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lisIw in (Drbinarg in *j)tt UJajtsljj. 







PALERMO . ..... 11 



LISBON ........ 85 

MADEIRA . . .... 129 


ALBANIA . ... 203 





FOR the second time in the course of one year, and in 
high spirits, I entered Messina ; again, as on a former 
occasion, a charming voyage was in store for me again, 
as before, a golden morning shone in Sicilian splen- 
dour. But man is a strange and inconceivable creature, 
longing for new impressions, and these were not new, so I 
was not enthusiastic, for I had seen Spain. I was glad, 
however, to be able to run into Messina this time, and 
was pleasantly surprised to find in the middle of a well- 
secured and closed harbour the celebrated ' Charlemagne,' 
the first screw line-of-battle ship of France, which was a 
matter of great interest to us sailors. 

The harbour is not large, but is secured by piers and 
chiefly filled by coasters. The marine and commercial 
life is concentrated on the shore, and is so busy and loud 
that it is heard on entering the harbour as the noise of a 
waterfall ; it annoyed our German phlegm by that un- 
meaning and wild contention and roaring which is a part of 
these perpetually noisy southerners. It was the fish-market, 
and a colossal swordfish, caught in the Faro, was exhibited 
for sale in a booth. Here was opportunity enough for 
quarrels, furious curses, ear-piercing cries, each trying to 
outcry the other, the favourite mode of wrestling amongst 
the Italians of to-day. Before suspecting any harm, one 
of our friends had his pocket picked of his handkerchief 
which gave occasion to much annoyance and amusement 
and was a caution for the future. 

From the left of the Marine, at the end of the pier, 



opens a place called Piazza d' Austria, from which the 
Strada d' Austria leads into the interior of the city. But 
how comes the name of Austria in Sicily? It comes 
from a man of iron, who stands with his commander's 
staff in a very determined position on a marble pedestal ; 
the bronze tables at the foot record the splendid naval 
deeds of the brave victor of Lepanto, John of Austria, 
the natural son of Charles V. This romantic and heroic 
youth started from Messina for that victory which was a 
turning-point in history, and which first humbled with 
the sword of the Cross that terrible Crescent, before the 
arrogance of which all trembled. 

The bastard of the great emperor was poorly rewarded 
for his immortal deed, and his brilliant youth soon per- 
ished in all early and glorious death. By birth, though 
not by law, the brother of the king, the free unchequered 
course of his genius was closed to him ; cold suspicion 
feared lest he might appropriate by force what was denied 
to him by law. 

To the right of the monument, at the commencement 
of the sickle formed by the port, and after which the 
city was called by the Greeks Zante, stands the arsenal, 
marked all over by balls ; on the walls of this building, as 
on many others in the neighbourhood, are to be found the 
marks of the bullets of 1848. Italian negligence has not 
yet effaced these sad traces. As in Italy splendour and 
misery are always close together, and Naples, except its 
Via Toledo and its Chiaja, is a dirty disgusting city, 
Messina has also only two fine large streets : the Corso 
and the Ferdiuanda, which, however, have the stamp of 
southern magnificence. Everything is of solid stone, at 
each window there is the Spanish balcony, everywhere life 
and noise, though not in the same wonderful extent as in 
Naples ; but notwithstanding all this, the city is nothing 
but a palace-ruin exuberantly surrounded with dirt and 


plants. Luxuriant May winds its blossoms round this ruin, 
and with such abundance as can scarcely be imagined ; 
but the dirt is the beloved guest of the whole year. 
At one end of the long Ferdinanda lies the mean-looking 
palace of the king; before it are some fine trees and ex- 
tremely fragrant blooming tea-shrubs a kind of botanical 

The cathedral of Messina has an odd facade of white 
and red marble in the Byzantine-Gothic style. Fine 
marble ornaments surround the gate ; and statuettes of 
saints in the old manner lead one to expect a fine interior ; 
but instead of that its ornament is unfortunate and cha- 
racterless, and the cupola of the high altar only is dis- 
tinguished by Byzantine mosaic in the style of the church 
of St. Mark. The arches of the middle nave are 
supported by twenty-six monolith columns of old Egyp- 
tian granite, which formerly belonged to a temple on 
the salt-water lakes of the Faro. In their heathenish 
application they may have produced that grand impression 
of the overpowering simplicity of ancient times, those 
times when the huge masses were scarcely hewn, masses 
which are more full of effect the nearer they are to their 
cradle. In this Christian temple they are too simple, and 
appear like the naked statue of an Apollo in comparison 
with the limbs of a Spanish saint decked out with gold 
and diamonds. The high altar is of a clumsy magnifi- 
cence ; it is a pity that the wonderful mosaic work of the 
glittering half-precious stones is framed in the unecclesi- 
astical and flourishing forms of the rococo, its material, 
consisting of lapis-lazuli and other fine stones, is rarely 
seen in such perfection and freshness of colour. 

In the midst of this splendour is preserved the cele- 
brated 'Lettera della Santissima Vergine ai Messinesi,' in 
itself a harmless object, which however like so many 
other things insignificant in themselves has given rise to 


many controversies. My maxim in things which do not 
particularly trench upon dogma is, that every one may be- 
lieve in them who finds pleasure in doing so, and that I am 
much too insignificant to attempt to mete out the faith of 
other souls. Behind and at the side of the altar we find the 
coffins of Alphonso Libitinus king of Naples, ornamented 
with pall and crown ; of the emperor Conrad IV. and the 
queen Antonia, the consort of Frederick III. of Aragon. 
A white marble pulpit in the Cinque-cento style is also of 
interest, both for its artistic execution and for the heads 
of Mohamed, Luther, Calvin, and Zwinglius, which support 
it. Whether these latter are indeed historical portraits, I 
cannot vouch, but if it is an idea of the cicerone so to 
dub them, he must be an original. A dumb collection 
of heterodox 3 characters is this, respecting whom the clergy 
still debate ; but whether the Italian clergy possess learn- 
ing enough, or even sufficient education, to understand 
thoroughly the men they debate about, I should not like to 
say. It may appear strange and paradoxical if I say that 
to me Mohamed appears the most important of them all. 
The Prophet of Mecca has with a southern fire and en- 
thusiasm created his creed, a great and popular religion 
not based on the spiritual, but appealing to the senses and 
to the heart. Luther, Calvin, and Zwinglius have dis- 
solved by the spirit of Protestantism, a religion in which 
man was able to obtain peace on earth. To construct is 
more difficult than to destroy, to unite than to dissolve. 
A scientific joke which in former times made a great deal of 
noise, is a meridian drawn on the floor of the church, which 
by its curve is so arranged that a ray of the sun entering 
indicates the hour of noon every day in the year. In Italy, 
where science is still wrapped in mystery, a great deal is 
made of these simple things, and people rejoice exceed- 
ingly at this attention and obedience of the sun. 

The place before the cathedral is irregular. According 


to the sketches of travellers, there should be some statues 
of sovereigns here ; but probably they have been removed 
in the revolutionary fever, as we could not anywhere find 
them. The place is now only ornamented by the cele- 
brated fountain of Gegini. I cannot understand why 
this work, representing, and in parts very absurdly, the 
Nile, the Ganges, and other rivers, should be so curious 
and so celebrated. Through a steep filthy lane, disgusting 
beyond everything, we panted on to the cloister San 
Grregorio, belonging to the female Benedictines. A stair- 
case leads to the sun-baked terrace on which the cloister 
with its odd tower stands. I disliked this tower for its 
burlesque form when I passed the Faro last year ; it is 
half a snail, half an Upper Austrian tree-cake, a tasteless 
architectural caricature of the days of wigs. The interior 
of the church is of an overpowering richness, pietra- 
dura covering everything, from the flooring to the highest 
cupola. Millions of little coloured half-precious stones, 
discovering wonderfully minute designs, excellent for ele- 
gant little tables or paper weights, are out of keeping here 
in these wide halls. A single Sicilian family was wealthy 
enough to order this monster work of lapidarian luxury 
to be constructed by workmen brought expressly from 

To the chagrin of the sexton we were far less interested 
with the miniature details of the pietra-dura works, than 
with the peep through a fine lattice into the choir of the 
devout Benedictines, whose pretty young pupils also pre- 
ferred to look through the lattice than into their hymn- 
books. We seemed whilst in this convent to be the un- 
conscious tools of the devil, for a confession, whispered 
through the coloured ornaments of the stone wall to a 
priest on our side of the church, seemed interrupted on 
our appearance. We therefore, as devout Christians, left 
the convent which our presence disturbed, and stepped out 


upon the terrace, where the Sicilian sun poured down with 
its whole blood-boiling power. This view is of great 
poetical interest for us Germans. Our eyes falls upon his- 
torical Messina with its towers and cupolas, the rocky coast 
of Etna's dented country, and the pure blue surface of 
the sea, contracted to a blue ribbon and closed in with the 
coast of classical Calabria, rich in its vineyards. On this 
terrace stood Goethe, and here he wrote, with the warmth 
and enthusiasm of youth, the song of Mignon. 

I never lose sight of the contrasts in this unhappy Italy ; 
one moment we were in heaven and the next we had to 
make our way through filth and dust, through the greatest 
confusion and the greatest misery, and again came, in the 
Villa Scartella, upon the ruins of a paradise. To the right of 
Messina, GET an eminence rising from the sea-shore, lie the 
villas of the rich inhabitants of Messina, amongst which 
that just named is the most beautifully situated. From 
terrace to terrace, behind and by the side of the simple 
house, the garden ascends, with disorderly negligence and 
southern grace. A sea of fragrance, a world of blossoms, 
a magnificent bridal-bed of beautiful May! Was May 
jealous that I had entered her sanctuary? I do not know ; 
but at any rate I got a pretty severe cold from the intoxi- 
cating fragrance of the orange blossoms; I was not yet 
used to such powerful enjoyments of nature, so that I had 
to banish the splendid bouquet, which the gardener 
gathered for us, to the coach-box. It is a pity that the 
beautiful Villa Scartella, from which one enjoys so splendid 
a view of the strait, was so much damaged by the Swiss 
in 1848. 

Although the lighthouse in itself cannot be called an 
interesting building, yet the drive to it repays one. You 
drive along the coast over the mountain, grown over with 
picturesque cacti and aloes, through the salt lakes once 
so celebrated, from which arose so many fine temples, to 


the tower of Charybdis, which is only a common-built 
lighthouse on the sand. From the plateau of the tower a 
wide view is obtained of the sea ; one sees Stromboli, the 
grey fairy castle of Scylla, and the splendid strait from a 
new point of view. My enjoyment of the scene already 
impaired by my cold was rendered still more difficult 
during this excursion by a most impudent army of half- 
naked, ragged beggar-boys, who in spite of our driving 
fast, and threatening, would not desist from their shriek- 
ing cries. On the way home I was struck by the im- 
mense fabrication of chairs in Messina ; the produce of this 
manufacture is piled up before every house in numerous 
burlesque rows ; here also are to be found those real gigantic 
ox-horns the like of which are not to be found in all the 

Next day we examined the Charlemagne, a beautiful 
ship of the line of eighty guns, distinguished by its excel- 
lent arrangements and great cleanliness, which are not 
always to be found amongst the French. In addition to 
being a fast sailer, she has a very compact steam-engine, 
which the commander told me propelled this colossus 
excellently with 400-horse power even against the wind. 
The Charlemagne is the first large ship built by the French 
government in which experiments in sailing and steering 
are made on a large scale ; Eigaud, the commander, is quite 
delighted with the success attending the experiments. The 
crew of the ship number 865. The sailors look healthy 
and hearty, they are in general fine men, and have a useful 
and very neat dress ; but after all they are not English 
sailors. The officers and the twelve midshipmen have 
something of a student air. We wandered through all 
parts of the ship, and were especially pleased with an 
excellently arranged powder magazine, which looked like a 
library, and where there was a machine worked by steam- 
power intended to make sea-water drinkable : unfortu- 


nately this has not yet met with success, but it is worth 
notice. The visit to this sea-castle ended, as usual, with 
agreeable refreshments in the fine spacious cabin of the 
commander. Amidst splendid weather and a magical 
illumination we left the picturesque Faro. 




A DREAM dreamt by a fairy ; a basket of flowers full of 
fragrance poured out into a splendid large shell, is delight- 
ful, sunny Palermo. Fantastically-formed mountains, 
which project picturesquely over the surface of the sea, in 
the shape of prongs and pyramids, like monuments of a 
destroyed world, surround the plain in which Palermo 
stands washed by the sea, with its interesting rows of 
palaces and its fresh green gardens, the glory and ornament 
of the Sicilian capital. On the left branch of the moun- 
tain which surrounds the plain and the roadstead, reposes 
the much praised Bagheria, once a country seat of Sicilian 
nobility of great splendour ; on the right branch rises the 
lofty and bare Monte Pellegrino, the centre of Sicilian 
piety, glorified by the legend of the saint Eosalia, and at 
its foot like an emerald in a grey quartz, is the green park 
and the magnificent villa, the temporary residence of the 
celebrated Lord Shrewsbury and Talbot. The city of 
Palermo itself is seen at once, full of character in its 
peculiar, self-created forms, which is to me always a 
principal charm of a city. Soon after we cast anchor we 
were visited by Filangieri Duke of Satriano, an honest man, 
as is well known. Notwithstanding his sixty-four years he 
looks fresh and vigorous. Bright, kind blue eyes distinguish 
him from other Italians; his firm, vigorous ideas he 
expresses very cleverly in the best French. His head has 
a striking resemblance to that of Louis-Philippe. He is 
descended from the celebrated race of the Filangieri, and 
his ancestor was the first who used the dagger in the 


Sicilian vespers. My acquaintance with him was without 
doubt one of the most interesting recollections of my 

Proceeding from the quay you enter the interior of the 
city through two stone pillars forming part of a triumphal 
gate. The city is halved by two interminable streets 
which cross one another. The Via Toledo runs from the 
sea-shore to the plain bounded by the mountain, and is 
infinitely finer than its namesake at Naples. Through 
this entrance one sees afar off the grand row of palaces 
with their thousands of balconies, and looks over the Eoyal 
Palace on to the larger arch leading again into the country. 

The central part of the city is formed by the so-called 
Cassero, to which four districts of the city converge in 
four corner 'houses. Each corner has its fountain em- 
bellished with statues. From the centre of this most 
interesting place one has an extensive and matchless view. 
There is the same confusion, the same mixture of forms 
and colours, of all ages and all classes, in this Via Toledo 
as in that of Naples, but there is something of the serious- 
ness of the Arab in the dark faces here. Here also one 
sees with pleasure really grand, imposing houses, bearing 
the stamp of ancient magnificence, and calling to mind the 
East, in the latticed passages formed by the balconies which 
run under the roofs, and in the richly-painted overhanging 
cornices. These high latticed passages form a means of 
communication from house to house, and along them come 
unseen to the Via Toledo the nuns, that they may see their 
relatives in the celebrated Holy Processions of Palermo. 
80 numerous are the ecclesiastics, male and female, that 
they form a ruling element, and following the natural bent 
of the mind they yearn, even after their renunciation of 
the world, for the magnificence of these southern festivals. 
These latticed passages give a mysterious appearance to the 
rich palaces of the Via Toledo. In other parts the windows 


full of flowers and women's faces look cheerful. In the eyes 
of a simple German, these southern cities with their noisy, 
restless crowds, appear always in holiday attire, and more 
than ever to-day, which is Ascension Day. We made haste, 
that we might hear a mass. A small inviting-looking 
church at the very commencement of the Toledo, in that 
lovely Byzantine-Norman style, was unfortunately closed, 
and so we hurried to the cathedral. 

The cathedral of Palermo, seen from the exterior, is a 
triumph of art, a godly castle, a Zion of Christianity. It is 
in the Byzantine style, and a mass of ornaments, arches, 
cupolas, turrets, statues and bas-reliefs. Over the serious 
Gothic, blooms the sensuous magnificence of the Moorish, 
and in every part of it, history, tradition, and religion 
mingle in the most exquisite manner. Sicily of the past 
speaks to us in this golden-yellow, sun-baked mass of stone. 
The terrace-like roof, and the division of the building into 
parts, give to the whole the character of a castle, which is 
relieved by a large open vestibule ornamented with a rich 
balustrade and statues. The corner towers reminded me 
of my beloved Giralda of Seville. Words cannot convey 
how inharmonious with this fine building is a cupola in the 
new Eoman style. It projects clumsily and awkwardly 
from the middle of the cathedral, reminding one unplea- 
santly that nothing human is perfect. The wide interior 
of the church in the new Eoman style is really horrible, like 
a paper lining to a case of "jewels. One stands speechless 
and discouraged, and is as one who awakes after a beautiful 
dream, in presence of a contrast rarely found in architec- 
ture. Mass was read in the cathedral, and I believe that we 
were the only persons who behaved properly ; for the people 
rattled their stools and wandered from altar to altar, so 
that there was a continual restlessness and movement. But 
that which pleased the people most was yet to come. 
During the mass I saw people leaving their places and 


hurrying towards the centre of the church ; a meridian 
was drawn here, round which a laughing assembly crowded. 
Watches were taken out, and all waited for the grand 
moment, as in the theatre one looks for the appearance of 
the prima donna. The crowd became still noisier ; the 
priest at the altar turned round ; in a minute the sun 
glittered on the marble, and indicated noon-time. Amidst 
pleasant jokes the watches were set; il colpo di scena 
was ended; people returned to the altar and finished 
mass comfortably with the assistance of the priest. Such 
a scene strikes a German with astonishment, as he does not 
make so free with our Lord. 

There are some tombstones of beautiful and simple por- 
phyry, and others again of white marble, with mosaic bands, 
which are of great interest. They contain the ashes of 
the Emperor Henry VI., who died in Messina in 1097 ; 
of the Emperor Frederick IL, who died in Florentina in 
1250 ; of the wife of the Emperor Henry Constantine, the 
last of the race of the Normans, who died in 1098 ; and of 
Koger king of Sicily, who died in 1154. Over one of the 
large entrance gates, the portrait of the king, painted 
in oil, has a curious appearance. We passed the palace, 
a mixture of all imaginable kinds of architecture, through 
a gigantic arch, built in Charles V.'s time, in Cinque-cento 
style, out of the city, and came upon blooming orange 
gardens, to the Frati Secchi. 

Whoever wishes to become acquainted with the character 
of the Southern Italian ; whoever wishes to see how an ener- 
vated people expend their ribald fun upon everything, even 
upon death itself, should follow with me that Capuchin 
rattling his bunch of keys. A creaking door, surmounted by 
death's heads, and some verses which gave one a shudder, 
led the way to the world below. Descending a broad, 
cold, dark staircase, we came upon grey, wide halls illu- 
mined by the light of day ; the cold staircase resembles 


the first leaden hour of sleep in a night of fever ; 
fancy, during the paroxysm of fever, is placed under the 
confused dominion of dreams; a heap of rough, dust- 
covered coffins is piled up against the dark walls ; carica- 
ture-like corpse-figures, wrapped in brown cowls, grin from 
the wooden shelves and niches, with shaking heads, faded 
tufts of hair, and parchment-like skin ; whilst under the 
vault a cornice of children's figures runs round with kid 
gloves, neat little blouses, caps, hoods and nosegays, but with 
hollow eyes and earth-coloured skin. Long halls vanish in 
a perspective of unsteady light and shade, and cold colour- 
less tints. The dead Palermitans stand like the books in 
a library. Festoons of cobwebs, depending from the skulls 
and hair, form a fantastic ornament. A dismal army of 
cats jump over coffins and corpses, like witches at play. 
All classes and every age are here brought together in a 
horrid dream. 

We find here the bodies and bones of Philip of Austria, 
king of Tunis, who died September 20, 1622, down to the 
venerable Capuchins, who, but a short year ago, merrily 
dined in the refectory with our guide. Every Palermitan 
has the right to be buried here, on condition that his 
relatives pay the convent a certain annual tribute of wax, 
otherwise the most lofty ancestors will be turned out with- 
out more ado. The rich are preserved in glass cases, and 
every year, on All Souls' Day, have a grand reception, for 
which they make a fine toilet. 

In the chapel of these halls mass is sometimes read. On 
All Souls' Day a corso takes place, at which it is the 
fashion to come and see one's dear relations and acquaint- 
ances, and to amuse oneself with shuddering before their 
sad remains. In the eyes of a foreigner all is stiff and hol- 
low, and such a horrid mockery, that one does not so much 
experience fear, as indignation, disgust, and at last com- 
plete indifference. In glaring contrast to these galleries 



of distorted corpses, was the delicious fragrance of orange 
blossoms in the garden of the Capuchins. The Duchesse 
de Berri told me once that when a girl, tempora mutantur, 
she had intended to join as a sister the female Capuchins 
at Palermo ; King Francis, a practical man of the world, 
directed that she should first try for a few years without 
vows : she prayed and sang industriously in the choir, took 
her meals with the sisters in the refectory, washed the 
dead, and frequently visited the Sorelle Secche ; all went 
on very well, and the virgin, dedicated to God, longed for 
her real entrance into the convent. There came a day 
when it was her turn to watch at the Sorelle Secche ; she 
opened the door of the catacombs, and suddenly saw 
standing before her the grinning figure of one of her 
friends, whom she believed to be alive, a duchess, cele- 
brated for her tall, fine figure, and whose death she had 
never heard of during her pious exercises ; and now 
she found her grimacing and shrivelled up to a little 
corpse. This cured her of her passion for the convent, 
and this distinguished lady recovered her liberty, of which 
she has since made so good a use. On our return to the 
upper world, we found the Capuchins j ust distributing the 
convent soup, amidst noise and even some fighting. 

Charming as Palermo is, with its wide fragrant gardens, 
I never should like to live there. The Frati Secchi have 
disgusted me with the Conca d' Oro ; I should always 
carry about with me the disagreeable thought, that if I 
were to die suddenly, I should form a caricature exciting 
an agreeable shudder amongst the Palermitans. Who- 
ever has seen this lower world, feels that the noisy rushing 
one above it has neither depth nor dignity. 

Besides the cathedral in Palermo, there are other cele- 
brated churches there ; that of San Giuseppe and that of 
the Gesuiti. Both are quite overloaded with pietra dura, 
which causes the tasteless forms of the pigtail period, when 


these churches were built, to look still more clumsy. 
San Giuseppe really consists of two churches, one above 
and one underground ; I cannot see the use of the latter, 
which is a wide vaulted hall. It is more an architectural 
trick, a mere luxury in building. In one of the side 
altars on the right wall of the upper church is an ex- 
tremely lovely Madonna, so sweet and so simple that it 
made the most agreeable impression upon me ; yet it is 
neither the production of a celebrated master, nor has it 
otherwise any historical value. In the church of the Jesuits 
I saw for the first time the pietra dura worked in high 
relief upon the pillars and arches, which, though extremely 
rich, has a too luxurious appearance. 

At the commencement of the Via Toledo along the 
shore stands a row of stately palaces, on high terraces, 
ornamented with flowers, and only separated from the 
sea by a promenade, the trees of which were just in 
blossom. The chief of these palaces is that of the Prince 
Butera; a wide staircase, an excellent subject for a 
decoration of Gropius, leads to the rampart-like terrace, 
which is open to the public. The out-look upon the open 
sea and on the curious and beautiful coast is splendid, and 
makes one only regret that this aristocratic palace is not 
inhabited. The Flora, a public garden entered by the 
avenue before mentioned, is one of those spots which are 
at once the ornament and the glory of blooming Palermo. 
What is so beautiful in Italy, and which we Northerners 
cannot understand, is the art of combining architecture 
with nature. In Munich, the German Athens, we see much 
that is beautiful and great in architecture, but from this 
cold beauty warmth and grace are absent, for real nature 
is nowhere united to the massive blocks of stone. Every 
little garden here has its architectural ornament, its stone 
balustrades, its statues and vases ; and every building has 
its bouquets of flowers and its green place of rest. With 



us everything is either country or town ; one prince alone 
in Germany understood this Southern union, where mind 
and heart are both agreeably pleased, and he executed his 
ideas as well as the climate and the sand permitted. 
Frederick William of Prussia changed the desert of Berlin 
by means of flowers and shrubs. King Francis, when 
residing in Sicily as a crown prince, established the Flora. 
The adjacent botanical garden exhibits majestic specimens 
of palms and other fine and rare plants, which grow well 
here in this free rich soil. The most precious jewel of this 
garden was in my eyes a new creeper, the Bougainvillea 
spedabilis, which overran the iron netting of a glasshouse 
with myriads of its pink-violet flowers. It is one of those 
wonderful tropical blossoms which not only absorb the 
light of th*e sun, but, like the carbuncle of the fairy tales, 
seems to shine by its own splendour of colours. The 
entrance to the botanical garden is through a kind of 
Egyptian temple, passing the broad staircase of which one 
conies upon a sanctuary, where, instead of the worship of 
Osiris, botanical lectures are given. On the side of the 
Palazzo Butera and on the same terrace is the Trinacria, the 
most elegant hotel of Palermo ; we had a most excellent 
breakfast here, and the most delicious spring fruit, but the 
principal charm is the delightful view of the sea from the 
neat rooms overlooking the blooming terrace. 

Outside Palermo, by the side of the Monte Pellegrino, is 
the Olivuzza, another paradise of the Sicilians. Whoever 
desires to enjoy in the most perfect degree all that is most 
charming in nature^ the perfection of gardening, the 
quintessence of floral loveliness, which the luxuriant rich- 
ness of this most happy country alone can bestow on man 
must visit the Villa Butera. Close to Butera is the won- 
derful garden of the Duke Serra di Falko. It is less 
orderly, and old-fashioned fooleries, as mazes and her- 
mitages, show that the proprietor is a genuine Southerner. 


A strikingly beautiful feature in this garden is a long 
melancholy avenue of cypresses, at the end of which is a 
very good artificial ruin and a pond. How much of all 
this splendour of his fairy residence, does the duke of 
Serra di Falko enjoy? nothing but the bitter pain of 
possessing a jewel that, in the evening of life for he is a 
very aged man he cannot enjoy, for he lives in exile. 
For many years a servant of the king, he, on the verge of 
the grave, instead of enjoying peacefully the last rays of 
his declining sun, suffered himself in the year of evil 1848 
to be deluded by the revolutionary party, and accepted 
the Presidency of the Provisional Government of rebellious 

In the neighbourhood of the Olivuzza, Filangieri has 
laid out a new promenade the Favorita. Though not yet 
finished, you see already what it will be. It is a very 
praiseworthy idea of the chief governor to give away 
building lots along the promenade, on the flower-covered 
hill, on the condition that every proprietor shall build his 
house in the Moorish style. On this fine festive evening 
the promenade was very much frequented, and very ele- 
gant equipages rolled to and fro ; amongst them my eye 
saw for the first time a cab, that insecure machine, which 
on my return to Vienna the city of the fiacres par ex- 
cellence I was destined to find in general use. The in- 
troduction of cabs is an event of historical importance, 
and one of those deadly thrusts which the progress of 
enlightenment has given to comfortable Vienna. As soon 
as it commenced to get dark we returned to the city ; 
the people were still walking up and down the Toledo, and 
now the acquajuoli booths, fantastically illuminated with 
numberless vases containing glittering gold fishes, and 
fragrant garlands of flowers, ornamented the streets. 

Next day we paid a visit to Monreale and San Martin o. 
This drive is down the long road, into which the Toledo 


enters by the side of the palace gate, and over a plain 
covered with orange groves, to the mountain. Then the 
road, which is full of fountains and seats, the useful gift 
of a cardinal, brought us to the romantically and well 
situated little town of Monreale. The view from the 
mountain is most beautiful; one looks right over the 
peaceful richness of Sicilian scenery, sees the splendid 
valley as it stretches along with its dark green orange 
wood from the foot of the noble mountain to the shore of 
the blue roadstead, before which lies the beautiful city 
with its towers and cupolas, which seem from this point to 
rise out of the green wood and the blue sea. The convent 
lies with one side in the city ; the other hangs with little 
terraces of flowers down the mountain wall ; it is large and 
spacious, hts a broad staircase with fine pictures, and fresh 
airy passages. Its splendid high mosaic dome is of gold 
and rich colours ; it is St. Mark's on a larger scale, which 
increased size, however, detracts from the delicious home- 
like loveliness of the Venetian church. Monreale is a hall, 
St. Mark's is a holy chamber. By the really successful 
restoration of this convent church King Ferdinand has 
acquired great merit. In this church also are two old 
Norman sarcophagi, one of which contains the ashes of 
William II., the founder of Monreale 1 174. The cross-walk 
in the great convent court contains 200 columns in pairs, 
of which each has a different shape, and the white marble 
of which is encircled with bands of coloured mosaic. 
There also we again found the cruel custom of the Frati 
Secchi, which, however, remembering Palermo, we left un- 
visited. Under a glowing African heat we remounted, 
amidst the noise and clamour of the mercenary popula- 
tion, to proceed through a desolate country towards 
San Martino. This convent, an imposing building in the 
new Eoman style, is affiliated to Monreale and therefore 
belongs, like the mother house, to the order of the Bene- 


dictines ; by the rule of the order, it is situated in a bare 
lonely mountain country. The palace-like building looks 
an enchanted house in a desert, and only a limited view of 
the wide sea is allowed, that fancy may have some scope. 

From a fine hall, in which the Eussian court dined when 
it visited this convent, opens out a really splendid stair- 
case, leading to the apartments of the abbot, and on the 
walls of which are portraits of a number of the popes who 
belonged to the order of the Benedictines. The two prin- 
cipal walks intersect each other in the middle of the 
building, which for this reason is called the Cassero. One 
of them leads to the church, which has nothing worthy of 
notice ; but now in the heat of the afternoon its coolness 
was agreeable and its peaceful solitude sublime. A friendly 
and well educated monk was our cicerone. I like to con- 
verse with monks or with any persons who have a distinct, 
sharply-defined path in life ; one knows the relations in 
which one stands to them, and how to speak with them. 
Almost all the other Benedictines were making holiday, 
during the summer vacations, with their relatives, which is 
permitted for a month each year. In the convent of San 
Martino, as in that of Monreale, noblemen only are ad- 
mitted ; an arrangement very judiciously omitted in our 
excellent institutions of St. Florian, Goetterweih and 
others. The visitor is here shown a collection containing 
something of everything,, and amongst them many inte- 
resting objects. The clay poison-cup of Socrates in this 
scientific medley might be apocryphal. Amongst all kinds 
of monstrous curiosities our good monk showed us a little 
pig that, in cyclop fashion, had only one eye in its forehead, 
and said, quite seriously, ' ma non e nato da una donna.' 
In the rooms of the abbot a picture of Raphael is shown 
which I did not much admire. 

On donkey's back we returned after a hot but not unin- 
teresting day through a desolate valley to a romantical 


situated village, where our carriage awaited us, and brought 

us safely to Palermo. 

As a gastronomer, nay, even I own as a Sybarite, I 
was much pleased with a most excellent dinner in the 
comfortable rooms of the Trinacria. United to the enjoy- 
ment of the dinner, was an extensive and charming view, 
and a delightfully cool evening, bringing the fragr nee 
from the flower baskets of Palermo over the terrace and 
through the open doors. The end of the evening was not 
so amusing, for I had to go at the invitation of Filangieri 
to the theatre, where I heard a farce incomprehensible to 
me. The third day we inspected a Neapolitan steam 
frigate in the inmost part of the harbour. This gave the 
pomp-lovincr prince an excellent opportunity for a rich 
breakfast, in which the excellency of Southern materials 
was effectually shown by the aid of French cookery. In the 
frigate itself indeed there was not much to see ; and it was 
kept up in the Italian style. The differences between the 
Northern and Southern methods of arranging a vessel 
could scarcely be credited ; amongst the Northerns I count 
the English, Danish, Swedish, and partly ours; among 
the Southerners prevail the tasteless, unclean, tawdry- 
coloured manner of the Italians, Spaniards, and of the 
French more than any other. The North exhibits quiet, 
etiquette, strict discipline, nay almost stiffness ; the South, 
noise, joviality, and comedy ; the Northern sailor is, not- 
withstanding the discipline just alluded to, open and free, 
of a cool courage, and has a fresh and clean exterior ; the 
Southern sailor has a momentary courage, an enthusiasm 
of vanity, but he is also slavish and mean, and keeps his 
unshaven face neglected and unclean. 

Leaving the ship, we drove in a fine carriage, with four 
fine black horses, coachmen and lackeys wearing the royal 
colours, to Bagheria, which lies on a neck of land consist- 
ing of an agglomeration of the finest villas, often built in 


the oddest taste. The palaces are all built of a peculiar 
fine glowing yellow Sicilian stone, and adorned with the 
richest and most luxuriant ornaments ; arched walks 
and colonnades a la Versailles. About the middle of 
Bagheria rises in one of the gardens a hill from which one 
enjoys the most comprehensive view of the roadstead of 
Palermo, the city, the Conca d' Oro, and of the opposite ro- 
mantic shore, the sand and the rocks of which are washed 
by the high sea. This hill was a torture to us from the 
excessive heat, so that I begged Filangieri for a cooling 
drink just as we passed the Cassero. The prince stopped 
before an acquajuolo, the people crowded round the royal 
equipage, and I saw with astonishment, that even with the 
bravest the instinct of their native land cannot be overcome 
altogether, for Filangieri got alarmed at the sight of a 
crowd, still more and more increasing, fearing probably 
some attempt, and when I offered him some of the 
deliciously refreshing draught of the acquajuolo, he refused 
with marked determination. To us, artless, and perhaps 
too good-natured Germans, such a thing appears strange ; 
but here in Sicily the words murder and poison may still 
have their meaning. We rambled through the king's 
Favorita, a wide park, of which a part is used as a preserve 
for pheasants and rabbits. The Chinese palace stands on 
the slope of the Monte Pellegrino, on a bad, poor soil, and 
therefore everything thrives ill, and stunted shrubs form the 
only pleasure ground. The circumstance that rabbits throve 
best here caused King Ferdinand I., who is a passionate 
sportsman, to choose this barren place ; but the Favorita 
became his favourite residence from the circumstance, 
Filangieri told me, that digestion is exceedingly accelerated 
by the situation of this desert, a point of importance with 
the king, who is a great eater. The Chinese kiosk is an 
angular work of little rooms and staircases, and has only 
one really pretty salon. The view from the pointed roof 


and turrets of this mandarin dwelling is novel and charming, 
as one sees the sea from two entirely different sides, to the 
right and the left of the Monte Pellegrino ; we discovered 
on the far horizon the French fleet, which had been for 
some time expected in Palermo. 

The day wound up with a truly royal dinner, given by 
the duke. He had invited all the distinguished persons in 
Palermo, so that the banquet was not only agreeable on 
account of its magnificent arrangements, but also for its in- 
tellectual entertainment. Amongst the guests were the witty 
Sauzet, president of the chamber of deputies under Louis- 
Philippe, a man of fine, but rather too sugary manners, 
who has seen much in the course of years, and knows how to 
tell it in an agreeable manner ; the Prince Colonna, one of 
the princes of Rome, and Lord Shrewsbury and Talbot, 
the father-in-law of the former, a respectable and in- 
teresting personage. In his great religious seal he 
imagines that he is elected by God to convert his country 
to Catholicism, and in conversation with me he did not do 
justice to the course pursued by Cardinal Wiseman. I 
must not forget to mention the bouquets of flowers on the 
table, which for their extreme beauty hold a memorable 
place in our travelling recollections ; they were of the 
finest and most beautiful centifolious roses, not bound 
together, but flowing on to the table, like the fragrant foam 
of the champagne, in festoons and garlands, from rich 
golden baskets. 

On the following day we visited the palace of the 

Marquis F . It is a splendid mixture of styles, 

worked out with the greatest industry, for the erection of 
which the Marquis, with unceasing patience, trained his 
own workmen: but notwithstanding this he has not yet 
finished his house. Th'e materials are most excellent, 
the detail wonderful, but the whole lacks character and 
grace; all periods and every taste are represented in 


motley confusion. The vestibule is masterly in its detail ; 
one part of it is ornamented with a skilful mosaic of gold- 
ground in the Norman style, whilst the hall itself is divided 
by fine Greek columns, half in Greek and half in old 
Christian. From the hall we entered a large high Moorish 
saloon, ornamented with the splendour of colour of the 
thousands of little arabesque cupolas and drops of Anda- 

lusian palaces. F obtained the pattern from the 

Alhambra by means of Queen Christina, but unfortunately 
the work is not fine enough ; the colours and the gold are 
put on too glaringly; in a word the airiness of the Alhambra 
is wanting ; the marble floor in this room is very fine, from 
which rises a fresh bubbling fountain. Through a horse- 
shoe arch, the finest room in the house is entered, namely, a 
gallery in Norman-Sicilian style ; the walls and the ceiling 
are composed of the finest mosaic of half-precious stones, 
on the richest kinds of marble ; between the marble is por- 
phyry and red granite ; nay, even the floor is a perfect 
work of art of the finest and freshest colours inlaid in white 
marble. It is all so beautifully polished that it really 
might serve as a looking-glass. That the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany should desire to possess a little piece of this 
work of art as a paper weight for his writing table is 
easily to be understood. The Emperor of Eussia knelt 
down and kissed this wonderful work of stone. Were the 
same style continued throughout the whole house this hall 
would be a rare jewel of art, but because of this mixture, 
its beauty more offends the eye than pleases it. To the 
right and left we find Pompeian and Etrurian rooms, and 
a ball saloon of the imperial time, which are in very bad 
taste, and out of harmony with the rest of the building. 
The key to the whole house is the master himself, who 
has seen much of art and possesses a certain kind of regard 
for it, as well as an iron industry and great perseverance ; 
but his taste is not perfect, and he has not the slightest 


trace of common sense. He would be a good labourer at 
mosaic work, but he is certainly an unskilful director of 
such a building as this. When we were in the Norman 
hall, my eye was attracted to the sea by a spectacle in- 
teresting to the sailor : the whole French fleet, under the 
command of Admiral La Susse, cast anchor in the road- 
stead ; the view of these colossal vessels was a grand sight. 

Once again we visited the Villa Butera to examine the 
interior of the dwelling houses; many small rooms are fur- 
nished with a truly Eusso- Asiatic luxury, and are filled with 
many interesting nick-nacks. More curious than this is the 
so-called Zisa, a tower-like Moorish castle of the time of the 
Caliphs. A fountain with small channels, cascades, and 
many ornaments recalled dear Spain to our remembrance. 
From the roof, crowned with turrets, one enjoys a wide and 
splendid view. Standing there one scarcely dares to con- 
tradict the pretentious inscription in the castle which says 
in Spanish : * The finest part of the world is Europe, of 
Europe Italy, of Italy Sicily, of Sicily Palermo, and the 
finest place in Palermo is the Zisa, therefore Zisa is of 
course the finest place in the world.' 

If Palermo were not Italy I should have an unbounded 
enthusiasm for it, but I so much prefer Spain, which has 
more character, and which I am rejoiced to know I shall 
soon see again. As a farewell to Palermo we paid a visit 
to the Monte Pellegrino ; it is a very disagreeable, rough 
mountain ; the ascent passes partly over an aqueduct upon 
arcades and then runs along the hills, reminding me of 
Acrocorinth. Not quite on the top, but yet at a great 
height, is the church of Sta. Kosalia, used partly as an inn. 
The church, or whatever this holy place may be called, is 
odd and romantic. The place where the saint usually 
slept is shown, and where by a miracle her body was 
found at a later period. The rough, damp grotto, in com- 


bination with the magnificence of the church, has a pecu- 
liarly romantic appearance. 

Until the great plague in Palermo, nothing certain was 
known about the holy Rosalia, but during that time of 
terror a soldier had a dream and a vision urging him to 
search for the body of the saint in a grotto in the mountain, 
and then to carry it in procession through the city, for the 
removal of the plague. To confirm the authenticity of 
the holy order, the pious virgin told the soldier that he 
would die within three days ; the soldier really died, and 
the body of the saint was found at the spot indicated, and 
was carried with great pomp through the streets of Palermo, 
after which the pestilence ceased. Since then great church 
festivals are annually held in the city at stated times. Pre- 
vious to this * festa,' the Santa, as the Palermitans call her, 
regularly washes the streets with a beneficial rain, the 
truth of which is confirmed by many visitors. Whether 
this is a miracle or not I leave to theologians. The pious 
belief of the population is every year confirmed, to their 
great pleasure. 




AFTER one of those dreadfully hot nights, like those ex- 
perienced on the bare rocks of Malta, we entered, on a 
clear morning, the enormously wide and secure harbour of 
Syracuse, which, were it not in these later times stopped up 
with so much sand, could harbour all the fleets of the world. 
The name of Syracuse sounds like a sweet melody, the 
fragrance of the South floats over it and fills the heart with 
expectation. But these expectations were not fulfilled and 
I there passed some disagreeable moments ; bare hills 
and hot dusty olive-fields surround the two extensive 
water basins, whilst on an island connected with the con- 
tinent by bridges, stands the dirty and abominable little 
town. Syracuse is now a neglected ragged beggar girl, 
yet she was once the mistress of the seas, when nearly 
1,200,000 inhabitants lived in the combined cities Ortygia, 
Akradina, Epipolse, Tyche and Neapolis. Then Syracuse 
was full of ricbes ; numberless churches and theatres vied 
with each other in art ; sciences flourished, and produced 
Archimedes, whose discoveries have outlived so many years ; 
commerce brought the treasures of far countries into the 
port, whilst the surrounding country produced the most 
luxuriant fruit. All is now ruin and dust, the bloom of 
art has faded, and with it, as usual, the bloom of nature. 
The town, which in the Greek times was the first in Sicily, 
has now only 1,500 inhabitants ; and what sort of inhabi- 
tants ? Poor ragged people, and amongst them a few 
starving noblemen. Commerce has disappeared, and no- 
thing remains but an uncertain hope that Filangieri will 
suffer this celebrated port to be cleaned out. 



There may be a wide field here for an antiquarian who 
can get excited about a stone, and fall into ecstasies over 
a few effaced letters of an unknown inscription. With 
Strabo and Diodorus in his hand all this rubbish would be 
a paradise to him. I went to see in the town the temple 
of Minerva, the present cathedral, where a few Doric 
columns still give some idea of the former state. In its 
immediate neighbourhood I saw a museum, or rather a 
confusion, in which the statue of the Venus Callipyge, 
found in 1804 in the ruins of a temple, is the only work 
which has real artistical value ; but to say that it is more 
beautiful than that of the Venus dei Medici, as says a 
learned man here, is in my opinion almost sacrilege. 

Outside the city are the former quarries of Latomia, 
without doubt most interesting and most picturesque ; 
amongst them, the most celebrated is that belonging to 
the Capuchin convent. They all differ from ours, where 
the stones are broken and blown up by gunpowder from 
the side of the rock, for here they work into the bosom of 
the earth, through wide ramified passages. One side of 
the Capuchin convent looks over a plain, whilst the other, 
exuberantly overgrown with ivy and brushwood, hangs 
over the steep rock of the Latomia. Descending the 
rugged path behind the convent, we find ourselves suddenly 
transplanted into another world. Between high fantastic 
walls of rocks grey with age, between arcades, arches and 
grottoes, from which smile out upon us luxuriant festoons 
of wild creepers, and in the wildest and most curious stone- '- 
frame, and amidst the smiling blue sky of Sicily, we find a t 
little paradise of orange and lemon trees, the myrtle, and 
the grape, blooming and bearing fruit. The Latomians are 
very melancholy, and yet there is a pleasant repose here 
from the storms of life. Life thrown back upon itself 
benefits from the consciousness of being in intercourse with 
the eternal. But other thoughts sprang up from the sight 


of this picturesque rock, I thought of ' the letters of a 
deceased,' and I wished the Latomians could be for a few 
years in the possession of Puckler-Muskau. What could 
not be effected in such a climate as this in the art of 
gardening ? 

There are things which stamp themselves on our memory 
with melancholy impression. This I found here ; for, far 
from the world, and quite forgotten, is the grave of an 
American cadet, eighteen years old, who, separated by the 
wide, wide ocean from his own continent, from his father- 
land and his relatives, from all that was dear to him, lies 
in strange ground, amongst foreign people, and people of 
a different religion. This young man, in the bloom of 
youth, was killed by a bullet in a duel. They have 
granted to him in the Latomia a narrow little place in 
the rocky wall, quiet as death ; and the wide ocean flows 
between him and his family. I cannot express how sad I 
felt when I saw this grave, and I still think frequently 
with sorrow of the poor j^oung American in the Latomia of 
hot Syracuse. 

The celebrated ear of Dionysius is a wide cleft artifi- 
cially cut in the rock. At the narrow end of it is a little 
stone chamber, accessible from the surface of the hill ; here 
the over- curious and suspicious tyrant is said to have 
been concealed, that he might listen to the unconstrained 
speeches of his Athenian prisoners; he may have heard 
many amusing stories, if he ever really was there, about 
which, however, the learned dispute hotly. The people 
tried to prove to me how one could, even now, from 
above hear everything which was whispered below ; it is 
true I heard a buzzing, but I could understand nothing, 
which makes me think that the tyrant Dionysius must 
have had an ear trained by suspicion, of much greater 
power of hearing than we confiding people ; I did not 



succeed in doing more than to hear the thunder of a gun 
rolling along. 

In a third Latomia, a Marquis possesses a fine garden, in 
which was a great curiosity, the papyrus plant, which, 
except in Syracuse, is only to be found in Egypt and 
Madagascar. The plant consists of a high three-edged 
stem, ending in a crown of horizontally-lying fine pointed 
grass; it requires water and a warm climate: writing 
paper of papyrus is still manufactured in Syracuse as a 
curiosity. I could not, unfortunately, get any, but brought 
home a plant in good condition. We were shown also 
the great Arena, which is not, however, to be compared 
with that of Verona or Pola. What German comes to 
Syracuse t without visiting the grave of Platen ! Our 
carriage stopped at the poor, badly-kept house ; we stum- 
bled through a kind of orchard, through branches and 
thorns, along the garden wall, up the steep narrow path, 
and suddenly stood before the grave of the great poet, who 
has exhibited to an astonished world the power of adaptation 
of the German language to the antique metres. The tomb- 
stone has a Latin inscription, in which the Count is called 
the German Horace, and the arms of Platen, already muti- 
lated, are inserted in mosaic in the garden wall. Thin, 
miserable cypresses stand on the right and left of the 

Weary and tired by a hot drive in a dried-up country, I 
returned to the steamer, and left this desolate shore the 
same evening. 




Mahon, May 26, 1852. 

AFTER a rapid passage our steamer brought us from lux- 
uriant Sicily to the naked, low, and bare coast of Minorca. 
No tree was to be seen, no green refreshed the eye, no 
building announced that Mahon, the capital of the island, 
was close at hand. The whole island resembled a large petri- 
fied wave, and yet I was glad and felt happier than in 
seducingly beautiful Sicily, for we again approached be- 
loved Spain, whilst Sicily, fine as it is, entirely belongs to 
South Italy. Where the blood is volcanic the German 
cannot feel athome, even if everything else were aparadise. 
It is the degenerate descendants of Eome, who, the farther 
south I go, render less bearable to me all the beautiful 
things offered by Italy, through their intolerable vivacity 
and their utter want of dignity. On the other hand, the 
proud Spaniards ennoble their country, and make even the 
most ugly parts of it interesting by their individuality. 
Spain deserves to be seen and admired, even on account of 
her people alone. 

We approached the low. rocky coast at a point where 
an entrance opened, and our steam frigate rushed between 
naked desolate shores into the canal harbour of Mahon, 
the most celebrated in the Mediterranean Sea, but which 
with its islands looks more like a river than a seaport, and 
which reaches far into the interior of the island. At its 
extremity lies the little town of Mahon with its hundreds 
of windmills, a picture of boundless melancholy. The 
whole country appears wretched, without the least trace of 
poetry, and the large and celebrated hospital stretching 


half along the harbour increases still further this im- 
pression of sadness and desolation. But we found some- 
thing in this harbour that richly rewarded us sailors for 
the absence of all other matters of interest. It was the 
English fleet, the most perfect model and study of our 
interesting profession. It anchored here for a season 
during its summer cruise, and as the windings of the 
harbour concealed the surface of the water, the masts of 
the vessels protruded in a curious manner, like steeples, 
over the island. Six line-of-battle ships, amongst them 
two three-deckers, the frigate ' Phaeton,' according to report 
the finest in the English navy, and a large steamer, formed 
the fleet. We had had good luck indeed : scarcely had 
we left the Trench fleet at Palermo, when we found in the 
next harbour these floating fortresses, so dreaded every- 
where, of the wave-ruling England. 

Our entry was difficult, as the English steamer stood in 
our waj r , but we passed her closely, and notwithstanding 
the sharp scrutinising English eyes, and thanks to the skill 
of our commander, we easily overcame all difficulties. We 
cast anchor in the neighbourhood of the hospital. 

Landing at a horrible breakneck pier, we entered the 
little town by a most horrid road, to walk over which was 
an excellent penance after a heavy confession, which I did 
with a feeling of resignation, considering it as a kind of 
atonement for some sin or other. Mahon, the capital of 
Minorca, has only 4,000 inhabitants, who are poor but in- 
dustrious. The town has no monuments nor anything else 
worth seeing, with the single exception of the largest organ 
in Spain, which stands in the choir of the insignificant 
cathedral. The town is very clean, but, like all the other 
towns of the country, it has a most disagreeable pavement, 
a regular institution for the benefit of shoemakers. There 
are here, owing to the English occupation and the frequent 
visits of the American fleet, a number of English inscrip- 


tions with English or American emblems. Numerous 
signboards attest the enormous thirst of the Anglo-Saxon 
race, for the whole town is, as it were, a grog-house for 

A great feature in Mahon are the windmills, which are 
to be heard whizzing and groaning all around ; like dead 
trees, they start up out of the bare country, and add to 
its tediousness. A foaming rattling watermill is beautiful 
and cheering ; but ugly and without interest is a long- 
armed gray windmill. The former indicates fresh-water 
life, the other is a warning telegraph of a deserted dry 
country, as this is in the fullest sense of the word. 

Leipsic and Berlin have also windmills, and I would 
advise every traveller, when he sees them, not to couch his 
lance and charge against them like Don Quixote, but on 
the contrary to turn tail at once before the monsters. 
There are certain universal signs to guide a traveller; if 
he sees from afar a city with black lofty steeples and 
shining cupolas, he may go there, for he will find historical 
splendour and fine monuments ; if he sees a city without 
any lofty buildings, but with regular houses and streets, he 
may go there if he has anything to do with sugar, coffee, or 
cotton ; if he sees high chimneys, he may fly as before the 
windmills, for a manufacturing city is of all others the 
most tiresome, killing mind and heart, and reducing men 
to mere machines. As Mahon is separated from the 
country by no walls, it stretches itself over fields and 
gardens, all enclosed with stone walls to the disagreeable 
surprise of the promenader. We sauntered towards the 
country, which is extremely flat and with only a few 
ravines. During a hot walk we came upon one of these 
ravines formed by sloping rocky walls, and as in the 
V poetical fiction of the * Hohle Gfasse ' of Tell, it runs 
\ along, always getting wilder and more romantic as it 
\ draws closer ; it was a fine picture, which would have 


done credit to the finest English park, and created a 
furore as a scene in a robber drama. To complete the 
effect, we found the openings of dark caves, to which I 
climbed up ; they were excellently suited for robbers, so 
that they could either fire from them on travellers passing 
the ravine, or use them as secure hiding-places, from 
which they might also defend themselves. They resembled 
vaulted chambers, and were connected here and there by 
passages, and provided with one or more doors. Soot and 
ashes showed that they were used, at least, as temporary 
dwellings, and names cut in them showed also that I was 

O ' 

not the only person fond of caves. We visited almost all the 
grottoes to the right and the left of the ravine, and, to my 
surprise, encountered a large snake. We then proceeded 
to the end of this interesting ravine, where an industrious 
washerwoman beside some weeping willows, and a quiet 
chapel, offered an agreeably peaceable contrast to the 
previous picture. 

The ravine opens out upon a slightly descending and 
rather large plain, which is well cultivated, and through 
which a good road runs. A few palm trees attest the excel- 
lence of the climate in the Balearic Islands. The road 
brought us back to the town, where we took our rest in a 
posadafull of English. Several tipsy sailors rambled through 
the town ; which everywhere teemed with the sons of Albion, 
one of whom we found like a beast rolling in the mud. On 
the subject of leave of absence for shore, a great dispute 
exists amongst naval officers. One party desires to extend to 
the land the discipline enforced in the vessel, and either to 
act as police on foreign ground to their own people or to dis- 
allow these visits altogether. The other party only exercise 
their iron discipline on board, where they maintain the 
severe regulations of the service with all its strictness ; but 
when the poor devils, who have to undergo on board so 
many deprivations, are once on shore they give them full 


liberty. If they themselves land at the same time, they 
do not then consider the sailors as belonging to them, but 
leave them entirely undisturbed, during the short period 
of their not too common leave. They indeed buy this 
leave with the sweat of their brow ; and if even the com- 
mander himself meets one of his men drunk, he feigns not 
to see him. I rank myself with those of the latter opinion, 
for I know how hard the life of these people is ; that they 
are not really free for a moment, always contending with 
the elements. Strict as one must be on board, as the 
absolute master of men crowded together in a narrow space, 
it is right to be lenient during their time of furlough. 
Drunkenness is certainly a terrible vice, and is severely 
punished in the army, but a soldier can enter a public- 
house every day, whilst the sailor may perhaps only be able 
to do so five times a year, and yet he is flesh and blood, like 
the rest of us. 

In the evening we again went on shore to visit the 
theatre, and what a theatre it is ! We sat in the first tier of 
boxes upon unpainted seats of soft wood without any back. 
The play, which was in Spanish, was utterly unintelligible 
to us ; and we waited, seated on our hard seats, with some 
impatience for a national dance, which had been announced, 
as well as a song. These at last commenced, but were so 
badly and clumsily executed, that the recollections of the 
delightful evening in Seville last year were spoilt. We 
left the theatre dissatisfied ; but what can be expected in a 
town of 4,000 inhabitants ? Old England's navy presided 
in the principal box, behaving with serious decorum, and 
in the pit below sat wondering, drunken sailors. 

May 27, 1852. 

Admiral Bund as, an old but still vigorous man, and 
the commander of the fleet, visited me this morning ; he 
is a tall, portly, fine man with an extremely pleasant face, 


that makes one like him ; and, besides, he is a sailor with 
all his soul. He succeeded Parker in the command, and 
this was his first trip from the winter station, Malta. He 
was formerly a member of the Council of the Admiralty, 
and also a member of Parliament. He is now an admiral, 
in the full sense of the word, exercising his fleet most 
assiduously, as I had an opportunity of observing later in 
Malaga, The conversation was carried on in the English 
language, and therefore, as far as I was concerned, was 
rather unsatisfactory ; but it sufficed to show me that the 
admiral was a very genial, good, amiable man, who loves 
his sailors, as his children, and is heartily glad to be on 
board again after a long rest. The sailors in the Admiral's 
gig wore fu&tanelles of linen ; why they did so, remains a 
puzzle to me, especially as they look very ugly, worn with 
the sailor's dress. There was also a negro amongst the boat's 

After the Admiral had left us, we visited the hospital, 
which stands on a bare sunbaked rock, and which I believe 
is the largest in the world. We were led through the 
hospital by the inspector, who was an interesting old sea- 
captain. We walked through the wide, bare, desolate rooms, 
and, notwithstanding their gigantic dimensions, it was clear 
at once that they were not permanent dwellings, but only 
transitory quarters, leading either back to the world or to 
the grave. Not a breath of life stirs in these buildings ; 
they are like a cold stone bed, lying on which one waits 
longingly for the hour of liberty, or even for the time when 
one may exchange it for a rough coffin. They are horrible 
abodes, surrounded by the strongest walls, guarded by 
Argus-eyes, and without any view from them. They are, 
moreover, situated on a glowingly hot rock ; and here, 
between four bare walls, people pass endless days and 
weeks, like the greatest criminals, only without occupation. 
The whole establishment is just now perfectly empty ; it is 


kept with extreme cleanliness, and abounds in immensely 
large rooms ; especially for goods. The yards between the 
high walls are grown over with grass, and are intended for 
exercise ; but how sad is such an exercise ground, so shut 
out from the world. In consequence of the cholera, the 
hospital was very much crowded last year. There is a 
small separate harbour behind the hospital, for the ships 
in quarantine. To get an idea of the whole extent, 
and of the manner in which the hospital is divided, it is 
best to mount the tower over the cistern, which forms the 
centre of these large weary buildings. 

Of far higher interest, and far more curious in my eyes, 
was the ' Britannia,' to which we made a \isit. She is a 
three-decker of 120 guns, and the flag-ship of Admiral 
Dundas,' who received me very kindly, surrounded by all 
the captains of his fleet. He led me into his fine, com- 
fortable, spacious cabin, in the first battery, the principal 
charm of which is a long balcony, and he there presented 
me to the Lady Amelia, his wife. She had accompanied 
her husband from Malta, in order to spend the summer 
season at Gibraltar, where I met her again. After a few 
compliments, we examined the ship in all its parts. The 
men sat in the batteries at their tables ; some slept, many 
were reading papers, no one seemed to care particularly 
about our presence, and all seemed strong and healthy. 
The batteries were kept exceedingly clean and nice, and 
the guns, as well as their carriages, were both usefully 
constructed and handsome. At the foot of the bowsprit in 
the first battery, shone in gold letters, the magnificent 
words of Nelson, ' England expects that every man will do 
his duty.' 

In the second battery are the saloons and dwellings of 
the officers ; which are also very spacious and comfortable, 
for the English are clever, and very well know that the 
more agreeable things are made to the officers and mid- 


shipmen on board, the more they love their ship, and the 
easier they find it to bear their absence from the land. The 
Englishman is at home in his ship, and asks nothing 
better, for indeed it would be difficult to find anything 
better anywhere. Other nations resort to a Spartan simpli- 
city on board, but anyone accustomed to elegance is not 
thereby attached to his ship; for what compensating 
pleasures are there on board ? There need not be luxury, 
which indeed is not fit for a sailor, but good solid comfort. 
In an English man-of-war all the tables in the cabins are 


of solid mahogany, the silver and china plate is rich and 
useful, all objects are indeed both useful and exquisite in 
taste; the papers, brought on board by a special war- 
steamer, aje always new; the kitchen and cellar sub- 
stantial. When the fleet is at sea, two large steamers 
alternately carry to it whole cargoes of live oxen. The 
Admiral went perhaps rather too far ; for he had on board, 
besides two cows, a couple of horses, in order to be able to 
make excursions, as he was a passionate horseman. The 
interior of the vessel was arranged agreeably, whilst the 
practical was studiously regarded. In the saloon of the 
commander, every object was of the best kind, and con- 
veniently at hand. The ' Britannia ' is a picture of the 
strength and greatness of the English navy, and although 
not constructed on the latest principles, may still serve as 
a useful model. It was a heart-stirring moment when 
the Admiral passed in review before us his whole crew, 
1,000 cheerful men. First came the thirty-five midship- 
men, that excellent nursery for officers, future command- 
ers and admirals. They are young, between thirteen and 
twenty, who in the largest ship of the line would be able, 
as well as any old captain, to preside over a manoauvre ; 
with the self-reliance of children they defy danger, and 
become the bravest and most intrepid men. Four feet high, 
they already handle a whole troop of old sailors like 


machines, and know how to make themselves obeyed 

They grow up upon the sea, and learn, practically, rather 
than theoretically behind a writing desk in an academy 
without even seeing the sea except upon some little ex- 
cursion. Theoretical sailors enter practical life awk- 
wardly, and grope about like blind men, and in the first 
instance are quite useless. The youths and the sailors 
defiled before us as an undrilled crowd, neither in step nor 
in a stiff position, but freely and easily, as becomes sailors, 
who, amidst the storm and the rocking of the vessel, must 
mount the rigging to save the ship from destruction, and 
are not called upon to wheel about or to deploy on a parade 

To everyone that which is fit for him, thinks the English- 
man ; and stiffly and in military fashion came on, in rear 
of the sailors, the marines, perhaps more regularly than 
even many continental regiments of the line. The heart 
of a looker-on leapt within him at the aspect of these 
sailors, every one of whom might have served as a model. 
Their free open look, their fair noble faces, their decided, 
resolute, proud, self-conscious expression, their powerful 
figures, their practical dress, all charmed the heart of a 
sailor. A true sailor has a right to be proud, for to him 
belongs the world. The ocean is his country ; his mind 
knows no other boundaries than the globe, he is a citizen 
of every country, he is everywhere received kindly and with 
pleasure. In a continuous battle with danger, his mind 
acquires earnestness and simplicity. Trained to depriva- 
tions he remains childlike, and enjoys the most trifling 
pleasure with fresh love. Therefore he must be pardoned 
that sarcastic trait which his wide view of the world gives 
him, and which makes him regard in a ridiculous light the 
littlenesses of the land rats at home. From the Admiral's 
balcony we looked out on a regatta, a race between two 


boats of two ships of the line. What delighted me most in 
this was the interest which every looker-on took in it, from 
the Admiral downwards. This was most apparent in the 
commanders of the two ships of the line to which the boats 
belonged ; the loser could so little conceal his annoyance, 
that he left us. I like these emulations ; they are the true 
spur to urge forth the sailor. When we returned to our 
frigate, one of the commanders had the politeness to send 
us his Turkish music-band, which he praised as something 
very particular. 

We invited the Admiral to dinner with us, and he 
showed himself in all his joviality, as a true Englishman of 
the old stamp. 

May 28, 1852. 

To-day I visited two other ships of the fleet, the line-of- 
battle ship ' Albion,' and the frigate ' Phaeton,' celebrated 
for her beauty. The Symond system, on which principle the 
' Albion ' was built, was for a time very popular in England, 
and upon that system the newer vessels have been built. 
It gives to the ship that proper degree of stiffness without 
ballast which can only be produced by unusual width and 
great rounding of the sides towards the keel. This manner 
of building has many advantages, but with them it has also 
the disadvantage, that in the least sea the ship is always 
rolling. In consequence of this unsteady motion many of 
these ships lost their masts ; and besides, this constant 
movement is scarcely endurable, and all commanders try 
to get off these quicksilver islands. They do not look 
beautiful either, and must render the using of the batteries 
in battle very inconvenient, as the vessels are in such 
constant motion. The visit of foreigners was clearly not ex- 
pected on board the ' Albion,' which was proved by the guns 
being all run in, that the interior of the ship might have 
a fresh coat of paint. I was glad of it, for when everything 


is prepared you do not see things in their true light. But 
notwithstanding this, we found the mighty ' Albion ' in the 
most perfect order. The commander was not on board, 
for, in company with all his officers, he had gone on horse- 
back with the Admiral and Lady Dundas to a high pointed 
mountain called Nuestra Senora del Toro, which was said to 
be in the centre of the island, but which was not visible to 
us, owing to the misty weather. The Admiral had invited 
us also to this excursion, but we had politely requested to 
be excused. In the English ships of the line there exists a 
kind of vice-commander, and the one on board the * Albion ' 
showed me over the ship. He was a stout pleasant man, 
who seemed to be an able sailor, and, to judge by his red 
nose, he was a good companion also. Though my visit to- 
day had not been at all expected, he did not in the least 
lose his composure, to lose which, however, never happens 
to an Englishman, for this he has to thank his enviably 
phlegmatic constitution and his self-reliant education. 
We examined the ship in all its parts. In smaller navies, 
especially in such as are still in the process of creation, 
one gets quite a wrong idea of the commander as he is to 
be found in the great navies. The English commander is 
the ruler of the ship ; he brings it out and carries it into 
the harbour ; he leads it into battle and commands his 
subject with the eye and grandeur of a sovereign. But for 
all inferior affairs -he has his subordinates, who manage 
according to their position. Sometimes for days he does 
not appear on deck, and by long practice he has acquired 
the proud certainty that the service is carried on exactly, 
strictly, and agreeably to orders. He appears almost 
exclusively in the more important moments when, for 
the fame of the ship, a special manoeuvre is required, 
or to secure victory, or to spread fear and awe by his 
appearance as a Jupiter Tonans. 

With less important duties others are occupiedt But in 



the navies now only in process of formation the commander 
is all in all, a universal genius, a helper in need, a much- 
tried factotum ; he must command and he must execute, 
and though he has many officers he must be himself on 
guard, or otherwise he and his whole crew would be in dan- 
ger of their lives. He must be the schoolmaster for youth, 
and the judge for the disobedient; he must go the rounds 
and convince himself that his orders are really executed ; 
in order to execute a manoeuvre he must drive together the 
crew from all corners ; he must look out and give with his 
own hands, instead of with those of the cadets, the signals. 
The worst of this state of things is, that commander and 
officers both become used to it. The commander never 
places any confidence in his officers, and the latter naturally 
never acquire the self-reliance so necessary to a sailor, 
and with the laziness natural to man they get careless, 
and glad to throw all the responsibility on the shoulders of 
the commander. He, on his part, finds by degrees a plea- 
sure in trifles, and in complaining about his officers and 
cadets he praises himself. But how can his officers learn 
when they have no scope for development of their talent, 
and their duties are not enlarged in accordance with their 
progress ? But with the little, unfortunately everything is 

The 'Phaeton' is perfectly charming, the ideal of a slender 
frigate, the finest kind of ship the world has seen to this day. 
She was built by the builder of the celebrated English 
yachts, and is a combination of the solid and warlike 
with the beautiful and elegant. The commander is Cap- 
tain Elliot, still a young man, very well educated, and one 
of the most amiable Englishmen I am acquainted with. 
He keeps his frigate in a state of exemplary cleanliness 
and neatness. One might imagine it a pleasure yacht on 
a larger scale, and enjoy with pleasure the luxury with 
which she is fitted up. The deck is swept as clean as if it 


were the floor of a saloon ; the metal is as bright as if it 
belonged to a Dutch kitchen. The arrangements might 
serve as a model, and I should like to serve for a time 
under the skilful command of the kindly Elliot to improve 
myself in all the different branches of the service. Amongst 
the interesting details, by the side of the ship, and under 
the waterline, are water-pipes very ingeniously fitted so as to 
carry the water by its own pressure in any desired quantity 
in any direction and to any distance. It may therefore 
serve to quench every fire in its commencement, and to 
supply the less accessible parts of the lower hold. Another 
arrangement for clearing the deck more quickly seemed 
to me also a very good one. Mahogany boxes stand in the 
stern of the vessel, in which the more necessary arms are 
kept. When the command to clear the deck is given, the 
crew coming on deck lift the covers of the boxes, and are 
armed in a moment. But usually the low chests are used 
as steps to look out over the gunwales. The gun-room of 
the commander is only separated from the battery by a 
canvas wall. This is a convenience in manoeuvring the 
battery and cannot incommode the commander in the 
least, as the gun-room is only used for dinners, and is 
rendered more airy by this arrangement. Elliot's spacious 
cabin was sociable and pleasant. The sun shone brightly 
on a beautiful fuchsia in a bouquet given to the captain 
some months ago in Lisbon, the small stems of which had 
quickly grown into a large plant. One sees that tender 
things may also thrive at sea. On leaving I was presented 
with a picture of the beautiful * Phaeton.' I parted, taking 
with me many interesting recollections of the frigate and 
her kind commander. 

According to the fashion of sailors we made an excursion 
with hired horses, and tore along laughing and joking over 
the Garten Island. We found nothing worth mentioning 
except a small charming grove of sweet-chestnuts, quercus 



semper virens, and grape-vines in which the nightingale 
fluted its love-song. It was a lovely oasis, on a soft slope, 
with fresh bubbling water. 

Palma, May 29, 1852. 

