan ward . ne 
geuep nou^th soure dame . And ^if 56 do 1 be^) redy to take 
peuauHce . perfore ^if any stryf ariset) bitwixe t)e jiaidens . chastise 
hem louelicli . & li^thlich for ^at is wowmans chastisywge, and 

16 selde whau wij) steruesse . & |)«t ^at steruesse be meuged al ' 
wit) loue . as Men done iu to a wouude bot^e wyn & oyle ac more 
of {le swete oyle \)sm of t)e bitter wyue . Mete & drynk taket) i» 
Mesure & at certeyn tyme . Aud al t^at se done look pat it be 
euere in mesure for elles ne quemel) it nou^th god Hyre ne owe 

20 pe Maydeu uom to chaleugen ne mede bot of god & eueryche 
weke oues redet) f'*^ ^'^0'^ ^ '* ^^''^ '^^ 3°'^ S^^*^ more tian ^e 
badd -,oure bedes . For in \ns book 56 mowe knowen ^oure de- 
fautes wel better l^an iu biddyng . And t)e ofter pat 36 reden it 
\)e more 30 mowe lerne t)ere inue . For pere ben jnue mauy 

25 wordes t^at ben schortlich seide & berew * gret charge And mychel 
t)ing may ben vnderstonden pere by ^if it be often yloked ouer 
k bysilich, And god for his mychel mi^th n)y leue breperen and 
sustren ^if it be his swete wilt, ne iiue 30U uo lesse hyre \)im a! 
hym seluew Amew, 

30 A r)d 5if it be ^oure wille als oft as 36 it redeu . oit)er heren 
JTjL seiet) a pater nos^er to oure lorde . and an Aue Maria to 
his moder Marie, for hyw fat it drou^e out in to t)is langage 
and for alle l)at it heren . oit^er reden '" . o\\)er writeM oit^er doue 



' ne added above the line. 

» p. 449 a. 

' al added above the line. 

* beren squeezed together at the eml of tbe line. 

° r-edeu on ei-a.iure(?) 



Recluse 201 

writeu . and for al cristen folk . & for alt cristen soules J)at god 
y\f it be his suete wille haue mercy ou hew for his dere Moder 
loue Amen, * 

" pis good booii Reciuse : here now inakej) ende . ' 
Vn to fie blis of lieuew ; god gmunte v.v * gmce to wewfie. 8 

' Ou an empty space, large enough for about three lines. between 
Ameii and the colophon. in the XVIth century hand; the passion; 
Caiilid the complainte of oure Lady , referring to the following 
pieee. 

' The two line.s of verse connected by a stroke. 

' MS.: f? 



NOTES 



14 



1. S. For ijconietrifitim read (/eomririium: tor tliroloi/iiim, tlnii- 
liii/ii iiiii. — i. tliinJiiijio for theoliiijico. — 8, 9. j5e ri^th loiicii pr . 
Ilij liiii ri-yth fiit lyuen after riyth reule: Mx".s reading ip. 2.7) aud 
rranslation of the passage i.s wrong; cf. K, My: peo ^e riht Iniirit 
pr . p beod riht Peo . pet libltrd eftrr riwlc: 'those who love thee 
rightly. are just those who live according to a nile": C pe linirct 
rftrr riicle, whereas B pe hiuiect efter riwle, V pat louep after rulr 
which are less satisfactoiy readings. — 13. knooat: X i'2.ll\ l.nolfr. 
I! rnost, C rnoste My. who remarks in a foot-note: ■Cnost is doulitless 
the ti-ue reading, though the word seems not to have been hitherto 
reeorded." In Sc. Icnoost •lump" (EDD.), as in LG. knost, Du. knorst 
•knot, knar". we find. however, a form exactly corresponding to this, 
liy ablaut related to Scand. knast •knot'. Another ablaut-form {*knus < 
*knu} of the same root is represeuted bj' OE. mossian, rnyssan. For 
fiu-ther particulars see Falk-Tokh. Etym. Ordbog, s.v. Knast, Knuse: 
Fraxck, Etym. Woordenboek, s.v. Knoest : Pebssox. Beitr. z. indog. 
Wortf., I. '2'2. The meaning of the word, then, in mx opinion is 
uot quite •bruise' (Myi, but •knot, vmeveiuiess, roughness" as eon- 
irasted with euenr P, efne x smettr X. — dope of potr-,th inwip: cf. 
-V 2.1 li iriitute knotte 7 dolke of woh iniiit j of icreinde iicrcynde C). 
The reading of P. as it stands, is an error, either of the eye or of 
the" ear, on the part of the scribe (manj- of his blunders make me 
<lisposed to think that, in places at least, he wrote from dictationi, 
For the unusual dolk •ulcer, wound" (there is only one more Lnstance 
iu .Strat.\i.-Br. and NED. : Gen. & Ex. 3027j he substituted f/((^r: «/ 
/'•()// he i^endered as of powyth. and changed the rest accordiuKly: 
iiiicip I take as an error for inicit (cf. 1. 18 belowi. It seoms, 
liowever. not improbable that the passage, rendered in this way, 
conveyed some vague meaning to the copyist and there may be some 
dim association with the vb. ofpenrhen •to grieve, i)e sorry, repent.' — 
14. oiper icise ne mai/ it nou}th hrn cf. p. 3.10. — 16. iis if 
oii-ylh to donc no doubt misplaced; cf. „Y (2. 12) pis nis nout (K) ibcf 
\rl al sc wel (al se tcel as C) hit ouhte. — 2U. iustam lia a senseless 
i.iimder: cf. Ps. XXXV. 11 ("^'ulg., ed. Hetzkxaver, 190G): Prte- 
tende misericordiam tuam scientibus re, & iustitiam tuam his, i|ui 
recto simt corde. 

2. 3. For noui read boni. — iilthiinomasite: My has arthiino- 
masiir. This may be the correct reading: the scribe evidently had 



20(; Joel PAhlsson 

iio notioii of wliat lip c'oj)ieil aml tlio sccond letter ancl tiie last Iput. 
one certainly lonk more like t than anythinp else. Mv takes the 
word, spelt difterently in the various MiSS., to be antinuimnsire •]>pr 
antonoinasiani." — 4. Jsti dicinifiir read Istis diritur. — 5. tvstimiiiiiu 
for tistimoiiio. — 7. omiirs : omniu X(4. 3i. — 8. nisi : preter X (4. 4i. — 
1 I . The couimn after lioirr sliould be jilaced before the word. — dri//,rn 
a scribal sli]) for dry/cen; cf. j). hd.S. — 13. r.rcrcicio Tea,d.r.rrrciluciir. 
cf. 1 Timothy, IV. 8: Nam corjjoralis exercitatin, ad modicum vtilis 
esf ... — 14. For rerti ^frrliumiti read rrrtu mrrhuniii. — 15. ifeomrtrio 
for i/romctrico. — 17. The second und sliould jjerhajis be left out. 
The line is quite different in X (4.11). — 18 ff. Tlie ]iassa{res 
which foUow are very much changed as compared witli .V. in sonie 
jiarts they are abridged, in others enlarged, and the context has 
accrirdingly siiffered considerably, For iis (21), ac seems to make 
better sense. — '25. This is evidenth- a misconception of the originai: 
cf. X (4.20) pet is, aUr muwrn 7 owrn liolden one riirlr onont piirrte 
of heorte. The reviser carelessly rendered onoiit by und 011 and 
instead of •jmrity' evidently got 'jsnrt. external behavinur." The 
follnwing joassage, p. 2.25 — JJ. 3.2. is an insertinn bv the reviser. — 2H, 
30. J)e — he such inconsistencies in the constructinn are j)retty 
cnmmon throughout. 

3. 2. iinvip rf' wip oiite does not mak^ very good sense: cf. 
-A' 1 4. 21 1 prt is (sc. piircte of heorte). cleune, schir inwit. widatr iritr 
of sunne. — 5. Forto ri^^thtrn hir etc. should apparently be connected 
with (/0 (t amende it wip sehri/ft [i]: the jjassage, however, has been 
changed from the original Itihtrn hire 7 smectrn hire is of eurh rrli- 
f/iun, 7 of efrirh ordrr pr i/od. 7 ul pr strrnr/dr N i4. 241. Thus 
pr f/oode cC- uU pe sfrrni/pr has quite got out of place. To restore 
the context something might be supplied before it. e. g.. (("• is prrrof. — 
14. It wonld seem most appropriate to take hirr as referriug 
somewhat indefinitely to a person (: the recluse): cf. X (6.6) pe 
rflrr riwle, (tet ich piiften cleopede . . . nis for nopinf/ elles istold (K) 
tiufc forfe scruie cte inre . pef niaheS fesfcn, leakicn etc. — 25. .sehriftes 
here evidently has the sense of 'shrift. confession", owing to a 
misimderstanding of the original schrifte X lO.ie) •confessor, shrift- 
father.' — - seruuunies, seriien (27); the sense required by the context 
seems to be 'one who ministers to the spiritnal needs of a jierson". 
There are, however, no exactly analogous examples either under 
8ervant or Serve in NED, The sense which seems tn aj)proximate 
raost closely to that required here is 'to j)erform the duties of lan 
office, cure of souls, etc,)'; cf, Serve 14, Servant 4c: but to judge 
from quotations in these sections, the word is used in this passage 
in a more restricted sense, 

4. 1. 2. //// — hcr — hym a usual lack of consistency. — 
2. oipcr on pis «■(/.•>'?: something seems to be missing there: cf. -V 18. 2) 
Si(/f/e so monic isc. Ijcoden). 7 hwuchc wisc sc hco eucr wule. We 
may perhaj)s suj)ply oipcr on put. — 3. Ar rhuritr etc. The passage 



Recluse 207 

is i-hangefl an<t additional matter (5 — 8i introduced: thus the context 
has been confused. the first sentence being left imfinished. Cf. X 
(8.6 ff. I — 12 ff. The reviser has abtireviated the original so as to 
frive his version a more geueral application. After smiinr il.Si a 
semi-colou, after w (14) a full stop. — 15. iikiiiii/ a scrilial slip for 
iiiinii/. — K;. s<'iiif .taiiies ordrv: McX.\bb. Tlie Mod. Lang. Review, 
XI. 4 connects this \\-ith the denomination of the Doiaiuicans. the 
.Jacobites. See Mx"s Preface p. X. — 17 ff. These lines are sense- 
lessly altered and coufused: cf. N (8.22 ff.); po i/ii(iffc folnirrp [>r 
f/isrhr a nonsensical rendering of the original stiiii . . . pc isiliiJ priir 
ijiirf 1 stcofmcrS pe rliy: occurring again. somewhat differently put. 
]'. :'>.26. After is ciOi a full stop. — 23 ff. In order to make tlie 
)iassage read. something should l)e .supplietl after the second Jjn/. 
e. g. II iiiiin. There is evidently a gap. the scribe having possiMy 
lieen led astray by the phrase hrlprii iridrircn 7 fedrrleiisr rhifdmi 
iHiun-ing twice in the text he copied: cf. N (^10.3 and 10 1. 'Y^vlh 
tlie first part of the original argument has been left out aud the 
second |30: And Jje laste deel sc. of St. James" sayingi .stands without 
li'gical crnnection. - — 32. A guderyng — h-rjje hyni froni .'•irirh 1 5.231 
an inserfion by the reviser. making. the context still more confiised. 
5. 4. 5. The word erased has probably been the suliject of 
rlie clauses: there may have been some hesitation between hr and 
s<hr. — 11. iii ]je blisse of heue evidently caught from the line above. 
The scritie seems to have become aware of his mi.stake as he left 
liiiie unlmislied. The context would require something to tliis effect : 
lie must take upon him a greater part of work. of the trouliles of 
tlie world: cf. ..Y p. 94.15. — 12. iriir should lie supplied after «/«//: 
/(///// before .•irliien. — 14. Heriditine pe deiiel: cf. XED.. s.v. Meri- 
dian. a. 1 b: •Mrridian deril: transl. of Vulg. dirnioniiini inrridiiuKiiii Ps. 
X(/[I]. for which the Eng. Bible has -the destruction that wasteth 
ar noonday"". In the only two exaui]iles given (from 1550) — and 
I have not been able to find a similar use of the word elsewhere — 
it is used as an adj. In this instance it must obviously be taken as 
.1 proper name. a denomination of the devil. Thus. pe deiiel meridiiin 
adj.) has l)een changed into yieridiane (s.). j5/' deiiel. Cf. j». 111.17. — 
Hi. The .Scriptural reference is to 2 Corinth.. XI. 14. — IG— 18: 
prrr hen fvo inanere of iri/iiinien etc: these lines. strikingK- out of 
keeping with the rest of the argument. may tie a reminiscence of 
tlie original (iode rrlii/in.ie hrnit i pr iror/dr. siiinnir nonie/iehr jirrlas 
- treoiee jirerhurs iK\: pr (K) ha///irct pe roriiir do/r of Jirf .iriiif lanie 
.■<ride, which occurs in an altogether different contexi ; cf. A'(10.6ff.). 
The simplest way of reading the jiassage would tie to consider perr 
/irii (1(J) . — in heaene (18) as a remark added liy the way and loose- 
ly fitted into the context; then the thread is resunied agaiu at 
And yf he. he referring to any niun (!>). Or else it may l>e as.sum- 
imI that something has lieen omitted to which paf /leu frrirr jnr- 
fatrs etc. immediately refers. — 23. 24 repeated from ]>. 4.;10 ff. - - 



208 Joel PAhlssoii 

//('/;; aceiilentnlly rppcnted. — 24 — "2(1 fhaniiefl and ]>artly cor- 
rupterl frnin the nrifrinal piis pr (qwsUf sciiit Jiimi' desnriiirit rrlii/iini 
7 nrilrr: >ii>iij)rr liirit >ir lihir >ir iirm»r(t lir i>i liis iirilrr. iisr »iii>ii 
J/r/ it<ili(7 J)r»r ijurt j sinijiimrit J)r rliy. J)rf is. miikrit >»iiilirl sfrruritr 
J)rr iis is liifrl N (10.17), fhe jmrport nf the last line iieing: -whn 
attaeh great importance to trifle.s' (lit. 'attach great \vei<iht where 
little is"). not as Mx renders it: 'exert much strength where little is 
reciuired". — '2i>. Pniilr J)r firsl iniVlirh iiinn: the first known exaiu])U^ 
nf tlie eremitic life i^roi^er is that ot' St. Paiil, whn.se hinu;ra])h3' was 
writtcn hy St. Jernme. He hegan aliout the year '250. The Cath. 
Encycl. — 27. For Arrsi»r read Arsrnir A' (10.20). "Arseuius. saint.ancho- 
ritc. h. -i.^a. at Rnme: d. 450. at Trne. in Efryiit'. The Cath. Encyd. 
AA. SS. Boll. 1!). Jul. — Miilir>-i/»r: .Y has J////,y//-(V': but the readin-r 
ol our text obvinusly stands for Miir>-i>iii. 'thc name of two saiuts. 
prandmother and jrrauddaughter. They l)elonjj;ed tn the family nf 
the. great Cappadncian Fatliers. Sts. Basil aud (xregory of Nyssa": 
cl. The Cath. Eneycl.. s.v. ilacrina. T!ie reference is evidently 
to St. Macriua the Youngcr. Ii. abouf H:S(): d. 37!i. AA. S8. Bnli. 
l!i. Jul. — Siirr: "s. Sara abbatissa Scefi in Libya i saec. lY fin.) 
in AA. SS. Bnll. 13. Jul.: Potth.\st. Bibl. Hist. Medi"i .Evi. p. 1562. — 
Siiirlrfiir: 'Syncletica sacrarum virg. autistita sub Constautino 
Magno . . . AA. SS. Boll. 5. Janr.": ibid.. ]). 1589. — 31. (imlilrs 
siiiiiisr siffrj) lii/ lii/m srliirii luiil si/iii/rji a senseless rendering of the 
original Cmlrs s/msr siii(/r{t lii liirr siiliini Y (10.26'). — 34. Iiliikr: 
Y (10.30) liiidr. referring fo lnrifr njrr hlukr. which makes better 
sense. 

6. 3 ff. In these lines the oi-iginal lias again been aliridged 
and fhe logical connection destroyed. Cf. Y'(l'2.2ff). The argument 
there is as follows: religion is a matter of life. not of dress. Whei'e. 
liowever. many live together. as iu a conveut. imifnrmity in cx- 
ternal matters .should be significant of harmony in love and will: 
ancliorites or hennits. living by themselves. need nnt trnuble much 
aiiout onfwnrd tbings. This the passage. as it stands, altngether fails 
to bring out. It may be read in the following way: after ordrr (3) 
a fuU stoj). affer //•;'/ and Cniiriif (5) a comma. after »iiii\fli (Ui 
a semi-colnn. — 10. Vulg. (Micah, VI. 8): — requiraf — & dili- 
gere misericordiam, & solicitum ambulare etc. — 16 — 22. Au inscr- 
tion. — 18. jKir (ispidis read pni-ajmdis. — 21. nirikrii firir is. I 
siij^jinse. analngnus tn phrases such as fo >»nl;r frrr. i/lnd, etc. 
(XED.. s.v. Jfake (iit). fiiir meaning 'free frnui mnral staiu, .spntless. 
uniilemished' (XED.. s.v. Fair !!): 'whn make an outward show of 
righfeousness. holiness'. — ponirs inay be nn nllusion to the jm- 
rnble of the sower, Matt., XIII. 4: cf. /'//// (//' fliornrs <('■ lirrrs of 
si/inirs. Hamjjole. Psalter XXXII. 12 (NED.. s.v. Thnru 4 c). dr 
elsc it is ])erhaps meant as a rendering nf jnir iispidis (sicl) whiili 
nmy hnvo been vagtiely nssnciated with ns/irr nnd contrasted witb 
/'(///■ iii tbc spusc of -smonth. even' (XED., s.v. S c). - 22. /"/// "/' 



Hfoluse 209 

sliould perhaps be supplied hetore rohn. — "23. ircn-p: BC werieit 
(My) (which means. not -keeps herself froin doing' (Mx. p. 13, foot- 
note). but 'wears"): i\' (12.22) wviicit is evidently a scril>al error. — 
•24. II sfolv obviou.sly to be read iis Mr: cf. iisr toli: li. ti>l C (sloss- 
ed loiiiv) (My). .iN' (12.23) iisv a svdolv. Mx in his glossarial index 
puts a mark of interrogation after svdolv: in his translation it is 
renilered by -instrument" (probably from C). This seems to be the 
seusf rei|uired. We might accorclingly take the reading as an ir- 
regular way of writing uav asv dolv (Mn foot-note); (i,fv anv would then 
either be used as an equivalent to itlso nsv pp. 31). 9, 100.29, 118,1 etc. 
oi- would be nierely one of the pretty numerous instances of ditto- 
graphy in the MS. (pv pv ior pv ]>. \(i\.^. pvini pvoiidomv ior Pvimdotiiv 
ji. 21S.28, liiil liuldvti for lioldvn p. 430.18. etc.): dolv may be a scri- 
bal error for tolv. or else it is in foi-m and sense related to the moderu 
doinl -a pin. peg. or bolt .... serving to fasten together two pieces 
of wood. stone. etc.': cf. NED.. s.v. (f/o/c 18th cent.: earliest quot. 
c. 1340). See also EDD.. s.v. However. after all, svdolv might 
be taken — by a scribe at all events — to meau somethiug like 
•fnundation. platform" (-a platform. foundation to build (be built) toward 
this end"): OE. svtl etc. Bosw.-T: svdvl Sweet: NED.. s.v. Settle 4: 
ELID.. s.v. sb*: cf p. 166.16. — 28. first: X roniiv. C arrv. — 30./i.sr 
jiiirtivs an error for the singular: referring to the second part only. 

7. 1. "/ iiiativrv fiipvs evidently a misconception of otivs huniivs 
fiiuvlvs iV (14.9). — 7. as should preferably be omitted or else ex- 
clianged for «/ or atid. — 11. irip pv rvrsrtt: sc. Emitte Spiritum tuuni: 
/'• orisoiiti: sc. Deus qiii coi-da (fidelium) X (16.3). — icip rp hvuv- 
oiidr hoiidvti <(• vi-ifetr. X (16.1) ttiid iqi uhvuitidv vivii 7 hotidvn, li 
iiji ahvuvtic vhtivti, C uji hvuviiv evhnvn (My): cf. Ro p. 108. — 18 ff. 
irhaii •■,v cotiivn tofortic an uuterv strangely changed from tlie original 
Priiihvct ■(! (rodvs flvsrhs X on his hlod ^vt is oucr ^v hvic trvouvdv X 
(16.10). — H'. }if V huuv — <</' vrpr (21 1 a parenthetical addition of 
the reviser"s. The Scriptural allusion is to Exod., XX. 24. — 27. Cf. 
(T.\s(^rET. The Niin's Riile. p. 327. 

8- 6. X (18.3) iiiiscrvrv nostri ijui jhissus vs. — 10. J)v ojtrr 
fi/ur : fi/uv should perhaps be left out or changed to fourv. — 13 ff. 
Aiid pvrv aficr grvtrp ourr Ivfdij etc: X (18.14) pvr cflcr wvndvit 
oii to rrc Lvnfdi onlictivssc. 7 cneoleS tiiid fif uuvz : u Inst to pc otjcr 
iiiilirncssvs {imuf/vs C), 7 to oicvr rclikvs rnvoleS. opvr lutcd etc. The 
alteration — not improbably due to a wish on the jiart of the reviser 
ti. avoid the olmo.xious idea of worshipping images and relics — has 
nof consistently been carried through, the grammatical correctness 
as well as the logical sense thus being destroyed; to (14), in the 
original dependent on vnvolcct opvr lutvd. could not — either from ihe 
]>oint of view of construction or of sense — very well be used with 
i/rvlvp: po halvivvn (15) has come to be rather isolated and rtito pv 
autrr (16) eapecially so. The simplest way to make the passage rend 
would l>e to supply knvlcp oipvr loulvp before to (14), these verbs 



■210 Joel I^fthlsson 

lioiiijz apiilicablc bolli Ui tlie iolliiwiiifi jjo liahwni ainl jji (iii/ir: 
iinniiUch (not 'naniely' (Mx), Init 'especially'] niight be inserted after 
And (15). — '2fi. d- should probably be lelt out ; A' (18.27) lias »•/ 
tis icord, Venitc ndorenms; cf. Ps. XCIV. G. — 29. & eiirnicli 
tjide : N (20.3) ; to J)c coUeiti' of eueriih iide. — 30. tci]) oiifeii o 
psalnie doubtless a uiisunderstanding of the original; N (20.4.5) 7 it 
te laste aers uictiite» on (biiten an C) of J)i)>se salnie, Benedinte etc: cf. 
Daniel. III. 57 ff. (the last verso Imt one (H!i): rVinfitemiiii Doniinn. 
i|iioniam bonus: quoniani in sifculum niispricni-ilia eius). -- H4. Tlie 
second cf- not in N (20.i;j). 

9. 1. att a mistake for et (Qui . . . incarnatus est de Spiritu 
sancto, ex Maria Virgine, & homo factus est. Symb. Conc. Constant.): 
iind shouhl be left out; similarly Idssep pe erpc: after erpe a fiiU 
stop. — 2. his somewhat illogical for lier. — 4. hoti/ roode t/ide: 
the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, 14. Se])tember [N efter 
(20.20) is obviously a scribal eiTor for vster). — 5. Ijii forpe read /<//- 
for pe. — 6. it sc. Pretiosa: cf. N (20.2:i). — 7 ff. The passage 
has been completely changed by the reviser, who proliably cared 
little about the minute liturgical directions. As it stands. it gives a 
tolerable sense. although one differing widely from the original; cf. 
N 20.23 ff. (My). — 11. tvhtin }e eten twies as comiiared with the ori- 
ginal versions, has got quite out of place; it belongs to tlie in.strnc- 
tions about the proper time for Nones (cf. (t.^squet. Engl. Monastic 
Life, pp. 147, 150- f.) — 12. Ariscp oipcr lcnelep: N (22. 1) iiri.-<en 
iip {rungen vp C) 7 hmcen. — 15. And iifter Preiiosii etc: N (22.6) 
Vroni pet, efter Preciosa, B eft froni incer eonipiie upet eftrr /iretio.-m, 
<J From initcer eonpelin octii jireeiosa (My). BC evidenth- give tlie 
better readings, Compline being the last service of the day and 
Pretiosa the beginning of the second part of the Office of Prime. — 
Vf y maij — liis Moder iiaric (17) an addition in P. — 18 ff. greatly 
altered as compared with the earlier versions (cf. N 22.7 tf.) and 
evidently ratlier confused. After after (18) 3Tati/n.s slioulil iiossibly 
be supplied, Placebo (Ps. CXIV. 9) being 'the fir.st word in the Office 
of Vespers for the Dead and so used to denote the whole office' 
((ta.squet. The Nun"s Rule, p. :-527); Virif/e (Ps. V. 9) -the first word 
of the antiphon at Matins in the Office of the Dead. used as a name 
for that service'. However, it is sometimes extended to include the 
Evensong (Placebo). (NED.). — 19. feste of i.r lessons: 'On semi- 
doubles and all higher feasts (Simdays are semi-doubles) there are 
fhree nocturns, each with three lessons. Such days are the festa 
noreni leetioniini. The Cath. Encycl., s.v. Lesson. — 27. After 
■•<itfande we should no doubt supply pe psalnies: A" (22.18). — pe senen 
lisalmcs 'i. e. those called the Penitential Psahns: Ps. VI. XXXI. 
-XXXVII, L, CI, CXXIX,CXLII" (CUsqiet, The Nim"s Rule. 11. 328). — 
29. pe /iftene jisalnies 'otherwise called the '(Tradual Psalms". They were 
ilivided into (hree divisions: (1) Ps. CXIX— CXXIII: (2) Ps. CXXIV— 



I 



Recluse 21 1 

CXXVlll: (o) Fs. CXXIX- CXXXIU": ibid. — 30. ««>■;■ irlia» y 
luiiiij) — lonii/iifjif in fo pc Tcniph- (p. lU.l) added bv the reviser. 

10- 17. iis ■;»' lirn fire Prrsunes in o i/od anii as etc: L iis y 
liiacT priii aii '-,11(1 . riilsica y licoit an iiiilifc . an icisdoni . , an liiar. 
IIC as y hroH prco an godd alsira y Itroct nn niildc [asc . . . asn-a . . . 
iiiirhte) (My): X ('•^t'-!) "'•■>"" 3'' P>'''" '"'"«7 '> (rod, 7 o niihte, o iri.idoni. 
- o htiir. — 18. of erroneously tor o. — pat: L peah. li ptih, 
C pach. N {'2H.2) taah : the whole passage is confused. — '20. yitr nie 
II rralr in pisr prc pinijes a misimder.standing of the original reading, 
prilr lieing evidently misread or misunderstood as rrith; (NED. latest 
(luotation from 1225): cf. L yof nic an (clinihti}, yd prilr nn prro 
hadrs ptes ilcc prro thinys: X (2t>.4) yf inc on alniihti God etc. (not 
as Mx renders it: •Give me grace. Ahnighty trod : in.spire into me, 
ye three persons, these same three things' etc, but : 5//' nir, on al- 
niiliti (-iod (imus omnipotens Deus) etc; cf. C yf nie pii an alniihti 
ijod Prilr In prco liades peos ilkc prco pinges (My). — 21. iristloni 
firto l.noirc pc . louc <(■ tcille forto dmttc pe : /> inihte pe to pcmrian . 
iri.sdonir ^r to ctcemian . Iiiac 7 iril to don liif, li niihte fotic srriti J)c . 
tci.^idoin fortc ciccinc ])c . Imtr 7 tcil to don liif: cf. A' (20. 5). — 23. al 
pat pr lccurst is: LB aa. — as pou art floure of al gotiilencsse . And 
also tcissc its etc: X as Pu cart fullc of eurh yid . ralsira nis ntin 
yid ironnr. B as pu art ful of riirh god . alswa nis na go[d/ icone: 
c(. X (2H.S). — 25. yete: LB ytti: X (2(3.10) yttr -grant" < OE. 
griitan, geetan. gi-tan: in is probably due to confusion •with the ME. 
verb < OE. geiitan -pour'. which would be identical in form. — 
Hl. OH ripr: the other versions read nit hirc (sc. rodr). - — This tran- 
sitive use of hleddesf seems rather s<riking and it would be tempting 
t(i add another on (pat pon on (: ofi on erpe(l) blcddc.ft). The 
other versions. however. all have the same reailing: L for pas glra 
fif ininilas Jir pii on hirr hlrddrst. B for pc ill.c fif icundrn pc pu 
pTc. A' (2<i.lti) uor pro ill.r uif irundm pet tu etc. — 31. 32. ing hlndg 
siiiilr pal iih iiin icip gicoundcd: after soule i.s an omission : cf. // of 
calle pa sgnnas p hro iy iciit yirundod. B of allc pe sunnen pct ha is 
iritt iirunilrt. X (2(i.20) of allr pr irunden Pet heo is inidr iirundrd^. 

11. 3. crhon no doubt an enor, possibly of the ear; Lp ic hant 
iiin/, hirhlirn (B halihen). — 5. j5o/ irh niote in heni slejien or tcakcn 
is liardiy correct : cf. i jB ic dralc in hant slepe ir oit trariy (B irh 
iiitrr irakir): similarly ^V (28.4). — 8. heienessrs: L fcdiyigs.srs, 
l!X (2H.7) radinc.i.^ics. — [K Cf. Ts. CIII. 30: Emittes spiritum tuum 
iV creabuntur. — 15. After liote no stop: after hrrrhc a semi-cojon (Mx"s 
puuctuation should presumably be changed thus: after -lireaches" a 
colon. afrer -Lord' no stop: siuiilarly in the following passages). — 



' It may be noted that Mn'8 interpretation of the following line is not 
correct. N 26.21 should be translated thiis: "... through my tive senses; in 
remembrance of them (sc. the five wounds) (and) that it mav be so, dear 
Lord, (l say; flve Palernoster!»' etc. 



212 Joel Paiilsson 

li'. lii Jjr iiiirsiliifji iif jjir lunlr cli-.: /, fnr Jjr irurd' }uiry itiu irisf 
iif Jjilie Iwriilfcn (Ijjii.stoltis. /{ Jjr irurcti/uiiffr ilirsu rrist iif pinr lirms 
iijiiistlrs: cf. X (-28.22). — 22. irritrf): LH irritrit. N [;M).\) iritnrit. - 
24. Vi. X ['M).:\] K.iiiuili nus Drus .taluliiris nnstrr. rl iiimstiilurum 
liiiiriiiii iiiis tiirrr /irfrsiiliis. ctc. — 25 ft'. diflereut in the earlier 
ver.sions: cf. jV (iiO.e): similarly // (HEr.SER). Note tlie cnrre.s])onflence 
witli the heginninfi of the i^receding passage, j)Os.sihly dne to con- 
fnsinn. — 2il. H(l nn ndditirin liy tjip revisor. - - r5(> ff. niuch chanfred 
ns compared with thc orij;ini;l : cl. .V (H2.1 ff.) whorc it comes n{'u-v 
the ue.xt passajre. 

12- 2. It seems ap]n'oi)riatc to insert Jtiit l)efore i/oil. - 
«. ijiidsjirtlrrs : LB !/i)(l(d).sprllrs. X (80.17) i/os/irlirs. The rest of the 
]3assage has heeu abridged and the sense of the origiual lost : cf. 
X (;50.1'j) according to which nine Paternosters might be snid iisr Jjrr 
Ijcoct nicnc, cnglenr ordrrs (ircoirdrs IW), J)ct (iod Jjurli liis iiiilcr 7 fur 
his merci hiiiC ham (sc. pc soulcn) nt iifpinr Ui hurc rrluurrddm (fcnrrrdnr 
C). — 15. X (32.14) sii/i/rit J)riis ucrs stnndindr: cf. 1. 17. — lit. The 
second est should he left out. — 84. For <('■ read iid. — 35. securl 
for sicuti. — 37 ff. are greatly changed: cf. .iN' (34.9 ff.) Eficr pr 
wessecos, hinin Jr /irmst snrriit. Jjrr iiorytect nl Jicnr irnrld. 7 /;cc 
hroit al rt iif liiidi: Jtrr iii s/irrcliiidr luur tnrlvppcit niirr Iriifnion Jjrt 
iiitii iiirrr lirrostr tiiir is ililil of lirniiiiir etc. Althouirh tlic ]iassage 
niay make some scnse as it staiids. tliere can hanlly he any donht 
that the alteratiou is due to carelessuess or a misunderstanding. 

13. 3. «7(0 so inai/ J)rnrhrJ) Jjiin : the conneetion is rather loose 
owing to an ahridging of the original : cf. ..Y (34.13) Atiutc iirid dri 
hicosc mci, 7 hivosr nr niri Jjconnr. n suminc nctrr timr. prnchr o 
Godrs rodc: pciichcp should he altered to Jjrnchc aud Jjan would he 
better omitted. — 11. tokoi evideutly 'the sign of the cross\ I have 
not found any such seuse of the simple word elsewhere : roodc should 
perhaps be su])])lieil hefore il : cf. hnwever. )). 58.29. — 19. After 
Ijifore a comma. — 20. iind fius srij) J)isr fi/ur jisalmrs: the passage is 
ahridged and rather coufused : cf. X ('Mi.lb) pr Jjridilr tiiur riht ulso (sc: 
hii/iiinect Adoramus etc), nnd [JjrJ frorpr (K) rlirrn . 7 tr riftr rlirrn . 
7 nout nr chuwii/c y (chiiuni/rct C) Initr Jr jisulinrs 7 tr rnisuns. 
24. After doininr a fuU sto]). — 33. 34. rnfourmr mr iiiirip und rrnr 
MC etc: .V (38.7) fniurr mr inririit 7 rrndr {rrriidr C) mr pr tilissr 
of licournr. 

14- 1. tii/i/i/niir ior lii/i/iiiiiiij). owiug fo tlie foUowing initial /;. 
The passage which follows is chauged and ])artly added and the 
contents, it seems, are somewhat confused. Prol^ahlj- something has 
heeu omitted after srip (3) : if so. a iull sto]i should be |5laced after 
siprs. — 8. It. to miikrn hrlr irijj Jyiiir holi/ niui/drnlirdc ((• niodrrhrdr . 
halrivc nir a rather senseless alteratiou of the original to nionrunnr 
helr widutcn cuerirh hruchr. mid ihol mridcnhod 7 niridcnrs mrnslrr. 
heJ mr etc: cf. .V (38.13 ff.). Also iu the foUowiug liues the sense of 



Recluse 218 

The original version has been greatly chanjred '. — 11. For ttnr wc 
.-ihould no (loul)t read lcrv. — 18. tti ittii/ irijj liifin iirijicn: ..Y (38.23 (f.) 
vf iiif itfirii iiiitl liiiii 7 iin.srn iii liiiii. The whole passao;e ha.s Iteen 
consideraldy altered and the arfrument of the orifjinal destroyed: 
thns tiinlitrh (l!'). a . scribal error t'or hiiitititli. should preferalily 
he altered to irrrtittiilir ("die to the world"), tiii finlr to on crpr. and 
iii J)i fftiiuarliifiiJ is a striking and no doubt hardly intentional ren- 
derLng of itftrn in his pinen rfntauliche: pi (< pinc for jiinen) is 
evidently not the pro]ier word, as in the rest of the passage it is a 
ijiiestion of communion with Christ. not with the Holy Yirgin. — 
'IX. j5>"M»'«»''/"'« iinit ilmtrn tti itrPf etc. : the original npruseinen •suffocate.' 
kiir X (40.6) {iiprwiiiin i pruh li. [trisunen I pnirh C Myi, whicli is 
unusual and at tlie time of tlie revision was probalily obsolete. has 
bf-en replaced by prusxgrhni an'd tlie rest changed accordingly. 

15. 1- irip h/iiii hriylirh a faulty reading for nu henrftiehi 
X (40.9). — 7. piit futfitil iil Jir irrrttlr iif titin <('■ rnderfenije pr: eitlicr 
the words tif titis are miscopied and left imcorrected or else some- 
thing should be supjilied hefore them: X (40.12) has: pr . . . liHssr 
Jjil fulilr iil pr riiritr ^11 pi .iirtir liti.sfulr sune iinilerurni/ cte etc. — 
\'2. Much devotional matter to be gone through iiit tibitum has been 
oinitted by the i^-eviser -. — Ki. J)r iisidnirs lirjj nriiijinrit tiffrr ourr 
Irifritiis niiiiir: Wai/nifirut (14.2). Atl tliiiiiinuiii (14.13). Rrfrit/ue .'ieniii 
(14.22) Jw etiniirrtrndo (15.3). Atl Ir Iruaid (15.12). — "21. iis hi/in 
lirrrj) on hert tiesf: ticrep seems to have a sense related to that given 
in NED.. s.v. Bear "iti : -to push. force. drive" : cf . Cursor M. (Cotton) 
lf>'J5-J: llu Jjat pis fotlc ^r lirrrs fti pe iteilr: Hali Meidenhad 15: 
p,it fi lusf nr lirorr J)r tti J)iif fr tef irerr. (Stratm.-Br.) — "23. Tiie 
second Ar should perliaps be changed to And. — "24. uft no doubt 
for ((/': cf. X (44. U) 7 so dii(t raer-suinhieaf prf i/ud inuire perof nwak- 
rnru. — "27. c/o^ itiftirnr yiurr iiufrrr: X (44.14) i/ii(t liiunrm ourr (K) 
irrtiuedr 7 rndrit ctrr pr i/riifrs. 

' Ms'8 interpretatioii of N (38.16) biliolden hure 7 hure meideiiea nienslte 
is obviously erroneoiis, hure ; hure not being pronouns, personal and poe- 
sessive, but an adverbial plirase wliich occurs pretty frequently throughout 
this book (cf. pp. 114.9, ISti.lO, 260.5, etc.) and alao elsewhere. In this 
case, as on pp. 136.10, 260.5. it iueans 'at least'; /lore (is) 1 take to uiean 'tlieir', 
reterring to a plural meideiies; cf. also Ru pp. 97,98, who points out the mistake 
t)y DiEHN, Die Prononiina im Friihmittelengl. — MS. ^16) bi (K) must be a 
sciibal slip for fii ^Mk). — ariseu (22) .\ls inf., Rg p. 110 pa. pple. 

- In Mss interpretatioii of the following passages there are several 
inaccuracies to be noted. Thue, X (42.r,i; astuuteu (BC stutten My) means not 
'stand np' (Mn) but •oease'. After ureisun (20) a colon, as ttie prayer is the 
one given in full p. 40.19 (and so "pour thy grace into our hearts' should be 
put instead of •grant iis tliy grace' ; after hlissen (27 a semi-colon. It may 
be questioned whetlier 'in fuU' is a correct rendering of oueral (2y) (NED., s.v., 
16 gives the saine sensej. The readings buten nne imearliet B, imarlceil bute 
an C (My) seein preferable to bute nne fie laste ('^'j) if the refereiice is to the 
prayers imiiiediately preceding, wliicli are imerl(ed, i. e. indicated by their 
opening words, except in the case of one, tlie first. In my opinion a full 
stop should be placed after ipaied (44.8) and after efter (6): Of ower lcneo 
lunge (5: 1 take to be partitive; so — so [ti] not 'so'l; cf., e. g., p. 182.22,23. 



'214 .loel 1'Ahlsson 

16. 11. l'J. Onc iiij) slimild \n- lelt i.iit. — 20. .s(V/.vc/j evi- 
ili*iitly tor sKjycii. — 'liy — '11. 81 — i5<) not in ^V. — 'Hi. liviivdiriti- 
iliimiiivs : it seenis as il' (Iniiiiiiiis .shonkl be changed to domiiium or »/«- 
iiiiiiii. or else a hill .stop slinulrl lic ]ilacecl before it : cf. however. 
p. "27. '21. — "28. o^f»- should lic sup]ilied after rclic. — 33. The 
second fyffcnc i.s uot iinjirnl.ably n sirilial error for ////)'.//. 

17. 3, 4. Aiid (il.so liciicj) Jjiil liiili/ cliirclic etc: the lines aie 
rather ont of connection witli wliat jirecedes and look niost like a 
luisunderstanding of tlie ori^nual (jiossibly fiartly dne to an error ot' 
the ear): cf. y (41). 24) . • . ; "/ '■■>■ liirc J)ct linli chirclic icdcct njicr 
singcd; Jiouli "i<' i'ircii J)iiirlicii nf Cnd cucriclic tiiiic. iiicst Jiiiuli in 
iiwer tidcii. p<i inirc (K) Jjoulitcs iir liruii priiniic ulcotiiidr: if she takes 
•her sickness nnt nnly ])atiently. bnt rijrht gladly. all is hers (i. e. 
she shall share in the benefit nf all) that holy clinrch readeth nr 
singeth; althongli ye onght' etc. (not with Mn: \ve ou<,dit. however'. 
etc). — 9 — p. li>.9 a later addition. — 14. Ciis.sindrr J)r l'ii)ir : theiv 
is no Cas.siitdrc on the list of jiopes: the reference is jjrobably to 
•Cassiodorus. Roman writer. statesman. aiid monk. b. about 4!I0: d. 
about 583". The Cath. Encycl. — 1(1. jilrird ivip lii/iu iihnhhcd. Ac- 
cording to NED., yTRATM.-Bn.. iuid jMr Worterb.. s.v. Abob. Abobbeu. 
The word is foimd only iu flu' lollowing jiassajie' frnui Arthour nnd 
:Merliu (c 133U) lyGU Tlic iiirss,iii//rrs icrrr nhohhrd Iho. Thdi nislru 
irhat tliai iiih/hlcn r/». where it menus ■nstniiish. rnulnuud. idierrascheu'. 
This sense is evidently not aji^ilicable to the nbove jihrase. Here it is 
obviously a question of snme sort of •rame. and there is a line in 
Cursor Mundi (EETS. (i"2) whidi iiii<rht be triven in elucidation. In tlie 
passage on the mnrldnir nf Christ wc rcnd 1. liitir.i tf. (JIS. Cnttnn): 

Ijili lirdr liiiii iril ii iiiiiiilii rrdr. 

hd.' iif liis iiiiii icrilr. 

Aiid sij,r„ i„ his hiiiid hr sill 

II iliikrl stiif n rrdr: 

Aiid iril hiiii J)iii /iliiid silisoll isilli.solt (ir.tt.i. 

illid hildd Jjill siild rrilr 

iifiiill; II Jjiiiiii hiiii i/iif /)<■ diiil : 

lu 1. 24(127 tjiere is auntlier iiistnnce of silisotr CCotton, silisoltr 
J:'nirfnx, sillisotl (Tott.. srlis,,! KdiuW.). Exceiit the.se two. NED., s.v. 
gives only one more exnin)il(': silli-softc HousTM., Altengl. Leg. St. 
Alexius 366. It camiot l>e doubted that the sense given in NEU.. 
•some kind of game' is the right one (Kalvza iii liis filnssarv tn 
Cursor M. .seem.s uncertain). Instead of sitis<itt (Cnitnu). silti.-<iitl 
(LTott.), Laud reads iihohct. Trinity ii hohd. in the glossnrv rendered 
as 'stroke. buffet' (in the former instance somewhat dnbiously). NED.. 
s.v. Bobet gives the sense ns 'n blow with the fi.st. a ciiff" and 
connects it with Prom]). Parv. hnhii ■inllafa. collafus" and Palsgr. 
Iiiihct 011 thc liccd •cov]) de ]ioiiig'. 3In Wiirterb.. s.v. gives the twu 
latter exnni]iles : 8traTM.-Bh. only (jnotes Pr. P. There seenis. linu - 



Recliise '2\b 

ev»M-. tii l)e soiiie iiiconsistencv in tlie interjiretation of tlio wonl in 
XED.. as s.v. Play v. !• it is apjjarently taken as a naine tor a 
fianie. In fact. to jndge froin the i^arallel .lilisdlt and froni tlie whole 
context of the passaf;e qnoted. I am disposed to think that this is 
the sense which should be assifrned to it : that the word in question 
lias nothin<r to do with liohel etc. in Promp. Parv. and Palspr., or if 
that is the case. it has replaced somethinp identical with uhohhcd of 
i.nr text. The lines given above are evidently based upon Luke. XXII. <)4: 
Ef nelauerunt eum. & percutiebant faciein eius: & interrogabant 
eum. dicentes: Prophetiza. quis e.st, (jui te percussit ? EDD. has a 
<iuite analourous deseription of a modeni •rame from the north of 
England: -There is a forfeit-pame in which the giver of the forfeit 
is covered with a sheet. Wlien he is tapped on the head by one 
of the comj)anv he cries out. •Brother. I"m bobbed'. 'Who"s bobbin 
thee. brother':'" Whereupon the foi-mer has to giiess by who.se hand 
he was bobbed". Now. if ahohrt. n hnhrf should mean 'a buffet". 
the sin.L'nlar certainly seems soinewhat strikin<r: moreover. this inter- 
]>retation altoirether fails to luMng out fhe idea of blindfolding. whicli 
is re»iuired for the mockers to bid Christ tell (or guess. rede) who 
lieat him. — The above quotation from EDD. is given s.v. Bob v.-. 
•ro hit. to strike lightly". Cf. further XED.. s.v. Bob sb.^ 3. -n 
light blow. 51 Hence perh. hliixl-hoh. an ohl name of bJind-man s- 
hafj'. Some other names of games comi)ounded with hoh. no 
longer used. are however recoi^ded under Bob v. ' (OF. hnhrr •tu 
befool. mock") 3: hnh-fnol. hnh-Jivr. hoh and hit. with the reservation 
thaf these raav belong to Bob v.-' 'fo strike with the fist. buffet". 
in frequent early application to the buffefing of Christ. It seems 
prettv certaiu fhat in some of the senses of hnh. sl). and v., there 
is a blending of fhe uotions of striking jmd mocken^, which latter 
seiise comes jiretty near to the one ascribed to ahotihcu (OF. ahohrr. 
iiliiiiihi r. ahauhiir. ahaahir -to astonish. a.stound. frighten" < L. ^ail- 
halhari •Xr> strike speechless" < halhu.i •stammering"): cf. also Friesex. 
Mediageminatoma. j). 24. As to .f(7j.si;//, fhe final element raay be .so/ 
•a foolish or stupid per.son": cf. XED.. s.v. If so. the idea expressed 
in the word would be soraewhat akin to that of the Engl. names of 
gaines just mentioned. — 3U.jBc lirrir lioarr.s aftrrpri/inr . i.s rlrprd Vndrriir : 
iiiidrru 'the time froninine to twelve o"clockin the morning" (.Str.\TM.-Bu.): 
•rhe third hour of the day. nine in the inorning' (Bo.s\v.-T. ): perhajis 
]jr should be left out. — 3'2. After pornrs a full sfop. — 33, nftrr 
is ndverli: •the third hour after", sc. (the lieginning of) vndrrnr. 

18- lii- .'/" evidently a scribal error for finp (cf. 1. '20), due 
ti. thc inirial //. 

19. 4. .""). [)r hoair.i of pr Plaiirrlis : 'Formerly the hours were 
conimonly reckoned as each equal to one-twelfth of the nafural day 
or night. whatever its lengfh (called planctari/, trniporari/. or unrijiial 
hours). the rijual hours were aoinetiines distinguished as rquinnrtial. 
being each eqnal to a tcmjinruri/ hour af the equinoxes": cf. NED.. 



21« JdpI I'&lils8on 

s.v. Hi>ui- 1. 'Jlu- iMjiiiiKKtlal liciiirs aic heic" teniied pi- linurrs n/ 
Pc (1(11/. - — Tlie i)lanetarv lioiirs are "in Astrol. suiiposed eac-h tn lie 
ruled by a planet. the first and eighth by that after which the day 
is named, the others hy the otlier planets in sueeession. tbe order 
being trom Saturn to the Moon". NED., s.v. Planetary. Tbe otber 
planets were : Mercury, Venus. the Sun, Mars, and Jujiiter. — 12. /nt a 
scribal sliji for /icrt. Note the inconsistency in jrender: aclic — lir 
p. 'iU.lS. — 13. Spcl,-pn(/c: X (48.8) .•<pchun!/c (for which Mx j). 4'.». 
ioot-note a, smcktiii<ic : Mu sniccclnoii/c. cf. N <j4.U. 1 04.14) : BCnniechuiiiic, 
T .'<mcccliin(/e (M\). The readings of PX are obviously vvron«r : cf. p. 27.12. — 
18. i.s should be inserted after p(it\ — 23. Tbe Scriptural quotation is 
somewbat incorrectly given (■: inuenit seruus tuus cor suum: 2 Samuel. 
VII. 27) and mistranslated. — 21). Sori/ niiii/ pan iinnpcr hc for licr 
lli-yth : J\' (48.18) siirc nici anoctcr nf liirc /tulit niricn. — 28. iitt hi.s ciy 
pirlc piit hc .vr/3 poroir., 11 IjihoJili/ni/c: there is i^robalily an omission after 
pirlc : cf. .V ( I8.2O) d A/.s cic purl. purh 11 .stliitc p hc iscih-.purh 11 
liihiihhinijc. Eitlier Jjoroir^, 11 si-.,th sbould lie inserted and a couuua 
l)Ut before porou-y (28) or else the words piil lir scij, (ihd poroir., 11 lii- 
lioldyni/c sbould be transj^osed. — 2!' If. Tbc jiassage is boldly 
altered from tbe m-iirinal nnd tbe lojrical connection has thus lieen 
destroyed : sn far as I can see. the seuse is bopeles.sly confused. 
Listead of the original instructions about the guarding of the win- 
dows, and tbe directions about tbe bangings and comments on tbeir 
twnfnld colour, tbe reviser, proliably tn give a mnre general tuni to 
liis injimctions — althougb tbe alteratinn may partly Ite cnnsidered 
as a mere blimder — warns his readers against tbe misuse of the 
eyes and then abruptly proceeds to give directions about tbe outward 
apparel and rather confusedly enlarges on its signification. However. 
as tbey stand, tbe lines may be read in the following way : after 
ciyn (30) a semi-colon. after to folilc a colon. pnt hij licn hliih 
etc. (p. 20.1) I take as governed liy liitokncp. wbicb sbould lie placed 
after icip outen, and whitc supplied after croicc. the passage evidentjy 
lieing miscopied or senselessly changed from p (K) cloct iii haiu |sc. 
purlcs) hco ticouold : hlac cto(t ; p (K) crcoiz hicit icictinncn 7 iciitutiii 
X (50.2) ; or else the line sbould be connected with p. 20.11, in wbicb 
case it would seem appropriate to supply hlak before croice ?iml l"i' 
a colon after wip outcn ; after iincip (20.2) a comma, after is a cob.u : 
no stop. after sope (20.3): Stiniwc shnidd be corrected to .stinnc nnd 
i.s- supplied after pat : ynt (l!t.30) — hi/ (20.l) — }0U (20.3) a m.t 
nncommon lack of consistency. 

20. 3. X (50.6) uorkuJcd seems to mean 'lilackened by bciit. 
scorcbed' < OE. col? (Mh) (J/ has dcndoriiuit). There is only one otbcr 
example of tbe word: ^iorkiiJiindc \\. 3(1(1.1. wbere T reads forsiciCtinidi 
•to tortm-e or destroy by burning' (NED.) < (.)N. srlda (JIn Wiirterli.. 
s.v. rorswiden: cf. B.iorkman, Loan-words. p. lli(>. 221). Tbis lins 

' JV (48.15) Mn pis: MS. p is (K); this ilisposes of the explan.-ition by 
l.K p. 24; similarly 011 p. 54.9 .Mn Jics (twice): MS. per ,K); cf. Lr p. 8. 



Kecluse 217 

lieeu replaceil liy nii^ inii/id. aji|)arently associated witli rolc •culi, 
choose. select': Sr.r liuiiitrril nf hiixr lir riiletlr iiut. pat proucd were. 
htinly 7 stoitt E. Bninne (NED.. s.v. Cnll. Outcull): cf. ^V (56.14) 
wliere T has rulrtl iit. Similarly Ixitiprit to X (50.8. 10). at the time 
of the revision probaWy no niore used in the sense of "belong, pef- 
tain. relate to". has been exchanged for is liknnl to (5. (5); longrp to 
(7) is a more satisfactorv substitute. — !). Whitr Cli)[i is liknetl fo 
/)<■ irliitr cioi/a etc. : cf. .Y (50.14) ^«.s' liiforknrcJ hirit rroiz pr icartle {K) 
iif hirit ihiisfite. p is iinnhil iiiiir irrl iior to iritriir. — 13. prr- 
forr looke — to pe irerlilc (15) has nothiug corresponding in JN'. — 
•20 ff. A generalization of a personal address in X (50.20 ff.). which 
has been omitted in SU (My p. 7(j). It seems doubtful whether 
tell.i/iiffc ('20) should not be changed to tolli/iit/c: ct'. X {b0.23y XED., 
s.v. Tell, 15. gives the sense "to speak, talk, gossip" : the oldest 
quotation is from 1652: ,-1/ //?"*• Jiiiie in Holhoriie Trltiiii/ u littlr irith 
thr Hiist: ihere are only two other examples from modern dialects '. 
— 22. ilril is rchr iiinn — p. 21.4 an insertion by the reviser. 

21. 5 ff. To this passage also the reviser has tried to give 
a more general application : ..Y (52. ^2) lotcii iitintrtl : cf . hikrn outirurtl 
untl i/oH to solas <f' to t/ainrs anil to karolcs: 11. 7 — 10 are an ad- 
dition. — 20. Ac al pe ico etc. lacks connection with what precedes. 
sonie words having been omitted : ef. X (52.1 1) nuut on rurl nc tiro, 
uuh al p (K) rurl etc. — 26. alJrr: X (52.15) ulrr, B tililr iiioilrr. 
CT altlrmoilrr (Mv) -. — 2!l. asjirrtu i/iir : a.-ijiertinjur: similarly iliilii 



' Several corrections of Ms's interpretation of the original text have 
been made by My and Mn in their notes on the passage. Thus Mr eutrjiests 
tliat purl beo should be inserted af ter /xir/nr.s .K) p. 50.2: tliis, however, ^eeiiis 
ni>t necessary, if a full stop is put after pwles {nl not 'thongb' Eg p. 69; My 
p. 66 takes the pas.aage to be a niisinterpretation of the Frencli). — tekei)e ,15): 
teke de < OE. to nicaii 'in addition' (cf. pp. 78.25. 106.2S, etc); tekeHe bitocnunge, 
then, means : 'beside the meaning expressed by it' (Mb \ B teke pe biftictiunge, 
T tekepe bitacninge 'in addition to the meaning' i My). — 20. Ich icrite muchel uor 
odre, p noiiing ne etrine!) ou 'I write much for otberp that in no wise applies 
tu yon", noi^ing being adverb (,Mk). — 21 S. Ro p. 108: 'Nonnen, die mit verfiih- 
rerischen Blicken . . . starren'; cf. p. 16.1. — 24. unnieii siotc (T selli, C sullich) 
icunder: Mb takes unniefl as a noun, 'Ungebiihr' < OE. md!) (cf. Bosw.T., s.v. 
l'n-mieji, niH^j)!, iciintier as the snbject, and supplies is; UHwefl might, however, 
just as well be an adj.; cf. Stbatm.-Br., s.v. — 25. u-ede: OE. icedan 'to rage, 
rave' has nothing to do with iceddan, OE. weddian 'to wed'; it occurs again 
in the saine sense, 'dally, flirt with', p. 368.3, where Ms lias the same mis- 
taken interpretation (Mr). My translates : 'play tlie fool and go niad'. — 
Tlie readings of the other MS.S. : rfo/ie S, adotie T, adolien C, doten r^My) 
are cerlainly preferable to tofie N. — .\8 an additional eiiiendation I sliould 
propose to put unseauliche (6) within conimas and read : 'and niade you such 
as yon are externally, isc.) unseemly, tbrough the rays of his grace'. 

' -V .52.16) neowe: BCT sunne, V synne (Mv), accepted by Mx, Mk, 
hoth of whom leave neoice unexplained. NED., s.v. New sb. records a 
form neice (< nue, nuy, aplietic form of anuy 'annoy' sb.), occurring twice 
in the York Mist., meaning 'trouble, sorrow'. Or could it be taken as a 
corruption for nome (with synne supplied from tbe other MSS.), as a verb 
eeems to be wanting? 



2I.S Joel PAlils^.m 

7«( in tlu' t'nllii\viii;r liiii'. — 35. slyl/i .sliciuM uu clnulit lie coi-refted 
to .ii/iiiir (.V (.")'2.22) siairf/iinffc) atid it {'22.1) to siy/i (X sl/i(tr\. If 
.s/VA is tn be ke])t, 'siii, wickedness' sliouM lie uiiderstood as the 
nhjeet of hr/idii (:-5.')|. 

22. "i. raiiirji J)f /Irrilr: raiii seems |iret'eralile ; .\' (.")2.2.H). T riuii 
pc (Iriid. JiV riiiii jjr ilrilr, C roiii lii ilrile (Mv) : ilrrilr iui;,'lit lie takeu 
either as 'deed', whicli suits the context very well (.s/5^// — /iisl — 
ileriJrt. or as •flenth', wliich would perhaps be more in keepinj; with 
11. S. !• Ijelnw. - IS tf. The Latin qitotation and its translation, 
Incjsely fitted into the conte.xt, inay orifrinally have heen a marfrinal 
uote introduced into the text by a subsequent scribe. Cf. Matt., 
\'. 2S: . . . qui viderit mulierem ad eoncupiscendum eam. iain mn*cliatus 
est eam iu corde suo. — lit. One omin should be struck out. — 
20. SrJie feJ /u pe AppeJ: X (54. ") Eur, pi linnler. Irop rftrr /lirr 
eien : nrom /lirr nrn fo pe eppeJ etc. — '24. iniiJ yitt — of iilJr /ii/nrs (.S4) a 
later insertion. The cnnnection is soinewhat loose: after /lirr (24) slioulcl 
be a semi-colnn. instead of ilonr (2")) mifrht have been expected Jirn: 
iii 1. 2<i tliiic is some omission : after f/oiJ we may supph' lien. 

23. 1. //"" [>nJ /lij etc: there is a confusion in .syntax. the cou- 
struction having been changed from ir/iiin /i\j (p. 22.;}?), possibly because 
some notion of a governing verlj of seeing or thinking came before 
the revisers mind. — 3. (/ii(a read (Jinii: tlie quntation and the fnl- 
lowing narrative is from Gen,. XXXIV. — 4. ,1 MniiJen oJso iJi/ne 
Jjat etc. : (Ji/ne should be put within comiifias'. — 0, (J. rnroiipe nirn . 
iir if irerr iri/iiinien a corruption, possilily due to the fact that the 
copyist has omitted a line: cf, X (54.19) nn/cii<Tr (K) irnniinrn : lo yf 
ne sei(t /lif ninif p /im J/i/iniJiI /rrj/n/m (MS. /rr//j/r/i/ K) ; ii/i/i iJrft 
irnnimen. — 11. fadrrs fnr /'nilrr. — 13. f/r 11 /,//ni/ — ((// /n/i/rr (Ki 1 
an insertion: similarlj- AJso Brrsabr (18 1 — [irsf si-^f/i (22): iin 
iroinnian (27) — nouj,f/i (28). — Semor: .A' (54.28) T Einores (gen.): cf. 
Gen,. XXXIV. 2: Qiiam cum vidisset Sichem filius Hemor Heupei etc, 
— 24. /loJi/: X ibQ.bi /iri/itir/ie. T /ir/ilir/i. Ji a/irlir/i. Caylir/i (Mv)-. 



• Mn's reading and interpretation of the passage are both mistaken. 
N (54.18) reads (K): A meiden aho dina liet was Jacobes douJiter etc ; Mn takes 
Jiet to stand for liit and translates : 'A maiden also tliere was, .Iacob's daugliter, 
it is told in Genesis, who went out' etc. ; Mr alters het to pet ^'\\\\o was .I.'s 
(!augliter'); Dikhn reads Jier (Rg p. 94). However, Jiet iii iV is oorroborated by 
two of tlie other MSS. : as dyiia liet B, alsica Dina Jiet T; C lias Jiuchte diiia 
(My). i take Jiet, JiucJite to he the past tense of hofen aiid read X: 'A maiden 
also, (who) waa called Dina, (and") was Jacob's daughter' etc. The sentence, 
it is true, seems somewhat elliptical; ;n T also was is omitted and the fuU 
plirase runs thus (cf. Pal. Soc Pulil., ser. II, pl. 75): .-1 meiden aJ sira Dina 
het iacobes doJiter Jiit teJles in Genesj -,eode vt etc. 

' In the corresponding passage of tlie older versioiis tliere are several 
obsciire points. Thus Mn's translation of X (56.6 f.) wide iseon ymgr ancieii, i 
loJcen nede {neode T) ase aton Jiu hire Jiwite {iiiite BCT My) lilie hiiii seems 
uiost questionable ; wule (6) should at all eveuts be rendered bj' 'wants', not 
'would, must'. — 7, 8. Jiire; naued are singular. — 10. Me surquiderie in 
my opinion is to be kept: nie raight lie taken as tbe 'particle l^exclama- 
tory or adversative) employed (maiuly iii texts of the 'Katherine group') to 



Recluse 219 

24. •"■>. 0. po — V"""'' a common case of inconsistency : jjo mifjrht 
lie clianiied to y. X (5G.18) ^w. — G ti. a generalization of tbe 
original passage; ct'. X (56.19 ff. i. — 11. (dle cometi of a liyli .sjytli 
etc. : X (a().23) ne nmi iioiit fordiii p te wuniiiieu lokede eanffliclie o tceop- 
iiien, aiih diiile piirli p lieo innorien liuni ine nionne eili sili(tc etc. — 
1!'. rntvreiy{p) .shoiild be supplied after sclie. — 22. al pat fullep 
to liir: X (58.9) al yt p fnlled to liire. C al pet pe feaj,e(t liire (yt 
altered to pet), T Al }et p fealies ow (My). 'Read al yt pe feahett 
hirr 'moreover all that adoms her". The reading of X is palpably 
wrong". My j). 155. note 1. I have some doubts upon the point. 

25. 2. pere poii if wilt noir-,th: pere should perhaps be altered 
to pii\: X (58.23) paiih pu hit nute {iie wite T) nout: or else oiper 
might lie supplied after tpilt. — 10. Pudieus for Inpudicus: ini- 
tnii-iis for nuticius. Mb gives the passage from St. Augustine in full. 
It i.s unnecessary to point out that the fragment of the name in the 
loot-note is to be restored: Augusti — 13. do filpe wip inan: 

n "'■ 
^V (til».8) icilnen fulde fo inon, where to does not mean 'with' as 3tx has 
it. but. as is pointed out by Mr. marks the source from which the 
.object is expected: cf. Heo hiere feores to liiin toilnade: He tvilnode 
hitii tii Gode sumre frofre (Bosw.-Ti. — 15. tcilli/ni/e niid habhyiiije . 
irille forto • hen i/wilned etc. : it would seem most natural to strike 
out the stop. take iville to be the object of habhi/nf/e and consider 
the words as %eel ns forto hnhhen as an addition due to some inad- 
vertency : cf. X (tiO.lO) ivilnen, 7 hnhc tcillc uorte heon itvilned {iyirned C, 
iruueitit Ti. whicb is an exact rendering of the quotation from 
!St. Augustine. If the reading is to be kept. the sense seems to 
be: •these two are one: willing (: 'desire', cf. 31;/ tcillini/ is as i/c 
tcoli Chaucer, Cl. T. 31!t; OE. toilhini/ < willinn 'desire'; Bosw.-T.) 

introiluce a question, or (less coramonly) a statement: 'lo, now, why '(NED. ; 
cf. Stratm.-Bk.; Mr WOrterb., s.v.); cf. pp. 52.1, 54.5, 364.'.i, 368.15, etc; iurquiAerit 
< OF. sourcuiderie etc. (GonEFROY, s.v.^ 'presumptii>n' is a word of pretty 
frequent occurrence; jt is used in various forms in Tlie Wars o£ Alexancier, 
by Chaucer, Barbour etc. (cf. Stratm.Br., s.v.) an<l Gower trives a long 
(ieecrjption of tlie vice. Conf. Aiu., I. 1883 ff. (EET.S. extra ser. 81). tlie other 
MSS. read : Me sire C, Mc swquide sire B, Mesurquidesire 7'(My). surquide being 
a variant of surquiderie, cf. Godefroy, s.v. Surquidee, sourcuidee. Thus Mr'b 
alteration Me surquidns lire (surquydotis P. Pl., B XIX 335; Gower. Conf. 
Ani.. I. 2257), can hardly be accepted. It should. however, be noted that the 
phrase occurs in the French version as well (Mv p. 66, note 2 and this 
makes the above explanation rather doubtful. At all eventi-., nie. wbatever 
it is, could hardly be cousidered as tlie tirst element of niessire (Mb; in the 
instances from X whicli he adduces in support of this assumption, the word 
is certainly an adversative particle). — Ms's translation of II. 13 ff. Bcems 
rather fantastical; Pes p (18) cannot. as suagested by Mk, be identical with 
OE. pws pe 'according to what, as' ; T Ee pat ^Pal. Soc. Publ.) makes it prob- 
able that it i» a dem, pr. ; seide I accordingly take to mean 'called' (cf. 
NJCD., s.v. Say, 2 e.). — 14. was is probably an error diie to sonie confusion; 
the other MSS. read: pes purh n»i ehe tvurp B, pes purch an eche iriir]) C, pus 
Purh an eheicarp T (Cestui par un irt del oil Fr.) (Mv;. 

