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Pioneer and Army Life 



Lieutenant E Company, Tenth Regiment, Illinois Veteran 
Volunteer Infantry; 

Assigned Commander of F Company on the Hood Chase and on 
the March to the Sea ; 

Assigned Commander of G Company on the Campaign through 
the Carolines under General Wm. Tecumseu ShermaL. 

Peace.- is the dream of the wise; war is the history of man. %Youth 
listens without attention to those who seek to lead it by the paths of 
reason to happiness, and rushes with irresistible violence into the arms <>f 
the phantom which lures it by the light of glory to destruction. Srgur. 







Gone are they all! The tints of youth; the tumult of 
battle; the old and worn and tattered banners; the neighing 
horses; the broken caissons; the prisoners of war; the Mis- 
sissippi flotilla ; the defiant rebel yell on the midnight departure 
from Corinth ; Bragg's broken columns on the shifting field of 
Mission Ridge ; the bloody repulse of Kenesaw and Marietta ; 
the discomfiture of Hood before Atlanta; the exultant March 
to the Sea ; the advance in storm and flood through the Caro- 
linas; the bloody hour before Bentonville; the Surrender of 
Johnson at Raleigh ; and the pageant on Pennsylvania Avenue 
following the funeral car of President Lincoln. Gone are they 
all; and I too am soon gone! In the fleeting moment the 
aging veteran, hat in hand, waves a salute to the oncoming 
youth, bearing full high advanced the colors of his country to 
undreamed-of triumphs: for this is our warfare; no battle; 
no crown of Victory! 

M. H. J. 
October i, 1911. 

Battle Mountain Sanitarium, 
Hot Springs, South Dakota. 

818 10 



Our Family in the Early History of the Government .... 7 

My Earliest Days Continued 13 

My Mother 18 

Rachel T. Nicol 23 

The South Henderson Church 30 

Off for Oregon. Frontier Life in the Early Forties 36 


The Illusions of Childhood 40 

The Family Removes to the Yellow Banks 44 

My Boyhood at the Yellow Banks 50 

Temptations of the Great River 56 

The Yellow Banks 61 

"Gold ! Gold ! from Sacramento River" !. 66 

The Village Bakery 70 

The Presbyterian Chapel and Its Memories 75 

The Ghost and the Fink & Walker Stage Coach 80 

The School-teacher Descended from the Pilgrim Fathers, 87 

The Menace of the Great River 92 

ii Contents. 



A Ride with One of the Cloth 96 

The Bloomer Costume, the Crinoline Disturbance, and 

Other Matters 100 

The Mysterious Stranger 104 

The Ghost 112 

Overland to Fountain Green 115 

A Glimpse of Horace Greeley 119 

Lincoln and Douglas 124 

My School -days at Monmouth and the Crozier-Fleming 

Tragedy 1 30 

"To Pike's Peak or Bust" 135 

Homeward Bound 1 45 

A Volunteer at the Fall of Ft. Sumter 149 


To Washington and Through New England 156 

Re-enlisted for Three Years 1 63 

Our First Encounter with a Contraband 171 

The Capture of Island No. 10 and New Madrid 175 

From Shiloh to Corinth under Halleck 183 

The March to Tuscumbia and Nashville 188 

Isolated at Nashville 1 92 

Bridgeport to Chattanooga ; 197 

Contents. iii 



Good-bye, Braxton Bragg 201 


Relief of Knoxville 205 


On Veteran Furlough 211 


The Knights of the Golden Circle 215 


The Confederate Campaign in Henderson County 219 

The Atlanta Campaign, or the Hundred Days Battle. ... 220 

Battle at Rocky Face 233-4 

Battle of Resaca 235 

Adjutant Rice Wounded 236 

Capture of Rome 237 

The Fight at Dallas 239 

Preliminary Fighting at Kenesaw Mountain 245 

The Charge of Our Division at Marietta 247 

Fighting at the Rifle-Pits and on the Picket- Ivine 250-1 

Peach-Tree Creek. Major Wilson and Captain Munson 

Wounded 254-5 

Battle of July 22 nd. Death of Gen. McPherson 255 

Our Division, the Victim of a Shameful Miscarriage on 

July 28th 257 

Our Regiment Exchanges the "Acorn" for the "Arrow," 264 

Resignation of Commissioned Officers 267 

Assigned to the Command of Company F 268 

The Hood Chase 268-9 

Death of Gen. Ransom 2 74 

The March to the Sea 278 

Tear Up, Burn and Twist 284 

Prisoners from Fort McCallister 288 

On the Gulf Railroad 289 

The City of Savannah 290 

On Ocean Transports to Beaufort, S. C 293 

Campaign Through the Carolinas 296 

Fighting at the Crossing of the Salkahatchie 300 

Assigned to the Command of Company G. Capt. Wilson 

of "G" Wounded 302 

Midnight Crossing of the Edisto 304 

Passing Through Orangeburg 306 

On the Saluda, Opposite Columbia 308 

The Burning of the Capitol of South Carolina 309 

iv Contents. 


At Winsboro 311 

Capture of Cheraw 314 

Arrival of the Army at Fayetteville, N. C 318 

Our Division at Bentonville 321 

Our Arrival at Goldsboro 323 

Grant Has Taken Richmond 325 

Dispatch that Lee Has Surrendered 326 

Arrival of Sherman's Army at Raleigh 326-7 

Assassination of President Lincoln 327 

1 7th A. C. Reviewed by Gen. Grant, Sherman and Other 

Distinguished Officers 328 

Interview with Mrs. Stewart 329 

Homeward Bound via Richmond and Washington 330 

In Old Virginia, Petersburg 332 

"On to Richmond," Libby Prison and Belle Isle 333 

Richmond to Washington. Scene of Sheridan's Cavalry 

Engagements 334 

Ride Over Spottsylvania Battle-Ground ... 335 

Ride with Surgeon Ritchey and Acting Q. M. Hughes to 

Mt. Vernon 337 

President Johnson at the Entrance to the White House . . . 338 
Letter from Mary F. Hamilton of the Treasury De- 
partment 339 

By Rail to Parkersburg Down the Ohio River to Louis- 
ville 340 

On Fu lough. Ride v\ith Gen Morgan on Front Platform 

of Cars from 4 p. M. until Midnight 342 

Home ! 343 


I7th A. C. Badge 344 

Congratulatory Dispatch from Governor Low, of Cali- 
fornia 345 

The Pot -Trammels of 1690 346 

Patriotism of Illinois Joe Hooker and John Pope 347 

Heroes Given to Strong Drink 348 

The Rebel Paper's Libel 349 

Capt. David R. Water's Explanation of the Movement 

of Our Division on July 28th, 1864 352 

The National Tribune's Tabular Statement of the Union 

Soldiers' Services 354 

Henry Watterson's Tribute to Lincoln 356 

Copyright 1911, 


Kansas City, Mo. 



To bear willing testimony to the virtues of my honored 
parents, whose memory I hold in unfeigned love and rever- 
ence, is my first duty as well as my chiefest pleasure in the 
preparation of these pages. My father, William Rollin Jami- 
son, was born in Grayson County, Kentucky, in 1808, the 
year in which the Congressional Act was passed prohibiting 
the slave trade, and in which Aaron Burr, after his trial at 
Richmond, left his country for Europe, an outcast, to wander 
a discredited man. My father's long and useful life compassed 
three-quarters of a century. My immediate forebears and 
myself were born on our American frontier. Some branches 
of our family were represented in the army under Washing- 
ton, one of them a quartermaster, and others were usefully 
employed in different branches of the military service. One 
of these, a young man of eighteen years, left his widowed 
mother in the north of Ireland and escaped to this country as 
a stowaway, and under an old law or custom of the time, dis- 
charged his obligation to the master of the vessel by enlisting 
in the patriot army. A grand-uncle was a merchant high in 
repute and of considerable wealth in the city of Baltimore dur- 
ing the first third of the nineteenth century, and his descend- 
ants are now citizens of Maryland. My great-grandfather. 
John Jamison, from across the water in the north of Ireland, 
settled in Lancaster County. Pennsylvania, the richest agricult- 
ural part of the State, in the first quarter of the eighteenth 
century. He it was who named the township "Little Britain" ; 

8 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

and my grandfather, Samuel Jamison, moved from thence to 
Kentucky at the beginning of the century, where my father was 
born as aforesaid. The axe, the plow and the rifle were the im- 
plements used by the three generations of my ancestors to sub- 
due the wilderness. They chose the route into the Mississippi 
Valley taken by the Lincolns namely, from Pennsylvania and 
Virginia into Kentucky, thence across the Ohio River into 
Southern Indiana, and from thence directly to the Father of 
Waters. These migrations consumed the first quarter of the 
century. Clearings were made and homes established in the 
wilds of Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois. In Perry County, 
Indiana, my grandfather built a comfortable frame dwelling, 
the frame of oak, direct from the trees, the siding, sash and 
doors of walnut. Here my father was advancing in his teens 
and was the main dependence of the family in the care of such 
machinery as the> had, such as horse-power for grinding corn, 
the fanning-mill for cleaning wheat, and possibly the crude 
cylinder threshing machine, although the ox and the horse 
were still in use in my childhood for treading out, the grain. 
My father was twice married. His first wife, Marth.i 
Finley, who died of cholera in 1832, was the daughter of i 
soldier of the Revolution, who fought under Washington at 
Monmouth and on the Brandywine. He had just attained his 
majority on the arrival of the family in Henderson (then 
Warren) County, in 1829. He was a man of strong will, per- 
sistent energy of purpose, and in his old age, leaning on his 
staff, might well have said, "These hands have ministered to 
my necessities." His hands were large and well-shaped, with 
the broad curved thumb, the sure sign of a man well endowed. 
He taught school on his arrival in Henderson County; could 
survey his own lands ; was skillful in the budding and grafting 
of fruit trees, and practiced the art more or less all his life 
extending this work to his wild orange groves in Florida. All 
his farm work was done with the crude implements and tools 
used in the period following the Colonial era. At the time of 

Recollections of Pioneer and .Inny Life. 9 

my birth, some (a few) of the better helps were coming into 
use, such as the cast-iron plow, the then (not always) reliable 
steel plow. 1 recall my father in my earliest years, dragging 
in his small grain with a well-distributed tree-top, and he did 
a good job. The small grain was cut with a cradle, and his 
sickle, with its serrated edge (an implement of a former gen- 
eration, with which "the mower no longer filleth his hand, 
nor he that bindeth sheaves his bosom"), was an object of in- 
terest to me, and coveted, but denied to me as a plaything. 
The trace-chain, the flat wooden hames tied with a leather 
thong, the harness made of broad, flat strips of leather cut 
directly from the hide, the wide-track linch-pin wagon with 
its small fore wheels and extra large hind ones, the tar-bucket 
swinging under the hind axle, was the fashion on the public 
highways. A wagon of this description, usually drawn by oxen 
and scantily daubed with tar on the thimbles, warned the coun- 
try round of its approach long before coming into view by its 
agonizing shriek ' The late John Bruen, one of the wealthy 
live-stock men of the county, began life with such a wagon. I 
remember him well, swinging his ox-goad over his shoulder, a 
nut-brown, good-natured fellow, hesitating in his speech. The 
late David Rankin, another man of the same class, a reputed 
millionaire, started on a successful career with such an outfit. 

My father had the mechanic's eye, and knew at a glance 
whether a line was straight or not. He had the charge, when 
under age, of the machinery or tools requiring special care, 
for my grandfather had little aptitude for such work. When 
doing work which required some skill, his usual comment upon 
his awkward sons or others assisting in the labor was, "He 
hasn't half an eye!" He "found" himself, and "came to" him- 
self, in his own way. He had considerable education: but 
gathered it as every pioneer did, by hook and by crook, no 
one can tell just how, for he was a man of few words and only 
briefly and casually reminiscent. 

For a rail-splitter, inured to the toil of building homes in 

lo Recollections of Pioneer a)td Army Life. 

the wilderness, he wrote a good hand, and spelled correctly, 
an accomplishment marked by the breach rather than the ob- 
servance by alleged educated people. He never talked about 
it; but I think he must at one time have had an ambition be- 
yond the commonplace, for he always had useful books in his 
possession, and one in particular (an Ains worth's Latin diction- 
ary) which he seems to have put to considerable use. During 
the winter evenings, when he was not otherwise engaged, he 
busied himself making split-bottom chairs for his children and 
larger ones for the family. He was skillful at any kind of re- 
pair work and owned a kit of shoemaker's tools, with which he 
kept the footwear of the family in good shape. These home- 
ly labors are best appreciated when those of us who are old 
enough can recall families where the stupidity was so dense, 
or indolence so extreme, that even in severe weather little ef- 
fort was made in pioneer homes to provide these comforts. 

He was diligent in his business, intent on his purpose, 
concentrated, and cheerful, whistling in a peculiar minor key 
as he went about his farm work. I recall him, as he appeared 
to me in my earliest years, wearing a broad-brimmed home- 
made straw hat and linsey-woolsey waistcoat. Usually the 
farmer of those days wore a red waumus of home-woven ma- 
terial, the same as the mother and daughters wore, except that 
the linsey-woolsey for the latter came from the loom in stiipes. 
The elder Hanna presided at an old-fashioned Independence 
Day celebration at Centre Grove as late as 1853 in every-day 
attire namely, in an old waumus, with the corners drawn to 
the front and tied in a knot. 

In pioneer days my father was a sort of referee in local 
legal matters; that is to say, his neighbors made him "Squire" 
by regular commission, and by this official title he was always 
addressed by his friends. And too, he was available when his 
neighbors were ailing, for, while he made no pretensions to 
the healing art, his judgment was relied upon with great con- 
fidence by his neighbors. Blood-letting was still in vogue for 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. n 

many diseases, and as a child 1 used to look upon his keen 
lance, with its tortoise-shell handle, with a kind of horror, and 
1 never failed to lapse into a condition akin to nervous pros- 
tration whenever he bled my mother for sick headache. In 
this connection poor Josh Darnell comes into view. He was 
an epileptic, seven or eight years of age possibly. His parents, 
not knowing what better to do, brought him to father to be 
bled, which was done. 

One day at school I came very near being the victim of 
one of Josh's spells. Mary Ann Bigelow, an estimable young 
woman, was the teacher at the old Davenport school-house, 
and I and my younger brother, Ewell, were sent to her to ex- 
plore the mysteries of the alphabet. We were among the small- 
est urchins and sat with our bare legs hanging over the first 
low bench at the front. Behind us rose a higher bench and a 
writing desk or board running along the wall. Here the larger 
scholars sat. Josh was seated right behind me, and without 
warning the poor lad was suddenly taken with a "fit." His 
face flushed purple and he was caught by the teacher in the 
act of striking me a terrific blow from behind The teacher 
was as much afraid of him as the scholars were and the school 
was in a fright; but, after a struggle, the boy lapsed into a 
stupor, and in an hour or so was about as well as usual. 

The only event that arose to disturb the even tenor of 
Miss Bigelow's school was her method of getting even with 
the refractory boys. A feature of her academy was an im- 
provised gallows, from which was suspended a piece of woolen 
yarn. The criminal was brought out upon the, floor and placed 
on the trap. The rope was adjusted so that the transgressor 
stood on his toes, and if he acted as his own executioner, and 
sprung the trap that is to say, settled down on his heels and 
broke the rope, he either got a "licken" or had to be hung over 
again. In the pursuit of learning the two children were sent 
to Aunt Tabitha Stice, who opened a competing university in 
a log cabin which stood on the site of my brother Francis 

12 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Marion's home. At this time, throughout all the region round 
about, there was a great scare over the mad dog that bit Brad- 
bury. The good mothers were particularly concerned at the 
risk taken in sending the children a mile or two to school while 
this dog was still at large. As a precaution Aunt Tabitha took 
the door of the cabin, which was off its hinges, if it ever had 
any, and laid it down on its edge across the doorway, which 
would let in the light and keep out the dog, as she supposed. 
The dog never came our way, however, and for a break in the 
monotony we had to fall back on our own resources. As for 
myself, I found a good subject in Will Graham,, who had not 
as yet learned the art of blowing his nose. Being his next 
neighbor, I introduced some bits of vaudeville which proved 
a side-splitting success. At every joke sent as a surprise from 
behind my spelling-book there was a cataclysm Will snick- 
ered and the sheep-legs hung suspended at great length. Up 
to this time handkerchiefs had not been discovered, and the 
helpless boy could do nothing less than wind up his suspen- 
sories, until he must have had a coil in his head as big as -\ 
pound pippin. 



During my father's laudable effort to help poor Josh Dar- 
nell, I find that I have escaped into this world unbeknownst, 
as it were, and got as far as Aunt Tabitha's school before be- 
ing discovered, and if my patient reader please, we will trace 
the fugitive back to his entrance. I was born on the loth day 
of September, 1840, on the ancient hunting-ground of the 
Sacs and Foxes two of the many collateral tribes of the great 
Algonquin race; within a few yards of an old stockade, 
pierced for musketry, erected at the opening of the Black 
Hawk War on my father's homestead, situated in the angle 
formed by the branches of the Henderson River, close to its 
junction with the Mississippi, and within five miles of the Yel- 
low Banks, where I grew to manhood. My half-brothers, John 
C. (October 15, 1830) and Francis Marion (October i, 1832), 
were born in that stockade, while the children of the second 
marriage, myself included, were born in a log cabin on the 
same ground. There was no booming of cannon on my ad- 
vent into this world; but the Whigs throughout the country 
were on their sailor's legs through the inoidinate consumption 
of hard cider. Does my reader remember the campaign song 
of 1840? 

"Farewell, old Van; 
You 're a used-up man. 
To guard our ship 
We '11 try old Tip. 
With Tip and Tyler 
We '11 burst Van's biler I" 


14 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

In the "Military Tract' the supporters of "Tippecanoe and 
Tyler too" were short on the prescribed refreshment of the 
campaign. They were strong on coonskins and log cabins, but 
were in a strait for hard cider, and I suspect that my elders 
were compelled to work up enthusiasm for the ticket on the 
standard stimulant. 

My father explored Fulton and Henderson Counties in 
1829, and in 1830 my grandfather, Samuel Jamison, and my 
uncles James, John Calvin, Harvey and Nathan, my aunt 
Elizabeth, a grand-uncle, John Jamison, and a grand aunt, 
Sally Jamison, all settled in the immediate neighborhood known 
for three-quarters of a century as the "Jamison Settlement" ; 
^11 of them within four and five miles of the Yellow Banks. 
I recall all the original cabins built by the heads of the differ- 
ent branches of the family the cabin in the woods where my 
grandfather died ; for some reason he was not at home, in his 
own good frame dwelling close by. I was a small child at play 
around the cabin when he breathed his last He died before 
his time, at the age of sixty-eight, having torn his thumb on 
a splinter as he climbed over the rail fence. The wound re- 
sulted in time in blood-poisoning. He used to ride over to my 
father's on his old saddle-horse, "Jawl," and show my mother 
his wounded thumb, and when he held it out, by rising on my 
toes I could get a glimpse of it. Uncle James' rude cabin 
stood for some years close to the frame dwelling, which was 
not completed at his death. I stood in recent years at the door 
of the log cabin and looked in at the same four-square room 
where my Uncle Calvin and Aunt Sarah began housekeeping. 
Everything comes back to me now : the giant oak and hickory 
trees that cast their shadow over the cabin, the long winter 
evenings, the shell-bark hickory nuts and the hearthstone where 
they were cracked in the light of the blaze while the apples 
sputtered in a row and the corn pone slowly ripened in the lit- 
tle oven. The current literature was Horace Greeley's Tribune. 
The Jamisons all set out a fruit tree first and built their cabins 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 15 

afterwards. Uncle Calvin was a clean, wholesome man ; a good 
neighbor, without pretensions of any kind; blessed with com- 
mon sense in a large measure, a sound judgment, and a proper 
pride in his own personality. He suffered much sickness in 
his family in the early days of his married life, which kept 
him back; but in later years he came grandly forward, and 
died with a good estate, rejoicing in having seen his great- 
grandchild ! 

The first built of the frame homes (those of my grand- 
father and Uncle James, the first about seventy years old and 
the latter sixty or more) are in a good state of preservation, 
promising to last to shelter still other generations. My grand- 
father's homestead, as cared for by Uncle Harvey in the old 
days, was especially beautiful, with its large mulberry tree on 
the lawn, the picketed garden-plot on the north, the wide- 
spreading pasture land, in which stood the spacious barn, and 
the orchard and noble grove of primeval forest for a back- 
ground. Now, however, with the passing years the savage 
greed of the alien has made havoc in the forest, run the plow- 
share almost into the doorway, and threatens to make a manure- 
heap of the private burial-ground. I have always been af- 
fected in a peculiar way by this venerated spot. Across the 
vista of my earliest recollection passes a group of mourners 
bearing the remains of my grandmother from the ancestral 
home (a short way) to the private burial-plot. My mother 
led me by the hand, and I was awed and did not understand ; 
but the cloth-covered casket borne solemnly along made an 
impression that time alone can not efface. My Uncle Nathan 
at his death was an octogenarian, and the last survivor of the 
ancient race whose members settled in Henderson County early 
in the first third of the nineteenth century. His relict, Aunt 
Sophronia, is living at an advanced age, richly blessed in her 

It is the happy lot of the child born on the frontier to be 
oblivious to the sturdy blows of the axe at the root of the tree 

1 6 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

the patient accumulation of years by which the young mar- 
ried couple surround themselves with the comforts of home; 
the comfortable cabin itself ; the necessary outbuildings ; the 
conveniences of interior lanes and gates and bars ; the well 
safely curbed against the feet of tottering childhood, the old 
oaken bucket ; the lowing herds and flocks ; my. mother's old- 
style poppies and pinks in the garden; father's amber grapes 
and damson plums, and his stalwart orchard, the first and the 
best in the State (so the State Historical Society says), with 
its stout apple trees heavy laden ; the cherry trees, in whose 
tops the birds were wont to compete with the boys for the ripe 
clusters ; the pears, the peaches in perfection all, untenanted 
by worm and unstung by fly ! All this seems commonplace : 
but when I recall the aged couple whose ashes rest in Florida 
"in their sepulchre there by the sea" who supplied my earli- 
est youth with such lavish abundance, the tears come welling 
up. Nor is this picture shown in its best light save by contrast. 
When I was a lad, I could look across our great prairies and 
not see in those wide open spaces a single farm-house, and 
fruit in the thinly settled country was almost unknown. My 
father brought his fruit scions (poor dried -up little roots, 
which could not possibly live, he thought) in a wagon from 
Kentucky ! I believe that my father wa -5 the best farmer and 
the best all-around man in his neighborhood. He had a roomy 
two-story log barn and comfortable cattle sheds when the most 
of his neighbors had little or no sheltei for their stock, or 
turned it out in the arctic cold. He always had a small drove 
of young cattle coming on, and as children we took great de- 
light in attending upon the sheep-shearing at the sheep-house 
down in the pasture. The threshing scenes at the barn were a 
great wonder, where the oxen or the horses went round and 
round treading out the grain, and where the fanning-mill stood 
for cleaning it. The wheat bins were sections of great hollow 
sycamore or cottonwood trees which had been further perfect- 
ed for use by burning out. He raised more timothy and clover 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 17 

hay than anyone that 1 can remember, which seems odd enough 
in a new country where the great prairies were still unoccupied 
and wild hay could be had for the cutting. He raised flax also 
in small quantities to supply my mother's little spinning-wheel, 
on which she made hei thread. The old hackle for cleaning 
the flax lay around the house for years after it had fallen into 
"innocuous desuetude." 



My mother, Margaret Mcllvain Giles, was born in Abbey- 
ville Parish, South Carolina, the birthplace and home of John 
C. Calhonn. One of her earliest recollections, at three years 
of age, was of being carried on the shoulder of her uncle. 
Andy Giles, in subsequent years a wealthy slaveholder, in full 
dress, including his cavalry boots, from the tops of which hung 
pendent a tassel after the style of the Revolutionary period. 
Her people were Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, who emigrated 
during the first quarter of the nineteenth century with a con- 
siderable body of these sectaries into Preble County, Ohio, 
where they had an established church under the ministry of 
Doctor Porter, the father of the well-known first pastor of the 
Ce.dar Creek church in Warren County, Illinois. One of the 
brighest pictures of my childhood is the Sabbath scene at this 
country church on the occasion of one of our semi-annual visits 
to our numerous relatives in the vicinity : the warm sunlight of 
ai perfect summer day ; the noble forest ; the interest of innum- 
erable strange faces ; the neighing of horses as of an army with 
banners ; the groups of worshipers in the light and shade of 
the trees, held together by the living meshes of demure yet 
happy children ; and the coming and going through the throng, 
with nimble tread, of a pet deer or two, with a tinkling bell 
under its throat. The pastor, a typical preacher of pioneer 
days, was marked by the romanticism of the mighty hunter. 
Woodcraft and the hunting of large game was second nature 
to him. He had, too, the wit, tact, and flavor peculiar to 
his class. Of no mean education, he lived a rude life, spend- 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 19 

ing more time in the woods with his rifle than in the prepara- 
tion of his sermons, which lacked nothing essential, however, 
to the homilies of the John Knox cult. 

My mother was the idol of her household of boys indulg- 
ent, gentle, affectionate. One of my earliest recollections is 
of standing at her knee Sunday afternoons repeating after her 
the Child's Catechism : "Who made you ? God. Who re- 
deemed you ? Christ. Who sanctified you ? The Holy Ghost. 
Of what were you made? Of the dust of the earth," etc. 
These great mysteries were doubly mysterious to me, and I 
could get no hold on them until my mother declared, with the 
Catechism to back her, that I was made of the dust of the 
earth ! I recall perfectly how I pricked up my ears at the 
thought of being made out of the dust of the earth. I looked 
up into her face more questioningly than before ; but it was 
serenely grave as usual ; and withal I know all about the dust, 
for my younger brother, Ewell, and I did nothing else the long 
summer day than run up and down the lane, stopping at inter- 
vals to make of the dust foothouses, of which we had whole 
villages ! My mind rested on the announcement that I was 
made of dust, and whatever else in the Catechism I may have 
forgotten, this great revelation remains as fresh in my memory 
as ever. When my father was absent from home, she took 
the book. and led in worship. If Aunt Polly McKinney came 
over from Uncle James', close by, she sat in the kitchen and 
visited while mother walked back and forth whirling her spin- 
ning-wheel. I think she must have experimented with almost 
everything that was good for the table, for among my earliest 
recollections is seeing her trimming home-made cheeses, and 
pressing out the juice of blackberries for wine, and I am sure 
her delicately browned puddings served with a sauce two- 
thirds of a century ago were as nice as any we have in the 
wonderful Now ! She was among the first to make fruit jel- 
lies when they were first introduced, and she made them beau- 
tifully. Her success was the despair of Mrs. Robert Ross, 

20 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

her pastor's wife, of a later time, whom she was fond of hav- 
ing at her table for tea or an elaborate dinner. They were a 
newly married couple, and the wife, being ambitious to learn, 
got her first points, after some failures in jellies, from my 
mother. The cabin where I was born, afterward weather- 
boarded over, had a fireplace, where the cooking was done in 
the beginning of her married life ; but she was among the first, 
if not the very first, in our neighborhood to have a cooking- 
stove, which was like the two steps of a stairway, the firebox 
the first step and the rising step the oven back of it. It was a 
simple affair, but effective as far as it went, for it was only 
an adjunct to the fireplace. The big corn pone, seasoned with 
small bits of fat pork scattered through it, continued to be 
baked on the hearth, in the Dutch oven, with coals and hot 
ashes on top and underneath. Thar old birthplace is still in 
use by the alien. The ancient hearth is still there, in the 
room where I slept in my trundle-bed, where the fire blazed 
over the back-log, and scorched my face, while I tried to 
whittle with the first dog-knife on the Christmas day it was 
presented to me. The walnut doors, plain as a pikestaff, and 
the little old-style latches, which look like they had been beaten 
out on the smithy's anvil, are there, and it is a long time now 
since I had to stand tip-toe and make a struggle to raise the 
latch to compel the "open door" which John Hay, poor fel- 
low ! clamored for in the Orient so loudly. 

She had small, beautifully shaped hands the thumbs 
cunning little half-circles, full of character; and when they 
rested in persuasive admonition on my head, I felt the strength 
of that maternal love which is the most potent guiding force 
known to our race. When she was left alone, without com- 
pany except her small children, and any unusual noise occurred 
at night outside, she would get up from her bed and go out 
around the house to find the cause. This is a pioneer home, 
where help was not at hand, during the years when the Mor- 
mons occupied Nauvoo. My father's horses were stolen by 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army 'Life. 21 

Mormon thieves at this time. He recovered two in place of 
them, but did not get his own. One day an insane man passed 
through the country. He came down the lane past the house, 
hurling stones and clubs as he went. My father was away 
from home and my mother stood on the porch with her small 
brood around her, full of apprehension, relieved somewhat as 
she saw our neighbor, Sam Lynn, and others, riding hastily 
from the north, watchful of the man until he had passed our 
place and no harm could come to us. This kindness on the part 
of Lynn was always referred to gratefully by her, although 
he was a man w*ho, his life long, kept a liquor-joint on his 
place and with whom our family could not fraternize. 

I was a reckless rover about four years of age when my 
mother ventured one Sunday morning to leave me at home 
while she and my father went to church. Some older children 
(my cousins probably, or my half-brothers) had charge of me. 
Without announcing the fact, I concluded to look the premises 
over, and wandered off down into the barn lot, where I found 
a span of horses lying at their ease only a few feet apart ; one 
of these a young gelding which my father had received from 
the Mormons in lieu of one their people had stolen from him. 
This animal was wild and unbroken. I went up to it, and in 
the most social way attempted to draw it into conversation. 
I laid my hand on it, or tried to. It did not wait to get up. 
It flashed, and gave me a kick that laid me out good and quiet 
in another part of the barnyard. I can barely remember that 
they came and carried me into the house, for my thigh felt 
like it had been crushed, and I could not walk. When my 
mother came home and opened my clothing and found the 
print of the horse's hoof on the soft flesh, my elders were 
brought to account, and there were a number of points in the 
cross-exmination which have not been cleared up to this day. 
Some time afterward I saw a young fellow trying to break that 
horse ; and the last view I had of him he was going head first 
over the horse's ears in ;i way well devised to break his neck. 

22 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

i tried to trudge over to Uncle Calvin's one day and had 
got out on Sam Lynn's unbroken "quarter" a piece of first- 
class land still untouched by the plow when 1 was discovered 
by a drove of cattle grazing some distance ahead of me. I 
was advancing towards them with the utmost confidence in 
their good intentions when suddenly the leader bowed low his 
wide-spreading horns and began waving his tail aloft and 
throwing dirt in the same direction with his alternating fore 
feet. I stopped a moment to survey the enemy. Then the 
fellow with the big horns and another fellow with short horns 
and wrinkled countenance (as though the troubles of this world 
were proving too much for him) lifted their heads way up 
very much higher than there was any warrant for, I thought; 
then they would trot around a little and paw the dirt some 
more, and by this time the whole drove was honoring the small 
object with two short legs standing in the grass gun-shot away 
with the deepest interest. Then the leader sent me another 
challenge, and the whole herd moved in my direction. I lost 
all interest in my visit to Uncle Calvin's. I thought he could 
wait a week or so, and those legs of mine, such as I had, went 
through the grass like buggy spokes in the wake of a two- 
minute nag. I didn't wait to climb Uncle James' fence I just 
touched it lightly and passed over the top rail like a partridge 
on poised wings, and landed I landed in the rotten cornstalks 
and dirt with a thump that disabled everything inside of me, 
while the cattle, having lost sight of me, rounded the corner 
and went down the lane toward the old church, looking for 
the fugitive, bellowing, and raising so much dust that I 
thought as I crouched out of sight in the weeds that I should 
never want to go visiting again. 



Some of my mother's forebears and many of her relatives 
rest in the churchyard adjoining the Cedar Creek church; and 
if my reader should ever visit the lonely spot (not so bright 
and fair as in the days long gone, for the meeting-house has 
been removed to conform to the public highway on the section 
line), on the center pathway he will find the grave of Rachel 
Nicol, a blood relative, the daughter of my aunt Susan Giles 
Nicol, and that of her brother David, a mere youth, shot from 
ambush by guerrillas while scouting with his company under 
the command of Captain John Gamble, on the public highway, 
near Fort Donelson, Tennessee, during the Civil War. This 
ambitious young woman was not favored by Nature in all 
which young women born into this world are fairly entitled 
to comeliness of form and feature. She was plain, but she 
had redeeming gifts ; she plodded, but the tortoise reached the 
goal. Her classmates were comparatively handsome some 
of them distinctly so. Rachel's was a reserved, kindly, well- 
poised personality, manifesting a certain mental solidity and 
strength of character, rather than brilliance, and a uniformly 
neat person. She was fearless, and when others shrank from 
the scourge, she nursed the cholera victims. She was grad- 
uated by Monmouth College with high averages. When her 
class dissolved on Commencement day, some to idleness, some 
to fashion, others to work and still others to marriage, she 
went on with her studies completed the course and received 
the degree of M.D. from a medical school in Philadelphia ; 
then entered the New England Hospital, in Boston, where she 

24 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

had the advantages of hospital practice, and nothing daunted, 
crossed the Atlantic and entered the University of Zurich. 
Switzerland, to further advance her studies in medicine and 
surgery. Here she was. taken ill, it is believed, with pneumonia. 
In that hour which must come to all, the nurse bent over her 
and asked her if she knew that she could not get well; then 
for the first time the face of the brave girl showed emotion ; 
the chin trembled, and the tears came ! In due course her re- 
mains went by rail to the seaboard, then across the solemn 
main homeward bound, and by rail once more, a long journey, 
to trie lonely churchyard on the hill, on Cedar Creek. 

From a voluminous correspondence I select a few of the 
letters of Miss Nicol to her life-long friend, Mrs. Emma Kil- 
gore, the accomplished wife of the late Doctor Kilgore, of 
Monmouth, which will aid those who treasure her memory 
with miser care to trace her preparations for a professional 

To Mrs. Kilgore. 

"New England Hospital, Boston, Mass. 
"May 1 6, 1879. 

EMMA. As you see, 1 am 'swinging around the 
circle,' arid now find myself at the 'Hub,' where 1 expect to 
tarry for a year. The New England Hospital is delightfully 
located in Boston Highlands, on an eminence, from which the 
city and its numerous suburbs can be viewed. I have seen 
very little of the city yet, have been out but twice since I came, 
which I do not consider a great cross, as I did not come on a 
visit. The hospital is net connected with any medical school, 
nor is it a charity hospital except a few endowed beds which 
may be occupied by free patients; hence the class of people 
with which we work is quite different from that ordinarily met 
in hospital work. I am to spend my first four months in the 
surgical wards and have already become deeply interested in 
my patients. Each doctor is expected to visit the patients under 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 25 

her care before breakfast, dinner and supper, also again in the 
forenoon with the chief of the hospital. After supper each 
one reports to the chief physician the condition of her patients. 
Each puts up her own remedies also. Tuesdays and Fridays 
are set apart for surgical operations, so you have a synopsis of 
our work, except that I did not say that we are expected to 
write the histories of all our cases." 

A Premonition of Her Fate. 

"33 Warrenton St., Boston, Mass. 
"Dec. 30, 1879. 

"DEAR EMMA. I think you might have made a further 
sacrifice in order to make me a visit and see Boston, whose 
wonders I would only be too glad to visit with you ; then you 
know such a thing might happen as that I could not visit you 
for a long, long time, maybe never, and then no, no, I will 
not try to work upon your feelings in such a way as to unfit 
you for responding to the demands of the present ; but then, 
after a while not now, but far away in the future, the burden 
of years or some such inconvenience may possibly interfere 
with the realization of anticipated enjoyments ; only a bare pos- 
sibility you understand, of course. You ask how I like my 
profession. My reply is, the more I know of the principles 
upon which its practice is founded the deeper becomes my in- 
terest in and the greater my admiration for it. My great 
lamentation is that I did not begin the study ten years sooner 
than I did. I am, and have been, in the dispensary connected 
with the N. E. Hospital. We have clinics every forenoon and 
while away our afternoons, and alas ! too many of our nights, 
visiting patients at their homes. It is especially interesting to 
be called up at I or 2 in the night when the horse-cars are not 
running and find a walk of from i to 3 miles before you with 
the inspiration of a pouring rain or a terrific snow-storm to 
spur you on." 

20 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

From Germany to Mrs. Kilgore. 

"Hotel de la Rose, Wiesbaden. 
"June 9, 1880. 

"DEAR EMMA. I postponed answering your letter until 
I could decide what disposition I would make of myself. I 
left N. Y. on the nth day of May, then undecided whether I 
should remain tnere tor any lengtn of time, or come here. 1 
spent the ten days in X. Y., and in company with two friends 
from Philadelphia, who met me there, did the city quite thor- 
oughly. During this time I also made up my mind to come 
here, and in accordance with that conclusion sailed at 3:15 
p. M. in the 'Maas,' one of' the Xetherland-American S. S. 
Co.'s vessels, sailing between X. Y. and Rotterdam. The 
time in which this steamer usually makes the trip is thirteen 
days, but owing to head winds, which prevailed all the time 
except the first three days, and the roughness of the German 
Ocean, the voyage was prolonged to fifteen days, lacking three 
hours. As regarded roughness of sea, we were told our trip 
was an unusually favorable one, .even for this season, with the 
exception of twenty-four hours on the German Ocean, which 
was somewhat boisterous, but not alarmingly so. Notwith- 
standing the smooth sea, which was like a mirror most of the 
time. I was sea-sick eleven days of the fifteen ; not very sick 
any of the time, but so dizzy I could not stand on my feet, and 
rather than substitute my head for these ordinarily useful mem- 
bers, assumed the recumbent position on deck sixteen hours out 
of the twenty-four, the remaining eight in my berth and in go- 
ing to and from it. I am convinced that I might have escaped 
the sea-sickness entirely had I gone on shipboard in good con- 
dition, which I did not ; the ten days' dissipation in X T . Y. hav- 
ing had the opposite effect. But I will be wiser next titrie! 
The remaining five days T enjoyed very. much. I will take this 
opportunity of commending our ship's officers for their thought- 
ful attention and gentlemanly bearing, which in no small de- 
gree aided in the mitigation of the wretchedness attendant 
upon sea-sickness. When you are ready to take a sea voyage, 
you can not do better than to patronize some of the steamers 
of this line. We arrived at Rotterdam at n A. M. June i6th, 
where I remained until 10:30 A. M. next day; then took an 
express train, which brought me here at 10:30 P. M. of the 
same day. I did not make the famous trip along the Rhine in 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 27 

a boat, as it was raining that morning when 1 started and con- 
tinued to do so all day. The trip requires two days by boat, 
while I came by rail in twelve hours and saw beautiful scenery 
for one day. It is truly magnificent yes, glorious ! The rail- 
road track winds along the river just far enough from the 
edge of the water for a drive and walk, and upon the opposite 
side of the track, upon its very edge almost, rise abruptly the 
hills covered with grape vines which seems> to be growing from 
a stone pavement as seen from the car window not a speck 
of soil could be seen. 

"The journey through Holland I enjoyed as much. It is 
like a fairy land. I could scarcely realize that I was not 
dreaming. It is a land of beautiful gardens. They grow some 
grain and grass, but always in small plots, edged by grass of 
a different tint, closely cut, serving as an ornamental border. 
Then surrounding this a wide ditch or small canal, these aver- 
aging about ten feet in width and serving the purpose of drains 
as well as means of connection between different localities. 
Of public highways as we understand that term there are very 
few in Holland, travel being effected in small boats on the 
canals, which I should judge use up fully one-sixth of the sur- 
face of the country. What few roads there are have on either 
side a row of immense trees carefully trimmed and whose 
branches meet overhead, adding greatly to the beauty of the 
landscapes, and no doubt contributing to the com.fort of the 

"I had quite an amusing experience at one of the railway 
stations in Holland. No one could speak or understand Eng- 
lish and I could not understand Dutch. One fellow seemed to 
have a sort of vague idea of the signification of the words 
'ticket' and 'luggage.' which he continued to repeat in very 
much the same tone and manner of the faithful on their 
Ave Marias, as if by so doing he hoped to receive inspiration 
sufficient to make victors of him and myself both. It was ex- 
ceedingly amusing, but, as the inspiration was not forthcoming 
and everything around seemed to point to the early departure 
of the waiting train for somewhere. I determined to exercise 
my faith in a more energetic manner, and with an incredible 
amount of gesticulation performed during the few minutes left 
before leaving of the train, succeeded in getting aboard, bag 
and baggage. T leaned back and drew a long breath, feeling 
quite sure of being on the verge of departure for somewhere. 
just where was sufficiently mysterious to keep my interest in 

26 Recollections of Pioneer and .Irmy Life. 

the journey from flagging until about i p. M. of the same day 
(the hour of starting was 10:30 A. M.), when the train stopped 
and everybody got out and I could see they were unloading the 
baggage, and yet there seemed to be no station, only a single 
large uuilding. Suddenly it began to dawn upon me that we 
had reached the boundary between Holland and Germany and 
here we were to have our baggage examined by Custom House 
officers. I sat in the car, knowing that if my surmise proved 
correct, the day's mystery would soon be solved. In a few 
minutes one of the uniformed guards appeared at the door of 
the car and addressed yours truly as follows, 'Haben Sie bag- 
gage?' to which I replied in the affirmative and immediately 
clambered out, went into the Custom House, opened one of 
my trunks, into which the officers cast an indifferent glance, 
and at once marked them both free from duty. Being now 
among Germans, whose language I could speak and understand 
to some extent, I learned that 1 was on the right track. I then 
took my seat in the car and in a few minutes we had resumed 
our journey, reaching Wiesbaden at the hour previously stated. 
I shall probably remain here two months, then go to Zurich or 
Berne, which I can not yet say. 

"With kind regards to all my friends and love to yourself, 
I am as ever, 

"Your sincere friend, R. J. NICOL." 

From Switzerland to Mrs. Kilgorc. 

"Zurich, Dec. n, 1880. 

"DEAR EMMA. You evidently think crossing the ocean 
an extraordinary affair, yet you think nothing of making a 
long journey by rail every few months which is attended with 
many more inconveniences than traveling by water. I admit 
sea-sickness is not the most agreeable sensation imaginable, yet 
believe it can be to a great extent avoided by going on ship- 
board in good condition and exercising a little common sense 
the first few days of the voyage. 

"As to your question, 'Am I attending the University?' 
Yes, I am attending two lectures daily and the remainder of the 
time devoting to the clinics and the hospitals ; am also having 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. .29 

practice work in the pathological laboratory three hours every 
Friday. * * * * Would be glad to take you the satin and silk 
dresses were I going in your direction, and what you want will 
be sent as soon as possible. If there is any other article which 
the second cousin of the President-elect of the U. S. wishes, 
I would be most happy to lend my aid in procuring the same. 
One can buy the best quality of kid gloves four buttons for 
four and a half francs. They can be sent by mail for 12 cents 
per pair. 

"Sincerely yours, etc., R. J. N." 

Miss Nicol was my mother's favorite niece, and although 
widely sundered, the two loving friends made the journey to 
other worlds than ours nearly together. 



The South Henderson Associate Reformed Congregation 
was organized by the Rev. Alexander Blakie on July 4, 1835, 
with a membership of fifty-nine. My father and John Giles 
were elected elders. Four sermons were preached in my fath- 
er's barn prior to the organization, two by Rev. Jeremiah Mor- 
row in 1834, and two by Rev. Thomas Turner in 1835. The 
first meeting-house, a frame structure, was built in 1837; the 
second, of stone, in 1855. 

The frame meeting-house was the one familiar to me in 
my childhood. Here the honest yeomanry of the new country 
met in reverential worship. Here the local workmen put to- 
gether their share of the moral framework of the political 
structure which forms the commonwealth of Illinois. The in- 
teresting spot, hallowed by association with so many good and 
useful lives, became a notable landmark in the county and a 
modest force and center in our Western civilization. Our fath- 
ers did a crude and imperfect work possibly, but it was done 
in sincerity and there is none to gainsay it to this day. The 
open, original forest (the heavy undergrowth has since ob- 
scured the view) permitted us to see the meeting-house one- 
third of a mile away from my father's doorstep, and we had 
a private pathway through the woods by which we attended 
the services. Here the old-style preachers of the ancient 
Scotch faith made the spot lurid with the fires that are never 
quenched and made the prayers hold out better than the legs 
of those who stood to hear them. At unanticipated intervals 
we had a supply direct from Scotland. They were of the 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 31 

straight John Knox brand very raw. The}' employed the 
method direct. They handed out the prescription. If the 
flock would not take the dose, because it was "too strong," 
then the devil would be to pay. and his terms were hard to 

I am glad I did not hear everything the preacher said. 
While he breathed threatenings. and warned the good people 
of an impending smash-up, I leaned my weary head the long, 
hot summer day on my dear mother's arm, oblivious of it all, 
and I think she was as glad as I was to get out of the stifling 
close room into the fresh air, where we could eat cookies, pie 
and chicken, and talk with the neighbors during "intermission." 
I am happy to say, there was a constant aspiration toward bet- 
ter things, both as to forms and doctrine a permanent revolt 
among the less hide-bound members against the absurdities of 
Rouse's version and allied straight- jacket methods of script- 
ural construction. The old church cracked the whip over its 
poor slaves who would not many of them so much as look 
up and claim an inheritance here, much less a rest with the 
people of God hereafter. Derision in the seat of the scornful, 
and ridicule in the church itself, drove Rouse back to his native 
highlands, and opened the hearts and minds of men and wo- 
men nursed in the ironclad forms of an ignorant and brutish 
age to the light and warmth of the truth as it is in Jesus 
and America ! 

The indulgence in strong drink, a convivial weakness not 
uncommon among the members and not wholly unknown 
among the clergy, was esteemed a trivial offense compared to 
a little sanity in the ritual. I can speak by the card, for my 
mother declared that the old preacher who baptised me had a 
preternatural affection for his toddy and was crazy withal ! 
Almost without exception, all the old-time clergy were grovel- 
ing tobacco-chewers. There were some odd specimens among 
the early pastors of the South Henderson church. Father 
Friedley wis one of these. He had a very priestly air when 
harnessed for service, and he was an honest little man. but he 

T,2 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

couldn't preach worth shucks. His best point was an unfail- 
ing good nature, and his worst an incorrigible laziness thai 
must have reached back lineally through seventeen generations, 
it was so thoroughly bred up. His morning service was sched- 
uled for 1 1 o'clock A. M. ; he did nobly, for him, if he hove in 
sight of his flock at i o'clock p. M., and the apprehension the 
poor man felt, that under the circumstances the "session" 
would have a rather chilly reception planned for him, did not 
add to his peace of mind ! Later on he taught the Brokelbank 
"Academy," and still later the public school in the court-room 
at the Yellow Banks, where I took advantage of his kindness, 
and along with two other boys got leave to study in the shade 
of the black-jacks outside ! Why our elders put us to study- 
ing Latin when as yet we knew nothing about our own tongue 
is one of the mysteries not pertinent to this narrative. There 
was blue-grass in the bushy groves in those days, big bull 
snakes, strawberries and flocks of quail. My companions, 
John Brook and Jim Pollock, were very good in the Latin 
grammar and in reading "Historian Sacrae," but a large portion 
of our time was spent in gathering violets and fighting 'em as 
Johnny Jump-ups. I remember well, at a point not over fifty 
yards from the court-house, catching over a dozen quail in my 
trap and losing half as many more in my efforts to hold them 
all in one hand while I reached under and pulled them out by 
twos and threes with the other. The sandy level extending 
back from the river to main Henderson was heavily wooded 
and the soil fertile, the result of decades of rotted leaves. In 
places the ground was heavily carpeted with blue-grass, and 
the whole of it so covered, but in places thinly. When the 
original forest of large oak trees was cut away and the fierce 
heat of mid-summer fell unbroken upon the sandy loam, the 
strength thereof disappeared like snow in May. The forests in 
the great economy of Nature are ranked by the Psalmist with 
the seas and the mountain ranges, and the mental feather- 
weight who will invade their ranks for indiscriminate slaughter 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 33 

should be indicted for the murder of earth's chiefest conserv- 
ing glory. 

To gather up the threads of my discourse : Dominie Fried- 
ley I believe really preferred teaching to roasting such an 
immense majority of the human race in the flames of the pit. 
He did not take kindly to the business of a stoker. The dear, 
kind, patient old man ! He will get his share of the good 
things coming I verily believe, whatever becomes of the rest 
of us! 

As a class the old-style preachers knew no other way than 
to strike terror into our guilty souls to scare us into the king- 
dom. The Sunday aspect at South Henderson was rather 
grim. The sermons were wrathful. Robert Ross, who was 
a comparatively modern preacher there, had but one burden 
the wrath to come ! His favorite phrase, which he never omit- 
ted, regardless of the text, was "the weeping and wailing and 
gnashing of teeth" as the seething masses of humanity, like 
maggots in a dunghill, crawled over each other in their efforts 
to get out of the flames. One impression only was indelibly 
stamped upon my youthful mind by these sermons that of 
terror, and the nightmare follows me like a shadow to this 
day! And yet to my immature understanding there was the 
suggestion that my elders took these anathemas with some 
grains of salt ; that, after all, it may not be as rough sledding 
in the great hereafter as the picture drawn would seem to 
imply. My father, contemplative and discerning, did much 
thinking on religious subjects on his own account. He was an 
inquirer, and welcomed the light which shone from his varied 
reading. He was a great admirer of Dr. N. L. Rice and he 
never failed, when opportunity offered, to hear that eminent 
man in his own pulpit in St. Louis. On these occasions he 
was fed on manna not so severely roasted as that to which he 
was accustomed at home. 

An interesting old couple in regular attendance upon the 
services were the aged Mr. and Mrs. Davis coming and going 
in their well-remembered "one-horse shay." Mr. Davis was 

34 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

a figure sure to attract attention from any boy. His age (he 
must have been a veteran of 1812), his erect carriage; and his 
queer, drab-felt great-coat coming down to his heels, and its 
series of ever-enlarging capes, beginning with a small one at 
the throat and increasing in size down to the point of the 
shoulders, and the fastening at the collar (a twisted brass 
chain and hook) the whole giving one a good idea of the 
appearance of historical figures of the past. 

The fathers of South Henderson were of that grain that 
if a prejudice once found lodgment therein, it was like a four- 
pronged, hard-and-fast molar tooth one must break the jaw 
to get it out; but with all their shortcomings, of whatever 
nature, which they shared in common with their fellow-men, 
they were, as a rule, clean as a new silver dollar, as welcome, 
and would pass the solid globe around. The congregation was 
about equally divided between* immigrants from the North and 
South members from Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana had 
their equivalents from Georgia, South Carolina and Tennessee, 
and some of these latter who had withdrawn from the South 
were so poisoned by the virus of slavery that they continued 
to vote for the oppressor as before; but while the elder gen- 
erations have passed away, I remain steadfast in the hope and 
belief that some time or other, in the future ages, their de- 
scendants will cease to vote the Democratic ticket. 

And now as to King David : he was a musician the chief 
musician and composer of his time, the leader of a choir; the 
companion, friend, and patron of choristers. His psalms, or 
songs, were all addressed to some one of the chief musicians, 
by name, his contemporaries. It was his business and chief 
delight to "sing a new song" unto the Lord, with "the harp, 
with trumpets, and the sound of cornet, with the timbrel, and 
with stringed instruments" and "organs," with the "loud," the 
"high-sounding cymbals." He was the inspired composer of 
Israel as Mozart and Mendelssohn and their compeers were 
the inspired children of song of a later time. Our dear old 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 35 

fathers affected to admire David's songs above all other men, 
and in the same breath to despise his orchestra. How could 
that be? But his orchestra, as we have seen in the passing 
years, is a monster which the old Church, with all its qualms, 
"endured, then pitied, then embraced." I salute them most 
heartily in their emergence from the thralldom of Rouse and 
all the bigotry of centuries. May their choirs, their organs, 
and their "gospel songs" prevail and spread till they fill the 
whole earth ! And I lament and mourn with them that one of 
their immature preachers, in a public assembly, in the year 
1905, should make such an ass of himself as to attempt to 
cover with opprobrium the inspired song "Lead, Kindly Light." 
The Church will purge herself of all such indigestible matter 
in due time. 



In the year 1845 some of our kin and acquaintances a 
part of that restless, migratory advance guard of the race 
anticipating a lack of elbow-room on the fertile soil of Illinois, 
gathered up their small effects and struck out with their ox- 
teams and prairie schooners for Oregon ! Think of all that 
has happened on the "plains" since that year! Around Forts 
Bridger, Snelling and Kearney ; Zack Taylor and his little army 
on the Rio Grande ; the expeditions along the Santa F6 trail ; 
John C. Fremont and Kit Carson and their alleged explora- 
tions ; Albert Sidney Johnston and his army menacing the Mor- 
mons in Utah ; the Argonauts in search of the golden fleece ; 
the dramatic scenes in the Lava Beds and the bloody vengeance 
taken on the pale-face; the score of Indian campaigns marked 
by the bloody reprisals and heroic deaths since these emigrants 
made their peaceful journey to the Willamette valley ! 

They pulled up at my father's gate to say farewell, and 
they might well do so, for it was the final separation of old 
friends. They had gotten a mile distant on their journey to 
the Pacific when we discovered that they had forgotten a rifle 
(an important part of their equipment, as regarding game 
and defense), and my young cousin Mary, always quick to 
act, picked up the gun and ran across lots, through an eighty- 
acre field, and intercepted them ; I, doing my best to keep up 
w r ith her, got lost in the weeds. During these years my 
young cousins, older than I, Sarah Ann, Mary and Ellen, 
daughters of my uncle James Jamison, took care of me and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 37 

younger brother when our parents were absent from home. 
Mary was a fearless, enterprising girl, and was wont to take 
me down to the sheep pasture, along the little spring-fed 
"branch," among the crawfish-holes, in search of adventure. 
Here she found a garter snake or two one day, and stunning 
them by a stroke with a stick, would lay them on a stump and 
cut them in two with an axe she held in her hand. I stood 
by in consternation, looking at the pieces wriggle ! 

My uncle James and aunt Polly McKinney died at thirty- 
five years of age, or thereabouts, leaving behind them these 
young cousins and their brothers, Samuel R. and George Mc- 
Kinney, all of whom lived to old age and have been blessed 
in their day and generation. The three daughters made their 
home under my father's roof at intervals while they were 
growing up, and all of them were married under it. Sarah 
Ann was my mother's right hand for some years, and much 
endeared to us by her faithful services in the household. My 
uncle James was the eldest son in my grandfather's family, 
an honor to his race, as indeed were all my uncles, his broth- 
ers. He was a member of the Presbyterian congregation at 
the Yellow Banks, and after the pioneer method, he went to 
the woods and cut out and delivered the timbers for the frame 
of the church, which is still in use in an almost perfect state 
of preservation. The brothers, James, William R. (my fath- 
er), John Calvin, Harvey and Nathan H., were home-builders, 
as were their forebears. They founded Christian homes and 
surrounded them with peace and plenty. They were all lovers 
of choice fruits, and literally rested under the trees which 
bore twelve manner of fruits in this world, as they had a well- 
founded hope should be their lot in the world to come. And 
now, when I recall them in their old age, their bent forms and 
their blameless lives, I feel that just pride in an honorable 
ancestry which should be the inheritance of all. 

It was during the, winter of the deep snow (1845-46) that 
my father would bundle us all into the two-horse sled and 
drive by moonlight to the Davenport school-house, where the 

38 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

singing-school, under the training of Mr. Joseph Chickering, 
was held. The patrons were David and Aleck Finley and 
their sisters, Sarah and Eliza, and the young people of their 
generation. The school was very small in numbers and the 
income slight for the young Yankee singing-master. What- 
ever it may have been, it was subsidiary to the old gray mare 
and the big undulatory driving-wheel of the turning-lathe at 
the furniture factory, which would be under full swing the 
next morning at the Yellow Banks. There must be some of 
Mr. Chickering's kitchen and rocking-chairs, bedsteads, etc., 
in use in Henderson and Warren counties to this day. If 
none can be found in use, but a piece of one of them can be 
recovered from the weeds back of the stable, I hope it will 
be placed in a glass case for preservation, for I know of no 
man's handiwork better worth recovery from the "tooth of 
time and razure of oblivion." 

One of the figures that interested me in my childhood was 
old Mr. Lusk, the deer-hunter. He was a dilapidated-looking 
old sheik, with a glittering eye. He rode a horse whose sur- 
name might have been "The Ancient of Days," and it had a 
movement like the planets ; that is to say, if you had the neces- 
sary instruments and were versed in astronomical calculations, 
you might determine the progress of that horse. It was be- 
yond the scope of plain mathematics. It was a special Provi- 
dence in behalf of the old hunter, having been designed from 
the foundation of the world for stalking big game. Mounted, 
you could not tell where the man left off and the horse began, 
the two were so essentially one. Moving like Fate through 
the open forest in the early, frosty morning, the old hunter 
of sixty years ago rode imperceptibly along with his long rifle 
on his shoulder, a tinkling bell hanging under the horse's 
throat and a bit of bright red flannel conspicuously in view. 
He never pursued his quarry; the agile, sinewy pride of the 
forest heard the soft, scarcely audible notes of the bell long 
before it came into view. Its well-known curiosity was in- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 39 

stantly aroused and it strode inquiringly, in its clean-cut beau- 
ty, directly toward the hunter, whose searching eye took in the 
slightest movement in the wide forest around. The instant the 
stag came into view, and stood like a statue with uplifted muz- 
zle, the report of the rifle was heard, and the game was there 
to take home ! 



Every child has its share of illusions, acquired in part 
from the conversation of his elders, which he misconstrues. 
On a journey into Rock Island County with my parents to 
visit my aunt Susan Nicol, I was queerly impressed by an 
old bachelor who lived alone in a cabin on the roadside. He 
believed in witches, and would not sleep on the first floor of 
his cabin, but in the loft, to which he ascended by a ladder, 
which he drew up after him ! The lower floor was covered 
with a jumble of trumpery, including buffalo robes, and so 
forth. I tried to catch the meaning of the conversation be- 
tween my father and mother concerning this man and the 
witches which were his unwelcome visitors. I was curious to 
know the dimensions and appearance of a witch. At the edge 
of the grove near his cabin were some singular bits of handi- 
work made of split hoop-poles the size and length of wagon- 
bows. These were bent and the sharpened ends stuck in the 
ground ; they were in pairs, the one bent over the other at 
right angles. I wondered what these were for. Did the 
witches live in those wicker houses? My father was not com- 
municative on the question of hobgoblins, and I did not feel 
at liberty to push my inquiries. 

When a small lad, I was playing near my father's store 
when a wraith came out of the invisible and disappeared be- 
fore my affrighted gaze in the same direction. Out of the 
viewless air came he and went in the same way like a flash. 
It was the figure of a man in a devil of a hurry, carrying 
something. It might have been the devil himself, who had 
captured a small boy and was making off with him ! He made 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 41 

the dust fly as he sped away into the unknown. He made an 
impression on me at the moment which slowly faded away as 
the years passed on. He never came back and I am glad of it. 

I was standing under a certain tree with another boy in 
the deep woods of the Henderson River bottoms when a cer- 
tain warning sound seemed to come from the tree and we 
thought it trembled. We left the spot without so much as 
saying "Good day" to the man up-a-tree, or whatever it may 
have been. Possibly it was one of those lofty elms the poet 
refers to, which "murmur sometimes overhead and sometimes 
underground." I was taken to Burlington when the town was 
known as the "Flint Hills," and as we sat in the wagon waiting 
for the ferry-boat I was fascinated with the scene across the 
river, which I was looking at for the first time. The hills across 
the broad stretch of water looked like mountains, and at their 
base along the river shore a number of men were busy wash- 
ing lumber in the cribs and piling it on the bank. They looked 
like Lilliputians a finger-length in height, and the boards they 
handled like toothpicks ! I seemed to be looking at them 
through the wrong end of a telescope, and my eyes were 
riveted upon them in mute astonishment. There was nothing 
illusory about the ferry-boat, which was a flat-bottomed scow 
propelled by horse-power connected to paddle-wheels, and 
would carry two teams at a crossing. It was steered with a 
big oar like a raft of lumber. 

I made the acquaintance of Elijah the Tishbite early in 
life. In one of my father's old books there was a picture of 
Elijah seated in an automobile borne up on a billow of fire. 
He had lost his hat and his bald head stood forth, the long, 
thin, gray hair on the back of his scalp streaming in the wind. 
His foot was on the brake, and he was holding on for dear 
life. His Mobler seemed easily dirigible, notwithstanding the 
horses on the front. They were there for effect! They had 
no pull, for they had no harness on! But they were beauti- 
fully rampant and I could see that Lije was stuck on his team. 
They had no use for harness in the country he was going to. 

4? Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

and he gave his set to Elisha along with his old clothes. He 
was two miles up when I first noticed him, going lickety- 
brindle, no open bridges to engulf him, no traction cars cross- 
ing just a hair ahead of him, no woman frozen stiff with fright 
on his beat. I never saw a man enjoy a ride so much. No 
wonder Elisha tore his coat from tail to collar when he found 
he could not go along ! I got nervous for fear one or more of 
those horses would plunge off the billow of fire and break his 
neck. I watched that Mobler spin away, up, up, and away, till 
night came on; then Lije sheered up to the door and asked 
the man in the moon for the loan of an overcoat. He ex- 
plained that he didn't think it was so far ; wanted to kick him- 
self for throwing his own coat out at Lish's head as his chariot 
responded to the throttle and_lit out. As he sped away for 
the Big Bear in the polar zenith overhead he confessed to him- 
self that the climate was different from what he expected; 
then he began to wonder if the contents of the storage-tank 
would last the trip out, and if he could buy a bearskin cap 
with eartips anywhere on the route. The next station was 
Mars, and he made as if to stop a few minutes and aid the 
constable by an inquiry as to whether Rockefeller had been 
seen anywhere around; and too, Lije had another motive up 
his sleeve: if, in aiding the officer to serve his subpoena, he 
might in the same motion persuade Rock to refill his storage- 
tank; but Mars was not to be caught napping. He mistook 
the Mobler for an English fishing-smack and let go a broad- 
side with his quick-firing guns. That settled it for Lije. He 
bore away limping, but not completely disabled. I watched 
him as he mounted into the inaccessible verge of planetary 
life. I felt bad for Lije, to think he would go on such a fool 
trip. The billow of fire was dying out ; it was dull red, almost 
cold ; the storage-tank had collapsed, the punctured wheels 
shriveled up. and the skeleton of the venerable chauffeur 
sprawled over the disjointed chariot, the grinning skull and its 
streaming hair crowning the wreck drifting, drifting, to 
shores where all is dumb ! 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 43 

Most dreams are of the earth earthy in line with the cur- 
rent of our lives; but some of our visions are separate and 
apart; flashed upon the penumbra of our slumber world for 
a definite purpose ; prophetic they are, and savor of admonition, 
instruction, inspiration, or all together. Most men affect to 
laugh at them, but all men believe reticently and reluctantly 
perhaps, but they believe. No intelligent man questions the 
visions that crossed the disk of Abraham Lincoln's slumbers 
that wonderful, startling portent of tremendous events. Ten 
years before the Civil War a marching column of troops inter- 
cepted my progress in the slumber world, led by cavalry, fol- 
lowed by infantry, artillery and trains a formidable array 
that threatened to trample me like a leaf under the horses' 
hoofs; unlike anything I had ever seen in reality or on can- 
vas, but familiar to me during the Civil War. I have for- 
gotten a thousand of my idle dreams as completely as though 
they had* never been. Not so this one the token of a com- 
ing day ! 



In the year 1847 my father rented his homestead, which 
had cost him so much labor, and removed to the Yellow Banks, 
to become a merchant, for which he was well fitted ; that is to 
say, for general merchandising, which was the vogue in his 
day. He was a skillful and experienced trader, and his enter- 
prises included investments in the Northern pineries, the sale 
of lumber from the mills on Black River in Wisconsin, and the 
buying and shipping of grain, which involved long credits to 
the farmers and the maximum of bookkeeping. The transfer 
to the county seat was easily made, for he owned a good resi- 
dence and half a block of ground in the residence district, a 
combined storeroom and warehouse on Market Square, and 
a separate grain warehouse ready to hand. For many years 
he was highly prosperous down to the time foreseen by 
sagacious business men, when the channels of trade and com- 
merce underwent a radical change from the river south to 
New York and Boston via the steel rail. In the palmy days 
there was an immense river tonnage and the number of 
steamers in commission in surprising contrast to the slight 
carrying trade on the river in 1911. This pioneer county seat, 
known to the Indians as the Yellow Banks, has a site favor- 
able to the eye, if broken to the hope. The traveler on the 
deck of the steamer approaching the town from the south, 
looking up-stream over two miles of the channel, is apt to in- 
quire with an awakened interest the name of the metropolis 
where the landing is about to be made. The town is now un- 
dergoing a renaissance : the residences of yesterday are beau- 


Recollections of Pioneer avid Army Life. 45 

tiful, and as the years file away it will become more and more 
a desirable place of residence. The public schools are good, 
the locality extremely healthful, and markedly picturesque, in 
the combination of bluffs and flowing water. There are strong- 
flowing mineral springs (the Rezner and MeKemson) in the 
hills, within an hour's drive of the landing, which would be 
an attraction to visitors if properly exploited. I hope to see 
these springs, and others in my native county, surrounded by 
cottages, and the Mississippi bridged at the Yellow Banks for 
a traction system, supplying direct communication with Mt. 
Pleasant and other prosperous towns west of the river. 

My earliest familiarity with the river, at seven years of 
age, afforded glimpses of the old slavery days, at the Yellow 
Banks, outside of the slaveholders' jurisdiction. With his 
usual arrogance, he did not scruple to violate a constitution of 
whose provisions he considered himself the heaven-ordained 
custodian. Some of these gentlemen, residents of St. Louis, 
were not cotton- nor tobacco-growers, nor tillers of the soil 
by slave labor in any sense. They were gentlemen of leisure, 
who sold the labor of their slaves to the officers or owners of 
steamboats, where it was employed on the deck. All grain was 
sacked for shipment, and I have a vivid recollection of the 
loading of large steamers, winged with great barges, one on 
each side of her. On a hot summer day, or in the early fall, 
the warehouse was set wide open, revealing the sacked grain 
in tiers piled to the roof ; wheat in cotton sacks ; corn in bur- 
laps or "gunnies." Double stages reached from the ground 
to, the deck of the steamer and also to the warehouse's double- 
entrance, affording room for a long file of deck-hands (black 
as the ace of spades most of them) to file down on one side, 
each with a bag of grain on his shoulder, and a similar file to 
return empty on the other side, an endless chain. These deck- 
hands (some of them, at times the majority of them, slaves) 
went at a trot, hatless, with an empty bag drawn like a priest's 
caul over the head. The ideal mate (there were two of them, 
first and second) wa.s a survival of the fittest, and was chosen 

46 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

for that reason because he was a brute, big and burly, with 
a voice like a fog horn, and who would not hesitate to take 
a stick of cord-wood and brain the wretch that crossed him. 
There was often great rivalry between these freighters. As 
fully as possible the steamer going up engaged the cargo for 
the trip down, but there were odd lots of freight to be picked 
up in considerable quantity and the passenger traffic to look 
after, and the boat that could lead her rival by a few hours 
or a day was in luck. Under the circumstances, the brutality 
of the mate was apt to come into full play. I have seen him 
with the "big stick" driving his herd of slaves at top speed, 
the perspiration dripping from their faces. Before we had 
steel-rail connections with New York a large foreign immigra- 
tion landed at New Orleans, and came north along the Mis- 
sissippi the Germans dropping out all along the way, in large 
numbers at St. Louis and in constantly lessening numbers as 
they advanced northward ; the Scandinavians doling them- 
selves out scantily until they reached the upper river, discharg- 
ing en masse upon the soil of Wisconsin and Minnesota. The 
arrival at our landing of one of the Northern-line packets of 
the largest size with double barges loaded to the guards with 
immigrants and merchandise was a scene to rivet the atten- 
tion of the small boy no less than that of his elders. From 
the water-line to the pilot-house she swarmed with life. Sharp 
eyes caught her large size two miles down stream and when 
her whistle called the citizens of the landing to attention, an 
imposing body of merchants, idlers and small boys, under the 
leadership of Jo Hand, the steamboat agent, went down onto 
the wharf to receive the new arrival. She overwhelms us with 
interest as she advances, floating in majesty, and with a sense 
of power. A railroad train strikes to the heart of the town, 
or through it like a' dirk ; but the steamer comes before you 
with grace, full of color, like milady within the charmed cir- 
cle of foot-lights. The bell sounds and the captain from his 
coign of vantage on the hurricane deck gives a quick signal 
over the shoulder to the pilot in his handsome conservatory so 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 47 

high and lifted up, and which the small boy on the landing 
imagines must be a very heaven indeed. The engine bells 
jingle and talk back to the pilot, and the great paddle-wheels 
reverse, and Leviathan lays his nose gently upon the rocks to 
doze and sleep while the cargo is carried ashore, preceded by 
the clerk of the steamer. He is a distinguished personage. 
He is in his shirt-sleeves. His linen is three X fine. From 
time immemorial it has been correct form for a Mississippi 
River steamboat clerk to flash upon the landing in his shirt- 
sleeves, never otherwise ; but those sleeves ! And the fullness 
of the garment of which they were a part ! Only the angels 
would feel unabashed in its presence. On this spotless front 
glittered Kohinoor, the possession only of kings and emperors 
and steamboat clerks. He has under his arm the book of 
records whose contents correspond to the bills of lading. The 
small boy notes the fine long pencil behind his ear, which is 
there for ornament only, as he has another for use in his 
jeweled hand. He exhales the aroma of Ind as he settles 
with metaphorical outspread wings on earth before the steam- 
boat agent, to whom he offers the latest St. Louis papers (a 
week old) and the vouchers according to which the freight is 
checked off Close at hi3 heels, on the run; comes a caravan 
of deck-hands bearing boxes and bags and rolling barrels and 
hogsheads of brown sugar two men, sometimes four, to each 
of them. He has a large cargo to discharge, for in addition 
to the quotas for our own merchants, there are tons of grocer- 
ies, hardware, wooden and willow ware, crates of crockery, 
dry goods, what not. for the country stores in Monmouth, 
Greenbush, Berwick. Ellison and Stringtown. He plats the 
space along the wharf for each of these consignments and long 
before he has exhausted his tally he is crowded for room. 
The small boy is awed at the excellence of things around him. 
His senses are keenly alive to the odors of sweet and precious 
things that rise like incense from the heavy-laden steamer. 
The round globe has contributed to the happiness of the Yel- 
low "Ranks. The subtle pungent barks and seeds from the 

48 Recollections of Pioneer and Anny Life. 

spicy isles, the oranges and limes from the languorous South, 
nuts from Brazil, sugars from "Belcher's sugar-house" and 
"New Orleans" molasses from Louisiana and the "Tiger" 
State, with its slaves and sugar plantations, seemed more re- 
mote to the small boy than Spain or Italy, both of which were 
well represented in the cargo. Think of the anguish he endured 
when the figs from Smyrna and the fine layer raisins from 
Catalonia were laid down on the wharf so near, and yet so 
far ! He has his revenge. He got all the boys he could and 
all the shingles he could, broke the latter into long narrow 
scalpels and ran them into the knot-holes in the ends of the 
hogsheads of sugar and brought forth nectar for the gods ! 
lie ate sugar till he should have died if he didn't. Afar off, 
piled from the "Texas" to the limit of the hurricane deck, the 
light, bulky freight, such as furniture, rose in pyramids, and 
at the fore, suspended by block and tackle, hung the new 
family carriage, or a farmer's wagon bright from the shop. 
The interesting part of the cargo now unloading at the 
Yellow Banks is the immigrants and the cabin passengers. 
The steamer is crowded with both classes. The old country 
people, in wooden shoes and queer headgear, swarming over 
the steerage and barges with their hard- wood, iron-bound 
trunks built during the reigns of the Great Frederick or 
Gustavus Adolphus, and which can now be found in use all 
through Wisconsin and Minnesota as shed kitchens and silos. 
There was an interchange of curiosity and comment between 
the loungers on the wharf and the cabin passengers, noticeably 
between the young bloods of the town and the fair travelers 
clustered along the railing of the ladies' cabin. As the delay 
promised to be considerable, many of these came ashore and 
studied the architecture of our temple of Justice, with its Cor- 
inthian columns, which aspired to rank with the fallen glory of 
Baalbec. Some of them were tempted to see Moir Brothers 
manufacturing high wines, and found their way with diffi- 
culty among the saw-mills, and the lumber piled high around, 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 49 

and celebrated their return to the steamer by regaling them- 
selves with confections from Chickering's "Yankee Notions." 
I have spoken of Belshazzar's feast elsewhere, but the real 
thing was served a la carte at 12 o'clock noon of each day on 
board these great steamers in the good old days. None of 
your pale Pecksniffian coffee, but the stout black Turk, and 
plenty of it; meats and roasted birds and puddings but I do 
not care to be set down as lax in strict veracity. Solomon had 
wives enough to turn out a fair quality of hash and enough to 
go around, but he 'd pale his ineffectual kitchen fires, once he 
got a glimpse of the saloon of a Mississippi steamer in white 
and gold, the glittering chandeliers, and the colored waiters 
and the swell people on the right and left of the captain at the 
dinner hour! 



Idle "skiffs" were plentiful along the river shore, some of 
them fastened with lock and key, others drawn half length 
ashore and not tied. One day Will Henderson ( a lad of my 
own age, long dead, poor fellow!) and I got hold of one of 
these free-for-all row-boats, and by dint of a long struggle got 
it launched. There were no oars and we could not have used 
them if there had been. After a search, I found some pieces 
of rotten string on the wharf, with which I tied the boat~tol a 
stake. Will sat in the stern and occupied himself as first 
cabin passenger. The string would allow the boat to float 
out a few feet into the current, and with a stick I propelled our 
craft from the shore to the limit of the string a number of 
times. Each successful trip made the navigator more bold and 
stirred him to greater enterprises, and the last passage out I 
gave her a shove that broke the string and sent her out into 
the stream, and in mv fright I jumped, landing knee-deep in 
the water, and that sent the boat far out on the current! Will, 
in his excitement, got to the bow and clambered over, clinging 
to the gunwale, his body suspended in the water. I was in 
momentary expectation that he would let go and drown. Ev- 
ery moment the current was carrying him farther out and 
down stream. He had drifted a hundred yards from the start- 
ing-point before some workmen along the shore discovered 
him. and soon there was a half-dozen men calling to the boy 
to hold on. and it took a very few minutes only to get another 
boat and bring him ashore. T thought I would be punished 
for this affair, but I heard no more about it. Poor Will. T 
fear, did not fare so well. The boys learned to swim at a 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 51 

tender age by playing hookey to get into the water, and I 
learned the manly art by getting into a hole one day, and I 
was so frightened because I could not touch bottom that I 
struck out and landed without difficulty. Ever afterward for 
me to swim was no trick at all. 