Yesterday, at 9 o'clock P.M., whilst I kept watch, we left 
Mahon at moonlight. The sky was covered with stars. To- 
day, at 9 o'clock A.M., beneath a beautiful southern sunlight, 
we cast anchor in the port of Palma, the capital of 
Majorca. In Palma again we find the romantic Spain, and 
the splendid, matchless scenery of a southern country. 
Close upon the fine wide roadstead, and washed by the sea, 
lies the rather large old town. From amidst many Gothic 
ruins, and* a confused mass of houses, rises loftily the old 
Gothic cathedral. The town is surrounded by a plain of 
corn-fields and olive-groves, again enclosed by a distant 
and picturesque chain of rocky mountains. To the left of 
the city, on a high hill, stands an oddly-shaped Gothic castle, 
a strong watch-tower of the middle ages. With its battle- 
ments and its donjon, which latter is connected with the 
mountain residence by an arched bridge, it is a charac- 
teristic silhouette on the deep blue Spanish sky. From it 
one has a fine view of the old town, and of the boundless 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Palma is the capital of all the Balearic Islands, the 
seat of a governor, has 34,000 inhabitants, and is there- 
fore a place of importance. It is especially rich in Gothic 
buildings, which makes it very interesting. Almost every 
house has a curiously-pointed arched door or a finely- 
drawn window, or an open richly-ornamented red marble 
staircase, of which one here sees extremely beautiful 
specimens, recalling the rich architecture of Venice. The 
two most curious and really fine buildings of the city 
are the Cathedral and the Lonja. We visited the former 
first ; it is of yellow stone, and has on the side towards the 


sea a wonderfully rich gate, the principal arch of which is 
ornamented with many saints, with their fine socles and 
canopies. The interior of the church is solemn and grave, 
like all Grothic buildings which have been conceived and 
executed in the old days of faith. The arrangement of the 
church is after the usual Spanish manner, with a closed 
choir in the middle of the church. The Lonja, or Exchange, 
is a building such as is peculiar to the eastern part of 
Spain, consisting of one single large, venerable, Grothic 
hall, in which the merchants transact their business. Simple 
as a church, the grand hall is arched over with bold 
pointed arches, springing from slender columns, and the 
light falls on the grey solid stone walls through wide high 
windows. This building reminds one of the Loggia dei 
Lanzi in Florence, which was also formerly an exchange, 
only that the latter is open. It is extremely well suited 
for great banquets and festivities, and if skilfully illumi- 
nated, an indescribable effect might be produced. The 
building is altogether noble and imposing in its simplicity, 
and is not tainted with the tawdry finery of the eighteenth 
century, great in decoration, but impotent in creation. 

As a great admirer of chateaux en Espagne, the 
building of which is one of the most agreeable but only 
too captivating amusements, I allowed myself to ima- 
gine that I was giving a festival in this hall, when my 
flight of fancy was interrupted by the appearance of the 
only inmates now of the forsaken forgotten Lonja, a very 
amiable young family of cats, who were amusing themselves 
in one of the fine large windows with their graceful play. 
From the exterior, the Lonja looks particularly well, with 
its flat roof, odd battlements and corner turrets ; it looks 
at once elegant and solid, like a courtly brave knight. 
Now-a-days, if they want to make anything solid they 
build it as clumsy as a barrack ; but if something elegant 
be intended they erect pasteboard houses. 


The Ayuntamiento, the boxlike balcony of which was 
draped to-day with damask on account of a lottery that 
was to take place, is a building in the Cinque-cento style, 
reminding one by its richly-carved buttresses of the fine 
palaces of beloved Florence. Palma possesses also an 
interesting collection of treasures of art belonging to the 
Marquis of Montenegro, left by a cardinal who lived for a 
long time in Home. The palace in which the collection is 
preserved still exhibits the old splendour of the last cen- 
tury, and notwithstanding its decay is a fine object. The 
collection is one of those better appreciated in the last 
century, and contained something of everything and 
sometimes very beautiful specimens. A fine collection 
of pictures and mosaics is to be seen here. I found 
my friend *Vandyck, who painted not pictures but men. 
Especially to be noted as a fine portrait and true to nature 
is a thick-set gentleman in a black Spanish dress, of 
whom Vandyck has given us not only the portly body but 
his very mind and heart. Murillo brings to us a St. Francis, 
executed with a grand simplicity. It is one of those fine 
pictures of this Spanish master in which he contrives to show 
us, in an emaciated body, a suffering soul, nourished with 
heavenly visions. A small picture of Christ on the Cross, 
with Mary and John, is ascribed to Eaphael, and appears 
to me more pretty than important ; it is too small to be 

Spain is one of those happy countries where the people 
still adhere to a national costume, and to this circumstance 
is owing in a great part its romance. Palma also has its 
costume, which, in the case of the women, is very handsome. 
The hair is combed back in the Chinese fashion ; nun-like 
white veils tied under the chin encircle the fresh face ; 
spencers with short sleeves and short petticoats give the 
women a more Swiss than Spanish appearance. The men 
look clumsy with their blue wide trousers reaching only to 


the knees, looking like women's frocks ; they wrap a hand- 
kerchief round the head, generally of some glaring colour. 
The elite here wear black, as everywhere in Spain ; 
the lovely mantilla or the charming veil with the rose and 
fan, and they have also their parade ground, on a very fine 
alameda dedicated to Queen Isabella II. and her hand- 
some sister the Infanta Maria Louise. It is in the middle 
of the city, between fine houses and fine trees. 

The commerce of the island consists of its natural 
productions, mostly fruit, which is perfect here; and oil, 
which the inhabitants ship in the zebecqs, a peculiar kind 
of little vessel built in Palma of the wood of the island, and 
in which they go to Cadiz. Minorca, the second island 
in rank, is poor, but Ivica possesses salt, which is bought 
by foreigners. 

The Balearic Islands are now on the decline, and 
nothing now serves to recall those times of splendour and 
power when they were called the kingdom of Majorca, 
and flourishing under their own valiant sovereigns, namely 
in the fourteenth century, under the wise king Don 
Jay me II. Who would now believe that these islands 
were formerly able to arm within three days twenty-five 
galleys against the Genoese ; to beat them, though they 
had an equal number of ships ; to pursue them to their 
ports and take from them seven galleys, which were pre- 
sented to the excellent Don Jayme. 

The history of the Balearic Islands reaches back to the 
greatest antiquity, and Polybius and Diodorus make 
mention of them. Strabo asserts they had their name 
from the Phoenicians, who termed them from the 
exercise of the sling, in which the inhabitants had a great 
dexterity Balearides. The most important event of their 
early history is the birth of Haanibal, on a small island 
called by the ancients Tignadra, but later Conciera, the 
rabbit island ; for in celebration of the birth of Hannibal 


a great many of these little animals are said to have 
been let loose and so to have increased very much. For 
a time the Balearic Islands became alternately the prize 
of the Carthaginian and the Eoman, according to the 
luck of war, and during this period they seem to 
have understood very well, how to trim their sails to the 
wind. By the Eomans they were not entirely conquered 
until the time of the consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus, to 
whom was given for his prowess by land and water the 
surname Balearicus. After the fall of Home the islands' 
belonged to the Gothic-Spanish empire, were then con- 
quered by the Moors, after this for a short time they 
were incorporated with the empire of Charlemagne, they 
then passed once more into the hands of the infidels, 
from whom they were taken by Don Jayme I. king of 
Aragon, on December 31, 1229, who restored Christianity, 
after which they rose to great prosperity under his son 
Jayme II. Then the Balearic Islands remained attached 
to the rapidly-extending Spanish monarchy which took 
place after the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. It is 
only in quite modern times that they passed under the 
sceptre of Napoleon and at a later period for a short time 
under that of England. 

May 30, 1852. 

We heard mass to-day in the cathedral in celebration of 
the birthday of the great king St. Ernando. When I at- 
tended matins at the tomb of the holy king in the cathedral 
of Seville last year I did not imagine that before another 
year had passed I should again be in beautiful Spain, to 
celebrate the festival of my patron in his golden country. 
Yes, I am once more in glorious Spain, and my soul feels 
edified and devout in its ancient cathedrals. In the Gothic 
churches one can pray so purely and with such Christian 
strength and faith, overshadowed by the eternal Spirit of 
God. In the Byzantine churches one does not feel this, but 


one looks around instead of praying. In the new Eoman 
churches one feels so satiated with ornament that one is 
wickedly reminded of the saying : plenus venter non studet 
libenter, only that it should read non orat libenter. 

It was my birthday, and I wished to escape the usual 
homages, so we got into two two-wheeled shaky carriages to 
go into the country. Outside the walls of the fortress we 
passed through fields till we came to an olive-wood a mile 
long, leading to the foot of the mountain. At some pictur- 
esque rocks, surrounded as in Greece with vines, we made 
our first halt, at a place called Kacha, and left our singular 
vehicles in a villa overshadowed by a gigantic tree, which 
I did not yet know. The villa is the property of the 
Marquis Montenegro, and contains a very rich collection of 
antiquities, excavated in Rome by the cardinal before- 
mentioned. But the best part of this property is the 
garden, with its terraces and orange trees and the perfect 
paradise all round. 

Here on a seat underneath a dense luxuriant roof of 
leaves, amid the song of the nightingale, which we saw 
almost tame and carelessly jumping about among the 
bushes, we took a frugal breakfast. It was unfortunately 
only too frugal, for it consisted, in consequence of the exem- 
plary frugality of the Spaniards, only of black bread, old 
Paprika sausages, bad cheese, and oranges ; the latter it is 
true were delicious, and the more agreeable to me as they 
were the first I ever ate fresh from the tree, and the diffe- 
rence between them and those exported was remarkable. 

A very acceptable dessert for our unsatisfied stomachs, 
and a splendid treat for the eyes, was furnished by the 
orchard before the house. In it bloomed roses and 
jasmine, and magnificent carnations, with thousands of 
shining golden fruits and over-ripe medlars. Whilst re- 
freshing myself with the fruit, I gathered at the same time, 
amidst a quiet happiness, some delicious flowers for a 


fragrant bouquet. We reluctantly left this little paradise, 
and remounted our vehicles to ascend the mountain. We 
soon reached Alphabia, the fairest point in our excursion, 
which lies amidst rich vegetation between picturesque rocks 
covered with pines. Alphabia is one of those seats of 
Spanish grandees which sprang up in the rococo time. 
Its principal charm is a long vine arbour paved with stone, 
which opens on to a terrace with a fountain. Behind the 
latter rise to the blue sky two elegantly lofty palms, just 
now in blossom, whilst a picturesque group of rocks lighted 
up and coloured by the sun closes the charming perspective. 
This leafy walk is charming and becomes still more so by 
the many fresh fountains of strange constructions which 
enliven it, and give it a fairy-like air. 

May 31, 1852. 

To-day we again visited the cathedral, where we were 
shown the rich treasures of this fine old church, and Don 
Jayme II. the great king in person. His majesty reposes 
in a rather miserable marble coffin which Charles III. has 
erected to him in the centre of the cathedral. He is 
shown to visitors of distinction in his glass case. Lat- 
terly the royal robes, which decay so much sooner than 
the body of their truly horrible-looking possessor, became 
so old and so rotten and so unworthy of the body buried 
there six hundred years ago, that they were renewed this 
spring on the occasion of the visit of the Duchess of 
Montpensier. They gave him, like a stage king, a red 
velvet coat with sham ermine, and sham gold lace. What 
horrible fooleries are enacted in this world ! and the 
remains of a king are even sacrificed to its vain curiosity. 
Sic transit gloria mundi. The mule equipage of the kind 
governor quickly carried us out of the city. I pictured to 
myself an elegant and fashionable equipage, with liveried 
servants in green and gold, the long-eared animals in 


tasteful harness, and the carriage rolling along almost 
faster than with horses. We made our solemn entrance 
on the height of the picturesque Belver over the drawbridge 
where we were received by a guard of honour and with 
the Spanish hymn, which sounded solemn in the royal 
old castle of my forefathers for Belver belonged to King 
Jayme II. My antiquarian mania and love of arrangement 
were excited by what I saw. The castle, with its colonnades 
and arched doors, with its immense window-recesses, its 
splendid view, its terraces, turrets, and gloomy donjon, is 
both strong and beautiful. 

This ancient Belver might be made a residence un- 
usually charming. Now the bare royal castle is only used 
as a country residence by the kind governor, who gave us 
a delicious breakfast in one of the rooms, where we re- 
freshed ourselves, especially with the fruits of these happy 
islands, and with the merry enrapturing sounds of Spanish 
dancing and of music excellently executed by a Spanish 
military band. The well-known sounds touched my heart 
and refreshed my fancy, reminding me of my cherished 
Seville, which I was about to revisit. How happy I felt 
again in the thought of beautiful Spain ! 

It is a pity that Groethe was never in Spain : his i Mignon' 
ought to have come from the golden peninsula, and all 
who know that happy land would then have sung that im- 
mortal song with a fuller and more earnest fervour. The 
view of the plain and its girdle of mountains, of the city 
and its port, of the wide expanse of sea, and of the cloudless 
blue sky, all this seen from this historically romantic castle 
is splendid. It has a good right to its name, and is an 
evidence of the taste of the kings of Aragon. The hunt 
on the castle hill after the numberless rabbits with small 
greyhounds is said to be very amusing. The pace of the 
mules soon brought us back to the city, and we sailed in 
our frigate at three o'clock to steer towards Valencia. 





IT was a beautiful morning when we first saw, shining 
amidst the green huerta and the battlements, towers and 
coloured cupolas of the rich city, the city of poetry and 
history. This beautiful city floating on the green waves, 
was like a fata-morgana, and to steer towards the coast 
bathed in the rays of the golden morning sun, was like a 
charming dream with the agreeable expectation of finding 
in that paradise friends from our dear distant home. With 
highly raised feelings, which one has on travelling when 
approaching something wonderful, we went to the Grao, 
the anchorage of Valencia, which, according to maritime 
ideas, could not even be called a roadstead, but a mere 
down, an open coast, where a row of houses, as at the 
Piraeus, forms the commercial advanced-guard of the city, 
which lies about an hour's distance inward. The anchor- 
age is of course very bad and during an easterly gale even 
dangerous, which is a great impediment to trade. I went 
directly on shore, looked out for a vehicle, and selected 
one of those monstrosities peculiar to the country called a 
tartana. It is a long arched box, covered with leather, 
balanced on, or rather between, two giant wheels. You 
mount from behind and take your place on narrow seats 
running along the sides. Immediately over the tail of 
the horse, or mule, is a window, from which the passenger 
may touch the horse, so close is it to the carriage. Shut 
out on either side, with doors only at the back and in front, 
the tartana company, which may be increased to six or 
eight persons, only looks into the future and on the past, 
which makes the present feel the more horrible. Of the 


bumping and the shaking movements, which crush both 
mind and body, one cannot easily give a rational idea. 
Surely this vehicle must have been an invention of the 
Inquisition, which by this process of shaking endeavoured 
to bring criminals to confession; no secret could resist 
such gymnastics, as they bump the soul almost out of 
the body. One groans, and sighs, the bowels tremble 
to their foundations, bone rattles against bone, and the 
brain dances in the skull. It took me some time to re- 
cover from this drive and to get back my equilibrium. I 
fancy that there must be in Valencia a great many seven- 
months' children. The driver of the tartana, a vehicle 
so popular here that even the highest nobility use it, 
balances Jiimself by the side of the horse on the shaft or 
any other narrow piece of wood, so that he is scarcely to 
be seen from the coach window, if one is not leaning out. 

Through a wide, high avenue of elms, we rattled towards 
the city. Beyond the Gruadalaviar, and over the ancient 
city walls, we soon saw, glittering in the fresh morning, 
the picturesque and imposing Valencia. Besides its many 
projecting buildings, Valencia has a very peculiar festive 
appearance, on account of the coloured glazed tiles with 
which its cupolas and towers are roofed. As most of them 
are blue and yellow, and illuminated by a Spanish sun, 
the imagination pictures a fairy city with cupolas of lapis 
lazuli seamed with gold. As at Seville and Granada, we 
see immediately that we do not enter an every-day city, 
such as is produced in the nineteenth centur} 7 . 

Our tartana martyrdom, which in the days of poetic 
antiquity might have been mentioned by the side of that of 
Tantalus and the Danaides, ended before the Hotel du Cid. 
Here unfortunately all was so crowded, and the reception 
from the people in the house so ungracious, that we re- 
solved to try our luck somewhere else. But I vowed never 
to set my foot again in that vehicle, so we walked to the 


Hotel de Madrid, a very elegant, almost luxurious hotel, 
opened only this week and situated in a very fine place, 
where we were excellently accommodated in its large, airy 
rooms, which had perhaps never yet been occupied. My first 
visit in the city of the Cid was devoted to the kind friend 
of my youth and her respected family. I walked with that 
anxious hurried step with which we usually walk when we 
go to see dear friends from whom we have been separated 
for years by fate and the wide sea, asking myself whether 
I should be recognised, and what reception I should meet 
with. I came to the door of a large but unpretending 
house. I knocked ; a servant opened the door, and I gave 
him my name, adding that I had had the happiness to know 
the marchioness in Vienna. I was led into a small, neat 
room, furnished in the German style, where I found an 
elderly lady in a Spanish veil. It was the mother-in- 
law, who at first was somewhat embarrassed, not exactly 
knowing what to make of me. In the course of con- 
versation she recognised me, and at once became very 
cordial and kind. She asked a thousand questions about 
Vienna, which had become dear to her, of which the walls 
of the rooms afforded abundant evidence. 

During our conversation, the rest of the family were 
called in. The doors of the saloon opened, and Elise 
came in, still so light, so graceful, and as lovely as in 
the dear old days at the balls .in merry Vienna. I cannot 
describe my feelings at this meeting in distant Spain ; I 
only felt that at that moment I stood really nearer to her 
than her whole Spanish surroundings, for I was her country- 
man ; and a mixed feeling of pleasure and of longing for 
home stirred her kind heart when she tremblingly gave me 
her white hand and greeted me in German. She thought 
that I should be shocked at her German, as she had already 
forgotten so much of it. This sounded sadly, but it was 
only her too great modesty. I was much astonished to see 



her brothers-in-law, who left Vienna as little children, and 
whom a few years had transformed into giants. Touchingly 
cordial was the good father ; his true heart is still thank- 
fully attached to the country where he fared so well, and 
found such a peaceable asylum. The Spanish air seemed 
to agree excellently with all of them ; father and mother 
had become young again in their native land ; Elise only 
was pale, and beneath her charming smile suffering seemed 
to He concealed. 

The father invited us to see the curiosities of his city, 
and was kind enough to propose himself as the guide. 
As usual, we commenced with the cathedral, the centre 
of attraction in every place. It is large, but not in good 
taste. The lantern in the middle emits a softened light, 
through alabaster Gothic-Moorish tablets. It is a very fine 
and interesting lantern, both as to architecture and for its 
ornamentation. This alabaster cupola-lantern crowned the 
Mosque which the victorious Christians turned into the 
cathedral. It is the only fine and grand point of the 
church, and it gives light to the celebrated large high 
altar which, as in all Spanish churches, is in the middle 
of a closed choir, connected with the altar by a passage 
between two iron railings. 

The rest of the building is remarkably oppressive and 
clumsy ; appearing at once too low and too broad. The 
chief altar is in a richly-carved cinque-cento style. On 
its different sides, always kept closed, and which are only 
shown to-day on account of Pentecost, are the most 
splendid sacred paintings on gold ground, rare works of 
art, full of holy freshness and sacred harmony. There are 
still some other curiosities in the cathedral, which we 
reserved for a later visit. We now ascended the Miguetilla, 
as the tower is called here just as the tower in Seville is 
called the Giralda to look around us. The Miguetilla is 
Gothic as well as the fine entrance of the rebuilt and spoiled 


cathedral. Whoever may be desirous of seeing a picture 
of golden peace, a rich city abounding in beautiful archi- 
tecture, and the heart-stirring sight of a plain full of the 
bounties of nature, bounded by a blue sea covered with 
swelling silver sails, must mount the Miguetilla. Valencia 
is the favourite of the sun ; on this plain he has pressed 
his all-creating, enrapturing kiss a kiss which has warmed 
but not destroyed with its fiery love. From the tower all 
the details of the city can be seen admirably; the splendid 
walk with the Grloriette, rich in flowers, the favourite pro- 
menade of the fashionable world, lighted up by gas ; and 
close to it a tobacco factory, built in the extravagant style 
of Charles III. 

Further on, in the heart of the city, can be seen the 
flower and fruit market with the Gothic Lonja, one of the 
chief ornaments of Valencia; then, amidst the crowd of 
houses, the palace of the Audiencia and the celebrated 
Ayuntamiento ; the museum with its palm-yard, and all 
the other numberless buildings with their little yards and 
terraces and their hundred little details and mysteries. 
Outside the city walls we find on the opposite shore of 
the now dry Gruadalaviar, spanned by magnificent stone 
bridges, the fine broad Alameda, with its shady trees and 
Plantio, a lovely avenue which leads to Grrao on the sea- 
coast, and the building being constructed as an Arena for 
the bull-fight. Towards the Xorth lies, amidst rich corn- 
fields surrounded by palm-trees, the monastery of the 
Hieronymitans ; in the same direction, on the horizon on 
the sea, is Murviedro with the ruins of the old Saguntum. 
Towards the west the golden plain is cut in two by distant 
blue mountains, and the lovely picture is picturesquely 
closed in that direction. In the plain itself, which is 
called Huerta, and which is of considerable extent, are 
many houses and whole villages, which afford a pleasant 
variety and prevent the rich fields from becoming monoto- 



nous, as is too frequently the case. This view from the 
Miguetilla is without doubt one of the finest in the world ; 
especially, if seen as I saw it at the end of May, when all 
the fields are full of fruit ripe for the sickle ; and at such 
a period as this and on so sunny a morning, it surpasses 
even the view from the Giralda of Seville. 

From the cathedral we went to the Ayuntamiento, where 
the rich ceilings, magnificent products of the renaissance, 
remind one of Venice and the Palace of the Doges, and 
which are worthy of being the ceilings of more beautiful 
halls than that of the Ayuntamiento. In a lovely Gothic 
chapel belonging to the Hall are shown the sword and 
banner of the Cids, the crown of the kings of Valencia, 
from the golden ring of which rises a bat with outspread 
wings. This curious ornament was adopted in olden 
time from a real bat having made its nest in this holy 
ornament, and there brought forth her young ones. It 
became a token of the fertility of Valencia. 

The Audiencia, in which the Cortes assemble, is also a 
palace of the time of the Moors. We find in it one of 
those splendid ceilings, replete with gold, which exhibit 
a genuine splendour and luxury, beside which ours is but 
flimsy. The most curious parts of this fine building are, 
however, the walls of the session-hall, with their life-size 
frescoes ; amongst them the Cortes of Charles V., as natural 
as life, sitting in solemn dignity according to their rank 
and birth; nobility, clergy and citizens, all in that old 
picturesque Spanish black costume which is so becoming 
and so noble perhaps on account of its dark colour 
and the little pointed velvet hat. We see here the flower 
of the Spanish nobility in their zenith. In this most 
interesting spectacle one may study physiognomy and 
Spanish history ; it is a kind of coloured Almanac de Gotha. 
The clergy alone are in bright colours, and amongst them 
I discovered the dogs of the Lord, the Domini-cani, as 


they called themselves in Florence. This hall, with its 
portraits of the grandees, is one of those rare antiquities 
which transport us at once several centuries back, not into 
the company of the men who presided over the decline of 
Spain, but into the wise and earnest time of the golden 
days of the Empire. By the excellent manner in which 
it has been preserved this work of art recalls with fidelity 
a past history. 

Valencia possesses, also, one of those splendid Lonjas 
which we so much admired in Palma; but though, like 
that, this also is Grothic, it is not equally perfect or light. 
It remains, however, a monument of a time when harmony 
was a necessity to the human eye, which cannot unfor- 
tunately be said of our inartistic century. It has one 
decided advantage over the Lonja of Palma; the silk market 
keeps it alive, silk being one of the chief trades of Valencia. 
In addition to the hall which opens out upon a large 
place, the Lonja has buildings at the back, with a pretty 
poetical little orange-garden. In one of the state rooms 
in which the heads of commerce assemble, hangs the 
life-size portrait of Isabella II. commenced by the celebrated 
court painter, Lopez, and finished by his son who now 
occupies his place. I cannot express how much I was 
interested, nay captivated, by that picture. Painted but 
recently, it exhibits the queen as she now is, and enables ' 
us to understand the different opinions we had heard about 
Isabella. In a blue satin dress, richly ornamented with 
lace and sparkling with diamonds, she appears here as a 
queen. There is something majestic in her appearance. 
She is tall, and though she is beginning to grow stout, 
she has an extremely fine and beautiful waist. She 
is also a perfectly elegant lady, which is shown by her 
carefully selected and tasteful dress. That she loves the 
dance is seen at once by her suppleness. Her face, 
surrounded by luxuriant hair, is not handsome but is 


extremely interesting. On state occasions Isabella can 
look no doubt very imposing, proud, and magnificent ; and 
in the Prado, rolling along in the elegant quick phaeton, 
winning and charming all hearts, she is well fitted to 
acquire popularity. Since I saw this picture I regret 
more than ever that I have not been in Madrid to which I 
am now so near. 

The museum, which was formerly a monastery, con- 
tains an exceedingly great quantity of insignificant things 
crowded together in long passages. Most of the scenes 
of martyrdom and obscure miracles might very well 
suit its former cloisterly seclusion, but are now utterly 
out of place. In one of the chapels are fine pictures of 
Juan de Juanes, the Titian of the Spaniards; amongst 
them an j^ssunta, a masterpiece of Christian art, full of 
life and colour. 

We took a pleasant dinner at my friend's, in Elise's 
apartments. Many recollections of the father-land were 
gone over, and many questions asked about the new home. 
The old couple feel very well, they were born in this 
climate, and though they gave up for a time their sojourn 
here to their principles, they are still Spaniards and again 
at home; what can they wish for better? The young 
couple are not of the same opinion, and still long for the 
imperial city on the far-off banks of the Danube. Both 
have been educated there, and wherever one has passed a 
joyous youth, if fate does not then treat one too hardly, one 
would prefer still to live. In elegant Vienna, Elise, by her 
grace and amiability, won admiration, whilst in Spain she 
is always looked on with jealousy as a naturalised foreigner. 

In Pedro's room, which he has arranged with much 
taste, I found all the heroes of the late wars, and in the 
centre of them our chivalrous Emperor. In Valencia this 
gives a double pleasure, and every token of remembrance 
of Vienna, and of him, gave me a sensation of home. 


After dinner our dear hosts went with us to a charming 
garden, belonging to a rich porcelain manufacturer, in 
.which was an abundance of the most splendid flowers ; and 
whilst the fragrance of the flower-beds delighted us we 
also found matter of interest from a scientific point of view 
in the tropical plants in the glasshouses. In the middle 
of the garden stand two splendid Magnolias, unfolding 
giant flowers. One of them was much taller than the 
other, and Elise told me of the curious manner in which 
the people explain this circumstance. The larger one is 
planted in that part of the garden which was formerly the 
cemetery of a suppressed Capuchin monastery, and the 
popular opinipn is that the poor Capuchins afford a most 
excellent manure. This is certainly an original idea in 
natural history, but derives some support from the fact 
that in that cemetery the most tender asparagus grows. 
Probatum est ! Bon appetit to those who innocently enjoy 
these vegetables nourished by the atoms of a former 
generation. I only wonder that it has not yet occurred 
to the wicked French gourmands to place on their 
perfumed cartes : ' Asperges du Pere la Chaise a la sauce 

As a lover of the animal world I was delighted to find 
an aviary full of the finest and rarest American birds. 
There is nothing more graceful than these small inhabitants 
of the tropical woods, with their golden, red and black 
plumage, and with their beautiful and curious shape. I 
shall only now speak of the so-called 'widow,' with the 
feathers of its tail arched, and ten times as long as the 
body ; with its lovely chirping and its elegant coquetry. 
We saw an artificial grotto with all sorts of amusing 
mysteries, following the taste of the last century, when 
people liked to place each other in all kinds of little 
difficulties. Now, when hair-powder, the most delicious 
absurdity ever invented, has disappeared, the natural 


comes into vogue once more and perhaps with too violent 
a reaction. 

On the fine Alameda on the other side of the Gruadal 
aviar to which we now rode, we already found the fashion 
able world. Most of them drove finely varnished tartan; 
which proceeded in a row as in our Prater ; but as these 
vehicles have only openings before and behind, the people 
inside can neither see nor be seen, and the whole pro- 
cession resembles in its originality the newly-erected 
Britannia bridge. Whenever I succeeded in casting a 
look into the back window of a tartana I distinguished 
some faces of extreme beauty and had the greater reason 
to dislike this manner of driving. We dismounted in 
order to walk in the splendid evening air in the Plantio, 
a fragrant flower-garden running along the Alameda. 

As soon as darkness set in everybody hurried home, 
as murders take place every week in the Alameda after 
dark. But Elise driving up to us in a very elegant little 
pony equipage, invited me to take a place by her side. 
She took the reins, and drove several times up and down 
the avenue, between the returning crowds of tartanas 
with much dexterity and courage. At last she turned 
towards the city and put me down at the before-men- 
tioned promenade, the Gloriette. Elise drove home and 
I walked for some time with her father-in-law, under the 
gas-lit oleander and orange shrubs, in these fragrant alleys 
filled with statues. This is the place where the elite of 
Valencia usually enjoy the evening, frightened from the 
Alameda by the dagger of the bandits. 

When I returned in the evening to the Hotel de Madrid, 
reflecting on the occurrences of the day, I felt very sad. 
Valencia had already won my heart and I loved the 
glorious place, where I should like to stay for months 
instead of hours. 

Next morning we went out to finish our inspection of 


the curiosities of Valencia, and commenced with the 
Hieronymitan convent situated outside the city, in the 
Huerta. To judge from the large buildings it must have 
been a very considerable and rich convent. The decaying 
cloister of this order, once so powerful, which harboured 
for a season the ruler of the world, is now a kind of hospital. 
The church, which has a great resemblance to the Car- 
thusian one in Granada, is built in that bad and over- 
rich taste of the last century. But unfortunately, like all 
terrestrial things, it is decaying. Those bright halls, once 
enlivened by the festivals of the Spanish monks par 
excellence for the Hieronymitans were in Spain what 
the Benedictines are in Austria are now visited only from 
time to time by a priest, who reads mass in the hospital. 
The remains of her former greatness are those only which 
belong to nature. Close to the monastery is a grove of 
high slender palm-trees hundreds of years old, which have 
outlived the vast splendour, and now mournfully shake 
their heads over the ruins of the house of those who 
planted them. To one who almost worships palm-trees, 
as I do, this group is the only interesting thing in the 

Leaving the dead past we come upon the active present, 
a silk manufactory in the highest prosperity, and where 
the newest inventions are made use of. There, beneath the 
whirring of wheels, we see how the golden-haired silk is 
drawn from the cocoons, brought in by country people ; and 
how, by the power of steam, it is worked up to the finest 
damask. In the whole world there is nothing more 
tedious to me than a factory. Everything goes on with 
such a mathematical regularity, calculated to the very 
second ; and human genius shows the working-people by 
its wonderful inventions how useless is their little bit of 
common sense. They are in fact mere machines. We 
are living in the unhappy time of a change. The new 


idea, the necessity for instituting factories, has not yet 
become popular ; the equilibrium is not yet restored ; the 
old state of things is still contesting with the new, and 
the latter lacks a necessary basis, which only time can 
give, when factories shall have acquired a history and ex- 
periences, from which the coming generations will recog- 
nise their regulated utility. I can never accommodate 
myself, or at least I cannot at present, to see the rich 
possessor of a factory producing in quantities articles which 
satisfy the extravagant luxury of the rich, whilst his 
workmen are serfs by the mere power of his money ; pale 
shadows of men, who in a state of stupor and for the needs 
of their stomach, sacrifice their body to his money-bag. 
I cannot forget my fellow-men, even for the most beautiful 
new machines ; my valuation of the so-called genius of our 
century does not reach to that height. In a factory I feel 
always uncomfortable. I do not speak of those factories 
where men are still self-acting, as human beings should be. 
In the very middle of these results of genius I fall into a 
kind of stupor and feel immensely bored. Everything 
appears to me as if only made for the moment ; we live 
in the century of haste, and with this the factories seem to 

After a short visit to the Botanical Gardens, we went to 
the cigar manufactory, where several hundreds of girls 
are at work. It is in the same style as the manufactory 
in Seville, formerly described, only on a somewhat smaller 
scale, and does not produce their celebrated snuff. The 
numerous factory girls, though here just as young, are not 
so pretty as their sisters on the Guadalaviar ; their type 
here, in Valencia, is too Moorish ; but here Spanish eyes 
are also to be found more black and more fiery than in 
any other country of the world. 

The most interesting object to us was the director, a 
severe, tyrannical-looking, proud, and learned mannikin, 


before whom the whole establishment, with its regiment of 
women, seemed to tremble. The senor spoke French, and 
had a delicious custom of affixing to all and everything he 
said, and with emphasis, the important little word erreur. 
So he said of the climate here, against which he had an 
especial spite : ' On dit que le climat de Valence est doux : 
erreur ! les medecins disent qui'l soit excellent pour la 
poitrine : erreur ! les malades s'en vont en chaise de poste 
au grand galop.' 

A drive round the city walls enabled us to see many 
fine views of the surrounding scenery and interesting 
buildings. Amongst other things our cicerone pointed out 
to us a building which he said was the arena for cock- 
fighting. Could we leave this unseen ? No ! we stopped 
and rushed into the interior, where we were at once re- 
ceived by a chorus of the blood-thirsty fighters. They were 
all waiting for their day of honour, in small clean cages, 
built one over the other, where the curious world might 
examine them at leisure, before the fight. All can hear 
each other, and each can see from his prison the lovely 
bens coquetting in the yard, which is the only imaginable 
reason I can find for their comical and otherwise incon- 
ceivable combativeness. But let us enter the arena, and 
see some of these fighting scenes which the director shows 
us privately. The arena is a fine building, which has 
room on its steps for 800 persons, and which is one of 
the principal places of amusement of the Valencians. The 
fashionables of the haute volee bet large sums on the 
different Campcadores. Two of the cocks which went 
through a few evolutions to-day, were to decide on the 
next holiday, by their victory or their death, the fate of 
several hundreds of guilders. 

We sat down to look at some fights. Two cocks were 
let in, their combs cropped so as not to furnish any hold 
to the enemy, trimmed for the fight, and provided with 


a sharp spur. Scarcely had they seen one another than 
without being in any way urged on, they rushed against 
each other. They made the most odd jumps, now charging 
against the enemy like tigers, and now coming down upon 
him like an eagle. They clawed hold of one another, and 
pulled each other about until the blood flowed from their 
wounds. Then for a moment they quitted the hot contest, 
slowly pacing up and down in warlike majesty, and with 
proud bearing, measuring the enemy with undoubted 
courage, and certain of victory. Then, a new advantage 
offering, they rushed against each other with redoubled 
effort. Eyes were pecked out, combs pulled out of the 
head, and they did not leave off the furious fight until one 
of them lay conquered, weltering in his blood. Then the 
victorious cocjs, amidst the applause of the audience, crows 
over the body of his antagonist, his celebrated hymn of 
victory. Memorable moments in the life of a rooster ! 

That those who have been wounded in former fights 
return to the battle with renewed vigour, was clearly 
proved to us by a one-eyed cock who appeared to have 
become only more agile and skilful by his very wounds. 
A cock totally blind gave us a touching and elevating 
example of manly energy; brought into the arena, and 
before he had scarcely felt the sand of the field of honour, 
he rushed about in every direction till he came upon his 
adversary, at whom he pecked furiously, without any dis- 
tinct aim. In the moment of the greatest danger he was 
withdrawn from battle by the manager in order to fight 
again another day for the honour of the arena. One thinks 
at once of John of Bohemia, rushing blind as he was, to 
the battle of Crecy to die there fighting like a lion ! Such 
a cock must have an immensely developed organ of com- 
bativeness, or how else can these heroic deeds be explained, 
as he is really fighting without an object, except it be the 
mere rage of fighting ? 


We paid one more visit to the cathedral with our 
friends, and enjoyed its beauties in detail. The sacristy 
contains splendid pictures of Juanes, pictures full of 
southern warmth ; an abundance of interesting and 
beautifully mounted relics, vieing with those of St. Mark's. 
A canon in his surplice had the kindness to show these to 
us. It is a portion of history full of the most curious 
recollections, and the deeds done in the East and the 
West for the Cross are recalled to our memory by these 
venerable antiquities. 

The palladium of this rich collection, nay, the palladium 
of faithful Valencia, is the holy Gral, a vessel of agate, in 
which Christ in that night of suffering transformed the 
wine into his blood. It is not for me to decide whether 
Christ really used this stone cup ; it is a pious tradition, 
everyone may believe what his heart dictates, but Valencia 
gave, and will again give, her blood for it. The knights 
of the South of France wished to obtain this precious 
treasure, which originally came from Constantinople, and 
fitted out a fleet from Marseilles for that purpose ; but the 
brave people of Valencia drove it off and chased it back 
to the entrance of the port of Marseilles. As a trophy, 
they took back with them the long chain with which the 
people of Marseilles closed their port, and suspended it 
in a Gothic side chapel of the cathedral, where it can 
be seen to this day. This latter chapel contains a 
collection of portraits of all the bishops of Valencia ; 
amongst them, the most remarkable are the two bishops 
Borgia, those notorious popes whose family comes from 
Valencia. Alexander VI., Lucretia's shameless father, 
has a cold, noble, dignified face ; and those proud, pale 
features enable us to conceive how the same person could 
be the imposing pope and the ambitious lover. He must 
have been magnificent as Pope, terrible in his vices, and 
under all circumstances a Spanish grandee. 


In this cathedral I have still to mention the Shield and 
the Spurs of the Cid, and a Head of Christ by Juanes. 
The hero himself hung these arms on the left of the high 
altar. The picture is praised beyond measure by the 
Valencians ; but to me the broad features of our Lord are 
too regular, too full of repose, and too beautiful, with an 
absence of manliness, and without anything like what 
we may imagine to be our Eedeemer's expression. This 
face of our Saviour will not stand any comparison with the 
Tribute Penny ' of Titian. 

My heart prompted me to mount once more the 
Miguetilla and to refresh myself with the view of the Grod- 
blessed Huerta ; one can never get tired of that view, it 
does so much good to one's heart. In the neighbourhood 
of the cathedral is a little church with a celebrated 
Madonna and child, I believe the third in rank according 
to the valuation of the Spanish people. She is the Ma- 
donna to whom all sufferers have recourse, the protector of 
the beautiful city and of its golden plain. This wonder- 
working image is in possession of a collection of jewels, 
such as usually belong only to Emperors or Kings. It 
was covered, and the clergy led us from the vestry to a 
narrow staircase in the little temple where it is placed, in 
order that we might examine these treasures closely. Both 
figures sparkled with diamonds and pearls ; the most pre- 
cious jewels ornamented the heavy silver dress, and rich 
crowns surmounted the heads both of the Mother and the 
Child. All these precious things are presents of devout 
Spaniards, and offerings from far countries ; and amongst 
these latter is a fine large pearl of Marie Antoinette. 
Whatever reminds one of this lady is interesting and 
touching; and so is this pearl, which is like a prescient tear 
shed in her happy, prosperous days, as it hangs on the 
glittering mantle of the Eternal Mother. Where can 
another woman be found so unhappy as Maria Theresa's 


lovely daughter ; and the people that destroyed this flower 
is called chivalrous ! How can this be ? 

When we had finished our expedition, Elise, a picture 
of the most perfect loveliness, wearing the Andalusian 
lace veil and with a rose in her golden hair, came to meet 

us at the gate of the E Palace. Jumping into the 

small pony equipage, she invited me to take a place by 
her side, took the reins and drove towards Grao, as I had 
invited the amiable family to a small dinner on board our 
steam-frigate. Who would have believed it, if any one had 
whispered it to us five years ago, when, in the brilliantly 
illuminated saloons of the Vienna palaces we danced to 
Strauss' lovely music : c You will meet some day in far-off 
Spain in Valencia's beautiful Huerta.' How strange is 
the fate of men ! The globe is so small and yet how 
one may be thrown about in it. Happy those who meet 
again ! 

We quite forgot in the morning to ask how the sea was, 
and now it was rough, very rough. I rather urged the 
company not to go on board, but Elise would not hear of 
it, and showed much courage. We had to combat with the 
waves in such a manner that landsmen might have been 
excused had they been frightened, and it was only after 
much trouble that we reached the ship. At dinner we all 
felt somewhat depressed, for leave-taking was before us. 
My neighbour was quite saddened by the mat du pays ; 
for whilst with us she was in Austria again, among her coun- 
trymen, and spoke their language. She had to return 
alone, and uncomprehended, a stranger amongst strangers. 
But how happy she was when our band played Strauss' 
melodies, recalling by their sounds the merry past, never 
to return. W 7 hoever has had his heart gnawed by home 
sickness will enter into the sorrows of these hours. With 
a low and trembling voice she proposed a toast to the 
Emperor, which touched me more than any mere use- 


less torrent of words. The sad hour of parting came. 
One shake of the hand to each of the beloved ones, and 
away they danced over the rough waves towards the beau- 
tiful city. The sun had set, and Valencia's cupolas were 
sharply defined on the evening sky; then the steamer 
commenced paddling the waves, and we too went away 
seeking the path of the coming night. So the dream 
ended, and only a soft sadness clung to our hearts. 

We soon arrived in Cartagena, the deserted and dreary 
harbour which we already knew sufficiently well ; we availed 
ourselves, however, of this sojourn to make an excursion to 
Murcia, which was close by. In a hired omnibus and four 
we drove to the long and uninteresting plain of Cartagena, 
which is only enlivened by a few palms. And so we pro- 
ceeded t the Sierra de Fuente-Santa, a bare but pic- 
turesquely formed mountain-range which closes the horizon 
from Cartagena with its grey background. The pass wound 
through desolate rocks, over and through the Sierra, a 
wild romantic part, reminding me strongly of the Sierra 
Nevada, through which we passed last year when going 
to Granada. After having crossed this rocky barrier, a 
splendid landscape lay before us, the Huerta of Murcia, in 
all the richness and splendour of summer, surrounded with 
a diadem of mountains which, though unclothed, were yet 
of noble form, and were illuminated by those wonderful 
southern tints. As Canaan formerly, at the feet of the 
Hebrew, so now lay before us this luxuriant plain, and 
with a joyful and refreshed heart we descended to the 
great city, which lies on the left bank of the Segura. 
Spain has many barren districts, both mountains and wide, 
uncultivated plains, but on the other hand it has detached 
parts, sufficient to make up for all the barrenness. Some- 
times these bright districts are but small gardens, which 
combine in them so much that is beautiful and charming, 
that in their shady laurel and orange walks or on their 


marble balustrades, and by the side of their fountains, 
surrounded with the roses and the jasmine, the barren 
country is forgotten, and one only enjoys the calm delicious 
rest of the present. Oftentimes one comes across whole 
God-blessed plains like the huertas of Valencia and Murcia. 
To me these isolated paradises are worth more than a 
whole country always fruit-bearing and covered with 
productive fields. Moreover, the number of interesting 
old cities and the people itself are two great charms of 
Spain. As in their buildings, so also in the character of 
the Spaniards, there is a mixture of the Arabian and the 
Gothic, the romantic element of the Moorish-Arabesque 
blended with the Christian loftiness and the sublime dignity 
of the Gothic arch. 

Murcia has 40,000 inhabitants ; it has a few fine palaces, 
amongst them that of the Bishop of Cartagena, who resides 
here ; a fine bridge, and a magnificent Gothic cathedral. 
In the choir of the latter are some wonderful Murillos, 
which, unfortunately, are hung too high for the lover of 
art ; they represent the principal saints of the city. On the 
right and the left of the high altar are preserved in rich 
coffins precious relics of Saint Ildefonso and other Span- 
ish saints. A chapel belonging to a family of one of the 
grandees is remarkable from the circumstance that a com- 
bination of the Gothic with the Moorish style is attempted 
in it, by which strange union a transition to the Cinque- 
cento, nay, I might almost say to the style of the last 
century, is brought about. The result is a confusion, in 
which, nevertheless, many fine details are preserved. The 
view from the lofty tower is very fine. One looks upon a 
wide soft carpet in which the clever, industrious, and per- 
severing Orientals have interwoven liquid silvery threads. 
By their wonderful application of water, the Moors have 
raised the fertile huerta from the barren ground. As a 
sort of border to the golden crops, the Moors have left to 



the country as a precious heritage, numerous palm, 
apple, orange, elm, mulberry, apricot, and fig trees, and 
hundreds of other plants of different climates. Besides 
its fruit, flowers, and handsome women, Murcia has not 
much that is either attractive or curious, but what 
there is, is sufficient to make the excursion desirable. 
Everything in Spain has unquestionable nobleness, and 
so it is with this city, especially when seen from the 

The costume of the country people here is very pictur- 
esque and exceedingly becoming to the proud, well-built 
men. After the manner of the Greek fustanella, they 
wear dazzlingly white wide linen trousers, fastening over 
the knee ; from the knee downwards, the leg is either 
quite bare^or is encased in embroidered leather gaiters and 
stockings. The foot is protected by sandals, in the points of 
which the three foremost toes are thrust. Bound the waist 
they wear a red sash, and over the clean white shirt, a red, 
blue, or white waistcoat, with silver buttons. Over their 
shoulder hangs the manta, a kind of Scottish plaid, in 
which they picturesquely wrap themselves on cool morn- 
ings. Hound the head they wind a handkerchief, and place 
over it a knowing, pointed, velvet head-cover, half hat, half 
cap half fool's cap, half Satan's cap, worn in dandy-like 
fashion. They have, in addition, sticks of a ridiculously 
immense thickness. The peasants of Valencia dress in the 
same manner, only they wear instead of a velvet head-cover 
a red lazzaroni cap. 

We alighted in Murcia at an hotel which was the very 
opposite of comfortable and neat ; it seemed to be very 
rarely visited by travellers, and was probably only the 
inn of the rambling Quixotes. Notwithstanding this, it 
Boon became the theatre of Spanish etiquette and grand- 
eur. The authorities of Murcia had found us out, and 
not a little to my horror, thought themselves obliged to 


give me an opportunity of holding a solemn levee, and of 
presenting their ceremonious homage in the venta. After 
a monstrous olla podrida, we threw off the fetters of the 
court of Madrid, and passed the splendid afternoon in 
making a beautiful trip into the country. In one of those 
notorious tartanas, drawn by a mule, we rolled out of the 
city. For the greater part of the way I took the reins 
from the spirited runner, and drove from the interior. 
After an hour's drive through a luxuriant and well- 
cultivated country, we came to a small place lying at the 
foot of a rock overgrown with aloes, which is topped by 
a proud Moorish castle, a romantic ruin, rendered still 
further romantic by the mysterious circumstance that 
there is neither a path up the rock nor a door to the never- 
visited castle ; and that was of course quite sufficient to 
excite our desire to storm it. Between the hostile lances 
of the aloes and the terrible arrows of the nettles we wound 
ourselves up the difficult way with an energy worthy of 
Germans. The absence of a road we had gloriously over- 
come, but there still remained for us to achieve an 
entrance. But here our boldest hopes were disappointed ; 
our fancy, excited by the mystery of the unknown interior, 
had to yield with regret to the reasons of prudent dis- 
cretion. Yet our endeavours were rewarded by the most 
splendid view of the landscape suffused in the glow of the 
setting sun. 

In the evening, we visited the two alamedas of Murcia, 
of which one is on a fine terrace on the banks of the 
Segura, and is covered with flowers and shrubs. This was 
the evening reunion of the beautiful ladies, full of loveli- 
ness as they play both with fans and eyes. The fine stone 
bridge close by leads to the second alameda in the suburb. 
This is the proper city garden, a kind of botanical garden, 
full of blooming flowers and splendid, rare trees. In the 
middle of it a bronze statue has been recently erected. We 

G 2 


promenaded for a time with the governor, and then retired 
early to our venta, seeking rest in the rather over-popu- 
lated beds, to be ready for the voyage to-morrow to 

From Cartagena we steamed for the third time in the 
course of a single year towards Calpe, to find fresh marvels 
under the Southern splendour, but the charming view of 
which did not efface in my thankful heart the golden picture 
of Spain. 



FOG brooded over the ocean, and our steamer worked 
lier way through a heavy swell to the mouth of the Tagus. 
Strange-looking fishing boats, like the junks painted on 
Chinese screens, and carrying an endless number of ragged 
little sails, were passing to and fro over the waves all 
along the dull yellow coast, which we approached rapidly 
so soon as we had taken our pilot on board. Our entrance 
to this celebrated and much-lauded river lay between 
hideous sand-banks. A row of country houses scattered 
amid fields upon the level coast form the village of Celuch 
and the first outpost of the city, which is built on seven 
hills. As the houses become more numerous, the shore on 
the right rises to the height of a hill ; passing a small 
creek, we come to a tongue of land on which stands the 
only really striking monument of Lisbon, the Torre de 
Belem, with its galleries and balconies, its batteries and its 
embrasures ; when within the range of its guns, we quit the 
sea and enter upon the Tagus proper. 

And now the panorama of the city first unrolls itself 
along the hilly shore. The houses are built in large 
groups ; cultivation ceases to be confined merely to what 
is useful : in the gardens one sees turf, from which rise 
clumps of trees ; an almost unbroken belt of houses ex- 
tends along the bank. We saw the palace and convent of 
Belem, neither of which is grand, but the latter, when 
viewed closely, is seen to be replete with architectural 


beauty. We then sped past the celebrated and extensive 
Corderia, memorial of maritime grandeur long since passed 
away. Beyond the Corderia, the buildings begin to ascend 
the range of hills, which form an amphitheatre whose crest 
is crowned by the massive, but alas! unfinished palace 
of Ajuda. It is one of the few buildings which might give 
some character to the long, long city. Next we fly past a 
small, cultivated gap on the height, above which is a 
dreary circle of windmills; then we reach the actual, 
closely encircled city. In its centre rise the palaces of 
Necessidades and Pombal, the domed churches of Carafao 
de Jesus and San Vincent. 

Together with the view of the fortified portion of the 
city we also have that of the rrarine portion, which extends 
along the s%ore of the broad Tagus. As before the massive 
stonework of the Tower of Belem, so also here in front of 
the houses which run down to the water's edge, lies a line 
of old, decayed, dismantled ships. 

The pride of Lisbon is the Praca do Commercio, a large 
and really handsome square, the exact centre of the new 
town. It is bounded on three sides by extensive govern- 
ment buildings and offices, and on the fourth side lies open 
to the Tagus. Wide marble steps lead from the water to the 
square, in the centre of which stands the heavy equestrian 
statue of King Jose ; in its rear, a triumphal arch is in 
course of erection. Straight, handsome streets intersect 
the town from this point ; and, looking across the ship- 
covered floods of the Tagus, set, as it were, in a framework 
of magnificent buildings, we enjoy the view of the Otra- 
banda, as the hill-coast opposite is called. Honour to whom 
honour is due ! The Praca do Commercio may in vain 
seek its peer throughout the world. Here, opposite to the 
gayest portion of the town, our frigate anchored. 

The proverb says, ' Quien no ha visto Lisboa, no ha visto 
cosa boa.' (He who has not seen Lisbon has not seen a 


good thing.) All travellers tell us, and in all Looks of 
geography this stands inscribed, that the capital of Lusita- 
nia belongs, together with Constantinople, Naples, Stock- 
holm, and Eio, to the number of capitals which are 
reckoned the most beautiful in the world. What then am I 
to say of the impression that it made upon me ? It appeared 
to me merely like an endless crowd of houses on the bank 
of a river, not possessing any picturesque features, or any- 
thing characteristically its own. It lacks the prominent 
original buildings needful to give it character; it lacks also 
the scenery needful to make it picturesque. The town ex- 
tends up the hill and terminates on the summit without any 
background, so necessary to please the eye ; all is so open, 
so wide-spread ; all breaks off so abruptly in the air that 
involuntarily one seeks for some mountain, some wooded 
ground whereon the eye may rest. Instead of these, one 
sees a flat, dull country extending beyond the city ; and 
Lisbon gives one no impression whatever of a Southern 

Along the whole Portuguese coast the sky is almost 
always foggy and overspread with clouds ; neither the 
atmosphere nor the water has the glowing tints which are 
so enchanting ; no palm trees wave, no cypress groves 
delight the eye ; all is dull and cold, as in certain parts of 
Germany ; as a city, Prague is decidedly much more pic- 
turesque : the Otrabanda is the only real beauty, and it 
possesses too little grandeur of character to impart an 
impress to the whole scene. 

On the very day of our arrival we visited the city. 
Within the small level space which it covers, and along 
the shore, are long streets and handsome squares, such as 
few capitals in Europe can boast. The buildings on the 
Prafa do Commercio are all in the same Italian style, and 
are of dazzling whiteness. On the left stands the spacious 
custom-house ; on the right, all the ministerial offices. 


The monument in the centre of the square is in the heavy 
rococo style. King Jose, a stout, worthy gentleman, sits 
on his hard-trotting horse, in a Roman costume, with a 
richly plumed helmet. Beside him is a figure of Victory, 
with an elephant-pony, which although representative of 
the colonies, has in no degree the desired effect of pre- 
senting His Royal Majesty as gigantic and world-con- 
quering ; but, on the contrary, stamps the monument with 
something of the ludicrous. Not without deep signifi- 
cance is the likeness of the Marquis de Pombal, placed on 
the white pedestal of the bronze statue. Jose possessed 
the title of sovereign, but Pombal the power. He regene- 
rated Portugal in a short space of time ; and by a despotic 
removal of the old city he created the modern and healthy 
portion ofLisbon. He was a tyrant, who gave the spin- 
to every energy with a view to the public good ; and this 
degenerate people needed such a man. Yet in his time 
he was hated ; and the bays that he twined for himself 
are 'd'outre tombe,' for now his name is in every mouth. 

In a direct line from the square, several streets run 
parallel to each other, of which the finest are Rua Augusta 
and Rua Aurea ; the latter has received its name from the 
numerous goldsmiths, who almost exclusively occupy its 
shops. Both streets are of considerable length, and ter- 
minate in the Prapa do Don Pedro, which is beautifully 
paved with black and white marble, and in which stands 
the pretty, though small, theatre of Donna Maria II. At 
a little distance behind the theatre lies the handsome, 
spacious Passeo Publico, adorned with an architectural 
fountain, shady trees, and lovely parterres of flowers. 
Another very fine promenade is that of Pietro d' Alcantara ; 
it hangs from one of the seven hills with its two terraces, 
and it pleased me particularly on account of its high wall 
of most luxuriant tree-heliotrope, and of its view over the 
greater portion of the city. 


Parallel with the bank of the Tagtis runs the Rua de 
Buona Vista, which leads to the palace Necessidades, in 
which the queen and her family are now residing. In 
the above-mentioned streets one finds lofty, handsome, 
and really imposing buildings, and richly appointed shops ; 
near Necessidades, the houses become more and more ir- 
regular; and, in accordance with Portuguese taste, are 
glaringly coloured with green or blue oil paint. On the 
chain of hills lies the old city, which forms a complete 
contrast to the new ; it is ugly and ill-arranged, up-hill 
and down-hill, and is full of all that is disgusting, together 
with rats and carrion ; it requires some effort to pass 
through it, much more to live in it. But the Portuguese 
would not have it swept for the world ; they find them- 
selves quite comfortable and happy among these hills and 
gutters of uncleanliness ; which seem to be their natural 

In passing through the streets of Lisbon one comes to 
the conclusion that it must possess as many parrots as 
inhabitants ; and by closing one's eyes one might imagine 
oneself in a primeval forest of Brazil. On each storey, at 
every window, sits one of these gaily-plumaged birds, and 
the conversation which these Americ'an natives carry on 
from the first floor to the garret, from mansion to mansion, 
from house to house, pierces one's ears through and 
through. In the Praca do Pablo I saw the balustrade of 
a balcony completely garnished with these green birds: 
the large number of them induced me to inquire whether 
they were for sale ; by no means, they formed the domestic 
enjoyment of the master of the house. Also as insepa- 
rables, one sees dispersed everywhere apes of all sizes and 
species, together with lovely fancy-birds of most beautiful 
plumage, natives of the African colonies of Portugal. 
Lisbon is equally wealthy in negroes and negresses, who 
form a colony of their own, on whom the strange privilege 


of a monopoly of white-washing has been bestowed, per- 
haps in ancient times by the humorous wit of their 

Shops for the sale of antiquities, unfortunately very 
characteristic of this poor country, are likewise to be seen 
in great abundance. Their number is legion, and yet all 
are amply provided with the most beautiful objects of 
ancient times, from which one might draw up a course of 
Portuguese history. We learn from them what was once 
the wealth of the country, inferring grand relations with 
Africa, India, and China ; and, with melancholy feelings 
one views the proud adornments of the ancient aristocracy 
passing into the hands of brokers to find their way into 
proud England, that patroness of the province Portugal. 
To me it was a real pleasure to turn over these mountains 
of Chinese vases, of furniture, and of rich stuffs. I dis- 
covered many magnificent objects, and most of them were 
moderate in price compared- with those in Venice and 

Very characteristic of, and appropriate to the county, 
is the vehicle of Lisbon called sege. It is a little caleche 
on two very high wheels, and drawn by two horses, one of 
which goes in the shafts, the other is ridden by the driver. 
They have a very clumsy appearance, and look as if meant 
to break one's neck ; but may have their advantages for 
going long distances in the town, and for travelling over 
the uneven ground. 

The wealthy portion of the community in Lisbon dress 
in the French style ; the women of the lower classes wear 
white handkerchiefs around their heads, and large heavy 
cloaks without sleeves ; the latter on account of the bad 
climate ; for in the midst of the hottest summer in Lisbon 
the air will suddenly become icily cold, and the breeze 
from the Tagus will rush sharply through the streets 
the city. During the days that we spent here we ofte: 


wished much for our summer overcoats. In fact, I soon 
perceived that quite a fallacious notion is entertained in 
our country of the capital of Portugal. We imagine a 
city rich in historical monuments, standing in the midst of 
a luxuriant and magnificent country replete with every 
charm of colouring and every beauty of profuse vegetation, 
together with the most genial of climates. We imagine 
the Tagus rolling past the marble walls of venerable 
palaces beneath an azure sky; bearing upon its silver 
waves, fanned by light breezes, hundreds of gondolas and 
galloons, and on the banks the light-hearted Portuguese 
singing melodious strains to the tones of the guitar. 

But all is really quite unlike this. The city is large, 
it is true, but is scattered irregularly ; one often comes 
upon fields in its very midst. Its style of architecture is 
plain and uninteresting; the houses are adorned with no 
Southern terraces, and have the steep German roof. The 
city is almost entirely destitute of monuments, conse- 
quently it does not possess any historical character. The 
country lacks even the grander forms of picturesque 
scenery; the far-extending hills are cultivated in the 
German manner, but not with German industry. There 
are scarcely any trees to be seen, and the numerous wind- 
mills remind one of Leipzig; the quintas only, the coun- 
try houses of the wealthy, which skirt the roads in num- 
bers, recall to the traveller by their cultivated vegetation 
the remembrance that he is -in the South. But should he 
burst forth into a fit of enthusiasm over a grove of oranges 
or of oleanders, forthwith comes a rough wind or a gloomy 
overcast sky to cool his ardour. The days of gondolas are 
past for the Tagus ; for the wealth of Portugal vanished 
beneath the scourge of the revolution and the protecting 
hand of England; and the people, who evince a great 
similarity to the race of monkeys, are grave and suspicious. 
If Heaven be merciful to human ears their language 


will never be used in poetry ; for it is the harshest, the 
most discordant, the most deficient in distinctive cha- 
racter, of any that I have ever heard: it is related to 
Spanish as a pug is to a greyhound, which doglike com- 
parison reminds me of the fact that I never anywhere 
beheld such numbers of dogs without masters, or dogs of 
which travellers can tell such fearful tales. 

I remained in Lisbon for a fortnight, which I devoted 
to intercourse with my friends and relatives. Therefore 
my leisure only sufficed me to note down in fragments 
and in hurried confusion that which made the most im- 
pression upon me of what I saw and experienced during 
my stay. The day after our arrival I paid a visit at court. 
A royal galloon with a red canopy, a comically clumsy, 
richly-giWed vessel of grand days gone by, conveyed us. 
It was rowed by old men, who had bare feet and wore 
shabby trousers, but the upper portion of whose persons 
was clad in velvet ornamented with gold lace, whilst their 
heads were covered with handsome jockey caps. With 
each stroke of the oar they rose from their seats, keeping 
regular time : and, amid the thunder from the Portuguese 
frigate, they brought us to the shore. 

Instead of landing us at the Praa do Commercio, the 
pride of Lisbon, as a love of display towards foreigners 
would have prompted, they brought up at a row of dirty 
houses ; and we were obliged to toil over dusty rubbish, 
by a steep road, which was very injurious to one's toilette, 
up to the street on the height ; there, by the sweat of our 
brow, to find the state equipage of the queen. Drawn by 
six handsome, heavy greys, and escorted by outriders 
dressed in red and in gold lace, we now rolled slowly along 
to the terraced space on which stands the palace of Necessi- 
dades. It is a small but well-kept building, in that pretty 
style which is between the Cinque-cento and the periwig- 
time. From its windows and balconies one enjoys a pretty 


view over a portion of the town, over the broad Tagus, and 
the Otrabanda. Passing through a yard covered with fine 
red sand, an arrangement which I may remark in passing 
pleased me much, we reached the handsome staircase, 
where we were received, according to ancient ceremonial, 
by sundry rococo court-attendants, with staves and 

In the first room, on the principal floor, stood the sun of 
Portugal of the present day, the universal genius, the 

Deus ex machina in a word, the Duke of S . He 

is now the virtual sovereign ; he unites within himself the 
offices of prime minister, of comrnander-in-chief, and min- 
ister of war ; in fine, he is all in all. He is a stout man, 
covered with stars, has curly snow-white hair, moustache, 
and beard, a dark-brown Portuguese complexion, and wears 
spectacles mounted in steel : to the queen and the young 
princes he is the most odious of flatterers. 

Traversing a suite of state rooms, we at length reached 
the presence of the royal family. I cannot express the 
eagerness with which I met the sovereign of Portugal ; for 
she had ever, in every way, inspired me with interest as 
a near relative, as a female sovereign, more especially as a 
woman whose destiny has been so exciting, as the mother 
of her family, and also for her outward appearance. She 
was now standing before me in a graceful morning dress, 
surrounded by her husband and their three eldest sons. 
Maria da Gloria is tall, a well-set head, noble ex- 
pressive features, fair bright hair, the blue eyes of the house 
of Hapsburg, and delicate hands ; but, unfortunately, the 
corpulence of a Portuguese to such a frightful degree as I 
had never witnessed before : how much therefore does it 
not speak for her natural grace that she is easy and agile 
in all her movements, and that in spite of her portliness 
she is attractive in her well-selected attire ; indeed one may 
say that at times she even looks handsome. I saw her 


move through her suite of apartments like a young girl, 
and I heard from others that she dances very gracefully 
and springs lightly and quickly into her carriage. 

Duriug the first moments, indeed days, of intercourse, 
the queen evinces embarrassment, and speaks little, but 
that little in the prettiest French imaginable. On more 
intimate acquaintance this embarrassment vanishes; the 
royal lady becomes more lively and sparkling, her keen 
intellect breaks forth; still there remains considerable 
reserve, I might say tardiness of speech, and a certain 
abruptness of manner. She possesses personal courage of 
which many brilliant instances are related, but she lacks 
persevering energy and unwearied zeal ; her enormous 
corpulence may be physically the cause of these deficiencies. 
As a woij)an and as a mother, she sets a rare example of 
domestic virtues in vitiated Portugal ; and with pleasure 
I observed that in her dress, in her manners, and in the 
way in which Necessidades is ruled, she follows much of the 
German style. She is very popular, and respect is paid to 
her by every one, of whatever party. That she has retained 
her popularity during the troubled times, the terrible days 
that Portugal has seen, may be explained by the fact of her 
being a woman ; such an one even finds aid in misfortune, 
her weaknesses are forgiven, and her every proof of courage 
calls forth admiration. 

The king, who is tall, looks rather lank by the side of 
his portly consort; in external appearance he unmis- 
takeably bears a strong resemblance to Francis I. of 
France. He is only thirty-seven years of age, but looks 
older, to which his stoop very much contributes ; as re- 
gards his intellect and general character, I was too short a 
time in Lisbon to be able to form a decided opinion ; but 
I do not imagine that he rises to the level of his uncle 
King Leopold of the Belgians. He is tenacious of the 
marks of respect which are his due, and which are carried 


even further than is the case in our own country ; since 
upon the occasion of one journey into the provinces, he 
was vociferously entreated by the people to bestow his 
blessing upon them, which accordingly he did. He is 
entitled ' Majeste tres-fidele,' one of the five titles which 
the pope bestowed on the five principal supporters of the 
Church ; though, as consort to the queen, it is hardly his 

The consort of a queen-regnant only receives the title 

of king upon the birth of a crown prince. Since S 

became dictator, the position of the King has been a painful 
one. Unfortunately, he was compelled at the time of the 
Eevolution to resign the command of the army. Great 
praise is due to him for having introduced the simplicity 
of German manners into his family, and a taste for refine- 
ment into his court. German domestic life prevails in 
Necessidades : the parents make occupation for them- 
selves with their children, who are trained after the 
German mode ; for they study assiduously, speak foreign 
languages admirably, and are encouraged to employ them- 
selves usefully even in their amusements ; as, for instance, 
with interesting collections of specimens of natural history, 
to which the colonies afford splendid contributions ; they 
also practise athletic exercises, which impart courage and 
an easy carriage. 

As has been previously observed, the three eldest sons 
were present to-day, and each in his appropriate uniform : 
the crown prince as general, Don Luis as my comrade in 
naval life, and Don Pedro as an infantry officer. The 
crown prince bears a striking resemblance to the house of 
Austria, so that he reminded me of home at our first 
meeting. He possesses a large amount of talent ; un- 
fortunately, however, it is not developed enough for 
present emergencies : for, notwithstanding the pains which 
his parents have taken, he does not appear yet to be suffi- 



ciently moulded to that firm, perfectly-trained character, 
which a prince so much needs in the present day, and 
more especially in unsettled Portugal. He is educated 
with the liberal ideas of his father, but is not kept suffi- 
ciently removed from the flatteries of S and of the 

court. But, indeed, how rarely is that foundation of self- 
reliance to be found, upon which alone a ruler can main- 
tain his position so as to bring a blessing ; how rare that 
quick, penetrating eye which is of more service to a 
monarch than the wisest of counsellors, and with which 
alone he can discern good advice from bad, and integrity 
from deceit. It is needful for Don Pedro to travel in 
foreign countries apart from Portuguese influence, and 
thus to learn to distinguish between good and bad.* 

Don Luie is a bright, lively boy, full of merry, roguish 
pranks ; he talks much and well ; the gay blood of Vienna 
dances in his veins. Don Joao is quiet and grave ; quite a 
contrast to his brothers. He has the sallow Portuguese 
complexion, brown hair, and mournful dark -brown eyes, 
without a trace of the German element ; he is the proud 
Braganza of ancient days. 

During my stay in Lisbon, I dined twice at court. In 
spite of the homely appearance of the household in other 
respects, the table was superbly and richly spread ; both 
the cookery and the attendance were admirable and most 
excellent, only there were too many dishes for my taste. 
Much of what is grand and beautiful that is displayed at 
the court of Lisbon is a remnant of the olden times of 
wealthy colonies ; as, for instance, a magnificent vase of 
massive silver and of true artistic workmanship. It repre- 
sents the trophies of a hunt. Its companion is an orna- 
ment for the dinner-table on fast-days, and displays every 
treasure of the sea ; but this is in Eio, as all gems were 

* TIo did this in the following year ; and as king, justified my assertion 
to the benefit of Portugal. 


divided between the brother and sister in their respective 

When King Joao fled in stormy haste to America, before 
the French invaders, the treasures (which had been thrown 
from the palace into the street, where gold, silver, and 
diamonds lay rolling together in confusion) were brought 
to America by men-of-war ; so that at the time of the 
Napoleonic scourge, King John was quietly enjoying his 
wealth on the opposite side of the ocean. When he re- 
turned to Portugal he divided the riches of his court into 
two equal shares, as I said before. Pretty figures of 
vermeil, dressed in different national costumes, also adorned 
the table ; and on a large buffet placed against the wall of 
the dining saloon was arranged a perfect array of the 
most splendid gold and silver plate, exquisitely embossed, 
which reached to the ceiling. I was gratified by this dis- 
play of ancient historical treasures of art, which have been 
handed down in the family from generation to generation. 