15 



220 Joel PShlssoti 

niiil liaviii;.': to wish to lic ilesired as well as to Lave (sc. flesired)." — 
18. Kiiou-e: ifktioiw. N (()(J.ll, 12) Cuuciten (yrni C'): heon iwihietl 
(cf. <lo /iipe tcip niaii (IH): N (fiO.S) wiliien fulite io iiioii). — '21. of 
probably for >inrl: cf. .Y ((i().13). — -23. /iytep pe /lesejir fiyin.s pr 
soule:... Anil o/' pise etc. ("25): T ((>(). 17 ff.) weorrect lei/nrie. 
peo sfiiieliiiKlc (K) liore, wiit pe lefili of cliastele {In/ilies eliai<tete T. Iuuetli 
ehiistete C Mv), p is (ioiles spuse (not 'the lady. Chastity' (Mx), Imt 'a 
lady (who lias taken the vow) of chastitj-"). — 27. 2!). Iie — liis is 
oliviously a misadaptation of the ori^inal lieo X ( Ui. 20), referrin^ to 
leclierie, peo stinrkinilc liore (cf. above). 

26- '2. And it is .sop ireilawai/ etc: i\' (G0.23) 7 tis is .so(t. 
tveiliiioei, /nl neili idon niid liain etc. : T And liit is .soites tceilnwai 
neli idon, C 7 liil is weilawei nech ido (Mv) : 'and this in sootli. alas. 
is fidl nijrh dnne" ete. (Mn 'too close" ?). — 5. (i. One pat should 
be left out ; or else the nrder pat whan (n) transposed. — 11 ff. 
The passage has a less specific application thati in the original. and 
the logical connection has partly suffered. — Iti. lomej) may be a 
scribal error ; N ((i2.l3) iinii. whicli seems more satisfactory. — 
28. iiec coijitarcm: N nt ne eoifitarem: cf. Job, XXXI. 1'. 

27- 3. tverestou en-oneously for tccnestou. — 4 ff. irlian ifoddes 
jirophete . . . and mi/j,th noiCyth sifnne dedlieh : the passage is j)artly a 
repetition from II. 2. 3 addcd liy fhe reviser. and the .sfentence has 
been left unfinished. — S ff. Cf. Ecclus., XXXI. 15: Xequius 
oculo quid creatum est ■:* ideo ab omni facie sua lacrymabitur, cum 
viderit etc. — 9. Alle pe leer sehiil /iowe pe tercs: in confonnity 
with the reading of N (()4.7) Al p (K) lcor (neli T) sihal ulowen o teares 
we might add of. However, NED. records some examjiles of /lowe 
used transitively : 'to pour forth in a stream", cf. s.v. 8 d: The 
stoiie thiit /lowctli watcr (Cranmer 1 ooO), 'perhaps reminiscent of the 
trans. use by Wyclif and Mandeville. following a barbarism of the 
Vulgate' (s.v. 14): .1 /oond thnt /loivith /"1388 wifhj m/flk and hon/f. 
Wyclif, E.\od. III. S (13S2). / .snll ifi/fe fo ynv land /limande in/flkc 
and lionij. Mandev. : jie should theii perhaps l)e considered as a 
possessive dative. — 1.") If. a somewhat confused paraphrase of the 
original directions which s])ecifically apply to monastic life : cf. ^Y 
((Ji.1-5 ff.) — 17. sivich iiien might perhaps be altered to rehe iiian. — 
18, 19. Hij — ym a common irregularit\- -. — 24. •;(• possiblv for 
ke N (64.21). 



' N :(i2.15) ase: .Mu incorreotly 'a.s if (Rg p. 20;; cf. NED., s.v. A,« 
1.0. — 25. Mr punctufttes correctly thus : ilenle . hirat sei!) Iie, Jieiirheii tiie iitiil 
eienf; cf. T Hh ileale . hwat seis he? Peitches itton, Hu dele peiichei) me C 
(My) (I do not see what tlie precediug . r . in N is; possibly a fanlty form 
for /1«; cf. CT); the coninia after he seii) shonld be strnck ont: 'Mark! wbat 
does he say! — does a nian tliink witli eyes? God knows, lie snys full 
weir etc. — Mn'» rendering of hwuc mone etc. i64.3 ff.) can hanlly be riglit ; 
T evidently gives the correct rcading leninmon i sorhe. \ 

■ In Mn's interpretation of tlie corresponding passage I may inake 
the following corrections : p. (54.14 sntne cherre not 'in some measure', but 'at 



Reclnse 221 

28. 13. '••itcjj p' kniir: X tii>.i:< Kiiinnt pi nnu: li kiiiud 
j)i' ]c'iii''. T finiies t'- yuiif. V i oiiiep pf kiniiie uii^nt lii cliaiie Fr. l (^Myi: 
keiiie in our text can hardly be anj-thinjL' liut a corruption of an 
original cmie: n may have been iniscojiied as f and one down- 
stroke too many written tu make a « or one too few to make im : 
or else it may be a scribal error for kine. which would correspond 
to T -yeajii'^. — 20 ff. The passage lias been greatly changed and 
in fact has been mainly added by the reviser. which makes the 
connection somewhat confused. — 28. Cf. Matt.. VII. 15: Attendite 
a falsis prophetis iiui veniunt etc. 

29. -1 ff. have replaced original directions relating specifical- 
ly to monastic life -. — 8. le a scribal error for pe. — 12. tioiimn : 
no miin. — 13 ff. In the original version the passage is put more 
e.xplicitly thus: (JV i68.l6ff.i Mxi U( of ihiiiln- purle ne liohle y 
nane tnle mid none inonne : uiili hen'(t wuritxr.liiiie perto, uor p {K) 
holi liitcrament p y: isen^ prr piirli, x "i>i>e(t 'i(ter Incules otcer icum- 



somc time": cf. pp. 90.8. 106.-23. 128.13, etc. i Mr . — IT. asunien (aseinen T, asonien 
O: Mx, Mk ^note" 'shnn'; Mr Worterb. gives tlie sense correctly as 'excuse' {M 
fxcusare): cf. Str.atm.-Bk., NED., s.v. Assoinen, Assoin/; < OF. essoiffner; 
(iODEFROv, s.v. Essoine essonne, essone etc. . — altes : Mx 'needs' ; better 
'at all." — As is shown by the parallel versions ,Mv , the punctuation in 
1. IH shoulil be changecl thus : </oil for!) mid Goites drede. To preoste on erest 
sigge^ confiteor etc; cf. P ,27.20'; And yif hij schnllen spekeii to preest hij oicen 
to saien her . Confiteor etc. ,cf. Bk p. i»i; Mv p. 74 . — ai. p he ouh (jth IIT yi\) 
io siggen '. hercnei) his trordes means : 'what^^-ever' he lias to say — listen 
to his worils, pay attention to his instructions' ^cf. Sweet, ME. Primer, 
p. 42 : this is niore clearly expressed in P,27.21; thus: .\nd J>an herep iroordes 
pat bep nedeful to hereti. Mr takes jB as a rel. pron. referring to tlie follow- 
ing u-ordei. Ko p. 39: pe rv\.; fter efter vprrp. . 

' Mv ipp. 66, 74 supposes coue to be a misunderstanding from a Frencb 
original, in niy opinion without sufficient sronnd: cf. NED., s.v. Chough: 
Shat here hym on hond fhe Coic fv. r. cou, koic. koue] is rood. Chaucer, \Vife'8 
Prol. 232; Hec montdula. a koire. Gloss. in Wr.-Wiilcker ""'3 etc. If Mr is 
riglit in his suggestion that, in pe luitere coue 'leonel 14', coue shonld be the 
a-ij. — tliis is not necessarily the case — and tliat the phrase is a play 
npon wonls, we niay conipare analogons in^itances, p. 62.18: mid gode riht 
muicen ei^url^s beou ihoten ihaten C, icieped T eiH^urles: 'with good riglit 
inay eye-holes be calleci ailholes'. and p. 142.9: for jji is ancre icleopeil ancre: 
'therefore is an anchoress called an anclior'. -- X t)6.15 uorm : tbc MS- 
writing urorm occurs, e. g. pp. 64.21, 120.8 K . — 1'.. schulden is apparently 
to be corrected to schulde if, as is probable. J5, tlie subject, refers to p god: 
cf. P '28.16; alle her goode tierkes .pat schulden . . . beren hem vp to heuene irard. 

'The plur is due to the preceding pliirals eiren and briddes'. Sweet, Primer, 

p. 42(,'?\ — 19. strusti iooks like a scrihal error for trusti: cf. however pp. 
266.11, 380.11'; T p :,e arn trtist on. — 20. 0/ hit for «/ lut (K,|My;), o lut B; cf. 
1. ^ M.S. hit K;; after red no comma; after salue possibly a colon (C red, - 
bidden him p . — 22. uor /<< p him areotce ou: Mr supplies of before ou. 

' X ^68.'.' stude: Mx, Mr slunde (froni T ; however, the reading of A' 
18 supported by IJ My and there is hardly any reason for an alteration. 
the sense Vx-ing: 'unless the third person or a suitable) place (sc. ii)en ilke 
huse. 0'1er per he muice iseon touicard 011) shonld he wanting.' — As is point. 
e<l ont by Mr, Mxs translation of nout K' for pi (7) is a mistake for 
'nevertheless'; likewise treoire ■tmth' for 'trne one)'. 



■JJ-J Joel P&hUson 

iinii lii Jjv /nims hiirlr . pi-o octrc »i('n < uiiiininii fo J)c luirhirs Jjiirli , 
.siifkeii Ijuten (K) nnr neodc .' nc otiwe y Initen ct Jjeos tiro piaies. 
The punctuation in these lines and the translation given bj' Mx are, 
however, not correct; cf. the other M8S. (^Iy): p y scoct Jjer piirli . 7 
neomcit oitcrhirhilc to owcr wummen Jje huses purl . fo oprc, Jje jjiirhir. 
Speoken ne ahe se B: p y seon pcr purh 7 nimen ncter hwile . To 
otvrc seruanz pc hu.se windohe . To opre, pe parlurs . Speke ne nhe 
y T: pe y nnmect J)er pvrch to ouwer wimon pe hus purl. Jje /lar- 
lures to Jje oprc C. My (p. 155, note 4) considers that T jrives 
'what is doubtless the correct punctuation: 7 nimcn opcr whilc refers 
ot course to the sacrament. This is supported also by the French". 
It is also corroborated by the reading of C and in part b}' /' 
11. 14 f. The sense of the last lineis is changed to what would have 
been expected by K's addition of hutcn : 'ye ought not to speak, 
unless in case of necessity, but at these two windows': cf. Mr; Rg p. 
3i:i. — 18. There seems to be an omission before rnsperre: cf. N (68.23) 
hco schal hahhcn leaue to opcnen hirc puii cnes octer twies, 7 mokicn 
sif/nes (K) etc; inakep (19) might therefore be altered to inaken. — 
W. jn Onelich minnes hous etc: JSf (70.3) Ancrc 7 huses lefdi (husebonde 
iiiter Inisewif T) ouh muehe to beon hitweonen . cucriche (K) urideie of cte 
yr (K) holdett silence. — 23, 24. The stop after dai/es is meant for a 
colon; after Lenfen it has no significance. — 25. And on Ester Euen : 
N (70.8) 7iort non of Ester euen. Possibly and may be taken as a pre- 
position on the analogy of its use in phrases such as and ende, and 
last, und pat hit wes drei liht. Stratm.-Br., s.v. The stop before it 
.should be struck out and put after Euen. — 26. loude woorde I 
take to be a corruption of the original lut wordes N (70.0) ; simi- 
larly 1. 28. — 27. frcndc should no doubt be changed to fremdc; 
cf. JV (70.0) yif eni god mon is feorrene ikumen. It maj' be noted 
that a northern form /renncd (16th cent.) is recorded in NED., s.v. 
Fremd. — 28. And ponkcp hi/m mi/chel looks somewhat suspicious; 
there is nothing corresponding in X: Jjonkep may have replaced an 
original pinkcp [me pinkep a m;/rhcl foole) and the phrase may have 
been changed accordingly. — 29. i/rindej) graucl: K (70.12) Muchc fnl 
he tvere pe inuhte .... grinden greot nctcr hwcte, yif he grundc p (K) greof 
7 lefde pcne hwete. Mr iakes greof to mean 'sand, gravel" ; Mx hesi- 
tates between 'grit" and 'chaff. XED. quotes the passage under 
Grit sb.' 'sand, gravel' with the remark that greot is 'used for 
Grit sb.°' ('bran, chaff); cf. Bk p. 485. I do not see why these 
words should not be identical. XED. imder the latter word records 
a form grefta pl. 'furfures' (1100); moreover it is pointed out that 
the words 'grit' < OE. grcot 'sand' etc. and 'grit' < OE. grytt 'bran, 
chaff seem to have mutually influenced each other in form. Accord- 
ingly, I take grenf in tliis instance actuallj' to mean 'chaff [M iialeas) 
and conclude that the reviser has mistaken the word for 'gravel'. — 
35 — p. 31.22 an interpolation bj- the reviser (onlj- p. 30.25, 26, repeated 
]i. 31.2.S. have anything corresponding in X). 



Reclnse 223 

30- 7, S. The coustruction is contused, direct and indirecf 
speech apparently beinjj blended: the passage, Luke, X. 41 tT.. in 
Wyclifs translation runs as follows: Mttrtha. Miirtha, thoii rii liysi, 
aiul aii troublift atieiitis fitl inanye thinf/is; forsoth o thiiuj is ncces- 
saric. Jlarie hath chose the heste part, irhirh schal not Ite take u 
wci/ fro hir. As it stands, the simplest way of emending wovdd be to 
leave out ^«^ The passage is given correctly p. 111.8. — pat (7) 
a scribal error for paii. — 8 ff. Note the confusion in the use of 
priinoiins: whn so ■ — hi/in (8) — her — - hi/iii (11) — heiii — hij (13). 

31. 2 ff. her. hij an instance of the frequenf confusion of 
uumbers. — 14. tooken : -en may be due to the influence of the 
tVillowing word: however, cf. pp. 97.28, 197.25. — 20. utt heiii higaii 
Jje feij) . And att heni it schaJ eiide: the phrase seems rather out 
of tlie context as it stands: the reference may be to Hebrews, XII. 2: 
aspicientes in Auctorem fidei. & consiunmatorem lesum (in Wyc- 
lifs translation: hiholdini/c into thr inalxr of fcith and eiidcr, Jhcsu). 
If we exchange hein for hyin. it connects pretty logicallj- with 
i/iid in the preceding line. — 22. done: diiden would have been 
expected: possibly influenced by the preceding done. — 23. Cf. 
1 Tinioth}-. II. 12 : Docere autem mulieri non pennitto. — 24 ff. ^re 
iie sihiille noJ)iiig .nvere bot niii/. ((• ^e . sikeiiirh : siiie should possibly 
be supplied before nay. The next two lines are inserted by the 
reviser and the rest of the passage has been shortened and altered: 
cf. .V (70.24 ff.)'. — 31. N (72.8) reads: Ad .luinnium [rolnj uos 
r.fsc rariloiptos, tuncipte pauciloipios. Cf. My p. 74; Mr Intr. p. 7. 

32. 1. miiny putten her tcoordes forji uff inmyph strikingly 
altered from Aiih inoni piint {piiindes T) hirc word uortr Irtrn iiio 
rt y (72.10; with a metaphor of the damming up of a mill-stream 
fo which the author reverfs further on. — 4. sHcnduni for silrnrii. — 
T). yode: this is evidently not the appropriate word and I do 
nof feel sure that my rendering of the MS. is correct. If it is, 
fhe word erased may actually have been gnde. which the corrector 



• The corresponding passage in N (70.20) runs thus':... ne sirerien, 
bute -yif 5« siggen witterlicht, oSer Sikerliche, oder o summe statche wise. ,\Ix'8 
renderinp is, I take it, qnite beside the niark: witterliche and sikerliche 
nliould be put witliin inverted conimas just as ^e.sikerlich in P: 'exoppt ye 
"ay (unlesf it be) 'certainly' or 'snrely' etc* — Ae regards the interpretation of N 
70.25, neither Ms'8 supposition nor tliat of MRHeemsto bealtogethersatisfactory. 
Mb's connection of the clansea: ne nr etwiteii him . . . bule yifhe beo Jte (K, My) 
iiuer kuflre is doiibtless correct ; biit his siiggestion to exchange ouer for owrr, otcr 
'your' is certainly not ndniissible; kuiire I take to be a comp. in absolute use, ex- 
prcssing a high degree of the qnality i,80, apparently, M.V; oiwisadded witli inten- 
sifying force; cf. <^K. ofer-ceahi 'oxcessively cold', ofer-Uof 'carissinuis' etc. ; vuel i 
i.K) oner vuel, ouer vttel X 52,3, 86.s(there ie an analogoiis instance near tliis pas- 
sage in P. p. 30.2t;: bul }if sche be Jte ouer holyer]. I translate thus: 'nnlesshe be 
particnlarly well known to, faniiliar with, her, of hernearest acquaintances'. — 
72.3. reanie is an erroneons reading for reauie[K): BC reaui [My]. — iS. alhs: 
Mn 'air (pron.?); 'once' would be more to the point. 

* MN'S corrcction on p, 480 noticeil afterwards. 



'2-.'4 Jo.>l Pfllilssoii 

lia'l Iresli in luiiiii ainl uliiili nceordingly lirnj^pe'! troui liis pen iu- 
stead of tlie riglit «onl tliat lie was ^oinor to insert. The question 
is what tliis wnuld liave l>een. By way of emendation I .suggest 
ivodei?). — <). For nioiritli read nou^fh. the first stroke of the appar- 
ent m being prnKalily merelj' an accidental curl. — 8. poi(~.,fte.s aii 
error for .sihiire caused hy tlie following pun-yftr.i. — wiH obviously 
a corruiition for ivf.l: X > 72.17) lAiufi silrnrr - weJ iwnst etc. — 
II. H-erhlrJirli shoulrl perliaps be supplied befnre ping. — \'2. hij m- 
consistently referrintr x<< pimyii owing to a contraction of the original 
wliere the plural subject lias reference to iimrdis and piuihtr.iK — 
IS. piilej for /iiiteiis: cf. l'rov.. XXV. :^s. — Ut — 21 an addit.ion; 
/(/■ rili illogically fnr tln^ plural. — "22. urnlin a corruption for 
Jiiriilis T. Mi! i|UMre-: the passage, taken froin St. Gregory. in full. — 
2."). (///' ■,'(/'.- .^' 74.7 piirli pr tiifel eti-. strangely rendered by 
^Ix as ■jinrtal': as ji.iinted nut by Mk. iu tliis instance as elsewhere, 
e. g. pp. 80.1.5. 2l2.2"i. it means '.snnut'. 

33. •■5. V"'''"'"/'"' '"" is "^" ''^ added after iiuitiitiii yX 74.101. 
In his English translation the reviser seems tn liave confused fhose 
praising and the nni' praised (1): or else. wliich is more jirobable, 
he has simply ren'liii'l fln' latter part of the passage after liis ori- 
ginal, having alteri^d tlm t^niier-. — .i. iiiniipe: X (74.111 aiih hore 
intnnnniie iiniirit uu \rt . Ilnre iiinit iiiii(7i-h.'(T eiier. — 11 ff. The 
original metaiihnr has lioen garbleil in tlie rcvisinn and thus lacks 
graphic intensity ami alsi> partly logical mnti-xt :/'(/)• nlle liij hcn 
ili pe hriieil (IBii. — 1;5. n/ [jr tif)u/e is mi/ehel i/niiti-: .\ i li.2l) J)Cr is 
me.^if neiiil liohl hicoi pr tniii/e /.v o riDie. wherc huld. as Mn rightly 
remarks. is a nnuii iiieaiiiui; •retention. rcstrainf : if. XED.. s.v. 5. 



' In tlie origiiial pussaire I take : 72.20 to be stressed: 'also'. -- 
al is evidently an adverb: 'e.vactly iii this maniier'. — hien [22 : ^ls 'mouiit 
up'; Mr 'liasten' ^< OE. hiyiau . It may be stronfily doubted whether tlie 
latter interpretation is justilieil. Tbere are several instances of hien etc. < 
OE. hean on recoril of. XED.. s.v. High v.: STK.\r.v.-B., s.v. Hr^en^ and 
Mx's interpretation is corroborated by tbe readinsrs of the otber M.^^S.: B 
hehin, C heclien, T helitn Mv': on the otlier hand, Mx is probably M-rong in 
ascribing the same me.iuing to hi},e A' .30.20. — For to uleofen, 'tiit' can liardly 
be considered as the appropriate translation; tlie illustration refers to How- 
ing water and the oiiginal sense is 'fioat away. tloat in ditferent direc- 
tions', cf. XED., «.v. Totieet: Bosw.-T., s.v. Tn-"flentan; similarly p. 74.2St: 
to fleote^ pe heorte. 

^ N (74.8) 011 lioli mon seide peo me {K) jtreisede ane brehren (as in B; 
ane bredre CT Mv p he hrfde iherd p wereii o/ niuche sj^eche. Mx inserts 
of ]/e before breireii, which is accepted by mr; tliis, however, is certainly 
wrong: it is incompatible with tlie context as well as witb a consensus of 
>bS. readings. I take cine to be plural, in a sense aiialogous to that found 
iii phrases like ni^ irind of ane ulonke leordes Leg. Kath. s43; St. Fawcl 
liihtlce^ in ane hit irordes Hali Meid., p. 37; Crist . . . haffde off ludewisshe 
follc Himm cliosenn 'inr firice Orm 19761; cf. Mb Wdrterb., s.v. An; bote ane 
fe.tie wifinen I^aiam. M.S. Cott. Otho (ed. MAnnExl 11752. — 11. beo bo!): Mk 
reads heo hni) 'they are' as tliere is no suggestion that tbe brethren were 
onlv two iii iiuniher. 



Recluse 225 

iMx incorrectly: "there is inost need to bold"). - — 22 t't'. hcr — liei 
. — it — it inconsistently referring to soule. — 25 tf. tanto est ah eo 
lo)i</iiiquni etc. : X (^70.2) lanto lont/ius est Deu, quunlo mundo proxi- 
mum etc. ; ininico (26) for inimico: lunlum <jue. read lanlofjue: quan- 
tum (27) for ijuanto. — 28. Dialoui/e: tliere seems to be no such 
form recorded ; we should probably read iJiulogue. — 30. as fer it 
is: il erroneously refers to moupis: probably kept trom the original, the 
reviser not being aware ot his having changed ure muit '. — casten 
hi/m awai/ is not improbabl}- due to a misunderstanding of the ori- 
ginal: X (76.71 he furseit tfirnes T) him uwei urommurd ure stefne where 
fursed (feorsiiin, fersien, fursen etc. -to remove. put at a distance' ; 
refl. "to withdraw. go away"). a verb probably no longer used at 
the time of the revision (XED. latest example 1225'i, may have been 
misinterpreted as a form of fors, forse •force" which has been subse- 
(juently replaoed by casten awui/ -put from one, jiart with forcibly' : 
Thi modir, whiih caslide a wei (Vulg. proiecit) hir hushoond and hir 
.sonrs. Wycl. Ezek.. XVI. 45: cf. XED.. s.v. Cast 72 b. The subject 
lias been changed accordingl}-. 

34. 6 — 12 not in the original versions. — 13. and Jjo were 
woordes: hir shouhi no doubf be supplied before icoordes: X (76.19) 
reads: auh for J>e seldsperhe hire irordes wcren heuie etc. where for 
means -on account of", not -in compensation for' (Mx). — 15. The 
Latin quotation from St. Bemard (ef. foot-note her-nardus) cor- 
responds. although in a somewhat miitilated form. with TM but is absent 
from the otlier MS8. — 25. The ijuotation — in substance but not 
verbally from Luke. I. 41 — is not in the earlier versions. — 
33. sield: X [7S.8t seldccne ; Mx in his glossary assumes the latter part of 
the word to be cognate with OE. cennan : as poiuted out by Mr and 
SwEET, Primer, p. 4, c has the force of s. the word corresponding 
to OE. seld-sine.-synde: cf. XED., s.v. Seldseen; Bosw.-T., Seld-sine. 

35. 6. gete mi/ jies may be equivalent to mod. 'to hold, keep 
one's jieace": or else jies stands ior jms 'course. way". The passage 
is liianged and somewhat confused; cf. X. (78.12 ff.) Ic chullc witen 
mine ueiis mid mine tuni/c warde . Wite ich irel niine lungc, ich mei 
wel holden Jjenc tvei touward (K) heoucne. — 8. Custus, read Cultus. — 
!'. silej) a scribal error for lilcp due to the infhience of the preced- 
ing sil in silenee: X (78.l6i Silencc tileit hire (sc. rihlwisnessc) .' 7 
hco itiled etc. — 10. Cf. Wisdom, I. 15: lustitia enim perpetua 
est, & immortalis. — 17. sjn/ces: M>', K give the eorresponding word in 
X 1 78.28) as sjietted, sjietciT rt (-spits out' Mx) eorrecfed bj-. My to 



' N ;76.5' MS.: ane ueor he is Gorl: Ms" inserts wom, wbicli is accepted 
by Mk; tbere is, however, in niy opinion no reason for this insertion; cf. 
OE. Du gyt i>d he wces feor his fceder, he hyne geseah 'when he was yet far 
from his father, he bew him' ; Xoht feor iirum mynstre 'non longe a mona- 
sterio nostro' Bosw.-T., s.v. Feor; (cf. p. 8'2.22: 3'/ ''<'<' oim» to beon iteor urom 
alle worldliche men; p. 88.22: urom al vuel spi-che . . . holdei) feor our earen: 
p. 216.2-4: ^e beod ful ueor urom ham.. 



22t> Joel PfililsKon 

switfct rt; B sivctvit ut, C ntvvted, T swftvs. — '11. Mnn liiilnlU tor 
2\'i)H hdbvatis. The quotation is froin St. Jerome, and the Iptters 
given in the 1'oot-note are evidently a remnant of Hicro n i 

niits 
36. 1. Sjiikr ur iniw nf iiiid sjircln-. the jiassafjc has been 
aliritlged and thus thc ar<;unient ot' the original is spoilt : ct'. N 
(80.21 ff.) ' Nti tcc schullrn stimhwat .Hpclcen of nuircr herrnni/c, ay;in 
iiiel spcche etc, this being the section devoted to the faculty of hear- 
ing ; heryng «/"should perhaps be supplied before ^«/cZ. — yucl : y (82.1) 
ful; cf. fotdv (10). ■ — 3. to ijodiJcs worschipp — i/dcl woorde (7) not in A^ 
(the quotation occurs again p. 67.3). — 10. werk an error for wcrs; 
cf. 1. 2. — 12. Sivirh . spechcs etc. an alteration from the ori- 
ginal peosc tjcoct nUc i.srhriipcde iit of iincre riirlc.pe switch [riiile. 
p swich C) fiiKtc spctcd iif in cni ancrr earc B (similarly T) i JIy) ; 
then 1. 14 — wyttes pcrfro (1(5) has been added. — Ki ff. The 
original argument lias beeu hroken uj) and the fragments somcwliat 
awkwardly joined together: JV (82.11 ff.) enumerates the following 
branches of venomous speech : ercsic {. . . ne rixlcct nout in Ent/- 
Ivlond (K)) 7 puvrtoitvr (K) lcasungv, baclntungc, 7 fikelunge, 7 vggunge 
to don eni vucl, all of which are dwelt on at some lengtli in a 
passage omitted in our version; cf. N 82.13" — 84.1. It is difficidt 
to see with which word foiil (16) should be taken. pwertoiicr seems 
to be treated as a noim; there is, however, no such use of the word 
recorded in NED. or, to my knowledge. anwhere else and the fol- 
lowing (£" should no doubt be struck out. As quoted above. X reads 
piicrtoucr lcasunge, which Mn renders as 'direct falsehood i(t1oss. 
pwertouer: . . . 'contumacious'); Mr 'perverse" . . . ■In dcr iilier- 
tragenen Bedeutimg mag oherzwcrch, queruhcr, das Vrrkrlntr oder 
das Diirchgdngigc und Volligc bezeichnen": NED., s.v. Thwart-over 
C. b. gives, among other senses. 'perverse'; EDD., s.v. •. . . morose, 
ill-tempered . . .". — 26 ff. The Latin quotation, the first part of 
whieh is foimd in T2I but is absent from the other MSS., has aiiparently 
originally been a marginal note partly introduced in extenuation of 
the bold metaphor in the text (in our version it has been somcwhat 
misplaced). Eor Mortalitas read Moralitas: ior dicens, dercns. T livco- 
latur in Esdra (cf. Nehemiah, III. 14: Et portam sterquilinij a-dificauit 
Melchias filius Rechab); Nomcn (28) sc: interpretatur ; MS.«f? (2!l) should 
be expanded natttra; nd faciens (30) for et facies (cf. Prov.. XXV. 
23 : Ventus aquilo dissipat pluuias, & facies tristis linguam detra- 
hentem). — 31. mgstcrs Mcn: N (84. 11) mcnesfraus, erroneously 
rendered by Mn as 'jugglers'; Mr correctly: 'Beamte. Bedienstete"; 



' N (80.11) alle wo x weane: Mn in his glossarial index erroneously 
connects iveane with OE. wana 'defectus'; Me hesitates between OE. ivedn 
and ON. vein, veinan 'ploratus, planctus"; in Bosw.-T. this passage is given 
s.v. tved to which it evidently belougs. 

' N (82.15) God sulf sei'1 J5 liv is so!) is contrasted with />e deoucl, hit 
seOi, is leas (tr: tnendax); soi) and leas are adjectives. 



Recluse 227 

ct'. XED.. s.v. Minstrel 1. : 'a servant liaving a special fimction' 
(this is the only example). - — 3.^. The original passage has been 
abridged and thus the context becomes confused, lic lacking logical 
oonnection; cf. N (84.14) pes fikchtrcs mestcr is to wrien, 7 tc hclict) 
pct gotig piirl : 7 tet he ded ns ofte asc etc. — Icsijnf/c should per- 
liaps be changed to losetigerie ; X has fikclungc. 

37. 1. The description of the office of the backbiter in the 
■ iriginal has been left out; then hij mechanically renders the original 
///( referring to pe fikelnre and pc hachitnre just dealt with. — 
•J. Hir tiij tiicn niHii knotven etc: cf. X (Si .•H)^ pct y pc bct ictiowcn 
lintti . . . lo hcr (K) (loic her B, lo licre C, lo hcr T ^i\) horc ttioldcn. 
Ir would seem most appropriate to put a dash after licni and con- 
sider the lines as a reference to the Latin quotation immediately 
below : the latter is no doubt a note in the margin of some earlier version, 
which should properly have been introduced aiter yodspel {'A). It 
occurs in T in the same place as here, and in M. but is wanting in 
the other MSS. - — 3. pultnillos. read puliiillos (cf. Ezech., XIII. IS: 
Ha-c dicit Dominus Deus: ViH quap con.suimt puluillos .sub omni cu- 
liito manus etc.) — 9, 10. praijse, tnnkc — licucp one of the reviser's 
numerous inconsistencies: not being aware of his having changed 
rhe original Uikclarcs to Losrngcrye he took over from his nriginal 
rhe finite form of the last verb. — 12. The context would be im- 
proved by making pd-) and ^1«// (13) change places. — 17. Icfc god 
i/icoi-pe no doubt a misconception of the original phrase Let iicurcte 
gode inon X (86.10) : 'let it be, don"t trouble about it, my good 
man" -. — 20. Mrt«: .A' (86.13) knihtc. — 24. A colon should probablj- 
lie put after ping: 'And thus it is in everj'thing: (sc. namelyi that 
one' etc. — 26. The Latin quotation in TM orAy: similarly 1. 31 ff. — 
27. hilcn pc .■iti/nk: cf. X (86.17) icricct hore fulcfc. — 2V1. atncndcn: 
hij icoldcn must be imderstood from the preceding impersonal con- 
struction. — 31 ff. Aiter Clcincns a colon; for hotnicidiorutn read 
honiiridarutn: after voluit (32) a colon; for ridct (34), inridct. 

38. 4 ff. hij inconsistently refen"ing to pe Intter. — 7. After 
iitliir a full stop: He seip within commas. — 12. For the first Ac 
we might perhaps read And. — 16. A passage of considerable length 
(.V H8.16 — 90.10)' relating to specific monastic and personal matters 



' N {Si.23) peos not pl.; Lr p. 44. — 25. molden: Mn wrongly 'marks'; 
Mr 'nionlds. shapes'; cf. NED., s.v. Mould 8b.'9:' ... esp. of persons, native 
constitution or character'. 

^ In M.n's translation of N p. 86 the following inaccuracies may be 
noteil (cf. Mr';: inouh rede (S) couhl harilly tie rendered by 'without scruple' 
aa it oripinally means 'quickly, promptly enough', here used. it eeenis, rather 
expletively. — 13. robbeb 'robs'. — is. gtinken, stunken as on p. 88.18 'sniell, 
Mrnelled.' — 88.1. somed 'together' (Mr\ — •■.. nlles 'once'; ef p. 72.13. 

' On this passage I may make tlie following remarks : fteau (88.20) 
'virtue' ; as pointed out by Mr, Mn'» interpretation of the passage cannot 
be accepted; Mr considers I>et is a muclie peau as parenthetical and connects 
; Hout to Peo with unicreoti hit (19); in my opinion a full stop should be 



228 Joel Pahlsson 

lias beeu lelt nut by tlie reviser. wlio inimediately coimects witli 
what in the original forms a new section (M Dc rimi et loquila cl 
iiuililii i» coDiniioii: ct'. K lilO.lO) Ciniic kc »u i-fl iiyi» 7 spehc» of 
i.ille (sc. .sj/iiff, xperhc, hernnu/c) imcne. The original pis bcvd pcs 
deoflcs neddren p Saloinon tipcLrit of X (88.16), a reierence to 
EccL, X. 11, has rather freely been expanded into tlie connecting 
passage, 11. 10 — l!'. — 17 t'f. hcm — her — yju another instaiice 
oF tlie trequent mingling of per.sonH. — 28. ylo tor yli. 

39. 2. loue nebb: this compound does not seem to be recorded 
elsewhere: it occurs again ji. 40.19 wliere N ('J8.21) reads: lcoue 
iirl/. — 4. pci} hij he» mifchcl oul of pe wcrlde . icip hrrl changed 
troin tlie nriginal iXe punrhc hirr pconnc neuer mindcr) yf hro nin 
muclirl oHc. Jjiiiili lir liire schunic X (90.26). — 7. pmrjltes: et'. X 
(!I2.5) cHcr so pr irittrs hco(t inorc ispreindc uUcardes . sc etc; in the 
original tlie various senses are treated generally. The reviser"s transi- 
tion irom poUyttci to the faculty of sight ill) and hearing (14i is 
ahrupt and iHogieal: the passage has been abridged and the argu- 
]nent altered and generalized throughout. wliicli makes the connection 
ratlier lax and partly confused. — 14. Tlie reviser lias left out a lengthy 
passage of a tj'pically mystic character (..V !)2.15 — !*(i.5: cf. Rft p. 2SI.) ' 
in wliich the recluses are exhorted to be outwardly blind so as to 
have inward light from God to see and love him: to know the 
nothingness of the world and its comforts and to be aware of tlie 
wiles of the devil; to think of their unamended sins and the pain 
of hell: to seek comfort in the contemplaticm of the joys of heaven. 
of which those sliall have taste and knowledge who keep themselves 
from worldh' hearing, earthlj- speech, and fleshly sights. And as 
tiie future meed of everyone sliall correspond to his toil and trouble 
in this world, anchoresses, as a reward for shutting themselves up 
and lilindfolding themselves here, shall have more thau others. in 
the blessedness of heaven, swiftness and clearness of sight to see 
tlie hidden mysteries of God. Then the author proceeds to give the 
sisters advice liow to behnve if a man recjuests to see them or if 



put before Hnineon and the passage translated thus : 'to uncover (disclose) 
it (sc. the liltb; to themselveB, those wlioui it concerns, and hide it from 
others, that is a great virtue (merit;, and not(disclose it) to tbose who' etc. ; cf. 
R(i p. 31. — pet leste ;9().r,): as Mit remarks, Mx in his glossary erroneously 
connects leste with OE. hestan and sives tlie sense as "serves, is serviceable' ; 
however, there does not seem to be any ditterence between tlie interpretatiou 
of tlie passage whicli lie gives in tlie te.^ct: "all tliat has now been said' and 
tbat given by Mr: 'the last, <las zuletzt Gesagte'; I have sonie doubts wlietlier 
tliis assuniption is riglit. — 10. Cume ire iiu eft aytn "we niay now go 
back again'. 

' X (94.9) Pet refers to sinech and cnoirunge; it niay l)e taken as a 
stressed dem. pron. and a semi-colon put before it. — 10. schulen 'shall'. — 
11. t efter Jte sihde p is nu deosc her: Mx 'after the sight tliat now is'? — 

23. MS. reads bituned (K); B bisperret, T bisperred, C p bi sparrei) (My). — 

24. The second beon seema to be nothing bnt a scrihal error; B Uhtre ba, 
C lichtre ba, T lihtere haSe (My). 



Recluse 2'J9 

rni iiiiiii iiallrit iiito liiitcv siHchr: tliese original specitic instrurtions 
tlic reviser lias tunieii into general waminjsrs in tlie jiassage 11. 14 ti. — 
17. The 8criptural quotation in TM only. — "^U. Xiimnit ior niirra- 
iirriiiit icf. Ps. CXVIIl. 85i. — 24. ««3/^ would lietter be changed 
t.) iiii-itt; cf. X 1 90.181 niiilitv. — '2(>. hi' refemng inilelinitelv to a 
iiKin. the orifiinal argument eviilently being l^efore the reviser's minil. — 
•J7. leuen ich niote: the line has been earelessly remlered or 
misunderstood : cf. N (96.20 i (iiih paiih iK) iih hriiedc imcorrn hii, 
hiiiirn ich miit te: B nh ptih ich hcfilc i^irnrcn hit liiiiicn ich niot te. 
llirit is icurife pcn me? (similarlj' '/': C somewhat differently My"). 
Accorilingly. Inten should be corrected to loiten and a full stop inserted 
after mote. As the passage stands. it might make some sense if Ac 
were changed to Al and a full stop put a.UeT tlifc. — SO. his lnor^th: 
hir seems to give better meaning^. 

40. 2 — 11 inserted by the reviser, who has left out part of 
flie original matter. — H. ra.-itcj) cnchcsomt ma.y be analogous to 
)>hra.ses .such as to ca.-<t coiiuxcl. to cnst onc's itdrice: cf. NED.. s.v. 

' N (96.24) euer is he eie to pe inide leie ctc. ; li eauer is Jie eke to j/e iriiile 
lehe . eauer is pe keorte, C eauer is pe echv to pe icodele-.,e etc. ^cf. Ms foot- 
note i), T eauer is tnt elie io fie iride lehe . Eaiter 1.1 te heorte (Mv): M.v 
translates tlie reading of A': 'the eye is ever towanls the sheltering wood' 
't1o9s. : leie 'sheltered, low, marshy'; A.S. lac, luli: .'^c. lee, lew, lown" : Mk: 
"Tlie eye is ever towards tlie inarsliy wood', on whicli Br ^p. 492) riglitly 
reiiiarks : 'if one tnins his eye to the niarshy wood, he would natiirally 
expect to see a Greiiilel or at least a wild animal issue forth; so tliat the 
clause perinue is pet ich liiuie would seem out of place'. Br gives tlie scnae 
as: *Kver is the eye to the inad tlame'; bnt it seems difficult to reali/.e that 
the coiinection between the ideas expressed in the two clauses woiild be 
any the better in that case, and My (p. 72; is certainly justitied in regardiiig 
this explaiiation of tbe expression as 'quite an impossihle one'. Xo doubt 
Mr is right in liis supposition that the words are taken from some popnlar 
ballad — the addition iii C is douhtless merely a piece of doggerel (cf. Mv 
p. 15(i, foot-note); also liis su^gestion as to the relationsliip of leie is iii my 
opinifin correct : 'es ist wohl ciasselhe Wort, welches vom rohen, unbebaiiten 
l-ande gebraucht wird'. The form occuis again p. 3'28.9: pe ueondes leie uenne 
i'> deoueles lei niure T' and the original meaning in both cases is n<it iin- 
piohahly the saine, viz. 'lying', OE. *li'e-.,e f rom the root of /icflnn; 'the fnrinal 
••quivalent (: — OTeut. *liigio- is fouiid witli differcnt nieaning iii OH(i. aba- 
liiji weary, exhausted, MlUi. lceye. early and dial. mod. G. liig low, tlat etc. 
— I iiiay add .'■^w. dial. liig — ON. grasdceyr lying iii tlie grass'. XED., s.v. 
I-ea, ley, lay; cf. Lintikvist, Arkiv ffir iiord. til., n. f. XXI, p. 273 f. Tbus, to 
liotli instances sliould be assigned an original seiise of 'lyiiig', in tbe fornier 
case shadliii: off into tlie iiotion 'steadily directed towards', in the latter into 
tliat of 'being stagiiant. putrid'. Stratm.-Br., however, takes vude leie as a 
compounil: this iiiay be right (cf. C wodeley), hut tlien the latter component 
should doiibtless he coniiected with i)K. hleoir 'shelter,' not with leiih 'lea' 
tthis is certainly the case in tlie instance given from K. Horn : . . . Pou me telle 
yf pou liorn euer sej,e vnder icode leye ( Harl., u-ode leye I^ud, irude liye Cambi U.; 
iliiUKis, .Specimens, Gloes. 'to lie'!); cf. OE. 011 holtes hleo; OS. iraldes hleo}: 
tlie sense would then be that given by Mx. 

* My atteiitioii hu been calleLl lu aii interebtiiig nnnloi;y in the OSw. local 
iiamc Ltnghafen (8t. Dipl.) 



230 Joel Paiilsson 

Cast Vll. However, it would doubtless iiiiiiriivc rlie sense to read 
esaoin 'excuse" instead of fnclicsoun: cf. NEl).. s.v. Essoin, essoign: 
/() nust, iiiakc, challeni/c cssoin. The numerous fonns of tlie two 
words {assoinc, cssoin, essoign(c\ achcsotm, anchc(i)sun, cnchcsoun etc.) 
inight easily have been confused by a careless scribe. — 1\. pon-}ih: 
cf. X (98.25) hiciic, BCTG wUtc (My) (vox enim tua dvilcis, & facies 
tua decora). — 26. pat schiitrlcn licn his lcimiians: 7 scchcit pauh 
utward ijclungc {gclsiingc [ircrhlli glokcringj C) 7 frourc, mid cic 
o(Tcr iitid tungc X (100.8). — 'll.pidchru: cf. ("ant., I. 7: j^ulclierrima. 
41. 1 ff. The reviser has dealt rather freely with his original, 
mutilating and altering it and thus conlusing and spoiling the sense. 
The argvtment is as follows: To an anchoress, who unmindful of 
her duty and dignity as the bride of Christ, seeks outward delights 
and comforts with eye or with tongue. the Lord speaks in the words 
of the Canticles bidding her go out of his high dignity, of his great 
lionour and follow the herds of goats, the lusts of the flesh. — The 
lines J)ou pat nrt (2) — litcl lic sccnc (5) are. rather confusedly. in- 
troihiced, apparently from a passage originally altogether different 
(cf. X li)2.1G; hcrc (3) perhaps for fairc); then some words have 
been left out; thus the context has been spoilt, And yif Jiou art 
etc. (5) standing without connection; cf. X (100.18)' yif J)U nost 
iioiit hwas spuse Jiit crl : pi-t pii ni (Kl nrcur of hcoiicnc, yif ptt 
rrt iiic treowc etc. — !•. Jjnt hrn suiir to god — to god (12) 
here inserted by the reviser and parth' repeated below 1. 1l5. — 
11. synhande a scribal slip for stiinliandc. — 12 ff. These lines, as they 
stand, are quite out of keeping with the drift of tlie original pas- 
sage: the anehoress who follows the herds of goats — the lusts of 
the flesh — should feed her kids: feed her eyes witli looking about 
(out), her tongue with prating etc. In the original reading iit 
totunge BC, itt totingc 'IG (My), iii has erroneoush- lieen connected 
with the preceding preposition and the rest chauged. — 15. A verb 
(krjic) has apparently to be supplied. — lil. ani/ syich fondi/ngcs for 
ani/ suich tohcnijnges: X (102.2) Hwcctcr cni totihlc aiicrc uondcde 
cucr pis ; fondi/ngcs may here have the sense of -exjieriences' (? cf . 
NED., s.v. Fanding 1; Fand sb. a.); but I do not see what mean- 
ing should projierly be ascribed to tnkcni/ngcs: I suspect a corrui)- 
tion (possihly for lokgnges?: or else, althougli without much proba- 
bility, we may change for into or and take tokcni/iigcs to mean some- 
thing like 'symptoms': cf. Bosw.-T., s.v. Tacnimg. — 21. After 
clochcs' a mark nf interrogatinn : similarly after iiiorc (25i, irhcpcr 

' N (100.17): as is pointed out by Mn, tlie punctuation should be clianged 
tlins: yimed nu gode ■^emel '^if])H ■ . ■ etc; similarly 11. 25,26: Nu kume() Jier 
efter: 'ant lesive pine ticchenes' .' Jieos ticclienes heoi) piiie uif wittes etc. (Kl; 
so also Rci p. 116. — It may also he noteii tliat bit (2) is the present t. (Mk). 

• N {102.4} claurede : Mx 'clutched'; ^Ik, Str.\tm. Br. •clambered, climb- 
ed'; XED., s.v. Claver v., hesitate» between 'climb' and 'cluteh, claw'; to 
jiidsf from the following cauhte {lahte BT, laelite C) and from the parallel 



Recluse "231 

here introducing direct questions. — '24, 2."). if iuconsistently re- 
ferrinn; to sniihs. — 29. -leclf of liclle: X (10"2.20) f/enl a ueld which 
nietaphor is e.Kplained in a passage oinitted in our version. 

42. 1. o/" possibly t'or so. 3. For Salnmnii seip etc: the con- 
nectiiiii is disturhed by the omission of a passage in the original {N 
p. 102.29 — 104.11)^: God's spouse should not feed the goat-kids 
without: she .shonld -w-isely keep her hearing, sight, speech and shut 
their gates — mouth. eyes, and ears, which are the wardens of the 
heart : in doing so she follows Solomon's exhortation: Omni cusfodia 
seriia cor fiiiinr. but if the wardens go out. etc. The ascriptinn of 
1. 4 to Solomon is. so far as I know, due to confusion and a niisun- 
derstanding of the original text. — G. Koic y lian lierde of spell/inf/: 
X ( 104.121 pis beoct nii pe Jjreo tciffes p icli liahhe (K) ispehen of 
viz. sight, speech. and hearing. — 8, 0. sayo for safago; ahsinf for 
absiinf: relinqiio for rcmiiro: ]Mb gives the passage from St. Au- 
gustine in full. — Of sniel . . . nc fi/ndc j . bof lifel: to fi/nde may lie 
assigued the sense given in XED., s.v. Find v. 7 b, c: 'to suffer 
from. feel impleasantly (cold, etc.): also, fo find of: to perceive (a 
smell. taste) (Sc.)": cf. EDD., s.v. Find 4. (/ find offliis weak anMc 
iii frosfi/ iccuflier). However. -V (104.18) reads Of smelles . . . nc iiond 
ieli noiif muclieles: uond {of\ "to enquire about. to care for' (XED., 
s.v. Fand v. 4i appropriatelv rendering satago in the original Latin 
jiassage. I think it not unlikelj- that the pres. iiond has been mis-^ 
taken for pa. tense of finden. which it seemed appropriate to change 
to the present. — 10. After lifel a semi-colon: after riei} a dash, after 
lialue a comma. — 11. me ne recclie : X (104.20)" tecclieS which 
seems to l)e the form reqiiired: however, BT (My) are in accordance 
with F. The verb. then, may perhaps be regarded as a personal 
reflexive;' cf, XED., s.v. Reck 7: Of nonc icinfers icli mc recclie. Owl 



readingfl, cahte B, clahte T, clachte CG (My) tliere can be no doubt that the 
word sliould be connected in sense with cleafres in the next line: cf, OE. 
clifer 'claw, talon', clifrian 'to claw, scratch". — 11. urakele: Ms, Mk 'vile', 
Stk.at.m.Br. 'base, evil". I take the word in tliis instance as on pj>. 182.20 
(M /iigox, Bb p. 495; Ms Gloss. 'frail? Fr. fragile'), 204.2 to mean 'transitory', 
cf. XED., 8.V. Frakel 'dangerous, deceitful' ; OE. /iTce/nes 'dangerousness':/r<- 
celsian 'to endanger'. — 12. Xim perto : 'take to them' (sc. uroui-en ; not 'it' 
M.v, Mb). 

' A' (104.1) he wenl pene lof: Mx 'he changee the strain (literally, praise' ; 
footnote), 8o also Mr; in my opinion lof can have nothing to do with OE. 
/d/ 'liraise'; the word is evidentlv to be connected witli OE. i(J/'the palm of 
tlie hand' (Bosw-T., s.v.), ON. 'lofi, Goth. I6fa\ cf. NED., EDD., s.v. Loof ; 
tlien, the expression means : 'lie turns the hand, he changes his nianner' 
(cf. tlie Swed. dial. saying: han «»• nom oi omvdnd hand 'he is like a turned 
band, be is quite changed'). — 5. for nout heo beoi^ hilokene iniril) pauh our 
wal: Ms'9 translation, accepted by Mk, gives, so far as 1 can see. no sense; 
the reading of the MS. is evidently corrupted : tvah oDer tcal BTGC {irach) 
My; heo plur. (Mb). 

' N ; 104.23 ff.: habbei) 'have'. — As pointed out by Mr, stunch and strong 
breii (left untranslated by Mn) should apparently be connected witli of siroli 
hateren and o/ wicke i.K) eir. — 106. 5. srnde 'senf. — 27. ; /nj: ; stressed : 'also'. 



:i32 Joel PfthlsBon 

iV: Xif^lit. Jlinnc fonritril iii: rirln' // mr ()/' tni /ii/'. Uuy Warw . 
If so, we should have to supph' the suiiject Irom the jjrecediTif.' ./'. 
C reads i iie ri'r/ii; My. — 12. In the marfrin: dnniiitun 

(UcH — 

18. '( fi//'.'J>'!/ I»>''' .i'i>"' "/' /"".'/'/'■: '■*'• l'I'- 4;'). 83. (i9.l2; JV (lOd.C. 
li-fni iccl of 011 sxlf [pcrof 7 of 011 .sco/f C), 7 /eiipcn into priu/v. — 

19. Treiev(i/cs: the third letter may lie an error for o: cf. Stratm.-Bk.. 
NEP.. s.v. Trotevale: the sense in this in.stance seems to l>e 'tricks. 
delusions' (cf. Haiidl. Synne .597(1 1: the other MSS. read: inif/cs 
X (1(1(1.8) T, fnii/rs B, friiy/r.-i C iMyi. — '22. Iicfr/n/: /,c fc/ri/. — 
2H. f(- .stKnkcii shnuld no doubt be struck ont; it is evidently acci- 
dentnlly taken trom the following an(/ gtiin/.rii and left imcorrected. — 
25. The following passajies are altereii and mainly added by the 
reviser. — 29. a/ dfiif •every day: continnally. ahvays': cf. e.fs. 
pc qrcfe trrsour piif lir ii/iliii/ nom. R. (tIouc: NEI)., s.v. Dav 20: 
Alday. 

43. 1 ff. There is oliviously sometliinf; amiss with these liiies. 
Cf. A' |l(J(i.lo) In liis mliftr (sc. he iciis iiloritcn (ii/crurd C)), pco lic 
isrili liis dcorcivurctc (/eouc C) modcr fcitrcs, 7 scin iohuncs cuuungc- 
Hsfcs (K), 7 fc octrc Mari(;s .' 7 po hv bihcold /lu /lis dcorr dccip/cs 
f/ucii a//e vrom him, 7 /n/cucden Iiim a//c onc, osr ureomrdc, he vcafi 
ircnidr T) /limsn/f pries mid /lis feire rien. In clianirinf: the original 
^he reviser has lost the thread: instead oi rlie snffprin;a; of <?lirist. 
the flipht of the disciples has become the jirincipal idea to whicli 
he disjointedly connects that of the friends at the cross. If sciyn (3 1 
refers to frcndcs as the snbject. as is apiiarently intended. hc in 
tlie same line seems to stnnd for he: hciii: "and also his friends saw 
the loss of him that bouirht tliem so dear'. Or else — to restore 
in some way tlie original arfrmnent — .sciyn inight be chan^ed to 
.•>v'»'^ and the followinj,' hi/m taken as referrinjr to the pl. frcndcs: 
I when he) "saw the loss of those whom he boufiht so dear". Anyhow. the 
break in the context remains. Somethin^ niay have been omitted. — 
:-5. Aiid pat: 'when he saw' or the like wonld logically have to be 
supplied. — 27. prmhc ichat liij penchcn etc. seems to be rather 
senselessly chan^'ed from the ori^nnal pcnc ancre pcnc 1 K 1 htraf fv 
pouhtes 7 .soiihfrs po pu iinrsoke prnr wor/d i pine /lic/usingc etc. X 
(108.14); there is nothiug correspondin^' to the rest of the passajre. 
11. 26 — 32, in the original. — 30. scchrn: perliaps pisc isc. .■iorou-., 
and wo) .should be supplied. 

44. 4. Althoufrh sformes might be taken to mean somethinfr like 
•disturbances', it can hardly be doubted that it is a corruption for scorncs: 
cf. A' (108.18) he hefde . . . . a/ pet edwif, 7 a/ pcf upbrud, 7 fd pe schorn. 
7 a//c pe scheomen pet etc. — 8. had probably for hap. — 15. he 
n-as pijned pre fo/de paf smoft hi/iii etc: X (110.13) peos sfiche (sc 
of sori 7 seoruhfii/ piiic) icas prcoiio/d: pcf, asc prco s^icres smifen 
hiiii etc. — 17. and liis deciplcs: X il 10.16 1 pcf oitcr (sc. sfichc\ 
tras J)ef liis oicunc dcore decip/es ne i/cfdcn hiiii nam (K) more etc. : 



Recluse 233 

siinilarly in the followinfr line: *V pr pridih' siiche iras J)vt muchelf 
sor, 7 Pef of-punchung pef he hefde iriitinnen him, ror hore uorhrennesse 
etc. — !!:•. forferni/sse: cf. i>ji. 28.5, 58.4: tliere seems to lie no such 
form of the word recorded elsewhere ; '■ is evidently due to influence 
froni inf. and pa. t. sjr. of the vb. — '20. A passage on the liodily 
snfferinji of Christ. to which the arfruiuent in the foUowinfr lines — 
altereil in the revision — refers. has V)een omitted ' and thus the 
connection has become somewhat loose. — 21. flere se for ffriiisse: 
the tiuotation from St. Bemard is piven by 3Ir in full. 

45- 8 — 1<) mainly added by the reviser. — 8. fjof--, for fjof. — 
'20. (~)ne pan -woiild lietter l)e left out. There is au omission of 
some oripinal matter before this line : notwithstandinfr the poor 
offerinf» presented to Christ, he did not trrud<re. but received it meekly 
and tasted it to set an e.xample to us. Whoever then grudtres etc. — 
2.') ff. disconnected fragments of the original argument : cf. X 
114.15 ff. i: Chri.st's dear bride .should not be the Jews" associate 
liut .shonld gladly drink -wnth him all that seems sour and bitter to the 
flesh. to be rewarded by him with heavenly balm. The anchoresses 
are entreatetl to guard the sense of liodily feeling even more care- 
ftilly than the other senses: the author enlarges on the danger and 
great sin of handling or any touching V)etween a man and an ancho- 
ress: he would rather see them all liang on a gibbet to avoid sin 
than see one of them give a single kiss to any man on earth so 
nse ich nicne (cf . P II. 25 ff . i : he mentions other improprieties nml 
finally. points out how it does great hann To raany a recluse to look 
at her white hands (cf. P 1. 32 i: they should scrape up the earth even- 
(lay out of the pit in which they must rot (cf. P 1. 27 1: (ind hif ivof. 
pe 2)iif decf niuchc god fo moni anrre. Then he gives the quotation 
from Solomon (P 1. 30 1 and points out how the thought of deatli 
and the judgement and of the sufferings of Christ prevents her from 
following the inclinations of the tlesh. The passage in the original 
wliich corresponds to 11. 33 ff. is an introductory exhortation to the 
following section, logically coimected with the lesson derived from 
the example of the pelican: cf. P p. 4<!.4. 

46. 2. ridd a scribal error for pridd: pis should properly refer to 
the following part. — 8. paf tten her goode icerkcs within commas. — 
i) ff. For nhsone — qugken has heen added and the following passage 
al.ridged. — 18- — p.4i>.27without corresi^ondence in the original texts. — 
2."). hr\ (iiirr lorde, p. 47.2. 

47- 13. as probabh' for a/. — 22. 23. ini/sfrr mny mean •need. 



' X (110.23) deijCde: Mn, Mb '(lieil'. I take tlie wonl to meaii 'snffered' 
< OE. ffeiUgaii, -dyf/an, ■ttegan (Bosw.-T. ; cf. Fai.kTorp, s.v. Doie. — 
27. Stk.4TM.Br , Rg p. 30: Hfrf-»(rt)/ 'sweat of anKuisli'. — \l'2.3.swH!i-' = lari/etiche : 
iiot ■rnpiilly' Ms. — IH.3. menfle liim n.te i'f f>itrst : Mx : 'coinplalneil of thirst' ; 
lo me it seems more probable to take lif pnrxt ns llie adj , cf. pp. '238.2t, 
240.1, 404.32: "he complained as tiiirsty, iii bis tlilrst'; T niemte ase he bleddr 
of priut. — 116*. al is adv. — 22. «wwirf»'/: "to soine extent'. 



234 .liK-1 I'i\lilssuii 

uecessity"; liowever. tlie general dritt ol' the jjassafie seems to reiinire 
a sense: "means, possibility" which. although uot recorded elsewhere, 
uiight have developed out of the idea of 'tool, instrument': cf. NED., 
s.v. Mister sb.* 0. 

49. '2. riKlrstiindc a scrilial sliii lor niilersloixle. — 7. pnl 
li/iws man might. as it stands, lie taken iu apposition to jiroplirtr: 
ci'. Jlco sejiCn liim ah)ttc n l/pirs-mon ^1320), Tlie ycartli slial i/rhli 
liym again a liiiesman oii tlie tliird daic (1548) etc. ; XED., s.v. 
Lite 15 b. No doubt, however, the reading is an error for Jjat lir 
li/iies naiH where li/iies, as p. 184.16, meaus 'alive': cf. jE,ti}irdr 
dcet he lifcs wces. Bosw.-T., s.v. Lit': )' nolde pe letr lyues hee 
(1380) NED., s.v. Life 15 a. — 14. haine a scribal error for harine. — 
2S. And on pis manere deme pi seluen referring to p. 4G.18 ff. : 
the passage is fragmentarily given and the origiual seuse chauged 
and partly lost ; cf. N (118.23 ff.)'. — 30. The qnotation is from 
Dionvsius Cato. Disticha de Moribus, II. 4. 

50. 1. Mar/na for Muga. In the passages which foliow. tlie 
origuial text has been abridged and altered. — 4 — to a nere (7) 
an insertion, somewhat loosely connected with the rest ; perhaps origi- 
nally a marginal note: cf. j). 15().i. — 10. is should possibly iie 
supplied after liut. — 11. The quotation is from Horace. Epistola-, 
I. 2,62. — 13. Bt/ riith sJcyl man schidde he ■Milde: N (120. i8j Mon 
is lundeUche mildc. — 15. jnnocent kynde: N (120.19) monnes kundr. — 
1(). hest: the comp. would have been expected: we might ])erhaps 
read het instead; cf. p. 170.31: or else. nojmif/ clles. — littc rrupe fulle 
ouer pe hcrt is a striking and hardly iuteutioual alteration of ror- 
ivorpen [aioarpe [clenc/i awcij C) sonc pet rincc (sc. imduene) ret uhute 
pe heortc in an original passage, abridged in the revision: cf. 
X (120.23 f.) — 31 ff. are a careless aud unsatisfactory rendering of 
the original and make very poor sense as they staud ; cf. N (122.14) - . . . 
3«^ an oSer half, ne schcawcct hco p heo is dust, 7 vnstahlc Jjinr. 
pet mid a lutel wind of a word is nnon to blotven, 7 io hollen. pr 
ilke puf of his muct, yif pu hit wurpe under pine vet, hit srhnldr 
heren pc upward toward pe blisse of heoucne. — 33. Man.-ichipii may 
meau 'the condition of being a mau" (NED., s.v. Manship 4), more 
specially referring to the frailty and' sinfulness of human nature: 
most likely, however, the reading is due to carelessuess or a mis- 
understauding of the original: cf. N (122.18) Auh nti is mtiche tcunder 
of urc muchcle unmcctschipe {inadschipe T, of which NED. records 
only two examples from Leg. Kath. and Hali Meid.); the rest of 
the passage is an addition iu 1'. — 35. After Seint uarir a iiiark 
of exclamation. 



' iV (118.14) do ase ilei) Jie petliciiu! of /nmche elc. 'she raay do . . »he 
niRV repent' etc. — 27. Iiote •lieat' (for hetef; cf. p. 120.1). — 2S. pe rett. i)r. 
'ttiyself. — 29. ciinien is pa. pple. (Swkkt, Primer (note), is not right). 

' N (122.2) me dude pe eorde rihte {K.): pe pers. pron. dat.: 'they would 
(lo tliee right of the earth: they wonld treat thee as is befitting to eartli'. 



Recluse 235 

51. 4. hcm: sc. those wlio do us hann; X (12"2.25) .... beo{{ 
irt)(h a}eines ham pet ire srhiildeii poncken: the foUowint; lines. 4 — 15, 
are an insertion. — 13 ft'. : cf. Tindale, Luke, VI. 33: Yf ye do for tJiem 
tckich (hi for i/oii irhat thanke are i/e icoiihy of? — 16. Cf. J\' (122.27) 
Imj/ius (iI8. jiiiis K) iiiuit pio, uelit nolit impius. — 17. all pat 
done (■»' harnie alf is etc. : the construction is inconsistent, the first 
aif being personal plural, the second neuter singular; for done we may 
read dope. — lit. 20. his, liym: sc. he who tortiired him; N (124.3) 
pe unicreste hond {J/e opres liond BG {opercs) C ijiont), liis hond T My) 
J5 hefdc ihermed fiim^. — 27. in amaris: inamuris. — aul read 
ad. ■ — 2y. pcrc is litel loue . . . pat etc. : the sj-ntactical connection is 
somewhat lax: "there is little love where it' etc. — 3U. noiper it 
iroundep etc: cf. X (124.14) nouder ne mei pe iriiid. pet is pct irnrd, 
ne irunden pe etc. 

52. lU ff. The text in these passages has lieen very much 
contracted and thus the connection has become rather al>rupt: in 1. 12 ff. 
the original sense is altogether lo.st owing to the omission of 
the principal part of the sentence ; cf. X (126.10) ... as paiih he 
(sc. nre Louerd) seide, 'pu ert andefted toincard me stcude mid siin- 
nen : auh, irultu yod foretrard-, al pet etter eni inon mis-seiit Pe, oSer 
mis-de(t pe, icltulle nimen liit onicard pe detfe pet tu otresf me'. — 
15. donaf for domat. — 2U — 27 mainly added by the reviser. — 
3U. perfo seems to be an imcorrected scribal error for vn to. 

53. 1 ff. an insertion; the Latin quotation may be a remini- 
scence of Ezek., X^T. 49: Ecce h»c fuit iniquitas Sodoma sororis 
tuae. superbia. saturitas panis & abimdantia ; cf. X p. 422.7. — Ix for 
Ex. — 2. maden Sodoni tit Gomorre paf Jtij fellen a I)lending of con- 
structions: maken in causative use with dependent clause and with obj. 
and inf. : one would have expected maden S. rf- G. falle or else mnden 
pat S. (£• G. fellcn. Cf.. however, EiXEXKEL: Streifziige. p. 255. — 
4. Tueie manere yien and tcymmen etc. JS^^^l^S..^) * Tiro cunne ancren beod 
Pet urc Louerd speked of . . . of false, j of treotitre (K). — 8. habebat 
for habet. — 16. repen and renden is parallel to phrases such as 
rap (or rive) and rend (16 — 17th cent.) ; rape and renne, rend etc; 
cf. XED.. s. vv. Rap v.'. Rape v*. j\" (128.9) arcpen 7 arechcn: repen 

' X (124.4) seiile so inicardliche cussinde hire -^eonie 'said so fervently, 
kiesiiig it eagerly". — 22. heranont: Rg p. 181 'hieriieben, here below' (?; cf. 
e.g. p. 164.23). — 23. Alle cunnei) tcel Jjeos asaumple: tlie sense of X is appa- 
rently 'all kuow well' etc. (Ro p. G); cunned < OE. cunnan, not <r«>i»ii«n; how- 
ever,' the other MSS. read: r cuntieH BCG {aiui), t cunnis T (S\\). 

' god foreicard 'a good agreement': an agreenient advantageous to 
thee, liberal terms. 

' X (128.6) r>e uoxes, pet beod J)e valse aneren 'the foxes — tbat is, the 
false anclioresses' etc. — 9. arechen 'to get at'. — 10. wrecche bas doubtless 
its general sense; cf. pp. 56.18, 330.'.'. — 11. fret swuDe ice! : My (p. U9] is 
probably right in considering thc reailing as a corruption of an original 
freotewil B, fretewil C, freatfwil T. — 13. suine cherie, ct. p. 64.14. — 20. eoden 
'went, have gone'. — 22. Auh Dauid wende etc: Dauid seenis to be an error 
for Saul: Ah Saul loende /lider in BT, Ach Saul wende Jiider C (My). 

