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Full text of "Recordings of Latin American songs and dances; an annotated selective list of popular and folk-popular music"

LIBRARY OF 
WELLES LEY COLLEGE 




PRESENTED BY 

The Pan American Union 



Digitized by the Internet Arcinive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/recordingsoflatiOOdur 



PAN AMERICAN UNION 

DEPARTMENT OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS 
DIVISION OF MUSIC AND VISUAL ARTS 



MUSIC SERIES NO. 3 

Second Revised and Enlarged Edition 



RECORDINGS OF 
LATIN AMERICAN SONGS AND DANCES 



595 



Price $7.00 



RECORDINGS 
of LATIN AMERICAN 
SONGS and DANCES 



An Annotated Selective List of 
Popular and Folk-Popular Music 

By Gustavo Duran 



Second edition, 
Revised and enlarged 

by Gilbert Chase 



Division of Music and Visual Arts 
Department of Cultural Affairs 
PAN AMERICAN UNION 
WASHINGTON, D. C 1950 



vJnTT: \C<v\ n#v^W»C€L>^ ^i^' 



MUSIC UBRfAR? 

\\\l Hey' 



FOREWORD 

to Second Edition 

Upon its establishment in February 1941, the Music Division of the Pan American 
Union had in hand, for immediate action, two mandates from the Committee of 
the Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field of Music,* through whose 
vision and initiative it had itself come into existence. These were to produce within 
a few months selective lists of printed and recorded Latin American music avail- 
able in the United States. 

Mr. Gilbert Chase, at that time working upon a special project in the Music 
Division of the Library of Congress, compiled a "Partial List of Latin American 
Music Obtainable in the United States" which was published by the Pan American 
Union as Music Series No. i in March, 1941. A third revised and enlarged edition 
compiled by Leila Fern Thompson brought listings to the end of 1947 and is avail- 
able with a supplement for 1948. A supplement for 1949 is in preparation at this 
writing, with the prospect of a 4th Edition in 1951. 

Mr. Duran completed his assignment to cover the disc situation in three 
months — a remarkable achievement. But war-time difficulties delayed publication 
of the slim volume of 65 pages as Pan American Union Music Series No. 3 until 
January 1942. 

The National Music League, which cooperated in the project, disposed of 
2,000 copies with a red cover, 3,000 copies being distributed by the Pan American 
Union with a buff cover. A second printing in December 1942 was long ago ex- 
hausted. Further printings were not feasible, since the records listed were prac- 
tically out of stock everywhere. Preparation of a second revised and enlarged edi- 
tion lagged, nevertheless, partly because of the uncertain situation with respect to 
the production and merchandising of discs worthy of inclusion, and partly because 
no one could be fovmd to do the job. The general situation has improved during 
the last few years and under the editorship of Mr. Chase, the present project has 
been in good hands. 

Perhaps attention should be called here to a slight but important change in 
the sub-title of the work: for "folk music" reading "folk-popular music". Mr. 
Chase explains his viewpoint in the fourth paragraph of his Preface. The general 
public will not, of course, take much interest in the attempts of scholars to draw 
fine distinctions between folk and popular idioms, and even less in the problem of 
the relative amounts of written or oral traditions in particular songs or dances. The 
fact is, however: popular music throughout the New World is a hybrid idiom — 



*Called by the Department of State of the United States to meet in the Library of 
Congress, September i8th and 19th, 1939. 



a mixture of concert and folk idioms, sometimes, of popular, folk and primitive 
(tribal) idioms. Even the methods proposed for the untangling of these four di- 
verse currents of musical art are still highly controversial. It is well, therefore, in a 
vv^ork designed to fill a rather general demand such as the present — serious though 
it may be — not to attempt to be too strict in wielding the ax of selection. The Pan 
American Union hopes that in the near future it can persuade an eminent folklorist 
— or a group of folklorists — to prepare the annotated Selective List of Scientific 
Folklore recordings referred to in Mr. Chase's Preface. But precisely because, as 
Mr. Chase points out, different criteria of selection would, of necessity, have to be 
employed to separate the unquestionably folk from the questionably folk-popular, 
we are equally bound by necessity to put together what has been (temporarily, we 
hope) placed apart. For music is just as much one thing as it is many. And the 
larger synthesis is just as important as the most detailed analysis. Mr. Chase is, of 
course, on the right track when he accepts the requirement first to analyse. We are 
already over-burdened with premature and shallow attempts to synthesise and need 
not call upon the resources of an international organisation to father new ones. 

Careful readers will note that the bibliography lists almost exclusively works 
concerned with folklore and that the brief description of many songs and dances 
are folkloric in character, while the discs are admittedly popular or folk-popular. 
The fact is; both Mr. Duran and Mr. Chase have been limited in their selections 
by the commercial actuality of our day. But where there has been choice between 
a frankly composed piece and one which has utilised folk materials, it has always 
been weighted in favor of the latter. 

Serious students will want to know — and they have a right to ask — what is 
being done to get on with the analytical work so that some day one may attempt 
the over-all synthesis with the promise of success it deserves. No better answer can 
be given than to call attention to the number of competent scholars who are in- 
teresting themselves in the field of folk music, the increased respect with which 
scholars and laymen alike attach to music as a cultural reality and to the increas- 
ing establishment of governmental agencies whose task is to collect folk materials 
with modern sound-recording equipment. 

Perhaps mention should be made here of some albums of special merit avail- 
able to the general public but containing for the most part only folk and primitive 
music: 



Library of Congress 




Afro-Bahian Religious Songs from Brazil 


Album No. 13 


Folk Music of Venezuela 


15 


Folk Music of Puerto Rico 


18 


Folk Music of Mexico 


19 


Ethnic Folkways 




Drums of Haiti 


1403 


Folk Music of Haiti 


1407 



Cuba 1410 

Puerto Rico 1412 

Peru 1415 

Columbia Records 

Native Brazilian Music 83-84 

Disc 

Folk Music of Haiti 142 

Cuban Cult Music 131 

General 

Mexican Cancionero 16-17 

Indian- Yaqui and Mexican Tribes 18 

Voodoo (Haiti) 12 

Charles Seeger 
Chief, Division of Music and Visual Arts 
August I, 1950. 



Vll 



EDITOR'S PREFACE 

Several reasons impelled me to accept the invitation to undertake the revision of 
this booklet. In the first place, it meant renewing my association with a friend 
and colleague of long standing, for whose musical gifts and wide knowledge of 
Hispanic culture I have had the highest admiration ever since we first met in 
Paris nearly twenty years ago. I refer, of course, to Gustavo Duran, the original 
compiler and author of this handbook, which marked a pioneer effort in a field 
too often neglected by musicologists, namely that of popular music. If it is true 
that "when the history of music in the New World is written, it will be found 
that the main concern has been with folk and popular music" — then future his- 
torians of musical culture in the Western Hemisphere will undoubtedly recognize 
the full significance of this modest booklet, which pointed the way toward a path 
of investigation that musical scholars can no longer afJord to neglect. 

My own increasing interest in this field, as a vital part of total musical culture, 
provided the second reason for my acceptance of the task of revising a work that 
I had so long and so frequently used with pleasure and profit in my study of 
Latin American music. Realization of the importance of recorded music is general. 
If someone does not attempt, before long, a systematic chronological documentation 
of the recordings of Latin American popular music, we shall lose a most valuable, 
I may say an indispensable, tool for future musicological investigation. 

The present work, however, has no musicological pretensions, either in the 
mind of its author or in that of the writer of these lines. Mr. Duran addressed his 
opus to "the amateur musician" and hoped that it would also be an incentive to 
further serious study and investigation. My own task has been limited primarily 
to revising the record lists in order to include, wherever possible, selections cur- 
rently available in the United States in place of non-available recordings originally 
listed by Mr. Duran. The term "currently available" perhaps needs some explana- 
tion. By it is meant simply records that are listed in the current domestic (U.S.A.) 
catalogues of American recording companies. Both RCA Victor and Columbia 
issue special catalogs of Latin American records, recorded in Latin America, and 
manufactured in this country for sale chiefly to Latin Americans residing in the 
United States. The recording companies concerned will send these catalogues upon 
request to interested persons. 

In many cases, no currently available items could be substituted for discon- 
tinued items listed originally by Mr. Duran. This occurred notably in the section 
on Argentina, for which little save tangos and milongas is currently released in the 
United States. A similar situation prevails for Brazil, which is represented in 
American releases chiefly by currently popular sambas. In such cases, the record- 
ings listed in the original edition have usually been retained, with an asterisk 
placed after the record number to indicate non-availability. In making additions 

ix 



and substitutions I have, as far as possible, chosen recordings interpreted by the 
same groups or individuals that figured in the original listings selected by Mr. 
Duran. When this has not been feasible, I have used my own judgment, and in 
almost every case I have included only those records that I have been able to 
listen to myself. 

As far as textual changes are concerned, I have kept these to a minimum. 
A few^ additional dances have been included, and some sentences and paragraphs 
have been inserted by w^ay of additional comment. These interpolated passages are 
marked w^ith my initials in parentheses. The book as a whole remains as Mr. 
Duran wrote it, even when I have had occasion to disagree with some of his con- 
clusions, or rather, with some of his inclusions. For example, here and there Mr. 
Duran listed certain recordings of folk music, notably in the sections on Peru and 
on Haiti, which I feel are not strictly in keeping with the essential character of 
this handbook as a guide to the popular rather than the folk music of Latin 
America. These items have been allowed to remain, but as exceptions, and no 
attempt has been made to cover systematically the field of folk music, which 
would, indeed, require another compilation based on different criteria of selection. 

A few remarks are in order regarding Mr. Duran's comments on the Tam- 
BORiTo in the section on Panama, with particular reference to his mention of a 
type of Latin American dance (i.e. showing distinct African music patterns) as 
having been known in Spain in the 17th century. This statement has been criti- 
cized in certain quarters as lacking historical validity. After due consideration, 
and in consultation with Mr. Duran, the present editor has decided to let this 
passage stand as in the original edition because, regardless of its ultimate validity 
in the light of further historical investigation, it presents a hypothesis founded 
upon the irrefutable evidence of a close interrelationship between Spanish penin- 
sular dances and those of the "Indies" in the 17th century and later. Dances of 
American origin, with African influence, are known to have been popular in Spain 
at that time. Mr. Duran's textual analogy of the Tamborito with the dance-song 
in Lope de Vega's "La Dama Boba" is therefore one of those illuminating hints, 
acceptable as hypotheses, which may prove very fruitful in guiding us toward fur- 
ther research in this little-explored territory of musico-poetic relations and influ- 
ences between Africa, peninsular Spain and the Spanish Indies. 

It remains for me to acknowledge with gratitude assistance and cooperation 
received from Mr. Frank Amaru of the RCA Victor Division, Radio Corpora- 
tion of America; Mr. George Avakian of Columbia Records, Inc.; Mr. Ralph Perez 
of Decca Records, Inc.; Mr. Gabriel Oiler, Jr., of the Spanish Music Center, New 
York; Mr. Evans Clark; the staff of the Music Division of the Pan American 
Union; and, of course, Mr. Gustavo Duran, the author of this handbook. 

Gilbert Chase 
Chapel Hill, N.C. 



FOREWORD 

to First Edition 

This list of recordings of Latin American popular music does not pretend to be 
complete. There are many song and dance forms which are not represented in it. 
The recording of Latin American music has been almost entirely commercial, and 
many of its forms have never been recorded at all. For this same reason some other 
forms are not represented by their best examples. 

Also, this list, mainly based on the collection of records belonging to Mr. 
Evans Clark, inevitably has some gaps. Whenever possible, these gaps have been 
filled from the catalogues of the record companies. But, unfortunately, the lists 
issued by those companies are not explicit enough to be sure that the selection 
made from them is the right one. It has been my principle to select only those 
records w^hich I have actually heard played. When it has not been possible for me 
to hear some of them, hovv^ever, I chose the ones interpreted by performers vv^hom 
I knew from other recordings and who, therefore, offered a certain guarantee of 
competence. 

In cases where a musical form, such as the Cuban Bolero or Rumba or Ar- 
gentine Tango, is interpreted in different countries with only slight variation, I 
have given samples of it coming from the country of its origin. Forms of music 
widely known and played in Central and South American countries but belonging 
to Spain, are not included in this list. Similarly, Latin American "Valses," which 
are only a Latin version of the European Waltz, with no actual modification of 
its structure and rhythm, are not listed. 

Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador are represented in com- 
mercial recordings available in the U, S. A. only by Waltzes, Fox-trots, Tangos and 
One-steps. I know of no recordings of indigenous Central American forms such 
as Callejeras, Danzas or Pasillos. Since the Waltz, Fox-trot, Tango and One-step 
are not representative of these four countries, no listings of records of music from 
them have been made. 

Whenever possible, only records made in each country by authentic native or- 
chestras, groups or singers are listed. 

Incomplete as it is, this list is a provisional cross-section of Latin American 
folk and urban music for the interest and pleasure of the amateur musician of the 
United States. I hope the list will also be an incentive to the musicologist for fur- 
ther and more systematic studies in this rich and fascinating field. 

RCA Victor records for the markets of Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and 
Uruguay are manufactured in Buenos Aires; those for Chile and Peru, in Santiago, 
Chile; those for Brazil, in Rio; and those for Mexico, in Mexico City. Some of 
these, however, are remanufactured in Camden for sale in the North and can be 

xi 



purchased through RCA Victor dealers in the United States; but those which are 
not must be imported from Buenos Aires, Mexico, Rio or Santiago. 

Gustavo Duran 
May 24, 1 94 1. 

Note. The following abbreviations are used in this list: 



B — Brunswick 

C — Columbia 

D — Decca 

E — Ethnic 

G — Gramophone 

Gr.K — Gramophone, Series K 

Gen — General 



L — Liberty 

LC — Library of Congress 

M — Master 

SMC — Spanish Music Center 

V— RCA Victor 

Ven — Venus 

Voc — Vocalion 



Discs marked with an asterisk (*) are probably unavailable. 



Xll 



RECORDINGS OF 

LATIN AMERICAN SONGS AND DANCES 

ARGENTINA 

The rhythm o£ most Argentine music is light and fast; its tunes are gay; its differ- 
ent forms are clear cut and perfectly defined. Only in those songs mainly of Indian 
origin, such as the Vidala and the Triste, does the Argentine dream and ramble. 

The Argentine "gaucho" has a realistic and objective attitude toward life. 
When he sings, and he sings often, he says what he has to say in the shortest 
possible time, expressing himself without circumlocutions. 

The structure of the Argentine dances such as the Gato and the Chacarera is as 
definite as the form of a Mozart or Scarlatti Sonata. The popular improviser who 
wants to create a new "Argentine" tune will have to follow very closely the pattern 
he has adopted — a pattern in which everything is built up with an almost academic 
precision. The introduction must have a certain number of bars; the vocal a cer- 
tain number also; the guitar interludes will have a certain length, and not a single 
bar more nor less. On this fixed structure, the dancer, in his turn, improvises his 
stamping, his steps and turns in a prolific variety of detail — yet he too bases his 
art firmly on the basic pattern of the dance he is performing. 

Generally speaking, the folk art of the Argentine is a traditional art bound by 
the most rigid rules. 

Bailecito 

The Bailecito is a dance in 6/8 meter and lively tempo (Allegretto) which 
originated in Bolivia. It consists of two equal parts, each written, usually, in a 
different tonality and mode — the second part being played at a tempo rather 
slower than the first. Its lyrics have eight lines (generally octosyllabic) of which 
the first four are sung during the first part and the following four in the second 
part. There follows a recapitulation of the first part in the initial key during which 
the singer "tararea" (sings in meaningless syllables) the tune. This is typical of 
most Argentine songs and dances. 

It belongs to the "danzas de panuelos" group, and it is danced by two people 
or groups of many couples. The dancers stand separated. Each of them holds a 
handkerchief in his hand waving it in a great variety of ways throughout the two 
first parts of the dance. While the "tarareo" (singing in unintelligible syllables) 
goes on, the dancers pick up the handkerchief and keep up with the rhythm of the 
music, snapping their fingers. 



The musical instruments which are more often used are the guitar, the "caja" 
(small drum), the "bombo" (large drum), the flute and the violin. It is a very 
popular dance among the people of Catamarca, Santiago del Estero, Salta and 
Jujuy (Northern Argentina). 



El Borrachito 

El Crucenito 

Florcita de Toronjil 
El Pajarito 

Viva Jujuy! 



Libertad Lamarque with 
accomp. of guitars and quenas 
M. Acosta-Villafaiie y 
Orquesta Calchaqui 
Duo Acosta-Villafane 
M. Acosta-Villafane y 
Orquesta Calchaqui 
Alina Ezcurra y su 
Conjunto Alpazumaj 



V 60-0342 

V 38668* 

V 38120* 

V 38194* 

V 38022* 



Cancion 

The Spanish word "cancion" is used in the same general sense as its English 
equivalent "song." The four songs listed below have no special structural or 
rhythmical characteristics which would warrant a separate classification. Their 
only peculiarity is the fact that they are Argentinean, and most typically so. Those 
called "El arriero catamarqueno," "Cantar de arrieros" and "Los troperos" belong 
to the provinces of Northern Argentina. 



El Arriero Catamarqueno 
Cantar de Arrieros 
El Carretero 
Los Troperos 



M. Acosta-Villafane 

La Tropilla de Huachi-Pampa 

Carlos Gardel accomp. by guitars 

M. Acosta-Villafane y 

su Orquesta Calchaqui 



V 38759* 

V 38502* 
D 20207 

V 38217* 



Chacarera 

The word Chacarera is derived from "chacra," farm. The Chacarera is a 
gay and lively dance, classified by Carlos Vega among the danzas picarescas of 
Creole lineage. It is a longways dance in which the dancers accompany their turns 
with alternate stamping of the feet and snapping of fingers. The Chacarera was 
once widely popular throughout Argentina, but today it is limited chiefly to the 
lower classes in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Tucuman, Salta, and Jujuy. 
Its origins are obscure and early documental references to it are lacking. 

The musical structure of the Chacarera is very simple: first, an instrumental 
introduction consisting of seven measures in alternating 6/8 and 3/4 meter; this 
is followed by the voice part consisting also of seven measures — all in 6/8 meter. 
This pattern is repeated three times, ending with a coda of six or eight measures 
usually based on a new melodic phrase. (G.C.) 



The following rhythmic pattern 

6/8 >n JT3 / 3/4yJ J // 
is typical of the introduction; just as the one: 

&/S yn / ! i J //m m/^i j. / j. 

is typical of the vocal part. The tempo of the Chacarera is lively (Allegro). 

As in the majority of the Argentine dances, the vocal part is for one voice 
only. The "coplas" (quatrains) consist of four lines. They are either satirical or 
comic and good humoured. The guitar introduction and interludes are full of 
flourishes. 

The first selection listed below^ does not appear to have been recorded in 
Argentina, but since available examples of this dance are rare, it was considered 
advisable to include this recording. (G.C.) 



A Mi Me Llaman el Negro 



Chacoteando 



La Humala 



SUMAJ MiSHKHI 



De Balde Me Desespero 



Chamarae 



Hermanos Contreras with 
orquesta tipica de cuerdas 
Agustin Irusta, acompanado 
por guitarras 
Cuarteto nativo de 
Andres A. Chazarreta 
Andres A. Chazarreta y su 
Orquesta nativa 
M. Acuna y M. Jugo. 
Duo Acuiia-Jugo 



SMC 2510 
D 21093 

V 39040* 

V 38509* 

V 39099* 



The Chamame is a very popular dance among the people of the Province of 
Corrientes, near the Paraguayan border, where it was created. It is widely enjoyed 
by the Guarani Indians of Northeastern Argentina. 

Its rhythm is very characteristic and unlike any other indigenous rhythm. It 
is in 3/4 time and moderate tempo. The rhythmical basis of the Chamame is: 



3/4 m n H/ 



X I X \ 



etc. The accordion is the fundamental instrument of the orchestra, together with 
the guitars. 



CUNA CaRAPE 

Dona Quiteria 



Trio tipico correntino 

de Emilio Chamorro V 39109* 

Cuarteto correntino "Ramirez". 

Dialogos por E. Rayo y 

S. Barrientos V 39079* 

3 



Jheta Puerto Cuarteto correntino "Ramirez," 

con dialogos y una copla 

cantada por Aguirre y Rayo V 39048* 

El Retovao Trio tipico correntino 

de Emilio Chamorro V 39080* 

Cuando 

The Cuando is one of the oldest dance forms of Argentina, and its origin may 
be traced to the beginning of the XlXth Century. It spread to Chile where it en- 
joyed a wider popularity. Today, however, the Cuando is almost never danced in 
either of the two countries. 

It is a dance of European origin closely related to the Minuet. It begins with 
a melodic line in 3/4 and in Tempo di Minuetto 

3/4 n n n / n J 

of obvious European flavor, but after eight measures the movement changes into 
an Allegro brioso 6/8, quite Argentinean in character 

6/8 jn j'j / /J J. 

It is a couple dance and its steps and figures are as elaborate as those of an 
XVIIIth Century Gavotte. 

El Cuando Andres A. Chazarreta y su 

Orquesta Tipica V 471 17* 

Cueca (or Chilena) 

The description of this dance, almost identical with the Chilean Cueca, is 
given under Cueca in the Chilean section. 

Aprende a Querer Acosta-Villafafie y Duo Calchaqui V 38168* 

Anda no Mas Ismael Moreno y su 

Orquesta Folklorica Cuyana V 38 131* 

La Coya Acosta-Villafane y Duo Calchaqui V 37579* 

La Inesita Acosta-Villafane y Orquesta 

Calchaqui V 38169* 

Los 60 Granaderos Hugo del Carril 

accomp. by guitars V 23-1297 

Escondido 

There is practically no difference between the rhythms, musical structure and 
choreography of the Escondido and those of the dance called Gato. But there are 
two things that distinguish the Escondido: The first is that in it both dancers tap 

4 



I 



alternatively, whereas in the Gato, the two tap at the same time. The second and 
most important characteristic is the figure that gives its name to this dance. 
EscoNDiDo means hidden. After the first quatrain is finished, the man remains 
alone in the circle of people while the woman hides herself behind one of the 
crowd. The guitar-player then sings a quatrain calling her or him ("veni, paloma, 
veni," etc.), after which she comes back to her partner's side and dances again 
with him. The next time the roles are reversed, the man hiding himself and the 
woman calling him with a song. 

The EscoNDiDO consists of an instrumental introduction of eight measures, 
followed by a vocal part of sixteen measures in which two phrases or eight meas- 
ures each, are repeated. After this, the introduction is repeated and followed by a 
recapitulation of the first half of the vocal part. The introduction, vocal part, repeti- 
tion and recapitulation are all in the same key. The meter is 6/8 and the tempo 
Allegro. 

AuNQUE Te Escondas Acosta-Villafaiie 

y su Orquesta Calchaqui V 38704* 

El Catamarque^no Acosta-Villafaiie y Diio Calchaqui V 47689* 

El Cosquilloso Acosta-Villafaiie y Duo Calchaqui V 38338* 

El Tristecito Acosta-Villafaiie, y Duo Calchaqui V 37960* 

Estilo 

The EsTiLO is the most typical song of the Argentine pampas. Generally, it is 
made up of two parts: one initial part in slow tempo, duple time (2/4 or 4/4) and 
a second part in triple time (3/4 or 6/8) and at a much quicker tempo than the 
first. The second part is called "alegre." The song ends with a recapitulation of 
the first part. The phrases are broad and melancholy. 

The text of the Estilo is the "decima," a stanza of ten consonant octosyllabic 
lines. The lines, in almost every instance deal with life in the vast Argentine plains. 
In them there appear the cowherd, who sings to the rhythm of the slow gait of 
his oxen; the cowboy leading a herd of cattle — the "chalchalero" bird, which feeds 
on the fruit of the "chalchal" tree, etc. The words and music form a unity which 
harmonizes perfectly with the surrounding landscape. 

El Chalchalero Manuel Acosta V 37792* 

Llorando Digo M. Acufia-M. Jugo, 

Duo Acuiia-Jugo V 391 19* 

Mi Viejo Poncho 'E Vicuna Acosta-Villafane V 37865* 

No PuEDo Olvidar La Cuyanita V 39184* 

El Tirador Plateado Carlos Gardel accomp. by guitars D 20207 



Firmeza 

In the Firmeza the same four measure musical phrase is repeated no less than 
fourteen consecutive times, without noticeable variation and without any instru- 
mental interludes. The meter is 6/8 and the tempo Allegretto. 

It is a couple dance. Both dancers face each other during the first quatrain. 
The man stamps his feet without changing his place and the woman snaps her 
fingers. At a given moment, chosen at random by the guitar-player who leads the 
dance, both dancers begin to turn around each other, the man pursuing the woman 
and the woman trying to escape him. Through the entire progress of the dance 
the participants must be ready to follow the command which the guitar-player 
calls out from time to time. 

Firmeza means firmness. The quatrains sung in this dance always have the 
word "firmeza" in one of its lines. Thence comes the name of the dance. 

La Firmeza Andres A. Chazarreta y su 

Orquesta tipica V 47677* 

Gato 

The Gato is the most important dance of the Argentine countryside. Many 
other dances are derived from it. 

