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University of Michigan 

Presented by 


I '3Jl&/3/S/S/5/S/HJ~&f£'ft?-rS r S/S/S/^J'S/SrS/H/S.rS/S/H/Si TEJZPJSSSfSrH/Sf&J 









SEPTEMBER 30th, 1902. 

Sydney : 

William Brooks and Co., Limited, 
17 Castlkreagh Street. 







The Invitation to Other Universities 

List of Delegates 

Reception of Delegates and Presentation of Addresses 

Dinner by Members of Convocation 

Professor MacCallum's Address ... 

The Harbour Excursion , 

The Conversazione at the University 

Professor Anderson Stuart's Address 

The Undergraduates' Garden Party 

The Sports Union Ball 

Professor David's Address .. 

Dr. Sydney Jones' Luncheon Party 

Garden Party at the Observatory 

Undergraduates' Smoke Concert 

Entertainment at the Women's College 

J. HE XvEG ATT A ... . •. . •-• ... ... ... 

Dramatic Society's Entertainment 

University Union — Senator Symon's Address 

The Union Book 

Congratulatory Addresses 

2 . 











Although the Act of Incorporation of the University of 
Sydney received the Royal Assent in the end of 1850, the first 
two years of the University's existence were occupied by the 
governing body in making arrangements to carry on the work 
of teaching. The first matriculation examination was held in 
the beginning of October, 1852, and the inauguration ceremony 
on the 11th October in the large hall of the Sydney College at 
Hyde Park, now the Sydney Grammar School. 

It < -°-s determined by the Senate that the Jubilee Celebra- 
tion should take place as nearly as possible upon the comple- 
tion of fifty years of actual work, and the date fixed was the 
first week of Michaelmas Term, 1902. 

It was hardly expected that the universities of Europe and 
America would send representatives to Australia for the special 
purpose of attending the Celebration, and the notification to 
these universities of our time of rejoicing was in the following 
terms : — 



Quinquagesimi anni Academiae hujus feliciter peracti 
sollemnia, quae in diem undetricesimum Septembris et inse- 
quentes quattuor dies indiximus, rite celebraturi, omnes in- 
clitas Universitates gaudii nostri participes esse cupimus; et 
quamquam veremur, ne, toto paene orbe divisi cum simus, vix 
satis aequum postulare videamur si rogemus ut aliquem ex 
insigni coetu veetro hue usque mittatis, qui praesens nobis 


gratuletur, volumus tamen voe certiores factos, si quern adle- 
gaveritis, noe eum libenter hospitio esse accepturoe. 

H. N. MacLaubin, CanceUarius. 
Abtubus Renwick, Vice-Cancellarins. 
H. E. Babff, Registrarius. 
Dabamus Sydneiae X die Februarii, MDCCCCII. 

Most of the British Universities appointed representatives 
resident in Australia to attend the Celebrations on their be- 
half ; and one French University, that of Caen, appointed as 
its representative an ex-Professor, a resident of New Caledonia., 
where he was President of the National Council. 

The members of the governing bodies of the Australasian 
Universities, as well as the professors, lecturers and other high 
officials, were individually invited to attend. 

Many Universities, both British and Foreign, sent con- 
gratulatory Addresses, a number of them very handsomely 

The following is a list of the Universities which either 
appointed delegates to attend the Jubilee or sent letters or 
Addresses of congratulation : — 


University of Adelaide — Professor E. von B. Bensley, MA., 
Professor G. C. Henderson, MA. 

University of Melbourne — Professor T. G. Tucker, MA., Litt. 
D. (Chairman of the Professional Board), Professor J. W. 
Gregory, D. Sc., Professor W. C. Kernot, A. Leeper, Esq., 
M.A., LL.D. (Warden of Trinity College), Alex. Mor- 
rison, Esq., M.A., LL.D., J. H. MacFarland, Esq., M.A., 
LL.D. (Master of Ormond College), Professor F. S. Peter- 
son, Mus. B., Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A, F.K.S., 
J. W. Springthorpe, Esq., M.A, M.D., W. Thwaites, 
Esq., C. J. Zichy-Woinarski, Esq., MA., LL.M. 

University of New Zealand — James Hay, Esq., MA., LL.B. 


University of Otago — E. B. Cargill, Esq., Vice-Chancellor, A. 

Hamilton, Esq., Registrar. 

Auckland University College. 

Canterbury College, Christchurch. 

Victoria College, Wellington — Rev. W. A. Evans, Chairman of 
the Board of Governors. 

University of Tasmania — The Hon. Mr. Justice A. I. Clark 
(Vice-Chanoellor), Rev. Thomas Kelsh, W. J. T. Stops, 
Esq., LL.B. 

University Extension Board of Queensland — Rev. T. Nisbet, 


University of Birmingham. 

University of Cambridge — Professor T. G. Tucker, M.A., 
Litt. D. 

University of Dublin — A. Leeper, Esq., M.A., LL.D. 

University of Edinburgh — Rev. Andrew Harper, M.A., D.D. 

University of Glasgow — Professor F. Anderson, M.A., Profes- 
sor M. W. MacCallum, M.A. 

University of London — Miss Louisa Macdonald, M.A. 

University of Oxford — Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., 

Victoria University, Manchester — Professor A. Mica Smith, 

B. Sc. 
University of Wales. 

Owen's College, Manchester — Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., 

Royal College of Science — E. F. Pittman, Esq., A.R.S.M. 

University College, London — Angel Money, Esq., M.D. 

British Museum. 



McOill University, Montreal. 
University of Toronto. 

University of the Cape of Good Hope. 

University of Allahabad. 
University of Bombay. 
University of Calcutta. 
University of Madras. 
University of Punjab. 

Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
Cornell University, Ithaca. 
University of Minnesota. 
University of Missouri. 
University of Pennsylvania. 
Smithsonian Institution. 
University of Michigan. 
University of the State of New York. 


University of Vienna. 

University of Agram. 
University of Clausenberg. 
University of Czernowitz. 
University of Innsbruck. 
University of Lemberg. 

University of Brussels. 


University of Ghent. 
University of Liege. 

University of Copenhagen. 


University of Caen — Monsieur M. Le Goupils (formerly Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric in the University of Caen). 
University of Paris. 
University of Aix-Marseilles. 
University of Besancon, 
University of Clermont-Ferrand. 
University of Grenoble. 
University of Lille. 
University of Lyons. 
University of Montpellier. 
University of Toulouse. 


University of Berlin. 
University of Bonn. 
University of Breslau. 
University of Erlangen. 
University of Freiburg. 
University of Giessen. 
University of Gottingen. 
University of Heidelberg. 
University of Jena. 
University of Kiel. 
University of Leipzig. 
University of Marburg. 
University of Munich. 


University of Bostock. 
University of Tubingen. 
University of Wiirzburg. 


University of Athens. 


University of Groningen. 
University of Leyden. 
University of Utrecht. 


University of Rome. 
University of Catania. 
University of Florence. 
University of Parma. 
University of Pisa. 


University of Kyoto. 


University of Christiania. 


University of Charcov. 
University of Cracow. 
University of Dorpat. 
University of Helsingfors. 
University of Kasan. 
University of Moscow. 
University of Odessa. 
University of Warsaw. 


University of Saragossa. 
University of Valencia. 


University of Lund. 


University of Berne, 
University of Freiburg. 
University of Geneva. 
University of Zurich. 

Before the official proceedings began there was a perfor- 
mance by the University Dramatic Society in the Palace 
Theatre, on the afternoon of Monday, September 29, and in 
the evening a lecture by Sir Josiah Symon, K.C.M.G., under 
the auspices of the University Union. To these events refer- 
ence will be made later on. 



The Reception of Delegates and Presentation of Addresses 
was held in the Great Hall of the University at 3 p.m. on 
Tuesday, September 29th. It was preceded by an Organ 
Recital at 2.30 p.m. by A. R. Mote, Esq., B.A. 


1. Concert Overture in C minor Hollins 

2. University Jubilee March Kathleen Mayer 

Dedicated to the Chancellor. 

3. Melody in F Bubinstein 

4. Offertoire de Ste. Cecile, No. 2 Orison 

5. Introduction and Fuga Hewlett 
6 Chant sans Paroles, Op. 2, No. 3 Tschatkowsky 

7. Commemoration March, Op. 37 A. B. Mote 

Dedicated to the Chancellor. 

8. March, Die Meistersinger Wagner 


The ceremony was presided over by the Chancellor of 
the University, the Honourable Sir Normand MacLaurin, 
M.A., M.D., LL.D. Besides the Visitor of the University, 
His Excellency Vice-Admiral Sir Harry Holdsworth Rawson, 
K.C.B., Governor of New South Wales, the following members 
of the Senate : The Honourable Mr. Justice A. H. Simpson, 
Vice-Chancellor; Mr. H. C. L. Anderson, M.A., Judge Back- 
house, M.A., Professor Thos. Butler, B.A., Professor Pitt 
Cobbett, M.A., D.C.L., Dean of the Faculty of Law, the Hon. 
W. P. Cullen, M.A., LL.D., Messrs. P. Sydney Jones, M.D., 
E. W. Knox, Professor A. Liversidge, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Dean of the Faculty of Science, Professor M. W. MacCallum, 
M.A., Dean of the Faculty of Arts, the Hon. Senator R. E. 
O' Connor, M. A., His Honour Alexander Oliver, M. A., the Hon. 
Sir Arthur Renwick, B.A., M.D., Judge Rogers, M.A., LL.B., 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., C.M.G., F.R.S., Mr. C. B. Stephen, 
M.A., K.C., Professor Anderson Stuart, M.D., LL.D., Dean 
of the Faculty of Medicine, and Mr. R. Teece, F.I.A., F.F.A. ; 
Professors and teaching staff, the Visitors, Principals and Coun- 
cillors of affiliated Colleges, and graduates of the University, 
there were present the Naval Commander-in-Chief of the 
Australian Station, his Excellency Vice-Admiral Sir Lewis 
Beaumont; the Right Honourable Sir Samuel Griffith, M.A., 
G.C.M.G., Chief Justice and Lieutenant-Governor of Queens- 
land; the Honourable Sir John See, K.C.M.G., Premier of 
New South Wales; the Honourable John Perry, Minister for 
Public Instruction; the members of the Consular body, high 
officers of the Government, and representatives of the 
Military Forces. 

His Excellency the Governor was received on his arrival 
by a guard of honour consisting of fifty rank and file of the 
University Volunteer Corps, under the command of Captain 

At 3 p.m. His Excellency entered the Great Hall, 
accompanied by the Chancellor, and preceded by a pro- 


cession, consisting of the members of Professorial Staff, 
the visiting Delegates, and the Fellows of the Senate, start- 
ing from the main entrance, passed through the Stenhouse 
Library, and thence into the Great Hall. 

The Chancellor then opened the proceedings by delivering 
the following Address : — 

" Your Excellency, Ladies and Gentlemen, — I desire to 
offer to the Delegates and Visitors from other Universities 
our warmest welcome and our hearty thanks for their attend- 
ance here to-day. Most of them have travelled hundreds 
of miles to rejoice with us in our Jubilee, and their presence 
and sympathy we take to be a mark of their approbation of 
our efforts in the past, as it is certainly an incitement to 
renewed zeal in the cause of higher education for the future. 

It is good on occasion to recall to mind the great men who 
have gone before us to whose exertions, guided by far-seeing 
prudence, we owe so largely the privileges we enjoy. And so 
we are now met to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the 
inauguration of our University, and to pay our tribute of 
respect to the forethought, the liberality, and the sound 
judgment of the men of the past generation who so well and 
truly laid the foundations of an institution which Sydney 
may view with pride, and which the learned world regards 
with respect. 

The ceremony of inauguration took place on Mon- 
day, October 11, 1852, in the building in College Street, 
then occupied by the University, in the presence of 
a crowded assembly. At half-past 12 o'clock, the first 
candidates for matriculation were introduced, and after the 
names had been inscribed in the album by the Registrar, 
they took their places. At 1 o'clock the procession entered 
the hall, marshalled by the Chamberlain, Dr. Greenup, in 
the following order: — Vergers, Professors, Fellows of the 
Senate, the Vice-Provost, the Governor-General and his staff, 
the Chief Justice, and Mr. Justice Dickinson, attended by 


their Associates, v Lieutenant-General Wynyard, the Military 
Commander-in-Chief and his staff, the Honourable Campbell 
Riddell, Colonial Treasurer, Colonel Bloomfield and the officers 
of the 11th Regiment, Captain Gennys and the officers of 
H.M.Sf. 'Fantome.' The procession was also accompanied 
by the principal ministers of religion of all denominations, 
by the members of the Bar, and by the Consuls of foreign 
Powers. The Fellows present were: — Sir Charles Nicholson 
(Vice-Provost), Honourable E. Deas-Thomson ; Honourable 
J. H. Plunkett, Right Rev. Bishop Davis, Mr. Justice Therry, 
Honourable F. L. S. Merewether, B.A., W. C. Wentworth, 
Esq., B. O'Brien, M.D., J. B. Darvall, M.A., Ed. Broadhurst, 
B.A., S. A. Donaldson, J. Macarthur, Richard Greenup 
(Chamberlain). The Professors were : — Dr. Woolley, Mr. Pell, 
and Dr. John Smith. Of all that goodly company of 
Senators and Professors, but one survives — Sir Charles 
Nicholson — who in a green old age retains a keen and abiding 
interest in the University, whose earliest years were fostered 
by his protecting solicitude, and which is still the favoured 
object of his unceasing liberality. As soon as we resolved 
to celebrate this most auspicious anniversary, we informed 
our venerable friend that nothing would give us greater 
pleasure than to see him again as the central figure of the 
University whose foundation he assisted to lay. The infirmi- 
ties of old age are, however, too great to permit of a journey 
of such length; but we have received from him a letter of 
great interest, which Mr. Barff will now read." 

The Registrar then read the following letter : — 

"The Grange, Totteridge, England, 

"July 11, 1902. 

"My dear Mr. Barff, — I have to acknowledge the receipt 
of a communication signed by you on behalf of the Chancellor 
and Senate of the University of Sydney, containing an invitar 


tion to Lady Nicholson and myself to be present at the 
commemoration to be held in Sydney on September 29, the 
occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the 

"The event is one in which I feel the deepest interest, 
as I suppose I am almost the only person now living who 
was present at and who took a share in the foundation of the 
institution half a century ago. All the eminent men with 
whom it was my privilege to be associated in the glorious 
task of laying the foundation of an institution, the success 
of which is almost without parallel in any other section of the 
British Empire, have passed away. I would particularly desire 
to mention in relation to the work the name of W. C. 
Wentworth, and the names of the chief executive officers and 
the Governor of the colony for the time being, who took an 
active share in the foundation and magnificent endowment 
of the institution from various sources. Had it been possible 
for me personally to be present at the commemoration about 
to take place, I know of no task which would have given 
me more heartfelt delight and satisfaction. Separated, how- 
ever, by half the circumference of the globe from the spot 
and from the scene about to take place, and suffering from 
many of the bodily infirmities inseparable from very advanced 
years, my being able to take a personal share in the coming 
celebration is an impossibility. I shall, however, be glad 
to be permitted to request the expression on my behalf of 
the deep and unmitigated interest with which I still regard 
all that is connected with the prosperity and advancement 
of the institution. 

"Believe me, my dear Mr. Barff, 

"Yours very faithfully, 

" Charles Nicholson." 

Resuming, the Chancellor said : — " Before we proceed to 
the reception of our Visitors from other Universities, I propose 


to ask your permission to send, in the name of this meeting, 
a despatch congratulating Sir Charles on his being spared 
to see this happy Jubilee of the institution for which he did 
so much. His colleagues of that day have all gone to their 
rest, but if the spirits of the just are ever permitted to re-visdt 
the scenes which in life lay nearest their hearts, then I knew 
that many a long-departed friend is with us rejoicing in the 
full fruition of that which they planted and watered. 
Where all were so eminent, and rendered such servicte, 
it would seem almost invidious to select anyone for 
particular notice; but I cannot refrain from mentioning the 
name of Wentworth, to whom New South Wales owes so 
much in every department of her public lire. In 
preparing the Constitution of the University, in obtaining 
the favourable consideration of the Government of the day, 
and in piloting the Act of Foundation through the Legislative 
Council, the services of Mr. Wentworth were so great, and 
he showed such an admirable example of liberality to the 
young institution, that he, if anyone, deserves the honourable 
title of Fundator noster. His statue, one of the chiefest 
ornaments of this hall, presents him to the life. 

I must also mention Merewether, to whom more than any 
other we owe this hall, unsurpassed for beauty, and rivalling 
in its graceful proportions the finest and most admired acade- 
mic structures of the old world. Let me also call to mind 
the Professors who have gone before — Woolley, Badham, 
Stephens, Fell, and Dr. John Smith. Men of the highest cul- 
ture, they served the University well, and their memory is 
green among us. 

Thfe students admitted to matriculation were: — 
W. C. Curtis, D. S. Mitchell, R. Sealy, FitzwiJLLiam Went- 
worth, R. S. Willis, W. C. Windeyer, C. Allen, A. R Riley, 
X A. Wilson, W. H. A. Hurst, W. A. Forshall, G. A. Moore, 
John Kinlooh, G. C. Curtis, R. M. Fitzgerald, R. Riddell, 
Marshall Burdekin, E. Lee, H. W. Radford, T. B. Clarke, 


T. H. Coulson, G. Leary, J. Leary, Alexander Oliver, and 
J. W. Johnson. Of these, Messrs. Oliver, Wentworth, Willis, 
R. M. Fitzgerald, and J. W. Johnson are present with us 
to-day ; Mr. Oliver has for many years been a member of the 
Senate, and will address you at a later stage of our pro- 

I must also mention the honoured name of William 
Charles Windeyer. He was the first graduate of the Univer- 
sity. His career was of high distinction, both in the public 
life of the colon) 7 and in the profession of the law, in which 
he attained a seat on the Supreme Court bench. His interest 
in the University continued throughout life, and after serving 
for many years as a Fellow of the Senate, he became Vice- 
Chancellor on the retirement of the late Canon Allwood, and 
ultimately Chancellor on the death of Sir W. M. Manning. 
He occupied the latter office for but a short time, and, to 
the great grief of his friends, he died in 1897, while travel- 
ling in Italy. In him the University lost a true and warm 

I must also recall to your memory Mr. Blacket, the 
architect, whose genius has found expression in this building, 
of which we are all so justly proud. It would take too long 
if I were to enumerate all the benefactors who have displayed 
their liberality towards the University. But I may mention 
Mrs. Hovell, who founded a lectureship in geology in memory 
of her deceased husband, Mr. W. H. Hovell, the colleague 
of Hume in exploring the southern districts of the colony; 
Mr. Fisher, the munificent founder of our library; Sir W. 
Macleay, who presented the University with his collection in 
natural history; Mr. Challis, who bequeathed a large fortune 
to the University 'to be applied to the benefit of the institu- 
tion in such manner as the governing body thereof should 
direct ' ; and Mr. P. N. Russell, now living in London, who 
presented to the University a sum of £50,000 for the endow- 


ment of the department of engineering. May the liberality 
of these benefactors stimulate others to follow their 

Mr. H. E. Barff, the Registrar, them read the names of 
the visiting delegates, who were severally presented by the 
Chancellor to his Excellency, Sir Harry Rawson. After due 
acknowledgment had been made of the letters of congratu- 
lation sent by sister Universities, Professor T. G. Tucker, 
M.A., Litt.D., delegate from the University of Melbourne, 
delivered an address. He said: — 

" The main duty which devolves on those of us 
who represent the sister Universities of the world is 
a very simple one, and also a very agreeable one. 
We naturally congratulate in the warmest manner the 
University of Sydney on. its happy completion of fifty years, 
not only of prosperous existence, but also of ever-widening 
scope, increasing influence, and increasing good repute. Natu- 
rally, also, we tender to the University of Sydney our hopes, 
which are rational convictions, that it will see many another 
fifty years of perpetual progress, and that you will develop 
until even 'this magnificent house which ye have builded' 
shall be but the nucleus of that mighty aggregate of struc- 
tures which will exist in the time to come. And, finally, it 
might seem sufficient if we thanked the University of Sydney 
for the superb hospitality with which it has invited us to 
share in the joy of its Jubilee. But I understand that it is 
expected of those of us who have been invited, and I may say 
laden with the responsibility of undertaking, to speak for 
groups of Universities from this dais this afternoon, that 
we shall say something more specific than simply offering 
general congratulations, good wishes, and thanks. As 
a representative of the Universities of Australasia at 
this high festival of yours, I feel that I have no joint and 
unequivocal warrant to speak for the Universities of Adelaide. 


New Zealand, or Tasmania. But I have no reason to doubt 
that the sentiment of Melbourne is the unanimous sentiment 
of all the Universities of Australasia, nor that these Univer- 
sities also feel profound respect and gratitude to an institution 
which is not merely the elder sister of the Australasian 
Universities, but in a sense the parent of them all. On this 
occasion we may say frankly that we owe a great debt to 
the mere fact that you established a University, and, by the 
foundation of that institution, gave us an example, and by 
its progress an object lesson. We may acknowledge that 
we other constituents of this Australasia, as mutually emulous 
communities, made haste to follow that example, and to 
profit by that object lesson. Speaking for the University 
of Melbourne, which is nearest, not only in date — it differs 
only by two years — but also in constitution and in scope, 
I may say that the fact that there existed in the New South 
Wales capital a University, was an immediate stimulus to 
us to have one founded in our own midst. If I remarked 
just now that the component parts of Australasia were 
' mutually emulous,' that emulation was no unworthy or low- 
minded jealousy ; it was that generous kind of rivalry which, 
as Hesiod says, 'is good for the race of man.' We took a 
fair advantage of your institution to rival, possibly to out- 
rival, you. 

But it is not merely the fact of prior existence for which 
we have to thank the University of Sydney, though there is 
good reason in that. We have to thank the founders of 
the University for the gallant conception with which they 
inaugurated it. We have to thank them for their lofty 
conception of a University and its aims. The earlier people 
of this State, the original leaders in the movement of found- 
ing a University, were men who evidently understood what 
a University ought to be. It would have been very pardon- 
able if, in the bustling days of a comparatively infant com- 


munity, the point of view had been much more illiberal, 
much more Philistine, than it was. I am not disposed to 
enter into comparisons of the men of the past with the men 
of the present. I am not a very ready believer in the doc- 
trine that the history of humanity is a history of decay. 
As a matter of fact, Universities are being founded continu- 
ally now, and all the more vigorously, because intelligent com- 
munities perceive that the progress of civilisation, and even 
the material industries, depend upon the advance of that 
study,, and the spread of that intellectual culture, which it is 
the province of Universities to cultivate. We have, then, 
to thank, without any comparison of generations, those men who 
founded this University, because of the view they took of 
the University's place in the world. They were not satisfied 
to make it a simple college; still less were they satisfied, 
as they might have been, to make it a mere high school. 
They held that a University ought to be the home of the 
liberal arts and studies prosecuted to their fullest extent. In 
keeping with that conception, there is something I cannot 
refrain from saying in connection with the past of this 
University. The founders of the University took the view 
which is too often lost sight of by the powers that be, 
that, after all, the success of a University, its value and 
status, the potency of its work inside its walls and its esteem 
outside them, depend, not upon certain elaborate curricula 
and standards, but upon the abilities, attainments;, and charac- 
ters of the men who teach inside it. You may systematise 
and regulate till doomsday; you may establish on paper 
what appear to be unsurpassable courses and standards ; but, 
after all, the value to the community of an institution like 
this depends on the men who are to communicate the sound 
knowledge, the sound method of study, the right intellectual 
and ethical attitude. It would be invidious to choose indivi- 
duals from the list of those who have made a name for the 


University as well as in it. But I do not think it would be 
invidious if, in regard to certain past teachers in this 
University, in a particular department, I speak with some 
confidence. Birds of a feather flock together, and, naturally, 
my mind flies to those who have had control in this Univer- 
sity of the classical studies and humanities. When I do so, 
I think of that scholarly, high-minded, and ill-fated Dr. 
Woolley — I think of that most brilliant and eminent Grecian, 
Dr. Badham — and I also think of that ripe and sound and self- 
sacrificing scholar, Professor Scott. I am not ashamed to con- 
fess that nearly thirty years ago all that I knew of Sydney was 
that it was a beautiful city on a beautiful harbour, and that 
Dr. Badham was its Professor of Greek. Hie latter fact carried 
to all who were concerned this information), that, no matter 
what might be the condition of society otherwise, it was certain 
that within the walls of these lecture-halls the Greek that 
was taught was in no sense paltry or provincial. We of 
the other Universities owe some thanks to the University 
of Sydney for setting us examples in that way. 

There are considerable differences between us as Aus- 
tralasian Universities; but there is one aim, there is one 
ideal, in which we are united. We have our local differ- 
ences, we are not all equally equipped, we are not all 
equally wide ; our local conditions demand certain satisfactions 
special to themselves. But, while that is so, we all main- 
tain that a University is an institution which is intended 
to keep the intellectual life of the community on a level with 
the life of the best communities outside. We may not be 
able to achieve this, but this, at any rate, is our conception 
and our aim. We do not think that we are, as some people 
are pleased to imagine, isolated from the national life. We 
endeavour to touch it at all points that we can; and for 
that reason, if no other, we have our local differences. I, for 
one — for I know that the subject has been mooted more 


than once — look with satisfaction upon those local differences. 
The notion is abroad — it generally emanates from those whose 
philosophy of education is late by a generation or so— that 
the Universities of these Australian States might better be 
incorporated into one, with precisely the same methods, 
standards, curricula, and, as far as possible, the same teach- 
ing. That may seem very plausible to those who love a pretty 
system, without troubling much what that pretty system may 
achieve ; but anyone who has been initiated into the elements 
of educational philosophy will know that the very germ of 
progress is difference — differences and divergencies under a 
common aim. There is only one form of federation of univer- 
sities upon which we agree. It is not a theoretically recog- 
nised form, but it is a form of practical federation which 
actually exists, and is abundantly efficacious. It is illus- 
trated in this way. I am now upon this platform as repre- 
sentative of the University of Melbourne. A moment ago 
I was the representative of the University of Cambridge. I 
have been connected, as a Professor, with the University 
of New Zealand. My colleague, Professor Spencer, is here 
representing the University of Oxford and Owen's College, 
Manchester, and he is a member of the teaching staff of 
the University of Melbourne. Your own staff is composed 
of men drawn from the British Universities — the Universities 
of England, Scotland, and Ireland — as ours is, and as most 
of the staffs of the Universities of Australasia are. Herein 
we have the one practical form of federation which ought to 
be encouraged, and, having encouraged that form to the 
fullest, we can then exert through our varieties the best 
possible effect upon the progress of education in Australasia. 
Whatever our differences may be, there is one sentiment on 
which we are all agreed to-day, and that sentiment may be 
conveyed to the University of Sydney in the one phn 
Floreat Academia Sydneiensu '* 


Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., F.R.S., delegate of 
Oxford University, and Owen's College, Manchester, fol- 
lowed with an address expressive of the sentiments of the 
Universities of the Old Country towards similar institutions 
on our side of the globe. He spoke as follows : — "In the great 
majority of the congratulatory addresses presented to you 
to-day there will probably occur the words 'severed by the 
whole world.' It is this wide severance from the old world 
which renders it impossible for the Home Universities to be 
represented amongst you to-day by anyone actually holding 
high official position amongst them. They have thus been 
obliged to invoke the aid of their old alumni in these distant 
parts, and, through them, convey to you their kindly feelings, 
their congratulations on the past, and their most cordial hopes 
for the future. 

I have the honour of presenting to you addresses from 
the University of Oxford and the Owen's College, Manchester, 
and the yet higher honour of offering to you, on behalf of 
their representatives, the congratulations of the Universities 
of Great Britain, generally. 

Oxford and Manchester may be regarded as typical of 
two main aspects of University life and work in the Old 
Country. To those of us who know the Oxford of the pre- 
sent, especially to those of us who have profited by the width 
of her sympathies, it is difficult to realise that fifty years 
ago, when this University was being founded, the doors of 
Oxford were closed to those who could not conscientiously 
subscribe, or at least say that they did so, to the thirty-nine 
articles; nor within the walls of the older Universities was 
there any provision at that time for the teaching of subjects 
now regarded not only as of the highest importance, but as 
absolutely essential for the teaching of any University 
which lays claim to being abreast of the education of 
modern times. 


The Scottish Universities had always been more closely 
in touch with the people, and at a later period the older 
Universities in England removed the obsolete restrictions 
which not only narrowed their choice of students and teachers, 
but hampered and interfered with their work. Up to this 
time, science, except so far as it was represented by mathe- 
matics, was practically unknown in them; but now they 
welcomed new studies and new methods, and placed them- 
selves in close relation with the intellectual life of the 

It was also Oxford which, first, in the foundation of 
ToynbeeHall, made the attempt to carry the influence of 
University men out amongst the masses of a great metropolis 
— a movement which was the forerunner of what has since 
been called University extension work, which, whether it has 
or has not proved to be all the success which its promoters 
hoped it might be, was at least an honest attempt to bring 
the Universities into touch with the people. 

Undoubtedly the most striking event, from many points 
of view, in the history of the older Universities during recent 
years, has been the great bequest of Cecil Rhodes to 
Oxford. That a man of affairs, whose life had been spent 
in the midst of storm and stress, and the keen competition 
of modern times, should leave this money to be associated, not 
with one of the more modern Universities, but with the oldest 
seat of learning in Great Britain, is eloquent tribute to the 
fact that the close of the thousand and more of years which 
have passed by since the first hall was built beside the 
Thames, finds Oxford holding a foremost place in the active 
intellectual life of the modern era. 

It was here, in the beautiful and historic surroundings 
of colleges and gardens, whose very air of aloofness and 
withdrawal from the world gives them a charm of their own, 
that the man of the world thought it best that students of 


the Anglo-German race should be gathered together from far 
countries to gain knowledge in common, and be influenced 
by the genius of the place, so that, when it came to their 
turn to go out into the world, they might be better able to 
deal with men and with affairs. 

The influence of a University upon its students is only 
very imperfectly measured by the mere amount of know- 
ledge which they may gain, and the tie between an old 
student and his University is one which can never be entirely 
severed. There are not many men to whom it is possible 
to repay their debt to their alma mater, as Rhodes paid his 
to Oxford ; but there are very many to whom the knowledge 
that their old University keeps a watchful eye upon those 
who have been trained within her walls, and that any work 
of value which they may do redounds, however slightly, to 
the credit of their old University, acts as an incentive to 
•do and to give of their best. It is at least a keen pleasure 
to any worker in any branch of activity, whether it be 
politics or commerce, letters or science, to know that his old 
University feels proud to reckon him amongst her alumni. 
This link between a student and his University is naturally 
stronger in the case of the older Universities than it can 
be in that of younger ones; but, as time goes by, and as 
generation after generation of students passes out into the 
world, traditions begin to cluster round the old lecture rooms 
and laboratories, and in years to come the old Sydney man 
will feel to his University what the Edinburgh man now feels 
to Edinburgh, and the Oxford man to Oxford. 

At the time, rather more than fifty years ago now, when 
the older Universities were practically closed to all except 
the wealthy, it occurred to a far-seeing man, as then 
unknown, and not as we should call now a wealthy man, 
living in the centre of a large manufacturing population, 
that the time had come when it was right and proper to 


bring the teachings of a University to the doors of those 
who could not afford to, and many of whom were debarred 
by religions scruples from proceeding to, the older Universi- 
ties. In this way there was founded by Owens the college 
which now bears his name, and which has been the forerunner 
of others, such as those of Liverpool, Leeds, and Bristol, and, 
later still, the Birmingham University, which now play their 
part in bringing within the reach of the people that training 
which is essential to the success of a great nation. 

At this time, also, the Act of the Colonial Legislature 
incorporating the University of Sydney received the Royal 
assent. It seemed in those days a bold thing to attempt 
to establish a University College in Manchester. How much 
more difficult was the undertaking in a distant colony t 
Manchester was at least within easy reach of London, Edin- 
burgh, Oxford, and Cambridge. Old literature could be con- 
sulted, and new books procured as soon as published ; appara- 
tus necessary for scientific work was available on the spot; 
and, more important almost still, the teachers had the nearly 
indispensable advantage of easy intercourse with others who 
were engaged in the same class of work. In Sydney the con- 
ditions were completely reversed; old literature was non- 
existent; books and scientific apparatus by no means easy 
to secure; and the teachers were severed by the whole world 
from the centres of literary and scientific activity, and from 
all chance of intercourse with fellow-workers, and the stimulus 
to work which this implies. 

Fortunately, at the inception of this University, as well 
as at that of kindred institutions, there were men of big 
ideas, who could look ahead into the future, though possibly 
even most of them would be no less astonished than gratified 
if they could come back and witness the growth of the 
University, and wander through its halls and laboratories. 
In one respect they would certainly be astonished. In the 


Act of incorporation, mention is made of studies and degrees 
in the faculties of Arts, Law, and Medicine; but I believe 
that I am correct in saying that the word science does not 
once occur. I do not mean that there was no provision 
made for science teaching, but that, as was natural fifty 
years ago, science was regarded either in the form of mathe- 
matics, as part of an Arts course, or in the form of chemistry 
as an adjunct of a medical course. The idea of science pure 
and simple as capable of standing by itself, and as worthy 
to take its place side by side with Arts, Law, and Medicine, 
does not appear to have occurred to the founders. 

Without interfering with the due place which the repre- 
sentatives of science would freely admit must, if the Univer- 
sity is to be of high rank, be maintained for the liberal 
studies usually included under the name of Arts, the fact 
that in a newer University, such as this, science and pro- 
fessional studies must occupy a very large place, has been 
freely and generously recognised, and to-day Sydney possesses 
laboratories and equipment for the higher teaching of science 
and for research of which any University might be justly 

In the early days of its history, and, indeed, right 
through its course, the University has been intimately asso- 
ciated through its Senate and teaching staff with both the 
older and the new Universities at Home ; Dublin, Edinburgh, 
Oxford, Cambridge, London, Glasgow, and Manchester have 
all added their quota to the strength of the teaching staff. 

Not only has this University fulfilled the expectations 
of its founders in the high character of its teaching and the 
high standard maintained in ite examinations, sending out 
into active life men who, commencing with the first Premier 
of the Commonwealth, occupy positions of honour in politics, 
in the legal, medical, and engineering professions, and in 
commerce also ; but it has, in addition, fulfilled that other 


duty which is equally important with that of teaching; in 
fact, unless which be fulfilled, the teaching itself is not likely 
to be of the highest class, and that is, it has, by the re- 
search work of its teachers and graduates, added to the sum 
of human knowledge. By their work they have gained honour 
and recognition for themselves, and for the University a 
recognised position amongst the seats of learning. 

Naturally, in the early days, the almost entire absence 
of facilities for research, and the time and energy which had 
to be spent on organising and routine work, rendered work 
of this kind well-nigh impossible; but if the progress of the 
University during the next fifty years be commensurate with 
that of its first fifty, and more especially with that of the 
last two decades, then those who are fortunate enough to 
be present at the celebration of its first centenary will have 
sincere cause for congratulation. 

Just as vour science laboratories remind us of the newer 
order of things, so does this hall call to mind more than any 
other spot in Australia the historic buildings of the older 
Universities ; and, on behalf of those whom I have the honour 
to represent, I express the hope that, in combining the best 
of the old order with that which is best in the new, the 
record of this University in the future may be one of con- 
stant and brilliant progress." 