I thought it strange that the Queen allowed herself to 
be received at the entrance of the dining saloon by the 
band playing the Portuguese national hymn : since on the 
occasion of a visit from a foreign prince, one is usually 
careful not to allow one's own national hymn to be played. 
A foreigner is struck by the appearance of the servants in 
attendance, who wear the red cross of the Portuguese 

At the royal table I became acquainted with the Cardi- 
nal-patriarch of Lisbon, with Field-Marshal the Duke de 
Terceira, the Queen's Master of the Horse, a noble person- 
age, and one deserving of esteem, with the various minis- 
ters, and with the Duke and Duchess de P . The 

cardinal, an excellent man, and zealous in all matters of 
religion, is at present President of the Chamber of Peers ; 
may it be permitted to him also to elevate his order ; for 
through the lukewarmness of the rulers, religion has 

B 2 


become a subject of secondary consideration, one never 
meets a priest, and the royal household presents quite a 
Protestant appearance. 

The Duke de P has, through sickness, sunk quite 

to the level of a poor man ; a circumstance which excites 
one's compassion the more, because from his enormous 
wealth he would appear to have been destined to enjoy 
life in its most splendid and costly form. The Duchess 
vies in rotundity with her Majesty, and is therefore, as 
it seems, always invited to the first state-dinner given 
to foreigners, by way of a foil. Scarce twenty-four 
years of age, she already has a daughter who is nearly 
twelve years old. She is the daughter of a banker ; and 
at nine years of age she allowed the elder P - (the noted 
Portuguese envoy to England, the powerful minister, the 
man of luxury and .splendour who caused all England to 
talk of him as it did of Esterhazy), after he had dissipated 
his money, to steal her from her parents, who were enor- 
mously rich. With all haste she was married to his sickly 
son, and was then sent to a pension in Switzerland. The 
unfortunate parents, who had refused this distinguished 
marriage for their only child on account of the great 
sickliness of the boy, cried murder ; but the young people 

were married, P was an influential man, and the 

country in which this happened, Portugal ! The Duchess 
now sails about in portliness and gold, and seems to have 
viewed the question in a practical and a Christian light. 
She nurses her husband with true devotion, and during 
the leisure time that remains to her enjoys herself with 
the pleasures of her title and her wealth. For a day the 
story made an immense sensation, and the world was full 
of the abduction ; then it became forgotten. 

Among the ministers, I only noticed particularly the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, who is said to be the most 
renowned author in Portugal, and who, as I believe, writes 

LISBON. 101 

more poetry than he does business ; besides which, he 
speaks French rather well. Field-Marshal the Duke de 
Terceira, on the contrary, is the most finished cavalier of 
ancient times, full of noble and original ideas ; and to a 
foreigner, an agreeable and dignified personage. 

The old equipages of the Portuguese court are very 
handsome, and the collection of beautiful, gilded, rococo 
carriages surpasses even that of Vienna, especially when 
one remembers that one-half of these richly- wrought state 
carriages are left in Eio Janeiro for the use of the Emperor. 
From these, one may form an idea of the splendour of the 
entry of the ancient Portuguese kings into the city. The 
court now drives out a Vanglaise, and the few remaining 
mule-carriages were placed at my disposal. 

I spent two evenings with the Queen : the first at the 
large theatre San Carlo, a spacious house, become rather 
dingy from age, which, however, notwithstanding its large 
proportions, cannot venture to compare with that of San 
Carlo at Naples. In presence of a full house the panorama 
of the Mississippi, which goes wandering all about the 
world, was displayed. In the course of its unfolding, the 
Queen's lively observations upon the giant land of her 
birth interested me much. This august lady recalled the 
scenes of her lovely, native home, glowing Brazil, with 
ardour and interest. Be one born where one may, the 
love of home is ever the same. We also conversed about 
Lisbon, and about Portugal in general. At this juncture, 
the King remarked that he considered Lichnowsky's work 
on the subject to be the only fair one, and he appeared to be 
very indignant at that which the Countess Hahn-Hahn has 
written upon it. The Queen was annoyed with the latter 
for having expressed her surprise at finding an embroidery 
frame in the apartments of a queen-regnant. As the 
Queen is a very domestic lady, she replied satirically to 
the suggestion of the Countess that a queen-regnant ought 


indeed not to occupy herself with such things 'Elle 
voudrait probablement que j'ecrivisse des livres.' 

In addition to the wearisome, never-ending Mississippi, 
a Portuguese comedy was also performed. To listen to 
such in a language that one does not understand, and 
moreover in Portuguese, is too much for Christian ears. 
Whoever has not heard Portuguese does not know how the 
* black gentleman ' talks to his grandmother ; such a husky, 
mumbling, nasal voice, such a conglomeration of all low, 
vulgar, disagreeable sounds could only have been invented 
by him when in a passion. In its tones, or rather in its 
discords, it bears a strong resemblance to Eussian, although 
the latter is a beautiful language in comparison with it. 

The second evening was passed at the house of Count 

F , an immensely wealthy parvenu, who spends the 

whole of his time and money in hunting and theatres; 
wherever he may be staying, whether here or in the Otra- 
banda, he passes the day in hunting on his fine property ; 
whilst in the evening he has either an opera or a play 
acted at his own house. In these theatrical representa- 
tions the Count performs, together with his numerous sons 
and daughters; he takes the buffo parts, his daughters 
sing, and his sons play in the orchestra. This passion of 
the Count, who also superintends the royal theatre, is said 
to be emptying his coffers by degrees ; however, the fes- 
tivities of this day were the prettiest that I have seen for 
a long time, and gave me a very good idea of the friendly 
manner in which the higher classes in Portugal associate 

In Bemfico which, like Olivuzza in Palermo, is a sort of 
suburb composed of villas, the Count has a large quinta 
with park-like pleasure-grounds, which I had already visited 
one day with my friend Almeda. The quinta would be 
handsome if one did not detect in it too much of the 
parvenu origin of its master; it is too overloaded, and 

LISBON. 103 

there is in it a want of real taste and of good arrangement ; 
thus, horribile dictn for a German, grass is even growing 
in the sanded paths. Spacious pleasure-grounds extend 
from the clumsy entrance -gate up to the house, and are 
bordered by walls of foliage. In front of the house, are all 
sorts of flowers, placed ready, as it were, to dance a quad- 
rille; an idea which very formally laid-out flower-beds 
always suggest to my mind : and among these, gleamed 
the most costly ornamental drums made of delicate Chinese 

In the English garden on the right, 0re large conserva- 
tories in the Moorish style ; a small pool which is crossed 
by an expensive but useless drawbridge ; and also a mena- 
gerie, in which a pair of handsome lions are especially to 
be noticed. On the occasion on which I visited this scene of 
ostentatious caprice by daylight, my amiable cousin Almeda 
was also present, and her husband cautioned his wife not to 
go too near to the lions' cages lest the queen of beasts, so 
soon as she should see a lady within her domain, should 
be seized with jealousy and should dash herself against 
the bars of her cage, filling the whole garden with her 
terrific roars ; these evidences of jealousy shake the nervous 
system of my friend in a most unpleasant manner. To- 
wards gentlemen the lioness is very gracious. I have in- 
deed often observed such strange fancies in beasts that, in 
these respects, they seem scarcely inferior to human beings. 

On the left side of the garden in a thick shrubbery, 
stands an unpicturesque gardener's cottage. When Almeda 
asked the wife whether the cottage were open, the woman 
began a string of protestations. She would by no means 

allow us to enter. 


In Count F 's quinta there is a charming theatre 
with foyers, large saloons, and even a private entrance 
and private rooms for the court. The theatre is lighted 


with gas, made in a gasometer in the park ; it is capable 
of containing a large audience ; and is the only theatre 
except that of San Carlo in Naples, which really pleases 
me thoroughly in all its details. Just as the latter theatre 
is spacious, gorgeous, and imposing, so that of the Count 
is homelike, graceful, exquisite ; it is a real gem, and does 
more honour to the taste of him who erected it than does 
the cottage alluded to. Balfe's ' Haimanskinder ' was 
very well performed by dilettanti in the presence of the 
court and nobility. The Count shone in the buffo parts. 
Among the numqjous and very fashionable assemblage, 
one had unfortunately opportunity to observe that beauty 
has not fallen to the share of all the inhabitants of the 
Iberian peninsula; but only to those of beloved Spain. 
The statuesque complexion of the Spanish ladies is just as 
lovely and ethereal as that of the Portuguese ladies is sallow 
and leathern coloured. Amid the crowd one Spaniard 
stood alone, the niece of the envoy from Isabella, my 
cousin Almeda, a lovely lady. 

On Sunday afternoon I went to the bull-fight with 
Maria da Gloria. The young princes think the amuse- 
ment too cruel, and therefore never appear ; whereas the 
little princesses, two lovely little girls, come enthusias- 
tically to the field of battle. But why do I term it a field 
of battle ? In chivalrous Spain only, is it a battle ; here, 
on the contrary, it is a vulgar, disgusting sport. To the 
shame of the Portuguese, the beast appears with knobs of 
wood upon his horns ; he is teased, excited, and provoked 
with tormenting mummeries. It is true that there are 
picadors as in Spain; but their bold, swift horses and 
their personal cowardice protect them from all danger. 
The combatants also are there with their cloaks and ban- 
derilleros ; but the hero of the day, the grand matador, 
who excites all one's enthusiasm, is wanting; and the 
beast, after he has been meanly tormented for some time, 

LISBON. 105 

is secured by the well-padded attendants of the arena, and 
is taken back to his prison. Vulgar jokes, in bad taste, 
are added for the benefit of the mob. Thus negroes appear 
in rococo costume, and are obliged to cringe before him 
like dogs and to allow themselves to be mauled. Others 
partake of refreshments beneath a paper tent in the centre 
of the arena, and the point of the joke consists in the 
overturning of the whole company in a heap by the 
annoyed beast. Others, again, roll down a slippery slope 
into the arena on a small car, when again the bull dashes 
at the little vehicle. In a word, the whole thing is a 
tomfoolery without any definite character, and affording no 
opportunity for any display of courage. The crowd laugh 
and shout in a vulgar, brutal manner ; but the wild, spirit- 
stirring enthusiasm, the delight in danger, of the Spaniard 
is wanting. 

This scene of degrading torture of both man and beast 
can but be injurious to the people, since it fosters their 
more savage propensities ; whilst in Spain the severe con- 
flict calls forth the whole energies of the man. The bull 
must collect his full strength, the man summon up his 
full courage ; body is opposed to body blood flows : in 
these games there is a vigour that is indescribably exciting. 
The man is not degraded to the level of a beast, nor the 
beast to that of an inanimate object. In Spain, where it 
is a real combat, the practice does not for a moment 
appear cruel ; but here, where it is a mere low amusement, 
the smallest accident becomes revolting. 

In Seville I saw horses fall, but not one single man 
hurt ; here two bull-dogs were grievously maltreated ; they 
attacked the bull between the horns, he pressed them 
down against the ground and gave them numerous thrusts 
in the ribs and body so that they dragged themselves from 
the arena bleeding and half-crushed. It is true that I was 
assured that a glass of water mixed with sand from the 


arena would restore them in some incomprehensible way, 
and that they would be able to appear again on the ground 
on the following Sunday. But I was disgusted with the 
whole scene ; whereas in Spain I ever experienced a 
delightful excitement. Some few moments here indeed 


were exciting, as when the bull in his uncontrolled might 
twice sprang over the hoardings ; also on another occasion 
when a sort of attendant, or rather some buffoon, riding 
about, rolled over head foremost with his Eosinante, so that 
horse and rider turned a complete summersault, such as I 
never saw before, without a hair on them being hurt, and 
without the champion losing his saddle ; but in the shock, 
the buffoon (to the great mirth of the populace) lost all 
his hair, which was a fascinating wig. With this adven- 
ture my Spanish ardour was aroused ; and with involun- 
tary bravos, which were not perhaps quite seemly by the 
side of the Queen, I wished the animal better and more 
decided success. 

The King-consort took me one day to far-famed Cintra, 
the much-lauded El Dorado of Portugal. A mountain 
spur, a rocky hill, rather higher and larger than our 
Briihl, rises picturesquely from the level country about 
five or six miles beyond Lisbon, and extends to the sea- 
coast. Around and within this rocky crown stands Cintra, 
a village containing numerous country-houses and some few 
mansions, in the midst of which reposes the ancient, Gothic, 
royal castle of Emmanuel. It is not large, but has fine 
bay windows with carved mullions ; various bare yet im- 
posing halls, relics of the venerable middle ages, and two 
giant chimneys, real historic landmarks. 

Unfortunately, we did but hastily examine this castle, 
which I am told is very interesting, and devoted most of 
our time to a building erected by the present King, the 
little castle of Penna, with its extensive gardens. Every 
man loves his own child best, and thus I was compelled to 

CINTRA. 107 

relinquish the closer inspection of Cintra, and also the 
journey to giant Mafra, the Portuguese Escurial. I was 
obliged to resign myself to my fate and, at least, admired 
that which I was permitted to see. Penna is, in its way, 
really very pretty, though rather quaint. It was formerly 
a small monastery ; and it also had its foundation in the 
glorious times of Emmanuel, a name to be heard every- 
where in Portugal, and which has stamped itself on the 
few grand works of this country. 

Penna stands on a high peak of rock, and is transformed 
into a Moorish castle with turrets, battlements, pinnacles, 
and fantastic, terraced balconies, ornaments, and carved 
foliage. Enveloped, by reason of its height, in the eternal 
fog of Portugal, and rendered thereby very damp, it is 
already beginning to moulder whilst yet in course of 
building; and notwithstanding the application of every 
hydraulic cement, it is impossible to inhabit it : it is there- 
fore merely a pretty toy, a valueless property. In addition, 
the situation of the little castle renders it useless to people 
who desire to live in comfort ; it occupies the highest point 
of the pyramid of rock, and one can only ascend to its 
encircling walls with considerable fatigue, by a precipitous 
path which leads through shrubberies of evergreens, among 
numerous flowers, and over sharp stones. He who does 
not desire to make trial of an attack of rheumatism in the 
sublime exclusiveness of exalted regions, will not choose 
his home in the cloud-castle of Penna which stands like a 
desert island in the fog. 

The prettiest possible groups of young firs bordered our 
path almost to the summit. A Moorish gateway, sur- 
rounded by umbrageous trees, by ivy and shrubs, leads to 
a picturesque courtyard, in the centre of which, on the 
verdure-covered rock, stands a weather-beaten, Gothic 
cross, a memorial of the ancient monastic times. The little 
castle is on the right, and on the left are the stables, which 


are turreted and crenelled, and within which a spacious 
hall is now in course of making. Over the gateway at the 
principal entrance, the King has caused a distorted figure 
to be carved in stone, extending itself in various branches 
and ramifications. From ancient days, the Portuguese have 
ever been especially famed as carvers in stone, and this 
rather horrible specimen of art, in which the birds of the 
air might build their nests, affords confirmation of the 
justice of this fame. The stucco ornaments of the Alham- 
bra are repeated in an equally artistic manner in stone on 
the walls and roof of the gate-tower. 

The interior of the castle consists of plain, homelike 
little rooms, but neither are these completed. Expense 
and labour appear to have been bestowed only upon the 
exterior ;* this arrangement, however, is quite judicious, 
since Penna may serve as an ornament to the landscape, 
but can never be of any use. The greatest beauty of this 
castle of the clouds is unquestionably its monastic court, 
around which light, and prettily ornamented, cloisters run 
on the ground floor and first floor, and its copings are 
adorned by the Spanish azulejos; there is also in the 
chapel a very handsome altar in the Cinque-cento style, 
carved in the finest alabaster. 

Whilst in the elevated region of Penna, we were en- 
veloped in floating fog, which wetted us through with its 
drizzling, mountain rain ; and which only permitted us to 
take one hasty look below at a beautiful, melancholy lake, 
with dark green rim, on whose breast floated swans of 
dazzling, snowy white. 

The extensive pleasure-grounds in the dales and on the 
rocky heights around are tastefully laid out, but still 
quite new. Large masses of pine, with their mysterious 
and humid depths and their strong Alpine perfume, trans- 
port a German to the cooler regions of his native home. 
Boulders of rock, overgrown with ivy and flowers, of which 

CINTRA. 109 

a happy use has been made, gladden the eye, and afford 
proof to foreigners of the fertility of a southern soil and of a 
winterless climate. Beautifully laid down paths, with count- 
less resting-places by their side, and points from which one 
may view the prospect, testify to the love of the owner for 
his bold creation, while the deep, dark volumes of water 
rolling down amid the green copsewood scarcely give an 
idea of the latitude of Lisbon. A mass of rock on which 
stands the ruin of an old Moorish castle is especially to be 
admired ; whilst the weather-beaten walls of the picturesque 
edifice are supported and tapestried with ivy, and perfect 
cascades of geranium, through which one is literally obliged 
to force one's way, fall over the rock in a stream of the 
most glowing colours. 

The view from this lower point, which is not shrouded 
in fog, is characteristic and indeed grand. Standing on a 
rocky height covered with fir, we have immediately at our 
feet the small, bright, verdure-clad Eden of Cintra, with 
its pretty villas and gardens, its gigantic, shade-giving 
chestnuts, and the pointed, monumental chimneys of its 
grey, royal castle. On the right, the broad cultivated 
plain extends to Lisbon and the Tagus. On the left is 
seen the vast wilderness in which the giant Mafra stands 
like a Thebaid, a broad yellow expanse full of the me- 
lancholy of loneliness, over which the roaring ocean rushes 
stormily in weird white masses of foam illumined by the 
doubtful light of the half-gloomy, half-sunshiny day. It 
was a grand, a striking picture; and a vessel which, 
sailing solitarily on the watery waste of the dark stormy 
sea, was shortening sail, completed the impressiveness 
of the scene. 

On our return from Cintra we visited the Infanta Isabella, 
the former Eegent of Portugal, at her quinta. She was once 
famed on account of her beauty, and is still wonderfully 
well preserved for her fifty-one years. At twenty-five 


years of age, and after the death of her father, she under- 
took the regency, which she held for two years. She is now 
planting her orange and lemon trees and leads a very re- 
tired life. She wears her hair, which is still of a rich 
brown, a la Titus, takes snuff and bows like a man. 

Arrived in Necessidades, the King was good enough to 
show me his private apartments, a suite of bright, cheerful 
rooms, filled with every description of treasures of art from 
the middle ages, which the King collects with eagerness, 
and arranges with much taste. The young princes also 
have a very interesting collection of most magnificent 
parrots, African fancy-birds, sky-blue, purple, orange- 
besprinkled, and scarlet birds; monsignores, cardinals, viduas 
with their long sharply-curved tails, becco-platas, rice- 
ortolans, and pretiosas were flying about at liberty in a 
lofty room, in gay confusion and exquisite splendour of 
colour. I was struck by one very rare and beautiful 
specimen of a dazzling, golden-coloured parrot with a slen- 
der rim of dark green at the tip of his wings, and of 
about the size of the ordinary green parrot ; it was very 
tame and talkative, but seemed to me to be in reality 
rather an anomaly in nature than a type of a species. 

The garden of Necessidades is remarkable for its pro- 
fusion of flowers, and for its wealth in tropical plants. 
One terrace, in front of the Queen's windows, is filled with 
the most lovely bananas, a luxuriant, verdant, and true 
exotic plant, which bears fruit throughout the entire year. 
Its taste is something like that of our ripe pears, it is 
much prized, and is thought more refreshing than sherbet. 
Before we quit Necessidades, I must explain the peculiar 
names of the royal palaces. Necessidades, means need ; 
Ajuda, help; Penna, grief; they have their origin from 
churches and convents joined with the name of the Blessed 
Virgin, thus : Nostra Senora de Ajuda, Our Lady of Aid ; 
Nostra Senora de Penna, Our Lady of Woe. 


I had also an opportunity of attending a Church festival 
at court ; it was on the occasion of the Feast of the most 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. The host, which had been exhibited 
for a long time, was brought back in solemn procession to 
the Tabernacle, on which occasion High Mass was cele- 
brated. The Queen appeared between the King and the 
Deus ex machina, both of whom, as Grand Crosses, wore 
lace mantles over their uniforms, the peculiar badge of the 
Grand Cross. The Queen, with her attendants, placed 
herself beneath the canopy, and remained standing during 

the celebration of Holy Mass. Duke de S , who, in 

addition to his many other appointments at court, appears 
to hold that of court fool, made jokes to their Majesties. 
What an impression must not this unworthy example have 
made on the people ! How can obedience and respect 
towards earthly majesty exist if that earthly majesty does 
not know how to bow with reverence before the Majesty of 
Heaven ? 

The church in which the ceremony took place is a 
spacious domed building, in the hideous, clumsy style of the 
wig-time. Its interior is disfigured by two frightful altar- 
pieces which were painted by two pious Infantas. It was 
built by the unfortunate Queen Maria II., who ended her 
life as a lunatic. 

The most amiable, and indisputably also the most in- 
tellectual person at the Portuguese court is the widowed 
Empress Amalie, the second wife of Don Pedro, a lady 
of rare character and of the most kindly disposition. 
Harsh fate has persecuted this princess with its blind 
strokes from her earliest youth. At this time she was 
living with her amiable 'and distinguished daughter, a 
perfect princess such as one rarely meets (who, alas ! was 
soon afterwards torn from her), at Bemfico, a lovely quintas 
where I had, as a relative, the pleasure of a most cordial 


During the pleasant hours that we spent together, we 
visited Lumiera, the celebrated and beautiful property of 
the Duke de P , mentioned before. The castle itself con- 
tains little worthy of note except some interesting portraits. 
But the shady, luxuriant garden is truly splendid ; the 
choicest flowers from all zones render it a permanent exhibi- 
tion ; while over and around the terraces which slant prettily 
and cheerfully towards the castle, is a perfect sea of fra- 
grant flowers and luxuriant creepers. Here I passed a sum- 
mer evening which filled me with sensations of deep emotion 
and melancholy calm. At such moments the soul, anxious 
and weary, loses itself in the contemplation of nature ; 
penetrated by undefined and painful yet delightful pre- 
sentiments, it pants dreamily for solitude, but also, as a 
thirsty man at the sight of a broad, deep lake, longs for the 
proximity of a trusted friend. On this evening, the mys- 
terious shadows of the rich green vaults of foliage appeared 
to me to be doubly enchanting ; the mute, innocent blossoms 
of the many-coloured flowers doubly lovely ; over the 
countenance of him who gazes upon such a wealth of 
beauty, a sad smile spreads itself to which the hot, hot 
tears are akin. 

A grand ball at the house of the Marquis of B (who, 

be it said in passing, is a vain coxcomb, and who, desti- 
tute of either wit or talent, would fain play the part of 
the magnificent aristocrat the seigneur of the rococo 
period) displayed again a home view of the lively society 
of Lisbon. There were elegant and rich dresses to be seen, 
a profusion of black hair and of olive complexions, but very 
little indeed nothing of beauty. The house was decorated 
with extraordinary magnificence, but without taste, and 
quite in the parvenu style. Hebes moulded in plaster of 
Paris were standing between vases of the most exquisite 
old china. As I approached, the Marquis did me the 
honour of ordering our national hymn to be played in the 

LISBON. 113 

street; and I had hardly entered the hall when the 
orchestra above took up the strain : before dancing began, 
it swelled forth anew, and in the street below it was 
continued all night, until five o'clock the next morning. 
This at once characterised the taste of the kind-hearted 

Of sights (so called) there are, as has been already said, 
very few to be seen in Lisbon. The solitary object of im- 
portance, having regard to ancient art, is the monastery of 
the order of S. Jerome at Belem, an edifice of the time of 
Emmanuel, which bears his honoured stamp. The King 
ordered this building to be erected when his great Vasco 
da Grama made the discovery of the new way to the East 
Indies round Africa, The great voyager first planted 
his foot on his native shores, after his triumphant discovery, 
on the very spot on which the church stands. The ex- 
terior of the extensive monastery, with its pointed buttresses, 
reminds one of the old English castles of the time of the 
Edwards. The church, which is built of reddish-yellow 
freestone, that, especially in the interior, gleams with a 
mysterious rosy-tinted glow, is a marvel of graceful carving, 
and is adorned with leaves, ornaments, niches, and images 
of saints. The style is that of the time of King Emmanuel, 
whose body reposes within it. From complex and single 
pointed arches, from Grothic lines intersecting each other, 
springs a rounded but flattened arch, a bold specimen of 
art, which is cleverly and well executed, as it unites in itself 
the dignity and severity of the Grothic arch and the almost 
voluptuous loveliness of the Corinthian style. Over the 
interior is shed that peculiar enchantment of subdued light, 
which changes the gloomy chill of an ordinary church into 
grateful warmth. The side-entrance contains a whole 
world full of religious histories and mysterious legends. 
But the gem of Belem is the airy cloister court of 
fabulous loveliness, with its fountains, its pool enclosed 



within a basin of freestone, and its half-G-othic, half-Moor- 
ish cloisters intersecting each other. The flattened arches, 
bold as is their introduction, appear here to especial ad- 
vantage: indeed this style of King Emmanuel (limited to 
Portugal) is, in my opinion, deserving of imitation. One 
recognises all the buildings erected by this talented monarch 
by his emblem, the globe surmounting the cross, which 
has been adopted as the Imperial arms in Brazil. I have 
already in my account of our entrance to the Tagus made 
mention of the venerable Tower of Belem : therefore I will 
now merely observe, as a suggestion worthy of attention in 
architectural designs, that coats of arms executed in massive 
blocks of stone form the battlements. There is also a 
castle of Belem, a building entirely on the ground floor, 
with a formal garden which reminded me of our Augarten ; 
there is a terrace by the Tagus, which is covered with 
flowers, and really poetic in appearance ; also a fine view. 
Another palace already spoken of is that of Ajuda : this 
vast edifice never could be completed on account of its 
size. The various floors are of such enormous extent, that 
the apartments on them form complete squares. On both 
right and left, the principal fapade, which is the only one 
that is finished, is shut in by large corner towers with 
heavy entablatures commanding the town, which give to 
the whole a colossal effect. These enormous, but unfinished 
buildings give one a feeling like putting one's horse at a 
large fence. He rushes at it, develops his noble form in 
his course, snorts with his nostrils, and plunges beneath 
his rider, conscious of success, to the foolhardy leap ; then 
suddenly, when half-way in his spring, is seized with terror ; 
and swerving, turns quickly round, throwing his master 
and rider into the mire. The facade of the Palace of 
Ajuda is lofty, and faced with marble ; the spacious vesti- 
bule, with its roof supported by pillars, excites great ex- 
pectations, but its inner portion fails to fulfil them, and 
what appearance does the interior of the palace make ! 

LISBON. 115 

Ajuda affords a symbolical history of unhappy Portugal, 
that kingdom replete with glowing reminiscences of the 
past ; in the present, filled with all that is foul and abomin- 
able. The earthquake, when it gave Lisbon such a fearful 
shock, played well into the hands of the Marquis de Pombal ; 
it gave him the opportunity of enforcing the erection of 
the handsome new town : the old palace of Belem also was 
thrown down, and the all-powerful minister decreed the 
building of Ajuda. This bold proceeding was well suited 
to the enervated government of Portugal, serving to conceal 
its poverty and to aid its credit. Then King Jose died, and 
Pombal ceased to be all-powerful. Ajuda remained at a 
standstill, and remains so yet ; the credit of Lusitania fell 
with him ; and Portugal, become a province, went to decay, 
to supply, by the convulsions which followed, raw material 
for the commerce of triumphant Albion. 

The interior of Ajuda is indeed terrible ; empty, de- 
solate rooms with frescoes contrary alike to the regulations 
of the police and to propriety. It is incomprehensible 
how in Europe, as existing in the present day, such frightful 
pictures, such malicious, unmeaning caricatures could here 
have found a place. The opus coronatum of these mon- 
strous representations is a gigantic, allegorical picture 
which has for its subject the return of King Joao from 
Brazil. Portugal, represented in the allegory by actresses, 
stands on the shore waving a theatrical welcome to the 
approaching procession. On the water, which one must 
imagine to be the vast Atlantic Ocean, His Majesty, 
bringing with him happiness, is speeding along, accom- 
panied by the whole royal family, each member in a shell 
drawn by mermaids and Tritons. The King, who is so 
large and stout that his shell ought to have capsized long 
before, is sitting in his regal habit habille, looking so 
monstrous and so impassive that he makes one feel quite 
anxious and uneasy. 

I 2 


King Joao, as a multitude of dusty portraits cast on one 
side in a passage at Ajuda show us, had very ugly 
features, which, as depicted in this scene on the waves of 
ocean, appear really fearful. The meagre form of the 
bad Queen Carlotta is conveyed in another shell ; the tribe 
of Infantas are following with looks of astonishment. 
How much more interesting would not a representation of 
the real historical moment have been than this objection- 
able allegory ! And certainly the be-powdered King would 
have found a better footing on board a richly-ornamented 
man-of-war than he has in this rocking shell. 

The prospect from the side towers of Ajuda is extensive, 
and rewards one ; but the foreground is gloomy and 
desolate. In the centre, stands an isolated church tower, 
which has an almost absurd effect, as it apparently springs 
up from the earth : neither church nor chapel is attached 
to it. 

All the churches of Lisbon (with the exception of Belem 
already nSticed) have their origin in the period of bad 
taste. Most of them are so bare of ornament as to be 
unseemly. The immense church of San Vincent, with its 
lofty arched roof, is only visited on account of the 
royal tomb ; and what a tomb it is ! In a sacristy draped 
with black, the coffins are piled one upon another like old 
worn out trunks ; standing there covered with faded moth- 
eaten velvet, one has been crowded upon another just as 
was most convenient. Indeed we are obliged to wind in 
and out about this wilderness of antiquity to be able to 
find any special one of these boxes ; no sarcophagus marks 
the solemnity of the place. How much space did not the 
inhabitants of this tomb require whilst they were alive ! 
The halls of Cintra were too small for them ; giant 
Mafra must needs be built ; they strove to erect the edifice 
of a Titan, the palace of Ajuda. Their retinue and circle of 
courtiers must needs have room to perform their evolutions 

LISBON. 117 

before the throne ; and now these proud scions of the 
house of Braganza are lying huddled carelessly together 
in one chamber, neglected and desolate. To Don Pedro 
alone has more space been given, and his coffin is orna- 
mented with the Imperial crown. Some wreaths of im- 
mortelles and a coronet of bay testify to the affection of 
those whom he left behind : for even a flower offered 
when life and strength have fled is a token of love. There 
is no more room left in this unseemly chamber of coffins. 
The whole church was really intended for a mausoleum, 
and the coffins ought to have been arranged in the ex- 
tensive vault in its centre, which would undeniably have 
presented a grand and imposing effect. 

The church of San Roque is the handsomest in Lisbon ; 
or rather not the church itself, but a side chapel, which 
abounds with semi-precious stones, marble, pietra dura, 
and mosaics. If the whole were in unison with this 
gorgeous chapel, it would indeed be a splendid building. 
Three choice mosaics after celebrated Italian masters are 
exquisitely finished: they represent the Annunciation of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary ; the Baptism of Christ ; and the 
Descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Day of Pentecost. In 
addition, no spot on the walls is left unemployed or un- 
adorned ; they gleam on all sides with semi-precious 
stones, among which the amethyst and lapis lazuli produce 
an effect especially pleasing to the eye. The three lamps, 
which are kept always burning, and the two large cande- 
labra, are also very fine, and are beautifully wrought. 
Lisbon is so jealous of its treasures that a thick, heavy 
curtain conceals this chapel from the vulgar gaze, which 
appears to me to be an injudicious measure, since the 
beauties are placed there to be seen. Thus, in Malta, to 
my horror I perceived that the magnificent floor of the 
Church of the Knights of St. John, with all the escutcheons 
of the Knights, and rich ornaments of most delicate pietra 


dura, was covered all over with rush matting. A protection 
which deprives one of the sight of a work of art is absurd. It 
were better that an object should fall sooner into decay 
than that no one should be able to enjoy it. I am an enemy 
to all jealous care, and therefore a sworn foe to curiosities 
in glass cases. Everything has its day ; and when that day 
is past, let it moulder and make way for something else ; 
otherwise where is the use of energy and exertion ? 

Lisbon has two arsenals ; one military, the other naval. 
The naval arsenal is near the Prapa do Commercio ; and 
that which is most worthy of note in it is the splendid dry 
dock, which I envy for Austria. The extent of the arsenal 
is much too large for the decayed navy of Portugal : 
therefore it is empty. In the centre of this arsenal, 
which no longer possesses any interest, a pavilion is 
erected, with a saloon in it, from which the Queen looks 
on, on the rare occasion of a launch. What would Vasco 
da Grama say if he could see the navy of Portugal in this 
industrious and enlightened nineteenth century ? In really 
large fleets, if an insignificant vessel be launched no great 
importance is attached to it : but when the navy is in a 
bad condition, its poverty is on such occasions only brought 
more prominently to view. 

In the military arsenal there are some very beautifully 
gilded apartments; but only miserable weapons, and 
nothing that is at all old or interesting ; so that it in no 
way repays one for the trouble of visiting it. 

The Corderia is chiefly attractive by reason of two of 
the largest rope-walks that I have ever seen : in it the 
walks run close to each other. The single rope-walk in 
Venice, which is so famed, is nothing in comparison with 
this. We strolled separately to the two extremes, and 
vanished into two scarcely distinguishable specks. No- 
thing in Lisbon struck me so much. Such an enormous 
space would be splendid for festivities ; but for the object 

LISBOX. 119 

of its present use a place occupying less extent would be 

The Custom-house is a building which no one should 
omit to visit. It occupies one side of the Praca do Com- 
mercio. Even the court-yard has its attractions : it is a 
large, sunny square, in the centre of which is a huge pool 
overshadowed by pepper-trees. In the broad, cool ex- 
panse of this boundless emporium, one sees the treasures 
of foreign countries piled up in large masses and in rich 
profusion, grand in their rough simplicity ; a picture of 
colonial trade. Such I now beheld for the first time in so 
tangible a form. There lay countless packages of delicate 
tea from China ; aromatic bales of tobacco from the plan- 
tations of America ; numerous, costly materials for dyeing 
from primeval forests which are in gradual course of 
clearing under the axe of the colonist ; giant elephant- 
tusks by the hundredweight, brought by golden sand- 
dusted caravans from the western coasts of Africa ; 
rhinoceros horns, obtained with difficulty by the sharp 
arrow of the bronze-coloured Malay ; and all the innu- 
merable raw products from which, by means of his steam 
machinery, the European, with eager haste, draws and 
presses the countless necessaries and luxuries of his daily 
life. Eough as all these raw materials are, they still 
possess a peculiar, poetic charm, and at sight of them one 
recalls all one's old geographical knowledge, and ancient 
history with its tales and fables. 

The custom-house is a land-mark, showing what this 
little country must have been in the days of her power. 
Now, Portugal is even obliged in honour of England to 
discard the ancient, original, patron saint of her army : 
until of late days S. Michael was the commander-in-chief 
of the whole Portuguese force, and on the feast of Corpus 
Christi he marched forth, in the form of a large wooden 
figure, to assume the command in person, and to conduct 


the manoeuvres. But now, as regards being exclusively 
Portuguese, he is persona ingrata ; and St. George, as 
the old English gentleman de predilection, has been 
nominated to the command of the army, in which office he 
appeared on the joyful festival before named, a few days 
prior to my arrival. 

The cemetery, which is an imitation of Pere la Chaise, 
is also shown to strangers as a great sight. The innovators 
in Lisbon have forbidden the higher ranks, with the ex- 
ception of the royal family, to bury in the vaults in the 
churches ; and now every one must be taken to the ceme- 
tery, by which means differences of rank and the os- 
tentation of display have been made much more striking 
to the eye of the Christian : for within the same precincts 
wherein the poor man lies buried like a dog, the rich man 
erects for himself a handsome, luxurious, heathen-like 
temple, very repulsive to one's taste. 

I detest, .these grand cemeteries, which always appear 
to me like dull, artificial, theatrical displays, with their 
hundred monuments which have no harmony with each 
other, and which disturb nay, destroy all one's solemn 
impressions. If poetic feeling pervade not a resting- 
place for the dead, it becomes an object of horror ; and 
instead of devotion and elevation of soul, one can only feel 
disgust. Spots such as this should neither be called 
church -yards nor resting-places (Friedhofe),* for so- 
lemnity and every trace of repose are alike wanting. 
Thus these would be more befitting names : ' Warehouse 
for the dead ; ' or, * Death's arena ; ' * The course for 
corpses ; ' or, * Boulevard des morts.' The places of burial 
of the ancients stand as patterns : the magnificent Campo 
Santo at Pisa, and the incomparable place of sepulture of 
the Turks, where every one, rich and poor alike, finds a grave 
beneath sighing cypresses and plane-trees in whose branches 

* Literally, 'Peace-yard.' T. 

LISBON. 121 

hundreds of turtle-doves pour forth their lament, and 
beneath whose shade those who are left to mourn may give 
themselves over to unmolested grief. In Lisbon's Boule- 
vard des morts, the P. ... family have, by their matchless 
wealth, taken the first rank, and they own a temple in 
which to lay their princely dust. 

One day on which the fog and clouds cleared off and the 
sun shed a genial southern warmth, its light and glow 
lending a charm to the Tagus and to its banks, we dashed 
across the broad stream in our lively little steamer to 
pay a visit to the Otrabanda. We landed at a hamlet 
opposite to the city ; then we took donkeys and roved about 
in the confused country, to which I give this epithet 
because it is half wild, half cultivated, half civilised, half 
in its natural state hilly and level, pretty and ugly just 
as chance has made or left it. We had no plan and no 
special object in view, and therefore rode up and down, 
here and there, in the hollowed-out roads among ever- 
green shrubs, among fields and through villages. We 
were in very high spirits on this occasion ; and amid wild 
shouts of laughter, we practised the legerdemain of Eng- 
lish horsemen. We took leaps when at full gallop ; we 
performed graceful, mimic pantomimes standing on the 
saddle, then stood on two animals at the same time, and 
were rolled over in the dust. Imagine all these antics 
carried on with those noble animals, the quadrupeds o 
the long ears ! 

We availed ourselves of our English appearance to 
indulge, beneath its garb, in all these absurdities on 
Lusitanian soil. However, when we were at lunch beneath 
the fragrant pine-trees, we were nearly faring badly in 
spite of our English looks. It seemed that we had esta- 
blished ourselves on ground by no means neutral ; for 
scarcely had we settled ourselves on the turf when a 
swearing shrew, who was not to be appeased by any sort of 


peace-offering, made her appearance, raging and foaming 
like an unloosed dragon, and threatened (so far as we 
could understand her) to stir up the country people with 
their cudgels to attack our inoffensive party. The situation 
was critical ; for on our side we had only our small num- 
bers against the whole population of the district, and 
moreover not one amongst us was acquainted with the 
Portuguese jargon. Neither had any of us a weapon of 
defence, not even a stick amongst us ; therefore nothing 
remained for us but to adopt the policy of old England, 
that of cold, imposing inflexibility diplomatic deafness. 
There we sat like the deities of Memphis ; and before our 
stony composure, the Lusitanian wrath and ire subsided 
into nothingness ; we finished our lunch in peace ; re- 
mounted our rather overtired animals, and with frigid 
looks of triumph, quitted the scene of excited passion. 

From the semaphore which stands on the lofty shore of 
the Otrabanda, there is a beautiful view of the long, 
extensive, one might almost say never-ending capital : 
bright houses gleam from the verge of the silver flood, far 
up on the verdant range of hills ; glittering domes are 
outlined against the sky ; but that which really gives the 
charm to the picture is that the extensive city, with its 
fortress of Belem, emerges on the left from amid the fog 
on the sea, whilst on the right it is lost in a large bend of 
the Tagus, which is so wide that, like the sea, it meets the 
horizon ; and imagination ever thinks that doubly large of 
which the limits are invisible. The vessels on the Tagus 
enliven and animate the scene; and from this point 
Lisbon makes a favourable, I might even say a grand im- 
pression. Its deficiencies vanish, and its details unite to 
form a great whole. With a fresh and pleasant breeze, 
which raised a gentle swell on the Tagus, we steamed back 
to the city, and landed at the beautiful steps at the Praja 
do Commercio, truly the handsomest/ proudest landing- 
place in all the wide world. 

LISBON. 123 

One of the marvels of Lisbon is that immense aqueduct 
which was erected during the reign of Jose for the benefit 
of the city, and which leaves far behind it all that the 
Romans made of a similar kind. It brings the clear water 
from the distant mountains into a deep, cool reservoir, 
built of colossal masses of freestone, at the entrance of the 
city. A wide, vaulted passage with double pathway, in 
whose cool solitudes one may walk, supports the aqueduct 
for a distance of miles ; windows and doors are pierced in 
various parts of this passage, and all has been arranged at 
lavish expense, and with real, practical skill. If the aque- 
duct be here an object of admiration by reason of its 
length and breadth, it becomes truly one that is bold and 
grand in the valley of Bemfico, where it has to convey the 
water from height to height across a valley of considerable 
depth. Block has been piled upon block, stones joined by 
the hand of a Titan, and arches thrown across which would 
span over church towers, and standing on which men look 
like mere specks, whilst in looking through them one sees 
the landscape like a picture in a Gothic frame. Here, the 
vaulted passage formed of freestone conducts us over the 
gigantic bridge ; on the right and left there is space left 
for two roads, which are guarded by heavy balustrades. 
When standing on this stone arcade, it is easy to under- 
stand that the road is closed to the public in general, to 
prevent suicides ; for if self-murder ever could be rendered 
interesting, it would become so by a leap taken from this 
lofty erection into the green valley beneath. I was 
delighted and filled with enthusiasm by the sight of this 
work, as by everything whereby man proves, through 
enduring monuments, that he is the lord of all the earth, 
and can achieve what he wills. 

Notwithstanding this magnificent aqueduct, water is 
purchased throughout the greater portion of Lisbon. A 
peculiar race of water-carriers, Gallicians, privileged to hold 


this office, have left their native country to supply drinking 
water for sale in this city, which they bring in small kegs. 
The indolent Portuguese are too lazy for this occupation. 
In order to attract customers, these Gallicians utter a pe- 
culiarly disagreeable cry, which they shout forth so as to be 
heard at a distance ; it is * agua au \ ' and these words, 
half screeched, half bawled, resound through the broad 
streets like a robber-signal. That other beverages are 
more grateful to the Portuguese than water is proved by the 
ever recurring notice, * agua, ardente.' This fiery sign of 
enervating intoxication is unhappily to be found every- 
where, wherever one's glance may fall ; as are also the 
more innocent characters B. P. V., a Mene, Tekel, Upharsin, 
whose enigmatical letters are soon explained to the as- 
tonished traveller to be the initials of the delicious buen 
pan vin. 

Peculiarly great also is the love of the Portuguese for tea; 
its strange t name, ' Cha,' one likewise finds frequently 
written up, just as coffee is with us. The disgusting glut- 
tony of the Neapolitans, thank Heaven ! is not found 
here : the Portuguese is decent, except in his propensity 
for dirty streets. Lisbon, notwithstanding some southern 
characteristics, has generally the civilised aspect of a city 
of central Europe ; as the houses with their steep roofs 
approach the German character, and the liveliness of their 
streets is quiet and seemly: one meets well-appointed 
equipages ; sees the fashionable world, attired in exquisite 
Parisian costume, making purchases in the handsome shops, 
which have marble fittings and plate-glass windows ; and 
one sees the common people, unhappily likewise in French 
costume, going quietly about their business. It is true 
that on the freestone quays of the richly-freighted Tagus 
one beholds the stirring life of the marine portion of the 
city, but nowhere does one perceive the accustomed love 
of dress and of finery, the idle restlessness, the wearying, 
theatrical movement of many southern cities ; one could 

LISBON. 125 

almost imagine it possible already to trace something of 
enforced English education, or of mourning for individual- 
ity lost. 

Lisbon is almost too quiet for so large a city in the 
golden Peninsula : perhaps the damp fogs and the draughts 
of wind blowing suddenly so cold, and the heavy dress 
which is thereby rendered necessary (to which the before- 
named round cloaks of the citizen's wives belong), are to 
be blamed for this state of things. Every country, every 
people, has its day ; and the day of Lusitania is past : 
though it is painful to see the national brilliance of the 
people extinguished, yet happily the remembrance of it 
remains ; and the gods themselves bowed to fate. Portugal 
was a splendid, a luxuriant, tropical plant which grew to per- 
fection rapidly, was profuse in its blossom, full of rich sap, 
but short-lived. It was one of those creepers which, spring- 
ing from small seeds, hang upon trees, spread themselves 
with the trees, suck from them the strength of life ; which 
bloom, bear fruit, and then die in the too widely-spread 
arms of their protector. Her colonies formed the strength of 
Portugal : so long as she could draw nutriment from them 
she was rich and luxurious ; now the day of the Liana is 
past ; its outstretched tendrils became parched by the hot 
wind, and only some few sickly leaves are now hanging 
around the pining stem cf the plant. 

Lisbon makes an uncomfortable impression upon a 
foreigner who does not look merely at the surface. The 
decay is too plain, the ignorance and venality of the polit- 
ical actors too apparent ; one sees too clearly how every 
source of help is sealed up, and how no fresh springs are 
created how the country only continues to exist as a 
country because we have once become accustomed to read 
the name of Portugal on the map. I personified the country 
and its inhabitants in my own mind as one dying of the 
dropsy. That which was formerly flesh and solid substance 


is now only a lymphatic enlargement, bringing death ; and 
when once decay steps in, vitality flies, just as the rats quit 
a house before it falls. 

Beneath a gorgeous sunset, which painted the horizon 
with purple and gold, fanned by a fresh sea-breeze, and 
filled with melancholy sensations, I quitted Lisbon and 
her Tagus. Our course lay towards Cadiz, whither our 
swift steamer speedily brought us, and where, as in former 
years, I passed some bright and happy days, and once 
again found our aged consul of eighty-six years old, well 
and cheerful. From hence I hastened through the robber- 
districts in a little vetturino to my beloved Seville for the 
second time, there to feel with my whole heart how mag- 
nificent is Spain, how indescribably lovely her glowing 
Andalusia. Those were days in which fancy gathered food 
to last for a long time, and in which I revelled in that 
happiness only available to us when travelling, and more 
especially in a second and unhoped-for visit to a spot that 
has becom% endeared to us, in which we enjoy doubly all 
that we learned at our first visit to prize, and no longer 
waste our precious time upon objects that are not worthy 
of our attention. 

One evening in particular will ever remain unforgotten 
that which I passed with one friend in the fairy- 
like Alcazar, so fondly loved by me. The moon stood 
full in the deep blue sky, in which the stars were shining 
like diamonds. Heavenly, calm, clear, and peaceful was 
the holy night. Doubly soft and delicate were the outlines 
of the arcades and rows of columns in the sweet, grave 
moonlight, which shed its beams, now glittering on the 
marble courts, now elf-like on the fountains. A blissful, 
awe-inspiring repose reigned in the broad, open halls of the 
Moorish palace, so clearly bright, yet so witchingly veiled 
with shadow. The eye glided from the silent, deserted, 
yet magnificent halls to the sleeping town, to the venerable 


cathedral bathed in the rays of the moon. On pools and 
terraces lay the calm spell of Andalusian night ; softly 
fragrant were the roses, lightly sighed the orange trees, 
and from the ivory cup of the jasmine the silent greeting 
of night pressed forth a delicious perfume in response. 
The watery jets leaped like myriads of playful fairies along 
the flower-beds in sparkling succession, only to dive again 
blithely into the bedewed blossoms, and anon to sparkle 
forth anew in the moonlight, as if coquetting beneath their 
silvery veil in gay jest with the lovely moonbeams. 

Shakespeare dreamed the Midsummer Night's Dream ; 
Mendelssohn heard the echoes of its music and song ; I have 
seen it realized. 





July 4, 1852. 

UNWILLINGLY did we quit fair Cadiz, which rises so brightly 
from the waters of the Mediterranean. We had spent a 
very pleasant time there ; had on the feast of St. Peter 
and St. Paul been present at one of those bull-fights 
which I enjoy so enthusiastically, and at which the amphi- 
theatre had been filled with lovely women ; and had, at 
the alameda, in the airy saloon of Christina, joined the 
grand promenade, where there were so many charming 
ladies and young girls with sparkling black eyes, with 
mantilla, red rose, and fan, that in the most literal sense 
of the word we could not see the foliage of the trees ; and, 
excited, and indeed with hearts set on fire, did not know 
how to give utterance to our admiration. 

Still fresh in memory was poetic Seville, my favourite 
city in Spain, which I had again visited for a second time, 
and now we must traverse the ocean in our dirty, weari- 
some steamer for the sake of a small island, little spoken 
of in our country. But fate must needs be obeyed; and 
with heavy hearts, still intoxicated with the attractions of 
Spain, still filled with yearnings for Spain, we weighed 
anchor on June 30, and steamed out to sea in a depressed 
mood. For four days and nights we rolled about on the 
waves of the Atlantic, a prey to spleen, owing to the heat, 
steam, and coal-dust: at last, on July 4, when I went on 
deck at daybreak, a spell was thrown over me. Before 
me, beneath the glorious splendour of the tropical sun, on 



the blue of the gleaming wavs, surrounded by pure and 
balmy breezes, lay a large island with deep purple-tinted 
basalt-cliffs, and possessing the bright verdure of spring 
a picture of enrapturing power, which filled the excited soul 
with ecstasy. There was a heavenly purity in the scene, 
and the air was saturated with perfume, the atmosphere 
was supernaturally clear, as though the soul were gazing 
with the eyes of an unfettered spirit ; the air played grate- 
fully upon one's uncovered breast, one felt the near ap- 
proach of a Paradise, of a new world. The Germans and 
French have each a word in their language which seems 
to have been created for Madeira, * Schmelz ' and * eclat ; ' 
one feels the full signification of these words for the first 
time when lying at anchor in the roads of Funchal, the 
capital of this island. Up to the bold, proud, basalt rocks, 
all is green as in May ; and upon this verdure are 
houses and countless villas surrounded by flowers strewn 
exquisite^" like pearls : up to the imposing height 
on which the church of Nostra Senora de Monte is en- 
throned, the friendly houses smile upon us, peeping forth 
from amid their oaks or rich Italian chestnuts : whilst the 
shore, glistening with the pearly drops of spray, is covered 
with fantastic rocks, with masses of picturesque-coloured 
stone, with magnificent oleanders, with geraniums and a 
thousand unknown flowering shrubs, and also with broad- 
leaved bananas and slender architecturally-beautiful palms. 
The small but clean town is commanded by a fort; a 
second fort on the right wing of the arena-shaped picture 
crowns a rock of black basalt, which rises from the sea ; at 
this point, where we landed from our boat, we were 
suddenly transported into the Elysium of flowers, which 
greeted us on all sides with the joyous smiles of Xature. 
I have travelled a great deal about the world, but have 
never beheld anything like this. I have plucked the 
Alpine rose on the glowing glacier, I have sped on my 


bold Arab through the cypress groves of Smyrna, have 
gathered the blooming oleander on the blue, foaming gulf 
of Lepanto, have rocked myself on the azure waves of the 
grotto of Capri, have stolen the rose from the magic 
garden of the Alhambra ; but here I found all these 
treasures of Nature united, and also a something more, 
inexplicable even to myself, which rendered Madeira an 
earthly paradise to me ; whether it were the pure crystal air 
in which every breath became a sip of bliss, or the thou- 
sand magic perfections of the flowers and their all- 
pervading fragrance, amid the freshness of eternal spring, 
which even in July surpasses that of our May, or the 
equable climate, which is ever, day and night, bright and 
exhilarating, ever mild and witching, I know not ; but 
this I do know, that here existence was doubly a delight, 
that here I revelled in unceasing enjoyment, and should 
deem it a tranquil happiness like that of heaven to possess 
a property in this island. The vegetation of the whole 
wide world has made its home in Madeira in rich profusion ; 
the bright oak forests of the north, its waving ferns and 
its fragrant woodbine ; the chestnuts and oranges of Italy ; 
the gorgeous camelias of China, the coffee of Arabia, which 
I for the first time saw gathered in large quantities ; the 
delicious pine-apple of America, likewise the first which I 
had seen growing in the open air; her bananas, always 
laden with fruit ; together with a hundred other rare, 
bright and blooming plants, which with us are only to be 
seen in a pining condition in the hothouses of palaces, but 
which are here indigenous ; and in addition, what delicious 
grapes ! And therefore I maintain that when nature saw 
how men wearied themselves to bring together the vege- 
tation of the whole earth into gardens which they called 
botanic, she created Madeira, to show to the world who 
wished to interfere with the works of her hands that the 
Great Creator was wiser than they ; wherefore Madeira has 


been truly found to be the garden of the Lord, im- 
measurably above all other Edens. 

Our first visit was paid to the Austrian Consul, Herr von 
Bianchi, cousin of Field-Marshal Bianchi, Duke of Casa- 
lanza; an amiable old gentleman who, in the society of his 
admirable wife and surrounded by a circle of blooming 
children now grown up, presents the very ideal of patriarchal 
life. In his garden, which lies immediately on the basalt 
rock like a terrace, stand his two villas looking as if they 
were half buried in a natural basket of flowers. Oleanders, 
coffee-plants, palms, orange-trees, bananas, vines, roses, 
carnations, aromatic-scented creepers, and all else that is 
rich in colour and fragrance, mingled in luxuriant profu- 
sion, and, broken in upon by leafy bowers, surround the 
cheerful dwellings and their airy terraces. From the 
midst of this exuberant tropical vegetation, the white and 
red banner waved to us a calm yet proud welcome. The 
little house, brilliant in its pure white and in its cleanliness, 
plain but Comfortable, as befitting a prosperous merchant, 
was prepared for our use ; and lunch, with tropical fruits, 
new dainties in a. great measure to me, was awaiting us. 
We then hastened to the town to seek some church where 
we might attend mass, this being Sunday. Clean, pretty 
Funchal possesses one-storied houses adorned with green 
jalousies and balconies: it reminds me partly of a watering 
place, partly of the towns of South America, and gives one 
the simple home-like impression of a calm, unexcitable 
company taking their pleasure on the young May grass. 
It has undeniably assumed something of the type of an 
English colony, especially in regard to cleanliness and 
comfort. Indeed, numbers of English frequent Funchal, 
especially in the winter season, that they may gain 
strength for their threatened lungs in that mild climate. 
Owing to the quiet mode of life of the invalids the town has 
taken a tranquil, peaceful character. But healthy English- 


men also would like to open a rich fountain for their purses ; 
and who would not desire to see this country, which more- 
over, like Lucca in Italy, is the pleasure-ground of the earth, 
improved in every way under the wise sceptre of England ? 
England, that has transformed the Ionian Isles into a para- 
dise, whilst under the Portuguese administration, which is 
bad in every respect, nothing here yields any profit, not- 
withstanding the natural wealth of the island, itself be- 
come a nonentity. In considering the peculiarities of Ma- 
deira, I must give the first place among my remarks to that 
which is of secondary importance, namely to the covering 
worn upon the head, because it is the most remarkable 
thing I ever beheld in the way of dress. It is a cap of the 
size of the inner part of the hand, scarlet inside, dark blue 
on the outside, which runs up to a long sharp point like 
a lightning conductor, and sits on the middle of the head 
like a funnel turned over: it might pass as a creation of 
Southern caprice at the carnival time, but certainly not 
as a portion of national dress. It is particularly unmean- 
ing in a country in which the sun possesses such power. 
Old and young appear alike with the blue horn of cloth, 
a foot long, upon their heads, walking and running in sun- 
shine and rain ; and strangers can but be astonished that 
the people do not laugh in each other's faces. Never does 
one of these little caps lose its balance, though the peasants 
wear them while at their labour ; they seem as if they were 
born with the natives of Madeira, and give them a Chinese 
appearance which is rendered quite complete by their broad, 
yellow, ugly faces. The people maintain that the sharp 
peak concentrates the rays of the sun and prevents them 
from being injurious, after the plan of a lightning conduc- 
tor. Why should the natives of Madeira be so hideous ? 
Amid so many beauties of nature these wide mulatto faces 
really disturb one. How different would all be if Spaniards 
were domesticated here ! 


The means of locomotion also form another wonder of 
the island : they consist of palanquins, hammocks, and 
sledges. Later on, I shall have occasion to speak of these 
again, and to describe them from my own tested experience. 
However, the best mode of travelling in this hilly country 
is to ride the English horses which one can hire, and 
which are generally as sure-footed as they are capable of 

We took advantage of them, when mass was finished, to 
make an excursion into the mountains with the sons of 
our kind-hearted consul. Passing between pretty garden 
walks overhung with clusters of grapes and with flowers, 
we soon reached a rather steep road, bordered by fresh, 
clear water, which led up to a considerable height, and 
into a cool, dark, oak wood, through which a cascade, 
fringed with rich, luxuriant vegetation, was foaming, and 
in which, near to the church of Nostra Senora de Monte, 
the villa of Mrs. Grordon is situated. Surrounded by oaks 
which give a pleasant shade, and by a lovely garden, 
stands the cheerful house, which is built on one floor, at 
a height of 800 feet above the level of the sea, and which 
is redolent with the cool, still repose of northern life ; 
both vegetation and climate generally improve according 
to the height, yet are nowhere marred either by cold or 
by excessive heat. In this shady grove of oaks one might 
fancy oneself in England, but a camelia tree which in July 
is still in bloom, a real tree, with a thick stem and luxuriant 
crown, shows us that this is a tropical England. The 
house in which cordial Mrs. Grordon, with her pretty 
daughter and very pretty niece, received us, is arranged 
with all that comfort and that costly simplicity which is 
peculiar to this practical nation above all others ; it must 
indeed be a very lovely retreat, and soothing to the spirit, 
since Mrs. Grordon would have lived here for more than 
twenty years in unalloyed happiness but for the loss of 


her husband. She came hither with him on account of 
an affection of his chest. Mr. Gordon built this charming 
villa, and was the first person in this country to plant the 
oak, that has thriven so well in the beautiful park which 
his family have never quitted. Like almost all of his 
nation whom we meet when travelling, he was an original; 
and the objects of his constant care and of his pride were 
two monstrous pigs, which he fed up to an unnatural 
size. These animals were kept at the villa like idols, and 
two cows were kept on purpose to provide them with milk. 
I, as I am especially in pursuit of such originalities, com- 
missioned the son of the consul to search diplomatically 
for one of these favoured members of the porcine tribe, 
for it would have delighted me to have seen one. But 
the young man was no shrewd diplomatist; he asked 
young Gordon point-blank for the object of my curiosity. 
The amiable Englishman was perhaps wounded at seeing 
the eccentricity of his father turned into ridicule : he 
coloured, gave evasive replies ; and at last, driven into a 
corner, declared that the last of the animals had died a 
short time ago, which I naturally, and especially when 
enlightened by what occurred afterwards, did not believe. 
In its stead, we enjoyed the magnificent view over the side 
of the mountain, dotted with villas and gardens, over the 
cheerful town half veiled in green, over the lively roadstead 
and the blue ocean. The panoramic picture which, il- 
lumined by the sun, we beheld from these heights over- 
shadowed with oaks and raised nearly 1000 feet above 
the sea, is printed ineffaceably on my memory. Happy 
are they to whom it is appointed daily to enjoy such 
beauties, and to enjoy them in calm repose; they ought 
to be rich in poetic emotions, and their minds ought to be 
refined by a life spent with nature in her splendour. But 
how does this accord with the owner's mania for pigs, 
animals which are certainly not quite in their place here, 


however jovial and charming they may be ! Cavaliere de 
Camera, a genial young man, who has travelled much, 
whose ancestor was Captain and Donatario of Funchal in 
the year 1566, who is one of the most considerable landed 
proprietors in the island, here joined our company, in 
order, with the courtesy belonging to the south, to show 
us his villa and large park. Our path lay at first through 
a steep road, from which the church mentioned before 
looked forth cheeringly. In its luxuriant freshness, the 
wood reminded me of Heimbach and Dornbach; further 
on, the road loses itself in the declivity of a romantic and 
richly overgrown rocky ravine, in whose depths rests the 
stony bed of a mountain torrent ; the path then becomes 
narrower and narrower, and in many places is even dan- 
gerous, but also highly picturesque. 

As the country which we traversed had at the outset 
resembled my loved native land, so here it assumed more 
of the mountainous character of Greece ; yet in a greener 
and more cheerful garb ; and it recalled to my mind a day 
likewise never to be forgotten in my Ahasuerus-Kke life, 
namely, that of an interesting excursion to the border- 
fortress of Phile in company with the amiable and intel- 
lectual Queen Regent. A little fir wood at the entrance 
to the park again marked the transition to the vegeta- 
tion of a northern spring, which within we found in com- 
plete masses and in its richest splendour. The park is 
so large that it serves as a chase for deer ; its foliage 
varies between that of pine woods and woods of broad- 
leaved trees : in the centre stands the modest cottage, 
bnilt on one floor, with a pleasure ground filled with 
flowers and rare plants. In front of the airy windows, 
which look upon a verandah, richly plumaged fancy-birds 
from the African colonies of Portugal hang in pretty cages. 
In this little aviary I saw a small bird, which surpassed by far 
all the fancy-birds on Chinese and Indian fans and carpets. 


It gleamed with soft colours of apple-green, rosy-red, and 
yellow; was neither parrot, nor dove, nor lapwing; but 
had something in common with each of them : its head in 
particular was remarkable, with its tuft and beak ; and it 
reminded one of a chameleon. It was only when the bird 
spread its wings, and extended its beak, that one could 
perceive the full radiance of its hues. I had never seen 
its equal, and no one could tell me the name and species 
of the little creature. On our return, we refreshed our- 
selves with a bath, and partook of a cheerful repast, at 
which the excellent wine of the country was merrily 
broached in true sailor fashion. 

July 5, 1852. 

Morning found us at the villa of the amiable Herr 
Bianchi: the sun shone with the golden light of the 
tropics. Two large oleanders, whose wide-spreading 
branches were completely covered with blossom and hung 
over the white garden walls like immense bouquets, filled 
the air with their fragrance. For a long time we supposed 
that the delicious perfume came from the homely lime- 
trees ; but we were informed that the blossom of the 
oleander when in masses, in this climate, strikingly resem- 
bles the lime-blossom in scent. Thus at every step in this 
lovely island one becomes acquainted with new riches of 
nature, and enraptured with the wondrous charms of this 
sea-girt paradise. We again devoted the day to an 
excursion on horseback : our road conducted us by the 
sea-shore, among villas, on the basalt walls of which, 
innumerable iron-grey lizards were sunning themselves ; 
and through rich vineyards, to the picturesque bed of the 
Soccoridos, which has cleft the lofty masses of basalt, and 
has hollowed out for itself a deep channel to the ocean. 
But these basalt walls are clad luxuriantly with the fresh 
green of the vine, and with the proud rich leaves of the 


banana which here makes its chief abode, and which forms, 
together with the intermingling vines over the dark violet 
ground of the rock, the most delightful bowers and shady 
nooks as one ascends step by step, from point to point. 
These walls of rock, fantastic in their shape, lovely in 
their living verdure, impart to this wondrous land a 
peculiar charm, uniting the bold scenery of Switzerland 
with the loveliness of Italy and with the exuberant growth 
of nature in South America. An Alpine, but as here there 
are no carriages, a narrow bridge is thrown across the 
valley, which reminds one of the grass-covered blocks of 
lava below the hermitage on Vesuvius : the bowers of 
vines, beneath whose rich shade we were now climbing 
towards the opposite side of the mountain, transported me 
in thought to the districts of Meran, that jewel of the 

At the door of a parsonage 'the kind proprietor was 
standing, and he invited us to dismount and to partake of 
some refreshments in his clean abode. We rested for a 
little while with the benevolent man, but declined the 
lunch with thanks. We were soon riding among the 
shades of a splendid wood of chestnuts, beneath which was 
an undergrowth of German honeysuckles and ferns. From 
the declivity of another mountain, we looked down amid 
the dark sea of rustling leaves into a real German, wooded 
valley which reminded me of Heimbach ; to an Austrian 
heart its green foliage whispered reviving words of home 
and of love. In the midst of this lonely solitude stands 
the villa of the former English Consul, the solitary house 
in this extensive scene of repose. At the entrance to the 
garden a cool stream wells forth from between the blocks 
of rock beneath the high leafy arches, over which leads a 
rustic bridge. Such a quinta, secluded from all the world 
and yet containing a whole world of tranquil happiness 
within itself, standing on an island amid a sea of foliage, 


and that again on an island in the midst of the ocean, to 
possess such an one is that for which my heart yearns ; 
and even if in this forest Elysium perfect happiness could 
not be found (since that does not make its home on earth) 
yet such an Eden could not fail to soothe suffering. It 
was the lot of the fortunate Englishman to find it and to 
beautify it: such persons as he, who wander throughout 
the world and pitch their tent in the east or west, north or 
south, as they please, and who are independent and free of 
the country in which they were born, create for them- 
selves a world in accordance with their own tastes and 
means, place themselves therein as its centre, and yet 
never forget their fatherland : on the contrary they en- 
large it by their new conquest, in which Old England 
exists just as truly as in the island-kingdom herself. A 
longer residence in Madeira is now one of my dreams, and 
then I may select my house, and there sing my lays and 
rejoice with all my heart in the green woods. 

On this occasion we could not obtain admittance here, 
as the entrance to the garden is not open to strangers. 
We proceeded on our way, which brought us ere long, at 
the end of the wood, to a steep meadow which formed the 
ascent to the lofty ridge of hills. Cows were grazing on 
the short mountain grass, watched by shepherds and 
shepherdesses ; and again I thought of home and its high 
Alpine pastures, and it seemed to me as though I were 
joyously ascending to the mountain summits of Upper 
Austria ; but the sight of the men with their peaked caps, 
white spensers, and trowsers, quickly dispelled the dream. 
A new marvel was visible upon the crest of the moun- 
tain bare of trees ; I stood' as though on a tribune, free 
in the pure ether ; on my right the lofty cones of basalt 
reared themselves to the clouds, among them the proud 
Pic di Eiccio, as king of the island. Like pointed blue 
pyramids, like portions of a stupendous unravelled mystery 


of nature, unfettered and bold in their majesty, more fully 
developed than our heavy mountains, they pressed their 
way up to the glowing zenith : these peaks of dark 
volcanic basalt are among mountains as the palm among 
trees, while our mighty Alps are like the oaks and firs. 
Before us, at a dizzy depth and almost entirely surrounded 
by lofty perpendicular walls of some 4000 feet in height, 
lay at the foot of the gigantic basalt fortress the smiling 
valley of Curraldas with its attractive charms, like a distant 
and beautiful world. Filled with blissful yearnings, one 
wished for wings wherewith to fly down to the fresh, green 
depths of the sunlit valley. 

The scarp with its steep precipices resembles the crater 
of Vesuvius, except that at its foot one sees bright smiling 
life, instead of the fields of sulphur which breathe death ; 
golden sunshine instead of flames ; instead of clouds of 
smoke the play of balmy air dancing in the blue ether. 
On the right the ocean and the fertile shores of Funchal 
meet the eye. Many will think it absurd that I ordered 
a block of basalt, destined to be the foundation of my 
long-meditated Tusculum, to be brought to the town by 
some of the numerous guides who pressed themselves upon 
us, and wished to assist us over the slippery Alpine grass : 
the scene of this retreat I had a short time ago fixed upon 
in my mind at home : the laying of its foundation stone 
had been appointed for to-morrow as the day on which I 
should attain my majority : but the ocean now separated 
me from my fatherland, and thus I selected my stone from 
this heaven-blessed earthly paradise as the foundation of 
my own little individual Elysium. 

At the foot of a green hill, beneath the shade of an old 
oak, we took up our quarters on the grass ; and, thanks to 
the foresight of the amiable consul, and of his youngest 
son, who had accompanied us, we partook of an invigorating 
repast, at which the wine of the island played a principal 


part and made amends for water. During our meal, to 
the most amusingly-expressed horror of my friends, I 
enticed some shepherd-boys to me, handsome children, 
but dressed in nothing besides their shirts, who revelled 
in the utmost profusion of dirt, and I gave them scraps 
from our refreshments, caressing them in spite of the ex- 
clamations of my companions. The handsomest of these 
boys returned several times, and always carried his 
treasures to a very pretty young mother or sister who wore 
a red Capuchin cloak like the women of Gibraltar, with 
a yellow and blue dress, and whose large black eyes and 
tangled, raven hair made her resemble a genuine, wild child 
of the mountains. She was the first and the only really 
handsome native of Madeira th;if I met. 