It is a dance for two people dancing apart, and generally it is danced by two 
couples. When the guitar-player begins to sing the first quatrain, the dancers be- 
gin the dance with a large circular turn followed by a smaller turn taken by 
each dancer in his or her original place. During the turns, the men follow their 
partners, meanwhile snapping their fingers. Another dance figure follows, accom- 
panied only by the guitars, without any singing; this second figure is performed 
by the women with quick shoe-tapping steps, lifting their shirts slightly with the 
left hand so as to show the agility of their foot movements. Meanwhile, without 
moving from their places, the men execute a rapid shoe-tapping combined with a 
foot movement called "escobilleo." The "escobilleo" consists in swinging one foot 
after the other backwards and forward, lightly scraping the ground with the shoe. 
The action is extremely rapid — so much so that, according to a folk saying, "you 
can't see their feet." 

When the guitar-player begins to sing the second quatrain, the dancers change 
their place, repeating the second figure already described, with minor variations. 
As soon as the singer starts on the two final lines, the dancers take one spin, ad- 
vance to the center and face one another as the dance ends. 

There are innumerable ways of executing the shoe-tapping and the "esco- 
billeo." Each dancer has his own style. In the Northern provinces of Argentina, 
there are those who make bets among themselves as to who can execute the greatest 
number of different shoe-tappings. Some can do more than fifty different combi- 
nations. 

6 



The text of the Gato is In the style of a "seguidilla," a strophe of four lines 
in which the second is assonant with the fourth. The second and fourth lines are 
of five syllables; the first and third of seven syllables. 

In some Gatos, called "Gates con relaciones," the music stops after the first 
dance so that the dancers can tell the "relaciones." These are improvised dialogues 
in "seguidilla" form, like the quatrains that are sung. Each pair of dancers recites 
one of these "relaciones." 

The following rhythmic formula is characteristic of the Gato: 

6/8 //^ J J J^/3/4 J J J /6/8 J" J J /J. 

etc. The introduction and the singing part are repeated three times in succession. 
Both are in the same key. 

Popular throughout Argentina in the 19th century, the Gato survives as a 
spontaneous expression of the folk only in remote northwestern sections of the 
country. Elsewhere it is danced as a historical evocation and is much favored by 
those who wish to keep alive the old folk traditions of Argentina. (G.C.) 

The rhythm of the Gato is rapid, brisk and lively. 

CoMo LA Tuna Orquesta folklorica: 

Maldonado-Infante V 39092* 

El Humalo Andres A. Chazarreta y su 

Orquesta nativa V 38584* 

Mi Pabellon Andres A. Chazarreta y su 

Trio folklorico V 39089* 

El Salamanquerito Orquesta Calchaqui de M. Acosta y 

Diio Acosta- Villafane V 39038* 

Media Cana 

This is also an old dance, like the Cuando or the Minue. Only a few people 
can remember it today. It is a hybrid dance, of unmistakably urban origin. In it 
there is a mixture of musical and choreographic elements from other Argentine 
dances. It begins with an instrumental introduction of eight measures in 3/8 
meter, in the tempo and the rhythm of the Pericon, 

3/8^^9 }:) }/ n J J / 

This is followed by 16 measures sung in the Zamacueca style, after which 
comes a repetition of the introduction. Then there Is an abrupt change in tempo 
and rhythm, transforming the dance into a Gato, especially the Introduction and 
voice part which, with only slight variation, develop as in the Gato. Then the first 
introduction Is repeated by way of a Coda. 

It Is a longways dance for three couples. In Its choreography, as in its music, 
use is made of steps, turns and rounds of the three dances mentioned. 



One of the figures of this dance consists in the dancers describing a semi- 
circle while holding hands. This figure is known as "media cana," and the dance 
derives its name from it. The complete turn is called "cana entera." 

Though it is not representative of Argentina's music of the present day, it has 
been included in this list for its historic value and its XlXth Century charm. 

La Media Cana Andres A. Chazarreta y su 

Orquesta Tipica V 47629* 

Milonga 

During the last two decades of the XlXth Century the Milonga was the most 
popular dance of the suburbs and slums of Buenos Aires. A typical product of the 
slum "compadritos" (the bar-room toughs of Buenos Aires), it was absolutely 
forbidden in the houses of the middle classes and the aristocracy of the Argentine 
capital. 

The Milonga, together with the Tango Andaluz and the Habanera, is one of 
the sources of the Argentine Tango. Later on, around 1900, it was absorbed by it 
and today a Milonga (or Tango Milonga) is nothing but a Tango in sharper and 
quicker rhythm and whose words have very often a satirical intention. 

Campeona Juan D'Arienzo and his 

Orquesta Tipica V 23-0982 

Con Mi Perro Francisco J. Lomuto and his 

Orquesta Rivera V 23-1048 

Dale, Dale, Caballito Juan D'Arienzo and his 

Orquesta Tipica V 23-0964 

Mi Morocha Ricardo Tanturi and his 

Orquesta Tipica "Los Indies" V 23-0207 

Pericon 

Some fifty years ago a theatrical producer from Montevideo decided to re- 
vive an old and typical Argentine dance which was in those days almost entirely 
forgotten. It was the Pericon, a dance very much in fashion in the days of San 
Martin and the War of Independence. Sarmiento, the Argentine statesman (1811- 
1888), says, in his "Recuerdos de Provincia" that he danced it frequently as a 
boy, in 1826. 

The Pericon is danced by a group of couples in even number who stand fac- 
ing one another in two rows. Each man puts one hand around his partner's waist 
and with the other hand lifted, he turns about, and then returns to his position. 
The man kneels and the girl dances around him. Then all the girls join hands to- 
gether and make an inside circle going in the opposite direction from the men 
on the outside. Each of the dancers has a band of silk, white or blue, which they 
combine at the end of the dance forming the Argentine flag. This is called "formar 

8 



pabellon con los colores de la patria," (to form a flag with the native land's 
colors). 

The music of the Pericon consists of fourteen periods. Each period consists 
of eight measures in 3/8 time. In these the 3/8 rhythmic pattern: 

m/ m, 

and its derivatives 



or 



m / J J JJ J/ 

or some other of similar structure, more or less elaborated or ornamented, alter- 
nates on the tonic chord and on the dominant chord. Never, in this, is the sym- 
metry broken or the tonality changed. To reduce the monotony that inevitably 
results from this symmetrical and persistent repetition of a single element, the 
opening mode w^hich is alv^^ays major is changed to the minor for the duration of 
a few^ periods. The tempo of the Pericon is, approximately, Andantino or Andan- 
tino Mosso. 

Chispazos de Gloria Trio Los Matreros V 37422* 

Pericon Nacional Orquesta Adolfo Carabelli V 79949* 

Pericon por Maria Iriarte-Pessoa, con guitarras V 79805* 

Pericon por la Paz Conjunto Iriarte-Pages-Pessoa V 38098* 

Pregon 

A "pregon" is a street cry. As vi^ill be observed in the notes on the Pregon, in 
the Cuban section, it has been common in recent years for popular Latin-American 
composers to use a typical, current street call as the key theme of a composition, 
adapting it to the rhythm of some popular dance of the country. The example 
given below^ paraphrases the "pregon" of a street vendor of "chipas," (cakes made 
of manioc or corn-flour), from the province of Corrientes, in Northeastern Ar- 
gentina. 

La Chipacera Duo Chamorro-Gimenez V 38503* 

Ranchera 

The Ranchera is a 3/4 Mazurka accompanied in 6/8 meter. The Argentine 
players from the countryside, accustomed to their native rhythms, disapproved of 
that of the Mazurka and began to accompany it in their traditional 6/8 meter 



rn m 



speeding up the tempo at the same time, as if it were a Gato or a Chacarera. The 
dance resulting from this combination of rhythms has more charm, freshness and 
originality than the original dance. 

It is a couple dance. Its steps are similar to those of the Waltz. The text con- 
sists of a strophe of four octosyllabic lines. 

At present the Ranchera is danced in cities as well as in the country. 

La Calandria Los Tres Nativos Victor V 38442* 

Que Cosa Mas Linda Orquesta Tipica Victor V 38575* 

En el Rancho Cuarteto argentine Mastro V 38542* 

Protestona Edgardo Donate y sus muchachos V 37719* 

Refalosa 

The Refalosa or Resbalosa (the first word being a corruption of the latter) 
is a dance that originated in Peru. It spread to Argentina and Chile early in the 
XlXth century. At about that time it had begun to fall from fashion in the land 
of its origin. Max Radiguet, who saw it danced in Lima in 1841, refers to it as 
banned from Peruvian social circles and in use only among the lower classes. In 
Argentina, it began losing favor in the final third of the XlXth century. 

The verses of the quatrain of the Refalosa are repeated two by two. Follow- 
ing each repetition there is a short refrain, after which come four measures of 
shoe-tapping in 6/8 meter. The verse changes from the octosyllabic meter of the 
first strophe to hexasyllabic meter in the second quatrain. The verses of the sec- 
ond are repeated two by two, as in the first. 

The tempo is Allegretto mosso. The first part is in 6/8 meter, the second part, in 
the version best known to me, is in 2/4. But versions exist in which the 6/8 meter 
continues throughout to the end. 

The dance is performed by couples facing each other, with circular turns, 
spinnings, snapping of fingers and stamping of feet. 

Encarnacion Ismael Moreno y su Orquesta 

Folklorica Guyana V 38198* 

La Refalosa Catamarquena M. Acosta-Villafaiie y 

su Orquesta Calchaqui V 38038* 

Remedio 

The structure of the Remedio, like that of the Pericon, is extremely simple: 
a four measure introduction in eighth-notes in 3/8 meter (repeated as many times 
as may be found convenient by the guitar-player or players) and a voice part of 
sixteen measures, also in 3/8 meter, divided into two periods. These, in turn, are 
divided into two perfectly defined semi-periods. The introduction and vocal part 
are repeated in their same tonality, unchanged. Both are in the minor mode. The 

10 



tempo, as in the majority of Argentine dances, is Allegretto. 

The quatrains are octosyllabic, of four lines each. 

In the Remedio the partners dance separately, and usually two or more couples 
dance at the same time. Its turns and foot-work are similar to those of the Gato. 
Like the latter, it is popular in almost every province of Northern Argentina. 

El Mano Santa Acosta-Villafaiie: Duo Calchaqui V 37838* 

Sauce Lloron Andres A. Chazarreta y su 

Orquesta nativa V 38486* 

Tango 

It is perhaps unnecessary to give a description of the Tango. Among all the 
popular dances of today the Argentine Tango is one of the best known in every 
European and American country. However, and for those who are not familiar 
with it, a brief analysis of its present form is given here. 

It is binary in form, in 2/4 meter, moderate in tempo, and danced by couples 
holding each other, as in most modern dances. It is divided into two parts. Each 
part consists of an even number of measures, varying in number between fourteen 
and twenty or more. The second part is usually written in the dominant or the 
relative minor of the original key. 

The Tango began to be heard in the last years of the XlXth century in the 
suburbs of Buenos Aires. In those days its form was very different from the Tango 
as we have known it for the last twenty-five years. It was then a hybrid dance, a 
mixture of Andalusian Tango, Habanera and Milonga, and it was not until much 
later (around 1905-19 10) that the Tango began to adopt its most characteristic 
feature, the syncopated rhythm, which gave it a distinct form as a dance, distinct 
but not final. The Tango continues its constant evolution, absorbing and gradually 
taking on all sorts of musical elements of the greatest variety of origins. 

In this list are included two Tangos, La Cumparsita and Rodriguez Pena, 
which the Argentine considers almost as national anthems. As for the rest of the 
innumerable Tangos published and recorded until the present day, it is almost 
impossible to make an objective selection. Novelty, fashion and personal taste play 
a decisive role. We advise the reader to make his own choice . . . taking care, of 
course, that the Tango he chooses is interpreted by one of the good orchestras of 
Buenos Aires. 

Two of the Tangos listed below, Adios, Pampa Mia, and La Carreta, bear the 
designation Tango campero, which means literally a tango of the countryside, or 
rural Tango. The vocals of these Tangos deal with rural subjects — in these two 
cases the oxcart {carreta^ and the famous Argentine pampa, or grasslands. (G.C.) 

Adios, Pampa Mia Libertad Lamarque with the 

orchestra of Alfredo Malerba V 60-0853 

Ji 



A Media Luz Hugo del Carril with 

accomp. of guitars V 23-0682 

La Carreta Hermanos Contreras with 

orquesta tipica de cuerdas SMC 2510 

La Cu^-iparsita Francisco Lomuto and his 

Orquesta Tipica V 38008 

Rodriguez Pena Orquesta Adolfo CarabelU V 37225* 

Tonada 

The Spanish word "tonada" has almost as general a meaning as "cancion". 
Anything that is sung may be a Tonada, especially if the rhythm and tempo of the 
melody have the freedom and flexibility of singing solely for the pleasure of it. 

The meter in the text of the Tonada changes as much as its music. The 
Tonada may be in quatrains, as well as in five and ten line stanzas — also, in 
quatrains with refrain, etc. Whenever the text adopts this last form, the music for 
the quatrain is usually very lively, in contrast with the refrain. 

YuYiTos DEL Campo Duo Acosta-ViUafafie 

with guitars V 23-0490 

Triste 

The Triste can be described as a slow, melancholy love song. It is a plaintive 
tune of Peruvian origin acclimated in the North of the Argentine in the second 
half of the XlXth century. Its melodic line has both Indian and European char- 
acteristics. Sometimes the pentatonic scale of the Indian prevails throughout the 
song. At other times its melodic pattern belongs to the European scale of seven 
notes. Very often both are mixed together. 

The text of the Triste frequently combines indigenous and Spanish words. 

El Ay! Duo Chazarreta-Catan V 37031* 

Triunfo 

Like the Gato, the Triunfo is a dance for two couples, dancing apart. After 
an introduction of from eight to sixteen measures, the guitar-player sings and the 
dance begins. The movements and turns are similar to those of the Gato. As in 
the latter, the dancers keep time by snapping their fingers during the part that is 
sung and by shoe-tappings and "escobilleos" (rhythmic shuffling of the feet) dur- 
ing the instrumental part. 

The text of the Triunfo is in the form of a "seguidilla". (See description of 
"seguidilla" in note on Gato). 

Pattern: There is an instrumental introduction and a voice part (both in 6/8 
meter) which are repeated five times, unchanged. The voice melody takes on the 

12 



following rhythm: 

6/9 ^ifi JT/lJ vJ/J'J J-yJ- ''J/ J'J^J/J-f-/ 

Its name (meaning triumph) commemorates the victory of the Argentine 
people at the time of the British invasion of the Rio de La Plata. 

DocE DE OcTUBRE Acosta-Villafafie V 38291* 
El Ketupi Acosta-Villafane y su 

Orquesta Calchaqui V 38248* 

El Saladino Andres A. Chazarreta V 37254* 

La Tropilla Carlos Gardel D G20212 

Vidala 

The name as well as the melody structure of the Argentine song form, Vidala, 
fully represent the blending of Spanish and aboriginal American cultures. The 
word Vidala is formed of the Quechua diminutive "Ua" or "la" added to the Span- 
ish word "vida" (life); to this the ending "y" (meaning "my" in the Quechua 
language) is added, and thus we have "Vidalay", or "little life of mine". In its 
turn this Quechua-Spanish word has also adopted the Spanish diminutive particle 
"ita," producing the word "Vidalita" and "Vidalitay." 

In a similar manner, the melodic pattern of the Vidala blends elements of 
both of the above origins. Diatonic elements of European origin appear alongside 
typical features of the Quechua musical tradition, such as the interval of the aug- 
mented fourth and the alternate occurrence of the major and minor third degree 
of the scale. 

In the Vidala, 3/4 and 3/8 meter is used. When the Vidala is written in 
duple meter (2/4) it is called Vidalita. It is always in moderate, almost slow, 
tempo. 

The strophe of the Vidala generally consists of four eight syllable lines. The 
singer inserts the word "vidalita" between the first and second lines and between 
the third and fourth lines. 

Al Alba Yd i de Venir Duo Chazarreta-Catan V 37222* 

Con Quien Me Celais, Pashita Acosta-Villafane Duo Calchaqui V 38268* 

Imposible Dug Norteiio Acuna-Diaz V 37388* 

Mas Triste Mi Corazon Duo Norteiio Acuiia-Jugo V 38066* 

Zamba 

The Zamba, a "danza de paiiuelos" (scarf dance), was introduced in Ar- 
gentina from Peru where it was known in colonial days as Zamacueca or Zam- 
bacueca. The word Zamhacueca was divided — Zamba and Cueca — and two differ- 
ent dances were created: the Zamba, which became one of the favorite dances in 

13 



the North of Argentina, and the Cueca, which became and continued to be the 
most popular dance in Chile. 

It is a dance in 6/8 meter, slower than the Gato. It has a brief introduction, 
without significance of its own. The vocal part is divided in two sections, each 
consisting of a four measure theme, twice repeated. The whole ensemble is also 
repeated twice. 

As in the Cueca, throughout this dance, the woman slightly raises her skirt 
with the left hand while she waves her scarf high around her partner's head with 
the right hand. Tlie dance figures are similar to those of the Cueca. 

Canaveral Libertad Lamarque with 

accomp. of guitars V 38971 

La Enganera Los Payadores with 

accomp. of guitars V 23-0202 

Lejos de Mi Bien Maldonado-Infante 

Folklore Orchestra V 20-1508 

NocHE DE Abril Alberto Gomez accomp. by 

Jose Canet and his guitars V 83796 



BOLIVIA 

From a musical point of view, Bolivia is divided into two perfectly defined zones: 
the "valley" zone, having characteristics and traditions that are mainly Spanish 
in origin and the "highland" zone where the Quechua and Aymara Indian ele- 
ments prevail. The music from the valleys is gay, rhythmically colorful, sensuous, 
like that of Argentina and Chile. The music from the highlands is bleak and 
austere, like the country from which it comes. The dances are sad and measured, 
of simple figures and movements and the tunes are mournful, and they have a 
persistent and pervading melancholy. The voice of the singer is guttural and 
grave. Sometimes, as in the Carnival dances, this sadness disguises itself as joy, 
but it is a borrowed joy without any spontaneity. Under it lies the old melancholy 
of the Indian. 

In the highlands of Bolivia, as in the highlands of Peru and Ecuador, the 
music is commonly credited with aboriginal characteristics. The influence of Span- 
ish music seems to be relatively slight. The scale most often used is one in which 
are mixed the pentatonic scale of the Aymara and Quechua and the diatonic scale 
of Europe. The pure pentatonic scale is also frequently used. 

In the music of the Bolivian highlands, variations in modality may occur, but 
not frequently; the tonality itself never changes. A typical piece of Bolivian music 
begins, develops and ends in the same key. This same peculiarity is also present 
in the music of the highlands of Ecuador and Peru. 

14 



The usual musical instruments in the native orchestra of Bolivia are: "char- 
ango" (armadillo-shell guitar,) "quena" (reed flute,) "sicu" (panpipe,) "anata" 
(big flute,) "caja" (small drum,) "bombo" (large drum). ^fi./k 



^^\ponCK 



Adoracion 



The Adoraciones are religious songs. They correspond to our Christmas 
carols. They are always dedicated to the Child Jesus and are sung on Christmas 
Eve in front of the traditional manger or creche. 

Adoracion al Nino Jesus 



huachitorito 
El Pesebre 



Alberto Ruiz y su 

Lira Incaica Boliviana V 38134* 

Conjunto "Humahuaca" D G20388 

Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana V 38530* 



Aire Indio 

Aire Indio means Indian Air or song. The example included in this list, 
with its sudden changes of rhythm and its strange prosody, is a representative 
sample of Bolivian music. 

Encantadoras de Amores La Coyita y F. Irigoyen, con 

acompanamiento de anatas y 
caja. Conjunto "Humahuaca" O 594B* 

Bailecito 

The description of the Argentine Bailecito also applies to the Bailecito of 
Bolivia. In Bolivia, however, the Bailecito may also be a circle dance. In some 
places, the Bailecito is danced in circular turns around an orchestra of guitars, 
flutes and "cajas" (small drums); the men and women hold each other's hands 
while they step and skip in rhythm with the music. 

Chuska, Chuska Nuay 



CUANDO NadA Te DeBIA 
GoLPES DE Ml MaRTIRIO 

El Humahuaqueno 

PiLCOMAYO 

La Vicunita 



Conjunto "Charcas" 

folklorico boliviano 

Conjunto "Charcas" 



V 39070* 



folklorico boliviano 


V 39094* 


Conjunto Alberto Ruiz 


V 38662* 


Conjunto Cantos y Leyendas 


V 39306 


Alberto Ruiz y su Lira 




Incaica boliviana 


V 38633* 


Pedro Colque y su Conjunto 




tipico boliviano 


V 27960 



15 



Cacharpaya 

The word Cacharpaya or Cacharpari comes from the Quechua word "cachar- 
payani" meaning to say Good-bye. The name Cacharpaya is also given to the last 
round of a dance. 

This dance is not perfectly defined in form, either from a musical or a choreo- 
graphic standpoint. It is usually part of the festivities that close the Carnival 
season and may take the form of a Cueca, a Bailecito, Tango or a Fox-trot. The 
Cacharpayas included in this list happen to be HuaiJios in 2/4 meter and in sharp 
cut rhythmic phrases. 

Hasta Otro DfA Alberto Ruiz 

y su Lira Incaica boliviana V 37413* 

Llorando Pedro Colque y su Con junto 

tipico boliviano V 39067* 



Cancion — Tonada 

(See corresponding notes under Argentina.) 

Some of the Bolivian songs are built on a defective five note scale and make 
use of the simple binary meters of Indian tradition. Other songs show a marked 
European or, to be exact, Spanish influence: they are in the diatonic scale and 
the rhythmic pattern, whether duple or triple, has a more complicated framework. 

Apurimac Alberto Ruiz y su 

Lira Incaica boliviana 
Banderita Con junto Felipe V. Rivera 

ExTRANAs TiERRAs Conjuuto Felipe V. Rivera 

KjuLBi Ahuila Alberto Ruiz y su 

Lira Incaica boliviana V 38350* 



V 38670* 

V 39049* 

V 38611* 



Cueca or Chilena 

The description of Chilean Cueca also applies to the Cueca of Bolivia. Pos- 
sibly the only difference between the two is the fact that the quatrains of the 
Bolivian Cueca are almost always sentimental, while in the Chilean Cueca the 
words are satirical and picaresque. 

Antofagasta Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta tipica boliviana 
Con junto Alberto Ruiz 



Eres Mi Cholita 
Mis Companeras 



Su Cabellera 



V 39049* 

V 38662* 



Hilarion Gorena con su 
Conjunto "tiahuanacu" 

Felipe V. Rivera y su 
Orquesta tipica boliviana 

16 



V 39043* 

V 38893* 



Regional and Occasional Dances 

The great majority of Bolivian dances do not derive their name from their 
rhythmical or musical structure or from the specific character of their choreography. 
They are named for the locality in which they are danced, the religious celebra- 
tion to w^hich they are dedicated, or any other source completely foreign to the 
music or the choreography. Different names may designate dances similar in 
form, or the same name may be used for two different dances. Generally, and like 
most dances of Indian origin, the dances mentioned below are collective and 
danced in a circle. Following a simple, monotonous scheme, the performers turn 
and pivot from one place to another, around an orchestra of "quenas," "sicus," 
guitars and drums. The main difference in these dances lies in the costumes and 
the pantomime. 

The "Carnaval grande" is a Carnival dance from the Department of Santa 
Cruz, which is the most typically Spanish region of Bolivia. The Palla-palla or 
Pala-pala (Quechua word meaning raven, crow) is a "danza de pafiuelos" (scarf 
dance) related to the Cueca (see Cueca under Chile). The dance called Torito 
negro is a "huacatocori," a dance caricaturing a bull-fight. 

Carnaval Grande (Danza Crucena) Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana V 38558* 
Danza de Cullaguas Alberto Ruiz y su Lira 

Incaica Boliviana V 38179* 

Palla-Palla (Danza Valluna) Alberto Ruiz y su Lira 

Incaica Boliviana V 38224* 

Torito Negro (Danza Beniana) Alberto Ruiz y su Lira 

Incaica Boliviana V 38301* 

Estilo 

The Bolivian Estilo is almost identical with the Peruvian Yaravi (see Yaravi 
under Bolivia) though its text does not always have the same sad character (see 
also note on Estilo under Argentina. 

Abaroa (Estilo Paceno) Alberto Ruiz y su 

Lira Incaica Boliviana V 38132* 

Palomita Blanca Conjunto Alberto Ruiz V 38592* 

Huaino 

The Huaino (also written "wainyo" and guaiiio") is a lively dance also 
found in Ecuador and Peru. Usually in 2/4 meter and moderate in tempo, it is a 
binary dance, consisting of two phrases of short duration (usually four measures 
each), repeated as many times as desired. 

The Huaino is a group dance, the partners holding opposite ends of a scarf 

17 



and stepping back and forth, or swaying or pivoting in a circle around the or- 
chestra. 

In the days before the Spanish conquest the Huaino was a funeral dance of 
the Quechua Indians. The Huaino is called the Sanjuanito in Ecuador. 

