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Full text of "Record of decision : resource management plan for the White Mountains National Recreation Area"

BLM LIBRARY 




88045523 



BLM-AK-PT-86-017-1610-028 




RECORD OF DECISION 
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN 

for the 
WHITE MOUNTAINS NATIONAL RECREATION AREA 




HD 


243 


• A4 


W458 


1986 




BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 
FAIRBANKS DISTRICT OFFICE 
FEBRUARY 6, 1986 




BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

PUBLIC LANDS: USA (USE, SHARE, APPRECIATE) 

The Bureau of Land Mangement is responsible 
for the balanced management of the PUBLIC 
LANDS and their various resource values so 
that they are considered in the combination 
that will best meet the needs of the 
American people. Our management is based 
upon the principles of multiple use and 
sustained yield; this is a combination of 
uses that takes into account the long-term 
needs of future generations for renewable 
and non-renewable resources. These 
resources include recreation, range timber, 
minerals, watershed, fish and wildlife, 
wilderness and natural, scenic, scientific 
and cultural values. 






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RECORD OF DECISION V(WSSf 

White Mountains National Recreation Area 
Resource Management Plan 
Yukon Resource Area 
Fairbanks, Alaska 



This document identifies the decisions reached by the Bureau of Land 
Management (BLM) for managing the 1.0 million acres of public land within 
the White Mountains National Recreation Area. The decisions are 
presented in the enclosed Resource Management Plan. 

Alternatives Considered and Analyzed 

Six land use alternatives were considered and analyzed in the final 
environmental impact statement. The six alternatives analyzed are: 
The Proposed Plan - a balance of management opportunities; 
Alternative A - continuation of present management; 

Alternative B - increase of the present level of resource protection; 
Alternative C - a wider range of use opportunities than at present; 
Alternative D - the widest range of human use of the area; and 
Alternative E - a modification of alternative D with special emphasis on 
resource protection. 

In response to the Governor's review, the Proposed Plan has been modified 
to ensure consistency with the plans, policies, and programs of the State 
of Alaska. The portions of the plan that have been modified are 
identified by asterisk in the Revised Resource Management Plan. The 
Proposed Plan has been determined to be the environmentally preferable 
alternative. 

This alternative was developed and selected to emphasize protection of 
primitive and semi-primitive recreation opportunities with protection of 
the wild and scenic qualities of Beaver Creek National Wild River as a 
high priority. Other activities are permitted where compatible with 
recreation management objectives. All practicable means to avoid or 
minimize environmental harm have been incorporated into the resource 
management plan. 

The implementation plan and the monitoring and evaluation standards and 
intervals are found on the last seven pages of the RMP . Minor changes to 
the EIS and its bibliography are also attached. 

Decision 

The enclosed Resource Management Plan, as revised herein, for the White 
Mountains National Recreation Area is approved. This document meets the 
requirement for a Record of Decision as provided in 40 CFR 1505.2. 

r, C MVFR FEDERAL CENTER ,.,.,„, „..._„ ^^ 

DENVE P BOX 25047 



DO BUa^w' . 
DENVER, CO 80225 



Michael Penfold Date 

State Director 



white Mountains National Recreation Area 
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN 



White Mountains National Recreation Area 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I . Goals and Objectives 1 

II. Multiple Use Management Prescriptions 4 

Prescriptions Common to All Management Units 5 

Prescriptions for Primitive Management Unit 17 

Prescriptions for Beaver Creek National 

Wild River Corridor 21 

Prescriptions for Semi-Primitive Management Unit 22 

Prescriptions for Research Natural Areas 26 

Description of Fire Management 27 

III. Areas of Critical Environmental Concern 

and Other Plan Elements 28 

IV. Support 29 

V. Consistency Determination 31 

VI . Implementation 32 

VII. Corrections to FEIS for the White Mountains 

National Recreation Area 39 

VIII . Expanded Bibliography 39 

LIST OF TABLES 



9-1 Crucial Use Areas for Various Species and Species Groups 8 

9-2 Possible Surface Use and Occupancy Restrictions in 

Crucial Habitats 9 

9-3 ORV Management-White Mountains National Recreation Area 13 



GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 



Overview 



The purpose of the White Mountains National Recreation Area Land Use Plan 
is to provide the Bureau of Land Management and the public with guidelines 
for protecting the quality and managing the use of the White Mountains. 
The actions identified in this plan are a result of policy considerations, 
detailed technical work, an analysis of previous and ongoing studies and 
reports, and an evaluation of public comments. 

This land use plan helps to place resource opportunities, needs, and 
problems into proper perspective and to provide a basis for the orderly 
development and implementation of resource conservation, preservation, 
management, and uses. This plan is designed to be a dynamic tool for 
resolving critical issues and problems. 

Specific authorization for the White Mountain Plan comes from the Alaska 
National Interest Lands Conservation Act (P.L. 96-487, ANILCA). The 
specific language of this Act directs that the Area shall be administered 
to provide for public outdoor recreational use and for the conservation of 
scenic, historic, cultural and wildlife values; and for other uses if they 
are compatible or do not significantly impair the previously mentioned 
values. This plan was developed using the BLM planning system as outlined 
in Section 201 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (P.L. 
94-579, FLPMA). 

The White Mountains National Recreation Area is located approximately 60 
miles northwest of Fairbanks. It is bounded on the east by the Steese 
National Conservation Area and on the north by the Yukon Flats National 
Wildlife Refuge. Millions of acres of State lands lie to the south and 
west of the WMNRA. 

Current recreational opportunities in interior Alaska are available in 
highly developed and intensively used areas accessible by road from 
Fairbanks as well as remote and seldom-visited areas accessible only by 
air. The overall management strategy for the WMNRA is to provide for a 
variety of public outdoor recreation opportunities emphasizing existing 
primitive and semi-primitive values, to protect and/or improve the water 
quality of Beaver Creek National Wild River and its tributaries, and to 
provide for multiple use of other resource values which are compatible 
with the recreation goals. Some areas within the WMNRA will be reserved 
for primitive, non-motorized types of recreation. However, these areas 
will not be as difficult and expensive to reach as the large wilderness 
areas which can be found in the National Parks and National Wildlife 
Refuges in Alaska and will, therefore, be available to a somewhat larger 
user group. Other areas will be managed for a semi-primitive type of 
recreation with some motorized vehicle use permitted. However, these 
areas will not be as accessible or as developed as the State and borough 



recreation areas which exist within the Fairbanks road network and will 
not be as heavily used. Thus, the WMNRA will provide a necessary 
intergrade between the existing very accessible and very remote areas of 
recreational opportunities. 

The primary recreation attractor in the WMNRA is Beaver Creek National 
Wild River. Preservation of the wild and scenic qualities of Beaver 
Creek and its associated arctic grayling fisheries, as well as the high 
country along the White Mountains backbone, are major considerations of 
this plan. 

Activities other than recreation would be appropriate when consistent 
with recreation management objectives as outlined below. In areas 
designated for primitive-type recreation, only those activities which 
would not adversely affect the primitive characteristics of the area 
would be allowed. In semi-primitive areas, where increased access is 
desirable and some changes in the natural setting are permissible, a 
wider range of resource uses could take place. 

Goals and Objectives 

Goals and objectives for this plan reflect the requirements of ANILCA, 
the act which established the WMNRA. Resource potentials have been 
examined from both a regional and national perspective. 

GOAL 1: Provide for a variety of public outdoor recreational 

opportunities which emphasize the existing natural 
primitive and semi primitive values appropriate to 
the WMNRA designation. 

OBJECTIVES: Improve access for recreational use of Beaver Creek 
within the confines and stated purpose of the Wild 
and Scenic River Act and the approved river 
management plan. 

Improve recreational access to the interior highlands 
emphasizing primitive and semi-primitive experiences. 

Establish hiking opportunities related to river 
floating use. 

Establish backcountry hiking/horseback riding 
opportunities along the high ridge complex linking 
Cache Mountain, Lime Peak and Mount Pr indie. 

Maintain natural ecosystems in order to enhance 
primitive and semi-primitive recreational experiences. 

Provide for semi-primitive motorized recreation on 
the lands along the southern and western boundaries 
of the WMNRA. 



Provide opportunities for off-road vehicle use where 
compatible with recreation objectives. 

Protect existing scenic values within the viewshed 
along the Beaver Creek NWR and along the ridge 
complex in the White Mountains. 

Maintain the spine of the White Mountains in its 
natural state to protect its high scenic values. 

Provide opportunities for hunting, trapping, fishing, 
and wildlife viewing. 



GOAL 2: 



Protect and maintain the water quality of Beaver 
Creek NWR. 



OBJECTIVES : 



Meet existing State water quality standard. 



Promote a quality fishing experience in Beaver Creek 
NWR. 



GOAL 3: 



Provide for multiple use where compatible with 
primitive or semi-primitive recreation. 



OBJECTIVES : 



Maintain lands classified as primitive in a natural 
state. 



Where compatible with recreation goals, permit 
multiple use of resources on land classified as 
semi-primitive . 

Preserve unusual natural phenomena, which have been 
identified as type needs in the Ecological Reserve 
System, for further scientific study by designating 
the surrounding area as a Research Natural Area. 



Maintain or improve habitat to support viable 
self-sustaining populations of fish and wildlife. 



MULTIPLE USE MANAGEMENT PRESCRIPTIONS 



Introduction 



This section describes the management decisions which prescribe the 
combination of resource uses and levels of production or protection, 
program constraints and general management practices to be followed in 
managing the various public land resources within the White Mountains 
National Recreation Area. Based on management prescriptions, the WMNRA 
has been divided into four management units: Primitive, Semi-Primitive 
Motorized, Research Natural Areas, and the Beaver Creek National Wild 
River Corridor. These management units are delineated on the "Proposed 
Plan" map located in the map pocket. Each of these management units has 
a management prescription which is appropriate to the resource 
capabilities and management objectives for that unit. 

Within the Primitive Management Unit, the intent is to provide for 

recreational use within a natural and undisturbed setting. Existing 

primitive values will be maintained and the area is closed to ORV use, 
with the exception of snowmachines . 