Considerable interest attached to the speech of Sir 
Samuel Griffith, G.C.M.G., M.A., Chief Justice and 
Lieutenant-Governor of Queensland, who spoke, as a success- 
ful man-of-affairs, of the value of an University training as 
a preparation for an active interest in the affairs of life. 
He said : — "I desire first of all to thank the governing body 
of the University for inviting me to be present on this 
occasion. I thank them for remembering me. I have been 
living now for many years in a part of Australia which 
is unfortunately almost a terra incognita for many people 


in New South Wales, though we there pride ourselves on 
knowing a good deal about you. I have felt some difficulty in 
considering from what point of view I should presume 
to address such an audience on such an occasion. I cannot 
exactly speak from the academic point of view, for, though I 
have the honour of being one of the oldest graduates of this 
University, I have never taken any part in its academical 
affaire, and hcve never even had the privilege of being pre- 
sent at a meeting of convocation. It occurs to me that I 
am better fitted to say a word or two on University affairs 
regarded from a somewhat different standpoint, not from the 
inside of the University regarding it subjectively, but from 
the point of view of one who has had the advantage of a 
University education, and has been in the world a not unobser- 
vant person, seeing what has been going on around him in 
the States of Australia. I should like to say a word or two 
on the Universities of the States, and how they are regarded 
by a large number of people in Australia. And, first, let me 
say, there is not a man in this building, or in Australia, 
who is more deeply indebted to a University training for any 
success he may have attained than myself. Whatever 
I have been able to do in the world I attribute almost 
entirely to the good fortune that brought me within these 
walls in the days when Dr. Woolley was Principal of the 
University. There are many people outside who ask 
what is the good of a University, and particularly 
from the point of view of the humanities, or the classical side. 
The notion is that young men, or young women, as it is now, 
go to a University, where they learn a certain number of facts, 
which they retain in their memory long enough to pass the nec- 
essary examination — or fail at it : They then go away and, to 
a great extent, forget all these facts. And people say, 'What 
is the use of his learning a little Latin, perhaps some Greek ; 
he has forgotten it all. How much better is he to the 
community than if he had never been there?' That is a 


way of regarding the matter which is very common. I know it, 
because I come from a State where there is no University, 
and I know all the arguments that have been used about the 
expenditure of money to give a higher education, as it is said, 
to a few persons. There is a great deal of truth in that criti- 
cism. After all, what a man learns at the University is com- 
paratively little. I myself must have learned a great number 
of facts when I was here, because I passed a great many 
examinations, and I am certain that of all those facts I 
scarcely retain any. Yet I say there is no man who went 
through these halls who is more indebted to the University 
than I am. Why? I will tell you why. It is not the learning 
of the facts, and the committing of them to memory, that 
is the real good. That is to say, they are merely a means to an 
end, as in the case of the training of the athlete. No man 
when he leaves the University is a properly-educated man. 
When Dr. Woolley was here we were all expected to know a 
certain amount of Greek. There was one word which was a 
favourite with him. It was the Greek word oirou&uo? 
which means 'earnest' and 'thorough* ; and if I usefully learn- 
ed any lesson here, it was mot the Greek and Latin words, or 
mathematics, or science ; but I had this very firmly impressed 
on my mind, that the duty of a man in the world is to be 
earnest and thorough in all he does. I claim to have learned 
that lesson, though I do not profess to be able to practise it. 
It is said that you can learn that just as well without going 
to a University. I am not so sure that you can. You 
can read it in books, and hear it preached in churches, but 
the daily influence of men like Woolley and Badham is the 
great benefit, to my mind, of a University as a national 
institution, as an element in national life, entirely apart 
from the mere scientific or practical side of it. In those days 
the University was not so richly endowed as it is now — 
though it might do with some more money even, now — but 
still I have been surprised to see the amount of work done 


with the limited means ; and it haa no need to be ashamed of 
the men it turned out. Of the men on the scientific side there 
is no need to speak. We know their value in the northern 
parts of Australia at any rate. There is another aspect of Uni- 
versity affairs as they affect the public. The late Dr. Creigh- 
ton (Bishop of London), one of the most distinguished prelates 
who has adorned the bench for many years, lately said : — 
4 The great defect in English life at the present time is 
the failure to apprehend the importance of knowledge in it- 
self, and as an element in the national life.' If that is true of 
England, with all its Universities, all its culture, and 
with all the culture that is expected from every 
man who attempts to take any prominent part in the affairs 
of the country, I venture to say from some observation of 
the affairs of Australia — and I have had many opportunities — 
that if the criticism is applicable to England, it is twofold 
more applicable to Australia. The great defect in Australian 
life is the want of apprehension of the value of knowledge in 
itself. When it comes to the exact sciences, everyone admits 
the importance of knowledge. You would not employ a surgeon 
unless you thought he had a competent knowledge of anat- 
omy. You would not employ a metallurgist — or they would 
not in Queensland — unless they were sure he had a knowledge 
of the subject. Even in what may be called the more material 
and less scientific branches of affairs, such as commerce, 
knowledge is appreciated. Who is the successful mer- 
chant? The man who makes himself acquainted with all 
the material facts, and applies his mind thoroughly to them. 
When you turn to the more abstract arts, shall I say to the 
highest art of all, the art of governing — for the art of govern- 
ing is the highest art of all, and affects the welfare of more 
human beings than any other — is it a matter of fact or not that 
the public expects to find competent knowledge on the part 
of persons who undertake the duty, a knowledge of the nature 



of the duty they have undertaken, and of the necessary facts I 
I fear not. But, after all, knowledge is not enough of itself, 
without an intelligent application of it. There is throughout 
Australia a want of accuracy in thought, a carelessness 
of expression. That is one of the great defects of 
the people; the work is done, but it is done after a 
fashion, and no one seems to think it is his duty to do his 
very best, and not be satisfied until he has done his best. Each 
thinks, 'Oh, that is near enough, it is as good as the other 
fellow did it, and no one ought to be dissatisfied.' Those are 
the lessons I used to learn — earnestness and thoroughness in 
the great duties of life. I believe these great lessons can 
only be taught effectually in a University, and by the men 
engaged there in teaching. It is because I believe in 
the importance of recognising the truth of the words which I 
have just quoted from the mouth of Dr. Creighton — the im- 
portance of knowledge, of an intelligent, thorough, and exact 
application of knowledge in all branches of human affairs — that 
1 have said these few words. I speak from the 
standpoint of one who, having himself had the in- 
estimable privilege of education in this University, has 
since had the opportunity of observing how public affairs are 
carried on. It may be that what I have said is not applicable to 
New South Wales ; I fear it is. It is applicable to most parts 
of Australia at any rate. We see men who with the best 
intentions, but with an imperfect knowledge, try to perform 
their duty. They are inadequately equipped for the purpose 
because of their imperfect knowledge. It appears to me they 
are undertaking a task very much like that of making mortar 
without lime. I believe the greatest and most useful lesson 
that can be taught in any University is the lesson of 
thoroughness and earnestness, thoroughness in the acquisition 
of knowledge and earnestness in its application. If the pub- 
lic understood that the probable effect of a University edu- 
cation wooild be to equip men in that way for the great duties 


of life, there would be very little said against the 
establishment of the University or its liberal endowment. 
It is all very well to say, as some people do, that a demo- 
cracy prefers to be governed by the ignorant. It does not 
prefer to be governed by the ignorant any more than does 
anyone else. It desires to be led by its best men. We are a 
democracy here, if ever there was a democracy in the world, 
and we are likely to be one. Let the leaders be the best 
men. Although there have been many distinguished men on 
the rolls of this University, there are not so many in public 
life as I should like to see. You have had some here ; we have 
had some in the north. You have supplied two Supreme Court 
Judges to New South Wales, three to Queensland, a Premier 
to Australia, more than one to Queensland, but in the Legis- 
lature the number of graduates of the University is fewer 
than I should wish. May I suggest to the graduates that they 
should endeavour by their conduct in life to lead the public 
to believe that, whether they have devoted themselves to the 
arts or the sciences at this University, the effect of University 
training has been to make them fitter men for conducting the 
affairs of the country, and for leading their fellows. Then 
they will be doing good service, both to the University and to 
their country. I desire heartily to join in the congratula- 
tions which have been offered to you by so many Universities 
throughout the world." 

Mr. Alexander Oliver, M.A., President of the Land 
Appeal Court, and one of the earliest students of the Univer- 
sity, made a short speech of a less formal nature than those 
delivered by the preceding speakers. He recalled "the early 
fifties." He drew upon his store of whimsical reminiscences. 
He compared old times with new. His address was as 
follows: — "Mr. Chancellor, your Excellencies, Ladies and 
Gentlemen, — I feel that I am occupying a place which would 
better have been allotted to that old and esteemed friend of 
mine, and fellow-student, whom I see sitting in the second 


row, only as a listener. The son of the great man who gave 
this State (then a colony) a Constitution, and, what, perhaps, 
is of more interest to us all to-day, a University — Fitzwilliam 
Wentworth — would much more fitly than myself have repre- 
sented the now nearly extinct twenty-four who, fifty years 
ago, were all the undergraduates of this University. But 
the Chancellor seemed quite serious when he paid me 
the unexpected honour of naming the duty which, with much 
pleasure, from one point of view, but with sorrowing reminis- 
cences from another, it now behoves me to set about wistfully 
trying to undertake. And those who know that Chancellor 
as I do, after the experience of many years of close friend- 
ship, know that, when he means what he says, which is not 
seldom, he generally arranges that his meaning is not to stop 
short at words — a characteristic of the 'way they have in the 
Navy' (we owe his coming here to that grand service), and 
also in the ' 'Varsity/ of which he is the honoured representa- 
tive this day. It was, as you see, an irresistible combination 
for me. And 'right here/ as they say on the other side of 
the Pacific, let me offer my respectful congratulations to the 
Chancellor, who, when I last saw him energizing in this 
Hall, was not yet Sir Normand MacLaurin, the well-earned 
name by which he will, with the applause of all good men, 
continue to be known, I trust, for many years to come. The 
Chancellor has already adverted to the losses in our ranks 
resulting from death, removal, and resignation; but as an 
old school-fellow and fellow-student, and a familiar friend of 
a lifetime, it is not possible for me to say how sadly I miss 
from this Jubilee platform one of our first students, who was 
our first graduate, first Parliamentary representative, and our 
last Chancellor — Sir William Windeyer. By his death, the 
first students of the University which he loved so well are 
reduced to six; but all of them may well be consoled for 
the appearance this day of our depleted roll by such an event 


as this we are met together to celebrate, even if, perchance, 
the strains of an Academic Nunc Dimittis are heard in the 
not far off distance by the few that are left. 

Their Naval Excellencies will, I hope, correct me if I 
misquote a phrase or saying that is said to be current in 
their service. It is that if any of the Admirals of old renown 
were allowed to step aboard the ships which now bear their 
names, so stupefied would they be by the magical evolution 
from the line-of-battleship of the end of the eighteenth century 
to the battleship of 1900, that they would even forget to salute 
their own quarter-decks! Well, something akin to the feel- 
ings of these old Admirals would be the condition of a Sydney 
undergraduate of 1852 re-visiting his Alma Mater, after an 
absence of half a century! 

Will you bear with me for a few minutes while I try 
to bring into comparison a very few features of the past and 
the present of this University. And first consider the change 
of site and buildings. In '52 we of the first contingent 
attended the Professor's lectures in class-rooms in the base- 
ment of the Sydney Grammar School, in College Street, and 
some feet below its level, in cellars. They were true and 
earnest University missionaries, those first three Professors, 
Dr. John Woolley, Morris Birkbeck Pell, and Dr. John 
Smith ; but oh ! what sort of material and place did we offer 
them for the exercise of their educational powers ! The 
average of our ages would be about 16 or 17 ; the average 
of our knowledge about that of an indifferent fourth-form boy 
in (say) the present Sydney Grammar School. Very soon 
those Professors discovered, to their dismay, that their func- 
tions would be something between a private coach for a boy 
whose education had been neglected, and the tutor of a 
small English University Hall. The University lecturer was 
for the future. I can well remember, for I happened to 
sit next to him, on a form facing, our first Professor of 


Classics, when, rather unexpectedly, my neighbor was put on 
to construe a passage in the first book of Livy. The words 
were, 'Caput obnubito — infelici arbori reste suspenditio.' 'Cut 
off his head/ said the translator, "to an unhappy tree hang 
up the rest of him/ The Doctor glared sorrowfully at my 
friend, and, as was his habit at lectures, opened and shut 
the blade of his penknife very ominously, but was too stag- 
gered to do anything more than give forth a long and deep- 
drawn sigh. We had some very liberal translators in those 
days, and, for aught I know to the contrary, our beloved 
Doctor reckoned me up as one of them. After the Classical 
Lecture came the Mathematical; when Professor Fell would 
use up all the resources of his seductive manner and 
methods to coax us to tackle a simple equation, or some 
mathematical problem of equal obscurity to us, it is hardly 
thinkable how we must have vexed the soul of that good 
Senior Wrangler. Then there was Doctor Smith, from 
Marischal College, Aberdeen. He lectured on Chemistry 
and Physics, and I fear we remembered too often against 
him those interesting experiments which did not come off as 
they ought to have done — the red precipitate would precipi- 
tate itself blue or green; but then there was always in 
attendance the Professor's Demonstrator — Burrows, the 
University Bedell — and the Professor's well-repressed anger 
on these untoward occasions naturally fell on the Bedell 
Demonstrator. Lastly, there was poor Hugh Kennedy, the 
Registrar — a kindly, scholarly Balliol man, on whom often 
fell the duty of assisting Dr. Wocdley as Classical Lecturer. 
We had Shakeaperian readings of an evening in those days, 
at which a frequent participator was our venerable Benefac- 
tor, Dr. (now Sir Charles) Nicholson; likewise other sym- 
posiac entertainments to encourage us. For in those early 
years there was a very raw embryonic feeling haunting us. 
The University had not yet got into touch with our people; 


almost all looked askance at it, and as to us, if we ventured 
outside the precincts of the Park, into George or Pitt Streets, 
people stared at us, habited in our strange academic pro- 
perties, as if we had been Daimyos of Old Japan. Mean- 
while, the politician was never tired firing off his jibes at us 
in Parliament; the clergy saluted us as the novices of a 
godless institution ; we were to be a ridiculously costly failure, 
whose education at a University was an intolerable burden 
on the taxpayer. And this state of things lasted too many 

I had left Sydney for Oxford when in Governor Denison 3 
proconsulate, the Royal Charter put this University on the 
same level, in regard to Degrees, as the old Universities of 
England. The Charter marks the date of our entry into the 
goodly society of recognized Universities; and thenceforward 
jibes and jeers were to lose all their siting. Yet still the wealthy 
squatter and merchant hesitated to send his sons to join our 
colours ; and it remained for that great man — Charles Badham 
— to talk, and laugh, and beat down the prevailing aloofness. 

There was but one Faculty in those early days — Arts — 
equipped with three Professors and one Bedell. Demonstra- 
tors there were none; for the State Endowment was but 
£5000 a year, and that was begrudged us. Now we rejoice in 
the possession of four Faculties — having added Medicine, Law 
and Science. We have fifteen Professors and the same number 
of Demonstrators. Counting Lecturers and Tutors, the Teach- 
ing Staff now numbers no fewer than eighty men and women. 
Last year our Students numbered close on 700, and our Gradu- 
ates 1548, while the Roll of Convocation showed 1271 names. 
True, we have lost parliamentary representation, but we have 
gained the inestimable boon of the Woman Student. And 
still there are several Chairs which we cannot think of estab- 
lishing for want of funds. So that the occasions for achieving 
immortality are ready to hand; and indeed there is any 
amount of roam in our University, hampered as she often is 


by want of pence, for the operations of Aristotle's MeyaXoirpeinjs. 
We cam do with quite a number of them ; and their names will 
be registered and their gifts chronicled in our ' Golden Book 
of Worthies/ by Mr. Barff, in company with the honoured 
names of Challis, Wentworth, Russell, Fisher, Macleay, and 
the rest of our Benefactors. 

The eloquent and persuasive speakers who have preceded 
me — and for this you should be duly grateful — have exhausted 
some topics that otherwise might have been too tempting for 
me to resist. Expansions in all directions meet our eyes ; no 
novelties to the men of 1902, but very much so to those of '52. 
For example, the Affiliated and Women's Colleges, the excel- 
lently-equipped Laboratories, the Library, the Scholarships, 
Bursaries, Museums, Exhibitions, this magnificent Hall, and 
the great pile of buildings now adorning what we knew as 
Grose Farm ; and last, but not least, we have undertaken that 
most momentous problem, the higher education of the Lady 
Voter, and the diffusion of sound, but not too serious, views of 
academic life, by means of an unsubsidized "Hermes/ But 
neither your time nor patience could sustain any further 
drafts — if justice were to be done to these topics — and I 
must leave them. 

The remnant of the First Contingent, whom I have the 
honour and privilege to represent, deeply appreciates all the 
kind words our visitors have spoken of our University of 1902. 
Yet, if I may take the liberty of differing from so distinguished 
a Visitor and former Student of Sydney as Sir Samuel Griffith, 
and if I have not misunderstood him, our roll of men who have 
deserved well of their Alma Mater, and also of the State, is 
not quite so short or unimportant as he appeared to think. 
He himself holds high rank among the five Eminent Judges 
who have been our contribution to the Supreme Court Bench 
of this and other Australian States. To the District Court 
Bench we have given at least half-a-dozen highly-accomplished 
Lawyers. We have educated, academically at least, several 
Ministers of the Crown. Two of our Graduates adorn our Pro- 


f essorial Staff, and we have been able to spare at least four or 
five Distinguished Graduates to sister Universities. Astronomy 
owes Henry Ghamberlayne Russell to this University; and 
how many eminent King's Counsel and Members of each 
branch of the legal profession, how many practising medical 
men of distinction, how many engineers and other votaries of 
Science, the same benign mother can count as her offspring ; 
and whether reckoned in number or value, we all know, but 
make no boast of; but her children have certainly not been 
niggardly of the dpkirrpa due to her for their intellectual 
nourishment when it is remembered, as in fairness it should 
be, that for well-nigh half the years of her existence, Sydney 
University was not a word to conjure with, but a peg for dis- 
paragement, a place that it was popular to belittle, and the 
fashion to avoid. 

That it has been allowed even to so few of the Students of 
1852 as six to have outlived that bad period, and) to behold 
this great gathering of sympathizers from nearly every portion 
of the Civilised World, which is concerned with the higher 
education of men and women, is matter for our profoundest 
gratitude and appreciation. We are not at the same time un- 
conscious of our shortcomings; and we trust that our visitors 
will not fail to tell us candidly wherein they have discovered 
us to be weak or behind the times. Therefore, to each Pro- 
fessor or representative of a British, Foreign, or Australasian 
University, while saluting them with the heartiest of welcomes 
on behalf of the First Contingent, I would) take the liberty of 
quoting those well-worn Horatian lines : — ' Si quid novisti 
rettius i&tis candidus imperii.' I may not> however, complete 
the quotation, and add — ' Si noi\, his utere mccum ' ; for those 
words would better come from the mouth of one of our Public 
Teachers more intimately connected, than myself, with the 
work and methods of our University." 

At the call of the Chancellor, three cheers were given for 
His Majesty, King Edward the Seventh, and for Queen Alex- 
andra. Cheers were also given for His Excellency and Lady 


Rawson; for the Universities; and for Sir Normand MacLau- 
ria. The Students mug " Gaudeamus Igitur" with great 
heartiness, to the organ accompaniment of Mr. A. JL Mote ; 
and the proceedings terminated with the National Anthem. 


In the evening the visitors to the University were enter- 
tained at a dinner given by members of Convocation at Shad- 
ier's Rooms. There was a large assemblage, comprising many 
gentlemen distinguished in political, social and academic 
circles. The Chancellor of the University presided, and among 
those present, in addition to the visiting delegates, were : — His 
Excellency Rear-Admiral Sir Lewis Beaumont, K.C.M.G. ; the 
Right Hon. Sir Samuel Griffith, G.C.M.G. ; the Hon. B. R. 
Wise, B.A., Attorney-General of N.S.W. ; the Members of the 
Senate and Professors, and most of the Teaching Staff of the 
University, together with a large number of members of Con- 

The following toasts were honoured: — The "King," pro- 
posed by the Chancellor ; the "Governor-Genera! and Common- 
wealth/' proposed by the Chancellor, and responded to by the 
Honourable Senator R. E. O'Connor, M.A., Vice-President of 
-the Executive Council of the Commonwealth of Australia; 
the "Governor of New South Wales," proposed by the Chan- 
cellor; the "Navy and Army," proposed by the Hon. Sir 
Arthur Renwick, B.A., M.D., and responded to by Vice-Ad- 
miral Sir Lewis Beaumont, K.C.M.G., Naval Commander-in- 
Chief of the Australian Station, and Colonel G. R. Campbell, 
M.A. ; the "Ministry and Parliament," proposed by His Honor 
Judge Backhouse, M.A., and responded to by the Hon. B. R~ 
Wise, B.A., Attorney-General for New South Wales, and the 
Hon. J. H. Carruthers, M.L.A. The toast of the "Universi- 
ties" was proposed by the Hon. Mr. Justice A. H. Simpson, 
M.A., Vice-Chancellor of the University, and responded to by 
M. Le Goupils, Delegate from the University of Caen ; Pro- 
fessor E. von B. Bensley, M.A., Professor of Classics in the Uni- 


versity of Adelaide; and E. B. CargiH, Esq., Vice-Chancellor 
of the University of Otago, New Zealand. The toast of the 
""University of Sydney" was proposed by the Honourable Mr. 
Justice Clark, Vice-Chancellor of. the University of Tasmania, 
supported by James Hay, Esq,, M.A., Delegate from the- Uni- 
versity of New Zealand, and responded to by the Honourable 
Senator R. E k O'Connor and Professor Francis Anderson, M.A. 
The toast of the "Chairman" was proposed by Fitzwilliam 
Wentworth, Esq., M.A., and the proceedings terminated. 



At 11.30 o'clock on the morning of Wednesday, October 
1st, a large audience assembled in the Great Hall to listen to 
Professor MacCallum's address on "University Influence." The 
chair was taken by the Chancellor, and among those seated on 
the dais were the visiting delegates, the Vice-Chancellor (Mr. 
Justice A. H. Simpson), the Right Hon. Sir Samuel Griffith 
(Lieutenant-Governor and Chief Justice of Queensland), Dr. 
Sydney Jones, and Judge Backhouse. 

Professor MacCallum was received with applause, and 
heard with undivided attention by the audience. He said : — 

Mr. Chancellor, Ladies and Gentlemen, — 

In regard to most Universities it may be difficult to say 
what was the motive cause that brought them into existence, 
the germinal idea from which they have grown. Such is not the 
case with the University of Sydney. Whatever we may owe 
to the pious aspirations and tentative efforts of his predecess- 
ors, it is with Wentworth's intervention that our history 
begins ; and he has left a clear and unmistakable record of the 
conception he formed of the function of the University, the 
conception that enlisted his energy, influence and eloquence on 
behalf of the scheme. 'As he told the Council when recom- 
mending to them what he said would be "their crowning act,*' 
"their crowning mercy," the new institution was "to enlighten 
the mind, to refine the understanding, and to elevate their 

This then is the raison d'etre of Sydney University, not 
merely a characteristic that has belonged to it from birth, but 
the very principle of its life ; what in certain by-gone systems 
of philosophy would have been termed its virtue or its form. 
Doubtless a corporate organism is not quite the same as an 


animal organism. The latter, however much it may be 
affected by its habitat, its food, the thousand and one chances 
of its environment, can never lay aside its original nature or 
change into something else. The former, with the same name 
and much the same resources and personnel, may have its pur- 
pose so altered as to be barely recognisable. Still it will sel- 
dom altogether break with its history or belie its origin, and 
in the present case it has not dbne so. 

It is perfectly true that the University of Sydney now 
possesses professional schools, in all of which one object is to 
enable the student to earn his living, and in some of which one 
object is to increase the material resources of the State. But 
the justification of these in the economy of the University is 
that their training, by the knowledge it involves and the 
methods it enforces, has its own place in a system of advanced 
instruction. Not only in the theoretical sciences and the 
liberal arts, but in the practical departments of Medicine, 
Engineering, Law, Mining, and in others that may yet be 
added, it is claimed that the requisite discipline promotes 
such insight into principles, such exact observation, calcula- 
tion and inference, as themselves constitute an intellectual 
education. No one is less competent than I from experience to 
form an opinion on such a subject, but I venture to support 
the assertion of those who are better able to do so ; for it seems 
pretty clear that there are very many mansions in the house of 
culture, and very many doors to each, moving "on such strange 
geometrical hinges that you may open them both ways," as 
well by theory as by practice ; and that access to them is af- 
forded both by general knowledge and by specialism. 

I assume then that the purpose set forth by Went- 
worth is still being fulfilled and is still the main purpose 
of the University. It is combined in various measures with 
other purposes, but this is an essential element in all depart- 
ments and a piedominant element in some. 

40. WiroiSBITY JUBtLBB; 

Now, is this, as it. ought to be? There are not-wanting inr 
this* community ajuLin the general community of the- English 
speaking rasas, critics; to disparage precisely this, which we take 
to be the distinctive note of: the University: If one could get 
them to utter their real thoughts they would say that the pur- 
suit of material affluence ought to be- the first object of all who. 
are still without it, and that with a view to this they should 
mould their lives. In so- far as advanced teaching minister* 
to this, they would tolerate it, but they would scan its claims 
to help man ia the race for riches with grave suspicion, and all 
of it that could not be shown to pay, in the most literal sense 
of. the word, they would reject. 

That such are the latent sentiments of many I feel sure 
from this, that they have received quite frank exposition in the 
writings, of a self-made millionaire, who is no mere worshipper 
of Mammon,, but a credit to his class, a man of active philan- 
thropy, with some real width of outlook, with no small gift, of 
literary utterance, What Mr. Carnegie, the munificent foun* 
der of libraries in the United Kingdom and the United States, 
the benefactor of the Scottish Universities, the author of books; 
which, whatever else one may say of them, are written* with 
great directness and vigours— what he says on such a subject 
may well be taken as expressing the feeling of large- numbers 
with whose opinion the Universities have to reckon. And when 
he says it, hedbes not, to use the homely German metaphor; 
wear a leaf before his mouth. No doubt he owns that the Uni- 
versity, course may be a good! thing to the leisured classes and 
a necessary thing to the professional. No doubt he even owns 
that it may give "higher tastes- and aims" and "a world to 
enjoy, into which the mere millionaire can never enter;" But 
these admissions are after-thoughts, which Mr: Carnegie 
seems to insert on reviewing his spontaneous utterance. He is 
too able a man not' to see their urgency, but they do not come 
to him when he is putting his case, and they do not affect the 


drift of fata argument. His ideal is* the "fortunate poor young 
man" who, by honourable and; assiduous efficiency, which heme 
influences, and innocent recreations keep in due repair, amasses 
a huge fortune, and 1 then employs it for the benefit of his 

F think this is a fair statement of Mr. Carnegie's attitude. 
It appears in advice like thisp : "Do i not rest content for a mo- 
ment in your thoughts as head-clerk or foreman, or general 
manager* in any concern, no matter how extensive. Say each 
1*> yourself, my place is at the top. Be King in your Dreams. 
Make your vow that you, will reach that position with untar- 
nished reputation, and make no other vow to distract your at- 
tention ;,: — except the vow of marriage, when you can afford it. 
To fit a man for the strain thus imposed, Mr. Carnegie incul- 
cates a taste for reading, though, if on subjects apart from his 
occupation, chiefly as a relaxation, and therefore chiefly for the 
reading of novels, good works of fiction, "being when one is 
exhausted in mind and body, and especially in mind, 1 ' among 
the best means of enjoyment and rest ; and he gives a very good 
list of novelists from this point of view. Finally, in regard to 
the attainment, he adds the weighty admonition : "As an end 
the acquisition of wealth is ignoble in the extreme. I assume 
that you save and long for wealth only as a means of enabling 
you the better to do some good in your day and generation." 

These things- then seem to give the gist of Mr. Carnegie's 
ideal. I am ondy, for convenience sake, taking him as a typical 
figure, as the franker and abler exponent of views that are less 
articulately held here, there, and everywhere ; so I do not in- 
tend to discuss how he works out this ideal in details. 
Jn them it would be* easy to show, as some of his 
critics Have done, a good many odd contradictions and mis- 
takes. Thus he has an unmitigated contempt for the past, 
especially for the classical past, of which it is permissible to- 
suppose that he knows very little, and of which he affirms that 


its "chief province is to teach us not what to adopt, but what 
• to avoid," while its history is made up of the "petty and 
insignificant skirmishes of savages 1 ' : but nevertheless he has 
a good word to say for Milton, half of whose inspiration, ma- 
terial and manner, is of classical origin. He makes no secret 
of looking down on the "salaried graduate, 1 ' who yet, on his 
own admission, may, with his "higher aims and tastes," be a 
much more useful person than his millionaire master. He 
rashly asserts that "from the cottage of the poor all these 
(i.e., teachers, martyrs, statesmen, poets, and men of affairs) 
spring"; which, of course, is mere claptrap. Inspiration, 
like the wind, bloweth whither it liBteth, and in point of fact, 
the great achievements in the history of human progress are 
the monopoly of no particular class. Mr. Carnegie has been 
somewhat roughly dealt with for blunders like these. Really, 
he was bound to make them, starting as he does from his ideal 
of the fortunate poor young man, cheered by family affection 
and refreshed by light literature, struggling by honourable 
means to wealth which he will use for social aims. 

Now I wish to say at once that this seems to me an ideal 
worthy of all respect. It is infinitely preferable to no ideal at 
all, to an existence "everything by starts and nothing long," 
drifting this way and that, without anything to give it consist- 
ency and meaning. And it is infinitely preferable to some 
other ideals. The mere pursuit of wealth is better 'than the 
mere pursuit of pleasure or ease or comfort : apart from the 
additions it brings to the world's stores, it involves in the pro- 
cess something at least of strenuousness, concentration, self- 
control. And this gospel of the modern millionaire does not 
preach the mere pursuit of wealth. Its attainment is limited 
by moral provisoes ; it is accompanied by the humanising influ- 
ences of the domestic circle, and at least by some of those of 
literature ; it is dignified with the prospect of using the riches 
acquired for the benefit of mankind. 


Moreover, it is an ideal that has done much for us as a 
race. Substituting sermons for novels, and, I fear, deducting 
something from Mr. Carnegie's diffusive liberality, it is not 
unlike the spirit that for more than two hundred years has 
animated the bulk of the British nation and that has carried 
British commerce and colonies all round the globe. We cer- 
tainly do not wish that spirit to flag. We are filled with ap- 
prehension at any symptom of its doimg so. The grasp of the 
British Empire and its constituent States and its constituent 
members, on the industrial and mercantile world needs to be 
tightened rather than relaxed, and one of the problems of the 
time is to infuse new intelligence and efficacy into the methods 
of its enterprise. 

It would be childish to mistake the significance of all this. 
It is not merely the jingoism of trade, the pride of purse in a 
nation of shop-keepers, that inspires such feelings. It may be 
desirable to supplement this appreciation of the value of 
wealth with other considerations, but in itself it is perfectly 
legitimate and perfectly right; and will probably continue to 
subsist as an element in any general scheme of living. For the 
tendency of the modern spirit in Europe and in communities of 
European origin is to recognise that the results of a higher 
civilisation are not to be divorced from material resources. In 
no department can an adequate standard be reached unless the 
individual or the community is possessed of a certain measure 
of opulence, which again implies successful, earnest and unre- 
mitting effort and thrift. Socially there cannot otherwise be 
any great amelioration in the condition of the people. It is 
no apostle of trade or materialism, but the poet Heine who 
says : — "We have measured lands, weighed the forces of nature, 
calculated industry ; and, lo, we have found that if we all work, 
and don't live one at the cost of the other, this earth is big 
enough to offer every man room to build on it the cottage of 
his content, and that we need not refer the larger and poorer 


slaa* t* Heaven" a* tfae oxd y- pboar whew they « W happy . 
Or is tfce iirttUectual domain of science, tie suttkr researches, 
into nature, involving as they do costly laboratories and appa- 
ratus, are impossible without accnmnlafaon of capital in private 
or public hands. It is the same with the elevated enjoyments 
of art; how without wealth are any, far leas many, good pic- 
tures to be made accessible f Even books, the cheapest and 
most universal medium for the transmission of spiritual treas- 
ures, are not to be had in any sufficiency and variety, save in 
libraries that can only be provided by the power of gold. Take 
even the typical examples of those who, in modern times, have 
lived for the contemplative life and reduced their physical 
wants to a minimum. Take Spinoza, earning a frugal liveli- 
hood by polishing optical glasses that he might be unfettered 
in his thought; or Wordsworth communing with nature among 
his mountains, and content with the coarsest clothes and the 
simplest fare. Would they have become what they were with- 
out the study and travel for which their early resources fur- 
nished the means? And would they have been, able to carry out 
their programme but for the fact that the one lived in a weal- 
thy community, for whose highly specialised wants he catered; 
and the other was made independent by the generosity of a 
wealthy friend? Turn where you will, you find that though the 
human spirit may assert its infinitude in the austerest reetric- 
tions, though in Hamlet's words, it might be bounded by a nut- 
shell, and not only be counted, but be, " a king of infinite 
space/' yet to realise its possibilities, to attain its full deve- 
lopment, it must have command of this material world. 

And yet admitting all this, I think we feel that there is 
something wrong about Mr. Carnegie's doctrine. It is a doc- 
trine congenial to the age and tacitly held by very many, and' 
it is not without its cogency and nobility. Still, "make it 
your vow, and your only vow, to be at the top," with whatever 
qualifications, is not so inspiriting an appeal as has sounded in* 
the ears of the young men of other generations, whom prophets; 
apostles, poets, patriots, sages exhorted to count gain as dross, 


and vow themselves to fatherland, or liberty, or truth, or re- 
ligion. I do not think it is quite so satisfactory as the ideal 
which Wentworth promulgated for this institution, to enlight- 
<en the mind, to refine the understanding, and to elevate man- 

For, in the first place, as one who is not a mam of affaire 
may be excused a certain malicious gratification in pointing 
out, it is a little visionary, a little sentimental and fantastic ; 
it shows a certain deficiency in practical common-sense. There 
ds no infallible prescription that will turn a man into a million- 
aire. As was truly remarked by Iago three hundred years, age, 
'"We cannot all be masters." If the young men Mr. Car- 
negie was addressing were so innocent and so romantic as to 
take him at his word, and register their solemn oath to attain 
wealth, or in his own expression, to become "Bosses," nothing is 
more certain than that tfoe majority of them must be disap- 
pointed. Such a disappointment would be a small matter if 
they had not given their hearts to the golden dream. If they 
had set their affections on other things and trained their minds 
to an intelligent participation in the various interests, whether 
of pleasure or duty, that lie at the doors of us all, they would 
find i!t very tolerable to move in a subordinate sphere during 
their business hours, and put up with plain living plus high 
thinking in their leisure. This would be the resource of others 
of whom Mr. Carnegie has a low opinion, those who pray, 
"Give me neither poverty nor riches," and divide their lives 
between the various calls of our multiple human nature. Their 
ambition is practicable, and the chances are that they will 
realise it. But I fear that most of those who have narrowed 
their outlook to the one particular end of self-aggrandisement 
will have small reason to thank their monitor. In their hallu- 
cination of millions, they will sacrifice the modest happiness 
that could nourish and satisfy their souls ; and one might say 
to them as the old gentleman in Rabelais said to Picrochole of 
his design to conquer a thousand kingdoms : "I am very much 
afraid that all this enterprise will be like the farce of the milk- 


jug, with which the cobbler made himself rich in his day- 
dreams ; and then, the jug being broken, had not the where- 
withal for his dinner." 

Even in the cases where the purpose is accomplished, one 
questions if it is a very desirable thing. We need not consider 
the danger to character which absorption in the pursuit of ma- 
terial success brings with it; for the hypothesis is that this 
danger has been victoriously withstood. We are to assume that 
"the Boss" has won his millions with hands unstained and 
heart unchilled, and is now eager to apply them liberally. But 
admitting all this; admitting that he is an upright man, a 
good family man, one who has studied his own business and 
read for recreation, and is actuated by the purest philan- 
thropy, does it follow that he will wield his power aright! 
For remember that his money gives him enormous power. The 
millionaire is, if he likes, the plutocrat. He is the uncrowned 
king of modern society, and the divine right by which he 
reigns is acknowledged by thousands of loyal subjects as fully 
in republics as in monarchies, perhaps even more so. 
Now, granting his commercial rectitude, his domestic virtues, 
his business efficiency and his goodwill, is he the fittest person 
to hold such sway ? Mr. Carnegie himself is an admirable ex- 
ample of the type he describes. Yet surely his munificent gift 
to the Scottish Universities might have been more productive 
of good had it been freed from some of the conditions that his 
rather subjective estimate of the circumstances and his mis- 
appreciation of certain great interests imposed. He has his 
severe limitations, and he has been able to make his own cap- 
rices count more than it is expedient that they should. In one 
place he advises professors and professional people : "Do not 
invest in any business concerns whatever ; the risks of business 
are not for such as you." It is sensible advice, as some of us 
have reason to know. But in countries like Germany, where 
a wonderful system of education is organised by experts, not 
by amateurs, he might possibly receive the advice in return : 
"Do not try to legislate on any academic matters whatever ; 


the problems of Universities are not for such as you." Such 
an answer would be impossible in a British community, for in 
all departments we refuse to admit the infallibility of the ex- 
pert and allow great scope to the mother wit of the individual. 
Both systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. 
One of the disadvantages of ours appears most strikingly when 
a private opinion, however honestly held, receives undue in- 
fluence merely on account of the wealth of its advocate. For 
not all who have the means and will for princely beneficence, 
have the wisdom to direct it to the best ends, or, like our 
own Challis, the equal wisdom to sink any fads of their 
own, and put their resources without limitation at the dis- 
posal of those who may be expected to know. I believe that if 
Challis himself instead of his mere marble counterfeit could be 
present to-day, he would look round on us well pleased that 
the Senate had used his unrestricted bequest to promote the 
study not only of science, theoretical and applied, but of such 
ideal subjects as mental philosophy. Generally, however, 
the Emperor of Business will be a little apt, like other empe- 
rors, to insist with the best intentions on having his own 
crude and arbitrary notions enforced. How many instances 
have we of pernicious charities and crotchety foundations! 
And Mr. Carnegie's panacea, that the plutocrat should donate 
the money in his lifetime, instead of bequeathing it at his 
death, seems likely to make things worse rather than better. 
For it prevents the lawyers from exercising their philanthropic 
ingenuity in getting more good out of the benefaction than the 
benefactor intended. 

The truth is that the cult of material success, as a univer- 
sal, or, indeed, an ordinary principle, means, even with such 
qualifications as Mr. Carnegie sees fit to introduce, a displace- 
ment in tbe true order of human interests. As he himself can 
be shown to admit. He stipulates that wealth shall be 
honestly come by and that it shall be usefully employed. 
He says that he assumes these things. They are thus his 
presuppositions, essential and indispensable, and as such they 


nave the prior claim. The one is the condition and postulate, 
{the other the purpose and goal; both, therefore, take pre- 
cedence of any scheme of means. But the honesty and good 
will are moral qualities, and the ability to use wealth bene- 
ficently implies intellectual enlightenment. So it turns out 
that these matters, after all, must be the prime objects of the 
ideal fortune builder. And if only the author of the "Empire 
of Business" had made this explicit to himself, he would have 
seen things in their true perspective, and given them in their 
proper sequence. Amended to meet the necessities of the 
case, his message would have become, so to speak, a modernised 
version of the old precept : "Seek ye first the kingdom of God 
•and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto 
you." And of the truth of that, very often for the indi- 
vidual, and almost always for the community, there can be no 
doubt. How do we account for the material advance of 
Germany in the beginning of the 20th century, but by the 
sturdy morality of her people, and the tenacity of thought 
and depth of vision that were taught her by her philosophers 
and poets, her Hegels and Fichtes, her Goethes and Schillers, 
at the beginning *>f the 19th? And these possessions count 
more than any physical prosperity. The Germany of 1802 
was divided, unequipped, poor. It could be said of her that 
while France had' the empire of the earth, and England the 
empire of the water, she had only the empire of the air. The 
Germany of 1902 has unity, authority, resources : she has her 
armies on land, and her^fleets at sea. And yet, perhaps, the 
future historian of civilisation will consider that the world 
owes more to the Germany of a hundred years ago than to 
the Germany of to-day. 

But not only are the things of the spirit productive of and 
superior to the things of sense, they supply the only tenure 
by which we can hold them. If we swerve from the more 
ideal aims, 

" Little thinking if we work our souls as nobly as our iron," 
the result will surely be the loss of the tangible wealth ve 


prize. Ladi9s and gentlemen, I wish you to remember that 
such views are not merely a devout imagination of the dreamer, 
the enthusiast, the recluse, but the sober conviction of every 
thinker worth the name who has touched on these questions 
at all. I suppose it would be difficult to find a mind more 
immersed in practical interests than Bacon ; in some ways the 
most typical philosopher of our race; that one, at any rate, 
who for a long period most fully expressed the national cha- 
racter. His object is to make philosophy rich and powerful, 
he despises solitary meditation, he hopes to extend the King- 
dom of Man ; i.e., his control of the resources of nature. Well, 
even in Bacon, you will find running through his treatises 
and essays and aphorisms a hearty homage to the disinterested 
pursuit rather than to the palpable result. Here is his 
mature opinion on wealth : "I cannot call riches better than 
the baggage of virtue — the Roman word is better, impedi- 
menta; for aa the baggage is to an army, so is riches to vir- 
tue : it cannot be spared, nor left behind, but it hindereth the 
march ; yea, and the care of it sometimes loseth or disturbeth 
the victory." In the same spirit he has a contempt for those 
who prefer the experiments that bring fruit to the experi- 
ments that bring light; say, for those who think more of the 
inventions of Mr. Edison than the discoveries of Lord Kelvin. 
He summarily dismisses the judgment of Midas, "that, being 
chosen judge between Apollo, president of the Muses, and 
Pan, God of the flocks*, judged for plenty." Midas, you will 
remember, was the millionaire of his day, whose touch turned 
all things to gold, and who, for the very judgment to which 
Bacon refers, was accommodated with a pair of ass's ears. 
And of those who are too eager for immediate and positive 
gains, ho says : " Like Atalanta they leave the course, to pick 
up the golden apple, interrupting their speed, and surren- 
dering the victory." 