PuTucuNciTo Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana V 38893* 

I SiGUAYs! Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana D G20386 

Kaluyo 

This is one of the many dances "de zapateo" (shoe tapping) in which changes 
of steps and figures occur very often. It is derived from the Peruvian Zambacueca. 
Like the Chilean Cueca, it is a "danza de panuelos" (scarf dance) for two people 
facing each other. Its steps and figures are also a variation from the Cueca (see 
Cueca in the Chilean section). 

El Forastero Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana V 38462* 

El Kaluyo Acosta-Villafafie: 

Duo Calchaqui V 38135* 

Mecapaquena 

The Mecapaquena originated in Mecapaca, after which it was named. It is a 
gay dance, in triple meter, for partnered groups. The turns, figures and steps 
combine Cueca and Bailecito elements (see both Chile and Argentinian Sections). 

Mecapaquena Alberto Ruiz y su 

Lira Incaica Boliviana V 38205* 

Los Pajarillos Conjunto Alberto Ruiz V 38350* 

PoR Quererte Conjunto Alberto Ruiz V 38392* 

UsuR Pankharita Alberto Ruiz y su 

Lira Incaica Boliviana V 38754* 

Pandilla de Anatas 

A Pandilla de Anatas ('pandilla', gang) is a group of musicians who play 
the "anatas," "charango" and "bombo." The "anata," known as "tarka" in the 
Bolivian highland, is a flute ten to twenty-five inches long made of the wood from 
the orange or granadillo tree. It has six lengthwise perforations. Its tone is sweet 
and more grave than that of the "quena." The "tarka" or "anata" is a most typical 
instrument of the Bolivian orchestra. 

In the valleys of Southern Bolivia almost every guild has its own "pandilla." 
During celebrations such as New Year's, Carnival, All Saints' Day and other 



important religious holidays, the "pandillas" go through the village streets play- 
ing all sorts of dance music in a gay and primitive mood and w^ith sounds vv^hose 
shrillness is unique. 

Los Alegres del Norte Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana V 38559* 

Ano Nuevo Felipe V. Rivera y su Tribu V 38357* 

i Ay, Florcita! Felipe V. Rivera y su Tribu V 38612* 

Pasacalle 

The Bolivian Pasacalle has no connection vi^ith the Spanish dance of the 
same name. Pasacalle (meaning 'to go by' or 'make rounds of the street') is the 
name assigned in Bolivia to a type of serenade, gay, carefree and never sentimental. 
Its mood is reminiscent of the Chilean Esquinazos. 

The examples listed belovv^ are in 2/4 meter. In fact they are slow Huainos, 
having a movement very similar to the one-step. 

The Pasacalle is danced by couples, either holding each other or separately. 

La Florida Conjunto Felipe V. Rivera V 38461* 

Ingrata Pedro Colque y su 

Conjunto Tipico Boliviano V 39039* 

Sicuri 

The Dance of the Sicuris is p>erformed by groups of twenty or more dancers. 
Usually there are more men than women in the group. Both men and women 
wear many colored skirts. The men wear elaborate hats covered with feathers or 
long straws which reach down to their feet. They form concentric circles, the men 
on the outside and the women on the inside circle. The leader wears a desiccated 
condor stretched out on his back. He has the wings of the condor tied to his arms 
and he flaps them now and then, to imitate a flying bird. 

As explained under Regional Dances in this Section, it is not the music, but 
special characteristics which define the Sicuri Dance. 

Leonor de Salas Alberto Ruiz y su 

Lira Incaica Boliviana V 38633* 

Triste 

Triste and Llanto are the Spanish names for the Yaravi. Like it, they arc 
elegiac love songs. The Triste has no definite form and its rhythmic patterns vary. 
(See note on Triste under Argentina and note on Yaravi under Bolivia.) 

Quimera Maria F. Sivila y 

Faustino J. Ventura O 561* 

19 



Trote 

The Bolivian Trote (meaning 'trot') is a 2/4 dance in quick brisk tempo. It 
is related to the Huaino and the Peruvian Cachua in its rhythm and structure. (See 
Huaino), Like the Huaino and the Cachua, it is also danced in a circle by a group. 

Recuerdos de Villazon Hilarion Gorena con su 

Conjunto "Tiahuanacu" V 39043* 

TiTicACA Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana V 3861 1* 

Yaravi 

The Yaravi is a melancholy song in slow tempo and generally in 3/4 meter 
w^hich is sung also in Ecuador and Peru. Its text is elegiac in character and may 
take various forms and stanzas: quatrains, five or ten line stanzas, in five, six and 
seven syllable lines. The singer makes constant use of metaphors. He employs 
far-fetched similes and mythological allusions of an elaborate lyricism. At times 
this lyricism becomes openly plaintive. 

A short ending in the form of a coda, called "fuga" is often added to the 
Yaravi. The "fuga" is at a quicker tempo than the rest of the song. (See explana- 
tion of the "alegre" under Estilo, Argentine Section.) 

The Yaravi is sung as far South as the River Plate {Rio de la Plata). Agustin 
Azara, in his "Descripcion del Paraguay y Rio de la Plata" (Description of Para- 
guay and the River Plate, Madrid, 1847), says: "Every inn has its guitar and he 
who plays it always drinks on someone else; they sing YARAvfs or Tristes. These 
are sad, monotonous songs created in Peru, dealing with unrequited love and 
people who go about the deserts bewailing their misfortunes." 

The Triste, the Uanto, the Estilo and the Vidala are all derived from the 
Yaravi, or are similar to it in form. 

DiusLLAGUAN Conjunto Felipe V. Rivera V 38461* 

El Pajarillo Conjunto Felipe V. Rivera V 39071* 

Zamba 

There is no difference between the Bolivian and the Argentine Zamba, either 
in its music or in its choreography, except that the Bolivians sing it in a more 
primitive way. 

CuANTo Mas Te Miro Juan Andres Perez y su Orquesta V 47009* 

HuMAHUACA Felipe V. Rivera y su 

Orquesta Tipica Boliviana V 39071* 



20 



BRAZIL 

The music of Brazil is perhaps the most varied and rich of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, The complex immensity of the Brazilian territory is necessarily reflected 
in the music of its people. 

As it has been said so often, it is a blend of Portuguese, Indian and Negro 
strains. But this is too general a statement to be taken seriously. These and many 
other elements of various origins, Spanish, Italian and even Flemish, have fused to 
create a music which is unmistakably Brazilian. 

There is no country whose popular music fails to reflect its individual and 
its communal life, in all the immense variety of their aspects. Few countries, how- 
ever, present these as strikingly as Brazil. The Brazilian is humorous in his 
Emboladas and Lundus; mysterious and obscure in the Witchcraft songs, Cocos, 
Congadas, etc.; lyrical, melodious and charming in the Modinhas and Toadas . . . 

Except for the most recently created dances such as the Samba and the Maxixe, 
which are danced by couples, most Brazilian dances, being of Negro origin, have 
collective characteristics and are performed in circles. There is no fixed rule to 
the lithe movements of the dancer. On the contrary, the greater the creative 
capacity of the performer, the more appreciated his dance will be. The charm 
and individuality of the Brazilian dances are enhanced by the percussion instru- 
ments that accompany the performer's contortions as well as by the rhythm and 
the expressive values of the singing with which the performer enlivens his dance. 

In attempting to classify and describe the dances of Brazil, much confusion 
arises from the fact that certain names, like Samba and Batuque, are used with 
different meanings. Samba, for example, may refer to any generic type of Afro- 
Brazilian group-dance characterized by several couples dancing, in turn, in the 
center of a circle formed by spectators, other dancers, and musicians, who rein- 
force the strongly rhythmic accompaniment by hand-clapping. This might be 
called the primitive Samba in contrast to the modernized urban Samba of Rio de 
Janeiro, which is a conventional society dance performed by couples holding each 
other in the usual manner. But there are also rural Sambas that steer a middle 
course between these two extremes and that have a sort of sentimental nostalgic 
flavor. To add to the confusion, the dances generically designated as Samba appear 
under different names in various regions of Brazil, being known, for instance, as 
fandango in Rio Grande do Sul, Sarambeque in Baia, and Carimbo in Para (see 
the section on Samba and Batuque in Renato Almeida's Historia da Miisica 
Brasileira). 

The popular music of Brazil, as distinct from the folk music, is poorly repre- 
sented in recordings released for American consumption, though the recorded 
repertoire in Brazil itself is rich and varied. The sophisticated Samba, as a ball- 
room dance, is the only Brazilian popular form that has taken hold in this coun- 
try, although Marchas and Choj-os are occasionally encountered. 

21 



In revising the section on Brazil, the Acalanto or cradle song has been 
omitted, and only a few of the records listed by Mario de Andrade in the Report 
of the Committee of the Conference on Inter-American Relations in the Field of 
Music (Washington, 1939) have been included here. (G.C.) 

Batucada 

The dances known under the names Batucada and Batuque are not really 
separate forms. The word Batuque began to be used in the States of Pernambuco, 
Sao Paulo, Minas and Bahia, to name those dances of typical African origin where 
the beating of drums stood out above the rest of the music and danced in circles 
by Negroes, stamping to the rhythm of percussion music, clapping their hands or 
striking together pieces of glass, wood, iron or any object that produces a loud 
noise. Today these two dances have lost some of their primitive violence, under 
urban influence. As in their derivatives, the Samba and the Maxixe, the music 
pattern 

is the basic rhythmic element of these dances. It is subject to innumerable varia- 
tions. For remarks on the Samba batucada, see the section on the Samba. 

Apoiado MuiTo Bem Os Pinguins V 34578* 

E Tumba Almirante with Victor Orchestra V 33572* 

Gangoera Xerem-Tapuya e sua Tribu V 32338* 

Itaquary Bohemios da Cidade V 34206 

Batuque 

(See the note on Batucada above.) 

Batuque Stefana de Macedo C 55052X* 

No Taboleiro da Bahiana Carmen Miranda and Luiz 

Barbosa, with orchestra D 23096 

Choro 

The Chord is perhaps the most flexible of Brazil's musical forms. Its structure 
may be any structure, its rhythm any rhythm. 

Some years ago, the name Choro was used to describe a musical ensemble 



consisting of large and small guitars ("violoes" and "cavaquinhos"), flutes, trum- 
pets, drums, etc., a kind of popular band which gave life and gaiety to the peoples' 
celebrations. The jovial, boisterous music played by those groups came to be 
knovi^n as "Musicas de Choro" (Choro music). Later on, common usage shortened 
the expression to Chords. Today it may be generally stated that a Choro is an im- 
provised piece in v^^hich one instrument, predominating over an ensemble, show^s 
its skill and virtuosity. 

The Choro frequently adopts the Waltz form, also that of the Maxixe and 
Samba. But the Choros-samba, instead of adopting the quatrain-refrain (A-B) form 
of the Samba take on the ternary form (A-B-A or A-B-A-C-A). 

In the list below^, the Choro tided Brejeiro was composed by the most re- 
markable personality in the field of Brazilian popular music, Ernesto Nazareth 
( 1 863-1 934), whose prolific musical output verged upon both the salon and the 
concert hall as well as the ballroom. (G.C.) 

Brejeiro Custodio Mesquita 

and his orchestra V 80-0079* 

A Felicidade Perdeu Seu Endere90 Orlando Silva V 34594* 

FoRRO NA RocA Xerem-Tapuya V 34222* 

MiNUANO Triste Dante Santoro e seu Conjuncto V 34460* 

Tico Tico NO FuBA Orquesta Zaccarias V 23-0116 

Ghula 

The Chula has a definite Portuguese origin easily recognizable in the lyric 
character of its tune and in the simple rhythm of its accompaniment. It is a dance 
for separate partners in 2/4 meter, tuneful and charming but almost obsolete at 
present in Brazil. 

The three examples of Chula given below are Portuguese, although recorded 
in Brazil. 

No Arraial Jose Lemos V 34595* 

Patrao, Prenda Seu Gado Grupo da Guarda Velha V 33492* 

Rosa D'Aldeia Jose Lemos com Conjuncto 

Portugalia e Coro V 34 113* 

Coco 

This is a collective dance of African origin mostly danced in the States of Rio 
Grande do Norte and Pernambuco and in Paraiba and Baia. Its choreography, 
though transformed under other Brazilian influences, recalls, sometimes, the 
African ritual dances. The Coco belonged originally to the group of Afro-Brazilian 
witchcraft songs. 

The singing part in the Coco consists of brief, disconnected phrases, at times 

23 



almost spoken. The singer attaches more importance to the expressive value of the 
melody than to its purely musical qualities. 

The Coco is generally in the form of a stanza of four or more lines for solo 
voice, follov^^ed by a refrain of equal length sung by the chorus. The solo part is 
lively, similar to the Embolada. The refrain is more lyrical and in slower tempo. 

There are Cocos which are danced and Cocos which are only sung. The 
danced ones are known as Coco de zambe and resemble the Batuque. 

Anima o Coco Dada Raul Torres e sua Embaixada V 34364* 

Eh ! JuRUPANAM Elsie Houston ace. by Carlitos 

et son Orchestre bresilien D GK7075 

Meu Limao, Meu LiMOEiRo Olga Coelho with guitar V 26-9018 

Congada 

Since the middle of the XVIIth century, the Negro slaves of Brazil have pre- 
sented a kind of symbolic play called Congo, usually during the religious celebra- 
tions in honor of colored saints like St. Benedict, St. Balthazar and others, and of 
our Lady of the Rosary, patron saint of the colored race. The play used to be 
performed on the plaza located in front of the church. It was followed by gay 
dancing in groups in which everybody in the fiesta enthusiastically participated. 
Such are the Congadas, dances in duple meter and usually syncopated rhythm — 
emphatic, monotonous, markedly African. In the example included below the 
rhythm of the tune is twice or three times slower than that of the accompaniment. 

O Pretinho do Rosario Raul Torres e sua Embaixada V 34198* 

Cururii 

The rhythm of the Cururu's accompaniment recalls somehow the rhythmic 
pattern 



2/4 y.} rrt/ fi n 



etc., typical of the Andalusian Tango. The melody phrases are short and lively. 
The lyrics, like the melodies, are of a gay character. 

This dance originated in the countryside. It is performed by a group. The 
song is sung by two voices in parallel thirds. 

BE190 DE Marmelada Zico Dias e Ferrinho, com Viola V 33550* 

Desafio 

In the Brazilian Dkafios ("cantigas de desafio" meaning literally songs of 
competition) two singers improvise short lyrics on a given tune. Their theme may 

24 



be chosen at random but more frequently one of the singers will tell the other a 
conundrum or riddle to which an answer must be given in verse. The Desafio 
keeps up until one of the contestants declares himself unable to answer a question. 
The form most often used is the "quadrinha" (4-line stanza) in seven syllable 
lines. 

This kind of song, also widely sung in other South American countries, is 
called "contrapunto" and "payas" in Argentina and Chile and "porfias" in 
Venezuela. The singers are free to choose the music for the Desafio, which is 
usually taken out of the anonymous popular repertory. 

Boa Noite, Raparigas Jose Lemos e Candida Leal V 34300* 

Embolada 

The word Embolada means literally a rolling ball which gathers momentum 
as it goes. The song known under this name is a unique creation of the people 
of Brazil. 

The text is usually composed of alliterations and onomatopoeias, in comical 
and complicated wording. It is sung very quickly and requires a great deal of 
virtuosity of diction. The pattern 

2/4 im JTT^/X / X I ^^'" 

etc., rapidly executed, is a typical rhythm of the Embolada melody, one sixteenth 
note for each syllable in the text. 

The Emboladas are sometimes in octosyllabic verse in ten-line stanzas. But 
other meters may also be employed. 

There is a very popular Embolada in Brazil which consists of a series of 
sententious lines: "Nem todo pao da rezina, — nem toda quentura e fogo," etc. 
(Not every stick gives rosin — not everything warm is fire.) 

Although the Embolada constitutes a type of singing by itself, it may also 
appear inserted, for solo singing, in other musical compositions. 

BAMBtj-BAMBU Carmen Miranda com 

Banda de Lua e Garoto D 23132 

PoMBiNHA Branca Paraguassii com Coro V 34421* 

OiA o Sapo Elsie Houston ace, par Carlitos 

et son Orchestre bresilien GR K7075 

Ticoi-Tico E Gaviao Paraguassii com Coro V 34421* 

Vamos Imbola Xerem e Tapuya V 34314* 

Jararaca e Ratinho (Native Brazilian Music 

collected by Leopold Stokowski) C 36506 

Alb. C 83-1 



25 



Frevo 

In the XVIth Century the Portuguese introduced in Brazil pastoral Christmas 
plays called "ternos." From these developed the "ranchos" of the Northeast in 
which tribal symbols brought by the African Negroes were interpolated. The 
groups or bands interpreting these plays dressed in red and blue and were called 
"cordoes" and "blocos" and, in the Brazilian Northeast, frevos. 

Today we see these groups and those of the "maracatus" from Recife during 
the Carnival festivities of which they and their "bailados" have become merely 
adjuncts. They play Marchas and Marchinhas in a quick and vigorous rhythm, 
proceeding from door to door, dancing and singing, each of the groups trying to 
outdo the others in their dances and fantastic costumes. Most of the instruments 
in the Frevos orchestra are brass instruments. 

Clodomira & NO Frevo do Amor V 1 1580* 

Nos Dois & Foi Voce V 34409* 

Que Fim Voce Levou? & Diabo Solto V 34142* 

Vivo Cantando & DE QuEM E QUE Voce GosTA.? O 11699* 

Jongo 

The Jongo is a collective dance of African origin usually for solo voice and 
percussion, and similar in character to the Batuque. It is mostly seen in the coun- 
tryside of the Northeast of Brazil. 

Catenguere Raul Torres V 34514* 

Jongo Elsie Houston L 232 

Macumbero O 1 1480 

Sao Benedicto e Org So Motta da Motta V 33380* 

Lundu 

The LuNDUs are Negro songs having some of the rhythmic patterns of the 
Maxixe. Their lyrics are always of a comic character. They are songs from the 
countryside. Originally they were sung during the celebrations following the har- 
vest. Dancing was by separate partners, to the accompaniment of guitars and 
castanets. Later on these songs were adopted for serenading. Today the Lundus 
are known only by folklorists and musicians who are interested in the study of 
the old Brazilian music. 

In some places this song was also called Aribu. 

A MoscA NA M05A O 1 1220 

Gaviao Carijo O 1 1535 
Yaou Africano Patricio Teixeira 

com Conjuncto regional V 34336* 

26 



Macumba (Cantos de Feiti(;aria) 

The uneducated Negro of Brazil, though officially a Roman Catholic, in- 
dulges in all sorts of superstitions. He does not understand very well the spiritual 
symbols and practices of Catholicism and prefers to practice superstition and 
magic to placate God and shun adversity. The Catholic ritual seems remote and 
obscure to him, almost beyond his understanding and, not being able to grasp its 
meaning clearly, he vi^ill only make use of it as a last resource; but superstition 
and magic being more closely associated in his imagination with his desires, have 
for him a power of instantaneous and infallible strength, close at hand, which can 
more readily conjure the necessary incantation. Thus old Christian symbols to- 
gether with others brought from the African jungles and those inherited from the 
Amazonian Indians are used by him in his religious practices. Music is not used 
for its intrinsic beauty but for its magic value, as a means of serving his purposes. 
If the singer be a farmer, the song will be for abundant crops; for rain, in times 
of drought, or to stop rain if there be too much of it. The sick person sings to 
recover. The lover sings to dispel the beloved's indifference. . . . Music is con- 
ceived as having an eflfect on the forces the singer is trying to influence. 

The Macumba or fetish songs (Macumba is a religious secret ceremony ac- 
companied by songs and dances) are ritual music. Macumba is an African word 
(State of Rio). In Baia it is known as Candomble, in Maranhao as Tambo de mina 
and Tambo de criolo, in Para they call it the Babacue. It is also known under the 
names of Catimbo and Pagelan^a. 

EsTRELA DO Ceu Olga Pragucr Coelho V 34325* 

FoLHA POR FoLHA Joao da Bahiana e seu Conjuncto V 34313* 

MiRONGA DE M09A Branca Conjuncto Tupy V 33586* 

No Terreiro de Alibibi Conjuncto Tupy V 33586* 

Macumba de ochose Grupo do Rae Aluja C 36503 

Macumba de Inhan^an Grupo do Rae Aluja C 36503 

Maracatu 



(See under Frevo.) 

Cambinda Briante 

Dois DE Org 

Onde o Sol Descamba 

SUSTENTE O BaqUE 



Lais Morival com 
Nicolini e Orchestra 
Carlos Galhardo com 
Orchestra Victor Brasileira 



C 22180* 
C 22208* 

C 8241* 

V 34410* 



27 



Marcha 

The Brazilian Marcha is a gay one-step in 2/4 meter. It is the inevitable ac- 
companiment of Carnival festivities and there is nothing military about it. The 
tempo of the Marchinha (little march) is quicker than that of the Marcha. 

LiG, LiG, LiG, Le Castro Barbosa vi'ith orchestra V 20-1517 
Mama, Eu Quero Carmen Miranda com 

Bando de Lua e Garoto D 23132 

Oh! Senhora Viuva Carlos Galhardo vi^ith orchestra V 20-1517 

Maxixe 

The Maxixe is the oldest of the urban dances of Brazil. The Brazilian critic 
Mario de Andrade tells us the following about its origin: "According to the version 
of Villa-Lobos, who in his turn had obtained it from an eighty year old man, the 
Maxixe was named after one Mr. Maxixe, who invented a new way of doing the 
Lundu at a Carnival celebration. Some imitated him and shortly everybody began 
to call the new dance, the 'Maxixe'." However, this origin is not certain. 

This dance is in couples, in duple meter and moderate tempo. Its melody is 
usually syncopated, like the Lundu, whence it originated, according to the above 
theory. Its rhythmic basis is 



m m 



To it, some typically Negro elements of the Batuque as well as others of 
Spanish- American origin, are usually added. (See under Tango, Argentine Sec- 
tion.) 

The Maxixe was created in the last third of the XlXth century. It has always 
been an urban dance, exclusively instrumental; but recently the custom has arisen 
to sing it. 

Escravo do Samba Jose Congalves V 34571* 

Mentiroso O 10 166* 

Petisco do Baile Aurora Miranda V 34601* 

Moda 

The MoDA, like the Toada, is a lyrical song from the rural districts. Usually 
for one voice, the Moda is always accompanied by guitars. The text may assume 
any form and character. It may be narrative, sentimental, satirical, etc. Its music is 
sweet and monotonous. The Moda, or Moda-de-viola which is another name for 
this type of song, is for two voices in parallel thirds. 

28 



A Bahianinha Zico Dias e Ferrinho V 33785* 

Marvada Pinga Mariano e Laureano V 34580* 

Meu C0RA9A0 E Um Relogio Raul Torres e Serrinha V 34582* 

Meu Sertao Mariano e Laureano V 34599* 

Modinha 

The Modinha is an urban love song of cultured origin. It belongs to the 
musical European tradition more than any other Brazilian form. It is strongly 
influenced by Italian music of the cultured type. There are Modinhas which are 
really nothing other than Italian operatic Arias. 

Deusa O 108 15* 

Hei de Amar-te Ate Morrer Olga Praguer Coelho V 34038* 

Mulata Olga Praguer Coelho V 34325* 

Talento e Formosura C 8280* 

Recortado Mineiro 

The Recortados are dance songs originating in the states of Minas Gerais, 
Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. As in other Brazilian dances, the vocal part is 
in parallel thirds. 

Recortado Zico Dias e Ferrinho V 33785* 

Se Eu For, Voce nao Fica Mariano e Laureano V 34599* 

Samba 

There are tw^o perfecdy distinct types of Samba: the rural Samba, of Negro 
origin and similar to the Batuque and Jongo, and the urban Samba, derived from 
the Maxixe. As with the latter, it centers about the following rhythmic formula: 



fn m 



The rural Samba is more moderate in tempo than the Batuque and the accent is 
less violent, more flexible and undulating. 

In the cities it is danced in couples, in 2/4 meter and in moderate tempo. 

Among the common people of Rio de Janeiro this dance is performed in 
groups, forming a circle. 

A Brazilian writer says the Samba "e a musica do Carnaval por excellencia", 
("it is the most characteristic music of Carnival"). 

The Samba cangao, Samha-hatucada, Samba choro and Samba jongo are re- 
spectively a sung Samba, a rural Samba having the more violent rhythm of the 
Batuque and Sambas having the characteristics of the Choro and the Jongo. 

29 



Batuque no Morro 

Brasil 

O Que e Que a Bahiana Tem 

Ola, Seu Nicolau 

Caboclo do Matto 

Seu Mane e luz 

Bambo du Bambu 

K Keri K K 

Samba Batucada: Cai, Cai 

Samba Cancao: Quem Foi? 

Samba CAN9A0 

Samba Choro: Darei um Premio 

Samba Jongo: Tamborim 

Toada 



Zaccarias and his orch. 
with As Tres Marias 
Zaccarias and his orch. 
Carmen Miranda and 
Dorival Caymmi 
Carlos Galhardo with orch. 
Regionale Orch. 
Guarda Vilha Orch. 
Ernesto dos Santos and Orch. 
Regionale Orch. 
Zaccarias and his orch. 
Carlos Galhardo 
Regionale Orch. 
Lolita Franca 
Bohemios da Cidade 



V 23-0147 

V 23-0116 

D 23095 

V 23-0728 
C 36504 
C 36505 
C 36505 
C 36506 

V 23-0147 

V 34467* 
C 36504 

V 34509* 

V 34165* 



The word Toada has the same meaning in the Portuguese language as its 
Spanish equivalent tonada. (See Tonada under Argentina.) In this list are in- 
cluded three Toadas which originated in different regions of Brazil. 

