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S3a^-5?ai> [2is 

Volume I.] 


[Number 1. 


Notmiilst the lightning of the stormy fight. 
Nor iu the rnsh upon the Vandal foe, 
Did kingly Death with his resistless might, 
Lay the Great Leader low. 

His warrior soul its earthly shackles broke 
In the full sunshine of a peaceful town ; 
When all the storm was hush'd, the trusty oak 

That propp'd our cause went dtfivn. 

Though his alone the blood that flecks the ground 
Eecalling all his grand heroic deeds. 
Freedom herself is writhing with the wound. 
And all the country bleeds. 

He «nt€r'd not the nation's Promised Land 
At the red belching of the cannon's mouth ; 
But broke the House of Bondage with his hand — 
The Moses of the South ! 

O gracious God ! not gainless in the loss ; 
A glorious sunbeam gilds the sternest frown ; 
And while his country staggers with the Cross, 
He rises with the Crown ! 

^Mobile Ailccrliscr and 


After a year's delilieration, the Seal of the Confederate States was 
finally established by Congress on the first day of May 18C3. The joint 
committee on the Flag and Seal reported, at the session of Congress held 
in the fall of 18G2, a device and motto for a Seal ; wjiicli were adopted 
by the Senate, but failed to receive the approval of the House of Rcpre- 
sentativea. The idea of the Seal finally adopted, was suggested by- a 
resolution of enquiry introduced into the Senate by Mr. Clay of Alabama, 
directing the attention of the committee to the propriety of adopting as 
a device the equestrian figure of Washington, similar to the statue in 
the Capitol square at IJichmond. This idea meeting with very general 
approbation, wag adopted by the committee. Many circumstances tion- 
spired to influence the ooraniittee in agreeing to this result. The perma- 

nent government was sot in motion by the inauguration of President 
Davis, under the statue of Washington in Richmond, on the birthday of 
the great patriot. Hence the Seal bears on its face the date "22d Feb'y 
1863." An equestrian figure was considered also somewhat indicative of 
X)ur origin, because such a device constituted tlie Great Seal of England 
from the time of Edward the Confessor down to the reign of George the 
Third, with the exception of the short interval of the Protectorate of 
Cromwell. The separation of the Colonics from the mother country 
under George the Third, and the simultaneous abandonment of the 
equestrian figure on the Seal of Great Britain, and the further fact that 
Cromwell, the great ancestor of the Pnritans, repudiated that device, 
were circumstances which commended it to Congress. The figure of 
Washington was selected as the type of Southern patriots struggling for 
independence and constitutional goverinnent. The wreath, composed of 
the principal agricultural products of the Confederacy, was considered 
suggestive of the lionest, manly and peaceful pursuits of its citizens, and 
indicative of the sources from wiiich tlieir wealth and prosperity were 

The motto " Deo vindice," was selected as responsive to the religious 
sentiments of the nation. These sentiments were expressed in the pre- 
amble to the provifional as well as the permanent constitution, both of 
which invoUe" the favor of Almighty God. The dispatches of our gene- 
rals, respecting the religious feelings of the army, by attributing our 
vfetories to the favor of Providence, exerted considerable influence in 
the adoption of the motto. The great difficulty, it seems, which divided 
opinion, was the selection of a proper terra to indicate divine interposi- 
tion. The House of Representatives adopted the words " Deo duce vin- 
cemus." The Senate, liowever, substituted "Deo vindice ;" to which the 
House agreed. The word " vincemus," we will conquer, gave general 
dissatisfaction, because it looked to a constant state of war, and was 
abandoned without a struggle. The discussion was reduced to a eontest 
between the word ."duce" and the word "vindice." The latter word 
was finally adopted, as more in consonance with the attributes of the 
Deity. Tiio word " duce," it was thought, degraded God to the level of 
a Pagan Deity, by making him the leader of an army. Tlie word " vin- 
dice," on the contraiy, signifies an assertor, a defender, protector, deli- 
verer, liberator, guardian, mediator, as well as an avenger or punisher. 
So that the xmUo, as it now stands, conveys the idej^^at in all our 
national career we look to a God wlio will be the assertor of our rights. 


[June 18, 18G3 

the defender of our liberties, our protector against clanger, the avenger 
of our wrongs, and the puuisher of our own crimes. 

The Flog, as it passed the Senate, was the Irnttle flag for a union, on a 
field of white, divided by a blue bar one-th5rd the width of the flag. It 
was supposed the pure white field would present the appearance of a flag 
of truce. The House of IJepresciitativeci struck out the blue bar, thus 
leaving the field entirely white ; and the Senate assented to this modifi- 
cation. The liattle flag was retained, in deference to the wishes of the 
army, which had fought so many battles and gained so many blood}' vic- 
tories under its folds. The white field was added by Congress, because 
it indicates purity, honor and peace. ();ir Flag, therefore, announces 
that wo are willing to accept war, though we prefer peace. 


■ In days of darkness, the prevailing Christian education of our people 
points them to look lor consolation and support to a higher and more 
trusted source than any earthly judgment. But it is difficiilt for the 
fainting, or perhaps doubting spirit to soar so high in its every-day aspi- 
rations for comfort. Hence, a most substantial consolation is to be found 
for a struggling nation, in the fixed belief that they are following the good, 
against adversaries led b}- the bad. 

Let us endeavor to glance, by the light of admitted facts, involving no 
controversy, at the history in this respect of the present war. "We pro- 
pose not to temper our judgment of our own military chiefs, by their suc- 
cesses or our sympathies. Still less shall we occupy for a moment the 
.stand-point of a sufi^riug people outraged by barbarity, or of a civiliza- 
tion ofl'ended by retrograde practice. Wc refer to fame or notoriety, 
such only as they existed before the war, or by comnioi) consent of all 
parties since its inception. 

Two peacefid populations, to whom standing armies were unknown, 
have been converted into two great warring bodies. Subalterns and citi- 
zens have sprung at once on both sides to the positions of generals. No 
small temptation to arrogance, self-seeking cupidity, and calumny of 
rivals, must attend all such great changes. How have they been met on 
either side ? 

In the whole histor}- of the Confederacy,' as a new-born existence iu 
the throes of revolution, there has not been developed one accusation of 
corruption against one high officer, executive, legislative or military, of 
the nation. Not one general has pronounced himself betrayed or calum- 
niated by his brother leader. Not one has been brought to judgment or 
impeached for malversation, for want of courage or conduct, nor been 
more than mildly a.ssailed for supposed honest failure in judgment. Such 
names as Lee, Jackson and Beauregard, for example, have remained as 
they were before the v,ar,y«juonyme8 of purity. We have no purpose of 
personal eulogy, and dwell not on the virtues of the living. Death, how- 
ever, has left us two shining examplars, iu a tribute to whom rancorous 
enmity itself could suggest no drawback. 

Sidney Johnson was a lion in battle. His look and word inspired as 
would a trumpet blast. His fate was only to display such great qualities 
as belong to the enduring side of the heruic character ; and it was not 
permitted him to develop the greatness that could only fully illustrate 
itself in the frequent shock of battle. Yet it is equally felt and confessed 
on both sides of the Potomac, that had life been spared him, his future 
brilliancy would have been glorious as a soldier aud a chevalier, and his 
life-long spotlessness would have been maintained untarnished. 

Of Jackson, what shall we say? His is a picture draped in mourning 
in every heart. That he was the same pure, pions, unselfish aud endur- 
ing hero in the midnight solitude of his tent, as on the toilsome march, 
or amid the din of battle, and so confessed by all the world, is all that our 
purpose bids us express. One feature of his career only demands 
notice. He was, like several Federal leaders to be quoted, a resigned 
ofiBcer. But his retreat was to no vocation iu which he could be assailed 

even by temptation to soil his skirts with the traffic i*f gain, and his high- 
est earthly ambition is well known to have been to return to the humble 
and honorable competence of his home, in academic shades. 
I In glancing at the other side, let ns first look at the great dismissed, 
whose names, in Federal cars, have lost the spell of power. 
I General Scott, plannijig on principles never yet decided false, nor yet 
! discarded, was displaced from even the councils of the enemy, it would 
I seem, for no reason but that they, the ruthless invaders of our soil, repu- 
I diating them.selves the principles, not only of huin.anfty and right, but of 
I their own school books and household words, still felt that Virginia's once 
honored son was not a fit instrument for a mission that, under whatever 
: gloss, must be for him so sacrilegions. Thus failed the brilliant Arnold, 
unwept, unhonored and unsung. 

McDowell was displaced, without appreciation of efforts which, under 
his circumstances, are likely to meet a rather favorable criticism from 
history-^not for incompetence, but remorselessly. It was because time 
had not yet developed enough fanaticism or enough discipline in his army, 
composed partly of mercenaries, partly of those embarked involuntarily 
or induced by deception, for them to meet on equal terras a people defend- 
ing their homes and hearths. The character of JIcDowell was not lovely. 
He was the most unpopular man in the old army. The general verdict 
was that he had no heart. He was deemed a sycophant, and where 
safety permitted, an oflicial bully. But he was a man of deportment. 
He had been accustomed to wear the robes of decorum. He was too 
short sighted to foresee that he might parade with honor in the robes of 
unscrupulous shame before a people who were soon to lose all moral 
sense. In compliment to his sense of decenc}", we wish him a tranquil 
repose in his not dishonored, though unloved retirement. 

The fate of Buell was similar. He was a man to inspire more love 
and honor than the general List alluded to, and we may the more rejoice 
that his instincts as a gentleman were found incompatible with the views 
of his master.s — we mean his personal m.asters in the Federal Executive ; 
for whatever remains of good among the Northern people, has no longer 
mastery nor even voice. and Halleck next rose upon the Federal horizon as trusted 
leaders. 'I'lie first, false to every social antecedent and personal profes- 
sion, is made sufliciently infamous before the world, b_v the lying dis- 
patches, in which no generals but Halleck and I'ope have ever appMached 
him. The fame of Halleck himself was established, before the war, as 
the affidavit maker, and ready fabricator of Spanish documents for every 
comer in the shape of a client in California. His present position as the 
friend of Lincoln, is a refining finish. 

Pope succeeded. In early )outh he had, in despite of some winning 
natural gifts, alienated even the cold respect of every college associate, 
aud before 'long had forfeited even the right of formal salute from the 
oflicers of the army. His career as a braggart, calumniator oT all rivals, 
habitual falsi.ler, oppressor ."ind defeated blunderer, is loo familiar for 

Next we have Rosecrans, not without'respectable, though lowly ante- 
cedents. Notoiiously impoverished, a resigned adventurer from the 
army, he has sought but one source of redemption — extreme Lincolnism, 
as embodied in tiTe persecution of women and non-combatants, and un- 
scrupulous lying. In these he seems to h.ive been too transparent for 
even Federal applause, in the absence of more brilliant qualities. 

Burusido and Hooker have last filled the stage most conspicuonrfy. 
The former was a resigned oflicer, a baffled inventor of unadopted arms, 
and then the impoverished clerk of JlcClellan, whom he supplanted. 
Lot him speak for himself presently as the ruthless enemy of all possible 
rivals. As to the latter, the sentiment of the old army and tlic commu- 
nities to which he was known, had long ago pronounced on him, as a low 
aud irreclaimable vagabond, a verdict similar to, and worse than that 
stamped iVnra his youth on Pope. 

We forbear to notice minor luminaries — such as the Boston-bred sa- 
vant^Mitcliell, who stole women's clothes for his wife's personal adorn- 
ment, and offered military r,dv.iut;iges iu exchange for social courtesies. 

June 18, 18G3.] 



if he could get them: or Milroy, known to fame; or Viole, the prose- 
cutor of infants; or Schiirz and Siegel, of like character; or Sickles and 
Kuarnc}', socially infamous in parity. 

Were tliore none then in the Federal camj) to lead (heir hosts, Avho 
could addnoe respectable antecedents, or even a show of decent conduct 
in the war ? Some such thei^e were indeed, ^^ ho had not yet lost all 
their original brightness of respectability. "U'onld the reader know their 
names, he will find all. or nearly all, in the following list of proscribed, 
in Burnside's famous Order No. 8. 


Hi> Qr.s. Army of Potomac, 
January 23, 18(i3. 
- pir^t — General Joseph E. Hooker, major general of volunteers and 
brigadier general nf the United States array, having been guilty of unjust 
and unnecessary criticisms of the actions of his suptrior otlicers and of 
the authorities, "and having, by tlie general tone of his conversation, en- 
deavored to create distruft in "the minds of othcers who have associated 
with him, and having, by omissiuns and otherwise, madeireports and 
i<latemeuts wliich were calculated to create incorrect impressions, and foi^ 
habitually speaking in disparaging terms of other officers, is hereby dis- 
missed the service of the United States, as a man unlit to hold an imjior- 
tant commission during a crisis like the present, when so much patience, 
charity, confidence, consideration and patriotism ar« due from every 
soldier in the tield. The order is issued subject to the approval of the 
President of the United .States. 

Second — Brigadier General W. T. II. Brooks, commanding first divi- 
sion, si.\th army corps, for complaining of the policy of the government, 
and for using language lending todeninralixe his command, is, subject to 
the approval of the President of the United »^tntes, dismissed from the 
military service of tlie United States. 

Thi'r.d — Brigadier General John Newton, commanding third division, 
sixth army corps, and Brigadier General John Cochrane, commanding 
first brigaile, third division, sixth army corps, for going to the President 
of the United States with criticisms on the plans of his commanding offi- 
cer, are, subject to the approval of the President, dismissed from the 
military service of the United States. 

Fuurl.h — It being evident that the following named officers can be of 
no I'urther service to this army, they are hereby relieved from duty, and 
will report in person without delay to the Adjutant General of the tjnited 
States army. 

]\rnj(ir General W. B. Frankiiii, commanding left grand division. 

Miijor General W. F. Smilh, commanding sixth army corps. 

Brigadier General Samuel D. Sturgis, commanding second division, 
ninth army corps. 

Brigadier General Edward Ferrcro, commanding second brigade, second 
division, ninth army corps. 

Brigadier Genei'al John Cochrane, connnanding first brigade, third 
division, sixth army corps. 

Eieut. t'ol. J. li. Taylor, acting adjutant general, right grand division. 
By command of Major (jen. A. E. Burnsidc. 

J.EWIS IMCHMOXl), Asst. Adj. Gen. 


On Monday Lord Campbell's motion, previously postponed in conse- 
quence of the indisposition of Lord Russell, was brought before the I'.ouse. 
The following is a condensed report of Lord Campbell's speech on that 
occasion. For the convenience of the reader w<! have arranged the dif- 
ferent Bubjects under appropriate heads. 

TUV. aiTVXTtlK-.. 

My Lords — I do not wish to raise a question on (lie course which go- 
vernment have taken as regards American affairs during the autumn. 
The question I propose is wholly seatod in the future. The facts which 
led to it are known and easy to recall to yon. During the whole of the 
last session France and Great Britain were alleged, and were believed to 
act together on the diflicuities which tlie civil war might generate. Since 
then tliey have diverged, or ratlier in the memorable phrase of a noble 
friend now absent from his place (Lord Clarendon), liavc seemed to drift 
from one anotlier. In November we restriiined flic French government 
in a course which they desired to take ; in January the Emperor by liim- 
«elf pursued a B€con.d line of action, nuMnt, like the first, to tormijiate 
hostilities. That line of action having failed, all thciightR of interven- 

tion, mediatiim and remonstnince Ijeing exploded by tlie insolent reply 
of Mr. Seward, tlie Emperor being anxious still to close the war, as he. 
has proved himself, and having paid to tlie goverument of Washington 
every debt of justice and of courtesy, the question of recognizing the iti- 
sorgents may at any moment come before us as the question of attempt- 
ing to olitain an armistice was urged upon the country in November. 
Were it not that for some weeks past Poland has engaged the world, bo-- 
fore now it might have reached us. 

It is at such a moment, if ever, that parliamentary debate is useful 
and admissible ; when of two opposite opinions on a question rapidly im- 
pending, neither can be said to prevail over the other, and no niau on 
earth guesses by what our conduct will be guided. 


The opinion I am anxious to maintain is that the divergence of France 
and Great Britain on America ought not to go further, but to cease, and 
that when France invites us to acknowledge Southern independence, wo 
should neither hold her back nor let her move alone, but on the coutraiT, 
act with her. And by acknowledgment, I mean the course of sending an 
ambassador to the insurgent, or of receiving his ambassad<ir. or of en- 
gaging in a treaty with him, or of seeking exe(jualurs noin him for the 
consuls in his territory; The first impression 1 should want to combat 
very briefly is, that the acknowledgment by neutral States of Southern 
independence would have no practical effects and uo important conse- 
quences. It seemed to be that of a noble Earl over tlie way, who lately 
held the foreign seals, at the beginning of the session. But if acknow- 
ledgment is wholly immaterial, why has the South continued to demand, 
and the North so long and pertinaciously endeavored to avert it ? Why 
are souIIictu envoys now in London and in Paris, and why was the go- x 
vcrnment of Washington prepared at every cost but that of war to inter- 
cept them ? Why have the envoys, on arriving, made acknowledgment 
the simple object of their mission, and why has Mr. Scwai-d sent to tho 
dilTerent Powers a volume of dispatches to resist it ? 

From the Northern raiud it would take away the hope of Southern sub- 
jugation : from the government of Washington it would take away the 
power of describing eleven communities contending for their liberty as 
1 rebdis. The people of America are influenced by phrases, and will not 
come to terms with what they have been hounded on to look at as rebel- 
lion. But they can see a fact when 'Europe blazons it before them, and 
they will be awakened by her judgment to the nature of the foreign war 
on which their treasure and their happiness are wasted. When Europe 
has acknowledged it, the independence of the South may be debated in 
the Senate and the House, where no one now can venture to advert to it. 
A probable result of such a measure, if pursued by France, Great Bri- 
tain, and other neutral States together, is, that it would weaken in the 
Executive at Washington its borrowing ability, because their loans are 
founded on the chances of reconquest ; and reconquest would then ap- 
pear what it is, a vision and a mockery. And it would do so with good 
reason. Victorious already, animated theu, the southern armies would 
be doubly irresistible. 

Another practical eil'ect of recognition would be that the belligerents 
Itight then endeavor to negotiate, which it is clear they cannot do at pre- 
sent. A separate result would be to put an end to all the idle dreams of 
reconsti'uctioh and of union which arc floating in America, and which 
servo to prolong the war, because they disincline the North to the only 
basis upon which the close of it is possible. A yet more serious result 
the measure promises is freedom to the government of Washington from 
tho neeessitv of hopeless war which weighs on it at present. As soon a» 
Europe sanctions its retreat, the greater portion of its evils are annihi- 
lated. As long as Europe sanctions its attempt, to renounce it is to suf- 
fer an indignity which never fell upon a State engaged in Avar with insur- 
rection since modern history opened its varied scenes to our notice. 


The next dootrino which stands in the way of the conclusion I ara 
pointing to, ie even more impcrtant to cousidcr, because iu this House it 



[June 18, 1863 

received a kind of sanction on February 5, from the noble Earl who leads 
the opposition, and who had the manliness to state that in ospoasing it 
he differed from the mass of his supporters. It has bee/i laid down that 
you should recognize insurgent Powers when you are going to give ma- 
terial assistance to their cause, or when the civil war is over, that neutrak 
should reserve their voice until arms have fallen from the weak and faint- 
ing hands of the belligerents. AVhether or not such ought to be the 
principle, it is not, as examples show, that on which the Powers of either 
world have generally acted. So far from the cessation of hostilities pre- 
ceding the acknowledgment of neutrals, the acknowledgment of neutrals 
has in nearly every case preceded the cessation of hostilities. I fully 
understand that the cases of Beigium under Lord Grey, Greece under 
the Duke of Wellington, Holland under Queen Elizabeth, onght to be 
excluded, because in all three material assistance and diplomatic inter- 
course were blended. But the United States acknowledged Nicaragua 
under Walker before hostilities had ceased to menace the e.-5istcncet)f his 
government; they acknowledged the South American Republics rising 
against Spain before the effort to reduce them was cshausted. When 
Col. Mann was sent by the government of Washington to Hungary, in 
1848-9, ho was instructed to acknowledge the seceding kingdom, not 
when hostilities had ceased, but when its independence could be counted 
on ; and he reserved the voice he was invested with, not because he was 
controlled by the presence of Austrian troops, but by the chances — and 
he reasoned well — of the insurgents being reconquered. He did not find 
a settled, but a migratory government, which fled from post to post, in- 
stead of meeting the invaders at its capital. But if we pass to Europe, 
Franee acknowledged the United States revolting against England before 
Lord North renounced his efforts to subdue them. 

Great Britain was tardy in acknowledging the South American Repub- 
lics. But that tardiness was reprobated by a brilliant and enlightened 
opposition, of which the noble lord the Secretary of State was not an in- 
considerable ornament. 

It was not public law or abstract rules, but special facts and policy and 
prudence which guided the ministry in that instance. The next and last 
example I shall g'ive will make one independent of the others I have men- 
tioned. It surpasses all the rest in magnitude and clearnees; it tallies 
with the question now before the world in nearly every point, and it is 
one ia which not a single State, but Europe may be said herself to have 
delivered — and that in times far more monarehietil, and therefore move 
averse to revolution than our own — a judgment on the question of ac- 
knowledgment. Great Britain, France, Sweden, Holland, all formed 
treaties with Portugal, seceding from the rule of Spain in ]C4L a year 
after the Duke and Duchess of Braganza had proclaimed its indepen- 
dence, a quarter of a century before the Crown of Spain resolved to ac- 
quiesce in it. At that time Prussia had not come into existence as a 
State : Prussia had not begun to mingle in the politics of Europe. Austria 
was attached to Spain by ties of family, and Iherefme the foar recog- 
nizing States may be fairly said to have composed a general tribunal of 
the continent. 

[ Continued in our next.) 

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Its contents will be varied : literature ; the war, in the many aspects in which 
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AVe mean the desire to read and reflect on wlmt good men have thougbt, what 
great men have wrought, in what ways rrovidence has proceeded, by often mys- 
terious paths, to the improvement of the world, and to seek in that history which 
is always repeating itself. She lessons apposite to our own condition. 

In its resume of foreign literature. Vie Rteord will ■^eek to supply the place 
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The Record will seek also to prescut, in a condensed form, the news of the 
worid, both at home .and abroad. A summary of foreign intelligence will be 
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June 18, 18C3.] 


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The Record will be issued every TllURSD.w MoKNlNG, at our Bookstore, 145 
Main Street. 

Address Orders to 

AVEST & JOHNSTON, Publishers, 

145 Main St. Richmond. 


In laying down the rule of reserve that shall always restrain us in these 
columns — which is, in brief, to let nothing appear in The Record that will impart 
to the enemy information not already in their hands — it nnn' be profitable to 
glance at the obligation that rests upon us all in this important respect. 

During the French invasion and occupation of Spain, nothing so much inter- 
rupted the continuity and maiTed the completeness of the successes of the foreign 
army, as the difiieulty of obtainiug information of the resources and designs of 
the Spaniards. Neither the local newspapers nor provincial garrulity ever un- 
guardedly betrayed a fact that would aid the enemy in their military operations, 
nor could the fear of death itself extort from a native any thing that it woiild 
be serviceable for them to know. Even village gossip was hushed in the pre- 
sence of the foe or the informer, and the patriot nursed his wrongs in silence. 

A similar experience attended our annies in Mexico, among a people retaining 
something of the caution of the parent race. To the United States troops, all 
outside of their encampments and tlie roads that lay between them, remained 
during the war as unknown, uncertain and dangerous, as if hostile armies 
pervaded the whole territory. • 

Unfortunately for us of the Confederate States, our people, like the Athenians 
of old, are lovers of news, gossip and discussion, and have not learned as citizens 
or soldiers, the vital importance of reticence in their publications and correspon- 
dence, in their camp-fire talks, nor yet in their personal intercourse with the 
enemy. It would not be difficult to point out disasters which may be directly 
traced to improper careless statements of fact in the press, or in letters intercepted 
by the enemy. The unguarded conversations of olficers in camp are not unfre. 
quently reported to the Federal commanders by deserters from our lines. There 
has been many a spy in our very capital, who has borne lo Washington important 
intelligence which he has overheard in the discussions at the hotels. 

There is an officer at Gen. Hooker'g head quarters, charged with the duty of 
compiling statistics and information from newspapers and other Confederate 

Our government and our generals have uniformly set a laudable example of 
prudent silence in moments of critical suspense. Their reserve has sometimes 
met the disfavor of a portion of the press and the people — possibly, to some extent, 
of the army — but the end has alwaj's shown it to have been wise. 

On several memorable occasions, such as the movements from Centreville, from 
Yorktown and from Corinth, silence in campaigning has proved a golden virtue 
It involved some sacrifice of property, but with what grand results! Nor is 
scarcely any thing in our military history finer than the perfect order, confidence 
and buoyancy with which the troops made those long retrograde marches, in 
i\tter ignorance, but trusting implicitly that every backward step was taken only 
to acquire new vigor for an early approaching onset. Such conduct would Imve 
been creditable to an old army, but it was glorious for a now one. 


[We commence to-day the publication of the Black List, being a full record 
of those officers of the army and navy of th(; United States bom in the South, 
who to their lasting disgrace remained in the old service to wage war upon the 
States of their nativity. It is due to the true and brave Southern men who 
promptly sunendered rank and pay and the prospect of immediate promotiun, 
who gave up, indeed, every thing to espouse the cause of the Confederate States 
against the Washington tyranny, and have been gallantly fighting for us ever 
since, that the uaniei of their recreant brethren should be made known to all tlic 
world. This list shall be continued from time to time until completed. It will 
be understood that the rank assigned by us to these officers is that which they 
hold at this time, as the reward of their treachery, in the U. S. service. ] 

Ru.iK Admirals:— Retired List, Wui, B. Shubrick, South Carolina; Active 
List, L. M. Goldsborough, District of Columbia, I). G. Farragut, Tennessee. 

Commodores:— Retired List, C. K. Stribling, South Carolina; Wm. C. 
NicUolsou, Wm. H. Gardner and T. A. Doruin, Maryland; Active List, C. 
Ringdid, Maryland. 

C'Al'TAlNis : — Retired List, John II. Anliek, Chas. Lowndes, A. K. Long, Wm. 
Glendy and H. K. I'urviance, Maryland ; James Armstrong, Mi-isissippi ; Wil- 
liam Ramsey, L. M. Powell, James Glynn, John Rudd and John S. Nicholas, 


It is our purpose to publish from time to time the most important of the Laws 
and General Orders, to the end that our jieople and our array may be kejit in- 
formed of all that deeply affects them in legislation and in the routine of the War 
Department. Some of these will be given in full, of others such a condensed 
statement will be made as will develop their leading features. For the present, 
we give the act passed by the Confederate Congress to authorize volunteer or- 
ganizations as a defence against sudden raids of the enemy. The act lias not 
before been published, and it is of interest to every citizen of the Confederacy. 
An Act to authorize the formation of Volunteer Companies for Local Defence. 

The Congress of the Confederate States do enact. That fur the purpose of local 
defence in any portion of the Confederate .States, any number of persons not less 
than twenty, wlm are over the age of Ibrty-five years, or otherwise not liable ti> 
military duty, may associate themselves as a iiiilitiiry company, elect their own 
officers, and establish rules and regulations for their own government, and shall 
be considered as belonging to the provisional army of the C'onfederate States, 
serving without pay or .allowances, and entitled, when captured by the enemy, 
to all the privileges of prisoners of war. [Approved October 13, ICiCi'i.] 



The Pope's health is veiy delicate, and fears are entertained that he 
will not long survive. 

In the struggle against Russia, the Poles find .«ympat?iy -with all the 
European powers except Prussia aud Austria. 

The young brother of the Princess of Wales, and second son of the 
King of Denmark, elected King by the Greeks, under the name of 
George I, has not yet accepted. 

The Emperor of France has entered his fifty-si.xth year. The young 
Prince is eight years old. 

The Empress has a riding horse, called Stonewall Jackson. 

The people of England and France are almost unanimous in their 
sympatliy with the Confederate cause. In Parliament the universality of 
this sentiment is constantly referred to. 

Professor Maury and his son are named among the guests who accom- 
panied the Admiralty on a late visit to a ship iron manufactory. 

Mr. Evarts, a lawyer of New York, and friend of Mr. Seward, has been 
sent to England to aid Mr. Adams in the discussion with Lord John Rus- 

The English papers refer to the fact, and compliment Southern libera- 
lity, that " Goetzel & Co." of Mobile sent Bulwer one thousand dollars 
as a portion of the profits of the republication of his novel, " A Strange 

The financial statement of Mr. Gladstone, the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, is much complimented for its ability, and shows a surplus over 

Not a dollar has yet been subscribed to the Federal loan in Europe. 

The Index, a journal established in Loudon to advocate the cause of ■ 
the South, has met with much success. 

It is understood that the United States government have bought up 
the "London News," and that its articles are inspired from Washington 


The Baptist Union, in session at Cleaveland, Ohio, have declared that 
the war is holj' and just, and tliat they will support Lincoln and his ad- 

The professors of Princeton Seminary, so largely endowed by Southern 
money, inculcate the justice of the war. Most of them are abolitioniBts. 


[June 18, 1863 

Edward Everett, one of the visitors of the United States Naval Acade- 
iny, removed from Anniipnlisi, Maryland, to Newport, lihode Island, ad- 
dressed the students, at its recent annual commencement, stimulating 
tlieir war spirit. 

Gen. Franklin, late of the United States army, has consented to be 
the democratic candidate for Governor of Pennsylvania, on a war platform. 

Etheridge, the renegade Teuneeseeau, and once a member of Congress, 
is now the clerk of the House of llepresentatives of the United States. 

The New and Old School Presbyterians at the Nortli have made ad- 
vances towards a reunion, and have declared it a duty to support the 
administration in its war policy. 

Henry Ward Beecher lias just sailed for Europe, and ^^as escorted to 
the steamer and some distance into the harbor, I)}- a crowd of admirers 
numbering a thousand. 

In one day, during the week ending May 2.jth, four thousand emigrants 
reached New York — three thousand from Liverpool, and one thousand 
from Germany — the largest number ever before known to arrive in a 
single daj'. 

Dr. Hammond, the Surgeon General of the United States army, has 
bauished calomel and tartar emetic from the army "medical chests, as 
fi-om improper use doing more harm than good. 

The National Intelligencer, after a sickly existence, iu feeble advocacy 
of Lincoln, has fmally been sold out. 

The Statue of Liberty, of colossal size, from the design of Crawford, 
is to be raised to the crowning point of the dome of the Capitol on the 
4th day of July next. They do well to place Liberty so far above the 
walks and habitations of men, that no one can get nigh her. She will 
never descend again to " mingle with the human race," as Mr. Tenny- 
son says, auKuig the people of the United States. 

A'^ice President Hamlin has received a clieck for .* 300 from tlie negroes 
of Victoria, New South Wales, to relieve the necessities of the negroes 
whom the Yankees have stolen from their masters at Beaufort, S. C. 
This-sum might as well have been sent to pay off the national debt of 
Great Britain or of E Phiribus Unum. It would accomplish quite as 
much prnportionably applied to the one purpose as to the other. 

The annual examinations were commenced at the West Point Military 
Academy on the 3d inst. A very competent board of examiners might 
have been appointed of discomfited federal generals, such as McClellau, 
Pope, Fremont, Shields, Milroy, Burnside, Hooker and others. 


Mr. Moore, the British Consul for Kichniond, has been forbidden the 
exercise of consular functions by President Davis, for declining to ex- 
hibit his credentials when requested to do so by the Secretary of State, 
and persisting in corresponding with the War Department. 

The banishment by Banks from New Orleans, of several thousand per- 
sons, who, refusing to take the oath of allegiance, had registered thetu- 
Belves enemies to the United States, has called forth contributions for 
their relief from all portions of the Confederacy. In our next issue we 
will give the names of many of these exiles, and the circumstances of 
their heroic conduct. 

The corn and wheat crops tln'oughout the Confederacy arc reported 
unusually (inc. New Iftur has already appeared in market. 

The authorities in Mobile have required all males, capable of bearing 
arms, to form into companies for home defence. They do daily duty and 
are regularly drilled. The names of all not so enrolled are lodged witli 
the mayor, as non-combatants, liable at any moment to be oidered from 
the city. 

Mr. Vallaiuligham has been sent South by the Confederate Govern- 
ment. He loft Petersburg on the 8th instant, in charge of Judge Oiild, 
who had instructions to place him on board a steamer bound for Nassau. 

A flagrant outrage was committed in British waters on the 30th May, 
by the U. S. steamer Rhode Island, iu firing into tlic Mai\sarct and Jessie, 
a steamer from Charleston bound to Nassau, wlien only 250 yards off the 
coast of the island of Eleutheia, one of Ihs Bahamae. The R!icdc Llir.d 

had given chase to the Margaret and Jessie, and with unparalleled au- 
dacity continued the pursuit almost up to the wharves of James' Point. 
The bombardment caused great alarm to the inhabitants of Eleuthera, 
and two fishermen of the i.sland who were in a skiff off shore were 
wounded by the shot from the Rhode Island's guns. 

A cavalry fight took place between a considerable body of the enemy 
and the command of General Stuart, near Brandy Station, in the county 
of Culpeper, on Tuesday the 9th iustant, which was commenced at early 
sunrise and continued till 5 o'clock P. M. The combat was mostly be- 
tween the cavalry on both sides, the sabre being the weapon used chiefly 
by the Confederates, though the enemy employed liglit artillery, and 
lirougbt also an infantry force across the Rappahannock. Onr troops 
fought with their accustomed gallantry. The Northern papers admit « 
heavy loss on their side. Three hundred prisoners have been brought to 
this city. The whole body of the Yankees were driven back to the north- 
ern bank of the river. 


The rank of Lieutenant General has been conferred on Major Generals 
EwcU and A. P. Hill. 

Brigadier Generals Rodes, Pender, Buwen and Heth have been pro- 
moted to be Major Generals. 


We have been furnished with the following partial list of Confederate 
officers killed and wounded in the late battles on the Rappahannock. 
The names of several have been heretofore published. 

Killed — Brig. Gen. Paxton ; Capt. Bosweli, Chief Engineers, Jack- 
son's Corps: Col. Thos. S. Garnetti 4Htli Va. ; Col. A. Perrin, Orr's Ri- 
fles; Col. F. Mallory, 5.5th A^a.; C<d. McDowell, .54th N. C; Lieut. Col. 
AA'alker, lOtli A'a. ; Major Stover, do. ; Major Lcgget, 10th La. ; Major 
D. AA". McKim, A. A. G. (Trindde's Division) ; Capt. Sauniel Crawley, 
40th Va.; Capt. Forbes, 0th A'a. Cavalry i" Capt. Boyd, 1.5th S. C. ; Capt. 
Haskell, Capt. Hoffman. Capt. Sheldon, 1st S. C: Capt. Cuthbcrt, 2d S. 
C. ; Capt. Sydnor, 40lh A'a. ; Lieut. AV. Newton, do. ; Lieut. McLaugh- 
lin, 1st S. C. ; Lieut. Cothran, do. ; Ljeut. Debose. do. ; Lieut. Powers, 
I5th La. 

AA'ouNUED — Lieut. Gen. Jackson; Maj. (icn. A. P. Hill; Brig. Gens. 
Nichols, JlcGowan and Hoke; Col. Crutchficld, Chief Artillery, Jackson's 
Corps; Col. Edmondson, 27th A'a.; Col. E. T. II. AVarren, 10th Va.; Col. 
T. V. AA'illiams, ;{7tli A'a. ; Col. AfcDowell, 1st N. C. ; Col. 0. E. Ed- 
wards, 13th S. C. ; Lieut. Col. AValton, 23d 'A'a. ; Major Nelligan, 1st 
La.; MajoV Palmer, A. A. G. (Gen. Hill's Staff); ?iIajor MiUer, 1st S. 
C. Rifles. 

From a long list published in the IForld, we copy the following names 
of Y'ankee field oflieers killed and wounded : 

Killed — 15iig. Gen. Schmilicfing, llih corps; Col. Lee, (ith N. J. ; 
Lieut. Col. Chapin, 8th N. Y. ; Lieut. Cpl. AValters, 17th Conn. : Major 
Taxon, 36th N. \". ; Col. McKnight, 10.5th Penn. : Col. Lancaster, 175th 
Penn. ; Col. Stainrock, 109th I'enn. ; Col. Stevens, 4th Excel. Brig.; 
Lieut. Col. Scott, 3rd AA'iscon. ; Lieut. Col. Chapin, 86th N. Y. 

AA'ouNDED — Brig. Gen. AVhippIe, Gen. Devens, Mass ; Gen. Alott, 
Col. Ilayinan, 37th N. Y. ; Col. Sewell, 5th N. J. ; Col. Burling, 6th N. 
J. ; Lieut. Col. Norton, 128th N. Y. ; Col. Ross, L'ist Con. ; Col. Ileckcr, 
82nd 111. ; Col. Noble, 17th Con. ; Col. Fontvegcsach, 25th N. Y. ; Col. 
Johns, 7th Mass. ; Col. Brown, SCth N. Y. ; Col. Rdey, 75th Ohio; Col. 
Richardson. 25th N. A'. ; Col. A''on Gilsa ; Col. Pierson, 1st N. A'. ; Lieut. 
Col. Cogswell, 2nd Mass. ; Col. Allies, Cist N. A'. ; Col. E. M. Gregory, 
91st Penn. ; Lieut. Col. Lounsbury, 5th Excel. ; Col. Parks, 2nd N. Y'. ; 
Col. Burlin, 6th N. J. ; Col. AA'illets, ]2lli N.'J. ; Col. Potter. 12th N, J. 

In the recent light near Brandy Station, among the killed were Col. 
Frank Hampton of South Carolina, Col. John Shack. Groeuof A'irginia, 
and Col. Sul. AA'illiamc uf North Carolina. 

JiiNi^ 18, 1863.] 



The following letter from the Postmaater General has hcen Idiully fur- 
nished us fur publication. It will be of special interest to our eokliers in 
the field and to their friends and relatives at home, as giving tlieni valu- 
able information with regard to tlie mails for the army : 


Post Office Department, Richmond, May 12, 1863. 
Sir — Referring to our conversation ou yesterday, and in compliance 
with your request, I would say : 

That by act of Congress, No. 194, approved July 29, 1861, provision 
is made for the payment of postage on letters and other mailable matter, 
sent by soldiers, at the office of delivery — requiring, however, that the 
name of the writer, and his military title if an officer, or the company 
and regiment to which he belongs if a musician or private, shall be en- 
dorsed thereon. 

The second section of the same act provides that if the soldier shall 
have been lawfully removed from the point to which any letter or other 
mailable matter shall have been addressed to him, the same shall be for- 
warded, free of additional postage, to the office by which his new locahty 
is supplied. 

And by act. No. 28.3, approved Augu.-jt 31, 1801, provision is made for 
the supply of persons engaged in buying and selling newspapers, relieving 
them from the higher rates which are charged on transient mailable mat- 
ter, by allowing them to prepay the regular rates at the post office of the 
place of publication, and having the evidence of such prepayment stamped 
or writtteu upon each paper so sent. 

By a regulation of this department, all mailable matter from distant 
parts of the countrj' for the army of Northern Virginia, is sent to the 
post office in this city, where a number of clerks arc assigned the special 
duty of assorting such matter and putting it up in packages for each 
regiment separately', and forwarding the entire mail for each regiment 
in one package. By the plan which the officers of this army have 
adopted, of keeping the postmaster here advised of their nearest post 
office, they receive their mails with greater certainty and regularity than 
could otherwise be attained. A liiie facility of communication exists 
wherever the officers of the army keep the postmasters in their yiciuity 
advised of the locality of their several commands. It is miportant to 
those writing to officers and soldiers in the army, that they should desig- 
nate in the address of the letter or other matter, the company and regi- 
ment, and if po.ssibk-, the brigade, division or corps to which the person 
addressed belongs. 

It has been found tiiat a great number of letters fail to reach those in 
the array to whom they are addressed, because of the impracticability of 
eaoli officer and soldier calling at the post office for his own letters. A 
courier is generally sent to the office for the letters, &c. of each regiment; 
and these couriers generally refuse to take any letters which have not 
been -f repaid. As they are required to iia}' the postage on 'taking them 
from the office, and as these letters are Irequently left on their hands by 
the death, discharge or furlough of soldiers, they protect themselves by 
refusing to fake out letters ou which the postage has not been p.'.id. 
Many thousands of such letters have been returned to the post office in 
this city. This can be avoided by tlie prepayment in all cases of the 
postage on letters to soldiers. 

The department has also sought to secure rapid and safe transmission 
of the mails across the Mississippi; and to that end, during last year, 
appointed and commissioned two new special agents, who, in conjunction 
wiih two others previously commissioned, were charged with this especial 
.duty. Their instructions were ample; and they were directed not only 
to see that the mails were forwarded by existing routes and regular ser- 
vice under contract, but to employ new service by new routes whenever 
in their judgment the public exigencies demanded such a course. These 
four agents are still engaged in this duty, and will continue to keep open 
mail communication whenever it may he possible. 

V<'ry respectfully, your ob't serv't, • 

JOHN H. r.EAftAX, PoslmaUn Genera'. 


The following is a list of some of the patents issued by the Confederate 
government, connected with military science. It is deemed prudent to 
omit any information with regard to such inventions as have been adopted 
liy the government, lest the knowledge should enure to the advantage of 
the enemy. 

I. James II. Van Hnutcn, Savannah, Ga. Aug. 1, 1861. Improve- 
ment in breech-loading cannon. — This invention consists in the combi- 
nation of a movable breech piece, containing a chamber to receive the 
charge, and a perpendicular aperture at the breech of the gun to receive 
the breech piece, with a sliding pin, which holds .the breech, piece in 
proper place for the gun to be lired, or being withdrawn, permits it to 
fall on the ground, to bo replaced by another breech piep(? already loaded. 

5. Richard H. Habersham, Beaufort, S. C. Aug. 6, 1801. Improved 
mode of converting a cavalry sword into a sabre lance. — This invention 
consists in converting the scabbard of the sword into a handle, from which 
the sword is made to project in order to form the lance. 

8. Phidello Hall, Springfield, Texas. August 10, 1861. Improved 
multiple breech-loading gun. — This invention consists in a combiuation 
of guns, so arranged that the barrels are secured on a frame parallel with 
each other, on a line. with the centre of a revolving cylinder which forms 
the breech of the gun, and when revolving receives the loads and caps 
from the receptacles which contain the powder, balls and caps, each sup- 
plied in the proper place, when motion is given to the cylinder by means 
of a crunk and a cam wheel which insures the capping, loading, priming 
and firing of the guns automatically. 

9. Thomas W. Cofer, Portsmouth, Va. Aug. 12, 18G1. Improve- 
ment in revolving fire arms. — This invention consists in so arranging the 
chambered cylinder of breech-loading pistols, that the chambers in the 
revolving cylinder are charged with cartridges or ammunition contained 
in thimbles, in place of tlie chambers being loaded with powder and ball, 
and that the nipples for the reception of percussion caps are inserted in 
a circular plate, distinct and separate from the revolving cylinder, yet 
corresponding with it in diameter and fitting close to its rear end, and 
revolving with it on the same pivot. 

II. Armand Prcot, Grand Hill, Va. Aug. 15, 1861. Improved mode 
of attaching lanec to guns. — This invention consists in attaching to a shot 
gun or rifle a lance or pike by means of clamps, a notched plate and a 

12. Fri.'deric J. Gardner, Newborn, N. C Aug. 17, 18f)I. Improve- 
ment in cartridges. — Adopted by the government. 

We begin a conden.sed yet complete history of the financial measures 
of both the provisional and permanent governments. Great care has 
been taken in its preparation, in order to secure that accuracy which will 
give it present value to business men, and make a truthful historical re- 
cord. The present number gives a summary of 


There is now in force the export duty of J of a cent per pound ou cot- 
ton, payable in eoin or by the coupons of the fifteen million loan— the 
tax on imports of about ]."> per cent., and the general law passed 24lh 
April 1863. A synopsis is given of all under the general heaiiof 


(Act of Feb. 28, 1861).— A tax of 5 of a cent on each pound of cot- 
ton exported from the Confederate States was specially pledged for the 
principal and interest of $15,000,000, borrowed at 8 per cent, in coin. 
The coupons attached to the bonds will pay the export duty. This loan 
runs ten years, say to 1871. 

(Act of May 21, 1861).— Taxes levied upon imports from foreign 
countries by schedules from A to G— an average of 15 per cent. The 
arliclc of salt pays 2 cents on each bushel; ice, SI 50 on each ton. 


[June 18, 1863 

There is a large free list under schedule G, embracing ordnance, books, 
meats and agricultural products, &c. The other schedules are 5 per 
cent., 10 per cent., 15 per cent., 20 and 25 per cent. 

(Act of Aug. 19, 1861). — Special war tax levied of one-half of 1 per 
cent, on all the property of the country. There was received under this 
act $16,664,513. These three tax acts were the principal measures for 
revenue of the Provisional Congress, except by loans and treasury notes. 


(Oreanlzed temporarily, February 8th, 1861 — permanently, February 18th, 1863.) 

Jefferson Davis, Miss., President (term six yearsl; Alex. H. Stephens, 
Ga., Vice-President ; J. P. Benjamin, La., Secretary of State ; Jas. A. 
Seddon, Va., Secretary of War; S. R. Mallory, Fla., Secretary of Navy; 
C. G. Memrainger, S. C, Secretary of Treasury; Thos. H. Watts, Ala., 
Attorney General; John H. Reagan, Texas, Postmaster General; A. C. 
Myers, Va., Quartermaster General; L. B. Northrop, Commissary Gene- 
ral; S. P. Moore, S. C, Surgeon General; E. AV. Johns, S. C, Medical 


Generals — Cooper, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard and Bragg. 

Lieutenant Generals — Longstreet, Polk, Hardee, Kirby Smith, Holmes, 
Pemberton, Ewell and A. P. Hill. 


Admiral — Franklin Buchanan. 

Captains — L. Rousseau, Freuch Forrest, J. Tatnall, V. M. Randolph, 
G. M. HoUins, D. N. Ingraham, S. Barron, W. F. Lynch, J. L. Sterrett 
and R. Simnis. 

Captains for the IFar— S. S. Lee and W. C. Whittle. 

John G. Shorter, Alabama; H. Flanagan, Arkansas; Jos. E. Brown, 
Georgia; Thos. 0. Moore, Louisiana; John J. Pettus, Mississippi; Ze- 
bulon B. Vance, North Caioliua; Milledge L. Bonham, South Carolina; 
Ishani G. Harris, Tennessee; F. K. Lubbock, Texas; John Letcher, Vir- 
ginia; John Milton, Florida; T. C. Reynolds, Missouri; Richard Hawes, 



Just ready at WEST & JOHNSTON'S, 14r> Maiu street : 

I— NO NAME; A Novel. By WiLiiiE Collins, author of "The Woman in 
White," "CJiiccn of Hcaits," etc. etc. 

This work is from the pen of one of the most gifted wviter.s of the day; and 
"No Name" surpasses in beauty and vigor all of his tbriner productions. It is 
the most popular Novel of 1863— maguiticent in plot, diction and naiTation. 

Price, $4. Upon the receipt of the price we will forward it to any part of the 

II.— LES MISERABLES (FANTINE), Now Ready; A Novel. By Victor 
Hugo. lOth thousand. 

This is the first of the five parts of Les Miserahles. COSETTE, the second 
part, will be ready in a few days. 

Competent critics, in both hemispheres, liave pronounced Les Miserahles to be 
the most powerful work of fiction of the nineteenth ceutury. 

Price, 4-i. Upon the receipt of the price we will forwai'd it to any part of the 

IN PRESS, and will be ready July 1st: 


This is a newly revised and corrected translation from the French of a Novel 
which in beauty of simplicity, vies with the " Vicar of Wakefield." 

II.— AURORA FLOYD. By the author of "Lady Audisy's Secret," etc. 

III.— MISTRESS AND MAID. By Miss Muloch. Author of " John Uali- 
fa.\, Gentleman," etc. 

Address orders to 

Publishers, Booksellers and Stationers, 145 Main St., Richmond. 

Published by WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond : 

The Judge Advocate's Vade Mecum, - - - 

Gilham's Manual (new edition, with plates), - - - . 

Mahan's Permanent Fortifications (with plates), 2 vols. 

Mahan's Field Fortifications (with plates), .- - . . 

Patten's Cavalry Drill (with plates), .... 

C. S. .A.rmy Regulations (authorized edition). 

Lee's Volunteer's Hand Book, - - . . . 

The Volunteer's Camp and Field Book, - - - 

Roterts' Hand Book of Artillery, ..... 

Gilliam's Field Artillery, ..... 

The School of the Guides, - . - . . 

Richardson's Evolutions of the Line (Scott's 3d voL, with plates), - 

The Ordnance Field Manual, - - . . . 

Napoleon's Maxims of War, ..... 

Inyructions for Heavy Artillery (with plates), 

The Quartermaster's Guide, ..... 

Notes on Artillery (with drawings), . . . - . 

Manual of Arms for Heavy IntUntiy, .... 

Gary's Bayonet E.xercise and Skirmisher's Drill (with plates). 

The C. S. Ordnance Slanual for 1H6.'5 (with plates), - 

Warren's Surgery for Camp and Field, - . . . 

Jomini's Practice of War (translated from the French). "This very 
valuable work ought not to be separated from every Officer's Prayer 
Book in the Confederate States" — Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, 

New Pocket Map of Virginia, - - - , . 

Upon the receipt of the price of any of the above mentioned books, we will 

forward them, post paid, to any part of the Confederacy. 

Address orders to 

Booksellers and Publishers, 145 Main St., Richmond. 

5 00 

10 00 

20 00 

2 50 

] 50 



1 50 


] 00 

3 0() 

2 00 

1 00 

5 00 

1 00 



) 00 


5 00 

1 50 

2 50 

By WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond: 

Resources of the iSonthern Fields and Forests, Medical, Economical and 
Agricultural, being also a Medical Botany of the Confederate States, 
with praSlical information on the useful properties of Trees, Plants 
and Shrubs — By Francis Peyre Porcher, Surgeon P. A. C. S. — Pub- 
lished by order of the Surgeon General, Richmond, . - $10 00 

The American Union — its effect on National Character and Policy, with 
an enquiry into Secession as a Constitutional Right, and the Causes 
of the Disrapture — By James Spence — First American edition, from 
the fourth English edition, - . - . - . 2 00 

Chief Points in the Laws of War and Neutrality, Search and Blockade, 
with the Changes of IS56, and those now proposed — By Jno. Eraser 
MacQucen, Esq., one of her Majesty's Counsel, - - - 1 00 

The Stonewall Song Book, being a Collection of Patriotic, Sentimental 

and Comic Songs, ....... 50e. 

The Pictorial Primer, designed for the Use of Schools and Families — 
Illustrated, - . - - . ... 

3 00 

The First Year of the War— twentieth thousand — By E. A. Pollard, 

Upon receipt of the price of any of the above mentioned Books, wo 
will tonvard them to any part of the Confederacy, post paid. 
Address orders to 


Puldishcrs and Boukscllers, 145 Main St. Richmond. 


JUNE, 1863. 

Monday, . - . 






Tt'ESD.W, . . 






Wedne.sday, . 












Friday, - 












Sunday, - . 






Blkssed is he tliHt fiiltills 
the purpose of life before 
he eud.s it. 

He who scuds tlie storm » 
(iteers the vessel. 


Jack^on. By 11. I^. Flash, ...... 

The Flag and Seal, ....... 

The Oonffderate and Federal Causes contrajited by their Leaders iu the Fight, 
The Qnestiou of Recognition in the House of Lords— Lord CampbfU's Speech, 

? and a Duty of Patriotic 


Reticence — an Element of Defi 

Black List. - 

Laws and Genf-ral Orders, 

Summary of News— Foreign — United States — Dumcstic, 

PromoliouH. Canualties, &c. - - - ' 

Uules for Soldiers' Correnpondence, 

List of Confederate PateutH, 

Financial, ..... 

The Confederate Government, &c. 

The Governors of States, 

Calendar, - . . - 

Advert iseracntB, .... 


i2 aa^ag aaa^aa^ 


Volume I.] 




In the cool sweet Iiufli of a -.vonded nook, 

Where the May buds sprir.klc ihi' giet-n old sward. 
And the winds, and the birds, and the limpid brook, 

Murmur their dreiims wiili a drowsy sound ; 
Who lies so still in the phi^liy moss, 

With his pale cheek pressed on a breezy pillow, 
Couched where the lifjht and the shndows cross 

Thro' the tliekei iug friuge- of the willow, 
Who lies, alas I 
So still, so chill, in the whispering grass? 

A soldier clad in tha Zonave dress, 

A brighthaired man, v,-ith his lips apart, 
One hand thrown up o'er his frank, dead face, 

And the other clutching his pulseless heart, 
Lies here in the shadows, cool and dim. 

His musket swept by a trailing bough ; 
With a careless grace in his quiet limbs, 

And a wound on his manly brow ; 
A wound, alas ! 
Whence the warm blood drips on the quiet grass. 

The violets peer from their dusky beds. 

With a tearful dew in their great pure eyes ; 
The lilies quiver their shining heads. 

Their pale lips full of sail surprise ; 
'And the lizard darts thro' tlie glisteuiug fern — 

And the squirrel rustles the branches hoary; 
Strange birds fly out, with a cry, to bathe 

Their wings in the sunset glory; 
Vrhile the shadows pass 
O'er the quiet face and the dewy grass. 

God pity the bride who awaits at home. 

With her lily cheeks, and her violet eyes, 
Dreaming the sweet old dream of love, 

■\Yhile her lover is walking in Paradise; 
God strengthen her heart as the days go by. 

And the beg, drear nights of hev vigil follow, 
Nor bird, nor moon, nor whispiring wind. 

May breaihe the tale of the hollow ; • 
Alas ! alas ! 
The seerst is safe w;ih the woodland graiS 

Hov. iit rr.inmuiiiciile vrilji llii: Sid; nnd H'umiilid </ Ihe Army. 
We earnestly invite attention to the fniii.wing explanation of Orders, No. 45, 
from the War Department, establishiug a rtode of conuuuuication between the 
sick and wounded soldiers of the army and their friends at home. 

Officers of the army and medical men in charge ut hospitals cannot do a greater 
service to the count) y, than by giving, with punctuality and exactness, the infor- 
mation desired by these orders. 

During the summer of 18f!2, after the theatre of war in Virginia had 
been transferred first from the? Potomac to the Peninsula, and then to the 
immediate neighborhood of Richmond, tlic sick and wounded of our 
arm}' filled not only the hospitals ol the city, but were scattered through- 
the towns and villages of the State. Friends at a distance found great 
difficulty in communicating with them, and members of Congress, officers 
of the government and pastors of ehurdies were overwhelmed with tele- 
grams of an.xious enquiry. 

In some instances individuals, after visiting Richmond, and spending 
days in diligent search, found that the objects of their solicitude were 
nnrsed in some hospital by which they passed daily, or had died within a 
few squares of where they lodged. 

It was under these circumstances that Gen. Randolph, then Secretary 
of War, issued tiie following order : 

A GiiXER.^L Intelligknce Office, to enable the friends of tha 
sick nnd wounded to find them out, and to facilitate communication with the 
army, is hereby established. Military commanders and surgeons will afford all 
means in their po\ver4o promote the ends of its establishment. 
By couiuiand of the .Secretary of War. 

(Signed) S. COOPER, 

Adjutant and Inspector General. 

The Rev. W. A. Crocker, cliaplain to the 14th Virginia regiment, was 
appointed to organize and superintend the office. He had suggested the 
necessity of such an establishment to the Secretarj- of War, and entered 
at once, with great zeal, upon the discharge of his duties. The office was 
first opene<l on the 22d June 1662, during the period of the battles before 

Organization. — As tlie office exists by order of the Secretary of War, 
it forms an adjunct to his Department, nnd though not strictly a bureau, 
it has been recognized by Congress, and laws have been passed regulating 
the pay ut' its superintendent and eUrkt. 




[June 25, 1863 

The chief of the office is styled Superintendent, and is a chaplain in 
the proTisional army of the Confederate States, detailed for this duty, 
with the pay and alloivances of a post chaplain. Such a number of 
clerks as may be necessary to conduct the business i>f the office are de- 
tailed from the army, on surgeon's certificate of disability. The number 
of such at present on duty is twelve. As the expense of the office is 
borne by the goverDment, information is given to the public without 

Plan of Operations. — The business of the office may be classified 
tinder the following heads: 1. Register of Hospitals. 2. Register of 
Dead. 3. Armi/ and Government Direclory. 

1. Register of Hospitals.— A daily report is received from each hos- 
pital in the City of Richmond, and a weekly report from each hospital in 
the State of Virginia, outside of Richmond, containing the names of all 
soldiers admitted, transferred, forluughed, returned to duty, discharged, 
deserted or died. These names are promptly registered in alphal)etical 
order, and in such a manner as to indicate the slate and regiment to 
which they belong; and the di.'position made of them from time to time, 
carefully noted. Thus, the name of any particular man can at once be 
referred to, and information given as to the hospital he may be in, or 
what has become of him. The records of the office are in this respect 
useful not only to the friends of the soldier, but to the officers of the 
army, who are constantly availing themselves of them in order to ascer- 
tain the whereabouts of their absent men. 

2. Register of Dead. — All quarterly reports of surgeons and monthly 
reports of medical directors in the Surgeon General's office, are placed 
at the use of the office for the purpose of compiling a list of the dead of 
the entire army. A record is kept for each state, regiment and command. 
Every effort is being made to make this record as complete as possible; 
and already it is by far the most so of any under the government. 

Another most important feature of this office is its official list of casu- 
alties, made up after each important battle, and at all limes accessible to 
parties interested. 

Arrangements have been made with the United States authorities for 
the interchange of the names of deceased prisoners of war. There have 
already been received between 5,000 and 6,000 names of confederate 
soldiers who have died within the enemy's lines. 

3. Army and Government Directory. — Soldiers passing through the 
city, are directed where they may find their regiments; and relatives and 
others desiring to visit or communicate with particular parties in the 
army, receive the necessary instructions. 

Parties having business with the several departments of government, 
are informed of their location and the names of officers in charge, and 
are furnished with such directions as will faciUtate them in their trans- 

All communications are promptly answered. Correspondents are ex- 
pected to enclose a postage stamp for the letter in reply. Parties asking 
information should be careful to write out distinctly the name, rank, com- 
pany and regiment of the soldier enquired for, and if possible, state when 
■ and where he was last heard from. 

The office is located over the Bank of Virginia, on Main street, oppo- 
site the post office. 

Address Rev. W. A. Crocker, Superintendent Army Intelligence 
office, Richmond, Va. 


In 1668, Spain and Portugal negotiated peace with oi^ another. Was 
Europe acting then against tlie principles which ought to have directed 
her? Is there anything in Grotius, Bynbershock. Vattel, Von Martens, 
Wheaton, to condemn her ? I have deemed it no less than a duty to ex- 
amine all these writers on the question of acknowledgment. But it is 
not a duty to inflict quotations on your lordships. The references are 
with me here, and the}" will be at the command of any member who de- 
sires them. 

Sir James ^lackintosh, in a celebrated speech of 1824 upon the South 
American Republics, insists with glowing approbation on the case of 
Portugal, which I have brought nnder the notice of your lordships. He 
does not question, but applauds the conduct of the recognizing Powers. 
He does not hold it up to be avoided as an ^rror, but, on the contrary, to 
lie regarded as a brilliant lesson in his day: and your lordships well know 
that Sir James Mfickintosh was the disciple, the exponent, the successor, 
and the equal of the great men who have moulded public law into a 

It is not correct according to the law of nations and the history of the world 
to aver that the struggle must be over ; the last .army routed ; the last shil- 
ling spent ; the last drop of blood exhausted by the combatants. The 
vocation of acknowledgment is rather to preserve than to destroy, and by 
diplomacy to give a quicker passage to the end, which the lonff and 
sanguinary road of arms would ultimately point to. When you cannot 
advise the older state to persevere and when you denounce its efforts, and 
when you prophecy its failures, and «when you cannot recommend the 
younger state to yield, what can be more cruel or irrational than to pro- 
long hostilities between them ? But by tne reservation of acknowledg- 
ment you do prolong hostilities between them. The effort to reconquer 
has never been renounced, and scarcely ever been suspended, until neu- 
trals had acknowledged the insurgent. 

It is not, therefore, easy to defend the conduct of a neutral who indi- 
rectly calls out for battles, and imposes expeditions with a foregone con- 
clusion, that they must be useless for their purpose. 


And is the issue doubtful? The capitalists of Loudon, Frankfort, 
Paris, Amsterdam, are not of that opinion. Within the last few days the 
Southern loan has reached the highest place in our market. £3,000,000 
were required, £9,000,000 were subscribed for. The loan is based upon 
the security of cotton; and it has been well known for a twelvemonth 
that as far as the invaders march, that security must perish. But what 
is the opinion of military men upon the issue? The Emperor of the 
French, having been brought up as a soldier — having given a long life to 
military science, and having recently commanded the greatest armies of 
the day at Solferino and Magenta — in the ^ispatch of November last did 
not conceal from the government of Washington that subjugation was 
impossible. The Princes of the House of Orleans, who served with 
General McClellan, are thought to have inspired the excellent account 
of the campaign which appeared on October 15 in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes, and which has also tended to disperse the vision of reconquest. 
To the same scale of judgment. General Scott appears, by recent reve- 
lations, to contribute. And this, too, is remarkable. Not one military 
person in the North is known to view reconquest as attainable. Neither 
General M'Clellan, Burnside, Rosencranz, M'Dowell, Halleek, or Buell, 
have ever publicly declared, so far as it has reached us, that the object 
of the government they serve under is feasible. The cheap ignominious 
task of prophecying triumph, has been wisely left to the voluminous 
dispatch writer (Seward), who, whatever be his virtues or accompli.<h- 
ments, is no ipore qualified to judge the issue of campaigns than he is to 
guide the movements of battalions. It is, therefore, necessary to in- 
quire what proof, then, of its ability has this aggressive cabinet developed. 
Is it in appointing, superseding, or replacing the commanders it must 
lean on? Is it in their firm adherence to a principle ? At one time 
they were opposed to the invasion they have plunged into. Is it in their 
conduct about slavery ? At one time they boasted of their disposition to 
maintain it. Soon after they desired the Border States to be delivered 
from it. After emancipation was declared, but only in the States 
which were resisting them. 

Are these the movements of a government by which the broken frag- 
ments of the Union can be welded, a mighty Continent subdued, 8,000,000 
freemen braced into a*init, robbed of home, of honor, and of freedom? 
But who are they arrayed against? The House ought not, indeed, to 
join in the encomiums on the Southern President, which heat and sym- 

June 25, 1863.] 



patliy have prompted. As no one was deemed happy Ijy the ancients 
until his life had closed, no one will be stamped as great by us until his 
enterprise has triumphed. But so much may be hazarded of this extra- 
ordinary man that, gifted amply by nature, he has .made the union of 
political and military excelleiTce his object, and that as far as Europe has 
observed, in the midst of danger and care, such as few men have the 
power to imagine, fewer to sustain, he has exhibitpd the patience and the 
enterprise, the ardor and the coolness, the heroism and urbanity, 
for which it generally happens that nations draw their birth and civil 
wars accept tiieir destination. And this is most important to remem- 
ber — if we look back, to such conjunctures we do not find an iu:>tance in 
wliich mind, character, capacity have yielded to tlie want of all, no mat- 
ter how well sustained the latter as regards forces, numbers and revenue. 
It is not going beyond the bounds of caution to allege that a new chap- 
ter will be opened in the annals of mankind, if on this unrivaled scene 
the qualities which they regard with scorn are found triumphant over 
those which they agree to follow and to reverence. 


If noble lords agree, therefore, with the financial world, with military 
men, and with the government of Washington itself, that the issue is not 
doubtful, and if, therefore. Great Britain has the right to acknowledge 
Southern independence, why ought she to exercise it ? The first answer 
is because honor calls on her to do so, and it rests on a detail which I 
shall ra|iidly explain to your lordships. British consuls have remained 
during the war at Mobile, Charleston and Savannah. They are tliere 
for the protection of our sulijects, who reside by thousands on the sea- 
board. In times like these their presence is essential. Were it rfot ftjr 
consuls to identify them, the severe enlistment laws of the Confederacy 
might at any time descend on our people ; or in the sudden turn.s of war 
their goods might be destroyed without a clue to ownership or means of 
compensation. They are also there to witness the blockade, and to re- 
port upon its efficacy. And these consuls draw their exequaturs from the 
government of Washingtou. They are a standing derogation to the 
power which receives, which shelters, and encfures them. We are not 
inclined to withdraw them. We ought, therefore, to accredit them to the 
insurgent who permits them to reside, and if we do he is acknowledged 
Honor forbids nations as it does men to run up a score of gratitude them 
selves, and to create a score of just resentment, in its object, to offer 
insult at the moment they are profiting by favour. In one sense alone 
do the Confederacy gain l\v the arrangement ; we give them all the gran- 
deur of forbearance ; they allow our consuls to reside, and we withhold 
the recognition which public law entitles them to ask of us. But is not 
our aspect with regard to them a poor one ? We deny their rights ovee 
their territory, and yet at their hands receive the safety of our citizens. 


Our government, however, conscientiously held back the Emperor of 
the French from a proposal which might have eminently served them. 
With the best intentions and designs they refused to allow the dispatch 
of Mr. Mason an acknowledgment in August for over six months to reach 
the eye and judgment of the country. By denying our harbors to both 
sides when both might have had access to them — no doubt from a lauda 
ble desire of tranquillity — it has compelled the Southerners to burn their 
prizes on the water.s, has thus destroyed their chance of raising priva- 
teers, and vastly limited their powers of self-defence against the country 
which invades them. After inducing the Confederacy by a transaction 
which I described a year ago, to pledge itself to the observance of certain 
rules laid down at Paris in 1856, the British government has not been 
ready to maintain them in the vital point that blockades must be effective 
to be binding. But illustrations of tlia kind may be dismis.'sed. Par- 
tiality to the United States has bcdn avowed in a dispatch of March ?7, 
18(J2, from the noble lord to Mr. Adams, and which the government of 
Washington have brought before the world in p. (12 of the volume they 
have recently distributed. In resisting the extortionate demands which 

Mr. Adams had addressed to him, and which, indeed he manfully exposes, 
the noble lord as a set-ofY to his austerity, declares that allowance has 
been made for the difficulties which the United States had to contend 
with in the war ; and that public law has been liberally interpreted in 
their favor. The book is here if I am challenged. Allowance has been 
made for the difficulties of the United States in a war which both human- 
ity and policy forbad, and which their own aggressive faithlessness cre- 
ated. Public law has been interpreted, and liberally, in favor of a 
government which supports the infamous McNeil, laj's waste the houses 
of distinguished adversaries in Virginia, which ruins havens in Savannah 
and in Charleston, which is ready to let loose 4,000.000 negroes on their 
compulsory owners, and to renew from sea to sea the horrors, the crimes 
ofSt. Domingo. 



A noble Earl who gained his laurels in the East, well pointed out to us 
last session that, whenever the war closed Canada would be endangered. 
If victorious, the Northern States might attack it in the drunkenness of 
pride; if defeated, in the bitterness of torture. Some men, out of doors, 
have been so infatuated as to hold that by carefully abstaining from any 
thing which gives umbrage to the United States, we should defend it. 
As if aggressive powers had ever been restrained by wanting pretexts for 
tlie wars they were inclined to. The security of Canada is quickly seen 
by your lordships to reside in one circumstance alone — the danger of at- 
tacking it. That danger will at least be greater when the Southern 
power is kindly to Great Britain than when it is esti-anged, inasmuch as 
the aggressive State will then have to contemplate the chance of an at- 
tack upon his rear as well as the blockade of his seaboard. No doubt 
Canada is safe while the civil war continues ; but we are neither able nor 
entitled to prolong it for her safety. The civil war may close after the 
acknowledgment of Southern independence by the Emperor, although 
Great Britain has not shared that manifesto. 

The friendly disposition of the South is therefore necessary to us ; it 
i^ attainable, and if we wantonly forego it, if we allow the war to close be- 
fore we-have acknowledged, both the separated powers being irrevocably 
hostile to us, we may be forced, now to guard Canada from one, now the 
West Indies from the other. Our diplomatists, moreover, would have no 
influence or voice in the Confederacy, whether they attempted to soften 
the resentments which the war had left behind it, to gain legitimate ad- 
vantages in trade, to deprecate aggressive views, or to improve the situa- 
tion of the negro. 


Dismissing policy, I need touch but briefly on the moral obligation to 
acknowledge, because, on grounds already stated, it applies generally to 
the case of neutrals and insurgents, when the hazard of reconquest is 
exhausted. It arises from the circumstance adverted to before, that in 
the civil wars of Europe, smce the time of Charles V. (and to these may 
be added that of the Swiss Cantons and the House of Austria in the mid- 
dle ages), the acknowledgment of neutrals has preceded the conclusion 
of hostilities; and while that is withheld, that close is not to be antici- 
pated. It is only requisite to glance at the special circumstances which 
enhance an abstract duty as regards Great Britain and the war which is 
before us. The first and most striking is the Lancashire distress, which 
is not likely t) pass oft' until cotton falls in price, and sells in abundance; 
and that can hardly be expected to occur until the war is over. No man, 
conversant with political economy, supposes that cotton crops will start 
into existence in other portions of the world, while an avalanche of 
4,000,000 bales impends upon the market from America. But that it 
does so, our consuls in the South, Mr. Bunch and Mr. Molyneux, have 
recently informed us in public letters, known to all the trading world. 

Woald Ml-. Lincoln and his colleagues have embarked upon the war had 
they foreseen the tenor of its history ? If, on the eve of crossing the 
Potomac, a higher power had revealed to them the panorama oiF disaster 
[and disgrace which they were doomed to bring upon their country; the 



[June 25, 1863 

panic of Bull Run ; the scared and broken columns falling into Washing- 
ton ; the long and dreary autumn of paralysis which followed ; the vic- 
tories which took away the hope of any Southern party for the Union, 
and which as loudly as defeats proclaimed the madness of that enterprise; 
the cotton blazing next the Mississippi as tljey reached it; the capture of 
New Orleans without a practical result be.yond the indignation of the 
world at the revolting tyranny which held it; liad they caught a glimpse 
of the engagements which drove General McClellan to his gunboats — the 
scions of a royal house partaking his confusion — and seen the tide of war 
rolled back upon their territory, and then another host sent out to dis- 
solve itself, to put an end to the anxiety of Richmond and to perform the 
tragedy of Fredericksburg; and, last of all, had they been able to fore- 
cast, with eighteen vessels hot in their jmrsuit, the Southern cruisers 
roaming on the sea triumphant and implacafcle. 


My Lords — These grand considerations of honor, of neutrality, of 
policy, and duty, would lead the people of the country to require an ac- 
knowledgment of Southern independence, were it not for the delusions 
as to Slavery, which for a mouth or two have been promoted, and which, 
unless I am enabled to confront, I should be said to have avoided. To 
confront is to expose them ; and the directest method which occurs to 
me, is at once to drive these puny agitators to an issue. They have de- 
ceived the working classes of the country by confouiuliug ((ucstions about 
Slavery, which ought not to be discussed with the "only one which it be- 
hooves the British public to consider. 

In what manner would reconquest operate npon the negro ? A servile 
war must be its melancholy preface, in which murder confronts the slave 
and rapine the proprietor. In such a conflict, many blacks must be ox- 
terminated, and nearly all the higher classes driven from the country — 
the dismantled houses and the conliscated fields become the property of 
Northerners. The comjuerors at once discover that the soil is worthless 
unless the labor of the black may be applied to it. The negroes who 
survive, demoralized and scattered, will not be all of them recaptured, 
and if they were, would be inadequate in number to the purpose. How 
are the new proprietors, desiring wealth and jealous of sterility, to find 
the labor which is wanting to them ? AlVica is open. Africa contains 
the millions they are seeking. The flag of the United States before now 
has unfortunately been a shelter to the slave trade. 


The only other sentiment which in the event of other neutrals being 
prepared might indispose the country to acknowledgment is a lingering 
idea that the cause of freedom is involved in the retention of the Union. 
It is just, therefore, to inquire for whose advantage it would come again 
into existence. We have seen it would not be for that of Africa or of 
the negro. It could not be for that of the seceders, as the miseries of 
New Orleans have explained where that rule has been established, and 
those terrors have been felt which would then apply to all the cities of 
the territory. Who says they ought not to perish rather than submit to 
a yoke more bitter and degrading than was ever known yet in Warsaw 
or in Venice ? But would it be restored for the advantage of the North ? 

It is for a despotism that the people of the North are pouring out their 
blood, and tarnishing their glory. Already it exists. It had its birth in 
war, and it would take its immortality from conquest. Then, .wo\ild the 
Union be restored for the advantages of the world ? What country would 
be safe? What country would be free ? Would Poland gain when the 
only friend and patron of the Czar recovered his original dimensions ? 
At first, indeed, the necessity of Southern garrisons might keep them in 
repose. But in a few years— and they do not labor to conceal it from 
us— a power more rapacious, more unprincipled, more arrogant, more 
selfish and encroaching, would arise, than has ever yet increased the out- 
lay, multiplied the fears, and compromised the general tranquillity of 
Europe. And on this overgrown, on this portentous form of tyranny and 
egotism, many countries would depend for the material of that important 
industry which languishes at present. 


My Lords, the latter point might be explained by statistics I have with 
me. But it is even more important to remind you that not much more 
than five years have elapsed since France and Great Britain were'u^iited 
to w ithstand a Power which overshadowed and assailed the general sc- 
cnrity of nations. To gain their object it was requisite to interrupt a 
peace of forty years, and to squander noble lives upon the trenches and 
the battle field. In order now to gain equivalent results and parallel ad- 
vantages, they are required not to lavish but to save; not to arm bat- 
talions, but disperse them; not to open conflict in the world, but snatch 
an hemisphere from misery. 

But whether we resolve to lead, or hesitate to follow, whether we keep 
Europe back, or join, or suller dangerous isolation from it, T shall be in- 
debted to your lordships for permitting mc to show to-night that the 
neutral powers have the clearest title to acknowledge Southern indepen- 
dence, and that until they exercise that title according to the only lights 
which reason founded on examples open to their rulers, the war will 
never end. 


The unanimity with which the Poles appear to have rejected the am- 
nesty oft'ered them by the Czar, shows that there is much more strength 
in the adherents of the insurrection than could have been expected. The 
revolution keeps gaining ground, and the success of the insurgents is 
as yet uuchequered by any signal disaster. The Pope, too, is said to 
havQ openly espoused the cause of Poland, and the peasantry have begun 
to show their responsive zeal, by burning the churches of the Eastern 
Communion. They say that the amnesty does nothing more than put 
them in the position which they occupied before the revolution began. 
They want much more than this — they want a separate national existence. 
It is this, they conceive, that the Western Powers demand for them, and 
less than this wouhl do them no good. They arc now fighting, therefore, 
to be a distinct and fre« people. 

When Russia is blamed for offering the amnesty, and for offering noth- 
ing more, except vague promises of future political iniproven)ent, it 
umst be remembered that Russia could offer nothing between this and the 
concession of complete political independence. She will fight very iiard 
before she allows herself to be dismembered, i\nd to have an in(le|ien- 
dent Poland created at her side, and proclaiming to all mankind that she 
can be successfully defied. The Poles an- (|uit(' right to reject the Em- 
peror's oti'er, if they have any eliance of securing the sjilendid prize which 
alone will satisfy them. If they can beat the armies of Russia, or weary 
the Czar out — if they can do as the Confederate States have done, and, 
by skill and gallantry and the energy of desperation, bear triumphantly 
the strain of a protracted war — then they will get what they want, iifld 
the name of Poland will once more figure in the map of Europe. If we 
may trust the vague rumors which reach the West, they scarcely hope to 
succeed, unless some foreign power comes to help them. They reckon 
that France is sure to fight for them socmer or later, exactly as the south- 
ern planters reckoned ttiat England would be certain to break the block- 
ade rather than let Lancashire starve tor w.ant of cotton. The south- 
erners were disappointed, and yet they have been able to hold their own, 
and have gained strength with time. No one has helped them, and yet 
they have baffled all the attempts of u people twice their own numbers, 
to subdue ihem. But then, at the beginning of the war, neither the 
South nor the North had an army, and both sides, theiefore, took time to 
fiirni one. The South had most of the officers and statesmen of the 
Union, and it had undisturbed communication between its diflerent parts. 

However well the Poles fight, and however widely the insurrection 
spreads, we do not therefore see much prospect of their ultimate success, 
unless a foreign power comes to their help. France alone might be 
tempted, to run the ri«k. To get Poland, France would have to beat 
Germany; but France and its Emperor might like to try to beat Ger- 
many, and there has not been for many years, and might not be again 
for as long a period, anj- occasion whc n England would be so inclined to 
remain an indifferent speclalor of the defeat of (.^t-rmany.- France can 
play off Poland against Prussia, as she has played off Italy against Aus- 
tria ; and although the Emperor is probably sincere in the dislike to war 
which he expresses, he might be driven by his various political difficul- 
ties to think the opportunity of pushing his frontier to the Rhine too good 
a one to be thrown away. — [Sdlurday Review. 

June 25, 1863.] 



Notice to Subscribers. 

"THE RECORD" will be issued every Thuksday Morning, at our Bookstore, 145 Main Rf. 

Tia!.-\i< TiMi DoUara per ontiuin. Six Dnllurs tor hIx montha. Ko Biibscription will bu 

taliPQ for ii whorter pf-riofl. The Trade will he supplied upon liberal tpnn«. 

Wh have no Travoliog Ageiita. PornniiB wiKhing to subH^ribe to The. Record, should wend 
■i HM-.>ct to us, wifu lis little delay as poatiiblp, as there will omy b« a limited num- 
isHue published — and in a short time the early numbers cannot bb had. 

Address orders to * „ ... , 

WEST & JOHNSTON, Publishers, 

145 Main street, Richmond. Va. 


ber of the tirs 



We propose to publish in the City of Eichmoud a weelily paper, to be entitled 
" The Record ;'' which will be devoted, as its name implies, to a brief and ab- 
stract chronicle of the time. 

Its contents will be varied : literature ; the war, in the many aspects in which 
this presents itself; the leading features of the Confederate cause; the Acts of 
Congress, as the^e afl'ect the immediate interests of the army and the people; the 
proceedings of the courts, &c. &c. Such will be the principal contents of The 
Record. Its plan, however, excludes all domestic controversy on persons or 

Its literary material will be eclectic, not original — though sometimes it may 
oii'er an original paper, essay or poem — and will be gathered chietly from recent 
foreign or apposite historical sources, the aim of the Editors in this respect being 
to lay before the Southern public all the most striking articles bearing upon the 
great struggle in which we are engaged, that appear in journals, reviews and 
mricazines of Europe, shut out from the Confederacy by the blockade. At the 
same time they will not only seek to present a yurrcnt view of literature, at home 
and abroad, but be quick to collect and preserve such gems of composition as not 
unlrequently adorn the columns of our own daily press, seeking to 
lighten and enliven the general contents of the paper by touches of humor or 
pathos, of which the life of the camp and the mighty drama of the time aro by no 
means devoid. The Record, it is hoped, will, in its literary character alone, be 
always a welcome visitor to the camp and the homestead, and furnish the intelli- 
gent soldier with the means of beguiling hours of listlessness in periods of mili- 
tary inaction, while it supplies the home circle with intellectual, entertainment, of 
which but little has been atTorded since the contemporary literature of England 
has been denied us. The object of the work herein is to meet an existing demand 
for healthy food for thought, and to minister to a taste, which., if not Universally 
developed, at least is dormant, and only waits development among the generally 
virtuous, and, mentally and morally speaking, healthy population of our country. 
We mean the desire to read and reflect on what good men have thought, what 
great men have wrought, in what ways Providence has proceeded, hy often mys- 
terious paths, to the improvement of the world, and to seek in that history which 
is always repeating itself, the lessons apposite to our own condition. 

lii its resume of foreign literature. The Recoi>it will seek to supply the place 
filled under the United .States by the Eclectic Magazine, LittelFs Living Age, 
and the Albion. 

The Record will seek also to present, in a condensed form, the news of the 
world, both at home and abroad. A summary of foreign intelligence will he 
made up from authentic sources at first hand, from time to time. A list, giving 
the titles of new books published in England and the Confederacy, so as to show 
what is doing in the world of letters, will he offered as frequently as shall seem 
desirable. The operations of our armies in' the field will also ]fe succinctly noted, 
while the personal casualties occurring in the war will be gathered from authentic 
staleuients, and published at the earliest possible moment. Accounts of Inven- 
tions patented in the Patent Office of the Confederate States, wherever not incom- 
patible with proper reserve, will form another feature of The Record. The postal 
arrangements of the Confederacy, with the establishment of new offices and the 
discontinuance of old ones, appointments of postmasters, new mail facilities, and 
suggestions to soldiers and their correspondents at home, how to direct and for- 
ward their letters, will claim stated and particular attention. The Hospitals and 
the condition of the sick and wounded soldiers will also be considered. Indeed, 
it is believed that The Record will send far and wide throughout the country, 
much of the information with regard to the army, which can now only be ob- 
tained at the Army Intelligence Ofiice — every thing, in short, relating to the army, 
save what might convey improper information to the enemy. 
Th^ a.<iiii8tance and collaboration of practiced and competent persona have been 

secured, and each specific branch will be conducted by a different person, so that 
hy division of labor the best results may be obtained. 

The Record will be published in quarto form, weekly, suilablo for binding. 
The typography and paper will be of the best quality that can possibly be pro- 
cured. Arrangements have been made to obviate risk of failurr> in this respect. 
All who desire to procure The Record can purchase it from the booksellers and 
periodical agents, upon whose counters it will be for sale throughoMt the Confede- 
rate States. 

Terms — Ten Dollars per annum. Six Dollars for six months. No Subscrip- 
tion will be taken for a shorter period. 

The Trade will be supplied upon liberal terms. 

EJ^ Cash in all cases must accompany the Subscription. 

The Record will be issued every TliliRSD.W" MOKNING, at our Bookstore, J45 
Main Street. 

Address CJrders to 

WEST & JOHNSTON, Publishers, 

145 Main St. Richmond. 


We published last week, under the standing head of " Laws and General 
Orders," the act of October 13th, f863, which relates to the formation of- volun- 
teer companies for local defence. This act is of such vitHl importance to the 
Confederacy, to every State, County and neighborhood, that we beg leave again 
to call attention to it, in a recapitulation of its provisions, and a word or two of 
commentary thereupon. 

It is the act of October 13, 1862, providing for making available the services 
of the masses outside of the army proper, in moments of local danger or emer- 
gency. It enacts that any number, not less than twenty, of citizens not liable to 

ilitary duty, may organize as a company, elect officers, and, serving without 
pay or allowances, be held as part of the provisional army, and entitled to tho 
rights of prisoners of war, if captured. Their muster roll, or list of names, must 
be transmitted to the governor or to military authority. Each person, before 
becoming a member, must take the oath of confederate allegiance. 