I grieve to add that I went to war almost at daybreak. 
There are few boys that escape it. There w r ere the King boys 
the blacksmith's sons. They dug a hole in the ground for 
a play-house, a fireplace therein, and a cupboard dishes and 
so forth disposed around. I made a friendly call ; but they had 
just set up housekeeping that morning, and were not "at home" 
to their friends, nor to their enemies either, and proceeded to 
prove it by both of them jumping onto me. I was surprised 
at their lack of hospitality, and I rose up something like Samp- 
son when he grasped the pillars of the temple and brought it 
down, roof and all, upon the heads of his persecutors, and the 
dishes flew like the sparks from a Fourth of July whirligig, 
the cupboard turned a handspring, and the house caved ir. I 
don't know whether anybody got licked or not. To the best 
of my recollection, I got out whole ; but Mrs. Carmichael, who 
was passing at the moment, had a good' laugh at us. 

Coming home from school one day at noon. I met my foe 
in the alley. We were of the same age and size. I do not 
remember what it was about ; anyway, at the first cross-fire 
we grappled. He had long hair, which was a decided advan- 
tage to me. In the struggle I got two full hands in the wool 
and I was slowly pulling his head down into chancery when 
his father came yelling at the top of his voice, as I supposed 
to jump onto me, and I cleared that battle-field at a bound ! 
I met the gladiator often afterward, but he seemed not to want 
any more of it and I was content to let him alone. 

At the old Fryrear house we had a circus. Charley 
Cowan, Jr., was the general manager and clown. He appoint- 
ed me ring-master and gave me a small cowhide riding-whip 
with which to encourage the "horses" and performers. The 
grand entry had been made and the three-ringed show was in 

52 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

full swing, with the clown winning bursts of applause by his 
acrobatic feats and Shakespearean jests. Now this star pro- 
tege of Dan Rice was clothed in delicate gingham knicker- 
bockers, and at a moment when the beauty and fashion on 
the upper tiers were in a cataclysm of delight over his jokes, 
he stooped, with his head down and his hands on the floor, 
and the ring-master, quick to see his opportunity, came down 
on the clown's ''full moon" with a thwack of that raw-hide 
that made the veteran of the sawdust ring jump about ten 
feet and flush painfully in the presence of the ladies. I fear 
but for the presence of our sweethearts on that occasion the 
ring-master would have suffered affliction, for the noble jester 
was much the older and stronger of the two. These were the 
days when Uncle Sam was waging war with Mexico and the 
boys' sports all took the military form. Through the sandburrs 
and stinkweeds of the suburbs our campaigns were conducted. 
The forces were divided as nearly equal as possible into two 
armies. One of these had its headquarters at the Fryrear 
house aforesaid and the other in the unfinished brick school- 
house not far away. The armies met in battle's stern array 
on the sandy plain between. We secured a modern equip- 
ment of arms at the lumber-yards, where the bunches of lath 
and shingles suffered marked depletion on account of our re- 
quisitions. From this raw material we constructed muskets, 
swords, and some of the most savage-looking dagers known 
to warfare. At a given signal the armies emerged from their 
fortifications the captains, the horses and the banners ! Con- 
trary to ordinary usage, the captains did not loaf in the rear, 
under a tree, smoking a cheroot, while the trash mixed for 
victory or death. They went to the front, and with a drawn 
dagger, four feet long, dared Alexander the Great to come on ! 
The result was that in a cloud of dust or sand that obscured 
the battle-field there was a sort of military dissolving view in 
which the non-combatant could get a glimpse at times of a 
mass of bare heels in the air and noses in the sand, with guns 
and swords and bayonets writhing and squirming to secure a 

Recollections of Pioneer and .Inny Life. 53 

decisive stroke. At times it would appear that twenty-seven 
veterans were heaped upon one poor fellow, who still had life 
in him and was yelling defiance and striking fiercely at his 
foes with a deadly weapon in each hand. As a rule, both arm- 
ies were slaughtered to a man ; the field being strewn with the 
slain, who rose up at dinner-time, when they proved that the 
next best thing to fighting was to devour the rations. 

At the close of the Mexican War I found that I was a 
radical, if not an offensive, partisan. General Zack Taylor 
was my father's candidate for President. Forthwith I dis- 
covered that I was a Free-soiler whatever that was, and had 
never been anything else, and when election day came, I ran 
barefooted around and around the old temple of Justice where 
the ballots were being deposited, yelling myself hoarse for old 
Zack, and singing the campaign couplet : 

"And he had an old 'Whitey' and he rode him very fast, 

Because he was a ten-mile nag ; 
And he answered back to Van Buren and Cass, 
'A little more grape, Captain Bragg !' " 

When President Taylor died, all of "us Free-soilers" nearly 
died too, for we loved that old man ! 

I was pleased to accompany my father in his drives, on 
mingled business and pleasure: out to the farm, over to 
Uncle Calvin's, and on to Uncle John's a grand-uncle, who 
differed from all of the Jamisons whom I have ever seen. He 
was trimmer built and finer boned; a handsome man, I am 
sure, when he went "sparking" among the belles of Kentucky; 
full of the milk of human kindness and in his old age childlike 
in his fondness for his kin. Like the folks at Grigsby's Station, 
he was "so happy and so poor," for he was no money-maker ; 
and when we drove up to his doorway, enclosed by a two- or 
three-rail fence, like himself decrepit with age, he would lead 
us around and point out along the distant groves the spots 
where all the kin lived, with the simplicity and eagerness of 
one showing something new. Poor old man ! with his shaggy 

54 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

eyebrows white as wool; he has gone where the mists of the 
morning have gone swallowed up by the universal light in 
which we shall all be merged at last. He lived the typical 
simple life of the pioneer, in marked contrast to my father, 
who at that time was in his prime, restless and ambitious. In 
a sense they were far apart, yet full of that love for each other 
which had run in commingled blood for generations. 

And then again we were driving along Cedar Creek, where 
herds of deer would cross the road ahead of us, single file, 
and hop leisurely over a low rail fence into a corn-field. The 
dense woods along this stream was a favorite haunt of wild 
turkeys and "varmints" of different kinds. At a turn in the 
road an opossum exploited his tail and his person along a limb 
overhanging the water. This gave my father his opportunity. 
He asked me to spell 'possum. I spelled it correctly as he 
pronounced it; but he declined the civility. I noticed at an 
early stage in this mortal life that if one confidently (a good 
deal depends upon the amount of "bluff" you put into it) 
raises a doubt, it will almost certainly breed another ; so I fol- 
lowed up my stunt by omitting one J "posum" ; but I felt 
right away that this was a reflection on the gentleman with 
the elongated tail out on the limb on our left. All I knew 
about him I had picked up in conversation and I spelled by 
sound, for I had not as yet met with an account of him in my 
speller and reader at school. Albeit I found I was sinking in 
the syllabic mire, but before I stuck in the muddy bottom I 
returned to the double s. "No, sir!" came more emphatically 
than before. I was not aware that his Prehensile Excellency 
had his origin in Ireland and I expired without an O ! 

Frontier life in Henderson County was marked by all the 
characteristics common to newly organized communities. The 
Methodist camp-meeting was one of the diversions peculiar to 
the time. "The groves were God's first temples." Under every 
green tree and on every mountain-top the pagan worshiped 
his idols before the Christian era. The worship of the true 
God followed under like conditions and the camp-meeting was 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 55 

the final development of outdoor devotion. The saints took 
these meetings seriously ; pitched the tabernacle in the wilder- 
ness; erected booths; provided rations; and made a direct as- 
sault on the world, the flesh and the devil. His majesty never 
shirked the challenge, but met Gideon and his band boldly, and 
it took more than a ram's horn and a perforated tin lantern 
to scare him off ! At the first blare of the preacher's horn, the 
foe tapped a whiskey-barrel under the guise of cider and sup- 
plied the scoffers who mingled with the crowd; the livery- 
stables established quick round trips and did a land office bus- 
iness, and there were other traffickers with an eye to the main 
chance. Once in a while a brand was snatched from the burn- 
ing, and he was wept and exulted over alternately ; and Fash- 
ion came as in later times and hung on the outskirts of the 
crowd to display her millinery. The camp-meeting at Ryer- 
son's, in the old Sugar Camp, at the foot of the bluff two miles 
from the Yellow Banks, is the one I remember best. A copious 
spring flowed out from the rock to quench the thirst of the 
multitude. Interest centered in the mourners' bench. Here 
the pentitent in deep abasement grovelled in sack-cloth and 
ashes until the preacher, in Stentorian tones, declared him ab- 
solved from any further allegiance to Satan, or the attendant 
saint whispered in his ear the supreme deliverance from the 
thralldom of sin. There was jubilation. The bold, bad sin- 
ner, having regained his freedom, vented his joy in war-whoops 
or wept on his marrow-bones, and the ransomed sisters went 
off in a trance or figured in the green-corn dance. Old-timers 
recall one of the WycKoffs (a hulking country bumpkin) who 
on a time got religion at Ryerson's, and in a paroxysm of pious 
frenzy and self-importance exclaimed : "Nobody knows how 
much I knows !" 



The river steamers had a bar, which shone with the efful- 
gence characteristic of Satan's favorite decoy, the cut-glass 
service of high rank, as becomes the plate in use by "gentle- 
men.'' The iced cocktails were a temptation to over-smart 
clerks at the landings, who were disposed to "take something" 
and pay for it with coin filched from the employer's till, for 
I am pained to say that graft was noticeable at times "before 
the war," where the salary was incommensurate with the vault- 
ing appetite! and there were other temptations. The great 
river gave the Yellow Banks connection with the world-wide 
commercial ganglia, and stirred the imaginations of youth on 
its shores to a strong desire to penetrate the Utopia that lay 
beyond their own immediate region. Ed Knowles was the 
first of our enterprising lads to make the venture. He would 
throw the "old man" off the trail by placing a suit of clothes 
hat and all on the raft anchored to the shore. "When the 
Judge discovers these," Ed argued to himself, "and cannot lo- 
cate the owner thereof, he will infer that his unfortunate off- 
spring had made his accustomed plunge from the spring-board 
to rise no more !" But the father was a discerning man, and 
upon examination he found that the young man had left home 
in his best clothes, and the noble father ceased to mourn. In 
a few brief disastrous moons afterward, Ed was discovered 
in an unwashed, famished condition, sneaking in at his moth- 
er's back door. 

John McKinncy, Jr., a youth of the town, verging on 
manhood, felt that he could improve on Ed Knowles' romance. 
He had given the matter profound thought and assurer! him- 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 57 

self that he could not only surprise the old 'Squire, but give 
the town the worst jolt in its history. Captain James Findley, 
an old-time steamboat pilot. \vho had a long and distinguished 
career in the wheel-house on the lower Mississippi, was the 
hero who stirred the youth of the town to emulation. They 
observed the marked respect with which he was welcomed 
when he returned to his estate near the Yellow Banks for a 
brief respite from his labors. They were speechless at the 
scintillations of the gem on his fourth finger; the gold wheel 
on his shirt-front, the emblem of his guild; his air of a man 
of the world. In this renowned Presence all the glittering 
baubles of this present evil world were as nothing. John cut 
his bridges behind him. He went by night to the 'Squire's 
strong box and fortified his purse with a roll of the "shin- 
plasters" of the period, charged himself with the amount, and 
took French leave on the night boat going down. He would 
a pilot be. He had not explored the great world further than 
Burlington, but felt in his heart that St. Louis and New Or- 
leans were cities of mosques and minarets whose foundations 
were jasper and whose walls were sapphire. On the landing at 
the Yellow Banks he had often studied the pilot at the wheel, 
pulling the signal-cords and whirling the helm around and 
back, and resting his foot upon it when the noble craft stood 
to sea to suit him. He marked the smiling, vivacious daugh- 
ters of the South at his side, up from the ladies' cabin, to look 
the Northland over from the pilot's coign of vantage. Ah ! 
what would the youth not give to be the cynosure of such a 
group as that? He could and he would be! Right now; at 
once ! He would enter the lower river trade ; experience and 
training and a close study of the treacherous currents would 
be superfluous labor for a youth from the Yellow Banks who 
had spent his whole mortal existence rowing over the Father 
of Waters. He knew all about it. Owners of steamboats 
would trample on each other in their scramble to obtain his 
services. He would secure a five-years contract to begin with, 
provided the salary met his expectations. He would be wary 

5 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

as to salary and stern-wheel steamboats. "Nothing but the 
best," he said. "There is room at the top," he quoted. St. 
Louis was something of a disappointment to him. There was 
a mile of steamboats at the wharf, mostly stern-wheelers, with 
here and there a three-decker, cotton craft, the most of them 
rather uninviting. As he stood on the levee a friendless youth 
a mere speck of aimless humanity in the midst of drays, 
pounding over the rocks with their immense loads, the odor 
of perspiring negro deck-hands, the grime of world-wide traffic 
in the ponderous, pungent things of commerce, like barreled 
salt, old-time heavy sugars in hogsheads, tierces of rice, slabs 
of greasy pork in ton lots, molasses, oakum, tar, pitch and 
what not, his elusive dream slipped from him like a soap- 
bubble in the hand of a child, and without warning he stood 
face to face with a giant mate of a Northern-line packet, di- 
recting a file of deck-hands bearing the heavy cable to make 
fast. Taking John by the shoulder, the brute growled, "Git 
out o' yer !" and the young man slunk hurriedly away, when 
another file of deck-hands from the opposite way corralled him 
with another cable, which tripped him in his headlong flight 
and sent him sprawling into the smear and smell of the slop- 
ing, smooth- worn wharf. He went down to the water and 
washed his hands and face and sought the sidewalk, obstructed 
with freight along the front of the seamy, stained, age-worn 
warehouses. Disenchanted and not "knowing what better to 
do, he went down and boarded a swift New Orleans packet. 
Having ascended to the clerk's office and registered for his des- 
tination, he began to slip bank-notes from the diminishing roll 
of shinplasters. "Bank of Nemaha," said the clerk ; "we don't 

take that it ain't worth a d ." "Farmers' and Traders' 

Bank of St. Joseph," and the clerk turned to his broad-leaved, 
thumb-worn "detector," and ran his finger down the column 
of suspicious fiat money, not unlike a row of condemned crim- 
inals, the forehead of each branded with the number of years 
discounted from a checkered career. The logarithm "20" was 
in the margin. "Yes," said the clerk, "it is twenty off 1 , but 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 59 

that ten-dollar note is a good ways from home, and I '11 allow 
you fifty cents on the dollar for it." John weakened at every 
bluff. He despised figures anyway, and the clerk settled the 
account on his own terms Then he entered the number of the 
berth, perched right over the wheelhouse, and known in the 
parlance of old river men as the sanitarium of diseased livers. 
The boy, having no baggage, was now relieved of every care 
and took a seat with the other passengers, on the focs'l along 
the railing, and looked out over the crowded, boisterous wharf 
and the steady stream of deck-hands going and coming. He 
was ill at ease. There was an undefined brooding at the heart ; 
a sense of helpless drifting to sea, without compass, hope or 
haven. He thought of home, and the picture of the old 'Squire 
and his rod, and the short shrift he used to get, gave him 
tranquil pause now that he was beyond the sweep of the 
paternal arm. At this thought a joy unknown before elbowed 
the mulligrubs off his perturbed spirit and he came to him- 
self. He took heart ; he was bound for the land of eternal 
summer ! He rejoiced at the prospect of seeing Natchez-under- 
the-hill, that ancient cavern of gamblers. He would revel in 
the glances of the French Creoles in the Crescent City. Under 
a spell of returning lunacy in due time he was landed in the 
great sugar and cotton mart of Louisiana, and a brief season 
of shinning along the back-doors of the tuppenny restaurants 
in the French quarter, where silver coin was the recognized 
medium of exchange, chilled the ardor of the youth with his 
few remaining discredited shinplasters. He was treading no\* 
a precarious path. Silver and gold he had none. He could 
not feed the swine, for the slave did every menial service. He 
could not earn a wage in the counting-room, for he scorned 
the schoolmaster at the Yellow Banks, and all his works. 
Ignorance is not bliss. Hunger was on his right hand ; the 
police station on his left. With a feeling of deep contrition, 
he said : "I will arise and go to my father." He went to the 
captain of a steamer, who by good fortune had served in the 
up-river trade, and knew all the shippers at the Yellow Banks. 

60 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Questioning the Prodigal, he said to him: ''What is your 
weight?" "One hundred and twenty pounds," said John. 
"Charles," said the captain, addressing the clerk, busy cast- 
ing his accounts, "make out a bill of lading for this young 
man at live-stock rates, consignee John McKinney, Sr., Yellow 
Banks." "You will be transferred," continued the captain, "to 
a Northern-line packet at St. Louis, and may the Lord have 
mercy on you !" 

John McKinney, Jr., was a creditable soldier during the 
Civil War ; the captain of a company in the 94th Ills. Infantry. 
As a private citizen he had many friends. He was rated as 
a skillful politician, and no blemish attaches to his memory. 



The years 18401856, inclusive, the Yellow Banks was one 
of the important markets and chief distributing points on the 
upper Mississippi. As a lumber market it was second to none 
of the up-river landings. My father exchanged merchandise 
for grain, pork and other farm produce from points as remote 
as fifty miles, and the widely separated settlers in the area 
came here for lumber and repairs at the wagon shops. The 
country stores in the interior received their stocks of goods 
at this landing. Rankin, of Monmouth, delivered his barreled 
pork here for shipment, and the travel from the East came to 
this point on the river by stage-coach via Peoria, Galesburg 
and Monmouth. A very considerable part of the population 
of the town came from New England. The old Middle West 
contributed its share Ohio chiefly; and South Carolina, 
Georgia and Tennessee contributed heavily of Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians to the country surrounding. The intelligence at 
the county seat was above the average for a frontier town, and 
the public schools were well supported. It was the center of 
amusements, such as large singing-school classes, the cotillion, 
the circus, the concert troupes and the vaudeville. Dan Rice 
was here in the early forties ; the Hutchinson family of con- 
cert singers, the Peck family of Swiss bell-ringers, and the 
Lombards, who came down to and included the Civil War. 
The old Pioneer House was the scene of many elaborate and 
liberally patronized social events, and the fashions of the pe- 
riod were promptly displayed on the streets. 

One of the characters about town in the days of the 

62 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

steamboats "Clermont," "Iron City" and "Uncle Toby" was Al 
Eames, who had the genius to make something out of nothing. 
His first venture was to saw a canoe in twain, lengthwise, and 
utilize the halves for the sides of the flat-bottomed hull of his 
first steamboat, a small affair, not much more than a toy, with 
a steam escape-pipe not much larger than a broomstick. Back 
from the shore two or three rods the boat was hardly visible 
to the pedestrian, but one could hear its feeble, asthmatic 
cough as it shunned the strong current and hugged the shore. 
He completed the engine for it from scraps picked out 01 the 
junk-pile. It was a stern-wheeler of approved pattern. After- 
ward he built a larger boat with a double hull, equipped with 
an engine of the same sort as the first, but the paddle-wheel 
worked on a shaft between the hulls, and not at the stern as 
usual. His third effort was the construction of what was 
known as the "Tow-String" saw-mill. It was a creditable 
work a practical mill of its kind, that turned out thousands 
of feet of lumber, and turned in good revenue to its owners, 
and the digestive apparatus, as heretofore was pieced up from 
the scrap-pile castaway pieces of machinery and engines which 
men of less skill counted as worthless. It was said that when 
he lacked necessary connecting links of metal, he used a tow- 
string to supply the want. Strong drink was poor old Al's 
besetting sin, but he came in time into the possession of a good 
steamboat and made considerable money towing rafts through 
Lake Pepin. which was a profitable business in the old days. 
Some of the illustrious and not a few of the infamous 
men of the nineteenth century have walked the streets of the 
Yellow Banks. April 27, 1832, four companies of miltia, en- 
listed for the Black Hawk War. began the overland march 
from Beardstown for the Yellow Banks. A part of them were 
organized at Quincy and formed a junction with the main 
body near Rushville. O H. Browning, later United States 
senator, and later Secretary of the Interior under Andrew 
Johnson, was a private in the Quincy company, and squealed 
like a pig under a gate at being exposed in camp for one night 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 63 

away from the timber and water. Abraham Lincoln com- 
manded one of the companies, and in referring to this fact 
many years afterward said: "I cannot tell you how much it 
pleased me to be elected captain of that company." The troops 
followed a trail which led them past the site of Stronghurst, 
Olena and Gladstone. The spot where they crossed the Hen- 
derson River, is not known, but it was probably below the con- 
fluence of the two branches, near the railroad bridge, where 
they improvised a bridge by felling trees into the stream. Here 
they lost one or two horses in the swollen river. Not lacking 
in the picturesque, this body of frontiersmen trailing north 
along the sand-ridge to the landing, under the leadership of 
the great Emancipator! They were detained in camp at the 
Yellow Banks for four days, awaiting supplies by boat from 
Rock Island, and it is certain that Abraham Lincoln was a 
compulsory citizen of the town for that length of time. Their 
camp was located by a bayonet found years afterward sticking 
in the ground with a piece of candle in the shank ! This 
"candlestick" I used as a plaything, and it lay around my 
father's house for many years. The battalion of mounted 
men marched from this point to Dixon. The presence of 
Abraham Lincoln at the head of his company in camp at the 
Yellow Banks on this occasion confers a distinction upon the 
town which should be acknowledged by the citizens with a 
suitable memorial erected on the spot where the troopers 
camped. A "lost rock" (a granite boulder of the glacial period) 
with a suitable inscription, secured from desecration and or- 
namented by shade trees, should be provided. Now, even 
now, when such a memorial can be placed at small expense, 
is the time to act ; for in the coming days of a new and ever- 
enlarging growth avarice will pay little heed to "the better 
angels of our nature." 

During the Indian campaign the following historical char- 
acters, then young men, officers of the line in the regular Army, 
appeared at this landing, ami doubtless were ashore more or 
less during the discharge of cargo: Jefferson Davis, General 

64 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Harney, David K. Twiggs, Albert Sidney Johnston, Robert 
Anderson (of Fort Sumter fame), General Joe Johnston, and 
many others. 

Some of the celebrities of the campaigns of the Mexican 
War enjoyed the hospitality of our citizens. Among them, 
I have special reasons for recalling General James Shields, 
who was billed to fight a duel with Abraham Lincoln. My 
playmates had their views of all the incidents of the Mexican 
War. We got these from the veterans of the service or by 
reading them in Colonel Patterson's Spectator. In talking 
them over we drew wrong inferences from some statements 
and unconsciously embellished others. As a matter of fact, 
we knew that General Shields had been shot through the 
breast, and in some way we got the impression that as the 
combat deepened the doughty warrior disdained to have his 
wound dressed, but stopped long enough in the saddle to draw 
a silk handkerchief through his body along the channel of the 
wound and kept right on carving "Greasers" right and left 
with his reeking sabre ! When we discovered that General 
Shields in his own proper and distinguished person had ar- 
rived at the Yellow Banks, our imaginations glowed like a 
prairie fire. We resolved to feast our eyes upon him as upon the 
supernatural ! We believed with gospel sincerity that the silk 
handkerchief (the big red bandanna was the vogue in those 
days) still illuminated his mortal remains, that the flow of 
blood was still unquenched, and we were determined to see a 
real soldier in that condition. The great man, fresh from the 
field of his fame, was announced to address the citizens in the 
court-room on a given evening, and this was the opportunity 
for the bare-footed boy. The general had already entered 
upon his address to a full house when I ran up the stairway 
and stuck my head in at the door to see the wonderful, soul- 
harrowing sight! I suppose the English language never was 
more impotently inadequate to the portrayal of a boy's amaze- 
ment and disappointment than at this precise moment. I 
craned my neck around the door-jamb, and there stood a plain 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 65 

little man in perfect health and a swallow-tail coat, talking to 
the crowd ! 1 pulled my head back out of sight a moment and 
took a gulp or two at my Adam's apple, feeling awful cheap. 
However, as no one seemed to be aware of the contretemps, I 
made bold and took a back seat to hear something about the 
Constitution, the enlargement of our national boundary, our 
glorious free institutions, and other stereotyped matters of the 



The Argonauts of 1849 followed hard upon the election 
of Taylor to the Presidency. The gold fever affected multi- 
plied thousands and sent its lessening warmth to the uttermost 
corners of the earth. The Yellow Banks was the center of 
preparation for a wide region. Impecunious men foresaw an 
opportunity to get rich quick. The conservative element in 
the community smiled at the ebullition around them and kept 
on plodding, content with small but steady gains. Attractive 
nuggets had already found their way from "the diggin's" to 
the Yellow Banks. I have a distinct recollection of some of 
these, displayed in my father's store. They showed plainly 
that they had once been in the molten state; of the valiK of 
$20.00, some of them enough indeed to fire the imaginations 
of men ! Interested parties who could not go sent proxies ; 
that is to say, provided a young man of brawn with a grub- 
stake and sent him forth to try his luck. Men gambled on the 
discovery in all sorts of ways, and took all the desperate 
chances, as men have done and will ever do all for gold ! 
That magic word has thrown a glamour over the State of 
California that has lured scores of men to a tragic fate, and 
many thousands to disapnointment. 

Mr. Hart's blacksmith-shop was the headquarters for 
shoeing the animals for the overland trip. It was equipped 
with gearing for shoeing the ox-teams and the work went 
merrily on. George Muck's wagon shop, George Sloan's and 
Blackhart's were all busy in the repair or construction of 
wagons and in shoeing the animals. At the warehouses the 
wagons were loaded with provisions. At Blackhart's shop I 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 67 

was a curious observer of Aleck Henderson's vehicle, with 
which he was to make the long journey across the mountain 
ranges to the Pacific Coast. It was not larger than an ordi- 
nary grocer's delivery-wagon and seemed to my boyish eyes 
a very frail craft, by comparison, for such a trip, which in- 
deed it was. I can see them now, more than sixty years after 
the event, bringing the lines taut over the horse teams and 
swinging the gad over the oxen as they pulled out upon the 
street to take the trail, marked all the way along by sickness, 
hunger and death. Some got away furtively, feeling that they 
had undertaken a big job! I recall perfectly a modest train 
passing along the street bound for the new Eldorado: Mr. 
Roberts, the principal, following along behind, his poor wife 
in tears, trailing after her husband, unwilling to part with 
him! The children in the street the neighbors all were in 
deep sympathy with her But after all. there was a strong 
hope and a just in the hearts of these men. There was no 
doubt no longer as to the precious metal being there in quanti- 
ties. The tide westward had already set in and was irresist- 
ible. There was Sammy Snook, the hunchback liquor-dealer 
on Water Street. His neighbors lifted their brows in amaze- 
ment when it was told around town that Sam was going to 
"the diggin's." If he was stopped in the street, taken to one 
side, and cross-questioned on the momentous theme by one of 
his confidential friends. Sam would smile blandly in the face 
of his interlocutor and reply with the couplet on the lips of 
all the boys on the street in those days: 

"It rained all night the day I left, 

The weather it was dry ; 
The sun so hot I froze to death. 
Susanna, don't you cry!" 

On the journey out Sam was in hard luck, but he got 
safely through, and the next year, on the Isthmus, on his way 
home, he was much "jollied" by Wils. Graham on his success 
in making the round trip. Glancing out of the corner of his 

68 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

eye, Sam would answer with the gag which had been a by- 
word with him all his life: "Catch a weasel asleep, will ye?" 

All the phases of human nature shone forth in sharp con- 
trast on the journey. Personal and property disputes arose 
with aggravating frequency, and when the parties were in the 
neighborhood of a military post the matters in controversy 
were submitted to the officers in command, whose award \\as 
accepted with more or less grace. Footsore animals crippled 
the trains and added to the emergency problems to be solved. 
A crisis arose w r hen life-long neighbors quarreled, and a solu- 
tion in equity was arrived at by sawing the vehicle in twain 
and dividing the provisions and draft animals, one party driv- 
ing off with the fore-wheels of the wagon, the other with the 
hind-wheels. In desert lands the ox and other teams gave out, 
the provisions were piled upon the desolate trail and the men 
with grub on their backs pushed on for succor, and if Fortune 
favored, returned and gathered up what they had left behind. 
Some of our Henderson County men, reduced to the last ex- 
tremity, made up the remaining moiety of Hour into biscuits, 
gave each man his share (a beggarly portion) and climbed 
the icy altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Range in hunger and 
privation. Rumors of these hardships drifted back home, and 
the boys of my own ago had a tale which passed current in 
our school circle of Sammy Snook, who in a strait betwixt 
two, out on the Snake River, took refuge in the carcass of a 
disemboweled mule, where he lived comfortably and regaled 
himself as he had need with steaks of imitatior> mutton at his 
hand ! 

Captain John McGaw, Alex. P. Nelson, and Sam Plum- 
mer were among the adventurous spirits who participated in 
this forlorn hope. They were typical men of our American 
frontier, descendants of the hardy pioneers of our earlier his- 
tory. Nelson's father was one of Ihe American volunteers sur- 
rendered by Hull to the British on Lake Erie in 1812. The 
trio named stood together on some of the immemorial height* 
of the Civil War. Sam Plummer fa jovial, sincere, honest 

Recollections of Pioneer ati4 Army Life. 69 

man) fell in the bloody encounter on Stone River. The other 
two were with the beaten right wing of Rosecrans' army at 
Chickamauga. Captain McGaw survived many notable engage- 
ments in defense of the Union, and in the great festivals and 
solemn assemblies of the people of my native county these 
American volunteers will be held in gratful remembrance. 

All of our Henderson County men made money enough 
to get home on, which ir- about all that can be said for their 
trip to the California gold-field. Porter Nelson boasted of 
having a "quarter" left ! On a sailing vessel bound for New 
York from the Isthmus. Captain McGaw, later of the 84th 
Ills. Vols., suffered shipwreck. In the fierce gale that was 
blowing, a friendly vessel stood in the offing to help them, and 
was in the act of sending the life-boat to take the passengers 
off. High seas were breaking over the wreck, which was hard 
fast on the rocks, and no time was to be lost. The officers of 
the endangered vessel had prepared numbered slips of paper 
and distributed them among the passengers, who were to form 
in line and enter the life-boat, at each successive trip, accord- 
ing to their number. Captain McGaw for a minute or two did 
not look at his slip, for fear it was a large number; but he 
found on examination (lucky man) that he held preferred 
stock in Fortune's bank. He was one in the only boat-load that 
was saved ! 

By and by a day came, as still such days will come, to 
call "doggery "-keepers, as well as sober people, "home." 
Sammy Snook died, and his friends on Water Street said he 
must have a funeral, and they invited Dr. Campbell, of the 
Cumberland church, to make a few remarks at the private 
obsequies. The kind old doctor responded favorably, and dis- 
charged the obligations implied in the emergency act to the 
satisfaction of all concerned ; but, to the amazement of some of 
the hide-bound burghers, the solid globe on which we live did 
not collapse on account of the observance of this Christian 



Deacon Banner's bake-shop was the fond attraction of the 
small boy. It had a flavor of its own which affected me mncn 
as the smell of grog undermines the equilibrium of the toper. 
The odor of the gingerbread was demoralizing. Under its 
spell I was drawn irresistibly to the door to gaze in helpless 
rapture on the squares of sweet bread when I had not a cent 
in my pocket and no expectation of ever having one. Right 
there in full view the good deacon had a heaven, whose bliss, 
for the lack of a penny, was as remote and inaccessible to me 
as the real thing may prove, alas! for many of .is in the great 
day later on. I was in despair. At this time Jamison & 
Moir were at the southwest corner of Market Square in line 
with a row of grain warehouses. In the same row, north, 
stood the deacon's bakery and lunch counter aforesaid, and 
on further north, along Water Street, on both sides, were 
the "doggeries," the principal one and the most celebrated 
Sam Snook's, the hunchback. At the extreme north end, fac- 
ing east, stood the principal business house of the town in 
the earliest time, that of the Phelps Brothers. McKinney & 
Adams had a general merchandise store on the then business 
outskirts on Schuyler Street as it existed, mostly on the town 
plat. Trian & Day had a similar store on the corner of Schuy- 
ler Street and Market Square. There were other minor places 
of business, clustered around Colonel Patterson's printing of- 
fice, the brick addition to which stands a disfigured relic of 
the past. Deacon Benner's little bake-shop was of the humblest 
origin, but there was a man behind it ! In the northwest cor- 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 71 

ner of the small business room, behind a bit of counter, rested 
a keg of spruce beer and the display of gingerbread. On the 
main counter and shelves were luncheon goods with such un- 
usual neighbors as two or three styles of plain ribbon, one or 
more patterns of calico, and a suspicion possibly of millinery; 
but of this latter I cannot make oath whatever there was, it 
was the promise of things not seen. The family occupied the 
back rooms. The daughters, of whom there were three, were 
the main attractions, and no inconsiderable ones either! The 
family was of German descent, dexterous in the use of English, 
but with a noticeable lisp. They were "Pennsylvania Dutch" 
probably, or Hessian. They were Baptists, and the good dea- 
con, stood by his colors nobly. It may seem a bit odd even for 
that day that the bake-shop should include haberdashery among 
the articles for sale; but thereby hangs a tale. The deacon 
was a born gentleman. The rogues like Ed Ray and Brent 
Jones made a butt of him ; the Yellow Banks "Four Hundred" 
winked at their jokes, and the bad boys were none too decent 
in their deportment toward the girls, who were regularly at 
school up to their majority, or nearly so. The current fun of 
a frontier town is of the broad stripe; the kind that takes sc 
many risks that it sometimes drops its molasses jug, to use a 
phrase stolen from Uncle Remus. Deacort Benner had just 
enough of the German lisp in his speech to make him an in- 
teresting character when allied to other peculiarities which 
lent themselves to the picturesque. The two practical jokers 
aforesaid fastened on him at once. Always treating him 
courteously, or seemingly so; but ever with a card up the 
sleeve. Brent Jones was a printer, and it was no surprise 
when the town woke up one morning and found itself in the 
possession of this bit of verse : 

72 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

"Old Deacon Benner of our town 
Is now a man of great renown; 
He left the East in an angry mood 

He left it for his country s good ! 

He landed here with a picayune, 

But soon he sang the temperance tune; 

He made a barrel of ginger beer, 

If you 'd mention rum, he 'd shed a tear! 

He put on a religious face, 
And they made him deacon of the place ; 
But every Sabbath he is found 
Selling beer on the old camp-ground ! 

The 'Suckers' suck his ginger pop, 
But they find it all molasses slop. 
His ginger beer and ginger cake 
Give the 'Suckers' the bellyache !" 

I have no doubt the rhymester reported the Deacon's 
financial condition correctly on the day he landed, but Brent 
maintained a familiar intercourse with Water Street where 
water was the only refreshment unobtainable and it is pos- 
sible that he was overseas when he made the claim that the 
Deacon sold pop on the Sabbath ; that the brand was not the 
best known to the trade, conducive to abdominal calm and a 
better grade of morals than pertained to hilarious printers. 
If the Deacon landed with a picayune, he quit the town with 
a barrel of 'em, and that is where he had the advantage of the 
jokers, for if the assets of the nondescripts of the town had 
been pooled, the Deacon might easily have bought them in 
with his small change. Business at the bake-shop prospered; 
the pop and ginger cake were in time let out, the luncheon 
trade was abandoned, and the Deacon and family (for each 
member contributed to the success of the business in a direct 
way) became the leading venders of millinery, not to men- 
tion dry goods, of which he came eventually to carry a large 
stock. The town did not continue to thrive like the trade- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 73 

centers in the interior on the railroads, and Deacon Benner 
removed his business to Galesburg, where he prospered and 
died in the possession of a very considerable estate, having 
realty holdings in some of the growing cities in the West. 

It was not so disreputable to sell and drink whiskey in 
those days as it is now, although it was felt by many to be an 
unqualified curse. Legal enactments were not as yet leveled 
at it, but self-respect compelled many to shrink from its asso- 
ciations. The town was well equipped for the display of the 
business in its most degrading aspects, and could turn out a 
grist on short notice. I recall passing in the early morning the 
window of a grog-shop kept, I am sorry to say, by so good 
a man as Obadiah Eames, and discovering the floor covered 
with men who had fallen in a drunken stupor and gone to 
sleep at the close of an all-night carousal. 

For some years after my father left the farm the family 
continued to attend the services on the Sabbath at South Hen- 
derson, and it was a common thing, as we drove along, to see 
drunken men lying at the roadside, sound asleep, their bloated 
faces upturned to the burning sun, their clothing saturated 
with the premature disgorgement of an overcharged stomach 
their saddle-horses grazing close by. 

Among the vicious class it was supposed to be a mark of 
genius for a lawyer or doctor to be drunk when off duty, and 
if he succeeded in making a good plea or prescription when 
drunk, it was a miracle to be noised to the ends of the earth. 
Old Doc Hulbert, of Rozetta, was one of these miraculously 
endowed physicians. In the opinion of many people, the 
drunker he was the greater his skill in the practice of his pro- 
fession. He was a good doctor and would, of course, have 
been a better one of it had been possible for him to have lived 
a sober life. It came to be a street scene to occasion little 
notice when this unfortunate man, obliviously drunk, seated 
in his old buggy, his trusty horse carefully picking its way 
along the road, from which it would not depart until the old 

74 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

master had been safely landed at his own gate some miles 

Firewater is not a good protection from cold, but on a 
day the late Charles M. Harris (distinguished lawyer and one- 
term member of Congress) ran this gauntlet without injury. 
He was a three-hundred-pounder, and on a trip to Keithsburg 
in an open vehicle with some boon companions, in the dead 
of winter and against a fierce north wind, he was seen with his 
shirt-front wide open, in the full enjoyment of the supremt 
luxury of a drunken stupor. 



My uncle James Jamison went to the woods and cut 
down, hewed out and delivered the oak logs for the frame- 
work of the Presbyterian church in the village, and it is as 
neat a pioneer chapel as can be found in the State. I can 
hear the tolling of the bell in the cupola this moment as in the 
far-away years, when each stroke counted one for every year 
of him who was being borne over to his last rest in the village 
cemetery. I was at the burial, when a lad, of a brother of 
Judge William C. Rice. As the scene closed the Judge said 
to a friend, "This is the last of earth !" How a few words 
like these will stick in the memory ! It so happened that, after 
an absence of many years from the State. I was within call 
when T heard that the remains of two old friends, those of 
Joseph Chickering and Mrs. John M. Fuller, the mother of 
those gallant soldiers. Lieutenant Wm. H.. of the Signal Corps, 
and Sergeant Andrew M. Fuller, would be buried in this con- 
secrated ground the next day. I obeyed the promptings of 
my heart and went to see the remains of so much that was 
gord, and so closely associated with the early history of the 
county, left to silence and the worm. 

When T wish to recall the fair young faces and the grave 
and reverend seigniors of the days of my youth, I am wont to 
sumnn n a gathering at the crowded Presbyterian chapel on 
a bright Sunday morning in June in the forties. Whoevrr 
designed the little house of worship had a lot of good sense. 
It possesses the beauty of true proportions, and escaped the 
beggarly attempt at ornament so common in the structures 
of its class in the new West. The interior was finished in 


76 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

solid walnut, and the builder was not stingy in the use of the 
raw material. Walnut lumber is so much prized now that the 
quantity of it used in the construction of those pews would 
start a man in business, The backs of the pews (since cut 
down) were so high that T had to stand up and lengthen out 
onto the ends of my toes to see what was going on at the front. 
But we had a fine view of the preacher of his head merely. 
He was boxed in, far and away! 

The pulpit was an architectural triumph. There were two 
routes by which, if you were careful and observed all the 
finger-boards of direction, you could find the good man when 
seated and lost to the view of his flock. One could start on 
either side where there was a broad and sure footing and be 
gin the ascent of the ecclesiastical Matterhorn. A guide bear- 
ing a banner with a device, as "Where he leads we will fol- 
low," would have been a great convenience. By keeping one's 
eye fixed on him and not permitting him to get too far ahead, 
up the winding stairway, one might come at last upon the 
object of his search. I have heard of preachers unused to 
this sky-scraper pulpit getting lost, trying to find the "way" ; 
but once in the box, they could look down and count the warts 
on all the bald heads in attendance. The stranger was given 
a seat right under the droppings of the sanctuary, where, 
hearing a voice somewhere overhead, he uniformly suffered 
dislocation of the neck trying to locate it. We faced about 
to see the choir in the gallery, over the entrance. I suppose 
the time never was when the choir (the organ-loft) was not 
the favorite spot for the display of millinery. Not always, I 
suppose (bless their honest hearts), was the vocalization of 
the "old school" church in inverse proportion to the display 
of head-gear. The young women in their flounces and fur- 
belows and the young gentlemen in their soap-locks gave 
prestige to the choir by their numbers, for there was a wide- 
spread desire among the young folks to be of the elect coterie; 
but as for their deliverance, they rested secure in the belief 
that in Father Chickering and his violin, his fine baritone and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 77 

his accomplished leadership and the accompanying melodeon 
they had a safe refuge from detection. There was a sensa- 
tion among the young gentlemen when the soprano and her 
convoying sisters filed in, enveloped in a distinct odor of the 
perfumer's art the seven angels with the seven vials filled 
with seven kinds of bear's oil, from which I think the young 
gentlemen helped themselves surreptitiously to more than their 
share, since they smelt so loud. 

In the depths of those high-backed pews I made one in 
the row of the Sunday-school class, which sat under the minis- 
trations of good old "Squire" Patterson, with his spectacles 
hanging helplessly on his venerable nose. I maintained allegi- 
ance to the "Squire" to secure the right to draw a book each 
Sunday from that wonderful library consecrated to the spirit- 
ual welfare of the on-coming citizens of our glorious country. 
I acknowledge with some dismay the greed with which I 
turned over the leaves of the different books to find the one 
that had the "purtiest" pictures. Having come off victorious 
in that reconnaissance, I carried it home in triumph to read 
about Albert Toogood, who was so pious he always looked 
down like Grief on a tombstone, who committed to memory a 
chapter of the Bible every day of his precious life, who was 
so patient and sweet when one of those old flinty sand-burrs 
ran one of its spirited needles a stout half-inch into his heel. 
Xo ; he never dropped one not one of those pearly tears nor 
bad words over so trifling a thing as that. I was satisfied 
with one of those nice books. I got through with it in a 
hurry. I felt so discouraged over Albert's superior goodness 
that I wanted to drown myself. The quality had a rock-ribbed 
pre-emption right to certain of the pews. These they furn- 
ished with foot-stools and cushions, and there was no denying 
the distinguished manners of gentlemen like the late William 
Moir and the ladies of his family and the allied families, of 
whom there were a number, who worshiped here. One of 
these (the late Asa Smith's) had artistic talents of a high 
order. One of my earliest recollections is of Mr. Smith's 

78 Recollections of Pioneer and .Inny Life. 

studio in a building which stood on the corner west of the old 
Conger boarding-house, where portraits from life, in oil, hung 
on the walls. There was slight patronage in the pioneer town 
for one so regally endowed, but the wonderful discovery of 
Daguerre made it possible for the humblest the world over 
to possess the likenesses of those dear to them, and Mr. Smith 
established a gallery and supplied the people far and near 
with the pictures they so much prized. Many families still 
have specimens of that art of surprising beauty and fidelity. 
Then came in succession the ambrotype and finally the photo- 
graph all of which Mr. Smith successfully cultivated. I 
recall an incident which illustrates his skill in drawing. His 
neighbor, Mr. Blackheart (which indeed was not a name one 
would choose for a good neighbor, but was the best the fore- 
bears of the old, well-known blacksmith could do for him), 
had lost his cow, and after some days he chanced to call at 
Mr. Smith's book-store, where he found a pencil sketch of a 
cow the artist had drawn from life as she stood under a tree 
two miles north of the town. A peculiarity in the faithful 
portraiture convinced the owner that here was a true picture 
of the estray, and on going to the spot the animal was 

Chickering & Fanning's furniture factory came in time 
to be an important enterprise in the industrial development 
of the town. Both of these gentlemen were skilled mechanics, 
and most of the burial caskets were made to order in their 
shops, and Mr. Chickering was the familiar official at the ob- 
sequies of his friends and neighbors. I shall never forget 
my astonishment at being told one day that Johnny Roberts 
was dead! He was of my own size and age. We were 
classmates. He? Johnny? So blithe and gay dead? I 
was dumb. The next day Mr. Chickering's son Henry, also 
my classmate, told me his father was making Johnny's coffin. 
I made no reply, but we went down together to the factory to 
see it. I stole softly into the room where the good man was 
deftly putting in place the w r hite lining of Johnny's narrow 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 79 

house. I was sober beyond words in going close to it. I did 
not care to touch it, but I looked down into it, and my first 
thought was, "It is so long! Johnny could not be so tall as 
that !" Then Mr. Checkering explained to me why the foot of it 
was made at an angle that the pair of little feet themselves 
came, as it were, to "attention," till the dissolving years made 
them relent. It was all very wonderful, a part of the great 
mystery, but I could not utter a word. 

The pastor at the chapel at one time was Dr. King, a fiery, 
impetuous spirit, who might have led a forlorn hope on 
Marye's Hill at Fredericksburg. At a morning service he made 
a characteristic parenthesis. He read the old familiar hymn 
in which Dr. Watts sacrificed his orthodoxy to accomplish the 
rhythm in the couplet which declares that 

"While the lamp holds out to burn 
The vilest sinner may return!" 

In short, sharp staccato the doctor said : "The choir will please 
omit the stanza [giving the number], for I believe it to be 
wholly and essentially false!" Many a time and oft had I 
heard the hymn used in the service, but this was the first time 
I had ever heard it challenged. 



My mother's relatives, the Giles, were the most friendly 
people in the world, and when they came down from "Cedar" 
to pay us a visit, there was a demonstration of "that fellow- 
feeling which makes us wondrous kind" ; but I recall an in- 
cident which occurred on an occasion of this kind which lefc 
a different impression. My forebears were Scotch-Irish on 
both sides, with a distinct vein (if only a vein) of the super- 
stitions of the race, as this instance will show. My uncle Eli 
Giles was paying my mother a visit, and the family had separ- 
ated after supper and left my uncle and my mother in conver- 
sation at the table, with myself as the third party. The con- 
versation turned upon the subject of ghosts, in which Andy 
Allen (another uncle) was a firm believer, according to the 
representations of my uncle who led the conversation. Mv 
elders had forgotten me, or were careless certainly uncon- 
scious of the effect of their narrations upon the nervous, diffi- 
dent boy who was their only auditor. I was unused to ghost- 
stories, and was startled from the first, and I followed the 
tales with increasing alarm. My easily awakened imagination 
magnified the incidents in the story of the dark woods, the 
road running past the haunted house, where the man had been 
murdered and from whence the belated traveler was inter 
cepted by the ghost, etc., etc. These phases with their varia- 
tions were related as facts, attested, they said, by my uncle 
Andy, and I believed every word of the story. As I listened 
my senses sank under the load of fright and I started up from 
the table distraught! I looked at my mother. Her face had 
changed. I knew her not. I remember distinctly these changes 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 81 

in my senses, but I was powerless to recall them or to rid 
myself of the spell. I was for the moment daft. I made no 
outcry, and my mother, unconscious of my condition, continued 
in an amused way to listen to the stupid outrage from which 
1 suffered. 1 think it was her low. kind voice, reassuring, al- 
though unconsciously so, which restored me. I seem never 
to have gotten quite over the shock, but I said not a word to 
my mother nor to others about it; and in this I was wiser 
than I knew, for if I had confessed to my suffering, I would 
have been quenched in the brutality of our human nature, for 
the savage is so strong, in the young at least, that I would 
have been laughed at. 

The youngsters at the Yellow Banks were an enterpris- 
ing lot. We had ambitions assorted sizes and kinds. Our 
thoughts rested heavily, like the weight of the globe on the 
shoulders of Atlas, on two choice professions namely, that 
of the pirate and the stage-driver. We stood on the edge of 
the water and saw through the fog, or thought we saw, a low 
rakish craft steal from the shadows of the main shore over 
to one of the islands. During the passage we spoke in whisp- 
ers, and our eyes were as big as the ivory rings on the martin- 
gales of Bill Van Pelt's livery nags. We exchanged comments 
on the size of the scowl on the pirate captain's face and the 
pike, as big as a fence-rail, with which he scuttled ships and 
split the liver of his enemies. But the stage-driver was our 
beau ideal. Him we worshiped. If he condescended to walk on 
earth after the grand entry, we trailed after him (all the small 
boys in town) like a brood of sucking pigs ! If he indulged 
himself in a bit of humor to the effect that old Mathews, the 
baker, filled his pies with stewed potato vines in lieu of ap- 
ples, we snickered in the most truckling way. I can see him 
now, seated on the box, over "the boot," high and lifted up, 
armed with the long braided whip, with \vhich to touch the 
leaders under the belly with that hawk-like circle and down- 
ward swoop known only to stage-drivers of a generation now 
extinct. As he descended upon the admiring town with break- 

82 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

neck speed, he blew his horn. Ah ! was it not grand ! the tally- 
ho, as it poised for a moment on the brow of old Schuyler 
Street in the days before the hill was graded down ! And the 
bare-legged, shirt-tailed boys swooped around the corner like 
pigeons to take it all in ! How the old Fink & Walker stage- 
coach rocked and plunged, and stood on her beam ends, as she 
rounded the corner in a cloud of dust and landed before Col- 
onel Patterson's post office, where the mail-bags were thrown 
out and the passengers braced themselves for the role of dis- 
tinguished arrivals to meet the expectations of the staring 
crowd ! 

Colonel J. B. Patterson was hardly less distinguished in 
the eyes of the small boy than the stage-driver himself. In 
our minds he was intimately associated with that great rival. 
He received the mail-bags from him, and the mail in our youth- 
ful thought was an important matter. I supposed the Great 
Father, who lived in some great temple of fame like unto that 
which used to serve as a frontispiece for McGuffey's second 
reader, wrote all the letters and sent them to everybody and 
everybody sent him letters in return and paid Colonel Patter- 
son for the privilege. And I used to look with an absorbing 
interest on the little tray at the table open to all, where the 
good Colonel kept the old-fashioned pennies, big as our "quar- 
ters," the picayunes, the 12^2 cent "bits," the "smooth" quar- 
ters with a cross on them which marked them as degenerate 
and worth only 20 cents, all of which were used as legal tender 
in the payment of postage, all the way from 6 to 25 cents per 
letter, according to the distance. 

One of the "lame ducks" in the early history of Hender- 
son County was Watty Burnside. Watty was a patriot after his 
kind. He was zealous in the matter of specie payments, and 
in his role was a sort of financial prophet in the wilderness. 
His contribution to the country's circulating medium was 
home-made. His equipment consisted of a pair of molds, or 
dies, and a melting-pot. In the latter he was wont to reduce 
old pewter spoons ; lacking these, he challenged Fate and the 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 83 

scrutiny of the public with plain, bare-faced bar lead. With 
this material he "struck" half-dollars bearing the similitude 
of the coin of the same denomination issued by Uncle Sam. 
Watty was a dense old simpleton and thought he could ex 
change the output of his mint for the common moonshine 
whiskey of his time. But the boss of the Water Street grog- 
shop was built on the same lines as his lineal descendant of to- 
day calculating and sober in handing out the drinks, and knew 
the kind of money that would "pass" better than anybody. \ 
never heard of Sam Snook being drunk -never! and when 
Watty came along and threw down one of his galena half- 
dollars to liquidate his bill for corn- juice, Sam (who had a 
hammer and nails close at hand for such emergencies) took 
the alleged coin and. with a deep and horrible oath, nailed it 
to the counter. In this manner Watty left souvenirs of him- 
self all over the country. And by and by the sheriff came 
along and took him by the ear and locked him up, and at the 
following session of the circuit court he was sent down to 
Alton (the State's prison was at Alton in his day) to serve 

Mr. Joseph Chickering. the founder of the pioneer fur- 
niture factory, was of Massachusetts origin, and the family 
name adorns the history of the old Bay State. His forebears 
were persons of culture, distinguished as clergymen, musicians, 
and manufacturers of musical instruments of national celeb- 
rity. He possessed in full measure the varied talents peculiar 
to his ancient and honorable family, and it was a kind Provi- 
dence that sent this good man, so useful in his day and genera- 
tion, to the pioneer village so close on the heels of the depart- 
ing red man. One needs to take a second thought to appre- 
ciate this fact : to recall how barren the pioneer life was of all 
that refines, softens and elevates the social scale at this period. 
T remember well when T could not have been more than three 
years of age awaking in the morning in my trundle-bed from 
the child's all-night deep slumber and meeting (so unexpected- 
ly) Mr. Chickering's cheerful greeting. T had already learned 

84 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

that here was the kind, paternal face of the wonderful magi- 
cian who carried in a curious oblong box a something I did 
not know the name of, which he lovingly took up in such a 
funny way and across it drew a polished little stick with a 
pearl in the end of it, and forthwith came softly the sweetest 
notes the child had ever heard, and which made him glide 
sideways around and take refuge under his mother's arm. 

"The stork in the heavens knoweth her appointed times." 
Mystery. Silence. The usual activities of the household sud- 
denly ceased. The members were invisible. Myself and young 
brother, Ewell (whom I dubbed the "Deacon/' after Deacon 
Brown, the capitalist of Monmouth), were spirited away. I 
cannot tell how nor where we were held in duress. We must 
have been chloroformed, or captured by brigands and held for 
ransom. I cannot say. Strategy. Women display unexpected 
and wonderful skill in maneuvers. There are few of them 
that do not excel Napoleon in the art of concealing the move- 
ments in the campaign which they are directing. They were 
supernatu rally smooth on this occasion, or there would have 
been a big kick. The "Deacon" and I "got fooled oncet," as 
the Dutchman says and with all our wits so miraculously 
sharpened ! Some hours passed. I do not know how it came 
about, but my brother and I as by a flash regained our liberty 
and our consciousness. We realized at once that our home 
was in eclipse. Darkness reigned, and trouble. Cousin Sarah, 
T think it was. came with an anxious face and took us by the 
hand and led us up into mother's chamber. We were amazed 
at the large group of sad faces, the physician in the midst, sur- 
rounding mother's bed. The ominous fever had taken hold 
of her, and they were in despair. Father hung over her pillow 
the picture of suspense and apprehension. There lay the lov- 
ing face the one face in all the world ! She said some ten- 
der words to her two small lads, which I cannot repeat here, 
and we were taken away. The night came on the night 
which has steeped in forgetfulness so much of the sorrow of 
the world. Out of childhood's long, dreamless slumber I 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 85 

awoke the first of all. It was scarce day. I started from my 
bed with all my senses in an agony of inquiry to know the 
truth. In the death-like silence I stole out from my own room 
and went half creeping, I knew not why, to my mother's room 
and looked in. The watchers were asleep and the doctor and 
the friends were gone. My mother's bed seemed so still and 
large and white; it startled me to look at it, and she was lost 
to sight in its folds. During the night hours the fever had 
not at least increased and the sick one had fallen into deep 
sleep, and the doctor and attendants had all agreed that she 
would be well again and separated. 

But think of the happiness of that mother ! She had lived 
all her married life in a household of noisy, willful boys 
young savages, that gave her little peace with the demands 
made upon her time and patience. There, on her arm, she 
had a pulsating life more fragile than a Sevres vase, more 
precious than fine gold a little daughter, to be the companion 
of her old age, and in whose arms she was to die ! My moth- 
er's face was very sad at times, and her thoughts seemed far 
away. As she mused the fire burned and her lips moved as 
if in prayer. I often wanted to go and put my arms around 
her, but it seemed like a kind of sacrilege to disturb her at 
such moments, and I refrained. What soul born into this 
world hath not had such moments, when the pulse beats low 
and the spirit seems aweary of time and sense? I was often 
a truant boy, and this dear Christian mother would take me 
into a room aside and close the door, and we would kneel 
down, and she would offer that prayer for me which I hope 
will avail when all other pleas are in abatement. 

Two notable publications that appeared during my boy- 
hood not only made a distinct impression on my own mind, 
but stirred the anti-slavery sentiment of the country to its 
profoundest depths Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin" and "My Bondage and My Freedom," by Frederick 
Douglass. The first was read in the humblest homes in almost 
every hamlet in the Northern States. My mother had a strong 

86 Recollections of Pioneer and .Inny Life. 

prejudice against fiction, but she read "Uncle Tom," and she 
and my cousin Sarah Ann were amusingly agitated over the 
incidents in the story. The reading of these books made a 
dangerous fanatic of me. I was not noisy, but if "Osawat- 
omie" Brown had marched by at the moment in the prosecu- 
tion of any of the turbulent schemes of his career, I certainly 
should have enlisted under his banner and got hung in my 



Brokelbank; do you remember him? Alexis Phelps was 
living when I went to school to Brokelbank. James K. Polk 
was President. Yes, that is quite a ways back ; sixty yean* 
now and more. I would like to be a child again a small boy ; 
but not on the old terms ! Those were the good old days, 
that is true; but "ye that say the former times are better than 
these, ye inquire not wisely concerning these things." I would 
like to be a small boy now and hold in my strong embrace "the 
faces loved long since and lost awhile," and all the other pre- 
cious things that I have garnered and that are the furniture 
of the soul. Brokelbank must have been a Dutchman. Look 
at his name ! A Hollander by blood descent, although I would 
not needlessly hurt the feelings of the good young queen of 
that country by saying so; nor would I cast a slur on the Pil- 
grim Fathers, but I find the name among those folks who came 
over in 16 . He was not of the true Dutch type, to be sure. 
He had not the rubicund face nor the jovial capacity for lager 
beer commonly attributed to that ancient and honorable race. 
In the last analysis Brokelbank was an attenuated Dutch Yan- 
kee. He appeared on the streets of the Yellow Banks quite 
unlocked for by the honest burghers. He said he was a school- 
teacher. His accomplishments as such seemed to lie in the 
direction of a strong aversion to earning his bread by the 
sweat of his brow. He dropped in at Henderson & Graham's 
store in the old Trian & Day building on a Saturday in the 
year 1848. and after discussing the weather and the probable 


38 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

success of General Zach Taylor in his race for the Presidency, 
he was on the point of taking his leave; when, admonished 
by the approach of winter that a pair of gloves would come 
handy, he turned to the counter, on which lay a quantity of 
the buckskin variety, which, along with buffalo-robes, were 
the vogue of the period, and pulled on a pair, but declined to 
purchase at the solicitation of Colonel Henderson, but he 
-would see the Colonel later, he said, or words to that effect. 
In relating this incident in his reminiscent hours the Colonel 
used to say that it gave him a pang to recall that Brokelbank 
did not keep his word, but that a hurried inventory taken on 
the heels of his departure disclosed a shortage in the stock 
of gloves by one pair ! 

I was a freshman at the seat of learning known as the 
Brokelbank school-house, which stood across the street from 
the grounds of Alexis Phelps. My time was occupied in 
learning to spell "horse-back" and similar words in Webster's 
old blue-back spelling-book, and in solving the conundrums in 
McGuffey's second reader. The picture of Albert driving his 
clog hitched to the victoria was the piece de resistance around 
which my affections revolved. I quarreled with the order of 
things every time I looked at that picture. I wanted a dog 
like that, that would work anywhere you put him, single or 
double, and a wagon like that one, in which I could rest at my 
ease, whip in hand, and drive the dog and keep on driving him 
forever. When my attention was withdrawn for the moment 
from Albert and his dog, I was industriously engaged with a 
Barlow knife, cutting my initials in the desk, which was a plain 
slab already overloaded with the hieroglyphics of preceding 
generations; and when this labor palled, my energies were 
absorbed in writing love-letters for Bill Kelly. Bill couldn't 
write, but he was moving heaven and earth trying to learn the 
art, which seemed an up-hill business for him. I can see him 
now, sprawled over the desk, his tongue squirming around in 
his mouth like an imprisoned boa constrictor on the point of 
breaking through, his cramped fingers bending desperately to 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 89 

the task of making parallel lines, which was the first lesson 
after the ancient method. I don't remember whether I acted 
as Bill's stenographer and took the matter down at his dicta- 
tion, or whether it was a scheme of my own to test the young 
lady's affections by proxy. I don't know what came of it all ; 
nothing in particular, I think, except the evidences, which were 
plain enough, that Cupid's wings were short in his first flight. 
The young lady was well worthy the amorous forays of the 
most gallant knights. She was a pretty little body, the daugh- 
ter of Dr. Clendenin. I wonder if any who read these pages 
remember Dr. Clendenin? Whether they do or not, some of 
the big boys, like Billy Wood and Homer Conger, locked oid 
Brokelbank out of the school-house and nailed the windows 
down ! Y'see it was this way : Christmas had come and Brokey 
had failed to treat. The big boys determined to force the 
issue, and they got a padlock and fastened the door solid, and 
set two big forked posts in the ground in front of the door 
and laid a rail from fork to fork, and this they called a "horse," 
on which they said they would ride Brokey if he should con- 
clude not to "set 'em up." Then they got a stick and furled a 
handkerchief upon it and set it a flying from the head of the 
"horse," as a sort of challenge from which Brokey might take 
warning at a distance that the boys were "onto him." Then 
they took to the brush and watched to see what Brokey would 
do. Well, he came along at 9 o'clock (the school hour), and 
the horse was there to receive him, but never said a word, 
nor Brokey a word to the horse. Then Brokey looked around, 
raspy and hot, and found an old hammer lying on the ground, 
with which the boys had nailed the windows down and had 

Brokey did it with that hammer he smashed that pad- 
lock till it looked worse than one of those Russian battleships 
in the Straits of Tsushima after Togo had gotten satisfaction 
cut of it ; then he opened the academy on time, as usual. But 
I want to say confidentially that Brokey rallied handsomely 
and went down to Deacon I'enner's at noon and bought a 

f o Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

bushel basket full of sweet-cakes, gingerbread and things, and 
fed us like chickens at the coop. 

Other shadows fell on the old school-house. The chil- 
dren whispered to each other how bad some of their playmates 
felt when a new report came from the sick-room across the 
way. It was one of the palatial homes of a branch of an in- 
fluential family engaged in the Indian and domestic trade of 
the frontier. The loss of such a man would be severely felt 
by the community. The children at school had some compre- 
hension of this, and we were in deep sympathy when a young 
girl came to the door and beckoned to her sisters in the school- 
room. They went out in tears and we all knew that Alexis 
Phelps was dying. The old school-house was affected by the 
California gold fever with the rest of the town. Brokelbank 
showed strong symptoms from the first. He was absent 
minded in the conduct of the school. He was a diligent in- 
quirer after the latest news. He would start up in his dreams 
with a bag of gold as big as a beer-keg in each hand. He 
early made up his mind to go. He went. But, like most of his 
neighbors, he had difficulties to overcome. He was breasting 
a financial shortage. He had not thought of California having 
a gold eruption. He had been teaching geography for a num- 
ber of years and California was "laid down" in the old Olney 
school atlas sicklied o'er with the pale cast the few "Greasers" 
and old Spanish missions could confer upon it, never once 
suspected of the largess she held in store for the seekers after 
the golden fleece. He must now make the best of it, and take 
his chances. He elaborated plans which involved a wagon, 
oxen, and provisions in quantity. He placed an order for a 
wagon at one of the local shops, linchpins and all, and started 
the men at work on it forthwith. The woodwork finished in 
due time, it was up to Brokey to provide the iron for it. At 
this point Brokey struck a sawyer. He was "busted" to use 
the vernacular of a frontier town in '49. On his pillow lie 
thought it all over, and took heart in a wlay. I will explain if 
my reader will forbear. He rose from his couch and shook 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 91 

himself, to clear his wits and disappeared in the darknes:-, 
fired with an invincible resolution. If he weakened at any 
moment, he recovered his courage at once as the gold mirage 
flooded the dark offing of his mind with its glory. There was 
something extraordinary in the buoyancy with which he slipped 
through the inky night in the pursuit of his evil purpose. His 
feet were shod with wool, and his long thin legs strode nimbly 
and noiselessly down to Jamison & Moir's iron-house, which, 
under the provision of honest merchants who believed in the 
"open door," stood open all night. Here Brokey found bar 
iron in quantity for all purposes. It nearly broke his back, 
but he carried off iron enough and more to complete his wagon 
in every detail. Years afterward the blacksmiths acknowl 
edged that the scars were plain where Brokey did his best to 
file away the shipping-mark "J & M" on the bar iron used on 
that wagon, but they did not "give him away," because they 
had money and labor tied up in it which they did not wish lo 

Brokey's weary wanderings out over the plains to Cali- 
fornia are not of sufficient interest to justify rehearsal here, 
but I will indicate in a word what became of him. Teaching, 
and Nature's bias had unfitted him for delving in the bowels 
of the earth. It made him tired to think of supporting the 
frail tabernacle in that way, and in the hour when the owl is 
abroad, the tempter came too, and said something to Brokey, 
and he went and thrust his hand under the sleeping miner's 
pallet and drew forth his buckskin bag, and the Vigilance 
Committee took him they took Brokey and hung him on the 
limb of a tree ! 



As the river was a fruitful source of apprehension to my 
mother in the summer, it was none the less so in the winter 
time. During Saturday holidays the boys were out on the frozen 
river in crowds. Frequently dangerous air-holes were. in close 
proximity to our skating-places. In addition to these, the noise 
of the contracting ice, sounding like the sullen roar of distant 
artillery as the mercury descended rapidly toward the bulb, 
often filled her startled senses with foreboding. On a Saturday 
night of a biting cold winter all her flock were safe in the 
fold except her oldest boy, Porter. The short winter day haa 
closed and no word of him. None of us had seen him since 
the early morning. All that was known of him was that he 
and George McKinney were seen skating on the river. At 
the close of an hour after dark my mother sat down in tears 
and would not be comforted. She had sent word to my father 
at the store and he had consulted with uncle John McKinney 
and the two had left town walking south along the river shore, 
but my mother knew nothing of that. Another hour of sus- 
pense and anguish wore on, at the end of which, dazed by 
mental suffering, not knowing what she did, she drew a thin 
shawl over her shoulders and went out on the porch, holding 
byself and younger brother, Ewell, by the hand, and stojd 
trembling and tearful, on the point of plunging into the dark- 
ness and cold, she knew not whither my cousin Sarah plead- 
ing with and trying to comfort her. She was gotten back into 
the house, where she sank down unconscious. The neighbors 
surrounded her, and the doctor came in, and at length my fath- 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 93 

er returned with the missing boy. The parents had gone on 
down the river shore till they met the boys returning over the 
ice on their skates from Burlington, twelve miles below. 

This brother years ago followed his mother into the 
great unknown. In a note bearing the date of April 29, 1881. 
received by mail from his home in Minnesota, he says : "We 
were sadly pained to receive the news of our own poor mother. 
If there is any reward in the next world for a true and trust- 
ing woman, she, I know, will receive it. I saw her a little over 
a year ago and knew she could not last long." 

Lying before me are two old letters and a lock of gray 
hair. It startles me to look at the dates. Can it be that thirty 
years have sped away since my mother's death? For sixty cent- 
uries, more or less, man has been admonished that time is a 
swift courser ; but, heedless and forgetful, we have to be cease- 
lessly pricked by the arrows of the arch tnemy to keep us in 
remembrance of the fact. Here is a letter written by an only 
sister, who was my mother's companion foi so long a time and 
almost her only solace in her last hours. Without doubt the re- 
moval of my parents to Florida prolonged their lives, but it 
was a great hardship for my mother to be removed so far 
from her kindred and life-long associations. The obvious re 
suit of this isolation was to bring mother and daughter closer 
together, if possible, than ever before. Wheu the daughter 
came, therefore, to have a home of her own, the mother was 
left alone indeed! This my sister dutifully tried to remedy 
by going back and forth from the city as often as possible. 
She explains in the letter from which I quote: "I had been 
staying with mother a few days and left on Tuesday after- 
noon, and Wednesday night she was taken with a bad pain in 
her side and could not lie down; had to sit up all night 
Thursday morning father sent for me. I went to her as soon 
as I could, and found her very sick. She could only lie down 
a minute or two at a time, and father had arranged a sup- 
port so she could rest as easily as possible in a sitting posture. 

94 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

After dinner I went in to sit with lier, and father said he 
would go out and see what the men were doing in the garden. 
Mother said she would like to sit in the rocking-chair while 
I arranged the bed for her. Having done this service for her, 
she said she could not sit up any longer ; for me to lay her 
down. I did so, and she closed her eyes and seemed to go to 
sleep. I rested a little while and then walked quietly out on 
the balcony so I should not waken her. Having put Roy to 
sleep, I returned to mother and spoke to her; laid my hand 
gently on her wasted form and felt her pulse, and found that 
she had passed away. You can hardly understand my anguish 
when I discovered the truth concerning her." My mother's 
was the initial mound in the new city (Jacksonville, Fla.) 
cemetery, around which a great company has since gathered. 
Two years afterward, in his seventy-fifth year, my father died, 
walking in the yard with his cane in his hand. 

During the summer vacation when I was about twelve 
years of age, I was hunting down at Grizzly Island, where my 
father owned timber lands and had a woodyard and flatboat 
and men employed, cutting cordwood. When an up-stream 
steamer called, the flatboat (which was kept loaded) was loosed 
from its mooring and taken in tow by the steamer, which trans- 
ferred the wood to her own deck as she proceeded on her way. 
When the transfer had been completed, the woodboat was cast 
off and floated back to the landing to be reloaded for the next 
steamer. By boarding the steamer I was saved a walk of 
several miles home. On the day aforesaid I was standing on 
the gunwale of the woodboat nearest the steamer as she came 
plowing her way under a full head of steam. The force of 
the deep, strong current brought the woodboat square across 
the bow of the steamer, which struck it a stunning blow and 
knocked me. like a shot from a rifle, into the deep, dark water 
below, between the boats, which were rapidly swinging in to- 
gether over the spot where I had sunk out of sight. The first 
I knew T was struggling in the water and could see the light 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 95 

as I swam to the surface The mate on the deck of the steamer 
was watching for me, and when I came up. he had two men 
hanging over the gunwale of the steamer with hands extended 
toward me, and when I got near enough, they grappled me and 
pulled me to the deck with my hat still on my head and none 
the worse, except being well chilled through before I got home. 



Our home was the headquarters for the visiting preachers 
of the old Scotch church. As a matter of fact, my parents 
ran a sort of "Preachers' Inn," and I can hardly recall a time 
when some of the cloth were not enjoying themselves at my 
mother's table. I looked at them askance, for the prayers were 
long. They seemed to feel bound, under the claims of hospi- 
tality, to repay my mother for her good cuisine by ranging 
over seas and across continents in search of material to 
lengthen out the petitions to the point she would accept as 
liberal compensation for the free lunch. While the debt was 
being paid I usually fell over dead asleep. 

One day Tom Cunningham came along. You remember 
Tom? He was the "flash" preacher of the old church when 
I was merging into my "teens." He had one of the best jobs 
under the paternal care of the Western Synod the pastorate 
of a big congregation in St. Louis. It was a sunny morning 
in June when Tom got off the Northern-line packet at out 
landing and met father at the gate, just starting down town. 
I was standing in the yard, stunned by the appearace of the 
dapper young preacher in his white silk hat, nobby garmenture, 
and winning ways. For a minute or two my father, the 
family, I even I everybody was thoiotighly saturated by 
a spray of Tom's choicest salutions. When the sign was 
about right, Tom sprang his request. I never knew one of 
those preachers that did not have a deep-felt want of some 
kind. Tom had a good old father and mother out on a farm, 
northwest of Monmouth, and could my father land him on the 
spot? Father could do that, or anything else, one of the 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 97 

preachers of "our church" asked him to do. Yes; he had a 
horse and buggy and a boy, and the boy was listening, and 
heard his father acquiesce in the plan. It was the boy that 
was always called on to handle the preachers, and he 's han- 
dled his share of 'em. I got out the nice buggy with old 
Coelum. Coelum in Latin means "heaven." What better than 
Coelum to haul the man who was directing the world to the 
port after which he was named. Good enough we started, 
not for Paradise, but for the preferred lamling at Father Cun- 
ningham's in Warren County. Tom was voluble, and the 
landscape bright with the tender spring verdure, and every- 
thing took on new beauty as seen through the eyes of the 
young preacher from the city, who was in a state bordering 
on ecstasy as we jogged along. Betimes we pulled up at the 
gate of a farm-house where the roses clambered over the 
entrance and the moss-covered bucket invited man and beast 
to refreshment. There was a pause of some minutes if Tom 
came in contact with some of the fair young faces of the house- 
hold, which gave opportunity for an exchange on the trans- 
cendent loveliness of everything when you "feel that way," 
and when you don't "feel that way" everything is a theory and 
not a condition. My distinguished companion's exuberance 
was the counterpart of the affluence of nature in the most 
hopeful month in the year. He could not repress himself. 
He became more communicative, even confidential, with every 
mile accomplished. He had a load on his mind and he must 
ease himself by making me a partner in his joys. He told me 
all about it. He was in love! In a few choice phrases he 
told me all about it, how divinely fair she was. And then she 
had a further charm not universal among expectant brides. 
She had a rich "Pop," think of that ! Tom thought about it 
every day, and every hour in the day, and every minute in 
the hour poor young preacher ! She was sixteen he said 
To head off all rivals, Tom had "cast his fly" early. Having 
secured his catch, he had nothing to do but to play with it 
until she had reached her majority, then land his prize. The 

98 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

children of light are as wise as the children of this world in 
some things! It is seven and fifty years since I took that ride 
with Tom and it is little less than that since I saw him the 
last time. It was on the day in 1859 when William H. Seward 
made his bid in Chicago for the vote of the young West for 
the Presidency. Quite unexpectedly I caught a mere glimpse 
of him on the street. The young St. Louis wife was with the 
angels, and Tom had a second one, leaning joyfully on his 
arm as they tripped away through the crowd. On what seas 
sails his barque now, or is poor Tom a-cold? 

The limits assigned to these pages preclude the interest 
.that attaches to the lads identified by birth with the early his- 
tory of the town. Suffice it that John M. Fuller, Esq., a staunch 
supporter of the great cause, took an honest pride in his sons, 
but the one that gave the least promise led all the rest. The 
rather delicate, freckle-faced lad learned a trade, and the 
knowledge of tools gave facility in the handling of agricult- 
ural implements .for one of our great Illinois manufactories 
which led to position and a competence. George Fuller sits 
now among the commercial princes of the earth, and, what is 
better, his exemplary Christian character puts to shame the 
unbeliever and the scoffer. I cannot refrain from a passing 
allusion to two others of the contemporaries of my youth : 
Tom Scott "our Tom." as he is affectionately called, and 
Horace Bigelow, who led me in age by a year or two. Both 
have won a fair share of worldly fame and fortune in the 
face of adverse conditions, and none of my early friends are 
more worthy. 