I think, then, that not merely poetical and idealistic high- 
flyers, but Bacon, with his naturalism and experimentalise, 
would agree with Wentworth as to the function of the XJni- 


versity, "to enlighten the mind, refine the understanding, and 
to elevate mankind." 

I should like to say a word or two on these points. En- 
lightenment of the mind and refinement of the understand- 
ing — these refer, in the first place, to the intellectual influ- 
ence which the University should exert. The elevation of 
mankind refers rather to the ethical and social influence. 

Now the intellectual influence cannot better be sfiummed 
up than in the word culture. It is a word that one is rather 
shy of using, since it has been appropriated by the " superior 
person," for whom we have all, I trust, a becoming detestation. 
But it is a good word, too good a word to resign to such hands, 
and it is the only one that serves my present purpose. Do 
not be afraid ; I am not going to try to give you a definition 
of culture. I only wish to point out that it has at least two 
important aspects, and that these are indicated respectively by 
the two intellectual influences which Wentworth says this 
University should exert, the enlightenment of the mind and 
the refinement of the understanding. 

What gives light to the mind is knowledge. But know- 
ledge, though more or less of it is implied, is not the same 
as culture. We may have a knowledge of many facts, even 
of laws and principles, and remain quite uncultured people. 
The result may be merely the accumulation of comparatively 
useless and unvitalised information. A man may be a walk- 
ing encyclopaedia, and yet be only a pedant — for there is a 
pedantry in science and the professions, as well as in scholar- 

Refinement of the understanding, on the other hand, 
refers rather to the mental activity itself. It is the process 
by which the intelligence is made a finer, a subtler, a more 
delicate instrument. And this, too, is required in culture, 
but is not the same. thing. We have, doubtless, met many 
very clever persons, who are capable of the most dexterous 
intellectual gymnastics, whom we should refuse to call cul- 
tured men. 


As inert knowledge leads to pedantry, so formal adroit- 
ness leads to sophistry. And each object, when pursued merely 
for itself, defeats its own aim. .Knowledge, when not intelli- 
gently manipulated, soon ceases to be discriminating, confuses 
the great and the small, and thus, in a world where there is 
an infinite number of things to be known, misses the most 
important, and really becomes ignorance. A barren and 
empty cleverness, again, loses its grasp, forgets how to distin- 
guish between the show and the substance, the plausible and 
the true; and ends in a fatuousness that may rightly be 
called stupid. 

Now, of culture, whatever more may be said, I think 
we may say at least this : that in it each of those elements 
is present — in various proportions, it may be, but always ini 
such a way that each saves the other from corruption, and 
enables it to fulfil its own end and the end of both. Know- 
ledge is not merely obtained and inserted, but is so assimi- 
lated by the mental process, that it passes, as it were, into 
the blood of the intelligence, and thus maintains and equips 
it for the acquisition of new truth. And the intelligence 
does not revolve in the void, consuming its own machinery, 
but is so exercised on the realities of things that it is not 
merely an activity but a storehouse. Knowledge that has 
life, motion, growth; intelligence that has seriousness, verity, 
substance — these, IJ think you find in all true culture; and if 
that is so, there is no reason why we should be ashamed of 
the word. 

Now this culture, according to our first great spokesman, 
it is the function of the University to create or increase. 
Surely he was right in this. In each one of its departments 
it has the double task, of imparting knowledge — but knowledge 
that will kindle with its own heat ; and of enforcing a mental 
drill — but a drill that will prepare less for the parade than 
for battle and conquest. To fulfil this twofold object must at 
least be the aspiration of the highest educational institution 
in the State. And it cannot be questioned that such culture 


in both of its aspects — as knowledge, from the direct intuitions 
of poetry to the reasoned demonstrations of mathema- 
tics — ae training, from the disciplined observation of science 
to the disciplined sympathy of criticism, tends to the elevation 
of human nature. But when we talk of elevating mankind 
we generally mean something more directly practical than 
this. And what is 1 the moral somewhat that the University 
is, in the second place, specially summoned to supply? Of 
course every activity and every organisation has some kind of 
bearing on conduct ; and I shall not weary you with an enu- 
meration of the various modes in which University pursuits, 
like all other pursuits, have their conscious or unconscious or 
reflex action on character. What we have to consider is, 
whether the University has anything to give in this regard 
that cannot be attained so well or so fully elsewhere. Has 
it a distinctive contribution to make to the influences that 
go to form the good man and the good citizen ? Ladies and 
gentlemen, I think that it has ; and this was a point on which, 
if I may be allowed the reminiscence, in my own student days, 
the Principal of my old University failed not to insist. The* 
members of a University form a society that, in some im- 
portant respects, differs from most other societies in this worka- 
day world, and differs from them in being more rational and 
ideal. The youth who compose it are held together by the 
similarity, that permeates all difference of detail, in their 
aims and methods. They are directly or indirectly equip- 
ping themselves for life by the enlightenment of their minds 
and the refinement of their understandings. And not only 
is there thus a oneness of spirit seldom found elsewhere; the 
bond of union is surely a peculiarly noble and beautiful one. 
Neighbourhood, race, force, defence, gain have had a good 
deal to do with the formation of other communities ; but in 
this the principla of combination is supplied by the intellect 
itself. There ought, therefore, to be, I rejoice to think that 
there is, among our undergraduates a sense of citizenship in 
no mean city, a high spirit of fellowship that comprehends 


and pervades their various groups, that is mot hindered but 
fostered by their honourable rivalries, and that culminates be- 
tween individuals in those University friendships which we, 
the University men of an older generation, can tell you are 
among the grand prizes of life. And in accordance with its 
origin, the arrangements of this society are more rational 
than those we find in the rough make-shifts of ordinary exist- 
ence. The polities of the world are only gradually organising 
themselves by the rule of right reason. In them the possession 
of title or birch, of wealth and influence, of blatant impudence 
and unscrupulous push, accidents or irrelevances or veritable 
defects, often weighs heavily against the claims of real desert 
and ability. It is not so in the Platonic Republic of the 
University. It is a republic which one may call an aristo- 
cratic democracy. The career is open to everyone, and pre- 
eminence goes to the capable ; merit is all in all. The student 
who does well will come to the front ; the idle or incompetent 
will fall to the rear. Of course even here there are quali lo- 
cations to be made. So far as academic distinctions are con- 
•oerned, the test is for the prescribed studies and at a par- 
ticular stage of mental growth. It no doubt occurs that the 
youth who has most in him does not always take a foremost 
place, because, for instance, his gifts demand another field, or 
because his mind is slower to mature. But in the particular 
thing at the particular time, the machinery of the University, 
allowing for the limitation of human faculty, does provide for 
the promotion of efficiency, and — which Huxley considered 
even more important — the demotion of inefficiency. And if 
it occasionally happens that the meritorious fails of his 
due in the lecture-room and the examination hall, there are 
the comitia out of doors, athletic, social, technical, literary, 
where, if he have it in him, he has the opportunity of "wield- 
ing at will our fierce democracy." 

Well, the whole constitution of our society seems to me 
more perfect than that of almost any other that could be 
named. One might without irreverence describe it as a Civitas 


Dei, the divine pattern to which other hbunan societies 3lowly 
tend. And I cannot hut believe that membership for three 
years or more in this ideal republic, which is founded on reason 
and right, mu3t remain an inspiring and effective memory in 
later years, when our youth go forth as graduates to do their 
part in perfecting the State, the Commonwealth, the Empire 
of fact, in which they are to live and work. 

This aspect of the University is indeed so characteristic 
that from it the name is derived. The Universitas meant the 
society, the community, as though the circumstance of the 
fellowship between the members were the one essen- 
tial thing. And yet it has another side, which is 
perhaps even more important still. When I was 
young, the original meaning of the word was gene- 
rally forgotten, and it was popularly explained as referring 
to the universality of the knowledge which a University 
imparts. The gradual displacement of the old meaning by 
the new seems to me' most significant; for, despite the deri- 
vation, this is the idea which in point of fact we associate 
with a University now. And observe, when we think of this 
universality, we do not mean a mere omnium gatherum of 
subjects, "a litter ..of facts/' a "bazaar," or "cattle fair," to 
quote Newman's vigorous expressions in reproof of such a 
conception. We imply that there is a certain order and 
connection in the sum of the parts, so that together they form 
what Bacon finely calls a globus intellectualis, an intellectual 
world rounded and complete. This aspect of the University 
as a whole may not indeed be prominently before the con- 
sciousness of the individual student, who is working at a par- 
ticular group of subjects or at a typical selection) from several 
groups; but even such fractional studies imply it, and the 
sense of it is about him and above him. He only needs to 
stand up and look round, and it will be borne in on him at all 
hands . 

And I do not know whether this special influence is more 
for the mind or for the heart, whether it makes more for 


culture or for conduct ; but I am sure it is helpful to both. 
This ordered system, this hierarchy of universal knowledge and 
teaching, brings home to us the solidarity of the various 
departments of human existence : because the same principle, 
the same reason, the same inner necessity, underlies and inter- 
penetrates them all, in some more externalised and therefore 
more demonstrable; in others, more pervasive, and therefore 
harder to grasp. It is present in the relations of space, 
number and motion; in the free mechanism of the heavens, 
and the applied mechanics of men. The physicist traces it in 
the processes of heat and light, of electricity and magnetism ; 
and the chemist in the action of his elements and compounds. 
It has moulded the history of the world as revealed by geology, 
and works in the organic life of plant and animal. The same 
rational law inheres in the structure of the human body, and 
its behaviour in health and disease. In the human mind it 
appears identical yet different, and in all the objective cre- 
ations of that mind, its speech, its laws, its 1 literature, its specu- 
lations ; in their development in history ; and in the history 
of the human race ; and it reaches! something like completion 
in the account that philosophy gives of itself. In short, the 
University, which is greater than all its members, greater 
than all its faculties, aims at giving a synoptic view of human 
knowledge. Doubtless it is far from doing so. It has many 
lacunae, and even in the departments which it recognises, the 
building is never finished, is often unfurnished, and even of 
temporary materials. Nevertheless, it is a witness to the 
totality of civilised man's view of the world, as that view is 
a witness to the totality of the world itself. With all its im- 
perfections it testifies to the connection and completeness of 
that other greater Unwersitas, the All, of which we are petty 
parts, yet of which it is our prerogative to form some concep- 
tion. And we cannot say whether this great spectacle is 
more stimulating to the intellect or to the heart. To the 
intellect ; for it furnishes an ideal, which we may, if we like, 


dedicate ourselves to fallowing further in each special branch, 
without losing ourselves in special research, or forgetting that 
it is only one degree in the scale of being. To the heart; for 
it brings home the insignificance of each of us, and! yet his 
dignity in being privileged to conceive the whole, in which he 
is included, and even in a sense co-operate with its activity. 
Let me illustrate the sort of influence these considerations may 
have in enlightening the mind, refining the understanding, 
and elevating human nature, from the words of the old Eliza- 
bethan, who devoted his life to giving his countrymen an ac- 
count of what Mr. Carnegie calls those "petty skirmishes of 
savages" which Homer described, and who, in his original 
work, was animated with the thought of that past which, we 
are told, only teaches us "what we should avoid." This is what 
the "religious and temperate" Chapman, in proud humility, 
deemed the sum "of all the discipline of manners and of man- 

" A man to join himself with the Universe, 
In its main sway, and make (in all things fit) 
One with that All, and go on round as it, 
Not plucking from the whole his wretched part 
And into straits or into nought revert, 
Wishing the complete Universe might be 
Subject to such a rag of it as he : 
But to consider, great necessity 
All things, as well refract as voluntary, 
Reduceth to the prime celestial cause ; 
Which he that yields to with a man's applause, 
And, cheek by cheek, goes crossing it no breath, 
But like God's image, follows to the death — 
That man ia truly wise." 

Well pleased with the mental fare provided by Professor 
MacCallum, the audience then departed to enjoy physical re- 
freshment, and to prepare for the Harbour Excursion, given 
by the Teaching Staff. 



Shortly after 2 p.m. the Pore Jackson Company's S.S. 
Kuring-gai left the Manly Wharf, Circular Quay, with about 
400 guests on board. The ladies were slightly in the majority, 
and the effect of the many bright and beautiful springtide 
costumes was strikingly picturesque. First the boat ran 
in a northerly direction as far as Cockatoo Island at the en- 
trance of the Parramatta River, a spot of historical and scien- 
tific interest, as well as of considerable beauty. Then the 
course was altered, and a trip was made past the thickly- 
populated suburbs of the North Shore, round Bradley's Head 
and the harbour defences of the bluff of Middle Head, and 
far into the hill-shetlered winding waterways of Middle Har- 
bour. Thus the guests were given an opportunity of seeing 
the remarkable natural advantages of our harbour, its mag- 
nitude, its complexity, its multiplicity of roadsteads, and its 
manifold beaiuty. Afternoon tea was served on the main 
and upper decks, while the main deck forward had been fitted 
up as a smoking-room for the gentlemen. The enjoyment of 
the outing was largely increased by the excellent music dis- 
coursed by the Vice-Regal Military Band, under the able 
conduct of Mr. L. de Groen. The following programme was 
rendered: — 1, Grand Overture, "Light Cavalry" (Supp£); 2, 
Grand Selection, "Carmen" (Bizet); 3, Gavotte, "La Cigale" 
(Audran); 4, Grand Selection, "Runaway Girl" (Caryll); 5, 
Valse de Concert, "Casino Tanze" (Gung'l); 6, Grand Selec- 
tion, "Faust" (Gounod) ; 7, Excerpt, "The Geisha" (The Jewel 
of Asia) (Jones); 8, Grand Selection, "Les Cloches de Corne- 
ville" (Planquette) ; 9, Valse de Concert, "Belle Nita" (Tro- 
t§re); 10, Festival March, " Tannhauser " (Wagner); 11, Grand 
Selection, "Bohemian Girl" (Balfe); 12, Fantasia, "Reminis- 
cences of Scotland" (Godfrey). An early return was made to 
the city, and the Kuring-gai was once more moored at Circular 
Quay at about 4.30 p.m. 



In the evening a Conversazione was held at the Univer- 
sity. It was attended by an immense crowd of visitors, in- 
cluding the delegates, representatives of the army and navy, 
and of the political, social, artistic, professional, and commer- 
cial world of Sydney, and very many members of Convocation 
from every quarter of the State. Guests were received by 
the Chancellor in the Great Hall. Academic dress naturally 
predominated among the costumes and the degree-hoods of 
various faculties and institutions gave variety to a particularly 
brilliant scene. Among those present, in addition to the 
visiting delegates, were His Excellency the Visitor of the 
University (Sir Harry Rawson) G.C.M.G., C.B., His Excellency 
Sir George Clarke (Governor of Victoria), Lady Clarke and 
Miss Clarke, His Excellency the Naval Commander-in-Chief 
(Sir Lewis Beaumont) and Lady Beaumont, the Hon. Sir Nor- 
mand MacLaurin (Chancellor) and Lady MacLaurin, Brigadier- 
General Finn, the Heads of the affiliated Colleges,* and a large 
number of graduates. At about half-past 8 o'clock His 
Excellency Sir Harry Rawson, at the invitation of Professor 
Anderson Stuart, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, unveiled 
a portrait of the Chancellor. This picture, executed by the 
English artist, Mr. Ronald Grey, during a recent visit to 
Australia, is an excellent likeness. It shows Sir Normand 
MacLaurin in profile at three-quarter length, seated in his 
robes of office. While performing the ceremony, the Gover- 
nor explained that the portrait had been presented to the 
University by subscribers^, to effect the preservation, in that 
Hall of Fame, of the memory of a great benefactor to the 
University of Sydney — a man who had given time, and 
thought, and labour, steadily and continuously, to the higher 
education of the State. The Chancellor responded suitably. 

Ranged upon tables along the wall of the Great Hall were 
a number of valuable exhibits. The attention of the guests 


was particularly attracted by the imposing array of congratu- 
latory addresses from other Universities, upon many of which 
artistic taste and skill had been lavished to good purpose. 
The Hall was connected with the Macleay Museum by a cano- 
pied and carpeted passage, blazing with electric light, and 
decorated with the flags of all nations. In the Museum, which 
was similarly adorned, supper was provided. The surround- 
ings were not those usual on such occasions, but the spirits 
of the guests seemed to be in no wise damped by the presence 
of natural history specimens — by the sinister silence of bottled 
snakes, or the grim pleasantry of human skulls. After sup- 
per the visitors made a tour of the scientific laboratories. 
Experiments were conducted for the gratification of the guests. 
The paths between the different departments were lined with 
festoons of flaglets and electric globes. In the Great Hall 
an excellent programme of music was provided by the Vice- 
Regal Orchestra, conducted by Mr. L. de Groen, and the organ, 
played by Mr. A. R. Mote: — 1, Grand Overture, "Dicht and 
Bauer" (Von Suppe), V.R. Orchestra and organ; 2, Organ 
Solo, Introduction Act III. "Lohengrin" ('Wagner) ; 3, Grand 
Selection, "The Geisha" (Jones); 4„ Intermezzo, "La Czarin'* 
(Ganne) ; 5, Song (Cornet Solo), "The Lost Chord" (Sullivan), 
ace. by V.R. Orchestra and organ ; 6, Organ Solo, "Commemo- 
ration March/'" Op. 37 (A. R. Mote), composed in honour of 
the Jubilee, and dedicated by kind permission to the Chancel- 
lor, Sir Normand MacLaurin ; 7, Grand Selection, "The Run- 
away Girl" (Caryll); 8, Grand March, "University Jubilee" 
(Mayer), orchestra and organ, composed in honour of the Jubi- 
lee of the University, and dedicated by kind permission to the 
Chancellor, Sir Normand MacLaurin ; 9, Organ Solo, "Concert 
Rondo" (Hollins); 10, Gavotte, "Melanie" (Lincke); 11, Fes- 
tival March, "Tannhauser" (Wagner), orchestra and organ; 
12, Valse de Concert, "Madame Sans Gene" (Lane) ; 13, Organ 
Solo, "Mazurka," Op. 10, No. 1 (Elgar) ; 14, Grand March, 


"The Bride Elect" (Sousa). On the Science Square the New 
South Wales Police Band, under the conduct of Mr. William 
George Bentley, played a number of selections. 



On the morning of Thursday, October 2nd, Professor 
Anderson Stuart addressed a large audience, at the Medical 
School, on the subject of "The Majority of the Medical 
School." He spoke as follows : — 

To find the origin of the Medical School we must go back 
to that of the University itself, for, as we shall see, the eventual 
establishment of a Faculty of Medicine was always contem- 
plated by the founders of the University, and it appears to 
me impossible that Dr. Henry Orattan Douglass, whose share 
in founding the University will presently be explained, could 
have worked so faithfully for the establishment of the Univer- 
sity without thinking of hi3 own faculty, as something neces- 
sary to its full development and usefulness, and he is the first 
person of whom it is recorded that he took a step ultimately 
leading to the foundation of the University. 

We learn in a letter, printed for private circulation, 
written by Mr. Francis Merewether, Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity in 1865, that Dr. Douglass had been a resident and an 
official in the colony, and that he was a physician of long 
standing, who had practised his profession in France, in which 
country Mr. Merewether had known him. The Doctor had 
left the colony for a time, but returned in charge of an immi- 
grant ship, and from that time, Mr. Merewether says, the 
foundation of a university became apparently the chief object 
of his thought, and he discoursed on it frequently and 
earnestly. He says : " Partly because of our former acquain- 
tance, and partly, perhaps, because he found me more sym- 
pathetic than most of his hearers,, I came in for much of this 
discourse. Ho knew that I was in the confidence of the 
Governor and the Colonial Secretary, and on one occasion he 



formally asked me to endeavour so far to interest them in the 
project as to induce them to take action at once. I declined, 
because I knew well that, though they would both feel great 
interest in the object, they would, in that stage of the colony's 
existence, regard any movement in the matter as premature. 
But I added that if he was in earnest in his desire for 
immediate action, his best course would be to interest his 
friend Mr. Wentworth ; and I ventured to add, that if Mr. 
Wentworth could be induced to take the matter up, and gain 
the necessary support of the Legislature, he would have the 
support of the Government. Mr. Wentworth did take the 
matter up warmly, and through his active exertions an Act 
to Incorporate and Endow the University of Sydney was 

The first Senate consisted of 16 Fellows-, nominated by 
the Governor in 1850. A vacancy having occurred in 1853, 
Dr. Douglass was elected by the remaining members of the 
Senate. Why Dr. Douglass was not nominated to the original 
Senate I have not discovered, but when one reads the account 
of the quarrel between him and Marsden, as given in Rusdlen's 
History, and when one learns that the Governor had so much 
trouble in making up the list of the original Senate, that the 
passing of the Act of Incorporation was actually, on that 
account, delayed for a whole year, it is not difficult to imagine 
that there may have been political motives for the omission of 
his name ; but it is significant that the newly-appointed Senate 
should have taken the first opportunity of co-opting him. In 
the same way he was omitted from the first Legislative Council, 
although the part he had taken in public life justified him in 
expecting to be included. This omission he felt — though he 
afterwards did become a member of the Council. 

He appears to have been a man of great activity of mind 
and body, and there were few things of public concern that 
happened under Governors Brisbane, Darling, and Gipps in 


which he had not a share. As a young man he was in 
charge of a regiment in the Peninsular War. Then he saw 
service in the West Indies until 1812, when he returned to 
his native Ireland. He now joined a band of philanthropists 
who sought to ameliorate the condition of prisoners, and was 
a personal friend of men whose names are well-known in the 
annals of philanthropy — Fry, Hoare, Gurney, and Allen. 
It was this association which brought him to Sydney, where 
he probably thought he might find an ample field for his zeal 
and plans. It was he who introduced into the colony the 
law of limited liability in commercial partnerships, and that 
which abolished public executions, long before these measures 
were adopted in the old country. He took a prominent part 
in the organisation of most of the charitable and educational 
Institutions of the colony, and his last effort was a project for 
taking better care of the blind. He was a member of that- 
Building Committee of the Senate which settled the plans of 
the University and rejected the first design, which was for a 
brick building with stone facings; and in this connection it 
is interesting to record, what is known to few, that one of the 
two coats-of-arms carved on the south side of the Great Hall 
is that of Dr. Douglass (the usual Douglass arms, man's heart, 
etc., with motto "Forward"), and on a boss in the stringcourse 
over it, and on the end of the label mould, are carved his 
initials, H.G.D. (The other coat-of-arms is that of Sir Stuart 
Alexander Donaldson.) His obituary notice in the Sydney 
Morning Herald says not a word as to his connection with the 
University; for that we had to wait 33 years, since Mr. 
Merewether wrote in 1898. This obituary notice concludes 

thus : — 

To have lived a long and useful life, with no great faults ; to have 
maintained the reputation of benevolence for half a century, by numberless 
acts of kindness, daily repeated ; to have added something, by cheerfulness 
of temper, to the pleasures of society ; to have enjoyed the confidence of 
some of the best beings that ever lived on earth, is to have given and enjoyed 
much compensation whether for good or evil. This was, indeed, the lot of 


Dr. Douglass, whose cheerful voice and kindly humour and instructive 
conversation many among us will regret that they will hear no more. 

Could that have been written of anything but an un- 
common man? 

My own attention was directed to Dr. Douglass' name 
(which is perpetuated by that of Douglass Park, where he 
resided) by a mere chance conversation with a lady who„ in 
answer to my recent enquiries, writes : "My grievance, and 
that of Mr. Arthur a'Beckett, and also that of good old John 
Hubert Plunkett, was that Dr. Douglass was so utterly ignored 
in all record of the establishment, founding and inauguration 
of the University, and it was frequently said how much of the 
burden and heat of Wentworth's day of fame and work con- 
cerning the University was borne by Dr. Douglass. It seems 
to me appropriate that a word or two for one of your own 

profession should come from you." This word I have now 
spoken, and these circumstances, with other evidence, seem 
to show that Dr. Douglass had a great deal to do with the 
founding of the University, and that it was he who moved Mr. 
Wentworth to effectual action. 

What I have said about Dr. Douglass does not detract 
from the merit of Mr. Wentworth, who, beyond all question, 
was the man by whose eloquence the Legislature was moved. 
But how far Mr. Wentworth was the mouth-piece of public 
opinion, let him tell in his own words, when moving the second 
reading of the University Bill. "It is not I, it is not you, who 
are the originators of this measure: It has origin without 
these walls — in the depth of public opinion — and we are only 
the active agents to give that opinion force and effect." 

Three other members of the Profession of Medicine had 
to do with the actual founding and organisation of the new 
University. One is Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. ; the others 
were Professor John Smith and the first Registrar, Dr. 
Richard Greenup. 


Sir Charles Nicholson, now almost in his 96th year, 
arrived in Australia as far back as 1834, and, a Doctor of 
Medicine of my own university, the University of Edinburgh, 
he practised his profession in Sydney more or less continuously 
until 1862, when, having also successfully engaged in the 
pastoral industry, he returned to England. He was threa 
times Speaker of New South Wales, and was the first Speaker 
of Queensland. He was not only a member of the original 
Senate, of which he is the only living member left, but he 
was also one of the Select Committee of the Legislature 
appointed to consider the best means of instituting a uni- 
versity, so that he has been connected with the institution 
from the very commencement of the enterprise. 

In the absence of the Provost it fell to him, as Vice- 
Provost* to deliver the first "annual address" at the opening 
of the University, in what is now the Grammar School, in 
Hyde Park, and a great and eloquent speech it was. Soon 
after this Sir Charles became Provost in name, as he had been 
in fact, and the Amendment Act, which changed the title of 
Provost to that of Chancellor, having been passed in 1861, 
Sir Charles was the first to bear the title of Chancellor, as he 
had been the first officer of the University, because he as 
Vice-Provost had been elected to that office a fortnight earlier 
than the first Provost had been elected to his office. He was 
one of the committee by which the plan of the buildings was 
considered, and of the committee which selected the first books 
placed in the Library at a cost of £500. It was he who, by 
his own munificence, and that of friends moved by his exer- 
tions, secured the stained glass windows and the carvings in 
the Great Hall and the staircase, and his was the gift of the 
noble Collection of Antiquities which bears his name. During 
a visit to England in 1858 he succeeded in obtaining a Charter 
for the University from Queen Victoria. He presided as 
Provost at the opening of the Great Hall in July, 1859. 


He appears, in fact, to have been everything and every- 
where in the founding of the Institution, and we are not to 
suppose that it was all done without the usual difficulties. In 
his own words, before the 1859 Committee, to be* afterwards 
referred to : " I can assure the Committee that, having taken 
no inconsiderable share in the initiation and subsequent man- 
agement of the Institution, I have had practical and painful 
experience of the difficulties and disappointments attendant 
upon such a task." How very true all that is I can testify 
from experience in similar undertakings. 

Though absent from the colony for 40 years, his interest 
in the University has continued unabated to this day, and 
our hearts went out to him when we learned, three years ago, 
that one winter's night, when the ground was deep in snow, 
the old man was aroused from his sleep by the cry of " Fire !"' 
The house was quickly burnt to the ground, but Sir Charles 
has lived to build a new mansion, with the old name, on the 
old site. He has lived to see even the majority of the Medi- 
cal School,, which, as we shall see, he strove so hard to estab- 
lish. Full of years and of honours, a Doctor of the Civil 
Law of Oxford, Doctor of Laws of Cambridge, and a Baronet 
of the United Kingdom, may he enjoy life to the end, in his 
own way, amid his books and his pictures ! 

Professor John Smith, a Doctor of Medicine of the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen, was the first Professor of Chemistry and 
Physics., and was one of the first group of three professors, the 
other two being Professors Woolley and Pell. He took a 
great part in the superintendence of the building operations 
of the University, and during the whole 33 years of his pro- 
fessorship he was a zealous, though cautious, promoter of public 
education, and of the public good. 

Dr. Richard Greenup, M.D. (Cantab), the son of a sur- 
geon, and whose wife was a niece of Sir Benjamin Brodie (the 
great surgeon whose picture is in the Sydney Jones window), 
was the first Registrar, and rendered valuable services in the 


-administrative arrangements of the young University. On 
resigning his office, after two years only, he took charge of 
the lunatic asylum at Parramatta, where he was killed by one 
of the inmates in 1866. 

The connection of the Profession of Medicine with the 
earliest days of the University is thus seen to have been most 
intimate indeed. As I have shown, Dr. Douglass moved Mr. 
Wentworth, who himself was the son of the surgeon at Norfolk 
Island, and was born there; Mr.. Wentworth moved the 
Legislature, and Dr. Nicholson moved heaven and earth, for, 
to quote from Mr. BarfTs book, " while Wentworth is recog- 
nised as the University's founder, it was the untiring energy 
of Nicholson which placed it upon its firm base." Add now 
Dr. Smith, who superintended the building operations, and 
Dr. Greenup, who helped so much in the first administrative 
•arrangements, and all the men most intimately associated with 
the founding of the University were also connected with the 
Profession of Medicine. 

If one seeks to apportion the credit, my study of the cir- 
•cuinstances leads me to the following conclusions : — Sir Char- 
les Nicholson and Dr. Douglass were probably foremost in 
fostering that public opinion to which Mr. Wentworth refers, 
but neither of these men appears very much on the surface : 
Nicholson because of his official position as Speaker, and 
Douglass because he appears to have been a man of strong 
individuality, and, therefore, with a good many enemies as 
well as many friends, and somehow or other the inimical and 
official element seems to have predominated against him in 
his relation to the University. So soon as the Senate could 
bring him forward, they did so by electing him as a member 
of their body. When the Legislature had done its share of 
the work, and its chairman (the Speaker, Nicholson) was free 
to act, we see that he does act publicly, as he had probably 
been doing on the quiet all the time. Mr. Wentworth had 
apparently, quite independently, ideas of a University, yet 


he was not the active man who kept the ball rolling for its 
establishment; he was the Legislator who intervened, as a 
Barrister might intervene in a case before a Court of Law, 
but that he did his portion of the work magnificently well we 
must all admit. It is really not very easy to differentiate 
the shares which these three men had in the founding of our 
University; Douglass appears to have been first in time, 
Nicholson in work„ Wentworth in public > advocacy. Let us 
not seek to separate them further, but be grateful for what 
they did together. 

From the days of Sir Charles Nicholson no medical man 
occupied the position of Chancellor until 1896, when the pre- 
sent distinguished occupant of the office, the Honourable Sir 
Normand MacLaurin was elected to the chair. Long may 
he live to fill it ! So long will the University prosper. 

The first scheme for the establishment of the University 
came absolutely to grief. The Military Barracks were in the 
first half of the last century situated where Wynyard Square 
is now, hence the name Barrack Street. The Government 
decided to remove them to Paddington, where they now are, 
and to sell the site of the old barracks. The proceeds of this 
sale Mr. Wentworth urged the Government to devote to the 
foundation of a university, but his efforts were unsuccessf ul, 
and the scheme lapsed. 

At a later date, after a passing occupation of what was 
the Sydney College, and is now the Grammar School building, 
Barrack-square was considered as a site for the University 
buildings, but the Domain was preferred by Sir Charles Nic- 
holson. Grose Farm, where we now are, was accepted by the 
promoters as the only place they could get; but Nicholson 
wisely remarked, in 1859 : " Admitting that it is now Bome- 
what remote from the populous parte of the town, I think, 
looking to the future, the site is most admirably chosen."' 
Have not his words come true? 


There was a great deal of public discussion, and even 
commotion, as to whether the University should be a teaching 
or merely an examining body in Arts, Law and Medicine, 
like the then rewly-established University of London ; whether 
or not it should in any way be connected with religious teach- 
ing and examination ; whether or not Clerics should be eligible 
for a seat on its governing body, or for appointment as Pro- 
fessors. But in the end the Legislature appointed a Select 
Committee in 1849, to consider and report on " The best 
means of instituting a University for the promotion of Litera- 
ture and Science, to be endowed at the public expense." This 
committee recommended the institution of the University, and 
five Chairs to commence with. Of these one was " Anatomy, 
Physiology and Medicine." Another chair which had been 
contemplated was that of Natural History, and it i3 a thou- 
sand pities, so far as we are concerned, that this chair was 
not established then, for, if it had, Thomas Henry Huxley 
would have been one of our first Professors. In Huxley's 
Life, published by his son, we read in a letter to W. Macleay, 
" you won't have a Professor of Natural History — to my great 
sorrow." "Had the Sydney University been carried out as 
originally proposed, I should certainly have become a candi- 
date for the Natural History Chair. I know no finer field of 
exertion for any naturalist than Sydney Harbour itself. 
Should such a Professorship be hereafter established I trust 
you will jog the memory of my Australian friends in my be- 
half." Our certain gain, however, would probably have been 
the world's loss, for I much doubt if the environment in 
Sydney would have served to develop the* Huxley, that he 
eventually became. The chair was actually established in 

The Act of Incorporation received the Royal assent on 
October 1st, 1850, and we can but admire the greatness of the 
little band of gifted men, who had thus successfully struggled 
for the University, and who at that time were leading spirits 
of the colony, which numbered only 189,341 souls, scattered 


over an area eight times the size of the British Islands, and 
of which the capital city of Sydney contained only 54,000 

The devotedness of the founders stands out in high relief 
when we read the Report and Evidence of the '59 Committee. 
This was a Select Committee of the Legislature, which sat in 
1859-60, and which was appointed with hostile intent towards 
the young University. It had no less than 26 sittings, and 
this alone shows how serious the position was. A member of 
the Committee was that vigorous, masterful man, the Rev. 
Dr. John Dunmore Lang, who had already publicly referred 
to the University as a "notable abortion" ; and since the 
animus displayed by some members of the Committee against 
the University was so marked that Sir Charles Nicholson com- 
plained of it to the Committee's face, we need not be sur- 
prised by an adverse finding of the Committee. Adverse it 
truly was. It says — "That the University has not yet realised 
the expectations of the public seems clear, and it is also 
evident that great mistakes have been made with respect to it. 
A large amount of unnecessary expenditure has been incurred 
in an attempt to raise here, all at once, buildings not at 
present required, on a scale of magnitude which, in other 
parts of the world,, has almost invariably been the growth of 
ages. Your committee cannot recognise the correctness of 
the principle on which the Senate originally acted in project- 
ing such a structure. If architectural display is calculated to 
cultivate and' improve the youthful taste, the greatest care 
should be taken to exhibit it in its purest form. But amid 
diversities of taste, style, beautiful in the estimation of some, 
may be regarded as barbaric by others. And perhaps it may 
be well asked how the griffins, unicorns and other monstrous 
shapes, which have been selected as decorations for the 
University, can serve to develop a high type of architectural 
taste.' ' These words from the Report I read aloud yesterday 
to the said monstrous shapes. They received the words in 


silence, but not without evident emotion : some smiled, 
some grinned, and some were manifestly disgusted. The 
Report goes on to condemn the Affiliated Colleges, and re- 
commends their entire and immediate abolition, lock, stock, 
and barrel. Everything that had been done was attacked 
in spite cf almost unanimous evidence to the contrary. The 
Report was based upon the prejudices of the members of the 
Committee rather than upon the e\idence given before it. 
It is interesting reading that Report, read in the light of subse- 
quent event3. The Chairman spoke of the building being 
sufficient for "a couple of hundred years !" 

Sir Charles Nicholson was asked if the University, owing 
to the small number of students in attendance, had not failed 
to realise expectations, and if it was not premature. He 
replied : "I think the reflection is upon the colony rather than 
upon the Institution. I think if you had waited longer you 
would have had greater difficulty in establishing it. I think 
the colony would have sunk into a still greater degree of 
apathetic indifference and want of appreciation as to the 
advantages of such an institution." 

The real answer to that Report is the "day we celebrate," 
but since, when the same architectural style was under con- 
sideration for the Medical School, I was met, after the lapse 
of a quarter of a century, with precisely the same sort of 
criticism, even yet occasionally heard, I might be permitted to 
refer to the matter somewhat fully, generally in the words of 
Sir Charles Nicholson^ and specially in those of Sir William 
Windeyer, when they were being examined before the Com- 
mittee. Sir Charles said : "If you determine to erect a public 
edifice according to the style of any given epoch or country, 
you must carry out that style in all its appropriate details 
. . . although they may be regarded, in point of utility, as 
altogether supererogatory .... unless you determine 
to erect something like a Quaker Meeting-house or a Factory, 
in which you discard all ornamentation whatever. But I do 



not apprehend such a design would have met the approval of 
the colony at large." Then specially when Mr. Black — 
ominous name — asked Sir William Windeyer, "Do you not 
think students might derive quite as much inspiration from 
the calm perusal of the works of men of genius as from the 
contemplation of those figures on the walls of the University? 1 ' 
Sir William Windeyer : "I think that the student would study 
with a great deal more enthusiasm, and more abstract atten- 
tion or devotion to his studies, if surrounded by buildings 
of fine architectural appearance than he would if reading in 
a barn." The Chairman asked : "Do you think Homer was 
inspired by the buildings of Greece ?" " No ; but I think that 
the Greeks were in a great measure inspired with a love of 
their country from the love of the fine buildings around them. 
We read it in Thucydides. I am speaking of the most glorious 
period of Grecian history, when Pericles himself, pointing to 
those buildings, reminded them that their existence was one 
of the causes of the love of their country." By Dr. Lang : 
"There were no such buildings in Homer's time?" 
Windeyer : "No." The Chairman : " Then Homer's divine 
genius was not at all inspired by the buildings of Greece?" 
Now was Sir William's chance, and he took it. " Perhap3 
so ; but the poetry of Homer may have inspired the Greeks 
to build those buildings !" 

It is quite clear that, from the continual mention of 
teaching and degrees in Medicine, a Medical School was in 
contemplation from the very beginning, and the Act of 
Incorporation and the Charter empowered the University to 
grant medical degrees. These degrees were granted by the 
Senate upon the report of a board of eight Examiners, the 
first members of which were Dr. Charles Nathan, Dr. 
a'Beckett, who had been staff-surgeon to the British Legion 
in Spain ; Dr. George Bennett, our benefactor, the well-known 
author of "Gatherings of a Naturalist"; Dr. Greenup, of 
whom I have already Bpoken ; Dr. James Macf arlane, to whom 


I shall again refer; Dr. James Robertson, Professor Smith, 
and Dr. George West. On the establishment of the present 
Medical School the granting of such degrees was discontinued. 

One of the very first steps the newly-appointed Senate 
took was to appoint a Committee to arrange for the com- 
mencement of teaching in the University, and in their Report 
they say : " The Faculty of Arts has received the preference 
for first selection, not because other branches of knowledge 
are understood or considered unimportant in education, 
but because it appears to your Committee to form the founda- 
tion of any complete system." 

In 1859 Sir Charles Nicholson says in his commemoration 
address : " It is also hoped — and measures are now indeed 
being actually taken to effect the object — that professorships 
in medical science may be speedily established, and that 
systematic instruction may be communicated in a manner 
and with a completeness essential to the proper training of 
those desirous of obtaining a degree in either of the Faculties 
of Law and Medicine/' 

The Registrar gave evidence before the 1859 Committee 
that these steps had been taken, but Professor Smith com- 
plains to the Committee that the Senate in his absence, 
without his knowledge and against his will, had made him 
Dean of the Faculty of Medicine — the Senate apparently 
expecting that he would lend a hand in organising the School 
of Medicine, upon which it had set its heart. But in this 
they were woefully disappointed, for he joined the other two 
professors in a protest against the establishment of the school, 
and gave evidence before the Committee, directly against the 
testimony of Sir Charles Nicholson, as representing the 
Senate, and of Dr. Macfarlane as representing the Profession 

in Sydney. 