Within the Semi-Primitive Motorized Management Unit, a somewhat wider 
range of uses, including some use of off-road vehicles, will be allowed. 
Access will be developed as appropriate to support prescribed uses. 
Recreational use will be more diversified and somewhat higher due to 
easier access. Other resource uses will be allowed, including mineral 
development, when beneficial to or compatible with outdoor recreation. 

The areas of limited acreage are designated Research Natural Areas. 
These areas are reserved for scientific research and only primitive- type 
uses will be permitted within them. 

The Beaver Creek National Wild River Corridor is managed under the Wild 
and Scenic Rivers Act (Public Law 90-542) and the approved river 
management plan (effective May 1, 1984) to protect and enhance scenic, 
recreational, fish and wildlife, and similar values. The approximate 
one-mile wide, 127-mile long corridor traverses the WMNRA. Throughout 
this plan the phrase, "Beaver Creek NWR Corridor," is used to indicate 
the lands within the NWR boundaries as defined in the Beaver Creek NWR 
Plan. With adoption of this Resource Management Plan/Environmental 
Impact Statement, the Beaver Creek NWR Plan and the WMNRA Plan will be 
compatible . 

The only practice which is not defined in terms of the management units 
is fire management. Fire management options are drawn from the Alaska 
Interagency Fire Management Plan: Upper Yukon-Tanana Planning Area. 
There are no conflicts between the multiple use management prescriptions 
in this plan and the Alaska Interagency Fire Management Plan. 



Prescriptions Common to All Management Units 

Although this plan divides the WMNRA into four management units, some 
management prescriptions will be the same throughout the Area. These 
general management practices are described below. 

RECREATION MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

PROTECTION OF IMPORTANT RESOURCE VALUES. Important recreational resource 
values that make the WMNRA unique will be enhanced and protected. These 
values include the outstanding scenic quality of the viewshed, the 
natural state of the river corridor, the water quality of the river 
system, the fishing and hunting opportunities, wildlife viewing, short 
hiking opportunities from the river, and unique landf orms/geologic 
formations, such as, the White Mountains, Windy Gap Arch, Serpentine 
Slide, and Victoria Mountain. 

Preservation of the Beaver Creek NWR Corridor and adjacent viewshed is 
essential to meeting recreational goals and objectives for the plan. 
Beaver Creek has national significance as a recreational resource and is 
one of the main attractions of the WMNRA. River floaters enjoy the 
solitude and magnificent scenery while fishing for arctic grayling, 
hiking in the White Mountains, viewing wildlife, and enjoying primitive 
camping experiences. Maintaining the values of the river system and 
corridor are essential to recreational use of the WMNRA. 

The highlands, consisting of the high-ridge complex from Cache Mountain 
to Lime Peak and Mount Prindle plus the White Mountains backbone and 
Victoria Mountain, will be managed to protect remote primitive values. 
These values include outstanding scenic vistas of high mountain terrain, 
pristine areas with virtually no evidence of manmade improvements, 
wildlife viewing opportunities, high ridge hiking opportunities along 
unimproved trails, unique landf orms and geologic features, hunting and 
fishing opportunities, and outstanding opportunities for winter use of 
remote backcountry. 

Within the Semi-Primitive Motorized Management Unit, values which should 
be protected include ORV hunting opportunities, scenic qualities, 
recreational access to primitive areas and river put-in, wildlife 
viewing, hiking opportunities in the vicinity of the White Mountains 
Trail and Mount Prindle and recreational mining on Nome Creek. 

RECREATIONAL FACILITIES. A remote cabin program will be developed and a 
system of cabins will be established to accommodate recreational uses, 
such as, float boating, dog mushing, backcountry hiking, winter uses, 
etc. Along with the existing Borealis cabin, cabins will be constructed 
in the vicinity of Wickersham Dome, Trail Creek, Fossil Creek, Windy 
Creek, upper Bear Creek, Lime Peak, Victoria Creek, Mount Prindle, 
Bear/Champion Creek, and other areas that might later be identified. 



New recreational sites would be developed, such as, campgrounds, 
trailheads, parking, float-trip staging area, etc., within the context of 
primitive and semi-primitive recreation. These sites would include a 
primitive campground and staging area in the vicinity of lower Nome 
Creek, trailheads and related new trails as shown on the "Proposed Plan" 
map. 

Trails and recreational development will be located to avoid conflicts 
with crucial wildlife habitat and environmentally sensitive areas. Trail 
development would include: (1) a system of unimproved trails which would 
consist of limited vegetation clearing, necessary trail markers, and 
boardwalks to span unavoidable wet areas; (2) developed trailheads with 
parking, toilet facilities, signs, maps, mileage; and (3) a system of 
appropriately located public use shelter cabins. 

The following recreation sites and recreation withdrawals outside the 
WMNRA along the Steese Highway and the Chatanika River will be retained 
under BLM management as support facilities: 

1. The Cripple Creek campground and recreation withdrawal is a 
21-unit campground located 60 miles northeast of Fairbanks. It 
will serve as a major staging area for people wishing to travel 
into the WMNRA. 

2. The U.S. Creek recreation withdrawal north of the Steese Highway 
right-of-way at 56 Mile is a site that will be developed as 
necessary to serve as a staging are for the WMNRA. 

3. The Perhaps Creek recreation withdrawal at 53 Mile Steese Highway 
will be retained for future development. 

VISITOR USE MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION. Public information and 
interpretation would be provided through development of signs, brochures, 
and maps. This material would be designed to facilitate greater public 
enjoyment and increase the public's understanding of recreational 
resources . 

Special Recreation Use Permits would be required for commercial use, 
competitive events, and special uses involving over 50 participants. 

Visitor use would be monitored to evaluate use patterns, needs, and 
impacts . 

HUMAN USE OF FISH AND WILDLIFE. Opportunities for fishing, wildlife 
viewing, hunting, and trapping would be ensured. Fish and wildlife 
values are among the most significant recreation attractors to the WMNRA. 

Rationale 

In accordance with ANILCA, recreation is the primary use of the WMNRA, 
although other uses are allowable when compatible with recreation. 
Portions of the WMNRA of particular value to recreation are the Beaver 
Creek NWR Corridor and the White Mountains highlands. Preservation of 



these two regions must be an important consideration in the management of 
the Area. Because of the proximity of the WMNRA to Fairbanks and the 
accessibility of the Area, several types of recreational use, ranging from 
primitive non-motorized to semi-primitive motorized, must be 
accommodated. Support recreational facilities along the Steese Highway 
are needed to facilitate use of access to the WMNRA. 

WILDLIFE HABITAT MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

The primary emphasis of the wildlife habitat management program will be 
habitat protection, maintenance, and improvement. The priority species 
will be caribou, Dall sheep, fish, and peregrine falcon (an endangered 
species). The wildlife habitat management program will be implemented in 
cooperation with the Alaska Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species Office. 

Identification and monitoring of wildlife distribution, movements, and use 
areas will be done through the use of ground and aerial surveys. 
Information gained from monitoring will be used to assess the effects of 
land use activities, determine habitat condition and trends, and formulate 
measures to mitigate possible adverse effects on wildlife from development 
such as mining and the construction and use of roads. 

HABITAT PROTECTION. Habitat protection in the WMNRA will emphasize 
protection of crucial habitats. Crucial habitats are wildlife use areas 
which are necessary for perpetuation of the species or population and 
which provide an essential element of the life cycle for that species or 
population. Crucial habitats for wildlife are listed in Table 9-1. 
Crucial habitats will be protected through the avoidance of possible 
adverse effects of land use activities, through mitigation, and by 
withdrawing specific areas from certain land use activities. Areas which 
are closed to mineral leasing include crucial caribou calving areas and 
Dall sheep habitat. The Beaver Creek NWR encompasses the presently known 
nesting habitat for peregrine falcon, and this area is also closed to 
mineral leasing. 

When specific land use actions are proposed in the Semi-Primitive 
Motorized Unit, mitigative measures to avoid or minimize possible adverse 
effects will be developed through the environmental assessment process, as 
required by the National Environmental Policy Act and, in the case of lode 
leasing or valid existing rights, by the Surface Management Regulations 
(43 CFR 3809). As a result, it may be necessary to restrict or alter the 
timing, location, and extent of a proposed land use activity to avoid or 
minimize adverse effects. Table 9-2 lists crucial use areas and the times 
during which special restrictions may be required in these areas. These 
restrictions prohibit surface movement within one mile of the area or the 
use of aircraft under an altitude of 1,500 feet. 

HABITAT IMPROVEMENT. Habitat improvement for moose and other species 
will result from the implementation of the Alaska Interagency Fire 



Management Plan: Upper Yukon-Tanana Planning Unit. Additionally, 
prescribed burns may be used to reestablish or improve habitat for moose 
and other species. Areas to be considered for prescribed burns include, 
but are not limited to: Trail Creek, Ophir Creek, Champion Creek and 
Bear Creek. Over the next 10 years a minimum of four prescribed burns 
will be conducted within the WMNRA, each improving at least 7,500 acres 
of habitat. 

Rationale 

Wildlife is a priority resource which is identified in ANILCA and which 
contributes to public enjoyment of the WMNRA. Hunting and/or wildlife 
viewing provide an important part of the recreational experience for 
nearly all users, including hikers, river floaters, and ORV users. 
Protection of crucial habitats or improvements of specific habitat is 
essential to maintaining this opportunity for the public. Dall sheep 
range between the WMNRA and the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge. 
The management plan for the WMNRA is consistent with the purposes of the 
refuge . 