Elated by the delicious juice of the grape, and by all the 
beauties that we had beheld on this day, we galloped our 
excellent horses through the cool woods and groves back 
to Funchal ; and throughout my whole life, I shall re- 
member with gratitude this delightful day, which proved 
the prelude to the festivities of the morrow. 

6th July, 1852. 

I had scarce opened my eyes, when the sweet tones of 
our national hymn sounded in my ears, and suggested 
solemn thoughts to my mind on my entrance into my 
twenty-first year. This was a kind surprise on the part of 
our courteous consul, who inaugurated the day with this 
grandest hymn of noble Austria. I was twenty years of 
age, and had arrived at an important period of my 
life ; notwithstanding my youth, many grave and solemn 
thoughts dwelt in my mind on that morning. Externally, 
the attainment of my majority would cause but little 
change in my life ; as before it, I was already, so far as 
my position would allow, my own master ; and even in 
material points had not been fettered by the usual 
restrictions upon minors. If there be any prophetic 


warning in the manner in which one's birthday is spent, 
then the year to come will indeed be gay, bright, and free 
from care; for never did I pass this anniversary in so 
joyous and so enchnnting a manner. Quite early in the 
morning I escaped with a circle of friends from the ship, 
so as to avoid all ceremonies and to spend the day as 
travellers in country fashion. Our destination on this day 
was the eastern side of the island ; first we went through 
the town, then up the heights to the villa district, where 
we dismounted for a few moments at the villa belonging 
to the brother of our consul, a wealthy wine-merchant. It 
is a simple, but very comfortable and clean house in the 
Anglo-American style, bearing the impress of sailor life, as 
Marryat describes it ; luxuriantly covered with flowers 
and creepers ; it has secluded, cool, and shady rooms and a 
splendid view of Funchal and its roadstead. In a vine- 
yard with numberless bowers, I already on this day tasted 
grapes that were almost ripe. This villa is, like most in 
this country, delightfully quiet. We quickly reached the 
heights, and passed by the shaded park of De Camera-along 
the higher slope of the mountain. Here the country wore 
a very northern aspect : extensive declivities covered with 
short herbage, hardly any trees, or only fir trees, low bushes, 
and a tone of colour on the hills, which were for the most 
part round, that vividly recalled Scotland, with which the 
grey day and cool air accorded well : yet some few flowers, 
which with us will only flourish in a conservatory, re- 
minded us that we were in the tropics. However, on 
these melancholy but interesting slopes, the inhabitants of 
which one imagines to be the lordly deer, and through 
which in our lively mood we rode almost train de chasse, 
Bianchi's brother owns a villa surrounded by young 
plantations of fir, in the English style, with good fire-places 
and sporting pictures, in which he gave us a genuine 
English lunch, very acceptable after our long ride. 


This dwelling, with its view of the heath-clad hill, over 
which the sea-breeze sighs among the low shrubs, seems 
as if created for a melancholy spirit wandering with the 
harp of Osfeian, or for a pair of lovers. On moon-light 
nights, when the wind blows the silvery side of the leaves 
upmost so that they float in the air and gleam like elves in 
white, and when the waves of ocean raise their foaming 
crests like phantoms to vanish again in the dark infinite 
space below, then in the lonely villa, all may be either 
awful or blissful, according as one may wander out in the 
keen, ocean wind sighing in ^Eolian strains, or press closely 
to the side of the loved one by the bright, crackling fire. 

Here I first made acquaintance with the very delicious 
coffee grown in the island, which I prefer to that of Mocha, 
and sipped with feelings of genuine satisfaction. At the 

same time I thought of my dear friend Countess S 

who deems coffee to have been the nectar of the gods, and 
I brought away a pound of it for her. Alas ! my delicate 
attention was lost ; since my servant, or perhaps some sailor, 
also discovered the excellence of this nectar, in the course 
of the voyage. 

Invigorated, we proceeded on our expedition at a brisk 
canter, and sped through low brushwood of evergreens up 
a hill where our road suddenly terminated at a semi-circular 
parapet : far below us lay the valley of Majico extending 
to the sea, a most exquisite spot of earth, such as one might 
suppose Satan to have selected to show to our Lord and 
Master from the top of the mountain in the Temptation. 

The point on which we stood was so isolated that it was 
as though we were looking down from a balloon, the country 
was green and golden as in Austria. Favoured island, 
that can produce a sample of all that is beautiful in every 
quarter of the world, as in a much-prized album ! And still 
more favoured, they to whom it is granted to turn over the 
leaves of this album ! 



From the mountain balcony, shaped like a horse-shoe, 
on which we were standing, we could see on the ocean to 
the left, the Desertas, barren islands of rock, picturesque in 
form, which bear so deceptive a resemblance to a ship in 
full sail, that for a long time I could not understand why 
it remained motionless whilst the other ships were carried 
on by the breeze. 

In a small church in the valley at our feet, the bones of 
Eobert Machin and of his bride, the first European inha- 
bitants of this island, are said to repose. In the fourteenth 
century, in the reign of Edward III. of England, a noble- 
man named Kobert Machin, became enamoured* of the 
high-born and beautiful Lady Anna d'Arfet. After some 
time, the relatives of Anna, who were offended that one so 
much her inferior should have aspired to the hand of the 
Lady Anna, succeeded in causing Robert to be imprisoned, 
whilst Anna was compelled to give her hand to a man of 
equal rank with herself, whom she accompanied to his castle 
at Bristol, Eobert escaped from prison and induced the 
lady of his love to fly with him to France. But after a 
long period of danger, a storm cast them on a distant shore. 

They ascended inland, and found that it was an en- 
chanting paradise ; but when they returned to the shore, 
a storm had driven the ship out to sea. Anna d'Arfet died 
in Madeira of a broken heart, and her faithful Robert soon 
followed her, requesting that he might be laid in the same 
grave with her whom he loved. It is said that the sur- 
vivors on board the ship contrived afterwards to reach 
home in some way, and reported the discovery of the new 
island. Such is the tradition ; but it is quite incompre- 
hensible why Anna should have died of a broken heart 
after she had reached this Elysium with her lover. Hist- 
ory, however, says that Madeira was discovered in the 
palmy days of Portugal, in the year 1419. by Juan Gon- 
salves de Camara, surnamed Zargo on account of a defect 


in his eyes, and by Tristan Vaz Taxeira, under the aus- 
pices of Henry the Conqueror, son of King John I. ; but 
Porto Santo, a bleak island near Madeira, had been al- 
ready discovered a year before by Bartolomeo Perestrello, 
an Italian, who assumed the government of the island, and 
whose daughter Philippa married Christopher Columbus. 

Columbus lived for some time in Porto Santo and is 
said to have visited Madeira frequently on trading busi- 
ness. Madeira was divided by King John between its 
two discoverers: but in the year 1540, these hereditary 
tenures from the State lapsed again to the crown, owing to 
a want of heirs. The island is said to have been unin- 
habited at the time of its discovery, and to have been cov- 
ered with a primeval forest : whence its name Madeira 
wood. The Portuguese burned down the old forests, and 
thereby obtained, as it is said, the splendid and fertile 
soil for their cultivation of the vine of ancient fame, which 
long formed the only considerable trade of the island : 
but since the English have taken such a fancy for sherry, 
and more especially since the terribly prevalent disease 
among the grapes during the last few years, this source of 
wealth has been on the decline. The basalt rocks, and 
the numerous conical hills and craters, betoken a volcanic 
origin. On October 3, 1566, one thousand Huguenots 
from Eochelle made an invasion into this then flourishing 
island, which they devastated and plundered during a 
period of sixteen days. They then sailed away in eight 
galloons, laden with treasures. In 1801 and 1807, during 
the wars with France, Madeira was occupied by the En- 
glish, but was given back to the Portuguese in 1814. 
England has, however, always kept an eye upon this 
blooming island, which is now completely neglected by its 
own government, as are all the colonies of Portugal, her- 
self a prey to such continual revolutions. Notwith- 
standing the luxuriance of nature, the people are poor and 

L 2 


wretched, since no one cares for them, and they are rapidly 
hurrying to destruction ; it is also said, that it is not uncom- 
mon for children to be stolen and sent to America, which 
certainly throws a strong light on the state of the adminis- 
tration. The island numbers 114,000 souls on twenty- 
five square miles : but the population is on the decrease. 
Funchal was elevated to the rank of a city in 1500, and con- 
tains 28,653 inhabitants. This was almost all the historical 
and statistical information that I could collect regarding 
the island. Now, therefore, we return to our excursion. 

Over a rough stony slope, we rode beside a stream, down 
to the sea, and then along the shore to Santa Cruz (pro- 
nounced in guttural Portuguese ' Krosch ' ), our mid-day 
halting-place : we hailed it with great satisfaction, for we 
were tired and heated after a ride of between five and six 
hours' duration. Here we rested in a small, comfortable, 
country inn, shaded and surrounded by creepers and lofty 
walnut-trees, whilst from a broad terrace we looked down 
upon the fcaming surf of the ocean. I reclined in an easy 
chair, with the ' Illustrated London News' in my hand, and 
enjoyed the refreshing sensations of Sybaritic repose. I 
rank this dolce far niente mood in the warm, sunny south, 
when consequent upon the full conviction of having spent 
the morning well, and of having seen what but few are 
allowed to see, to be indisputably one of the greatest en- 
joyments of life. To-day I revelled in it to the full; it is 
like taking a siesta, enlivened by pleasant dreams, after a 
rich, intellectual feast. There is great wisdom, unfor- 
tunately only too little practised, in interspersing these 
periods of rest in some beautiful spot, among the rambles 
and journeys of a tour : if neglected, the result is often a 
severe attack of indigestion, which producesmost unpleasant 
consequences. When I was rested, an admirable pastime 
was suggested for the merry company (whose leader only 
on this dav numbered his twentieth year), in a sort of 


exercise ground in which were a swing and other arrange- 
ments for athletic amusements. As we had still to wait 
for our commander, and for the doctor, who were not to 
leave Funchal until noon, we occupied the time in prac- 
tising exercises amid shouts of laughter and merry jokes at 
the little mischances inevitable in such experiments in 
gymnastics. We gave ourselves up to the amusement 
with the wildness of children who celebrate a holiday in 
their playground. Time went on, and still our commander 
did not show himself. True, he had often told us of his 
equestrian exploits in England, but none of us had ever 
seen him on horseback, and we began seriously to fear 
that some accident had happened to him : moreover we 
were longing for our dinner. At last we descried the 
doctor, in a state of extreme heat, galloping towards Santa 
Cruz, and now believed it certain that some misfortune 
had happened. Red as a poppy, and chuckling to himself, 
he however announced to us that the commander was quite 
well, or rather that he was not at all well, and could not 
stir from the place where he was, on account of extreme 
fatigue from the unwonted exercise of riding. Alarm was 
now changed into unbounded hilarity, and we waited with 
merry eagerness for the martyr of the day, who, on account 
of this being my birth-day, had made up his mind to be 
present at this dinner of July 6. At last the cry re- 
sounded from the ramparts, 'the commander! the com- 
mander ! ' And assuredly he it was, who (unsuspicious of 
the treachery of the doctor), presenting himself before us 
for the first time in the character of an equestrian, was ad- 
vancing at an uneasy gallop, and making wry smiles. On 
dismounting, all flexibility of limb had left him, and the 
worthy man stood like an irnmoveable figure, with his legs 
apart as though still on horseback, and unable to move 
either knee or muscle ; he might still be standing there at 
Santa Cruz if we had not taken pity upon him, and placed 


him in an armchair. We seated ourselves at the table in 
a gay, mirthful mood. There are certain objects which 
are to be found in every part of the globe, and here on 
this island, in the midst of the ocean, we perceived that 
our dining hall was adornd with the familiar plaster 
figures which the Lucchese boys at the castle-gate carry 
about on their heads, and from which a boy reading, and 
one writing, are never absent. I should never have ima- 
gined that these light and fragile goods could have been 
brought to Madeira. After dinner, champagne, the key 
of wit and the source of humour, which had already 
played a principal part at our repast, incited us to many 
extravagant amusements, which occasioned positions more 
comic to those who looked on than to those who took part 
in them. 

Only with the approach of evening did we begin to 
think of returning : as we mounted our refreshed horses, 
an old woman who looked dismal beyond description 
stood before us ; her complexion was dark, she was dressed 
in rags, and a pair of keen, penetrating, black eyes 
gleamed forth from beneath her dishevelled, grey hair. 
The remembrance of the evil-eye came over us with a 
cold shudder, and I quickly made my salutation to the 
black beggar-woman; whilst the commander, with rash 
generosity, gave her a bright dollar, with the object of 
inducing her to quit our path ; she laaghed jeeringly and 
suddenly vanished behind a wall. But the eye of the witch 
took effect, and on our way home all manner of misfor- 
tunes occurred. Fate was particularly harsh towards the 
commander. As he protested that he was altogether 
unable to ride any further, and was really in a pitiable 
plight, a hammock was procured, in which, it being sus- 
pended from a bamboo pole, those suffering from lung 
complaints are, according to the custom of the country, 
carried out to take the air : in this the commander WE 


placed^ and was carried by four men up hill and down 
dale, along the fearful road towards Funchal. 

It was no easy task to transport the stout gentleman 
over such ground on a pitch-dark night. After two hours 
of severe toil, the bearers at length declared that on no 
terms could they carry their load any further. The 
situation was critical, and the good man who had been 
travelling so comfortably, and had been so gently rocked, 
was obliged again to mount his horse. After falling off five 
times, he decided that riding was quite out of the question. 
His position was almost desperate ; in the midst of these 
island people who refused their assistance, half beside 
himself with the miseries of the day, enveloped in the 
darkness of night, in an unknown and rocky country. 
A new ray of light at length appeared for him in the form 
of a hammock belonging to the clergyman of the village. 
Once more lifted in mid-air, he reached Funchal again 
about one o'clock, at which hour we had long been peace- 
fully dreaming of the past day, which will afford us food 
for mirth for a long time to come. 

But we also, who rashly rode in the dark, were obliged 
to pay toll to the witch ; for my horse fell on a bridge 
paved with stone. That we did not break our necks on 
this really frightful mountain road is a miracle, and may 
certainly be ascribed to that good fortune which never 
deserts the brave. 

July 7, 1852. 

To-day we again ascended the heights of Nostra Sefiora 
de Monte, by paths gaily adorned ; for in the course of 
the morning, a processipn was to march through the 
country to implore Heaven to avert the new national 
calamity, the disease in the vines, so detrimental to 
Madeira. Branches of green, and flowers, enhanced the 
attractions of lovely nature ; while groups of people dressed 


in their Sunday clothes gazed down from among the 
bowers of vine leaves on the garden walls, full of expecta- 
tion. The morning was splendid, the sun shone, and our 
ride was particularly delightful. Madeira, fair daughter 
of the ocean, caused ever-increasing aspirations to fill our 
bosoms, twining herself around them with growing warmth 
of affection : thus a secret melancholy was already begin- 
ing to steal over our souls because our acquaintance with 
this beauteous island could but be a fleeting, and not a 
lasting, intercourse. 

I thought silently to myself that if I had known Madeira 
before 1848, I should have known where to find for my- 
self in extremis a peaceful retreat from all the world. We 
did not enter the church, which is surrounded by woods 
and was now gaily dressed, because I avoid crowds ; but 
spent the time until the procession should pass, in visiting 
a little villa likewise the property of our consul, which was 
near by ; and in its immediate vicinity I found an oppor- 
tunity of seeing the house, hut, or stable, whichever I 
may call it,*>f a peasant of this country: low walls com- 
posed of rough stones, piled up confusedly, are covered 
with decaying straw twisted into the shape of cones; the 
interior is a black, smoke-filled space, for the hole which 
forms the entrance serves also as the window and as the 
outlet for the smoke : on the bare earth, man and beast 
live together in harmony ; one might fancy oneself trans- 
ported to the South Sea islands, and could never imagine 
oneself in the neighbourhood of civilised villas. I have 
never beheld such dwellings, except among the rocky hills 
of Dalmatia or on the borders of Turkey and Montenegro. 

When the procession began, we hastened to the prox- 
imity of the church. Amid the long train of torch -bearers, 
gentry, musicians, and all that belong to such ceremonials, 
the penitents were to us the most novel and interesting , 
a party of men, attired in garments of brown or bluish 


grey (in cut like those of the Italian brotherhoods) with 
long robes and covered face, unrecognised, but objects of 
public admiration, were making a pilgrimage of from five 
to six hours' duration, in the burning heat of the sun, in 
atonement for their own sins, and also for the public weal ; 
whilst they increased the fatigues of the way by various 
tortures to which they subjected themselves. Thus we saw 
one couple who were fastened together by iron rings forged 
round one foot of each ; others walked in fetters; another 
wore a crown of thorns ; another carried a heavy bar of 
iron which lay across his back and passed under his arms ; 
another bore a cross ; another a heavy ring round his body, 
whilst the most devout penitent scourged himself on the 
naked shoulders, which swelled beneath the stripes. When 
this last appeared, a woman near me uttered a cry of woe ; 
amid her sobbings, she told the bystanders with grief and 
pride that this was a relation of her own. This scene, 
together with the sounds of the music and the clinking of 
the chains, caused a peculiar and striking impression of 
horror, and carried one back to the commencement of the 
middle ages. Every shrouded figure became* the more 
impressive as it subjected itself to its self-inflicted tortures ; 
and whilst admitting the world to the secret of its re- 
pentance, concealed itself closely. 

These silent forms appeared to be wandering amid the 
gay stir of life like repentant spirits, like suffering ghosts ; 
and at the sight of them, a cold shudder necessarily passed 
over the spectator. Following them, enveloped in a cloud 
of incense, surrounded by the clergy and chief dignitaries, 
came the celebrant who carried the figure of Nostra Senora 
de Monte, richly embroidered in vellum; she who has 
established her verdure and flower-encircled throne in such 
magnificence on the heights of Funchal. The glittering 
banners vanished in the depths of the woods, the smoke of 
the incense ascended through the leafy vaults into the sun- 


light, more distant became the clang of the chains and 
irons of the penitents, and the holy sound of the little bell 
mingled with the rushing of the cascade. 

I can see those who deem themselves very enlightened 
smile that people in Madeira should imagine that they 
could exorcise the disease among the grapes by a pro- 
cession ; but I openly confess that, although I am a son 
of the nineteenth century and do not reckon myself among 
the benighted ones, this belief appears to me to be very 
beautiful and very edifying, since it well befits those who 
are sore afflicted to turn to their God, Who is never deaf 
to those who believe firmly and unwaveringly in His 
almighty power. A prayer offered in a child-like spirit 
ever removes the burden from the soul ; and therefore we 
find it offered up in all centuries and among all nations ; 
yes, even by the wise Greeks, whose philosophy we so much 
admire. The proud spirit of the free-thinker does but 
delay to humble itself, until death draws near ; death, 
that taugkt even a Voltaire to stammer forth a prayer and 
to sue for comfort. 

In sledges, such as are used in our own mountain districts 
for carrying hay and wood, but furnished with wooden 
seats, we shot over the roads paved with basalt from the 
eminences down into the town. 

The sledge flies down the hill by its own weight, and is 
guided, and its speed checked, by means of ropes held by 
men who run behind it and on each side. The fun is 
very amusing, as is everything which conveys cumbrous 
man at a speed that exceeds the usual limits; but there is 
some danger in it, as a chance stone is sufficient to give 
the sledge a wrong direction and to dash it against any 
object near. Neither is a vehicle that descends at such 
lightning speed from the heights unobjectionable to foot 
passengers who are not very nimble. It has a droll ap- 
pearance to see these sledges drawn up hill by two or four 


oxen, and conveying the most elegant company seated on 
their wooden benches, through the middle of the capital. 

In the town, we found some still unfamiliar, and like- 
wise original, modes of conveyance in the form of ham- 
mocks and palanquins, in which we were for some hours 
carried about through the enchanting country. I have 
already had occasion to speak of the hammock in the com- 
mander's unfortunate expedition. The palanquins are 
long baskets which are carried on a bamboo cane by two 
bearers ; the traveller sits with his back leaning against a 
soft support, but must stretch out his feet as if he were in 
bed ; over his head there is a Chinese roof with movable 
curtains which permit the most open view, while they 
protect him from the sun and rain. In no way can one so 
thoroughly enjoy the beauties of this most magnificent 
country as in the gently rocking, luxurious palanquin ; the 
body reclines on a floating couch of rest, whilst the mind 
is lulled into a state of dreamy delight. One is not jolted 
as in a carriage, but enjoys quietly and thoughtfully all 
that the country offers. One ought always to travel either 
on horseback or in a palanquin ; on horseback, one spends 
hours that may be compared to the rushing, roaring storm : 
in the palanquin, one is gently borne along, and forgets 
all the hurry of ever-changing life, like the bird of paradise 
when he floats in the ether of his Eden. 

All other modes of conveyance in this mortal world have 
their disadvantages. Walking, for example, is decidedly 
mean, and fatigues both the feet and chest ; therefore I have 
quite abolished it for myself, as not to be employed except 
in cases of necessity when travelling. Driving can only be 
commended for the stage-conveyances of the Hungarian 
peasantry ; sledges always involve, as their chief require- 
ment, a cold that freezes one's very heart; railroads are 
the ruin of all poetry, and the triumph of the most matter- 
of-fact communism, for men, cattle, and bales of cotton all 


stand on the same footing, and all expression of individual 
wishes becomes annihilated : even to be carried in a ham- 
mock, which I tried for a little while, is unpleasant ; for 
one feels as if caught in a net, sinking down into it com- 
pletely, has neither view nor air, and can only feel comfort- 
able when asleep ; besides, that to any looker-on, one offers 
a most ridiculous spectacle, slung there like game on a pole. 
I still augur something wonderful from attempts at flying ; 
and if ever the balloon theory should become a reality, I 
shall devote myself to travelling in the air, and am certain 
that I shall find in it the perfect concentration of enjoy- 
ment. In this discourse on locomotion, I altogether except 
travelling by sea, which, as an enthusiastic sailor, I naturally 
rank before everything else, and I confine myself only to 
conveyances on land or through the air. 

I was very glad that we were on this excursion favoured 
by most splendid weather. 

' Quien no ha visto Sevilla, no ha visto meravilla,' (he 
who has not seen Seville, has not seen a marvel,) and 
with pride I can say that I have seen this marvel. * Quien 
no ha visto Lisboa no ha visto cosa boa,' (he who has not 
seen Lisbon has not seen a good thing,) and I have seen 
this good thing. * Quien no ha visto Granada no ha visto 
cosa nada,' (he who has not seen Granada has seen no- 
thing.) And with satisfaction I can say that I have not 
this reproach to make to myself ; for well do I know Gran- 
ada and its Alhambra. But I have also seen Madeira, and 
I exclaim with enthusiasm, ' Quien ha visto Madeira otra 
cosa no chiera,' (he who has seen Madeira desires nothing 

The cemetery at Funchal stands in its principal street 
exactly opposite to an hospital, not a very cheerful prospect 
for the poor sick people. As we passed that way, and as I 
like to walk among graves, we visited it. As we came to one 
of the new white tombs I saw my companion, young Bianchi, 


turn pale, and heard him sob. It was the fresh grave in which 
had been laid one month ago his eldest brother, a promis- 
ing young man, for whom the numerous members of the 
patriarchal family were still in the deepest mourning. The 
handsome old lady with her venerable silver hair, seems to 
be quite heart-broken by this loss : for since that time, 
an expression of deep melancholy has never left her dark 
expressive eyes, and this touching look of sorrow breaks 
painfully even through a momentary smile. 

Her poor son certainly lost his life in a very sad manner. 
His parents had sent him on affairs of trade to the plan- 
tations in America, where a bright future would soon have 
opened before the active, vigorous young man ; but so it 
was not to be. Either in a fit of rage or out of revenge, a 
negro gave young Bianchi one of those butts with his head 
for which the negroes are notorious, and from which no 
one recovers. Bianchi began to fall ill ; everything was 
tried, but he died a year after, in the arms of his afflicted 

My young companion gathered a beautifully blooming 
rose for me from one of the graves ; and with this melan- 
choly remembrance, we quitted the cypress-shadowed 
cemetery, to return, in the bright, clear, evening air, to the 
villa of our kind host. The parting with these amiable, 
true-hearted people, their lovely world of flowers, their ex- 
quisite and peaceful Eden, was very painful to me. 

With my fragrant rose, plucked from the peaceful 
grave, I bade adieu to this island which never can be for- 
gotten, and on which, seven months after, closed a life, 
once destined to establish for ever the calm, sure happiness 
of mine. 



July 18/1852. 

ALGIERS has become a watchword for France ; so that in 
these days, it is placed at the head of every proclamation, 
whether by the Napoleon, the Orleans, or the Bourbon party; 
and alike whether the intention be to perplex, or to benefit, 
those who are addressed. 

The first impression given by the exterior of the city, 
has been compared to that given by a new quarry ; but 
with its white houses, which ascend even to the top of the 
mountain, it may rather be said to 'resemble the worn- 
out and cobweb-covered decorations appropriate to a corsair- 
ballet at a theatre. From the sea, as we first beheld it on 
a beautiful summer morning, it is neither a handsome nor 
even a pretty city, but bare and dusty, yet very unusual 
in appearance ; and the effect, so soon as one enters the 
harbour, is almost perplexing. It seems to me rather to 
resemble an aged Moor in his second childhood, with his 
white turban and burnous, venerable countenance, and 
flowing silver beard, upon whom some mischievous young 
people have put checked trowsers and polished boots whilst 
they teach him to dance the polka, and make fun of his 
mistakes and fatigue, although terribly frightened in their 
inmost hearts at the wild looks of the antique dancer. 

The higher portion of the city, which runs up into a 
pyramidal form, is Moorish in its every feature; whilst 
near the coast, a miniature Paris has sprung up with 
fabulous rapidity, although on all sides it comes to a 
check, proving thereby that everything in this world must 



have its time. Large, broad streets are to be seen with 
immense houses, that are for hire, built upon arcades ; but 
then, as compared with the narrow, shaded streets of a 
Mohammedan city, one has to encounter intolerable heat, 
annoying dust, and staircases that try, and destroy one's 
lungs ; one sees the most exquisite fancy shops, with all 
their elegance of luxury, but finds close beside them dirty 
booths occupied by the dusky sons of Africa. One sees 
the carriages and omnibuses of the Champs Elysees, only 
that instead of Boulevard des Italiens is written Albahr, 
instead of Bois de Boulogne, Marabuh. One also finds the 
heavy, dust-covered camel in streets which begin with 
grand pretensions, and terminate all up hill and down 
dale ; or one sees large caravans of asses which are pressing 
forward beneath the tropical sun to bring the ripe fruits of 
the Atlas mountains to the fashionable Parisian world. One 
meets the^delicate ladies of the Champs Elysees in lace and 
perfumed pink gloves, flirting lorettes and grisettes, the 
dame de la halle with her dazzlingly white high cap a la 
mere Gozo, as also the Moorish lady in her loose slippers, en- 
veloped like a mummy ; or the richly gold-bedizened, gaudily 
painted Jewess with her cornopean shaped head-dress set far 
back on her head, and her veil depending from it ; or again 
the Morisco dancing-girl with her wan features fading all 
too soon ; one finds the gamin in his blue blouse in boon 
companionship with dirty negro boys from Timbuctoo. 

The centre of modern Algiers is formed, and its future 
developement is foreshadowed, by the rather elaborate 
equestrian statue of the Duke of Orleans in bronze, which 
stands on the square not yet completed; near it, in a 
smaller square, are situated the governor's palace, the 
cathedral-mosque, and the bazar d'Orleans. In order to 
reach the harbour from hence, one must go over a break- 
neck road, of which any fishing village would be ashamed. 
The dirt of the desert and the gaudiness of the salon, 


Nature in her most primitive form and ultra-civilization, 
perfumes and disgusting odours, here meet in full force. 

The entrance to the harbour is not very wide. It is only 
completely protected from the sea on one side ; but it may 
be termed a real Eoman piece of workmanship. It is 
altogether artificial, and yet large enough to be able to 
shelter twenty-five ships of the line within its santorin 
arms. Blocks of santorin were poured into wooden cases ; 
and by means of peculiar steam machinery, these were 
lowered to the bottom of the sea, to form the foundation of 
a wall of protection, which in a wonderfully short time be- 
came high enough for the waves to break against. The sea 
swallowed many millions of money, but France obtained a 
secure harbour on the coast of Africa. Having been used 
this year for the first time by the French fleet as an ex- 
periment, there lay in it several very fine steamers which 
perform the rapid service to Marseilles in forty-eight hours. 
A crowd of merchant vessels bore evidence to the flourishing 
trade of Algiers, and a small corvette lying in the harbour 
as the guard-ship saluted us on our arrival. We immedi- 
ately visited the town, which was especially interesting to 
me in two points of view ; first, as a portion of that French 
Empire which I unfortunately only know by description ; 
and secondly, because of its situation in Africa, a continent 
to which I was a stranger ; for my short visit at Tangiers 
can scarcely be reckoned for anything. I quickly perceived 
the superficial luxury of France in the tasteful shops which 
extend in long and pretty rows beneath the arcades of the 
houses, and offer to the eye. a hundred tempting trifles in 
pleasing variety. Everything is to be found here from the 
most delicate and exquisite working in gold, in which has 
been adopted something of the Moorish style of orna- 
mentation, to the choicest dainties for the table. Articles 
for the toilette, tobacconists' and print-sellers' shops ; ware- 
houses for fancy goods, furriers' and saddlers' shops, hair- 

M 2 


dressers', booksellers' and shops of curiosities all that can 
be required by modern life, is here displayed in a brilliant 
dazzling row, along the lower stories of this city of Barbary. 
One admires the gigantic painted placards which are every- 
where to be seen on the walls that art of advertising, so 
peculiarly French, for making the mouth of the inex- 
perienced to water by high-sounding words and imposing 
phrases, and exciting in him the desire to make purchases. 

Amid genuine African heat, we toiled laboriously over 
the road mentioned before, passed a mosque, and so up 
to the square on which the monument stands. This eques- 
trian statue of the Duke of Orleans is refined and graceful ; 
but in no way either imposing or grand. With his cocked 
hat placed sideways on his curly head, the handsome 
young man of modern times sits, sword in hand, on a 
richly-dressed Arab, while on the pedestal two bas-reliefs re- 
present tlje deeds of the Duke in the hideous uniform of the 
French army of the nineteenth century. The well-shaped, 
active horse is the handsomest part of the whole. As a 
statuette in a boudoir the monument would be very pretty. 

We went to the cathedral to hear mass, this being 
Sunday. The principal mosque is changed into a cathe- 
dral, which naturally strikes one as being in rather 
bad taste. Minarets and bells, horse-shoe arches and 
the organ and choir, the cross and Moorish ornaments, are 
altogether out of keeping with each other. Moreover, 
the building is in itself not handsome, as the ancient 
Moorish architecture appears to have been simple and 
devoid of ornament; whilst upon it have been grafted 
decorations which do not belong to any style. The cathe- 
dral-mosque, so I shall call it, has in it therefore nothing 
to excite or elevate the pious soul, and this deficiency is 
still further increased by the hiring of chairs, and the 
moving of them hither and thither, also by the police who 
(dressed in green uniform with monster hats, unkempt 


beards and clubs) act the part of gigantic porters ; as also 
by the whole theatrical mode of conducting divine service. 
It was a high mass. I hired a seat for a sou ; and looked 
on, I grieve to confess, without any feeling of devotion, 
at the novel scene. The priests appeared in the solemn 
procession with large beards and flowing trains : before 
them a herald, resembling one belonging to the Middle 
Ages, dressed in coloured silk, with a cap on his head ; 
during the whole time of the service, a number of boys 
dressed like cardinals in surplices went through all kinds 
of prescribed evolutions, at signals, given by clapping of 
hands, with laughable regularity and precision, as though 
they were a company of soldiers. Mass began ; and with 
it the true music of the spheres, the instruments consisting 
of a harmonium, violoncello and bass-viol, a really suc- 
cessful concert. During mass, a procession of boys ap- 
peared, carrying loaves of bread on a tray, an idea taken 
from the tabernacle of the Israelites : the bread was 
blessed, and then divided into small portions among the 
congregation, who behaved on the occasion in a rather 
unseemly and greedy manner. Well-dressed gentlemen 
in kid gloves also carried round boxes to make a collection 
for the poor. All was done with an air of ostentation, 
not pleasant to those who were unused to it ; the music 
alone was elevating in its effect and was worthy of imita- 
tion. Inside the church, there are confessionals with in- 
scriptions which announce the name and nation of the 
father confessor ; among them I found a German. There 
is generally in Algiers much of the Alsatian, and therefore 
of the German element ; and we frequently heard our 
native tongue spoken in the streets. Where are not 
Germans to be found ? They sever themselves so easily 
from their fatherland, and one has reason to rejoice if 
they at least talk German in their distant homes. Like 
Kotzebue's young squire,! was very much struck by hearing 


the children and commonest people talk French : we only 
know this language as the language of the salons ; there- 
fore in Vienna at least, thank Heaven ! it will disappear 
by degrees, for the Court speaks German as much as 
possible, as the Emperor with a true sense of what is due 
to himself does not like the French language ; and yet how 
easily do French expressions flow from one's lips and pen ! 

In the immediate vicinity of the still unfinished cathe- 
dral-mosque (which is endangered by a great rent in it) lies 
the bazar d'Orleans, one of those oriental streets of covered 
booths of which Smyrna possesses a whole town. The 
street in this city presents in its few shops a rich and 
interesting collection of oriental goods. Choice Damascus 
blades ; handsome white and brown burnous poetical and 
picturesque dress of Africa ; silver scent-bottles, from 
which th Moor showers rose-water ; gold-embroidered 
silk stuffs and dainty slippers for the harem ; cabinets and 
chairs inlaid with mother of pearl ; turban kerchiefs ; the 
house furniture of the wild Kabyles ; utensils of clay and 
brass from Tangiers ; splendid carpets and downy cushions 
broidered with silk for the luxurious divan ; bracelets and 
necklaces of gold, silver, and coral ; pastilles du serail for 
the voluptuous Pacha ; Bedouin fans of fine straw ; ostrich 
feathers and ostrich eggs with a rich netting around them, 
and verses from the Koran painted on them ; in a word, 
all the hundreds and hundreds of objects which gratify 
the truly epicurean love of display prevalent in cities, 
or which owe their mysterious, poetic origin to the weird 
desert or to the unknown interior of this sultry continent. 

We laugh at savages who are enchanted with our beads 
and looking-glasses; yet, full of avidity for whatever is 
foreign, we adorn oursaloocs with Chinese mannikins, and 
our libraries with toys from the wild desert, urged thereto 
by the powerful, yet often unconscious, propensity for 
barter which pervades the human race, ever greedy for 


increased knowledge. I passed many pleasant hours 
among these objects, and carried a great number of them 
back to my ship, that I might decorate my villa in 
Trieste with them. 

The ancient portion of the city, which is built on the 
hill, is, with its Moorish tone of colour, very interesting 
and very original. So long as the tremendous July 
heat would permit, we walked about ; and were rewarded 
for our trouble and uncomfortable warmth by many strik- 
ing and characteristic scenes. 

The streets (if one may give that name to the small 
hilly paths which intersect one another) are often so nar- 
row that two people can scarcely walk side by side in com- 
fort : they are very dirty, and are pervaded by the peculiar 
oriental or Mohammedan odour which the traveller recog- 
nises with calm submission in Dalmatia, Greece, Asia 
Minor, and Africa, wherever the palm-tree waves and the 
myrtle blooms. Many of these streets, owing to their 
narrowness and to the overhanging first-floors of the houses 
built upon buttresses, are enveloped in eternal shadow; 
and in their darkness they at least afford some coolness. 
At the same time, one sees the most picturesque house- 
decorations, surpassing all that fancy could imagine, in 
their confusion, in which decayed beams, ruinous walls, 
dilapidated roofs, combine to form a picture of the dirty, 
lazy, yet picturesque, imperturbable, easy-going life of the 
fatalist in the shattered East. According to Mohammedan 
custom, established through jealousy, scarcely any windows, 
and only the doors of the cdurt-yards, open on these narrow 
lanes. It is through these mysterious doors alone that, 
the women emerge from their inner life of concealment 
behind wall and veil, to walk to the bazaar on business, or 
to go to the coffee-house in the ' Keff.' 

Three sorts of figures may be seen in these dusky lanes 
of houses. One set, shrouded in long white sheets, 


and showing only one eye, glide rapidly and unsteadily as 
phantoms round the angles of the cross-roads, and vanish 
immediately within some of the ruined gate-ways or round 
the corner of one of the houses, leaving not a trace behind. 
A stranger remains lost in uncertainty as to who these 
masked figures may be : these are the Moorish ladies. 
The second, in turban, well dressed beard, bright fair 
complexion, graceful burnous, richly embroidered spenser, 
wide trousers hanging down over the knee, and pretty 
leather slippers, walk proudly and slowly with the calm 
dignity of aristocracy : these are the noble Moors, the for- 
mer lords of Granada and Palermo, the handsome de- 
scendants of the poetical, chivalrous people who in the 
fourteenth century held in their hands the flowers of art 
and science. The third class of figures belongs to the 
lower orders, and is composed of the busy working people, 
with sunburnt limbs, dressed in dirty, oriental garments. 
Among these I count the negro slaves, who were now all 
making holiday, for it was the close of the strict fast of 
Kamazan ; and they were to be seen expressing their 
festive joy like Bacchantes, in wild dances to which cymbals 
and tambourines formed an accompaniment. The loud 
shouts of the dancers echoed far through the streets. Mad- 
ness seemed to have seized on these people, who had become 
excited by the fast, for the clapping noise made by the 
metal instruments never ceased. The black women have 
a peculiar and original appearance, from their dreadful 
ugliness. Almost all of them are immensely tall, they wear 
a bluish-grey dress, bangles on their arms and feet, and 
for the most part their broad, frightful, camel-like faces 
are tattooed. The large pendent bosom also contributes 
to make their appearance quite repulsive. 

Another sight in the narrow lanes of this Moorish city 
is the enormous number of children, who in their many- 
coloured oriental dresses run about in the mire before the 


doors of their houses. Conspicuous among these are the 
Jewish children, whose nails and hair are dyed with henna 
as soon as they are born, and who are generally very richly 
dressed. The Jewesses, with their pointed caps set far 
back on their heads, their glossy silk attire of various 
colours and gold chains, have a great reputation for beauty. 
I discovered that they rendered their high Semitic features 
(which, however, are too sharp for my taste) rather too 
piquant by the deep painting of their eye-brows and eye- 
lashes, by which means they acquire a keen expression 
which is repulsive. Closely-veiled Moorish women with 
gaudy kerchiefs bound flauntily around their heads, and 
with very transparent dresses on the upper part of the 
figure, seek to vie with their light-minded Parisian sisters. 
The heat which poured down upon the city, and ex- 
hausted all energy and power of reflection, drove us back 
on board with its fiery scourge ; there the Governor- 
general Eandon with his staff and the Prefet-civil M. de 
Mercy visited me. 

July 19, 1852. 

The Governor-general resides in the palace that be- 
longed to the family of the former Bey. It is not large, 
and is built outside in the Morisco- Venetian, and inside 
completely in the Moorish style, windows with pointed 
arches and little balconies form the fa9ade, and remind one 
of the light graceful architecture of the incomparable Canal 
grande. A court with airy colonnades upon which all the 
apartments open, recalls, without equalling it, the en- 
chanting Alcazar of Seville. French luxury has painted 
and gilded the pillars of the court ; and as in this place 
Europe and Africa meet everywhere in strange contrast, 
numerous jets of gas illumine this centre of the Moorish 
palace. On the occasion of entertainments, as they were 
given at the time when my cousin d'Aumale was viceroy, 


these brilliantly lighted halls, through which the graceful 
Parisian and the picturesque Algerian floated to the strains 
of sweet music, must have presented a very grand appear- 

The reception- hall unites the two heterogeneous elements 
in an ingenious manner. From the richly carved and 
gaily painted wooden ceiling of the Caliphs' palace, hang 
the bronze candelabra of the Parisian saloons with their 
glittering crystals : on the walls, one sees side by side the 
fine stucco-work of the Alhambra, with its hundred ara- 
besques, and the large, clear mirrors of Lyons manufacture, 
whilst comfortable and luxurious furniture invites the 
company to be seated after the European fashion. 

The Governor is now in the country at Marabuh, the 
villeggiatura of the wealthy Algerians, and we drove thither 
to pay him our return visit. A very good road (on which 
one meets* omnibuses filled with men in blouses, Moors, 
Jews, and veiled women, as also the slow caravans of 
camels from the desert) leads to Marabuh which lies amid 
fresh green trees and shrubs on the mountain spur which 
runs down to the sea to the left of Algiers. The Governor's 
house is whitewashed on the outside ; and is, like all 
genuine Moorish houses, without windows and like a prison. 
It stands in the centre of a beautifully kept garden filled 
with the rarest plants and choicest flowers ; and has an 
extensive and lovely view over the garden-covered slope 
to the sea, from which, at regular intervals, the cool and 
invigorating breeze blows upon this Algerian Trianon. One 
enjoys the prospect from an airy hall supported by columns, 
with green transparent lattices, in front of which plays a 
fountain. Into this hall a charming and richly ornamen- 
ted little room open?, which is, according to oriental custom, 
raised one step, and contains softly swelling divans with 
beautiful tapestry- work, while delicately-painted ostrich 
eggs (the Eastern charm against the evil eye) depend from 


the dome ornamented with arabesques, where the light 
streams in through coloured glass. This apartment, with 
its wealth of colour, of carving, and of panelling, is called 
by the Moors Marabuh ; it is the state-room of the house, 
the throne of its possessor, the gem of his treasures. Here, 
fanned by the sea-breeze, listening to the splashing of the 
fountains, surrounded by the perfumes of roses and jasmine, 
the Moor enjoys his small cup of black coffee and his 

The good-natured Governor received us in a bower at 
the door of his house, and conducted us to this Marabuh 
of poesy, where during our friendly conversation he offered 
us various Southern fruits and some excellent, well-cooled 
champagne, whilst a military band, stationed in the garden, 
delighted our ears with music. In this lovely garden, which 
is rilled with every kind of Southern plant, and which was 
still fresh-looking and green, notwithstanding the July 
heat, the owner feeds a little herd of gentle gazelles (whose 
native home is just behind the Atlas mountains) with 
flowers, a very appetising and poetical diet. From Mara- 
buh, we drove to the Kasba, the citadel or capital of Algiers, 
where the rapacious Beys used to reside, and which is now 
used as a barrack or fort : it is a large collection of fortified 
buildings on the top of the hill in the city. 

The palatial apartments of the sovereigns, in which only 
some few relics of former splendour linger on the painted 
panels, a mosque, baths, cisterns, and terraces, join each 
other in oriental confusion around the Kasba, and form a 
world for a poet ; every corner is now occupied by troops, 
and indeed by Zouaves ; French soldiers in Eastern costume, 
in light blue turbans, dark blue jackets, a sash, wide red 
trowsers, and laced shoes ; all of which look very pretty, but 
are not in harmony with Frenchmen and their refined 

This terribly hot climate is adverse to a regular military 


uniform, and it would perhaps be advisable if all bodies of 
troops were to adopt this useful oriental costume as the 
result of circumstances. 

The infantry, who are in French uniform, are chiefly 
small men, wear blue coats, red trowsers which hang 
in folds, and white leather accoutrements, and have, 
in common with the whole African force, light-blue 
neckties and embroidered caps, which are provided with 
large leather peaks, that are turned a little upwards. The 
regular cavalry wear the same dress, but with the added 
pleasure of having trowsers with leather mountings ; and 
they walk through the streets dragging along their 
clanking sabres. The foreign legion is distinguished by a 
dark green robe and black accoutrements ; they serve as 
food for the bad climate, and are thrown to the Bedouins 
as the first morsel, from which these latter frequently 
get an attach of indigestion that ends mortally. 

The finest troops are the Spahis horse, who with the 
exception of the officers, commissioned and non-com- 
missioned, are all natives. They wear the white dress of 
the Bedouins, the turban with the camel's-hair cord 
wound round it, a loose red and white burnous, high 
boots of undressed leather, with sharp, immense spurs, 
a sabre, and long carbine, like their untamed brethren. 
Their officers, however, wear the European dress; red 
trowsers, light-blue spensers with black hussar lace, a 
sword and dagger, and the everlasting red cap. 

Great disorder and want of cleanliness prevail within 
the precincts of the Kasba. The Marabuh of the un- 
fortunate Bey is an interesting spot : there, in a fit of 
despotic rage, he struck the French Consul with a fan ; to 
which blow, France owes her possession of Algiers, but 
owes also the loss of many thousand human lives, and 
many millions of francs. Algiers is a sort of safety-valve 
to France ; it carries off her bad blood, but takes also some 

ALG1EKS. 173 

of the good with it ; up to the present time, it has been an 
uncertain possession, yet a field of action for French 
bravery and for untried theories. 

The prospect from the Kasba is rather curious than 
pretty ; one sees the toy-like houses at one's feet, and the 
eye darts from terrace to terrace : here, at sunset, one has 
a complete view of Moorish life, throughout the whole dis- 
tance down to the harbour and the blue ocean ; could one 
raise those terrace roofs one might find materials for a whole 

In the city we visited the mosque, which stands on the 
break-neck road leading from the harbour to the principal 
square. There is nothing remarkable in it; in its simple, 
unadorned arrangements it is like the mosques of Asia 
Minor. Before we entered, we were obliged to take off 
our shoes at the fountain for ablutions. Some Moors were 
occupied at the moment in offering their evening prayers, 
during which they prostrated themselves in all sorts of 
postures, touched the ground with their foreheads several 
times, and then sprang up again. This ceremony they 
repeated in three different parts of the church, and in so 
doing approached the spot where the representation of 
Mecca is placed in the direction of that city, in a niche 
covered with tapestry. Beside this niche, is a little wooden 
pulpit painted in gay colours and with a high pointed top ; 
an open staircase leads up to it ; from it the Dervish reads 
the Koran. 

Behind the mosque is a terrace where one may rest very 
pleasantly after prayers, and the faithful were reclining on 
the parapet and gazing out into the distance, over the sun- 
lit, golden sea. It tends to devotion that one should, from 
the house of God, have a view of the beauties of creation; 
these illustrate the scarce-concluded prayer, and the soul, 
attuned to what is pure, becomes susceptible of consola- 
tory and hope-giving impressions. 


In the evening, we drove in the Jardin de Marengo, a 
very pretty, well-kept pleasure-ground on the hilly spur of 
Algiers, just outside the city. This is the resort of the 
fashionable world who, in graceful Parisian dress, promen- 
ade among palms and oleanders, to the sound of a military 
band, or sit amid the shade of exotic plants on chairs which 
are for hire. But that which stands prominent in this 
peaceful garden, as the token of French vanity, and which, 
like everything else Algerian, was taken by the Bourbons 
from the Bey, is the Marengo column surmounted by the 
imperial eagle, and with the entire list of the great Empe- 
ror's battles enumerated on it; perhaps for this reason, 
that he was the uncle of a nephew, who it is true, for the 
welfare of France, is not endowed with the martial genius 
of that uncle, but who evinces on every occasion the mighty 
spirit of the ruling statesman of his age. 

July 20, 1852. 

We started this morning at four o'clock, to make an 
excursion into the interior of the country. We drove in 
two small, light carriages, which, since the institution of 
roads, have been used as means of locomotion instead of 
the ship of the desert, or the homely and phlegmatic ass. 
Algiers still lay in deep sleep : at the entrance of the prin- 
cipal street, the heaven-deserted camel was still reposing 
beside the little tent which the sons of the desert had 
pitched next to the Parisian houses ; it was not yet light; 
a fresh breeze from the sea heightened the peaceful and 
reviving effect of the morning twilight, and in gay spirits 
we drove past Marabuh over the hilly range on which 
Algiers with its villas and gardens is situated ; bade adieu 
to the city with its picturesque environs, and rolled down 
into the broad extensive plain of Blidah, which, with its 
low myrtle shrubs (cover for the wild boar and even for 
some few lions and leopards, but more frequently for the 


cowardly hyena) and with its isolated village colonies (sur- 
rounded by the industrious hands of the settlers with 
cultivation), extends to the foot of the smaller mountains 
of the Atlas chain. In traversing this vast burning plain, 
the security of which is the first successful step of the 
French regiments (since ten years ago, on account of the 
savage Bedouins, no one could venture to Blidah, except 
with a strong escort), the grandly-conceived pictures of 
Horace Vernet present themselves before one on all 
sides. On the level, yellow, sun-scorched earth, surrounded 
by confused brushwood, beneath the blue vault of the sky 
literally saturated with heat, one beholds the dusky Bedouin 
shrouded in his light white raiment, walking carefully 
beside his laden camel ; the slender Arab girl with her 
clay pitcher on her shoulder, moving along proudly yet 
lightly, and expects to see the roaring, terrible king of the 
desert suddenly bound with one tremendous spring from 
the thicket into the midst of this primitive picture of 

Scarcely has one quitted the streets of Algiers, before, with 
a strange feeling of delight, one finds oneself in the midst 
of glowing, romantic Africa ; where dull, wearisome civili- 
sation only appears in the form of a, gamin, clad in rags, who 
runs bragging along the road singing the Marseillaise. 
Some few half-fallen wooden and stone houses, with inscrip- 
tions in large letters inviting the passer-by to enjoy some 
brandy, and in which poor colonists live with their 
families in great disorder ; which promise something of all 
the necessaries of life, and afford really nothing of any ; 
some few batches of houses in comparison with which a 
Hungarian village is like a royal borough (but which boast 
a coffee-house and a billiard table, names of streets and 
squares, and proclamations issued by the mayor pasted 
on the walls of the houses, in which the citizens are 
courteously invited to peace and brotherly harmony with 


the most recently imported or exported Decembrists), form 
on this high road the pillars of civilisation. A peculiar, 
sadly-dubious tincture of haste rests on this French civilisa- 
tion, and the heart of the spectator longs for the wild, poetic 
tribe of Bedouins. Everything has been erected hurriedly 
and temporarily ; the shell has no kernel, and everywhere 
one perceives that experiments are being tried ; the only 
well-executed works are the good roads, which may indeed, 
if judiciously employed, become the very arteries of life. 
But how much do not the French boast of these roads, in 
regard to which they place themselves by the side of the 
colonising Eomans ? Yet the Eomans were an iron race, 
and had not, like the French, champagne in their veins. 

In this respect, the English possess more of the Eoman 
character ; they colonize their acquired territories on fixed 
principles and build on a firm foundation. The Frenchman 
shows hin^elf here as a brave conqueror; may he also 
prove himself one who preserves and improves ! The 
German likewise is a good colonist ; but only as one who 
earns a settlement by the sweat of his brow, not as a ruler, 
like the self-sufficing Briton. 

A large number of storks standing on one leg, who were 
enjoying their peaceful morning nap on the green plain 
with the gravity of old pedants, were the first objects of 
interest that we saw. As genuine tourists, we thought it 
worth our while to quit our carriage and to steal up as 
closely as possible to the phlegmatic birds ; who knows 
how many old acquaintances might not have been among 
them ? Once, as I was travelling to Prague, several storks 
flew close over our railway train whilst we were in the dull 
country in Moravia ; perhaps they were these same birds, 
that now, in the plains of Blidah, we were disturbing in 
their sleep. Unfortunately, the sight of any four-footed 
beasts of prey did not fall to our share during our journey, 
although the French gaillards talk a great deal of the lions 


and leopards which they, like modern Hercules, have cap- 
tured, either to give as presents to the Jardin des Plantes, 
or to set on the dinner-table before the officers, from whose 
lips we afterwards heard the same thing in Blidah : even 
the flesh of the hyaena and other vermiu was eaten and 
praised ; good appetites, truly ! 

Half-way to Blidah, we stopped at a rather larger 
village ; but it was also, whilst still in its infancy, falling 
into decay, owing to the hurry and haste with which it- 
had been built : its modern town-houses, in the midst of 
all their Bedouin surroundings, have an unpleasing effect. 
These ruinous buildings are not suited to this burning 
climate, of the effect of which we began to feel conscious. 

Our horses were watered before the doors of an attract- 
ive restaurant, the saloon of which was ornamented by 
the deeds of the First Napoleon. An escort, which was 
here waiting to accompany us to Blidah, we left behind 
with many thanks. We arrived at that little town at 
eleven o'clock in the morning ; it is situated quite near 
the mountains, and is built half in the Moorish, and half 
in the French style : the French contributed a large 
barrack to Blidah the Moors the grave of a holy Mara- 
buh (as the successors of the Prophet are called), placed 
beneath a splendid group of trees. 

General C , commanding the division a man of co- 
lossal stature, yet of unpretending exterior, and possessed 
of much sound common-sense with the officers of his staff, 
received us in his low, whitewashed, Moorish house, and 
gave us an invitation to breakfast, which we gratefully 

accepted. C 's house is furnished camp-fashion, or 

rather not at all ; his real saloon is a cool arbour beneath 
the shade of green trees, washed by the ripples of a merry, 
babbling stream. The breakfast, composed of a large 
number of dishes (unfortunately by no means very good), 
and of several sorts of fruit, belonged to the rough camp 



life ; it did not say much for the civilised customs of the 
French. Blustering was in the ascendancy. While the 

officers told their tales of wonder, C thundered at his 

servants, who were attending upon us in their shirt- 
sleeves ; meanwhile the champagne corks flew merrily 
around. The company was as motley as in Wallenstein's 
camp ; among other striking figures we discovered a 

Colonel von L , who was talking German, a relation to 

our Master of the Ordnance : as commander of the Spahis 
of this division, he wore the black-laced blue spencer, and 
the red plaited trowsers, which became his dyed beard and 
rouged cheeks admirably. He was a hoary would-be 
youth, full of military pretension a sort of graceful adven- 
turer, making his livelihood by fighting. I do not like 
these soldiers of fortune, who sell their frivolous lives, 
and merely exist from day to day. For honour, a man 
should give his property, and his blood, at the required 
moment ; but to wander about the world with arms, 
without any noble aim in view, is contrary to all my 
feelings. In such society, which speaks scorn of straight- 
forward, simple life, I always feel very uncomfortable, 
and this oppressive state of mind took possession of me 

A Fenelon, who is an officer on the staff of the Spahis, 
and great-nephew of the celebrated Prince of the Church, 
also spoke our language with tolerable fluency : this 
fashion of learning German, formerly unheard-of in 
France, began in the time of Louis-Philippe. He told us 
that he had tamed an Algerian lion like a dog, and kept 
him for a long while about his person, but afterwards sent 
him to the Jardin des Plantes : after a considerable time had 
elapsed, he came to Paris and visited his nursling there, 
when, behold ! the lion recognised him, and, to the as- 
tonishment and shuddering delight of the fine ladies of 
Paris, the bold descendant of the Prince of the Church 


entered the cage and played, like another Van Acken, with 
the overjoyed child of the desert. I did not witness the 
scene, but the gentlemen assured me, that here it was not 
uncommon to tame these beasts completely; and that 
only two or three days ago a Marabuh had passed through 
Blidah with his lions walking around him at perfect liberty. 
It is not known what means the Marabuh employs for 
taming these wild beasts and rendering them harmless ; but 
it is said that during the process their eyes become weak, 
and they move about as if they were drunk. 

I must notice one more figure at C 's round table, 

the officer in command of the foreign legion, a pale red- 
haired Corsiote, the perfect image of a Condottiere, who 
makes himself talked of, by his daring courage and 
bravery.. He inherited the hot soldier's blood of his 
father, one of the Palikari of the Greek War of Indepen- 
dence ; and when the profession of arms became dull at 
home, he came forth into the wide world to take service 
under the tricolor of France against the free tribes of 
Africa. He has the shrewd, restless, fiery Greek eye, but 
his tongue has already learnt to sing the lays of his own 
fame after the French fashion. King Otho, who could no 
longer reward the valiant father, ornamented the breast of 
the son with the Cross of the Eedeemer. 

After a long breakfast, cigars were smoked in the cool 
arbour by the side of the murmuring brook : and I heard 
from the lips of the gigantic French trooper, an eulogium 
on the cloisters in Algiers ; how they are of such service 
for education, nursing of the sick, and spread of civilisa- 
tion ; and, indeed, he even spoke well of the Jesuits. 

Eeligion does not celebrate its triumphs in saloons : but 
there, where higher sacrifices are needful there, where the 
force of arms may not extend there is its reality to be 
proved ; and one looks with admiration on the men who 
cast their lives from them for the diffusion of Christianity 



and for the sake of those virtues which follow in its train. 
The sun stood at its zenith when we quitted Blidah, to 
press forward with our Spahis' escort into the Atlas Moun- 
tains. The heat was scorching ; the officer in command of 
the escort was seized with cramps ; the Marechal de Cogis, 
a Frenchman who had become a naturalised Bedouin, with 
a fine red beard, received a hurt from the pommel of his 
high oriental saddle, and became ill ; I myself felt very 
uncomfortable : in a word, either the beams of the African 
July sun, or the breakfast, appeared to have a bad effect. 
Our watchword was ' Medeah,' our parole * Yusuf ' the re- 
nowned Yusuf whom the witty Piickler has described so 
well in his glowing tales of love and war, and who is now 
general in Medeah. We left our disabled Frenchman in 
the care of a colony of villagers, and proceeded on our way, 
the Bedouin government servants accompanying us. These 
dusky men, with their tiger-like appearance, looking as if 
cast in bronze, with their long oval faces, sparkling eyes, 
sharp, receding foreheads, aristocratic noses, and long teeth 
of dazzling whiteness, bore the heat in an incredible 
manner. On their small, thin, light-footed Arabs, they 
never failed to surround our carriage, which travelled at a 
trot, and their burnous floated picturesquely over their 
brown sinewy arms and glittering weapons. 

At the foot of the Atlas Mountains we saw, quite close 
to us, a flock of African lammergeyers, sitting in the 
broad bed of a stream which was enlivened by oleander- 
bushes in blossom : these enormous birds appeared to be 
taking their mid-day repose, and it was not until our close 
proximity might have become dangerous to them that they 
rose majestically in the air. For a long time we saw them 
hovering in the deep blue atmosphere above our heads. 
The monkeys, which live on the heights of the narrow pass 
of Schiffa, into which we now turned, are less sociable, and 
not one allowed himself to be seen. 


One imagines the Pass of Scbiffa, by which the ex- 
cellent and scientifically-constructed road winds through 
the Lesser Atlas, to be, like the whole of Africa, rough, 
barren, and desert-like. But this is no broad expanse of 
sand, with here and there an isolated palm rising up with 
parched looks into the glowing ether, beneath whose scanty 
shade the Bedouin lies in wait with his long gun: no! 
Atlas is green and luxuriant as the Alps ; noble oaks and a 
hundred varied shrubs adorn its romantic rocks, whilst 
countless waterfalls, fringed with ferns, shed their de- 
lightful and refreshing influence over the picturesque 
defile. Africa is a richly-endowed continent : the latest 
travellers ever find on all sides treasures of nature, pro- 
mising a bright future ; almost everywhere, water and a rich 
and fruitful soil are found ; and the immense desert, the 
so-called Great Sahara, does not exist to such an extent as 
geographers have represented. On the contrary, one is 
aware of large cities such as Timbuctoo ; and only of various 
tracts of desert (which, however, do not cover the whole 
large expanse), that present a difficulty to those who make 
maps, and throw a convenient mantle over ignorance. 
Africa is an uncultivated country, which wants hands 
but not capabilities. This defile, with its clear rushing 
streams, with its rich green woods, is so beautiful that one 
might fancy oneself transported into Styria, if a Bedouin 
did not suddenly appear to dispel the illusion. After 
winding fora long while around the rocks, and crossing the 
river several times, we came to a lofty, open mountain- 
district, which reminded us of our Alps. 

Here some artillery horses were given to us; and 
numerous horsemen (among them the Sheiks, with their 
scarlet cloaks, their gold ornaments, and rich weapons, 
were conspicuous) rushed to meet us, and rendered our 
train numerous and splendid. On the heights, tribes of 
Bedouins appeared on foot with yellow or yellow-and-green 


banners ; and, as in the guerilla warfare, fired their long 
muskets to the sound of the peculiarly shrill, guttural 
tones, which they produce by striking their hands quickly 
on their mouths as they emit a monotonous sound. Yusuf, 
a true son of the East, had aroused the whole of the 
country subject to him, to receive us in a friendly manner ; 
and the warlike troops on the sunny heights crowned with 
shrubs of green, the trains of glittering horsemen, the 
brilliance of the nomadic Bedouins, presented, in truth, a 
scene of incomparable beauty. But as pride and a fall are 
always very near each other, so the salvos of the mountain 
tribes and the waving of their banners were near fright- 
ening our sturdy artillery-horses, and we should have pre- 
ferred admiring the people in a less excited state of mind. 
After passing a little encampment of Bedouins, we 
reached the summit of the road : here, mounted on an 
Arab of the purest breed, enveloped in a cloud of dust 
upon which the sun shone brightly, a general, with a plume 
and star, came riding quickly towards us, at the head of a 
large and brilliant staff: it was Yusuf, the one really 
chivalrous being in Algeria. The troops halted ; a beau- 
tifully-accoutred, magnificent white horse was brought for 
me, and away we went towards Medeah. I turned to 
Yusuf, and assured him that his renowned name and his 
brilliant fame in warfare were familiar to me. I ventured 
to mention Piickler : ' On n'ecrit pas tout ce qu'on vous 
raconte,' replied the son of the South ; 'le prince Piickler,' 
added he, with a self-satisfied smile,' m'a fait biendu tort par 
son ouvrage.' He confirmed the story of Piickler, and there- 
fore I recommend Semilasso's f Vorletzten Welt-gang ' to 
all those who wish to learn more of the General's life ; and 
am certain that everyone will envy me for having been per- 
sonally acquainted with the hero of those noble adventures 
of love and war. I will but permit myself to add some 
few brief particulars. 


When Piickler first became acquainted with Yusuf, he 
was still Bey of Bona, commander of the Spahis (at that 
time composed entirely of Arabs), and above all, still a 
Mussulman, for which reason he wore the picturesque, 
flowing, oriental dress, covered with jewels. In order to 
make himself popular in the city confided to his care, he 
had married the daughter of a wealthy and respectable 
Mohammedan, proprietor of a coffeehouse, and was a brave 
and faithful Mussulman holding service under France. 
He served zealously that country which, after his flight 
from Tunis, had received him into the ranks of her 
soldiery, where the ardent adorer of the unhappy daughter 
of the ruler of Tunis acquired fame and honour. But, as a 
Mussulman, he still remained the serf of France : to open 
a free course for himself, it was necessary for him to become 
a Frenchman. His wife died at the opportune moment ; 
and his warm heart became enchained by the charming 
daughter of the commissary-general of the army in Algiers, 
a perfect Parisian, full of grace and amiability. That he 
might win her, the handsome Yusuf, who had been ad- 
vanced to the rank of general, allowed himself to be bap- 
tized in his uniform as a French commander. His new 
religion procured for him a wife, and the citizenship of 
France : Piickler's enchanting hero of romance was trans- 
formed into a red-trousered general of brigade ; his flowing 
beard was clipped, the hair of his head allowed to grow, 
the oriental mode of sitting abolished, and the free child 
of war and adventure was obliged to go to the schoolroom 
of refined manners, so-called. ' C'est un tigre dompte par 
Madame Yusuf, qui ne se montre terrible que dans la 
jalousie,' was the remark made to me by M. Mercy, the 
courteous prefect of Algiers. But how did Yusuf reconcile 
himself to all this? Such things break the spirit of 
ordinary people, but he is a being richly endowed by 
nature. He became French in his speech, in all the 


courtesies of life, in scientific education, in his impassive 
(I might say diplomatic) bearing; he remained still the 
noble-hearted fiery oriental in his bravery, in his keen 
penetrating intellect, in his fascinating natural simplicity, 
in his lavish hospitality, which he exercises in a princely 
manner, with a real love for splendour and festivity ; and 
combining all this with a striking and brilliant exterior, in 
the eyes of a foreigner he surpasses and throws into the 
shade all his companions of civilised birth, whose love and 
esteem, however, he knows how to retain ; for he is brave 
as a lion, and wise as a serpent, both of which qualities the 
French adore. He never appears like a parvenu, for he 
himself talks of his past life ; he rather gives me the im- 
pression that the French are receiving a favour in his 
services, and that he stands free and independent on his 
own self-created foundation. I regret not having seen 
him in th$ splendid Moorish dress ; he must have been 
wonderfully handsome, and the turban must have added 
advantageously to his stature, which is rather short. He 
has only retained from the Mohammedans an aversion to 
wine and a great love of smoking, and if he can but sit 
cross-legged, he does not scruple to show that he enjoys it. 
The only thing that still often reminds one of the tiger, is 
the deep, dark, fiery look in his e} T es : when these eyes 
kindle beneath the black beetling brows, and the row of 
dazzlingly white teeth gleam in the coal-black beard, a 
shudder might run through one's veins ; but one is reassured 
by thoughts of the soothing influence and teaching of 
Madame Yusuf. 

We galloped on to Medeah, and here made our grand 
entry (I can, indeed, call it nothing less), for which Yusuf 
had prepared with all the tokens of honour that he had at 
command. Two guns fired a salute from the town : the 
troops formed in line, and the feminine portion of the 
Bedouin population uttered the guttural shouts that I 


have described before, like the yells of a horde of savages. 
The tribe of the Moabicks, assembled by the General to do 
honour to the day (who do not breed horses, and who carry 
on their peculiar trade between the desert and the French 
settlement on foot), made a great noise with their drums 
and pipes ; and at the moment in which, surrounded by the 
venerable chiefs of the other tribes who had been sum- 
moned, we entered the General's house, which is situated 
in the grand square, they began a ( fantasia,' a sham fight, 
with dancing, under the constant fire of long muskets, 
some of which were loaded with bullets, with an infernal- 
sounding war-cry as an accompaniment to the drums and 
pipes, and the hoarse shouts of their veiled spouses. 

These fantasias, performed on foot, consist in a series of 
tiger-like bounds made by the opposing parties at each 
other, together with firing aimed at the feet of the adver- 
sary. Performed in the large square by a great number 
of Bedouins in white garments, and amid the confusing 
smoke of the fire from the muskets (the peculiar and 
principal charm of the performance to the Arab taste), 
arid the shrill noise of the excited populace, the whole 
scene has a wild, almost awful effect. ' Ce sont leurs jeux 
qui caracterisent les peuples ; ' what better then can one 
expect from the children of the desert than a fantastic, 
exciting game at battle amid thunder of fire-arms and 
cries of war ? 

At the door of her large and handsome reception-room 
stood Madame Yusuf in the most graceful of Parisian 
dresses : a small, slight lady, fragile and delicate, but 
with keen, merry, dark eyes, and endowed with that 
charming elasticity of figure, that art of ruling half ca- 
pricious, half betokening consciousness of her own powers 
which is peculiar to delicate and nervous women. It is a 
strange mystery how this woman, who is by no means 
pretty, can thus enchain, thus soften, the warrior possessed 


of strong passions, and accustomed to victory. She sank 
down on a rich divan covered with tapestry- work, her feet 
resting on an enormous lion's skin of wondrous beauty ; 
and very becoming it all was to the gentle little wife of 
the Mameluke general. After some questions of courtesy, 
and the usual presentation of my travelling companions, 
we were permitted to arrange our toilette. 

Yusuf had prepared for me a delightful apartment re- 
plete with every convenience, and of the most chaste 
style of beauty. The walls were painted in soft, subdued 
colours, nearly the same as those of the convent at Gibr- 
altar : the floor, covered with handsome skins and ex- 
quisite carpets, reminded one of the East; whilst the com- 
fortable furniture, notwithstanding its partially Moorish 
form, betrayed its Paris manufacture : some few etageres 
and tables, adorned with choice and interesting nicknacks, 
completedthe cheerful home -like effect. 

But the quintessence of all that was delicious was a 
flask of excellent champagne cooled with ice. Our host, 
who sent it to me, knew what refreshment would be most 
desirable in this climate, and after such an excursion ; for 
which I applaud him highly, and will make a note of this 
custom for future occasions. 