16 



236 Joel Pahlsson 

7 riiwn T. rcope» j riniifn BC {nrpin) (Mv). — 1!(. Uit jmr hiiiiuiir 
de (Heu soit etc. : cf. .^Y (128.16) ^chirect {Galsfres T, GaUvS C; sc. 
pe vatse ancre), ase pe uox dcit (MS. ^et K), 7 ■^eJpcit nf hore god, 
liivar sc hco durren 7 nimeen : 7 chefled of idcl etc. — 20. Hij iril- 
Icp saien within commas. — yr. the context seems to reqiiire }Utt. — 
22. hem pat hcn tiidande: I cannot find a suitable sen.se to be assifrn- 
ed to hidunde: ■vve might perhaj)s read hidilandc (cf. ]>. 0.5.2) in the 
sense of 'heg. ask alms': P. PL, C.X. B3: hc paf hc(/t/eth oper hi/d- 
dcp . bote i/f [hcj huue ncde, He i/s fats and faifour etc; cf. Morte Arthnre. 
ed. B.iOhkman, vv. 103U, 4028, 4214. — 23. sicich mcn wendcn in to 
Hole etc: N (128.20) pcos eodcn into ancre huse ase dude Saut into hote .' 
nout ase Dauid pc godc. The arpnment of the orifjinalhas heen somewhat 
confusedly rendered and broken off by the introdiiction of a lengthy passage 
of additional matter: Who so coiiicp (31) — p. 55. — And so done sunimc 
(27) should l;ie eonnected with Hcu-ent pidcrjnetc. (23). — 24. inakcfoiilc: 
X (128.23) don his fulitc ; foulc should proliably be takeu as a noun: cf. 
NED., s.v. Foul B 1; or else it may be an adv.: the phrase will then be 
analofious to fo farc fout, to call foul etc. : NED., s.v. C 2,3 (cf. I( 
forfuned that thc sicalowc dyd fowtc within thc eijen of Thobyc. Cax- 
ton; NED., s.v. Foul v.* 2 b). — 33. « Becst: the reference is to 
Revelations, XIII; the rendering is somewhat confused: the first 
beast arose out of the sea. v. 1: cf. fnrther vv. 3, 11, 14 — 10. 

54. 2. if proliably for hij. — 3. 4. Note the inconsistency in 
regard to number : hij — hij — lic — hc. — 8. al pis corresponding 
to /(/;' 1. 10, and accordingly plural: all those who are jiromoted to 
church offices in the way mentioned : for pis we should jierhajjs read 
pise. — 13. paf tilijndncssc pat pc deucl hap ahlcnt hcm: we shnuld 
have expected wip added : pcd. however, may jierhajjs lie considered 
as the conjunction and a colon might then be j)ut before it. — 
21. The Scrijitural c^uotation is from John. X. 14: 11. 24. 25 wliere 
the intended illustration of Marchaundes (19) comes in, are really from 
vv. 11, 12: Ego sum pastor bonus. Bonus pastor animam suam dat 
pro ouibus suis. Mercenarius autem, & qui non est pastor. cuius 
non sunt oue.s propri», videt lujmm venientem. & dimittit oues. & 
fugit etc, in "Wj-clif"s translation: / am a good schcphcrdc; a good 
schcphcrde ■}i/ucth his soule, that is, his lyf, for his scheep. Forsoth 
a marchaunt, or hj^red hjme, and that is not schepherdc, whos ben 
not thc scheep his owne, secth a initf comyngc etc. The striking 
correspondence between Wyclif aud the reviser of our text in the 
use of Jlarchante as a mistranslation of Lat. 'mercenarius" (cf. NED.. 
s.v. Merchant A. 1: Mr Worterb., s.v. Marchant) is worthy of uotice. 
The reviser had evidently uo feeling for the difference in sense of 
the word as used in 1. 19 and 1. 24. — 26. hc might be sujij)lied 
after pan. — 30. Cf. Matt., VII. 14: Quam angusta porta. & nrcta 
via est, (lu* ducit ad vitara etc. 

55- 11- It would seem most natural to take ilcfiiutt as an 
adj.; however. as far as I am aware, the word is not found so used 



Recluse 237 

elsewhere : then, it may be the pa. pple. ot' ihfuuU in the rare sense 
of "to have want of, be deprived of ' : . . . . / comaunde thv, thui she 
(sc. niy doughtir) defaute of none ihijng etc. (the only example in 
NED., s.v. Default v. 1 b) ; or else it shovdd be emended to de- 
fautiii (cf. Promp. Parv., Cath. Angl., P. Pl. A. XI. o'2, and XED.) 
in which y might easily have been dropped on account of the 
initial vowel of the following word; or finally, it niight be con- 
sidered as a noun and han supplied before it. — 14, 15. The punctua- 
tion seems doubtful: I shoidd suggest a semi-colon after tcerl; (14) 
and the omission of the stop after god (15). — 29. A comma should 
be placed after hyti, the pa. pple. of a vb. corresponding to mod. 
hii -to fumish with a bit, to put the bit into the mouth of a horse', 
of which the earliest example in NED. is given from 1583. Of the 
figurative use of the word -to curb, restrain', there are examples 
only froin recent times. — 31. schupe io hei}e lyf: no doubt ^e should 
lie supplied; cf. pp. 53.12, 76.25. 

56. 1. The illustration on p. 53.23 is abruptly and confusedly 
resumed: and so done hij (2), cf. p. 53.27: And so done sumnie (sc. 
as kyng saule dude). In the passages on this page and the next 
the versions differ considerably^ : thus. the first section on p. 5tj has 
been greatly abridged and much altered : further the Biblical quota- 
tions, 11. 9 and 14 are found in a different connection in jV (148.12, 
146.23; cf. P p. 68.5): the rest of the passage is an insertion: similarly 
p. 57.2: And perfore — in pis werlde (16); Ac pei} (56.23) — racche 
hym (57.2) corresponds to N p. 132.23 ff . : p. 57.19 — -^ee hen ydel 
(21) is a fragment from N p. 130.26 ff. ; ^if Pat ye (57.21) — syngep 
Mery (33) has a corresponding passage in iV on p. 132.4 with the ex- 
ception of as god seip (27) — pai is ydel (30) which occurs in a 
different context: N y>- 136.26 (cf. P p. 59.9); Bridd hap nesi (p. 57.33) is 
found in N on p. 134.3. The original argument is briefly as follows: 
the false recluse enters a religious house to defile it, just as Saul 
went into the cave : David went in there to hide himself from Saul, 
and so does the good anchoress — she hides herself from. worldly 
sins. Said means 'abusing' or 'abuse', and the false recluse abuses 
fhe name of anchoress; but the tme recluse is Judith who fasted 
and watched: she is compared with the birds {Vulpes foveas haljeni, 
- volucres ceH nidos) : as these leave the earth and tly upward to- 
wards heaven, so also does she: she despises earthly things in her 



' On the original text I naay make the following remarks: N (130.12) 
witeii I take to mean 'keeps, guards'. — 182.7. pelfette 'the fat (of the bird)'; 
similarly hire uette 1. 12 (cf. Lb p. 22). — U. lelen for lete; B leote of. lete of CT 
My); (of. hahben p. 104.12 where K, however, gives the reading hahbe). — 20. MS. 
reads PencheH upard (K, Mv) 'they send tlieir thoughts upward'. — 30. heo 
mot wel biseon hire, i biholden hire oh ilchtre half (bilokin on euch half C): 
Mn, XED. (8.V. Besee 2 b) give to hiseon the sense of 'look to, take heed 
to oneself; no doubt, however, biseon and biholden are parallel in sense, 
hoth meaning 'to look aboat oneeelf, look roiind'. — 134.5. herd is to be 
taken as a subst; cf. pp. 332.S0, 352.30. 



238 Joel Pfthlsson 

yeaniiui.' tnr tflfstial: ainl still she l)OWs (lowii lar lieail iii humilitv. 
as fhe hirds do when they fly, and accounts all her <rood deeds for 
nothinfr {Cuni (miiiiu bcnc fvccritis etc.) Then foUow the ])assages 
P p. 57.21 — 33. p. 50.23 — 57.2. 57.38 ff. : Bridd etc. — 2. notc hi(/c is 
doubtless notliing Imt a senseless blunder: ef. N (130.11) 7iiis-iiofin(/c 
renderinfr Lnr. nhiitois. siiir ahiisio. — <>. Jmt niifrht lie chanfreil 

to pilll. 

67. !!'■ Cf. Luke. XYII. lU: Sic & vos cum feceritis omnia. 
qua? prfecepta sunt vobis. dicite: Serni inutiles sumus: quod delmimus 
facere. fecimus. — "Jl. The stop after i/iicJ should l)e taken as a 
comma. 

58. '2. hr liaril oiitcirij) etc: N (134.5) so scliiil aiiryr iriitiitcn 
Jtd/ini hrril iii hirr rJesche. j prikiindc (\\.) pincn. So wisJiche [wiJJiche 
T] liro srhal Jxinli sivenchcn pet flesch, pet hco niiiwc sigen, niid te 
psaliiiiciinihtr. Fortita(Jinam etc: thus and ciiere (3) — 1. 5 is an 
insertion. — (i, 7. Xote the inconsistency in number: pou — -toiirr. — 

10. wcrJdcJich nirir. X (134.11^ peo pcf heo(T of bitfcrc, octer of hcrde 
hcorfe, 7 nesrhr ln hnrr rjcsclic etc — 14. irh derne mij nest etc. a 
strange ■ rendering of the origiual ichnJJe dcien imine ncste, 7 beon ns 
drad perinne N (134.20): the lines are a fragment of a passage in 
which the saying of Job is referred to the recluse in a religious 
house. — 15. Ac should doubtless be corrected to Aj : cf. ji. 1 •24.19: 
N (134.24) Of dumlie Jiestes 7 of dtimbe fueJes Jeornect msdoiii 7 Jurr. 
pe earn dect in his neste cnne deoremircte ymston pef hctfe uchafe: 
dcrnep (15) is a con-uption — apparently due to resemblance of 
sound — for pr earn dcct. which accounts for the sing. pronoims 

11. IG, 17. — 17. iir noping iiiai/ nei} pe sfon: N (134.26) Vor non 
affri pinc etc Cf. e. g. Morte Arthure. vv. 210 ff. and note: 
G.\BRETT, Precious Stones in Old Engl. Lit.. p. 7. — 23. for l)c it 
nciicrc so biffer pgne etc. originally comiects with [(Jriucn (K) 7(f euerich 
atfcr of pine heorfe,) 7 bitferncsse ofpine bodie N (13G.2). — 26. ne par 
pe noping dredcn etc. is analogous in coustruction to phrases such 
as pannc nc parf us nocter gramicn ne shamien: Ne Jxirf rs neuer 
(i-gri/se: NED., s.v. Tharf B 2 a: 'thou needst not fear" etc ; cf. p. 
!I2.28: N (136.6) ne pcr tu [ne pcarf pu B, nc Jyarf Jyii C. nc Jxirf 
J)r T My) nout dreden etc — 28. hauc it oufwip cl'. N (136.10) . . . 
hurc 7 hurc itJe ncsfe of Jyine ancre huse, Jol-c prt fu hiihhr his iJichc 
{iJicnesse T), pet is pef cruccfix (K). — 29 ff. an alteration of the 
original bihoJd offe pcron, 7 cus pc wundc studrn, ine sirrtc muncgunge 
of pc so^e wundcn etc Y (136. 11 ff.): hem is obviously due to a 
change of constructinn. the first inah-r (2U) being imp. sg.. the 
second 3rd pl. jir. snlij. witli /(// ro be understood as the subject: hcm is 
the refl. object: fhen. I. 'M). there is another change of persons: 
and malcc offc etc seems ratlier redtmdant. — 33. 34. Nidi/f a cor- 
ru]itinn for Jiidifh, j)ossibly a niistake of the ear. 

59- 2. For so scien Mcn efc: X (136.21) Vor asr miichr scict 



Recluse 23i> 

pis trord Olof'i:rnv, asc slinkindf mlriiyndf C'j inc livUv. — ti. Jn; 
fendv pnf niakrp fvblv etc. : JV (13().24) Oloferne is fe iivond, pet niakvct 
uvl kvJf 7 to icildv, fvhlv 7 iinstrong. Vvt kvlf 7 to irildv is fel flesclis pvt 
amlvijvit ( K ) etc. : the readiuf; of P doe.s not render the sense ot' the 
Latin: the alteration of the original is probably luiintentional. the 
verbal form being a corruption ot' to mlde. possibly a mistake of the 
ear due to the following pat\ however, although there seem to be 
no other examples of the word, to mldvp may acttially be meant as 
an intensive verbal fonuation analogous to numeroxis instances record- 
ed in XED., s.v. To-, prefix* 2; the passage, as it stands, maj- have 
been intended to convey some sueh notion as this: 'A [And either 
•if" or to be changed to An) fat calf gi-ows imruly: (even so) the 
flesh' etc. — 8. dryk cf. dryken p. 2.11 : so far as I have been 
able to ascertain, there are no such fonns of the words to be found 
elsewhere. and they must probably be considered as being due to 
an accidental omission of the abbreviation-mark over y\ however, 
they might be ascribed to influence from ON. : cf. Sc. and n. dial. 
pa. t., pa. pple. drak, drukkvn etc. : XED., EDD., s.v. Drink. — 
!'. Jncrassntus etc. ; cf. p. 57.28. — 10. Iiv incon.sistently referring to 
fivsehv: cf. it 1. 12. — he rigoJvp a\cin pv soiilv: XED.. s.v. 
Rigole gives only one example: Gower, Couf. 11. 175 (EETS., Y. l-iSH) 
so dede in tlie sanie wise Of liome faire Nvnholv, Whicli lisle hire 
liodi to rigole "to indulge wantonly' ; in oiu* iastance the sense is 
somewhat different : 'to behave in a wanton or riotous manner 
(cf. XED.. s. V. Eecolage, rigolage etc), to be rebellious against'; 
X (138.1) regihheit. — 14. The first part of the passage quoted is 
from Mark, IX. 49; the latter from Leviticus, II. 13. (In omni obla- 
tione tua offeres sal.) - — IG. N (138.10) Vesten, irecchen 7 o^re 
swuche ase ich nemde nu beoit niine sacrefises. — 20. JV" (138.15) Also 
wiitutcn icisdoni, fivshs, ase wurni, uoniret (forfrvtes T) hirc, 7 wastect 
hirv siihivn, 7 foruarvit {forfurvs T) asv Jying JhI forrotvit, 7 .slcait 
hirv ini vnde. Aiih su-ueli sacrcfisc stinkvct to urc Loiierd. — 21 — 
\>. <i2.i3 schullen neuere passen an insertion by the reviser. 

60- 20. pat should be supplied after hij or pat hij transj)osed. 

61. l'*. vche iian equivalent to alle mvn. — 23. hem — /(«, 
hi/m (25) etc. a common inconsistencv. 



' Mn (Gloss.): struyinde 'being racketl, tormenteil ? A.S. streccaii, to stretch'; 
both sense and derivation are wrong; .«iipposing the readiiig is correct, the 
word obvionsly has the saaie meaning as the parallel stinkinde and it would 
hf rathiT tempting to assnme some relationsliip with a Scand. dial. word 
uf the sanie sense : strega, streka 'smell foully'; of. RlKTZ, .'^v. Dial. lex., s.v. 
Staka; Ross. Norsk Ordbog, s.v. Strek ; Kspeesex. Bornhohiisk Onlbog, s.v. 
Streia. — The following notes niay be ailileii : yelt. smit :j). 136.16, 28; are pres. t.; 
cf. pp. 232,23, 302.1; 91.22. — 17. schriuen for schriue (K;. — 1.3S.2. neondes 
seems to be a scribal error for ueonde: pe feond B, le feoml T ;My ; see Mx 
note b); cf. Mx's translation. — 6. Rg p. 103 Hrroneously tak>»s festen and irecchen 
a8 inf. ; similarly pp. 308.1, 368.11. — 12. tcoiv/Mme has nothing to do wilh OE. 
iceoriS 'value' iMx GI099.); it means 'sweetness' <i OK. ioeororf»ie«8;cf. Bosw.-T., 
8.V. ; T reads »mec/i. 



240 Joel PihlBSon 

62. If^. The ijuotatioii iii T oiily: the lattcr part is sjioilt, 
tlu' author's iiame having been misplaced and misimderstood : cf. 
T (Mn p. 138, note f.) . . . et sine peccato est, solus Deus major est. — 
21. pati for pat. — 22 ff. Xote the confusion in regard to gender: 
soule: it 11. 22 (this possibly refers io pinr/), 23, 24: his 25; Jier, liire 
2(). it 29; flesch: it, his 24: hir 2U: there are traces of a similar 
iuconsistency in N {hit, his — hire referring to flcsehe p. 138.26, 27) 
evidently due to the fact that the ideas (siiwol fem.: fldsc neut.) 
liave not been kept apart. — 27, 28, N {HO.l) pis is tviaiiler ouer allv 
iruiiilrcs, i liokerlich (K) ' icundcr, pcf so iinimete louh pinc — fere 
niehil — loel neih {wel ni Nap. fragm.: for neh BT. for nech C My) 
noiit,- ase scint Austin seict, .schal draiecn into sunnc so nnimete heih 
pinc ase is soule etc. — 2it. The .sto]i after is shonld lie taken as 
a colon. 

63. 1. wihic for wilncd owing to the influence of the initial 
of the foUowing word. — 2. And god pcrc fortycd hi/m i.s a mistaken 
rendering of the original 7 tcide nor pui ane clot of licui eorctc to liiri' 
(sc. soulc) N (140.7): thus, a fuli stop should be put after hellr: 
pere fortycd (there is no such verb recorded) should be read percfor 
tycd. and hym taken as referring to soule. — 4, Mbher: euhhel 
^V (140.8), Nap. fragm., B, custel T (My) : no exact analogy to the form 
in P seems to be recorded elsewhere: the word evidently means 'clog" 
and, if not corrupted, is a variant of one of the numerous forms 
with the meauing 'cudgel, log' : kihlAc 'a stout staff or cudgel' {kchle 
'a timber-log' l(i74), kchhie (north. and Sc) 'a staff or stick with 
a hooked end', kihljo 'stick, cudgel": cf, NED,, EDD,, s,vv. {kiljhlc: 
Sc, Nhb.. Lan., Lin. ; kihljo, kibha: Lan,, Chs., Shr,): or else it should 
be associated with cabcr Sc : kehlicr, kehhre (16th cent.) 'a pole, or 
spar , , ,': NED,,EDD,,s,v,: theformmayperhapsbeablending of both, — 
After felawcs I i)ut a colon and take kihbcr as the object, — 7, Cf, 
Job, XXVin, 25: Qui fecit ventis pondus etc — 8, fleiy: i\" (140,10) 
pu hauest imaked uotter to hcui uortc ucSren midc pc soule: B foder 
to federin ivict pc sawlen, T foiter to fidcrc wict pc sawlcs, C forto 
feSerc wid pc saulc (My) ; Nap, fragm. : fopcr to fcprc . . . The 
reivding of P is a corruption: hem is an error, scribal or editorial. 
for heui: cf. 1. !• : the original frctcrin, uectren etc — an nnusual 



' Mn hokei-liche; this faulty reading has led to a misinterpretation in 
NED,, Mr VVOrterb.; hokerlich is adj., wunder sb. — s. ase me ileti ane cubbel 
to pe sicine Jtet is to recchinde, ; to ringinde abuten ; B Jie cubbel to Jie tu, 
oper to ]ie ojjer beast p is to recchinde, i renqinde abuten ; T Jie custel to Jie 
ku, ojier to Jie beaat p is fo raikinde; C fo Jje reo!)er oiler fo an oiier bcasf p 
IX to renchinde abitten (Mv); Nap. fragin.: as me dep pe Cubbel to Jie cou . . . 
oper besf. pat is to rechind and rengyng aboute; X ringinde has no connection 
with OE. hring, hringian (Mn Gloss., Strat.m.-Bk., both dubiously); it is 
evidently a variant of renginde, rengyng 'roaming, straying' (<; OF, renger 
'to set in line, to roam'; cf. XED., s.v. Kenge v.), of which a present-forni 
occurs in N on p. 164.ii. — 22. Lk (p. TJ) misunderstands the passage: Jiet 
refers to fleschs. 



Recluee 241 

word which at the tiuie of the revision hi\d long been out of use 
(XED., Sti{.\txi.-Br. have only the two instances from Aner. R.) — 
has probablj- been erroneouslj- associated with /eitere» (< OE. {(/e-) 
fiSerian) 'to give wings to, to 'wing' for flight : to clothe or pro- 
vide with feathers' (NED., s.v. Feather v. 1, 3) — cf. Mn and Ma 
Worterb. ; corrected by Nap., p. 200. note 10 — for which there may 
have been substituted a synonym corresponding to mod. flcdgr 'to 
provide or fumish with feathers : to 'wing' for flight' (cf . NED.. s.v. 3 ; 
there are no examples of the verb in this sense earlier than 1614 
and the very oldest instance of the word is from 1566: but the adj. 
froni which it is derived. fleggr. fligge etc, occurs as early as 1308 
(OE. unfliyje once); NED., s.v. Fledge a.). Finally this, in its turn, 
may have been senselessly confused with fleiTfe 'to fly". Or else 
there may be some connection with ON. fleygju 'to make to fly'. — 
'•. fleiy (as 11. 12, 14. 20) an error for flesche. possibl}- caused by the 
preceding identical word. — 10. heiyichep: T hehschipe: N (140.12) 
hruischipe is evidently an error. — 12. puf hij ne foloireii noiiyfh: the 
atn-upt introduction of the plural is no doubt a confused alteration 
of the original yif hit (sc. pe flesch) fohiicect hirr (sc. pc soiilr) her, 
7 ne ilrairect hire nouf fo su-ucte info hirr hiwr Ininde (MS. luniTr (K)) 
X (140.141. — 17. The stop after londr should l)e struek nut. — - 
pr flescli is here an hcime fo hir: to judge from the conte.xt as 
well as from the original reading this must be considered as a cor- 
ruption of pef fieschs (K) is her ef honie X (140.20). — 18, 19. The 
original has been somewhat changed and thus the connection between 
the sentences is to some extent confused : a semi-colon may l)e put 
after erpe (18) and and omitted. — 20 ff. In the revision the pas- 
sage has been considerably shortened and the original sense destroyed; 
cf. X (140.22 ff.). As it stands. the stop after fleiy (20) should be 
taken as a colon: after Euesynges (22) a full stop: a pronoun refer- 
ring to onelich iian and troniman (21) mnst be imderstood as the 
subject of berep: cf. X (142.6 ff.) '. — 27—34 are altogether 
changed .so as to get a wider application. 

64. 3. (£• hodiUch bope an illogical addition. — 4 ff. Jjix iiififh 
is dui/ etc: the corresponding original passage occurs in a different 
context in iV, p. 152.14 ff . : the stop after diig has no meaning. — 
5. as rel.: cf. NED., s.v. 24; or a scribal error for and: or else as is 
might be considered as a faulty begiiuiing of the foUowing sentence 
{iis it srip]. which has been left uncorrected : cf. X (152.141 .V(7/^, 



' In tbe original text attention may be called to the following points : 
VI. 142.10: the double meaning of the first ancre shoukl be noted. — 12 f. 
al holi chirclie . . . schal ancreti o!)er ancre fiet hit 80 holde etc. : M.n's interpreta- 
tion is (|uite mistaken : odee is to be read o 'Vr: cf. «c/i<j/ ancrin o ]ie ancre . 
Pet heo hit sn-a halile BC (on J/i . . . holde), schal ancret beo o pe anker . p ho hit 
sira sy halde T Oily:). — 17. wr heo ne stude!) neuer ancre irununge: sture!) tieauer . 
ancre wunung B. stut neaure ancre wununge C ^Mv), for a ne stuntep neure 
Nap. fragm.; B evidently punctuates correctly. 



242 Joel Pfthlssoii 

irli ilcojjii: jiriiiitr {(hiinicniliipf (,'i. — lU — ]>. n.").!! is in tlio inaiu 
ndded by the reviser; the 1'irst tvvo properties ascribed to the sparrow 
are mentioned in the earlier versions in other connections [X 152.22, 
17t).l) and are there differently explained. — 12. After Intolinrp 
we may put a colon; or insert pat, which has probably been omitted. — 
IT). Jii/m should be supplied after limn;. 

65. 12. Ecciis (without abbreviation-mark) for Ecclesiastiais; 
for riijilaiii honcstas read rifjilia Jioncstatis (tabefaciet carnes etc. ; 
Ecclus., XXXI. 1). — 13. pan yif — fi/iidc me (16) an addition; 
similarly 11. 20 — 24 and 1. 2(): in J5c /irsf ti/mc — p. 0(5.6. — ■ 
25. Cf. Luke, XII. 87: Beati serui illi, (pios cum venei'it dominus, 
inuenerit vigilantes. 

66- 7. Cf. Luke, VI. 12: & erat pernoctans in oratione Dei. — 
WiihiJ) inid liiddcp hjj ni^th: N (144.9) tcakcdc inc beoden al nilil. — ■ 
il. Aiid sii srhiilde — hc ^af hem his gracc (28) an insertion. — 17. And 
Jjiil is hilokncd by etc. seems to mean something like 'aud that ■ is 
said in illustration of ' ; cf. 1. 25; or else 'indicated, shown by". — 
20. Jie sc. the first son. — 31. And for pc c/rct i/oud — i/oddcs 
worscJiipp (32) has rather disconnectedly replaced the original rre <jod pct 
is punne N (144.12); cf. p. 67.17. — 33. and we ne loitep ichat fijme 
etc. : N (144.13) dend pet xoe beod sikcr of i ^tnsiJcer Jmonne. — 34. And 
vnsi/kcr tvJiider etc. is an addition; the construction seems confused, 
loJiider pat we scJitiUcn . goo apparently having been made dependent 
both on vnsykcr and on ivot ivc ncner; the stop after scJiiiUcn should 
be struck out and a dash may be put after f/oo. 

67. 2. After fledes a mark of exclamation. — 3,4. Cf. Matt., XII. 
36: Dico autem vobis quoniam omne verbum otiosum, quod locuti fuerint 
homines, reddent rationem de eo Ln die iudicij ; Luke. XXI. 18: 
capillus de capite vestro non peribit. The letters in the margin are 
a remnant of dominus. — 5. Of vcJie — pon poici^fte.it (14) not in ^V. 
9. Por (juandc read quando. In the marginal note the initial, ^l, has 
been cut off. — 15. ff. The stop after ivakcn should be taken as 
a colon; we may also insert a colon after «». The original passage 
reads as follows : ^ct pe sextc (!) pinc muncged iis fo wakicn : pet is 
pe seoruioe of Jicllc, per IjiJiold preo pinr/cs — pc untaJcJiclic pincn 
pet no tungc ne mci feJlcn — pe ecJicncsse of euerichon, Jjcf lcsfect 
wiituten ende — pc unimcfc Jntterncssc of eucricJion iV (144.19) '. The 
reading of P is not improbably due to a misunderstanding: erJienes.se 
which seems to have dropped out of use early in the 13th centuiy 
may have been associated with ecJie < OE. ccc, eeee, ace 'ache, pain' 
or with ei}c etc. •< OE. p^e 'fear, terror, dread', which would account 
for the alteration to .soroin, (16); the rest nf tlie passage has lieen elianged 

' N (144.19) hwat beo of umvreste wiUes etc. 'what will become of, what 
will happen to'. — 20. J)er bihold: p bihalt (toot-uote a) is eviilently the true 
reading: 'whicli coniprises'; cf. P 1. 15. — 21. echenesse: as sliown by this 
instance, the statenient in NED., s.v. Eclieness, 'only in phraae 0» or in 
echeness' is not quite correct. — 26. hire probably refl. 



Recluse 243 

accordingly. — 17. Iiou iiii/r/irl is pn iicdc iii pe hcuene as in *Y; C 
read.-i : Jjc iiiurliclv rcuuncg.ic uf pc lurc of pc iiiuchclc hlisse of hcouenc, 
uorlil hutcn cnilc; this seems more in keeping with the general nega- 
tive character of the rest of the points. — 18 ff. iclio so — hij — 
liym a common want of consistency. — "20 ff. abridged and altered 
from the original and thus the context and sense have siiffered; cf. 
.V (144.26) iSe stille nilit, hicon nie ne isihit noiciht Jjct lettc pe bone. 
pc heorte is ofte so scliir : uor no Jiinc nis icitncsse Jier of goil pef 
ine (K) peonne (leS Inite God one, x '"<* en(/el, pet is ine siciiche tinic 
hisilirhe ahuten to eijgcn us to r/ode. Uor ^er nis noiit forloren, ase 
is Iti dcic oflc. — For Jiat Jing erc. {'2-2\ is taken from an omitted 
passage i.^' 14t). 3 — 6) ' which makes the connection with what foUows 
rather abrupt. — 26. .y (^146.8) Hester, on Ebremsh, Jet is ihitd, an 
Eni/lish : 7 w to understondcn pct hone etc. ; similarly Assucr an 
Ebreuwish, is radi an English : pct is iire Louerd. — 29. In the 
original this quotation is referred to ancre Jiet icas iwunncd (K) 
inr hudlcs icel iioiic icurrhen. 7 scoitdcn . . . uppedc hit 7 scheawcdc 
X il4(i.l2;i. 

68. 2. oipcr siher stedc hoje added by the reviser; cf. 1. 7. — 
3. it refers to an original pi ijode iccrc, the object of dratcestaic out 
in an omitted passage. — paf is etc. originally given in explanation 
of in finem. — 7. pat is — 19 a later insertion; the context seems 
rather loose; the .sense of 11. 7. 8 may be : -That cwhat has been 
said just now) is (the meaning of bosom in the sense of ) 'privacy' ; 
(but) hosora (also) is "seciu-e place" land that) signifies' etc. — 8. hedd 
has apparently a generalized sense of •place", a meaning somewhat 
related to that in Cursor M. (Cott.) 002: pof pou icald euer liaiie haf 
sted In cahl sal eucr he pi hedde: cf. XED.. s.v. Bed S. — 9 ff. The 
connection is coufused ; pat mav' refer to pi [8) (: pou puf). which 
the reviser, with his usual want of consistency, has confoimded with 
the plm-al; or else it should be changed to pan and tcilnep taken 
as imp. pl.; ice (10) for y. — 16. kikijng for lil-gng. — pi seluen 
may have been omitted after of. — 20. gaudia for grandia JV (146.27) 
(Mx; MS. grdm K). — 21. After inhiare a colon. — niniiuni : N (148.1) 
iiiinimuin iMn; numinuin My : similarly B. nuinum T. Jlumuit (?) C\. — 
22. goode is Tl misunderstanding which has destroyed the meaning 
<>f the passage ; to make some sense as it stands, the stop after 
here 1 24) should be taken as a mark of exclamation; JV (148.1) Muchel 



' X (146.3" hu hit is to etc. : Ro p. 80 assumes an accidental omission ; 
liit ix uiul fo BCG (My). — 3, 14. uppe», uppede, 148.M iupped etc. 'disclo9e((l', 
OV.. yppaii: cf. 1. 24. — 4, lO.god dede a sing. compouml. — 10. The second pet rel. — 
26. treotceH: the translation given by Ms, 'judge', can hardly be considered 
iis correct; 1 take the sense to be •make an agreement, bargain, negotiate', 
OK. i/e-treiwiaii, ge-truirian 'to niake a treaty'; ge-treoirp 'a oovenant, treaty" 
(Bosw.T.); the parallel readings are: T mangeH 'barter', B truchi!), C trochii-S 
(My, 'truck, barter'; NKD., s.v. Truck v.': 'a. F. troqtier . . . Norman-Picard forra 
of (»F. 'trocher. in med. L. trocdre' : Du C.\n'gk, s.v. Trocare ; (cf. iVp. 408.15 
trukie. C Irukei, T manges, B leasked Fr. gtierpist) My). 



244 Joel PAlilsRoii 

iiirdschipc ' hit is. Iir sii(f. ilan iirl. i irilinii iroril Jjrinf: thni /iiriirr 
purtih mc buct pcnc Idncdom iif hcoucnc, 7 suUcd hit etc. — 25. Atter 
jiruphctc a colon. — '2G, 27. hondcn — it: note the inconsistency in 
numljers; hondcn «hould douhtle>is be corrected to hondc: X (148.6) 
hond. — Jt seincd as it hadd hcn of pe spitcl i/uel: i\'' (148.8) hiscniedc 
ode spitcl-rucl. — 27 ff. And pat 7vas etc. an abbreviation of the 
origiual: ct'. A' (148.8 ff.). — -^l. nicuin for mcain. — 32. After 
proiecit a colon; for alihi read ulhi. — 33. K (148.22) peos pel 
scheuweS hire god, heo haucct hipiled minc figer — ircnd of al pc 
rindc : despoiled {istruped C) hire sterc naked, 7 iworpen atcci etc. 

69. 1. white rondcs pere jnne: N (148.26) 7 foricurdcn (sc. 
hinces) to drtiie htcitc rondcs. — 4. pat probably ior pan: iV" (150.3) ' 
peonne is pct lif iitc . . . hivonne Jjc rinde is aiveie, ne nouiter hit ne hereit 
frut, ne hit ne yreneit . . . auh adiuiectpc howes etc. — (i.pc howystchan 
it iidedcp . it etc. an iuconsistency iu numbers, the siugular pronnun 
beiug kept from the original : N (150.6) pv houh, hicon hc adciidcct, 
hc etc. — 7 ff. The origiual passage has been much abridged and 
the sense destroyed; cf. K (150.8) Al so f/od dcdc J)rt iriilc adeadcn 
fortcorped hire rindc, pct is, unhclect hirc : pe rindc,pct irrih hit, pct is pc 
treouwes warde, 7 wit {tvites C) hit ine strencde jine cwicnessc (quicshipe C). 
Al so pe heliungc is Jye god dcdes lif, 7 halt hit inc strencitc. Auh htvonne 
peos rinde is offe, peonne . . . hwitect hit tvidnten ... 7 forleoscct pc sivct- 
nesse of Godes grace pet makede hit grene 7 licwurcte, god for fa 
hiholden. — 9. it should be supplied after put. — 12. of iil Jyis : K 
(150.17) hwarof al pis vuel com. — 13. nys pis grct rctipc a con- 
traction of the original ; cf. {K 150.17 ff.). — 15. goode dedc : K (150.22) 
heoueriche (K); cf. Matt., XIII. 44: Simile est regnum ca^lorum thesauro 
abscondito in agro etc. — 24. ylpen does not seem to be used 
trausitively, except with a reflexive object ; we should probably supply 
of. — 28. Aromaunce, aromancc, aromauntz are the curreut forms 
iu the text : to my knowledge similar forms have not l)eeu found 
elsewhere. — and should no doubt be inserted after Aroniiiunce ; K 
(152.7) pe ccllcs of his aronias, 7 his ntuchele frcsor, 7 his deoretvurctc 
pinges. — Comcn peues etc. not in K.: cf. 2 Kiugs. XX: 12 f. : 
Isaiah, XXXIX. — 29. Ki/s nou^fh i/tvriten etc. : K (152.8) Hit nis 
nout for noiit itvriten etc. — 30. latvys: N (152.10; lokcs, T lakes: 
the reading of F is doubtless due to a misimderstauding, as the 
original word was used only in OE. and early ME. (NED. gives 
the latest example from 1250). — 34. A passage of the original 

' Mn, Mr WOrterb., .Stkatm.-Be. render niedschipe by 'madness' ; I 
niay suggest nieSschipe 'raoderation, modesty' (< OE. niief)), which wouUl be 
the exact equivalenl of Lat. uerecutidia; cf. unmeischipe p. l^i^l.Vi^T madscliipe). — 
3. sidlef> should probably be corrected to sulle. — '.1. uppinge 'disclosure'. 

' adeaded for adeailet) 'dies'. — Mn's punctuatiou is not conect: after 
ireou sbould be put a comma ; adeadei) pe ireo hwen BTC (hwemie), Jienne 
adedet pe rote treo, kicen G (Mv). — 9. wrih for wrih^ 'covers'; torii) BC, wrid G, 
hules T (My). — Jiet is ]ie treouives tcarde etc. 'that is . . . and preserves'. — 
14. makede : the pa. t. should logicallj' be kept. 



Recluse 245 

i^V 152. 12 — 29 1 has lieen oinitted': ]>art ot it is toiunl ou ]>. (>4.4 tf. 
Also the lines which tollow have l>een abridged and altered. 

70. 1. Somethiug has evideutly to be supplied : that he be not 
hindered, he shoiild tlee the society of men. — piii may be changed 
to pait. — 2. ..V (154.2) * Vor . . . me iviiit pef God liis (lerne runes, 
1 his heouenlivhe priuitez scheairede his leoue frcond, i nout i iiionne 
rloc : auh dudc per heo treren one Iri hain sulucn. — G. The first part 
of the Latin quotation is from Gen.. XXIV. 63. — 7. For creditum 
read crcditur. — 9. goodc (/race: X (154.14) Godcs gracc. — 10. £• 
quicquid hahet iiicnt '■'•. cf. X (154.161 Et quicquid hahct iiierifi jirrr- 
rcnfrix (jratia donat. — 11 ff. Although the liues uiay give some 
sense as they stand, there is evidently an omissiou: cf. X 1 154.18 1 AJso 
Pe eadie laf-oh, po (K) rre Loucrd schcawcde hiiii his dcoreiruritc nclischeft 
(K) ... he was ifloire incn etc. — 13 ff. The connection has been 
lost owing to the complete alteration of the latter j^art of the original 
passage: cf. X (154.21) Bi Moisen i bi Ilelic . . . is sufel i edcene 
hwuc haret i hu dredful Uf is euer ainong prungc etc. — 19 i. The 
original is verj- carelessly rendered: A' (156.1) ^ Hit seict pef te eadic 
Icreiiiie sef one t i scid pc rcisun hiri: quia (Ki coinminationc fua . . . 
Vrc Loucrd hefdc ifuld him etc. The following alterations are sug- 
gested: after «7// a colon. change forrc to forpc (paf). and hap to 
had. — 20. cominunicacionc for comminafionc : the passage which 
follows differs considerably from the original version : cf. A' ( 156.3 ff.). — 
26. ff. After lercinie a colon: dedit for dahit: cf. Jer.. IX. 1: Quis 
dabit capiti meo aquam. & oculis meis fontem lacrj-marum ? & ploral)0 
die ac nocte interfectos filiw populi mei. — 30. Possibly a line has 
been dropped: X (156.10) to ///.•>■ iroji lokett nu hu he hit ontich sfude, 
pc hoii prophctc. Quis dahif mihi diuersorium in solitudinc? — rorte 
schcaircn irifferlirhe prf hiro sc wule liiwcopen etc. : the latter part of the 
original jjassage has been left out. — 32. Cf. Lament., III. 28: Sedebit 
solitarius, & tacebit: quia leuauit super se. — 33. vfis a scribal error 
for mil. — 34. hciyn hgni sclf abouen hijm .'iclf is in X (156.25) 
explained thus : mid heic liue, heic touicard hcouenc otier liire cundc. 

71. 2. to Sjiclccn and to hisechen: the sense is exactly o])posite 
to that contained in the quotation and required by the context : X 
(156.20) God hit is inc silencc ikepen Godcs gracc. i tct mc hcrc etc. — 



' The following mistranelntions should be corrected: A^ (152.13) aae pe 
niht fuel Pet ancre is to iefned 'like the night-bird to which the anchorite 
is compared'. — 25. he seid bi ancre "he says of an aiichoress'. 

' X (154.7; ant is stressed: 'we also fimi'; tlie other MSS., however, 
read: aa nie ifint B, oa me fint C, mon findes T :;Mv). — s. fet: ter (?K'!; ; 
per godd edeairde ham : schairde him seolf to ham . ; -,ef B, r per god schairede 
him seolf to ham . ; -,ef C, ; ter ijodd visited ham . ; scheaicede him self to 
ham . ; -,ef T My). — 14, 18 etc. eadie 'blessed'. 

' Krrors by Ms: S (loH.l) set pa. t. — 6. leihtren 'vices', OK. leahter. — 
15. pet is, beu tcust etc. 'that ii< being, living, interiourse'; B beoiciste p is 
icununge bimong «len, C bimong men iirist, T beust bimong men ^My); cf. 
p. 11)0.1. — 17. «i<lfr proii. 



246 Joel PAhlssoii 

3. llv liiirp ijihIiIvs yik — smt (7) an additiou. — S. Ilc pitt ivil so tln: 
the correspondinfi original passage connects with the quotatiou 
p. 70.32; iu the revision the verses have been transposed; cf. Lament., 
TTT '26 (p. 71.1), 27 (p. 71.6: Bonum est viro, cum portauerit 
iugum etc), 28 (p. 70.32), 30 (p. 71.7). — t». J5c sautcrc: cf. note 
to 1. 8. — pet-e hen tivo pcwca: N (158.1) Hcr benct, in peos n-ordcs, 
two eadie tvordes [pciitvcs BCT My) to iiofen sm(tc y-orne . . . polcmod- 
ncsse, in perc uorine littlf, j in pc liitcrc cdmodnessc, of niildc j of 
meokc Jicorte. — 12 ff. seint Jolin pc Baptist etc: the passage is 
an instance of anacoluthon ; the reviser has considerably altered the 
original and in doing so has lost the context. — 14. uuliorum for 
uulicruni. — Ki. ne aros non hciyr etc : N (158.10) ne aros ncver 
liclerc. — The passage no - — as liij hcn now (23) is not found in 
rhe original version. — no shoiild doubtless be taken as noic (NED., 
S.V.: no 13th cent.) — 23. hcn : ivcrcn would seem to be more logical; 
the reading may be due to inlluence from the preceding identical 
word. — In the following lines the original has been altered and 
abridged: cf. ^V (158.11 ff . ; 1. 24 cf. N 160.6). — 28. Be for Ve; 
cf. Isaiah, VI. 5: Vse mihi, quia tacui, quia vir polhitus labijs ego 
sum. — 29. ich am umonges tnen etc : N (158.22)' ich aiii n iiinii (K) 
mid suiledc lippcn; cf. 1. 32. — 33. A fuU stop after spechc. 

72. 2. inid so dupe — pe deede is wers (5) an insertion. — 
(!. pnt hc fitUcd ourc lordc etc: the original has been contracted and 
carelessly rendered ; cf. jV (KiO.s) Hc hiyt Jwt lic wiis Godcs hajitistc — 
pe muchcle lieihnessc pct lic hcold, inc fiiluhtc uiidcr his hunden, 
prnc Loucrd of heoucne . . .: pcr pcr^ pe holi prumncssc sclicaicude 
liirc iil to hiiii (Hmjjcct al to hiiii C) etc — 9. After pnjuelefies may 
be put a colon and another jirijuelegc supplied: N (160.13) he Itiyt 
peos prco biyatcn (prcminences BT, pre eniinences C My) — prittilege 
of prcchnr etc — 10. Crorne opnn crovne is a fragment of the ori- 
giual passage ; cf. V (lt)<i.i4 ff.); the omission may be accidental and 
due to a confusion nf thc two medes iu the original (11. 14. 15). 
Then foUows a long interpolation : Ac for pis point — satt noujth 
ivip pc wiclced p. 76.14. — 13. prto fnr pcrto. — 14. A colon should 
be put before John and a dash after Baptist. — 17. dn twice, by an 
nversight. — 20. A colon before pat, a comma after scidc. ■ — 34. Cf. 
Prov., XIII. 20: Qui cum sapientibus graditur, sapiens erit ; amicus 
stultorimi similis efficietur ; Wycl.: Who with wise (joth, a wis iiian 
shitl hcn ; thc frcnd of folis lic shal he maad (schal he maad Jijk Jiem). 

73- 1, '2. /(/;■ — hc : inconsistency in uumber. — 4. pcrfore he 
scip: there is no person tn whom hc would logically refer: it might 
appropriately be chauged tn it. — 5. hof yf it hc connects -witli Kcjic 
pe out of Jiis compairjnijc ji. 72.;i0. — 12. Jest pat Jic nc talr ni> 

' iV (158.22) ir»»»»i<"n: MS.i wttmme (K); so also 507" (My); thi.s may 
be a weakened form of wo me. 

' per per 'there where'; or perhiips pet per. — 14. I>eoa is the oUject 
of Jiabbei) and refers to priuilege of precJiur etc. 



Rechise 247 

>:iliinr: tlie negative is redimdant : the construction is doubtless a lilend- 
iuj; of lest lir tnlr si/nne and pal he ne Utke no synne. — 24. The 
quotation is strangely rendered: ct'. Wvclif, Gal., VI. 14: Forsntli he 
it ferr to me for to glorie, no Init in tlie ernss of mire Lord Jliesu 
Crist. 

74- 10. J>ere should probal)ly be supplied before Jioroii}. — 
11. 12. The connection has apparentlj' heen loat: pnt ieli rnderstnndc 
piit wus should appropriately be left out. — 13. pis abs., stressed ; 
the .stop after li/f stands for a colon. — 23. Another lic referring 
to « M«« of lioli/ cliirclie (20) should be understood as the sul)ject 
of took: — 25, 20. Iie — lier: confusion of nuinber. — 29. neuere liitter: 
NED., s.v. Neverlat(t)er gives t\eo examples from Caxton, Cliron. 
Eng. — 31. liirnge: no instance of the aphetic fomi of the word with 
i seems to be recorded: XED., Mh WSrterb., s.v. Arrearage, Arerage 
give the form arrirage from Hampole. Pr. Consc. 5913: cf. further 
Cath. Angl., s.v. Arrerage (note). I mav add some examples. noted 
in P. Pl., MSS. PE: cf. C-Text (EETS.)" XH. 297, Xni. 63, XVI. 
288. notes. — 32. Sylvester"s alleged acceptance of the donatinn of 
Constantine is referred to in several places in Wyclifs Engl. Works 
(EET.S. 74): the utterance of the voice from heaven, p. 75.3, occurs 
almost verbally on p. 380: cf. also P. Pl.. C. X^TQ. 220 ff. 

75. 16. seuendaies: cf. XED., s.v. Seven 5. — 20.. penclic ior 
Pencliep owing to the foUowing initial J). — 29. pise Mcn etc. con- 
neets with p. 74.18. 

76. 2. haddrn lier lierhcrcirc to .pouere nicn : to may here have 
the sense -of. from" as in 117' seeap fiiltnm to S,e (a Domino). Hi 
to lioiiie him fiiltiimes hddon Bosw-.T.. s.v. T6 I. 5 h : WCLFIXG, 
Syntax, II. ijS; 874, 882: cf. V p. 60.8: Huef mat/ pe sone betcre ucsg 
to his uuder Jjaiinr hread:' Ayenb. : NED., s.v. Ask 10: or else hudden 
meaus 'offered": XED.. s.v. Bid 1. — 5. hcri/ng seems to give poor 
sense; it should perhaps be changed to beryng: cf. 1. 32. — 16. uariaria 
a slip for miria: cf. Luke, I. 28: Aue gratia plena. — 18. pan sclie 
tcas myclicl one: K (160.21) pcnnne heo wasinne^ — in onliehe stude, 
al liire one. — 19 ff. In the passages which follow, the texts present 
considerable divergencie.s : in the illustration from the life of the 
Holy Virgin X (160.23) has: piiriih Jjct nnulucarc ine holi writc nis 
iicriten of liire .^pcche, hiitc uor [foinrrr C) siiten, . . . suicl preofunge 
is Jrt lieo tcas muclicl one, pe hcold so silcnrc: the passage on fhe 
solitude of Our Lord, in our text contracted and partlj' spoilt, X 
(160.26 ff.) gives as foUows: He wende liim sulf onc into onliche stude, 
7 fc.flr per ase (K) hc was onc icte icilderne.s.se : rorte schcairen prrbi 
pct nmong nionne prung ne mri tioii makim rilitr jirnilrner. prr in 



' Ms" mi.uunderstands the passage ; /ieoime means 'wlien'; so, hesitatingly, 
Dahi.stedt, The Word-order of the Ancr. K., p. 17. — 25. Huat seche we 
oiyre? god one irere inouh forbisne to alU. 'Wliy do we seek otliers (nther 
exaniples)? Of God alone were enougli cxainple to all': God'e example nlone 
would .suffice for all. 



248 Joel i'Alilsson 

onlichv sti((li' liiiii JiKni/rnlr . . . pir lir pnhdi: Jjct te iieotid uotidrdf 
hitii uvole u-ein etc: tlien the original argumeut is interrupted by a 
long interpolation, 1. '24 — iii Jtis boolc p. 7it.l4. ■ — 28. ivc evidently 
an uncorrected scribal error ; and .so, probably, is iti h/iie m tlie next line. 

77. 7. Cf. 1 John. IV. 1:... omni spiritni. — 15. u peri 
po.s.sibly to be read a-pert: cf. NED.. s.v. Pert a. 1. — 15, 16. A 
dash atter queytitisc and sijniplc. — Swieli hcii etc. : the inconfrruity 
of nuiuber should be noted. — 23 ff. Ourc lord seide pis eiisaiiiplc: 
cf. p. 0(3.12 ff. 

78. 25. /(W, Jic contrast tlie precediup jJurals. The stop after 
liert acts as a colon. — 26. After jHtrt a dash; Jie should be mider- 
stood as the subject of notf. — 29. Jiij another change in number. — 
31. vpon here causal; cf. Edcexkel, Streifziige, p. 193; Schjudt, 
Shakesp. Lex., s.v.; its combination iu this sense with a personal 
ot)ject seems to be singular. 

79. 1 ff. Jier (1) — Jie (2, 3) — Jietn (4) etc: another case of 
the frequeut confusion of sing. and phir. pronoims, here caused by 
vcJie iiati which is singular in fonn. plural in sense. — 3. croJccd 
in this counection possibly used as a uomi with an original sense of 
•crookedness, deformity'; cf. NED., s.v. Crooked 2 ; as an apparent 
aualogy I may point to OE., ME. drunJcen 'drunkenness' (NED., s.v. 
sb,); also ON, hunden 'what is boimd, sheaf etc. ; cf , Noreen, Altisl. 
Gr. § 415 a, 2; Arkiv for nord, fil,, VI, p, 361; probably, however, 
the word is to be considered as au adj,, illogically combined with 
the precediug uouus, aud a verb [hc) has to be uuderstood ; for parallel 
instauces cf, IvocK, Rule of St, Beuet, lutr. § 138. — 8. o/'twice, 
by an oversight, — 14, ff. rather discomiected fragments of the 
original argument; cf. JV (162.1 ff.). — 16. N (162.]) Jiiiii Juingrede . . . 
uorto urouren ancre pet is ttieseise {in meseise CT) has been expanded 
into the passage 11. 16 — 20. — 21 ff. abridged and altered; Bji 
Hill — lijf ('22) an additiou; hjue lowcUcJi etc. (23): N (162.13) leauen 
loivc under iis alle eorctUclie pouJites, Jteo Imulc Jet u-e hcoct iite heoden. — 
23. to sivicJie ucn — atid (josflich hupe (2b): the correspondiug passage 
iu N (162.4 ff.)^ connects with the illusti-atiou from the temptation 
of Christ (cf. P p. 76.23), aud is intended as a comfort to those 
who live a solitai-y life and are thus more than others subjected to 
the temptings of the devil. — 26. swiche uen etc originally has 
refereuce to pious men and women uamed iu an omitted passage as 
examples of secluded living, pleasing to' C4od. — 30. Hou tiii}fh he 
scic — p. 80.9 is an insertion ; Jie vaguely refers to the author of 
the precediug quotatiou, who is inadvertently given as Jercmias (cf, 
foot-note) for leronimc N (102.18). 

80. 5. discUe a mc : dicitc (Luke. XVII. 10): cf. p. 57.19. — 



' N (162.4) onde 'enniity'. — ib. monie titen ; wunitnen boSe 'many men 
and wonien also, men as well as women,' — 18. There is nothing in tbe ori- 
ginal tliat can be appropriately rendered by 'likewise'. 



Recluse 249 

10. nvc for nc. — 13. vs evidently an uncorrected taulty bejiinninfr 
of the following word, possibly a mistake of the ear (for «»■(«■)»■-). — 
tiregeinc cf. p. 5.27. note. — 17. niit o/" Mew: JV (162.27) iit of iiioiiiic 
sUiitc. — forhisc: the form is probably due to the accidental omission 
of the abbreviation-mark over the e; or it may be a faiilty sing. 
fonnation of a presumed pl. forhisen : cf. NED., s.v. For-bysen v.: 
forhyse (erron. : 14th cent.) — 18. Al pis Onynge — do good (21) 
mainly an insertion; similarly And perc -J speke (23) — to pe ende 
(27); cf. X p. 204.5. — Onyngc, in this connectioii, must mean ■being 
alone, seclusion', a sense which, so far as I am aware, has uo parallel 
anywhere else. — 21. Eot resouns pere hen iclii etc. : X {lii-i.l) efter 
pc iiorlAsnes, ihereS nu rcisuns hiciii me oiih for to fteon pene irorld : 
cihte reisuns et te leste. — The peculiar foi-m Eot I can only explain 
as due to some strange inadvertencj- on the part of the scribe (or 
perhaps originally £15/, with i and 5 nm closely together and the 
lower curve of the 5 imperfect or subsequently effaced). — 26. aping 
probably for a Jiing: XED. gives one example of othing from 1573. — 
After unoper a colon. — If al might be taken in subst. use (■the 
whole of it"), this instance would be remarkable as being much earlier 
than related examples in NED. (17th cent.); possibly pe should 
l)e considered as the pers. pr., inconsistently used for the pl. — 
27 ff. The connection is abrupt, the original matter having been con- 
ti-acted and differently an-anged. — 3'7 " '*'*'''*-' Lyoun etc: this is the 
first reason: cf. X (164.4)* pe uorine (sc. reisun) is sikernesse. ^if 
iiicod (K.) liun etc. ■ — 33. The translation has been added. — 35. After 
rcsdiin a colon. 

81. 2 ff. The passage has to some extent been changed and 
genei-alized and thus the context, especially in the latter part. has suffered: 
cf. A' (164.13 ff.). — 5. fle iuaccurately for flesch. — 11. After icrddcd a 
semi-colon. — and aflerward tca^ niagden: X (166. l)- Scoffen pauh, nes 
hc mciden neuer pe unholre. — 15 ff. The argument in these lines is 
elliptical and disconnected owing to a considerable contraction of the ori- 
ginal; cf. A' (166.4 ff.) . . . meidenhod 7 clenncsse in oure hruchele 
flesche, . . . yif y tceren ide ivorldes prunge, mid a lutel hurliinge 
(hurtUnge T, purJunge C) yc niuhten al uor leosen . . . Ant foipi 
urc Loucrd cjcnpcct pus: In mundo etc. Cf. John, XVI. 33: Ha?c 
locutus sum vobis, vt in me pacem habeatis. In mimdo pressuram 
haliebitis etc. — 17. pe priddc etc. : JV (166. 12) pc priddc reisun of 
pe icorldes fliihte is pe Ijiyate of heouene. pe heournc i,s swuSe heih .' 
hico se tciilc hiyiten [hlwinnen C) hirc (hit T), . . . hirc {hil 7") is hitel inouh 
etc. — 19. Cf. Rev., XII. 1: Et signiuu magnum apparuit in ciielo: 



' N (164.11"! Vor pi beoiS ancren icise 'therefore are anchoresses wise'. — 
28. Nefde he Po ipouht . . . meidenhod uorte uorleosen 'hatl lie not then thought 
to lose ;iliil he not think that he had loat) virginity?' 

' iV. (166.2) Tbe tirBt nieiden 1 take as the subject, the second as the 
indir. obj., and strike out the comma. — 4. oure 'your'. — 25. 'The fourth 
reason is a proof etc. 



250 Joel PAlilsfon 

JIuliiT aiuic-ta sole etc. Thc (|notation is orifrinally iniroiluceil in 
illustration oi' n precediuf; j^assape. omitteil iu tlie revision: ..Y(1()G.16) 
Vor J)i uUe pc haleicen makcdni of al Jje iri/rlde ase anc niol {schcomel 
BC, sheouiel G. schamel T My) to hore ucl. iiorto urechcn J)e hcoiiciie. — 
21. Bi/ J)C sunne — 1. 24 mainly an addition in 1'. — '22. Jjc .should 
probably be supplied before sojje and the stoji atter the word omitted. — 
28. inid ne Inkc — fjon J)c iriselicher (p. 82.6) an insertion: there is 
somethin^ corresjwndinjr to tlie first lines. in a ditferent connection. 
in .V (2(14.1 IT.). 

82. (>. pe /ierjjc rcsoini !.•<: X (l(iil.2n) p< iieorijc reisuni.s 
preoiic of noblesce 7 of hiri/cssc. Xoble men etc. — 8. Anil f/oildcs 
spousc is gentil: N (IG8.2) 7 iiout (sc. hercn bur/i/c etc.) (iodes spi(.fe, 
pet is lefdi of heouene. — 10. Jt fallej) to tnm/ei/s has been misplaced : 
it should preferably be comiected with tiei/cui/ldcs (8) as in the ori- 
ginal. • — her illogically referring to spousc ('Jj. — 11. A uan — 
J5e»'e rjjon (13) inserted. — 14 ff. The connection is loose and the 
sense of the original has been lost. the passage liaving been altered 
and abridged: cf. X (1()8.5) . . . iioljlr mmi 7 wummen niul.-ied lurgc 
relef. Auh hico mci makien luri/cre rrlef Jjeuc pr octer^ Jjeo Jiet seiit 
niid Seinte Pctcr, Eece nos etc. — As is shown liy the context. relet 
means 'that which is left or giveu up by one' : cf. XED.. s.v. 
Eelief ' 1 a (to me, however. it seems more appropriate to place 
this instance from Ancr. R.. the only example given, imder 2: 'the 
remains of food left after a meal : leavings, scrajis' : see also 
Promp. Parv., Cath. Angl. (EETS.), s.v. Relefe. notes: Mx -ahns" 
is. an inadequate rendering: so also his translation of loaue (U) <: 
()E. Ii'if -what is left. remainder"). To judge froni the association 
with h/uerec and good wn it seems probable that the reviser has 
taken reli/f in the sense of 'relief. help. assistance' (cf. Mx). — 
16. relinquimus for reliquimus: cf. Matt.. XIX. 27. — 17. and foloiccn: 
iY(lG8.8) for teuohmen.- — 18. Whut foisook Peter — alleManerevices (20 1 
lias replaced the original argument : X (168.8 ff.) Xis J)is large 
relef':'... kingcs 7 kfiiserrs huliliriT hnrr liileoiir [hare Uuenctt- B(r 
(liuenact) My) d/ ouir Ifiri/r rrlrf J,rt y (K) halilirit ileaued . . . pu 
(se. Louerd) lcfiucdcsl . . . allr rirhrssrs . . . : ler tcullect fohiwcn Jje . . . 
bileauen ul ase pu dudest, 7 folunrif [jr rr 011 eortte etc. — 23. Cf. 
Rev., XIY. 4: after ierit a dash.. the loilowiug words being added 
in explanation: X (168. lO) rlroi/ur srilicrt pcdr. — 24. pat w — 
uagdens (25) an addition in /'. — 2(). X (IG8.21) pi si.rte reisun 
is . . . familiuritate : J)ct is, fortc (K) beoii (fumiliarite . muchc cunrcdden . 
forte beo B, familiurite . Muehel euttpraddcn . foiie beon G, p is to 
tieo C, famiJinritr . Miirlir riiitrrdiir . fir ti> lir T My) priiii' miil urc 



' The sign of interrogation after oiVr shouki be struck out, pe and Jteo 
being determ. pron.; Jieii Jie o^er fieo pe sei<) BG (Jieue). Jimne Jje oiVc pe 
seii) C, pen lie oi^er heo p seis T i,'than thc man or the wonian who saith') My; 
cf. p. 182.3. 



Reclnse 251 

Loitvnlv. — 31. Cf. Hosea, XI. !•: . . . quoiiiaiu Deus ejio. & non lionio : 
in uieilio tui .sanetus, & non ingreiiiar [X iiii/redior K) ciuitatem. — 
3'2. X (l70.l)^<' Sfouede reisun is, uorie beou pe briliture, ^ ''' brilitluker 
iseon ine /leoueiic Godes bri/ite nebse/ieft : the re.st ol' the passage has 
been left out in the revision. 

83. 1. se/ie wns assurs quene: X (170.10)' /leo uas (te (K) /.inr/e 
Assuer ouer nlle ictvenie. — 2. as ini/ytt;/: mi/c/iel as sliould possibly 
be su]jplied. — 3, 4. /lerep. grauntep: the sfriking present forms are 
apparently due to an omission of a passage in the original: j\' (170.12) 
pes nome Assucr is ispeled cadi . . . T bitoenect God : eitdi oiter (illc. 
llc ytictt Ilesfer pe cwcne, pet is, J>e treoicc ancre ... — /le i/iered 
/lirc, 7 ytte^ /lire alle /lirc bonen etc. — 6. iiaradoc/ics: X (170.18) 
Mardoc/ieits. — 7. totreden pe sc/iemeful: X (170.19) bitferlic/ie to- 
tredindc penc schomeleasc. — - 8. ««// pinri spchrn etc. : X (170.20) 
Sc/iome/eits is pe inon ottcr peo tcummon pct dcd eni nnfowcsc/iipe, 
o(ter scid, biuoren ancren. — 9, /lij bcp jHtn; an omissiou in the 
revision has caused a break in the context ; cf. X (170.21) 3'/ '""* 
Pau/i so do (sc. de(t eni untoi(;e.^c/iipe etc), 7 /leo breke bifferlic/ie /lis 
uniotvc word . . . peonne ' is /ico Hester, Mardoe/ices dou/iicr, bitterlie/ie 
tc-ircdinde pcne sc/iomclease. bitterlu/curer (K) ne beterc ne mei /leo 
/lam neuer Ijre/icn pen . . . mid, Xarrarerunt etc. To restore the 
connection, either omit /lij (cf. seip, wcndep 11. 1<). 17) or cliauire 
the ind. verbal forms to subj. : be, rnderni/me. — 11. Cf. p. .S!t.20. — 
12. The translation added: similarly 1. 15. — 13. per an accideutal 
repetition of the precediiig syllable. — 17. Scmep: X (IIO.^B) Scinei: 
cf. 1 Kings, n 36 ff. The connection is abrupt : the preceding 
passage in ,A' rims thus: wende (sc. ancre) inward anon imiwurd /lire 
wcouede : 7 lioldc /lire ei /lome, ase dude Ilesicr pe i/iudde. Seinci 
etc. — 21. j\' (172.8) Seinei hitocneS Pc uiwarde ancrc . . . pc ancre 
pet /lauect asse earcn, lonije, umie i/ieren ueor etc. The lines that 
follow are disconnected fragments of the .sequence of ideas in 
..V( 1 72.12 ff.)' : Shemei was in Jerusalem, which nieans 'sight of peace "and 
.signifies a monastery where there ought to lie nothing but peace. 



' N (170.7, 8) /oiei) nu ^eottie hiraretwre. />« edmode cieeue Hester etc. 
'now coMsider attentively why. Tlie nieek Queen Esther' etc. — 1". uor hiron 
Jiet 'provided tliat'. 

' A dash «liould be placed after deden (23) and a comma after telliiuge, to- 
trede being parallel to breke (22): 'If, bowever, any one do so, aiul she crush 
(interrupt) ... — trauiple upon theui, 1 say, at once with (their) shamelesB 
speecli, then slie is Esther'. 

' In the original passages the following points may be noted : 
p. 172.5. The seioud him for the pl. — uoluice for iiolmeed \ /olhede ham i brec 
ut B, fole;ede ham . irende ut CG (folehede) T [folhede) (My). — 12. hire for 
him: so the other M.SS. (My). — 23, 24. heo, hore pl. referring to iHHes. — 
2~. folmcen for foluwei). — 174.19. bigtepped: Mn 'stepped'; so also NED., Mr 
WOrtorb., Stk.it.m.Br. (besitatingly); this rendering seeuis uiost questiouable; 
the other MSS. read : bitrept B, bitrepped C\ bitrappet T (My); the reading 
of N may have a similar sense, though a connection seems dlfficnlt to 
«stablish; or elae the form is due to some error (e for 0?). 

17 



252 Joel Pfihlseon 

Sliemei, the recluise, shonld never offend Soloinon. our Lonl : .slic 
should stay in Jeru.snlem and 8olomon will ^dadly jrrant her his ^srrace : 
but if she occupies hersell' more than .slie ought, with external things. 
she is gone out of Jenisalem, as IShemei after his servants: these 
are the five senses which should stay at home and serve their lady: 
if she lets them nm away throujrh heedlessness and follows theiii 
with her heart, she breaks the covenant and is doomed to death. 
Esther. however, means not only •hidden' but also •exalted', to show 
that those who hide tliemselves in their monastery shall be exalted 
in heaven. Au anchoress should always consider that she has fled to 
the sanctuai-j- of the church, for there is not one that has not at 
some time been a thief against God : she shovild keep close within — 
body. sense. and heart above all — for if .she goes out, she has to 
be hanged on the gallows of hell; she should fervently pray to God. 
as a thief that has fled to the church, to protect her from all who 
lie in wait for her ; she should be chirping (cf . P p. (54.10) her 
prayers like the sparrow, for David compares an anchoress not only 
tn the pelican but also to the sparrow. — Also the following passnge. 
11. 31 ff., has been much contracted: cf. X (176)'. — "23. -^oure liini.s 
pdf is Jerusalem ~,oiire body: N (172.13) pis word Jertisaleiii, speleiX 
silicte of peis {f/rid C), ( hitocnect ancre lius . . . Hohle liire et lioiiie, 
ine Jerusaleiii : after hofhi a semi-colon. — 27. The construction 
is irregular; a dash may be piit after jnne. — 29. hij inconsistently 
for ^r. 

84. 3. Xe icciie non etc: this is the beginning of the fnurtli 
jiart. — fi. After strenr/er a dash. — 10. tune: etini X. — 
•2(1. iiiil:eil nf iille iiiKiile pewes etc. : N (178.18)" hwii Jru ert poure 7 
iiuLed iif liolincsse, 7 iiostiiclie wrecche. — 21. 22. There is a confusion 
in construction: is (21) and c& (22) should be left out. — 30. The 
Biblical quotation is introduced by the reviser. — 33. ct two inancr 
fiindi/nffcs: X (180.1)... pet tico manere teinptaciuns — tico kuniie 
iioiidiiniies — tjcoct: instead of <{• might be put a dasli. 