CRUCIAL USE AREAS FOR VARIOUS SPECIES AND SPECIES GROUPS 

Table 9-1 



Species/Group 



Crucial Use Area 



Caribou 



Calving (present and historical), 
movement routes (present and 
historical ) 



Dall Sheep 



Mineral licks, movement routes, 

lambing, associated escape 
terrain, winter range 



Moose 



Late winter range, mineral licks 



Grizzly Bear/Black Bear 



Denning (winter), seasonal high 
use/high prey density 



Peregrine Falcon/Other Raptors 
Furbearers 



Nesting, prey gathering 

Denning (reproduction), seasonal 
high use/high prey density 



Waterfowl 

Small Game 

Land/Shore Birds and Small Mammals 



Nesting, overwintering (potential) 

Winter concentrations 

Concentrations which are crucial 
for predator prey gathering 



Fish 



Spawning areas, overwintering areas 



POSSIBLE SURFACE USE AND OCCUPANCY RESTRICTIONS 
IN CRUCIAL HABITATS 

Table 9-2 



Species 
Caribou 



Dall Sheep 



Grizzly Bear/Black Bear 

Peregrine Falcon/Other 
Raptors 

Furbearers 

Fish 



Crucial Use Area 
Calving/movement routes 

Lambing, movements 
Mineral licks 
Winter range 



Denning 

Nesting, prey gathering 

Denning 

Spawning 
Overwintering 



Dates 

May 1 - June 15 

May 1-31 

May 15 -- July 15 

Oct 1 - May 1 

Nov 1 - April 31 

April 15 - Aug 31 

May 1 - June 15 

May 1 - Sept 1 
Dec 1 - April 15 



FISHERIES MANAGEMENT 



Management Direction 

Fish habitat will be managed to maintain and/or enhance fish populations 
for the use and enjoyment of the recreational users of the WMNRA. Primary 
emphasis will be placed on habitat for arctic grayling. Management 
actions will include development projects to rehabilitate stream and 
riparian areas such as Nome Creek where past placer mining activity has 
altered the aquatic environment. 

Measures to mitigate the impacts of development on the fishery resource 
are attached as stipulations to the authorizing documents on a 
case-by-case basis. 

Riparian gravel sources will be used only where upland sources are not 
reasonably available and where any damaging impacts can be mitigated to 
the extent that the water quality and fisheries of the Beaver Creek system 
will not be significantly impaired. The gravel would be extracted in such 
a manner as to minimize the loss of fish and wildlife and their habitats. 

Special stipulations will be placed on development activities in crucial 
habitat areas such as fish spawning and overwintering areas. Such 



stipulations could require an alteration in the timing of activities so 

as to avoid disturbing or disrupting spawning activity as well as to 

avoid habitat alteration or loss in quality. In some cases, it may be 
necessary to select an alternate site. 

Proponents of all surface-disturbing activities will be required to use 
the best available technology to reduce siltation and stream turbidity to 
an acceptable level for fish survival and reproduction. 

All placer mines and other surface disturbances will be required to be 
rehabilitated in such a way as to minimize future erosion. 

Rationale 

Sport fisheries contribute to public enjoyment of the WMNFA. Most sport 
fishing takes place on Beaver Creek while people are floating the NWR. 
However, fish habitats on tributaries contribute to fish populations in 
Beaver Creek and should also be protected. At present, the only 
practical way to maintain or improve fisheries habitat is to critically 
evaluate all projects that have the potential to degrade the fish 
resource . 

MINERALS MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

ANILCA provides special and specific direction on how to manage 
minerals. The mineral program is guided by the requirements found in 
Sections 402, 404, 1010 and 1312. 

LOCATABLE MINERALS - VALID EXISTING CLAIMS. In accordance with 43 CFR 
3809, all operators of valid existing claims within the WMNRA will be 
required to file a plan of operations or notice which will include the 
name and mailing address of the operator (and of the claimant if the two 
are not one and the same), a map showing existing or proposed access, the 
name and serial number of the claims to be mined, proposed operation and 
dates of activity, type and degree of operation, and measures to prevent 
undue and unnecessary degradation. A reclamation plan must be included 
as a part of the plan of operations or notice. 

Within the WMNRA, wintertime cross-country moves are preferred for the 
transport of equipment onto claims. Any cross-country movement of 
equipment will have to be approved in advance by the Authorized Officer. 



10 



LOCATABLE MINERALS - NEW DISPOSALS. In accordance with ANILCA, new 
disposals of locatable minerals within the WMNPA can only be made through 
a leasing process. No lands within the WMNRA will be opened to the 
leasing of placer deposits. However, the leasing of lode deposits will 
be allowed. 

COAL AND GEOTHERMAL. In accordance with 43 CFR 3201.1 6 and 43 CFR 
3400.2, neither coal nor geothermal leasing is allowed within the 
National Recreation Area. 

SALEABLE MINERALS. Disposal of sand, gravel, rock, and other saleable 
minerals under 43 CFR 3600 will be made if such disposals are compatible 
with the other provisions of this plan. 

EXPLORATION. Because of the multiplicity of exploration methods which 
might be employed, anyone proposing to explore for minerals within the 
WMNRA must contact the Authorized Officer. 

RECLAMATION. All operations in the WMNRA will be reclaimed to the 
satisfaction of the Authorized Officer. 

Rationale 

Under the provisions of ANILCA, holders of valid existing rights can 
develop their claims in accordance with the Surface Management 
Regulations which provide for the protection of the environment. 

In certain areas outside the primitive unit, new mineral development can 
be permitted under the leasing provisions of ANILCA as long as it does 
not significantly impair recreational values or use. 

Extensive placer mining on Beaver Creek or its principal tributaries 
would be in conflict with recreational purposes because of degradation to 
natural and primitive values of the Beaver Creek NWR corridor and damage 
to arctic grayling habitat. 

Section 1010 of ANILCA directs the Secretary to "assess the oil, gas, and 
other mineral potential on all public lands in the State of Alaska in 
order to expand the data base with respect to the minerals potential of 
such lands." The Secretary is also directed to allow for access by air 
for such activities. The BLM is working with the State Division of 
Geological/Geophysical Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. 
Geological Survey in an effort to further develop mineral assessments of 
these and other lands in Alaska. Any proposed study will also receive 
review and comment by the mineral industry, so the best utilization of 
government and private mineral assessment capabilities can be made. 
Information gathered through exploration by private companies will assist 
the Bureau in meeting this legal requirement. Such information, in 
combination with information which will be collected on wildlife and 
other resources, will be very useful in evaluating possible amendments to 
this plan. In accordance with Section 1010, all exploration will be 
carried out in an environmentally sound manner, with no appreciable 
alteration of the natural character or ecological systems of the Area. 



11 



OFF-ROAD VEHICLES, HORSES AND AIRCRAFT 

Management Direction 

The type and extent of ORV uses allowed under the plan depends on the 
designation of the unit in which the use occurs. The Primitive Unit is 
closed to all ORV use, with the exception of winter snowmachine use. The 
Semi-Primitive Motorized Unit is open to the use of off-road vehicles of 
less than 1,500 pounds GVW. Vehicles of greater than 1,500 pounds GVW 
could only be allowed through a specific request to the Authorized 
Officer. (See ORV Management Table 9-3.) 

OFF-ROAD VEHICLES. The use of vehicles greater than 1,500 pounds GVW off 
a valid right-of-way would be permitted by specific authorization. Such 
authorization would be given when necessary to provide access to 
inholdings and for other purposes acceptable under the terms and 
conditions of this plan. Authorization would be given subject to 
conditions designed to minimize impact to the environment or to other 
land uses. Authorization for vehicle use could be granted under a mining 
plan of operations (43 CFR 3809), through a temporary use permit. (43 CFR 
2800 or 43 CFR 2920), or by other appropriate means. Crossing the wild 
river corridor would be permitted only if there were no economically 
feasible and prudent alternative. 

Except as indicated below, use of vehicles greater than 1,500 pounds GVW 
off a valid right-of-way would be limited to winter months with adequate 
snow cover and would be limited to existing trails where practical. 

Within the WMNRA, the need to protect recreational values will, in most 
cases, preclude summertime movement of heavy equipment. However, under 
certain circumstances, a summer move may be permitted. These 
circumstances include, but would not be limited to: (1) a one-time-only 
move which would be impossible in the winter, and (2) a move which would 
not interfere with crucial wildlife habitat. 

An ORV monitoring program would be developed and implemented. This 
program will document existing trails and their conditions, document 
newly disturbed areas of cross-country use, and provide a basis for 
determining rehabilitation needs, monitoring recovery, and establishing a 
threshold as to when impacts are becoming excessive. On an interim 
basis, a semi-primitive area open to ORV use would be closed or 
restricted under any of the following four conditions: 

1. A watershed would be closed to ORV use when, due to erosion and 
sedimentation or poor trail conditions, more than five percent of 
the miles of trail become difficult to negotiate with a small 
three-wheeler or other like-sized ORV. 

2. A watershed would be closed to ORV use when water pollution from 
ORV trails or disturbances become noticeable in Beaver Creek or 
its major tributaries. 



12 



3. If there is extensive cross-country damage or rutting on trails as 
a result of the use of light off-road vehicles, the area will be 
closed to ORV use from the beginning of breakup to the time when 
willows and dwarf birch are in full leaf. This would allow the 
excess moisture from snowmelt to dissipate and the fluffing of 
the soil caused by winter frost action to settle, thereby 
reducing the tendency to form ruts from vehicle passage. 

4 . ORV use would be restricted or prohibited as necessary to protect 
recreation, wildlife, watershed and/or scenic values. 

Permanent use restrictions on off-road vehicles would require an order, 
signed by the Authorized Officer and published in the Federal Register. 
Signs would be posted at access points to inform the public of use 
restrictions. However, where the Authorized Officer determines that ORVs 
are causing or will cause considerable adverse effects on resource values 
or other authorized uses, he/she shall immediately close the area or 
trail affected to the type of vehicle causing the adverse effect until 
that effect is eliminated and measures have been implemented to prevent a 
recurrence (43 CFR 8341.2). 

ORV MANAGEMENT 

WHITE MOUNTAINS RECREATIONAL AREA 

Table 9-3 





SUMMER | 


WINTER 


Primitive 


Permit Required for any ORV 


No Permit Required for 




use off a valid right-ofway 


snowmachines of less 
than 1,500 pounds GVW 
Permit Required for all 
other ORV use 


Wild River 


Permit Required for any ORV | 


No Permit Required for 


Corridor 


use off a valid right-of-way 


snowmachines of less 
than 1,500 pounds GVW 
Permit Required for all 
other ORV use 


Semi-Primitive 


No Permit Required for vehicles 


of less than 1,500 pounds 


Motorized 


GVW 






Permit Required for use of ORVs 


of greater than 1,500 




pounds GVW off a valid right-of 


-way 


Research Natural 


CLOSED TO ALL ORV 1 


JSE 


Areas 







13 



HORSES. The use of horses will be generally unrestricted throughout the 

WMNRA. 