Again: wherever the conscript law' is suspended, all residents, though liable to 
army service, may serve under this act. 

Our enemies have lately conceived a new hope, that the rebellion, as they phrase 
it, is a mere crust. Breaking through this, and penetrating into the interior, 
while holding our armies engaged on the circumference, they trust by rapine and 
devastation to dishearten our patriotism and finally disarm our resistance. Re- 
cent experience has given hut too much color to the plausibility of these views. 

History points out two modes in which a people contending for liberty, pro- 
perty and existence, may meet aggression. The one, adopted by revolutionary 
Fr.ince, was collecting all internal resources to cross the threatened frontiers and 
hurl war upon the enemy on his own soil. The other, resorted to hy Spain 
ai' invasionj was to rely iu great measure on dogged resistance., outside of 
great army conflicts, to every detachment of the enemy, and fight for their homes 
inch by inch and man to man, wherever occasion offered. Whatever objections 
of principle offer to such guerrilla warfare, are modified by the nature of the act 
allowing our people to organize in small bands, for it. makes them members of 
the army, and thus accountable to oU' the laws of war, not less those of its hu- 
man ities than those for offence or defence. 

Our way has not yet seemed clear to repel the enemy by invasion of his soil. 
But our resources for such warfai'S have been developing with unexampled 
rapidity, and its day is dawning, if we do not suffer ourselves to be crippled 
mean time by supineness at homo. As we have appealed to God for the justice 
of our cause, let us not, by want of effort, show ourselves unworthy of his help. 
While our noble armies have been opposing an iron barrier to any thing like a 
complete or permanent occupation of our .country, petty raids, that our home 
population ought to have been prepared to repel, have made the enemy tri- 
umphant in exultation, such as they alone in modern civilization would venture 
to I'xhibit o'icr the ruin and desolation of the peaceful homes of nou-combatants. 
Made of necessity on a small scale, these maraudings of scattered bands can be 
counteracted by small efforts. Many a time, the burning of a, single bridge 
mifht have sufficed to ensure the capture of a retreating band, by giving time 
for our own regular forces to intercept them. 

As manhood prompts us to defend our women and children, as we hope to win 
a national existence or leave a fair record in history, let our home people come 
forth to enroll themselves in these home companies. They will not want for 
military skill to direct them what to do in the moment of need. Let every man 
hasten to shake off the name of non-combatant. Let the enemy understand once 
lor lUl that it is the people, not the armies alone of these Confederate States that 
he has to conquer. 



[June 25, 1863 


Under this head we beg to present to our readers this week the following memo- 
randa upon two most important subjects. The information contained in the first 
is of great practical utiUty, while the new exemption law has never before been 
published : 


To simplify the niannor of efl'ectiug discharges and fmloughs, condensed Gene- 
ral Orders, Mos. 51 and 01), of the current year, have been issued, in substance as 
follows : 

1. Soldiers ;)resc«< jcjf/i (Aeir commanrfs, being pronounced totally unfitted for 
service, by pliysieal disabilitj", on the certificates, according to medical regulation 
forms, of the regimental or battalion surgeon, the captain forward.-, these certifi- 
cates, with a statement of the case, through the regimental and higher com- 
mauders. If the department or army commander approve, he endorses an order 
for discharge on the certificate. This is to be sent back fur signature of tlie regi- 
mental commander, then forwarded Ijy tlie Captain to the Adjutant and InspectDr 
General. The discharges are to be signed by the regimeutal, and final state- 
ments by the company commander. 

2. Soldiers, present with t/uir commands, certified to require from temporary 
disability, removal or change of climate, may, in 'like manner be furloughed by 
department or army commanders for thirty days — in e.^treiiie cases, for si.xty. 

3. At hospiliils, boards of examiners are, twice a week, to visit and examine 
applicants, and, wjhere prudent, giiiut furloughs, for such time, not over sixty 
days, as the patient will, it is supposed, be unfit for duty. 

The same boards are to examine for discharge. If recommended, the certifi- 
cate must be signed by the senior member, and, if appro\'ed by the department 
or army commander, or by the Surgeon General, then the discharge is to be issued 
by the post commandant, who forwards the certificates to the Adjutant and In- 
spector General. 

The organization of these boards is prescribed according to the number of 
surgeons available. Eacli will have a clerk to issue furloughs. No further for- 
mality is required of the soldier, and no passport other than nis furlough. 

4. Fayiitcut to soldiers thus discharged at hospital, when descriptive lists and 
final .statements cauuel be procured, is made on muster or luispital rolls, by the 
surgeon in charge, and affidavit by the soldier, before witnesses, that pay has not 
been received for the period claimed, nor any amount due the government, -left 

5. Notices of furloughs and discharges by boards and commandants, are to be 
sent by them to captains. 

6. Boards and post commandants cannot grant leaves of absence, to officers, 
but can only recommend them, on surgeon's certificate, to army or depaitment 

7. House surgeons in hospitals are required to see every patient once a day. 
■ 8. These regulations supersede all previously existing on the same subjects. 


The following Act of Congress is published for the information of all concerned : 

An Act to repeal certain clauses of an act entitled an act to exempt certain fersons 
from Military Scn:ice,'etc., approved llth Uctober Jri&i. 

The first section repeals the provision in the old law with reference to overseers 
and the police of plantations. * 

The second section is as follows : 

" 2. For the police and management of slaves there shall be exempted one per- 
son on each tarm or plantation, the sole property of a minor, a person of unsound 
mind, a feme sole, or a person abseut frojn home in the military or naval service 
of the Confederacy, on "vvhich there arc twenty or more slaves : provided the per- 
Bttii so o.xenipted was employed and acting as an overseer previous to tlie il^lh 
April 1862, and there is no white male adult on said farm or plantation who is not 
liable to military duty; which fact shall be verified by the affidavits of said jier- 
6011 aud two respectable citizens, and shall he filed with the enrolling officer: 
and proridcd the owner of such farm or plantation, his agent or legal representa- 
tive, shall make afiidavit and deliver the same to the enrolling ofiicer, that alter 
diligent effort no overseer can be procured for such farm or plantation, not liable 
to military duty ; provided further, that this clause shall not extend to any farm 
or plantation on which the negrces have been placed by division from any other 
farm or plantation, since the llth day of .October 1862: provided Jurlher, Ihat for 
every person exempted as aforesaid, and during fbe period of such exemption, 
there shall be paid annually into the public treasury by the owners of such slaves 
the sum of five hundred dollars. 

" 3. Such other persons shall be exempted as the President shall be satisfied 
ought to be exempted, in districts of country deprived of white or .slave labor in- 
dispensable to the production of grain or provisions, necessary for the support of 
the population remaining at home, and also on account of justice, equity and 

"4. In addition to the State officers exempted by the act of October llth, 
1802, there shall also be exempted all State officers whom the Governor of any 
State may claim to have exempted for the due administration jof the government, 
and lav.s thereof: but this exemption shall not continue in any State after the ad- 
journment of the next regular session of its Legislature, unless such Legislature 
shall, by law, exempt them from military duty in the provisional army of the 
Confederate Slates." [Approved May 1, 1863.] 

We understand that, under the discretion granted by the 3d section, liberal in-' 
struclious have issued not to execute the law in such manner as to interfere with 
the necessities of production in the coming harvest. 


The pro.spectus of a new weekly journal, to be entitled "TAe Southern Punch," 
is published in the daily papers. It will be under the editorial management of 
Mr. J. AY. Overall, formerly of the press of New Orleans. 

The Central Presbyterian announces a forthcoming Life of Stonewall Jackson, 
fioin tlie pen of the Eev. Robert L. Dabney, Professor in the Theological Semi- 
nary in Prince Edward county, Virginia. Another biography of the lamented 
hero is now in the press of Messrs. Ayres & Wade, and may be expected in the 
course of three or four weeks. It has been prepared by Major John Esten Cooke, 
of the Stuart Horse Artillery. 

We acknowletlge the receipt of Fantine, the first volume of the series of Les 
Miserubles of Victor Hugo, Mr. Spence's valuable pamphlet on The •Luion, and 
No Xanie, a novel by Wilkie Collins— all published by Messrs. West & Johnston. 
The latter work is specially noticeable for the excellence of its typography. A 
new novel, by the authoress of " Beulah," in course of publication by the same 
house, will attract the attention of the reading world. 


[We continue to day the publication of the names of the federal officers, born' 
in the South, who remained in the service of an infamous government to make 
war upon their native States. As we liave begun \vith the navy, we shall not 
refer to any other branch of the service, until the naval record has been ex- 

Co.MMODORES — Active List, Henrj- K. Hoff, Heurv 11. Bell and John S. Jlis- 
roon, S. C, Will. Smith, Kentucky, Wm. D. Porter,- b. V. 

Co.MJUKUEIts — Active List, John C. Carter, Ky., Alexander Gibson, Ya., 
Beuj. M. Dove, D. C. 

. CAfiAlss. — Reserved List, W. K. Latimer, Md., Charles Boarman and Wm. 
Jameson, D. C. Lewis E. Simonds, S. C. Active List, Thoiims Tnrner, Allied 
'I'aylor, Sam'l P. Leo and T. A. .Jenkina, Va., William Kadfurd, Missouri, John 
M. Berrien, Gn., Cicero Price, Kv., John K. Goldsiiorougli. I). C , A. H. Killy 
and W M. Walker, Md., PerciVUl Drayton, S. C, .John De Cainp, Fla., John A. 
Winslow, N. C. 



General Bragrg Las received tlie rite of confirmation, and been adinittcd 
to iTiemliership in the Protestant Episcopal churcli by the Right Rev. 
Bishop Elliott of Georgia. 

The Governor of A'irginia has called out the militia, in order to secure 
8,000 men for local defence raids. 

Copious rains have succeeded to the recent drouglit in Virginia, re- 
viving the parciied fields and giving a stimulus to the growing corn. 

The loss of the iron-clad steamer Atlanta, formerly the Fiugal, is re- 
ported in the Savannah papers. This disaster occurred in a fig-ht with 
the enemy's shifis in Warsaw sound on the 18th instant. It is sup- 
posed that the Atlanta became unmanageable by running aground. 

Mr. Vallandigham sailed'from Wilmington for Bernuida in the stdSmer 
Sirius on the ICth instant. 

On the 14th instant, Major Gen. Early's division, of Lieutenant Gen. 
Ewell's corps, stormed the entrenchments of Winchester, capturing a 
large quantity of stores, all the enemy's artillery, and a considerable 
number of prisoners. On the same day Major Gen. Rodee occupied 
Martinsburg, where he secured two hundred prisoners and supplies of 
ammunition aud grain, and interrupted the travel and transportation on 
the Baltimore and Ohio rail road. An obstinate cavalry fight took place 
on the borders of Fauquier and Loudoun counties on the 17th instant, 
between Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's brigade, under the command of Col. 
Thomas T. Munford, and the entire division of Gen. Pleasontont in which 
the Yankees were severely punished and driven from the field. 


Edward Everett, in a recent address at Boston, after approving the 
arming of negroes to fight against the South, under the pretence of hu- 
manity requiring their license shoiild be checked by military discipline 
and authority, proceeds to say, "The cause in which we are engaged is 
that of the constitution and freedom and of civilization and of God. Let 
every thought and every feeling that can nerve the t^m or fire the heart 

June 25, 1863.] 



ov elevate and purify the soul 'of a patriot, rouse and guide and cheer and 
iuspivc us to do and if need be to die for the country." 

Jlr. Everett's son in law, H. A. Wise, formerly of Virginia, who re- 
mninej in the navy with the North, has been promoted to the head of 
ovilnancc in the navy bureau, in place of Dahlgrcn, who has been sent 
f^duth to take Farragut's place on the Mississippi river. 

One hundred and fifty-seven confederate oflicers, captured in Missis- 
sippi, are confined at Johnson's island, Philadelphia, to await action of 
the confederate authorities in the case of federal officers captured com- 
manding negro regiments. 

The Anglo African says, the number of negroes in the United States 
army and navy is 35.000. If to these be added those used as Iguides and 
in the engineer service, they number over 50,000. 

Gen. Gilniore is to succeed Gen. Hunter in command of the depart- 
ment of South Carolina. 

In one recent raid the federals boast that they burned fifty plantation 
mansions, and carried off one thousand able bodied negro men — enough, 
they estimate, to make one regiment. 

Congress, which will meet nest December, will stand, according to 
the best calculation by the Democratic party, as follows: Abolitionists, 
88; Democrats and opposition, 89; Independents, 4 — leaving; an oppo- 
sition majority to Lincoln, of five. It is not likely, however, that the 
virtue of that small majority, will offer much resistance to the policy of 
the administration, backed by all the agencies of government patronage. 

Up to June 1st, 1863, the Yankees report eight hundred and fifty-five 
vessels captured on our coast. Of these Rear Admiral Bailey, in a letter 
to the Secretary of the Navj', says 43 were brought into Key West since 
December 9, 1862. 

Admiral Dupont has been succeeded in command by Admiral Foote, 
and Admiral Wilkes by Commodore Lardner. Col. Grierson, who made 
the raid through the State of Mississippi, has been created a general. 

The Governor of Pennsylvania has called out the militia to guai'd 
against invasion by our armies. 

The spirit ration has been abolished in the United States n.avy. The 
American Temperance Union, in speaking'tjf the fact, compliments the 
southern cause by saying, "the extraordinarily perilous condition of the 
United States Government, contending with a rebellion u-hich is un- 
paralleled for sagacity and power, demands great sobriety in every 

Rev. Ward Beecher says in a speech : " If the war should last twenty 
years and I should lose every child, I would regard it a light .sacrifice for 
the establishment of New England ideas, religion and schools at the 

Since the commencement of flie war, cotton to the value of S 6,612,.32!), 
has been imported into New York from foreign countries, chiefly England. 

The French Academy is composed of fortyrnembers. When a mem- 
ber dies, his place is filled by election. Membership is deemed one of 
the highest honors in the world of letters. Two new members have just 
been elected, under circumstances of peculiar intei-est to the political and 
religions as well as the literary world. One was M. Dufaure, the famous 
advocate, formerly Minister of the Interior under the Republic, and the 
other, M. De. Come, who was elected over a more distinguished compe- 
titor, objected to as holding principles opposed to Christianity. 

Thiers and Berryer and Montelambert and Odillon Barrot and other 
members of the Orleanist and Legitimist parties are candidates for the 
French Assembly. They have hitherto kept aloof from office under Na- 

Lord Lynilhurst is the oldest member of the House of Lords, and at 
the age of 91 retains possession of all his faculties. His father was Cop- 
ley the artist, who resided for years in America. 

Sir George Cornewall Lewis, late Secretary of War in Great Britain, 
has been succeeded by Earl de Grey, his under Secretary of War, a young 

nolileinan of great wealth and ability. He lacks experience as a states- 
man, but has applicEftion, and-is perfectly familiar with office detail. The 
Marquis of Hartington, the eldest son of the Duke of Devonshire, has been 
made his under Secretary of War. It will be recollected that the Marquia 
of Hartington visited the Confederacy last winter, and on his return to 
England spoke favorably of our cause. He vacates a position among the 
Lords of the Admiralty, and is succeeded by Mr. Stansfield, a radical, 
lately an opponent, but hereafter of course a supporter of Palraerston. 
He is a good debater — nominally a barrister — but really a brewer. 

Mr. Gladstone, Chancellor of the Exchequer, in his financial statement 
to Parliament on April 16, showed the receipts of the government for the 
last year had been - - - - £ 70,(103.000 

And the e.vpenditures .... 69,302,000 

Leaving a surplus of - - . - £1,301,000 

In his estiniiite for another year he lowers tariff duties, and increases 
the income tax. 

jNIr. Gladstone represents Oxford Univer-sity in Parliament, and is one 
of the finest scholars as well as most brilliant orators of England. Even 
his financial statements are made attractive by eloquence. On the pre- 
sent occasion he was listened to by a crowded house, some of the Royal 
family being present. The English papers refer with pride to the fact, 
that while other nations are increasingtheir indebtedness, and (heir trade 
is paralyzed, English commerce has increased and her taxation diminished. 

The English papers speak of Mr. Magee, the English Consul at Mobile, 
having been dismissed for shipping coin to Europe without the consent of 
Lord Lyons. The coin was to pay the interest of the debt of the State 
of Alabama. The circumstance was creditable to the Confederacy, and 
hence was made the subject of complaint by the U. S. authorities. \ 

The Quarterly Review, England, gives a complete narrative of events 
from the fall of Sumter to the battle of Fredericksburg, and concludes 
what it terms "the history of a nation's birth, full of interest and in- 
struction," by saying that " as with her generals, so also with her states- 
men, the irresistible force of character has given the advantage to the 
South." ' 

Robert J. Walker is the Yankee agent sent out to England to nego- 
tiate a loan for fifty million pounds,' equal to 250 million dollars, at 7 per 
cent, interest, payable semi-annually. At last dates not a dollar of it 
was taken. Mr. Walker was a man of mind, and a great advocate of 
Free Trade when he represented Mississippi in the Senate. Like many 
other northern men who have been honored by the South, in their hour 
of trial he has turned against her. 

"Historicus," the author of certain articles against the recognition of 
the Confederacy, that have attracted attention, and been quoted in P:ir- 
liament, turns out to be the son of Sir Cornewall Lewis, late Secretary 
of War. The English papers note significantly the fact, that the articles 
issued since his father's death, are inferior to those that appeared before. 

Bulwer continues to give his thoughts to Blackwood's Magazine, in a 
scries of articles on Society, Literature and Government; in which he 
shows great contempt for the Yankee people and their institutions. 

Dickens is writing a novel, and living in Paris. He goes over occa- 
sionally to London to give readings from his works. He leaves Paris 
one evening, and the next morning he is seen at the book stores on the 

Victor Hugo, since the publication of his last novel, ha.s gone to Brus- 
sels, and will start a political paper. He is a Socialist, but of a milder 
type than Prndhonn, who has somehow managed to remain in Paris, 
while all his brother writers of the same school are, like Victor Hugo, 

There are at Havre 14,654 bales of cotton. 80,655 were there this 
time last year. 233,300 bales were there at the same date in 1861. 

A large amount of cotton seed has been sent to Egypt from Liverpool 
to stimulate cotton production in that country. 



[Junk 25, ISiiS 


We gave in our last nnnibpr a succinct stafpirent of the taxation under the 
provisional government of the Confederate States. We now give that under the 
permanent government; and again invite attention to these articles, as prepared 
by a gentleman of high financial aliility, and as being invaluable for their accu- 
racy. They will be continued. 

money tax certainly ; but the right to deposit the amount of taxes, to carry in- 
terest at ,T per cent, on untransferable certilicates, was adopted as stated above. 

In the next number we shall present an outline of all the loans, their value, 
and the issues of interest-bearing and noninterest-bearing treasury notes, and 
the produce loan. 

The permanent government organized on February 18th, 1862, but no act levy- 
ing taxes pas.sed till April 24111, lst3:i. The customs returne.l from February J8th, 
18G2, till Ueceniheraist, )8li-i, .$ (i(i8,5()6. The following are the chief" provi- 
sions of the act passed April SJlii, 1863: 

Eight per cent, on naval stores, salt, wines, liquors, tobacco, cotton, wool and 
all agricultural products, the product of any year prior to 1863, on hand 1st Julj- 
lHfi;j— to be p.iid on the articles only once. 

One per cent on all idle money or balances nol bearing interest, if out of the 
Confedeiato .States, to be estimated witli the current rate of exchange, 1st July. 

Baiikeis J* MO ; auctioneers $ .50, and.2i per cent, on sales ; but only i per ceut. 
on stocks, bonds. &.c. Wholesale liquor dealers $200, and 5 per ceut. on sales. 
Ketail $10(1, and 10 percent, on sales. Retailers of merchandise §,"iO, and 2i 
per cent, on sales. Wholesale, $ 200, and 2-1 per cent, on sales. Pawnbrokers 
$200. Distillers $ 200, and 20 per cent, on' sales. Brewers iSJOO, and 2.J per 
cent, on sales. Brokers $200 only. Commission merchants $200, and 2j per 
cent, on sales. Tobacconists .$50, and 2^ per ceut. on sales. Theatres $7)110, 
and 5 per cent, on receipts. Bowhng alleys and billiard tables $ 40 on each table 
or alley Livery stables $ 50. Catlle brokers $ 50, and 2i per cent, on sales. 
Biiteliers and bakers .$ 50, and 1 per ceut. on sales. Peddlers $ 50, and 21 per 
cent, on sales. Apothecaries f 50, and 2.} per cent, ou sales. Phutograpliers 
$ 50, and 2.^ per cent, on sales. Lawyers, physicians, dentists and .surgeons, 
$.")0. Confectioners $50, and 2.4 per cent, on .sah's. Taverns, if renting for 
$iO,000, the tax is $.'')00; if between $5,000 and $ 10,000. $300 ; if between 
$2,500 .and $ 5,000, $ 2t")0 ; if between $1,000 and 2,.>00, $100; if below 
$ 1,000, $ 30. Fruit distillers— license $00; $2 on each gallon over 10 gallons, 
and fifty cents per gallon on each gallon under 10 gallons. 

On incomes, if above $500 and less than .$ 1,.500, 5 per cent.; if over $ 1,'500 
up to $5,000, 10 per cent. ; from $10,000 to $15,000, 12^ per cent. ; over $15,000, 
K) per cent., payable 1st January 1864. 

Ten per cent, on all profits made in 1862 — ou flour, com, bacon, pork, oats, 
hay. rice, salt, iron, sugar, nioIa.sses, butter, woolen cloths, shoes, boots, hlank.-t,s 
and cotton cloths, payable 1st July 1863 — applicable to all except in the regular i 
retail trade. | 

The tax in kind is arranged as follows : Each agriculturalist, after reserving i 
fifty bushels each of Irish aud sweet potatoes, one hundred bushels of corn, fifty i 
bushels of v.'heat, and twenty bushels of peas or beaiis,-^one-tcmli of the 'wheat, ' 
corn, oats, rye, buckwheat, rice, sweet and Irish potatoes, cured hay or fodder, j 
sugar, molasses, cotton, wool, tobacco, peas, beans and ground jieas — to be deli- 1 
veied by 1st March the next year; and one-tenthof the bacon, estimating sixty ' 
pounds fur one hundred pounds of pork. j 

One per cent, is levied on all neat cattle, horses aud mules, not used in cultiva- ! 
fion. Upon the sales of beeves the prolits arc liable to the income tax as of 1st 
November each year. The act is to continue iu foice,for two years. Where the 
division in kind cannot be made, a money tax is imposed of the same amount. 

The property of hospitals, asylums, churches, schools and colleges, is ex- 
empted ; aud the lax of eight per cent,, on articles produced before lftG3, is to be' 
levied only once, and that in the year 18()3, July Ist, Where the tax has been 
paid in kind, the remaining nine teuths may be sold by the owner, or his a^ent 
or comuiission merchant, free from any further tax. 

The protits of mining aud mauulacturing, caiTying, on boat aud ship building, 
and from hire of negroes, houses, lands, fixtures, &c., rented out, or from mer- 
chandising, or from professions of any kind, are to be credited by the costs of 
labor in raw material, capital, repairs, and such other allowances only as will leave 
the actual profits liable to the tax of one tenth of the profits realized, and so as 
to joint stock or special copartnerships or associations, the profits of which are 
above $ 500 per .year, * 

Salaries, not militai-y or naval, above $1,000, and not over $1,500, one per 
cent. ; and all over $ 1^500 two per cent. 

Act of Slay 1st, 18i)3, rcgulatiug the appointment of collectors, and all the 
other operations under the tax bill for 1863, provides for one Generul Superinten- 
dent for the Confederacy, of one Deputy Collector General for each State, and 
one for each collection district. The chief item is the valuation of every thing in 
confederate treasury notes, aud the obligation requiring creditors to endorse their 
willingness to receive the debt in that currency. The interpretation to be put 
upon the act where parties fail to do so, remains an open question — aud then; is 
the authority given to any Sue to pay down at any time his tax, and take a cer- 
tificate to carry 5 per cent, interest till the day the taxes are due and collectable 
by the goveniment. 

The following propositions were not adopted : 

1. A tax of ten cents on each note issued for circulation, and ou each bill, re- 
ceipt for money or agreement of any kind, so as to force in all individual or cor- 
poration notes. * I 

e. A tax of per eent. on all bills of exchange maturing out of the Con- 
fedeiato States, so as to compel foreigners to pay rfoicn iu money or with their 
property, before they could get ours. Mieslng, 

3. A tax of one mill on each dollar of deposit mouey left with an v other party Army Intelligence Office 
than the treasury of the Confederate States, except State deposits, to be paid by Poland"" K«'^'e"'"o" 
the receivers, not the oicners. Estimated revenue from this item, 4 to 5 millions, i Prosprctus, 

4. Authority for the Secretary of the Treasurv to issue 3 days sight bills, ' HoTi,e Deiince, 
payable where the deposit was made. Orders payable thirty days after date, at a 1 J'?"'" "'"'• 0-<i"s, 
dilferent point from the one where issued. The mouey used in exchanges would ' b' •t'k'u'^t 

thus come into the treasury. j summary If Jjews. • 

5. Exchequer bills having six months to run, pavable out of the incoming le- ' Financial, 

venue bearing interest at per cent, the mouth. " These bills would have ab- Confederate Gnvernmcnt 
•orbed tt. idle monay of th» country to the exiant of mueh of ths aecruing CiUcndw . 

THE confedt:rate goveenment. 

(Organized temporaril.v, February 8th, 1861— permanently, February 18ih, 1862.) 


Jefferson Davis, Miss., President (term six years); Alex. H. Stephens, Ga., 

Vice-President: J. P. Benjamin, La., Secretary of State; Jas. A. Seddon, Viv., 
Secretary of War; S It. Mallory, Kla , Secretary of Navy; C. G. Meminingir, 
S. C, Secretary of Treasury ; 1 bos. H. Watts, Ala., Attorney General ; John H. 
Reagan, Texas, Postmaster General ; A. C. Myers, Ya., Quartermaster General ; 
L. B, Northrop, Commissary General; S. P. Moore, S. U., Surgeon General; 
E. W. Johns, S. C, Medical Pmveyor. 


Generals — Cooper, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard and Bragg. 

Lieutenant Generals — Long-street, Polk, Hardee, Kirby Smith, Holmes, Pern- 
berton, EweU and A. P. Hill. 


Admiral — Franklin Buchanan. 

Captains — L. Rousseau, French Forrest, J. Tatnall, V. M. Randolph, 6. M. 
HoHius, D. N. Ingraham, S. Barron, W. F. Lynch, J. L. Sterrett and K. Simms. 

Captains for the liar — S. S. Lee and W. C" Whittle. 

John G. Shorter, Alabama; II. Flanagan, Arkansas: Jos. E. Brown, Georgia; 
Thos. O. Moore, Loui.siana; John J. Pettus, Mississippi: Zebiilon B. Vai'ice, 
North Carolina; Milledge L, Bonhatn, Spttth Carolina: Isham G. Harris, I'en- 
nessee; F. R. Lubbock, Texas; John Letcher, Virginia; John Milton, Florida; 
T. C. Reynolds, Mi^souri; Richard JIawes, Kentucky. 

By WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond: 

Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, Medical, Ecouomical and 
Agricultural, beiug also a Medical Botany of (he Confederate States, 
with practical information on the usi-ful properties of Trees, Plants 
and Shrubs — By Francis Peyre Porcher, Surgeon P. A. C. S. — Pub- 
lished by order of the Surgeon General, Richmond, — - $10 00 

The American Union — its effect on National Character and Policy, with 
an enquiry into Secession as a Constitittituial Right, and the Causes 
of the Disnipture — By James Speuce — First American edition, from 
the fourth English edition, - - - - - -2 00 

Chief Points iu the Laws of War and Neutrality, .Search and Blockade, 
with the Changes of ISoO, and those now prc.posed — By Jno. Eraser 
MacQueeu, Esq., one of her Majesty's Counsel, - - - 1 00 

The Stonewall Song Book, being a Collection of Patriotic, Sentimental 

and Comic Songs, - - - - - - - 50c. 

The Pictorial Primer, designed for the Use of Schools and Families — 
Illustrated, ..-.-... 50c. 

The First Year of the War— twentieth thousand— By E. A. Pollard, 3 00 

Upon receipt of the price of any of the above mentioned Books, we 

will forward them to any part of the OontiBdet'acy, post paid. 
Address orders to 

Publishers and Booksellers, 145 Main St. liichnumd. 


MOXDAY, - - 
TUE.KDAY, - - 

Wedxesd.w, - 



SlXDAY, - 






















Tnx Dollars a veab. 

Six Dollars for six months. 


MS MhIu ut., Richmond. 


of Lords— Lord CampbcU'« Speech, 

Volume I.] 


[Number 3. 


' Is there any news of the war ?" sbe said, 
"Only a list of the wounded and dead," < 

Was the man's reply, 

Without hfting his eye 

To the face of the woman standing by. 
' 'Tis the very thing I want," slie said ; 
' Head me a list of the wounded and dead." 

He read the list — 'twas a sad array 
Of the wounded and killed in the fatal fray; 
In the very midst was a pause to tell 
Of a gallant youth who fought so well 
That his comrades asked, " Who is he, pray?" 
' The only son of the Widow Gray," 

Was the proud reply 

Of his Captain nigh. 
What ails the woman standing near ? 
Her face has tie ashen hue of fear ! 

^ Well, well, read on ; is he wounded ? quick ! 
Oh, God ! but my heart is son-ow sick !" 

' Is he wounded ? No ! he fell, they say. 
Killed outright on that fatal day !" 
53ut see, the woman has swooned away ! 

Sadly she opened her eyes to the light; 
Slowly recalled the events of the fight ; 
Faintly she miu'murcd, " Killed outright! 
It has cost me the life of my only son ; 
But the battle is fought and the victory won ; 
The will of the Lord, let it be donei" 

God pity the cheerless Widow Gray, 
And send from the halls of Kterual Day, 
The light of His peace to illumine her way ! 


Last week we gave the mode prescribed by the government for communication 
•with the sick and wounded of the army, and preserving an authentic record of 
the dead. We now give the rules established to aid the friends and relatives of 
the deceased soldier in securing his effects and back pay. By an observance of 
these forms, the necessity for employing claim agents will be obviated. 

How to procure the Pay and Allowances due Deceased Officers and Sol- 
diers, and the Disposition made of their Effects. 

The government has lately issued a special order. No. 67, in addition 
to and amendatory of former regulations, in relation to the disposal of 
the effects of deceased soldiers. To secure to the heirs of the deceased 
the fall value of all property left hy them, it is directed, that " surgeons 

will turn over money or other effects of deceased soldiers (except cloth- 
ing) to the quartermaster of the regiment to which the soldier belonged, 
if he died in the field, or to the quartermaster of the post, if he died in 
hospital," taking receipts in duplicate for the same — one of which is to be 
sent to the family of the deceased. The military clothing is appraised 
and turned over to the quartermaster for issue, and the value of it al- 
lowed to the representatives of the deceased soldier, in the final settle- 
ment with the Second Auditor. 

The Second Auditor of the Treasury settles all claims of heirs (or pay, 
bounty, clothing, etc. In Richmond the quartermaster receiving the 
money, etc., found upon the persons of deceased soldiers, pays it over, 
upon proper evidence, ff the claimant files his papers with the Second 
Auditor, and gets a certificate from that officer that he is the authorized 
representative, the money is paid by the quartermaster upon such certi- 
ficate. By this plan, one set of papers serves for the collection of the 
dues and effects. Payments arc made to the legal representative, only, 
upon presentation of an afliJavit supported by one disinterested witness, 
and certified by the clerk of the county court, under seal. A power of 
attorney is necessary when the claimant sends an agent. 

There is not yet established in Richmond a central bureau for the re- 
ception of the effects of soldiers who die in any part of the Confederate 
States ; and claimants should bear in mind that the effects remain with 
the quartermaster of the locality where the soldier died. 

At the ofiice in Richmond, Va., from August 1862 to the present time, 
$ 73,000 have been received, besides watches, trinkets, etc. About ten 
per cent, of this amount has been paid to heirs, and the number of ap- 
plicants is increasing daily. 

Regulations prescribed by W. H. S. Taylor, the Second Auditor, for 
the payment of claims for arrears of pay and allowances due to de- 
ceased officers and soldiers of the Confederate Army. Per Act No. 
402, approved February 15lh, 1862, and Act No. 30, approved Octo- 
ber 8th, 18G2. 

Those Acts provide " that the pay and allowances due to any deceased 
volunteer, commissioned, non-commissioned ofiicer, musician or private 
in the army of the Confederate States, shall be paid to the widow of the 
deceased, if living, and if not, to the children, if any ; and in default of 
widow or children, to the father, if living, and if not, to the mother of 
such deceased volunteer. Payments will be made accordingly, under the 
following rules : 

1. If the chiM or children be minor, payment will be made to the 
guardian, upon the production of the proper certificate of guardianship 
under the seal of the Court. 




[July 2, 186* 

2. The claimant ranst produce his or her affidavit, and that of one dis- 
interested witness, stating the relationship. For instance, if the claimant 
be a mother, the affidavit must state that there is living neither wife, child 
or father of tlie deceased ; if the father, that there is neither wife or 
child; and if the child, thafthere is no widowed wife. 

The magislrdte or other proper officer must teslify to the credihility of 
the witness, and the clerk of the Court must certify, under the seal of the 
same, that he is such magistrate. 

The aforegoing instructions must be strictly complied with. Powers 
of attorney or assignment, which will seldom be necessary, may be exe- 
cuted before a magistrate, or in the presence of two respectable witnesses. 
CLaims prepared as herein directed, and transmitted to the Second Au- 
ditor by mail or otherwise, will receive as prompt attention as the bnsi- 
ness of his office will allow, and alivai/s in the order of their presentationt. 
The amounts found due will be remitted by the auditor, to the parties 
entitled as they may direct. 

The attention of claimants is called to the following forms in preparing 
their affidavits, an observance of which wilt save time, trouble and ex- 
pense : 

State of , ? On this — day of •, 186—, 

Count)/, to icit : ^ personally appeared before me, the sub- 

scriber, a justice of the peace in and for the County aforesaid, 

■who, after being sworn according to law, deposes and says, that ■ 

is the of deceased, who was a of Captain ■ 


regiment of 

volunteers, commanded by Colonel 

in the service of the Confederate States, in the present war with 

the United States; that the said ■ entered the service at in 

County and State of on or about the day of — 

dav of 

186 — , leaving 

186 — and died on tl; 

That makes this deposition for the purpose of obtaining from the 

Government of the Confederate States whatever may have been due the 

said at the-tirae of his death for pay, bount}- or other allowances 

for his service, as ■ aforesaid. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, ^ (Signed) 

— ,J.P. \ . 

And on the same day and year aforesaid, also appeared before me, a 

justice of the peace as aforesaid, who is well known to me, and 

whom I certify to be a person of veracity and credibility, who, having 

l5een duly sworn, says, that — ■ is well acquainted with the 

claimant, and also well knew, for years, the deceased sol- 
dier herein mentioned, and that the statement made under oath by said 
the claimant, as to relationship to the said deceased sol- 
dier, is true and correct in every particular, to the best of know- 
ledge and belief, and that the said is wholly disinterested. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, } (Signeil) 

-, J. P 

Clerk's certificate to follow the above. 

If within their knowledge, claimants should state u-here the officer or 
soldier was horn, and Khen. and from what cause he died, distinguishing 
those who were killed in battle, or died of wounds received in battle', from 
those ivho died nf disease. 

When there is an administrator, a certificate of the fact by the proper 
officer of the Court granting the same, under his seal of office, will be all 
that is necessary. 

The law, and these regulations applying as well to conscripts as to 
Tolunteers, with respect to the former claimants and witnesses, will be 
required to swear to the conscription and the regiment and commander, 
to which the conscript belonged. They will name the captains and com- 
panies when they cau do so, as this information will greatly facilitate the 

Claimants should always endorse on their papers their address, naming 
fost office, Count;/ and ,Stale. 

The aforegoing forms, etc., Lave also been approved by the Seerutary 
of War. 

V>\ H- S. TAYLOI{, 

Seco7id Auditor C. S. 


The interest that attaches to the .-iction of the English tjovernment on ques- 
tions at issue between it and the Government of the United States, induces us 
to publish a resume of the debates iu Parliament. 

Thursday, April Z'^— House' of Lords. 
The Marquis of Clanricarde put several questions to Lord Eussell, m 
regard to the treatment of British vessels by the naval officers of the 
United States. He referred to the case of the Dolphin, seized in Danish 
waters, on her way from Liverpool to Nassau, and also to those of the 
Poterhoff and. the Adela. He censured, jn strong terms, the behavior of 

Mr. Adams, who had given a certificate to a British ship laden with arms 
for the Jlexican governjnent, and attributed his subsequent letter on \he 
subject to some remonstrance from the Foreign office. It had come to 
this, that British merchants were actually advertising for French ships to 
load for British ports in the West Indies. ~ ^ 

Lord Russell, in reply, described the Marquis' speech as somewhat 
warm. He had every reason to suppose that the government of the ^ 

United States would do justice. It had given to its naval officers in- 
structions in accordance with international law, and if those instructions 
were disobeyed, he had no right to assume that reparation would be re- ^ 

fused. The conduct of Mr. Adams was utterly unwarrantable, and he ■ 

would bring it under the notice of the United States government. He ■ 

had declined to put a mail courier on board the Sea Queen in charge of ^ 

the mail. bags, but he had exempted vessels bound for Mexican ports from 
the liability to carry mail bags. The government of live United States 
had promised not to open the. mails. 

Thursday, April 23 — House of Pommons. 

Mr. Eoebuck insisted on asking a question, of which he had given no- 
tice, in reference to the conduct of an admiral in the United States ser- 
vice, witli. respect to English merchant ships going from one neutral port 
to another. At the outset of the contest in America his feelings were 
-entirely in favor of the North; but by degrees he had arrived at the con- 
viction that their whole course had not only proved them to be unfit to 
govern themselves, but had been such as to disentitle them to the cour- 
tesies and coraitj' of civilized nations. He held that the confluct of the 
North American Disunited States had been humiliating to the people of 
England. We had been subjected to every species of violent language, 
not only of inninuation, bat accusation and threats of war. An English 
vessel bound to a port had been seized by an American cruiser 
and carried into an American port, and the jnst expectations of the Eng- 
lish merchant in his honorable trade thereby utterly destroyed. Nay, 
more ; the American minister in this country had taken upon himself tO' 
issue permits to English merchants to trade with the port of Matamoras. 
At this moment, therefore, Mr. Adams, the American minister, was the 
minister for commerce in England. He knew that if his views were car- 
ried out, it might lead to war; but speaking the Bcnsc of the people of 
England, he did not hesitate to declare that they were prepared for war. 
He begffed to ask, therefore, whether the government had formed any 
determination w^th regard to the proceedings of Admiral Wilkes; and if 
they intended making any remonstrance to the government of America, 
or what other course they proposed to adopt. 

Lord Palmcrston admitted that the question was one of the greatest 
possible importance ; but all he could say was, that it was receiving duo 
consideration on the part of the government, and that he was not then 
prepared to state the conclusion at which they had arrived. 

Mr. JIalins felt humiliated by the fact that the commerce of Engfanil 
was being carried on upon the sufferance of a foreign power, and that we 
were succumbing in a most disgraceful manner to an apprehension which 
had never influenced the countr)' before. 

Lord R. Cecil observed, that whilst her Majesty's government were 
delaying and thinking about what they should do, Mr. Adams was master 
of the field. The trade of England was now canied on by the permit of. 
a foreigner; and it had actuall)' come to thi.s, that an extra premium on 
the insurance of ships trading between English ports, that was, between 
Liverpool or London and Nassau, had to be paid against the risk of being 
unjustifiably overhauled by American cruisers. Thus, a direct t»s was 
exacted by the Britisii merchant for no other reason than that Admiral 
Wilkes had chosen to commit piratical acts on the high seas. 

Friday, April 24 — House of Commons. 
5Ir. Ilorsfall, in calling attention to the recent seiznre of the Alexan- 
dria at Liverpool, condemned the act as the deliberate infliction of a 
serious injury upon her respectable owners, Messrs. Fawcett, Preston & 
Co. The charge was, he understood, that the Alexandria was furpisheJ 
and fitted out with the intent of being employed in the service of the , 

July 2, 1863.] 



Confederates against tlie Federals. Ilor Majesty's government professed 
to act strictly upon the principle of neutrality in the contest now going on 
in America ; but if we were to have neutrality, why had they not stopped 
the shipment of arms to the Federals as well a,s the sailing of a ship 
which they suspected of being in .the service of the Confederates? The 
fact was, that at this moment we were not only supplying the Federals 
with gun barrels, percussion caps and auimunitiou, but also the hands to 
use them ; for the emigration of Irishmen from Liverpool during the pre- 
sent year was considerably greater than it had been during the corres- 
ponding period in any year since 1853. Now, he did not object to emi- 
grants going to the United States ; but surely we had a right to know by 
whom they « ere sent ; and he was told that the passage of a large por- 
tion of these persons was paid for in America. 

The attorney general said, the seizure of the Alexandria had been 
made upon the advice of the law oiEcers of the Crown, who were of 
opinion that it was justified by the evidence produced. With regard to 
the shipment of arms, and other munitions of war, it was not in the 
power of the government to interfere ; but if proof was furnished to them 
that persons on board ship destined for the United States or the Southern 
Confederacy, and called emigrants, were really enlisted to serve in the 
armies of either belligerent, he hesitated not to say that measures would 
be immediately adopted for putting in force the provisions of the Foreign 
Enlistment Act. 

Mr. Cobden, who had given notice that he would call the attention of 
the House to the necessity of enforcing the Foreign Enlistment Act, be- 
gan his speecli by pleading for indulgence t«ward.s the Federalists, if on 
one or two occasions they had seized innocent British vessels. The enor- 
mous development of our trade with the West Indies during the present 
war, was clear evidence of its contraband character; and he was pro- 
pared, on English grounds, to justify the conduct of the Federal cruisers. 
He urged that the Alabama might be seized \vhenever she entered a 
British port, as she had never made a voyage, and was consequently still 
under British jurisdiction. 

Mr. Horsihan, speaking in regard to the conduct of Her Majesty's 
government, said, his opinion was that they had mth perfect integrity 
endeavored to carry out the policy of a strict and undeviating neutrality. 
He said, that secession was now ai\ accomplished fact, proved by the 
triumph in arms, the wisdom and calmness in council, and the spirit of a 
people determined, as one man, to die for their independence. The war 
on the part of the North was now not only waged against freedom, but 
civilization ; for great as was the crime of slavery, there was yet a ciime 
of deeper, blacker dye — and it was to be found in the proclamation of 
President Lincoln, which invited the negro to achieve his freedom by a 
carnival of crime. There was nothing more creditable in the dispatch 
of the Foreign Secretary, than the manner in which he had laid bare the 
atrocious character of that proclamation, which had destroyed the last 
chance of English sympathy with the North. The great Republic had 
been metamorphosed into a military tyranny. Its President was a more 
irresponsible despot than the Czar oj Russia. Liberty of action, thought, 
speech and writing bad been abolished. The public press was coerced 
and gagged. The state prisons were filled with political suspects, as ^vas 
formerly the case in Italy. In, fact, the constitution of the United States 
was at an end. Our first duty was to observe a strict neutrality, and give 
the North no cause of quarrel ; and next, to leave no misconception with 
regard to the real opinion of this country with regard to the war. 

Monday, April '27 — House of Lords. 

Lord Russell stated, that in accordance with his promise on Friday, he 
had consulted the law officers of the Crown, but that it was not desirable 
then to mention what their opinion was with reference to the instructions 
issued by Mr. Seward for the guidance of the naval officers of the United 
States in the capture of British merchant vessels carrying Her Majesty's 
mails from this country to neutral ports. AVith regard to the case of the 
Aries, the result of Lord Lyons' remonstrances was that Mr. Seward had 
written to Mr. Gideon Welles to the effect that it was not expedient that 

the naval officers in charge of the blockade should open the mail bags of 
a friendly power duly autlienticated by un oflicial seal, but that they should 
be forwarded with all convenient dispatch to their destination. No ques- 
tion had arisen in consequence of these instructions until very recently; 
and it was only that morning he had received an oflicial account, from 
which it appeared that on the fourth of April Mr. Archibald, our consul 
at New York, received the mails wluch were taken on Jioard the Peter- 
lioft" under the seal of the Postmaster General, and directed in due form. 
Mr. Archibald protested against breaking the seal or disturbing the bag, 
and required that it should be dispatched to its destination. The Fede- 
ral authorities insisted that the bag shouM be opened, and it was opened 
accordingly, and found to cvontain several packages directed to Matamo- 
ras. They did not, however, proceed further, and Mr. Archibald reported 
proceedings to Lord Lyons, who at once addressed Mr. Seward, declaring 
that this proceeding was a violation of the instructions before referred 
to ; and Mr. Seward had requested time to consider the matter. Subse- 
quently, Mr. Archibald was told that the prize court had decided that the 
letters should be opened, and he was asked to do so himself, forwarding 
those which were bona fide to their addresses, and handing over those 
which related to the cargo to the prize court. Jlr. ArchiViald declined to 
be a party to any such proceedings, but said that if the prize court in- 
sisted on the letters being opened, he would be present, but only as a 
witness. In consequence of this declaration, the proceedings seemed to 
have been suspended ; and Mr. Seward had given directions that until 
orders from Washington, no further steps should be taken, but at the 
time the mail left, the United States government had not come to any 
decision on the subject. > 



To the Captains of the Confederate Stales : 

"I have au errand to thee, oh CaptaiQ."— 2ud Kings, i.\, .). 

In the Bible the title captain is affixed indiscriminately to all offices, 
civil abd military, without regard to their rank. In the State, kings and 
governors of provinces were called captains, and in the army there were 
captains of fifties, captains of hundreds, and captains of thousands. This 
usage agrees with the derivation of the word caput (the head). An offi- 
cer is a man to whom public duties are committed, and who binds him- 
self to do his duty by a solemn appeal to God in the form of an oath upon 
the Bible. 

Natural philosophy teaches us that all particles of matter which com- 
pose the globe are intimately related to each other, so that the smallest 
grain of sand has an influence upon the grandest mountains. Each indi- 
vidual streams with influence upon all who see him or hear of him— influ- 
ence which is propagated like vibrations of the air and waves of the sea, 
whose eflects never cease. This truth invests the meanest man with 
grandeur, in the eyes of a thoughtful person, and should make us tremble 
under the burden of individual responsibility. But if a private person 
has so many relations with the world, and is a centre of so much influ- 
ence, an officer, to whose private duties is superadded a public trust, 
must have a greater capacity of doing good or evil, and a much heavier 
burden of responsibility to bear. It is the difference between a common 
sailor and the captain of the ship. 

This is a subject of vital interest always and every where, because it 
involves the happiness of human beings for time and forever. But it is 
transcendently a question of life and death to us at the present moment. 
We are in the midst of a revolution. The old Union, in which we were 
embarked, having been run upon the rocks by incompetent officers, has 
gone to pieces in a tempest of fanaticism, and we have escaped from the 
wreck with our principles. 

Our old comrades, infuriated at our secession, with torches in one hand 
and arras in the other, threaten our subjugation or extermination. We 
have been obliged to Inaugurate a new government, and to organize an 



[July 2, 1863 

army in the face of the enemy and TinJer fire. The ports of the enemy 
are open to the commerce of the world', whence they can draw supplies 
of arms, ammunition, food, clothing, and fell other necessaries, and even 
luiurieg. Our ports are blockaded, and we hare to draw upon our re- 
sources for everything — raising onr food, wearing our dothes, and ex- 
temporizing factories for all purposes. Under such circumstances we 
must make up for deficiencies in the material with the moral. "We must 
draw inspiration from the heroes of history and from Heaven. History 
furnishes many examples of the superiority of the moral to the material — 
of the power of right over might. What constitutes a State! 
" Not high raised battlement or labored mound ; 

Thick wall or moated pfate. 

No — men, high-minded men — 

Men who their duties know ; 

But know their rights, and knowMg dare maintain — 

These constitute a State." ' 

We mvwt peproduee tlie purity, patriotism, courage, piety and self- 
denial of our first revolution, when our fathers endured weariness, pain- 
fulness, watchings, hunger, thirst, co5d, nakedness ; perils in the city, 
perils in the wilderness, perils by their own oonntrymen, perils by the 
heathen, and yet waxed valiant in fight, turning to flight tl»e armies of 
the aliens. 

One of the distinguishing traits of our revolutionary era was a general 
lecogaition of a Divine Providence presiding over the world, and a pro- 
found conviction of our dependence upon Him for success. This fact is 
Btaniped upon all the State papers of that day. The characteristic fea- 
ture of these documents is their esangeliccd lone. They not only ac- 
knowledge an overruling Providence as heathens and deists do, but they 
were not ''ashamed of Christ." In the recommendations of fast days 
by Congress, in March and December, 1776, and in March 1778, 1781 
and 1782, and of days of thanksgiving in 1777, 1781 and 1782, all the 
distinctive doctrines of Christianity are boldly professed. There are not 
^ only recognitions of Providence, confessions, bewailings of sin, calls to 
repentance, but exhortations to personal holiness and prayers for •' pros- 
pering the means of religion for the enlargement of that kingdom, which 
is righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, and for the uni- 
versal diffusion of the religion of our Divine Redeemer," — all concluding, 
" through the merits and medialion of .lesus Christ our blessed Saviour." 
The Congress of 1776 also recommended, "in the most earnest manner, 
to all officers, civil and militaiy, the exercise of repentance and reforma- 
tion, and to require of all under them the strict observation of the Arti- 
cles of War, and particularly of tho>^e which forbid profane swearing, 
and all immorality ; that vice, profanity and extortion and every evil, may 
be done away ; that we may be a reformed, a holy and a happy people." 

When Washington communicated the fact of the surrender of Corn- 
wallis. Congress went in procession to the Lutheran church to "return 
thanks to Almighty God for crowning the allied arms of France and the 
United States with success ; and they also requested the States to inter- 
pose their authority in cpmmanding and enforcing the 28th of November 
as a day of solemn thanksgiving to God for all His mercies ; and they 
recommended to all ranks to testify their gratitude to God by a cheerful 
obedience to His laws, and hy promoting, each in his station and by his 
influence, the practice of true and undefiled religion, which is the great 
foundation of public prosperity and national happiness." 

Now let us see how these recommendations were carried out by the offi- 
cers of the army. When Washington took command of the army he issued 
the following order : " The General expects and requires of all officers 
and soldiers, not on actual duty, a punctual attendance upon Divine ser- 
vice, to implore the blessing of heaven upon the means used for our safety 
and defence." Preparatory to a fast day he issued this order : "The 
General commands all officers to pay strict attention to the orders of the 
Continental Congress, that by their unfeigned attention to their relig 
duties, they may incline the Lord and giver of victory to prosper 
arms," &c. And in his diary is the following entry : " Went to church 
and fasted all day." Irving tells us that while investing Boston, Wash- 
ington went to church regularly, and had prayers night and morning. 
Once the chaplain being absent, one of his aids (Col. Palfrey) read the 



service, substituting a prayer of his own for the prayer for the king. Is 
his general order of 20th February, he said, " In this time of public dis- 
tress, men may find enough to do in the service of God, and of their 
country, without abandoning themselves to vice and immorality." While 
defending New York, he excused the troops from fatigue duty on Sunday, 
that they might have an opportunity of attending pnbfio worship. " The 
General," Be said, " is sorry to be informed, that the foolish and wicked 
practice of profane swearing and cursing, a vice hitherto little known in 
our American array, is growing into fashion. He hopes the officers will, 
by example and influence, endeavor to check it, and that both they and 
the men will reflect that we can have but little hope of the blessing of 
God upon onr arms if we insult him by our impiety and folly. Add to 
this, it is a vice so mean and low, that every man of sense and character 
despises it." In a circular to his Brigadier Generals, he says, " Let vice 
and immorality of every kind be discouraged as much as possible in your 
brigade ; and as a chaplain is allowed to each regiment, see that the men 
regularly attend Divine vrorship. Gaming of every kind ia expressly 
forbidden as being evil, and the canse of many a gallant officer's ruin." 

To these might be added many like facts, illustrating the character of 
the men who fought the battles of our first revolution, in council and in 
the field. They feared God — they had no other fear. They not only 
denounced vice and immoralily in general, but the special sins of pro- 
fane swearing, gambling, drunkenness and Sabbath-breaking. They 
were not content with general acknowledgments of Divine Providence, 
but they confessed God manifest in the flesh. They showed their reve- 
rence for God's AVord, by recommending the importation of 20,000 Bibles 
in 1777 ; and when this was prevented by the blockade, and it was pro- 
posed to print the Bible, the Continental Congress expressed their. " ap- 
probation of the pious and laudable undertaking, as subservient to the 
interests of religion," and recommended a particular edition, "being 
satisfied of the care and accuracy of its execution." They demonstrated 
their appreciation of the visible institutions of Christ by attending public 
worship, and coniniemorating his cross and passion. They were commu- 
nicants. The Father of bis country was not ashamed to fall upon hig 
knees in his tent, or in the groves (" God's first temples"), and supplicate 
the favor and bk'ssing of the Sovereign Commander of the Universe. 

When the American army was encamped at Valley Forge, in a state 
of extreme suffering, Washington was olwerved to frequently visit a se- 
cluded grove. This excited the curiosity of a Mr. Potts {,& tory), who 
watched, and seeing Washington upon bis knees at prayer, returned to 
his family and exclaimed, "Our cause is lost. The leader of the Ame- 
rican army is a man of prayer." Gleneral Knox also testifies that sccrei 
prayer was the object of these frequent visits to the grove. 

Again, while encamped in New Jersey a courier arrived one morning 
at day break, w ith dispatches for the Commander in Chief. Tlie corpo- 
ral of the guard took the papers and proceeded to the General's 
ters, and hearing a voice, he listened, and found that Washington was 
fervently engaged in praying aloud. The following is one of bis prayers : 
"Almighty Father, if it be thy holy will to give us a name and place 
among the nations of the earth, grant that we may show onr gratitude 
for thy goodness by onr endeavors to fear and obey thee. Bless us with 
wisdom in council and success in battle, and let our victories be tempered 
with humanit}-. Endow, also, onr enemies with enlightened minds, that 
they may become sensible of their injustice, and willing to restore onr 
liberty and peace. Grant this for the sake of him whom thou hast called 
thy beloved Son ; nevertheless, not my will; but thine be done." Such 
were the men yhom God deigned to use as instruments for achieving our 
independence of British rule. I would hold them as models for those 
who have the conduct of the civil aud miiitarj' affairs of the Confederate 

Every violation of law should be promptly corrected. Gambling, drun- 
kenness, profane swearing, and such immoralities, are expressly forbitlden 
by law, and therefore should not be tolerated by officers who respect the 
obligation of their oath, or the interests of the service. But officers 
should also be "ministers of God for good;" which influence is unceas- 
ingly radiating. They should set good examjjles. An officer who is 
protaue, or gets drunk, or gambles, or is grossly immoral in any way, 
should be disciplined. Such an one is unfit to be trusted with the com- 
mand of other men. How can he consistently demand obedience to or- 
ders, when he himself is habitually disobedient to the law. There are 
many ways in which all entrusted with official authority may do good. 
The best way is to be a Chrislfan, a whole-souled, thorough-going Chris- 
tian, a Christian like AVashington, like Haveloek, and Gardiner, and 
Vickers, and we are happy to add, like many of our own gallant officera, 
civil and military, who are the true conservatives — the men who are to 
save the country. 

July 2, 1863.] 



Notice to Subscribers, 

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Ti.RMS— Teu Dollars per annum. Six Dollars for six months. No subscription will be 
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' 145 Main street, Richmond, Va. 




Blackwood's Magazine lias amused the English public in a recent number, 
with a trenchant review of the course of the premier of the Lincoln governmeut 
since the opening of the war. The following spirited passage refers to him in 
his prophetic character, and will be recognized, by all who of yore enjoyed the 
satire and sense of " Old Ebony," as being in its best style. We hope ere long 
to be in regular receipt of Blackwood, as well as all the leading English maga- 
zines and reviews, when we shall fully redeem the promise of our prospectus, to 
lay before our readers all the more striking articles of the British periodical press. 
If necessary, for this pui'pose, the size of the Record will be enlarged. Up to 
this moment the Uterary department of the paper has been subordinated to the 
publication of such importaut papers relating to the Confederacy as were de- 
manded for a thorough understanding of the present status of the C.4USE, but 
there shall be no lack in the future of those more attractive features which popu- 
larize a weekly journal, and make it an eagerly ejected visitor in every family. 

Meanwhile, wc present the little extract from Blackwood, in the fall assurance 
that it will be enjoyed : 

On February 19, 1862, Mr. Seward writes to Mr. Adams : 

"I was just about instructing you how to answer the querulous complaints in 
Parliament which you have anticipated, the chief of which, is the assumed incom- 
petency of government to suppress the insurrection. But a very shrewd ob- 
server, a loyal, and at present exiled Virginian, fell in at the moment, and ex- 
pressed to me the opinion that the end of the war is in sight; that there will 
be a short and rapid series of successes over a disheartened conspiracy, and then 
all will be over. I give you these opinions as entitling us to what is sometimes 
granted by candid tribunals — namely, a suspension of judgment." It is a pity 
that the name of the shrewd observer has not been preserved. So sagacious a 
man ought not to be anonymous. On the JUth of February he tells us : — " Tlie 

f)roces8 of preparation has steadily gone on in the loj-al states, while that of ex- 
laustion has been going on in the disloyal. * * We have the most satisfactory 
evidence that the Union will be hailed in every quarter just as fast as the armj' 
shall emancipate the people from the oppression of the insurgent leaders." March 
15 : " The financial and moral, as well as the physical elements of the insurrec- 
tion seem to be rapidly approaching exhaustion." On the 25th of March it 
seems impossible to the sanguine Secretary that the organization of the insurgents 
can be longer maintained. On the 28th day of April be asserls that " to-day the 
country is assuming that the fate of this unnatural war is determined by the 
great event of the capture of New Orleans." On the 5th of May the fiscal sys- 
tem of the insurgents must, he calculates, have exploded, and their military con- 
nections be every where broken. On the 28th of May the Federal goverument is 
said to possess the Mississippi and all the other great natural highways. And 
on June 2d: "The war in the Mississippi valley may be deemed virtually ended. 
* * The army of General McClellan will he rapidly strengthened, although it is 
already deemed adequate to the capture of Richmond. * * No Amerieau now 
indulges any doubt that the integrity of the Uniou will he triumphantly main- 
tained." 24th June: "You tell me that in England they still point to the de- 
lays at Richmond and Corinth, and they enlarge upou the absence of dispUys of 
Union feeling in New Orleans and Norfolk. Ah, well, scepticism must be ex- 
pected in this world in regard to new jiolitical systems, inasmuch as even 
divine revelation needs the aid of miracles to make converts to a new religious 
faith." On 7th July, ailer McClellau's disasters, he says : ' "The military situa- 
tion is clearly intelligible, and ought to be satisfactory to"the cool and candid 
judgment of the country. * * » ■ » * * Wo have a rumor that Vicks- 
burg is actually takeu. But the report is premature, though we have no doubt 
but the capture has before this time occurred." And on the lOth of November, 
just before the defeat of Fredericksburg, we find him " apprehending no insur- 
mountable obstacles to complete success." Nor are his prophecies addressed only 
to Englaud. On the 15th April he tells Mr. Laytou: " a few days will probably 
complete the opening of the Mississippi river, and restore to the country that na- 
tional outlet of the great granary of America, which disunion, in its madness, 
has temporarily attempted to obstruct in violation not more of political laws than 
of the ordinances of nature." 22d April : " We have reason to expect Savannah 
to come into our possession within the next ten days." 5th May : " We shall 
have peace and union in a very few months, let France and Great Britain do what 
they may. Wo should have them in one month if either the Emperor or the 
Queen should speak the word, and say — if the life of this unnattiral insurrection 
hangs on an expectation of our favor, let it die. To bring the Emperor to this 
conviction is your present urgent duty." On the 10th May he has a vision of a 
Yankee millennium : — " Less than a year will witness the dissolution of all the 
armies ; the iron-clad navy will rest idly in our ports ; taxes will immediately de- 

crease; and new states will becoming into the confederacy, bringing rich con- 
tributions to the relief and comfort of mankind." On the 10th July he says : — 
" The reduction of Vicksburg, the possession of Chattano<iga, and the capture of 
Richmond would close the civil war with complete success. All these three en- 
terprises are going forward. The two former will, we think, be effected within 
the next ten days." And in September he actually bites his thumb at the Em- 
peror: — " We have not been misled," he says, " by any of the semblances of im- 
partiality or of neutrality which unfriendly proceedings towards us in a perilous 
strife have put on. When any government shall incline to a new and more un- 
friendly attitude, we shall then revise with care our existing relations towards 
that power, and shall act in the emergency as becomes a people who have never 
yet faltered in their duty to themselves while they were endeavoring to improve 
the condition of the human race." Compared with these prophecies, the ravings 
of Mother Shiptcm become respectable oracles. Yet on them was founded the 
entire foreign policy of the Federal government. The complaints that foreign 
statesmen and other sane persons would not confide in them were incessant ; and 
they were the lights by which American envoys were expected to steer. 


The Index, speaking of the debates which we publish, says : 
It is impossible for a newspaper to convey the full sense and sigm'ficance of a 
Parliamentary debate. It is not only that we miss the tones and manner that 
give emphasis and force to the words, so that what the hearer feels to be elo- 
quence seems to the reader dull and tedious prose, and what the hearer conceived 
to be fair blows given in a manly spirit, seems in print the expressions of malig- 
nity and ill temper. But the tone of the House of Commons is unmistakably 
warlike ; and it is not doubtful that the news that the ministry had determined to 
deal peremptorily with outrages on the British flag, or had demanded the recall of 
Admiral Wilkes, or had sent Mr. Adams his passports, would be received with 
vociferous cheering by more than three-fourths of that House. The speeches of 
the peace party are heard with impatient murmurs or enforced silence. On the 
other hand, every speech that hits the Y'ankees hard, or tells strongly in favor of 
the Confederates, is received with tumdituous cheering. Mr. Roebuck's bitter 
sarcasms, Mr. Horsman's cutting statement of the case against the Federal 
Government, Lord Robert Cecil's spirited rebukes of ministerial supineness and 
indifference, are received with the same hearty sympathy, the same gratified ap- 
plause, that greeted the speeches of Mr. Laird and the Solicitor General, just be- 
fore the Easter recess, on the case of the Alabama. It is beyond doubt or dis- 
guise that the Federal cause is as thoroughly unpopular in Parliament as in the 


The Russian governraent has made public the notes received from 
Sweden, Spain .and Italy, with its replies. They contain nothing impor- 
tant. Prince Gortsclialcoff is civil, only indulging in a polished sneer at 
the Italian government. The Sviiss Federal Council declined to take 
part in the intervention, although Earl Russell asked it to do so. As its 
neutrality is guaranteed by Europe, it will not interfere in European 
quarrels. Tlie English and French governments are in negotiation as to 
the further steps to be takeu. 

There lias been much hard fighting in Poland, and the agitation has 
extended into Polish Prussia. The government has redoubled its vigi- 
lance. ■ 

The Prussian House of Deputies has had under consideration, the re- 
organization of tlie army, but the discussion has been broken off by a 
ministerial difficulty. None of the Ministers are members of the House, 
and attend its sittings only in their ministerial capacity. On that ground 
they deny the right of the President of the House to limit a minister's 
speech by calling hiiu to order. The Ministers appear to have some jus- 
tification for their pretension, as they form no part of the House, and the 
only object w hich the Deputies have in enforcing their attendance is, that 
they may have, the pleasure of abusing Herr von Bismarck or Von Roon 
to their faces. 

From Madrid we learn that the sittings of the Cortes have been sus- 
pended, and from Lisbon, that th'fe King of Portugal has left his domi- 
nions, the Chambers consenting, on a foreign tour, of some two months' 

The state of Greece, as yet without a King, is unsatisfactory. 

The Turkish Minister for Foreign Affairs, Aali Pasha, has addressed a 
circular to the Representatives of the Sublime Port« at Paris and London, 



[July 2, 1863 

declaring that the Sultan cannot allow any further prosecution of the 
Suez Canal, except upon the condition of an international guarantee of 
the neutrality of the canal in the same way as the neutrality of the Bos- 
phorus and the Dardanelles, and that the forced labor by which the canal 
has hitherto been constructed, shall be abolished. Sixty thousand men 
(the Pasha says) are now kept from their families and callings by the 
canal. The Company must also abandon the clause in the contract which 
gives them the whole territory bordering on the canal — a clause which the 
Pasha says would give them the frontier of Syria, and allow the estab- 
lishment in the empire of colonies almost independent of it. 

BLACK TulST— {Continued.) 

Naval officers who remained in the ser\-ice of the Federal government to make 
war upon their native States : 

Commanders : — Active list, D. B. Ridgeley, J. H. Spotts, Kentucky, Charles 
Steedman, E. Middletou, Henry Kolando.S. C, Roger Perry, E. Donaldson, 5Id., 
A. M. Pennock, A. D. Harrell, Tenn., G. H. Scott, Foxhall A. Parker. John P. 
Bankhead, Wm. B. Hai-rison, Va., J. M. Fraily, Fabius Stanley, D. McN. Fair- 
fex, N. C, M. C. Marin, F. K. Murray, Fla., J. H. Patterson, La., Edward T. 
Nichols, H. K. Davenport, Ga., George B. Balch, Thomas G. Corbin, Ala., John 
Guest, Ark. Reserved list, Chas. H. Jacksoa, Ga. 

Captains :— Active list, T. A. Jenkins, Va., John Rodgers, D. C, Benjamin 
r. Sands, Ky. 


We continue to-day the list of confederate patents. 

18. Edward Boyle, Thomas Gamble, and Edward D. Macfee, Rich- 
mond, Va. Sept. 2, 1861. ImpVovement in attaching sword bayonets 
to guns. — This invention consists in securing to the handle of the sword 
bayonet a small piece of mechanism in the form of a ring provided with 
a spring, by means of which the bayonet may by any soldier be attached ! 
to bis rifle without alteration or addition of any fixture to the barrel. 

19. James H. Carkeet, Katchez, Miss. Sept. 3, 18t)l. Improvement 
in the manufacture of cannon. — Tliis invention consists in a process of 
constructing cannon out of sheet iron, wrapped compactly around a tu- 
bular cylinder, and subjected to a bath of melted solder, to render the 
wrapped material compact. 

21. James B. Rankin, Marion, N. C. Sept. 14, 1861. Improvement 
in breech-loading fire-arms. — This invention consists in providing a 
modeled breech piece or chamber to receive the charge, which is attached^ 
to the guard piece by means of a groove in the breech piece, which slides 
on a dovetail on the guard piece, the guard turning on a hinge, so that 
the breech piece raaj' be withdrawn to receive the cartridge ; also in a 
blade for tearing the cartridge, attached to a rotary piece at the end of 
the chamber. 

23. Edw'd Gottheil, assignor to Rob't Mott, New Orleans, La. Sept. 
19, 1861. Improvement in percussion fuzes. — This invention consists 
in a hollow cylinder, with four divided slits at one end, containing a cj'- 
linder tube, which is confined by the slits being bent in the form of a 
truncated cone. At the other end of the fuze plug is a nipple, to which 
a percussion cap is fised ; and when the shell strikes an object, the slits 
open, and the cylinder tube is projected against the percussion cap, which 
explodes the shell. 

24. Edwin T. Ligon, Demopolis, Ala. Sept. 27, 1861. Improvement 
in breech-loading fire-arms.— The nature of this invention consists in the 
construction of breech-loading fire-arms ; the stock and lock portion of 
the implement constituting the movable or oscillating abutment at the 
rear end of the barrel; and when in conjunction, the parts make a secure 
and tight fit by means of the screw and socket. 

26. John R. Spillman, Warrenton, Va. Oct. 1, 1861. Improvement 
in cartridges.— This invention consists in so shaping, folding and adjust- 
ing the cartridge paper as to make it furnish in itself a tie without the 
use of paste or string. 

27. John R. Spillman, Warrenton, Va. Oct. 2, 1861. Improved ma- 
chine for making cartridges. — This invention consists of a roller on which 
the cartridge is formed, a bos with a hinged opening on its side, and held 

to its place by a ring, so as to form an enclosed cylinder of the size of the 

29. James Lynch, Petersbui-g, Va. Oct. 4, 1861. Improvement in 
cannon. — This invention consists in a vertical compression less than a 
round bore, even to a flat square, with jvide mouth to give horizontal di- 
rection to the shot. • 

34. Joseph Ihomas, Bates\-ille, Ark. Oct. 15, 1861. Improvement 
in bullet moulds. — This invention consists in providing a tube of me- 
tal with movable and adjustable plugs, one at each end, so arranged that 
any length of ball can be cast and released by a blow at will. 


Brigadier Generals Robert Ransom and W. H. T. Walker have been 
promoted to the rank of Major General in the army of the Confederate 

Col. M. W. Ransom of the 35th Regiment N. C. Troops, has been 
created a Brigadier General. 

Col. John T. Morgan, recently commanding a regiment of Alabama 
cavalry (Partisan Rangers), in Bragg's army, and lately detached ou ac- 
count of impaired health, to act as Commandant of Conscripts for the 
State of Alabama, has been made a Brigadier General, and assigned to a 
command in the army of Virginia. 



The result of the recent elections in Virginia was as follows; 

Governor — William Smith of Fauquier. 

Lieutenant Governor — Samuel Price of Greenbrier. 

Attorney General — John R. Tucker of Frederick. 

Members of Con;^ress—Ymt district, Robert L. Montague; second, R. 
II. Whitfield ; third, Williams C. Wickham ; fourth, Thomas S. Gholeon ; 
fifth, Thomas S. Bocock; sixth, John Goode, jr. ; seventh, William C. 
Rives; eighth, D. S. Dejarnettc ; ninth, David Funsten ; tenth, F. W. 
M. Holladay ; eleventh, John B. Baldwin ; twelfth, AValler R. Staples ; 
thirteenth, Fayette McMullen ; fourteenth, Samuel A. Miller; fifteenth, 
Robert Johnston; sixteenth, C. AV. Russell. 

The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church that met in May at 
Columbia, S. C, elected Dr. Palmer, late of New Orleans, to the Profes- 
sorship in its Theological Seminary, made vacant by the death of Dr. 
Thomwell. An overture was also made for the reunion of the New School 
with the Old School Presbyterians. Rev. Dr. Lyon of Columbus, Miss., 
was moderator. 

At the recent commencement at Chapel Hill, N. C, Gov. Vance and 
three ex-governors, Manly, Morehead and Graham, were present. The 
graduating class numbered only eight members, although two years ago 
they numbered 120. The residue are in the army, or have died on the 
battle field. 

The cotton spinners of Geoigia have agreed to furnish the Quarter- 
master General of fhe state one-eighth of their production of cotton yarn, 
at one-half the weekly market price. The state is to furnish this yarn to 
the poor families of the state. 

The Yankees, in their destruction of homesteads on the Mississippi 
river below Vicksburg, took prisoners, young and old, and transported all 
those of any position to Illinois. From the little town of St. Joseph they 
took everj' male, and have th,em in the penitentiary at Alton, Illinois. 

The Richmond Enquirer enumerates, among other articles of domestic 
manufacture, confederate paper, confederate soap, confederate blacking, 
confederate ink, matches, buttons, &c. &c. 

The Yankees have destroyed the towns of Darien, Ga. and Bayou 
Sara, La. Their destruction was not a militaiy necessity, but an a«t of 
vandalism, designed to inspire terror. 

July 2, 1863.] 



Ages of prominent men. — Jefferson Davia, 54 ; Gen. Lee, 56 ; Ales. 
Sfepliens, 51 ; B- M. T. Hunter, 55; Gen. Price, 58, Gen. Beauregard, 42. 

It is estimated that 375,000 Yankee soldiers have died or been killed 
since the war began. The confederate loss has only been a little more 
than half that number. 

Hon. T. H. Watts, at present Attorney General of the Confederacy, 
has consented to be a candidate for Governor of Alabama. 

Webster's Dictionary has ftiUen into much disrepute in the Confederacy. 
The Congress that framed the provisional and permanent constitutions at 
Montgomery, used Walker and Kichardson, and southern publishers, we 
understand, discard entirely all reference to Webster as a standard. If 
this is persevered in, we will soon have a different language from the 


Negroes are now received into the Yankee service by complies. Any 
one will be authorizecl to raise a company, and be mustered into the army. 

John Hodge of London, representing an English company in Hon- 
duras, is in New York, seeking to induce negroes to emigrate as laborers 
to Central America. The Yankee authorities encourage the enterprise. 

The northern papers assert that the Alabama has destroyed seventy- 
four United States vessels, and that she and the Florida together have 
cost them, in the destruction of vessels alone, about ten million of dollars. 

The confederate vessels now at sea include four steamers of the most 
superior class, made to order, and excelling in speed all the United States 
vessels. They are named the Alabama, Florida, Virginia and Georgia. 

Chase, now Secretary of the Treasury under the Lincoln government, 
studied law in Ae office of William Wirt. Ilufus Choate of Massachu- 
setts also studied in Wirt's office. 


The commercial and port regulations of Portugal have been recently 
refoiTTied and equalized through the kingdom. 

Erlanger, the Paris banker who negotiated the recent loan for the Con- 
federacy, was a few years since a note broker at Frankfort. They esti- 
mate in Europe that he made several millions of dollars by his financial 
operation with Mr. Memminger. 

The merchants of Berlin, Prussia, complain of the war in America as 
greatly affecting their trade, and predict its continuance for years. The 
importation of cotton yams has decreased from 103,000 cwt. in 1860 to 
48,306 cwt. in 1862. 

London now covers 121 square miles. Its population increases 1,000 
a week — half by births, and half by immigration. 

The Russian army is estimated at 450,000 ; to which may be added the 
militia, which has only been called out three times — in 1807, 1812 and 
1855. The Emperor's birth day has been celebrated by abolishing all 
corporal punishment in the Russian army. 

'Kinglake (author of Eothen), in his late history of the Crimean war, 
has been much censured for reflecting upon the courage of the French 
Emperor, in an incidental reference to the Italian campaign ; but his 
work has been a great success, yielding $ 50,000 profits on the first por- 
tion published. , 

Sir Henry Bulwer, who was once the English minister at Washington 
city, is now the EngUsh minister at Constantinople ; and M. Sartiges, who 
for a long time represented France in the United States, is the present 
French minister at Turin. M. Salini, who was the French minister to 
"Texas, before that state was annexed to the Federal Union, and who ex- 
erted all the powers of diplomacy to prevent annexation, has been of late 
French minister to Mexico. 

The capture of Puebla in Mexico by the French, has been the subject 
of congratulation to Napoleon by England, Austria and Prussia. Euro- 
pean powers now feel that their interests are deeply concerned in the 
future of America. 


We have heretofore given to our readers a survey of the taxation of the Con- 
federate States, both under the provisional and permanent governments. We now 
invite attention to an article from the same careful hand, presenting a view of 
treasury notes issued and loans authorized. These articles belong to a series 
whicli will be hereafter published in book form; and we hazard nothing in say- 
ing that they arc among the most important and valuable papers of the day. 

Wlien the payment of the interest on the public debt in coin was substituted 
by the treasury notes, tlie inducement to fund was lessened. The liljeral interest 
oifered upon the debt when funded being inefficient in securing the conversion of 
the treasury notes as rapidly as the necessities of the war demanded, the act of 
•23d March 1863, requiring the funding of all outstanding treasury notes, was 
passed; and that act is now the only one by which the issue of any treasury 
note is autliorized. We, however, have given a synopsis of all the acta upon the 
subject, under the general head of — 

Treasury notes authorized to be issued. 

(Act of March 9, 1861).— Issue of $1,000,000, to carry one cent interest on 
$lUOeach day. 

(Act of August 3, 186] ).— Increased to $2,000,000. These notes were to run 
one year, and receivable in public dues. Issued under these acts, $992,000, 
called 3.65 notes. 

(Act of May 16, 186]).— Authorized to issue $20,000,000, running two years, 
payable in coin, or fundable in 8 per cent, bonds, to run ten years. Issued un- 
der this act, $10,919,025, 

(Act of August 19, 1861).- Authorized to issue $100,000,000, payable six 
mouths after a treaty of peace with the finited States, fundable in 8 per cent, 
bonds, and to be reissuable aud"receivable in public dues of all kinds, except the 
export duty on cotton; but the issues under the previous acts as well as this 
shall never be more than one hundred millions in all, leaving the sum to be 
issued, $88,088,975. 

(Act of Dec. 24, 1861 ).— Authorized to issue $50,000,000 more, subject to all 
the provisions of the above act. Issued, $ 50,000,000. 

(.■Vet of April 17, 1862). — Authorized to issue small notes of $1 and $2, to the 
extent of $5,000,000. 

(Act of Sept. 23, 1862).— Sum in small notes increased to $10,000,000. 

(Act of March 23, 1863).— Increased to $15,000,000, and 50 cent notes autho- 
rized. None of these small notes are fundable, but are to be paid six months 
after peace with the United States. 

(Act of April 17, 1862).— Authorized to issue $165,000,000 treasury notes, 
to carry two cents per day interest on $100. Issued, $120,480,000. 

(Act of April 18, 1862).— Authorized to issue $50,000,000, fundable in 8 jer 
cent, bonds, to run sucli time as the Secretary fixes, but after ten years redeema- 
ble at the pleasure of the government, but certainly at the expiration of thirty 
years, and authorized to keep $10,000,000 for emergencies. 

(Act of Sept. 23, 1862). — Secretary of Treasury authorized to issue such sum 
as may he necessary to cany out the appropriations. 

(Act of Oct. 13, 1862). — Authorized to require all interest bearing notes to be 
funded after 6 mouths' notice, and to issue treasury notes, to be funded in 7 per 
cent, bonds. 

(Act of March 23, 1863). — Authorized to issue fifty millions per month, funda- 
ble in 6 per cent, bonds fo'r twelve months — afterwards, in 4 per cent, bonds. 

Loans authorized. 

(Act of Feb. 28, 1861 ).— Authorized to issue $ 15,000,000, to carry 8 per cent, 
interest; to run ten years; secured by export duty on cotton, of one-eighth of a 
cent on each pound. The coupons will pay the duty as well as coin. Market 
value $180 to $200. 

(Act of May Mi, 1861).— $50,000,000 to be sold for supplies, coin or bills of 
exchange. $ 20,0(10,000 was to be issued in treasury notes, fmidalile at any time, 
and $30,000,000 in bonds. Of this loan only $6,414,300 was taken, to carry 
8 per cent, interest. Its market value $ 110. 

(Act of Aug. 19, 1861).— $100,000,000 to be sold for treasury notes, coin or 
supplies. Interest at 8 per cent. Coupons pay all taxes except export duty on 
cotton. Whole of this i.ssue taken, to run not longer than twenty years. De- 
signed to limit the issue of the 16th May and this loan together, to $ 100,000,000. 

Under authority of these two acts of May 16th and August 19th, there was 
opened "a produce loan," as it was called"; and up to April 21st. 1862, all of 
the operations had been limited by the provisions of these acts. On tlie 21st April 
1802, the secretary of the treasury was authorized to buy or receive for bonds, an 
amount not above $35,000,000, and about $20,000,000 has been spent in the 
purchase of cotton — aveiage price about 15 cents. Some 500 hhds. tobacco have 
also been bought. The whole outlay not over $ 21 ,000,000 in both articles. "The 
original agreement was to invest the proceeds of the crops in bonds, and with 
this understanding, there was 431,347 bales pledged, but not more than one-third 
of this has been yet collected: but there is, however, the $21,000,000, as stated 
above, now held by the government — say 300,000 bales of cotton and 500 hhds. 
of tobacco. 

(Act of Feb. 20, 1863). — Authority given Secretary to issue 8 per cent, bonds 
enough to supply the subscriptions to the produce loan, the whole of the 
$ 100,000,000 loan being exhausted. Value of all the 8 per cent, bonds, as to 
length of time to run, $ 101 to $ 110. 

(Act of Dec. 24, 1861 ).— Authority to issue $30,000,000 to carry 6 per cent. 
interest, exchangeable for treasury notes at any time, generally styled called cer- 

(Act of April 18, 1862).— Authorized to extend it to $50,000,000 more. Re- 
ceived $06,488,970. ' 

(Act of Sept. 19, 1862)'.— Authority to issue $ 3,500,000 8 per cent, bonds, to 
pay for aix iron clad vessels. 



[July 2, 1863 

All the 7 per cent, bonds are worth par. The 8 per cent, bonds, of all is.5ues, ex- 
cept the $15,000,000, being $101 to $110, dep^ding on the length of time to 
run— the long being worth most. The funding is going on very rapidly, and must 
soon cease in all classes of bonds except 6 per cent, bonds, which aie now the only 
kind in which the notes now issued can be funded. 

(Act of March 2:5, 186:5). — Authority to issue 8 per cent, bonds enough to fund 
all the interest bearing treasury notes under acts of 9th JIarch and August 3d, 
1861, and April 18th, 1862. 

After the 22d April 186:J, the issues before 1st December 1862, were authorized 
to be funded in 7 per cent, bonds till 1st August — afterwards notrfundable at all. 
The issues from December 1st, 1862, till, say April 1863, fundable in 7 per cent, 
till 1st August, and then in 4 per cent. The third class are issues after 6th April 
186:5, fundable for twelve months after their issue, in 6 per cent, bonds, and then 
in 4 per cent, bonds. For the purpose of meeting this third class of treasury 
notes, there is authority to issue $50,000,000 per month, or such amount as will 
fund the treasury notes. 

Call certiticates to carry 5 per cent, instead of 6 per cent., are authorized by 
the act of 23d March 1863. 

(Act of April 30, 1863).— Authority to issue $ 250,000,000 of 6 per cent, bonds — 
interest payable in cotton, at 6d. sterling per pound, or in coin — redeemable. at 
the pleasure of the government in coin or cotton. 

The loan in England, called the " cotton loan," and the legislation on the 
whole subject, was in secret session, and we can know nothing of it as yet, save 
only that it is above par, and is eagerly sought for. 

The legislation upon our finances seems to be comprehended in the intention 
to authorize the issue of treasury notes to meet any appropriations necessary 
to carry on the war, and to require that they shall be funded in bonds maturing 
and payable at different dates. The act of April 30th, 1863, in which a loan of 
$ 250,000,000, payable in cotton at 6d. sterling, or in coin, and the interest se- 
cured in the same way, is designed to reduce the cuiTency treasury notes to 
$175,000,000 for all purposes. The tax in kind, dispensing with the use of cm- 
rent notes, will facilitate this purpose. AVe may present in our next the re- 
sources of the confederate government to liquidate all of itc obligations. 