85. In the revision the passages on this page have fared rather 
liadly, owing to numerous omissions aud misunderstandings, and the 
sense has in places been destroj^ed. Thus. the original argument 
corresponding to 11. 1 ff. is as foUows : A' (180.3) Vtfre uondunr/e is Invaruf 
cuincct likuni/c octcr iiiistikunfie, tciitufcn octcr wittinncn. Jlisliluiifie 
wictuten — ase sienes.ic . . . MisUkuntie ivictinncn — ase licortc sor 
etc. — 4. tcipoutcn ticii pise fonitiini/es : X (180.7)* lil;un(/c icictuten. 



' ^'(176.11). bitunei): JMv ^rives tbe correc-t reailing' as ti/iHieO; ^wiei) £C', 
fiiiies T. — '20. bihet pa. tense. 

- .V (178.21) hine evidently refers to te sike. — 25. bi 'of (Rg p. 126). — 
'2H. iras one iriHHten sunne: My eonsiders the refl<ling cornipt; cf. ane irii) 
uten BTC. 

' N (180.7). Cf. B onont p ha i» jnne . licunge irii) uten licoines heale. 
T onont p he is ipinet likinge iriit uten licomes heale, C licomes heale iriduten, 
is liennye (My); likunge, contrasting Mislikunge (4\ begins a fresh sentence; 



Reclnse 2k>3 

<ise licoinfa lieiilc etc. — 5. nijjir ;('/' n tiinii etc: anoilier rniission 
has spoilt the context; cf. J\"(18U.9) Likimijf uiitiiiiivN — iiae sinn iials 
i/lolsiliipc, oSer of mimiie liereicnril, oifir vf nie is iluueil iinire peii 
itniiSer etc. — 8 t'f. : T (J8U.ii) peos dnle of Jiisse lcmpUiciuii Jtet is 
iittre icleopcih is stcikiilitre (K) prtt Jtc o(ter linlf. lioite lieoit Jjaiih o 
lcmiifaiiiiii : 7 eiitcr iiiititiiieit t tciituteti, lioite of liire ttvo (loleti. — 
1"J. liktiije fov Hkytige. — 15. Cf. JN' (ISU.I.^) peos fonduiiges cuined 
oitcrliules of Goil, x oderhttles of mon : fonihitige of Goil — iise of 
frenilcs deuite, 7 siinesse on hain, oiter o pi sulf: pouertc, mishep, \ 
oitcr .sninhe: hcale also and eisc. — IG. it illopically for the jilural. — 
«/' shoukl lie inserted before hcin. — 17 ff. tiii/slil.gng of icoo rd etc: 
X (18U.18) Fondungc of mon — ase mislich tvoiih (asc luislicunge of 
Jjocht C), o3er of u-orde oiter of werke, o Jie, oitcr ojine : alse hcrcirord, 
oiter goddede. peos kumep (K) also of God, auh nout ase doit pe 
oitre, tciituten euerich middel : aiih inid alle etc. — 22. ben of mys- 
likynge cnpetces etc. : ..V (18U.22) Inre londungcs heod inisliche un- 
iteautces, oiter lust touicard hain : oiter sivikelc Jonhtcs, Jct Juncheit 
Jjuuh gode (Mx's punctuation i.s probably not correct : tnisliche i.s 
doubtless 'to be considered as qiialifj-inp the following noun; cf. tnis- 
lirhc unpeaivcs BCT (mislich) My). — 28. «('■ lechcn £■ techeii an 
insrance of dittogi-aphy. 

86. 3. A full stop after tofornc. — apync: a pyiie. — 4. iic 
for iis. — 7. yoto hoiv schaUou knotve — 11«« oipcr icoinmnn (28) 
an insertion by the reviser. — 11. The stop after niakyng to be 
taken as a colon. — 13 ff. Alter ynieleshcde a colon, after inyskcpynge 
and ijueyntise (15) a semi-colon. — 19. A colon should be placed 
after god. — Instead of tce.rep. the inf. might have been expected: 
liowever, an indefinite «(rtw may be understood as the subject. — 
2!(. pus is sekcnessc soulc Hclc refers to the following original pas- 
sage which has been omitted in the revision: X (182.12)*... pis 
mi.'ictvemeit God (P 1. 7). Auh simcsse pet God sent deS pcos stjc 
pingrs — trascheit peo sunncn pet tceren er itirou/itc: tcardeit (treorned C) 
lo ycin peo pet iceren (hcoit C) toutcurdcs : preotieit pucicncc : halt 
inc rdmodncsse : x niucheleit Pe niedc : 7 cfncit Jjenc Polemode to tnurtir. 
Pus is etc. — 3U. hij: X (182.16) pus is sicncsse soule leche (heale BC 
My) ... 7 srhcld. pct hco ne keccheit mo. - — 32. And hc is good maistrr etc. : 



the stop after wrei>^e shoiild probably be Btruck out {u-rei)t)e also) anci an 
omission assunied after i«. Rg p. 1H2 pnts a colon after is and takes heo 
«s referring to Vttre uoiidu)i;/e {3',; liis ezplanation is inipossilile. — 11. />eos 
'this'. — IS. hire 'its' refers to teniptaciuii. — 14. Cf. B oi^er i ftiiig wid ulen, 
tfier of ping iri!) uten. C tiriiit icii) iiten . oi^er of Jiing tni) uten. T oi)er ijtmg irii> 
utrti oDer ojiiny icO) inneu Mv;; B seenis to give a reasonablo sense : the 
reading acconls with M . .. sed vocatur exteriu.<i quia est m re rel ile re exteriori 
tMx p. 181, foot-nole . — 27. schulen 'sliall': Ru p. 2^. — 2'.'. elne 'comfort'. 
' X ^82.'.!' vorte Jiolien hot "hot to endiire'; B hat forte Jiolien . ah na 
ping neclensei) etc, CT hat for to polien etc. Mv). - 13. halt ine edtnodnefse 
'keeps in humility'. 



254 Joel PAhlsson 

.V (1M"2.18) .SiciHnsv mukvit nnni ti; itintvrstontliii . . . 7 asiiintt iiivixtrr. 

Iltl lllilll ctc. 

87. i>. i(' »"('.'/ ptissf — lifit' a ratlier disconnected addition. — 
IH. pise tij)('r ticii of iitidttvs sontlc ia doubtle.ss an un.sati.stactory ren- 
dering of the original J)viis pvt ich lidbbc isciil of. is of (iodvs soinic 
X (1^>4.9). reterring fo siiiiessc, dealt with in the jia.s.safies immediatel}' 
precediuf;. — 18, 19. Iic — hij an incnnsistency in numlier: simi- 
larly hv — heiii (24:). — 27. The translation has been added in the 
revision. — 30. nv letep hc etc. : X (184.20) ne lete hv nout wvl of Jjrf 
hc is Godes ■^erde ' which i.s to be preferred. — 35. The Latin quotation 
is found in T31 but is apparently abseut from the other versions ; cf. 
Isaiah. X. 5: Vse Assur, virga etc. — he .^cip should be understood. 

88. l. riiidivtaiu (as Xj: vindicta, Rom., XII. 1!*. — 3. f/ucchcp 
for t/nicchcj): the inconsistency in number should Ije noted. — i). pat 
is — his dvrv child (8j an addition. — iJ. }if Jic fadvr lictcj) hi/iii etc. : 
X (186.6)- hwoii liit (sc. child) is ilicatcn. yif Jc iicdcr hat hit, 
cusscct pc yrd: the reading of P may be due to confusion betweea forms 
of separate verbs, OE. tjctidan and hetttaii. — 19. J)at wercp vpey)tt: 
X (180.13) pco pet oit wcorrvct: I have not found a form of the verb 
like the one given by nur version; another r should probably be 
inserted : cf. pp. !I5.34. i'7.23, 128.25 etc: however, there may be .some 
connection with wer, wcrc, a collateral form of werre. — 32 — inii/iiissv^h 
<(■■ .soroujes (p. 89.3) disconnectedlv inserted. 

89. 1. Traii.i:ibiiiius:ci. Ps. LXY. 12: Transiuimus. — 13. batcrcts: 
X (188.4)^ bettJcs: there seems to be uo parallel to the reading of 
V elsewhere: it is evidently an earlier forni of Lan., Chs. dial. 
hattri/ -a flat piece of wood used to beat linen" < batter 'give repeated 
blows" : there is obviously a relation with l)atler used once by Shake- 
speare: As You Like It, II. iv. 51 (first folio), probabh' in the sense of 
'a 'beetle' for battling clothes'; NED., s.v. Batler, Battler* 3. Godefeoy, 
s.v. Batei"el, the sense of which is considered doubtful, gives a pl. 
hateriaux : to judge from the quotation given (trois paircs dc trais 



' 'He shouUi not think well of, be pleased at being'. — 23. Hor heo iiis (K) 
nouht nanmore 'for it (sc. 3«;-^ f.; cf. 1. 17) is nothing any niore' : it has no 
longer any value. 

' N (I86.4) -,elden him -,erde feruise 'give him rod's payraent' : reward 
him as one does the rod. — 20. pet nis nout to siggen 'that is not to be said' i?). 

' N (188.3). The inverted commas sliouUi be pjaieci atter iihuggen. — i. ivo 
sc!ial{K)hambeonaliue -.pet ica bii^ him pes liues li, p ir i bii) him hise liues C, p wa 
beon peos liues (.My); Rg p. 174. — 6. Tlie reading of \: pet 5? schulen and irullet^ 
and the explanation given by Rg p. 22 ('so (iass ihr zu allem, das er wunsclit, 
genotigt seid und es auch aus freien Stiiclcen wollt') seeni equally void of 
sense; ct. tlie oth<'r M.SS.i schulen indlen bC{Schule) T(irille) (My). — 10. spotlunge 
'spittiug'. — 15. sturiunge vb. pr. ppie. — 20. The comnia l>efore/iec^fc sliouid 
apparently l)e piaced after the word and fo siipplied; to p tet he Jiolede BC 
(.p pe), to p he polede T (Mv). — 25. bisicincfule by Mx «iloss. and Stratm.-Bk. 
talien as a conipound ; Ro p. 122 correctiy reads bi swincfide ; hi stcincful 
BTC (swingful) (My). — 26. glede probablv uieans something liiie 'lcind, miid, 
gentie'. Bosw.-T. ; NED., s.v. Giad 2 c. " 



Reclnse 255 

(irtcqiirs lis hdteriaiix 1375) the meaning must be 'some implement 
to strike with", which is also corroborated by the instance in our text. — 
13, 14. If the repetition of ^e srJiii/l ben itpaijcd is not to be con- 
sidered as merely unintentional, we might take pis lciirp as a paren- 
thesis and put a mark of exclamation after it. — 'Ih. Iielep: 
X (188.16) liealede. which would have been expected. — '27 ff. The 
connection in the passage is to some extent confused ; after the first 
wo ('28) we may put a dash, after the second, a colon: another dash after 
finlien ("29): .^Y (188.18) 7 efiiect ul otccr tco, sicucssc, 7 uctrrlitcaf, 7 tcouh 
'>/■ tcorde oSer of tcerke, 7 aJ pet inoii iiici polieii prrtec al lie polede, 
7 -^r scliiilrn UhtUche (K) iscon hu hitcl liit rrcrlir(t (rrarhr^ BC, rcaches 
7-'My) etc. 

90. 3. Cf. X (188.25 ff.) fcrOfT nu peonnc ijlrdhiker bi stronge 
icrir (K), 7 hisioincfiilc, toutcard pe muchcJe fcstc nf hcoucne . . . pcnne 
dusic tcorldcs iiicn f/nct hi grenc tceic, touward te icaritrcn 7 to deacte 
iif heUc. Bcterc is forte ifon sic toutcard heoucnc Pen al hol iouward 
hrUr. — The reading bcsic is probably due to a misunderstanding, 
a^i the original word in the sense of 'foolish, stupid" has not been 
in general use since the 13th cent. : XKD.. s.v. Dizzy 1. — 10. eon- 
plantata as X (190.6): cf. Ecclus., XXI. 11: Via peccantiiun com- 
planata lapidibus; the explanation of the Latin quotation has been 
added by the reviser. — 19. mi/ evidently a mistake for nu 
X (190.12). — -20. Cf. T (190.12) Wcl is us nu, Lniierd, uor pc datces 
pet tii lotcudcst us iiiidc offre nionnes tcoulnces : and tccl is tis nu, Lniierd, 
for pen (K) ilkc yres etc. : the omission in P has doubtless l)een 
caused bj- a confusion of the identical opening words of the parallel 
phrases. — "24. niore should be supplied heiore prgiir : JV (190.17 K) ' 
and hwo was niorr priue mid te kinr/c of henucne . . . pen tcas pcs 
snndesmoH etc. : (7 hica wrs niare priue wiit J}c king of Iieouenc etc. B: 
similarly CT (My) : J/ Et ijuis craf ita sccretiirius rcgi.t rfplcstis). — 
"2'!. After tcrrldr may l)e put a colon. 

91. 1. Some words have been left out and tKns the connection 
is destroyed: after hihnldrn we may supply pc schadeice of . ^if; 
X (190.241 hwas schcadewe y ne inuhtc nout for grislirh (grisung C) 
hilwldrn f ^if pro ilke schcadcwc were yt .10 kene, oiter so hot, pef y etc. ; 
a confusion of the two schtadrwcfi in the original has presumably 
caused the omission. — 6. srhadcwrr ior schadricc. — 15. ,V(19'2.5) 
inr (K) mislirhr nf pens fnndungcs (MS.: fnndungungrs K) prt hroct iittre 
ihntcn. — 19. In.stead of (7, the plural would have been more logical: 
.V (192.9) hro. — 20 ff. stnud without eonnection owiug to the' 
omission of the passage to which they originally belong — a waming 
against the dangers of likungr tcictiitrn 7 tcictinnrn. which in the 
caae of the sisters addressed there was most reason to ilread : the 



' A' (190.16) schal 'should'. — 24. There seem to be 110 examples of 
grislich as a noun; it miglit fce c-orrecteil to gi-isle 'horror, terror'. — 
27. come pa. t. 



256 Joel PAlilsson 

liues iinmfdiately precedinf; the origiiial pas.sajie correspoiidinj; to 
the fragment given iu our text. are as follows: X (lVt2.24i' Miirlie 
word is of 011 Ini f/cntile wiiiinneii ye henct : ror f/odlcic 7 for iireoleic 
iyinicd (K) of luonie .' 7 susfren of oiie tieder 7 of one moder, inc 
hlnstme of ower ynveite. uorheten ulle wordcs (K) blissen, 7 bicomen 
iinrren. This is what the writer refers to when he goes ou: Al 
J)is is strnng teinptnriun, 7 muhtr sonc binimrn nu muehcl of nwrr 
mrde etc. — The conclusion of the «argument has also lieen left out. — 
22. heaii/irant: Isaiah, III. 12: beatum dicunt. — 2b. pinr inconsist- 
ently for tlie plural : cf. 11. 23, 24. — - 27 — p. !I2.3'2 an iuterpolation. 

92. -^ ff. A mistaken reudering of Luke. Yl. 2H: Ya' cum 
lieneciixeriut volns homines: secmidum hiec enim faciebant pseudo- 
]ji-o])hetis patres eorum. — 7 ff. A dash maj' be put after Crt/e/ : the 
stop after bodj' (10) stands for a colon. — 17. After perforc should 
l>e ])ut a colou : or else pat sujsiDlied. — 33 ff. The original has 
i)een coutracted and evidently partly misimderstood: N (194.13)^ 
pe inrr nondungr is twouohl : asr is pr iittre : unr pr uttrr iiondungc 
is mislicuiigc in adurr.fitr. 7 inr prnsjirrite und pros fimdungr kundlrit 
Pc inre nondiingr . J)rt is . in aduersitr . mislikungr . lilcunge in pros- 
perite . (K) J)ct limped tn sunne: before inr prosperitc is obviously 
likunge missing: cf. T for pe iittre is in adurrsite 7 in prnsperHr; 7 
teose cundlc.n J)C inre : aduersite, mislikinge: prosperite, likingr. p linijtes 
to sunne: BC liciingc [jc limjjrit (i\tY). Thus after rtter (33). -wliich 
consists' has to be imderstood, and the stop after fondgnge (p. 93. 1) 
taken as a colon: 4,9 (1,2) should be struck out and a comma put 
instead. — As to likenep (p. 93.2) cf. p. 20.5. 6. 

93. 2 ff. Cf. N (194.15) pis ich sigge uoriti J)et suiii likungr is - 
suiii mislikunge, pet of-eiirnrct muche medc : ase likungc inr (rodrs luur. 7 
mislikunge uor sitnnc. — 7. J)ise bcn etc. : although the reading makes 
some sense — a colon might be placed after fondgngcs — pisc should 
preferably be corrected to J)us: N (194.211 pus bcnit pco inre uond- 
ungcs pe senuen Jieanrd sunnen etc. — 8. After kgndles a fuU stop. • — 
14. The suliject //// has tn be supiDlied: N (194.28) mc secheit Irclir 
7 saluc: cf. 1. Ki. — lii. to J)c dep: A" (196.1) to cclie deactc (K)^ — 
17. Noic irillcn summc — his hefgngr hiuclich p. 95.23 interpolated. 

94. 17. If takcn, as seems j)roljable, meaus 'taken to task. 
rebuked' (NED., s.v. 9). we should logically have to uuderstand 'beiug" 
before men ; in the latter instance there may be some bleudiug with 
the sense 'considered, esteemed as'. — 24 ff. The counectiou seems 
rather loose: after selncn (25 1 may l»e jiut a ilasli: after lic i2ii| we 

' N (192.221 cwemen ou, ^if he muhtc ctc. 'pkasf, giatify you if he c-oiild 
with tlattery spoil you'. 

' JV(194.4). DAHt.STEDT's supposltion on p. 17 that te godre /leaieetc.shoiild 
be a 'clause of wishing' cannot be right. — P. iivarre comp. ; similarly p. 240.8. — 
29. ne ne apparently for iic me. 

' K tl9().ii draire!) probably '(men") go'; cf. p. 194.29, note. — IS. pef 
bidueoliei) 'wliich dehnle'. — 23. Rg j). 15 i,ncorrectly takfs nidli'?i in the sense 
of 'pflegen'. — 2'.i. r 'also'. 



Recluse 257 

shoiild logically have to supply «c : the iiTefiular sequence ot' tenses 
in 1. "26 makes it probable that proue is an eiTor tor itrimvd. — 
33. prc sipes diie to contusion of tcrrv with ter: a verb rendering 
purgatum has beenomitted: \ve may supply /jMri/erf, to ■w^u.uh puregcyng 
in the following line evidently refers; cf. Wycl., Ps. XI. 7: siluer 
c.riwiiined M fgr, proued of tlie ertlie, purgid scuefold. 

95. 7. A colon may be put after maudclegne and the stop 
after dcd taken as a comma. — 10. 5//" should logically be omitted. — 
14. After lyf a semi-colon. — '26. Iic moicp lii/m: X (196.5) lic mcncct 
liitm. — '2H. subsidinti for insidiaii: cf. Lament., IV. 19. — "29. A 
senii-colon should be piaced after crnes and the stop after liil/is (30) 
struck out. — S-i. pciy pc fende egge is" a misimderstanding: cf. 
T (196.13) pauli pe ucund kundeliche eggect etc:: thus a.it er pci} (adv.) 
\\e should put a comma and change egge to cggcp. 

96. 1 ff. Cf. X (196.13) . . . eggcit us to attcrncsse, as to prude, 
tii inirrliowe et.c. as contrasted to pet flesch pttt {sput BC, puttes T My) 
proitn-mcn iouivnrd siveincssc 7 tomoard eise, 7 touivard .sofinesse etc. ; 
this has been spoilt in the rendering of P. —r 3. On account of the 
following plural glories, an omission must be assumed after welc: cf. 
X (196.17/ tvordcs (Ki weoJc, 7 ivunne, 7 icurscliipe, 7 oder swuchc 
giucgiiuen etc. — 4. pat bi duellcp etc. : an object to louien would 
have to be supplied: X (196.18) pet bidweoUeit kang (canges C. fol T) 
mcn to luuicn one scheadetre. — caniouns: an exact parallel seems 
not to be on record: cf. NED., s.v. Congeon: if the derivation given 
there is, as seems probable, the correct one — see also Mk Worterb. ; 
SKE.A.T. P.Pl.. Notes, p. 241 — the instance in oiu- te.xt, together 
with citngun (XED.. s.v. Cang, Congeon) found twice : Hali Meid., p. 33; 
Ancr. Riwle. p. 62.2 ( T). represents a more genuiue form than those 
hitlierto recorded. — 5. waiten vs hou etc. : X ( 196.20 1 aicaitcit us 
iitc irildcrncssc, hu etc; cf. 1. 7. — 6. biiohncd apparently an error 
for the pres. t. — 7. deucl an instance of s-less gen. ; similarly 
p. 10.O.3: cf. Ek\v.\ll. Mimiesskr. tilliignad A. Erdmann, p. 53 ff. — 
ensaiitcs an apparently unrecorded collateral form of assaut, on 
the analogy of doublets such as asaumplc : cnsaitmple : assay : ensay ; 
a.fscnt: cnsent: assoincn: ensoincn etc. — 9. anoping has not, to m\- 
knowledge. been recorded anywhere else; the word is evidently in 
fonn and sense related to OE. ncctan •ventiire', Goth. ana-nanpjan etc.; 
cf. Bos\v.-T.. s.v. Nedan, Xeding: in this instance the meaning is more 
j)articularlj- 'a venturing forwards, ( bold) advance, approach' [X (196.23) 
neihlcchunge). As root-vowel we shoiild . accordingly have expected e ; 
o may be due to influence form non-mutated cognates; cf. OE. nop 
'boldness, daring' ; or else, and perhaps more probably, it is mei'ely 
to be set down as an inaccuracy on the part of the scribe. — 10. hem 
illogically for the slng. — 14. and of allc — d- ijuegnt (22) an 
addition by the reviser. — 16. Calaphc for Caleb: cf. Xum.. XIV. 
24. 30, .38. — 31. After whclpes a colon. — 32 ff . : X (198.8 ff.) 
Yiinit (iloria. hettc pe rorme: pci is, htvosc lci wcl of ci ping pet heo 



258 Joel Pfthleson 

<l'(t. 7 woldc /iiilihc» iciird pirof, 7 w wel ipaicd yf huii i.s ijircised, 7 
niiii-ipaied 3«/ lico ni.s itold^ swttch nsc heo wolde. The lines in our 
text are in part a rather contused alteration of an additional passage 
occurring in i<F (My). 

97. 3, 4. hem — hi/iii — his anotlier caso ot' confusion of 
number; the sequence of tenses, praisc — nti/sprascd — suir, is also 
inconsistent ; mi/sprased should preferably be changed to pres. subj. — 
7. A colon after whelp. — il. oipcr is lo oucr irosty — sclucn (11) 
not in N: cf. ]i octcr is to ottrrtrusti up o r/odcs gruce . octcr on hire 
seoluen . to hald iip on ei moii p is flcschlicli as heo is 7 iiiri heon 
itemptet (partly also in V Myi. Then follows n lengthj' intprpnlation, 

I. 11 — p. 99.5. 

98. 2. After mesaisc a full stop. — 3. A sign of interrogation 
sliould lie put after <jod. — 12. hastise for chastisc; he should be 
supplied as the subject. — 13. w(^//j probably a scribal slip for »«(/5//« ; 
however, NED. gives a form mit from the 14th cent. — .18. After more 
a semi-colon; after lcmmans a dash. — 21. lenimun may be an in- 
accuracy for the plural. — 25. wi/nncrs })robably means •men who 
earn their bread, bread-winners' as in P.Pl., C.I. 222: 

. . . Wchhestcrs and walJcers . and wynners with hitndcn. 
As tai/loiirs and tanncrs . and tylicrs of erthe, 
As dikcrs and drlurrs. etc. ; 

cf. trewelich{e winne{y): A. I. 153, 0. 11. 176: 'eam a living". — 
34. drede hem may here have a sense related to that given in 
NED., s.v. Dread 2 c: 'to doubt' : If pai pou drcdist irhiprr pat it 
hc a symplc vlcus or a cankrc etc. (c. 14UU: only ex. 1. 

99. 5 ff. An altered and confused rendering of the origiual ; 
X (198.16) pe vifte hweolp hette Inohediencc i pet is, pet child pet ne 
huhit nout his cldre i vnderling, his prclat .' paroschian, his preost : 
meiden, hire dame .' cuerich lowure his hcrrc. — pat nyl noiryth be 
tau^ft etc. (5) cf. p. 97.6, 7. — hij (7) illogically for the sing. — 

II. Loqnacitate: N (198.19) Loqiiacitas. — 15. ^npacient: iY (198.25) 
Impacience. — 17. Contumacie pat is ping etc. : an omission has made 
the context disconnected : cf. N (198. 27 1... pcsnc hwcolp fct, hwose 
is omvil inc pinyc (K) pct heo hauecl: undcriiumcn uorto donnc etc. — 
18. may hym out hrynge of pat riot: N (198.29) hringen hirc ut of 
hire riote {hringcn him of his fol riotc T) : Mn 'turn her from her 
purpose' (J/ a proposito). NED. cites this instance s.v. Riot sb. 1: 
'wanton . . . living; debauchery' etc; in all probability, however, we 
should rather assume an affinity to the sense given under 3: 'the 
action, on the part of a hound, of fnllowing the scent of some animal 



' 'Accouuted, esteemed'. — 18. vnderling, his prelat 'an inferior, his 
Htiperior'; XED., s.v. Prelate 2. — 21. BG lihei). C li-^ed, T li/ies (My) correctly 
for jV lauhiveO. — . 24. misseid bi God etc. probably "speake evil (= /curseh) by 
God or bv his saints'. 



Reclnse 25» 

ofher than tliat which he is intended to hunt': cf. s.v. vb. 5 a: it 
niifrht accordinply be rendered by somethinfr like •wrouf: path. erring 
way'. — !!•. Contencion — icete striki/nf/is p. 100.10: a correspond- 
inp passage is found only in iiF iMy p. 4HS») and J/ (Br p. 482). 
The rendering in our text is evidently mnch confused in parts : thus 
for pat <m pencht-p etc, B reads p te oper piinclie tinderneoiten uicarpen 
7 crtiiiniit . nnt heo nicistre of pe niol etc. : M . . . contencio . ijiie est 
iid iiincendiiiu itiiqiic aliiis aideutur inferior j^ro.^itrutus <(• uictiis . (f" 
i/uusi uren lueratur: as the passage stands, it would seem most appro- 
priate to take pat as the rel. "what" and put a colon liefore it: or 
eise change whun i'20) to pat. — 22. And sipen vphruidep etc: B 
1 pis unpciiw is iipljrud . 7 edicitunge etc. : similarly J/. — - 23. enere 
pc niore hij seicn etc. : B ant cauer se hif lAteS bittrurc, se hirc Ulced 
lictere: so also J/. — 25. riscp — hen: B heod — heoit. — 27 ff. 
hardly make any sense — at least none which accords with the 
apparent meaning of the earlier versions : the passage in B runs 
fhus : Heiio fullect eucnunge of ham seolf . of harc cun . of sahe oiter 
iif dede . ]m is nniong nunnen . 7 giiit uiit smich niuct seolTctcn enr 
schrifl hani hahhe iweschen fo hcric godd icid loftsong . oitcr hiddect 
hini priuec honen . Mc pinges nmansedc nuten hu p hnrc song unt 
hnre honen to godd stinkect fufre fo him 7 to alle his halhcn, pen 
ri rotei dogge: M reads: ad hec similiter pertinct comparacio sui 
ipsius gcneri.^i scu cognacionis uerbi uel facfi. Et uadif ijuundoquc 
fnlis postniodum cum tali ore priusquam confcssione lauetur ad deuni . 
lum cantu laudarc dctim uel nd priuatim oranduni. Jlaledicln d'- 
amens res . os tale magis fctef corani deo <('■ omnibus sancfis <('" qiiicijuid 
i:r iire procedit : quani aliijiiis cnnis jiiifridiis. — 31. Senihlauncc is 
iinoper irhelj) . paf is icip signes: this is also defective : cf. il/ l'nde- 

I iinus cntulus lennis superbic est . nutus superbie & istc nufrifur gesfilius 
<l- signis sicut cnjnid extollere . collum curunre etc. : B pe enllcoffc 
hirclp is ifed wict siipersticivns . ui^ senihlans 7 vAit sines . as hcorcn 
iiii heh p henued etc. ; V . . . is ifed tciS scmblans etc. 

100. 1. bendc wip Pc nioup: B binde seode mid tc niiict. 
V iiiiiicen iiioutcc with pe motipe, J/ ore cachinnare. — 2. scornen oper etc: 

II iciit hond octcr trid henucd makie .icufer signe. V mnkcn niony n scorn, 
M ciim rnpitc ninuu (for niann?) dcrisorium signum facerc. — 3. C'f. B 
uiirj)e schonke ouer .ichench . siffcn octer gnn stif as ha istakct (I . .■itckcn V) 
ircrr: M fihinm inrrrc . scdere uel starc rigidr . pct ulanter aspicere vtc. — 
.ttichen a unique form. — 4. oiper — pridc only in P. — 5 ff. Allc 
pise etc. : cf. M Ad hrcpciiinef cura dc tielo uel nlio indumento . suhtilitas 
in gesfu . in coloracione '. attf alio ajjjxirnfn . fucacionc . ucl huiusmodi 
tinctura cnjiillomni ncl lcrinie (for lcxiuio? \ suj)erciHorum dccnjiillacionc ucl 
cornin cjcccionc ciim litiida striccionc: .B reads as follows: Jler fo fnllcct 
'</' ueil of hcaucd clact . of eucli octer clact . fo ouegart acemunge (oucr 
gaii scmgnge V) odcr in heowunge . octer ipinchunge . gurdlcs anl 
gurdungc n damciseles tcise . sclcatcrnnge mid smirles fule fiuitrungcs . 
hioirin hrr . lificn Iror . pinchen bruhcn octcr bencin ham ujijutrt tciit 



260 Joel P4hl88ou 

irilr /iiii/yis (Briiwis irliiiii\ii)iiie ujnrr hviisvn liiiin iijjinird icilli irclr 
slri/l,\i/ii(/vs V). — Thus, 1. (i is in our versioii grossly corrupted; it 
iiiay 1)6 explained in the followiug way: after mv should i)e placed a 
colon and oiier girt taken as an adverbial qualification of cleped-, 
the form is an apparently unrecorded variant of ouvrgart (the rea<ling 
of li may be a scribal slip: cf. however, Cursor M., Cott. 7318: ougurd 
sl).): ■immoderate, e.\:ces.sive' (XED., s.v.): this word is, in my opinion, 
fo be connected with (jrre. i/are etc. < Ol^. (/er{r)u. (/nr{r)a: NED., s.v. 
(xar (cf. mod. orerdone) : i in the form given in our te.xt may be 
ex])lained as due to a transition e > i before deutals in the common 
]ia. i)ple. gert: cf. Morsbach, ME. CTrani., § 109. V ouer gart seini/iii/e 
seems to be equivalent to M suhtiliius in gestu '(excessivei nicety 
iu mamiers': cf. NED., s.v. Seeming sb. 1: aceiininge ii is in all ])ro- 
liability to be combiued with areniin {BC. accinen T, aceineien G (My), 
iiseinini. aseini/ P p. 170.14, 16: cf. Godefhoy, s.v. Acesmer, acemer, 
asemer etc.) for X p. 360.12. 13 atit}'cn 'adorn" (I maj-, however. call 
attention to Pr. Parv. Ceini/nge, or u cvnii/s (P. or ccini/.s) 'a])i)aren(ia': 
NED., s.v. Seeming sb. 1): as inrninge in P must be consideied ns a 
perversion of the latter reading, not improbably associated witli innivn 
•moan', with wliich liei^einge, a corruption of heowunge B {M coloracione), 
has been contrasted. — The stop before «me (7) should be striick 
out and placed after the word. — L. 8 is also in a rather ho])eless 
condition: synneres I am disj^osed to consider as a corrui)ted name 
for some pigment {cinnahar or sinopcr: NED., s.vv. ; cf. also Pr. 
Parv., s.v. Synoi^yr ; Cath. Angl., s.v. Synoper, and notesi; or 
else mistaken, by the ear nr eye of the writer, for sinirlcs B : clau- 
stringe and flittcri/nge arc probably faulty renderings of something 
like B svlvutvrunge ('.smearing over': cf. NED.. s.v. Slat, Slatter; Mv 
p. 464) and flu^trunges (probably meaning 'patches" aud related to 
ME. floprv 'flakes' ; NED., s.v. Elother: Stratm.-Bh., Mr "Worterb.. s.v. 
Floder; cf. also dial. flut/ivrs 'the loose flakes or lamina of a stone" 
(EDD.) ; ON. flgctra 'flounder'), perhaps imintelligently connected witli 
clauster sb., cluster vb. (cf. NED., s.v. 3) aud flitfci-{cn. — il. After 
/lere a comma. — Although beiys may be right, its iaisertion in this 
connection seems suspicious. — wliinering : the reading is corroborated 
b}' T' irhinri/nge and the sense is evident frnm the parallels in 
B jnnvhcn, M decapillucione (Du Caxge). It is tempting tn assume 
some relationship between this word and the first element nf n. C}-. 
Yks.-dial. whinner-neh, winnvr-neh 'a spare, thin-faced persnn witli a 
sharp nose' (EDD.), both words implying a notion of 'lesseuing, thinning, 
pinching". — 10. henchvn, tn judge from the context, seems to have 
the sense of 'bend, cause to take a directiou' {M e.reccione) : iu com- 
mon with the parallel forms B hencin, V hcnseii it has not been recorded 
elsewhere; if the concordant readings of BV are taken to re])reseut 
the actual ajjpearance of the word, a connection may be ventured 
with hvnscl •bending' etc. < ON. hvuzhu) •liendiuii" (NED.. s.v. i; cf. 



Recluse 261 

also dial. Iiiiiai- sIj.. v.. ailv.: •auy violeut luovemeut : mnve witli violence : 
violently". iu EDD. cnmbined witli ME. httnsin lAucr. R.: .V p. 188.4. 
bunviii C: ct'. My); this latter woukl lead to a sen.se 401X6. .stroke 
vigorously". — 10 tf. Mn»// peir bcn etc. a nousensical reading. as 
all the vicious habits which have been dealt with at .some length 
are represented as ttowiug trom the well of pride: the error might 
be partlj- removed by snp])lying o^jv after Munii aud takiug tlie stoj) 
after pride (11) as a colon : jV (198.30) Monic odrc pcr bcocT pei 
{■itmc(t of weole 7 of wunnc, of lieie kunne . . . : nf licic liuc irii.re(t 
urujen T) prutle, 7 of linli pciiuwcs (T doubtless reads correetly: 
'(alsoi to grow proud of " etc). — 12. Ac pcrc j i/nn suiipc: an omission 
has to some extent disturbed the connection : cf. >N' (200.2) Mnnic 
mo litreolpcs . . . Iiaueit pc Liiin of Prude ihwcolped : auli nbuten peos, 
pcnilint . . . icel swuitc : uor ivh go lihtliche etc. — 14. ^-1«// of o word 
etc: an ailmissible although peculiar reudering of the original : . . . 
/■(</• pcr ich fecteri on 11 irord tcnc oiter twcoluc BG [opcr tcnc) T 
(i fcdcrc on an) 'for there I am loading ten or twelve woi-ds upon 
one : cp. p. 204.5' ( Mv) : for which ^N' (200.6) : uor pcr ich fcitri on, 
11 ruritcct fcnc oiter twrolue: cf. XED.. s.v. Aworth v. 2 i/escape notice'»; 
s.v. Featlier v. 7 ('?touch with or as with a teatlier: to touch 
lightly'): Stkatm.-Br., s.v. A-wurden ('come to nothiug"i: Mr Worterb.. 
s.v. Awurden centgehen. bleiben unberiihrt") : s.v. Fedren : fcitri 
■rasch beforderu. abthun" (a misunderstanding as on p. 140.11 1. — 
17. After goris a dash, the preceding ironical remark being added 
l.y the way. — 21. After trip allc a full stop. — 23. The sense is 
spoilt. some words in the original having been left out : cf. X (200.13; 
(roddcde . . . pcf God . . . haucit idon him oiter him oitcr hirc ( K), 
morr pcn heo undersfonde, yf heo hire ircl biitoulifc. — A fuU stop 
after bipoirith. — 24. A dash maj' be placed before aml after of 
pis rnpiiire. — 25. X (200.17)' pc oiter lcundcl is Itancor siuc odiiiiii. — 
2ti. of: X (200.181 oiter: the line is cornipt: cf. X pe pct brct pesne 
kundcl, in hire brcosfc al w attri fo Gode etc. : to make sense a semi- 
colnn ini^dit be put after hcrt. iind taken to mean 'if, and hij supj^lied. 
101. 2. pc scucnp should be inserted: cf. X {'200.22 1 pv scoueite 
1'ljbrud etc. — ."). pal opcr erroneou.sly ior oipcr: .V (200.27) Chcasfe. 
oiter Sfrif — biholdr pc ciy — hij bcn wodc (8) in BV but absent 
from the other M.SS. iMy). — 0. whan hc is irrop etc: li irhcn tcod 
icrcaititr is iiiiunf . liihald hirr confcnemciiz . lokc on hirc lafcs . Ilcrcne 
hu Jjc niuit ijvuit etc. — 9. Two 'whelps' have beeu left out : pv 
pridih is Schenful (schendful TC) rpbrud : pe leorite is Wariuntie 
X (2(l().27j. — 11. and do for irrappe am;/ssc: B pe seouectc hicclp 
is . don for tcrcaitde inis: a passage corresponding to 11. 11 — 1.") is 
found in BVM only (My j). 470). — 13. <f- irip wariiimics etc. : li 7 iriit 



' N (200.U) hnuc for haued (K : Mxs slip Iihs led Ri; to this strange 
assinnption (p. 49): 'der Autor will nicht alle, sondern nur ausgewiihlte 
kuiidUx behandeln'. — 17. onlo!)est: ou lo!)esf: cf. NED., s.v. Loatli a. 2 b. 



262 Joel Pfihlsson 

ic< ntiniKjis liiir licuiicil spillcii n i/ronic. — IS. pn tnr pul. — 
•21 tf. pat i$ tcliile etc: ct. X (20"2.8j ' pesnc liucnlp liauect Inco sc 
uia-clic(7 god, 7 deit liit, tauli, iuid one deude x niid oiie lieuie lieoiie. 
pc iiciii-itc hueiilp is Jdebicssc : pcf is, lnrn se stirnt [stul liC My) 
;/(((/ allc. pc vifte is Hcnrte-ynicrhunge. The contraction in P 
mifrht lie dne to a confusinn of heorte (heuie hcortc — Henrte- 
!/ruccliuii;/c) : however, tlie alteration in the numbering of the 'whelps' 
pnints to an intentional alibreviation: to inake the lines read as they 
stand. we mijrht supply dnpe it a.her*f/nnd (22). — 22. /ierpc: 
X (^202.11) si.rte: similarly fift (24), se.rt (2(5) have replaced the ori<rinal 
seoued^e, eihteoCtc. — 23. oipcr of penchinf/c: X (202.12) octer unr 
cui undone. — 24. ..V (202.13) . . . ncter to sif/r/en, octer to don, o^er 
to biscon hiuoren, ofter te (K) penchcn eftcr, octer misuitcn etc. : nn/s- 
Insene and penrhen should appropriately chanpe places. — 27. For 
it to fretej) ijod: X (202.16) uor liit to-fheou-cft 7 to-uret Godcs iiiilde 
niUcc, ( his muchelc (K) mcrci, 7 his vnimete grtice. — 30. pise gon 
iridc d- her strengpe: cf. ..y (202.18) Trieherie 7 (tUc, peofctc, Itcflfie, 
Witc, 7 Herrure strcuite (K): the reading of P looks most like a 
corruptinn of the last few words in the original passage. — oper 
piif diij) is donlitless Hkewise a perverted rendering of oder oct X. 
102. 1. Fnsfschipji Pincliing . Si/nnyng of her goodes : X {20'2.20) 
Uesfscliipe ofyoue: festschipc . j^rinschipe of^eoue BT (fastschipe). fcstsliipe 
jiriiishipe ofyoue G. testschipe principe of T,coue C (My). — prinschipe does 
not appear to be found anywhere else : a relation.ship in meaning with 
priiiiiic. pruynie "prnne, trim', also 'mutilate, spoil' seems inimistakable. 
although the earliest example of the verb in this sense is from 142(1; 
cf. NED., s.v. Prune v.-; see also v. ', etym. nnte: Preen v.*. — 
2. I fail tn see how 0}eucningc and laueninge .should be satisfactorily 
e.xplained : they may be simply instances of the reviser's numerotis 
blunders ("cf. JV) : or else oyueningc might perhaps be considered 
ns a peculiar form for oyiiing (< OE. nfgifan) or a formation on 
the iinalniry- nf \euenesse: the third letter nf the latter word should 
possibly lie changed to n and connectinn assumed witli lanen. — 
niansau}t a scribal slip for manslu>ij,t. — The stop before oipcr 
ichile should lie placed after the wnrd instead. — 4. After siggcn a 
cnlnn : the stnp after mgchcl has no significance. — 8. hri/iigc: 
X (202.26) lirukcn. — 10. Iiigi/iiin/iig: X (204.1)* ysciinge. — 14. A 

' On p. 202 of the orijiinal text the following pointa may be noticed : 
1. 2. freond probablv pl. — 3, li"). Bore tor Bere (c{. NED., s.v. Bear) ; Beore B, 
heore CGT (,My); cf. p. 198.3. — G. herile: T hard: better as in the other 
MSS.: earh B, arch C, erh G (My). — 20. Gauel 'interest'; cf. p. 326.9. — 
24. MS.: urechliche (.K). — 25. bifiutten to be read biflutte»; cf. p. 428.10 (NED., 
s.v. Flit 9). — 28. gnedeliche 'sparingly, frugally' (so Gloss.). 

' y ^204.5) iueDi)red cf. p. 140.11. — 6. After strencde ('importance') a 
colon ; Jienchcn inf.; by R(> p. 104 (probably incorrectly) taken in imper. use. — 
12. 1 drunch niare pen i meh heoTi peos gris ifrrliet B, Idrunch mare penne i 
tnefe . Xu beoS peose gris ifare-,et C, Idruch more Jien imete beos J)eos gri$ 
iPosfred G, i ilrinch mare pen iniete beo!) peos grises iferhet T (^lv); BGT give 



Recluse 2<i^ 

seuii-colon to l)e put after fepered. — 17. is iflotnm/e Jmt hup etc. : 
j>' ("204. vii pet is, Glii/iniie, lnuie(t etc. — 1«. unojjer tii lute etc. : 
cf. X i^2U-4.lOj pet oder to Eatliehe : Jjet priilde fi> rreeliliche 'etc; 
fleschlieh (\\)) is doubtles.s to be re<;arded as a corrujjtion. — 21 ff. 
a generalizatioii : iV' (2U4:.13) uor ich niim noiit ofdred, iiiine leoue 
siistren, pet '^e hiim ueden. — 24 tf. There is a lack of consistency ; 
cf. ^' (204.15) pe Seorpiun af Lecherie .' pet is, of f/ohiessc, hiiuect 
swiiche Jciinilles pet in one [in na T) wcl itowuiie miiite horc summcs 
tiome ne sit noiit uorto nemmen (K) ; uor Jje nomc one muhte hurten 
ulle icel ilowunc earen, 7 fulen iille eJene heortcn. peo nie mci nem- 
nieii iK) irel hwas nomen me icnoircct ivel : . . . asc Jlorilom. Kuiihruthc 
[spusebriiche T), Meidelure, 7 Incest : pet is, hitwhire si'jhe etc. — 
29. in niunif miinere dedlich an unsatisfactorj- reading for pct isc. 
Tncest) is i nionie ideled N (204.21. fcolc ideulet T). — Similarly 
pat is to han wille etc. for X On (sc. kindi is fiil uil uortc don 
pet fiiMe etc. — fillep an luirecorded forni. probably due to some in- 
accuracy on the part of the scribe. — 31. put pc fiesche prihep: 
X (204.231 yrncit ul pet tet fleschs toprokeit.j helpcn octer Jjiileirurd. — 
lieon wuite ncfnle BCGT Mv) 7 witnesse perof : hiinten Jjcr cftcr etc. — 
H2. lofci/iiiie: X (204 25 1 foi/i/ini/e. 

103. 2. cidlyn!/ : .V 1 204.2V,i tollimlc wordes. — 3, 4. sett sfedc etc. : 
X (206.1 1 liiuien tide, octer time, octcr stude, uorto kumen inc 
swurhe lefte (K: keaft B, caft GT: om. C My). After comen I put 
a colon, after si/nne a fuU stop, and strike out the stop after men. 
The lines, as they stand, lack logical connection: mcn may be taken 
as the subject in the indefinite sense of "you, one" and hij omitted; 
X (200.21 7 offer swuche iiorrideles, pet me mot forliutven (forhohen T) 
hwo se nule iite inuchcle fulitc iicnliehe ' uallcn. — <>. Djmissis occusihus 
for Omissis occusionihus. — 8 ff. The passage has been contracted 
and altered and is oliviously partlj- in a state of confusion: cf. 
.V (20tj.5i hwosc wule hirc {his T) inwit mten clcne {hal TC) 7 feir, 
heo mot fleon Jje uorrideles pet lieoit iwunedc oftc to opencn pet inyinfi 
7 leten in sunne. Ich ne der ncmmen (K) peo unkundcliehc kundlcs 
iif pisse deoucl scorpiiin. aitri iteiled. Auh sori niei heo hcon Jjet . . . 



the preferable reading. — 24. Mn's translation is obviously a uiisunder- 
standing; a seiiii-colon shoukl l)e jjlacetl after pioke!), helpen being paiBllel 
to dvn (22): 'hc-lp any other'; B ftil nil to p fnH^e lei!) skiles -^ettunge . Iielpen 
opre pidencard. G ful wil to patful!)e icid skiles yettunge . oper helpen pideiicard, 
C ful wil . p fut^e wii) schiles yttunge . Inlpen ani o!)er piiUncard, T ful wil 
to p fulde wii) skiles -^eatinge .p is hwen he skil ; te herte ne wii) sei!) nawt . 
bote like!) iiel 7 -yei-ne!) p flesch hire to ptokie!) . Helpen oder hiderward (My). — 
20. gigge leilitre 'Lieheln einer Buhlilirne', Mk WOrterb., s.v. Gigge; ef. NED., 
8.V. Gig sb. ' 4: 'a flighty, giddy girl' ; Stkat.m.Bk. ".'frivolous woinan'. 

' m^m/ic/k! 'tillhily'; NED., s.v. Fenlieh. — 6. uorrideles as 1. 2. — iv. hwu: 
Rci p. 51 : 'Statt Mns 'why' ist 'how' zii setzen'. I <io not see that ihis 
•ttOuKi niake sense. BGT /iici; C hu 'My\ ..Y hwu are inferior reailing»; 
Jhe latter mav be consiiiered as a faultv forni for hnui: if. pp. 11)2. •.'9, UH.l, 
168 21, '230.20, '270.1, 280.3 etc. 



264 Joel PAblsBon 

// (iiird mi iiird viii hiitidvl «f liire (K) f/oliiesse, pet icli tie niei speketi 
of iior seJieirnie, iie tie der iinr drede, lesie (K) stini ieornc tuore vtiel Jjen 
heo con, 7 Jterof beo itenqiied. Auh Jtenelie euerich of hire otnine 
auariede euniUes (fvndles JiCGT M\) iti hire golnesse. Uor huuso 
hii ciier is idon (iewenci B. acweiiht C. icwetit (i, i cweiiched T My) 
etc. — Fni- the unusual and at this date obsolete iiorrideles (oiie 
instance from .'Eltric and two from Ancr. R. in NED.) the reviser 
straugely sulistituted fetles. — her (11) has been taken over niecha- 
nically from the original without regard to the lack of comiection ; nf 
i/idilieh there are only exaniples in adverbial u.se. — Ii}tiers il"i) 
presents difficulties : the sense required makes a connection with 
OE. leahter 'vice, sin' possible: but there is no similar foim on 
record and, moreover, the word had apjiarently already died out early 
in the 13th cent. ; we should perhaj)s read littcrs ■brood', which would 
suit the context veiy well (NED. gives the earliest examjsle of this 
sense from 1486). — 14. X (20IJ.15) Inc ■^iiu:ede iiie dett uuiidrcs : 
i/iilche (Ctilchc BCG-T My) hit iit inc sehriffe etc. — ItJ. forio crhen 
pai fi/re : iV" (206.17) heo is idenied, Jtuiuh pe fiile linine (lnuiie ciicnch 
RCCrT (hruti) My), to ^e cche fur of helle: the altei-ation is obviously 
due to a mismiderstandinf; of cche which drojjped out of use aliout 
l'25i): cf. j3. 67.16. — Xoii ii is io witen etc. makes poor seuse : cf. 
X (206.19) Inouh is edcenc hicu ich hahhe iefncd jtrude to liun. 7 
onde io neddre etc. — i/nempned (17) is doubtless a mistaken pa. 
j^jile. of etnnien. the collateral forni of cfnen. — 18. In accordance 
with the reading of the earlier version. the stojj after latter slioukl 
be taken as a colon and a fuU stoji jilaced after scorjiioun. — 2.S. Cf. 
Ecchis., XXYI. 10: qui tenet illam (sc. mulier nequam), quasi qui 
aj)prehendit etc. — 24. The interju-etation of the quotatinn is an 
addition. — 26. Cf. X (206.26) pcf is Iccherie .' Jet is pes dcoflis 
hcst etc. — 29. gulncsse of synne: X (206.29) r/ohiesses sunnen. — 

31. JterwiJ): X (208.3) her^ inid. which the context requires. — hii- 
rewi/nfje jjrobably a scribal slip for hi/rewsijnge: X hireousinge: or 
possil)ly a derivative of hireicen, OE. hrcihciin: cf. j)j). 174.30. 176. 2:i. — 

32. The stop after dcde sliould be jilaced after the followiug word: 
the original dedltoie has beeu misimderstood. — 32 ff. changed and 



' Mx 'her'; it inpans 'licre, in this life'. — 10. schfau uord pen eiide fier 
iiiiile: I translate 'show forth the end also'. — 14. ne uot icli etc. 'I do not 
kiiow'. — 17. feolwiges 'praotices in niagic', Morris, Spec. ; cf. NED., s.v. 
Tele v. — ore: Mx 'lnck' (cf. Gloss.); Mr Wfirtorb., s.v. Are 4: 'gliickliche 
Vorbedeutiinj;, GlucksziifaU" (with hesitatioii:; .Mokris, Gloss.: 'augury', OK. 
enre, Lat. auguriuiii. — 18. As in BGT (My\ niiniugge. (Vi) doubtless begins u 
iiew sentence. — 26. bifeili : t dropped ou aicount of the following initial : 
bitaht BT: similarly CG ^My). — 27. hen he wene J/et hit ouli: Mx, Mokris 
erroneously : 'than he thinks that lie ought'; as is pointeil out by KocK, 
The Engl. Rel. Pron., p. 34, the sense is: 'thaii he expects who owns it. — 
'2s. nl so ns 'just as'; Alsivn is JiTG, alsira . i C (Mv). — dusi biheste 'foolish 
proruise'. — 2». abideu iiorte leclieu: B ahiden . ne teaclie: siniilarly the otlier 
versions iMv:; this is a prefeiable reailiug. 



Recluoe 2V>h 

at least paitly forrujited: X ("208. 3) Aiil iselUirlie iiiiniiin lieu ■■iii/f/in 
Jui Priie teil siniili iriii<le(t : uur Jiet utter ayeit. Aiili yif liit ne suweit 
[suliett C. suheite 1) ' lier, pe teil 7 pe attri inile is ^e eilie piiie of 
lielle: cf. 1. 16. — 35. foule: N (208.6) fol of which XED.. s.v. Fool, 
gives rhe variant foul(e, fincle (14 — IGth cent.). 

104. 4. ct to pe iiijiiniinij is redundfint: .V (■208.10) sdienu uurit 
Jitu niile Per iniile, - liicu pe teil stinfieS. — 8. .Y (208.1:$) lerusiiltmes 
liiiiile (K). pet is, pe riclie of lieoueiie. — 9. After luuene we may 
put a ilash. — 10. be should he supyilied after iiiaii: cf. 1. 27: JN" (208.14) 
J)tt nc ind lieon iled to one of Jiain seuueiie (seliien T). — 12. ne falleP 
it lii siijaldrie is a careless rendering of the oritrinal : .Y 1 208.16) 
Vn.itiiiti-luest Mleaue a%ean lioli lore, nis liit of prude:' Inohedience 
lier tii uulleit: B nis liit te spece of prude inoltediencei' Herto faileit. 
(' nis liit of priide inohedience . Iier to falleit. T nis Itit of prtide. 
Iniihediince . Her to falleit. It nis liif of prude inohediince'^ Herto 
falliit (^Iy). If the reading of X is accepted, lier would have to be 
supplied hefore to and a sijm of interrogation inserted after it : how- 
ever. judging from the other MSS.. Mx's jnmctuation is prohably 
not correct. It would suffice therefore to put a colon after Jnohedience 
and transpose the words it and fo. — 13. takiingts: X (208.17) 
lcoluni/cs: XED.. s.v. Taking sb. 2 h. cites no instance of the sen.se 
•enchantment : blasting, malignant influence" before looSt. — leiifini/es: 
X (2(18.17) Ituuni/e on ore 7 o (K) sicetncs: in NED. there is only one 
e.xaniple of lerinf/. from 'ilore 1533. — 1-i. oiper in aiii/ oJ)tr sacrtinent: 
in should be omitted. — 17. ~.,(ineles: X {208.21) ynieltste: on pp. 106.10. 
lUi.i; there are other instances of -^tiiieles, the noim. which is the 
regular form in BCl' (My p. 154. note 3). — 20. ne lomep if of 
onde has got wrong : ef. the passage in X (20S.22) : pe Jxt ne tcarntit 
oiter of liis luel, octer of his lure (hiyte BC, higtfe G. hire T, of his 
lure iider of liis biyte C My), nis hit slotih gemeleaste (K), odei- aftri 
ondef misifeoitegtd (K) {teolteiti titis B. feonden mis C. To the hep(n . 
mis G. tihede niis T. Tenthynf/e aniis V My) . . . nis pis (K) yscunf/e 
oiter Peofte? — 23. make anij pinf/ wers: X (208.26) 5»/' ine ymeit 
wurse ti pinf/. — 24. it to be supplied after ni/s. — ymeles slaii}ft : 
X (208.27) ymeleaste of slouhite. — 28. pe seuen sijnnes: heucd is 
doubtless missing ; X (210.2) pe seouen heaued sunnett. — 29. The 
second fordope, lieing merely a mechanical repetition. should jirobably 
be corrected to dopc: X (210.3) oiter ei J)ing dude. — 30. pwe htn 
mansleers: X (210.5) vis pis sfrong monsleiht, ofgolnesse aiciikened':' Then 
there is a break in the connection owing to an omission of several 
lines: cf. X (210.6) Alle sunnen ■■iunderliche, hi hore owune nomeliche 
nomtii, ne muhte no mon riktnen : aiih ine Jeos J)et ich hahhe i.^eid, alle 
Jic oitre heoit hilokene : 7 nis, ich wene, 110 mon pef ne mei understnnden 
him iif liis suniitn nonielichf, iiiider siinime of Jieii ilke imene, pet heoit 
htr iicrittne. 

105. 1. 2 have replaced a passage of some length in the original 
.V(21(Mo): theseven beasts just dealt with areendeavouring to destroy all 



'266 Joel l'4hls8uii 

tliotsf wliii pass throufrh the wilileniess ot' life ' : tlie liou ot' jiride 
.slays the proud, the venomous serpent, the envious etc. . . . Atie to 
(iod heo heoct isleiene ; auh hto Ubbeit' (K) fo pe ueonde, 7 beoS alle 
inc liis hinle. t nerueft hiiii iiie his kiirt, cuerirhon, of pet niester. pel 
hiiii tii niilli-it. — 3. (le^iel ct'. p. !Mi.7. — (Irnweti wi/nde jnward <('■ 
oiitwurd niay have been lelt as illogical and tha ioUnwing pat (/(idrej) 
etc. added in amendinent: ct'. X (•210.18) dnitveit wind inwnrd of 
unrliUicli hereirord. 7 <•/'/. iiiid idel }elpe, iniffeCt hit iitwurd. — 0. Atter 
iliipe a colon. — (>. ta niitken lier (/le: N (21U.20) to .scheauiven hore 
hiirel. — 11. ////■ iiiilihn nou~.,th lilowen etc: K (210.25) heo wolden 
inouh reacte iite deo/les seruise diinliiker beinen. — 13. salitdrius: 
X (2W.21) suUtarius. — atiraxuit tor (ittra.iit: ct'. Jer., II. 24: Onager 
assuetus iu solitudine etc. — 14. ()f pe wi/nde druwejinge jn etc. 
should be taken as parallel to 0/' pise beiners (11) and dependent 
on Sjiekej) (12): X (210.28) Of Jjco Jiet drawect wind inward. nor luue of 
hcreword, seiit Jeroni'-, etse ich er seide. — lU. cherres: X (210.31) 
cheres 'wry taces", OF. cliiere. cliere: there seems to be uo torm with 
rr knowii; one r should therefore prol^ably be struck out : there might 
have been some association with cherre etc. < OE. cerr, cierr 'tiirn' 
etc, which in ME. had a rare sense ot' 'turn ormovement generally' : 
NED., s.v. Chare sb.^ 3. — 17. Alterw/ys a comma; J\'(210..S1) tvrenchen 
inis hore niuct, 7 schulen mid hore tien . — stitUeU is doubtless a perverted 
fonu for sculi: the second character is presumal)Iy meant as c: for 
tlie double ending we may compare an apparently analogous instance 
on p. 170: itseiiiini (14): asciiii/ (15); cf. e. g. Morte Arthure. v. 2292. — 
IH. ondeful vnseii should preferably be transposed; A' (212.1) nniselie 
ontfule. — It). Some lines of the original have been omitted ; cf. X 
(212.2 ff.): if any one says or does anything good, they always 
squint in another direction but scowl with both eyes where there is 
anj'tliing to blame ^. — '21. J)e loue a-.,ein paf i/uel : X (212.7) pet 



'A'^ (210.11) uorilfannne: Mn incorrectly 'uiortals'; Mokris: 'travellers'. — 
20. horfl as pp. 224.2, 282.13; Mokkis corrects to orhel (cf. p. 176.11) and 
gives the veadings of TC m-hel, orey.l. 

' N (212.2) ontfule 'malicious'. — i. luft: Mn, Morhis 'on the left 
hand'. Why not 'aloft, in the air'; luft < OE. lyffl Cf. NED., 8,v. Aloft, 
etym. note. — 5. The actual lueaning of this liue seems open to question. 
MoRRis' insertion of loken: 'to look at loathingly'(?) ia certainly a perversion 
of the sense. Mn'8 interpretatiou ('to blame or dislike') niay be right, if 
lodlich is meant as au atlj.; but the reading of C . . (0 ediciten oi)ey . ladliche . . . 
schulei), G . . . to et icite oper, liiilliche etc. niakes it probable that loiUich is 
to be connected with the followiup: vb. aud a coiuina put after oi)fr (pron.); 
B to eilwiten . oi)er ladliche . . . schulei), 'J' to ediciten . oi)er loken laiiliche pidericard 
(My). — 12. grennen : niuelcn 'grin aml snivel'; niuelen occurs in the sauie 
sense on p. 240.4; cf. iiyuelynije fv. r.r. neuelynge, sneuelyng etc.] icith pe 
uose . and his nekke hangynge. V. 1'!., B. V. 135. — 20. heo 'they'. — 22. For 
alsnesien perhaps we should read asnesien; cf. p. 200.2ii (MoRRis) ; asK?ase)i H, 
asnesen G, .■<nesen C, snensin T (Mvl — 26. Mn's erroneous conception of 
the line is accepted by Morris; a colon should be placed ?d\.6x sikertichr, to 
belonging to maiielei). 



Recluse 267 

lust crieaii pet fiiel. where hist < OE. Iili/st ■hearing" b\' the 
reviser. jiist a.s l>y Mx. has been mi.stakeu tor liist •desire'. — 22. After 
redi/ a tull stop. — lie au inconsisteut chauge ot' uuuiber. — 25. rape- 
lich ijlutten lieiii etc. : JN' (21 •2.11) liwu pe ateliclie (atterlinlie T) deouel 
schal yt agestcn {i/lopiien T) ham iiiitl his f/riiiiiiie greiiiunii/e : the 
sense ot' the verb in P seems evideut from the Chs.-dial. pa. pple. adj. 
glottened •suii)rised, startled" (EDD.), probably related to ON. glotta •grin, 
distort one's tace so as to show the teeth" (Fritzxer: cf. Torp, N^ti. 
Etym. Ordlt.. s.v. Glott, Glutta : see also B.iorkmax, Loau-words. p. 76; 
LnCK. Arcliiv f. neuere 8pr.. CVII. -IIS). Possiblj- the same meaning 
should be assigued to the pa. pple. glotnyt in the first quotatiou from 
Douglas. ^Eneis. given iii XED., s.v. Glotten (glotngl ene: ardeutia 
Inmina). — 28. wifen and leten hardly make sense and are probably 
due to some error; j\' (212.14) Auli for ])ui Iteo beoiX pe lesse te 
nienen, Pet heo biuorenhond leorneit hore mester (K) etc. — 31. plaiers 
tcip ■'iwerdes: JS' (212.17) pleieit inid sireordes. — 33. The stop after 
ktruande has no signifieance. — lerwj) : X (212.19) skirntett. 

106. 1. deuel for deuels probably ou accoiuit of the following 
initial s: cf. p. 107.18. — 6. Sleujje: N (212. H) pe slowe. — 10. Ydel 
7 }einelts pis is etc. : T (212.27) pe pet is idel 7 yineleas, he is pes 
diofles bennes slep, which is no doubt a faulty readiug: cf. B Idel 7 
-,eineles is pes ileofles bearnes slep (similarlj- GC), T Idel 7 ^einles w 
tis deueles burm slep: oediuesce 7 negligence esf le dormir al filz del 
diable 7 a la (ille Fr. (My) : Ydel and ^emeles are noims. — 11. abragen : 
cf. NED., s.v. Abray: "a false form of abraid found iu Spenser; 
deduced from the pa. t. abruid. ubrayde, quasi abrayed' : s.v. Abraid 
there is ouly one instance of abrag given from Spenser"s F.Q. — 
12. toonderlich: X (21-1.2) ine helle irondrede^ afelichn (eiheliihe BGT 
Mv) awakien. — 15. hap su-ich a /^«//: au explauation of this reading 
seeius rather micertaiu. X (21-1.4) has askebaitie (B fskibah. G eskebah, 
V eskebach, T askebacte Mv) aud the assumption seeuis uot imlikely that 
the alteration of the uuiutelligible original word has been made verj' 
much at randoin : the notion intended to be implied may perhaps be 
•(unhappy) state. (unfavourable) position". There is. it is true, no evi- 
dence of an identical meaning elsewhere: a connection may. however, 
be assimied with Promp. Pai^v. bag. glossed 'withstondyng: Obstaculum'. 
If. as suggested in NED., s.v. Bay sb.*, the word in Promp. Parv. 
is aphetically formed from abag (cf. Bay sb.^: P a bag possiblj- to 



' 'Distress, misery ot liell' < ON. vandrceHi: cf. Morris' note. — 
4. askeba!)ie: M.v 'asbgatherer'; Morris 'ash-bather'; NED., Str.vtm.Br.. s.v. 
'one who sits among the ashea'; Mr Wftrterb.: 'der in Asche bla.st, wiihlt'. — 
9. undastond pr. subj. ; a tinal e may have been dropped on account of Ihe 
following initial. — 12. boluwed 'prides, exiilts. There is a slight playing 
upon the woid bloaice!)' (Morris). — /mrtdi ham is prohably to he conHidered 
nierely as a correction of the preceding iiie liam: purh ham BCGT ^My). — 
13. ethalt of eni pinge Pet nis etc. 'keeps (to himself; cf. 1. 16) of a thing 
that is notbing but ashes' etc. — 21. neppe 'cup, bowl", as corrected on 
p. 480. 

18 



268 Joel Pihleson 

be hyjjhenefl), both tnnns beinji in frequent nse in tlio jihrases ut u litiif 
(ahdi/), to tlie bay "at close qtmrters, in preat straits, in distress', these 
may have been the general notions from which the sjieeialized senses 
given above have branched off. Another, and jjerhajis simjjler, expla- 
nation would be to see in baif a modification of the idea of 'recess' 
related to that in the .latter component of lioise-hai/, sick-hai/: cf. 
NED., s.v. Baj' sb.* 3. Yerv likely. however. tlie reading is simj)ly to 
be regarded as a blimder for some one of the oripinal words jnst 
ijuoted. — 16. JV (214.6) stureit liim aorfe ritkyten iinirliele 7 iiiniiie 
i-ulcen fof/edere. — IH. An omission has sjjoilt the conte.xt : cf. 
X (214.7) ase peos rilcenares doit p liahhect niucliel uorto rikenin: 
one line has apparently been left out. — 20. hot is missing before 
askes; cf. 1. 23. — 21. hlowen — holnrp liym an inconsistency in 
number. — 23. nys bot askes: we should probably sujijjly piil and 
strike out the first d- in the foUowing line: N (214.13) etlialt of mi 
pinge pet nis hufen asken : or else more pan etc. should come after 
pinr/. — 24. ct- he etc. : the comiection is confused: be is to he 
omitted: possibly for au original ho: cf. X (2 14.15) hocTe. — 32. A'" (214.2:}) 
. . . octcr : mactelect mid {niis BCtC My) ivoriles, 7 ■wir/elect ase iiiirtlriinhen 
mon pef Uatiect imunf fo iiallen ... 7 /« ueond lauliin-tt prt he t» 
herstect. — 33. prechep vs: X (214.25) preatect peos. 