Foi BoTo, Sinha! — (Toada Amazonica) Gastao Formenti 

com Orchestra V 33807* 

Pingo D'Agua Raul Torres e Florencio 

with accordeon accomp. 
by Oswaldo Rieli V 80-0203 

Saudade do Sertao — (Toada Sertaneja) Mariano e Laureano V 34580* 

ViDA DE Peao Boiadeiro — (ToADA Riograndense) Mariano e Laureano V 34521* 



CHILE 

The popular music of Chile is strictly Spanish in its origin and American in its 
development. The songs, ballads and dances brought over by the colonists grew 
in number and were modified through contributions of the immigrants' own 
invention, and also through those who continued to arrive from Spain via Lima. 
These songs and dances were not only of popular but of cultured origin as well, 
since Lima was the center of culture in the South American continent during the 
Colonial Period. During the years of the War of Independence, the soldiers of 
the Argentine army of San Martin brought to Chile some of their popular dances. 
These were instantly liked; some of them, like the Cuando, kept their original 
form. Others adapted themselves to the new environment and became part of the 
existing repertory of popular Chilean music. 

30 



On the other hand, the influence of the native music, so strong in some Latin 
American countries, can be considered absent in Chile. From the beginning of 
the Conquest up to the present time, the primitive dwellers of Chile have kept 
their habits, arts and ceremonies in an almost impenetrable isolation, not allov^^ing 
themselves to be influenced by, nor exerting any influence on the Spanish Con- 
quistador. The Auracano ceremonies observed and described by travellers in 
Chile at the beginning of the XlXth century appear thus to have been kept intact. 
And there is almost no doubt that these ceremonies were at that time identical 
to the ones in use in pre-Conquest times. 

In Chilean popular music, the meters of 3/4 and 6/8 predominate — as also 
does that of 3/8, which is so fluid and light and of purely Spanish origin. Ani- 
mated and even quick tempo is frequent in this music. The majority of the dances 
are danzas de panuelo (scarf dances) where the couple, man and woman, dance 
separately and take three turns. From the point of view of expression, Chilean 
music is gay, loud and tinged with a healthy contagious optimism. Albert Frieden- 
thal, the Viennese folklorist who knew it well, comments on it as follows: "Chile is 
a happy land. There are no Tristes in its music, and it is rather a concentrated 
passion than melancholy that one senses in its few instrumental pieces in the minor 
mode." 

Cancion 

(Compare the remarks under Canciones in the section on Argentina.) 

As observed in the comments on Cancion and Tonada in the section dealing 
with songs and dances of Argentina, there is no formal distinction between these 
two terms, which are both of a very general nature. Most Chilean songs are called 
ToNADAs (q.v.), but some, as in Mexico and elsewhere, are called simply Can- 
ciones or Canciones Chilenas. The best known example is undoubtedly the 
internationally celebrated song Ay, Ay, Ay, by the Chilean composer Osman Perez 
Freire. The song La Rana is of a more popular character, and in the "Canto de 
velorio" called El Angelito, sung at the wake for a dead infant, we enter the realm 
of folklore. According to this custom, several singers, accompanied by guitars, take 
turns in sitting by the body of the dead child and singing throughout the entire 
night numerous verses of which the most characteristic are the versos del angelito, 
in which the departed infant bids farewell to his parents and relatives in consola- 
tory phrases. The editor is aware that the inclusion of this recording does not 
conform to the norms of selection applied to the majority of selections in this 
handbook, which are distinctly of a popular rather than a folk character; yet 
there are times when consistency may be waived in the interest of an unusual 
item, (G.C.) 

El Angelito, Canto de Velorio Elena Moreno with guitars 

by Molina-Garrido V 90-0283 

31 



Ay, Ay, Ay, Cancion chilena Carlos Ramirez with the orch. 

of Roberto Valdes Arnau SMC 2514 

La Rana, Cancion Los Cuatro Huasos with guitars V 23-0122 

Cueca 

The Cueca or Zamacueca (see note on Zamba in the Argentine section) is the 
most popular dance in Chile. As the Chilean historian Clemente Barahona Vega 
puts it: "the Zamacueca identified itself with the people of Chile; it is part of 
the alma mater of our race." In other words, there is an identification between this 
gay dance and the Chilean people. Every event in the nation's life, whether im- 
portant or not, appears commented upon and reflected in a new Cueca. The 
Chilean Cueca has in this sense a function analogous to the Mexican Corrido. 
There are Cuecas descriptive or reminiscent of the battles of the War of Inde- 
pendence, of the War with Peru, or of the incidents of the Revolution in 1891. 
Others glorify with song the winning team in a football championship, or the 
Chilean pugilist who has won international fame. There are also Cuecas, of which 
one example is listed here, describing a popular dish called "el valdiviano." To 
sum up, no subject in the daily life of the nation is considered unworthy of being 
sung in a Cueca. 

Neither the music nor the text of the Cueca obeys fixed laws. The Cueca 
usually consists of an octosyllabic quatrain, followed by a "seguidilla" (see de- 
scription of same under Gato, Argentina) developing the same theme and re- 
peating the fourth line with the word "si" added to it. It ends up in a distich 
having the same meter as the last two verses of the "seguidilla." However, frag- 
ments can be interpolated or repeated in the most arbitrary fashion. 

The Chilean composer, P. H. Allende, comments on the Cueca music as 
follows: "The Cueca is sung exclusively in the major mode. The first part of the 
tune (slow tempo) is in the minor mode, and is followed by another part in rapid 
tempo in the major. When the singing is in two voices, the second voice is im- 
provised by anyone in the audience. Whenever the tune allows for it, the second 
voice will sing a third lower. It is characteristic for the Cueca to have the cadence 
upon the third or fifth grade of the scale, seldom on the eighth. Its harmony is 
meager. Only the tonic and dominant chords are used." The number of measures 
in the Cueca fluctuates between twenty-six and forty-eight. It is in triple meter 
(3/4 or 6/8 or both, alternately) and brisk tempo. 

The following description by a French traveller in the XlXth century gives a 
charming and truthful picture of the Cueca: 

"The girl holds a handkerchief with one hand and with the other hand she 
lifts her skirt slightly, half trying to escape the pursuit of the man. The man, with 
his left hand on his hip, waves his handkerchief over his head and with a strong 
rhythmical step circles around the girl. He wants to attract her attention. But the 

32 



girl, with her eyelids obstinately lowered, evades him. No matter how persistent 
his attempts, she will continue to avoid him. In his impatience, he redoubles his 
efforts to charm and outdoes himself in grace and skill. But she seems insensitive 
to all this and glides on lightly always looking down at her feet. The music, the 
songs and cries of the people around and the clapping of hands excite the pursuer 
whose hopes rise when he senses her lassitude. At last the girl raises her eyes and 
they meet the eyes of the dancer. None knows which of the two is the victorious 
and which the defeated." 

Aprendan la Cueca Conjunto Victor Acosta V 53013* 

Arriba y Abajo Los Cuatro Huasos, 

con Marta Ubilla V 47891* 

Gloria Chilena Mercedes Simone con Orquesta V 47864* 

Mi Panuelo Hermanos Contreras with 

orquesta tipica de cuerdas SMC 25 11 

OjiTA QuisiERA Ser Caicedo — Duo Rey-Silva 

with piano and guitars V 53104* 

Esquinazo 

The Esquinazo (augmentative form of the word "esquina", corner) is a 
serenade, or rather the Chilean form of the serenade. It has no definite pattern and 
its most frequent meters are those of 3/4 and 6/8. When in 6/8, dotted notes are 
used generously. The following pattern 



6/8 J ; m / J 



is typical of many of these songs. 

EsQuiNAZos are also sung as Christmas Carols and as songs of greeting and 
congratulation. In this last case a coda called "cogoUo" is often used to dedicate 
the song to the person or group to whom it is addressed. Its usual accompaniment 
are guitars and occasionally the harp. 

Esquinazo Tipico Compania Folklorica Chilena 

"Oscar Olivares" V 53002* 

iQuE VivAN LOS Novios! Los Cuatro Huasos V 53015* 

Ranchito Nuevo Los Cuatro Huasos with guitars V 23-0148 

Tonada 

(See the remarks under Cancion in this section, and under Tonada in the section 
on Argentina.) 

A LAS Cuatro de la Manana Duo Rey-Silva with guitars V 53104* 

Cuando Me 'Ine e' Mi Tierra Elena Moreno with harp and guitar 

accomp. by Molino-Garrido V 90-0282* 

33 



Nina de los Claros Ojos Los Cuatro Huasos with guitars V 23-0122 

Palomita Callejera Los Cuatro Huasos with guitars V 23-0148 



COLOMBIA 

The music of Colombia is largely lyrical, with an amiable and tuneful kind of 
lyricism typically Creole. Whether Pasillo, Bambuco or Galeron, the rhythm is 
always smooth. The voice is never distorted; the tempo is kept under control. The 
cross-rhythms of the Mexican Huapango or of some other Latin American dances 
are entirely alien to Colombian music. Neither in the music nor in the verses 
which go with it can be found any trace of Indian influence, and the Negro influ- 
ence is negligible. 

The most common meter in the popular songs of Colombia is the quatrain in 
octosyllabic assonant lines. Only the Guabina adopts the "seguidilla" form (see 
description under Gato, Argentina). 

The following are the typical instruments of the popular Colombian or- 
chestra: the seven stringed "vihuela" (or guitar); the "tiple" (small guitar) with 
five strings; the "cuatro," thus named because it has only four strings; the "ban- 
dola" or mandolin; the drum. There is also the "guache" a hallow pipe of hard- 
wood some fifteen inches long. Seeds within this tube make an agreeable sound 
when they rattle against the walls of the tube and against the "guadua" thorns 
placed crosswise inside. Another Colombian instrument is the "guacharaca." It 
consists of a piece of "macana" (a hardwood palm of Colombia) with shallow 
grooves over which the player scrapes with a piece of dried bamboo. 

Except for the Guabina and the Monos in which the couples hold each other, 
in Colombian dances the partners dance separated. 

Bambuco 

Of all the musical forms of Colombia the Bambuco is perhaps the most repre- 
sentative. It is a dance song in 3/4 or 6/8 meter, or both alternately, in moderate 
quick tempo. Its rhythm may adopt the following patterns: 

3/^ 7 .^ J J 

f V m / J etc. 

34 



or 



In this dance the couples dance separated. The man takes his partner to the 
center of the dancing place. The man and the woman nod at each other before 
they begin to dance. Then they separate and alternately whirl and face each other. 
The man pursues the girl as she coyly evades him, as in the Cueca. 

The Bambuco strophe has four octosyllabic lines. Of these the first two are 
repeated. In some Bambucos the initial stanza is followed by a refrain of indefinite 
length in free five syllable lines. 

It is best sung and danced in the Provinces of Tolima, Caldas, Valle and 
Cauca, though it is known throughout the whole country. Its usual accompani- 
ment are "tiples" and "bandolas" (small guitars and lutes). 

Like many other dances associated with the folk, the Bambuco is also widely 
in vogue as a modernized society dance in the urban centers of Colombia, and a 
bambuco performed and danced in a smart hotel of Bogota is of course quite a 
different thing from the rural bambuco. In the list below there are bambucos 
played by some of the leading dance orchestras of Colombia, and others interpreted 
in a less sophisticated style with guitar accompaniment. The selection titled 
Es Mejor que no vuelvas is labelled bambuco-estilo, being one of the rare hybrid 
forms found in this category. (G.C.) 

Adios, Guayabo Emilio Sierra and his orch, V 23-0188 
Bajabas de la Montana Dueto de Antafio with 

accomp. of guitars V 23-0820 

El Boga Dueto de Antafio V 23-0830 
DiNAMiTA Orquesta del Sindicato 

Musical de Bogota V 23-0514 

FuE Mentira Dueto de Antafio V 23-0830 

Es Mejor que no Vuelvas Dueto de Antafio V 23-0820 

Coplas 

The poetic faculty is developed among the Spanish American people to a 
degree rarely found elsewhere. Reciting poetry, and writing or improvising verses 
to a given tune are almost universal accomplishments, and play an important part 
in everyday life. If at the end of the day a group of "vaqueros" meet together at 
the rancho after the roundup, one of them will probably start singing the first idea 
that comes to his mind. The "vaquero" next to him will sing another Copla (or 
quatrain). And another one will also improvise on the same theme. Each will try 
to outdo the other in ingenuity, wit and skill. 

The CoPLAS included here are from the Department of Boyaca. 

CoPLAS BoYACENSES Los Ruisefiores, con guitarras V 82940* 



35 



Galeron 

The Colombian Galeron is a ballad in octosyllabic quatrains, a sort of nar- 
rated song. Its melody has a limited span. The tempo of the voice is, approximately, 
that of a declamation without music recited at the normal speed of the spoken 
language. At the end of every two stanzas of four lines, it is customary to inter- 
polate a refrain of arbitrary length contrasting in character with the narrative and 
at a slightly quicker tempo. 

This song is typical of the plains ("llanos") — the most rustic and wild region 
of Colombia. 

Galeron Llanero Con junto Colombiano 

"Los Llaneros" V 82568* 

Guabina 

The Guabina (called Boyacense or Chiquinquirena according to whether it 
comes from the Department of Boyaca or from Chiquinquira, one of its cities) is 
a song in quick tempo and 2/4 meter. Its melody is made up of brief, intermittent 
periods, symmetrically repeated. It is danced by couples, holding each other. 

Guabina Chiquinquirena Pedro Vargas, con la 

Orquesta Nueva Granada V 83198 

El Pescador Duo Garzon CoUazos 

with guitars V 23-1132 

Joropo 

(See remarks under Joropo in the section on Venezuela.) 

The geographical proximity of Colombia and Venezuela, and their close 
economic, political and social relations at various periods, have created a family 
resemblance among many of the popular songs and dances of the two countries. 
The Bambuco, the Joropo and the Pasillo, in particular, are widely popular in 
both Colombia and Venezuela. (G.C.) 

Linda Llanera Conjunto "Aire Antioquefio" 

Vocal refrain by Luis Pabon V 23-0514 



Pasillo 

The Pasillo is called by the Colombians the "vals del pais," (Colombia's 
Waltz). Its rhythm is based on a formula of accompaniment composed of three 
notes of different value and accentuation in this order: one long, one short, one 

36 



stressed 

3/4 J. ; J 

of which the following is a common variation 

3/4 n y } i 

It has a great variety of rhythms but it is most generally written in 3/4 meter. It is 
in binary form (A-B) and moderate tempo (Andantino mosso or Allegretto). 

At the end of the last century the Pasillo was danced both in the country and 
in the ballrooms of Bogota. Today other forms of music have largely displaced it 
in the ballrooms, but the man of the street and of the country continues to dance it. 



BOGOTANA 


Zoilita Suarez with guitars 


D 21017 


COFRESITO DE AmOR 


Zoilita Suarez with guitars 


D 21017 


Lagrimas 


Hermanos Contreras with 




Mis Flores Negras 


Duo Garzon Collazos 






orquesta tipica de cuerdas 


SMC 2509 


SOMBRA EN LOS MedANOS 


Dueto Cely-Leguia y Conjunto 






Diaz Orozco 


V 83972 



Porro 

The PoRRO is a dance-song whose wide popularity in Colombia has attracted 
attention since the first edition of this handbook was compiled. It has also become 
one of the most exportable items in the international repertoire of recorded popu- 
lar music, so that a large number of recordings are currently available in do- 
mestic catalogs. From a folkloric or nationally characteristic point of view, how- 
ever, the PoRRo offers no special interest, for it is a cross between a danzon and 
a rumba, and in general follows standardized patterns of modern commercialized 
dance music. In duple time, usually 2/4, and moderately fast tempo, sometimes 
indicated as "Tempo di Rumba", the Porro presents typical Caribbean rhythmic 
patterns such as the following: 

V4 n. mAm mjji 

The vocal part is important in the Porro, the lyrics often dealing with 
topical matters and generally in a humorous or satirical rather than a sentimental 
vein. Frequently the soloist and chorus alternate in brief passages of one or two 
measures. The Porro may be said to belong to the group of Caribbean dance-songs 
showing a blending of influences, principally that of the Negroes and European 
and North American popular music, thus falling in the same general category as 
the commercialized Rumba, Only a few of the available recordings are listed be- 
low. (G.C.) 

37 



BOQUITA SaLA 

Jamon con Yuca 

El Botin de Nicolas 

El Hijo de Pedro Arrieta 

El Refranero 

Se Va el Caiman 

Torbellino 



Guido Perla and his 

Orquesta Adantico V 23-0319 

Orquesta del Caribe 

Vocal by Manuel de Fovea V 23-0201 

Cuarteto "Los Antillanos" V 23-0083 

Orquesta del Caribe 

Vocal by Pedro Collazos V 23-0201 

Guido Perla and his orch. 

Vocal by Castillita V 23-0496 

Guido Perla and his orch. 

Vocal by Luis C. Meyer V 23-0312 



In the first example of Torbellino given below^ the rhythmic pattern 

3/4JJ j/j%/r3/j jTn/j%;ji/j rrn/U^n 
J JTn / J / 

is repeated throughout the musical piece as a basis for the accompaniment. The 
melody, sung by tvv^o voices in parallel thirds, proceeds in extended phrases. There 
is a typical long pause on the anacrusis which is often given tonal elaboration. This 
pause is very frequent in Colombian songs. The text consists of octosyllabic 
quatrains, without refrain. 



La India se Largo con Otro 

TiPLECITO DE Ml ViDA 



Conjunto Colombiano 

"Los Llaneros" V 82568* 

Hermanos Contreras with 

Orq. tipica de cuerdas SMC 2509 



COSTA RICA 

The reader is referred to the Foreword of this list. 



CUBA 

In a general way, Cuban music is a product of Negro influence on Spanish folk 
music. The same may be said of the music of the Dominican Republic and Puerto 
Rico. In Cuba this influence is so intense, so active and persistent that anything 
that falls within its influence is quickly transformed so as to render the original 
unrecognizable. Thus what in Spain was originally a freely constructed song 

38 



rhythm, in Cuba becomes a dance rhythm with a fixed pattern base. Any Spanish 
dance on being acclimatized in Cuba loses its clearly defined contours and the 
almost geometrical precision of its rhythm. It is transformed through syncopation 
and it becomes more complex. A song with a light tempo in Spain becomes slower 
and more sensuous in Cuba. Modern Cuban music only preserves as reminders of 
its previous nature certain old Spanish modes and general tendencies of expres- 
sion. For example, it is frequent to find Cuban melodies built on the Phrygian, 
Dorian and Mixolydian scales, so typical of many Spanish folk songs. One also 
often observes in them the Phrygian cadence in descending parallel fifths, char- 
acteristic of Andalusian music, as well as the same tendency that prevails among 
the peasants of Spain to sing in the highest pitch, in a guttural, shrill voice. 

Negro influence varies according to the different localities. In the Eastern 
Province and among the "guajiros" (peasants) of the interior, Spanish influence 
predominates. Here the rhythms are sharper, clearer, there being a marked prefer- 
ence for a quick tempo. In Havana, however, the tempo tends to soften. Thus the 

2/4 7 j^n / J / 

rhythm of the Eastern Province and of the countryside, in Havana becomes the 
following: 



2/4 yj rn I fi i 



The Punto, the Guajira and the Zapateo, along with all their rural varieties, belong 
to the first group. The Conga, the Rumba and the Clave, belong to the Negro in- 
fluence group. Finally, the Danza and the Danzon, the Guaracha, the Son and 
the Bolero are hybrid forms with the above influences in a balanced proportion. 
The pattern 

2/4 rrm / 

(which the Cubans call "cinquillo") and its equivalents 

2/4 m. / 

and 



m 

constitutes the fundamental rhythmic pattern of Cuban music. 

The following are the typical Cuban instruments: "tres" (small three string 
guitar), the "maracas" (gourd rattles), the "giiiros" (a sort of dried long squash 
with transversal cuts which are scratched with a stick of hardwood), the "claves" 
(two hardwood sticks beaten together) and the "bongo" (small wooden drum 
with a parchment head). 

39 



Bolero 

The Cuban Bolero had its origin in the Eastern Province o£ Cuba, from 
whence it came to Havana, displacing the Guaracha. It probably originated from 
the Spanish Bolero, but its present form is so typically Cuban that there is almost 
no trace left of the original. The Spanish Bolero is a dance in 3/4 meter, the 
Cuban in 2/4. 

The Bolero consists of a short introduction and two sections, generally of 
sixteen to thirty-two measures each. Its tempo is Allegretto, The following is a 
characteristic rhythmic pattern of the Cuban Bolero: 

The Bolero is almost equally popular in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Mexico, and 
may be considered one of the basic types of Latin American popular music. It is 
essentially a sentimental love song, though there has been, in Cuba, according to 
Emilio Grenet, a traditional Bolero that reflects "the optimistic quality of Cuban 
character". Few Boleros of this gayer type will be found currently in circulation. 
Grenet also points out that the Bolero often merges with the Cuban cancion in 
what he terms a cancion-bolero, one of the many hybrid types found in the popu- 
lar music of Cuba. (G.C.) 



Cuba de Mi Vida 


Orquesta Eliseo Grenet 


c 5577X 


Incertidumbre 


Eduardo Chavez and his Orq. 






Tropical Beachcombers 


V 83034 


PoR Que Dudas? 


Rafael Munoz and his orch. 






Vocal by Victor Garay 


V 23-0056 


No TE Importa Saber 


Orq. Casino de la Playa 


V 83031 


Sanseacabo 


Trio Habana 


V 83379 


Las Tres Cosas 


Miguel de Gonzalo accomp. by 






orch. of Julio Gutierrez 


V 23-1141 



Bolero-Son 

This is a hybrid form, mixed of Bolero and Son (q.v.). It takes its rhythmic 
patterns from the first and begins in slower tempo; but halfway through the tempo 
speeds up, in what is called the montuno (see the description of this under Son 
in this section). 

Chapear el Monte Joseito Fernandez 

and his orchestra V 23-0383 

Dolor Cobarde Miguelito Valdes with 

Orq. Casino de la Playa V 821 14 

40 



Conga 

In Cuba, as in almost all Latin American countries, Carnival festivities are 
popular. In Havana, during the Carnival days, the so-called "comparsas" (parades) 
dance their v^^ay along the streets, competing w^ith the other "comparsa" groups for 
prizes given for the best costumes and dancing. These groups are dressed in gay 
costumes and each of them has its drums, brass band, clowns and bells. At the 
head of each group is carried a huge inverted chandelier of lighted lamps. The 
rhythm to which "comparsa" paraders most frequently dance is the Conga, which 
has recently become popular in the ballrooms of the United States. 

It is a two-in-a-measure dance built on a rhythmic formula of two measures: 
in the first, the accented notes of the rhythm exactly coincide with the strong and 
weak beats of the measure; in the second, the strong beat coincides with the third 
note of the rhythmic pattern, but the weak beat is retarded by a sixteenth note in 
relation to the last note of the pattern 



2/4 fy J" 7/n J*7/ 



Melodic phrases are brief, each having two to, at most four, measures. The num- 
ber of measures in a Conga fluctuates between twenty-eight and thirty-six. At 
times, it adopts the ternary form A-B-A; others, the binary one and at times it 
consists of only one A theme, repeated as many times as the text requires it. 

In this dance the dancers hold each other. At a given moment, they separate, 
forming a string or chain which turns within the dancing space in a form similar 
to the improvised street parades. 

In Cuba the Conga is frequently used as a form of political diatribe and 
propaganda medium. "La Chambelona" and "A pie, a pie" are excellent examples 
of Congas showing humour and satire as applied to political propaganda. 

Am ViENE LA Conga! Rafael Munoz and his orch. 

Vocal by Felix Castrillon V 23-0056 

Conga Habanera Orquesta Havana-Casino V 83415 

Negra Arrollando Orquesta Casino de la Playa 

Vocal by Antonio de la Cruz V 83937 

Vamos a Arrollar Orquesta Casino de la Playa 

Vocal by Miguelito Valdes V 83030 

Danzon 

This dance was created in 1879 by a colored Cuban composer called Miguel 
Failde. It belongs to the "Danza" group, — the Danza, in its turn, being a variation, 
or rather a Cuban development, of the early XlXth Century's Contradanza or 
Contredanse. 

The Danzon is of urban origin, in 2/4 meter and is danced by couples hold- 

41 



ing each other. Its form is ternary. The eight measure introduction is repeated 
followed by a sixteen measure section (the so called "clarinet" part) at a tempo 
slightly slower than the introduction. The introduction is then repeated and is 
followed by a new section of thirty-two measures (played by the violin) whose 
melody in notes of longer value than those in the preceding sections gives this sec- 
tion the appearance of a slower tempo. The tempo, notwithstanding, continues to 
be the same. The introduction is again repeated and there follows a new thirty- 
two measure section consisting generally of brief melodic phrases, similar to those 
of the Rumba in gaiety and animation. This section is preceded and also followed 
by a secondary linking theme of from six to eight measures. The introduction is 
again repeated to end the piece. To sum up, the classic Danzon form may be 
represented as A-B-A-C-A-D-(D being subdivided into a-l>c-a)-A. 
The rhythmic pattern 



2/4 

which is a natural derivation from 

2/4 



rrm 



n=3 m 



forms the base of the rhythm of this dance. 