The dinner hour approached, the folding-doors were 
thrown open, and I advanced with the amiable lady of the 
house on my arm, from the drawing-room into the well- 
appointed dining-room, where, in the gayest of moods, 
and in a numerous and agreeable society, we partook of 
an excellent repast in the French style ; and that, in the 
heart of the Atlas, in an almost desert country, where only 
a short time ago no one durst venture except under escort 
of numerous bayonets; in a house which, erected by 
Moors, concealed only a short time since the deep secrets 
of the harem. 

Such changes can only be wrought out by a Yusuf who 


has grown up in these countries and who acknowledges no 
difficulties : in everything in which taste and comfort were 
concerned, doubtless Madame assisted him. 

Of the original Moorish house, the court with its arcades, 
a fountain, and some green shrubs, still remain undisturbed. 
Handsome but strange-looking herons walk about them 
with proud and sage looks, whilst a gentle large-eyed 
gazelle, with silver tips on its horns, bounds gracefully 
about the galleries. 

Of the excellent dishes at dinner, at which we were still 
sitting, I will only mention a delicious roast gazelle, 
delicate, and pleasant in smell, white as snow, which ex- 
celled both roe and buck in flavour, and which, by its 
excellence, made one forget all sentimentalities regarding 
the flowery diet of the slaughtered animal. The savoury 
dishes were served by a handsome negro in a rich gold- 
embroidered dress. It pleases my fancy to see these extra- 
vagances of nature around me Moors, dwarfs, Haiducks, 
and court-fools. Certainly they are not adapted to our 
present utilitarian age ; for the negro, according to our 
refined ideas, would cost a great deal, and bring very little 
in return, and only, like a peacock in a poultry-yard, 
prove the wealth of the establishment. At the Prussian 
Court alone have I ever seen similar favourites ; amongst 
them a charming little Chinese, and a still more extra- 
ordinary literary favourite of the King. 

After dinner a numerous company assembled in Yusuf s 
cheerful and brilliantly-lighted drawing-room. All who had 
the slightest pretensions to be in office appeared, and some 
even brought their wives. But the most remarkable orna- 
ment of the drawing-room were the Sheiks of the tribes who 
had been summoned to Medeah. They were seated on two 
large divans, the grim lion's skins at their feet, and were 
dressed in their scarlet mantles, the graceful white burnous 
folded round the grave figure, immoveable, not uttering a 


single word like the Koman senators, when, seated like 
statues in their curule chairs, they received the hordes of 
Grauls. Whether this arose from apathy, pride, or scorn, or 
perhaps even from humility, is only known to the Bedouin 
princes themselves, the proud patriarchs of this land, once 
so free, who still live and do as Abraham lived and did. 
They were chiefly grave full-grown men, also some of them 
old men with silvery beards, with the cast of features pecu- 
liar to the warlike Bedouins, which unite the noble Semitic 
lineaments of the Arab with the fearful countenance of 
the tiger ; and in which the thin aristocratic nose is com- 
bined with the wide-projecting mouth, garnished with rows 
of pearly teeth surrounded by the coal-black pointed beard 
and the very receding forehead, whilst the dark shrewd 
eye gleams like fire in the dusky countenance. 

The Bedouins ate ice-cream this was all they did, and 
it was done without noise whilst opposite to them the 
Parisian ladies were chattering over their tea-cups. 

No country abounds so much in contrast as this herein 
lies one of its principal charms ; but almost all redounds 
to the advantage of the natives. Among these, two inter- 
esting figures were especially prominent a Sheik in 
gleaming purple, with only one foot; he had himself am- 
putated the other with a blunt knife when he was wounded 
in battle. Yusuf carefully preserves the knife in a small 
collection of arms, as a memorial of the power of the 
human will. The other prominent personage was a young 
Marabuh of nineteen years of age a perfect, handsome, 
and interesting picture of an Arabian enthusiast. Though 
a descendant of the Prophet, and consequently belonging 
to a priestly family, and himself a sort of priest, 
he nevertheless already has two wives ; he shows his high 
rank by the noble appearance of his princely figure, by 
the deep, grave melancholy of his oval face and refined 
features, and his simple, picturesque, snow-white dress, 


like that of a nun, entirely surrounding his pallid, beardless 
countenance. But from time to time glances, which betray 
the burning, consuming fire of the soul, break forth from 
these suffering, languishing features. I have never seen a 
young man of nineteen years of age, who was possessed 
of so much dignity and grace, so much repose, as this 
Marabuh, who is also much reverenced by his people. 
He is now in Medeah for the purpose of learning French, 
and is said to make astonishing progress : his elder brother 
speaks it fluently. Yusuf turned to the Marabuh and 
said, * N'est-ce pas que tu aimes bien les Francais ? ' The 
Marabuh laid his hand on his breast, and bowed low. 
Yusuf then turned to us with a smile, and said : 'Us nous 
detestent, ces br . . ., mais ils nous craignent; voila tout 
ce qu'il-nous faut;' and the Marabuh, confiding in the 
young foreigner, cast a look of such heartfelt, burning 
pain on me that I felt quite sad and uneasy. In that look 
lay the whole history of these Bedouin tribes, once so free, 
so noble, so much to be envied. 

Just as the party was becoming a little dull, the ami-- 
able master of the house came to our rescue, by propos- 
ing to us that we should see a dance of the Moorish 
women. This was a delicate affair, for I knew, through the 
rogue Semilasso, that these celebrated dances are not al- 
ways quite seemly ; yet with a view to acquiring informa- 
tion, I thought to myself, 'One may for once, as a 
traveller, sacrifice propriety, as this is a necessary por- 
tion of the complete picture.' Madame Yusuf did 
not seem to take the thing so quietly: perhaps she was 
more especially shocked at the idea that we were to 
admire these performances in a private coffeehouse. Pale 
with anger, she darted a not very kindly glance at her 
husband, and assured us that she would with pleasure lend 
her drawing-room for these Phrynic arts, and would 
withdraw with the ladies to her boudoir : she hoped, by these 


means, at least to keep the enemy in her power. ' CVst 
inconvenable, ma fille,' said Yusuf, gently ; and, leaving the 
ladies to their meditations, the whole party of men with- 
drew, amid the darkness of night, to the coffeehouse. 

We entered a lofty hall vaulted with a Moorish dome. 
Single lamps which were suspended from the ceiling, as in 
the mosques, shed a dim, romantic light ; a jet of water 
played with refreshing coolness in a marble basin ; on a 
wooden balcony running round the hall, some spectators 
had found a clandestine entrance, whilst our party and a 
large number of venerable Moors filled the hall below. 
The doors were locked ; for, in fact, these dances are pro- 
hibited, and the ruling powers ought never to be caught 
treading in forbidden paths. We seated ourselves in a 
circle, in the midst of which a carpet was spread, and some 
candles were placed so as to throw their light upon the 
dancers. These dancers were conducted into the hall two 
and two by their chief, to dance alternately, whilst the 
company were comfortably smoking their pipes. They 
were chiefly slight girls of from fourteen to twenty years 
of age, having a brazen expression of face, coarsely-painted 
eyebrows and patches ; dark, cunning, bold eyes, whose 
lids nothing would cause to droop. Their dress was fan- 
tastic. From the waist to the ankles they were enveloped 
in some heavy, bright-coloured, silken material ; above the 
waist, they wore nothing but a gauze chemisette ornamented 
w r ith gold lace and ribbon ; on the head, which was flaunt- 
ingly adorned with all manner of glittering baubles, a 
gaudy silk handkerchief, twisted up to a point, was set on 
one side. They wore trousers, and on their arms and legs 
golden bangles. 

The most conspicuous figures were, a tall girl of nine- 
teen years of age, bold and defiant as a grenadier, a girl of 
fourteen years of age, and a quiet damsel (whose corpulence 
gave her a droll appearance) who had outgrown the bloom 


of youth. The music consisted of the primitive Moorish 
violin, monotonous pipes, and tambourines played by girls 
who were also gaily dressed. A pan was, according to 
Moorish custom, employed as a sort of resounding tam- 
bourine-like instrument ; and it was played upon by the 
handsomest girl in the room, who had a melancholy Greek 
face with a wonderfully-chiselled profile. 

The much-celebrated dance consists in thiSj-'-that these 
girls place themselves on the carpet, and rock, bend, twist, 
and work with the upper portion of the body, as though it 
were made of indiarubber, and as if they were trying to 
separate it from their lower limbs, or to extend themselves 
beyond their natural length. 

Whilst doing this, they hold a silk handkerchief in each 
hand, which they flourish about towards the ground with 
an assumed air of indifference, as if to shake out the dust, 
and then pass it sideways before their eyes, as though to 
say, ' What a timid, bashful, young maiden I am ! ' But the 
whole scene gives an impression very much the contrary. 
The feet are only occasionally moved, as the performers 
push themselves along in a trailing uncertain manner ; in 
doing this, the bold grenadier advanced very near to General 
Yusuf, but without actually touching him. It is the 
practice of the dancers to stick pieces of gold on their 
foreheads with their saliva. I found the same thing, only 
done in a more refined manner, in Spain, where many re- 
mains of Moorish customs are still to be met with. The 
mournful, nasal song, which generally accompanies the 
dancers here, is also to be found there ; but the dance is 
different. There enjo} 7 ment finds expression, rising and 
bending in exquisite and inspiriting cadence to the lively 
clang of the castanets ; no people in the world dance like 
the Spaniards. 

July 21, 1852. 

Mounted on noble Arab steeds, we rode out this morn- 


ing with Yusuf to a spot where, on a barren and gently 
undulating plain, a desert in miniature, we might for the 
first time transport ourselves to real, free, primitive, 
Bedouin life. Large tents of a dark- brown colour, made 
of camel's-hair, were pitched on the high portion of the 
plain ; in the centre of this village of tents, droves of 
camels and flocks of sheep, horses, and mules were stand- 
ing, tethered by the feet. The tribes summoned by 
Yusuf from a distance of eighteen miles had here passed 
the night in tents ; but these were now onlj occupied by 
invisible women and children ; for the men, old and young, 
had marched out on their little fiery Arabs, and were now 
waiting for the fantasia, of which they are so passionately 
fond. There might have been present from two to three 
hundred horsemen, who by their varied and picturesque 
costume, and by their open, vigorous bearing (peculiarly 
Bedouin), displayed a most impressive appearance. 

Most of them wore only the white linen shirt, fluttering 
burnous, and turban-caps twined round with earners-hair 
cord, and carried pistols and knives and the long slender 
carbine, the faithful companion of their unceasing perils : 
their legs were bare to the knee, and their arms to the 
elbow. Warriors of higher rank, like the Sheiks, wore a 
scarlet burnous over the usual white ones : their bridles 
and broad stirrups were of chased silver-gilt, and glittered 
magnificently in the sunlight; they were seated on 
richly-embroidered green shabracks, and wore spurs a 
span in length (the rowels of which were set in coral and 
precious stones), sticking straight out from their high, 
untanned leathern boots ; whilst costly weapons gleamed 
and sparkled in their magnificent belts. Some of the 
chiefs wore, over the customary covering for the head, 
broad-brimmed high straw hats, which ran up to a point, 
and were ornamented with innumerable little silk tassels 
and a complete forest of ostrich-feathers. When we rode 


up, we were received with the sounds of the warlike pipes, 
and the clash of drums, which they even carried with them 
on their horses. These instruments remind one in their 
wild monotony of the fanfare of the Russians, as I heard 
it in the campaign in Hungary. Yusuf conducted us 
into a large tent where we seated ourselves on carpets and 
cushions in the Oriental fashion. The fantasia began, 
the extended line broke itself up into little parties whirling 
about and chasing each other, which, quick as lightning, 
either singly or in groups and companies just as the 
moment suggested, defiled past our tent on the broad 
yellow field. During this rushing, hurried chase, the wild, 
noble sons of the desert fired their long carbines, 
sometimes standing on their high saddles, sometimes 
throwing themselves sideways towards the ground ; then 
swung them around their heads, or flung them up in 
the air like balls ; and during this strange, romantic game 
of war, the plain resounded with their cries of joy and of 
battle. It was an exciting, spirit-stirring scene; in a 
moment one comprehends the .delight and happiness of 
the free life of the desert. This racing and chasing in the 
full outburst of liberty, this eager ardour for fighting, this 
life of perpetual excitement combined with the greatest 
simplicity of manners exercise a spell that is alike inde- 
scribable and irresistible. That the bullets whistled over 
our heads was quite en regie at one of these Bedouin 
festivals : but it was astonishing that in this wild game of 
war only two Bedouins fell, and they twisted themselves 
back again into their saddles like cats, unhurt ; that there 
were, as a general rule, no accidents can only be explained 
in this way, that the Bedouin's horse belongs to himself and 
is a part of himself ; that the man is accustomed from his 
cradle to these warlike games and is also educated in real 

A boy of nine years of age, the son of a sheik of con- 
VOL, ii. o 


sideration, sat on his white horse loaded with ornaments 
in the very midst of the tumult, with an air of dignity and 
with admirable composure. The elders of the tribe evinced 
the most unqualified respect towards the proud boy ; they 
would rather die than allow a hair of this beloved head 
belonging to the ruling family of their tribe to be injured 
in any real encounter, at all of which the Bedouin boy is 
present as at these which are merely for sport. Such traits 
bear witness to the true pride and genuine nobility of the 
people. The pale, interesting boy, who charmed me by 
his warlike dress and princely bearing, is already estab- 
lished in all his rights, and has two wives ; one of whom 
is eight years old and has been presented to Madame 
Yusuf. Two episodes of special note occurred in the 
course of the fantasia ; an ostrich hunt, and a camel 
ride. Two ostriches, the property of the general, were 
let loose n the field, around which the agile Bedouins 
hovered. These presented an interesting scene, as the 
horses are terribly afraid of the flapping of the wings, 
and of the angular, irregular movement of the immense 
bird which, uncertain as is its gait, runs along with the 
speed of an arrow. The brave Bedouins presented to 
us an original spectacle with their camels. When these 
warlike tribes take the field against an enemy, they send 
their camels on in front, without bridles, carrying large, 
covered panniers, in which the Bedouin wives are rocked. 
These martial women shout forth their exciting, guttural 
tones, and challenge the enemy as a hidden decoy ; much 
courage is required for this strategetical manoeuvre, and 
the brave women are likely to hear many a bullet whistle 
around them, if even they should not be captured. It 
is a strange sight to see the hideous animals staggering 
towards the enemy at a trot with their swinging burdens 
of curtained panniers, whilst the warlike tones of the 
choir of women peal forth from their mysterious place oi 


concealment, resembling the song of the Eumenides rather 
than that of the Sirens. Some of these war-camels were 
detained with their furniture : and, amid much angry 
snorting, were compelled to lie down and to admit us 
gentlemen into the rocking-bowers of the ladies. When 
the curtain was lifted for Yusuf and myself (for we were to 
mount the same camel) a veiled female suddenly darted 
forth like a weasel from amid the soft, warm cushions. 
The Bedouins, who had forgotten to remove her, now 
packed her up like a bundle of clothes; and half pushed, 
half threw her into another of these camel panniers; all of 
which was only the work of a moment, and was effected 
with as much consternation and hurry as though she had 
been the wife of the Prophet himself. In these panniers, 
which are lined with a soft, fine covering, one has space to 
half sit, half lie down ; and beneath the shelter of the 
arched wooden top, finds oneself rather rudely swung 
against the side of the camel's hump. Yusuf was suspended 
on the left, and I on the right side in our joint panniers ; 
and we laughed heartily at our feminine position. Madame 
Yusuf, who, accompanied by several ladies, had arrived 
during the fantasia, in a well-appointed equipage, amused 
herself not a little from the tent at our expense. However, 
we very soon resumed our knightly seats, and rode to one 
of the tent-villages which, the fantasia having concluded, 
was now filled with inhabitants. The tent of the sheik, 
ornamented with the banner of the tribe, stood in the 
centre. In the open portion of the tent, the venerable 
Bedouins were seated, like the patriarchs of the Old Testa- 
ment, with grave composure and proud self-consciousness, 
separated only by a camel's-hair partition from the myste- 
ries of their female world. Around these airy dwellings 
were grouped the horses that we had just" seen darting 
hither like flashes of lightning. This breed of horses is 
small, thin and delicate, but sinewy, and, at the first 



glance, not very handsome in appearance. Yet, when one 
sees the animal in its rushing flight, fleet as a roe, light as 
a sea-gull, one is astonished, and learns to love it. Its 
form, giving an idea as if the animal were entirely com- 
posed of steel springs which bend and bound back and 
never break, is much to be admired. 

In order to show the ladies that we Europeans, yes, and 
even sailors, could accomplish something approaching to 
the fantasia, we put spurs to our Arab steeds and chased 
at full speed across the plain to the foot of the tent ; it is 
true, though, that one French officer had a fall. 

Preparations were made for an Arabian meal from 
which the ladies fled, as it was not Parisian. We extended 
ourselves on the soft carpets in merry groups ; and kuss- 
kuss, the favourite dish of the Bedouins, opened the per- 
formance : it is a heap of grains of wheat fried in mutton 
fat, mixe4 with small pieces of meat which are served up 
dry. That one only uses one's hands at these meals, is to 
be understood. The second and principal dish consisted 
of a whole sheep, minus the fleece only, whicn was pre- 
pared for the table on a simple wooden spit, with horns, 
eyes, feet, and interior untouched. The hot, tender, and 
well-flavoured meal was torn off with our fingers. Beside 
this, very excellent, strongly-spiced pastry in the form of 
a ball was handed round ; and the whole concluded with 
a pillau, never absent in Mohammedan countries. In 
richly-chased silver cups, water drawn from buckskin bags 
was presented, in which some hairs of the slaughtered buck 
were floating, a very unpleasant addition; but this also 
must needs be endured as part of an Arabian repast ; more 
especially as we were enabled to console ourselves with a 
draught of cool champagne which Yusuf procured for us 
by stealth. 

We were now unfortunately obliged to think of return- 
ing home. We rode as far as Medeah, took a cordial 


farewell of the amiable general, and then quitted the spot 
which had become so interesting to us. The fascinating 
Yusuf accompanied us for a while. On the same heights 
on which we had first met, he took leave of us, amid our 
most sincere and heartfelt thanks for all the kindness 
which, with such princely grace, he had evinced towards 
us. With him romance also departed. 

Another expedition to which he had invited uSj'into the 
little desert only fourteen miles distant, was frustrated by 
our departure. 

In my enthusiasm for the free life of the Bedouins, an 
indescribable melancholy, an uneasy desire to penetrate 
further, seized upon me. I call it desert-sickness ; and 
know not what I would not have given, when so near the 
mysterious interior of Africa, to have cast one glance 
within. My imagination was filled with scenes of wild 
nomad life, with fantasias, with ostrich and antelope 
hunts, with the vast, boundless, yet simple pictures of 
primitive life in the desert; and yet I was forced to 
return to the portals of civilization. That Piickler's 
' Ausweh ' exists, I now feel by experience. 

We returned by the same road by which we had come, 
were again accompanied by the Spahis to Blidah, stopped 

for a moment with C , met on the heights the omnibus 

from Algiers intended to hold thirteen, crammed with a 
disreputable rabble who had been shipped off from France 
amid the sounds of the ' Marseillaise,' and were now to be 
placed in cloister life under the charge of the Jesuits ; and 
at half-past nine o'clock in the evening, we reached the 

We refreshed ourselves in a very pretty French bath- 
room, with a bath ; and revived by excellent strawberry ice- 
creams, returned on board in good spirits. 


July 22, 1852. 

We breakfasted to-day with the governor at his villa at 
Marabuh. The repast was served in a gorgeous and beau- 
tiful tent composed of banners, in the garden, among 
shrubs and flowers. Two bands, and some admirable 
champagne exhilarated the numerous company who, amid 
lively and intellectual conversation, enjoyed the pleasures 
of the table, which might have challenged comparison with 
those from a Parisian kitchen of the highest pretensions. 

Later on we visited Yusuf s villa, which stands on a 
slope close to the governor's house. It bears, in a pleasing 
manner, the impress of the brilliant and romantic character 
of the owner. Without ornament, and of dazzling white- 
ness according to Moorish custom, on the exterior, in the 
interior it displays, for this reason, so much the more of 
taste and luxury. The apartments, adorned with objects 
of interest and of art, surround a handsomely-ornamented 
court, with which they are connected by lofty Morisco 
arches. This court is supported by pillars gilded and 
painted in bright colours, and is covered by a glass roof. 
In the sleeping apartment stands a splendid state bed, 
which Yusuf caused to be made for himself whilst he was 
Bey of Constantina. In a little gallery we saw costly 
Arabian etageres ; two portraits of the master of the house, 
one of which represents him as a Christian and a general, 
the other as a Mohammedan in the rich graceful robe, and 
with the long flowing beard, of the East ; and a hundred 
other things in which are evinced the luxurious, Oriental 
imagination of the owner of the villa and the graceful 
good taste of his wife. Among them was an engrav- 
ing representing the 'nocturnal review,' together with 
a translation of the affecting stanzas of our beloved 
and revered Zedlitz, below which stands his name with 
the appellation, ' poete allemand.' Such a tribute would 
certainly please the poet, for it is flattering to find oneself 


in another clime, surrounded by all that is most worthy 
of note. 

I likewise became acquainted to-day with Yusufs 
intimate friend, now Greneral Arnaud ; the romantic his- 
tory of whose life Semilasso has also narrated in a most 
pleasing manner. I talked to him of Piickler-Muskau, 
whom he still holds in honoured remembrance. 

Adjoining the house, is a charming and shady garden of 
bananas, which, clustering in American profusion round a 
little waterfall, are said to produce excellent fruit. The 
garden is surrounded by lofty and thickly-foliaged trees, 
whose rapid growth affords proof of the richness of this 
fertile soil ; for they were all planted by the General. But 
the prettiest, and a really romantic little spot, is immediately 
in front of the villa on the side towards the sea. At the 
foot of a tall palm lies a clear, stone-encircled pool, in 
which the cool water ripples over shells and blocks of 
coral. This pool is overshadowed by the loveliest shrubs, 
and by magnificent green chestnuts, while a peaceful swan 
sails majestically, like an enchanted prince, over its pure, 
calm bosom. The creation of this spot shows both talent 
and feeling. 

"We now drove with General Kandon and some of his 
guests to Stanli, the Trappist monastery ; one of the most 
interesting institutions in the environs of Algiers. Next 
to prayer, the cultivation of the soil forms the lifelong 
occupation of the Trappist monk. Where, therefore, could 
he be better placed, than in an infant colony, where 
industry and manual labour are needed equally with 
encouragement and good example ? Stanli lies at two 
miles' distance from Algiers, on the sea coast ; here the 
French troops first landed. The Bey was seated under a 
splendid fan-palm, looking on at the ships of war, and at 
the landing of the Christian dogs. The more of them 
that appeared, the more he rejoiced ; for, to use his own 


expression, so many the more would he sacrifice to the 
Prophet, and to his own plans. But the event proved 
otherwise. The French defeated the Moors ; and in 
sacred commemoration of the day, the sacrifice of the 
mass was solemnised by the victorious troops, under the 
shadow of the selfsame palm beneath which the Bey had 
been seated. On this spot, so important in the present 
history of Algiers, the Trappists founded their monastery 
in a truly Christian manner. They began their work 
with discretion and amid the most terrible self-sacrifice 
in a country, which, on the coast, is among the most 
barren in the whole world, and where at that time nothing 
grew but the low, weedy, prickly palm. Many of the 
brothers died in consequence of the fearful and unwonted 
heat, and were buried in the newly-made churchyard. 
The survivors collected all their energies ; and with their 
abbot at their head, worked assiduously with pickaxe and 
spade, in the sweat of their brow. God rewarded their 
earnest labour, which called forth universal astonishment 
and amazement. The monastery grew into a regularly- 
shaped square building of considerable size ; a farm, 
containing some fine cattle, was also established, and the 
cultivation thus attained, spread far and wide, by reason 
of the wonder excited by this disciplined, heaven-sent 
industry. The abbot, who is like a true apostle of 
ancient Christendom, bore all the difficulties of the first 
founding ; and has, with a cheerful heart, survived to the 
present time all the fatigues and sorrows which such a 
climate brings in its train. This sublime man with his 
flowing white and black dress, and venerable grey beard, 
shows every plant and every animal in this spot of his 
creation to strangers, with the greatest kindness, and with 
real, childlike pleasure. He only who knows the country 
round Stanli, and the burning heat of Africa, and who 
sees the young fruit-trees brought from France already 


covered with splendid produce, who tastes the milk and 
butter procured from the excellent cows, can adequately 
admire these brave and holy colonists, these landowners, 
models to the whole of the new country^ and with grateful 
emotion, appreciate this wise institution of our Church. 

The governor, and all who are connected with the ad- 
ministration, esteem this monastery highly and take every 
opportunity of treating its pious inmates with distinction ; 
for wherever the advantages accruing are evident, and the 
sacrifices made are brought prominently to view, there the 
men of our enlightened age hold still with the ancient, 
endowed religious orders. 

In a kiosk outside the monastery, erected half in the 
Moorish and half in the church architectural style, for the 
reception of the governor's wife and of other distinguished 
ladies who are not allowed to enter the monastery, a break- 
fast composed of the delicious products of the Carthusian 
establishment at Stanli was served for us, after which we 
took a cordial leave of these friendly monks who, according 
to their stringent rule of life, work throughout the whole 
day, and are obliged to hold their services at night, and 
may not even speak but by permission of their abbot ; and 
we bade adieu to this spot, so interesting in the history of 
the development of cultivation. 

On our way home we passed another admirable institu- 
tion, the convent ' du bon Pasteur,' a place of refuge for 
girls who have fallen from virtue; where, upon their volun- 
tary entrance, time is given them, under a strict discipline, 
for repentance and amendment. A short time ago, a very 
graceful and pretty young lady made her appearance at 
this convent ; no one knew whence ; in genuine Christian 
humility she is now doing penance in the grey robe. 

We devoted our last evening in Algiers to all sorts of 
Oriental purchases; among other objects we found some 
beautiful weapons and some interesting utensils used by the 


Bedouins and Kabyles. To stroll about these bazaars ad- 
miring, and searching for various curiosities, is as instruc- 
tive as it is pleasant. 

About eleven o'clock the column of smoke from the 
funnel of our steamer waved a last farewell to this Gallo- 
Moorish city. 




July, 1853. 

ON the boundaries of civilisation is a wilderness which 
bears the euphonious name of Albania. In its woody dis- 
tricts, Turks, boars, and many Catholic Christians, live in 
contention and strife, chasing each other in wild pursuit. 
As in the time of Diocletian, mass is celebrated in anxious 
fear, and the candles of the altar serve, as then, to illumi- 
nate the dark meeting-places of the faithful. It was to 
give these poor Catholics moral support, and to investigate 
their sad state, that the corvette * Minerva ' was sent to 
these waters under my command. 

This mission would have been an effective one had the 
means and circumstances of that time permitted us to act 
energetically; but it was not an agreeable one, for, the 
bloody episode of Smyrna having just taken place, every 
little part of Turkey was in a most fearful state of ferment, 
and we were looked upon with suspicious jealousy, as 
foreigners from whom humiliations were to be appre- 
hended. Under these circumstances the visit to Albania 
required circumspection, energy and moderation, and pro- 
mised to be followed by vexations and deprivations, which 
were the more keenly felt, as this year we were to have 
made a voyage to Constantinople, Asia Minor, the Holy 
Land and Egypt, but those vexatious politics prevented us. 

On July 28, 1853, we approached Antivari. The sun 
shone brightly and warmly, the sky was a deep blue ; the 
genial warm air blew refreshingly over the shining sea. 
It was one of those evenings which are to be met with 


only in the East, and which continue here for months to 
the delight of those who sail in these remarkable seas. 

Our corvette floated calmly and lightly in the wide road- 
stead of Antivari, where the gradually rising ground 
affords a good anchorage for a large number of all kinds 
of ships. It is only during the prevalence of the north- 
westerly winds that this soft ground is an unsafe anchor- 
age, when the vessels are liable to be driven ashore upon 
the level sandy coast. With the exception of two small 
merchant vessels we were alone in our anchorage in a 
depth of nine and a half fathoms. It appeared to me as 
if I were in a far distant land, a wild and recently dis- 
covered country ; and in truth it was almost so. Although 
near as to distance, Albania is separated from our country 
by a chasm, as wide as an ocean ; for it is situated within the 
territory of the decaying Crescent, where civilisation has 
not yet foud an entrance, and where all is abandoned to 
the despotism of the pashas and their hordes ; in fact the 
existence of Albania is scarcely noticed in Constantinople, 
and even Europe has only vague ideas about it. 

Who knows Albania ? who has travelled there ? The 
world only hears of well-made, handsome Albanians who 
in the southern seaports of Europe saunter from coffee- 
house to coffee-house, clad in their fustanella and fez, and 
whose picturesque dress in masquerades gives a certain 
distinction even to the most insignificant dandy. 

Our anchorage was surrounded by the finest panorama. 
Before us smiled a plain richly planted with olive trees 
and bounded by the bold rocks of Scutari, on a projection 
of which stood the minaret of the stronghold of Antivari. 
On our right a rocky, bare neck of land, protected the 
roadstead against storms from the south-east ; on our left 
were the gigantic bare mountains of Montenegro, which 
are only here and there covered with pine wood ; and on 
the level sandy beach of the roadstead nothing is seen but 


the toll-house ; a silence reigns all around, a silence which 
at evening becomes quite insupportable. 

The manoeuvres of casting anchor had been well executed 
and the officers asked for leave to go on shore to refresh 
themselves with a bath in the sea after the hot mid-day 
hours ; I gave permission, but at the same time recom- 
mended caution. They had scarcely landed when armed 
Albanians appeared observing them suspiciously and 
dodging them. Twilight had set in and I approached the 
custom-house, intending to take my wonted invigorating 
sea-bath, when a shot was fired from the windows of the 
building, and a troop of wild fellows, richly armed and in 
the Albanian dress, approached the beach. They perhaps 
only intended to frighten us, but I thought it best not to 
take any notice of them, and so quietly undressed to take 
my bath in conspedu barbarornm. ' Take it coolly ' is 
my principle and it is certainly a good one. Th - wild 
people looked at us quite puzzled, and after the bath we 
rowed back very comfortably to our dear ' Minerva,' not 
very much edified by our first reception in this wild country. 

Our consular agent appeared next day on board and 
assured us that in Antivari, which is an hour's distance 
from here, we had been taken at first for a Turkish vessel ; 
not very flattering to my pretty corvette ; but the opinion 
of a landsman in such matters is of no consequence. The 
good man returned to the town to report us to the so- 
called authorities, and then brought on board the vicar of the 
archiepiscopate of Antivari and the Aga. The vicar, Mon- 
signor Poten, is a fine tall man, quite apostolic in his 
exterior appearance, mild, and commanding respect ; a 
prince of the Church, whose holy mission may be read in 
his face ; and what most agreeably surprised me, he is a 
German, with the benevolent blue eye, the sky-coloured 
mirror of a pure Oferman soul. That he is a man of whom 
we, his countrymen, use the expression, 4 There is no harm 


in him,' exemplifies in unruly Albania his only fault. He 
belongs to those natures who, like lambs, suffer for their 
Lord and Master, without defending themselves ; who look 
upon Christ always as the Good Shepherd, and not as the 
Avenger in the temple ; who cannot understand the words 
of the Bible, * Be as wise as serpents ; ' so that he is unable 
to cope with the false, cunning Mohammedans, although a 
man who should combine the Christian virtues of this 
German with prudence and energy, would in the end be 
victorious even against these barbarians. 

Born in the beautiful city of Cologne this pious man 
many years ago went to the Propaganda in Eome, and was 
afterwards sent as a priest to Albania, where he was pro- 
moted to his present position and probably will soon be- 
come a bishop. He has been living for twenty years in that 
forgotten Antivari, and for more than that time he has 
neither seen his country, nor scarcely had any connection 
with it. Considering this his mission, he has renounced 
his fatherland and is only now seeking another in the next 

With a kind intent I endeavoured to draw him into 
conversation about Cologne, but it scarcely had any interest 
for him now, and even his mother-tongue was a difficulty to 
him. It is a melancholy fact that we Germans so quickly 
forget our nationality, hatred and love alone remain im- 
pressed upon our minds. The idea of Germany has become 
indefinite, and this is the sad cause of this great evil. 

The vicar complained bitterly about the unhappy con- 
dition of the Catholics. Forsaken, without support, ay, 
even without money and comfort, they are the ready play- 
things of intrigue. Before a Turkish court, Christians 
have no rights, how then can it be expected that they will 
be treated with justice ? It is true, that in later years the 
sultan has granted many liberties and rights ; but what 
does that avail here, where the sultan's will is not obeyed 


even within the walls of Stamboul. Here, where the 
reigning pasha has no responsibility, he has only to pay the 
sultan a certain stipend, and can, in the fullest meaning 
of the word, do just as he pleases. If the pasha be an 
unusually bad one, or if he have powerful enemies, he is 
suddenly dismissed, but generally, he only makes room for 
one still worse, who, with fresh energy, further impover- 
ishes the country placed under his care ; so that the poor 
and oppressed people prefer not to complain at all. 
Christian merchants are especially driven to despair by 
ever-repeated extortions. The pasha easily finds reasons 
for new demands, and unfortunately has full power to 
enforce them ; whilst the Christians have nothing left to 
them but to pay and pay again. 

The building of churches is prohibited in Albania, and 
it is with difficulty that the celebration of the mass is 
tolerated in huts even ; and even if it were otherwise, there 
are no funds. Kome is so reduced, that it cannot grant 
sufficient subsidies to any, for as the mother of all Catholic 
Christianity, she cannot take especial care of Albania ; so 
that Austria is the only Catholic country which actually 
supports it pays its bishops and many of its pastors ; 
but her exhausted finances do not permit this to any great 

The promoter of this ill-feeling and bad treatment at 
Antivari is the pasha of Scutari ; a very powerful man and 
full of intense and bitter hatred towards the Christians. 
He had formerly placed here one of his creatures as a 
commander, who gave considerable trouble both to the 
vicar and the consular agent, and who, after he had en- 
riched himself, was removed. It was as his successor that 
the present Aga came, with whom they are satisfied as he 
is placable and does not place any impediments in their 

The worthy prince of the Church had scarcely left me, 



when the Mohammedan above-mentioned entered my cabin. 
He is a thoroughly vulgar fellow, but with a good-natured, 
common face ; he is clothed in the picturesque Albanian 
dress, the rich red spencer trimmed with fur, the gold- 
embroidered waistcoat, the belt full of arms, the bright 
many-coloured sash round the body, the fustanella, the 
richly-embroidered gaiters, and the red fez. But in spite 
of the beauty of his dress, he might have been the servant 
of some Oriental prince. 

Our conversation by means of an interpreter reminded me 
of a passage over a bridge, which is always attended with 
some dizziness and inconvenience, yet the fellow seemed 
flattered when I praised him for his good behaviour to- 
wards the Christians. He had begun to feel at ease, and 
we were conversing en diplomate, when he was suddenly 
startled by the thunder of the guns fired in honour of 
the departing vicar. At the first moment he may have 
been startled with the thought of treason ; but he soon re- 
covered and was agreeably flattered when the same thun- 
dering honours were paid to him as he departed. 

The consular agent intimated however to the good man 
that on my visit to the little town he would have to salute 
me with twenty- one guns, and to receive me at the 
entrance of his miserable hole, for in these uncivilised 
countries, where form is of such importance, one must 
dictate such things and imitate in this the wise example of 
the English, for it is only in this manner that respect is 
inspired among such people. 

In the afternoon we prepared for this visit. A troop of 
horses waited for us on the sand, but unfortunately only a 
few were saddled, and that poorly, whilst on the rest were 
laid wooden frames, which are used for the transportation 
of the products of the soil. But it was of no use to com- 
plain. Notwithstanding their fine toilet and glittering 
epaulettes, the young men mounted the lean Eosinantes, 
and so the merry troop trotted away into the green country. 


We proceeded across the plain, with armed men on 
horseback and on foot hovering around us, according to 
Oriental custom. Olive plantations and luxuriant bushes 
surrounded the fields, marking the roads, which sometimes 
forded the bed of a river flowing from the high rock of Scu- 
tari to the sea, or crossed it with the characteristic high- 
bridge arches of Turkey. The banks of the river were very 
picturesque; thick, heavy branches bending gracefully, 
touch the clear, calm, greenish stream, whilst over it rise 
wide plantains and ancient fig-trees. Only here and again the 
deep blue evening sky was seen through the luxuriant foliage 
and reflected in the water, whilst behind the trees high 
mountains rise, at the foot of which are scattered houses. 
In this country there is a calm poetry, and I was vividly 
reminded by the broad, plain valleys, of those beautiful and 
never-to-be forgotten surroundings of Barnaba. 

Single houses and large trees announced the town, which 
was situated on a steep rock, out of which arose slender 
and light minarets. At the foot of the rock lay the bazaars 
and the dwellings of the gipsies, higher up the Mohammedan 
cemetery with the turbaned grave-stones, scattered pell- 
mell, on some of which the bright gilding glistened in the 
rays of the evening sun. 

We were received at the bazaar by all kinds of ragged 
people, amongst whom were some very pretty brown gipsy 
girls, wrapped in white veils, genuine pictures of Indian 
Bajaderes with their sparkling black eyes, and luxuriant 
black hair. As they are not Mohammedans, but Heaven 
knows of what religion, they are permitted to appear pub- 
licly with uncovered faces. 

The bazaar, as in all countries of the Crescent, consisted of 
wooden booths standing closely together, open in front, with 
projecting roofs, and separated from the highway by a box, 
on which the vendor and the manufacturer sit together 
indolently with their legs crossed. At the mention of 



bazaar one must not imagine Smyrna ; for here there is 
only a miserable lane, filled with goods scarcely once a 
week, with only a few old labouring Turks with white beards 
and spectacles, and some shop-boys with flabby yellow, 
stupid astonished faces, whilst the bazaar in Smyrna is a 
whole city with an ever-moving multitude clad in rich cos- 
tumes scattered amongst dreamy camels and caravans. 
The large and small bazaar have the same character, for 
they are picturesquely dirty, and pervaded with an oily, 
garlicky smell, peculiar to the whole of the East, in villages, 
cities, huts, and palaces. 

At the gate of the half-decayed wall I was received by 
the Aga, surrounded by his crowd, and whilst I dismounted 
to make my entrance to the stronghold on foot, the ordered 
salute commenced, which made us really afraid lest the 
shock, unheard for so many years, might bring down 
the walls upon us. The thunder came from a few old 
rusted Venetian guns, which were lying about on a fast- 
crumbling tower, and were fired by a curious-looking and 
perspiring gunner. 

He was the only regular soldier of the garrison of 
Antivari, and gave evidence of this by a blue coat with 
red cuffs, which, without a necktie, enveloped his stout 
body, shoes without stockings, and the slouching fez. 

The interior of the town was a confusion of dirty, hilly, 
narrow and thoroughly miserable lanes in which one 
stumbles over rubbish. The style of architecture in the 
houses was partly Venetian, originating from the former 
rulers, and partly Turkish, with its projecting, jealously- 
latticed, wooden balconies. 

We were fiist led to a mosque, which rather resembled 
a forsaken empty magasin or an ancient village theatre, 
than a house of God. We then went to a small spot on a 
wall projecting high on a rock, from which we had a view 
over the quiet and most luxuriantly green plain, embraced 


by rocky, majestic mountains, and overarched by the pure 
evening sky. Viewing this tract of land we became aware 
of the fact, still more obvious in our further voyage, that at 
the farthest point of Austrian Albania the rocky rivers and 
treeless country extending to the sea, cease and become 
in Turkish Albania a rich plain with broad rivers and 
dense forests. How worthy these countries would be of 
another population and another ruler ! * These treasures 
of Nature now lie idle ; the Turk is too lazy to use them, 
and to the Christian the work is made difficult. How this 
fertile soil might be cultivated, its trees used for ship- 
building, and the rivers made navigable, the more so as 
there are in the population many Christian and especially 
Catholic elements. 

In the plain we were shown a fine large farm of con- 
siderable extent, surrounded by strong walls ; it belonged 
to the commander, patronised by the pasha of Scutari, but 
is now the Aga's ; the property was acquired by unjust op- 
pression and robbery and was doubtless the price of the 
sighs and tears of many Christians. 

After having looked at the so-called fortification, we 
visited the Aga in his own den outside the town. On 
our way there, during which we suffered much from the 
July heat, we noticed some of the members of the Mo- 
hammedan clergy drinking coffee and smoking on the 
airy balcony of a coffee-house in the shade of plantains. 
They wore yellow, blue and red kaftans with dark over- 
garments, and their wearied, long handsome faces with 
their well cared-for beards bore the expression of wishing 
us at the devil, for the appearance of foreigners excites the 
curiosity and disapproval of the old Turkish orthodox 
party. During the French rule in Dalmatia some French 
officers of that volatile nation came to Antivari, and paying 

* How fair the land ; how made for joy ! 

How cursed the tyrants who destroy ! Byron. 


too much attention to the Turkish ladies were without 
any further preliminaries stoned to death hy the enraged 

In the house of the Aga a wooden staircase led to a kind 
of salon ornamented with Oriental scroll-work. Pipes and 
coffee were offered with customary politeness and were 
thought good enough for us. Amongst the servants were 
two gigantic negroes, whom the Aga had yesterday brought 
on board armed cap a pie, and who now commenced 
smoking pipes for the whole company, a not very agreeable 
custom of the East. 

By a shady road we then came to the residence of the 
grand-vicar, who met us, surrounded by his clergy, on the 
threshold of his territory. Branches and flowers were 
strewn on the ground and ornamented the gate ; devout 
Christians thronged to see our arrival ; Oriental dresses 
mingled with the clerical, and we were greeted with merry, 
pleasant faces. With its simple but picturesque surround- 
ings it formed one of those Christian scenes of Oriental 
missions, which have their chief seat in the Holy Land. 
It was a foretaste of those peaceable religious receptions in 
Jerusalem which are so beautifully described to us and 
which we experienced five years later in the Holy City in 
a more edifying and ever-memorable manner. We were 
in the midst of a primitive Christian life, where persecu- 
tion still purifies, and even invigorates, where one is a 
Christian and nothing else, where this single idea com- 
prises everything, and where the true inward peace of 
religion is, in spite of all the rough storms of the world, 
alone recognised as the highest good. 

The reverend vicar is the sublime centre of this life, 
the true shepherd of his flock. It was affecting to witness 
his coming to meet us under (rod's blue sky in his purple 
silk gown, with golden cross and broad hat, and perhaps 
was more significant than a more pompous reception in a 


civilised country. Beaming eyes showed that it was a 
welcome of Catholics to their brethren. 

The residence of the prince of the Church corresponded 
with his history, and was a small mean-looking house 
surrounded by a strong high wall, able to resist the sudden 
attacks of a bloody Mohammedan caprice. The clean white 
rooms were poor and contained only the most necessary 
things for an ascetic life ; its only ornaments were a few 
sacred pictures, the portraits of the holy father and our 
youthful sovereign. We remained some time in friendly 
conversation, and then proceeded to visit the hut of G-od, 
for it could not be called a house, still less a church. It is 
situated amidst the shade of dark trees, is small and mean- 
looking, reminding one by its form of a shed or stable. 
Through a door, so low that it can only be entered by 
stooping, one comes to a dark, narrow room with white 
walls ; on one side stands an altar which the parishioners 
have ornamented for the visit of to-day to the best of their 
ability ; and on which, by the side of a simple image of the 
Madonna, candles were burning as an absolute necessity. I 
was peculiarly struck at the sight of such confinement and 
poverty, evincing so much oppression. Accustomed to see 
the Church standing on an elevated position, and a to con- 
sider such as a fundamental principle, one feels ashamed 
to be only tolerated; ashamed and yet strengthened, for 
it is beautiful to see religion shorn of all priestly pomp. 
One feels how the bitterness of oppression invigorates the 
mind, and learns how unwise it is to oppress such as have 
another creed, and whom one would wish to see weak but 
yet not exterminated. A silent prayer in the hut united 
in God the hearts from the North and the South. 

We wound up our excursion with a visit to the Austrian 
consular agent, who had also ornamented his house with 
rustic trophies, and from whose yard waved the white and 
red banner. Secluded from the world the proprietor led 


a quiet life in the midst of his little family, and kept 
company only with the vicar and the few clergymen of 
the diocese. One may imagine how sad and dreary such 
an existence must be. He had only business to transact 
when the Lloyd steamers stopped once a week in the road- 
stead, and when the olive and wine harvest brought a few 
coast traders there for a short time. The few educated 
men and the merchants of this country look on the Lloyd 
vessels as the only messengers from the civilised world, 
as the only support for those, who try to elevate their life 
above the almost animal state of the .wild inhabitants. 
Formerly these poor people were utterly neglected, and 
were without any news, and led in Europe the life of 
missionaries. How happy must they feel to have at least 
the sure means of returning to their dear home from this 
wilderness in case of need. 

I have passed some lonely winters at the farthest end 
of our monarchy in the still and sequestered bay of Topla. 
During the fall of the tropical rain, and when I had 
finished my duties, I sat by the fireside of my cabin, as 
a hermit, reading or writing, and only at supper did 
I daily meet the same ever-amiable company. This 
solitary life had its charms, but it was very monotonous, 
and then I learned what it is to expect the weekly 
steamer. On Thursday and Friday the whole conversation 
at table is nothing but expectation and conjecture ; on 
Saturday morning the glasses are in constant use; each 
quarter of an hour is calculated, the weather scientifically 
discussed, the possible contrary wind regretted, till at last 
the longed-for column of smoke appears. Then the mind 
is agitated with various feelings, the anxious soul asks 
questions as to whether the expected letters of the beloved 
ones will come. At last the hull of the vessel rises above 
the waves, rival boats rush to Porto Roso, each desiring to 
be the first to receive news from dear home ! Now the 


longed-for packet arrives, one disappears into a secluded 
cabin to devour undisturbed what is sent by the beloved 
ones froni afar. During the next two or three meals the 
newH -enlivened circle exchange the news received, discuss- 
iag and enjoying its smallest details. That which we ex- 
perienced in past winter nights in Dalmatia, these poor 
people have endured for decades in Mohammedan Albania. 
The evening began to cast its long shadows when we 
descended into the valley. The sky was full of delicate 
tints, and we galloped home to the coast in good spirits 
through the brushwood of the plain of Antivari. 

July 27. 

Next morning the wind was very changeable. It was 
pleasant for my sun-boiled blood, but intolerable for the 
sailors. We raised and lowered the sails, but were obliged 
to wait for the good-will of -<Eolus. 

The cool air at last blew in a more regular manner ; and 
at about 8 o'clock A.M. we could lift anchor and leave the 
roadstead. The horizon was foggy, the air moist, the 
wind weak, it was one of those many mornings when air 
and water, light and temperature are undecided, like a 
wavering soul which after many days is still in a painful 
undecided state, whether it shall turn towards good or 
evil. An uncertain metallic colour covered the sea, the 
waves were long and slow, indecision brooded over them. 
But after mid-day the wind changed to the north-west 
and we enjoyed much better sailing. We passed the town 
of Dulcigno, which stands on a steep promontory and 
boldly projects into the sea. It has probably in times of 
yore been violently separated from the land. Dulcigno 
looks picturesque, as does everything seen in the Moham- 
medan states from a distance. The warm, yellow, broken- 
down wall rises from out the blue sea, on its shore 
appear minarets and various houses all pell-mell and in 
that rickety condition which is a feature of the negligent 


Moslem. Such pictures viewed hastily in passing by, es- 
pecially through a fog now and then pierced by the rays of 
the sun, are exceedingly agreeable to the fancy, for the 
slender minarets, those cypresses of architecture, awaken 
recollections of the time of golden fairy tales. 

Southward of the promontory of Dulcigno, the coast be- 
comes wide, flat, and marshy, and the vegetation luxuriant. 
Woods cover the plain through which the Bojana river, 
coming from the lake of Scutari, flows into the sea. One 
seems to look upon an American prairie through which a 
river rolls leisurely and majestically. One thinks of the 
fine descriptions of Gerstaecker,* and feels a mysterious 
longing for those wide tracts which, void of mankind, are 
only enlivened by the evening wind, whispering through 
the rigging of the ship. You long to ramble for hours in 
the long grass, to watch nature in her grand repose and with 
a sweet pain 1 to feel yourself isolated. But such thoughts 
are not quite suitable to the commander of a corvette. 
We anchored at about 6 P.M., as the breeze became more 
violent, before the Foca della Bojana near the open 
coast in ten fathoms of water. I could not leave my ship 
and circumstances did not permit excursions. 

In the most perfect sense of the word we were in a 
terra incognita ; nobody on board knew anything about the 
country, and we therefore had to proceed with great cir- 
cumspection. A few masts projecting from the brushwood 
on shore, was all that we could perceive indicating life on 
the coast, and proved to us that the river was navigable 
up to a certain point for smaller sea-going vessels like 
trabaccoli. By express messengers from Antivari I had 

* Frederick Gerstaecker, a very popular German author, who lived for 
many years in America, and wrote many valuable works upon it. At pre- 
sent he is travelling in the far West, and his letters are published in the 
' Cologne Gazette.' 


ordered our consul from Scutari to meet me here, but no 
signal from the inhospitable shore indicated his arrival. 
I therefore sent out a boat with some brave well-armed 
sailors on an expedition under the command of the most 
resolute cadet, with instructions to remember the un- 
friendly reception of Antivari and to act judiciously in his 
search for the consul. As usual on such occasions the 
cooks wanted to give all kinds of private orders for the 
benefit of our larder. The boat danced on the waves toward 
the mysterious coast, and I must say that pacing the 
quarter-deck I very much envied the cadet the adventures 
he might perhaps meet with. I am still very young, and 
youth always loves the adventurous. After some time the 
boat disappeared in the bushes. 

We had to wait a long time for its return. It became 
dark, and I began to fear that difficulties might have 
arisen with the half-wild Albanians, who coming down 
from the mountains ramble sometimes in hordes through 
these plains. Our people returned at last late in the 
evening. They had waited for a long time in the river, 
made inquiries here and there on the small trade-vessels, 
and at last heard that the consul had not come in person, 
but had sent a despatch by a messenger, who was found 
after a great deal of trouble. Beside much interesting in- 
telligence in reference to religious and political matters, 
his dispatch informed us that a violent fit of ague pre- 
vented the good man from appearing personally. 

July 28. 

In the morning we again weighed anchor and sailed 
with a varying breeze along the level coast, taking our 
course towards Cape Eodoni. It was a fine warm 
southern day. The high mountains in the background, in 
which the princes of Miriditi, a Christian warrior family, 
rule in almost absolute independence of their liege lord, 


the sultan, and the long cape of Rodoni, already appeared 
in the distance through the golden haze of the rays of the 
sun as through a veil. We met some coast traders and 
also one of our Lloyd steamers, which gave me a kind of 
home feeling on this uninhabited shore of a foreign 
country. At sea it is always pleasant to meet even the 
most insignificant boat, one is interested in it, and would 
like to know its history. Ships make their way in 
silent industry, and the wind, though changeable, at last 
brought us to our destination. We cast anchor in good 
ground at one o'clock p. m. in eleven and a half fathoms, 
on the shore of the cape, which by its wide curve makes a 
good natural roadstead. 

There is a strangeness at the first arrival on an un- 
inhabited coast. No boat, with the officers of quarantine, 
receive those who arrive ; no lighthouse makes its unin- 
telligible signals, no curious crowd of venders throng around, 
no sailor's eye scrutinises the manoeuvres of anchoring 
from the neighbouring vessels, no consul in gigantic Sagged 
boat dances over the dirty, heavy waves of the harbour, 
to meet his countrymen or to greet him. All is dead and 
still ; you only hear your own word of command, see no 
living being but yourself and your own vessel. Alone on the 
water, you are almost startled by the rushing, rattling fall 
of the anchor, and when the sails are reefed, and the 
rigging arranged according to port fashion, are astonished 
at the unwonted and undisturbed stillness. In the wide 
ocean one has so much space, such an extent of view, that 
it almost creates a feeling of uneasiness. On the shore we 
only saw a few woods and meadows, and after a time we 
discovered a herd of cattle near the beach, indicating 
dwellings. At last, after a long and careful examination 
with the glass, we perceived some roofs in the bushy green, 
and a large extensive building towards the point of the 
cape. In the course of the afternoon some few wild 


figures appeared, who sat down on the top of the beach to 
stare wonderingly at the big ship. This was the only 
demonstration on the part of the unknown population, and 
it was now our business to break the ice, in order to com- 
municate with these figures, as Captain Cook did with the 
South Sea Islanders. 

The old pilot was selected for this diplomatic expedition. 
He was the only one who spoke a little Albanian, and 
was capable of making himself understood by such a wild 
rabble. He was the man for such an undertaking, having 
a very peculiar figure, perhaps the most interesting one on 
board the ship. Born on the Greek islands, in his earliest 
youth he was mixed up with contests for the liberty and 
plunder of Greece, and his strong youthful right hand 
had spilt floods of Turkish blood with fanatical delight, 
whilst with his left one he had put many a round sum 
into his pocket. He liked nothing better than to recall 
this part of his life, and to tell of his really horrible 
exploits. If asked jokingly whether he had dispatched 
two hundred Turks to a better world, he laughed slightly, 
declared the number much too small, and added con- 
temptuously in his bad Italian, ' Ho amazza un Ebreo che 
non cunta.' Murdering a Turk was to him a step 
towards heaven. His old father, a kind of Tunisian 
admiral, was murdered by the rapacious Mohammedans 
on the African coast, and he, his son, considered himself 
appointed by God to revenge him. He fulfilled this duty 
faithfully, and especially rejoiced in a brilliant episode of 
his eventful youth, which he frequently related. During 
the war for independence, his principal activity consisted 
either in boarding or leading the victorious fire-ships, 
which decided that bloody war. On one occasion a 
Turkish frigate was taken, on which hundreds of Moham- 
medans had found a refuge with their families. Accord- 
ing to the Greek custom, all were thrown overboard, and 


those who were not at once drowned, were dispatched with 
the dagger by people in boats. In one of these murder- 
ous crews was our Wassili, as he was called on board, 
though his proper name was Basilius Merica. Another 
incident of his life, which he recalled with pleasure, was 
the roasting of one black and two white prisoners. They 
were tied together, and surrounded with fire till the heat 
killed them, whilst the Greeks calmly looked on. Wassili 
remembered with contempt one of the unhappy men, who 
died of fear before the execution of the experiment. By 
these several and various experiences, his mind became 
steeled against all events ; but at the same time with his 
iron-hardness he possessed that deep cunning of the 
Greek, together with a certain bonhommie, which so fre- 
quently goes hand in hand with that fanatical cruelty 
which stamps bloody crime as courageous virtue. He 
was after Bis manner a kind of philosopher who had 
broken himself of his conscience, whom nothing whatever 
could astonish, who knew the changing ways of fate and 
understood how to get through anything. With his 
practical experience of life and his cunning, he was such a 
complete character that we all liked him, and listened 
with pleasure to his original and clever views. He was a 
natural diplomatist, and his political views and con- 
jectures in reference to the floating Oriental question were 
exceedingly amusing. Standing at the mainmast with 
his blue coat, the sailor-cap pressed on his high Greek 
forehead, his eyes sparkling under his bushy brows, his 
hands crossed over his well-rounded stomach, which like 
his entire little figure, contrasted singularly with his 
exploits, he frequently answered our inquiries in reference 
to the feelings of the Greeks, ' Macedonia alza, Epiro 
alza, Thessalia alza, paese di Ee Otton no alza ! ' and the 
future showed that he was not wrong. 

From the few statements I have given about this inter- 


esting and amusing man, who besides knew the bays and 
straits of the Archipelago as did no other man, and was 
therefore invaluable as a pilot in these waters, he seemed 
to be especially tit for the present Turkish expedition. 
The ' dingel,' the smallest boat on board, took him to the 
mysterious shore, and now a very amusing scene com- 
menced. A curious anxiety prevailed with the patrons of 
Wassili on board, lest something might happen to him 
amongst the savages. The glasses were all directed 
towards him, and we could see that, surrounded by wild 
figures, he was making the most lively gestures, and then 
disappeared within the wood. Anxiety in regard to him 
increased on board in a ridiculous manner, and, as I was 
fully convinced that the cunning man who had so fre- 
quently defied danger would not get into any trouble, I 
increased this fear as much as possible, by relating tales of 
horror from sea novels and South Sea Island adventures, 
laughing at them with all my might, and so enraging the 
protectors of Wassili. 

Some time passed before he made his appearance ; per- 
haps his noble head had already fallen in the awful darkness 
of the wood under the voracious yatagans of the Albanian 
hordes ; perhaps he had been captured for the purpose of 
extorting money, and was pining in chains. Anxiety in- 
creased with every minute. At last a confused crowd ap- 
peared on the white sand of the beach ; and by means of a 
glass, the unfortunate Wassili was discovered, surrounded 
by armed Albanians, making what appeared to be desperate 
signals to the corvette, by the aid of a handkerchief tied 
to a pole. I now ordered a boat to be instantly manned 
to bring the endangered pilot to his floating castle. But 
it soon became apparent that the cunning Greek only re- 
quired means of transportation for a variety of provisions 
which he had hurriedly collected. This diplomatic report 
was very reassuring. On the hill he had found a village 


inhabited by Christians, and from there had brought some 
turkeys and some most heart-refreshing and delicious 
melons ; he had made acquaintance with a pater patrice of 
the Eodoni Christian community, and to his delight had 
discovered that he talked a little Italian, so that in future 
he became the honoured chief and factotum of our expe- 
ditions. And he raved so fiercely about an icy fresh foun- 
tain in the greenwood, that I resolved to pay it a visit as 
soon as possible, to satisfy my longing for a fresh draught, 
doubly desirable at an average temperature of 30 
(Reaumur) which did not subside even during the night. 

July 29. 

In the morning Wassili, accompanied by the steward, 
went ashore to procure fresh meat for the crew. We soon 
followed and found him on the slope of a hill in a 
pasture of short yellow grass, dotted with single trees. 
Vis-a-vis with some horned cattle he was negociating 
with a few herdsmen of wild and dirty mien, and had 
purchased some red oxen. We hastened the dispatch of 
the bargain and watched the execution of the unfortunate 
beast. It was shot at, then caught in a kind of lasso, its 
feet were then bound, and the yatagan used for killing 
was plunged into its neck, its blood gushed forth, falling 
on the heated ground ; and as the animal ceased to struggle, 
the earth, as if angry, shook so as almost to alarm us. It 
was one of those earthquakes so frequent in these parts, 
which shake Turkish and Austrian Albania as far as 
Stagno, entirely destroying them, and causing great havoc 
in the beautiful Eagusa. That of to-day was very distinctly 
felt at various places even as far as the port of Durazzo. 

Here we made acquaintance with the head of this small 
population. He styled himself Michele di Nicolo, and in 
his exterior appearance resembled at the same time a 
camel and a turtle. His long thin neck, nose and mouth, 


with his flat-footed noiseless walk, reminded you of the 
former, while his indescribably leathern wrinkled skin 
and small head, with its peculiarly quick jerk, appertained 
to the latter. The disposition of this creature, as we after- 
wards discovered, was a happily organised mixture of fox, 
snake, and dog. He had the cunning intellect of the fox, 
the winding faculty of the snake, with the barking and 
fawning of the dog. In spite, or rather on account, of these 
qualities he became a very prominent figure in my travel- 
ling reminiscences, and we have often spoken and speak 
still of Michele as one of the most peculiar specimens of his 
kind. There are certain personages who rise like mile- 
stones in the past, but with me they are either thoroughly 
good or most arrant rogues. No one who has had the plea- 
sure of acquaintance with Michele, will deny that he belonged 
to the latter. He should have lived in the middle ages, 
when Italy was the theatre of ' dagger-dramas,' and lam sure 
that, like the Moor in ' Fiesco ' and Mephisto in * Faust,' 
he was capable of doing anything. He possessed a figure 
which harmonised with these diabolical deeds, and, when 
hunting with him in the dense forests of these parts, I must 
acknowledge that I sometimes felt uneasy, and was seized 
with a peculiar shuddering fear. He had once thought- 
lessly confessed that he had already despatched two to the 
next world, and fearing vengeance he had fled to these 
woods, where he had lived for three years : here this is a 
daily occurrence, and may throw a light on the state of 
Albania. Heedlessly, and indeed somewhat undeservingly, 
I dubbed him with the pompous title of Scanderbeg the 
Second, for though it is 400 years ago, yet the name of 
that great and ever-victorious hero is still often mentioned, 
and lives amongst the people. He accepted the title with 
a sinister and Satanic smile, though I could see that he 
felt highly flattered. Indeed, a year after this he had the 
impudence to write to me at Vienna, signing himself with 



this renowned name. He at once so obtruded himself 
upon us as the only existing celebrity that we were forced 
to accept him as superintendent of excursions, manager of 
festivities, grand veneur, and even political adviser and 
historical authority ; and beginning with to-day he at once 
led me to the fountain, so much spoken of and praised. 

The country through which we travelled was exceed- 
ingly fertile. Vast, undulating land, of rich moist soil, 
covered with tracts of timber, forms the ridge of the cape, 
extending far into the sea. Wherever agriculture has 
been employed, it produces with the exuberance and 
richness of southern soils ; olive trees expand their 
fruit-laden branches to considerable distances, but un- 
fortunately this is the case only with a few spots, and the 
symbols of Minerva are rare. This wide tract is scarcely 
inhabited in spite of its undeveloped productiveness. Its 
possession * is now divided between the inmates of a few 
Christian houses, or rather hovels, a few scattered Turkish 
farms, with the rapacious wolf and wild boar, whereas in 
the hands of an industrious and well-organised people, 
unthreatened by any pasha, vendetta, or robbers, it might 
become a most prosperous and flourishing country ; at least 
as far as I was able to judge from my short stay I am sure 
that such would be the case with the whole of Albania from 
Antrvari to Avlona. Its plains and hills are rich with 
excellent soil, with splendid dense woodlands of fine ship 
timber, which gives the requisite humidity, whilst it 
abounds with brooks and navigable rivers of considerable 
extent, such as the Bojana, which I have before mentioned ; 
all this moistened by the sea, with a warm genial sun to 
develop its productiveness ; what gifts of nature ! But, 
alas ! what nature bestows the paling crescent destroys. 

It is more especially to be regretted that Dalmatia, under 
the rule of a well-wishing and assisting government, is stony 
and comfortless. The Austrian banner scarcely disappears 


before the eye of the coast trader when he finds the unused 
riches of the earth scattered lavishly in the country of 
barbarians. The conclusions which one might draw from 
this I must leave to visitors themselves. 

As Antivari with its minarets and hills, tinged with 
southern hues, has the solemn sensual air of all Turkish 
countries, so, excepting only the African heat, Eodoni has 
that blue glow and still bluer sky so characteristic of 
Germany, I mean, of course, in an uninhabited tract, as it 
was before factories smoked and steam-cars snorted. 

The first trait of this was the wide pasture ground 
covered with thyme, blackberry hedges, and single oaks, 
through which we toiled, thinking of the German dog- 
days: but the sun soon recalled us to the east, and com- 
pelled us to take refuge under the gay foliage of some 
centenary olive trees. Blankets were spread on the ground 
for carpets, and I put on my old Algerian bernouse 
instead of the stifling dress enjoined by etiquette, and 
imitating Sir William Napier, who, by the way, knew well 
how to use his sword, I took from my bag the Chinese fan 
I obtained at Cadiz, and fanned myself, to the exceeding 
astonishment of my new Mephisto. I sat with crossed 
legs, my fan rattling, the cicades furiously buzzing their 
mid-day song, and so reposed in the East as if in the 
very heart of Barbary. 

I have sometimes passed the whole night on deck in 
a storm with the rain pouring down heavily, and have 
envied the life of the young subaltern, who, after his watch, 
could return into his cabin, leave work and shouting to the 
commander, and, heedless of the rain and cold, could give 
himself up to sweet sleep ; but to-day, in spite of its hard- 
ships and responsibility, I was rejoiced at being commander, 
for whilst I rested under the shade of the olive-trees, the 
officers, according to my directions, had the pleasant task 
of surveying the bay. 


Eefreshed under the cooling shade of the symbol of 
peace, we directed our steps towards the Christian village, 
to the princely residence of Scanderbeg II., who himself 
did the honours in his state chamber with an air of royalty ; 
although, in justice to historical truth, I must state that 
all the halls, state-rooms, sitting-rooms, outbuildings for 
beasts as well as men, even the throne-room of the king of 
the woods, consisted of one single room, with hard-trodden 
earth for a floor, and stones piled up a few feet high for 
a wall, covered by a roof of rotten straw barely distinguish- 
able through the mass of soot which hung from it. ' As 
the country, so the prince,' is an old and wise saying, and 
here was a most brilliant or rather disgusting proof of it. 

In this black hovel, without a window or a chimney, 
Mephisto lived, with his witch of a wife and promising 
progeny, with an advanced flock of turkeys forcompanions. 
Madame Sc&nderbeg was wrapped in white sheep's-wool, 
with a misty veil to cover the faded charms of her thin coun- 
tenance, whilst with antique dignity her dry rattling hands 
were occupied with the treasure-preparing distaff, that 
Homeric sceptre of kingly women. The furniture of this 
residence, corresponding with the budget of the empire, which 
was probably endowed with a constitution in 1848, was 
limited to a wooden chest, painted most glaringly, which one 
can fancy contains the crown and sceptre of Scanderbeg, 
the bridal veil of his loving consort, and the charter of 
the prospering empire. Besides this, this princely family 
boasted of nothing but the bare floor, and yet this man 
possessed lands and cattle ! But the inhabitants of Albania 
have not the slightest desire for improvement or refine- 
ment; whatever pleased their forefathers pleases them, will 
please their grandsons, and their great-grandsons. 

Later on I purchased as a joke, the whole of this princely 
residence for two silver zwanzigers (two shillings), which 
was the value the possessor put upon the property. 


I still have in my secret house archives the contract for 
this, with the three crosses Michele put to it in lieu of his 
signature, as he could not write. Were I a Briton, this 
document might give my government claims to blockade 
and occupation, and that strip of paper would be paid for 
with gold and governmental distinctions. 

It happened thus : during an excursion, for my private 
information, I inquired of the experienced Michele at what 
he valued his estate? He named the two zwanzio-ers 


for his palace ; I thought it a good bargain, and imme- 
diately made the purchase ; * for double the sum,' he added, 
' he would throw in son and wife,' and solicited a place for 
his crown prince on board my corvette, but when I 
declined, he told me that he was thinking of buying a 
consort for his son, who was eighteen years old. He 
seemed amused at my objecting that the youth should 
have his own choice, and thought it extremely ridiculous : 
so that we may conclude that paternal authority flourishes 
in these countries. 

Across some beautiful green fresh wood, over some 
sloping hills, we reached the fountains, and I almost fan- 
cied that I was transferred to our Heimbach, or to our 
magnificent deer garden. All was so cool and airy, the 
bright sun glistened through the trees, plants lay scattered 
thickly in picturesque confusion, branches stretching afar 
reposed gently in the light atmosphere, and the soul felt 
invigorated while you exulted in the woody shade so like 
that of mother-country.. 

On the borders of the wood we perceived the marshy 
land marked out by the wet track of the heavy wild boar, 
and recalled the pleasant surprises one often has in the 
deer garden at home, in suddenly startling a troop of these 
black inmates of the forest. The clear spring lay under a 
canopy of large, spreading trees, and was surrounded by 
some water-cresses growing most richly and plentifully, 


whilst the sunlit tops of the young oaks covering the slopes 
on all sides, seemed quite to span the sky. On earth it is 
very rarely that one meets places so seductively inviting 
repose as this little nook in the far East, which natu- 
rally, and unconscious of its charms, doubtless harbours 
many a wanderer within its quiet and peaceful precincts. 
To-day I had nothing of any importance to require my 
presence on board, so that my mind was quite at ease and 
I could thoroughly enjoy myself. Comfort does not spoil 
any enjoyment ; I therefore had my travelling bags opened 
by the side of the spring, and a picturesque tent of rustling 
purple silk soon hung from the branches. Plaids were 
spread as carpets, and air cushions were thrown on them. I 
wrapped myself in my African bernouse and reclined on this 
inviting couch, with a silver goblet by my side. The water in 
it was covered with a slight sparkle, caused by the fresh ness of 
the spring, while the goblet itself rather attracted the eager 
looks of Scanderbeg. The wind blew gently through the 
trees, rocking the purple roof above my head. I love 
nature even if bare and barren, but reposing in her arms, 
I especially love her holy peace, and gratefully thank the 
Creator of life for a luxury such as no entertainments of 
the great world, the so-called high life, can compare with ; 
and it is then that one can understand how indescribable 
are the delights of those who court nature as their only 
companion, and live a life of solitude. Only two other 
things can give similar or equal pleasure ; they are, the love 
of art and productive science. 