107. 2. ymre ny error; cf. A^ (214.27) oii srliril i-uer liuni/ren. — 
5. Cf. Rev., XVm. G: in poculo, quo miscuit, miscete illi dujilum. — 
7. N (210.3) 3'/ P^ yulcliecuppe (kealrlie ruppe B, kelclie ctippe (tT, 
keache cuppe C My^) weallinde bres fo drincken, 7 ^eo/ etc. The 
reading of our text is doubtless an imintentional alteration due 
to carelessness on the jiart of the reviser: the original i/ulrhi-- 
has been taken as a sej)arate word with the sense of 'drmikard. 
glutton' (XED., s.v. Crulch sb.' (1601)) :-«(/)i;e may have been felt 
as corresponding to poruhim in the Scriptural quotation. If anything 
at all is to be made of the words that follow, we may consider them 
as au ajipositional exj^lanation of ifloton, insert a colon after eop/ie. 
take Coppe ('portion, lot' ; NED., s.v. Cup 9) as the object of dri/nk. 
strike out the stop, and put a dash after glotonije. — 8, 9. yiue — 
ytep — yiue an instance of carelessness in regard to number. After 
imvip a semi-colon, after fo a fuU stoji: ir.,ein is to be inserted before 
on. — 10. N (216.5) siourli is Godes doin a^eon pe ^iure, 7 ayun 
pe drinrkares (clruncwile BCG, dritnkensume T My). — 14. The 
Latin quotation is also foimd in M. — 17. N (216.11) 7 sfinkeit 
(sc. pe leclmr) of pef fulcte. — stifken with the abbreviation-mark 
omitted. — 17, 18. Iiis, lie kept from the original : cf. the jjl. in 



' In hia glossarial index Mn erroneously connects keache with OE. 
cedc 'a pitcher', keMie with OE. ccelic 'a goblet'. NED., s.v. Keaeh-cup 'toss 
pot' assumes relatiouship witb dial. keach 'to toss'; it would seem just ae 
plausible to combine kmche, kealche etc. with dial. keach, nleach to ladle. 
sip'; cf. NED., s.v. Keach; EDD., s.v. Keach v.'. — 9. /»«»1 nis nowihf of schenmr 
'they care in no wise for, are quite regardless of shaiiie'. 



Recluse - 269 

the preceding liiies. — 18. ,// paiep — schul j>;ine>i lieiii ('2'2) a dis- 
connected in.^ertion in P. — ]it. Iier referring to dmel (IB), which is 
prohably meant tor the plnral : cf. p. lOU.l, 1"23.5 etc. For analogous 
instances see e. g. Dibelius. Anglia, XXIV. p. 214: Sir Beues of 
Harat. (EET8.), lutr., p. XVI, and particularly Arthour and Merlin 
(hoth ed. KOLBD.-G), Intr., p. XXVII. — 22, is. N (2l(i.l3) Itie. riiiis 
Patnini hit teUeit hwu he (sc. Je<hnr) ittinkeit to God. pe engeJ etc : 
a dash may he placed after stynken. — 27. pi/ne in helle: *V(21(;.17) 
pei fuluste mester i(te ueondes kiirt: cf. 11. 18 ff. — lnipen hem: 
.V liidoct ham suhicn : although the substitution gives fairly good sense, 
it is ohvioush' due to the fact that the original verh has not heen 
uuderstood ; there is apparently only one more exaniple. also from 
Ancr. R. {X p. 130.1), of the meaning 'befoul, defile with ordnre' . — 
28. pi/ne hem irip paf sti/nk: X (211). 18) he (sc. ueonde) schal bidon 
ham 7 pinen hnm mid eche stunche iite pine (piit BCCtT My) of hellv. — 
At this point in the revision an original passage, addressed to the 
sisters personally, has been left out. — 29. wene probahly stands 
for wenep. p being dropped on acconnt of the following initial '. 

108. 1. her teniptacions hen awaije: quite contrarily A* (218.5) 
iueltit ham (sc. uondunf/es) so stronije. — 4. After forlnsen a colon. — 
o. <('■ should he changed to he. or pat topan: cf. 1. 8. — '■). louelich: 
y (218.14) openliche. — 10 ff. Cf. the corresponding passage in N 
(218.15 ff.): makecT him swucte .^turne (K), 7 ivent to pene (/riinme toit 
uortf uonden ■^ele yif he (ha CT) muhte hire luue touirard him umtestnen (K) : 
thus. to make the sense clear. fonde to .should be understood before 
turnen (12). — The foUowing lines have also been considerably 
changed. — 14. To make tbe line read pat should he taken as 

a stressed dem. pron. ; or else whan should be supplied before it. 

17. le for he. — 19. se prohalily for sip. the loss of p being due 
ro the following initial. — 23. lesse should be corrected to lesscd:. 
the reading may be due to inlluence from the strong pa. pple., OE. 
Ivds. ME. lese, lees. — 25. bi/ . .rij . tvaies — liis folk (29) mainlj- an 
addition by the reviser; so also to hem pat tvere (31) — he slou} 
hfm (33). — 33. tcrabbeden : the word occurs again on p. 1 78.30: wrabbande : 
the sense is obviously 'wrangle, bicker". Only one more e.xample 
seems to be known: 'Thom. of Erceld. (EET8. 61). v. 38: tvrabbe 
<(■ wri/ (Cotton ; wrobbe and wri/e Thomton) where 8tr.-vtm.-Br. hesita- 
tingly gives the sense as 'denoimce' : cf. also ivreieres and wrobbcres 
Hav. 39, in Stratm.-Br. ' ? denouncer; Skeat: 'rohhers"(!); Holthavsex 
in illustration only quotes the above verbal phrase. Relationship in 



' JV (218.S) Sum aticre isjBef etc. 'there aresomeanchoresses wbo' elc. — 
U. pe probably an error; omitted in BT; C n-ads hire ;My). — 15. tiiaked 
him si(~u!ie sfume (K) etc. 'assumes a stern manner and lias recourse to 
harsh measures'. — 16. Lk's supposition on p. f> tliat /le nhouUl he a scribal 
error or an nnaccented form of lieo is due to a inisunderstandins; ; he (as B 
My; refers to mon, not to wif. — 26. spreoue as in C; T preoue; iis:'lpes 
jii-euue; cf. strusli p. 66.19, stristre (K) p. 332.2s etc. — 27. icolde hardly 'was 
about', Ro p. 19. 



270 Joel P&hlsaon 

InriiL aud nri^iiial incniiiiig iiiay lio assumcil witli Slictl. dial. nih 
'chatter, talk toolishly, gossip' (EDD., s.v. Raab) : rohhJe 'frivolous 
nonsense', Lei., Wor. (EDD.): ON. raliha: Swed. dial. rahh (Tohp. 
Nyn. Etym. Ordb.. s.v. Kabha 1): of. Swed. dial. rahhi 'rabble'. 
rarla : vrarla (Rietz, Sv. ilial. le.\.) ; Da. ruppe 'quack* : Jutl. rrappe 
(FKii.iiEHii. Oi-ill>. o. Jyskc Almuesm.). 

109. 7. (iftfr: X ('2'2(). 14) ^ uniler. — Before pe r^/ec aud after 
pf oper (S) luay be put a dash. — 8. ((• pus fn ilehp heiii: X {2'20.1o) 
noiir iloleii. pus fo-deled. — 9. fomhiniies — fondymie: the sing. is 
kept ironi the original. — After oprnlidi an omission ; ct'. A' ('2'20.17) 
ii(ii(diiniie sfronfi (K) 7 derne — uondunge sfroni/ (K) 7 openlicli (K). — 
10. The comma after liere jnne to be taken as a colon : similarly 
the stop after word (14). — 15. Ct'. Job, XIV. 19: — excauant ■ — 
alluuione paulatim. — 17 fl. A full stop should be placed after oft. 
Tlie sense of the following lines is spoilt by the omission of of icliic/i 
before Jie (18): cf. N (220.22) Of pe lihfe openliche nondiimies. 
hi hwcm hc seict al so i Lucehif . . . nis nouf so inuchel dufe. — 
18. Cf. Job. XLI. 23: Post eum lucebit semita — 20. Cf. Isaiah. 
XLYII. 11: Veniet — nescies. The quotatioti. given in illustration 
of strong and secret temptations, originally comes after Insidiafi etc. (23) : 
the translation is an addition. — 23. Cf. Job, XXX. 13: — 
suut inihi — fuit. — 25. sfrengpen jn vpe nie: a ijassage has lieen 
Iftt nut. probably because the copyist's eye happened to catch another 
uppon me standing a few lines below in his original ; cf. N (220.27): . . . 
strencdeden upjioii nie. and nes hwoa nie hiilpe. Venief inalum . . . ()f 
pe -ueorcte uondunrie, pet is slrong 7 openlich (K), he inahect his mime 
of his foan 7 seilt, Quasi rupfo muro, ef aperfa Janua irruerunf super 
me : pcf is, heo wresfen (preasten B, presten C, prasfin T Mv) in 
uppon me, ase pauh he wal were fo-hroken etc. — 29. The connection 
has suffered by the omission of some words : cf. X (222.4): . . . heo(t 
gostliche — of' f/osfliche uiicterniwes — 7 heoct ihud offe 7 dcrne liwon 



' N (220.2) per — J)er 'where — there'. — 8. Uste 'pleasure, joy'. — 
10. weane 'affliction'. — 31. wresten probably for presten as BCT. 

' Mn 'concerning' ; should be 'arising froni, originating in'. — 13. mid 
alle 'perfectly, thoroughly'. — 17. uerliche 'siiddeidy, unexpectedly'. ■ — 26. Me 
wolde >ne eto. 'they would (do good, give aluis, to) ine'. -- 30. sum of liore: 
as |)ointed out by My on p. 72, this reading cannot lie sustained; BC have 
tndke!) suin hore, T reads makieS monie hore; My coraijares snm hore with 
OE. heora sum and assumes, witli Mn, the sense to be '(a certain) one of 
thein'; although this construction is not unknown lo the Ancr. R. (cf. e. g. 
pp. 2'2G.9, 312.4), tlie idea would seein rather comnionplace ; moreover l\Iv 
gives the regular fonn of the pron. pl. from B as Iiare. If it is also taken 
into consideiation that P has pe dcuels hoore (p. 110.23), M meretrix, it can 
hardly be doubted that the assuinption of Mv and Mn is an error: the 
meretrix-iAea, is doubtless exactly what is implied; consequently I may 
suggest to take feste as the subj., transpose the words sum of or omit 0/; 
the idea expressed — 'tlie devils whore' is not unfrequently used as au 
appellation for a sinning anchoress — would then connect with wliat imme- 
diately precedea and also with the iiotion contained in 1. 24: leosen hirefame. 



Recluse 271 

h(-o <ienie(t meiif. 7 hott muchtl Korpui J^e more to dredtn. — 30. Iierot: 
X ('22-2,:) hredea. 

110. 1 tf. Cf. Prov., XXllI. 35: Verberavenmt me sed noii 
dolui : traxermit me et ego non sensi. P is in accordance with T, 
both giving the authors of the quotations correctlj'; the other MSS. 
differ; cf. .Y (222.8 ff.) and My. — The tran.slation in 11. 2, 3 not 
in N; after noif^th a full stop: the comma after scijj is meant as a 
colon. — 5. rnheljH". N (222.10) nihohle. which at the time of the 
revision seems to have been obsolete. — 7. Jxit is sn-ij)c i/norle etc. : 
A' (222. 12~) fiet J)unrhc(T ■'fn-uctc r/od mid nllc, 7 is pauh soulc hoiic, 7 
wci to dcadlich siitnic. — 12. draiccii: dreaicit B. drcicct C. driihc(tT (My): 
X (222.17) dredeit is au imacceptable reading. — Iti. Jat haj) a 
rcwful hcrt etc. : iV (222.20) pct he nc mei nones weis maMen riiele 
(luttcrc TO iitoncked, so hifful 7 so reouctful is hire hcorte. — 17 ff. hcm, 
hij illogically refen-ing to anoper (16). — The original argument has 
lieen abridged: cf. X (^222.22) Ich chulle . . . makien hire to rcouctful mid 
alle : ichulle mukien so niuchel J)ct hco .fchal luiticn cihte, j Jencchen (K) 
pc lesse of God, 7 leosen hirc fame : 7 /luf pconiie a sicuc ponc in 
hire softe heorte : Scintc Maric etc. — 20 ff. Cf. -V (222.27 ff.) , . . 
■;// ich hcdc. 7 so ich iiinhtc iK) hclpen hrim 7 don elmesse: the rest 
of the passage has also been considerably changed. — 25. perforc — 
]i. 111.12 a later insertion. 

111. 5. After ilarfhn .a dash. — il. Lokcp — yiu: the iutio- 
duction of the plural is illogical. — 13. The original argument is 
rather disconnectedly resumed; cf. X 1 222.31 ff.) . . . pet u-encct pct 
hco do wel, asc dusie men 7 adotedc doit hirc to understonden, pct 
flakerect ifldtnct B. flattercct C. fultrcct T My) hirc of freolac, 7 hcriect 
7 ylpect of [heoueit uj) B, heucct up TC My) pr clmcisc Jjct heo dc(t . . . 
7 hco lct wel etc. — 16. An omissiou has destroyed the conte.xt; cf. 
.V (224.3) ' Lo! Pus pe treitrc of hcllc makcct him trenuwe (K) rcades- 
mnn. Xe ileue v etc. — 17. Demonio nieridiano introduced liodily 
from Ps. XG. 6 (cf. p. 109.11 ff.) without regard to grammatical 
correctness; X (224.5) demoniiim meridianuni. — 20. Xe possibly 
for Xo X (224.8). — for nou^th: X (224.9) ne telle 3«? hutc dwerde. — 
2 1 . hiit yif it hc — 1. 29 mainly added by the reviser. — 28. forpi : pat 
sbould donbtless be supplied. — 30 ff. The original examples are 
confused: ef. X (224.10 ff.) ase pe pet he (K: sc. trcitrc nf helle) 
rom to in onc wildcrncssc in onc wumnione lichc, 7 scide pcf heo was 
ir/on a dweolcct iigan dwcolc BT, ii/nn adwcolcit C 3Iy), 7 wenji . . . : 

However, the line in M: Tale conviviam (for convivium?) facit quaiitloqHe 
meretrix (Mx p. IX^ spenis to make it necessary to take sum hwe, in a non- 
melapliorical nen9e, as the nnbj. 

' ..Y (224.7) si-henue!) him ■sbows hiniself. — 19 S. Tbe paeeage seems 
ratlier involveii and the connection of clauses uncertiun; Summe of ou fiet 
he etc. (21 niay be an instance of anacolutlion. Mn otnh» />et. Insteadofihe 
full stop, a (lash mij;ht perhaps be plated after biwrenrhe. — 24, 28. ouerhowe 
(pi>. 1%.14. 284 3 etc.): the sb. bas been overlooked in XKD. — 28. »HOM»ie 
Kroiiic: Mk 'the tbings that make the lifeof nian agreeable'? — 28. oiire, hire 8g. — 



272 Joel 1'ftlilt^soii 

T '/' "/ /"'" <'(l''>' liiili'' iiiiiiiiii' pi'l lii' iiiakidi' uorlr ilriie» J)ct hf inis 
ciKjil, 7 hi liis fcilvr Jjcl lic zcas Jjc dcoiicl. 7 iniihilc liini lo slciin 
his fcdcr. 

112. '1. fiidcr to lie supplied atter Aw. — 0. 7. for hc hudd etc. 
in tlie origiual lo^ically connect.s with the preeedinf; incident. — 
it ff. An misatistactory alteratiou of the original: cf. j\' (224.211 
Suiiimc of 011 pcl hc inakcdc sianmc chc.rrc lo wenen Jjet hit iccic 
uilcelungc yf hco spclce ueire, 7 5«/" heo edmodliche mcncdc (K) liirc 
ncodc, 7 3«/" hco ponckcde mon of liis god dede .' 7 wus more ouerhoirc 
iinrto acwenchen chcrile, pen norto don rilittrisnessc (M et tumen forct 
mafiis prcestimptio ud exlingucndum caritatcm ' quam supicntiu vcra). — 
13. And so he iciJ — yue no yme peiio (15) has notking corre.s- 
ponding in the earlier versions. — IG. oucr gret pouyth: JV (224.281 
ouerhotve. — 22. pal is to suie — 1. 23 an addition; so also nou}lh 
forjn — Jcre jiinc (24, 25). — 25. hen is missing after licn. — 
2t). hcm illogically referring to pal aU; N (226.5) auh nout tauh 
J)c J)iisentfold ' pct me is mide ileinted (K) : ne ne mtilite, asc ich ivene, 
niidc none mucte nomclichc ncmincn (K) ham. — 27. After ynenipncd 
a dash: similarly after hcllc (2S11. — 31. higilcj): X (22G.13) hirlcit. 
(• hi lellca. 

113. 1. piil firiiil Aiisliii/ tcllcp — 1. 17 an addition. — 
A colon shduld lie placed after lcllcp : similarly after the .second 
scidc in 1. G. — 10. iilginc: a lyine, — 17. An original passage 
containing the first comfort, applj-iug personailj' to the recluses ad- 
dressed, lias Vieen left out; cf. N (226.17) Siker hco of fondungc, pel 
(om. BCT My) Iiivoso cuer slont ine heie liuc. pis is pe uorincstc 
uroure. Vor, eucr so hrrrc lur, so hauect more wind. The sisters 
themselves are towers ; while they are bound to one another in sisterly 
love, they need not fear the deviFs blasts etc. — 27. a long: A^ (228.15)- 
allunge, OE. eallunga etc, which apparently has no form identical 
witli the one in our text; there may be a confusion with the ME. 
equivalent of OE. andlmig 'along, forth' (some examples with the 
sense 'in fuir"also given in NED., s.v. Along 7). 

114. 2. pc should be supplied before deucl. — ouerpaf: oucr 
pnl. — 3. sctt a footcmerlx: N (228.24) iset to pe ueonde a merke. — 

5. niay no ferrer prike: N (228.27) ne mei nout gon furSer a prickc. — 

6. A full stop after werh. — 13, 14. a legion etc. an insertion liy 
the reviser. . — 21. an rnsely synfnl nian etc: N (230.12) on vniscli 
Godcs ilicnessc hcrcit Inim (him BCT My) in liirc , (liis CT My) 
hreoste, 7 ne niniect ncucr ymc. — 24. After cunncn a colon. — 

' Mn 'the thousandth part' as required by the context; tlie sense seenis 
to be unique; perhaps put illogicallv. — U. tale 'tale'; Mn Intr., p. IX; Br 
p. 496; Mv p. 71. 

' N (228.4) otire pl. — G. Mn (Gloss.) derives suti from OE. s6t; similarly, 
apparently, 8tkatm.-Bk.; NED., s.v. Sooty, considers it 'difficult to regard the 
early south-westtMii suti as a niere variaut of tliis'; s.v. Suly, the word is 
connected with OE. besutod 'deliled'. — 18. ktmscence, as on p. 288.20, 'conseut.' — 
230.15. kunnen possibly «c; OE. cunniun. 



Recluse 273 

•28. «() «((/i/A bot onv forfo entkcn hym pirto vajiuely rendering the 
original heo neuede po none leiiiie, biite one (nnn bote ane T) uort to 
offinn ifearen T) him, yf bileaue him trukede N (230.18). — 29. crook. 
n.-i on p. 117.2, inay have the sense •tuna aside out of the straight 
eourse, waver' iXED., s.v. oi: it has replaced the original trukede, 
a verli which at the time ot' the revision was apparently rather 
unusual : the substitution is proltably not intentional. — 30. yif illo- 
gically tor the pres.: JN' (230.19» 3)717. 

115. 11. pat inilerstonile we tcel etc: X (232.3) Ant tet understod 
icil lliiaid, po he seide etc. — 12. mederelinquas: me dercHnqttas. — 
13. 14. f/ li>n(/e. a long: X (232.5) aUunije\ d'. p. 113.27,29. — Loo 
ichan hc tvolde etc. : J\' (232.5) Lo, he (sc. Dauid) tcoldc tcel pcf he 
(sc. Loucrd) bilefde him, auh nout allungc. — IG. for yif his gruce — 
oure tseluen (17 1 an addition. — alwap for altcai/. — 17. into pride 
should doubtless be inserted after fallen. — 23. Eccc eiToneously 
for the abbreviation of Ecclcsiasficiis: cf. Ecclus., XXXIV. 11: Qui 
tentatus non est. qualia scif? — rnfonded nott etc: N (232.13) Hwat 
icof. he seiit, Salomon, pe pet w unuondedf — 25. After scluen a 
full stop. 

116. i'. Caste for fjastcl. — 11, 12. hcm for /itMf, probably in 
both cases. — 12. hc he an instance of dittography imperfectlj' 
coiTected. — The second his probabh- for pe. — 16. N (232.30) 
nol/iscum sunt. — 17. steniep ymeles . <('• by pis sfrengpc jnobcdiencc 
a liieaningless comiption: cf. X (234.3) sikernessc sfreoncit ycmeleasfr 
{ymcles Tk 7 ouerhoicc : 7 bode peos sfrconcit inobcdience. — 19. The quo- 
tation (not a Scriptural passage) is an addition. — 20. N (234.4) hici 
urr Loucrd etc. — 22. rnderfonde: N C2'd4:.') pef tu his yincume undcruo 
Pi pe i/li-dlukur {K): the reading of P is evidently a scribal error: 
il should be corrected to g. — 24. irillicher: N (234.8) pct tii percfter 
Pi irisluker^ tcite him . . . 7 /c uestlukcr holde. — 26. The translation 
in 1' only. — 29. A full stop should be placed after ytempted. 

117. 1. tille: N (234.16) ridlen. TC ridli. — 2. ne crook 
niiii-yth along: N (234.17) nc trukie (trukc CT) allungc: cf. p. 114.29. — 
pat i.-i — in bileue (3) added: similarlj' of lccchcrie £• of pridc 
in hi.s soule. — 4. he bedc etc: repeated in 1. 6, where the 
^vnrds occur in the original. — 9. The sense has been spoilt by 
an omission: cf. N (234.21) pet fu nc beo oucrcumcn .' bcon sfrong etc. : 
the twofold occurrence of bco has caused a confusion. — 11 ff. 
Cf. N (234.24 ff.i auh forcti pet hco lotiste wcl pet in pe muchele 
iingui.se aros pe muchclc nicde, noldr hco netier cnes In^echen urc 
Liiuerd pct hc allungc deliuredc hirc perof. The passage as rendered 



' Ms, 8tbatm.-Br. 'wisely'; 1 assume connection with OE. tcissliche, ge- 
tcissliche. — 10. tirouren for ttroitre. — 13. alre twrmest 'first of all". — 16. come 
possibiy a play upon words; cf. pp. Ij^i.is, 142.9. — 22. Ru p. 104 considers 
beoH to be an inf. with iniperative function ; it is, however, donbtless merely 
an inaccurate readina; for Ijeo (cf. I, 10; niimerous minilar inatAnces); BT Beo. 
C beo (Mvi 



274 Joel PihlBson 

in /' inny luake sonie sense — a iull stop niiylit lie placed nffer 
metlc; however. the abV^reviation is doubtless due to accidental oniis- 
sions. — 17. Ai: hup etc: N (23G.2) nout ich, auh haurct etc. — 
19. <(!• pat was al — jcsu of hetiene (25) inserted by the reviser. — 
'20. (leciple cf. p. 107.18. — 25. N (236.5) * seint (K) Bcneit 7 seint (Ki 
Antonie etc. — 26. Ar for pc gret mede — louelich (27) added in 
the revision. — 28. coroiine op Coronne: N (236.8) kciiipcne criinc. — 
29. ^V Ant tis her cftcr is pc cihtcoite kunfort (elnc T) .' pet nl so alse 
pc fioldsniiit etc; we .should put a full stop before as. — 31. iV (236.12) 
f)U f/rruc.<it him htvon pu etstondcst a puscnd sidc more 7 sarre etc. — 
32. After resouns a colon: some words are mis.sing: cf. N (236.13) 
Jjct on (sc. reisun) is, pet hc norleoscit . . . his strcncctc (K) ttorte tcntrn 
ruermore on nicn siciich manere sunnc. 

118.1. For to rche synne — forfo /cm/itcn (2) inserted. — 
2. A colon after oper and pridde. — 3 ff. N (236.16) hc uor-uret 
his owune hcortc of sor (K) grome 7 of tcone, pet he unctonc his, drct 
pe ictct tentnriiin pet tu stonst ayan : mtichclect pine medc : 7 for pinc 
pct he icende uorte draivcn pe tomvard, he hreidcct etc. — 7, 8. After 
hijm we may put a dash; after hciienc a full stop. — 11. rf'- /(/.v 
deciple ■ — adounc (14) not in the original. — 15. dc hc dudc so an 
impossible addition; cf. N (236.25) slcpte (sc. mcistrr) uorf midniht : 
~ p(i hr atvakede, eiiu, ctocct he, yt her? Go 7 slcj) sructe (K) (v.r. htrer 
iir/ii. ijiiccT he? Ga slep stvicte). pe holi mon, his mcister, iicearct 
rff aslejjc etc. — 17. achai/cr: a chuyer. — 21. hc should be inserted 
l)efore aros ; but the line hardly makes any sense and there is nothing 
correspouding in the original; N (238.2) seie, ctvect hc, hu stod J)e 
pco kiriile pet ich slepte, 7 tti sete bitioren mc. — 24. N (238.6) 7 
nolde bttfen Icaue. — 26. po werc pc setien Corounes : N {2S8.8) htvuf 
weren pco seoue criinen i pcf hit wercn peo seoue ktinne (K) blisscn, 
pet his diciple liefdc . . . ofscrucd etc. — 29. After mede a full stop: 
the stop after seip is meant for a colon. — 33 ff . tvipsigge for tripsiggcp 
on account of the foUowing initial ; the passage has been abridged and 
the syntactical connection is somewhat loose: cf. 3' (238.1.5)- pro 



* A' (236.8) Ant tis her effer = what follows. — 13. for preo reistins 
nomeliche 'for three reasons in particular'. — li. on vuen: NED., Mr WOrterb. s.v. 
Anoven,give thesenseas 'onwanl intime, after, niehr, ternerhin';STRATM.-BK., s.v. 
An-nfen, as 'above'; I regard the word as a prep. witli an original meaning 
of 'on, npon'; cf. Bosw.-T., s.v. On-ufan. — 17. Mn's insertion of feS is due 
to a misunderstanding; BT read unponc hise ted i J)e tempfatiun, . . . ipe 
fotidunge C (My) wliere te!) is not a sb. (Mn Gloss.) but tlie pr. t. of fen, teon. — 
I doubt whether Mx lias correctly rendered the eonneftion between tlie clauses; 
I may suggest another J>et to be understood in I. 17 {pet Jtet he): "tliat i,the 
fact) that he . . . leads tliee . . ., increases' etc. 

' N (238.11) winstlunge, according" to My, is an editorial error for 
wrasflunge. — 15 ff. In comuion with Mn's unsatisfactory readings(K), several 
inaccurate translatious also need correction. I>eo, heo pl. as in 1. 19. — The 
semi-colon should probably be placed after ulesche {IS). — ivutmett (17) pa. t. — 
In 1. 18 we should strike ont the punctuation-niark after uestluker. — 
MS. : onwille 'persevoring, steadfast'. — The dash in the text after stcuflf ^19) 
to be kept in the translation. 



Rechise 275 

nihteit treoiiliiJir Pit stoiiitit iKi //(/ so liro iiirr Itvoit iicforrcil 
of peos preo iriiferirincs : 7 iiomelirlie of fic ulesclie, liwiich so eiicr pe 
liist heo : ( so hit iiiiiiiectluhrr {nicmllulcr BC, iiieaffluker T My) is, 
7 y (K) wttnnen {irrinniit B. irrinneS C. widcred T My) a-iican pe 
uestlukcr : 7 iciitsii/f/cit pc ijniuiit perof miil onirille (K) lieorte {uneicile 
hcorte B. an willc heorte C, anieille of lierte T My^ . . . pco pet tus 
iloit etc. 

119. -. hoiif/cn 011 pc rooilc: X ("238. 20) lioni/inilc oite roilc ; 
iioiificn may be iised as a j>a. pple. : or, which seems more probable, 
rhe sen.se of the orifrinal has heen lost. — 3. smellcil : X (238.21) 
smeihte. — 4. h for lie. — 9. ofrest for ofprest. — 10. nc felen if 
nouyth : X (240.1) pet teo kiciile pet heo drinkeit pene drunch, ne heo liit 
nciier so ttitter, ne iueleit heo liit neucr. — 11. Cf. X (240.3) Aiih 
hicon hit is a/ ouere, peonne spet lieo 7 scheked pet heaiied, 7 foit 
on iiorto niuclen^, 7 niakien sure 7 ffrimine chere etc. — 13. After 
pcnaunce a colon. — 14. wilde seems to mean 'grow wild, rage", 
OE. a-irildian : cf. p. 59.7: X (240.7) ... to pe preostc. For bileaue 
hit mSinncn, hit irule hrcden deait. — 16. Cf. X (240.11) ^.3«« aUe 
tentfieiuns . . . saluen hco^i hoten undcr Godes grace : holie meditaciuns — 
inirardc, 7 meitlcuse, 7 anfjiiisuse honen etc. ; some of the other saluen 
have been omitted in the i-evision. — 18. Alle pisc hcn armes in 
pis fi}th an insertion : cf. 1. 20. — 20. X (240. I-t) edmodncs.-<e. 7 
polemodncssc, 7 freolac of hcoiie etc. — 22. /(_;/ a scribal slip for 
hi/m. — ttoli/ meditaciouns etc: X (240.19) Holie nicditaciuns hcoit 
Ijichippcd in onc ucrs pef iras yare iteiht (itachf 010 CT), mine leoue 
sustrcn : Mors tiia etc. — 25. fii/iintuin for figanfur. — 29, 30. Wliaf 
lie — iiyins hi/m added — 31 ff. Ac trhaii ice pcnchen etc. : the 
lines are rather confused: ef. X (242.3) icord icli sigge cfter owcr 
sunnen [scgge . Kffer owcr sunnen . Iiwen sc BC {sunncn liwcn) My); 
Pct liwonne se y pencheit of lielle wo 7 of heoucriche wunnc : rnder- 
stondcit pet <iod woldc a sume icise schcairen ham to men idisse worlde 
hi Wfirldliche pinen 7 worldliche wunncn i and schcawcdc hain uorit ase 
ptiuh hit werc a scheadewe — uor no lik-ure ne heod heo * {for na 
lickre ne heod ha fo pc wunne of heonene . Xe to pe wa of lielle pen 
i.s schadewc to p ping p hit is of schadewc B, for nan ■sikcre ne hcod 
hco C, for na lickere ncren lio T My). — 34. for alle we.rldlich 



' Cf. p. 213.12. — 5. makien sure igrimme chere i. e. make wry faees. — 
12. tnirorrfe 'feivent' as on p. 244.9 etc. — 14. After /»ou»r a colon. — 26. M.S.: 
of gofles detide o rofU (K). — 27. Cf. B pe grinime flom n/ flnniesdei, muniied 
nfte ofte i mofle; . . of flomes dai, nini ofte i moi)e T. . . . of flome.idei nini ofte 
itt heoite C ;Myi; iis shown by the rhyme, the reading of BT iiiiist be con- 
MJilered as the oricinal. 

' 'They are no niore alike, the likeneRS between theni ia no greater". — 
17. meDlease 'excessive'. — 18. vour kunne refers to pouhtes (17) and the four 
kinils of thoughts are (tiven in the next line. — 20. tireured ' if) bred'. — 
24. beoii shonld be understood after mimche. — 26. I do not take fiine leouest 
ureond as gen. 



276 Joel PAhlason 

ioiics — /*'■ lisl pi/iic of hiUc )i. 1"J().3 au iiis(M'tioii. reiieated 11. IH t't. 
w liere the jiassa^e occurs iii the orifrinal. 

120. 3. Cf. N (24'2.7) ^c hciict oiicr pissc irorhlcs see, iqipcii 
J)c hnii/!/c (liritikc TC) of hcnucne. ■ — (!. Arid so inoiccn irc — 07«)« 
hciii (\2\ adiled by the reviser. — 16 ff. donc must cloubtless lie 
cousidered as an luiintentional error; cf. the corresponding passafre in 
X ('2-i'2.17): iiiih oitcr pouhtcs suiiniie cherre inc iiiectlcasc uoiiihini/es hiihheit 
ihojjicn — rotir kunnc nomcJiche — to vh'sehVichc asaUed : drcdfiiJc . . . 
wiJJes iciitutcn neodc arcured in pc Iicortc. — 19. The stop after hcrt 
should be struck out and a colon placed after coine. — The subject 
(/•(■ has been ouiitted. — 22. N (242.22) oitcr yif me remde lude fur! 
fiir! pct tc chircJic bernde ! oder yif pu iherdest pcoucs lircken pinc 
iroinres. — 25. wipstondc illogically for the pa. t. ; X (242. 28i 
icictstodc. — 2(!. K (242.28) ... aJ pet irere ine hcoucnc, 7 al pct werc 
inc Jielle [nl lienene tvare 7 liellc warc TC), in pc tentacion. hihoJdcn 
pe one. — 29, 30. N (244.5) . . . imurctred: oitcr pef tine sustrcn weren 
in Jiore Jiuse norherne {forbarndc in harc Jiiis T). — 31. HoJy hed(s etc: 
the passage is a contraction of the original text ; cf. JV (244.9 ff.) : 
fervent, immoderate, anxious prayers obtain succour from our Lord 
against carnal temptations : the devil is much afraid of them : they 
quickly draw do\vn assistance from God and do him twofold harm: 
thej' bind and they burn him. 

121- 2. FupJinus: N ('244.14) Piijijiliiis. T riplius. — 3. ■\uliiis 
hcstc Cesar: N (244.16)' Juliancs hcste J)c Aiiiperour. — 4. rptoward: 
rp toward. — 5. Seint Marc/areie hondc IJuJfi/n etc: X (244.19) 
Xabhe 3« pis also of Ruffin J)e deoucJ, BcJiaJes hroiter, in our Eng- 
li.scJie hoc of Seinte ILarc/arete ? Cf. Digby Plays, Mary Magd., v. 1200. — 
(y. Barahuh cf. p. 96.7. — 10. 31/ Jie hidde — soule JieJe (22) 
interpolated. — 11. No stop after riythfuJHck: a semi-colon after 
i/i/raunted. — 12. aftertcisdom: after wisdoiii. — 22. for Jioli/ irri/tt 
seip: X (244.25) Vor so we reded. — 23 ff. Cf. JN' (244.26) Eadic 
bonen sofieJt 7 paiect ure Louerd .' auli tearcs doct liim strcncitc. Bcodcn 
siiiuriect him mid swete oJuhnunc/e .' auh teares priJiicct hini etc. — 
27. Conturbasti: X Contrihulasti: cf. Ps. LXXIII. 13 (v. r. contri- 
visti). — 28 ff. The original parable has been unduly contracted: cf. 
J\' (246.2 ff.) Hwon . . . mc asailect buruliwes octer castlcs, J>eo pet heoct 
wictinnen heldcct schaldinde tcafer ut, 7 tceriect so Jjc tcallcs . . . Asc 
ofte ase pc ueond asailed omvcr casfel, 7 tc souJc buruJi, mid in- 
warde (K) honen, tvorpect tif uppon Jiim schahlindc tcures .' J)et Daui 
siggc hi pe, Contribuhisfi etc — 32 ff. enlarged aiid altered bv the 



' A' (244.17) uileueste in Stbatm-Be. witli liesitation combined witli 
OE. fedl 'file'; the tirst element is tlie adv. < OI'". vil, L. vilis, nsed as an 
intensive; cf. NKl)., s.v. Vile 6 h; BC hefeueste, T lietefast^ (My). — 20. our 
'your'; Br p. 4HM. — 24, 25. Hico se tiifi . . . heo mei etc. 'slie who' etc. — 
'24G.9. There is no need of Lr's explanation of lien (p. 81; the reading is due 
to an editorial error; MS.: Iie (K). — 81. MS. reads nullick (Mv). 



Rechise 277 

reviser. — 34. ivip shoiild possiblj' ije supplied betore Ji(i/t"«i'></t';/t»*c: 
if. 1. m. 

122. 'i. -fcP probably for seip; N (246.14) Efl, me seiit, j soct 
liit is etc. — 7. The connection has been disturbed bj' an omission: 
four important effects of tears with fervent prayers have been men- 
tioued : in all need these messengers should be sent toward heaven, 
for as Solomon says Oratiu huiniliantis pcndrat mihes (cf. Ecclus., 
XXXV. '21: Oratio hmniliantis se, uubes peuetrabit). — - 13. hap 
iiritoi: X r24ti.28l hat irritcn. — 14. X: j- Sciiit Bconiard tivrcit 
uitiicssc, 1 seiit pct tirc Loiicrd cthalt hirc (sc. schir 7 clctic bonc) 
iiiid him siilf, i sent adiin etc. ^17. dcuc for dciict. — Cf. 1 Peter, Y. 9: 
resistite fortes in fide. — 20. X (248.6) iputect hu hc is woc pet 
HOne strenctte nauect on us, biitcn [juruh ns suliien; the reading of i' 
is a blunder. — 21. JV (248.8) . . . t oluhnen, oiter prentcn pct inc 
Inujgc f>erof (sc. his apetvarei : and htvectcr so he dcct, hokcrcct 7 
schorneit, i lauhwecT pe oldc ape ludc ' to biscmarc (K) puruh treotve 
bileauc : x t>c halt him ischcnd, v deit him fluhtc swu^e. — 24. Allc 
his wiles of si/nne etc: J\' (248.12) j5e.y deoflcs ri.rlunf/c, pet nis bittc suiinc. 
Vor ne rijleit he ine nonc bntc puruh sunne onc. — 26. UV holdep 
hi/m mi/chel of pride a meaniugless rendering ; X (248.16) Hwo is pet 
hiilt him muchel 7 /jrut htvoii hc lithnlt hu hitcl pe mnchelc Loucrd 
makcdc hini etc. : cf. p. 123.26. 

123. 1. <('• iwu},th etc: X 1 248.18) Aiid icho is oii/ful pct bihalt 
mid eien of bileauc hu Jesu Crist, nout for his godc aiih for oUres 
(jodc (K) dtide, 7 scidc, 7 polcdc al pct he polcdc ? — 4. 5. X (248.20) 
And God Almihti yt, cftcr al J)ct hc polcdc, alihtc adiin to hcllc uorto 
sechcn feolawes, 7 dclen niid ham Jjcf i/od J)ct hc hcfdc. — prisouii 
is obviously an s-less plur.: cf. pp. 107.18. 1 17.20: ^c and /m' should 
possibly be transposed: -to free, liberate the prisoners'. — 6. A' (248.221 
Lo! nu, hu nrommard beoit J)e ontfulc to urc Loucrd ! peo ancre 
pct icenidc an oiter a ctvaer norto lenen, — ful iicor heo hefde heone- 
ward {hcoitcnicard T) hire cien of bileaue. — !». And pcrforc — 1. 25 
a later insertion. — 11. y .should be added before nc. - — 16. adcttcd: 
this seems to be a non-recorded form; the abbreviation-stroke over a 
has ])ossil>ly been omitted; however, cf. XED., s.v. En- pref. A. 2: 
SLETTEXtiREN, Apha-retic Words in Eugl.. p. l()l.;see also pp. 96.7. — 
23. 3*"''''' ""''-" "/ ""■''"> 5*=^ ''^ stauds. seems rather obscure: the 
first owcn appears to be reduudaut : cf. Moral Ode (Egerton). v. 263: 
And of his otveu nolde ■■,iuen (NED, s.v. O^ni 3): the passage is an 
allusion to the parable 6f the unjust steward, Luke, XXI. — 24. After 
i/ospel a colon. — 34, 35. There is a confusion in the connection 
of clau.ses, whan he etc. having been made subordinate to the j^re- 
ceding as well as to the following .sentence : a dash may be put 
after hem (35). 

' 'Loudly'. — 19. MS.: iiout for /lis gody auli for otires gode ^K). — 
20. kepten pa. t. subj. — 22. urommaril 'averse'. 



278 Joel Paiilsson 

124. <'!• ■Iiiliii. XIII. H.-i: lu lioc fngno.scent onuies ijuia ilisciimli 
mei estis efc. — - 4. far aisks crist is al pcs etc: ^V CioO.ig)' Vor 
Jcsu Crisi is nl luur. 7 inr hiuc hc rcstcct /liiii, 7 liauect liis wuniungc 
cnnnectinfi with a passage addressed to the sisters personally. — 
7. .V (•2.'i0.22) ine scihfnessc. is Godes stude. — 8,9. it: N (250.28) 
he (sc. (iixl). — 10. N (250.24) pet bcoct derne tiondunges, pet he 
schcotcit of fcor i 7 his sivcord heode — pet bcoct tentaciuns keoruinde 
of iieih, i kcnc. — 15 ff. X (252.2 ff.) Al his attctitc (cntcntc T) 
is iinrtc unucstnen [twcaiiicii BC, tirinnen (tT My) hcortcn 7 foii to 
hiniiiicn litue, pci halt tiicii toi/cdercs. Vor hirmine luue aiict, pcoiinc hcoct 
hco isundrcd t und te deoucl dett him etc. . — 17. is should apparently 
l>e supplied after wrapjjc. — 18. slclef for slep. — IJ). worschifijj : 
X (252.6) icarschipe which has probably been misimderstood as there 
seem to be no instances of the original -word later than the 13th 
cent. — 21. N (252.7) makicct schcld of haiii suliien eucrichoii of hani to 
octrc. — 23, 24. The original has been abridged; similarly 1. 30. — 
25. robis for nohis. — orucionctii for oracionis. — 2(1. Read per 
luhricuni inccdcntcs i/uasi. — tcnetnus for tcneatnus. — 27. tania read 
latilo. — 28. rnitur for innitiiur. — 29. euer probably for ouer '. 

125. 4. Aforhiscti: A forbisen. — Gruf cleuep to geder etc. : 
^V (252.211) Diist 7 grcot. iisc y isco(t, hwon hit is isundrcd, 7 non ne 
liali ic octre, a lutel icindrs /juf mri al to drcurn Idt lo nout : per h.it 
lict in otie clotie ucstc illitird togederes, Jjrr liit liit al stiUc. — 
(i. X (254.3) adds: auh cucrichon to dealed {itwinncd T, to ticuncd C) 
/roiii n(trr lihthikcr^ to hersteit. — 7. iV (254.5) 7 hit stonf feste etc. 
Tlie lines that follow have been shortened and the sense generalized. — 
!i. .V 1 254.13^ Jtet (sc. fo.res) hcfdrn Jjr nchhcs eucrichon iircnd froiii- 
iiiiird octcr, atid weren hije teiles itcicd ucstc togcderes (K) ; cf. 1. 15, 16. — 
10. blasine is, so far as I know, a unique form; the sense is 'brand" 
(X blasc): as regards the fonnation, ME. hlasmc is in relation tn 
ME. blast, OE. hlmst, what OHG. wa{h)smo 'growth' is to Goth. wahsius 
(OE. ircesim): OE. hlosma. ME. hlosinc. MLG. bloscm 'blossom' to 
MHG. hhiosi, ODa. bloster (OE. blostma. OSwed. blomstc.r) : OS. gllmo 
•splendour', OE. glisian, glisninn to ME. gUst[ti)cn etc. ; cf. Kluge, 
Xom. Stammbikkmgslehre. 5;tJ ITi.S. 154: Pekssox, Beitriige, 11. 583. 
In ME. hlcstnin, mod. hlissnw. a.. vb.. \ve find variants of the same 
r^ot; cf. ToRP, Nyn. Etym. Ordb., s.v. Blesme: Morsb.\ch, ME. 
Gram., i; 109: these are generally taken tn lie nf OX. nrigin (NED.. 

' N (250.7) best: tlie sup. .shoiild logically be kept. — 29. habbeii 
pres. subj. 

- The oorrespouding line in the oriiriual (.iV (252.l:i: . . . swifie loateres. 
Jte Jtet mot ouer waden ouer nionie, euerilioii [K) halt etc.) is appareutly corrnpt; 
nnc ouer seenis to be reduu<lant (for euer'!); to niake sense Mn inserts 51/ 
from TC. — 27. 011. added by the editor, as in numerous other places (e. g. 
p. 256. 6, 7; Rg p. 89), :s not" necded. 

' Oonip. — 7. As shown by the other JISS. (My), the stop after Mfeicid 
sliould be omitted: 'thus, in (of) thiugs exterual take example' etc. — 
25. .11 /jis is iseiil luiue leoiii' SHstren . p BG [frend); similarly CT (My). 



Retluse 279 

Str.\tm.-Br.. Cath. Aiigl. (EET8.). note) Imt there is no reason why 
they should not be considered as native words. — wlittn J)c PhilisHriDi — 
(t- liiT vipien (14) an addition. I place a full stop after hrfiiiinndv 
and a comma after /tvoJSc i lli. — 10 tf. The jiassajre has heen contracteil 
aud confused; cf. ..Y (io-l.lS i'f.) pco, pei»iiir, lnibbeit pe nehbes wroiii/urinle 
euerihon (K) frommard oCter, hivon non ne luiieit oiTer. Aiih hi pe 
teiles heo beoit somed, and hiibheit in hain peo deofles hlasen .' pef is, 
pv hrune of golnesse. On an oiter tcise teil hitocneit endc. In hore 
ende, heo schuUen (K) heon ihunden togederes ... 7 iset Itlasen Jjerinne : 
J)et is, fur of hclle. — 20. i(- nameJich J)ere — 1. '27 interpolated : cf. 
T ('254.25 ff.) lokeS Pet oiver leouc nchhes heon euer iwend somed, 
mid sivcfe luue, ueir semhhiunt, \ mid sicefe rliere — pet v heon 
cucr mid onncsse of onc heoiic 7 0/ one icillc iliiiird togcderes, ase hif is 
iicriten hi urc Louerdes deore deciples : 2Iultifiidinis etc. — '20. 22. it 
sc. loue. — 26. The stop after fojes stands for a colon. — <(• ii'/ 
3« apparently connects with 5«/ hij (25): inconsistency in regard to 
persons. — "^!'. The explanation is an addition. — 31. The connection is 
liroken by the omission of a lengthj- passage: cf. X (250. 2) . . . for J)i he 
ric. Je HCond) is umhc, deics 7 nihfes', uortc unliinm ou iiiid lereitite. oitrr 
mid ludcr onde : and sent mon oiter wumiiion pet tcl/eit t<i J)c, 7 hi J)e nitcr 
sum suivinde sawe . . . Irh forheodc ou pef non of ou nr ilcur pes droflcs 
sondesmon . . . Euerich fonj noitcleas warnie oiter, J)uruh ful sil.er soiide.'^- 
nion ... of Jrinijc pet heo misniincit . • • 7 makie so J)co J)rt hrreit J)cf icord 
recorden hit ofle hiuoren hire . . . hwu hco wule siggcn, pet heo ne 
sigi/e hit odcrweis, ne ne chitie nanmore perto. Vor a liite cliit nici 
lodlichen swuite a muchel ihol peche (pece B. pechc GT. mantel C\. — 
34. her inconsistently for the sing. : similarly hij. hein in the foUowing line. 
126- 1 . Another for shoidd be added before the second hij. — 
2. if for the plur. — ponkep for the pres. subj. — 4. inpugnct for 
iiipini/uct. — Hc pat — 1. 7 inserted by the reviser^ — 8. Cf. 
Prov.. XXVn. G: Meliora sunt vuhiera diligentis. quiim fraudulenta 
osciila odientis. — 9 ff. altered and generalized : part of the original 
niatter has been replaced by the revi.ser. and this has made the 
connection rather loose; cf. iV (256.19 H.) pus (sc. Corripiet etc. : 
Meliora etc^) onswereS cuere: and yif hit is oitcrweis pcn pc oitcr 
undcrstont, send hirc word ayan perof, luueliehc 7 softeliehe . . . And 
yf pe ueond l/lowcit hitweonen ou cni wreititc, oitcr f/reat heorfc . . . 
cr hco heo wel isct, noiili non uortc nimcn [nawt ane to ncomcn B(rC 
ynaut) T (niinen) Mv) Godcs flesch . . . Auh sende (K) peonnc ciiter 

' Adv. gen. sg. — 3. As rightly remarked by Rg pp. 38, 126, we shouUl 
reail: fet tfllei) to pe, ; 6« Jte oSer, gtim suiriiide saire; cf. TC (foot-note a\ — 
4. suirinde hiis, in all probability, the saine sense as on p. 4*28.30: 'tlistressing. 
painliil'; i-f. p. 3(J6.30 (NED., b.v. .Sugh;. — 8. he se. deouel. — 25. It seems 
somewhat (lifticnlt to realize what M.\''8 renderiug of tliis line aotiially 
means; I mHV siiggest: 'let no one be so witless — not in «uy way — that 
she at all ,0E. eaUes? looks at it'. B reads: ah je/ J5 i.i leasse p ha ennes 
ne bihalde /lerou ; the other MS8. differ (My). — 2»8.4. //c him sul/ hit seid 
'He hiroself savs bo: lieati' etc. 



280 .Toel PAhlBson 

<i(t('r icoril Jjil Iirii hiiiiiit hiinkrit liiri: . . . idiiimUiclif iwiiir. Aiid Jiro 
/jrf ofdranhit i'(ir pus linic of octer ... 7 nimcit pene gnlt iijijjen 
hire, pauh peo ottcr habbe niore, heo sehal beon nii dcorctcurctr 7 ini 
deore susler. Vor heo is riht Godes douhlrr. Ifr hini sidf hil sritf, 
Beati etc. — 12. After bctlere a full sto]i. 17. The translation 

has been added. — 18. The stop after poynl .stands for a colon. — 
'il. A dash may be placed after (fi)U. — '25. A verb. ml or inaii. 
haa to be supplied; cf. p. 1'2.").16; y ('258.9) ILwo inei beon, iior 
srheonie, sJuninii 7 slur/f/i 7 slouh etc. — '27. The Latin quotation is 
found in TJl but seems to be absent from the other versions : after 
riam a full stop; the first part is from Ps. X\T:II. G; the second 
(pertransiuit etc.) from Acts, X. 38. — 29. After /_;//' an omission; cf. 
N (258.10) And efler al pet octer, hwu he, iSen euentid of his liue 
swonc ocTc herde rode. — 31 ff. N (258.13 ff.) And he octe muvt of 
caluarie (K), steih yt herre on rode .' ne ne swonc ncuer mon so sivucte, 
ne so sore ase he dude pet iJhc dci pet lie blcdde, uif haliie, brokcs 
of ful brodc 7 deope uundcn etc. : in the revision the rest of the 
passage has been contracted. 

127. 4. and nlso whan — 1. 8 a later a^hlition. — lU. X (258.22) 
Vor. po lie tcas iborcn. crcsl. pc pd irrouhtcpc corctc etc. — 14. jN' (2G0.1) ' 
iiiid cJiites biivrablcd [biivrabbct B, biwrabbcd C. iwrabbct T JIv), 
iise pe i/ospel seict. — 18, and after in lileJ slede etc. : N (260.6) . . . 
iiiih ine stude of in, his cradel herbaruedc him (in his stude of rradel 
p him herbayde C). — 21. habebat for habel (cf. p. 53.8); Mntt.. 
\T:II. 20; Luke, IX. 58. — 22 ff. X (2G0.9) Of mele he was so 
iicodful pet po hc hefde . . . ipreched ... Iie lohcdc etc. — 24. iihu for 
irhd. — 26. and pci-., — '>f p^ Jawv (27) added; similarly put liij (30) — 
sabate duij p. 128.2. 

128. 4. ne haddc Imf n folc etc: N (2G0.20) of al pe brode 
corde ne moste he hcibbcn 11 i/rol, forte deien nppon. pe rode hcfde 
cnne uol octer lutel more .' 7 let ivas eJcc uorto echen his pinen. — 
17. cC- «7 tvas cJene etc: N (262.6)^ 7 al liis clene Jif pet he Jcdde 
on. eorcte, 7 nllr pcl hine uoluwudcn. Then follows: pus, lo pe artic- 
lcs, pcl beoit ... pe lictes of ure bileaue onont Grodes monJieade. 
(rod icol hwo innuirillirhe JiihaJI liaw, 7 nihfect ajean pe tieonde pel fondect 
us niid peos seoueii dcudlirhc suiinen. Vorpi, seict Seinle Peler, Chrislo etc. 
The passage And his hard beli/nge etc is an interpolation. — 2(). Cf. 
1 Peter, IV. 1: Christo igitur passo in came, & vo.s eadem cogitatione 
armamini [N armcmini). — 29. Cf. Hebrews, XII. 3: Eecogitate enim 



' N (260.31 Kchruded 'clothes'. — 20. grot: NED., Stratm.-Be., s.v. : 
'fragmenf ; Mr WOrterb. : 'iStuckchen'. 

' N (262.3) mistrum: Stratm.-Br., hesitatingly, 'infirm, meagre'; NED. 
'weak' < OE. frum; T reads misfime (My). — 8,9. God wot... t uihfeJi 
erroneously rendered by Mn as 'Goil knows her who . . . and fights'; after 
wot ahould be placed a comma and r either stressed ('also') or struck ont; 
hiea se inwardliche hihalt ham, fehtei BO (no stop); similarly T; god icat 
hwaae etc. C (My). — 15. weorred : CT preferably werged, wergen. 



Reclnse 281 

euni, 4111 talem sustinuit a peccatorilms ailuersum semetipsmn contra- 
ilictionem: vt ne tatiffemini, animis vestris ileticientes (,Y (•2t.("2.l4) 
f'titii/if,' (K)). — 31. his apparently ior pe; N (2tJ2 16) . . . /(W ffesHclie 
icil. - ni(tsi;/i/e{t oiire. 

129. 1 ff. The passage is a rather frafjmentaiy rendering of 
the original: cf. .y (262.19 ff.); the. lines connecting with the ijuota- 
tion in 1. 8 are : ancl '4f pe ueondes ferde, pet beoit his fentaciiins, 
<isailr(t oti stvuite, onstveriect hini 7 sig;/e(t, Metdti ete. — 8. Cf. 

1 Sarauel. IV. 1: . . . castrametatus est (sc. Israel) iuxtaLapidemadiutorij. 
Porro Philisthijm venerunt -in Aphec etc. — X (2(54. l) 3« Loticrd. 
110 irundi r nis [irunder is BCT. nifrueiUe est Fr.) .' we beoct iloi/ged 
her hi pf, pi-t ert ston ... 7 te dfofti-s ferde is ivoddre iippitn us, 
pen u/ipiin eni octi-r. — 9. seie (imp.) within commas: yiue I take in 
a sense related to that in XED., s.v. Give 31 : •attribute, ascribe, 
assign" fearliest example 1559): nn thee is my strength": cf. p. 153.10. — 
11. /1 for his. — 12. There is an omission after pery. N (264.4) 
Viir per (in llfflum) hit tellect iil pus. pet Ismelis fidr [israfl c/odis fnlc 
litiT. ftoc C My) com etc. : similarly after coiiien (13): ..Y (264.6) and 
pi- 1'hilisteus romen into Afech. Phili.^iteus — pet Iteoct unwihtes. — 
13. iifep for iifech. — 14. X (264.7)^... neotve wodschipe. So hit 
is siherliche. Iiwonne (K) mim lo;/<ject liim hi tire Loiurde, peoune on 
cnst Itiginncct pe deoficn to weden. — 15. sarrdich i/nomin: X (264.10) 
.sorilichi' isliiinc: of the adv. in the original text there is apparently 
110 recorded form with rr: the reading of 1', theu, may be due to 
a scribal error or perhaps to a confusion -with ■mrridiche "in close 
oifler. closely": cf. XED., .s.v. Sarraly. — 17. JV (264.13) 7 mid te 
;/odc Lisaphut, scndect beoden unr sondrsmon unon cfter sukurs to pe 
Priiice i>f hcoit" (K). — 23. .^'' (264.18) Secptitur. — nobis for robis: cf. 

2 Chron.. XX. 15. — 28 ff. In these liues there are several omissions 
(cf. Lat.): X (264.22) /« us nis nout . . . so iinichil strencite pet ire 
muhttn {mahcn B. miv^e C, niuhen T. niei G Mv) wictstonden pes denfles 
fcrde, pet is so .^trong tipjmi vs. Atih, whon ice Oeoit so bi.staCtrd 7 so 
stronge bisfonden pet tve mid alle nenne read ne cunnen bi us suliien : 
pis one we mttwe don — - liebben up eien 7 honden to pe milsfule 
Louerd etc. ; also in the passage which follows the original has been 
abridged. — A colon should be placed after done (29). — 32. he should 
be supplied before hei^^e. — 33. T (266.4) XoK timtre, 7^. pus he onswerect 
1)11, hivon y, clcopiect efter lielpe. Xe beo ye etc. 

130. 2. J\' (266.9) IjOl;r(t nu htvuch help is strusfi 7 herdi bileauc. 
Vnr iil pet help ptf God bihat, sfrtiicte unrfe sfonden ivel — al is in 
hire i>ne. Jlerdi hileaue lunl-rct 011 stnnden upriht : und te deofel nis 
nuctinc lodre. — 5. X (266.13) biih pe . . . aduneiviird, pif iih iiniive 



' N (264.10") uilite (K): the correct reatlinR is obviously fliiht BT,Jiucht 
C6 (Mv^. — 12. amidde Pe uorheftle: Ms 'among the foreniost'; the expreHsion 
is (ioubtless Hnalo^ous to [spet ;K) him) nmidile fie bearde p. 290.20 aml nieans 
somethiiig like 'meet . . . (ace to faee' (cf. 'look (danger) hetioeen the eges'\ — 
•24. so stronge histonden Pet we etc. 'so hartl beset tbat we'. 



282 Joel Pilil88on 

iiiier l)e. pen l/ii/nt liire jjet tn hia finiduiide lieied liire lieorte etc. — 
t). pini muii scliotine etc: ^V (200.17) icli (sc. J)e Ireitre) rlnillc 
ireiitleii iiiiiui imer uwei : the line in V seems to be from a follo\vin<r 
]iassage in tlu' ni-iginal, omitted in the revision; cf. 2\ ("260.23). — 
11. lete lijiin lepe rp: X (200.2(i) ' . . . pet w, liev dude otie swiiclic 
xuiiiie iitet ilke nilit, piintli liis {irokiuui/c, i J)oulite etc. — 10 — 24 dis- 
connected aud generalized tVagments of the original passage - : ci'. 
^Y (208.2 ff.): the power of the devil nielts away through the grace of 
the holy siicrament (of the mass) whicli. aljove all, brings to uonght 
all his wiles, as illusory dreams, false appearances, dreadful alarms. 
and deceitful counsels — as if the thing to be done were to tlie 
houour of God: this is his wicked artifice which holj' men most 
dread; thus, hc will lead to carelessness instead of milduess, or he 
colours cruelty with tlie hue of justice etc; but the sublime sacra- 
ment with steadfast faith immasks his artifices — as soon as lie sees 
3'ou valiant in the service of God, his power vanishes and he takes 
to flight ; but if he sliould perceive that your faith fails etc — 
18. tiiii/iii/rs: there is no form with / as root-vowel recorded in XED.. s.v. 
Teling 'deception, sorcery' : s.v. Tilling, no sense is given ajjplicable 
tothis instanee. However, iu Bosw.-T., s.v. Tilung, teoluug, Stratii.-Br.. 
s.v. Tilimge, the word is associated with OE. tiHaii. teoHiin and in 
regard to the form in our te.\t this coimection seems probable : 
otherwise (' might be aseribed to the infhieuce of tille etc. < OE. 
[forjfi/llan. — 25. wyudewep for the pa. t. — 20. recash^sonis: N (27U.20) 
liecabes sutu-n ; cf. 2 Samuel, IV. 5: Venieutes igitur filij Remmon 
Berothitse, Rechab & Baana, ingressi suut ferueute die domum 
Isboseth. — 27. wen for wetit. — 28 ff. X (270.24) And tiis hc 
wiftcrliche (K) aitiased j ut of Ms wiffe, pet, uimdden liis uuivines liit 
hiiii aduii fo slcpen ? The lines which follow are abridged from the 
cu-igiual and partly confused. — 31. JN'" (272.5) Wummoti is pe reisuii, 
])et is piis (K) wittes shile hwon hit unstreticcteCt, pet schulde hcon 
iiionlich 7 stulewarde {staJetvurcte T, sia(Telivu)'(te C) j kene ine freouwe (K) 
Itileaui'. — pat, apparently mechanically kept from the origiual. 
should be struck out or changed to ])aii. — 32. rnstreni/ped for tlie 
present. — 33. sone whan lie: X (272.7) so sone so ttie. 

131. 1. pan pe htst iiop etc: X (272.8) t let (.sc mn) penr liist 
i/on itiwurd 7 delit waxen. — 3. After soule a full .stop. — -4. The 
quotation lacks counectiou as the original passage which it is intended 
to illustrate lias been omitted in the revision: cf. X (272.101 Jiccabcs 



' N (266.28) feol so into ful wune 'thus got into an evil habit'. 

' In this passage there are some points to be noted : p. 268.7. Iieo pl. — 
8. goste cannot mean 'guest' (Mn); it apparently refers to Jtene deouel — the 
evil spirit. — 19. pitie gost: {ti chast BTC{J)in\ pi castiement G (My), wliich read- 
iiigs are to be preferred. — 24. to -,iues 'without punisliment'; OK. to gifeys 
'giatis'. — 26. nede 'needs'. — 27U.1. hute 'if not'. — 8. warnie 'warn'. — 
10. strencdea 'forces'. — 11. vor hwon Jiet 'proviilod tliat'. — 272.4. The comina 
after is to be deleted. 



Reclnse 283 

suncn . . . f/oit in x «'«"«(7 Ishoset, prf is. peue him<is<-de (K) gosf pef 
in onc sJepie ymeleaste {■jemles T. srheomeles C) uor-iemeiJ him suhien. 
pet nis nout to uoryiten pet, ase holi writ teUeS, heo puruh stihten 
Ishoset adun info [pej (i pe TC) schere. Iler seiit Seint Gregorie etc. 
The Biblical reference is to 2 Samuel, IV. ti: et percusserunt eiua 
in inguine Eechab & Baana frater eius. — Ignitiie ferie: N (272.131 
In inguineiK.) ferire. — dileccionis: N delectatione. — 5. cher: JV (272.14) 
seher. OE. sceatii 'groin' of which there seems to be no form recorded 
analogous -to that of P: cf. XED.. s.v. Share sb.'' (however, under 
the etymologically identical S^hare sb.' •share' there is a loth cent. 
spelling chtirc) : the reacling may be due to a confusion with cherie 
ishere 14th c.i 'face". — X (272.15)... hicon delit of lccherie purlect 
pr hrotie. — 7. ocrisam for ociosam. — 10. quudam for qnedam. — 
1 1 . putrau' : X i 272.20 1 Futruenint (Ps. XXXMI. tj ); cf. 1. 23. — citatrices 
for cicatrices. — 1 2. quippe figiira . figura est iclner^is not in N. — 
13. putritudinem: X 1 272.21) putredineni. — 14. JVi 272.22) delecfatio- 
nem. — 15. ff. a confused rendering of the original passage ; cf. 
.V (272.23 ff.) hwon pe olde unwinr isihcT urc skile slepcn, he dniuh 
him in anon intouward hire, 7 feollect mid hire o slepe (JcleS wict 
hire i speche B : similarly CTG My), penchest fu, he sri^, hwu pe, 
oiter peo, sjtec of flesches golnesse'^ And sprked pus, pe oldc smke, 
fouward hire hcorte worffes pef hco iherde yirc fulliche iseide., o(ter 
sihtte pef heo iseih, octer hire owune iKi fulctrn pet heo sumetvhules (K) 
irrouhte. Al pis he piif forit hiuorcn hire heorte eien, iiorte Infulen 
hire niid pouhte of olde siinnen, hwon he ne mei tnid neoire : 7 so he 
hringeit offe ayan into pe adotedc ■■ioule, puruh licunge, pro ilke 
.tunnen pet puruh reouctfule sore weren yre ihet. The alteration in 
11. 15, Iti is striking and can hardly be intentional ; <f- ill)i illogi- 
cally taken over from the original : of 1 1 7 1 would be better omitted ; 
after liap we should suppl\- herd: the pronoims in 1. 17 ff. are 
without connection, hc being a misadaptation of the fem. of the 
earlier text. — 24. ben gedred neire porou^ sgnne: X (274.2) tnine 
wunden . . . gedere^ neoire wrusuin {trursum C > : ef. XED.. s.v. Gather Itt 1»: 
•of a wound, etc. : To develop a purulent swelling* learliest e.xample 
of the vb. is given from 1610). — 26. X (274.6)... to munegunge, 
7 sleait peo unwarre soule. — he possibly for inc. — 28. mortem for 
nioiie. — 29. X (274.7) inulierein, id est, mollein cu.sfodiaw etc. — 
30 ff. ^ateirard for yatewards apparently on accoimt of the foUowiug 
inifial: cf. p. 96.7. — X (274.8)... ytrwardes slepe. pet^ nis nout 
itrar ne waker ne iii.-i nout monlich, auh is wummiiiilich, eit to oiier- 
kesten, lieo hit wuinition hro hit moii. peonnr is iil pr strrncSr rfter 



' Mn does not render the sense of the text: fiet is a ri?l. refiTring lo 
■,eteicardes : 'that i.f not . . . nor . . . nor' ; li readM nes . . . nts . . . ires ;Mv\ It 
weftns (loubtful whetljer beo hit etc. ;10) phould not be connected with wliat 
follows. — 13. he must be iinderstooil : 'he takes to Hight". — 2S. to s>ru!)e [K) 
'too much'. — 28. MS.: dreori iior longinge \being) sad with yearnin);''.' — 
SO. heo pl. 