The Danzon enjoyed a tremendous popularity until it began to be displaced 
by the Son. Even today, the numerous available recordings of the Danzon attest to 
the continued vitality of this highly characteristic Cuban dance. (G.C.) 

Ay, Cubanita Arcano y sus Maravillas 

Vocal: Trio Hermanos Rigual V 23-0583 

Cantos PoptTLAREs Orquesta Antonio Maria Romeu V 23-0162 

DuLZURA GuAjiRA Orquesta Antonio Ma. Romeu V 23-0365 

Maria Bibijuaga Orquesta Antonio Ma. Romeu V 23-0047 

Santa Cecilia Arcano y sus Maravillas V 23-0583 

ZuMBA LA Canilla Orqucsta Antonio Ma. Romeu V 23-0162 

Guajira 

Originally the Guajira was a song in triple meter from the countryside of 
Cuba (the "guajiros" are the people from the hinterland of the island) for solo 
voice, accompanied by the "tiple" (small guitar). Its melodic phrases are usually 
sung in the voice's highest register. They consist of an ascending period imme- 
diately followed by a descending one of equal length or longer. Both periods pro- 
ceed by disjunct motion in which the interval of the minor seventh is frequent. 
The harmony almost totally gravitates upon the dominant seventh chord. The 
final cadence resolves itself on the dominant, not as an imperfect cadence, but 
conclusively. The meter alternates between 3/4 and 6/8. The tempo is Andantino 

42 



mosso, increased or diminished at will by the singer. 

In the GuAjiRA there is an eight measure introduction in 6/8 meter and light 
rhythm. This serves as interlude between the quatrains. The quatrains are in octo- 
syllabic lines. 

The name Guajira is also applied at present to a dance in 2/4 meter played 
at a fast tempo resembling that of the Conga. 

Included below are examples of the Guajira mixed with other forms, the 
Guajira-Son and Guajira-Zapateo. (G.C.) 

Amor Carretero Guillermo Portabales accomp. 

by Trio Habana V 83931 

A Orillas del Cauto Trio Habana V 83379 

El Arroyo Que Murmura {Guajira-Zapateo) Orq. Casino de la Playa 

Vocal by Miguelito 

Valdes V 83032 

Asf Es Mi Guajira Guillermo Portabales accomp. 

by Trio Habana V 83790 

RiTMo GuAjiRO {Guajira-Son) Conjunto Casino, vocals by 

Sosa, Espi and Grau V 23-0096 
El Solo de Pepecito {Guajira guantanamera) Joseito Fernandez 

and his orch. V 23-0383 

La Verdad DEL Carretero (GM«;Vrfl-5o«) Los Guaracheros 

de Oriente V 23-0958 

Guaracha 

Some of the Guarachas that I have listened to are in 2/4 meter, others in 
3/4 and in 6/8 meters and still others arbitrarily alternate these last two and even 
the 2/4. In some Guarachas, syncopation is almost constantly present. Others have 
an even rhythm, strictly subordinated to the strong and weak beats of the measure 
as well as to the normal, symmetric rhythm of the melodic phrase. In some 
Guarachas the melody consists of only two measures which are repeated with 
slight variations throughout the piece. The melody of other Guarachas, however, 
proceeds in rather lengthy periods of from eight to twelve measures. 

As to form, the Guarachas I have known are either binary, subject and re- 
frain, or ternary, in which the first part has two themes mutually contrasting and 
a refrain of the same length as the two parts but contrasting, in its turn, with 
them. The peculiarities in form, rhythm and melody therefore, make it impos- 
sible to set down a definition of this dance. 

The Guaracha is, however, really defined by the character of its text, generally 
"risque" and equivocal. 

During the second half of the XlXth Century, the Guaracha was introduced 
from Cuba into Spain where it enjoyed a certain amount of popularity. The 
Guaracha is also danced in Puerto Rico. 

43 



Atesame el Bastidor Miguelito Valdes con 

Orquesta Casino de la Playa V 82517 
El Baile del Cangrejo Orq. Hermanos Palau 

Vocal: El Morito V 23-0011 

La Burrita Enamorada Trio Oriental V 83853 

Castigadora Myrta Silva accomp. by 

Orq. Casino de la Playa V 23-1291 
CoMO LE GusTA EL Chismito Miguclito Valdes accomp. 

A Caridad by Orq. Casino de la Playa V 83033 

CosAs DEL CoMPAY Anton Los Guaracheros de Oriente V 23-0958 

El Dedo Gordo del Pie Luisito Pla y 

sus Guaracheros C 6286-X 

ViEjo Canengo Orlando Guerra ("Cas- 

carita") with Hermanos 

Palau Orch. V 23-1031 

Y Que le Voy a Hacer Sacasas and his orch. 

Vocal: Octavio Mendoza V 23-0303 
Hybrid Forms: 
Eso es Mentira (Guaracha-Mambo) Myrta Silva accomp. by 

Orq. Casino de la Playa V 23-1291 
Churritos Calientes (Guaracha-Pregon) Conjunto Casino V 23-0567 

PiLLA CON PiLLA {Guaracha-Rumbo) Arsenio Rodriguez and 

his Conjunto V 23-0082 

Habanera 

When Bizet wrote his opera Carmen, the rhythm of the Habaneha had al- 
ready spread out beyond the shores of Cuba. Later on, in the days of the Spanish 
American war, the Habanera was the most popular dance of all the Americas. In 
those years certain Habaneras like "Maria Dolores" and the so-called "Tango or 
Habanera del cafe," to mention only two of them, were sung in all the music-halls 
of Europe, The popularity of this dance was such that in some countries it was 
adopted almqst as a natural citizen. A few years ago I heard a Sefardi from Sa- 
lonica singing an old Habanera. He sang it in a style already impregnated with 
Turkish, Greek and Hebrew elements. He was absolutely convinced he was sing- 
ing a Sefardi folk-song 

In the first years of this century the nonchalant rhythm of the Habanera in- 
spired many a European composer. Albeniz, Aubert, Falla, Ravel and many others 
have composed Habaneras as everybody knows. And when Debussy wanted to 
create a Spanish atmosphere (as for instance in his piano pieces "La puerta del 
vino" and "La soiree dans Grenade") it was the swinging rhythm of the Habanera 

2/4 n n / 

he always chose. 

44 



The Cuban Habanera, after having brought forth so many new forms of 
dance of which the Argentine Tango is an important example, is almost never 
danced today except as a revival. Included in this list is an excellent example of this 
dance composed years ago by Eduardo Sanchez de Fuentes, the noted Cuban 
composer and musicologist. 

TtJ Orquesta Casino de la Playa V 83029 

Mambo 

This is not a musical form, but rather a certain style of playing popular music, 
like swing or be-bop. It developed recently under the influence of some of the 
newest trends in American popular music, by which it is strongly influenced. 
Several Cuban musicians in close contact with New York, notably Julio Gutierrez, 
Sacasas and Perez Prado, appear to have taken the lead in bringing Mambo to a 
considerable vogue that may prove ephemeral but that in any case is significant as 
showing the trend of Caribbean popular music to be progressively dominated by 
Broadway. 

Mambo, in which the piano often plays a predominant role, may be described 
as a hot style of playing, originally ad lib but more often prearranged and written 
out, especially for recording sessions, in which one or more fragments of the basic 
melody are freely treated with rhythmic dislocations and syncopations. It is es- 
sentially a further development of the montuno (see this term under Son), and 
may be applied to any type of popular music, such as the Son or the Bolero. In 
some arrangements the Mambo follows the montuno. 

The recordings listed below include an example of the celebrated tune El 
Manicero {The Peanut Vendor) by Moises Simons, given the Mambo treatment by 
Perez Prado, self-styled "Rey del Mambo", who takes over at the piano. In the 
piece called Mambolandia, the solo pianist is P. Justiz, known as "Peruchin". 
(G.C.) 

Mambolandia Julio Gutierrez and his orch. V 23-1283 

El Manicero Perez Prado, piano, and rhythms V 23-1274 

Pachuca Perez Prado, piano, and rhythms V 23-1243 

Pregon 

A "Pregon" is a street-cry. Of these, Cuba has a rich variety. The tamal ven- 
dor, the confectioner, the herb man, the mango vendor, in fact every peddler, has 
his own street-cry. 

Cuban composers have often adopted their country's familiar street-crys to 
the rhythms of the Danzon and especially to that of the Son. 

El Botellero Miguelito Valdes with 

Machito and his Afro-Cubans V 50014 

45 



CoQuiTo AcARAMELADO (SoTi) Conjunto Sonoro Matancero 

Vocals by "Caito" and R. 
Martinez 

Dos CosAs Pa' Toma con Leche (Son) Orquesta Hermanos Palau 

Vocal by Orlando Guerra 
("Cascarito") 

Orquesta Gonzalez Manticci 
Vocal by Rita Montaner 
Orquesta Casino de la Playa 
Vocal by Miguelito Valdes 
Conjunto Sonoro Matancero 
Vocals by "Caito" and 
R. Martinez 

Carlos Ramirez with orch. 
Orquesta Hermanos Palau 
Canta Manolo Manrique 
("El Morito") 



El Jabonero (Rumba) 
El Manisero 
Pa' Congri (Son) 

Rica Pulpa 

El Vendedor de Frutas 



V 23-0187 

V 23-0011 
V 83589 

V 83032 

V 23-0187 

V 83785 

V 23-0063 



Punto 



The Punto, like the Guajira, is a song from the countryside of Cuba, accom- 
panied by "bandurria" and "claves" (see Cuba, introduction). It consists of one 
theme only, very gay, which corresponds with the four lines of the quatrain for 
the voice, and of an instrumental introduction also used as an interlude between 
the quatrains. The Punto is usually in 3/4 meter arbitrarily alternating with 6/8. 
Some Puntos are in 2/4 meter and this alternates, although irregularly, with 3/4 
and 6/8. 

The Punto is a song of pure Spanish origin, sung in a high register with 
much freedom of expression and of rhythm. In the descending disjunct intervals 
the leap from note to note is frequendy covered by a portamento in the voice. As 
in the Guajira, the harmony of the dominant seventh chord predominates over 
the tonic. The cadence also is frequently resolved upon the dominant in a conclu- 
sive way. The Punto is always in a major mode. Its tempo is Allegretto. 

It is sung in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Its form and char- 
acteristics are the same in the three countries. 



Al Romper el DfA 

CUANDO SE SlENTE EL AmOR 

Llora Todo . . . Palm ART to 
Ordena la Chiva y Vamos 
El Pasado y el Presente 



Maria Romero "La Matancera" 

accomp. by laud, guitar & claves V 23-0889 

Maria Romero "La Matancera" 

accomp. on the laud by Pan- 

chito Lara V 23-0335 

Maria Romero "La Matancera" 

Panchito Lara, latid V 23-0335 

Maria Romero "La Matancera" 

Panchito Lara, laud V 23-0320 

La Calandria y Clavelito V 23-0385 

46 



Rumba 

The Rumba consists usually of only one theme of eight measures' duration, 
indefinitely repeated. In some cases it has two themes, the second being only a 
variation of the first, always keeping the same character and structure. This dance 
is fully African in origin; in it, rhythm is the leading quality. Its melody serves 
merely as a superficial cloak to the rhythm. In the same manner, the text usually 
consists of meaningless phrases and syllables whose only reason for existence is to 
follow faithfully the accents of the rhythm. The latter is always in 2/4 meter but 
it varies with each Rumba, even with each measure. The following is a typical 
rhythm of a Rumba theme in 2/4 meter 



2 / 



I of a Rumba theme in 2/4 meter 

* vlfTi I J mjjnji I n rr^jj 

This dance is for separate partners. As danced socially the dancers scarcely 
move from their positions. The Rumba choreography consists only of a series of 
movements of the hips, bust and shoulders, openly amorous in character. Its 
tempo is quicker than that of the Son. 

Anacaona Ernesto Lecuona and his 

Orquesta Cubana C 561 iX 

Ay! Mama Ines Lecuona Cuban Boys 

Vocal by Agustin Braguera V 23-0270 

Invocando a Chango Lecuona Cuban Boys 

Vocal by Chiquito Orefiche V 23-0270 

El Maraquero Eliseo Grenet and his 

Cuban Orchestra M 116 

La Reina del Guaguanco Alberto Iznaga y su Orquesta 

Siboney con su cantante Johnny 
Gonzalez y coro C 6168-X 



Son 

The structure of the Son, a dance created in the Eastern province of Cuba 
which became popular all over Cuba towards the end of the first World War, is 
very simple. It consists of an exposition of undetermined length for solo voice and 
a four measure contrasting refrain called "montuno" sung twice by the chorus. 
The first melody is usually broader and more flexible than that of the "montuno." 
The latter usually consists of brief phrases of two to four notes. 

The rhythmic structure of the Son's accompaniment is built on the following 
patterns: 



47 



and 



2/^ J IJ tr-i/ 



etc. Its tempo is moderate. 
Camina a Trabaja, Aragan 

La Guajira 

La Guayabera 
Oye el Chacha 
Pa' lo Pollo Mai 

So Caballo! 



Arsenio Rodriguez 
and his Conjunto 
Ernesto Lecuona 
and his Cuban Orch. 

La Calandria y ClaveUto 
Conjunto Matamoros 
Sacasas y su Orquesta 
Vocal by Octavio Mendoza 
Arsenio Rodriguez 
and his Conjunto 



Ven Pa' la Loma (Son Guajiro) Conjunto Matamoros 

Son A£ro-Cubano 



V 23-0082 

C 570 iX 

V 23-0385 

V 23-0004 

V 23-0303 

V 23-0082 

V 23-0002 



During recent years a form of Cuban popular music called Son Afro^Cubano 
has been developed which features primitive Negro melodies and w^ords on a 
rhythmic base that is like the Son. 

Babalu Orquesta Casino de la Playa V 82634 
BuLiJ Orquesta Hermanos Castro 

Canta Miguelito Garcia C 6137X 

Bruca Manigua Orquesta Casino de la Playa V 821 14 
Los Derechos del Brujo Orquesta Casino de la Playa 

Vocal by Antonio de la Cruz V 83937 

(Note: Attention is called to the excellent album of Cuban Cult Music, edited 
by Harold Courlander, and released as Disc album no. 131.) 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

The chronicler, Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, in his "Historia General y Natural 
de las Indias" w^rites that v^^henever the people of the Island of Santo Domingo — 
"wished to celebrate at some fiesta, or outside of it, just as a pastime, all the Indian 
men and women would gather . . . and, sometimes holding each other's hands, or 
linked by their arms, or else in a row or a ring, one of them would take up the 
lead . . . taking certain steps forward and backwards in an orderly fashion, then 
everyone would instantly follow, going in circles while singing, in a high or low 

48 



tone, just as directed by the leader, all keeping very good count of the steps with 
the words in the songs." It might seem logical to conclude from the above that 
the music of the natives of Santo Domingo was at that time in an advanced state 
of development and must have influenced the music of the conquistadores. How- 
ever, reality denies this. The indigenous race rapidly disappeared without having 
had time to influence the arts of the Spaniards. Of its music and customs we only 
know what the chroniclers of that time tell us. The music that the Spaniards 
brought to Santo Domingo remained unchanged for a long time and kept its 
channels alive through the unceasing contribution of the immigrants from Spain. 

But in Santo Domingo, as in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Panama and Venezuela, there 
soon appeared an influence more vigorous than the Indian, destined to leave en- 
during traces in the music of the conquistadores. This is, of course, the Negro in- 
fluence. The Spanish rhythms, when merged with the African, were transformed 
and gave birth to a new musical art which though far removed from the primitive 
African musical formulas, is also very distant from the Spanish folk-rhythms and 
forms. 

Later on, in the XlXth Century, the influence of the Italian opera and of 
European ballroom dances like the Mazurka, Waltz, Contredanse, was added to 
the Negro influence in the cities. The city ruled the country and rapidly set its 
taste. Cloyingly sweet melodies of Italian origin came then into fashion. Under 
this new influence the traditional native rhythms of Santo Domingo became softer, 
more melodious. The clear cut Hispanic rhythms disappeared and the negro 
rhythms lost their strong haunting nature. The Zapateo, the Punto, the Mangulina, 
the Seis, the Media Tuna and other gay native songs and dances authentically 
Creole in rhythm, were forgotten. The Waltz, the Mazurka and other foreign 
dances took their places. Among them, the Danza predominated and today its 
derivative, the Merengue, is the most popular. It took many years before this dance 
was accepted as the typical Dominican dance, but at present it is the most popular 
in the Island. 

(Note: In the first edition of this handbook, Mr. Duran included some recordings 
of the Bolero from the Dominican Republic, at the same time pointing out that 
there is practically no difference between the Dominican and the Cuban Bolero. 
As the records listed by Mr. Duran are no longer available, these listings have 
been deleted, and the only form remaining in this section, as specifically identified 
with the Dominican Republic, is the Merengue.) (G.C.) 

Merengue 

In the introductory note to this Section, there is a resume on the origin of 
Dominican music and its most typical dance: the Merengue. The fundamental 
characteristics of this dance only remain to be added here. 

The Merengue is binary. The first theme, of sixteen measures, is generally 

49 



divided into two periods of equal length; these offer almost no contrast with each 
other; a second theme follows, in the key of the dominant or of the relative minor 
of the first theme. The second theme lasts sixteen measures. The rhythmic struc- 
tures of the melody and the accompaniment are built on the following design in 
2/4 meter 



74 



It is in moderate tempo (Andantino or Andantino mosso). 

For a long time the Merengue was rejected by the Dominican upper classes 
because of its sensual character. An anonymous poet, in the middle of the XlXth 
Century, wrote a diatribe against the Merengue where he indignantly qualifies 
it as: 

'Trogenie impura del impuro averno, 
Hijo del diablo y de una furia." 
(Impure progeny of the impure Avernus 
Offspring of the devil and a fury.) 

Mi Caring Carlos M. Lopez and his Orch. 

Vocal by Crusito Perez V 23-0742 

La Empaliza Eva Garza con la Orquesta 

de Lazaro Quintero C 6224-X 

Vamos a Bailar Carlos M. Lopez and his Orch. 

Vocal by Crusito Perez V 23-0742 



ECUADOR 

Four centuries of close contact with the music imported from Europe appear to 
have brought but slight modifications to the aboriginal dances, scales and sym- 
metrical rhythms of the Ecuadorian Indian. The dance continues to hold the same 
important place in his daily life that it used to have in pre-Conquest times. This 
is so much so, that at times, it becomes impossible to set a dividing line between the 
dance proper and the religious or profane ceremony to which it belongs. This is 
why the same dance music, when applied to a different ceremony, changes in 
name and even in the steps and turns of its choreography (see under Regional 
Dances, Section on Bolivia). The choreographic forms continue today almost 
identical to those described by the first Spanish chroniclers during the XVIth 
Century. In some dances there is a minimum of action limited to short steps inter- 
mingled with turns, knee flexions and movements of the torso and arms to either 
side. In other dances the gestures are violent and complex; there are dances where 
the performers face one another, men and women standing in separate rows and 
in other dances, the performers of both sexes alternate in each of the two rows. 
Some dances have sideward movements, while in others the dancers turn in a 

50 



circle. In the circle dances, the orchestra is located in the center. The Cachullapi, 
the Danzante and the Sanjuanito are highland dances of Indian origin. Along the 
coast, and among the Creoles of the capital and of some cities of the interior, danc- 
ing in couples in the Hispano-Creole tradition prevails. To this group belong the 
Pasacalle, the Pasillo and the Zamba. 

The Indian melodies consist as a rule of a brief initial motif in ascending 
progression tied over uninterruptedly to a descendant final period. The cadences 
are always in descending progression. The descending pentatonic scale, C-A-G-F-D 
is usual. It is not rare, however, to find melodies built on a hybrid descending 
scale of six notes, as: C-A-G-F-E-D. This has the same characteristics as the diatonic 
and the pentatonic scales. Other melodies may be built on a heptatonic scale 
JfC-tl C-A-G-F-E-D. (As to the harmonic structure of the pentatonic scale, see Peru, 
introductory note). The melancholy coloring of the minor chord impregnates the 
music composed on the above scales imparting to it an unmistakable "color." 

The Indian tunes his songs and executes them in a special way which makes 
the notes of his melody appear not to correspond with the pitch of the equivalent 
note in our tempered scale. This is due to his way of producing almost every tone 
by means of appogiaturas, of upper and lower mordents of very short duration and 
of guttural trills and, most especially, to the peculiar manner in which he slides 
the voice over the intervals. The words of A. H. Fox-Strangways in his book "The 
Music of Hindustan" may be applied to the music of Indian origin in Ecuador, 
Peru and Bolivia: "One caution with regard to these tunes. It would be a mistake 
to play them on a keyed instrument; they should be played on a violin, or sung, or 
whistled, or merely thought. Not only because there is then a hope of their being 
rendered in natural intonation and of getting the sharp edges of the tones rounded 
by some sort of portamento, but also because the temperament of a keyed instru- 
ment . . . has a unique power of making an unharmonized melody sound in- 
vincibly commonplace." 

The Creole dances and songs not of Indian origin are built on the diatonic 
major and minor scales. 

Roughly speaking, the fundamental rhythms of Ecuadorian Indian music (as 
well as of Peruvian and Bolivian Indian music) may be reduced to three: one, 
slow, in 2/4 meter, consisting of a quarter note followed by two eighth notes 



J n 

another, fast, also in 2/4 meter, formed by two groups, each having one eighth 
note and two sixteenth notes 

Lastly, there is another in which there is an obvious Spanish influence, also in fast 
tempo, comprising two bars in 6/8 time and consisting of six eighth notes and 

51 



two dotted quarters 

m rn/y j. 

These rhythms are systematically and even montonously repeated throughout the 
piece. 

The instruments in the Ecuadorian Indian orchestra are the "quena," "antara" 
or "sicu" (known as "rondador" in Ecuador), the "charango" (armadillo-shell 
guitar), harp, "caja" and "bombo," (see description of same in introductory note, 
Bolivia). The instruments in the Spanish-Creole orchestra are the same as in any 
ordinary European or American orchestra. 

Aire Tipico 

Under this heading are grouped songs and airs typical of this region, which, 
like the selections listed under Cancion in other sections, have no specific formal 
unity. In addition, we have included here an Indian song of rogation, Llullu 
Shungo, which seems of special interest for its native color. (G.C.) 

Llullu Shungo (Tierno Corazon) Alumnos del Normal Rural 

de Uyumbicho, with rondador, 

flautin and guitars V 83771 

La Perijilera Orquesta Andina V 23-0163 

El Pilahuin Ruben Uquillas and Bolivar 

Ortiz with Grupo Tipico Castro V 23-0012 

Rayitos de Luz Ruben Uquillas and Bolivar 

Ortiz with Orq. Andina V 83983 

Te Pensare Mujer Ortiz y Jaramillo with 

the Grupo Aguilera V 83995 

Amorfino 

The song called the Amorfino consists of a quatrain in octosyllabic lines pre- 
ceded by a guitar introduction, which also serves as interlude between the 
quatrains. The guitar interludes are often built on the Phrygian scale with a 
descending leading note. (See note on same in introductory note on Cuba). 

This song is Creole, without any Indian influence. 

Alma Montuvia Duo Ibafiez-Safadi V 82289* 

Cachullapi 

The Cachullapi is an Indian song made up of only one theme which may 
be used for either the vocal part of the guitar interludes. It is in quick tempo and 
6/8 meter. Its text is a four line stanza. 

52 



BoNITA HuAMBRITA 

Malhaya Cuatro Reales 

Mi Pipiolita 
Que Tales Cosas 

Danzante 



Ruben Uquillas y Bolivar Ortiz 

with Marco T. Hidrobo V 83992 

Ortiz y Jaramillo with 

Los Natives Andinos V 23-0006 

Orquesta Andina V 23-0088 

Hermanas Fierro V 82925 



The "danzantes" are a sort of vagabond, wandering minstrels. They move 
from town to town, from village to village, with their violins and "charangos." 
They wear anklets of bells or rattles which clang as they dance. 

In Ecuador the word Danzante (meaning both a dancer or a piece of music 
that may be danced) is also used to name a rather melancholy dance in slow 
tempo, having only one sixteen-measure theme usually divided into two eight- 
measure periods. The melody frequently proceeds in octave leaps and its rhythm 
runs parallel to the accompaniment. Some Danzantes are in 3/8 meter with the 
following rhythm 



/J n 



Others are in 2/4 meter based on the rhythm 



J n / J 



El Avago 

Chagra de Amor Encendido 

Dona Lorenza 
Juyay Longuita 

La Procesion Indigena 



Vidita Paloma 



V 83776 



Grupo Cotacachi with chorus 

Ruben Uquillas and Bolivar 

Ortiz, with Marco T. Hidrobo 

Grupo Cotacachi with chorus 

Ortiz y Jaramillo with the 

Grupo Cotacachi 

Hermanas Fierro and Villa- 

vicencio-Paez with Conjunto 

Alma Nativa 

Ruben Uquillas and Bolivar Ortiz 

with Carlos Carrillo V 23-0166 



V 83965 
V 23-0088 

V 83983 



V 82925 



Guaranda 



The Ecuadorians are as fond of Carnival as any other Latin American people. 
When Carnival festivities were introduced in America by the Spaniards and the 
Portuguese they immediately took root among the native races who saw in them 
a chance to continue their own pagan festivities without being disturbed. The 
Carnival dancers wear masks of an obscure symbolic character. They are not 
caricatures of living creatures but impersonations of forgotten deities or of the 

53 



forces of evil and of nature. The principles of imitative magic are still uncon- 
sciously practised by the civilized Indian of today. 