The "Q" railroad, or Peoria and Oquawka, as the charter 
read, was completed from the east shore of the Mississippi, 
opposite Burlington, up through the Henderson County bluffs, 
in the summer of 1854, and the company on the 4th day of 
July ran an excursion train from the river to the groves along 
the hills, the terminus being at Ward's mill, where an old-time 
barbecue was held the pit dug and the ox roasted, with such 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 99 

side dishes as the people chose to bring. The train was made 
up of platform (dirt) cars, with plank seats. A large crowd 
took advantage of this opportunity to take their first ride on 
a railroad train. Junketing parties were let off any whei e they 
chose among the natural groves along South Henderson Creek , 
those in charge of the train accommodating themselves to the 
whims of the people in that respect. Some of these small 
parties, with their lunch-baskets and hampers of champagne, 
showed greater nimbleness in getting off the train in the morn- 
ing than they were able to exhibit in getting on again in the 



One of the great sensations in the town was the advent 
of the "Bloomer" costume. When it first crossed the disk ot 
fashion, the young misses throughout the country craned their 
necks till they nearly pulled them out of joint staring at it, 
and the staid matrons had to put on their glasses to make it 
out. But the weakness of human nature to grab at every new 
style met with a perceptible balk as the Bloomer tide rolled 
westward. The Yellow Banks were agitated as never before 
over the question of trousers becoming the wearing apparel 
for both sexes, with only such modifications as modesty might 
suggest. At the last it assumed the form of give and take. 
To maintain the judicial balance, the men thought it would be 
correct to adorn their breeches with some of the trimmings 
heretofore in exclusive use by the ladies; while the sewing 
societies of the town almost broke up in a row over the adop- 
tion of hip pockets. Ed Ray. as the strenuous advance agent 
of the new style, ordered fringes around the bottoms of his 
new trousers ; while Luke Strong, as a Miss Nancy, occupy- 
ing a position between the rival parties in interest, had a row 
of steel cut buttons sewed on the seams of his'n. The new 
fad was making progress after all ! The ladies took courage, 
but who should take the first plunge? By and by it leaked 
out. The garments were being made. An expert seamstress 
had 'em on the way, seven-ninths completed, and she would 
have them ready to launch the next Sunday for church. There 
would be new millinery attachments and everything in rapid- 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 101 

fire order. There was an excess of joy throughout the pur- 
lieus of the Yellow Banks. Everybody hoped it would be a 
pleasant day. For once in the history of the town, the people 
had a pious spell, and all with one accord brushed up their 
religion, and said they were going to attend the services. The 
eventful day dawned at last a sunny summer day. vServices 
were held in the court-house, and as the tribes went thither 
the windows were packed with noses flattened against the 
panes to see the pants go by! Crum Mathews was in com- 
mand; but as to the particular frills and the fit of the calico 
pantaloons, ask any of the old-timers. They can tell you all 
about it. 

The Crinoline atmospheric disturbance which followed in 
due succession equalled that of Free Silver under "Coin" Har- 
vey in '96, and they were alike in the dependence upon wind 
for their exploitation ; the more you talked against them the 
more wind you raised the greater the increase in circulation 
It was dangerous for mere man (the old man of the house) 
to suggest to his son that the hoops on the rain-barrel needed 
mending. The daughters of the household took the slur and 
drove the male beasts away with a stick of stove-wood. Hoops 
got to be such a necessity that an order for groceries was seldom 
issued that did not include a skirt of the approved pattern. 
The grocer had the latest in stock, and the hardware man did 
not consider his purcases complete without assorted sizes of 
the common and the patented articles. They hun<? like gigantic 
Chinese lanterns swinging from the awnings of enterprising 
dry goods houses, and the town corporations were in a condi- 
tion of chronic defense against suits for damages by men in 
a hurry to catch the train whose feet were caught in the meshes 
of a cast-off hoop-skirt thrown into the street to trip the 

In those days came Queen Victoria looking like a dirig- 
ible balloon, and Mrs. Lincoln (poor Mary), when she appear- 
ed on state occasions, a miniature replica of the dome of the 

102 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Capitol. Lord Lyons and the other gilded gentry of the effete 
monarchies had to stand out under the dripping eave-troughs. 

In the woods one day on Cedar Creek, with my uncle 
James Giles, he asked me if my teacher had ever given me for 
a copy the line, "The eagle's flight is out of sight." I an- 
swered that he had, and he said to me, "Look up there and you 
will see the eagle now in his flight." It was a clear sunny 
day, and I was eager to see the national bird looking his do- 
minion over. I scanned the sky with a boy's keen eye, but was 
disappointed. I looked for a large bird, which I thought might 
be easily seen. Then my uncle said to me, "You will see only 
a speck moving in a great circle." After some further search, 
I found it. No incident in nature in all my life, certainly not 
in my younger days, impressed me more deeply, save perhaps 
the comet of '58, the total eclipse of the sun in '69, or the 
descent of an immense meteorite in '73, in Iowa, a copper- 
colored globe of fire. The majesty of that flight in the far 
ether ! The bird seemed in no hurry. A sentinel in the third 
heaven, it seemed to have eternity itself in which to make one 
of its grand rounds. Nothing had so completely captivated 
the boy's imagination as the bird that dared to look in at the 
sun's open door and feel the breath of his furnace fires. My 
uncle suggested to me that the bird from its far eyrie could 
see across many States, and that the energy of its vision was 
so great that a rabbit hopping along the ground would be an 
easy mark for it. 

Almost all American families, especially of the farmer 
class, in the course of a generation own some fine horses 
draft or steppers. If not natural horsemen, they get the over- 
flow, which not infrequently contains some speedy animals. 
I believe America has the best cavalry in the world, because 
we have the best horses, and the most of 'em, and the best 
riders. Englishmen and Germans, as a rule, are too pot-gutted 
for cavalry. Take a ^thousand Germans, as they run, from 
civil life, and they are the most awkward riders on earth. As 
we are to-day and have been, good horsemanship is a national 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 103 

characteristic. My brother Marion owned two fine steppers 
at different times. They were so fast they were at the quarter- 
pole before they started. Some of my happiest hours were 
spent in the very early morning riding out behind one of these 
flyers over a good country road in the fall of the year with 
my brother, who was proud of his "typewriters." Grouse were 
plentiful I miss them so much from the Illinois landscape 
nowadays! and from the top of almost every stake along 
the "worm" fence they called to one another in prolonged 
cadence as we rode along. What a shame it is we can hear 
them no longer ! The too zealous sportsman has driven them 
out, and our wheat-fields where they fed have disappeared 
also. Every fall after I had reached the age of twelve or 
thirteen I hauled hundreds of bushels of winter apples in from 
the farm to those who had ordered them at the Yellow Banks 
and in Burlington. As I drove along the road I used to throw 
apples at the "prairie chickens," which scorned to retreat under 
my bad marksmanship. 



He was a gentleman of the old school. He liked to fix 
up. He was as fond of the frills of the toilet as a young miss. 
A portion of each day was devoted to the placing of his person 
in dry dock, where it was scraped and adorned for the voyage 
to the morrow, when the regulation for repairs was observed 
as before. The Algonquin would have said that his hair was 
yellow ; it was parted in the conventional way, but when the 
comb reached the crown it descended to the back door, part- 
ing the locks in the descent, and carefully brushed them foi- 
ward over the ears. He seemed never to have been young, 
and yet he was not old, and at the close of each succeeding 
decade he seemed about the same a sort of perennial Beau 
Brummel. He was the only man in town who went habitually 
\vell dressed, day by day. He uniformly shone upon the street 
in a swallow-tail coat, silk hat and white vest ; his hands neat- 
ly gloved, brandishing a gold-headed cane. A precious stone 
of uncertain value glanced like a serpent's eye upon his fault- 
less front. His linen was Byronian, his ivory plates con- 
spicuous to a degree. His unequal extremities caused a dis- 
tinct but slight pause in his gait. He illuminated the streets 
of the Yellow Banks for many years. He was one of the at- 
tractions; a phenomenon indeed; the Mysterious Stranger 
all in one of the town. 

He was the unique and incomparable host of the old 
Pioneer House in the palmy days of the Fink & Walker 
mail-coaches ; he assisted the travelers to alight from the tally- 
ho ; he was the Sir Walter Raleigh at the reception of his lady 
guests ; he was old J. K., and no other ; a shrewd man of the 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 105 

world ; posted on the news of the day, and had his opinion of 
George Washington and everybody else. And withal, he 
seemed suspiciously well versed in the under-world the sub- 
merged tenth, and all that implies. This information, how- 
ever, he kept carefully to himself. He was never known to 
comment on it, but if it became the subject of conversation in 
his presence, he was complacent, serene, disinterested, Satanic. 
The great games were played on the river in those days, from 
St. Paul to New Orleans; chiefly on the lower Mississippi. 
The big stakes and the guns to defend them were on the tables 
in the gentlemen's cabin. But the Phenomeon was no fighter ; 
he had what was better for him, a demoniac's cunning, sharper 
than a needle point, and luck came his way sometimes ; but he 
was too cautious, I surmise, for a successful gambler. He 
had compensations. If Fortune gave him the cold shoulder at 
the gaming-table, he brought his reserves into the fight. His 
touch was light and sure, and he did not disdain revenue from 
any source, nor object to it in small amounts. An observing 
Boniface, accustomed to study his guests, can create opportun- 
ities, if they are not apparent. For many years he paid on 
demand, and shone resplendent. Other men aged under their 
burdens, but the Phenomenon carried the world on his shoul- 
ders as it were a puff-ball. 

The swell society functions throughout the forties and 
fifties at the Yellow Banks were held at the Pioneer House, 
which, with its bold river front and shade and its Corinthian 
columns, affected my boyish gaze quite like the Parthenon is 
supposed to overwhelm the traveler. The great semi-annual 
events were the cotillion parties, or "balls," as they were 
called in the golden far-gone times. There was a noticeable 
stir among the young couples when the date was announced 
for the next one forthcoming. The fair ones lapsed into a 
form of hysterics over what they were to wear; they ran 
across the street the back way and compared notes about it, 
breaking out into fits of lunatic laughter at their own quips. 

io5 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

The impending social convulsion struck the hotel kitchen in 
advance of all others, and the staff shoveled up pie stuff till 
the stanchions gave way and the chef and his retinue of aids 
were buried under a landslide of raw material. 

The Nestor of hotel managers, our imperial J. K. was on 
earth in his best form on these great occasions. All things 
being in readiness, the couples began to arrive. They came in 
all sorts of vehicles from everywhere. The high-over-all ton 
came from Keith sburg and Monmouth. The real nickel-plate 
could be easily distinguished by the height of his boot-heels. 
He always wore boots on great occasions. To wear shoes was 
plebeian. He scorned the suggestion. The more "ply" he 
could persuade the cobbler to nail onto his boot-heels, if only 
one more than his rival displayed, puffed him up horribl). 
When he walked, his heels struck the cobble-stones some sec- 
onds in advance of his toes, if the latter landed at all. The 
women of 1911 are becoming knee-sprung by the revival 01 
this barbarism. The man afflicted with an excess of boot- 
heels when I was a boy well, his head ran up to a point as 
his heels ran down, the terminus in either case being small. 
Having acquired knock-knees, his pace along the sanded floor 
was painful to behold. The ball-room of the ancient hostelry- 
was well proportioned for the gayety of its time, and it tends 
to sober one to muse in silence now on the animated scenes 
redolent there far beyond the half-century mark. 

On these occasions the early settlers got together. The 
ball served a good and an evil purpose, as their successors do 
to this day. There were many reputable people at these gath- 
erings, and Satan came also. Virtue came clothed in the lat- 
est fashion, and otherwise, and Vice followed her example. 
Couples from up the creek came within the charmed circle of 
Terpsichore not in the best tonsorial form, clothed in black 
satin vests venerable for service, but with honest dollars in 
their pockets and honest purposes in their hearts, and it would 
have been well if all had gotten home in the gray of the next 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 107 

morning with a conscience equally void of offense. As a rule, 
there was an odor like that of a bad circus left in the wake oi 
these balls; the livery-stable crowd prevailed, and the atmos- 
phere had a horsey taint. At the upper end of the ball-room 
sat the orchestra in state. The first violin was a character. 
He was known in all the region around, and was considered 
indispensable to a successful function. He was known as "The 
Man that Slept on His Violin." I don't know that he had any 
other name. Nobody ever heard him talk ; none ever saw him 
awake ! He went to sleep fifty years before Rip Van Winkle 
was heard of, and he is asleep now for good. He was an 
exceptional character, and will prove exceptional doubtless 
when Gabriel blows his horn, and sleep on regardless of what 
the other fellows do. He was playing for balls when Colum- 
bus discovered America, and was at it like a mere sprig of 
youth when I was a boy. When they got ready to open the ball, 
they just gave the old fellow a hunch and music rose voluptu- 
ous. His touch was delicate, resonant, militant ! He dreamed 
celestial dreams as he drew his bow back and forth, and his 
head dropped in dead slumber and swayed from side to side 
as he played. He was on duty from the opening to the close. 
To ease himself he rose at times to his feet, asleep, filling the 
room with his strains, keeping the accompanying instruments 
busy At the close of the cotillion, and before the waltzers 
hegar. i^ spin, he would imitate the nightingale. The bird 
struck its sweetest note far up in trie twilight, a challenge to 
every bird that carried a harp of gold in its throat; then fol- 
lowed an intricate melody too subtle in its method and triumph- 
ant in its strains for mortal ken ; the note of victory was so 
complete that one thought it would cease, nothing more being 
possible, but the note of exaltation continued to rise till the 
heavens were filled with its glory, and all the angelic choirs, 
the answering harps of seraphim to seraphim, broke forth in 
jubilant chorus. And still the wonder grew how one man with 
that frail little instrument and bow could so entice the soul 

io8 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

and overpower it with the charms of music ! Knight and lady 
sat still under the spell of this backwoods master of the violin. 
At the hour of twelve, midnight, the guests were summoned 
to Belshazzar's feast, for which tickets were required. 

Frontier criminal exploits along the Mississippi may be 
supposed to have reached high-tide about the time of the mur- 
der of Colonel Davenport at his home on Rock Island in 1845. 
The minting and circulating of counterfeit coin was one of 
the active pursuits of these river rogues. The owner of the 
mint was not always the most successful distributer of the 
"queer" ; that required a nimble endowment not possessed by 
every man. In pioneer days the Yellow Banks was not short 
on original genius of this and other kinds. Some of them were 
birds of passage. If they had been flushed, they came in from 
abroad on tired wing, more or less bedraggled, and took ref- 
uge at "The Catfish" a hostelry that started with the best in- 
tentions, but fell under the opprobrium of too much skin-fish 
on the table d'hote, a pabulum interdicted by the old Jewish 
economy, nor enthusiastically popular with the Gentile as a 
daily ration, and for that reason this particular travelers' rest 
suffered martyrdom all its days. "The Catfish" did not shelter 
the game birds, however ; they stepped softly with gum-shoe 
footfall into the dove-cote farther up the hill. The Mysterious 
Stranger took care of them, and when the pursuit had lost the 
trail and the sky seemed propitious, the rascal sallied forth 
again, and the Mysterious Stranger in dandy attire went with 
him. The guests at the Pioneer House and the man-about-town 
noted the absence. These pilgrimages, more or less prolonged, 
occurred at intervals annually. They came to be a feature. 
One day the report came in that the mail-coach had been rob- 
bed. Alert ears kept tab on the absences from the hotel and the 
coincidence of the road agents' activity. Well, the years came 
and went, children were born and the aged passed away, but 
the Mysterious Stranger held steadily on his course like an 
ocean greyhound through fog and storm and ice-floes. On a 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 109 

sunny day in June he arrived in port. The air was balmy. 
The world had been clothed anew in leafy splendor and the 
great river flowed serenely on to the sea as our lives flow on 
into that vaster eternity. The bush was full of happy chil- 
dren, and they plucked the tender, spongy, half-formed leal, 
surcharged with its cardinal tints, and placed it between layers 
of snowy white sheeting, put pressure upon it, and lo, the print 
of the leaf delicately transferred to the cloth ; and as the chil- 
dren shouted their triumphs to each other, they noted the Mys- 
terious Stranger as he passed, tapping the walk with his cane, 
and then the long step and the short step. His leathern pocket- 
book with a fold and a tuck was gorged with bank-notes, and 
the Yellow Banks and all the world around was conscious o? 
a great change going on, involving the Mysterious Stranger 
and all his' neighbors. The Fink & Walker mail-coaches had 
ceased to run; the railroad carried the mails, and the Pioneer 
House was no longer central enough for travelers. These facU 
had hardly been accepted before the Eagle House was open 
for business under the suave welcome of its distinguished 
host. Now came some brief years of prosperity when Julius 
Gifford ran his livery-stable in the rear of Jamison & Moir's 
brick block and Thad Warner hustled his mail and passenger 
hack up and down from the Junction to the county seat. Thai 
remembered the thundering display of the Fink & Walker 
stage when it made the grand entry, and attempted a feeble 
imitation. Thad had a facial trick which he always played 
when he wished to win the admiration of the crowd. He couid 
look cross-eyed at will and he had a distinguished leer. He 
had other crooked accomplishments, but these were his trump 
cards. It was a humiliating drop for the whole town when 
the advance of civilization on the frontier compelled it to ex- 
change the pomp of other days for Clifford's two-horse hack, 
but Thad conceived himself more than equal to the amend. 
Driving up from the Junction with the mail in the evening, on 
reaching the brow of Schuvler Street he assumed his most 

no Recollections <>f I'ionccr and .Inny IJfc. 

powerful strabismus stare, and \vith an artistic flick of the 
\vhip he gave his two old plugs to understand what was re- 
quired of them, and down they came, making the grand cur\e 
at Phelps' corner in approved style. 1 am sure the old-timer 
falls short of what is due to Thad whenever he omits to shed 
a few tears at the remembrance of that performance. 

In due course there was an enlargement of the household 
at the Eagle House by the addition of two sons-in-law. As the 
increase in numbers w r as purely ornamental, there was no in- 
cumbrance in the way of additional revenue. This made hard 
sledding for the Mysterious Stranger. There is hardly any- 
thing in this present evil world that will make a man's face 
blanch whiter than to look into his cash-box and find it empty. 
It was noticed that the old gentleman was less spruce than 
formerly. The broadcloth was getting a little seedy ; the step 
less springy, and Hope sat on his brow less securely. The in- 
exorable years will bind the best of us hard and fast. In the 
early morning of a day long gone the early riser went down 
to the river shore as usual. The fresh morning air cleared his 
brain and his heart, and there was something like the finger 
of Fate in the mighty river that rolled ever in that one direc- 
tion in which we all are going, and a voice seemed to say. "That 
stream cannot turn back upon its course, nor can you return 
and make good the \vasted years." The town breakfasted as 
usual, and in the interval of going and returning from the 
morning meal the "jimmy" had been at work and forced an 
entrance to Phelps' Bank. The safe had been wrecked and 
the contents taken all in a moment's time, and silence reigned. 
As the rising sun burst upon the streets he who kept the keys 
returned to the scene of his life-long labors to find the evidence 
of the burglary the forced entrance, the confusion within, the 
prints of feet without. The first thing we do in a case of this 
kind is to stare in unbelief. Then one or two neighbors come 
along, and we point to the havoc, and we explain that when we 
went to breakfast all was as usual. In a few minutes the town 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. in 

awoke to what had been done, and the singular thing about 
it all was that while. few glimpses, or none, were had of fig- 
ures going or coming, the mass of the people had but one 
opinion as to the idenity of the robbers, but all was serene at 
the Eagle House. The old Mysterious Stranger was there, 
supervising the first meal of the day. The household seemed 
intact. If there were any discrepancies, they were not noticed 
at the moment. As the people canvassed the situation the ex- 
citement increased. After some consideration, the crowd of 
citizens as if by common impulse went to the Eagle House. T 
was in the crowd, along with all the boys in town, and I stood 
at the head of the cellar-way when Frank A. Dallam, of the 
Plaindealer, led the searching party, thrust his hand into a hole 
in the cellar wall and brought forth a double handful of paper 
money. There was a shout of exultation, not so much over 
the recovery of the money, but at everybody's "I told you so." 
The additions to the family by marriage went over the road. 
The Mysterious Stranger, who formulated the scheme of rob- 
bery, and enticed the willing tools to do his bidding well, the 
gold-headed cane thumped the walk as in the past, followed 
by the long step and the short step. 



On a dark and stormy night in recent years a physician, 
returning from a midnight professional call in the country, 
caught a glimpse of a moving taper through the windows ot 
the Eagle House, when it was unoccupied, in its uncanny, dis- 
credited old age. Having left his conveyance at the livery, 
on his way up town his curiosity awoke on passing in front 
of the deserted hotel, and he determined to go in and quietly 
survey the premises. Taking a station at the window through 
which he had seen the light, he silently awaited developments. 
He had no better company at first than a mouse gnawing in 
the wainsconting or an occasional rat scurrying along the dark 
passages. At a moment when he was not looking directly 
through the window into the interior of the building, he caught 
a glimpse of a dim tongue-like flame (a mere wisp of light) 
as it quickly passed out of view, going from one passage-way 
into another, and along with it a slight noise which he could 
not make out. Putting his ear to a small opening in the cor- 
ner of the windowpane where a bit of glass an inch square 
had fallen out, he listened with an awakened interest. He 
was rewarded in a few moments by a slight noise, scarcely 
audible, like the thump of a cane on the floor,' tapping at reg- 
ular intervals, accompanied by the mere whisper of a foot- 
fall, a hesitating, regular, but soft footfall, as of a long step 
and a short step. In a moment :t seemed to be descending a. 
stairway. The doctor stood with his back to the outside cel- 
lar-way, which stood wide open, dismal and damp. The foot- 
steps seemed to be coming nearer in that direction and he 
crouched and peered down into the cellar, a part of the in- 
terior of which at intervals, by the glow of intermittent light- 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 113 

ning, he could see the whole, in fact, of one side of the wall. 
He could hear the gentle tap of the cane and the footfalls as 
they reached the bottom of the stairs. The doctor, being a 
man of iron nerve, was not in the least disconcerted, and re- 
lated this incident afterward in the assured, easy way char- 
acteristic of him. The invisible Presence then strode across 
the cellar floor, diagonally, to a small, irregular hole in the 
wall in full view of the silent visitor on the outside. The 
taper cast a pale, peculiar light and moved unsteadily about 
as if held in an invisible hand, while a real hand (pale and 
finely formed) reached into the hole in the wall, withdrew, 
and here a large loose stone under the doctor's foot rolled 
and fell with a crash into the cellar. Instantly the Presence 
disappeared, and the doctor withdrew, determined to investi- 
gate later on. 

Ghosts are supposed to stand their ground, but this one 
cut sticks for the happy hunting-grounds, breaking all rule-; 
for good behavior, al! records for speed, and I fear will seri- 
ously impair the confidence of my reader in this and all other 
ghosts. The details of this well -accredited experience were 
never related to mere than one person. The doctor, ordinarily 
uncommunicative, was particularly so on a matter which hLi 
senses could not readily credit. To one close friend, however, 
the doctor, before his death, gave the minute phases in full OT 
this extraordinary occurrence, and discussed in a way peculiar- 
ly his own his beliefs respecting the gulf which marks the 
boundary of another world than ours, and the probabilities 
of an interchange therewith. On two occasions subsequently, 
months intervening, the doctor verified the main features of 
his first noctuinal visit to the deserted caravansary. During 
the first of the last two visits, on a night of arctic cold and 
darkness, he saw the taper in the old office of the hotel in a 
state of strange agitation. The light, as before, seemed to be 
carried f>bout by an unseen hand and the movements of the 
pantomime seemed to answer plainly . to an ungoverned pas- 

ii4 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

sion. It. would swoop down at limes as if in a great rage- 
then trembJe as if in a paroxysm of anger; the drawers of 
the desk would open and shut with a slam-like movement, and 
yet thov made no uoise. The lid of the old-fashioned desk 
lifted like the jaws of Leviathan and closed with an apparent 
snap, bnt there v;as only silence, and no other visible move- 
ment except that of the little taprr. In a moment the noise 
of the cane passed through the doorway into the passage, tap- 
ping quickly along in company with the long step and the 
short step. On a Christmas night, for the last time, the taper 
was seen at the head of the long dining-room table. In the 
darkness, relieved by the dim rays of the quarter-moon, it was 
seen apparently in the hands of one doing the honors. It 
seemed to be bestowing the compliments of the season upon 
the invisible guests seated to grace the holiday occasion. The 
taper raised high and bowed low. as if mine host interlarded 
'his speech with the good cheer and pungent raillery with 
which the year's chief est festival is usually adorned. At times 
one might suppose the company to have broken out in con- 
tinuous quavers and semi-quavers of laughter, the taper cut 
such curious antics, as it passed with measured pauses down 
one side of the festal board and up along the other side. Ar- 
riving at the head of the table once more, the little flame made 
three grand flourishes, from which one might suppose the 
Mysterious Stranger delivered his valedictory; reviewed his 
three-score years and ten upon this earth, his meteoric suc- 
cesses, his humiliations, and the vanity of it all ! 



During my school-days at Monmoutb I made an overland 
trip with Robert Wilson McClaughry, a well-known fellow- 
student, now a distinguished authority on penology and war- 
den of the Government Prison at Fort Leavenworth, whose 
fame is founded on exhaustive study, and a career of many 
years of supervisory control of some of the great prisons and 
reformatory institutions of our country. The journey was 
made in a single-rig livery conveyance of the subdued pattern 
of those days. Mack called the horse "Bones," which was 
illumkiatingly descriptive, if not elegant. The steed was tall 
and his ribs shone resplendent: peace to his ashes, for he must 
have died a long time ago. Our destination was* Fountain 
Greea, in Hancock County. I am sure it was a poet that 
named that hamlet; anyway we were going there if "Bones" 
and good fortune could help us out in a bad job. In the old days 
that are not forgotten the flat prairies of our dear old "Sucker" 
State were in a condition of chronic moisture, and when a 
lane was forced on a community and the traveler could not 
muster courage to throw his neighbor's fence down and drive 
over the corn crop, that portion of the interurban subway be- 
came anywhere from one foot deep to a bottomless bog. Well, 
the brace of travelers were not responsible for the state of 
the Union, nor for the condition of the roads of the common- 
wealth, so we made bold and drove gleefully south over the 
level prairie until we came upon the kind of obstruction noted 
in the few cautious words just set down. At this point we 
made a pause; then the travelers glanced naively at each 
other : then at the landscape ; then at "Bones." I suppose the 

n6 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

instant before a Jap commits hari-kiri upon his honorable per- 
son for he professes great contempt for this mortal existence 
he is just as happy as he ever was in his life. I suppose also, 
when one jumps from a spring-board for the bottom of the 
Colorado Canyon two miles below, that he is as serenely com- 
fortable at the precise second in advance of his pre-determined 
leap as one ever could be here below. It certainly is after, 
and not before, a Frenchman "sneezes in the basket" that he 

feels "the slings and arrows 
of outrageous fortune." So 
here, looking ahead upon 
the long stretch of liquid 
mud ahead of them, the 
travelers were not in the 
least dismayed ; on the oth- 
er hand, your humble serv- 
ant, who bore aloft the rib- 
bons, proudly said "cluck" 
to "Bones" and advanced 
confidently. We sank a 
foot the first length, the 
second length out we were 
up to the axles, at half of 
"BoNEs"AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BOG the third length "Bones" had 
difficulty getting his feet up out of the stuff muck at the bot- 
tom ; then he laid down flat and rested, out of sight, except the 
half of his neck and head. "Bones" did this respectfully, 
quietly, without disturbing anybody. But he was not ailing, 
and there was a chance for an argument. Mack gave an 
audible gasp and succumbed. By and by a little resolution, 
the size of a pea. began to flutter under his waistcoat, and 
he crawled out onto the rail-fence and cooned along to land 
not so moist and went up to the farmer teaming near by, and 
I could see the pantomime between the two. Mack first stood 
on his toes, bowed his back, pushed his telescopic neck out 
three meters and lifted his hat. The tiller of the soil stood 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 117 

as rigid and unbending as a statue of Patrick Henry. Mack, 
seeing he had failed to make an impression, turned, and with 
desperate eagerness hurled his long arm, barbed with a keen 
index finger, toward "Bones" and his driver. The agricultur- 
ist continued sphinx-like, as though he had stood there for 
four thousand years and meant to stay there for a season 
longer ; whereupon Mack, who was full of resources, thrust 
his windward arm deep down into his spring pajamas. I took 
that for a feint, but before he could turn and give me a grave 
\vink that farmer had unhitched from his wagon, backed 
his team up to the disabled vehicle far out from shore and 
"yanked" it from the jaws of Erebus, while the driver sat on 
the box triumphant as it emerged. The travelers contemplated 
"Bones" in silence for some minutes. Then one said to the 
other, "Tie is richly embossed and I think we had better have 
him baked and hand-painted, and return him to the livery- 
man as a 'shef-duver.' " 

We took dinner with Mr. Eldridge, of Roseville, not with- 
out some apprehension as to the appearance of our entourage 
as we drove within the porte-cochere. We greeted our host 
meekly as he glanced at "Bones" and observed the evidences 
of the desperate efforts we had made to clean him off with 
cobs and sundry other aids we found along the road, and 
after the noon hour, as we drove away, our courteous host 
seemed to smile in an unwonted manner as we trotted off 
down the lane. Our stepper had been refreshed with a good 
dinner and was winsomely blithe and graceful, barring the 
mud on his sides, on the harness and on the vehicle, which 
did not seem to impede his movements as we drove south- 
ward toward the next frog-pond, which we reached in due 
time, and on the verge of which Mack deserted his compan- 
ion, and took to the fence again to observe the behavior of 
"Bones" and his driver across the worst place we had yet 
struck. A farmer plowing in the field adjacent was also in- 
terested in the passage, and craned his neck over the plow, 
bent on not missing any part of the show as he saw "Bones" 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

cautiously descend into the abyss and the driver lay on the 
whip at the supreme moment. At the bottom of the bog 
"Hones" declared himself, and walked out of the harness and 
away from the jaunting-car onto dry land, leaving the driver 
with a piece of the lines in his hands. Mack from his perch 
on the fence and the plowman in his furrow exchanged wire- 
less messages, while "Moses" sat speechless down where the 
bulrushes grow. Mack dubbed me "Moses" on the journey, 

on account of my superior 
wisdom and meekness, char- 
acte ristics which. I am 
pleased to acknowledge, 
adhere to me to this day. 
Henceforth the skies re- 
lented, the roads improved, 
and we passed through a 
series of landscapes not 
surpassed in the Garden 
State, nor matched outside 
of it. On our return trip 
we bore away northwest 
and reached the Mississippi 

River at the Yellow Banks. 

MOSES IN THE BULLRUSHES. Here we should have turned 

due east on the old stage road to Monmouth, but the bridges 
were gone, and we drove north to Rollings worth's; but the 
storm god shook his head, and we continued north to Coghill's, 
where the bridge was also gone, and under grim necessity poor 
"Bones" dragged his weary way far north into Mercer Coun- 
ty, where we found lodging at the hospitable farm-house of 
Mr. Duncan. From this point we drove nearly due south, 
finding a crossing near Little York. On our last day out we 
came upon Monmouth in the happy possession of her over- 
grown cottonwood tree and fathomless mud-hole in the north- 
west corner of the public square, which were her chief orna- 
ments in ante-bellum davs. 



The Civil War of 1861-65 was one of the stepping-stones 
of the ages ; like the expulsion from the Garden ; the Exodus ; 
the fall of Babylon ; the civilization of Greece ; the fall of 
Rome; the crucifixion of Christ; the Crusades; the discovery 
of America; the overthrow of British tyranny by the thirteen 
Colonies. It was a fight to hold what the race had already 
won of civil liberty a free conscience and a free right arm. 
With the crisis came the man our great political prophet; 
born in due time, among the lowly, in deepest poverty. There 
was no beauty that we should desire him. We were faithless 
and unbelieving. "Can any good come out of Nazareth ?" "Is 
not this the carpenter's son?" "Whence getteth he this 
wisdom?" Derided, scorned, hated, threatened, murdered! 
Anointed of God, bearing His unmistakable image in his soul, 
and confessed of just men, willing to stand for the truth at 
the cost of blood and treasure. And so it came to pass that 
he was made President of the United States, and wrought a 
work which has transfigured the man for all time. 

A root out of dry ground, he is still an enigma and an 
astonishment to many; incomprehensible now in this age of 
graft and colossal selfishness as he was to the great men of 
his own generation, who assumed superiority over him. A 
matchless pilot he, to the consternation of the shallow pre- 
tenders in high places. He had none of the pride of life. The 
obscurity of his birth weighed upon him down to his entering 
the White House. It was only then that he was emancipated. 
"I am not fit for the Presidency/' he wrote to his friends. 


120 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

At the opening of the senatorial joint discussion, he said: 
Twenty-two years ago Judge Douglas and I became ac- 
quainted. We were both young then he a trifle younger than 
I. Even then we were both ambitious I perhaps quite as 
much so as he. With me the race of ambition has been a fail- 
ure a flat failure; with him it has been one of splendid suc- 
cess. His name fills the nation, and it is not unknown even in 
foreign lands. I affect no contempt for the high eminence he 
has reached. I would rather stand upon that eminence than 
wear the richest crown that ever pressed a monarch's brow." 

The one glorious and glorifying fact concerning Mary 
Todd, a fact that should hallow her memory to all future gen- 
erations despite her weaknesses and follies, is that she be- 
lieved from the first, implicitly, with a faith rock-ribbed and 
unshakable, in the inherent greatness of her husband. "Doug- 
las is nothing but a scrubby little Vermont Yankee, not to be 
compared with Lincoln," said Mary. The woman's intuition 
surpassed the wisdom of the great. 

During my school-days at Monmouth there were no hard- 
and-fast contracts with literary bureaus to secure popular lect- 
ures on diverse current themes. Some of the distinguished 
men of the period were at our service, among them Horace 
Mann, George D. Prentice, Dr. Haven, and Horace Greeley. 
The literary societies of the college were the intermediary for 
providing this mental pabulum, and we negotiated with the 
principals direct at an average cost of $50.00 each. It fell to 
my lot to secure the services of some of these men to see 
that they were properly domiciled during their brief stay 
among us and that the leading professional men of the town 
had an opportunity to meet them. Horace Greeley was the 
most interesting figure that appeared on our platform. He 
was the man behind the anti-slavery guns during the years 
leading up to the Civil War. He had the conscience and the 
ear of the nation as no other had. The people were eager to 
see and hear him. His eccentricities no less than his great 
ability contributed to this curiosity. Since the foundation of 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 121 

our Government we have had only two (not more) great 
journalists in this country Benjamin Franklin and Horace 
Greeley. This was my thought when a young man and at the 
close of half a century I am still of that opinion. These two 
men in intellectual force surpassed a thousand, and they will 
he remembered when ten thousand bright editorial pens are 
forgotten. It is true that the founder of the Tribune was 
brought low during the Civil War and had to dip his colors 
to the Great Commoner in the White House, but he might 
have done that and still easily be the one great editorial light 
to lead a nation to rid itself of a damning stain. 

Benjamin Franklin was not a pattern in morals for his 
generation and Horace Greeley had his limitations ; but when 
that honored memory is menaced, a mighty throng of the 
chivalrous and impartial stands ever ready for its defense. Mr. 
Greeley arrived in Monmouth, according to agreement, on the 
early morning train. I was late in getting down to meet him. 
The depot was a dirty little dry-goods box, the reserved space 
fully occupied by a "cannon" soft-coal stove, by the side of 
which stood the solitary figure of the great editor, wrapped in 
an enormous buffalo great-coat, his well-remembered face and 
full dome of thought o'ertopped by a broad-brimmed Quaker 
hat of the precise pattern of William Penn's own. I con- 
cealed my amazement as well as I was able, and found him 
most cordial and companionable. I saw him comfortably 
quartered at the old Baldwin House. On assisting him to 
divest himself of his wooly buffalo investment, we uncovered 
the famous old "drab overcoat" which had become, on account 
of its age and constant daily service, a piece of garmenture 
subject to national comment. At the last, or first, however, 
I found the old gentleman in conventional evening attire as 
good as the best, barring his neck-tie a wandering accessory 
to his toilet, which Elizabeth Cady Stanton, on one occasion, 
had to bring into control on short notice as a distinguished 
company was on the point of passing in to dine. At the solic- 

122 Recollections of I'ionecr and Army Life. 

itation of the local photographer, I had agreed to entice Mr. 
Greeley over to the sky-light for his picture. This he good- 
naturedly assented to, and after breakfast and other prelimi- 
naries were out of the way, I sallied forth with my peculiar 
charge in the ancient drab envelop and Quaker hat. ,Mr. 
Greeley had a certain inequality of carriage as a birthright, 
a lameness, or shuffling gait, which made him appear to dis- 
advantage as he made his way through the town, and it fol- 
lowed that we had all the idlers and street Arabs at our heels. 
They lay in ambush while we were occupied in the photo- 
graph gallery, but at our reappearance upon the street they 
fell in again like Falstaffs army, receiving recruits moment- 
arily, so that by the time we had got around to the Atlas 
office we had a large convoy. The local newspaper office oc- 
cupied another dry-goods box under the old cottonwood tree 
at the northwest corner of the public square. At this point 
the motley crowd, narrowly watching our distinguished vis- 
itor's every change of direction, and probably anticipating our 
objective, overflowed the local editor's sanctum in advance, so 
that I had difficulty in getting the two men together. 

It was Horace Greeley's influence and active personal 
labors, as is well known, that led the convention of 1860 to 
nominate Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency. Little thought 
we, as this singular figure slouched around the public square 
in Monmouth in 1859, of the strange detenni-iing influence 
which was so mightily to effect the history of our Govern- 
ment, and how this personal triumph over William H. Seward 
in the old Wigwam was to be requited by his own complete 
discomfiture at the hands of the man whose elevation to the 
Presidency he had so signally aided. Greeley's helplessness 
in his encounter with Abraham Lincoln may be accounted for 
in precisely the same way that other distinguished men whose 
ability equalled that of Greeley discovered their master in the 
man in the White House the failure to comprehend and rely 
upon the consummate pilot in charge of the helm of State 
during the Civil War. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 123 

We are not to kick, therefore, if in being helped in the 
advancement of a great cause, we ourselves should suffer 
humiliation and contumely. Alas, that it should ^be so! His 
great and sensitive heart was broken at the last, and it was a 
hard and stony heart that felt no qualms when that great 
editorial light went out in eclipse. 

George D. Prentice, the biographer and friend of Henry 
Clay, the poet, editorial wit, and paragrapher of considerable 
fame was greeted by a full house. His best verse, written in 
his earlier and better days, will survive the flood of similar 
literature, but the Lyceum platform suffered no loss when he 
retired from it. He was billed for two lectures at Monmouth, 
but he was let off with one appearance at his own request. 
We transferred him to Oquawka for the unemployed even- 
ing, where the receipts, owing to the short notice, barely cov- 
ered the expenses. Prentice, at this time was supplying Rob- 
ert Bonner's New York Weekly Ledger with a quarter col- 
umn, more or less, of paragraphs, wise saws, and otherwise. 
On our way over to Oquawka by rail and hack I had the op- 
portunity of observing how this Ledger work was done. He 
carried a volume of "Quotations" in his hand, from which he 
would make a selection, transfer it to his mental hopper, turn 
the crank, and lo here and lo there something bright and 
new; nothing more or less than old straw threshed over! 
Who was it said, "There is nothing new under the sun"? 



Stephen A. Douglas was well known at the Yellow Banks 
when Henderson was a part of Warren County. My father 
sat on the jury when Douglas was the circuit judge, and his 
charges to the jury, as my father was wont to say, were 
models of force and clearness. At the age of thirteen or 
thereabouts I first heard Douglas in a public address. It was 
during the "Know-nothing" eruption and the gathering took 
place at the north door of the court-house. General Dodge, 
of Burlington, Iowa, introduced the speaker, who presented 
a striking figure as he came forward on the platform. On 
a compact little body, clothed in a black broadcloth, claw- 
hammer suit, sat a remarkable head, surmounted by a shock 
of dark brown hair. It was an Irish mug and he looked like 
an unabridged edition of Admiral Dot. But he was mighty 
in the pulling down of his enemies' strongholds. For con- 
centrated vituperation his denunciation of the political fore- 
runner of A. P. A.-ism has had few equals. His invective did 
not appear in its most significant aspect in the printed page. 
I recall it now as though one of our battle-ships had placed 
one of her twelve-inch shells ten times in succession in the 
same spot on the enemies' water-line. In the course of his 
address he undertook a defense of the repeal of the "Kansas- 
Nebraska Act." It was then that the crowd became restless 
under the interpellations of Gideon Russell, a thoroughly sin- 
cere, courteous, fearless and well-informed citizen on the cur- 
rent political questions of the day. The local anti-slavery cham- 
pion was persistent and sent a shot in at every favorable oppor- 
tunity. The Democrats in the crowd finally got nervous over 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 125 

it, and boldly accused Frank Dallam and Colonel Henderson 
of molding the bullets for Mr. Russell to fire at the speaker. 
At this moment there was a chance for a row. As a boy, 
earnestly partisan, and watching the corners, I could see that 
there was an undercurrent of deep feeling in the crowd. This 
was made plain in various ways ; as for Colonel Henderson, 
he was shaking like an aspen with anger and excitement. 
Douglas could on occasion make the amende honorable in a 
very neat way, and so, here and now. oil was poured on the 
troubled waters; the crowd quieted down, and the meeting 
dispersed in an amiable mood. Afterward, I heard Douglas 
on the public square in Monmouth. He had grown stouter; 
his voice, always strong, now seemed at times Stentorian as 
he rolled off his periods. His deliberation was such that his 
words seemed hyphenated, and too the syllables, and he be- 
came so absorbed in his theme that he was oblivious of his 
handkerchief and other trifles till the foam gathered in the 
corners of his mouth, not an object specially attractive. I was 
at school at the time, and having a good voice myself, I used 
often to amuse my confreres by imitating Douglas' peculiar 
bull-dog notes and manner. I usually began with the Senator's 
opening sentence in his Monmouth speech : "Fellow-citizens- 
of - old - Warren ! We - have - come-together - to-dis-cuss-the- 
'grea:t-questions-which-are-now-ag-i-ta-ting - the-country-f rom - 
cen-ter-to-cir-cum-f er-ence !" 

His stump speeches were composed largely of pure soph- 
istry and bluff, but he will be remembered for his sturdy, 
all-around, large patriotism. If Great Britain put up a bluff 
against us, Douglas was sure to call it on the floor of the 
Senate. He was a thoroughbred American, and that meant his 
country an indissoluble Union first, last and forever. I 
salute his memory. 

The answering notes of preparation for the Lincoln- 
Douglas senatorial campaign were beginning to be heard 
throughout the State; discussion was rife, and voters were 
stirred as never before. As the summer of 1858 wore along 

126 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

these giants in the political arena came together on the same 
platform at carefully selected points in congressional districts 
supposed to be coigns of vantage, but the whole country stood 
in the attitude of attention and made careful notes on the 
progress of the debate. The passing years have rendered 
judgment from which there is no appeal on these two historic 
characters and the results of this campaign, and when the un- 
believer questions the veteran who "lags superfluous on the 
stage," the book is pointed out, with the injunction: "There 
is the history of your country; read it." 

On the date fixed for the joint discussion I made one of 
an immense delegation from Henderson and Warren counties 
and boarded a train for Galesburg to witness the meeting of 
the gladiators at that place. The day was fair and hot and 
the multiplied thousands who came by train and private con- 
veyance stirred the dust in the streets until it was suffocating. 
Douglas was detained at a hotel near the depot during the 
forenoon by a political side-show. An ambitious student from 
Lombard University, encouraged by his party allies, addressed 
the Senator in a speech of absurd buncombe and presented 
him with a small flag. After the noon hour, the immense crowd 
assembled on the Knox College campus, the platform for the 
speakers, the reporters and others having been erected against 
the wall of the old auditorium on the south side. Here with 
their backs against the wall of the old college as near as 
either of them ever got to a college the tribunes of the peo- 
ple were at bay, and had. as it were, to fight for their lives. 

As a young auditor and a strong partisan, it is easy for 
me to exaggerate the scene presented to my highly wrought 
nerves on that day ; and still, now. looking back upon it after 
the lapse of three and fifty years, through the color reflected 
by the blood-red shield of Mars, am I not justified in record- 
ing that the occasion was a memorable one, so full of sup- 
pressed feeling, as the tall figure of our great political prophet 
advanced to protest against the brazen impertinences of the 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 127 

chief Northern apologist for the extension of slavery? Aleck 
Findley, an intelligent farmer of our county, stood in the 
dense crowd in front of me, and when Lincoln in a few clear- 
cut sentences laid bare the moral stain of slavery -upon the 
race and its depressing effect upon the heritage won by our 
fathers, which we wished to preserve in its entirety, he could 
not restrain his emotion "Isn't that grand!" Douglas opened 
the discussion in a speech of one hour; Lincoln replied, oc- 
cupying an hour and a half ; and Douglas closed with a resume 
of thirty minutes, during which he presented a figure which 
could not be forgotten. Taking exception to Lincoln's pointed 
arraignment, Douglas presented a spectacle for men and an- 
gels as his shock of hair flared like that of an enraged lion, 
and, as usual, his explosions of wrath and power of denuncia- 
tion were the sensations of the day. During this forensic dis- 
play Lincoln sat with his back half turned to the audience, 
leaning on his hand, braced by his arm akimbo; at times run- 
ning his fingers through his hair until it stood straight up, the 
gnarled face upturned, the kindly, beaming, penetrating eyes 
looking straight into the face of his roaring antagonist ! 

Apart from the joint discussions, both speakers continued 
the canvass of the State, and including all other points, Lin- 
coln spoke in the old Military Tract at Dallas, Oquawka and 
Monmouth. His speech at the latter place, where I was at 
school, was delivered under conditions in striking contrast to 
the bright, sunny day on which Douglas appeared there. From 
first to last the two men appear in striking contrast: The 
one was tall ; the other short. The one deferential ; the other 
sufficient unto himself, and deferred to none. The one studied 
carefully his ground, then moved with the force of an aval- 
anche ; the other with supreme audacity forced the fight from 
start to finish. The one seemingly never quite ready ; the 
other alert and never surprised. The one inscrutable in his 
patience ami \\-ariness, waiting his opportunity; the other, with 
savage directness, did not scruple to tear down the most sacred 

128 Recollections of Pioneer and Anny Life. 

barriers. The one composite, revelling in the warmth of his 
companionships, passing easily to the consideration of the 
gravest questions that concern our race ; the other destitute 
of humor, selfish in his aims, basking in the plaudits of the 
groundlings. The one loved his home and the child at his 
knee ; the other almost unconscious of the domestic hearth. 
The one lived, as it were, under the constant surveillance of 
the Eye that slumbers not nor sleeps; the other oblivious to 
the unseen world so close at hand. The one took counsel of 
the prophets of old ; the other was never known to open the 
Book, nor to care concerning its contents. The one abstemi- 
ous, clean, not an habitue' of the bar-room, and shrank instinct- 
ively from its odorous powers as a soul- and body-wrecker. 
The other drank whiskey, and leaned heavily on men given 
to their potations. Both have disappeared from the horizon 
of mortal ken the souls hungering for liberty in every clime, 
of whom the world is not worthy, with upturned, wistful 
faces, looking yearningly after the great Emancipator depart- 
ed; the other forgotten, except as his memory is preserved 
by association with his great rival ! Yes ; even the weather 
divided upon these two men. The skies were dissolving when 
Lincoln arrived in Monmouth ; the crepe was on Nature's 
door, and the mourners were going about the streets under 
umbrellas. But this was a slight affliction compared to the 
prolonged address of welcome inflicted upon the patient crowd 
standing in the rain through it all ! The local orator was a 
distinguished gentleman from somewhere in the south end 
of the county. This was the opportunity of a lifetime, and he 
enjoyed it to the full. The meeting was held in the vicinity 
of a lumber-yard, where a water-proof shed had been erected 
for the great Commoner's accommodation. It took our neigh- 
bor half an hour to introduce Mr. Lincoln. The work was 
done after the manner of some of the old-time preachers of 
the period, who took the Lord to one side, as was their wont, 
and told Him all about Himself; where He was born, and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 129 

when, and the circumstances incident thereto, and what He had 
been doing these six thousand years : where he had failed in 
his calling, the remedy he had applied for his mistakes, how 
things were going now since he had introduced his reforms, 
what rebates he had abolished, the amount in dollars and cents 
of the graft he had exposed, the number of the big thieves 
he had locked up, and on and on, extending particulars, until 
he had thoroughly coached him in the whole of his biography. 
And now to turn the switch after the gentleman had equip- 
ped the speaker with a good running knowledge of himself 
and fully posted the crowd as to the importance and extent 
of his own superior knowledge and information, he told Mr. 
Lincoln that it was his turn. 

In the meantime how poor old Mother Nature did flood 
the earth with her tears ! And by the time the entire crowd 
had found a seat on the lumber-pile, and under the protection 
of their umbrellas had pulled off their boots and emptied a 
quart of water out of each one, the speaker had finished, and 
we all went home. 



Monmouth College was opened for the reception of stu- 
dents in September, 1856, in an old frame school-house of 
one room, which stood on ground near the Y. M. C. A. build- 
ing. Provision had been made for a college building, of which 
the school took possession the next year. The president-elect, 
David A. Wallace, did not take charge of the school at once. 
He was an attractive, interesting man at the time of his ad- 
vent on the streets of Monmouth, within a twelvemonth of the 
opening, at the age of thirty-five or thereabouts. His intellect- 
ual qualifications were considerable. He possessed good exec- 
utive talents and marked energy. I have heard him deliver 
some very able discourses, but as a rule his sermons, while ac- 
companied by more or less forensic display, were not above the 
average. He had his limitations, but he must be credited with 
a laborious life-work, self-denying, great and enduring. He 
had affable, pleasing manners, and I am sure he will be held in 
grateful remembrance by the early friends (alumni and their 
descendants) of what has come to be a highly creditable and 
flourishing school. It is to be hoped that some glad day the 
college will come into the possession of an endowment that 
will place it beyond apprehension as to its financial support ; 
then it will follow as a matter of course that a fund will be 
raised and expended in the erection on the campus of a bronze 
statue of its first president. My elder brother, Porter, and I 
were among the first students in attendance at the opening 
of the school. My father was a staunch friend of the under- 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 131 

taking, a member of the first board of trustees, and a liberal 

In the year 1857 we occupied a room at the hospitable 
home of James G. Aladden, Esq., on East Broadway, and on 
a sunny day in the autumn, between the hours of one and 
two o'clock P. M V as was my custom, I Was sauntering along 
the street toward the college with my books under my arm 
to attend the afternoon recitations. On approaching the 
old Baldwin House, Mrs. William Grant, who lived across the 
street, came running in an excited manner toward the hotel. 
As I came up to the first or ladies' entrance old Mr. Fleming 
stood at the foot of the stairway leading to the second story, 
shouting in a crazed way that they (not saying who) had kill- 
ed his sons, and demanding help. His face was bleeding, and 
the white hairs of age aroused my sympathy. The crowu had 
not yet gathered, and there were only a very few people about, 
and these few were standing dazed at the sudden shedding of 
blood, uncertain what to do. A step or two and I stood in 
the f r6nt doorway of the office, and in the' center of the room, 
stretched at full length on the floor, lay the body of Henry 
Fleming, the glassy eyes wide open, staring at the ceiling. 
In a room up stairs his brother lay dead. A stalwart young 
carpenter, thirty years of age, William Crozier by name, was 
the author of this double homicide. The Flemings (father 
and two sons) had brought pressure to bear upon Crozier and 
compelled him to meet them for a private interview at the 
hotel. The Flemings were armed and brought with them a 
written statement compromising Crozier and Miss Alice Flem- 
ing, an attractive young lady of hitherto unblemished reputa- 
tion, the eldest of three daughters of the Fleming family. 
The Flemings demanded Crozier 's signature to the paper, 
which they had placed before him. On his refusal the two 
young Flemings (both married men) sprang upon Crozier as 
he sat in his chair, and in the struggle which ensued he man- 
aged to get a large dirk knife from his pocket, with which he 

172 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

cut both men to the heart. They died almost instantly. Henry 
Fleming, after being cut, ran down the stairway into the hotel 
office and fell a corpse in the center of the room as aforesaid. 
His brother sank down a corpse in the room where he was 
struck. A young brother of Crozier's met the elder Fleming 
in the hallway upstairs and struck him in the face, and thus 
-ended this bloody tragedy, the whole of which was consum- 
mated in less time than it has taken to write these words. The 
few people at hand at the moment were stunned. The Flem- 
ing family suffered great loss, and Warren County stands 
conspicuous with the name of Crozier written in blood upon 
her annals ; a name not to be pronounced in the home which 
shelters the sacred honor of a Christian household. He be- 
trayed the innocent one, and in defense of that crime commit- 
ted a double murder for which there was no extenuation, and 
lie should have forfeited his life on a limb of the first tree at 
hand ! I do not believe there is another instance in the his 
tory of our country where a family and the majesty of the 
law suffered such an enormity at the hands of one man, and 
the crime-laden scoundrel anointed with an acquittal and given 
"his liberty ! The old church of which he was a member began 
forthwith to manufacture public sentiment in his favor, and 
some young men of the town secured a cheap notoriety by 
supplying the prisoner with something better than a convict's 
ration and sharing his bed in the old county jail. It is a fair 
question whether, in the event of their own household having 
suffered a like invasion, these young men would have hesitated 
to advertise their shame by lying-in with the ravisher. One 
of these addle-pated gentry I believe served a term subsequent- 
ly as a member of the State Leg'slatur^ and rounded out his 
career as a statesman by selling second-hand sewing machines. 
The truth in this instance may be discerned at the bottom of 
the well. The community where this crime was accomplished 
"had not been so fortunate up to that time as to come into 
possession of a hero. In Crozier they discovered this "great 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 133 

awakening l.gnt," and they made the most of it. I do not 
know at whose instigation or permission, but the finishing 
touches were placed on this uncanny business by the photog- 
rapher who secured a negative of the remains of the brothers 
resting together on the bier ready for burial, and the picture 
gallery became the subject of curious inquiry on the part of 
the groundlings who repaired thither in numbers to gratify a 
morbid curiosity. It is a pity that Crozier could not have sup- 
plied the "high light" to this post-mortem finale by standing 
on the public square and selling his own negatives, rather 
than undertake a retreat to Texas. 

It was on a dark, misty day that the long funeral train 
passed like a phantom across the high tableland to the cem- 
etery, as the road ran in those days. As I stood at my window 
and caught a glimpse of the procession the words of Ossian 
seemed to fit in well : "The mist is on the hills ; the blast of 
the north is on the plains ; and the traveler shrinks in the midst 
of his journey!" 

During my attendance at the school "bleeding Kansas" 
was the principal theme of public controversy. Politicians 
wrangled over it; street toughs fought over it; "advanced" 
preachers bloviated about it ; and the Eccrittean Society, of 
which I was president during a port of this period, went into 
convulsions trying to reconcile the antagonisms growing out 
of it. If, in the regular weekly debates, we sounded the depths 
of theology, astrology, psychology or any other subject which 
we knew nothing about, the astute disputants uniformly wound 
up with a peroration on "bleeding Kansas," in which she was 
made to bleed afresh, at every pore, copiously. Out in Kansas. 
John Brown, of Osawatomie, was the heavy villian. The 
Eccrittean Society, not be outdone in mixed vaudeville, ex- 
ploited a John Brown also. At a memorable meeting of the 
society during the winter of 1858-59 we suddenly found our- 
selves in the throes of revolution, with John Brown in the 
leading role as a Jacobin. The "house" came to a division, in 

134 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

which Brown "got it in the neck." In a paroxysm of wrath 
he seceded went across the hall to the Philos and they shut 
him out with a .blackball. Thereupon "bleeding Kansas," out 
of sympathy, discharged gore more profusely than before. Bob 
Diehl led the Brown forces. Bob appeared on the floor at the 
next regular meeting with a manuscript speech seven yards 
long. His roach, nicely slicked, stood vertically in the most 
menacing way. The benches weie full. Bob was a veteran 
orator (the equal of Dad Harris), and the boldest held his' 
breath to catch the opening sentences. Bob was grave even to 
sadness. He took a hitch in his suspender and addressed the 
chair in his best lord marquis manner. The chair responded 
with a distant random rap of the gavel that made the eyeballs 
of the members "about face." The house came to order and 
Bob opened artfully. He said or read that he purposed 
to "touch lightly upon the great questions which now made 
the earth tremble exultingly." At this point the members look- 
ed suspiciously at Bob's manuscript, which hung down and 
extended in manifold waves along the floor like a queen's 
train. I would be pleased to give a stenographic report of 
Bob's speech right here, but the necessary space would exceed 
that required for "Atmosphere Bill's" speech on Free Silver, 
and prudence admonishes a recoil. To explain, however. 
Bob's speech was in defense of the Brown family generally, 
and among other things he declared with extreme emphasis 
that nothing had occurred in "bleeding Kansas" to compare 
with the revolting abasement which our own illustrious scion of 
the tribe of red-heads had suffered at the hands of his enemies. 
The upshot of it all was that, in the absence of the lord chan- 
cellor and his lieutenants, on a subsequent night, "our Brown" 
sneaked back into the fold, and when we heard of it we ex- 
changed a casual glance, pulled a Virginia stoga and took a 



During the year 1859 ^ e political parties throughout the 
country were organizing the contest for the nominations for 
the Presidency to be made in the national conventions the fol- 
lowing year, the dramatic features whereof stirred the dark- 
est passions of partisans for years, and were destined to affect 
the organic structure of the Government itself for all time. 
The hopes of the conservative anti-slavery party were cen- 
tered in William H. Seward, although strong side-lights re- 
vealed figures of other notable men. In due time Seward 
made a direct bid for the vote of the Western States and I 
joined the multitude which packed the trains going to Chi- 
cago to hear him. The city had less than 200,000 population ; 
it laid low on the flat prairie, the wooden sidewalks conspicu- 
ous for their inequalities. It was essentially a wooden town, 
the same that went up in flames twelve years later. The term- 
inals of the "Q" railroad were of the crudest description, and 
our train stood on the open prairie with a dozen other long 
passenger trains of that and converging roads for two hours, 
waiting turns to get into the city and unload. Seward's 
Northwestern welcome was an open-air meeting, for the 
crowd was beyond the capacity of any dozen auditoriums of 
that day. "Long John" Wentworth was the mayor of the city, 
and introduced the senator, who was welcomed by the pro- 
longed cheers of the people, who were massed in the streets 
for blocks in the vicinity of the speaker's platform. The lit- 
tle "great man" was visible only to the few, and could be heard 
only by the select few in his immediate vicinity. He made 
one of the great orations of his life, as the people discov- 


136 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

ered after they had returned home and read it; but Seward, 
to be appreciated as an orator, required certain conditions ; an 
enclosure of limited area ; a place to lie down, broadly speak- 
ing; to be exact, something to sit on, or, in default of that, 
something he could cling to with both arms, for he was born 
tired. The Civil War, you remember, would not last longer 
than ninety days, according to the New York senator's reckon- 
ing, because, in the physical sense, that was the limit of his 

In May of the year the nominating conventions were held, 
1860, I was on my way to the Western mountains. As we 
wound along westward, across the broad, lonely tablelands of 
western Iowa, where the bleaching bones of the recently ex- 
terminated buffalo were still lying plentifully broadcast, the 
approaching Republican Convention at the "Wigwam" in Chi- 
cago became the subject of conversation between myself and 
my companion, James Shoemaker, who declared stoutly and 
conclusively (in his own estimation) that Abraham Lincoln 
would be the nominee. I shared in the general belief that 
William H. Seward was the coming man, and I also shared In 
the general surprise, although not in the disappointment, at his 
defeat. The western half of Iowa was very thinly settled; 
the only object of interest which we visited before reaching 
the Missouri River being a Mennonite settlement, where mar- 
riage was barred and property held in common. I recall the 
log dining-room and kitchen with its immense cauldrons where 
the food was cooked. We crossed the "Big Muddy" at Platts- 
mouth. Nebraska, where we met E. H. N. Patterson and D. C. 
Hanna with quartz mills, on their way to Pike's Peak. We 
joined their train, which materially increased the pleasure of 
the journey, for Mr. Patterson had made the trip the year 
previous, and, too, was an Argonaut of '49, and* had printed 
notes of these trips at hand, which gave our bearings from 
day to day. 

At this point I respectfully submit that a memoir of Mr. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 137 

Patterson is due the people of Henderson County from the 
pen of his talented son, now the publisher, in the third gen- 
eration, of the Spectator, one of the oldest county papers in 
the State. Such a memorial volume, with portrait and the 
notes of the California and Pike's Peak journies and the his- 
torical matter available from data left by the grandfather, 
Mr. J. P>. Patterson, would meet with a cordial reception at 
the hands of the people of the county and without doubt would 
be financially profitable. The Historical Association of the 
county would find such a volume an invaluable accession to 
its archives. Neglected local history soon fades into tradition, 
then to doubt, which is another word for denial. Catch the 
record while you can. 

Bayard Taylor at this time was in the flush of his fame 
as a litterateur and traveler, and his published works were 
familiar to me. Before leaving for the West I had the pleas- 
ure of hearing him at Galesburg deliver a descriptive lecture 
on a journey along the Nile valley, which so affected my imagi- 
nation that when we first came in view of the Platte River I 
looked with delight on the distant virgin landscape, the wind- 
ing river, the isolated trees, not unlike the tufted palms of the 
Nile valley, and almost in spite of myself, I found I was look- 
ing through Taylor's glasses upon old Rameses' sand-dunes and 
fertile fields. With a pyramid or two the picture would have 
been complete. I was mounted, riding alone far in advance 
of the train, and, at a moment, Mr. Patterson overtook me 
afoot. T was riding leisurely, and, as he was a genial com- 
panion, we were en rapport at once. He was a cultured gentle- 
man, and 1 cannot recall a happier hour on this journey than 
this present one; the soft, rose-colored atmosphere was en- 
chanting, and our hearts burned within us as we drank to our 
fill the elixir of a perfect spring morning in the last of May. 
There are lost years in our lives ; so long gone and so com- 
pletely forgotten that we cannot identify them; then there are 
other days hours one hour in which we feel that we have 
been supremely blest, and yet nothing has been added to oui 

138 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

stature nor to our bank account ! This was one of my happy 
mornings! That was largely an equestrian journey so far as 
I was personally concerned, and I had a picturesque steed of 
an ashen hue, and its sense of hearing was fully proportioned 
to the equipment which Nature had provided for that neces- 
sary office. Had General Washington, in Crawford's bronze 
group in Capitol Square, Richmond, Virginia, been mounted 
on a thoroughbred such as mine, his dignity would be im- 
paired ; but I believe Julius Caesar had nothing better to ride at 
the head of his victorious legions. My steed had a voice with its 
other accomplishments. One June morning our train took the 
upland trail while I rode out of sight of it on a parallel route, 
at the foot of the marl bluffs, along the river, and had ad- 
vanced some miles when I suddenly found that the ears of 
my steed had assumed a particularly rigid and questioning at- 
titude. I gazed off toward the Pacific Coast and saw in the 
distance two highly illuminated mounted figures advancing 
in my direction gentlemen without hats, with quills in the 
seams of their pantaloons, fringe on their coat-tails, and a 
turkey cockade in their hair, and when the sense of being un- 
armed fully dawned upon me, they seemed about nine feet 
tall, and at the end of each rod in our mutual approach they 
took on at least a foot more in height, until by comparison I 
felt of no consequence whatever. But I made bold with the 
thought that maybe I was increasing in size in their imagina- 
tions also, and I rode on to my doom ! As we met in Nature's 
audience-chamber the old chiefs said "How ! How !" and the 
one nearest to me reached out his brawny hand in welcome. 
My Rosamond circled gracefully out of his reach. Then it 
was my turn to do the grand handsome, and I plunged the 
spurs to the hilt and bore down upon I'empereurs Americaine 
with the glad hand : but Rosamond was coy ; a princess of the 
blood could not courtesy and retreat more faultlessly. Noth- 
ing daunted, I summoned the shades of all my patriotic an- 
cestors, and plunged down into the dust of the arena once 
more with my hospitable right hand extended far out. The 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 139 

old chiefs embraced the opportunity in succession, and with 
a hearty "How! How!" from both sides the brilliant court 
dissolved, assented to with great readiness by Rosamond, who 
lifted up her noble voice, with the echoes of which the vasty 
solitudes rang in a way they never rang before and will never 
ring again. 

Fremont's orchard, and Fort Kearney, O'Fallon's Bluffs, 
and old Fort St. Vrains, of the Hudson's Bay Company, were 
some of the interesting points on this journey, but the trail 
of the Argonauts of '49, still plainly visible in many places, 
affected me in a peculiar manner. I noted with interest where 
they crossed the Platte at the confluence of the North and 
South Forks where some of them lost their lives by drown- 
ing. 1 should wish to approach the palaces of the Eternal 
City by the Via Appia, along the ruts worn by the chariots in 
the solid rock-paved road where Paul went with "this chain" 
to appeal to Caesar. Here, rather than in the shadows of the 
mouldering plinths and blackened shafts, I should feel like 
taking the shoes from off my feet. The footsteps of those 
who have gone before hallow the ground for me ! 

We made our noon halt one blistering hot day in a desert 
region where the prickly pear and other forms of cacti were 
the only visible vegetation. For an hour or more, off in the 
distance south of us, an Indian was in full view stalking an 
antelope. He finally killed it, as I remember, with the bow and 
arrow, dressed it, and came in haste, spitting cotton, and of- 
fered to trade half of the carcass. We gave him a pint of 
sugar in exchange, with which he was delighted. 

In the vicinity of a suspicious cabin, where the pasture 
was rich and plentiful, we made our camp. The small log- 
cabin of one room was occupied by two slouching rascals, who 
had no visible means of support, and Jim, who had an uneasy 
feeling concerning them, had them under surveillance. He 
paid them a visit and came back to camp confirmed as to the 
character of the squatters; but, notwithstanding, none of us 
were considerate enough to stand watch during the night. We 

140 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

paid the usual penalty. The next morning our best horse 
(picketed out) was missing. Jim had plenty of nerve, and 
during breakfast fixed upon a plan for the recovery of the 
stolen horse. He took a lunch and disappeared over the hills 
with the doubtful prospect of ever returning, for he was un- 
armed and horse-thieves in that region held human life in 
slight estimation. The good fortune which attended my com- 
panion on many of the battle-fields of the Civil War in later 
years crowned his search in this instance. We had almost 
reached the end of our journey when lo ! Jim rode into view 
on his blue roan. He found his horse picketed far out from 
the trail, screened by the intervening hills. Returning to the 
Cache le Poudre trail, he cast his lot with friendly trains along 
the way and returned in safety. 

My riding-nag, with all her vocal accomplishments strong 
within her. was at our service ; but when I put "Nailer's" har- 
ness upon her and condemned her to service at the wagon- 
tongue, she seemed more under-sized than ever alongside of 
the bay mare; but "Nailer's" mate pulled the wagon, while 
Rosamond was thrown in for good measure. In the absence 
of the veteran driver, T was promoted to the box, and having 
seated myself and got hold of the reins, I had ample time to 
scrutinize my team, which looked like an old mare and her 
colt, the latter walking at her side with its father's harness on. 
I was not unreasonably elated at the presentment. I medi- 
tated on Thad Warner and the stage-drivers of the elder time, 
and felt humbled by comparison, not only at my accomplish- 
ments as a Jehu, but at the aspect of my roadsters. I had some 
misgivings as to how Rosamond would discharge her obliga- 
tions, and I treated her with great deference. As an encour- 
agement. Captain Hanna took the advance, and the ox team 
with the machinery was our rear guard. I had the center. 
The advance moved off. Rosamond was silent and in a dis- 
consolate state of mind, and T was uncertain as to the out- 
come. The Scripture came to my rescue. Do you know, you 
miserable sinner, that the Lord is always at hand to give you 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 141 

a lift if you will only ask Him ? Faith gave me a jog in the ribs 
and said, "If them sayest to this mountain, 'Be thou removed! 
and cast into the sea,' it shall be removed." So I raised my 
whip and in a burst of confidence said, "Get up." and Rosa- 
mond, to my infinite relief, took up the line of march. 

At the distance of thirty miles we had our first view of 
the mountains, lying like a bank of blue clouds on the west- 
ern horizon. After a few hours' travel, we could distin- 
guish the pine forests thereon, looking like weeds or small 
shrubs, and in due time we rested in camp at the foot of the 
rocky escarpments which formed the background of the site 
of the hamlet of Boulder, on the banks of the stream of that 
name where it debouches upon the plain. Boulder is now a 
beautiful city ; then it consisted of two or three cabins, and the 
immense spiral horns of mountain rams, weighing fifty pounds 
with the skull, lying around where the carcasses had been- 
dressed. In the vicinity panther, wild cats, and mountain sheep- 
were plentiful. We celebrated Independence Day in Gold Hill 
mining camp in a light fall of snow, and made the return trip- 
to Boulder (nine miles) almost on the double quick, as it is 
an easy descent all the way. This was the camp where Hanna 
and Patterson proposed to install their mining machinery. 
Here, on the summit of the valley range, their associates had 
excavated a hole about fifteen feet deep; on this and nothing 
more their hopes were founded. If there was any color in 
the camp, the possessor did not boast of it nor offer to show 
it. There was still some grub in the camp and an unusual 
number of men for the size of the hole in the ground, with 
which all of them claimed to be identified, and on this rested 
their justification for assembling with great promptitude for 
pork and beans at the hour of twelve. 

Experienced men had explored Colorado thoroughly and 
determined that the gulches of the territory held no reward for 
the placer miner. The reduction of the quartz was the only 
alternative, and this did not seem to be gold-bearing. I recall 
seeing but one "stamp-mill" there in 1860, and that had proven 

142 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

a (barren investment. In the face of these discouragements 
Hanna and Patterson, neither of whom had any practical 
knowledge of the reduction of quartz, invested in two quartz- 
mills of the Swartz pattern. They were nothing more than 
large coffee-mills of the type in use by pur grandmothers. They 
were lame and ineffective, and came to naught. They were 
built for horse-power, but the motor was ridiculously inad- 
equate, as well as the grinding power. The mills went to the 
junk-pile in short order Patterson to his printer's case and 
Hanna to his plow. 

Along the summit of the valley range some happy mid- 
summer hours were rounded out breathing in the delicious 
odors of the spruce groves and gathering the flecked gum so 
much prized by the children of the home prairies, who had lit- 
tle knowledge of the glorious regions where it is gathered. On 
some far granite boulder I used to loiter and look back over 
the plains whence we had come, and trace like threads the 
course of the streams. At intervals we came upon scenes of 
devastation too black for words, caused by forest fires the 
beautiful coniferous groves burned to a crisp, the mountains 
to their very summits studded with the skeleton stems of the 
masses of young trees. Having secured our animals and other 
property for an absence of some days, we strapped Rosamond 
with a grub-stake and made a trip over the range to the Greg- 
ory diggings in search of the camp of Billy Martin and Will 
Porter. The trail crossed the first range north of the Boux- 
der; it was very narrow, and in places the narrow path stop- 
ped at the base of a vertical ledge of rock ; then Jim would get 
under Rosamond with one of her forelegs over each shoulder, 
whilst your humble servant would secure a good stout tail 
holt, and in this elaborate and skillful fashion lift her majesty 
onto the shelf above and so continue the ascent. From the 
spot where the trail crossed the Boulder, that mountain tor- 
rent, clear as crystal, can be seen for miles in its sharp descent 
from its covert of eternal snows, escaping confinement in the 
narrow passages in the rocks at one point, breaking in spray 

Recollections of Pioneer and Artny Life, 143 

over resisting boulders at another, coming down upon one 
like a long line of glittering, .sabre-wielding cuirassiers ! In 
our passage over we slept one night on the dome of the 
mountains with the cougars. At dawn Nature was in deep 
mourning. We no longer looked up at the clouds. We groped 
our way cautiously in the midst of them. They enveloped 
us like cotton-wool. As we made our way in the moist mass 
it would open and close upon us, then move in prodigious vol- 
ume round about us, to open for a moment, then close again. 
The mountain world was reeking wet, but there were no rain- 
drops. Along those high altitudes, through these impenetrable 
fogs, we came now and then upon miniature glens carpeted 
with the most luxuriant emerald pasturage. We were now in 
the ancient haven of the wild flocks and herds. Even Rosa- 
mond the imperturbable took heart at this scene. After some 
hours' travel, we descended into the lateral gulches leading into 
Gregory Canyon, which we found strewn in places with the 
abandoned appliances for placer mining. Pay dirt had not 
been found, or not in quantity to warrant further effort. Be- 
fore nightfall we had reached Martin and Porter's cabin, where 
the two Henderson County boys labored assiduously in the 
role of masters of ceremony, and welcomed the travelers 
from "the States" with the pomp and circumstance worthy of 
old Gregory in her best days. Jim responded promptly to their 
friendly advances ; placed another quid where it would do the 
most good, and broke out in one of those full-moon smiles 
which have been the envy of his friends these three-score years 
and ten. Porter acquiesced with a broad grin, his eyes rest- 
ing heavily on our grub-stake ; then he lifted up his voice with 
his favorite song: 

"The ash and the oak and the bonny willow tree 
Are all growing green in the old country." 

We were as hungry as coyotes. Billy Martin was the chef. 
Seigneur Porter turned to him and said : "Let the grand salon 
be made ready, and covers laid for four." "The salon 5s al- 

144 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

ways ready," replied the chef. I was curious to see a Gregory 
dining-hall that was "always ready," so I looked in. It had 
no windows. It had a piece of the mountain for a floor, and 
there was a pig-sty in one corner which I was about to take 
liold of when Seigneur Porter staid the hand of the intruder 
with the expostulation, "Don't disturb the bed!" As he said 
this he gazed in a vague way at the stringy clouds as they 
coiled like vaporous snakes around the summit of Pike's Peak. 
Then Bozzaris (I mean the Grand Seigneur) cheered the band 
by saying to the chef : "Is the piece de resistance about ripe?" 
""I ran the knife through it and she 's gittin' there," said Billy. 
"I say, chef," resumed Seigneur Porter, "ain't it about time 
the puree was purred?" "Sound the gong," said the chef; 
"call Jim, but softly, for he is hungry enough to eat a raw boar; 
and tell Mat to go out and point Rosamond to the pine trees 
and tell her to help herself.'' Then the Grand Seigneur sat 
himself down in the seat of MacGregor. The guests were 
placed according to storage capacity, which gave Jim first 
place, and he helped himself to the dried apples first dash. The 
introductory over, the cloth was removed, and the corn- dodger 
came on hard and cold. The heft of the feast centered on this 
course, and there were some lightning strokes, and the act 
throughout was abreast with the claims of the press agent. 
Our pack-animal, being well supplied with granite gravel and 
^ine needles, seemed to enjoy the function to the limit. 