19 



284 .loel P&hlsson 

/;*' hihitur, 7 rfiir jnt wr liuiirit (ruslr t(i (roileit lirljir Jjil riivr is 
iicili bulv yif liilcauc Iriikic . . . IIco uiislroicctcit Jje unirliil lumciclil Ci 
7 ilcd liini sulucn o fluhte umnirilit (K). Vor Jn licoCt cuer (lyau liim 
licnli ase leun ine trcouc ■liilcaue .' iinil tioinrlirlir iitr iinniluni/r Jict 
Isliosct tlcicile (K) iijipon, Jjrt is f/olnes.^ie. 

132. 1. /( tor /(('. — "2. For /Irsclie hist etc. lias 110 connection. 
as (/(ilncssc. to which it originally refers, has l)een changeil to ynic- 
lesliedc, p. 131.33. — 4 tf. N (274.21) Jjauli Jji foa liurtc Jje ottc 
vet . . . uor so hnili uttndc nr ilreil tu nout (0 sore, buic yif liit to 
swuite (K) sifellc, Jjuruli skiles ytlunge, niiil to niuclie dclit, uji tiiu- 
irard pe heorte : uuh drinc pconne utterloitc {atlcrlaite berirn (.'), 7 
drif J)cnc swel {swealni B. swalm Cd Myi ayantvard uromnuird Jjc 
heortc .' pet is to .sif/gcn, Jcnr oite attric pinen Jjet God suffrede oitc 
rode 7 pe swcU schiil srttcn. — 5. he hert a case of dittography. — 
(i. iilter 'gall. bitterness' (NED., s.v.^j is obviously dne to a misunder- 
standing of the original word iNED., latest exain])le 1250): cf. 1. H. — 
](l. ihcri/ for loue longi/ni/: X (274.28) dreori uor longingc iK. My; 
Drriiri oflongung B. drrori of loni/ungc G. dreorisrliipe of longungc C). — 
11. Tbe stoj) after Catcl should be omitted. — Jjisc 'liuen etc. : 
^V (274.20) and Jjcl of ham flowcS yiuect (7 al p of ham flouect . 7 
youcct BC: similarly G My') dcadcs dunt anon, huten ~4f hco heon 
isalurd. — After onon a full stop. — 12. footr a])parently an error 
for fcndc: X (274.30). Hwon pc ueond sinil pidrirard, peonne liil is 
iicis forto dredcn, and nout for vot wunden. — 14. fchiiiyclii/t/r. 
X (276.1) fcolauliche luuc. — 15 ff. jN" (276.2;: wrectitcs siiliic, 
Jjolcmodnessc: acciclies salue, rcdunge and misliche iverkcs, and gosi- 
lirhe (K) urouren : yiscunges salue, ouerhoive of rorctHchc Jdnges: 
restschipcs siiluc, iirco hcorte. — 17. «3«'« Iccchcrii — 1. 20 an addition. — 
2(i ff. X 1 276.9) . . . uHstrrncctr. Xu, /.nmrit iXe Idmect BCG Myi of 
Jr rrtlrs swiich ping asc [is] Jjrriiiiir. (If Jjinc fieschcs vetlcs liKut 
cuniect peroff Kiiinrit prrof .■nnel of aromiu, octcr of swote heuleui 
(hasme C)'^ Dculc. O/' Ir druie sprintles hcrect uinherien. {Deale 
drue spriilen heorect nin berien. Breres, rose hlostmen B: similarly 
CG My). And brrres bcrcct rosen, 7 hcricn, 7 hlosimcn. Mon, Jji 
flesrh, hwaf frut berect hit, in alle (K) his openiingcsf Amiddcn pc 
meste mcnke (K) {men^ke C) of pine ncbhc, pd is, Jjet feiresie (K) 
del bittoeoncn smcch muctcs 7 neoses swcl, nc herest tu two Jjurles, 
UJiC Jjauh hit wcrcn two priue purles'::' Xert tu irumcn of ful slim? 
Xert tu mid ftilcte al (K) ifullcd {nart tu fuhte feite . ne bist tu B: 
similarly CG 'Mx)'i' Xe sihiill tu bcon wurmes fode'? Xu a ulcih etc. — 
27. ronicp Jjcre of should logically be understood as a predicate of 



' 0/ ehonl.l (loubtless be omitted; of. BCG. 5I.\ incorrectly tHkes tl)e 
sentences as questions. — 15. It seenis barci to rcalize wbat nieaning l-K has 
got out of tlie lines by rendering dd as 'das Tal' (p. 38). — A dasb should 
possibly be placed after tbe word and tbe first pet in I. 14 takeii as a rel. 
referring to nehhe. — 18. Nu 'since, seeing that'; after hlenclien a conuna. 



Recliise 28r> 

sniel. — 30. Sperua flitiuihim: X r27ti.l9) Spfniiu es fiuiduin. — 
H4. Ac pat awHdeP cs etc. has no sense : N ('27ti.23i Auli icoxtu 
liwut airHef/ett moiines feble eieii pcl is lieie ielumbeu i' pet lic bilialt 
iiduuewurd . Aug. Sieiit ... .4/ so ase liwoa (K) bilialt to peo pet 
bcott «/■ loire liue. pcf makect liim punclieii pet lie is of lieie liue, auh 
bilinld etc. 

133. -. seip seiiit auslin: fSt. Augu.^itine is tlie source of the 
tollowing quotation. — 3. Incencium: i\' ("276.24) Sicut incentiuum (K). — 
eliccionis for elacioiiis. — sit cautela que: X sic cautcla cst. — 9. for^et- 
inij a- rncunnifng: X (276.6) siinne -^ ignorauncc (K) : pet is, umrisdoin 
7 unicitenesse. Vor ofte det (K) tu trcncst pct bco god is rucl, 7 soule 
inurttrc. — 10. li-ytli foiio casten in fo sgnnr has apparently got out 
of place : it is perhaps a marginal addition erroneously inserted: cf. 1.1]: 
.V (278.9) dred }et pine iroke kundc pcf is c(t aworpen. — 11. A^ (278.8) 
Biliold mici wet eien pine sclieomefiile sunnen. — 12. pat possibly 
for pati: X (278.10)^ Po. — 14. biirepen liis rnliappc . d- dreden etc. : 
an omission has caused a break in the connection ; cf. X (278.14 ff.) 
pus, lo, pe holi mon nefde, of pcn odre monc . . . non uunderlicli (K) 
iiuerhoicc, auh biiceop liis unhep, 7 drcdde etc. — l(i. A fuU stop 
after grace. — 17. huiiiilifatis for humilifas. — 11'. X (278.20) ed- 
inodnesse is forl-csfing of trurttschipc, 7 luuc of liilc licrcword 7 of 
louhnrsse. — lowonesse the second o may stand for e. — 23. X (278.22) 
pe pet is uiiibe, mduufcn (K) liire (sc. cdinodna^sc), uorte gederen godc 
pcauwes etc. — 25 ff. an alteration of the original, defective in 
logic: cf. J\' (278.25) pes one bict ibontwen : pes onc irictbutcect pes 
deofies gronen (stiaies T. grunen C) of hellc, asc urc Loucrd seide 
to Seitit Antonie etc. — 26. ne may accidentally repeated. — 28. pe 
should be supplied before deuels. — 2y. 31. hou niiyfh euerc ang 
passen . . . pe pohinode man: X (278.28, 29) hwo mci . . . uiien hiin . . .^ 
(hie pe edniode: a similar illogical alteration occurs 11. 31, 32: J5p 
loirc Man of hert is so lifcl ... hc is so strong . . . paf al gosflich 
.-itrcngpc comcP Pcrof: X (278.30. 3l) So lufel {sufil BCG. sitfel T My) 
ping is ediiiodnesse . . . pauh hco mah-ir hire so hitcl . . . heo is pauh 
piiigc strcngest, so pet of liire is ruerich gostlich strcnctte. — 33. After 
prnif a full stop. - — 34. The translation is an addition. 

134. 2. A' (280.4)* pcr ase edmodnc.<ise is, per . . . is Jesu Crist, 
pef is, his Fedrr icisdoin, 7 his Fcdcr strenctte. — 3. Hou dof^c etc. : 
the cormection has become abrupt owing to an omission ; the original 
line immediately preceding is: puruh pr strencctc of edniodncsse hc 
(sc. Jcsu Crist) aicerp penc wursr (pc purs BT. pr purse CG My) of 
helle X (280.7). — 4. hg for liy. — •"). A contraction of the original 



' N (278.11; of is not needed. — 21. louhtifsse 'low condition'. 

' .y ('280.61 Tlie conima after i.t to be struck oiit, is . . . iruniinde being 
the def. tense of ihe verb; inue belonps to per. — lii. It would seem more 
natnral to put the inverted commaa after edmodnesse. — ». C smiten hwa»e, 
BGT smiten . Uuxi ae: 'this, with a comma inintead of a fiill stop after eorde, 1. 24, 
is evidently tbe true reading and punctnation' (My). 



m> Jocl Pflhlsson 

iiieta|)hor: i\' (2yU.10) Jli' v.nv/A Iiii nrnli- pr i/riiiimr nrustliirr of lifllr 
breiil up 011 liis lnipf, 7 ivrrj), miil ])c liiiwiilic turn, into f/olnrssr. 
prt ri.r1ect i pc lcnden. llc lief an lieiJi miiiiie, 7 iivende ahitten mid 
liiii». 7 sweinde (swung BC. stvuong (i, swumi T My) liuin piiruli 
/iniilr uihin into heJle grunde. — 7. K (280.16) . . . pcne turii of 
cihiiiidiirssr, pet is, ^e uullindc turn. And fml uroiii Jirourne to prr 
eurctc, 7 streilitr etc. — 12. The connecting lines have been left out; 
y (280.20) On octrr Jialf. use ,lob seict (K~, Jie (sc. pc frond) ne niei, 
itor prude, ■■let biitr biliidden Jieic: Onine etc. — 15 ff. i\' (280.22) .. . 
Jieo hroit iit of Jiis siJntc. pe wilde hor etc. ; after werlde a dash. 
After tossJies (10) some lines of the original have been omitted: . . . the 
standing is confidence in God^s power: the falling is consciousness 
of one's own weakness — to consider oneself of sinal! acconnt and 
always look etc. — 17. A full stop after eiy. — 20. An addition. — 
21. in pise urn: N (282.5) In Jiire. referring Xo cdiiiodnesse in a pas- 
sage left out in the revision. — 22. folowriiiid for floivcand: ..V (282.6) 
rloitinde ivrllrn. — 24. d- Jirrt holnrn etc. makes no sense ; cf. A^ (282.8) 
Aiih hrorte to-bolleii 7 to-swollen, 7 iJiouen on heih use Jiul — peo 
Jicortc nc cthult nonc wetc of (iodcs grace. — 27. X (282.11) Al so, 
011 ectelirh .■itirhc, oiter on cctclich echc (otter warch T) muJiCft uorte 
iniderstonden hwii lutel wurit is prude etc. — 30. Pride erroneously 
for Ondc : cf. p. 132.14. — 31. rf- it is Jnne owen illogically intro- 
duced from the next line: K (282.14) Ondes sulue, ich scidc. pct wus 
feoluulirh hiue, iind god vnnunge * .' 7 god wil, per iisr iiiiJifr of dcdc 
wontcit. — 32. Jiis sc. who loves: X (282.16) ure. 

135. 1. Lord ichut muni/ — 1. 3. somewhat disconuectedly 
inserted by the reviser: it wouhl seem uecessary to sujij^ly /)«/ either 
before ben (2) or wolde: Jinf piiig licrc on erpe is apparently redundant; 
it may be a scribal error. — 4. Aliu for Alienu. — 7 ff. A frag- 
mentai-y rendering with several inaccuracies ; thiis hem ('J), withoiit con- 
nection as it stands, oi-iginally occurs in the follo^^-ing context : . . . 
pi strencdc ayan pe ucond is al pet god pet octrc doct, yf ])ii hif 
wel unnest. SiJccrlichr ich ileue pcf nr srhul fleschcs fondungc . . . 
ameisfre pc neuer yif pu crt swcte ihrorfrd . . . iind luuest so inwurd- 
liche allc nien 7 irummcii . . . pef tii rrf sori of horc ruel. 7 gled of 
hore god . . . rnncii prf ullr pef hiuicit pr hiurdrn Jiam use pr etc. 
X (282.'22): also pciof has been mechanically taken over from the 
original without regard to the lack of reference; cf. X (282.28) 3'/ 
pu httucst Jx-nif octcr clott, mcfc o&er druneh . . . vnnen pef fu heurdcsf 
wonte pcrof, wiO: pen pef Jieo hit heueden: the rest of the passage 
has been replaced by 11. 10, 11, repeated from p. 123.7. — 13 ff. 
X (284.6) . . . polrmodnrssr : pet hniicit prco .sfcirrn — lieic, 7 herrr, 7 



' Mn 'doing theni good'; god vnnuiige and god iril are, however, doubtles8 
co-ordinato and parallel in sense. I sug^est 'well-wishing'; cf. 1. 2S. — 16. fiet 
hit makeO oiires god ure god etc. 'tliat it niakes the good of (: done by) anotlier 
our good ae well as his who does it'. — 22. oi>re pl. 



Recluse 287 

alrr heixt . . . Hdh is pe Meire }if pu polest for pine gultc : hcrre 
■^if etc. — '22 ff. abridged and differing from the original: cf. 
K (284.16) . . . niisdcct Pe : (tiid iiis fef ireii (or BCT. oir (i Mv) 
Hcursrd pet iwurdcit ^e swiirtiirc ; pc nihurc so hii is ofturc j iiinrc 
irilcd? {ant rusteit pe smitere p iiic hit scureit heiirde':' (iold . selucr . 
Stel . Im . iil is or B: similarh' GT My) Gold aud seoluer cleiiseit 
ham of hore dros iite furc. 3'/ I"' gtdercst dros perinne, pet is 
Wyeun kunde. Argentum . . . pe caUz pet tvas iiiielt iite fure . . . wolde 
hc . . . awarien his cJensing fur . . .? AI pes world is Goddes smiitite . . . 
Fur : pet is, seheonie 7 pine : pc helies : pet beoit peo pcf missiggcct 
pc : pine hoiiieres : pef beoit pco pet hcriiiect Pe : most of the passage 
11. 25 — 33 has nothing correspondLng in the earlier version. — 
20. After the first heni a full stop. — 30. prohiituni: X (28-4.19) rcpro- 
Ijatiini: cf. Jer.. YI. 30: Argentum reprobum vocate eos. — hise sc. 
choscn. 

136. 1. A' (284.28)... flagellum faciaf Pafer mciis? — 2 ff. 
pcnche on pis ensample originally refers to the Latin quotation. The 
passage. ■which follows is a perverted contractiou of the original 
argiunent: cf. A" (28(5. l) Hivon dei of rihtc is isef, nc deit hc niuihcl 
sehcome pc deniare pef. a pis half pe iscfte (K) deie, brekect J)c Iriivs, 
7 iiwrekeit hini of pe, octer of hini .sulucn (K):' And hivo is pct not 
wcl pef domesdei is dci isef uortc don allc nicn lihf. Hold pc triivs 
Pco hicules . . . Xe do pu nouf hini (sc. dcniurc) seheonie, so pcf fu 
uorhoivic wreehe of his dome 7 ninie fo pin owune donie. Ttvo pinges 
heoit . . . Hwo so euer on hini siilf nimect oucter of peos fivo, he 
robbed God 7 reauect. Gloriam . . . Mihi uindiefam . . . Hrt tu so uioct 
wict nion octer icid wumnion pef tu wult, forfc wrekcn J)c. reauen Gnd 
his sfrenccte? (cf. 1. 18); the translations of the Biblical quotations have 
been added; 11. 10 — 29 have likewise been inserted mainly liy the 
reviser: the latter part of the insertion is a repetition from p. 8!'. 12 ff. — 
7. rindictam (as in S) for rindicfa. — 19. After /////« a full stop. — 
30. A colon should be put after pis. — 32. A fuU stop after hcre. — 
34. iind \iuep — p. 137.5 an additiou by the reviser (cf. p. 49.22). 

137. 7. N (286.21) pagina sancfa. — 8. Ae euere — 1. 12 
mainly added. — 13 ff. A dash after larc/csse. — The original', 
having partly a personal application, has in the passages which foUow 
been mutilated and the sense destroyed; thus, in 1. 14 the saying 
of St. Gregoi-y originally has reference to the vice of Golnesse (in 
BCGJ' heginning a new paragraph (My)); cf. X (286.29) Golncssv 
eumcit of yiucrnesse 7 of flesehes eisc : ror asc Scinf Grci/oric scict, 
Mcfc 7 drunrh ouer rihfe etc. — 15. hlyndes pre fgmcs corruptedly 
for temcct J>reo feanies N (288.1): (blgndes may be a careless substi- 
tution for an original hredes or brgnges): after tymes a colon. — 

' N (2iS6.27) MS.: freolnc (K). — 28. It seeme difficult to see the meaning 
of M.N"'s tran«lation; oiier freolac obvioimly contrasts Vreo ilieortri) (K); tbe 
comma after Aiikf-r fhould probably he Ktruck out ::an ancboress wlio is 
liberai in any other way etc.;; cf. Mv p. 67. 



288 .loel PAIilss.in 

siTliiiif/ nf liistes: X (•2H8.2) lerlifriis liislis. — llj. A lull stn]) sli.iul.l 
lit:' placed atter liistrs. — ar rnilrrstoiulrj) etc. : X ('l^iiH.i] . . . ijnliirssr 
iie biit nriirr ulhiiirfr rlenr acweint nj ftrschrs fiindunnr. Auli prt uiiilrr- 
.stoiidrct wel, pet preo degrcz bcoit prrinne, asr (K) Seint Benrnard 
witnrit. pr normr etc. — l!i. Iiij liispattcn it etc. : ^V (288.9) liro 
hisjirteit [bispottiit BG-, Inspotcct C, hispotten T My) hirc niid liire^ 
blakr spotle [speckes BGT, spcclics C My; firdant murulis M), sn prt 
hro nis nout wiirctr Jjet Jcsu Crist, liirc lenfmon ... ne rluppr liirr 
nr cusse rr heo heo iwaschrn. — A full stop after donr: .so also atter 
aivni/ (20). — 20. ciiljii/nr/. with the exceptinn of anotlier instance in 
oiu" text, p. loO.a, apparently imi(|ue, .seems to contnin a lilen.ling 
of the notion of 'striking' (ilial. rulji 'a hard blow" (EDI).): cf. 
NED., s.v. Coup sb."-, V.') and of that of 'sin, guilt' (OE. cul/iu, 
culjiian): 'beating one's breast in cnnfession of sin'. — 22, 23. After 
lii.<:l a semicolon: X (288.1:?) irbnii . . . Jir drlit kuincct u/i. 7 J)r hist 
ini.rcit. pcoiinc . . . per wn.rrd irtnuh 7 (Iropcit into J)C soulr. rfttr Jirt 
pr hist geit, 7 tc delit perinne. furitrr 7 fuitrr. — 24. Sane fnr Siina. — 
2G. crescat for cresciis: cf. (xen. XLIX. 3, 4. — A full stop should 
lie placed before ruhrn and the comma and paraijraph-raark after 
it struck out, as the word does not belong to the .pintatinu. — 
27 ff. The nriginal passage has again been garbled. and the lines, 
as they stand, are uncoiuiected and rather void of sense : JV" (288.1U) 
Biiljen, pu rcadc (K) prnf(J)ohf BCrTC (pocht), rous roui/c prnsee Fr. My), 
pu hloili tlflit, nr W(ue pu neuer! Kunscncc, pef is skiles jiettuni/e 
liivtin J)r drlit iitr lustc is if/on so oucruurit prt fcr nis non iviitsi</i/- 
ini/r (p trr nerr na wiitsakr T) yf J)rr werr [trr nerr BT. per nerr C, 
pcr nis C My) cise uorto fulfullrn pc dcde (to pe fole dede T, fo 
fiille Pe dede C). pis is liwnn pe lieorfe drnwcit lust into hire (draheit 
to liire unhisf B: similarlj^ GCT My). nse J)in(/ J)cl ivere uiuiised 
((iiiiainef B, (imuined C, amuset CT My). 7 foct on use to wink-.-n 7 
forfe leten pene uennd iwuriten, 7 leiit liire suJf udunewnrd . . . Peonne 
is pe kene (K),J)ef was er eruh (curre HGTV. cuard C My). — 
Jieiinne leupeit fo pet stod er ueo^'renfo, 7 hit (leaites hite o Gndes deore 
.sjiusr. J wi-s deuites hite, ror his teit heuct affrie, ase of une ivode 
ilo(/(/e. Dauid. icte sauter, rleopeit liine dogi/e. Erue etc. — Tiie 
lines thaf follow have also been abridged. — .34. what he another 
instance of dittography. — 35. iii Jyi moiiJ)e illogical: X (290. b)" 
nim nnon pene rnde (K) sfef, mid neiiimunge iitine muite. 7 mid Jje 
merke iitine hnnd, mid J)oulde iitine lienrfe, 7 /"'/ hiiii ut hefferliche etc. 
138. 2. hidde ip J)ine ei^^en: X (2!K).lii) hef ii/i on heih (K) eim 
7 lionden . . .■ i/red (yde T) rfter sukurs. — !». fiirwe: not recorded 

' For horc. — 14. ase n-as pc apotle cr: as »'f.s spot ear liCG ier)\ so 
also T (Mv). — 15. hntle as p. 120.25 nieans 'skin'. 

' N (290.5) Ame interj. 'Ali me!'; cf. NED., s.v. Ali 2, \vhere the first 
exaniple is };iven froni 1.^92. — 10. Iialsine for hiihiiitle BCG, halsauiU T (My). — 
18 I t:ike /it»i as referrinst to 7-0(le stef an.l strike out the dasli after halue. — 
•2('.. tiiier 'both'. — 292.18. lcttre probably mep.ns 'text'; cf. NED., s.v. Letter .3. 



Renltise 289 

in NED.. nor. to my knowledjre. anj-Nvhere else: a])parently due tr> a 
scribal error. — 11. icip fin Hfel : X ("iKO.-il) . . . hicnii lie iinr sn lilit 
irurit — fnr ^p licniii/e nf o lii.-il niie Imiitl liicule. rlieupeit /liiie >:niile. — 
12. hihnde a scrihal slip tor Idhnlile. — lil. Cf. Isaiah. 11. 10: In- 
gredere in petram. et abscondere in fossa humo. — .Y Ciil^.T) Go 
intn pe slntie . . . aiul huil pe i(te ilolueiie enrcte: the passaores which 
precede and follow have been abrid<red or changed. — '2G. .V ('292.15) 
He liimsulf elenpeit Pe louwnrd peos mindeii : Veiii cohtinha etc. — 
•>~t. Cf. Cant.. n. 13. 14: Sui-ge, amica mea. speciosa mea. et veni : 
columba mea in foraminibus petre. in cavema maceria?. — 28. JV('292.IT) 
Mi 1,-ulure. he sei(t. ure Loucrd. kuin iind liud pe iite purles of inine 
linieii. iiiid iite hnles of niine side. Muchel liiitede he .etc. 

139- 2. niper vifl — 1. 3 inserted by the reviser. — 4. Cf. 
Lament.. UI. (>'>: Dabis eis scutum etc. — 5. X (2!>2.23) pu schalf yiuen 
ine, Louerd. heorte-scheld nyean pe ueonde : pef heoit pine swincfule 
jiinen. — A dash may be put after fende. — fi. ff. A contraction of the 
original has in places destroyed the connection. — pat he is nure 
sihelde: X (292.24) pet hen (sc. pinen) swincfiile weren he scheauicede 
hif .snitliche inouh [)n (K) he sicelle ase hlndes swofes dropen etc. — ■ 
li-.,f (7) should be changed to si:,f: pernf originally refers to rode sfef 
in an omitted passage. X p. 292.28 ff. : a shield should be held up above 
the head or against the breast and not dragged behind : in like uianner, 
if you wish that the holy rood-staff should be your shield. lift it up 
on high above the head of your heart against the enemy : the mere 
sight of it puts him to flight . . . If you give the eneray entrance 
at the beginning and are so far overcome that you can not hold 
this shield upon your heart, take at least St. Benedict"s remedy etc.'. — 
b. Benneff cf. p. 9H.7. — 10. X (294.12) t <lrauh . . . pet swtte lihinf/e 
iiito snifoiiunf/e. — 11. of probably for pe: cf. pp. 128.24. 140.16. — 
Affer lihi/nf/ a full stop. — JV (294.13) }if pu . . . slepinde weri-sf pr. 
// ' irule f/on fo unrit upon pe . . . anf hriiif/en pe nf fiile pnuhle iiitn 
d.-lil nf ful sunne {lusf TC) : and sn 'he hrini/eit pe nl nuer infn skiles 
•y-ffunf/i-, pef is dcadliche (K) sunne. wirtuten pe dede : 7 sn is elc pe . 
delif of pe stincf/inde (stinkinde B('(iT Mv) lust wiitufen f/raunt of 
pe irerke. .in Innf/c (K) hif inei ilesfen. hirnn pe skile ne iiihfcit no 
hiii/re pcr fo'jHnrs. — 13. iudieando for iudicanda. — X (294. i'j) 
drlectatio ess-- niorosa duin. — 14. ncludifur for relucfatur. — The 
explanation is an addition. — [b. X (294.20) Vnr pi . . . tn tre.d pe 
nidilre. heauid. pef is, pe heginnunf/e nf his fondunijc. — K,. After 
hnldr a hdl stop. — 18. suos (as in X) for fuos: cf. Ps. UXXXVI. !'. — 



' .V (294.11) grure blode: i/ure blod BCT, red blotl G (Mvh grure in 
eviilHiitly aii iiiferior reading; adopted iii Mu Wrtrlerl,., wliere guri' iii aiia- 
loi;oiisinstHiioe.siscoiisiderefla8 erroneous-.cf. OK. ;/;/'■, S»'' ^ ^''tkatm.-Br., XED.). — 
is. so loiii/e (,K) hit mei ileslen: 'as' in M.s» tianHlation to tie oinitted. — 
21. suster sg.; lere!) pres. — 23 ff. LkV art;ii"ieiit on p. 6 is obvioiisly base<l 
upon a iiiisiinilerstanilintj: hire (Ms 'lier.-<elf') 1 refer to fondungt (22, aml 
give to iriDluilt tlie sense 'restraiiis, cliecks'; lien (25^ plnr. referrinnf to 
slitninges. — 296.18. 61 'as regarils"; so also Rc: ji. 127. 



290 Joel P&hlsson 

lii. ..V (2;i-4.23) /-'(/'/; J,s //(•, .sficT iMaiid, pct wictliiill liiie tliiiii T\ on 
crcsl, nml lo Itrckcct lo pc sloiic Jye ercsle sturuiujcs liwoii fjel flciclis 
iirisnt peo liu-ulc pet lieo l/eoct yitnge. Vre Louerd is ielcoped sloii 
uor liis treounesse. Obviously an original sliruiii/cs Las carelessly 
been misread and replaced by the nieaningless skiriiiiiii/e (20). — 21. A 
colon should be placed after eaiiticis. Cf. Cant., II. 15: Capite nobis 
vnlpes paruulas, <.\\\w denioliuntur (^Y deslniuiil) vineas: nam vinea 
nostra floruit. — 22. An oniission has disturbed the coiuiection; 
X (294.27) NimeH . . . J)c yuiif/c uo.res. pet heoct fic ere.stc (K) prokuiif/es 
pel sluricd [slruect B: similarly CT: dcstrucf G M\) Jje Kiiiyardes . . . 
pet beoct ure soulen. — 23. ns pe viiie — lo pe vine (2!*) an insertion. — 
After trees a dash. — 20. it illogically for he. — 27. A semi-colon 
after the first vine. — 30. N {2d(^.l)pc deoucl is hcorckuiiiies, nnd liuuect 
nsse kunde: ror lie is biliinden stronci, luid feble icte licauect, pet is, 
icte unniictc. nnd so is heorc j nssc. Xe yif Jju iKi liiiii neucr inyjnc/. — 
31. scliuldcrsn mistaken rendering of the original siliiillc: cf. p. ] .')0.2;}, 26: 
X (296.4) lcp liiiii octe sclriillc, iior lie is eruli ase heorc Jjcron : nnd 
hie liiin so peoneward, 7 nscur liim so schcoincliclic . . . Jjct hc Imldc (K) 
him iscliend . . . vor lic is Jjini/e prudest etc. 

140- 1. pal is — fclc of hem (4) has uothing corresj^onding 
in the original. — 3. of sliould ])robably be supplied before unoper. — 
4 ff. generalized fragments of the original passage; cf. X (290.9): 
as soon as your heart iuclines with too much love toward any man, 
beware of the venom of the serpent. The womau truly said when 
wirh a single straw she set all her houses on fire. 'much comes of 
little": the spark does not immediately set the house on fire but 
grows from less to more ; and the devil blows upon it as it increases. 
If a sight or a word should excite you, quench it with tears aud 
with the blood of Christ before it inflames you so that yon nre 
unable to quench it : he who does not when he may etc. — 0. Iicjj 
for he. pres. subj. — 9. AI.^o nyin coucitisc — 1. 28 nu iuterjwlation; 
cf. pp. 127, 128. — 29. A full stop after srhvifl\ — 31. .Y (298.9) 
pis heod (sc. milile: Imucli hit schulle hcon 1 ini asc Itvo limcs : and 
eicter is lo-dealed : pe uorine sir slucclien.es : pc octcr sixtcnc. — 
as inen — for Iinni/er (33) inserted by the reviser. — 34. After 
sclucii a colon. — 35. of seems due to a confusion of lohcwcp and 
hcwcjj. — 37. ^Y (298.15) . . . makcct us Godes children. And cictcr 
(sc. of t-he divisious) hauect his preo. 1'reouc irc nu nlle. pc crcslc (K) 
J)rco hcoct allc ischeawed ine Juditcs dedcn. — .Tudi/f for Judi/lh — 
38. The sense has been perverted by an omission ; X (298.17) Jiidil, 
Jirf is schrift, . . . slouh Olofernc. pct is. pe ueond of hclle . . . Hco 
hdrkcdc of his licaucd. 7 sroctctcii nim aiid schenwede liit to pc hiiruh 



» iVM298.1) uorifif for /fOJ-fle BCT CM\\ — 3. To be read is srlirift pe 
bilmieste (K\ of hire srhal heon etc.;so also BCT {y\y]. — 7. In tlie traiisliition 
the fnll stop aftPr 'ronfession' shoiikl be deleted. — 24. ode »io)i»ie 'by 
tlie niau'. 



Recliise 291 

preosfes. peonne is pe ueond ischend hiconne me seheaweit (K) etc. — 
A full stop should be put after fcnde. 

141. 1. After fende a full stop: ^V (298.23) His heauvd is 
iharkcd of . . . so sone so (K) he (sc. nwnnc) euer is riht sori uor htJt 
sunncn, 7 hauect schrift on hcortc. — 4. sciencie for consciencir. the 
sign of abbreviation for con being evidently omitted: a full stop 
should be put after the word. — 6. Voffa conveys no sense : cf. 
Judith, Xr\'. 15: Vna mulier Hebrwa fecit confusionem in domo 
regis Nabuchodonosor. — -ludifiov Judith: similarly 11. 9. 15, 21. 28. — 
7. crfie: er fe: the passage should logically connect with I. 5; the 
quotation in 1. 6, as also in 1. 4, differently placed in the originali cf. 
.V (298.25) Auh he is nout pe }et ischcnd itc hwule (tct ili.) his hcaued 
is ihud. use dude on ercst ludit. cr hii lieo ischeawcd .' pct t.s-, cr pen 
Pe nniit ine schrifle do ut j5<' hcaucd sunne. And nout one pe sunne, 
auh al pe heginnunge perof, and al pc uorridelcs ^et tirouhtcn in pe 
sunnc, pet is pe deofles heaued . . .' Vna niulier etc. — 8. pan he 
flcivp etc. : X ( 300.4 1 peonnc clih his ferde anon nse dudc ■Judit 
Olofcrnes. If this reading is accepted, rlih shoidd apparently be 
taken as the imper., meaning "put to flight" (Bosw.-T., s.v. Fleon II): 
so also rf« in 1. <) (omitted in the revision). The same meaning might 
be assigned to flei^ep in the revised te.xt and <(■ struek out after it. 
BCGT. however. omit .Judit (My) wliich i.-* probably merely an un- 
coiTected scribal error: then rlih stands for rlihit ' cf . irrih]). 150. ".m. 
The phrase as given in P is due to a misunderstanding. — 10. A 
sign of interrogation after hffm. — 12. The Latin quotation not in V. — 
nostrum for noster. — ascendit for ascendet; cf. Judges, I. 1. 2: 
Quis ascendet ante nos contra Chananwum. et erit dux belU? Dixitq. 
Dominus : ludas ascendet : ecce tradidi Terram in manus eius. — 
13. V (300.11) and (K) / chtiUe ower foes lond bitechen in his 
(sc. ludas) honden. — 14. After handcs a fidl .stop: similarly after 
dope (15). — 16. X (300.14) . . . hiron soulc hele is fnrlorcn ror 
(if/fT r. purch C) eni deadlich sunne. pe sunfule is pe unirihtes lnnd, 
pet is ure dendlich fo, and tis lond ure Louerd hat (hihat JiCG, 
hihtt T My) uorto bitechtn in .Tuda.vs honden, uor htrnn Jirt hc go 
hiuoren. ■'ichrift, lo nu, is gunfantur . . . Godes ferde, Pet hcoit gode 
pcauwts (Ki etc. : the rest of the passage has also been abridged 
UV (3(X).20 1 . . . Canaan, pe ueondes ferde ofhelle . . .). — 22 J\^(300.27 1 . . . 
icidetoe schrude, pet iras nierke of seoruive : nnd seoruwe nis hiite of 
sunne one. — 23. An illogical addition: cf. 1. 28. — 24. Cf. Judith, 
X. 2, 3: & exiiit . . . & lauit. — 27. nugo as ,V (302.4): cf. 
Joel, II. 25: eruca. — 28. lorne: N (302.1) al pit god pet ice hcfdm 
tiorlorm puruh heaued .'<unne : 7 bringeit al aynn etc. — 29. .V (302..') i . . . 

' .V 300.3) to 'li-eilen for totredrn. — ». pet tet folc etc. an instance of 
anacolut lon; after folr a «la.-^li, after aerde 10; a conima. — 16, 17. Tlie clmises 
arc prolably erroneously connecteil; I put a conima after lioiiden (16', t full 
8top aftfr biuoren 17\ and tran.-^late "... into .I.'8 hamls provide<l that lie 
go beforv (:be the leader'. Now, confession is the standard-bearer' etc. 



2'.i'2 J(.L-1 PAI.isson 

liiirtt . . . niiikeile liirc iieii {fnirliede liire T) wiitiilin. ii.-ie >«hrifl deft 
ii.s wiitinin-ii, iiiid nllc pe vriir urnniieiis pii hitorncct lilifsr. — It 
wniild be appropriate to piit a tuU stoj) after hlis auil change iis to 
iiiid X (302.7). — 30. Cf. Zechariah, X. (J: & eruut sicut fuernnt 
iHiau<lo non proieceram eos. — 3'2 ff. contracted and rather obscure : cf. 
.V ( 302.10 1 ' pfil priilde pini/ f.v, itel (Ki xilirifl dc(t lo us .fuluen Jie 
friil ()/■ /;i.s oiter liro i sc. irit,sc/ir(t m.s: yi (••,elde.s T] us ure lurrn\. 7 rndrit 
liiim hodr — l)vl i.<i, iiinkr(t II» liodrs rhildren. pis is hitnrned prrhi ]yf 
Judn.s, inr Genesi, liiirnn nf Jncoli. Beiijiiiiiiii. Henjninin seiit nsi- 
iiiiirhr n.sr Siinr of rilil lnilf. Indns. prt i.s, srhrift . . . jirs iKi fiasl- 
liihr Iiidiis hiyt nf Iiirnl, his frdrr. f,rl is. ii rr I.niirrd. tn heni, his 
rilil /iniidrs siliie. - hrilhrli hlllrii i iiilr pr rritiliir nf lirniieiir. 34. Iinir 

/rhil tiilen etc. has replaced some introductory remarks on the rijiht 
nianuer of confession, giving sixteen characteristics treated more fnlly 
in the set|uel. — 3(). (('■ non oper: X (304.1) Mnn sihnl . . . nnnl 
irerien (esrn.sen T) liiiii iie signrn, Irli et<-. 

142. 3. irhnii inen seien o fore lir is prniidr: the passage is 
rather obscure : the original has : Auh fiil irrl he is ipnied [lef of BCG, 
liies of T My) /(((■()/( eni seiit J)ii hr hiin innkrdr unrtn sunrgen. use 
Jinuh he hcucde strenrdc, [jct iiiinrit imnr etc. ^V (304.6). I may 
tentatively suggest: scirn sn . snrr hr is /imnilr (or can there be any 
connection with ON. sri/iijn n 'charge'?) — 5 ff. X (304.1 1) }if p" 
srist Jjct Jfin unstrriiritr iir iiiiihle nouf elles, J)U irrenrhrst Jjinr siiiiiir n 
(iod, J)cl innkrdr J)c siriich Jjct tu. hi pinc fale, iriitslnndcn nc ninhtcs. 
Tlie passage that foUows. as far as in J)is ninnere (13) has been 
inserted. — lli. diiiiilinirciinir for diindiciirciiiiis. — 18. A full stop 
atter Jicrc. — lli. A' (.H()4.18) . . . iirnisniitin percnln '. inde, Irrrrns 
jiislirin : siihtiis, ijnlriis linrridum rhnns iiifrriii : dcsnjjcr.iralus Jndcr . . . 
iiiiiiidns. Ui.r justus suluahilur. Pcccalor etc. — 23. X (304.21) O J>c 
n,ir hnlnc. a domesdci srhiilcn ure sirarte sninicii hicleopicn (K) iis . . . 
niid nii nitrr liiilf stniil rihlirisiic.ssr . . . drnlfnl 7 f/rurrful uoiio hi- 
linldrii. — 2.'). After jir a semi-colou : tlie stop after ])e (2(3) should 
be struck out. — 2U ff. (•/■/)(■ is doubtless a misunderstanding of the 
original corre X (304.24), which seems to have gone out of use about 
the middle of the 13th cent. — The passage is abridged and changed: 
X (304.2.5) usc softe ns hc (sc. eorre Dcmiirc] is hcr, n.se hcrd hr hiit per : 
niid nsr inildc (Kl nsr lic is iin hcr, usc slurne hc hiit Jicr — Inirh hcr 7 
//■/(// /)(/•. iisr Jir /irn/diilr iriliir^ i Leo rufiirt : quis llnn Hlllrhit f . . . 
lirr irr lirn/iint liilii Iniiih ilsr nftc asc ive sinf/cct, Af/nus l)ri . . . Xil . . . 
irc srhnlrii i.scnii hnurn us prii ilkr rnrre Dcinnre, J)ct is. cr irilncssr, 7 
irnl nllc 11 rc f/nltcs. — stnriir : no exactly analogous form seenis to 
l/e ou record : fhe tliii^d letter may l/e meant for c: cf. 1. 27. — 
28. Cf. John, 1. 2'.i: Erce agnus Dei. ecce c|ui tollit ete. 

' A'' (302.9' miiege for SHiieiiede JiCG (My). — H. t endeD hnin hoflf •aml 
cnmpletes them bntir. —16. ft/jPf probably pies. (:biytfti). — 3(H.16. Tlie siop 
after ilonie sliould be strnck oiit an.l placerl after tbe next wo;d whieh 
lonlrasls lirr in the pieceilini; liiie. 



Rf.liij^L- 2!'; 

143. •■i. iii/s liiTr lio hi'nir etc. : X (301!.. 5)' Xi.s j)ir Ijronne biitr 
prt hrrdr iroril (hrreii ]nit hiirilr iroril. p irairord TC\ etc. — bo (4j 
seems to be a scribal slip tor Imt. — 6. Cf. llatt.. XXV. 41 : 
Di.scedite a lue maledicti etc. — !•. forilmlr: X (30(j.8) vorlmirin 
(XED. latest example 1230), T forholirilm. — 15. A.icrndU for 
Ascrniliit: roi/itrt t'or rot/itat. — - 18. carni-^i tor carnifrr. — 19. ft'. For 
skjiU sittep prrr etc: the argnment is illogical and confused; cf. 1. 25: 
X (30(3.16) prne, mon. of domesdrie, 7 demr hrr him nuliten piis, o 
pi.isr ii-ise : let sl-ile sitten ase deiiiare upon pr dom stiil : kumr prr rfter 
uorit //<»■ piiiiht : pouhte.i munef/uni/r irreir hini. 7 hivleopir (K) hini of 
mislirhr sunnrn . . . J{i.-< inirit bro iknoirrn prrof, 7 brrr hini iritnr.isc : 
So(t hit is . . . Kuniv uord per rftrr ferlar etc. The rest of the passage 
has been aliridged. — "23 ff. hr sc. doinrs yuiii: X (306 26) pr deniare. pet 
is. skil. — hrm (24) inconsiste ntlyfor the sing. : similarh- hij (23): in 1. 24 
///• should logically be corrected to /((/'. — 24. ^Y (30»). 20) . . . hiit 
(sc. pr demnre) pet seoruire preossche (K) hini iridinne pr heorte 
inid sore hireousunge : so pet him suirie 7 piiiie prl flrsch iriitiiten 
niid festen. 7 niid oSer fleschliche sorrs. — 2.0. siilp I regard as a 
mere scribal inadvertency for the corresj^onding word in the original: 
X (308.2) radi i.s- he 7 iseli (cf. alirnp for alirai/ p. 115.16). — 
27. Cf. .V (308..3) IA.S in id ip.sum. — 2!t. X (308.7)= Si tu avvusas. 
JJeus e.rciisat : et uice uersa — in illustration of the different methods 
of jndging in God^s court and in that of the shire. 

144. 1. .fuih/f for .)udi/lh: cf. 1. 5. — 2. 5. iiarachies: JN' (308.13) 
Mmirilitrs: cf. Judith, ^TII. 1: . . . ludith vidua, quse erat filia 
Merari. — 3 ff. The passagft has been carelessly rendered and. the 
sense destro^-ed. — irrdded Olhomar for the original iriurde o Thaniar 
X (308.i:i):" cf. Gen.. XXXVUI. Then Mrrariht 7 Thnwar ImJr hro 
.sprlirit hitternrsse o Ebreu . . . hiftrr sor 7 sclirift . prt on niot kuiiirn 
iif prt octer, (ise ludit dude of Jlerarilit. and ho(tr hro molen heon 
iueied somed, ase Juilit 7 Thannir irrrrn (K) : uor nnuitrr iriituten 
oiter nis nouht (K) iruriT, oitrr liitrl. Fares 7 Zarani ne trmrit lieo 
neuer etc. Thus, in 1. 3 we should read and for in: after .•ichrift a 
dash: in 1. 4 the .second icip must be corrected to ivipoiiten: Juilifetc. (5) 



' N {306.1) uorkuliinile by Ms in tlie glossary incorrectly rendert-il :is 
'tormentinfr' an<l eonnected with OK. iiCweUnn; cf. p. 50.6. — 8. unrhuiceM 
'Hvoiileil, shniineil'. — 30. nuicie not 'sigb' (Mk); .NKD., s.v. i^ugli 2, gives 
tlie sense as "bp liistressin!:'; cf. p, 2.i6.4. 

' -V ;,30«.i; and pe fule pet is iciifrtvnr. no also tlie otlier MSS. (.Mv; C 
by correction'; Mx inisiuriilersianils tlie passage: pe 7) is a ilein. pron. aml 
tlii- iiicaning beromes perfectly clear if \ve uniierstaiul is: "he Js) convirle I 
who coiifesses' (rt ilamimri ipii fntetnr M . — 10. nor hicon het 'proviileci thal'. — 
13. Rg p. 169 asserts wiueu oti to be "not hilherto recoriled'. Tlie anthor 
biis overlookeil the nuiiiber of instani-es givi-ii in Bosw.-T., s.v. WiBan; cf. 
p. '216.22. — 16. 1 take bitter as an ailj., «or as a siibst. "grief, anil put a 
ibish «fter sehrift. — 1». hro is tlie siil.j. referriiig to bitter sur : srhrift: 'tUey 
never beget F. and Z'. The signilicalion nf the naiiies is exphtineil in aii 
aililitioi.al passage in B ,My). — 51/ iiie /imcclied (K: etc. 'if a inan coiisiiiei 
what inortal sin' etc. 



29-i .Toel PAlilsson 

coiTuiftly added: c-f. 1. 1, '2: nitpr ynim (0) — tor Zura (Gen., 
XXXYIII. 30) -- an omis.sion: a lnll stop to be placed before 
iiyiiwp. — 13. Y (310.1) Asr ln liiin. Iiiti heoit (lnade. Asr onnnt hiin 
is, he hnueit islcicn hiiin nllr. iiiul hiiiirtt J)rr ase heo Hiiiect euer, loitnesse 
()/" ham alle. — 15. nnu tor rmn: cf. Lament., I. 2. — 16. spi/en : 
X (310.4) :,eieiirn .■*/«' Iiiiii iin : in tlie reading oi' our text, if not to 
be regarded simply as a careless blimder, we seem to see an early 
cognate of dial. spiar, spijra •mockery, derision' vvhich EDD. recoi-ds from 
8h.I. and Ork. — 20. The translation has been added. — 22. rinijrnitnm 
for vnigeniti. — 24. Xoir hij Jm irorde — in al j)at Jjou doost 
p. 145.6 an addition. — 25. 26. A dash after rhilde aud after 
mesure. — 30. The first part of the quotation is from Philippian.s. IV. 4; 
the second from Ps. XXXVI. 4. 

145. 8. After anhnnyrd an omission : cf. 1. 1 7: A (31(l.l6) hn iriddr 
his hrortr stondrn 'f — 12. Read cum iiiortr frdus. — riiiiinis fnr iniuiinus ; cf . 
Isaiah, XXVIII. 15: Percussimus — fecimus. — IH. X(;M0.22) irr haljhr(t 
troude ipluht deactc, 7 forcirard islcjncd iiiid hcllc : ror Jiis is Jyes 
feondes cheffarc : he yiuect pc siinnc, and lu yiucst liiin pine siiule 7 ti 
hodi ekc etc. — 19. Jxit is pousandc hundrcj) fairer : X (310. ;jO) J)et 
is iiii liiiiidred siitc, v " Jiusrnl sittc betere etc. ; on p. 152.31 we find 
another instance of hinidrcji in the .same sense : "a hundred times" ; parallels 
seem to be wanting. — 22. Cf. 2 CorLiith., VI. 15: Quw autem conuentio 
Christi ad Belial ? — Tlie quotation has been misplaced iu the revisiou ; 
it should properly come before the preceding sentence. — X (310..'i2) 
3'/ Jic king hrucdc etc. — 25. and lo iccrraii: X (312.1) 7 unitcodc 
Irdih-ii iiorct Jiis child in liis irardr, so J)rl Iri rhiid siiif ircorrcdc etc. — 
27. iN' (312. .i) Sori is lie (sc. rngci) . . . Iiiriui iiiiitroctr (K) irdrit us 
firit, 7 hivoH we ure Godc l'cder ircorrrit inid sunnr. Bro irr soric 
pet ive cucr schuidcii irrcititrn siruch frdcr, 7 sweamen^ swuehne 
wardein, pct wit 7 ircrcit us eucr wiit J)c tin.tcicnc (unscii B. unscinede C, 
nnsegene G, vnsehcnc T. maiuois Fr. My) gostcs : uor eiies vueie us 
.stode. — 31. X (312.11) Jloidc we him neih us inid smeiie of swote {K) 
ircrkes : and do wc us inc his icnrdc. — 34 ff. After deltour may be 
IHit a dash; X (312.16) wci is hiiii Jni so mci (sc. hcon sori uor his 
sunnen, 7 wcoprn) : iior iro/i is sinilr hcic. Vrc Loiicrd dcit touirard 
us ase nie deit /o nni iht/iir: lir iiimrit Irs.ie prn we owen liiin, 7 is 
Jiaiih wci ipiiinl. ]\'r nirni liiiii hlnd . . . Mc niinect et ruri drtlur 
olrii iior hirriitr : iiiid iirr Loiirrd iiiiiirit li iis iire teures etc. 

146. 2. ii/i-.,/li: II ii}/li. — as pr iimi drltour dopr illdgically 
ior as inc dojjr Jir iimi diilour: cf. above. — 7. irst — nr cf. p. 73.12. — 
8. A' (314.1) ... /o oiir monnr. ul of rhildhodc. — il. pul is — Irlir 
sum (11) au insertion. — ] 3. X [M-^.i,] . . . J,rrrftrr ojir smrlr dustr : 

' This is an interj. 'tie'; by Mx incorrectly t.aken as inip. of OE. 
spittan (Gloss.). 

- As on pp. 330.11, 398.12 'grieve, afflict'; cf. Bosw.-T., s.v. Swseman. — 
lii. panlh 'yet'. — 20. iiicat me deii yt: hu mr ^eddei) BCG (gedcled), Invat nion 
ydiles T 'wliat is commi>nly sai<i' ;,My). 



Reeluse 29n 

yif hit iJustvit stvucte. htu rtaskrct trufcr printi. 7 sirnjirit hit iit iiirri 
cflrr uJ pet octrr. — After iraler a full stop. — 17. l)at ;c nr 
al)li/u(le etc: lY (31-4.0) 7 ne schulrn hro (sc. lihte pouhfes) notit 
peonne ahlrndcn pr heorfe eien. Htrose heleit otit {Hirase leines ani 
Jjinij T), he naticit iseid nouf, uor^ whon he bro pe sherre, auh is 
ilirhe pen monnc etc. — 23. of shoukl logicalh' be supplied before 
a si/nnc. — 27. After helle a fiill stop. — 28. o noper l;/ine: A^ (3 14.25) 
one cherre. — 31 ff. N (314.28) Atih htroso haueit yorne isoiiht alle 
pe hurnen of his henrfc 7 ne con of-sechen (runr/i BG. runt/ge C. 
ruttgen T My) ntore uf, yif per out etluteit, hif is. irh hnpie. iite schriffr 
ischaurn iif iiiid ten nitre, hiron per nr liit nn yiurhnste ahiiten. anil 
hr trnlde vein yif he Iciiite sigyen more. Si cnii.icientia etc. — 32. foryiue 
evidently 'sujrgests" : there seems to be no evidence of a related 
sense before ItiOO: cf. XED., s.v. (one example): s.v. Give 22. 

147. 1- lie saumpled: A' (316.61^ bisaumplrd : XED.. s.v. Sample 
v. 3. gives no instances of the simple vb. in the sense of •illustrate, 
e.xplain by examples' earlier than the 17thcent. — 3. A' (316.7) 
pef is focne of hafunge pef nton (K) ftiked to trundre pef ping pet 
me hafeit sirvcte. — 4. Aiter r;/" a mark of interrogation. — .N'' (3 1 ii.iO) 
Sper hire (sc. sunne) scheome schendfulichr. 7 tnc hirr (hit TC) al fo 
inindre, al sn ase pu irel iciilt schrndrn penc sc/iUr/cr (.■sehucke TC). — 
5. totile: N (310.13) fol. — 8. A fiill stop after Inrdr. The origiual 
has been contracted and the connection is somewhat alirujjt: ^V (31(i.l6) 
3'/ pinr 110 enne fulne {ftil TC) nnme, and biclenpe pinc stinnc sfror- 
nak-rd : pef is, ne hele pu nntrihf {ne lein pu ping T) of al pet liit 
per abtifen. patih fo fule ine (K) mei siggen. Jle ne perf notif 
nentmen pe fiile dede bi his oirune ftile nome. Inntih etc. — • 10. Hes 
piitges failen fo schrift: N (310.20) Abutrn sunnr liggeit si.r pincgcs (K) 
prt hif helieit. — 11. faggrs: N (310.22) tnlaggr.-:: if fhe reading of 
P is not due to an nnintentional omission, this is an early instance 
of the simple word in abstract sense. in NED. recorded only from 
the 18th cent. : cf. s.v. To-tag: Tag 5». — 13. After dude a full 
stop. — 15. Jrh haue spnk-en etc. : A' (310.25) Irh nin a tcuntmon, and 
schulde mid rihte beon more scheomeful tiorfe habben ispcken a.se ieh 
spee, oiter idon ase ich dude etc. — 18. <{■ han ben etc. a confusion 

' Tfius I read the passage — 'he lias told nothiiig for which he may 
be the purorer'; BG natciht for hicon he beo, C nawicht parfore he beo, T Jin 
Ping for hui he beos (Mv). — 17. SMiiiifn for sunne. — 20. pen eannot belons; 
to grupunge; Lr p. 10. 

' A^ 316.2; hiron Per ne lid ete. 'when (if there is'. — 6. ismoked: Ms 
translateH 'touclied upon' and assumes relationship with OE. amcecan (Gloss.). 
Tliis cannot tie correct. The only possible conneetion Heems to be witli OE. 
.smiociVih: tlie sense may be 'rendered oliseiire (as liy smoke)'; C ismackcd? cf. 
OK. smacian 'smack, pat, carress' Bosw.T.). — 11. al so ase 'jnst as". — 
li>. birleope 'aecuse'. — 18. ne mei: ine mei (K;: evidently for me mei. — 
2J. 1'iiureon Rg (p. 104) regards as tlie first qiiite iinniistakalile instanee of 
an inf. witb iinperative foree; it should, bowever, l>e noted tliat tbe readinjr 
iii BCG is vmcreo, in T Vmcreoh (My; ef. p. 234.22, aml tliis case like tlie 
rest of thoae given on the same page may be differently explained. 



•2'M\ .Inel P;Milssnii 

nt tlie syntncticnl toiiiiection : ci. ,V (H1II.28J Jili iiin uii iiinir . . . 
iinil J)i'l lialjhf . . . 7 iiulilr ftc. — '20. iiiiiiyli nrw/iiii/ pv iiiniif ctc: 
X (1-518.3) hi( «■«*• Diiil sirucln' niiniiir : x iiriiniicii pninnc — iiiiiiiiuli. 
/irriial. iiiter clcrlc. timl of prl lindr [iirilrc 'I'(J). — 22. A dash after 
s/rilr : a semi-colon after cldrchr: N (318.6) pu.s icli plcicdc, oScr npcc 
iiir chirchr etc. — 23. sjiohrn: another break of logic: N (318.8) 
■•i/irc jiii.s iiilrr /ilririlr liiuiirrn ivorldlichr moi : hiuorcii rclii/iusc : in 
iiiicrc husr ... ; iicili hiili Jiiiii/r. Ich cu.slc him jicr : ich hoiidlcdc 
(fcldc T\ hiin iiic sinichc s/udc^ etc. — 24. A colon after li/mc. — 
21). After hali/dai/ a seuii-colon: so also after chirchc (27) and after 
slrrni/lir (28). — 2ii. iiii ]ils icisr : N (318.22) }}COS suniir 1 duilr 
jiiis. - II pissr icisr : jiiis I Ironiiilr hirr rrcst etc. : a semi-colon afier 
iri.-ic. — 32. A colon shonld be put after hou nft: N (320.1) Irh 
huhhr pis pus iiftr iiloii : iiniiird fir to spclccn ])us, ( hrrcnen siruchc 
spcchrn, ( pcnchrii siruclir liniihtrs : rorymrd [fnryiiir (\ fir yiiir T. 
forf/rmcn (i Mv) Jiini/cs 7 foryitru etv. — 3-4. ilrinikrii: liinir might lie 
nnderstood ; N (320.4) ■ (/«/(/«■«. 

148. 1. /(//' an inconsistency ; N (320.4)-... Jjrn ncod wcrc 
{iisl.rct C) : after /o a senii-colon. — 3. A colon to be placed after 
Ciiiisr : A'(320.9) Causc is Jn- y/r/r- tutniii/c. Cimse is. hiii pu hit dudrst . . . 
iidrr Jj/iruh hiron it liii/oii : irham maj' have been substituted for an 
original liinni — 4. nf slnmlii doubtless be changed to fir: N (320.10) . . . 
uor drlit : 7 fir nut tiiiir. — (i. fir irrapjjr etc. : N ('d20.\4) of Jjissc 
irorilc (K) com intrr : of pis.vc drdc, irrcctilr - nirlr irordrs. Sirr, Jv 
aiichrsuii (K) is pis Jnri pct rucl ilcstclt yt. — 7. After hnt a full 
stop: similarly after ojtcr in the next line, whicli is an abridgement 
n!' the original ; cf. N (320.16 ff.) Eurrich, cftcr J)ct lic is, sigc/c pc 
tiitiii/i/es, — mon asc limpcct to him : iniminoii pct hire rinect etc. — 
U. aqua for aijtiam. — 11. prrr iiiiir, owing to an omission, lack.s 
connection ; N (320.22) 3//' roli schct iit of oiic rrtlcs (schedcs of a 
fiit T. schcd of aii rct C), yt J)cr wiilc hilcaucn innc etc. — 12. The 
context has been distnrbed by a contractiou; N (320.25) At so srhnl 
jiiiir hnirtr : . . . Aiid yf J)u nv dcst nont etc. — IG. to for tr. — 
17. nnrrir Jii srtf: sc. tii Jjr preostc, ine schriftc N (320.80). — 
lii. A' (322.4)'' trusscii ul pi schcndfulncssc o Jyinc nmtne ncckc, asc 
mr dect o J)e J)couc pct mc lct forto dcmcn. — 21. ijui for qiiid. — 
crunt for crit. — 23. fames for sanics. ■ — tjr Jirrr should preferably 



' Mn^s conceplidn of the line ciinnot l>e ri^lit; as indicateii hy tlie 
punctnation in BGT (Mv) o!)cr mi sulf connects with kim. — 25. fntliche 
'foully'. — 26. sechen: segqen BCG, seggc T (My). 

- N (;{20.7) MS.: pus nfie Jjis (K\ — 17. none refers to totagges; simi- 
larly peo in tlie next line. — -24. likur 'fat"; cf. NED., s.v. Liquor 2 b 
(earliest example froin 1559). 

' N 1,322.6) trussen 'go away' or (W.ssibly 'be banged'; cf. NED., s.v. 
Tiu89 4 and 7 b (tbe earliest example in tbe former sense is given from 
13B2, in the latter from 1592). — 10. to-warjjled 'scattered' (Strati«.-Br., 
liesitatingly). — 31. The coniina after liit shonld be struck oiit, tbis being tbe 
ol)j. of the pass. verb; cf. NED., s.v. Know 3 il. , 



Rccliise '2!'7 

lie rransposed. — 2-i. i-rliriKlrlil,-: lietween / aml i an a uiay have 
ilrojiped out : A' (32"2.9) sclirndldr. apparenrly not in use since the 
earlier part of the 13th cent. — «7/«« iil srhal hrn etc: iV i3'2'2.1'i i 
«7/0« ... «/ J)et fule irnisiim srheiiireit liiiii, 7 irrinf/rit iit [iil pr fnlitr 
srliraiccs liim 7 icringes tit tat irirsuiii T) biunrrn al pe iride icnrldr . . . 
niiiit one etc. — "25. ruse seems to be a substitute for the original 
irriisuni which was probably nnintellifrible to the reviser (Stratm.-Br.: 
Ancr R., Orm.. Curs. M.): it ruay mean 'boasting, vainglory' (ON. 
Iirds; Hc. ruse l-i — 16th cent.: cf. NED., s.v. Roosei and may possibly 
lie intended as a rendering ot' the non.siensical Latin fames (23). — 
2i>. rrijuirrtur a nobis X (322.141. — 27. pr probably t'or per: 
.V 1 322. 151... everieh tinic srhal brnn Jjrr irikrnrd. — 28. A ftiU 
stop to be placed after dispmded. — He is without connection : in 
rhe original the reference is to Seint lirornard in au omitted line 
of translation; N (^322.18) He hcfde iseien, asc me J)uncheit. hiru 
Adam etc. — 29. kykeham for lifkeham. — 30. After hrm a dasli. 

149. 1. malice for malicic. — • 2. //(/' howen — pis ]>oi/nt i2Ui 
au intei-])olation. — 4. he indefinitely : a man. — 8. 'J. A dash may iie 
]iut after siinnc and after hap (It). — 10. The first. third. and fourrh 
//(• are identical with he in 1. 4; the secrjnd refers to pat oprr. — 
11. l)an ///• is: sc. pat oper: for he is: sc. 'a man". — 17. After 
sahiacioun a full stop. — he: sc. hnpcr. — 22. We schuU — to 
■"chryft (24) an addition. — 27. (riilihe for (ralile. — irel forto lerne 
a perversion of the original: X (322 20)... so ice iuindeff pet hc [sc. 
urc Louerd) icende ofte ut of Galilee into ludee. (ialilec spelcd hircol. 
uoiie leren us pet irc of pe icorldes torpclncssr, 7 ofsunne hircolc iK\. 
o/te ijon to schriftc. — 28. X ( 322.20 1 efler iceouedes sacramcnt. 7 
cftcr sacramrnt of fuluht etc. — 2St ff. *(/(•*•/ should possibly be 
addeil before hiitrj): X 1 322.30 1 Jjet pr drouel is loitest : ase hc haueit 
tii holie nicn himsulf. sorc his unitonkes ibeon liit iknoiren. Then ^t/' 
it bc (30) — rjuemcp hym ^ZW has been added and the first illustra- 
ti">n in the original left out : Wule a iceob heon. et one chrrre. mid 
one iratcre tvel ihleched : oiter a sol rlott hirit iirasrhrn? X (322. Hl 1. 
The passages which follow have also been somewhat abridged '. 

150. 4. A' (324.10) 3*/ sunne bifinirct bi nihte — anonriht, 
ii(trr II morircn. — (i. After the first slcpe a full stop. — durst — .sejj 
an inconsistencj' in regard to tenses. — 7 Ourc drdlirh fo — nmenden 
rs I 10) an insertion. — 12. in a dichr: X (324.16"! amiddcn Jie 
hirnitidc fure. — 14, 16. JN' (324.16) -1 icummon pet haucit forlorcn 
hire nelde. octer a sutare his cl, he sechccl etc. — 20 ff. X (324.21) 
Hicon grcdie hundcs stondcct hiuorcn pe horde, nis hit neod yrdc ? 
Ase ofte asc cni kccrheit touicard J)r - hinimeit pc Jjine nictc. nultu 
ase ofie Sitiiten? . . . asc ofte asc pe hund of hellr kerrhrit ci tfod froni 
Jtc. sniil him anonrihl mid tc yrdr of tunt/r srhriftr .' and siiiit hinr so 

' N .324.«) T imlt uout 'anci thoii wilt not'. — 8. Pet me ne tiiri alle 
siijyen 'all of wbicli we oannot tell'. — 13. heolde pa. t. snbj. — 28. heo pl. 



298 Joel PAhlssoii 

lititi:rli<hc Jjit liiiii Ifiitii- lii aiiercheti cfi tu pr etc. — '11. Iir n]>\tn- 
reutly an error tor 5^: not in N. 

151. "2. is pr deueln gouel etc. : N (;}'2(>.8) sittiiir /»■ pr.s itru/lrs 
feih prl hr yincit tn i/aitrJ, 7 to okere uf //iiie. — 7 ff. N (320.13) . . . 
pet no pitii/ pct hr rurr ilrit iiis (jiiilc liciimrite tie icweme. Jcrciuie. 
Aliciii etc. — 10. Cf. Hosea VII. 9: . . . robur eius. — The explana- 
tion has been added : similarly 1 20. — 14. Ecfus t'or Enits: 
Ecclcsiusticus: .so also 1. 17: cf. Ecclus., V. S: Non tardes comierti 
ad Dominuni, & ne differas de die in diem. — 1(J. After i/ue! au 
omission; ^N' (32(3.17) he tie itiri irel petichrti butc cuer on {anc T] 
of his secnessc . . . i/rnnrii iiar his eche (icarchc T) und f/rutiten tior Ms 
stiche- niore prn i-tc. — 17. N (32G.20) Confitebcris ct uiues; Cf. 
Ecclus., XVII. 27: Confiteberis viiiens, viuus & sanus confiteberis etc. — 
18. The stop after /al should be placed after fiffe (17) instead. — 
in sfi/nchi; etc: N (32().22) itnder pc schitche : Siiri/e etc. — 20. The 
traiislation added. — 22. PrinrijiHsobsfa, sero tnedirinii /jaralur N {32(i.2'i), 
quoted from OviiFs Remedy of Love (Mn). — 23. The first is should 
be struck out : cf. 1. 1.^. — hUokener: N (326.25)' pel bitornect 
lii Lazre: the reading of P probably a scribal slip for bifok^nep 
or else it is actually intended as a subst. : 'he who or that which 
betokens or indicates" : This irorcle forego beinij a betokener of fiitip, 
r.irlitdrth . . . efirtnfie (1587: earliest example iu NED., s.v. Betokeuer): 

tben ;,s should be understood as the pred. 24. fo scheice paf H 

is slrnng etc: cf. 1. 27: T (326.25) pet (sc. Lazre) sfonr so lonij 
hr hefde ilcii-n i pir rurite. — 29. Tratn for Quatu. — 30. areictlirh: 
N (328.3) rruectlichr (Kl. 7'C' arinliche. — 32. pat should be sup])lied 
before ni/s. 

152. 2. in pe fendes seruis-' etc: N (328.8) Su mr deujtjire 
iradrd inlo pe ueondes leie ttcnne (irades icte deoneUs M iiiure T), so 
ine kuineit laler up. — 5. hei}er: N (328.10)" so tne ear bit/innect etc: 
cf. XED., s.v. High, adv. 4 b.:'farback, early': the earliest quotation 
showing this sense is from 1613. — 7. N (328.12) . . . iiie reisuns. - 
inonir inoa pir bioct, hiri srhrift ouh fortr beon iinakrd eucr on hihctc. — 
!>. edoiiilich: N (328, 14 j edniod: the faulty form is possibly dne to 
a misunderstanding of the original word which, at the date of the 
revision, liad doubtless loug beeu oiit of common use (NED., latest 
example 1275); th» necessity of an explanatiou has also been f elt : cf., 
hovfever, edtnodene-^^se p, 71.10. 11. — pat is hnreUch — bi/hisrhalfare(V.^) 



' N (32(5.24) MS. : ping (K). — 27. Mn in liis glossary euters meingde s.v. 
iiienen and accordingly regards his blod as an interpolation (foot-note f); 
this is an error; tlie verb in the pa. t. of mem/en ancl tlle phrase seems to 
be one of quite establishecl use, with the sense of 'disturb, agitate'; cf. 
NED., s.v. Meng .S; Mr Worterb., s.v. Mengen 1: B x risede t mengde him 
seoluen ('trembled and was disturbed'); siniilarly GCT (Mvl. 