Dr. Macfarlane, in his evidence before the Committee, 
said that the School of Medicine was "not only desirable 
l>ut imperative," and said that this was the view of the 


profession in Sydney. It is, indeed, a glimpse of the dark 
ages of Medicine when, in the course of his evidence, he says : 
" I remember when I began the study of Medicine in 1828 I 
had to pay £20 for a body which had been underground for 
weeks." But all that has been changed by Anatomy Acts, 
a local Act having been! introduced into the Colony by the 
Hon. Sir Arthur Renwick. 

The Senate was so anxious to give effect to its views at 
this time that it instructed the architect to prepare plans for 
an Anatomical School, and appointed a committee to confer 
with the management of the Sydney Infirmary with regard to 
arrangements for clinical teaching. 

The entire scheme, however, owing to the vigorous opposi- 
tion of the Professors, fell through, but it was the cause of 
extremely strained relations between the Professors and the 
Senate, which formally " regrets that the Professors should 
have considered themselves justified in adopting so extreme 
a step as that of entering a protest against proceedings which 
the Senate, in the unquestionable exercise of its prerogative, 
had thought fit to take with reference to the initiation of tihe 
necessary measures for the erection of a Medical School in 
connection with the University, as expressly contemplated by 
the 12th section of the Incorporation Act/' and which declares 
that " it was unable to depart from its resolution to establish 
a Medical School/' The unwilling Dean nevertheless retained 
his office right on to 1883, when he was succeeded by myself. 

In; 1860 the Chancellor, Sir Charles Nicholson, in his 
commemoration address, says : "The Senate cannot ignore the 
obligations which will rest upon them and upon their 
successors, to call into existence, at the earliest possible period, 
those special appliances for the inculcation of professional 
knowledge, the appropriate sequel of a training in the Faculty 
of Arts. The great purpose for which the University was 
established will then, but not till then, be consuinmated." 
And before the '59 Committee he says "What is all this 



preliminary training for, unless it is to subserve some purpose 
in professional life?" 

In 1866 a further scheme was prepared to give instruc- 
tion only in the first two years of the medical curriculum. 
This, too, came to nothing. 

Between that time and 1873 various proposals kept the 
matter alive, and then the establishment of the Prince Alfred 
Hospital really brought the School into existence, for the 
first definite step towards the establishment of the school was 
the power given to the Directors in the Hospital's Act of 
Incorporation to provide for the School. It was, indeed, 
the inauguration of this School at the Hospital and in 
connection with the University which justified the University 
in giving a site, over 12 acres in area, to the Hospital,, for the 
land had been granted to the University exclusively for 
educational purposes. The establishment of the School was, 
therefore cardinal to the existence of the Hospital. In 
return for the site, the University stipulated for a share in 
the management of the Hospital and in the appointment of 
its medical officers. These negotiations took place in 1872, 
and in 1873 the Acts were passed which gave legal effect ta 
the bargain. By the Act an area of between two and three 
acres is reserved out of the site for the school building, and 
in early plans of the Hospital two different, but both most 
inadequate^ plans of a school building are shown. Fortunately 
these intentions never got any farther, for in 1876 the 
Chancellor, Sir Edward Deas Thomson, in his commemoration 
address, speaks as if it were now intended that the University, 
not the Hospital, should provide for the School ; and in 1879 
the new Chancellor, Sir William Montagu Manning, in his 
commemoration address, admits that the land would be more 
usefully applied for gardens or recreation grounds for the 
patients, and he states that the Senate was prepared to give 
it up and provide another site for the Medical School. And 


this is just what has happened — the Medical School is most 
conveniently placed near the rest of the University. 

On July 3rd, 1878, Sir William Manning invited the 
Senate to consider whether there should be established at first 
a complete course, or a preliminary two year course only. 
The Senate, on the motion of the Hon. Sir Arthur Renwick, 
passed a unanimous resolution in favour of the complete 
course, and now, therefore, it was only a question of ways and 
means. In 1880 Mr. Challis died, and his great bequest was 
announced as a complete surprise to the authorities in Sydney. 
It waa, however^, to come in only after the death of the 
beneficiaries. By this time no less than five deputations had 
waited upon the Government to urge the necessity of increased 
support to the University; but, in view of the certainty of 
the bequest being available some day, the Government was 
again approached to secure the increased endowment, and 
now the establishment of a Medical School was spoken of as 
urgent owing to the approaching opening of the Prince Alfred 
Hospital. The opening of the Hospital actually did take 
place on September 25th, 1882. 

In 1882, rather unexpectedly at the last, the increased 
endowment so long craved, so frequently asked for, was voted 
by the Legislature, and steps were immediately taken to make 
the necessary appointments. 

I was appointed to the combined Chair of Anatomy and 
Physiology in '82, and it has always appeared to me an 
interesting circumstance that, some little time before this, I 
had been recommended for the task of organising a new 
school, which a number of members of the Profession, who were 
in some way or other dissatisfied with the Owen's College 
Medical School, were proposing to start in Manchester. I 
visited that city and saw the promoters, but the scheme came 
to nothing. Nevertheless, I was to do this kind of work 
after all — in the Antipodes ! In the beginning of '83 the 
work of the School began. We may thus fairly assume that 


the School has now about reached its majority, and the 
coincidence of this period with the jubilee of the University 
seems to render the occasion appropriate for a brief review of 
our short life. 

It had been intended that the new School should be 
located temporarily in ,a portion of the Exhibition Building 
in the Outer Domain, but that building was destroyed by fire. 
No steps were taken to provide accommodation for the Medical 
School until just before I landed, and I well remember the 
dismay with which, on my arrival, I saw the foundations of 
the modest, unpretentious four-roomed cottage, out behind 
in the paddock, which I was told was, when finished, to 
comprise two rooms for the Medical School, and two for 
Professor Stephens and his Department of Biology. I first 
saw it in company with Dr. Badham, who informed me that 
the " stinks " were all to go out at the back. 

These branches of science were also dubbed " Brod- 
studien," "Bread Studies" by some, who sought to convey 
thereby that such subjects stood apart from and. outside what 
was by them understood to be " Culture," and were not 
welcome at the University. When the battle has been 
fought and won, we can afford to look back with equanimity 
upon our struggles ; but while struggling, as I well remember, 
we were anything but equanimous on either side. 

The day has passed when it can seriously be contended 
that the Universities ought to confine their attention to 
general mental culture. The Universities grew out of the 
needs of the people, and were founded originally as technical 
schools — the oldest University of all,, that of Salerno, was a 
school of medicine — and as they began, so they have continued 
to this day. Happily it is possible to train the mind by 
technical learning, as well as by learning for which there is 
no immediate use, and this is why a University can give a 
degree after a training solely in a professional school, for it 
is not what is known that makes a man cultured : it is how he 


knows it, the method by which he approaches knowledge, the 
attitude of his mind to it. Culture and knowledge, or rather, 
perhaps I should say, information,, have no necessary relation- 
ship to each other. 

Within some ten days after my arrival the walls of the* 
cottage were up, though there was no roof, nor any windows 
nor doors, and in such curious surroundings, with the much- 
interested workmen lolling over the window-sills, wondering 
what it was all about, the actual commencement of the School 
took place, on the day appointed in the Calendar, for it is a 
good thing to be up to time as well as up to date. Of this 
cottage, the original Medical School, no vestige remains to-day, 
all having beon removed to make way for the Department of 

The first step in advance was to add three rooms behind 
this cottage, and the next was to absorb the two rooms which 
Professor Stephens occupied, he being also anxious to get 
away to less " fragrant " quarters. The first difficulty as to 
personnel was to find a man who would consent, for any 
reasonable wage, to come as Attendant ; but soon there arrived 
Mr. John Shewen, who had served with me in Professor 
Rutherford's laboratory, and then my difficulties in this 
respect were at an end. By the same ship, but, as it 
happened, quite by chance came Dr. A. MacCormick, as 
Demonstrator ; he also, had been with Professor Rutherford's 
Department. From that day forward the teaching arrange- 
ments have never gone backward. Dr. MacCormick held 
office as Demonstrator until he was appointed Lecturer in 
Surgery. He was succeeded by Dr. A. E. Wright, now Pro- 
fessor of Pathology at Netley, and Dr. Wright by Dr. C. J. 
Martin, now Professor of Physiology in Melbourne. Professor 
Wilson arrived! as Demonstrator of Anatomy in 1887 ; and in 
1890 he became Professor of Anatomy. 

It was while here, in the old school, that we founded in 
1885 the Medical Society, on the model of the Royal Medical 


Society of Edinburgh, of which I had been a President. The 
value of this Edinburgh Society is attested by many genera- 
tions of Edinburgh students, and in spite of predictions to 
the contrary, the Sydney Society has nourished exceedingly — 
temper sit in /lore ! 

* * * * * 

These events lead us up to the time when the new School 
Building was ready, and the School was, therefore, to leave 
its old home, the memory of which is still green with me, who 
spent there seven most strenuous years, for I had to teach both 
Anatomy and Physiology, and at the same time carry on the 
work of organisation of the growing school, and superintend 
the planning and erection of this building. 

Our passage from " Log Cabin to White House " was 
gradual, as portion after portion of White House was com- 
pleted, but it was in and about 1890. As to the architectural 
style of this building, that of the ^already existing University 
building was fortunately followed, and for this we owe much 
to Mr. James Barnett, at that time Colonial Architect. As 
a young man Mr. Barnett worked at the building of the Great 
Hall, and it is tc him that I am indebted for pointing out Dr. 
Douglass' coat of arms. 

As to the internal arrangements, I had already served a 
sort of apprenticeship, for it was while I was Assistant to 
Professor Butherford that we " flitted " from the old Edin- 
burgh University building in Nicholson-street to the new 
Medical School on the Meadows, and I bad taken a good hand 
with the Professor in planning the fittings of our Department 
in the new school. I may add that I was also at the 
" flitting " from the old to the new Edinburgh Royal 

In regard to the size of the building, it was not the small 
number of students at that time in attendance for which we 
provided, but for our future greatness. Nor was it only the 
number of students we had to think of ; we had also to con- 


sider the possible development of subjects of instruction. 
And has not the University's foresight already been amply 
justified ? 

The preliminary scientific subjects are each housed in its 
own building, so that this building accommodates only the* 
purely medical subjects. The clinical subjects are provided 
for at the Prince Alfred Hospital. 

The Museum of Anatomy now possesses 24,000 specimens, 
and is well worthy of a visit. It is housed in this building, 
several rooms having been thrown together for that purpose, 
but the intention was to occupy these rooms only until they 
should be required for other purposes, when the University 
might be enabled in some way to build a separate and properly 
adapted Museum building in the space reserved for it, between 
the Medical School and the main University building. This 
period is undoubtedly within measurable distance, for, on the 
one hand, the collection very nearly fills the available space, 
and will one of these days overflow, and, on the other hand, 
the demands for increased accommodation can be satisfied 
only when the Museum has found another home. 

At first one often heard remarks as to the folly of building 
so great and costly a mansion, and Sir Arthur Renwick, who 
was Minister of Public Instruction at the time, informs me 
that there was much opposition to the vote in Parliament, 
the first cost being about £80,000; but was it not a good 
investment for the State? Let us see what is the money 
value to the State of the Medical School. Suppose, for 
instance, that there were no Medical School here. The 
community would still need medical advisers, and it is fair 
to assume that at least one-half, say 100, of the students would 
go to Europe for their medical education. The average 
expenditure of each would not be less than £200 per annum, 
and the average time would not be less than six years^ for 
the curriculum is five years, to which must be added the time 
of travelling to and fro, and the time inevitably lost in various. 


■ways. This would be in all at least £1200 per student, or at 
the rate of £20,000 a year, actually taken out of the State 
and spent elsewhere. This is now kept in the State, and, 
since what is paid in salaries is spent in the State, 25 per cent, 
is a fair return,, is it not ? 

To this magnificent building as it stands we undoubtedly 
owe much of the success of the Medical School as an institu- 
tion. Student and graduate and teacher alike feel proud to 
belong to it, and its influence in creating an esprit de corps 
and good traditions cannot be overestimated. The pride we 
all take in the Great Hall is paralleled by the pride which the 
medical takes in the Medical School building, and it all makes 
for good. 

As we have seen there have been three successive schemes 
for the permanent location of the Medical School. 1st. That 
it should be connected with the Sydney Hospital. 2nd. That 
it should be at the Prince Alfred Hospital, but connected with 
the University. 3rd. At the University, but connected with 
Prince Alfred Hospital and recognising certain other hospitals 
as places where study may be carried on. This last, the 
existing scheme, is undoubtedly far and away the best ; so that 
if the Medical School did take so many years to incubate, 
when it was hatched it came forth under most favourable 

This intimate connection of the Prince Alfred Hospital 
with the University is an advantage to both institutions. 
The University has a hospital convenient of access for the 
clinical instruction of students ; the Hospital gains, in various 
ways. For instance, we may fairly assume that upon the 
whole the best men of the Medical Profession will always 
desire to be connected with the University, and, therefore, also 
with the Hospital. Further, the senior students do a con- 
siderable amount of work in the Hospital, and in time the 
pick of the students when graduates become the Resident 



Medical Officers at a salary which is practically nominal, for 
the real remuneration is the experience they gain. 

It is so arranged that each Resident in his 12 months' 
term of office takes charge in turn of the different departments 
of the Hospital. He is attached to the Hospital, and his 
experience is general, and as complete as the time allows. 
He is not merely attached to the ward of some particular 
Physician or Surgeon by whom he has been selected, and prac- 
tically appointed, and whose practice alone he sees, as is so 
commonly the case elsewhere. 

It is, indeed, simply astounding what the 12 months' 
Service does for the Resident. His association with the visiting 
Medical Men, with his fellow Resident Medical Officers, with 
the Nurses, and with the Patients, has brought him experi- 
ence beyond price, and has made a man of him. When he 
leaves he is — 

" A wise physician, skill'd, our wounds to heal." 

I find that out of the 218 graduates no less than 184 have 
held office as Resident Medical Officers, in some hospital or 
other, and this extraordinary proportion must have very 
largely contributed to that success of the graduates in practice 
to which I shall presently refer. When the extensions of 
the Hospital now in course of erection are completed, the 
number of beds will be raised from 236 to 456, and the num- 
ber of Resident Officers required will be correspondingly in- 

Again, a body such as the Conjoint Board, composed of 
the University Senate and of the Hospital Board sitting to- 
gether, should succeed in selecting the most competent Medical 
Officers to begin with, and then we may rely a good deal on 
the students for stimulating them to do their best. The 
students, who follow the work of the Hospital Physicians and 
Surgeons in the wards or operation theatres, are valuable 
critics, and thqfugh their criticism is that of young men, never- 


theless, in the multitude of them there is safety. As a 
matter of fact, it is admitted that the best and most intelligent 
work is, as a rule, done in Hospitals which are attached to 
Medical Schools, so that it is the patients who gain most by 
all these arrangements, the tendency of which is to secure and 
maintain efficiency on the part of the Medical Officers. 

Certain other Hospitals have been recognised as places 
where study may be carried on, viz., Sydney Hospital, St. 
Vincent's Hospital, Benevolent Asylum, Women's Hospital, 
Hospital for Sick Children, Gladesville and Callan Park Hos- 
pitals for the Insane. At some of these places a considerable 
amount of work is done ; and, doubtless, more will be done as 
the advantages of the University connection are more fully 

The two most important changes in the teaching arrange- 
ments since the School began have been the creation of two 
new Chairs — Anatomy and Pathology. Midwifery and Gynae- 
cology have been separated as independent Lectureships, and 
five new Courses have been established 1 , namely, Medical 
Ethics ; Diseases of Children ; Diseases of the Ear, Nose, and 
Throat ; Diseases of the Skin ; and Demonstrations on Psycho- 
logical Medicine and Neurology. A new and important class, 
suitable for graduates and advanced students, is about to be 
established, namely, special Bacteriology. The special object 
of this class will be to enable the members to acquire a practical 
knowledge of the chief methods of dealing with microbes, for 
in a country like Australia each medical man must be far more 
independent thani in more closely settled lands where specialists 
are always at hand. 

I much wish to see established* one other short course, 
viz., the History of Medicine. Of its value there can be no 
doubt whatever. As Dr. John Gregory said 100 years ago : 

*Done — as a result of the publication of this address in the Australasian 
Medical Gazette, October 20th, 1902, Dr. T. Fiaschi (M.D., Paris), offered 
his services, and the Senate accepted the offer. 


"It may reasonably be expected that every gentleman should 
be acquainted with the history of the science which he pro- 
fesses. The History of Medicine is not a subject of mere curi- 
osity. To a Physician it is a useful and an interesting in- 
quiry." In older countries one lives in the midst of associa- 
tions and memories, and more or less grows up with a know- 
ledge of them, but in new lands everything of that sort has 
to be acquired by an effort, mostly by reading. Fully alive 
to this, we were careful in designing this building to see that 
places for stained glass windows were provided, in which the 
pictures of great men of the past should appear ; and by the 
generosity of Lady Renwick, of the late Dr. George Bennett, 
of Dr. Sydney Jones, and of Mr. John Harris, at that time 
Mayor of Sydney, these window spaces have, all but one, been 
appropriately filled.* Then, again, the five theatres have 
been named after — (1) Hunter, (2) Cullen, (3) Haller, (4) Har- 
vey, (5) Vesalius. Lastly, reproductions of the busts of a 
great number of celebrated men adorn the walls. In this way 
we have striven to make the names more than mere shadows. 
All this, however, amounts to no mere than mere dry bones 
of the History of Medicine. Wha.t we want is a short — there 
is no time for anything more — luminous account of how, as 
age succeeded age, the knowledge of the day gave place to that 
of the morrow, and how each advance rests on something that 
went before. 

A department of Dentistry has quite recently been opened, 
and there are now 31 students in the first and second Years. 
The Dental School is already a pronounced success, and certain 
to be a great benefit to the community, which in the past has 
suffered much at many hands. In connection with this School 
the University has been compelled to establish a Public Dental 
Hospital, which is at once a Clinical School for the dental 

*Sir Arthur Renwick, Mr. John Harris, the late Mr. John Struth, 
and the late Mr. Henry Wait, have given £1,000 each to found scholarships 
in the Faculty of Medicine. 


students and a boom to many poor people. It was originally 
intended and arranged that the clinical work should be in the 
dental department of the Sydney Hospital, but the Medical 
Staff of the Hospital pointed out that there was no room on 
the Hospital site for additional buildings, and the arrangement 
was abandoned in consequence. 

Forty-four students attend in accordance with the regu- 
lations of the Board of Pharmacy, but the subject is in an 
unsatisfactory condition, owing to a defect in the Pharmacy 

Certain steps have been taken towards the establishment 
of a department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery. In 
Germany and other countries, which are alive to their best 
interests, this is a University Department. If this University 
is to identify itself with the local needs of the people — and of 
that there can, in my opinion, be no doubt, for it can raise and 
ennoble them all — what is more important in Australia than 
the intelligent care of its flocks and herds? 

A Chair of Botany would be a great acquisition to the 
University and to the community, for the present association 
of the subject with Zoology in one department is not satisfac- 
tory either to teacher or to taught. I find that as far back as 
1859 Sir Charles Nicholson contemplated the establishment of 
a Botanic Garden at the University; but the Curator of the 
Botanic Gardens opposed this, saying that all the work of that 
kind could be done at the Gardens ; and if it was so then, is it 
not more so now ? The botanical resources of the State would 
abundantly repay a careful study, and the services of the Pro- 
fessor would, in this regard, be most valuable. 

The one thing which,, above and beyond all else, we need 
now is a well-stocked library of scientific medical books, es- 
pecially serials. Complete sets of the latter are now very 
costly, and they become more so every day, owing to the gene- 
ral recognition of their necessity in the prosecution of original 


research. Cut off, as we are in Australia, from all converse 
with the older countries and centres of learning, our need is 
the greater ; and if we are ever to take a position as centres of 
light and learning, this want must be supplied, cost 
what it may. In this connection I cannot do better 
than quote Sir Charles Nicholson's words in 1861 when pre- 
senting his Collection of Antiquities to the University: "In 
no invidious spirit would I allude to the many individuals now 
in Europe, and enjoying that , affluence which has been the 
result of successful enterprise in these colonies. I would re- 
spectfully remind such persons that a graceful recognition of 
the claims of the land to which they have so long been at- 
tached by the ties of birth, by residence, or by honourable ex- 
ertion, may in some degree be afforded by occasionally placing 
within the reach of those still residing in it objects of art and 
historical monuments/' And I would add,, books or the 
money to buy them. 

As a new school, with a reputation to make, we have 
always had a high standard of excellence, and we have never 
given a degree without due attendance for the full period. 
There have already been three curricula, and a fourth is now 
under consideration. The continuous advance in knowledge, 
changes in the relative importance of subjects and improve- 
ment in the quality of text-books, all render a revision of the 
curriculum necessary every few years. The general tendency 
of the change is to increase the amount of practical work in 
Laboratory and Hospital, and to reduce the number of lec- 
tures. At the same time the method of instruction by lec- 
ture must not be undervalued, for up to a certain point it is 
unsurpassed and unsurpassable. In suitable subjects lecturing 
stands out in great contrast to the deadness of the tutorial 
method. No, we Lecturers are not going to be wiped out just 

We have not yet given a special qualification in Public 
Health for two reasons. In the first place, the demand has 


only lately arisen by the passing into law of the Public Health 
Act, which the Profession had advocated for many years, but 
which only became law when I was President of the Board 
of Health, and Mr. Reid took the matter tip with the deter- 
mination to pass the Bill. The other reason is that the 
D.P.H. of Cambridge has been a convenient Qualification 
for our graduates to obtain while visiting Europe, 
and in this way 8 out of the 36 graduates who have 
visited Europe have;obtained it. In so far as it has acted 
as an inducement to graduates to visit Europe, it has been 
a good thing, because that visit in itself , not before graduation, 
but after it, ia of immense value, precisely as a visit to Aus- 
tralia is of use to the European graduate. 

The original number of four students has been increased 
every year^ without exception, and in the current year stands 
at 204 in attendance. Altogether the names of 522 students 
have appeared upon the rolls. Of these 207 men and 11 
women have graduated, while 100 have not graduated, although 
they have attended long enough to do so. Roughly, therefore, 
one in three has failed, from all causes, to complete the cur- 

Of the 218 who have completed, 142 have done so in the 
shortest time, and 76 with delay, varying from one to six 

Putting these figures in another way, they show that of 
the 318 who have attended long enough to get a degree, only 
45 per cent., or less than one half, have graduated in the 
minimum time, a fact which indicates that candidates have not 
slipped through too easily. 

With the kind assistance of two of our graduates, I have 
made an estimate as to how the graduates have fared since 
they took their degrees. Of the 218, 11 have died, and two 
have relinquished practice, so that there remain 205 at work 
to-day. In my estimate, those who have died, or who have 
given up, have been classed according to what they were ap- 



parently doing when their professional career closed. Such is 

the demand for their services that immediately upon their 
graduation the medical graduates can always earn a living; 

but those whose graduation has been too recent to enable one 
to judge what they are likely to do in after life are in number 
54, and have been left unclassed, except where they have mar- 
ried, when they are classed as "doing well." Obviously, men 
of education do not usually marry unless they think they are 
doing well enough to support a wife and consequences. There 
are thus 164 who have been classed. 

I have in no case set down anything about income earned,, 
because by itself income is no criterion of success. For in- 
stance, the successful teacher or official at the head of 
his branch of the profession, may earn but a fraction of the 
income of the no more successful practitioner. I have, there- 
fore, in every case considered the kind of career chosen and 
estimated the success in that line. 

The number of failures is happily very small — hardly 
worth accounting for ; and, after all, one must not expect too 
much from the Medical School, which can but deal with the 
material presenting itself. It can make men into Medicals, 
but not always Medicals into men. 

Of the 164, 14 have been classed as doing "excellently 
well" ; 68, "very well" ; 52, "well" ; and 27, "fair." Thus, 
134 out of 164 are doing well, or better than well. I am 
fully aware of the limitations of my classification, but in the 
nature of the case it cannot be made exact, and I think that 
for all practical purposes it may be accepted. One knows 
quite well what is meant to be conveyed by the terms ; "excel- 
lently well" implies conspicuous success, "very well" is just very 
well ; what more is needed ? 

From all this it is evident that our efforts to maintain the 
high standard aimed at have borne good fruit, and it is not 
only the graduates themselves who have benefited. The pub- 
lic, too, have benefited directly by the competence of the 



medical advisers supplied to it, and indirectly by the inevitable 
tendency which the existence of such a School has to raise the 
level of efficiency of the profession generally throughout the 
State. For this the University deserves well of the Profes- 
sion of Medicine in the State, since while it is true that the 
public estimate of the Practitioner depends much upon that 
of his Profession, it is also true that the estimation in which 
the Profession is held depends much upon the character of the 
Practitioners ; they act and react upon each other. 

To gauge the extent to which Sydney graduates have per- 
meated the Profession and influenced it numerically, I ana- 
lysed the (last) "Register of Medical Practitioners, 1902," and 
I find that, of 798 practitioners at work in the State, only 133, 
or 16§ per cent., are Sydney graduates. It is, therefore, clear 
that there is still plenty of room within the profession for 
the expansion of the Sydney graduate. As a matter of fact 
our graduates are absorbed as quickly as they are produced, and 
there is a good reason for this. The losses to the Profession in 
New South Wales by death,, departure and retirement amount 
to about 40 per annum, so that the number of the graduates 
is annually less than one-half of the waste of the Profession in 
New South Wales alone, and it must not be forgotten that 10 
per cent, of the graduates belong to or reside in Queensland, 
and over 7 per cent, elsewhere. 

Owing on the one hand to the tendency of monied families 
to leave the State, and, on the other, to the attractions of 
private practice in Australia, there has as yet been an almost 
total absence here of young medical graduates, who, as in 
Europe, are content to go on with their studies after gradua- 
tion,, staying about the School and the Hospital, occupying 
minor offices, and gradually winning their way forwards and 
upwards to fill the higher posts. As an undergraduate the 
man necessarily confines his attention to the common round 
which all must follow. As a graduate he may follow his bent 


and so get the most and the best out of himself. It is to such 
men, now free from the worries of anticipated examinations, 
well informed in the lore of their profession, trained to work, 
and, therefore, most likely to work fruitfully, that we should 
look for original work or research in the medical sciences. As 
Foster points out, if post graduate work is simply to be learn- 
ing after graduation what the man ought to have learnt before 
itt then it is merely making up for more or less wasted op- 
portunities, and is hardly worth taking any trouble about; 
but real research work will certainly educate the man and 
benefit his patients, and it may perchance advance the Healing 
Art. By and by, when the calls of practice have to be at- 
tended to, or the daily grind of teaching and administration 
with its endless meetings, frequent disappointments, continual 
pinpricks, and quite unnecessary worries of every kind and 
degree, has to be gone through,, the chance of continuous work 
is sadly lessened, and even the capacity for intellectual work 
of any kind is altogether diminished. It is possible that when 
the four Macleay fellowships of £400 a year each become avail- 
able, they may help in this direction, for Animal Physiology 
and Pathology, Anthropology and Organic Chemistry are 
among the specified subjects, and these are all subjects which 
might be worked at by the yoking medical graduate. 

I have now shown the successive stages by which the 
University and the Medical School advanced to their present 
position of prosperity. That we have a great future is in- 
evitable ; about that I have never doubted, even in the earliest 
days, when the Philistines were upon us. To have been in- 
timately associated with the founding of such a School we 
take to be a great honour, and likely to be an abiding dis- 
tinction, for of all the Arts and Sciences the Study of Medi- 
cine^ of which this School is the handmaiden, dealing as it does 
with the preservation and restoration to health, the first and 
most indispensable condition of human activity and efficiency, 


and the source of life's most enduring happiness and noblest 
joys, has always been regarded as of the highest importance 
to mankind, and so it is likely to be regarded in all the coming 

The next celebration in connection » with the school will be 
its jubilee, in the year 1933. I trust that many of us will meet 
again to celebrate that event, and of those who do, the only 
thing quite certain is that they will be a great deal older, and 
the best thing I can wish 'for the Celebrants is that they 
may then have no need for the Profession of Medicine even if 
represented by graduates of the Medical School of the Uni- 
versity of Sydney. 



At 3 p.m. the guests invited by the undergraduates to 
their garden party began to assemble in the quadrangle, and 
before long the tennis courts presented an animated and pleas- 
ant scene. Soon a brisk wind drove up a host of black, threat- 
ening clouds, which threatened the frail beauty of bright voile 
and muslin. Then sudden spears of rain shot down upon the 
lawns, and the guests hastily took refuge in marquees and ves- 
tibules, and the Great Hall. However, there was only a slight 
shower, and the pleasure of the afternoon was not marred. 
The State Governor, Lady and Miss Rawson, attended by Cap- 
tain Clark, A.D.C., arrived at about 4 o'clock, and were wel- 
comed by the executive of the Undergraduates' Association. 
The band of the R.A.A. played a well-chosen selection of popu- 
lar music during the afternoon. 


More than eight hundred guests attended the Sydney 
University Sports Union Ball in the evening. The Town Hall 
was tastefully decorated for the occasion with evergreens, 
bunting, and the colours of St. Paul's, St. John's, and St. 
Andrew's Colleges. The dais, which was placed under the 
southern gallery, was draped in the colours of the Sports 
Union, and round the foot of the stage were grouped large 
mirrors, embowered in fresh foliage. The supper-room and 
tables were decorated prettily with the various college colours. 
The Vice-Regal party arrived at 9, and were met and welcomed 
by the executive committee. 

The hon. secretaries, Mr. Pitt and Mr. C. Brown, were 
warmly congratulated on the success of the ball, which was 
mainly due to their exertions. 

professor david's address. 93 


(By T. W. Edgeworth Dwid, B.A., F.G.S., F.R.S., 

Professor of Geology.) 

Among those who attended at the Great Hall on the 
morning of October 3rd, to hear Professor David lecture upon 
"University Science Teaching/' were the official visitors, Sir 
Normand MacLaurin, the Vice-Chancellor, Judge Backhouse, 
and members of the University teaching staff. A number 
of students testified by frequent and hearty applause to the 
popularity enjoyed by the lecturer among those who are privi- 
leged to sit at his feet in the lecture-room and Laboratory. 
Professor David said : — 

I. Introductory. — It has been said that all knowledge 
is science capable of being placed in orderly sequence and of 
being increased by the method of scientific investigation. 
"Science," says Huxley, "is organized common sense, and 
men of science are common men drilled in the ways of common 
sense." That this definition is sometimes liberally inter- 
preted will appear from the following : — David Starr Jordan, 
the well-known President of the Ireland Stanford University, 
California, records the fact that when, many years ago, he 
went to a college in Illinois as Professor of Natural History, he 
found on his arrival that he was expected to teach under that 
head the following subjects: — Zoology, Botany, Geology, 
Physiography, Physics, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Natural 
Theology, Political Economy, German, Spanish, and Evidences 
of Christianity. He was also expected to take a class at Sun- 
dav school.* 

His first efforts at establishing a little laboratory met with 
a sharp rebuke from his Board of Trustees, who directed him 
to keep the students out of what was called the cabinet on 

* Popular Science Monthly, April, 1893. Science and the Colleges, p. 725. 


the ground that they were likely to injure the apparatus and 
use up the ohemioals. Professor Jordan 1 states that later he 
was relieved of his multifarious duties through the Board 
appointing a Professor of History. 

The Board ruled that as history included all history of 
which Natural History formed a part, the new Professor must 
teach Natural History also ; and he did. * 

If now we return to the statement by Huxley that all 
knowledge is science, which simply means in this case that 
knowledge and science are synonymous terms, recourse may be 
had to the same source for a definition of the forms of know- 
ledge. He groups them into three classes t : — 

(1) Knowledge of limits and scope of the mental 

faculties in Man, i.e., Logic and part of Psycho- 
logy, with Metaphysics. 

(2) Knowledge relating to Man's Welfare, as deter- 

mined by his own acts, i.e., Moral and Reli- 
gious Philosophy. 

(3) Knowledge of the Phenomena of the Universe, 

'as that which lies about the individual man: 
and of the rules which those phenomena are 
observed to follow in the order of their occur- 
rence, which we term the Laws of Nature. 

The term Science, as generally understood now, is the 
third of the classes of knowledge above men- 

II. Should Science be Taught at a University? — The 
question — " Should science " (as above defined) 
" be taught at a University/ ' has for some time 
past been answered in the affirmative at most 
Universities, but it may be well to consider 
a few important reasons why science should be 
taught at Universities. 

* This old order has long since given place to new, and Illinois is now 
furnished with numerous Colleges where Science is well taught. 

\ Science and Culture, and other Essays, pp. 39-40, by T. H. Huxley, 
LL.D., F.R.S. London : Macmillan & Co., 1882. 

professor david's address. 95 

First. — The view that it should be taught— is in. accord 
with the spirit of the first University founded to the west of 
the Alps, the great University of Paris, known by the grand 
old name of "Universitas Studii Generates" a society for 
knowledge of all things knowable ; and this, surely, should be 
the ideal of modern, as of mediaeval, University studies. 
Secondly, from the lower motives of national prosperity in in- 
dustries and commerce we should teach science at Universities, 
for it is essentially Universities that impart the higher scien- 
tific training which enables students to pursue original re- 
search. Original research leads to discovery, and constant dis- 
covery is necessary in order to maintain the industries and com- 
merce of a nation. Proof of this (if proof be needed) is afforded 
by the recent wonderful commercial progress of Germany, due 
chiefly to her doctors of philosophy, most of whom are men 
trained at Universities. These are the elite of science, whose 
researches lead on to discoveries ; and what is true of Germany 
is true also of America, France, and Great Britain. Huxley 
well states the importance to a nation, of scientific discoveries 
as follows: — 

"I weigh my own words when I say that if the nation 
could purchase a potential Watt or Davy or Faraday, at the 
cost of a hundred thousand pounds down, he would be dirt- 
cheap at the money. It is a mere common-place and every- 
day piece of knowledge that what these three men did has pro- 
duced untold millions of wealth in the narrowest economical 
sense of the word." 

Well were it for us to take to heart thje warning of Lord 
Rosebery as to the danger to our commercial and industrial 
welfare if we neglect scientific method. He says * : — 

"I humbly think that in this country we live a good deal 
too much from hand to mouth. We do not proceed by scien- 
tific method. We go on the principle that things have car- 
ried us so well, so far ; that we are a noble nation ; that we 

* Tech. Edn. Rep. Vic. Roy. Com., p. 154. Lord Rosebery at Chatham, 
22nd January, 1900. 


are pretty numerous; and that we have always muddled out 
right in the end. 

"But I say this, that we are a people of enormous waste ; 
we waste simply by not pursuing scientific methods. 

"Germany is infinitely more painstaking and scientific 
than we are. In commerce, in education, and in war we are 
not methodical, we are not scientific, we are not abreast of the 
more advanced nations of the day. And if we want to keep 
our place, we shall have to consider the lessons we have been 
taught in this respect. Depend upon it, however brilliant you 
may be, the tortoise of investigation method and preparation 
will always catch up and overtake the hare, which leaves every- 
thing to the inspiration and effort of the moment." 

Thirdly, a reason why science should be taught at a 
University is that science is a part of that culture to confer 
which upon its alumni is considered to be the special function 
of a University. According to Arnold, culture is "to know the 
best that has been thought and said in the world," so that a 
man of culture should always be able to form a sound judgment 
upon the problems of daily life. In other words, Arnold 
considers that criticism of life is the essence of culture. 
He considers that criticism of life is contained in litera- 
ture. Huxley, however, has so fully shown * in his address 
on "Science and Culture" that culture is not contained in. 
literature alone — that it should suffice to state, briefly, that 
knowledge of science is part of culture, inasmuch as science is 
an important part of the great sum of truths, to attain which 
University teaching aspires, so that a fully cultured man should 
be one who is not only acquainted with the best thoughts of 
the best men as contained in literature, but one who is also 
acquainted with the great scientific truths revealed in Nature's 
Laws. A man of sound judgment should have, therefore, the 

* Science and Culture. An address delivered at the opening of Sir 
Josiah Mason's Science College, at Birmingham, on the 1st October, 1880. 
Printed with other Essays by Huxley, by Macmillan and Co., London, 1880. 

professor david's address. 97 

cultiure that comes from study of science as well as that which 
comes from study of literature. 

Fourthly : It is generally admitted that Ethics and Logic 
should form part of a University curriculum. Now although 
the study of Ethics does not necessarily teach us to lead moral 
lives it tends to do so ; and surely the study of science has in 
itself a distinct moral and logical value, for the sustained 
effort, the "intending of the mind," so necessary in scien- 
tific study, particularly in research work, strengthens the char- 
acter, and entails self-denial, and the correct interpretation 
of experiments strengthens the reasoning powers, while the 
fanaticism for veracity in his special scientific work must pro- 
mote a love of truth in general in the mind of the scientific 

Fifthly : It has been the experience of the past that many 
of the most brilliant scientific workers have been trained at 
Universities. Amongst those which suggest themselves on 
the spur of the moment are the following : — In Mathematics, 
Abel, Leibnitz, W. R. Hamilton, Sylvester, Cayley; in As- 
tronomy, Sir J. Herschel, J. Airey, J. C. Adams, Vogel ; in 
Physics, Isaac Newton, Helmholtz, H. Hertz, Lord Kelvin, 
Clarke-Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, J. J. Thomson, Rbntgen; in 
Chemistry, Berzelius, Liebig, Bunsen, Sir William Ramsay, A. 
W. Hoffman; in Biology, Linnaeus, Virchow, Pasteur; in 
Mineralogy, Haiiy; in Geology, Humboldt, Von Buch, De 
Saussfure, Agassiz, Suess, Lyell, etc.* 

The above are five of the many reasons for including 
science in a University curriculum. Briefly recapitulated they 
are as follows: — (1) It is in accordance with the whole spirit 
of University teaching that all forms of knowledge should 
there be studied; (2) it is essential to a nation's indus- 
trial and commercial prosperity that the higher branches 

*The names in the above list have been selected somewhat at 
haphazard and obviously, did space permit, the list could be vastly 


of science be taught such as lead through research to dis- 
covery, and such studies can be best pursued at a University ; 
(3) the study of science is part of culture, and culture is a special 
attribute of a University training ; (4) the study of science is 
of distinct moral value, and, besides, strengthens the reasoning 
powers, giving it thus a claim akin to that of moral philo- 
sophy and logic for inclusion as a University subject ; and (5) 
last and not least, University science teaching in the past has 
succeeded in producing many of the most eminent men of 
science ; continues to produce them in the present — and will, 
if proper care is taken, succeed in producing them in the future. 