(Organized temporarily, February 8th, 1861 — permanently, February 18th, 1862.) 


Jeffer.?on Davis, Miss., President (term six years); Alex. H. Stephens, Ga., 

Vice-President; J. P. Benjamin, La., Secretary of State; Jas. A. Seddon, Va., 

Secretary of War; S. E. Mallory, Fla., Secretaiy of Navy; C. CT. Memminger, 

S. C, Secretary of Treasury; Thos. H. Watts, Ala., Attorney General; John H. 

Reagan, Texas, Postmaster General ; A. C. Myers, Va., Quartermaster General ; 

L. B. Northrop, Commissary General; S. P. Moore, S. C, Surgeon General; 

E. W. Johns, S. C, Medical Purveyor. 

Generals — Cooper, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard and Bragg. 
Lieutenant Generals — Longstreet, Polk, Hardee, Kirby Smith, Holmes, Pem- 
berton, Ewell and A. P. Hill. 

Admiral — Franklin Buchanan. 

Captains — L. Eousseau, French Forrest, J. Tatnall, V. M. Randolph, G. M. 
Hollins, D. N. Ingraham, S. Barron, W. F. Lynch, J. L. Sterrett and R. Simms. 
Captains for the War — S. S. Lee and W. C. Whittle. 

Engraver and Designer in General, 

161 Main st. Richmond, Va. 


l^ Just ready at WEST & JOHNSTON'S, 145 Main street: 

L— NO NAME; A Novel. By Wilkie Collins, author of "The Woman in 
White," "Queen of Hearts," etc. etc. 

This work is from the pen of one of the most gifted writers of the day; and 
"No Name" surpasses in beauty and vigor all of his former productions. It is 
the most popular Novel of 1863-— magniticent in plot, diction and narration. 

Price, $ 4. Upon the receipt of the price we will forward it to any part of the 

n.— LES MISEEABLES (FAHTINE), Now Ready; A Novel. By Victor 
Hugo. lOth thousand. 

This is the first of the five jlarts of Les Miserables. COSETTE, the second 
part, will be ready in a few days. 

Competent critics, in both hemispheres, have pronounced Les Miserables to be 
the most powerful work of fiction of the nineteenth century. 

Price, ^2. Upon the receipt of the price we will forward it to any part of the 

. IN PRESS, and will be ready July Istt ■ 
This is a newly revised and corrected translation from the French of a Novel 
■which in beauty of simplicity, vies with the " Vicar of Wakefield." 

II,— AUEORA FLOYD. By the author of "Lady Audisy's Secret," etc. 

III.— MISTRESS AND MAID. By Miss Mixocii. Author of "John HaU- 

fax, Gentleman," etc. 


Address orders to 

Publishers, Booksellers and Stationers, 145 Main St., Richmond. 

Published by WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Steeet, Richmond : 

The Judge Advocate's Vade Mecum, .... 

Gilham's Manual (new edition, with plates), . - - - 

Mahan's Permanent Fortifications (with plates), 2 vols. 

Mahan's Field Fortifications (with plates), - - - - 

Patten's Cfivalry Drill (with plates), . . . - 

C. S. .^rmy Regulations (authorized edition). 

Lee's Volunteer's Hand Book, - . . - . 

The Volunteer's Camp and Field Book, 

Roberts' Hand Book of Ai-tillery, . . - . - 

Gilham's Field Artillery, . . . . - 

The .School of the Guides, ..... 

Richardson's Evolutions of the Line (Scott's 3d vol., with^lates), - 

The Ordnance Field Manual, ..... 

Napoleon's Maxims of War, . .^ - . . 

Instructions for Heavy Artillery (with plates). 

The Quartermaster's Guide, 

Notes on Artillery (with drawings), - - . . . 

Manual of Arms for Heavy Infantiy, .... 

Gary's Bayonet Exercise and .Skirmisher's Drill (with plates), 

The C. S. Ordnance Manual for 1863 (with plates), . - - 

Warren's Surgery for Camp and Field, .... 

Jomini's Practice of War (translated from the French). "This very 
valuable work ought not to be separated from eveiy Officer's Prayer 
Book in the Confederate States" — Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, 

New Pocket Map of Virginia, - - 

Upon the receipt of the price of any of the above mentioned books, 

forward them, post paid, to any part of the Confederacy. 

Address orders to 


Booksellers and Publishers, 145 Main St., Richmond. 

$ 5 00 

10 00 

20 00 

2 50 

' J 50 



1 50 


1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 00 

5 00 

1 00 



1 00 

8 00 

5 00 

1 50 

2 50 

we will 

By WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond: 

Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, Medical, Economical and 
Agricultural, being also a Medical Botany of the Confederate States, 

with practical information on the useful properties of T^s, Plants 
and Shrubs — By Francis Peyre Porcher, Surgeon P. A. (^S.- 


$10 GO 

lished by order of the Surgeon General, Richmond, 
The American Union — its effect on National Character and Policy, with 

an enquiry into .Secession as a Constitutional Right, and the Causes 

of the Disru|0ure — By James Spence — First American edition, from 

the fourth English edition, ...... 

Chief Poiuts iu the Laws of War and Neutrality, Searcli and Blockade, 

with the Changes of 1856, and those now proposed — By Jno. Fraser 

MacQueen, Esq., one of her Majesty's Counsel, 
The Stonewall Song Book,. being a Collection of Patriotic, Sentimental 

and Comic Songs, ....... 

The Pictorial Primer, designed for the Use of Schools and Families — 

Illustrated, ...-..-- 

The First Y'ear of the War— twentieth thousand— By E. A. Pollard, 

Upon receipt of the price of any of the above mentioned Books, we 
will forward them to any part of the Confederacy, post paid. 
Address orders to 

Puilishers and Booksellers, 145 Main St. Richmond. 

2 00 

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3 00 


JULY, 1863. 

Monday, - - 






Tuesday, . - ^ 






Wednesday, - 












Friday, - 












Sunday, - - - 






Ten Dollars a Vear. 

Six Dollars for six months. 


145 Main Bt., RicbmoDd. 

Reading the List, . - - . 

Effects of Decpaeed Soldiers, - 

Debates iu Parliament, 

The Voice of Wa-^hington and his Confederates, 

Mr. Seward as a Prophet, 

Recent Parliamentary Debates, 

Affairs in Europe — condensed from the Index, 

Black List, . . - - 

List of Confederate Patents, 

Promotious, - . . 

Summary of Ne'Wfl, - - - - 

Financial, - - - -. 

Confederate Government. 

Volume I.] 


[Number 4. 



[The Rev. Dr. Moore, of Eichniond, in a sermon in memory of the much lovecl 
and lamented Stonewall Jackson, narrates the following incident : 

" Previous to the first battle of Manassas, when (he troops under Stonewall 
Jackson had ma^e a forced march, on halting at night they fell on the ground 
exhausted and faint. The hour arrived for setting the watch for the night. The 
officer of the day went to the General's tent, and said : 

" ' General, the men are all wearied, and there is not one but is asleep. Shall 
I wake them ?' 

" ' No,' said the noble Jackson, ' let them sleep, and I will watch the camp to- 

"And all night long he rode round that lonely camp, tile one lono sentinel for 
that brave, but weaiy and silent body of Virginia heroes. And when glorious 
morning broke, the soldiers awoke fresh and ready for action, all unconscioiis of 
the noble vigils kept over their slumbers."] 

'Twas in the dying of the day, 

The darkness grew so still ; 
The drowsy pipe of evening birds 

Was hushed upon the hill ; 
Athwart the shadows of the vale 

Slumbered the men of might. 
And one lone sentry paced his rounds. 

To watch the camp that night. 

A grave and solemn man was he, 

With deep and sombre brow ; 
The dreamful eyes seemed hoarding up 

Some unaccomplished vow. 
The wistful glance peered o'er the plains. 

Beneath the starry light — 
And with the murmured name of God, 

He watch«5d th« camp that night. 

The Futuie opened unto him 

Its grand and awful scroll : 
Manassas and the Valley march 

Came heaving o'er his soul — 
Richmond and Sharpsburg thundered by. 

With that tremendous fight 
Which gave him to the angel hosts 

Who watched the camp that night. 

We mourn for him who died for us. 

With otic resistless moan ; 
While i^tho Valley of the Lord 

He marches to the Throne .' 
He kept the faith of men and saints 

Sublime and pure and bright — 
He sleeps — and all is well with .him 

Who watched the camp that night 

Brothers ! the Midnight of the Cause 

Is shrouded in our fate ; 
The demon Goths pollute our hallg 

With fire, and lust and hate. 
Be strong — be valiant — be assured — 

Strike home for Heaven and Right '. 
The soul of Jackson stalks abroad. 

And guards t/ie camp to-night .' 


1. Minors.— T\iese may be enlisted, with consent of parents or guar- 

If they have been enlisted without such consent, their discharge may 
be procured on application, with testimony duly authenticated by oath, 
to the Adjutant and Inspector General at Richmond. 

If tliey are in service with such consent, as substitutes, the substitu- 
tion is good until the minor arrives at the age of 18. He then becomes 
liable in his own person, and the liability of the principal revives. All 
such substitutions were good previous to September 8, 1862 — not since. 

Minors, by a recent law, are eligible to hold any commission except 
that of an officer required by law to be bonded. 

2. SubsliluUs. — An eligible substitute must be withont the limits of 
conscript age, a citizen, and of good moral character. He can only be 
received at a conscript camp of instruction, or in a company, with the 
consent of the company and regimental commanders. 

The acceptance of a substitute is conditional. If, by any existing or 
subseqiient law, the class to which he belongs becomes subsequently liable 
to service, the liability of the principal revives. 

Paid agents often do not scVuple to furnish, on the signature of igno- 
rant or reckless officers, substitution papers that are not valid. The pub- 
lic is warned against all such. 



[July 9, 1863 


We have published Lord Campbell's speech in advocaey of the recognition of 
the Confederate States by Great Britain, delivered in the House of Lords. , We 
now give the admirable speech of Sir Roundel Palmer (Solicitor General), in de- 
monstration of our rights as a belligerent power, to contract for ships and mili- 
tary supplies with citizens of other countries. To this we add a very charac- 
teristic and happy speech of Lord Palmerston, on tbo same subject. 

The Solicitor General (Sir Roundel Palmer) said : 

The accusations that had been made ag-ainst the government in the 
matter of the Alabama, and wliich were groundless, v:ere part of a series 
of accusations of systematic breach of neutrality, which unhappily the 
government of the United States Jiad permitted itself to make Irom the 
beginning of the war, and which formed the staple of the diplomatic 
communications made through Mr. Adams to Her Majesty's government, 
and which he deeply regretted constituted no sniall part of the contents 
of the book he held in his hand, being the papers laid by the American 
government before congress upon this subject. The book was a cata- 
logue of grievances; of complaints against tliis country, of which the 
matter of the Alabama was only a single item. It was indispensably ne- 
cessary, in order that the house should appreciate the truth concerning 
the Alabama, that they should see in what company these charges were 
found. On the 13th of February last year Mr. Seward complained of the 
exportation from this country of munitions of war and arms, representing 
that as a breach of the duties of ueutralit)', and a thing which the go- 
vernment, if sincere in their neutrality, were bound to stop. On the Lst 
of May he complained of mone}"^ being subscobed at Liverpool to pur- 
chase arms and munitions of war. Mr. Adaim wrote to Earl Russell on 
the 12th of May, complaining of the supply of money and ships, of arms 
and men. On the 2d of June Mr. Seward sent Mr. Adams a report, 
giving a long account of the purchase of arms and munitions of war 
and military supplies, and their shipment from England for the Confede- 
rate States; and on the 13th of December Mr. Adams, whilst engaged 
in correspondence with Earl Russell on the subject of the Alabama, an- 
nexed to his dispatch a number of documents giving an account of a 
large quantity of the military and other stores exported from this country 
to the Confederate States, at the same time er;:l''avoring to give color to 
the complaint, by mixing up with it the ingrcuieut of the law of block- 
ade, which was quite irrelevant. This was the manner in wliich, from 
the (irst to the last, in the^iplomatic correspondence with this country, 
the government of the United States had not thought it unworthy of 
them to complain of us as guilty of a systematic lireacli of neutrality; 
and they had in the eorrespon<lence done neither more nor le.-?s than deny i 
the application to this country, its neutrals in this war, of those principles ] 
•which had been invariably recognized in international law throughout the j 
world, and by none more than by thelnsel<'cs. In November 18G2 the ' 
American minister at Washingtim addressed a complaiut to Mr. Seward, 
that the chief of the Frencii expedition invading Mexico had sent agents ' 
to New York and New Orleans to purchase mules and wagons for the' 
transport of cannon, materials and provisions into the interior of Mexico; ! 
and the answer of Mr. Seward was a series of extracts from authorities 
embodying the traditional principles of the policy of the United States. 

The first was an'instruction to collectors of customs, dated August 4, 
1793: '-The purchasing and exporting froui the United States by our 
merchants of articles cmimionly called contraband, being warlike instru- 
ments and stores, is free to all parts of the world, and not to he interfered 
with (hear, hear); but if captains of vessels undertake to carry to any of 
those parts, they will be abandoned to the penalties which the laws of war 
authorize." Had we not abandoned to the penalties of war all the ships 
of our country caught uu the high seas engaged in carrying contraband 
of war? 

The second extract, an instruction d;ited 1842, was : " It is not the 
practice of nations to prohibit their subjects from trafficking in articles 
contraband of war; but such trade. is carried on at the risk of those en- 
gaf^ed in it, to the liabilities prescribed by the law of nations." 

The third was an extract from an instruction dated July 1842 : " If 
American merchants, in the way of commerce, sold munitions of war to 
Texas, the government of the United States were not bound to prevent 
it, and could not have prevented it without a departure from the principles 
of neutrality." (Laughter, and hear, hear.) 

President Pierce, in his message to Congress in 1855, said : " The laws 
of the United States do not forbid their citizens selling to either of the 
belligerent powers contraband of war, and taking mmritions of war and 
soldiers on board their private ships for transportation ; and although in 
so doing the individual citizen exposes property and person to some of 
the hazards of war, his acts do not involve a breach of international neu- 
trality, nor of themselves implicate the government." 

Tliey had heard complaints of loans of money. This passage is given 
in the extracts, tinder date 1841-2 : " As to advances, loans, or donations 
of money and goods made by individuals to the government of Texas or 
its citizens, the Mexican government hajdly needs to be informed there is 
nothing unlawful in such acts, so long as they do not disturb the peace of 
the United States : and these are things which no government undertakes 
to restrict." 

In order that the bearing of international law on the relations of the 
two governments should be understood, it was necessary first to see what 
was our right in the matter. We, of course, had the deepest interest in 
the maintenance of our Ian s, and we were sincerely detennined, according 
to law, to adhere to the constitutional principles on which law was ad- 
ministered, to do the best iu our power to enforce them. But it was im- 
portant, too, in a matter of international complaint, that we should rightly 
understand to what extent the American government had an interest in 
the matter. He would prove from their own authorities, that if it were 
not that we, for our own reasons, in order to prevent violations of our 
neutrality by other governments as against ourselves, had not thought fit 
to pass the foreign enlistment act, which we were now as much entitled 
to repeal as we wore at first to pass it, it would have bee\i impossible for 
the government of the United States, on tlieir own principles, to treat 
the sale of ships of war as in any sense unlawful or contrary to interna- 
tional law, any more than the sales of any other kind of munitions of 
war. The United States, like ourselves, had a foreign enlistment act ; 
and as it was older than ours, there had been a greater number of deci- 
sions under it. They had done two things : they had settled the princi- 
ples of interpretation to be applied to the act. and the general principles 
of law which independently would exist as between nations. 

In 1815 there was a case before the Supreme Court of the United 
States, the highest tribunal, in w liich this doctrine was laid down : " A 
neutral nation may, if it is so disposed, without a breach of its neutral 
character, grant permission to both belligerents to equip their vessels of 
war witliiu her territory; but without such pennission, the subjects of 
such belligerent jiowers have not the right to equip vessels of war, or to 
incre-ise or augment their force, either with arms or men, within the ter- 
ritory of such neutral nation. Such uuanthorized acts violate her sove- 
reignty and her rights as a neutral." This was the principle of the en- 
listment act. If we thought proper to permit the equipnicjit of vessels, 
that of itself would be no violation of neutrality; but as it would be cal- 
culated to lead to misunderstanding with other nations, we in our own 
defence, and not as discharging any obligation imposed by international 
law, prohibited it. If, a priori, ships, like cannon and arms, might be 
sold, unless a neutral state chose to prevent it, what was the extent of 
right which a foreign government derived from the foreign enlistment act ? 
Merely that it might appeal to the friendly spirit and feeling, and to the 
sincerely neutral disposition of the neutral state to enforce its own laws, 
according to its own principles, within its own territories ; and it could 
not comiilain if they were enforced in the way English law was usually 
enforced against English subjects, upon evidence, and not upou suspicion 
(cheers) — according to law. and not according to presumption, not on 
mere accusati(m made by a foreign minister or agent, any more than by 
a person interested ou the side of our own government. It was not th« 
right of a foreign government to require a foreign enlistment act, which 

July 9, 1863.] 



was a law without which a foreign government would have no right in 
the liiattei- at all. The case was unliico the recent Brazilian oiif, in w hioli 
th'd' plunder of British eulijects on the shore of the country was a viola- 
don of all rights, independency of all local law. With regard to the la\v_ 
itself, it would not be desirable ; and his honorable friend did not wish 
him to enter into all the ditEculties which might be attached to the exe- 

theii' internal aflaira, wo can only hope that, it being ratlier a dangerous 
game, it will not be carried further than they intend. When a govern- 
ment or a large party excite the passions of one nation against another, 
without just cause, it has a great tendency to endanger friendly relations 
between tlio two countries. (Hear.) We understand the object, and do 
not feel the irritation we might under other circumstances ; but if that 

cution of it. It was a great mistake to suppose it was intended to pre- 1 cry is raised for the purpose of forcing the government of this country to 

vent all commercial dealings in ships of war with a foreign country. It | 
was clear that it was not intended to do so. Two things must be jirovcd 
in every case : First, there should be what the law would consider a fit- 
ting out, an arming, or equipment; and, secondly, that it is with the in- 
tention that the ship should be employed in the service of a foreign power. 
He would show what the Supreme Court of the United States had de- 
cided might be done lawfully, without giving any belligerent power cause 
of complaint, in one or two cases— the first being one decided by Mr. 
Justice Story, and one in which the facts were remarkable. 

A war having broken out between Spain and her revolted colonies in 
January 1816, a ship, which was originally employed as a privateer in 
the war between Great Britain and the United States, was loaded with a 
cargo of munitions of war by her new owners, \vho were inhabitants of 
Baltimore ; and being armed with twelve guns (which constituted part of 
her original armament), she was sent from that port, under the command 
of a citizen of the United States, to Buenos Ayres, then at war with 
Spain. By written instructions, the supercargo was authorized to sell 
the cargo and the vessel itself to the government of Buenos Ayres, if a 
satisfactory price could be obtained. She went armed, with a crew on 
board, and filled up with a cargo of munitions of war. She sailed under 
the United States fiag ; and when she got to Buenos Ayres, she was sold 
to the government. She was fitted out in January and sold in May, when 
she assumed the flag and character of a public ship, and was from that 
time employed in the war. Now what was the judgment of Justice Story 
upon that case ? He said it was apparent that, though employed as a 
vessel of war, she was sent to Buenos Ayres on a commercial adventure, 
which was in no shape a violation of the law of international neutrality ; 
but that if captured by a ship of war during her voyage, she would bo 
justly condemned as a good prize, if engaged in a traffic prohibited by 
the law of nations. He added, " There is nothing in our laws or in the 

take some stejjs contrary to the law and dignit}' of the country, in the 
way of altering our laws for the purpose of pleasing another nation, all f 
can say is, that such a course of proceeding is not likely to accomplish 
its purpose. (Hear, hear.) 

With regard to the cause of complaint, the Solicitor General, in that 
admirable speech to which we have all listened with the greatest delight, 
demonstrated indisputably that the Americans have no cause of com- 
plaint. He has shown that the British government have done, upoa 
representations made by the American minister here, every thing that 
the law of the country empowered them to do : and although I can easily 
understand that in the Northern States — where, owing to the great irri- 
tation and the animation produced by the civil war now raging, men's 
minds have been led to forget in a great degree the obligations of law. 
and the course and practice has been to set it aside — I can understand 
they may not give that weight to the arguments that we use, tiiat wo 
cannot go beyond what the law prescribes and authorizes ; but the house 
will see that ray honorable and learned friend has shown that in regard 
to the foreign enlistment act, we have done every thing that the law 
enables us to do. Honorable gentlemen have argued as if the seizing of 
a vessel was equivalent to its condemnation. They say, "Why did wo 
not seize the Alabama? You were told she known or believed to bo 
intended for warlike purposes on the parttjf the Confederates." In the 
first place, you cannot seize a vessel under the foreign enlistment act, 
unless upon evidence given on oath, authorizing a just suspicion. Well, 
the American minister comes to us arid tells us this and that. He is 
asked if he will produce the evidence on oath, and he says "no; this in- 
formation is given confidentially ; but you are to act on my assertions 
and suspicions, which I maintain are well founded." But what would 
have happened if we had seized this vessel unjustly and without good 
grounds! There is a process of law to follow, and the government 

law of nations that forbids our citizens from sending armed vessels as ^rguld be condemned in heavy costs and damages : and they are not to 
well as munitio«is of war to foreign ports for sale. It is a connuercial undertake an illegal course of this kind simply to please the agents of a 
venture, which no nation is bound to prohibit, and which only exposes | iyi.eijrn power. So far as there is any fault, it is on the part of those who 

called on us to act, but who would not give us the evidence on which we 

could act. (Hear, hear.) 

I h'ave very great doubts, if wo had seized the Alabama, whether we 
should not have been liable for damages. She sailed from this country, 
as was well known, without arms, and she obtained them and her crew 
in a foreign port; therefore, the probability is that whatever the suspi- 
cions were, the condition in which she was at that time would not justify 
us in proceeding to take her from her owners. (Hear, hear.) I assure 
the house that Her Majesty's government have no indisposition to enforce 
the conditions of the foreign enlistment act whenever a case may occur. 
The honorable member for Birmingham reproaches us with exhibiting a 
cold and unfriendly neutrality. I do not know what the meaning of these 
words may be: they appear to nje a coutnidictinu in Ihemselves— (hear, 
hear)— because a neutrality that is warm and friendly to one party, muat 
certainlv be something very different to the other (hear, hear, and laugh- 
ter), and must cease to be that which, in common parlance, is called 
neutrality. But whether our neutrality is warm or cold, friendly or ua- 
friendly, it is sincere and honest (cheers), :ind 1 can assure my honorable 
friend "and the house, that whenever it is in our power to enforce the pro- 
visions of the foreign enlistment act legally, and in accordance with jus- 
tice, we shall not be found wanting in the performance of our duties. It 
is'a great mistake to suppose that we can see with pleasure auy transac- 
tion in this country tending to violate not only the letter but the spirit of 
the law. It would be much more agreeable for us if all those supplies— 
which have been 8o well enumerated by tUo honorable member for Dir- 

the persons engaged in it to the penalty of confiscation. Supposing the 
voyage of the ship in question to have been for a commercial purpose, 
and that the sale to the Buenos Ayres government was a bona fide sale, 
then there is no pretence for saying that the original sentence was 

He (the Solicitor General) would refer to another American decision, 
viz., that in the case of the De Quinoej', in the year 1832, when this doc- 
trine was laid down : That the defendant, who was accused of having 
violated the foreign enlistment act, was entitled to an acquittal, if these 
facts should appear — if it were found that when the ship was so fitted out 
and equipped at Baltimore, the owner and equipper intended to go to the 
West Indies in search of funds- with which to arm and equip the vessel, 
and had no present intention of using the vessel as a privateer. There 
must be a fixed intention, not a conditional intention, dependent upon 
«ome future arrangement, as to whether the venture is of a commercial 
or warlike character. The United States government would have reason 
to complain if the government themselves were directly or indirectly con- 
cerned in fitting out such belligerent ships ; but if it was merely the case 
of individuals, there was no infraction of international law. 

I.iord Palmerston said : 

There is no disguising the fact, that whenever any political party, whe- 
ther in or out of office, in the United States, finds itself in difiioulties, it 
raises a cry against England (hear, hear,) as a method of creating what 
is called iu American language " political capital." That is a course 
which \re must very deeply regret. So Icragf as it is simply ctrnfined to 



[JuLT^ 9, 1863 

kenhead as having been furnished in abundance to one part}- and not to 
the other — if the whole of the kingdom had jemained in a state of per- 
fect neutrality between the two parties, and if no supplies had been fur- 
nished to either one or the other. (Hear, hear.) But at hen we are 
reproached so much for not haying acted on suspicion, it is fair for us to 
gay, that so far as suspicions go, we haye been informed — it may be er- 
Tenously — that not only have arms gone to the northern part of the 
United States, but that endeavors have been made, in Ireland especially, 
to enlist persons to go and serve in the army and navy (bear, l.»ear); and 
a considerable number of cases have unquestionably arisen in North 
America of British subjects who have been seized, and attempts made 
to enforce them to serve (in the war now raging) against their will. 
(Hear, hear.) Therefore I say, feeling a desire that the most friendly 
relations should be maintained between the United States and this conn- 
try, I regret exceedingly any circnmstanees of any kind that could have 
created irritation in the minds of the people of the Northern Union. All 
I can say is, that we cannot go beyond the law. The law is one, I know, 
very difficult of execution ; but this is not the first time we have disco- 
vered that. When the contest was raging in Spain between Don Carlos 
and Isabella, it was my duty to prevent supplies reaching Don Carlos 
from this country. There were several cases of ships fitted out in the 
Thames, which I well knew were intended to go out in aid of Don Car- 
los; but it was impossible to obtam information to enable the govern- 
ment to interfere beneficially. I hope those gentlemen who are the 
mouthpieces of the North, will exert themselves to prove to their friends 
on the other side of the Atlantic, that the charges made against the 
British government are not founded in reason or law, and to assure them 
that the government will continue, as I contend tlioy have done, to exe- 
cute the law whenever a case .shall be brought before them in regard to 
which they can act safely, upon good and sufficient grounds ; but there 
must be a deposition on oath, which must allege facts that will stand an 
examination before a court of law. But to call on u.s arbitrarily and 
capriciously to seize vessels w ith rc;,';ad to which no convincing and pro- 
per proof can afterwards be adduced, will be urging ns to adopt a cour.'^e 
which will not reflect credit on them, and can only lead to difficulties and 
dissatisfaction. I can only say, I do trust that the government and the 
people of the United States will believe we are doing our best in any 
case to execute the laws, and that they will not imagine that a cry raised 
will induce us to come down to this house to alter the law. We have 
had — I have had (great laughter) experience of an attempt of that sort, 
and I think that some gentlemen sitting on this bench will not be dis- 
posed, if I were so, to concur in any proposition of the kind. 


The chief question which Tocqueville set himself to explain and en- 
force, was that of the ceaseless advance of democracy in the modern 
world. This was the inevitable end to which, in his opinion, all societies, 
however constituted, and all gorerumeuta, however organized, were has- 
tening. In America, democracy was triumphant ; in France, it was all 
but triumphant ; in England, its triumph was assured, however much it 
might be retarded by counteracting inflnences. Tocqueville seems to 
have regarded this inevitable oncoming of democracy as a traveler might 
regard the approach of a wild animal that he fears and loathes, but which 
charms him by its strength and by the dignity of irresistible power. 
Twenty years have not passed away without experience having furnished 
ns with some means of estimating how far this idea is true. Democracy 
is advancing, but it is advancing in a different shape from that in which 
Tocqueville appears to have conceived it would go on. There is much 
more elasticity and variety in the form of democracy than a philosopher 
would have expected, who regarded it only from its political side. In 
fact, we have now to use the word "democracy" in a new sense. We 
do not mean simply by it, that the state is governed by men directly 
chosen by the mass of the people, and controlled by those who appoint 
them. That the good things of the earth— riches, splendor, knowledge, 

personal independence, the power of locomotion — are continually shared, 
in however faint and imperfect, by a larger and larger number, 
is the ultimate signification of the advance of democracy. The mas* of 
mankind io rising, slowly but perceptibly. The rule — in the sense of this, 
political rule — of the many is only one symptom of this ri'sing, and it is 
a symptom which may at times have very littJe prominenee. The 
thoughts of the masses of a population, so far as they have any thoughts 
at all, their dumb hopes and vague aspirations, may all be closely con- 
nected with the consciousness of a great movement tliat a taking place 
in society, and yet may be colored by very different influences, and tend 
for the moment to very different ends. Democracy, for example, differs 
very considerably in France and England. In France, democracy has 
had a great and sweeping success, and at the same time it k subjected to 
pressing and perpetual limitations. Men of genius — ^men who had the 
ear of the French people, and who yet commanded the admiration of 
Europe, found, in this aspect of democracy, material for the expression 
of an ardent enthusiasm and an excited fancy. Writers of really con- 
siderable power fonnd an honest pleasure and a delightful fascination in 
the notion of " The People" — of " The Brothcrhootl of Man," and of 
" Liberty." Nor could the enthusiastic Frenchman separate his )ot from 
that of his neighyjors. He trembled for all the oppressed nationalities of 
Europe. He longed to kill, slay and humiliate their oppressors. He 
would have liked to see crowned heads generally sent to the guillotine. 
Poetical and sympathetic, he was engaged in a gigantic contest with 
priests and kings. 

The example of America, where a people of English descent had set 
up a political democracy, and shown that they could prosper and he pow- 
erful under it, naturally contributed to fun the desire in England for in- 
stitutions of the same kmd. To get acts of Parliament passed to give 
more people a right to vote at elections; to throw the burden of taxation 
on the rich ; to reduce the pride of " privilege ;" to get hold of some of 
the good things of patronage — were the aims which English demoeraey 
set before itself. 

The English constitution could veiy easily be mended so as to em- 
brace all that democracy could wish to see in it : and it is evident that 
there was a considerable basis for this way of looking at thing*!. For the 
English constitution is an arrangement that has grown up by a sort of 
hai)py accident, vhich is always undergoing some change, and rests not 
on rigid reason, but on feelings and the common sense of the country. 
But democracy of a political kind hag gone back in England, and Ame- 
rica has less attraction day by day. In England there is now scarcely 
any democratic pressure on the constitulion, and in America the demo- 
cracy seems to have grown tired of its own political rule. It has triec! 
the pleasure of playing with the new toy of monster elections, platinrnis 
and ballot boxes, and .now it wants some other plaything. The North 
does not seem to care very much about political freedom, or to find any 
particular satisfaction in it. There are many other tastes which com- 
pete with, or even exceed the love of liberty. There is the taste for big- 
ness; for bullying; for hurting adversaries of all kinds ; for empire. The 
heart of American democrac}' is set on other things than the politicaJ 
supremacy of the majority. In France, too, there is no longer the poet- 
ical idea of democracy, nor that belief in the impending establishment 
of a world where every thing would be cut to the right pattern. English 
democrats may once wore grow excited about a reform bill, and French 
democrats may again organize a propaganda ; but, at present, democracy 
appears to ns to be getting absorbed in the pursuit of wealth. 

[Foreign Exchange, 


There can be no useful purpose subserved by concealing from our 
friends in the Confederate States the truth, that recognition by foreign 
powers is now morally further off, because less present to men's niind& 
than it was three, or even twelve months ago. It is not because the 
sympathies of the British heart have grown cold in this sublime spectacle 
of national self-sacrifice, that so little is now said about recognition. But 
the true and principal reason is tlie conviction which has impressed itself 
upon every intelligent mind in Europe, that the issue of )he war is vir- 
tually decided, ami that the South no longer needs that moral assistance 
which diplomatic recognition would cast into the scale. Two years of 
war have in a great measure, worn oft' its startling effects. People on 
this side have come to look for astounding events .and sudden changes of 
scene as almost matters of course. The alarm, also, which was at first 
felt at the probable reflective injuries of the war, has in no small degree 
subsided. It is natursilly gratifying to Britiah self complacency to con- 
sider that while the United States is rushing with railway speed to finan- 
cial ruin, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer can dispose of a sur- 
plus of three millions sterling, and reduce taxation. — \_Saiurday Review. 

July 9, 1863.] 



Notice to Sabsoribers. 

"The R 


tak^n for a 

:coRi>" will be issued every Thursday Morning, at our Book?tcre, 145 Maiu St. 

Ten Dollars per annnin. Six Dollars for six months. No subscription will be 
I shorter period. The Trade will be supplied upon liberal terms. 
) no Traveling Agents. Persons wisbiug to subseribe to The Record, should send 
s direct to us, with as little dela.v as possible, as there will only be a limited num- 
first issue published— and in a short time the early numbers cannot be had. 
Address orders to 




Having reached the fourth number of the Record, and established the paper in 
the good opinion of the public, we profit of the occasion to reconsider briefly the 
aim and scope of the undertaking, and to say a word or two with regard to such 
part of our purpose as we have not been able as yet fully to carry out. 

In the military department of the paper wo have two leading objects — one as a 
record, the other as a newspaper. 

First. — Every body knows how valuable a _scrap-book, daily posted, may be- 
come. Few take the trouble to make one. AVe aim to furnish one ready made. 
When the vivid appreciation of occurrences passing before the eye have faded ; 
when issues now nascent have been concluded — such remarkable orders, federal 
and confederate, as we have published; such speeches as Lord Campbell's bold, 
statesmanlike and well argued plea in the British Parliament for our recognition, 
will be as valuable as interesting. So with our Black List, recording the elec- 
tion of allegiance made by leading men of the old army and navy. 

Second. — We have begun, and we will continue to publish practical informa- 
tion, not only valuable for preservation, but of vital momentary interest to sol- 
diers and their friends, and such as they can obtain no where else than in our 
columns. See, as specimens, our articles on the general subject of army intelli- 
gence; on how to conduct coiTespondence with and from the army; on home 
organizations ; on furloughs and discharges from field or hospital ; on the laws of 
exemption; on the administration and care of effects of deceased soldiers, and on 
the rules affecting minors, substitutes, and re examinations in cases of discharge 
for disability. Observe also the well digested information of universal interest, 
of our articles on the history and existing condition of our financial operations, 
laws and regulations. 

In the literary department we intend to lay before the southern reading public 
a careful selection of the very clioicest material that can be gathered from the 
best magazines and reviews of England. Our hope is to make The Record com- 
bine, as nearly as may be, the characteristics of the Albion, Nites' Weekly Regis- 
ter and LitlcU's Living Age. To reach the standard of a first class eclectic, some 
time must be allowed us, that we may perfect imangements for the regular re- 
ceipt of the foreign journals, and secure such a supply of paper as will admit of 
the permanent enlargement of our limits. We give to-day, however, four extra 
pages of interesting matter ; and we shall make this addition to the regular size 
of The Record every fourth week, until we attain " a larger growth" naturally. 
This will enable us to offer the more striking and piquant articles of Blackwood, 
Eraser and the Quarterlies, freshly upon their receipt by the monthly arrivals at 
Charleston, without trenching upon the military department or the columns set 
apart for valuable information of another kind. 

With such views and purposes, we do not permit ourselves to doubt the ulti- 
mate brilliant success of The Record, of whoso usefulness and value we have 
already had 30 many kind and flattering assurances from all parts of the Con- 


The sign.'! of the times are in the highest degree hopeful for the confederate 
cause; Never at any previous period of the war have we had so much reason to 
Bugur a speedy conclusion of the struggle, in the complete triumph of our arms. 
From Vicksburg we have not the most encouraging accounts, but the brilliaut 
achievement of Gen. Taylor at Brashear City, coming so closely upon his capture 
of the strong federal position at Berwick's bay, at the point of the bayonet, has 
greatly perplexed the operaiions of the enemy in that quarter, and it is even 
feari^d by them that they will not be able to hold New Orleans. We hear that 
Rosecrans has failed to turn the right wing of Bragg's army in Tennessee, and 
is still held determinately in check by our able commander there. The news 
from Peoasylvania, though at" the time of this writing it has not reached us in 

an oiKcial form, is yet sufficiently trustworthy to inspire us with the belief that 
our glorious Lee has destroyed utterly the mighty army which has been com- 
manded by so many federal generals, and which, upon the day of its doom, was 
under the leadership of Gen. George Meade. A village in tlu^ etu'iny's territory 
has been made forever memorable, by a victory gained by soutljern valor over 
troops who were exhorted to fight with more than ordinary resolution for the 
safety of their homes. Nor can we believe that this last splendid victory will 
prove a baiTen one. It is idle to speculate on results until we know with cer- 
tainty what has been accqmplished. But we may safely indulge the confident 
expectation that before the second month of the summer of lyC:? has passed by, 
we shall be able to record the happening of events which will strike our enemies 
with paralysis, and virtually biing to an end this wasting and wearying strife. 

The spectacle presented to us at home, in the streets of the Confederate capital, 
while these important operations were going on at distant points, was one which 
we may remember with honest pride. What a noble devotion to country was 
exhibited by the men of Kichniond, what an affecting trust and calm courage 
were displayed by its women, in the hour when a stealthy foe thought to find the 
capital defenceless and make it their spoil ! How every thing vile and sordid 
faded out in the intense light of patriotism, how vice was awed into decorum, 
how selfishness and greed were shamed for the moment into forgettulness of their 
pursuits! Who can forget the last days of June and the first days of July 1863 
in Kichmond, any sooner than they can forget the same eventful season of 1862, 
with its roar of battle around our gates, its proud souvenirs of renown, its heart- 
breaking private griefs, its fervent thanksgivings, and its sweet songs of deli- 
verance ! 

Now as then, we have cause for devout gratitude to Almighty God, and hearty 
encouragement for increased activity in our efforts for independence; now as then 
we must twine the cypress with the laurel for the brave who have fallen in the 
combat. Virginia mourns Garnett, Armistead and Kemper ; Mississippi sorrows 
over Barksdale; the whole sisterhood of states will mingle their tears above these 
gallant men, struck down on the field of their fame. Not for them is needed the 
language of eulogy, the praise of journalist nor the elegiac verses of poet — 
united in their martyrdom with Cobb and Bee and Gregg and ZoUicofler and 
Bartow and Jackson, they will share with these lamented heroes the affectionate 
remembrance of posterity and the enduring admiration of mankind. 


It falls directly within the province of a Record, to make mention of the death 
of distinguished citizens as an event of public importance, and to hand down 
their virtues to after times. The department of Necrology forms no small nor 
unprofitable part of Annual Registers and Weekly Chronicles ; and we recognize 
a duty in this respect, which we at this time partially discharge by asking the 
reader's attention to the following tribute to the eminent lawyer whom our sister 
state of South Carolina has recently been called upon to deplore: 



This distinguished lawyer died in Charleston recently, in the 74tli year of his 
age. He was a native of Abbeville district^ S. C, and a pupil of the celebrated 
Dr. Waddell, whose agency in forming the minds of several of the statesmen of 
South Carolina, who have "distinguished themselves in public life, is well known. 
Mr. Petigru was of Huguenot descent. After taking the first honor in the Col- 
lege of South Carolina, he pursued forensic studies, maintaining himself, until 
his admission to the bar, as a tutor of a select nimiher of scholars, at Beaufort, 
S. C, several of whom have since become eminent in various careers. Upon 
commencing the practice, Mr. Petigru rose rapidly in his profession, and after 
some time successfully spent in the country circuits, removed to Charleston, as a 
sphere more commensurate with his hopes and aspirations. He soon advanced 
to distinction, and took his place as the head of the Charleston bar, at that time 
possessing many brilliant advocates. 

An intimacy of many years enables me to speak of him according to the metr- 
sure of his deserts. Educated to the law, he made law, as far as lay within the 
scope of his practice, the minister-of justice. Deeply versed in its most recondite 
researches, he was most emphatically a scientific jurist. Having explored the 
sources of civil authority and the foundation of government, he had fathomed the 
depths of the most proibund problems of law and polity, seeking, and never 
seekinir in vain, for the general principle by which the intricacies presented by 
difficult cases were governed, and could be solved, combining in his understand- 
in" the two rare processes of analysis and generalization, as regards the science 
of°law, in au eminent dfgree. As an advocate, he was skilled as well in the 
maiiagemeut of cases as in that branch of practice denominated special plead- 
ing, the dialectic of the common law. In the common law courts he was the 
skillful pleader and the philosophical expositor, who looked to the reason of the 
law, and applied the rules of just interpretation, with equal felicity and ability, 
to eommou, statute and constitutional jurisprudence. 

With the technicalities ot his profession he was familiar, but never employed 
them to defeat the ends of justice. The subterfuges of pleading and practice he 



[July, 9, 1863 

abhorred. In the sujierior courts of law his opinions were held iu high respect 
by the judges, as in all judicatures of high authority, the bar and the bench are 
generally held by that bond of mental sympathy that unites them" on all impor- 
tant legal questions. 

Mr. Petigru entertained a refiueJ jierception of professional honor. His stan- 
dard in this regard was elevated. To the quirks of the legal profession he was 
an utter stranger. Towards any species of legal deceit and indirection he had in 
fact an instinctive repugnance. No blemish rests on the unsullied purity of his 
professional reputation. 

In his moral constitution Mr. Petigru was happily endowed. Cast in the 
mould of a pure and loftv nature, his moral and mental characteristic exhibited 
that happy balance that 'liolciugs to the "ju.sluni et tenacem propu.siti virum." 
His steadfastness of principle was not the least remarkable of his peculiarities. 
Where rio-ht was not at hazard, no one could be more yielding aud conciliatory. 
Where principle was involved, no one could be mon; firm and resolute. He was 
tenacious of his political opinions, for his opinions were coflvictious ; yet he 
never lost, in the ardor of debate, the poise and balance of his understanding, 
that kept him always iu the line of truth aud rectitude. 

He was a shining example of unselfishness. He literally thought, spoke, 
wrote and acted for others. In evei-y pursuit- of life — during all changes and 
vicissitudes — oblivion of self ^as the governing impulse. This peculiarity was 
ingrained in his character, forming at once its rudimentary elements and crown- 
ing grace. He eluded no service connected with danger, requiring moral courage 
or social responsibility. 

Within the domestic sphere his geniality and cheerfulness were conspicuous. 
The throbs of his manly lieart were ever responsive to every appeal to his fine 
strung sensibiUtics, while in the wider domain of general humanity its pulsations 
were ever true to the promptings of a comprehensive philanthropy. As the ad- 
vocate of the oppressed and the enemy of tyranny, he was always ready to vin- 
dicate the right, and rectify and redress what was inequitable and wrong. With 
a charity as large as his liberality was comprehensive, he had no shade of pre^ 
judice to darken the clear light of his understanding, or divert his large heart 
from the beut of his generous nature and honest impvilscs. 

A no less winning trait of Mr. Petigru's character was, that he had no memory 
for personal wrongs ; no political or othir resentments to gratify. Above the 
littleness of revenge, he left to meaner spirits the instincts of malice and the re- 
membrance of injuries. Of what had been dune to wound his feelings or dis- 
parage his efforts in the contentious of the forum, he was willing to be forgetful: 
and as the beautiful couuteriiart to this feature, iu moral harmnny with it, he 
never was unmindful of a favor or kindness, personal or professional, the record 
of which was not inscribed in indelible characters on a grateful heart. 

The subject of our notice was so easy of access as to be unconscious of his 
superiority, and his manners were at once seen to be the reflection of his simpli- 
city of character. 

He was a great master of humor. It was peculiar in its raciness. Wlio can 
forget his singular strain of wit, which, nltliough at times trenching on that line 
that separates refinement from its opposite, was remarkable for its pungency aud 
epigrammatic point? Who can fail to remember how often, iu his loien.sic efforts, 
he lias relieved the dullness of a legal argument, and enlivened the fatigued at- 
tention of a jury, by his spontaneous sallies — the sudden flash of wit — illumi- 
nating what the subtilty of logic could not reach ? And on festive occasions, 
who does not cherish memories of that exuberance of pleasantry that was ini- 
tinged by personality — the shaft that was sped with unerring aim, but unbarbe'd 
with malice — those moments of relaxation, in which a buoyant spirit of cheer- 
fulness diffused light aud warmth through a numerous company — when the 
heart flowed out at the lips? 

After a career of usefulness, that has given his name to history, and of high 
honor, that has presented an example to be followed, if not envied, he has de- 
parted in thi' fullness of his fame aud -maturity of his gilts, leaving the most 
poignant feelings of sonow among those who were honored by his friendship, 
aud of deep regret iu the community of which he was the most distinguished 

viving statesmen Jisplay greater brilliancy in debate, aud some enjoy 
more popular notoriety, but scarcely one of his colleagues or opponents 
was so thoroughly trusted. 

In j)ublic life, as in private intercourse, his unaffected and courteous 
sincerity conciliated all who approached him. To ordinary men he paid 
the most acceptable compliments, by saying precisely what he thought, 
without consciousness of liis own superiority, and indeed without thought 
of himself. 

One of Sir G. Lewis' most striking characteristics may he described, 
in homely language, as a total absence of fuss. He had not the smallest 
propensity to magnify difficulties, or to make the most of himself aud of 
his duties. He systematically acted on the opinion, which he frequently 
expressed, that the political chief of a department should do nothing 
which could be done as well by his subordinates. He thought that the 
love of labor, for its own sake, indicated a deficiencv of real aptitude for 
business ; and he considered it unfair as well as unwise to deprive his 
assistants of their due share of respousibility and activity. Iu bis own 
neighborhood, where he was deservedly popular, he performed, as far as 
possible, the ordinary functions of a country gentleman, in precisely the 
same spirit which regulated his conduct as Chancellor of the Exchequer 
aud Secretary of State. It never occurred to his mind that it was a 
heroic act either to produce a budget or to attend quarter session. 

[Salurday Review. 


The London Times, commenting on the French operations in Mexico, 
expresses an appreciation of the power of the Confederate States, in the 
following terms : 

One thing is certain, that all history demonstrates the incompatibility 
which exists between the Spanish and French character, and the Mexi- 
cans are to a great extent of Spanish blood. In the mean time the South- 
ern Confederacy, mainly of Anglo-Saxon race, begins to rear its gigantic 
proportions and to spread its powerful tegis over the Gulf States. Its 
people have proved themselves to be a military race and po.'ssessed of the 
highest characteristies of courage, self-denial and perseverance; and oc- 
cupying a commanding position, as they do, between the two vast districts 
of North and South America, t!uy will, most undoubtedly, at some future 
d.ay, control to a great extent, the destinies not only of their own States, 
but also that of those with which they are connected. Whether they will 
view with favor the establishmeut of French interests in Mexico, if such 
be coutemplated, is a question which the future development of events 
must be to solve. 

For tlie Record. 


The base should be square, with his epitaph on each face, separately, 
in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Eug'lish. A piece of artillery should be 
placed on the summit, so constructed as that the sun, each day it shone 
npon the spot, would at midday fire a salute to the great hero. We_ 
should make Jackson's tomb the point of .departure for our meridian. 
Thus, whilst committing to the sciences the duty of pointing to the model 
of a confederate soldier, we could measure the earth and t'le heavens 
standing at his grave, as ethereal fire should ignite the discharges that 
would echo his praises in a war in which he illustrated the value of 
science aud religion. 


It was well that the House of Commons should express, by adjourning, 
without debate, on Tuesday last, the general sorrow for the loss of one 
of its worthiest members. Only eight years have passed since Sir George 
Cornewall Lewis first entered the Cabinet, on his return to the House of 
Commons after a temporary exclusion. In that short period he won the 
political reputation and the universal esteem which marked him out as 


Re-cxandnalion for disability. — Congress having provided special me- 
dical boards in each coiigressional district, to determine questions of ca- 
pacity for military service, no previous discharge for disability, from any 
other source whatever, exempts the holder from re-examination by these 

The decision of such a board itself is litiblc to review. 

AVhen, in the opinion of enrolling officers, the causes for which exemp- 
tion wiis granted to a person after examination by the medical board have 
ceased to exist, they are to make a report in full to the district board, 
stating the name of the person, when enrolled, when examined, and the 
disease, with reasons for believing it to have disappeared, and that the 
person is capable of perforraiug service. 

If the examining board shall think proper, it is to order the party to 
be brought before it for re-examination. Until the board so orders, the 
persons exempted are not to be molested. 

BLACK lAST— {Continued.) 

Officers of the U. S. navy, bom in the South, who adhered to the federal 
government, and are making war upon their homes : 

CoM^tAXDER: — Reserved, James M. Watson, Va. * 

Lir.i T. CoMM.vXDKKs:— .\ctive list, A. C. Khino, Joseph M. Bradford, Wm. 
E. Hopkins, Ala.; Paul Shidey, Samuel P. Carter, George H. Stevens, Robert 
W. Scott, John B. Lewis, Tenn.; Richmond Aulick, Jolm H. Upshur, M. Pat- 
terson Jones, Wm. R. Mayo, Va. ; Edward Barrett, La. ; Wm. Mitchell, A. W. 
Johnson, D. C--; A. A. Semmes, John H. Russell, D. Pheuix, Md. ; R. F. R. 
Lewis, Wm. McGimglc, E. O. Matthews, Mo. ; D. S. Braine, Texas; Joseph E. 
]Je Haven, Jas. E. Juuctt.C. W. Flasser, Austin Peudergrast, Wm. P. McCamm, 
Ky.; Edward E. Stoue, Ga.; Wm. A. Kirkland, N. C. 

C.^PT.^iNS: — Reserved list, James M., D. C. 

LlfcUrcNAXTS:— Reserved list, Wm. P. Buckner, Ark.; J. W. Swift, N. C. 

the probable futtire chief ol' the moderate cr liberal party. Several enr- J- J Boyle, D- C- ; Geo. M. White, Ga. ; Chas. ThomoB, 6. Chase Barney, Md 

July 9, 1863.] 




K.' n. 


35. Daniel Oswalt, Culiahatchie, Ala. -Oct. 15, ISfil. Iniprovemeiit 
in revolving cannon. — This invention cousiste in a vertically revolving 
cylinder, provided with a number of chambers, the bore of which cor- 
responds with that of the barrel ; motion being imparted to this cylinder 
by a crank, a stop lever, notches and a ratchet cast on the cylinder. 

40. John P. Gorman, Charlestown, Va. Nov. 2, 1861. Improve- 
ment in cartridge boxes. — The nature of this improvement consists in 
combining a cap box with a cartridge box, under one and the same cover. 

54. John M. White, Citronelle, Ala. December 7, 1861. Improve- 
ment in breech-loading guns. — This invention consists in a hinged breech 
piece on the top of the barrel, provided with a tongued lever, which fits 
to a grooved joint, and is held there by a spring latch. 

58. Carl Laquequist, Macon, Ga. January 2, 1862. Improvement 
in automatic breech-loading guns. — This invention consists in combining 
with the barrel of a gun or rifle having an open breech, which is stopped 
by a sliding piece, separate tubes or receptacles for the powder, caps and 
balls, so arranged that the movement of a lever loads the gun, and the 
act of cocking it caps the nipple. 

70. E. Archer, Richmond, Va. Jan'y 7, 1862. Improvement in per- 
cussion fuzes. — This invention consists in securing the plunger, so as to 
prevent the premature explosion of the shell.' 

79. C. V. Littlepage, Austin, Texas. March 11, 1862. Bullet ma- 
chine. — This invention consists in making minuie balls, by the rollmg 
and compressive action of dies. 

80. C. E. Stuart, Owiugs & Taylor, Alexandria, Va. March 21, 
1862. Instrument for sighting cannon. — This instrument consists of an 
elongated metal rod, to which three movable sights are attached, two of 
which are capable of being elev.ated and depressed ; and the sight has a 
projecting standard holding the sight piece, and is secured to a movable 

88. Augustus McBurth, Richmond, Va. April 14, 1862. Improved 
mode of manufacturing scabbards. — This invention consists in combining 
together veneers of wood and linen or other cloth by means of glue, and 
forming scabbards out of these combined materials. 

91. J. W. Howlett, Greensboro', N. C. May 10, 1862. Improve- 
ment in breech-loading fire arms. — This invention consists in a hinged 
breech piece, containing the^lock and firing apparatus, serving as breech 
plug, and being secured by a spring catch to the rear of the barrel. 



Captain Semmes of the Alabama at last accounts had 74 chronometers 
in his cabin, taken from as many ships that he had destroyed. 

Another beautiful battery of 12-pounder bronze Napoleon guns, from 
the Macon, Ga. arsenal, has just been sent to the war. The guns are 
well shaped, and the carriages and caissons admirably made and painted. 

The first exequatur granted to a consul of a foreign power by the Con- 
federate government, was one to Mr. Ernest Raven, consul for tlu^ Duke 
of Saxe Goburg and Gotha, and was dated as early as August 1861. No 
other power has recognized us by a similar request. 

At Chapel Hill college, N. C, there were 72 students the past scholastic 

Major General Patrick Cleburne of Arkansas entered the army as a 
private at the beginning of the war. He is an Irishman, and has earned 
Ills distinction Vjy hard senice under General Ilardee. 

The influence of true greatness, even upon bad men, was recently 
finely exhibited, in the reverence involuntarily shown General Lee by 
the Yankee prisoners after the battle of Chancellorsville. The General 
passed along the road where several thousand of them were assembled, 
and while our troops saluted him with deafening shouts, the Yankees, 
eager to see him, crowded forward, and silently and respectfully removed 
their hats as he rode bv. 

In February 186.3 Wm. F. Corbin and T. J. McGraw, belonging to 
Capt. Moore's Company D, 4th Ky. Cavalry, were detailed by Gen. Mar- 
shall to recruit in Kentucky. While on this duty they were captured, 
and by order of Gen. Burnside were shot at Sandusky, Ohio, on the 15th 
May. They were estimable citizens of Campbell county, Ky., and their 
execution is to be retaliated on federal prisoners by the confederate au- 
thorities. A lot was cast at the Libby prison in this city on Monday, the 
6th inst., for twjj officers to be executed as a retaliatory measure, and 
Capt. Henry W. Sawyer of the 1st New Jersey Infantry, and Captain 
John Flynn of the 51st Indiana Regiment were the unfortunate men on 
whom the lot fell. 


Major General Blunt, commanding federal troops on the borders of 
Kansas, has declared in a General Order, that every person, male or 
female, who aids directly or indirectly, the Confederates, shall be expelled 
his district or executed. 

The Yankee seaports have been in terror of Confederate privateers. 
The Tacony destroyed fourteen small Yankee vessels in one day. Cap- 
tain Reid, who commanded her, finding himself pursued and surrounded 
by a fleet of steamers, blew her up and took to his small boats. Enter- 
ing the harbor of Portland, Maine, with these he boarded afld carried 
out the federal revenue cutter Caleb Gushing, which he was afterwards 
compelled to destroy. The captain and crew are now prisoners in the 
hands of the Yankees. 

There are public sales of cotton, seized b}' the federal troops, at St. 
Louis, on the first Monday of every month, and at Cincinnati, on the 
second Monday. By this means, the Yankees hope in part to defray the 
expenses of the war. 

The official report of Gen. Rosencrans on the battle of Murfreesbo- 
rough, shows that one ball out of 145 hit its object, and that out of 20,000 
rounds of artillery every 27th shot was eflfective. 

The New York Economist says that northern speculators have bought 
up on speculation large quantities of cotton within the Confederacy, and 
hold it through southern agents. 

Admiral Foote, who was to renew the attack on Charleston, died last 
week in New York. 

Horace Greeley, William CuUen Bryant and Daniel S. Dickinson have 
visited Washington city, and united with Sumner and Chase in urging 
Lincoln to give a command to Gen. Fremont at some point where he can 
rally around him the negroes of the South. 


Hon. Spencer Walpole, M. P. at the annual meeting of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society of Loudon, referred to Gen. Stonewall Jackson as "one 
of the noblest descendants of the English race." 

The Confederate loan fell to 34 discount on the news reaching England 
of the death of Jackson, but rallied again to one per cent, discount. 

Silver to so large an amount has found its way into Canada since the 
war began, as to be at a discount for Canadian bank bills. The banks 
refuse to receive it, and the boards of trade have asked the legislature to 
tax all federal coin, in order to check the evil. 

Prince Napoleon, differing with his cousin the Emperor both on the 
Polish and the American questions, hae gone on a visit to Constantinople. 
The papers describe his outfit as of most oriental magnificence. 

England and France have a misunderstanding with the Japanese. 
They have a large naval force, ready to act etieCgetically in case of an 
outbreak of hostilities. 

Twenty-five thousand dollars has been paid the artist, Mr. Frith, for 
the copyright of the engraving of his picture of the marriage of the Prince 
of Wales. 

The telegraphic wires now extend from Paris to Siberia, neai- the bor- 
ders of China. The cost of sending a dispatch is about eight dollars for 
twenty words. 



[July 9, 18C3 


We postpone, until next week, No. 4 of our History of " Confederate Financial 
measurls," in order to publish the instractions of the Secretary of the Treasury 
on the mode of collecting the tax in kind. 

So soon as any of the following crops grown in the Confederate States during 
the year 1863, shall be made ready for market, to wit, sweet potatoes, Irish po- 
tatoes, corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, rice, sugar, cotton, tobacco, wool, peas, 
beans and ground peas, molasses (made of cane), cured hay and fodder, each 
farmer or planter shall make return to the assessor of his district of the entire 
quantity of each of these articles produced by him during the year. From these 
respectively, he shall reserve for his own use the following quantities, to wit : 
fifty bushels of sweet potatoes, fifty bushels of Irish potatoes, one hundred 
bushels of corn, fifty bushels of wheat, twenty bushels of peas and beans to 
gether ; and an estimate shall be made by the assessor of the quantity of these 
articles remaining; and one-tenth of each shall be set apart for the use of the Con- 
federate States, and an estimate shall be made and signed by the tax payer and 
the assessor, of the quantity of articles so set apart, and the value thereof in 
confederate currency. 

44. In case the assessor and tax payer shall disagree, each of them shall se- 
lect a disinterested freeholder from the vicidoge ; and in case of difference of 
opinion between the two, they may call in a third. The freeholders thus se- 
lected shall first be sworn by the assessor, or any lawful magistrate, and shall 
then proceed to ascertain the amount of the crop either by actual weight or 
measurement, or by computing the contents of the rooms or houses in which 
they are held, when a correct computation is practicable by such a method. 
They shall then ascertain what quantity may have been previously sold or con- 
sumed by the producer, whether gathered or not, and shall thereupon estimate 
the quantity and quality of the whole, and shall set apart one-tenth thereof as 
the portiori to which the government is entitled. The particulars of the said 
tenth shall be set forth and valued in a written estimate to be signed by the free- 
holders, and one copy thereof shall be delivered to the assessor, and another to 
the producer. When the estimate includes molasses, an allowance shall be made 
to the producer for the cost of the barrels containing the same, by deducting their 
value from the government tenlh. The producer shall deliver the several arti- 
cles set forth in the said estimate, at such place as may be indicated to him by 
the post quartermaster, said place not to be more than eight miles from the place 
of production ; and all cotton delivered shall first be properly ginned and packed 
in some secure manner, and all other articles shall be delivered in such form and 
ordinary marketable condition as may be usual in the section of country in 
which they are delivered ; but the quartermaster of the post shall furnish to the 
producer such sacks as are requisite for the transportation of grain. The de- 
livery of cotton and tobacco may be made at any time before the first day of 
March next, but all other articles must be delivered within two months from the 
date of the estimate. In case the farmer or planter shall fail to deliver the arti- 
cles named in the estimate in good order at the place indicated by the post quar- 
termaster within two months from the date of the estimate, there shall be added 
fifty per cent, to the estimate, and it shall be returned to the district collector, 
and the district collector shall proceed to collect the amount by warrant of dis- 
tress and sale according to law. 




(Organized temporarily, February 8th, 1861— permanently, February 18th, 1M2.) 

Jefferson Davis, Miss., President (term six years); Alex. H. Stephens, Ga., 
Vice-President; J.P.Benjamin, La., Secretary of State ; Jas. A. Seddon, Va., 
Secretary of War; S. R. Mallory, Fla., Secretary of Navy ; C. G. Memminger, 
S. C, Secretary of Treasury ; Thos. H. Watts, Ala., Attorney General ; John H. 
Reagan, Texas, Postmaster General ; A. C. Myers, Va., Quartermaster General ; 
L. B. Northrop, Commissary General; S. P. Moore, S. C, Surgeon General; 
E. W. Johns, S. C, Medical Purveyor. 


Generals — Cooper, Lee, Johnston, Beauregard and Bragg. 

Lieutenant Genera/s— Longstreet, Polk, Hardee, Kirby Smith, Holmes, Pein- 
bertou, Ewell and A. P. Hill. 

Admiral — Franklin Buchanan. 

Captains— h. Rousseau, French Forrest, J. Tatnall, V. M. Randolph, G. M. 
HoUius, D. N. Ingraham, S. Barron, W. F. Lynch, J. L. Sterrett and K. Simms. 
Captains for the War— S. S. Lee and W. C. Whittle 

John G. Shorter, Alabama; H. Flanagin, Arkansas ; Jos. E. Brown, Georgia ; 
Thos. O. Moore, Louisiana; John J. Pettus, Mississippi; Zebulon B. Vance, 
North Carolina ; MiUedge L. Bonham, South Carolina: Isham G. Harris, Ten- 
nessee; F. R. Lubbock, Texas; John Letcher, Virginia; John Milton, Florida; 
T. C. Reynolds, Missouri; Richard Hawes, Kentucky. 

Just ready at WEST & JOHNSTON'S, 145 Main street: 
I. — NO NAME; A Novel. By Wilkie Collins, author of "The Woman in 
White," "Queen of Hearts," etc. etc. 

This work is from the pen of one of the most gifted writers of the day; and 
"No Name" surpasses in beauty and vigor all of his former productions. It is 
the most popular Novel of 1863 — magnificent in plot, diction and nanation. 

Price, $4. Upon the receipt of the price we will forward it to any part of the 

II.— LES MISERABLES (FANTINE), Now Ready; A Novel. By Victor 
Hugo. 10th thousand. 

This is the first of the five parts of Les Miserables. COSETTE, the second 
part, will be ready in a few days. 

Competent critics, in both hemispheres, have pronounced Les Miserables to be 
the most powerful work of fiction of the nineteenth century. 

Price, $2. Upon the receipt of the price we will forward it to any part of the 

IN PRESS, and wUl be ready July 1st: 
This is a newly revised and corrected translation from the French of a Novel 
which in beauty of simplicity, vies with the "Vicar of Wakefield." 

II —AURORA FLOYD. By the author of "Lady AudisyV Secret," etc. 

III.— MISTRESS AND MAID. By Miss Mui.ocii. Author of "John HaU- 

fax, Gentleman," etc. 


Address orders to 

Puhlishers, Booksellers and Stationers, 145 Main St., Richmond. 

Published by WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond: 

The Judge Advocate's Vade Mecum, - - - - $ 5 00 

Gilham's Manual (new edition, with plates), - - - . 

Mahan's Permanent Fortifications (with plates), 2 vols. 

Mahan's Field Fortifications (with plates), . - - - 

Patten's Cavalry Drill (with plates), .... 

C. S. Army Regulations (authorized edition). 

Lee's Volunteer's Hand Book, ..... 

The Volunteer's Camp and Field Book, 

Roberts' Hand Book of Artillery, ..... 

Gilham's Field Artillery, ..... 

The School of the Guides, ..... 

Richardson's Evolutions of the Line (Scott's 3d vol., with plates), - 

The Ordnance Field Manual, ..... 

Napoleon's Maxims of War, ..... 

Instructions for Heavy Artillery (with plates), ... 

The Quartermaster's Guide, - . . . . 

Notes on Artillery (with drawings), . . . . • 

Manual of Arms for Heavy Infantry, .... 

Gary's Bayonet Exercise and Skirmisher's Drill (with plates). 

The C. S. Ordnance Manual for 18ti3 (with plates), . - - 

Warren's Surgery for Camp and Field, .... 

Jomiui's Practice of War (translated from the French). " This very 
valuable work ought not to be separated from every Officer's Prayer 
Book in the Confederate States" — Mnj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, 

New Pocket Map of Virginia, ..... 

Upon the receipt of the price of any of the above mentioned books, we will 

forward them, post paid, to any part of the Confederacy. 
Address orders to 

Booksellers and Publishers, 145 Main St., Richmond. 

10 00 

20 00 

2 50 

] 50 



1 50 


1 00 

3 00 

2 00 

1 GO 

5 00 

1 00 



I 00 

8 00 

5 00 

I 50 

2 50 


I Engraver and Designer in General, 

161 Main st. Richmond, Va. 


JULY, 1863. 

Monday, - - 





Tuesday, - - 






Wednesd.\y, - 












Friday, - 












Sunday, - -. - 






Ten Doll.\rs a year. 

Six Dollars for six months. 

145 Main at., Richmond. 

July 9,-1 8G3.] 





From Blackwood's Magazine. 


Every body who has talked, read or thouglit laucli about America of 
lato must feel that EngUsh opiuious on tlie subject, as rendered by the 
tone of our press, have been qualified by the medium tha't transmits tlieui. 
Nobody in private life talks about " our Trans-Atlantic kinsmen." No- 
body desires to claim peculiar ties with the performers in the absurd and 
barbarous dances which the American natkm executes round its idols of 
the hour, any more than with the worshippers of Mumbo Jumbo. It is 
not a fact, as is sometimes asserted in print and in pubhc speeches, that 
ever}' Euglishniau worthy of the name, deplores the separation between 
North and South. The view commonly taken by Englishmen, who do 
■ not on that aco^iunt consider themselves unworthy of the name, is that 
ever}' daj' tends to justifj' the judgment of the South in withdrawing 
from a system, tlK; results of which are what we contemptuously witness. 
We do not desire that (above all things) the struggle should bo at once 
concluded, no matter how, because a conclusion which would leave the 
Sontls at the mercy of a vindictive, unfair and ungenerous enemy, would 
gratify nobody. It would bo impossible for the national vanity of America, 
hungry as it is, to extract any nourishment from what is expressed on the 
subject in the conversation of intelligent Euglisliraen. When they read 
the speeches of American public mep and the articles of American news- 
papers, they only feel scorn for the blind followers to whom such blind 
guides are possible. Nor do we see any thing in the circumstance that 
America was first colonized from our own shores, to induce us to treat 
with extraordinary indulgence the composite population, with whose man- 
ners, customs and character we have so little in counnon. 

There is always in England a party remarkable for its excess, of ctln- 
dor in self-abasement. Like Mawworm, it likes to be despised. Its 
sense of what is due to an adversary "o'erleaps itself, and falls on the 
other side." Especially when the nation is committed to a course whicli 
demands united action, there is sure to come some set of noodles, with 
their preposterous array of arguments for the other side. We believe 
these men would regard the virtue of their mothers and the honesty of 
their fathers as 'open questions : that if the family honor were assailed, 
they would calmly prepare to argue the matter,' flith a bias towards the 
assailant : that if a rufBan were to spit in their face, their first impulse 
would be to afford him a)i opportunity of removing the stigma, by pre- 
senting him with their own pocket handkerchief. 

Such palpable dissenters from public opiniTm, though thev may pass 
among foreigners for more th.ln they are worth, can never be seriously 
received any where as expressing in any appreciable degree the spirit of 
the nation. No doubt their intention has been to appear as conciliatory 
as possible t« a people with whom we have such extensive commercial re- 
lations, and whose impatience of censnre is only equaled by their disre- 
gard of the national feelings of others. But while it is an error in any 
case to suppose that commerce between nations is dependent on tenti- 
nient,' in the present instance we have ample proof that the feelings of 
jealousy, dislike and intolerance, which the Americans evince for us, could 
scarcely be aggravated by the statement of Our real opinions. 

On the other hand, we believe that the serious attention which we have 
bestowed on their doings, has had no inconsiderable share in perpetuating 
the self-delusions in which they wrap themselves; especially theii' ability 
to subjugate the South; the magnificent spectacle which they are exhibit- 
ing to the civilized world, and the general awe which is felt of their might 
by European powers. We discuss the state craft of the Americans, as if 
it really were directed by statesmen capable of planning and executing 
opt-rations of finance and policy. We speak of the operations of their 
ai'my and the designs of its leaders, as if they had established a claim 
npon the consideration of a sensible people, who have soiiie reputation in 

w ar. Wo repeat or refute the assertions, prophecies and denunciations 
(pf their orators and journalists, as if any hinnan being (even the speakers 
and writers themselves) could consider them entitled to a particle of cre- 
dit. It is in vain that they gesticulate, tumble and perform the most ex- 
travagant antics ; we persist in regarding the dreary farce as a grand 
melodrama, or even a tragedy. We who ground our best claims to cou- 
eideratiou as a nation on the great men, great actions and great princi- 
ples which illustrate the massive volume of our history, grant the claim 
of this people to greatness, on the single ground of material prosjierity. 
This coui'se we believe to have been unfortunate and injudicious. Had 
the Americans been permitted to see the true reflections of our minds — 
'had they been aware of the extent and depth of the contempt with which 
we have regarded their doings, it could scarcely have failed to modify their 
conduct of the civil war. Nor as a question of policy, when we would 
avoid war, do.we think it advisable to dwell on our pacific disposition as 
the key note. To profess a disinolination to fight, is not the best way to 
deal with a bully ! even were it true that we would sacrifice every thing 
for peace, and that Messrs. Bright, Cobden and Joseph Pease were the 
great representatives of English feeling. They have seen us solicitous 
to observe a neutrality, the operation of which was unfavorable to the 
South. They have seen us foregoing our undoubted right to recognize 
the Southern Confederacy, and permitting them to enforce an ineffectual 
blockade, which was most injurious to our trade, and whicli the law of 
nations would hav* warranted us in disregarding ; and they have heard 
us prolcssing a desire for peace above all things. They remember the 
patience with which previous insults have been borne by us ; and they 
take a childish delight in shaking their fist in the face of a great, strong 

We have said, that in our view it is to be regretted that the apparent 
faults of democracy should be so tenderly treated. We are all ready to 
join in reprobation of absolute government; but when did any civilized 
absolute government show less claim on our indulgence than the Ame- 
rican Republic ? To what countiy shall we look for hereditary Princes 
less fit to wield the destinies of nations, than the obscure and common 
place man whose decrees now stand in the place of public law in the 
North ? It may be said he is at least the choice of the nation. Or to 
take lower ground — docs he represent the material interests and respon- 
sibilities of the nation ? Not at all. He is the numerical majority of a 
people, who have derived the principal accessions to their numbers from 
the scum of Europe. Every four years the constitution is in travail. 
All mankind are invited, or rather commanded to watch the interesting 
event. All is convulsion; the throes of the mountain are prodigious, 
and the latest result is Mr. Abraham Lincoln ! An imbecile executive 
above, a restless; purposeless multitude below, linked together like a kite 
tied to a balloon, and drifting at the mere}' of the air currents, while re- 
spectability, moderation and sense are pushed aside, or dragged help- 
lessly along. Such is the spectacle presented in the first storm by the 
model Republic. A gallant army, whose energies have been displayed 
chiefly in flight : a free country, whoso judges are overlooked by sen- 
tries : disinterested patriotism, that requires to be bribed with eight per 
cent.: a united nation, where the elements of dissolution are rife: a 
practical people, who are spending more than they possess, for an object 
which they cannot define. Such are a few of the results of these re- 
markable institutions that have been recommended for our imitation, as 
immense improvements upon our own. Of course, we do not blame Mr. 
Lincoln for being president, but we pity him. No man is more unfor- 
tunate than he, wfio is in a conspicuous position for which he is manifestly 
unfit. What had this ill-starred man done to merit such a visitation aa 
to be set af the head of an unruly nation, that is going to pieces in con- 
vulsions ? His antecedents are respectable, though not illustrious. He is 
said to have exhibited considerable dexterity and muscular power in the 
splitting of rails ! He may possibly be a good attorney, though we 
should never have selected him as a legal adviser. Had we done so, we 
should have expected to find him an oracle of the cloudiest kind ; and as 
a rule of arriving at a clear comprehension of the facts, a few weeks after 





the case was decided. In his public compositions he is distinguished 
chiefly for his disregard of grammar and an infatuated fondness for meta- 
phor. He gets laboriously on to a figure of speech, vrhich generally runs 
away with him ; and after exhibiting him in various eccentric postures, 
leaves him sprawling, in an attitude highly unbecoming to the President 
of a gi-eat Eepublic. Still, to find metaphors unmanageable is no great 
crime. ■ A man may be unskilled in composition, or even an indiflFerent 
lawyer, without meriting such a fate as that we deplore in Mr. Lincoln. 

It is true, that the political system of America may answer the end 
proposed by all representative institutions, and that President, Cabinet 
and Congress may truly reflect the spirit of the nation. But how can 
the most bitter enemy of their institutions add to the strength of the case 
contained in the two facts, that the American people can elect such men 
as they please, and that such are the men they please to elect. It is as 
easy to maintain a position as a celebrity in America. The nation con- 
fers its fame as, according to the cynic, people give their gratitude, "from 
a lively sense of favors to come." The battles of somebody's bluff and 
somebody else's ferry are the most important actions that ever were 
fought, as the victors of Waterloo, Inkermann and Solferino are bound to 
admit. Bunker's Hill was a great victory. All American history is 
written to prove not, that Americans have performed great actions, but 
that the actions were great because they were performed by Americans. 
Let him who doubts this, refer to some history of modern America, writ- 
ten by a native, and he will speedily be satisfied that no foreigner will 
ever willingly undertake the dreaiy task of wading through the volumi- 
nous records, the grand object of which is to render trivialities important 
and nobodies illustrious. We admit that there is a serious and even 
tragic side to the aspect of American affairs, but it is not what commonly 
passes for such. It is not in the dissolution of a system that had become 
rotten and offensive, while yet it possessed the appearance of life : not 
in the parades which Americans mistake for campaigns, nor the scuffles 
which they call great battles. It is in the fiendish spirit in which the 
•Kjoutest is carried on, on the part of the Korlh — a spirit without example 
in modern conflicts — and to find a parallel for which, we must go back to 
the time when Louis XIV affixed an everlasting stain to his name, by 
ravaging the Palatinate, or when the Spaniards under Alva so richly 
earned the curses of the Dutch, by turning a prosperous territory into a 
frightful desert. But the Spaniards showed at least, that while doing 
the work of fiends, they had the courage of men. Let the apologists of 
the Korth, whether of the Bright or the Tom Brown school (if there be 
such schools), read the New York Times, and then say whether, as pro- 
fessed humanitarians, they wish any longer to identify themselves with the 
savage abolitionists, or the frenzied unionists of the North : and if naturally 
doubtful in this age of the world men are relapsing into barbarism, they 
wish further to ascertain what the spirit is in which the war is waged, let 
them ask the next ardent Northern American whom they meet, whetlier 
if the Union is only to be maintained by the ruin and desolation of the 
South, he would wish the war to proceed. They will be surprised to 
hear some calm, cool, civilized gentleman at their side testifying to the 
extent of his fanatic devotion to abolition, or to the Union, by a reply 
that would disgrace the savages of Central Africa ! 

Whether war comes or not, we think that the opportunity should be 
taken of our state of preparation, to adopt a policy more suitable to our 
own position, and to the interests of the world, than that of bystanders 
in this cut throat quarrel. The question of recognition of the Southern 
Confederacy and the raising of the ineffectual blockade, in conjunction 
with France, arc entitled to be immediately considered. As it is onr 
neutrality tells against the jSouth, we do not impute this to any body as a 
fault. We merely mention it as a fact — for every weapon — rifle or can- 
non — that oiir founderies have supplied to the South, the North have been 
^enabled, by their possession of safe means of water carriage, to get 
twenty. Does neutrality mean an over scrupulous regard for the interests 
of one party ? Have the northern government or people deserved from 
us an overstrained interpretation of law in their favor ? The South, so 
far as is seen, 'ieserves recognition, independence and symiiathy. Their 

only crime has been a desire to take no farther part in a system, to Vhich 
not even the letter, far less the spirit of the law can prove that they flttre 
bound by any principle stronger than convenience, and the operatioi^rf 
which they declare to be intolerably oppressive. It is natural that they"^ 
should object to accept an Abraham Lincoln as their chief man, and to 
have their destinies influenced by such a cabinet and mob as that of the 
North, when, as they have shown, they can do so much better for them- 
selves. They have chosen for their president a man of judgment and of 
conduct, who can give to their impulses unity of action, and can both ex- 
cite and control their enthusiasm. If the messages of the rival presi- 
dents may be considered as indicative of the policy of those who chose 
the chiefs, or of the merits of the causes which they respectively advocate, 
the South are amply justified for regarding with " the contemptuous 
astonishment" which Jefferson Davis' language attributes to them, the 
proceedings of the North. Resolution and devotion have been shown 
not merely by the Southern troops, but by the entire population. They 
appear to bear their privations with uncommon cheerfulness and courage. 
They make no querulous appeals for sympathy nor complaints of neglect. 
They speak of their success with modesty, prepare for new distresses 
with fortitude, and express none of the vindictiveness so prominent in the 
measures of their enemies. 


A Legend of Ancient Rome — ( Condensed from Fraser's Magazine). 

Rome had nearly completed the fourth century since her foundation. 

It was noon in the Roman forum.. 

But it was not deserted : crowds were thronged together there ; patri- 
cians in the flowing white woolen toga, with their long waving hair, for 
the Romans were still inlonsi : the poorer classes in their coarac tunics ; 
boys with the bulla hanging at their necks (the rich distinguished by the 
golden, and the poor by the leathern hulla, or boss) ; women in their 
stofbs, and even terrified children ; all ranks, all ages, had gathered there. 
The majority were silent, but some spoke in suppressed and earnest whis- 
pere. For in the centre of the forum yawned a deep, dark abyss : it 
scared the boldest to look down into it; there was a descent as into hell ; 
black as midnight, precipitous, and apparently bottomless. That deep 
and frightful gulf had opened spontaneously during the night preceding, 
and had hourly grown "wider and wider, as if to enclose some eagerly- 
desired prey within its horrid jaws. All Rome felt an internal convic- 
tion that it boded some ill, some dreadful and unknown evil to the city, 
which, if it still continued to widen, it must engulf ere long. 

The senate, startled by the unusual occurrence, had assembled, and 
had summoned the augurs to consultation. 

And now the members of the Sacred College of Augurs were engaged 
in making observations, the announcement of the result of which was 
anxiously awaited by the astonished people, among whom a thousand 
sinister rumors were afloat. 

The sonorous voice of the chief augur was distinctly heard as he pro- 
nounced aloud the result of the auguries and (\jjinations. "People of 
Rome ! a heavy doom hangs over our beloved city ! The wrath of the 
infernal gods has been kindled against ye ; and in that black abyss ye 
behold its token. See! it gapes with greedy jaws to swallow Rome; and 
each hour that it remains unclosed will it become wider and wider still, 
till domestic hearth, sacred altar, senate house, capitol, all shall be en- 

"Yet m.-iy the doom be averted by a fitting oblation. The angry dei- 
ties demand a sacrifice — but not of innocent and unconscious victims. 
No ! they demand the sacrifice of that, whatsoever it be, which is the 
most precious of sublunary things. They have not intimated to us what 
is the object they demand: that is left to your own judgment, your own 
faith, your own generosity. 

"Choose ye that wljjch ye deem most valuable, and cast it, unreluo- 
tantlv, into this gulf.' If the sacrifice be acceptable, the chasm will 
close : if it continues npien. seek ye. by a further offeiing. to propitiate 

July 9, 1863.] 



the infernal deities. The ensuing hour, then, do ye dedicate to deciding 
onXvhat yc hold as of most worth; liut when the hour has elapsed, let 
ydii suu behold ye here, prompt Avith your sacrifice to redeem your country. 

"Romans! from the proudest patrician to the liumblest plebeian, is 
there one who would hesitate a moment to give his best, his most valued, 
nay, all he possesses, for his fellow- citizens and his country ? Not one ! 
Surely not one ! Never has the heart of man beat with such generous 
patriotism as here in Rome — and justly so. What honors, what glory 
has not Rome already acquired, though still young among nations ? 
What glory, what honors have been predicted to her, if she survive the 
impending danger — the domination of the whole earth, the civilization 
of the remotest barbarians ! Let but Rome endure by the generosity of 
her sons, and she shall become the Metropolis of the Universe, the pa- 
rent of laws and arms, the nurse of the arts,- the dwelling of the gods, 
the haven of all nations, the citadel of the world, a sum of glory to ani- 
mate and enlighten all mankind. Roman citizen shall be a title far more 
exalted than king; and Roman matrons shall look down on queens. 
Roman shall be a term to express free, privileged, honorable, excellent ; 
Roman virtue, Roman valor shall be a proverb to all people, in all ages. 

" Romans ! shall Rome pass away ere she attain her zenith of splen- 
dor, because ye selfishly love aught more than Rome ? Or sh.ill she en- 
dure to fulfill a glorious destiny, purchased by the generous sacrifice of 
her sons ?" 

The augur had scarcely ceased, when he was answered by an unani- 
mous and animated shout, " Roma .' Roma .' eslo perpelua .'" 

Down into the abyss descended shower after shower of glittering coins, 
glancing for an instant, and disappearing ; and not a single reverberating 
sound announced that they had found the bottom. Was it bottomless ? 
Alas ! alas ! rich as had been the sacrifice, it availed not. 

Again the augur spoke. 

" The women of Rome have as yet borne no part in the oblations. Let 
them also strive to propitiate. Perhaps the hearts of women, with their 
natural warmth of devotedness, their natural purity from selfish feeling, 
may offer a more acceptable sacrifice than the hands of men." 

And now the most esteemed among the Roman matrons came modestly 
forward in a regular order, each covered by her sweeping stota, bordered 
by the gold-embroidered segmenta, and edged with the instita or fringes, 
^^hich, with the vitlac, or ribbons adorning the head, were the distinctive 
tokens of virtuous women ; her waist circled by the slTophium, or broad 
girdle, and her face shaded by a veil. 

Each bore a casket, containing her jewels and most valuable orna- 
ments. There was the gemmed spinther, or clasp for the left shoulder of 
the robe ; the inaures, or earrings ; the monilia, or golden necklaces set 
with jewels ; and the costly annuli, or rings. And with eyes fixed on 
the ground, and with gentle voices, they sang to the accompaniment of a 
lyre, touched by an attendant — 


" Fair pearl, and precious gem ! 
Oft have we gazed on them 
With woman's fondness in our hours of pride ; 
Wp]1 pleased tbat Terra's caves 
And ocean's lib'ral waves, 
A tiibute meet to deck us liatli supplied. 

'Mid tress of darksome hair 

The brilliant, rich, and rare, 

Like some clear star through summer's midnight shone; 

Round the majestic waist 

The jewell'd girdle braced 

New beauties gave, like Venus' fav'ring zone. 

Oft have we smiled to see, 
With playful vanity. 