' N (328.7) so euerich on 'thus every one'. — 9. peueoniles leie uenve ei. 
p. 96.24. — 22. viterokes: tlic lirst element is wrongly connected by Mn (.Gloss.l 
with OE. hwU; no doubt it is related to fitter 'break into small fragments', 
Jiffered pa. pple., fiifcrs sb. pl.; cf. NED., s.vv. 



Kec-lnse 2!i9 

changed aml enlarged hy rhe reviser. — Atter Imrelirh a dash. — 
17. PiiiiHra» for Piipliratis nwinfr to the tollowin"^ initiai: cf. p. tMj.7. — 
li'. ff. a contractiou of the original passage : cf. X (3"28.l") Kd- 
niixliirssr is ilirhr pcos koinir harlos (riroinfe herloz T) pet scheaireit 
forit horr i/iitrfrslre ipiite frastre T) 7 hore vloirinde rweisen . . . inc 
rirhe nionne eien, iior hen srhulden hahben reoxi^e of ham, 7 viien 
huni i/od pe rader. Hrn hiidet eke hore ihole cloites etc. : cf. 1. 23. — 
22. pr lowc uan of heii: X (328.231 edniodnes.^ie. — 23. JN' (33U.1) 
mid iseli tnitcandise heo (sc. edmodnesse) hiit' riier hire f/od, 7 srheaireit 
forit hire poiietie, 7 piit fortt hire caticre, irenpinde 7 (jroiiinde, biiioren 
Giide.s eien : 7 halse^ etc. — 24. hailscp ■implore. beseech", a sense 
ap])arently not noted elsewhere : an intermingling of forms and 
meanings of hailse < OX. hrilsii 'greet. salute* and halsr < OE. 
htr\alsian 'implore. entreat" is evidently to be assumed : cf. NED.. s.vv. 
Hailse. Halse v.': Mk Worterb., s v. Hailsen : P. Pl., Oloss., s.v. Hailse, 
Halsede: Notes, p. 107: Cath. Angl., .s.v. Hailse: B.jOrkmax, Loan-words, 
p 44. — dcrirore for drrirorpe. — 26. bi/ his derc spousr etc: JV (33U.6) 
Hor pc dcorc driicet^ic pet he haiieit to his deore S})use, pet is, to pe 
cleane soulc. — 28. hem illogically for hyni. — After louc a fuU 
stop. — The original altered aud y seen — to hi/m (/20) added : cf. 
JN' (330.8 ff .) : thus she isc. humility) adjures our Lord and cries for 
help to her festering sore: and he canuot grieve her heart with a 
refusal, siuce he is so exceedingly bountiful etc. — 2il, 30. ni/s 
perr niiinan ... so lecf to yitieii as hijm is a blending of personal 
and imiiersoual constructions: cf. NED.. s.v. Lief 2: Eixexkkl. 
Streifziige. ]>. 111 f. 

153. 1. Xiipiies iiiin srhiil — 1. !!• maiidy inserted: ,1«^/ 
niunii il3) — is i/ucl (14) a fragmentaiy jjassage corresiionding to 
X 330.U ff. — 10. yue cf. 12fl.<j. — 14 ff. cf. ]). 56.15 ff. — 
20. ,f- bifokticp etc: Iv (330.18) Bi pcn prt tct folr of Isracl 
irrnde puruhut pe reade sen : pct iras read 7 bittrr. is bitncned pct 
irc etc — 23. pc schatnc Jtat ire dudrn : X (330.22) pct for}efrn 
scheotne po ice duden pe dedc 7 te stinne biuoren Godcs sihitr. — 
24. A fuU stop to be jjlaced after eiyn. — 27. X (330.25) iciit 
hiciim ire schulen rikenen alle ure dedcn. — sche aiiparently a scribal 
eiTor for schemc: X > 330.26 1 Srhrome. 

154. 1. for it likep — pere of (2) an additiou. — 2 ff. Hchrift 
is a siicremcnl etc a coutraction which has disturbed the original 
argunient : ..V (330.:J0i Srhrift is a sarrainmt pct haueit [is a .•<acre- 
mriit . 7 euch sarramrnl haurit Bd : similarly TC Mv) nnr ilicnrsse 
iriilufrn itf prn pini/r prt hit irurrheit iriitinnrn : asr hif is inr fuluhfr. 
Pe irassunkc ine fiiluhte iriitutrn bifornrit pr irasschuni/r of pc snulr 
iriitinnrn. Al so is of. srhriflr. pc cicikc rudc of pe nebbe inakeit 
to undrrstondcn pet te soulr prt iras bloc, 7 ncfde bute dead hcou. 
haurct ikeiht eir-ic heou. 7 is irudcd fcirc. To restore the puqjort of 

' BG Iniandiae . huden. similarly Cr (Mv\ — 8. omoilU ci. \>. 298.li. — 
y, 10. meoseise, seke perhaps •distress, ilbjess'. 

20 



300 .loel rAlils!..>n 

the nrifrinal \ve niay supjily o/' heiore l)(it (3) aml assign to srlieici'j) a 
sense related to tliat given iu NED.. s.v. Sliow 3: 'to perform openly": 
//' lliou iriflt riinrclf ciiif imin dcIicwc it not hji ryolencc (1477): or 
else it luight. appropriately lie changed to rheucp 'accomplishes. ])er- 
forms'; cf. NED., s.v. Cheve 6. — 5. jcreniic in accordance witli 
X (332.6); 'I'V correctly .Jcrimic. — 8. fnr cucr ich iras lulradrl etc: 
X 1 332.8) Vor cuer is suiii "/ /"' ciiruiiislancrs {tolnf/ncs BCGTMy) 
forylen. — 9. After forylcn a full stop. — 10. lauilaliiles for 
luudabili; non for si. — 12. wore for worpe. — 15. JV (332.13) Auh 
his iiicrci touward us weiect cuer inore pen pct rihte nearuwc. — <C" 
oiier gdp — 1. 17 au additinn. — 16. ASter juggrinenl} I put a 
semi-coloii. aftcr li/uc a daah. — 18. soruuyful : A" (332.1.^; hopcful. — 
18. 19. (is: X (3.32.15) ul pel. — 21. A dash after stones. — 22 ff. 
The nrigiual passage reads: X (332.18) pc ncodcre pet lict slillc, 7 
lieieit lieui chirgc bilnrneit ferlar, pct fcicit^ nion from stinnc, 7 is 
ihcuegeg {ilicuegcl T. ihciicgcd C) hcr iiiid hcrdc uoiic licon ririlc of 
herdre. pe vuere slon bilornctt hnpc pel torncit (7 turnes T) 7 sturcct 
hire eutr ine gode icerkes, inid Irust of iinichele inede. — 24. hiin in- 
consistently for the sing. — 2'). mercy an unsatisfactory reading for 
hoiH-. ef. \\. lit. 2it. 

155. 1. jiir.-^iin/jii ioiir for jirrsiiwjirioncni. — 2. griirnil fnr 
drgcncrui. — /irrsiiinjirinne for presuinjjcionein. — 5. asiow sccst etc. 
differing froui thc earlier versions: cf. X (332.26) untrusi and oucrtriist, 
l>co(t pcs dciiflcs Irislrcn . . . stiistrc (K) is pcr ine sit {innn hitics T) 
iiiiil pr grcaliiindcs fnrtc lcc/icii pe lieurdc [licare B. Iiarc CT, liest G Mv), 
ndcr iillcn pe nctics dvan lium [tildect . . ■ him liCG, tildes . . . Iiiin T). 
Tomrard 011 of peos two is al J)ct lie sleateit .' vor per beoct liis neties, 
7 J)er heod his greahtmdes, untrust 7 ouertrust, igedered togederes . . . 
Mid dred wictulc hope, pet is inid iintrii.sf, wes Keiines {Cagiiies TC) 
sclirift, 7 Judases . . .' widutc drnl. iiiiil ouertrust, is pes vniselics sawe 
{sake T) pct Duuid scict {pe scict BCT, pai seid G My), i J)e snutcr, 
Secundum etc; cf. P p. 157.1; thus. the rest of this and also the 
following page are an addition by the reviser. — c(- raight be struck 
out or changed to he. — 8. A colon after /'^«f/c. — whan hnjie ior ican- 
hnjie. — 20. Something like of heuen and has ohviously been omitted 
after hird. 

156. 1. ff. cf. p. 50.4 ff. — 15. Cf. James. II. 10: Qnicumque 
autem totam legem seruauerit, offendat autem iu vno. factus est 
omuium reus. — 22. After hein a full stop. — 23. Cf. E/.ek.. III. 2t>: . . . 



• teieh 'ties'. — 20. iheufijey evidently a scribal error. — 2i, 2d. uiitrustfii, 
otiertrusienhy Mn taken as verhs; so also in NED., s.v. Overtrust v.; I am inclined 
to regard the words as ailjectives; cf. Kluqe, Noni. Stammbildungslelire, 
§ 199. 

' Mn'9 transiMiptioii snil translation are unsalisfactory; K: 'vlcn iiber- 
gescbr., mid vnt. am Rande nailigetr.'; tlius a fiiU stop shouki be placed after 
uoruerden, uien an<l niid untru.'!t oniitted, and the stop strnck out. B iviS 
hojie wii) ute dred, pet is ivii) oiierti-ust; siniilarly GCT [M\-). — 8. grim 
'cniel, harsh'. 



Reclnse M)l 

tuo. (5t eris mutus. nec quasi vir oliiurgan.s: quia ... — 24. fvlteii 
•fix. stic-k. cause to adLere': this wiiiened sense appears to be luiique; 
the examples given in XED., s.v. Felt, with the exception ot' one 
quotation Iroin 1325 ('lined with felt") are of a later date; see 
also s.v. Felter. — 25. The second pi for pe. — To stvich Mcn . . . it 
iiwst be: the syntactical confusion may have arisen through a blending 
of constructions: it iiiost — it is nedcful. To would better be left 
out. — 27. porou} apparently an error for j&ei}. — 28. an uiinfrc it 
is i/ret etc. : the meaning does not seem to be quite clear ; aiiiilre 
should probably be taken to mean 'wonder. prodigj'" (NED., s.v. 
Adventure 5): but then the word-order is rather striking; or else 
iiii miiitre is to be connected with yif. and iroixler or (loiile supplied 
after (/ret. — 32. After i/siiueil a semi-colon. — cn cgrc 'provoke, 
incite': XED., s.v. Eneager, gives onlj- two examples Ithe earliest 
from 1594) with the sense 'iiTitate, whet (an appetite)" ; the foraier 
of these sen.ses occurs below, p. 157.6. 

157. 2. he sc. the presumptuous man. — 4c. N (334.H) Alre 
iiiirincst hc cleoped pe oue.rtrusli, iinhileueil. pe unbileuede — inid htcon 
!/renic(t hc God Almihti? . . . inid tet pet he seid, pet he niile nout etc. — 
//(■ refers to Dauid. — 7 ff. ..Y (334.171 . . . pe oiter, petisuntrust, hinimcct 
hiin his inilce. And so hco hco(t umhe uorte uiirdon God sulf : ror (rod 
ne inuhte noitt hcon wi(7utcn rihtirisnesse ne wiitutcn niilcc. Xu, peonne, 
hiruche unctemiices heoct efnungc to peos pef icuUeit iwicellen God, 
on hore fule ic-ise .' ^if Jm ert to trusfi, \ holdest God to ncschc uorto 
iitrreken sunne : sunne likect him, hi pinc talc. Auh hihold hu hc 
aicrec him of his heili eiigel etc. ; after mingels (U) a colon ; the following 
passage as far as 1. 20 is mainly an addition. — 10. hc an incon- 
sistency of number. — 14. pan possiblj- for pat. — 16. A colon 
after Eue. — 17. he to be understood as the subj. of lyued: cf. 1. 20. — 
'21). The example of Sodom and CTomorrah has been omitted in the 
revision: cf. .A' (334. '24). — 22 ff. The original passage correspon- 
ding to 11. 22 — 30 reads: hu he ine his oirunc uolc Israel, hiis dcorliiig, 
hu griinmeliche hc atcrec him, ase oftc asc hco agulten. iJafhan und 
Ahiron, Chorc and hi.i feren : pe oitre also pef he slouh hi monie 
{feole TCj pusendes ofte, uor hore grucchunge X (334.28). — 23. JJaton 
for Datttfi: cf. Xum., XVI. — 24. After ki/ndc may be put a dash. — 
25, 26. rcchcls . Fatt read rechcls-fatt: there is evidently a mis- 
understanding, Fati probably having been taken as a proper name; 
after Fatt may be placed a dash. as his should refer to Baton (23) 
iDathan atque Abiron filij Eliab. v. 1): forpi pat niight be supjilied 
before /<// (26). — 33 ff. The examples of dauid and mardelegn have 
l'eeii added by the reviser who has abridged the ])receding lines. 

158. 4. X (336.10) ... /" irisc inonne iinakcd, of unkuite 
sunnen etc. — 5. A dash before nou%th and after mcne. — ne cclaious — 
1. 7 inserted. — 6. rclaious for relaious: the senseisobviously -depraved, 
wicked". the first example of which is given from 1550 in XED., s.v. 
Villainons 1 b. — he should logically be corrected to ne. — 8, 9. There 



302 .I(.ol I'Al.l«.sr.n 

is ,T])i)aiently aii omissioii: a Vfil., siijit oy seclie. shoulil Ije uiiilcrstnod , 
the seconil <('■ niifrht api^roiu-iately l.e chanj;ed to «//. — X CdSC). 12) liif/i» 
iiiirnicst li jiriidr, 7 secJi iiUe pc hotccs pcnif . . . Inciic faUc in pc. perefter 
al so of onde t 7 //o so achnietcitrdes fji reawe 7 Iji reaicc, tior tii ktniic to 
J)C laste, 7 ilriiuli tor/cdcrc al peiie teaiii inider pc iiiodcr. — 14. JV (33(5.20) 
lionariim weiititiiii . . . affiioscere. — 15 t'f. X (336.21) Kvndc of f/ode 
lieortc is to beoii nffcared of siiniic, Jjer ase non nis ofte .' octcr iccien 
sicuiter liis stinne siiiiimeclicrre 1 K) Jicii lie piirftc. Wrien liit tn liitcl 
■is asc riicl, oitcr inirsc. pc middel wcir uf inesure is eiier f/iildene. 
Drcde we ns eticr: vor oftc wc icrnect tn don ... 7 ofte we irencct wel 
to donne 7 duit al to ctceadc. Sif/f/r wc etc. It seems most natui-al 
to counect of J)c lotce Man of licrt with Goode. and take the phrase 
as reuderinjr tlie corrupt Bununiiii nierituni (the order of the words 
mifjht be altered 1 :////// niaj' be tlie object of ben alaiotccn (cf. p. l'2<j.21 ; 
NED., .s.v. Acknow 4 c) : or else we should supply of. unless Iieii f/i/lt 
is intended as a compoimd. — 18, A semi-colon to be placed after 
wrrs. — '20. X (338.1) nostrum. — alio for aliquo. — '21. A' (338.2) 
nun placere Den, atif ccrtc displieere. Paiilus .' Sciu qtiod npn est etc: 
cf. 1. 32. — 22. JN' (338.3) Xo f/od in tis nis uf iis etc. — 26. Jjeiy 
j woldc pat non it tcist etc. : X (338.7) otTer lete rvcl perof^ patili 
nu mnn liit nute .' octer wolde pet ei liit icii.ste: thus ,/ icnlde Jxit apj^a- 
rently an anticipation. — 28. scliemeleslicli for ynielcslicli : X (338.8) 
ymeleaslichc. — 2S).J}at litel etc: T (338.10) petliH mci liitel likrn God, 
and (octer T) iiiislil,-en oftc. — 30. After nouyii a fuU stop. — sicicli lioh/ 
men: X (338. 11) pe lioli mon. retevring to St. Ansehu. to whom is ascribed 
the original passage corresponding to And niian etc. 11. 23 ff. — 
31. A fidl stop after sai/c. — 32. Cf. Rom., YII, 18: Scio enim quia 
non habitat m me, hoc est in carne mea. bonum. — 33. — ]i. 160. .5 
interpolated. 

159. 9. aiid [ir inurr — ic:,ein lu hi/m (10) parenthetieal. — 
11. The stop after f/uds/irl to be taken as a colon. — 12. Iis for liis. — 
penaticc for pcnaucc. — IG ft. The connection does not .seem quite 
clear: eitlier the stop after crislendom (16) should he taken as a 
colon and a semi-colon put after repcntaunce (17): so also etc : or 
el.se ac might be changed to cc and a dash be placed before it. — 
18. of after mrdr should be omitted. — 20. Thei"e seems to be an 
omission after mi/cliel. — 22. A full .stop after hlis. — 23. Cf. Ps. 
LXI. 13: tu (sc. Dominus) reddes . . . — 31. After drdr a dash : 

' No stop after perof: 'or think higlily (am proud) of it although no 
inau knows it; or I wisli' etc. — 15. I>e htcule pet tu etc: Rg (p. 7): 'solange 
dii irgeiul etwas zu .sagen weisst' etc. — 19. hiiii liei) pe wrench: Mk's trans- 
lation ('the proverb . . . applieth to him') cannot be right ; wrench in m y 
opinion can niean nothing but 'trick' and /(ffl niust be a pres.-forni of 
leoyn, li-^en 'lies. fails' (cf. 7^; pet is probably a eonsecutive conj.: 'so that 
lie can not when he wants' etc. — 21, 22. B reads nere his, as he bere hire 
in his purs . io neomen iip grace prin, G were his to neomen tippen grace 
nrien\ CT agree with N (My), — 25, In the translation the clauses are 
wrongly connected ; the punctuation in the text should be preserved. 



Reoluse ■iOa 

pise piif haiie ncde shoixld be counecteil witli frili- <(• vlnpf "iSi. — 
83. ornakrr cf. p. 176.11; the word is a)>pareutly known only trom 
Prompr. Parv. : cf. BjOrkmax, Loan-words, ji. 245. 

160- 1. After si/nnc we niay put a dash. — 2, 3. Jicr — • 
pafliiic looks like a lack of consistency. - — A full stop after reile. — 
6. A' (338.14) Schrift mih io bcon irillcs : pcf is, icillcUche, iiircincd 
(inifreincf BG-l'. rnfreined C My), and iiout idraicen of pc, asc j^aiih 
hit ivere pin unitonckes. pe hiciile pet fit const siggcn ottt [oht T, 
eiit C). scie al unasked. Me ne schal askcn etc. — 9. Ac hLs schrift 
fader — hc ne can heni noiijth (Ib) has nothing corresponding in 
the earlier versions. — 15. The original connection has been lost : cf. 
A' (338.18) On o(ter half. nioni nion ahif to schriuen hini itort pe 
nede tippe. Aiih ofte hini licit pe irrench i lihen hisc icrenches T. livit 
Pe icrench U), pet hc ne niei hicon he tciilr. pe noldc pc (Ki hiciilc 
Pet he nitihte. — 18 ff. y (338.24) Bicon God beot (hedes T, f)e, 
reched ford niid boSe honden : vor iciitdratce he his hond, pu nieih iK) 
loken efter, 31/ vuel oScr octer ping net (neodcs T. ned C) pe to schriftc. — 
2U. a- Poiile seip — tcel to do (22) has been added. — 22. A full 
stop after do. — 23. confessio — Schrift: X (338.26) scrrilia — 
Si-ruises. — 24. After neuer a full .stop. — 29 ff. schal floric niy 
flcsc%: possibly niy flesch is meant as an appositional parenthesis; 
probably. however. the reading is to be set down as a mere blimder : cf. 
X i340..5i' Mi ilesch is ifiured x hicumcn al ncoicc, lior ich chitUe 
schritten ine, 7 hericn God tcilles. The rest of the passage has been 
abridged and altered. X reads: Wel seitt he, is ifliired : vorte hitoc- 
nen (K) icil.ichrift : vor pe eorttc al unnet (MS.: aluninet (K)), ; pe 
trcon ( K) also, openect hani 7 bringcit forit niisliche flures. Edniodne.-i.fe, 
7 abstinence, kitlure ttnlottncssc, 7 oifer siruchr (Ki uertuz heoit frire 
inc Godes eicn, 7 sivotc snicllinde fiurcs ine Godes neose. Jn Cantiris, 
Flores . . . Of hain, pet i-s, of sicuche flures niake pu his hcrhoruice 
(herhcarhe U. erbcr C, herberhe T. herehere G My) tcittinncn pe 
suluen : ror his delices etc. s 

161. 5. Cf. Prov., Vin. 31: & delici* mese es.se. cum fili"^ 
hoininuw. — 10. 11 added. — H. X ('d-iO.-29) kunien ayan fo schriffe- 
The passage has been aljridged in the revision. — 15. A' (342 1) 
Go. ciceit tirc Loucrd . . . Li>'. pus nc askcdc he non oitcr sikerncsse. — 
17 ff. A full stop after longe: a colou after si/nncs (18). The passage 
confusedly renders the original; cf. X (342.4) Of fif pingcs. inid 
pinc poiihte, grdcrr pinr sunnen. Of al pin eldc, i>f chihlhodr, i>f 
yiicrifrhiidc: gedcre al fngedcrcs. pcr rf'fcr gcdcrc pe studrn prf lu 
ininiilrst inne : 7 pcnch yorne hiciit pu ilinlr.sf in eucrichc studc .<undrr- 

' .V (340.1) B betere is pene iw. .«imilarly GTC , tbis Mv Jootnote) 
takes to menn 'better is" ever tlian never, i. e. aiiy' time tlian no tiiiie'; il 
may be questioneil wliether Mn's siigsestion p. 339 foot-note b 'lietter \h 
oiie than none' would not more closely tiive the lileral nieaninp. — ». u»i- 
loDnes»!' 'innoi-ence'. — feire beloniis to uertHz, not tojlureg. — 17, 18. bititiied, 
mei K 'happeiia, is able'. — l'.t. odre pl. — 24. .\ comma after sunue. 



HOt .loel PAlilpsoii 

liilic, 7 ii> ei)i;rir/ic rldr. prr rflrr srrli iil iil. - lii-lnnlilr (Iriirlr J!(i. 
truihlr CT My) pinr svniirii. hi^ J)inr rif irillrs : prr rffrr lii nllr 
pr linirs prt (i hwurh TC) lii hiiiirsl niiilr isuneiird : 7 inr hicnrhr 
jiii hiiiirst inesl istnieficd, oiter oftrst : a last sunderlichr, hi dairrs 
iiiid lii tidcn. — 21 ff. a contraction of the original passage: cf. 
y (S4'2.12 ff). — 22. «/"shoulrl apparently be supplied before schrift. — 
23. Cf. X (342.21) Mine lcoue sustren, peos fifle dolc, pet is of .schriffr. 
limijcct lo allc nirn ilichr. Vorcti nc airmidri y noul prt ich tomciird 
ou nomrlichc niihhc tiout ispcken i pisse dolc. Huhhcit, pitiih. to 
oircr hihoue, pesnc lutlc lastc cndc. of allr lcuddr 7 lcu(7r sunnen .' asr 
of jirudr etc. — 25. A dash should \>e ]ilaced after ////: cf. 1. 34. — 
2(i. After ',enieleshedc a comnia : of kept froiu the original: sinii- 
Inrly 1. 31. — 29. silence hrckcn: N (344.1)* of silcncc ibrokcn: 
linkrii should possibly be regarded as the j^a. pple.. of which EDD. 
gives the w. Yks -form hrcH-cn. — .•./-,//( ta longc etc: N (344.1 1 of 
sitten to longe et Jnirlc. — 33. Thc ndv. use of ■^enicles may lic 
regarded as due to an inadvertency as siniilar instances seera to lu* 
wanting. — 34. After -^cwclr.^hcdc a dash. 

162. 1 . -V 1 344.9 ) . . . sehrinc hirr rnrs a irihr rttr lc.itc. — 
2. n(iii}t// J)v Irst — fii lirtjir (3) an addition. — In drcjic the third 
letter shouhl probablv be read as o. — 4. X (344.121 Auh al prt 
sc/irift nc sehrcapcit niiiil nf — nl hr imlr a domrsdci rcden ful 
rciidclichc (relcene 7 redc fiil iriltrrlirhr Ti noi-tr hicleojticn pe midc. 
(> iriird iir .sihiil J)er wonten. Nu priniiir iih niidc etc. — ':> ff. 
Aiter iri/iiniirn a sign of exclamation : aiter fiiinli/nfirs (Gl a colon: 
N (344.18) 2'o cuerichc prcoste mci ancrc sc/iriucn /lire of siriirhr 
opcnUe/ie (iitterUehe TC) sunncn pet to allc mcn hiiiallect i anh ful tru.^^tt 
7 fiil .ti/cer hco .schal heon of Jje preostcs nodncsse {godlcir TC) J)rt 
hiii iilliiniic ■'ychcairrct to hii hirr stiint ahulen rlcschliche trntaciuns, yij 
lirii hiiiii liinicit : o{trr yf /leo is mid ham i/.s siva Ti ironded etc. — 
8. A full stop after oJ)rr. — it. A semi-colon should be placed after 
hinir. — 10. A (344.241 rleschrs fonduni/r . . . iioit to iiorct upc mc. 
J)iiriih iiiiiir fihlrlr (K) (pcafunfie H: similarly GG My). Ich um of 
drrd lislr 1 i/n driuinde octer/iwules lo swudc uoritward npe fole 
Jjoiihtrs. iind fiilc nmhcstundc .' ase J)auh ich hunlcde eftrr likuniie. leh 
miilitr, Jiuruh (rodrs strcncdc. .tehckcn hmn iiftc nf ine, vf ich werc riricliihc 
7 .flalrwnnllichc ninhr. — -,outrs 1 ani uuwillingby obliged to regnrd 

' bi 'in' (Mn) just as good as 'according to' iRc )). 12;i). — 13. deulen 
])robabIy "(listribute'. — 24. A fiill stop after eiiile: «/ nllr liegins a fiesti 
sentence and is to bc connected witli of alle swuclie Jiinges p. 344.9; eiiile . 
of nlle BG, ende . Of alle CT iMy\ — kudde "known'; kudde r kude an allitera- 
tive phrase. 

' N (344.6) biseon inf. — 7. iiiide nare!): Mn'» snggestion in tbe foot- 
note that 'a beast ot' burden niay be iiieant' is a uiisunderstaniiing; cf. 
NED.,s.v. F"are v." 4 d (earliest example 1340'; Mr \V6rterb., s.v. 7 ;St. Marh. . — 
8. A senii-colon sliould be placed after unbiseiiie.ise as of alle pini/es etc. is 
parallel to tbe preceding points; the dash in the text after Miftf^-wcf/ (»? to be 
kept in the translation ; cf. p. 342.'24. — 10. writ pres. 



Rerliise 305 

as due to innccuracy on tlie part of tlie scribe. my attempts at a more 
satisfactoi-y explanation having proved irlle i? for pnir^tes: cf. e. g. 
yirili) —Piir: Rule of St. Benet. pp. 3 19. 41. T: V"' i'or pmif, •yoiirli for 
poiirh: Will. of Pal., vv. 447. 379!» (or could there possibly be 
some connection with mod. (luts (fjoirt. giitf 1.5th cent.i -the belly as the 
seat of appetite or gluttonj-", in this case in the more abstract sense 
of 'carnal desires' (XED., s.v. 3); the form. I am well aware. throws 
difficnlties in the way of this assumptioni. — 12. After the first so 
a semi-colon. — N (346.1) . . . lestc pe ilelit iii pe poiilitc lesle to 
loniie ofte, so pel liit hiiine neili skiles yftinii/e. — 13. After -^i-tiniie 
a full stop — N (346.3) Ich ne der noiil pet heo deoiiliiker (ne iritler- 
liclier TC) sehriiie liire to yinye preosles her nhiiten. Aiih lo hire 
oinine sehrifl feder, octer to siiniinc oitre lif-holic nionne ' . . . kiillc al 
vl pet i.i iitc krocke (ciille al pe pol iil BTG [cnl) C los) Myi etc. 
The passages which foUow have been abridged and generalized by 
the reviser. — 17. ben for}ouen etc: X (346.12) hdect piis iinonrilit, 
hi 011 siiliien. — 18. it: X (346.14) ■ Vor pe lesle of alle isc. gultes), 
so sone so (K) y undeiytect liil. — 22. X (346.18) -4/ pd f/od pel tn 
eiier desl. 7 al pel riiel pet tii eiier polest vor pc Iiiue of Jesu Ciisl . . . 
al irh lefifie njipc pe ine reinissiiin (K) of . . . pine stinnen. — 24. — leten 
his siinne p. 164.3 interpolated. — 29. /(// — hcr 1 30) — y (31) etc. 
a confusion of persons : similarly p. 163.1, 3 ff. 

163. 20, 21. slikcidi here doubtless means -cheatiedV, a sense 
of which XED.. s.v. Stick 23, gives no instance earlier than 1699. — 
23. pciiche for peneliep on account of the following initial. 

164. 2. A dash after the second si/nne. — 4. pal diide hote : 
the reading isan error: X (348.t) pet is drdbote. — 6 ff. ^' (348.3) 
Al is iienitcnce . . . Jjet %e ener dried', inine Icouc snslren, and itl pd j,e 
ener doit of fiod, 7 al pcl y poliect. AI is 011 uor niartirdoni . . . ror -,c 
bcoit nilil 1 dci iijie (iodes rodr. Blicte niiiirc ,'' eiicr beon pcrof. Vor 
iisc scintc Poirel scict: Si etc. — 10. Cf. 2 Timothy. 11 12: Si snstinebimus 
(conipatiinur X). & conregnabimus. — 14. And al — -lesu chrisli (KJi cf. 
X p. 354.8 — 17. liknep lo 'applies to' : a related sense is found 
on p. 93.2. and also, opparently. on p. 20.5, 6. 9: exact ])arallels seem 
to be wanting. — 26. i/ond Pilfiriiines: .A''i 348.22) unkiiitc tehteodi T. 
pcodi [oiillondi.-<clic inenj C) 7 jiilcfirintcs. — 30. iripslondej) : the rea<ling 
corresponds to 7' ififT</'»wrfc.s: the meaning is obviously -stops" iJVi 348.25) 
etsfontK I know only oneotherinstaneeof thismeauing. Conf. Am., V. 3970: 

' Ms mistakes the connection, to hire . . . schrift feder an<l to siimme 
olire . . . monne beiiig «fependent on kulle ut. — i. kulle b_v M\ in tlie jrlos- 
sary wrontrl.v as.sfH-iHteil with OE. cyll •bottle, flason'; cf. .\KI>.. s.v, Kill 1 b; 
Stkat.m.Br., Mk WOrterb., s v. Cullen. — 15. Tlie inverte.i <'(iinni.is to be 
j>lii('e<l after nierci ;16 . — 1» dest, pnlest '(l()e-<t, sufferest". — 80. Mss assiiinption 
tliat 0(1 iunne i» a derivative of OK. ge-iiimnH (cf. Gloss.'' is diie to a misuiider- 
stHiKlinj;: the fonn is a peciiliar spelling of the MK. equivalent of 'enjoin'; cf. 
NKD., s.v. Enjoin 2; B read» enqoini. C nn geomii, il en gunue, T iHiunye, 
V eniogHe, Fr. enionti (Mvl. — 343.9. Voriii srili Seinte Powel 'tlierefore sav» 
St. P'. 



3Uti Joel raiilsson 

Til srlir riini /</ thr frriashr fl,„l, 
Aiiil llirrr ,t irliilr s,l,r uillisUiil 

165. ;i. y (3ol).;))' ^(.s ln;iiJ hiilir inrii, Jjrl IjhiiIi liro hroii ictc 
inirhlr ho benit etc. : a dash niay be placed after wcrldv. — 8. After 
r,iiH,'n a dajsh; Ubhcn co-ordinate with yun (4). — 0. We should 
doubtless supply another bii after libben. — There is au omission 
after liere; cf. N (350.8) nc hcu iiabbcit, nc nc luihlcd noiie liilc of 
none worhUichc uroiire, pinih hin liraii iuc inirl,lli,-hr ir,'i,' . . . iiiih 
habbcct Iiore heorlc eiier hnnninl h, ,111,11,'. Aml „inii irrl 11, ni,' luilihni : 
vur octrc pilcijrimes (joct etc. — 12. After werlde a colon; j\' i^350.13j 
Jico pUcgritiics pct (/oit touward hcouene, heo goH forle beon isonled, 7 
foiie iuiiidcn (iod sulf etc. — 15. scint .ruliuncs: lulianus hospitator 
(Jan. 29;); cf. Bibl. Hagiogr. Lat.. p. (J74. — Ki. clepcn to: X 1 350.17) 
yorne sechect (sc. in). — 18. A jierversion of the original arguuient; cf. 
X (350.18) Vor (Uh'!/ale . . . /tUri/rimrs ul gon hco cuer forctward. ne ne 
biliumen nout buriihiiicii ictc worhlcs buriili : ham punchcct ])aiih suinine- 
rhrrrr iKl i/od ,if Jjrt liro isiint lii Jir wrir. - ,isl,ii,dect {cdstulect B, 
stiiltrit C Mvi siiiii ilcl, Jjaiili hni iir itiiii iiiiil allr etc. ; to restore 
the meaning /*// should be replaced by nr nnd fir deleted. - — 
27. rUu ictttra as in J\' : cf. Coloss., III. 4: Cuiu Christus apparuerit, 
vita vesti-a. — '2il. N (^352.1) - Hwon he pet is ou-cr lif dawrCi 7 spriiigcct 
asc Jje d,iiriiiii/r efler nihtcs peostcrnesse, 7 }e schulen spriiigrn inid 
hiiii etc: to make sense he (se. erist) niay be understood as the 
subject of schal and after changed to us. 

166. 3. After crjjc a semi-colon. — 4. N (352.7) Jicl makcct 
J}us cwic nion octer wuiiimuii iil of p,' woiide. — 5. pat is — no hUc 
Jjcre of (8) an insertion. — 13 ff. X (352.12)... euerich wordlich 
Jiiig iuiiidect mr dcad : aiih Jjrl Jjcf limpccl to Crisf pct idi iseo, 7 
ihcrc, and iriinhr iiir ,ivirii,'ssr. pus is cucrich rcligius mon 7 
wuminon dcad etc. — 15. After donc a dash ; a mark of interrogation 
after inne (17). — 21. N (352.19) pis is Jjcf ich scidc Jjerup/ic etc. — 
24. After here an omission; cf. X ^352. 20) Jjuruh hwain pc woiid 
is ine ummirCt, 7 ich ain unwurct lo liiin, ase (K) weri Jjet is aii 
honged. — A full stop after honged. — liii y an error for heiie. — 
25 ff. The passage is mainly an adiUtiou on the part of the reviser; 
X (352.23) And Jjis is aiii^r,' shin\ Jnf hro Jjus sigge . . . I nonc 
Jjingc ne hliscie (K) ich iw hiil,' inr (io,lrs rodr. — Ji,i irh Jndir iro. 



' y (350.2) one Jjeo 'only those'. — 4. Probably 'not' in tbe translation 
ia diie to an oversisfbt. — 10. al lias concessive force : 'pilgrinis, althoiigh 
tbey go' etc. — 21. mm ilel 'partly'. — 24. sTicrre 'more free froni sin, un- 
molested'. 

' N (352.5) i>? (leade (K) nis iiout of means 'tlie dead man does not 
care' (nts : ne is); similarly \. 30. — 21. Mn erroneonsly takes weri {wuri T) 
■As corresponding to OE. wer 'man' (Gloss.); Bosw.-T. gives tbis instanco s.v. 
Wearg 'felon, criminar; cf. Stuatm-Br., s.v. Wari; probably a derivative of 
tlie OE. adj.: wearg, irerig etc. — 354.18 ff. stalen: .STK.^r.M.BR., s.v. Stale, 
ineorrectly gives the sense as 'rnngs". 



Recliise 307 

7 ani Hohl iiHwurit. <ise God iras o roilv. Lolcvit. Ivouc siisfrvii, liu 
Jjvos sfvirv is livrre pen vni bvo of pe oitre. pv pilei/riin ictv ivorhlvs 
irviv. Jjdiili liv 1/0 uoritinirfl touirard pv liom of hvouvnv, liv i.iili(t j 
ilivrvit oitvrhiridv iinnut. ; s/ivk-vit timliv hivuli' : ivrvititii hini uor 
iroives : - moniv pini/vs mutvvn Ivttvn him of Itis jurnviv. pv (lemlv etc. — 
■"U. Ijv hei}esf stmre of aft J5e opvr: apparentlj' a blendiiin; of pe 
hviysf . . . of aU: heiyr pan atl pv opvr. — 33. The first liij illo- 
gieally reterring tn a win (31). 

167. 8 n. Ct'. X 1^352.32 ff. ) : he that is on the cross and has 
ilelight in it turns reproach into honour and sorrow into delight, and 
thus earns a double reward. Such are those who are never glad- 
hearted except when thej' are suffcring with Jesus on Jiis cross. 
True anchoresses are not merely pilgriuis, nor yet merelj' dead. but 
tliey are of the third class. They m.iy sing with the holj' Church, 
Xos oportef ghiriari . . . (cf. F p. liiA.Xh) pvt is . . . htvat sv bvo of 
oitre: hvo habbvit (ordrv . pe habbeit B. oitre pc hubbeit C: so also (iT My) 
hore lilisse stim . . . auh (om. BCirT My) ice niote nede blisvien (K) us 
inv Jesii Cristes rode — Jjet is, inv sclivomc 7 ine ivo pvt he drcih on 
rode. Moni icohlv sumes iceis polivn etc. Thus, bof yif hij (13) — 
liv pacient pere innv (111) has lieen added. - — /jwc (9) an inconsi- 
stency for the sing — 21. half honr/rd: X (354.15) halflungv. — 
23. 'Vlilifas for Vilitas. — 2«. hodilirh U>r Iwhlelirh: X (354.22) 
hiildvliche. — 32. The first a'- should lie ciianged to in: X (354.2«) 
Xoteit ivel peos ftco wordes pet Daiiid ueicit somed — swincand edmodnvssc : 
sivinc ine pinc 7 inc ico, ine sor 7 inc seoruwe (K) ; edmodnvs.ie ayan 
iviiuh of sclicome etc. 

168. 11. After tvhilc a fuU .stop. — 14. wlic lor wlivlv. — 
17. J\' (35<).19) ' schulen mid srhvoniv hvon ihvouivvd. — 2(i ff. abridged 
and generalized: cf. X (356.27 ff.) 

169. 1. ^^'^ (358.6) Super vpistolam lav. — 2. After vrjiv a 
serai-colon: cf. X (358.6) ror also asv Jjv ruvlv nabbeit no lot inv 
hvouvnv, ne pe gode . . . in eorite, in horc owunv londv hvo schulvn ivvldvn 
hlisse . . . Asc pauh hc seidc : Xe Jiunche ham no iicorlich etc. — 
•>. whan Itij — done (8) inserted. — 17. Cf. Matt,. XIX. 28: sede- 
liitis & vos super sedes duodecim, iudicantes duodecim tribus Israel. — 
Itvda: X (358.19)- B (Mn St. Bernard). — 18. qui vs: quivs. — in 
jierfurliata: inpeiiurbata. — 22 ff. .V (358. a."!) / J)v svllc, is rvstv 7 
visc bitovnvd, ayan Jje swinhv [jvt is hvr : iind iitv menslce of Jiv donic 
Jirt hvo svhiilvn dvmrn is hvihschiiiv mvnskvful ouvr al undvrstondvn, 
iivun schvomv etc ; the second ,/;/ (22) shouhl probably be deleted 



' N (356.2, i". cwed, an in niimeron» other inatHnces, preteralily lo lie 
tnken ns the pa. tense. — 30. .M.s.: fJrt is !)rt eadie srheonie {K.). — 31. 7? rea<ls 
trukrA oir iiatrt . I pros \ tliis is also tlic |iiinctti:ition of the other MSS. ; tlins 
a full stop slioiild probalily lie placed after nout anil a coninia after iuuc K) 
p. :W8.1. — 358.18. Iiit iritiiei) 'testities it'. 



:i(i8 .loel Pfthlsson 

(ct.. liowever, |i. IMT.SO. 2:!) : siiuilaily <(■ ("24): after ]'iiiliisfi>iiilrj) 
wc nii^rht ]iut a si{;ii ot' exclainatiou 

170. 1 . .V (858.30) to fifnrif of Uissfiilr nrisir. — ;}. tril ■wAV: ct'. 
MoRSBACH, Gr. ij U);t. — 8 iV (300.6) «r achii/c» In-oii i-iwjirtl lo 
Jir ilihiirxsc af his nrislc. — 10. X (3G0.9) iliche hiiii iii his blisfiilr (Iv) 
iirisle — ure boili brihl iise his is etc: kis sliould lie supplied atter is. — 
14. iisemiiii ct'. ]). 105.17, note. — 15. hele (iiid : hrleniiil: tlie reading 
is ajijiarently duo to a misumlerstandinf;. as the word iu the oripinal, 
hvliiiil X (3()0.13). does not seeni to be touud after the beginuing ot' 
tho 13th eent. — K!. Cf. 2 Timothy, II. 12: sustineliimus : (.V(3GU.14) 
riiiiliiiliiiiiir). — 24. .V (;5i>l).ilj Aiiil iiis euerirh liiii sor iiiiil senrinre 
iif fic heniieil':' Ilis liiii. prinnir. nis he iiiiut etc. — 27. •/'/ is Uikih' 
fiiil ctr. ct. I. 31: N ('M0.2.i) [)cl liiii J)et iie sirel iioul. nis hif ruel lolciie. 

171. 1. A' (3()0.'2it) Vir.:mect he iiu irel Goil Jnt pus biliiiiecT 
liiiii of him siilf. J)iirii]i Jiet f)ct /;? iiiile sireleii .^ Oportebut etc. — 2. The 
secoud he must be due to some iuadvertency. — 5. iii gon evideutly au 
error tor iiii/oiii/ : X (3(52.4)' iiiv»);/. — 7. sle-^e: the correction is jirobably 
imperfect : an i should ])resumably have been athled. — - sterres'. X (3(52, s) 
hcoiien''. — i) ff. An alteration has sjioilt the logical counection : cf. 
X (3G2.8) Oi7rr ire lico:7 1,-iiiii/cs (iirii riiii<irilr 7'. lieo(7 chunges C). 
Jicf ircn"([ . . . "'/'•(• f><- holi hiilrircii Jirt otr : wo uiii,dit delete oifier 
aud ]iut a luark nf cxclamatinu aftor ilcrc (\\). — 15. iris -^c/i rhililcr: 
.V (3(i2.l:^f) ficos yii/ie rhililrcii. -~ 20. il tn lie siqijiliod nWn- J/iif — 
21. A fuU stop after .soroiri. — 24. rleiiulso: (liuul.so. — 2(5 ff. 
N (3(52.23) 1'olh- lo-liined (toliiimel B. to luimel C. to limcl ... '" 
linicd r, to liineiT . . ■ ti> limeil It My) 7 to-loren mid stroni/c liflofl,' - 
miil herde hc clco/ied' fdr frrlirh.. for J)c iieoinl is iilfuruht (K) uinl of- 
fcrrd (if siruche etc 

172. 1 for ]irobably an accidental repetition: o/' wnuld liavo 
beeu expectod (in tlie following instances from jElfric aud La^ainnn 
/■();• seems tn inean -because of : Hr ofdrddd irrcs for his moijiddiliim 
(Bosw.-T.. s.v. Of-dried): Xu Jju scnll adreden for fiinc rpr dffdcii 
(XED.. s.v. Adread: Mr "Worterb. s.v. Adreden)). — 2. o/' slmuld be 
su]i]ilied before Job. — 5. schnmej: X (362-27) i/ciucd: an nriirinal 

' iyr (362.3^ (lc(de interj.; cf. e. g. p. 62.25. — 8. Hht-len/ies h\- :\Iy ren- 
dered 'trifles': T reads lihte. seheapes: M lias vili /iretio: no doubt the sdiue 
notion is implieil by tbe words in the English M^S.S. (P chep), although their 
ori>rin seems soniewliat doubtfiil; srheiipes iii T (Mn Gloss. 'skips') might 
peilia|is be consiilered as a form iiarallel to shcpc. sshepe 'wages, reward" <: OE. 
ari/ie 'pay; condition', cf. NED , s.v. .Shipe; Bosw.-T., s.v. Sci|)e: as resaids 
tlie parallel in jY — certaiiily not to be taken as a conipoiiml — 1 may veiiliire 
a connection witli (JE. lc('ip 'a basket, a hasket coiitaiiiin}; a certain amount, 
froin which latter seiise the iiiore general one of 'small qnaiitity, valne' iiiay 
liave developed; cf. EDD , s.v. Leap 4; Bosw.-T. gives leolit li-ap translaling 
\a\\. iiiibiUuiH, the meaninu; of wliich unfortnnalely appears not to be known. — 
'.I. Iiit can hardly, as sufjgested by t.iR p. 19, be taken as logically lefeninu; 
to riche (i). — 27. Mn in liis glossary incorrectly derives geinefi from OF. 
qaiqiier: the word is to be connectod wi;li ON. gegnn 'cnnvenire"; cf. NED., s.v. 
Gaiii V.'; .Mk WOrterb., s.v. Geineii: B.ioukm.v.v, I.oan-uonls. p. 151. 



.s))ellin<r til (or fniiiieit) uiay liave causeit coututiion : the alteration does 
uot inalce sense uuless the uefiation is lett out. — iS. fnr ])c nideillich etc : 
j\' (3(i4.i) y<ir l)fl fel is inuleaitliih pef iite iienire iirisfesihdl arhiiieii ete. — 
11. I)iif Pe Ciisfel is etc. : A' (3G4 4) he vof pel te kaslel is his. uiiil 
i/eit liiililelirhe iii per he i-sihit irihf iij> siniche biiiieres iise iiie ileit iiie 
castle. Aiih, iiteti itnrene iinlke etc : the siuiplest correction woiild 
be to change pe to his and i>lace the stop before pere after the 
word instead. — 12. N (3()4 G) (ioiles haiiere : pet is, htrilschipe of 
liiii' : aiid pe iieoiitl haiifit iiiiiche ilreile perof etc. : perfore seems 
redundant. — 15. A colon should be put after aiisirere. a dash after 
selc: X (364.10)' Of firo iiieji. hireiter is iristirei' Ileo hi-nit heoite (K) 
sckf etc. — 10. S' (3t)-lli) iiori/eit al pef he hiiieil of iiiefrs ; o/ 
flriiiirhis. — 1!'. After tiro a sigu of interrogation - '21. A coion 
after si/crrlich. — folnirrr possibh' an .s-less plural; cf. ]>. 107.18 — 
2S N (3')4.26) . . . Jesii Crii^t iirr Loticrd. prt tuiicr tiede sutine (K). 
biite oiie J)if he her rlr.-ichs iliche ure rle.-i.tche (K), pet is fiil o/ 
siiiiiie: cf. 1 30. 

173. 1. lu the uiartriu: diniiitnis. — ">. A lull .stop to l>e 
placed after eiier and the stop after fader deleted. — 11. Cf Isaiah. 
LIII. 5: nostra-. — l"i. Affer crist a dash — ■ l(i. Aw to be sui)])lied 
before iiiercf/. — '22. N (3(i(> 24) iis forto hariiiren from prs deoflis 
hottc iite pine of helle. ^et. sfiit iiiotii iiioti etc. — 27. A full stop 
after the second i/ood : for is either to be omitted or regarded as a 
prep. : N (36(i.28) Vre i/od ts yf etc. — 30 ff. A' (3()6.:J0) pef heo 
triSiiteti hini iiefdr no delit i nonc pini/e, aiih ivere. for poaht'- of his 
/(/«'-, h-ne ( riiele ihemred [elheowt B. rl ih-oivct (i. i-l ihemrcd C. 
hrlhewet T My) 

174. 1. A dash after hir and after lenr {'!). — is inconsistently 
for the ])a. t subj. The irregularity in the verbal forms seems to indicate 
a corru])tion: otherwise poii\t might be coui])ared with mod. /A(>«///(/' r/ 
(So. fhochtit) ■coucerned' : cf. NED . s v. 2: EDD., s v. Thought: the in- 
stances given there are all from modern times. — 3. ireddyd fn 
oj/cr: N (368 3) iredde' niid oiter inen. — fnrhtned h;/iii: the con- 

' N (264.9) Me cf. p. 5(;.10. — 11. al pet he luued nf metes 'all (tbe 
delioacies) tbat lie like» of food' etc. — 17. aiid lee iiulle!) etc. 'and \ve will 
not' etc. — buten probably iliie to inacoiiracy oii the part of llie scribe:om. 
BCGT vMy). — LS. Nis per noiriiif /(cro/ possibly inearis sometliing like 'notliiiiK 
(gooil) will coine ont of it, it avails notliiiig'; or else, i^erliapn, 'tliere is notliin^ 
for it' wilb a colon after tlie plirase; Ms 'It is iiot so' cerlainly doe.-» iiot 
give tlie sense of tlie orijjiiial. — '23. Iiwnr se '\\\iere\ei'. — 27. nrile sunnf ,K',: 
nefile sunne DCG, nnwdi' sunnr T ;My' 'iiever liad aiiy fin'. — Sliii.l. .\fter 
tleai) a sign of excliiinatinii; aftf-r siiitnen a fiill stop. llie secDiiil pet being 
a ili-m. pr. — 2. nniit of sititne. hiite i-lc: 'notliiii!! innre of sin' elc. — i>. rired 
pa. t. — 22. uule . . nieiten iiiip. ;I>at. noli:: 'lie iimst never coinplain'. — 
^•i. Hu-iit I» God pe befere: NKL)., s.v. Better B 4 b, lia.s no instaiice earlier 
tbaii llil9. 

'- icedile cf. p. 50.25. — 12. leouiee: Mx (iloss.: 'a coucli, bed; A.S. 
lenq'; S^tratm.-Bk., s.v. Hblwe '.i)K. Iiliiir. hliew) 'den'. NEl)., s.v. I.ee sb.' Mk 
Worlerb., e.v. Leo, leow etc, probably correclly, associale tlie word witb OE. 



310 Joel PAhlssoii 

struction, if cnrrect. ajijiears tn he uuiiiue. — ."), To make sense nf 
.sliould 1)6 omitted aml /;e soHle spotise taken as an appositional phrase; 
A' (368.4) nre Loiii-rd, fjet is pe souln spiis. — 7. J)o may be an 
uneorrected scribal error for Jje. — yine: xV (3<)8.6) yone. — 8. (iloin/: 
X (368.7) aUiinge: cf. p. 113 27. — 0. After emh a full stop, — 
11. /""»■ l)i)i;i Jxil hij moivcn: K (3t>8.0) nor liire liiie. — 15. rcir/nls 
l>riibahly an accidental scribal slip ior nirfiil : A'(3()8 13) reonfnliiessr. — 
17. After yiicn a sijrn of interrogation ; A' (3()8.l.-)) Xis r/race nnl- 
"^eoue? — 18. /)// ineded: ajijiarently an unrecorded comjjound : cf. 
NED , s.v. Meed v. "2: "deserve. merit' (one example. 1613). — ben 
erroneously for rhe sing. — 20. y (368. 18)/)'/ niilleit sirink {swin/icn T) 
perftiore blictcliche JioHen. — 21. After haril a fnll stoj). — ■ 25. l)it>e: 
the plural does not make sense ; N (368.23) he (sc. tconihe pof) is .•io 
neih neihebiir Ut J)ef fiilifnwcne lim J)if ho etc. 32. hen a scribal 

tMTor for hihii. 

175. '■». rloirrs ,/ilofrr: XED.. s.v. Clovo-irillyflower: rloiccs of 
i/i/lofrc. claicis of i/clnfrc. — 13. wij) a sti//,- itf i/uldetc: A'(B7U.U)' 
J>r o(tcr her ennc sfic/cc of godc i/olde (K). Vre Lcfdi noinc niid fc sfic/cc . . . 
and pc nicidenes eoden fiircfrc to pc midlcsfc. — 20. i/ood fo qtirmc 
i/iiil .liid etc. confused: X (370.21) nis iiinil linil inrrtiir. Giid i \\is 
ilrri/)lcs etc: i/ood should be corre('ted to i/ml nnd a full stop put 
after qucnie. — 21, 22 ac pat on etc. a j>erversiou of the original ; 
X (370.23) pe on (K) pcf iras hcsf ilcred of Jesu Cristes deciplcs seiit etc, 
referrijig to St. Paul as the author of the first quatation: cf. Rom.. VIII. 6: 
Nam prndentia carnis. mors est. — - 24. Cf. .lob, XXXIX. 25: jsrocul 
odoratur bellum. — 25 ff. A' (370. ^.t) Frocal odorumns helltim, iisc 
Joh sci(t. So ivc dredcct flesclies mcl . . . pct sotile rticl /cumcit ii/i, 7 
/(■(' piiliect (Ki /)(' sitnlc nicl. uorfc cfstcrfcn rlcsclics ruch usc puuh liit 



hleow; tlie sense is yiven by the lormer antliority as 'rfsting-place'; by 
tlie latter, apparently with greater probability, as 'Decke'. It seems doubtful 
wliether T lche is to be regarded as a niere variant of tlie forui in N, or if 
it should be taken as a derivative of OTeut. *ld"y, ineaning 'wliere one 
lies, bed"; (Leg. Katli. (EETS.)1827: i pe liuties le^ lie possibly so; Mr Worterb., s.v. 
Lel>); ef. p. 1)6.25. In C leouiie, n cau hardly be anything but a faulty reailing 
for u. — 17. iiujraciuse 'those who have no grace' ^NED., s.v. (iracious 1,6'. — 
18. hnm retl. — 21. nitle lie be ouerladen etc: it is doid)tful whelher Mn's 
interpretation of the passage is the correct one. In XED., s.v. Overlade 1, 
the sense is also given as 'lade water out of. .StratM.Bk. 'overload' seems 
more to the point ; cf. P p. 174.2'.! ff. — 22,23. I.k's explanation on p. 7 of 
the inconsistency in gender seenis rather forceil ; similar cases are pretty 
coininon. 

' jV (370.7) Mn's derivation of ornure {"? niore particular' NED.) from OE. 
i/eoni (Gloss.) is certaiuly not correcl. — 11. gediwnl evidently for ydetval [T, 
eeduale C). — 18. iieiirrento: the initial is obviously an error for u; cf. p. '2S8.26; 
TC read 0/ feor. — ]!>. wel 'very well, without scruple". — '20, '^1. anil aucreful 
nonieliche (K) etc. : B niore clearly: ah beon prefter se aucreful noine.liche reli- 
i/iiis; similarly C [am/eiful) and G (estful) (My). — 22. speken pa. t. — 25. The 
punctuation shonld he altered thus: Sit ice dreilei) flesches vuel . . . pit soide 
ruel kuineH ujt ; x ire Jjolici) fK': etc. 'we so dread .. . that disease of the soul 
arises' etc; l.n ]<. 10 a|ipareiitly follows Mn. — 29. mis-itowene 'uudiscipliiied'. 



Keclnsf 31! 

treri' hrterc te (K) poliei) t/obicsse linniv Itni liniued eelie . . . Ainl 
litreder is betere, ine seenesse tiorte heon Goiles freo eliihl. pen i flesehes 
heiile uorte heon prel tinder stntneY The renderiufr ot' P is evidently 
due to a inisunderstanding : to make sense as ['1T\ must be changed 
to nnd. — 30. ne to be supplied before he.. — 31. 32. N i37"2.2i' 
Auli tre cleopiect (callen T) ofte tcisdom pct tiis non. — 33. N (372.3) 
l'or .io(t u-isdoin is don eiiere soiile licle hiuoicn flcschcs hcle : and litron etc. 

176. 1. ri-^thtviscdome: riytliirisc donic. — 4 N iSl'!.';) pet heoit 
hitlre spices and hitiicned etc. — 5, 6. <('• notcp pis ful: N (372.9) x 
noteit (sc. Iiundred) iwrfectitin. pet w, ful dedc : iiortc, .telieaircn pet me 
scliul' ftildon fleselics pinc etc. — 8. irirclic ajiparently an error for 
trei%e: N 1 372.1 11 pct cucrich iiton ireie mid ri.<<domc {K.) hiral lic muire 
don. — 10 ff. A'' (372.12) ne beo y iK) noiit so ouer siructc ai/est 
pet -ie uor}einen pet bodi : ne eft. so tcndre of pe hodic pct hit iirui\tc 
untoiren. i makie pene i/ost peoire — \S. yiarath i(- Mariath: T (372.22) 
Mararaht j Mcrariht: cf. p. 144.2. 5 — ..V i 372.2:{) ^e tiormeste hitter- 
nesse is hircousunf/c 7 dcdholc uor sunne etc. — 20. 21. Al'ter \iaudcli/ne 
a colou; the lines are a redimdant addition. — 22. N (372.2'.) pe ercsle 
Marie. Maric Mai/dalenc: similarly 1. 28. — 25, 20 Add piit before 
siiellep and strike out the stop after toures. — i/scidc: N (372.29) iefned: 
JiT ifeiet: similarly CG iMyi: the reading of 1' may be a perversion of 
the latter verb. which at the date of the revision appears to have 
been out of commou use — 29. (('• is ful hillcr: N (374.4) peos 
trrasthntf/e is ftil hitter etc. — 30. N i374..i) for pe ^e/ fondunf/es. 
pet hetit pe deofles sireni/es, trai/f/elt octcr liirulcs. 7 inotcn irresten 
ii--,efin iiiid .itronge trragehnti/e (trif/Hnf/c T. trrat/gunf/e C)^. 

177. 4 ff. After fende a colon: cf. N (374.11) Uoriti is cuer 
hitter uilit neod ayan Pharaon, pet is, ayan pe deoiiel. Vor, ase .•ieiit 
Ezeehicl, Sanf/uiiiein etc. — 9. Cf. Ezek., XXXV. (J: quoniam sanguini 
tradam te. & sanguis te persequetiu^: & cum sanguiuem oderis. sauguis 
persequetur te. — • Flei^e — is ht/tokned si/nnc (11) inserted. — 
12. euere: N 1 374.14 1 neiier. — 14. endi/ni/e: cf. N 1 374.16) . . . is ine 
lonf/inge (K) ... 7 in pc anui (unnu C, endc T) nf pissc irorlde: 



' iV ;^372.1). And pis tie sif/ge ich iiout so etc. means 'by this I do not 
mean to iniply tliat discretion and moderation sliouKl not everywliere bi' ob- 
serveii, which are etc. — 6. prou-unqe 'sufEering'. — 10. ffnn sb. 'nnture, natnral 
powers'; ef. p. 6.11, 126.31. — 12. MS.: heo je (K). — agest: Mn 'spiritual'; NED., 
B.v. reads o gest 'in 9pirit'; tbis i.'» obviously tbe sense wbicli tbe context 
siiggests, altbongli tbe form makes difficulties, OE. giist. of rare occnrrence, 
beintr banily represented in tbo medi«val languaj^e; in fact, tlie reading 
of N stands apart (BCT ignnt. G agust .My) and may be due to confusion 
witb tlie vb. agasten, ageaten witli wbicb it is also associated in Strat.M.-Br. 
and Mn Wftrterb. i'geiinstigt, angstlich). — 18. smuriles sg. 

' Mn's interpretation of tbis passage seems questionRble; fondunges is 
apparently tbe sulyject, and wngged niay mean eitber 'cause to waver' or "be 
stirring'. — swenges 'tricks'. OE. sweng 'stroke' ;Bosw.-T., s.v.^ not swinij (Mn 
Gloss.) heo to be nnderstood as tlie sul)j. of moten ;7\ — 10. ikepr apparently 
for ikeiieS. — 18. tindeaires tceorre 'tbe tribnlation of vice'. — 23. blisse . . . urotn 
God: in the trsnslation 'and' sliould be oraitted; cf. Rg p. 135. 



HV2 .I,.,-! IMIilssnii 

/7' give an interioi reading. — 17. ^V (874.20) hi Mtiric SnlDinr, l)c Jiiiiltlc 
Mariv. — 18. d^ hen rlene inwi}): X (374.21) jjvis 7 reste of eh-ane 
inwit: cf. p. 1.13, 18. — 19. 20. Jnne evidently a coiTujition: y (374.22) 
'V pisse litie. — hlisse should lie aililed after friiiii. — For yif — loni/ep 
lo ("ili an addition. — 'l'!. X 1 374.24 1 . . . rixled hillernesse: ere.st, ide 
hii/inn>ni(/e, hwon nie seihlneCt iiiid liod : i iiurdviii!/ "f !/ode liiie : nnd 
ide hisl enile — 23. N (374.29) hillernesse (K) hiid {hiyle T) hil : iior, 
etc. — 24. hrinr^lten for hou-ytlen: N (37G.1) hoiihlen: cf. 1. 2(j. — 
iiromaiinl'., within commas: apparently added in explanation, as snierels 
may have been felt as obsolete (latest example in XED. from 1340). 
N sivote smeUinde iiromaz. — 30 ff. The original has been altered; and 
the logical connection i.s rather coufu.sed: .,Y (37W.6) piiruh hone of 
hilternesse pet me her ilried for (ioil. pe heorle, pet ims iruteri, smccehles, 
(smettes 'T), and ne uelede no snuur of Giid, nanmore pen nf waler, 
pvo ' schal heon iwend to wine : pct is, peo heorte schal iuinden snicrh 
ine liim swete ouer alle wines. — 32 icas should be supplied after 
pal. — wcrisch: the first recorded example seems tn be frnm Palsfrrave; 
cf. Cent. Dict , s.v. AVearish: EDD., s.v. Wnirsli. 

178. 4. Cf. Ecchts., I. 29: Vsque in tempus snstinebit patieus, 

6 ]instea redditio iucunditatis. — 5. polcmodclich polij: N (376.12) 
pc polemodc polic etc. — 8. Cf. Tobiah, III. 22: quia — facis — in- 
fundis (^V fiicil — iiifinidil) — 11. wcpini/ waters: N (376.16] wopie 
ini/rrcs. 12. After Siiliiiiion a cnlnn. Cf. Prov., XX\3I. 7: anima 
esuriens etiam aniarum pro dulci sumet. — 13. hillcrlich: N (376.18) 
sikcriiclie. — 15. fiimilarly N (376.19); cf. Caut., IV. 6: vadam • — 

collem. — 16. ff. N (376.20) to rechelcs hnllc. hi pe dunc of mirrc. . 

Lo! hwueh is pc wei to recliclcs swotnessc':' hi (K) iiiirrc of hitlcrnessc. 1 

And eft, idel ilke luue hoe: ()ue est etc. — hi (16)may be due to auti- 1 

cijintion. — oftt-n (19) carelessly for the original eft. — 22. The transla- 

tiou an addition. N (376.23) . . . iiiirre et thuris':' Aromaz is imakcd of 

iiiirre, 7 of rerhes /1. rechhsj. And (ah B. j (r My) mirre hc sel hiuorm, J 

7 reehehs kumed rfter: E.r aroniatihus, mirre et Ihuris. Nu etc. The I 
passage has been omitted in T and jiartly in C (My). — 25. N (376.26) 

heo ne mei huhhen swolnesse : iionc (K) uf God, ne swetnesse widinnen. — 
27. A fuU stop after traiiaile. — 28. For snmmc r/on etc: cf. X (376.29) 
siiin (sc. hiltermsse) !/ed frommard God, ase euerich worldlich sor pet 
nis for pc sotile healc. — 29. for Itij — wip al (33) has been iuserted. — 
itchrp: nr hip. 

179. 3. N (378.1) ... sj»»W'« ure Loiierd. peo heod kiniiinde 
uoiie smurien ure Louerd pet nie poled for his Iiine. He (pe B(t. 
peo C, p T My) strecched him etc. — 7 ff. altered and generalized : 
N (378.4): To an anchoress belong two things: uarrowness aud bitter- 
ness; for a womb is a narrow dwelling and Mary signifies bitteruess. 
If a recluse theu in a narrow place — withiu the walls of her moua- 



' jieodem. pr. feiii. referring to heortc {!). — 12. polie siilij. 'iiiay bear'. 
Cf. K« p. Si.s. — 37S 23. redeii obviously means 'read'. 



srery — .sufter hirrerness. .slie is like our Lord. nailed rn the cross 
and confined in rhe romh. ilarv"s wonib and the tomli were his 
anchorite houses erc. — 15 t'f. The iiassafre has been eonfused: 
.V (:-578.i6) itrf Loiterd irriide iit uf lioiTi- (sc. Mtirir iroiiihe and sfontiii- 
lirii/i). 3'' ircnil tu iilso iit of bo pine unrre liiises, nsr he ilitde. iriiditK 
hriirhe. 7 liihf ham hoite ihole. ptt srhnl hum hiroii pe f/ost iwint iit 
iiii piidr. iriittite hnichc 7 iriittite ii>m, of hia tiro hiigrs. pit on i.s Jie 
liriime : pet n^er is pet iittre hiis. pet is- iise pn iilfre iriil iihitt- pf 
l;astle. To read rhe liiies as the}' srand, we niay place a dash atter 
diide (16):. also after hons (18). and Custi-I (1!:>). — 28. Ac .1 rede — 
iiood (31) inserred. — 3'2 ff. A conrracrion of the orifrinal: irip pise. 
tiro (33): cf. X ('dSO.i) porii is scherp 7 iiiiirunt. Mid peos liro heoit ii/iirde. 
^tr noirrn noiil iinneH pil eni rud irord ' kome of 011 . . . And heoit 
bliiti' on heorte yif '^e polieit diiniiifcr of Sluri, p-- kokes knaue . . . pionne 
brii ;•• ditn-s iheird itp to pe heouenr: vor lo! hicu spekeit pe Irfdi etc. — 
3tj. Cf. Canr.. II. 8: Yox dilecti mei. ecce iste venit saliens in mon- 
tibus etc. 