III. Science Teaching at Extra-Australian Universi- 
ties. — Reasons having been given for the teaching of science at 
Universities, attention may next be paid to the leading char- 
acteristics of science teaching at Extra-Australian Universi- 

France. — In France University teaching of all kinds has of 

late years greatly expanded, and probably to no city in the 
world do the words of Claude Bernard, "the laboratories of 
Paris are the tombs of savants," less apply now than to Paris. 
Under the law of July 10th, 1896, fifteen Universities have 
been constituted, the number of University chairs has been 
greatly increased, libraries have been enlarged and fine labora- 
tories have been built. 

The informing idea in French Education which applies 
specially to the teaching of the higher branches of science is 
thus expressed by Mr. Albert Dumont* : — 

"An Elite must bring forth ideas; the crowd then lives 
upon them, and absorbs them as it does the ambient air. 
This Elite, which must exclude no willing mind, and must be 
accessible to all whatever their origin and position may be ; 
this ever vigorous, active, and constantly renovated aristoc- 
racy, welcoming every intelligent and noble mind — can only 
be created by high culture. Primary knowledge is only of 

* Health Exhibition Literature, Vol. XV. Conference on Education. 
Notes on Higher Education in France. By Albert Dumont, p. 163. 

professor david's address. 99 

service when applied to the general direction of every-day life 
according to rules and considerations which are much above 
ordinary reasoning powers. Secondary knowledge*, being 
essentially didactic, can only serve as a weapon or a tool ; the 
mode of turning to good account this preparatory knowledge 
in order to live well, i.e., to elevate and develop the mind and 
character, is taught by higher speculations. 

"In industrial matters the primary student is an artisan, 
the secondary student a foreman, whilst the higher student is 
an inventor; each of them can only rise from the first two 
classes by an effort and by work. A nation of artisans and 
foremen would soon be beaten by a nation having inventors, 
for it is invention alone which in important or secondary mat- 
ters can secure the first place among so many competing 

"So also in intellectual matters the artisans and foremen 
are powerless unless assisted by inventors." 

Germany. — One of the great features in the teaching of 
science at German Universities is that while the course in 
science is very thorough, the range of studies is broad. With 
regard to the teaching of Philosophy Students in Germany, it 
has been said* that the reason why there are a greater number 
of Philosophy Students in Germany than in France or England 
is that in Germany the student, before he enters any special 
profession, is required to be perfectly trained in Philosophy, for 
then he is able to understand his particular vocation with a 
broader mind, and can do more in it than he could do without 
that preliminary general training. 

The magnificence of the equipment of the science labora- 
tories at German Universities, and of laboratories for general 
research purposes like the Physikalische Technische Reich- 
anstalt at Charlottenburg, may well excite our admiration, and 
stimulate our emulation. 

Professor Thorpe, quoting from a letter written by Dr. 

* Notes on Higher Education in France, op. cit. , p. 129. 

"» " •> * " J 

* •* ■> -i . 


Oswald to Professor Ramsay, shows how different are the 
methods of chemistry teaching respectively at English and 
German Universities (Graduates from England often go to 
Leipzic to Professor Oswald's splendidly organized labora- 
tories)* : — 

"The German chemical manufacturer is almost invariably 
the product of a university laboratory. 

"He has been matured in an atmosphere of pure science 
and imbued with the spirit of research. 

"The output of chemical research from the German univer- 
sity laboratories is enormous, when compared with the driblets 
which occasionally escape from our own universities. But 
large as the amount of research work in Germany is, it hardly 
keeps pace with the demands of German chemical industry, 
and it has come to pass that some of the greatest industrial 
concerns in Germany, now possess research laboratories, differ- 
ing only from those in the universities by being more splen- 
didly and sumptuously fitted. 

"This organization of the power of invention in manufac- 
tures, and on a large scale is, as he (Dr. O.) says, ' unique in 
the world's history, and it is the very marrow of our splendid 
development. Each large work has the greater part of its 
scientific staff — and there are often more than 100 doctores 
phil. in a single manufactory — occupied, not in the manage- 
ment of the manufacture, but in making inventions.' 

"It would not be difficult to show that this extraordinary 
spectacle — this organization of the power of discovery, so 
unique in the world's history and so wondrously fruitful in its 
results — is the direct outcome of Germany's University Sys- 
tem ; and as regards Chemistry, of Liebig's genius in organiz- 
ing Chemical instruction. 

"Whatever demands the highest chemical knowledge and 
the power of applying the newest and most recondite chemical 
facts remains in Germany. Few of the newer chemical indus- 

* Saturday Review, July, 1896, Vol. 82, T. E. Thorpe. 
Phy8. Science of the Universities, p. 254. 

professor david's address. 101 

tries are started with us, and even of those few some of the 
most successful have been controlled by Germans/' Mr. Syd- 
ney Webb warns us that " the same national neglect which lost 
us the great industry of coal-tar colours — positively a British 
discovery that we failed to utilise and abandoned to Germany* 
— now bids fair to lose us one branch of applied chemistry 
after another. ,, t Professor Thorpe adds: — 

" It is not by cheap evening classes, by science examina- 
tions of the South Kensington type, by the spread of Techni- 
cal education of the character of that furnished by County 
Councils, that Germany has won her scientific supremacy, and 
with it her supremacy in those industries which are directly 
dependent on chemical science. Her industries owe their 
position to the knowledge, training and skill of those who di- 
rect her artisans; and this knowledge, training and skill are 
the immediate results of that scientific supremacy which, in 
chemistry at least, her universities have enabled her to 

United States. — If we now turn to the United States one 
might expect to find that in that rapidly progressing country, 
more stress would be laid upon the practical side of scientific 
and other teaching than upon the theoretical (included under 
the latter term being those subjects which are generally com- 
prised by the term Arts). That this, however, is not the case, 
must be clear to anyone who has studied their system of edu- 
cation. For example, in the case of no less than 318 Institu- 
tions out of 432, both Greek and Latin are compulsory sub- 
jects ; J and as stated in the able address to the Melbourne Medi- 

* Our Registrar, Mr. H. E. Barff, has called my attention to the fact 
that although these discoveries were made in England, the chief credit in 
connection with them belongs to the German chemist, Professor August 
Wilhelm Hoffman. 

f Nineteenth Century Magazine, June, 1902. " London University : A 
Forecast," by Sidney Webb. 

% That is, compulsory as requirements for admission to the A.B. 
Course. Report of the Commissioner of Education for the year 1896-7. 
VoL I. containing Pt. I., p. 470. Washington 1898. It may be added that 
while these pages were going; through the press, Mr. G. H. Knibbs, the 
New South Wales Commissioner on Education, informed me that in the 
United States of America, greater freedom is allowed in the matter of 
taking classical subjects at university Entrance Examinations, and yet 
that the proportion of classical students is now larger than ever. 


cal Students by my colleague, Prof. Wilson, the Harvard Medi- 
cal School enacted only as recently as September, 1901, that a 
preliminary college course in Arts, of four years' duration, 
must form a qualification for the admission to the medical 
curriculum, the latter also of four years' duration. He adds 
that the system is already in operation in the Medical School 
of John Hopkins University, whilst Columbia University has 
given notice to apply a like regulation to the curriculum in 
law after 1903. 

The tendency then at American Universities is to insist 
that the student who wishes to proceed to a science 
degree, shall have had a preliminary training in literature and 
philosophy, as well as of course in mathematics. It is largely 
in order to find time for laying this broad foundation of pre- 
liminary liberal education that the system of post-graduate 
courses has been so widely introduced in the United States. 
Mr. Sidney Webb summarises the matter thus : — * 

" For alongside the University Democracy of the under- 
graduates clas3 brought about by the multiplication of brain 
working occupations and widespread education, we see every- 
where emerging at the beginning of the twentieth century, a 
new aristocracy of advanced students, intent on pursuing their 
chosen subjects above and beyond the first, or 'bread and but- 
ter' degree. Every day it becomes more clear that, as an 
equipment for the highest grade of brain-workers, the three or 
four years' general course of the ordinary undergraduate is far 
from sufficient. In the United States we find a practically 
unanimous opinion that it is to the post-graduate courses 
started five-and-twenty years ago at the John Hopkins, and 
now general at all the great Universities, that the advances in 
American technique and American science are to be ascribed : 
an opinion explained by Lord Kelvin's recent statement that 
it takes now ac least six years to make a competent scientist. 

* Nineteenth Century Magazine, June, 1902, p. 916, " London University: 
A Forecast," by Sidney Webb. 

professor david's address. 103 

It may be added that as a further development of the 
system of post-graduate teaching, at the present moment there 
are hundreds of carefully-selected American graduates who are 
maintained by travelling scholarships as well as by private 
munificence at foreign Universities." 

Mr. Grustave Lanson* summarises thus the characteristics 
of University Education in the United States : — " Universi- 
ties, those which are worthy of that name, are laboratories of 
research; the individual does not work for himself, but for 
science. He does not go there to seek benefits for a career, 
technical acquirement, or diplomas which have a money value. 
To speak truly, the conflict here is acute. Already in the 
high schools the positive spirit had to be fought against; here 
the evil is worse. There is hardly a University whose phil- 
osophical faculty in the German sense (comprising letters and 
science), is not flanked by a school of law, or medicine, or en- 
gineering, frequently by a veterinary or dental school. Those 
in a hurry abridge even their college course or skip it alto- 
gether, — passing from the high school into the professional 
school. Everywhere in the Universities influence must be 
brought to bear against the students rushing into bread-and- 
butter courses. But public sentiment re-acts. University 
Boards, State Superintendents, the Central Bureau at Wash- 
ington, are making vigorous efforts to stem the utilitarian 
tendency. And on the whole the disinterested taste for 
science is gaining ground. Twenty-nine State Universities, 
the millions bestowed by John Hopkins in Baltimore, by Ezra 
Cornell in Ithaca, by Rockefeller in Chicago, bear witness that 
science has won its case with a people who, Taine believed, 
were destined to devote themselves eternally to sell salt beef 
and to worship the almighty dollar/' 

It may be added that an unofficial estimate of the amount 
given by individuals during the year 1899 for Universi- 

* Report of the Commissioner of Education, U.S.A., Vol. II, pp. 1688-1689. 
Washington, 1901. 

Reprint of article by M. Gruatave Lanson, Revue BUue, Dec. 29, 1900. 


ties, Colleges, Schools, and Libraries, in the United States, is 
over £16,000,000. 

Great Britain and Ireland. — Of late years there 
has been a great development of the teaching of 
science at the Universities of the Old Country. It is 
satisfactory to note that on the physical side of pure science, 
the University of Cambridge still leads all the other Uni- 
versities of the world. This is chiefly to be ascribed to the 
efficiency with which applied, as well as pure mathematics, is 
there taught; to the fact that the student is taught to use 
mathematics as a key with which to unlock the door of physics. 
At the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge a striking new 
departure in favour of science has bean made in the provision 
for giving men research degrees in science as well as in litera- 
ture, two academic years of residence and study being re- 
quired for the B.Sc. research degree. At London University 
the proposed change in the curriculum now being discussed 
is specially characterised by the prominence assigned to science 
subjects. Great advances, too, in science teaching have been 
made recently at the Universities of Scotland and Ireland. 

In all the leading Universities of the Old Country, post- 
graduate work has been encouraged by the system of fellow- 
ships, the award of which to men who have shown capacity for 
original research relieves them from the drudgery which would 
otherwise be necessary for them in order to win their bread. 

Russia. — Education of all kinds has been advancing with 
great rapidity of late years. The words of a Russian attache at 
the Paris Exposition of 1900 may be quoted: — "There is an 
absorbing thirst for knowledge taking possession of our people ; 
we need no compulsory laws when we have not school accommo- 
dations for those anxious to come and for those who would 
travel many versts at a great sacrifice if they might come. 
Special encouragement is given to the Russian University 
students to travel to foreign Universities for post-grade 
courses in science, etc. 

professor david's address. 105 

Japan, too, where education has spread and improved so 
wonderfully of late, has recently set us of the British Empire 
an excellent example in its decision to send, at the expense of 
its Government, 200 picked graduates to spend some years in 
post-graduate study in the capitals of Europe. 

This brief review of some phases of modern science teach- 
ing at extra- Australian Universities suggests the consideration 
as to what are the chief aims and methods of this teaching. 

The chief aims are two : to teach the student to live well 
and to teach him to think right. In order to help to attain 
these ends, two important changes are being gradually intro- 
duced into the method of teaching science, especially such 
branches of it as are required for professions such as those of 
medicine, and civil, mining, or electrical engineering. The 
following appear to me to be the chief changes in method: 
(1) The laying of a broad foundation of general education be- 
fore building upon it the special science teaching required for 
the professions ; (2) the lengthening of the time of University 
study. The latter change is obviously largely an outcome of 
the former. 

To live well and to think right are priceless gifts, largely, 
though not wholly, in the power of the culture that comes from 
a study of Arts and Science to bestow. So far as education 
alone can confer them, they are to be conferred by such an edu- 
cation as makes for the foundation of good character — such as 
comes from studying through literature the best thoughts of 
the best men, through history the actions (good and bad) of 
individuals and peoples and their results, through moral phil- 
osophy, logic and metaphysics, the ethical ideas and system of 
reasoning of the best men, and through mathematics the rigid 
discipline of exactness. Unless there is a foundation of this 
kind for those who build the city of science, their labour is 
often lost that build it. 

Of the need for maintenance of a high standard of moral 
character in a people, Huxley says : — " Our sole chance of sue- 


ceeding in a competition which must constantly become more 
and more severe, is that our people shall not only have the 
knowledge and skill which are required, but that they shall 
have the will and the energy and the honesty ; neither know- 
ledge nor skill without these will be of any permanent avail." 

And again, "If the wealth resulting from prosperous 
industry is to be spent upon the gratification of unworthy de- 
sires, if the increasing perfection of manufacturing processes 
is to be accompanied by an increasing debasement of those 
who carry them on, I do not see the good of industry and pros- 

If honesty and integrity are so dearly to be prized in the 
humbler scientific workers, they are surely at least as much 
to be prized in those that sit in the high places of learning. 

The lengthening of the time of University study for sci- 
ence students, which has been referred to as an important 
recent change, has been brought about, partly to admit of the 
broadening of this early foundation before the science course 
proper begins, and partly to admit of research work being car- 
ried on after the student has obtained his degree, so that he 
may not only learn, but make science. 

It is to this end that at Harvard and elsewhere the elec- 
tive system of studies has been introduced into the final year 
of the medical curriculum ; and it is to this end that post- 
graduate courses have been organized and are so well attended 
in the United States, and that of late so many research and 
travelling scholarships and fellowships have been instituted in 
the countries where science is best taught. 

To reason out truths for themselves, and not merely to 
commit to memory the truths of the past, without intelligently 
verifying them, is the great object of the higher teaching of 
science. Teaching on these lines will place the mind of the 
fctudent almost on a level with that of the original discoverer. 

* Science and Culture and other Essays, p. 21. London, M acmillan and 
Co., 1882. 

professor david's address. 107 

Soon being the chief aims of modern science teaching — 
to make the student live well and be a right thinker, capable 
of and eager for original research — there follows the consider- 
ation of certain hindrances to the study of science, then of cer- 
tain helps and needs for help. 

Hindrances. — Opposition has been offered to the introduc- 
tion of science teaching in University curricula by the votar- 
ies of the Arts; but it is possible that this opposition has 
proved a blessing in disguise, having had the effect of strength- 
ening, rather than weakening, the champions of science. The 
arts man used to regard the science laboratory at the Uni- 
versity, either as a white elephant; or as a wooden horse of 
Troy, threatening destruction to the fair citadel of art. But 
now, happily, the days are come when the Arts man wields 
the sword of science, and the Science man wears the breast- 
plate of arts. 

Happily the days are over when Emerson and Agassiz 
fought their Homeric battles; but if any of the old antag- 
onism survives, the answer of Agassiz to Emerson applies to- 
day as of yore. Emerson complained that at Harvard natural 
history under Agassiz was getting too great an ascendancy, 
and that a check-rein would not be amiss on the enthusiastic 
professor who was responsible for this. Agassiz' reply was, 
"Do you not see that the way to bring about a well propor- 
tioned development of all the resources of the University is, 
not to check the Natural History Department, but to stimu- 
late all the others? — not that the zoological school grows too 
fast, but that the others do not grow fast enough. " 

Perhaps in England there still exists some hindrance to 
the pursuit of science arising from too much wealth and ease 
and love of sport. Huxley compared in his time the English 
University student with his Scotch contemporary greatly to 
the disadvantage of the former, and even after allowance is 
made for the fact that Huxley at the time was speaking at 
Aberdeen there can be no doubt that there was some truth in 


his comparison between "the host of pleasant monied, well-bred 
young gentlemen, who do a little learning and much boating 
by Cam and Isis," and the "brave and frugal Scotch boy, 
spending his summer in hard manual labour, that he may have 
the privilege of wending his way in autumn to this Univer- 
sity, with a bag of oatmeal, ten pounds in his pocket, and his 
own stout heart to depend upon through the northern winter." 

Helps. — The hindrances to University science teaching have 
fortunately been few as compared with the helps. Sometimes 
the State, sometimes private individuals, have munificently 
endowed scientific laboratories and libraries. "A principal 
laboratory sufficiently well built to last a hundred years, and 
extensive grounds, where light temporary buildings might be 
erected and pulled down, as cases would require," the ideal 
of many a scientific worker, are now available at most Uni- 
versities where science is taught. With reference to labora- 
tory accommodation, the following statement by Albert 
Dumont, is open to comment : — 

" Comfortable appointments and perfect scientific appli- 
ances do not produce genius. In order to be convinced of this 
it i9 enough to see the dark and cold room in the 'College de 
France' where Claude Bernard made his most remarkable dis- 
coveries. M. Pasteur's experiments on fermentation were 
carried on at the Ecole Normale Superieure in a small room 
having as an annexe a closet where the most delicate manipu- 
lations were performed. The first laboratory of Liebig at 
Giessen ought to remain as an example of what exceptional 
intellects can accomplish even with the most imperfect means 
at their disposal."* 

It is of course greatly to the credit of the above distin- 
guished scientists that they were able to do so much with 
such simple apparatus and laboratories, but doubtless much 
invaluable time would have been saved had the appliances 

* Health Exhibition Literature. Conference on Education. VoL XV., p. 166. 

professor david's address. 109 

at their disposal been more perfect, and it must also be re- 
membered that every year more and more elaborate labora- 
tories and apparatus are needed for modern research work. 

As pure scienoe seldom pays commercially the problem 
of how to win bread and butter, and, at the same time, con- 
duct research work becomes a very serious one. The liberal 
endowment of travelling scholarships and fellowships has to 
a certain extent met this difficulty, in the Old Country. In 
Germany the difficulty has been met by giving men of high 
scientific attainments teaching appointments paid partly by 
the State, partly by students' fees, the duties of which are 
sufficiently light to admit of the teacher spending the greater 
part of his time upon scientific research. 

IV. Australian University Science Teaching. — Science 
has been admitted for many years to the curricula of Adelaide, 
Melbourne and Sydney Universities, each having the power of 
conferring degrees of Bachelor of Science and Doctors of 
Science, Melbourne giving in addition the Degree of Master 
of Science. In the case of each University a knowledge of 
not less than two languages other than English, either Latin, 
Greek, French or German, is required before admission to the 
science course. 

Each University has a Faculty of Science. The Faculty 
of Science at our University was established in 1881, and 
since that time 45 students have taken the B.Sc. Degree, 45 
the B.E. Degree in Civil Engineering, 41 the B.E. Degree in 
Mining Engineering, and 4 the M.E. Degree in Civil Engineer- 
ing, the above Degrees belonging to the Faculty of Science. 

Results. — As already stated the success of University 
science teaching is to be estimated largely by the amount of 
research accomplished. With regard to this I am not sufficiently 
familiar with the post-graduate work of the Adelaide or Mel- 
bourne University students to be able to speak with authority, 
though I know that much valuable work has been done es- 
pecially by some of the holders of travelling scholarships. As 

* "* J J \ ' * ■* 


regards the work of the teaching staffs, at Adelaide the work 
of the late Professor Tate upon the Tertiary Invertebrate 
Fauna of South Australia, is an important contribution to 
science, and his organization of and work upon the Horn ex- 
pedition is worthy of all praise. The recent discovery by his 
successor in the geology lectureship, Mr. Walter Howchin, of 
immense glacial moraines, of Lower Cambrian age, near 
Adelaide, is certainly of world-wide interest and subversive of 
many previous ideas as to the climate of the earth in Cam- 
brian time. Melbourne has done much for the cause of science. 
Professor Baldwin Spencer, among his many other valuable 
scientific works, is perhaps best known to us as the leading 
figure in the Horn Expedition to Central Australia, the whole 
work of editing that most useful contribution to our know- 
ledge of the Natural History of Central Australia devolving 
upon him. His recent work with Mr. Gillen upon the Abori- 
gines of Central Australia, valuable as it is, is but the fore- 
runner of a still more important work upon the results of his 
toilsome trans-continental trip with Mr. Gillen, undertaken 
with the object of gathering together, before it became too 
late, all possible ethnological information about the aborigines 
of Central Australia. 

Professor C. J. Martin, of the Melbourne Medical School, 
has contributed to the world's knowledge as to the chemistry 
of the venom of Australian snakes, and has shown for the first 
time which of the particular proteoses among the proteids 
form the poisonous constituents of snake venom, and he has 
shown the particular physiological effects of snake venom upon 
the blood. Professor Gregory has already plunged into the 
subject of the geology of S.E. Australia with the energy and 
enthusiasm which might have been expected of the author of 
"The Great Rift Valley." Of the work done by the science stu- 
dents and teaching staff at Sydney University, a brief account 
has already been given by me in the Jubilee number of our Uni- 
versity magazine, "Hermes," and though repetition is some- 

professor david's address. Ill 

times vain, the following might well be referred to : Professor 
Liversidge's labours in organizing the fine scientific Library of 
the Royal Society of N.S.W., in sustaining the Royal Society 
of N.S.W., as well as in inaugurating and keeping together the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, is 
one that will always be gratefully remembered by Australian 
science workers. Professor Harwell's text-book of Zoology, 
written in collaboration with the late Professor Parker, of 
Dunedin, N.Z., which may fairly claim to be the best of its 
kind in the English language, is an ornament of which our 
University may be justly proud. And the recent discoveries 
by his demonstrator, Mr. J. P. Hill, B.Sc., that a true allan- 
toic placenta is present in the bandicoot (pcramcles) as well as 
his still more recent discovery, in conjunction with Professor 
Wilson, that omithorhynchus in the early development of the 
egg shows one most striking evidence of reptilian affinity, are 
of far reaching biological interest. 

The researches, too, of Professor Elliott Smith, of Cairo, 
late student at our Medical School, upon the cerebral commis- 
sure of the monotreme and marsupial brain, are of such im- 
portance as to have necessitated a thorough restudy of the 
mammalian brain in general. He is one of the few but fit 
young labourers from among our alumni who has put in his 
sharp 3ickle to reap the plenteous harvest which waves upon 
our shores. So far Australia has no cause to be ashamed of 
the contributions to pure science, especially upon the Natural 
History side, made by her Universities. 

On the professional side of the Faculty of Science at our 
University, we have schools of Civil, Mechanical, Mining and 
Electrical Engineering. The schools of Electrical and Mecha- 
nical Engineering are just commencing their career, and al- 
ready there are 9 students in Electrical Engineering. In Civil 
Engineering there are 5 students and in Mining Engineering 
53 students.* It is natural and right in a country of 

* The above include only the second year and third year students. There 
are in addition 36 students in the Faculty of Science in their tirst year of 
Engineering, that year's course of study being common to the above four 
branches of Engineering. There are also 13 students in Science. 


such vast mineral wealth as Australia, in general, «d New 
South Wales in particular, that the school of Mining Engineer- 
ing should be as strong as is our present school at this Uni- 
versity. Some idea of the vastness of the mineral resources 
of this State in coal alone may be found in Mr. £. F. Pitt- 
man's recent work, "The Mineral Resources of New South 
Wales/'* in which he estimates, on certain assumptions, our 
available coal supply at about 100,000 million tons, which at 
the low estimate of 5s. per ton, represents a gross value of 
£25,000,000,000, a munificent inheritance, which we should 
learn not to waste but to use wisely. 

Helps, Hindrances and Needs. — The helps and hindrances 
to our science teaching at our University, and certain needs 
may next be considered. Science teaching at our Univer- 
sity has undoubtedly derived great help in the past 
from our Scientific Societies and Science Libraries. 
One of our most prominent research workers, Professor Threl- 
fall, in taking leave of the Hon. Sec. of the Royal Society, 
said, "Personally I am immensely indebted to the Society 
for the encouragement it has always given me, and also for 
the great use I have had of its fine library." That library, 
it may be added, we owe chiefly to the personal efforts of Pro- 
fessor Liversidge. 

The Library of the Linnaean Society for which we are in- 
debted almost entirely to the munificence of a late Senator and 
firm friend of this University, Sir William Macleay, has also 
proved in the able hands of its secretary, Mr. J. J. Fletcher, 
a very great aid to research. The Free Public Library, too, 
is at times most useful,! as is s ^ so the Library at the Austra- 
lian Museum, and the excellent Library of the Geological 

* Mineral Resources of New South Wales, p. 322. By E. F. Pittman, 
Assoc. R.S.M., Government Geologist. Government Printer, Sydney. 

f The value of this library to scientific workers has of late been very 
much enhanced by tbo issue of the excellent catalogue prepared under the 
direction of Mr. H. G. L. Anderson, the principa librarian. 

professor david's address. 113 

Survey, which has been so well organised by Mr. R. Ethe- 
ridge, junior, and the present librarian, Mr. W. S. Dun. 

In connection with libraries and books, it may be men- 
tioned that the University Science Departments stand much 
in need of further funds for purchase of books. The present 
funds are almost all absorbed in the purchase of scientific 
periodicals. In addition to the help afforded by their libraries, 
the scientific societies have supplied a valuable stimulus to 
scientific work by science graduates. This is notably the case 
with the Australasian Association for the Advancement of 

In the matter of apparatus and material for laboratory 
work we are sorely in need of increased funds, if our Univer- 
sity, as regards its science teaching and equipment, is to keep 
in line with the general advance of science.* To encourage 
research work we need post-graduate courses, and a great 
increase in number of owr travelling scholarships. The sug- 
gestion has been made by Professor Pollock that possibly in 
the case of the 1851 Exhibition Commissioners' Travelling 
Scholarship, the Commissioners might see their way to allow 
the holder of the scholarship to work part of the time of the 
tenure of the scholarship in one of our own laboratories. It 
would be fairer, he thinks, to the laboratories and to the cause 
of science in Australia if this could be done. 

The student elected to a science travelling scholarship, 
after he has worked with us up to such a standard as will 
admit of his undertaking research work on his own respon- 
sibility, goes to some extra-Australian University and accom- 
plishes useful research there, helping thereby to increase the 

* For example, more accommodation is needed in the chemical 
laboratory for work of advanced students ; in the engineering laboratory 
provision is needed for a hydraulic branch for the testing, by practical 
methods, and systematic study of flow of water in turbines, etc., as well 
as for practical tests of refrigerating machinery. The geological laboratory 
is at present destitute of any cartographic branch provided with relief 
models, geological maps and sections, and wholly wanting in all 
seismological apparatus. 


reputation of that laboratory, whereas, however brilliant may 
be his discovery, his old Sydney laboratory is ilLumined 
thereby only with a borrowed light. We must not, however, 
forget that the stimulus which comes from new environment 
is highly beneficial to the student, but there is no reason, why 
he should lose this advantage, even if the above proposal were 
carried out, as after devoting the first year of his scholarship 
to research in his own University, the remainder of hi3 time 
would be spent abroad. It may be questioned, however, 
whether this innovation would be quite fair to the student un- 
less there were a reasonable prospect of his two years tenure of 
the travelling scholarship being lengthened to three years, as 
is often the case, as one year alone spent abroad is insuffi- 
cient for a thorough study of even a small branch of science. 

What is perhaps more needed at our University than 
travelling scholarships, are fellowships. 

Pure science does not pay financially, at all events it does 
not. pay those engaged in science research.* A past President 
of our Royal Society has summarized the matter thus*! : — "The 
devotees of science have necessarily abandoned the paths that 
lead to possible affluence, and yet from their limited means 
they contribute, as a rule, liberally to the cause that lies 
nearest their hearts. But the institutions on which the pro- 
gress of humanity depends, require assistance in the material 
means for their maintenance, far beyond what lies in the 
power of men of science to provide. It is peculiarly gratify- 
ing, therefore, when those, whose financial genius has won for 
them affluence, use the great power which that brings to pro- 
mote the welfare of the people." 

The endowment of fellowships would enable us in New 
South Wales to regain the services here of our research science 
scholars, when the tenure of their travelling scholarships had 

* That is, however well it may pay in the long run as it usually does, 
it often does not pay when judged by its immediate results. 

+ Presidential Address to Royal Society of New South Wales. By 
G. H. Knibbs, F.R.A.S., p. 43, vol. XXXIII., 1899. 

professor david's address. 115 

expired ; and the establishment in our midst of a body of 
scientific workers familiar with the latest methods of research 
in the Northern Hemisphere would bring light and power to 
the cause of science in this country. 

Of all Sir William Macleay's bequests to science probably 
none will prove more useful than the fellowships, which he has 
endowed. It is only by the labours of bands of advanced 
research students, such as these, and the force of their living 
example, that our University can hope to win for itself a re- 
putation that may be world wide, so that men may seek to its 
halls as of old they sought those of Bologna, Paris, and Ox- 

As regards teaching staff our University on the Science 
side has many needs, but perhaps none is more keenly felt than 
the need for a teacher of Botany. At present Botany is 
grouped with Zoology under the chair of Biology, but ob- 
viously it is no more possible for one man to deal with these 
two vast subjects at our University than at other Universi- 
ties, where the two great branches of Biology are invariably 
represented by at least two chairs. Additions to the teach- 
ing staff are also needed in Organic Chemistry and in Elec- 
trical and Physical Chemistry. The question as to whether 
Agriculture should not also form the subject' for a University 
chair, is one well worthy of serious consideration. Agricul- 
ture is taught at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, at no 
less than 17 of the American Universities, at many of the 
Universities of Germany, and at teaching establishments of 
University standard in France, at Grignon, Grandjouan, 
Montpelier, etc. In Switzerland it is taught at the Univer- 
sity of Lausanne, and in Italy at the superior colleges of 
Milan and Portici. Surely the great industry of 
agriculture, the greatest in the coruntry, in the words 
of Lord Rosebery, "as old as it is honourable," and 
yearly more and more dependent on the higher branches 
of science, is one not unworthy of a place on a Uni- 



versity science curriculum. Another question lately mooted 
by my colleague, Professor Wilson, has been the introduction 
of German into the University curriculum, or into the en- 
trance examination for science and medical students. Obvi- 
ously such students should at least be able to read with 
facility scientific literature in German as well as French. 
Another improvement in our curriculum may possibly soon be 
the conversion of the three years' courses in Science and 
Mining Engineering each into a course of four years. This 
by giving the students more time will make them more 
thorough in their work. 

Another direction in which science teaching at the Uni- 
versity may be helped is in the way of subsidising scientific 
expeditions, as has been so generously done by Mr. W. A. 
Horn, of South Australia, and Miss Eadith Walker, of New 
South Wales. 

The handsome donations, too, of the Hon. David Syme 
proprietor of the Melbourne Age, and that of Professor Bald- 
win Spencer's father, for the purpose of Natural History and 
Ethnological Research in Central Australia and Northern 
Territory, have been the means of securing for science informa- 
tion, some of which would otherwise have been irrecoverably 

There is great need for the exploration of our own coun- 
try. The native fauna and flora are being so modified by bush 
fires, rabbits, and the agency of man, that it will soon be al- 
most impossible to decide which forms are indigenous and 
which introduced. 

The study of land and freshwater fauna and flora of Aus- 
tralia are matters of almost as great urgency as is the Ethno- 
logical study of our aborigines. 

The question of making accurate hydraulic surveys of all 
the artesian wells of New South Wales, and elucidating the 
physical problem presented by our artesian water, is one of 

professor david's address. 117 

great importance from a scientific as well as from a commer- 
cial standpoint. 

The nature of the organisms in our artesian water, is 
another urgent matter for research as well as is the ocean- 
ography of the South Eastern Coast of Australia. 

It is gratifying to note that Mr. Hedley, of the Austra- 
lian Museum, and Mr. Halligan, the Government Hydro- 
grapher, have made a good beginning at the work of current 
observation and study of the deep sea fauna of our coast ; the 
results obtained are of the greatest interest, showing that 
numerous forms of marine life previously believed to be ex- 
tinct, are still living. 

There is need, too, for a thorough geodetic survey of Aus- 
tralia, and for a systematic srtudy of our Australian Meteor- 
ology, of Local Force of Gravity, Terrestrial Magnetism, Seis- 
mology, etc. 

Of hindrances to science in Australia fortunately little 
may be said. Such as have occurred have been similar to 
those in the older countries, but in one respect we, in Austra- 
lia, suffer under a disability from which most of the older 
countries are exempt — there is practically little or no scien- 
tific opinion in the people of Australia.* The Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science, has, however, 
already done something to remove this disability. Another 
drawback is one to which a past president of our Royal 
Society has already directed attention. We take our outdoor 
games too seriously, and our laboratory work too lightly. Time 
should remove the former of these evils, and the storm and 
stress of competition should eliminate the latter. 

V. Conclusion. — So far I have tried to show why science 
should be taught at Universities ; how Universities other than 
our own teach it, and how we teach it, and also how our 
teaching might be improved. 

* Probably it is chiefly upon the spread of science teaching at the 
schools that we in Australia will have to depend in the future for the 
development of a local scientific opinion. 


It is to be regretted that in Sydney, as in London, the 
number of students at the University is small in proportion 
to the population as compared with the numbers at Paris 
and Berlin. Paris and Berlin each have 12,000 University 
students, London has 2,000 matriculated students at work. 
There are 7 millions of inhabitants in London within the 30- 
mile radiius, and if the proportion of students to population 
in London were similar to those in Paris and Berlin, London 
ought to have 20,000 University students instead of 2,000. 
Sydney, tested by the Paris and Berlin standard, and credited 
with the total population of New South Wales and Queens- 
land, on which to draw for students, should have 5,000 Uni- 
versity students instead of 700. The cost and difficulty of 
travel to Sydney from remote parte of New South Wales and 
Queensland, as compared with the ready access of the popula- 
tions of Paris and Berlin to their Universities, must be 
allowed for. A greater appreciation by the public of the 
advantages of University teaching should tend more than any- 
thing else to raise the proportion of our students to popula- 
tion to the continental standard. 

It cannot be any spirit of exclusiveness that deters 
students from coming to us, for we have maintained a 
thoroughly open door policy in our science as in all our other 
teaching. The fact cannot be too strongly emphasized that 
the science classes and laboratories of the University are open 
to all comers, irrespective of the question as to whether the 
student has matriculated or not. It cannot be expense, for 
the fees are as low as under the circumstances they can well 
be made, and compare very favourably in this respect with 
the fees at other Universities. In cases where insufficient 
means prevent a student from paying the University fees, the 
Chancellor has the power to remit them, a power which is 
exercised in a spirit far more liberal than the public imagines. 
Here, truly, then, exists at our University Huxley's ideal — 
"a ladder reaching from the gutter to the University." Neither 

professor david's address. 119 

can it be said that want of freedom to study hinders students 
from coming to us, for "Lernfreiheit" the freedom to pursue 
knowledge, has been preserved in the science no less than in 
the other departments of this University. 

Apart from higher considerations, if only the commer- 
cial aspect of the case be taken, it is high time that the Aus- 
tralian nation awoke to the need for learning the lessons of 
modern science, such as our University courses afford. The 
future of British trade wears a serious outlook. The rapid 
exhaustion of the supplies of coal in Great Britain must 
inevitably mean a decline in her manufactures. Already she 
has been outstripped in the production of iron by America 
and Germany, whereas only as recently as 1870, as shown by 
the author of "Our Imperial Heritage ,, in a recent magazine, 
her output of iron was more than equal to that of America and 
Germany combined. It is not pleasing to contemplate this com- 
parative shrinkage in British production. There are two chief re- 
medies : (1) We must work harder and work better ; (2) More 
attention must be paid to the development of the British Em- 
pire beyond the seas ; and our Science Graduates are the beet 
equipped men to accomplish this work on the science research 
and industrial side, just as are our Arts Students in their 
professions. But the fact must once more be emphasized that 
success or failure of our University science men in keeping this 
nation to the forefront in scientific methods and scientific 
discovery which make for a nation's industrial greatness, de- 
pends on the efficiency of the science teaching, and to be effi- 
cient it must be founded on a broad and liberal education — 
a foundation such as is specially supplied by a study of the 
Arts, such as will teach stiudenits to live well and to think 

In pressing forward for the prize of discovery of fresh 
truth, science should heed neither praise nor blame, not un- 
mindful of Huxley's words, "When science has made an im- 


portant discovery, great is the acclamation of those that are 
benefited thereby, and for the time being science is the Diana 
of all the craftsmen, but even while the cries 1 of jubilation re- 
sound, the crest of the wave of scientific investigation is far 
away on its course over the illimitable ocean of the unknown. " 

The thought, that nothing like the thousandth part of 
the scientific truths that shall be known by man are already 
known, should surely inspire us to press onward. 

Science is like a great lighthouse on an island in a vast 
sea. From time to time the lantern may be improved ; even 
the lighthouse itself may be pulled down to its foundations, 
and rebuilt higher and stronger, and the new light now chases 
darkness from the face of the deep over an area greater than 
before, but this only serves to widen to our gaze the infinite 
darkness that lies beyond. 

In the grand pursuit of Truth differences between indivi- 
duals, between classes, and even between nations, are for- 
gotten ; and on an occasion like this of our present jubilee, 
the holy bond of learning has united us, as shown by the many 
friendly greetings sent us, with many nations, kindreds and 
tongues. Such a bond of world-wide sympathy is very strong 
between scientific men, and gives additional inspiration and 
encouragement to us in our work. 