GuARANDA is a town West of the mountain Chimborazo where Carnival fes- 
tivities are held. The example included below under the name Guaranda in fact is 
nothing else but a Danzante in 2/4 meter. 

El Carnaval de Guaranda Conjunto Marin V 82642* 

Pasacalle 

While the Bolivian Pasacalle is a dance in duple meter and slow tempo, the 
Pasacalle from Ecuador runs quickly and it is written in triple meter (3/4 and 
sometimes 6/8, or both combined). (See Pasacalle, under Bolivia). 

El Baile del Costillar Trio Montecel Arauz V 83976 

PoR Alli Andan Diciendo Trio Montecel Arauz V 83977 

Santa Juana Huayamave Trio Montecel Arauz V 83774 



Pasillo 

(See description under Colombia.) 
Ay de Mi 

corazon que sufre 
Lamparilla 

Tu NO Sabes Quererme 



Hermanas Mendoza Sangurima 

with Los Nativos Andinos V 83992 

Los Nativos Andinos V 23-0163 

Peronet and Izurieta 

with guitars V 23-0380 

Los Nativos Andinos V 83995 



Sanjuanito 

Of all the saints of the Catholic church San Juan (St. John) is the one for 
whom the Ecuadorians have the greatest love and devotion. Constant pilgrimages 
to the local shrines of this saint: San Juan de Cotocollao, San Juan de Otavalo, etc., 
are held during which people feast and dance in his honor. As the Huaino (see 
corresponding note under Bolivia) was always danced during these festivities, it 
eventually began to be called Sanjuanito (St. Johnny). Today this is the only 
accepted name of the Huaino in Ecuador. 



Adios Taita Amu 
Apamuy Senora 

Llorando por Mi Tierra 

pobres longuitos 



Grupo Cotacachi with chorus V 23-0012 

Hermanas Sangurima with 

Los Nativos Andinos V 83976 

Hermanas Mendoza Suasti 

with Orq. Tipica Tungurahua V 23-0006 

Benitez and Ortiz with the 

Grupo Tipico Castro V 23-0166 

54 



Testamento del Indio Ortiz and Jaramillo with 

Grupo Cotacachi V 83776 

Tristezas Andinas Velasquez y Pichardo 

con guitarras C 5239-X 

Yaravi 

(See note on Yaravi in section on Bolivia.) 

Ama MfA, Patronita Trio Guaranda V 82924 

Dolor y Angustia Ortiz and Jaramillo V 83967 

MoMENTos DE Tristura Los Nativos Andinos V 83771 

Zamba 

(See corresponding note under Argentina.) 

Yo NO Se Si Te Quiero Duo Ecuador Ibanez-Safadi C 4359X 

YoRANDo EsTOY Los Trovadores de Cuyo C 5419X 



EL SALVADOR 

The reader is referred to the Foreword of this List. 



GUATEMALA 

The popular music of Guatemala is of urban origin. It does not contain any ele- 
ment which warrants its identification as of Indian or Spanish origin nor as a re- 
sult of the fusion of these two influences. All the Guatemalan dances of today 
originate from ballroom dances of the XlXth Century, such as the Redowa, the 
Mazurka and especially the Waltz. 

The national musical instrument of Guatemala is the Marimba. This is an 
instrument of Negro origin very much like the Xylophone. It is composed of a 
series of strips of hardwood laid on four legs like a table. The strips are of graded 
length and pitch. Under each strip there is a gourd or, most frequently, a wooden 
box of irregular form used as a resonator. The sizes of the wooden boxes are also 
graded according to the length of the strip under which they are set. There are 
Marimbas of all sizes, from the common small Marimba played by one single man 
to the Marimba so large that seven players are needed to play it. 



55 



Son Chapin or Son Guatemalteco 

The Son Chapin or Guatemalteco (both words meaning native of Guate- 
mala) is the most popular dance of the Guatemalan people. It is a dance in triple 
meter, 3/4 with occasional interpolations of 6/8, and in a binary form derived from 
the ballroom dances imported from Europe during the XlXth Century, Sometimes 
it adopts the rhythm of a quick Waltz and sometimes it resembles any European 
Mazurka. Its harmonies and the rhythm of its accompaniment are very simple. 

San Juan y la Magdalena Marimba Royal 

Hermanos Hurtado C 6139X 



HAITI 

The drum is omnipresent in Haiti; it stresses and symbolizes every important 
event of the life of the Island. Dances and songs, Vodoun and Petro rites, "coum- 
bites" and "douvant-jous" or field-work gatherings, nearly everything in Haiti is 
accompanied by its violent and raucous beating. It has a life and language of its 
own more significant than the life and language of the singers it accompanies. Its 
rhythms are more intelligible than the incomprehensible words of the "language" 
(ritual mumbling) addressed to the "loa" (local divinities). Very often a dance 
will take its name from that of the drum used to accompany it. And the drummer 
is so conscious of the importance of the rhythms he draws out of his drum that 
he never condescends to sing. The singing, a secondary task, is assigned to the 
dancers themselves. 

There are all kinds of drums in Haiti, — the Rada and the Petro drums, the 
]uba, Loango, Assotor and Tambourine, and many others. According to the role 
a drum fulfills in the ensemble it will be a Maman, or principal drum, a Seconde, 
or second, and so on. Drumsticks are made of any length and very often in the 
most unexpected shapes. These are often so little "functional" from our point of 
view one wonders what may have been the reason for them. Sometimes sticks are 
not used at all. The drummer beats the rhythm with his hands or slides his fingers 
over the hide in a glissade which produces a wailing sound. 

The songs and dances are always in double time, like most music of African 
origin. The melodic phrases are brief and usually repeated without variation, or J 
if any, this lacks importance. I have not heard a single Haitian tune in triple time. 

In listening to Haiti's music the music lover has to forget the standards of 
beauty to which he is used through education and practice. The purpose of Haiti's j 
music is dififerent from that of most music of European origin. Excepting the j 
Meringue and the Marche which are urban dances, Haiti's songs have a religious ) 
or magic origin. Ritual music always has two main ends in view: one is practical | 
and immediate, the second is metaphysical and indirect. This music is never an | 

56 I 



end in itself. It is best not to seek in it for aesthetic values that it probably never 
pretended to possess. 

Chants and Songs accompanied with Drums 

(See introductory note.) 

Agoue Signe l'Ordre Zamor et son groupe Hai'tien P. Anson 305 

Feye nan Bois Zamor et son groupe Hai'tien P. Anson 301 

GiRAGON Leve Zamor et son groupe Hai'tien P. Anson 302 

La Riviere Decendre Le Roy Antoine V 82766* 

GuEDE Bel GA90N Antalcidas Murat Ven 203 

Carolina Cao Antalcidas Murat Ven 204 

Marche 

The Haitian Marche, essentially, is no different from the march of any other 
country, although its interpretation in Port-au-Prince may give it a more intense 
and ardent rhythm than that heard in other latitudes. 

Qa Pique a Haiti P. Anson 309 

Ce Nous Meme p. Anson 309 

Meringue 

The rhythmic patterns and structure of the dance known as Meringue, or 
Merengue in the West Indies, is always the same. Therefore the description of the 
Dominican Merengue can be applied to the Meringue of Haiti, although the lis- 
tener may possibly note a stronger accent and greater rhythmic ardor in the 
latter. (See Merengue under Dominican Republic). 

Choucoune Le Roy Antoine Orchestra "V 82674* 

Meringue DEs Centraliers P.Anson 310 

Papa-Pierre Super-moderne Jazz Guignard V 83197* 

Ti Celia Super-moderne Jazz Guignard V 83196* 

Un Samedi Soir Le Roy Antoine Orchestra "V 82675* 

Vodoun Songs 

Several excellent albums of cult music are mentioned at the end of the Fore- 
word to the Second Edition (p. vi, vii) where the relationship of this type of ma- 
terial to the main content of this list is briefly discussed. The collections are the 
work of Harold Courlander who in each case has provided printed commentaries 
upon the individual items. 

57 



HONDURAS 

The reader is referred to the Foreword of this List. 

MEXICO 

In the pre-Conquest era, music was an essential part of all public and religious 
celebrations among the peoples of the Aztec Empire. A Spanish historian tells us 
that one of the outstanding things in the land of Mexico was the songs and dances. 
He also adds, "Each chief had a chapel in his house with its singers and com- 
posers of dances and songs". This same writer is astonished at the perfection of 
the Aztec dances and comments on them: "the dancer's feet were as rhythmically 
concerted as those of skillful dancers of Spain; what one dancer did with the right 
foot and the left, so did all of them simultaneously and to the perfect rhythm of 
the music." The musicians were seated in the center of a circle formed by the 
dancers, who sang and danced gyrating around the musicians. 

The scale of the Mexican flute was pentatonic. The tones did not correspond 
to our tempered scale. Some Aztec flutes produced a defective scale with diatonic 
and chromatic intervals irregularly arranged. Some Aztec flutes have come down 
to us in such good condition that even today sounds can be produced on them. But 
of this rich musical material, not a single melody remains. We can only infer what 
it was by, for instance, studying those pre-Cortesian instruments which have come 
down to us, and through the study of the music of those Indian tribes, like the 
Yaqui and Seri Indians, who have kept aloof of alien influence until today. These 
studies give us only incomplete data, rather conjectural and uncertain. 

Neither can modern Mexican music help us very much. The continuity of 
pre-Cortesian tradition having once been broken from its organized whole by the 
arrival of the Spaniards, Mexican music became but a continuation of the Spanish, 
altered only by the changes brought about by the increasing, although gradual 
separation, of the Mexicans from Spanish influence, and, especially by the very 
persistent, even if not very deep, influence of the native races. The Aztec cul- 
ture was not totally destroyed by the Spaniards. It continued to live, hidden in the 
individual and collective consciousness of the Mexican peoples: pure Indian as 
well as Spanish-Indian or mestizo. With the passing of centuries, Aztec influence 
has become steadily stronger. Thus, Mexican music has become a hybrid in which 
Spanish and Indian origins are happily balanced. Although its framework is 
mainly Spanish in its tonality and mode and in the structure of its melody, har- 
mony and meter, it is purely Mexican in its ornaments and outward forms of ex- 
pression, — modulation, melodic ornamentation and rhythmical combinations. The 
music of Mexico is like the many admirable baroque Cathedrals and churches in 
that country: plant and elevation were designed by Spanish hands, but the con- 

58 



struction itself was done by native hands. These latter left their personality stamped 
in every element of the building in a vv^ay that would have astonished its designer. 

The favorite rhythms of the Mexican people are those in 3/4 and 6/8 meter. 
Very often these two meters appear periodically alternated. They also can run 
simultaneously, in accordance with a "horizontal" concept that contrasts with the 
"perpendicularity" of the harmonic structure. From this a dense musical texture 
results that is difficult to describe. 

The harmonic base rests almost exclusively on the tonic and dominant chords. 
The melody, however, moves freely over all degrees of the scale, producing unpre- 
pared dissonant chords, which theoretically could be considered as resulting from 
retardations, suspensions, or appogiaturas. However, such is not the effect on 
the ear. This is why Mexican harmonies are somewhat vague at times. This fact 
is further enhanced through duplication of the tune in lower or upper thirds 
running parallel. The melodic cadence upon the mediant is frequent in Mexican 
folk music as is also the imperfect cadence upon the fourth degree of the scale, 
the melody proceeding from the leading note by leap of the tritone interval. 

The voice of the Mexican singer has a vibrating quality with a tendency to 
produce the upper octave harmonic of the note uttered, a characteristic made 
popular by the Tyrolian yodellers. The last notes of some musical phrases are 
sung with a guttural tone, cutting the voice suddenly. 

Cancion 

(Compare the remarks on Canciones under Argentina.) 

Mexico has produced or adopted (e.g.. La Palo ma) many songs that have 
become widely known and loved throughout the Americas. The selection listed 
below is intended to present some of the best-known of these Canciones Mexicanas 
of different types and styles and regions. As Mr. Duran observed in the original 
edition of this booklet: "Some of the songs are in duple and some in triple time; 
some are love songs and some are almost narrative; some are gay and some are 
sad; some are typically urban and others are definitely of peasant origin". Though 
the songs listed below are in many cases different from those originally listed, the 
same remarks are generally applicable to them; and it need only be added that 
the present editor has included recordings of La Golondrina and El Abandonado, 
which were not included in the first edition. (G.C.) 

Adelita Tito Guizar V 23-0349 

Adios, Chaparrita Trio Tariacuri V 23-0244 

Alla en el Rancho Grande Tito Guizar V 32858 

La Borrachita Pedro Vargas V 83943 

Chiapanecas Los Gavilanes 

Trio with guitars SMC 2502 

CiELiTo Lindo Los Gavilanes SMC 2501 

59 



CUATRO MiLPAS 

El Abandonado 

La Golondrina 
Las Mananitas 
Pajarillo Barranqueno 

La Valentina 



Los Gavilanes SMC 2503 

Pedro Vargas and the 

Conjunto "El Patio" V 23-0915 

Los Gavilanes SMC 2502 

Quinteto Tipico Mexicano C 2570X 

Agustin Lopez and 

Gonzalo Sandoval G 5009 

Jorge Negrete V 23-0841 



Corrido 

The CoRRiDO is a narrative folk ballad in vi^hich the exploits of national or 
local heroes, the latest crime, railroad accident, flood or any other outstanding 
event is told. Or the theme may be legendary or historical and even mythological 
in character. Its musical form is determined by its literary form: in fact it is the 
text and not the music or rhythm employed that gives its name to the Corrido. 
As with all ballads, the music's main, and almost only function, is to deliver the 
text and stress its meaning. The melodic phrase is incessandy repeated, as many 
times as there are stanzas in the Corrido. To avoid monotony, instrumental parts 
of equal or varying lengths are inserted between the stanzas. 

The Corrido is an offspring of the Spanish "romances" of the XVth and 
XVIth centuries. The old "romances" transmitted by oral tradition are also called 
C0RP.ID0S in the Southern provinces of Spain. Corridos are sung in Chile, Co- 
lombia, Venezuela and the Philippine Islands as well as in Mexico. The text of the 
Corrido is composed of stanzas of four 8-syllable lines. The singing is usually ac- 
companied by guitars, harp, or by the instrumental ensemble called Mariachi 
(violins, harp, guitars and "guitarrones" (larger guitars). As a rule the Corrido is 
sung in two voices, in upper or lower thirds running parallel to the tune. 



El Alazan y el Rocio 

AsTUCIA 

El Bandolero 

Corrido de Lucio Vazquez 

El Corrido de Laredo 

El Corrido del Norte 
El Dia de San Juan 

El Ferrocarril 



Luis Perez Meza con el 

Mariachi Jalisciense C 6276-X 

Miguel Aceves Mejia with 

the Mariachi Chapala V 23-1037 

Los Madrugadores with 

bajo sexto, violin & clarinet D 10348 

Miguel Aceves Mejia 

and his group V 23-0868 

Hermanos Chavarria 

accomp. by guitars C 4325X 

Hermanas Padilla C 6163X 

Ray y Laurita with the 

Mariachi Tapatio V 76145 

Manolita Arriola con Los Nortenos 

de Ruben Fuentes C 6316X 

60 . 



Heraclio Bernal Luis Perez Meza with the 

Mariachi JaHscense C 6332X 



Huapango 

The word Huapango originally meant platform or stage-boards, — in general, 
the place where dances are held. Later on, the meaning of this word was extended. 
Today Huapango is the name of a type of fiesta celebrated along the shores of the 
Gulf of Mexico. It is also the generic noun used to name the Sones played and 
danced at the Bailes de Huapango. 

The Huapango is a dance for two people or groups of two people. Its steps 
are fast and complicated. Its cross-rhythms could be nothing else but Mexican. One 
instrument will play in 2/4 meter, the other in 3/4 meter and a third in 6/8. This 
combination results in a dazzling and unique musical texture. 

At the "Baile de Huapango" anyone may join the dance. Only the players are 
professional, whether they are a group of three men playing guitar and harp or a 
full Mariachi band of psalteries, guitars, harps and violins. 

La Bola Luis Perez Meza with the 

Mariachi Jaliscense C 6305X 

Crucero Trio Tariacuri V 23-0837 

El Huejutleno Los Plateados de 

Nicandro Castillo V 23-0988 

El Tejoncito El Charro Gil y sus Caporales C 5804X 

El Toro Los Rancheros (Los Murcielagos) D 10469 

El Viejo Alegre Los Plateados de 

Nicandro Castillo V 23-1 161 

Jarabe 

In the Jarabe the man and the woman dance apart, the man with his hands 
clasped behind his back, the girl raising slightly the front of her skirt. As in the 
Chilean Cueca, the man pursues the girl, who escapes him with agile and graceful 
movements and intricate steps. Both man and woman tap with their feet during 
the dance. At a given moment, the man throws his sombrero on the floor and 
from then on the dance is done right around the hat. The girl executes some of 
the figures and tip-toeings on the wide brim of the hat. 

As the dance, the Jarabe derives from the Spanish "zapateado" (shoe-tap 
dance); its music derives from the Mazurka. Like the latter, it is in 3/4 meter, 
but in the Jarabe this meter occasionally alternates with 6/8. It is binary in form 
and moderate in tempo. The Jarabe is usually danced to the accompaniment of 
guitars, harp and violin. 

61 



Jarabe de Chiapas El Grupo de Tonala G 5008 

Jarabe Tapatio Manuel S. Acuna and his Orchestra D 10325 

Jarabe Tapatio Quinteto Tipico Mexicano C 2570X 

Jarana 

The Jarana is the typical dance of the State of Yucatan. It is a hybrid of 
Mexican and West Indian rhythms. Some Jaranas are written in 3/4 and others 
in 6/8 meter. In some examples 3/4 and 6/8 meters alternate. Below is a descrip- 
tion of the Jarana by the Mexican writer Montes de Oca: "The Jarana is danced 
with extraordinary agility. It has many shadings, with the characteristic feature of 
constant scraping of the floor with the shoes. There are moments when the music 
stops and the rhythm is kept up only by the light touch of the espadrilles against 
the floor. In the midst of the piece one hears the word 'Bomba!' This compels the 
man to address his partner with some words of flattery or of love. Short poems 
are often improvised on the spot. In the Indian towns these are recited in Mayan 
language or in 'Champurrado' (half Castilian and half Mayan). By saying: 'Dame, 
paloma,' ('Come to me, my dove') one dancer may cut in on another taking his 
partner away." 

La Calle Doce Orquesta Yucateca V 76389* 

Linda Vaquerita Orquesta Yucateca V 76388* 

NicTE Ha Orquesta Yucateca V 76389* 

Pregon 

(See note on Pregon in the section on Cuba.) 

Pregones de Mexico Grupo Pepe Guizar V 83292 

El Tamalero Trio Calaveras V 70-7475 

Son 

In Spanish the word "son" means sound and, by extension, any piece of in- 
strumental music. Today this generic name includes in Mexico a variety of dances 
whose changing characteristics it would take too long to enumerate. Some Sones 
are in triple meter; others in duple. Certain Sones have only one theme; others 
are binary in their form. Their outstanding features are the strong, vivacious 
rhythm of their accompaniment, the gay character of their tune and the frequently 
picaresque intention of their words. 

To make the List comprehensive, Sones from different Mexican States have 
been selected. 

Son Chiapaneco Marimba Chiapas-Mexico of 

Orquesta Tipica Lerda Voc 9 191 

62 



Son Guerrense: Las Inditas Laurita y Ray Voc 8837 

Son Huasteco: Cana Brava Los Rancheros (Los Murcielagos) D 10424 

Rio Abajo Hermanos Padilla con la Orquesta 

de los Bohemois Alegres C 6161X 

El Caiman Los Plateados de 

Nicandro Castillo V 23-1006 

CiELiTo LiNDO Trio Calaveras V 23-0712 

Son Jaliscense: Las Abajenas Mariachi Chapala V 23-1142 

El Burro Polilla Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlan V 23-1008 

Son farocho: Maria Chuchena Los Tres Vaqueros V 23-0953 

El Dos Trio "Los Aguilillas" con arpa, 

guitarra y jarana C 6233X 

SoNEs Veracruzanos Los Rancheros (Los Murcielagos) D 10424 

Zandunga Chiapaneca 

The "Zandunga Chiapaneca" is a charming song in waltz rhythm and quick 
tempK) from the State of Chiapas. In later years it has become very popular through- 
out Mexico. The word Zandunga or Sandunga., is a colloquial Spanish word mean- 
ing gracefulness, winsomeness. 

Zandunga Chiapaneca Marimba Chiapas-Mexico 

de la Orquesta Tipica Lerdo Voc. 9103 

Zapateado 

The term Zapateado (from Spanish zapato, "shoe") is used generically to 
designate a number of Latin American dances of Spanish origin, especially in 
Cuba and Mexico, in triple time, characterized by shoe shuffling and tapping. 
(G.C.) 

La Tonalteca Marimba Ecos del Soconusco V 23-1090 

La Zandunga Marimba Ecos del Soconusco V 23-1090 



NICARAGUA 

The reader is referred to the Foreword of this List. 



63 



PANAMA 

Panama's music is one of the most colorful and fascinating in the Americas. There 
is a perfect unity among its various forms which reveals a common origin and a 
development free from foreign influences. The Italian "romanza" and the XlXth 
century ballroom dance music which have had so much influence in the develop- 
ment of folk music in most Latin American countries have left no trace in 
Panama. Its songs and dances are never sentimental. The popular lyrics of the 
Panamanian isthmus are free from the usual literary and musical cliches of the 
XlXth century sentimental storehouse. Quite on the contrary, a free and healthy 
optimism pervades the lyrics of Panama. The rhythm of the music is exhilarating 
and vivacious. The melody runs smoothly in a free, aloof objectivity authentically 
of the people. The Panamanian singer slides without effort through intervals that 
are most distant and difficult to modulate. He sings in a detached way, just for 
himself, with the blank intonation of one who sings for the pleasure of it, not 
caring whether anyone listens. The healthy gaiety in the music is reflected in the 
texts: "i Que bonito viento pa' navega!" ("What a nice breeze for sailing!") is 
the refrain for a Tamborito. There is another: "j A los remos, marineros!" ("Sailors, 
to your oars!") which seems like an echo of the beautiful song: "j A los remos, 
remadores!" ("Oarsmen to the oars!") by Gil Vicente, the Hispano-Portuguese 
poet of the XVIth century. Another Tamborito says "j Que bonito que corre el 
mar — debajo de los vapores!" ("How nicely runs the sea — underneath the steam- 
ers!"). A beautiful Tamborito whose melody reminds one of the music of North- 
ern Spain (Asturias and Santander) say: "Vaquero, no duermas mas, que ya 
llego la madrugada" ("Sleep no more, cowboy, dawn is already here"). Many 
more examples like the above could be quoted where the Panamanian expresses 
admiration and contentment towards his environment or gaily and humorously 
describes his daily life. 

Compound meters (6/8 and 4/8) and simple duple meter 2/4 are frequent 
in Panamanian music. Triple meters (3/2 and 3/4) are not so frequent; the 
former (3/2) is the one used in the slow Mejorana known as Mejorana-poncho; 
the latter (3/4) is only occasionally found in some Mejoranas and Puntos. Alter- 
nation of duplets and triplets in the same melody is common, as is also the combi- 
nation of a duple rhythm in the melody with a triple in the accompaniment. 

Due to the peculiar tuning of the Mejoranera (a five gut string guitar which 
accompanies every Panamanian song and dance), the tonic chord never appears 
in root position, but in its second inversion (or six-four chord). The subdominant 
also is only used in its first inversion (six-three chord). Only the dominant chord 
is used in root position. This results in a certain vagueness in the harmony, truly 
typical, where only the dominant chord stands out in any precise manner. 

The following are the instruments used in the Panamanian popular orchestra: 
the Mejoranera described above, the Rabel (three string rustic violin), the Tambora 

64 



(large drum), the Pujador (medium-sized drum), the Repicador (small drum 
with a sound similar to that of the Cuban Bongo), the Gudchara (rattle made out 
of a small dry gourd) and last but not least, the Almirez (brass mortar). 

The most important songs and dances of Panama are the Tamborito, the 
Mejorana and the Punto. Following in popularity and importance are the Cumbia, 
the Tamboreras, the Chiriqui, the Curacha, the Pindin, the Papelon, the Sueste 
and the Tones. 

Mejorana or Socavon 

The Panamanian Mejorana is a song of Spanish origin. It was probably 
brought to Panama during the XVIIIth century. Its present form still has some 
kinship with the present day Cuban Punto and the Folias from the Canary Islands, 
which are also derived from the Spanish folk-music of the XVIIIth century. 
Neither the Cunas, the Guaymies or any Indian race of Panama nor the Negro 
people have contributed to the development of the Mejorana in an obvious way. 
Nevertheless this song has a colour, a quality, that could only belong to the music 
of a country of the Caribbean Sea. 