Our return journey to the old "Sucker" State had irresist- 
ible charms for our two mining friends, and on the payment 
vof a large sum they secured the right to walk alongside of our 
wagon home. * 



Denver \vas the place of rendezvous for our departure 
homeward. Here we met Mr. Fred Ray, Sr., his son Fred, 
and other associates, who had just got in from extensive ex- 
plorations of the mining region contiguous to South Park. 
Alaska is the only territory now under the Stars and Stripes, 
with the exception possibly of the Philippine Islands, which 
can produce such a scene as Denver presented in 1859-60. 
Dance-halls and gambling-dens had full swing, and these re- 
sorts were crowded with blacklegs of every description. Three- 
card monte and every other gambling device, the most of them 
beyond my knowledge and the whole of them I was looking 
at for the first time, were being patronized by the crowds com- 
posed of Mexicans, half-breeds, and strange characters from 
distant corners of the earth. A leader, an assistant, and the 
"cappers" exploited each his own peculiar game of chance in 
his own way. Abandoned women stole into view and disap- 
peared through doorways opening from the rear into the main 
hall, and the passage to hell was softened and gilded to the ear 
by strains of music from an orchestra. I looked in at the 
morgue, where the dead were to to be found almost every morn- 
ing. Few questions were asked about the crimes committed the 
night before ; whatever happened was accepted as a matter of 
course. The town pointed with pride to its graveyard contain- 
ing a select assortment of gentry who had died with their boots 
on. In one of my rambles about the town I came upon a more 
cheerful aspect some distance back from the turbulent streets: 
a well-conducted school under the supervision of a lady teach- 


146 Recollections of Pioneer and Artny Life. 

er, a bright, intelligent woman of middle age, in the pursuit of 
her vocation with as much pride and success as we are accus- 
tomed to see in well-ordered communities. Under the circum- 
stances the discovery was a surprise to me. She was the only 
woman of good repute that I can recall seeing in Denver at 
that time, although the good mothers of the children in that 
school were in the town somewhere ; certainly they were chary 
of going on the streets. To get a letter from home I stood in 
line while two hundred men preceded me to the delivery. On 
opening my letter, I found that Robert Moir (on whom I had 
an order for money) and Mr. Blake, of Burlington, had passed 
through Denver ahead of us on their way home. The men 
quarreled on the return journey, and after my own return 
home I was the only witness to a terrific pugilistic encounter 
between them. In the late summer we bade adieu to Denver, 
which I have not seen since, and on our way home we came 
upon the whole of the Sioux tribe of Indians returning from 
their annual hunting-trip with the "jerked buffalo" heat hang- 
ing in strips across their ponies. They went swarming over 
the plains northward, the squaws having the care of things 
generally, the young copper-colored lads, cunning as mice, 
shooting birds in the grass with the bow and arrow as they 
continued on their way. The young braves, tall, athletic 
scamps six feet in height, some of them, annoyed us a good 
deal, sneaking around our wagon for an opening for theft. 

When well settled in camp one evening we found that we 
were close neighbors to a small village of the Ogallalah Sioux. 
The bucks were away on some thieving foray, a favorite 
amusement, the main purpose of which was to make a sneak 
at night on the ponies of a neighboring tribe and get off with 
some of the best of them. Nothing shows some of the char- 
acteristic traits of the Indian so thoroughly as this bent to 
theft. His skill at secreting himself at the moment, permitting 
you to pass within a few feet of him unobserved, is provoking. 
On this journey and in subsequent years he caught me un- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 147 

awares many times. I have been the victim of an old lump of 
a squaw with a papoose on her back, standing in the woods 
like a statue I rode past within a few feet of her, unconscious 
of her presence. They seem to have the art of the wild animal 
of taking on the color and shape of surrounding objects. It 
is true that I was not hunting "Injuns," but I was in their 
country, and I always felt a little "off" when told by others 
of my company, who were following the trail after me, that we 
had just passed some red folks. On the evening in question 
we were not aware that there was a small group of tepees in 
our immediate vicinity, in a valley on the further side of the 
knoll; great was my surprise, therefore, when a group of 
ladies of our great interior quietly filed around me as a cen- 
ter-piece and seated themselves in a circle around our camp- 
fire. I felt like a tenderfoot, much abashed. Doubtless I 
smiled with a mixed motif, but I bowed correctly. Inasmuch 
as the ladies had already secured a solid foundation on the 
ground, it was not necessary for me to suggest that they take 
seats. My "buffalo chips'' were burning brightly, and I was 
frying "twisters" of the barbwire type in a hoary spider of 
an earlier time. The ladies had found me by tracing the odor 
of the evening meal up the wind. I was glad they called, for 
I exchanged without difficulty some of those libelous dough- 
nuts for chamois (antelope) skins, soft as the cheek of in- 
fancy. They departed in triumph, these club women of the 
Ogallalah Sioux heavy laden with the trophies of an equit- 
able commerce. 

A few days afterward we were in camp at the noon hour. 
I had in the wagon a "target" rifle of the old pattern; a su- 
perior gun, highly ornamented, but very heavy ; too much so 
for hunting game. I had brought it along in the hope of trad- 
ing it off. While we were eating our lunch some Indians rode 
up to the wagon where I was seated, and I entered into an 
earnest pantomime with one of them, exhibiting my rifle, and 
offering to trade it for his pony. It attracted his attention at 

148 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

once, and he reached out for it. The weight of the gun so 
surprised and disappointed him that he showed his estimation 
of it by instantly pulling a feather out of his hair and offering 
it in exchange for the rifle. 



The winter of 1860-61, following the election of Abraham 
Lincoln to the Presidency, was marked by a disturbed condi- 
tion of the public mind. Conservative men began to question 
themselves and each other as to the threats of the Southern 
leaders who had declared the right of revolution, as our fath- 
ers had done against Great Britain. The people looked for- 
ward to the message of President Buchanan to the Congress 
in December with deep interest, not to say apprehension, as 
containing a statement of the conservative Democratic view of 
the situation. I recall as freshly as if it were yesterday how 
eagerly my brother Porter took up the Chicago morning daily 
and began reading the message to my father and others gath- 
ered at the store, and their comments pro and con as the read- 
ing proceeded. 

As the winter months wore away the slave-holding States, 
through their prolonged political rottenness, sloughed off and 
dropped into the abyss of rebellion. In this connection I re- 
call one figure in South Carolina that of Judge Pettigru, 
the only public man probably in all of my mother's native 
State who remained true to the Union. A stranger met him 
on a street in Charleston one day in 1861 and inquired the way 
to the insane asylum. "Look anywhere," the old Judge an- 
swered ; "you will find it anywhere around here." While 
Floyd completed hi> theft of the Government stores and arms, 
and as the oak buds began to swell, the country was startled 
by the reverberations of Beauregard's guns firing on Fort 

On the 23d day of April, 1861. eleven days after the fall 


150 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

of Fort Sumter, there was a movement at the Yellow Banks 
for volunteers to join the Union forces at Cairo under Colonel 
Ben M. Prentiss, of Quincy. Frank A. Dallam, founder of 
The Plaindealer, was the leader of this movement. Along with 
the principal young men of the village, I signed my name on 
this roll of the first volunteers of the Civil War from Hen- 
derson County. My services as such ceased on the 4th day of 
July, 1865. On the day we left home for the South there was 
a throng of people on the streets and around the court-house 
to see us off. There was a current of strong patriotic feeling 
in the hearts of those who had assembled to bid us God-speed, 
and, as was natural under the circumstances, our thoughts took 
a practical direction, and a Democrat distinguished himself by 
coming forward and offering to drill us in the facings and evo- 
lutions of the military company. I was much surprised to see 
Judge Richey engage in this most useful and necessary work. 
He was a Democratic official and an honorable man, but some- 
how in the mind of the youthful brave the word "Democrat," 
as known in that day, had a sinister association with "seces- 
sion," and although I joined the "awkward squad" for awhile, 
the more I thought of it the more suspicious I became that 
through some military sleight-of-hand this Democratic son of 
Mars might land us in the ranks of the Confederacy ; so I fol- 
lowed Jeff Davis' example and seceded. It seemed absurd to 
me that I should take lessons in methods of fighting from peo- 
ple I was going to fight. 

We were so ignorant as to what constitutes a good soldier 
that we had not the slightest suspicion of our ignorance. 
Along with all the youngsters of my day, -my imagination was 
stocked with the feats of Napoleon, with the school reader 
pictures of the surrender of Cornwallis, and, not the least of 
these, the patent medicine placard of Santa Anna, his wooden 
leg having dropped on the road while fleeing for his life with 
his mounted escort before his American pursuers ; and all we 
would have to do in going to war, we surmised, would be to 
draw the wooden scimiters of our boyhood and the enemy 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 151 

would disappear with the vapors of the morning. Alas for 
him who boasteth before putting on the armor, rather than 
after putting it off! But however dense our ignorance, we 
were not boasters. As for myself and a moiety of our com- 
pany, we had a decided advantage. We had belonged to a 
company of "Wide-A wakes," drilled campaigners during the 
political rivalry and stimulus of the Lincoln-Douglas senatorial 
campaign of 1858, an organization which continued down to 
and through the Presidential campaign of 1860. Charles S. 
Cowan, county clerk, was our captain and drill-master, and a 
thoroughly competent leader. There was no company in our 
Congressional District that could compete with us in company 
evolutions, and without doubt many thousands of young men 
throughout the North were in this way unconsciously prepar- 
ing themselves for efficiency in the Civil War. 

Massachusetts, always the stout defender of free institu- 
tions, was well represented in the crowd in the person of 
Joseph Chickering, whose patriotic fervor found expression in 
song. He mounted a wagon in the crowded street and led 
some of the young vocalists in singing "The Star-Spangled 
Banner." As the hour of departure drew near a great throng 
from the village and surrounding country gathered in vehicles 
to escort the volunteers to the depot in Sagetown, five miles 
south. At the moment of leaving I bounded in long strides 
up the stairway to my mother's chamber, where she was lying 
temporarily ill, and kneeling at her bedside, received her bless- 
ing. On our arrival in Quincy we were hospitably entertained 
by, Mrs. O. H. Browning, wife of one of the leading attorneys 
of the old I4th Congressional District, later a member of the 
Senate, and later Secretary of the Interior under Andrew 
Johnson. The Browning home was of palatial proportions, 
distinguished for its architecture, and, taken with its parklike 
enclosure, was the pride of the city. After an exchange of tel- 
egrams between Capt: Dallam and Col. Ben Prentiss, we took 
the train for Cairo, where we were incorporated into the loth 
Illinois Infantry as Company D. Cairo was the rendezvous for 

152 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

troops, the base of supplies, and the chief strategical point in 
the Southwest in the days of hurried organization under the 
first call for 75,000 men. The population of the town com- 
prised many traitors in disguise; rebel spies crowded elbows 
on the streets with the Union troops and a good deal of con- 
fusion and uncertainty marked the administration of the post. 
The regiments of the State began with the number 7, where 
our regiments in the Mexican War left off, and they were 
composed of the best blood of the commonwealth. The Qth 
and loth Regiments occupied barracks along the levee on the 
west side of the town. Here we had a local drill- and parade- 
ground, and our time was occupied by squad, company and 
battalion drills, including the zouave skirmish drill, and in 
private apartments the sword and Turner athletic exercises, 
the latter excelled in by the Germans from St. Louis. Our 
German-American friends occupied a separate barrack and 
were supplied with free beer by the car-load from their home 
breweries, and as a result these staunch friends of the Union 
were most of the time in a condition of incertitude the cap- 
tain of the company particularly, a big, fierce- visaged six- 
footer, uniformly appearing at the head of his men on dress 
parade his face blazing like a head-light. They stood firm by 
their war-cry throughout the service. "Zwei Lager nnd cine 

Floyd and his conspirators were still busy shipping arms 
and munitions of war South in disguised packages in the holds 
of the steamboats up to the last moment, and it was the busi- 
ness of these craft carrying the contraband goods to get past 
Cairo without being searched, although none of them succeed- 
ed in doing so after our arrival. A shot across the bow from 
one of our field guns compelled a landing. There was such a 
mass of humanity citizens . and soldiers on the streets of 
Cairo during these months, and indeed down to the close of 
the war, that business of all kinds was very profitable : so much 
so that it was a common remark, that one could, and many 
did, make small fortunes, or lay the foundations of large for- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 153 

tunes, selling pea-nuts and the "pegged and sewed" pies so 
notable in that town in those days. Close to our barracks, on 
the extreme point of the peninsula, Fort Defiance (a formid- 
able earthwork) was being constructed. In its unfinished 
state General George B. McClellan, who was making a study 
of all the advanced posts held by the Union forces, paid it a 
visit, and the field guns placed near were fired to show him 
the range over the water. In the evening the troops were 
reviewed by him a really formidable host as they appeared to 
us, unused as we were then to the large armies with which we 
were identified in the years afterward. I recall his short, stout 
person ; his large black charger, and his new buckskin gaunt- 
lets. We looked upon him as he dashed down our line as noth- 
ing less than a god : if anything less than a god, certainly noth- 
ing less than a god with a small g, who, at the very least, 
possessed some of the attributes of the supernatural. Such 
was the impression made upon the youthful warriors by the 
successor to General Winfield Scott, the aged and the hero of 
two wars. 

Innocently enough, while in the armed possession of this 
post we had a peculiar (if long-range) connection with the Brit- 
ish Government. Palmerston and "melud" John Russell were 
no friends of ours. English official opinion gave vent to its joy 
at our fancied dissolution in the columns of "The Thunderer." 
The London Times had already wiped the United States 
from the map of the world, declaring that "the great Republic 
is no more" ! In this vein of cherished belief the publishers 
of that paper sent W. H. Russell, who had served as their war 
correspondent in the Crimea, to spy upon our movements and 
troubles. From the first he showed a marked fondness for the 
South and her leaders. He domiciled and counseled with 
them, made the most of their preparations for defense, and 
declared them invincible. Starting in at Richmond, he made 
a tour of the Southern States, concluding with a trip up 
the Mississippi River from Xew Orleans to Cairo, where 
he looked the raw levies of the Government over. I can see 

154 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

him now; his insolent figure confronting us as we stood on 
dress parade on that summer evening in 1861. But "where 
be their gibes now"? Across "the gray and melancholy waste 
of years" I see the pirate ships, equipped with English guns 
and manned by English sailors, being built and fitted out in 
English ship-yards: the destruction of our merchant marine 
on the high seas ; the British corvette, the "Deerhound," stand- 
ing in the offing to rescue Semmes and his drowning ship- 
mates, fleeing like rats from the sinking "Alabama." 

Is there anything in history more detestable than the con- 
duct of the British Government toward us during our strug- 
gle to save our national inheritance ? 

On the completion of Fort Defiance, a small group of 
soldiers, including some ladies from the North, led by Colo- 
nel (later Major-General ). Dick Oglesby wounded nigh unto 
death at Corinth, resisting Van Dorn and "Pap" Price gath- 
ered at the foot of the flagstaff to do honor to the raising of 
"Old Glory" over the fortress. The flag was run to the top, 
when the tackling parted and the colors fell to the ground. 
We had the heartache for an instant when Oglesby burst forth 
in an impassioned speech of a few sentences, declaring that the 
flag of our country would be trailed in the dust by some of 
the States of the Union, but that it would float again over an 
undivided country and in greater splendor than before! 

In July the reports of the first battle on Bull Run reached 
our camp. Our chagrin and humiliation was complete. The 
term of our enlistment (ninety days) would soon expire, and 
our leaders gathered the soldiers en masse on the parade- 
ground, pleading and insisting that in the shadow of defeat it 
would be dishonorable to accept a discharge. I am sure that 
if the Government had insisted upon it officially suggested 
such a sacrifice, the large majority would have promptly com- 
plied and remained in the service. The South recoiled from 
that shock more distinctly than the North were amazed, in 
fact, that by a lucky chance they held possession of the battle- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 155 

field. If they had felt convinced of a fairly earned success, 
they would have promptly followed it up. The excitement 
died down, leaving the Western troops where they properly 



When our term of enlistment had expired, under which the 
first call for 75,000 men were sworn in, the: regiments reorgan- 
ized, and re-enlisted for three years unless sooner discharged. 
We were paid in gold and silver, and with the thought in 
my mind that I would like to serve throughout the war in the 
Army of the Potomac, I took the train for Philadelphia, de- 
termined withal to refresh my patriotism at the shrines of the 
past. A young blood is tempted to do some foolish things in 
going to war, and without doubt I did my share of them. My 
older brother, Porter, although he was not in the military serv- 
ice, must have had some war-like notions in his youth, for he 
was the possessor of an elegant pearl-handled poniard which 
had never been brought into requisition ; but, as the opportu- 
nity to use it seemed to have arrived when I volunteered, I 
took the Castilian weapon with me. When I boarded the train 
for the East I concealed the stiletto in my boot-leg in regular 
cut-throat fashion, and thought no more about it until I had 
been two nights out, when, feeling the loss of rest, I took an 
upper berth in the sleeper. The car was packed to suffocation ; 
the aisles overflowing with passengers ; so that I had difficulty 
in reaching my berth in the old-fashioned sleeper, and in doing 
so my dagger was exposed, and instantly I became an object 
of suspicion. At that time one was liable to be placed under 
surveillance on slight evidence. I became aware forthwith 
that I was assuming unwonted and sanguinary proportions in 
the imaginations of my fellow-passengers, and, as the result 
of pantomimic notification, the conductor came and peered with 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 157 

a searching eagerness into my boot-leg. I affected indiffer- 
ence, and turned over as though I had taken refuge in "the land 
of Nod." On arriving in Philadelphia the next morning a 
stranger came and indulged in a little common-place, but I 
shook him off. After I had established myself in comfortable 
quarters at the hotel and scrutinized the old Liberty bell, and 
the apartments at Independence Hall, and the portraits of 
the sages on the walls, and plucked a blade of grass or two 
from the grave of Benjamin and Deborah 1 Franklin, I was con- 
scious, as I made these various and sundry turns throughout 
the city, of the momentary presence of the face I had met on 
getting off the train. Had I taken a carriage to admire the 
venerable edifice known as Girard College, the face seemed to 
flit by; at Betsy Ross' house, where the flag was made, I was 
not quite sure, but I had the impression that the face was 
hovering in the vicinity ; but if so, was that anything to won- 
der at ? Were not patriots of all ages, from all over this broad 
land, dropping in at all hours to see Mrs. Ross or the rooms 
where she had experimented with the national colors? Hav- 
ing no quarrel on this head, I bowled out upon the suburban 
drives, over miles of beautiful boulevards, along the little gem 
of a stream called the Wissahickon, yet the face was there ! 
"Well," I said to myself, "I hope the gentleman is enjoying 
his outing," and I turned to the driver : "We '11 take zwei glass 
lager beer on it anyway," and we drove up to the road-house, 
and quaffed the stranger's health. On the morrow I rode out 
to Laurel Hill cemetery, gave "Old Mortality" with his chisel 
and hammer a nod as I passed in, and was soon lost in the 
peaceful vales of this ancient city of the dead. For some 
years I had been fascinated by the experiences of Doctor Kane 
in the Arctic regions. That fine scholar with the noble spirit 
of adventure had just died, at middle age, and his tomb was 
a shrine where I could worship. As the cab carried me out 
from the avenues and away to the city I thought I caught a 
glimpse of a familiar face. Tt seemed grave and business-like, 
but I smiled and lifted my hat to it. On the day following I 

158 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

was in Washington. I lodged at the old Willard Hotel, where 
all the great men of eld, my peers, were wont to put up. I 
lodged in realistic fashion, for they put me in a crypt directly 
under the roof. 

Washington was a scrub town in those day a military 
camp and the commissioned officers blocked the passage-way 
at Willard's, and the entrance to the saloons along Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue. The soldiers were coming and going. One 
poor lad in uniform, quite exhausted, had sunk down under 
the load of his knapsack and accoutrements. He was a mere 
youth. Drawn by his pale face, General Mansfield approached 
and began conversing with him, advising and admonishing. In 
line with our American love of sensation, I looked upon the 
spot where Dan Sickles killed Philip Barton Key. I was 
ashamed of myself when I looked down on the slight stump yet 
remaining of the shade-tree in the brick sidewalk (all that was 
left by relic-hunters) to mark the place of the tragedy. Think 
of the human vultures making off with the splinters of the 
shade-tree which marks a lecherous chapter in the history of 
the capital ! Under the second call for troops a large army 
had already assembled on the heights around Arlington. The 
Army of the Potomac, however, lacked the enchantment that 
distance gave it, and I reconsidered my purpose to join it, 
preferring to return and trust my fortunes with the comrades 
with whom I had already passed through a preparatory serv- 
ice. Having resolved, while I was on the ground, to finish my 
visit to the East, I spent some days in the Capitol building 
itself, and in the Department buildings (mainly in the Patent 
Office building), where at that time were kept the objects of 
interest most attractive to an under-age youth to whom Gen- 
eral Washington's sword and Ben Franklin's old. wooden 
printing press were as sacred as the bodies of Gengis Khan's 
ancestors were to him. And more than this : to keep my spir- 
its at the right point above low-water mark, the face of my 
Philadelphia double had a ghostly preference for me. How- 
ever, when I took the "Bound Brook" route for New York 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 159 

the familiar face came and sat down in the seat with me and 
\ve got real chummy, he having made up his mind, without 
any assistance from me, that I was not an emissary of Jeff 
Davis, nor an assassin from Baltimore with designs on the 
President. We walked up Broadway together from the Jersey 
ferry at midnight, and he showed me into a nice hotel. No. 
144 Broadway, for which act of courtesy I was sincerely grate- 
ful, as I was a stranger in the town. Manhattan Island em- 
braces its share of the visible traces of the brave days of old, 
and I spent some happy hours there, for the transfigured scenes 
of youth and young manhood surpass in interest all others. 
On an excursion steamer to West Point in subsequent years 
I fell in with my old comrade in arms, Major Charles S. 
Cowan, who was born in the city. In our stroll from the Gold 
Room (the scene of the "Black Friday") 'over to Broadway 
we passed into Trinity church-yard, where he showed me his 
mother's grave. When the Major was a babe occurred the 
great fire in the history of old New York, when the fire de- 
partment was wholly inadequate to cope with such a disaster, 
and in the widespread confusion and destruction of property 
his mother died from fright and grief, in the full belief that 
her child, which had been taken by its nurse to a distant block 
on a visit, had been lost. Trinity and the interior of old Saint 
Paul's, where Washington worshiped, are haunts not to be 
overlooked by the young visitor nor by their elders, for that 

I found a seat in a coach on the old New York and New 
Haven line through New England for Boston in the month of 
August, a favorable time for a visit along the Atlantic coast. 
I had been dreaming of the land of shoe-peg oats and bass- 
wood hams since childhood, and I now was to see the people 
of the old Wooden Nutmeg State in the very act of emptying 
their coal-scuttles out at the back window onto Rhode Island, 
and in this mean and underhand way had about buried "Little 
Rhody" out of sight. My most radiant recollections of my 
mid-summer trip up to Boston are illuminated by the bright 

160 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Yankee girls with whom I exchanged bits of silver for pieces of 
huckleberry pie, which happened every now and then, for, as I 
remember, we jogged along in no great hurry and I had a good 
opportunity to see the hills, salt-water estuaries, villages and 
country life on the hunting-grounds of the Pilgrim fathers. 
As I rode along toward the intellectual and commercial center 
of Massachusetts I could not bring myself to believe that the 
shadow of a great civil war (the most terrorizing of all wars) 
was at that moment lowering over these peaceful landscapes. 
I saw no evidence of it anywhere. And yet I had already com- 
pleted one term of military service and would soon return to 
resume these duties. On arriving at the, hotel, and having reg- 
istered and gotten rid of my grip, I stepped to the entrance 
and saw across the street an old brick meeting-house, plain as 
a barn, and helf-embedded in the walls, near the cornice, a 
British cannon-ball, fired in 1776 from one of King George's 
blockading vessels. Now, I had come to Boston to see that 
cannon-ball and other coincident things, and I saluted it with 
unction ; and right there and then I took the shades of all the 
embattled farmers, each in his turn, and gave him, or it, a big 
hug. I was so impressionable that when I recalled all the scraps 
the patriots used to have with the "red-coats" in those crooked 
streets (they have been straightened since), I went about in my 
unsophisticated "Sucker" way earnestly desiring to worship 
everybody and everything I met. Down at King's Chapel, 
where the British stabled their cavalry, I would not have been 
in the least surprised to have seen the stout) troopers dash 
out like an arrow from the bow and charge Washington's 
lines down on the Common there. Ben Franklin stood in 
bronze close by and I saluted him in abject admiration, and 
I would not have considered it a hardship to have saluted him 
five hundred times a day while my visit lasted. In truth I 
soon reached such a condition of chronic salutation that I 
went about with my hat poised three inches above my head, 
where it rested in rigid veneration for all Boston had, could, 
would, or should have. In this patriotic trance I came at last 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 161 

to the foot of Bunker Hill. On the spot where Warren fell, 
marked by a tablet, I sorrowed as sincerely as mortals can. I 
did not see the monument. I was too busy looking for Pres- 
cott and "Old Put," and the farmers young and old, with their 
flint-lock muskets, long-barreled rifles, and shot-guns carry- 
ing buckshot. I remarked the line where they had stood, and 
I looked off upon the bay where the British debarked, and I 
saw them form in line, one company after another and one 
battalion after another, until they seemed strong enough to 
swallow the hill and all the patriots upon it. They were in full 
uniform and silent, but they were not cowards. The Briton 
had been a soldier for a thousand years, and he was not going 
to balk now. The battle of Bunker Hill belongs to your day 
and mine. There was no loud-resounding circumstance of 
war along that British line of battle that is now ready to charge 
the hill. The order to advance was given quietly. I am stand- 
ing here on the hill, looking down at them. The shadowy forms 
of other days are around me. There is a deep silence here 
also, for modern civilization is about to strike another blow for 
a larger liberty. Crowns and titles will not see this thing 
done willingly. England's might is at the foot of this hill to 
see that it shall not be done. Her line of battle is already half 
way up the hill, coming on with the masterful resolution she 
had ever shown. They are nearer now and coming close. 
The farmers at the word crouch and lean forward, looking 
keenly along their rifle barrels with the fine nerve of the New 
World hunter. There is a crash as the farmers send their shots 
to the mark. Through the powder smoke you can see the 
British line stagger and fall in its own blood, and they sullen- 
ly fall back and re-form again at the foot of the hill. You know 
all the story that fills so bright a page in the history of this 
dear land of ours. 

Down at the "Cradle of Liberty,'' I laid my hand on its 
walls to assure myself that it was still there, and the mor- 
row being Sunday. I attended the service at Tremont Temple, 
where Jenny Lind had sung a few years previously, her con- 

1 62 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

cert being marked by an enthusiastic advertiser, who bid $625 
for first choice of seats. On Monday morning I laid a twenty- 
dollar gold-piece down and the agent gave me a ticket for 
Chicago, and I was whisked away through the Catskills to Al- 
bany, thence to Buffalo, where the conductor gave me a stop- 
over for Niagara. On a moonless night I stood alone on the 
narrow bridge leading to Goat Island and looked down for the 
first time on the darkling waters as they flashed their myriad 
Satanic faces upon me while they passed like a shot from a 
rifle under my feet. In the visitors' register on the Canadian 
side I noticed the autograph of Henry Clay and other notables 
of the past, placed some years before. Here we put on our 
water-proof suits, and descended under the main fall, and on 
the verge of rock in the depths below we felt as one might 
who is about to stop into eternity! Here I met some Hen- 
derson County Argonauts returning home with a good stake 
after twelve years' absence. On the Niagara River below the 
falls I squandered some delightful hours and brought to a 
close my inter-military itineracy. 



Our company reorganized for the three-year service un- 
der Charles S. Cowan, and assembled along, with the other 
companies of the regiment at Cairo. The commanding officer 
of our regiment, Colonel James D. Morgan, had served as 
captain in an infantry regiment in the Mexican War, rendered 
valuable service at the battle of Buena Vista under General 
Taylor, and was a thorough soldier through natural aptitude 
and experience. He was the captain of the Quincy Rifles dur- 
ing the Mormon troubles, and no man in the State excelled 
him in the mastery of the evolutions of the battalion. He was 
cool and clear-headed in an emergency, as we often had oc- 
casion to remark during the war, and in the preparatory 
months, when we were drilling for active service, the dress 
parades and battalion drills of the "Old Tenth" were interest- 
ing and beautiful. For the accuracy and precision of his work 
at all times, his bearing in battle, and for his fine, well-remem- 
bered voice, to which the battalion became so well accustomed 
for all these things, which play their part in rounding out a 
perfect esprit de corps, the gallant old man, who died at the 
age of eighty years, will not soon be forgotten by the survivors 
of his "command," who claim him as the leader par excellence. 

The Government had established a ship-yard at Mound 
City, seven miles up the Ohio River from Cairo. Here two 
"iron-clads" were in course of construction, and the Tenth 
was ordered there late in the summer of 1861, as a guard over 
this important work. Later on, while the weather was still 
warm, we were ordered to join our brigade at Cairo for a re- 


164 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

view of all the troops at the post. Forty thousand men of the 
different arms of the service were in line, and the earth was 
tramped till the dust was deep and stifling. The intense heat 
and the suffering of the men for water gave us a foretaste of 
the many privations in store for us. As our Government ad- 
vances in age the lustrums are apt to be marked by the lineal 
descendants of distinguished soldiers in its history who come 
to the front in the activities of the hour. My attention was 
called to this fact by the appearance among the general officers 
in charge of the review of General Van Rensselaer, a name 
familiar to readers of "Knickerbocker" history on Manhattan 
Island. We had with us also, in our carr>aign in the Car- 
olinas, under Sherman, a general of division, a lineal descend- 
ant of Israel Putnam. When I found that we had a Van 
Rensselaer with us at Cairo, I would hardly have been sur- 
prised to learn that "Hard-koppig Piet" and "The Headless 
Horseman" were members of his staff. 

The people of southern Illinois were not all loyal, and this 
was shown by a wealthy resident of Mound City when our 
regiment took possession of the town. His large, comfortable 
house was directly on our route as we entered the village: the 
day was hot and the men thirsty. It was a great surprise to 
Mr. Rollins when our men rushed in upon his well to replenish 
their canteens. The old gentleman came out in a furious pas- 
sion and ordered them out of his yard. His voice was drowned 
in the volley of chaff the boys fired at him, and in spite of his 
valiant exertions he was carried off his feet like a feather on 
the current of the Ohio. The large majority of our company 
was composed of the native born; the remainder were Ger- 
mans and Swedes. The foreign-born were almost to a man 
good soldiers, and here and there among them a man of su- 
perior fibre. This, is shown now, after an interval of half a 
century, during which they have achieved successful careers ; 
one of them being the president of a bank, others successful 
merchants, live-stock commission agents and farmers. One 
of the most attractive of the young Swedes (Albert Peterson) 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 165 

died in the hospital at Mound City, and his grave, along with 
that of others of our regiment, formed the nucleus of the 
National Cemetery at that point. It came in time to be a trite 
and indifferent thing the passing to the grave of the bodies 
of these young lovers of liberty from a foreign land ; the bier 
covered by the Stars and Stripes ; the escort and firing-squad 
marching to the funeral note; albeit, it was a scene full of 
pathos, for those who were dear to them were still in far 
Scandinavia, patiently waiting for good tidings and a remit- 
tance from the son who had gone to the land of great oppor- 
tunity to seek his fortune. 

Our parade-ground was as level as a floor, an advantage 
in our primary military schooling, and in the pursuit of daily 
routine I was out one day with our company when we had 
occasion, along with other points in the manual, to "ground 
arms," but one of the most popular soldiers in the ranks had 
difficulty in obeying the order. With this exception the com- 
pany executed the simple feat with ease, but a gracious provi- 
dence had equipped "Put" with an unusually thrifty and ample 
growth, both in stature and bulk, with the balance in favor of 
the latter, and when the gallent lad reached the critical point 
in the posture his trousers parted at the tactical cross-roads, 
making an exposure of which the enemy for target purposes 
might take advantage. On our return to quarters he got a 
needle and thread and strengthened his base against assailants 
of all sorts whatsoever, and with admirable foresight followed 
up this bit of grand strategy by securing a detail to the com- 
missary department, where he had freedom of growth and 
could indulge his personal preference of posture without in- 
terference and where he proved one of the most efficient and 
useful men in the "command." Our regiment occupied a 
large brick factory building, each company having a room 
60x20 feet. Here in the evenings, under the training of Dr. 
W. H. Craig, we became expert in the Ellsworth Zouave 

1 66 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

We first came under the observation of General U. S, 
Grant on this parade-ground. Orders had been issued that 
the General would review our regiment on a certain day. We 
knew nothing about him; had hardly heard of him. Before 
leaving Cairo field orders from him as commander of the De- 
partment had been read to us; but the only incident that had 
occurred up to this time to draw my attention to him was an 
order read to us one evening by Adjutant Joe Rowland, signed 
"U. S. Grant, commanding, etc.," and when the adjutant came 
to the General's initials in a Stentorian, perfunctory voice he 
announced "United States," when on noticing that "U. S." did 
not stand for the Government in that connection he recovered 
himself and read the name as signed. There was a rumor 
that a man had succeeded to the command of the Department 
who went about the streets of Cairo in citizen's clothing, wear- 
ing an old plug hat. We knew so little about the matter that we 
did not identify this man with General Grant Our battalion 
formed for review as appointed, and the mounted officer who 
was to officiate had arrived from Cairo for the purpose. He 
sat on his horse, an indifferent figure, undemonstrative, quiet- 
ly looking us over. The usual formality of presenting arms 
gone through with, the battalion had massed in columns by 
companies, and was marching past the reviewing officer when, 
on account of our indifferent martial music (we no longer had 
Tip Prentice with us), accidental change of step, or other mis- 
fortune, the nature of which I have forgotten, we passed un- 
der the eye of the greatest general of modern times, not with 
the faultless front and rhythm of step which was our pride, 
but like a flock of exasperated goats. 

Beginning with Scott's tactics, I learned three different 
manuals during the first six months of my military service. 
Following closely onto Scott's, or in combination with it, we 
took up Hardie's; then at Mound City I diligently practiced 
the Zouave drill and manual of attack and defense. After the 
lapse of fifty years I have seen nothing superior to the Zouave 
skirmish drill in use in 1861. It was controlled by the voice 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 167 

or the bugle, preferably by the latter, and always so in battle. 
During our first ninety days' service at Cairo this drill was 
beautifully given on that level parade-ground. During our 
stay at Mound City one of the gun-boats was launched. A 
large assembly of soldiers and citizens witnessed the event 
which was marked by the usual ceremonies. When the full 
number of these fighting-craft was completed and in commis- 
sion, the Mississippi flotilla under Commodore Foote, and later 
under Commodore Davis, formed a formidable arm of the 
service, which played an important part in opening up the 
river to an unvexed flow to the sea. 

The hulls of the boats were built in water-tight compart- 
ments, eight feet square, of 12x12 solid white or live oak tim- 
bers. Our guards held the approaches, with a reserve on the 
vessel under construction, and if any of our men dropped to 
the bottom of any of the compartments, they had difficulty 
clambering out, for the walls were neatly joined and smooth 
and seven or eight feet in depth. 

On the 7th of November, 1861, the battle of Belmont was 
fought. We could hear the field guns distinctly. On the next 
day one of the transports brought the remains of some of our 
officers slain on that field to our levee to be expressed home. 
As we looked upon their pale faces, their hands crossed in 
eternal protest against the deep damnation of their taking off, 
treason and rebellion assumed their true significance. Men 
will volunteer for war whose physical qualifications are noth- 
ing short of a travesty on what a soldier should be. In our 
company we had a man built on the plan of the Platte River, 
which Artemus \Vard said would make a good river on its 
edge. This man had length and width, but no thickness. As 
he approached one could see distinctly through his transparent 
rigging without the aid of the .r-ray. The skull was always 
grinning, for he was a very good-natured fellow, and he was 
always sick and always eating. At the sutler's and elsewhere 
he kept his pockets replenished between meals. "M. Kom," 
namesake of the original at the Yellow Banks, called him "Old 

1 68 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Death." This man, after gliding spiritually throughout camp 
for a few months, was reabsorbed into private life. And I 
think at this precise moment he must be somewhere in this 
glorious Union in high feather with a big pension, for such 
people never die. 

At my readers' sufferance I will devote a few lines to the 
method of such creatures. Finding the Government more than 
willing to get rid of them, they returned home to play the game 
of the "coffee-cooler," to place himself in the swim, under the 
patronage of some gentleman recruiting to secure a commis- 
sion, through whose collusion he was sworn in again, securing 
the usual perquisites of city, township, county and occasion- 
ally private bounties, amounting in all to a considerable sum. 
The second enlistment would not last long. He would be dis- 
charged the second time probably, on the recommendation of 
the surgeon at the hospital. By this time he would have 
learned his lesson well, and presenting himself before some 
man who wanted to hire a substitute, he would be paid $1,000, 
perhaps more, to make once more the vicarious sacrifice. It 
is only fair to say that the men with whom I entered the serv- 
ice at the fall o!' Fort Sumter did so without a thought, hope 
or promise of reward of any kind. Bounties were then un- 
known, pensions unthought of. As noted elsewhere, we were 
paid in specie at the close of our service under the first call. 
Our first payment under the second enlistment was made in 
greenbacks (the first we had seen), crisp and clean, fresh from 
the press. Since the foundation of the Government our people 
had struggled with an uncertain, discounted, if not fraudulent 
shinplaster currency. And here it may be said in a word, but 
with the force of exact truth, that among the many blessings 
brought about by the Civil War was a stable, secure financial 
system, which came to its full and rounded perfection when 
the nation anchored at last on the resumption of specie pay- 
ments with the gold dollar as the unit of value. The green- 
backs (promises to pay) "five-twenties" they were called 
were indeed an epochal departure. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 169 

Uncle Sam was solvent (entirely so), but he had no 
money, and assassins were thirsting for his blood on all the 
horizon around. Honest man that he is, he took a simple, open, 
straightforward way. He issued promises to pay, founded on 
the wealth of the country. He fixed a time and manner of 
redemption. He signed the bond. At a later day the people 
called it "fiat" money, but the greenbacks were a "go" they 
went like Sampson's foxes and firebrands through the "stand- 
ing corn." The pockets of the people bulged out with them; 
prosperity prospered over again, and the North grew rich be- 
yond the dreams of avarice, as a direct result of the war. 
Calico sold at 25 cents a yard: but hogs brought n cents a 
pound on the hoof. Everybody took greenbacks, nothing 
doubting. I could fill my wallet with them in Chicago and the 
cashier at the bank in San Francisco or Boston would receive 
them without question. Not so under the old regime. Then 
the cashier would get out his "Bank-Note Detector," adjust 
his glasses and scrutinize columns of names and titles dignified 
as "Banks," where they kept in store a few old-style coppers, 
a poverty-stricken assortment of silver, and a coin or two of 
gold, all conspicuously displayed, and a ton of shinplasters, 
shown with less effrontery. In those days a cashier was em- 
ployed for his accomplishments as a persuader. His business 
was to stand at his window and convince people by some hocus- 
pocus that the shinplasters he was shoving at them would not 
expire before they could unload them on some other fellow. 
Here in the greenbacks we had a universal currency; a finan- 
cial heaven we had never aspired to and did not feel worthy 
of. We had discovered another Beatitude : "Blessed is he that 
hath a barrel of them." 

But our ancient enemy, John Bull, would have none of 
them. Andrew D. White in his memoirs gives testimony to the 
light in which the financial circles of London looked upon our 
issue of currency to carry on the war: "Drawing money one 
morning in one of the large banks of London, I happened to 
exhibit a few of the new national greenback notes which had 

ijo Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

been recently issued by our Government. The moment the 
clerk saw them he called out loudly, 'Don't offer us any of 
those things ; we don't take them ; they will never be good for 
anything.' I was greatly vexed, of course," says Mr. White, 
"but there was no help for it." John Bull sings a different 
song nowadays ! 

I took the clean bright bills from the paymaster and ex- 
pressed them home. Good money ! I had no doubt of it. 
Good as gold. Taken on faith ; faith in a good cause. Faith 
in God ! And I communed to myself : Uncle Sam's promise 
to pay had gone forth to the world. He must make good. 
And he has placed a rifle in my hands that carries nine hun- 
dred yards and sent me South on a righteous errand with this 
injunction, "See thou to that." There never was an hour dur- 
ing the four years that I did not feel the force of that obliga- 
tion. It bore me up through good and evil report; in light 
and darkness ; in weakness and strength ; down to that moment 
when, standing under the dripping trees in North Carolina in 
the driving rain, chilled to the marrow, we were told that Lee 
had surrendered ; that we must finish Joe Johnston ; and then 
we could go home ! 



During the winter of 1861-62 general orders were issued 
for the concentration of troops at Bird's Point, opposite Cairo, 
in Missouri, and on the Kentucky and Illinois shores in that 
vicinity, for a projected movement down the Mississippi un- 
der General John Pope, and a similar movement up the Ten- 
nessee against Fort Donelson, and on to Pittsburg Landing, 
under General U. S. Grant. Preparatory to these movements 
and for the purpose of confusing the enemy, our regiment be- 
came part of the 4th Brigade of 10,000 men, under the com- 
mand of Gen. John A. McClernand, to threaten the fortified 
rebel post at Columbus. It was a mid-winter march, the weath- 
er was severe, with a considerable fall of snow and rain, and 
the reconnaissance, while it fulfilled its purpose, was far from 
a round of pleasure ; the rough clay roads, worked into an 
almost impassable condition by the artillery and trains, made 
the progress of the infantry slow and difficult. While in camp 
at Fort Holt, after our return from this detour, an incident 
occurred which will throw light on the status of the slave at 
the opening of the war. We were still splitting hairs over 
the question, whether we were fighting to save the Union as 
it is, or as it ought to be. We had men on both sides of this 
question, and while the majority, if put to the test, undoubted- 
ly were anti-slavery, the North through observation had be- 
come so accustomed to the "peculiar institution" that many 
doubted whether we might or could get rid of it. Ben Butler 
bad not as yet defined the slave as contraband who had taken 
refuge within our lines. And so it came about that a young 
fugitive slave within our lines but a few hours gave rise to 


172 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

a new experience. McClernand, the commander of this expe- 
dition, was a radical pro-slavery politician. The slave's master 
had a clew or suspicion that his chattel was in hiding among 
the troops, and applied at the general's headquarters for as- 
sistance to recover him. There was an impression current 
that our regiment had possession of the colored boy ; the 
charge was in fact whispered around that the nigger was in 
E's wood-pile. The general's partisan zeal was aroused, and 
he applied at Colonel's Morgan's headquarters for informa- 
tion, but without result. When, as in blind man's buff, the 
search got warm, our men were non-committal; if questioned, 
they answered that they had not come South to hunt niggers. 
No discovery was made. The troops were under orders to 
move. The transports were at the landing to take the division 
across the river. McClernand had his spies out, and when the 
train came down to drive aboard, our wagon was searched and 
the young slave dragged out from under the load of tents and 
equipage and handed over to his master. This incident had 
a marked effect on our personal fortunes. McClernand's prej- 
udices were aroused against us, and our regiment was omitted 
from the troops selected to fight the battles of Fort Donelson 
and Shiloh. But for that colored boy doubtless the bones of 
many of us would now be resolving to earth on those famous 

On a bright day in February, after a season of prolonged, 
dismal, severe weather, I was standing on the levee at Cairo 
when a fleet of transports, coming down the Ohio, landed the 
Confederate prisoners from Fort Donelson and were taken on 
to Rock Island. It was an impressive scene and rejoiced the 
hearts of the loyal North. 

In compliance with a general order for the concentration 
of 'troops, the Tenth Illinois made its final exit from the 
preparatory school at Mound City and winter quarters in 
cabins at Bird's Point, on the Mississippi shore, opposite Cairo, 
whence we entered upon those great campaigns under Gen- 
erals Pope. Halleck, Rosecrans, Thomas, Grant, and finally 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 173 

Sherman, which terminated, so far as I was personally con- 
cerned, on the 4th day of July, 1865, after the exhausted Con- 
federate armies had surrendered and our Government rested 
once more in the peace and security of restored sovereignty. 

While at this camp I was forced to go to the hospital for 
the first and the only time during the war, b) a severe cold, 
akin to pneumonia, and I believe was diagnosed as such by 
one of the surgeons. I was convalescing when the troops broke 
camp and marched South at the opening of the spring cam- 
paign, and I stood in the doorway to greet my regiment as it 
passed by, feeling blue as it disappeared from view in the 
woods. In a few days, feeling stronger, I insisted on rejoining 
my regiment, against the remonstrances of those in charge at 
the hospital. Although not at all strong, I felt well, excepting a 
tender throat, and shouldering my traps, I boarded a "bob-tail" 
train, which took us as far as Sykeston, where I took the high- 
way in company with others for the front, which we reached 
in the evening. The weather being mild, I regained strength 
and resumed my duties. Our brigade occupied a camp within 
a few miles of the rebel fortifications at New Madrid, an old 
town founded by the Spanish when under their jurisdiction. 

My first glimpse of Gen. John Pope was had at this camp 
during a review of the troops, when he rode down our front 
at break-neck speed on his dapple-gray charger. This per- 
formance was intended to be very impressive, but something 
in the appearance of the horse and the rider made it both 
ridiculous and comical. General George B McClellan's per- 
formance in the same role, while more grandiose, had essen- 
tially the same effect. I never could rid myself of the comical 
figure our dear old President, Abraham Lincoln, used to make 
on review as I read of it in the dispatches, for I certainly 
never had the opportunity nor the desire to see him in the 
act his tall, angular figure, his small horse, the long legs, the 
tall silk hat, his coat-tails in horizontal display while in pursuit 
of a possible jack-rabbit for anything the troops could de- 
termine by the performance. 

174 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

I cannot say certainly, but I do not believe Ulysses S. 
Grant ever thus displayed himself for the delectation of be- 
holders. It is possible that Julius Caesar wert down his lines 
with such speed as he could thump into an ass. and military 
gentlemen in all the ages have been loth to surrender the priv- 
ilege; on the other hand, there is the sense of majesty and 
power in an immense army, such as the Army of the Cumber- 
land before the battle of Stone River, passing in review before 
General Rosecrans at Nashville; or the army that made the 
March to the Sea passing in review before General Sherman 
:in Exchange Square, Savannah ; or the same army, at Raleigh, 
.North Carolina, after it had completed the historic campaigns 
in Georgia and the Carolinas, passing in review before the 
group of historic mounted figures, in repose, composed of 
Grant, Sherman, Howard, Slocum, Schofield, Terrill, Schurz, 
Logan, and many other distinguished soldiers. Such pictures 
as that, or the Grand Review at Washington, are epochal tab- 
leaus that remain fixed in the memory and are beyond criticism. 



On the 1 2th of March, 1862, in the evening twilight, our 
brigade formed and silently moved out from camp, the artil- 
lery muffled, and the men cautioned against making unusual 
noise. Conversation, when indulged, was in undertones. In 
the darkness of the moonless night the column moved like an 
immense serpent winding in and out through the openings of 
the forest. I was in the file at the head of our company with 
Lieutenant Sam Wilson and Captain Carr, whose company 
(H) preceded us in the column. That officer was a veteran 
of the Mexican War, of middle age, who had seen much of 
the world; was devoted to the service, and kept his men well 
in hand. We chatted in low tones as we marched along, Cap- 
tain Carr admonishing his men at intervals against the clat- 
ter of their canteens, or the querulous voice of some man 
who had difficulty in getting along amicably with his neighbor. 
We passed rapidly along in the darkness, and soon debouched 
upon an open field. Our engineers and staff officers were at 
hand and under their guidance we were drawn up in line 
facing the rebel works ; stacked arms ; and in the inky darkness 
found a line of rail-fence, which we lifted bodily, noiselessly, 
and extended along our front as a base for a breastwork ; then 
with our trenching tools, working like beavers, we soon had 
an effective defense against the enemy's siege guns, for at 
daylight we would be an easy mark for his trained gunners 
at the rebel fort. We were now up against the first notable" 
obstruction of the Mississippi south of Cairo, which consisted 
of a formidable earthwork and siege guns and a line of de- 
fense works for infantry, a fleet of gunboats on the river, and 


176 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

the fortifications on Island No. 10 above. On the left of our 
line four siege guns were placed in position protected by a 
still heavier earthwork. While we were engaged in this work 
not a shot had been exchanged. If the rebel pickets heard us, 
they relied upon their ears rather than upon their rifles for 
entertainment. The silence remained unbroken, till Captain 
Carr left his company at their work in the trenches and went 
out on our front to reconnoitre on his own account. There 
was a lane running at right angles to our line of works, and 
along the "worm" fence the captain stole quietly. He loved 
his pipe, and in an unfortunate moment stopped and struck a 
match ! That was the rebel sharp-shooters' opportunity, and 
in the glare of that little blaze the veteran received a mortal 
wound. He was carried to the farm-house near by, where he 
died shortly afterward. In the early dawn, our earthworks 
having been completed, there was a lively exchange of Minie 
balls, and the gunners in the rebel fort, discovering a big black 
hunch in the corn-field which they had never seen before, 
trained some of the best rifled pieces on it and made the morn 
ing exercises interesting for Captain Joe Mower and his men. 
The captain (later a major-general) in command of our divis- 
ion, and later of our corps, was a fighter, but he was out- 
classed with his little hunchback of earthwork and four guns 
against a deliberately built fort of approved pattern. 

During our second night under the rebel batteries our 
company was on the outposts, where in the silence we could 
hear much that was going on behind the enemies' lines. There 
was a "racket" throughout most of the night, their lights were 
gleaming, their band played continuously, and there was the 
rumble and tumult as of reinforcements coming in. The 
truth proved to be, they were going on board their transports 
in a panic, evacuating all their works, leaving valuable prop- 
erty behind them. At daylight we found their tents standing, 
lights burning in them and breakfast on the tables, and mili- 
tary stores in quantity and the heavy guns in the fort fell into 
our hands. The result was that during the unequal duel which 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 177 

extended throughout the previous day, a center shot from the 
rebel fort nearly buried Colonel Smith of the i6th Illinois and 
another broke the muzzle off one of our big guns, putting it 
out of the game. The captain smiled grimly (a man in a fight 
always smiles "grimly," I believe, if he is able to work his facial 
muscles at all) and landed another shot a little closer than be- 
fore ; at all events, the captain took a look at the enemy's coign 
of vantage after we got possession of it, and found one of his 
guns dismounted and his household furniture piled up in a 

Along with our work on this day there was something do- 
ing down at Point Pleasant pointed but unpleasant for the 
rebel Commodore Hollis, which shut him out of the mixup. The 
Mississippi is a nice stream to travel on if you have the stuff 
which entitles you to a first-cabin passage and a "Northern 
line" table to lunch at with a seat on the right of the captain, 
and provided there are no hunting parties out looking for big 
game. Up to this hour in the Commodore's life he had smooth 
sailing, but on a night a Yankee battery was neatly fitted into 
a depression made for it at the "Point" and a lot of our best 
wing shots stood in the rifle-pits, looking bland and smiling out 
over the water, and, as usual, the unsuspicious Commodore 
came along with his flock of "Turtles," and our boys scared 
him so he has not been heard of to this day. As a further 
diversion, during the afternoon the rebels formed a small in- 
fantry force out of our sight and played the old trick of march- 
ing it around and around through the fort as a continuous 
line- of reinforcements, but really dropping out of sight be- 
hind the fort and coming in again, an endless chain. We were 
unbelievers and smiled as we looked at the performance. 

General Pope made the following official report of these 
operations : 

"The loth and i6th Illinois, commanded respectively by 
Colonels J. D. Morgan and J. R. Smith, were detailed as 
guards to the prosposed trenches and to aid in constructing 
them. They marched from camp at sunset on the i2th in- 

178 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

stant, and drove in the pickets and grand guards of the enemy 
as they were ordered, at shouldered arms, without firing a 
shot ; covered the front of the intrenching parties and occupied 
the trenches and rifle-pits during the whole day and night of 
the 1 3th, under furious and incessant cannonading from sixty 
pieces of heavy artillery. At the earnest request of their Colo- 
nels, their regimental flags were kept flying over our trenches, 
though they offered a conspicuous mark to the enemy. 

"The coolness, courage and cheerfulness of these troops, 
exposed for two nights and a day to the furious fire of the 
enemy at close range, and to the severe storm which raged 
during the whole night of the I3th, are beyond all praise, and 
delighted and astonished every officer who witnessed it.'" 

General Pope says in another connection, referring to this 
movement : 

"One brigade, consisting of the roth and i6th Illinois, 
under Colonel Morgan, of the loth, was detailed to cover the 
construction of the battery and to work in the trenches. They 
were supported by General Stanley's division, consisting of 
the 27th, 43d and 63d Ohio. Captain Mower, of the ist U. S. 
Infantry, with Companies A and H of his regiment, was placed 
in charge of the siege guns. 

"The enemy's pickets and grand guards were driven in by 
Colonel Morgan from the ground selected for the battery, with- 
out firing a shot, although the enemy fired several volleys of 
musketry. The work was prosecuted in silence and with the 
utmost rapidity until at 3 o'clock A. M. two small redoubts, con- 
nected by a curtain and mounting the four heavy guns which 
had been sent me, were completed, together with rifle-pits in 
front and on the flanks, for two regiments of infantry. Our 
batteries opened as soon as the day dawned and were replied 
to in front and on the flanks by the whole of the enemy's heavy 
artillery on land and water." 

We had in our company an educated Virginian, Absalom 
Martin, for whom I felt a warm admiration on account of his 
literary quality. By the aid of a good memory he would plunge 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 179 

into the English classics and help me to divert the tedious 
hours in camp. He had a premonition of his fate. We were 
seated on our breastworks one evening after the enemy had 
ceased firing at us, when he said to me: "If I should fall dur- 
ing this revolution [I use the exact words], I want you to 
write to my wife and tell her all about me." I replied that I 
would be glad if I should never have occasion to comply with 
his request. His ordinary mood was that of a cheerful good 
humor, and although physically too weighty a man for active 
service, he got along very well until after the close of our opei 
ations around New Madrid, when it was noticed, while on the 
transports going South, that he was not well. On our return 
up river, on the way to Pittsburg Landing, during a stop at 
Cairo, he was sent to the hospital. From thence he was for- 
warded on a hospital steamer, along with hundreds of others, 
to one of the large general hospitals in St. Louis, from whence 
we were notified of his death. The letter from his wife in 
response to one from me concerning him was painful reading. 
Concurrently our friends were busy up at the Island. 
Colonel Roberts (that gallant, deeply lamented hero of the 
42d Illinois, who fell at Stone River), with a picked squad of 
his boys, dropped in upon General McKown at vespers and 
spiked his guns, and on a stormy night the "Pittsburg" ran 
the rebel batteries and got safely down to the New Madrid 
landing, where we were waiting for it. Withal, the opening 
along the bayous for the transports had been completed, and 
while our brigade stood in arms on the shore, lo ! a steamer 
came walking, as it were, out of the woods, landed, and took 
us aboard. There was a rebel earthwork on the opposite shore 
and the "Pittsburg" dropped out into the stream and sent a 
few plunging shots at it. There was no response, and the 
transports carried us promptly to the Tennessee shore, and a 
foot-race began to interpose our force across the rebel line of 
retreat from the Island above. Our brigade had the advance ; 
quick time was made, and before night came on we had taken 
up our positions with strong picket forces out. Our own com- 

i8o Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life, 

pany occupied an outpost, where we took prisoners in number 
equal to our own strength regular Arkansas travelers ; armed 
with frontier "toothpicks," home-made, on the anvil, and rifles, 
muskets and revolvers and every description of shot-gun that 
had been made up to that time ; one of these a giant shot-gun 
that only a giant could carry or wish to fire. During the night 
the commander of the rebel army at the Island, whose forces 
we had barred in their efforts to escape, sent in a communica- 
tion asking for terms of surrender. These having been agreed 
upon, the rebel army (infantry and batteries) filed onto open 
ground, nearer the river, in the vicinity of a hamlet named 
Tiptonville, close at hand, and stacked their arms. I cannot 
say that the stars in their courses contributed to our success 
in these operations, or that our foe lacked courage and skill. 
I am sure that those rebel soldiers of the Southwest lacked 
nothing essential to the real soldier. The use of fire-arms, and 
fighting of one kind or another, was an everyday affair with 
them almost a pastime ; and I feel that I am stating the exact 
truth in saying that those backwoodsmen whom our company 
corraled as prisoners at our outpost could, man for man, have 
"wiped the ground" with us on a fair field and no favor. 

The reasons for our success include some curious facts. 
Precisely fifty years in advance of our appearance before New 
Madrid a great convulsion of Nature had changed the features 
of the landscape from the mouth of the Ohio River to the St. 
Francis. Where once had been level farming lands and high 
plateaus covered by the ancient forest, appeared lakes of great 
depth or depressions difficult to pass. The seismic disturb- 
ances of 1811-16 (for they covered the interval between these 
years) involved this whole region and were the severest in the 
immediate vicinity of our operations. No disturbance of the 
kind recorded since the landing of Columbus could compare 
with it. The best authorities state the movements were of 
two kinds a perpendicular and the horizontal ; that the latter 
was the most destructive; that it moved in immense waves, 
increasing in size as they progressed until they were the height 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 181 

of the trees, which tossed and tumbled together, the earth 
opening and discharging great volumes of water, sand, coal 
and rock. Whole districts of fertile country were covered to 
a depth with white sand, and in other places the earth and 
forest sank, forming lakes some of them twenty miles in length. 
Adjutant Theodore Wiseman, of our brigade, assured me that 
previous to the war he had passed in a hunting-boat with his 
fowling-piece over submerged forests in this region, the trees 
standing upright where they had sunk. The grave-yard of 
New Madrid and large tracts of land with it were swallowed 
up by the great river, and chasms and crevices appeared across 
which the few inhabitants of the country crawled upon trees 
where they happened to span these gulfs. As a result of this 
earthquake the region around Island No. 10 which since the 
close of the war has wholly disappeared in the current of the 
Mississippi extending on clown the river and embracing all 
the country on both shores below New Madrid, was so broken 
up by lakes and the scars of this convulsion that the passage 
out from the Island by an army under the restrictions of an 
investment was not a job to be relished by the most competent 
of military commanders. The difficulties of the situation were 
greatly increased by high water. The Father of Waters was 
rolling one of his immense spring tides to the sea and was a 
majestic spectacle. The tributary streams were overflowing, 
and I hive said enough to show that the Confederacy was in 
hard luck in her struggle with Nature, to say nothing of John 
Pope and his army. 

A field battery of the Washington artillery (the pride of 
the South), manned by young bloods from New Orleans, was 
a part of the trophies of this campaign. These gallant young 
French Creoles and their beautiful brass guns won our sym- 
pathies, and I had an interesting talk with a lieutenant of the 
company as we stood on the shore looking out over the great 
river. He was courteous, intelligent, undismayed by their ill 
fortune, and had a rock-rooted faith that the South would 
never be overcome. Our prisoners followed those of Fort 

1 82 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Donelson to Rock Island, while a fleet of transports assembled 
at New Madrid, and, convoyed by the flotilla of gunboats, the 
Army of the Mississippi descended the river to a point on the 
Arkansas shore in the vicinity of Chickasaw Bluffs, the next 
fortified stronghold placed to dispute our passage. It was a 
notable scene our descent of the river; so many of the 
steamers, often in full view, crowded with troops: hesitating 
at intervals on the broad bosom of the water, at a signal of 
caution from the iron-clads which were the advance guard, 
on the discovery of one of the enemy's "Turtles," half hid 
around the point of an island, when the boom of one of our 
rifled chasers woke the deep echoes of the desolate region. 



The surprises, involving sudden change of direction and 
thwarting well-laid schemes, during the Civil War, are well 
illustrated in the change in our fortunes while waiting in this 
Arkansas camp for the order to advance. We were startled 
by the news from Shiloh, and, under an order from Washing- 
ton, re-embarked and made the long journey back to Cairo and 
up the Tennessee River to Hamburg, where I met Will H. 
Scroggs, an old classmate, who make a diagram with his finger 
on the ground to show me the position of his regiment and 
the general line occupied by our troops at the battle of Pitts- 
burg Landing. We had a close personal interest in this fight, 
for our old colonel (later general), Ben M. Prentiss, and most 
of his division, after a prolonged struggle, were surrounded 
and captured and taken to Richmond. The Army of the 
Mississippi (now no longer such), under Gen. John Pope, be- 
came the left wing of Gen. Halleck's grand army, and advanced 
on Corinth, along the Farmington road. Halleck's entire force 
comprised more than 100,000 men, and it was an army worthy 
of any commander. The enemy kept us busy. After the ex- 
perience at Shiloh, we were wary and made our reconnaissance 
in force. General E. H. Paine, of Monmouth, a West Point 
graduate, was our brigade commander. He was a man of 
"nerve," and in many respects an accomplished soldier. Our 
first reconnaissance was in a heavily wooded country, so diffi- 
cult to operate in, for almost every step in advance was a sur- 
prise of some kind. The "Yates Sharp-shooters," armed with 
globe-sighted rifles, were our close comrades and the appoint- 
ed skirmishers of our brigade. At a crossing, close to the edge 


184 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

of the dark, heavy timber, a number of the enemy were killed 
trying to get over an open space to a refuge. On the low 
ground we halted for a few moments, when a neatly dressed 
young rebel officer came out of the woods on our company's 
front to give himself up, crying out to us not to fire upon him 
"Don't fire, gentlemen," he said ; he was submissive now, but 
afterward, when he found he was being treated according to 
the rules of civilized warfare, he became very abusive. Be- 
yond this timber there was high open ground, which the enemy 
stubbornly held. There was some delay, when General Paine, 
becoming restless, passed through our lines, and having made 
his observations, we forced our way under fire out upon ris- 
ing, open ground. Our line was now the target for an enemy 
we could not see in the woods west of us. At this moment 
Houghteling's Battery passed us like a flash, unlimbered on a 
knoll on our right and shelled the woods, which we followed 
up with a charge that cleared our front of the enemy for 
that day. 

It was a warm morning in May when the long roll called 
us to arms. Our camp was on a high wooded ridge with open- 
ings to the south upon the Farmington plains, a park-like 
plateau, with copses of wood here and there, and covered with 
l)luegrass. Looking south upon this partially open country, 
we saw an army with banners like a stereoscopic picture 
suddenly cast upon canvas a reconnoitering force, twenty 
thousand strong, led by John C. Breckenridge. The facts were 
as we now know them to be: Beauregard's army in Corinth 
was getting ready to abscond and did not wish to be crowded 
in the act, fearing it might not be a success ; hence this bluff 
(the battle of Farmington) on our front this day. Our army 
was drawn up in line to receive them, and at one or two 
points of contact there was severe fighting, but the Confed- 
erate force withdrew without bringing on a general engage- 
ment. Following up this diversion, we advanced to the village 
and threw up a formidable line of breastworks. Tarrying here 
briefly, we advanced within striking distance of Corinth. Here 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 185 

was a beautiful pasture-like country studded with parks of 
"Napoleons," or "rifled parrots," and all the paraphernalia of 
a great army. As our lines of circumvallation shortened a 
portion of this splendid equipment was necessarily held in re- 
serve. On the last day of our operations on the front of 
Beauregard's army we came into line in the early morning. 
We occupied the south line of an open field, across which, 
posted along the edge of a wood, were the rebel outposts. As 
we stood in line waiting, the "Yates Sharp-shooters" deployed 
rapidly upon our front and passed gallantly across the field 
in face of the enemy. We held our breath for a time, fearing 
some of our lads would fall ; but they employed the Zouave 
trick of always keeping in motion, and the line, including the 
major in command on his black charger, coolly riding up and 
down with his men, had a wonderful escape. As I remember, 
only one or two were wounded. Our line of battle was many 
miles in length through swamp and thicket, over hills, across 
gullies, at the door of farm-houses, closing in on all sides of 
the fortified town except a door of escape by the B. & O. Rail- 
road, which it was the Confederate commander's especial care 
to keep open. At intervals along the line sharp fighting took 
place. The day was occupied on our own front in forcing 
our way close up under the rebel works, the yellow clay of 
which we had glimpses of through the woods. An infantry 
force came out under cover of the thick underbrush on our 
front to dispute our further advance, and our sharp-shooters 
had to withdraw. At the moment one of our batteries opened 
on them with grape. Between the volleys a remnant of our 
skirmish-line ran crouching back into our lines. We looked 
for the enemy to advance upon us, but he refused our chal- 
lenge. At nightfall we supped on what we had in our haver- 
sacks and lay down in our blankets, guessing on the morrow. 
At midnight we were suddenly aroused by a succession of ex- 
plosions which could be heard for miles, accompanied by the 
prolonged cheering of the rebel troops. Now, Beauregard 
might have sneaked away more easily than to have kept his 

1 86 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

men out of their blankets yelling themselves hoarse trying to 
make the impression that they were receiving reinforcements. 
We stood in groups in our blankets in the chill night air (in 
the South the temperature is low from midnight to dawn and 
our ponchos reeked with dew when we woke up), assuring one 
another that the rebel army was destroying what they could 
not carry away. The rumbling of trains was incessant, loaded 
with our departing friends in their hurried flight. 

In the wake of our cavalry our brigade had the advance 
in the pursuit, for a portion of the retreating army occupied 
the roads leading south from the town. As we entered the 
village but one man greeted us a typical hook-nosed Jew with 
a peddler's pack on his back. He crawled out of a wet brush- 
heap and solicited comradeship. The wandering Jew is the 
real thing when we want to label a man doing business under 
difficulties. We came up with the rebel rear guard at the 
Hatchie River. They had burned the bridge, and their cavalry 
videttes occupied the south bank. At this point our pursuing 
cavalry suffered a severe check and retired in our favor. They 
came upon this ground in the early morning hours, before it 
was yet dawn, cautiously feeling their way. At a sharp turn 
in the road, close to the bridge, the advance was literally 
blown from the muzzles of a rebel battery ambushed to cover 
the approach. The spot, marked by the dead horses, was the 
subject of remarks as we passed. Our company (E) was here 
detailed to advance and discover the strength of the rebel 
videttes holding this crossing. We filed down into the woods 
to the left of the burned bridge and advanced at will toward 
the river bank, each man selecting his own cover from whence 
he could fire upon the ambushed enemy waiting for us on the 
opposite bank. We were well to the front, having gained a 
hundred yards advance, when Sergeant George W. Cowden 
had his arm broken by a shot from the hidden foe. As we 
could not charge him across the stream, we poured a volley 
into the brush where he was hidden, with good effect, for he 
decamped without ceremony. The pursuit of Beauregard's 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 187 

army was given over to our cavalry, and we went into camp 
at Big Springs near Corinth. We were here during the black- 
berry season and recovered from the fatigues of the campaign 
indulging in pie sicklied o'er with the pale cast of crust con- 
structed without those helps down in milady's cook-book a& 
the shortening and baking powder. They were just cobbled 
those pies. Possibly Martha Washington regaled Uncle George 
with something better, as she had saleratus and sour milk. I 
don't know. The boys dug a hole in the side of the hill and 
built what they called an oven, where they baked those pies. 
I did not think it good manners to inquire too closely about 
that oven. I contemplated it respectfully at a distance. Some- 
how our pies had no color. They must have had tuberculosis, 
for they perished prematurely. 

Dave Sage was our tonsorial artist at this point, famed 
for the superior style of his "cut," and for the way he in- 
spired the boys to spruce up. When David got through with 
the army, the men looked like a lot of dudes. When he had 
trimmed and slicked up the last man, he had hair enough on 
hand to start a hair-mattress factory. He was our pride, and 
distinguished for his versatile talents. When he took a patron 
in hand, he finished him for a swell function of any kind. He 
shaved him and "shingled" him, stuck mint in his nose, sham- 
pooed and manicured him, laid him on a board and pinched 
and punched and slapped and rolled him under massage, rub- 
bed in some skin food, shook him, and made him stand up like 
a man and look like somebody. 



At the close of a day's march toward Tuscumbia, Ala- 
bama, at nightfall, supper over, we gathered our mounts on 
short notice (a group of the line officers and subalterns) and 
struck off at right angles into the enemy's country for a moon- 
shiner's headquarters of which we had been advised by one 
of our scouts. An hour's rapid riding from our outposts 
brought us into a desolate, uninhabited, hilly region within 
striking distance of the rebel cavalery. We slowed down and 
advanced cautiously with a small, alert, advance guard. There 
was no moon and the darkness and silence made our ears re- 
ceptive of every sign or noise outside of our own group. 
About 9 o'clock we came suddenly upon the cluster of cabins 
well within a small canyon, withdrawn from the prying world 
without, which composed the "still" characteristic of the South 
in ante-bellum days, where, judging from the quantities of 
ancient pumice lying in heaps around, the quality of "chain 
lightning" known as peach brandy had been manufactured for 
a hundred years. Having posted pickets, we took an inventory 
of the "still" in the darkness. The premises stank of alcohol. 
Strong as the odors were, they were so conflicting that we 
could not locate the best in stock in the darkness by smell 
alone, and we strode noiselessly to the door of the moon- 
shiner's cabin and tapped it softly, one, two, three, and an 
object came to the door and we said to it, "Stranger, we are 
around looking at the country for an uncle of ours : have you 
anything at hand with which to cheer belated travelers?" 
With great apparent alacrity, but with a subdued, apprehen- 
sive voice, the figure out of the darkness answered : "It 's likker 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 189 

you'ns 'd like?" "Stranger," replied the captain, "you 're warm; 
hand her out." Without ado, the old mountaineer rolled a keg 
out at the door, saying, "Thar ain't much in yer, but it 's all 
1 hev." The contents were drawn into canteens, the cabin- 
door closed softly, and we were promptly on the road for 
camp. We had hardly got away from the "still" when at a 
low signal we stood motionless in the road. There was a 
movement at the front which cast a doubt in the minds of our 
advance, and the riders parted equally to each side of the road, 
sheltered in the heavy forest, and stood on their guard, listen- 
ing and waiting. After a brief interval and a sign of restored 
confidence, we covered the miles into camp at a rattling pace. 
The round trip had been made in comparative silence, and was 
wholly free of bibulous traits. It was undertaken at the in- 
stance of John Tillson and other headquarters gentlemen of 
like tastes, simply to equip their circle with the cup which 
cheers. I joined the expedition with no better motive than 
that of adventure. 

Of the many beautiful springs in the South at luka, 
Huntsville, Nashville, and Rome from \vhich we filled our 
canteens, I am sure the spring at Tuscumbia is the most won- 
derful of all, worthy of a journey of a thousand miles to see. 
It rushes from the rock a river in volume and, like the jester in 
cap and bells, goes plunging and dancing away over the rocks, 
glittering in the sunlight and shaking with merriment. If I 
were an artist, I would return to Tuscumbia and lay upon 
my canvas the old colored "auntie" coming up from the 
spring, with the turban of color around her head, a pail of 
water balanced upon it, her pickaninnies happy all the day, in 
her train. 

On one of the lonely hillsides near that town we buried 
one of our Swede boys. Alabama "Here we rest." It used 
to be said of one of Henry Clay's partisans that he would 
go twenty miles to hear Kentucky's great Whig orator pro- 
nounce the name "Alabama." Our family used to have in 
Henderson County a friend (Allen Briskey by name peace 

190 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

to his ashes!) who had two distinguishing characteristics: he 
was from Alabama and, as the boys in the Army used to say, 
he "stood lots of rest." 

The seizure of cotton by Government agents and by pri- 
vate parties began first to attract my attention at Tuscumbia. 
The leader in this business near our camp was a Jew, and this 
fact did not tend to confirm my conviction that it was a 
"square deal." The great staple of commerce was moic to 
be desired than fine gold. A few bales surreptitiously tuins- 
ported within our lines and cashed would place the possessor 
on the road to independence. A book might be written on "The 
Adventures of a Cotton Broker during the Civil War." A cer- 
tain well-known officer in our command may have been baited, 
or he may have made a study of "How to Get Rich Quick" in 
the cotton business prior to the summer of 1862, but I think 
the beginning of his criminal connivance should be dated at 
Tuscumbia. Here was an opportunity for graft, and the career 
of the officer in question furnishes a striking example of how 
easily one may barter away an honorable position in the serv- 
ice and the respect of his neighbors at home for money vir- 
tually stolen, and which betrayed, him at last into abject pover- 
ty and the forfeiture of home and friends. 

Little thought we as we marched away from Corinth, 
Mississippi, that in a very few brief months it would be the 
scene of one of the most fiercely contested battles of the Civil 
War. "Old Rosey," however, drove Price and Van Dorn 
away in disastrous rout, and after much sparring for an open- 
ing between Generals Buell and Bragg, the next move on the 
military chessboard resulted in a foot-race for Louisville. 
When the course of events left no doubt of this fact, the Gov- 
ernment resolved not to give up the capital of Tennessee, feel- 
ing a proprietary interest in a State which contained so many 
Union men like Andy Johnson and Parson Brownlow, and 
which had made so many sacrifices in life and property in a 
great cause. As these two armies left the South for the Ohio 
River, our division, in command of General John M. Palmer, 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 191 

marched to Nashville, crossing the Tennessee River at Athens, 
and advanced north through Pulaski, Columbia and Franklin. 
We were molested more or less all the way by guerrillas, who 
killed or captured our men as occasion offered. As we left 
our camp on Duck River, opposite Columbia, the bushwhackers 
gathered in considerable force and some of our men were 
driven away from the spring where they were filling their 
canteens ; but, as our column was stretched far out on the road, 
no halt was made to exchange shots. This running fight with 
guerrillas did not cease till we had passed Franklin. 