180. !J. he for her. — After iiiii;/ we should perliaps supply /<>/: 
A (380.10) nr strusleit heo noitt (K; sn irel on hani, uor hore frhhlesce [}^.) : 
iiiir nr iiiuhfr hro iinut iitoliiit etc. — 11 ff. i(- litrp h^ni haui- etc. : 
-V i380.2:i) Jlis schedeire hurr 7 huri' [hnihure V) ouerf/eiT and irriit 
haiii pro (K) litctth pef hr lenprit ouer hnni : pit is. suin Hicnr.<:se hr 
li-iit 011 hnin of his liitr. 011 eoritr, asr paith liit trere his schedtire. Auh 
Jir dunes undi-runit pr treden (trodes 7") "/' liini sitttien, and schmirrit 
iii horc liue hiriich hi.s liflode icns . . . i hiruche iro Itr leddr his lif 011 
lorite. Siruch dune tra.s pe gode Poirel, pit s.ide: Dijiciinur etc. — 
15. iischudetrr: a schadncr. — 24. .self an error for selp: N (382.2) 
isrhthiti . — 25. irick: I have not foimd a fomi exactly corresponding 
ro this (cf. iric OE. Hom. p. 239: ti-ice. hivic p. 243). — 26. his dep 
on lodr: X ;382.3)- his lif 011 enrite. 

' M.v 'word'; more probably '(cvil) report"; cf. 1. 3. — 9. beo 8ubj. — 
15 ff. M.N"'s atteiiipt at a translation is .«o far as I can judge tiUally void nf 
sense. Tlie passage ir.ean.i: ' . . , sliows in tliem sc. f^*»ics liis owii foot-prints 
so ihat nien niay trace perceive; cf. p. '232.171 hiin iii tlieni aml tiiul bow 
lie was trodden'. I ani alfo inclineil to cbange Mns punctuation in tbe line 
fnllowintt Hnil read: 'As his foot-prints show, these are' etc; cf. 1» ff. — 
]>. pet beoa seems to be parallel to Pis beni) :it). — !'■>. The comina afler Sfii) 
shoiiki be deleteil anil placed aftor tbe next wonl anil he uiulerstooil ns llie 
subject. of onfrleapeii. — liro, as in 1. 21., obviously t)y confusion: cf. hr for heo 

I. 11 U'R P. 7;; ii hire teol/, he ouerleii}ir!\ . iie frunt nnirt Se tcrl, C hire Irof 
iiuerleape!) Xe t)-it.it nauf ne icrl, T hire sel/ . ourr leiipes . ne frusfes hiin nutrt ;M v). 

' A' ,;i82.7l Xe beo...pet eti-.: the clauses are illo^;irally coniiecleil 
-o also T^;^!»/ sbonld be oniitteii : 'he a thiiijr never so hanl, love inakes' i-tc; 
H hrnrd, sod luue lihtefl hit etc, C hart luue liihte!) //it(.Mv — 10. Ms prolmbly 
iloes not •rive the iiieaniiij; lorrectly; I propose to chaM|;e Jiet to ]im. — 

II. lutu sunne; similarly T: C luue sunime: H luiie oj sunnr ;Mv\ — 13. pe 
iiiiililel pauh, oiul ermes : miiidel . peli . i enrmrs li, niiddel . peh : armes TC 
prih\ Mv ; this is i-learly Ibe correct reailintt; .Y Jmuh is 110 doubt an error; 
OK.peoh wonld banlly «ivea .MK.eqiiivalent identical witb this form. — 24. ortro- 
ired ■snspects'. OE. orfriiwian,-triiu:an; sense and ilerivation a» given by Ms 



Sl I Jnel Pfthlsson 

181- •"' 11. I'u!<ti'f) <(■ irnl-fp etc. : tlie j)res. illogically kejit liiini 
tlie oi-ifrinal : c-l'. X (382. 12 t't'.). — 22. jni^afas for pii-tas. 

182. 12. lii. The liiies are ratlier defective. JN'' (384.2:^) /W */(-/; 
tir iiici liiihlifn iiiid morii/tiniife of innteauwei, iie mid eoi;7lich luiie of 
irorldlirlie piniics'. iior {Jm morui irorcct fyi.s liiue ireorrcit C) so pp 
iii'ii etc. — Moiiii/ii!/ seems to he an unintelligent sub.stitution of the 
uiiusual word in the ori};inal. — 2.">. -V (380.11)* Jlirat ia scliir lieorte-' 
lcli liit lialrhe iseid er: f)rt is. pet -,'> etc. — 29. Iu- shoiUd lie su])])lic<l 
l)et'ore hme: N (38l).18; pfl hiiiint inil lnitr fjc. Imlc v/' licn hiiiiiii liit 
for pe. 

183. 5. Iiirs: the tem. pron., contrasting the masc. iu the pre- 
ceding lines, kept trom the original. — 6. X (38G.29) . . of-i/on 
iirc hiiic 011 iillc liiinnc iriscn. lle hitucit niuchel idon us etc. The 
stoji nlfer mi/chcl should be placed before the word instead. — 
7. yitt an error for yft (cf. 1. 14): .V (380.30) youe. — 10. Cf. Ps. 
Vril. 8: Omuia subiecisti sul) pedibus etc. — 13. dcpc: X (388 7)^ 
dude. — lil J)is: X of his. — 14. A full stop after irrccchcs. — 
lii. After hi/in a colon : after ipowep a dash. — 27. The second al should 
be corrected to a — 28. <('• logicalh- to be re]5laced hy J)at he: X (388.21) 
(hi iiiihli l,iiii/es hiuc icas pauh bHuriid iipoii hire, so vnimetc sirutte 
Jicl hr . . . scnde liire liis sonden etc. — 2!i. socours of li/ues hel/i: 
X i388.2.t) suliUrs of liucneit, i helji etc: the reading may be emended 
b}' changing of to and or by deleting .s in hiiies : or else li/ues might 
possibly bo takeu to uieau ■mcaus of living': cf. Sthatm.-Br.. s v. 
Live sb. 

184. 2. hr iiiiyUr.X (390.1) hn, (sc. ivordrs) muhten^. — 5. ni/s 
J)is hoher tcondcr: ^V(3y0.;i) Xes Jyis irundeiiich hoker':' Cf p. 62.28. — 
0. Ac so dchonairte etc : X (390.fi) Aiih so, J)uruli liis dehoncrlc, 
hiiir hcfdc etc. — 7. hiij) incousistently for the pa. t. — 12. Jie possii)ly 
for /(). — 19. iiiirr riikiinde: A^ (390.18) of ru<de .kunnes kiinde. — 
in : oucr X. —■ 22. wcrrour: X (390 21) woivarc. — After dude a 
colon. — 23. duden dede for dcdcn dudc (cf. dudc holc p. 104.4) 
X (390.211 Aiid hc . . . cficr iiioiiic incssaiirrs. 7 fndc iiod drdcii. ciiiii 

(GlosK.; are wrong. — 25. MS. reads 3e peof (K). — 26. nis per bute ete. 'tliere ■ 
is notliing but': we can only etc. — 384.11. kiide pa. t. ; so also seide in 1. 15. 

' iV (386.11 woreS: Ms 'distorts (Gloss.: A.S. worian to enibioil, err)'; 
SwEET: worieii 'disturb'; Stratm.-Bk. gives tbis exan)ple s.v. Woreu 'wander, 
weary'. The context, it seen).s, niakes a connection witli the adj. icori (cf. 1. 7\ 
OE. warig 'dirty' more probal)le; I suggest 'niakes diiu, blears'. — 17, 18. heo pl; 
80 also pisseii (19). 

' iV^ (388.6) Mn's translation has no sense. I put a dash aftcr seriie!): 
'also the evil serve (sc. the good) — (alao) earth' etc. — 17. saluz: Mn, Sweet 
wrongly 'salvation'; it means 'salutation'. — 20 t. '. . . . who was beset, assailed 
by her foes on all sides . . . and herself qnite destitute (enclosed) within' etc. 

' muhten 'could'. — 3. kinedome: Mn 'kingdom';! prefer 'kingly authority, 
kingship'. — 15. deade (K) denhe: denile looks like an undeleted scribal 
error. — 19. luue, naue!) (29) pres. — 23. The connection would doubtless he 
iniproved by i)lacing the full stop after liiueu-itrde and the comina after 
donne (24). 



Recluse 315 

uorto jtreouen etc. — 27. After crifii a colon. — 28. tcered: X (3i»0.26) 
wreih. — 29. A dash before his and after armes: N (3110.28) in hia 
i strt-ihtc (K) eaniies. — 30. K (390.28) ase pe on uot, efter pet me 
wenect, set (K) iijHin pe oSer uote. 

185. 1. lirode may mean something like 'extended. fully' (XED.. s.v. 
Broad C adv. 1): or else the third letter .shoiild be taken as e and 
the -vvord regarded as a compomid with fntc: "foot-breadth". ^ — pnf is 
hitokned: either by is to be supplied or lAtiikned has a sense analogous 
to that suggested for p. 66.17: N (390.29) pet pis ■•icheld nauect none 
.•iiden is forto bitokned (K) etc. — 5. Hij forsoken — grtl nede (7) 
iuserted. — 9. The first part of the quotation from Lament., III. 65: 
scuto etc. cf. Ps. V. 13. — 10. N (392.6) pis scheld ne sehilt us 
nout one etc. — Ib. The explanation an addition. — 16. A sigii of 
interrogation to be placed after whi. — 17. li-^thlicher: N (392.11)' 
lihtlichi'. — 18. After noldc a full stop : aftcr irhi a sign of inter- 
rogation. — A' (392.12) biiiiiiien us euerich hiteUungc: the original 
phrase may have been misunderstood bj- the reviser. — 21. N (392.15) 
deorre jiris nes ireuer. — 23, 24. N (392.17) iSisse scheldc : the con- 
striiction is irregnlar. — 30. N (392.24) . . . purlen his seheld ; pet 
is, Jette ojjenen his side etc. — 31. A' (392.25) foiio scheawen hire 
openlichc hicu iincardliche he lituede hire. 

186. 4. ayood : a good. — 10. bihoren hyni : •dishonour him 
by adnltery': NED.. s.v. Bewhore, gives only two examples (the first 
from 1601) with senses differing froni this; N (394.8)* hco iinihte 
uoihnren hirc iiiid octer nien. — 13. Iiorid hi/ni : the sense, analogous 
to that just noted, is apparently imique : the word is first recorded 
from tShakesp.: N (394.10) paiih pe soitle his sj)use uorhorie hire inid 
pc ueonde (K) of heUe etc. ; cf. 1. 24 (iV (394. 2o) Ne beo neuer his 
lcofiiion uorhored etc). — 23. After sitirc a full stop. — 26 ff. 
The context is to some extent confused: to read the passage as it stands, 
the stoj» after lciiinian (27) may be taken as a colon and pat stressed, 
referring to what follows : A' (394.22) S'» miichel is hilireonen Godrs 
ncihlcchnnr/e 7 nionnes to wuminon pit iiionncs neihlechinif/r makfit <i/ 
nifidcii wif, and (iod makeit of icif meiden {K\ — 29. hitwipen : p 
for .;■ — :-il. Cf Job. XII. 23: subuersas in integriun restituit. 

187. 4. N (396.2)' uor sa he hit wolde : his hiue niakede iis 



' N (392.;i} M.S.: . . . iville pu hauest i kruned us. scheld he sri!) of gnde 
irille (K). — 10. The inverted conimas nfter 'wliy' in the translntion shouUl 
be placed after 'trrmble' in the line followinj;. — 13. Jiet object referring to 
us. — l'J. ueire: Mx 'fully'; this niay he a misprint for 'beautifully'. — 
23. hiholde pr. subj. 'niay beboKl'. — fc. gode iueien 'dear, intiniate frieml»'. 

' N (.394.3, 41 The apparent double meaning of Giuterie — tlie former 
instance 'the Jews' quarter' ^: in pawn to the Jews), the latter 'the land of 
the Jews' — «honld be noted; cf. NED., s.v. Jewry 2; Mn W«rterb., s.v. 
Giwerie 1. — fi. fordede 'deed done on belialf of eome one, favour'; NED., s.v. 
Fordeed; 90 also Mk Wrtrterb. — 16. al dei 'oontinnally'. 

• N (39t;.i; Mt^.: muhte (.K). — 4. hire not refl. — i. efter s\xD\i\y means 
'after'. — fi. luuei) pre». 

21 



316 Joe! PfthlRPon 

lifd [jPio/: a tnll sto]) to lie jilaced afrer hlade. a dash after /owp. — 
!i. hohh-]): X (3iMi.7) huhweit (hahM C). — 14. Cf. Isaiah. XLIX. IT). 
Xuiiiquid oliliuisci jiotest mulier iiilaiitem suum. vt non misereatur 
niio vteri sui? & si illa oblita hierit etc. — 18. ter for te. — 
'21. X (390 16) he dudc merke of J)itrlitnr/e hie bo ttco his hondeii. — 
22. // for lie. — 23. After /oiie a dash. — 26. A' (30(;.2l) nir/o iirini 
urc bo(te toi/ederes etc. 

188. 2. he shouhl prolialily be .supplied before hap. — 3. iie 
mti — di/e (4) added. — £• pvs iiUe pe resouits etc. confused; A'(3i>8 7)* 
Piis, nl/e pe reisuns . . . pu iiieiht i-iinden in me : nomelichc, },if J)U 
luiiest ihastc dennrsse : ror non etc. — 7. A dash after the first it. — 
11. Another pe should doubtless be inserted before meste. — 13 Tlie 
stoj) after niore to be omitted. — is for «7. — fere apparently a 
unicjue form. — 14. After niore a full stop. — 17. pi aeliien a cor- 
ruption for he stuen. — ]8. scheine: N (398.22) stceamen : the substi- 
tution is obviously due to a misunderstanding; ef. p. 190.30. — 20. A 
word may have been left out ; or else schal stands for .tthult : N (398.24) 
Ne schal neuer heorte penchen swuch scluhcte, pet etc. — 21. A colon 
after fn endelich. — 22. Absolon cf. p. 96.7. — 23 sirhes: h should 
evidently be corrected to I: N (398.28) sic/es {schi/Iinf/es C): cf. 
XED., s.v. Sicle. — us for al. — 2G.j)reIais 'authority': cf. XED., s.v. 
Prelacy 3: the form is apparently not foimd elsewhere and ma^' be 
erroneous (for prelasi'i): cf. however, 8c. preleiitis (16th cent: 
NED., s.v. Prelate): rr.^)rt/«i7 (Godefeoy. s.v. Prelat): .^' (398.30) ureo- 
scliipe. — 28. bodi/ as BCGl' (My): N (400.i) correctly bode (My p. 72). 

189. 2. atvou"-,er: a woic^er: N (400. o) pct a swuch wotcarc ne 
ntei turiien hire Itiue to liim. ■ — 2, 3. hij, schc inconsistently refer- 
riufr to he in 1. 1: influenced by the original f. sg. pron. — 6 ff. 
N (400.14) nis non pet nitiwe etlttiiin {[auuei/ sru/kinj C) pit hm 
ne mof liim /miien. pe sncte sunne . .. leas fortti istien on Itiili ode 
heic. rode ... to ontindcn kis luiie in his leoues hcorte, and seiit iite 
f/ospelle, If/nein etc; the original etltitifn of which NED. gives only 
two instances, the latest from 1230, has been misinterpreted and 
the passage changed accordingly. — 12. ardeat as N: accendatur: 
Luke, XII. 49. — 29. A full stop after oucr pivtrt. — ncschuf: 
tre schd. — 30. N (402.8) penchect yf 3« ne owtn eaite to luiiien 
pene Idni/ of blisse pet to-^jirit so tuuuard ou Itis crntes, aiid buhit 
ase uorto bcofltn cos adunctcard hij> heuiti d. The irregularity in tenses 
may have been caused by a misimderstanding of the original to-spnt. 

190. 4. X (402 13) iise Elie dude pr poure ivummone /iuencit' 



' lY (398.2) ric/iest prefeiably 'most pnwerful, noblest'. — 5. pet he ne cov. etc. 
Pet >ie may be taken as rel.; or else, perhaps, he is simply a scribal slip for 
ne; a comma after rt/ioldni. — 30. /iicui for hu CGT CMv); cf. p. 20G.l'.i. — 
21. vuel 'evil'. — 81. Iieale 'prosperity' [M Siiiictitas possibly for saxifas; cf. 
Pr. P. : hele: sanitas). — 400.2. piiruh nout to uorleosen 'to lose (sacrifice) 
nothing'('.'); Rg p. 103. — 4. Iietel 'hostile'. 

' I strike out the comiiia after u-wumoiie and take liuene!) as tbe 
object of dude. 



liecliise ■'ilT 

and (fishiede mid hire pet he iiiond etc. — 7. nin/</e: N (402.17) 
mifiye: ct. 1. 14: if the form is am-thing more than an instance of 
incorrectness on the part of the scribe, we may trace some affinity with 
the equivalent of mod. dial muij •muck, dimg, mud' ; ef. EDD., s.v. 
Muck. — seide an error for sond A' (402.17;; cf. 1. 14. — !t. tre: 
N (402.20) rode. — A full stop should be jilaced after the word. — 
10. Cf. N (402.21) pis hlod . . . schul makien ou Sarepciens : ])i f is, 
ontnidtn oii mid tis Grickische fiire etc. — »/rp</f//«a- an apparently un- 
paralleled fonn: theabbreviation-strokeprobably accidental. — 13. hym — 
it an incousistency ingender; N (-Vd^l.H) jieos liiiie. — IC ff. A' (404.3) . . . 
and idel ucoaldeit 7 acwencheit pis fiir. Sliirieit ou eiier cwivliche. ine 
Gode werkes, 7 pct schal heattn 011 7 ontenden pis fiir ir^eiin pe hrune 
of sunne. Vor, ul so us on neil driued iif pen oittrne. iil so pe 
hrune of Godes luue driueit hrune of fiil luue uf of pe iieorte. — 
18. After word a full stop. — 23. A' (404.12) . . . ase pauh a mon . . . 
failede efl^r his sore swinke, a last, of his hure. — 2(j. peendi/ni/: 
pe endyng. — N (404.16) iilen ende of al his liiie, pet ivas ase iiten 
euenfid, hwon me etc. — 27. After hijm a colon. — 30. JV (404.20) ne 
stceameit, ne ne derueit me nowihf inean pis — pet ich pus hifeo 
(hife C) al pff ich idun hahhe. pis eisil pet }e heodeit me — pis sure 
hure, puriih fiilleit inine pine^. 

191. 1. ff. differing from the original: ef. N (404.23): the 
vinegar of a sour heart quenches Greek fire — the love of our Lord ; 
she who bears it in her breast completes his sufferings. Men throw 
Greek fire upon their foemen to conquer them : j-ou should do the 
same, as Solomon teaches : Si isurierif etc. — 5. womnian to be added 
after oiper. — 8. Cf. Prov.. XXV. 21, 22: si .sitierit, da ei aquam 
bibere: prunas enim congregabis etc. — 11. An omission has broken 
the context : cf . N (404.32) . . . and 51/ he (sc. uo) is of pursf, 31/ him 
drinckfn:... 51/ he efter pine herme haueit hunijer oiter pur.sf^, yif 
him uode of pme t>eoden . . . and yfhiiii drunch of teares. — 12. reclen: 
N (40'>.4) riikelen: the form in our text seems to be unique ; there is an 
obvious relationship with mod. north. dial. rickle 'to make into a 'rickle' 
or stack', of which XED. gives the first instance from 17it3. Li Swed. 
dial. rekkel: rukkel •ramshaekle" (cf. Rietz, Sv. dial. le.\., s.v. Rikkel) we 
findananalogy of theparallel readings in P and N (cf. P p. 10(5,16,22). — 
23. The conneetion is abrujjt, the passage having been altered and 
abridged: cf. X (40t;.i3) Migge . . . is stinckinde ulesshes luur, pet 
acwencheit gosflich luue pet Grickishe fur hitocneit. Ilwuf fleschs inis 
on eorite so sicete 7 so holi (K) a.<ie Jesu Cri.sfes fleschs. And, pauh 
he seide, himsulf . . . Nisi ego etc. — 24. mi/ faders <(• myne: N (400. l'j) 



' ponc in line 23 means "tlioupht, niinil' (ef. p. 22"2.25); mede C is evi- 
dently due to n «•onfusioii of the «eiiHe» of the oriKiiiHl word. 

' Mx api>arently iiii.xiiiKlerwtands the line ^'after having ilone thee 
harui'); it means: 'if he is hungry for, if he seeks" etc. — 81. hire I refer 
to heorte (30). — 32. one should be stresseil : 'the one'. 



318 Joel PAhlsson 

min ainl minex Federes hiue: cl'. 1. '2<j. — '27 ff. K (4((6,20) Hiron 
Jesii Crisles oiriine ilicip/es (K), J)eo hirnile (K) pet heo iileschsliche 
liiiieile hine . . . uor-eoden pe sirclnesse of /je Holi Hosle . . . nis he 
wod, octer heo, pet luiicct 1o simiiti- hireowene ulesshs etc. — 30. There 
is an inconsistenc}' of niiraber and i)ersons. — 31. After to f/edre we 
)nny jiut a dash. 

192. '2. In tlie lines which tnllow as well as in those which 
precede, the revised text has been materially chanfred; cf. N (406.27 ff.) ■ 
The puiijort of the latter part of tlie original argiiment may be given 
thus: Cheose, nti, eiierichon of eoritUih (K) elne 7 of heoiienlich . . . Luiie 
niakeit hire (sc. heorf) schir and ijriitfiil and cleane . . . alle pe pini/es 
pet heo arineit, alle heo lurnect ti hire . . . piiruh pet tii luuest pet f/od 
pit is in 011 octer monne . . . pu luake.^it . . . his r/od pin oirene god . . . 
Sfrik^ {streche BC, sfrech T My) pinr luue to lesu Criste, j pu hauest 
i-uninnen hini. Jiiti [Ihin T) hini niid . . . Iiiue . . . and lie is pin . . . Kis 
(iiid hefere uneuenliche rniHche (K) pen alpel isiite loorlde':' Chfriic etc. — 
13. N (408.15) pef for eni icorldliche luue his luiie trukie: rnr no 
ping ne con hiiiien ariht biife he one. — '20 niiyh: N (408.22) 
iniiint. — '22. The sto]) after wilferlich shoukl be placed before the 
word. — '24. After perof a colon. — 28. A fidl stoj) after snigfen. 

193. 2. The comiection would be improved by omittinji;^e//o/"(^. — 

3. done heni f>of f/ood: N (410 3) ne niei ich noicihf don hani. — 

4. whan he — pe rede see (7) inserted. — 8. wiphele is, to my 
knowledge, an mirecorded compound : A' (410.5) his spuse pet he ne 
niei noiif helien wict: cf. 1. II. — 10. Cf. Gen , XYIII. 17: 

Niun etc. — The letters in the maririu : ■. : similnrlv 11. \'.)2.2'.i. — 

nesis ■ ' 

17 ff. Cf. Isaiah. LXIV. 4: — vidit — expectautibus. — The 

quotation from 1 Cor,, 11. 9 (18) is also contained in 3IT. — 2'2. A 

full stop after cordis. — exprohacione for exprohacio. — The stop 

after inaloruni to be taken as a colon. — 23. Cf. Ps. LXXYII. 8: 

non est creditus cum Deo spiritus eius. — N (410.18) pis is J)e 

lefdi riwle. Alle peo (K) octre seruect hire . . . Lutel sfrenccte ich inakie 

of hiiiii, lor htvon pef peos heon- deorifwurctliche i-wu.sf [i-lokef T). 

Hahhect ham, paiih, scheorfliche, icfe eihfeocte dole. — 26. — p. 198 

inteqjolated. - 27. There is apparently some confusion: ^w ^«//e/ — 

hi/m should preferably be left out : cf. Rev., XXI, 9: Et venit %tius 

de septem Angelis ... & locutus e.st mecum. dicens: Yeui etc. : or 

else w-e may iiisert J)fif before .1«. — A colon after iiiini. — 32. pe 

hriynesse of nolde: claritatem Dei (v. 11). 



' Sirik can hardly, as sugjrested by Mn in his glossary, go back to OE. 
streccan; it is to be connected in forii) and sense with OE. strltan 'stroke, 
rub'. — 12. loiieH for leuei). — 13. Clierifi — clierie possibly an instance of play 
upon worils, — 20. nionne gen. pl. as on p. 384,11: 'who loved hiiu inost 
among men'. 

^ For heo. — HcihheS imp. pl.; cf. p. 342.23. 



Recluse 319 

194. 1. Cf. V. 11: & himen eius simile lapidi pretioso tamquam 
lapidi iaspidis, sicut crystallum: cf. 1. 18. — 2. Et habel)at murum 
magnum, & altum, habentem portas duodecim : <!t in portis Anjielos 
duodecim, & nomina inscripta, qu» simt nomina duodeciui tribuum 
filionun Israel (v. 12); cf. 1. 23, — ti. Cf. v. 14: duodecimnomina duodecim 
Ajiostolorum Agni; cf. p. 1H5.1. — 10. Cf. v. 16: & mensus est ciuitatem 
de arundine aurea per stadia duodecim millia. — poiisaii : XED. 
knows an analogous form only from mod. Sc: cf. also EDD.; however, 
I note an instance of loss of d from Ayenb., p. 75: an hondred 
pousen zipe. — 12. V. 17: mensura hominis, qu* est angeli. — 
Coutes is foimd again on p. 195.16: these are, so far as I am aware, 
the onlj- examples of the occurrence of this fonn in English: cl. 
GoDEFROY. s.v. Coute. — 16. There is an irregularity in the syntactical 
connection : siguifies those who ... — that they etc; cf. p. l!l5.'-!7. — 
18. The dittography should be corrected. — 26. One o/"to be left out. 

195. 15. his apparentlj- for pis. — 24. Sardoiiiche: in the 
examples given in XED , s.v. .Sardonyx, this form only occurs in 
pl. sardoni/ches (17th cent.). — Snrdi/ne: Rev.. XXI. 20: sardius: cf. 
XED., s.v. Sardine^. — (irisfolite seems tobeafaulty f orm : cf. XED.. s.v. 
Grisolet, obs. variant of Chrj'solite (earliest example fr. 1672). — 
30 ff. Cf. Gahhett, op. cit., pp. 5 ff.; 28 ff. — 32. rcrtuouse: it 
would be tempting to assume some connection with veii, as an allusion 
to the green colour : 

• Jaspis colore viridi : 

Profert virorem fidei. 

(Garkett, op. cit., p. 28); there seems, however, to be no sense re- 
corded either in EngUsh or French to support this assumption: 
probably, then, the meaning of 'efficacious or beneficial in healing', 
a property frequently ascribed to ])recious stones, should be assigned 
to rhe word : cf. XED.. s.v. Yirtuous 6. 

196. 5. a possibly for as: cf. 1. 9. — 10. Et duodecim portse, 
duodecim margaritse simt etc. (v. 21). — 12. Et templum non vidi 
in ea. Dominus enim Deus omnipotens templum illius est, & Agnus. 
Et ciuitas non eget sole etc. (vv. 22, 23). — 15. beren in hi/ni: cf. v. 24: 
reges terrsf afferent gloriam suam, A honorem in illam. — 17. «h ni^th: 
j)er diem (v. 25). — 32. hem for hi/nr. cf. 1. 15. — 34. Miii to be 
supplied as the subj. 

197. 1. pat should be inserted after And. — 2. sihal he Jjan or 
tlie like has been left out. — 8. Et ostendit mihi fluuium aquiv vitie 
(XXII. 1 >; cf. 1. 19. — 9. A full stop after Loinhe. — 11. fair fnii/lt: 
afferens fractus duodecim (v. 2). 

198. 10. After ijospel a colon. — If the purport of the Scrip- 
tural passage is correctly rendered (cf. John. XVII. 3), lie linnii;.n of 
would mean "be acquainted with"; an apj^arently similar instance 
(from 1630i is given in XED., s.v. Know 9 d. — 12, 1.3 abmryp, 
alimcy: I have noted (from Wright's Voc?) a sense "maintain" which 



32') .Tcel Pftlil!<son 

would suit this context ; ct'. Mntt.. X. .S2. — 10. Jxif eiToneou.sly tor 
liiij): ct'. V. (!: H;tc verlia tidelissimn .sunt. & vera. Et Dominus 
Deus spirituum ])ro])hetanim misit Angelum suum osteiidere seruis 
suis qua? o])ortet iieri cito. Et ecce venio veiociter etc. — 21. he may 
have been omitted after And. — Cf. v. -9: Vide ne teceris: conseruus 
enim tuus snm, it tratnun tuorum iiro])lietarum. & eorum, qui seruant 
verba ])ro])hetiH' lil)ri huius: Deum adora. — 20, 32 ff. Cf. v. 14: . . . 
vt sit potestas eoruni in ligno vit». & per portas intrent in ciuitatem. 
Foris canes, & venefiei. & im])udici. & homicida', & idolis seniientes, 
tV- omuis, qui amat, & facit mendacium. 

199. The passajres on this and the following ])age are fragments 
Irnm tlie eightli j)art of the original. — 10. fram estfV to holi/ piirsdai/ 
an addition. — Jii heruest etc: JV 1 412.21)^ ^e schute» ete» urom ester 
iiort pi-t pe lioli rinJe dei, pe Jatere, pct is ine h^ruest, eueriche deie 
ticie, Imte . . . jiOing daires, anil uif/iles. I peos dnwes . . .ne sclnihn y 
etcn (K) noiit liwit {nawt coten hwit B, eote na» hirit C, ete na hwil 
T My). — 11. N (412.30) Sinn ancre malett hire hord mid liire gistes 
wiSnten. pct is to mtiche urcondschipe ... 7 mest a'iean ancre ordre, 
p(t is al dead to J)e icorlde. Me haueit i-herd oftv sir/i/en J)et etc. — 
21) ff. N (414.5)' . . . (/istninf/es : n" ne tulle 56 to Jje yte nnne tinlcuitr 
harhiz : pnuh J)rr nere non in^tfr ruel of Intte hore mettlease muij {hare 
meadlese niird B. hare medliise.schipe C, hore meadhse nowse T My), 
liit icolde . . . liH ne limpeit nnul to ancre of oiter monne elmesse ■uorin 



' iV^ (412.3'; Mn'8 iiiterpretation must be reganieil as an erroi-; I translatb: 
'In comparison witli things that are (treated^ before (abovei, tliey (sc. riwlen) 
are of slight iniportance'. — 7. deittte 'estimation (: men attacli leas value 
to etc.)' — 2V. eted is imp. pl.; tluis a fnll stop sliould be placed after feble 
(so also Rg p. 70). B ouer jeble . Pottige eote!); siniilarly BC (Mv). 

^ iV (414.4) sjjeken, eten pa. t. — 0. nere: tbe pa. t. sulij. shouUi be kept. — 

23. nueral adv. — 416 2. poure adj. qualifying tbe following word. — 13. After 
etetie a full stop, iifiiiic tiioti being tbe object of l<ii)e. — 15. tireund pl. — 
418.1. It is needless to point out tbat My's stiange assuniption 011 p. 68 is a 
curious blunder; wurieti does not, of cour.se, mean 'curse'. But I fail to see 
the exact sense of tlie ijbrase. Mn's cxplanation ('defend berself wbeii lier 
cattle is sbut up in tbe pinfold') does mit belp us nincb and is, in fact, ob- 
vionsly a misapprebeusion; mncb tbe sanie bokls good in regard to tbe inter- 
j)retation given by Morris ('beware wbeii one imi>ounds her'). 1 sbould be 
inclined to take ptiiit as the pres. t. subj., give to warien tbe sense 'guard, 
take care', and excbange tiie for lie BCT {My): 'to take care wben be (sc. heiward) 
should sbtit ber up' (the tinie of tlie day or, perbaps, of tlie year so as not 
to treapass on tbe cultivated ground); cf. Fr. tnatidir le quant il les enparke. 
However, 7' imindes goes against this explanation. — 3. txme: Mn 'town'; 
Moukis 'enclosure'. An appropriate tianslation would be 'court of justiie', 
bnt I lind notliing to support it. — 15. irel mei doti etc: MoRRrs interpret;Uiou 
is, so far as I can see, witbout meaning. — ;i. eilite 'propeity'. — '20. Iierde adj. — 

24. After breres a semicolon; B breres . ne biblodgi ;My): 'let ber not bleed 
berself. — 42l).4. Siiin wuminon cf. p. 218.3. — Iii the secoud liue froni tbe 
bcginning of foot-note a Mn take.s liefde as 'bad'; it means 'bead'. — Te ■^enies 
pe etc. (tbiid line from tbe end! ovidently. as suggested by iMoRRis: Te 
■}eines . . . spekeii. — In foot-note f, 1. 2 tlie stoii after 0/ sbould be struck out. 
for liwon p meaning 'provided tbat'. 



Recluse 321 

timkii II liirf lanie . . . Marii> 7 Maiihn . . . Iiore lif gnuilrede. ^i*^ iiiicrcii 
habheit i-iiiiiiieii <>ii tn Murie ilole etc. : the rest ot' the arfruiuent has 
also been luuch abridyed in the revision. — 2-t. .V 1 41 4.25 1 Ileo (sc. uiicre) 
schal lilihen hi elmesse ase ttrruhliche ase hfo ener iiiei . ■ ■ ^if heo 
iiiei siHirien eni poiire schreadeH {schiue T. schraden C\, sende hain al 
d-rnelirhe ut of hire ivoanes (icanes TC) ■ . . Anil hicu .schulen Jjeos 
rirhe inirrm p^t . . . hnliheit ri-nti-s i-setle, don to ponre neihehoures 
ilerneliihe hnre elniessef Xe irilnen {wilni C. mlne nan T. wihii ha li ilv) 
iiinit forto hiihlien word of one lanje ancre etc. — 34. .hreiiii/e probaMy 
an error for Seint ■Terome X (422. ij. — • 3G. X (422.15)' 3'' ^^rliulcn 
lieon i-dodded four (fiftene T) sicfen i(te vre . . . and ase offe i-hten 
hlod. 

200. 4. takep for talkep: X (422.17) llicun 5« heoit i-leten hlod, 
;<- iie .•'chulen don no ping, peo preo dawes, pet ou ijreue .; uuh tulki^it 
niid ower (K) nieidriies and niid peaufule Inlen schurtect ou 1o-gederes . . . 
So icisHche wited ou in our hlod-letunge . . . and al.so hwon y. i-uplect 
eni secnesse : ror much-l solsrhipr liit is iiorfo uorleoseii, uor one dfie, 
tene octer tireolue^ — 5. nou}fh to litthen hi/: X ( 424.3 1* Ancre pft 
nauelt nouf neih himdc iK) hire uode. — ff. hij — her erroneouslj- 
for the sing : in 1. 8 correetly sc/c , as the reference is to the ser- 
vant that -goes out\ — 8. nonian: 110 inan: so also 1. 11: -Y (424.12) 
,V(( pini/ nahlnn heo p-f hore daine hit mite i ne ne undrruon no ping, 
ni: ne \iuin wictufen hire leaue. — 9. X (424.18) Xoiiiter of pe wuninitn 
«f heren urom hore dame, ne nc hrini/en (K) to hire nony idfle fahn, 
ue neowe tidinges etc. — 12. giuep for greuep^ — 13. rhustise heiii etc. : 
X i42ti.i0i' pe unrre innkie riiter of huin fo makien octer renie akneon 
fo per eorite. . . . and pe unrre legge 011 eiiter ■■<uiii /lenifence etc. — 
17. X (42H.-I) Bifwconen mele ne gruselie {grurhesi B. gruuesi C. 
gruse T My) 5« (sc. the women) nouf nouiter frut, ne oiterwhuf : ne 
ne drinken wiitufen lcaue. — 19. X (428.0)* Xon anrre struanf ne 

' N (422.5"! ror nouf 'uot bv anv nieane? — 12. tliite Tisk' or 'tli£ficulty'; 
cf. NED., s.v. Doul)t 2, 3 b. 

' iV (424.3) beoi) for heo. — 19. MS.: bringeii (KX — 24. hesniel : a combination 
with OE. henlamyiie. ON. hdlsmdl ;M.v, SIorris) doea uot seem very prob- 
able. — nl is adv. and the pbrase lias refereuce to heitmel. 

' y (426.6) hire 8g. ; an inconsistency iu number. — 8. eft soue 'a 
second tinie, again'. — 23. ham refl. ; .Ms's erroueous interpretalion of 
tlie paBsage is repeate«l by Mokris; it lueans; 'let tbem keep tiriuly 
together . . . and not care' etc. — and >24) — somed (25) may be regarded a.-* a 
parenthesis. 

' N 428.7) peo prou. pl. referring to word. — 10. Ms's interpretation 
looks like a misuuderstanding: vlutfen bi lueans 'live iipon' aud Godes milce (11) 
is paiallel to metf r cM. — 11. -Mn, Mokris mistake the meaiiiiig ; by Mv giveu 
correctly tbus: "l-et uo one niistrust God, whalever niay happen ti> tbe aii- 
cboress, or think tbat he will fail her': B godd, hiret Sf tide of Pe nHCre; 
similarly CT. — 14. eie hope cf. luueeie I. 30; fhe nf hope UTC [ey) ;My) — 
17. stiicchen fi>r stucrhe. — 23- riuleii pl. — 2S. yodere should be kept as pre- 
ferable to Godes TC i,'sound precept'). — 430.13. heueile pa. t. subj. — Is. /10/ 
holilen fvidently aii instance of dittograpby iMk). 



322 Joel Pfthlsson 

oiihte, mid rihte. iiorto iis/,en i-sette huire, lnite iiiete 7 rloit [jet h<n niei 
rhitle» bi {hiite niete 7 hure p hii niei fiiitte In B My) 7 (iodeii inilre. — 
20. eueri/ehe welie ones redep: .V (42^.17) 3« ancren oiven pis hitle laste 
stiicchen reden to oiir wiimmen eurriche wifcc enes, iiort pet heo hit kunnen : 
ct'. A" (430.11) pisse boc redeit eiieriche deie hiron y. Iieoit eise — 
euerirhe deie lesse oder more. Uor ich hojne pet hit srhnl lieon 011 . . . 
swuite biheue puruh Godes (jrace. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

A part of the present thesis, coiuprising the text and the 
prefatory notes, appeared iu 191 1 among the Annual Publications 
of the University of Luud for that year (Lunds L^niversitets Ars- 
skrift. N. F. Afd. l. Bd 6. Nr 1). Prospects were lield out 
at the time of pubhcation that a critical treatraent of the text, 
including textual notes and an investigatiou of the language witli 
a glossarial iudex, was to follow at no very long interval. Adverse 
circumstauces, however, have kept me from executing my pur- 
pose and I very much regret that the continuatiou of my work, 
which for several reasons I deemed it advisable iiot to defer any 
louger, now presents itself in a very imperfect conditiou. Hopes 
are fallacious but perhaps it may not be amiss in this piace to 
point out that a fuU glossary containing all tiie forms found in 
tiie texfc has actually beeu compiled aud is intended to be brought 
out shortly, together witli a list of names, an index of the 8erip- 
tural quotations, and bibiiograpliical uotes. Preparatory work for 
an examination of the dialect is also iu progress. 

The scope of the investigation, has, as will be seen, been 
restricted to an attempt at removiug the difficulties of the MS.- 
readings. As already stated in the opening pages, the reviser 
of the original text, or the scribe, or rather both in commou, 
cannot in justice be credited with having produced a very careful 
piece of work. It has been my endeavour to make the most of 
the material with which I had to deal, a task which has proved 
to be of some intricacy as, aj^art from a considerable amount of 
obviously false readings, the text presents a great number of 
forms and words not hitherto recorded, and sj^ecialized sonses 
uot fouud, if at all, until considerably later times. 

As tlie punctuatiou of the MS. Iias been kept in my diplo- 
matic reprint — a way of editing whicli iu my opiuion sliould 



•!24 .loel I'Alilss(pn 

l)e adopted for all liiifiuistic inateiial puliiislied l"or pureiy seientitic 
v\nh — the counection of clauses, as 1 take them, has been iu- 
(iicated in the critical apparatus; I do not, however, by any meatis 
lay ilaiin to consistency. Tlie original versions have freely — 
]ierhaps too freelj' — been quoted, not only in places where I 
cousidered this as the siniplest manner of setting right a faulty 
reading in the revision but also wherever I tliouglit it of interest 
to iliustrate the variations of the versions. 

When studying tlie Nero version as given by Morton in 
liis well-known edition for the Camden Society, it could not escape 
niy atteutiou tliat the editor, as is the fortune of everyone dealing 
with matters ofthis character, has in the case of several words 
aud passages given iuterpretations whicii niay admit oi" sonie 
doubt. I tliought it of interest, although it could not strictly be 
r^garded as fonning part of my duties, to criticize his opinions 
where they diffcred from iiiy owu. My remarks are the out- 
come of a systematic perusal of tlie text and practically all tlie 
obscure passages have been touched upon. Tlie notes inay in 
man}' places seem ratlier trivial in nature; otliers siiould be 
regarded as tentative suggestions; in some few I may liavc hit 
tlie mark. It sliould be noted that tbe numerous corrections of 
the editors readings which are the result of Koibing's cpilatiou ' 
iiave been adduced only in pUices wliere tliis has beeu necessary 
for my pur.pose. This collation sliould always be consulted i)y 
students of tlie Ancren Riwle; the same appHes to the readings 
from N and tlie paralle! early versions given by Macaulay in iiis 
most interesting and valuable series of articles in vol. IX of Tlie 
Nhideru Language Review. 

As it is mv intention to make variou.s problems relating to 
tlie Aucren Riwle — and particularly tlie version pubHslied by 
iiie — tlie suljjeet of special studies, it may not seem expedient 
iii these pages to anticipate the results. However, soine few 
cursorj'^ notes raay be given ou questious wliich have especially 
attracted tlie interest of scholars. I wish, liowever, initially to 
stress the point tliat arguments can nnly liang in the air as loiig 
as we have to depend for critical material — apart trom tlie 



.lalirl). f. loin. ii. enjil. Siiiacbe u. I,it., XV. pii. 179 ff. 



Recliise 325 

collations referred to — upon llie edition of Morton wliich, wliat- 
ever its merits, falls far sliort of modern requireinents. It is tc> 
be regretted tliat tlie fulfilment of tlie i^romises made for liaif 
a century by the promoters of Ihe Eaiiy EngHsii Text Society 
to produce a satisfactory odition siiould be postponed in favour 
of undertakings which seem inferior in imiiortauce as well as 
inteiest. 

Tiie hterary monument commonly called the Ancren Riwle, 
containing so inuch valuable information on medieval iife and 
ways of tliinking. has come down to us in tiie followiiii: versioiis': 

I. E)it/Iish. 

1. B. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 402 (V^ K-Jtli 
cent). 

■2. T. Cotton, Titus, D. XVIII (V2 13th cent.). 

3. .V. Cotton, Nero, A. XIV (V2 13th cent.). 

4. C. Cotton, Cleopatra, C. VI (13th cent., lateij. 
o. G. Caius Cullege, Camhridge. 234 (13tli cent.). 

6. r. Veriion iMS.. Bodl. Lib.. Oxford (7« 14tli cent.). 

7. P. Pepys MS. 2498, Magd. Coll. Cambridge (Vs 14tli -] 
cent.). 

8. A fragmeut published by Professor Napier in llie Jouiiial 
of Germanic Philology, II. p. 199 (14th ceiit.) ^. 

' MAC.iCi.AY, op. cit., pp. 64, 71, 145 £f. 

' Sonie otlier fragiiients, not mentioned by Macaulay, also deserve 
attention. In an article in .-Vnglia, vol. XXX. p. 103 ff., Heiiser pulilislied 
8ome prayers contained in M.*^. Lauil Misi-. 201 of tlie Hodleiiin, a 17th rent. 
MS. in llie liandwriting of W. I>'isle who tells us tliat these were taken 'oiit 
of tlie Nunnes Rule of Snt James onler in Bennet Cott. I.ilirary' (C.C.C. 
Caiiibridge). Heuscr, judging froni tlie apparenlly arcliaic forins of langiiage 
shown in these fragincnts, puts forward the theory that tlie.se are copied 
from a lost Ancren Riwle MS. dating from the transition-perlod from Old 
to .Middle English and that tliis lost M.'"!. points back to an OE. original. 
Tlie peculiar and in part oliviously false langiia!;e forins were a priori likely 
to aroiise suspicion as to tlie genniqeneSH of Ihe extract.-< published and tlie 
arKuinents aiUliiced l>y Xapier in a paper contributed to The Modern LanKuage 
Keview, IV. p. 433 IT. place it beyond dnnbt that tbese prayers have actuiilly 
been copied by l.'isle froin tlie abovenieiitioned .M."<. in C.C.C, and lliat 
the archaisms were intentionally intn>iliir.-.l l.v liim >if. Wii.tKKU, Beilr. z. 
Ges. d. deutscben Spr. u. I.it,, I. 72). 



326 .Joel rAhlsson 

II. French. 

i». Cotton, Vitcllius, F. \'II. 

III. Latin. 

10. M. Magdaleii College, Oxford, 67 (ab. 1400). 

11. Cotton, Vitellins, E. VII ('/2 14th cent.; greatly damaged). 

Discussing the nuitual relation of tlie MSS. Macaulay (p. 151). 
on the evideuce of passages contained or omitted, recognizes 
the existence of two distinct gioups of versions — 'those 
that have been interpoiated to a greater or less degree, viz. 
BVP, aud the remainder, whicli better preserve the geueral 
form of the original text, though less correct and less near to the 
original in other respects ti)an B'. Tiie iuterpolations occurriug 
iu the Euglisli MSS. are also partly characteristic of tlie French 
and Latin versions. As regards correspoudences iu verbal readings 
'in a very large uuinber of instances N stauds alone against a 
consensus of the other copies: but it has some affiuities bolh 
with C and (more especially) with 7" (p. 150). Additional elu- 
cidatiou of the questiou of the relationship betweeu the different 
versions might, it seems, have beeu afforded by a systematic 
groupiug of the points of agreement or difference in the matter 
of readings on the basis of Macaulay's coUation, and I propose 
in another place to give a survey of some of the most distiuctive 
features. Tliere are reasons for thiuking that this might render 
a modification of Macaulay's arrangement necessary. 

As is well known, tlie questiou of the original language of the 
Nuns' Rule has called forth a great deal of argument. Ou the autho- 
rity of Smitli and Wunley, the latter of whom rests his statement 
ou a collatiou of Ihe Latiu and Enghsli MSS. of the Cottonian col- 
lectiou ^, it was generally held that the Latin was to be regarded 
as the original version. In the Preface to his edition (p. \'III ff.) 
Morton uudertook to prove the English origin of the work aud 
in fact succeeded iu changing the general opinion ^. Morton's 
arguments were, however, subjected to a detailed criticism by 

' WUI.CKEK, OJ). cit.. p. ''2. 

- Matzxek, Altenglisclie .'^piailiiiiol)en I. L', p. 5; Wui.cKEH, op. cit., 
p. 73; G.\S(JUET, Tlie Nuns Rnle, Pref., p. XI. 



Recluse 327 

Brainlette in au article on the niatter in Anglia, vol. XV 
(p. 478 ff.), and the resuU at which he arrived seemed to 
favour Wanley's statements. The view of the American scliolar 
has beeu impUcitly adopted by certi\in German writers '. The 
problem has been dealt with afresh by Macaulay, on pp. 71 ff. 
His conclusious, geuerally contrary those of Bramlette, must on 
the whole, 1 am inclined to tliink, be accepted as sound. It 
cannot be doubted that Bramlette's argumeuts are partly based 
upon misapprehensions aud he appears to have possessed an 
imperfect knowledge of the various English MSS. However, as 
has also been point^d out elsewhere *, the whole question cannot 
be definiteiy solved until we have the critical editiou of the 
various texts, the Latin included; and it seems rather au idle 
undeitaking to make an infereuee as to the general character of 
so exteusive a work from separate alleged misunderstandings 
occurriug in MSS. frora a comparatively late date aud by no 
means of the best. Internal evidence also makes the assumption 
of a trauslatiou from the Latin highly improbable. Tlie easy 
fiow of idiomatic language, the frequeut allusious to Euglish 
social couditions and ways of life, the great number of proverbial 
expressions, the iustauces of playiug upon words — these facts 
do uot support the trauslatiou-theory. One more reason. not 
witliout some weight, may be added. As is well known, the 
work teems with Latin quotatious from the Scriptures, the Fathers, 
and various other sources, iu sonie places foUowed by a literal 
transiation, in others reudered by a paraphrase, in others agaiu 
left altogether untrauslated, this last being the case uot ouly 
with famihar Biblical passages but also in passages the under- 
standing of which nuist imply a not inconsiderable knowledge 
of Latiu. If it had beeu deemed necessary to turu the bulk of 
the work iuto another language, it seems somewhat hard to 
discover auy object iu keepiug a considerable percentage of the 
original either with or witliout an explauation attached. 

' MCHE, t^ber den in Cotton Titu» D. XVIIl enthaltenen Text der 
Ancr. R.; again Anglia, XXXI. p. 399 ff. ; REnEPENNlKG, Syntaktisrl.e Knnite! 
ans iler Aucr. R. 

' Heiser. p. 119; Gasquet, p. X. 



n28 .Toel rAhlsson 

lu tlit.' tirsl of his articles (p. G5 ff.) Macaulay devotes soiue 
care and atteiitioii to an eudeavour to prove tlie originality of 
tlie Freucli versiou. His array of proofs does not seem cou- 
viucing. lu tlie tirst place we may call iu question tiie grouuds 
for his assertion tliat tlie a priori prohabiMties in a case of this 
kind should be in favour of tlie suppositiou that the Euglish 
versiou was translated from the Frencli. The occurreuce of a 
large number of words of Roniance origin iu this early text is, 
as was pointed out by Wiilcker (p. 74). liardly to be cousidered 
leiiiarkable in a work of a spiiitual diaracter. Moreover, the 
manuer iu wliich these words are dealt with by tlie writer does 
uot seem to favour Miicaulay's presumptiou. Froni a treatment 
of this matter I may quote tiie following passages': 'Ist es 
iiicht eiue gauz auffallende Tatsaclie, liass von den 2r> rom. 
Lehuwortern. die Genuswechsel aufweiseii, 20 vollstandig ihr 
Genus verloren, resp. das Genus neutrum akzepiert iiaben 
lunl voii den ubrigeu 5 ausserdem 3 ausser iu dem Geuus des 
Enlymons aucli als Neutra belegt sind . . . Hatte der Verfasser 
eiue fi-anz. Vorlage benutzt, so glauhe icli es miudestens als auf- 
failende Tatsaclie hiustelleu zu miissen, dass von den 44 rom. 
Leluiwoitern, dereu Genus belegbar ist, 20 ganz und gar das- 
selbe verloreu liaben'. Further, the faet does uot seem altogether 
without importance tliat the Freuch MSS., eveu if it caiinot lie 
regarded as au original copy, is a ceutury iater iu date tlian the 
older English oues. 

If we examine the selectiou of separate passages wliicli 
Macaulay adduces in sup]iort of iiis assumptiou, we sliall liardly 
Hiid that aiiy oue of tliem goes to prove the thesis he maintains. 
Atteutiou may iucideutaily be called to the fact that of the 
versions compared, tlie Euglisii (N) is generally iuferior to 
the rest of the English MSS. iu point of correctness, wliile tlie 
Frencli is defective even in some of tlie passages given. In several 
instauces the assumed iuferiority of the Euglisli versiou must be 
due to an obvious misuuderstauding; tliese cases I have pointed 
out in my uotes. lu tlie majority of cases liowever uo infereuce 
as to the originality cau be drawn froiu the differeuces, and the 
passage in Englisli, althougli sometimes inferior — in oue instauce, 



' L.\Kn\vEHR, D.1S giain. Gest'lileclit in der Ancr. R., pp. 2, 3. 



Recluse 329 

p. R6.11, (lecidedly to be preferred — gives fairly good sense 
witliout the aid of Ihe French. The way in wiiicli the occnrrenee 
of a prose-paraphrase of the original lines of verse in N on p. 240 
is accounted for can oniy be described as ntterly improbable; the 
same reniark applies to the theory about the relationship of the 
French versiou to B (p. 152). The appearance of English words 
iu the French MS. also seeuis to deniand another explanatiou. 

One more reasou. and that of ccusiderable importance, tells 
against Macaulay's assumption. This is the question of authorship. 
Wauley's ascrijition of the English versious to Siinon of Ghent, 
bishop of Salisbury (f 1315), Morton has already shown to be 
impossible '. Morton's own suggestion that we should see in 
Bishop Richard Poor the author of the work, allhough founded 
ujcrely on conjecture, has been accepted with more or less hesita- 
tion liy others '. The connection of the original Rule with Tarente 
iu Dorsetshire, doubted by Wiilcker (p. 74), has been repudiaied 
by Heuser (p. 116) and Macaulay (p. 473). In the noteworthy 
article in The Modern Language Review, XI. 1, to which I have 
already referred in the notes, Mc Nabb from general corre.^pon- 
dencies between the Ancren Riwle aud the Dominican Rnle 
concludes that the author was an English Dominieau Friar. and 
on the ground of particular ideutifications considers it a proba- 
bility bordering upon certaiuty^ that this Dominican Friar was 
Robert Bacou (c. 1170 — 1248). If further evidence can be found 
to bear out this theory, it might constitute a conclusive proof 
against the hypothesis of translation generally. 

If we turn to the version which forms the subject of this 
the.sis. we shall find that the particular problems calling for solu- 
tion are no less iutricate. A few points may be singled out for 
special mention. 

Although by Macaulay they are allotted to differeut groups, 
there is au obvious aftinity between the versions handed dowu in 
MSS. P and T. This is evident not only from numerous cases 
of correspondence in the matter of verbal readings but also from 
the common occurrence of a number of passages coutaining 



' Preface, p. XV; cf. also WCi.cker, p. 7.S: Hecser, p. 116; Mac.mi..\v, 
].. 77. 

' M.iTZXER. (1. 7; Wli.cker, p. 7.5; GAsguET. Pref. p. XI. 



330 Joel Pfthlsson 

quotations from various sources. To these attention iias been 
caiied iu the notes. So far as can be judged from the imperfect 
critical apparatus, these passages seem to be absent from the rest 
of the Enghsh MSS. They are. liowever, to be found also iu 
the Latin Magd. Coll. Oxf. codex ', and this constitutes a general 
reiationship between TMP. Otlier distiuctive features are poss- 
essed by the last two of these versions iu comnion. One is tlie 
considerable contraction of the eiglitli part, wliicli is altogetlier 
absent from M. Furtlier, wliiie tlie Englisli Ancren Riwle is 
addressed exclusively to women, tlie Latin, as stated by Macaulay 
(p. 76), endeavours, rather awlcwarfljy, to adapt itself to meu 
aiso; this attempt at a wider application, wliich lias not, liowever, 
been consistently carried througli. is evidently tlie reason for tiie 
suppression of most of the passages wliicli contain personal 
refereuces to the sisters for wliora the work was originally composed, 
and tlie omissions may be regarded as chiefly due to 'a syste- 
matic attempt to get rid of the persoual character of the address'. 
Tliis is also exactly cliaracteristic of tbe version in the Pepys 
MS. But wliereas tlie latter must be called a paraphrase applied 
to onelich men and wymmen generally. ratlier thau a copy of tlie 
origiual work. the partial adaptation of the former to wider 
circles appears to be restricted, so far as can be gathered from 
the few instauces given by Macaulay in illustration, to merely 
verbal additions, and traces oi a similar procedure are not alto- 
gether wanting in the English versions either. A collation would 
have been necessary to establisli the identity of tlie alterations 
in M and P iu this respect. 

One more point has to be dealt with in a discussion of the 
mutual relationship of the versions treated iu the preceding para- 
graph. lu P, aloue among all the English versions, we fiud what 
would appear to be an explicit indication of translation. The 
concluding words, slightly varying but substautially identical in 
tlie earlier MSS. ^, form a request for the reader to 'greet the 
Lady with an Ave Maria for him who wrote the Rule' etc. Now, 
the present versiou shows this puzzling alteration: 
seiep . . . an Aue Maria . . . for hym pat it droiae out in fo pi.f 

langage (p. 200) 



' Cf. Brami.ette, (1. •482; Mfni:, pi>. 

' Cf. WUI.CKEH, p. 71. 



Recliise 331 

The explauation which most naturally presents itself would 
apparently be to take the words to prove couclusively the theory 
of a trauslation. The geueral agreement pointed out above be- 
tween tlie extant Latin version and the one contaiued iu MS. P 
would seem to reuder this explanation all the more probabie. 
But then we should have to face the difticulty in regard to the 
Latin parts of the work, to whicli attention has already been called. 
There are also facts which admit of a differeut solutiou and 
whicii indeed make another explanation necessary. It is quite 
obvidus from the constautly recurriug misapprehensious of words 
which seem to have gone out of use in the middle and latter 
part of the 13th ceuturv that the basis of the versiou whicli the 
reviser, living iu the closing years of the 14th, found suitable 
to adapt to his purposes, must have been in Euglish and not 
very far removed iu age from tiiose represented by the MSS. 
from tlie earlier part of the precediug century. It goes without 
saying that the terms for 'trauslation' aud 'iauguage' iiad not 
iu those days the hmited seuse which we assigu to them, aud 
the use of the phrase given above does not seem very strikiug 
in view of the fact thai the forms and words wliich the reviser 
fouud iu his original were perhaps a ceutury aud a half older 
tliau tliose familiar to him, and were iu part uniutelligble to iiis 
generation. The case is in some way paralleled by the followiug 
passage in Cursor M. (Cotton vv. 20061 ff.): 

In sotherin enylis tvas it (sc. tcritt) dratm, 
And tiirnd it haue i till oi<r aun 
Langage o northrin lede, 
pat can nan oiper emjJis rede. 

This is a question of diaiects; tlie line iu tiie colophon of 
Papplies to lauguage differiug, apparently, in age aud dialect alike. 

I hesitate to add to the amouut of unfouuded and uulikely 
theories current about the Ancren Riwle. But it does not seem 
altogetlier improbable that a work, appareutly so wide-spread aud 
popular, already at an early date should be subjected to modi- 
ficttOons in various ways, with a view to making it raore generally 
useful ^. An adaptation of such a nature uudertaken soon after 

' Mac.wlav. p. 78. 

22 



3B2 Joel PAhlsBon 

tlie middle of tlie 13th ceut. may have formed the ground-work 
for a new revision carried out a ceutury and a half later ou, 
the result of whicli lias been preserved in the eodex from wiiich 
the preseut edition has been copied; anotlier, related in cliaracter, 
being represented by tlie Ijatin versiou as we have it, abridged 
and moditied, in the Magdalen MS., Oxf. 

The text of the present version is, as stated by Macaulay 
on p. 147, iu many places so much altered. or so corrupt, as to" 
be almost unrecoguizable. Apart from numerous blunders caused 
by carelessness or misunderstandings, the sense, as I bave had 
ouly too mauy occasions to point out in tlie notes, has suffered 
severely by constant omissions or iusertions undertaken witliout 
the shglitest regard to logic or to tlie coutext. Many of the 
additioual passages, however, have an iuterest of tbeir own aud 
would be worthy of a more exhaustive treatment than can be 
given to them here. As soon as I begau to work at the MS., 
these passages struck me as clashiug in part with tlie general 
teuor of tlie Ancreu Riwle as I knew it from Morton's text, aud 
I saw in them tbe outcome of ideas prevaleut iu the turbulent 
times from which the MS. appareutly dates. As far as I am 
a judge, the inference can liardly be doubted tliat tbe man by 
whose hand these alterations were made must liave embraced 
ideas typical of the spiritual life of Eugland at the close of 
the 14th ceut. and I do not consider tbe labelliug of the volume — 
Wiclileefs Sermons — as altogether misleading. It would have beeu 
.a matter of iuterest to deal with this subject in detail, and I 
regret haviug to confine myself to passing iudicatious. 

Oue of the most striking of these passages is found ou p. 
54 — the metaphorical application of the apocalyptic beast 
to the depraved Church. This is a text that has been varied 
by critics of ecclesiastical abuses in all times, and the correspon- 
dence betweeu this passage and the reply of Walter Brute, tlie 
Lollard, to the Bishop's summons ^ may be merely accideutal. 
But the peculiar agreemeut with Wyciif iu the use of mm-- 
chante as a renderiug of mercenarius in John X. 12 (I. 24)" (for 
which see the note) can hardly be regarded as a mere chance. 



Trevki-yan, England in tlit' Age of Wyclitfe, p. 325. 



Recluse 33:^ 

Another of the more extensive insertions occurs on pp. 72. lo — 7ti. 14 
and eontains an allusion to the douation of Coustantiue to 
whicli I have referred iu my note on the pas.sage (p. 74. 32 ff.)'. 
Further interpolatious related iu character wiii be found on 
pp. 30—31, 47 (11. 13 ff. especially to be noted), 53. ii ff., 
76. 6 R. (unmistakably akin to passages ou the coming of Auti- 
christ in P. Pl. C. XXIII. 53 ff.. 126 fE.), 152.17 etc. The 
active life of the Poor Preachers is obviously alluded to iu 
insertions on pp. 5. 4, 70. 15, 74, 79. 3 etc. (we seem to see 
John Ashton traveliiug on loot, staff iu haud, through all the 
towns of England preachiug with the zeal of an apostle -). Sonie 
views on election of grace, predestination (pp. 62. 4 ff., 92. 26 ff. 
etc), the salvation of the heatheu (pp. 66. 27, 78. 2) may be 
compared with similar ideas in P. Pl. B XI. 109 ff., XII. 275. 
It may also be worthy of note that the passage Goo ich where -i 
go etc. (pp. 62. 6, 155. 19) occurs almost verbally iu P. Pl., C. XII 
200. Agaiu the reviser"s couceptiou of the true church as a 
gaderynge of f/oode foU- in f/oddes name (p. 48. 14) seems to be 
ideutical with that of Wyclif aud the author of P. Pl. ^ One of 
the tenets mentioned by Peacock as characteristic of the 'Bible-men' 
was to the effect that every humble-minded Cliristiau mau or 
womau is able without fail to find out the true sense of Scripture 
aud have tlie right uuderstauding of it; this is exactly the purport 
of additional passages ou p. 98. i ff. Finally in the longest of these 
interpolations, those on the visions of tiie Apocalypse (pp. 193. 26 
— 198) we may trace inHuence from religious ideas iu vogue at 
this date and uot uuknown to Wyclif aud P. Pl. * 

If we piece together the various hiuts of this character 
fouud throughout the book, it will be abundautly clear that the 
man who found it expedient to dress the old-time work in a 
new garb would be found amoug the adhereuts of the movemeuts 
for reform wiiicli agitated tiie miuds of men duriug tliis period of 
fermeutation •'. To which particular body of opposers the reviser 

' JissERAxn, I,'^fiop6e niystiqiie, p. 134; Mexskxdieck, Charakter- 
entw. des Verf:8 von Piers tlie Plownian, p. 77. 

' Trevei.van, op. cit. p. 307, 315. 

• MENSENniECK, op. ctt., p. 79 f. 

' Mknsesdieck, op. cit., pp. 66 ff. 

' There aeems also to he an allusion to the political troubles of this 
<late on p. 96.25 B. 



384 Joel P&hlsson 

should be assigned luay be a subject for discussion; some of 
his views do not seem to tally with the WycUvite ideas proper 
(cf. e. g. p. 18. 16 ff). The question cauuot be decided without 
further investigation. 

A word or two may also he devoted to the iiardiy less 
involved question of tiie langnage. Tliere are certainly gnod 
grounds for the varying opinions wliioli liave been advauced on 
tiie niatter. Heuser iu his above-mentioued article in Anglia, 
p. 103, foot-uote, spealts of 'eiue siidliclie hs.' Macaulay, p. 147 
takes the dialect to be Midland, with some Southwestern charac- 
teristics. Jordan in tlie Englische Studieu, LI. 255 regards the 
versiou simply as 'mittellandisch'. The language, however, 
caunot by any means be called a homogeneous dialect but pre- 
sents, as Miss Paues correctly observes ^, 'a strange medley of 
Southeru and Midlaud, even Northern forms' and this is auother 
point of correspondence betweeu the preseut versiou aud T. 
There are also, as Jordan points out, some traits of affinity 
iu lauguage with the so-called West-Midiand Prose-Psalter and 
it is worthy of notice that the sectiou in the MS. immediately 
preceding the 'Recluse' is exactly a parallel version of the said 
work. This question of relationship will have to be duly consi- 
dered in a forthcoming treatment of the language of P; it 
maj' turn out to be oue of wider rauge. Neither does it appear 
altogether uuhkely that tiie reformaiory infiuence which I have 
tried to establish above will prove of some importance for the 
locatiou of the text. 



I take this opportuuity again to express my sincere gratitude 
to Professor Ekwall for mauy proofs of the kind interest which 
he has coustantly shown in my work. My acknowledgements 
are also ouce more due to Professor Kock for his readiness to 
discuss with me obscure poiuts ou suudry occasions wheu I have 
applied to him. Many of the suggestious in my uotes are the 
outcome of these discussions. Mr. Fielden, Lector in English at 



Paues, A fourteenth Cent. Kngl. Biblical Version, p. LXVIII. 



Recluse 335 

tliis 1'niversity, has taken the trouble to go through my mauuscript 
with a view to uormaliziug the language. Dr. Liljegren and Mr. 
Cedergreu have rendered valuable assistance in reading the proofs 
of the last few sheets. Tliese and several other friends who have 
assisted me iu differeut ways I beg to accept this expressiou of 
my mauifold obHgatious. 

Luud, Sept. 1918. 

J. P. 



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