The Mejorana can be either vocal or instrumental. The vocal Mejorana 
sung by men exclusively is never danced and is more commonly known as 
SocAVON. The following are the outstanding characteristics of a typical Socavon: 
the melody is built on the chords of the tonic, subdominant and dominant, those 
of the tonic and subdominant being in the inverted position and that of the domi- 
nant in the root position (see introductory note); the melodic phrase has a de- 
scending tendency and the cadences are always descendant; it proceeds by dis- 
junct intervals, and leaps of a major 6th and even of a major 7th or 9th are fre- 
quent; the interval of the augmented fourth is frequently used. Generally, disjunct 
motion occurs more frequently than conjunct progressions. The melody sung to 
the words of the text is always preceded by a long vocalized melisma, repeated, 
with almost no variation, after the first quatrain and also at the end of each 
"Decima," (lo-line stanza). When singing the melisma, the singer alternates fal- 
setto and chest registers in a manner similar to the Tyrolese yodellers. The melisma, 
as well as the rest of the song, are always improvised. 

Melody and accompaniment are written in 6/8 meter; duplets and triplets 
freely alternate in the melody while the bass keeps up the rhythm 



m m 



unchanged. The tempo of the Mejorana is Allegretto Mosso. 

The text consists of an initial octosyllabic quatrain and four "Decimas" (10- 
line stanzas) each of these terminating with one of the four lines in the quatrain 
in the order in which they appeared in it. The main idea of the poem is first set 
forth in the quatrain and is then developed in the four "Decimas". 

65 



According to whether the tune of a Socavon begins and ends on the tonic or 
the dominant of the scale, it also takes the name of Zapatero (tonic) or Mesano 
(dominant). The minor Mejoranas are called Gallinos. The Mesanos are the 
most frequent form of Mejorana. 

It is a square dance, the men on one side and the women on the other. Its 
choreography is divided in two parts: "zapateo" (foot-work) and "paseo", or 
promenade. In the latter, the steps, spins and changes are similar to those of the 
Quadrille or the Lancers. 

The Socavon is accompanied by the Mejoranera. The instrumental Mejorana 
is played on the Rabel and Mejoranera. 

La Morena Tumba Hombre Silvia Degrass 

con la Orquesta de Avelino Mufioz V 82926 

Punto 

Like the Mejorana, the Panamanian Punto can be either vocal or instru- 
mental. The instrumental Punto is a dance in 6/8 meter and extremely quick 
tempo. The theme, of four to six measures, is repeated with slight changes and 
runs swiftly in a sort of "perpetuum mobile" from beginning to end. In it, duplets 
and triplets alternate. The accompaniment always adopts the following rhythmic 
pattern 

rn m 

Some PuNTos adopt the ternary form A-B-A. In such cases if the first theme is 
minor the second theme is in the relative major and vice versa. 

It is performed by groups, like the Mejorana. And, like the Mejorana, it con- 
sists of "Paseo" and "Zapateado" (promenade and shoe-tapping) with similar 
spinnings and figures. 

The Punto in the minor key is known as Coco. 

El Amanecer Cuarteto Mesano V 30258* 

Tamboreras 

This is a dance of probable Mexican origin. It has a close resemblance to 
some of the Sones de Huapango from the South of Mexico, both in its rhythm and 
in the turn of its tune. 

SoY Morenita Silvia Degrass 

con el Con junto Panameno V 82928 



66 



i 



Tamborito 

This is a dance of African origin which Panama probably owes to the first 
Negro slaves brought there. A solo singer sings an unchanging short tune which 
is answered by the chorus with an unchanging refrain. The solo singer is always 
a woman (called "cantaora alante"). The chorus may be of women only, or it 
may be of mixed voices. Just as the Mejorana is a man's song, the solo phrase in 
the Tamborito is sung exclusively by women. 

The Tamborito (also known as Tambor) may adopt the following forms: 

a) one short motif sung alternately by soloist and chorus; 

b) a phrase of four measures or more, consisting of two motifs, one of 
which is sung by the solo singer and the other by the chorus; 

c) two different melodic phrases of equal or varying length. 

As a rule, the chorus follows the solo; but occasionally chorus refrain pre- 
cedes the soloist's singing. 

In the melody of the Tamborito there is a syllable for each tone. Vocalized 
melody parts are rare. Its rhythm is always in simple duple meter (2/4), at times 
syncopated, flexibly following the prosodic accents in the text. Tamborito melodies 
are usually in the major mode. However, Tamboritos in minor and in the 
Phrygian and Hypodorian modes are not uncommon. Some use a variety of 
extraneous modulations. 

Frequently the Tamborito melody extends to two complete octaves. As in 
the Mejorana, melodic phrases usually proceed by disjunct motion. Melodic leaps 
of a 6th, 7th and 9th rarely occur in the Tamborito. Those of a 3rd or a 4th are 
more common. Ascending and descending melodic progressions of successive thirds 
and fourths (C-E^G-B- or C-F-B etc.) are rather frequent. 

Solo and chorus are accompanied by drums and clapping of hands. The drums 
combine all sorts of rhythms; the rhythm of hand-clapping accompaniment is 
simpler, in syncopated fourth notes. If violins, 'cellos, or any other instruments 
are added to the percussion instruments, the Tamborito takes on the name of 
"Tambor de cuerda" . 

The "repicador" drum calls to the dance with the following rhythmic pattern: 



J^Tl h X I X /^ ^y/ X f X I ^ / ^ 



i 



The crowds make a circle or a semicircle around two dancers, a man and a 
woman. They dance separately. The woman, grasping gracefully her wide skirt 
("pollera"), whirls around and around; the man, hands on his waist, follows her, 
circles her, using all his wiles to come face to face with her. At a given moment, 
the drums transform the accompaniment's meter from 2/4 to 6/8, gradually in- 
creasing the tempo until the end. In some regions of Panama this process is called 
"darle norte al Tambor" (literally, give "North" to the "tamborito"), in other 

^7 



regions this is called "Tambor corrido" (uninterrupted "tamborito"). The Tam- 
BORiTo danced in street parades is called Tuna. If the dancing takes place in a 
private residence instead of in the open air it is called "tambor de orden" (formal 
"tamborito"). 

The Tamborito is an old type of dance, already popular in the early years of 
the XVIIth century, not only in Panama itself but also in Spain. In "La dama 
boba", a play by Lope de Vega (1562-1635), there is a danced song whose form is 
analogous to the Tamborito. The text runs as follows: 

iDe do viene el caballero? 
Viene de Panama. 
Trancelin en el sombrero, 
Viene de Panama. 
Cadenita de oro al cuello, 
Viene de Panama. 
En los brazes el gregiiesco, 
Viene de Panama. 
Etc 

There is no basic difference between the form of this poem and the form of 
the text of the present day Tamborito. Note that the accent is on the second 
syllable in "Panama", 

(Note: Concerning the historical validity of the above statement, see the pertinent 
remarks in the Editor's Preface) 

Chorrerano Silvia Degrass 

con el Conjunto Panameiio V 82928 

Hagan Rueda Silvia Degress V 82926 

; Que Bonito Viento Pa' Navega! Grupo "La Alegria" V 32498 



PARAGUAY 

The Jesuit missionaries of the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries taught plain song 
and Christian motets to the Guarany Indians, and did it so thoroughly that all 
traces of native music soon disappeared. Since then, Paraguayan music has con- 
tinued to reproduce faithfully the various types of popular music from Europe 
and from the neighboring Republic of Argentina. 

Modern Paraguayan songs and dances originated in XlXth century European 
"romanzas" and ballroom dances. The reader may obtain a fair idea of the rhythm 
and form of Paraguayan folk music by consulting in any musical dictionary the 
articles on Galop, Mazurka, Polka, Redowa, etc. The Paraguayan contribution to 
these dances is limited to changes in tempo and expression. As a general rule, in 
Paraguay the original tempo of a dance becomes slower, the rhythm softer and 
less sharp, the melody is more lyrical and therefore more "cantabile." This sweet- 

68 



ness and romantic sentimentality can be instantly recognized in any piece of 
Paraguayan music. 

The typical instruments of the Paraguayan orchestra are harps, violins and 
guitars. 

Cancion, Purajhei 

The outstanding feature of Paraguayan songs ("cancion" and "purajhei" are 
the Spanish and Guarany words for song) is that they are sung in Guarany lan- 
guage. One has to hear it to realize the sweet flowing sound of its words which 
make it one of the most euphonic languages in the world. 

Carai Arandu Trio Tipico Paraguayo 

de Felix Perez Cardoso V 39054* 

Che Si Raijhu Pape Trio Guaireiio D G-20387 
Iajhe'o Canguimi "Rubito" con "Los 

Hijos del Guaran" V 39 112* 

IvoTi Marave'y Duo Perez Cardoso-Martinez V 38650* 

Galopa 

The Paraguayan Galopa is a South American version of the European Galop. 
In some Galopas the bass is in 3/4 while the melody is in 6/8. 

IviTiRustj Trio Guaireno D G-20387 

Teresita Orquesta de Samuel Aguayo V 38889* 

La Vencedora Orquesta de Samuel Aguayo V 38533* 

Guarania 

The Guarania is a dance belonging to the waltz group. It is a recent creation 
of a Paraguayan composer which became very popular in Paraguay. 

Flor de HAsrfo Samuel Aguayo con Orquesta V 38533* 

Imave Guare "Rubito" con "Los 

Hijos del Guaran" V 39148* 

India Samuel Aguayo con Orquesta V 39037* 

Mboraijhu Pore'y Duo Perez Cardoso-Martinez V 38650* 

Polka Paraguaya 

This Polka is the Paraguayan version of the European Polka. The main dif- 
ference is the substitution, in the accompaniment, of a triplet for the quadruplet, 
while the melody follows the pattern of the traditional binary melody, thus: 

69 



melody J— ^ ;-] . fff] f] 

accompaniment 111/1 I I 

Albita Felix Perez Cardoso 

y su Trio Tipico Paraguayo V 38901* 

Asuncion Samuel Aguayo con Orquesta V 38889* 

Manuco Jha Pascuali Juan Escobar 

con su Orquesta Paraguaya V 39 131* 

San Bernardino Trio Paraguayo V 39098* 



PERU 

When Pizarro reached Peru in 1531 he found an empire with a high degree of 
civilization. The nucleus of this empire, in the mountains of Southern Peru, 
around the old city of Cuzco and Lake Titicaca, had been for centuries the lead- 
ing political power on the South American continent. The inhabitants of a vast 
region stretching from Northern Ecuador to central Chile had been brought into 
social, political and religious unity by the strong military power of the Quechua 
Indians. 

Song and dance had a prominent place in the rituals of these people. Their 
Raymi, or festivities, were always accompanied by music. The Inti-Raymi, or 
feast of the Sun; the Hatun-Raymi, or great feast; the Cusquie-Raymi celebrated 
after the sowing, or the Ayrihuamita that followed the harvest; each of them had 
its corresponding form of song. Dance and song were so connected in their minds 
that they only had one word to name the two, the word Taqui, meaning both 
song and dance. 

The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, in his "Comentarios Reales", gives the fol- 
lowing reference to Inca music: "Each song had its own peculiar melody by 
which it was recognized and there could not be two songs with the same tune. 
It was because of this that the young lover could, when making music at night 
with his flute, tell his lady love and all the world of his happiness or unhappiness 
according to the favor or disfavor which she bestowed upon him. If there had 
existed two songs with the same melody, one could not have understood exactly 
what the lover had to say. In other words, the lover talked with his flute." Later 
on, Garcilaso de la Vega relates an incident from which one may deduce the pro- 
found meaning that music had among the people of the Inca Empire: "A Spaniard 
met late one night in Cuzco an Indian maiden whom he knew. On trying to 
persuade her to accompany him, he was answered by the maiden, 'Seiior, allow me 
to go whither I will, for know you must that the flute you hear in yon thicket is 

70 



calling me with passion and tenderness — it constrains me to go thither. Leave me, 
I beseech you, for love sweeps on me, that I may be his bride and he my spouse.' " 
Their instruments were the "ayariche," or ocarina; "hayllaiquipac," or conch- 
shell trumpets; "ayacastlis," or gourd-rattles; the "tiiia," small drum with two 
hides; flutes and "antaras," or pipes of Pan. Their "quenas," or flutes, were per- 
haps the most perfect musical instruments in the Western Hemisphere. The 
Quechua "quena" was approximately twelve inches long. The one made from the 
leg bone of the llama has a "V" shaped mouthpiece cut in beveled fashion. It has 
five holes corresponding to the five tones in the pentatonic scale. Modern "quenas" 
are made of reed, usually with seven holes. They are longer than the old style 

it 99 

quena. 

Today to the old group of native instruments the Indians have added some 
of the instruments the Spaniards brought to America. Violins, psalteries, guitars, 
lutes and "charangos", or armadillo-shell guitars, are today as much a part of the 
native orchestra as the "quena" of the Incas. We cannot say to what extent the 
new instruments have influenced the essential character of their music. The pre- 
Colombian patterns appear to have survived in greater purity than in Ecuador or 
Bolivia. The pentatonic scale is used today in the highlands of Peru as it was, ap- 
parently, four centuries ago. Due to the influence of the guitar and other string 
instruments brought over by the Spaniards and quickly adopted by the Indians, a 
music, which with all probability was monodic, without harmonic accompaniment, 
or whose only form of polyphony was, at most, a primitive diaphony, today 
adopts European harmonic methods and adapts them to the latent harmonic struc- 
ture of melodies of clearly non-European character. 

In pure Quechua music, melodic progressions are always descendant. There 
is no ascending leading-note-to-tonic relation. Similarly, the final ascending leap 
of a fourth appears so rarely in its melodies that it must be considered as a formula 
adopted after the arrival of the Spaniards and not yet totally assimilated into 
Quechua music. Taking the above and the following harmonic relations into ac- 
count, the different pentatonic scales must then be set down in a descending order, 
thus: C-A-G-F-D, G-E-D-C-A, D-B-A-G-E, A-F ( sharp) -E-D-B, etc. In these, the 
highest tone (first degree of the scale) acts as a dominant; the second highest de- 
gree acts, to some extent, as does the subdominant in the diatonic scale; the fourth 
degree has a tendency towards the fifth, a tendency which gives it the character 
of a descending leading tone. The harmonic accompaniment built exclusively on 
the alternation of the perfect triads on fourth and fifth degrees (the first with 
major third and the second with minor third) is the only accompaniment that fits 
in smoothly with a pure Quechua melody. The harmonic cadence built in the 
triads IV-II-V (F-A-D, C-E-A, G-B-E, etc.), common in many popular harmoniza- 
tions of Quechua music, is hybrid, and therefore largely foreign to the true har- 
monic nature of that music. Likewise, all melodies having any semitone intervals, 
as either real or passing notes, are hybrid. 

71 



Quechua melodies are simple. Generally, they consist of only one or two mo- 
tives or semi-periods of even length. Three-period melodies are infrequent. In 
two-period melodies, the first part usually ends upon the first degree (highest tone) 
of the scale in a sort of non-conclusive cadence. Frequently the first semi-period 
ends upon the mediant (4th degree of the descending pentatonic scale). The most 
common melodic cadence is that formed by the first, fourth and fifth degrees of the 
scale (C-F-D, G-C-A, D-G-E, etc.). 

Duple meter, especially in dactylic form 

J n 

is the most frequent. Triple meters are found in music showing Spanish influence. ^ 

One must bear in mind, however, that Peru is not only a Quechuan highland. 
The white Peruvians, mestizos, zambos (mulattoes) and negroes from the lower 
coastal regions have their own music, in no way related to Quechua music. The 
Marinera, Tondero, Cumbia, Festejo, Agua de Nieve, Amorfino, Socavon and 
other Creole songs and dances more or less still in use, derive directly from Span- 
ish prototypes which have been profoundly transformed by Negro influence. These 
have the same characteristics as the music from other South American countries. 
Descriptions given on Chilean music, on the Argentine Zamba, Gato and Refalosa; 
on the music of Southern Bolivia's regions and of the coast of Ecuador and Co- 
lombia are also applicable to the music of the coast of Peru. 

Cachua 

The Cachua (spelled in four different ways: Cachua, Kashwa, Kjaswa and 
Kaswa) or "love dance" is perfromed only by unmarried but betrothed young 
couples. Any number of persons may take part in this dance. They form a circle, 
holding the partner by the hand. The men do shoe-tapping while the women spin 
around, always keeping the same formation. The drums, especially the "caja" 
(small drum), beat the rhythm accompanying the various types of flutes and the 
song. Its rhythm is vigorous and its tempo is quick. The rhythmic pattern 

is at the basis of the Cachua. It is a dance from the Peruvian highlands. 

The Peruvian writer, Juan de Arona (Pedro Paz-Soldan y Unanue), little in- 
clined to Indian dance and music, writes on the above dance in his Dictionary of 
Peruvianisms, as follows: "Being a dance, you would expect it to be gay. Yet, in its 
meter and cadences is present the persistent wail of the autochtonal Peruvian In- 
dian. This same sadness reflects itself, more or less strongly, in his best known 
musical instrument, the 'quena'; in his 'yaravi'; in the very intonations ('ayes') 
of his language. It is conspicuous in the stolid Cachua, his most important dance. 
When they move around in this monotonous dance, the couples holding each other, 

72 



it seems as if they were going to fall into pieces. Their half-opened mouths and 
fixed eyes give them an expression of tired stupidity as well as of flabby drunken- 
ness. 

Ama Pisco Micunquichu Peruvian Indian Melodies 

collected and harmonized by 
M. Beclard d'Harcourt. 
Ninon Vallin, with Le Roy, flutist, 
and Jamet, harpist C p-4220 

Guailichada 

This is an Indian Christmas song from Tarma and Canete, Years ago it was 
danced in front of the traditional manger. Each dancer carried in his hand an 
"azucena," a sort of artificial tree ornamented with tinsel and coloured papers with 
which the rhythm of the dance was beaten against the floor. 

The word Guailichada is a Spanish corruption of the Quechua word "haylli," 
meaning triumph, which was also the name of a dance performed in the days of 
the Incas during the fallowing season in praise of the Sun and the Kings. 

Palomita Blanca Margarita Cueto y Rodolfo Ducal 

con Orquesta Tipica V 82617* 

Huaino 

(See corresponding note in Bolivian section.) 

jAcHACHAu! Estudiantina Ayacucho V 30041* 

Maipirace Cuchillo Cuarteto de Camara Incaico V 30152* 

Peras Perascha Estudiantina Ayacucho V 30150* 

;Zas! Peruvian Indian Melodies 

collected and harmonized by 

M. Beclard d'Harcourt. 

Le Roy, flutist, and Jamet, harpist C p-4219 

Marinera 

Shordy before the war of the Pacific (1879-1883) the Zamhacueca or Zama- 
cueca (see note on Zamha, Argentine Section, and on Cueca, under Chile) was 
known in Peru under the name of Chilena. During the conflict, in 1880, a group 
of Peruvian patriots decided to change its name to Marinera, — "in memory of the 
fine behaviour of the marines of Peru during this unfortunate war and because 
the graceful rocking of a ship recalls the gait and evenness of the movements of 
the national dance. . . ." 

According to its variations in tempo and choreography the Marinera also 
takes the names of Resbalosa and Mozamala and, in the North coast of Peru, of 

73 



Tondero; in the Province of Chiloe, in Chile, the natives dance the Zajuriana or 
Sajuriana which is nothing else but a variation of the Cueca. 

The form, rhythm, melodic structure and choreography of the Marinera are, 
with slight differences, similar to those of the Chilean Cueca. 

Gato Libre Valente, Caceres y Frances V 27961 

La Pacorana Lira Tipica Chiclayana V 30200* 

La Peruanita Banda Internacional V 46202* 

Pasacalle 

This dance, unlike its Ecuadorian and Bolivian namesakes, is a sort of march 
Vi^hich has the same rhythm and meter (2/4) as the Spanish Pasacalle. The 
Peruvian Pasacalle is the typical music of Carnival brass bands. 

El Carnaval Orquesta Tipica Peruana V 82259* 

Tanguino * 

The word Tanguino means literally little Tango but its rhythm has no re- 
semblance to that of the Tango of Argentina. The Peruvian Tanguino is a re- 
cently created dance song in rather slow tempo and in 4/4 meter which recalls 
some Colombian dances. 

Margarita Valente, Caceres y Frances V 82618* 

Tondero 

(See note on Marinera, Peru.) 

Al Amanecer G. Ayala y M. Caceres con Orquesta B 41 179 

Amor de Zamba Luis Cerna y A. Pechon V 30200* 

China Chola, Como No Jose Carlos Martinez V 30046* 

Triste 

(See note on Triste, Section on Bolivia.) 

iPoR Que las Aves? Margarita Cueto y Rodolfo Ducal, 

con Orquesta V 82552* 

Yaravi 

Quechua phonetics finds different interpretations in our alphabet: some write 
the name of this song Harahui, others Hjarahui or Harawi and the first Spaniards 
called it Arabicus. I have chosen the spelling Yaravi because it is most commonly 
used. 

74 



(See YARAvf, under Bolivia.) 

FuE UN SuENo Cuarteto de Camara Incaico V 30152 

Harawi Peruvian Indian Melodies 

collected and harmonized by 

M. Beclard d'Harcourt. 

LeRoy, flutist, and Jamet, 

harpist C p-4219 

DespiertAj no Duermas Hermanos Contreras with 

orquesta tipica de cuerdas SMC 25 11 



PUERTO RICO 

The origin and development of music in Puerto Rico are in their essential char- 
acteristics analogous to those of Cuba. As in Cuba, contact with the Mother Coun- 
try (Spain), was kept alive from the beginning of the Spanish Conquest until the 
end of the XlXth century. Furthermore, Negro influence as in Cuba, transformed 
the music imported from Spain in a way that followed the typical African norms 
and tendencies. Another contributing factor to this mutual identity in the music 
of Cuba and Puerto Rico was the constant touch between these two Islands in 
colonial times. The Guaracha, the Danza, the Bolero, the Son and the Punto enjoy 
the same popularity in Puerto Rico as in Cuba and only the Plena, the Seis, the 
Sonduro and the Caballo are exclusively Puerto Rican. Similarly, the instruments 
of a typical Puerto Rican orchestra are the same as those of the Cuban orchestra. 

Let it be stated here, however, that for reasons not known to me, the Spanish 
tradition in music has been better preserved in Puerto Rico than in Cuba. Thus 
the Puerto Rican mothers of today sing to their children lullabies of strong 
Hispanic flavor, whose melodies in Phrygian or Aeolian modes differ little from 
those sung by mothers in Andalusia, Extremadura, Castille or Galicia, or they tell 
them stories about Pedro Urdemalas, the hero of so many traditional children 
stories from Spain, known in Puerto Rico as Pedro Ordiala or Urdiala. The char- 
acter and deeds of the Puerto Rican hero are identical to those of the Spanish 
model. The only differences in the stories are those derived from the new environ- 
ment. Likewise, the Puerto Rican child enjoys with but slight differences the very 
same games as the Spanish child and the music that is part of such games is 
Spanish as well. The "Lelo-Lelo" song of the Puerto Rican "jibaro" (peasant) is 
really the "Alala" of Galicia. Finally, one of the Christmas carols included in this 
list has a melody so purely Castilian that it could be one of the Castilian folklore 
songs compiled in the XVIth century by Francisco Salinas in his "De Musica Libri 
Septem." 



75 



Aguinaldo 



An Aguinaldo is a Christmas carol sung usually by roving groups who go 
from house to house to serenade. It has no definite form and it may adopt any 
rhythm. There are gay and slow Aguinaldos. 

In Spanish, "aguinaldo" means a Christmas gift. In the Province of Avila in 
Spain, Christmas carols are also called Aguinaldillos (little Aguinaldos). 



Aguinaldo de Maracallo 
Aguinaldos Portorriquenos 

DEcfAN LOS PaSTORES 

Estrellas de Oriente 
Felices DfAs 
Flores de Navidad 
Los Pastores Vieron 

TiEMPOS que SE FuERON 



Los Jibaros Alegres 
Sanabria and his orch. 
Los Jibaros Alegres 
with guitar accomp. 
Conjunto Tipico Ladi 
Co nj unto Tipico Ladi 
Canario and his group 
Los Jibaros Alegres 
Conjunto Tipico Ladi 



Ya Llego la Navidad {Aguinaldo-Seis) Grupo Victoria 



SMC 122 1 

D 18149 

SMC 1219 

V 23-0355 

V 23-0517 
C 5362X 

SMC 1220 

V 23-0706 
V 32288 



Bolero 

Because of the immense popularity of the Bolero in Puerto Rico, a few ex- 
amples of this type of sentimental song have been included here. (G.C.) 

LocuRA DE Amar Trio Vegabajeno V 23-0465 

QuiEN PuDiERA Cuarteto Mayari V 83826 

Te He Visto Llorar Cuarteto Mayari V 23-0331 

Un Gran Amor Trio Vegabajeno V 23-0851 



Danza 

While it is true that there is little or no formal distinction between the Danza 
of Cuba and that of Puerto Rico, yet the peculiarties of local interpretation, and 
the indefinable spirit that envelops the Danza portorriquefia, so popular in the 
island, justify the inclusion here of a few representative examples. (G.C.) 