At Nashville we were isolated in the enemy's country, 
having neither rations nor communication with our military 
leaders save by courier, which was a dangerous business at 
that time. The city was full of spies and other enemies, and 
we were liable to attack at any time by independent forces, 
such as Forrest's cavalry, or other marauders of the guerrilla 
type. We prepared for this by enclosing the city in a rude 
breastwork and by a series of fortifications, of which Fort 
Negley was the chief; albeit this fortification was in a crude 
state for some months, but afterward, when completed, a 
formidable defense, armed with heavy artillery in bomb-proof 
casements. Our regiment occupied this fort for some months. 
Rations had to be supplied by our wits : and a systematic 
search of the cellars of the city resulted in finding a quantity 
of cured pork in a condition bordering on putrefaction, and 
in a limited supply of flour and corn meal. With this pork 
and accessories we invited the bubonic plague, dysentery and 
the malignant fevers that find a hospitable home in the South 
in the sultry season. As for forage, the brigade marched into 
the country in force with a train of empty Army wagons, and 
having marked the plantations where the cribs were well sup- 
plied, outposts were stationed on all the approaches and the 
wagons, loaded, returning to the city heavy laden. Some of 
our men were captured in small squads when they ventured 
out along the turnpikes in search of something to fill their 
haversacks. Reports of guerrillas in force came in almost 
daily, and there were collisions of more or less importance, 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 193 

and finally we prepared for an attack, threatened by Forrest. 
The situation was considered serious enough to justify Gen- 
eral Granger in coming to the fort and carefully studying 
through his glass the movements of Forrest and his men on 
our front. The enemy, not finding what he was looking for 
(an opportunity to surprise us), reconsidered his purpose and 

The State's prison is in the suburb east of the city. Here 
the military prisoners were confined, including those under 
sentence by the general courts-martial. One day our brigade 
was called out and marched to the level ground on the east- 
ern outskirts of the city. In the column was an Army wagon 
containing a coffin and a prisoner in irons seated thereon. On 
reaching our destination, we "formed square," the wagon and 
the prisoner at the center, where was an open grave. The 
coffin was placed on the ground and a guard conducted the 
condemned man to his seat on the coffin as before. He sat 
facing the west. An official of the military court read the 
charges and specifications and the sentence of the court. An 
officer of the line then stepped forward and blindfolded the 
prisoner, and at a silent signal another officer with a file of 
sharp-shooters faced the prisoner at a distance of ten paces 
and cocked their guns out of his hearing. Some of the rifles 
were loaded with ball and others were not. In silence, at a 
signal, the men aimed at his heart; at a signal they fired. 
For an instant the body sat upright, then fell over backward, 
and the column moved quietly away at the word. Not all the 
deserters from the service had the good fortune to receive 
clemency at the hands of that most merciful of all men 
Abraham Lincoln. On another occasion our regiment had a 
painful duty to perform. A troop of Pennsylvania cavalry 
had refused to obey orders. They were picked men blue- 
bloods from the old "Keystone" State, who claimed to have 
been "inveigled" into the service (poor credulous dupes) as 
the body-guard of General George B. McClellan, whereas it 
was sought to put them to baser uses to feel for the enemy 

1*94 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

if happily they might find him, and put him to rout. Here 
was another rebellion and it was up to Uncle. Sam to put it 
down. The general sent for Colonel Morgan; explained the 
situation to him, and told him to take his regiment out to the 
cavalry camp west of the city, and bring those boys; to head- 
quarters, boots and saddles. The next morning the old Tenth 
halted in front of the Pennsylvania troopers' camp ; faced ; 
came to "rest," and were ordered to load. Under all circum- 
stances the colonel was a man of few words and full of busi- 
ness, : and addressing the descendants of William Penn, said 
to them : "You will be given twenty minutes to mount and 
fall into line with this battalion." One of the leaders came out 
of his tent bareheaded and in his shirt-sleeves (a company 
officer probably), armed with some manuscript flapdoodle, and 
began to pluck the tail-feathers of the national bird savagely ; 
but it was noticed that at the expiration of about five min- 
utes the majority of the men were out at the tethering-rope, 
drawing cinches with the saddle-girths. Our conception of 
liberty is so broad within the boundaries of these States that 
we don't want to mind anybody anywhere at any time. 

Andrew Johnson was the Military Governor of the State 
and during our occupation of the city he had convened a pro- 
visional legislature, representing the loyal counties or all the 
counties by loyal representatives, and the leaders who were 
faithful to the Constitution and laws of the Government were 
familiar figures in the halls of the Capitol and on the streets- 
such men as Parson Brownlow, Plorace Maynard and Judge 
IJawkins. But there was a gathering of another sort from the 
remote corners and mountain fastnesses of the State which 
was an object of pathetic interest, the refugees from Confed- 
erate oppression the patriots of this and other rebel States, 
separated from their homes and families by the Davis con- 
scription. Scores of these hunted men assembled at times, 
apparently without shelter, on the outskirts of the city. Many 
of them lost their lives in east Tennessee, and a considerable 
number in other parts of the South, especially in Missouri and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 195 

Texas. In the latter State from two to three thousand lives 
were taken by local vendetta on the plea that they were not in 
sympathy with the rebellion. Those who were fit for military 
duty were organized in one or another branch of the Union 
service (cavalry mostly) and. in a sense, provided for in that 

The women of the capital city of Tennessee (chiefly the 
wealthy class surcharged with the spirit of treason) had one 
amusing method, among many, of showing on which side their 
sympathies lay, by coming out on the veranda as the Union 
soldier passed by, and calling their dog : "Come, Beauregard ! 
now, Beauregard! will you come?" 

The large buildings in the city, such as the medical school, 
the seminaries, the factory buildings, were taken by the Gov- 
ernment for hospitals and they were constantly full to reple- 
tion. At the convalescent hospital, on a Sunday afternoon, 
in the large hallway, there was usually an improvised semi- 
religious service or "talk." The leader, often a distinguished 
visitor of the Sanitary Commission, like Lydia Alaria Child, 
of Philadelphia, her hair snowy white, the sweet motherly face 
of fine intelligence, set off by the Quaker cap of lace. The 
halt, lame and blind, or nearly so, from the great battle-fields, 
gathered eagerly around her while she gave out in simple 
words those truths which we need to have repeated to us every 
day, and which are as old as the race. 

After the battle of Perryville, General William S. Rose- 
crans succeeded to the command of the newly organized Army 
of the Cumberland. My first glimpse of him was over in Mis- 
sissippi near Corinth. We were in column on the march when 
he dashed by us alone, a stout-built soldier in fatigue dress 
and cavalry boots. The army was reviewed by him on the 
outskirts of Nashville near the close of the year 1862. lie 
appeared to advantage, and scanned the troops closely for de- 
ficiencies of every kind more thoroughly, I believe, than I had 
ever seen it done. He had many of the traits of a popular 
commander, and some of his noblest c|ualifications. He nar- 

196 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

rowly missed being the idol of the North during the Civil War. 
"Old Rosey" was once a name to conjure with, and his men 
saw him go away after Chickamauga with a pang. I saw him 
in Nashville on his way North from Chattanooga. Laura 
Keene was in town, playing leading roles at the principal 
theater the same actress who appeared in "Our American 
Cousin" the night Lincoln was assassinated. Rosecrans and 
his staff occupied a private box one evening and the actress, 
during a pause in the play, in response to applause from the 
general and his companions, turned full upon him and court- 
esied in acknowledgment. As he passed out at the close of 
the . performance the soldiers present gave him an ovation, 
and we all shook hands with him. It was the passing of 
"Old Rosey." 

While in camp on Stone River, we strengthened our love 
for the Union by marching over to "The Hermitage" and wor- 
shiping at the shrine of "Old HicKory." We stacked arms 
in the avenue of cedars and were received by General Jack- 
son's foster-son, Andrew Jackson Donelson, then a man well 
advanced in life. The room in which the old defender of the 
Union died, and his tomb, were the principal objects of inter- 
est. As we walked along the paths familiar to the hero of the 
battle of New Orleans, we could hear the distant guns of an 
army assembled with the sworn purpose to destroy all that 
"Old Hickory" held most dear, and we came away convinced 
that his bones were resting uneasily in the grave where his 
countrvmen had laid him. 



On our march to Bridgeport, on the Tennessee River, we 
were held for a day or two in our camp at Columbia. Dur- 
ing the delay, along with Sergeant Simpson, I called at the 
"Athenaeum" a seminary for young ladies, equipped with a 
fine library and a number of musical instruments. It was the 
summer vacation, but the principal was in charge, and a num- 
ber of students were in attendance taking lessons in music 
possibly. Our reception, while not lacking in the amenities, 
was a little on the bias, as a call from the "blue-coats" evident- 
ly had not been anticipated. However, she was a lady of 
mature years, intelligent, and we soon became interested in a 
line of conversation that presented some difficulties. The 
principal having cleared the ground and stretched the rope, 
as it were, we were given an opportunity to explain our mis- 
sion to the South. While Charlie was making the pass pre- 
liminary, I was looking over my mental wares to see if I could 
find a reason for having been discovered by this lady south of 
Mason and Dixon's line with a gun in my hand. My comrade 
was a "Union Democrat," and scorned the thought of fight- 
ing to free the "nigger." Whether I was an Abolitionist or 
not, I thought I was, and I said to her in effect that slavery 
was a subsidiary thing, to be gotten rid of, as Washington and 
Jefferson had shown us by personal example; but I ran the 
knife to the bone by adding that the black man had a right to 
the bread which his toil had won; that I was in the South to 
help him to win out; that if we succeeded, the South having 
never gotten out of the Union, would be in it, and we could 
and would continue to do business at the old stand, having no 


198 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

bone of contention to wrangle over as before. Charlie fared 
no better in the old lady's graces than I did ; in truth, she smiled 
on us as though we were a brace of young lunatics. While 
on this march the troops were called into line one morning, 
and to our surprise there came on a quick-step down our front 
the snare-drums and the shrill notes of the fife, playing "The 
Rogue's March," the rogue himself following, and a file of 
bayonets in close touch bringing up the rear. The culprit was 
exhibited before a long line of troops, his buttons cut off, and 
at the end he was drummed out of camp. What his offense 
was we were not informed. From Bridgeport our regiment 
escorted an immense train of ammunition along the Sequatchie 
valley and over a spur of the Cumberland Mountains to the 
army at Chattanooga. Two miles out from the foot of Wal- 
dron's Ridge we came upon the remains of a similar train that 
had preceded us, which contained withal some sutlers' wagons 
loaded with miscellaneous confectionery, tobacco, whiskey no 
doubt, canned goods, etc., which had been destroyed by Wheel- 
er's cavalry. The road for the whole of that distance was 
filled with the large, fine mules, shot in thei. tracks, and the 
ashes of the burned wagons, and along the road-side, under 
the bushes, cans of cove oysters and other edibles were found 
where they had been left by the rebel cavalry, too heavily laden 
with the spoils to carry everything off. One dead rebel lying 
in the mud was the only visible regret Wheeler had left be- 
hind him. Looking east from the crest of Waldron's Ridge, 
over the valley in which Chattanooga is situated, the eye rests 
on a natural amphitheater of majestic proportions. The Ten- 
nessee River flows through the foreground, the city at the 
north end of the valley, the immemorial summits of Lookout 
and Mission Ridge, covered with forests framing in the scene, 
with the woods that hide Rossville and Chickamauga for a 
background. The National Cemetery is a feature new to this 
valley. Historic ground ! From the top of this ridge (a moun- 
tain range in itself) the road descends like a cork-screw. Here 
at the edge of the precipitous mountain wall, in the shade of 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 199 

the trees, we stand absorbed, thinking of all the tragedies that 
have taken place here within the sweep of one's vision. Can 
one name a spot on the round globe so fit for the circumstance 
and pomp of war? A painful scene this; as our train wound 
slowly along this valley, which had been so often crossed and 
recrossed by armed men and by the starving animals of the 
beaten Union host. The earth was trodden bare for miles, so 
that not a blade of grass was left, and the bushes withal had 
been eaten up, and the limbs of the trees. Somewhere on the 
high tablelands we met the slightly wounded from Chicka- 
mauga, footing it back to Bridgeport to take the train for the 
general hospitals at Nashville, or for home on a short furlough. 
I remember seeing Sam P. McGaw, of Henderson County, in 
the crowd. 

We had a rude awakening at Bridgeport which will be 
easily borne in the memory of the last survivor of our brigade. 
The reserve ammunition of the Army of the Cumberland was 
kept at this place. Through the lack of proper storage it was 
placed on high ground, adjoining our camp, in pyramidal form, 
covered with a tarpaulin. In this pile of explosives were mil- 
lions of cartridges in cases, "spherical case," and grape, and 
shrapnel, in unlimited quantity. A guard, in reliefs, stood 
over it night and day. Nero, possibly, in taking up his fiddle, 
threw the stump of a cigar into a pile of shavings, which set 
Rome afire? A wisp of fire the size of your little finger 
started the conflagration that wrapped the city of London in 
all-embracing flame. Mrs. O'Leary's cow kicked the lamp 
over which started one or two little straws burning, and they 
started other straws, till Deacon Bross, fleeing along the streets 
of the lurid city, looked back and saw the public buildings 
aflame "with a sublimity of effect that astounded me" ! No 
one knows. Dead guards tell no tales. They were careless, 
and smoked their pipes in unconcern on this mountain of gun- 
powder. It does not seem possible that a grain of powder 
could have been exposed among those sealed packages and 

2OO Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

water-proof percussion shells. I know not, nor does any other 
man know. Did a blundering guard let fall one of those 
weighty shells on the dangerous cap of another? All the an- 
swer we ha^e is the thunderbolt that tore the bodies of some 
of those guards to atoms ; bits of whose flesh were picked up 
in the weeds a hundred yards away. Then those shells opened 
on our camp like a battery, and men hunted shelter in every 
direction. The body of John Owens, of Henderson County, 
was burned to a crisp; every shred of clothing burned from 
the body, the hair from his head ; the eyes sealed with fire. 
He still breathed when brought to the surgeon's tent, and soon 



During the crucial days when General Grant assumed 
command of the beleaguered army in Chattanooga and General 
Sherman and the Army of the Tennessee were being trans- 
ferred from Vicksburg to our front, our division, under the 
command of General Jeff C. Davis (the same who shot Gen- 
eral Nelson in the Gait House at Louisville), was distributed 
along the fords of the Tennessee above the city; our own 
company (E) being stationed at Penny's Ford. We were di- 
rectly opposite the extreme right of Bragg's army on Mis- 
sion Ridge. Across the river, on our immediate front, were 
the rebel cavalry videttes with infantry supports en echelon 
behind barricades. This was our situation at the opening of 
the battle of Mission Ridge. Our division was a part of the 
Army of the Cumberland, under General Thomas, which oc- 
cupied the center some miles away from us in the Chatta- 
nooga valley. Our orders were, therefore, to co-operate with 
General Sherman's Army of the Tennessee, which came onto 
the ground we occupied, but remained screened from obser- 
vation in the woods back from the river. General Jeff 
Davis (our Jeff) was a West Pointer and a lieutenant under 
General Robert Anderson when Fort Sumter fell; after 
that event he was advanced in grade along with most or 
all of the West Point men, and transferred to the West, 
and was in command of a brigade in Buell's army at Louis- 
ville when the personal encounter took place which resulted 
in the death of General Nelson. He was a stocky little 
man, was Davis, and would recoil, one would suppose, from 
a passage at arms with a powerful man like Nelson, whose 


202 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

courage nothing could daunt. Not so ! Nelson's brutality 
ventured once too often ! Alas, that it was so ! for he was a 
soldier whom Napoleon would have chosen for his most des- 
perate enterprises. Poor old Braxton Bragg! Who could 
stand against such a combination as this : Hooker at Lookout 
Mountain; Grant, Thomas, and Sheridan at the center, and 
Sherman on the left. No soldier nor combination of soldiers 
since the world began! In the great crises of the future may 
the honor of our country find defenders in sons like these! 
Any one of them (barring only one) the equal of any soldier 
our race has ever known. Hooker, in line with his best days, 
had taken Lookout, and his camp-fires from base to summit 
flickered in the darkness like signal lights, beckoning the 
avenging forces of the Union on. The armed hosts for miles 
around (friend and foe) took note; and as we looked at the 
moon, rising above the hood of the mountain, the fugitive 
figures of Bragg's defeated left wing passed across the lunar 
disk. In the night hours the small boats, packed with armed 
men, crept along in the shadows of the willows on the shore 
of the Tennessee River on Sherman's front. Captain Ewing, 
of the 36th Illinois, had command of one of these boats. They 
landed silently on the enemy's side of the river unseen, and 
stole noiselessly upon the chain of rebel barricades, and pointed 
their guns down into the faces of the enemy's outposts taken 
unawares ! The Federals were busy. A strong force quickly 
deployed and covered the ground, protecting the men laying 
the pontoons. The cavalry, infantry, artillery, and the ambu- 
lance and ammunition trains passed over in rapid succession. 
Tom Ewing was ordered to advance his division upon Bragg's 
right and "not to call for help unless he needed it." Jeff C. 
Davis' division was massed in reserve. A Federal battery of 
siege guns (rifled Parrotts), planted on a promontory on the 
west side of the river, kept np a continuous fire over our heads 
at the rebel trenches. During the progress of the battle on our 
front we could see the steady stream of rebel reinforcements 
toward us from Bragg's center, following the crest of the 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 203 

ridge, their polished arms glistening in the sunlight. The en- 
emy had the advantage of us in his superior view of all parts 
of the field. Sheridan's charge on the center of his defenses 
was noticeable to us by the musketry fire only, as we could 
not see the movement. 

* General John M. Corse, later the hero of Altoona Pass 
and son of the old-time bookseller at Burlington, Iowa, was 
on the fighting-line in our front, and was borne back wounded 
to the field hospital, on a stretcher. He was boisterous and 
blasphemous, declaring his ability to lick the Confederacy, with 
other manifestations of lunacy. The surgeons gathered around 
him, and among them our division surgeon, Henry R. Payne, 
whom I quote : "We removed the general's clothing tenderly, 
expecting to find (as there was no blood) a severe contusion. 
On opening the underclothing at the knee with a knife, the 
disabled limb was exposed, and looking it over minutely, we 
found a little blue spot where a spent ball had struck him !" 
On learning that some prisoners from South Carolina had been 
taken on our front, I went over to where they were held, and 
found among them some men from my mother's native parish, 
who told me of a Giles relative who had received a mortal 
wound during the day. 

After Bragg's center had been broken and his army had 
taken the roads south in retreat, our division crossed Chicka- 
mauga Creek in pursuit. We came up with their rear guard 
at Chickamauga Station, where they had a field hospital. Here 
we were confronted by a strong earthwork on a salient of 
the bluff. The Confederate officers stood on the parapet ob- 
serving us form our line below. To charge these hills we 
had to make our way over fallen timber, much of it of the 
largest size, felled to make almost a perfect defense against 
the attacking force. The trunks of some of the trees were so 
large that while we could not force our way under them for 
the mass of tangled limbs, they were so thick through that it 
was all we could do to climb over them. As we advanced we 
finally got away from this obstruction, and \vent to the top of 

204 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

the ridge on the double quick in the face of a sharp cross- 
fire of musketry. We got possession of the range of hills 
without difficulty, and advancing through the open woods 
across the high tableland, discovered the enemy's rear guard 
(a division of troops) in full retreat across a field in the next 
valley. They disappeared from view in the dense woods on 
the further side of this opening. Here they were screened 
from our sight, and I thought we would be severely punished 
as we came within range with a close line of battle. I could 
distinctly hear their teamsters cursing their animals in their 
efforts to get their trains out of our range. We were halted 
here. When we did advance, after some delay, the enemy 
had taken a strong position, where severe fighting was going 
on when night fell and we withdrew to our camp-fires. This 
was the last we saw of Braxton Bragg. When we grappled 
again with this reorganized rebel army, it was under the able 
leadership of General Joe Johnston. 



Longstreet had withdrawn* from Mission Ridge before the 
battle and united his strength to the rebel investment of our 
fortifications at Knoxville, defended by Burnside. Under the 
impression that the Union army there might suffer defeat, 
our division and Gordon Granger's were sent by forced 
marches to raise the siege at that point. Our route lay along 
some of those fertile valleys in east Tennessee, celebrated 
when I was a boy for their crops of red winter wheat, highly 
prized on the Atlantic sea-board when converted into superior 
flour for domestic use and for export. I was kindly re- 
ceived at a cabin on the roadside, one evening after we had 
got into camp, by an octogenarian, who had served under 
Jackson and who was greatly surprised and pleased to find the 
Stars and Stripes so unexpectedly near his house. The women 
of that household baked for me some biscuits incomparable 
biscuit, no doubt, for never before nor afterwards during the 
service was I blessed with the good fortune of wheaten biscuit, 
for "co'n-bread" was the staple article of diet in Dixie at 
that time. Perfect little gems (those biscuit), baked by the 
fire-place of our forebears, in the same little oven, with the 
hot coals underneath and on the lid. 

One day later on I went into a farm-house, at the close 
of a long march, and found a group of soldiers who had pre- 
ceded me being entertained by an intelligent young lady of 
the household. She Deemed in good humor with her self- 
invited callers, but as I took a seat (with due deference I am 
sure) she turned to me and said, "Do you think you can 
conquer the South?" I was taken aback by this unlooked- 


206 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

for sally, but I could not take water; so I gathered my wits 
and replied: "We are here and it is General Bragg's busi- 
ness to put us out." I must say here, once for all, that not- 
withstanding all that had happened, and was happening, and 
in the nature of things would happen, I took no pleasure in 
the ghastly wounds the South was inflicting upon herself, 
through that pride which goes before a fall. The young lady, 
contrary to my expectations, ceased to press her inquiries. 
Full sorrowful was she, I fancied. Had her lover been slain 
in battle, in the forlorn hope of trying to make good a lost 
cause ? 

One morning, as the column left camp, weary of the 
interminable marches, I chose my comrade, John Clover, for 
a companion, and followed the crest of a chain of hills par- 
allel to the road. This move of mine was not good military 
form in the enemies' country, but I seldom left the column, 
and to relieve the wearisome monotony, I chose to come in 
contact with the people of the country at their homes, and 
exchange a little of our small store of coffee, which the fam- 
ilies on the plantations had long been deprived of and would 
be glad to barter for. In this way we could get a change of 

I am aware that I am drawing upon the credulity of my 
readers in the suggestion I have made; for it seems to run 
counter to the observation and experience of all who have 
ever come in contact with a hungry soldier, campaigning in 
another quarter of the globe than his own a sort of shock 
to most people to intimate that even in remote instances the 
soldier will depart from his own peculiar method of securing 
something good to eat, and deliberately engage in equitable 
traffic to secure it. Well, there were some poor white trash in 
east Tennessee, and we came upon a lonely cabin occupied 
by a cheerful old lady, who, so far as we could see on a cursory 
view, was full as short on subsistence as in everything elsje. 
When all other visible means of support failed, those people 
had one never-failing resource they could chew snuff; and 

Recollections of Pioneer and .Inny Life. 207 

this poor thing had the snuff-stick in her mouth, emphatically 
indifferent to Bob Toomb's success in calling the roll of his 
slaves on Bunker Hill. I challenged Fate by donating some 
of my coffee on the spot, and the joy with which it was re- 
ceived well repaid me for the slight sacrifice. 

The ever-changing landscape, as seen from the high coun- 
try along which we were making our way, was at intervals 
very interesting, and we kept our bearings by catching a 
glimpse now and again, off in the valley, of the column wind- 
ing its anaconda way toward Knoxville. As we strode warily 
along I amused myself at times revolving on the ease with 
which we might bring a marked change in our fortunes by 
taking a course a mile or so further southward and being run 
off to Libby or Andersonville by the enemy's scouts. In going 
from one plantation to another, along a zig-zag course, we 
traveled twice the distance the column made in the day, and 
were thoroughly tired and hungry at the noon hour when we 
entered a well-to-do planter's door and suggested in circum- 
locutory fashion that refreshments would be acceptable. This 
being in line with the daily procedure, we were not disap- 
pointed. The planter was a substantial, well-fed person, and 
he had "backing" in a young man of brawn whom I took to be 
a son-in-law, but that was only a guess. It was two and two 
anyway, and we looked well to our "Enfields." However, 
after looking the situation over, I made up my mind that these 
men were disposed to be hospitable, but did not confess as 
much for fear that in some way the fact would leak out, and 
there would be trouble, either with their neighbors or with 
Jeff Cavis' conscription officers. The fact that here were two 
able-bodied men at home satisfied me that they were friends 
at heart. We were invited to seats at the dinner-table a 
wide board, but there was little on it. The plantation had 
responded so often to the raids of the Confederate commis- 
sariat that private hospitality was scudding under bare poles. 
The place had been stripped of animals and fowls. There were 
only two plow-horses left ; and when we applied for transpor- 

208 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

tation with which to overtake the column, the planter responded 
with better grace than I anticipated. I assured him that if he 
would send his man along, that when we came in sight of the 
rear guard we would dismount and his horses would be re- 
stored intact. This agreement was faithfully carried out, 
and John returned to camp triumphant, with a nice ham hang- 
ing on the point of his bayonet. 

At a day's march out from Knoxville we were advised 
by courier that Longstreet had delivered his charge on the 
Federal defenses and met with a bloody repulse, and was re- 
treating toward Richmond, and thus ended our expedition for 
the relief of Burnside. Here we fully realized that the people 
of east Tennessee were steadfast and true to the Government 
founded by our fathers. The able-bodied men were in the 
Federal Army, and the women (young misses, sixteen to 
twenty) came to the column on the road, waving the Stars 
and Stripes, and bade us God-speed. 

We were now near the close of 1863, and about to take 
up the drudgery of the return march to Rossville. We had 
not met with the quartermaster for some months and the 
men's shoes were worn out. I don't know why his case should 
stick in my memory, for many were getting back to winter 
quarters with their feet wrapped in rags; but Captain Sam 
Wilson was making great personal sacrifices for his country 
that was plain. In an unfortunate moment he had chosen 
to penetrate the Confederacy in a pair of boots, rather than 
in a pair of Uncle Sam's uncompromising, broad-soled, easy 
marching shoes. His martyrdom was painful to behold. Be- 
fore we had fairly shook Braxton Bragg for a neighbor the 
captain's boots had begun to weaken under the stress of the 
stony mountain roads, and on our approach to Knoxville the 
heels of his foot-gear had reversed arms. With a rusty cape 
on his shoulders, a slouch hat, his trousers stuffed into those 
boot-legs, the afflicted veteran limped along like a disconsolate 
"Arkansau traveler" on the home stretch. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 209 

I am in deep sympathy this moment with my patient 
reader. He was wholly justified in his expectation that these 
pages would be filled with a blood-curdling narrative of war. 
I am mortified beyond words that I cannot disembowel a hun- 
dred of the enemy on every page, or hold up my dripping 
sword on filling a number of chapters with the slain of my 
own valiant arm. A word about this : Our destined end and 
way depends upon the star under which we were born. The old 
3d Brig., 4th Div., i4th A. C., under Gen. James D. Morgan, 
possessed a peculiar hypnotic power the power of dispersion. 
When we suddenly confronted the rebel fortifications at New 
Madrid and my company took position on the outposts, that 
was a bluff. And the foe did not stop long enough to blow 
out his lights, nor to eat a hasty, early breakfast. When he 
found the old loth and i6th Illinois across his path of escape 
from "Island No. 10," he acknowledged the corn, came in, and 
stacked his guns. Beauregard kept his nerve from Shiloh to 
Corinth, till Morgan closed up against his works. That fixed 
him. He promptly exploded his magazines and left for a 
sunnier South. 

When we got to Bridgeport the Fates went against us 
(but for a few minutes only) and turned our own shells against 
us a striking instance indeed where, gallant men not being 
able to bring the enemy to bay, adverse fortune evened up the 
score by involving them in a fight with themselves. At Mis- 
sion Ridge and Chicakamauga Station the old prenatal influ- 
ence returned and Bragg virtually refused to make our ac- 
quaintance. And here we are, within striking distance of 
Knoxville; and we waved our magic wand and Longstreet at 
once bestirred himself to get back into Virginia. Fortunate 
man ! Morgan's brigade was instructed at the outset to "make 
war gaily" and we continued to do so "all summer," and every 
summer, till Jeff Davis, tired of his job, disappeared in a 

210 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

And so now we have nothing to do this moment but to 
take up the long march in the hot sun and stifling dust and 
stride on, unmoved, when men oppressed by the heat, the 
burden of arms, and the choking thirst, throw away their 
blankets with an oath and awake in the chill and heavy dew 
of the Southern night suffering for the want of those blankets. 
Whosoever thou art, O youth of this dear native land of ours, 
who shall bear this flag in other days on other fields know 
thou that not to every man is it given to bear wounds or suf- 
fer death on the field of honor. At the supreme moment, 
when duty calls, we in vain protest ; for shall the thing made 
say to Him who made it, "What doest thou?" 



At Rossville we received the proposition to re-enlist as 
veterans of the service; to receive our regular pay, a bounty 
of four hundred dollars to be paid in advance, thirty days' 
furlough and free transportation to and from the place of 
enlistment Quincy, Illinois. We completed our muster-rolls 
and were sworn in and paid on these terms. Each of our 
men had a comfortable roll of greenbacks, but some of them, 
being incorrigible gamblers, had lost all their money at "cbuck- 
a-luck" before leaving camp and boarded the train at Chatta- 
nooga bankrupt. We made the round trip in freight cars, and 
other notable rides we had in like fashion, during and at the 
close of the war. 

The self-denying work of the loyal women of the North 
through the Sanitary Commission and other agencies were a 
part of the amazing energies of the Civil War. We came 
within the scope of this influence on our arrival at Quincy. 
We had hardly stacked arms before we were ushered into 
the banqueting-hall. The soldier could hardly get around 
without breaking his neck, stumbling over things provided for 
the inner man, and the attention and service of these ladies 
did not stop here, but they were at the beck and nod of every 
volunteer, sick or worn out. I am sure our reception, how- 
ever, would have had fewer qualms could we have dodged 
from the cattle-cars into the bath-room before being discovered 
by the fair daughters of the Gem City. Passing through the old 
"Sucker" State from the sliding doors of the box-cars we 
cheered everybody and were cheered by everybody in return. 

As our train passed through a small, coal-mining hamlet on 


212 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

the Quincy branch of the "Q" a buxom young Irish mother 
came to her door with her babe in her arms in response to 
our cheers and the swinging of our hats from the car windows 
(we exchanged freight for passenger cars at Quincy), and 
began saluting us by lustily swinging her disengaged arm, and 
when that tired, she would bounce the baby over onto the 
other arm dexterously and swing the free arm as before, the 
baby smiling and enjoying the fun as much as the mother. 
As we passed out of sight that baby was making lightning 
changes from right to left and back again with the goodi humor 
and abandon the Irish race throw into every cause which they 
have at heart. 

On our way North to Galesburg, Major Charles S. 
Cowan wired ahead to a way station an order for dinner, for 
the company, as a free-will offering. In the evening of a 
January day in 1864 we were received by our friends in the 
ancient village of the Yellow Banks. It is difficult to ade- 
quately set forth here the deep sympathy and loving-kindness 
shown us by our old friends and neighbors during our leave 
of absence of thirty days. We shall not see its like again, for 
somehow the great days of old never repeat themselves. 

As the war spirit grew in fervor from year to year the 
political estrangements and antagonism in the North multi- 
plied so that almost every neighborhood showed the limit to 
which people can be drawn in the fierce enmities of a civil 
war. The people were divided as formerly between the two 
great political parties, but within the Democratic party arose 
another, a secret organization known as "The Knights of the 
Golden Circle," sufficiently ornate in its title and threatening 
in its teachings to create the suspicion that it originated in 
central Illinois and the southern half of the State, southern 
Iowa, Indiana and Ohio and along the border counties of 
other States adjoining the Confederacy. Henderson County 
was afflicted by ambitious gentlemen of this description. They 
took their cue from the Right Reverend Henry Clay Dean 
("Dirty Dean"), formerly of Iowa, later of Rebels' Cove, Mis- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 213 

souri, Dan Yorhees, of Indiana, and Yallancligham, of Ohio. 
The official title of the organization was found in practice to 
be too elaborate for the Western mind, and the people cut it 
short by calling the members the "Copperheads'" and "But- 
ternuts." The young people of the "Circle" households were 
the more demonstrative in their efforts to show the world 
where they stood on the great question at issue. They evaded 
explanations and came to the point at once by wearing a "But- 
ternut" pin an article of home-made adornment, worn as a 
lady's brooch. On the occasion of a social event held at the 
south end of the county (in Bedford precinct, I believe) be- 
fore our return on veteran furlough, a young lady had the 
temerity to traverse the sentiments of the Union majority 
present and a patriotic woman in the company tore the offend- 
ing ornament from the wearer's person. The men of our 
company, to show their appreciation of this act and to com- 
memorate the event as a part of the local history of the times, 
purchased a valuable set of jewelry, and at a public meeting 
where a banquet was served, honored the heroine by presenting 
her with this evidence of their approval. My comrades were 
kind enough to ask me to make the formal presentation. It was 
an interesting occasion, and the notoriety 'given the incident 
served a good purpose, as it had a deterrent effect upon insolent 
enemies of the Union cause at home. The meeting was held 
in the Methodist church, and the first citizens of the town and 
vicinity were present and gave their hearty assent to the pro- 
ceedings. With a few complimentary phrases I endeavored 
to discharge my comrades' commission. The ceremony closed 
with one of those characteristic Civil War banquets where the 
abundance and variety of the viands were beyond belief. 

At whose initiative I do not remember, but in a burst of 
generosity a liberal appropriation was made by our men, and 
a sword purchased and presented to Captain Sam J. Wilson. 
The enthusiasm of E Company was without bounds so long 
as our "greenbacks" held out. For the first ten days of our 
furlough we felt equal to any proposition in high finance. 

214 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Hence the sword affair. General Grant and other heroes had 
received a sword at the hands of admirers, and our lads would 
hold their place on earth with the best. The majority "chipped 
in" ; that is to say, those who had a reserve fund with no pre- 
ferred investments. A considerable contingent refused to "go 
broke" over the sword. I was solicited to make the presenta- 
tion, which I did. There was a big crowd present to witness 
the ceremony. McKinney's Hall was packed to the entrance 
and our sweethearts were there, and the lamplight gloated 
o'er. In presenting the sword I assumed that the captain was 
as much of a hero as anybody and a good deal better one than 
some we had heard of, although I did not press the point. 
Rev. Hanson backed all I had to say on the subject and went 
me one better, and as the affirmative "had it," we adjourned 
to another hall and had a "shake-down." 



During the winter of 1863-64 the "Copperheads" con- 
spired with Jeff Davis and the select coterie of traitors at Rich- 
mond known as "The Forty Thieves" to control the next Pres- 
idential election, on the platform that "The war is a failure." 
The details of the scheme were perfected in the councils of 
the Knights of the Golden Circle, or the Sons of Liberty, as 
they, on occasion, preferred to call themselves. A part of 
their general plan, as it is now well known (see the memoirs 
of Geo. H. Bontwell, Secretary of the Treasurer in President 
Grant's cabinet, 2d Vol., pp. 57-61), was to kidnap President 
Lincoln, hold him as a hostage until the independence of the 
Confederacy was recognized ; failing in that, and in the event 
that the election was lost to the Democrats, to murder him. 
I do not mean to say that the masses who voted for the Mc- 
Clellan electors nursed the thought of assassination, but I do 
mean to say that the leaders of the "Copperhead" branch of 
the Democratic party of 1864, which was an annex of the 
Confederate Government at Richmond, were traitors with all 
these intents and purposes. Vallandigham discussed his plans 
with Jeff Davis and the Southern leaders during his expatria- 
tion, and "the man without a country" and his associates gave 
aid and comfort to the enemy, in cash, in an all-pervading spy 
system, and in other forms without stint. 

The battle of Gettysburg and the fall of Vicksburg, fol- 
lowed by the flight of Bragg from Mission Ridge and of Long- 
street from Knoxville, sent a wail of lamentation throughout 
the South, and the waning fortunes of the Confederacy made 


2i 6 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

it imperative that Bill Hanna, as an auxiliary of the "Copper- 
head" leaders of the old Military Tract, should make a demon- 
stration to prevent the Union armies from overwhelming Lee 
and Johnston in Virginia and Georgia. The unorganized rebel 
forces in Henderson County were therefore promptly brought 
under military discipline : a charter for a council of the Knights 
of the Golden Circle was secured: the ritual also, the rules 
and the regulations for the installation of members. The 
gentlemen concerned felt the solemnity of the occasion. They 
conferred fully with each other, with Vallandigham at Wind- 
sor, Canada, and with the Confederate authorities at Rich- 
mond, who urged sepulchral secrecy and the utmost energy 
in organization. Hanna and his men responded promptly. 
On a certain night, notable in the history of Henderson Coun- 
ty, these patriots of the bush came together by stealth and 
posted their pickets. The council being called to order, Bill 
Hanna, in suppressed tones, made known the object of the 
meeting, and read from the printed matter in his hands a 
synopsis that gave his compatriots a vague conception of the 
scope and purposes of the order, which statement carefully 
veiled the whole truth except by inference. One of the ob- 
jects was to create as large an armed force throughout the 
North as possible; to do this their unsuspecting dupes must 
be inveigled to commit themselves by oath and the restraints 
of association and comradeship to the fortunes of a desperate 
cause. The leaders therefore dealt gently with the unwary, 
but were open and bold among those who had their confidence. 
This meeting of the charter members was confined largely to 
the great unwashed, unsanctified Democracy such as Bill 
Hanna, Sam Hutchinson, Tom Record, Lynn Carson, Jon- 
athan and Sam Mickey, Elihu Robertson, and other well- 
known choice spirits of the Yellow Banks, Stringtown, Bald 
Bluff. Sagetown. and Biggsville. While the oath taken was 
about all they could stand up to, they swallowed it at a gulp 
and made a pretense of calling for more. Bill Hanna, having 
been previously sworn in and qualified by the State Council. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 217 

now called before him the charter members, to whom he re- 
peated the following oath, line upon line, which was assented 
to in like manner : 

The Opening Declaration. 

"Do you believe, the present war now being waged against 
us to be unconstitutional ?" 
Answer : "We do." 

"Then receive the obligation." 

The Oath, or Bill Hanna's Holy Alliance. 
(A true copy.) 

"I do solemnly swear in the presence of Almighty God 
that I will support the Constitution of the United States and 
the State in which I reside, and keep it holy! 

"I further promise and swear that I will go to the aid of 
all true and loyal Democrats, and oppose the confiscation of 
their property, either North or South! 

"And I further promise and swear that I will suffer my 
body severed in four parts, one part east, out of the East gate'; 
one part west, out of the West gate; one part north, out of 
the North gate; and one part south, out of the South gate, 
before I will suffer the privileges bequeathed to us by our 
forefathers blotted out or trampled under foot forever! 

"I futher promise and swear that I will go to the aid, 
from the first to the fourth signal, of all loyal Democrats, 
either North or South. 

"I further promise and swear that I zt'ill do all in my 
power against the present Yankee, abolition, disunion Admin- 

"And I further promise and swear that I will not reveal 
any of the secret signs, passwords, or grips to any not legally 
authorized by this order, binding myself under no less a pen- 
alty than having my bowels torn out and cast to the four winds 
of heaven ; so help me God." 

2i8 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

The tenderfeet in this assembly felt some distinct qualms 
at the prospect, under certain contingencies, of being hung, 
drawn, and quartered for no worse offense than a mild ad- 
hesion to the administration of Abraham Lincoln, who was 
accepted by many of their neighbors as one of the prophets 
of the ages, a seer in the councils of the wise and prudent, 
the herald indeed of a better day; but they were reassured 
by a motion to adjourn to the school-house for an hour of 
social intercourse, where elaborate preparations had been made 
to jolly the boys. The men from Sagetown vied with the 
veterans from Bald Bluffs in the glow and warmth of their 
enthusiasm ; Stringtown led the Yellow Banks a merry dance ; 
and the Smith Creek boys emptied the flowing bowl in a way 
to disgust the Biggsville patriots. The leaders mingled with 
the common herd like birds of a feather. Bill Hanna fratern- 
ized with the boys with that stereotyped sneer for which he 
was famous somewhat modified. Colonel Sam Hutchinson did 
not unbend that was spinally impossible; but he cast some 
of his most benignant smiles upon the assembly from the 
Hutchinson Heights. Lynn Carson and a pard from Sagetown 
were convivially inseparable (the bibulous twins of the even- 
ing), and they finally went to sleep in each other's arms. The 
Tipperary round of pleasure was at high tide when the gray 
of the morning compelled the warriors to strike hands with 
pledges of eternal fidelity and disperse. 



Our thirty days at home at the crisis of the war intensi- 
fied the bitter feeling between the loyal citizens and the "Cop- 
perheads." But the influential Union men at the county seat 
were not of one mind respecting their neighbors in secret op- 
position to the Government. Men like Fred Ray, Sr , and 
Sumner S. Phelps and others of the same relative standing did 
not agree on all points involved in the peace of the commu- 
nity. I conversed with them freely on these subjects. Mr. 
Ray was peculiarly sensitive, apprehensive of incendiarism; 
and, to state the bald fact as it was, he distrusted a brawling 
soldier as much as a "Copperhead." Ben Harrington offered 
to show me where the Confederate forces of the town had 
arms secreted. Out of regard to the conservative sentiment 
among the Union men, the majority of our men neither said 
nor did anything to provoke a collision. As for those arms, 
we were not under martial law at home ; and as for Bill Hanna 
and Sam Hutchinson and their retainers, we considered them 
impotent. Bill Hanna was a nice man. He was much deferred 
to. When he sneezed, some of his neighbors never failed to 
explode in concert with him. His only fault was, he pulled 
off from the men who staked life and treasure on the Union, 
and became an ordinary skulking "Copperhead." 

But notwithstanding the friendly deportment of our boys 
during their freedom from military restraint, we did not es- 
cape attention from Bill Hanna's "bushwhackers." 

I have briefly stated the condition of affairs at home 
when on a Saturday a few of our men of the pugilistic tem- 
perament who had imbibed freely of the usual stimulants con- 


22O Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

sidered themselves still in the pursuit of the enemy, and hav- 
ing one of the most notorious of the local type pointed out to 
them on the street, gave chase, and cornered him in a dry 
goods store with the object of compelling him to take the oath 
of allegiance to the Government. It hurt the pride of the 
"Butternut" to take the oath under compulsion, and if his 
friends could have been summoned at the moment, there 
would have been an encounter of more or less impoitance. 
There was some delay in getting the rebel courier off through- 
out the county with dispatches, but at the summons to arms 
there was a prompt uprising among the local step-sons of Jeff 
Davis. Bill Hanna left his plow in the furrow ; Sam Hutchin- 
son spit on his flintlock, wiped off the dust, jumped bareback 
on his old mare and rode at breakneck speed for the rendez- 
vous. Bald Bluff arrived with strong reinforcements. It be- 
ing Saturday night, Sagetown was in a condition of indeter- 
minate consciousness, with a gallon jug of "Coonrod's best" in 
reserve, and on the way over lost the road, and did not reach 
headquarters till after midnight. 

Jake Spangler and the learned blacksmith from String- 
town struck the highway with loaded powder-horns. The army 
assembled in the mountains on the head-waters of Smith's 
Creek, and detachments continued to arrive on the grounds 
on all the public roads up to a late hour. It was a formidable 
mounted force, well equipped. All movements were carefully 
muffled; all the approaches carefully picketed. General Bill 
Hanna arrived on the ground by a circuitous route, and cau- 
tiously reconnoitered his own command from behind a hay- 
stack before he ventured to make himself known. His ad- 
vance guard having completed a final patrol of the ground 
ahead of him and notified him that the way was clear, he 
assembled his escort and rode to Colonel Sam Hutchinson's 
headquarters in great state. The troops were massed and the 
affairs of the hour carried on in suppressed tones, no fires or 
lights being allowed. A large number of recruits had been 
sworn in at the sub-stations during the weeks preceding, and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 221 

the officers and most of the rank and file being unacquainted, 
it was determined to improve the esprit de corps by introduc- 
ing the general commanding the Department to the army. 
Colonel Hutchinson therefore stepped forward and saluting, 
said: "Gentlemen, I have the honor to introduce to you the 
brigadier-general commanding the gallant Knights of this 
Congressional Department. Soldiers ! I propose three sup- 
pressed cheers for General Bill Hanna." The noble general 
advanced, lifted his shako, smiled, bowed in an uncertain way, 
both right and left, and said : "I am delighted to see you look- 
ing so well to-night. I am looking extremely well myself. 
There are none like me. I am the only one the real thrng, in 
Henderson County. It is true, gentlemen, that I have only a 
single star on each shoulder to designate my rank during this 
night attack, but when this cruel campaign is over 1 shall have 
gold-wash epaulets equal to those General Scott wore when 
he led the victorious American army into the capital of Mex- 
ico. Wait and see. It would be useless to wear gold epaulets 
in a night attack. You could not see them, but I '11 be with 
you. Understand me, pray: I am your brigadier only. Colonel 
Huthchinson will command in the field ; he will lead } cu : I 
will follow ; follow all the way, even to the gates of the city." 
Lynn Carson, his face all allaze with with well, Lynn broke 
out in a wild "Hooray" but was choked off in the midst of 
his "hoo." A voice broke in here that of Brother Jonathan, 
who only the day before had his patriotism refreshed by tak- 
ing the oath at the Yellow Banks: "Gentlemen, this is the 
winter of i;iir discontent; the breeze is chi'ly for Democrats 
of our peculiar stripe, and as the has been warm- 
ed for our accommodation, I move, sir, that we repair thither 
to complete our preparations for our advance." The change 
of base was made without the loss of a man. The hi<r)i ones 
and the powerful Knights entered the audience-chamber with 
grave visages, big with portent Colonel Hutchinson iirode 
grandly in, his lofty mannei and stern glance enough to wither 
a hand-spike (his brave comrades saluting and bowing Vw as 

222 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

he passed), and took a seat on the left of the brigadier-general. 
A warrior from Biggs ville got his monocle deeply imbedded 
between eyebrow and his cheek-bone, and covering the crowd 
with his questioning gaze, gave his thumb a rotary turn; there 
was a responsive conference aside, between the forces from 
Sagetown and Smith's Creek, and the foreman addressed the 
assembly, saying: "Your Imminence, has the refreshments 
arriv?" Lynn Carson bore down proudly and answered, 
"They have, sir !" saluted, and brought a two-gallon jug down 
upon the table with a thwack that made the gold and silver 
plate on the sideboard jingle again. Lieutenant-Colonel Tom 
Record, the second in command, was painfully affected by the 
demonstration, mounted the tribune, and in his most scorch- 
ing manner said: "We didn't come here to drink Schiedam 
schnapps; I 'm no Dutchman, nohow. You have heard," he 
proceeded, "the reverberations walluping up and down over 
our distracted country ? You have heard," the orator went on 
to say, his voice rising to a most painful pitch, "what Wilbur 
F. Storey, in his Chicago Times, calls our grand old Demo- 
cratic party? He calls it 'a putrid reminiscence' ; are you going 
to stand that?" "No, begorry!" reared the battalion from 
Sagetown, and the gallant Colcnel Hutchinscn banged the 
round table with his eminent sword and cried, "Not much, 
Mary Ann!" Colonel Record proceeded: "Men, patriots, 
Democrats!" ["That 's us !" said Smith's Creek.] "We didn't 
come here to limber up and be hauled home in some neighbor's 
wagon. We're here for war! Lincoln's hirelings attacked 
us in the streets of the Yellow Banks, and we 're goin' to wipe 
out the stain on to the Yellow Banks!" The orator, purple 
with wrath sat down to recover him?elf. At this point Gen- 
eral Bill Hanna arose, gave his accentuated sneer another 
twist and said: "Colonel Record has spoken to the point; we 
are already in the field; why stand we here idle? Is life so 
dear and peace so sweet as to be purchased by the price of 
chains and slavery? There are armed men now on the plains 
of Boston, but I am suspicious that they are no friends of 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 223 

ours. If those men on the plains of Boston should make a 
mistake a feint only of reinforcing General Grant in Vir- 
ginia and suddenly drop down on us here in Henderson Coun- 
ty, in the language of Uncle Remus, where would be our mo- 
lasses jug?" "Now, comrades," continued the general un- 
sheathing his glittering blade, "we are about to engage in a 
military expedition of the first magnitude and in the organiza- 
tion of our command it is proper that the troops which I shall 
have the honor to command (not, actually, but technically) 
should have an official title. What shall it be?" The learned 
blacksmith from Stringtown took the floor and explained that 
as "we are going after large game, we should need the buck 
and Ipall cartridge, and happily our double-barreled shot-guns 
wiU prove the most effective weapon; I therefore move, sir, 
that our troopers be given a descriptive title, namely 'The 
vShot-Gun Brigade.' ' By unanimous consent an official order 
was issued confirming this title and setting forth the subdivis- 
ions of the army and designating the commanders thereof. At 
this point the army took to the woods, and under a scrub oak 
Col. Hutchinson, commander in the field of all the expedition- 
ary forces, assumed formal direction, of the fortunes of the 
Confederate cause in old Henderson. It was a mpst solemn oc- 
casion, and in the pale moonlight it was noticeable how much 
the, distinguished department commander and his troops had 
aged on the eve of the battle so wan, and so swan-like, in 
that they sat them down on the frozen ground to weep and 
sing their last war-chant. There was danger of a collapse, 
and field orders for an advance were issued at once. En 
passant, it may be noted that the scrub oak where Colonel 
Hutchinson drew his sword and assumed command of Demo- 
crats especially fond of the Constitution is an historic spot 
a shrine for the has-beens so long as the world, shall stand. 
These eight and forty years now they have made their pious 
pilgrimages to the spot and chipped the historic oak till noth- 
ing is left- of it. 

224 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

On further reflection, General Hanna summoned the offi- 
cers to a last council, and explained the necessity for a gen- 
eral review of the army before opening the campaign, and 
12 o'clock midnight was the hour named in general orders for 
the pageant. "The moon is at the full," said the brigadier, 
"and I have carefully scrutinized it over my right shoulder, 
and the signs are all propitious. A moonlight review is an 
innovation," said he, "but I am introducing improved meth- 
ods in all military operations in my department and I shall 
make Wellington and Nap the First and the rest of the boys 
ashamed of themselves before I conclude my triumphs on 
Fame's eternal camping-ground." 

At the blast of the bugles and the roll of the drum, the 
Stars and Bars dipped and the sabres flashed in salute as the 
group of mounted officers and their escorts appeared at the 
head of the column. It was noticed at once, when they made 
ready for a dash down the line, that Colonel Hutchinson's old 
mare was gay; she snuffed the battle from afar, and com- 
municated her martial spirit to the brigadier's nag, and the 
fever spread through the group, the most of whom were riding 
bareback with blind bridles. A rare exhibition of horseman- 
ship took place. The spirited steeds pirouetted around about, 
lifted fore and aft; standing at times heroically on their 
haunches. Colonel Hutchinson kept his seat admirably, one 
hand clutching both the mane and the reins, the other holding 
on to his plug hat, at an angle on the back of his head, but 
pounded down securely over his eyebrows, his knees gripping 
the shoulders of old "Snip." General Bill Hanna never ap- 
peared to better advantage, and in the chopping sea of agi- 
tated horseflesh Baul de Conying Ham, Lynnovitch Carson- 
ovosk and Jake Spangler acquitted themselves beyond praise. 
At the firing of the gun they were off ; the hirsute extensions 
of the war-horses rose to the occasion; between Colonel Sam 
Hutchinson and the brigadier it was nip and tuck, and the 
descent down the line was accomplished in a style befitting a 
battery of discharging interrogation points. Instantly the col- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 225 

umn, in fours, followed at the trot, Colonel Record, the second 
in command, acting as rear guard. A night march in the pres- 
ence of the enemy is a dangerous performance, but the com- 
mand reached the Davenport Gap in the Henderson County 
Alps with a loss only of those who fell over seas, into the 
fence-corners. At this point the force moved with circum- 
spection. The head of the column approached the narrow 
defile with extreme caution. The veterans from Sagetown 
were vexed at the reckless bravery of Colonel Hutchinson, and 
expostulated with him for exposing his valiant person on the 
outposts,; but the noble commander made as if to tear him- 
self away from them and plunge more deeply into the danger- 
ous gorge. The brave men rode forward in groups, and 
pressed the daring officer quietly on the arm, saying: "Prithee, 
mon, is it dyin ye 're after ? Stay, milud ; for if a cannon-ball 
should tunnel yer stomach, who would care for mother thin ?" 
The colonel was undismayed. The crisis was approaching, 
and another council of war was held, at which it was deter- 
mined to secure the crossings of the Henderson at Jack's Mill, 
Coghill's and Hollingsworth's. It was noticed that Colonel 
Tom Record had something pressing hard on his giant mind, 
and the way was opened for him to assert himself. Address- 
ing the commander in the field, he asked: "What is the ob- 
ject of this expedition?" "To capture the Yellow Banks." 
"But have you a casus belli?" "We have, sir, two of 
'em, and we '11 be overstocked if any of these men straggle 
from the column over ground dedicated for thirty days to 
Major Cowan's men." "But have you sent in an ultimatum 
to the burgomaster?" "Brother Jonothan did that yesterday 
when he hiked through the gates to give the alarm." "Have 
you ordered the non-combatants to the rear?" Here Brig- 
adier-General Bill Hanna interrupted by saying: "I shall be 
in close touch with the rear guard as soon as my horse can 
carry me." "Banzai !" yelled the troops. Private Baul de 
Cony ing Ham now advanced and modestly inquired if the 
refreshment train was at hand. Corporal Lynnovich Car- 

226 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

sonovosk replied that the supply was getting low, but he had 
adjusted his personal necessities to the situation, and believed 
"it" would hold out "till we had dynamited the breastworks and 
captured the city." "General Hanna," said Colonel Hutchin- 
son," addressing the department commander, "before you fall 
back on the teamsters, can you think of anything we have 
omitted to do to compel a glorious victory?" "Colonel, I beg 
pardon, but I think I hear a noise on our front, and I will send 
in a written report on that point to-morrow." Saying which, 
he waved his new buckskin gauntlet and fell back on the field 
hospital. Detachments were now told off for the ap-river 
crossings, the commanders stuffed with precautionary orders 
of the severest description. The army was now massed for 
final instructions, which were given in a few incisive words : 
"Democrats of the glorious days of the Constitution as it was ! 
Forty centuries look down upon you from these Alpine sum- 
mits. We are now at close quarters with the enemy," con- 
tinued the colonel; "we are about to advance, and as a pre- 
liminary, Corporal Carsonovosk will issue a final refreshment 
ration." Turning to the engineers, the colonel said : "Gentle- 
men, you will see if Davenport has fortified the bridge." They 
returned in two minutes and a half and breathlessly reported 
that Davenport kept the bridge, as in days of old; that he 
was sound asleep, and that his rooster had called the hour with 
a clearness and jocularity that showed he had escaped the 
whooping-cough. "The route then is practicable?" said the 
colonel. "It is," responded the civil engineers with emphasis. 
"Is Colonel Record, the rear guard, in position?" demanded 
the colonel. "He has deployed himself, and is holding on 
prepared for the worst," said Baul de Conying Ham. "Then," 
said the gallant colonel, "let Le Grande Armee follow its com- 
mander." The bugler was heard winding his horn through 
the enclosing mountains, signal rockets from the detachments 
at the up-river ^crossings were seen bursting in the far ether. 
and there was a simultaneous dash from all points, up through 
the black-jacks, converging upon the Temple of Justice, where 

Recollections of .Pioneer and Army Life. 227 

in accents aspirate they tied the mules and the plow-horses 
and the various and sundry saddle-nags to the bushes, and in 
their heavy-tramping cavalry boots and loud-clanging sabres 
marched up the grand staircase and occupied the ancient 
panoplied hall of the judges and magistrates in all the splen- 
dor of Solomon of old. It was yet dark and a solemn hush fell 
upon the brigade in full possession of the stronghold of the 
burghers, who were not aware, and would not for some time 
realize, that they were victims of Bill Hanna's four hundred. 
But never since the days of Hannibal had a military surprise 
been worked out with greater precision and success. General 
Hanna embraced the colonel and re-embraced him, saying, "It 
was my plan, but it's your treat"' Colonel Sam soured at this, 
and the silence was audible. The relations between the com- 
manders continued strained, and each took a window and set 
himself the task of observing the landscape; meantime the sun, 
after the second Austerlitz, had dawned. For some incruta- 
ble reason the brigade did not sally forth and slaughter the 
burghers in the streets, and the unsuspecting people were in 
awe at the number of horses tied under the bushes, and with 
bated breath inquired the reason thereof. It seemed that hav- 
ing achieved a famous victory, the instinct of the Knights of 
the Golden Circle to lurk in hidden places asserted itself, and 
Bill Hanna was abashed at the prospect of having to look an 
honest man in the face in broad day. 

To John McKinney, Jr., and others, who called upon him 
for an explanation, he laid great stress upon the fact that if 
the brigade had attempted to put the populace to the sword, 
the schoene Fraus would have frustrated the design from 
their upper chambers by emptying their yellow crockery down 
upon the heads of his Cossacks. 

As the sun mounted the blue vault the children appeared 
upon the streets in their bright frocks and the church-bells 
began to call the people to prayer. "What day of the week is 
this?" said the brigadier, turning suddenly from the window 
and addressing Colonel Record. "General," replied Colonel 

228 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Tom, "do you know, 1 had lost the count myself, and the old 
Cumberland stone church is open for service to-day, and I 'm 
going to have trouble to square accounts with my wife." 
"Hold! there comes Ed Patterson with a basket of rations," 
said a high private, "and it begins to look like we must feed 
and get out of this." The refreshments were served in silence, 
and by twos and threes the brigade dissolved and quietly 

A close study of the voluminous Confederate archives 
reveals the unique character of the military operations under 
General Hanna. It is clear from the records that he was a 
war lord of the first water. He is now in heaven ; and if, on 
my arrival there, he comes forward, out of deference to a per- 
manent accession to the citizenship of the place, to do me 
honor, I shall recognize him cordially, and shall be happy to 
receive his personal assurance that he is now supporting the 




On our return to our old camp at Rossville, Georgia, in 
February, 1864, we occupied winter-quarters cabins, for the 
cold still boxed the compass and refused to leave. Following 
the resignation of Major Charles S. Cowan, on a vote of the 
field officers of the regiment, Captain Sam J. Wilson, of our 
company, was advanced to the majority; and by the almost 
if not quite unamimous consent of Company E, Governor 
Richard Yates was authorized to honor me with a commission 
for the vacant lieutenantcy. The spring of 1864 opened early 
and the weather was beautiful. There was a note of prepara- 
tion on every hand for the momentous events of this year, and 
troops were massing in camps around us, and as far as the foot 
of the Pigeon Mountains, around Ringgold, twenty miles away. 
We had a level parade-ground, and squad, company, batallion 
and brigade drills were the daily routine. It was near this 
camp where Dan McCook's brigade was drilling that Dr. Mary 
Walker, assistant surgeon so that brigade, was captured while 
riding beyond our lines. The "Johnnies" in catching Mary 
in their drag-net got hold of a freak which was a surprise and 
a conundrum ; but, after making a close study of it, they re- 
turned it in as good condition as when they got it. 

When not otherwise engaged, we made excursions over 
the battle-field of Chickamauga, close at hand. In the few 
months that had intervened since Bragg and Longstreet had 
swept over this field little change had taken place. In the 
somber woods rude log pens, made of the fallen, half-rotted 
timber, had been built over the graves of some of the precious 


230 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

dead, the lowly resting-places of others were marked in sim- 
pler fashion, and here the trees, riven by the vengeful wedges 
of war, held up to the view their splintered fingers. The ten- 
der opening leaves were now spreading a canopy of green 
over the scene and the warm sunlight lay in mottled patches 
upon the earth. I trod Death's deserted banquet-hall alone. 
The birds in the leafy boughs and the winged thoughts with- 
in repeopled the forest paths to the exclusion of the erstwhile 
bloody harvest. 


April 30th. In camp at Rossville, Georgia. Mustered. 
Packed baggage for the campaign. Reuben Bellus, losing the 
conveniences- of settled camp, has determined to "take it cool," 
and says he is "only on a visit." Officers assembled at Put's 
Ranch for dinner to-day for the first time. Lieut.-Col. Mac 
Wood and Col. Tillson guests. Spring showers. James Simons 
returned from Smallpox Hospital. A thrilling future before 
us- men feel it, display it in their faces, and jest upon it. 
Play at draughts with Lieut.-Col. Wood. 

May i st. Sabbath. At dusk heard voices engaged in sing- 
ing hymns. Mistrusting the cause, set out in the direction of 
the sound and found in a distant camp a large assembly en- 
grossed in religious exercises. Chaplains of regiments and 
others made remarks which interested me. Many fervent 
prayers offered up, bearing upon the success of the approach- 
ing campaign. 

2d. A day long to be remembered. The sun rose in all 
his glory from behind the eastern mountains. Peace and 
beauty smiled upon the landscape. Silently the battalions 
formed in solid masses preparatory to quitting Rossville for- 
ever. Our regiment formed on the color-line at 8 A. M. and 
stacked arms. Hear the hoarse thump and clatter of "i6th 
and 6oth's" bass and tenor drums ! My eyes wander among 
the clouds above the summit of Lookout, who sits in his maj- 
esty, the waters of the Tennessee in his lap, and rules the 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 231 

illimitable region around as only a true king of mountains can. 
How softly blue his tawny sides appear in the vapory, en- 
chanting morning air ! How the masses of Carrara-white clouds 
wheel around his frowning forehead ! The hour has come. 
Gen. Morgan and staff appear on the road; the blue column 
links on, and drags its slow length behind. They come ! Adjt. 
Wiseman on his gray mount at the side of General Morgan, 
next the escort ride gayly on, bearing the brigade guidon, two 
crescents on a red and blue ground; then the brigade band, 
chanting a national hymn. The line opens, our regiment files 
into its place, and the winter camp is seen no more. Halt near 
Ringgold at 12 M.; went into camp on north side of Chick- 
amauga Creek at 2 p. M. Our cavalry engaged the enemy in 
the mountains on our front. 

4th. Visited signal station situated on the summit of 
mountain to left of Gap. Found a throng of eager comrades 
looking rebel-ward. Could see the enemy's outposts and our 
own. Facing north, could see King "Lookout" and his train 
the latter receding to the left southwest and disappearing on 
the horizon. Squads of our cavalry dashing along at the base of 
the hills. The view of our camps inspiring vast in extent and 
growing larger momentarily the little white tents half hid in 
the evergreen forest presented a charming picture. The vil- 
lage directly beneath us. Night, received orders to -move for 

5th. Marched at daylight, passed through the mountains 
by the pass where General Hooker overtook the enemy's rear 
guard after the battle of Mission Ridge, and engaged it, and 
came off worsted, losing 500 killed and wounded. The trees 
as we passed through gave evidence of the fight, as also the 
graves on the mountain-side. Had a pleasant march of five 
miles. Turned off the road to right and formed line of battle, 
our right resting on - - Creek. After much delay, went 

into camp i6th 111. on our left. Hear an occasional shot on 
the picket line. Supper. Officers fishing in stream close by. 
Fine opportunity for bathing, which we improve. 4th A. C. 

232 Recollections of Pioneer and .Irniy Life. 

went into camp on the hills to our front and left. Col. Waters, 
Adjt. Casswell, Prvt. Drummond and others of the 84th 111. 
paid us a visit. 

6th. Bathe at sunrise numbers of our regiment fishing 
this morning. Place shade over tent and play at draughts. 
Officers of other regiments putting their companies through 
the skirmish drill. Capt. Garternicht, 84th 111., took dinner 
with us. 3 P. M. received orders to move at daylight to-morrow. 

7th. Breakfast at 5 A. M. Broke camp and moved out 
on Tunnel Hill road; delay at Gen. Morgan's headquarters 
halt and stack arms. Artillery moves out in advance. Resume 
the march. Strike the enemy at 6:30 A. M. Hot skirmishing 
with the rebel cavalry, during which Gen Palmer and staff 
ride past and dismount a little distance off, in an open field, 
whence they observe the movements on the front. First artillery 
shot fired at 9 o'clock, rebels give way. Reach Tunnel Hill- 
severe skirmishing. Our artillery opens lines mass and load 
the enemy flanked out of the town. Our brigade has the ad- 
vance through the place ; gain the opposite side and the base of 
Horn Mountain. Our regiment deployed as skirmishers and 
advance up the mountain-side reach the summit, finding no 
enemy. Regiment assembled on the summit. After the lapse 
of twenty minutes, saw line of rebel skirmishers moving by 
the right flank along the valley towards the Pass. Heard the 
shrill nots of a cock at a farm-house far below us in the 
valley. Our skirmishers encircle the base of the mountain 
looking towards the Pass. No water on the mountain severe 
thirst. Men get their canteens filled with great difficulty by 
descending to the springs and streams half-mile distant. Sun- 
set deepening of the mist over the valley. Very beautiful 
and strange. The sighing of the wind through the pine boughs. 
Thoughts of the morrow; night; sleep. 

8th. 8 A. M. first shot fired by skirmishers. Our lines 
advance, driving the enemy back. Our skirmishers move from 
west to east. The crest of the mountain cleared of trees and a 
platform erected for the use of the Signal Corps. Howard's 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 233 

forces (4th A. C.) formed line of battle ; left resting below us 
at the base of the mountain; the right extending to Rocky 
Face, beyond the southern limit of the rebel position. Nothing 
came of this movement. At I P. M. Gen. Sherman and staff 
appeared among us. He scanned the enemy's position with his 
glass closely. Saw on crest of a low ridge running transverse- 
ly through the enemy's lines and behind them what seemed to 
be a rebel general and retinue. Only occasional shots this P. M. 
by the skirmishers. Our general seems bent on a thorough 
study of the enemy's works before he moves on them. See, 
miles to the south, the dust of McPherson's column moving 
on the enemy's flank, in the direction of Snake Creek Gap. 

1 140 P. M. Company B sent out to fill gap in picket 
line. Good-looking, stout, medium-sized, mustached Gen. But- 
terfield, of the 2Oth A. C., makes his appearance among us. 
Also the quiet, observing, one-armed, gentlen anly Gen. How- 
ard. The three generals climb up on a large stump, interlock 
arms to steady themselves, smoke, and watch the enemy. Gen. 
Sherman, an alert, picturesque man, tall, slender, farmer-like 
in his demeanor, with large lustrous eyes, and a cigar in his 
mouth, keeps up a "devil of a thinking." He looks at the 
frowning range of Rocky Face, studded with the enemy's bat- 
teries, and anon at McPherson's dust miles away. 

9th. Left camp at 5 :3O A. M. Reach the foothills at the 
base of Rocky Face. Form line of battle. Skirmishers in ad- 
vance. Move fonvard over hills, across ravines, filled and 
covered with jungle and fallen timber. Heavy forest also, 
which screened us from the rebel sharpshooters, else many 
more would have lost their lives. After advancing a consider- 
able distance, we were halted. Delay. Moved by the right 
flank over almost impassable ravines. Weather oppressively 
hot. Halted in an exposed place, where Prvt. Saunders, of 
Company I, was killed at the distance of 900 yards. Shot 
through the head. Crittenden was wounded on same ground. 
Moved by right flank again, and took up new position under 
cover of a steep hill. Put out more companies on skirmish line. 

234 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Severe action ensues. Batteries open on both sides. Rebel bat- 
teries give us canister. Adjt. Wallace Rice displays great cool- 
ness under fire. Gen. Morgan spirited anl skillful. Gens. 
Howard and Sherman witness the action. Night settled down 
before we were drawn off. Brigade lost forty-three killed and 
wounded. 6oth Ills, lost heavily as skirmishers. At dusk ran 
gauntlet of enemy's balls while going to rear to get a drink of 
water. The scene to-day at times was truly magnificent. The 
glaring wall of Rocky Face Mountain, the enemy posted on 
and firing down on us from the overhanging cliffs, made a 
striking picture ! 

loth. Stood to arms at 4 A. M Stacke ' guns after some 
delay. Breakfast at 6 A. M. Dispatch from Army of Potomac 
received and shouted to. Artillery passing along the valley in 
our rear fired on by the enemy posted on the mountain-top. 
Disabled some of the horses. Confusion. Get off. Battery 
planted on our front this morning. Rebels shell us. Fierce 
artillery duel to our right. Received mail Boys increase the 
size of their cartridges to throw their balls to the top of Rocky 
Face. Nonsense ! Left the front of Rocky Face at 5 :3O p. M V 
relieved by McCook's (3d) brigade. 

The following inscription, carved by a rebel, we found on 
the head-board of an orderly sergeant of the loth Mich, kill- 
ed on this ground in February last : "Let God judge between 
us; which is right, which wrong." 

nth. 12 M. Holding ourselvts in readu-ess to march to 
McPherson's aid below Dalton. Capts. Garternicht and Mc- 
Gaw, of the 84th, with us. 2 p. M. Drizzling rain. 5 p. M. 
Orders received to march at 6 to-mcrrow. 

I2th. Marching south. 6:30 halt and stack arms. Corn 
in the fields 2 inches high. March rapidly aloi.'g. Reach Snake 
Creek Gap. Overtake i5th A. C. train Delay Halt one 
hour for supper. Night. Push on. Dv^-adful marching 
through the mud and darkness; go into cam," at 12 midnight. 

I3th. 5:30 pass portion of 2Oth A. C. Gen. Hooker 
passes. He talks with Gen. Knight We halt on side-hill to 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 235 

left of road behind earthworks wl ich stretch across mouth 
of Gap. Stack arms. Artillery passing to the front. Gen- 
erals with body-guards pass. Gen. Thomas comes into the road 
from our rear, looking splendid. Rapidly and silently, dense 
masses of troops move out in the direction of Resaca. Ord- 
nance trains and ambulances follow. We were the last out. 
Left at 3 130. 4 p. M. Artillery opens.. Our forces invest the en- 
emy's works at Resaca. We move up and rest on our arms 
in rear of the line of battle. Hot musketry firing. 

I4th. 6 A. M. Our division moved forward into open 
fields to rear and left of Gen. Johnson's first division ; massed 
and stacked arms. Gens. Morgan and Jeff C. Davis lying on 
plowed ground, consulting their map. Dispatch of Grant's 
victory received and cheered. 

1 P. M. Johnson heavily engaged. We move close to his 
support. Johnson makes a charge. Only partially successful. 
Wounded being borne to the rear. Ammunition to the front. 
Musicians gathering leaves and boughs for the wounded to 
rest upon. 4th A. C. on our left. 84th Ills, there. Geo. Cow- 
den wounded. Rumor from the 36th Ills, that John Porter, 
first sergeant, disabled by a falling limb, broken off by a cannon 
shot, struck on the head, severely hurt. 2Oth A. C. passing 
along our rear to the left. Night. Lie down on pallet of straw. 
Just dropping asleep when we were aroused by: "Get out of 
your nest, going to move!" Draw on boots and speculate as 
to "what is up." Move to right and fill trenches vacated by 
2oth A. C. Got into position at midnight. 

1 5th. Skirmishing on our front. 

10 A. M. Gen. Davis passed along. Tells the boys to de- 
scend the hill in front and try their hand on the rebel pickets 
just across the field. Half a dozen go down. All return un- 
hurt after amusing themselves as much as they wished ! 

T2 M. Heavy firing on our left. The battle is on! No 
genuine fighting on our own front. 

2 P. M. Adjt. Rice struck by an enemy's ball in the hip. 
Borne instantly to the field hospital. He was reclining at the 

236 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

foot of a large oak tree (we were all idle at the time), his pen- 
cil in his hand, tracing lines on the palm of his hand and 
chatting with Lieuts. Carr and Boughman. The ball was 
from a sharpshooter's gun and came a long distance, but with 
full force, striking him in the hip and coursing up, it is be- 
lieved into the viscera. The pencil dropped from his fingers 
and he exclaimed : "O God ! I am struck," and attempted 
involuntarily to rise; failed; asked help and received assist- 
ance from Lieut. Carr. A stretcher was called, and he was 
placed on it, quite pale. He then asked for his pencil and said 
he thought he was not badly hurt. His quivering lips, how- 
ever, showed his mental agitation. We never saw him again. 

6:35 P. M. Benj. F. Bennett, of Company G, wounded in 
right leg. 

Night. Talking with the rebel pickets Our boys want 
to know "when they are going to evacuate." 

ii o'clock. Heavy discharges of artillery, accompanied 
by cheers and a false charge of the enemy. Our boys were 
wide awake to welcome them! 

1 6th. Enemy gone; heavy firing at a distance; can- 
nonading with McPherson. Move out from entrenchments. 
Receive mail. Meet loth Mich, just returned from veteran 
furlough. Return to the mouth of Snake Creek Gap. Take 
up our knapsacks, camp equipage and baggage train and push 
south on the Rome road, preceded by Garrard's cavalry. 
Passed some fine plantations. 

Night. Camped in pine grove. Our division detached 
for this flank movement. 

iyth. Rear guard to-day. Marched to Creek. 

2 130 P. M. Rain coffee cigars fight here between rebel 
rear guard under Jackson and Kilpatrick. 

3:30 P. M. "E" and "K" go on picket Simon for guide. 
Grave of rebel in fence-corner. I took 2d platoon of "E" 
and advanced them as skirmishers as far as Dr. Jones' Mill 
and posted pickets. Factory half mile to our right boys get 
tobacco there. Dr. Jones and his slave brought his boat over 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 237 

and took us across. At his house we got milk and bread and 
found a rebel soldier at home. Posted pickets to cover ap- 
proach to the mill. I discovered three of our boys with a 
pig half butchered! 

1 8th. Broke camp at i p. M. rebel cavalry on our 
front move out on Rome road rear guard to piece of train 
following troops to Rome reached town in the evening 
shown on the way here the ground where Col. Straight and 
his forces were captured. Gen. Baird shows us our camping- 

Night sore feet. Our advance had a hot skirmish here 
with rebel cavalry last evening; captured some prisoners. 

1 9th. Boys bringing in immense quantities of tobacco. 
Rebel cavalry hovering around on the opposite shore of the 
Coosa. Our pickets exchange shots with them. Issue 27 bales 
smoking tobacco to regiment. Visit Shelter's residence. Mc- 
Cook marches into town. Rebel cavalry talking to our boys 
they kill a citizen. 

2oth. Rome visit town with Maj. Wilson and Lieut. 
Walcott. Church preacher's notes they are of the "fire- 
eating" character; "The chivalry God's chosen people," etc. 
Madam Lumkins Dick W. plays on the piano the widow 
talks of her daughter at a monastery in N. C., pursuing her 
studies portrait of her son in the Army portrait of "the 
Doctor" lithograph of Mrs. Howell Cobb the flower garden. 

In the capture of this town we have secured the most 
important point between Chattanooga and Atlanta. We have 
possession of the foundries, machine shops and other expen- 
sive appliances for casting shell and the manufacture of similar 
war material these we destroyed. 