Scanderbeg, and two Turks with shorn heads, who came 
to fetch water, looked at us with astonishment. What 
they imagined us to be under our purple tent I cannot 
conceive ; they carefully examined our surroundings as do 
the savages of the South Sea islands, according to the de- 
scriptions of M. Dumont d'Urville. But, alas ! this delicious 
rest by the spring came to an end, and we returned to the 


beach, passing a brook from which we picked up turtles, 
and going through fields and shrubberies. 

On our way, the king of the woods received information, 
as in the time of the patriarchs, that a wolf had in the 
morning frightened a herd of cattle, and had helped him- 
self to a lamb. This led to a conversation upon hunting, 
and we resolved to lay in ambush on the beach for the wolf, 
and so obtain praises from the population of Eodoni for 
our Nimrodian sports. 

I returned on board to occupy myself with the duties of 
my command till sunset. The sun disappeared beneath the 
horizon with wonderful splendour, as is usual during sum- 
mer in these pleasurable countries, and it had scarcely done 
so when we prepared for our nightly enterprise. All kinds 
of poles, leesails, carpets, hammocks, blankets, tea-things, 
fuel and provisions, drinking vessels, lamps, hooks, and 
everything that civilised travellers consider requisite for 
such a venturesome undertaking were collected together, 
and amidst laughing and joking were carried ashore in a 
boat. Enumerating these things I had almost forgotten 
guns and ammunition, which in such an expedition are the 
principal things ; but why I omitted them will be shown in 
the sequel. 

On shore I found that part of our officers were about to 
take a sea bath, and I followed their example, for after 
such a glowingly hot day, an evening bath on the soft 
sand of the Albanian coast is deliciously invigorating, and 
I often recall it with deUght. Whilst we dabbled in the 
water, fanned by the cool evening air, my sailors pitched 
a most stately tent, with every appurtenance of comfort : a 
fire flickered by the crumbling beach wall, and part of our 
company, forming a circle around it, sent forth a loud 
choral song over the sea, as the evening twilight slowly 
faded into night. We now took tea in excellent spirits, 
and then the sounds died away ; the greater part of the 


company returned home in boats, whilst we retired to our 
tent to rock ourselves to sleep in our hammocks. The 
moon shed forth her pale mild light ; the rigging of the 
corvette seemed to rise out of the grey mist of the calm 
sea, and waves rolled on the glittering beach softly and 
melodiously, as the stars sprinkling the clear blue sky 
peeped in upon me friendlily through a chink in the tent, 
and the evening breeze stirred it gently and softly. All 
was sublimely and peacefully subdued in still undisturbed 
repose. I looked up at the distant stars, and my thoughts 
wandered far away. The soft melody of the rolling waves 
came still softer, encircling one's soul as in a cloak. Who 
could have dreamt of wolves or hunting ? It was too 
enchanting in the tent to think of such, and by the morn- 
ing the monster might be killed ! My friends agreed 
with me, and this night was the most agreeable and most 
enjoyable time we had during our whole stay in Albania. 

July 30. 

We were awakened from our delicious sleep early in the 
morning. Hunting was not mentioned again, for nothing 
had been prepared for the wild boar hunt which we in- 
tended to have had to-day, so that we had brought our 
murderous instruments to no purpose. Breakfast was pre- 
pared, and whilst we partook of it, and ran after a splendid 
eagle which had been allured by the intestines of the slain 
oxen, some small Turkish horses were brought from the 
neighbourhood by the order of Scanderbeg, with wood 
frames covered with blankets for saddles, and ropes for 

We had resolved to have a ride round the cape, so as to be- 
come somewhat acquainted with its position and character. 
We left Wassili in charge of the tent, with instructions to 
prepare a symposium of Homeric wit and mutton fat after 
the fashion of the Hellenic shepherds. The crew of my 
gig remained as military guard to protect the Smala, so 


invitingly rich and promising booty, against any chance 
transgressions of the Eodoni chiefs. 

Our way again led us by my newly purchased palace, 
the residence of Scanderbeg II., and we soon dived into 
the green-wood, leaping across bushes and brushwood, to 
reach a more open and more elevated position, where there 
were some half decayed buildings surrounded by a few 
scattered oaks. Far below us we could see the glittering 
bay, and on its wide waters the pretty corvette, on the yards 
of which my commander-eye, with satisfaction, saw some 
sailors busily engaged. Neat boats glided along the coast 
singly, in which were figures in white dresses, our officers, 
charged with the enviable duty of surveying the bay. The 
building before us was called a Christian church ; it con- 
sisted of stone walls with a rotten roof, containing within 
its desolate space only a few solitary intimations of its 
august purpose, and these almost effaced and destroyed. 
And yet the Spirit of the Almighty still dwelt within this 
little church, for we were almost involuntarily drawn into 
it, and amidst dust and decay the men from the north and 
the south uncovered their heads and made the sign of the 
cross, that symbol of peace by which we brethren may re- 
cognise each other in all parts of this enormous globe, 
whatever be our language, whatever our station of life. In 
such moments, whether far away from one's paternal roof 
in the backwoods of Albania, or under the splendid dome 
of St. Peter's, one is not only happy in being a Christian 
bub c rc^ wroud, and it is gladdening to think that after 
hundreds and hundreds of years, and in spite of Turkish 
persecution and vengeance, the flock of Christ is still pre- 
served, and though trembling, still exists in these barbarous 
and uncivilised countries ; the greater the distance the 
community is from every protection the more devoted one 
feels towards them, and on this account I experienced 
some grand, heart-consoling moments whilst in Albania. 


I began to understand that it was easy to remain a pious 
and persevering missionary, and that a strong mind was 
much more requisite to die a saint in these parts than 
throughout all old Catholic Europe. I heard that two 
priests had only recently been killed in Kodoni, and that 
since then the Christian community has been destitute of 
priestly comfort. It is a curious fact that here at the cape 
in Turkey, Christian feeling is still as in the time of the 
Venetians, for even now they come to the Catholic church 
on St. Mark's festival and make offerings of lambs and 
poultry as a kind of oblation. 

The real persecution of Christians proceeds from the 
pashas, beys, agas, and whatever title you like to confer on 
that rabble, for even the Turks themselves have to suffer 
a great deal from them. There is some tolerance amongst 
the lower classes of the old settlers. It is true that peo- 
ple kill each other, but more for private revenge than for 
any religious antipathies. The country people, both 
Christians and Turks, are said equally to long for deliver- 
ance from their present oppression. The word Turk as a 
distinguishing name is invariably erroneous, for the popu- 
lation is Albanian, and religion is the only difference. 
Turkomanish, the so-called aristocracy of the country, 
consists of some merchants, and the officials with their 
creatures. The word Turk here expresses the same idea 
as Jew with us. The latter are too frequently confounded 
with the religion, for a Jew who is baptised does not cease 
to be a Jew : he no longer belongs to the Mosaic religion, 
but he is still of that almost distinct and individual tribe 
of Judah. 

From the little church we pushed on through some stony 
roads, passing some more wild romantic bushes, till we 
reached the highest point of the promontory, from which 
we enjoyed the splendid view of country spread map-like 
before us. Whether travelling in an unknown country or 


visiting an unknown city, such views give clearness to the 
confused pictures which the traveller has enjoyed separately. 
As soon as one has taken such a view the outlines of the 
country or city are impressed upon your mind, and you 
understand its principal traits. 

The picture here was not merely beautiful but richly 
beautiful. It was one of those antique landscapes of the 
glowing East with the open glistening expanse of sea, 
green woody shores, rich in meadows and reed patches, 
huge capes, and blue mountain ranges such as artists paint 
for Theseus hunting a boar, for a nymph flying before a 
snake, or for Abraham entertaining an Angel : one of those 
pictures which, formerly, Poussin, and latterly, Mario, 
painted so admirably and enchantingly. 

To the south Cape Pati was to be seen, and behind it 
Durazzo, so celebrated in the Byzantine period : the coast 
extended between these in delicate lines covered with green 
fields and meadows, and thickets of magnificent timber. 
Behind us, sloping to thesouth, rose a picturesque mountain 
chain ; to the north was the bay, and in the distance the 
plain of Bojana, bounded by the height of Dulcigno, falling 
abruptly into the sea. Before us was the cape, with its soft 
German hills and uncultivated valleys. On the wide sea 
ships sailed singly, and awakened that desire so inexplicable 
when looking on sailing vessels of transferring yourself 
into their confined world. There is something strange 
about these scenes on the sea-shore. Although one may 
feel happy and contented ashore, yet a voice calls, ' Away, 
away, over the broad sea, to the opposite and more beautiful 
shores ! ' This calling away, this unsatisfied desire of the 
heart is pleasing although painful, for the happiness of this 
earth is only to be found in such a mingling. The soul does 
not want contentment, for in contentment lies the death of 
happiness. Lasting satisfaction is only to be found after 
death. But the charm of the sea lies in longing, it exercises 


the same charm as the endless blue sky with its stars 
calling upon you, as the mountains with their boundless 
height that make you ache to pass them. 

To me it was rather interesting to see a Turkish house- 
hold, the farm of the most wealthy landowner of the country. 
We fancy the Mohammedan as he is in Stamboul, Smyrna, 
or any other city, or as a free Bedouin in the wide desert. 
It had never occurred to me that a husbandman might 
be a peasant, but here I was convinced of it. 

The proprietor of the farm, who had furnished us with 
some of the horses for to-day's excursion, was a tall spare 
man, with stern, almost awful features ; he wore amoustachio 
as a warlike ornament, and was clad in a dark, dirty Albanian 
dress, with rifle and yatagan. As long as he walked by 
the side of the horse on which the Eastern Mephisto rode 
he looked like a tamed robber, threatening, but so insigni- 
ficant that he was hardly noticeable in the crowd. But we 
no sooner entered his farm than he became the easy, affable, 
and, for an Albanian, polite host, though he did not seem 
the less earnest. He felt at home, and moved freely and 
unrestrainedly, with that good grace peculiar to most of the 
people of warm climates. The farmyard stood in a wide 
open pasture, with old trees scattered about, and was a con- 
glomeration of stone and wood buildings like our * Sennhut- 
ten,' excepting that here and there something of Eastern 
architecture might be seen, if the disorderly manner in 
which beams and stones lay scattered about might be called 
such; but even the cut of the wood recalled our farms. 
Some excellent red-brown cattle, with white foreheads, and 
a very large number of fine calves were kept in a kind of 
paddock. The farm also possessed a very good well and 
trough, but instead of the pleasant bustling housewife and 
her smart daughters of our country, as we entered we rather 
suddenly perceived some ghost-like figures wrapped in white 
veils and linen, who on a hint from their lord and master 


disappeared in the interior rooms of the rustic harem. 
No hemp or potatoes grew near the house, but tobacco and 
melons ; rabbits did not hop about the neighbouring fields, 
but beetles crawled lazily ; no milk and curds were offered 
us, but as the master of the house became more friendly he 
presented us with coffee and the indispensable tschibuk. 

We seated ourselves under a shady tree, as in spite of his 
obliging manners the master of the house seemed to dis- 
like our entering, probably because of the white figures. 
Whilst we swallowed the exceedingly hot coffee as well as 
we could, some of them tried to exhibit their dexterity 
with the gun by firing on harmless swallows, in which to 
my great pleasure they succeeded most miserably. The 
chuckling Albanian must have thought that they were more 
successful in hitting human game. From the farm we rode 
on the southern slope of the promontory through some 
splendid brushwood, and proceeded over the green on our 
little Turkish horses at a brisk pace. Fresh nature easily 
excites merriment and daring in susceptible minds, so 
laughing at the danger, we dashed into the bushes, and 
frequently became invisible to each other, as the branches 
closed upon us after we had passed through them. It 
was like diving into the sea. Erery now and then we 
were gliding over spaces on the slope, and enjoying a mo- 
mentary glimpse of the valley and sea. At last, having 
passed the promontory by many windings and turnings, we 
reached our nightly encampment on the opposite shore. 
The tent was still on the beach, and busy sailors were pre- 
paring a meal. We found our old Wassili as cuisinier- 
en-chef, in shirt sleeves, a blue tobacco cloth round his 
lofty forehead, and on his head a protecting straw hat ; he 
was bathed in perspiration, turning mutton and turkey, 
which were roasting together on a spit made from the 
branch of a tree. The heat of the fire tortured the poor 
fellow considerably, but our culinary preparations sa- 


voured deliciously. It was not quite dinner time, so I 
retired to my tent to plunge from thence into the sea. 

I would advise all who travel along the coast that there is 
nothing more delightful after bodily exercise than an in- 
vigorating sea bath, and after that to satisfy well-acquired 
hunger at your ease and with every comfort. To such 
as have dined thus, an entirely new and philosophical 
system of gastronomy is revealed, that of natural gastronomy. 
We gave ourselves up to it sans reserve, and came to the 
conclusion that in certain cases, turkey roasted with thyme 
a la sauvage, an invention to which I myself lay claim, 
is preferable to Strasburg pie with truffes du Perigorce. I 
say only in certain cases, for I am also a great admirer of ex- 
cellent cookery, and generally find that everything must be 
eaten in season and at the right moment. One must not 
be too exclusive or partial in cookery, nor in anything 
in the world. The German word ' ausschliesslich ' is ad- 
mirable, for it * schliesst ' really the not belonging to the 
thing ' aus,' and yet everything has its good side, only it is 
necessary to understand how to find it out. 

After dinner, we consulted with Michele as to prepara- 
tions for a boar hunt for the next day ; then the tent was 
struck and we returned on board. I am of the severe but 
wise opinion of the English, that either the commander or 
the first lieutenant must always remain on board, be the 
weather ever so calm, the vessel ever so secure ; and if you 
require strict observance of duty, you must set a good ex- 
ample yourself. Besides, I strove as much as possible to 
make life agreeable to my subordinates ; and for that reason 
I gave up the pleasure of the hunt of to-morrow, which 
seemed very promising, and to which young and old looked 
forward with pleasure, to my first lieutenant, a good sailor, 
who did not generally care much for land, as is proper for 
a sailor, but loved his ship beyond anything : however, he 
seemed to expect much pleasure from the expedition. 


July 31. 

The joyously merry company started before sunrise. 
The face of my first lieutenant was perfectly radiant, and 
his lively eyes sparkled ; in a word the whole man was full 
of eagerness and in anticipation of a glorious day's sport. 
What sailors do they do thoroughly ; they do not care for 
obstacles, and they always know how to overcome 
difficulties. Even on land we maintain our position, on 
horseback we are not behind, and on sea our supremacy is 
unquestionable, for there we have the monopoly. 

I devoted the day to an examination of my ship, made 
the men go through different exercises, and, as commander, 
was thoroughly satisfied ; a feeling by no means to be des- 
pised, and worth earning at the cost of many hard hours' 

I saw our caravans return along the beach late in the after- 
noon, and as I turned my glass towards them, our ill-fated 
purser lost his equilibrium on his Arabian, and fell into a 
puddle of sea-water. This accident, as I heard later, was 
only one of a whole string of tragi-comical occurrences that 
happened to the poor fellow in the course of the day. I 
was the only one on board acquainted with the wild boar, 
from the promenades and hunts of our deer gardens, and 
drewamost glaring picture for our sportsmen of the horrible 
dangers one may expect in meddling with these ferocious 
beasts. These warnings had a wonderful effect on the more 
gentle natures. Some of them took boarding-pikes with 
them and servants as a safe-guard, others, as the dangerous 
monster grunted and revealed its tusks, resolved to take 
refuge in a tree. Our purser, who is no sportsman, only 
intended to attend the hunt as a spectator, but armed him- 
self notwithstanding with pistols as well as his gun. 

As frequently happens in hunting, a large troop of wild 
boars was started, but they did not come to the practised 
passionate sportsmen, to whom such a visit would have 


been the height of good luck, but to the bush, where our 
purser anxiously watched the progress of events. He heard 
the rushing and grunting of the animals as they broke 
through the brushwood. All the dark bloody pictures I 
had invented at once came to his mind ; his beating heart 
confessed in help-seeking humility that it was not that of 
a sportsman ; he took his pistol only charged with powder, 
and with this harmless 1 fire fortunately succeeded in keep- 
ing the danger away from his peaceful person' and place. 
The wild boars fled, broke through the line safely and se- 
curely, and the real sportsmen were enraged; the 'hunt' 
was a farce, and the purser saved. I heard all this before 
the return of the company, from a gentleman who came on 
board to ask permission, in the name of the company, to 
make another trial during the evening. I granted it with 
pleasure, sent a good supply of provisions and wine to 
the gentlemen, as I knew my sailors in reference to the 
latter article, and I sent orders to the first lieutenant, as 
commander, to attend the second part of the hunt, as in his 
zeal for duty and in consideration of me he intended to 
return on board. The evening hunt was still less fortunate, 
in so far as no game was to be seen at all. But from that 
day the poor purser became the butt of the sportsmen, 
although he took it stoically, glad at having got off with 
his life. 

August 1. 

To-day it was my turn to go hunting, and again for 
boars. I took the officers with me who had stayed on 
board yesterday. We found Scanderbeg awaiting us on 
the beach, with the horses in their horrible saddles. 
Wassili, who was our cook yesterday, had discovered in the 
neighbourhood of our former encampment a snug spot, 
thoroughly shady, and as cool as is possible in these parts, 
and it was unanimously decided that we should make it 
our kitchen and dining-hall. We left the pilot to prepare 


dinner for us and mounted our horses. It was a fresh, 
and, for Albania, a cold morning. It was just dawn ; the 
outlines of the trees were distinctly visible above us, and 
the sky was gradually growing lighter, and an invigorating 
breeze ushered in the morning. For a time we trotted along 
the stony coast, then crossed a clear sparkling rivulet, 
turned into a valley, passing fields and cattle on either 
side, and at last reached a slope like an amphitheatre, 
covered with myrtles in blossom, evergreens, and shrubs. 
We here dismounted, and formed ourselves across the slope 
in the shape of a wide crescent. I stood, or rather sat, on 
a height on the right, from which I could observe my com- 
panions. I had given directions to all, and especially to 
the young and excitable officers, as to how they should use 
their fire-arms. I am not a Nimrod : if anything comes 
in my way I like to shoot it, but I very much dislike 
standing quietly in a stationary position awaiting some- 
thing to aim at. I therefore sat down at my ease, and 
watched the young people lower down, who, in their passion 
for hunting, were scarcely masters of their own actions. 

After a considerable time, as the sun was rising high in 
the sky, I heard an exciting skirmishing fire with the 
cries of people beating up game, together with that noise 
so peculiar to boars breaking through brushwood. But as 
the noise proceeded from the other wing I had no alter- 
native but to listen as to whether it was successful or not. 
The beaters-up at last made their appearance, followed by 
the doctor, who was the only real sportsman amongst us, 
and who snorted up the hill joyously; after him came 
broad-shouldered Albanians panting under the weight of 
the monster slain by our expert Hippocrates. The boar 
was an unfortunate mother in the prime of life, a * Bache,' 
at least a proof of our skill for the Albanians, who would 
otherwise have never forgotten the unsuccessful swallow 



shooting, and besides, it somewhat justified our constant 
running about the wild promontory of Rodoni. 

We then proceeded to the southern slope of the cape, 
to make a second trial, passing thorny bushes and 
groups of trees. A little nook in the fresh brushwood, 
very much frequented by hunters, was apportioned to me ; 
it was a kind of nest formed by branches and roots drooping 
from some slender trees on the steep slope. A very com- 
fortable seat of blankets and bernouse was prepared, from 
which the eye rested on branches and creepers or on a 
cool brook which flowed into the sea. This shaded water 
was a favourite resort of boars, and to all appearances 
success was certain ; at least Mephisto, who on this occasion 
had seated himself by me, declared so. Michele appeared 
to perfection in his lurking position, and had we not been 
hunting I could have laughed so loudly that the woods 
would Have resounded with it. During one's lifetime 
we frequently meet with people whom for some unac- 
countable reason you would either rejoice at seeing 
thrashed or whom you wish to overwhelm with gifts, just as 
one encourages a spoilt child in its naughtiness. I have 
found many such at courts, amongst eminent men, and 
especially amongst the cicerone class, waiters and commis- 
voyageurs. Voltaire's monkey of Ferney must have been 
such a one, even as was Michele de Nicolo. I must not 
forget to say that, though I should not bear the least malice 
towards the victim, yet I should entirely give myself up 
to the enjoyment of the sport; and I suppose it was as a 
punishment for such unchristian sentiments that after 
being made almost dizzy by the song of the cicadas I 
only heard the noise of the boars breaking through the 
brushwood, and did not even see them. However, it was 
an unsuccessful beat-up, as no boar had been touched, and 
I became aware that boar-hunting is by no means so well 
regulated in Albania as it is in our deer gardens. 


We returned to our woody nook, very much shaken by 
the jolting on our wooden saddles, or rather bars. Sailors 
have a strange taste in arranging, and had constructed a 
very pretty canopy of flags : carpets and cushions were 
scattered about, and completed the Oriental and princely 
encampment of the nomade chief. 

We had scarcely divested ourselves of our hunting traps, 
when some of our crew, rather excitedly, reported a cloud of 
dust visible in the distance as coming along the coast from 
the plain of Bojana to our encampment. Arms soon glit- 
tered through the dust, and horses became distinguishable. 
The whole matter seemed suspicious, and yet promised to 
be interesting. Confident of our greater strength we 
indignantly watched the small troop from our elevated 
position, and laughed at the chance danger. The dust 
cleared away slowly, and discovered a troop of men on 
horseback, who were recognised as delegates of the Aga 
of Ishmi as they approached nearer to us, and at most 
seemed to be some police sent to reconnoitre us and our 
free and easy doings in the freer woods of Eodoni. 

While they dismounted on the beach close to our 
camp, I prepared to receive them with Eastern dignity 
and condescension, causing considerable laughter among 
our younger officers. I wrapped the bernouse round my 
shoulders, placed my sabre by my side, and taking the 
pipe of peace in my right hand, I seated myself on the 
most elevated point under the canopy, and ordered the 
others to form a circle round me suitable to my dig- 
nity. Wassili was appointed dragoman, and was sent to 
bring them into our presence. They were tschibuktshi 
and police sergeants, dressed partly in Albanian and 
partly in Turkish costume, with turban and kaftar trimmed 
with fur. They had heard of a large ship bearing a number 
of people, and they came to make inquiries as to our inten- 
tions, and in fact see what we were doing on an uninhabited 

B 2 


coast. It is unusual to give rise to any suspicions in 
Turkey, but the late state of Eastern affairs doubtless 
causes caution. In their own minds they may have thought 
us pirates, but they certainly concluded that we were 
enemies. I bade them be seated. At the commencement 
they appeared scared, but they soon acquired their Oriental 
composure, and very complacently took their pipes from 
the boys. I then told them to what country we belonged, 
showed them our flag, which unfortunately, nostra culpa, 
they did not seem to know ; assured them that we were on 
the best of terms with their Padishah, and that our oc- 
cupation here was hunting, producing the dead sow as 
evidence. After a time we perceived to our discomfort 
that they were making themselves at home, and did not 
seem to intend leaving us at once. They knew our position, 
but we were little acquainted with them. Civilisation 
and its Customs did not bind us, and as they did not seem 
inclined to go, we had to employ some diplomacy to oblige 
them to go, in fact we had to kick them out. 

With dignity, and of course as much politeness as I could 
at once assume, I turned to our counterfeit dragoman and 
told him to signify to the Turks that it was the time of day 
when we made our ablutions in the sea. It had its effect 
on the orthodox Turks, for as followers of Mohammed they 
respect the prescribed ablutions, and only desired to visit 
the corvette in one way or another. I gave them a letter oi 
recommendation, requesting that plenty of wine as well as 
coffee be offered to them. When they were fairly crammed 
they were taken ashore in a boat, whilst we, who had 
but just entered the sea, turned in all directions making 
salam aleiks, as if zealously performing our religious duties. 
The Moslems were much edified at our devoutness, and 
waved a friendly farewell. 

Our rustic meal to-day was not quite so primitive. Our 
cook, an Italian artist, who had brought our taste to per- 


fection with very much trouble, was enraged lest we should 
become accustomed to common food and so learn to do 
without his knowledge of the art of cooking, and moreover 
his Sicilian blood was boiling with jealousy at the praise 
we had given the pilot for yesterday's meal. It behoved 
us to treat such noble feelings with tender consideration, 
so that the artist was permitted to take part in the prepa- 
rations. Both stood near the fire, the stout saucy Greek 
with a silk kerchief round his head, the lean emaciated 
Messinese in his official garb, while they darted looks at 
one another as though they were concocting poisons to kill 
each other. It was a contest of physical force with intel- 
lectual refinement. 

After dinner we made another excursion ; the heat was 
almost unbearable and there was not a breath of air stirring, 
so that one can easily conceive how dreary it was. I 
seated myself on the grass on the border of a thicket ; 
insects were buzzing around me, the atmosphere seemed 
leaden, and I was bathed in perspiration. I sat there with 
my eyes longingly turned towards the sea, which might 
have possibly refreshed me, and anxiously waiting the 
appearance of a boar ; but in vain. My only solace was 
Michel e, who in a low tone, for he was not allowed to talk 
loudly, spoke of his country and countrymen, interspersed 
with extracts from his own memoirs and the traditions of 
the victorious Scanderbeg. But even Mephisto could be- 
come tedious under such circumstances. It was on this 
occasion that I placed a slender stem of grass like a plume 
of heron feathers in his little red cap and dubbed him 
Scanderbeg II., and it was during these few weary hours 
that his Albanian majesty informed me of a tower without 
entrance or opening, which stood on the promontory, and 
had been erected by his predecessor and namesake. This 
historical and traditional discovery was the more inter- 
esting to us from the fact that the treasure of the great 


Scanderbeg was buried within its vaults, which had hitherto 
been unexplored. 

Scanderbeg II. assured me that attempts had been 
made to bring it to light, but that nobody had as yet 
penetrated far into the building. It was visible to our 
ship in the distance, and I had no sooner heard this expla- 
nation than I resolved to collect all possible information in 
regard to it. 

The afternoon was of course so intensely hot that our 
battue was useless, and at twilight we returned to our 
landing place. All our joints seemed dislocated by the 
dreadful jolting on the wooden bars, and although we 
behaved as bravely as we could, and mischievously chaffed 
each other when we reached home, we were thoroughly 
bruised and done up. But a bathe in the sea with the 
cool evening air soon restored us, and we sat in our wood 
salon drinking wine and smoking far into the night. 

August 2. 

I passed all day on board my ship. Scanderbeg visited 
the ship, and unable to resist the desire of availing myself 
of my slight talent for drawing, I took a portrait of his 
interesting and ridiculous countenance. The sketch was 
tolerably successful, and frequently amused me afterwards. 

August 3. 

I had ordered horses for to-day to examine the tower, 
and I already thought of the excavations and historical 
discoveries which would result from the adventure, and 
was planning as to how I should secure them in the night. 
We rode along the coast, which at first was soft and sandy, 
and passing hills, which rose and fell very abruptly, we 
forded many a bright brook ; but the space between the sea 
and shore, which was becoming very rocky, began gradually 
to decrease, so as to be almost too narrow for our horses, 
and at some places being even dangerous, on account of 


the scattered blocks of rock. Then we passed long tracts 
bordered by sea-weed, which was so piled up as almost to 
resemble a wall, and in which we could plainly see the 
transition from the salty moist plant to the stone-like 
moss of the ground. Here was a bank of sea-weed thrown 
ashore by the sea, from which water squirted as the horses 
ran over it, whilst far above it lay the strata thrown up 
years ago, not differing in the least from the shape of the 
former, but being thoroughly compact and hard on account 
of the absence of any moisture. The salty parts had 
crystallised and the sea-weed itself had become earth. It 
was exceedingly interesting to notice the gradual transi- 
tion, whilst the dead vegetation also showed how high the 
sea rose during a north-west gale, during which it is indis- 
pensable that you have a good firm anchor, otherwise there 
is no chance of safety. A white tombstone above afforded 
striking evidence of this. It was the salty grave of a rich 
Turk who had perished in these waters. The tomb was 
quite dazzling and even inspired awe ; it was topped by a 
turban, and seemed covered with Arabesque letters. There 
is a legend in these parts about this tombstone and its 
contents ; the Turk was a stubborn Mohammedan who had 
either robbed the neighbouring church of a treasure or 
tried his skill in Scanderbeg's tower, I am not quite sure 
which, but at any rate, in the dead of night, he with 
some companions had stolen some Christian property on 
which a Christian blessing had been bestowed, and ac- 
cording to the legend he could not depart, as a higher 
power detained him. There was a gentle breeze, the sea 
was calm, the moon shone brightly and the stars brilliantly ; 
all seemed inviting, and the Turk set his sails. The 
blocks creaked, you could hear the unfurling of the sails, 
and the groaning of the capstan, the clinking of the chains 
on deck, and the dripping of the water from the anchor, 
when the gentle wind suddenly rose, catching the moon- 


lit sails, and the vessel ploughed the sea. The Moslem 
looked back at the Christian building on the coast, and 
the sky became overcast with dark clouds with terrible 
rapidity, as is usual in these warm countries. The sea, 
but recently so calm, began to shudder. White foam 
covered its surface, and shrieking storm birds flew around 
the rocking ship, as if to warn the Turk of the coming 
storm. Suddenly, a contrary wind caught the sails and 
dashed them against the masts. It was that anxious 
moment when the peaceful land wind clashes with the 
rushing gale, as when the snake charms the dove with its 
fascinating eye. Suddenly a north-west wind came in all 
its force, turned it round as with a powerful arm, then lay- 
ing itself behind it, the waves came rushing on and dashed 
it against the rocky coast. One shock and all was over. 

The tombstone of the Turk, with the turban so admi- 
rably carved upon it, was erected by the ruling power, and 
is, in fact, a triumphal column for the Christian part of 
the population. This tomb, with all its attendant horrors, 
brought to my mind an excursion I made last spring at the 
Listo. A four-oared gondola soon carried me from 
St. Mark's Square, the heart of Venetian life, and all its 
brilliant illuminations, to the fresh green shore opposite. 
The moon shone with that transparent glow so much 
admired in ghost stories, and the sea rolled in lengthy 
waves, sending forth a sustained melody. I proceeded 
along the shore over grass and sand hills, when something 
brilliant in the earth suddenly attracted my attention. It 
was a little marble cross in the dry sand, which stood like 
a solitary flower, hardly noticeable, almost forgotten. On 
the marble I could read, 'Pregate per un infelice che 
implora pace e misercordia ! ' The words sounded sweetly, 
and yet sent a pang through my heart. There is some- 
thing peculiar about the Italian language ; it has a low and 
vulgar tone about it when spluttered out uncouthly, but in 


the mouths of genuine Italians it is like the childish squeak- 
ing of the squeaking Polichjnello; but sometimes it vibrates 
and seems to penetrate your very heart. So did this 
slight epitaph, and I have honestly and thoroughly ful- 
filled its request, praying with all my soul for the poor 
forsaken one who reposes there in the sand of the downs. 
There, as at Rodoni, everything around the tomb seemed 
devoured by the sea ; and as you look down upon it in 
calm purity, and over its vast expanse, you can hardly 
understand how its kiss should be death to all vegetation. 
It is easier to imagine that anything touched by it should 
sprout forth and bloom afresh ; but yet the blue sea, like 
a great eye with its salt tears, marks the earth with the 
furrows of death, as the tears of the human eye line the 
countenance with wrinkles. 

Beside the sea-weed the beach again extends, and further 
on we discovered a church with its cloisters. According to 
tradition it was founded by a sister of the great Scander- 
beg, who retired here with some virgins and became a 
nun/ It was later on inhabited by some Franciscans, of 
whom there are a large number in the Albanian mission, 
as even to include several bishops. But the pious 
''friars were driven away by a terrible earthquake, the 
marks of which are still observable. Everything is now 
desolate and forsaken, the doors are rotting on their 
hinges, the shutters hang down tossed about by the wind, 
and the only inhabitant is the owl, who sings its nightly 
De Profundis.' This palace is considered a haunted 
house, as are all places forsaken by mankind. We visited 
the church. Some altars are still standing, pictures still 
hang on the wall, though almost in pieces, and the whole 
could easily be rearranged for service. I was informed 
that Rome had promised to send assistance to restore both 
the church and cloister, and if they do so, it will then 
become the religious meeting place of the Christians of 


Rodoni, and will enable these poor people to again 
enjoy the comforts of religion. . 

Our ride soon brought us to the foot of the mysterious 
tower, surrounded by creepers and fig-trees, and gradually 
sinking into the sea with decay. We dismounted, and 
leaping from stone to stone we stormed this enormous 
building. There certainly was no entrance, and it would 
have been a useless and hazardous enterprise to have 
climbed to the upper part of the wall. 

We took a cold meal on this picturesque ruin, and then 
rode to the farthest point of the cape, very much to our 
gratification and pleasure. At this point the walls or 
rather cliffs vary very much in form and colour, abounding 
in grottoes and little dark nooks where sea birds build their 
nests. There is also a little marble-like vein, which every- 
where glows like petrified rays of the sun, projecting in 
points and turrets. The artists who have chiselled and 
carved all these so admirably are the sun and the sea ; the 
sun with its scorching rays has wrought the frescoes, and 
the sea has completed the carving. 

The shore was now a moist sand, and it was strewn 
with pieces of wood which the sea had thrown on its soft 
surface. In the sand itself we found several fresh tracks 
of wolves. On this occasion Michele told us that the only 
certain course for catching these cunning animals was to 
throw some carrion on the moonlit coast near their usual 
track, and to lie in ambush. On the first night the wolf 
only looks at the bait shyly, on the second it approaches it 
more confidently, and on the third he may be killed. 
Hunting in that manner is too tedious for me for I should 
fall asleep at least a hundred times during such an expe- 
dition, and even if I could lie awake it would be impossible 
for me to lie quiet for many hours. I should prefer being 
on the edge of a rock during a storm and witnessing the 
waves as they leap at the noisy riot in the clouds, and 


should even find pleasure in the dashing of the waves. A 
storm with all its wild horrors seen from a projecting rock 
must be a splendid sight. Whoever has seen the sea thus, 
and has admired its mysteries, can understand Ossian as 
with his harp he sat on the moonlit chalk cliffs singing his 
songs so as even to compete with the warring of the clouds. 
There is poetry in all the elements when acting freely and 
unrestrainedly ; and what element shows itself grander 
or more unbounded than the sea ? 

We proceeded round the farthest point of the cape and 
turned into the bushy hill-country, and going through some 
wild and romantic paths we eventually reached our landing 
place under a heat which was becoming intense. The 
temperature in Albania during the day was usually about 
30 (Eeaumur) frequently increasing to 34, and unfor- 
tunately during the night but little less. I here learnt 
what is the signification of * vor Hitze vergehen.' I fre- 
quently sat at my writing-desk and could neither read, 
write, draw, dictate or do anything except perspire. 
Nothing was left for me but to sit in my white bernouse in 
the leathern arm-chair in my cabin, and fan myself 
furiously. No longer condemn the planters and fair 
Creoles for rocking themselves in their basket hammocks, 
ornamented with parrot feathers, or for passing the hot 
hours of the day with a fine cigarette in dolce far niente. 
In hot sunny climates man is born to vegetate, in the cold 
ones to work. What exorbitant amounts would we not 
have given for ice or snow in Eodoni. When at home 
I was told that the Emperor Joseph II. during the war 
with the Turks had the water of Schoenbrunn conveyed 
to Belgrade for him by couriers. I laughed then at the 
notion and considered it Sybaritic. But my time came 

In July, 1849, a few days previous to the battle between 
Kaab and Comorn, I was quartered outside the gate of the 


latter town ; the well had been so exhausted by Cossacks and 
our troops, that red-cloaked Seressanes had to be placed 
there with drawn yatagan in order to guard the brown and 
dirty water for the table of the emperor. I then saw that 
the Emperor Joseph was not in the wrong, especially when 
he had the means. 

On board our ship we had nothing which could be 
called cooling ; everything was insipid, and thirst could 
only be quenched by strong wine, and the country afforded 
us nothing beyond a quantity of water-melons, which were 
eaten to excess for breakfast, dinner, and supper. 

August 4. 

To-day I again stayed on board and allowed the rest to 
try their good luck at hunting. They again went after 
boars, but again they were unsuccessful. About noon the 
hunters, who were now resting in the salon in the wood, 
sent the Aga of Ishmi with his servants and pipe bearers to 
us on board. I let him come up with his dirty rabble 
and received them in my cabin. They at once squatted 
down like a swarm of vermin. The children of the Aga, 
who had accompanied him, took off their slippers and 
rolled on the floor. The tschibuktschi of the Aga, a fat 
pale boy who will perhaps some day shine as a high dig- 
nitary in Stamboul, examined every thing in my cabin with 
a satisfactory smile, while the Aga himself seemed to 
feel somewhat uncomfortable as he tried to answer my 

The father-in-law of the Aga, a tall old man, who seemed 
to have a parental influence, was more sensible. He 
took the visit as one of pleasure, made jokes, very much 
enjoyed the sponge cake and champagne, and, in a word, 
was quite an amiable fellow of the good old stamp. The 
Aga was rather suspicious as to the sparkling wine of the 
Franks, and had first to be assured that the beverage was 


a kind of cider until be at last had sufficient courage to 
drink it. 

In the cabin he was greatly pleased with the chairs which 
were novel to him. He thought them very comfortable, and 
forgetful of his dignity he inquired through the interpreter 
whether he might be allowed to take a specimen home with 
him to his paternal house in Ishmi. I was about to consent, 
when the wise father-in-law interfered and blamed him for 
his childish fancy. The Aga comforted himself with tobacco, 
which was handed to him by his tschibuktschi, and with 
which he filled his pipe. 

When the nicotiana-clouds had become dense, and the 
Mahommedan's cordiality sufficiently broad, Igave the signal 
to rise, and led the Osmanlic authority on deck. Here I 
let our most agile sailor, a brave fellow from the island of 
Lissa, run up the mizen-mast before the astonished Turk 
with a rapidity which would have done honour to a cat, and 
then invited the Aga to follow the sailor to the scuttle, 
to take a sailor's survey of the ship ; but considering this too 
kind on my part he politely declined the honour. I was 
glad when I saw the whole rabble in the boat again, and I 
had my cabin aired and swept, especially as I learnt that 
the Aga suffered from a most disgusting skin disease. Such 
are the pleasures of a diplomatic voyage to the patriarchal 
coast of Albania. 

But the day was still to end most sadly for myself and for 
the whole crew. A commander who understands his position, 
and considers himself a true sailor, loves his subordinates, 
and only feels at home among the sailors trained by himself. 
After a time there is a bond that unites the whole crew. 
Dangers are experienced together, pleasures enjoyed to- 
gether, seas are crossed in pleasant company, and everyone 
feels that on the wide ocean he belongs to a little world linked 
together by the common occurrences of daily life. If only 
one of that large family becomes endangered one must be 


devoid of feeling not to feel anxious. Some days ago one of 
our sailors had said that he was unwell, in consequence of 
the dreadful heat and the want of everything at all cooling ; 
he was now hovering between life and death. He had 
been carried on deck in his hammock and placed below the 
forecastle so as to enjoy the fresh air. The doctors did 
all that their unfortunately too precarious art advised, but 
to no avail. The lamp of life slowly burnt to its end, and 
the vital spark flickered more and more faintly. I fre- 
quently asked the dying man how he was. But his glassy 
eyes could recognise me no more, and his lips only stam- 
mered unintelligible words. When the rest of the company 
returned joyously from the hunt, though without spoil, 
Murko Rugger had breathed his last. What a sad contrast ! 
When the doctor reported to us that death would certainly 
soon take place, I ordered Michele deNicolo, as my factotum, 
to send for & priest as speedily as was possible. Messengers 
were sent out in all directions and telegraphic signs agreed 
on from the coast in order to announce his arrival, but hours 
passed and spiritual consolation could not be found. How- 
ever, I could not allow an Austrian sailor to end his life 
like a soulless piece of flesh and blood. I requested those 
of the crew who crowded sympathisingly and wonderingly 
round the dying man to recite some pious prayers for the 
departing, but none of them had the courage to do it. Now- 
a-days, in times when religion is really needed, one is seized 
with an incomprehensible embarrassment; religion be- 
comes an object of uneasiness ; its fire is burning, but it no 
longer excites enthusiasm. The crowd stood around mute 
and awe-stricken, whilst the all-important moment might 
easily be lost. I did not hesitate for a second, but hurried 
to my cabin, whence I returned with a splinter of the Holy 
Cross and my prayer-book. I attached the former to the 
hammock, and knelt on the deck near the dying man. 
That seemed to break the spell, and all joined in devout 


prayers for the salvation of this poor soul. When the sun 
shed his last beams on the anxious group the poor young 
man had breathed his last. The ship's bell was tolling 
tremulously, and the coming night soon spread its pall 
over the departed. 

I had never before witnessed a death, and it required a 
great effort for me to remain till the last. It was es- 
pecially moving to witness the dying man in his last 
moments as he strove to spring from his hammock, while 
his companions had to restrain him by holding him. 
At last he suddenly dropped his head and died. It was 
horrible for me to witness all this, although after it dyin r 
appeared much easier than I imagined. The moment was 
solemn, and, I thank (rod, devoted to prayer. I saw many 
a tear in the eyes of our young officers who otherwise 
would perhaps have thought of anything but death. It 
was altogether a bitter but very beneficial lesson for me 
and for all. 

In the course of the evening the sailors asked permission 
to pray together aloud, and to recite a rosary by the side 
of the deceased, at which I was heartily glad. The coffin 
was finished before midnight, the corpse placed in it, and 
it was slowly lowered into the boat. The moon shone coldly, 
and for a long while in the stillness of the night we could 
hear the sound of the oars as they rowed towards the 
cloister. The body was deposited in the church, guarded 
by the Catholic population of the coast. The whole tragedy 
had passed with awful swiftness ; the poor sailor, scarcely ill, 
was now lying amongst strangers in the little church in the 
distance. Everybody sought his couch to-day in a very 
earnest frame of mind. 

August 5. 

The morning was passed in work and drill on board. At 
two o'clock P.M. the flag was hoisted at half mast, and all 
who could proceeded to the cloister. We were received 


in the yard of the ruin by the whole of the Catholic popu- 
lation of the cape, and followed to the church. The coffin 
was open, a handkerchief covered the face of the corpse, 
and a small wooden cross, hurriedly made by the ship's 
joiner, was placed in his hands. The crew was marched up 
in rank and file ; our doctor stepped out and made a short 
and appropriate address, which was followed by the ' De 
Profundis.' The coffin was closed, and was slowly carried 
by the comrades of the deceased, followed by a procession, 
in which we joined, to the cloister yard, where it was buried 
under the shade of an old fig-tree. The volleys of the 
marines resounded, and we all threw earth into the grave, 
which was closed up and a cross with a short epitaph placed 
upon it. The ceremony was short, void of all pomp, but 
paid by sailors to a sailor, and rendered especially melan- 
choly by tke thought that the deceased had found his last 
resting-place in a distant, foreign land. It made a deep 
impression on the Catholic population. We distributed 
bread and wine among the different families, took leave of 
Michele and returned with hoisted flag to the corvette. 

We intended to sail to Durazzo at once, in order to efface 
the sad impression of these events ; but a calm detained 
us. Evening was slowly advancing, when the coast 
was suddenly enlivened by a crowd of people, making 
signals, and calling upon us most clamorously. We im- 
mediately concluded that a priest had arrived, and wished 
to come on board, and so sent a boat to the shore, which 
returned quickly, bringing Scanderbeg II., who rushed on 
board, and, to my great astonishment, threw himself at my 
feet howling and crying. Overwhelmed with grief, he told 
me that the pasha of Tirana had arrived with 200 men, 
had ordered his son to be bound, and threatened to have 
him beheaded, if the corvette should depart before he had 
visited it. This seemed possible, and in accordance with 
the present state of affairs in the East. Now Michele de 



Nicolo and his family were Christians, and as long as an 
Austrian flag floated on the coast of Albania, not a hair of 
their heads could be touched, for Austria had but just 
accepted the protectorship of all Christianity in the East. 
I was enraged at the supposed insult, and fully resolved 
to act in a most decided manner. I ordered a boat to be 
manned, and sent it ashore, under the command of the 
calmest and most prudent of my officers, in order to demand 
satisfaction. We watched it depart with considerable 
excitement, and had almost a secret pleasure in feeling 
that we were setting an example to the Moslems as to how 
to protect one of our brethren. I was waiting to give the 
signal of attack, thoroughly determined if things should 
take a serious turn either to compel the pasha to come 
on board, or clear the coast of him and his followers. 
We waited for some time very anxiously, and as it got 
dark, the boat returned, and brought us a clue to the 
whole affair. 

The pasha had really arrived ; his troops were encamped 
in the wood, and he had expressed a desire to visit the 
corvette in an exceedingly authoritative tone. But Scan- 
derbeg II., as was now certain, had dived rather too deeply 
into the tankard at the funeral repast ; his brain became 
over-heated, and the whole story of the execution of his 
much-beloved heir apparent was an Albanian hoax. It 
was not an instance of in vino veritas. The pasha might 
not be altogether free from blame, but the firm language 
of our envoye had restored his diplomatic equilibrium, 
and he humbly asked for an audience on board. The 
calm continued, and as we could not entertain the idea 
of sailing, we granted his request, and fixed it for the next 
day. We sent Scanderbeg II., the primitive and fanciful 
disciple of Bacchus, back to the bosom of his princely 



August 6. 

As is my habit on board, at four o'clock A. M. I was walking 
on deck while it was being cleaned, and was indulging in 
a good wash when the arrival of the so much longed-for 
priest was reported, alas ! only too late. The Eev. Padre 
Negri, missionary of that enlightened and dreaded order 
of the Jesuits, appeared on board before us with the 
mustachios of a hussar, in a student's cap, with ruby nose 
and spectacles, wearing Pandoor mud shoes and black 
gown, and carrying a huge cudgel in his hand. He 
seemed a thorough man, resolute and merry, with a perfect 
knowledge as to what he was about. Thoroughly hungry, 
and obliged to be a recluse among these barbarians, he 
very much enjoyed a well prepared substantial breakfast in 
my cabin. His presence made the morning most agree- 
able to meT Not being sufficiently enlightened to tremble 
before a Jesuit, I was very much amazed with his report 
of the state of affairs in Albania, and at the account of his 
own life, which he narrated in a few precise words. He 
had a clear head, free from illusions, and did not in the least 
degree conceal the dangers and difficulties attending 
Christianity in Albania. He had come over from Italy, to 
work with as much energy as he was capable of. He also 
explained the peculiarity of his outward appearance. His 
mustachios were necessary in the East, in order that he 
might not be mistaken for an old woman ; the black gown 
served as the kaftar usual in the country ; the student's cap 
was indispensable on account of the dense woods of Albania ; 
the Pandoor shoes helped him over stones and through 
marshes, and the cudgel in his strong hand defended his 
body against heretics. We soon recognised and understood 
each other, and had so pleasant a conversation, that when 
he departed, I looked forward with pleasure to meeting 
him again in Durazzo, where he was pastor. 


At half past nine A.M., a boat of the corvette brought 
the formidable but now tamed Bimbashi on board. The 
lion of Tirana, like all Osmanlic aristocrats, was a fat, 
delicate little mannikin with bandy legs, a quivering 
paunch, and a thin pagoda-like countenance. He wore 
the fez on his round shaven head, a dressing-gown about 
his panting body, and dirty pantaloons covered his shanks. 
A lazy nod from me told him that he might be seated, and 
we offered him water-melons and champagne to refresh 
his soul, if by chance the infidel had one. Some mean- 
ingless hollow phrases, and a somewhat stern admonition 
from me in regard to Christians, formed the subjects of 
our diplomatic conversation, while his unintelligible roar- 
ing or rather grunting nearly caused me to laugh openly 
in the face of this bloodthirsty tyrant. When his High- 
ness had refreshed himself, he was dismissed with a few 
bottles of stale champagne, and was honoured with a 
salute from our thirty-two pounders, which rather shook 
his nerves. At last we set our sails and made for Durazzo, 
the Eastern capital of the Byzantine empire. 

Let us at parting cast a retrospective look at Eodoni. 
We had lived the exciting life of wanderers, encamping in 
the woods as our homes, enjoying the pleasures of hunting, 
with moonlit nights to enchant us, and all that wild 
wood-life on the borders of the sea can suggest. The cape 
of Eodoni, with its wide hilly country, its springs and 
rivulets, its rich soil, well colonised, industriously worked 
and wisely husbanded, would be a splendid possession, and, 
indeed, so would the whole of the Albanian coast. All 
which makes me conclude with the remark, ' What a pity 
it is that Albania, wears the horns of the crescent ! ' 

Towards evening a favouring breeze sprang up, and in 
the twilight the ship sailed lightly southward. We passed 
the cape, where, the day before, we had laid our poor 

s 2 


sailor-comrade in his silent grave. Waves and wind are 
rushing about him, and his floating home, the ship which 
had carried him, is sailing away, leaving him behind. 
Many a wave will roll over his resting-place, many a ship, 
with her flag, will be hurried past Cape Kodoni by the 
same November storm that is now rushing through the 
grass on his grave. 

We sailed all night and all the next day, passed Cape 
Peli, and in the afternoon rounded the projecting sand- 
bank of St. Lucia, which encircles the roadstead of Du- 
razzo. We then made for the Pietra Blanca, a dazzling 
rock in the coast-line, and carefully ran into the port of 

The large bay of Durazzo is formed by two arms project- 
ing into the sea ; that to the north is beautifully covered 
with timber, and slopes towards the plain. Durazzo lies at 
the foot of the slope between the plain and the cape, and 
at present is no more than a mass of tottering buildings. 
A mutilated but entire minaret rises from it. The height 
is a confusion of palaces and barracks, in a state of ruin 
and decay. One of the two town gates opens towards the 
port and its Dogana, which of course consists of a wooden 
shed, also in a state of decay. If a father of a family 
should intend to visit this venerable place, and step out at 
the quay, I advise him first to insure his life in London, 
if the speculating English would insure the life of anyone 
travelling to Durazzo, for landing on the loose and rickety 
boards is an exceedingly hazardous undertaking. 

Close to the quay, between the sea and the Dogana, there 
is a splendid plantain, a tree, like the minaret, genuinely 
characteristic of Osmanlic cities. To the right of the town 
is a large brackish lake, bounded by mountains. These pic- 
turesque mountain chains, which are rich in rocks and woods, 
are bounded at their base by fields and meadows, and extend 
to the end of the southern arm of the cape, where in the 


misty distance we could distinguish the tower of Gruerrin 
Meschino, that favourite hero of our sailors, whose adven- 
tures are read on board all our ships. The bay is too 
large, the town too small, to call the picture lovely or even 
interesting, but in spite of this it has a certain character. 

The lake of which I have spoken was once joined to the 
cape, thus making the town an island, so that the Greek 
and Koman galleys could enter the port from the northern 
bay behind the town. Even now the sea is only separated 
from the two opposite points of the lake by a few yards of 

We despatched a cadet to inform the consular agent of 
our arrival. He soon returned and put the whole ship into 
a state of excitement by his account of his visit to the 
consular agent. It must be remembered that the poor 
boy had been staying at Eodoni. He enthralled us with 
his statement of the enormous salons, gorgeous divans, all 
the opulent smoking conveniences of the East, and a de- 
scription of the consul's charming daughter, adorned with 
jewels, 'einem Weibe sonderer Art,eine Perle seltener Zier.' 
This sounded, after the dreadful appearance of the ruined 
town, like an hosanna. We again took courage and looked 
forward to the approaching barge with pleasure. It 
brought us the Padre Negri, with the happy father of 
the rare maid, rich in honour, indeed, but unfortunately 
weak from old age, for he is the Nestor of consuls, being 
eighty-six years old ; he is also the richest merchant in 
Durazzo, an amiable, patriarchal man, fulfilling his duties 
towards both religion and government, and who, during 
our stay here, besides being very serviceable, overwhelmed 
us with kindness. The consular agent, during his long 
residence here, has become thoroughly acquainted with the 
customs and advantages of this country. At the same time 
he has a witty vein, so that his conversation is both agree- 
able and instructive. He came on board in a consular 


hunting-dress, similar to that which an ' Oberforstmeister ' 
wears on the stage. A long black coat, with green and 
gold huntsman's lappets, hung loosely about his aged loins ; 
his clever head, to which one involuntarily looked for the 
pigtail, was shaded by a clumsy hunting cap, with a 
gigantic visor, which answered at once for sunshade and 

I went ashore the same evening, in company with the 
consular agent and his brother, who, by-the-bye, had 
accompanied him in his visit to me. We had scarcely 
passed the quay when we were surrounded by a fearful 
rabble. The commander of the fortress showed himself 
in his ragged, threadbare official dress, surrounded by his 
staff, who appeared still more ragged and crazy : with these 
all kinds ofc naked youths, townspeople and peasants, who, 
in spite of their filth, were clad in picturesque dresses ; por- 
ters and gipsy people, as black as pitch, of every age, and 
scantily clad in rags ; in fact, veritable figures of the lower 

We walked to the gate of the town under the shade of 
some plaintains, where a quantity of turtle doves, intro- 
duced here by our Nestor, cooed and fluttered amiably 
and pleasantly, enlivening us with their gabble. At the 
gate, around which are the granite columns of the proud 
Durazzo of old, stood the astonished guards of the 

To prove the strength of this gate, and how well it 
is guarded, I may relate that our consul at Scutari 
arrived here once in the night, and not being admitted 
burst it in with his head, thus forcing an entrance to the 
capital of Albania. ' Des Pudels Kern,' the interior of the 
town, looks almost worse. It is almost impossible to de- 
scribe the dirty houses, almost roofless, and the offensive 
odours of this Eastern town. 

The town may be compared to the decorations of a 


Turkish fairy -ball et, which, placed in the loft of some 
theatre, is forgotten and left to the spiders for several 
years, then, by some mistake, brought again before the 
lamps of the stage, covered with dust, cobwebs, and full of 
holes. To this add a few pensioned choristers and anti- 
quated fairies, who are about to sell their costumes at the 
rag fair, the smell of resin and extinguished oil lamps, and 
then you can imagine Durazzo as it is. 

At the first enrapturing view of all this, I experienced 
that disagreeable embarrassment which frequently possesses 
a traveller when he finds himself not only disappointed, 
but, as it were, fooled and insulted. 

All Eastern cities are like this, even Cairo and Smyrna ; 
only that these are large and lively, and their rags are 
gold stuff and Indian shawls. But nature has assisted 
them, and woven poesy and romance into the picture, for 
a mosque with its minaret, even though small and decrepit 
like that of Durazzo, seizes the fancy. If the roof of 
the bazaar falls to pieces, vines with their golden fruit are 
entwined about it and with their living chains keep the 
falling beams together. No matter how small the popula- 
tion, you are sure to find some of the old Turkish figures, 
with large shady turban and waving beard, silently and 
imperturbably seated at pipe and coffee in the bazaar- 
booths, waiting with Mahommedan fatalism for customers, 
without inviting them either by a friendly gesture or even 
a display of their goods. 

The peculiarly pungent smell, everywhere pervading the 
Eastern houses and palaces, as well as the streets and 
places, prevailed here. Stumbling and tripping over dust 
and sand, I reached the second gate of Durazzo, where 
there weie two or three Krahwinklians ; and immediately 
outside we passed an irregular and disorderly cemetery, 
with its antique columns and lumps of granite. There 
are some gipsy dwellings in the last garden of the town, 


and close under the walls, towards the sea, there is a swamp 
proceeding from a neighbouring pond in which are some 
silver herons. Towards evening I took a bath in the sea, and 
then returned home, little pleased with the wonders of this 
Eastern metropolis. During the first night I was suddenly 
awakened from the sweetest sleep by the rushing, roaring, 
and howling of one of those thunderstorms so frequent here, 
so destructive to vessels, and rather alarming for anyone 
who has just anchored in the port. We at once attended 
to our rigging, through which the wind rushed madly. 
Lightnings ploughed the sky, and for a short time rain 
fell heavily. It was the first that had fallen for months, 
and I usually hate it, but this was delightfully refreshing. 
Towards morning the weather again became clear, and 
the blue hot Albanian sky soon spanned itself over our 

I stayed twelve days in the port of Durazzo. There was 
a great deal to do on board the corvette, for the commands 
had to be introduced in the German language. The 
officers had to learn it first, then the cadets, and then the 
crew. The morning was always devoted to exercise on the 
sails, and as the men displayed a very good will, I soon 
noticed considerable progress. 

We made shooting our amusement, and were some- 
times all day at it. The first excursion of this kind was on 
the pond, after mass, which I had ordered to be said on 
shore at the parsonage. What a sad humiliating parson- 
age ! A house built by Turks in Turkish style, which 
could only be entered by stooping very low, then passing 
through a dirty sooty kitchen, up a rickety wooden stair- 
case, and into a little low room, where the church of Durazzo 
was situated, fitted up with some old linen rags, worn-out 
imitation gold lace in shreds, some horrible sculptures, 
and faded bouquets. And yet this quiet mass will ever 
be memorable to me from its intrinsic dignity. 


Padre Negri, with whom we had already become ac- 
quainted, accompanied us outside the gate. We were soon 
carried to the shore of the smoky lake by some spirited 
Turkish nags in fantastical harness. Some buffaloes had 
wallowed in the puddle. A buffalo is the prototype of the 
primitive, the melancholic ' Staffage ' of the uncultivated 
swamp country, the indigenous citizen of once bloom- 
ing but now wasted tracts of land, or of such as will here- 
after be developed, where nature reigns supreme. The 
bright plumage of myriads of water-fowl glittered in the 
sun over the water ; herds of horses and mules browsed 
on the wide level verdant shores. It was midday when 
we dismounted, and, gun in hand, waded through mire 
and reeds. Air and water were all brightness, all in a 
scorching glow, all in silent repose. In the oppressive 
stillness of a southern noon air, too faint to stir, the lake 
is too drowsy to flow. Solitary pelicans alone returned from 
their morning trip with their well filled crops to the shade 
of the reeds, the breeding-place of their family. "When a shot 
was fired swarms of silver herons, swans, storks, and other 
denizens of the water, rose for a moment from their moist 
repose and sought a new resting-place. Eestless gulls of 
all kinds alone encircled the sportsman like lightnings, and 
could not tire of satisfying their curiosity ; and if a bird fell 
with a heavy splash into the flood, you could hear the 
shrill cry of the gull and the plaintive note of the plover 
for a long while afterwards. 

I was much delighted with this peculiar picture of nature 
so thoroughly different from any I had ever seen. My 
passion for swamps and wide plains, which the prairies and 
the lakes of North America had familiarised with my fancy, 
was brilliantly satisfied here. There is a peculiar inex- 
plicable charm in all life where man does not interfere 
disturbingly. It may be found in the mysterious primitive 
wood with its unknown world of animals and plants, in the 


Amazon river with its crocodiles, in the still, lifeless fiords 
of Norway, in Scotland's waste land only inhabited by 
grouse and deer, in the desert covered with ostriches and 
gazelles, and then in our country in the snow-capped peaks 
of the Alps where the chamois and the eagles dwell. I 
continued shooting until the evening, and could not suffi- 
ciently enjoy the lake and its surroundings. 

The second hunt was devoted to the boar. It was a fresh 
fine morning: we proceeded to the green forest which ex- 
tends on the promontory behind the town, surrounded by 
the nobles of Durazzo and a large crowd of the Christian 
population, who had obtained permission to carry arms 
during my stay here. 

On our way, as we passed the lake, I shot at a white 
sacred stork, which, like hermits in the time of our fore- 
fathers, stood in holy contemplation under an aged oak tree. 
The bullet whistled, the Albanian hermit shook his modest 
head, looked with quiet contempt on the disturber of his 
peace, and retired to the more secluded and private life of 
his woods. 

Drops of the nightly rain were still hanging from the 
branches of the trees in the forest like sparkling diamonds ; 
the young sun glittered through the refreshed green of the 
trees, and the waves were heard like distant music breaking 
against the shore. It was a delightful ramble through the 
wood, and I felt fresh and light-hearted. 

Every one took his post. Mine was under the slight 
protection of a cornelian tree, whose delicious purple fruit 
covered the ground. A rich Turkish merchant cowered at 
my side with his long gun, a swell of Durazzo, who had made 
a tour to Constantinople in order to educate himself. The 
forest was beaten here and there, with a noise as awful as 
though Zamiel was hunting. The whole population was in 
the wood. But we only once heard the boars break through, 
and nobody caught a glimpse of them, so that our morn- 


ing battue was confined to enjoying the fresh wood and the 
view of a flock of pretty wood-nymphs. 

We were just proceeding up a height when we suddenly 
perceived in a thorny bush, not of roses but of thistles, a 
laughing troop of female figures almost in the costume of 
Eve. How had this corps of huntresses of Diana got into 
the woods of Albania ? But in truth, and with horror I 
remember it, they were no votaries of Diana, but a horde 
of godless gipsy girls, as black as the devil, and as ugly as 
his grandmother. Their leader, an old weather-beaten hag, 
stood in the midst of them, boldly and resolutely, with a 
slight sheet wrapped round her loins. She was a woman at 
whom hell itself would shudder, with a skin as coarse as that 
of an elephant, and as brown as ground coffee. She had the 
audacity to smirk at us with her camel face. She wore a 
handkerchief, turban-like, on her raven hair, which was 
twisted round her head like so many snakes ; and to com- 
plete the monstrosity of her appearance, she puffed long 
clouds of smoke from a Turkish pipe. I have never seen 
the like in all my life, and had I been alone in the wood, 
I would rather have met any monster than this gipsy 
queen. They pretended to be here in search of berries, 
but I suspect it was rather to gather poison for their 

The male gipsies were our principal beaters-up, and did 
their business with large Turkish drums, on which they 
made an infernal noise, so that they rather frightened the 
game away than directed it towards us. The best evidence 
of this was that in the evening, in another battue on the 
lower parts of the mountain, we saw nothing. 

We dined as in Rodoni, al fresco, under the shade of a 
large oak, and our dinner also consisted of turkey and 
mutton. After dinner we all, high and low, fired at an 
old Albanian cap, which was productive of considerable 
merriment and rivalry between the East and West. To 


my great pleasure, the best shot was made by one of the 
crew of my gig, a nimble young sailor of Trieste. 

In spite of our empty bags, we returned home in good 
spirits, racing through the green plain, which by its dense 
wood reminded us of the North. My sailors also dis- 
tinguished themselves in this by their mad courage and 
their really comical hussar-like endurance. 

Our third hunt was devoted to the celebrated beccafichi, 
and led us across the buffalo-swamp to the opposite shore 
of the lake, where green hills alternate with woody plains, 
until you reach the high and distant mountain. 

The higher class of Christians led us to one of those hills 
crowned by a small Turkish village, where, in a thorny bush, 
full of insects, we lay awaiting the unfortunate or rather, 
fortunate beccafichi, which we expected to kill in the trees 
above our heads. I sat very snugly in the bush with crickets 
and butterflies playing about me, and enjoyed that comfort- 
able, invigorating repose the Sunday afternoon's delight 
of a German professor in which though on the point of 
sleeping, one observes the working of nature with harmless 
childlike feeling. But the beccafichi did not come, the cricket 
only chirped, and the bumblebee hummed, and we should 
have waited much longer in the green bush, had we not been 
tempted to the village, in the hope of finding some cool sweet 
water melons, such as are offered in abundance in this 
country. There was decidedly a * Jagd-Pechvogel ' among 
us ; * or perhaps the old woman f who crossed our way 
was the cause of it. Our insatiable Albanians proposed 
a hare hunt in a little pine-wood in the plain. Full 
of courage, we proceeded to the plain. We again formed 
a line, Turkish drums beat and dogs barked, a super- 

* Pech (pitch) is a student's expression for bad luck, and a Pech-vogel 
(bird) is one who always has bad luck and is the cause of it to others. T. 

t To meet an old woman on going out hunting is considered among the 
German sportsmen of the old stamp a very unlucky omen. I have known 
some, who, in such a case, have returned home at once. T. 


abundance of beaters of all religions and nations ran 
about, but no hare. This was a little too much for me ; I 
decided that the company should make another battue, and 
galloped across the wide moor to the town, renouncing all 
hunting for a long time if Weidmanns Heil * should not 
be vouchsafed me. 

In the harbour I received the visit of a Bey, the com- 
mander of Cavallo. He had a long, uncouth, but awkward 
and stupid figure, although he was said to be more good- 
natured than his predecessors. A few hollow phrases, very 
much alike, and the reception was over. 

The birthday of our beloved sovereign approached, and 
I resolved to celebrate this highly venerated day not only 
in a patriotic, but, under the circumstances, in an especially 
Catholic manner. Padre Negri had informed me that the 
residence of Don Ambrosio, Archbishop of Durazzo, was at 
Belbinisti, about twelve hours' distance from here, where 
an old Turkish family had retained him as prisoner in 
the interior of his house for a whole year. I could but 
desire that this prince of the Church should glorify our 
celebration. I therefore sent fourteen armed Christians, 
on horseback, to Belbinisti, with orders to free the un- 
happy apostle from custody and conduct him to us and his 

On the evening of the 17th, preparations commenced on 
board our corvette. A large tent was fixed on the quarter 
and main decks ; flags of all kinds ornamented its roof and 
sides. The escutcheons' of Austria, surrounded with oak 
wreaths, were placed in a symmetrical row. Boarding 
pikes were mounted on the cannons, wound round by gar- 
lands of leaves and pennons, which met in the centre of the 
tent. Young oaks, which the sailors had brought from the 

* ' Weidmanns Heil,' a German hunting expression for hunters' good luck. 
If well-wishers meet a sportsman going out they greet him with ' Weidmanne 
Heil ! ' 


promontory, were placed between the cannons. An altar, 
with brilliant silver and flower ornaments, an elegantly 
painted relic-box, and a cross radiant with diamonds, was 
erected on a broad step before the mizen mast. A canopy 
of purple silk was lightly arid picturesquely spread over it 
in the middle. The flag of the Pope, with the tiara and keys 
of Peter, waved on the top of it. The wreathed portrait of 
our monarch, surrounded by a trophy formed of all the arms 
and emblems of sailors, hung from the main mast under 
the canopy of a standard. 

All was tastefully and gracefully arranged, in a manner 
worthy of the occasion, uniting church and state, and pro- 
duced by a few hours' industry, skill and good will. 

August 18. 

In the e*ly clear morning the imperial salute ushered 
in the joyous festival day. Our thundering salute was 
answered, although feebly, yet as well as they were able, 
by the batteries of the fortress. Our gala flags ran up the 
masts, fluttering in the wind in all their brightness and 
colour. All belonging to the ship took care to appear in 
their best dress as the hour of service, the kernel of to-day's 
celebration, approached. 

A large boat brought us Don Ambrosio, the rescued 
archbishop, with four or five priests as his suite. Nume- 
rous vessels brought us the whole Christian population, 
aged men and children, armed men and pregnant women, 
who had all responded to our invitation with very much 

The dignitaries and people grouped themselves between 
the guns and the green of the trees, under the many-coloured 
tent, through which the sun shed a mysterious purple 
light, forming an effective picture, in which the magnificent 
dresses of the Albanian women, who, according to Byron, 
are the most handsome in the world, appeared to great 


effect. The belle of the guests was the daughter of 
Tedeschini, a stately young woman, with splendid regular 
antique Grecian features, with a complexion as fine and 
white as blossom, dark hazel eyes, and a dreamy expres- 
sion of melancholy extremely becoming to her. She wore 
a scarlet tabard, reaching to the knee, covered by the most 
splendid gold embroidery, with loose sleeves of snow-white 
silk. Her bosom was covered with a richly-embroidered 
chemisette, from which a richly-embroidered apron pendant 
to a girdle fell over her wide trowsers of splendid silk stuff. 
Her head was covered with a nun-like veil, from which 
the golden tarbush and rich braids of her hair were just 
visible. The whole of her charming figure was sprinkled 
with sparkling diamonds. This glittering costume is most 
beautiful when she who wears it reclines on a couch, but 
it is not adapted to walking or moving about. 