Anoranzas y Quimeras 
Bajo las Sombras de UN Pino 
La Borinquena 



Lauro y Georgina 

joaquina 
Mis Amores 

Tu AUSENCIA 



Trio Vegabajeno 
Trio Vegabajeiio 
Euterpe Porto Rican 
Orch. Director: 
Carmelo Diaz Soler 

Orquesta Euterpe 
Grupo Victoria 
Conjunto Tipico Ladi 
76 



V 23-0851 

V 23-1143 

C 2707X 

C 6145X 
V 32288 

V 23-0515 



Plena 

This is a form where Negro influence is outstanding. Like some Negro songs 
from Trinidad and like the Panamanian Tamborito, the Puerto Rican Plena is a 
dance composed of two parts; one unchanging and short refrain sung by the 
chorus and one part where the solo singer narrates the story. In some Plenas the 
melodic phrases for solo differ from the chorus, creating a contrast; in other 
Plenas the second motif is simply the complement of the first. Both melodic pe- 
riods consist of an even number of measures varying between four and eight each. 
It is in 2/4 meter and the following rhythmic pattern: 



m n I rm 



is common for the accompaniment. 

In rteality the Plena is a free meter ballad, with refrain. The text of the 
chorus (or refrain) is unvarying — that of the solo (or stanza) is variable and 
usually narrative. As in the Calypso Songs of Trinidad — so similar to the Plena — 
this type of song alludes to real events. "Temporal," a well known Plena, tells 
about one of the cyclones that have swept over Puerto Rico; one called "El Obispo 
de Ponce" comments on the arrival of a new bishop; others tell the story of a 
local hero. Some Plenas, like the one "Advice to Mothers", point to a moral. Alto- 
gether, the Plena is the Puerto Rican equivalent of the Spanish ballad and the 
Mexican Corrido. 

It is danced by couples, holding each other. 

BuscANDO a Malen Canario y su grupo C 5486 

Consejos a Las Madres Canario y su grupo C 5486 

JuANA Pena Juanito Sanabria and his orch. D 18150 

SuR Y Centro America Canario and his group V 23-1295 

ViAjANDo EN Tren Cauario and his group V 23-1295 

Pregon 

(See remarks on Pregon under Cuba.) 

El Soldador Cuarteto Mayari V 83896 

ElSantero Duo Martinez-Ledesma V 39340 

Seis, Marianda 

Just as in the Plena Negro influence is, musically speaking, an essential char- 
acteristic, in the Seis and its related song, the Marianda or Mariyandd, Hispanic 
characteristics stand out, recalling the songs of Southern Spain. The meter is 
ternary, 6/8 or 3/4, or both alternately. Its tempo is animated. When in 6/8 meter, 

77 



duplets are almost constantly employed in the melody and the 6/8 virtually turns 
into 2/4. It is a one-theme dance, of from twenty to thirty-two measures. These 
are divided into melodic sections of like character, from four to eight measures 
long. A two-to-four-measure introduction in meaningless syllables often precedes 
the sung words. At times, in the introduction as in other parts of the song the 
singer yodels. This song being of Hispanic origin, the Phrygian cadence is often 
used in it. (See introductory note on Cuba). 

There are two kinds of Seis — one known plainly as Seis and another called 
Sets chorreao. This type of Seis is danced very swiftly. Its tempo therefore moves 
much faster. Also, there are frequent interruptions during it, for the purpose of 
reciting a picaresque quatrain, termed "Bomba". (See Jarana, Mexico). 

The Seis and the Marianda are for solo voice, either man or woman. As in a 
great number of Hispano-American songs, the text consists of a ten-line stanza 
("decima") in octosyllabic verse usually composed as follows: ABBAACCDDC. 
The rhythm in the accompaniment is almost without exception in 3/4 meter J 

3/4 J J J \ 

which, at times changes into 

3 / 4 J. /J 

The Seis is a group dance performed by couples. Men and women stand in 
separate rows, facing each other. They cross each other several times, do shoe- 
tapping for a few bars and they finish up in a waltz, as in the Contradanza (Con- 
tredanse). 

CoNVENio DE Amor Conjunto Tipico Ladi V 23-0353 

Mi Terruno Conjunto Tipico Ladi V 23-0515 

OiGA ViEjo LO Que Digo Los Jibaros Alegres SMC 1219 
Seis Zapateado Euterpe Porto Rican 

Orch. Director: 

Carmelo Diaz Soler C 2711X 

5'mc^orrf'^o: El JiBARo deHatillo Los Jibaros Alegres SMC 1220 

Marianda: Campo y Pueblo Canario and his group C 5363X 

Amor y Desengano Conjunto Tipico Ladi V 23-0706 



URUGUAY 

Uruguayan folk music has virtually the same characteristics as Argentine folk 
music. The slight differences noticeable in the music of these two countries are 
almost impossible to determine. The Triste and the Estilo which are sung in 
Argentina are, in their structure and expression, similar to songs of the same 
name which are sung on the Uruguayan plains. As for urban and popular music, 

78 



there is no difference between that of the two countries: the Tango which is sung 
in Buenos Aires differs in no respect from that sung in Montevideo. 



VENEZUELA 

From a musical standpoint, Venezuela is divided into two perfectly distinct re- 
gions: the coast and the plains of the interior. Although the music of both these 
regions has a common origin, their folklore differs so greatly as to rhythm and ex- 
pression that it is better to analyze each region separately. 

In the coastal region, there is a marked Negro influence. As in Cuba, Puerto 
Rico, and other countries where Negro influence has been very deep, this ex- 
presses itself in the greater complexity of rhythmic formulas in the accompani- 
ment, in a sort of "elongation" of the melodic phrases, characterized by the dis- 
placement of the accented parts in the measure resulting from syncopation; and by 
simultaneous simple, compound and even quinary rhythms. Along the Venezuelan 
coast simultaneous superposition of duplets and triplets is so frequent that this 
constitutes the most outstanding characteristic of its folk music. The diatonic scale 
is used, the minor mode being more frequent than the major. Its harmonic struc- 
ture is that of the diatonic scale. The Baile de Tambor, the Bolera, Cumbia, Golpe, 
Guasa and the Joropo from the states of Aragua and Miranda are typical songs 
and dances of the coast. 

In the inland plains and in the Andean regions, there is no trace of Negro 
influence. In these regions, the music introduced by the early Spanish colonists has 
kept itself free from indigenous or any other influences. Gradual transformations 
appear to have occurred from within the confines of the colonial culture and its 
modern descendant. Many original characteristics have thus been kept more intact. 
Compound rhythms in 3/4 and 6/8 meters are most often used. At times both 
these rhythms occur alternately in the same piece, and in others they are simul- 
taneous. The accompaniment patterns are simple, clear-cut and exact. As in 
Panamanian music and similarly due to the peculiar tuning of the "cuatro" (four- 
stringed guitar), the music of the inland plains of Venezuela often employs in- 
verted chords, even in the perfect cadence. The Venezuelan ear is so used to this 
that even in songs like the Tono llanero ("tono" from the plains) for voices with- 
out instrumental accompaniment, inverted chords occur almost four times as often 
as chords in root position. Melodic phrases of inland folklore have a wider exten- 
sion than those in songs and dances of the coast. Also, they are more "cantabile". 
Some passages consist of rapidly executed melodic fragments (commonly written 
in i6th or 32nd notes) rapidly repeated. This is one of the few characteristics of a 
possible Indian origin. At any rate, it is foreign to real Hispanic tradition. In the 
Tono llanero, cadences are plagal. In it the seventh chord on the second degree of 
the scale is used either with a perfect or diminished fifth — a chord typical of 

79 



XVIth and XVIIth century polyphonic music. Harmonic characteristics of the 
Corridas and Joropo of the interior plains show no special peculiarities. The 
Corrida, Tana, Jarapa and Son of the plains (llanero) belong to the group of 
inland songs and dances. 

Besides the above two main groups, there is a secondary one, urban in char- 
acter, that originates directly from XlXth century ballroom dances and in cer- 
tain cases from the songs and dances of the neighboring Colombia. Its sphere of 
action is generally limited to important cities of the coast and interior. To this 
group belong the Venezuelan Merengue, the Pasilla, the Pasaje (offspring of the 
Pasilla), the Tanguito and Waltz. 

The instruments of the typical Venezuelan orchestra are the "cuatros" or 
four-stringed guitars, harp, common six-stringed guitars, "bandola" or mandolin, 
drums of different shapes and size, "giiiros" (see Cuba, introductory note), 
"maracas" and "furruco" (a rustic drum made of baked clay or wood). 

Corrido 

The Corrido is a narrative or topical ballad. See the remarks in the intro- 
ductory section above, and compare also the comment on Corrido under Mexico. 

Cantares Llaneros Conjunto Venezolano Victor V 83208 

Llano Aba JO Orquesta Venezolana V 83911* 

Golpe 

The golpe, a song form especially popular in the State of Lara is accompanied 
by drums, various quintos (small guitars with 5 strings) and maracas. In some of 
them, the influences of the Mexican huapango and the Venezuelan joropo are 
found. A distinguishing characteristic is the frequency with which many voices 
join with the solo part. (Information given by Juan Liscano) 

Amalia Rosa Played and sung by the 

people of the village of 

Curarigua, Lara LC 75A Album 15 

El Baile del Cascabel Vicente Flores and his 

Llaneros V 23-0588 

El Totumo de Guarenas Duo Espin-Guanipas 

with guitars V 83807 

Guasa 

The Venezuelan Guasa is a satirical song (the Spanish word "guasa" means 
jest). Its basic rhythm is: 

80 



4 



used both in the melody and accompaniment. It is always in the A-B binary form. 

Text composition is different in almost every Guasa, I know of some Guasas 
written in octosyllabic "Decimas" (ten-line stanzas). Others consist of a five-line 
stanza (the first line being of eight syllables and the remaining four of six syl- 
lables), and a second stanza of four octosyllabic lines. There are other Guasas in 
which the first stanza has four lines (seven syllables for the first and third lines and 
ten syllables for the second and fourth lines) and the second stanza has only three 
octosyllabic lines. 

This song is usually accompanied by "cuatro," "bandola" and "maracas". 

CoMPADRE Pancho Los Llaneros D 21088 
PoR UN Beso Duo Espin-Guanipa 

with guitars V 83863 

PoRQUE LE Temo A Tu Tfo Cautores del Tropico V 23-0160 

El Trafico Los Regionales V 83423 

Joropo 

The JoROPo, the most characteristic Venezuelan dance and song, is heard in 
Aragua and in Los Llanos and from the Lake of Maracaibo to the Delta of the 
Orinoco River. Its tempo is quick, its melodic phrases are short, the accompani- 
ment is strongly accentuated. The latter's rhythm is 3/4 

3/4 J J J 

and that of the melody, although it may appear in varied forms has the following 
rhythms as basic design for its framework: 

It is a dance performed by a couple. Its steps and figures are very similar to 
those of the Colombian Pasillo and Bambuco (see Bambuco under Colombia). 



n > } n 



As stated in the introduction to this section, the Joropo of the coastal regions 
employs frequent rhythmical superpositions and a sort of rubato in the melody, 
making it sound syncopated at times. The Joropo of the plains runs faster and 
smoother than that of the coast. 

The text of the Joropo consists as a rule of several quatrains in octosyllabic 
lines. 

Ay, Triguena Duo Espin-Guanipa 

with guitars V 83863 

Companero, No Soy Guapo Los Llaneros D 21088 

El Gaban (JoROPO Apureno) L. Herrera con acompanamiento 

de Orquesta V 23-0485 



JoROPo Aragueno 

JOROPO TUYERO 

Merengue 



L. Herrera con acompanamiento 

de Orquesta Venezolana Briceno C 5326X 

L. Herrera con su Orquesta 

Venezolana C 5375X 



(See Merengxie under Dominican Republic.) 

Judging by the large number of recordings available commercially, the 
Merengue seems to be as popular in Venezuela as in the Dominican Republic. 
The selections presented below offer, we believe, an interesting variety of instru- 
mental and vocal interpretations. (G.C.) 



Ay! Mamita 
Cabeza de Pollo 

El Carrito 

La Guitarra de Miguel 

Manteca 

El Robo del Pavo 



Conjunto Venezolano Victor V 83208 

Dueto Cely-Leguia and 

Conjunto Diaz Orozco V 83972 

Vicente Flores and 

his Llaneros V 23-0607 

Luis Alfonzo Larrain 

and his orchestra V 83477 

Eduardo Serrano 

and his orchestra V 23-0960 

Lorenzo Herrera with the 

Conjunto Vicente Flores V 23-0422 



Pasillo 

(See Pasillo under Colombia.) 
Tu Amor Fue una Ilusion 

Tu Mirada 



Lorenzo Herrera accomp. 
by the Orquesta Criolla 
Grupo Venezolano 



V 32235* 

V 32580* 



Vals 

Some examples of the Venezuelan waltz have been included here for no 
better reason than that the selections are attractive and reveal a typically criollo 
treatment of this European dance. (G.C.) 

Amor Mio 



CORAZONES UnIDOS 

Te Vi Pasar 



Vicente Flores and his 

Llaneros V 23-0607 

Orquesta Eduardo Serrano V 23-0978 

Duo Espin-Guanipa 

with guitars V 83807 



82 



f 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 
First Edition, 1941 



AcEVEDO Hernandez, Antonio. Canciones 
populares chilenas. Santiago de Chile. 
Ediciones Ercilla. 1939. 

Alvina, Leandro. La musica incaica. Rev. 
Universitaria. Cuzco, vol. XIII. 1929. 

Andrade, Mario de. Ensaio sobre musica 
brasileira. Ed. I. Chiarato e C. Sao Paulo. 
1928. 

. Os Congos. Bol. Lat. Am. de 

Musica, vol. I. 1935. 

-. Compendio de Historia da Musica, 



cap. XII, Musica popular brasileira, pp. 
165-177. L. G. Miranda, ed. Sao Paulo. 
1936. 

Arzeno, Julio V. Del folklore musical 
dominicano, vol. I. Santo Domingo, 
"Cuna de America," Roques Roman. 
1927. 

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83 



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85 



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86 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Second Edition, 1 950 



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Departamento de Cultura, Sao Paulo. 
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in 1937. 

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Handbook of Latin American Studies. 
An annual selective and annotated guide 



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Mass. 

Mayer-Serra, Otto. Panorama de la 
Musica Mexicana. El Colegio de Mexico. 
1941. Musical notations, bibliography. 
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Slonimsky, Nicolas. Music of Latin Amer- 
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1945. Organized by countries, alphabeti- 
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American Musicians, Songs and Dances, 
and Musical Instruments". 

Vega, Carlos. Panorama de la Musica Ar- 
gentina. Ed. Losada, Buenos Aires. 1944. 
Illustrations, musical notations, maps, 
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Historia, Origen, Musica, Poesia, Coreo- 
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Buenos Aires. 1944- (pocket edition). 

. Bailes Tradicionales Argentinos. 



Historia, Origen, Musica, Poesia, Coreo- 
grafia. Sociedad Argentina de Autores 
y Compositores de Musica. Buenos Aires. 
1944- (octavo edition). 

The contents seem to be exactly the 
same in both editions. The following 
volumes have been published: El Baile- 
cito, La Calandria, El Carnavalito, ha 
Chacarera, La Condicion, El Cudndo, El 
Escondido, El Gato, La Huella, La Mari- 
quita, El Pajarillo, El Pala Pala, La 
Sajuriana, El Triunjo. 



87 



INDEX 

of songs, dances, instrumental music, and poetic and dramatic forms 



Acalanto 22 

Adoracion 15 

Agua de Nieve 72 

Aguinaldo, Aguinaldillo .... 76 

Aire Indio 15 

Aire-Tipico 52 

Alala 75 

Alegre 5 

Amorfino (Ecu.) 52 

Amorfino (Per.) 72 

Arabicus 74 

Aribu 26 

Babacue 27 

Bailados 26 

Baile de Huapango 61 

Baile de Tambor 79 

Bailecito (Arg.) 1-2, 18 

Bailecito (Bol.) .... 15, 16, 18 

Bambuco 34~5j 36, 81 

Bambuco-Estilo 35 

Batucada 22 

Batuque . . . . 21, 22, 24, 26, 28, 29 

Blocos 26 

Bolera 79 

Bolero (Cu.) . . . . xi, 39, 40, 45 

Bolero (Dom. Rep.) 49 

Bolero (P. R.) 75,76 

Bolero-Son 40 

Bomba 78 

Caballo 75 

Cacharpaya (or Cacharpari) ... 16 

Cachua 20, 72-3 

CachuUapi 5ij 52 

Callejeras (Cen. Am.) .... xi 

Calypso Songs 77 

Cancion (Arg.) 2, 12 

Cancion (Bol.) 16 

Cancion (Chi.) 31 

Cancion (Cu.) 40 

Cancion (Mex.) 59 

Cancion (Par.) 69 

Cancion-Bolero (Cu.) .... 40 

Candomble 27 

Cantigas de Desafio 24 

89 



Canto de Velorio 31 

Cantos de Feitigaria 27 

Cana Entera 8 

Carimbo 21 

Carnival Dances . . . 17, 26, 28, 29, 53 

Catimbo 27 

Chacarera i, 2, 10 

Chamame 3 

Chilena 4, 16, 73 

Chiriqui 65 

Chore 21, 22, 23, 29 

Choros-Samba 23 

Chula 23 

Clave 39 

Coco (Bra.) 21, 23-4 

Coco (Pan.) 66 

Coco de Zambe 24 

Cogollo 33 

Comparsas 41 

Conga 39541.43 

Congada 21, 24 

Congo 24 

Contradanza (Contredanse) . 41, 49, 78 

Contrapunto 25 

Coplas 3,35 

Cordoes 26 

Corrido (Mex.) 32, 60 

Corrido (Ven.) 80 

Cuando 4. 7j 3° 

Cueca (Arg.) 4, 13 

Cueca (Bol.) 16, 18 

Cueca (Chi.) 4, 14, 16, 17, 18, 32-3, 35, 61, 74 

Cumbia (Pan.) 65 

Cumbia (Per.) 72 

Cumbia (Ven.) 79 

Curacha 65 

Cururu 24 

Danza(Cu.) 39.41 

Danza (Dom. Rep.) 49 

Danza(P.R.) 75 

Danza Beniana 17 

Danza Cruceiia 17 

Danza de Cullaguas 17 

Danza de Pafiuelos . . 1,13,17,18,31 
Danza Portorriquena .... 76 



DanzaValluna 17 

Danzante 51, 53, 54 

Danzas (Cen. Am.) xi 

Danzon 37,39,41-2,45 

Decimas 5, 65, 78, 81 

Desafios 24-5 

Embolada 21, 24, 25 

Escobilleo 6, 12 

Escondido 4 

Esquinazo I9j 33 

Estilo (Arg.) 5, 20, 78 

Estilo (Bol.) i7> 20 

Estilo {\]r) 78 

Fandango 21 

Festejo 72 

Firmeza 6 

Folias 65 

Fox-Trot xi, 16 

Frevo 26 

Fuga 20 

Galeron 34> 36 

Gallinos 66 

Galop 68,69 

Galopa 69 

Gato . . . 1,4-7,10,11,12,14,72 

Gavotte 4 

Golpe 79, 80 

Guabina 34? 36 

Guailichada 73 

Guaino 17 

Guajira 39,42-3,46 

Guajira-Guantanamera .... 43 

GuajiraSon 43 

Guajira-Zapateo 43 

Guaracha (Cu.) . . . .39, 40, 43-4 

Guaracha (P. R.) 43, 75 

Guaranda 53-4 

Guarania 69 

Guasa 79, 80-1 

Habanera 8,11,44-5 

Harahui, Hjarahui, Harawi ... 74 

Huacatocori 17 

Huaino (Bol.) . . 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 54 

Huaifio (Ecu.) 54 

Huaino (Per.) 73 

Huapango 34, 61, 80 



Jarabe 61-2 

Jarana 62 

Jongo 26, 29 

Joropo (Col.) 36 

Joropo (Ven.) . . . .79, 80, 81-2 

Kaluyo 18 

Kashwa, Kjaswa, Kaswa .... 72 

Lancers 66 

Lelo-Lelo 75 

Llanto 19, 20 

Lundu 21, 26, 28 

Macumba 27 

Mambo 45 

Mangulina 49 

Maracatu 26, 27 

Marcha 21, 26, 28 

Marche(Hai.) 56-57 

Marchinha 26, 28 

Marianda, Mariyanda .... 77-8 

Marinera 72,73-4 

Maxixe .... 21,22,23,26,28,29 
Mazurka . . . 9,49,55,56,61,68 

Mecapaquena 18 

Media Cana 7"^ 

Media Tuna 49 

Mejorana 64, 65-6, 67 

Mejorana-Poncho 64 

Merengue (Dom. Rep.) . . . 49~50 
Merengue (Ven.) .... 80, 82 

Meringue (Hai.) 56, 57 

Mesanos 66 

Milonga 8, 11 

Minuet (Minue) 4, 7 

Moda, Moda-de- Viola .... 28 

Modinha 21,29 

Monos 34 

Montuno 40, 45, 47 

Mozamala 73 

One-Step . xi 

Pagelanga 27 

Palla-palla (Pala-pala) .... 17 

Pandilla de Anatas 18-9 

Papelon 65 

Pasacalle (Bol.) 19, 54 

Pasacalle (Ecu.) 51, 54 



90 



Pasacalle (Per.) 74 

Pasaje 80 

Paseo 66 

Pasillo (Col.) .... 34,36-7,81 
Pasillo (Ecu.) ..... 51, 54 

Pasillo (Ven.) 80,82 

Pasillos (Ccn. Am.) xi 

Payas 25 

Pericon 7, 8-9, 10 

Pindin 65 

Plena 755 77 

Polka 68,69 

Polka-Paraguaya .... 69-70 

Porf las 25 

Porro 37 

Pregon (Arg.) 9 

Pregon (Cu.) 45-6 

Pregon (Mex.) 62 

Pregon (P. R.) 77 

Punto (Cu.) . . . . . 39, 46, 49, 65 

Punto (Dom. Rep.) 49 

Punto (Pan.) .... 64, 65, 66 

Punto (P. R.) 75 

Purajhei 69 

Quadrille 66 

Quadrinha 25 

Ranchera 9-10 

Ranches 26 

Recortado Mineiro 29 

Redowa 55j 68 

Refalosa, Resbaloza . . . 10, 72, 73 

Relaciones 7 

Remedio lo-ii 

Romances . . . . . . . 60 

Romanza 64, 68 

Rumba xi, 37, 39, 42, 47 

Sajuriana 74 

Samba 21, 22, 23, 29 

Samba-Batucada, Samba-Cancao, Samba- 
Choro, Samba-Jongo ... 22, 29 

Sandunga 63 

Sanjuanito 18, 51, 54 

Sarambeque 21 

Seguidilla 7, 12 

Seis (Dom. Rep.) 49 

Seis, Seis Chorreao (P. R.) . . 75, 77-8 



Sicuri, Danza de Los Sicuris ... 19 

Socav6n(Pan.) 65 

Socavon (Per.) 72 

Son(Cu.) . . . 39,40,42,45,47-8 

Son. (Mex.) 61, 62-3 

Son. (P.R.) 75 

Son (Ven.) 80 

Son Afro-Cubano 4^ 

Son Chapin 56 

Son Guatemalteco 56 

Sonduro 75 

Sones de Huapango 66 

Songs with Drums 57 

Sueste 65 

Tambo de Criolo 27 

Tambo de Mina 27 

Tambor 67 

Tambor Corrido 68 

Tambor de Cuerda 67 

Tambor de Orden 68 

Tamboreras 65, 66 

Tamborito .... 64, 65, 67-8, 77 
Tango . . xi, 8, ir, 16, 28, 45, 74, 78 
Tango Andaluz (Andalusian) . 8,11,24 

Tango Campera 11 

Tango Milonga 8 

Tanguino . 74 

Tanguito 80 

Tarareo i 

Ternos 26 

Toada 21,28,30 

Tonada(Arg.) , . . 12,16,30,31,33 

Tonada(Bol.) 16 

Tonada (Chi.) 31, 33-4 

Tondero 72, 74 

Tono Llanero, Tono de Llanos . 79, 80 

Tonos 65, 80 

Torbellino 38 

Tori to Negro 17 

Triste (Arg.) i, 12, 20 

Triste(Bol.) 19,20 

Triste (Per.) 74 

Triste (Ur.) 78 

Triunfo 12 

Trote 20 

Tuna 68 

Vals xi, 82 

Vidala ij i3j 20 



91 



Vidalita, Vidalay 13 Zajuriana 74 

Vodoun Songs 57 Zamacueca, Zambacueca . 7, 13, 18, 32, 73 

Wainyo 17 ^amba (Arg.) .... 13,20,72 

fiT 1^ • /r r /r o o o Zamba (Bol.) 20 

Waltz . XI, 10, 36, 49, 55, 56, 69, 78, 80, 82 2^^ba(Ecu.) 51,55 

Yaravi (Bol.) .... 17, 19, 20 Zandunga Chiapaneca .... 63 

Yaravi (Ecu.) 20,55 Zapateo (Zapateado) . 18,39,49,61,63,66 

Yaravi (Per.) . . . .17, 20, 72, 74 Zapatero 66 



92 





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