On such an occasion as that of our present Jubilee one is 
reminded of the beautiful words spoken by Gaston Paris, as to 
the ideal of the scientific cult, in a lecture to his students 
during the siege of Paris — a lecture punctuated by bursting 
shells : — " I profess absolutely and without reserve this 
doctrine, that the sole object of science is truth, and truth 
for its own sake, without regard to consequences, good or evil, 
happy or unhappy. He who through patriotic, religious, or 
even moral motives, allows himself the smallest dissimulation, 
the slightest aberration, is not worthy to have a place in the 
great laboratory where honesty is a more indispensable claim 
to admission than ability. Thus understood, common studies, 

professor david's address. 121 

pursued in the same spirit, in all civilized countries, form, 
above restricted and too often hostile nationalities, a ' grande 
patrie ' which no war stains, no conqueror menaces ; and 
where spirits find rest and communion perfect as that given 
in olden times to those who sought shelter in the city of 

* That is " City of Refuge." As the passage has been somewhat spoiled 
in the translation, I venture to add the original, which was kindly given to 
me by Mile. Soubeiran : — " Je propose absolument et sans reserve cette doc- 
trine que la science n'a d'autre oojet que la verite" et la v6rit6 pour elle-meme, 
sans aucun souci des consequences bonnes ou mauvaises, regrettables ou 
heureuses que cette ve>it6 pourrait avoir dans la pratique. Celui qui, par 
un motif patriotique religieux et raeme moral, se permet dans les faits 
qu'il etudie, dans les conclusions qu'il tire, la plus petite dissimulation, 
l'alteration la plus leg^re, n'est pas digne d'avoir sa place dans le grand 
laboratoire ou la probity, est un titre d admission plus indispensable que 
l'habilete — Ainsi comprises, les etudes communes poursuivies avec lememe 
esprit dans tous les pays civilises. Forment au-dessus des nationalities 
restreintes et trop souvent hostiles, une grand patrie qu* aucune guerre ne 
souille, qu' aucun conque>ant ne menace, et ou les ames trouvent le refuge 
et t' unit6 que la cite" de Dieu leur a donnes en d't 


I In fourth line from end of footnote, for " dans tous les 

, • pays ciXses. Forment" etc., read "dans tous les pays 

civilises, forment" etc. 

*■ » *^B ;— 



After Professor David's Address, the Visiting Delegates, 
the Chancellor and Fellows of the Senate, and Professors were 
entertained at luncheon by Dr. P. Sydney Jones, at the Aus- 
tralia Hotel. Dr. Jones stated that one of the objects of the 
gathering was to give the delegates and the governing body 
of the University an opportunity of discussing academic mat- 
ters in an informal way in the hope that criticism might lead 
to improvement. 


Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Russell were "at home" at the Obser- 
vatory in the afternoon. The pleasantly-situated and well- 
shaded grounds of the Observatory offered special attractions 
to the guests, for the day was sultry, and a long-looked-for cool 
wind from the south did not arrive until an advanced hour. 
Refreshments were served on the lawn. Invitations had been 
issued to about five hundred ladies and gentlemen, including 
the visiting delegates, the members of the University govern- 
ing body and teaching staff, a large number of graduates and 
undergraduates, and many private friends of the host and 


The Smoke Concert given in the Great Hall by the Un- 
dergraduates' Association was well attended. Mr. S. A. 
Smith, president of the association, was in the chair, and 
most of the visiting delegates were present. 

A programme of vocal music was carried out. The toast 
of "The University" was proposed by Professor Bensley, and 
responded to by Professor David. 

The President proposed the toast of "The Visitors/ ' to 
which M. Le Goupils made reply. 



While the Undergraduates' Smoke Concert was in pro- 
gress in the Great Hall, a number of guests were being enter- 
tained by Miss Macdonald, the principal, at the Women's 
College. A number of Greek tableaux vivants were presented 
by the students of the College. The entertainment was begun 
by Mr. Arthur Pratt, who sang a Hymn to Nemesis. The cur- 
tain then rose upon "the goddesses, Hera, Pallas, and Aphro- 
dite, with the apple of discord." The succeeding tableaux re- 
presented "Helen persuaded by Aphrodite to accompany Paris," 
"Andromache's fate as a captive," "Clytemnestra orders Cass- 
andra to enter the palace," "Nausicaa and her maidens," "Pene- 
lope at the Loom," "Penelope mourning," "Penelope, and the 
nurse telling of Odysfleus ,, return." The pictures were presented 
with attention not only to beauty of grouping and colouring, 
but also to truth of archaeological detail. Professor MacCal- 
lum introduced each with a few explanatory remarks and read 
English versions of the passages from Homer, Aeschylus, or 
Euripides, dealing with each particular scene. Mr. Pratt 
brought the programme to a close by singing a song from the 

first Pythian ode of Pindar. Refreshments were then served 
among the guests. 


The celebrations were brought to a close on the afternoon 
of October 4th with an aquatic carnival on the calm waters of 
the hill-flanked Lane Cove River, one of the long, winding 
estuaries of Port Jackson. The grounds of St. Ignatius' Col- 
lege had) been placed for the occasion at the disposal of the 
University. Two large refreshment marquees had been 
erected. The weather was propitious, for the sky was bright, 
and from the south-east there blew a cool and gentle breeze. 
Thousands of spectators watched the proceedings with interest, 
and amusement. The visitors were received by the Rev. T. 
Gartlan, S.J., rector of St. Ignatius' College. During the 


afternoon there were present the State Governor, Sir Harry 
Rawson; the Governor of Victoria, Sir George Clarke; His 
Excellency Vice- Admiral Sir L. Beaumont, Sir Samuel Grif- 
fith, Judge Backhouse, Mr. R. R. P. Hickson, Captain Bird, 
Mr. E. W. O'Sullivan, Mr. Q. L. Deloitte, president of the 
Rowing Association, and Mr. G. E. Upward. Mr. Deloitte 
was umpire, Mr. K. F. Giltinan starter, and Mr. J. Degotardi 
judge. The regatta committee, Messrs. C. H. Helsham, A. 
G. Purvey H. O. Lethbridge, J. G. W. Hill, and A. G. de L. 
Arnold, worked hard to make the carnival a success, and their 
efforts were well rewarded. The University Boat Club won 
the maiden fours race from Glebe, Balmain, and Leichhardt 
Clubs. The Sobraon Boys' race was won by No. 5 cutter, and 
the eight-oar exhibition rowing was won by Glebe Rowing 
Club champion crew, with Mercantile and Leichhardt cham- 
pion crews close up, and on equal terms for second honours. 
In the Faculties four-oared race the prize for best turn out 
was won by Law, with Medicine close up. This was a well 
worked-up contest, and proved a most attractive item of the 

The first race on the programme was that of the Maiden 
Fours. Four crews — University B.C., Leichhardt R.C., Glebe 
R.C., and Balmain R.C. — took part. The result was an easy 
win for the University. Five crews started in the Sobraon 
Boys' Race, and pulled enthusiastically, but steered erratic 
courses. Fouls were the result, and two of the boats stuck on 
a mud-bank. A condition of the Inter-Faculty race was that 
the crews should appear in appropriate costume;, a prize being 
offered for 1 the most original "turn out." The Medical quar- 
tette appeared as skeletons, with a little demon coxswain, sur- 
rounded with sulphur-fumes, while a large box labelled "Pills" 
graced the bow. The Arts crew represented armed aborigi- 
nals. Law was symbolised by four Mephistophelian figures, 
steered by Justice. Engineering was represented by a crew 


of Lascars, with a miniature boiler and engine in the bow. 

The result of the race was as follows : — 

J-*aw ... ... . . , ... ... 1 

Medicine 2 

Engineering 3 

.AXuS ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Sir Samuel Griffith acted as judge in this event. The Inter- 
Faculty racers were not the only crews which adopted fancy 
dress. A number of comical figures were disporting them- 
selves about the course, and enlivening the proceedings by 
their antics. Seven crews competed in the Exhibition of 
Eight-Oar Bowing. Mr. Upward who had come from Mel- 
bourne to judge this event, awarded the first place to the Glebe 
No. 1 crew. 

A good programme of music was provided during the 
afternoon by the band of N.T.S. Sobraon. 


Before the official jubilee proceedings had begun, two of 
the most flourishing of the University clubs provided enter- 
tainment for our waiting guests. On the afternoon of 
Monday, September 29th, the University Amateur 
Dramatic Society gave an entertainment at the 
Palace Theatre. The auditorium was crowded, and 
His Excellency the State Governor, Lady Bawson, and 
a party from Government House, were present. The 
curtain rose first upon "The Threshold," a one-act play by 
Mr. Norman Gough, B.A. The plot of the play is simple. 
The Vicomte de Braganze discovers his wife's lover; a duel 
follows, and the husband kills his rival. This story, not very 
original, perhaps, in itself, was so treated by Mr. Gough as to 
be interesting and dramatically effective. The dialogue wa3 
crisp, and the situations managed with artistic skill. Miss 
Frances Butledge (of the Bland Holt Company) gave the 
society invaluable assistance by appearing as Athenais, wife of 

- i 


the Vicomte de Braganze. Mr. Gough himself took the part 
of the Vicomte, while the parts of the lover, and of Henri, an 
old servitor, were severally sustained by Mr. W. J. Creagh and 
Mr. L. Sidney. At the conclusion of the piece there were loud 
cries for the author, who bowed his acknowledgments. 

Sheridan's comedy, "The Critic, or a Tragedy Rehearsed'' 
(with the interpolations of Mr. Charles Mathews) was then 
presented. The principal parts were taken by Messrs. N. 
Gough, Stuart Kay, J. P. Jones, H. de Lissa, L. K. Ward, W. 
J. Creagh, D. J. Carroll, S. L. Davies, Misses Elsie Dumolo, 
Maude Scrutton, and Winifred Ward. 



In the evening Sir Josiah Symon, K.C., lectured in the 
Great Hall, under the auspices of the University Union, upon 
"Universities: Some Characteristics and Uses." The Chan- 
cellor, Sir Normand Maclaurin, presided; and there were 
also on the dais Messrs. E. R. Holme and R. C. Teece (Presi- 
dent and Vice-President of the Union) ; Senators R. E. O'Con- 
nor, Walker and Gould ; Professor MacCallum, Judges Back- 
house and Docker,, Rev. J. Ferguson, Messrs. R. N. Teece, G. H. 
Wilson, and others. There was a large audience in the body 
of the hall. Before Senator Symon delivered his address, Mr. 
Arnold R. Mote gave a performance on the organ. 

Senator Symon, whose uprising was the signal for welcom- 
ing applause, said that little did Darwin foresee, when he bade 
his famous farewell, that an Australian University, full of the 
traditions and learning of the past, sharing in the destinies 
of an all-Australian Commonwealth, would so soon celebrate 
its jubilee. They might be specially proud, as theirs was 
the first jubilee under the Southern Cross. His remarks, 
he explained, were chiefly for those of the Union, not for the 
professors, the dons, and the sages. He regarded the admis- 
sion of women to the University, and the opening of the 
avenues of labour to them, as far more important than the 
granting of the franchise. Why, oh, why, did not the late Mr. 
Cecil Rhodes permit of women competing for his scholarships? 
How was the efficiency in the University they sought to be 
attained ? In the forefront came the professors. Upon them 
it chiefly depended whether the University should fulfil or fail 
in its high purpose. Quality, and not quantity, was the one 
thing needed in their teaching. The time of the professor 
was the property of his student, but the most heaven-born pro- 


feasor could not do all ; students must do their part — a great 
and important part. They should not be restless under disci- 
pline or affrighted by difficulties. There was a Spartan thrill 
in learning "to scorn delights and live laborious days." At 
the same time the University and its priesthood, the professo- 
rial staff, should have a watchful care lest disappointment 
overtook the sensitive student and daunted him. 

With the examination system he was not deeply in love. 
It was, he thought, overdone. It led too much to learning to 
pass, and not learning to know; to cramming the memory 
and starving the intellect. The examination over, the 
student was tempted to say, like some academic Micawber, 
"Thank God that is over," instead of saying, "I am glad 
to have had that opportunity of showing what I know." Might 
he also protest against that much-used quotation, "A little 
learning is a dangerous thing." Let no undergraduate ab- 
stain from drinking at all because he fancied he could not 
" drink deep " — this is to say at the Pierian spring. After 
all allowance for the too affluent heart of youth, if there 
was to be effervescence, it should be a disciplined effervescence. 
That, again, was largely in the hands of the colleges and staffs, 
whose success would depend on the extent to which graduates 
and undergraduates were treated as human beings with human 
passions and human weaknesses, and not as inanimate vessels 
to be filled with so much learning ; and on the extent to which 
their lives, as well as their studies, were of interest to profes- 
sors and tutors. There was a fine safety valve in the sports : 
cricket, rowing, and so on, which occupied a not unimportant 
and by no means too large a place in the University life. 

He put in an urgent plea for greater attention to the 
English language, the language of Shakespeare, of Bacon, of 
Pitt and Fox, of Byron and Shelley. It was the vehicle of 
the finest literature in the world. The French Academy ex- 
isted to preserve the delicacy of the French language. Ought 
they to be indifferent to English ? But in urging this increased 


attention to English he wished to couple with it, not merely its 
reading and study, but its utterance and articulation. 
Speech played so important a part in the movement 
and government of the world that to be effective the manner 
had to be studied as well as the matter. The muttering and 
want of clearness in our spoken speech was very lamentable. 
Elocution should be taught in every University. Their glori- 
ous English was too often ruined in its utterance; instead of 
going trippingly from the tongue, it was mutilated, and halt- 
ing. Was there not room, also, for poetry ? It was not to 
make poets, but to cultivate the mind, refine the tastes, en- 
large the understanding, and perfect the powers of expression 
that poetry had claims on a University curriculum. The use- 
fulness of a University was ill served if it did not take into 
account history under which men would learn to apply the 
science of philosophy to the study of facts. Civil history was 
the record of the life of nations, and was all-important. Was 
the beauty of art to be left out of sight? Surely, painting 
and sculpture and architecture were worthy of a place in any 
University course. If there were doctors of music, why not 
of painting and sculpture and architecture ? The University 
of to-day was ill-fitted for its task without technical schools, 
as it was without the equipment of an adequate library. No 
University in these times would answer its educational destiny 
unless it allowed the free air of reform to enter its gates, and 
to blow away the cobwebs of old-fashion and use. The time 
had come when Universities might well resolve that everything 
which might tend to help in the world's advancement was 
worthy of their attention and direction. 

It was almost with whispering humbleness that he put 
forward a plea in the direction of a field of usefulness upon 
which no University, so far as he was aware, had entered ; 
might not a University do something to keep the people politi- 
cally sound? What ought to be the goal of the wisest and 



best Government? Was it not to fill the country with brave, 
wise, contented, and happy men and women. We were of a 
race first among the strong ones of the earth ; but that strength 
must be moral, as well as material. Our rulers must be 
taught to do right. Was there no room for that in the Uni- 
versity curriculum ? Might they not help to a right compre- 
hension of affairs, of conditions, of principles, and that fairness, 
justice, and equality amongst men which ought to hold — if 
it did not — as high and efficient a place in politics and Govern- 
ments as in their Courts, and among their judges? Surely a. 
University might do something to inspire the minds of future 
rulers with these great principles, and make impossible the re- 
proach which was sometimes levelled, that they had departed 
out of the land. 

What was the sum of it all ? What, then, was the chief 
end of a University? Its purpose was not alone to impart 
learning, but to see that the learning it imparted was not used 
for selfish or ignoble ends ; that it was used to promote all phy- 
sical and moral good, to extend man's empire over nature and 
the material world to keep the flag of civil and religious liberty 
flying, and to uphold virtue and order and justice. If that be 
the legend inscribed upon her banners, then "signs of noble- 
ness, like stars, shall shine upon you.'' They looked to the 
University to give them open-minded men and good citizens, 
who would maintain the moral currency, who would not suffer 
it to be debased. The growth of the democracy had not les- 
sened, but vastly enlarged, the power, as it had increased the 
responsibility of the University. Was there not much to be 
done through the University in mitigating the over-weening 
confidence and self-glorification of material success and depre- 
ciation of the things of the mind. 

What had the authorities of the University done towards 
directing or controlling the tyranny of public opinion? Had 
it raised human nature from its intellectual languor and moral 
indolence? Had they, or their sons, led, as they ought in these 
times of vast movement and change ? It had often been said 


ol the English Universities that their aim was to form what 
England valued as the flower of her life— a well-educated gen- 
tleman. Finally, the ultimate design of it all was> to make 
good men — not goody-goody, but good men in the best sense. 

Let them imbue themselves with principles of virtue and 
sound philosophy, and learn the lessons of self-government and 
discipline on the one hand, and of kindness and consideration 
to their fellow-men on the other. Animated by this spirit, 
they might, when the time came, step with confidence into the 
world of life and action from the portals of the University, 
thanking God that, to them at least, it had been of use. 

On resuming his seat, Senator Symon was enthusiastically 
applauded for several minutes. 

Judge Backhouse, one of the members of the Union at 
the time of its inception, proposed a vote of thanks to Senator 
Symon, whom he described, in the words of Henry VIII., as 
"a learned and a most rare speaker." Mr. R. C. Teece second- 
ed the motion, which was carried by acclamation. On the 
motion of Mr. E. R. Holme, President of the Union, a vote 
of thanks was also accorded to the Chairman. 



On September 29th also was published "The Union Book 
of 1902 " — the other chief contribution of the Union towards 
the celebration of the Jubilee. With the aid of a grant 
from the Senate of the University, and the ready support of 
a large number of subscribers, the Union Committee was able 
to collect from its records a substantial volume of much his- 
torical and permanent interest. 

It consists of Presidential Addresses, Lectures and Essays, 
composed for the Union at various times in the thirty years 
or so of its existence, from the discourse of the First Presi- 
dent (Dr. Badham) upon the relations of such a society to 
academic study and the life of the community, to the retro- 
spective review of the aims and hopes of those who did most 
to establish the University as a teaching institution, by the 
last retiring President (Dr. Wilson). Among the other 
selections are a paper by Professor Scott upon the " Use and 
Abuse of Examinations," and an address by Professor Mac- 
Callum maintaining the old teaching function as against re- 
cent proposals that degrees in Arts should be granted without 
attendance at lectures and upon examination alone; literary 
and philosophical studies of Burke, by Professor Butler, T. H. 
Green by Professor Anderson, and Ibsen by Mr. N. J. Gough ; 
together with entertaining accounts of the Oxford Union by 
the State Attorney-General, Mr. B. R. Wise, K.C., and of 
older Sydney University days by His Honor Judge Back- 
house, who took a leading part in the foundation of the Union 
itself. The book concludes with a piece taken from the 
shortlived Sydney University Review and dealing, over the 
date of 1882, with the need for the institution of that Biolo- 
gical Department which now has its own large building and 
its own important place in the scientific curricula of various 
faculties. The writer, Professor Stephens, reveals a great 
literary erudition and taste appropriate in one who served the 
University equally well as Acting-Professor of Classics and 
Professor of Natural History. 



The congratulatory addresses — birthday greetings to the 
University of Sydney from her sisters in Australasia, Europe, 
America, and Japan— constitute an interesting collection. 
With few exceptions they are couched in Latin, which is still 
a possible universal means of communication in the world of 
letters, as French was in the world of diplomacy. Moreover, 
the sonorous Latin is appropriate to compositions of this kind, 
as its weighty syllables and rounded periods invest even trite 
sentiments with a grave dignity and charm that redeems them 
from triviality : the language itself seems to give an impression 
of earnestn Jthat is eminently satisfying. * 

Pre-eminent in point of beauty is the comparatively small 
sheet which contains the short address from Oxford. With its 
great initial G in blue and gold and red, its smaller initial 
letters in gold and red, its pendent seal protected by its gilt 
metal case, this address easily bears the palm. Love of learning 
and common pursuit of knowledge constitute a bond, says the 
address, which defies distance and the estranging ocean. It 
ends with a reference to the recent services of the colonies — 
"the bond between ourselves and the colonies is closer than ever 
before, for they responded to the call of duty in our hour of 
peril, and freely threw lives and fortunes into the scale to 
succour their common mother." The address from Cambridge, 
which stands by the side of that from Oxford, is in most com- 
plete contrast, as it is a plain, though beautifully printed, 
sheet. The address itself is interesting. A happy use is* made 
of a quotation from Scipio's Dream, where it is said that the 
old world has no concern with the lands that form the southern 
girdle of the earth. The address points out how this is no 
longer true, but that Britons are linked with Britons, both on 
the battlefield and in the pursuit of the arts of peace. Allu- 


si on is made to the bestowal of the degree of LL.D. upon Sir 
William Windeyer and upon Sir Edmund Barton. 

The address from Owens College, Manchester, is elaborately 
illuminated) with corner floral designs. It reminds us that our 
friends at home are living in the shortening days of the 
autumn. "To us," it says, "who live in Manchester, with its 
everlasting pall of smoke, you in Sydney seem almost too 
blessed. With your crystal atmosphere, your pleasant land, 
your magnificent harbour, and the buildings which adorn your 
city, you can claim of right the title 'Athens of the South' 
(Athenae Australis). Nor is the true Attic culture missing 
among you who have shown yourselves adapted equally to the 
pursuits of peace and those of war." Specific reference is made 
to the University's work in chemistry and geology. The 
address ends with the prayer that the University of Sydney, 
which for fifty years past has been the "citadel and bulwark of 
culture" (arx et propugnaculum verae culturae), may flourish 
for ages to the confusion of ignorance, the increase of know- 
ledge, and the protection of worth. 

The University of Birmingham greets the University of 
Sydney as her elder sister, and refers to the fact that it was 
from Birmingham that Charles Badham, vir summa doctrina, 
migrated hither. Her address concludes with the hope that 
the Universities of the Empire may ever be united in sentiment. 

Among the addresses from American Universities, that 
from Harvard is interesting reading. Harvard regrets that she 
has no delegate to send. "Perhaps," she says, "you would not 
have regarded him as a stranger, though he came from across 
the sea, for as you know blood is thicker than water." 

Toronto reminds us that the Dominion of Canada (hoc 
Dominium quod aiunt Canadense) sprang from the labours of 
Macdonald and Brown, one of whom was an alumnus, the other 
a stanch supporter of Toronto University. Similarly, she says, 
our alumnus, Sir Edmund Barton, has been the chief artificer 
in the work of federation (novae civitatis vestrae fabricandae 


The University of Pennsylvania reminds us that a century 
ago she held the same position in America as the University 
of Sydney holds to-day in Australia. The work of both was the 
adapting of the older European learning and methods to new 
political conditions (doctrinam disciplinamque Europeam ad 
usus novarum rerum publicarum accommodate). She ex- 
presses the hope that the University may reach its centenary 
enriched by public and private munificence, and ever be the 
brightest ornament of New South Wales. 

The Universities of Germany are largely represented. From 
Berlin comes an address which dwells upon the bond of union 
constituted by our common literary and scientific pursuits. 
"Here," it goes on to say, "where but a few years ago savages 
but little removed from animals roamed (homines feri ac paene 
bestiarum ritu degentes vagabantur) unremitting industry has 
established the highest degree of culture, and the closest inter- 
course with the external world. Where once were heard accents 
hardly worthy of the name of human speech lecture halls (audi- 
toria) stand in which the teachings of literature and science 
are open to all." In a similar strain the address from Heidel- 
berg celebrates in a paragraph of great beauty and rhythm the 
progress of Sydney, both economic and intellectual. The Uni- 
versity, with its beautiful buildings, stands as the citadel and 
rampart of culture against all that is illiberal, mean, and with- 
out permanent value for man. Fifty years, says the address 
from Jena, are but a span compared with the antiquity of the 
older seats of learning, such as that of Jena herself, whose 
years number nearly ten times a3 many, but the true comparison 
is with the space of time that has elapsed since the establish- 
ment of the colony. This rapidity of growth, and the excellence 
of results already attained, makes all the heavier the d em ands 
of the next half century. 




Universitati Sydneiensi UNIVERSITA8 Melburniensis 


Quinquagesimus iam annus est, viri doctissimi, ex quo 
vestra civitas, cum urbem istam situ caeloque amoenissimam 
artium et scientiarum omnium liberalium instrumento exor- 
nare decrevisset, Academiam Sydneiensem magna cum spe in- 
auguravit. Incepto, ut temporibus illis, vehementer laudando 
laudem in dies maiorem prudentia gubernantium, studia et 
doctrina. praeceptorum, liberalitas civium per decern lustra 
feliciter attulerunt. Quae cum ita sint, scitote nos vobis 
ferias tarn iusta de causa celebraturis tali gratulari benevolen- 
tia "qualem decet esse sororum." Jure enim Universitaa nostra, 
natu quidem minor prope tamen aequalis, vicinitate proximo 
artes eisdem inatitutis oolens vobis se omnium conjunotissimam 
esse iactat. Neque vero immemores sumus facem hanc qualem- 
cumque nostram eo maturius atque ardentius aocensam fuisse,. 
quod ilia vestra iam per triennium ita explendesceret ut non 
solum viam nostratibus monstraret sed etiam ad aemulationem 
generosam semper inritaret. Itaque f austa hac occasione datai 
Universitatem vestram toto corde salutantes eis prosequimur 
votis, quae potissimum nuncppare debet sororis erga sororem 
integra pietas. Qui n etiam artius foederata iam re publica 
tesseras per hos dies inter nos permutare vel potius communicare 
licebit, et sicut nobis in gaudio vestro "mens eadem" quae vobi» 
erit, ita ad Universitatem vestram, praeclaram iam et quam 
maxime spectabilem, in primi3 pertinere illud "postera crescam 
laude" persuasissimum habebimus. 

Dabamus Melburniae a.d. V. Kal. Oct. MCMII. Scribendo- 


John Madden, LL.D., B.A., 


W. J. Wrixon, M.A. 

Vict- Cancettarius* 

T. P. McInerney, M.A., LL.D., 

Praeses Senatus. 



Universitatis Sydneiensis Cancellario et Senatui 
Uniyersitas Adelaidensis 

Academiae vestrae et vetustate et opibus tota Australia 
praestantissimae annos quinquaginta feliciter peractos gratu- 
latur academia nostra Adelaidensis. Quod non tantum quia 
communi quodam studiorum vinculo vobiscum coniuncta est 
sed eo libentius facit cum non nulli ddsciplinis iam. vestris in- 
formati apud nos docendi munere adouratissime fungantur 
compertumque satis inde habeamus industria singulari dili- 
gentiaque a vobis iuventutem erudiri. Etenim id conditores 
ipeoe Academiae vestrae egisse agnoscimus ut discipulos non 
solum doctiores sed meliores ipsique rei publicae utiliores red- 
der ent. Ac ne quis dubitet eiusdem esse opera in utramque 
partem viriliter navanda et doctrinam studiosorum et oommoda 
civium augere insigne omnibus exemplum propoeuit Badhamus 
ille vester, vir clarissimus. 

Quid igitur nunc precemur potius quam ut gloriam ves- 
tram semper, ut soletis, tueamini et quern ad modum urbis 
vestrae portus pulcherrimus ab omnibus gentibus lucri quaes- 
tusque causa celebretur sic academia quoque in sede amoenis- 
sima exstructa, civium munincentia adornata, legibus nrmata 
saluberrimis, tanquam ad mercaturam bonarum artium adule*- 
centes plurimos ad se trahat ? 

Cum autem fructum aliquem percepturi vide*antur quicum- 
que in hoc vitae versantur genere si non nunquam inter se ser- 
monea consiliaque contulerint, huiusmodi occasion© a vobis 
benignissime oblata gratias amplissimas reddimus. 

S. J. Way, 


William Barlow, 

Vice- Cancellarius. 
Adelaidae Datum a.d. V. Kal. Oct. MDCCCCII. 




The University of Sydney. 

We desire to offer you our warmest congratulations on 
this occasion, when you celebrate the Jubilee of your founda- 
tion. During the past fifty years you have worthily discharged 
the high functions of a University, and held up the torch of 
learning in these new worlds of the Southern Hemisphere. 
Other Universities have, in the meantime, arisen in Australa- 
sia, whose efforts are now directed towards one common object, 
the spread of culture and scientific knowledge among the rising 
nations of the British Empire. To you who led the way in 
this work, the others now offer their tribute of esteem and 
veneration ; and we, though outside the pale of the great Aus- 
tralian Commonwealth, are one with its members in presenting 
this tribute to the centre of learning in the parent State. 

The individual members of our Senate thank you warmly 
for your cordial invitation to be present with you on this 
happy occasion. Many of them have felt a strong desire to 
go, but are prevented by insuperable difficulties. We ask one 
of those members — Mr. James Hay, M. A., LL.B. — who is able 
to respond to your invitation, to read this letter, and convey 
to you our share in the congratulations and good wishes with 
which the new and the old worlds greet you. 

May success and prosperity attend you in the great work 
of which you now celebrate the first stage; and may your in- 
fluence for good grow and expand through the centuries. 

Signed on behalf of the University, 

James Hector, 


J. W. Joyce, 



To the Chancellor and Senate of the University of Sydney. 

We, the members of the Council of Victoria College, 
Wellington, New Zealand, most heartily convey to you our con- 
gratulations on the occasion of this your Jubilee. Your 
Jubilee holds the proud distinction of being the oldest in Aus- 
tralasia. .The broad foundations you laid and the noble struc- 
ture you have reared have been alike an ideal and incentive 
to those other communities which are seeking in their devotion 
to higher education one of the most enduring bonds of unity. 

In forming the mind and moulding the thought of the 
past generations of your students, you have helped to make the 
men who have framed your politics and determined the char- 
acter of your institutions. 

We rejoice that the service you have rendered has been so 

richly rewarded. 

W. A. Evans, 


Charles P. Powles. 

Wellington, N.Z., September 20, 1902. 

TJniversitatas Birminghamiensis Universitati Sydneiknsi 


Gratias vobis agimus, Collegae Sydneienses, quod natalem 
quinquagesimum Academiae vestrae celebraturi nos adesse 
gaudiique vestri participes esse voluistis, et ex animo dolemus 
nos spatiis iniquis Oceani dissociabilis a coetu vestro auspica- 
tissimo intercludi. 

Hac enim lege utrique sumus Britanni ut et vo» a nobis 
et nos a vobis paene totus orbis terranim dividat. Sed quam- 
quam hospitio vestro uti non possumus, diem faustum sollem- 
nium vestrorum vobis gratulari liceat. 



Academiam vestram tamquam sororem seniorem aalu- 
tamua, et pro perpetua salute et felicitate vestra vota pia nun- 
cupamus; eoque die cum ad sacra vestra celebranda tot viri 
illustres ex omnibus Australian coloniis, hodie in unam rem- 
publicam feliciter sociatis, Sydneiam convenerint, nos quoque 
apud vos animo deversabimur ; et vos nostri memores estate. 
Magna est iam nobis cum Universitate vestra necessitudo et 
affinitas: nam et civitate inperii Britannici et toto genere 
8tudiorum academicorum coniuncti sumua 

Extant autem inter nos duo praecipua vincula amicitiae, 
siquidem Cancellarium nostrum, virum summis laudibus cumu- 
latum, Josepbum Chamberlain, vos perinde ac nos animo grato 
pioque prosequimini, et ex urbe Birmingbamia vir summa doo- 
trina, Carolus Badham, in civitatem vestram academicam mi- 
gravit. Universitati ergo vestrae nos et bodie cognatos esse 
gloriamur et amicitiae vinculis artissimis semper fore coniunc- 
tos speramus. 

Unum foedus semper esto sicut totius nominis Britannici 
ita omnium Universitatum Britannicarum. Valete. 

Datum Birminghamiae, et communi sigillo Universitatis 
obsignatum die undecimo mensis Junii A.S. MDCCCCII. 


Charles G. Be ale, 

Vict- Cancellarius. 

Oliver Lodge, 



Decanus Facidtatis Scientiae. 

E. A. Sonnenschein, 

Decanus Facultati* Artium. 

Bertram C. A. Windle, 

Decanus Facidtatis Medicinae. 

George H. Morley, 



Universitati Sydnkiensi Universitas Cantabrigiensis 


Litteris vestiris, viri doctissimi, ad noe hajud ita pridem 
perlatis, non sine gaudio intelleximus, Universitatem vestram 
annum quinquagesimum ab origine sua feliciter exactum ante 
Kalendas Octobres esse celebraturam. Quicquid Universitati 
vestrae, quicquid vobis omnibus, qui Australiae totius provin- 
ciam antiquissimam incolitis curae esse constat, idem etiam 
nosmet ipsos ipsamque Britanniam tangit ; neque ad Britannos 
pertinent verba ilia Scipionis in Somnio a duce Romano quon- 
dam audita: — "Australis ille orbis terrarum cingulus, ini quo 
qui insistunt adversa vobis urgent vestigia, nihil ad vestrum 
genus." Quamquam enim vestigia, vestra nostris vestigiis sunt 
adversa, easdem per vias eundem ad finem nobiscum progre- 
dimini ; quanquam alia sidera suspicitis, caelo mutato animum 
non mutavistis. Orbe toto a nobis divisi, tamen non modo in. 
pace sed etiam in bello, non patriae tantum sed imperii Britan- 
nici totius amore, nobiscum estis coniuncti. Nos certe, etiam 
studiorum communium vinculis vobis consociati, libenter re- 
cordamur, primum unum e Cancellariis vestris, judicem inte- 
gerrimum, deinde unum e Senatoribus vestri3, Australiae in 
provinciis nuper feliciter foederatis virum primarium constitu- 
tum, doctoris titulo a nobis nuper ornatum fuisse; denique 
Professorum vestrorum in ordine etiam nunc ut olim alumnos 
nostros complures numerari. Ergo ludorum vestrorum sae- 
cularium in solleni die hae litterae ad vos trans maria perlatae 
nostrum omnium benevolentdam testabuntur ; nos interim urbis 
vestrae portum pulcherrimum, et Universitatis vestrae aedi- 
ficia urbi superaddita, mentis saltern oculis e longinquo con- 
templabimur, caelique nostri sub auctumno vobis omnibus anni 
in tempore verno exsultantibus, et Universitati vestrae aeta- 
tis suae in ipso vere florenti, omnia prospera etiam in posterum 
exoptabiinus. Valete. Datum Cantabrigiae. Nonis Juniis. 



Universitas Dublinensis Universitati Sydneiensi 


Pleno modio vobis gratulamur, viri ornatissimi, cum annos 
iam quinquaginta terrae novae ac rudi facem humanitatis prae- 
tulistis. Immo etiam decora ipsa Universitatum antdquiorum 
in coetum vestrum adscire interdum voluistis, et apud vos sel- 
lam nactus est Badham unde doctrinae suae opes populis 
omnibus politds effunderet. Cum itineris ad vo9 peragendi 
longinquitas et munerum atque omciorum domi exsequendorum 
necessitas impediant quominus coram una cum vobis gaudea- 
mus, utimur perurbana vestra indulgentia, et adlegamus homi- 
nem doctissimum Alexandrum Leeper, alumnum nostrum prae- 
clarum, terrae autem Australis filium adoptivum decusque 
egregium Aedis sorori3 Melbourniensis, qui feriarum sit parti- 
ceps et nostris suique verbis bona omnia vobis comprecetur. 

Speramus porro ac confidimus fore ut hos annos quinqua- 
ginta tarn feliciter decursos multa saecula excipiant pari atque 
adeo maiori successu insignita. 

Universitati Glasguensis Universitas Sydneiensi 


Quinquagesimam celebrantium Academiae natalem non 
alio libentius anno gaudiis vestris sollennibus interfuturi fuis- 
semus quam hac temporum opportunitate cum non minus ob 
bellum feliciter profligatum quam tot liberarum civitatum per 
totum orbem dissitarum fidem, virtutem, pietatem in ipso bello 
erga antiquam matrem praestitam, Imperii cives universi 
laetemur. Habet autem et Minerva comilitium aliquod quibus 
vinculia inter nos coartati magno hercle animo illud si vos 
valetis bene est amrmamus; immo quod spatium istud in 
decursu studiorum fauste confectum celebratis atque omine 


cum bono vos in maiora accingitis, ea nobis maxima laetitiae 
gratulationisque causa. 

Neque vero, quamvis Britanni a Britannis toto orbe divisi 
sitis, animo tantum litterarumve nuntio licet ut saecularia 
vestra prosequamur: siquidem viros doctissimos Franciscum 
Anderson, A.M., et Kentigernum Guliebnum McCallum, A.M., 
e gremio nostrae Academiae in Vestram migrates legavimus 
qui suo iure hanc benevolentiae nostrae professionem ad vos 

B. Herbert Story, 

Yice-Cancettarius et Praefectus. 
Dabamus Glasguae, 

Nonis Jun. MCMII. 


Universitas Londinknsis Universitati Sydneianak 


Benevolentiam vestram comitatemque erga nos ita litterae 
vestrae nuper expresserunt, ita communem nobiscum societa- 
tem studiorum et doctrinae confirmaverunt, ut protinus miro 
quodam accenderemur desiderio sedes Australes visendi vobis- 
que ferias natales gratulandi, quippe qui a Verulamio 
nostro et ab Aligero vate Latino exempla praeclara ac- 
ceperimus rerum pretioearum ultra mare expetendarum. 
"Nos manet oceanus circumvagus" ; apparet domus Sydneiana 
omnibus liberalibus artibus ornata ; ipsa thesauris patef actis 
invitat ut eadem ratione qua XJlixes senex in altum se misisse 
fertur sapientiae cupiditate novas regiones exploremus. "Multi 
pertransibunt et augebitur scientia." Hac praesertim oppor- 
tunita-te regni reique publicae juvat reminisci quantum vobi* 
acceptum referre debeamus, quo consortio Angligenae universi 
aimus conjuncti, qua gloria rerum feliciter gestarum, qua spe 
diei melioris. His auspiciis freti vobis omnia bona precamur. 


Adlegavimus Luisam Macdonald, artium magistraxn, hujus Uni- 
versitatis alumnam egregiam, Sydneianae autem familiarem, de 
ntraque optime meritam, quae coram vota nostra sollennia 

Dabamu8 Londini, die XXV. mensis Junii, A.S., 


Aechibaldus Comes de Rosebeby, 


Archibaldus Robertson, 

Pro- Cancellarius. 

Edwardus Henricus Busk, 

Praese8 Graduatorum Convocatorum. 


Universitati Sydneiensi Collegium Londinense 

Uni versitati Apfine 

Litteris vestris humanissimis in communionem laetitiae 
vocati, qua natalem Universitatis Sydneiensis quinquagensi- 
mum celebraturi estis, etei quominus animo obsequaxnur et 
ex nostra numero aliquem ad vos mittamus obstiterunt tanta 
itinerum interjecta spatia, tamen invenimus quomodo Hora- 
tianum illud, nequiquam terras Oceano dissociabili abscissas 
esse, novo comprobemus exemplo. Nam civem vestrum, alum- 
num nostrum, Angelum Money, M.D., B.S. virum in medica 
arte sollertissimum rogavimus ut Londinensis Londinensium 
legatus esse velib, quinquaginta annos cum maxima doctrinae 
laude feliciter peractos Sydneiensis Sydneiensibus gratuletur. 
Iluno igitur testem habetote academias tanto locorum inter- 
vallo divisas animo tamen ac mente conjunctissdmas esse et 
artissimo communium studiorum vinculo cohaerere. 

Scrip turn Londini, die XX. mensis Junii, anni MDCCCCII. 


Collegii Praese*. 