From our gemm'd fingers flash a rainbow light; 
Then rais'd them to our eyes, 
And said in sportive guise, 
'Is not the beam of juyinis glance us bviglif 

Past is our prideful liour, 

We yield to sorrow's power: 

Bright gauds, alas! ye ill beseem us now; 

Go, let your splendors shine 

For throned Proserjiine, 

And deck with regal pomp her clouded brow ! 

Tell her how prized soe'er 

In happier days ye were, 

Rome's daughters freely, proudly can bestow 

Their gift, and deem it bliss 

Can they but win with this 

For Rome a moment's respite from her woe!" 

The sparkling gems were cast from the willing hands ; an instant they 
scattered round as it were a shower of rays — an instant showed a gleam 
as if from the bow of Iris, then disappeared forever in the gulf. And 
did it close ? Ah, no ! 

The augur fixed a troubled eye on that greedy abyss, that had received 
so much, and still demanded more. 

But soon words of awful import were heard, loud and imperative. At 
first they were spoken only by a few ; but they were immediately caught 
up by hundreds, and. swelled into a clamor. " The hohest, the most pre- 
cious of all eartUy things is maternal love. It is the strongest and 
deepest of aflfectious : all others may change ; that never can — all others 
may be estranged ; that endures through all trials. The greatest sacrifice 
must be made by maternal feeling : call on the Roman mothers to yield 
up their children for our common mother, Rome !" A shout arose on 
the outskirts of the crowd: "Ctcrtit/s! Curtius .'—Curtius ! the brave, 
the noble, the generous Curtius !" The thundering tramp of a steed was 
heard, the throng gave way, onward sped a powerful and beautiful black 
horse, in all the trappings 'of war. There sat on him, like a fortified 
tower, a majestic warrior in his full armor ; beautiful as Romulus in his 
youth, glorious as Mars on a field of victory. He bore about him the 
trophies of his military glory — his helmet was twined with the oaken 
civic garland, and surmounted by the mural and the castreusic crowns ; 
a splendid torgue encircled his neck; golden armillae shone upon his 
arms ; and a rich fibula clasped his flowing sagum. On, on he dashed 
up to the verge of the terrific chasm, then reined up his steed, and with 
the spear in his hand motioned for silence. 

" Romans ! ye have oflFered sacrifice of your possessions, of your glories, 
your feelings, your hopes — but who sacrifices self? Who relinquishes 
the fair light of day, and goes to brave unknown horrors ? Who dares 
pain, and anguish, and the malice of the infernals, devoting his own per- 
son for his fellow-meu ! Trust me, Romans, it is the sacrifice of self 
that is the most precious — it is the generous courage, the self-immolation 
by pure, unmingled philanthropy, that is the oblation worthy of ac- 

He looked down on the abyss, uttered the formula of self-devotion to 
the infernal gods, then lifted up his eyes, and extending his arms towards 
the capitol, he exclaimed, — 

"For thee, Rome I and for my brethren, thy children! — for thy glory, 
and for thy welfare." 

Then violently spurring his steed, the animal reared, and plunged 
suddenly forward — down, down went horse and rider — down into that 
black and unfathomable abyss— down in an instant ! The whole multi- 
tude simultaneously covered their eyes with their hands, and utterq^l a 
deep groan ; but above all sounded a female voice with one agonizing 
crv, one single cry of such deep, such deadly anguish, that it pierced like 
a dao-o-er through every heart and ear. There was a moment of dreadful 
feeling; a moment that seemed an age : they withdrew their hands from 
their eyes — the abyss had closed; the earth was entire and firm as be- 
fore; the self-sacrifice was accepted; the self-devoted was engulfed 
forever. , . 

Ages passed ; Rome reached her zenith 6f glory, and then declined, as 
every thing must do : but an echo of fame still sounds with the utterance 
of her name ; a halo of beauty still lingers over her decay ; and stran- 
gers still seek her rnins. to wonder and Admire. 



[JuLT 9, 1863 


I was conversing not long since with a retuvnetl volunteer. 

" I was in tbe hospital as nurse, for a long time (said he), and assisted 
in taking off limbs and dressing- all sorts of wounds ; but the hardest 
thing I ever did was to .take mv thumb off a man's leg." 

" Ah (said I), how was that?" Then he told me. 

It was a. young man, who had a severe wound in the thigh. The ball 
passed com'pletely through, and amputation was necessary. The limb 
was cut off close up to the body, the arteries taken up, and he seemed to 
be doing well. Subsequently one of the small arteries sloughed off. An 
incision was made, and it was again taken up. " It is well it was not 
the main artery (said the surgeon, as he ])crformed the operation) : he 
might have bled to death before wo could have taken it up." But Char- 
ley got on finely, and was a favorite with us all. 

I was passing through the ward one night about midnight, when sud- 
denly as I was passing Charley's bed he spoke to me : " H , my leg 

is bleeding again." I_thl-ew back the bed clothes, and the blood spirted 
in the air. The main artery had sloughed oft". 

Fortunately I knew jnst what to do, and in an instant I had pressed 
my thumb on the place and stopped the bleeding. It was so close to the 
body that there was barely room for ray thumb, but I succeeded in keeping 
it tliere, and arousing one of the convalescents, sent him for the surgeon, 

who came in on the run. " I am so thankful, H (said he, as he saw 

me), that you were up and knew what to do, for he must have bled to 
death before I could have got here." 

But on examination in the case he looked exceedingly serious, and sent 
out for other surgeons. All came who wore within reach, and a consul- 
tation was held over the poor fello\v. One conclusion -B'as reached by all. 
There was no place to work save the spot where my thund) was placed : 
they could not work under my thumb, and if I moved it he would bleed 
to death before the artery could be taken up. There was no way to save 
his life. 

Poor Charley ! He was veiy calm when they told him, and requested 
that his brother, who was in the same hospital, might be called up. He 
came and sat down by the bedside, aud for three hours I stood, and by 
the pressure of my thumb kept up the life of Cliarley, while the brothers 
had their last conversation on earth. It was a strange place for me to be 
in, to feel that I had the life of a fellow mortal in my hands, as it were, 
and stranger yet, to feel that an act of mine must cause that life to de- 
part. Loving the poor fellow as I did, it was a hard thought : but there 
was no. alternative. 

The last words were spoken. Charley had arranged all his business 
affairs, and sent tender messages to absent ones, who little dreamed how 
near their loved one stood to the grave. The tears filled my eyes more 
than once as I listened to those parting words. All were sad, and he 

turned to me. " Now, H , I guess you had better take off your 

thumb." "O, Charley, how can I?" (l"said). "But it must be, you 
know (he replied cheerfully). I thank you very much for your kindness, 
and now, good bye." 

He turned away his head, I raised my thumb — once more the life cur- 
rent gushed forth, and in three minutes poor Charley was dead. 

From Blackwood. 


In visiting-the head quarters of the confederate generals, but particu- 
larly those of General Lee, any one accustomed to see European armies 
in the field, cannot fail to be struck with the great absence of all the 
pomp and circumstance of war in and around their encampments. Lee's 
head quarters consisted of about seven or eight pole tents, pitched with 
their backs to a stake fence, upon a piece of ground so rocky that it was 
unpleasant to ride over it, its only recommendation being a little stream 
of good water which flowed close by the general's tent. In front of the 
tents were some three four-wheeled wagons, drawn up without any regu- 
larity, and a number of horses roamed loose about the field. The ser- 
vaiits, who were of course slaves, aud the mounted soldiers, called "cou- 
riers," who always accompany each general of division in the field, were 
unprovided wit"h tents, and slept in or under the wagons. Wagons, tents 
and some of the horses were marked U. S., showing that part of that 
huge debt in the North has gone to famishing even the confederate gene- 
rals with camp equipments. No guard or sentries were to be seen in tlie 
vicinity ; no crowd of aids-de-canip loitering about, making themselves 
agreeable to visitors, and endeavoring to save their generals from recciv-. 
iug those who have no particular business. A large farm house stands 
close by, which, in any other array, woulil have boeu the general's resi- 
dence pro tem., but, as no liberties are allowed to be taken with per.sonal 
property in Lee's army, he is particular in setting a good example him- 
self. His staff' are crowded together, two or tliree in a tent ; none are 
allowed to carry more baggage than a small box each, aud his own kit is 

but very little larger. Every one who approaches him does s6i with 
marked respect, although there is none of that bowing and flourishitie of 
forage caps which occurs in the presence of European generals : ^d, 
while all honor him and place implicit faith in his courage and ability, 
those with whont he is most intimate feel for him the affection of sons to-, 
a father. Old General Scott was correct in saying that when Lee joined 
the Southern cause, it was worth as much as the accession of 20,000 men 
to the "rebels." Since then every injury that it was possible to inflict, 
the Northerners have heaped upon him' His house on the Pamnnkey 
river was burnt to the ground, and the slaves carried away — many of 
them by force, while his residence on the Arlington Heights was not only 
gutted of its furniture, but even the very relics of George A^'ashiugton 
were stolen from it,-and paraded in triumph in the saloons of New Y^ork 
and Boston. Notwithstanding all these personal looses, however, when 
speaking of the Yankees, he neither evinced any' bitterness of feeling, 
nor gave utterance to a single violent expression, but alluded to many of 
his former friends and companions among them, in the kindest terms. 
He spoke as a man proud of the victories won by his country, and confi- 
dent of idtimate success, under the blessiug of the Almighty, whom he 
glorified for past-successes, and whose aid he invoked for all future ope- 
rations. He regretted that his limited supply of tents and available ac- 
commodation would prevent him from putting us uj), but he kindly placed 
at our disposal hprses, or a two-horse wagon, if we preferred it, to drive 
about in. 

Upon leaving him we drove to Bunker hill, six miles nearer Martins- 
burg, at which place " Stonewall" Jackson, now of world-wide celebrity, 
had his head quarters. With him we spent a most pleasant hour, and 
were agreeably surprised to find hira very affable, having been led to ex- 
pect that he was silent and almost morose. Dressed in his gray uniform, 
he looks the hero that he is ; and his thin, compressed lii)s and calm 
glance, which meet yours unflinchingly, give evidence of that firmness 
and decision of character for which he is so famous. He has a broad, 
open forehead, from which the hair is well brushed back ; a shapely nose, 
straight aud rather long ; thin, colorless cheeks, with only a very small 
allowance of whiskers ; a cleaulj- shaven upper lip and chin ; and a pair 
of fine grayish blue eyes, rather sunken, with overhanging brows, which 
intensifj" tlie keenness of his gaze, but without imparting any fierceness 
to it. Such arc the general -characteristics of his face, and I have only 
to add that a smile seems always lurking about his mouth when he speaks, 
and that, though his voice partakes slightly of that harshness ^vliieh Eu- 
ropeans unjustly attribute to all Americans, there is much nnnlistakable 
cordiality in his m.anner; and to us he talked most affectionately of Eng- 
land, and of his brief l)ut enjoyable sojourn there. The religious ele- 
ment seems strongly developed in him ; and though Ids conversation is 
perfectly free fnmi all puritanical cant, it is evident that he is a person 
who never loses sight of the fact that there is an omnipresent Deity ever 
presiding over the nnnutest occurrences of life as well as ov(?r the most 
important. Altogether, as one of his soldiers said to me in talking of 
him, "he is a glorious fellow !" and after I left him I felt that I had at 
last solved the mystery of " Stonewall bridge," and discovered why it 
was that it had- accomplished such almost miraculous feats. With such 
a leader men would go any where and face any amount of difiiciilties, 
and for myself, I believe tliat, inspired \}y the presence of such a man, I 
should be perfectly insensible to fatigue and reckon upon success as a 
moral certainty. While General Lee is regarded in the light of infallible 
Jove, a man to be reverenced, Jackson is loved and adored with all that 
childlike and trustful affection which the ancients arc said to have luyished 
upon the particular deity presiding over their affairs. The feeling of the 
soldiers for General Lee resembles that which Wellingtou's troops enter- 
tained for him— namely, a fixed and unshakable faith in all he did, and a 
calm confidence of victory when serving under him. But Jackson, hke 
N*apoleon, is idolized with that intense fervor, which, consisting of min- 
gled personal attachment and devoted loyalty, causes them to meet death 
for his sake and bless hjm when dying. 


i of their Principals 

1 for Disabilitv, 

liament— .Solicitor Cicncral and Lord Palmcrston, 
Democracy in England and France, • - - ■ 

A Long VVar, ■■,■■' 

Touching Ourselves and the Reader, 

Midsummer Reckonings, . . . - 

In Memorlam— A Tribnte to the Memory of James L. Petigru, 
.Suggestions for .1 Monument to Jackson, 
Sir George Cornewall Lewis, . - - • 

The South a Rising Power, 
Laws aud Gener.-il Orders — Rc-examinatic 
Black List, - - • " • 

List of Confederate Patents, - - • - 

Summary of News, - - • - ' . 

Tax in Kind— Instructions of ficcretary of Treasury concernmg ( 
Confederate Government, . . - - 

Governors of .Sl.ltes, - • 

ConvuUioiis in America— From Blackwood's Magazme, - 
Thf Sacrifice.-^— A Legend of Ancient Rome— From Frascr's Maza 
The riarJ.-st Duty- A Hospital .Scene, 
An Englishman's" Visit to the Head Quarters of Lee and Jackson, 



[NtJI.IBKR 5. 


A correspondent of* the " Charleston Courier," who writes with equal grace 
and facility, in verse and prose, thus refers to the ladies of Richmond, -who, to do 
them justice, have fully come up to the measure of his poetic praise in Ineir min- 
istrations to the sick and wounded soldiers during the war : 

Fold away all your bright tinted dresses, 

Turn the key on your jewels to-day, 
And the wealth of your tendril-like tresses 

Braid back in a serious way ; 
No more delicote gloves, no more laces. 

No more trifling in boudoir or bower. 
But come with your souls in your faces. 

To meet the stera wants of the hour. 

Look around. By the torch-light unsteady 

The dead and the dying seem one — 
What ! trembling and paling already, 

Before your dear mission's begun ? 
These wounds arc more precious than ghasily — 

Time presses her lips to each scar, 
While she chants of that gloi'y which v.xstly 

Tiansceuds all the horrors of war. 

Pause here by this bedside. How mellow 

The light showers down on that brow ! 
Such a brave, brawny visage, poor fellow ! 

Some homestead is missing him now. 
Some wife shades her eyes in the clearing. 

Seme mother sits moaning distress'd, 
• While the loved one lies faint but unfearing. 

With the enemy's ball in his breast. 

Here's another — a lad — a mere stripling, 

Picked up in tiio field almost dead. 
With the blood through his sunny hair rippling 

From a horrible gash in the head. 
They say he was first in the action : 

Gay-hearted, quick-headed and witty: 
no fought till ly. dropped with exhaustion 

At the gates of our fair southern city. 

Fought and fell 'neath the guns of that city. 

With a spirit transcending his years — k 

Lift him up in your largc-h«nrted pity, 
Au^wet his pale 'lips with your tears. 

Touch him gently; most sacred the duty 
Of dres-^iug that poor shatlered hand! 

God spare hifii to vise in his beauty, 
And battle once more for his land ! 

Pass on ! it is useless to linger 

While others are calling your care ; 
There is need for your delicate finger. 

For your womanly sym; athy thei'e. 
There are sick ones atlyrat for caressing, 

There are dying ones raving at homo. 
There are wounds to be bound up with a blessing, 

And shrouds to make ready foi some. 

They have gathered about you the harvest 

Of'd<"atii in its ghastliest view; 
The nearest as well as the farthest, 

Is there with the traitor and true. 
Aiid crowned with your beautiful patience 

Made sunny v.ith love at the heart, 
TfSjti must balsam the wounds of a nation, 

Nor falter nor shrink from your part. 

And the lips of the mother will bless you. 

And angels, sweet- visaged and pale, 
And the little ones mn to caress you, 

And the wives and sisters cry hail ! 
But e'en if you drop down unheeded, 

W^'hat matter? God's ways are the best: 
You have poured out your life where 'twas needed. 

And lie will take care of the rest. 


In our second number we gave a condensed statement cf all then ex- 
isting regulations respecting discharges and furloughs. A later order of 
tlie War Dcpurtraont forbids medical ofGcers to grant any extensions of 
furlough, leaving thera only the power of recommending such extension 
to the proper autliorities. 

The Adjutant General has issued a new ovd^, setting forth the exact 
forms to 1)0 observed ifl furnishing substitutes. It is of such general inte- 
rest, that it should be published entire. Want of space compels its re- 
serve for our next number. 



[July 16, 186i 


We give below two letters, uf great iuiportRiioe in jiUTeiling; tl)e future of tli- 
plom.icy on the American continent. TUey iiro written from d^iTfrent .st.-ind- 
j)oiuts, but consiJering the writers, and tlie jiersons to wlionj they are addicssed, 
they may be taken as the most authoritative utterances of France and England 
regarding the t\vo nations bounding us on the north and the south. They are 
not of recent date, but diplomacy works ils results by slow degicoSi 

Lord Lyons to Earl Rux.sdl. 

"Washington, Xov. 17, 1862. 

Ml/ Lord — OiT my arrival at New Yorli on the 8th instant, I fonnd the 
conservative leaders exulting- in tlie crowning success achieved by the 
party in that state. They seemed to be persuaded that the result of the 
elections would be accepted by the president as a declaiatiou of the will 
of the people; that ho would increase the moderate and conservative 
element in the cabinet; that he would seek to terminate the war — not to 
push it to extremity; that he would endeavor to effect a reconciliation 
with the people of the South, and renounce the idea of subjugating and 
e.xtcrminating thera. 

Several of the leaders of the democratic party sought interviews with 
rae, Loth before and after the arrival of the intelligence of Gen. McClcl- 
lau's dismissal, The subjoct uppermost in their minds while they were 
speaking ;to me, was naturally that of foreign mediation between the 
North and South. Many of them seemed to think that this mediation 
must conie at last; but they appeared to be very much afraid of its 
coming too soon. It was evident that they apprehended that a prema- 
ture proposal would afford tl-.e radical party a means of reviving the 
violent war. spirit, and of thus defeating. the peaceful plans of the con- 
servatives. They appeared to regard the present moment as peculiarly 
unfavorable for such an otTer, and, indeed, to hold that it would be essen- 
tial to the success of any proposal from abroad, that it should be deferred 
until the control of the executive government should be in the hands of 
the conservative party. 

At the bottom, I thought I perceived a desire to put an Cud to the war, 
even at the risk of losing the soutiiern states altogether; but it was plain 
that it was not thought prudent to avow this desire. Indeed, some hints 
of it dropped befwe the election were so ill received that a strong decla- 
ration in the contrary sense was deemed necessary by the democratic 

At the present moment, therefore, the chiefs of the conservative party 
call loudly for a more vigorous prosecution of the war, and reproach the 
government with s]acknes.s as well as the want of success in it.-» militiW 
measures. But they repudiate all ide.T of interfering with the institu- 
tions of the southern people, or of waging a war of subjugation or ex- 
termination. They maintain that the object of the military operations 
should be to place the North in a position to demand an armistice with 
honor and with effect. The armistice should (they hold) be followed by 
a convention, in which such changes of the constitution should be pro- 
jioscd as would give the South ample security on the subject of its 
plavc property, and would enable the North and South to reunite, and to 
live together in peace and harmony. The conservatives profess to think 
that the South might be induced to take part in such a convention, and 
that a restoration of the Union would be the result. The most sagacious 
inembers of the party must, however, look upon the proposal of a con- 
vention merely as a last experiment to test the possibihty of reunion. 
T.'iey are, no doubt, well aware that the more probable consequence of an 
I'.rmistice would be the establishment of southern independence; but 
1 hey perceive that if the South is so utterly alienated that no possible 
ccmcessions will induce it to return voluntarily to the Union, it is wiser to 
agree to separation than to prosecute a,^cruel and hopeless war. 

It is with reference to such an armistice as they desire to attain, that 
the lenders of the conservative party regard the question of foreign me- 
diation. They think that the offer of mediation, if mjide to a radical 
administration, will be rejected ; that, if made at an unpropitious mo- 

ment, it might increase the virulence with which the war is prosecuted. 
If their own party were in power, or virtually controlled the adihinis- 
tration, thev would rather, if possible, obtain an armistice, witliout'^.he 
iiid of foreign governments; but they would be disposed to accept an 
offer of mediation,' if it appeared to be the only means of putting a stop ' 
to hostilities. Tliey w<;uld desire that the offer should coine from the 
great powers of Europe conjointly, and in particular, that as little promi- 
nence as possible should be given to Great Britain. 

All things considered, my own opinion certainly is, that the present 
moment is not a favorable one for making an offer of mediation. It 
might embarrass the peace party, and even oblige them, in order to 
maintain their popularity, to make some public declaration against it, 
aud this might make it difficult for them to accept a similar one at a 
niorcpropitious time. It would in all probability be rejected by the Pre- 
sident, who appears to have thrown himself into the arms of the extreme 
radical party. The views of that party are clear and definite. They de- 
clare that there is no hope of reconciliation with the southern people ; 
that the war must be pursued, per fas aut nefas, until the disloyal men 
of the South are ruined and sulijugated, if not exterminated; that not 
an inch of the old territory of the republic must be given up ; that foreign 
intervention, in any shape, nnist be rejected and resented. This party 
would desire to turn an offer of mediation to account, for the purpose of 
inflaming the war spirit and producing a reaction against the conservatives. 

It is probable, too, that the government would urge, in answer to an 
offer of mediation, that it has l)y no means abandoned the hope of putting 
down the rebellion within a reasonable time; that,^at all events, this is 
not a moment at which it can reasonably be called upon to put a'stop to 
hostilities. It would observe that the armies of the United States are 
e%-cry where advancing, and that expeditions are prepared against Texas, 
as well as against Charleston, Mobile, aud other points on the coast. It 
would point out that it had equipped a considerable number of war ves- 
sels, iron dad as well as others, at a vast e;i'ptuse; that the season had 
just arrived when the autumn rains would render the rivers navigable l)y 
armed vessels, and when the southern coast would be free from epideiuic 
disease. It might even represent an advance of the army of the Potomac 
to Richmond as a probable event. The experience of the past is cer- 
tainly not calculated to inspire any great confidence in the results of these 
warlike preparations ; but the political interests of the party now in 
power render a continuiince of the war a necessity to it. Its only chance 
of regaining its lost popularity lies in successful military operations. 
Unless it can obtain a much higher place in public estimation than it now 
occupies, not only will it.i tenure of power become extremely precarious, 
but some of its leading members may be called to a severe account for 
their extra legal proceedings. 

The new Congress is in fact likely to be hostile to the administration 
and to tlie radical party ; and although it will not, in the ordinary course 
of things, assemble until the last month of next year, the President will 
hardly be able to persist in his present policy and in his assumption of 
extraordinary powers, unless he can, in virtue nf military .success, obtain 
a reputation with the people which will sustain him in a contest with the 
Legislature. ^ 

It would seem, then, to be vain to make an offer of mediation to the 
present government, in their present mood, witii any notion that it would 
be accepted. > 

It is, indeed, urged by some people that mediation should be offered, 
not so much with a view to its being accepted, as to its clearing the 
way for a recognition of the Southern Confederacy. And, indeed, if it 
were determined that the time had come for recognizing that Confede- 
racy, no doubt an offer of mediation would be a suitable preliminary. 
But I do not clearly understand what advantage is expected to result 
from a simple recognition of- the southern government; and I presume 
that the European powers do not contemplate breaking up the bbickado 
by force of arms, or engaging in hostilities with the United State&»in 
support of the independence* of the South. 

I have, indeed, heard it maintained that Gr.^at Britain shcnld rceng- 

July 16, 1863.] 



nizo Hie independence of the South as soon as possible, with a view to 
impede the success of the efl\)rt8 of the conservative part}' to reconstruct 
tht Union. The advocates of this opinion consider a reunion as a pro- 
J-(able event, and apprehend that tlic first result of it wouhl be that the 
combined forces of the Noi-th and the Soutli would be let loosa upon 
Canada. I certainly do not at present share these apprehensions. All 
hope of the reconstruction of the Union appears to be lading away even 
from the minds of those who most ardently desire it. But if the recon- 
struction be still possible, I do not think that we need conclude that it 
would lead to an invasion of Canada, or to any consequences injurious to 
Great Britain. At any rate, dangers of this kind are remote. The im- 
mediate and obvious interest of Great Britain, as well as the rest of 
Europe, is that peace and prosperity should be restored to this country 
as soon as possible. The point chiefly worthy of consideration appears 
to be whether separation or reuni.)U be the more likely to effect this object. 
I have, etc. Lyon.s. 

The Emperor JXajwlcon to Gen. Forcy. 

FoNTAiMEBLEAU, July 3d, 1862. 

Mij Dear General— At tlie moment when you are about to start for 
Mexico, charged with political and military powers, I think it useful to 
make you well acquainted with my ideas. 

The line of conduct you will have to follow is : 1. To publish on your 
arrival a proclamation, the principal points of whicli will be indicated to 
you. 2. To receive with the greatest kindness all the r>rcsicans who 
shall present themseh-es. 3. Not to espouse the quarrel of any parly ; 
to declare that every thing is provisional, so long as the Mexican nation 
shall not have e.vpressed its opinion ; to show great deference for religion, 
but at the same time to tranquilize the holders of national property. 
4. To feed, pay and arm, according to your means, the Mexican auxil- 
iary troops, and make them jday principal parts in the combats. 5. To 
maintain among )'0ur own troops, as well as among the auxiliaries, the 
most severe discipline ; to vigorously repress any act or word insulting to 
the Mexicans, for the pride of their character must not be forgotten, and 
it is importaiu for the succcs.s o/ the enterprise to cnnciliate the good 
feelings of the people. 

When we have reached the city of Jlexico, it is to be desired that Ihc. 
]n-incipal persons of all political shades, who shall have embraced our 
cause, should come to an understanding with you, to organize a provi- 
sional government. The government will submit to the Mexican people 
the question of the political regime which is to be definitely established. 
An Assembly will be afterwards elected, according to the Mexican laviS. 

You will aid the new government to introduce intu the administration, 
and particularly into tlie finances, that regularity of which France offers 
the best mode. For that purpose, capable men will be sent to second its 
tievf organization. 

The o)iject to be attained is not to impose on the Jlexicans a form of 
government which would be obnoxious, but to assist them in their efforts 
to establish, according to tlieir own wishes, a govfvnment which may 
have a chance of stability, and can secure to France the settlement of 
the injuries of which she has to complain. 

It follows, as a matter of course, that if the Mexicans prefer a mo- 
narchy, it is for the interest of Fr.ancc to support them in that path. 

There will not be wanting people mIio will ask you why wc expend 
men and mtmey to found a regular government in Mexico. 

In the present state ef the civilization of the woild, the prosperity of 
America is not a matter of indifference to Europe, for it is that country 
which feeds our manufactories and gives an impulse to our commerce. 
We have an interest in the Bepublic of the United States being powerful 
and prosperous, but not that she should take possession of the whole of 
the gulf of Mexico ; thence command the Antilles as well as South Ame- 
lica, and be the only dispenser of the products of the New World. 

We now see, by sad experience, hew precaiioua is the lot of a branch 
of manufacture \>hich is compelled to procure its raw material in a single 
maiket, all the viciesitudes of which it has to bear. 

If, on the contrary, Mexico maintains hor independence and the in- 
tegrity of her territory ; if a stable government be there constituted with 
the assistance of France, wx' shall have restored to the Latin race on thi> 
other side of the Atlantic all its strength and all its prestige; wc shall 
luive guaranteed security to our West India colonies and to thosa of 
Spain ; we shall have established our friendly influence in the centre of 
America — and that iTifluenee, by creating imtnense markets for our com- 
merce, will procure us the raw material indispensable for our manufac- 
tures. Mexico, thus regenerated, will always be well disposed towards 
us, not only out of gratitude, but also because her interests will be in ac- 
cortl with ours, and because the will find support in her friendly relations 
with European powers. 

At^present, therefore, our military honor engaged, the necessities of 
our policy, the interests of our industry and commerce, all consjiirc to 
make it our duty to march on Mexico, to boldly plant our flag there,'iiiid 
to establish either a monarchy, if not inenm|>atible with the national 
feeling, or at least a govoriiiiient whicli may promise some gtability; 



A force of the enemy, estimated at about one thousand strong, includ- 
ing three companies of negroes, with white otBcers, camrt up tiie Comba- 
liee river as far as the ferry, about fifty miles from the city, and visiting 
in turn eacli of the rice plantations along its banks, pillaged and carried 
(iff' all they were able, piling up the remainder and committing it to the 
flames- The vandals, alter sacking, set lire to and totally destroyed 
several fine old family mansions, the residences of old and wealthy Caro- 
linian families, noted for their unbounded hospitalitj- and refinement. 
Among the number are the residences of the two Ilcyward families, the 
Lowndeses, Burnets, Nicholses, Manigaults, Middleton and Paul, with 
their valuable libraries, costly statues, &c. The libraries of Mr. 
Nichols and Jlr. Lowndes alone, in peaceable times, were valued at fully 
$10,000 each. Not a vestige of them remains. In addition, they tonic 
with them about fifteen lumdred negroes — some of them old favorite.', 
who begged and pleaded piteously to be left beliind, but without avail. 

One of the sufferers describes, in the following terms, their destruction 
of his- residence: 

At 5 o'clock A. M. June 2d, 16G3, 1 was awakened in my bed by the driver-, 
who rushed precipitately in my room, and'informed me that two of the 
enemy's steamers were ii\ full sight, and vi'ould soon bc^ opposite to my 
landing. I arose hastili', dressed myself v,ith all possii)le speed, we;it 
upon the portico of the house, which commands an extensive view of the 
river and all the neighboring plantatiims, and, sure enough, there were 
the two steamers — one quite small, and the other very large, crowded 
with armed men in dark uniform. It seemed to me I also saw wo- 
men seated in chairs upon the upper deck of the large steamer, survey- 
ing with curiosity the beautil'ul and peaceful scene that la)- stretched 
before them. It was a ve'ry pleasant morniug — the sky was clear, and 
from the state of the atmosphere, ever_y residence, building and mill 
loomed out, and seemed nearer than they really wore. The rice crops 
were growing luxuriantly, and the negro settlements upon the hills looked 
lik(! a snecession of tramiuil villages. The steamers did not fire a gun, 
and had I not known them to be the enemy by their flags, I would have 
supposed them a large party on a pleasure excursion. I7pon perceiving 
that the smaller steamer was steering for ray hindiry;-, I ordcn'd the driver 
to bring the people to nic, as they had cmue from tlie fichls, and were 
gathering at the settlement. My house servants all stood around me, 
prole.'isin'g the utmost attachment, and their perfect willingness to obey 
my commands, but not exhibiting the slighest degree of alarm or sur- 
prise. Finding that the negroes did not come to me from the settlement, 
as I had ordered, I immediately went there, Ibund them all about their 
houses, and seeing that the enemy had now landed about twenty negroes 
under the leadership of one white man, I ordered them to follow me and 
take to the woods, which form a deep forest near my house. They all 
professed a willingness to do so, but not one made a sign of moving. As 
I had not a single arm of defence about my person, I was forced to fly 
to the woods for" protection. There is a forest whicli extends from my 
house to Mr. Kirkland's place, skirting the rice fields tlie whole way. I 
took refuge in it, and determined to watch, as far as I could, the opera- 
tions of the enemy. They came up to my house, and in a very short 
time it was set idl'fire. I 'looked towards M'r. Kirkland's place, and soon 
perceived the smoke rising Irom the direction of his residence. Pre- 
sently the mill, overseer's house and stables on his place, also the thresh- 
ing mill and barns upon my own place, as well as those upon Mr. 
Lowndes' and Col.. Heyjvar'd's, were burning almost simultaneously. 
The negroes, men and women, were rushing to the boat with their cliil- 
dren, now and then greeting some one whom they recognised among the 
uniformed negroes, and who were probably former runaways from the 



[July 13^186: 

T^arious plantations iu the neigliborliood. The nogroes seemed to be 
titterl,v transformed, drunk with excitement, and capable of the 'wildest 

The roaring of tlic flames, the bar'iarcns howTa of the negroes, the 
blowing of horns, the harsh steam whistle, and the towering columns of 
smoke from evtry quarter, made an impression on my mind which can 
never be effaced. Hero, I thought to myself, is a repetition of San Do- I 
mingo. Kemaining about five hours in the woods', I concluded to steal 
towards my swn burning house, and ascertain the amount of destruction. 
I approached cautiously, as the small steam boat had not yet left »uy 
landing, and I could still sec the negroes carrying from my burning barn 
bags of rice upon their heads, in rapid movement towards the steam boat. 
At eleren o'clock the .steamer mo^ed off, not ha\ing left her station for 
six hours, and I was left alone to survey with tearful eyes the wide scene 
of desolation aroimd me. My pleasant and comfortable house was in 
ashes. My libvavy, containing over 3,.500 volumes, in the collection of 
which I had employed twenty years of my life; shelved thouglits of the 
richest minds of ancient and modern times, which I had treasured up as 
a consolation for the pTesent, and as a refuge against disease and old | 
age; evei'v memorial I possessed of my past life, and every material ob- 
ject to which my heart still clung, not for its intiinsic value; but for the 
nnspeaicahle associations connected with it — vanished, perished in the 
Hames; and this was not done iu a tempest, by the lightning of heaven. I 
but sanctioned by the order of the civilizpd, pliiJanchropie, liherty-loving ! 
Yankee. Besides my house, they burnt three negro houses, one of which i 
the driver lived \n, my steam threshing mill and bam, corn, kitchen, ] 
wash kitchen and store room, mule s-tabie, and six thousand bushels of 
rice. The}' also carried off 7.3 negroes and three mules. AVhat con- 
tributed most to my mortification was, that in my whole gang of slaves, 
among whom there were any amount of Aarons, Abrahams, Isaacs and ' 
Jacobs, there was not one Abdiel — uot one remained loyal to the' rebel, i 
They Itft an old woman who had been bedridden for a year, and whose I 
house vrus nest to the driver'.s house tlrtt had been burnt. I went into I 
her house and found he; naked in her bed, stript of her clothing, aban- 
doned by her ciiihV.en and grandchildren. [>]\f has since died. This is 
an instance of Abolition humanity. They all left uie, saints and sinners, 
and nothing remains to teati/y of their former presence but the famishing 
cats and dogs, who, in coming around me, seem tu demand by their anx- 
ious expression the sense and meaning of their pr^'sent loneliness. The 
negroes were not allowed l)y their synipathi-'ing friends to carry off any 
of their clothing, excppt what they wurc on their backs — not a pot, nor a 
kettle; and there was left at the binding n strange medley of clothes, 
pots and kettles, baskets, lu'dts.of elwh, hats and shoes, together with the 
familiar faces of, many articles which had niiracnlously disajfpeared from 
the premises years ago, and of wiinse mysterions disappearance no intel- 
ligible explanation bad ever been given. Ther(i was enough prc^; to fill 
ten wagons. 'They have all gone, ai:d I expect by this time reali/e the 
meaning of that other ahslraction, libeyly and the rights of man. I 
think old Pompey will miss his garden and his favovif»^ vegetables ; old 
Janns will no longer captivate liig.^nnring audienre by misquotations 
from the Bible ; and old driver Gio^ will finu his occupation gone. No 
ready compliance now with his cofflinsinds, .and no secret services ren- 
dered to his personal convenience, of whicht was kept in iffnorance. 1 
have no doubt, if ever I should see that '• /iiaais infiilum" again, I shall 
find them a wifer and a sadder people. Tiio boon of liberty they will 
discover, to their cost, d<ies not comprise clothing, comfortable houses, 
kind ticatnient and medical attendance, bii.t to them is mi.sery, privation, 
hun!!;er and a cheerless death. * 

to uproot oar whole social .'vstem iu a-narehy — not by means of Ihoifrar 
niies or of subjugation iu fair warfare, but by the foulest tools — ^lawleM 
uess of the assassin and the thief Let the adder be crushed in its hio 
piency, be the immediate results what they may. 

It is merely my desire to give a simple ; 
saw and suffered; and, to use the 

;nd succinct account of ^ I 
lar,gna),'e of Pius Aeneas. '• (jun rum 
pars nuigna fid." The world should know that the valiant. Yankee, de- 
h-'pairing of eon(£uering the Confederates yi a fair field, resorted to the 
e.-,sy and expeditious method of making war upon private dwellings, burn- 
ing provi.'-ions, barns and store houses, and seeking to wreak his petty ma- 
lice on localities where he is confident of meeting no resistance. 

Upon this the Mercury say? : 
_ The course pursued by the enemy is subversive of every custom of war 
since the time of the Crusades, arid is in violatio'a of every law which go- 
verns the conduct of nations'ds each other. As touching the laws 
of South Carolina, whetlier con.sidered as mere slaves or as individuals 
domiciled here, every sou! engaged iu the late raid, wliether white or 
black, forfeited his life, either as an insurrectionist or a traitor to the 
State of South (.'arelina; and whether taken now or a4 any future lime, 
the lives of these men are forfeit.'d— and the forfeit must he paid to the last 
farthing, without consideration to individuals, to property, or to qualms 
of the stomach or of the pocket. Xo prisoners should be taken at all. 
There is a time for all tilings: a time to make money, and a time to 
spend it — a time for sentiment, and a time for sternness. The time for 
the exercise of the latter sentiment has come— the time for the former 
folly kis passed. The security of our homes and th.f. integrity of our 
institutions are at stake. The viohitie.n of the laws and custom's of all 
civilized iiatfoiis is gross, palpable and indisputable. And great is the 
crime of fureign oUicers, v.'hu, in violation of all nf our !iiicr;;a"l laws, seek 


Seven hundred ani^ eight prisoners, including twenty-four confederate 
officers, and several civilians of influence and position, taken below Vicks- 
burg, and mostly at Port Gibson and Grand Gulf, Mississippi, have been, 
sent to Alton, Illinois, In Gen. Grant. We give the names of the officers, 
and append for record a description of the penitentiary into which these 
men iiave been thrust. 

Officers — Second Lt. EvauB Atwood, 21st Arkansas ; Capt. Stepher* 
D. Coo, 5th Missouri; Lt. Col. Wm. Frierson, 27th Ten-nessee; Second 
Lt. Tliss. F. Gibson, Slst Arkansas; Surgeon .Jas. Guild, C. S. A.; Se- 
cond Lt. J. T. Heggee, Frierson's cavalry; Lt. Alfred B. Holt, 1st Con- 
federate; Second Lt. Wm. (i. Howell, (>fh .Mississippi; Second Lt. Gus- 
tavus A. Jarvis, Frierson's cavalry; Capt. Samuel (). Merriwether, 23d 
Alabama: Capt. J. H. Jlorgan, 12th Ark.ansas; First Lt. ,1. P. Norman, 
23d Alabama; First Lt. Geo. W. Paul,'21et Arkansas ; Capt. Bichard 
II. Pratt, 23d Alabama; Second Lt. Uavid Puckett, 6th Mississippi; 
Capt. Andrew Easom, 21st Arkansas; Second Lt. Geo. E. Eeed, 23(1 
Arkansas: Second Lt. J. T. Scott, Frierson's cavalry; Second Lt. Jos, 
F. Stimmer, 21st Arkansas'; Second Lt. Wm. R. J.' P. Threadgill, 23d 
Alabama: Second Lt. Stephen H. Thompson, 12th Arkansas: Capt. 
Jaa. K. Williams, Frierson's cavalry; Lt. Jasper N. Williauis, 6t!i Mis- 

A member of Gen. Bragg's army gives the JlemiJliis Appeal some ac- 
count of his experience in the federal prison at Alton, Iflinuis: 

The Alton penitcntiai-y was some three or four yearsr'iigc cendeftmcif 
by the state anthorities cs totaliy unfit for criminals even. Yet thirteen 
hundred officers and privates, two hundred of which had the small-pox, 
were confined iu the basement, five feet below the ground, abnoet sliut 
oir from daylight, sunshine and air— 'Stone floor covered witii water trick- 
ling from tlie walls on either siiTe, and midwinter ;is it was. the only pro- 
vision for fire was a small stove to eight men. The berths were after the- 
fashion of lior-^e stalls, one above the other, with a passagt^o narrow as 
barely to admit of one person pas.sing i?t a time — and soon there was an 
average of more than every other bei'lh oecu|iled by some unfortunate; 
confederate with small-pox — and as fast as they died, others from St. 
Louis prisons supiilied their places. During January the average of 
deaths reached for a time eight, and eventnally thirteen per day; and in 
February the mortality became so great, and burying confederates 'be- 
came such a tax to the government and so lucrative to the undertaker, the commander of the prison advert is>ed in one of the Alton papers: 
'' Proposals for burying the confederates will be received and let to the 
lowest bidder." This same enterprising undertaker was detected by ono 
of cur number, who suspected hiiii, and privately marked one of the cof- 
fins, in the woik of ••"i'aiikee swindling," by chising the eoflin in the 
'• dead room," and oc arriving at the cemetery would dump th<S corpse 
into the grave, and return the same coflun for another subject, until nine 
had thus l)een buried, and he of course receiving piy for nine coffi'if. 
wlidf he 'had really supplied but one. \ow, if I believed you required' 
it, or that you doubted my veracity, I eoutd add the testimony of many 
as respectable geutlemeu as live, that the slaliemcnts here made are plain 
and truthful. 

The qnantity of rationa Fiipplred ns was insufficient to meet the re- 
quirements of the well, and altogether unfit for the sick. Well men (Ivo 
seen it) would go to tiie sweepings of the prison dinmg r.'Jom and gather 
up scraps of bread and meat ami ent them with a perfect relish; and of 
t.i'.c sick, those of them that were fortunate enough to recover, were sup- 
plied by their fellow prisoners with vats, which they killed and prepared 
with their own hands. 

Xo record cf the dead was kept until February. One of the olEcers of 
my room wrote to Gen. Curlis, commanding at St. Louis, reqncstmg that 
iiiasmuth as the small-pox was raging to such au extent, would be not 
order that we might be sent to some other prison. His reply was, that 
"under the cireuu stances, he would advise immtdiate vaccination." 
During the prevalence of smaii-pnx, besides pnenmonial rrysipelas and 
diphtheria, the sconudrels would propose tfl relpase any who would take 
the oath. Believing it to be between the oath and death, they availed 
themselves of the devilish proposition; and had most of us under suih 
circumstances been offered the oath by the African or "yahoo" govern- 
ment, or any other heathen or ungodly government than the United 
States. T\e might have swallowed it to escape a death which seemed in- 
evitable. President Davis may rely withcertainty npon the true allegi- 
ance of the men who passed such au ordeal. 

July 16, 18G3.] 



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The recent letter of the French government, wliich Count Mcrcicv. was in- 
structed 10 read to Mr. Seward — expressing the belief that the cordial relations 
known to exist between the government of the United States and Russia, in con- 
nection with the traditional sympathy for Polish independence entertained by all 
Americans, rendered it desirable that the United States should co-operate with 
European powers in adjusting the difficulties involved in the Polish question — 
was a master stroke of diplomacy. Mr. Seward declined to co-operate ; and it is 
stated that the Russian govei-nment has e-xpressed its gratitude, in a letter de- 
nouncing all revolutions. This is what Napoleon expected, and by the course 
tlius pursued, has secured two most important advantages. The revolutionary 
element in France is composed chiefly of symptithisers with Poland. Tliey are 
also friendly to the success of the United States over the Confederate States, by 
reason of their socialistic ideas and opposition to slaver}'. In this class the Em- 
peror has found enenties both to his conservative policy towards Poland and his 
plans for mediitti^Hc pur war. He has now neutralized these influences, by ex- 
hibiting the X'^nwPStates gnvernraent as the friendly ally of the Russian des- 
potism. Thi.5 W his first advantage, the full effects of which can only be appre- 
ciated when wo call to mind that the large class of foreigner.s who compose tl'C 
federal armies are 'of this revolutionary character, and most of them for tlitit 
reason emigrants from Europe. Napoleon is strcngtliened at home, and has 
weakened tlie United States in that which is now its chief reliance fur the war. 

The second advantage is, thtit he has established the idea of a direct and com- 
mon interest in the United Slates and European powers in adjusting national dif- 
ficulties, whether they exist on the Eastern or Western continent. The media- 
tion policy can now be pursued with a good grace, evCn if it lead to intervention, 
since he has ackuo\viodged the righfof the western continent to interfere in an 
European settlement of the " balance of power." Napoleon in this has shown 
himself the able and far sighted statesman; and we maj' be asstned that lu the 
future, through his Mexican possessions, he will insist upon a French interest in 
the affairs of this continent; which will bo recogni-,;ed as being quite as legili 
mate as that of Russia and Euglatid, founded upon their NurlU Auierican pos- 

It is interesting, in connection with tliis view oLhis policy, to know how the 
Emperor received the news of the reduction of Mexico. 
■ The correspondent of the London Daiiy Nevi^ writes, under date of June 14: 

The news reached the Emperor just as he was sitting down to din ncc^ Prince 
]-lichard do Metfeniich, the Austriiin ambassador, who was a afronlaine- 
bleuu, made a speech belorc dinner over, in which he congratulated tlie Em- 
peror on the victory. In the cotirse of the evening an extra, ration of wine 
v.-as distributed to the garrison. The next day (Friday) the Empress weid to the 
Foutaiijebleau Hower show, tiud being pveseutedj'with a new rose, she immedi- 
ately named it tlie "Puebla." 

The '■France," following up the idea ventilated by M. Michel Chevalier, tliat 
Mexico is to be permanently occupied for the glovifit iition of the ],atin race on the 
■\Vestcrn continent, .says that a civil service in every department is to be immedi- 
ately organized in thiit country. French clerks are going out to work the finances, 
post ofiiee, custom house, electric teh-grnph and ruihvays. A railway is to l)e 
made not only from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico, but from tliat cajiital to the 
.. Pacific ocean. A cunal from the Gulf of Mexio to the Pacific is also in contein- 
plation. All these schemes, tending to the permanent occupation of the counliy, 
and to a greater drain upon the resources of France than the wnr itself h;is been, 
are quite contiavy to the reitei-atcd official assurances that no conrjuest was in- 
tended, and that the Mexican,; were to be free to choose their own government. 

As giving the seal to the diplomatic course marked out by the European powers 
■with regard to America, and as showing the eiilcnte cordinle between France and 
England, the following passage from the Speech of Lerd Palmerston, at the Lord 
Mayor's dinner, June 17, 18K!, is liigiily siguificiint: ' 

This cou'itry may boast that its relations with~iill.llie other nations of Europe, 
and I will ."^ay, too, of America, in .suite of little outpourings of sentiment not so 
friendly — (cl-.v.ei-s) — we may boast that our relations with the other nations of the 
■■.vorlil iiro frietiul}-; stud thi-re are two powers upun whose fiicudship and under- 
standing, or upon whobe dilfi-reuccs and cunihjes, mainly depend the tjiirstions 

of peace or of disturbance in Europe — I mean England and France. (Cheers.) 
I am ha]ipy to Siiy that on all these great (lucstions, upon which the issues of 
peace and war depend, whether in the far West or in the distant ICust, there exists 
betv.-ecn the g.ivernments of England and France the most tVanli and honorable 
concert. (Loud cheers.) The great interests of these two injportiiiit countries 
must be identical, and the governments of both are sufficiently enlightened to 
know that those iiiteresta lie in the same direction. 


The article w-o publish below, from the " Cornhill Magazine," contrasting 
Washington City with Richmond, and sketching some of the public men of the 
two riviil capitals, will, we are sure, attract attention. It is written with a gra- 
phic pen by one who, although a foreigner, has not failed to appreciate the pccu- 
liiiritics of our struggle. 

In the next number of The Record vfe shall begin some Sketches, by "an 
officer of the English army," on a ran through tlie Southern States. They arc 
written wijh spirit, and describe admirably the life and distinctive features of the 
southern soldier. The author was with McCloUan's army in the battles before 
Richmond, and subsequently visited Richmond, Mobile, Vicksburg and Charles- 
ton, travelling all through the South, and talking with every body on his way. 
His impressions, as recorded in these Sketches, are altogether favorable to our 
people, but given sometimes with a slight show of humor, that adds to their 

For tlio present, the reader will find entertainment in the Cornhill writer's de- 
scription of 

Ricii.'sioND AND Washington diimng the war. 

English readers have been familiarized with the general features of Washing- 
ton, by the letter's of Tom Moore and Mr. Dickens, and lately by the very accu- 
rate pen of Mr. Anthony TroUope. But, beyond some acquaintance with resi- 
dent notables and a superficial inspection of buildiugi ami bureaux, a stranger 
learns little of either place. The writer of this brief paper has been a resident 
of Washington during much of the past fifteen mouths, and an involuntary 
sojourner at Richmond for a period of five weeks. During the war j;iclimond 
has been a sealed city to the outer world, and our only accounts thereof have 
been obtttined from fugitives and captives. Mean^vhile, both cities have grown 
w-onderfully. But the new inhabitants are mostly not of the class that give credit 
to either city — birds of passage and of prey, carrion that gorge themselves upon 
the common ruin, and flj', surfeited, to their nests and dens. 

Wusiiiugtou IIS it nsed to be, and Washington as it is, are sorry contrasts. 
While the South an interest in the capi-tal, its dark beauties and its fiery 
gentlemen made tlte sessions of Congress glide by luxuriously. Senators and 
representatives rivaled each other in the splendor of their evening^ parties; the 
levees of the Presidi'Ut would have been creditable to a court; gay equipages 
Iroquenled the "Avenue" of afternoons, and thousands of queeidy women 
thronged the eapitol grounds at marine band promenades. In the interval be- 
tween the sessions, Washington passed into a solemn slumber. Not a gun de-- 
fiL-nded any land approach to the citj^ud legishiturs grumbled when repairs 
were demanded for Fort WiahingtoijBptle old shell, twenty miles down tho 

Washington, in those days, had itOTWlities, and chief of these nvas "Bean" 
Hickmtin." This w-orthy'a dcsciudaut of a fine Carolina fauiily, but he 
had suidc into the condition of a ilrpendeut ou slrauger"; and congressmen. He 
lounged about hotels, at time;, tiegailtly dres.sed, at others almost ragged,^ but 
mainlr.inijig through all mutations the manndi-s of a gentleman. He knew Wash- 
ington society from the days of President Jackson, and ffrcserved in his retentive 
mi-morv the gossip of cabinets afid con-grcssiiten since that time. 

The "Hole in the Wail" i.^ another "remarkable institution." If you descend 
from the senate chandler, and turn sharp to the left, yon will see, alter proceeding 
some thirty yaids through a narrow aisle, a sash door, labeled •'Fur Stiwturs 
exctusird!/." Puss through, and your progress will be barred again by a door 
and scieen. Beyond these lies a qniiint little room, set with lunch tables, and, at 
tlie farthSr end, an open sideboard displays rows of bottles. The dark divinity 
of the place bows frigidly, but relaxes somewhat when you rattle the silver in 
your side pocket. " What will it be, sir?" he says, gravely, and mingles a cup 
of icy sweetness with the air of a chief of bureau. AVhat secrets might this 
African disclose of tlie weaknesses of greatness! Warmed with these wim's, the 
claiion tenor of Clay rang through Jhe halls above. Here Webster, Seward and 
Douglas (the greatest topers of'them all) loitered and "smiled" in the heyday 
of their renown. Did this imperturbable Ethiop feel no qualms when Wigfall 
made liis memorai^e adieu, tind Breckenridge, for the last time, defied the Senate ? 
The " Hole in the Wall," alas ! survives the Union ! 

IVsides these individual eccentricities there were generic chnjacters indigenous 
to Wtishington. 'J'lie first of these were th.) Washington domestics, negroes who 
were presumed to have served the household of the great patriot. " Big John" 
headed the list, by corriinon consent. According to tradition he had been tho 
coachman, but he piesented no evidences of the fact beyond .i head of white 
w-ool, and a statement that he one hundred and twenty years of age. His 
account of himself passed all nudei-staudiiig; but his. lucidity at the sight of a 
dime was ivonderfiil to behold. " Charley the gardener," who lived on the 
" Ishind"— an oftshoot of the ptirent city— preserved some recollections of his 
patron that astounded historians. 

The government offices contained some enigmatical people that greatly en- 
denred Vv'ashiDgtou to quiet minds. By these I mean the old clerks, who, fulfill- 
ing specific and onerous duti(!s, became indispensable to successive admiiiistra- 
tious. Their nsel'eluc:;s kept them in fffice, and the calm routine of their lives 



[JuLY*^, 1863 

was proof to political intrigue. They did not join iu partisan comniotioas; they 
sometimes did not vote. To and fro, between their homes and their otBces, they 
walked like the few good men in Sodom, and passed away as quietly as they had 
lived, making no mark upon the histoiy of the nation, though themselves his- 

The city was not, in former times, notoriously corrupt. Its officials were,«for 
the most part, honest and high minded. But with the war came enormous out- 
lays for food, clothing, ordnance, ships, and transportation, and the fingers of 
every third man iu America itched for a sha^of the plunder. The* avaricious, 
the perjured, the peculating, rallied forthwith, and tlie war uud navy departments 
were placed, virtually, in a state of siege. Sentries barred admittance to public 
oflBces, personal applications to secretaries were forbidden, and the qualifications 
for a chief of bureau were deafness, blindness, and iutangibility. Adventurers 
of every grade intrigued for contracts, from butchers who haggled for hides, tal- 
low, and camp ofial, to merchant princes who bargained for gunboats, field bat- 
teries, and monster ordnance. Embalmers clamored for the bodies of the slain. 
Inventors piled tlie arsenal grounds with motley models of tents, knapsacks, ri- 
fles and projectiles. Builders hoped to dispose of their rotten vessels, and stable 
keepers to sell their spavined nags. A rogue from New York swindled in steam- 
ers; a rogue from Massachusetts, in shoes. Penasylvanians made themselves 
iufamons in shoddy speculations, and Connecticut mill owners dealt in damaged 
muskets. Ohio drovers fattened upon emaciated cattle, and Illinois factors throve 
upon mouldy bread. Jews of a bad class peopled the shops of I'eunsylvauia 
Aveiuie, and sutlers that should have been in the penitentiary, robbed the troops 
of their paper jiay. Bounty and claim agents, so called, set up ofBces under the 
shadow of the treasury, and cheated the widow and the orphan. Eailwaj- presi- 
dents put their heads together and agreed upon a concert of extortion. Physi- 
cians, catching the infection, thieved in medicines, and high officers of state en 
riched themselves at the expense of the country. 

"WiUard's" and the "National," two vast hotels, presented strange spectacles 
of an evening, when tljcir halls and " ordinaries" ivere filled with soldiers and 
civilians. Here was a quartermaster whispering with a "smart" wagon maker, 
and there a representative listening to a loljbyist, *'hose tongue ran oil and wine. 
Professiuual agents, to procure commissions, button-holed newly arrived guests, 
and spruce volunteer officers clustered on the sofas, with their spurs in the air 
and a glass at their lips. The bars were thronged, and tobacco smoke rose iu 
suflfocating clouds to the ceiling. 

The capitol b>iilding became, for a time, a grand barrack, and Fire Zouaves 
hold session in the halls of Congress. Bakeries were built in the cellars, and 
hogslieads of pork obstrricted the marble porticoes and colonnades. Pugilists of 
rival regimiMits pmnmelcd each other before the President's mansion. The plea- 
santest mansions in the city were occupied by gamblers. 

The plain country gentleman, ivho had fortuitously been jilaced at the head of 
affairs, lopked ruefully upon these excesses.* Knaves who listened to his anec- 
dotes, picked his pockets as they laughed. His wife m.ade herself unpopular 
early iu liis presidential career, and his two nearest assocjates in the cabinet ivere 
suspected and incapable. He attempted to conciliate the radical and conser> a- 
tivo, and was the shuttlecock of both. He distrusted his commander in chief, 
but feared to irritate those that upheld him. He proclaimed emanci})ation, and 
his doubts of its legality at the same time; in sliort, he exhibited none of the 
main elements of executive ability — ])romptness, dignity, consistency. 

I was ridiiig through the monument grounds at daybreak oue morning, when 
the sound of what appeared to be file firiilg drew me towards the bank of the 
liver. A small shelter teut stood close to the britik, from which projected the 
long, rakish barrel of a ropeating^rifle. Th*" Pre-iKTent had come thus early from 
his bi'd to superintend the firing, ami I found him upon his knees, turning the 
crank, his face aglow, as lie shouted hnviKliK- at the grand results attained. His 

hat lay upon the ground, his watch d: 
.done, he shouted loudly, floundered a 
city at a treirfcndous pace 

Public amusen-jL'Uts that had beforejlftn 

bi.s i>ocUet; and when he had 
a great Oiich, and strode towards the 

1 Washington, became nume- 

rous ; tight-rope dancers performed^ tlna^ulilic streets ; lecturei's held forth at 
the Smithsonian Ituititute, and eqT^striaa pcrrformers flourished in the public 
squares. Drinking liouses> m asMhey were commonly called, "rum-mills," 
spraug up at every corlJpr. " '. " 

. Both city and suburbs have heeii wofully chalig^. Railways have been laid 
in the leading stieets, and the rickety piers of tlife "T,ong Bridge" (juiver beneath 
the weight of trains and locomotives. The green heights of Arlington are now 
stretches of yellow clay, where a score <t{ forts bake in the sun. The fine col- 
leges at Georgetown are arsenals or hospitals; the navy yard is crowded with 
masts and smoke stacks, and military roads have been cut through solid rock at 
chain bridge and the aqueduct. The loss of the city is not thought possible, per- 
haps; for workmen pile stone upon stone in the " Mcasury extension," and are 
busy Avith the great dome of the capitol. Oue edifice alone crumbles neglected— 
the stunted shaft of the Washington monument. J picked uiy way to the lodge 
Icceper's ouo afternoon, and having obtained the key, passed through a slimy field 
and a lierd of army cattle, to the tottering stQps, ascending which, I pushed back 
the holts of a wooden door, and stood beneath tlie temporary roof The rain had 
drippi;d to the floor in a limy puddle, and the blocks of niarljje, granite, copper 
and lead that composed the shalt, were mouldy and frost-eaten. Lugubriously 
1 read : 

"Louisiana, evar tnie to the Uniou. jiresenfs this block of granite." 

"Alexandria, the home of Washington, sends this tablet to his monument. — 
Liberty and Union." 

" This specimen of Tennessee marble testifies the undying attachment of the 
neighbors of Henry Clay to the Union, founded by George Washington, the 
father of his country." 

llichmond is beautifully situated at an augle of the .Tames river, whicli tum- 
bles above, over ledges of flint and granite and around miniatiJre islands. A 
small creek, flowing into the James, bisects the town, and upon elevatcnl ground 
adjacent its better residences and public buildings have been built. Two-fifths 
of the stable population are negroes, and a large number of these are free. The 
latter are mo.^tly dissolute and idle, a^id their settlements in the suburbs contrast 
■wretchedly with the handsome mansions of the domiraut whites. CongresB 

meets in the State capitol. The war office aud most of the other government 
offices are in Broad and Franklin streets. The clerks are for the most part Mary- 
land exiles, 4nd the detective force is composed, almost to a man, of meiuberSv of 
the disorganized Baltimore police. 'y 

Richmond has been for fifty years a brilliant and a bad city. During much o^ 
that time it was the political centre of the South, the abode <jf its most famous 
orators, jurists and statesmen, and the chief seat of its newspaper press. Politi- 
cal feeling was no where so intense. Brawls aud homicide were common ante- 
cedents to its elections here, and dueling was frequent amongst its highest resi- 
deuts. Among' the first qualifications of its congressmen were a keen eye and a 
steady hand. Few Richmond editors have not passed the ordeal of fire, and some 
have paid to the " code" 'tlie forfeit of their lives. 

Richmond was the great slave market, whence negroes from the border dis- 
tricts were forwarded to the cotton states. London was never more enveloped 
in- fog than Richmond in tobacco fumes. It was a trite aphorism there, " cheaper 
to indulge than to abstain." The chain gang is still retained, and the stranger 
is shocked by the spectacle of squalid men, with iron balls manacled to their 
legs. Hospitality was always great "in Richmond; tut charity did not ex- 
tend to opinion ; and to question the legitimacy of any distinctive " institution" 
of the place, was flat felony. The laws did not merely prescribe what one must 
not do, but what he must not say. Tho ladies were vivacious and ardently par- 
tisan ; and the end of every young man's ambition was an elysium of indolence — 
a thousand, acres by the " Jeems" river, aud a huudred slaves to mix his juleps 
and till hi.s wheat and tobacco. 

The city has now witnessed almost all the terrible mutalidns of ciril war. 
With closed doors in.ct the convention that adopted an ordinance of secession, 
and the uorthern phonographers that reported its deliberations, 'weie sworn lo 
seoresy. Then came the pulling down of the old flag and the flaunting of tho 
new. The gulf troops, who had opened tho contest at Fort Sumter, marched 
into town with the palmetto, the pelican and the pine tree colors. Long lines of 
soldiers poured through the place to rendezvous at Winchester and Manassas. 
Hopefully and gaily p;issed the early scenes of secession ; but soon the war rolled 
southward, and the blood of thousands of wounded men was seen in the streets 
of the " shady city." 

First among the great personages of Richmond is the President, w ith his slight, 
agile figure and intense face. He is a little gray, a trifio haggard and carcworii< 
but as fully equal to tlie responsibilities of his post as when, sixteen years ago, 
he met, with a few Mississippians, the shock of a tliousaud Mexican lancer.?. 
His uianucrs have been likened to those of Wa.shiiigton, t<4Uose position, in- 
deed, his own very much.corresponds. Like the great cl:i<^Xp*has been ma- 
ligned at home aud caricatured abroad. The Richmond ueN'fli^ers hax e called 
him incompeteut, lukewarm and hypocritical, but none have beeu more modest, 
prudent or deA'oted. 

The Vice-President's position in the government is a negative one; and he re- 
1 mains alone at home much of the time, apparently weary of the war and the 
I world. 

J General Henrj- A. Wise is one of the most rensaikabie men of (he city. The 
j John Brown raid occurred during liis administration, and he retaiued his office 
j until the old abolitionist and his men were hanged, (iovernor Wise wa.s once a 
notorious duelist; he is now famous for his extemporaneous oratory. His career 
in the field lias been generally unfortunate: he revenges himself by deliveriug 
political harangues to liis men at every dress parade. 

Gitieral Winder, the provost marshal, cver^'^pjonrner in the city knows full 
well. (Jcaeral Butler would rejoice iu the possession of so vjgilant an officer. 
While Wa.shingtou is overnin with the intriguing and th^ di.>aUected, Kichmond 
1ms ears for every whispei-, antl there can come no stiangcrjU) tho city whose 
movements are not watched jind his mission undei^food, 'TOGeberal AVinder 
the wHole government of the city is entrtis^'d. OfTenders ore marched, singly,,-, 
before Ihe provost ; he sits absolute and inijierturbable, erect, jironipt and posi- 
tive. He has small, searching eyes, a beaked nose, aud white bristly hair, wliich 
suggests tho unapproachable porcu]jine. He adopts a harsh voice with i;risoncr.H 
of war, and with his justice may blend just a little letaliatiou; for his brother 
has long been slinf up in Furt Warrr;u by federal gaolers. 

The military prisons — of^hich the Libby is the most widely known — are 
chiefly abandoiieJ tobacco warehouses, built of brick, and genendly large, airy 
and isolated. The bloody "si^ays' battles" that reOcemc<t Richmond and the 
Soulii, crinvAlcd thtji, with bruised, mangled and lunatic captives, for whom little 
pivparalUB^ was yj3(fei"l)!e. 

The condition of Ihe returned prisoners excited much indignation at the North, 
and willful cruelty iurjiuted to tlie Richnioud authoriti.-s. I5ut I am sati.-fied 
thaf, they only failed to do what they could not do. Their own wounded tilled 
tbP city, engrossing all atieijfeon, and thousands of their dead covered the field 
meanwhile. The surgeons (^Se no' numerous, aud there were no medicines. 

The city is badly fortified, andrwill not coin)fare in this respect with Washing- 
ton. After the battles of Williaiusburg and West Point, panic prevailed iu the 
city. The legislative bodies a^djourued in haste, and the citizens removed their 
servants aud household furniture. Danville, a rail road village ou the Nortli' 
Carolina border, had been selected as the scat of government, and some disinte- 
rested patriots broached the burning of the town. But Fort Darling repulsed 
the federal uavy, and .M'Clellan g.'ive over his command to swamp and pestilence. 

The high rale of food and clothing at the Sjuth is well known; but iu Rich- 
mond the enormous prices demanded for all articles of necessity may be tiaced 
to the speculations of sharpers as well f.s to the universal scarcity. 

The idleness and bnsiiiPss of war are instanced, on Ihe one hand, by the belled 
and sinirred braggarts who lounge about tho hotels ; the closed shops, the schools 
that keep perpetual holiday, the old meu that gather in the shady side walks to 
gossip and bewail, and the negro women that scream delightedly at the peals of 
music. On the other, by the thousands of workmen that frame oddly-constructed 
floating batteries at the waterside, and forge great guns ;it the Tredegar works;- 
the medley of transportation teams that rumble over the bridges and file along 
the tmnpike roads; the gangs of negro ineu that arc marched under guard to 
work at entrenchments aud government buildiugs ; the regiments in homespun 
gray and ' butternut," that trail dustily through the high sHects to r.weU distant 
camps. War looks at you from hospital churches and tinorigh the bright eyes of 

July 16, 18G3.] 



' fi-ver"/it thrills you in tlie limp of cripples tliat bep at the wayside; it whispers 
tadlyin thu rustle of crapo, and shouts its discontent in tlio yiill of newsboys. 
Eic'lniond also is a very altered city. But it contrasts favorably willi Wasbilig-- 
toti : it Is under iii'nier contro', and its scanty resources are used to better s.dvan- 
tage. Washington is overrun with rogues, spies and demagogues. If peaceful 
counsels at length prevail, and the Potomac becomes a dividing line between the 
sections, Richmond niay be the inland city of the South; but Washington 
will scarcely be retained as the seat of federal government. Neither city can be 
commercially great, but both will be famed as bases for the greatest armies that 
ever met in the shock of civil war. 


Each nnmbecof T/ic Record will contain hereafter an official statement up to 
date, of all postal changes, removals and appointments of postmasters, &c., for 
the previous week. This will be furnished by the Postmaster General, and we 
call attention to it as entirely trustworthy. 

We invite attention to the very able, and valuable article under onr Financial 
hcAd. The information contained in it cannot be found any where else in so 
practical a form. The series of which it is one, is intended to comprehend the 
■ whole subject of the financial- resources of the country. 

BLACK LIST— {Continued.) 

©fiicers of the U. S. navy, born in the South, who adhered to the federal 
government, and are making war upon their homes: 

Surgeons:— Active list, Thomas Dillard, G. K. B. Horner, Va. ; W. M. Wood, 
James C. Palmer, N. Pinckuey, J). Harlan, Wm. Gricr, I^ewis J. Williams, Ma- 
rius Duval, Charles Evev,sfield, Md. ; Samnel Jackson, N. C. Retired list, H. S, 
Eennolds, John Thornby, Va. Not on '03 register, John Ravenstein, Md. 

Passed SuRftliONS :— Active list, 'Philip .Sandsdale, Philip R. 
Wales, Md. i E. E. Dcnby, AVm. E. Taylor, H. F. McSlierry, Va.; Win. T. 
Hord, Ky. Retired list, John B. Elliott, D. C. ; Frederick K. Horner, jr., Va. 


Major General D. H. Hill has been raised to the rank of Lieutenant General. 



Official dispatches confirm the fall of Vicksburg on the 4th of July. T'nder 
the terms of the capitulation, the officers retained their side arms and private 
property, and the several coj-ps marched out with their regimental colors. Both 
officers and men were immediately paroled. 

A subsequent dispatch to Gen. Cooper conveys intelligence of the uncondi- 
tional surrender of Port Hudson on the 9th instant. 

An interesting con'espondence i;j published in the daily papers, embracing a 
letter of instructions from President Davis to Vice-President Stephens, with re- 
ference to a proposed visit of the latter to Washington, and letters between the 
Vice-Prf'sident and the federal officers commanding at Fortress Monroe, iR which 
permission to visit Washington was refused. The object had in- view by the con- 
federate goveniment was a definite understanding with the authorities at Wash- 
ington npon the subject of the treatment of prisoners of w-ar, the rights of pri- 
vate property, and the personal protection of non combatants, in order to miti- 
gate, if possible, the severities of war. Vice-President Stephens luw returned to 
Richmond. , 

The chief ordnance officer of the artillery of Gen. Lee's .army, in an official 
report, refers as follows to the pcrformr.nce of that army at the battles near Fre- 

"I had an opportunity, durirg the action, of comparing the reliilive accuracy 
in the explosion of the riHa projectiles of our side and those of the enemy, and 
am satisfied that the advantage was with us. Many of theirs wore of the 
Schenckle pattern, with percussion fuse." 

A report from the chief of ordnancf, of Jackson's corps, says: 

'■T!ie confederate 10-pounder Parrotts and J'2-ponnder Napoleons .arc reported 
to bo as good as the captured guns of the same kind, in every respect — and, in- 
deed, preference is sho'vu for the confederate Napoleon, from its jarring less when 

It is a matter of congratulation that, under all ditlicuUics, the products of our 
laboratories and our government workshops should prove reliable in the liour of 
trial. ?'ew of those not engaged in labor involving mechanical appliances can 
estimate the disadvantages in spite of which these ri\eults arc obtained. 

The battles at Gettysbnrg ave believed to. have been the most sanguinary of 
the war. Our own loss haS not been accurately ascertained, but it is computed 
by careful per.sons to have been not less than lO.nno in killed and wounded. 
Tlie loss of the enemy was three times as great. 


General (Jrant has issued an order that he will retaliate on whiles for any pun- 
ishment tlie confederates inflict upon negroes taken wearing the federal uniform. 

The son of the Belgian consul at Chicago was killed at Vicksburg. He en- 
listed in the Yankee army early in the war. 

Mrs. F.anny Kemble Butler has published what she calls a "Journal on a Geor- 
gia Plantation ;" which is said to be more abusive of the South than Uncle Tom's 
Cabin. ♦ 

The poet Longfellow was in Washington city recently, an active .sympathizer 
with the extreme war party of the North. His son was wounded at Chancellors- 

The Most Reverend Francis Patrick Kenrick, D. D., Catholic Arclibisljop of 
Baltimore, died suddenly at his residence in that city on Wednesday, the fith July, 
in the sixty-sixth year of his age. 

There have been great rejoicings tliroughout all Yankeedom, in consequence of 
the fall of Vicksburg. At Washington, Lincoln and Seward were serenaded, 
and made characteristic speeches. In referring to the speech of the latter, the 
New York World says : 

It is not every evening in the year, even in Washington, that people can hear 
from a Secretary of State such a speech as this which Mr. Seward ejaculaled upon ■ 
the midnight of Tuesday last. One hardly knows how to describe it. It resem- 
bles at once the confessions of St. Augustine and the Fourth of July orations of 
Brigadier General Bustetd. It reminds one, inconstant and startling alternations, 
of Simeon Stylites and Simeon I^raper. Now vague as the visions of Vishnu, 
now pathetic as the resignation of Pecksniff, it lifts us up on eagle's wings only 
to land us in a chimney corner. Carolina and Virginia, which glare upon us as 
" stars wandering through a chaos of consuming anarchy," in oYie sentence, sud- 
denly spread themselves before us iu the next as " slices of buttered bread made 
into a sandwich by the intervening slice of North Carolina ham, w-ith its copious 
condiment of mustard." But indescribable as is its rhetoric, ils revelations, 
whether of the orator's character, or of the history which he has been helping to 
make, arc not less indescribable. 


The nianagers of the Loudon chartered Bank of Australia state in their annual 
'report that the colony of Australia has been greatly benefitted by the existence of 
the war in America, receiving a large number of emigrants, who had commenced 
to cultivate cotton and tobacco. 

The French elections, conducted under a ttniversal suEfiage franchise, were 
concluded on the 1st of June. The government candidates were defeated in 
every district of Paris save one. They canied the rural districts, w-ith very few 
exceptions. Of two hitndred and sixty-eight electors, the Emperor's friends 
gained two hundred and •fifty-two. It was thought the opposition in the new 
k-'gislature would number twenty-six members of the highest talent and name. 
There did not occur a single riot or breach of the peace iu the whole extent of 
France during the two election days. 

The Poles. had again defeated the Russians in battle. Fiance, England and 
Austria had forw.arded a joint note to the Czar, asking a representative govern- 
ment and an amnesty for Poland. 

Pru.ssia is still agitated in a most serious manner by the repressive action of 
the king toward ths legislature and the press. A royal ordinance against the free 
discussion of public afl'airs in the newspapers was issued in Berlin on the 1st 
instant. Six of the city journals published a joint declaration reserving their 
rights in -liew of the proclamation. They s.ay that the Governmeftt has to furnish 
the nation w-ith proofs of the legality of the measure. 

Victoria Balfe, tlie great songstres.5, who niari-fed several years ago .Sir John 
Crampton, for a long time English Minister at AVashington, has petitioned for a 
nullity of marriage. Sir John Crampton is now Minister to Spain. 

A Mr. Montgomery, an American, won $80,000 at the recent Chantilly races 
in Paris. He gave his trainer $ 5,000. 

Mr. P. Du Chaillon will .soon start from England on another expe-dition into 
Equatorial Africa. 

Charles King-.^^ley, the author of Alton Locke and Hypatia, has been forced, 
under the revelation of American degeneracy, to give up some of his liberal 
views, and become more an advocal»of England's present institutions. He ably 
defends the Confederate cause against the North. • 

Tennyson has issued a ne-n- volume of poems. 



[July 16, 18C3 

Electious have •been he!J for the Canadian Pailinmeut, and tbe results 
Imve been ratlier unfavorable to the Russell Palmerston Ministry. Canada sym- 
pathizes with the Confederates iu their eflbrts for iudopendeuce. 

The truth of history in connection with the " Charge of the Light. Brigade," 
has just been established before ilie courts of England, and the Marquis of Car- 
digan has been proved to have led the charge. Tennyson as poet laureate im- 
mortalizes with an aureola of fame whomsoever he names in association with 
England's arms — hence the interest in this matter. 

The author of Picciola has issued a burlesque on scientific academies. The 
explanation given is he was not elected a member of the French academy. 

Eussia and Poland, in Europe, and the United States and the Confederacy and 
Mexico, in North America, arc the powers of the earth now at war, and that at- 
tract the most attention. England's policy is to keep neuti^i, and yet to have 
equal influence with France in the settlement of the balance of power. 

The Brazilian minister has taken his passports and left England, oflcndcd by 
the language of Earl Eussell in reference to his government. 

There has been an entire change in. the personnel of the French Ministry. 5L 
de Persigny, M. Walewski and M. Delangle have gone out of office. M. Boudet 
succeeds M. de Persigny. This change is said to have for its object to liold the 
clerical power more in check than it has been of late years, by the union of the 
department of public worship "with that of justice. 


The Jirsourccs of the Confederate Slates. 

^he census of I860, taken by the authorities of the government of the United 
States, as stated by John Schley of Augusta, Ga. in his pamphlet, represents the 
taxable property of the following eleven Stat^, at $.5,20a,'237,807, namely: 

Vii'ginia, ' 

North Carolina, 
South Carolina, 

$ 79:3,249,fi8] 






- $ 002,1 )8,GG8 

■\\'e allow a deduction from figures, of $ 1,202,237,807. and take the pro- 
perty at 4,000,000,000, and throw of? all above that sum iu jSGO, and a-ssume, as 
near the truth, that the same property, now put down at its ni.arkct value in con- 
federate money, will be all of $18,000,000,000. 

Mr. Bullctt, an agent of Wm. H. Seward, sent by him from Washington to 
New Orleans, to report upon the cotton crop of the country, puts down the crop 
of 1861 at 4,000,000 bales, and puts down the amount in our hands at 3,.'')00,0(JO. 
Mr. Cridland, acting English Consul at Richmond, Aug. 8lh, 1862, puts down 
the quantity at 3,000,000 certainly on hand. Mr. Ro. Bunch, English Consul at 
Charleston, S. C, nialces the quantity, Aug. 13th, 1662, to be 3,95(1,0011 bales. 
We extract these estimates from an official paper laid before the British Parlia- 
ment, upon the civil war in the United States, printed in 1.863. The average 
value of a bale of cotton is now $17.5. Taking all oil hand, the crop of 1S6I 
and J862, at 3,500,000 bales, we hold in this article about $ 6(iO,0(10,000. 

We estimate 100,000 hogsheads tobacco in the country, worth $50,000,000; 
in naval stores, pitch, tar, tui-pentine, and all other articles, ns much more, 
$50,000,000— making iu the aggregate, .^700,000,000— productions every day 
increasing in value, and which in rifteeu months lias increased in value quite 
$ 500,000,000. In other word.s, our war expenditure for that period has been 
paid by the increased value of crops we held then and still have as a clear capital. 
Upon these crops 8 per cent, has been levied, and upon the incomes of the couutrv 
about 12^ per cent, as the average — hcsides licensed taxation, w'hich we throw in 
as well as the tax on speculators in 1862. Our sum tiicn is this, viz : 
The annual interest to pay on the public debt estimated by the 

Secretary of the Treasury, on July J863, at - ... 43,000,000 

The current government expenses, other than those which are 

extraordiuary (both of these items are over-estimated), - 42,000,000 

Say in all, int«-est, expenses and outlays of all kinds, 
Ta^ on the crops and merchandise on hand, - 56,000,000 

Tax on incomes, being 6 per cent, on the taxable pro- 
perty— § 8,000,000,1100— in 'i-ound numbers, - 48,000,000 


$1 4.000,000 

Surplus over all accounts, 

The tax in kind, or the one-tenth, of all the crops, will yield the supjilics for 
the army, except such goods are of foreign growth. The value of this item will 
be the one-buudreth part of the entire property, viz : $ 80,000,000. We generally 
take the local interest as the net income from all agricultural pursuits. The tax 
iu kind is upon the gross yield, and we place it at 10 per cent. We may carry 
the principle of taking the customs iu kind into effect with profit and justice. 
The wisdom of taking taxes in kiud is sanctilied by the authority of Moses, and 
our altered situation in a few months will be the best vindication of the policy, 
which will dispense with the use of mon^ to a very large extent. We Kppend 
the debts of the principal European nations, and their population, and the debt 
for each person, in round numbers : 


Gross Debt. 


Debt per head. 

.inunal « 

Great Biitain uiij Irtluiul, 



$H0 00 

■S aeo,(Kio,ooo 

Austi-ia, .... 



25 00 


France, .... 



About 40 00 


Russia, .... 


.'>4 1100,000 

10 00 


PriiBsia, .... 



9 00 


Spain, . . 



43 00 


Turkey, .... 



4 00 





12.-! 00 


nclgiuni, - - . . 



36 00 


Denmnrk, . . - - 



34 00 


liHval-ia, - 



17 00 

15,000 000 

The two .Sk'ilics, - 



30 00 

22.500 000 

.Sardinia, .... 



24 00 


nanovir, . - - . 

S7 370,000 


14 00 


nailen, ■ - • - 



18 0(1 


States of llie Cliurcli, 



<!4 00 


Foitugal, .... 



25 00 


Kiligflom Tjf Saxony, 


2,fli 10,000 

16 00 


•Sweden, .... 




Norway, ■ ■ - , - 





Tuscany, .... 





(ireece, .... 


1 ,ooo,noo 

20 00 


M'id«oa, .... 





Parma, .... 


500 000 

4 00 





12 00 


Smaller German .Stiilcs, . • . 



14 00 


Tlie Swis-i Pjiitonf. 




3 2.50.000 

AVe may double our present interest-bearing debt before we shall reach the per 
capita debt of (ircat Britain; but we have a landed property far more valuable 
than any in the world; which alone will be worth as much as all the property in 
Great ]5ritaiu. 

DAKBY, READ & GENTRY, Dk.vleks ix Boot.?, Shoes, Lf.ithcp., 

BooT.s AND Shoes. 
STORE— Belvin's Blocic, on 12th, opposite Bank Street, Richmond, Va. 

L By WEST & JOHNSTOXi 145 Main Street, Richmond: 

Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, Medical, Economical and 
Agricultural, being also a Medical Botany of the (Jonfederate States, 
with practical inl'orniation on the useful properties of Trees, Plants 
and Shrubs — By Francis Peyre Porche'r, Surgeon P. A. C. S. — Pub- 
lished by order of the Surgeon General, Richmond, 
The American Union — its efi'ect on National Character and Policy, With 
an enquiiy into Secession as a Constitutional Right, and the Causes 
of the Disrupture — By James Speuce — First American edition, from 
the fourth English edition, ...... 

Chief Points in the Laws of War and Neutrality, Search and Blockade, 

with the Changes of 185(i, and those now proposed — By Jno. Eraser 

MacQueen, Esq., one of her Majr-sly's Counsel, ... 

The Stonewall Song Book, being a Collection of Patriotic, Sentimental 

and Comic S<mgs, ....... 

The Pictorial I'rimer, designed for the Use of Schools and Families — 
Illustrated, ........ 

The First Year of the War— twentictli thousand— By E. A. Pollard, 

Upon receipt of the price of any of the above mentioned Books, we 
will forward them to any part of the (Confederacy, post paid. 
Address orders to 

Fuhlishtrs and Booksellers, 145 Main St. liirhmond. 

$10 00 

9 00 

1 00 


■A 00 


ICI Mtiin St. Richmond, A'a. 
SEAL KNGRAVjyO, WOOD V.NGRArmG, Sfc. attended to. 


MONDAV, - . 
TUEi^DAY, - - 

Wednesday, - 

FR!D.\Y, - 

Sunday, - 


Tex Doi.lap.s a tear. 

Six Dollars for six months. 


145 Main St., Richmond, 


Tlip Ladies of Richmond, 

Extension of furloughs— Rules for Subjtitnlion, 

Lord Lyons to Lord RufseU, ■ 

Napoleon to Gen. Forey, 

Federal Barbarity, - - • ■ 

Black Hole of Yanke 

European Diplomacy 

The Rival Capitals, 

To Postmasters, 

Black List, 


J. a A UAi CA fl rc/v £,\j 

®» aa^Qs, aiJi^^^Dui^ ^ 

Volume I.] 


[Number 6. 


By the autfwr of the " Household of Bonrefk." 

You can never win tbcm back ; 

Never, iic%'ev; 
Tho' they perish on the track 

Of your endeavor: 
Tho' their corses strew the earth 
That smiled upon their birth, 
And tho' blood pollute each boarlh 

Stone fomver.' 
They ha,ve risen to a man — 

Stern and fearless. 
Of your curses and your ban 

They are careless. 
Every hand is on its knife ; 
Every gun is primed for strife; 
Every palm contains- a life — 

High and peerless ! 
You have no .such blood as theirs, 

For the shedding : 
lu the veins of cavaliers 

Was its beading. 
You have no such stately men 
In your abolition den, 
Marching on through foe and feu, 

Nothing dr«iding I 
They may fall beneath the tire 

Of your legions, 
Paid with gold for murderous hire — 

Bought allegiance ; 
But for every drop you shed. 
You shall have a mound of dead. 
So that vultures may be fed 

In all your regions. 
But the battle to the strong 

Is not given. 
While the Judge of right and wrong 

Sits in Heaven ! 
And the God of David still 
Guides the pebble with his will. 
There are giants yet to kill — 

Wrongs unshrivtn .' 