AIRCRAFT. Aircraft use will be generally unrestricted except in certain 
wildlife crucial habitats. 

Rationale 

Many members of the public feel that off-road vehicles detract from their 
enjoyment of the area. To others, the use of light-weight ORVs is an 
important recreational activity. Large off-road vehicles (those over 
1,500 pounds GVW) are a particular problem since they may cause 
environmental damage which persists long after the passage of the 
vehicle. However, in an area with almost no roads, ORVs are often the 
only practical method of reaching inholdings or accomplishing other 
legitimate tasks. This policy would allow the use of large ORVs when 
necessary and of small ORVs in specified areas, but would restrict such 
use to minimize environmental damage. The monitoring program will assist 
BLM in making future decisions affecting ORVs. 

Use of horses and aircraft in the area has not created any problems and 
is not expected to do so in the future. Aircraft provide a means of 
reaching remote areas to engage in primitive recreational activities. 

RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND OTHER REALTY ACTIONS 

Management Direction 

Under the authority of Section 503 of P.L. 94-579 ( FLPMA ) and Title XI of 
P.L. 96-487 (ANILCA), two transportation corridors will be established. 
One would cross upper Nome Creek from the U.S. Creek Road and extend to 
the vicinity of Champion Creek. The other will begin at the WMNRA 
boundary near the Steese Highway, extend to lower Nome Creek and provide 
access to a put-in point on Nome Creek which will access floatable water 
on the Beaver Creek NWF . Development within this second corridor will 
require a right-of-way from the State of Alaska since the first five 
miles would be located on State lands. Both corridors will generally 
follow existing roads or trails. The upper Nome Creek corridor will 
provide recreational access to the ridge complex leading to the Mount 
Prindle area and the highland country. Both corridors could also be used 
to provide access to existing and possible future mineral development. 

To prevent a proliferation of rights-of-way, all future rights-of -way 
will, as far as possible, be located within one of these two corridors. 
If it becomes necessary for a right-of-way to extend beyond a corridor, 
existing trails will be followed whenever possible. Several users might 
be required to use the same right-of-way and to jointly maintain it. 
Holders of rights-of-way for roads or trails would be required to allow 
public access for recreation unless there is a compelling reason to deny 
such access. 



14 



Before any construction takes place, engineering studies for route 
selections within the transportation corridors will be conducted to 
identify pipeline, road and trail locations, river crossings, and geologic 
hazards . 

EXCHANGES. No lands within the WMNRA will be exchanged or otherwise 
disposed of. Lands outside the WMNRA in the Wickersham Dome area will be 
retained in federal ownership for recreational purposes. 

OTHER REALTY ACTIONS. Other realty actions could be permitted if 
compatible with the land uses designated in this plan. The BLM is in the 
process of formulating a trapping cabin policy. 

Rationale 

Rights-of-way may be needed to provide access for recreation, for mining 
claims, or for other purposes. This plan would provide for necessary 
access in accordance with the provisions of Title XI of ANILCA. 

Retention of federal lands outside the WMNRA in the Wickersham Dome Area 
will provide road frontage on the Elliott Highway. In addition, the 
trailheads for the White Mountains summer and winter trails are also 
located on these lands. 

VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Scenic quality would be maintained by adhering to Visual Resource 
Management objectives while implementing a program of visual assessment of 
all surface-disturbing activities, such as, new access trails, mining 
activities, ORV use, support structures and developments, and recreational 
facilities. Specific areas with outstanding scenic qualities of special 
concern are the high ridge complex within the Primitive Management Unit 
and the river viewshed. 

Rationale 

The scenic quality of the existing landscape is an important part of the 
recreational experience in the WMNRA.. Maintaining the viewshed along the 
Beaver Creek corridor and the background view of the White Mountains spine 
in their natural states is essential to complying with the wild river 
designation and the intent of Congress in designating the White Mountains 
as a National Recreation Area. 

CULTURAL AND PALEONTOLOGICAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Class III site-specific inventories will be conducted prior to any 

surface-disturbing activity to identify, evaluate, and mitigate any 

adverse impacts to resources which may be eligible for placement on the 

National Register of Historic Places. Historic structures will be 
evaluated for recreational use. 

15 



Rationale 

Class I literature search, Class IT inventory of Beaver Creek and 
Pleistocene faunal material indicate that potentially significant 
cultural and paleontological resources may exist within the WMNRA. 

WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

The Bureau will cooperate closely with the Alaska Department of 
Environmental Conservation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
for the purpose of establishing water quality standards and for 
preventing, eliminating or diminishing the pollution of State waters 
consistent with the Federal Clean Water Act; the purpose for which the 
wild and scenic rivers were established under the National Wild and 
Scenic Rivers Act; and State water quality standards. 

The Bureau will cooperate closely with the Alaska Department of 
Environmental Conservation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 
in the enforcement of State and federal water pollution laws. All mining 
operations will be required to keep water-borne effluent within present 
ADEC and EPA limitations, and reclamation of disturbed ground will be 
required to prevent erosion resulting in stream sedimentation. These 
requirements would be enforced under the Surface Management Regulations 
(43 CFR 3809) . 

Rationale 

Protection of water quality, particularly in the Wild River, is necessary 
to provide a quality recreational experience. The cleanliness of the 
river bed and maintenance of a clear water fishery are critical to the 
recreational uses of WMNRA. 

FOREST MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Forest products would be reserved for local use only. No commercial 
timber harvest would be permitted. 

Monitoring would be done to ensure that the authorized amount of forest 
products have been taken by the applicant from the location indicated in 
the permit and that permit stipulations have been followed. Permit 
stipulations could include winter cutting and movement, maintaining a set 
distance from waterways, and lopping and scattering slash. 

Rationale 

There is no timber of commercial value within the WMNRA. The demand of 
local residents for firewood or other forest products for personal use is 
limited and can be met without significant risk to resource values. 



16 



SUBSISTENCE 

Management Direction 

Compliance with Section 810 of ANILCA and the BLM subsistence procedures 
as defined in Instruction Memorandum AK 84-339 is required for any action 
to withdraw, reserve, lease, or otherwise permit the occupancy or 
disposition of public lands. This is true whether the action is initiated 
by BLM or by some other agent, as long as BLM has the discretion to 
substantially affect the result. Subsistence values in the WMNRA are 
discussed in Chapter II of the Final EIS. 

Rationale 

Section 810 of ANILCA requires compliance with directed procedures of this 
Act. In order to ensure compliance on BLM lands, further instructions 
have been promulgated and issued under the Bureau's IM AK 84-339. The 
wildlife species mentioned are important to subsistence. Actions 
impacting these species must be analyzed under these procedures to 
determine the necessity of the actions and the adequacy of mitigative 
measures . 

SENSITIVE AND RARE PLANTS 

Management Direction 

Inventories for sensitive and rare plants will be conducted as required for 
clearances for proposed surface-disturbing activities. Sites will be 
protected by modifying proposed actions which threaten sensitive or rare 
plant habitats or by denying those actions which cannot be modified. If 
actions cannot be modified or denied, plant material salvage will be 
attempted. 

Rationale 

Sensitive or rare plant habitats will be protected from activities which 
might alter or destroy them. They will be managed in such a way that it 
will not become necessary to list the plants as threatened or endangered 
in accordance with the Endangered Species Act. 

Prescription for Primitive Management Unit 

The following management prescriptions apply to the primitive areas 
identified on the "Proposed Plan" map in the map pocket. Primitive areas 
will be managed to protect the wild and natural character of the area. 

RECREATION MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Egress from Beaver Creek will be improved by establishing a site for a 
primitive airstrip as a take-out point in the vicinity of Victoria Creek. 



17 



Short hiking trail opportunities associated with river floating trips will 
be established in Fossil Creek, Windy Gap, Serpentine Slide, Big Bend, 
and in other areas which might later be identified in project planning. 
Winter trails within this management unit will also be established. 

A minimum of 160 miles of trails and six cabins will be established within 
this unit. These areas are identified on the "Proposed Plan" map. 

Rationale 

A strong demand for primitive recreational opportunities was expressed in 
the public comments on the Draft Resource Management Plan/Environmental 
Impact Statement. The proposed Primitive Management Unit is sufficiently 
large and remote to accommodate this demand. 

Access to the Primitive Management Unit will be sufficient to allow 
primitive recreational use to increase somewhat over present levels, but 
will not promote or lead to overcrowding or user conflicts. 

FISHERIES MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Beaver Creek fish habitat and riparian areas will be maintained to 
support viable self-sustaining populations of fish and to provide a 
quality fishing experience. This includes an evaluation of activities in 
the remainder of the WMNRA which may have negative effects on Beaver 
Creek. 

Rationale 

The key recreational use of WMNRA primitive areas consists of a 
combination of float boating, fishing, hiking, and primitive camping. 
^he arctic grayling fishery contributes significantly to recreational 
enjoyment of the WMNRA and comprises one of the major natural resources 
of the Beaver Creek Corridor. 

MINERALS MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

LEASING. The Primitive Management Unit will remain closed to all mineral 
leasing. 

EXPLORATION. Anyone proposing to explore for minerals within the WMNRA 
must contact the Authorized Officer. Activities which conform to the 
management prescriptions for this unit and which will not impair the 
unit's primitive values will be allowed. Permits will generally not be 
required for helicopter landings. However, the use of off-road vehicles 
(except snowmachines ) will not be permitted. 



18 



Rationale 

The primary objective in the Primitive Management Unit is to provide 
opportunities for primitive recreation. The roads, structures, and heavy 
equipment necessary for mineral development are not compatible with the 
primitive recreational experience. 