Universitati Sydneyensi Collegium Owknse Apud 



Qui nostras ferias iubilaeas nuper celebravimus, vobia ves- 
tras j ami am celebraturis laeti gratulamur. Separati enim 
iniquis spatiis maris nihilominus vinculo communis doctrinae 
communis patriae amore coniuncti sumus nee obliviscimur 
unum ex nostris alumnis Georgium Arnoldium Wood, virum 
doctum, consiliorum senatus vestri participem esse. Et nobis 
hanc urbem habitantibus caligini fere perpetuae obnoxiam 
nimium beati videmini. Claritate enim aeris agrorum amoeni- 
tate magnincentia portus et aedificiorum urbs vestra Athenae 
Australes rite vocari potest. Nee vero illam Atticam humani- 
tatem abesse sinitis, qui novam gentem ad pacem et bellum 
pariter aptam Minervae quoque artium studio imbuitis. Cur 
autem ref eramus (id quod omnibus notum est) quantum scientia 
chemica quantum geologica a viris clarissimis apud vos 
colatur. Et in novo orbi terrarum antiquitatem vos 
haud quaquam spernere ilia Aegyptia vestra testificantur. 
Itaque ut per hos quinquginta annos arx et propugnaculum 
verae culturae Universitas vestra exstitit sic precamur ut per- 
multa saecula ignorantiam et illiberalitam dissipet, doctrinam 
augeat, virtu tern foveat. Valete. 

Datum Mancunii. VI. Id Jul., A.S., MCMII. 

Joseph Thompson, 


Alfred Stephenson, 





Universitati Sydneiensi Cancellarius Magistri et 



Gratulamur vobis, viri doctissimi, annaim quinquag- 
esimum a prima fundatione vestra celebraturis ; nee 
quidquam nobis iucundius esse potest quam laetitiae 
vestrae partem capessere, et fausta omnia vobis 
augnrari. Nos quidem Ozonienses quibus originem antiquis- 
simam et insignium alumnorum seriem perpetuam iactare 
semper cordi est gratulationes vobis animo propensissimo prae- 
tendimus, Academiae vestrae tempestivam maturitatem atque 
vigorem iuvenilem ultro admirati; quibus speramus fore ut 
nullus non dies incrementum optabile afferat. Quodsi vos 
ipsi (ut est confitendum) toto paene orb© a nobis sitis diviad, 
sunt alia quaedam necessitudinis mutuae vincula, quae neque 
regionum longinquitate neque oceano dissociabili dirimi pos^ 
sunt, inter quae habeatis licet studiorum communitatem et 
doctrinae amor em sincerum. His tamen praecipue temporibus 
arctiore quodam vinculo coloniis nostris adstringi videmur, 
quibus placuerit in discrimine nostro fidem praestare officiosis- 
simam, et vitas fortunasque pacisoi, dummodo Ma&ri suae 
possent opifculari. 

Datum in domo nostra Convocationis die XVII. mensis 

Junii, A.S. MDCCCCII. 


To the University of Sydney, N.S.W. 
The Council of the Royal College of Science, London, 
offers to the University of Sydney, New South Wales, its 
heartiest congratulations upon the occasion of the Celebration 
of the fiftieth Anniversary of its foundation. The oldest of 
the seats of learning in the Continent of Australia, the Uni- 
versity of Sydney has for half a century worthily maintained 
its character as a centre of teaching and of Scientific Research. 


The Council of the Royal College of Science recalls with plea- 
sure the circumstance that several of the Chairs of Science and 
other responsible offices at Sydney are held by former Students 
of its own School, and they trust that the University may 
further develop with the growth of the Colony, so that its 
teachers and graduates may continue by their original investi- 
gations to add new lustre to Science. 

John W. Judd, 


Francis Fladgate, 

April 29, 1902. 


Universitati Sydneiensi Universitas Macgilliana Monte 
Regio in Provincia Canadensi sita 


Quas nuper ad nos, viri doctissimi, dedistis litteras laetds 
animis accepimus, gratiasque vel maxim as agimus quod, sollem- 
nia celebraturi quae in eum diem indixistis qui Universitatis 
vestrae natalis erit quinquagesimus, noe quoque in partem 
gaudii vestri vocare voluistis. Quamquam enim libuit vobis 
patriam vestram toto paene ab orbe divisam esse praedicare, 
nemo non scit quantopere apud voe, ut inter omnes qui Bri- 
tannicum prae se ferunt nomen, vigeat hodie ilia voluntatum, 
consiliorum, cogitationum consensio, quae vere videtur effecisse 
ut longinqua maris atque viarum spatia non iam dissociabilia 

Quae cum ita sint, valde dolemus quod quaerentibus 
praesto fuit nemo quern legatum ad vos eo consilio mitteremus 
ut praesens nostram erga vos observantiam rite posset declarare. 
Liceat tamen per has litteras vota pro salute Academiae vestrae 
absentes nuncupare, et coetui vestro, feriisque anniversariis 


quas in animo habetis celebrare, fausta omnia impense sum- 
moque studio precari. Valete. 

Scribendo adfuerunt — 

GrUILIELMUS C. Macdonald, 

e Begentibu*. 

Gulielmus Peterson, LL.D., 


Johannes A. Nicholson, 

Dabamus Monte Regio : 

Mensis Maii Die Vicesimo nono A. S. MCMII. 

Cancellarius Vice-Cancellarius Prieses Senatus Uni- 



GRATULAMUR vobis, viri insignissimi, vos sollemnia 
quinquagesimi anni Academiae vestrae feliciter peracti iam 
celebrare. Nee nos fugit Universitatem vestram omnium 
Universitatum, quae sunt sub polo australi, una excepta, vetus- 
tissimam esse et propter artes litterasque feliciter excultas fam- 
am vel inter Academias totiu3 orbis terrarum praeclarissimam 
peperisse. Haec forma reipublicae nostra©, hoc Dominium quod 
aiunt Canadense, oritur ab ingenio laboribusque Joannis Alex- 
andri Macdonald et Georgii Brown, optime de republica meri- 
torum, quorum alter alumnus alter robur et nrmamentum 
Universitatis nostrae fuit : Apud vos vestrum alumnum, Ed- 
mundum Barton, virum praestantissimum, novae Civitatis* vea- 
trae fabricandae auctorem fuisse intellegimus. Itaque tarn 
magna© rei, qua quidem Imperium Britannicum potissimum 
tenetur, nos interfuisse gloriari possum us. Quod ut Universitas 


vetusta et Ci vitas nova crescant et floreant Deum precamur et 

Datum ex Aede Acad. : die IX. Augusti, MDCCCCII. 

Carolus Moss, 

Vice- Cancellaritfs. 



Univebsitati Sydneiensi 

Qaamquam, ut ipsi suspicati estis, non possunius legare qui 
vobis quinquagensimi anni Academiae veetrae funditae dies 
festos agentibus praesens gratuletur, tamen per litteras saltern 
licet gratulatione fungi, multosque in annos laeta ominari. Nee 
immemores sumus nos, orbe toto a vobis divisos, eandem ac vos 
originem ultimatn ducere, eadem studere, eadem lingua uti. Quo 
impensius gaudio vestro gaudentes op tarn as ut et in praesentia 
et postero tempore omnia votis vestris respondeant. 



Datum Chicagine Non. Sept. Anno Salutis MDCCCCII. 


Universitas Hopkinsiensis Universitati Sydneiensi 


HUMANISSIMAE litterae vestrae ad nos pervenerunt 
quibus nuntiatum est vos sollemnia L anni Universitatis Syd- 
neiensis f eliciter peracti rite celebraturos, quibusque nos vestro 
cum gaudio consociare voluistis. 

Dolemus, viri illustrissimi, quod iniquo spatio disclusi non 
poterimus dies festos quos acturi estis eo quo par est honore 


prosequi unum deligendo ex nostro ordine Academico qui 
praesens vobis gratuletur ; absentes tamen precamur tarn vobis 
quam universitati vestrae ut omnia prospera contingant. 
Dabamus Baltimorae : A.D., XII. Kal. Jul., MCMII. 

Ira Remsen, 


praeses socii inspectores pr0fe880re8 univer8itatis 

Harvardianae ; Cancellario Professoribus Docto- 
ribu8 totique universitati sydneien8i. 

Omnibus qui optumas artes colunt haud levis est probandi 
causa cum liberalium studiorum et disciplinarian auctores 
amatoresque, rebus propriis inpraesentia omissis, ad ilium in 
quo sint educati redeunt locum ut gratis animis dies anniver- 
saries ooncelebrent. Neque externis tali tempore hospitio 
acceptis desunt gaudia, ut qui communi vinculo studiorum 
indigenis coniuncti nihil quod his laetitiam attulerit a se 
ipsis alienum putent. Itaque recte ac merito voo, viri illus- 
trissimi et doctissimi, quinquagesimo anno Academiae vestrae 
feliciter peraoto sollemnia celebraturi, fautores qui ubique sunt 
bonarum artium invitatis ut vobiscum muneribus laetitiaque 
diei perfruantur. Utinam nos unum aliquem, id quod benign© 
petitis, e numero nostro legare possemus qui feriis vestris in- 
tersit; fortasse non vobis alienigena habendus esset quamvis 
transmarinuB-nam, ut scitis, minoris aquam aestimari oportet 
quam sanguinem. Sed quod curis ad incipientem annum 
academicum pertinentibus illo tempore inpediemur, hoc quod 
solum licet nunc f acimus, ut his litteris quod quinquaginta per 
annos fama atque felicitate cursum tenuistis valde vobis grar 
tulemur. Et precamur ut quam institistis viam nova per 
saeoula prospere teneatis. Valete. 

Dat. VIII. Id. Mai. a. MDCCCCII Cantabrigiae in Aula, 
Universitatis. Scribendo adfuit 

Carolus Guil. Eliot, 




To the University of Sydney, N.S.W. 

Cornell University sends greetings and congratulations on 
the completion of fifty years of honourable service rendered 
by the University of Sydney to the World of Science and 

Although the distance makes it impracticable to send a 
delegate to attend the Celebration, Cornell University joins 
in the rejoicings and extends cordial good wishes for the con- 
tinued prosperity of the University of Sydney, and cherishes 
the earnest hope that she may for generations to come illumine 
and ennoble the life of the great Commonwealth of Australia. 

J. G. Schurman, 


E. B. McGilvary, 

Secretary of the Faculty. 


Universitas Minnesotensis Universitati Sydneiensi 

Salutem Flurimam. 

Universitati Sydneiensi sollemnia Academic* celebraturae 
gratias agere plurimas volumus quod tarn benigne comiterque 

vocati sumus. 

Quamquam praesentes non poterimus adesse, participes 
tamen gaudii vestri mente erimus. 

Hae gratulationes per magnum spatium terrae marisque 
adlatae declarent, ita vinctos eos qui artibus liberalibus stud- 
eant ut nulla longinquitate dividi possint. 

Cyrus Northrop, 




The President and Council of the University of Missouri 

Congratulate the University of Sydney upon the 

auspicious occasion of its Jubilee. 

We are forcibly impressed by the assertion of freedom of 
learning along with freedom of politics, as shown by the almost 
coeval existence of New South Wales and the University of 
Sydney. When as many years shall have passed as there 
are leagues between us, you and we might then, as now, praise 
the wise foresight of the builders of the State and the builders 
of the University in founding the political fabric on the Higher 
education of its constituents : a course of action which charac- 
terises us both, as branches of a common stock. 

With regrets that we cannot be represented personally 
at your Celebration, we extend our best wishes for the con- 
tinued prosperity of your University. 

R. H. Jesse, 

Columbia, Missouri, June 4th, 1902. 

Universitas Pennsylvaniensis Universitati Sydneiensi 

Abhinc annis centum haec Universitas fere eundem habuit 
locum in novis Americae civitatdbus quern in recentioribus 
Australiae hodie habet Universitas Sydneia. Nam utriusque 
fuit doctrinam disciplinamque Europaeam ad usus novarum 
rerum publicarum accomodare. Itaque dum gratulamur Uni- 
versitati Sydneiae de operis per quinquaginta annos tarn feli- 
citer redditis, precamur ut plurimis ex privato et publico ditata 
donis prosperrime suum primum saeculum compleat et semper 
sit ornamentum Novae Cambriae Meridianae praestantissimum. 
Dabamus Philadelphia*, a.d. III. Kal. Jul : MCMII. 

Carolus C. Harrison, 


Jesse Y. Burr, 

Sigilli custos. 



TJniversitati Sydneiensi Sidere Mutato Plagas Australes 
Habitanti Eundem autem Solem quo Illumi- 


tores Professores Universitatis 

Ex longinquo salutem dicimus plurimam. Ad vos, 
viri doctissimi, quinquaginta annis iam feliciter perac- 
tis magnum diem imposituros aequum visum est et fraternae 
illi necessitudini qua coniuncti sumus consentaneum nos in- 
dicium benevolentiae nostrae per testimonium litterarum 
afferre. Longe quidem a vobis distamus nee est quisquam ex 
ordine nostro quern hac tempestate ad viam in antipodas ten- 
tandam deligamus. Quia insuper noluimus vos aliouius testi- 
monii nostrae erga vos observantiae experbes esse has litteras 
legati vice quern si fieri potuisset libenter adlegavissemus ac- 
cipiatis precamur. 

Datum in Aula Nassovica ID. IVL. MCMII. 

Franciscus J. Patten, 

Prae set. 


Illustrissimis Professoribus Universitatis Sydneiensis 

Rector et Senatus Universitatis Francisco-Josephinae 

Gratissimae nobis sunt literae vestrae, quibus humanissime 
invitamur, ut quinquagesimi anni inclitae universitatis vestrae 
feliciter rjeracti sollemnnibus per legates intersimus, sed id 
propter itinerum longiquitatem fieri non posse dolemus. 

Itaque qua nobis concessum est, per literas certe congra- 
tulamur sacra semisaecularia universitatis vestrae, quae cultu 
atque humanitate Australian innixa hoc spatio temporis prae- 


teriti literaa tanto studio coluit, ut in civitate hominum doc- 
torum jure meritoque jam dudum magnam obtineat gloriam. 

Laeta spe erecti fore, ut amplissima universitas vestra 
omni genere laudum etiam posthac floreat, hanc veram nostram 
congratulationem ut benevole accipiatis, ex intimo corde ro- 

Senatus academious Oroaticae universitatis Francisco- 

Zagrabiae d. XV. m. Augusti a. MCMII. 

Fran. Vrbanic, 
h.t. Bektor. 

Franjo Pevalek. 

Sematski Tajnih- 

Rector et Senatus Regiae Scientiarum Universitatis 


Senatui Universitatis Sydneiensis 


E litteris vestris ad nos perhumaniter datis baud cum 
parvo gaudio legimus vos a.d. II Cal. Septembres insequenti- 
busque quatmor diebus anni current is quinquagesimi anni cele- 
berrimae Vestrae Academiae feliciter peracti sollemnia esse 
celebraturos. Gratias Vobis agimus, Viri praestantissimi, 
quod hoc nuntio nos quoque ad hanc festivitatem tarn benigne 
familiariterque invitaveritis. 

Sed cum prae gravibus rerum conditionibus non per le- 
gates publico missos gratulationem nostram facere nobis con- 
cessum sit, vehementer dolemus. 

Lubentes itaque Vobis congratulari decrevimus his litteris- 
quibus, licet absentes, tamen caritiatem votaque testari velle- 
mus. Quod reliquum ; Valete Nobisque Favere Pergite ! 


Budapestini, in Metropoli Hungarian et quidem ex Nos- 
trae Universitatis Aula a.d. IV. Non. Oct. anno MCMII-o. 

Regiae Scient. Universitatis Hung. Rector, 
Carolus Ketly de Osurgo, 

S.C. ac B. Ap. Maiestatis a ConsU, 


Ab Epistolis Antonius Margitai, 
Senatus Acad. Notarius. 


Rector et Senatus Universitatis Regiae 



Rectori Magnipico Senatuique Inclito Universitatis 

Sydneiensis Salutem. 

Cum Vobis, viri ornatissimi, ac doctissimi, toto paene 
orbe-ut dicitis-divisis, primum ad nos litteras mandataque dare 
libitum sit, attento Vos animo audire velimus, quanto studio 
nostri vastis marium terrarumque spatiis seiuncti ab initio ad 
patriam Vestram admirandum in modum crescentem adultam- 
que animum attenderint. 

Paulus enim Bertalanffy, qui primus lingua Hungarica 
geographiam scripsit, iam anno MDCCLVII addubitare ausus 
est, num Hollandia Nova et Carpentaria pro partibus Asiae 
essent habendae; et post terbium iter Cookii anno 
MDCCLXXX Kalendis Januariis cammentarii diurni Hun- 
garici nostros monuerunt posthac non de quattuor, sed de quin- 
que orb is terrarum partibus esse dicendum. Attamen. multi 
etiam anno MDCCLXXXXIV hominem ineptum esse aiebant 
Samuelem Decay, qui de quinque terrae partibus narrare est 
ausus. Qui tamen anno post librum specialem etsi non com- 
pletum et perfectum de Australia scripsit. Sed etiam anno 
MDCCCXV Daniel Molnos cum Polynesian! describeret, de 
amoenitatibus tantum regionum narravit deque ipsa Vestra 


urbe quinquagesimo demum anno, ex quo exstitit, explicatio 
singula consectans in lucem prodiit. 

Cum autem post bellum nostrum pro libertate recuper- 
anda anno MDCCCXLIX tot cives de patria optime meriti 
fuga vitam servare cogerentur, nonnulli, ut Bela Rochlitz, 
Josephus Kempf, Petrus Battihyany hospitio patriae vestrae 
libertatis amantis usi ibi manere decreverunt. Hi sunt sine 
dubio primi Hungarorum, quibus ea, quae ipsi viderant, de 
Australia scribere contigit. Quae tarn en pars orbis terrarum 
anno demum MDCCCLXIV. ab excellenti viro, Joanne Hun- 
fally, ratione ac doctrina est lingua Hungarica descripta. Nos 
autem ab Universitate nostra anno MDCCCLXXII condita 
geographiam Australian studiosis huius disciplinae accurate 

Interea nostri etiam in rebus rusticis ad terrain Vestram 
animum attenderant. Schindlerus enim et Korizmicius iam 
anno MDCCCX* agricolas nostros certationis de pretiis in Aus- 
tralia constituendis admonebant; anno autem MDCCCLXIII 
Bela Rochlitz res agriculturae industriaeque Hungaricae in urbe 
Vestra exponere in animo habebat. Et hodie non pauci nos- 
trorum apud Vos vitam degunt et, quantum scimus, societas 
etiam Hungarica apud Vos viget. 

Etsi viri docti Hungariae solum ipsum Australiae nondum 
ipsi exploraverunt, ex Neo-Guinea tameu Samuel Fenichel 
postque eias mortem Ludovicus Biro multis et singularibus 
naturae thesauris museum nostrum publicum ditabant. Horti 
autem nostri botanici summo decori est planta terrae vestrae, 
quae de nomine Samuelis Brassai, polyhistoris celeberrimi, 
"Bras3ia Endl" vocatur. 

Itaque cum non solum litterarum, sed etiam rei publicae- 
quas nos numquam seiungendas esse censemus, — ^rationibus 
ad Vos ducamur, oratos esse Vos viri doctissimi, volumus, ut, 
Vobis persuadeatis, nos etei propter locorum longinquitatem 
in partem sollemnium vestrorum venire ipsi non possimus, 
socios tamen sinceros esse gaudii vestri vobisque omnia laeta 
faustaque ominari. 


Ergo Universitas celeberrima Patriae Vestrae primo die 
saeculi XX consociatae communi utilitati artium litterarumque 
totius orbis terrarum in omne tempus vivat, crescat, floreat ! 

Datum Caludiopoli (lingua vernacula : Kolozsvar) in 
Hungaria, anno millesimo nongentesimo secundo a.d. XI. Kal. 
Mai as. 




Rectori et Senatui Universitatis Sydnetensis Rector et 
Senatus Universitatis Francisco-Josephinae 

czernovicien sis 

' Nil mortalibus ardui est'. Ecce, ubi non ita pridem fearo- 
cissimae gentes humanis carnibus vescebantur 2 in ea orbis ter- 
rarum parte, ubi vix unus et alter cuncta visendi explorandi- 
que studio incensus iter facere audebat, non solum humanita- 
tem atque cultioris vitae usum regnare, sed etiam Musarum 
templa erecta, litterarum sedes constitutas, omnes bonas artes 
florentos vigentesque videmus. 

Britannorum natio nobilissima admirabili industria, in- 
defesso labore in remotissimis illis regionibus humani cultus 
semina iecit, quorum iucundissima messe nunc fruitur. O 
viri egregii et eruditionis laude florentissimi, qui nunc quin- 
quagesima universitatis vestrae anniversaria celebratis, in- 
signi ilia Britannorum strenuitate pergite ut coepistis, atque 
extremum terrarum marginem litterarum artiumque dulci et 
sereno lumine replete. 

Dabamus Czernoviciis Kal. Juliis MDCCCCII. 

E. Wojucke, 

h.t. Bector. 



Der Universitaet Sydnei zu Ihreh Ftjnfzigjaehrigen 

Bestande ! 

Wenn auch durch den grossen Ocean geschieden, so doch 
im Geiste vereint entsenden zu dem schoenen Iubelfeste hoch- 
erfreut die herzlichsten Gliickwunsche. 

Rector und Senat 

der k.k. Leopold Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck. 

Innsbruck, 2 August, 1902. 


d.z. Sector* 

Rector Senatusque Universitatis Litterarum Leopoli- 



Quod nos ad aollemnia universitatis Vostrae, quinquage- 
simo abhinc anno conditae, inde ah undecimo die mensis Sep- 
tembris huius anni per quinque continuos dies celebranda, in- 
vitavistis, utque, qui Vobis praesens gratularetur, uniiin e 
sociis a Vobis hospitio excipienduni mitteremus, rogavistis, et 
pergratum nobis fuisse scitote, et meritas Vobis referimus pro 
amicis in nos animis gratias. 

De socio ad Vos legando, ut suspicabamini, ita est : diffi- 
cultatibus perlongi molestique itineris depulsi sum us a consilio 
Vobis in hac re obsequendi. 

Nihilominus tamen pro artissimis vinculis, quibus omnes 
rei publicae litterariae cives contineri aequum est, Vobis me- 
m'oriam initiorum Vostri studii general is pie recolentibus per 
festos illos dies animis certe aderimus votaque pro faustis 
eiusdem incrementis suscipiemu3. Ne autem haec nostra in 
Vos studia pignoribus careant idoneis, una cum hisce litteris 
libros Vobis, proximis annis communi sociorum universitatis 


nostrae opera atque impensa editos, mittimus bibliothecae 
Vostrae inserendos. 

Yalete et bos amate. 

Dabamua Leopoli in Galicia Idib. Maiis a. MCMII. 

Ludovicus Rydygier, 

h.t. Sector Magnificus. 

Augustus Balasits, 

h.t. Decanus juris-polit. 

Ludovicus Finkbl, 

h.t. Decanus fac. phil. 
Joannes Fijalek, 

h.t. Decanus fac. Theologicae. 

Andreas Obrzut, 

h.t. Decanus fac. medicinac. 


Wien, am 13 Juni, 1902. 

Anthiel an der Feier des 50 jahrigen Bestandes, welche 
die Universitat in Sydney im September begeht und erlaaibt 
sich durch mich, als derzeitigen Rector, ihre aufrichtigsten 
und herzliehsten Gluckwiinsche fur das Gedeihen und die 
Fortentwickelung der Schwester-Universitat zu iibermitteln. 

Der "Rector der K.K. Universitat, 

J. Schipper. 


Bruxelles, le 10 avril, 1902. 
A Monsieur H. N. McLaurin, 

Chancelier de TUniversite de Sydney 

(Nouvelle Galles du Sud.) 
Monsieur le Chancelier, 
L'Universite libre de Bruxelles a bien recu Tinvitation 
que vous avez eu l'obligeance de lui envoyer pour prendre part 


a la celebration du cinquantieme anniversaire de la f oxida- 
tion de votre Universite. Si, comme vous le dites, nous 
sommes separes par presque toute Tepaisseur du globe ter- 
restre et s'il nous est par consequent difficile de vous envoyer 
un de nos professeurs pour nous representor a vos fetes, il 
n'en est pas moins vrai que la Science nous reunit dans une 
commune admiration pour elle et que nous nous felicitous de 
la prosperite de tons les etablissements d'enseignement supe- 
rieur, comme nous nous felicitons de toute conquete dans le 
domaine intellectuel et moral. 

Veuillez agreer, Monsieur le Chancelier, avec les voeux 
que je forme pour la renommee de votre Universite, rassur- 
ance de ma haute consideration. 

Le Becteur, 

J. Van Drunen. 


Gand, le 12 mai, 1902. 
Monsieur le Chancelier. 
Au nom du corps professoral de TUniversite de Gand, 
j'ai l'honneur de vous accuser la reception de la lettre par 
laquelle vous annoncez la celebration du cinquantieme anni- 
versaire de votre Universite; je regrette vivement que la 
grande distance qui separe la Belgique de TAustralie empeche 
absolument Fun de mes collegues de se rendre a Tinvitation 
qu'il vous a plu de m'adresser. Toutefois je regarde comme 
un devoir de vous presenter, a vous et a tousi les membres de 
votre corps enseignant, mes plus vives et plus sinceres feli- 
citations, a Toccasion de Theureux evenement que vous vous 
proposez de feter le 29 Septembre et les quatre jours suivants. 
Veuillez agreer, je vous prie, Monsieur le Chancelier, 
Texpression de mes sentiments de haute consideration. 

Le Becteur, 

G. Van Der Mensbrugghe. 
A Monsieur H. MacLaurin, 

Chancelier de TUniversite de Sydney. 



Universitas Leodiensis Universitati Sydneiensi 

Quinquagesimum annum Academiae vestrae sttmmo cum 
honore peractum rite concelebraturis ex animi sententia vobis 
gratulamur omniaque fausta exoptamus. Gratulationis nos- 
trae interpretem ad vos mittere in animo erat nisi impedi- 
mento esset longissimum iter eo praesertim tempore quo 
lectiones academicas hie inituri sumus. Absentee igitur gaudii 
vestri participes erimus et precamur ut per longam annorum 
4Beriem doctrinae et scientiarum laude floreatis et novum Uni- 
versitati vestrae afferatur incrementum honoris et dignitatis. 
Vivat floreatque semper Universitas Sydneiensis! 
Senatus academici nomine : 

Becior Univeraitatis, 

V. Dwelshauvers-Dery. 
Ab Epistulis, 

Eugene Hubert. 


Universitas Hauniensis Universitati Sydneiensi 


Gratissimis animis litteras vestras accepimus, quibus 
bos certiores fecistis Academiam vestram ob quinguaginta 
annos feliciter peractos sol lemma celebraturam esse, et nos 
invitavistis ut aliquem ex coetu nostro mitteremus, qui prae- 
*ens vobis gratularetur. Vellemus equidem pro communium 
studorium vinculis quibus scholae nostrae inter se coniunctae 
sunt, liceret nobis unum e nostris ad vos adlegare participem 
gaudii vestri et interpretem admirationis nostrae, quod Aca- 
demia vestra in remotissima orbis parte sita, quo reoentissimis 
demum saeculis cultura antiqua plane penetraverit, tarn vivi- 
do floruerit vigore tantaque gloria studia liberalia coluerit, ut 



iara per decern lustra lux scientiae sub australi quoque polo 
laeto splendeat fulgore. Immenso tamen terrae marisque 
spatio interiecto impediti quominus liberalissimae invitationi 
vestrae obsequamur per litteras vobis benevolentissimis ani- 
mis congratulamur votaque :acimu9 ut in posterum quoque 
Universitas Sydneiensis omnium bonarum scientiarum artium- 
que gloria excellat. 

Dabamus Hauniae, die XXX Junii, MDCCCCII. 

Vilh. Thomsen, 


Jul. Lassen, 



Universitas Aquensi-Massiliensis Sydneiensi Universitas 


Libenti sane animo litteras accepimus, quibus nos beni- 
gnissime invitatis ad ea participanda sollemnia, quae anno 
quinquagesimo vestrae recent ioris quidem, sed jam pernotae 
in terris, Academiae f eliciter peracto, proximo mense Septem- 
bri celebrare decrevistis. Sed cum, ut ipsi probe fatemimi, 
toto paene orbe divisi sitis, nemini nostrum facultas erit vobis 
praesenti oratione gratulandi. 

Cujus necessitatis, quam quidem vehementer dolemus,. 
excusationem bona venia ut accipiatis rogamus, ac persuasum 
habeatis nos, quianquam propter longinquitiatean absentee, 
animo tamen praesentes futuros ac vestrum gaudium per in- 
dicta sollemnia gavisuros. 


F. Belin. 
Dabamus Aquis Sextiis, Kalendis Juniis anni 



Besanc,an, le 2 Juillet, 1902. 
Monsieur le Chancelier, 

J'ai communique au Conseil de rUniversite de Besan- 
con Finvitation que vous nous avez fait rhonneur de nous 
adresser en vue de la celebration du Cinquan/tenaire de rUni- 
versite de Sydney. 

Cette assemblee me charge de vous exprimer ses vifs re- 
grets de ne pouvoir y repondre en se faisant represent*! a voe 
fetes et de vous exprimer ses voeux fraternels pour la pros- 
perite de votre Universite. 

Yeuillez agreer, Monsieur le Chancelier, 
r assurance de ma haute consideration. 

Le Rectewr, 
President du Conseil de V Universite , 

C. Laronze. 
Monsieur le Chancelier de l'Universite de Sydney. 


Universite de Caen. 

Conseil de L' Universite, 
A Monsieur le Chancelier et a Messieurs les 

Membres de TUniversite de Sydney. 

Vous craignez que separes de vous " par le globe prea- 
que en tier" nous ne puissions nous faire representee le 12 
Septembre prochain, aux fetes de votre cinquantenaire. 

Si nous sommes separes par la distance, nous sommes unis 
par les sentiments de solidarite qui regnent entre toua les 
Corps savants: 

Et patriam faciunt diversis gentibus unam. 

Nous avons d'ailleurs la bonne fortune de compter, dans 
votre voisinage presque immediat, un de nos amis les plus 
chers, M. Le Goupils, ancien professeur de rhetorique au lycee 
de Caen, qui vous remettra cette adresse, qui vous dira les 


voeux que nous formons pour la prosperite de rUniversite du 
Sydney, qui vous assurera de nos meilleurs sentiments de con- 
fratenite scientifique et litteraire. 

Veuillez croire, Monsieur le Chancelier, Messieurs, a 
notre haute consideration. 

Le President du Conseil de I'Universite de Caen t 
L.S. E. Zevort. 


Senatus Academicus Universitatis August- 



Vobis, doctissimi Viri, quinquagesimum Academiae 
vestrae annum feliciter peractum gratulamur, quantaeque 
nobis oblectationi fuerit profitemur epistula qua vos cupere 
notum facitis Universitatem nostram gaudii vestri 
participem fieri. Libentissime igitur ex coetu nostra aliquem 
adlegavissemus qui et vobis praesens grates ageret et nostrum 
erga vos benevolum animum testificaretur, utpote qui persu- 
asum habeamusi omnes qui liberal ia in studia incumbumt 
scientiisqu6 propaganda operam navant, etsi " toto paene 
orbe divisos," arta inter se necessifrudine coniungi. 

Cum vero nostrum nemo sit, quod dolemus, qui mense 
Septembri Sydneiae possit interesse et quae indixistis vobis- 
cum celebrare sollemnia, hasce ad vos litteras observantiae 
nostrae pignus scribere placuit et omnia vobis in posterum 
felicia faustaque exoptare. 


Beet or. 

Dabamus Augustonemeti a.d. II kal. Junias, 1902. 



Amplissimo Cancellario Senatuique Universitatis 
Sydneiensis Rector Senatusque Universi- 
tatis Gratianopolitanae 

Ab ilia vestera patria-Terram Incognitam atavi nostri 
appellabantHMinc jucundae voces fraternaque verba nobis aff er- 
untur. Lactam ur et nos, dum antiquam inter Universitatea 
orbis nostri necessitudinem beate apud recentiores Antipodum 
vigere comperimus, dum liberalibus vos florere studiis audi- 
mufl, summoque gaudio eas accepimua litteras, quibua, ut 
natalem quasi diem una vobiscum oelebremus, amice invita- 
mur. Placuissot sane ad vos mitti praeconem, qui gnatu- 
lationes sinceraque vota proximo Septembri mense def erret. Sed 

"penitus toto divisos orbe " 

longinqum iter sejungit, otia deficiunt, verbaque tantum scri- 
benda sunt quae majori gratia comminus audirentur. 

Scitote vero proque certo habetote in diebus illis nos- 
tram vobis nee memoriam neque amicitiam defore. Sperare 
libet nonnullas inter nos colloquendi superfore occasiones, 
quandoquidem, ceterarum in Gallia Universitatum, nostra 
exterarum gentium clientelae maxime indulgens, plurimos inde 
alumnos adscdvit, qui Gallorum( litteras ingeniumque ac mores 
apud nos diligentissime perdiscerenit. Ac nescimus an aliqu- 
ando inter vestros quidam hospitio nostro fruantur; hoe, si 
qui adfuerint, velut pacem mutuam, caritatem fraternumque 
inter nos amorem commiunicantes, credite, habebimus. 

Valete ! 

Hector Praeses Senatus, 

E. Boirac. 
Dabamus Gratianopoli Non. Maj. MCMII. 



Lille, le 28 avril 1902. 
Monsieur le Chancelier, 

J'ai l'honneur de vous faire connaitre que j^ai communi- 
que au Conseil de l'Universite' de Lille, dans sa derniere 
seance, la lettre par laquelle vous l'avez invite a prendre part 
aux fetes que l'Universite de Sydney donnera le 29 Septembre 
a F occasion du 50e Anniversaire de sa fbndation. 

Le Conseil a eu le regret, en raison de la distance, de ne 
pouvoir envoyer un representant a ces fetes. Mais je suis son 
interprete en vous transmettant see remerciement» et ses chal- 
eureu8es felicitations. 

Veuillez agreer, Monsieur le Chancelier, 
Y assurance de ma haute consideration. 

Le Becteur, 
President du Conseil de l'Universite, 

J. Margottet. 

Monsieur MacLaurin, 

Chancelier de rUniversite' d© Sydney. 


Le Conseil de rUniversite de Lyon, 
a Monsieur le Chancelier de rUniversite de Sydney. 
Le Conseil de rUniversite de Lyon a pris connaissance 
de la lettre par laquelle rUniversite* de Sydney l'invite a se 
faire representor aux fetes qu'elle organise pour celebrer le 
cinquantieme anniversaire de sa fondation. 

Le Conseil adresse a rUniversite* de Sydney ses plus vifs 
remerciements pour une invitation dont rUniversite de Lyon 
se sent tres honoreei II ne sait pas encore si, malgre la dis- 
tance, il lui sera possible d' envoyer une delegation aux solen- 
nites qui se preparent. Mais il ne croit pas devoir attendre 
plus longtemps pour adresser a rUniversite de Sydney, au 


nom de l/Universite de Lyon, l'expression de sa cordiale sym- 
pathie et des voeux qu'il forme pour sa prosperity croissante. 
Le President du Conseil de V Universite de Lyon, 

Gabriel Compayre. 
Lyon, le 14 avril, 1902. 




Pergratum nobis est, Viri doctissimi et clarissimi, quod, 
cum sitis Academiae Vestrae anni quinquagesimi feliciter 
peracti sollemnia magno virorum doctorum coetu propediem 
celebraturi, nos quoque ut tarn festos laetosque die3 Vobis- 
cum ageremus rogavistis atque hospitio invitavistis. Quo 
plerique nostrum libentissime uterentur, ut Universitatem 
vestram votis omnibusque optimis coram proeequerentur, nisi 
tarn longe a Sydneia Mons Pessulanus abesset. Nunc, cum 
animo tantum et voluntate simus gaudii vestri participes fut- 
uri, has tamen ad Vos litteras misimus, quibus Universitatem 
nostram Vestrae Universitati tamquam sorori sororem natu 
maiorem vitae partem longe gravissimam atque operosissimam 
prospere transact am, artium bonarum studiis magnaa utili- 
tates praebitas, spem amplisimam propositam amice atque 
sincere gratulari atque Universitati Vestrae Vobisque ipsis 
bona nos omnia optare testificaremur. 

Dabamus Monte Pessulano a.d. IIII non. Jun. a. MCMII. 

Rector Academiae Montipesmlanensis, Consilii Traeses, 

A. Benoist. 
Professores Universitatis in Consilium lecti, 

E. Rigal J. Gachon Bremond 

A. Sabatier Forgue L. Courchet 

S. Dauthevillb G. Massol Marret 

A. Delage T. Charmont Truc 

J. Castets A. Vigie 



Paris, le 30 Juin, 1902. 
Monsieur le Chancelier, 
Ainsi que j'ai eu l'honneur de vous le faire connaitre par 
ma depeche du 2 juin courant, j'ai communique au Conseil 
de rUniversite de Paris Tinvitation qu'a bien voulu lui ad- % 
resser l'Universite de Sydney, pour la celebration du cinquan- 
tieme anniversaire de sa fondation, qui aura lieu du 29 Sep- 
tembre au 3 Octobre prochain. 

J'ai le regret de vous informer que nos cours d'hiver 
s'ouvrant en Octobre, aucun professeur ne sera disponible pour 
repr&enter TUniversite de Paris a la solennite. 

Mais, en son nom comme au mien, j'ai a coeur de vous 
exprimer nos plus vives sympathies pour la prosperite de 
l'Universite de Sydney, et nos voeux pour le developpment de 
son avenir. 

Veuillez agreer, Monsieur le Chancelier, 
F assurance de ma haute consideration. 

Le Vice-Becteur, 
President du Conseil de V University 

de TAcademie Franoaise. 
Monsieur le Chancelier de TUniversite de Sydney. 


Magnifico Universitatis Sydneiensis Cancellario 

et Amplissimo Ejus Professorum Senatui 

Rector et Concilium Universitatis Tolosanae 


Litteras accepimus, Vir illustrissime ornatissimique Con- 
legae, quibu3 Universitas Sydneiensis quinquagesimum annum 
instaurationis suae rite celebratura nos laetitiae suae parti- 
cipes iustorumque sollemnium socios esse voluit. Quibus pub- 


lice perlectis, Universitatis nostrae senatus hoc gratulation- 
is suae necnon fraternae observantiae testimonium ad vos 
lubenti animo remittendum iussit. Nee immerito, nam cum 
omnes eodem bonarum artium amore, eorumdem quoque 
studiorum et disciplinarum communitate consociemur, iilam 
diem qua novum humanitatis lumen remotissimis orbis par- 
tibus illuxit, inter festas et imprimis sollemnibus celebrandaa 
iure vereque reponendam censemus. Utinam Sydneiensis 
Academia nova usque incrementa accipiat, ut tot illustrium 
virorum laboribus iura veritatis et scientiae ubique confirmen- 
tur et humanae conjunctionis societas arctioribus in dies vin- 
culis contineatur! 

Datum Tolosae in Universitatis aedibus, 
A.D. III Id. Aprilis MDOCCCII. 