2ist. Shorter's residence again talk with slave Addi- 
son's works. This mansion is the property of a very wealthy 
citizen. The rooms were richly furnished, which our soldiers 
defaced the ruin was complete when we visited them. 

22d. Broke camp at 7 A. M. Marched to pontoon bridge 
and halt delay. Village bells ringing for church the sound 

238 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

comes strangely sweet to us ! Move forward across Oostanaula 
River into town through it to the shores of the Etowah 
troops put across in detached pontoons, rowed. Move out on 
the Vaughn's valley road one mile and camp. Creek half mile 
to left of camp and large flour mill, where we bathe. 

23d. Part of i6th A. C. arrived Col. Bain, 5oth 111. 
Doc. McMaury strawberries! 

24th. Broke camp at 5 A. M. Two miles out on road 
two rebel deserters surrender. 

Blowing a hurricane this P. M. marched thirteen miles 
and rested two hours. Lieut. Winsett had hilt of sword shot 
off accident. Resumed the march blinded with dust. Halt 
at - . Springs; mass; stack arms and camp. 

Night. Violent thunder-storm torrents of rain slept 
in an old cabin with Col. Tillson, Maj. Sam. W. and Lt. Tate. 
These springs are beautiful water clear and cold, flowing in 
several little channels from the fissured rock. i5th A. C. in 
camp near by. 

25th. Drying blankets broke camp after some delay 
and took a dim road leading over pine ridges, uninhabited 
save by the poorest class of "white trash." Brick residence 
before striking the hills piano. Acting Adjt. Tate warns us 
to be chary of the water in our canteens, as none can be had 
for several miles. Surgeon Reeder riding a mule boys guy 
him he threatens to shoot he is known as the "blacksmith." 
Evidence in the woods of tornadoes. Halt on hillside for 
dinner rattlesnakes! Sunset column winding slowly through 
the desolate hills distant boom of cannon storm night 
camp raining furiously. Sleep on a sand-bar in the midst 
of a swamp, four miles from Dallas. 

26th. Broke camp at daylight slow progress bad roads, 
hills 2oth A. C. ahead on wrong road countermarch take 
road to Dallas. Pumpkin Vine Creek deploy skirmishers 
Gen. Thomas Adjt.-Gen'l Brig.-Gen. Whipple our guide 
bridge ascend hills meet boy of i6th 111. returning home; 
term of enlistment expired. Reach Dallas. Our skirmishers 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 239 

drive rebs out and back upon the hills beyond. i5th A. C. 
on our right. In town woman takes Gen. Morgan for a 
"Sub" and asks him for coffee! Minister and family woman 
frightened. Boys found a petition of the citizens of this, 
Paulding County, praying Jeff. Davis to exempt them from 
the coming conscription, as their aggregate is only 1,000 and 
they had already furnished 900 men for the war; that if 
their prayer was not granted, many women and children must 
starve; as it is now, many families found it difficult to subsist 
themselves there were none left to harvest the crops. i25th 
111., McCook's brigade, lost fourteen men, including a lieu- 
tenant, on picket-line, at night. The enemy's cavalry vi- 
dettes made a sneak on their outposts. A coincidence, that 
in the mix-up in the darkness our boys captured fourteen 
men and a lieutenant as an equivalent. 

27th. Heavy firing on picket-line cannonading to left 
and right suddenly leave camp move to front halt under 
hill skirmishers on our right advance prisoners taken one 
of "G" slightly wounded. Received mail. Moved forward 
again in echelon halt in woods occasional shots chipping 
trees near us. i6th 111. on our left. Anderson of "B" and 
Coppage of "G" brought in wounded off skirmish-line; the 
first in arm, second through abdomen. P. M. Coppage dead. 
One company of 6oth 111. sent out on our front rapid shots 
on picket-line S. of "B" mortally wounded. Five wounded 
to-day; many narrow escapes, as the enemy's balls fell among 
us all day. 

28th. Heavy cannonading on our left and continuous 
firing on our picket-line prisoners taken; some of them 
wounded enemy shell us. i '.30 P. M. Form line, expecting 
to be attacked. 

5 P. M. Rebs charging the 15th A. C. on our right 
artillery and musketry we spring to our arms. Heard from 
Wallace Rice to-day. Logan repulsed the enemy with severe 
loss. Stood to arms all night. 

ii o'clock enemy again charges our lines repulsed. The 

240 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

fire of our artillery terrible. Rebel prisoners tell us their gen- 
erals told them that they would break through our lines and 
push for Chattanooga! The enemy has extensive field-works 
along a range of high hills. 

29th. Two years ago this morning Beauregard evacu- 
ated Corinth, Miss. Our pickets swear they saw a woman 
shooting at them to-day! All quiet, save slight picket-firing. 
One of "G" wounded. Night. Rebs again attempt to charge 
our lines on our left repulsed as usual. 

3oth. Occasional shots on the picket -line " Doctor John" 
and "Put" visitors. Man in "G" had his pipe knocked out 
of his mouth, and a piece taken out of his chin by a rebel 
Minie-ball. Threw up breastworks. Man in "I" wounded. 
"E" on picket this eve. In pit with Andy Fuller, Simons 
and Hartley close shooting by rebels 35th New Jersey on 
our right many of them wounded. Some men very care- 
less lying out asleep apparently in full view of rebel sharp- 
shooters. Dead rebels between the picket-lines, killed on the 
day of our arrival. 

3ist. Zouaves 35th N. J. still with us. Enemy erect 
a^new battery opposite the left of our brigade, on a high hill, 
and t shell the i6th 111., wounding one man. Gen. Sweeny at- 
tacked the enemy at i P. M. "E" relieved this eve from 
picket-line -returned to camp with no casualties. Night. 
Received orders to move at daylight. 

June i st. Best sleep in four nights. Delay in moving. 
Godden shoots his finger off purposely! Rebs evacuate, leav- 
ing a line of observation. We shift position rebel skirmishers 
follow us a short distance driven back intensely hot. Move 
to the left. Hear that rebel cavalry are in our old camps at 
Dallas. Long m^rch to extreme left of line of battle pass 
line of ambulances on Marietta road and drove of beef cattle. 
Forage going to the front hospitals filled with wounded 
graves strike our troops move to the left and rear of 4th 
A. C. Artillery packed in ravines cattle shambles. Move 
to the front great caution in getting into line, which we 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 241 

accomplished after considerable delay the filth encountered 
here! Crept into our blankets at midnight. 

ad. Get tools of Col. Gross and erect breastworks. Go 
to the front and take a view of rebel works shown the ground 
over which our forces charged yesterday Cousin H. wounded 
here Rainstorm lasted all day Water filled trenches. 

jd. Picket-firing. Boys of 84th 111. visit us. The ruse 
by Gen. Stanley failed rebs didn't bite. Raining received 
recruit to-day, Warren Frazell "came down to see how he 
would like it." 

4th. Gen. Davis sick Gen. Morgan commands division; 
Col. Lum the brigade. We leave intrenchments ; file along 
the rear of the line to the left two miles past Gen. Thomas' 
and Gen. Wood's headquarters. Halt at 12 M. in rear of lines 
and to left of ist Division, Gen. Johnson commanding. i6th 
111. and 14 th Mich, go to trenches and relieve troops of 23d A. C. 

5th. Raining rebels evacuated Sky clears read and 
and pass the day listlessly. Thompson, Colonel's hostler, takes 
animals out to graze horses captured man of "K," a com- 
panion of T.'s, reported killed. Gen. Palmer and staff the 
former very talkative. 

6th. Break camp and follow the enemy firing ahead 
at 12 M. Peter Tait, an old college friend, comes to me as 
we move upon the road. Roads miry prisoners country 
church rebel works 4th A. C. headquarters Gen. Howard 
stragglers with rails on shoulders in single file, marching in a 
circle. Camp 011 grassy spot intrench. 

yth. Mail to-day papers Baltimore Convention. Un- 
cle Abe's renomination. Philadelphia Fair. A warm, sunny 
morning encamped on a rebel farm beautifully growing 
wheat hillside covered with dewberries apples in the or- 
chard honey in the hives. Boys cleaning up Negroes wash- 
ing clothes. Lieut. Worrell and Doctor Dave McDill visit 
us. Gentle spring shower this P. M. How the grass revives 
under the moisture ! Plaindealers received contain circular of 
"Copperheads' Wolf Hunt." Darn socks. 

242 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

[Mem. The "Copperhead wolf hunt" was a prearranged 
pretext for a political meeting of Henderson County Confed- 
erates where Bill Hanna could discipline "the forces."] 

8th. Reading Hawthorne and Wordsworth. Hear three 
volleys fired over the grave of a dead soldier of the i4th Mich. 
Night light shower brigade band Gen. Sherman's order on 

9th. Orders to march at 6 A. M.; countermanded. Other 
troops moving. Rumors of flag of truce. 

There are a hundred thousand of us: the infantry, the 
cavalry; the artillery and trains; the ambulances and the 
signal corps; the furled guidons and the faded banners. And 
we lay in our blankets in the silver moonlight in the mount- 
ains of Georgia ; the foe close at hand and the dead between 
the lines. Sleepless, but resting at ease in my blanket, I lie 
and look around upon the champing horses; the batteries; 
the billowy forms asleep around ; the moonlight pouring down 
the gray, brilliant moonlight, glittering like the jeweled bosom 
of a'queen. We are here on our way to Atlanta and the sea 
from Island No. 10 and Belmont; from Donelson and Shiloh; 
frorrfCorinth and Stone River; from Chickamauga and Mission 
Ridge; from Fair Oaks and Malvern Hill; from Fredericks- 
burg and Chancellorsville. 'Tis the early summer of 1864, 
and we are on our way home via Savannah and the Carolinas 
and Washington. Many of the lads w r ill never see home again, 
but we will do the best we can as to that! 

loth. Broke camp at 5 A. M. Move out into field along 
roadside and halt while 3d Brigade moves in advance, fol- 
lowedjbyj[2d Brigade. Col. Mitchell rainstorm troops mov- 
ing to north and east. Move forward halt while I5th A. C. 
passes us, or, rather, crosses our path. Another beating rain 
shower up to knees in mud. Roads horrible for our trains 
and artillery. 

3 P. M. Skirmishers engaged our battery opens halt 
and form line of^battle parallel and confronting rebel works. 
Sky clears evening brigade band: " When This Cruel War 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 243 

Is Over." 4th A. C. in rear. Clearing away trees tcTgive our 
battery range. Adjutant James Allen has just received a note 
from Wallace Rice, dated in hospital, near Chattanooga, on 
the yth, in which he says: "I have been very bad from get- 
ting erysipelas (gangrene) in my wound. Have suffered oh, 
so much! and am writing this in much pain." 

nth. Misty this morning shots on the picket-line 
rumor that the enemy would attack. Raining Gen. Baird 
on our left Troops getting ragged clothes much worn 
holes in hat-crowns patched with bits of blue cloth the size 
of one's hand. Cloudy and dismal. Muddy stream bivouac 
Gen Johnson rides past. Carries a cane instead of a sword! 
Gray beard; dark eyes; above the medium size; pleasant- 
looking. Artillery shots skirmishers cars whistle of loco- 
motive the engine keeps close on the heels of the skirmish- 
ers cracker-line perfect! Cutting away timber for batteries. 

i3th. Raining. Go on picket at 7 boys fall into creek. 
Brigade has orders to move two companies sent to front 
dinner artillery opens on our left. 

4 p. M. Push line forward. Gens. Davis and Thomas 
Kenesaw Mountain in full view to front and left. Clear our 
front of the enemy's pickets. Night; stars; crescent. 

i4th. Clear and beautiful. Gen. Morgan and relief. Mail 
and breakfast. Read in Plaindealer of money being sub- 
scribed as a bonus to induce men to go into the " 100 days" 

9:20. Move to the front light marching order left in 
front, close column by divisions prisoners going to the rear 
wounded passing back. Advance and throw up breastworks. 
Dinner Gens. Thomas, Whipple, Palmer, Davis, King and 
others. Cannonading to left. Skirmishers advance under or- 
ders from Gen. Morgan to go to top of hill and halt. Com- 
panies "G" and "K" sent out to strengthen the line. Gen- 
erals repass battery on our right opens mail moved to 
left Johnson's division fills the works we vacate. Camp in 
woods close column by divisions. Rebel signal station detected 

244 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

sending a dispatch which asserted that the rebel Gen. Polk 
was killed to-day by a shot from one of our batteries. Night, 
bands playing national airs we intrench. 

i5th. Under arms at daylight felling trees for breast- 
works weather clear and beautiful. Shots on the picket-line 
intermingled with shots at intervals from our battery on the 
right. Four companies sent out as pickets. 

12 M. Gen. Sherman and staff pass along the lines. 
Heavy skirmishing on our left i6th A. C. advancing their 
picket-line. Sixty prisoners taken in this advance. Tobacco 
scarce not to be had for love or money. "Chokem" says: 
"I '11 fight any man in the brigade for one pound of the weed." 

1 6th. Clear and beautiful right advances, encircling 
Kenesaw. Shots on the picket-line. Barnett's Battery wakes 
up a rebel battery on the mountain. Heavy artillery firing 
on our left. Received orders at i p. M. to hold ourselves in 
readiness to move at a moment's warning light marching 
order picket-line strengthened. Johnson is supposed to be 
making preparations for attacking us we are prepared. 

2 130 P. M. Parrotts coming up. Mail this p. M. Group 
of generals in angle of works at house on our right at 5 p. M. 
Sherman, Thomas, Palmer, Davis and others. From this 
point can see on summit of mountain rebel signal station, 
also horsemen and infantry. 

1 7th. Brisk skirmishing on our left rumor of prisoners 
being taken. 8 A. M. Orders received to hold ourselves in 
readiness to move at any moment. 

p. M. Visit picket-line Negro huts slaves i4th Mich. 
Reserve skirmishers advance flank rebel line and capture 
a squad of prisoners a major among them. Our loss three 
wounded. 4:30 p. M. Enemy attempts to recover his lost 
ground repulsed. Our boys cheer. Light rain falling put 
up tents. At dusk the picket-firing grows more spiteful. 
Artillery opens on our right. "Put" tells of "Dad Hand" 
dancing for "a chaw tu-backer." Night Gen. Palmer says 
main body of rebs ten miles distant doubtful. The General 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 245 

in a jocular vein "Don't blame a man for getting behind a 
tree," he would do the same. "Want anything rash done, 
call on new troops old soldiers too sharp." 

i8th. Raining gloomy swamps on our front batteries 
on our right moving our line advances half mile and throws 
up breastworks. 

1 9th. Bugles rouse us before day brigade band "Old 
Hundred." Light firing on picket-line. Rebs evacuate their 
pickets driven away. Move forward half mile and halt at 
cross-roads. One section of Barnett's Battery goes to the 
front. Gen. Whipple passes to front. Col. Dan McCook 
a medium-sized, wiry fellow. Col. Mitchell, a little, fancy man. 
They chat together three reb prisoners pass to rear Col . 
McC. talks to them. Find that enemy had only contracted 
his lines "the apex on Kenesaw, his flanks resting on Noon- 
day (?) and Moses Creeks." Our battery (2d Minn.) shelling 
the sides of the mountain. Rebels on the summit looking 
down on us as we approach. Our skirmishers take a few 
prisoners and one of the enemy's ambulances. Pass two lines 
of strong rebel rifle-pits and continuous works which the enemy 
had abandoned, and halt on his last and heaviest works, which 
were ten feet in depth, platformed for guns and bushed to 
secrete them, n A. M. Gen. Sherman walks along the de- 
serted works where we are resting, gazing at the mountain; 
lines of battle and skirmishers advancing on our left drench- 
ing rain. 12 M. Move to the front and form line of battle 
move by the left flank, obliquing toward the mountain, and 
form another line of battle. Our batteries fire over our heads 
at the mountain. 

3:30 P. M. Reb sharpshooters discover us in the bushes. 
Del. Esterbrook, "H," wounded in tip of shoulder; ball goes 
on and pierces a canteen and tears a man's pocket out. Shots 
getting more frequent sky darkening strong tokens of rain. 
4 P. M. Captain 6oth 111. wounded in the head mortally. 
Hear of the death of Adit. Rice unexpected shocked 
profound sorrow. 

246 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

2Oth. Built breastworks rebel sharpshooters trouble us. 
Cyrus Chapin shot through the wrist. Our batteries open. 
12 M. shell from our battery bursts prematurely; pieces fall 
among us. Gen. Morgan views the enemy's position talks 
with us. Pieces of shell falling around. 

4:30 P. M. Attack on right. Our batteries open on 
mountain supper. Two of loth 111. wounded, Cos. "I" and 
"F"; leg and breast latter died. Also one of loth Mich. 
Regiment moves to the front for picket reserve in ravine- 
night raining. 

2ist. Sergt.-Maj. Chas. B. Simpson hit in the scalp. 
Gave him a bad headache! 4th Miss, and i25th 111. talking 
across picket-line exchange tobacco for coffee. 

22d. Reb batteries shell our camp. Dan Parker chews, 
dries and smokes the same' quid. Rebel guns open on us 
two killed .f Several wounded on our right. Women reported 
near the rebel batteries on the mountain-top. Cannonading 
to our right. 12 midnight. Rebel batteries open on us; this 
supposed to cover the removal of their artillery. Orders to 
march countermanded build breastworks. 

23d. Rebel artillery opens to the right and left of us. 
Twelve pieces in rear of our brigade open and silence rebel 
batteries exciting scenes splendid shots by our gunners. 
Our batteries to right 4th A. C. open terrific fire on right 
of mountain. Another duel between battery in rear of brig- 
ade and rebel guns magnificent our guns victorious tre- 
mendous cheering by our boys. Cannonading still going on 
to our right. Last night rebel pickets attempt a surprise 
our men on the alert, and drive them 100 yards to rear of 
their former line. 

24th. Robt. Graham gone home time expired. One of 
"C" wounded in thigh. 

25th. Artist sketches Kenesaw. 10:30 A. M. Rebel bat- 
teries open. Boys repair to trenches terrific artillery duel; 
engagement lasted one hour, neither side gaining any advantage. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 247 

2 '.30 P. M. Rebel batteries open again they challenge 
with a volley of six guns. Our batteries reply and drive rebel 
gunners from their pieces. Our guns had effective range 
engagement lasted half an hour our guns continue to fire- 
enemy unable to respond. With a glass can see the effect of 
all our shots as they are fired. 

4 P. M. Rebel batteries open again intense excitement. 
Shells of contending batteries pass directly over our heads. 
Our batteries reply. Action renewed with increased fury. 
Enemy directs some of his pieces on our camp. Capt. Car- 
penter's right-hand fingers torn off by piece of shell. Tops 
of trees cut off by shell and fell with a crash among us. Mail 
orders to move at nightfall. Our division relieved before 
Kenesaw at midnight. 

26th. Move along the rear of our line of works a distance 
of four miles and mass in rear of Gen. Stanley's division, 4th 
A. C. Had a tedious night march of it, getting into camp at 
6 A. M. Breakfast. Clear and breezy to-day. Prisoners go- 
ing to rear. Hear the ' ' halloo " of a voice almost superhuman 
attracts the attention and suspicion of many. Gen. Morgan 
thinks it the warning of a spy. 

"Stick" Carl, Capt. McGaw, Adjt. Caswell, Surgeon Mc- 
Dill, of the 84th, and Lieut. Worrell, of the y8th 111., call. 
Hooker on our right. 

27th. Roused at 3 o'clock A. M. with orders to move at 
daylight, light marching order. Movement delayed left camp 
at 6:30 observe Gens. Howard and Palmer riding past no- 
tice something unusual in the face of the latter, deeply flushed. 
Is there a fight on hand? Heavy cannonading to left. File 
into a line of works at the front with great caution muskets 
brought to the trail to prevent the gleam of the barrels being 
seen. Run a gauntlet of rebel sharpshooters for quarter of 
mile reach advance of breastworks with loss of one killed 
and four wounded. Relieved 2ist Ky. Mitchell's, Dan Mc- 
Cook's and Gen. Harmon's brigades charge the rebel works 
advanced in silence. Hooker's skirmishers on our right ad- 

248 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

vance upon the enemy simultaneously with the charging-line. 
H3th and ySth 111. regiments cross our works on the double- 
quick under a burning sun the charging-line was exhausted 
before it got half way to rebel works. Enemy's batteries get 
cross-fire on us, raking our line with grape and canister. Rebel 
pickets driven in, most of them captured. The charging-line 
disappears in the hills and woods on our front. Hear the 
fighting, but see nothing. The deafening crash of the rebel 
batteries as they continue to shell our works. Our charging- 
line repulsed. Stragglers and color-bearer of H3th come into 
our works one of them struck with piece of shell after sit- 
ting down. Confused report of the action. Our charging-line 
retired a few yards only and intrenched. Our loss heavy. 
Our wounded coming in. Dan McCook mortally wounded. 
Col. Harmon killed. Major H3th wounded. Many fine offi- 
cers and men lost. A dark, sad day. Gen. Brannon, Chief 
of Artillery, Army of the Cumberland, passes along in com- 
pany with Maj. Hough teling, giving directions for the planting 
of batteries. Gen. Morgan and Company "B" boy behind 
tree? Simeon Donelson, of "G, " had hand torn off by piece 
of shell. Jno. W. McCurdy wounded in wrist by piece of 
shell. Hospital Steward Hobson shot through the breast while 
standing near battery in rear line of works. It is related 
among our officers that Col. Harmon last evening wrote a 
farewell note to his wife, and that Gen. Dan McCook, on going 
into action this morning, said to some of his friends: "Boys, 
here goes for a major-general's stars or a soldier's grave." 
[Mem. He got both. He was borne home, where he lingered 
for some weeks. Previous to his death, President Lincoln sent 
him the coveted commission.] Sim. Donelson, with his bleed- 
ing hand torn in shreds, broke a leafy bough and passed around 
among the desperately wounded men and kept the myriads of 
flies from polluting and infecting the wounds of the prostrate 
men, and was the last to go upon the operating-bench to have 
his own wound dressed. Dr. Henry R. Payne, the Division 
Surgeon, said: "I thought we had finished, when I turned 

Recollections of. Pioneer and Army Life. 249 

half-way 'round and there stood Sim, holding that dreadfully 
wounded arm. He was passed up quickly, the hand and 
wrist amputated and the stump dressed." The other killed 
and wounded listed with the aggregate. 

28th. Our batteries in position. Occasional cannon shots 
by both sides. Dead and wounded of yesterday's charge still 
being brought in loss of division yesterday 800. 84th boys 
over to-day. 84th and 2yth in our rear. 2d line mail 
total loss on our whole line, 2,500. At this point our men 
hold their ground close up under the rebel works. It is pitiful 
to see their frail line of defense, composed of anything they 
could hurriedly pick up under fire limbs of trees, dirt scraped 
up with tin cups and knives. A singular incident occurred 
here to-day, marking a coincidence and confirming in a meas- 
ure, our suspicion as to the spy's "halloo" heard within our 
lines on the day before this charge was made. A man in blue 
uniform, with a mess-pan in his hand, left the front of the 
8sth 111., walked directly toward our outposts, behind a big 
tree midway between the lines; but passed on and, before his 
character could be determined, crossed the rebel works in 

2Qth. Glimpse of Marietta. Go down into Geary's di- 
vision 2oth A. C. Generals Geary and Hooker at Spring 
the former a large man, courteous, frank, hearty address; the 
latter a princely-looking, silver-haired old gentleman, of quiet 
address, ruddy face. Hooker's glance through glass at rebel 
works notice new line of breastworks thrown up last night- 
observe rebels busy completing abattis. Capt. Garternicht 
over. Truce to bury dead on our front visit scene of the 
charge of 27th inst. Found ground strewn with our dead, 
the bodies swollen to twice the natural size under a burning 
sun. Our men busy burying. Reb works crowded with their 
men looking on. Rebel officer mingling freely with our bury- 
ing parties. Conversation. Our men crowding up on the 
works, prevented by guard from going out on truce ground. 
Gen. Morgan cautiously appears among our men, uncovering 

250 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

on coming into the presence of our dead. Rebel general 
seemed to enjoy our discomfiture. Reb colonel denounced 
Northern "Copperheads" and New York Herald. Return to 
our line with feeling of indignation and inexpressible sorrow. 
Visit from A. T. McDill. By some strange misfortune this 
charge was delivered against the most formidable point in 
the line of rebel works, built by slave labor, days in advance, 
in anticipation of the event. 

3Oth. At 2 o'clock A. M. heavy firing on our front. Rebel 
skirmishers opened the action. 34th 111. engaged they dig 
rifle-pits on our front. Pickled onions and kraut, antiscorbutic, 
issued to-day. Muster. 

July ist. Heavy fog. 26. and 3d Brigades keep up an 
incessant firing on the rebel works. Had view, from high, 
open ground on our right, of rebel fort being erected to our 
front and right, distant one mile. Gorgeous sunset. Our 
batteries open along our entire line no response. 85th 111., 
directly in front of the rebel salient, attempt to mine the rebel 
stronghold our boys rake their works with musketry, and no 
"Johnny" dare show his head ! 

2d. Dawn our batteries open no response cleaning 
camp. Rebels fire a few cannon shots. 

3d. 3 o'clock A. M. Enemy gone. Breakfast at day- 
light. Our regiment moves, skirmishers in advance, in direc- 
tion of Marietta. Debouch into main road strike 2oth A. C. 
take a few prisoners. Halt and stack arms till Hooker's men 
pass. "Fighting Joe" passes on gray charger. One of our 
batteries opens on rebel rear guard enemy's artillery replies 
from Marietta. Kill one man and wound others of 2oth A. C. 
We take a circuitous route to town and enter the place at 
the Military Institute. Rest prisoners dinner the town 
pretty village disfigured by the wear and tear of armies. 
Cannonading at a distance leave town to our left, and move 
southward. Pass Hooker's ordnance train. Group of ex- 
hausted men very hot and roads dusty. Column of infantry 
with train moving on road to left, and east of us S. R. R. B. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 251 

bury ing cannonad ing to right. Rebel works. In answer to 
a gentleman, Gen. Morgan, proud of his old regiment, replies: 
"This is the loth Illinois." Relieve two regiments of 2oth, 
A. C. in breastworks. Night found the enemy on our front- 
intrenched. Skirmishing his new line of works in full view 
across open fields. 

4th. The national anniversary. Bands out camp re- 
sounding with "Star-Spangled Banner," "Hail Columbia." 
"Hymn of Liberty," "Ready to Move at a Moment's Warn- 
ing." Cannonading to left, n o'clock A. M. 6oth 111. move 
to front as skirmishsrs. Bill of fare for dinner; quarter- 
gown green apples, intensely acid. Munched our hard-tack 
in the trenches in the hot sun joked and thought of the 
sumptuous feasts North to-day. Our skirmishers advance 
rapid firing rebs running from right of their rifle-pits to 
left strengthening them. Our batteries shell their pits ef- 
fectually. Scatter their reinforcements and drive them away. 
Our wounded coming in. One rebel battery can almost en- 
filade our works. Orders to move at 6:30 P. M. Supper. 
Our brigade advances and throws up a new line of works. 
Our regiment sent out to relieve the 6oth on the picket-line, 
which suffered severely to-day.- Our batteries open to left 
and right. In swamp sunset bands playing at a distance. 
Night right wing in reserve left companies move to the 
front dangerous ground rebs close at hand move with the 
greatest caution. Maj. Wilson putting companies in position 
very dark, thick undergrowth on our left. Close shooting by 
rebel pickets our boys engaged. During the night Prvt. Jno. 
Nelson had rubber poncho on his person struck, it being 
folded; on unrolling it, found eight or ten holes in it! James 
W. Davis, lying asleep at our reserve, had tin can on his 
person pierced and dirt thrown in his face by a rebel Minie- 
ball. Maj. Wilson ran the gauntlet of the enemy's fire. Nar- 
row escapes were numerous. 

5th. 3 o'clock this A. M. rebs silently retreat dawn 
visit the deserted works of the enemy; found them very 

252 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

strong prisoners. Corporal Wallace of the 6oth 111. dead 
his position Lieut. Van Tuyl attempts to awake him, taking 
him to be asleep! He lay very naturally, as if screening 
himself from the enemy behind a small pine bush. "Come, 
come, soldier, it is daylight, the rebs are gone get up!" 
Alas, for him! He was farther advanced than any of his 
comrades, and the bush behind which he had lain down to 
protect himself was scarcely large enough to hide his hand; 
There he lay, as if about to take a shot at the foe, his kerchief 
on his arm with which he wiped his brow; his gun out ahead 
of him, extended, the butt against his shoulder, his face lying 
on the lock. The enemy's ball entered the right eye. The 
ground on which he was killed had been a peach orchard, 
and a few straggling trees remained; flourishing young pines 
were coming up thickly on every hand, and the tender grass 
sprouted luxuriantly, making a scene of real beauty. As we 
moved to the right and left the place spades were busy 
preparing the grave of Corporal Wallace. Farther on, came 
upon other burying parties the dead still lying where they 
had fallen. Moved out to the regiment assembling on the 
road, where we found the column in pursuit of the enemy. 
Prisoners one of them seven feet in height and as saucy as 
he was long! Pass through heavy earthworks deserted by 
the enemy. March slow hot reach hills and halt for din- 
ner cannonading to our right and front. Move close to the 
Chattahoochie River and halt. Skirmishers thrown forward 
and engaged, loth and i4th Mich, in advance drive rebel 
pickets back to their works I4th Mich, lost heavily. Brig- 
ade forms line of battle halt and intrench. Our battery 
shells rebel train moving across river. Rumor of difficulty 
between some of our generals. Rumor that our cavalry cap- 
tured large number of militia and Negroes. 

6th. Two rebel divisions reported on our front. With 
lyieut. Winsett in search of a spring, observe rebel wagon train 
beyond river on the double-quick. James M. Rice, on cler- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 253 

ical detail, with us to-day. Hooker moves to our right. Our 
batteries shell rebel works. View of Atlanta from tree-top. 

7th. In obedience to order, policed camp and fitted up 
tents to "stay a while." Spend the day in cleaning grounds, 
sinking barrels for water, etc. Night five companies on 
picket. Rebs attempt to advance their picket-line are driven 
back. Shots pass over camp. 

9th. Enemy left Hooker's front. 23d A. C. crossed 
river east of this yesterday. Cannonading in that direction 
to-day. Troops gathering large quantities of blackberries. 
Capt. Mason says Adjt. Rice died of neglect of wound by 
hospital attendants. Sergt. Brown, of "C," doing well. Fac- 
tory burned up the river and train of wagons brought into Mari- 
etta laden with the operatives. Order to march at daylight. 

loth. Tents struck and packed for marching enemy 
left our front prisoners go by sixteen rumor that we will 
not move. Visit abandoned rebel works. Pine bushes cut 
by Minie-balls. Post of rebel picket reserve. Rebel picket 
stations octagons abattis stockade breastworks. In rear, 
works for field officers and hospitals. These works, a portion 
of them at least, have been built a long time. Mail to-day. 
Return picking blackberries. Cannonading on the river. 

i ith. Misty lowering weather cleared towards noon 
write letters Gen. Sherman and escort pass. Pickets swim- 
ming friend and foe together in river, and exchange coffee 
for tobacco ! Gathering berries. 

1 3th. Rose at daylight and gathered berries beautiful 
springs in camp again at noon clothing issued this P. M. 
Evening received orders to march at 7 A. M. to-morrow 
cannonading order to march countermanded. 

1 4th. Rumor that the enemy charged McPherson re- 
pulsed. Ex-Capt. David R. Waters, formerly of "G," presents 
himself. It is exceptional for an officer deliberately to aban- 
don the service of his country for personal gain to sell whis- 
key and trash to the soldiers at extortionate prices. This 
seems a harsh comment. Capt. W. was and is a talented man, 

254 Recollections of Pioneer and Army I^ife. 

and acted in this matter within his rights. He was encour- 
aged by drinking men like Tillson, and received the sutlership, 
which he coveted. 

1 5th. Rumored righting across river. Mail - - berries 

i6th. Cannonading across river. Inspected at 10 A. M. 
Received orders to march at 5 A. M. 

iyth. Left camp at 5. Marched east and south up 
north side of river to Atlanta road. Came to bank of stream 
and massed in ravine. Lay pontoons and cross without much 
opposition. i6th 111. in advance lose four killed out of Com- 
pany "F," Henderson County men: D. Montgomery, Warren 
Patterson, Alex. Peterson, Thos. Whitcher. Two wounded: 
John Shaw and J. E. Nelson. Drove rebels two miles and go 
into camp dead rebels in the woods. Send a note to The 

1 8th. Slept little our batterymen hard at work all night 
felling trees and planting guns artillery moving all night 
Hooker's batteries passing along our rear. Visited graves of 
Company "F," i6th 111. found their comrades disinterring 
them to get their personal property out of the pockets to give 
to friends at home. Our regiment relieved i6th this morning. 
Col. Tillson unwell. Maj. Wilson in command. Army moves 
our regiment in advance Companies "D" and "I" skirmish- 
ers Company "C" ordered out to strengthen line. "H" sent 
out subsequently Nancy Creek skirmishers have difficulty 
in connecting their lines which rest (right flank) on Peach 
Tree Creek Maj. Wilson with it is struck in thigh badly 
wounded visit him after being brought in lies on stretcher 
he goes to rear in ambulance, deeply regretted by all. Dusk 
Capt. Frank Munson, right arm broken by a rebel ball wound- 
ed on picket-line. Night Company "E" goes on line fills 
space between "I" and "D"; complete rifle-pits hear rebels 
talking and chopping trees shots exchanged. Hood relieves 
Johnston as commander of rebel army on our front. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 255 

1 9th. Call outposts in mocking-birds firing to right 
and left of us send Amos Wright to "reconnoitre"; gets a 
shot returns swing left of picket-line forward stream and 
factory close on our front in view. 

5 P. M. Gen. Morgan, Col. Lum, and major loth Mich, 
call at our outpost and go down on our front and take items, 
keeping close to the large trees. The General brought loth 
Mich, and section of battery with him, intending to advance 
upon the stream. After a close inspection of the enemy's po- 
sition, deferred the movement. Heavy action on our left, in 
which "C" participated. 

20th. Aroused at 3 A. M., with orders to march at day- 
light. Delay 10 A. M., orders repeated to hold ourselves in 
readiness to move at any moment; n A. M., men permitted to 
take off cartridge-boxes. Fighting on our left rebels charge 
our lines repulsed. 

2ist. Move out to picket-line pass rifle-pits which we 
prepared on i8th and igth inst. Prisoners mill wade 
stream and ascend hill to rebel works, which are very strong- 
form line and stack arms. Notice the effect of our shot on 
rebel works; found many of our balls in the head -logs. Mail. 
This P. M. our regiment left brigade and recrossed Nancy Creek 
to Howell Plantation, and relieved pickets of 2d Brigade three 
companies reserve go into camp. Chattahoochie River close 
by. Remains of railroad bridge in full view. We are now on 
the extreme right of our army. 

22d. Rose early gathered quart blackberries for break- 
fast cannonading far to left relieved by cavalry this A. M. 
Return to brigade in old camp. Heavy cannonading ahead and 
far to the left. A battle is on ! Confused reports of the fight 
on our left in circulation. General McPherson killed. Our 
forces go into line and entrench three miles from the city. Our 
brigade on the extreme right, save the cavalry. Our batteries 
shelling the enemy night heavy skirmishing to left. Black- 
berries. Orders to strengthen breastworks. Lieut. Winsett; 

256 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

" Oh that this calamity were past and we were returning home 
so many of our brave fellows being slaughtered !" 

23d. Cannonading profound regret at the loss of Gen. 
McPherson build shade over tent. IIA. M. Enemy massing 
on our front generals prepare to receive them some curios- 
ity and excitement. Mr. Eno, from Gen. Thomas' headquar- 
ters this old gentleman belongs to the Sanitary Commission. 
Troops on our left in line our batteries shell rebel column 
passing to our right our shell make it hot for them they 
double-quick and disappear behind a belt of woods. Portion 
of the city can be seen from Dutchman's house in rear of our 
camp. Heavy firing far to the left. Hear the whistle of a 
railroad engine in Atlanta. Gen. McPherson' s body sent North 
with two of every grade in his command as an escort. Con- 
stant picket-firing night and day. 

24th. Artillery and musketry fire. Preaching by chap- 
lain at rear line of breastworks this A. M. Noon Negroes com- 
ing into our lines on road from west. Received hat in mail 
to-day. Very quiet this P. M. Bands playing sutlership of 
regiment given to Capt. D. R. Waters. Artillery and musketry 
spiteful. Gen. Morgan around says he will watch to-night- 
apprehensive cheering loud and long by the entire army. 
Heavy firing no attack cheering and firing dies away. 

25th. Cold last night misty this A. M. days unusually 
cold. Policed camp and pitched tents regularly. Night 
signal rockets. 

26th. In company with comrade Ed H. Ellett, obtained 
pass, approved by A. A. Tate, for Capt. Lusk, commanding 
regiment, and by Provost Marshal Stinson for Gen. Morgan, 
by which we visit 84th 111. in 4th A. C. Pass along the rear of 
1 4th and 2oth A. C.'s breastworks batteries reserves. 

2yth. Vacillation of Lusk. Disliked by Morgan. 2 P. 
M. Recall our pickets assemble and move into camp move 
out brigade to road on the front of Mitchell's brigade form 
line of battle Companies "G" and "K" deployed as skirm- 
ishers under cover of hill delay i6th A. C. passing to the 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 257 

right along our rear 6oth surgeon in shirt sleeves wrist- 
bands open and turned back, ready for work, an ominous 
figure indeed. Field officers dismounted snatch a moment to 
chat with Lieut. Tunis, 4th Iowa Mitchell's men on works 
behind us, awaiting developments. Heavy rain. We advance 
six companies deployed, four in reserve. Engage the enemy 
after marching quarter of mile straight to front. Four regi- 
ments close column by divisions support us. Rebel captain 
killed and others of his men killed and wounded drove their 
entire line back one mile i6th A. C. on our right. Put bat- 
tery in position and throw up breastworks. 6th Ind. of i6th 
A. C. relieve us on picket-line assemble and return to old 
camp. Loss of regiment slight, all wounded. Returning to 
camp met iyth A. C.; also Generals Palmer and Baird. Gen- 
erals Sherman, Thomas, Palmer, and Davis at Gen. Morgan's 
headquarters to-day Generals Thomas and Palmer present 
Gen. Morgan with a pair of major-general's shoulder-straps. 
Learn then our division will remain in reserve a while and Gen. 
Baird's will take the front. Gen. Jeff. C. Davis in command of 

28th. Gen. Morgan in command of division. Lieuts. 
Porter and Parrott call marched out on Sand town road. 
Come upon gth 111. Mounted Infantry on outpost on the extreme 
right flank. Road in places obstructed by rebel picket barri- 
cades. House rail barricade talk with family, one mile to 
river, five miles to Sandtown. Turn to left into woods, and 
halt for dinner. Rumor that we are going to Turner's Ferry 
on Chattahoochie River Out again at i P. M. strike rebel 
cavalry drive them house old man two miles to ferry. 
Aid from Gen. Davis change our course turn to left can 
hear the sound of battle at our old camp volleys of artillery 
and musketry. We turn sharply to the left moving now di- 
rect to the position of our army solitary country dim roads 
night saw-mill, house glare of the flame in the old fireplace 
little girl standing in the doorway, wonder-stricken at the phan- 
toms passing in endless procession through the darkness. 

258 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Rapid firing on the front and right of our column delay 
long and tedious march men dropping out along the roadside. 
Impression that we did not accomplish what we went out to do 
a sudden change in the programme during our march no- 
body seems to know the trouble reached camp in rear of i5th 
A. C. at i A. M. [Mem. This was a most damnable perform- 
ance. We earnestly desired to get into this mix-up with Hood's 
army. It was the intention that we should strike the enemy's 
flank. We had a guide whether we were intentionally misled 
I do not know. It was as dark as hell when we got into camp, 
and the confusion was great. On arriving at the spot where we 
were to go into camp, we came up, as it were, out of the bottom- 
less pit. Adjt. Theo. Wiseman stood at its mouth with a torch 
in his hand to light us out, and I watched him narrowly to see 
if he had one big eye in the middle of his forehead and a tail 
with a spear on the end of it. Who was at fault in this "Sand- 
town" movement I know not. One thing I know: If Joe 
Mower or Phil Sheridan had directed the movement, our di- 
vision would have found the flank of the enemy in short order. 
How did Gordon Granger find the enemy when Gen. Thomas 
was hard pressed on the field of Chickamauga? By the sound 
of battle. God bless his memory.]* 

29th. Issuing rations breakfast Quartermaster Oliver 
Pyatt called Gens. Sherman and Davis discuss the orders 
given Gen. Morgan yesterday. Gen. Sherman gave no order 
to go to Turner's Ferry Gen. Morgan received that order, 
and no other. We were to have gone to the extreme right of 
our army and taken position to attack the flank of the as- 
saulting rebel column. Gen. Davis (sick at this time) much 

r**? *Recent search has ferreted out the truth concerning this move- 
ment. This contretemps rests heavily upon our division to this day. It 
gi ve Sherman an opportunity to slur the Army of 1 he Cumberland, which 
he took advantage of in his "Memoirs." The order of the general of 
the army was erroneously copied by a clerk at the Corps Headquarters. 
The blunder was higher up than General James D. Morgan, and the 
grand old man felt so indignant at the aspersions of Sherman that he 
did not at the time, nor ever afterward, attempt to vindicate his repu- 
tation as a safe and sure soldier in the field. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 259 

disappointed at the miscarriage. Passed over the battle-ground 
to-day. "Louisiana Tigers" fought desperately many of 
them fell on our works reported that regiment lost their 
colonel, major, and seven captains killed . In front of the 55th 
Ohio and 26th 111. many rebel dead over the ground. "Put" 
says, "They tried to get us into a fight yesterday, but we were 
too sharp for them." 12 M. Our brigade, commanded by Col. 
Robt. F. Smith, i6th 111., moved to the front loth Mich, on 
the skirmish-line forward through woods in line of battle- 
weather very hot cross large road leading into the city 
halt and throw up rail barricade. 

4:30 P. M. Our pickets engaged. 3d Div. 2Oth A. C. on 
our right. Our entire line of investment moved forward this 
p. M. and erected works- farm-houses burning battery going 
into position fifty-seven dead "Johnnies" found through the 
woods on the ground of the action of the 28th inst. Dropped 
a little to the rear of our first position and dug trenches by 

3oth. Roused at 3 o'clock completed breastworks 
orders to move -delay Col. Tillson visits us to-day not able 
for duty yet. Noon Morgan L. Smith's division of i5th A. C. 
relieves 3d Brigade of our division. Shift to right and ad- 
vance flank half mile and throw up breastworks hard work 
1 6th 111. in reserve. Occasional shots on our picket-line. 
Brigade of Hooker's men on our right. Mail rumor of a 
fight on the left. 

3ist. Aroused at 3 o'clock bugles, drums and brigade 
bands "Star-Spangled Banner, " "Old Hundred." Left camp 
at 7 light marching order on reconnaissance; moved west 
to farm-house turned to left and south, down dim road. 
i6th 111. deployed. Entered woods reached hills and swamp- 
found the enemy heavy skirmishing rebel works their bat- 
teries shell us. Heavy rain-storm^ three in i6th wounded, 
also slight loss in loth Mich. Form line of battle, and cut 
brush from our front right of regiment refused, being on the 
flank. Gens. Thomas, Whipple and Ward McK. sick not 

260 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

with us. Returned to camp at 4 P. M. Order removing our 
regiment from old brigade. Dissatisfaction on the part of our 
men night, wet dry clothing. This order removing our 
regiment from Morgan's old brigade is the result of an old 
quarrel between Tillson and Morgan. The regiment must 
suffer to appease Tillson's malice. 

August i st. Made change in officers' mess arrangements 
a few subs and coffee-coolers, sponging their living agree to 
dismiss them. Signed "grub" note for $59 for Ira Putney. 
Issuing rations this morning Col. Tillson reported for duty 
evening removal trouble officers summoned to headquarters. 
Col. Tillson demands our support of his course in taking the 
regiment out of our old division and corps. Mason and two 
others, off -color trio, secretly oppose him. Their farewell paper 
to Gen. Morgan. Troops advance lines. 

2d. Go on picket at 8 A. M. Relieved i6th 111. Six 
companies on line, four in reserve. "Put" Caldwell, i6th, 
wounded in right foot. 10 A. M. Lieut. Van Tuyl and twelve 
men reconnoitre developed blackberries! Cavalry on our 
right. Enemy reported massing on our front. Strict orders 
to hold our picket-line ! Men in trenches strengthening works 
prepared for them. 23d A. C. move in on our front and 
entrench. Withdraw to trenches. Mail. 

3d. James Shoemaker visits us. Also Capt. Hall, Com. 
Subsistence, 3d Brigade, 3d Div., 23d A. C. Prvt. Jno. Tank 
fires his gun against orders. Tillson's reprimand. This P. M. 
enemy drive in our pickets shell them back heavy cannon- 
ading rain read in Chattanooga paper (Gazette) of death 
of Francis P. Speck, in General Hospital, Lookout Mountain. 
Severe fighting on our left to-day. 

4th. Aroused at 3 A. M. Left camp light marching or- 
der with tools. 2d and 3d Brigades ahead pass Gen. Scho- 
field's headquarters. Gen. Baird and Gen. Cox close by. ist 
and 3d Divisions went to right last night. 

3 P. M. rumor that we are to have a fight. Move out on 
front of ist Division and take position on hill in columns by 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 261 

regiments. Troops moving past us into woods on our front 
and into position. Artillery packed in valley to our left and 
rear. Ambulances debouching into valley and going into 
park a place seemingly made for their safety. Rebs shell 
us shell blows hat off one fellow and dints the muzzle of 
his musket this and nothing more. Lieut. Anderson, Com- 
pany "G," reported for duty from hospital at Chattanooga. 
Two of our batteries shell rebel works furiously. 6 P. M. rapid 
skirmish firing. Evening air dense with smoke, obscuring 
the landscape. Our division files along edge of woods sun- 
set the blue sky mist rising along the forest ambulances 
going to rear with wounded groups of soldiers in valley 
Negroes in valleys stiff with fright eventide horses grazing 
in the valley fires lighting smoke settling shouts of team- 
sters coming up cheers of our skirmishers driving the en- 
emy one brigade of our division gets position on hill to our 
front. Rebels shell them heavy picket-firing spirt of balls 
passing over us soldiers passing to the front from commis- 
sary with boxes of hard-tack on shoulders. Sapphire sky 
stars multitudinous voices of insects hum and buzz of the 
Union host settling into camp. New moon thin crescent 
above the western horizon camp close column by divisions 
entrench sleep without blankets. 

5th. Breakfast prisoners Gen. Morgan we advance 
loth Mich, skirmishers some loss. Advance over a mile 
entrench put up traverses to prevent enemy from enfilading 
trenches. Shell us severely no casualties in our regiment. 
Gens. Morgan and King, ist Tenn., 23d A. C., on our right. 
Send detail to old camp for knapsacks. 

6th. Hazy and cool. Reb sharpshooters throwing balls 
among us they shell us our skirmishers drive their pickets 
in threw their shell among us all day. 12 M. i6thand i4th 
sent to front, to support pickets. 23d A. C. advances heavy 
firing in that direction i6th and i4th return one of "B" 
wounded by piece of shell. Night heavy rain. 

262 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

7th. Issuing rations. 12 M. hot skirmishing on our front 
i4th Mich, sent out to support our line. Two of our batter- 
ies open on rebel works. Gen. Sherman and Howard stop in 
rear of our line. Fighting on our left. Turn the enemy's left 
he falls back we advance take prisoners reach rebel works, 
reverse them and erect traverses shell us take head off one 
man, wound others make it hot for us. Move forward to 
crest of range of hills and entrench. Fighting to left of us. 
Our wounded more prisoners. Showers to-day. Rebel lieu- 
tenant brought in wounded. 

8th. Brisk firing on picket -line. 2d 111. Artillery in po- 
sition on our front. Put up head-logs. Enemy throwing shell 
among us with great precision. Knapsacks brought up Jno. 
Crawford slightly wounded by piece of shell. 12 M. Sergt. 
Ben. Kimball of " K" killed while eating dinner Lieut. Tommy 
Kennedy affected to tears at this loss buried in rear of camp. 
One of "D" and another of "K" wounded. Narrow escape 
of Capt. Mason and others from shell. Mail 23d and portion 
of our A. C. to advance to-day rain prevented this movement. 
6 P. M. Relieve i6th 111. on picket-line. McKinney sick 
Van Tuyl ist platoon, myself 2d platoon. Pine tree over our pit 
put men in forward trenches Billy Endicott and others 
enemy's works very close and in full view angry firing all 
day. Sid McCurdy hit in heel. Found dead rebel in front 
of our pits killed on the yth, while engaged with I4th Mich. 
Sid got half dollar in silver and knife from his pocket buried 
him! Midnight squad of I4th Mich, appear and ask per- 
mission to go out in front of our pits and bury two of their 
dead who fell here on the yth. 

gth. Heavy firing on left. Our batteries shell rebel camp, 
which is in full view in edge of woods across open field. 12 M. 
23d A. C. advances. 2d 111. shell rebel pits; knock head-logs 
off. Our boys spoiled several rebs saw them carried off on 
stretchers. Deserters came in last night from 4th Ga. Sharp- 
shooters. That regiment at Resaca was 400 strong; have now 
but 80 men ; 40 lost in front of our brigade in the advance on the 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 263 

yth. Rebel forts on our left. 3P.M. Artillery duel. Relieved 
at 6 P. M. by i4th Mich. 

loth. Rebels shell our camp; kill one of "D." Narrow 

1 2th. Orders to move at daylight. Baird's 3d Division 
in our entrenchments 3ist Ohio relieves us on the picket-line. 
Keep our reserve at the old place, but move our line to the 
right. Brigade shift to right and occupy trenches of brigade 
of 23d A. C. Mail. 6 p. M., return to trenches of I4th Mich., 
near Gen. Cox's headquarters. 

i3th. Rumor of our leaving old brigade soon and going 
to iyth A. C. Orders for our removal said to be with Gen. 
Morgan. Night attend orayer-meeting in company with 
Lieut. Van Tuyl. 

1 4th. Policed grounds and Ditched tents. Orders for 
monthly inspection to-morrow. Suggest Soldiers' Monument 
to Sergeant Andrew Fuller and others. The sergeant is a man 
who would adorn any company of men to which he belonged. 
i5th. Details sent to country for green corn. Bathe at 
Cascades this A. M. Receive orders to make out charges against 
John Tank for firing his gun in camp. Excitement about leav- 
ing brigade men generally opposed to it if left to a vote of 
the men, it would be defeated unanimously. 

i6th. Draft circular for Soldiers' Monument. Evening 
relieve i6th on picket. The loss of such men as Wallace W. 
Rice, Samuel Plummer, James McDill, Gid. H. Ayres, and oth- 
ers, of Henderson County, suggested the monument to their 

iyth. Hot bad rifle-pits too narrow men cramped up 
in them. Close firing by the enemy. Chas. Cowan grazed in 
ankle by ball. Relieved meet, going to camp, Lieuts. Porter 
and Aton. Arrange to visit 84th 111. with them to-morrow. 

i8th. Lieut. Porter refused permission by Col. Cahill to 
be absent from his regiment to-day. Visit 84th with Lieut. 
Aton mule mounts complete draft of articles for Soldiers' 
Monument Association. 

264 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

igth. Roused at 3 A. M. by color-corporal and afterwards 
by Col. Tillson, with orders to be ready to march at 5. Troops 
moving in to take our place took cup of coffee and moved to 
right and occupied works of 23d A. C. Returned to old camp 
at midnight learn from "Solomon" that we leave for the 
i yth A. C. to-morrow. 

Under an order from the War Department, secured by the 
scheming of Col. John Tillson, we exchanged the " Acorn" (i4th 
A.-C.) for the "Arrow" (i;th A. C.). After three years of 
active service with Gen. James D. Morgan, in whom we had 
unbounded confidence, to be torn away from our old division 
and corps to gratify the spite of John Tillson was deeply mor- 
tifying. And our chagrin was not lessened when, a few dasy 
after our departure to the iyth A. C., our old division, led by 
Gen. Morgan, gallantly charged the enemy's lines and captured 
an entire brigade and two rebel batteries of ten guns. Is it not 
plain that Tillson played himself for an ass? In the face of all, 
the regiment continued to do its full duty. 

2Oth. Bid old brigade good-bye God bless the brave old 
band forced to leave them or we should never separate. Call 
on 1 6th 111. before leaving along with comrade Ed H. Ellett. 
We chose our own road to iyth A. C. Comrade Ellett is one of 
our most popular men and an accomplished soldier. Reach 
Gen. Ransom's headquarters Henry McDermott coffee- 
Col. Tillson regiment comes up camp in rear line left wing 
right wing in the advance works. Indecision of Capt. Lusk 
Col. Tillson commands brigade 3d; ist Division commanded 
by Maj.-Gen. Joe Mower, with whom we began our career as 
soldiers at Island No. 10. 

2ist. In response to an order, I reported at brigade head- 
quarters, where Col. Tillson offered me a position on his staff; 
in effect, it is a command and I cannot refuse, although I have 
no desire for close relations with its commander. 

22d. Am to report to Col. Tillson to-morrow morning. 

23d. Eight companies on picket at 3 A. M. On duty at 
brigade headquarters. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 265 

24th. Dr. Payne and Capt. McEnally took dinner with us. 
Advised of a move to take place to-morrow morning. Mail 
letter from brother Kwell. John Winsett re ports for duty from 
hospital ; leaves for his company, which is detached . Stationed 
at bridge on Chattahoochie River, guarding commissary stores 
-enemy shell us. Night marching orders received for 9 A. M. 

a.sth. Clear and hot. Very quiet on the lines packing 
up teams departing learn that 2Oth A. C. has swung back on 
river and entrenched. The rest of the army, 50,000 strong, 
side-stepped to right on Jonesboro. 

26th. Orders received to have commands in readiness to 
move at 8 p. M. Night we evacuate works delay in getting 
off rebels shell us they can hear our artillery moving strong 
picket-line out march all night pass Owl Church. Halt for 
rest in morning. Slept none for two nights. Pass on and halt 
again at 10 A. M. take breakfast find our trains here. 
March on two miles place troops in position post pickets. 
One of the Adams family, relation of the late John Q. Adams, 
is reported to be driving a team in this army. 

2yth. Again on duty with my company. Delayed in 
camp till sunset, when, the train having stretched out on the 
road, we move out as rear guard. Pass cavalry. All night 
going about three miles wagons upset burn them Capt. 
Carpenter missing; supposed to be captured. Went into camp 
-train ahead in corrall. Green corn for dinner and supper. 
Hear of active operations on the front troops go out on the 
double-quick. [Mem. Col. Tillson gave me an appointment 
on the brigade staff. The books were easily kept, and the 
duties otherwise were not beyond the capacity of any man of 
average intelligence ; but I had difficulty with Tillson almost at 
once. He received an order which was part of a very import- 
ant move by the whole army, and which resulted in the capture 
of Atlanta itself. He made two verbal drafts of the order in 
succession; having made one, he forthwith made the other, and 
then, after some reflection, went back to the first, remarking 
that one's first thoughts were the best. I said to him, "This 

266 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

order I will have to deliver to Capt. Lusk a slender reed to 
lean upon and it must be as plain as a barn door or we will 
get into trouble." I did not hear the order as delivered from 
Gen. Fuller, but I gave Tillson's version of it clearly and re- 
peated it to Lusk, and he did what he was expressly forbidden 
to do. At the moment Tillson cast the blame on Gen. Fuller ; 
but Tillson drank whiskey over-much, and, so far as I am per- 
sonally involved in this or any other controversy with him, I 
am now, as then, a better man than he ever was cut out to be.] 

3Oth. Marched at 6. Railroad ties burned rails twisted 
and broken this is the M. & W. R. R. 15th A. C. moving on 
our left in the direction of Jonesboro. We move on the ex- 
treme right circuitous route. Kilpatrick ahead drives rebel 
cavalry. Darkness overtakes us very weary 10 o'clock and 
no camp men clamorous and exasperated. Billy Endicott 
cursing at a huge rate man in company next in our rear 
opens with a volley of oaths Billy eclipsed felt ashamed of 
his own conduct as reflected in the bad temper of the other 
silent for a few minutes gets humorous, crying out: "O my 
bleeding country!" "Hurrah for Abe Lincoln! hurrah for 
the Union!" Marched till n o'clock and camped two miles 
from Jonesboro. Hear railroad train. Pickets firing. 

3 1 st. Constant picket-firing cannonading to left trains 
running. Advance lines and throw up works. Rebels charge 
1 5th A. C. repulsed with great loss shift' to left on double- 
quick Jack Thomas, of "A," and Sergt. Nicholas Smith and 
others wounded. Entrench prisoners see steeples in town 
of Jonesboro night cars running continually. 

September i. Orders to be ready to move at a moment's 
warning. Gen. Ransom prisoners Tunis and Allen, of 2d 
and 7th Iowa. 

p. M. Fighting on our left. i4th A. C., Gen. Morgan's 
division, charges the enemy; breaks his lines captured cue 
brigadier-general, 2,000 prisoners and ten guns! Our lines 
advance enemy retreating night coming on enemy evacu- 
ating our batteries shell them furiously tremendous cheer- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 267 

ing! Midnight, enemy exploding ammunition. Gen. O. O. 
Howard's congratulatory order on the success of recent move- 
ments, resulting in the capture of Atlanta. But for Tillson 
we would have shared in the glory won by our old division 
under Gen. Morgan! 

2d. Enemy gone. Our army after them our division 
delayed. Move into Jonesboro in the evening with train. 

3d. Churches filled with rebel dead and wounded. Our 
own wounded in tents. Go on picket relieved march to 
front after night. 

5th. We move to left and fall back into new line of 
works. Right wing of regiment on picket rain-storm. Gens. 
Howard, Ransom and Fuller in house brigade headquarters. 

6th. Drop back into old works before Jonesboro rebel 
cavalry following us they are in town raining. 

8th. Left camp early and marched in the direction of 
Atlanta cannonading in our rear rebel cavalry pressing our 
rear guard. Reached vicinity of East Point in the evening 
and went into camp behind old rebel entrenchments. 

9th. Moved one mile nearer East Point Station within 
inner line of rebel fortifications policed grounds and put up 
tents. Right wing east of main Atlanta road left wing 
west of this road brigade headquarters directly in our rear 
spring water close by this is our place of rest after the long 
and difficult summer campaign. While in this camp the fol- 
lowing line officers resigned: Capt. Charles McEnally, "B" 
Co.; Capt. John Boyle, "C" Co.; Capt. Samuel Mason, "D" 
Co.; Capt. G. C. Lusk, "K" Co.; ist Lieut. Richard Wol- 
cott, "F" Co. 

The following officers of the line received furloughs for 
thirty days: Capt. Colin McKinney, "E" Co.; ist Lieut. 
Henry C. McGrath, "A" Co.; 2d Lieut. Geo. D. Woodard,. 
"H" Co. 

A large number of enlisted men received furloughs also. 
At this time Lieut. -Col. M. F. Wood returned to regiment for 
duty and took command. A number of enlisted men whose 

268 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

term of service (three years) had expired, were mustered out. 
Those in our own company were as follows: A. R. Graham, 
Jas. M. Rice, Frank Rascher, Henry Millholland, Kirk P. 
Hartley, John Rosebaum. 

On 26th September, in obedience to orders, I took com- 
mand of Company "F" receipted to Lieut. Wolcott for ord- 
nance, camp and garrison equipage. 

Raised a subscription of five hundred dollars in our com- 
pany for Soldiers' Monument in Henderson County. The facts 
in regard to the above subscription are, it was cheerfully given, 
but was much larger than the company could afford. 


October ist. Mess with Lieut. Winsett. Confused re- 
ports coming in as to Hood's movements. Received orders 
at i P. M. to be ready to move at 2 130. At this hour moved 
out and formed, close column by companies, on parade-ground ; 
stacked arms breezy, but hot. Brigade band troops pass 
prisoners marched three miles and bivouac for the night. 

2d. Left camp at 5. Marched ten miles came up with 
small force of the enemy and drove them returned to the 
camp we left in the morning. On picket with Company "F," 
detachment of 25th Ind. and detail from Company "B," 
sixty-five in all. Terrific thunder-storm slept none. 

3d. Left camp at 6 A. M. returned to old camp in the 
trenches. Took breakfast and packed baggage and sent to 
Atlanta to be stored. Received marching orders for to-mor- 
row. Ira Putney mustered out after making three trips to 
4th Division mustering officer had at last to apply to Gen. 
Ransom. Night complete an article for Plaindealer on W. 
W. Rice, ist lieutenant and adjutant. Place it in the hands 
of " Put" on the eve of his departure for home. 

4th. Troops moving since daylight delay left camp at 
i P. M. Move slowly and halt often. Draw rations on the 
roadside. Pass i4th A. C. camp. Old rebel forts suburbs of 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 269 

Atlanta strike Sand town road turn to left upon it. Night. 
Road blocked with troops succeed in the course of two 
hours in marching one mile! "Yakob" afflicted with night- 
blindness send him to ambulance. Bad roads wagons break 
down throw away camp equipage strike railroad inarch 
along it Negro pickets Chattahoochie River cross and halt 
in road cold sleepy stiff. 3 o'clock A. M. Men giving out 
fall by the wayside. 

5th. Marched all night and still marching. Road lined 
with sleeping stragglers not stragglers, perhaps, but men com- 
pletely given out pass through old earthworks troops break- 
fastingDoc. Payne Gen. Fuller countermarch one mile 
and halt for breakfast. Aching feet do not move. 12 M. 
Stragglers coming in Company "F" boys get on train at 
Chattahoochie River and ride to Marietta, from whence we 
joined regiment. Send our valises to Marietta, where they are 
taken charge of by quartermaster, who remains behind. This 
is the battle-ground of 4th July. Left camp at dusk, with 
but few minutes' warning, and marched till midnight to with- 
in one mile of battle-ground of 27th June Kene saw Mountain. 
Halt in old rebel works rain drowned out am amazed at 
the rapidity with which we get over this ground now, as com- 
pared to our progress south over the same roads during the 
spring and summer! 

6th. Marching orders countermanded. Bounced coffee- 
coolers from our mess! 

7th. Heavy fog this morning distant cannonading 
pioneers go out read "Mexico" and "On Horseback into 
Oregon" in the Atlantic. 

4 P. M. Order to march countermanded dispatch from 
signal station of Corse's fight at Altoona. " 157 rebel dead 
before our works." Our loss in killed, wounded and missing 
slight. Orders to march at 4 A. M. Hood has a good pair 
of legs and is keeping out of our way. 

8th. March delayed high wind and cold read all day 
had to keep under my blankets most of the day, it was so cold. 

270 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Received marching orders for to-morrow. Put up a wind- 
break and slept well. 

9th. High wind continues. "A" and "F" rear guard 
march to Marietta seminary residences burning hospitals 
cemetery camps moved beyond town and camped in the 
woods, close column by division; main portion of the army in 
camp here. Hot graves of soldiers killed during summer 

loth. In camp five companies forage to-day broke 
camp in the evening and marched to Ackworth reached camp 
at midnight. 

nth. Marched to Altoona evidences of the fight garri- 
son still there bridge over Etowah Centreville people cheer 
us railroad trains. 

1 2th. March to Kingston cannonading at Rome bulk of 
the opposing armies in that direction. Troops and ordnance 
trains pass on to Rome our regiment got aboard train for Re- 
saca road torn up twelve miles; Hood smashed it good. 
Come to within half-mile of the break "A" and "F" on 
skirmish-line reach break rebels fled repair break, during 
which "I" is feeling the way in advance. Overtake them with 
engine at tank. "I" gets aboard and "D" takes the advance . 
Reach Calhoun. "F" and "D" on picket Federal commis- 
sary $600 horse rebel cavalry just left town. Dispatch from 
Resaca our garrison there summoned to surrender! Not 
much! Train returns to Kingston we move forward to Re- 
saca. "D" in advance "E" flankers Lieut. Van Tuyl on 
right with ist platoon, myself on left of railroad track with 2d 
platoon placed in temporary charge of this. Capture cavalry 
horse and accoutrements on skirmishing-line belonged to rebel 
deserter or spy. Arrive at Resaca at 3 in the morning very 
cold cross on pontoons enter fort and fill trenches 850 of 
our men here, mustered out on their way North time expired. 
These movements at night, in the confusion of pursuit, some 
queer things happened; one, a horseman having an altercation 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 271 

with some of our mounted officers; I observed the man ride off; 
he was believed to be a spy. 

i3th. Enemy in view constant picket-firing enemy 
maneuvering on our front. 

Afternoon. Rebel force understood to have crossed river 
and advancing to attack us people come in from the surround- 
ing country for safety. Wife of Gen. L. H. Rousseau here with 
wives of other officers. 4 p. M. Our skirmishers advance and 
drive the enemy from intrenchments cheering. Our cavalry 
out our artillery used with effect sunset reinforcements 
rebels attempt a charge repulsed. 

1 4th. Enemy gone our cavalry in pursuit had the en- 
emy remained, we were to have charged them. Large part of 
our army arrived here to-day. 

1 5th. Roused at 3 A. M. Army broke camp and moved 
after the enemy in the direction of Snake Creek Gap. Came 
up with his rear guard at the mouth of the Gap. Our 
brigade in advance. We form line of battle skirmishers drive 
the enemy away with loss of twelve killed and wounded. Gen. 
Sherman talking to prisoner Gens. Howard, Ransom, and 
Fuller enter Gap road obstructed with fallen trees of large 
size. Completely blocked our prisoners cut them away. 
Slow progress skirmishing constantly, our regiment deployed 
march over the hills with extreme difficulty deep ravines 
weather extremely hot Gen. Ransom reprimands Lieut.-Col. 
Mac Wood, and justly. 

1 6th. 1 5th A. C. in advance to-day. Rebels living on 
parched corn, sorghum cane, chestnuts, chinkapins, and cow 
peas anything they can find; "No bread," says a Negro cap- 
tured the road literally covered with the chewings of the 
Chinese cane; we track their columns by it. Rear guard to- 
day. 4th and i4th A. C. moving alongside us on an improvised 
road. Gen. Stoneman rides past in a private soldier's hat and 
blouse ; very plain man. Camped near Villanow. 

1 7th. Did not move until dusk. Received a large mail; 
great rejoicing over it learn nothing of Hood crossed mount~ 

272 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

ains and went into camp in cornfield. Gen. Howard's order on 

i8th. Broke camp early and marched rapidly reached 
Chatooga River; camp at sunset on this stream, near Osgood's 
Factory. Sweet potatoes in abundance female operatives 
our cavalry had severe skirmish with enemy's rear guard at 
the bridge here. Slater's Ridge on our left passed some fine 
farms to-day. Traces of rebel army; it passed here on the i6th 
and 1 7th. System of foraging instituted. 

i9th. Left Osgood's Factory at daylight. Marched 
through Summerville and Alpine. Went into camp at dusk 
out of rations hungry Gen. Osterhaus crossed State L line 
into Alabama. 

2oth. Co. "C" brigade foragers. Broke camp at 7 Co. 
"F" rear guard. Brigade inspector picking up stragglers and 
private foraging parties. Men in sweet potato patches old 
man shouts to boy to help him get a few before all are gone ; he 
gets enough for one meal. Jenkins shoots pig; Gen. Leggett, 
of 3d Division, strikes him with the flat of his sword ; men in- 
dignant at this. Camp early, two miles from Gaylesville, Ala. 

2ist. Supply-train came up last night strict orders 
against straggling. Co. "F" rear guard. Broke camp early 
and moved into town delay Gen. Sherman's headquarters; 
the general walking to and fro before his tent, turning occasion- 
ally to members of his staff to answer or make an inquiry. 
Very warm move off road one mile, and go into camp. Learn 
that we are to remain here for two or more days. Hood has 
"skedaddled" for parts unknown. At this camp, Sherman 
said to Wilson, of the cavalry: "I am a smarter man than 
Grant; I see things quicker, and I know more about history; 
but there is this difference : as to what is going on behind the 
enemy's lines, Grant don't care a damn, while it scares me 
like hell." 

22d. Co. " E" foraging. Lieut. Winsett and I go through 
Gap to Spring Valley to picket-line and get persimmons and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 273 

black haws foragers in procession, going into camp loaded. 
Inspection to-day at 2 P. M. 

23d. Capt. Geo. Race to see us this P. M. informs us 
that our old brigade is close at hand. 

24th. On picket with "F" at 6 P. M. Relieve Company 
"A" at the mouth of Spring Valley. 

25th. On the picket-line Parson Canfield citizens wish 
to go North and ask rations appear at our station hungry- 
give them coffee and hard-tack give me chestnuts. Hurley 
wants to go North has a son in Illinois Widow Hurley and 
Widow Banister want rations our foragers have stripped the 
country. Mrs. Martha Cromar wants to go North her hus- 
band a prisoner at Rock Island she wants to meet him in 
Illinois and remain there. 

Our army has stripped this region of its horses and mules, 
grain and provisions. People are utterly destitute. Parson 
Canfield's written appeal referred. The parson is a "Mission- 
ary Baptist." 

26th. In camp read "History of Europe." Lieuts. 
Woodard and McGrath return from furlough. McKinney's 
furlough has expired also. 

27th. Gen. Ransom very sick. Gen. Jo. A. Mower ar- 
rived yesterday and assumed command of division. Gen. 
Wilson in command of cavalry. 

28th. Portion of army marches to-day. Reviewed by 
Maj.-Gen. Mower and Brig. -Gen. Sprague. Col. Lum and staff 
present as spectators. 

2Qth. Broke camp at 7 crossed Chatooga River on 
bridge our brigade rear guard pioneers fell trees in the ford 
and burn bridge after us. Pass through village of Cedar 
Bluffs on the east side of valley, under the hills. Cross Coosa 
River delays swampy country covered with pine forest 
trains have great difficulty in getting through. Capt. Hemp- 
street, Division Provost Marshal, thinks we will march all 
night darkness flounder along till 10 o'clock and camp. 
Draw rations sleep at n. Roused at 4. 

274 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

3oth. Broke camp at 5 very dark yet halt for ord- 
nance train to pass. No meat in supply train men hungry- 
living on hard-tack and coffee. Push on strike Rome road 
about 10 A. M. Reach Cave Springs ragged village camp 
in field. 

3ist. Gen. Ransom died within three miles of Rome, 
on a stretcher. A fine-looking young man dark brown hair, 
hazel eyes, tall and slender much lamented. Rumor that 
Perry Godfrey was captured while guarding a forage train 
near Marietta. 

Large mail this P. M. Letter from Robert S. McAllister 
on Soldiers' Monument; also one from Maj. Wilson. Papers 
in abundance. Col. Wood sent up an application for the re- 
turn of Capt. Race to regiment. Mustered to-day. Adjt. 
Allen informs me of his commission as major in 5th U. S. 
Colored Heavy Artillery, stationed at Paducah. On a stroll 
this P. M. met a brigadier-general and a host of other officers 
returning to their commands from furlough. Jno. F. Bennett, 
of "F," among the number. Also Sergt. Nicholas Smith, of 
"E," who brought us news and letters. McKinney does not 
show up! 

November ist. Indian summer liazy and blue and peace- 
ful! Received marching orders for 3 A. M. Broke camp at 
7. Passed through village of Cave Springs. Saw two citi- 
zens only women at windows! Orders kept secret know 
nothing of where we are going thoughts of being paid soon 
almost abandoned moving southeast tending probably to 
Marietta or Atlanta by easy marches foraging in the valleys 
as we go on one spot at the roadside to-day noticed thirty 
hogs slaughtered, which a foraging party had placed for their 
comrades when they should come along in the column. Boys 
in rear had a few shots to-day at guerrillas hovering around, 
picking up stragglers. Reached Cedar Town at i p. M., where 
I7th and isth A. C.s camped a deserted, dilapidatedjplace. 
Rumor that Gen. Blair has returned from his pacificatory 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 275 

tour! Mountains beyond the valley south of us loom grandly 
upon the distant and indistinct horizon. 

2d. Broke camp at 8 A. M. raining dreadful roads 
train miring down burn cotton and cotton gins on our way 
camped at a miserable place called Van Wirt. 

3d. Marched from Van Wirt to Dallas our old "stamp- 
ing ground." Severe march rained all day prisoners camp 
at dusk rear guard got in at 3 o'clock in the morning. Passed 
a beautiful slate quarry to-day houses roofed with it and 
tombstones cut from it. 

4th. Broke camp at 7 and marched to within seven 
miles of Marietta camped at 12 M., behind an old line of 
breastworks showers this morning and sleet, afterwards very 
cold with high wind read "History of Europe." 

5th. Marched at 8 A. M. Reached the railroad four miles 
below Marietta, and went into regular camp. Capt. Pollock, 
Division Inspector, seized all extra horses and mules not 
accounted for. 

6th. Put in estimate for clothing special order from 
Gen. Howard, stating that we will remain in camp here till 
the army is paid and clothed and till after the Presidential 
election. Corporal John Clover brought this order to me on 
the picket-line. Sent in list of married men to headquarters. 
The regiment received two hundred recruits to-day; thirty- 
eight of these substitutes and drafted men assigned to Com- 
pany "F" to drill these men so I can handle them on the 
eve of an opening campaign is an arduous labor. 

7th. Henry Post visits us on picket-line says the troops 
are being paid off! Great rejoicing in "F" at this news men 
in this company have not been paid for twelve months, some 
fourteen months! 

8th. Have all I can do and more no help company 
of eighty-three men now, larger part raw recruits. Lieut. Carr 
returns this evening with desks. Make out and forward ord- 
nance returns. 

276 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

9th. Hard at work organizing and drilling company. 
Had to correct Wolcott's rolls. Paid after night. 

loth. Received ist sergeant's pay on "final statements." 
Ordered to drill recruits five hours daily. Everybody in a 
great hurry. Received captain's pay as commander of Com- 
pany "F" and pay on rank as lieutenant. Lieut. Winsett 
was a genuine homespun a fine old country gentleman, one 
of the olden time. He was chosen to carry a large sum of 
money home after the troops were paid, and the load of green- 
backs was so heavy and he discharged his trust so faithfully 
that he established a solid reputation as a hunchback, which 
he had not enjoyed before, and which was never called in 
question afterward. 

nth. Drilling recruits issue clothing work enough to 
do everything hurrying back from Atlanta to Chattanooga. 

1 2th. Battalion drill to-day finish clothing receipt rolls. 
Last train for Chattanooga leaves to-day! Lieut. Winsett goes 
North with the regiment's money. A large fortune in green- 
backs went North in private hands from the Army. 