Section 1010 of ANILCA directs the Secretary to "assess the oil, gas, and 
other mineral potential on all public lands in the State of Alaska in 
order to expand the data base with respect to the mineral potential of 
such lands." The Secretary is also directed to allow for access by air 
for such activities. The BLM is working with the State Division of 
Geological/Geophysical Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. 
Geological Survey in an effort to further develop mineral assessments of 
these and other lands in Alaska. Any proposed study will also receive 
review and comment by the mineral industry, so the best utilization of 
government and private mineral assessment capabilities can be made. 
Information gathered through exploration by private companies would assist 
the Bureau in meeting this legal requirement. Such information, in 
combination with that which will be collected on wildlife and other 
resources, would be very useful in evaluating possible amendments to this 
plan. In accordance with Section 1010, all exploration will be carried 
out in an environmentally sound manner, with no appreciable alteration of 
the natural character or ecological systems of the Area. 

OFF-ROAD VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT 

Management Direction 

To prevent negative impacts to the primitive recreational experience, the 
Primitive Management Unit is closed to ORV use. The single exception to 
this closure is the seasonal opening of the unit to the use of 
snowmachines. Authorization will be required for the use of any motorized 
vehicle other than a snowmachine off a valid right-of-way. Aircraft use 
will generally be unrestricted except in certain crucial wildlife habitats. 

A location for a primitive landing strip for light aircraft will be 
designated near the mouth of Victoria Creek primarily to serve as a 
take-out point for floaters of Beaver Creek. 

Criteria for selecting a site for location of a primitive airstrip will 
include: (1) meeting the minimum needs (clearance, approach, take-off, 
departure) for small single-engine aircraft; (2) choosing a relatively 
flat area that would require only minimal leveling and clearing of brush; 
(3) minimizing visual intrusion; and (4) minimizing the potential for 
conflicts with local residents. 

Rationale 

Vlinter use of the area is extremely low and winter access is difficult. 
Therefore, the use of snowmachines will allow some winter recreational use 
without causing significant user conflicts. With adequate snow cover, 
snowmachines cause little or no resource damage. The landing of 



19 



airplanes and helicopters facilitates primitive backcountry use. An 
improved landing strip near the mouth of Victoria Creek will provide 
safer and easier access from Beaver Creek. 

Restriction of ORVs at other times of the year will minimize motorized 
intrusions into primitive areas during the summer and fall months when 
recreational use is highest. 

RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND OTHER REALTY ACTIONS 

Management Direction 

Rights-of-way will be allowed within the Primitive Management Unit only 
if there is no economically feasible and prudent alternative. 

Rationale 

Construction of roads or trails is not compatible with primitive values 
but may sometimes be necessary to provide access to inholdings such as 
mining claims. 

VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Scenic quality will be maintained by adhering to Visual Resource 
Management objectives as defined in the BLM Manual 8400 and as further 
described below. 

The Beaver Creek NWR viewshed and the entire Primitive Management Unit 
would be managed as a VRM Class II area. The objective of this class is 
to retain the existing character of the landscape. The level of change 
to the landscape should be low. Management activities may be seen but 
should not attract the attention of the casual observer. 

Rationale 

The Primitive Management Unit contains the highest scenic quality of the 
WMNRA. A high level of protection is necessary to preserve the primitive 
recreational opportunities available in this unit. 

The VRM Class II objectives are realistic under the limited degree of 
development allowed in the Primitive Management Unit. 

WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Water quality in Beaver Creek NWR will be managed to preserve clear 
flowing and undisturbed stream and the associated floating and fishing 
experiences. Water resource management of the Beaver Creek system will 
be aimed at attaining the State's water quality standard for Beaver Creek. 



20 



A water quality monitoring program will be established by setting up 
sampling points along Beaver Creek and its tributaries and taking samples 
on a monthly basis during the summer. Sufficient instream flow will be 
maintained in Beaver Creek to meet the purposes for which the NWR was 
established. An instream flow study, already identified in the Beaver 
Creek NWR Plan, will be conducted to determine how much instream flow is 
needed for the NWR. Although there is a federally reserved water right 
for the NWR, it needs to be quantified. 

Rationale 

Maintaining both a high water quality equal to State standards and 
sufficient instream flow are necessary to meet the objectives of the NWR 
management plan and to provide for the principle recreation uses of WMNRA, 
such as, float boating, fishing and camping. 

Prescription for Beaver Creek National Wild River Corridor 

This management unit is distinguished from all others in that it is 
covered by an approved River Management Plan, which became effective 
May 1, 1984. The River Management Plan for Beaver Creek provides a 
detailed description of the boundaries of the river corridor, major issues 
and concerns for management of the corridor, and management actions. Part 
III of the River Management Plan, "The Management Program," is attached to 
this document as Appendix H and should be considered to be the multiple 
use management prescription for this management unit. The prescription is 
designed to preserve the river and its immediate environment in its 
natural, primitive condition, in accordance with the Wild and Scenic 
Rivers Act (P.L. 90-542). 

The designated NWR corridor will be managed as a VRM Class I area. m he 
objective of this class is to preserve the existing character of the 
landscape so that it appears unaltered by man. The level of change to the 
landscape should be extremely low because only very limited management 
activities should occur. 

The NWR viewshed will be managed as VRM Class II area. The objective of 
this class is to retain the existing character of the landscape. The 
level of change to the landscape should be low. Management activities may 
be seen but should not attract the attention of the casual observer. The 
method for determining this viewshed will involve analysis and 
on-the-ground refinement by a team of at least two people trained in 
visual assessment. The viewshed consists of areas identified as critical 
to scenic viewing opportunities associated with the wild river floating 
experience. Factors to be considered when determining critical viewshed 
include seen-area, viewing angle, viewing time, and topographic screening. 

This plan amends the Beaver Creek River Management Plan, completed in 
December, 1983, relating to ORV use within the river corridor. Except as 
listed below, ORV use is prohibited within the Beaver Creek NWR Corridor. 



21 



During the winter months snowmachines of less than 1,500 pounds GVW are 
permitted. ORV use for access to inholdings can be authorized under a 
mining plan of operation (43 CFR 3809), with a right-of-way or permit 
(43 CFR 2800 or 43 CFR 2920), or by other appropriate means. 

Prescriptions for Semi-Primitive Management Unit 

The overall management strategy for the Semi-Primitive Motorized Unit is 
to allow for a wider range of recreational opportunities in combination 
with other uses. Because this unit is closer to the Steese Highway, it is 
expected that it will receive greater visitor use than the Primitive 
Management Unit. 

RECREATION MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Recreation management in this area will focus on facility development and 
motorized vehicle access. This area will often serve as a "staging area" 
for primitive recreational experiences. 

RECREATION FACILITIES. Recreation developments will include: 

(1) improvement of Lower Nome Creek Road as a put-in for Beaver 
Creek. (Development will also include a small campground, 
parking, and staging area.) 

(2) trailheads and parking areas for trails leading into primitive 
areas, and 

(3) development of snowmachine trails and public use cabins in the 
Wickersham Dome area. 

RECREATION ACCESS. Existing access will be improved, and new winter 
trails will be established in Upper Victoria Creek/Colorado Creek, White 
Mountains Trail, Trail Creek/O'Brien Creek, Bear Creek/Quartz Creek, and 
in other areas which may later be identified pending further site 
evaluation . 

Trailhead access for the interior highlands will be provided at lower Nome 
Creek and for the Mt . Prindle area at upper Nome Creek near the terminus 
of upper Nome Creek/U.S. Creek Road. 

Access to Beaver Creek NWR will be improved by establishing a two-wheel 
drive road to a put-in point in the vicinity of lower Nome Creek Road or 
at a reasonable alternative location. 

Areas for expansion of hiking and cross-country skiing opportunities in 
the Wickersham Dome Area will be evaluated and identified. 

A minimum of 70 miles of trails and two cabins are proposed within this 
unit. 

GOLD PANNING - NOME CREEK. A specific section of Nome Creek will be 
designated for gold panning. Markers delineating the extent of the 
panning area will be established on the ground. Parking areas will be 

77 



established on the tailings level as demand warrants. Approved tools will 
be limited to rocker boxes, gold pans, and portable sluice boxes (maximum 
16" x 5'), and other hand-held tools such as shovels and picks. 

Camping is limited to 10 days. 

It may become necessary through a permit system to limit the number of 
users at a given time. 

Rationale 

The Semi -Primitive Motorized Management Unit is the most easily accessible 
portion of the WMNRA and is an appropriate place to provide recreational 
opportunities for users who desire motorized access. Such use complements 
the primitive uses of WMNRA as well as the wilderness type uses in 
adjacent parks and refuges. 

FISHERIES HABITAT MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Restoration of fish habitat and riparian areas along Nome Creek (with the 

exception of the area to be designated for gold panning) will be 

attempted. Mitigative measures will be formulated to cope with the 

impacts of the development of existing mining claims. A plan and 

methodology for the restoration and rehabilitation of the stream and 
associated riparian areas will be developed. 

The scope and extent of restoration and rehabilitation along Nome Creek 
will depend on pre-project planning results. However, a restoration 
project could involve stream channel modification and alteration, bank 
stabilization, gabion and wing-dam placement, riparian area recontouring, 
soil spreading, and willow planting. 

Rationale 

Nome Creek is a main headwater tributary to Beaver Creek and is accessible 
by road. Restoration of this fishery would provide high quality 
recreational opportunities to the day users from Fairbanks. 

MINERALS MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

LOCATABLE MINERALS - NEW DISPOSALS. In accordance with Section 1312 of 
ANILCA, new disposals of locatable minerals within the WMNRA may only be 
accomplished through a leasing program. 

Lode deposit leasing will be permitted within the Semi-Primitive Motorized 
Management Unit. Placer mining, except for those claims with prior 
rights, will not be permitted. See Proposed Plan map in map pocket. 

OIL AND GAS. The area open to the leasing of lode deposits in the 
Semi-Primitive Unit will also be opened to oil and gas leasing under 
43 CFR 3100. See Proposed Plan map in map pocket. 