Cl. Perroud, 


E. Merimee, 


Universitas Frdderica-Guilelma Berolinensis Untver- 

sitati sydneiensi 

Permagno gaudio accepimus litteras Vestras, viri human- 
issimi, quibus sollemnia quae instant Universitatis Vestrae 
ante decern lustra conditae nobis indicare participesque eorum 
nos fieri voluistis. Nos enim sic sentimus, nullum esse fortius 
ac sanctius vinculum, quo cultae orbis terrarum nationes inter 
se contineantur, quam studium litterarum et amorem scientiae 
nam si ipsa scientia potestas est, ut olim Bacon Vester veris- 
sime edixit, in nullam rem maiorem ilia vim exercet quam in 
mentes hominum communi veri pulchrique ardore inflam- 
mandas et animos quamvis toto orbe divisos investigandi 


studio et commeandi cupidine copulandos. Immo Vos, col- 
legae ornatissdmi, qui maximo spatiorum intervallo a nobis 
distatis, praecipuo nos fraternitatis am ore complectimur, quia 
non sine admiratione videmusi in ea orbis terrarum parte, ubi 
nuper homines feri ac paene bestiarum ritu degentee vaga- 
bantur, colonorum Vestrorum indefesso labore cultissimum 
omnium rerum florem et frequentissimum cum reliquis nation- 
ibus commercium enituisse. Yestro autem ipsorum studio 
factum est, ut ubi voces olim vix humanae audiebantur, ibi 
nunc humanitatis et scientiae amplissima auditoria aperta 

Quam ob rem per huius diei sollemnem opportunitatem 
Universitati Sydneiensi fructus egregios per quinquaginta an- 
nos collectos ex animi sententia congratulamur, et cum prop- 
ter itineris longitudinem neminem invenerimus, qui viva voce 
quid sentiremus expromeret, hunc ad Vos nuntium mittimus, 
candidissimum animi nostri interpretem votorumque in fut- 
ura tempera laetissimorum nuncupatorem. 

Dabamus Berolini D. VIII. M. Augusti MCMII. 
Universitatis Fridericae-Guilelma© 

Sector et Senatus, 

Kekule de Stradonitz. 

Rlreinische Friedrich- Wilhelms-Universitat. 

Bonn, den 3 Juli, 1902. 
In Namen und im Auftrage des akademischen Senates 
der Koniglich Preussischen Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms- 
Universitat habe ich die Ehre der Universitat Sydney zur 
Feier Ihres funfundzwanzigjahrigen Bestehens die herzlich- 
sten Gliick-und Segenswiinsche auszusprechen. Moge dieselbe 
weiterhin und in alle Zukunft als ein Trager der geistigen 

Kultur bluhen und gedeihen! 

Der Zeitige Bektor, 




Universitas Vratislaviensis Universitati Sydneiensi 

Maior profecto est locorum distantia quam ut unum e 
coetu nostro legare possimus qui vobis sacra semisaecularia 
vestrae universitatis celebrantibus nostro nomine praesens 
gratuletur : verum sincerissimis atque auspicatissimis votis haec 
nos sollemnia prosequi omniaque fausta precari exoptantes ut 
universitas vestra per alteram saeculi partem laetiora in dies 
increments capiat his litter is testari voluimus. 


hd. Rector* 
Dabamus Vratislaviae, 

die XXIX mensis Julii anni MCMII. 

Akademischer Senat der K. Friedrich-Alexanders- 


Erlangen, von 21 April, 1902. 
Hiedurch gestatten wir uns der Universitat Sydney un- 
seren verbindlichsten Dank fiir die giitige Einladung zum 50 
jahrigen Jubelfeste dieser Universitat auszudrucken. 

Wenn wir auch nicht in der Lage sind, einen Vertreter 
unserer Universitat zu diesen Feste zu entsenden, so wollen 
wir doch auch. nicht versaumen mit unserem Danke zugleich 
die herzlichsten und warmsten Gliichwiinsche fur das weitere 
Bliihen und Gedeihen der Universitat Sydney zu verbinden. 

W. Geiger, 

derzeit Pro-Rector 

der Koniglichen Universitat, 


An die Universitat Sydney, New South Wales, 




die XIII M. August a., 1902. 
Universitas Friburgensis Brisigavorum Universitati 


Quinquagesimum annum Academiae Yestrae feliciter esse 
peractum laetissimo accepimus animo. Regio nostra et Ves- 
tra quum sint longinquitate et diversitate distentao, aegro 
animo ferimus neminem nostrum praesentem Vobis gratula- 
turum esse ; lubentissimo animo atque observantia qua par est 
litteras gratulatorias Universitati Sydneiensi misimus eandem- 
que praesentem gloriam f utura prosperitate esse superaturam 
sincera fide et velimus et optamus. 

Valete ! 

Ex auctoritate Senatus Academici, 


St. TheoLprof. et h.t. Pro-Bector. 


Den Leitern und Lehrern der Hoohschule, 

Entbieten Rector und Senat der Universitat Giessen zu 
der Feier des 50-jahrigen Bestehens der Universitat Sydney 
aufrichtige Gluckwiinsche. Getrennt durch das Weltmeer 
fiihlen sich doch die Hochschulen der alten Welt eins mit 
denen der neuen als Pflegestatten der Forschung nach der 
Wahrheit. Sidetre mutato mens eadem als Hiiterin und 
Mehrerin der Geistesschatze der Menschheit moge die Hoch- 
schule Sydney auch weiterhin bliihen, wachsen und gedeihen.. 

Im Auftrag ; 

Der derzeitige Rector t 
Dr. A. Hansen. 
Giessen, 6 August, 1902. 



Universitati Sydneienst, 

Quae in ultimis mundi f inibu3 audaci et prudenti consilio 

oondita terris novis atque intactis 

semina humanitatis scientiaeque 

indefesso labore felici fructu intulit coluit auxit 

almis matribus veteris mundi caelo opposita studiis proxima 



Protector et Senatus 

Dabamus die VII. mensis Mai MCMII. 

Dr. G. Roethe. 


Universitas Litterarum Ruperto-Carola Universitati 


Litteris vestris comiter invitati ufa legatum ad vos mit- 
teremus eximiae sollemnitatis testem quam sub finem mensis 
Septembris celebrat»uii estis, laeti lubentes huio invitationi 
obtemperaremus nisi iter longinquum desiderio nostro ex- 
plendo obstaret. 

Nam instituta promovendis litteria dicata mutua neces- 
situdine contineri, quae neque locorum distantia neque nat- 
ionum diversitate impediatur, nos cum maxime persuasum 
habemus quippe qui ipsi ex longo tempore externorum quo- 
que homimim concursu insigniter augeri vim gratiamque Uni- 
versitatis nostrae sentiamus > 

Summopere vero suspicimus eorum virorum aapientiam 
qui ante hoe quinquaginta annos intellexerint in urbe vestra 
amoenissima, quae iam diu Australiae emporium ditissimum 
et quaestuosissimum fuerit ac tarn navium ex portu educt- 
arum sinusque petentium frequentia quam fabricarum omici- 


narumque omnigennm multitudine floruerit floreatque, non 
deesse debere musarum sedem ac domicilium studiis litteris- 
que omandis illustrandis destinatum. 

Ac vita© non scholae discendum docendumque esse cum 
vos commonefaciant ipsae illae urbis civitatisque vestrae rati- 
ones turn vestra academia vel aedificio pulcro et nxagnifico 
splendidissima tanquam arx constituta est et propugnaculum 
repellendae barbarae illiberalitati sordidae cupiditati indua- 
trioaae levitati. 

Quo munere ut iam per decern lustrorum continuitatem 
cum magno non modo discentium verum etiam civium omnium 
commodo nee sine communi cultioris orbia terrarum plausu* 
functuros esse speramus in eamque spem vota pientissima ex 

animi sententia nuncupamus. 

Valete nobisque favere pergite. 
Dabamus Heidelbergae D. XX M. Iunii A. MDCCCCII. 

H. Buhl, 

h.t. Proreetor. 


Inclutae Universitati Sydneiensi Universitas Ienensis 

Perbenigne fecistis, collegae ornatissimi, quod ad sollem- 
nia quinquagesimi anni academiae Vestrae feliciter peracti, 
quae in diem undetricesimum mensis Septembris et insequen- 
tes quattor dies indixistis, nos invitari voluistis gratesque 
vobis maximas lubentes agimus. Ut enim nee spatiorum 
distantia nee patriae diversitas litterarum commercium im- 
pedire possunt aut poterunt, ita nos nee terrarum nee marium 
intervalla quominus gaudii vestri participes simus prohibe- 

Quoniam autem legatum ut mitteremus fieri non potuisse 
dolemus hanc vobis epistulam mittendam censuimus, qua vos 
certiores redderemus, nos ipsis diebus quos festivos habebitis, 


vestri memores fore et faustissima quaeque exoptaturos Ves- 
trae Universitati, quae ut etiam postero tempore firmum 
atque certum litterarum studiorumque propugnaculum sit 
omni qua par est observantia vota facimus. Quod bonum 
faustum fortunatumque sit. 

Dabamus Ienae die IV mensis Augusti a MDCCCCII. 

Georgius Goetz, phil. doct., 

h.t. Protector. 

Universitati Sydneiensi Christiana-Albertina Univer- 



Relatae sunt ad nos, viri illustrissimi, litterae, quibus vos 
academiae vestrae decern lustra feliciter peracta celebraturos 
esse indicastis. Atque ut gratissimum nobis fuit, quod no# 
in laetitiae vestrae communionem venire voluistis, ita valde 
dolemu3 magnis locorum intervallis nos impediri quominua 
mittamus, qui praesens nostri gaudii testis sit. Facere autem 
non possumus quin ex animi sententia gratias vobis quae 
debentur agamus, congratulemur, quod studiose prospereque 
in ilia orbis parte humanarum artium et litterarum ingen- 
uarum semina sparsistis, profiteamur nos piis votis faustisque 
ominibus laetissimum sollemnium diem prosecuturos esse. 
Etenim occulta quaedam in litleris vis inest, quae omnes acade- 
mias sancto quodam cognationis caritatis verae libertatis 
vinculo continet atque coniungit, sive turbidum seiungit mare 
sive invii montes distinent sive linguarum diveraitas separat. 

Salutem igitur vobis dicentes plurimam sincere animo 
conclamamus : 


Datum calendis Iuniis MDCCCCII. 


h.t. Rector. 



Univebsitatis Lipsiensis Rector et Senatus Universitatis 
Sydneiensis Cancellario et Frofessoribus 

Instant dies festi, quibus Universitatis Vestrae semi- 
saecularia prima rite celebraturi estis. Quorum in societatem 
cum etiam noe venire volueritis, illud quidem vel per locorum 
longinquitatem fieri non potuit, ut nostra ex numero aliquem 
ad Vos delegaremus, Bed has certe litteras ad Vos dedimus, 
quibus decern prima lustra academiae tarn feliciter quam 
laudabiliter peracta Yobis pie congratularemur. Breve 
quidem id videri potest temporis spatium, si cum Europaearum 
universitatum vetustate comparator, velut nostrae, quae quin- 
gentos propediem annos expletura est, sed satis est amplum, 
si ex rerum Australicarum iuventute metimur. Eae vero 
quanto laetiora cito incrementa ceperunt tanto graviora Vobis 
sicut ceteris Australiae academiis imposita esse omcia tan- 
toque plus Vestra studia ad communem humanitatis cultum 
valere grati agnoscimus. Itaque habemus profecto cur mem- 
oriam quinquagenariam universitatis Vestrae f austis ominibus 
fundatae ex animo Yobis gratulemur et pro perenni eius flore 
pia vota nuncupemus. 

Dabamus Lipsiae die XX mensis Julii anno MDCCCdl. 

Dr. Eduardus Sievers, 

h.t. Universitatis Hector. 

Rector et Senatus Universitatis Ludovico-Maximilianeae ; 
Cancellario, Vicecancellario, Registrario Uni- 
versitatis Sydneiensis 

Ex litteris Vestris, quibus sollemnia quinquagesimi anni 
Academiae Vestrae feliciter peracti mense Septembri celebra- 
turn iri annuntiavistis, nos quoque ad illam sollemnitatem 


benigne a Vobis invitari grato animo cognovimus. Sed quam- 
quam neque Oceanum dissociabilem neque itineris longinqui- 
tatem pertimescimus, tamen propter temporis angustias mun- 
erisque rationes dolemus nos nan habere, quern ad Vos dele- 
gemus, ut laetus laetitiae Vestrae testis sit. Quapropter et 
nunc ex animi sententia gratulamur, quod Academiae Vestrae 
studia intra dimidiatum saeculum laetissima ceperunt incre- 
menta, et ubi aderunt dies festi, faustia eos ominibus prose- 
quemur. Yalete. 

Monachii -a. d. VII. Kal. Augustas MDCCOCII. 

Ludovicus Josephus Brentano, 

h.t. Bettor. 


Quod Bonum Felix Faustumque Sit 

Inlustrissimae Universitati Litterarum Sidneiensi 

Quae Jam in Huius Globi Orbe Australi Bemotissimoque Con- 

tinenti Rerum Humanarum Naturaliumque Docta Studia 

Quae in Parva Graecia Antiqua Originem Ceperunt 

acqihrere dlsseminare propagare 

Ingenuo Impetu Nec Sine Laeto Fructu Suscepit 

Demonstrans Scientia in Unum Coniungi Quos Locus 


Sorori Iam Adulta Aetate 

A Sororibus Cum Plausu Bonisque Ominibus Exceptae 

Dies Festissimos Mensis Septembris Anni mcmii 

Quibus Ante Haec Decem Lustra Condita Est Ex Animi 

Sententia Congratulatur 

Universitatis Marpurgensis rector cum senatu. 

g. a. julicher, 

h.t. Hector* 



Rostock, den 5 Juni, 1902. 
Der Hoohgesch'atzten Universitat, Sydney, 

Danken wir verbindlichst fur die freundliche Einladung 
zum Jubelfeste dee 50. jahrigen Bestehens der Universitat. 

Wir sind leider nicht in der Lage einen Vertreter zu 
entsenden, gedenken aber der Universitat Sydney mit den 
besten Wiinsohen fiir ihr ferneres Gedeihen. 

Rector und Concilium der Landes- Universitat, Rostock, 

An die hochgeschatzte Universitat, Sydney (Australien). 


Almae Universitati Sydneiensi Universitatis Tubingensis 

Rector Cancellarius Senatus. 
Adlatae sunt nobis Vestrae litterae, quibus nos human- 
issime invitastis, ut sollemnia quinquagesimi anni ab acade- 
mia Vestra feliciter peracti Vobiscum mense h. a. Septembri 
concelebremus. Aegre ferimus, quod propter maxima locorum 
intervalla nobis nan licet praesentibus festo illi laetissimo 
adesse. Sed ex animi sententia f elices illoe dies Vobis gratu- 
lamur opbantes ut Vestra Universitas, nunc semisaecularis, 
multa per saecula vivat floreat crescat. Valete. 

Tubingae die XXII. mensis Julii anni MDCCCCHI. 

Dr. Julius Grill, 

h.t. Rector. 


Rector et Senatus Universitatis Wirceburgensis Uni- 
versitatis Sydneiensis Curatoribus 

Ex litteris quas ad nos dedistis perhumanis cognovimus 
Academiam vestram quinquaginta annos feliciter exactoa 


undetriceaimo die mensia Septembris et diebus ittsequentibui 
sollemni modo celebraturam esse. Quod nos quoque invit- 
astis, viri ampHssimi, ub e oollegio nostra unum mibteremus, 
qui baec sollemnia vobiscum perageret, gumma nos laetitia 
affecit; nam inde videre licet, quam arte inter ae connexae 
siut omnea Academiae communi litterarum cultu atque amore. 
Et sane perlubenti animo invitationi veattae obsequeremur, 
nisi vos, ut ipsi in litteria vestris dixistia, toto paene orbe 
diviai esaetis. Quod cum ita sit, nostrum esse duximus hisce 
litteria »"cbis, viri ornatisaimi, ex animo gratulari quod Acide- 
mia, vestra dimidiatura saeculum tanta cum laude esegit 
simulque vota nuncupate, ut Universitas Sydneiensis illustris 
in terra vestra semper maneat humanitatia, quae ex litteria 
graecis latinisque hausta nobis vobiscum communis est, dux 
tarn egregia quam quae maxima atque doctrinae subtilia 
magiatra quam diligentisaima. Valete. 

Wirceburgi die 15 menaia Augusti MDCCCCII. 


h.t. Sector. 


dvdyicy ir€i06p£voi toutS* tois <£iXois ypap.pxwi crvyyaipop&v vpXv 
hrl tq dyofievy irevrrjKOVTcwrqpiSi. koll dirb p*<rrj<s Kap&ias 'a&A^iKttS 
evyppueda €V ry rrjs hrurTtjfirjs oS<p alkv vfias dpurr€V€iv. 
Meya ^at/»€T€, Sebs 8' irdvr* oAjSia Sotrj. 

e Upvravts 
rov 'AOrjvrpri Hav€7rurrrjptov 

2. K. ^(LKeWapoTrovXos. 


Uniyersitatis Groningana Universitati Sydneiensi 


Humanissime a vobis invitati, ut gaudii veefcri ob quin- 
quagesimum Academiae vestrae natalem proximo autumno 
nostra, vestro autem vere futuri per legatum aliquem partici- 
pes essemus tamen hujus officii munus alicui e nostro numero 
injungere non potuimus. Causa in promptu est, quam ipsi 
paene antipodes antipodibus scripsistis. Nihilominus, quam- 
vis terrarum mariumque immenso spatio sejuncti, scientiae 
disciplinarumque toto orbe studiosorum intimam conjunc- 

tionem probantes atque testantea, hisce litteris gratulatoriis 
favoris benevolentiaeque signum edendum votaque pro salute 
vestra f acienda decrevimus. Crescite et multipiicamini ! 
Ex Senatus amplissimi decreto. 

A. G. Van Hamkl, 

h.t. pro Rectore MaQnifico. 

J. S. Speyer, 

h.t. Actuaries. 

Groningae a.d. XIX. Kalendas Sextiles anni MDCCCCII. 


Universitas Lugduno-Batava Universitati Sydneiensi 

Quod nos, ut Vobiscum Decimum a Vestra Universitate 
exactum lustrum celebremus invitatis, humanitatem Vestram 


Verum enimvero immensum illud itineris spatium, quod 
Vos ab hisce separat regionibus, quominus invitatione ilia u- 
tamur obstare Vos ipos intelligere iam significastis. 

Quid ergo attinet alias, non minus graves, hie afferre cau- 
sas, quae nos ab hoc retineant consilio? Cum praesertim res 
ipsa argumentum nobis suppeditet, de quo ad Vos scribere 
multo nos iuvet magis. 

Gratulamur enim vobis laetum ilium diem, quern iamiam 
votis ominibusque estis prosecuturi, et ut crescat floreatque 
Universitas Vestra ex animi sententia precamur. Nam vix 
quidquam est efficaciu3 ad populos, tarn antiquos quam recenr 
tes, ad illud attollendos fastigium, ubi quibus inter se rebus 
dirimantur obliti, commune quoddam esse quo iungantur vin- 
culum penitus sentiant, quam ille disciplinarum cultus vere 
liberalis, qui nullam despici gentem, nullam iustc magis sus- 
pici patitur, sed, quoniam ea exigit quae perfici et ad finem 
perduci nunquam possint, cunctos infirmitatis admoneat hu- 
manae, et sic ad fraternum quendam compellat amor em. 

Talia nectere vincula utinam et Vestra pergat Universitas, 
quibus etiam remotissimae inter se iungantur orae! 

W. Van Der Vlugt, 

Universitatis Secrctarius. 

H. Van Der Hoeven, 

Universitatis Hector, 
Dabamus Lugduni Batavorum. 
Ante diem V.m Idus Maias MCMII. 


Universitati Sydneiensi Salutem Dicit Quam Plurimam 

Universitas Rhenotraiectina. 
Universitas Sydneiensis tarn et si nondum est quinqua- 
genaria maior tamen per breve quod floruit temporis spatium 
tarn egregie merita est de variis disciplinis ut omnium erudi- 
torum digna sit laude et admiratione. 


Quocirca licet itineris longitudo ae molestia nos prae* 
pediant quominus ad Vos toto paene orbe divisos mittamus 
aliquem nostrum nolite tamen dubitare quia sollemnibus quae 
moz decern lustra feliciter peracta celebratis animis noatris si- 
mus interfuturi vota nuncupaturi pro perenni Academiae 

Vestrae flore atque gloria. 

A. A W. Hubrecht, 

Bector Magnificus. 


Senatus ab actis. 
Datum Ultraiecti mensis Junii die XXIV anni MCMII. 


Rectori et Senatui Universitatis Sydneiensis Rector et 
Senatus Universitatis Catinensis S. DD. 

Quamquam prae magna locorum longinquitate viz quern- 
quam e noatris potuimus adlegare, qui vobis praesens gratu- 
letur, tamen sollemnibus vestrae Academiae rite habendis 
iucunda quadam animorum consensione adfuturi sumus. 

Veri enim pervestigatio ad quam a totius orbis terrarum 
partibus omnibus viribus nitimur, efficit ut omnes, qui nos 
doctrinae studiis tradidimua, artissimo quodam necessitudinis 
vinculo teneamur. Vos igitur, qui festos dies anniverarios 
Sodalitatis vestrae sollemniter acturi estis, fausta vota quae 
a nostra pervetusto studiorum propugnaculo ad vos mittun- 
iur, benigno animo accipiatis. Valete. 


P. Delogu, 


M. Mandalari, 


Ikclitae Universitati Sydneiensi Athenaesus 


Non sine magno gaudio accepimus, Yos exeunte mens© 
Septembri quinquagesimi anni feliciter peracti sollemnia cele- 
braturos esse. In communione enim studiorum, quod est arc- 
tissimum inter homines caritatis vinculum, quidnam maiorem 
laetitam adferre potest, quam coetum aliquem doctorum vir- 
orum ob res bene gestas in scientiarum certamine merito ex- 
ultantem videre? Praesertim quum de Vobis agatur, qui, 
quamquam toto paene orbe divisi estis, et non ita multis ab- 
hinc annis in campum et pulverem descendistis, tamen vir- 
tute Vestra non parvam gloriae segetem iam colligere valuisr 

Etsi igitur longinquitas loci impedimento est quominus 
legationem istuc mittamus, illud intelligi volumus, nos vehe- 
menter gratulari Vobis sollemnia quinquagenaria, et nomine 
buius Urbis, unde lumen quoddam doctrinarum et artium 
vere dicitur toti orbi affulsisse, Vos salutare, denique omnibus 
expetere votis ut arridente Fortuna, res Vestrae in dies auc- 
tiores et gloriosiores efficiantur. 

Dabamus Florentiae 

die XXIX April MCMIL 

Praesea B. Athenaei, 

Carolus Ridolfi. 


Universitati Sydneiensi Quinquagesimum Annum Feliciter 

Peragtum Rite Oelebranti Universitas 


Cum iis omnibus, qui ubicumque terrarum Uteris scien- 
tiisque student eadem mens sit, uti optime vestro in stem- 
mate legitur ; volumus vos certiores fieri, et nos gaudii vestri 


in primis participes esse, et quamquam sollemnibus insignia 
Aoademiae vestrae propediem celebrandis praesentes interesse 
non possumus vobis tamen omnia bona, fausta, felicia fortu- 
nataque nunc et in omne aevum precari. 

S. Vecchi, 



Dabamus Parmae, 

in Kal. Jul. MDCCCCII. 

Universitati Sydneiensi Pisana Universitas 

Magno cum gaudio accepimus, propediem vos sollemnia 
quinquagesimi anni vestrae Academiae rite celebraturos esse. 
Quod nos certiores fecistis, si quern e coetu nostro istuc 
adlegavissemus, Vos eum libenter hospitio accepturos esse, 
gratias maximas agimus Vobis. Cum vero id multis de causis 
fieri nequeat, absentes faustis ominibus Vobis gratulamur. 
Dabamus Pisis Nonis Juniis anni MDCCCCII. 

Hector Universitatis, 

D. Supino. 

Regia Universita Degli Studi di Roma. 

Roma, addi 7 Juglio, 1902. 
Particolarmente gradito ci torno 1'invito di assistere alle 
feste commemorative del cinquantenario dalla fondazione di 
codesta illustre Universita che, sebbene tra le piu giovani delle 
consorelle, ha gia portato un contributo tanto importante ed 
efficace al progresso della Scienza. 


La grande distanza che ne separa da voi, non ne permette 
di fared rappresentare nella solenne occasione da uno speciale 
delegato; con tutto ci6 non vogliamo che manchi da parte 
nostra un saluto caldo ed affettuoso congiunto cogli auguri di 

un avvenire glorioso quale la storia de ; primi cinquant' anni 

di vostra vita ci autorizza a formare. 

H Rettort, 

V. Cerruti. 


Kyoto, Japan, July 21st, 1902. 
Hiroji Kinoshita, President of the Kyoto Imperial University, 
has the honour to acknowledge receipt of the invitation of the 
Honourable H. N. MacLaurin, Chancellor of Sydney Univer- 
sity, to attend the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of that 
institution and deeply regrets that it is not practicable for 
the Kyoto Imperial University to be represented officially on 
that occasion. He begs that the Honourable Chancellor will 
extend to the entire Corporation the assurances of the hearty 
congratulations of himself and his associates. 
Kyoto Imperial University, 
Kyoto, Japan. 

Universitati Sydneiensi 


Universitatis Regiae 



Christianiae in Norvegia 


Litteras Vestras, quibus indicastis, semiaaecularia «>llem- 
nia Academiae Vestrae diebus 21-25 Septembris esse celebran- 
da laeto animo accepimus. 


Nam qvamvis ab vestro orbe patria nostra per vasta atque 
immensa maris et viarum intervalla separetur, tamen omnes 
academiae, quae liberalibus artibus exoolendis promovendi*- 
que operam navant, amore quodam sororio semper cohaerent 
firmisque inter se vinculis continentur, ut vobis prospera 
incrementa bonosque successus nos etiam merito canh 
gratulemur, pia ex animi sententia vota nuncupantes ut Ve»- 
trae Universitati semper benedicat Deus Optimus Maximus. 

Benevolentiam humanitatemque vestram, viri praestan- 
tissimi, qui uni e societate nostra inter sollemnia hospitium 
praestare voluistis, grati agnoscimus. 

Pergratum sane nobis fuisset, si collegam quempiam ad noe 
ablegare potuissemois, id quod tamen non licuit. 

Dabamus Christianiae Kal. Aug. MCMII. 

W. C. Bboggeh, 

Senatus academici praeses, 

Dec. fae. math.-phys. 
S. Michelet, Axel Holst, 

Dec. foe. theol. Dec. fac. med. 

Fredrik Stang, Yngvar Nielsen. 

Dec. fac. jur. Dec. fac. hist.-philos. 

Chr. Aug. Orland, 

Secretarius UniveraUati*. 


Illustrissimae Universitati Svdneiensi 

sacra natalicia semisaecularia sollemniter celebraturae 

ex animi sententia oongratulantur 

Rector et Senatus Universitatis Jagellonicae 


toto quidem orbe divisi, communi tamen studiorum vinculo 
arctissime coniuncti, festamque dierum seriem faustis ominibus 


prosequentes vota nuncupant, ut Academia Vestra Dei Optimi 
Maximi nutu perpetua felicitate floreat, semper veritatis 
facem praeferat, humanitatem strenue promoveat. 
Dabamus Kal. Sept. MDCCCCII. 

Fridericus Zoll, 

h.t. Bectoris Unix* vg. 


die XXIX mensis Septembris anni MCMII sollemnia 


anni celebraturae, 

Caesarea Universitas Charcoviensis 


Certiores fact! Universitatem Sydneiensem, quae ante hoe 
quinquaginta annos in extremo orbe terrarum constituta est, 
sollemnia dimidii saeculi feliciter peracti nunc temporis cele- 
braturam, ut aliquo modo participes gaudii Yestri simus lit- 
teris praesentibus nunc faustum felicemque diem socialiter 
Yobis gratulamur atque pie precamur, ut inclita Academia Ves- 
tra, quam plurimis claris viris facem doctrinae generi humano 
ab ultimo oriente praeferentibus, in omne aevum floreat vige- 
atque. Semper vivat, semper crescat eximium nomen Almae 
Matris Sydneiensis, per quinquaginta iam annoe a civibus ex- 
terisque nationibus summa laude exornatum ! 

Charcoviae die 3 Septembris MCMII anni. 

Bettor Universitatis 

N. Kuplevasky. 
Decani : A. Brio. 

M. Lomikoyksy. 


Acfawrius: M. I. Iljiusky. 



Inclitae Inlustri 

Universitati Sydneiensi 

decern lustra maximo cum universae scientiae emolumento 

summaque cum gloria prosperrime peracta coninnctissimis 

laetisque animis congratulamur et, ut in posterum quoque 

tempus praeclara haec purae incorruptaeque scientiae fax 

quinquaginta annis abhinc paene in ultimis terris Promethea 

profecto manu Deo adnuente accensa clarissimam humanitais 

verae lucem largissime toti terrarum orbi fundere pergens 

semper ardeat, concordissime optamus ominamur. 

Universitatis Caesareae Iurievensis 

olim Dorpatensis Senatus. 

Dabamus Iurevi 

pridie nonas Junias anni MCMII. 

Pro Hectare Deearnu: 

Dr. T. Ohse. 

Stcrttarius Senatus: 

G. Treffner. 


Universitatis Sydneiensis Cancellario et Senatui Salutem 
Dicit Imperialis Universitas Alexandrea 


Ad sollemnia quae quinquaginta ob annos ab universitate 
vestra feliciter peractos celebraturi estis, quoniam summa nos 
humanitate invitavistis, quamvis in urbis vestrae portum 
amoenitate omnium longe celeberrimum intrare, ardua ilia 
inter capita montium advecti, hospitioque vestro frui plurimi 
sane nostratium cuperent, longinquitate tamen itinerum, ne 
quern mitteremus, prohiberi videbamur, idem vero haud minore 
erga vos gratia illo die festo ac laeto vota pro futuris tern- 
poribus vobiscum participanda esse censuimus, quod his lit- 
t«ris voluimus testatum. 


Atque vestrae universitatis civibus, cum terras alio sole 
calentes incolant, alios laborum industriaeque fructus videant, 
diversas hominum indigenarum consuetudines cognoscant, faci- 
lius continget, novis ut studiis, cogitatis, inventis et naturam 
rerum et humani generis sensus mentesque amplectantur. 

Profuturum vobis doctoribus discentique iuventuti illud 
quoque videtur, quod more maiorum minim e obstricti, multis 
tamen maiorum praeceptis adiuti, quasi adulescentium iuro 
novam agere vitam ac proprium quendam vigorem poteritia 
scientiae disciplinis adferre. 

Quibus rebus ut confidimus, sic nulla nobis occurrit dubi- 
tatio, quin ceteras academias iam vetustate corroboratas asse- 
cutura sit vestra alma mater, cum alumnos suos, divino nu- 
mine semper servata, vero stfudio veritatis imbuat atque ador- 
net virtutibus praeclarifi et vestra gente dignis 

Ex decreto senatus universitatis Alexandreae ? 

E. I. Hjelt, 


D. Helsingforsiae Kal. Aug. A. MCMII. 


Caesarea Universitas Scti Vladmiri Kiovensis Univer- 

8itati sydneiensi 

Quod quinquagesima natalicia Academiae vestrae sollem- 
niter celebraturi nos quoque gaudii vestri participes esse volu- 
istis, humane fecistis nobisque gratissime. Sed tot terrarum 
immensis tractibus, tot vastis maribus interiectis prohibemur, 
quominus e nostro coetu quemquam mittamus coram vobis 
gratulaturum. Itaque per litteras bona omnia vobis preca- 
mur et ut Academia vestra sicut per decern lustra nunc felici- 


ter axacta ita per multa saecula humanitatem bonasque artes 
apud Antipodas colendo nova semper laude crescat atque 
floreat, vota facimns. 

Rector : Decanus : 


Dtcanus : Secretary : 

Tim. Flobinsky. Isajev. 

Datum Kioviae, 
kal. August. MCMII. 


A rUniversite de Sydney. 

Cinquante ana se sont eooules depuis que l'Universite de 

Sydney exerce son action feconde dans le domaine de science. 

Heureuse de pouvoir feliciter lea confreres qui fetent en ce 

jour oe cinquantieme aniiiversaire, l'Universite Imperiale de 

Mcscou fait les voeux les plus ardents pour que l'Universite 

de Sydney continue a Tavenir de travailler pour la bien de 

l'humanite et pour le proges de la science. 

Le Becieur, 

A. Tichomirov. 


Senatus Universitatis Caesareae Litterarum 

Senatui Universitatis Sydneiensis 


Marium vastitate immensa a Vobis, humanissimi Collegae, 
semoti, studiorum vinculis artissime consociati, Academiae sol- 
lemnia decern lustrorum feliciter peractorum rite celebrantibus 
arnica mente gratulamur cupimusque sincere et ex animo, ut 
semisaecularis laboris recordatio, quern communi vitae human- 


ae utilitati augendae pro Vestra parte impertire nunquam ces- 
sastis, Vobis Vestrisque successoribus tamquam stimulus esse 
perseveret ad litterarum studia, clarissime incepta, haud 
minore cum laude proximis quoque saeculis promovenda. 

Quod Deus bene vertat. 

Datum Odessae, pridie Kalendas Junias a. MCMII. 


Universitas Caesarea Varsoviensis Universitati 


Rector et Senatus Universitatis Caesareae Varsoviensis ex 
animi sententia gratulantur Cancellario et Senatui Univer- 
sitatis Sydneiensis, quod mense Septembri huius anni dies 
natalis celeberrimae Academiae Australium instat quinqua- 
gesimus sollemniter celebrandus ob memoriam tot virorum 
clarorum et de litteris optime meritorum, qui praeteritis de- 
cern lustris istic docuerunt et cultum atque humanitatem in 
extrema quoque mundi parte pervulgaverunt. Itaque quam- 
quam vehement er dolemus, quod in pulcherrimam urbem Vea- 
u am, toto paene orbe a vobis divisi cum simus, neminem ex 
coetu nostro mittere poterimus, qui praesens Vobis gratuletur, 
volumus tamen vos persuasum habere nos sollemnem diem 
natalem Academiae Vestrae, cum studiis communibus Vobis 
semper coniuncti simus, grata memoria prosecuturos et cele- 
braturos esse fausta acclamatione : Vivat vigeatque in aeter- 
num Academia Sydneiensis ! 
pro Rectore, 

Universitati3 Caesareae Varsoviensis, 

Decanus hist.-philol. Platon Kulakovskij. 
5 (18) Augusti MDCCCCII. 



Universitatas Caesaraugustana Universitati Sydneiensi. 

Invocationi vestrae honorem tantum tribuimus ut pre- 
cibus instantissimis nx>strorum omnes rogaverimus, si forte 
aliquis, juvenis admodum, qui, tantae viae onera placide suf- 
ferret et universitatem et civitatem vestras visitare voluiseet. 

Insignia honor multis rebus contendendus, justoque dolore 

Universdtates sunt semper unitae amore scientiae et homi- 
uum bono ; Nostra meliora vobis auspicia offerens, sollemnis 
vestrae Academiae vestraeque memoriae erga nos placidam 
conmemorationem servabit. 

Dr. Mariano Ripolles, 


Dabamus Caesaraugustae 
Die XV Aprilis MDCCCCII. 


Universidad Litterarium de Valencia. 

Amplissimos viros, Academiae Sydneiensis Cancellarium, 
Vice-Cancellarium, tabellionis munere Fungentem, omnesque 
ad unum illius Moderatores perillustris coetus, Valentina mul- 
tigenae disciplinae Academia, ex longinqua regions, iuxta in- 
ternum mare a superbis Romanis " mare nostrum " dictum, 
libentissime salutat. 

Ingentes vobis habemus grates ob honorabilem hortatum 
ad nos allatum, annum quinquagessimum a Sydneiensis Ly- 
cei institution® celebrandi gratia; et ultro libentique animo 
illuc conveniremus, et nostra vestra gaudia essent, nisi freta 
longa longe lateque nos discidissent. Attamen, etsi corpore 
absentes, apud vos mente et corde erimus; gratamurque ut 




vester coram omnibus litterarum amor patefiat; quandoqui- 
dem summopere Australia laudatur, turn maxima eius prae- 
stantia in scientiarum cultu, turn ditissimis bibliothecis cenr 
tena librorum millia asservantibus. 

Nobis quoque erit celebrandus III Idus Octobr. venientis 
quadringentessimus annus ab huius Universitatis erectione; 
sed praesens nostri aerarii status non patitur aulas experientiis 
paratas ab aliis esse, praeter nostrates, visendas; nee, igitur, 
audemus, etiamsi inviti, hortari ut aliquis vestrum huicce sol- 
lemnitati praesit, quae, pro tenuitate nostra, vestrae specta- 
tionis non futura erit digna : alioquin, obsequenter honori- 
ficeque exciperemini. 


Valentiae Edetanorum, 

Idibus I vlii. 

M. Candela, 

F. Reig Y. Flores, 



Universitas Carolina Lundensis Universitati Sydneiensi 


Quod sollemnium quinquagesimi anni, quae brevi cele- 
braturi estis, nos quoque participes esse voluistis gratissimo 
animo accepimus. Sed ut vos ipsi de regionum, quibus di3- 
cernimur, vastitudine mentionem fecistis, sic huius ipeiu3 rei 
iniquitate impedimur, quominus ad vos legatum mittamus 
qui nomine nostro praesens vobis gratuletur. Neque tamen 
praetermittere volumus, quin Academiae vestrae illustrissi- 
mae propter lustra decern iam feliciter peracta gratulationes 


sinceras adferamus, atque optamus ut per saecula nova vivat 
floreatque Universitas Sydneiensis. 

Dabamus Lundae die II Julii MDCCCCII, 

Seved Ribbing, 
Pro-Bector Universitatis Lundensis. 


Universitati Sydneiensi Rector et Sen at us Universitatis 


Libenter accepimus litteras quibus natalem vestrum semi- 
saecularem sollemniter celebraturi noe quoque in societatem 
laetitiae vocavistis. Neque cunctamur animis festivitati in- 
teresse. Gum enim litterarum universitates quasi cognatae et 
consanguineae quidquid uni ex iis vel laetum acoidit vel triste 
quasi suum quaeque sentire solent, turn praecipue in festo quod 
vt>s propediem acturi estis, habemus cur gaudium vestrum ad 
nos quoque pertinere putemus. Quo enim longioribus et ter- 
rarum et marium spatiis sumus separati, eo clarius elucet 
scientiae et doctrinae communio qua tanquam cingulo artis- 
simo universae totius orbis terrarum gentes eruditae sunt 
coniunctae quaque factum est ut in terris cultioribus omnibus, 
quamvis nationum et origine et indole differrent, quasi flores 
vitae bene moratae laetissimi enascerentur universitates, quae 
ut singularium institutorum discrepantia gentium diversttatem 
ita principalis constitutionis aequalitate unitatem scientiae red- 
derent. Ac nobis Bernensibus ultra etiam suppetit causa cur 
laetitiae vestrae partem nobis vindicemus. Quod enim non 
ante saecula, sed ante lustrorum modicum numerum univer- 
sitates et Sydneiensis et Bernensis ad veterum exemplar for- 
mamque conditae sunt, testis est utraque formam illam hodie 
quoque esse vitalem reoentumque temporum condicionibus 
accommodatam. Accedit quod utraque originem debet pop-