The archbishop had made his preparations, and soon 
appeared in the midst of the faithful, surrounded by his 
priests, with mitre and crozier, and commenced officiating 
at the richly covered altar, a spiritual comfort he had not 
enjoyed since his captivity. You could read happiness in 
the worthy man's beaming face at being able once again 
to perform his pastoral duties in peace, secure against ill- 
treatment. He seemed to feel at home, and I was very glad 
of it. The mass was followed by benediction, and the 
thundering of the guns ; the Te De'um was very well sung 
by our German cabin-boys, whom our bread commissary, 
who was not unlearned in music, had taught. 

After service, which had not for a long time been cele- 
brated with such fervour, and which the Albanians were 
happy to attend with us, a slight movement of the sea 
obliged part of our company to go on shore. The arch- 
bishop retired with me to my cabin, where we had a very 
interesting conversation about the sad state of Albania and 
Christianity in it. 


The church on deck, in which the service had been held 
with such splendour and solemnity, was transformed into 
a festival hall. A large table was set, in horseshoe shape, 
around the capstan, and richly covered with silver dishes 
and wine. Flowers in glittering vases ornamented it, arid a 
number of servants in the dress of the time of Louis XIV. 
attended it. In the midst of the sea, between saltwater 
and air, I like to make arrangements contrasting with these 
simple elements, so that one may feel in the very heart of an 
opulent capital. At the banquet the archbishop took his 
place on my right. The cook, knowing my taste, very 
artistically arranged the material part in Parisian style. 
The poor ascetic archbishop, who suddenly saw himself 
transplanted from his anchorite prison into a world of 
security and mirth, was quite bewildered, and enjoyed the 
gifts of God. with thankful heart. When the tumblers had 
been filled with some cooling champagne, I rose and drank 
the health of the emperor; a salute was fired, and the whole 
crew of the ship, from myself to the last ship's boy, sang a 
patriotic hymn. Only the day before I had put the words 
to music, and during the night our doctor had translated 
them into Italian, so that it was perhaps the first time that 
a patriotic hymn had ever been sung in two languages at 
the same time. The moment was full of dignity and 
emotion; and the song coming from so many vigorous 
throats, and rendered with such heart-felt emotion, made 
a grand impression, which did not fail in its effect on our 

How much greater still would have been my emotion 
could I have known that this day was perhaps the most 
important of the emperor's life ; that to-day in the merry 
Alpine country, \surrounded by our dear parents and 
sisters and brothers, and embraced by my love in the dis- 
tance, he had selected, in the youth of his life, his lovely 
consort ! Perhaps it was better that I should not know it, 


for the thought of being absent from such happiness on 
this joyous day might have cut my heart too deeply. 

Soon after dinner, the worthy archbishop, already 
venerated by us, left us. After a cordial farewell he was 
soon followed by the Albanian guests. But the younger 
people of the ship, exhilarated by the champagne, made 
merry for some time longer under the garlands of leaves 
and flags. 

* And so ended the day, a splendid one, and one I shall 
never forget. 

August 19. 

During the night the temple with its picturesque and 
fantastical ornaments disappeared, and the ship of war 
was again restored to its stern military order. It is these 
contrasts that make life so interesting and agreeable. 
At eight o'clock A.M. we set sail, with a fresh northern 
breeze, and left Durazzo, after a somewhat long sojourn. 
As we were about to depart we were informed that 
Michele de Mcolo, the prince of the woods, Scander- 
beg II., had, per pedes apostolorum, brought his royal 
chateau from Eodoni, in all the splendour of his royal 
robes, to once more press his princely seafaring friend to 
his heart, and for the last time to express his feelings of 
love and friendship. I should have liked to have dropped 
anchor again, but that the ship was in motion, and so we 
could only bid each other a tender farewell in fancy ; so 
that the prince of Rodoni must retire to his forest of 
boars and wolves with heavy heart and empty hand. 

We sailed, with a stiff wind, faster than the Lloyd 
steamer into the wide picturesque roadstead of Avlona, 
and at four o'clock P.M. we cast anchor in twenty-one 
fathoms of water. 

The rgadstead of Avlona is a grand picture of nature. 
Towards the east a level green coast and plain extend 
around the Capo tre Porte. Beyond the plain a lofty 



mountain rises in fine outline, and at its base is the town 
of Avlona. Behind it a ravine runs up into the mountains, 
and on its heights to the left is a little decayed mosque. 
Before the town, on the beach, and immediately behind 
the Dogana, there is a large fort in ruins, where a prince 
of the Hohenstaufen is said to have fled, have been 
besieged, and died. Southward of our anchorage some 
splendid dark mountains surround the bay, which is as 
smooth as a mirror, like one of those melancholy mountain 
lakes of Upper Austria. To the west is Cape Linguetta, 
which closes the bay, projecting far into the sea. Before 
it is the island of Sasseno, which is sharply delineated. 

I was visited in the course of the evening by our consular 
agent, who endeavoured to be a diplomatic, and imagined 
himself as, by-the-way, may more or less be remarked 
of most mbn to be the centre of the world, and so ima- 
gined that the well-being or otherwise of the entire earth 
depended on the political attitude of Avlona. But in his 
endeavour to blow himself out as did the frog of the fable 
he was outdone by a Prussian adventurer, who seemed to 
have more of the fox than he did. He was a Turkish 
doctor, who styled himself the personal friend of the Bey, 
and seemed to be the great man of Avlona. He invited 
us on the part of the pasha, ordered in the name of the 
pasha, announced himself in the name of the pasha ; and 
our poor representative, who did not possess such volubility 
of language, fell in a heap like a London patent air cushion 
when the mysterious screw has been loosened. As usual 
in this terrestrial vale of sorrow the bold won the victory ; 
the Prussian perfectly entrapped us by his bewildering 
talk, and conquered the consular agent. The latter, how- 
ever, was of opinion that the Prussian was an intriguer, 
nay, a most dangerous individual ; but this intriguer was 
the man of action, and, thanks to the state of things in 
Turkey, the director of affairs in Avlona. We arranged 


everything with him, acquainted him with our wishes and 
desires, and his rival had nothing to do but to restrict 
himself to diplomatic etiquette. 

August 20. 

In the course of the morning the Bey came, a tractable 
young man, who had received his ' polish ' in Constanti- 
nople. Our agent sat in the shady background during the 
presentation, but Eeinecke, the fox, pliable and subtle, 
acted as interpreter, and carried the preliminary words 
from the mouth to the ear. I appointed the afternoon for a 
visit to the Bey. A large retinue accompanied me to the 
shore, where the Bey met us himself with a numerous suite. 
A fiery stallion of Arabian breed, with a shining bearskin 
saddle, was ready for me. We visited the above-mentioned 
fort, now a large empty space, surrounded by walls, which 
had served as a hospital a short time since. We then rode 
over a plain covered with fields and trees, to the genuine 
Eastern town. We passed mosques surrounded with plan- 
tains and decaying houses, and came to the palace of 
the Bey, whose family has for a long time ruled this 
country. The palace is an old wooden building in truly 
Turkish style, with its many lattices, staircases and win- 
dows. The points of the curved roof are painted with gro- 
tesque figures, landscapes, and arabesques, and the whole 
palace looks like one of those little houses in which leap- 
frogs are kept. It stands in a wide space surrounded by 
a wall with a towering gate. The Bey is not married, so 
that the second palace, intended for the harem, is empty 
and decaying. The Bey is said to have a European liaison 
with the wife of a Frenchman, who does not object, as 
by this means his position here is rendered more advan- 
tageous. We were led to the divan up a shaky staircase. 
The divan corresponds with the reception salon. We 
smoked and took coffee whilst we enjoyed the fine view as 

T 2 


we sat with crossed legs on luxuriant cushions. Though 
speaking a foreign language, the Bey did honours in a 
very agreeable manner. The Prussian, Eeinecke, sat on 
his right, with his brother the worshipful consul of all-potent 
England ; he was a thoroughly uneducated man, with far 
less cunning than his brother. 

Whilst we were sitting exchanging commonplace phrases, 
a white-bearded turbaned Turk danced into the room, 
jumping as nimbly as a weasel, and, smiling cunningly and 
knowingly, he presented himself as a living centenarian, 
who, seventy years ago, had been a merchant in Trieste. 
He was therefore an Avlonian curiosity, the privileged 
Nestor of the town, who had seen Trieste when it was in 
the midst of woods, surrounded by swamps, and notorious 
as the nest of robbers and resort of pirates. The little 
man was slill fresh and active, and seemed to be in very 
good spirits. 

From his house the Bey accompanied us through the 
town, which has some picturesque places, surrounded by 
plantains, to the mosque, situated over the ravine. It lies 
at the end of the cemetery, and has a splendid view over 
the plain, sea, mountain, and the confused Oriental town. 
This little mosque with the Turks is celebrated for a le- 
gend. A holy Santon, I do not know why, was beheaded on 
the height opposite the ravine. His head remained on the 
place of execution, but his body was buried where the 
mosque stands. The Santon, eager to preserve his integrity, 
to the astonishment and terror of the Avlonians, ran across 
the ravine, seized his head, and carried it under his 
arm like a pumpkin. It was related to us by Eeinecke, 
who was rejoiced at being able to converse with a German. 
He assured us with some emphasis that he had left ' the 
city of intelligence,' and had retired to primitive countries, 
because he felt himself too much of a man and too free to 
bend to every * Geheimrathin ' (wife of a privy-councillor). 


Now it cannot be denied that the c Geheimrathinnen ' 
are as plentiful in Berlin as sparrows are with us. So 
that on the banks of the Spree, a well-educated person 
must be rather flexible ; but from this I concluded that I 
had to do with one of those very enlightened gentlemen 
who prefer to wear the shining fez, to lead a pasha by 
the nose, and to have Turkish subjects at their disposal, 
rather than live in their own country within the old and 
customary pales of society. In order to please our Austrian 
hearts, he assured us that he was very sorry that his great 
king had not in 1850 marched victoriously against Austria. 
I calmly assured him, with a condescending smile, that it 
would be difficult for anyone to conquer who has lost his 
own stand-point, and that an old honest proverb teaches 
that 'Pride comes before a fall.' Reinecke was silenced, 
and our agent breathed freely. 

On my way home through the disgusting nooks of the 
town, I visited the Greek disunited church, a rather 
large but dirty building, in the typical style of all Greek 
churches. We were escorted by a splendid Greek Pope, 
as handsome as an Apollo, with regular Grecian features, 
and splendid black eyes. 

There is no Catholic church in Avlona, and Padre Negri, 
of Durazzo, provides the few Catholics living here with 
spiritual consolation. We dismissed the Bey, Eeinecke, 
and all belonging to them intra muros, and then proceeded 
to the coast on horseback, whence we raced to our beloved 
corvette. Of course my fine English boat, the most valued 

legacy of my poor friend K , came off victorious. It 

was rowed by the four best oarsmen, and darted over the 
waves like a swallow. However, I thought that though 
victorious, the men had not rowed well, or fast enough, 
and as a punishment they had to row about in the same 
boat from midnight to one o'clock. 

It was one of those ghostlike midnights when the moon- 


lit silver-bright sea is not stirred by a breath, and a mys- 
terious mist hangs over the flood like a charmed veil; 
when the mountains appear doubly tall, the stars doubly 
luminous ; when the softest stroke of the oars sounds far 
over the plain of water ; and when one feels so plea- 
santly uneasy, so isolated, and yet so independent. To 
this day it is still a puzzle with the sailors why their com- 
mander ordered this excursion at this ghostly hour. 

We had heard some whispers about a present of provi- 
sions which the Bey intended for us ; this I desired to 
evade. To this intolerable custom of the East I had con- 
vinced myself that Avlona was of no use whatever, in a 
Catholic point of view. Early in the morning of the 21st 
I set sail to return home to the Dalmatian coast. 

As the light breeze carried us from our anchorage, we 
heard the battle of the Bey destined for the corvette low 
longingly from the shore. The mouths of many may have 
watered, but I was very glad to have nothing connected 
with Turkish Albania. It is a most promising country as to 
the future, but at present its riches consist of disappoint- 
ments as to its towns, its people, and its boar-forests. 



November 10, 1859. 

AFTER a summer replete with anxiety, and a mild 
autumn, which rather resembled spring than the sorrow- 
ful season of decay (since roses, deliciously fragrant 
violets, and ravishing orange-blossoms sparkled in lovely, 
verdant, wave-encircled Miramar), the first melancholy 
warnings of winter suddenly appeared, borne rustling on 
the icy northern blast, and relentlessly destroying both 
flowers and illusions : the north wind raged around our 
little garden-home, and disturbed the dreams of our last 
home night by a * memento mori,' which consigned us 
fugitives to winter. The morning was calm, at short 
intervals, up to the hour of our leave-taking ; and one 
might truly say that my loved Miramar displayed itself 
for the last time in its full, heart-winning, Southern 
splendour. I hastened through the garden with the 
rising sun, plucked the last violet, then cast my glance 
on all around, and departed in the boat from the marble 
steps, not without a feeling of deep melancholy in my 
heart. Ere long the wheels of the brave little 'Phantasie ' 
whirred round, the guns from the battery thundered their 
farewell salute, and we sped forth into my favourite element. 
On all sides, shadows lay over shore and sea : Miramar 
alone gleamed in the clear autumn sun wherein I saw a 
favourable omen of peace. Boldly we danced in our faith- 
ful and already oft-proved 'Phantasie' over the foaming 


and storm-vexed sea towards Pola, whither some naval 
affairs summoned me. My visit at this time had regard to 
the beautiful floating dock, now nearly completed, and to 
the newly opened Arsenal. In Pola, the north wind raged 
so fiercely that it froze one into ice to one's very bones. 
I was vexed at this, although probably the solitary and 
last winter's day; for I had hoped to smuggle myself, un- 
molested by any such, into the life-giving tropics; and 
to have passed unscathed from genial autumn, rich with 
flowers, into smiling spring. 

November 11. 

The north wind increases over our heads, and compels 
us to yield to it. We had scarcely quitted the harbour 
this morning in the ' Phantasie ' (which is not calculated 
for a stormy sea), and begun our delightful dance upon the 
waves, before the elements became so tumultuous that the 
fragile bark laboured hard in the trough of the sea, and 
quivered, groaning and sighing, beneath the icy storm. 
The Quarnero lay before us, covered with foam and in wild 
confusion : to have attempted to traverse it in so small a 
vessel would have been an impossibility. We were com- 
pelled to submit to circumstances, and to do that which is 
above all things disagreeable to seamen and travellers 
namely, to put back. 

We spent a wearisome day in our cabins, windbound off 
Pola. Reading, writing, discussions about the voyage, 
and music, helped us through it. We are purchasing 
dearly the genial climate that we seek : but then, so much 
the sweeter will be the relish. 

November 12. 

North wind ! nothing but north wind ! universal misery ! 
Winter is young and strong ; he will not quit us, he finds 
that by certificate of baptism we belong to his region, and 
makes good his rights. Good temper on board ship falls 


with the thermometer : if this weather continue we shall 
soon be at zero. The sun smiles, and the sky is of a 
deeper blue than it can ever hope to appear in Germany. 

November 13. 

North wind, with howling and gnashing of teeth ! The 
storm has claimed its victim: in the course of the forenoon 
the Lloyd's steamer ' Vulcan ' ran into Pola, and brought 
the intelligence that the large mail steamer 'Bombay' had, 
on her voyage from Egypt, been driven on shore at Unie 
with her full steam on. This splendid ship now lies high 
and dry, and is looked on as lost. It was a lesson to us : 
what could our poor ' Phantasie,' light as a feather, have 
done under such circumstances? A friend also arrived 
with news from Trieste. There the storm had raged in 
its full fury. Chimneys flew about, one house was partially 
carried away, two iron candelabra were thrown down on 
the Corso, carriages were overturned, and one poor woman 
was killed. The steamers in the roadstead were forced to 
get up steam and to veer out more chain-cable. Nothing 
like it has been experienced for years. 

H. M. S. ' Elizabeth,' November U. 

At last release came. In spite of wind and weather 
our powerful travelling palace, the ( Elizabeth,' well 
equipped, steamed proudly into the harbour. The last 
box was hastily secured, one last parting meal shared by 
those who were to remain and those who must go; and 
then, not without feelings of sadness, we quitted the 
* Phantasie,' and our faithful friends. With a cold 
easterly wind but with a bright sun, we stood out into the 
open, blue, billowy sea, at about half past three o'clock in 
the afternoon. Every one now set to work with all speed 
to adjust and arrange the chaotic confusion in the cabins ; 
and to make it give place to a pleasing and agreeable air 


of comfort. The Quarnero made good his ancient rights ; 
the 'Elizabeth' danced on the waves, and Neptune claimed 
his tribute from many a novice. 

November 15. 

This morning we touched at Spalatro in order to send 
off despatches for Trieste. When I came on deck, there 
lay before me in the warm sunshine the prettj town, 
rendered familiar to me by frequent visits. Extended 
above it was a clear pellucid sky, against which the giant 
mountains were boldly outlined in abrupt, noble forms, 
warmly painted in glowing, living tints by the Southern 
sun ; whilst the sharply-cut, rocky projections of the 
cliffs were lost in the soft, calm ocean, which gleamed like 
a turquoise. In the midst of this Southern indeed, I 
might say Oriental scene, encircled by dazzling light, and 
close to the sea, lay the town, with its lofty, gleaming 
towers (which were constructed during the middle ages in 
airy arcades, from the costly fragments of the columns of 
the Roman villas), and with the magnificent Palace of 
Diocletian extending far along the shore, from whose 
ancient rows of grey pillars the modern houses built within 
peeped, like eyes of roguish children, from behind a large 
iron grating. To the left, on the headland, up which a 
portion of the town is spreading, stood a fine palm which, 
greeted me, bowing its majestic crown in such a manner 
that my heart became softened, and I sang the words of 
one of my old songs : 

"Tis only well with me where palm trees wave. 

Lively barks, with coloured sails and gaily-dressed people, 
passed merrily across the smooth, blue sea. Over the whole 
scene was spread the warm silvery mist of Southern life, 
the first, fresh breath of a genial climate, which thrilled 
powerfully through the heart, like a glance from beauteous 
eyes, like a cheering welcome from loved lips. To him 


who knows the South, there is heartfelt rapture in seeing 
it once again, a cairn and tranquil happiness pervades his 

When I once more beheld Spalatro, and drank in the 
delicious, sunny scene with eager eyes, I thought to myself 
that wise old Diocletian was right, (when in the midst of 
the repose of Spalatro, in his self- created corner of peace, 
in which he had succeeded in uniting art and nature in so 
imperial yet peaceful a Tusculum, they repeatedly offered 
him the alluring sway of the world), to say, ' Eather would 
I plant my pretty cabbages in Salona's unruffled tran- 
quillity, than grasp again at the power whereby I was, for 
years long, lord of the wide world, and thereby the most 
compl ete slave of all the children of the world.' 

He had the magnanimity to renounce fame, and he never 
repented it. He, the wise, the deep-thinking Prince, who 
had tasted to the dregs of all that human passion could 
give, preferred to lead in retirement the self-sufficing life 
of a philosopher, far removed from deceit, meanness, and 
fraud. He had tasted of all ; to him there was nothing 
new under the sun ; what, therefore, could be to him of 
greater value than abstraction from the odious throng of 
men, a genial, serene climate, the study of the arts and 
sciences, those never-exhausted sources of consolation, and 
his plants, which grew and throve under his hands? 

Throughout the entire day we were passing along the 
beautiful shores of the islands of Dalmatia, so familiar to 
me. Evening, whose mellow hues lay warm on the rocky 
heights in ever-changing tints, presented us with gorgeous 
pictures, such as she never presents to the North, in spite of 
its Alpine glow. At half-past eleven o'clock, on a dark 
and rather raw night, we arrived in the harbour of Gravosa. 

Gravosa, November 16. 

Bevelling in cheerfulness of heart, and amid playful 


jokes, our gay, mingled, and confusedly checkered little 
party rounded the Peak of Lapat towards nine o'clock, 
and passed the Pettini, so dangerous in stormy weather 
(naked rocks, which have their name from their similarity 
to a large comb), and along the high hilly coast towards 
Lacroma, the ever-green, fairy isle, which my wife pur- 
chased a month ago. The scene which unfolds itself on 
this voyage is worthy of notice, on account of the gigantic 
and beautifully-traced mountain outlines ; also on account 
of the profusion of ever-green olives and cypresses climbing 
up the hills, and of the sharp, cleft, rocky banks, with their 
tints of yellow ochre brightening into vermilion ; and also 
on account of the mysterious grottoes, and of the dark- 
green sea-pines growing fearlessly from the fissures of the 
rocks, and of the deep-blue islands strewn around as by 
poetic fancy. 

The country possesses a grandeur of character which 
unites within itself the proud mountain forms of Greece 
with the picturesque coast scenery of the south of Italy and 
the vegetation of Sicily. Thus the sea appears quite as deep 
and blue as at Palermo, and the sky is vaulted clear and 
pure in its diamond-like glitter as that of the Archipelago. 

We passed the rock-supported walls of Kagusa with their 
embrasures and inlets, the old patrician town with its blue 
domes and its palm-trees, and rowed quickly to the eastern 
side of our island. Not without deep melancholy did we 
view the foremast and jibboom of the brig 'Triton,' which 
in last spring sank into the cold ocean, with so many of 
our brave men, standing forth from the mirror of the sea 
like a cross standing over a grave. In a still harbour, with 
strange, bold, seaworn, rocky figures, and shaggy from the 
luxuriant myrtles, pistachio plants, and ericas intertwined, 
we disembarked at a small Mole. A paved road lying 
between evergreen shrubs led us to the Abbazia, a large, 
grey, square, ancient building, our future seat, which is so 


situated in the centre of this lovely island on a fruitful 
plain, that from it one has towards the south a view over 
the blue boundless ocean; towards the east, of the snow- 
covered giants of Cernagosa and of the olive-clad coasts of 
Bresso and Eagusa Vecchia ; northwards, on the right, the 
island rises into a considerable elevation, thickly overgrown 
with shrubs, and picturesquely crowned by a small well- 
built fort; on the left, the eye discovers on the other 
half of the island, and lying close to the monastery, a 
magnificent dark-green forest of Pinus pinea, Pinus mari- 
tima, Pinus halepensis, and Quercus sempervirens with 
thick underwood of myrtles, pistachio plants, junipers, and 
arbutus bushes, high as trees. The building was erected 
in 1023 by some Benedictines from the island of Tremiti ; 
the monastery (which conferred pontifical rights and im- 
portant privileges upon its Abbot, and was endowed with 
large property, and held in high esteem) existed until the 
fall of the Republic of Ragusa in the last century. Richard 
Cceur de Lion had vowed a pilgrimage thither ; and, in 
returning from Palestine, was wrecked in a violent storm 
on this island, where homage was paid to the rescued 
monarch by the Senate and its Rettore. In the sixteenth 
century the monastery was completely plundered by a 
pirate. The fearful earthquake in the year 1676 destroyed 
a portion of the building, which even at the present day 
lies in picturesque ruins. 

Our first expedition was to the pine forest, at whose foot, 
amid the rocks of the sh'ore, is situated the so-called Mar 
Morto, a small still lake, which peeps forth from the 
splendid group of rocks like a large dark eye, and has 
only a subterranean communication with the sea. Nature, 
in her utmost luxuriance, presses through the heart of the 
rifted rocks down to the very sea-coast ; dark oaks cen- 
turies old, dark green pines, and peaceful myrtles, are 
mirrored in the crystal flood. Unbroken silence reigns on 


these undesecrated shores of the Mar Morto, and only 
some few birds send forth their gentle warblings from the 
fragrant thickets. This little lake is one of the loveliest 
spots that I know upon earth. Here one might well 
devote oneself to reading Byron. Some few steps further 
on, we come to a natural bridge of rock, through which 
the blue sea is visible, and beneath whose arch the sea- 
water collects in a large beautiful stone basin, forming the 
most delicious natural bath that can be imagined. Hard 
by, a deep cleft in the rock, in which one can hear the 
waters roaring as it were mysteriously, tells of the sub- 
terranean junction with the Mar Morto. The crags all 
around jut out into the frothing sea in wild jagged shapes, 
and in their principal feature are arranged in rocky ledges, 
torn asunder and piled on each other, by which one may 
ascend as byVide marble steps. 

A cool -sea-breeze followed us into the evergreen wood, 
the peculiar pride of this island, so enriched with the 
beauties of nature. As if in a primeval forest, we had to 
press forward through the tangled underwood and the fan- 
tastically twining parasites : a fresh perfume was exhaled 
from shrubs and trees, and the majestic repose of this 
world of pathless green was only broken by the roar of the 
sea, and by the flight and song of the birds. The ladies 
made their way bravely through the thicket : as a reward 
we plucked for them myrtle blossoms, which a complete 
little wood of myrtle bushes (through which we at last 
again arrived at the Abbey) furnished in profusion. At 
the monastery a strengthening breakfast awaited us. 
Whilst we were refreshing ourselves, our nimble sailors 
erected a high flagstaff on the old grey tower ; and, amid 
three cheers, the white and red banner rose in the air. 
After our repast I explored the entire of the vast building, 
examined the large church (now turned into a storehouse 
for hay), the lordly cellars in the rock a necessary foun- 


dation for monastic solitude, wandered through cells and 
passages, discovered the beautiful Kubric of the whole an- 
cient Koman church, inspected the oil-press at its accurate 
work, and our beautiful new oil -stores ; and admired the 
dark green orange-trees of a century old in the monastery 
garden. I then took one more walk in the extensive planta- 
tions, where even the women, in their pretty morlakisch cos- 
tume, with red boddice and white veil, were gathering the 
fruit. It was a scene which reminded me forcibly of Greece. 
Lofty evergreen oaks, with creepers growing around them, 
formed a,n exquisite boundary between the terraces of 
olives and the sea. Delighted with all that we had seen, 
and congratulating ourselves on the day on which we had 
purchased this lovely island, we returned homewards in 
our boat. The sea rolled in broad waves, and compelled 
us, out of consideration for the ladies, to run into the old 
historical Porto Cassone di Eagusa. 

Bounding the towering walls of the city, against which 
the sea was breaking, and from which the holy Blasius 
with his crozier looked down blessing us, we came into the 
small harbour, picturesquely protected by the ancient 
Mole ; then through the Porta Marina immediately upon 
the Square, which is surrounded by the beautiful Dogana 
with its richly ornamented bay windows, the half-destroyed 
Palace of the Doge with its rich colonnade, and the church 
of S. Blasius, built of marble in the modern Eoman style. 
"We went through the long, broad Strada dei Signori, 
bordered with palaces, and remarkably well paved with 
marble, past the splendid Franciscan monastery, with the 
lovely Ex voto-Capelle to the picturesque double gate 
called Porta Pile ; out through this to the promenade, 
which is adorned by handsome trees and a charming foun- 
tain, and which is surrounded by attractive villas, with 
palms, mimosas, aloes, and oleanders : we took a carriage, 
and with the setting sun, we rolled over the magnificent 



Bella Vista, with its extensive rock-framed prospect 
reaching to the sea, down into lovely Gravosa. 

Gravosa, November 17. 

Already with early dawn we departed for Lacroma. We 
took advantage of the fine day to walk in. the morning air, 
refreshing alike to heart and mind, along the road so dear 
to me, over Bella Vista to Porto Cassone : from thence we 
caused ourselves to be conveyed in the boat over the fresh 
sea, and we landed this morning at the garrison jetty. 
We strolled to the elevated fort, from which one gazes 
down upon a wondrous panorama of islands and coasts. 
The day was very favourable ; the air mild as in spring, 
the tints Sicilian. On coming down we saw a very ex- 
tensive olive-garden, whose slope was terraced ; and dis- 
covered to my great joy a considerable reservoir of sweet 
water. The road conducted us over fresh turf along the 
rocky shore to the Abbazia. At its termination we -found 
a beautiful natural bower of myrtle and bryony, which the 
most skilful gardener could not have twined more ex- 
quisitely. In the Abbey all went on wildly and madly to-, 
day. I ordered walled-up windows to be opened, doors 
to be broken through, pointed out walls which this winter 
would certainly destroy, and revelled in the rubbish of a 
century. We dived into a large cistern, into subter- 
ranean vaults, and into an arched tomb, in which we still 
found many bones. To the spirits of the departed monks 
it must have been very strange once more to hear all this 
life, this hammering, these blows, resounding in their 
forsaken halls, It was delightful to see how, with the 
progress of the work, the view of the warm blue sky, the ' 
golden sun penetrated through the reopened windows. 
We then walked leisurely down the wonderfully-formed 
ledges of rock to the shore, on which the surf raged wildly. 
We collected mussel-shells, seaweed and tufa, which last the 


sea must have brought over from the Italian coast, and 
it danced merrily upon the billows. On the south side of 
the island, we to-day found two gigantic and picturesque sea- 
grottoes, one of which, framed by enormous ledges of rock, 
had an appearance resembling that of an Egyptian temple. 
Laden with a magnificent melon, and some of the sweet 
wine of the island, we returned home, rather tired after our 
seven hours' excursion. 

H. M. S. 'Elizabeth,' November 18. 

After having, whilst it was still early morning, received 
the mail, the newspapers, and our luggage from home, we, 
at about nine o'clock, steamed away from our Fatherland. 
The thunder of the guns from Lacroma and Eagusa gave 
us a farewell salute. In the distance I beheld the hills of 
Bocche di Cattaro, which had become so endeared to me by 
frequent visits and lengthened residence. The sea ran 
high, the ' Elizabeth ' pitched and rolled heavily, and very 
soon the ship became an earthly vale of woe. The number 
of the brave grew ever less and less : and at mealtime I 
was already obliged to keep guard over the plates and 
dishes with the small band still remaining faithful. 

November 19. 

Continued motion, ever-returning rain, horror alike in 
the elements and in existence ; opportunity for practising 
philosophy under affliction for hours together. The sea 
was unfettered, the ship unmanageable, and, with the ex- 
ception of the Princess A T and myself, all were 

ill and faint at heart. He who is a sailor knows the un- 
failing, never-deceiving, theory of the bird of ill omen ; 
one such fortune-forsaken, storm-persecuted individual we 
unfortunately have on board ; and, as is always the case 
with this bird, every one recognises him by instinct, 
though he himself never : thus it was that from over-great 
zeal, they had shipped a table service for us under the 



ominous name of ' Storm Service.' A sailor has a horror 

of meeting with such individuals. 

November 20. 

Storm during the night ; the ship rolled as in all my 
many sea voyages I had never felt one roll before ; in the 
cabins all things flew about in confusion and medley against 
each other. Noise and motion scared away all sleep. 
Towards nine o'clock we fled, storm-tossed, into the Faro 
di Messina. The sky was leaden, there was rain every 
quarter of an hour, the sea raged now grey, now green ; 
the coast, so magnificent before, was now in its winter 
sunless garb, bare, bleak, and colourless. Not a spark of 
poetry lay in the whole picture. One solitary advantage had 
we gained after days of heavy struggling, that we were 
now decidedly within the zone of a milder climate. The 
damp wind was warm. About eleven o'clock we anchored 
off the oft- visited Messina, in order to allow our sick and 
sorrowful to regain their composure. The bad weather 
prevented us from visiting the land. We made use of the 
precious season of repose to arrange our cabins, which had 
been thrown into confusion, to repair the damages caused 
by the storm, and to make all fast or sea. 

November 21. 

The weather had cleared, the air was unusually mild 
and balmy. We took advantage of the morning, and made 
a little excursion through the town, visited the public 
gardens, where the trees were still thickly covered with 
foliage, and all things were in blossom and bud, wandered 
through the Cathedral and its handsome Square, and pur- 
chased fresh excellent figs. Meanwhile our artist, with his 
own peculiarly quick and skilful readiness in his art, drew 
a charming panorama of the city. The physician ordered 
scientific instruments for future observations, whilst an- 
other fished for molluscas and medusas for our collection. 


About three o'clock we met at a cheerful meal, at which 
our Consul, a lively man of considerable conversational 
powers, assisted : and at half-past five o'clock we steamed 
out to the Faro. The sun shot forth some of his purple 
beams as a farewell, and the majestically formed hills of 
Calabria glowed in gratitude. 

Strange country, Naples and Sicily ! Each time that I 
see these lands again, their climate and scenery enchant 
and intoxicate me ; and each time I shudder again at their 
condition. No people of Europe, except perhaps the Lap- 
landers, stand in so low, demoralized, and sunken a position. 
No government of the nineteenth century troubles itself 
so little about the spirit of the age, and the rights of man, 
as this. For centuries governments, in part bad and trea- 
cherous, in part stupid, have succeeded each other, under 
which the notion has, little by little, established itself 
firmly that the ruler can do all things, and do all without 
check. Louis XIV. first broached the axiom that a prince 
is responsible to Grod only. The Almighty Lord our God 
is far distant, and does not* speak with the words of men : 
and His fiats, even if one should be obliged to interpret 
them as punishments, would ever be in favour of the ir- 
responsible. This despotic Prince had his axiom to thank 
for his severe losses of fortune. Those only who have not 
followed it, and who have adhered firmly to the honourable 
path of rectitude, stand unendangered. Here, nothing has 
taken place to raise the country or people ; they have no 
railways, indeed not even roads by which to convey the 
great natural wealth for the purposes of commerce. Justice, 
the inalienable right of the people, is administered in such 
a manner as that only the powerful can gain a lawsuit. 
The great are feared beyond measure; enthusiasm is 
scouted, and the spirit of co-operation is nipped in the 
bud : and yet this is the one and true productive power of 
the nineteenth century ; without it a State must fall into 


decay. Yet her last King, in carrying out a system which 
he knew how to conduct with consistency and energy, had 
his adherents ; whilst his successor, the innocent heir of a 
fatal inheritance, will never probably be in a position to 
prove whether he had the intention of ruling according to 
these better principles. The people now sing : 

Vivan di Napoli i maccaroni, 

Che ban piu credito de' euoi padroni ! 

And what might not wise and just hands make of this 
country ! God has given it all things, all the richest pro- 
ducts of nature in abundance ; but they must go forth in 
their rough and unwrought state, to be transformed in the 
factories of foreigners, and sent home again as the neces- 
saries of Jjfe. Money also is at hand, but the people send 
it as dead capital to the cassa communale, in order to 
secure it from the frequent attacks of robbers. Eight 
millions lie in Messina, in an idle unemployed mass. The 
people of Messina asked for the boon of being allowed to 
establish a bank, but met with no attention from the 
government at Naples. Manual la,bour would also be 
cheap, a favourable agent for the beginning of manufac- 
tures. This may serve as a proof; we, with ease, found 
men in Messina who conveyed coals on board for eleven 
kreutzers a ton, whilst in Gravosa we could obtain no 
porters for a gulden. In conclusion, one example of how 
things stand in this country with the civil officers, who 
are looked upon as thieves : a Messinian servant of the 
state was lately made happy by the receipt of the following 
appointment by decree : 

' Visti i meriti distinti del di Lei signer padre, ed i lunghi 
servigi da Lei prestati gratuitamente, noi la nominiano ad 
Aggiunto presso 1'esazione delle imposte indirette in Mes- 
sina provvisoriamente, fuori di numero e senza soldo, affine 
che possa provvedere onestamente ai bisogni della sua 


famiglia.' (Having observed the distinguished merits of 
your father, and your long and gratuitously rendered ser- 
vices, we nominate you provisionally to the agency for' 
the levying of indirect taxes in Messina, as a supernumer- 
ary, and without salary, in order that you may provide 
honestly for the wants of your family.) 

November 22. 

The golden sun shone brightly and genially into the 
cabins ; the deep-blue sky smiled upon us on deck with 
life-giving .warmth, as it also smiled down gaily on the 
matchless Mediterranean. It was a morning: like one in 


delicious May, the air balmy and exhilarating. On our 
left lay magnificent Sicily, with its grand beautiful moun- 
tain-chains, with its bold precipices, and proud Alpine 
peaks, which Eaphael depicted with so much affection. 
We beheld the extent of country stretching from the 
summit of Monte Pellegrino across flowery Palermo to 
Cape Trapani : in the centre was the broad lovely bay of 
Castellamare. Beyond Sicily, stretched far out into the 
blue distance, lay the picturesque islands of Levanso and 
Maritimo ; on the right of our vessel, the contour of the 
island of Ustica was visible. To-day's summer morn was 
an offering of reconciliation to all spirits that had been 
suffering at sea, and had been distressed by the storm. In 
the evening we had a heavy squall of wind and rain, which 
might, however, almost be deemed a beneficent refresh- 
ment. The night was bright with stars, and a mild breeze 
rustled from the African deserts. 

November 23. 

Bright, clear sky ; calm, deep-blue sea ; and a warm 
summer air. The sublime monotony of the solitude at 
sea was only broken in upon in the course of this day, by 
the appearance of a man-of-war bird (Thalasandroma), 
circling round the ship, and by a shoal of dolphins, which 


gave chase to the high-bounding Palamiden. The tempe- 
rature in the afternoon, with a cloudy sky, reached almost 
to 16 Eeaumur ; the water, 15. In the evening the south 
wind freshened. 

November 24. 

It was true that the sun shone brightly and warmly ; 
but the sea was getting up, and there were again many 
sufferers. The day passed according to the usual regular 
ship life. 

November 25. 

To-day a cold wind blew stormily from the West. 
Large masses of snow in Spain must have been the cause 
thereof. The ship plunged heavily, big waves broke over 
her forecastle and floated everything moveable hencoops 
with their djing occupants, casks, brooms, kitchen-utensils, 
and so forth, in motley confusion ; the spray spattered in- 
cessantly like thick, cold, salt rain ; the rude wind whistled 
through the creaking rigging; and the mighty billows 
dashed against the wearied, quivering, and labouring ship. 
The elements raged in strife ; and in the midst of all this 
wild confusion, a work of peace was solemnized on board 
a betrothal. The mysterious ways of love are inscrutable; 
calmly and quietly, yes, slowly and phlegmatically, had 
love begun his work : two cool, composed hearts had found 
one another; and Cupid was slow in disturbing the fire 
concealed beneath the ashes. Still and surely, without 
youthful hurry, had it smouldered on. The power of 
habit had slowly ensnared the loving pair : all came so 
gradually, so prudently, so calmly, so naturally, that no 
one was astonished, no one talked, and the only surprise 
would have been if the good little people had not at some 
time settled down together. The whole affair was as 
though one's grandfather became engaged to one's grand- 
mother. Suddenly the storm bursts forth, the waves 


roar, the billows rise mountains high, the elements whistle 
and rave, the young lady becomes unwell, the bridegroom 
stares stupidly before him into the waves, and the placid 
pair, akin in spirit, united in heart celebrate their 
betrothal in a storm in the Mediterranean Sea ! Contrasts 
are productive of good : love sprang up shyly, like a still 
grass-covered brook ; in the strife of the sea, he became a 
despot. May sunshine come after the storm ! It was so in 
nature. We had a magnificent sunset : just as we had raised 
our glasses to wish the mature bridegroom long years of 
happiness, Helios sank in a glow of purple and gold behind 
the splendid mountain peak of Cape de Palos. Amid the 
parting beams of the sun, I joyfully hailed my beautiful 
Spain for the fourth time in the short space of eight years. 

November 26. 

A mild night calmed the sea and cleared the Southern 
sky. A happy instinct summoned me on deck while it 
was yet early morning. On the dark-blue sea of Cape de 
Gata, and still concealed in deep, almost nightlike, shadow, 
lay before me the mountainous coasts of Spain in their 
bold outline, and with their snow-capped Sierra Nevada 
reaching high as heaven. In the distant east, behind the 
highest peak of the mountains, the pure atmosphere 
melted into gold ; that portion which glowed like molten 
metal swelled under the influence of the rising sun. Some 
few light, floating, and diamond-like, glistening clouds 
then appeared as harbingers ; and suddenly the sun stood 
before us, triumphant in the plenitude of his regal might. 
The sea in its burnished silver danced for joy, and the 
Sierra Nevada blushed rosy red with a flush like that of 
glad delight. Slowly the colours of the hilly coast mel- 
lowed; the blue deepened into violet, from that into 
rose colour, and finally the warm glow of the rising sun 
gilded the coast also, and gave birth to those dark shadows 


of clefts, ravines, and valleys, whict at early morning and 
late evening lend so peculiar and mysterious a charm to 
the forms of the Southern mountains. 

The day began fine and warm, as is the peculiar and 
enviable privilege of this country. We now steered along 
the beautiful and romantic coasts which I have already 
described. At our morning repast it was resolved, amid 
cheerful voices, to keep Sunday in gay warm Malaga, in- 
stead of spending it coldly in the Sabbatarian regions of 
England ; and the more so because our ship needed to be 
dressed before she could present herself to the united 
fleet in Gibraltar. The sea of the previous day had struck 
us hard ; indeed, in one heavy pitch we had even carried 
away one jibboom, which was quite fresh and new. Thanks 
to the power of steam, we could near the land during the 
day. It was* a panorama rich in beauty and in colouring, 
which spread itself before us, and which presented to us 
one of the most magnificent collections of charms that I 
have ever beheld in all my many travels. The outlines 
and tones of colour of these hills resembled none other. 
Numerous dusky shadows fell within their deep bold 
chasms. In the centre we saw mountains of a rich brown 
hue, like tobacco, unmixed with any other tint : we noticed 
declivities of bright shades of green, amid which patches 
of level ground of a deep red beamed with ruddy glow ; 
next glistened one solitary white rock, hard by a black 
boulder, set among stones of ochre and gold colour. In 
the background towered ponderous, rugged, giant masses 
of basalt, and above these gleamed the white crests of the 
Sierra Nevada. From time to time the mountains in the 
centre were broken by hollows extending to the plain, in 
which lay small friendly towns, with churches, towers, 
castles, and villas pillowed in turf that shone like emeralds. 
There are pictures of tranquil nature strewn about amidst 
this giant scenery, which, flung like slighted gems between 


the sea and the bare walls of rock, surprise one doubly by 
their kindly and unexpected charm. Thus we saw lovely 
Alraunecar, a Jittle seaside town, of 2,100 inhabitants, 
freshly fringed with large trees and productive sugar and 
cotton plantations. Next came the little town of Torrox, 
with its Moorish shrine, near which a lofty palm-tree 
raises its broad stem ; and in front of which an old fort, 
perched on a black rock, juts out into the. blue sea. After 
this, little Torre del Mar, and then the good-sized, finely- 
situated Velez Malaga, richly set in green. The picture 
which unfolded itself before us was so grand, so over- 
powering, so much heightened by the beauty of the day, 
that none of us would quit the deck or our telescope ; and 
with unmixed gratitude we rejoiced over the beauties 
which our eyes eagerly drank in. On this 26th of November 
we dined, about four o'clock, beneath a warm sun in the 
open air, never ceasing to gaze at and to enjoy the scene. 
The sunset surpassed all that we had hitherto beheld, in 
beauty and splendour of colour ; for here the Spanish sun 
sheds tints of the richest and most varied tones. The sky 
changes its colour with excessive rapidity, and displays, 
between the golden-yellow streaks, hues of actual green. 
The clouds also would seem to endeavour to surpass them- 
selves in the strangeness of their forms : from the Sierra 
Nevada tufts of clouds disengage themselves (if one may 
so say), which, then floating in the air, assume the shape 
of fungi. It was so extraordinary a scene that our artist 
sketched it rapidly^ The entire impression of the evening 
was one powerful and inextinguishable, imprinting itself 
indelibly upon the memory. Only too quickly did the 
wings of night draw a dark veil over one of the most 
magnificent coast-scenes of Europe. 

The clear rays from the excellent lighthouse guided us 
through the darkness into the Roads of Malaga, where we 
dropped anchor at about nine o'clock. 


Malaga, November 27. 

A fine sunny morning greeted us ; a fresh, mild breeze 
was blowing. In spite of some masses of cloud gathering 
in the west, we were able for the first time to leave our 
overcoats and waterproof cloaks on board. We are in 
happy Malaga, where the temperature never sinks below 
twelve degrees above zero (Keaumur) and where rain only 
falls eight days in the year, as was literally the case in the 
year 1850. This warm, well-protected corner of Europe 
boasts also of the tropical vegetation of America. As we 
rowed to the town, the bright morning light had a peculiar 
clearness and purity, rendering individual objects promi- 
nent ; the golden-tinted Cathedral towered high above the 
white sea of houses ; whilst the friendly row of houses on 
the elevated quay, with their airy green balconies, gleamed 
gaily ; and the picturesque ruins of Gibraltar which crown 
the rock were sharply outlined. Passing as it were from 
the South Spanish to the Oriental, we beheld the lofty 
mountain crests lighted up by the young morning sun. 
We hastened to the Cathedral. As I once again traversed 
the broad beautiful Almeida, pressed through the narrow 
crowded streets with their countless balconies, and as the 
Spanish costume rose before my eyes, and the smell of 
the well-known olla podrida ascended to my nostrils, joy 
and gladness took possession of me ; my heart became ex- 
panded and gay ; and my idolizing love for Spain revived 

At the Cathedral we had a long Mass, which caused us 
to be sensible of the want of kneeling stools and chairs. 
We then went again to the Almeida, where now, as at the 
time of happy memory eight years ago, I found our horses 
by the self-same fonda ready to gallop to Buen Eetiro. 
The ladies and Monsignore mounted a caleche harnessed 
with three horses. Since my last visit a very pretty iron 
bridge has been built at the end of the Almeida, which 


spans the bed of the river (here of a considerable width), 
and furnishes proof that the extensive and important iron 
foundries of Malaga have made great progress. We rode 
over the wide plain, which was covered with houses, at a 
rapid gallop, which was no easy piece of work, as we were 
obliged, like bold navigators, to steer between the num- 
berless trains of mules. On this occasion we perceived the 
object of the woodlike masses of reeds, formerly described 
by me, which are placed so strangely bordering the roads, 
as though destined specially as lurking places for the 
robbers : the plantations are designed to protect the fields 
of lower-growing cactus from the cold mountain wind : 
these cactus plants are the scenes of action for the valu- 
able cochineal, with which, in later times, Malaga has been 
driving an important trade. 

But this trial of speed was not the only trial for our 
horses on this day. Suddenly we stood before the broad 
bed of the river which divides the plain in half: it was 
autumn, and the rains in the distant mountains had con- 
siderably swollen the usually quiet stream : it was neces- 
sary, therefore, to exercise great discretion in selecting a 
fording place. Moving slowly on, we passed through the 
river, not without bathing our feet in it : we congratulated 
ourselves that the giddiness occasioned by the rapid stream 
as it foamed around the horses did not cause us to take a 
complete bath. Scarcely had we reached the opposite 
bank when the light equipage, in which our doctor, the 
botanist, and the painter were seated, rolled in. The 
coachman (who according to our agreement should have 
brought the gentlemen to Buen Ketiro long before us) had 
already on the road enquired of the passers-by in anxious 
tones whether he should be able to pass the river. Down 
went the venerable caleche into the flood unhesitatingly, 
with ease and self-confidence ; the horses advanced slowly 
(like the ocean steeds which drew the shell-chariot of 


Neptune) down to the roaring centre of the river ; then, 
where the waves rushed the most swiftly and the carriage 
exactly resembled a punt, suddenly the trace broke ; the 
horses amiably stood still, as though they had been led to 
watering, and drank of the cooling stream ; the horse- 
taming Poseidon stormed and swore in every variety of 
tone and words, swung his powerful whip, and seemed to try 
to control the agitated elements ; but the river concerned 
itself very little about him, and the caleche became like 
the enchanted island ; our Homeric laughter thundered in 
rivalry with the waves from the bank across to the doleful- 
looking occupants of the carriage, whilst these Ariadnes 
were contemplating their helpless condition or the chances 
of a cold grave. Our painter, who proverbially exclaims 
* a scandal ! ' on all occasions, now said in a sorrowful tone 
that it was ' a* great, yes, a very great scandal ! ' We on 
the dry land awaited, not without some little malice, the 
moment when the enraged floods should rise, and overturn 
the vehicle, creating for our friends a brilliant opportunity 
for displaying their presence of mind and skill in swimming. 
At length help appeared in the person of a herculean 
muleteer; the gentlemen had to thank his broad shoulders 
for their lives. It was comical to see how this modern 
Christopher, with his Spanish grandeur, carried the 
cramped, tightly-clasped figures in their travelling costume 
through the roaring stream like little children. During 
this burlesque interlude the ladies came rolling up: for them 
a safer ford was sought, which they passed without delay. 

We proceeded at a brisk gallop. In the distance we saw 
the beautiful Moorish aqueduct lighted up by the sun. 
We came to the village and to the familiar olive grove ; 
the vines were still covered with leaves, and flowers shed 
perfume everywhere, whilst even the felled trees retained 
the green of their foliage. Was it a mild autumn or was 
spring alreadj beginning her work? The sun was bright 


and the weather warm, as with us in flowery summer : the 
larks soared in the blue sky, the swallows made their 
merry circles, and butterflies fluttered from blossom to 
blossom. Between the rocks in the village, I perceived an 
ass, good-temperedly seeking for thistles in the warm sun. 
I rode past him, and thought silently to myself, 'It is 
better to be an ass in Malaga, than to be a scholar in the 
cold damp North.' Hardly had the godless thought arisen, 
than the retributive reply followed on its steps. On the 
next aloe-bordered road we found in the middle of the way 
forsaken by the world, a poor ass in his last agonies, whose 
glassy eyes looked at us entreatingly, seeking for aid. Yet 
truly, among us in the North, even scholars have been left to 
die, and have been beamed on beforehand by no warm sun. 
We sounded the knocker at the gate of Buen Eetiro ; 
after waiting long, the Administrador came out and asked 
us for our ' licentia.' Changes had taken place in Buen 
Retiro, once so freely opened : the beautiful Senorita to 
whom this charming spot of earth belongs has married the 
Conde de Villacazar of Madrid. Her husband has now 
rendered this paradise less accessible. After long discussion 
back and forwards we at last entered. I flew hastily 
through the well-known rooms of the house, and all at 
once I stood again, as if in a dream, on the terrace of this 
fairy home, now bathed in sunlight and bestrewn with 
flowers. Up the walls, round balcony and window, on aH 
sides of me, bloomed the jasmine, casting its perfume far 
and wide ; centifolias unfolded their splendour and their 
fragrance ; the roses of the Alhambra and the Sal via spl en- 
dens glowed with flaming light ; from amid their verdant 
foliage glistened the countless golden fruits of the orange- 
trees ; to the right, the lofty fresh-green crowns of the fruit- 
laden Doubanga of a century old, framed the never-to-be- 
forgotten picture : to the left, the pearl-white marble statues 
of the balustrade, alternating with orange-trees, and large 


fantastic porcelain vases, were sharply outlined against the 
glittering sky. From the depths of the garden, dark 
venerable cypresses upreared themselves towards heaven, 
and formed a grave contrast of colour to the smiling pic- 
ture interwoven with sunny gold : through their topmost 
branches, the ravished eye wandered to the plain, girt 
round by gigantic chains of mountains, at whose extremity 
lay the dazzling sunlit town by the calm cerulean sea. On 
the terrace, the vivifying luxuriance of lavish nature was 
seen clustering around the marble luxuriance of art ; the 
impress it gave was animating, warming, ennobling. At 
such moments the heart blossoms and the winged soul 
would fain soar and sing like the lark in the deep-blue 
sky. Buen Ketiro is a paradise reared aloft ; where, alone 
beneath the shade of trees, centuries old, surrounded by a 
sea of fragrant flowers, one beholds spread at one's feet 
the broad fair earth, the boundless ocean, the world with 
its life and strife, its customs and its struggles ; in whose 
large volume one may turn over the leaves. 

From Buen Ketiro summer never parts, it is always 
arrayed in a rich flowery dress. Our new-comers, who did 
not yet know Spain nor indeed the true South, were over- 
powered ; like one who suddenly steps from the darkness 
into a brilliant hall filled with people, they knew not 
whither first to turn their gaze. We wandered through 
all the loved spots and leafy walks, filled to me with sweet 
memories amid the ever-increasing surprises of the present: 
we passed again through the umbrageous passage beneath 
the broad rich-foliaged Doubanga crowns, beneath whose 
cool shades the fresh mountain springs bubbled up through 
long shell-covered channels ; and we revisited the basin 
with its cypresses high as heaven, and there discovered a 
new plantation of the broad-leaved Musa with numberless 
fruits. We paid our visit to the palms and giant pines, 
and rejoiced in the soft turf and delicious water. It was 


long before we could talk over the Administrador to show 
us the play of the large fountains on the parterres ; he 
complained that the water had been turned for the oil- 
press, and that none was at hand. At last, when our 
whole company were unanimous, the man relented ; the 
cocks were turned, the pipes opened ; we heard the roar 
of the water everywhere, till at length the marvel of Buen 
Eetiro arose : in the long bower the double fountain gushed 
from ground and roof; from the pearly gates the water 
flew down over the arch from shell to shell; in distant 
perspective the Spanish lion cast forth his watery veil into 
the clear brook living with trout; from the countless marble 
vases the fountains leaped and the roaring cascade rushed 
down the broad steps by the balustrade, the shells shone 
in the drip of the flood ; springs pressed forth from among 
the flowers and shrubs of the parterres ; the silvery spray 
danced up over the dark cypress leaves ; the frogs and 
lizards in the large basin emitted their prismatic colours, 
the water-gods took their cool bath, and myriads of water- 
pearls sparkled joyously in the mid-day sun, and strewed 
the turf with rainbow hues high as the blue vault of heaven. 
We enjoyed a comprehensive view of this fairy scene, from 
the vine arbour to the lower extremity of the watery world ; 
and our painter, with more than common talent, knew how 
to repeat it. The skilful artist who created this garden 
has made such use of the ground that all the watery 
images which arise from the earth, surrounded by the dark 
cypress wall, rear their fabulous phantasmagoria between 
the spectators and the golden sun ; lighted from behind, 
this most exquisite volume of water glistens like a sheaf 
of diamonds, and no one pearly drop is lost to the eye. 
The new possessor must be a man of taste and refinement, 
for he has chosen this bower for his dining-hall; and, whilst 
coolly shaded he enjoys his repast in the soft air, he orders 
the little jets to bubble and murmur. No king can dine 



in a more regal manner, nor can offer to his guests any- 
thing more perfect. Buen Eetiro is again in good hands ; 
and whether the Count wander after dinner on the terrace 
with his fragrant havannah, or whether from the marble 
seats of the bower surrounded by perfumed jasmine he 
contemplate, with good digestion, the setting sun as it 
tinges the statues, the oranges, and the roses with purple, 
as it paints the hills and plains with tints of lingering 
regret, he is still a refined and meditative epicure, who 
can never be sufficiently grateful to fate for having allowed 
him to own a share in such a lovely spot of earth. The 
creators of these blended enjoyments were the polished, 
talented Greeks ; the more clumsy Eomans learned from 
them ; with us beer-drinking Germans the taste for such 
is wanting ; besides, we have no sun that smiles and no 
weather that? we can venture to trust, our air is like our 
life, sharp and rough. In the South only, and especially 
among the Italians, can one still find sympathy with the 
good old classical times. 

Memorials of the ancient desert tribes also lie thus 
scattered : we still see the remains of their brilliant 
dreams in Seville, Granada, Cairo, and Damascus. 
The Northern nations are, on the one hand, too intem- 
perate, on the other, too dull-blooded for such con- 
ceptions: the harmonious enjoyment of a noble mind 
comprehends the gerrns of every kind of knowledge; the 
beautiful outlines of architecture, the rich colours of 
painting, the sublime forms of sculpture, the gentle tones 
of music, and blends them with the fragrance of nature, 
the advantages of climate and of seasons, together with all 
that flatters without stupefying the senses, and that 
beautifies life and refines the imagination. On such soil 
talent flourishes, intellect creates, the heart bursts forth 
into poetry and sings. We wished to-day to endeavour to 
share in this harmony, and to take our refreshment on the 


fairy terrace, in the fragrant jasmine-bower ; but a 
guarding angel stood before the door in the person of the 
stern Administrador, who would by no means agree that 
anything whatsoever of edible should be brought within 
the unprofaned precincts of paradise. With dignity and 
with much good sense, he assured us that the garden of 
Buen Retiro was no hotel, and that if he were to give the 
sought-for permission to one solitary individual, ver}^ soon 
hundreds would be wandering hither. They tried to bribe 
him ; he proudly signed back the money, and thus won, 
instead of it, my highest esteem. I, also, am the owner of 
a little paradise, in which many people would like to 
partake of their breakfasts beneath the shade of camellias, 
on a delicate carpet of turf, in sight of the blue Adriatic. 
May a similar Administrador ever be assigned to me ! As 
a single concession he showed us to the dairy farm, as the 
fitting place for our culinary pleasures. Pate de foie gras, 
salmon, Cheshire cheese, and cold meat, were produced, 
bottles were uncorked, and fragrant coffee was made by 

the amiable, ever helpful, and active Princess A , for 

which Monsignore, with unusual talent, boiled the milk ; 
I say 'unusual talent,' because no one grudged him the 
task of manufacturing nice European cream out of Spanish 
goats' milk. Cheerfulness and wit gave spice to the repast 
of the castaways from paradise. I took a full glass of 
sherry to the Administrador, but this also he waved back 
as indirect bribery. ' Proud will I call the Spaniard ! ' 
we are again in the country and among the people from 
whose vocabulary the word * venal ' is struck out. In 
the meanwhile our artist had completed his pretty picture ; 
his constant companion, with eyes unceasingly fixed upon 
him, had been a young Spaniard, with a saucy little velvet 
hat, tight spencer, well-fitting short breeches with silver 
buttons, and rich leathern gaiters, the exact figure of a 
little man. In this country, where every one has an air of 

x 2 


nobility and of self-possession, we at first took him for a 
peasant-boy, and only now discovered that he was the son 
of one of the richest landed proprietors in the neighbour- 
hood. Gracefully thanking me, he accepted some ha- 
vannahs from me. 

It was hard for me to tear myself away from my beloved 
Buen Ketiro, and its exquisite palace : but the short day 
and limited time pressed. We went to one other garden, 
called Abadia, which lies directly in 'the middle of the 
village. The capacious country-house, prettily surrounded 
by arcades supported by columns, belongs to a gentleman 
of Madrid. The large garden contains countless orange- 
trees, which gleamed with the gold of the fruit. In- 
terspersed among the avenues and fragrant flowery walks 
are fields containing serviceable plants in profuse abun- 
dance. A kiosk in the form of an Arab grove interested 
me exceedingly : a brook with flowers growing luxuriantly 
on its banks babbled past it ; a magnificent palm-tree and 
large weeping willows shaded the cool little spot with their 
easily bending branches; it was thickly and pleasantly 
enclosed by an abundant growth of flowers, shrubs, and 
vines. A pretty/ garden provided us with jasmine, helio- 
trope, and freshly fragrant violets. 

We rushed back to the town at full speed. We still 
had time before the ladies came up to linger awhile on 
the gay Almeida. But we saw no lovely Spanish ladies, 
only a great many stiff Englishmen and closely gathered 
groups of Spanish officers, who were conversing, as it ap- 
peared, in a lively manner on the events of the war in 
Morocco. We dined on board ; in the evening we went to 
a theatre, where we were obliged to weary through two acts 
of a Spanish play that at last we might obtain the sight of a 
' precioso baili,' the Xeresana. But the national dance 
was turned into a ballet, and there was only one little 
black-eyed dancer who was at all interesting. The 


principal dauseuse, on the contrary, was a true grenadier, 
and in both movement and dress looked more like the 
instructor at a military swimming school than like an 
Andalusian danseuse. At the theatre also nothing was 
talked of but the war, and it was said that numerous 
wounded men had arrived in Malaga. 

In the night we steamed to Gibraltar. 

Gibraltar, November 28. 

As we sailed round Europa Point a brilliant sun- 
rise glowed on the lofty rock of Gibraltar, which over- 
powered me by its giant form and by the changing 
scenes that it presented : indeed, I may almost say that 
it filled me with reverence, for nowhere does rugged 
nature rise so unbounded, so gigantic, so detached as a 
monolith, in the true sense of the word, from the horizontal 
level of the mirror of the sea. In the lighthouse on the 
extreme point, the sunshine was reflected sharply and 
dazzlingly, as though an electric light were kindled, an 
effect of the rays which I had never before seen to such 
an extent. The African mountains, amongst which the 
war is now raging, still lay in darkness ; but their outlines 
were traced in clear fine lines. As the Bay of Gib- 
raltar opened before us, ship after ship appeared, a 
numerous throng. At Algesiras, lay the Spanish and 
large French squadron; before Gibraltar, the entire, 
powerful English Mediterranean fleet, and two Por- 
tuguese men-of-war. The sight of the French squa- 
dron cut me to the heart, for I had known a portion of 
these ships only too well at the blockade of Venice. 
Amid the English line lay, as flag-ship, the giant 
* Maryborough,' with her 131 guns, the largest man- 
of-war that these waves have ever floated : to me, a dear 
old acquaintance from Corfu. In the commander of the 
English fleet, Vice-Admiral Fanshavve, I was to greet a 
kind friend. The fleets have the task of watching the 


movements of the Spaniards with regard to Morocco, in 
order (as always happens in political affairs), under some 
prescribed circumstances, to make the confusion still greater. 

The form of the clean, friendly town gradually dis- 
played itself, glistening gaily and cheerfully in the sun. 
From the freshly thrown-up earth I again perceived new 
fortification works. The English never rest in Gibraltar, 
they are continually finding anew some place to fortify ; 
the countless military workmen live in unceasing activity ; 
and the Journal pour Rire will soon be in the right 
when it advertises a reward for those who can find a spot 
in Gibraltar on which to dispose of one additional gun. 
Seventeen hundred cannon already adorn the rock. 

Not long after we had anchored, Sir William Codrington, 
the present Governor, came on board, in spite of our 
incognito. He is the hero of the Crimean war, a large, 
handsome man, with silver-white hair, and kindly, merry 
eyes the true type of an English gentleman, with all that 
unaffected friendliness which takes a like response for 
granted. He offered us all imaginable civilities, which, 
however, we declined on account of our incognito. To- 
wards noon we went on shore. My first visit was to the 
shop of my good, honest Hadji Said Gesus. As usual, I 
made purchases among the fantastic objects which Tetuan 
and Tangiers offer. The honest, handsome Moor, in his 
white turban and blue caftan, greeted me, showing his 
white teeth, and with a hearty shake of the hand, as an 
old acquaintance and as one of his excellent customers, 
certain to return. After this, we went to the Park, when 
our whole party mounted on horseback, in order to make 
the so-called tour of the Eock. A subaltern officer with a 
large bunch of keys conducted us to the rocky galleries. 
Before him ran his little dog, a species of small pug : in 
the vicinity of St. George's Hall we suddenly heard a voice 
calling from the distance, 'Messieurs, un chien exotique!' 


It proceeded, as soon became apparent, from a troop of 
French marine officers, who, dreaming as it would seem of 
monkeys, had taken our innocent Battistrada for a wild 
denizen of this wondrous rock. We also peeped about for 
the monkeys, and though we did not see them, did at least 
hear their cries among the palm-bushes. The prospect 
from the Telegraph-tower was unusually distinct to-day in 
the clear but mild winter air, and was magnificent in its 
extent and colouring. It has a view of two continents, 
and the ship-covered straits which connect the boundless 
ocean and the rich Mediterranean Sea also lie open at its 
feet. To-day the sight of the opposite continent was ren- 
dered doubly interesting by a novel scene ; that is, with the 
aid of the excellent telescope in the Telegraph-tower, we 
could distinguish the smoke of battle which arose from a 
struggle going on, at some distance from Ceuta, between 
the Spaniards and the Moors. High over the summit of 
the mountain we saw the victorious banner of the Catholic 
Queen floating. The combat of to-day was strangely 
enough entered upon to celebrate the birthday of the 
Prince of Asturias, whom the Spanish fleet saluted both 
morning and evening with the thunder of cannon. The 
Spaniards were desirous of taking some spot to-day, in 
order to found thereon a town with the name of the Prince. 
The gigantic sergeant in the town (aware of the English 
policy) laughed at it all, and said that it was not so easily 
done, that the Moors fought very well, and that people 
might be driven back again from a conquered spot. All 
Englishmen unanimously set down this war as a farce, but 
surely they laugh from anger, for they would hardly order 
their whole fleet to come from Malta for a farce. At pre- 
sent, the first division of the army, composed of the troops 
originally at Ceuta and of reinforcements sent afterwards, 
is fighting under the command of General Echague. Up 
to this time the struggle must have cost the Spaniards 


from four to five hundred killed and wounded. In the 
Spanish bulletins, the losses of the Moors are naturally 
counted by thousands, and every encounter is represented 
as a glorious victory. Marshal O'Donnell, the Commander- 
in-chief of the expedition, coming direct from Cadiz with 
the third army corps, has landed in Ceuta, where General 
Eos de Olano with the second army corps, and General 
Pim with the reserve army corps, this last by way of 
Algesiras, had already met on the preceding day. Con- 
signments of war material also are unceasing ; and as the 
means of transport of the Spaniards were not sufficient, 
French trading-steamers were hired in Havre and Mar- 
seilles, to effect the greater portion of the shipment of the 
troops. In order further to facilitate intercourse with the 
mother country, an electric wire will in a short time be 
established between Algesiras and Ceuta. In spite of all 
this, the English are inclined to deny any probability of 
success to Marshal O'Donnell, and this on account of the 
immense difficulties which have presented themselves to 
the Spaniards so soon as they have been placed under the 
necessity of being compelled to follow an active, hardy, 
and embittered enemy across pathless mountains, and 
through forsaken villages. Up to the present time, nothing 
has been undertaken by the Spaniards at sea ; but they 
have it in view to commence hostilities on the coast also 
at the earliest opportunity, and to bombard Tetuan, Tan- 
giers, and Mogador. 

At Tetuan, which place is to be captured this day, the 
Spaniards ought to have very easy work, as its fortifications 
(which formerly, as also upon the completion of the works 
of defence after the outbreak of the war, were in a pitiable 
condition, and consisted in old times of a small tower 
overloaded with four insignificant guns, not unlike a dis- 
used windmill in the distance) were honoured by the 
French with a fire of several hours' duration on the 24th of 


this month. The cause of this glorious deed of arms was 
that the French line-of- battle ship, ' S. Louis,' took in 
water at Nelson's fountain an unusual thing in these seas ; 
she was mistaken for an enemy, and was repulsed by some 
cannon-shots from the Moorish gunners, who had pre- 
viously seen the Spaniards land at Ceuta from ships 
carrying the French flag. The * S. Louis ' brought this 
affront to the knowledge of the French Admiral, who, 
with a squadron of screw steamers, the three-decker 
' Bretagne,' the two-decker * S. Louis,' the frigate ' La 
Foudre,' and the steamship ( Ctesiphon,' appeared before 
Tetuan, and expended three thousand cannon-balls, in 
vindication of the honour of his tricolour, upon the pitiable 
walls erected on the shore for defensive purposes. The 
bombardment continued for four hours, and reduced the 
Moorish battery to silence, whereupon Desfosses and his 
ships resumed their old station at Algesiras. According 
to their own account, the French had no wounded. The 
English are on the alert, express their wonder, and make 
diligent preparations for placing Gibraltar fully in a 
position to be able henceforth, under any circumstances, to 
show her iron keys of the ' French lake.' In this place 
one hears only good spoken of the Moors ; and in the 
plaudits of the future, the new Emperor will stand pre- 
eminent, because he has abrogated the barbarous Moorish 
custom of paying a considerable price for the head of 
every enemy: henceforward only half a thaler will be 
paid for each head ; but for every enemy brought alive, 
the bearer will be rewarded with four thalers. In the ac- 
knowledged state of fanaticism at present dominant in 
Morocco, it is of great importance to place self-interest on 
the side of humanity. 