23 



NON-ENERGY MINERALS. Other commodities disposal under the Mineral Leasing 
Act of 1920 are considered on a case-by-case basis (43 CFR 3500). 

HARDROCK LEASABLES . New regulations are presently being prepared for 
hardrock leasing. Draft regulations have been circulated which would 
require that a prospecting permit/lease system with mandatory bonding be 
instituted. Analysis of the proposed operation would include but would 
not be limited to water quality, wildlife habitat, visual resources, 
compatibility with recreation values, undue and unnecessary degradation, 
and compliance with the hardrock leasing regulations. 

Under both 43 CFR 3809 and the draft hardrock leasing regulations, special 
attention is given to all existing and proposed operations within the WMNRA 
to ensure that the water quality of Beaver Creek is preserved in its 
present state. All operations must employ the latest technology to 
mitigate downstream effects. Terms of the National Pollutant Discharge 
Elimination System permits must be met or the operations will not be 
allowed to proceed. 

There will be close coordination with adjacent land owners or managers, 
such as U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the State of Alaska, where the 
potential exists to affect the lands under their control. 

EXPLORATION. Because of the multiplicity of exploration methods which 
might be employed, anyone proposing to explore for minerals within the 
WMNRA should contact the Authorized Officer. In this unit, exploration 
activities which entail the use of mechanized equipment, explosives, etc., 
require an approved plan of operations or a prospecting permit prior to 
any activity. 

Rationale 

Lode mining or oil and gas development within the Semi-Primitive Motorized 
Management Unit is compatible with the recreational objectives for that 
unit and with the intent of ANILCA. Improved access associated with 
mineral development will benefit some recreational users. This area 
includes several geologic zones with mineral potential. The Surface 
Management Regulations (43 CFR 3809) and the proposed leasing regulations, 
coupled with the standards set by EPA, provide for sufficient controls on 
mining operations. 



24 



OFF- ROAD VEHICLES 

Management Direction 

The use of vehicles of less than 1,500 pounds GVW will be unrestricted in 
any season, except on designated hiking trails and cross-country ski 
trails, which would be closed to all vehicles. This policy will be 
reviewed after five years. The review will take into consideration the 
results of ORV monitoring. The use of vehicles of more than 1,500 pounds 
GVW off a valid right-of-way will require authorization. 

Rationale 

With the current information on ORV impacts and the documented need for 
areas open for ORV use, it appears that this area is appropriate for the 
recreational use of light ORVs . It is relatively accessible from the 
Steese and Elliott highways and contains many existing ORV trails. ORV 
monitoring and use of emergency closures when necessary will provide 
sufficient protection for other values. 

RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND OTHER REALTY ACTIONS 

Management Direction 

Under the authority of Section 50 3 of P.L. 94-579 (FLPMA), two 
transportation corridors will be established. Both will begin at the 
WMNRA boundary near the Steese Highway. One will cross upper Nome Creek 
and extend to Champion Creek. The other will extend to lower Nome Creek. 
Engineering studies for route selections within the transportation 
corridors will be conducted prior to any construction in order to identify 
potential road and trail locations, river crossings, and geologic hazards. 

Rationale 

Both corridors follow existing roads or trails. The upper Nome Creek 
corridor will provide recreational access to the ridge complex leading to 
the Mount Prindle area. The lower Nome Creek corridor will provide access 
to a put-in point on Nome Creek, which could be used to reach Beaver Creek 
NWR. Both corridors could also be used to provide access to existing and 
possible future mineral development. 

VISUAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

Management Direction 

Scenic quality will be maintained by adhering to Visual Resource 
Management objectives as defined by BLM Manual 8400. 

The White Mountain Trail will be managed as a VPM Class II area. The 
objective of this class is to retain the existing character of the 
landscape. The level of change to the landscape should be low. 
Management activities may be seen but should not attract the attention of 
the casual observer. 

25 



Areas of this unit that are determined to be within the critical viewshed 
for the NWR will be managed by VRM Class II objectives. These areas will 
be defined on 1:63,360 scale topographic maps within one year of 
completion of this plan. 

The rest of the Semi-Primitive Management Unit will be managed as a VRM 
Class III area. The objective of this class is to partially retain the 
character of the landscape. The level of change should be moderate. 
Management activities may attract attention but should not dominate the 
view of the casual observer. 

Rationale 

Visual resources contribute to public enjoyment of the area and must be 
protected in a manner appropriate to recreational use. In this area, 
some changes to the landscape can be allowed to accommodate access, 
recreational facilities, or other developments. 

Prescriptions for Research Natural Areas 

Management Direction 

Serpentine Slide (4,274 acres), Limestone Jags (5,170 acres), and Mount 
Prindle (3,147 acres in the WMNFA) will be designated as Research Natural 
Areas. No surface-disturbing activities will be allowed within the RNAs 
except permitted research projects. The areas will be closed to off-road 
vehicles and camping to avoid disturbing research projects. Natural 
processes, including wildfire, will be allowed to continue with as little 
interference as possible. Primitive campsites could be established 
outside the RNA boundaries and improved access in the form of trails 
could be developed. Hiking, hunting, and nature appreciation will be 
allowed. 

All Research Natural Areas will remain closed to all types of mineral 
leasing. 

A.n Establishment Report, which describes the values within an RNA and 
outlines visitor management controls, will be written for each RNA. This 
work is already under way. 

Rationale 

The designation of Research Natural Areas is part of the Ecological 
Reserve System program, an interagency effort to identify examples of 
certain types of ecosystems. These areas were chosen because they 
contain typical representatives of ecosystems or unusual natural features 
that are of scientific interest. 



26 



Description of Fire Management 

Fire will be managed according to the standards established in the Alaska 
Interagency Fire Management Plan: Upper Yukon - Tanana Planning Area. 
Fire management will enhance primitive and semi -primitive recreational 
values by maintaining vegetative and visual diversity and increasing 
wildlife habitat quality. The areas in which particular options would be 
applied are identified in the Fire Management Plan and any inhabited 
cabins will be designated as Critical Protection Sites and will receive 
first priority for fire suppression. Other cabins, structures, and 
historic cabins have been designated to receive protection. 

Fuels management and other strategies will be used to reduce the wildfire 
hazard to structures which require protection. 

The level of fire suppression will be that necessary to protect life, 
property, and historical cabins and to prevent escape of fire to areas 
requiring a higher level of fire suppression. There are no areas within 
the WMNRA where fire suppression is required to protect natural resource 
values. If increasing amounts of recreational or other uses mandate an 
increased level of fire protection, the level of suppression for any area 
can be changed. The Fire Management Plan is subject to annual review and 
modification. 

Prescribed burning will be used to break up large areas of continuous 
fuels, improve wildlife habitat, and increase vegetative diversity. ^he 
drainages of Bear, Champion, Trail and Ophir creeks will be considered, 
as well as other areas which may be identified as more information 
becomes available. 

Prior to any prescribed burn, the area will be thoroughly investigated to 
identify any inhabited or historic cabins, other structures, or critical 
protection sites, and appropriate measures will be taken to protect them 
from fire. 



27 



AREAS OF CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND OTHER PLAN ELEMENTS 

The purpose of this section of the plan is to address Areas of Critical 
Environmental Concern and/or coal leasing. These two planning elements 
are given special prominence in Bureau planning regulations and policy 
statements . 

ACEC designations are designed to protect and prevent irreparable damage 
to important historic, cultural, or scenic values; fish and wildlife 
resources or other natural systems or processes; or to protect life and 
safety from natural hazards. No such designations are deemed necessary 
in the WMNRA at this time. No natural hazards, beyond the usual hazards 
associated with traveling in remote areas, were identified. Scenic 
values, fish and wildlife resources, and other important resource values 
were identified, but they can be adequately protected by the management 
prescriptions in this plan and by standard BLM procedures. The 
additional layer of regulations provided by designation of an ACEC is not 
necessary to prevent irreparable damage to these resources. 

Coal leasing is not permitted within a National recreation area (43 CFR 
3201.1-6) and therefore does not need to be addressed here. 



28 



SUPPORT 

Support activities are actions which make possible the implementation of 
the plan or which facilitate the type of resource management identified 
in the plan. Such actions may be entirely within the authority of BLM, 
or they may involve other agencies, groups, or state and local 
governments . 

Realty Actions 

The BLM realty program will be needed to provide support for a number of 
other activities. 

In order to open lands to mineral leasing, a Public Land Order will have 
to be written to revoke the existing withdrawals. 

Lands in the Wickersham Dome area outside of the WMNRA boundaries which 
are necessary to ensure access to the WMNRA are presently withdrawn from 
State selection under PLO 5150, which establishes a corridor for the 
Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Should PLO 5150 be revoked, another PLO 
will be necessary to ensure that the Wickersham Dome area will be 
retained in federal ownership and reserved for recreational purposes. 

The Bureau will have to process applications for rights-of-way for 
pipelines, roads, or trails which may be proposed for access to mineral 
claims or leases, for public recreation, or for other purposes. In the 
case of applications from individuals, costs of processing may be 
recovered from the applicant. Applications from the State of Alaska for 
public roads would generally be processed at the expense of the federal 
government. 

The Bureau will also have to file right-of-way applications for trails, 
cabins, or other facilities constructed at the expense of the Bureau. 
This is to ensure that BLM facilities will be protected from adverse land 
actions . 

The BLM will work cooperatively with the State of Alaska to identify all 
right-of-way claims made pursuant to Revised Statute 2477 within the 
WMNRA boundaries for administrative purposes only. The validity of such 
claims can only be determined in a court of competent jurisdiction. 

The BLM proposes to cooperate with the State of Alaska and with other 
federal agencies in the preparation of an analysis of transportation 
needs involving the respective State and federal transportation and land 
managing agencies. The analysis would address the existing and future 
access needs and propose how best these needs could be met. It would 
also identify where access routes presently exist and which ones, if any, 
are duplicative. 