We promised in our last numljer the new Orders of the Adjutant General pre- 
scribing tlie forms necessary in the reception of substitutes. It will be observed 
that it dispenses with agencies. 

The following Forms for tlic enlistment of .substitutes, anil the discharge 
cf soldiers presenting tlie same, will hereafter l)e obsen'ed ; 


army of the confederate states. 

Applicdticfn for discharge on account of having furnished a Subslilulc- 

, of Captain Company ( ), of the Regi- 

— , of 

was enlisted by 

mont of the Confederate States Army 

the Regiment of , at , on the dajj' of 

186 — , to serve 3-ears, and not for the purpose of furnishing a sub- 

stitute. He was born in 

of age, . — feet inches high, 

in the state < 

hair, and by occupation wlien enlisted a 

t , is ■ 


• years 
- cyeg, 

I hereby certify that said soldier has furnished an alile bodied man, well 

clothed, in the person of , as his substitute, whom I a'm willing to 

receive, being satisfied that tho substitute is not now liable to cousccip- 
tiou, by reason of — . 

Station : 
Date : — 

Commanding Comjiany. 

I certify tliat I have carefully esamined the said , and find him 

sound, and in all respects fit for military service. 

Surgeon P. A. C. S. 

Discharged, this ■ 

day of 

16() — , at ■ 

Commanding Ballalion or Ilegiment. 

\ hereby declare on oath, that I am a resident of the state of . of 

the Confederate States of America, and a citizen thereof; that I am ■ 

years of age ; have not received from or paid to any agent money in- 
ducing me to enlist as a substitute, and am not a member of any com- 
pany whatever. 

Sworn to before me, on this da}' of 186 — 

Approved : 

/. P. or N. p. 

Commanding Regiment. 



[July 23, 1S6B 

Head Quasters, • 

-, 186—. 

Discliarge appFovetl, 

General Commanding. 



Know Ye, That , a of C'apSain - 

Regiment -of , who was enhsJcd the day ol one 

thousand eiglit hundred and , to pevve -, is heveby honora- 
bly discharged Ironi tlie Army of the Confederate States, by reason of 

his having furnished a substitute in the p«riHii> of , a citizen ef the 

ConfedcvaSe States of Aratriwx, years of age, as shoTn by aSidaTit 

en file, who has been examined by a surgeon of the command, and found 
duly quaJified to perform the duties of a soldier. I certify that be is the 
only substitute received in the company during the present mo»th, and 
that the principal was not entisted for She pnrpoae of furnishing a sab- 

Said was born in , in the state of , is ■ years 

of age, feet inches high, complexion, eyes, 

hair, and by occupation wlieu enlisted a ■ 
Given at , this day of 186—. 

Approved ; 

Cmnmandin g Regiment. 

General Commanding Army (er Devarlment}. 
By order. 


Adjutant and Inspector General. 


It is a custom in England for cnquiiies to be addressed to the ministry in Par- 
Jiament, to eniible so much of pending negotiations to be stated iis it is supposed 
t\-ill have a favorable influence upon diplomatic mtasures. It is this that gives 
so much of inferesf to the proceedings of Parliament — the speech of the Slinistet 
of Foreign Affairs being addressed not merely to the audience before him, nor to 
a small consSituency at home, but to ihe statesmen of all countries inlercgtud in 
the peace of the world. In this ■»iew, we regard the expressions of Lord Russell 
on Poland ; 

^icixDAv, Jlxe 8. — House of Lords. 
The Earl of Ellenborough, in asking whether the progress of the ne- 
gotiations with respect to Poknd was such as to afford the prospect of a 
satisfactory settlement, observed that he did not think the question was 
in any sense premature, seeing that the revolution which the Emperor of 
Russia had ordered to be put flown in* ten days, Lad now lasted four 
months, aird whilst diplomacy was busy, Poland was the scene of a most 
cruel and frightful war. This result had been brewing for the last thirty 
years ; for the Poles had not only been deprived of their rights, but so 
oppressed as ^o be driven into rebellion. In 181.5 diplomatists had a very 
different, state of things to deal with. Russia had then just performed 
great services to Europe, and her jnlluencc might be said to be para- 
mount. Xow, however, that intluenee and tlie dread of Russian desi"-n8 
npon western civilization luid been dissipated ; and further than that, it 
was nut desirable to lower her legitimate position. It was as the friend 
of Russia, then, quite as much as the friend of Poland, that he hoped the 
present state of things would be put an *nd to, and that the question 
would be arranged by restoring to Poland a constitutional government. 
To effect this, perfect confidence must be brought about between the 
Poles and their foreign despotic ruler; but hitherto there had been no 
attempt to do that : on the contrary, we Lad seen only a series of the 
JBost violent acts of despotism perpetrated. He hoped, however, that it 
was not utterly impossible to establish that c&nfidence and obtain gua- 
rantees for the good government of Poland. But there was only one 
ci.'urse by which to effect this two fold object, and he trusted tliat Russia 
would return to a wiser policy, and offer to create a kingdom of Poland 
under the sceptre of one of the members of the Imperial familv. He 
nnderstood that Her Majesty's ministers, in concert with Frarfce .ind Aus- 
tria, were urging an armistice ; but an armistice was totally incompatible 
with the existing state of things; and if the Poles laid down their arme, 

how were they to ?esamc them, gupjiosing they were nnt ratisfic'tT with 
the arrangements of the diplomafiots ? for diplomacy had little weight, 
unless there was strength to baci it. His advice to the Poles, therofo'ie, 
was that they shoald persevere, and not aJ/smdon their arms. They hsS 
risen i» despair; and if they persevered, they jrortid either effect their 
object or earn the respect oi" the civilized world. 

Ea/1 RrssELL said, it was hardly consistent with his positi.on to enter 
into the details of the ijuestian put to him by the noble carl. The Rus- 
sian governraf;n8 bad replied lo the notes of the Three Powers at greaS 
length, especially to that of Great Britain, and alleged that as Ibe Powers 
had oiTered no suggestion, Russia was plaecd in an unsatisfactory ])Osi- 
tioD. Conseqoent npon this, the English and French governmynts had 
decided upon offering a suggestion, which they sommnnicated to the Aus- 
trian government on Saturday last, and a reply was espeeJed from Vienna 
en Wednesday. This being the case, it was not expedient for him to 
entej fnrther into She nature of the agreement which the French and 
English governments Lad arrived at. With regard to restoring the king- 
dom of Poland, the difficulties in the way of accomplishing that object 
were suck »s in 1815 to eonspletely baftle all the efforts of Lord Castle- 
reagh. Ne doabt an armistiee ctuild not be easily canied out; bat hn- 
nianity and ))iiliey alike dictated that the ruthless and terrible war now 
raging in Poland should be epecdrfy put an end to ; for it would be im- 
possible for diplomacy to i(r any thing so long as the eoimtry was the 
scene of such a struggle. He believed, indeed, that an armistice must 
be the first step to any useful or satisfactory negotiations ; and the nobfe 
earl should remember that England was a jiarty to the tieaty of Vienna, 
and was bound, therefore, to propose those terms only that were in ac- 
cordance with that treaty. It was not her dut}- by herself lo propose 
the restoration of the kingdom of Poland, but to endeavor to obtain the 
concurrence of the other jMiwcrsas to tBe best settlement that they coulcS 
mutually devise. I'lidcr these cireumttances, he entreated the forbear- 
ance of their lordships until Jhe result of the &tep which had just been 
taken was feiiown, lest a qu.»stion already surrounded with difficulties 
might be still further complicated. 

Earl Gr.EY said, that in his opinion any diplomatic interference, if ii 
were miderstood that it would not be followed up by force, would only 
aggravate the evils that prevailed, and as intervention by arms was noS 
contemplated, the less they interfered with advice ifie belter. The sub- 
ject then dropped. 

Anstrra, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have eacii sddrcssed notes to Snssia, 
suggesthig a conciliatory course towaids the Poles. Swi(tzerland, whose tradi- 
tional policy has .ihvajs been neutrality, declined taking any part in the matter. 
That oar leaders may see how Turkey and the United States acted, we append 
an extyact regarding their dispatches ; 

The Turkish dispatch to St.-PetcrebuFg, on behalf of Poland, has been 
published. It is very apologetic in its tone. The Porte admits that i*^ 
has no right to interfere, but the indefinite prolongation of the actual agi- 
tation in Poland exercises a pernicious influence on some of its provinces, 
and this consideration compels ifr to join in the desires expressed for 
peace. It w ill not presume to indicate any measures. It reliea upon 
the wisdom of the Czar. 

•Mr. Seward says, it is out of regard fur the feelings and rights of 
the South that he adheres, in this case, to the doctrine of non-interven- 
tion. " It would be (he saysf) still leas expedient to derogate from it, 
when a local rising, althongh, as wc hope, transitory, deprives ouv 
government of the advice of a part of the Atnericnn people, for whom so 
gijivc a derogation from its adopted jiolicy wonld be far from indifferent." 
However, Mr. Seward is easy about Poland : he has entire faith in the 
Emperor, " who will receive the appeal of Europe with all the good will 
compatible with the general welfare of the vast States ichich he governs 
Willi so much icisdom and moderation." Prince Gortschakoff has not de- 
layed an instant in expressing his great satisfaction with Mr. Seward. 
He is delighted to find the policy and inteiiti(uis of the Emperor so well 
appreciated by the American people, and he c.vpresses his warm hopes 
for the pacification of America. 

July 23, 18G3.] 




We pulilisli below tho Report of Hon. Kobcrt OuM, eoiifcJciato agont fov tlie 
«-xchaago of prisoners, made to Congre^A|inl 14tli, 1863, in reply to an euquirj 
Siy that boUy as to " what stops have been t-aUen to procure (ho liliwatiou of per- 
sons enc-aovd in ciril pursuits, ^^•^lo h^vv been transported and contiued beyoiul 
(Vie limits of the Confederacy." This doeamcnt is a proper introduction to the 
Setter of insti-uctions from President Davis to Vice-President Stephens, on liisap- 
paiutment as military commissioner to visit Washington city, and treat for the 
establishment of such rules for the exchange of prisoners and conduct of the 
war, as might temper its cruel ciiaracter — and taken in connection with Mr. 
Stephens' reply, announcing the refusal of the federal authorities_ to treat on the 
subject — fixes the res]Son.slbilify upon the Washington government for any atro- 
cities that may ensue. The official actio.;i of congress, tlie president aud our ex- 
ciiange coiiimissionef, all evince a deep anxiety to ameliorate the charaeter of the 
contest ; and should a system of bloody retaliation inidi\te the raising of the black 
fi,ig, impartial history will exonerato the confederate autiiorities. At present all 
exchange of officers has ceased, and hostages are li-eld on each side, ready to be 
sacrificed : 

Ees'ORT of Hox. Robert Ould. 

Richmond, Afr'd 14, 1S63, 

The subject of tie arrest and detention of cJviliaiig has been a matter 
of controversy between the federal agent of exchange and myself, ever 
since the establishment of the cartel. I have again and again protested 
against such arrests as illegal and contrary' to the usages of civilJEed war- 
fare. At an early stage of the cartel I urged the adoption of the follow- 
ing rule, to wit; "That peaceable, non-combatant citizens of both the 
Cunftderate and IJnited States, who are not connected with any military 
organization, should not be arrested by either the Confederate ov United 
States army within the territory of the adverse party; that, if such a pro- 
position was considered as being, too broad, let the only exception be in 
the case of a, temporary arrest of parties within army lines, where the 
arresting party has good reason to believe that their presence is danger- 
ous to the safety of the army, from the opportunity afforded of giving in- 
telligence to the enemy ; that then the arrest .should cease as soon as the 
reason for making it ceased in the withdrawal of the army, or for any 
other cause; and, finally, that the foregoing proposal should apply to, 
and include such arrests and imprisonments as were then in force." 

The proposition was declined. I have urged it frequently since, but 
without success. 

The federal authorities, on the other hand, have always been anxious 
to institute a system of exchange of political prisoners, man for man. It 
was a deeply laid scheme to interfere w ith the ftdministration of JHstice 
iu the Confederate States, and to give practical immunity to such of their 
friends and pavtizans in the South as felt disposed to preach or practice 
disloyalty. Under the iuslructions of the War Department, I have con- 
stantly refused to engage iu any such system of exchanges. There was 
no reciprocity in the arrangement. It amounted to an exchange of con- 
federate citizens for confederate citizens, owing to the fact that the enemy 
was in possession of portions of our own country, and had therefore more 
frequent opportunities of making arrests. If any such proposal had been 
accepted, we should soon have released every civilian held by us, leaving 
many hundreds of our owii people to languish in northern prisons, for 
whom we had no equivalent to offer. . I repeatedly offered to release all 
political prisoners held by us, except such as were held upon very aggra- 
vated charges, if the federal authorities would do the same. Lately they 
agreed to this proposition, coupling it with a written statement that it was 
not their intention to make an}' more arrests of non-combatants. A few 
weeks ago, in pretended compliance with the agreement, they delivered 
some six hundred persons whom thcj- called political prisoners. About 
one-half of that number were persons who hail been in our service iu the 
west, belonging to irregular military organizations, and who, long ago, 
had been declared exchanged under the agreement made between the 
federal agent and myself. Finding they could not get any equivalent for 
them UB military prisoners, they attempted to palm them oft' as political 
prisoners. Some political prisoners held in this city, against whom the 
charges were not aggravated, were sent off in return. The number de- 

livered bv me bnre about the same proportion to the whole nunilx-r held 
by US, as ihe mimlicr delivered bv the federal jugent did to all the political 
prisoners held by the federal authorities. They were not exchanged one 
against the othor. They \rerc simply released upon both sides, discJiarged 
from any paroles heretofore given by them. 

Even less faith has been shown by the federal authorities in Ihc matter 
of political avrests. Since the date of their declaration, they have made 
more of such arrests tliau during any other. equal space of time, em- 
bracing an unusual proportion of old men and helpless women. 

The" resolution of the Hotise of Representatives specitieally enquires, 
what steps, if any, have lieen taken to procure the liberation of persons 
who, taken from civil life, -have been transported and confiTied JK-yoml 
the limits of the Confederacy." In answer, I respectfully state tliat at 
evevy interview; without exception, between the federal ngentnnd niyself, 
I have, under the instruction of the War Department, brought the sub- 
ject to«liis attention in as forcible and as earnest a manner as possihle — 
that I have demanded the release of all civilians held in confinement, 
and have threatened retaliation. In addition, whenever I have l»eeii spe- 
cifically informed of cases of incarceration, I have made them the subjects 
tif correspondence with the federal agent. In many cases 1 have been 
successful in procuring the release of the parties named — in others I have 
not succeeded. Some have been released at the North, and allowed to 
make their way to their own homes, and others have been brought on flag 
of truce boats' to Vavina and City Point. Some have been aischarged 
uncoiidit'onally, and others put on parole. 

Some nine hundred so called political prisoners have been received by 
me at Varina and City Point. About five or six hundred were really 

I have no means of knowing how many have been allowed' to make 
their way to their own homes. Such parties do not report to me. They 
amount, however, to several hundreds. I have only a record of the 
names of such as were delivered at Varina and City I'oint and Vicksburg. 
I have delayed until the present time this report, because, until withiu 
a few days past, the whole subject was undetermined. I tliought it best, 
under (lie cii-cumstances, to wait long enough to ascertain whether the 
federal authorities intended to carry out their agreement. I am now 
fully satisfied they have no such purpose. • 

" Respectfully, jour obedient servant, 

Ro. Ol'lh, 
Agent of Exchange. 
The following correspondence will explain itself: ' 

RiCHMOXD, 2d July 1863. 
Sir — Having aiteepted your patriotic offer to proceed as a military 
conmiissioner, under flag of truce to Washington, you will receive here- 
with your letter of authority to the Commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States. 

This letter is signed by me, as Commander in chief of the confederate 
laud and naval forces. 

You will perceive from the Jerms of the letter, that it is so worded as- 
to avoid any political difficulties in its reception. Intended exclusively 
as one of those communications between belligerents, which public law 
recognizes as necessary and proper between hostile forces, care has been 
taken to give no pretext for refusing to receive it on the ground that it 
would involve a tacit recognition of the independence of the Confederacy. 
Your mission is simply one of humanity, and has no political aspect. 
If obJccti(m is made to receiving your letter, on the ground that it is 
not addressed to Abraham Lincoln, as PresidcnU instead of .Com- 
mander in chief, &o., then you will present the duplicate letter, which 
is addressed to him as President, and signed by me as President. To 
this latter, objection may be made on the ground that I am not re- 
cognized to be President of the Confederacy. In this event, you will 
decline any further attemjit to confer on the subject of your mission, as 
such conlerence is admissilde only on the footing of perfect equality. 

My recent interviews with you h.ave put you so fully in possession ot 
my views that it is scarcely necessary to giye you any detailed instruc- 
tions, even were I at this moiijent well enough to attempt it. 

My whole process is, in one word, to place this war on the footmg of 
such as are waged by civilized people in modern times, and to divest it of 
the savage character which has been impressed on it by our enemies, in 
spite of all our efforts and prot.ests. War is full enough of unavoidable 
horrors, under all its aspects, to justify and even to demand of any 
christian rulers who may be unhappily engaged iu carrying it on, to seek 
to restrict its calamities, and to divest it of all unnecessary severities. 
\ou will endeavor to establish the cartel fur the exchange of jirisoncrs on 
such a basis as to avoid the constant difficulties and complaints which 
arise, and to prevent, for the future, what we deem the unfair conduct of 
our enenues in evading the delivery uf the prisoners who fall into their 
liands; in retarding it by sending them on circuitous routes, andby de- 
taining them, somedmes" for months in camps and prisons, and in per- 
sisting in taking captives non-cnmbatauts. 

Your attention is also called to the unheard of conduct of federal offi- 
cers in driving from their homes entire communities of women and chil- 
dren, as well as of men, whom they find in districts occupied by their 



[July 23, 1863 

trnope, for no other reai?on than because these unfortunates are faithful to 
the allegiance due to their States, and refuse to take an oath of fidelity 
to their enemies. 

The putting to death of unarmed prisoners has been a ground of just 
complaint iu more than one instance, and the recent execution of officers 
tjf our army in Kentucky, for the sole cause that tlipy were engaged in 
recruiting service in a State which is claimed as still one of the United 
States, but is also claimed by us as one of the Confederate States, must 
be repressed by retaliation, if not uueonditionally abandoned, because it 
would justify the like execution in eveiT other State of the Confederacy; 
and the practice is barbarous, uselessly cruel, and can only lead to the 
slaughter of prisoners on both sides — a rrsult too horrible to contemplate 
without makin"^ every eflbrt to avoid it. 

On these and all kindred subjects you will consideu your autTlority full 
and ample to make such arrangements as will temper the present cruel 
character of the contest; and full confidence is placed in your judgment, 
patriotism and discretion, that while canying out the objects of your 
mission, you will take care that the equal rights of the Confederacy be 
always preserved. 

A^ery respectfully. 

.Jr.rFER.soN Davls. 
Hon. A. H. Stephens, Richmond, Va. 

Richmond, 8lh July 1863. 

Sir — Under the authority and instrnctictns of your letter to me on the 
2d instant, I proceeded on the mission therein assigned without delaj'. 
The steamer Torpedo, commanded by Lieutenant Hunter Davidson of 
tlie navy, was put in readiness as soon as possible, by order of the Secre- 
tary of the Navy, and tendered for the service. At noon on the 3d she 
started down James river, hoisting and bearing a flag of truce after pass- 
ing City Point. The next day (the 4th), at about one o'clock P. XL, 
when within a few miles of Newport News, we were met by a small boat 
of the enemy, carrying two guns, which also raised a white flag before 
approaching us. The otficer in command informed Lieut. Davidson that 
he had orders from Admiral Lee, on board the United States flag ship 
Minnesota, lying below, and then in view, not to allow any boat or vessel 
to pass the point near which he was stationed without his permission. 
By this officer I sent to Admiral Lee a note stating my objects and wishes, 
a copy of which is hereunto annexed, marked A. I also sent to the Ad- 
miral, to bo forwarded, another in the same language, addressed to the 
officer in command of the United States forces at Fort Monroe. The 
gun boat proceeded immediately to the Minnesota with these dispatches, 
while the Torpedo remained at anchor. Between 3 apd 4 o'clock P. XL 
another boat came up to us, bearing the Admiral's answer, which is here- 
unto annexed, marked B. 

We remained at or about this point in the river until the Cth instant, 
when, having heard nothing further from the Admiral, at 12 o'clock M. 
on that day I directed Lieut. D.avidson again to speak the gun boat on 
guard, and to hand to the officer in command another note to his Ad- 
miral. This was done. A copy of the note is appended, marked C. At 
half past 2 o'clock P. M. two boats approached us from below, one bear- 
ing an answer from the Admiral to my note to him of the 4th. This an- 
swer is annexed, marked D. The other boat bore the answer of Lieut. 
Col. W. H. Ludlow to my note of the 4th, addressed to the officer in 
command at Fort Monroe. A copy of this is annexed, marked E. Lieut. 
Colonel Ludlow also came up iu person in the boat that brought his .an- 
swer^o me, and conferred with C(d. Onld, on hoard the Torpedo, upon 
some matters he desired to see him about iu eonuection with the exchange 
of prisoners. 

From the papers appended, embracing the correspondence referred to, 
it will be seen that the mission failed from the refusal of the enemy to 
receive or entertain it, holding the proposition for such a conference 

The influences and views that led to this determination, after so long 
a cpnsideration of the subject, must be left to conjecture. The reason 
assigned for the refusal by <he United States Secretary of War, to wit, 
that " the customary agents and channels" are considered adequate lor 
;ill needful military "commnnications and conferences," to one ac(iuainted 
with the facts, seems not only unsatisfactory, but very singular and un- 
accountable ; for it is certainly known to him that these very agents, to 
w hom he evidently alludes, heretofore agreed upon in a former conference 
in reference to the exchange of prisoners (one of t^ie subjects embraced 
in your letter to me), are now, and have been lor some time, distinctly at 
issue on several important points. Tiie existing cartel, owing to these 
disagreements, is virtually suspended, so far as the exchange of officers 
on either side is concerned. Notices of retaliation have been given on 
both sides. 

The effort, therefore, for the very many and cogent reasons set forth in 
your letter of instructions to me, to see if these iliflerences could not be 
removed, and if a clea'-er understanding between the parties as to the 
general conduct of the ^var could not be arrived at before this extreme 
measure should be resorted to by either party, was no less in accordance 
with the dictates of humanity than in strict conformity with the usages 
of belligerents in modern times. Deeply impressed as I was with these 

views and feeliDgs,*in undertaking the mission, and asking the conference, 
I can bnt express my profound regret at the result of the effort made to 
obtain it ; and I can but entertain the belief, that if the conference sought 
had been granted, mutual good could have been eifected by it ; and if 
this war, so unnatural, so unjust, so unchristian, and so inconsistent with 
every fundamental principle of American constitutional liberty, "must 
needs" continue to be waged against us, that at least some of its severer 
horrors, which now so immiuently threaten, might have been avoided. 
Very respectfully, 

Alexander H. Stephens. 
His Exrellency Jefferson Davis. 

C. S. Steamer Torpedo, 

On James River, July 4, 1863. 
Sir — As a military commissioner, I am the bearer of a communication 
in writing from Jefferson Davis, Commander in chief of the land and 
naval forces of the Confederate States, to Abraham Lincoln, Commander 
in chief of the land and naval forces of the United States. Hon. Robert 
Ould, Confederate States agent of exchange, accompanies me as secre- 

For tlie purpose of delivering the communication in person, and con- 
ferring upon the subjects to which it relates, I desire to proceed directly 
to Washington city in the steamer Torpedo, commanded by Lieut. Hunter 
Davidson, of the Confederate States navy, no person being on board but 
Hon. Mr. Onld, niytH'lf and the boat's officers and crew. 
Yonrs, most respectfully, 

Ai-ex'r H. Stephens. 
Rear Admiral S. P. Lee, 

U. S. Flag Shij> Minnesota. 

U. S. Flag Ship XIixsesota, 
Off Xeu-porl IS'en-s, Va., July 4,-1863—2.30 P. M. 
Sir — Your communication of this date is received. I will report by 
telegraph your arrival and object, and inform you of the result without 

W-vy respectfully, yours, 

S. P. Lee, a. R. Admiral, 
Com'dg North Atlantic Blockading Si/uadron. 
Hon. A. H. Stephens, Mil. Com'r. 


C. S. Steamer Torpedo, 
Off ISeu-port Xews, Va., 12 M. July 6, 1863. 
Sir — Will Admiral Lee inform me, if he can, how long it will probably 
be before an answer will be made to my note of the 4th instant .' 

AVill he jdease also forward the accompanying letter froiia Hon. Mr. 
Ould, Confederate agent of exchange, to Lieut. Col. W. H. Ludlow, 
United States agent of exchange ? 

Most respectfully, 

Ai.ex'r H. Stephens. 
Rear Admiral S. P. Lie, 

v. S. Flag Ship Minnesota. 


U. S. Flap, Ship Minnesota, 
Off Acivport i<ews, Va., July (i, 1863. 
Sn: — The request contained in your communication of the 4th instant 
is considered inadmissible. 

The custoniary agents and channels are adequate for all needful mili- 
tary commnnications and conference between the United States forces 
and the insurgents. 

Veiv respectfullv, yours, 

S.'P. LioE, A. R. Admiral, 

Com'g .V. A. Bloc/.'g Sq'n. 
Hon. A. n. Stephens. 

Head Q'rs Dei'ARt^ient of Va. 
Serrnlh Armi/ Corps, Fort Monroe, July 6, 1863. 
Sir — Tn the temporary absence of Maj. Gen. John A. Di.x, command- 
ing this department. I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
communication of tlie 4lh instant, addressed to the oflicer commanding 
U. S. forces. Fort Xlonroe, and in the execution of instructions from the 
Secretary of War, to inform you that the request therein contained is 
deemed inadmissible. 

The customary agents and channels are considered adequate for all 
needful military communication and conferences. 
I am. very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

Wm. II. Luni.ow, 
Lieut. Col. and Ass'l Insp'r Gcn'l. Seventh Army Corps, 
Agtnl for Exchange of Prisoners. 
H'in. A. IT. .Stephens. 

July 23, 1863.] 



Notice to Subscribers. 

"The REroUD" will bo iBKiied everv THUllsn^V MORNING, ot our Rookstpre, 145 Main St.. 

TkKMS— Ten Dolliirn per annum. 'Six Dollars for six inontlis. No subacriptiou will bo 
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Address orders to , „ ,,. . 

WE.ST & JOHN.STON, riihlishim, 

14.'> Mnln street, Richmond, Tit.. 


There is one feature of The Bccord which we desire to be brought to the espe- 
cial notice of our subscribers aud the public — we mean its permanent value as a 
volume of reference hereafter, a value which will increase with time. It is be- 
cause of this feature that vi'e have issued the work in a convenient foi-m for 
binding, and made its paging continuous from number to number, intending to 
give, at the conclusion of each volume, a complete index to its contents. From 
many letters-which have been addressed to the Editor, touching the objects of 
the paper, we select the following for publication, because it brings out clearly 
the particular merit we claim for The Record. The writer is a gentleman of high 
scholarship and deserved reputation. 

To the Editor of " The Record." 

Dear Sir — Taking great interest in the passing events of the day, which 
are bocomiug the history of one of the greatest struggles in which mankind have 
ever been engaged, I read with earnest attention every thing which purports to 
give an autlicntic narrative of those events. The value of any work appropri- 
ated to this object, of course consists in the reliance to be placed upon its fidelity, 
and your paper appears to me to furnish a most desirable medium in accomplish- 
ing that end. 

To sift tlie sensation dispatches of the day — to winnow the truth from the vast 
mass of falseliood which has brought the telegraph into such bad repute — to pre- 
sent truth naked and undistorted, so that the tutine histfirian may feel that he is 
not dealing with fiction alune, when he undertakes lo describe the mighty events 
occurring around us, is a duty at once sacred aud patriotic; and with this view 
per,severiDgly followed, "The Record" will become invaluable. I feel very con- 
fident that as you possess the ability, your zeal will not fiag. 

During the Kevolutionary War, there was published a work similar in design — 
the " Remembrancer," which I regret to find is not in our state library. It is 
now, I imagine, rare; but thirty years ago or more its value was recogilized to 
such an extent, that a single copy of it was regarded as equivalent to a share in 
a library, the price of which, if 1 remember correctly, was $ 2UU. 

In the division of the Richmond library, which took place some years since, 
under the supervision of the late illustrious Chief Justice Marshall, that gcntlc- declared to the writer that he regarded Dodsley's Annual Register, which 
contained the contemporaneous history of the Revohuiouary War, as one of the 
most valuable works distributed — and his cstimiite ot it miiy be conceived, wlien 
you are informed that it constituted one lot in itself in the division which took 
pliice among the stockholders. He acknowledged his great obligations to it in 
the preparation of his Life of Washington. 

I hope that "The Record" will be liberally supported. 


Richmond, Jiihj 20, 1863. 



We commence to-d.ty the promised Sketches of the Confederate Slates, to 
which we referred in our last number. They will bo concluded in The Record 
text week. 

Toward the close of last year I found myself on board the Rowena, stoaniing 
slowly down the Jlississippi river between St. l.,ouis and Memphis. The boat 
^vas lull, but with a very ditferent description of ptissengers to those who usually 
travel in pesiceful times. My fellow-travellers consisted ]ninci])iilly of officers 
and soldiers going to'the several posts on the Mississippi river, or to reinforce the 
arpiics of (icneral Grant or Sberuiaa; of tiiiders and sutlers with contracts to 
supply those troops, or hoping to make some money by an illicit traffic in cotton. 
To these might be added a fi;w planters returning from the North, in doubt whe- 
ther they would find' their liouses standing and their plantations unwasted by 
war; aud also two or three disguised confederate ofKcers, who had been to visit 
friends at St. Louis, and were returning to join again the confedevate armies. 
These, with a few ladies in search of homes and relations, from which the war 
bad separated them, made up the number of my fellow-passengers on board tlie 
Rowena. Every one soon knew that I was an Englishman, ttnd therefore a fit 
recipient of ||lieir various ideas on politics. 'Ihese generally inclined to the con- 
federate side, for most of the employees on board these Mississippi steamers are 
" Seeesh," and aft'ord assistance to those who may be endeavoring to evade the 
federal regulations. 'J'lnee times a day we serambh-d for our food, the passengers 
sitting down by det.acbments, the last lot consisting of the nigger servants, who 
seemed by far the most cheery. Drinking at the bar, playing poker (a game at 

cards), and spitting, filled up theremaindcr of the day as regards the majority of 

the passengers. 

Of all rivers I have over seen, the Mississippi is the least interesting: the 
shores are tiat and thickly wooded; the stream nmddy, aud continually winding 
round sand banUa. I'ogs, at the time of year I speak of, are incessant, and they 
greatly delayed our course, as the snags, or large masses of timber which encuni- 
ber the stream, render navigation dangerotis. We passed the famous inland No. 
1(1, where shot and shell, stiJI lying about, evinced the struggle which had con- 
tinued torso long a time last summer; and the next day we reached Mcmjjhis, 
where I landed, as I considered I had a better chance of getting South from 
Memphis than from Helena, the most southem port held by the federids. 

Memphis had quite changed its usual aspect: instead of bales of cotton, which 
in ordiuaiy years are piled along the banks of the Mississippi waiting shipment, 
warlike stores were being collected, preparatory to a forward movement. A for- 
tified camp occupied the southern portion of the town, and some particularly raw 
troops were being drilled or licked into shape. The fortifications had been throw ii 
up by negroes, and were well made. Instead of vessels for trade, a few gun boats 
guarded the river, and the ordinary passenger steamers had been turned into trans- 
port vessels. Sometimes the confederate irregular troops would erect a small bat- 
tery, or bring a few field guns to open on these steamers, from various blutfs on 
the river; but General Slierman, the federal general in command, gave out an 
order that for every vessel fired on, ten confederate families should be driven out 
of Memphis; and I believe this order had the effect of putting a stop to the prac- 
tice of firing on unarmed vessels. Of course the inhabitants at Memphis were 
very Secesli, although generally they were discreet enough not to express their 
opinions. There is a pleasant society, but the topics of conversation, and little 
incidents which frequently occur, aud are passed by without much notice, be- 
speak times of commotion. For instance, you would call on an acquaintance, 

and hear that the troops had threatened to burn Mrs. 's house because a 

Seeesh flag bad been exhibited from the windows ; or a lady would send her ser- 
vant with a message to her relations a few miles in the country, and the servant 
would return, saying he had been robbed hy guerrillas; then again the troops are 
too free and easy in their manners, strolling into gardens and killing and appro- 
priating the chickens and pigs. Yet in the midst of all this, life goes on much 
;is usual; the children's schools are open, and the ordinary domestic aiTangements 
continue in their usual course, excepting that in many instances the slaves have 
run away and deserted their masters, leaving them in great straits. I was most 
kindly received by General Sherman, an otEcer of the old regular army, and like 
all those officers, most ready to assist in any way an English officer. 1 had some 
scruples in asking him for a pass to proceed Soitth, as such a favor was never 
granted at Washington; but directly he had heard my request, he said there was 
no dilficulty, only before I went South I was to see all ho could show me at 
Memphis : be placed a horse at my disposal, and directed his adjutant general to 
point out every thing that mi^ht be of interest. 

The out pickets were at no great distance from the town, and beyond them the 
country was said to be infested by gueiTillas. I paid a visit to a brigadier gene- 
ral, and was by him taken to see a regiment inspected. They drilled uncomntonly 
well, and were a smart, active set of men, but the mode of conducting the inspec- 
tion amused me imm'ensely. I called on the general, a fine soldier-like man, and 
we mounted our horses aud galloped to the ground. On parade we found a Mis- 
souri regiment in square, standing easy. So the geneitil rode up to them, and 

said, " Here's Colonel come all the way from London to see you, because 

he bears you are such a d — ■ d set of rascals." When the men heard this they 

hallooed, " A speech, a speech!" but the general answered, " Yott don't suppose 
you fellows are worth a speech." The drill then pr'"ceedod, and uncommonly 
well the men moved. After about half au hour the regiment was again formed 
into square; and then the general, coining up to me, said, "Now's your time to 
give them a speech." 1 was, as the Americans say, "slightly stampeded" at this 
request, but tried to do my best, and flattered myself I had got through it rather 
well; at the end of it, however, the general came up to me and said consolingly, 
" Well, I never knew a soldier worth a d — n who could make a speech." Upon 
which we cantered oil', the general turning round as he was going, to say, "Mind, 
boys, you don't steal no pigs this evening." " No, no, general," was the reply, 
in full chorus. 

I-fear there was some need of this caution, for the pigs had suffered much from 
this regiment. As we rode home we met two soldiers more than slightly elevated 
with liquor. 1'he general turning to admonish tbem, said, "Ah, boys, you've 
had too much to drink." "Guess we have, general," the ready answer. 
Certainly the whole method of conducting the inspection was slightly different 
to what wo are accustomed to in Europe, but I believe the general to be a good 
soldier, and very brave in action. There are many things consequent on the 
state of society in America, and the rough organization of the volunteer force, 
which strikes a European officer as rather odd. I remember some months pre- 
viously to have been walking tlirough a federal camp kite in the evening. I was 
stopped by a sentry, and asked for the countersign. I said I had not got it. 

"Well (said the sentry), then you can't go by; it's Colonel S 's orders." I 

accordingly halted whilst the sentry called for the corporal of the guard. By 

way of saying something, I asked him, " Who is Colonel S .' " "Well, sir 

(said he), lie's the d est fool in the whole army, and I was a thundering ass 

when I enlisted under him ; he keeps me a-turnpiking of roads from, morning till 
night, and-whenever I sees General M'Clellan, I'll tell him." Having thtis given 
bis opinion of his comumnJiug officer, he proceeded to crtil the corporal of the 
o'uard, but as no one answered, he guessed he bad better call the officer; still no 
one came, so he finally guessed 1 had better go past, which I did, accordingly. 

I was most anxious to set ott' as soon as possible for the South ; so the f'ollow- 
ino- day I hired a conveyance to drive about ten miles to Hernando, where it wa.s 
saTd the confederate pickets were stationed. A lady and some other persons 
from Memphis formed the party. Our start was nnpropitious; my luggage 
having gone oft' by itself on one road, leaving ourselves, and some very large 
boxes which ladies always travel with, to find our way in a small one-horse con- 
vevance for ten or twelve miles by another road. It appeared impossible for the 
horse to move the load; however, by dint of going slowly, the thing was done. 
We were stopped by the federal pickets soon after leaving the town, and during 
the delay I hud au opportunity of si eing how the present of a bottle of spirits. 



[July 23, 1863 

or some such small gift, smoothed the "way through the lines. After passing the 
pretty environs of Memphis, and the comfortable houses of the merchants, we 
traversed a forest country, interspersed with plantations and planters' liuuses, 
the latter usually built on one pattern — square houses', with a large portico sup- 
ported by pillars in front of them — whilst in close vicinity almost invariably 
stand the" cottages of the slaves. The country round Memphis is famous for pro- 
ducing cotton, but this year the cotton either stands unpicked in the fields, or 
the plant itself is removed for the sake of corn, which has taken its place. 
"Corn" in America invariably means Indian com. The cotton presses still 
standing in the centre of the corn tiekis attest their former crop. The forests are 
very beautiful ; and any one wanting shooting now would find plenty of bears, 
deer, &c. on the banks of the Mississippi a.nd its tributai'ies ; for not only is 
powder scarce, but the hunters are all gone to the wars. 

We jolted along, scarcely meeting any one; luckily the weather had been 
tolerably diy, and the roads were passable. Night came on, but no guenillas 
made their appearance ; and about seven o'clock we entered Hernando without 
encountering the confederate pickets-. We drove up to the small inn, which was 
almost full ; the landlord, on my asking for a room, telling me he might possibly 
find me a bed. The bar was full of rowdies, soldiers on leave, guerrillas and 
travellers, all talking very loudly round a blazing fire, and bragging about how they 

would whip those d Yankees. Ten miles had made a curious change in 

the sentiments and opinions one heard expressed ; 'every thing that was en regie at 
Memphis was, of course, wrong at Hernando. The federals had a short time pre- 
viously held possession of the town, and another advance by them was expected. 
People were busy sending their slaves into the interior, and many of tbem had run 
away to the federals. This wc found to our, as there were no servants ; and one 
had even to black one's own boots, brushes being considerately furnished by the 
landlord. Supper was provided for all the guests in a room at the back, corn 
bread an'il little round hot cakes forming the staple food, with a decoction of rye 
to take the place of coffee. 

About bed time I requested the landlord to show me my room, and I was ac- 
cordingly ushered into an apartment where were three beds; but already five 
people occupied it: one, a peculiarly dirty but civil guerrilla, wsis sleeping in half 
the bed allotted to nie. This was decidedly embarrassing: however, the only 
thing left was to draw one's chair to the tire, and nuike friends with one's com- 
panions, which is easily done in America. People have no foolish scruples about 
asking who you are, and where you come from; and it is always best to answer 
good humoredly. No one need take offence at questions which are not intended 
to be impertinent. Directly I was known to'beau Englishman, the questions 
asked almost every where in the South were put to me. First question : " Well, 
sir, what do you think of our peculiar institution?" This refers to slavery, and 
thereupon follows a discussion on that subject. Americans think Englishmen 
form all their ideas of slavery from such books as Uncle Tom's Cabin, and argue 
against the supposed cruelty of it, at the same time talking of their slaves much 
in the same terms as an English farmer talks of liis valuable beasts. Hut ah, 
how tired one becomes of the question! The second enquiry is^— " Why don't 
England help us ?" Southerners acknowledge that they began the war on the 
false impression that England would be forced to help them by want of cotton ; 
and they are proportionately disappointed that such has not fteen the case. Still, 
I must say that, however strong the feelings may be on these or other subjects oi' 
argument, I never remember an American to ha™ lost his temper in discussing 
them. They will never be offended if an.sweretr frankly, however unpleasant 
may be the truth they are obliged to hear; but they cannot understand sarcasm, 
and do not like it. Well, sitting round the fire, we discussed these iniportunt 
questions utitil my compauions paired themselves off into their respective beds. 
1 selected the cleanest corner of the room — that is, the corner that had been least 
spat upon — and lay down on the floor with my carpet bag for a jiillow, the last 
remark I heard beiug, "Oh, he is a British ofiicer, and can sleep any where," in 
answer to some question as to hmv a man could sleep on ii wooden floor. 

We were fortunate enough to procure conveyances, and started ne.\t morning 
for Coldwater, the station on the .Jackson line of rail, the rail bctweeu Cold- 
jvater and Memphis having been broken up. There were several tiavcllers, and 
our various conveyances luade quite a cavalcade: first came an old coach like a 
London hackney coach, then a spring wagon, on the tup of which I sat, and, 
hLStly, a pony carriage driven by a lady. The latter came to griof by running 
against a wagon driven by a nigger; however, of course the latlies asserted that 
it was all the fault of the black man, who was proportionally abused. We passed 
families of slaves going into the interior, the master or overseer riding, the men 
walking, and their wives, children and household furniture carried in carts. 
Further on, we overtook two or three wagons laden with army stores ; a tall fine 
looking confederate soldier, in light gray uniform, being in charge of them. 

In many cases there has been no opportunity to organize a [jroper system of 
supplying the army with clothing, &c. ; therefore, individual exertions have been 
forced to supply the absence of official management. For instance, when a com- 
pany or regiment is in want of clothing, a trusty man is detached to the country 
and village from which the men have been raised, and soon collects by voluutary 
subscriptions supplies of all sorts. The carpets of the rooui'^ are even cut up in- 
to blankets for the troops, and the ladies spend thgir time and wear out their fin- 
gers in making clothing. In fact, the zeal lor the cause eviuced by the ladies of 
the South appears greater than that of the men, if such could be possible. Their 
whole nature has become changed; from being accustomed to a life of luxury 
and idleness, dependent on their slaves, they have become self-denying and hard- 
working, and willing not only to give up their own time for the good of the coun- 
trj', but, without niurmuriug, to see their best and dearest friends and relations 
killed in the war. 

To continue our journey, we rattled down an awfully steep place, driving in 
and out, and even over trunks of trees, and found ourselves on the banks of the 
small stream or bayou of Coldwater. Here a ferry boat was ready to carry us 
njross, and on the opposite side was the first conti^-derate picket we had encoun- 
tered. It was a picturesque scene. The sombre forest all round ; the horses of 
the picket, ready saddled and bridled, tied up under the trees ; tin; men lounging 
a'bout, not dressed in uniform, uiiiess the brown cloth of the country, often in 
rags, can bo termed uniform ; their weapons ready at hand ; guns of various 
descriptions, from the old doulile barrelled shot gun to the Eiilirld rifle, leaning 

against the trees. A piece of canvas stretched across the branches of an' ilex, 
formed a tent for the officer in command, and altogether the scene reminded one 
of the pictures of robber life. . The creek or bayou formed a line of defence, the 
intimate knowledge of the country acquired by residence in the vicinity giving ' 
the defenders an advantage over an attacking force, which numerical superiority 
could scarcely counterbaTance. A few of the escort accompanied our party to\ 
the raihvay station, where we found a train waiting to carry us on our jouraey. 
After a short delay our luggage was discliarged on the platform, and as I stood 
in expectation that some one would put it into the carriage, the guard called out, 
" Well, I guess if you want that luggage put in, you'd better be smart about it. 
and hand it uji." I looked rather ashamed of myself for my negligence, and of 
course did hand it up, learning at the same time the lesson, that in the present 
state of society in the South, if a man does not wait on himself, no one else will 
do it for him. Railway travelling, in fact, is not agreeable at the present moment. 
The cars are almost worn out, and awfully dirty, being chiefly used for the trans- 
port of troops; the rails are scarcely in a fit state to be travelled over, in conse- 
((uence of the iron being nearly worn tb pieees; the engines are often out of 
order ; and as to refreshment stations, a hungiy man must depend on what hu 
carries with him, for they don't exist. Along the line I saw large quantities of 
cotton packed in bales, aud piled ready for burning on the advance of the federal 
troops ; while here and there ashes told of other piles destroyed. Coldwater was 
the fait best point reached by the federal troops, and the station had been partially 
burnt by them. 

As the train proceeded, a peculiarly gentlemanlike officer walked through the 
cars to examine the various ti'avellers both verbally and from their papers, in or- 
der to guard against spies. I had brought no papers with me. However, I 
handed him a few private letters I happened to have in my pocket, and, amongst 
them, my old game license. That, I thought, would he the best.proof of my 
identity that I could show. The provost marshal turned it over, examined it, 
but could make nothing of it. 1 explained what it was, when he burst into 
laughter, first at the idea of a man bringing a game license to Ameiica, and then 
at its being produced in proof of loyalty. However, my papers were thought 
.•iatisfactory, and the subject of game licenses afl'orded a topic lor a long convcr- 

Grenada was our stopping place for the night, old familiar omnibuses being in 
waiting to cany the passengers to the inn, \vhich was as crowded and as bad as 
it could be. My modest request for a towel and a bit of sonp created quite a 
commotion. Every one, however, was civil and ready to be of assistance to an 
Englishman. About '.i A. M. I went off by train to Abbeville, where it was said 
Cleueral Van Corn's head quarters were. Early in the morning I arrived there: 
the station was cranmied with stores for tlie troops, one of the first objects I saw- 
being a Parrot gun, evidently captured from the federals. General Van Corn's 
head quarters were at a short distance from the station : he occupied a small 
house, his staff living at another cottage close at hand. General Price's quarters 
were in the vicinity, and the troops were bivouacked in the surrounding woods. 
It was expected that the federals were about to advance, and great prccatitions 
were taken to prevent any communication being held with the opposite side : as 
it was early when I arrived, I heard the stories of various applicants for passes 
before the general made his appearance. Some men wanted to go as far as Holly 
Springs or Corinth, to look after supplies they had lelt there; others to visit rela- 
tion;-. iLjiug within the federal line; others, "soldiers on leave," to go borne to 
their friends. Confederate officers and men often visit friends living within the 
country occupied by the federals, even as far as St. Louis : the strong seces- 
sionist feeling of the people assists their concealment. General Van Dorn was 
formerly in the old United States army, and is well known and respected by 
many of his old brother officers on the opposite side. Ho is a small, wiry, but 
soldierlike man, and has acquired reputation during the present war by bis con- 
duct in the field. Uis stafl" received me veiy kindly. Th.y were a particularly 
gentlemanlike set of fellows. Few, if any, had served as soldiers before this 
present war, but were planters or planters' sons, aud were fighting with the 
strongest tit-clings for the cause. It was not a question with them of glory or 
military fame; the question was mere existence as a nation: they hated the 
northerners with the bitterest liatred, and were resolved to sacrifice every thing 
rather than give in. Still there was no love lor the war; they all desired peace, 
but only on the terms of being allowed to remain a separate people. There was 
a more business-like appearance in their arrangements than I bad noticed in the 
northern camps, less time frittered away in conversation; in fact, they appeared 
like men who were rtially engaged in a cause which called forth all their energies. 
The officers were dressed in gray, with silver lace, but uniform was much disre- 
garded ; in fact, any thiug like display was rather ridiculed. They were anxious 
for news from Europe, and especially as ri-garded the line of polities England 
and France were likely to take in the American question. They were rather sole 
at the refusal of European powers to recognize them as a nation, alleging that 
the South American republics had been recognized far more. quickly. They ac- 
knowledged that, at the eommencemeut ol the war, they had looked too much 
lor exterior assistance, but were now resolved to trust to theinselves. 'J'bey s))oke 
in terms of great praise of the devotion and gallantry of the private soldier, and 
had evidently complete confidence in their men. The general was obliged to i ide 
out, and his escort, a soldierlike body of cavalry, accompanied him. 'J'be men 
sat well on their horses, and looked like soldiers. I was also introduced to Gen. 
Price, who is much beloved aud respected by the troops. Unlike (j'l-neral Van 
iJom, he had only become a soldier since the war. One of the officers of the 
staff was a Scotchman, who had settled in the west, a fine, noble fellow, keen 
fur the he was fighting in, but yet strong in his love for Scotland. 

1 left the camp in the evening: a truin full uf sick tmd wounded soldiers took 
rae as far as Jackson, Jlississijipi. The dirt and disconilbrt of railway travelling 
iutlic South cannot be described. One carriage is usually set apart for ladies, 
and is slightly cleaner than the others. This is quite necessary, as wounded aud 
sick sold'R-rs, men returning from furlough, &c. are not the most feasant corn- 
ions for a long journey, especially whore the habit of chewing Ts universal. 
i leached Jackson, the capital of the State of Mississippi, the following morning. 
The town possesses the u.^ual features of State capitals, viz: a large buiUiing lor 
the meeting of parliament, a gaol, the governor's house, some hotels, and two or 
three wide streets. Few- shops rcmaiued 0]jcu, and the prices of ll.i- .-unimunesl 





artides were pnoi'mpus. I poid biilf a dnlliii- f'ov n pirce of KOtip, and two and a 
quarter dollars for a tooth brush. The usual charge at hotols tor the worst con- 
ceivahle acconuuodatiou is tivc dollars per diciii. 1 licse ]jric(s niust, h(l^v(•^•(■r, 
hv coiisiOori.-d with refereuco to the value of gold, which, at the tiuic i s])cak nf, 
vas at 230 iirpuiinm, 100 dollars ia gold bcinj;: worth liSd in paper. As in the 
Kortb, all sorts of inoucy is iu circulation, and it is very difficult to detect forge- 
ries. A large cauip had'been established near Jackson, Ihe situation having been 
selected from its being a central' point for the rail roads, which branched oft' to 
Vicksburg, towards Kew Orleans, Memphis, Mobile, the north of Georgia, and to 
the lines of rail which counect with Richmond Almost all the troops had, how- 
ever, been sent to the armies on the i'routier. The hotels were quite lull, a bed iu 
u crowded room being all the accouiniodation that could, he expected. Three 
times a day a bell rang, the doors of the dining room were llirowu open, and Ihe 
crowd pushed and struggled into their places for meals. Any one arriving late 
got nothing to eat. The company one meets on such occasions is decidedly 
mixed — generals and private soldiers, rich planters and mechanics, mingled wilh 
bU sorts of adventurers, which the war has brought t( gclher, sit down at Ihe 
same tables. It was at St. Louis where I noticed my oitjiosite neighbor in great 
difficulties — he had had a basin of thin soup given him : ihe spoon had been for- 
gotten, and he sat himself down quietly to (at it wilh a knife — he evidently ft-lt 
something was wrong, but he liad not sufficient confidence in himself to ask for a 
spoon. There are not as many foreigners in the southern as in Ihe northern 
armies — there are few or no Germans; Irisli, of course, there must be in every 
([uarrel; there are also some Englishmen and scveial French — or, rather, French 
Creoles — who appear to inlitate the uniform and carriage of the troops. of old 
France. At Vicksburg, commanding Ihe working parlies at the fortifications, I 
met au old officer of the army of Algeria: we had mutual acquaintances in that 
country, and talked over the campaigns of Pelissier. He had been with the de- 
tachment under the command of that general, which accomplished the feat of 
destroying an Arab tribe in a cavern, in the proviuce of Oran. 

The men one falls in with iu these sort of places are pleasant, good humored 
fellows ; often adventurers, such as Kirgsley cleverly delineates in the hero of 
his novel "Two Years Ago" — men who have been ruined over and over again, 
who have made fortunes and lost them in the diggings of California; who have 
bred cattle in Texas, or hitched up teams to cross the western prairies to the 
mines at Pike's Peak — in fact, who have been knocking about in all places, and 
all sorts of conditions. They are always ready for a drink, but will never drink 
alone, and will invariably' lend a helping hand to any one requiring it. In fact, 
the disorganized state of southern society has developed some good traits of cha- 
racter; men have become much less selfish, and are ready to do many little kind- 
nesses for each other which are looked for in vain in more civilized countries. 
Ladies who formerly were brought up in luxuiy, and with the greatest care, 
have been forced by circumstances to lead much more independent lives. They 
travel alone through the country, and are invariably treated by every one with 
the greatest respect. 

At Jackson were planters from Louisiana, who had left their homes, to be pil- 
laged by Ihe troops under the conunand of ISnller. One especially, I remember: 
lie was of an old French family, whose ancestors had left France during the great 
revolution, and had established themselves in Louisiana; they had acquired 
great wealth, and had ornamented their houses with statues from Europe (some 
executed by Caaovo) : these had been jiackcd u)) and carried to the North by 
federal officers. If any man ever was hated by a nation. General Butler is that 
man. All sorts of stories are told of him and of the troops und?r his command. 
It is said that some of the houses of the wealthiest of the merchants of New Or- 
leans have been appropriated by his officers, their furniture stolen, and even the 
dresses of their wiyes distributed among the favoiites of these officers. A lady 
uarr:ited to me an incident that happened at her own house : a federal officer ar- 
rived to carry off her horses for the use of the armj'; among these was a small 
pony which belonged to her .grand child, a little boy, who was standing near 
wilh tears in his eyes, fearing the loss of his pony. The lady requested that the 
animal might be spared, as it was too small to be of any use for army purposes, 
and the poor child was so son-y to lose it; but the officer replied, "One of the 
causes oj this tear is the manner in which yon southerners haze pampered your 
children ; therefore I shall remove the pony," — which he did. There w as a story 
current, that a short time previously a ball was to be given on board H. M.'s 
gun boat which was lying off New Orleans. General Butler, having exiiressed 
a wish to see Ihe vessel, came on board whilst the preparations for the ball were 
going on. The officer in command apologized lo the general for not inviting 
him, saying that he could not do so, as if he (General Butler) came, not a lady 
in Ni'w Orleans would acce])t au invitalion. .So much for Butler. There is a 
marked distinction in the manner in wliieli the soulherners regard their enemies, 
:md the terms iu which General WcClellan is sp(.ikfu of are very different. They 
say he conducted the war as a genlleman should do; and if, alter peace is estab 
lis'hed, he should visit the South, he will be. received wilh kindness, and treated 
as an honorable enemy ought to be. 

From Jackson I took the rail to Vicksburg, about four hours. Vigorous pre- 
parations were going on in expectation of a fresh attack. The officers iu com- 
mand were confident of successfully defending Ihe place, and were naturally proud 
of the hist defence, when the to\^ n was atlacked, towards the end of the sum- 
mer, by two fleets from the f"]ipir and Lower Mississippi. As I stood near Ihe 
town hall on the highest point overlooking the great river, the attack and defence 
were described to me; and as Vicksburg has acquired fresh fame from the late 
repulses of General Sherman'.s expedition, some description of its situation may 
not be out of place. At a short distance above the town the river makes one of 
those sharp bends so common in the Mississippi, leaving a narrow peninsula of 
low laud in front of the town. The town stamls on rather high bUiils on the left 
bank of the river. The ground on the laud aide is much broken, is hilly and in- 
tersected with ravines, whilst at a little distance the forest extends for many miles. 
A short distance above the town the Yazoo river flows into the Mississippi. Ad- 
vantage has been taken of the nature of the ground in preparing the defences, 
both on the land and river front, and batteries have been placed above the town 
iu order to command the upper reach of the river, otliers below the town to pre- 
vent the advance of vessels from the lower Mississippi, and also to command 
the low point of laud through which luo fccicrals endeavored last cummer to cut 

a canal. The forest which formerly covered this point of land has been levelled, 
in order to afford a clear sweep for the guns of the defenders, and to prevent its 
giving sheller to Ihe gun boats, as was the case at the last siege, when the gun 
lioals and transports were laid close in shore wilh their masts covered wilh 
boughs, in order lo resemble Ihe forest trees, and so conceal themselves from the 
enemy. But little damage was done to the town during the six weeks' bombaril- 
nient it sustained; a few houses and churches suft'ered, but only fifteen lives 
were lost, most of the inhabitants having left the town previous to the bombard- 

The work of throwing up fortificfltions at Vicksburg was busily going on, but 
the .shops were still open, and Christmas presents exhibited in the windows. 
Long lines of wagons and great numbers of stores were passing over the river 
on their way into the interior of Texas, in order that they might be out of reach 
of the federals, should their anuies succeed in occiipying the stale of Mississippi. 
I bad the pleasure of meeting some of General M'Gruder's staff at Vicksburg; 
he (the general) was on bis way to a command in Texas. They spoke highly of 
his conduct in the Y'orktown campaign, where he managed, on the first lauding 
of Ihe army of the Potomac, to hold in check far suirerior forces, wilh hut from 
eleven to fifteen thousand men, until the army of General Johnston could arrive 
to occui'y the lines of Yorklown. 

On the 2'th of Novemljer I left Jackson (having relurned tliere from Vicks- 
burg), and resolved to make my way to Mobile. Kailway travelling is very un- 
certain, on account of the bad order into which the rails have fallen; and if a 
train breaks down between Ihe stations, the travellers are iu rather an awkward 
predicament, since they, find themselves surrounded by a vast forest, without 
means of procuring food. At some places the train is advertised to stop for re- 
freshments; but these simply consist of Indian corn bread and eggs, pawed about 
and distributed at high prices by niggers. Between Meridian and Mobile (a whole 
day's joTuney at the pace the train went) there were no signs even of niggers 
with food, and very grateful I felt for the gift of a sweet potato. In fact, the 
usual houses for refreshments have been closed, the people finding it a difficult 
mailer to obtain food lor themselves. There is something monotonous, and 3'et 
striking, in 'thc^vast forests tra^-ersed by the rail. Usually the least fertile ground 
has been chosen, through which the line is constnicted; therefore a passenger 
i'ails to see the various rich plantations w hich may be at no great distance off. 
Son:ctinies at the small stations, built often of logs, a primitive looking carriage 
with rope harness is seen; but this is but seldom, for freight, rather than passen- 
gers, generally appears to be taken in at the smaller stations. 

Mobile, where 1 arrived on the '2Sth November, is a juetty pleasant looking 
city, situated at the end of a bay about forty miles long. The business part of 
the town, together wiih the principal warehouses, shops, theatre, &c.'are near the 
water: the houses of the merchants, standing in their separate gardens, are placed 
farther back. The climate is far warmer tlian that of Jackson; oranges were 
growing in the open air, and the bright sun reminded one of snnmier. It was. 
sad to see how desolate the town looked, though — the warehouses closed, scarcely 
any shipping in the harbor, the shops but poorly furnished with goods, save the 
book shops, where one might still purchase the old novels. The people of Mo- 
Mle, however, are willing to endure any hardship rather than give in, and say 
they will burn Ihe town, if necessary, rather than allow it to suffer a fate like 
that of New Orleans. 'J'hc soulherners allow that the loss of New Orleans was a, 
terrible blow to the Confederacy, and attribute it to neglect, either on the part of 
the central government or Iho 'local authorities. Some people even go so far as to 
say that the troops which defended the forts at the mouth of the Mississippi had 
been bought, and therefore permitted the federal vessels to pass them without 
opposition. 'Jhey are still sanguine of holding the two strong places on the 
MissLssippi. viz: Port Hudson and Vicksburg, and so keeping communication 
open with Texas, from which good cavalry aud large supplies are furnished. 


Russia, Austria, Eng-land and France have all contended for control of 
Greece. The late King Otlio, was talcen as a coniproinisc from Bavaria. 
The present King is talicn iu the same way from Denmark. But as a 
sister of the new King has just married the Prince of Wales, in conside- 
ration of the alliance, England has agreed to cede the Ionian islands to 
Greece. They liave for years been ruled by an English governor. Our 
latest accounts state that George the First is King of Greece. The pro- 
tocol of the formal acceptance of the throne by tlie Prince was signed 
by the Jlinisters of France, Russia, Denmark and England, at the Fo- 
rcig-n Office on Friday ; and on Saturday tlie King of Denmark formally 
accepted the crown on behalf of the Prince from the Greek deputation. 
In announcing that acceptance, Ihe King said he had stipulated for the 
annexation of the Ionian islands, and it is probable, therefore, that nuicli 
of the delay which lias taken place in the settlement of the question has 
been caused by efforts to obtain the consent of the Great Powers to the 
transfer of the islands. The King gave the Prince some good advice. 
"Let it be your constant endeavor (he said) to gain and preserve the 
love of your people ; without boasting, I speak from experience when I 
say that in this consists the true happiness of a king." 

BrigadicL General Henry H. Walker of Virginia, appoiuted July J, 18J3. 



[July 23, 1863 



President Davis has issued a proclamation, calling into service, under the law 
of congress, known as the " act of conscription," all male citizens, not specially 
exempt, between the ages of 18 and 45. 

Major General Pender of North Carolina, and Brigadier General Pcttigrew of 
South Carolina, have died of wounds received in the battle of Gettysburg. Briga- 
dier Generals Arniistead and Kemper of Virginia were not killed on the field, as 
AYas at fiist reported, but were dangerously wounded, and left in the enemy's 

A cavalry fight in heavy force, between the federals- under Gen. Plcasonton, 
and the confederates under General Fitzhugli Lee, took place on the 17th instant, 
at Shepherdstown, Va., in which, after a long and obstinate struggle, the fede- 
rals were repulsed and driven back in the direction of Harpers Ferry. 

A furious attack was made on Fort AVagner, Monis island, on t)ie night of the 
18th instant, accompanied by a terriflSc bombardment from the federal fleet. .Seve- 
ral desperate assaults were made by the land force, and handsomely repelled by 
the confederate troops tinder General Taliaferro. The fort sustained little ii:jury, 
and our loss was numerically small. We captured several prisoners. 

A raid of federal cavalry (1500 strong) was made upon AVythevillc, Va., on 
the 18th instant. A fight took place in the streets of the town, Capt. Bowyer's 
battery and two companies of Virginia militia gallantly contesting the occupation 
of the place, but falling back at nightfall, when the federals burnt the courthouse 
and other public buildings and the government depots, and went oft', leaving 
their wotinded behind them. 

General Johnston has evacuated Jackson, Miss., and withdrawn his army cast 
of the Pearl river. 


The attempt to^nforcc the conscription in New York city was attended by se- 
rious riots, which broke out on the 13th instant, and continued unchecked until 
the ICth. The rioters tore down the offices of enrollment, attacked the military 
with Atones and bludgeons, burned several goveniment buildings, and for a time 
successfully defied the law. Upon an a.^surance given by Governor Seymour, 
that the draft would be relinquished by the Washington authorities, the mutinous 
multitude gave way so far as to allow a strong mililary force to take possession 
of the city, when the draft was immediately rcsomed. Similar disturbances oc- 
curred iu Boston, Troy, Newark and other places, but were suppressed by mili- 
tary power. Several lives were lost during the riots iu New Y'ork city. 

Mr. Yallandigham arrived at the Clifton IJouse, Niagara Falls, Canada West, 
ou the morning of the 15th inst. 

President Lincoln set apart the Gth of August as a Day of Thanksgiving 
for recent federal victories. 


Paris papers note the fntt that the American war has greatly stimulated the 
naanirfacture of French surgical instruments. 

The exports of France for the first four months of this year show a remarkable 
increase over the exports of the same months of the t\vo pievious years. The 
imports have decreased within the same period. 

In addition to the monthly transports leaving St. Nazaire, the Minister of Ma 
rine has organized a ship service between a French port and Mexico, leaving 
Toulon the 2;?d of every month. 

Prussia has ordered that all political discussion caused by the King's dissolu- 
tion of the Legislative Chamber, shall be suppressed. 

Polish exiles in Europe have long labored to excite the present straggle for in- 
dependence. Always dres.sed in the deepest mourning, they would say, if asked 
the cause, that tliey were in mourning for their country. 

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literates who had not received a university education had increased three fold. 

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England, France, Austria, Spain, Sweden, and even Turkey! — all sent notes 
to Russia, asking a constitution to be granted Poland, after the manner of the 
Western JNations. This course has been dictated not by sympathy with the 
Polish struggle for liberty, but by the desire to have Poland an independent 
power, a barrier between Russia and Southern and Western Europe. 

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New Forois Kcgufating .Substitutes, 
Polish Quesliou in Parliament, 
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Tlie Record na a Help for Historv, 
A Run Through the Southern .States 
King of Greece, 


■ ut Ncw8, 

D- i^a^^a^^ 


Volume I.] 


[Number 7. 


Patient and faithful and tender and true, 
Praying and thinking and working for you — 
Bearing all silently sorrow for years, 
Hopefully striving to conquer my fears. 
Say, did my patience, my tenderness, truth, 
Merit not more than the blight of my youth ? 

Give me once more my wild energy back ; 

Give rpe the hopes that illu'mined life's track ; 

Give me the faith that I wasted on yoti ; 

Give me the love that I squandered thereto. 

You cannot : too lightly you cast them aside. 

And for you and all others these feelings have died. 

Yet, the' the hopes that I cherished are dead ; 
Tho' the light from my spirit forever hath fled ; 
Tho' 'twas doubting in God, when I doubted in you. 
As my standard aud type of the leal and the true : 
O'er the wreck of my life I would never repine. 
If the peace I have lost were but added to thine. 

[ Chambers' Journal. 


How the President's new call on men over 40 for military service affects 
suhstilulions. Responsibility of those hereafter putting in substitutes. 
How exemptions are to be applied for. 

We have heretofore given all the practical information required in regard to 
substitution. The new levy bringing into service an additional class of the po- 
pulation, has called forth additional regulations, briefly aud plainly summed up 
in the following notice from the Bureau of Conscription : 

Bureau op Conscription, 

Richmond, Va., July 2]st, 1863. 
To answer numerous enquiries, and to correct errors not uncommon, 
the following notice is published to all concerned : 

1. Under the recent call of the President, extending the conscript ao-e, 
all substitutions have ceased to be valid if tlie substitute bo less flian 45 
years old, and is not otherwise exempt by law. 

2. Membership, unless as an ofiicer duly accepted by the War Depart- 
ment, of local organizations for home defence or special service, confers 
no claim to exemption from confederate service ; neither does service in 

the militia, unless in case of officers actually in commission, who have 
duly qualified. 

3. Hereafter any one furnishing a substitute will become liable in his 
own person, whenever the services of the substitute are lost to the govern- 
ment from any cause other than the casualties of war. 

4. Applications for exemption, on any ground whatever, must first be 
addressed to the local enrolling officer, who, if he has not power to act, 
or is in doubt, will refer them to higher authority with report of the facts. 
All suchjiddressed direct to higher authority will necessarily and invari- 
ably be referred back for local examination and report; and the appli- 
cants will thus h«ve uselessly lost time and prolonged suspense. 

Appeals against adverse decisions by local oflicers will be forwarded by 
them for hearing, when any plausible ground of appeal is set forth. 

5-. Commandants of conscripts will give this notice extensive circula- 
tion in the local press of their respective States. * 

a. W. Lay, Lt. Col., A. A. G. 

Acting Chief of Bureau. 


Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 
Richmond, June 25, 18t)3. 
General Orders, No. 89. 

All discharges for disability will be "held as conditional, de- 
pendent upon the disability, and valid only dining its continuance. If 
on examination the disability is at any time fouud to have ceased, the 
holders will be liable to conscription, to serve the unexpired terms of 
their enlistments. This regulation applies to substitutes, whetlier under 
or over the age of conscription. Their services are due for the war, and 
the government should not be deprived of them, for what proves to be a 
temporary disability. ' 

By order. 

Adjutant and Inspector General. 


Some one has said that ordinary life, as seen in the streets and in the news- 
papers, is so much a matter of selfish calculation, that its issues can be predicted 
by close attention to tho multiplication table. There are, however, influences of 
a more elevated character, that insensibly control society; and only the more 
powerfully, because acting,quietly and unrecognized. The religious principle is 
of this kind. It lies at tho foundation of national as well as individual Ufe; and 



[July 30, 1863 

if not acknowledged by statesmen, it confounds and sets at nought their best de- 
vised plans. The " Crimean war" had for cause a religious controversy in the 
East; and the Catholic element in Poland now struggles against the Greek 
■ church of Eussia. The Protestantism of Great Britain modifies her relations 
with Prussia and Denmark and Sweden, quite as much as the Catholicism of 
France does Napoleon's relations with Spain and Italy. Catholicism in Ireland, 
Presbyterianism in Scotland, and the Established Church in England, modify 
greatly the national peculiarities of the three people that constitute the British 
nation. A discussion, therefore, in Parliament, like that we present, has an im- 
portant bearing upon the future not only of England, but of those nations having 
relations with her : and the Record would fail of its purpose, if it did not exhibit 
the course of thought as well as of the events of the day. In a future number we 
will give the proceedings of the " Th(! Assembly" of the Scottish Church and of 
the "Free Church," in their late annual session. 

Mr. BnxTON moved the following resolution — That in the opinion of 
this house the subscription required to the 39 Articles and the Prayer 
Book, by the clergy, ought to be relaxed. 

This motion (he said) was not brought forward in a spirit in any way 
hostile to the church, of which he was a member. In fart, he only wislied 
the motion to be tried by this test. AVould it tend to benefit or to injure 
the Church of England ? If it would tend to injure the Established 
Church, by all means throw it out. It was a curious fact, that the Church 
of Geneva was actually persuaded by an English bishop (Bp. Burnet) to 
give up subscriptions ; and the argument he used was, that the worthiest 
men were thus driven away, while (said he) others artrinduccd to submit, 
and begin their ministry with mental equivocations. He repudiated the 
idea that he was proposing any revolutionary or radical changes. If 
these tests had been a legacy from the golden days of the Cliurch of Eng- 
land ; if they had come from her great theologians or her holy army of 
martyrs, then indeed they might be looked at with reverence. That, 
however, was not the case. Until the 1.3th year of Queen Elizabeth no 
Bubscriptious were enforced upon the clergy. It was not (as was said by 
one historian) "until her jealous and arbitrary character was assuming 
its most repulsive aspect," that she allowed Archbishop Whitgift to pub- 
lish his "Orders to the Church;" which required subscription to the 39 
Articles and to the Prayer Book. The truth was, that owing to the 
ecclesiastical causes that had been tried and the judgments that had been 
delivered, the subscriptions had become far more stringent than formerly. 
The doctrines of the church had become more precisely definite ; and 
meanwhile men's minds had been learuing far more daring in dealing 
with truth, and uniformity of belief had become every day less possible. 
Be that good or evil, no folly could be greater than that of trying to stay 
that stir of mind with such barriers as these. If the church still required 
of young men such abnegation of all mental freedom, the wortliiest would 
be the first to shrink from such a degrading bondage. Now the cry 
would doubtless be raised, of " the church in danger." It was wonderful 
how those who boasted to be the friends of the church, could think so ill 
of her as to fancy that were she not fenced in here and shored up there, 
she wpuld totter to her fall. During our own time she had been growing, 
and was still growing more powerful, more beneficent and more beloved. 
To her might be applied the words of the poet : 

" Higher yet her star ascends ; 
Traveller, blessedness and light, 
Peace and truth her course portends." 

And yet there was danger to the church. Two policies were, open to her. 
If she chose to be not national but narrow and sectarian : if she drove 
from her the intellect of the age ; if she stubbornly withstood all progress 
and all reform ; if she met the inevitable advance of the human mind, 
the growth of religious opinions, the novelties of speculations, the dis- 
coveries of science, not with strong and gentle reasoning, but with pa- 
roxysms of fear and rage ; if she displayed that which was of all things 
the most pitiful, the longing to persecute, without the power, then indeed 
the day might come, when, alienated from all that was most profound in 
thought and most generous in feeling, she might find herself forsaken and 
spurned by the English people. A far other career he believed was be- 
fore her. Let men of mind find with her a welcome and a home : let 

her open her gates wider and shake off the bonds that cramped her : let 
her move onward with the age, and lead the van of its religious thought : 
let her deal tenderly with error, and grapple boldly with truth ; and lei 
her ministers be foremost in every work of mercy. In short, instead of 
trusting to outward props, the handiwork of men, let her grow ever more 
glorious within, more pure, more noble, more profound. Then they need 
not doubt that their children's children would still cleave to the church, 
which their fathers founded and sealed with their blood in the great days 
of old. He begged to move the resolution of which he had given notice. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer then said : 

I am glad that my hon. friend has put aside the revision of the Prayer 
Book ; and I am glad, for all our sakes, that he did not join himself to 
those persons who venture to claim, as I think most unreasonably, liberty of 
thought, without any restraint or control for the clergy. The liberty of 
the clergy in that sense is the slavery of the laymen. The idea of 
clergymen, authorized and paid by the State, being allowed to pass 
through the country, or to settle themselves individually in respective - 
districts, and there to teach to the laity whatever happens to approve 
itself to the mind of each individual clergyman — suph a proceeding 
would not only be a breach of all the laws of the church, but a violation 
of all the traditions, a desecration of all the feelings, and a contepipt of 
all the rights of the people. If there is one right more than another, 
accruing to the people in connection with the existence of a National 
Church, it is the right which had always been recognized and allowed, 
that they should kuow what is the teaching addressed to them. If the 
question to be discussed is whether the mind of everj' individual clergy- _ 
man is to be set free from all legal restraints, and he is to be the sole 
arbiter of what he shall teach to those whom he calls his people, I say it 
would be far better, before entertaining that question, that we should break 
up the venerable fabric of the church altogether; for evils would then be 
less than the moral, social and religious evils which a license, such as I 
have just alluded to, would not fail to entail. We are told that subscrip- 
tions should be done away with, because they have failed to attain their 
end. In some sense, every huma;i law fails to attain its end. Laws 
against crime may be supposed to have failed in attaining their end, be- 
cause crime is not abolished and extinguished ; and laws for the promo- 
tion of unity of sentiment within the limits of the church are, in the 
very nature of their case, laws in respect to which you must not expect 
one perfect and absolute result. The question is not whether some vari- 
ations of opinion prevail in the church, but whether, on the whole, the 
system of subscription works well for its purpose of giving to the church 
a due degree of unity iu action. My belief is that any attempt to work 
the Church of England to maintain unity of doctrine or even uniformity 
of procedure among its members, by the substitution of a system of sub- 
scription, would be entirely visionary. It would be odious to the feel- 
ings of mankind, so irritating to all those who caiue under its opera- 
tions, there would be such appeals to popular sympathy, such natural 
compassion would be excited, and sometimes justly excited, on those 
whom it was sought to attach, that all attempts, even if made bona fide, 
would soon be abandoned, arid we would enter upon the slippery path 
which has been so ably described. 

It is said, as a reason for abolishing subscription, that the Prayer Book 
and the different documents of the church are not in unison ; and a very 
great man (Lord Chatham) said, very injudiciously, as I think, that the 
Church of England is distinguished by having Calvinistic doctrines, a 
Popish liturgy and Armenian clergy. I believe the saying was founded 
upon a very shallow sense of what is really contained in the documents 
of the Church of England. Then comes the statement that young men 
of ability are not coming forward for hdy orders in such nurabf-rs as for- 
merly ; and I cannot disguise from myself the evil thus described. The 
evil is the more striking to me, because about the period when I was an 
undergraduate, or shortly after, a state of things prevailed of quite au 
opposite character." It might almost be said about that time, that the 
flower of the youth of England were rushing forward to offer themselves 
for the service of the church. I agree with those who think the change 

July 30, 1863.] 



is not to be fally accounted for or explained by the fact of other openings 
having been made, tliat the career and race of civil life has become more 
energetic than it was. It must be borne in mind that the Church of 
England has in the last 20 years passed through a time of nothing less 
than convulsions of convulsion so sharp and searching, that it might al- 
most be described as, in the language of Scripture, dividing one from 
another — piercing asunder soul and spirit. In the Church of England, 
and especially in the University of Oxford, great controversies have 
arisen. The last 20 or 30 years has seen the rise and growth of eminent 
men — as eminent and able as ever adorned the Reformed Church of 
England. It has seen a great body of men, after arriving at mature life, 
suddenly announcing to their followers that they found they had been 
wrong in adhering to the Church of England, and that it was necessarj- 
for their salvation to make themselves members of an opposite and anta- 
gonistic church. The consequence of that course has been the almost total 
destruction, for a time, of the confidence which young men ought to have 
in those whose age, abilities, learning and piety they revere. There has 
been the creation of a violent reaction and an alienation of popular feel- 
ing; and of course, with causes such as these, the result must be, for a time, 
a great, heav}^ and sore discouragement to all young and tender minds, to 
see those who, in the purity of their consciences and the springtide of their 
lives, would otherwise have devoted themselves to the service of GOD. 
I believe the principle of freedom is so embodied in the people of Eng- 
land and their institutions, in social, political and religious life, that were 
the church to disassociate herself from the general movement of the hu- 
man mind, and to neglect the achievements of science on behalf of man- 
kind, any institution so acting would soon cease to be the Church of Eng- 
land. I feel deeply the great evils that prevail, and with which we are 
threatened from internal causes ; yet I confess, and I trust that this house 
feels with me, that hope preponderates over fear — and when we see the 
marvellous transformation that has taken place in her clergy, the degree 
of faithfulness, of self-sacrifice and devotion which, as a body, they have 
attained — when I see the intelligence they show, and the readiness on 
every occasion they evince to keep themselves in harmony with the insti- 
tutions of the country and the wants and dispositions of the people — 
when I take all these things into view, and reflect that the Church of 
England is setting herself about her spiritual work without forgetting her 
social duties, I think we may well take good cheer and be comforted, be- 
lieving that if in her past history she has conferred benefits on the coun- 
try, still more will she bestow benefits and blessings upon future genera- 

Mr. D'IsRAELi then said : 

It is only as politicians and as statesmen that we may presume to speak 
in this house upon this subject — and I maintain that in modern times, 
since the year 1662, no English statesman has ever contemplated that the 
English Church, though founded on a Catholic creed, should at the same 
time command a Catholic communion. For the last JJOO years no states- 
man has contemplated that the whole population^ of England should be 
within the pale of the National Church. What has been contemplated 
in these centuries, of what I may call practical constitution, has been 
this, that there should be a standard of religious truth established by the 
State in the country ; that the religious principle should be recognized as 
one of the most important and influential for the conduct of government ; 
that the government of this country should not be reduced to a mere 
question of police ; but that we should seek to influence the conduct of 
.men by the highest sanction which can be conceived. I say that object 
has been successfully accomplished by the Church in its connection with 
the State in England during the last two centuries. I think there is in 
the times in which we live a circumstance which disturba'the public mind, 
which has influenced the spirit of youth, and has acted very injuriously. 
It is unwise to conceal it, and it is idle to explain it, as is the fashion 
even in high places, by statistical arguments. I don'Pbeliove that the 
want of candidates for ordination is to be accounted for by the enormous 
nuggets which are to be discovered in Australia, or by the large fortunes 
said to be realized by civil engineers. I believe the youth of England 

are actuated by more noble and generous feelings. Still, it cannot be 
concealed that there is much in the theological studies of this country, 
much in the theological productions of the day, which would naturally in- 
fluence and disturb the ardent and susceptible mind of youth. The 
honorable gentleman informed us, and I agree with him, that it is likely 
that for a great number of years questions respecting the church and re- 
ligion may be brought under the consideration of the British Parliament. 
I trust, however, that we shall be able to discuss those questions in a 
manner becoming our position ; that we shall remember that we are not 
a Lay Synod, but that we are the Reformed Parliament of England. I 
hope that when these questions come before us we shall not discuss them 
like those members of the Long Parliament, who on occasions pulled 
their thumb Bibles from their waistcoat pockets, and enforced their argu- 
ments by quoting chapter and verse, but that we shall remember the 
constitutional and social position that we occupy, and meet the difiiculty, 
without exciting any feelings but those which' are suited to the unimpas- 
sioned sphere of the British Parharaent. 

But without entering into any controversy, I would venture to say there 
is notliing very new, nothing very original, and nothing very alarming in 
this periodical appearance of a particular branch of literature, which is 
supposed to have aflFected the opinion of the country, and to have ren- 
dered it necessary that we should suddenly and precipitately alter the 
Act of Uniformity. It is important that we should remember this. I 
would venture to say to those that are young — because having devoted 
themselves with so much care to the cultivation of their minds, they may 
be pardoned for not being perfect!)' aware of what has happened on this 
subject before — that there is nothing new in these doubts which have 
been thrown out, and which appear to have recently agitated some por- 
tions of the public mind. A century and a half ago, when England was 
in a state of great civilization, these views were very prevalent in this 
country. It was a natural reaction against that immense triumph of 
Puritanism, which had destroyed the institutions of the country, and 
which had apparently etfeoted so enduring a change in the national cha- 
racter. That passed away, however, and left behind great latitudinarian- 
ism as a consequence, which ended in a general spirit of skepticism. The 
state of things ^s far more alarming than now. The most alarming 
thing now, it is said, is, that an infidel may be a bishop ; but infidels 
then were actually made bishops. There was a large body of eminent 
men then devoted, with greater courage and in a far more unblushing 
manner than is now the fashion, to the propagation of those ideas whidh 
are now propagated with more modesty, and perhaps with a more timid 
spirit. You had ministers of state and other distinguished persons adopt- 
ing those opinions in the reign of George I. What happened ! A cen- 
tury passed away, and what effect was produced by these opinions, al- 
though they produced a literature of their own, which was second to 
none in acuteness and learning, and although they were sanctioned by 
persons in the highest places. Why, there never was a period in which 
the religion of this country, and ospecially the religion embalmed in the 
ofiicers of the Church of England, was ever more influential or more ex- 
pansive, or flourished more than in the century that has elapsed since 
that time. And I defy any one to bring me passages .impugning the faith 
of the Scriptures in auy works recently published, in which these doc- 
trines are urged mth more power or more learning than by the writers 
of that period. 

We have heard that the reason why we have fewer candidates for 
orders in the Church of England, is that so many prizes have been taken 
away. But what happened in the Church of France, when all its pro- 
perty had been taken away ? The whole institutions of land, ecclesias- 
tical and others, were erased ; yet, as if by magic, parish churches have 
reappeared in 30,000 districts in France; and although they have had 
monarchies, republics and empires, and may have in the future a combi- 
nation of government, which no one can anticipate, yet the christian 
church in that country has at present more powerful adherents than ever. 
The advantages to accrue from the existence of the Church of England 
have been adverted to by difl'crent speakers, and from the honorable gen- 



[July 30, 18(^3 

tleman who introduced the resolution, I have not heard any objection 
or insinuation against the wisdom of maintaining it. Well, but what do 
you mean by a church ? I say no creed, no church ! How can you have 
a church without a creed, articles, formularies and subscriptions ? If 
you object to them, tell us so, and then we shall understand the question 
before us ; and the people must decide which they will adopt. But if 
you are to have a church, you must have symbols of union among those 
who are in communion with that church. That I hope is not bigotry ; 
for we must speak on this subject as politicians, and not intruding our 
private religious convictions on any member of this house, but considering 
the matter with reference to the happiness of society and ^he means of 
lofty and virtuous government, by the aid of which we may prevent the 
government from degenerating'into a mere machinery of police. We 
are agreed that we shall have a church, and that it shall be maintained. 
Well, I want to know how we are to have a church without a symbol of 
union among those who ai-e in communion with it. No one hai told us. 
But if we are to have a church without a creed, articles or formularies, 
we shall have the most dangerous, the most degrading, and the mqst per- 
nicious institution which ever yet existed in a country, the means of which 
for evil are incalculable. 