After this fighting episode, we seated ourselves in the 
cleanly, simple, tasteful apartment of the keeper of the 
tower, and strengthened our wearied bodies with delicious 


Cheshire cheese, bread and butter, and capital pale ale, 
which, served on the pretty white service, tasted excellent, 
and invigorated our flagging hearts. We then made the 
customary entire tour round the edge of the rock, be- 
tween beautiful bushes of Chamacrops humilis to the tower 
Oharas ; then down the eastern wall to the unflanked 
batteries, with their interesting distant view, and at last 
along the Europa Point back to the Park. On the way, I 
found a little chiselled-out cave, which was new to me, 
with a stone bed, over which the arms of Douglas are 
carved. In this bed the Marquis of Douglas, eminently 
one of those whimsical people who love solitude, used to 
sleep. Up there he had, at all events, exalted dreams, 
accompanied by the sighing of the storm and the roar of 
the ocean. In a second cave, shut in by a wall of freestone 
with a window pierced through it, Elliot must have dwelt 
with his family during the famous defence. 

On Europa Point we met the Governor, who had 
ridden out to observe the movements of the Spaniards with 
his telescope. He accompanied us on our return. I 
found the Park, with its splendid pines, its numberless 
aloes, and its exquisite orange-trees, in the full luxuriance 
of the verdure of spring. All gleamed doubly soft and 
golden in the gorgeous sunset, and a peculiar perfume 
was shed from the trees and plants. Here also, several 
changes had occurred : they had placed the hideous statue 
of Elliot in the background, and had varnished it brightly ; 
but in its room, had erected to the bedaubed hero a very 
beautiful bronze bust on a marble column. When at 
twilight we reached the Water Gate, the drawbridge was 
already somewhat raised, and, together with the English 
horsemen, we were obliged to clatter our horses over it, 
not without some danger. Throughout the whole town 
the Governor was respectfully saluted : like the haughty 
ruler of a colony, in the old Eoman style, he made no ac- 
knowledgments. A slight Gibraltar boat took us on board. 


But in the evening we were obliged, though half dead 
with fatigue, again to take courage, and journey to the 
Monastery, in order to make a visit to Lady Codrington. 
We found her with her two pretty daughters, and a com- 
pany of officers and official ladies, at her tea-party. People 
shook hands, according to rule ; then seated themselves in 
a semicircle, like the Eoman senators when they receivetl 
the Grauls, and sipped tea. The company were naturally 
strangers to us ; and had less of the grave, simple, 
dignified character of a Court, than in the time of my kind 
friend Sir Eobert Gardiner. The building itself has 
altered to its disadvantage ; formerly, in its complete all- 
pervading simplicity, it possessed a character of grandeur ; 
now, the modern arrangements do not tend to its ad- 

Gibraltar, November 29. 

In the morning I made a visit to my old friend, Vice- 
Admiral Fanshawe, on board the ' Marlborough : ' he re- 
ceived me with the genuine hearty friendship of a true 
English sailor. I again found his ship an unsurpassed 
model of cleanliness and seaworthiness. 

At noon we went on shore ; and, in the oppressive heat, 
strolled first to-day to the * neutral ground,' where the 
English Government, with feelings of humanity, ordered 
a camp to be pitched for the Jews flying from Morocco. 
Altogether, nearly 4,000 Hebrews must have escaped from 
the perils of the scene of warfare; the wealthy found 
shelter in the town ; the poor, about 1,700 in number, are 
encamped on the ' neutral ground ' in six rows of tents : 
we walked through them, incited by the various pictures 
of Oriental character. The Israelites of Morocco all wear 
the Eastern dress : the men, wide white trowsers, slippers, 
a silk caftan with a broad girdle, and either a large, pic- 
turesque, blue cloth mantle with a long pointed hood, or 
a kind of white and brown striped burnous ; they cover 


the head with a small black cap, set far back on the head, 
from beneath which the hair falls over the forehead. The 
black colour of this cap is prescribed to the Jews in 
Mohammedan countries. The women, in their every-day 
attire, wear a white handkerchief, as described in the Old 
Testament, like Kebecca, twisted round the head veil-wise 
hi picturesque folds ; a boddice of divers colours conceals 
the bosom ; a sort of caftan reaches to the knees, beneath 
which the wide trowsers are visible. 

In many of the tents the women, both old and young, 
were sitting, busied with flat cooking utensils ; in others, 
mothers were nursing their little children, or rocking them 
in the cradle brought with them in the flight : in other 
places, on a Turkish pillow, a patriarch with long flowing 
white beaijd, the turban on his bowed head, was seated, 
with crossed legs, in the midst of his family: from the 
darkness of many of the tents, the large lustrous eyes 
of youthful maidens peered out with curiosity and 
surprise at the sight of foreign women; before other 
camps cooking was going forward, the homely earthen 
vessels stood on the fire, while graceful maiden forms, with 
wavy hair and mournful looks, flitted back and forwards, 
laden with pitchers for water ; beneath the roof of other 
tents sat pale wearied figures, the picture of misery ; but 
they all made their salutations in a friendly manner and 
with an expression of gratitude. The men came and went 
with the restless hurry of traders, everywhere dirt, and a 
picturesque disorder and confusion reigned ; we saw heaps 
of torn rags close by gold-embroidered stuffs and Moorish 
jewellery : by the side of the most hideous old women, who 
reminded one of Macbeth's witches, we beheld the most 
beautiful delicate beings, with the wondrous features of the 
East, and the dark, almond-shaped, fascinating, swimming 
eyes. In the face of one young Jewess, by no means 
handsome, who was seated at work in the dusky shadow of 


her tent, ugliness and beauty were actually united ; one of 
her eyes was gone an empty, dead crater ; the other was 
large as I had never beheld one before, and on its pearl- 
white ground glistened a black diamond, whose sparkle 
penetrated to my very marrow and bones. We saw one 
Jew eagerly occupied in reading the Talmud in his tent ; 
he was seated before a board, holding the large book in 
front of him, and he cut marks on the board, probably the 
number of the verses : it was a picture such as Eembrandt 
paints. Everywhere, among, between, and in front of the 
airy houses, countless children were swarming ; I thought 
of the words, 'Ye shall multiply as the stars of heaven 
and as the sand upon the seashore.' The whole scene of 
the camp impressed us deeply : these poor Jews, this family 
of Ahasuerus, wander and wander eternally, without peace, 
without rest, without any certain shelter ! The English, who 
know how to unite humanity with policy, feed the encamp- 
ment ; we saw soup divided from time to time, if these 
Jews returned to Morocco after the termination of the war, 
they will become English propagandists. 

Whilst the ladies explored the Park, I went to the shop 
of the noted Speed, who provides all the ships of these 
well-known straits with sea-stores ; and I sought there for 
all possible English delicacies for our party. In this point 
also the English stand pre-eminent; among them, one 
learns of culinary treasures after the discovery of which 
one does not understand how it was possible previously to 
have done without them. I bought jams made of all ima- 
ginable fruits, excellent Scotch salmon in tins, and all the 
pungent sauces possible. By these means one exalts an 
ordinary breakfast to a pinnacle of gastronomic enjoyment. 
On a sea voyage, the palate needs pungent meats and ex- 
hilarating beverages : both are amply provided on English 
ground. Whilst we were turning over everything in the 
store, an aide-de camp of the Governor came riding up ; 


he brought us, in the name of the latter, an invitation to 
a Jewish wedding. One does not leave such an invitation 
to be repeated ; we hastened to the Park to fetch our ladies, 
and went at full speed to the Convent, where we walked 
with the Governor and his wife in the private garden, 
awaiting the summons to the wedding. The garden is 
rather large and well situated, and contains extraordinary 
specimens of plants delicate-leaved pepper-trees, with 
tender feathery boughs ; splendid palms which are still 
left, descendants from the tending hand of the Franciscans ; 
and the giant Dracaena draco (Dragon's-blood tree), the 
only large specimen in Europe. It is a thick-barked 
fabulous growth of the ancient world, the hippopotamus 
of the kingdom of plants in no way beautiful, but so much 
the more uncommon. Eare shrubs bloomed in full beauty, 
and a Bougainvillea spectabilis climbed up the wall of 
the house. Suddenly an aide-de-camp informed the 
astonished Governor that the Jews would not celebrate 
their marriage until the next day. I now hastened to the 
Club-house to partake of an excellent repast, and then 
made a visit to the Park with the doctor, having botanic 
objects in view. We were soon obliged to hasten back 
panting to the town, in order to reach the ship before the 
closing of the heavy gates. On the way, I met a large 
number of fox-hunters, returning home in red coats, long 
boots, and black velvet caps. They were Al bion's youth, who 
had been hunting the fox the day through, at San Eoque. 

Gibraltar, November 30. 

To-day I had to despatch the mail, and therefore did 
not quit the ship until two o'clock, allured then by the 
Jewish marriage. I hastened to the Park to seek our 
ladies, but found that they had already assembled in the 
garden of the Convent, with the family of the Governor 
and some guests. We went through the Upper Town, and 


passed, between various redoubts, to a rather pretty-looking 
bouse, in front of which the bridegroom and the elders 
received us the richest Jew in Gibraltar, a modernised 
Hebrew in a coat, had accompanied us hither from the 
Convent. Oriental music and nasal singing greeted us at 
the entrance, reminding one of the musicians in the 
Gospels. Dense crowds of Jews pressed from the entrance 
door up the narrow staircase. Escorted by the bride- 
groom, we moved through them; a Hebrew lady with 
large, shrewd, dark eyes beaming with intellect, the 
mistress of the house, attired in a black European dress, 
with an orthodox headgear, through which golden and 
silver pearls were twined in the Oriental style, came to 
meet us, and shook us by the hand in a friendly manner. 
She conducted us into the bridal chamber, a pretty simple 
saloon, in the European style, except that, in spite of the 
brightness of the day, all the candles were burning, as 
evidence of the sanctity of the occasion. The apartment 
glittered with rich jewels and with the lavish gilding and 
magnificently selected and dazzling colours of the gorgeous 
dress, brought from Tetuan and Tangiers for the lovely 
daughter of Israel. But the most brilliant gem of all, the 
picture of marvels from another zone, was the group near 
the principal wall. On the lofty dais draped with green 
silk, near the wall, which was adorned with a canopy of 
red damask, like two regal sphinxes looking gravely, even 
fiercely, around them, sat two brown-visaged matrons from 
Tangiers, with rich scarlet gold-embroidered caftans, and 
plain silk head-dresses similar to those of the Egyptian 
kings ; their shining black tresses hanging down around 
antique ornaments and jewels. Between them, on a divan 
placed against the wall, reclined a being, covered by a light 
veil, crowned by a tiara studded with pearls, like a motion- 
less waxen image, on which the glowing colours of art 
have breathed a fresh living transparency. This unusual 


spectacle filled us with astonishment, for it looked like 
the god Vishnu, the jewel-clad idol, between his fire-ex- 
haling dragons, on the high altar in the giant temple of 
Benares. Only after long gazing, did I perceive that the 
wax was really flesh and blood, and that the motionless 
goddess with closed eyes was the Jewish bride. She lay 
there like a dead person ; not a muscle moved, and it was 
only by attentive watching that one could distinguish the 
gentle heaving of her bosom. The clear bloom of her 
complexion was enhanced by the bright red of her cheeks, 
by the black painted eyebrows, and by three slender 
patches on her beautiful and regular countenance. The 
high tiara (which, partitioned among rich ornaments, was 
completely overspread with pearls) invested her with 
something of holiness. Her bosom heaved beneath her gos- 
samer veil, within a gorgeous gold-embroidered boddice ; 
a similarly gold-embroidered spencer with wide silken 
sleeves was drawn over it ; a broad silken scarf girt her 
waist, and a caftan of red cloth, with gold embroidery ex- 
tending beyond it, encircled her limbs ; her feet were en- 
cased in handsome sparkling slippers. Arms and hands 
were carefully covered with a red silk handkerchief. Be- 
sides this, the bride of fourteen years of age was bedecked 
with ornaments : she wore filagree earrings, with pearls 
and emeralds ; bandeaux, with large roses, formed of 
jewels depending from slender golden chains, hung down 
gracefully on the right and left of her head ; countless 
golden chains with glittering medallions and strings of coral 
adorned her neck ; and, later on, we perceived rich Moorish 
bracelets on her white, rounded arms, and the most 
beautiful jewelled rings on her taper fingers. Her whole 
attire was replete with picturesque splendour. The 'bride- 
mothers,' * conscious of their important part, sat on their 

* Two aged matrons, who sit one on each side of a Jewish bride. T. 


thrones proud and defiant ; and measured the crowd, like 
Queen Jezebel in her day, with penetrating and contemptu- 
ous looks, a complete contrast to the fearfully immovable, 
masked bride. The bridegroom now entered, with a kind of 
wooden horn upon his head, by his side a gold-embroidered 
velvet bag; two Rabbis followed him : the Chief Rabbi of 
Tangiers, with a pale handsome countenance and fiery red 
beard, a turban with a violet-coloured veil on his head, a 
genuine Old-Testament apparition ; then came a bedaubed, 
ragged, aged Rabbi, with heavy features and a white goat- 
like beard, at whose side a man and a boy stood with large 
tapers. A full glass of wine was brought to the Chief 
Rabbi on a salver ; he began to nod, and sing in a pecu- 
liarly nasal tone, in which from time to time the surround- 
ing crowd joined; he then sipped from the glass, and gave 
some of the same to the bridegroom, after which it was 
presented by the 'bride-mothers' to the bride. They bent 
before her as before a corpse, lifted her veil, and put the 
glass to her cherry lips ; she sipped without opening her 
eyes, and then sunk back again motionless. Hereupon 
the glass was shivered, at which moment an old Jew from 
Tetuajo. uttered the peculiar shrill cry of joy of the Bedouins. 
The bridegroom, a very horrid young fellow, like an 
Egyptian goat, then presented the massive ring, adorned 
with ornaments of gold, amid the prayers for the bride. 
Then the old Rabbi came forward, and repeated the same 
ceremony of drinking, accompanied also with prayers sung 
or screeched in a strange ' manner. All these ceremonies 
delighted the numerous and vastly 'merry Englishmen and 
Englishwomen, who unceasingly followed every motion 
with their single glass, and made the most comical obser- 
vations. Thus an elderly lady, who sat in the arm-chair 
next me, told me that the bridegroom would have no claim 
upon his new wife for eight days, during which time she 
must remain seated on the throne in the house of her 



parents, to receive her relations and friends ; further she 
said, that as the marriage was only a matter of form, the 
wife possessed the right of separating from her hushand at 
the end of a year. She assured me that, under the cir- 
cumstances, if she were in the place of the young wife, she 
would immediately decide upon this course, as she thought 
the bridegroom horribly ugly. During the prayers, in 
spite of the terrible heat, we were obliged, in accordance 
with custom, to put on our hats. The marriage contract, 
written on parchment, was now read by one of the kinsmen, 
then followed one more prayer for Queen Victoria and her 
family. After this, the bride was, with great difficulty 
and with eyes kept unceasingly shut, led down from the 
throne, and was forced to dance a ' rundgang,' a species of 
polonnaise, with some two men of rank, or with kinsmen, 
during the*chanting of prayers. The paint on her face 
prevented any emotion or movement from being perceived 
upon her features. After she had been conducted back to 
her throne, the strange ceremony came to a conclusion. 
Music now followed a violin-player and a cymbal-player, 
who squatted on the ground in the Arab fashion and chanted 
nasal songs in the Moorish manner. A little maiden, a kind 
of enfant terrible, in a variegated, chameleon-like, Euro- 
pean silk dress, entered with them, and sang and danced 
the ' nahlie ho,' familiar to me in Egypt and Algiers ; that 
ungraceful, India-rubber dance which, with its music, pre- 
vails throughout the whole Arab-Moorish world, and which 
has arrived at its full perfection and beauty in Spain. 
After the child, the entire assemblage of women danced 
singly ; sometimes on compulsion, sometimes of their 
own free will; sometimes with the handkerchief as in 
Algiers, sometimes with the lively tambourine. The 
prettiest were, as with us, the most affected, and required 
many entreaties; indeed, to the great delight of the 
Governor, who seemed to have grown young again, some 


were dragged struggling by the men into the middle 
of the room, that thus they might make their twisting, 
whirling, nodding, jumping, and sliding movements, amid 
due plaudits. The dance lasted for a full hour, and 
visibly enlivened the company, who grew more and more 
merry. The happiest of all was Codrington, his lady the 
most astonished. The old and frowzy Jewesses pressed 
forward, and offered themselves for the danoe. The star 
of the company was a certain Hadea Nahou, from Tetuan ; 
she, like all the rest, was arrayed similarly to the bride, 
only with more taste and in even more gorgeous colours. 
Her gold-laden caftan was of velvet, the colour of blue 
corn-flowers, and upon her head she had, over her red silk 
handkerchief, a prominent cap like the Scotch, stuck all 
over with pearls. These caps are the mark of the women 
from Tetuan, whilst those from Tangiers wear only the 
plain silk handkerchief. Her countenance was fantastically 
capricious violet-blue eyes with high arched eyebrows, a 
small nez retrousse, and pouting rosy lips, from between 
which gleamed pearly teeth. Her rounded arm of marble 
whiteness, and her delicate rosy-tinted hands with their 
lonely emerald rings, were of classic beauty. Hadea 
Nahou was obliged to dance three times, and was on each 
occasion uproariously applauded. The next in beauty 
to her, both in figure and height, a very Judith, was a 
Jewess from Tangiers, whom I immediately recognised as 
the same whom I had seen there in the year 1852. Next, 
a damsel from Tetuan, likewise uniting Oriental beauty 
with European coquetry. She had clear-cut, almond- 
shaped, black, gazelle-like eyes ; a beautiful Grecian nose ; 
and a mouth which was always dimpling with friendly and 
roguish smiles. Her figure was full and well proportioned; 
her dance with the tambourine the most captivating. 
Comical to behold, was a sturdy woman draped in green, 
who continually displayed her clumsy limbs. But the 



' bride-mothers ' darted forth looks of poison when they 
were compelled to descend from their throne and join in 
the dance. During the dancing the dark line of the 
bride's eyelids parted slowly and stealthily; she then 
opened one eye after the other, as though she were awaking 
from a long winter sleep ; but my delight was completed 
by a little stout woman, with the nimbleness of a lizard 
the queen of gossips, she must needs see everything, hear 
everything, manage everything. Her keen, merry, black 
eyes were in a continual state of excitement, and made a 
perpetual tour of the room, mixing themselves up with 
everything. Now they looked on complacently, now they 
smiled, now looked enquiringly, now in astonishment. In 
her whole demeanour she reminded me vividly of a bold, 
resolute, Hungarian cook, to whom imprecations (not ill 
meant) comfi more readily than prayers. Her silk hand- 
kerchief was twisted conspicuously in the decided form of 
a horn ; and when she was asked to dance, her eyes 
glowed with delight, and she performed her artistic part 
with juvenile activity. This woman must be surrounded 
by many pleasant associations, which make her the darling 
of her people : her dance also was greeted with applause. 
As I perceived that the Governor grew warmer and 
warmer in his praises, and that from him no termination 
to the amusements was to be expected, I at last put the 
affair in train myself by some diplomatic questions. We 
were then conducted to a lower chamber to partake of 
some refreshments, dried fruits, an excellent wedding-cake, 
delicious orange-blossoms with honey (called by the Jews 
'Angels' hair,') Spanish wine, in which we drank to the 
health of the bridal pair, and right good Eosaglio di 
Barberia. Hadea Nahou and the beautiful Jewess from 
Tetuan came down with one of the ' bride-mothers,' that 
their rich attire might be admired more closely. They 
conducted themselves with the assurance of ladies of 


the great world. We shook hands cordially with them 
and with the bridegroom, and returned home at nightfall. 

Gibraltar, December 1. 

In the early morning I hastened on shore with the 
doctor and the gardener to wander through the Park, 
having regard to Miramar and Lacroma. With satisfac- 
tion we found Mesembryanthemum and Gladiolus planted 
everywhere instead of grass, by which means the fresh 
colour of the turf was brought out, as the harsher blades 
withstand the parching beams of the sun. Notes were 
made of many other plants for our gardener at home. We 
were also delighted again by the sight of the pretty officers' 
garden in the * officers'-town,' which we strolled through, 
in order to reach the Europa Point and the Governor's 
villa. Would that we could bring home to our brethren in 
the Fatherland this taste of the English for nature's 
comforts ! The love of gardening cheers and elevates the 
mind, whilst by it the body is strengthened. On Europa 
Point a heavy shower, with a keen westerly wind, 
overtook us; but on our return, the sun was already 
shining out again warm and clear in the deep-blue sky. 
We collected beautiful Narcissus and exquisitely fragrant 
lavender plants from picturesque rocks. On our way we 
saw the new giant cistern, enclosed in a building of massive 
freestone, which gives the impression of a work of antiquity. 
The English fleet was represented in the streets of the 
town by sundry intoxicated sailors. 

Gibraltar, December 2. 

A cold west wind whistled over the Bay, and the 
thermometer had, this morning, sunk to 7 (Reaumur), 
according to the opinion of the people in Gibraltar, a 
genuine, bitter, winter temperature. This day was 
occupied in making purchases. We bought some of the 


costly Jewish ornaments from Tangiers, some delicate 
earrings of filagree gold with sparkling emeralds, artistic 
bracelets, and a very original Moorish ring. We brought 
with us as a present for the ladies, mantillas which had 
come direct from Barcelona and were distinguished for 
their elegance and taste. 

I paid a return visit to the Vicar Apostolic, a kindly and 
talented native of Gibraltar, still young and handsome, 
with a row of dazzlingly white teeth. If I had not been 
on English ground, I should probably not have disturbed 
the good man by my presence ; but here in Gibraltar, I 
deemed it my duty as a Catholic. He expressed himself 
cordially and judiciously ; and by his refined French pro- 
nunciation, one recognised the scholar of the Propaganda, 
who had been eighteen years in Eome. He praised his 
flock highly, and congratulated himself on being able to 
carry out the rites of his religion so imposingly and un- 
molested. He lives with his clergy a practice which 
seems very praiseworthy. His industry and sagacity have 
succeeded in founding an educational institution, to which 
the greater portion of the principal families of Andalusia 
send their sons for instruction. Not without humour did 
he tell me how comical it was that he, as the Catholic 
Bishop, should live in an ancient mosque, and Sir William 
Codrington in a Franciscan monastery. The church which 
adjoins his dwelling also belongs to the mosque, which was 
rebuilt as a temple of G-od, by Ferdinand and Isabella the 
Catholic, after the glorious expulsion of the Moors. 

H.M.S. 'Elizabeth,' December 3. 

We quitted Gibraltar between eight and nine o'clock. 
At our leave-taking, the colossal rocks, lighted up by the 
morning sun, still displayed themselves in their grand mo- 
numental character, reminding me of the giant buildings 
of Egypt. We steered, in the direction of Ceuta, to a point 


from which, at the distance of three nautical miles, we 
could distinctly perceive the large Spanish camp, with 
its white tents and numberless soldiers, on the hills lying 
above the town. On an eminence stands a large Moorish 
building, the so-called Seraglio, upon whose tower the 
head-quarter standard was now floating. High on a hill 
we perceived the redoubt, with regard to which the dis- 
pute had its late origin. 

We passed close by the Affenberg, a large mass of rock, 
the lower portion of which is overgrown with beautiful 
woods of evergreen oak, and which reminded me vividly of 
our native Traunstein. In the distance we saw yellow Tra- 
falgar, with its characteristic speckles of sandstone. We 
passed quite close to Tangiers ; the unconquered blood-red 
standard of Barbary was floating over the ancient walls. 
A mysterious steamer, whose flag no one could distinguish, 
lay before the town ; probably an Englishman, on the look- 
out. We could still see both the Pillars of Hercules rising 
above the waves, but in a short time both Grate and Pillars 
vanished, Europe sank beneath the waves, and the broad 
ocean received us. The beloved blue sky disappeared from 
view with the Mediterranean Sea, the sun no longer shone 
upon the ghost-like giants of the Atlas Chain, and in the 
evening, as the coast faded from view, rain fell. 

H.M.S. ' Elizabeth,' December 4. 

We are rolling over the broad waves of ocean : the sun 
is breaking through the clouds ; a fresh easterly breeze 
brings up our speed to over ten knots an hour. None of 
the numerous ships in which I have sailed have been so 
unbeseemingly lively as the old ' Elizabeth.' He who does 
not feel ill must be constantly balancing himself. One 
ought to be expert in dancing on the tight rope to be able 
to feed oneself, to move about yes, and even to sleep in 
one's bed. In the evening we sighted some single sails, 


which flew past us like phantoms in the pale moonlight of 
this dusky night. 

H.M.S. ' Elizabeth,' December 5. 

During the night the vessel rolled heavily, and there 
was hardly any talk of rest or sleep ; the wind freshened, 
and rain fell. The morning was grey and overcast, like 
one of our severe sirocco days at home, the sea the colour 
of lead, and covered with foam. In the early morning the 
wind was again so favourable that the well-filled canvas 
assisted the steam-power. Towards noon the sun shone 
forth for a short time from among light clouds. The air 
continued fresh, and, indeed, cool ; but the temperature of 
the sea was 16 (Reaumur). On the whole wide horizon we 
saw not one single sail, not a living thing, with the excep- 
tion of one sga-gull, with black -tipped wings, which circled 
round us. In the evening, broken clouds chased each 
other past the clear bright moon. 

Madeira, December 6. 

Rain had fallen in the night ; and when with the growing 
day we beheld the picturesque imposing panorama of the 
east side of Madeira, and the strangely-shaped Desertas, 
fantastic clouds in part still dusky with the shades of 
night, in part reddened by the rising sun were gathered 
around the dark masses of basalt. Now like a loose veil, 
now like a curtain hanging in heavy folds, these clouds 
rolled from off the sea to the sky, at one moment concealing 
the island scenery from view, and immediately afterwards 
revealing again the sharp, phantom-like, serrated rocks 
in the dark background. When I came on deck we were 
exactly between the Desertas and the island of Madeira. 
The Desertas I could clearly recall to mind the rugged 
rocky islands, which remind one of the Mediterranean 
Monte Christo appearing close by the low level table or 
shrine-like island of Pianosa beside which lies the 


famous Ship Rock (previously described by me), which on 
this occasion also deceived me for a considerable time. 
The sun made a path for himself through the rosy tinted 
clouds, which threatened the peculiar, jagged rocks of the 
eastern point of Madeira with stormy weather. 

We were now sailing along the coast, and it was with 
feelings of melancholy that I again beheld the valley of 
Machico and lovely Santa Cruz, where we passed such 
merry hours seven years ago. On board our large ship, 
so filled with people, I was the solitary pilgrim of former 
days. Since those times, seven years had passed over 
my head seven years full of pain and joy, full of for- 
tune's storms, with few of its blessings a school of expe- 
riences and of many bitter illusions, in which the wheel 
had turned often and swiftly, and in the course of which 
many variations of brightness and of sorrow had been 
experienced, and endured. These had been my years 
of education and of wandering these years, which had 
swept past since I had joyously celebrated my twentieth 
birthday in this place. Now I was standing here once 
more, the restless pilgrim, the modern Ahasuerus, the 
solitary individual of that formerly gay and merry party. 
The cold grave covers one, another is tracking his path 
across the snowy fields of Hungary to fetch home his 
bride, a third is choked with the dust of deeds and 
papers ; and thus they who then drank so merrily to my 
future are now scattered up and down in the world. I, 
true to my wish, have come back over the waves of ocean, 
seeking the peace which excited Europe can no longer give 
to the troubled soul. And yet melancholy steals over me 
when I compare that time with the present : then I was 
awaking to life, and advancing towards the future with a 
cheerful heart; in my present coming there lies something 
of the wearisome. My shoulders are no longer free and 


unburdened ; they have to bear a weight from the bitter 

The sun gained the victory, and the sugar plantations 
gleamed freshly, whilst the peculiar red soil of the island 
glowed between the basaltic rocks. We made a bend 
round the Peak of Garagao, and beheld bright smiling 
Funchal bathed in the warm sunlight, a scene full of en- 
chantment to all new-comers ; but to myself the diffe- 
rence between summer and winter, though slight, was still 
perceptible. Leafless trees stood on the heights around 
Rossa Senhora do Monte, and even in the gardens of the 
town the trees were not of the same emerald green as in 
July. We anchored in the roads at half- past seven, when 
boats immediately swarmed around our vessel. In one of 
them was a diver, who brought up from the 'depths of the 
sea the silver coins which were thrown to him from the 

After we had partaken together of our breakfast we all 
went on shore, passing the dark picturesque basalt masses 
of the Loo Rock. Surrounded by the dreamy fragrance of 
orange-blossoms, we hastened to Villa Bianchi, so endeared 
to me. There also Death had knocked at the door; the 
good old Consul, with his venerable silver hair, was no more. 
But his kindly -hearted son, who has since those days married 
a pretty young lady of Madeira, of Creole appearance, 
received us. The young lady with the pale complexion 
and large dark eyes understood nothing but Portuguese ; 
our conversation was therefore very simple. Roses and 
jasmine, oleander?, camellias, and heliotropes bloomed in 
the garden ; the orange-trees bent beneath their golden 
fruit, whilst a gigantic aloe reared its tree-like blossoms 
aloft in the pure ether. The air was soft, and had that 
peculiarly mild, balmy fragrance which exists with us only in 
the height of summer. We ate of the delicious fruit of a 
species of Passiflora, called by the Portuguese Marcuja ; it 


unites the bitter-sweet taste of the pineapple, the anone, 
and the banana. Our ladies were silent ; to them every- 
thing was new and enchanting. 

Skirting the little gardens of the villa, where everything 
grew and blossomed with such luxuriance that one's very 
heart smiled within one, for we saw even the mag- 
nificent lilac-glowing Bougainvillia spectabilis in the 
fulness of its splendour, we rode to the town, passing 
the beautiful hospital which the widowed Empress of 
Brazil has, with princely magnificence, caused to be erected 
to the memory of her deceased (laughter, and for the 
chapel of which I have destined a marble statue of the 
Mater Dolorosa, as a mournful remembrance. We went 
on further to the Eossa Senhora do Monte, and to the 
Villa Gordon, where I was heartily rejoiced to see the 
amiable old English lady once more. Here, too, I found 
everyone married. Truly, seven years is a long time ! 
The son had found a wife in Lisbon, an amiable young 
lady, the daughter of the Visconde de Torrobella. 
House and garden had been newly done up by the 
youthful pair, and were changed to a more luxurious and 
modern style. 

Here again we were delighted by the tropical splendour 
of the trees and flowers. The temperature, as Mrs. 
Gordon assured us, is ten degrees cooler here on the 
mountain than in Funchal ; thus, in this fresher at- 
mosphere, the plants of our region flourish together with 
the rarest specimens of the hottest zones. With hospitable 
cordiality, this amiable lady gathered for us with her own 
hands gorgeous camellias, strelizias, tuberoses, amaryllis, 
and lovely centifolias. On this occasion, we measured one 
of the shade-giving camellia-trees which I have mentioned 
before; its circumference amounted to four spans and a 
half of the hand of a tall man. On December 6 almond- 


trees were in bloom, and the fresh evergreens were covered 
with large blue flowers. 

Whilst we were strolling in the gardens we were over- 
taken by a rather smart shower of rain ; yet it was not 
like an autumn shower with us, but mild, genial, fragrant, 
and refreshing, as in the beautiful summer evenings of a 
northern climate. Again, as seven years ago, we glided 
over the basalt pavement down the mountain in a few 
minutes, in a sledge. In Mail's clean hotel we partook of 
a reviving lunch, with bananas and guavas, which I now 
tasted for the first time : the exterior of this fruit is some- 
thing between an apple and an orange ; the pulp is of a 
rosy hue, and towards the middle, where, as with the pome- 
granate, the pips are found, it becomes soft, juicy, and 
delicious: it is bitter-sweet, like all the fruits of the 

In a sledge, with four seats and a curtained head, 
drawn by oxen, we drove to the Convent of Santa Clara. 
The renowned Sister Maria Clementina had now become 
old and grey ; but she had not yet beneath the veil given 
up coquetting. We purchased feather-flowers, a myrtle- 
wreath, and orange-blossoms for our bride betrothed 
during the storm ; and then hobbled along in our original 
vehicle to the villa of the uncle of Bianchi, whom we also 
found married; the old gentleman, dying of asthma, had 
ten days ago taken his brother's daughter for a wife, 
plainly a mercantile money transaction. His villa was 
quite altered ; in the small space, and from rough material, 
he had formed a bower of the rarest and most beautiful 
plants ; the paths were charmingly paved ; the walls 
adorned with porcelain tables with graceful vases placed 
upon them ; little tasteful arbours were arranged, and 
young plants clipped into artistic shape. The most ex- 
quisite winter-garden, filled with every botanic luxury, had 
sprung up beneath God's free open sky ! I was specially 


interested in some magnificent scarlet Passiflora, a blood- 
red yucca, a pineapple, and in a raised basin of charming 
sky-blue water-lilies (Nymphsea). 

In the clean and tastefully arranged house, the young 
wife and her pretty and still unmarried sister presented us 
with some excellent Malvoisia di Madeira, here called 
Vinho das Senoras, a very nectar, prepared from the 
most luscious grapes of the island ; a beverage which I 
had never before tasted in such perfection. Also, on our 
wish for it being expressed, they offered us some green 
sugar-cane, whose juice it is very pleasant to suck. At the 
same time finger-glasses were brought, on a silver salver, 
filled with fresh water, in which rose leaves floated, that 
we might wash our hands a refined custom, which accords 
well with the luxuriance of nature in this country, and 
which pleased me exceedingly. 

With the setting sun, we returned on board. 

Madeira, December 7. 

Faithful to our great saint, the ancient Milanese S. 
Ambrose, and mindful of the birthday of my father, we 
heard Holy Mass in our cabin this morning in the early 
twilight, that heart-uniting half light which induces a 
spirit of self-recollection ; we then went, by invitation of 
the obliging Consul, to spend a few days at his pretty villa, 
now standing quite unoccupied, the fragrant repose of 
which was very favourable to both the mental and bodily 
health of our storm-tossed ladies. At half-past eight on 
a warm fine morning, we rode past numerous sugar- 
plantations, whose canes resembled Turkish maize in their 
juicy green, to the Curral das Freiras; on this occasion 
also the two immense camphor-trees on the bridge bruised 
me with their boughs like weeping willows, and with their 
shining green leaves. On the lower ground the chestnuts 
were richly covered with foliage as in summer; but in the 


forest above, all was leafless and cold as in our winter, and 
the fragrant violets bloomed among dry leaves beneath 
the shelter of the roots of the trees. 

The view from the Curral was not perfect ; too many 
clouds chased each other, and drifted between the clefts of 
the basalt rocks, and even the ocean only peeped in some 
few places clear and blue from beneath the curtains of 
cloud. Here above, nature was in her winter garb : the 
mountain air, which was fresh and reviving, alone belonged 
to summer. On our return we were able this time to 
penetrate into the mysterious Quinta of the English 
Consul, who had died since the old days. Its name is 
' Jardine da serra ' (garden of the mountains). 

On one of the sloping terraces which run through the 
valley, and which is enclosed by a wall with an arch 
broken through it, near the babbling fall of a cool stream, 
stands the villa, amid the mystic shadow of giant laurels, 
box, camellias, and other evergreen shrubs. On the right 
and left, tower the wooded hills, beyond which the blue 
ocean gleams between the chasms of rock ever-glorious 
emblem of boundless eternity. The house itself, built in 
the fantastic Italian style, is shut up and deserted; the 
poetical disorder of incipient decay has settled around the 
mouldering walls; all is still and solemn as within a soul 
that is pervaded by agony. An old peacock, only, the 
last living token of departed glory, sits motionless on the 
moss-covered roof. Weeds grow in rank profusion among 
the rarest plants ; the mountain violets have pressed them- 
selves between the pansies, wild roses among the hundred- 
leaved roses of Damascus, fragrant honeysuckle twines 
around the fading camellias of Japan ; all things flourish 
here mixed in wild confusion ; the once clearly-traced lines 
of art now are lost in the irregular growth of rank and 
ever-conquering nature : the poetic breezes of the past sigh 
here as in a soul whose self-control has departed, and over 


whose being passion and strong emotion blow wildly : 
this would be the abode of such a soul ; here he might 
chant his lament unheard. 

In addition, the house and the cool garden have their 
dark secrets. An old man, of about seventy years of age, 
lived here a life of unbridled sin in his harem, which con- 
sisted of thirty females of various ages. Not a maiden 
bloomed in the neighbourhood but she was decoyed by 
money into the clutches of this aged sinner. Now his 
bones are decaying beneath a marble obelisk, surrounded 
by cypresses in the park which he himself planted. His 
grave sets the seal of desolation on the gloomy, mouldering, 
solitary garden-ruin. In the vicinity of the grave is a 
tea-plantation, now also in a state of confusion, in which 
the old gentleman grew his own tea; he had in it his 
plates of copper, and apparatus for drying. I was sur- 
prised at the sight of a wall in the garden completely 
covered with luxuriantly blooming hortensias and with 
arbutus, also in blossom. The arrangement of seasons in 
the world of plants ceases altogether in Madeira. One has 
simultaneously violets, camellias, arbutus, and close by, 
among the giant masses of wood, ripe blackberries : every- 
thing in nature, here lives on according to its own fancy 
without rule ; every plant chooses its own time for 
blooming and bearing seed, and does not in this trouble 
itself at all about the calendar. 

On our return, we saw in the vicinity of the town a new 
and charmingly situated villa belonging to the Consul, who 
counts his houses in town and country by his fingers. In 
its little garden there is a bower, in which are mingled the 
gorgeously glistening lilac of the Bougainvillia and the 
orange-yellow of the Bignonia. It was a bold and tasteful 
union of colours, such as I had never before seen in nature. 
Before we arrived at our Quinta the Consul conducted us 
along a wide and quite new road which has been made, 


parallel to the shore, in a westward direction, and which 
serves as a Corso to the people of Madeira. Here also, as 
in their native Hyde Park, one sees the most fascinating 
of Britannia's daughters riding up and down in their 
picturesque attire, and enjoying the extensive prospect 
over the sea in combination with their equestrian amuse- 
ment on the fresh turf of this excellent road. At the 
beginning of the promenade a prettily arched bridge is 
thrown across a luxuriant, verdure-covered valley of rock, 
in which a cool stream bubbles forth amid anones and 

At six o'clock we dined in a bower of passiflora in the 
garden ; to be able to sit out of doors in the open evening 
air on the 7th of December is a grand thing. A good 
climate strengthens and refreshes the spirit, and sheds 
tranquillity and equanimity over the soul. The shivering 
man is fit for nothing ; for coldness is death. The moon 
--"Shone through the rustling sugar-canes ; the passiflora 
shook their dewy heads ; the jasmine emitted its aromatic 
perfume, and we ate pineapples and bananas which had 
ripened in the open air. 

A messenger from kind Mrs. Gordon brought us a real 
tropical greeting of flowers in two large baskets a shower 
of rain from Flora's golden cornucopea ; they lay in lovely 
disorder, having been thrown together in picturesque confu- 
sion either by happy chance or by a very artistic hand an 
exquisite mingling of colour and perfume ; dazzlingly 
white camellias, breathed on, as it were, by sparkling snow, 
or rosy-red with the delicate hues of softest carnation; 
lovely centifolias, glowing as the first bloom of ruddy life, 
or pale and transparent as the complexion of Andalusiau 
girls ; clear blue agapanthus ; its kindred plant, the gleam- 
ing red amaryllis ; royal strelizia, that proud and most 
perfect flower of earth, with its red hood, its golden yellmv 
petals, and its blue lance-shaped tongue ; the ruby-coloured 


callistemon of New Holland, with its countless tender 
stamina ; the princely calla of Ethiopia, with its trombone- 
like blossoms of ivory whiteness, in the centre of which 
swells the golden yellow knob ; scarlet and yellow be- 
sprinkled gladioli, gay to behold ; snow-white Indian 
azaleas ; bignonias, with their living tints of flame ; the 
poinsettia, with its coronet of petals, glowing like molten 
iron ; added to these, numberless fresh shining leaves of 
every form, and of every shade of green, whilst strewn in 
the midst were delicious tropical fruits. We could not 
gaze long enough at this picture of earthly blessings. 
And all these from under the open air of heaven : for in 
the whole of this island there is no greenhouse : no one 
would know what to put into it. The even temperature, 
night and day, permits everything to flourish that earth 
can produce in the botanic kingdom. 

Madeira, December 8. 

Early this morning there was storm and rain, but the 
air continued soft and mild as summer. In the course of 
the day the weather improved. We spent half of this 
great festival day in listening to the service in the Cathe- 
dral. The simple exterior of this building bears witness, 
by its Gothic structure, to its mediaeval origin; over the 
door we observed a stone overhung with cloth ; the royal 
arms, which were concealed on account of the deep mourn- 
ing in consequence of the death of the young Queen. The 
interior of the church, which is in the forn|| of a cross 
with three principal naves, is simply beautiful. The 
naves are divided by Gothic arches, supported by very 
slender graceful columns, which one might almost take 
to be of iron ; the roof is inlaid, like a Basilica, with con- 
cave and convex ornaments; the gorgeous high altar, 
which, as in our churches, stands at the end of the princi- 
pal nave, is adorned with the most beautiful Gothic carving 



connected on the right and left with the stalls of the 
choir, which are worthy of notice, and are in the same 
style ; in the cross-naves are large richly-gilded altars, 
reaching to the very roof, with many superb images, also 
in the Renaissance style ; the numerous altars in the side 
naves belong to the Rococo period. 

The Bishop celebrated, assisted by a large number of 
clergy, arrayed in rich vestments, with a jewel-studded 
mitre, from a gilded throne beneath a lofty canopy. Hor- 
rible music (which, for want of breath and strength, 
vanished like water in sand) was drawled out by the meagre 
choir, ill-chosen portions of operas. At each forte part 
the pipes of the organ were obliged to be opened like a 
cellar door; a sort of alto voice joddled to it in guttural 
tones that had never been dovelike. Our Almighty Lord 
would put Christian patience and piety to the proof. To 
our horror, after the Gospel, a well-fed dignitary of the 
Cathedral, with an absurdly high cap, mounted the pulpit 
to deliver a sermon in Portuguese. Oh ! that Heaven 
should permit itself to be worshipped in such an accent ! 
Such tones would better suit the roaring worship of Baal. 

To our misfortune, the Bishop was newly consecrated ; 
and, therefore, the reverend gentleman in the pulpit felt 
himself in duty bound to bellow laudations from the depths 
of his swelling, guttural throat, in honour of the reception. 
After this, tremulous music again sounded ; the alto made 
some few roulades ; and only when the second hour was 
drawing t%a close, did the chief ecclesiastic quickly con- 
clude the service. The altars were protected by a guard 
with fixed bayonets. The dwarfish Portuguese soldiers, 
whose patience must not be tried too long, were relieved 
continually with a great clatter, and even the address to 
the Bishop was interrupted by the echoing tramp of the 
warriors. We hastened home somewhat fatigued, and with 
the conviction that the words of our Lord, ' Come unto 


me, all 73 that are weary and heavy laden,' would be 
erroneous if pronounced by the clergy of Funchal. 

After we had refreshed ourselves, our whole travelling 
party, together with the commander of the * Elizabeth,' 
held a session ' in pleno ' to decide upon the plan of voyage 
which the threatening weather rendered imperative. In 
consequence of the intelligence from persons in Brazil that 
the yellow fever had again broken out there, many delightful 
projects were obliged to be given up, to our great regret. 
Before dinner, the ladies, the Consul, and myself, availed 
ourselves of a favourable moment to take a short ride down 
the Promenade. The pretty road was very lively ; many 
ladies on horseback were riding gaily up and down. One 
accomplished equestrian just behind us wished to show off; 
but his horse was not of the same opinion as himself, and 
after some demurring and struggling the worthy man fell at 
our feet. Bands of mirthful people passed by with guitars, 
violins, violoncellos, and one with the national instrument, 
a small guitar called f machiete,' making cheerful music in 
the streets. In the evening some heavy drops of tropical 
rain fell. 

Madeira, December 9. 

I was awoke early this morning by the intelligence 
that the * Elizabeth ' had left ; and in this she had done 
well, for an ocean storm raged with tremendous violence. 
The rain poured in never-ending torrents from the leaden 
sky ; nevertheless, it drove me from the house that I might 
gaze with wonder at the scenes of Nature. Enveloped in 
a waterproof coat and hat, I defied the storm. The ocean, 
that boundless expanse of water, which, from Funchal to 
the South Pole, is broken in upon by no land, was in wild 
confusion ; gigantic waves, covered with white foam, thun- 
dered and stormed against the black basaltic rocks, only to 
descend again in similar massive avalanches. Around the 
Loo Kock and around the rock at the landing-place, the 

z 2 


waves raged with uncontrolled fury, and mountain-torrents 
rushed surging down through the caverned, black-tinted 
peaks of basalt and over the ledges of rock. 

This awful scene, the grandest that I had ever beheld 
in nature, continued to increase in majesty ; wildly and 
more wildly raged the storm ; higher and still higher 
swelled the large, broad, giant billows. The * Elizabeth ' 
was gone ; God have mercy upon her ! From one large 
Spanish brig, the * a Palo,' which was destined to take 
troops to the Havanna, and which had anchored behind 
the Loo Rock on account of damage received, chests and 
bags were forced open in the heavy struggle with the sea. 
A laden boat was likewise driven on shore from the boiling 
flood, amid fearful cries of naked men. Other boats, com- 
pelled to wend their way to the landing-place, were suddenly 
raised aloft, thrown upwards, let fall again, and could only 
with unutterable difficulty and danger fling (as it were) 
the Spanish equipage and the goods on shore to the 
numerous sailors who were stationed there. It was fearful 
to see how the Spaniards, at the risk of human life, saved 
everything; all the bedding, boots, and even a bootjack. 

I went down to the landing-place, where the scene was 
even more grand, even more awful, and yet there was 
something splendidly overpowering in it: sometimes it 
was like the storm of battle, as though the island were to 
be vanquished by the ocean: sometimes it resembled a 
grand, wild dance making the joints and walls of the giant 
saloon to shake again; one beheld the waves surging up 
like a troop of wild horsemen nearer and still more near, 
ever becoming larger and larger, until at last they dashed 
against the rock, so that the basaltic walls tottered ; then 
they mounted aloft in masses of foam, hissing and roaring 
up above where we were standing. The billows rushed 
over the outer terrace like a white curtain ; anon they rose 
like a vertical wall, and disappeared again immediately, 


leaving no more trace behind than the idle visions of a 
dream. But often, if a still more enormous wave than 
usual arose, it would thunder over the terrace and then 
recede over the smooth coping stones, with a sound like 
the chattering of a troop of spirits, or would flow down the 
steps like the most beautiful and richest fountain. 

We were wet through and through ; but could not tear 
ourselves from the wildly-attractive fascinating scene; 
until a mighty wave threw two of us down ; laughing and 
exultant we rose again to our feet, but took warning from 
the reports of the place, and retired ; for several persons 
had before this time been swept from off the terrace by 
the retreating waves. The weather continued to become 
worse, and billows were already dashing over the lofty 
Loo Eock. 

In the afternoon, I drove in my four-seated sledge to the 
town to make various purchases ; the celebrated wood- 
mosaics, peaked Madeira caps with lightning conductors, 
and armchairs wove from the willow for our verandahs. 
The atmosphere was heavy, impregnated with storm ; it 
shed a melancholy over my heart. We entered the dusky 
Cathedral in order to look at it once in detail. The bells 
sounded, a low stage was erected, four tapers were lighted. 
The choir filled, space was made for the altos, a coffin was 
brought in, within it lay a corpse ; some people hurried up 
towards it, a priest came up, a chant was sung, and the roll 
of the organ was heard throughout the dark dusky church. 
The coffin was open ; in it lay a young girl, fifteen years of 
age. When the priest had chanted his ' Eequiescat in 
pace,' the coffin was closed. This spectacle sent a shudder 
through my very soul, and drove me from the gloomy 
Cathedral. Dark thoughts were my companions. I heard 
nothing but the bowlings of the storm, the thunder of the 
waves ; whilst again and again the ' Elizabeth ' and distant 
friends recurred to my mind. 


Our road conducted us to the shore by way of the Grand 
Promenade. The hurricane had reached its height ; the 
scene surpassed all that had been described, witnessed, or 
anticipated before. Huge ramparts of waves swelled to 
the size of mountains ; the foam resembled white fields of 
snow, and the billows already dashed over the loftily 
situated garden on the plateau of rock : the^e they thun- 
dered, and roared, and raged, as though the last day were 
approaching. The atmosphere was troubled, and my heart 
began to grow heavy. It was the voice of the Almighty to 
His subjects, of the Creator to the creature. The doctor 
said to me aside, ' This day will teach many to believe 
in our Lord Jesus Christ.' The words bore evidence to 
the feelings which were stirring his soul. The whole popu- 
lation was in a state of excitement as to the fate of the little 
guard-ship in the harbour and of its crew. They appeared 
every moment to be going down into the deep. The large, 
forsaken Spaniard had been knocked down in the 
course of the day for fifteen hundred thalers, to the 
highest bidder. A poor, elderly man, dressed in mourning, 
stood near us on the sbore, and gazed with an expression of 
deep melancholy on the scene and on the guard-ship. He 
must have had a relation there, in deadly peril. All this 
cut me to the heart, and I could not shake off the feeling 
of heavy apprehension. 

As a contrast, which did not, however, improve things, 
the Consul invited us to some wine-vaults, to make trials 
for a purchase we desired. There was excellent old wine, 
warming and generous, and, at the same time, mild and 
agreeable. It flowed sweet and genial down one's throat, 
and glowed in one's veins. Its colour was sparkling, like 
the most beautiful jacinth. We tried three kinds: old 
Bual, a rich strong wine for men ; Malvoisia, soft and sweet 
for the throats of fair ladies ; and at last Sercial secco, a 
very strong, dry, and almost bitter wine, As a connoisseur, 


I first took notice whether the oil ran down from the glasses, 
and gave the preference to the Bual. A wine made from 
red grapes, called Tinto, black and bitter, was really not 
good ; and put me in mind of our Nostrano. 

I went yet once more to the shore, to the awfully sub- 
lime scene. I then visited my travelling companions at 
the hotel, and I yearned to-day to see my own people and 
to have them around me. 

Madeira, December 10. 

Storm and rain still continued. I went to the town, and 
spent the greater part of the day in making plans and 
preparations for the voyage. All possible lists of steamers 
were looked through, and every imaginable combination 
thought of. A story which the Consul related to us shows 
the credulity of the people in this country, even of the 
upper classes. We had brought on board with us, as a 
guest, a gentleman suffering from consumption, in order 
to facilitate his speedy voyage from Trieste to Madeira. 
In spite of his comparative youth, the worthy, strange, 
and somewhat pedantic man, with his haggard sharp 
features, emaciated form, long red nose, white wavy beard, 
and measured movements, looked at forty-five years of 
age like a complete old man. Immediately on arriving, 
he took up his abode at one of the principal hotels, and 
silently and quietly established himself there for the winter. 
No one knew what to make of him : for he had separated 
from our party, and yet he had come by the Austrian war- 
steamer : he spoke to no one on the simplest subjects, 
because he is only able to speak Carniolan-German, and 
he lived shut up within himself. Suddenly, the rumour 
spread throughout the island that the peaceable unoffend- 
ino- man was neither more or less than Don Miguel de 

O o 

Braganza, the wild Portuguese pretender. Thus the whole 


island, which is for the most part of Miguelite predilections, 
believes him to be its king and master. One of two things 
stands before the harmless man ; either to be imprisoned 
by the suspicious Government until further information, or 
to permit himself to be deified and borne about in triumph, 
nolens volens, in a palanquin with a purple canopy, 
by an excited populace, as the true King of Portugal and 
Algarve. The news is already so fully believed through- 
out the island that one of the richest English merchants, 
a Mr. Blandy, asked our Consul in confidence whether the 
mysterious man really were Don Miguel. The fact that 
I have been twice to his hotel, and that I once talked to 
him for a long time in the hall, will still further heighten 
the belief in his mysterious Majesty. 

Before dinner, I had an opportunity in our garden of 
closely watoting the cochineal on the cactus ficus indica. 
The dark grey animals sit together in groups like large 
wood-lice on the fleshy leaves, enclosed by a grey ring, and 
look like a hideous blight upon the plant. If one take up 
the animal and crush it, there flows forth immediately a 
rich, red, cherry dye. In the cochineal plantations, which 
are here very extensive, and which yield a large return, the 
heavy tropical rain, which washes over the flat leaves, is 
very dangerous to the eggs and young. 

On Saturday the sun broke forth for a moment from the 
rainy clouds. However, whilst we were sitting at dinner a 
violent, although short, tornado came on again which made 
the house shake to its foundations. In the evening the 
stars were once more visible. 

Madeira, December 11. 

In the chapel of the elephantiasis patients I heard to-day, 
to my composure of mind, a simple and indeed hurried 
Mass. On coming from the little church we were met by 
the joyful news that the * Elizabeth ' was cruising off the 


Peak of S. Lorenzo. This intelligence removed a heavy 
weight from my heart. 

To-day, with my physician, I visited the hospital lately 
erected by the widowed Empress of Brazil. It is a hand- 
some princely building, in the simple Eenaissance style, 
with dazzlingly white walls, which are adorned with black 
basalt ornaments, mullioned windows, arches, and cornices. 
The fapade reminds one of the castles and charitable 
buildings of Naples. Across a large wide square, which 
is intended for the garden, one passes, by the prin- 
cipal door, made of mahogany, into a spacious vestibule, 
whose roof is supported by pillars. Opposite to the 
entrance one mounts the staircase, which, halfway up, 
branches into two ; on the right and left of the hall lie 
the passages, which terminate in the side facades with 
large windows, and by which one reaches the apartments of 
the sick, the dwellings of the * Grey Sisters ' and the 
bath-room. The first floor corresponds exactly with the 
ground floor, except that over the vestibule stands the lofty 

The building is founded for twelve men and women 
suffering from diseases of the chest : it will be a good thing 
for these people.; for even if no care may avail to crush the 
germs of death within them, yet their last moments will be 
sweetly soothed. Each sick person has his own lofty, 
handsome, open, airy room, with a fine view of the ocean: 
a very beautifully built kitchen provides for the wants of 
the body, whilst the friendly sunny chapel in the centre 
elevates the soul, and brings to it reconciliation with 
heaven. The floor and walls are curiously and exquisitely 
wrought ; the boards are of the hardest and finest wood, 
and so wonderfully joined that one can see neither a chink 
nor a nail, which the extreme cleanliness would otherwise 
render very visible. The walls are so admirably stuccoed 
with plaster of dazzling whiteness that one can detect no 


cracks or breaks in the flat surface, which is smooth as 

The hospital, in proportion to its limited size, will be 
the most perfect of its kind, and one could not find any- 
thing like it in Europe. It is praiseworthy that such an 
one could be erected in Funchal. On a slab of black 
marble on the staircase a golden inscription records the 
melancholy origin of the building. Here, on the 4th of 
February 1853, the only daughter of the unhappy Empress 
died of consumption. She departed, a pure, perfected 
angel, from this imperfect world to go to her true home. 
This hospital is the noble fruit of the deep heartrending 
grief of her bereaved mother. She has named the handsome 
building after her daughter, and seeks in it to console her- 
self in her own sorrow. This expression of pain and this 
reverting to the means given by God for consolation is 
assuredly the most beautiful evidence of a truly Christian 

From the hospital I wandered to the house hard by, 
from which the lovely angel winged her flight, and I 
lingered in grief and sadness beneath a splendid Indian 
tree, which spreads its gigantic and protecting boughs, 
affording complete shade. Around the walls climbed, wild 
and untrained, a magnificent deep-red Bougainvillea, the 
first that I had seen of the kind. I hastened home and 
wrote minute details to the afflicted mother of the visit I 
had made. 

The weather still continued variable ; sometimes rain, 
sometimes sunshine : but the air mild as in spring. After 
our dinner in the quiet homely Quinta, a minstrel of the 
country made himself heard on the popular instrument, 
the machiete ; with this little thing he executed incredible 
performances, accompanied by a guitar. That which was 
truly national was something resembling a bear-dance; 
and by the ever-recurring Ritornella, it bore evidence to the 


taste and spirit possessed by these people. He played the 
celebrated and ever-beautiful ' Carnival de Yenise ' with 
wonderful sweetness, and knew how to elicit from the 
strings dulcet tones, whose sighs and wails penetrated to 
the very heart. A Bolero transported me to my beloved 
Spain. The man is a true musician : and in Europe, ever 
craving for change and for what can gratify curiosity, he 
might make his fortune. His Portuguese songs were less 
successful: he had a coarse voice, which he strove to attune 
to the sentimental. 

Madeira, December 12. 

The weather had improved, and when I mounted to our 
look-out pavilion this morning, with my glass, I perceived 
a Portuguese steamer nearing the land. In my excite- 
ment, for with increasing anxiety, I had been expecting 
a steamer due from Lisbon, which might, perhaps, take 
me to Pernambuco, and I had a .great desire to see 
America and the virgin forests, even if only for a short 
time, I immediately ordered my little possessions to be 
packed up, being firmly resolved to travel under an 
assumed name, as an ordinary passenger, and without 
any attendants ; and I hastened with rapid steps to the 
town. There, to the bitter dispelling of my illusion, I 
learned that this was not the steamer going to America, 
but an ordinary packet-boat which plies between Lisbon 
and Madeira. 

We went to the Exchange, which stands by the shore, 
to see the ' Visconde d'Attroquia ' (for so the steamer was 
named) come in. The poor screw-steamer rolled grie- 
vously ; at her mast-head she carried a large Portuguese 
flag, as a token that the gentleman whose name she bore, 
(and who at my last visit to Lisbon in the year 1857, was 
Minister of Marine,) was on board journeying hither. 
Passengers and baggage were with great difficulty landed 
at the Loo Rock, round which the waves were still roaring. 


The Exchange was full of fair, bearded, Germans, of 
whom there are now a great number in Madeira ; and 
who in this place find themselves agreeing together in an 
incredible manner. They were for the most part dandies, 
or cits the two comical and in no way imposing extremes 
in which Germans generally show themselves in foreign 

In a heat like that of summer, we visited a garden below 
the fort, which belongs to Freitas Lomelino, a member of 
a noble family now naturalised in the island, who originally 
came hither from Geneva. The garden possesses the 
advantage of being old and aristocratic; tall bay-trees 
form a cool dome, and a shady roof over the wide ter- 
races ; rivulets and springs murmur around in the glim- 
mering twilight, as in a sacred and expansive grove, 
whilst only itf the more open spots is the tropical vegetation 
allowed to shoot forth in well-trained groups. By the 
side of magnificent camellias and strelitzias, we here 
found the sago-palm and the Brazilian jambro-tree, one 
of the laurel tribe, with its small downy yellow apples, 
which taste exactly as the centifolia smells. A giant 
Sabina astonished us by its picturesque form ; with its 
grey-green boughs and rugged stem, it looked just like a 
hale old man. In this garden, pervaded by a dim, archi- 
tectural tone, a certain disorder had a very good effect, 
and gave a poetic air to the whole picture. 

We returned to our Quinta, brought our ladies out 
with us, and visited the charming villa of an Englishman, 
Mr. D , in our neighbourhood: his large level gar- 
den adjoins the house in which the Empress of Brazil 
lived, and includes the highest peak of the beautiful 
basalt terrace behind the Loo Rock. The villa, built in 
Indo-English taste, with its cheerful tint of light yellow, 
its fresh green jalousies, and its delightful verandahs, 
overgrown with creepers, stands on the turf in the centre. 


Between the entrance (which is on the road near the 
stable and farm) and the house, stands a large clump of 
forest trees ; between the house and the rocky path down 
to the sea lies a perfect parterre, filled with low shrubs 
and rare flowers ; at the extreme end on the rock is a 
verandah -kiosk, whose construction resembles the after- 
part of a ship, opening towards the sea. The garden, only 
laid out within the last six years, affords a triumphant 
evidence of what can be effected in a short space of time, 
with a little trouble and a certain amount of knowledge 
and will. Portions of the garden were luxuriant as a 
virgin forest. 

We found the Carica papaja, with its round stem, 
smooth as a snake's skin, and its coronet of date-like 
leaves, its white blossom and flask -like fruit : it is com- 
monly said of this Brazilian tree, that a fowl, if hung to 
its stem, will become quite tender in from two to three 
hours, relata refero\ we saw the cocoa-nut palm, with its 
peculiar trunk and its large fan-shaped feathery leaves, a 
true type of the primeval forest; the Jacaranda, that 
acacia-like tree, with its soft grey-green leaves, which 
furnishes the most excellent wood for pianofortes, and 
whose lovely blue blossom is one of the most exquisite 
upon earth; the fresh green mango, with its richly- 
shining leafy crown, and its delicious yellow egg-shaped 
fruit; other fruit-trees resembling the jambro, one of 
which tastes like a fresh pineapple, the other like a 
gooseberry; the camphor-tree, with its tongue-like strongly- 
scented leaves ; the white cinnamon tree ; the strelitzia 
augusta, with its large white and violet blossoms, which 
protrude like the heads of gigantic cranes from the great 
banana-like leaves ; the most varied species of magni- 
ficent araucaria, that strange tree, which grows as perfect 
and regular as though it did not belong to our planet, 
but had its origin in a fairy legend. The most beautiful 


specimens of this family of plants let their boughs, 
strong as steel, hang down to the ground, and looked 
as though they were besprinkled with morning dew ; 
splendid bignonias, varying in hue from golden yellow 
to purple, climbed around the verandahs; we also found 
the rich-leaved combretum, with its clusters of blossom 
filled with purple stars ; and the Allamanda Schotti, named 
after our noted Director of Gardens, celebrated in botanic 

The plants from Australia and the Cape looked dingy, 
as if dead ; for the most part everything that comes from 
these countries is sad and joyless. To count up all the 
plants would be impossible. In the delight that I felt as 
a gardener., I seemed to be in an immensely large con- 
servatory in the open air } and could find no limit to what 
there was to be seen ; therefore, the appearance of the 
son of the house, although he was a cordial, graceful 
young man, was almost disagreeable. He felt himself in 
duty bound to accompany us everywhere, and to explain 
the wonders of his father's garden in all ways possible. 
Scarcely had we become used to him, before the owner 
himself appeared ; who, with his lively eyes and manners, 
with his carefully dressed hair and dandified look, was 
like anything in the world but an Englishman ; he was 
overflowing with all sorts of fine speeches, and with 
fabulous tales of his travels and grand acquaintances. 
He soon came into collision, scientifically, with our some- 
what hard-headed gardener. 

Strange stories are in circulation regarding the origin 
and wealth of this extraordinary man ; but, be he what 
he may, this at all events must be accorded him, that 
by his perseverance in gardening, he has set an admirable 
example to the lazy inhabitants of Madeira. The house 
is most inviting in its English cleanliness and luxurious 
comfort; an elegant confusion reigns in the light airy 


drawing-rooms, which are so arranged that by opening 
very large folding-doors, they can be turned into a spacious 

Towards evening the weather again grew worse; the 
Portuguese steamer weighed anchor, and then went out to 

Madeira, December 1 3. 

During the night there was another storm ; a fear- 
ful tempest thundered, and shot forth its lightnings 
through the Egyptian darkness. It is even said that an 
earthquake was felt. The poor Portuguese, who belong to 
the number of timid spirits, lighted up the town in the 
anguish of their hearts ; and our luckless Consul told us 
sorrowfully, that his father and mother-in-law, together 
with other relations, had come in the middle of the night 
to seek from him, as the youngest member of the family, 
consolation, which he was obliged to bestow at the sacri- 
fice of his night's rest. 

Early in the morning a steamer again appeared on the 
horizon; we indulged the hope that it might be the 
4 Elizabeth.' The glass was in readiness ; but only too 
soon did we perceive, to our bitter disappointment, that 
it was the Portuguese mail packet, which was returning 
from her voyage begun only yesterday. In the garden 
the redbreasts, blackbirds, and finches warbled in glad 
delight, as with us in early summer ; their joyous songs 
made all the greater impression from the thought that 
many of these little so'ngsters might perhaps have poured 
forth their, lays in our hearing in our own country. The 
swallows too, those summer visitants to our land, were 
now flying about gaily in this island, warm as spring ; 
but we hailed with astonishment the trilling song of the 
canaries in the open air. They are denizens of this isle ; 
but, as in the Canary Isles, are, in their wild state, of a 
greenish-brown colour, like our siskin, and only become 


yellow after the breed has been domesticated for genera- 

In the oppressive heat of this morning we made another 
weary journey to the neighbouring garden of the English- 
man; but this time, thank Heaven! alone and undisturbed. 
The slightest movement made one feel tired, owing to the 
heaviness of the air. People generally grow indolent in 
this soft mild atmosphere, amid the delicious odour of 
the flowers, the excellent food, and the even superior 
beverages of the country. They vegetate, and allow their 
minds to engage in no unnecessary work. To counteract 
these feelings, we ordered palanquins to be brought, and 
ourselves to be carried through the town to the villa of 
Bianchi's uncle. I enjoyed the delights of this preeminent 
mode of locomotion, this delightful cradle, in which the 
TSOU! is rocked into dreamland whilst the body reposes 
peacefully, and all the sinews and muscles may stretch 
themselves at pleasure. 

We again made the tour of Bianchi's garden, and were 
rewarded by finding some tropical orchids, and by the 
discovery of a new passiflora, which, as I believe, has 
never yet been brought to Europe. It has large, rose- 
coloured, trumpet-shaped blossoms, which, from above, 
look like oleander blossoms; from the side, like rosy 
water-lilies. We took home large quantities of flowers, 
and then went about the town making purchases until the 
approach of darkness. We found the people, as they 
are everywhere in the Portuguese dominions, obsequious, 
obliging, heavy, idle, and stupid. Of the repulsive ugli- 
ness of this race no one can form any notion ; and in the 
midst of so many beauties of nature, one is completely 
disgusted by it. Just now one meets a number of persons 
in mourning ; for the national mourning is still worn for 
the amiable young Queen, cut off so early in life. The 
evening sky was, in the west, clear and bright, and pro- 
mised well for the coming day. 


Madeira, December 14. 

To-day the long-looked-for ' Elizabeth ' at length ar- 
rived. She anchored in the roads before nine o'clock, in 
splendid summer-like weather, and amid extreme, almost 
oppressive, heat. With her appearance new hopes of 
journeying arose. The unfortunate vessel had been pitch- 
ing and rolling off and on on the north side of the island, 
amid unceasing rain, for five days and nights. In spite of 
all this, the naval portion of the travelling party came on 
shore in good spirits, and related in the most comical 
manner the adventures which they had experienced. 
Fresh provisions were already so far run out that they 
had been tempted to make an outrage on our spindle- 
shanked goats, and my little dog had been fattened 
for a future occasion ; there must even have been some 
cannibal ideas expressed at the sight of a well-fed cabin- 
boy ! 

A council was held in the Quinta ; at last it was decided 
that we should steam to the Cape de Verd Islands, and 
packing was diligently begun. Suddenly, in the midst of 
our full activity, colours were seen moving among the 
myrtle bushes, a mass of gleaming violet moved forwards, 
stars glittered on the broad breast of the figure, its laces 
rustled, and on its head was set a black cap. The appari- 
tion approached nearer, issuing from among the boughs. 
We recognised o Bispo^ and the Cathedral dignitary of 
the late High Mass of long memory. I hastened to meet 
him, and conducted him to my wife. He asked, * Vous, 
Monsieur Prince ? ' which led to a conversation that was, 
however, hardly one in reality ; for the good man, not with- 
out some self-complacency, poured forth some incompre- 
hensible words and speeches, but did not understand us in 
the least ; yet did not permit himself to be disturbed by 

* The Bishop. 


this, from his jovial comfortable composure. Shortly 
afterwards the good-natured oxen drew him home, as in 
old days they drew the ark of the covenant, the sacro sanc- 
tum of the Jews. 

In the afternoon we sunned ourselves in our pretty 
garden, and enjoyed ourselves by the blue sea. At four 
o'clock we went on board the ' Elizabeth.' 






Recollections of my life