29 



Intergovernmental Cooperation 

Sharing of information with other resource management agencies and 
cooperative efforts in inventory, monitoring, research, studies, and 
enforcement are essential to the successful implementation of this plan. 
Some of the principal agencies with which the Bureau cooperates are: 



Agency 



Focus of Cooperation 



Alaska Department of Fish and Game 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service - 
Endangered Species Office 



Inventory, monitoring, study, and 
management of threatened or 
endangered and other species and 
their habitats; monitoring and 
evaluation of impacts of land 
uses on wildlife; and monitoring 
of human use of wildlife resources 



Alaska Department of Environmental 
Conservation 



Monitoring water quality, 
enforcement of water 
standards 



quality 



Environmental Protection Agency 



Alaska Department of Natural 
Resources, Division of Mining, and 
Division of Geologic and 
Geophysical Surveys 

Alaska Department of Natural 
Resources, Division of Parks 



Assessment of mineral potential 



Coordination of management on 
adjacent lands. 



U.S. Bureau of Mines 

U.S Fish and Wildlife Service 

U.S. Geological Survey 



30 



CONSISTENCY DETERMINATION 

The WMNRA is not included in lands covered by an existing federal, State, 
or local land use plan. However, land use planning for adjacent lands is 
in progress, and an effort has been made to coordinate this plan with the 
plans of adjacent land managers. 

The WMNRA is bordered on the north by the Yukon Flats National Wildlife 
Refuge, administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A land use 
plan for the refuge is currently being developed. In the absence of a 
completed and approved plan, consistency with USFWS programs and policies 
has been addressed by responding to the comments submitted by USFWS on 
the Draft RMP/EIS. These comments and responses are printed in Chapter V 
of the Final Environmental Impact Statement "Response to Public Comment." 

The WMNRA is bordered on the west and south by lands belonging to the 
State of Alaska. Most of these lands are included in the Tanana Basin 
Area Plan, which is currently in draft form. The management actions 
identified for the WMNRA are believed to be consistent with the proposals 
for managing State lands set forth in the Draft Tanana Basin Area Plan. 

Consistency with State programs and policies has been addressed by 
responding to the comments submitted by the State of Alaska on the Draft 
RMP/EIS. These comments and responses are also printed in Chapter V of 
the FEIS. Additionally, in accordance with 43 CFR 1610. 3-2 (e), a copy of 
the Proposed Plan was submitted to the Governor of Alaska for a 
consistency review. As a result of that review, changes have been made to 
ensure that the plan is consistent with State plans, policies, and 
programs . 

The WMNRA is bordered on the east by the northern portion of the Steese 
National Conservation Area which is also under BLM administration. Land 
use planning for the WMNRA and the SNCA has been conducted simultaneously 
by the same planning team to ensure maximum coordination between the two 
plans . 



31 



IMPLEMENTATION 

This section describes the actions which will be required to implement 
the management objectives described in this plan. This includes the 
development, operation and maintenance of new facilities; increased 
visitor services; monitoring and evaluation of use; and the increased 
manpower needs associated with the objectives. Implementation is not a 
single, discrete action. Rather, it is an ongoing process, which will 
continue until this plan is replaced by a new or revised plan. 

Activity Planning 

The management objectives established by this plan represent broad scale 
land use decisions. In many instances, such as in the development of new 
facilities, more detailed, site-specific planning is required. ^his 
level of planning is necessary to determine exact locations of 
improvements, to explore alternative methods of design and construction, 
and to provide specific guidance for operations and maintenance, etc. 
For the purposes of this section, these additional planning requirements 
have been identified as additional planning needs. If further needs are 
identified later, additional project plans can be developed without 
amending this RMP, as long as the proposals of the plans are in 
conformance with the RMP. 

Figures on costs are broken down by program. These costs reflect 
participation and expenditures by the BLM Alaska State Office, Fairbanks 
District Office and Yukon Resource Area. 



32 



PROJECT PLANNING NEEDS 



Program Planning Needs & Objectives: 

Recreation 1. Consistent with the recreation 

management objectives established through 
this plan, develop a Recreation Activity 
Management Plan (RAMP) to provide specific, 
detailed locations, timing, methods, and 
rationale for: a) public information and 
interpretation, b) remote public use cabin 
program, (c) campgrounds, trailheads, boat 
launches, or other facilities, and d) summer 
and winter trails, especially hiking trails 
associated with Beaver Creek. 



Completion 
Time 

1 year 



Cost 



$ 30,000 



2. Project Plans for lay-out and 
design of all recreational facilities 
(Priorities for these planning needs 
are discussed later in this section 
under construction and maintenance 
priorities . ) 

Total Project Requirement 



3 years 



$ 90,000 



4 years 



$120,000 



Visual Viewshed analysis of Beaver Creek to 
Resource refine the critical viewshed and to place 
Management allowable activities in perspective. 

Wildlife 1. Habitat Management Plan to carry out 
cooperative monitoring, protection, 
and improvement projects and maintenance 
of habitat programs described 
in management prescriptions. 

2. Yearly implementation of Habitat 
Management Plan for the life of the plan. 

Fisheries Project plan for restoration and 

rehabilitation of fish habitat in Nome 
Creek. 



1 year 



1 year 



Ongoing 



1 year 



$ 12,000 
* 6,000 



$105,400 
$ 10,000 



Fire 



Project plans to describe exact 
procedures for prescribed burns, 



2 years 



$ 45,000 



33 



Construction and Maintenance 

The following construction work would be necessary to fully implement plan 
decisions : 

RECREATION 

Recreational facilities: Construction: Maintenance: 

15 miles of access road to lower $1.5 million $30,000/year 

Nome Creek or extension of 

U.S. Creek Road to Champion Creek 

to improve river access and 

provide necessary facilities 

166 miles of Trails $525,000 $10,000/year 

9 Cabins $ 80,000 $10,000/year 
1 Campground $500,000 $10,000/year 

10 Trailheads $300,000 $ 5,000/vear 
Airstrip - minor improvements $ 25,000 $ 3,000/year 



Recreation facilities will be constructed as funding permits. Priorities 
are as follows: 

First Priorities 

Lower Nome Creek - river access, small campground 
Cache Mountain/Mount Prindle Trail - 50 miles of trail 
Table Top Mountain Spur Trail - 21 miles of trail 
Airstrip near Victoria Creek 

Second Priorities 

Shelters along Cache Mountain/Mount Prindle Trail- (4) 
Trail development: Big Bend - 18 miles of trail 
Lime Peak Trail - 19 miles of trail 

Third Priorities 

Shelter at Big Bend Trail-(l) 

Shelter at Lime Peak Trail-(l) 

Trail development: Victoria Mountain ^rail - 22 miles of trail 

Snowmachine Access Trail: Wickersham Dome •- 32 miles of trail 



34 



Fourth Priorities 

Shelter at Victoria Mountain Trail--(l) 

Shelter at Wickersham Dome snowmachine trail-(l) 

RESTORATION OF FISH HABITAT IN NOME CREEK 

The scope and extent of restoration and rehabilitation along Nome Creek 
will depend on pre--project planning results. However, a restoration 
project could involve stream channel modification and alteration, bank 
stabilization, gabion and wing-dam placement, riparian area recontouring, 
soil spreading, and willow planting. A stream reach of five to 10 miles 
could be involved. Total cost will depend on the scope of the project but 
could be as high as $200,000 over a three-year project period. 

Manpower (Resource Protection and Visitor Services) 

Many plan decisions can be implemented with existing staff as part of 
ongoing resource management programs in the Yukon Resource Area. Actions 
which would require an increase in staff are described below: 

RECREATION 

Additional manpower will be needed to (1) prepare necessary project plans 
and (2) provide maintenance and visitor services (public information 
visitor safety, monitoring ORV use, etc.). This would require the 
services of a recreation specialist (seasonal), and two recreation 
technicians (seasonal), at an approximate annual cost of $54,000. An 
additional $10,000 for aircraft use would be required. 

This manpower will provide for immediate needs. After construction of new 
facilities, additional manpower may be needed for maintenance and to 
handle increased visitor use. Specific additional needs will be 
identified during project planning. 

MINERALS 

To ensure compliance with existing and anticipated mining plans of 
operation or mineral lease requirements, at least three inspections per 
year should be made of all operations. ^his will require a full time 
surface protection specialist at a cost of approximately $40,000 per year, 
and approximately $9,600 per year for aircraft use. 

WILDLIFE 

Additional manpower will be necessary to implement fish and wildlife 
project work. One seasonal wildlife biologist and two seasonal fishery 
biologists will be required for five months each for approximately $52,500. 



35 



Monitoring and Evaluation of the RMP 

Monitoring and evaluation provide information about progress towards the 
goals and objectives established in the plan. Information gained is used 
to determine the effectiveness of plan decisions and related management 
prescriptions. Monitoring indicates when amendments or revisions may be 
necessary. 

BLM planning procedures require monitoring and evaluation at least every 
five years. Because of the national interest in this plan, the high value 
of existing resources and the scarcity of information about some of those 
resources, this plan should be evaluated at least every three years or 
whenever a significant change in the management situation occurs. 

Every three years, the Yukon Area Manager will be required to evaluate the 
plan on the basis of the best and most recent information available. 
He/she will: 

1. Determine if a multiple use prescription is fulfilling the 
purpose for which it was designed or if there is a need for 
amendment or termination of the prescription. 

2 . Determine if predictions of effects and impacts from management 
actions were accurate as a basis for appropriate management 
action and as a basis for more accurate predictions in future 
planning. 

3 . Reveal unanticipated and/or unpredicted effects including 
off-site impacts. 

4 . Determine if mitigative measures are satisfactory and are as 
effective as predicted. 

5. Determine if any established threshold levels have been met or 
exceeded. 

6. Provide for continuing evaluation of consistency with plans or 
programs of the State of Alaska and adjacent land managers. 

7. Provide for continuing comparison of plan benefits versus costs 
(social, economic, and environmental). 

8. Determine if new data or information have affected the plan, its 
conclusions, or estimation of effects. 

9. Determine the rate and degree to which the plan is being 
implemented in terms of both the decisions that can be 
implemented without activity planning and those that require 
activity planning. 