The stupidity of Lieut. -Col. Mac Wood was well illus- 
trated on dress parade this evening. My thirty-eight recruits 
were in line with the veterans of "F" and the other troops, 
Wood in command. He was putting the battalion through 
the manual of arms, at which the veterans were expert. My 
recruits were as awkward as Satan among the angels in Heaven, 
although I had drilled them considerably. They could handle 
the guns all right, but they could not order arms with neat- 
ness and dispatch. Wood couldn't see straight, being cross- 
eyed, but he could hear like the Devil, and when the guns 
of the recruits came down, one would have supposed that 
old Mac had got religion (which indeed would have been a 
most extraordinary supposition), he received such a shock 
calling out to me to place one of my veterans out for a fugle- 
man and show the green ,'uns how it was done. The battalion 
rested in silence while this wonderful interpellation was gone 
through with. I had among the recruits a slick youth, ex- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 277 

pert in the handling cf his gun, who had belonged to the reg- 
ular Army. I answered the colonel, saying: "Certainly, I 
will take one of these recruits and show you and the rest of 
these men a little sleight of hand." My man went to the 
front and did the trick as though that had been his specialty 
for three hundred years. As for Mac Wood, I didn't care a 
continental. He couldn't drill his own company, when he 
was captain of "A." 

1 3th. Gen. Mower and Col. Tillson inspect us this morn- 
ing, ii A. M. Received marching orders. Left for Marietta to 
tear up railroad track entered town filed to left and formed 
by wings along the switches formed line along railroad track 
line stooped, put handspikes under track, heaved it over, 
pried the ties loose, piled them up, put iron rails on top, 
fired the piles, and twisted the rails around trees. One hour 
for supper Gen. Mower work again till 10 P. M. 

i4th. Left camp at 5. Got two miles on our way south 
and were recalled went back to Kenesaw Mountain and fin- 
ished tearing up a piece of track which was untouched ; so care- 
ful were our generals that the work of destruction should be 
complete. Left for Atlanta at i P. M. Marched till dusk 
halt in edge of woods and take supper. Resume the march. 
Reach Atlanta at 9 P. M. move to Whitehall and camp. At- 
lanta on fire. Read portions of " Regulations to Recruits" and 
accompany it with some advice. Place sick and lame in ambu- 
lance draw cartridges broke camp at 10 A. M. Marched 
half-mile halt long delay division supply-train moved out 
on wrong road; had to wait for it move forward come up 
with train rear guard seven wagons to company wearisome 
march all night long reached camp at 9 A. M. 


"In the Field, KINGSTON, GA., Nov. 8, 1864. 

"The General commanding deems it proper at this time 
to inform the officers and men of the i4th and isth, iyth and 
2oth Corps that he has organized them into an army for a 
special purpose, well known to the War Department and to 
Gen. Grant. It is sufficient for you to know that it involves a 
departure from our present base and a long and difficult march 
to a new one. All the chances of war have been considered 
and provided for as far as human agency can. All he asks of 
you is to maintain that discipline, patience, and courage that 
has characterized you in the past; and he hopes and through 
you to strike a blow at our enemy that will have a material 
effect, what we all so much desire his overthrow. Of all things 
the most important is, that the men, during marches and in 
camp, keep their places and do not scatter about as stragglers 
and foragers, to be picked up by a hostile people in detail. It 
is also of the utmost importance that our wagons should not be 
loaded with anything but ammunition and provisions. All 
surplus servants, non-combatants, and refugees should now go 
to the rear, and none should be encouraged to encumber us on 
the march. At some future time we will be able to provide 
for the poor whites and blacks who escape the bondage under 
which they are now suffering. With the few simple cautions, 
he hopes to lead you to achievements equal in importance to 
those of the past. 

"By order of MAJ.-GEN. W. T. SHERMAN. 

"L. M. DAYTON, Aide de Camp." 


Before the telegraph wire was cut^iwhich was the last frail 
link that bound us to our friends, Sherman sent this simple 
message to Thomas: 

"All is well." 

The distance to be traversed was three hundred miles. 
On leaving Chattanooga on the Atlanta campaign, one hundred 
and thirty carloads of provisions had to be delivered daily over 
the Louisville & Chattanooga Railroad for the use of our army. 
Now we had to cut loose from the "cracker-line" and "root 
hog or die." 

The army was composed as follows: 55,329 infantry, 5,063 
cavalry, 1,812 artillerymen, and 65 guns; 4 teams of horses to 
each gun, with caisson and forge; 600 ambulances, each drawn 
by two horses; 2,500 wagons, drawn by four mules to each. 
Each man carried 40 rounds, the wagons having the remainder 
of the ammunition. We had five days' rations only when we 
started. The army was divided into four corps, which marched 
on parallel roads, with the cavalry on the flanks. This gave 
us a front of from forty to sixty miles and we cut a swath of 
that width as we moved toward the sea. 

The London Times said of the " March to the Sea," in an- 
ticipation of that great movement : ' ' That it is a momentous 
enterprise cannot be denied. It may either make Sherman the 
most famous general of the North or it may prove the ruin of 
his reputation, his army, and even his cause altogether." 

1 6th. Having marched all night, we rest two hours and 
push on. Prisoners country rough poor farm-housesthin- 
ly settled stream old mill-house old man, tall and gray 


280 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

old store-house two boys in buggy cotton burning getting 
a little forage pork and sweet potatoes men jaded and silent 
come into fine, open country this P. M. Night old man 
watching his barn creek camp near McDonough. 

1 7th. Broke camp at 7 slept well village dingy and 
weather-beatencourt-house fine country plenty of forage 
march well conducted to-day. Army Negro attempts to forage 
a little on farm on roadside; white woman gets after him 
with sharp stick; boys shout and groan. Advance ordered to 
kill all bloodhounds and other valuable dogs in the country. 
1 5th A. C. behind us. Camped on beautiful spot, near Jack- 
son. Forty horses and mules taken by our division to-day. 

1 8th. Broke camp at 7. Hear that the Georgia Militia 
are assembling to stop our progress. Reached Ocmulgee River 
at ii A. M. Halt in field to right of road while pontoon bridge 
is being laid. Dinner issue rations recruits' feet very sore; 
feet of all of us sore plenty of forage burned cotton rain 
night called into line suddenly; move off partly by right in 
front, partly left in front general confusion road blocked by 
train swamp wagon upset Ocmulgee Mills the rushing 
river high, precipitous banks bridge rapids lights reflect- 
ed camp-fires on shore below and on the distant hills across, 
up to the mountains and over an undulating country into camp. 

1 9th. Rained all night wet blankets breakfast three 
barrels sorghum found in woods close by. Learn of forty 
barrels more secreted Negroes tell of it two hundred bushels 
sweet potatoes found in one heap placed there by "C. S. A." 
Recruits give me trouble in poor condition for marching 
get some of them into ambulance burn cotton and gins 
pass through Monticello pretty village citizens Negroes 
churches forage camp four miles beyond town. 

2oth. Broke camp at 6 130. Received foraging pass from 
Lieut. -Col. Wood for two men and sergeant. Dwellings burned 
to-day! Made first six miles without a halt bad roads 
first specimen of the palmetto to-day raining made sixteen 
miles camped in open grassy field. Robt. G. Bell brought in 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 281 


two fine horses. Supper tonight on fresh pork, sweet potatoes, 
sorghum and quince butter! Cavalry engaged. 

2 1 st. Rained all night still raining broke camp at 9 
A. M. slow progress burned cotton turned cold towards 
sunset high wind portion of our army is in Macon, also our 
cavalry in Milled geville. 

22d. Broke camp at 7 very cold reached Gordon at 
12 M. Portion of isth A. C. in camp here. Went into camp 
rest this P. M. Bath change clothing engage Billy Roberts 
as forager for officers' mess. Two regiments from ist and 2d 
Brigades detailed to tear up railroad cannonading in direc- 
tion of Macon. 

23d. Clear frosty inspection guns of recruits in bad 
condition. This p. M. moved out on M. R. R. and tear up 
track return at 9 p. M. 

24th. Broke camp at 7 rear guard to-day moving 
towards Savannah heavy frost last night clear and cool 
tear up railroad as we go! Louisiana sugar-cane get into 
swamp miserable roads delay night delay midnight- 
teams unhitch and feed in road orders to rest till morn- 
ing! Slept none. 

25th. Countermarched at 4 A. M. and took another road, 
or, rather, no road route through fields till swamps were 
cleared farm-house and vats of molasses boys get what they 
want and pull out the bungs and let the contents run down 
hill in a stream for a distance! Black haws, persimmons, 
huckleberries! Cannonading eastward Irvington rice grow- 
ing Col. Mac Wood's interview with three ladies their story 
of the pillagers how they received them. War is "he!l"(?) 
Long and tedious march. Reached No. 15 Station after night 
and went into camp. Orders to march at 6 130. Reveille at 4. 

26th. Marched en time! Old man to right of road 
arms folded, looking over his silent home and desolate fields! 
Make four miles enter swamp obliged to turn back for want 
of road countermarch and go into camp till Negro pioneers 
make rcac 1 three miles to ri\ci pontctr.s c'cwn and part 

282 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

of 1 5th A. C. across. Our cavalry had a skirmish here yester- 
day. Left camp at sunset and marched to Oconee River and 
crossed narrow stream vista to right converged in dark- 
ness clear, starry night. Thoughts on Sherman's movement 
effect on Lee poor Confederacy! Camped on high ground 
lofty pine trees on fire to their topmost boughs ! 

27th. Gen. Sherman with us. He signifies his intention 
to move with the right wing during the remainder of the 
march. Broke camp at 6 swamp slow progress for the first 
two miles Spanish moss as we come upon high ground; the 
country improves. Made nine miles portion of i5th A. C. 
tearing up railroad. Order from Gen. O. O. H. against pil- 
laging, or worse penalty, death! Forage in great abundance. 
Old man on roadside salutes the flag! Indignation at allow- 
ing prisoners to ride horses and mules when the sick and 
barefoot of our own army can scarcely be accommodated. 

28th. Broke camp at 8. Slow progress. Cotton burn- 
ing commodious farm-houses and slave cabins long march 
got into camp late on picket. 

29th. Broke camp at 8. Forage in abundance large 
farm-houses with Negro quarters. Bottom of shoes slippery 
as glass, marching on the "needles" in the piney woods! 
Fifteen miles to-day. 

3oth. Relieved from picket-line at 6. Marching orders 
for 7. Pine barrens most of the day reached to within half 
mile of Ogeechee River at sunset supper crossed river after 
night horrible place railroad station camp lost Jacob Er- 
tell, a worthless "substitute" deserted probably. 

December ist. Broke camp at 7 moved to railroad sta- 
tion and filed down track troops tearing it up reach our 
point tear up, burn and twist hard work hot sun hot 
fires! Move on to another point, tear up, burn and twist; 
and still another point, tear up, burn and twist getting our 
hand in! It is now 3:40 p. M. Moved one mile farther south 
on track and tear up, burn and twist ! 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 283 

Night march to camp four miles distant crossed a hor- 
rible swamp to get there. Gen. Sherman complimented our 
brigade upon its work to-day. Gen. Fuller complimented 
Company "F." He might well do so! Company "F" killed 
two calves while rails were heating! The fatlings intruded 
and the boys, needing a roast, supplied their wants like sensi- 
ble fellows! 

Plantations seen to-day were large and well appointed. 
Slave cabins, etc., deserted by their owners hogs in abund- 
ance potatoes also. Picked up an old Southern paper con- 
taining extracts from a book of travels in North America in 
the 1 8th century, written by Capt. Basil Hall, of the Royal 
Navy. The Cockney captain travels in Georgia and dis- 
course th as follows: "Rain is amongst the greatest of all 
plagues in a journey ; your feet get wet ; your clothes become 
plastered with mud from the wheels of the carriage; the gen- 
tlemen's coats and boots steamed; the driver gets his neck- 
cloth saturated with water!" And further: "He could rarely 
obtain a private parlor arid table in the country inns"; he 
was "often obliged to lie on a feather bed"; he carried with 
him, indeed, "one of those admirable traveling-beds, made 
by Mr. Pratt, of Bond Street, London, which fold up in an 
incredibly small compass." 

Three-fourths of the tillable land in the Confederacy stood 
with corn this year the cribs from which we get our supply 
attest this fact. There is no greater humbug than the " starva- 
tion theory." "Dixie" can feed itself -now for the first 
time since the slave-holder appeared on the soil. 

Picturesque swamps cypress groves Spanish moss 
water-lilies stalk with tuft like that on the head of some 
South American birds small pale pines shooting up the 
counterpart of the human plants which inhabit these sickly 
localities. Gen. Sherman and escort bad roads marching 
rapidly, however. No halts in iyth A. C. save the accidental 
ones resulting from swamps bully for the swamps! Large 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

tracts of land abandoned, supposed to be worn out covered 
now with young pines. 

Reached Millen, an insignificant town; but an important 
railway station. Rebel stockade here, like that at Anderson- 
ville. Union prisoners hurried off to other points. 

2d. Broke camp at 9 marched down railroad three miles 
and tear up, burn and twist men bruised more or less 
marched to Scarborough and camp. Negro pen Gen. How- 
ard's orders relating to foraging and firing guns read to regi- 
ment to-day. Made eight miles. 

3d. Broke camp at daylight moved down railroad three 

miles and tear up, burn and 
twist twenty eight rails 
first Company " F " forty 
rails second time. Moved 
out to wagon road and halt- 
ed for the foragers to bring 
in their spoils, during which 
Company " F " killed a cow ! 
Preferred to take her along 
for fresh milk, cream and 
butter; being short on dairy 
implements, accepted fresh 
"TEAR UP, BURN AND TWIST." meat as a substitute 
Cannonading this morning, also after getting into camp. 
We are near Savannah Going into camp by moonlight 
marching over the white sands of Georgia the men are silent 
and tired for the thousandth time, more or less, we are trudg- 
ing "weary and heavy-laden" into camp to a hasty supper, 
a short sleep, the reveille the tocsin to new toils, continuous, 
unceasing, interminable (?). A large concourse of slaves; men 
women and children are following after us the men and boys 
laboring as pioneers I noticed them in camp to the left of 
the road as we came in a strange but interesting picture. 
John McClintock arrested for firing his gun secured his 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 285 

4th. Broke camp at 8 fifty-four miles from Savannah 
came up with the enemy our division in advance struck 
swamp where rebs were entrenched Gen. Blair two shots 
from our battery and they "skedaddle" pushed ahead one 
mile and camped sugar and molasses galore passed "Uncle 
Billy" sitting in porch of farm-house with his heels over the 
railing and his big head uncovered ; thought he was asleep, but 
am not so sure about that. 

5th. In camp all day portion of our army tearing up 
railroad. Lieut. W. H. Carr placed under arrest for absenting 
himself from the picket-line Capt. Pollock reported him. 
Reading "Edwin Brothertoft." Pleasant day men washing 
and cleaning up reported $2,000 in gold and two watches 
found buried, the property of one man; doubtful pillagers 
foiled. Coming uo to Negro cabins, they address a wench 

"What did you hide?" 

" Box clothes in de field." 

Turning to another standing near, they ask : 

"And what did you hide?" 

"Books in de garden." 

Boys believing the "half had not been told," started off to 
the garden with high hopes. They searched and found a 
Bilue and a work on medicine. 

Four men of "C" tied by thumbs in front of color-line for 

6th. Broke camp at 9 slow progress rear division to- 
day poor country; full of swamps had a time getting our 
train through rained did not reach camp till 2 A. M. 

yth. Broke camp at 7 clear very hot country poor 
swamps covered with saw palmetto white clouds to south of 
us must hang over the sea. Marlow station locomotive de- 
stroyed twenty-six miles from Savannah live oaks resi- 
dences. Wheeler defeated by Kilpatrick. 

8th. Made ten miles to-day without incident, save cordu- 

286 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

roying several miles of swamp and clearing the same of trees 
felled by the enemy heavy guns at sea. 

9th. Inspection broke camp at 6 our division in ad- 
vance Sprague's brigade ahead, ours next. Strong sea breeze 
in our faces dense pine forest prisoners skirmishing heavy 
guns at sea. 10 A. M. One of our batteries opens go into line 
of battle on the double-quick skirmishers advance Gen. Mow- 
er buildings burning in our rear we turn the enemy's right 
our regiment deployed enemy's works; pass over them go 
into line of battle again move forward on the double-quick 
strike railroad discover locomotive platform car; one piece 
of artillery on it advance through swamps and over fallen 
trees through thickets over fences to Station No. i enemy 
shell us first shell bursted among us they had our range with 
considerable accuracy, but no one on the line was hurt. The 
long-servce men in Company "F" were Germans, from St.- 
Louis; they had not re-enlisted as veterans, and their term of 
three years having nearly expired, they were not anxious to 
take risks, and when the rebel shells unexpectedly dropped 
among us, they disappeared like a covey of partridges in the 
thick underbrush, leaving me standing alone. The "presto- 
change" quickness of the act amused me; but they all returned 
to the line in a few minutes. Capt. Hamerick, Q. M., killed 
some distance in the rear 32d Wis. lost a few killed and 
wounded- torpedoes buried in the road ; Gen. Sherman com- 
pels prisoners to dig them up eleven miles to-day. 

loth. Rear guard. At 10.30 halt and stack arms at a 
point five miles from Savannah. Enemy here in force en- 
trenched troops go into line of battle ; trains and non-combat- 
ants ordered to rear four companies, "A," "F," "G, " and "I," 
ordered back as train guard ; rest of regiment in line at the 
front Lieut. O'Reilly, of Gen. Mower's staff, shot through the 
neck; not killed shell takes head off Negro and passes close to 
Gen. Sherman. 

Gen. Kilpatrick's headquarters. The general blue sur- 
tout, light blue trousers, two rows broad gilt lace, medium size, 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 287 

broad shoulders, not heavy, but wiry, thin light hair, almost 
bald, sloping forehead, heavy and full at the brows, large 
Roman nose, light complexion, blue eyes, broad mouth, thin 
lips well compressed; his staff, laced; his orderlies and two 
wench cooks; his nephew "Billy" and the pigeons; what lieu- 
tenant says of this boy; don't know his place; insults every- 
body on the staff. Night signal rockets. 

i ith. High wind toward night and extremely cold sky 
full of shaggy clouds, hiding the moon rockets i4th A. C. 
moves in on our front and relieves us Morgan's division old 
friends troops out of rations we move to-morrow to Ossa- 
baw Sound to open communication with fleet. 

1 2th. Bitter cold slept little broke camp at 6 <>n our 
way to the coast slow progress hard -tack selling at high- 
prices men hungry and the whole surrounding region stripped 
of food roads very bad throughout the entire day we scarcely 
made, between halts, more than a few hundred yards; the de- 
lays were so frequent and long that the train often went into 
park and remained thus for an hour, two hours, or more, as 
would happen; occasionally we made a distance of two miles 
easily, then the wagons would mire to the axles; almost the 
entire distance was corduroyed by our pioneers; marched thus 
all night long. 

1 3th. Crossed canal at 8 A. M. hear whistle of steam tug 
on the Ogeechee River. i5th A. C. in position; their pickets 
engaged. Reached camp a.t 12 M. An occasional shot by our 
artillery smoke of transports seen to-day off the coast we 
are not far from Silkhope Station on Gulf Railroad. Fort Mc- 
Callaster stormed by Hazen's division i5th A. C. it is said that 
Hazen "drew cuts" with Gen. Mower of our division for the 
chance of storming the fort. Gen. Sherman with the fleet 
men living on rice, which is issued to them in the straw; it is 
hulled by beating it in a mortar; tedious and difficult process; 
the pestle for beating out the rice is fastened to an old-style 
well-sweep, which we work up and down. Transports at Hilton 
Head with rations signaled down. 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

1 4th. Trains moving to Ogeechee River for rations 
oysters on the coast; men go down for them policed grounds 
rice for breakfast, dinner, and supper; we empty the camp- 
kettle at each meal. 

I5th. Learn that our troops at Fort McCallaster received 
mail to-day anxiety for letters one transport said to be 
loaded with mail for us living on rice. Appointed one sergeant 
and six corporals to-day for " F," chosen out of the veterans. 
1 6th. Got ration of rice for men. 2 p. M., received march- 
ing orders, the substance of 
which is to cross the Ogee- 
chee River and proceed for- 
ty miles west on the Gulf 
Railroad, tear up the track, 
burn every tie, and twist 
every rail for that distance, 
and destroy the bridge 
across the Altamaha River, 
and return within five days. 
The force to accomplish this 
consists of i st Division iyth 
A. C. (ours) and Kilpat- 
"Twisr EVERY RAIL." rick's cavalry. 

Going towards the Ogeechee passed hospital of isth A. C. 
containing wounded saw column of prisoners the garrison 
captured at Fort McCallaster looked like jail-birds beautiful 
farm-house yard; troops camped therein train of wagons 
bearing our wounded men to hospitals Negro pioneers and the 
corduroy road immense labor best corduroy I ever saw; 
pinned down; very solid ; needed, for it rested on a quagmire or 
quicksand. Met wagon-load of mail going to camp, turned it 
back. Reach Ogeechee River troops here boat-bell sunset 
go into camp half-dozen sacks mail brought us; great re- 
joicing over it read letters and papers most of the night 
learn that we draw rations to-night men shout for hard- 
tack; none comes; disappointment noticed men in the dark- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 289 

ness purloining the half-eaten corn from the mules to parch for 
their supper. 

lyth. Broke camp at daylight crossed river heavy fog 
country flat bog trees dripping with dew small bridge 
broke through halt men reading letters noon halt had 
piece of half-cooked sole-leather beef for dinner marched rap- 
idly this P. M. in the face of the hot sun camped at Midway 
Church, a place of Revolutionary memory got a little forage 
from country this eve "Alex" and "Billy" out eat supper 
at midnight Lieut. Van Tuyl principal cook first good meal 
in four days had the advance to-day I carried in my hand a 
small history of Georgia, containing brief references to fighting 
on this ground during the Revolution. 

1 8th. Broke camp at 7 severe march very hot came 
into good country plantations large people wealthy 
reached Walthourville at 2 p. M. ; a small, aristocratic village, 
situated in pine grove pretty churches residences vacated; 
everything left in them save the jewels and portable valuables ; 
furniture and libraries intact ; got two books marched beyond 
the village to the railroad and went into camp men's shoes 
giving out ; some of them barefoot abundance of forage 
passed two noble palmetto trees. 

1 9th. Broke camp at daylight light marching order- 
out on railroad our work assigned Co. "F" had forty-three 
rails for the first job marched two miles further down track 
to Walthourville Station and tore up twenty-six rails returned 
to camp by circuitous route through woods. Evening sea 
breeze in our faces sunset night when we got into camp. 
Heard Kilpatrick canonading at the Altamaha bridge; learn 
that he can do nothing on account of the high water sur- 
rounding country flat and overflowed. 

2oth. ist Brigade sent to reinforce cavalry at Altamaha 
bridge ; on their way met cavalry coming back, having failed 
to burn the bridge, which was surrounded by. water and de- 
fended by cavalry and a battery strongly entrenched. Our 
work completed, we started, after some delay, for the Ogeechee 

290 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

River reached Midway Church at sunset without incident 
brought in quite a train of carriages, carts, and buggies loaded 
with forage met our supply-train here with rations hard- 
tack issued. 

The ancient vehicles which the foragers picked up and 
loaded with sustenance for the inner man were a prize lot; they 
were the skeleton remains of carriages of state, in which milord 
and ladies rode to the society functions of the Oglethorpe and 
earlier periods. Imported they were, and had descended 
through heraldic lineages from a time remote. The worm had 
eaten up what the wear and tear of prehistoric man had left 
of the upholstery. There was a blear of a film on the wood- 
work, and the tackling and the once gilded metal fastenings 
and furnishings were of a unique and strange pattern. I 
marked the vehicle the family carryall in which Adam and 
Eve rode out to see the new homestead; the road wagon in 
which Noah rode around to look at the country after the 
freshet; the State chariot of Nebuchadnezzar, in which Shad- 
rach, Meshach, and Abednego took their revenge on that po- 
tentate after he was sent to grass by yoking him with his mate 
and using the pair to draw them and a brass band through the 
crowd of anarchists holding high old wassail in the Hanging 
Gardens; and all the lumbering things on wheels that gave sig- 
nificance to the later succeeding centuries down to our time. 

2ist. Broke camp at 6 A. M. reached Ogeechee River at 
12 M. bad reads learn here that Savannah was evacuated by 
the enemy last night reached old camp at 3 P. M. hear of 
Thomas' fight with Hood at Franklin and Nashville ; bully for 
"Pap" Thomas! On picket "F" and "E." 

When Gen. Sherman presented the city of Savannah to 
President Lincoln as a Christmas gift in the winter of 1864, he 
restored to its honored place under the flag one of the most 
interesting cities of the Colonial period. Two centuries prior 
to the investment of the city by our army, the Creek chief 
Tomochichi, then ninety years old, welcomed to the Georgia 
shore "the first soldier and gentleman of his day," Gen. Ogle- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 291 

thorpe. That old Indian friend of the founder of the city was 
buried in the center of the public square, and a huge boulder 
with a memorial medallion imbeded in the side marks the 
spot. The names of the streets suggest loyalty to the Union : 
State, Congress, President; the avenues: Montgomery, Perry, 
McDonough; the wards were named Washington, Warren, 
Franklin, and Greene. The lots were platted 60x90 feet and 
fronted upon a street both ways. 

The city contains a monument to Gen. Greene, to Sergt. 
Jasper (the historic idol of my youth), and to Count Pulaski, 
the "heroic Pole." The Marquis de Lafayette laid the corner-* 
stone of the two last in 1825. 

While our army rested on the Thunderbolt River near by, 
I studied the city with great interest, not omitting the Colonial 
burial-ground. On south Broad Street stands the old house 
where the Colonial Legislature assembled in 1782 and the house 
where Washington was entertained and which was his head- 
quarters while in the city is still an object of interest to all 
visitors. , 

I attended services in Christ Church, where John Wesley 
and Whitfield, the great evangelists, both preached, and the 
tradition is that Wesley was an irascible old English gentleman, 
who ruled his parishioners with the "big stick." 

22d. High wind cold on picket relieved at 5 P. M. by 
two companies of 32d Wis. 

23d. Sun rose like a queen from the sea morning gun at 
Fort Jackson along with Lieut. Van Tuyl, spent the day in 
making a house ; made a good one bought a table from one of 
26th and put it in place. Evening, received orders to march to 
Savannah at 8 A. M. 

24th. Broke camp at 8 A. M. reb works heavy artillery 
shell road cemetery inner fortifications forts our troops 
encamped in the suburbs of the city penitentiary poor-house 
Forsythe Place its fountains and groves citizens Negroes 
account of the evacuation, some drowned in the hurry to 
cross the bridge. Marched three miles south of town and went 

292 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

into camp near the fort and town of Thunderbolt Fort Jackson 
three miles distant Thunderbolt River close at hand. 

25th. Christmas putting up house visited Thunderbolt 
"pressed" a table from a deserted house borrowed a stool, 
and paid $1.00 to an Irish oysterman's wife for another table. 
Monitors anchored in the river transports in the distance- 
inspection. Commenced clothing receipt rolls by candlelight. 
Lieut. R. H. Mann mustered out. 

26th. At work on clothing receipt rolls had them signed 
and witnessed. 

27th. At work on ordnance returns. Lieut. Mann left 
for New York city. Order received for review to-morrow 
Gen. Sherman will review his entire army at the rate of one 
A. C. each day. 

28th. Roused at 4. Lightning low on eastern horizon 
sky overcast every indication of stormy weather. Left camp 
for Savannah for review at 6 A. M. Commenced raining heav- 
ily as we entered the suburbs of the city formed line on 
lower end of South Broad Street delay rain delay rain 
black servant steps out of a residence close by and invites us 
in pouring rain Capt. Gillespie, Adjt. Allen, Lieut. McGrath 
and I go in with the servant. Conversation black grand- 
dame her courtesy coffee rain "wringing- wet." Return 
to camp review postponed work on papers night high 
wind cold. Death of McMeems write to his friends and 
enclose letter of chaplain. 

29th. Clear and cold drums air thick with rumors 
signs of orders and marches ask for information none able 
to answer. Will we be reviewed to-day? Nobody knows. 
Troops moving out. ist Brigade moves to town for review. 
We receive no orders Capt. Carr, over from division head- 
quarters, informs us of review no orders still everybody 
drunk at brigade headquarters order arrived there from di- 
vision, but too drunk to read it! Order finally received- 
fall in and march to town form line same as yesterday 
cold delay citizens city papers Gen. Morgan i6th and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 293 

6oth officers Col. Tillson and my article on "Wallace W. 
Rice." Wishes me to describe "Buenaventura." Wishes ar- 
ticle on " W. W. Rice" sent to his wife delay McGrath and 
I visit dock reviewed in Exchange Place great crowd 
Gen. Slocum and Gen. Sherman and staffs Pulaski Monu- 
ment return to camp at 3 p. M. 

3oth. At work on papers. Visit "Buenaventura" with 
Lieut. Lewis W. Van Tuyl. Night C. B. S. mustered 
turn "F" over to him feel relieved. 

3 1 st. Mustered this morning at work on papers. This 
work completed, my connection with Company "F" will cease. 
I will receive commander's pay, and such consolation as fol- 
lows duty faithfully performed. 

John Charles Fremont, the first Republican candidate for 
President, was born in this town. 


January ist. New Year get pass and attend church in 
city Independent Presbyterian pleased with services Gen. 
Sherman and staff present visit city oyster supper. 


ad. With my own company again go on picket with it. 
Guard mount at Gen. Mower's headquarters. Met Col. Till- 
son. His compliment on the manner in which I had conducted 
Company " F. " I made no response. Pleasant day. Night 
troops cheering Lieuts. Shaw and Woodard visit us on the 
picket-line with an appeal for signatures on Lieut. -Col. Mac 
Wood's case. Wood is an ignoramus and Tillson a plotter, 
as the surgeons say, by "first intention." He plotted against 
Col. James D. Morgan at Mound City, and through all the 
years of the service afterward. He was shallow enough to 
suppose that while he flattered he deceived me never for a 
moment on any point! He affected poetry, and died an 

294 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

3d. Early breakfast brought us by Aleck troops have 
marching orders going ijth and isth A. C.s to Beaufort, 
S. C., on ocean transports. Relieved from picket go to 
camp and pack up baggage. 

2 P. M. March to Thunderbolt to embark. Troops going 
aboard Gen. Sherman in neat fatigue suit, white vest, talk- 
ing to naval officers on board transport, anchored in middle 
of river. Tars row the General from one vessel to another 
transports leaving General aboard salutes General Sherman, 
who waves his hat in return. 32d Wis. and loth 111. go aboard 
one vessel men crowded officers comfortable night offi- 
cers drinking went to bed early steamer did not leave her 
anchorage till late in the night. The embarkation was an 
animated scene. 

4th. Emerge from the Sound into open sea at 9 A. M. 
Reach Hilton Head at 12 M. did not stop reached Beaufort 
at 3 P. M. Moved out to camp two miles from town. The 
trip up Beaufort Bay is a delightful memory. 

5th. Mess out at Negro huts after oysters get them 
after dinner big stew Aleck in town to-day. Move camp 
this eve go back few hundred yards on higher ground cold 
and windy. 

6th. I and Howard go to town. Call at commissary 
department and make requisition for mess. Meet Ed eating 
cheese isn't going to camp until he spends all his money! 
Get an Atlantic Monthly see Sam Cooley artist cour- 
tesy of himself and wife his coast views very beautiful 
arsenal dinner at Beaufort Hotel. Gen. Saxton and wife- 
returned to camp. Line officers met at Col. T.'s headquarters 
and elected Capt. Gillespie to the majority -vice Wilson. 

7th. Majority of mess go to town on mules! Tillson 
having placed Gillespie in line of advancement, he will succeed 
to the lieutenant-colonelcy as soon as Wood is out of the 
way, an event anticipated daily. Gillespie gave a champagne 
blow-out this evening. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 295 

8th. Company inspection received sanitary goods 

9th. Completed papers drilled company. Went to 
town and mailed "The Republican Court." Negro soldiers 
abused by white ones white soldiers drunk bought clothing 
at post quartermaster's officers drunk returning to camp, met 
Burns with "D" going into serve as provost guard. 

loth. Send note to Plaindealer. Wrote to Robt. Moir 
on loss of subscription to Soldiers' Monument. Wrote to Maj. 
Kelly on pay. It seems that the company subscription of five 
hundred dollars to the Soldiers' Monument has been inter- 
cepted and squandered consider how it may be recovered. 

nth. Learn that Lieut.-Col. Wood will be mustered out 
to-morrow. Old Mac was a failure in some respects; but he 
was not a coward. 


1 2th. Received marching orders for to-morrow. In town 
with Lieut. Hankey charming view of the Bay Gen. How- 
ard's headquarters. Col. Wood in Beaufort a citizen drank 
his health in a glass of wine good-bye. Took dinner with 
Burns and Howard, isth A. C. landing from transports 
recruits substitutes drafted and furloughed men of both 
A. C.s coming in from Nashville eleven days on the road 
McKinney not among them. 

i3th. Muster-roll for "F." Broke camp at 5 p. M. and 
marched seven miles did not get off the island went into 
camp near estuary. 

1 4th. Broke camp at daylight delay move out upon 
causeway and over pontoons vessels in the far blue distance 
at sea! Cannon shot skirmish in advance drove the enemy 
before us all day- went into camp after night inside old en- 
trenchments of the enemy heavy cannonading marsh grass 
on fire had to burn a ring around our bed to prevent burn- 
ing out during sleep. 

296 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life, 

1 5th. Broke camp at 7 passed through two lines of 
heavy earthworks, old and grass-grown Negroes inform us the 
enemy left our front at midnight reached Pocotaligo Station 
on P. R. & A. Railroad at 10 A. M. camp on low ground on 
south side of railroad rebel winter quarters learn that Fos- 
ter's troops, Capt. James' command, five miles distant loth 
111. and 2yth Ohio ordered out with foraging train this P. M. 
Heyward Mansion; its destruction books furniture pict- 
ures musical instruments bust of Calhoun New York Her- 
alds. This was the summer dwelling in the piney woods of a 
prominent family, a class in touch with Northern traitors 
through the spy system, by which they were supplied with 
medicines and the daily papers, etc., etc. Our soldiers smashed 
the piano with the butts of their muskets while the wagons 
loaded with forage. 

i6th. Reading B. T 's "India, China, and Japan." 

iyth. Reading ride with Woodard into country plan- 
tation-cemetery "No common dust lies here, " etc. 

Maj. Screven's plantation Gregory's letter from Maj. 
Wilson death of Gid. H. Ayres at the head of his colored com- 
pany in the battle of Nashville. Beaufort and vicinity was dis- 
tinguished before the war for its wealthy slave-holders and 
their aristocratic pretensions, illustrated by the above line, 
copied from one of their tombstones. 

1 8th. Clear nights cold heavy frost inspection at i 
p. M. prepare "Buenaventura" for Plaindealer. 

1 9th. Circular of Gen. H. announcing capture of Fort 
Fisher received marching orders for to-morrow. 

2oth. Broke camp at daylight moved out on Ridgeville 
road struck the enemy's cavalry soon after leaving our out- 
posts; drove him four miles only our division out aim to 
capture a battery and its support made a flank movement, 
during which rebs decoyed and nearly surrounded a small force 
of our cavalry; prevented by our infantry struck river in our 
flank movement; attempted to bridge it; swollen by recent 
floods; failed rained continuously waded in water to our 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 297 

knees very cold returned to Ridgeville and camped got 
comfortably settled, when we were ordered back to Pocotaligo 
i^ot into old camp after night found my old friend Capt. James, 
33d U. S. (colored), at my tent; pleased to meet him camp 
llooded with water sick no rest. 

2ist. In company with Capt. James, called on Colonel T. 
mounted and returned with the captain as far as the Hudson 
Plantation, the scene of Col. Terry's fight, leading colored troops 
against the enemy; won his first star here. 

22d. Troops tearing up railroad our regiment moved 
east in direction of Charleston and tore up one mile of track 
rebel battery shell us Pocotaligo Station, on P. R. & A. Rail- 
road in the station building I examined a mass of private 
papers left by rebels in their flight some curious deeds to 
realty signed by King George III. 

23d. " E" and " K" on picket at 9 A. M. reading history 
of Georgia Gen. Fuller returned from furlough what has 
become of McKinney? 

24th. Dried blankets- clear high wind reading. 

25th. Mounted and rode down to Capt. James' regiment 
at Hudson's Plantation met Negroes who informed me that 
Gen. Hatch's troops had crossed the Tilufinny resolve to go 
on; pass Gens. Potter and Hatch reach works of colored 
troops; deserted, save by section of 3d R. I. battery see from 
this point the new camp across the ri\ier shipping in the estu- 
aries leave mule under the Negro guards and cross river in 
boat with squad of soldiers. 

In Capt. James' tent I was ill at night from ptomaine 
poisoning, caused by something I had eaten ; sick now for two 
days with intermittent attacks; but for strong camp coffee, I 
had fared worse. 

26th. Up with the sun breakfast recross river and re- 
turn to Pocotaligo found division gone; overtake it- returned 
to old camp found Lieut. Winsett in camp ; learn from him of 
the interception of the Soldiers' Monument fund by McKinney. 

298 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

27th. Arranged with Capt. Kellogg, division command- 
er, for getting grub for officers' mess on credit learn that our 
campaign opens on the 3oth inst. trains loading with supplies, 
and sick and disabled returned to Beaufort, also extra baggage 
packed a box of books and papers and sent to rear Capt. 
Race reported for duty. This officer, one of the most efficient 
in our organization, but detached on Gen. James D. Morgan's 
staff, is a valuable and much-needed acquisition. 

28th. Prepared "Buenaventura" article for Plaindealer. 

29th. Capt. James and adjutant of 33d (colored) called 
1 5th A. C. moving to front marching orders for 7 to-morrow. 

During one of my father's semi-annual visits to the city of 
New York for the purchase of merchandise, a Sunday call, in 
1854, at the old Five Points Mission, resulted in an acquaint- 
ance with Mr. Pease, the famous superintendent, one of whose 
first and best aims was to find friends for the friendless and 
homes for the homeless who found a temporary asylum at the 
mission. Merchants of character and repute from the West 
were seized upon with avidity by Mr. Pease in behalf of the 
boys and girls in his charge. In this way Capt. William James, 
a youth of fifteen or thereabouts, from Kilkenny, Ireland, came 
West to grow up with the country. This alert, active son of 
the soldier race throve sturdily under this transmigration ; the 
human plant rooted readily in the new soil and grew apace. 
He absorbed a knowledge. of business methods, schooled him- 
self fairly well in the common branches, became active in the 
"Wide-Awake" Presidential campaign of 1860, entered the 
Union Army in 1861, and rose from a sergeant in my regiment 
to a captaincy in the "First South Carolina Colored Troops," 
afterwards numbered by the Government the "33d U. S. Col- 
ored." He survives in comfortable circumstances, a substantial 
citizen of Jacksonville, Fla. 

3oth. Broke camp at 7 and moved out on Ridgeville road 
to point near Combahee River and camped. Reading " Oliver 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 299 

3ist. This P. M., veterans of "F" were sent to rear and 
mustered out, their three years' service having expired march- 
ing orders for 6 A. M. to-morrow. 

February ist. Broke camp at 6 A. M. Our division in 
advance. Soon struck the enemy. Negro informed us that 
they were simply the rebel outposts of two hundred- cavalry. 
They felled trees across the road, which our pioneers quickly 
removed ; they also erected rail barricades every two miles, 
from behind which they did their shooting on our advance. 
Drove easy. Came to deep swamp at 3 p. M. very difficult 
to cross had severe skirmish here captain on Gen. Howard's 
staff severely wounded through the neck detained here till 
dusk crossed, single file, on poles precarious footing. En- 
camped half-mile from swamp. Pack-mule and trains came 
over after night. Made twelve miles weather clear country 
more hilly than expected. Passed one fine large plantation 
which was deserted our men burned the buildings large 
quantities of chinaware of superior quality found buried in 
the earth and destroyed shame ! 

2d. 3d and 4th Divisions, not getting across swamp last 
eve, could not take the advance, and we took the lead again 
^d Brigade (ours) in advance of Division, 25th Ind. skirmish- 
ers. Met the enemy two miles out. Severe skirmishing 
killed four rebs wounded a number. Had some officers and 
men wounded. Burned plantations. Enemy drove hard delay 
form line of battle bury rebel dead Gens. H., B. and M. 
close by. Move in delay where roads fork take left road 
Gen. Mower pushes things heavy skirmishing saw gth 111. 
Mounted Infantry make a charge brilliant rebs fled precip- 
itately. Lieutenant-colonel on Howard's staff wounded in leg. 
Reach an open field halt form line of battle send three 
companies from our regiment to relieve the skirmishers of 
25th Ind Cannonading to our right, aoth and i4th A. C.s 
said to be not far distant. Night bivouac water hard to 
obtain forage in abundance. Mulatto girl presented herself 
at our carnp-fire to-night wanted to cook for our mess. Colo- 

300 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

nel 43d Ohio wounded in leg to-day. Adjutant of 25th Wi> 
head shot off by shell. We are now on the shore of the Salka- 
hatchie enemy entrenched on the other side swamps wide 
and deep intervene. 

3d. Our division in advance broke camp at 6 moved 
up road parallel to river one mile delay blocked up in 
road raining deep mud on causeway swamp on either 
side of us Gen. Mower standing in the midst detachments 
carrying boards and laying a sort of bridge over the swamp 
to left of road to reach the bank of the river. Cannonading 
to our right soldiers on a limited dry spot to right of road, 
washing and joking. Move to left, descending into a dismal 
swamp. 25th and 32d went in our regiment moves on up 
causeway and suddenly quit the road, entering the swamp 
to the right plunge into water through deep tangled wild- 
wood a maze of poisonous vines and cypress stumps water 
ankle-deep knee-deep thigh-deep and bitter cold. Slow and 
tedious reach river relieve 63d pickets glimpses of rebel 
fort one hundred yards distant rebel flag our pickets en- 
gaged we reconnoitre Capt. Gillespie thinks the enemy can 
be easily driven away and his artillery captured! He sends 
word to this effect to Col. Tillson, who is with the 25th and 32d 
on the left of the causeway. Sergt. Tom Cook acting as orderly 
for Gillespie. Send detail to brigade wagon for axes ten 
men of "E" fell trees across river for the purpose of crossing 
our men. Phil Lent, stretcher-bearer of "D," killed. "E" 
out on skirmish-line. Prvt. Silas W. Goulden just ahead of 
me wounded in breast and arm sent him to the rear Willis 
Nelson near the same spot had his clothing pierced on the 
tip of right shoulder. Companies " K " and " G " cross stream 
Booth wounded Capt. Wilson of "G" also. One of 'F" 
killed. One of "C" mortally wounded. Jacob Rust and Wil- 
liam Tweed of "E" wounded. Casualties in other companies 
also. Rebel artillery opens, sweeping the causeway to our 
left. Our boys pour their volleys into the rebel fort, and 
drive the rebel gunners away from their pieces. A few of 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 301 

43d Ohio boys assist us. Rain dusk troops to left of cause- 
way cross the river in force -flank the enemy's works we 
advance from the front rebs evacuate fly in confusion, leav- 
ing their dead and many prisoners in our hands, also clothing 
and knapsacks among them four cavalrymen of 3ist S. C. 
We occupy the enemy's works Gen. Howard and captain of 
staff arrives: "Can you tell me how you got it?" " By mak- 
ing it too hot for 'em." Shook my hand heartily. I was 
placed in charge of prisoners talk with a rebel ordnance ser- 
geant and his comrades- they live in Savannah anxious to 
return to their allegiance and homes. Cavalryman of 3d S. C. 
in Yankee uniform Gen. Mower asks permission of Gen. H. 
to hang him. Night troops go into camp relieved from 
duty with prisoners supper dry clothing boys gathered up 
some rebel officers' uniforms get from pockets machine poetry 
and letters. Loss of regiment to-day, 26 killed and wounded. 
Gen. Mower fell into river pulled out by Capt. De Grass. 
Buried our dead on a little elevation in the swamp. 

4th. Our regiment left camp, light marching order, with 
forage train at 8 A. M. . Met 4th Division coming in Gen. G. 
A. Smith, Gen. Potts and Gen. Belknap (Secretary of War 
under Grant) , the latter with his saddle hung thick with chick- 
ens! Boys laugh at his Shanghais he, a big, burly, sandy- 
whiskered fellow, smiled and said: "Boys, you 're only mad 
because you haven't got 'em!" Found rebel artillery ammuni- 
tion strewn along the route of retreat of the enemy last night 
had to lighten his load to get away. People along the road 
said the rebel forces were going their last cent on their legs 
as they passed on the double-quick at an early hour last even- 
ing. Halt at old lady's "seventy-odd" palsied her com- 
plaints gave her a guard moved on a mile rich reb, four 
sons in rebel Army load wagons with corn boys fill canteens 
with molasses and haversacks with peanuts kraut the fam- 
ily a scene group on porch cotton-gin and buildings burn- 
ing tears. Ambulance gone back to Beaufort with wounded, 

302 Recollections of Pioneer and .inny Life. 

under an escort with wagon-train, which is to return with 

5th. Rode into country with Hartley and "C" boys on 
mules kill blood -hound talk with Negro, who shows us the 
hiding-place of his master. Find the old gentleman with his 
Negroes, mules, horses and wagon on a little island in the 
center of a large swamp. Brought away the animals and 
turned them over to the quartermaster. Coming out of swamp 
on our return, came upon two other citizens secreted with 
horses men were old and infirm so were the animals let 
them go. Met Lieut. Kennedy and Capt. Race and their 
"Bummers," also Lieut. Woodard returned to camp with 

6th. Broke camp at 8 A. M. and marched to Little Salka- 
hatchie eight miles arrived at u A. M. Went into camp 
here thus early, as it was impossible to proceed till the swamp 
and river were bridged and corduroyed. Heavy rain. 

yth. Received marching orders for 8 A. M. delayed till 
12 M. Swamps innumerable took command of "G" to-day. 
Reached camp after night. Gen. Mower listening to piano 
music evoked by young lady; the boys meantime pulling the 
blinds off the windows of the residence for fire-wood ! 

The commander of "G" being wounded and sent to the 
rear, I was assigned to the command of the company and 
remained in charge-of it till we reached Raleigh, N. C. 

8th. Broke camp at 7 one mile past a saw-mill and 
over a swamp brought up to Midway Station on the Sav. and 
C. R. R. Gen. Howard's headquarters here stacked arms 
along track and tore it up and destroyed it effectually. Talk 
with Negro refugees they come from beyond the Edisto, 
whither we go. The Jennings. Go into camp dinner throw 
up breast- works learn that the rebel force is not far distant. 
Ride out with Lieut. Woodard to the plantations of Sims and 
Jamison. Get a few books and papers and return high 
wind cold . 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 303 

[The Jamison plantation referred to belonged to David 
Jamison, the president of the convention which voted the 
State of South Carolina out of the Union so far as a vote 
could do that. The premises were a wreck when I reached 
the spot. There was at least a ton of books and private 
papers in a small out-office still remaining; among them I 
found the secret cypher used by Jamison when chairman of 
that convention to communicate with the conspirators who 
remained in Washington. I lost this and other papers, in- 
cluding my commission, by accidental fire.] 

9th. Broke camp at 8 rapid marching pass burning 
plantation buildings cannonading ahead cloudy and cold 
halt load move on go into line of battle at the double- 
quick rebel batteries open on us reach a position in an open 
field, in a depression. Our battery takes position and opens 
rebels reply first rebel shot takes the leg off a batteryman 
and kills one of the 32d Wis. While we eat dinner, a soldier 
with a "diamond" shovel scoops out a shallow grave and 
lowers his dead comrade into it. Presently a piece of shell 
strikes the grave-digger, who had his back turned to the rebel 
battery, on the knapsack, throwing him upon his face, doing 
him no injury whatever. An orderly wounded. 

After much labor, succeeded in eluding the enemy drew 
his attention to the left of our position and laid a pontoon- 
bridge a little to our right, almost on the rebel front (effected 
this at dusk) crossed immediately strict orders not to con- 
verse above a whisper and to move with great caution across 
the bridge, making no noise 32d and loth ahead off the 
bridge into the mud and water and dense woods. Not fifty 
yards distant reb pickets discover us and fire into our flank, 
wounding John Nelson of "E" in the cheek. "A" and "H" 
deployed on our left flank. Firing ceased conclude they are 
gone move ahead cautiously swamp getting deeper every 
step delays bitter cold feet and limbs aching men shiver ; 
teeth chatter so they can not talk delay Gen. Mower his 
impatience advance water knee-deep water thigh-deep 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Heavens, how cold! Water waist-deep some short fellows 
nearly go under! Ugh! Ugh! Some crawl up and perch on 
the cypress-knees shaking with the cold foolish fellows ! why 
don't they go ahead? Plunge on, leading "G" hard-tack 
from the haversacks of those who preceded us floating on the 
turbid water. It is now near midnight plunge ahead gain 
dry land cross a fence into a field form line of skirmishers 
and also a line of battle in rear with as many as have now 
got through. Hear the voices of the enemy not far distant! 
Gave them a volley they get out of that, leaving a mortally 
wounded major behind and some other prisoners. Lines of 

battle now complete we 
see the enemy's fires just 
across the field our lines 
advance see rebel troops 
passing through the red 
glare of their camp- fires 
on a rapid retreat a few 
scattering shots pass over 
our heads we advance 
double-quick, with cheers 
enemy does not stay to 
receive us r each iheir 
camp stack arms throw 
out pickets gather in 
groups around the rebel 
MIDNIGHT CROSSING OF THE EDISTO. camp-fires and cough and 
shake with cold in our wet clothes. We have crossed the Ed- 
isto ! We are without blankets, hungry and cold it is now one 
o'clock in the morning. Bring the dying rebel major to one of 
the fires, the other prisoners also. Gen. Mower congratulates us 
Lieut. Van Tuyl goes back over river to order pack-mule 
up with blankets morning hastens I despair of sleep to- 
night and lie down on pile of rails slept none am but an 
indifferent sleeper "Lew" returned at 3 o'clock A. M. with the 
blankets he went to sleep instantly not so I. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 305 

loth. Clear beautiful day. Troops remain in camp 
our regiment ordered out with train for forage. Reported to 
Gen. Mower moved up lane halt stack arms continuous 
stream of foragers passing into camp, loaded with meat and 
meal, flour everything! Some with buggies, others with car- 
riages; army wagons loaded and pack-mules. Return to camp. 
3d Division passes to front soldier marched through all the 
camp under guard with "Skulker" written in large characters 
on a board which was strapped upon his back. Lieut. Ken- 
nedy and I ride into the country this P. M. Jennings' resi- 
denceits plight the family in the kitchen library "Cot- 
ton is King." Visit churches Jennings and his boats his 
safe. Don't infer that we cracked this man's safe. I can 
only speak for myself. I came out of the South dead-broke! 

nth. Clear and warm. Broke camp at 12 M. Received 
mail on the Orangeburg road to-day country rolling planta- 
tions large red clay soil, highly cultivated. Got into camp 
after night made seventeen miles. Heavy firing ahead i5th 
A. C. Reading "Life of John C. Calhoun." 

1 2th. High wind cannonading through the night. Rebs 
said to be in force on the river North Edisto, which is close 
by. Look for a fight. Remained in camp till 12 M. Our 
batteries meanwhile shell rebel works. Left camp at noon on 
a moment's notice heavy marching order moved down 
towards our battery and turned to right parallel to river, 
debouched upon an open field, where we found our artillery 
massed also ammunition train and ambulance ominous 
enough ! 

Warm, sunny day stack arms suspense presently from 
the woods in front of us emerge two officers with orderlies. 
They ride rapidly across the field and report to some one far 
to our left and disappear 'round our left flank in the woods 
suddenly Gen. Howard and staff appear and ride off toward 
the position of our batteries they speak as they pass the 
left of our line notice slight agitation among the men news 
of some kind in a minute or two word comes that Gen. Blair 
is in Orangeburg! The town is ours! Cheers! A pause 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Gen. Sherman and staff appear and ride toward us the old 
hero is looking splendid we cheer he salutes cheers re- 
doubled he rides away in the wake of Howard, towards 
Orangeburg. Gen. Mower passes down the line boys shout 
the watchword of the campaign: "Cartridge-boxes 'round the 
neck! Heave-o-heavef." The first referring to the swamps and 
rivers which we wade; the last to tearing up railroad track. 
Gen. Mower the boys call "Swamp Lizard." We take arms 
and follow our leaders halt near the causeway which leads 
to bridge across river, then push on over into the city notice 
a few dead rebs by the wayside. Reb works city buildings 
on fire citizens (men. women and children) in the yards with 
all their household stuff packed up awaiting to see their houses 
consumed perhaps themselves! Fools! Court-house flag 
Negro pen jail fine residences Gen. Sherman on the side- 
walk prisoners tearing up railroad. Orphan Asylum gray 
suits and-white aprons little girls and boys seem quite happy 
they bring water to us the town was fired by a Jew merchant 
of the place whiskey burning. 

SCENE: Old rich fel- 
low standing in his portico. 
Regiment passing. Sol- 
dier: "How do you like 
the looks of the Star- 
Spangled Banner?" Citi- 
zen : " I 've seen it before." 
Soldier: "You are liable 
to see it again." 

Noticed the residence 
of Lawrence M. Keitt. 

1 3th. Marched four 
miles up railroad and tore 
up the track "G" "oper- 
ated" at Jamison's Station 

ALECK AND BILLY. - took U P sixty- six rails 

to-day left track for camp at 5 P. M. passed through 
fine country came into the old Charleston stage road beau- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 307 

tiful plantations reached camp soon after night difficulty 
finding the cook's ''shebang" dear old "Aleck," of Alabama, 
and "Billy," the mule, comprised the commissary outfit of the 
officers' mess. "Aleck" was a plantation slave, and came with 
us from Tuscumbia in 1862; an honest colored boy as ever 
lived. I never could tell why, but "Aleck" always showed a 
peculiar affection for me, nor do I know how or where we finally 
lost him. After the grand review at Washington, when the 
army boarded trains on the Baltimore & Ohio for Louisville, 
the little fat mule "Billy," that so faithfully carried over hun- 
dreds of miles the greasy old gunny-bag paniers which con- 
tained our boiled sweet potatoes and pig meat, would have to 
be left behind; but certainly "Aleck" came West with us. I 
would give dollars now (1911) to possess a kodak picture of our 
faithful cook, the pack-animal, and the grub-stake of the 

1 4th. Advance division to-daycloudy and cold fine 
country and well improved wide stage road golden grass and 
hills covered with evergreens strike hills and streams seven 
miles out buildings burning smoke of i5th A. C. mill burn- 
ing halt tar-pits turpentine camp reach high grounds be- 
yond and go into camp dinner "Aleck" and "Billy" bring 
in wagon-load of grub rain hear that our hard -tack is giving 
out great quantities of forage coming in. We can trace the 
route of the corps on the horizon by the trail of black smoke 
from the burning tar, rosin, and turpentine works. 

1 5th. Broke camp at 10 A. M. frequent halts noticed 
road in which isth A. C. moved in ahead of us the corps of the 
grand army are converging to strike Columbia our foragers 
saw men of aoth and 1 4th A. C.s to-day heard cannonading 
distant Beauregard, Taylor, and Hardee said to be in Co- 
lumbia. Weather clears carriages with sick got into camp 
late at night starlight i5th A. C. had heavy skirmishing 
ii P. M., cannonading whistle of steam engine in Columbia. 
Reading "Gulliver's Travels." 

i6th. Cannonading we shift to left swamps strike 
sandy country sky clears sunny and warm rapid marching 

308 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

hot halt get in shade of small bush view of Coliimhin; 
splendid; situated on very high ground, just below the conflu- 
ence of the Saluda and Broad rivers Capitol buildings, old 
and new flags deserted streets small groups of rebels riding 
in full view; darting in and out, to and fro, carrying the torch 
cotton burning in the streets the ground on which our corps 
is massed also very high and in full view from the city our 
entire army, with its war-stained banners artillery ambu- 
lances ordnance and supply-trains stand in full view before 
the doomed Capitol. Report that the enemy has evacuated, leav- 
ing only a detachment of cavalry as a party of observation. Our 
batteries throw shell across the river at the rebel cavalry in the 
streets foragers coming in with large quantities of meal, meat, 
flour, and tobacco we are halted alongside an old prison camp, 
where the officers of our army were only recently starved; a 
miserable, filthy place old garments, patched, lying around 
the breeches! the graves! the hovels bits of old letters 
pieces of old briar-root, of which the prisoners made pipes. 
Strong breeze blowing in towards the city bands playing 
"Yankee Doodle." Gen. Sherman passes dense smoke en- 
shrouds the city lay pontoons across Saluda cheers heavy 
skirmishing enemy driven off rebel train moving north 
anxiety about Woodard and his " Bummers "; recruiting offi- 
cer and his Negroes charge them ; flight fun cheers. Finish 
"Davy Crockett." Picked up the "base" of pants worn by a 
Union officer in this prison; he had repaired the foundation of 
his trousers with the half of his vest intact, sewed on the best 
he could. 

iyth. Cannon-shots 9.30 A. M. three companies 4th Di- 
vision cross river in boats in advance of those who are crossing 
on the pontoons new Capitol building, meant for a capitol for 
the Southern Confederacy churches broke camp at 10 and 
crossed Saluda factory on our left camp on peninsula high 
wind tall grass on fire talk about wind in Illinois! South 
Carolina's can equal the gales of any land or sea; blew coffee 
from my lips when I attempted to drink it. Broke camp in the 
evening and crossed, slowly, Broad River passed up through 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 309 

the city and out on the Winsboro road and camped beautiful 
plantation wine in cellar night city on fire visit the con- 
flagration with Lieut. L. Van Tuyl asylum; talk with officers 
of this institution fire spreading in every direction women 
and children in consternation.' House young lady and two 
gentlemen guard old doctor from Vermont; he teaches 
school feeds soldiers lady asks advice ; give it. People, black 
and white, going in crowds up the streets, carrying children and 
their effects old gentleman and three daughters; their friends 
over the way ; home in flames exlamations of pity Catholic 
priest; his school for boys old man will be saved in spite of 
himself; we insist that his dwelling is safe, and suggest that he 
put a black boy on his roof to put out sparks ; he is indifferent 
and reckless; the elder daughter, turning to her sisters with a 
wan face and a wagging hand, almost ludicrous: " The pee-an- 
nah! the pee-an-nah!" leave them. Jewish lady and eight 
children accost us; give her the best advice in our power Gen. 
Giles A. Smith, mounted, lifts his flask and drinks damnation 
to the Confederacy Irish people ; our Irish soldiers assisting to 
save their property Negroes begging soldiers with cigars in 
sack elderly lady calls from porch, asks us for help; observing 
that she is unduly frightened, her house being in no danger, my 
companion tells her that " Providence will do more for you than 
we can; fire can't reach you." Cotton piled in the streets burn- 
ing. Meet captain i5th A. C. wringing wet, having assisted to' 
put out fire in the neighborhood fire in this quarter of the city 
raging with terrible fury over and through the solid blocks of 
buildings families fleeing for safety down the streets main 
street crammed with a surging mass of humanity soldiers and 
citizens sidewalks heaped with plunder soldier with gorgeous 
silver platter of immense size books carriages and horses 
officer and guard; officer drunk; tells us of his sergeant's "good 
thing"; shows a sample of the "good thing" ladies looking 
after trunks family pass carrying poodle dog and leading 
a hound cross street accost old Negro, "What do you think 
of the night, sir?" "Wall, I tell you what I dinks, I dinks de 
Day ob Jubilee for me hab come." Old priest and "sister" on 

310 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

sidewalk with their plunder, ready for flight, ask if the flames 
have crossed the main street. Press on pick up case of sur- 
geon's instruments look into residence; a lady in full dress 
seated on the stairway, her trunks around her, and a guard 
stretched full length upon the floor fast asleep. Revisit old man 
and three daughters; old gentleman tells us of mob of black- 
legs and Wheeler's men, who remained behind the rebel army 
to sack the city before the entrance of our army; one of the 
mob drew a revolver on Gen. Wade Hampton, who returned to 
dispel the rabble; old gentleman told us that he would rather 
lose all he had than have his daughters misused ; to our knowl- 
edge, no insult had been offered them; during our absence they 
had a very large trunk stolen, which they had placed on the 
sidewalk; leave them. Stop again at the Vermont doctor's; 
found him in the midst of his household stuff on the sidewalk in 
front of his residence, greatly flurried; found his residence, a 
large fine one, on fire; went up stairs to the flames and put the 
fire out. Pass on fat old gentleman and family sweating under 
their weary load; fat man, with deep anguish in his voice, 
"Alas, that we should suffer so on account of our rulers!" 
Group on corner, young man and wife ; home burned ; had not 
where to lay their heads; told him to occupy the deserted dwel- 
ling of one of the wealthy traitors; he thought none of these 
would be standing by daylight, which seemed quite probable. 
Met a soldier with a small white pony which he had found in a 
cellar Irish lady with babe blessing Gen. Sherman one fellow 
with a window curtain parading the streets and flouting his 
strange device for a " Bummer's" banner. 

i8th. ist Brigade gone to tear up railroad, also 25th and 
32d our regiment remains in camp Claiborne White ; his new 
rebel uniform coat 3d and 4th Divisions tearing up railroad 
move out six miles and camp cannonading this morning un- 
cut sheets of rebel "bluebacks" picked up. 

iQth. Broke camp at 7 light marching order i8th Mo. 
and one company of gth 111. Mounted Infantry with us pro- 
ceeded seven miles out on railroad to Station ; here over- 
took rebel rear guard ; came near having an ugly fight with 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 311 

them; they open on us with a battery; we deployed under 
cover of the deserted rebel huts to left of road and looked upon 
the enemy deploy his skirmishers and prepare to receive us. 
As we came out to tear up track and not to fight, and as we 
were already farther advanced than necessary, we stationed our 
pickets and withdrew and went to tearing up track. At this 
place the Confederate authorities were erecting a stockade for 
prisoners ; had cut the trenches and framed a great many timbers 
for this purpose ; we burned the timbers. On returning to camp, 
learned that the enemy's cavalry made an attempt to destroy 
our supply-train. 

2oth. Broke camp at 9 moved up track four miles be- 
yond where we were yesterday and camp portion of the army 
tear up track ten miles to-day. Rumor that Charleston is 
evacuated ; contrabands bring in this word. 

2 1 st. Our regiment in advance of the army moved slow- 
ly along the railroad, tearing it up as we went; we tear up the 
track, pile it and fire it, and the engineers come behind and 
twist the rails some flat rail on this road . Some of our escaped 
prisoners came to us to-day immense quantities of forage 

22d. Broke camp early and reached Winsboro about noon 
handsome village; has college found part of 2Oth A. C. 
here railroad destroyed after leaving village, took road to 
right entered a very rough country soil intensely red sides 
of hills furrowed by deep gullies got along slowly. Accumu- 
lating Negroes fast; poor creatures cling to us, despite the bad 
treatment they often receive at the hands of the soldiers; their 
patience is invincible ; I often pity them ; they meet with insult 
and abuse at every turn ; the vast majority of our men, howev- 
er, respect them. Rear guard to-day. 

23d. Broke camp at 8. Marched to within two miles 
of Wateree River and stacked arms till i5th A. C. crossed. 
Remained here three hours pulled out finally, but made very 
slow progress reached the river at dusk and crossed over on 
a poor pontoon bridge. Boys in trouble about horses and 
mules which were ordered to be turned over here "Bummers" 

312 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

anxious about their riding stock extremely so! As the com- 
panies massed on opposite bank, they pushed forward to camp, 
distant two miles rain miry hills night road blocked 
with wagons pitchy darkness camp got into line and 
stacked arms in a confused manner rain rain late supper 
get tent up and fare very well. Rumor still floating about 
that Charleston is evacuated. 

24th. Broke camp at 6 our division in advance rain- 
ing miry. 2oth A. C. appears off our left halt till we pass. 
Noon halt no breakfast hungry rain again very slow 
progress this P. M. Got to camp at twilight. "G," "E" and 
"K" on picket posted on plantations. Rain isth A. C. 
pickets Negrce's cabins. 

25th. Raining old boats burnt. Took up picket-line at 
7 and joined regiment. Out four miles came to sandy soil 
good reads country poor; swamps and thinly inhabited. 
People poor. Secure a living by making turpentine and rosin. 
Piney woods "chipped" for turpentine. Made twelve miles. 
Passed spot where one of "A's" foragers was killed rebel 
placard: "Death to all foragers." Bellus, Cowan and Purcell 
of "E" captured and taken to Andersonville Prison. They 
had load of provisions in buggy attempted to cut loose and 
run, but were not quick enough! My boots are about "gone 
up." Rosin pockets in trees burning last night as we came 
into camp. 

26th. Broke camp at 8 A. M. Crossed Little Lynche's 
Creek swampy on each side of it ammunition-train had to 
raise boxes to keep load dry swam the mules Alex and 
"Billy" had to swim! Good roads now made first three 
miles easily; then came frequtnt halts finally got under way 
and moved rapidly along till reached camp before dusk; one 
mile from main Lynche's Creek. Passed two houses only to- 
day and they were of the meanest sort. Country poor, flat 
and gravelly. Tillson, having lost Purcell, details Billy Rob- 
erts for brigade forager. Two brigades of infantry and 3,000 
rebel cavalry said to have been near this ground at 9 A. M. 
to-day doubtful as to the numbers. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 313 

27th. Our division has the advance. Broke camp at 
5:30. Passed 4th Division in camp. Delay at creek pass 
over stream full to overflowing; farther shore low and cov- 
ered with water road being corduroyed by colored pioneers 
deep water- horses down half-mile to dry land reach it and 
stack arms. Move forward one hundred yards and stack 
arms go with Lieut, Winsett to spring troops move forward 
again a short distance and camp for the night. Connecticut 
officers with us. Learn of Kilpatrick's disaster with Wade 
Hampton. Orderly this P. M. captured forty-three mules, four 
horses and large number of Negroes. 1,500 "Bummers" out 

28th. See little of the enemy since leaving Winsboro 
ominous! Broke camp at 7. Our division in advance; our 
regiment in rear. Made fifteen miles to-day. Rain gained 
camp at 3 p. M. On direct road to Cheraw. Learned after 
getting settled in camp that 9th 111. were in tight place; went 
out to assist them no forage for man or beast. Drawing ra- 
tions at the rate of five crackers for four days. Men hungry 
and out of humor. Rumor that communication will be opened 
with us on the Great Pedee. Entrenched after night. Presence 
of the enemy restricts foraging. 

March ist. Our corps remains in camp to-day under- 
stand we are further advanced than the other A. C.s. Fin- 
ished Simm's "History of South Carolina"; on "Life of Ma- 
rion." Rebs on our front their picket-line four miles distant. 
Taken 150 prisoners since yesterday. Batteryman of our di- 
vision came in to-day who has long been a prisoner at Flor- 
ence says rebels, on evacuating that place, left large number 
of our sick behind with nurses, to be picked up by our army ; 
many die daily. Marching orders for daylight. 

2d. "Bummers" forming at headquarters. Broke camp 
at 6. Moved out on the Cheraw road came upon the enemy's 
outposts drove them back upon their rifle-pits and beyond, 
with slight loss. Out foraging to-day our brigade have di- 
vision supply-train with us, Gen. Mower and one section artil- 

314 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

lery. Found the enemy in force in line of battle too 
strong for our small force returned to camp. 

Some misgivings about our situation to-day. It is said 
we can not penetrate farther into this poor country without 
great risk. Enemy is concentrating all his available forces 
on our front and entrenching to dispute further progress. We 
do not wish to fight so far from a base, lacking facilities for 
the transportation of wounded. I think, however, that "Un- 
cle Billy" is master of the situation, and we will push on, 
probably to-morrow. 2oth A. C. said to be skirmishing heav- 
ily. Camp at 12 M. Men faring poorly for rations country 
a pine barren no subsistence nothing but tar and turpentine. 
Many men barefoot Chas. N. Cowan captured to-day. 

3d. Marched at 7 moved over same road as yesterday 
did not find the enemy pushed on struck his cavalry vi- 
dettes formed line of battle came upon fortifications enemy 
fled them on our approach and attempted to burn a bridge 
behind them which spanned a stream running parallel with 
the works failed, however our boys rushed upon the bridge, 
scattered the rosin on it and extinguished the flames delayed 
us but a few minutes. Our artillery reached Cheraw as the 
rebs were leaving it throw a few shell after them our skir- 
mishers charge to save the bridge across the Pedee too late 
covered with rosin and turpentine, ignited like powder the 
whole structure instantly wrapped in flames. Our regiment 
sent off to left flank of town put out "C" as pickets. Col. 
McFarland's residence. Blair's headquarters. "Bummers" 
sack the town. Join brigade south of town and camp rebel 
hospital cemetery two rebel bodies unburied bury them 
supper visit town river reb pickets lieutenant 43d Ohio, 
Lew and Hankey chat at town pump by moonlight. 

4th. Re-inauguration of President Lincoln to-day. Visit 
town with Lieuts. Winsett and Hankey depot burned ma- 
chinery moulds bank-note printing materials artillery and 
small arms tools of every description cotton locomotive. 
In this mass of captured war material was a Blakely gun, 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 315 

"Presented to the Sovereign State of South Carolina by One 
of Her Citizens Residing Abroad, in Commemoration of the 
2oth December, 1860." 

Laying pontoons ist brigade across river cemetery 
many Revolutionary graves here mostly British officers. 

The following piece of Southern buncombe is cut on the 
front of a large family tomb here : 

"My name my country, what are they to thee? 
What whether high or low my pedigree ? 
Perhaps I far surpassed all other men. 
Perhaps I fell below them all, what then? 
Suffice it, stranger, that thou seest a tomb; 
Thou knowest its use. It hides no matter whom." 

Broke camp at 3 p. M. crossed river ist Division in line 
of battle skirmishers advance firing "G" and "B" sent 
out on flank to knees in mire cross fields gain woods- 
drove the enemy off and camp night enemy's ammunition 
exploding on our front 3d Brigade moves out to reconnoitre 
return to camp lose my haversack containing toilet articles, 
the equipment of many weary campaigns. Cannonading up 
the river. 

5th. Enemy left our front left baggage and provisions 
behind, on the ground where he blew up his ammunition. 
Beautiful day no move doze and read the poets. Foragers 
coming in loaded to the guards. They report a rebel com- 
missariat six miles distant, filled with pork and meal. Num- 
ber of barefoot men increasing every day. 

Our rear guard still in Cheraw destroying the spoils taken 
there. Charleston, in her haste and doubt, shipped her plun- 
der off to Cheraw, where Sherman could never reach it! When 
at last they found it lay on our route, it was too late to get 
away with or destroy more than half of it. They did. how- 
ever, burn a large depot building containing valuables of 
every description. 

Two foragers had encounter with reb to-day. Killed him; 
but not before he wounded one of his antagonists and broke 

316 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

his carbine over his head. "Bummers" pillaged a rebel store 
to-day brought in rebel uniforms and underwear. 

6th. Broke camp at 8. A few of the field-pieces cap- 
tured at Cheraw along with us the cannon not on trucks 
were abandoned. Reached finely cultivated country to-day 
large plantations horses, mules and forage taken in great 
quantities. Reached Bennetsville and encamped. Visit town 
Gen. Blair's headquarters printing-office prisoners Charles- 
ton refugees books search for a map of North Carolina 
Billy Morgan and Alex, our colored cook, learning to read. 

7th. Rear guard to-day. Our regiment in advance of 
brigade. Took Fayetteville road passed through fine coun- 
try guide-boards many. Procession of carriages carrying sick, 
lame and lazy. Made eight miles and camped at 3 P. M. at 
Beaver Creek church. 

Night procession of refugee slaves coming into camp 
singing with splendid effect a doggerel after this manner (tune 
of "Dixie"): 

" Way down South in de land of gravel, 
Barefooted Yankees bound to travel. 
Look away! Look away! Look away!" 

8th. Eggs, sweet potatoes, chicken and coffee for break- 
fast! Broke camp at 9:30 make half-mile and halt rain 
pouring down slow progress frequent halts crossed many 
swamps and streams head-waters of Little Pedee country 
poor farms small cabins and fields of stumps and stones. 
Negroes' vehicles, taken out of train (lengthened it so much) 
and put in rear of corps. Negro procession quite an army 
in itself. These poor creatures are sadly mistreated by some 
of the soldiers; they are uncomplaining, however. 

No enemy last two days crossed State line into North 
Carolina roads very bad; wagons sink to their axles have 
to corduroy nearly every foot of the way. Regiments and 
brigades in fact, the entire army take a rail on the shoulder 
as they go along, depositing where needed. Rumor that Rich- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 317 

mond is evacuated ! Heard this for a day or two. Prognosti- 
cations on this event rumors of Terry's movements. Learn 
that our gunboats have been at Fayetteville looking for us. 
Got into camp long after night ordered out after supper to 
corduroy road train can not get through anger of men go 
ordered back rain Gen. Howard's orders are to march 
till 10 o'clock. What 's up? Lee? Let him come! We can 
end this rebellion on this ground as well as on any other. 

9th. Roused at 4 o'clock with orders to march at 5. 
Warm calm birds singing come into finely cultivated coun- 
try plantations large dwellings good families at home. 
First plantation: old gent, wife, children, slaves. Second 
plantation : young ladies on portico Yankee officer strutting 
and purring and stroking his moustache before them. Third 
plantation : two ladies guard they stand in the porch look- 
ing at us floundering along, knee-deep in mire and in torrents 
of rain. We glance ruefully out of the shadow of our lowering, 
drenched hat-rims! 