Sir, my idea of a sacerdotal despotism, so far as modern times are con- 
cerned, is this, that a minister of the Church of England, who is ap- 
pointed to expound doctrines, should deem that he has a right to invent 
doctrines. That, sir, is my opinion of sacerdotal despotism ; ai^d it ap- 
pears to me that if the course that has been recommended to our con- 
sideration to-night is adopted in that false guise in which these proposi- 
tions are sometimes exhibited in this house and out of it, wc sliall not be 
secure from arriving at such a goal. I warn the house, however impro- 
bable it may appear, from the seemingly innocent form in which those 
simple and unenlightened propositions have been brought before us, that 
they are propositions in favor of the priesthood and not of the laity, 
and the more their consequences are traced, the more plainly that will 
be found to be the inevitable result. Xo doubt there are men of genius 
among the clergy; fine writers, men of imaginalion and learning, who 
can easily picture to themselves what would be the consequence of the 
success of those endeavors. No doubt the mere clergsman would soon 
become the prophet. No doubt you would have manj^churches. Tlie 
abounding eloquence, the exquisite learning, the fine sentiments and the 
admirable ingenuity which pervade many of the publications which arc 
pnt on our tables, would produce consequences to the Church of Eng- 
land very different from what have proceeded from this vile Act of Uni- 
formity. But what I feel is this— if that course be pursued, I see no 
security for 200 years of tranquillity and toleration. I see no security for 
200 years, which have resolved as great a problem in spiritual life as you 
have in political. It is the boast of this country that it has reconciled 
order with liberty. What in its religious atlaira is a greater boast is 
this — it has combined orthodoxy with toleration. AVhat security have 
you for such great results, if you pursue the course which is insidiously 
recommended to you in so many ways and by so many changes. I prefer 
to stand upon the ancient ground. I prefer to stand, as we are, on a 
church which lives in the historic conscience of the country — which comes 
down with its title deeds, title deeds of its great liturgy — which we can 
understand, because our fathers and our forefathers have contributed to 
its creation ! 

There is just now an unusual supply of, and therefore we presume a 
demand for historical works, especially those which deal with constitu- 
tional history. The last volume of " A History of England during the 
Reign of George III," by Mr. Massey, M. P., has just been published. 
Very likely Mr. Masscy's book is not in great request at Mudic's. It is 
not in the least degree sensational ; facts are not made to look like fic- 
tion; there is not an attempt at giving original views, and we do not find 
any imporlant incidents with which we were not previously acquainted. 
Yet Mr. Massey's book is valuable. It is an intelligent and thoroughly 

readable compilation. It gives a plain and unvarnished narrative of the 
most critical era; in our past history. It is well we should be reminded of 
the part we formerly played in the affairs of the world. What we thought 
right — no doubt ^\e were often mistaken — we did not hesitate to assert 
and to defend with all our might. We made great sacrifices, and we 
came out winners. We are now taught, by the so called Manchester 
School, that prudence is the better part of valor ; but if we act upon this 
advice, we may find that, by refusing to accept the responsibilities inci- 
dent to the position of a first class power, we shall cease to occupy that 

The book of the month is, undoubtedly, Mrs. Norton's new novel, 
"Lost and Saved." It is superfluous to make any comment upon the 
style of this last work of a lady who always writes leisurely and grace- 
fully. As a mere literary composition, it can hardly be too highly com- 
mended. But we cannot bestow equal praise upon the structure of the 
story. The main incidents are these : A girl is betrayed into a sham 
marriage, is told of her position before the birth of her child, and for the 
sake of her offspring, agrees to live with her seducer until he chooses to 
marry her. When " Adam Bede" first appeared, there was considerable 
discussion as to the good effect of making a seduction case the basis of a 
novel. But in " Adam Bede" the'fate of the seduced was so tragic, that 
there could be no question as to the moral tendency of the tale. Now, 
wc are far from saying, that " Lost and Saved" has an immoral tendency, 
yet that the heroine marries liapjiily at last, seems to us something like a 
reward for imprudence, or for the want of that honorable feeling which 
must always prevent a virtuous woman from consenting to live in a state 
of adultery. 

It is perhaps well that we should mention a book that has nothing to 
recommend it but its title page. We refer to " The Wanderings of a 
Beauty," by Mrs. Edwin James. 

Amongst books. of travel, '• A Trip on Horseback in Mantchu Tartary, 
being a Summer's Ride beyond the Great Wall of China," is likely to 
find a multitude of readers both at home and abroad. Mr. Fleming, an 
officer, and Mr. Micliie, a Shanghai merchant, determined to take advan- 
tage of the treaty of Tien-lsin, which permits British subjects to travel 
in China; and accordingly they set out from Tien-tsin on Tartar ponies, 
tlieir baggage and provisions being carried in a cart. Beyond the curi- 
osity of the natives, which was sometimes unpleasantly demonstrative, 
they met with no annoyance or hindrance until they arrived at the Great 
Wall. Mr. Fleming climbed a high mountain, from the summit of which 
he had a magnificent view of the surrounding countiy, and of that won- 
derful work of art, the Great Wall of China. 

Ai the time selected by liisliop Cok-nso to impugn the credit of the 
Old Testament, it happens that considerable attention is being paid, inci- 
dentally and directly, to the history of the Jews. Following on the won- 
derful discoveries of the present generation of explorers in the Holy 
Laud, we have, amongst a number of valuable works on the same sub- 
ject, the superb series of photographs taken by Mr. Bedford during the 
tour of the Prinw of Wales in the East. Irrespective of the artistic 
merit of these pictures, they are invaluable as instructive illustrations of 
the past histoiy and present condition of the Holy Land. Besides Dr. 
Stanley's " Lectures on the Jewish Church," we have a third edition of 
Dean Milman's " History of the Jews, from the Earliest Period down to 
Modern Times." Even skeptics must admit that the authenticated his- 
tory of the Jews from first to last, is in itself a miracle as wonderful as 
any miracle recorded in the (Jld Testament. 

Mr. A. J. I>. Beresford Hope has lately delivered two able lectures on 
Art, which have been published. One was an inaugural address deli- 
vered at the opening of the present session of the Architectural Museum, 
of which institution Mr. Hope is president. The second lecture is en- 
titled " The World's Debt to Art;" and besides discussing what may be 
done with iron in the ornamentation of our cities and in the production 
of works of art, Sir. Hope points out how, in small things as well as great, 
we may pay our debt to art. Even dress is not unimportant. Tlie lec- 
turer rebukes the modern changes in female attire. He says, " Women 
dressed well ten years ago, but they would not let well alone. They had 
got rid of St. Martin's gowns; they had got rid of bonnets which ex- 
panded to the east and to the west, and which rose to the zenith ; they 
had got variety pf color. * * * But here are the old antediluvian 
hoops again ; a^d the small graceful bonnet is changed for one which 
pokes up like a coal scoop. It was formerly a coal scuttle, but now you 
will agree with me it is more like a coat scoop. So there our ladies are. 
Ten years ago you were ^\ell dressed, ladies; but you would not let well 
alone, and now yon are dressed — a i' Impcralrice." -^[London Index. 

July 30, 1863.] 



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Benjamin Constant, in analyzing the national contributions of different Euro- 
pean nations to civilization, once saiJ, that Germany gave the thought, that France 
converted this ^aw material into ideas, and that England adopted and made them 
practical. It is certainly true, that from those three centres radiate political and 
moral influences, that if they do not control, greatly modify national character. 
It is not, then, idle curiosity or oversanguine confidence in foreign sympathy that 
causes us to watch the changes that occur in European councils. They act of 
necessity upon onr-fufure, and for this reason we record statements like the fol- 
lowing : 

A Paris telegram of June 24 says : 

M. Billault has been appointed IVfinister of State, iu place of M. Walewski, 
whose resignation has bet-u accepted by the Emperor. The decree nominating 
M. Billault to this post, places among bis functions those exercised by the minis- 
ters without portfolio. Part of the I'uiietion.s appertaining to the Jliui.stry of State 
are transferred to the Ministry of the Emperor's Household, and another part to 
the Ministry of Education. Public worship is assigned to the Ministry of Jus- 
tice. The direction of the Mouiteur y\-\\\ enter among (he duties of the Minister 
of the Interior. The following are the remaining appointments which have beoa 

M. Baroebe, Minister, President of the Council of State, is appointed Minister 
of Justice and Worship, in place of M. Delangle, W'hose resignation has been 

M. Boudct, President of Section in the Council of State, in place of M. de Per- 
signy, whose resignation has been accepted. 

M. Dnruy, Inspector General of Public Instruction, is named Minister of Pub- 
lic Instruction, in place of M. Rouland, whose resignation lias been accepted. 

M. Behic, formerly Councillor of State, is named Minister of Agriculture, Com- 
merce and Public Works, in place of M. Rouhcr, called to other iunctions. 

M. de Jlomy continues President of the Corps Lcgislatif. 

Another account of the same political change says : 

The announcement of an entire reconstruction of the French ministry, which 
appeared iu the Moniteur of the 24th, has come upon, the public somewhat as a 
surprise, as less than a week since it was announced in several leading journals 
that the rumors of a change in several of the departments were entirely without 

The Emperor has not thought fit to disregard the " warning" which "he has re- 
ceived in the result of the late elections, and ha.s "accepted the resignations" of 
the three members of his ministry wjio were employed in carrying out his most 
unpopular measures — M. de Persigny, 51. Walewski and M. Deiangle. Three 
council.s of state have been held within the last week, which the Emperor came 
from Fontainebleatr to attend, the deliberations of one of these councils continu- 
ing until two o'clock in the morning. The result has been an important change 
in the ministerial departments. The ministers witliout portfolio, who were merePj' 
the orators of the government, are suppressed, and the ministry is now made re- 
sponsible for the acts of the government, as in England. 

M. Boudet, who succeeds M. do Persigny, is a Protestant, and has always been 
known Ibr liberal ideas. The opposition call the present members of the ad- 
ministration "a ministry of transition," and seem to be very well salislied with it. 
The Emperor is said to have been very unwilling to part with Count Persigny, 
without providing him with some advantageous position, owing to his personal 
friendship for him; and it was at one tigie in question to scud M. de P. embassa- 
dor to England, a post which be once before filled; but the part which he has 
taken of late in the seizure of English journals at the French post offices, have 
rendered him very unpopular in that country. 

The Duke de Morny is reported to have said to tlio Emperor, when his majesty 
said be could not consent to make an enemy of Persigny : " If you do not dis- 
miss him, you will have for an enemy all France." 

The tact of M. de Persigny, who is the most intimate personal friend of the 
Emperor, who shared with him his captivity in the Castle of Main, and who, upon 
their (rial under the reign of Louis Philippe, first c.xpoimded the Napoleonic Ideas 
(lilies Napoleonhnnes) , upon which the Emperor is now acting, is most strikingly 
manifested in the subjoined letter, written jtist before tlje change in the Cabinet: 

Paris, June 21 . 

M. Ic' Prefct — After having received and analyzed your reports and tho,?e of 
your colleagues on the late elections, and taken due note of the order and fairness 
with \vhich the electoral operations have been conducted, as also the perfect free- 

dom with which candidates of every description have been able to come fonvard, 
I am happy to have to congratulate you on the zeal which you, your sub-prefects, 
mayors, and other subalterns have displayed in your efforts to enlighten the popu- 
lations as to the choice they were called on to make. . With the exception of in- 
cidents wliicb may have given rise to protests on one or the other side, the peace- 
alile manner in which the elections have been accomplished does the more honor 
to the country as they have been hotly contested. 

For the first time during the last ten years the opinions more or less connected 
with previous govcrunieuts have fornifid a coalition. On a few points, and espe- 
cially in the great centers of population, generally more easily impressed by the 
excitations of the press, that coalition has succeeded in taking universal suffrage 
unawares ; but the immense majority of the country has respouded to the aiipeal 
by the government, and has left the coalition but a few namesto console it for its 

The elections, however, will have considerable influence on the futtire of the 
country. When the Emperor was raised to the throne, amid the acclamations of 
a whole people, arriving alone at the summit of power, he had no party of his 
own, but by a few points wag connected with all the parties existing iu the coun- 
try. Some considered him as the represeutative of order — others as the enibodi- 
uient of unity of power ; some looked upon him as the principle of authority— 
ofliers as a wise liberty; for the greater number, his accession was the triumph of 
democracy — for all, the dignityof France abroad. 

Out of all these va»ions elements was formed what may be called the party of 
the Government, whether in the aggregate of the agents of public authority, 
from the ministers down to the humblest functionaries, or in the constituted bodies, 
the Chambers, the councils general, and the municipalities. , Thus composed, the 
general organization of the country v.'as deficient iu homogeneity, and it was na- 
tuud (hat, according to circumstances, and until they had been amalgamated by 
time, these various elements should betray some trace of their origin. But the 
late elections will have done more for their cohesion than time itself Attacked 
on every side, and resisting the shock, our political edifice has gained in strength, 
and in the Chamber, as in the country, the party of the government is henceforth 

Another important result is due to the late elections — our institutions, criticised 
by the opposition under the pretence of their being capable of improvemeut, have 
received a fresh consecration from the success of the government candidates. 
AVhat the'French people meant to express when they voted the plebiscite in 1851 
was, not only their wish to establish authority and liberty on unshakable foun- 
dations, but also their intention to give up copying, in a democratic country like 
ours, the aristocratic constitution of a neighboring nation; it was, above all, a 
resolution condemning the fatal doctrine, the result of which \v,as to transfer 
power i'rom the hands of the sovereign to orators in the Legislature. 

The opposition loudly asserted, that iu the last ten years the country had 
changed its mind, that it aspired not only to perfect and modify the working of 
our liberties, but to change its essential principles. The country ha.s protested 
against these assertions. 

And now that the struggle is over, I recommend you, M. le Prefet, as quiet is 
gradually restored, to take counsel from those sentiments of moderation which 
are the mark of a strong government and a paternal administration. 

The Emperor's government, you are aware, excludes none. Consisting itself 
of men of all parties, and unceasingly recruited from among them, it remains 
faithful to the mission of reconciling them all. It is open to all ujen of good will, 
and sets aside only those v^fho, not accepting the fundamental basis of our institu- 
tions, such as they are laid down in the plebiscite of 1851, are thereby in opposi- 
tion with the will of the French people. ' 

Receive, &c. F. de Persigny. 


The Times Paris correspondent writes : 

"Private letters from Madritl inform me that proposals of recognition 
Iiave been made* on behalf of the Southern States of America to tlie 
Spanish goveninieiit, and that tliose proposals are made with the cogni- 
zance and full sanction of tlie French Emperor. The proposals are at 
tliis moment under the consideration of the Marquis of Maraflores and 
his colleagues,- who are, of course, aware that they are approved^ by the 
Emperor, and also aware that if Spain consents she will have the support 
of France. The Confederate States are preparing to guarantee the inde- 
pendence of Cuba, eithel' by treaty with her or by joining in the treaty 
with other powers, in return for certain not unreasonable advantages. 
The answer of the Spajiish government is not given, though, with France 
by her side, it may not be unfavorable. It is thought at Madrid, that in 
any case the Emperor of the French will not much longer postpone re- 
co"-nizing the Southern Confederacy — if with others, well and good — if 
not, alone." 

In the House of Lords, on the 2d inst., the Duke of Newcastle moved 
the second reading of the British Columbia boundaries bill. He gave a 
most satisfactory report of the progress of the colonies of Vancouver's 
island and British Columbia, and states that the government of the two 
colonies would now be separated altogether ; but it was not thought yet 



[July 30, 1863 

time to give the latter representative institutions, with a population so 
fluctuating;, but it would have a legislative council, on the model of that 
of Ceylon. He also stated that arrangements were nearly completed for 
a road and a telegraph through British America, to join the roads in Bri- 
tish Columbia, which now reach practically to the Rocky mountains. He 
stated that negotiations had been entered into for the sale of the interests 
of the Hudson's Bay Company to the International Financial Association, 
which intended to issue 2,000,000 shares for the establishment of another 
company. Tliis new company would stand exactly in the position of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, the Financial Association only being interme- 
diate agents. Sir E. Head, Mr. C. M. Lampson, and several most in- 
fluential persons were at the head of the new company. 

Sir J. Taunton complained of the mode in which the affairs of the 
Hudson's Bay Company liad been managed, but expressed a doubt whe- 
ther the transfer about to be made would be a change for the better. He 
believed the new company comprised withirt it the yanies of gentlemen 
who were Americans, either by birth or interest; and he should be sorry 
to see the seat of the direction of the company changed from England to 
New York, with regard to British Columbia. 


In' the House of Commons, on the 3d, Mr. CaesegiS asked whether, 
in the existing state of affairs in America, it was contrary to interna- 
tional law to consign arms, ammunition or medicines to the ports of 
Quebec, Nassau, Matamoras and Havana, and whether a vessel contain- 
ing such articles, and bound to any of the above ports, would be liable to 
condemnation l)y a prize court? The Solicitor-General replied in the 
negative, but added that the cargo must be bona fide destined for a 
neutral port. 

The Marquis of Hartington, in reply to Col. Anxesley, stated that 
the commissioners sent out last year to inquire into the frontier defences 
of Canada had made their report, but until the colonial government had 
taken the matter into consideration no steps could be adopted for carrying 
its recommendation into effect. 

Mr. Caird brought under the notice of the house the supply of cotton, 
and moved for a select committee to inquire whether any further mea- 
sures could be taken within the legislative functions of tlie Indian go- 
vernment for increasing tlie supply of cotton from that couutrj'. He 
argued, no matter what might be the result of the war now raging in 
America, it would be unreasonable to expect from the Southern States 
any thing like the supply of cotton which England was formerly in the 
habit of obtaining from that part of the world. In India, on the con- 
trary, the field of production was unlimited. 

Mr. Beazely seconded the motion. 

Mr. CoBDEN ridiculed tlie efforts which the governn»ent of India had 
hitherto made to encourage the growth of cotton. He observed that at 
the foot of the Eocky mountains, in the Western Valley of the Missis- 
sippi, there was eshaustless fields for the production of cotton, and a soil 
and climate admirably adapted to the plan, which only required English 
capital'and enterprise for its dev.elopment. 

Sir C. Wood spoke in defence of the government of India. 

Mr. Bright was of opinion that legislative action was not the means 
by which increased supplies could be obtained. He recommended the 
sub-division of India into different presidencies. 

Tlie motion was finally withdrawn. 

universities, and who cannot bear to throw away the chances of pro- 
fessional life in England, receive abundant encouragement from the am- 
ple endowments of Oxford and Cambridge. Those who would just come 
short of this highest standard, or who wish for a certainty early in life, or 
who have a taste for the duties of government, can now find an easy 
opening in the civil service of India. This is a great convenience ; and 
it is felt to be so not only in Ireland and Scotland, but at the English 
universities, both of which have taken considerable pains to provide the 
special teaching which the selected candidates require during their year 
of probation. 

The civil service of India is attractive, because it offers honorable and 
active employment, and a very fair competency. The service is well 
paid ; but tliat the pay is not too high, is proved by the fact that the go- 
vernment, with all it can promise, only just secures the ability necessary 
to carry on the machinery of administration in such a country as India. 
It is idle and uufair to represent the life as a very splendid or attractive 
one. The werk of an Indian civil servant is honorable and interesting; 
and he has enough money by him to many and bring up a family w itli- 
out the pangs of pecuniary anxiety. On the other hand, he has to wear 
out the best years of his life in a climate which enervates and oppresses, 
if it does not kill Englishmen. He and his wife are separated from their 
children, who grow up strangers to their parents ; and whoji he returns, 
he has no occupation and few friends. It is a life in which the good and 
evil are very evenly mixed — a life not splendid, but creditable and tole- 
rably happy — a life not attractive to those who have any good opening in 
England, hut very tempting to those who have not. 

\^Froni an English paper. 


They are indulging a two-fold passion — hatred of the American Re- 
public and a desire to grow rich at the expense of their continental 
neighbors. They have long envied the greatness and feared the growing 
power of the United States, and they now rejoice to see the nation pros- 
trate by intestine war, as they think, beyond the Iiope of recovery. 
Hence they are insolent and audacious. The jiublio journals and the 
organs of opinion are almost without an exception on the side of the 
South, and no opportunity is lost of wounding tlu' North. 

They have sought and obtained the protection of British frigates ; and 
we are told that Port Royal, in Jamaica, is to be fortified at a cost of 
two and a half millions of dollars. Armstrong guns have been already 
mounted on the batteries, and an enormous (niautity of war material of 
every kind had been sent from England to the magazines. 

[ Yankee paper. 


The papers recently publislied with regard to the civil service of India, 
give, in a clear and succinct form, all the information which can be 
needed by those who wish to understand what, exactly, are the prospects 
held out to successful competitors. The new system has, on the whole, 
turned out well: and the degree of merit which secures an Indian ap- 
pointment, is exactly that which it is most desirable and -difficult to en- 
courage in the scheme of English education. Those who have ability 
and health, and money enough to compete for the highest honors of the 


92. Chas. A. McEvoy, Richmond, Va. May 1, 1862. Improvement 
in fuzes. — This improvement consists in attaching to the Borraann fuze 
a stock or shank, by which the column of composition and the time of 
its burning is extended. 

93. Chas. A. SIcEvoy. April 23, 1863. Improvement in fuzes. — This 
improvement consists in packing the composition in two separate but 
converging chambers, and slightly screwing to the front end of the fuze 
a leaden cap, which is detached on striking an object, and thus explodes 
tlie shell. 

96. J. G. Peterson, Marion county, N. C. May 31, 1862. Improve- 
ment in revolving fire arms. — This invention consists in providing a re- 
volving cylinder with two circles of chambers in combination with a 
hinged barrel, which may be elevated or depressed, so as to bring it in 
range with either circle of chambers. 

106. Lucien Hopson, Lampassas, Texas. September 5, 1862. Im- 
provement in projectiles. — This invention consists in a conic form of the 
rear end of the ball with its truncated apex, in combination with a de- 
tached plano-concave driver fitting to the apex. 

108. George Hury, Columbus, Miss. September 27, 1862. Improve- 
ment in breech-loading fire arms. — This improvement consists in a cham- 
bered breech piece being moved perpendicularly for the purpose of load- 
ing and firing, by means of the guard. 

109. J. A. Letondal, Jlobile, Ala. September 29, 1862. Improved 
instrument for levelling cannon. — This improvement consists of a combi- 
nation of pendulums and dials, arranged in a box, and regulated by its 

July 30, 1863.] 



111. J. M. T. 0. Clanton, Panola county, Miss. October 3, 1862. 
Improved "breech-loading fire arm.— This invention consists of a combi- 
nation of machinery, which effects the loading and capping of the piece 
automatically, by placing the cartridge in a box provided for that pur- 
pose in the stock of the gun. 

1J2. Wm. Spillman, Mobile, Ala. October 3, 18G2. Improvement 
in bullet machines. — This improvement consists in revolving dies, which 
coutain in their rim the matrices that form the ball, being separated from 
the bar of lead by being cut on contact of two half matrices of the two 
circular dies, which revolve in an opposite direction. It has also a de- 
vice for detaching the ball from the matrices. 

113. Wm.S.W-ingfiekl, Springfield, Tenn. October 11, 1862. Im- 
provement in projectiles. — This improvement consists in making the front 
end of a projectile cup-shaped with sharp edges, so as to penetrate the 
iron plates of gun boats and vessels of war. 



President Davis has issued the following proclamation : 

Again do I call upon the people of the Confederacy — a people who believe that 
the Tjord reigueth, and that his over-ruling Providence ordereth all things — to 
unite iu prayer and humble submission under his chastening hand, and to be- 
seech liis favor on our suffering country. 

It is meet that when trials and reverses befall us, we should seek to take home 
to our hearts and consciences the lessons which they teach, and profit by the self- 
examination for which they prepare us. Had not our successes on land and sea 
made us self-confident and forgetful of our reliance on him? Had not the love of 
lucre eaten like a gangrene into the very heart of the land, converting too many 
among us into worshippers of gain, and rendering them unmindful of their duty 
to their country, to their fellow-men, and to their God ? Who, then, will presume 
to complain that we have been chastened, or to despair of our just cause and the 
protection of our Heavenly Father ? 

Let us rather receive in humble thankfulness the lesson which he has taught in 
our recent reverses, devoutly acknowledging that to him, and not to our own fee- 
ble arms, are due the honor and the glory of victory; that from him, in his pater- 
nal providence, come the anguish and sufferings of defeat, and tbat, whether in 
victory or defeat, our humble supplications are due to his foot-stool. 

Now, therefore, I, Jefferson Davis, President of these Confederate States, 
do issue this my proclamation, setting apart Friday, the 21st day of August en- 
suing, as a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer ; and I do hereby invite the 
people of the Confederate States to repair, on that day, to their respective places 
of public worship, and to unite in supplication for the favor and protection of 
that God who has hitherto conducted us safely through all the dangers that envi- 
roned us. < 

[Seal.] In faith whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and the Seal of the 
Confederate States, at Richmond, this twenty-fifth day of July, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three. 

Jeffeuson Davis. 
By the President : 

J. P. Benjamin, Sec. of State. 

Gen. Gustavus W. Smith is engaged with Gen. Wayne, under instructions from 
the governor of Georgia, in fortifying several very important points in that state, 
against the cavalry incursions of the enemy. 

The Yankee papers state that 25,000 tons of iron were thrown into Vicksburg 
during the siege of that city. The cost of the bombardment in iron alone would 
therefore exceed one and a quarter millions of dollars. 

The siege of Charleston continues, and another attack upon Fort AVtigncr is 
looked for daily. The fire of the fleet has abated within the last week, but the 
enemy are placing new guns inj)Osition on Morris island. AaByet the fort has 
received little injury, and the garrison are iu the bighest spirits. The gallant 
and gifted Langdon Cheves of South Carolina, who constnrcted the defences of 
Fort Wagner, was killed by the first shell thi'own into the works by the enemy's 
fleet. • 

Hon. Wm- L. Yancey, Confederates States Senatoi' from Alabama, died at his 
residence near Montgomery, on the 2Hth instant. 


Nineteen thousand widows have applied for pensions in the United States since 
the war began. 

The New York legislature has incorporated a company to insure the limbs of 
soldiers in the array. The circular of the company states that ||w war statistics 
show that amputation of limbs is less than four per cent. ; and with an army of 
bOO.OOO men in the field, it is reasonable to suppose that the business will be ex- 
tremely profitable. 

The federal government has agreed to provide, free of cost, wooden legs for 
those losing a leg in the service. 

A good judgment of the legal effectiveness of the federal blockade may be 
formed from an official statement that " the length of coast blockaded by the 
federal squadrons from Alexandria, Va., to the Rio Grande, is 3,500 miles. There 
are 189 openings in this line cf coast." 

The supreme court of California has sustained the constitutionality of the law 
of the last legislature requiring all attornej's to take the oath of allegiance to the 
national government before being permitted to practice in the courts of the state. 

Newburyport in Massachusetts, is to be fortified against the possible attacks of 
confederate cruisers. 

The draft is going on throughout the North, without interruption, and the Yan- 
kee papers are publishing the names of professors, lawyers, doctors, divines and 
" merchant princes" who have been "drawn." 

Major Gen'l Wool, Brigadier Generals Harney and Brown, Colonels Dimmick 
and Merchant, and Lieut. Colonel Burke have been placed on the retired list of 
the U. S. army^ by order of Secretary Stanton. 


The Prince of Wales has been regularly invested with the freedom of the city 
of London, and the occasion was made one of splendid entertainment at Guild- 
hjill to all the dignitaries of the land, more than 2,000 of whom were seated at 
dinner. The Mayor of the city opened the ball in the evening in a quadrille with 
Her Royal Highness the Princess, the Prince dancing in the same set with the 
Lady Mayoress. The account of the fete occupies five columns of the Times. 

Queen Victoria was to spend the month of July in Germany, on a visit to the 
family of Prince Albert. 

England's exports for the past year have greatly increased. Of woolen goods 
and of iron and linen manufactured articles, also of arms and steam engines, 
American orders upon British manufacturers for 1802 exceed those for 186], by 
more than 20 millions of dollars. 

W. C. Macready, the eminent tragedian, died recently in Dorsetshire, England, 
at the age of seventy-one. 

A rise of nearly 25 per cent, has taken place in the English foreign and colo- 
nial trade, showing tliat America has been trading to a great extent throiigh Eng- 
land and in English vessels. 

The Yankee States have taken from England 20 millions of dollars worth of 
goods more in the last than in the previous twelve months, and have sent in re- 
turn less by one hundred and six millions of dollars. 

Importations into England have greatly increased tbe past year from France, 
Russia, Prussia and Egypt, but most of all from the East Indies, amounting to 
the enormous accession from the latter of sixty two millions of dollars. The im- 
portation of tea into England has increased more than 25 per cent. The whole 
of this is not consumed in England, but the excess over former consumption is 
sent in English ships to America, in order to avoid the confederate cruisers. 

Martin Farquhar Tupper, the author of " Proverbial Philosophy," who has 
been living for several years past on the dwarf laurels of that dreary work, on 
a fine estate iu Surrey, is to be made a' baronet. He wrote an epithalamium for 
the Princess of Wales, in which he made tcandercr ihyme with Alexandra. After 
such an ^fence, the gift of the baronetcy argues in the Prince of Wales a spirit 
of lofty magnanimity— or a very dull ear for the harmonies of versification. 

A rival of Morphy in blindfold chess has appeared in Manchester, England. 
He recently played twelve games at once without seeing the board, of which he 
won six, and lost four, while two were drawn. His name is Blackbm-ne. 


The injlucncz of Banks upon Confederate Notes, and the extent to which the several 
States have contributed to the Expenses of the War. 
In our 1st and 2d Nos. we gave a condensed statement of taxation, first, under 
the provisional goveiiiment, and then that under the permanent government. In 
our 3d No. we stated in full the treasury notes authorized to be issued, and the 
loans provided for by law. In No. 4 we gave the instructions ot the Secretary 
of the Treasurv as regards the collection of the tax in kind, and m No. E> 
we gave the " 'Resoui'ces of the Confederate States," compiled with great care 



[July 30, 1863 

from English and United States as -n-ell as confederate authorities, and appended 
to it a table of ^ gross debt, population and revenue of each country in Europe, 
with an estimam)f each person's share in the national debt of the country. In 
our present No^there is given the amount of money already contributed to the 
■war by Virginia, to he followed by a similar statement for each state. 

Shortly after the secession of Virginia a convention of all the banks in tlie 
Confederate States patriotically agreed to receive and pay away, in their ordinary 
business operations, the confederate treasury notes. This circumstance at once 
rendered these notes the currency of the country, and by increased issues their 
redundancy rendered all the bank notes so valuable as to expel bank issues trom 
circulation. Still these bank notes arc in existence, held by the owners, and do 
fill a certain space which should be occupied by confederate treasury notes. A 
tax of cents on each note, levied by the confederate goveninieiit on the 

bank issuing it, with the authority given by the state legislatiire in which the 
bank existed, to call in its notes and substitute them for confederate treasury 
notes, would remedy this evil — for plainly the field of circulation should be occu- 
pied exclusively by the confederate government — but the states who made appro- 
priations to defray their expenditures on account of their wants for the time in 
providing for local defences and other pui-poses, issued their own post notes, and 
so did all the counties and towns. This action was but an addition to the plethora 
of paper issues. All these causes have augmented the prices of all articles, .ind 
imposes upon those who shall pay the debt ftow being created for our defence an 
immense burden. By levying a tax of cents on each note issued or hereafter 

to be issued, the evil may be cured. During the discussions upon our finances, 
some of the finance committee of congress bad before them a proposition to ex- 
change wiih the states a certain amount of tlieir bonds for a certain amount of 
confederate bonds, the state holding the bonds of the Confederate States, and re- 
ceiving the interest thereon, whilst the bonds of the individual states would be 
sold for tonfederate treasury notes — in this way reducing the volume of the cm'- 
rency by the amount of state bonds which the Secretary of the Treasury might 
thus swap with the states ; but the proposition to obtain the endoi-sation of each 
state for its proportion of the war debt, was preferred, but was not carried out, 
chiefly on account of the failure of Georgia to respond favorably to the sugges- 
tion. Alabama and South Carolina agreed to the arrangement, and Virginia was 
ready to do so. The situation of our finances was met by an act to issue bonds 
to caiTy 6 per cent., payable in coin, or cotton at Gd. sterling for the pound of 
cotton. The value of this loan was determined by the bids for fivo millions: i« 
■which no bid below. $150 for $100 was considcied at all by the government ; but 
like a copartnership of merchants, om- true strength consists in the wealth and 
■>villingness of each partner to assist the concei-n in its undertakings. Ihe several 
states should use their credits to assist in the war expenses. 

We leave these suggestions with the reader for what they are worth; and after 
correcting a typographical error in the last article, where the property of the Con- 
federate States is made to be $18,000,000,000 instead of $ 8,000,000,000, we begin 
with stating what Virginia has apijropriated and spent, and shall follow with the 
other states as soon as we can. 

Acts of Virginia making Appropriations to the War. 
March 14, 1861— Appropriated by legislature, - - $1,000,000 

April 30, ISGl— " by ordinance of the convention, - 2,000,000 

June 28, 1861— " " " " - 4,000,000 

March 31, 1862— " by legislature, - - 1,300,000 

March 28, 1862 — For any sum to supply deficiencies. 
May 15, lt'G2 — Act of legislature creating state line, - 2,500,000 

Her absolute expenditure up to July 1863, on account of the war, independent 
of any outlays on her armory, was $ 8,497,301 , say eight and a half millions of 

We should call attention to a statement in the annual report of the auditor of 
Virginia for 1861, at page 687, where he submits a table showing the gain to 
Virginia, and of course the loss to the northern states, by our commercial vas- 
salage under the old government. Gross sales in A^rgiuia, $48,489,133 — three- 
fifths he states was northern made articles, $ 29,093,478 — and the profits were 25 
per cent., say - . . . . 7,273,369 

And for government duties on the remainder, of 20 per cent, on 

$19,395,652, - - - - - 3,879,130 

Add profft of 10 per cent, on the goods so imported through the 

North, -.-..- 1,939,565 


These figures and this statement are sustained by much that wanants it.s ac- 
ceptance as true. Add for the other Confederate States the same estimate, and 
the loss to the northern states has been more than one hundred millions for the 
year. Our credulity is shaken in our own sagacity and ability for self govern- 
ment, when we are called on to believe that tee paid this annual tribute for the 
■worst government that could have been devised for us. We seem toljive wor- 
shipped like idolaters the Yankees, «-hilst they idolized the negroes. We have 
fallen out, and are now involving the Yanks and ourselves in the most expensive, 
of all things for a state or individual— a fight at the rate of some four millions of 
dollars a day in money, besides rivers of blood and oceans of teare. From the 
harrowing spectacle the good must look to the God of the Universe, knowing 
that his ways are best, and that we shall yet see tln^ good results that are to come 
to us hereafter, but which now alas is buried in the storms and clouds of the 
battle field. 


(Organized temporarily, February 81h, 1861— rermaneutly, February IStb, 1862.) 


Jefierson Da-vis, Miss., President (term six years); Alex. II. Stephens, 6a., 

Vice-President; J. P. Benjamin, La., Secretary of State; Jasf A. Seddon, Va., 

Secretary of War; S. K. Mallory, Fla., Secretary of Navy; C. G. Memminger, 

S. C, Secretary of Treasury; Thos.ij. Watts, Ala., Attorney General; John H. 

Reagan, Texas, Postmaster General ; A. C. Myers, Va., Quartermaster General ; 
L. B. Northrop, Conunissary General ; S. P. Moore, S. C, Smgeon General ; 
E. W. Johns, S. C, Medical Purveyor. 


Generals — Cooper, Lee, Johnston, Beaiirfgard and Bragg. 

Lieutenant Generals — Longstreet, Polk, Hardee, Kirby Smith, Holmes, Pem- 
berton, Ewell and A. P, Hill. 

Navy. * 

Admiral — Franklin Buchanan. 

Captains — L. Rousseau, French Forrest, J. Tatnall, V. M. Randolph, G. M. 
Hollins, D. N. Ingiiiham, S. Barron, W. F. Lynch, J. L. Sterrett and K. Simms. 

Captains for the liar — S. S. Lee and W. C. Whittle. 

John G. Shorter, Alabama; H. Flanagan, Arkansas: Jos. E. Brown, Georgia; 
Thos. O. Moore, Louisiana; John J. Pettns, Mississippi; Zebulon B. Vance, 
North Carolina; Milledge L. Bonham, South Carolina: Isham G. Harris, Ten- 
nessee; F. R. Lubbock, Texas; John Letcher, Virginia; John Milton, Florida; 
T. C. Reynolds, Missouri; Richard Hawes, Kentucky. 

Published by WE.ST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond : 

The Judge Advocate's Vade Mecum, - - - . - $ 5 00 

Gilham's Manual (new edition, with plates), - - - - 8 00 

Mahan's Permanent Fortifications (with plates), 2 vols. - - 20 00 

Mahan's Field Fortificaiions (with plates), - - - - 3 00 

Patten's Cavalry Drill (with plates), - - - - > 50 

C. S. Army Regulations (authorized edition), ■ - - - 3 00 

Lee's Volunteer's Hand 13ook, - - - - - 1 00 

The Volunteer's Camp and Field Book, ... 7,5 

Roberts' Hand Book of Artillery, 1 50 

Gilliajp's Field Artillery, .... - 50 

The School of the Guides, - - - - - 1 00 

Richardson's Evolutions of the Line (Scott's 3d vol., with plates), - -3 00 

The Ordnance Field Manual, - - - - - 2 00 

Napoleon's Maxims of War, - - - - - 1 00 

Instructions for Heavy Artillery (with plates), - - - 5 00 

The Quartermaster's Guide, - - - - - 1 00 

Notes on Artillery (with drawings), ..... 50 

ilanual of Amis for Heavy Infanti-y, . - - . 25 

Cai-y's Bayonet Exercise and iSkirmisher's Drill (with plates), - 1 00 

The C. S. Ordnance Manual for 1863 (with plates), - - - 8 00 

Warreu's Surgery for Camp and Field, - . - - 5 00 
Jomini's Pmctice of War (translated from the French). " This very 
valuable ■ivork ought tiot to be separated from any Officer's Prayer 

Book iu the Confederate States"— ilf«j. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, - 1 50 

New Pocket Map of Virginia, - , - - - - 2 50 
Upon the receipt of the price of cither of the above mentioned books, wo will 
forward them, post paid, to anj- part of the Confederacy. 
Address orders to 


Booksellers and PMis)icrs, 145 Main St., Richmond. 



$3 00 

AURORA FLOYD; A Novel. By M. E. Braddon, author of 

"Darrell Markham," "Lady Audley's Secret," etc. 

FEUU.Lf;T, - - . - - . - 1 50 

This is a nowly revised and corrected translation from the Frejich 
of a Novel which in beauty of simplicity, vies with the " Vicar 
of Wakefield." 

NO NAME;. A Novel. By Wilkie Collins, author of "The Wo- 
man in White," " Queen of Hearts," etc. etc. - - 4 00 

This work is from the pen of one of the most gifted writers of the 
day; and "No Name" surpasses in beauty and vigor all of his 
ibrmer productions. It is the most popular Novel of 1863 — mag- 
nificent in plot, diction and narration. 

A Novel. By Victor Huco. — 10th thousand. Each 

These ar-e the first and second of the five parts of Les Miserables. 
Competent critics, in both hemispheres, have pronounced Les 
Miserables to be the most powerful work of fiction of the nine- 
tcent'n century. 


Upon fhe receipt of the price, we will forward either of the above mentioned 

novels to any part of the Cunfederacy. 
.dtfdress orders to 


PuUishers and Bvohsellers. 145 Main St., Richmond. 

2 00 

DARBY, READ & GENl'KY, Dealers in Boots, Shoes, Leather, 
L.iciEs' AND Gent's Fukisisuing Goods, and Manufacturers op 
Boots and Shoes. 
STORE — Belvin's Block, on 12th, opposite Bank Street, Richmond, Va. 

Engraver and Designer in General, 

161 Main st. Richmond, Va. 

JULV 3'J, 1863.] 








Whilst at RIobile, I had the pleasure of boiug iutroduced to ,\dmiial 
Buchanau, who commanded the Merrimac in her combat witji the Moni- 
tor. He was formerly an officer of the United States nav-y, but on the 
war breaking out he joined the southern cause ; and having done good 
service in the James river, received the naval command of Mobile. He 
was severely wounded in the battle between the Jlerriuiac and Monitor. 
The failure of the Merrimac to run down the Monitorris accounted for 
by the fact that her ram was broken in her previous attack on the Congress. 

Admiral Buchanau kindly invited me to form one in an expedition 
down the bay to visit the Ovieto or Florida, lying about fifteen miles from 
Mobile. It was a beautiful bright day when we left the quay, in a small 
river steamer, our party consisting of one of the generals in command, 
a few officers, and several of the ladies of Mobile. These, like their sis- 
ters elsewhere, are most zealous in the cause of the Confederac)', and 
their zeal is shown not only in words, for they sacrifice many of their 
comforts, and, without murmuring, willingly put up with the serious in- 
convenience-caused by the blockade. Gloves and ladies' shoes are very 
scarce articles ; and it was said that one ship, which was endeavoring to 
run the blockade laden with crinolines, was ruthlessly captured by the 
federal cruisers. Can such barbarity be true i Still, somehow or other, 
ladies always contrive to dress nicely and look well, and the ladies of Mo- 
bile were no exception to the rule. We steamed through the naiTOw and 
winding channel which affords the only access to the actual port of Mobile, 
passing two or three iron clad river steamers, either lying off the quay, 
or else on the stocks. We left to our right a battery on the shore, and 
arrived at a boom thrown across the entrance of the fort, under fire of 
some newly constructed forts on small islands, and of the shore batteries, 
which are concealed from view by thick forest. Through tliis intricate 
navigataon, and under fire of these formidable batteries, \\'ould the in- 
vading fleet have to approach Mobile, after having passed the ibrts which 
guard the entrance to the harbor. The channel also, even at its deepest 
part, is but shallow, and only navigable for small vessels of war. There 
were only a very few fishing and coasting vessels to be seen. Sometimes 
small vessels contrive to run the blockade, or to make their way along the 
coast to New Orleans, running the risk of being captured by the cruisers 
off Ship island, the rendezvous of the federf^l fleet. We found the Ovieto, 
under the command of Captain Maffit, lyiilg at anchor about fifteen miles 
down the bay. She had been built at Glasgow, had run out unarmed, 
and, trusting to her great speed, had, in broad dayhght, passed through 
the whole blockading squadron, and so entered Mobile. She was pursued 
for thirty miles, and received an almost incredibly number of shots, some 
of the blockading vessels having approached close Enough to fire into her 
with shrapnel. At Slobile she had taken in her armament and recruited 
her crevr. She is armed with Blakely rifled guns on the main deck, is 
not iron clad, and a large proportion of her crew are Englishmen. When 
we arrived, she was anxiously waiting an opportunity of again passing 
through the blockading squadron, and entering on her mission of destruc- 
tion to federal merchantmen. 

Every now and then, among all the changes which a new country, and 
especially this state of war, has produced among those wlio originally 
came from England, an Englishman still sees much tliatyjeminds him of 
home. This is especially the case on Sunday, when the (Jurch, identical 
in its architecture witli the London churches of the last century, the ser- 
vice the same as that of the Church of England, excepting the change of 
a few words, and the numbers of well dressed people flocking to church 
at eleven o'clock, almost make one fancy that one has suddenly returned 
to some pleasant country town in England. It was, however, melancholy 

to see in the church of Mobile the numbers of families in mourning, be- 
speaking the losses in the war ! The people at Mobile were most hospi- 
table. iMany had visited Europe, and looked forward to again doing so 
afl(;r this war has terminated, and when a market is again open for their 
cotton. The British consul, an old inhabitant of the place, endeavored in 
every way to render my stay agreeable. 

From Mobile I took the steamer across the bay to the railway station 
of the line leading to Montgomery and Richmond. A young fellow on 
board a|»oke to me. He was a private in the confederate cavalry, but 
was, by birth, a northerner ; and his brother was serving on the opposite 
side ; his cousin, also, was a general in the northeni armies. Frequently 
men of good family and wealth are found in the ranks of the confederate 
armies : for instance, a rich planter will raise a company, even arming 
and clothing it, and then, feeling that he has no talent for military mat- 
ters, will delegate the command of it to another, and take service in the 

But the oflicers of the old army complain that there is but little mili- 
tary spirit among- the troops. They do not seek or appear to care for 
glory ; and a sort of neighborly feeling of each man to his comrade as 
coming from the same village is a species of substitute for the esprit de 
corps of regiments. They have the organization of armies ; but it is 
difficult tocariy out discipline without injuring the very feeling that in- 
sures them victory. If the details of discipline are too strictly insisted 
on, disgust ensues, and the men lose their keenness for the cause. There 
is no time to make them good regular troops ; therefore, latitude in discip- 
line must be allowed, in order to keep them as good volunteers. I'hey 
are better supplied than formerly with arms and military stores, but they 
have the wastefulness of undisciplined troops ; and it is very difficult to 
make them carry their proper supplies of rations on the march, and to 
prevent them from wasting or consuming those supplies too quickly. 

It was a drizzling wet day when I left Mobile, and the great marshes 
and swamps looked very dreary : they afford shelter to alligators — who, 
however, only make their appearance in warm weather — and to other 
species of game witk which Florida abounds. The line led us through 
dreary forests of the live oak, the ilex, and other trees, covered with long 
pendants of moss ; and on leaving these we entered on almost endless 
forests of pines, now and then passing confederate pickets, the horses 
tied, ready saddled and bridled, to the trees. At the culverts and bridges 
small parties of soldiers were usually stationed to guard them, and pre- 
vent any sudden raid from the neighboring federal post of Pensacola be- 
ing made for the purpose of destroying the rail. Little amusement is 
there to be found in a southern railway car, as the passengers are not 
much given to conversation ; and, in fact, the main portion of the travel- 
lers are usually soldiers, going to, or returning from their regiments. But 
it is rather amusing to sit for a short time in the car reserved for the nig- 
gers. They are a most ridiculous race of beings, and always appear to 
be caricaturing themselves. No representation of their manners can be 
too ridiculous or exti'avagant for the reality. A nigger in the South is 
almost always addressed by the whites as "uncle," especially if he be 
rather old. What this term has arisen from, I cannot say. As we ap- 
proached Montgomery, the country became more cultivated, and the 
forest receded ; and towards evening we reached the town, or rather the 
station, where omnibuses and flys were waiting to convey us to Jlontgomery. 

Jlontgomery is- a well built, nice town, with, as usual, the courthouse, 
containing room for the sittings of the Senate and Congress of the State. 
Large hotels, filled to overflowing, received the passengers ; but as, for 
some reason, the morning train of that day had not left Jlontgomerv, 
there was very little accommodation for the new arrivals. After waiting 
for a long time, a mattress on the floor of the hall was allotted to me, 
whilst around, on various mattresses, lay my fellow-travellers. Certainly 
the accommodation of southern hotels is not at pi-esent first rate. 

We started again early next morning, the train awfully crowded, as 
two days' passengers had to be accommodated. I have a dim recollection 
of passing through the towns of Atlanta and Augusta, some time during 
the nest two days and night, but they have left no impression on m^ 



[July 30, ISGi 

memoiy. The cotton crops converted into corn fields, tlie pine forests, 
and, as we approached Charleston, the rice fields, succeeded each other 

occupying the other bed in my room. We even procured the luxury of 
a fire, and, whilst sitting round it, my two companions discussed their 

without leaving any mark on the mind. Sometimes the train stopped for campaigns, and, in doing so, described two battles at which I had been 
refreshments, when, as before, we obtained hard-boiled eggs, corn bread, present on the opposite side. It was very amusing to hear their descrip- 
and sometimes pieces of chicken, from niggers who charged an enormous tions, especially that of one man, who gave me an account of his charg- 

price for those delicacies. 

On the third day after leaving Mobile I reached Charleston, an older 
looking town than one generally sees in the States, and perhaps rather 
more cheerful than Mobile, for there is still a slight appearance ttf busi- 
ness about it. A large, and even at this time a well conducted hotel re- 
ceived me — and to appreciate a good hotel, a journey of two or three 
days in a southern railway is no bad preparation. The fire which devas- 
tated Charleston about a year ago, has left terrible traces of its progress : 
it seems to have swept clean through one of the best parts of the city ; 
and, owing to the war, which employed labor elsewhere, no steps to re- 
pair the damage have been taken. Still Charleston is a pleasant place. 
and the walk along the quays by the side of the bay is delightful ; the 
houses, being built somewhat in the Italian style of architecture, and 
standing on the very edge of the waters of the bay, remind one of some 
of Claude -Lorraine's sea pictures. 

However, warlike preparations appeared on all sides. Batteries had 
been erected along the quay ; a regiment was encamped in the public 
gardens ; iron clad vessels were in course of preparation ; the forts at the 
entrance of the harbor were all armed ; and people spoke of a desperate 
defence, and of burning the town rather than allowing it to fall into the 
enemy's hands. General Beauregard's head quarters were in thj town. 
I had the pleasure of passing the evening in his company, and a remark- 
ably nice person and good officer he appeared to be. He is a small, very 
intelligent looking man, with remarkabl}' bright dark eyes and rather 
gray hair; in fact, his appearance bespeaks a more southern descent than 
that of the Anglo Sason. He spoke confidently of being able successfully 
to defend the place. General Beauregard corroborated the curious facts 
one heard respecting the boqjibardment of Fort Sumter. It is perfectly 
true that after a most severe bombardment, the fort replying vigorously, 
it surrendered, because untenable, and not one man of the gaiTison was 
either killed or wounded ; whilst on the attacking side the casualties 
only amounted to three men slightly wounded. The fact that such was 
the case is almost unaccountable. 

The situation of Charleston, on the point of land between the Ashley 
and Cooper rivers, and surrounded with forests and marshy country, 
renders it very strong on the land side, whilst the forts at the entrance of 
the bay, it was hoped, would afford insurmountable obstacles to tlie 
federal navy. As usual, they (the federals) have lost their opportunity. 
At one time the town was scarcely defended, and a few resolute captains 
of ships might have forced a passage into the bay, and bombarded it. 
Now, however, deficiencies have been remedied, and- an obstinate defence 
will be the result. Every day people expected the attack to take place ; 
the large force which was under the command of General Banks threat- 
ened the whole southern coast, and each city supposed itself to be the 
object of menace. 

The rail to Wilmington was open, and as that was the shortest way to 
Richmond, I took the train, and reached WilTuington about one A. M., 
where a steam ferry carried the passengers across the harbor. We were 
kept waiting in an awfully cold night, crowding round the doors of the 
railway cars ; and as it was a case of first come, first served, those who 
got in first secured a seat, whilst those who did not were forced to stand. 
The usual uncertainty attending southern railway travelling prevented 
me from making any calculation as to the time of reaching Eicbmond. 
At Weldon we "missed connection," which means that the train bad 
gone off without waiting for us, and we had the agreeable prospect of 
passing twenty-four hours at one of the most miserable places I ever 
saw. Even in peace time it has a bad name, and during the present 
state of things it has become ten times worse than before. Two dreary 
houses, dignified by the name of hotels, received the passengers. I was 

ing squares and performing other prodigies of valor, no such squares, to 
my certain knowledge, having existed. I did not tell them that I had 
seen the battles from another point of view. At Weldon there is an im- 
portant bridge across a river, on which a guard was stationed, as it was 
supposed to bo an object of attack of the federals, who occupied parts of 
the country lying in the vicinity near the coast. After our twenty-four 
hours' delay, a train arrived and carried us on to Petersburg, a large 
well built town, near the James river. Omnibuses, driven by niggers, 
conveyed us through the town to the Richmond railway station, and on 
my way I took the opportunity of asking the " intelligent contraband" 
who was driving me, whetlior the Yankees had any gun boats on the James 
river. "0 yeth, niassa," was the answer, "them Yankees have got three 
thousand gun boats down there." This awful piece of information ought, 
of "course, to have been forwarded to President Davis, if he had been in 
the same habit of acquiring information from " intelligent contrabands" 
as the other President. The train conveyed me to Richmond, where I 
arrived about seven o'clock P. M., very glad to have accomplished the 
long journey from Mobile. 

Of all the expeditions I have made, the ride I took out of Richmond 
to the scene of the old battle fields of the Chiekahominy, wits to me the 
most curious. Six months previously, I had been encamped with the 
federal army for a month, within four and a half miles of the city, and 
now I was about to visit the same localities from the opposite side. To 
do this I hired a wretched horse — horses are scarce articles at Richmond — 
and started off alone to find my way to the C!hickahominy, feeling sure 
when once there, of knowing every inch of the ground. After "leaving 
the town, I passed the redoubts which encircle it — earthworks thrown up 
hastily during the war — and found the guard stationed on the road : how- 
ever, my pass ensured mo every civilitj', and I was put in the right way 
of reaching Newbridge on the. Chiekahominy. 

Very soon the country showed palpable signs of war — fences broken 
down and destroyed, houses burnt — in short, a fertile country had "become 
a waste. I looked in vain for the lines of earthworks which I was led to 
believe had prevented the advance on Richmond of the federal army : 
they did not exist : a very small trench and breastworks being the only 
signs of any fortification. Still I rode on, expecting to meet sprae traces 
of field works, until I found myself among the well remembered places 
facing the heights, from which I had often watched the federal batteries 
play on the very ground I was riding over. There was the house which 
I remembered ser\-ed as a mark for the federal artillery ; there was the 
steep piece of road down which, through a telescope, I had watched the 
confederate wagons hastening to avoid the fire. In fact, I almost seemed 
to have two separate existences, and imagined that I should see myself 
and former companiqps appear on the opposite heights. My ride was 
stopped by the bridge (called Newl)ridge) having been destroyed. Men 
were engaged in repairing it ; the muddy stream of the Chiekahominy 
flowing on, unconscious of having separated two vast armies, and played 
so considerable a part in a great struggle. 

Across the deserted fields, the former stations of the confederate pick- 
ets, I made my way ; then through the abandoned federal camps and en- 
trenchments, across the country, and through the woods, and among the 
numerous graves of those who fell at Fairoaks and the seven days' bat- 
tles, until I reached the redoubt, the scene of Hooker's fight, where the 
last battle was fought with the object of advancing on Richmond. The 
battles which succeeded it were for existence, not victory. The country 
was deserted ; a solitary sportsman looking for partridges was the only 
person I encountered. Where were all those I had known so intimately 
six months before ? Some were killed in those last disastrous battles ; 
most had left the array in disgust, or been driven from it by tlte politi- 

fortnnato onougli to obtain a bed : two soldiers of the confederate army 1 eians at Wasliiugton. 

July 30, 1863.] 



' I crossed the rail, and returned to Richmond b}- the road which passes 
the Seven Pines, from which the battle of that name is called. Richmond 
must be singularly changed from what it was two years ago— then a State 
capital, as little known to fame as any other of the numerous capitals of 
the various States — now the centre of the Confederacy, and the object 
for which vast armies are contending. It is a pleasant town on the left 
bank of the James river, whose winding course can be seen for many 
miles from one of the numerous hills on which it stands. There is still 
traffic in the streets ; the theatres are open ; ladies riding and driving 
(the latter usually in ambulances, instead of carriages) pass not unfre- 
quently, and the whole town appears endeavoring under difficulties to 
keep up an appearance of peace and prosperity. When I was there, but 
few soldiers were to be seen in the streets ; they were concentrated in 
front of Fredericksburg, where a battle was daily expected. The crowded 
state of the hotels, filled with officers, the appearance every now and 
then of some rough-looking cavalry or artillery, the enormous hospitals 
which cover one of the hills overlooking the river, the iron Clads built 
and in course of building on that river — all told of war. Although great 
confidence was felt in General Lee and his army, yet a certain uneasi- 
ness existed as to the result of the approaching battle. In the event, 
however, of utter defeat, and the occupation b}' the federals of Richmond, 
the resolution had been formed to leave nothing but its ashes to receive 
tliie enemy. Commodore Pegram, who formerly commanded the Nash- 
ville, was kind enough to show me the new Merrimac, to which he had 
been appointed. She differs slightly from her namesake, and is armed 
with very large rifled guns made at the foundry at Richmond. She is 
destined to co-operate with the fort at Drury's bluff, in order to ensure 
the safety of Richmond from any attempt at attack which might be made 
from the James river. Two other iron clads were in the course of con- 
struction — one built by contributions from the ladies of Richmond. On 
the land side, a circle of bastioned field works guard the town ; they are 
insignificant compared with the works round important European towns, 
but are as strong or stronger than the lines of Yorktown, which for so 
long a time held in check the federal troops. 

It was an easy matter enough to get into Richmond, but quite the re- 
verse to get out again, and so on to Washington. A flag of truce boat 
for exchange of prisoners frequently went down the James river, but no 
passengei-s were allowed on board ; and in the present state of affairs, 
when any day might bring news of some great conflict, the authorities 
were chary about granting passes. Still they were very kind, and I was 
told I might make my way across the lines by what is called the under- 
ground railway. The officer in charge of the secret service furnished me 
with a pass in the event of my meeting any confederate pickets, and di- 
rected me to make my way by rail to Culpeper courthouse, and then as 
best I could to Alexandria or Lcesburg, from which places the journey to 
Washington was easy enough. However, he asked me at the same time 
to take charge of a lady and her two grand children, which, "pleasant as 
their company might be," would considerably add to my difficulties in 
traversing a country devastated by war. 

We started on a cold bright winter's morning, driving to the station, 
where, to begin viit]^, all the luggage, including the ladies' big boxes, were 
nearly left behind. We arrived late at the station ; the train would not 
wait, and the desperate nigger in charge, after trying to drive after it, 
ended by jumping out of the cart, and with myself running along the 
rails, with the luggage on our shoulders, which we just managed to shove 
up behind the last carriage, the train being in motion at the time. We 
crossed the Chickahomiu}', and reached Hanover junction, the scene of 
a batttle at which I had been present six months before. 

Some persons in the train fancied they could hear guns in the distance. 
Little did we then think that the battle of Fredericksburg was beino- 
fought at that moment within a few miles of where we were. At Gor- 
donsville, we passed a depot of military stores and a train full of niggers, 
or contrabands, as they are called, who were cheering lustily, and were, 
we were told, on their way to work on the fortifications at Richmond — 
poor fun, I should think, for thorn ; but lliev are unnrconntable lieings. 

and always appear ready to laugh. I remember once seeing a lot of nig- 
gers sitting round a house which was being shelled, and on my remarking 
to their master, who was looking very mournful, that he was being shot 
at, they went into fits of laughter. 

It was all plain sailing for us as far as Culpeper courthouse ; but there 
we came to a standstill. How were the ladies and their big boxes to be 
conveyed through a country w here there were no horses or carriages ? 
For two days and a half I wandered through the town, looking over the 
palings and into the yards wherever there was the sign of a horse, mule, 
or even ox ; running after any cart that might make its appearance in 
the town ; routing up teamsters at all hours of the day or night ; but to 
no purpose. We were regularly fixed. At length I espied a cart bring- 
ing a load of women and baggage to the railway station. I ran up to 
the driver, and at once concluded a bargain with him to take the ladies 
and baggage to Warrenton — I walking. 

The following day we were to start ; but during the night the rain fell 
in torrents, and my friend the driver did nflt make his appearance until 
some hours after the appointed time. When he did arrive and saw the 
big boxes, he tried to shirk his bargain, but we kept him to it : to vent 
his displeasure at this result he drove his wagon, containing the unlucky 
ladies, for some distance over the sleepers of the broken-up railway. 

Well, we started : the country showed many signs of recent battles. 
Over this very ground had General Pope advanced towards Richmond, 
and just beyond Culpeper he had met with his first repulse, ending in his 
disgraceful retreat to Washington.. The fences were destroyed and 
burnt, the trees cut down, skeletons of dead horses were lying about, 
whilst pieces of uniform and remains of old encampments marked out 
the burial places of the dead, and the former residences of the living. 
These were the inevitable results of war. Much wanton damage did not 
appear to have been perpetrated, nor did the inhabitants of Culpeper 
accuse the federal soldiers of misbehavior. 

Virginia roads are not the best in wet weather, and we progi'essed very 
slowly : sometimes we plunged through deep mud, then we were obliged 
to drag away a great trunk of a tree placed as an obstruction across the 
road ; then we had to cross a river, where the water almost flowed into 
the cart. It was near one o/ these rivers that we encountered the con- 
federate pickets, a rough looking set of horsemen. One, a Swiss, was 
disposed to make himself rather disagreeable, in order to obtain a bribe ; 
but fortunately an officer passed, who ordered him back to his post. 
There was much that was pretty in the scenery : the country was thickly 
wooded and undulating, the fine range of the Blue Ridge mountains 
bounding the view towards the "northwest. We could only reach Jeffer- 
son, a small village, that evening, where a lady, residing in a comfortable 
house, was induced to receive us, and give us some supper and beds. A 
few of the neighboring gentlemen called in in the evening, including the 
schoolmaster and clergyman — very agreeable, pleasant people. 

The next day we crossed the Rappahannock, where some houses 
showed, by their dilapidated appearance, signs of a bombardment. On 
the opposite bank, before the war, stood a large hotel and watering place; 
now only the bare walls mark the place where formerly the Virginia gen- 
try used to flock in the summer season : it was said that the buildings 
had been wantonly destroyed by the retreating federals. Snow was fall- 
ing as we entered Warrenton, twenty-five miles from Culpeper, and little 
prospect did there appear of our getting on. People would not let out 
their carts to go through the lines, for fear of being refused permission to 
return ; and our driver had engaged to take another traveller from War- 
renton, so he could not take the ladies and the big boxes any farther. I 
was hopelessly mooning through the streets, when a confederate picket 
asked me for my pass. I gave it rather sulkily ; but directly they knew 
who I was, and what I wanted, they could not be too civil. They busied 
themselves to find a conveyance, and soon discovered a gentleman who 
had brought in a load of pork, and who, for a consideration, was willing, 
having sold his pork, to carry us, big boxes and all, to another gentle- 
man's house in the neighborhood. This was » great relief to our minds. of the i)ickel were in the room where we dined, and were talk- 



[July 30, 1863 

ing of the capture of a federal commissariat wagon, which I had seen 
standing in the street. One of them, a mere boy, was saying how he 
had shot and killed the driver, having hcen ordered to do so by his officer, 
as the driver had resisted after being captured. He was a quiet, good 
humored country lad, but he talked of shooting the man in much the 
game terms as one talks of killing a dog, so great a change of feeling 
does war create. A few of the cavalry rode a portion of the way with 
us, and afterwards, we heard, roused up a federal cavalry picket near 
Bull's Run, capturing several horses and shooting one man. We drove 
up to the gentleman's house, and asked for food and shelter, saying we 
had come to stay with him. Although we were all perfect strangers, 

nothing could be kinder than oiir reception. Mr. not only received 

us most hospitably, but used all his endeavors to procure conveyance for 
us to Alexandria. In fact, without his assistance, I believe we should 
never have been able to accomplish our journey. He lent me a horse, and 
a friend of his acted as my guide. The ladies and small boxes — the big 
ones had to be left behind — were put into a light cart, and off we started 
again. We had forty miles to make before reaching Alexandria. Our 
road lay through Gainesville, and over the old battle ground of Bull's 
Run. At the latter place, dead horses, fortunately frozen when we 
passed, were lying in great numbers ; shot and shell were strewed about ; 
the half-burnt chimney stacks marked wlicVe houses had formerly stood, 
and even, in some places, skeletons and bones of human beings appeared 
above the ground ; in fact, there were all the signs of great battles 
having been fought on the ground over which we were passing. 

Close to the stream of Bull's Run, on an eminence commanding a view 
of the surrounding country, we encountered the first federal picket. It 
was a party of cavalry, under charge of a sergeant, patrolling the country. 
As we approached they drew their revolvers and unslung their carbines; 
and I was rather anxious lest they might- take me and my friend for con- 
federate cavalry, knowing how lately they had been roused up bj- them. 
It turned out, when we came up to them, that they had done so, and were 
only convinced of their mistake by our extremely peaceable appearance. 
They had been out during the night, were very cold, aild had no desire 
of fighting that morning; and so were only too pleased to find we were 
quiet travellers, and not the black horse cavalry. In fact, they could not 
be too civil ; they took us to the picket fire,* reported our arrival to the 
officer in command, who forwarded us on, under escort, to liis colonel. 
He (the colonel) was at Centreville, where the old field works, thrown up 
by the confederates after the battle of Bull's Hun, were still standing. 
From thence an escort conducted us to Fairfax courtlionsc, with orders 
to take us to the provost marshal. Nothing could exceed the civility of 
every one, from the colonel to the troopers of the escort; they, poor fel- 
lows, were heartily sick of the war, and wished they were back at their 
farms in Ohio. The provost marshal having seen my permit, by means 
of which I had passed the federal lines at Memphis, was perfectly satisfied, 
and gave both myself and the ladies permission to proceed. Sly friend 

took the horses back to Mr. 's house, and 1 luckily found a sutler's 

cart, in which I made tlie journey to Alexandria. Large bodies of troops 
were bivouacked and encamped along the road, arid all appeared to be 
what the Americans call "on the stampede" — I suppose in consequence 
of the attack lately made by the confederate cavaliy. Little did they 
think that the only forces opposed to them in that part of the country 
were two or three troops of irregular cavalry. 

About 4 o'clock 1 passed through the well remembered forts round 
Alexandria, and the whole party arrived just in time to catch the 
steamer up the Potomac to Washington, which we reached about seven 

Thus terminated my rapid two months' travelling through the Con- 
federate States ; and from all I have seen and heard, I feel fully con- 
vinced that no danger will ever frighten, or bribes of power induce, the 
States of the Confederacy to join again the Northern Union. They are 
unanimous ; there is no party feeling in the Soutli ; they liave confidence 
in their President, their government, and tlieir generals ; and in all these 
respects how great is the contrast they present to the States of the North ! 

Their troops also have proved themselves ^-ictorious in alrnost every great 
action, and are fully capable of defensive warfare. What the future 
boundaiics of the Confederates ma}- be, no one can prophesy, or into how 
many distinct governments the Union may be split up ; but never again 
will the Slave States consent to a reunion with the North, the hatred be- 
tween the two countries (especially on the side of the South) is too in- 
tense, and is transmitted with increased bitterness from parents to chil- 
dren. It is a bitter pill for the Americans to swallow, and hard for them 
to admit that their government has proved a failure, and that the extent 
of dominion which gave them so much power, is at an end. 

Scraps from Punch. 

They sez, to die for fatherland, a doin' of the dutiful, 
Is sweet an' comely; it du look cadaverus kinder beautiful; 
But ezjo being sweet at aU, I wun't say I've a doubt on it. 
For this here world of oum ain't got no way that's pleasant out on it. 

Wen dyin' of a bullet widi the doctor can't extract, or 
A shattered leg, an' gangreen on a comminooted fracter, 
Praps you may feel sum comfert in your torter, ef your trust is 
That you're a sufferin' marterdum acause you fit for justis. 

But cf so be you went to war for glory, pay or plunder, 
■Wut then will ease the pang.s of death es you're a writhing under? 
When you reflects what acts o' youm yoiir agernies is owiu' to, 
I guess it wun't relieve 'em much to think whar you're a going to. 

The honner you must leave below with that there crushed and gory form, 
I 'gree with that old Fatsides in the playbook, aint no chloryform, 
Wun't stop the smart o' n'er a wound, sword-cut, or stab o' bagganel: 
Honner ain't wuth a cent ixcept to them ez hves to brag on it. 

Neow ef I goes to fight the South, jest s'pose a saber gashes me, 
A jagged fragment of a shell rips up or round shot smashes me, 
Then, when I'm forced to bite tlic dust in misery and sprawl about, 
I reccon honner aint the thing I'm like to think at all about. 

Not ef I was the Gin'ral's self, and know'd when I was gone you meant 

Above my mangled carkiss fer to stick a marble monument, 

Instead o' scrapin, where I fell a foot or so o' mould on me, 

Or leavin' me for sun to bake, an' varmin to get hold on me. 

Don't think I'll volunteer for you to conker the ascendant 

Of them that's as much right as we to flourish independent; 

An' ef you press me, onderstand you force a man unwillin' 

That ain't the sort of sojer, quite, for bein' killed and killin'. 

Press me, destroy my liberty, then you arc the aggressor 

I holds my deadliest enemy, my tyrant, my oppressor. 

Make me a military slave, a warfarin' white nigger on! 

Mind that it ain't yourstlf I draws the bead, and pulls the triggei*on. 

The postage-stamps sent to the Yankee aimy, have received the name of 

What shall we say of Jonathan vowing vengeance and breathing fire and 
fory against his southern kinsfolk? May we not say that Jonathan is exhibit- 
ing himself in the character of JONATH.VN Wild ? 

The Southern Pre.«ident is a classical scholar of no mean attainments, as the 
following anecdote will testify. Being asked by a Virgi^in editor, how many 
men he thought Lincoln would be able to raise, the excellent JEFFERSON an- 
swered, "Davis sum, non OEmpus." 


Alone. ....-■-- 

New liCvy, ....---- 

Difcbarges for Disability — how long valid, . . - - 

Debate in Parliament on certain proposeil Reforms in the Established Church, 
Brief Notice of some New Books, - ■ • 

France — Her Policy, Domestic and Foreign, • • : ■ 

Spain and the Recognition Question, .... 

Proceedings in Parliament, •.-*■■- 

Civil Service in India, , - 

The West Indies— their Attitude towards the United States, 
Confederate Patents, - - • ' • 

Summary of News, ...... 

Finaucial, ■ - 

Confederate Government, .--•-■ 

Trovernors of States, ..---■ 

Bun through the Southern States, , - . . 

The Yankee Conscript on Conscription, .... 

i(j aaa^2)Si^ ^a2> ilbw 

Volume I.] 



The handful here that once was Mary's earth. 

Held, w'hile it breathed, so beautiful a soul, 
That when she died, all recognized her birth. 

And had their sorrow in serene control. 

Not here ! not here ! to every mourner's heart 

The wintry wind seemed whispering round her bier, 

And when the tomb was opened, with a start 
We heard it echoed from within, " not here !" 

Should'st thou, sad pilgrim, who may'st hither pass, 

Note in these floorers a delicater hue; 
Should Spring come earlier to this hallowed grass. 

Or the bee linger latet on the dew — 

Know that her spirit to her body lent 

Such sweetness, grace, as only goodness can — 

That even her d«st and this her monument 
Have yet a spell to stay one lonely man — 

Lonely through life,' but looking for the day 
When what is mortal of himself shall sleep, 

When human passion shall have passed away, 
And Love no longer be a thing to weep. 


The question of local defence, that is say, how home-staying citizens may effec- 
tually contribute personal service to the general cause, is, at this crisis, of such 
vital import, that we will not trust to any abridgment or digest, but prefer to 
quote entire the latest regulations issued on the subject : 

Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 

Richmond, June 22, 1863. 
General Orders, No. 86. 

Whereas, there have been a number of applications to this 
department for authority to raise companies for local defence and special 
service, and for instructions as to the method by which such organiza- 
tions may be made, and the privileges tliey may claim, the department 
has adopted the following regulations on the subject : 

I. Companies, battalions and regiments composed of persons not with- 
in the age of conscription (18 and 40), will be accepted as volunteers 
throughout the Confederacy, under the act of August 21st, 1861 (No. 
229), for local defence and special service. 

II. The organization of corps for local defence must conform to that 
prescribed for companies, battalions and regiments of the provisional 
army. The minimum number for a company of infantry of 64 rank and 
file, and for cavalry 60. Battalions must consist of not less than five 
companies, and regiments of ten. Artillery is not desirable. . Members 
of cavalry companies must furnish their own horses, but will receive forty 
■cents per day for their use while in actual service. 

III. The muster roll of all such organizations shall specify that the 
said organizations are raised under this act, and subject to these regula- 
tions, and contain a description of the volunteer as to age, residence and 
date of enlistment, and the term of enlistment for the war. 

IV. Such organizations will not be considered as in actual service, for 
the purpose of receiving pay or subsistence, except when called for by 
the President. 

v. They will not be called for until a necessity arises for service. 
They shall not be required to go beyond the limits of the State to which 
they belong. 

VI. They are expected- to serve vthen called out, only so long as the 
emergency exists, and then to return to their ordinary pursuits until again 

VII. Arms and equipments, when not possessed by the members, will, 
to the extent necessary to supply, be furnished by the Confederate States. 

VIII. Should any of them be captured, they shall be claimed as prison- 
ers of war, and all the protection of the government will be extended to 

IX. Field officers.of battalions and regiments to be organized, will be 
appointed by the President, in__accordance with the act aforesaid. Com- 
pany ofiicers may be elected by the companies, or appointed, as the mem- 
bers may consent. 

X. That these organizations will be preferred to and exempt their 
members from any call of militia. 

XI. The commandant of any military post of the Confederate States, 
the sheriff of any county, or the colonel commanding any militia regi- 
ment, or the judge or justice of any county or other court, may certify 
and return the muster rolls, which must be sent to the Adjutant and In- 
spector Generi^I's ofEce at Richmond, for acceptance. 

XII. In the event of a call by the President, under the law of con- 
scription, on all between the ages of 40 and 45, those in said organiza- 
tions subject to such call will be liable to discharge or transfer. 



[August 6, 1863 

For the infonnation and guidance of those desirous of volunteering for 
local defence, the law of Augnst 21st, 1861, is hereto appended. 

An Act to provide for Local Defence and Special Service. 

" Sec. 1. 17ie Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, 
That the President be and he is hereby authorized to accept the services 
of volunteers of such kind and in such proportion as he may deem ex 
pedient, to serve for snch time as he may prescribed, for the defence of 
exposed places or localities, or such special service as lie may deem expe- 

Sec. 2. And such forces shall be mastered into the service of the Con- 
federate States for the local defence or special service aforesaid, the mus- 
ter roll setting forth distinctly the services to be performed ; and the said 
volunteers shall not be considered in actual service, until thereunto spe- 
cially ordered by the President ; and they shall be entitled to pay or sub- 
sistence only for such time as they may be on duty under the orders of 
the President, or by his direction. 

Sec. .3. Such volunteer forces, when so accepted and ordered into ser- 
vice, shall be organized in accordance with and sulyect to all the provi- 
sions of the act entitled an act to provide for the public defence, approved 
March 6th, 1861, and may be attached to sucli divisions^ brigades, regi- 
ments or battalions as the President may direct; and when not organized 
into battalions or regiments before being mustered into service, the Presi- 
dent shall appoint the field officers of the battalions or regiments, when 
organized as such by him." [Approved August 21st, 1861.] 
By order. 

S. Cooper, 
Adjutant and Inspector General. 


The " glorious Union" has at last taken the coimsel of General Scott, how to 
treat the erring members that it still claims as associates in the true faith, spito of 
all their protests to the contrary. " Sinful sisters I part in peace !" is its last 
proclamation, issued in a spirit of exact fidelity to the poetic history. As the 
living Constance was walled in her tomb to the sound of rcligfous chants in ac- 
cents of mercy, so the extennination of ns and ours is announced as impending 
in a spirit of pure philanthropy, tempered only by military necessity and the ob- 
ject of peace. A gi-eat country, we learn, is to be made a desert — a great popu- 
lation is to disappear — but blessings untold await the infants among us who may 
be too feeble to incur federal vengeance as " war traitors," and who may survive 
the general doom of starvation. " War," we are now informed, "has come to 
be acknowledged * * the means to obtain great ends of state, or to consist in 
defence against wrong ; and no conrentional restriction of t/ie modes adopted to 
injure the enemy is any longer admitted." "The ultimate object of all modem 
war is a renewed state of peace ;" but " the more vigorously wars are pursued, the 
better it is for humanity. Sharp wars are brief." , 

Christian reader ! the sermon of which we h.ive given you the text, is General 
Orders, No. 100 (not of the Annus Domini luO, but of iSfiS), War Department, 
Washington. Its author is Francis Lieber, a foreigner; a radical in politics, a 
German philosopber in ethics and religion. Its reviewer and sponsor is General 
E; a. Hitcbcock, a visionary spiritualist Swedunborgian, too closely in imagined 
personal converse with illustrious spirits of anticpiity to heed the living groans of 
suffering, disease or starvation, the wail of the widow or the helpless tears of the 

The code they have digested, bloody and barbarous in the concrete, directed 
equally agamst non-combatants and soldiers, women and men, is sensouej in the 
abstract with touching references to all the humanizing concessions that civiliza- 
tion has made to chivalry, to patriotism, to helplessness and womanhood, amid 
the rudest shocks of modern war. In this the Yankees have departed from their 
Puritan ancestors, who, while they smote the malignants nnder the law of the 
Old Testament, wisely ignored to quote the milder precepts of the new, durante 
hello. , . 

Favored with a necessarily brief inspection of this remarkable document, we 
had piu'posed to present our readers an .analysis, but the task evades our grasp. 
The mental suffering entailed by the mere effort may be appreciated by the reader, 
if he will attempt to digest an argument on any mooted point of iaternationai 
law from the decisions of Judge Story, the messages of Lincoln, the academic 
orations of Everett, the dinner speeches of Webster and the dispatches pro and 
con (according to whose bull was goring whose ox) on the same subject, of Mr. 
Secretary Seward. 

For the benefit of any who may we.ikly behove that in this— the first manifesto 
ever put forth by any one government as anuounciug, on its own sole responsi- 
bility, what are the lawful rules of war— the Yankees must have preserved some 
regard to the world's opinion, some skeleton of consistency, we intend to pub- 
lish, in an early double number, the whole of the 1.57 articles makiu" up this 
indescribable code.^ The kaleidoscopic panorama will dizzy the mental vision ; 
but it must be presented entire, that history may duly record, and our children's 
children may remember what Y'ankee civilization was in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. 

For the present, we content ourselves with quoting some specimens of the arti- 
cles intended to be theoretical only, and so treated by the practice of their armies, 
with others meant to be practical, and put into action bv them accordino-ly with 
the utmost latitude and crueltv. " " 


" law is simply military au- 
thority, exercised in accordance with 
the laws and usages of war. Military 
oppression is not martial law : it is the 
abuse of the power which that law con- 
fers. As martial law is executed by 
niilitai'y force, it is incumbent upon 
those who administer it to be strictly 
guided by the principles of justice, 
honor and humanity — virtues adorning 
a soldier even more than any other man, 
for the very reason that he possesses 
the power of his arms against the un- 

"Martial law should be less stringent 
in places and countries occupied and 
fairly conquered." 

"A prisoner of war is subject to ijo 
punishment for being a public enemy." 


"To save the country [i. e. to restore 
the Union or help the success of federal 
arms], is paramount to all other con- 

" War is not carried on by arms alone. 
It is lawful to star\'e the hostile belli- 
gerent, armed or unarmed, so that it 
leads to the speedier subjection of the 

"Commanding generals • » » 
of the hostile country. The people and 
their civil officers owe strict obedience to 
them as long as they hold sway over 
the district or countrj', at the peril of 
their lives. 

" If the citizen or subject of a coun- 
try or place invaded or conquered gives 
information to his own government, 
from which he is separated by the hos- 
tile army, he is a war traitor, and death 
is the penalty. 

"The law of war " * makes no 
difference on account of the difference 
of se.xes, * *." 

"A prisoner of war remains answer- 
aMe for his crimes committed against 
the captor's army or people, committed 
before he was captured * *. 

"Armed or unarmed resistance by 
citizens of the United Slates against 
the lawful movements of their troops, is 
levying war against the United States, 
and is therefore treason." 

"Prisoners of war are subject to con- "They may be required to uork for 

finement or imprisonment, * * but the benefit of the captor's government, 

* * to no other intentional suffering according to their rank and condition." 
or indignity." 

"The usual pledge given In the pa- 
role is not to serve during the existing 
war, unless exchanged." 

" This pledge refers only to the active 
service in the field, * * not * * 
to internal service, such as recruiting or 
drilling the recruits, fortifying places 
not besieged, quelling civil commotions, 
fighting against belligerents unconnect- 
ed with the paroling belligerents." 

"Commanders, whenever admissible, "But it is no infraction of the com- 

inform the enemy of their intention to mon law of war to omit thns to inform 

bombard a place, so that the non-com- the enemy. Surprise may be a neces- 

batants, and especially the women and sity." 

children, may be removed before the \_N. B. — Surprise in a bombard- 
bombardment commences." . ment!!!] 

" Men who take up anus against one. "Military necessity * * allows of 

another in public war do not cease on all destruction of property * * * 

this account to be moral beings, respon- and of all withholding of sustenance or 

sible to one another and to God." means of life from the enemy." 

The literal quotations above suffice to show the double pui-pose of the pamphlet. 
Should Mr. Seward have occasion in diplomatic correspondence to defend his 
country against any complaint by the voice of outraged humanity as to the mode 
of carrying on the war, he has only to quote from the first column. Should any 
federal commanders prove, like the discarded .Stones and Buells, faint hearted in 
persecution, instractions may be cited from the other column to bring them up 
to the standard of Butler, Milroy and Foster. 

(Condensed from Fr.iaer's Jlagr.zine.) 

Pierre Alexis Wasiltowich, Count Suwarrow, was boni in 1730, in Moscow, of 
a Swedish family. He began his military career when but twelve years of age, 
having been placed in the school of young cadets in St. Pctersburgh by his 
father. He wa-s a mere boy ^vhen he entered the Russian service as a private 
soldier; for some years he was not advanced beyond the rank of a subaltern. 
From the earliest age, the decision and originahty of his character were developed, 
and he was not long iu perceiving his own superiority to those by whom he was 
commanded. He rose to the rank of colonel when he was but twenty-nine. He 
was nominated general in chief for having compelled the Tartars to submit to the 
Russian arms. He was created a count, and obtained the surname of Rimnisky 
for a victory over the Turks near the river Rimnisky, by which he saved the 
prince of Saxe Coburg and the imperial army. For his servicers in Poland he 
was made field marshal, and received the grant of an estate. In the year 1799 
the title of Prince Italisky was conferred. 

Suw.irrow was not alone fitted to lead an army, but was exactly the general to 
form one. His frankness and generosity, and the manner in which his habits 
identified him with his soldiers, endeared him to the army, while his religious 
feelings and exercises, and the habit of participating in some of their supersti- 
tions, sanctified him in the eyes of the men, and gave him unbounded influcnc'e. 

Napoleon highly estimated the military genius of Suwarrow; but it so chanced 
that they were never opposed to each other iu the field. 

August 6, 1863.] 