36 



The evaluation process will be coordinated with local, State, and other 
federal interests. The evaluation will become part of the RMP file and be 
available for public inspection. Any part of the plan can be amended, 
whenever a significant change in data or the management situation occurs 
(Planning Regulations 43 CFR 1610.5-5). Review and amendment procedures 
require full public involvement under the rules of the National 
Environmental Protection Act, and the best and most recent information 
will be used. 

In order to effectively perform monitoring and evaluation, more resource 
data are needed in a number of areas. Resource inventories necessary for 
effective monitoring are described below. Other inventory needs may 
become apparent after implementation of the plan. 

RECREATION 

(1) A visitor-use survey will be undertaken to quantify number of users, 
types of use, impacts of use, user needs, and user conflicts. This 
program will be instituted within two years and will continue for the life 
of the plan. Such information is essential to maintaining a recreation 
management program that is responsive to public demand. (2) Existing ORV 
trails will be mapped and ORV use will be monitored. This information is 
needed to determine whether or not resource damage or user conflicts are 
occurring as a result of ORV use. The program should be instituted within 
one year. 

MINERALS 

Mineral assessment of all federal lands within the WMNRA is needed to 
expand the data base with respect to the mineral potential of the Area. 
The mineral assessment program may include, but would not be limited to, 
such techniques as side-looking radar imagery, airborne magnetometer 
surveys, and helicopter-borne core and test drilling. A mineral program 
consisting of gathering and analyzing rock and chip samples, stream 
sediment samples, and pan concentrates could be accomplished during a 
five-year period. The cost of such an effort would be approximately 
$915,000 ($183,000 per year). 

The mineral resource assessment program discussed here is in keeping with 
the intent of Congress as identified by Section 1010 of ANILCA.. All 
proposals for this assessment, whether conducted by public or private 
groups, would be accomplished in an environmentally sound manner, this 
would prevent any lasting impacts which would appreciably alter the 
biological or ecological systems of the WMNRA. Protective restrictions on 
access and operations during calving, spawning, migration, or other 
critical periods shall be imposed. 

The BLM is working with the State Division of Geological/Geophysical 
Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey in an effort 
to further develop mineral assessments of these and other lands in 
Alaska. Any proposed study will also receive review and comment by the 
mineral industry, so the best utilization of government and private 
mineral assessment capabilities can be made. 

37 



New data generated from the mineral inventory will be incorporated into 
the three-year evaluation/revision process; and if new land use decisions 
are needed, they will be proposed at that time. 

The BLM will cooperate fully with the State in a joint commitment to 
improve placer mining methods and technologies which will seek ways to 
achieve water quality standards and retain an economically viable mineral 
industry. The BLM will accept the opportunity to participate in the 
State's ongoing placer mining studies and will evaluate and consider the 
results of such studies and utilize this data when formulating land 
management decisions. 

WILDLIFE 

Ongoing inventories will be continued, emphasizing identification of 
crucial use areas, assessment of habitat condition and trends, and 
assessment of effects of land use activities. Aerial surveys, ground 
surveys, and biotelemetry would be used. 

FISHERIES 

An inventory of the Nome Creek fishery will be conducted to assess the 
opportunities for habitat improvement and assist in project planning for 
the rehabilitation of Nome Creek. The approximate cost will be $10,000. 
Inventories will be conducted on Bear Creek and Champion Creek to 
determine present habitat quality and fish use. This information will be 
used to evaluate impacts from development of existing mining claims on 
those creeks and to formulate appropriate mitigative measures. 
Approximate cost would be $12,000. 

SUBSISTENCE 

BLM ' s data base on subsistence uses on and near federal lands will 
continue to increase as more studies of subsistence activities are 
completed for central Alaska by Alaska Department of Fish and 
Game/Division of Subsistence, and by other organizations and 
individuals. This information will further aid in developing mitigation 
for future site-specific land use proposals made to BLM. 



* 



38 



CORRECTIONS TO FEIS FOR THE WHITE MOUNTAINS NATIONAL RECREATION AREA 



Page 111, paragraph 3, line 3: ...and tuffs, some of which are 

fossiliferous . (Weber et_ al_, Open-fi le Report, 483, 1971). 
Ultramafic rocks may be.... 

Page 126, paragraph 3, line 1: The spine of the White Mountains 
has been recommended for study by the National.... 

Page 135, paragraph 3, lines 12-13: ...decline. Beaver Creek 

is on the Alaska Department of Fish and Game Anadromous Stream 
List. Chum and King salmon are present in.... 



EXPANDED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Page 244, line 6, insert: 

Weber, F.R., and Chapman, R.M., 1971. Preliminary Geologic Map of 
Livengood Quadrangle, Alaska, U.S. Geologic Survey, Open-file Report 
483, Scale: 1:250,000. 

Page 244, line 9: After the section entitled "REFERENCES CITED" add, 
in a section entitled "WORKS CONSULTED": 

Barker, J ,C . 1978. Mineral deposits of the Tanana-Yukon uplands - a summary 
report, U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-file Report 88-98. 

Barker, J .C . 1979. A trace element study of the Circle mining district, 
Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-file Report 57-79, 30p. 

Barker, J .C . 1980. Occurrences and potential for lead and zinc mineralization 
in the Mt . Schwatka region: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-file Report 70-30. 

Barker, J .C . 1981. Coal and uranium investigations of the Yukon Flats 

Cenozoic basin: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-file Report 140-81, 63 p. 

Barker, J.C.; and Clautice, K.H. 1977. Anomalous uranium concentrations in 

artesian springs and stream sediments in the Mt . Prindle area, Alaska: 
U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-file Report 103-77, 18 pp. 

Bergerud, A.T.; Jakimchuk, R.D.; and Carruthers, D.R. 1984. The Buffalo 

of the North: Caribou (Rangifer tarandus ) and Human Developments . 
Arctic 37(1) : 7-22. 

Burton, P.J. 1981. Radioactive mineral occurrences, Mt . Prindle area, 

Yukon-Tanana uplands, Alaska, unpublished M.S. thesis, University of 
Alaska, 72p . 

Burton, P.J.; Barker, J.C.; Warner, D. In press. Tin occurrences, Lime Peak 
pluton, Alaska: U.S. Bureau of Mines Open-file Report, unpublished, 45p. 



39 



Cameron, R.D.; and Whitten, K.R. 1979. Effects of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline 

on Caribou Movements. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Pittman 
Robertson Project W-17-10 and W-17-11, Progress Report Vol. IV. 36 p. 

Chapman, R.M.; and Weber, F.R. 1972. Geochemical analysis of bedrock and 

stream-sediment samples from the Livengood quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. 
Geological Survey Open-file Report 72- (530). 

Cobb, E.H. 1972. Metallic mineral resource map of the Livengood quadrangle, 
Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-413, 
2 sheets, scale 1:250,000. 

Cobb, E.H. 1976. Summary of references to mineral occurrences in the Circle 
quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 76-633, 66p. 

Davis, J.L.; Shideler, R. ; and LeResche, R.E. 1978. Fortymile Caribou Herd 

Studies. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Pittman Robertson Projects 
W-17-6 and W--17-7, Final Report, 153p. 

Davis, J.L. 1985 (in press). The Reaction of Caribou to Aircraft: A 

Comparison of Two Herds. In: Proceedings of First North American 
Caribou Workshop, Whitehorse, Yukon, 1983. 

Durtsche, B.M. 1983. Interim Report - Distribution of Caribou in the White 

Mountains, 1982-1983. Bureau of Land Management Open-file Report, 
Fairbanks, Alaska, 14p. 

Eberlein, G.D.; Chapman, R.M.; Foster, H.L.: and Gassaway, J.S. 1977. Map and 
table describing known metallif erous and selected nonmetallif erous 
mineral deposits in central Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open- file 
Report No. 77-168D, p. 18-25. 

Foster, H.L.; Laird, J.; Keith, T.E.C.; Cushing, G.W.; and Menzie, W.D. 1983. 
Preliminary geological map of the Circle quadrangle in Alaska: U.S. 
Geological Survey Open-file Report 83-170A. 

Foster, H.L.; O'Leary, R.M.; McDougal, CM.; and Menzie, W.D. 1984. Analysis 
of rock samples from the Circle quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological 
Survey Open-file 84-479, 121 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000. 

Foster, R.L. Nickelif erous Serpentine near Beaver Creek, east-central Alaska 

in Some shorter mineral resource investigations: U.S. Geological Survey 
Circular 615, p. 2-4. 

Haggstrom, D. 1982. Memorandum - Results of Tanana Hills Sheep Surveys. 

Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Game. Fairbanks, Alaska, 
4p. 

Klein, D.R. 1980. Reaction of caribou and reindeer to obstructions a 

reassessment. In: Reimers, E., Gaare, E., and Skjenneberg, S. (eds. ) . 
Proceedings. Second International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium. Trondheim, 
Norway: Direktoratet For Vilt Og Ferskvannsf isk, 519-527. 

Menzie, W.D.; Foster, H.L.; Tripp, R.B.; and Yeend, W.E. 1983. Mineral 

resource assessment of the Circle quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological 
Survey Open-file Report No. 83--170B., 55p. 

40 



Olson, S. 1957. Calvin studies -- Steese-Fortymile Herd. Alaska game 

Commission, TJSFWS Fed. Aid Wildl. Rest. Job Comp. Rept . , W-3-R-11, 
Juneau, p. 75-100. 

Skoog, R.O. 1956. Range, Movements, Population and Food Habits of the 

Steese-Fortymile Caribou Herd. M.Sc. thesis. University of Alaska, 
Fairbanks. 145p. 

Skoog, R.O. 1968. Ecology of the Caribou ( Rangifer tarandus granti ) in 
Alaska. Ph.D. thesis. University of California, Berkeley, 699p. 

Valkenburg, P.; Boertje, R.D.; and Davis, J.L. 1983. Effects of darting 

and netting on caribou in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management, 
47(4): 1233-1237. 

Weber, F.R. and Chapman, R.M. 1972. Geochemical analyses of bedrock and 

stream sediment samples, Livengood quadrangle, Alaska: U.S. Geological 
Survey Open-file Report 530, 1 pi., 1:250,000. 



41 



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DENVER, CO 80225 



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