3 P. M. Rain lashes our faces impossible for trains to 
get through the mire, so we take a rail each and corduroy 
every inch of the road. Thunder and lightning night over- 
takes 3d Division train fast in mud my old, worn-out boots 
lame me terribly. Attempt to camp in open field failed 
filed off to shelter of woods pitchy darkness rain, and numb 
with cold. Foragers stuck three miles from camp. Hall 
his silverware. Passed Flora College. A great many of our 
men lost their remnants of shoes to-day. 

loth. Broke camp at 6. My old boots my old socks! 
So help me God, if I had old Jeff Davis here, I 'd cram them 
down his dirty throat; thought I 'd throw them away this 
morning, but after much difficulty got them on my feet and 
staggered along. Hasty breakfast and move out Negro men, 
women and children. We are rear guard. B.y 12 M. got half- 
mile from camp! Swamps without number. 

i P. M. Large swamp delay moonlight supper cross 
over Negro woman's child drowned horses drowned march 

3i 8 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

rapid ly swamps again Presbyterian church go into house 
during delay and give an old reb $25 (rebel money) for pair of 
shoes good-bye, old boots! Cross over it is now two o'clock 
in the morning come to marshy country wagons mire 
down got within two miles of camp at daylight. Halt for 
breakfast and feed in the road move on to camp get in at 
9 A. M. found division ready to move out for the ensuing 
march stack arms, rest a few minutes, and resume the new 
day's march. "Toil on, ye ephemeral train!" 

nth. In advance rosin burning 3d Division camp and 
.general headquarters cross Fish Rod Creek pass through 
Rock Face Village and across river of same name factory here 
burned; operatives idle camp within three miles of Fayette- 
ville, our cavalry having driven the enemy away from the town 
and across the Neuse River. Night just got asleep when 
aroused to go on picket took company and posted north of 

1 2th. Brigade moved down to river; put down pontoons 
and crossed over seventy men and eight commissioned officers 
of 24th A. C. communicated with Gen. Sherman to-day came 
up Cape Fear River on tug /. McD. Davidson, from Wilmington 
Communication with home at last. Beautiful breezy day. 
Wrote note for Plaindealer. 

Evening ordered to take in pickets and join regiment- 
Gen. Mower passes distant canonading arrive at river por- 
tion of bridge taken up to allow steamer to pass; this operation 
cut my company in two whilst crossing. Rumor that we will 
receive ten days' rations here and move forward on Wednesday. 
i4th A. C. troubles lost tents and baggage Gen. Morgan 
thinks rebellion "dwindled down"; lost all his tents but one, 
which he carries on a pack-mule ; his headquarters in fine house 
in town; his staff inside, himself in tent outside; small wedge 
tent; fire in front. 

Apropos of Gen. James D. Morgan's method of plain living 
in the army, the following slight incidents will further reveal 
his character and standing with his contemporaries: 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 319 

In the evening, at the close of the fighting before Dalton 
(Rocky Face), Gen. Morgan ordered Company "H," Lieut. 
Woodard, back for our knapsacks. The company passing 
Gen. Palmer's headquarters, that officer hailed the lieutenant 
with, " Where 's that large body of men going?" Woodard 
answered according to Gen. Morgan's order. Gen. Palmer: 
"Oh! All right; Gen. Morgan never does anything but what 
is right." 

On another occasion, in the field, Gens. Stanley, Davis, 
Johnson, and Morgan sat mounted, taking a social glass to- 
gether. Gen. Stanley, addressing Gen. Morgan, offered his flask 
and said: "Will you drink, general?" Morgan: "Thank 
you; I am not dry." Stanley: "General, we don't drink be- 
cause we are dry." Morgan: "I never drink unless I am 

Demolishing arsenal to-day Gen. Sherman looking on and 
giving the proper instructions Wm. Case residence near 
camp pocketbook buried under apple tree goods buried the 
hazel-tree wand horses on island daughters away rebels 
under guard one tricky fellow crossed dead-line and is mortally 
wounded . 

Sent in requisition for twenty pounds coffee for mess, got 
five pounds, with injunction to go light upon it, as no more 
could be had. 

i3th. Bright, sunny day music across waters of Cape 
Fear Mr. Case; stables burning; runs out to save buggy ; plug 
hat; boys shout at him; they run his buggy back into the fire. 
This old gentleman (?) had made himself very obnoxious by 
telling the men that he was a genuine traitor, and looked for 
the speedy overthrow of the Union armies. 

Broke camp at 7, our brigade in advance pushed out three 
miles and went into permanent camp for two days encount- 
ered rebels, however, and did not gain the three miles without 
fighting for them put up rail barricade and pitched tents, 
discharged Hall this morning and took John Banfield for mess- 
forager turkey for supper. Clothing "C" and "G" estimate 

320 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

called for. Order received from Gen. Howard on habit of 
profane swearing. 

1 4th. With Lieut. Hankey, visit Fayetteville difficulty 
in getting over river pontoon bridges crowded town navy 
officers troops passing bands playing citizens out Negro 
burial return to camp find troops going into new camp 
night headquarters off "E" and "H" and " C " in corn -crib 
Lieut. Woodard relieved as "Bummer." 

1 5th. Moved out rapidly in direction of Clinton no ene- 
my till we reached River; here had severe skirmish with 
him; punished him severely and drove him away, but not with- 
out small loss; one of their dead and two wounded fell into our 
hands wide and deep swamp on either side of this stream 
rebels attempted to burn bridge; failed; we were across about 
as soon as they torrents of rain on us all evening. Nightfall 
distant cannonading "Old German Louis" frying flap-jacks 
in the rain. 

1 6th. Orders to move at 10 delay tents down and 
packed stood in rain all day waiting to move. Evening 
ordered out with Company "G" foraging with brigade teams 
go into country three miles night overtakes us rain bridge 
breaks down break tongue out of wagon orders received to 
remain on road where troops are passing bivouac to join 
regiment in morning. 

i yth. Division came up to us at 6 A. M. fell into our place 
and moved with column came into good country and then 
again the usual number of swamps got along slowly large 
mulberry trees left Clinton road at dusk. 

1 8th. Left camp at 6 brigade in advance sore and stiff 
this morning got along rapidly corduroyed considerable road 
in morning towards noon, came into high hilly country less 
pine, more cak plantation of Cobb; tomb of his wife camp 
at dusk at Gison's Church. Tons of books found at Cobb's 

1 9th. Broke camp at 9 A. M. our regiment rear guard 
A. C.s to left placed trains in charge of one division and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 321 

pushed forward to the sound of battle good country fine 
plantations Union family at roadside boy with one leg 
wounded at Fredericksburg heavy cannonading to left ; contin- 
ued from 1 1 A. M. till night. Reached camp unexpectedly at 4 
p. M. just across wide swamp on high, steep bank foragers 
bringing in large numbers of horses and mules vehicles of every 
description loaded with provisions contradictory reports com- 
ing in about the fighting on our left cannonading through the 
night roused at 12 midnight with orders to draw one day's 
rations to do two days and prepare to march immediately. The 
battle of Averyboro fought yesterday by the i4th A. C., in 
which Morgan's division particularly distinguished itself. 

20th. Broke camp at 2 A. M. Cannonading distant 
delay at swamp push rapidly along after crossing it cannon- 
ading approach it 4th Division wagons Gen. Sherman's 
train hot fifteen miles made push on. Trees leaving out 
fruit trees in blossom. Cannonading dead ahead and nearer. 
Hot, hot. Reach i5th A. C. and go into line of battle made 
twenty-one miles by 2 p. M. Enemy entrenched on our front. 
Night withdraw and go into camp moving-back rebels at- 
tack I5th A. C. repulsed. This is Bentonville. 

2ist. Picket-firing best rest last night that we have had 
in ten days our batteries open orders received division 
files out pass Gen. Blair's headquarters and Gen. G. A. Smith's 
pass out of 4th Division breastworks going to extreme 
right of our army pickets house 9th 111. Mounted Infantry 
videttes log houses low land form line of battle in a heavily 
wooded country and move forward instantly, scarcely giving 
time to form the line and to allow the skirmishers to deploy. 
Nothing joins our extreme left skirmishers engaged as we 
advance rebel batteries ahell us we push forward rapidly 
strike line of rebels behind log breastworks; on to them so 
quick we captured half of them, the rest fled at this point 
Lieut. Hughes of " I " lost one of his men on the skirmish-line. 
Following up the retreating rebel line through heavy woods, 
we got into swamp engaged with rebel infantry and cavalry 

322 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

my men of "G" becoming scattered at this point, firing from 
behind cover of the trees; some of them missing in the dense 
battle smoke ; and feeling the necessity of having them well in 
hand for emergency orders, I stepped out into a small open 
space and notified all within hearing that if they intended to 
remain with me to form instantly on my left ; the principal men 
near by, including the sergeants, formed in good order Gen. 
Mower, Tillson, Gillespie, and Race at hand enemy reported 
flanking us fix bayonets fall back to better ground give 
them musketry Wyatt mortally wounded number of others 
in "G" wounded and others missing rebels reported still 
forcing our left flank line ordered to retire fell back slowly 
and in good order did not hear the order at first discovered 
the line retiring and fell back with it rebels follow, cheering 
Corp. John Hungerford killed fell back to first line of rebel 
works and re-formed our line awaited the enemy, who didn't 
come regiment lost sixty killed, wounded, and missing our 
skirmishers got into Joe Johnston's headquarters tents; also 
reached bridge over Mill Creek in rear of town of Bentonville 
had our movement been supported, we could have held the 
bridge and destroyed or compelled the surrender of the enemy's 
force. Casualties in "E": O. P. Craig, killed; Mar. Furnald, 
John Knutstrum, wounded. Moved to left and joined right of 
4th Division found two lines of battle drew cartridges 
move again to left and rear form line throw up works and 
camp artillery in position on our left houses passed this 
morning used as hospitals dead buried. 

22d. Enemy gone follow him into Bentonville halt 
wounded left by enemy in buildings our wounded and dead 
being brought in from the scene of yesterday's action found 
young Otho P. Craig still breathing; lying by fire, one hand in 
the coals badly burned; soon died i5th A. C. overtakes rear 
guard of enemy; engaged; our boys drive them away we re- 
turn to camp our wounded doing well some limbs amputated 
men tied up before 25th Ind. headquarters for pillaging 
wounded men's knapsacks. Sunset go on picket visit field 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 323 

hospital in search of some of our missing; found none the 
floors of farm-house used for field hospital covered with our 
wounded; I stepped cautiously through the crowded, silent, 
prostrate men; one, as I approached, a fine -looking young man, 
sat up and gazed wistfully far away, then laid down and died 
instantly. Relieved from picket at 6 returned to camp and 
marched at 7 struck down river to point where stacked arms 
on 2oth inst. ; here passed Negro troops, loth A. C. ; also white 
troops in camp of same corps headquarters zouave guard; 
boys groan at him; for two miles heard regiments as they 
passed that guard groaning and shouting derisively ; unreason- 
ably and damnably insulting Gen. Sherman's circular order 
congratulatory pushed on down river pass isth A. C. in 
camp miserable day; wind blowing a hurricane; sand flying 
in clouds sore, stiff, and weary. 

24th. Broke camp at n A. M. marched to river; crossed 
at Cox's bridge on pontoons rebel earth- works detached and 
furloughed men come out from Goldsboro to meet us great re- 
joicing we must be about to make communication with the 
land of patriotism and bad habits, since I see a fellow smoking 
a cigar reach Goldsboro Gen. Sherman and group of other 
generals review us as we pass into city march two miles be- 
beyond town and camp McL,ain and McMullen, of 3oth 111., 
call on us recruits, lately from Henderson County this is the 
third opportunity furloughed men and officers have had to 
reach us; but McKinney does not show up. 

25th. The whistle of a locomotive from Newbern stirs 
our hearts; the whole army cheers sunny morning wagon- 
train goes to Kingston for clothing and supplies regiment or- 
dered out with small train for forage "Sherman's army shall 
have rest." Learn that mail is at division headquarters for us; 
excitement in consequence. Send note to Plaindealer. 

26th. Mess held caucus this morning on change of cooks; 
did not determine regiment busy building houses and policing 
received mail. 

324 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

27th. Transcribing orders for Lieut. Winsett issue cloth- 
ing visit town, hospital, college soldiers in buggies depot 
Negroes refugees train wounded Gen. H. citizens Col. 
Tillson gone home on furlough; is to have a brevet star; for 
what reason is what we are all guessing at. 

28th. Making pay-rolls for "G" got furlough for Sergt. 

29th. At work on pay-rolls muster out Rufus Neal, of 
"G" on Board of Survey to-day passed upon clothing at 
brigade headquarters. Learn that Mac Wood is colonel of 
1 54th 111. ; a good joke on Tillson if old Mac should rank equally 
with him at the close of the service. 

3oth. Make out list of articles to be purchased by Maj. 
Race at Newburn issuing clothing learn that Lieut. Watson, 
of i6th 111., is in College Hospital, Goldsboro marching orders 
for 5 to-morrow. 

3 1 st. Broke camp at 5 in company with 43d Ohio and 
twenty wagons, went for forage ; orders not to go farther than 
seven miles; found nothing, and returned to camp. 

April ist. Inspection at u A. M- knapsacks and quarters 
searched for quilts, clothing, and books, picked up during the 
campaign, to be turned over to hospitals; only one article 
found in "G," piece of sheeting. Officers drunk Hallaman, of 
"I/ 1 "wetting" his commission. Receipted to Lieut. Win- 
sett for McKinney's receipt for package of money $480, 
monument fund Winsett does not wish to be held responsible. 

2d. Maj. Race returned from Newbern on picket re- 
lieved Lieuts. Van Tuyl and Woodard. Very quiet along the 
outposts. We have lost "Old Joe"; he goes to command 
2oth A. C. 

L 3d. In obedience to orders, took formal command of "G" 
and became accountable for its ordnance, commissary and 
general equipment have been in command of "G" for over 
two months, but not till to-day have been responsible for its 
quartermaster's property. "Uncle Billy" has returned fiom 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 325 

his visit to Gen. Grant. Campaign will open soon extra 
baggage going to rear. 

4th. Parade-ground enlivened by skirmish and squad 
drills. Busy on "G's" papers. Anxiety and sclicitude in- 
crease as we approach the crisis of the rebellion! Bets offered 
that the rebellion will go down in from three to five months. 
Gen. Sherman says this army will be mustered out in five 

5th. Called on Lieut. Henry Watson at College Hospital 
his furlough will start home to-morrow tremendous cheer- 
ing ''grapevine" news in abundance. 

6th. Drills cheers throughout the camp shouts of 
"Peace! Peace! Grant has taken Richmond! Thanks to 
Almighty God!" Regiments assembled; dispatch read and 
shouted to ! What 's the price of gold in New York this 
morning? At brigade headquarters "Major Bob," the ex- 
pert fife-player Dick Van Nostrand says he 's getting scared; 
the war will soon be over, and he '11 be out of a job ! 

yth. Mocking-birds along little stream in front of camp 
days and nights resound with cheers! 

8th. Policing no drills visit Goldsboro with Lieut. Van 
Tuyl, Simpson, Col. G., Maj. Race and Sergt. Ritchey. Called 
at office of Capt. Hall, brigade quartermaster firing salutes 
rockets cheers ! 

9th. Men buying "Henry rifles" of 64th 111. Doc Craig 
reported for duty Capt. Shaw on leave of absence cam- 
paign resumed to-morrow men eager to be off inspection 
to-day circular from Gen. Grant: "Let us finish the job at 
once." Marching orders for 8 A. M. 

loth. Cannonading at the front broke camp at n 
passed through town and took road to Raleigh torrents of 
rain frequent halts made ten miles got into camp at 9 
p. M. Cup of tea and laid down. 

nth. Roused at 4 with marching orders for 5. Moved 
back on road three miles to assist trains corduroyed the road 
and returned to camp found troops moving out for the day's 

32 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

march took our place in column rail barricades numerous 
used by rebel cavalry country flat swamps numerous slow 
progress now in country called "Pine Levels." Made eight 
miles got into camp at sunset. 

1 2th. Train mired down this moment received dispatch 
that Lee has surrendered to Grant tremendous cheering 
men's guns go down and their hats go up! Army wild with 
joy. Brigade massed and dispatch read. Cheers for Grant, 
for Sherman and for 3d Brigade ! 

10 A. M. Cannonading distant slow progress long and 
tedious delays no bottom to these roads wagons mire to 
the axle. Went into camp at i p. M. on rising ground. Fin- 
ished "Life of Stonewall Jackson." 

i3th. Two days' rations issued. Broke camp at 8 A. M. 
delay Gen. Sherman's circular read on Grant's victories 
cheers hills covered with living green orchards in bloom 
in camp at 4 P. M. three miles to Neuse River. 

i4th. Broke camp at 8 marched to river delay 
cross rebel paroled prisoners beautiful scenery farms 
growing wheat rail barricades dead horses graves first 
view of city of Raleigh dome of Capitol and church steeples 
to our right over tops of forest-crowned hills troops encamped 
on our left the city entrance heavy siege guns and earth- 
works Fayetteville Street ladies Capitol bronze statue of 
Washington camp in suburbs west of city on Hillsboro road. 

I5th. Formed line for march torrents of rain order 
to march countermanded rumor that Johnston has surren- 
dered cheers, cheers and cheers! extravagant demonstrations 
of joy! Visit city citizens highly elated at the prospect of 
speedy peace. Progress and Standard, daily papers, are 
loyal very strongly in favor of the old Government. Nego- 
tiations pending between Gens. Sherman and Johnston. 

1 6th. Policed ground and arranged regular camp at- 
tended service at Baptist church Sabbath-schoolsoldiers 
sermon very good prayed for peace. Indeed the sound of 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 327 

Sabbath bells and religious ceremonies came gratefully to our 
long-estranged senses. 

i yth. Inspection at i p. M. Visit city with Lieuts. How- 
ard, Simpson and Capt. McGrath. Rode out to the Insane 
Asylum on leaving camp first heard of the assassination of 
President Lincoln a grape-shot through the heart would not 
have struck me more dumb. I at first thought it a ghastly 
joke I could not believe the report. After a pleasant ride 
through the city, returned to camp only to have our worst 
fears confirmed. The President, Secretary Seward, Fred. Sew- 
ard and Maj. Seward were assassinated the former in his 
private box at Ford's Theatre; the others at the Secretary's 
home. The Sewards, according to later dispatch, were not 
killed. Gen. Howard's circular announcing the sad event re- 
ceived ; profound sorrow fills every heart. Wrathful resolves 
and vows of vengeance. "The South has lost her best friend " 
is the opinion of all. "Let us hoist the black flag," say the 
soldiers. One says, "I 've just commenced to soldier." 

What is going on at the front we can not guess. It is 
said, however, that Gen. Sherman will succeed in obtaining 
the surrender of Johnston. 

1 8th. No word from the negotiations pending between 
Gens. Sherman and Jackson. 

igth. W. H. Davis and W. H. Roberts mustered out. 
Circular from Gen. Sherman received at brigade headquarters 
announcing that satisfactory terms had been made with Johns- 
ton for the surrender of his army subject to the approval of 
the President. Armistice of five days. No cheers among our 
troops since the death of the President. 

2oth. Attend review of loth A. C. Gens. Sherman, Ames, 
Terry, Schofield, Slocum, Cox, Mower, Paine, Schurz and a 
host of other stars, known and unknown. Negro division 
rumor that we march for Washington after the review. 

2ist. 23d A. C. Gen. Schofield reviewed not present 
said to have been splendid. 

328 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

22d. Attended review of 2oth A. C. Gen. Mower mag- 
nificent received particulars of President's death in New 
York Herald. Order received for review of lyth A. C. for 
24th inst. 

23d. Attended service at Episcopal church Gens. Sher- 
man and Barry present. Minister aged and prosy. Prepar- 
atory review by Gen. Force at 2 p. M. Lieut. Anderson of 
"G" reported for duty; this will relieve me, for which I am 
thankful. Thank God for the freedom which awaits us all! 
Sent a communication to the Daily Pragress relating to the 
assassination of President Lincoln. 

24th. Formed line for review at 8 A. M. After some de- 
lay marched to south part of city, stacked arms and awaited 
orders. Meantime, Adjt. Allen reported that Lieut.-Gen. Grant 
would review us this was the first intimation we had of the 
presence of the General-in-chief. Enthusiasm at this an- 
nouncement had an additional incentive (if such were needed) 
to acquit ourselves well. 

Passed in review Gen. Grant looked quite natural. Spec- 
tators and generals enthusiastic over our appearance and 

p. M. Air thick with rumors sick being sent to hospi- 
tals trains loading with supplies and ammunition every in- 
dication of a forward movement rumored that Gen. Grant 
has given Johnston till 8 A. M. to-morrow to accept his terms 
of unconditional surrender; in case he does not, we move 
against him. 

25th. Broke camp at 8. Moved west along railroad ten 
miles and went into regular camp. Communication to Prog- 
ress appeared in this morning's issue. Relieved of "G" by 
order thanks ! 

26th. Engine and coach passed west to Johnston this 
morning, carrying Gens. Grant, Sherman, Howard and Blair. 
Night train returned from front communicates with the 
army cheers Gen. Blair announces the surrender of Johns- 
ton and peace in consequence rockets and cheers! Tillson 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 329 

returned with a brevet star he ran home like a small boy to 
exploit himself over a brevet star what had he done to win 
it? He is a long way behind James D. Morgan, whom he 

27th. Broke camp at 6 and marched back to Raleigh 
occupied old camp found our brush shades intact. Worked 
on "G's" papers. Night visit the city band serenading at 
Terry's and Slocum's headquarters. Rumor that we will 
march through to Washington. 

28th. Work on papers rumor that we march to Wash- 
ington; thence by rail to Springfield, 111., to be mustered out. 
We go via Petersburg and Richmond. Great rejoicing at 
this. Orders from Gens. Howard and Blair circular to citi- 
zens from Gen. Howard visit city. Interviewed Mrs. Stewart, 
a lady past eighty years of age, living in the city and ac- 
quainted with Andrew Johnson in his earliest years. Mrs. 
Stewart said: "He was born in 1808; I was married the 
yth of March of that year; he was born on the nth of that 
month. It was the custom to have a ball after weddings in 
those days. While we were dancing at a late hour I heard 
Polly had a boy. I went up into her room in my wedding 
dress the room was a comfortable one, and reached by a 
flight of stairs from the outside I went up and named him 
Andrew. I wanted to call him Andrew McDonald; but his 
father said, 'No, only call him Andrew that is as much as 
I can remember.' His father was a tall, raw-boned man; 
don't think he had twenty pounds of flesh on him, and the 
heartiest eater I ever saw. Andy's parents lived with my 
step-father; his father drove team for my step-father, and 
they called my parents 'Old Master and Missus.' They were 
poor, but honest. I have seen Andy's grandfather, who was 
a tailor." 

When about to take my leave, Mrs. Stewart said: "Will 
you see the President soon?" I thought I would. "Tell him 
Mrs. Stewart, who named him, is still living, very frail and 

330 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

poor-to-do; tell him to send me a little present, a little sum 
of money or something." 

I met other persons who had known Andy when a "poor 
tailor in Raleigh." One old gentleman, pointing to a large 
oak tree about fifty yards from his house, said that under 
that tree once stood the house of an old woman which Andy 
had helped to stone, and in consequence had to leave town. 


29th. Broke camp at 9. Gen. Howard's circular regu- 
lating the march great pains are being taken to prevent 
injury of property or mistreatment of citizens along the route 
of march. Heavy penalties laid down against straggling or 
pillaging. After considerable delay on the route, reached the 
Neuse crossed and went into camp rain pouring on us as 
we turned in at 8 P. M. Very dark wet crawl into blankets. 

Heard cannon shots at Raleigh all day at intervals, till 
sunset, when a salute of thirty-six guns was fired, com- 
memorating the reunion of States, now thirty-six in number. 
The first were fired in memory of the fallen President. 

3oth. Drying clothing no marching Sundays going 
home ! Boy drowned in the Neuse. Took piece artillery down 
and fired over the water raised body bathed to-day with 
Lieut. "Lew" S., H. and Davy Duston. Henry Allaman 
of our company and Wright of "H" returned from Salisbury 
Prison this eve. The former was wounded in neck and cap- 
tured at Bentonville; the other was taken near Raleigh. The 
Confederates said to these boys when they were taken: "Let 
us have your knife and pocket-book." Took rings off their 
fingers; sold them at auction one went at $70 Confederate 
scrip. Rebel rank and file in Johnston's army lament the death 
of Abraham Lincoln. Slow to believe in the surrender of Lee! 
Jeff Davis escapes paid their soldiers ten months' pay 
$1.65 in silver! Strawberries on the Neuse. 

Maj. Race gave me a sketch of his life a marked success. 
Simpson mustered as captain. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 331 

May i st. Broke camp at 7 marched rapidly passed 
through villages of Forestville and Wake Forest college 
citizens beautiful country groves valleys more oak and 
elm and less pine country lads and lassies congregated at 
cross-roads to see the "Yankees" pass. Notice many officers 
and men of Lee's army at their homes Othello's occupation 
gone ! Army very orderly disturb nothing and nobody. This 
march is much like a holiday parade. Passing through towns 
we unfurl "Old Glory" and our bands play, which brings all 
the citizens to their doors. Made seventeen miles. Going to 
bathe, came upon citizens taking articles of clothing, etc., 
from a cave ! The horrible nightmare of Civil War no longer 
disturbs their sleeping and waking hours. 

ad. Broke camp at 6 marched rapidly citizens out 
to see the "Yankees" homeward bound. Country high and 
sandy crossed Tar River made twenty-two miles. 

Boys plagued the Negroes greatly along the route, snap- 
ping gun-caps at them and making them take off their hats 
and shout for Sherman! Negroes were not displeased at this; 
but the guns and horse-play scared some of them, and the 
wenches scampered back over the fields to their homes! 

3d. Marched at 5. Passed Ridge way Junction train of 
cars passed us here Ridgeway Station Warrenton Station 
sick got into an ambulance for the first time during the war ! 
It is said we are racing with i5th A. C. for the first crossing of 
the Roanoke. It is considered worth an effort to have the 
advance after crossing the river perhaps so; but we are 
flesh and blood, and the sun is hot, and, besides, there is 
no hurry. Reached within three miles of river i5th A. C. 
ahead went into camp at 3 p. M. Made eighteen miles. 

Fine plantations along to-day's route; any number of Ne- 
groes and any amount of tobacco seventy boxes of the latter 
found in one place. Boys appropriate it. 

4th. 1 5th A. C. laying pontoons; progress slowly with 
this work Lieut. Hankey Company "C" sent forward to 
Petersburg with fifteen wagons for rations remained in camp 

332 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

till 3 P. M., when moved out and marched down to within half- 
mile of river trains sent over first first view of Roanoke 
gleam of water through mass of dark-green foliage twilight 
went down to pontoon bridge corps trains massed in the 

5th. Broke camp and marched at 3 A. M. crossed river 
and marched rapidly towards Petersburg till daylight, when we 
halted for breakfast spring shower; cooled the air and laid the 
dust, making the march delightful we are now in "Ole Vir- 
ginny"; took first drink upon her sacred soil from a sulphur 
spring beautiful landscape fine plantations tobacco houses 
- Lee's soldiers Meherrin River bridge burned Wilson 
Sheridan reached creek; bathed face and feet pushed on 
to Boydton Plank Road, historical ground, and camped near 

's store some claim we made thirty miles to-day men 
in good spirits got into camp at 4 p. M. citizens clever some 
Union people children brought us the cup of cold water the 
Logan and Blair race seems at its crisis. 

6th. Marched at 5 Negroes shouting for Sherman : 
" 'Rah Sherman!" men suffering from exhaustion and sun- 
stroke made twenty-five miles camped on north bank of 
- Creek on farm where Gen. Scott is said to have been 
born, half-mile from Dinwiddie Court House Five Forks close 
at hand, off our left. 

7th. Marched at 5 arrived at Petersburg at 10 A. M.; 
camped two miles from city on the Appomattox purchased 
supplies; first we have had from "God's country" for some 
months with Lieut. Lew Van Tuyl, visit city ride mules 
citizens effect of grape, shell, and musketry on buildings 
rebel hospitals officers and soldiers in gray, less an arm or leg, 
resting at their homes. 

For four years the approaches to the city and, in fact, the 
region round about has been tramped by the contending hosts 
till the face of Nature, barring the forests, is as bare as one's 
hand. We were out where the Petersburg mine was exploded, 
and I studied the defensive earthworks with interest, for they 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 333 

were intricate, elaborate, and, I believe, were never successfully 
stormed at any point for a time, long or short. They were 
built by slave-labor, and they certainly furnish evidence that 
the Southern leaders came in due time to realize the size of the 
job they had undertaken. 

8th. Orders to march at 8 A. M. left camp in company 
with Lieut. Brugel ("F") and visited fortifications east and 
north of city exploded mine Fort Hell Fort Steadman 
cemetery bones of the dead joined the column at the Appo- 
mattox, north of city, going out on Richmond Turnpike 
marched to - Creek and camped bath bad conduct of 
men while passing through city bad feeling between Eastern 
and Western armies; discreditable to both; a spirit indulged, 
however, only by the worst in each. 

9th. "On to Richmond ! " left camp at 8 marched rap- 
idly and cheerfully along the wide turnpike passed through 
earthworks enclosing Richmond evidences of battle Dairy's 
Bluff and Fort Darling off our right; Drury's Plantation on our 
left beautiful residence and groves James River and steam- 
ers, joyful to our long-exiled eyes first view of Richmond- 
camped in suburbs of city i4th and aoth A. C.s already here 
dinner Gen. Sherman refuses the proffered hospitality of Hal- 
leek; bully for "Uncle Billy!" With McGrath, Lieut. Van 
Tuyl, and Simpson, visit Manchester factories Scott's Bridge 
Castle Thunder Libby Prison. 

loth. With Lieut. Van Tuyl, Hankey, and Simpson, visit 
Belle Isle graves enclosures low ground soup-house, 
bakery, etc. Along the ramparts of this mournful spot Jeff 
Davis and his Cabinet were wont to enjoy an outing on pleasant 
days injtheir white flannel suits and gold-headed canes, looking 
down on the starving wretches who, by the fortunes of war, had 
become their victims. 

i ith. With Lieut. Hankey, visit Richmond Castle Thun- 
der Libby/ Prison Corcoran Prison Dallgren Depot Capi- 
tol marble statue of Henry Clay Crawford's bronze eques- 
trian statue of_ Washington and the Virginia Compatriots Gen. 

334 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Lee's residence burned districts left wing of our army com- 
menced the march to Alexandria stood on west side of Capitol 
Square and saw the head of column pass through the city Gen. 
Sherman and staff in advance cavalry Gen. Davis and i4th 
A. C. Gen. Morgan, brevet major-general, 2d Division; no 
honors to Gen. Halleck- 2oth A. C. will follow the I4th, and 
to-morrow the rig^ht wing will pass through our A. C. in 

1 2th. Broke camp at 6 left the column while it was pre- 
paring to leave camp and crossed over into Richmond with 3d 
Division, which had the advance, as I wished to look over the 
city again. 

St. Paul's Church, where Jeff Davis worshiped his resi- 
dence the Patrick Henry Episcopal church, where this cele- 
brated man made his great speech advocating war with King 
George; the church built on site of theatre destroyed by fire, 
which consumed a great number of persons the Monument; 
inscriptions Gen. Washington's headquarters, fine stone build- 
ing on Main Street between Nineteenth and Twentieth; used 
formerly as hotel. 

Joined my regiment as it debouched into Main Street out 
of the city Emmanuel Church Chickahominy battle-ground 
off our right cemetery graves of soldiers delays very slow 
progress went into camp early troops ahead have bad roads, 
which impedes our progress supper mess talk of war with 
France in Mexico; we are not averse to the adventure. 


1 3th. Broke camp at 6 delays crossed Chickahominy 
early marched to Hanover Court House and camped pontoon 
bridge being laid across Pamunkey Bethesda Church; this is 
the church back upon which Sheridan drove Fitz-Hugh Lee in 
the severest cavalry fight of the war; the fight commenced at 
Hawe's Shop skeletons of horses lying over the ground. 

I4th. Crossed Pamunkey; small, turbid stream delays 
in getting over did not clear the bridge much before noon 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 335 

after crossing, marched rapidly; made fourteen miles, and 
camped beyond Chesterfield Station on railroad Concord 
Church wedding one of Lee's soldiers. 

1 5th. Broke camp at 4. Our division in advance and 
our regiment in advance of division. Crossed tributaries of Mat- 
tapony made twenty miles and camped across Po River, with- 
in five miles of Spottsylvania Court House. Lee's extreme 
right rested here his works got into camp at 2 P. M. Mounted 
and rode with Capt. McGrath to Spottsylvania Court House 
rode over the entire field, several miles in length. Scene of 
Gen. Hancock's battles Gen. Grant's headquarters McAl- 
sop's house grave of Capt. McGrath's brother. The dead! 
Mr. Sanford at Spott's Tavern grape and shell against his 
buildings. This battle-ground still bore the deep scars made 
by the artillery and trains through the woods along improvised 

1 6th. Broke camp and marched at 4. Reached Fred- 
ericksburg at 9 A. M. With Maj. Race and Maj.-Surg. Ritchey, 
visited battle-ground. Howison's Hill Howison's residence 
Howison himself Gen. Lee's point of observation Howison's 
Hill his position worth 100,000 men to him. Gen. Burnside's 
point of observation on heights opposite. Marye's Hill- 
Hamilton's Crossing. 

The stone wall; cemetery on Marye's Hill buildings dam- 
aged by our shell marks of musketry on tombstones plucked 
a rose here. Trenches filled with our dead. Ice-house and 
fair ground and their gruesome story. 

Visited small shaft to the mother of Washington on Ken- 
more estate Col. Lewis' residence Mrs. Washington's home 
where she died her character as portrayed by Mr. Bayne. 
Washington's father his grave Westmoreland County. Rev- 
olutionary buildings. Mr. Bayne's talk of the battles Fred- 
ericksburg and Chancellorsville Lee nothing less than a god ! 
Sedgewick's retreat across Bank's Ford dead floating down 

336 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life, 

The citizens town demolished Orphan Asylum. Cap- 
ture of Jeff Davis announced by Gen. Sherman. Maj. Race 
speaks in just terms of the dishonesty and trickery of Tillson; 
and so, also, did Surg. Ritchey. Encamped near Potomac 
Creek severe march weather extremely hot overtook col- 
umn three miles from camp. The shaft that marks the grave 
of Mary Washington is chipped and marked by Vandals and 

iyth. God speed our weary feet to Alexandria! My 
flesh feels- like it had been beaten with a maul. The dust is 
thick and the sun hot the muscles of our legs hard as wood. 
Got along slowly made ten miles only camped in pines. 
Some deaths to-day from overheat. Did not get the nearest 
route to Alexandria and have twenty miles extra to march 
1 5th A. C. is on direct road. 

1 8th. Reached Occoquan River early this p. M. Blue 
-Ridge Mountains off our left for two or three days heavy rain 
this P. M. bath camped on heights north of river. 

1 9th. Broke camp at 6 and emerged from the hills upon 
Strawberry Plains at 2 P. M. country level beautiful pas- 
tures camped four miles from Alexandria mail. 

Learn that McKinney is in Alexandria and will join us 
to-morrow! Delighted to know that this eminent warrior, 
who was not with us on the Hood Chase, nor on the March to 
the Sea, nor in the Campaign through the Carolinas, will taste 
camp life with us for a day or two before we are reviewed 
and discharged. 

2oth. Doubts as to whether all the veterans will be mus- 
tered out. Boys will be sadly disappointed if they are not 
at home on the 4th July coming. McKinney returned to 
regiment after an absence of seven months. 

2ist. George ("Dad") Hand reported for duty to-day 
after an absence of nine or ten months; another of the ab- 
sentees who will not adorn the coming grand review. It is 
due the men of my company who were faithful through long 
years of service that a deep and wide gulf should separate 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 337 

Ihem from those who were conspicuous by their absence from 
the post of duty. 

When the "coffee-cooler" was an enlisted man with a 
stomach eaten out by fire-water before he entered the service, 
the offense was sufficiently heinous; but where the shirk was 
-a commissioned officer, drawing liberal pay, we stood in need 
of an endowment akin to the miraculous to endure patiently 
-a man so shamelessly indifferent to every sense of honor as 
to prefer the associations of "Smoky Row" to the manly 
discharge of his obligations to the men whose suffrages sup- 
plied his shoulder-straps and the salary for which the Govern- 
ment received no adequate return. Our one compensation lay 
in the conviction that his room was better than his company. 

Recently promoted officers in Washington, drawing pay 
on final statements. Wife of Capt. McGrath, of Philadelphia, 
in camp to meet her husband. 

Orders received this eve to march to Long Bridge at 8 130 
to-morrow. We do not hope to compete successfully with the 
Army of the Potomac at the coming review. In discipline, in 
drill, in physique, we are superior to the Eastern Army; but we 
shall not be so well dressed and will not appear so well to 
the superficial observer. The Eastern people have an erroneous 
notion of us. They think we are a rabble! 

23d. Broke camp at 8. Column moved to camp between 
Alexandria and Washington to be close to the Capitol at the 
appointed hour for review. I did not move with the column 
to-day; but, in company with Maj.-Surg. Ritchey and Acting 
Quartermaster Hughes, mounted and rode to Mt. Vernon, 
eight miles distant. View from Rose Hill of the valley in 
which Mt. Vernon is situated. Lunch at a freedman's, a de- 
scendant of one of Washington's emancipated blacks straw- 
berries returned in evening views of Potomac views of 
Washington and Alexandria from bluff cross into Alexan- 
dria lunch at restaurant reached camp at sunset, having 
spent some hours at Mt. Yernon, minutely inspecting the place, 
to form some conception of the home life of the First President. 

338 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

24th. Broke camp at 6 and moved across Long Bridge 
to Washington. Met Lieut. Porter, i6th 111. Lee's residence 
off our left. Around the Capitol building to suburbs and 
massed. At 9 A. M. moved forward inscriptions brilliant 
pageant emerged from the thronged Capitol at 12 M. Moved 
out on a continuation of i4th Street to camp right of road 
in woods. Our army did splendidly. Pennsylvania Avenue 
was brilliantly decorated with the national colors and placards 
of welcome. 

At the Treasury building the old "Tenth" received its 
full measure of applause for its steady lines and finely ex- 
ecuted changes of direction. But, notwithstanding the flood- 
tide of exultation, the Capitol was lonesome in the absence 
of Abraham Lincoln. The President and the Cabinet, Gen. 
Sherman, and other distinguished men were on the revie wing- 

With Lieuts. Van Tuyl and Woodard, visited the city in 
the evening. 

25th. Enlarged booth sent a bit of chaff to the Daily 
Chronicle concerning our rations since our return to "God's 

26th. Visited the White House. As I stepped into the 
portico a carriage drove up, from which Pres. Johnson alighted. 
The doors of the mansion swung wide. We raised our hats, 
and the President returned the salute, bowing several times 
to different portions of the crowd. We were soon after ad- 
mitted. Saw Gov. Curtan, of Pennsylvania, in one of the 
upper chambers. In the East Room laborers were busy tak- 
ing down the platform on which rested Pres. Lincoln's cata- 
falque. The Yankee Vandal was present, as usual, with his 
pocket-knife out, splitting walking-canes out of the detached 
boards lying around. A fat man, with an impatient air, in- 
quires the room of the President. The mansion and grounds 
precisely the same as when I saw them four years since, at 
the beginning of the struggle, when Gen. Scott commanded 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 339 

our armies. Revisited the Capitol and all the other places of 
public interest. 

Attended Grover's Theatre with Lieut. Van Tuyl, Brown 
and Sergt. Fuller. 

27th. With Capt. Shaw, slept in city breakfast at cafe" 
met with Jno. Jackson, formerly of "B," now captain in a Ne- 
gro regiment. He gave me a Chronicle containing my squib. 
Visited Government buildings with Shaw, who had never seen 
them camp Atlanta baggage received this evening. 

28th. Enlarged our "dog" tent with tents received in 
stored baggage. This P. M. visit Crystal Springs on Rock 
Creek Mossy spring. 

This A. M. made out ordnance and commissary and general 
equipment returns. Went to city with Maj. Crenshaw, 25th 
Ind., who drew pay on muster-out papers as captain. Applied 
to First National Bank (Jay Cook & Co.) for payment after 
banking hours referred by an employee of the bank to a 
subordinate, who cashed the major's check for half of one per 

3oth. Went to Ordnance and Quartermaster's Depart- 
ments in city to settle my accounts with Government. Could 
not finish on account of the rush have to wait a few days 
on Quartermaster's Department. Both departments hard 
pressed Met P. De Krigger, Tillson and Gen. Leggett at 
Willard's. Bassett, "Doc" of "B," and Dick Van Nostrand, 
" E" men, have difficulty with Invalid Corps, City "Provos"- 
our boys overpowered three of "E" in guard-house re- 
leased the only defeat of "E" during the war. 

Visit Canterbury with captain of Army of the Potomac. 

3 1 st. Found on table in tent on my return from city a 
letter for "M. H. J." from Mary F. Hamilton, of the Treasury 
Department. She read my squib in the Chronicle and asks 
me to dine with her! Good Lord! look at my shabby old 
uniform just out of the woods; fine escort for a lady in a 
fashionable cafe! I '11 see McKinney. He 's got something 

340 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

to wear! I '11 send him! Lew and McK. absent in city 
Gen. Grant and wife passed in carriage. 

June i st. Lieut. John S. Spear of the Signal Service, 
Regular Army, called an old classmate pleasant interview 
crowds of soldiers going from one general's headquarters to 
another, calling for a speech ! 

2d. Called at the Quartermaster's Department about pa- 
pers. Sent note to M. F. H. from Willard's- received reply- 
fell in with Lieut. Hankey, Maj. Race and Simpson, with whom 
visited Smithsonian Institute and Navy Yard. 

3d. Went again to Quartermaster-General's office on 
business. Met in town Capt. Kennedy and Lieut. Fannestah 
of "K." 


4th. Received note from Com. Div. "C" of M. Called 
on Gen. Force, as requested. Moving to place me on his staff 
as ordnance officer, which I do not want unable to call on 
Miss Hamilton, who sent me a note and some money. Sent 
McKinney to call on her he took the money and returned 
it to her he reported that he found her a very pleasant lady, 
of which I have no doubt. 

Received marching orders for 5 A. M. to-morrow. Army 
goes west to Louisville, Ky. Gen. Force's compliments; came 
to naught, perforce, as the army is soon to dissolve. 

5th. Broke camp at 5 and marched to depot of B. & 
O. R. R. Westward ho! Relay house Bladensburg Pa- 
tapsco River scenery picnic parties factories night Har- 
per's Ferry Western Virginia people cheer us and wave 
handkerchiefs in friendly salutation. 

6th. Mountain scenery Potomac Cumberland Sani- 
tary Commission coffee mountains increase in size we as- 
cend the range magnificent views. As our train poised on the 
western ' summit, detained for the moment, the hundreds of 
faces looking down a sheer perpendicular hundreds of feet be- 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 341 

low upon the roof of a farm-house and the beautiful level fields 
stretching far away, an involuntary chorus of cheers from our 
car windows woke the echoes of the hills around us. 

7th. Breakfast at Thornton Grafton McKinney leaves 
us, as usual country rough petroleum scaffolding and der- 
ricks Kanawha River Parkersburg leave train and go into 
camp on bank of Kanawha, with orders to move at 5 bath. 

8th. Broke camp and marched through Parkersburg to 
levee, which we found crowded with steamers left wing of our 
regiment boarded the Marmora, right wing the Camelia large 
number of steamers accompanied us, bearing the other regi- 
ments of our division Blennerhassett's Island; farms thereon 
went to shoals, where we reshipped on steamers awaiting us 
our entire regiment boarded the Empire City greeting along 
the shores by the people our pilot being unacquainted with 
the channel of the upper Ohio, had to lay up for the night just 
below Gallipolis. 

9th. Rested well last night Maysville scenery im- 
proving hills cultivated; covered with orchards and vine- 
yards found violin and guitar aboard; Jim Boyd and "Doc" 
Craig musicians; excellent music. Night Cincinnati run till 
12 and laid by till daylight. 

loth. Warsaw Madison Louisville at 12 M. disem- 
barked and marched to camp five miles west of city on banks of 
Ohio -regiment attracted some attention passing through the 
streets camped on bad ground; swampy, miasmatic, and 
swarming with mosquitoes rumor that we will be paid and 

nth. A camp rumor that 84th 111. passed through Louis- 
ville last evening mustered out having no rations in camp, 
dined at Louisville Hotel our regiment was offered provost 
duty in city; Col. Gillespie declined 43d Ohio went got note 
from McKinney for $480, monument money. 

1 2th. After some delay, we changed camp to high, open 
ground, where we were paid off, the army receiving an immense 
sum in greenbacks, crisp and new, direct from the Mint. [Mem. 

342 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

Across the interval of forty-five years, I recall Father Linell, 
our chaplain, trying to hold the attention of a confused mass of 
restless soldiery while he proved that all men would be saved. 
" It is a fact and I can prove it," said the chaplain. The pock- 
ets of the men were full of greenbacks and their heads full of a 
speedy and final discharge from the army, and if they were all 
going to be saved, what 's the use of a pother about it? and 
much as they loved the old chaplain, he could not hold them.] 

At Louisville, the troops having nothing to do but to wait 
the pleasure of the Government, I took a furlough for thirty 
days, and when I boarded the train for St. Louis I found my- 
self in the company of Gen. James D. Morgan, our old divi- 
sion commander. The train was packed to suffocation, and 
we sat down on our grips on the narrow platform of the old- 
fashioned cars, where we were hammered and jammed and 
trodden upon from 4 P. M. till midnight before we could get in- 
side. The general sat patiently through it all without offering a 
word of complaint. In St. Louis I went to bed and slept, and 
kept on sleeping till they were about to break down the door 
of my room with a battering-ram, for I had secured myself 
against intruders in case I slept beyond my call. When I 
awoke it was upon a new heaven and a new earth, for old things 
had passed away. I was glad to be in the dear old city which 
was my father's trade Mecca in the old days. To this port 
his cargoes of grain and pork and other and minor produce 
were shipped and from thence went his shipments of merchan- 
dise home. Among some trifles purchased in the city was a 
pair of shoes, for which I paid $14.00 (war prices); I can buy 
as good now for $5.00. 

While the days were passing by, I took the train for Gales- 
burg and thence down to Monmouth. It was a sunny, peacefu 1 
day in June when a young soldier, who had entered the Army 
under age at the fall of Sumter, stepped from the carriage to the 
walk in his twenty-fourth year, rather the worse for the wear. 
As he passed through the gate his mother, her dear old face 
wreathed in smiles, came and placed her arm around him and 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 343 

drew him within the sanctuary of home as one rescued from 
some dire fate. 

I met my regiment at Camp Douglas, Chicago, where we 
were discharged to date, the 4th of July, 1865. 



No. i. \ Goldsboro, N. C., March 24, 1865. 

The badge now used by the corps being similar to one 
formerly adopted by another corps, the major-general com- 
manding has concluded to adopt, as a distinguishing badge for 
this command, an arrow. 

In its swiftness, in its surety of striking where wanted, and 
in its destructive powers, when so intended it is probably as 
emblematical of this corps as any design that could be adopted. 
The arrow for divisions will be two inches long and for corps 
headquarters one and one -half inches. 

The ist Division arrow will be red; the 3d Division, white; 
and the 4th Division, blue. 

The Qth Illinois Mounted Infantry, same as the 4th Divis- 
ion; and for corps headquarters it will be of gold or any metal, 

The badge will be worn on the hat or cap. 

It is expected that every officer and man in the command 
will, as soon as practicable, assume his badge. 

The wagons and ambulances will be marked with the badge 
of their respective commands; the arrow being twelve inches 

By command of MAJ.-GEN. F. P. BLAIR. 
Official: (Signed) C. CADLE, JR., A. A. Gen' I. 

CHAS. CHRISTENSEN, Lieut., A. d. C. & A. A. Gen'l. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 345 

Sacramento, January 2, 1865. 

Maj.-Gen. W. T. Sherman, Savannah: 

The series of victories which have attended your army 
during the past year the capture of Atlanta, the triumphant 
march from Atlanta to the sea-coast, and the subsequent cap- 
ture of Savannah have filled the hearts of all who love their 
country with joy, and justly entitle you to the profound grati- 
tude of the Nation. For and on behalf of the people of this 
State I beg to tender you, and through you to the officers and 
soldiers under your command, my heart-felt thanks for the 
signal services your army has rendered to the cause of civiliza- 
tion, liberty, humanity, and good government. 

To you as their great leader I tender my cordial congratu- 
lations, with the prayer that God may preserve and protect 
you to lead the victorious hosts of the Republic on to still 
greater victories, even to the conquering of an honorable and 
permanent peace. 

I am, General, gratefully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Official: (Signed) FRED T. Low, Governor. 

(Signed) L. M. DAYTON, A. A. G. 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

A photograph of the pot-trammels (alias "pot- 
hooks") made by James Jamison over a peat fire in 
Londonderry, Ireland, in the year 1690, during the 
siege of that place by the Irish, led by King James 
II. They were brought to America in the year 1713 
by John Jamison,who settled in Little Britain Town- 
ship, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 

After the death of John and his son Samuel 
Jamison, they became the property of James Jami- 
son, who took them with him to Virginia and thence 
to Kentucky in 1798, thence to Perry County, Indi- 
ana in 1820, where he died in 1821, and his unmar- 
ried daughter Sallie fell heir to the pot-trammels and 
carried them with her when she removed to Hen- 
derson County,- Illinois, in 1840, where she lived to 
the age of eighty-five, and before her death she gave 
the trammels to her grand-nephew James Shoemak- 
er, who removed to southwest Nebraska, where this 
photograph was recently taken. 

The hooks are in a good state of preservation 
at the age of 221 years. They have been in Amer- 
ica 198 years. 

BEMENT, TEXAS, October 3, 1899. 
Matthew H. Jamison: 

DEAR COUSIN, James Jamison was the son of Samuel 
Jamison, Sr., and brother to Capt. Adam, John, Samuel, Jr., 
William and Col. Joseph, and was the grandfather of the writer, 
S. S. Jamison. My sister Margaret, now living in southwest 
Iowa, at the age of eighty-six years, informs me she ate mush 
made in a pot hanging on those hooks over the fire at Grand- 
father James Jamison's in Grayson County, Kentucky, seventy- 
seven years ago; so they are no myth, but a genuine antique 
heirloom of the old Jamison family. 

Sincerely yours, S. S. JAMISON. 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 347 


The State had a population in 1860 of 1,704,323. She 
sent into the field during the Civil War 258,217 of her brave 
sons, of whom 28,642 were killed in battle or died of wounds 
and disease. Henderson County, in 1860, had a population 
of 9,499, and 1,153 f her sons represented her on many battle- 
fields in the years 1861-65. Some of the larger and more 
populous counties in the Commonwealth maintained the cause 
of the Union at a greater sacrifice , but none of them with 
a stronger devcticn. 

In the year 1863 I saw the statement in the New York 
Observer, a Presbyterian religious weekly (none too loyal to 
the cause of the Union, however), that Gen. Joe Hooker, 
on the eve of the battle of Chancellorsville, declared that God 
Almighty himself could not prevent him achieving a victory 
over Lee's army. It may have been no more than a shrewd 
guess at Hooker's well-known mental predilections. 

Gen. John Pope, of Illinois, in command of the Army of 
the Mississippi in its operations around New Madrid and the 
capture of the Confederates in their efforts to escape from 
Island No. 10, was known at times to be very insolent and 
blasphemous toward the Volunteer officers, he himself being 
a West Pointer. His "headquarters-in-the-saddle" order, on 
taking command in Virginia, was a type of the man with his 
head turned, and quite in line with Hooker's mental athletics. 
It is a remarkable coincidence that both men were brought 
low in a very striking manner. 

It is also true that Gens. Grant, Sherman and Thomas 
were neither blasphemous nor obscene, but men of pure 
thought and high aims under all conditions. Gen. Sherman 

348 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

would indeed throw off a "cuss-word" at times, which, with 
him, was no more than a verbal flourish. All of them, and 
ir.any other Union officers I might name, held woman in su- 
preme respect, and that is accounted to be the foundation 
of genuine morality. 

The Union officers given to strong drink died early. I 
can not recall one who lived beyond middle life. 

They were susceptible to malignant disease, such as ty- 
phoid and yellow fever. Almost without exception, they were 
the true sons of Mars, who dared to lead the forlorn hope at 
every hazard and to the last extremity. Of such was Gen- 
eral Joe Mower. None of them, from Alexander to Napoleon, 
ever shared the fortunes of a finer soldier. When the deep 
pulsations of the rebel batteries, as under Van Dorn and Price 
at Corinth, filled the air with sulphuric grape and canister, 
"Old Joe" would advance, spurn the fate that awaited him, 
and come out of it all his face transfigured with the flame of 
battle' The boys of the old "Tenth Illinois" can never forget 
Gen. Mower and his aide, Capt. De Grass. 

There was dark disloyalty in the Church in 1861. 

Old Dr. Pressley, of the United Presbyterianh Curch at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., was a genuine "Copperhead," and his relative 
who founded the Public Library at Monmouth, 111., disin- 
herited his son because he enlisted in the Union Army! 

European Globe-trotters have come to this country 
to see the American method of slaughtering hogs and curing 
the pork on a colossal and economic scale. Some of these vis- 
itors, at the first glimpse of the endless chain of pigs descend- 
ing to the knife on the overhead trolley, gagged at the sight 
and retreated ! After slaughter, the pig in the packing-house 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 349 

is done tp with such minuteness hair, ears, eyebrows, as- 
cending and descending colon, vermiform appendix, hoofs, his 
last and undigested meal, that the floor will be scanned with 
a microscope to see if they haven't missed something. Now, 
it was different in the early fifties in the slaughter- and packing- 
house of Jamison & McKinney at the Yellow Banks. The work 
was carried on with method and dispatch by hand, but with 
incredible waste also. The spare-ribs went begging for a mar- 
ket at one cent a pound, and I have seen pork tenderloins cast 
outside by the ton and rotting for the want of consumers. 

The Columbus, Ga., Sun and Times claimed the follow- 
ing letter was found in the streets of Columbia, S. C., after 
the army of Gen. Sherman had left. The rebel paper claimed 
that the original had been preserved, and can be shown and 
substantiated, which, of course, is a gross falsehood . It is 
inserted here as a "Secesh" curiosity. Old Henry Clay Dean, 
of "Rebels' Cove," Mo., is the only "Copperhead" who had 
the "gall" to vouch for it. 

"CAMP NEAR CAMDEN, S. C., February 26, 1865. 

"My DEAR WIFE, I have no time for particulars. We 
have had a glorious time in this State. Unrestricted license 
to burn and plunder was the order of the day. The chivalry 
have been stripped of most of their valuables. Gold watches, 
silver pitchers, cups, spoons, forks, etc., are as common in 
camp as blackberries. The terms of plunder are as follows: 
Each company is required to exhibit the results of its oper- 
ations at any given place cne-fifth and first choice falls to 
the share of the Commander-in-chief and staff; one-fifth to 
the corps commanders and staff; one-fifth to field officers of 
regiments; and two-fifths to the company. 

"Officers are not allowed to join these expeditions with- 
out disguising themselves as privates. One of our corps com- 
manders borrowed a suit of rough clothes from one of my 

350 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

men, and was successful in this place. He got a large quan- 
tity of silver (among other things an old-time milk pitcher) 
and a very fine gold watch from a Mrs. De Saussure, at this 
place. De Saussure was one of the F. F. V.s of S. C., and 
was made to fork over liberally. Officers over the rank of 
captain are not made to put their plunder in the estimate for 
general distribution. This is very unfair, and for that reason, 
in order to protect themselves, subordinate officers and pri- 
vates keep back everything that they can carry about their 
persons, such as rings, ear-rings, breast-pins, etc., of which, 
if I ever get home, I have about a quart. I am not joking 
I have at least a quart of jewelry for you and all the girls, 
and some No. i diamond rings and pins among them. 

"Gen. Sherman has silver and gold enough to start a 
bank. His share in gold watches alone at Columbia was two 
hundred and seventy-five. But I said I could not go into 
particulars. All the general officers and many besides had 
valuables of every description, down to the embroidered la- 
dies' pocket-handkerchiefs. I have my share of them, too. 

We took gold and silver enough from the d d rebels to 

have redeemed their infernal currency twice over. This (the 
currency), whenever we came across it, we burned, as we 
considered it utterly worthless. 

"I wish all the jewelry this army has could be carried 
to the 'Old Bay State.' It would deck her out in glorious 
style; but, alas! it will be scattered all over the Northern 

States. The d d niggers, as a general rule, prefer to stay 

at home, particularly after they found out that we only wanted 
the able-bodied men (and, to tell you the truth, the youngest 
and best-looking women). Sometimes we took off whole fam- 
ilies and plantations of niggers, by way of repaying Secession- 
ists. But the useless part of them we scon manage to lose; 
sometimes in crossing rivers, sometimes in other ways. 

"I shall write to you again from Wilmington, Goldsboro, 

or some other place in N. C. The order to march has arrived, 
and I must close hurriedly. Love to grandmother and Aunt 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 351 

Charlotte. Take care of yourself and children. Don't show 
this letter outside of the family. 

"Your affectionate husband, 

"THOS. J. MYERS, Lieut., etc. 

"P. S. I will send this by the first flag of truce to be 
mailed, unless I have an opportunity of sending it to Hilton 
Head. Tell Sallie I am saving a pearl bracelet and ear-rings 
for her; but Lambert got the necklace and breast-pin of the 
same set. I am trying to trade him out of them. These were 
taken from the Misses Jamison, daughters of the President of 
the South Carolina Convention. We found these on our trip 
through Georgia." 



Communicated to the National Tribune by 
Capt. David R. Waters. 

With a view to some comments on the battle of July 28 ,. 
1864, before Atlanta, I desire to prelude with the following 
extracts from Gen. Sherman's " Memoirs" : 

"As Gen. Jeff C. Davis' division was, as it were, left out of 
line, I ordered it on the evening before to march down toward 
Turner's Ferry and then to take a road laid down on our maps 
which led from there toward Eastport, ready to engage any- 
enemy that might attack our right flank ; after the same man- 
ner as had been done to the left flank on the 22d. * * * As 
the skirmish fire warmed up along the 5th Corps, I became con- 
vinced that Hood designed to attack this right flank to prevent,, 
if possible, the extension of our line in that direction. I re- 
gained my horse, rode rapidly back to see that Davis' division 
had been dispatched as ordered. I found Gen. Davis in person, 
who was unwell, and had sent his division that morning early 
under the command of his senior brigadier, Morgan ; but, as I 
attached great importance to the movement, he mounted his 
horse and rode away to overtake and hurry forward the move- 
ment, so as to come up on the left rear of the enemy during the 
expected battle. * * * At no instant of time did I feel 
the least uneasiness about the result of the 28th, but wanted to 


Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 353 

reap fuller results, hoping that Davis' division would come up 
at the instant of defeat and catch the enemy in flank, but the 
woods were dense, the roads obscure, and, as usual, the division 
got on the wrong road and did not come into position until 
about dark." 

On the day of this battle I was serving as a volunteer aid 
with Gen. Jeff C. Davis, having resigned from the service the 
previous April, but upon his invitation I had joined his head 
quarters the day before his division crossed the Chattahoochee. 
On the 28th his headquarters were at a house on our right, near 
the left of Blair. When Gen. Sherman arrived Gen. Davis was 
sick in bed. The corps commander, Gen. J. M. Palmer, was 
seated on a porch in front of the room occupied by Davis, into 
which were open windows. Gen. Sherman j was excited and 
very impatient. He censured Palmer for a mistake in the order 
to Davis that was misleading Gen. James D. Morgan. Palmer 
resented Sherman's reflections on him, and insisted that he had 
given the order precisely as Sherman had issued it. Here was 
the beginning of the estrangement that arose between Sherman 
and Palmer that resulted in Palmer's retirement from Sher- 
man's command and the placing of Gen. Jeff C. Davis in com- 
mand of the 1 4th Corps in the march to the sea and to the end 
of the war. 

Finally, nervously chewing a cigar and pacing the porch, 
Sherman exclaimed: "I wish to God Davis was in command 
of his division to-day." Davis heard this remark, and imme- 
diately arose and dressed. His horse was brought out, and the 
staff ordered to mount. His colored servant assisted him into 
the saddle, but upon gaining his seat he fainted and would have 
fallen had he not been caught. He was carried back to his 
bed, entirely unable to ride. Every effort possible was made 
by the staff to find Morgan and bring the division into the 
fight on Hood's left, while Logan was repeatedly repulsing with 
pitiful slaughter the brave enemy who charged his front again 
and again. Logan reported 765 dead out of Hood's charging 
column in his front. Had Morgan got into action as Sherman 

354 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

planned, Hood's army would have been routed and Atlanta 
won without Jonesboro, for the division was strong, finely dis- 
ciplined, and veterans, who had met the enemy in every fight 
from Nashville to Atlanta, besides Island No. 10 and Corinth. 
I cannot understand why Gen. Sherman so spitefully alludes to 
Morgan's failure by saying: "As usual, this division got on 
the wrong road." I never knew it to be misled before. Gen. 
Davis was beyond all question a brave and skilled officer and 
always enjoyed the confidence of Gen. Sherman. 

I am constrained to write these particulars of that eventful 
day in vindication of the gallant Davis, who was not merely 
unwell, as stated by Sherman, but a very sick man, in bed, and 
was wholly unable to ride to his command, although he made 
a determined effort to do so. 


The National Tribune submits the following table and 
comment : 

"The number of ninety-day men and 'eleventh-hour* sol- 
diers is being worked to death by those who are opposed to 
pension legislation, and are using it with some effect to create 
dissension in the ranks of the veterans. It is twin brother to the 
other clamor used so effectively for the same purpose about the 
number of deserters, bounty -jumpers, and shirks on the pension- 
roll. Comrades should pay no attention whatever to this 
clamor from outsiders and discountenance it among themselves. 
It has little basis in truth, and conveys a prejudiced view of 
the constitution of the Army which put down the rebellion. 
While the ninety-day men did their share, they were relatively 
very few at that time and are quite as few to-day. This is not a 
matter of mere assertion, but is strongly supported by the actual 
figures. Some time ago Commissioner Davenport decided to 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 355 

have the services of the pensioners as shown by his rolls col- 
lated and compared, and he was astonished at the result, as all 
other students of statistics are. We have all of us become more 
or less affected by these exaggerated reports. At that time 
there were 541,739 pensioners on the rolls, and the services of 
those men were as follows : 

Percentage. Number. 

Served 4 years or more * 042 22,753 

Served 3 years and less than 4 years 203 109,973 

Served 2 years and less than 3 years 221 119,724 

Served i year and less than 2 years 244 132,185 

Served 6 months and less than i year 203 109,973 

Served 3 months and less than 6 months 084 45,506 

Served i month and less than 3 months 003 1,625 


"A study of this table will be very interesting to everyone. 
From this it would appear that the entire number of men who 
served less than six months was only 45,506, or less than one in 
eight of the whole. One man out of every five served less than 
a year, and one man out of every four served less than two years. 
About the same proportions served less than three years and 
less than four years. Therefore , this blathering about the three- 
months men is concentrating all the attent i on upon one man 
to the exclusion of consideration of the seven men who ren- 
dered much longer service and bore a heavy portion of the 




ON NOVEMBER 8, 1911. 

While the President of the United States and a large 
assemblage of people, including many of those who wore the 
gray in the conflict between the North and the South, looked 
on, an heroic bronze statue of Abraham Lincoln was unveiled 
in the Capitol building. 

"Proof of a reunited country," said Governor Willson,of 
Kentucky, in accepting the statue on behalf of the State, is 
made evident in the selection of Henry Watterson, a Con- 
federate soldier, to present this image of the great President 
to the people of his native State. The greatness and the 
goodness, the nobility and the sweetness of Abraham Lincoln 
are recognized as earnestly by those who wore the gray as by 
those who wore the blue." The unveiling of the Lincoln 
statue in the rotunda in the Kentucky Capitol preceded the 
dedication of the Lincoln Monument at Hodgenville, Ky., by 
a day. Many of those who came from distant States to 
Frankfort to attend the exercises continued their journey to 

Near there is the Lincoln farm, where the cabin in which 
Abraham Lincoln was born is now preserved in a monumental 
structure, recently completed. It was the dedication of this 
memorial which brought President Taft and others of note to 




[Frankfort, Ky., November 8, 1911. 

Henry Watterson, editor of the Louisville Courier -Journal, 
delivered an address on Abraham Lincoln at the unveiling of 
the Lincoln Memorial. Mr. Watterson's oration was devoted 
mainly to the personality, the origin and spiritual life and 
character of Abraham Lincoln. He gave a minute account of 
the Lincoln and Hanks families, derived from documentary 
evidence; disproved the falsehoods touching Lincoln's birth, 
and traced his noble qualities of head and heart to his mother. 
In concluding this passage he said : 

"To-morrow there will assemble in a little clearing of the 
wildwood of Kentucky a goodly company. The President and 
the Chief Justice and the rest will gather about a lowly cabin 
to consecrate a shrine. Of him that was born there the final 
earthly word was spoken long ago; but, Mother of God, shall 
that throng pass down the hillside and away without looking 
into the heaven above in unutterable love and homage with 
the thought of a spirit there which knew in this world naught 
of splendor and power and fame ; whose sad lot it was to live 
and die in obscurity, struggle, almost in penury and squalor; 
whose tragic fate it was, after she had lain half a lifetime in 
her humble, unmarked grave, to be pursued by the deepest, 
darkest calumny that can attach itself to the name of woman ; 
the hapless, the fair-haired Nancy Hanks? 

"No falser, fouler story ever gained currency than that 


358 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

which impeaches the character of the mother of Abraham 
Lincoln. It had never any foundation whatsoever. Every 
known fact flatly contradicts it. Every aspect of circum- 
stantial evidence stamps it a preposterous lie. 

" It offends the soul of a brave and just manhood, it should 
arouse in the heart of every true woman a sense of wrong that 
so much as a shadow should rest upon the memory of the 
little cabin in which Nancy Lincoln gave to the world an 
immortal son, born in clean, unchallenged wedlock, no thought 
of taint or shame anywhere." 

Mr. Watterson told the story of Lincoln's friendship with 
Joshua Fry Speed, an uncle of the donor of the statue, in the 
early days at Springfield, 111. He added: 

"It is of record that he stood closer to Joshua Fry Speed 
than to any other. The ties of early manhood between the 
two were never broken. To the end Lincoln could turn to 
Speed, certain to get the truth, equally sure of sound counsel 
and unselfish fidelity." 

Mr. Watterson told a graphic story of the coming of Lin- 
coln to Washington and his first inauguration. His narrative 
took the form of a personal reminiscence. 

" I was engaged by Mr. Gobright, the general manager of 
the Associated Press in the national capital," said he, "to 
assist him and Maj. Ben Perley Poore, a widely known news- 
paper correspondent of those days, with their report of the 
inaugural ceremonies of the 4th of March, 1861. The newly 
elected President had arrived in Washington ten days before 
to be exact, the morning of the 23d of February. It was a 
Saturday. That same afternoon he came to the Capitol es- 
corted by Mr. Seward, and being on the floor of the House, I 
saw him for the first time and was, indeed, presented to him. 

"Early in the morning of the 4th of March I discovered, 
thrust into the keyhole of my bedroom a slip of paper which 
read: 'For Inaugural Address see Col. Ward H. Lamon.' 
Who was 'Col. Ward H. Lamon'? I had never heard of him. 
The city was crowded with strangers. To find one of them 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 359 

was to look for a needle in a haystack. I went directly to 
Willard's Hotel. As I passed through the long corridor of 
the second floor, spliced , with J little dark entryways, to the 
apartments facing on Pennsylvania Avenue, I saw through 
a half-opened door Mr. Lincoln himself pacing to and fro, 
apparently reading a manuscript. I went straight in. He 
was alone, and, as he turned and met me, he extended his 
hand, called my name, and said: 'What can I do for you?' 
I told him my errand and dilemma, showing him the brief 
memorandum. 'Why,' said he, 'you have come to the right 
.shop; Lamon is in the next room. I will take you to him, 
and he will fix you all right.' No sooner said than done, and 
supplied with the press copy of the inaugural address, I grate- 
fully and gleefully took my leave. 

"Two hours later I found myself in the Senate cham- 
ber, witnessing there the oath of office administered to Vice- 
President-elect Hannibal Hamlin. Thence I followed the cor- 
tege through the long passageway and across the rotunda to 
the east portico, where a temporary wooden platform had been 
erected, keeping close to Mr. Lincoln. 

" He was tall and ungainly, wearing a black suit, a black 
tie and a black silk hat. He carried a gold- or a silver-headed 
walking-cane. As we came out into the open and upon the 
provisional stand, where there was a table containing a Bible, 
a pitcher and a glass of water, he drew from his breast pocket 
the manuscript I had seen him reading at the hotel, laid this 
before him, placing the cane upon it as a paper-weight, re- 
moved from their leathern case his steel-rimmed spectacles, 
and raised his hand he was exceedingly deliberate and com- 
posed to remove his hat. As he did so, I lifted my hand 
to receive it, but Judge Douglas, who stood at my side, reached 
over my arm, took the hat, and held it during the delivery 
of the inaugural address, which followed. 

" His self-possession was perfect. Dignity herself could 
not have been more unexcited. His voice was a little high- 
pitched, but resonant, quite reaching the outer fringes of the 

360 Recollections aof Pioneer and Army Life. 

vast crowd in front; his expression serious to the point of 
gravity; not a scintillation of humor. In spite of the cam- 
paign pictures, I was prepared to expect much. Judge Doug- 
las had said to me upon his return to Washington after the 
famous campaign of 1858 for the Illinois senatorship, from 
which the Little Giant had come off victor: 'He Is the great- 
est debater I have ever met, either here or anywhere else.' 

"To me the address meant war. As the crowd upon the 
portico dispersed back into the Capitol, I found myself wedged 
in betweenjjohn Bell of Tennessee and Reverdy Johnson of 
Maryland. Each took me by an arm and we sat down upon 
a bench just outside the rotunda. They were very optimistic. 
No, there would be no war, no fight; all the troubles would 
be tided overjithe Union still was safe. I was but a boy, 
just one and twenty. They were the two most intellectual 
and renowned of the surviving Whig leaders of the school of 
Clay and .Webster, one of them just defeated for President 
in the preceding election. Their talk puzzled me greatly, for 
to my mind there seemed no escape from the armed collision 
of the sections secession already accomplished and a Con- 
federate government actually established. 

"There is in youth a prophetic instinct which grows 
duller with advancing years. As I look behind me, I not 
only bear this in mind, illustrated by the converse of those 
two veteran statesmen that day in the rotunda of the Cap- 
itol at Washington, but I feel it and realize [it, so that I am 
much less confident, with a lifetime of experience to guide 
me, than I was when, buoyed by the ignorance and bra- 
very, but also the inspiration of youth, the problems ahead 
read plain and clear as out of an open book . 

"The duty Lincoln had been commissioned to do was to 
save the Union. With an overwhelming majority of the peo- 
ple the institution of African slavery was not an issue. In 
his homely, enlightened way, Lincoln declared that if he could 
preserve the Union with slavery, he would do it, or, without 
slavery, he would do it, or, with some free and others slaves, 

Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 361 

he would do that. The Proclamation of Emancipation was a 
war measure purely. He knew he had no constitutional war- 
rant, and, true to his oath of office, he held back as long as 
he could; but so clear-sighted was his sense of justice, so 
empty his heart of rancor, that he wished and sought to qual- 
ify the rigor of the act by some measure of restitution, and so 
prepared the Joint Resolution to be passed by Congress ap- 
propriating 400 million dollars for the purpose, which still 
stands in his own handwriting. 

"He was himself a Southern man. All his people were 
Southerners. 'If slavery be not wrong,' he said, 'nothing is 
wrong,' echoing in this the opinion of most of the Virginia 
gentlemen of the Eighteenth Century and voicing the senti- 
ments of thousands of brave men who wore the Confederate 
gray. Not less than the North, therefore, has the South reason 
to canonize Lincoln; for he was the one friend we had at 
court aside from Grant and Sherman when friends were 
most in need. 

"If Lincoln had lived, there would have been no era of 
reconstruction, with its mistaken theories, repressive agencies 
and oppressive legislation. If Lincoln had lived, there would 
have been wanting to the extremism of the time the bloody 
cue of his taking off to mount the steeds and spur the flanks 
of vengeance. For Lincoln entertained, with respect to the 
rehabilitation of the Union, the single wish that the Southern 
vStates to use his homely phraseology 'should come back 
home and behave themselves'; and if he had lived, he would 
have made this wish effectual, as he made everything effectual 
to which he seriously addressed himself. Poor, insane John 
Wilkes Booth! Was he, too, an instrument in the hands of 
God to put a still deeper damnation upon the taking off of 
the Confederacy and to sink the Southern people yet lower 
in the abyss of affliction and humiliation the living Lincoln 
had spared us? 

"Tragedy walks hand in hand with History, and the eyes 
of Glory are wet with tears 'with malice toward none, with 

362 Recollections of Pioneer and Army Life. 

charity for all' since Christ said: 'Blessed are the peace- 
makers, for they shall be called the children of God,' has the 
heart of man, stirred to its depths by human exigency, deliv- 
ered a message so sublime? Irresistibly the mind recurs to 
that other martyr of the ages, whom not alone in the circum- 
stances of obscure birth and tragic death, but in those of 
simple living and childlike faith, Lincoln so closely resembled. 
Yon lowly cabin which is to be officially dedicated on the 
morrow may well be likened to the manger of Bethlehem, 
the boy that went thence to a god-like destiny, to the Son 
of God, the Father Almighty of him and of us all. For whence 
his prompting except from God?" 

Mr. Watterson paid a tribute to President Taft and con- 
cluded with a stirring peroration, in which he said : 

"'Let us here highly resolve,' the words still ring like 
a trumpet-call from that green-grown hillside of Gettysburg 
dotted with the graves of heroes, 'that these men shall not 
have died in vain; that this Nation, under God, shall have 
a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, 
.by the people and for the people shall not perish from the 
earth.' Repeat we the declaration. As we gather about this 
effigy in bronze and marble in this the Capitol of Kentucky, 
of Kentucky, the most world-famous among the States of 
America, whose birthright carries with it a universal and un- 
challenged badge of honor; of Kentucky, which gave to the 
longest and bloodiest of modern wars both its chieftains, Abra- 
ham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, and to each of the contend- 
ing armies a quota of fighting men larger than was contrib- 
uted by any other State singly to either Army; of that Ken- 
tucky whose Clay, antedating Lincoln in the arts of concilia- 
tion and eloquence, tried to effect and did for a time effect by 
compromise what Lincoln could only compass by the sword, 
and whose Crittenden was last seriously to invoke the spirit 
of fraternity and peace ; of our own Kentucky, 'dark and bloody 
ground.' of the savage, beloved home of all that we hold gener- 
ous and valiant in man, graceful and lovely in woman, wherein 

Recollections of Pioneer and A nay Life 363 

when the battle was ended the war was over, and, once a 
Kentuckian always a Kentuckian, the Federal and the Con- 
federate were brothers again let us, here, whether we call 
ourselves Democrats or Republicans, renew our allegiance to 
the Constitution of the Republic and the perpetuity of the