The cliaractevistic h'aits whicli serve to throw some light on tho character of 
Suwarrow, ina.y not be unacceptable to those who are not already acquainted 
with them. Sonje of the anecdotes with which we have met exhibit feelings for 
whicli we wei'e but little inclined .to give the devoted warrior credit; for most 
certainly we should never have sought in rude camijs, and among wild Cossacks, 
for gentle aftections and tender emotions; and yet even there they may be found : 
and we see that he, whose whole existence was nearly an nninterropted series of 
military exploits, was by no means devoid of those congenial sympathies which 
make up the charm of domestic life. His reliance on his own unaided powers 
wag so entire, that he could ill brook the thought of considering himself bound 
by obedience to any one. When speaking at a later period on tlie subject, he 
said, " When my sovereign does me tlio honor to give me the command of her 
armies, she supposes me capa'ble of guiding them to victory; and how can she 
pretend to know better than an old soldier like myself, who am on the spot, the 
road which leads to it? So, whenever her orders are in opposition to lier true 
interests, I take it for granted that they are suggested by the enmity of her cour- 
tiers, and I act in conformity to what appears to me most conducive to her glory." , 
On some occasions he acted in accordance with this declaration, and on a very 
remarkable one showed that he was justified in the dependence which he had on 
his own judgment;, but whether his- acting on it was defensible, must be left to 
the martinets to determine. 

In the j'car 1771, during the campaign, when he held the rank of major gene- 
ral, he found that the grand marshal of Lithuania was assembling the Poles at 
Halowitz, of which he directly apprised the commander iu chief. Marshal Bou- 
tourlin, and demanded leave to attack them. Boutourliu, who was a cautious 
man, thought such a risk should not bo attempted, as Suwarrow had but a lew 
hundred men under him; and therefore decidedly forbade any attack. At the 
same time, an account reached Suwarrow that the regiment of Peterburgh had 
just been beaten by the Poles, whose numbers amounted to five thousand men, 
and were increasing every day. Fired by the intelligence, be at once determined 
on action, and advanced at the head of a thousand men to the attack. Every 
danger but e.xcited him to additional exertion. Iu four days he marched fifty 
leagues, surprised the Poles at dead of night, and beat and dispersed them. He 
took the town of Halowitz and twelve pieces of cannon. His victory was com- 
plete, but he had disobeyed orders ; and according to all rules of military discip- 
line, he deserved punishment. It was thus he announced his success to the 
commander of the army : 

".,4s a soldier I have disohcyed. I ought to he punished. I have sent you, my 
sicord ; but as a Russian I hate done my duty in destroying the confederate forces, 
which wc could vol have resisted had they been left time to miilc.^^ 

Boutourlin was in the utmost astonishment, and quite at a loss what steps he 
should take. He laid .Suwarrow's e.xtraordinary dispatch before the Empress, 
and requested her orders as to the manner in which he should act. Catharine 
lost no time in addressing Suwarrow." 

" Your commander, Marshal Boutourlin, ought to put you under arrest, to pun- 
ish military insubordination, jis your sovereign, [reserve to myself the pleasure 
of rewarding a faithful subject, icho by a splendid action has well serced his 

The order of St. Alexander accompanied this gracious letter. Never was com- 
mander more loved by his soldiers than Suwarrow. Like Napoleon, ho shared' 
their hardships and privations as well as their dangers. He would often pass the 
cold winter nights in their bivouac, and partake of their humble fare. In every 
difKculty he kept up their spirits by his alacrity and cheeifulness. However 
tinctured with superstition, he had deep devotional feelings ; and it is stated that 
he never went to battle without offering up^ prayer, and that it was his first and 
last occupation every day. Often, when provisions were failing, he would order 
a fast to be observed by the troops, as a token of humiliation for their sins; and 
he always set the exan;ple of the prescribed abstinence himself. The noble self- 
denial which made him scorn any care for himself, which was beyond the reach 
of the common soldiers, so thoroughly identified him with them, that all their 
tender sympathies were with him, as much as their respect and veneration. He 
was never seen in the long and heavy marches of his infantry but on foot by 
their side ; and in every advance of his cavalry he was at their head on horse- 
back. He worked indefatigably with them in the trenches, and in all their mili- 
tary operations. 

WTien tlie war broke out afresh with thei^Turks in the year 1785, be was sur- 
prised in the town of Kenburn by an advance of a great body of Osmanli horse. 
His troops were scattered through the adjacent country, and could not be brought 
together without great difficulty. A successful attack had been m.ide upon one 
of his generals. When the news was brought to him be betrayed no agitation, 
but instantly repaired to the church, where he directed that a Te Dcum should be 
chanted as for a victory. This he might have done, to show his firm trust in the 
prophesied success of the Russian arms, even under discouragement. He joined 
iu the chant with animated fervor. As soon as the. service ivas over he placed 
himself at the head of a small body of troops, which were in waiting, and has- 
tened to meet the enemy, who were coming on in considerable force. Jiy a most 
desperate onset he drove them back, but in tho engagement he was ^vouuded ; 
aud his soldiers, no longer animated by his presence, became disheartened, and 
tied in confusion. Suwarrow leaped from the litter in which he was carried, all 
bleeding and wounded as ho was, and springing on horseback, exclaimed, "I am 
still alive, my children I" This was the rallying cry. He led them on to victory. 
Of all the brilliant achievement.^ of Suwarrow, there was none more wonderful 
than the conqiiest of Ismail. It had stood out against two sieges, and was con- 
sidered almost impregnable. The Empress, provoked at its not having yielded, 
gave an absolute order that it should bo taken. Potemkin, who was then at the 
head of the Russian army, dreaded Catharine's displeasure should sho be disap- 
pointed a third time. In his embarrassment lie consulted with Suwarrow, who 
undertook the conduct of the siege. Notwithstanding the great danger of an en- 
terprise which had failed twice, he felt confident of success; and said, with 
earnest faith in the result, "The Empress wills it — we must obey !" After a 
forced march of four days, he reached Ismail at the head of his troops. A few 
days were spent in the preparations necessary for an assault. When all was 
ready, orders were given: tho column marched forward at midnight. At that 
moment a cornier rode up at full speed, with dispatches from Pctomkin. Suwar- 

row was no sooner apprised of his arrival than he guessed, with his usual quick-, 
noss, the nature of the dispatches, and ho determined not to receive them till the 
fate of the enterprise was decided. He ordered his horse to be brought round to 
tlio door of his tent. Ho sprang on it and galloped off, without seeming to ob- 
serve the courier. After a desperate resistance, tho Tiu'ks at length gave way, 
and Ismail ftdl into the hands oi the Russians. AVhilc his staff gatlieied eagerly 
round ,Suwarrow to offer their congratulations, the eyes of the marshal fell upon 
the officer who bore the dispatches. 

" Who are you, brother'/" (said he.) 

" It is I (replied the courier), who brought dispatclics from Prince Potemkin 
y.esterd."iy evening." 

"What! (exclaimed Suwan'ow with affected passion) — What! yon bring me 
news from my sovereign! — you have been here since yesterday, and I have not 
yet received the dispatches !" Then threatening the officer for his negligence, he 
handed the dispatch to one of his generals, and bade him read it aloud. A more 
striking scene £an scarcely be conceived. There was deep silenct? as the dispatch 
was opened. Suwarroiv and his companions iu victory listened with breathless 
interest. Every danger which they had braved and surmounted was enumerated, 
one after the other. It was urged that an enterprise undertaken in the midst of 
a winter even more than usually severe, must be disastrous, and that it was abso- 
lutely preposterous to think it possible to make an impression on a fortress fur- 
nished with 230 pieces of cannon, and defended by 43,000 men, the half of whom 
were .Janissaries, with a force which amounted to no more than 98,000 — little 
more than half their number. The dispatch ended with a peremptory prder for 
the abandonment of the enterprise. 

" Thank God (exclaimed Suwarrow, as soon as the general had ceased read- 
ing, raising his eyes to Heaven, aud crossing himself with devotion), thank God, 
Ismail is taken, or I should have been undone !." 

There was silence for a moment, as if all participated in the feeling with which 
Suwarrow glanced at tho different situation which would have been his had he 
not succeeded. Every eye was fixed on him, and then a sudden shout of triumph 
iburst through all the ranks. He then penned the following brief reply: "The 
Russian flag flies on the ramparts of Ismail." 

It is not to our purpose to follow the victorious steps of Suwarrow through the 
campaigns in which he was engaged. They are now a part of history, and won 
for him that military glory atfer which his heart panted from his early boyhood. 
Decoration after decoration, honour after honour, title after title, marked the high 
estimation in which the services of this intrepid soldier were held by his sove- 
reign ; and never tlid ruler dispense favours with a more munificent hand than 
Catharine. AVIiat most attracted us, and from which we most wished to make a 
selection, were those characteristic traits which brought us in a manner personally 
acquainted with Suwarrow. Iu person Suwarrow was unlike what the imagina- 
tion would picture. Ho was but five feet one inch in height, and of a fragile 
form. His mouth was large, and his features plain, but his countenance was 
full of fire, vivacity and penetration. When he was moved, it became severe, 
commanding, and even terrible; but this seldom happened, and never without 
some powerful cause, flis brow was much wrinkled, but as it seemed to be so 
from deep thinking, it gave still greater expression to his face. Though of a 
form which appeared delicate and feeble, no one could endure greater fatigue. 
This may be attributed to his active .and temperate habits, aud to tho wonderful 
energy of his mind. He was most certainly able to use more exertion and 
undergo more hardship and toil than most people of a robust frame. The spirit 
"whicli burned within him" was indeed equal to any effort. The only w-eak 
point in his character was the horror which he had of being reminded in any 
way of his age as ho advanced in life. He most carefully avoided every thing 
which would make him think of it. All the looking-glasses in his house were 
either removed or so completely covered that he could not catch even a transient 
glimpse of his face or person. He often joked about his personal appearance, 
but said that he had all ^is life avoided looking at himself in the glass, solely 
that he nnght not perceive the change which years bring', and which might per- 
haps make him suppose himself growing too old for military pursuits. Be this 
as it may, he never would look near a mirror. If he happened to go into a room 
where there was one, the very moment he perceived it he shut his eyes, made all 
manner of odd faces, aud ran by it at his utmost speed out of the room. Wlipn 
a chair chanced to be in his way, he jumped over it, to show that he retained his 
activity; and for the same reason he always ran in and oufof the room. It was 
but seldom that he was seen to move at a slower pace. When iu the company 
of strangers he even quickened the speed of his motions, and exhibited the most 
droll antics to impress upon their minds that he ivas still equal to take the field. 

It was his custom to rise early — never later at any time of tlie year than four 
o'clock, and often even at midnight — to the end of his 'life. As soon as he rose 
he was well drenched with cold water, even in the depth of the most severe win- 
ter. He generally dined in winter at eight o'clock in the morning, and in sum- 
mer at seven. Dinner was his principal meal. Though his cookery could not 
iiave been very tempting, as it was made up of ill dressed Cossack ragouts, no- 
body ventured to find any fault with it, and his good appetite made it palatable 
to himseU'. He never sat down to a meal without a thanksgiving, or an invoca- 
tion for a blessing. If any among his guests did not take part iu the grace by , 
re.'sponding "Amen," he would say, "Those who have not said amen shall have 
no eau dc vie." He never took any refreshment through the rest of the day, but 
a few cups of tea or coffee. He never exceeded at table, but was fond of sitting- 
Ion"- after dinner. This h.abit he wished to correct, and gave his .aid de camp, 
Tichiuka, directions to order him from table whenever he thought he was re- 
maining too long ; and this was to be managed after the fashion which he pre- 
scribed. When the injunction was obeyed, he would ask, "By whose order?" 
when Tichinka made reply, " By Marshal Suwarrow's order," he immediately rose 
from the table, andsaid,w'ith a smile, "'Very well — the Marshal must be obeyed." 
According to his desire the same ceremony was gone through when he was too 
sedentary: ami as soon as he was told by his aid do camp that Marshal Suwar- 
row had ordered him to go out, he instantly complied. As he was unlike 
every one, so he dressed like nobody else. He wore whole boots so wide that 
tliey fell about his heels. His waistcoat and breeches were of w-hite dimity ; 
the lining and collar of the waistcoat were of green cloth; his little helmet of 
folt was ornamented with green fringe. This was his military drees throughout 



[August 6, 1 8 S3 

the -n-hoTe year, except when the weather was intensely cold, and then he substi- 
tuted white cloth for the dimity. His appearance was still more strange from his 
frequently leaving the garter and stocking hanging loose upon one leg, wliile 
the other was booted; but as the boot was thus occasionally discarded in conse- 
quence of a wound in the leg, it was nothing to laugh at. His long sabre trailed 
along the ground, and his thin dress hung loosely about his slight person. 

Equipped in this extraordinary manner it was that Suwan'ow reviewed, ha- 
rangued and commanded his soldiers. On great occasions he appeared in his 
superb dress as field marshal, and wore the profusion of splendid ornaments 
which had been bestowed on the occasions of his victories. Among them was 
the magnificeut golden-hilted s-vi-ord, studded with jewels, and the gorgeous 
plume of diamonds which he had received from the hands of the Empress, among 
other m.arks of distinction, for his extraordinary sen-ices at Aczakolf. At other 
times he wore no ornament but the chain of the Order of St. Andrew. He car- 
ried no watch or ornaments with liim, save those which commemorated his mili- 
tary exploits. On these he delighted to look, as they were associated in his 
mind with the most gratifying events of his life — his gloi-y, and the favour of his 
sovereign. He would sometimes show them to a stranger, exhibiting them one 
by one, and setting his stamp of value on each, as he would say, "At such an 
action I gained this Order — at such another, this;" and so on till he had told the 
remarkable occurrence to which he owed the possession of each — a pride that 
was most natural in one who had earned them so bravely. 

His whole style of living was marked by the greatest simplicity. He preferred 
the plaiaest apartment, without any article of luxury; he scarcely ever slept in a 
house when his troops were encamped; and he not only stayed in his tent at 
night, but for the most part of the daj, only entering the house appropriated to 
his staff, at dinner time. 

Throughout his whole military career he had never passed an entire night in 
bed. He stretched himself, wlii-n he lay down to rest, on a bundle of hay : nor 
would he indulge himself in a more luxurious couch, even in the palace of the 
Empress. He had no carriage, but a plain kibitka (a sort of chariot), drawn by 
hired horses, for he kept no horses; but when he required one, as on the occasion 
of a review or seme other military operation, he mounted any wliich chanced to 
be at hand. Sometimes ii belonged to one of the Co.ssacks, but oftener was lent 
to him by his aid de camp, Ticbinka. He was without servants, keeping but 
one attendant to wait upon himself, and employing some of the soldiers in the 
service of his house. This mode of living arose not from parsimony, but from an 
utter indifference to any kind of indulgence, which he considered beneath a sol 
dier's attention. He had a contempt for money as a means of procuring gratifi- 
cation, but valued it as often atibrding him the pleasure of being generous and 
kind. He gave up his entire share of the immense booty at Ismail,, and divided 
it among his .soldiers. He never canied any money about him, or asked the price 
of any tiling, but left all to the management of Tichinka. His strictness in do- 
ing what he considered just, when he conceived himself in the least degree ac- 
countable, was very i-emarkable. On one occasion an officer liarl lost at play 
sixty rubles, with which he had supplied himself from the military chest. Su- 
warrow reprimanded the officer seveitly, but refunded ttie sum from his own re- 
Bourcea. " It is right fsaid he, in a letter to the Empress, in which he alluded to 
the circumstance) — it is right that I should make it good, for lam answerable for 
the piEeers I employ." 

One of Suwarrow's odd peculiarities consisted in keeping up the appearance of 
a soldier at all times. When he saluted any person, he drew u]), tunicd out his 
toes, threw back his shoulders, kept himself quite erect, aud turned the back of 
his hand to his helmet, as soldiers do when saluting their ofSccrs. He was greritly 
attached to Tichinka, an old soldier, who had once saved his life. From that 
time he never separated from him ; he' made him his aid de camp, and gave liim 
the sole management of all his affairs. 

Suwarrow was very remarkable for his directness; and so great was his aversion 
to an evasive or unmeaning expression, that he never ouuld bear the person who 
made use of such, and was sure to give him the name of Aiesniou, which may be 
translated, "I don't know," " possibly," or "perhaps." He would take no such 
answer, but would say, in an emphatic tone, " try," "learn," or " set about it." 

Indeed, the abhorrence in which ho held any mode of expression which was 
not dictated by the most perfect frankness, was so great, that he could not endure 
the flattery and unmeaning civility of courtiers ; and he never hesitated to mark 
his displeasure by bitter satire, regardless of the presence of those against whom 
it was directed, even if the Empress herself made one of the company. This 
caused him to be feared and disliked by many at court. His acquirements were 
considerable. He .spoke eight languages ; French, like a native. He composed 
verses with facility; he had read much, and rfas particularly well informed in 
history and biography. Notwithstanding his remarkable frankness and all his 
oddities, his manners were engaging and polished ; his conversation was original, 
energetic, and lively ; he would often indulge in sallies of pleasantry 
the Empress, and, as he was an excellent mimick, he would take off the uncouth 
manners and accents of some of the soldiers to the life. He had a dislike to 
writing, always asserting that a pen v,-as an tmfit implement for a soldier. His 
dispatches were laconic, but not the less striking on that account. Once or twice 
they were couched in concise couplets. His brevity was laid aside when he ad- 
dressed his soldiers. 

He was a kind relation, a sincere friend, and an affectionate father. In the 
midst of all his triumphs, it has been said that he was touched with pity and 
with sorrow for suffering humanity. 

I asked him (says Mr.^weddel) if, after the ma.ssacre of Ismail, he was per- 
fectly satisfied with the conduct of the day. He said, he went home and wept 
in his tent. Though Suwarrow spared but little time from his military avoca- 
tions for social iutc-rcourse, his tenderness for children was so great that he could 
not bear to pass them without notice. He would stop, embrace and bless them 
whenever he met them. That he fondly loved his own is sufficiently proved by 
the following anecdote: 

While on his way to join the army, thoughts of home were in his mind. He 
felt it might be long before he should see it again, if indeed he should ever see it. 
He was seized witli the most intense longing to look on his children once more. 
The desire became so irresistible, that he turned from the road he was traversing, 
and took that to Moscow. He rested neither day uor night till he got there. It 

was the middle of the night when he reached his house. He sprang lightly from 
his canrage, and knocked gently at the door. All the family were asleep. AS 
length he was heard by one of the domestics, and let in. He stole on tiptoe to 
liis children's room, aud, withdrawing the curtains cautiously, for fear of dis- 
turbing them, bent over them; and, as he gazed on them in delight, they slepJ 
on, unconscions of their midnight visitor. Throwing his arms gently over them, 
he held them for a moment in his fond embrace, and left them a father's blessing, 
and then went away to join his troops. 

After the death of Catharine, in the year 1796, there was a sad change in the 
fortunes of her faithful soldier. He served her successor with the same heroic 
devotion with which he had promoted her interest and glory. In the year 1793 
he effected one of the most brilliant retreats that stand recorded ia the annals of 
history. Opposed in Italy by Moreau with an overwhelming force, when a retreat 
was resolved on, he was so affected that he wrung his hands and wept bitterly. 
He led his troops over the heights of Switzerland into Germany, with snch con- 
summate skill and undaunted energy ,as added fresh honours to his name. The 
dangers and difficulties of this memorable operation were such as would have been 
considered absolulcly insurmountable by one less daring; and a commander less 
beloved could never have encouraged his troops to hold out against surrender. 
But they followed him in the midst of winter snows, through unknown and in- 
tricate paths and deep ravines; sometimes passing in what haste they could alon<^- 
the edge of frightful chasms and awful precipices, snch as the weary traveller 
"ould tremble but to look at. Here they were frequently ex]xised to the fire of 
the enemy, who lay in audjush among the rocks, and ofttimes had to fight their 
way at the point of the bayonet. But still, even in retreat victorious, he achieved 
his object, and never yielded to the foe. He is the only general, it is stated, ex- 
cept JIarlborough and Wellington, who never defeated. 

The title of Prince Italisky was conferred to commemorate the glory of his 
having led his army unconquered in his retreat from Italy. Ho died the next 
year at St. Petersbm-gh. A broken heart was alleged by many to have been 
the fatal disease which ended his days. The indomitable spiijt which is proof 
ag.airst danger, toil and privations, may yet be borne down by the stings of in- 
gratitude, 'i'he death of Suwarrow, so soon following his recall, and the indig- 
nities which he received at the hands of the Emperor, tells in itself a tale of out- 
raged feeling that needs no comment. It has been truly said that ridicule is 
more bitterly resented and more rarely forgiven tlian injiuy. The indulgence of 
a satiric humour, in some words spoken in jest by SnwaiTow, is said to have 
piqued Paul so much that he took a cruel revenge. The rage of the Emperor 
for the introduction of German fashions was so great, that he determined to have 
the German uniform adopted in the army. The measure was extremely unpopu- 
lar with the troops, accustomed as they were to the comfortable and convenient 
dress of the Russian soldier, so admirably adapted to the climate. It consisted 
of a large chavari, or pair of pantaloons of red cloth, the ends of which termi- 
nated in boots of pliable leather, and was fastened by a girdle over a red and 
gi-een jacket ; a little helmet fitted comfortably to the head, and the hair cut; 
short round the neck, but sufliciently long to cover the ears, and easily kept in 
order, completed the military costume. The soldier was dressed in a moment, 
for he had but two garments to put on, and they were of such a size that he was 
able to deftind himself from the inclemency of the >veather by having some warm 
clothing underneath, which was not perceived. The elaborate German dress 
was most hateful to those who were obliged to substitute it for that which had 
occupied so little of their time. The hair which the soldier had been used to 
wash every morning now bedaubed with grease and flonr, and he wa.s 
obliged to keep in exact order the tail that he was forced to suspend from the 
back of his head. The buttoning .of the tight black spatterdashes took up 
nearly half an hour, and cruelly pinched the legs which had been accustomed to 
the easy and comfortable Russian boots. 

When old Marshal Suwarrow got orders to introduce this uniform, and re- 
ceived little sticks for measures and models of the soldiers' tails and side curls, 
"Hairpowder (said he) is not gunpowder, curls arc not cannons, and tails are 
not bayonets." This, in the Russian language, falls into rhyme, and soon spread 
as a saying through the army; and haviug reached the Emperor's ears, is said, 
in The Secret Memoirs of the Russian Court, to have been "the true cause 
which induced Paul to recall Suwarrow, and dispense with his services." 

There are now in course of constriictiou no less tlian twenty-three ves- 
sels of various sizes, not incUiiling gun boats for the Emperor of China, 
and the frigate for the English government at An improve- 
ment in the building of ships has lately been introduced, aud the reports 
from the experimental vessels are very satisfactory indeed. AVe refer to 
the building of vessels of steel. It jfives ships double tlie strength of 
iron, with plates just one-lialf the thickness, thus allowing them to carry 
a cargo on a considerably less draft of water; it is also stronger thait 
iron ; and being of such li^ht substance, the vessels can he l)utlt with 
finer lines. So satisfactory have the experiments been, that a keel has 
been laid down to bnild a ship of 1,000 tons for Messrs. C. S. Lemon & 
Co., to trade between this port and the East Indtes. The steel fleet are 
the steamers Banshee and Phantom (tho latter now loading at this port 
for Nassau), and the schooner Domitila, now on Iier way to the Sandwich 
Islands. M-f. Laird has also on hand the two gun boats for the Emperor 
of China, but about whose ultimate destination so much lias been said. 
They are in a very forward state, and their launch may soon be looked 
for. ' Some of the plates used are five inch ones, and are bent to tlie re- 
quisite angle by hydraulic power. The vessels are beautifal specimens 
of naval architecture, and very strong, built in Mr. Laird's well known 
style, and will certainly add efficiently to a fleet in either the China or 
Confederate waters. From these it will be seen that the trade is at pre- 
sent unusually biisk, and will bear favorable comparison with any other 
part of the Kingdom. — [Liverpool Journal of Commerce, June 3. 

AucxUST 6, 1863.] 



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The Judgment of the Court and Charge to the Jury on the right of the Confederate 
' Government to buy War Vessels in England. 

Sir H. Cairns, the ablest lawyer in England, argued the confederate side, and 
was opposed by Sir EouxDELL Palmer, the Attorney General, since the Secre- 
ttry of Foreign Affairs, and pai'liament and the law courts have all united in 
asserting the law in our favor. It is to be hoped our government will at once 
increase the number of our vessels at sea. 

On June 24th, Sir H. Cairns concluded his argument in the case of the 

The Attorney General made a very forcible reply on the part of the Crown, 
upon the whole case. The Crown had simply asked, taking the most lenient 
course that they could under the circumstances, that the ship Alexandra should 
be forfeited. 

The Lord Chief B.tRON — Is it lawful for a ship builder to build a ship which 
is capable of being turned to warlike purposes, with the view of offering it for 
sale to a belligerent, to be used against a power with which we are at peace ? 

The Attorney General — I would rather contiiie my answer to this — all we 
allege is tliat the ship was built with the intention that it should enter the service 
of another power at war with a power with which we are at peace. We do not 
allege any thing more than that that \vould create an offence. 

The Lord Chief B.\ron — I have no hesitation in saying that, according to 
all the decisions, a ship builder has as much right to build a ship and- sell it to 
either of the Ijelligerent parties, as the maker of gunpowder or of muskets, or 
any other warlike instrami'iits, has to sell any of those articles to the same par- 
ties. It is laid down in Kent's Commentaries on_ the American Law, that it is 
the right of neutral subjects to supply both belligerents with arms and all muni- 
tions of war : and why should they not supply ships ? 

The Attorney General said he did not controvert that proposition, but de- 
nied that it was raised in the present case. 

At the concluf.ion of the. Attorney General's reply, 

His Lordship, in summing up, said, this is an information on the part of the 
Crown tor the seizure and confiscation of a vessel that was in course of prepara- 
tion, but had not been completed. It is admitted that it was not armed, and the 
question is, whether the preparation of the vessel in its then condition was a vio- 
lation of the foreign enlistment act. The information is an exceedingly long 
one, but the main question you will have to decide is this — whether, under the 
Beventh section of the act of parliament, the vessel, as then prepared at the time 
of seizure, was liable to seizure. The case you have to decide is no doubt one 
not merely of great importance, but really it is a momentous question, and the 
importance of it it is impossible to exaggerate. It is one that produces varied 
sentiments — sentiments of the deepest regret that .such a question should have 
ever arisen; and I cannot help expressing the deepest, utmost anguish which one 
feels that such a question should have arisen by the di.ssension among those who 
are connected with us by the dearest possible ties that can bind nation to nation — 
a common lineage, a common language, common laws, a common literat'Uve; 
and above all, by a strong desire for constitutional freedom. I, for one, protest 
against the doctrine that no man is to be convicted of any crime if there is any 
possible solution of the circumstances by an imagination of his innocence ; but 
there must be at all times a thorough sober persuasion and satisfaction with re- 
spect to the guilt of the party accused, and nndouhtedly you must act upon 
proof, and not upon suspicion. With these remarks, I go at once to the statute 
nnder whith these proceedings are taken. The statute was passed in 1819, and 
upon it no question has ever arisen in our courts of justice : but there have been 
expositions of a similar statute which exists in the United States. I will now 
read to you the opinions of some American lawyers, who have contributed so 
greatly to make law a science, and indeed I m^Ly say an agreeable one. 

His Lordship then read passages from Story and others. These gentlemen are- 
authorities which show that when two belligerents are canning on a war, a neu- 
tral power may supply, without any breach of inteniational law, and without a 
breach of the foreign enlistment act, muuitions of war, gunpowder, every de- 
scription of arms, every thing in fact, that cau be used for the destruction of Im- 
man beings. Why should ships be an exception ? I am of opinion, in point 
of law, they are not. The foreign enlistment act was an act to prevent the en- 
listment or engagement of his Majesty's subjects to serve in foreign armies, and 
to prevent the fitting out and equipping, in his Majesty's dominions, vessels for 
warlike puqjose, without bis Majesty's The title of an act is not at all 
times an exact indication or explanation of the act, because it is generally attached 
after the act is passed. But, in adverting to the preamble of the act, I find that 
provision is made against the equipping, fitting out, furnishing and arming of 
vessels, because it may be prejudicial to peace in his Majesty's dominions. 'Ihe 

question I shall put to you is, whether you think that vessel wan merely in 
course of building, to be delivered in pursuance of a contract that was perfectly 
lawful, or whether there was any intention, in the port of Liverpool, or any other 
English port, that the vessel should be fitted out, equipped, furnished and armed 
for purposes of aggression. Now, surely, if Birmingham, or any other town, 
may supply any quantity of munitions of war of various kinds lor the dcstiHic- 
tiou of lite, why object to ships ? Why should ships alone be in themwdves con- 
traband 7 I asked the Attorney General if a man could not make a vessel, 
intending to sell it to cither of the belligerent powers that required it, and which 
would give the largest piice for it, would not that be lawful ? To my surjirise, 
the learned Attorney General declined to give an answer to the qnestion, which 
I think is a grave and a pertinent one. But you, gentlemen, I think, are lawyers 
enough to know that a man may make a vessel and offer it for sale. If a man 
may build a vessel for the purpose of offering it for sale to either of the bellige- 
rent parlies, may he not execute an order for it? That appears to me to be a 
matter of course. The statute is not made to provide means of protection for 
belligerent powers ; otherwise, it would have said you shall not sell powder or 
guns, and you shall not sell arms; and if it had done so, all Birmingham would 
nave been in arms against it. The object of the statute was this: that we should 
not have our ports in this country made the ground of hostile movements be- 
tween the vessels of two belligerent powers, which might be fitted out, furnished 
and armed in those ports. The Alexandra was clearly nothing more than in 
the course of building. It appears that, according to Webster's Dictionary, 
equipping is furnishing with arms, and furnishing is given in other dictionaries 
as the same thing as equipping. It appears to me that if true that the Alabama 
sailed away from Liverpool without any arms at all, as a mere ship in ballast, 
and that her armament was put on board at Terceira, which is not in her Ma- 
jesty's dominions, then the foreign enlistment act was not violated at all. The 
most important evidence is that given by Captain Inglefield, who g.ive a very 
moderate statement, and has been spoken of on both sides in the highest terms 
of approbation; and I think myself his evidence was very fair and candid. After 
reading some of the evidence, his Lordship said if you think the object was to 
furnish, fit out, equip and arm that vessel at Liverpool, that is a different matter; 
but if you think the object really was to build a ship in obedience to an order in 
compliance with a contract, leaving those who bought it to make what use they 
thought fit of it, then it appears to me that the foreign enlistment act has not 
been broken. 

The jury immediately returned a verdict for the defendants. 

The Attorney General tendered a bill of exceptions to the Lord Chief Baron's 


The following confession of the supeijority of our cavalry we extract from a 
northern paper. We have to admit, however, that our enemies are improving in 
this branch of the service, and take better care of their horses than we do. 

The progress of the war has developed the importance of cavalry, which was 
almost completely overlooked in the beginning. Light cavalry is indispensable 
to reconnoitre, to obtain and report intelligence of the enemy's movements. It 
is the sight and hearing of an army, and without it an army is constantly im- 
perilled, as was Hooker's at Chancellorsville, when he sent away on an expedi- 
tion nearly all his cavalry force. It is needed above all to pursue a conquered 
enemy. < 

The South possesses two great advantages over (he North in cavalry. It has 
more blooded horses, and better horses and better horsemen. , Every man knows 
how to ride well. This is half the battle. In fact, horsemanship is every thing. 
Good cavalry realize the fabled centaur — man and horse are one. To counter- 
balance this advantage our cavalry are better armed and better equipped. In 
addition to sabres and large revolvers, they have Sharpe's rifled carbine, which 
is light and handy, and at the same time sure. It will kill at a distance of half 
a mile, and in the hands of a good marksman it will hit a man every time at two 
hundred yards. The southern cavalry are indifferently armed — some with double 
shot guns, some with pistols of various descriptions, only a few with sabres, 
and fewer still with carbines or rifles. Had earlier attention been directed to 
cavalry organization in our armies, the late battle on the Upper Rappahannock 
would have been rendered disastrous to the enemy. But the great object seems 
to be in these days to see how bad and worthless a horse might be imposed on 
the government at a very high price ; and we believe there is very little reform 
as yet in this particular. 


After more than two years of a warfare, scarcely equalled in the number, mag- 
nitude, and fearful carnage of its battles— a warfare in which your courage and 
fortitude- have illustrated your country and attracted not only gratitude at home, 
but admiration abroad, your enemies continue a struggle in which our final 
triumph must bo inevitable. Unduly elated with their recent successes, they 
imagine that temporary reverses can quell your spirit or shake your determina- 
tion—and they are now gathering heavy masses for a general invasion, in the 
vain hope that by a desperate effort success may at length be reached. 

You know too well, my countrymen, what they mean by success. Their 
malignant rnge aims at nothing less than the extermination of yourselves, your 
wives and children. They seek to destroy what they cannot plunder. They 
propose as the spoils of victory, that your homes shall be partitioued among the 
wretches whos^ atrocious cruelties have stamped infamy on their government. 



[August 6, 1863 

They design to incite servile insuiTe(*ion and light the fires of incendiarism when- 
ever they can reach your homes ; and they debauch the inferior race, hitherto 
docile and contented, by promising indulgence of the vilest passions as the price 
of treacheiy. Conscious of their inability to prevail by legitimate warfare, not 
daring to make peace, lest they should be hurled from their seats of power, the 
men who now rule in Washington refuse even to confer on the subject of put- 
ting an end to outrages which disgrace our age, or to listen to a suggestion for 
conducting the war according to the usages of civilization. 

Fellow-citizens, no alleruative is left you hut victory, or subjugation, slavery 
and the utter ruin of yourselves, your families and your country.' The victory 
is within your reach. You need but stretch forth your hands to giasp it. For 
this all that is necessary is that those who are called to the field by every mo- 
tive that can move the human heart, should promptly repair to the post of duty — 
should stand by their comrades now in front of the foe, and thus so strengthen 
the armies of the Confederacy as to insure success. The men now absent from 
their post? would, if present in the field, suffice to create numerical equality be" 
tween our force and that of the invaders: and when with any approach to such 
equality, have we failed to be victorious? I believe that but few of those absent 
are actuated by unwillingness to serve their country; but that many have found 
it difficult to resist the temptation of a visit to their homes and the loved ones 
from whom they have been so long separated ; that others have left for temporary 
attention to their affairs, with the intention of returning, and then have shrunk 
from the consequences of their violation of duty; that others again have left their 
posts from mere restlessness and desire of change — each quieting the upbraid- 
ings of his conscience, by persuading himself that his individual services could 
have no influence on the general result. 

These and other causes (although far less disgraceful than the desire to avoid 
danger, or to escape from the sacrifices required by patriotism) arc, nevertheless, 
grievous faults, and place the cause of our beloved country, and of every thing 
we hold dear, in imminent peril. I repeat that the men wiio now owe duty to their 
country, who have been called out and have not yet reported for duty, or who 
have absented themselves from their po.^ts, are sufficient in number to secure us 
victory in the struggle now impending. 

I call on you, then, my countrymen, to hasten to your camps, in obedience to 
the dictates oriionor and of duty, and .summon those who have absented them- 
selves without leave, who have remained absent beyond the period allowed by 
their furloughs, to repair without delay to their respective commands; and I do 
hereby declare that I grant a general pardon and amnesty to all officers and men 
within the Confederacy, now absent without leave, who shall, with the least pos- 
sible delay, return to their proper posts of dirty — but no excuse will be received 
for any delay beyond twenty days after the first publication of this proclamation 
in the State in which the absentee may be at the date of the publication. This 
amnesty and pardon shall extend to all who have been accused, or who have 
been convicted and are undergoing sentence for absence without leave or deser- 
tion, excepting only those who have been twice convicted of desertion. 

Fmally, I conjure niy countrywomen — the wives, mothers, sisters and daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy — to use their all powerful influence in aid of this call, to 
add one crowning sacrifice to those which their patriotism hos so freely and con- 
stantly aflorded on their country's altar, and to take care that none who owe 
service in the field shall bo sheltered at home from the disgrace of having deserted 
their duty to their families, to their country and to their God. 

[Seal.] Given under my hand and the seal of the Confederate States, at 
' Richmond, this 1st day of August iu the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three. 

Jeffehson D.wi.s. 

■ By the President : 

~ J. P. Benj.v.MIN, Sec. of State. 

tionality on board the'eliip. To the request of the Consul General, the 
Admiral granted an immediate acquiescence, and so fast as the colored 
sailors claiming the protection of the British flag, made known their 
wants at the consulate, they were sent on board the French frigate. 

On Saturday last, however, the British frigate Challenge, twenty-two 
guns, commanded by Capt. John T. Kennedy, came into port, and took 
a position near the French ship. The British negroes were at once 
transferred to her, and a large number of others were sent off from the 
consulate. There are at least 200 of these poor creatures now sheltered 
by the British flag, and glad enough they were to get under its protecting 

We understand that in the correspondence between Lord Lyons and 
the British Consulate at this port, the former endorsed emphatically the 
prompt measures taken by the Consul General, and extended his thanks 
to the French Admiral for the generous part he took in the matter. 

The Challenge will remain in our harbor until otherwise directed by 
the British Minister, and the negroes will be retained in her until they 
can be sure of sufficient protection from the local authorities. 


The attack upon the negroes in New York during the riot has involved 
the authorities in complications with Great Britain, and entailed upon 
the city and county a bill for damages. The Times, after referring to 
the ferocious treatment of two or three Eug!i.<h negro sailors, on a bark 
in the East river, says : 

Unfortunately there was no British man of war in our harbor at the 
time, but the French frigate Guerriere, 3G guns, under command of Ad- 
miral Raynaud, was stationed near the battery, and to her Mr. Archibald 
(the Consul General) apjilied for protection. The French citizens had 
already been, through their Consul General, to tlie Admiral in relation 
to their own afl'airs, and an asylum wae tendered the negroes of that na- 

BLACK LIHT— (Continued.) • 

Officers of the U. S. navy, born in the South, who adhered to the federal 
government, and are making war upon their homos: 

Pay MASTF.RS : — Active list, E. .1. Dunn, Wm. Spciden, L. Warrington, Chat. 
Munay, D. C. ; John D. Gibson, Ga. ; John B. Ritteiihouse, Ala. ; L. J. Browne, 
N. C; E. W. Dunn, Mo.; John C. Eidridge, Texas; J. W. Carpenter, Ky. 
Retired list. John L. Uambletou, McKean Buchanan, Md. Not on register '63, 
Thos. B. Nalle, Va. Dismissed the service, B. F. Gallahef, D. C. ; Miles H. 
Norris, Miss. 

Masters : — R. L. Phythiau, Ky. ; Rush R. Wallace, Tenn. Not in line of 
promotion, R. Clarendon Jones, La. 

Midshipmen :— Active list, Thos. L. S«-ann, W. H. Barton, W. S,. Schley, 
Md.; Jo.shua Bishop, A. R. McNaij^ Mo. ; John C. Watson, Ky. 


121. David R. "Williams, Covington, Ky. Nov. 5, 1862. Improve- 
ment in breech-loading cannon. — This invention consists in a movable 
breech piece composed of a chuck, which is moved to and from the rear 
of the l>avrel by means of an e.xcentric. Motion is given to this exceu- 
tric by a crank, which also operates the hammer and fires the gun. 

123. Chas. A. McEvoy, Richmond, Va. Nov. 1.5, 18G2. Improve- 
ment in fuzes. — This invention consists -in the arrangement of a plunger 
striking a percussion cap, which ignites a time fuze inserted in a case at- 
tached to the percussion arrangement. 

125. M. Bridges, Jleinphis, Tenn. Nov. 20, 1802. Improvement in 
breech-loading cannon. — This invention consists in providing a cannon 
with a circular plate and ring forming a revolving breech, which are con- 
nected by longitudinal braces for resisting the recoil of the charge, and 
insuring the revolution of both plate and ring simultaneously. 

129. Nathaniel Nuckolls, Russell county, Ala. Dec. 11, 18C2. Im- 
provement in army canteens. — This improvement consists in construct- 
ing a canteen, by fitting with tongue and groove, and securely fastening 
with rivets, two concave pieces of wood, so as to form a hollow vessel, 
having but one joint. 

182. Joseph A. Yates, Charieston, S. C. Dec. 30, 1862. Machinery 
for traversing guns. — This improvement consists in a combination of 
machinery for traversing heavy guns without handspikes. 


The President has announced the following promotions of officers to 
Major and Brigadier G'encrals from the rank of Brigadier and Colonel. 

Brigadier General Stephen p. Lee, of South Carolina, promoted Major 
General from August 3d, 18G3. 

Colonel 0. F. Strahl, of Tennessee, to be Brigadier General from 
July 28th, 1863. 

Colonel James Deshler, of Alabama, to be Brigadier Generixl from 
July 28th, 1863. 

Colonel Lawrence S. Baker, of North Carolina, to be Brigadier Gene- 
ral from July 23d, 1863. 

Colonel Lunsford L. Lomax, of Virginia, to be Brigadier General from 
July 23d, 1863. 

Colonel I. D. Roddy (cavalry), of Alabama, to be Brigadier General 
from August 3d, 1863. 

August 6, 1863.] 





President Davis has issued the following proclamation : 

Whereas it is provided by an act of congress, entitled "An act to further pro- 
ride for the public defence," approved on the 16th day of April 1862, and by 
another act of congress, approved on the 27th September ]8()2, entitled "An 
act to amend an act entitled an act to provide further for the public defence," ap- 
proved 16th April 1862, that the President be authorized to call out and place in 
the military service of the Confederate States, for three years, unless the war 
shall have been sooner ended, all white men who are residents of the Confederate 
States, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, at the time the call 
may be mad#, and who are not at such time legally exempted from military 
seiTice, or such part thereof as in his judgment may be necessary to the public 

And whereas in my judgment the necessities of the public defence require that 
every man capable of bearing arms, between the ages aforesaid, should now be 
called out to do his duty in the defence of his couiitry, and in driving back the 
invaders now within the Umits of the Confederacy : 

Now, therefore, I, jEFFiiRSON Davis, President of the Confederate States of 
America, do, by virtue of the powers vested in me as aforesaid, call out and 
place in the military service of the Confederate States, all white men, residents 
of said States, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, not legally 
exempted from military .service, and I do hereby order and direct that all per- 
sons subject to this call, and not now in the military service, do, upon being 
enrolled, forthwith repair to the conscript camps established in the respective 
States of which they may be residents, under pain of being held and punished 
as deserters in the event of their failure to obey this call, as provided in said laws- 

And I do further order and direct that the enrolling ofiiccrs of the several States 
proceed at once to enroll all persons embraced within the terms of this proclama- 
tion, and not heretofore enrolled. 

And I do further order that it shall be lawful for any person embraced within 
this call, to volunteer for service before enrollment, and that persons so volun- 
teering be allowed to select the arm of service and the company which they 
desire to join, provided such company be deficient in the full number of men 
allowed by law for its organization. 

[Seal.] Given under my hand .and the Seal of the Confederate States of 
America, at the city of Kichmond, this fifteenth d.ay of July in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three. 

Jefferson Davis. 
By the President : 

J. P. Benjajan, Sec. of State. 

The torpedo expedition to the Nashville and Chattanooga rail road, was a suc- 
cess. One of the torpedoes put under the track destroyed the engine and seven 
cars, killing and wounding a large number of soldiers, while the other torpedo 
destroyed the engine, killing the engineer, and entirely destroying five other cars, 
tearing up the road for a distance of about sixty yards. The officer in charge of 
the expedition, Lieut. H. C. Brooks, of Nashville, was chased to' the river, a dis- 
tance of seven miles, by a regiment of Yankee cavalry, but made his escape 
across the river in time to save himself and men. 

The committees appointed on the subject of a union between the General As- 
sembly of the Presbyterian church in the Confederate States, and the United 
Synod of the Presbyterian church in the Confederate States, met in Lynchburg, 
Ya., on Saturday, with reference to a union of the two denominations. The com- 
mittee of the General Assembly consists of Eev. Drs. Dabuey, Brown; Eamscy, 
of Va., and Drs. Waddell and Baird of Miss., and J. L. T. Preston and F. Wat- 
kins, Esqs., elders. The committee of the United Synod are : Eev. Drs. Stiles, 
Mitchell, Eead and Eoss, and Eev. J. J. Eobinson, and Elders J. Eandolph 
Tucker and James F. Johnson. , 

The First General Council of the Episcopal church in the Confederate States 
appointed, as a committee to revise the Book of Common Prayer, Bishop Elliott 
of Ga., Bishop Green of Miss., Bishop Atkinson, Dr. Mason and Judge Battle of 
N. C, Eev. Mr. Trapier and Hon. Sir. McCrady of S. C, .Tudge Phelan of Ala., 
and Eev. W. Sparrow, D. D., of Va. They will meet at an early day in Ealeigh, 
N. C. 

The Mayor of Savannah has issued a proclamation, requesting all residents of 
the city to organize for home defence, and all managers of stores, workshops, 
or other places of business, to close them at two o'clock on Monday, Wednesday 
and Friday, for the purpose of drill. He directs that an enrollment be made of 
every man in the city capable of bearing arms in its defence. 

The Yankees at St. Augustine, Fla., have issued an order conscripting all per- 
sons from the age of 18 to 45. The few persons there who took the oath of alle- 
giance to the old (lag, have now the privilege of fighting for it. There are said 
to be only 300 Yankee troops at St. Augustine. 

Col. John S. Preston has published an order from General Beauregard, pro- 
hibiting women, children and non-combatants from entering the city of Charleg- 
ton. A guard will be stationed at Branchville, whose duty it will bo to prevent 
all such from coming nearer to the lines, unless they have passports from the 
General commanding. 

By flag of truce boat which arrived at City Point on Saturday, August 1st, 770 
sick and wounded confederate prisoners were returned on parole for exchange by 
the federal authorities. The inhumanity of the enemy was shown in the fact, 
that the great majnrity of the returned prisoners were cither seriously ill or very 
badly wounded. Several died on the passage. Commissioner Ould, in return 
for this, sent back 780 sick and wounded federal prisoners. 

An interesting correspondence has recently been conducted between M. Alfred 
Paul, French Consul at Eichmond, and Hon. J. P. Benjamin, Secretary of State. 
M. Paul thanks the confederate government, in the name of the Emperor, for aid 
rendered the French ship Einaudin, when aground off Sullivan's island ; and 
Mr. Benjamin replies in terms of cordial respect for the government and people 
of France. 

WiUiam H. Letcher, the father of the governor, died at his residence in Lex- 
ington, Va., on the 20th ult., in his 84th year. 

According to statements published in northern papers, confederate guerrillas 
are already beginning to be very troublesome to the federal steamers going up 
and down the Mississippi. If our people only do their duty, no wooden steamer 
can either attempt to go up or down the river without either being sunk or badly 

Burton N. Harrison, Private Secretary to President Davis, has resigned Lis 
office and is going into the army. 

A severe cavalry fight took place near Brandy Station on Saturday, August 
1st, between Hampton's cavalry and three cavalry brigades of the enemy. The 
attack was made by the enemy upon the 12th Virginia regiment thrown out as 
pickets, which made a handsome resistance, until the arrival of Gen. Hampton 
with his cavalry command, the latter falling back, fighting obstinately, to his 
infantry supports, when the enemy withdrew. Our loss is estimated at fifteen 
killed and seventy wounded. The enemy's loss is not known. Captain E. W. 
Branch of the Eichmond Grays was killed in the action. 

federal states. 

Hon. John J. Crittenden of Kentucky died at Frankfort, Ky., on the 26th 
ultimo, at the advanced age of 87. 

The Chamber of Commerce, Cincinnati, has expelled thirty-three members for 
refusing to take the oath of allegiance. 

Diphtheria is raging at a fearful rate in Western Illinois, and baffles the skill 
of the most celebrated physicians. In the town of Moline over one hundred 
children have died from its effects. Parents in a panic have shut their children 
into the house to keep them clear of it; but it was observed that those who 
were housed were victims soonest, while those who " roughed it" out of doors 
invariably escaped. 

One business man in Chicago returned to the assessor, as the profits of his 
business for the year 1862, the handsome sum of $200,000, upon which Ije paid 
a tax amounting to $10,000. The proprietors of a distillery in BuflFalo have just 
paid a government tax of $50,180 16. 

The Bristol county (Mass.) Eepublican states that a drafted man from Ehode 
Island has called upon the clerk of the courts at Taunton for a copy of the record 
of his conviction of a felony sevei'al years ago. It will, of course, exempt him. 

Another case of exemption claimed by proof of the infamy of the conscript, 
is thus recited in the Boston Transcript of July 23 : 

"A person who was enrolled and drawn as a conscript in the fourth district, 
received his exemption papers yesterday afternoon, under rather peculiar circum- 
stances. He presented a certificate from the warden of the state prison, that he 
had been a convict in that institution on the charge of felony, and had served out 
his full term of imprisonment. Of course, after such an experience, he is exempt 
from serving in so honorable a position as that of a soldier of the Union army." 

Eev. Dr. Lord has resigned his position as president of Dartmouth college. 
His successor has not as yet been appointed. Dr. Lord is well known for enter- 
taining pro-slavery opinions, and expressing them with great boldness in the midst 
of a community of rabid abolitionists. 



[August 6, 1863 

The 69tli New York regiment, the same that was commanded by Col. Corcoran 
at the first battle of Manassas, has been mustered out of the service of the United 


Mr. Roebuck has withdrawn his motion for the recogfnition of the indepen- 
dence of the Confederate States, at the request of Lord Palmerston, who declared 
that the further discussion of the subject would embarrass the ministry. 

Xia France, the organ of the Bonapartists, has recently published a long and 
strong article on southern recognition, in the course of which it uses the follow- 
ing language : 

" Who will dare to say that a recognition of the Confederacy will bring us a 
war with the Northern States ? Where have these states a navy strong enough 
to resist at the same time France, England and the Southern States? How great 
will be the teiTor exercised at Washington and New York by a French army, 
backed by the army and people of the South ! The recognition of the South, 
therefore, cannot bring any harm, but only good to France." 

Garibaldi, a letter from Milan in the Trieste Gazette says, is in a weak state of 
health, and will never be able to head an army again. The wounded foot is stiff, 
and the General can only walk with a crutch. The wound is still suppurating, 
and every now and then splinters of bone come out. Moreover, Garibaldi labors 
under a general aifeetion, which has its seat in the liver. 

Russian geologists are making preparations to promote the discovery of con- 
gealed remains of mammoth animals in Siberia. It is stated that during the last 
two centuries at least 20,000 mammoths, and probably thrice that number, have 
been washed out of the ice and soil in which they were imbedded, by the action 
of the spring floods. The tusks only have been preserved for their commercial 
value in ivory. An effort is now to be made for the discovery and preservation 
of one of these carcasses as perfect and entire as possible, as it is considered that 
microscopic investigation of the contents of its stomach might throw a powerful 
light on a host of geological and physiological problems. 

Dr. King writes from Athens, Greece, under date of July 4, as follows : 
" I am now in the midst of a civil war. Party spirit and love of rule h^ve at 
length divided the soldiers and citizens into two hostile bands, and in the streets 
and squares of the city blood has been flowing. For two days, July 1 and 2, 
the battle was incessantly raging, and the sound of guns and cannon told us that 
the work of death was going on. Yesterday, through the intervention of the 
ministers of the three protecting powers — France, England and Russia — a truce 
of forty-eight hours was proclaimed, which will end to-night or to-morrow morn- 
ing; and the above mentioned ministers have proclaimed that, if fighting should 
commence during the time of the tmce, they will all leave the place, go on board 
the ships, and invite all under their protection to go also, a^jd cut off all connec- 
tion from a country from which true patriotism seems to be forever eidled." 

The Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, who is named Emperor of Mexi- 
co, was born in the year J 832, and is therefore about thirty-one years of age. He 
is a brother of the present Emperor of Austria, and has been ruler over that de- 
partment of Austria which includes Venice. 

Among the many novel and curious public companies which active speculation 
brings to the surface in London and in Paris, one just formed in the latter city is 
deserving of notice. It is entitled " La Compagnie Generale des Chiffons," and 
it is proposed to purchase the gatherings of the chiffouniers of that capital, who 
are well known for their excellent scavenger qualifications. The prospectus 
states that 25,000 persons practice this calling in Paris, and that large profits may 
be made out of the produce of their collections. 

The death of a young female, Mary Ann Walkley, in the service of a f\ishiou- 
able West End milliner, Madame Elise, a French woman, from exhaustion, 
caused by overwork and the breathing of impure air, has caused a sensation in 
London. The facts attending'the extinction of this young creature, as they were 
developed at the enquiry before the coroner, reveal a state of things about which 
the fine ladies who employ these court milliners can know nothing. 

The King of Pnissia has purchased Lessing's picture, " Huss on the Funeral 
Pile," which was exhibited in London last summer, for the sum of 15,000 thalers. 

The British Government is sending ten thousand troops to reinforce its army in 

Rotterdam is to have a German theatre, an institution which London has 
hitherto failed to obtain. 

A letter from Rome announces the death of M. I'Abbe Hugo, nephew of Victor 



Published by WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond : 

The Judge Advocate's Vade Mecum, 

Gilham's Manual (new edition, with plates), - . - . 

Mahan's Permanent Fortifications (with plates), 2 vols. - ' - 

Mahan's Field Fortifications (with plates), . - - . 

Patten's Cavalry Drill (with plates), .... 

C. S. Army Regulations (authorized edition), 

Lee's Volunteer's Hand Book, - - - . . 

The Volunteer's Camp and Field Book, ... 

Roberts' Hand Book of Artillery, . . - . . 

Gilham's Field Artillery, - - . . - 

The School of the Guides, - . . . . 

Richardson's Evolutions of the Line (Scott's 3d vol., with plates), - 
The Ordnance Field Manual, ----- 

Napoleon's Maxims of War, ----- 

Instr\ictions for Heavy Artillery (with plates), - - •- 

The Quartermaster's Guide, - . - . - 

Notes on Artillery (with drawings), - - . - . 

Manual of Arms for Heavy Infautiy, . - . - 

Caiy's Bayonet Exercise and Skirmisher's Drill (with plates), 
The C. S. Ordnance Manual for 1803 (with plates), - 
Warren's Surgery for Camp and Field, - . - - 

Jomiui's Practice of War (translated from the French). "This very 
valuable work ought not to be separated from any Officer's Prayer 
Book in the Confederate States" — Moj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, " - 
New Pocket Map of Virginia, . - - - - 

Upon the receipt of the price of either of the above mentioned books, we will 
forward them, post paid, to any part of the Confederacy. 
Address orders to 

Booksellers and Puhlistiers, 145 Main St., Richmond. 

f 5 00 
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AURORA FLOYD; A Novel! IBy M. E. Braddon, author of 
"Danell Markham," "Lady Audley's Seofet," etc. 

Feuillet, .--.--. 

This is a newly revised and corrected translation from the French 
of a Novel which in beauty of simplicity, vies with the "Vicar 
of Wakefield." 

NO NAME; A Novel. By Wilkie Collins, author of "The Wo- 
man in White," "Queen of Hearts," etc. etc. 

This work is from the pen of one of the most gifted writers of the 
day; and "No Name" surpasses in beauty and vigor all of his 
former productiorjs. It is the most popular Novel of J863 — mag- 
nificent in plot, diction and nairation. 

A Novel. By Victor Hugo. — 10th thousand. Each 

These are the first and second of the five parts of Les Miserables. 
Competent critics, in both hemispheres, have pronounced Les 
Miserables to be the most powerful work of fiction of the nine- 
teenth century. 


Upon the receipt of the price, we will forward either of the above mentioned 

novels to any part of the Confederacy. 
Address orders to 

Publishers and Booksellers, 145 Main St., Riehmond. 

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Ladies' and Gent's Furnishing Goods, and Manufacturers of 
Boots and Shoes. 
STORE — Belvin's Block, on 12th, opposite Bank Street, Richmond, Va. 
G. DARBY. . I W. H. READ. | W. J. GENTRY. 


AUGUST, 1863. 







Sunday, - 






Monday, - 







Tuesday, - 
















Frid.\y, - 

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Ten Dollars a ye.\r. 

Si.x Dollars for six months. 


145 Main St., Richmond. 

C O KT T E OSr T S . 

Her Epitaph, 

Local Defence, • • ' - 

Federal Code of War— its Place in History, 

Traits of an Old Soldier — Marshal Suwariov 

Iron .Ship Building on the Mersey, 

Case of the Alexandra, 

Cavalry of the Federals and Confederates Contrasted. 

Address of President Davis to the Soldiers of the Confederate States, 

Niggers in New York — Foreign Complications — A Bill for Damages, 

Black List, ...---■ 

Confederate Patents, . . . . - 

Promotions, ...... 

Summary of News, ..... 

VoLyME I.] 


[Number 9. 



Glory unto the gallant Jjoys who stood, 

At Wagner, and, unflinching sought the van ; 
Dealing fierce blows, and shedding precious blood, 

For homes as precious, and dear rights of man! 
They've won the meed, and they shall have the glory; — 

Song, -with melodious memories, shall repeat 
The legend, which shall grow to themes for story, 

Told through long ages, and forever sweet ! • 
High honor to our youth — our sons and brothers, 

Georgijins and Carolinians, where they stand .' 
They will not shame their birthrights, or their mothers. 

But keep, through storm, the bulwarks of the land! 
They feel that they must conquer! Not to do it. 

Were worse than death — perdition ! Should they fail, 
The innocent races yet unborn shall rue it. 

The whofe world feel the wound, and nations wail! 
No! They must conquer in the breach or perish! — 

Assured, in the last consciousness of breath. 
That love shall deck their graves, and memory cherish, 

Their dee3s with honors that shall sweeten death ! 
They shail have trophies in long future hours. 

And loving recollections, which shall bo 
Gri:eu as the summer leaves, and fresh as flowers. 

That, through all seasons, bloom eternally! 


Their meirijiles shall be monuments to rise. 

Next those of mightiest imartyrs of the past ; 
Beacons, when angry tempests sft'eep the skies, 

And feeble souls bend crouching to the blast! 
A shrine for thee, young Chevcs, .well devoted, 

Most worthy of a great, illustrious sire; — 
A niche for thee, young Haskell, nobly noted. 

When skies and seas around thee, shook with firo! 
And others as well chronicled shall he ! — 

What though they fell with unrecorded name. 
They live among the archives of'the free, 

With proudest title to undying faiiie ! 

Tlie unchisell'd marble under which they sleep. 
Shall tell of heroes, fearless still of fate; ' 

Not asking if their memories shall keep, 
But, if they nobly served, and saved, the State ! 


For thee, young Fortress Wagner, — thou shalt wear 

Green laurels, worthy of the names that now, 
Thy sister forts of Moultrie, Sumter, bear! — 

See that thou lift'st, for aye, as proud a brow ! 
And thou shalt be, to future generations, 

A trophied monument ; whither men shall come, 
In homage ; and report to distant nations, 

A SHRINE, which foes shall never make a tomb ! 


Those desiring to communicate with prisoners or friends within the federal 
lines, will do well to study carefully the rigid requirements set forth below; 
which we copy from the Richmond Euqvrirer, as issued by the federal authorities : 

" In order to secure the transmission of letters across the lines, the following 
rules must be complied with : 

No letters must exceed one page of a letter sheet, or relate to any other than 
purely domestic matters. 

Every letter must be signed with the writer's name in full. 

All letters must be sent with five cents postage enclosed, if to go to Richmond, 
and ten cents if heyoid. 

All letters must be enclosed to the commanding general of the department of 
Virginia, at Fortress Monroe. No letter sent to any other address will be for- 

All letters sent to Fortress Monroe without a strict compliance with these rules, 
except for prisoners of war, will be transmitted to the dead letter oiEce." 

The same identical rules will he applied by Gen. Winder to all letters sent from 
the South to Fortress Monroe for parties in the United States. Parties who wish 
to correspond, should cut out and preserve this notice, as a failure to comply with 
it in one single particular, will consign their correspondence to oblivion. 

All letters to go North should be directed to " Maj. Gen. J. H. Winder, com- 
manding Department of Henrico, Richmond, Virginia," and should he endorsed 
"Flag of Truce." 

From Blackwood's Magazine. 


The interest attaching at pre.sent to questions of international law and to the 
rights of belligerents, will recommend the passages on those subjects which follow : 

If all the States in Europe were to concur in framing a general code of inter- 
national law, which should be binding on them all, and form themselves into a 

♦ Lord McKcnsio's Roman Law, witi Coniparalivo Vie 
ml hifotlaiid, by IjOrd McKenBie. oue of the J ' 

, EoglaiKi 



[August 13, ISGi 

Confederacy to eufovco it, this might te regardea as a positive law of nations for 
Europe. But nothing of this sort has ever- been attempted. The nearest ap- 
proach to such legislation is the general regulations introduced into treaties, by 
the great powers of Europe, which are biudiug on the contracting parties but not 
on the States that decline to accede to them. 

To settle questions between nations on the principles of justice, rather than 
leave them to the blind arbitrament of war, is the primary object of the European 
law of nations. Wlien war has broken out, it regulate.'? the rights and- duties of 
belligerents and the conduct of neutrals. 

As the weak side of the law of nations is the vrant of a supreme executive 
power to enforce it, small States are exposed to great disadvantages in disputes 
with' their more powerful neighbors. But the modem political system of Europe 
for the presBi-vation of th^ balance of power, forms a, strong barrier against un- 
just ao-gression. When the power of one great State can be balanced or kept in 
check, by that of another, the independence of smaller States is in some degree 
secured against both. For neither of the great powers will allow its rival to add 
to its strength by the conquest of the smaller States. 

By the declaration of the 16th of April 1856 the congress of Paris, held after 
the Crimean war, adopted four principles of international law : 
1st. Privateering is and remains abolished. 

2d. The neutral flag covers the enemy's merchandise', with the exception of 
contrabiind of war. 

3d. Neutral merchandise, with the exception of contraband of war, is not 
liable to seizure under an enemy's flag. 

4th. Blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective ; that is to say, must 
be maintained by a foice really sufficient to prevent approach to an enemy's 

This declaration was signed by the plenipotentaries of the seven powers 
who attended the congress, and it was accepted by nearly all the States of the 
world. But the United States of America, Spain and Mexico refused their 
assent, because they objected to the abolition of privateering. So far as these 
powers are concernal, therefore, privateering — that is, the employment of private 
cruisers, commissioned by the States, still remains a perfectly legitimate mode of 
warfare. Britain and the other powers who acceded to the declaration, are bound 
to discontitme the practice in hostilities with each other. But if we should have 
the misfortune to go to war with the United States, wc should not be bound to 
abstain from privateering unless the United Slates should enter into a similairand 
con'esponding engagement w'ith us. 

The freedom of commerce to which neutral States are entitled, does not extend 
to the contraband of war; but according to the principle,? laid down in the decla- 
ration of Paris of April 1856, it may now be said that a ship at sea is a part of 
the soil of the country to which it bcloug.s, with the single exception implied in 
the right of a belligerent to search for contraband. 

Wliat constitutes contraband is not precisely settled. The limits are not abso- 
lutely the same for all powers, and variations occur in partictilar treaties ; but 
speaking generallj-, belligerents have a right to treat a.s contraband, and to cap- 
ture all munitions of war and other articles directly auxiliary to warlike pur- 
poses. The neutral canier engages in a contraband trade when he convoys offi- 
cial dispatches from a person in the service of the euomy to the enemy's posses- 
sions ; but it has been decided that it is not illegal for a neutral vessel to carry 
dispatches from the enemy to his ambassador or his consul in a neutral Country. 
The penalty of cariying contraband is confiscation of the illegal cargo, and some- 
times condemnation of the t-.hip itself. 

The affair of the Trent West Indian mail gave rise to an important question of 
maritime law deeply affecting the rights of neutrals. In November 1861 Capt. 
Wilkes of the American war steamer San Jacinto, after firing a round shot and 
fl shell, boarded the English mail packet Trent in Old Bahama Channel on its 
passage from Havana to Southampton, and canied off by force Messrs. Mason 
and SlideU, two commissioners from the Confederate States, who were taken on 
board as passengers bound for England. The commissioners were conveyed to 
America and committed to prison ; but .after a fonnal requisition by Britain, de- 
claring the captiu-e to be illegal, they were sun-endered by the federal govern- 

The seizure of the commissioners attempted to be justified on two grounds 
by American writers: 1st. That the commissioners were contraband of war, and 
that in canying them the Trent was liable to condemnation for having committed 
a breach of neutrality. 2d. That at all events Capt. Wilkes was entitled to seize 
the commissioners either as enemies or rebels. Both these propositions are 
plainly untenable. 

In an able dispatch by the French government to the cabinet of Washington, 
M. Tlionvenal decl.ared that the seizure of the commissionors in a neutral ship, 

trading from a neutral port to a neutral port, was not only contrary to the law of 
nations, but a direct contravention of the jiriuciples which the United States li:"T 
up to that time invariably avowed and acted upon. Russia, Prussia and Ausii i:; 
officially intimated their concurrence in that opinion. ' 

To argue the matter on the legal points in opposition to the disinterested and 
well reasoned dispatch of the French minister, was a hopeless task. In an elabo- 
rate state paper, Mr. Seward, the American Secretary of State, professed to rest 
the surrender of the commissioners upon a mere technicahty: that there had 
been no formal -condemnation of the Trent by a prize court; but apart from this 
point of form, the seizure was -indefensible on the merits, as a flagrant violation 
of the law of nations ; and if the principle was not so frankly acknowledged by 
Mr. Seward as it ought to have been, some allowance must be made for a states- 
man who was trammelled by the report of his colleague Mr. Welles, the Secretary 
of the Navy, approving of the conduct of Capt. Wilkes, and still more by the 
necessity of adopting a policy directly contrary to the whole current of popular 
opinion in the Northern States. 

The Assemblies of the Church of Scotland and of the Free Church met at the 
same place and at the same time the past season, and were in session ten days. 
The subjects discussed were of unusual interest, but we fail to find any allusion 
to the churches of tlie same persuasion in America. Orthodox Scotland, with its 
strict adherence to doctrine, can have but little sympathy with the wild extrava- 
gances of New England theology. We gave in a recent number the discussion 
in Parliament on the Church of England, and we now ask attention to the fol- 
lowing : 

The Proceedings of the Gcntrnl Assemblies qf the Cfiurch of Scotland and of 
llic Free Church. 

Both of these met simultaneously, and possess this year an unusual degree of 
interest, from the importance of some of the questions raised, and the magnitude 
of several of the issues involved. In the General Assembly over which the liev. 
Dr. Craik of Glasgow was called to preside, the principal questions involved 
were the settlement of ministers, the innovations which have been made by cer- 
tain congrei'ations in the modes of worship, and the classical course of studies 
to be pursued by aspirants to the miui.stry. In the Free Church Assemhlf over 
which the Eev. Koderick McLeod of Suigort, in the Isle of Skye, was moderator, 
the leading questions were the project of a union, Presbyterian church, popery, 
innovations, &c. &f. 

In the Assembly of the. Established Chiu-ch the question of tlie settlement of 
ministers came up in various forms, and especially iu the "Dunbag case;" which 
the reverend court was called on to dispose of judicially. The intrusion of minis- 
tors into benefices by patrons against the will of congregations, has for many 
years been a ve.ved question in Scotland, and just 20 years ago it led to the me- 
morable disruption and to the formation of the Free Church. Immediately after 
that event au act of parliament, known as Lord Aberdeen's, was passed, giving' 
certain rights to congregations to object to the ministerial gifts and qualities of 
any " presentee." This act has since been the law of Scotland, although the de- 
cisions of the Assembly under it have, according to the accidental ])reponderance 
of one party or the other, been very contradictory in their tendency, at one time 
favorable, and at other times discouraging to popular claims. The " innova- 
tions" in the forms of worship formed the subject of a veiy long and keen de- 
I bate. For some years the old pastors of Presbyterian wcwship have been gradu- 
ally yielding to ontv.-.ird influences. Iu numerous congregations changes have 
been introduced, more or less assimilating to tire Episcopal forms of worship, 
The standing posture in psalmody has been adopted instead of sitting, and kneel- 
in" in prayer iastead of standing. In some cases instrumental music has been 
introduced, and an approximation to liturgical fonns has been attempted. 

The question was brought before the Assembly by Pressor Pine of Aberdeen, 
who, in moving the appointment of a committee of enquiry, deprecated these , ■ 
changes in forms, on the ground that while unimportant in themselves, they were 
often t^ precursors of changes in doctrine : that Presbyterian order was at an ^ 
end if individual ministers introduced such changes without authority of the 
church courts, and that such innovations tended to impair the peace and unity of 
the church. 

Professor Canford of Edinburgh objected to the innovations also, on the 
ground that such approximations to the showy and imposing ritual of the sister 
establishment would, lor one they conciliated, ahenate and offend hundreds of 
sturdy Presbyterians, and drive them into dissent. 

Dr. Bisset, ex-moderator of Asseinbly, said that all the " innovations" in ques- 
tion had his cordial suppoit. wljercver c(ingregaliiiiis were not divideil a.s tu inlro- 

AucrsT 13, 18G;3.] 



dvK-ing them. He boliovcd these clianges were not ibrliidilen either by the Biljle 
or church la\v, but on the contrary, were iu huniiony with scripture, conducive 
to devotion, and required by a feeling- wliich sprang from the depths of tlie hu- 
man souh He moved that the Assembly find that there is no case requiring their 
interference, but enjoin Presbyterians to see that no changes are introduced in- 
consistent with the laws of the church or subversive of the liarmony of con- 

A modified motion to appoint a committee to considertlie laws and usages of 
the church, aud the present practice of congregations in this matter, to report to 
the next Assembly, meantime enjoining' ministers and congregations to refrain 
from innovations which seemed likt!ly to impair the peace and harmony of con- 
gregations, was can'ied against Br. Bisset's, by 157 to 41. 

A. motion to appoint a committee to consider tlie old restriction of admitting 
ministers of other dcnuminatiou.s to ofliciaie in the pulpits of the church, was , 
carried at a later stage of the business, by S8 to 37. 

An i.mportaut recommendation in a report on the examiuation of students, was, 
that well selected connuittees of Assemblies placed at each of the university seats, 
should undertake the entrance examinations in arts, before beginning the theolo- 
gical course of study, which would devolve on Presbyteries. » 

Another proposal was to take a degree in arts as equivalent to an examination. 
These suggestions, before becoming law, must go down for the consideration 
of Presbyteries. 

The Free Church Assembly, after a nine liours' debate, resolved imanimously 
to appoint a committee to meet the committee chosen by the United Presbyterian 
Synod, to confer upon the subject of a imion of these two large and di.''senting 
bodies. The great question of discussion wre how, iu the event of a imi^ with 
a church holding voluntary principles, the Free Church was to vindicate its oft- 
asserted claims to be the true historical Church of Scotland, and to avoid surren- 
der of its theoretical principles in favor of the church and state. 

Dr. Guthrie preferred the union to any state alliance that could now be oil'ere'd, 
and held that the Free Church, by force of circumstances, was necessarily relaps- 
iug into voluntaryism. 

Dr. C'andlish, on the other hand, held that tlie Free Church, with its new ally, 
could still assert its historical position against the present establishment, aud 
would present to the world a thoroughly Calviuistic Presbyterian arid Non-Eras- 
tian church, prosecuting steadily the Lord's work, and uot led away by the temp- 
tation of an alliance with the broad church over the border, nor by an imitation 
of an Episcopalian system. 

Dr. Gibson and others feared that the Free Church should by this union aban- 
don its principles, and difficulties were stated arising from its icceptauce of state 
grants for education, and itg brotherhood with the Presbyterians iu Ireland, frorn 
whom their voluntary brethren had stood aloof The Assembly, however, United 
in a clause to the motion to appoint a co)nmittee, to the efiect that they should 
"have due regard to the principles of this church." 

-Ou receiving the report on popery, which expressed its regret at its increase in 
Scotland, chiefly from the influx of Irish, Dr. Candlish made mention of what he 
called the popish inscription on the " Cairn," erected near Balmoral, to the memory 
of Prince Albert. The inscription was taken from Solomon, chap. 4, v. 13, 14 ; 
"He being- made perfect, in a short time, fulfilled a lopg time. For his soul 
pleased the Lord, thereljoro hasted he to take him away from among the wicked." 

Dr. C. said ho did not blame her Majesty for this epitaph, but he did the small 
band of clergyjnen of influence at court, who have sought to place the Apocrypha 
and the Bible on the same level, in order to destroy the distinction between the 
panonical and the apocryphal books. " Surely, he said, these great divines, ad- 
vising our beloved Queen, in her distress, how to perpetuate the memory of her 
husband, might have found in the writings of the Apostle Paul ; or if they 
doubted him, in tlie recorded sayings of his Blessed Master, something more Ijope- 
ful, more pathetic than this wretched scrap of the Apocrypha. It is a thing which 
endures for ages, aud it is too bad that the Scottish nation, deeply sympathizing 
with our sovereign, and full of admiration of the illustrious prince, prematurely 
taken away, should for ages bo insulted by having on the flaming fore front of 
that monument, what Scotland cannot but regard as an offence to the Bible that 
she loves, and -to the religion, that she has inherited. 

The Free Church Assembly, after a long del.iate on iiino%-ations, appointed a com- 
mittee to consider the legislation of the church on the forms of worship. It did 
not appear there had hveja any changes introduced except as to pastors. In tliis 
respect the congregation of Dr. Guthrie had acted with-unaniniity. 

The conuniltees of the various missionary schemes reported large sums. 


It is not perhaps generally known that, besides the distiuction of having fur- 
nished to the United States the President \Yho dissolved their I'nion — the State 
of Illinois is entitled to the kindred honor of having hatched and cradled the 
party which elected him. It is true, notwithstanding, that this double glory be- 
longs to the State of Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglass — between whom, 
by the way, it is not easy to apportion exactly thft responsibility of having pro- 
duced the revolution through whicli we are now jiassing. 

In the year 1838 Stephen A. Douglass was an unsuccessful candidate for con- 
gross in Illinois. But, timugh defeated, he possessed in such measure the quali- 
ties most essential to political success in an unrestricted democracy, that his in- 
fluence daily increased with his party, and he was constantly advanced from one 
oflico to, until in the course of a few years he culminated in the Senate 
of the United States, and aspired, not without good foundation for his hopes, to 
the-pi'esideuey itself. 

During his whole career he was warmly and resolutely opposed by the whig 
party, which boasted of many able and eloquent champions : among whom may 
be named Col. Edward D. Baker, who was killed at the battle of Leesburg, and 
Mr. O. II. Browning, lately senator from Illinois, by the appointment of the 
governor. With them, as well as with Liucolu aud other prominent ^lolitjcians, 
Douglass fought many hard battles on the hustings; and one of them (Mr. 
Browning) was defeated first by Douglass himself, and afterwards by Mr. W. A. 
Eichardson, the successor, and it may be said the nominee of Dougla,ss, in two 
very obstinate contests for a seat in congress. So many struggles, so many dis- 
appointments, the efl'ect, in process of time, of identifying Douglass himself 
with the party which he represented, and of adding to inveterate political hos- 
tility a very strong feeling of personal hatred. It became the .one great purpose 
of his opponents to work his overthrow ; and, wliile thus feeding fat their ancient 
grudge against him, to destroy the strength of the host which, under his leading, 
had been so often victorious. 

As early as the fall of 1844, after the electioi^of Mr. Polk^vvas proposed by 
Mr. Baker to other leaders of the whig party, to abandon tne old issues, upon 
which they had so often done battle in vain, and to adopt something more popu- 
lar in its stead. At first, the idea met with little favor: for, whatever it has since 
become, the whig-party of that State was then sincere in its convictions, and stead- 
fast iu its policy. But by degrees the leaven of personal ambition begun to min- 
gle with the purer influences of patriotic principle : and the first effect was seen 
in the selection of General Taylor as a candidate for the presidency : not that he 
was himself unworthy of their choice, but that he was chosen avowedly for the 
sake of his militaiy renown, and of the political capital which it promised. His 
untimely death deprived his supportersi of the full benefit which they hoped te 
derive from his election : aud their nomination of Gen. Winfield Scott, another 
military chieftain, in 1852, followed by the triumphant success of his competitor. 
Gen. Franklin Pierce, proved beyond a doubt that the whigs could win nothing 
at that game, even when they held higher cards than their adversaries. 

Having thus abandoned the high ground of political principle, and being foiled 
on the lower level of political intrigue, the whig party of Illinois were at a loss 
what to do for the future; when, in an evil hour, the star of Kansas rose above 
the horizon, and shed its baleful light over a happy and peaceful country. Mr. 
Douglass, tempted to his ruin by the piggling fiend, unscrupulous ambition, seized 
the occasion to make a daring venture for southern popularity, by repudiating the 
compromises theretofore made between the slave and free states, and throwing 
open the whole territory to emigration from the slave states, irrespective of pa- 
rallels of latitude. Ho carried through his scheme, and reaped a fatal harvest as 
the fruit of his labor; full of deceitful promise for a brief space to himself and 
his deluded followers, but crumbling at last into dust and ashes. Through the 
whole north a raging fever was excited. The cry was at first for a restoration of 
the Missouri compromise: but, as might have been easily foreseen, it was soon 
exchanged for the sweeping declaration, that, so far from allowing slavery to be 
extended into nil the territories of the United States, it should enter iuto none of 
them, but be forever confined to those States in which it already actually existed. 
Now came the hour of temptation to the whig party of Illinois. Up to that 
period the abolitionists had been an msignificant, though an active and united 
poition of the population. They had been accustomed to run candidates of their 
own. more for the sake of marshalling their little force, than with any hope of in- 
fluencing the elections. To both of the great parties they were objects of con- 
tempt and derision : and to none of the leaders were they at once more obuox- 
ious and myore hostile than to Mr. Liucoln and Mr. Browning. But here was an 
opportunity to avail them.'ielves ,not only of the abolition sentiment, but of a 
much wider, thoug-h less feeling, iidiicli pervaded the mass of the whole 
people. Unwilling to disturb the actual relatious of the slave and free states, or 



[August 13, 1863 

to meddle with the domestic institutions of the South, tlie Northwest was still 
ready to be influenced by the sug-gcstions that the South had violated the com- 
pact, the South had assumed the aggressire, and that iu self-defence they were 
entitled to abridge the privileges heretofore accorded to the South. 

" The hour and the man" at this critical juncture, in the spring or early sum- 
mer of 1854, Mr. Joshua R. Giddings, of Ohio, one of the most notorious aboli- 
tionists in the Union, betook himself to Illinois ou an errand of political intrigue. 
Ho visited the chief cities, and confen-ed with the leading men. For the most 
part his councils were held with those of the whig party : and, notwithstanding 
the adhesion of a few distinguished democrats, and the refusal of as many dis- 
tinguished whigs to join him, it is to the whig party of that State that^the con- 
spiracy is to be charged which laid in ruins the American Union. Con.spiracy it 
deserves to be called — yet it was not done in a comer. The plan was hardly 
concealed iu its concoction ; and, no sooner was it agreed on and adopted, than 
it was openly avowed and advocated. The abolitionists and the whigs of 
nois coalesced, and unfurled the black republican banner: and in the contests 
with Mr. Douglass, waged beneath its folds in that State, Mr. Liucolu acquired 
the celebrity which led to his present elevation. 

In vain were remonstrance and warning urged upon them by those who op- 
posed the coalition. In vain was it pointed out to them, that they were setting 
in motion a force, which they would be powerless to direct or restrain — that the 
abolitionists, though the smaller party, being the most violent and extreme, 
would acquire the leadership of the whole, and draw after them their new allies — 
and that the result would be a di%ision of the country into sectional parties, North 
against South, abolition against slavery-, with the dissolution of the Union and 
civil war in prospective. How far they deceived themselves — how far they co- 
vered motives of ambition and revenge with the cloak of patriotic zeal for the 
public good, as they understood it — are questions which the Searcher of all hearts 
can alone fully determine. It is certain, however, that the course of events has 
verified the predictions which Avcrc made and disregarded. Step by.step, they 
were dragged along by the abolitionists, into whose hands they had committed 
theuisclves. The cloud, that waj no bigger than a man's hand, increased and 
spread until it daiWned the sky of the whole Union, The defeiit of Fremont in 
1856 made no abatement in the bitterness and obstinacy with which they prose- 
cuted their purpose, until in 1869 their efforts were crowned with triumph in the 
election of Mr. Lincoln. 

What has since followed is still worse. The war, begun under pretence of 
maintaining the Union, is now proclaimed to have for its end the conquest and 
subjugation of the South. Instead of respecting the constitution and the laws, 
they have trampled under foot their most sacred in'ovisions, aud violated the 
liberties even of their own people, in order to destroy those of the Confederacy. 
Having declared that the domestic instit«itions of the South should be respected, 
and the slaves retained in due obedience, they now seduc* them by fraud t>r seize 
them by force, and arm them in servile war against their masters. Private pro- 
perty is every where wantonly plundered or devastated — non-combatants, old 
men, women and children imprisoned or driven from their homes — and the in- 
famous design is announced aud acted upon, to reduce the South to submission 
by fire, sword and lamjne. But lime and space would fail in the attempt to de- 
scribe with what ingenuity of malice, of falsehood, of cruelty, the war has been 
prosecuted— how utterly our enemies have set at naught every recognized prin- 
ciple of civilized war, every maxim of moral law, every precept of the Christian 

Yet men, like Mr. Browning, gifted with distinguished talents, instructed by 
education, learned in constitutional law, refined by social intercourse, and pro- 
fessing the Christian faith, have not scrupled, through all these horrors, to sup- 
port and flatter the government which is guilty of them ! Such is the depth of 
degradation to which men, once honorable and humane, may be reduced by un- 
holy and unchastened ambition. Had it been foretold, nine years ago, that they 
would be brought to tliL-i pass, they would have answered in the words of Hazael, 
" Is thy servant a dog, that he should do this thing ?" Nevenhcless, like Ha- 
zael, they have been subdued to embrace the crime which wouW once havj? 
revolted their inmost souls, and are now committed to their evil courses, until 
ihey shall be averted by the vengfeance of insulted Heaven. 


A correspondent of the New York Herald, writing from the chief port of the 
Bahamas, gives the following account of that place, which Jias become a point 
of so much interest to the people of the South since the opening of- the war : 

Nassau is decjdedly a queer place. Although I am no stranger to foreign 
lands, and have been somewhat r,f a traveller iu my time, I hardly remember 

ever to have been so peculiarly impressed as by Nassau, with its quaint archi- 
tecture, its whiteness, and the oriental appearance of .its palm and cocoanut tnis. 
We arrived Iiere after an agreeable passage of four days on the steamer Covsii;i. 
from New York, at about four o'clock iu the afternoon ; and such a scene of con- 
fusion, so perfect a Babel, as existed for at least an hour and a half around the 
ship, I certainly never have witnessed. We anchored in the harbor, as is cus- 
tomary, and boats innumerable crowded aroimd to take off the passengers and 
their effects. Negroes, half naked, of all ages and sizes quairelled in an unnatural 
gibberish, hardly recognizable as English, for supremacy or priority of place, 
not, as we often seS, on the single principle of " every one for himself," but on 
the double principle, besides, of " eveiy one against every one else." 

Nassau is built on limestone. The houses are constructed of limestone. The 
streets are cut out of limestone ; and in short, the whole island is limestone, with 
fhe exception of trees, fruits and productions. Even the inhabitants partake 
of this character from their indolence of habit, and the peculiar porousness or 
power of absorption which thoy have shown since t'ne beginning of the rebellion. 
The quality of resplendent whiteness wliich is possessed by the pavements and 
streets to an unpleasant degree, quite blinding to the eye, is not however, a cha- 
racteristic of the population, the greater portion of whom are colored. As a 
stranger, I can sincerely testify that the residents are hospitable, fiiendly and 
obliging in the highest degree, and I look back with pleasure at having received 
many kindly favors from them. 

I have been astonished at finding the general order and quietness which pre- 
vail in this town. I had expected to find this hotbed of seces.sion sympathizers 
a hellhole of crime, vice, and all kintls of excesses ; and yet there arc only 
seventy-six policemen in the place, besides the garrison of four hundred and fifty 
men in the barracks and fortifications. Tlie blockade runners seem a very re- 
spcctajjle set of men, on the New'York principle, perhaps, that 'money makes 
the gentleman ;' and some of these parties, from captains to almost cabin boys, 
have picked up ^arge fortunes. The Royal Victoria is crowded, and we were till 
nine o'clock of the night of our arrival seeking a place to lay our heads. It 
was finally owing to the sympathy excited in the breast of our kind old lady 
hostess for our forlorn condition, and with the proviso that we should not expect 
pies and puddings, that we obtained a room. Whatever deficiencies there may 
have been in our accommodations were amply repaid by the kind attentions of 
our landlady. Wc arc on the outskirts of the town, witii a beautiful view and a 
cool breeze to make us happy and content. 

Nassau is, to some extent, fortified, and in case of war new fortifications would 
quickly be erected ; but a couple of Slonitors would soon render the place imtcn- 
able. In case of a war with England our only object in taking Nassau would be 
in depriving the enemy of a valu.nble entrepot and naval station off our coast. 
The harbor of Nassau is formed by a narrow strip of land — Hog island:— running 
parallel with the north side of New Providence island, about half a mile distant, 
thus giving an eastern aud western entrance, and forming a safe and eonuuodious 
harbor. There are in Nassaji about eleven thousand inlmljitants; in the whole 
Bahamas, thirty-eight thousand. The government of the Bahitmas is carried on 
by a Governor, appointed by the crown, and assisted by an executive council, 
by a legislative council, and a house of assembly. Tlie house is composed 
of twenty-five or twenty -six members, most of whom arc elected by the peo- 
ple, every one voting who "boils a pot," all of tlio members, even thoso 
representing the out-islands, residing in Nassau. Tlio government is repre- 
sented in the lower house by the Attorney General, Surveyor General, Colo- 
nial Secretary, Registrar and others, holding tb.eir seats ex-officio. The mem- 
bers of the legislative council or senate, five or six in number, are appointed by 
the Governor. By this arrangement the Governor possesses great power, aud, 
indeed, all the principal uieasuies emanate from him and the executive council. 
Thus, while great fnedoni is enjoyed by the people, tlie administration is carried 
on by the wiser and more inteliigent class, and the popular vote can hardly effect 
dangerous and revolutionary measures, but yields to wise aiul beneficent ones. 

One peculiarity of the island I must mention, aud will then close my already 
lengthy letter. The instruments of agriculture arc ven- simple. They consist 
of a crowbar and a hatcliet. ^^'ith these the surface of the land is cleaved away, 
and holes forced into tli<^ rock, in which holes corn is planted. I lately visiteA 
an orange grove, containing eighteen thousand orange trees. It is under the 
care of a young English clergyman, whcse church is close by, and who makes 
the farmhouse his parsonage, or, as lie styles it, his bachelor residence. He re- 
ceived us kindly and leil us around the promises. The tn'cs, incredible as it may 
seem, grow from out of tin; crevices of the rocks, or rather of the limestone of 
which the island is formed. On the U])la!id3 they atu not so vigorous ; but on 
the lands on a level with the sea (he trees bear so much fruit as to require to be 
propped up to prevent the branches from cracking. Wo were told of one tree 
from which three thousand oranges w'ore sold, and the top of the tree still un- 
plucked. The sole nutriineut they receive from the ground is the moisture per- 
colatiug the rooks below. The surface is barren and white. With such a 
climate and .so many of the blessings of Providence within their reach, can it be 
wondered at that the people are satisfied and happy .' 

July 5. — I append a postscript for tlie consideration of Americans at 
home. Our efficient repftsentative here, ;ictuiilly refused yesterday, on the 
Foiulli (if July, to hoist the Stars and Stripes nu the onsiilar flag-stnti, because, 
for.soiitli, our national emblem is too little respected hero. Comment is un- 

August 13, 1863.] 



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The first international result of the separation of the Southern from the North- 
ern States is the discarding of the Monroe doctrine. France, in the conquest of 
Mexico, has asserted the lalance of power among Europeim nations to be appli- 
cable to the American continent. To establish tliis in her own case, as against 
Great Britain and Russia and Spain, all having possessions on thi.s continent, 
she now controls Mexico. The independence of the C'lnfedcrate States, and 
their sTiccessful existence, as a check upon the United Stittes, i.s necessary to 
confirm this policy. We read with interest, therefore, tho fuUowiiig announce- 
ment of Napoleon's rule on our southern border: . 

General Forey appeared before Puebla on the 16th of March, and opened his 
parallels on the 2'id of that month. 

General Conioufort, who commanded the Mi.'xicau arinj' in the field, atlem]itpd 
to relieve the besieged garrison with a train nf .sii]iplies and munitions of war, but 
his forces were surprised and routed on the morning of the Hth of May. 

On tlie Jtjth of Jlay negotiations for capitulation commenced, and on the 17th 
General Ortega surrendered. 

The first news of the surrender of Puebla reached Mexico on the 19th of May, 
when the government immediately decreed the expulsion of the French residents 
from the city. 
9 On the 2'Jth of May the government abandoned the city,. the congress was ad- 
journed, and the inhabitants left to thcmsehes. 

On the first of June various public meetings were held, and the populatibn 
expressed its resolute purpose " to adhere to the new order of things." 

On the 5th of Juno Lt. Col. Patret entered the city of Mexico with a detach- 
ment from the French array, and occupied the palace. 

"The inhabitants now commenced preparations to celebrate the solemn entry 
of the whole army. Difierent committees of ladii'S and gentl(!mi!n had been sent 
to welcome the General, as well as Messrs. Almonte and Warquez. On the morn- 
ing of the 10th the city was dressed in gala habiliments; Ihe allied flags fluated 
over the public buildings, triumphal arches were prepiireil, and the walls of the 
houses were decorated with flags, curtains, flowers and mottoes. The people 
swarmed in from till quarters, tho bells were rnng, salutes of cannon and rockets' 
filled tho air, and there was rained down on the liberating army a shower of 

The conquering General proceeded to the cathedral, accompanied by the whole 
procession, and a solemn Tc Deuin was ofl'ered up in gratitude for the success of 
his arms. 

The following measures had been adopted for establishing a government in 
Mexico : 

1st. Don Manuel Garcia Aguirrc had been appointed political prefect of the 

yd. A city council, municipal prefect, mayor, wardens and. secretary had been 

ad. A decree, regulating the press, according to tho French law, had been 

Itli. A decree, -establishing a Junta Superior, r.nmposr.d of ihirty-five members, 
for tlir ^orr.rnmcnt of the licpublic of Mexiro. This Junta was to select three 
citizens to exereis" executive power. It was to as.sociatc with itself iil.'i deputies, 
elected by tl)e people. The whole body, thus constituted, wii^i to form an " As- 
semlily of Notables," who were to form a permanent constitntiou of govern- 
ment. This constitution was to bo adopted by a two-thirds vote, and if, at the 
end of three /Iriys, this majority could not be obtained for any sjiocified Ibrnv of 
govermnent, the Junta Superior was to dissohe the Assembly and proceed to the 
fariii/itlun, of anotlier. 

All the officials and mcml)ers of the .lunta Superior were appointed by General 
Forey, on tlie nomination of the French Minister, JI. de Salginey. In the 
mean time, the Junta Superior had elected the three members who were to hold 
the* e.xecutiw^ power, and the iiaiucs :ive .•igui!',c:iut in the extreme — General Al- 
monte, tho Archbishop of Slexico, and GeneritI balas — nil strong partisans of a 

The executive thus natned had been inaugurated amidst vehement cheers for 
Genertil Almonte, General Marquez, France, its Emperor, its Empress, and 
"the Mexican monarchy^ 


Mef.icans: — Is it ncces.sary that X shouljl again state to ynu for 
which the Emperor has pent to Mexico a ]iavt of 'Iris army ? Tlie procliunatioiis 
which 1 have addressed to you must ceitaiuly be known to you, mitwithstauding 

the .suspicious .policy of your government; and you are aware that our mag- 
nanimous sovereign, touched by your sad condition, lias Iiad but one obji:ct iu 
crossing the seas with his troops; to show you tin; noble slimdard of France, 
which is tho symbol of civilization. He has been right in thinking that at tho 
sight of that flag, those who were oppressing you in the name of liberty, would 
either be discomiittcd, or would ignominioiisly take to flight. 

Tho mission confided tti mo by the Emperor had a double: purpose. First: I 
was to bear, with the weight of our arms, upon the pretended victors of the .Oth 
of May J8(j2, and reduce to its proper value that event, to which the boastings 
of certain chieftains had attributed the proportions of a great victory. 

Next, I was to offer tht; aid of France to Jlexico in order to assist in forming 
for itself a government whicli should be the expression of its free choice — a go- 
vernment observant above all, of justice, probity, good faith in its foreign rela- 
tions, liberty at home; but liberty as il^ought to be understood, accompanied by 
order, respect for religion, for property, and for family. The rout of the hostile, 
forces wherever they have dared to meet our sabres or our bayonets, as well as 
the siege of Puebla, has given ample satisfiictiou to our military honor. 

Arriving with feeble means of attack before Ptiebla, which the late govemment 
had converted into a first class fortress, altd which it regarded as a bulwark 
against which all our efforts would be vain, and in which, according to its tisual 
vaunts, it declared we would find our grtives, we have forced it to surrender at 
discretion; and (what is extraordinary in the annals of military triumphs) a 
garrison of 20.00U men have been made prisoners, with all their generals, all their 
officers ; and have been forced, while still in possession of powerful resources 
(as we have been able to .satisfy ourselves), to abandon to us immense munitions 
of war. 

After tho fall of Puebla we were about to march on the capitid, where wc were 
told serious resistance was preptired. We had powerful means of overcoiuiiig 
this resistance, and victory, faithful to the banner of Fnince, was not iloubliul. 
But God would not permit further effusion of blood; ami the government, which 
well knew that it would not be supported by the people of this capital, has not 
dared to await our arrival behind its ramparts. It has shamefully fled, leaving 
this great and beautiful city to itself. If it still ([Uestioned the general repro- 
bation of which it was the object, the events of the lOtli of June l^fiii, which 
now belong to history, must have destroyed all delusion, and huva satisfied it of 
its inability to preserve the fragments of a power which it has so deplorably 

The military question is then at an end. 

The political question remains. 

The solution, Mexicans, depends on you. Unite in senjiments of fraternity, 
concord, true patriotism. Let all honest men, all moderate citizens, of" all opi- 
nions, fuse themselves into a single party, that of order. Rij<Sfr, as petty and as 
unworthy of you, the desire of a partisan victory over each other. Look at things 
from a loftier sl.and-point, abandon your names of liberals, of reactionaries, which 
only engender hate, perpcttiate a Siiirit of vengeance — in a word, excite all the 
btni passions of the human heartv Determine, above all things, to be Mexicans, 
and t*i make of yourselves a nation united, and, therefore, stroug, great, because 
you have all the elements necessary for this end. 

It is for this that we come to aid you; and we will succeed in creating, toge- 
ther, a dur;ible order of things, if, comprehending the true itilerests of your coun- 
try, you enter resolutely into the designs of the Emperor, which I am instructed 
to explain to you. 

Thus, henceforth tliero will be'exacted no forced contribtttions, no requisitions 
of tmy kind, or on any pretext. There will be no exaction comnutted without 
the punishment of the guilty. 

Tlie property and persons of the citizens will he under the safeguard of the 
laws and of the officers of the government. 

The owners of national estates, who bought them regularly and in conformity 
with law, shall not be disturbed, but shall remain in possession of the property: 
fraudulent sales alone will be subject to revision. 

The jn-ess will be free, but regulated according to tho system of warnings es- 
tablished in France. Two warnings will result in the suppression of the ))ai)er. 

The recruiting of the army will be conducted on' a moderate system, putting 
an end to the odious custom of seizing by force and dragging from their families 
the Indians and fitrm hiborers, that interesting class of the popidation whoare 
new IVjrced in tlie ranks, with the rope iiround their necks, and who, therefore, 
only afl'ord the sad spectacle of soldiers without patriotism, without devotion to 
their flag, always ready to desert, or to quit one chief for another. And this is 
easy to conceive, for tho reason that there is in Mexico no national army, but 
bauds, under the orders^^ambitious chieftains, who wrangle for a power which 
they use only lor the total destruction of the resources of the country, by appro- 
priating to themselves the wealth of others. 

Taxes will be regulated, as in civilized countries, so that their burden shall 
fall on all tho citizens in proportion to their fortunes; and examination will be 
made, in order, if practicable, to suppress certain taxes on consumption, more 
vexatious than productive, and which afl"ect principaUy tho poorest producers in 
thi' country districts. 

All agents who have the disposal of public funds will bo suitably eompc^nsated ; 
but thiise who fail to discharge their functions -with the probity and jntcgrity 
which the State has the right to require of them, will be displaced, besides bving 
punished fVfr any misconduct of which they may be guilty. 

The Catholic religion should be respected, and tlie bishops restored to their 
bishoprics. 1 will add, that tho Emperor would be pleased if it were possible 
tor the government to proclaim freedom of worship,' that great principle of mo- 
dern society. , . , ^T I. 1 r 

Enero-etic measiwes will be adopted for repressing brigandage, tjiat plague ot 
Mexicor\vhicli makes of it a country exceptional in the world, and paralyzes all 
commerce, all enterprises of public or private utility, which cannot prosper with- 
out security. . , . , .. ^-u ^ .,. i n 

Courts will be so organized as to render justice with integrity, so that it shall 
no louo-er'bc bought by the last and hiu-liest bidder. 

Such are Ihe essential principles on v-hioh will rest.the government to be estab- 
lished. They are those of the most distinguished peoples of Europe. They twe 



[Aur.usT 13, 1863 

those •wliicli the new goTernment of Jlexico must endeavor to follow with jicrse- 
veiaiice and energy, it it desires to assume a place among civilized nations. 

This second part of my task can only bg accomplished by me, if I am seconded 
by good Mexicans. 

Therefore, I will not conclude this manifesto without making appeal to concili- 
ation. I invoke the concuiTence of all intelligences ; I ask jjarlics to disarm, and 
henceforth to use theii" strength, not jn pulling down, but in building up. I pro- 
claim forgetfnlness of the past, a complete amnesty for all who will rally in good 
faith ai'oiund the government which the nation^ ireely consulted, will establish 
for itself. 

But I pronounce enemies of their country those who shall show themselves 
deaf to my conciUatory voice, and I will pursue tbem wlierever they may take 

Done in Mexico, this i2th June 1863. . 

Maj. Gen., Senator, Com. in Chief Mczienn Expedilion, 

The following is the text of the dispatch from Gen. Forey, received by the 
French Minister of War : 

Mexico, June 10, 1863. 

I have just entered the city of Mexico at the head of the army. With a heart 
still agitated by the event, I address this di.spatch in haste, to your Excellency 
to inform yon that the whole population of this city received the army with an 
enthusiasm that bordered on delirium. The soldiers of France were literally 
crushi-J under the showers of garlands and bouquets. Only the entrance of the 
army into Paris on the 14th of July 1859, when returning from Italy, can give 
ail idea of the scene. I have been present witli all tlie officers of tlio staff, at a 
Te Deum in the magnificent cathedral of this capital, that was throsiged by an 
immense crowd. The army then, in admirable condition, defiled before me with 
cries of " Vivo V Empereur I Vive riinpcratrir.c.'." 

After the review I received an address -from the authorities at the Palace of the 
government. This population strongly desires order, justice and true liberty. In 
my replies to their representatives I have promised them these in the name of the 

By the earliest opportunity I shall have the honor of giving you fuller details 
of this reception — unequalled in history — which has all the importance of a po- 
litical event, and of which the celebrity will be enormous. 

From the correspondence of the London Times. 

Mexico, June 11, 1883. 

General Forey made his triumphal entry into Mexico yesterday at the head of 
about fifteeen thousand, men. Alter marching through the principal streets he 
alighted at the cathedral and heard " Te Deum;" after which he stationed himself 
in front of the palace, and all the troops defiled before Ijim amidst loud shouts of 
" lice VEmjiereur .'" His reception could scarcely besaidto be enthusiastic; still 
triitmphal arches were erected, flowers were showered down upon him, balconies 
were filled with ladies, and the \vhole of the population seemed to have tui'ned 
out, if for no other puipose, at all events to gratify their curiosity. 

Considering the Mexican people are never very demonstratire, and that an oc- 
casional " viva" is the utmost e.-cpression of feehng they ever indulge in, I think 
the French have every reason to be satisfied with the reception given them. The 
General, in reply fo an address pres.-nted him by sonic of the jirincijial inhabi- 
tants, after alluding to tlie benevolent intentions of the Emperor, made use of 
the following remarkable expression : — " Nous nc vouloiis point <lr reaction, point 
de partis, nous rotdons V anion ct la pair." If this union can but be brought 
about, it will indeed be a blessiug tor Mexico. It is presumed that Ihrng 
columns will at once be sent in the direction of Guauuxuato and San Luis ; ff 
this be done without loss of time, Juarez and his party will not have leisure to 
organize any serious resistance, and it is more than probable that some of the 
principal toxvns of the interior will declare in favor of intervention. A report is 
cuirent this morning that San Luis has already "pronounced;" but I think it 
is premature. It was only on the 29th ult. that Juarez finally made up liis 
mind to abandon the capital. Ou the following day Congress met and passed a 
law declaring San Luis the capital of the republic, and on the same day the 
Aynntiaiuento was apprised that the city of Jlexieo was handed over to their 
safe k-eeping. The Ayuntiamento, feeling the insecurity of their position, at 
once appealed to the foreign residents, and the latter mustering about 1,000 effec- 
tive men nobly answered the appeal. Night and day were patrols kept up 
through every part of the city, and ihLs harassing duty lasted seven days, for it 
was not until the 6th of June that Gen. Bazaiiie was able to send troops to gar- 
rison the city. I regret to say that in this emergency little or no assistance was 
afifordcd by the Mexicans themselves; all was left to the foreign population. 
Juarez started on Sunday the 31st of Jiay. He took with him seven thousand 
troops and one million fivi- hundred thousand dollars in specie. As long as the 
money lasts the troops will stick to him ; but that gone, the poor President will 
find himself almost without a f.illower. 

A small rifled cannon, taken at Puebla, is oflered to the Priuce Imperial by the 
army of Mexico. 


The June number of Orion, a new German magazine, edited by Mr. Adolph 
Strodtman, and published at Hamburg, contains a number of spirited translations 
from some of the younger Amc-riean poets. The writers selected are of course 
all Yankees, and these not by any means the most distinguished at home. Biiy- 
ard Taylor, E. H. Stoddard, E. C. Stedman and John A. Do.-gan (the latter an 
occult poet to us) are among them. Herr Strodtman, who, a Yankee critic tells 
us, " has the whole periodical literature of America at heart" (whatcver'that may 
be), has probably never heard of Timrod, Simms, Pike, Ilayuc, Meek, Eandall, 
Flash and other poets of the ConfVaerate States. 

The third part of Bishop Colenso's work on the Pentateuch has just appeared, 
in Loudon. It treats of the origin and authorship of the book of Deuteronomy, 
and attempts to show that " tl.ere are plain signs that the book was not written 
by the same author or authors bj- whom the main portion of the Pentateuch was 
composed," and that Jeremiah was possibly the writer of Deuteronomy. In the 
preface Bishop Colenso es.says to answer the criticism written by the Bishop of 
Oxford upon the first and second parts, which have, it is said, called out no less 
than seventy-five controversial volumes on the subject in England, besides an 
enormous outpouring of less solid criticism in periodicals of every size an3 

The Priuce of Wales having intimated recently to the University of O.xlbrd his 
desire that the Rev. Charles Kingsle}', his chaplain, should receive the honorary- 
degree of doctor of civil law, the latter was so strongly objected to by the cele- 
brated Dr. Pusey, on account of his presumed heretical views in the romance of 
" Hypatia," that his name was withdrawn. 

"Lady Audley's Secret," of which 132,000 copies are said to have been sold in 
London (who will may believe this), has been translated and dramatized in Paris 
by M. Bernard Derosne, the husband of Mdlle. Judith, the well known actress. 
He wrote to its, authoress, Miss Braddon, to obtain some particulars of her life, 
and she answered him in a ple:isant note, in which she laughingly denied having 
committed the crimes of Aurora Floyd and Lady Audlej'; and said that her life 
had been so calm, so tranquil, so free from incidents, that really she liad nothing . 
to mention, and could only reply like the Needy Knife-Grinder, "Story! Lord 
bless you! I have none to tell, sir!" "I began my literary career' (slie says), 
with, a little comedy entitled ' The Loves of Arcadia,' which was played at the 
Strand theatre in 1830; next I wrote a volume of poems in 18G1. This comi^dy 
and this volume of poetry were followed: Firstly, by 'The Trail of the Serpent;' 
secondly, ' Lady Li.->le ;' thirdly, ' Tlie Captain of the Vulture ;' fourthly, ' Ralph 
the Bailifl:';' fiilhly, 'Lady Audley's Secret;' sixthly, 'Aurora Floyd;' all of which 
made their first appe:irance in periodicals. Besides these novels, I have at the 
same time edited a monthly review and a weekly review, and I wrote anony- 
mously a great many articles for the latter. I am now writing, as you know, 
'John Marchmani's Legacy,' and ' Eleanor's Victory.' The former is published 
in Temple Bar, the latter in Once a Week. In enumerating the titles of my 
lio»ks, I have given you tlie liistcry of my life, at least to the present time." 
She then payaa compliment to Balzac and Bulwer, and, laying her hand on her 
heart, modestly concludes by saying that she is inexpressibly flattered by the 
public favor, which has exceeded her wildest hopes. 

M. Girardin proposed hitel^', in La Piesse, in a public subscription to pay off 
M. Lamartini''s debts in the name of his wife, then just deceased,. The moment 
Lamartine heard of it, lie wrote to him : " In the name of Heaven and of our 
excellent friendship, stop; say not another word ou that subject." This «as 
plucky for Lamartine, certainly, but not very consoling for his creditors. 

Victor Hugo wrote Lamartine on his bereavement as follows: 

HaitwelleHoise, 23d May. 

My De.ui L.\martinb — A great misfortune has overwhelmed you. I must 
place my heart near yours. I venerated her whom you loved. Your lofty mind 
sees beyond the horizon; you distinetly perceive human life. It is not to a man 
like you that (me hath need to say, hope! Yim are among them who know, and 
who ^^•ait. She is still your companion, invisible, bnt jiiesent. You have lost 
the woman, but not the soul. Dear friend, let us live in the dead. 
"*• Tuus, 

Victor Hugo. 

A Frenchman must bo a Frenchman even in a letter of condolence. 

The first and second volumes of "The Life of Cjesar," by the Emperor Na- 
poleon, are said to bo in the hands of his jirinter. It will be illustrated with 
maps, plans of battles, portraits, numismatic engravings, and sketches of scenery 
and buildings. The royal author is said to have been engaged over six years 
upon it, meaning, wo presume, all his spare time during that period. 

Mr. W. E Gladstone, the English chancellor of the exchequer, has just pub- 
lished a translation of "Homer's First Book." 

Messrs. Longman & Co. announce a new English dictionary, founded on that 
of Dr. Johnson; his last edition,- that of 1773, to be the basis. Todd's additions 
will be adopted, and all words of recent introduction, whether obsolete or newly 
formed, will be introduced. 

Dr. Conolly, one of the most eminent English physicians, who has devoted 
himself to the treatment of insanity, ha:; just published a book on "The Mad- 
ness of Hamlet." His main purpose is to combat the idea that Hamlet's madness 
was merely feigned, and to show that Shakespeare's real notion was to represent 
in Hamlet a peculiar and medically known kind of actual insanity, and that in 
canying out tliis notion he has succeeded jieifectly. This theory he endeavors 
to prove by a detailed examination of the pi.-iy, act by act. Hcshows that there 
are various passages in the drama which seem to assert distinctly that Hamlet is 

August 13, 1863.] 



only feigiiingf miiclness, and tboug-h in tlio course of his conduct lie must bo sup 
posed as now and then putting on a form of madness not his own, jet, ou all Hk^ ' 
principles of human nature and dramatic consistency, the theory of feigned mad- 
ness tiiroughont becomes untenable and repulsive, and must give way to a theory 
of real madness, or unhinging of the mind, partly constitutional and partly 
brought about by sudden circnmstanccs, and one of the characteristic peculiarities 
of which is that it plays with the very idea of madness. Commenting on the 
strange letter of Hanrlot to Ophelia, read by Polonius to the King, Dr. Conolly 
says : " The style of the letter has so singular a resemblance to that of insane 
persons* of an intellectual character, but disturbed by insanity, as almost to 
justify the supposition that Shakespeare had met with some such letter in the 
curious case books of his son-in-law. Dr. Hall, of Stratford-upon-Avon." That 
Dr. Hall kept such a book, we know ; but unfortunately what remains of it only 
chronicles his practice after Shakespeare's death. ^ 

Mr. E. A. Pollard's " First Year of the War" has been announced in Loudon, 
and a Yankee edition of it has ajjpeared from the press of C. Benjamin Richard- 
son of New Y'ork. The " Second Year of the War" has been for some time 
ready for publication, but has been unavoidably delayed. The well known busi- 
ness energy of Messrs. West & Johnston affords a satisfactory assurance of its 
forthcoming at the earliest possible moment. 

We are indebted to these pidjlishers for " Aurora Floyd," reprinted in beau- 
tiful style from the London edition, and Cosette, the second volume of Les Mise- 
rables of Victor Hugo. 

Two pamphlets of great interest and value have just appeared in this city ; 
the one a letter to the Southern Educational Conveution, held on the 25th April' 
last at Colum'oia, S. C, in which the question of "Education after the War" is 
discussed with ability and learning by Professor Edward S. Joynes. The other, 
a lecture, delivered before the Y''oung Men's Christian's Association of Richmond, 
by Hon. John Randolph Tucker, and entitled "The Southern Church justified 
in its support of the South in the present War." The argument of Mr. Tucker 
■will be read with pleasure, for its excellences of style and clearness of statements, 
and it will -be preserved as a triumphant vindication of Southern Christians in 
their noble exertions on behalf of the Confederacy. Mr. Joynes' letter has been 
reprinted in the Southern Literary Messenger for August, in wliich the History 
of the War, by R. It. Howison, is continued.- 

Messrs. Ayres & Wade have just issued The Life of Jackson, by John Estcn 
Cooke. Their orders for the work, in advance of its appearance, cover nearly 
the whole of the first edition. 

Henry Timrod, the poet, of South Carolina, has ju^t been elected secretary 
and treasurer of the board of supeiTisors of the High School of Charleston. 

The first number of the Soutlicrn Punch made its appearance in this city on 
Monday last. The illustrations are good, and the editorial columns hear witness 
to the taste and talent of the editor — J. W. Overall, Esq. 



The following letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, with i-egard to the de- 
straction of cotton belonging to the government, which is likely to fall into the 
hands of the enemy, has been made public : 

Treasury Department, C. S. A. 
Richmond, July 15, ]a63. 
Hon. J. A. Scddon, Secretary of War : 

SrR — The fall of Vicksburg and Port Hudson exposes to the enemy the cotton 
purchased by the government in Mississippi and Louisiana. I learn that many 
of the planters in whose care this cotton was' will probably leave their planta- 
tions, so that there will be no person to whom the duty can be entrusted of pre 
serving the cotton, if it can be preserved, or of destroying it where it is likely to 
fall into the hands of the enemy. 

Under circumstances, I would respectfully submit that the subject should 
he placed under the control of the commanding generals, imd that they be in- 
structed to destroy all such cotton as cannot be preserved from the hands of the 

With much respect, your obed't serv't, 

C. fi. Memminger, 

iSec'v/ of the Treasury. 

Uncle Moreau, a very remarkable negro, born on the banks of the Senegal 
river in Western Africa, of the tribe of the Fulabs, died in Wilmington, N. C, a 
few days ago, at the great age of 93. His name was originally Omei-oh, and he 
was brought to America just before the abolition of the slave trade iu.1807. He 
spoke and read Arabic, and was-a devout Mussulman for some years after his ar. 
rival in this country, but finally embraced the Christian religion, and connected 
himself with the Presbyterian church in Fayetteville. He was tlie property of 
of Gen. Owen at the time of his death. 

Gen. Johnston, we learn from the Mobile Register, )ias expregsed the most 

favorable opinion of the defensibility of Mobile, and proclaimed his intention of 
holdiug it to the last extremity. 

Governor Lctch(y has called by proclamation an extra session of the Virginia 
Legislature, to convene in this city on the first Monday in September. 

Tho conference committees of the New and Old School Presbyterian church in 
the Confederacy have unanimously agreed upon a plan of union, and recommend 
it to tho adoption of the two religious organizations. 

One thousand and eighty soldiers charged with desertion have been liberated, 
under the recent amnesty of the President, from the military prisons of this city, 
and sent back to the regiments to which they respectively belonged. 

The following noble letter, with the articles mentioned in it, has been received 
by a lady of Richmond engaged in the patriotic duty of ministering to thfe sick 
and wounded soldiers : 

Dear Madame — By Captain Wilkinson, the otficere and crew of the Florida 
send, for the sick of our gallant army, 16 boxes of tea and 9 bags of coffi^e; also 
a few boots and shoes. Please distribute in accordance with your knowledge of 
the wants of each hospital, and believe me 
Y'ours, most respectfully, &c. 

J. N. Mafpit, 
Com'g C. S. Steamer Florida, off Bcrmmla, at Sm, .Jidy l.'j, ]8n3. 

Col. A. C. Myers has been relieved of duty as Quartermaster General of the 
Confederate States, and Brig. Gen. Lawton of Georgia has been appointed in his 

The Telegraphic Reports of the Press Association of the Confederate States 
have been copyrighted, and will be published in monthly parts, in book form, for 
binding, at the price of one dollar a month. 

On Wednesday, the 5th inst.. General Stuart, during the withdrawal of Gen. 
Lee's army to this side of the Rapidan, attacked three brigades of federal troops 
near Brandy Station, and after an obstinate fight of several hours, forced them 
to retire. Our loss was six killed and eighteen wounded. On the same day a 
fleet, consisting of one monitor iron clad and two wooden gun boats, ascended 
the James river, and on reaching Cox's v/harf near Varina, were assailed by the 
explosion of submerged torpedoes, and the leading guu boat badly damaged. 
The fli;et then retreated down the river, with the disabled gun boat in tow, 
making veiy slow progress, and was fired into by our shore batteries of light 
artillery at Deep Bottom and Turkey island at daybreak the next morning. 
Large quantities of floating tindjer in the river attested the accuracy of aim of 
our artillerists. It is believed that all the vessels were more or less injm-cd. The 
enemy's fleet has not been seen since higher up the river than City Point. 


A terrific storm occurred a few days ago in the region round about Reading, 
Pa.' The destruction of property, and especially of the growing crops, was 

The Union candidate for Governor has been elected in Kentucky, by a large 
majority. The election was conducted under the rigorous military authority of 
Qen. Burnside, and no one suspected of disloyalty was permitted to vote. 

The editor of the Baltimore American, writing to that journal from the bom- 
barding federal fleet off Charleston; on the 1st of August, predicted the fall of 
Fort Sumter within ten days. 

The draft in New England in some districts gives only about ten per cent, of 
the total number drawn, to I he federal armies. Out of 1,135 drafted in the 4th 
district of Boston, only ten men were passed as fit for, or chargeable with duty, 
while 108 oftered substitutes, and the residue were either exempted or paid -their 
$ 300. The conscripts and substitutes make up so fugacious and untrust- 
worthy a l«vy, that large detachments of the regular army are required as a guard 
to keep them from running off. Governor Seymour ot«New York is preparing to 
test the constitutionality of the conscription. 


In the House of Commons on the 22d, the subject of the foreign enlistment 
act -(vas introduced by Mr. Cobden, who referred to the proceedings of the steamers 
Alabama, Florida and Virginia, all of which were built in British ports for the 
Southern Confederacy. He said it -was well known that two iron clad ships 
were being built at Liverpool for the same purpose, and he believed that if they 
were allowed to leave England, the result would be a declaration of war on the 
part of the American government. American shipping had become valueless, in 
consequence of the seizures made by the confpderat_B cruisers. He implored the 
government to take the proper stops to prevent the departure of these vessels. He 
I had been infora-ied that the American government took note of the value of every 



[August 13, 1863 

vessel captured by tlie soiithem privateers, and debited it tu her MiijcsTy's 

Mr. Laird, in response, taunted Mr. Cobden with pursuing a course which, 
wliile it would miable his friends in the North to get all they wanted, would put 
a slop in England to a legitimate branch of industry. He accused the Americans 
of having built ships of war for Russia during the Crimean war, and with raising 
recruits in Ireland since the outlneak of the present conflict. 

Lord Palmerston deleudi'd the course which the government had taken, and 
said he could see no distiuction of principle between the seUing* of arms to the 
Federals and the shipping of ships to the Confederates. 

Letters from Hon. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy, to Hon. Charles 
Sumner, are published in the English journals. They refer to Mr. Laird's state, 
ment in parliament, that his -firm had been approached in J 881 by tlic agents of 
the federal government relative to the building of war vessels for the North. Mr. 
Laird asserts neither directly nor indirectly that any application was made by his 
(Mr. Welles) authority to the Messrs. Laird, or any other foreign ship builders, 
for the construction of vessels for the American government. Advances had 
been made to him, however, on behalf of numerous English and other foreign 
shipbuilders; but in every instance the proposition to build, or procure to be 
built, vessels for the federal navy abroad, was declined. 

Mr. Larird asserts tliat he is prepared to maintain the truth of his former state- 
ment, and ofifers to place the proof in Lord Palmerston's hands. 

An apostolic letter, addressed by his Holiness Pope Pius IX to Archbishop 
Hughes of New York, and dated at St. Peter's, August 18, 1862, has just been 
published in America. The venerable pontiff exhorts the iiery bishop to peace- 
ful counsels, and advises a conference with the Archbishop of New Orleans, with 
the view of bringing about the end of the struggle between the United and the 
Confederate Slates. 

The Queen's speech proroguing Parliament contains tho following reference to 
the American struggle : " Civil war continues in America. It inflicts much evil 
not only on the contending parties, but on other nations. We see, however, no 
reason to depart from our strict neutrality." 

t. a, So 

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's's "ii,' 'i'i'ii, i, -ft ■s?! 


1 b- 

%MUyS tUi 111 







If •== : = = 2 

!si 1 

^11 ?. 






Published by WEST &■ JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond : 

The Judge Advocate's Vade Mecuni, - - - - $ Ti mi 

Gilham's Manual (new edition, with plates), - - - -, >^ <a\ 

Mahau's Permanent Fortifications (with plates), 2 vols. - - 20 (lU 

Mahan's Field Fortifications (with plates), - - - - 3 (lit 

Patten's Cavalry Drill (with plates), • - - - - 1 50 

C. S. Army Regulations (authorized edition), - - - :J 00 

Lee's Volunteer's Hand Book, 1 00 

The A''olunteer's Camp and Field Book, - . . 75 

Roberts' Hand Book of Artillery, - - - - - 1 50 

Gilham's Field Artillerv, - - - - - • 50 

The School of the Guides, 1 00 

Richardson's Evolutions of the Lino (Scott's 3d vol., with plates), - 3 00 

The Ordnance Field Manual, - - - - - 2 00 

Napoleon's Maxims of War, - - - - - ] 00 

Instrutriions for Heavy Artillery (with plates), ... 5 00 

Tlio Quartenjaster's Guide, - - - - - 1 00 

Notes on Aiiillery (with drawings), - - . - . 50 

Manual of Arms for Heavy Infantry, .... 25 

Gary's Bayonet E.xercise and Skirmisher's Drill (with plates), - 1 00 

The C. S. "Ordnance Manual for 1863 (with plates), - - . - 8 00 

Warren's Surgeiy for Camp and Field, - - - - 5 00 
Jomini's Practice of War (translated from the French). " This very 
valuable work ought not to be separated from any Ofiicer's PraJ'er 

Book in the Confederate States" — Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, - 1 50 

New Pocket Map of Virginia, - - - - - 2 50 
Upon the receipt of the price of either of the above mentioned books, we will 
forward them, post paid, to any part of the Confederacy. 
Address orders to 


Booksellers and Pnllishers, 145 Miiin St., Jlklimo/id. 



$3 00 

AURORA FLOl'D; A Novel. By M. E. Braddon, author of 

"Darrell Markham," "Lady Audley's Secret," etc. 

Feuillet, ....... 150 

This is a newly revised and corrected translation from the French 

of a Novel which in beauty of simplicity, vies with the "Vicar 

of Wakefield." 
NO NAM E ; A Novel. By WiLKlE Collin.*, author of " The Wo- 
man in White," " Queen of Hearts," etc. etc' . - 4 00 
This work is from the pen of one of the most gifted writer.s.of the 

day; and "No Name" suipasscs in beaiity and vigor all of his 

fi.rmcr productions. It is the most popular Novel of 1863 — mag. 

niticeut in ]ihpt. diction and naiTation. 

A Novel. By Victor Hugo. — U'lh thousand. Each . 2 00 

These are the first and s^oud of the five parts of Les Miserables. 

Competent critics, in both hemispheres, have pronounced Les 

Aliscrablcs to be the most powerful work of fiction of the nine. 

trcnth century. , 


Upon the receipt of the price, we will forward either of the above mentioned 
novels to any part of the Confederacy. 
Address orders to 


Puldisliers and BoohselUrs, 145 Main St., Ricliinond. 

t - By WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond: 

Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests, Medical, Economical and 
Agricultural, being also a Medical Botany of the Couledcrato States, 
with practical inlbrmalion on the useful properties of Trees, Plants 
and Shrubs — By Francis Peyre Porcher, Surgeon P. A. C. S. — Pub- 
lished by order of the Surgeon General, Richmond, - - $10 00 

The American Union — its efl'ect on National Character and Policy, with 
an enquiiy into Secession as a Constitutional Right, and tlio Causes 
of the Disruplurc — By James Spence — First American edition, from 
the fourth English edition, . - . - - - 2 00 

Chief Points in the Laws of War and Neutrality, Search and Blockade, 
with the Changes of 1850, and those now proposed — By Jno. Eraser 
MacQueen', Esq., one of her Majesty's Counsel, . . . . 1 00 

The Stonewall Song Book, beiug u Collection of Patriotic, Sentimental 

and Comic Songs, ....... 50c. 

The Pictorial Primer, desigiied for the Use of Schools and Families — 

Illustrated, ........ 50c. 

The First Year of the- War— twentieth thousand— By E. A. Pollard, 3 00 

Upon recei)it of the price of any of the above mentioned Books, we 

will forward them to any part of the Confederacy, post paid. 
Address orders to 


Puldishers and Bonksellers, 145 Main St. IHrlimoftd 

DARBY, READ & GENTRY, De.ilers ix Boot.-;. Siioe.s, Le.vtiier, 
L.\D!Es' AND Gent's Fuksi.siiing Goods, and M.\xufacturers op 
BooT.s AND Shoes. 

STORE— Belvin's Block, on 12th, opposite Bank Street, Richmond, Va. 

Engraver and Designer in General, 

101 Main st. Richmond, Va. 
SEAL ENGH.iriNG. WOOD ENGRAVIXG. (fr. attended to. 

August 13, 1863.] 





From tho Coralxill Magazine. 

My object in the present paper is to try and give the reader a definite notion of 
what a man of war is as an organized whole. Autumn tours and tho Admiralty's 
improved way of sending ouv squadrons to places which they never used to vLsit, 
have made line of battle ships and frigates comparatively familiar to people's 
eyes. But perhaps there is no scene of interest which so bewilders and puzzles 
the stranger who comes to see it from curiosity as a> ship. In a hospital, or a pri- 
son, you .-u-e at all events in a house ; there arc general laws belonging to all ar- 
chitectures which guide you to an understanding of the place, and those who go- 
vern or administer it are ordinary denizens of terra firma, like yourself. But in 
a ship, and especially in a ship of war, all is new. The people are dressed in an 
uni'amiliar style. The objects about ai-e objects of which you neither Itnow the 
use nor the mntiial relation ; and when once inside, and moving from deck to 
deck, you soon find it impossible to remember your way, and resign yourself 
helplessly to the guide who has been assigned to you. A few strong impressions 
lay hold of the mind. The first is probably a keen sense of the cleanliness and 
neatness attained in so populous and busy a place. The second — which forms 
itself as the eye recovers from the utter novelty of every thing around — is a dis- 
tinct, though unintelligent perception of a prevailing law and order in all it sees. 
Every class of objects has a look of being in its own place. Nobody appears to 
be busy or idle without knowing why, and all the wheels of tho new life before 
the stranger are dimly seen to be turning in harmony — as of course they are 

Let me draw on my memory for the means of helping the reader who has, or 
even who has not, visited a man of war, to know what that life is, and how the 
many elements forming it combine to produce the famous and formidable unity 
which is their result. 

An English man of war is emphatically an English microcosm — a miniature 
England in a world of its own. The government is a limited monarchy; for 
though the captain exercises a degree of personal power such as now-a-days be- 
long.s to continental sovereigns only, he does not exercise it unchecked or uncon- 
trolled. He has before his eyes the constant fear of the Admiralty, whose parlia- 
mentary responsibility keep's them quite en rapport with public opinion. Not 
only, however, is the government, of England roughly copied in the government 
of a ship of war, but the most important elements of English social life are re- 
presented on board her. There is a chaplain to stand for the church. There are 
marines to stand for the army. The higher education is carried on by a naval 
instructor ; the lower by a ship's schoolmaster. Medicine has its surgeons, and 
assistant surgeons — finance its paymaster, with his staff — science has the master, 
who takes chai'ge of the observations and log. And so in the inferior ranks. 
There is a carpenter with his little crew of carpenters — a sailmaker with his little 
crew of sailmakers — a cook with his subordinate cook. The fine arts, I fear, can- 
not be said to be amply represented. Bnt the large ship has its band, and every 
class of ship its fiddler — so uuisic is not forgotten. 

I have said that the captain is the king of this wandering little England. It 
is his assuming the command (which he does by reading his commission on the 
quarter deck) — a command the symbol of which is the long pendant streaming 
from the highest mast — that constitutes the vessel a political unity. Every body 
who joins her enters now into a new series of conditions. The ship begins to 
grow .into a complete man of war, day by day, according to the laws of man of 
war growth ; having qukkmcd, so to speak, from the moment that the captain's 
commission gave her moral life. What she becomes at full growth will be best 
seen from a sketch of her component parts. 

In order to understand a man of war, it is primarily necessary to consider her 
as formed of many parts, all arranged together under the predominant law of 
subordination. Subordination and classification are, in fact, the two great prin- 
ciples which regulate every thing alloat. Subordination teaches a man that he' 
must obey — and whom. Classification teaches him how he must obey — and 

The corner-stone of naval subordination, then, is the authority of the captain. 
He commands the ship, even though there should be an admiral on board in com- 
mand of the fleet ; and it is the lil'e of the ship, as a unit, with which we are now 
concerned. He represents the Crown on board the ship, and the ship herself to 
the world outside her. He is the depositary of the Admiralty's instructions about 
the ship's mission, and knows why she is at a particular place at a particular 
time Thus a good deal of qtiasi-political and quasi-diplomatic work is done by 

our naval captains. They are in intimate communication with British ministers 
and British consuls on each station; and send reports home on tho state of things 
in disturbed countries. Thus a well employed naval man has seen more of tho 
world than most people. Ho may have dined with thelmaum of Muscat; danced 
with the Quoon of Greece ; smoked a pipe with Mehemet Ali ; and kissed Queen 
Pomaro.' Pashas, European sovereigns, the great wine merchants of one town, 
the groat silk merchants of another, show him civilities of which the variety is 
not the least amusing and instractivc feature. When he retunis on board his 
ship, after a visit to tho shore, his face is watched by tho inferior officers and men 
as an index of the important news with which his mind is supposed to be big. 
At all events, he knows when tho ship is to sail, — a matter of mighty moment to 
mess stewards, who have bread to order; and gentlemen whose shirts are in the 
hands of washerwomen of the less civilized races of m.'mkind. No wonder that 
our captain — especially since naval education is still capable of much improve- 
ment — occasionally "assumes tho god, affects to nod," and so forth. In such 
cases, the best thing to be hoped is, that his pomposity will take the turn of 
dispatch writing, and the humor discharge itself in a i-un of rhetoric. When 
this is the case, the Admiralty is safe, for it need not read his correspondence, — 
while the ship is safe, because the energy that might become tyrannical finds a 
vent elsewhere. 

The captain, having the supreme functions to discharge — being, also, the ulti- 
mate court of appeal in all matters of discipline, and being, of course, responsible 
primarily for the ship, whose course at sea he traces day by day on the chart — 
does not undertake those more ordinary dutie^ which fall to the lot of the skipper 
of a merchantman. For example, he does not " carry on ;" that is to say, he 
does not give the orders while the common operations of the ship, tacking, reef- 
ing topsails, &c. &c., ai'e being gone through. This devolves (when " all hands" 
are at work, for when " the watch" only is working, then the " officer of the 
watch" carries on) upon the commander; or, in frigates, and smaller vessels, 
upon the first lieutenant. If the captain is king in a man-of-war, so the com- 
mander is prime minister, grand vizier, or other analogous functionary. He oc- 
cupies tho intermediate rank between captain and lieutenant — a rank in which 
one must serve a definite time, afloat, before being eligible to a captaincy, and 
beyond which many an officer, not to be considered unsuccessful in life, never 
rises. The commander does not, like the captain or admiral, mess by himself; 
but is the first man in the ward-room mess, which includes lieutenants, master, 
marine ofBcers, naval instructor, chaplain, paymaster, and all tho surgeons. The 
captain occupying the upper deck range of cabins, that on the main deck falls to 
the lot of the ward-room. And here let me point out that a ship has its places 
and posts of honor like paTaces which do not float. It is the stern that is the 
seat of dignity in her Majesty's ships and vessels of war. The whole of the ship 
behind (or "abaft") the main (or centre) mast partakes of a superior prestige — 
whence the expression " before the mast," to signify the condition of a common 
seaman. The quarter-deck, bounded by the main-mast and the poop, may thus 
justly be called the sacred place of a man-of-war. Here the oflicer of the watch 
paces, in harbor, the starboard (right-hand) side ; at sea the weather side, or that 
from which the wind is blowing ; while his inferior officer, sub-lieutenant or mid- 
.shipman, paces the less dignified larboard or lee side, in a parallel line. Every 
body, on coming on the quarter-dfeck, touches his cap to the invisible authority 
from which the spot derives it sanctity ; and it is, in fact, the temple of naval tra- 
dition — the sacrarium or lararium (albeit without images) of a Queen's ship. 

The mention of " officers of the watch" brings us to the next grade below that 
of commander, the grade of lieutenant. Each lieutenant takes command of a 
watch, and is, for the time, responsible for the ship, which is virtually under his 
charge. In boat expeditions, a lieutenant commands each of the larger boats. 
One of them commands each division of guns. And besides this general distri- 
bution, there is one .specially devoted to gunnery, and one specially charged with 
the department of signals. Many men stop at this rank (there are even lieu- 
tenants living who have been at the Nile and Trafalgar), since there is no neces- 
sary rising beyond it to the next step. Many lieutenants, however, become re- 
tired commanders, and are respectably shelved in that grade, which gives them 
the social title of " captain" for life. Of about a hundred Trafalgar men now 
surviving, the great majority of whom were midshipmen in that glorious fight, 
forty-three have reached no higher than to this station. A lieutenant has, of 
course, a cabin to himself, most generally on the main deck, and takes relative 
rank with captains in the army. Let us glance at his messmates in the ward- 
room, beginning with the master, who ranks wttfi. and after him; that is to say, 
has a formal and social equality, but would noi take command of a ship so long 
as even the junior lieutenant survived. 

The rank of master is a peculiar ons. It does not exist at all in the French 
navy, nor, I believe, in any eervico but the British There seems no doubt that 



[August 13, 1863 

it originated in the old dirision— so contrary to all our modem associations— be- 
tween the man v;ho fought and the man who sailed a ship of war. Few readers, 
probably, realize the fact that Admiral Blake was not a sailor !— that he did not 
go afloat till he was fifty years old— and that he was chosen to be sent afloat 
then, not from any special aptitude for the sea (since who could foretell that he 
would display, that aptitude?), but simply because he had distinguished himself 
as a general iij the civil war. Ships whose military command was under one 
man, must necessarily have been sailed and navigated by seamen or "masters," 
as they are still called in the merchant service. Now, what are the duties of the 
existing master of a royal ship ? They are duties pre-eminently nautical. He 
keeps the lo"-. He takes the observations. He has the rigging.aud stores pecu- 
liarly under his charge, with the boatswain for/jis premier. In actionhe "conns" 
the ship — that is to say, gives the helmsman his orders — thus conducting her 
where the captain decides she can be placed with most effect. Tlie captain and 
master are very closely brought together by their duties — though, as we have 
seen, the master's rank is really, and in the last result, below that of lieutenant. 
They are jointly responsible for the vessel's safety ; they both take observations ;* 
and by dint of these, and the log, fLx, everj«day at noon, her place on the chart. 
Much of what is left of the queer old " character" of our naval oificers survives 
among the masters. It is a branch of the service in which you never find men 
of family or fortune ; indeed, it is the only branch now even partially open to the 
class which once rose from " before^ the mast." A lieutenant may be a dandy, 
a steeplechase rider, or any form of unsailorlike swell ; but the master is gene- 
rally rough, blufl' and tough — a homely uncultivated son of the sea. 

The marines in a line-of-battle ship arc governed by a captain and two lieute- 
nants, whose government is a kind of imperiuni in imperio on board. They are 
drafted off from one of the ilepots at Chatham, Plymouth, or elsewhere, when the 
ship is commissioned ; and at once become, with their men, part and parcel of 
the great organization, and subject to all its discipline. The men take their share 
of the work on deck like seamen — being especially useful at the heavy hauling 
of traces, &c. — where plenty of " beef is required. At such times they are 
under the orders of the naval officers carrying on the duty ; but their drill, dress- 
ing, and personal conduct, are superintended by their own captains and lieute- 
nants, who mess in the wardroom, as I have said before. The marines are a fine 
solid body of men, covering, I believe, as much ground on parade as the most 
stalwart of om" regiments — having fewer Irishmen among them than almost any, 
and perhaps more Scotchmen than any, except the artillery. Then esprit is mili- 
tary rather than naval; and it is among their traditions to boast of themselves as 
devoted to the Crown with more special fidelity than their nautical brothers. 
Before this, the marines have often stood steady in a mutinous ship — their own 
provocations to mutiny not having been less than that of the blue jackets ; and 
the marine's sentry has died honourably (like the Swiss Guards ) at the captain's 
cabin door. Thus they represent in the naval polity the T017 element, or ele- 
ment of authority, and form, in fact, a little standing army under the King. As 
an external sign of this function, a marine's sentry will be obseiTed by the visitor 
to a man-of-war guarding the gangway, while another is stationed near the cabin 
of the captain. Oft' duty, several marines are employed as officers' servants. 
Marine officers, as a body, have a tone of their own, which is neither that of the 
navy nor of the line, but, in happy instances, combines agreeably the qnalities of 

"While the commander, lieutenants, master, marine officers, represent the mili- 
tary, their other messmates in the wardroom represent the civil side of life. 
Among these, the fii'st place is, of course, due to the chaplain, whose black coat 
and white neckcloth, contrast piqiiantly with the epauletted blue coats, among 
whom my mind's eye now sees him. Perhaps no man has benefited by the 
gradual social civilization of the navy more than he. Time was, when if he did 
. not vanish after the second glass of port, the uneasiness of old school conversa- 
tionists at his presence could no longer be restrained, and he was driven from his 
chair by a joke. Changing manners have modified all that; and the chaplain of 
a man-of-war lives in as good company as if he enjoyed a rectory ; while to in- 
sult his cloth in any way would cover the assailant with the ignominy due to an 
irretrievable cad. Life, therefore, jogs on comfortably with the chaplain. You 
can hardly expect him to be a man of conspicuous learning or pulpit eloquence ; 
but at least he is a gentleman, and helps to give an intellectual tone to the mess. 
On Sundays church is " rigged" for him on the main deck ; his pulpit — a hand- 
some portable structure of the approved shape — is brought aft ; the officers group 
themselves behind him on chairs ; and the seamen, iii clean Guernsey frocks and 
shoeSjt stretch away forward, row after row, on capstan bars arranged as forms. 

* In the French navy, the lieutenants perform this duty of our masters, turn and turn 

t .Shoes are " dresH" to Jack, who ordinarily does all hia work barefoot, and the soles of 
whose feet are aa bard as horn in eoD«eqiieuce. 

The ship's bell, which otherwise would be struck every half hour as usual, is 
silenced while his reverence is in possession of the field — silenced till " seven 
bells" (half past eleven), at all events, when it resiunes, as a hint that dinner 
hour is drawing near, and besides reminding the chaplain that he must wind up, 
breaks the snooze of any of the congregation whom the mild ripple of his elo- 
quence may have lulled to rest. Perhaps you have noticed during divine ser- 
vice a hearer among the officers unique in his employment of a Greek Testament ; 
that is the naval instructor, whose office is sometimes, but not necessarily, held 
conjointly with the chaplaincy. The naval instnictor conducts the education of 
the juvenile officers, naval cadets and midshipmen — nautice, the "young gen- 
tlemen," or, in their own mess language, the " youngsters." For this pm-pose a 
table is established, and surrounded with a canvas screen, between two of the 
main deck guns, where every day school forms itself, and navigation, Euclid, 
algebra, French, are hammered into the juvenile mind. It is greatly to the credit 
of the Admiralty that they have even prescribed that " Latin and Greek shall be 
taught to those who enter with some knowledge of these languages ;" and that 
the naval instructor must "pass" in Latin and Greek before entering on his 
functions. I know one man of letters, who, joining the sen-ice well grounded in 
the tongues, owed to the luck of the naval instructor's being a classical scholar 
that he did not lose his grip of them. But lads enter in such a raw state, have 
so much time to bestow, both in the training ship Britannia and afterwards, on 
professional study, and find the literary tradition so weak in the navy, that some- 
how letters, ancient and modern, have never flourished there. Now and then 
there is an accomplished man — just as Colliugwood wrote some of the best Eng- 
lish of his time, and made Lord Grenville wonder where he got his style. One 
good fellow in my period used to fall asleej) over Plato regularly after dinner, by 
which he, at least, showed respect for the name and influence of that philosopher. 
But though the magazines and reviews go to all well-regulated messes — and 
though the Baltic fleet the other daly probably carried some hundred of Mr. 
Mudie's volumes away with it — one would like to see more than this. 

The reader has probably no idea how many spare hours people have on their 
hands at sea, in ordinary times; or to what shifts a brainless man is put about 
filling them up. Why not try and make reading a little more fashionable? A 
naval man should know tht^ history of the navy, particularly when it is so inti- 
mate and important a part of the world's history. He slioidd know something 
of international and maritime law, which acts through his arm in a last resort. 
Nor ought he to be without those more brilliant accomplishments — the fitting 
ornaments of a man whose position makes hi»n the guest, and, sometimes, the 
host, of sovereigns and ambassadors. His external circumstances are highly 
favorable to their acquirement. He passes from clime to clime ; but he stays 
long enough in each to enjoy far greater advantages than those of the ordinary 
traveller. French, Italian, Spanish are the habitual languages on nearly all the 
great stations whei'e a man-of-war's commission is passed ; and he is suae to 
spend years in the Mediterranean, the whole atmosphere of which is permeated 
by historical and literary tradition. There, the Etesian winds blow to cool him 
in the dog-days, as they did when Cicero made their timely refreshment and regu- 
lar prevalence an argument for the world's being administered by Divine power. 
The thunny fish from which Aristophanes draw an illustration, and the mullet 
from which Juvenal pointed an epigram, are still abundant in that luxurious sea; 
and the market-boats bring alongside his ship the grapes and figs with which 
Horace cooled himself when waking after a night of too much wine. He cniises 
in the, wake of iEueas ; and casts anchor in the same harbours as St. Paul. He 
goes to fill casks with water, to Syracuse, and the Troad ; catches basketsful of 
fish with a seine, on the shore of Marathon ; eats capital little hams for breakfast 
from the country of Ennius ; shoots red-legged partridges at Lemnos ; and wild 
duck, when winter has set in, on the coasts of the old Corcyra. And he enjoys 
advantages like these at enviable leisure, and with an independence only to be 
commanded by the opulent lord of a fine yacht. 

Divisions of our Mediterranean squadron are in the JEgean, or about the Ionian 
Islands, for months at a time, and spend wliolc weeks at ports from which the 
most curious scenes of ancient history are easily accessible. Facilities like these, 
some counterparts of which exist on all the stations, ought to stimulate our naval 
officers to learn more than they do of the past whose traces meet them at every 
turn. And, were this doctrine accepted and acted on, the navy, which already 
secures to a youngster all the moral and social advantages of a great historical 
public school, would add to its professional culture,^— a general culture, — the 
union of which with the other advantages of the training, would constitute an 
education of the most perfect kind. 

The Editor of The Record very much regrets being compelled bj' wan^of space 
to di&r the remainder of this ai'ticle till the next isifae. 

Aufu-ST 13, 1863.] 




Greenwich, long known to history, antl well beloved of cockney holiday- 
makers, is most important in our time for a certain edifice in which the 
/ longest calculations, the deepest thought, and the minutest care, are in 

operation day and night. This is the observatory on the hill ; a building 
chiefly remarkable to the untaught visitor for a large clock dial, the 
minute hand of which advances by a series of jerks, as though stepping 
onwards towards eternity as a matter of private business. The hour 
hand of this clock may, perhaps, indicilte that the time is about half-past 
twenty-two o'clock — an announcement that somewhat puzzles the un- 
taught visitor, until a volunteer philosopher, who enjoys instructing the 
ignorant, and who prides himself on knowing this one thing, informs him 
that here there is no such thing as one, two or three o'clock in the morn- 
ing, but that time is counted from noon to noon, and from to 34. Thus, 
one o'clock A. M. is thirteen o'clock, four o'clock A. M., sixteen o'clock, 
■ and so on. 

If, desirous of seeing the interior of this mysterious buiWing, we knock 
at the door, and ask permission to view the establishment, we shall be 
politely but decidedly informed that "no visitors are admitted." This 
seclusion is absolutely necessary, for the staff is a hard worked one, and 
is not to be interrupted. The instruments are most delicate, and a touch — 
the resting of a hand on a screw or lever, or even breathing on a por- 
tion which is liable to rust — might cause damage or delay, which could 
not possibly be afforded. 

In long calculations, perfect quiet is also necessary, and it is not im- 
probable that the visitation of an occasional organ-grinder near the ob- 
servatory might lead to the wreck of some half-dozen ships, which had 
erroneously calculated their positions by data influenced for ill in conse- 
quence of the computer's nerves being tormented. Thus, "no admission 
except on business," is an order rigidly enforced. 

If, however, the person desirous of visiting the observatory be a stu- 
dent, and anxious to acquire a knowledge of the system adopted here, he 
has merely to obtain the necessary introductions, and he will be received 
with every politeness and attention. The whole mystery and process of 
the "observations" and "rednotions" will be shown him, with a freedom 
from reserve that at once indicates the soundness of the principles hei'e 
adopted. The absence of all mystery, — a condition which too frequently 
conceals ignorance or defect, — speaks of the desire rather to impart know- 
ledge than to preserve it amongst a select few. 

Greenwich Observatory was commenced in 167.5. The site selected 
by Wren was within view of all vessels passing up or down the Thames, 
and thus information could be readily telegraphed to these vessels from 
the observatory. Many additions and improvements have been made to 
the building since its first erection, the greatest progress having been 
made in the instruments used for astronomical purposes. 

The aim of all the time and labor given at the Koyal Observatory, is 
to give accurately the position of the various heavenly bodies, and, from 
past and present observations, to be enabled to foretell for two, three or 
four years in advance, the exact position of the sun, moon and stars, at 
any instant during the twenty-four hours. 

Upon the information thus afforded depends the accuracy of all large 
surveys in various parts of the world. Tlie correct position of ships at 
sea, the true places also of various dangerous rocks or shoals at sea, can 
only be found by the aid of the data. supplied from Greenwich observa- 
tory. Thus the safety of much that is most valuable is actually depen- 
dent, in a great measure, upon the calculations made within the building 
in Greenwich park. 

Although to afford the information referred to is the chief object of the 
observatory, still it is not the only one. A constant watch is maintained 
on sun, moon, planets and stars, in order to discover the slightest indica- 
tions of any changes which might be occurring to them ; whilst the an- 
nouncement of a visitor to- our system in the shajic of a comet, at once 
entails a fresh series of observations and calculations, in oi;der to deter- 
mine the distance and course of the stranger. 

We will now briefly consider the practical results derived from the 
Greenwich Observatory, for these results are essentially practical. 

We arc now on board a valuable ship, and somewhere on the Atlantic 
ocean ; the sun has not been visible for three days, and a heavy gale ha« 
driven us wo know not where. During the night a slight opening in the 
clouds reveals some half dozen stars : two of these are recognized, and 
the height of each above the horizon is carefully measured with the sex- 
tant. One is exactly south, the other southwest. At the instant that 
the observation on the southwest star was made, the time shown by the 
ship's chronometer, and which had been rated at Greenwich, is accurately 
registered ; upon referring to the Nautical Almanac, which work contains 
the results of the Greenwich labors, wo find the correct position in the 
heavens of these two stars. 

By the aid of tl>e star in the south, the ship's latitude is at once ob- 
tained, whilst by the aid of the second, the sidereal time of the observa- 
tion is obtained : this sidereal time can, by the aid of a table and data 
supplied from Greenwich, be converted into mean time, which will be the 
mean time of the ship. The chronometer shows Greenwich time, and 
hence the difference between the time at the two localities gives the longi- 
tude of the ship, and hence its exact position on the ocean. 

Again, from some unexplained cause the chronometer has stopped, 
and we know not that essential to our calculations, viz : Greenwich time. 
Our loss, however, can be remedied by the aid of the Greenwich obser- 
vations, for there, in the southern sky, is the moon, and to the west of it 
a bright star. Sextant in hand, the mariner measures the height of the 
star and moon above the horizon, and the distance in degrees between 
the moon and star, the time by a hack watch, or the restarted chro- 
nometer, is noted at the instant of observation, and the measurements 
being corrected for certain items, it is found that the moon's centre was, 
when observed, just 40" 10' 10" from the star. 

Upon reference to the information supplied two years previously from 
Greenwich, we find that it was exactly ten minutes and four seconds 
past nine by the Greenwich clock when the moon and the star were that 
distance apart. The chronometer is at once restarted correctly, and the 
mariner is confident that it is showing the same time as the clock on the 
exterior wall of Greenwich Observatory. 

These are but a few of the benefits derived from this establishment, 
which serves, besides, as a sort of head quarters for all practical astrono- 
mical information. It is not from it, however, that any important dis- 
coveries connected with the nature and constitution of the various celes- 
tial bodies are likely to emanate. The whole training and work of the 
various members partake entirely of the practical and mechanical. From 
independent observers it is most probable the next great advance will 
originate, though it will most likely be suggested by an examination of 
the facts collected and registered at the Greenwich Ob8ervatorj\ 

[Cornhili Magazine. 


From tho N. O. CorrcspQndence of the Now York World. 

It is fairly sickening to recapitulate the outrages committed here by men who 
wore .sent to restore this State, aud wlio acted upou the theory that "restoration" 
meant robbery, that patriotism was plunder, every conceivable abuse that could 
be heaped upon the people was " conciliation," and the entire object of the war 
was the enrichment of individuals, so-called " oflficers," their brothers, auuls, sis- 
ters, mistresses, dependents, and foUowSrs. To the shoddy-mad patriots of the 
North this wholesale plunder of the South seems perfectly right. To Butler & 
Company it was more — it was immensely profitable. There are towns in New 
England that are fairly filled with "trophies" from this department: blood-horses, 
fine furniture, pictures, plate, jewelry, money, every thing the restorers could lay 
their hands upon. Men who came here as poor as Lazarus went away as rich as 
Dives. A hurricane, fire, total inundation of tho whole delta of the Mississippi 
C'luld hardly have swept the department so thoroughly, as it was " cleaned up" 
by these men. . There was, here and there, " in spots" a bit of Union sentiment, 
a lingering love for tho " old stars and stripes," but in the general sweep every 
particle of loyalty in this locality was swept away, and the most violent seces- 
sionists here to-day are men who were almost ruined for their Union sentiments 
when the Stale was in the hands of the confederates, and who were completely 
beggared by their " friends" from the North. 

Tlie task of restoration was infinitely increased for General Banks by his pre- 
decessor, who turned over to him the accunuilated difficulties of the department, 
who Had permitted Port Hudson to be fortified, and whose whole attention during 



[August 13, 18G3 

his short Imt disastrous reign in Louisiana was devoted to ascertaining, not the 
sentiments of the people, l)ut the amount of their property, and to whom the tcr- 
ritoi-y, as fast as it fell into his liands, was viewed only in respect of its capa- 
hihties for the production of cotton and sugar. Banks had not only to do his 
own work, but to undo Butler's, and to clear away the obstacles his predecessor 
had thrown in his way. There was a reasonable Iiope that the new commanding 
general would have nothing- to do but to " drive oui the rebels" and to " restore" 
the State. There was apparently so little left for the speculators and swindlers 
who almost always follow an invading" amiy, that Butler himself is reported to 
have said when he went away that the " new set" would find that " New Orleans 
was a lemon pretty damned well squeezed." It was indeed ; but it is noticeable 
that more than one of the old set of squeezers wero an.xious to return, and for 
weeks after Banks' arrival they bfsieged the department in Washington for per- 
mission' to come here and carry away the peel of the lemon so "damned well 

It may possibly be " seditious" to say that a large number of the restorers who 
came here with General Banks, have devoted themselves mainly to the enrich- 
ment of themselves and to the plunder of planters. It is a fact, non? the less, 
and when the entire history of the efibrts made by these adventurers to restore 
Louisiana to the Union comes to be written, as it will, by and by, it will unfold a 
record that will by no means be a pleasing picture in the history of America. 



JVith Azotes : By a Confederate Reporter. 

All ye who with credulity the whispers hear of Fancy, 

Or yet pursue with eagerness Hope's wild extra-vagancy. 

Who dream that England soon will drop her long miscalled Neutrality, 

And give us, with a hearty shake, the hand of Nationality, 

Read, as ive give, with little fault of statement or omission, 
The next debate in Parliament on Southern Recognition ; 
They're all so much alike, indeed, that one can write it off, I see,' 
As truly as the Times Report, without the gift of prophecy. 

Not yet, not yet to interfere does England see occasion, 

But treats our good Commissioner with coolness and evasion; 

Such coolness in the premises that really 'tis refrigerant 

To thinli that two long years ago she called us a belUgerent. • 

But further Downing Street is dumb, the Premier deaf to reason, 
As deaf as is the Morning Post, both in and out of season ; 
The working men of Laucasliire are all reduced to beggary, 
And yet they will not listen unto Roebuck or to Gregory. 

" Or any other man," to-day, who counsels interfering. 
While all who speak on t'other side obtain a readj' hearing — 
As par cxem-ple Mr. Bright, that pink of all propriety. 
That meek and mild disciple of the blessed Peace Society. 

"Why, let 'em fight," says Mr. Bright, "those Southerners, I hate 'em, 
And hope the Black Republicans will soon exterminate 'em ; 
If Freedom can't RebeUion crush, pray tell me what's the use of lier?' 
And so he chuckles o'er the fray as gleefully as Lucifer. 

Enough of him — an abler man demands our close attention — 

The Maximus Apollo of strict iVon-Intervention — 

With pitiless severity, though decorous and calm his tone. 

Thus speaks the " old man eloquent," the puissant Earl of Palmerston. 

"What though the land run red with blood, what though the lurid flashes 
Of cannon fight, at dead of night, a mournful heap of ashes 
Where many an ancient mansion stood — what though the robber pillages 
The sacred home, the house of God, in twice a hundred villages — 

' ' What though a fiendish nameless \vreng that makes revenge a duty 
Is daily done" (Oh Lord, how long I) "to tenderness and beauty !" — 
(And who shall tell, this deed of hell, how deadlier far a curse it is 
Than even pulUng temples down and burning universities ?" 

"Let arts decay, let millions fall, aye let Freedom perish. 
With all that in the Western World men fain would love and cherish. 
Let Universal Ruin there become a sad Reality : 
We cannot swerve, we must preserve our rigorous neutrality." 

Oh Pani ! Oh Pam ! hast ever read what's ivrit in Holy Pages, 
How Bless-jd the Peace-makers are, God's Children of the Ages ? 
Perhaps you think the promise sweet was nothing hut a platitude; 
'Xis clear that you hay? no concern iu that Divine beatitude • 

But " hear! hear ! hear!" another peer, that mighty man of muscle. 
Is on his legs, what slender pegs ! " ye noble Earl" of Russell: 
Thus might he speak, did not of .speech his shrewd reserve the folly see, 
And thus unfold the subtle plan of England's secret policy. 

"John Bright was right, yes, let 'em fight, these fools across the water, 
'Tis no affair at all of ours, then- Carnival of slaughter : 
The Christian world, indeed, may say we ought not to allow it, sirs, 
But still 'tis music in our ears, this roar of Yankee howitzers. 

" A word or two of sympathy, that costs us not a penny. 
We give the gallant Southerners, the few against the many: 
We say their noble fortitude of final triumph presages, 
And praise in Blackwood's Magazine Jeff. Davis and his messages — 

"Of course we claim the shining fame of glorious Stonewall Jackson, 
Who typifies the Enghsh race, a sterling Anglo-Saxon ; 
To bravest song his deeds belong, to Clio and Melpomene" — 
(And why not for a British stream demand the Chickahominy ?) 

" But for the cyiuse in which he fell we cannot lift a finger, 
'Tis idle on the question any longer here to linger: 
'Tis true the South has freely bled, her sorrows are Homeric, oh ! 
Her case is like to his of old who journeyed unto Jericho — 

" The thieves have stripped and bruised, although as yet they have not bound hor ; 
We'd like to sec her slay 'em all to right and left around her; 
We should'nt cry in Parliament if Lee should cross the Raritan, 
But England never yet was known to play the Good Samaritan. 

" And so we pass the other side, and leave them to then glory, 
To give new proofs of manliness, new scenes for song and story; 
These honeyed words of compliment may possibly bamboozle 'em, 
But ere wo intervene, you know, we'll see 'em in — Jenisalem. 

"Yes, let 'em fight, till both are brought to hopeless desolation. 
Til! wolves troop round the cottage door, in one and t'other nation. 
Till, worn and broken down, the South shall prove no more refractory, 
And rust eats up the silent looms of every Yankee factory — 

"Till hursts no more tho cotton boll o'er fields of Carolina, 
And fills with snowy flosses the hands of Dinah; 
Till war has dealt its final blow, and Mr. Seward's knaverj' 
Has put an end in all the land to Freedom afad to Slavery : 

" The grim Bastille, the rack, the wheel, without remorse or pity. 
May flourish with the guillotine in every Yankee city. 
No matter .should old Abe revive the brazen bull of Phalaris, 
'Tis no concern at all of oturs" — (sensation in tbe galleries.) 

" So shall our ' ftierry England' thrive on trans-Atlantic troubles, 
^^'hile India on her distant plains her crop of cotton doubles ; 
And so long as North or South shall show the least vitality. 
We cannot swerve, we must preserve our rigorous ncntiality." 

Your speech, my lord, might well become a Saxon legislator. 

When the "fine old English gentleman" hved iu a state of natur'. 

When vikings quaffed from human skulls their fiery draughts of honey mead, 

Long, long before the barons bold met tyrant John at Euunymede — 

But 'tis a speech so plain, my lord, that all may understand it, 
And so we quickly turn again to fight the Yankee bandit. 
Convinced that we shall fairly win at last our nationality. 
Without the help of Britain'.': arm, in spite of her neutrality. 

[ Hlnstraleil .Xews. 


Fort Wagner, ..... 

Correspondence bj' Flag of Truce, 
International Law as affected by the American War, 
Ecclesiastical Afl'uirB in Scotland, 
Origin of tlie Black Republican Party, 
The Rebels iu the West Indies— A Picture of Nassau, 
Mexico under the French, , . . - 

liiterary, ...-•■ 
Snnimary of Newf, . . - - - 

Appointment of Postmaflterfl, 
The Inner Life of a Man of Wai% 
A Night at Greenwich Observatory. 

Yankee Rule in New Orleans, as described by a A'ankee 
Euglaud's Neutrality. ... 


Volume I.] 


[Number 10. 


The following very beautiful poem is given bj* Baron Humboldt iu his " Views 
of Nature," as the production of Professor Ernst Curtius, tutor to Prince Frede- 
rick Wilhelm of Prussia. It bears a singular resemblance to the Raven of Edgar 
Poe, in some of its images and expressions. 

Where through deserts wild and dreary. 

Orinoco dashes on, 
Sits a Parrot old and weary, 

Like a sculptured thing of stone. 

Through its rocky barriers flowing, 

Onward rolls the foaming stream ; 
Waving palms on high are glowing 

In the sun's meridian beam. 

Carelessly the waves are Iieaving, 

Sparkling up in antic play ; 
While the sunny rays are weaving 
* Rainbows in the feathery spray. 

Where yon billows wild are breaking, 

Slcej'S a tribe forevcrmore, 
W-lio, tiieir iiative land forsaking, 

Kefuge sought on this loue shore. 

As they lived, free, dauntless ever. 

So the brave Aturians died ; ' 

And the green banks of the river 
All their mortal relics hide. 

Yet the Parrot, ne'er forgetting 

Those who loved him, mourns them still. 

On the stone his sharp beak whetting. 
While the air his wailings till. 

Where are now the youths who bred him. 

To prouounce their mother tongue, — 
Whore the gentle maids who fed him, 

And who built his nest when young? 

All, alas ! are lifeless lying 

Stretch'd upon their grassy bed ; 
Nor can all bis mournful crying 

E'er awake the slumbering dead. 

Still he calls with voice iinploring, 

To a world that heeds him not; 
Nought replies but waters roaring — .. 

No kind soul bewails his lot. 

Swift the savage turns liis rudder. 

When bis eyes the bird beleild ; 
None e'er saw, without a shudder, 

That Aturian I'arrot old .' 


Distribution of Orihaiice. Officers, (leneral farilnn tu Returning Deserters. 
Assigiimtnt &f Brigutlier General Laieton as Qnartermuster General. 

Richmond, August 12, 1863. 
Geneu.^l Orders, No. 110. 

I. Tlu! officers for ordnance duties in the provisional army, ap- 
pointed under the acts c>f Congress of April I21st and September 16th, 1862, will, 
until further orders, be distributed into grades, as authorized by the latter act, as 
follows : 4 lieutenant colonels, 9 majors, 65 captains, 40 first lieutenants, 32 
second lieutenants. Appointments to these grades will be made on the report of 
Chief of Ordnance — those officers serving in the field will also be reported by the 
General commanding the army or department prior to appointment. 

II. Ordnance ofiiccrs on duty iu the field will, as far as practicable, be assigned 
to command according to rank, as follows: Lieutenant colonels to armies ; ma- 
jors to army corps; captains to departments and divisions; and lieutenants to 
brigades. . No claiui to promotion, "however, will be recognized iu consequence 
of assignment to any command. 

III. Two ordnance officers not above the rank of captain, may bo allowed as 
assistants to the chief ordnance officer of any army, and one uot above first lieu- 
tenant, to the chief ordnance officer of an army corps. One .issistant, not above 
the rank of second lieutenant, may also be allowed to the chief ordnance officer 
of a department,'when absolutely necessary, upon application to tho Chief of the 
Bureau of Ordnance. 

IV. The designation of the chief ordnance officer attached to commands wQl 
correspond with the desin;natiou of such commands : as chief ordnance officer of 

the army of ; chief ordnance officer of army corps ; chief ordnance 

officer of department; ordnance officer of divj.sion; ordnance officer 

of brigade. 

By order. S. Cooper, 

/ Adjutant and Inspector General. 

Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 
Richmond, August 11, 1863. 
General Orders, No. 309. 

I. A general pardon is given to all officers and men \vithiu the Con- 
federacy, now absent without leave from the army, who shall (within twenty days 
from the publication of the address of tho President in the State in which the ab- 
sentees may then be) return to their posts of duty. 

II. Al! men who have been accused, or convicted and undergoing sentence for 
absence withrtfit leave or desertion, except only those who have been twice con- 
victed of desertion, will be returned to their respective commands for duty. 
By order. 

S. Cooper, 
Adjutant and Inspector General. 

Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, 
Richmond, August 7, 1863. 

Special Orders, No. 187. 


XX. Under the act of Congress, approved March 90th, 1863, 
Brigadier General A. R. Lawton is assigned to duty as Quartermaster General, 
and will enter upon the discharge of tho duties of the office on the lOtb inst. 
By command of the Secretary of War. 

John Withers, .-l. A. General. 



[August 20, 1863 


We publisli two most remarkable prophecies of evil to the Uuited States. The 
letter of Macaulay was written in 1857 to Mr. Randall, th.- author of a Life of 
Jefferson, and treats of the results of ikmocracy among a people without any of 
the conservative safeguards resulting from either the observance of states rights 
or the existence of slavery. A restless and excitable population like that at the 
North, with no fixed principles, and without any traditional respect for govern- 
ment or religion, engaged in a selfish struggle to accumulate wealth, could in- 
spire, with little confidence in their future, one accustomed to find the operation 
of a general law in the minutest events of history. The fickleness and love of 
flattery, proverbially characteristic of the uneducated masses in large cities or 
densely populated countries, rendered very insecure, in Macaulay's judgment, 
institutions whose continued existence depended solely upon popular favor. 
Macaulay's failure to appreciate Mr. Jefferson is shown, by the whole tenor of 
his letter, to have sprung from Jefferson's agency in abolishing an established 
church— the destruction of entails of property, and the declaration of man's civil 
equality— three things which with the people of the North constitute his great 
claim to admiration. 

Carlyle's sketch is a powerful picture of a people wholly devoted to gain, and 
whose ideas of greatness are purely material. In order that these visions of 
the future, written years ago, may be read by the light of present -events with 
the more distinctness, we append a description of New York population, as given 
in a recent address before the Youug Men's Christian Association of that city. 
When Senator Hammond (of South Carolina) sketched the greatness of the 
United States as the growth of fifty years' control of the government by southern 
statesmen, he turned to Seward and said, " You of the North have now come to 
outnumber us, and we pass over to yon fifty years of accumulated prosperity. 
Wo will see if fifty years of northern rule will do as much." 

The predictions of Slaeanlay and Carlyle read as if they were historical de- 
Bcriptions of what the United States now exhibit to the world: 

"HoLLV Lodge, Kensington, London, 
May 2'S, 1857. 
Dear Sir: 

You are surprised to learn that I have not a high opinion of Mr. Jefferson — 
and I am a little surprised at your surprise. I am certain that I never wrote a 
line, and that I never, in Parliament, in conversation, or even on the hustings — 
a place where it is the fa.shion to court the populace — uttered a word indicating 
an opinionthat the supreme authority in a Stale ought to be entrusted to the ma- 
jority of citizens told by the head — in other words, to the poorest and most igno- 
rant part of society. I have long been convinced that institutions purely demo- 
cratic must, sooner or later, destroy liberty, or civilisation, or both. 

In Europe, where the population is dense, the effect of such institutions would 
be almost instantaneous. What happened lately in France is an example. In 
184ci a pure democracy was established there. During a short time there was 
reason to expect a general spoliation, a national bankruptcy, a new partition of 
the soil, a maxiumm of prices, a ruinous load of taxation laid on tho rich for the 
purpose of supporting the poor in idleness. .Such a system would, in twenty 
years, have made France as poor and barbarous as the France of the Curlovin- 
gians. Happily the danger was averted ; and now there is a despotism, a silent 
tribune, an enslaved press. Liberty is gone ; but civilisation has been saved 
have not the smallest doubt that, if we had a purely democratic govennneut here, 
the effect would be the same. Either the poor would plunder the rich, and 
civilisation would perish — or order and property would be saved by a strong 
military government, and libertj' would perish. 

You may think that yoiu' country enjoys an exemption fi'om these evils. I 
will frankly own to you that I am of a very different opinion. Your fate I be- 
lieve to be certain, though it is deferred by a physical cause. As long as you 
have a boundless extent of fertile and unoccupied land, your laboring population 
will be far more at ease than the laboring population of the old world — and while 
that is the case, the .feffersonian polity may continue to exist without causing 
anj' fatal calamity. But the time will come when New England '.vill lie as thickly 
peopled as Old England. Wages will be as low and will Hiictuate as much with 
you as with us. Yon will have your Manchesters and Birmiughams; and in 
those Manchesters and Bu'ininghams hundreds of thousands of artizans will as- 
suredly be sometimes out of work. Then your institutions will he fairly brought 
to the test. Distress every where makes the laborer mutinous and discontented, 
and inclines him to listen with eagerness to agitators, who tell Irnii that it is a 
monstrous iniquity that one man should have a million while another cannot get 
a full meal. In bad years there is plenty of grumbling here, and sonietimi'S a 
little rioting. But it matters little. For" here the sufferers are not the rulers. 
The supreme power is in the bauds of a class, numerous indeed, but select, of an 
educated class, of a class which is, and knows itself to be deeply interested in 
the security of property and the maintenance of order. Accordingly, the mal- 
contents are firmly, yet gently restrained. The liad time is got over without 
robbing the wealthy to relieve the indigent. The springs of national prosperity 
soon begin to flow again : work is plentiful: wages rise; and all is tranquillity 
and cheerfulness. I have seen England pass three or four times through such 
critical seasons as I have described. Through such seasons the United States 
will have to pass, in the course of the next century, if not of this. How will 
you pass through them ? I heartily wish you a good deliverance. But my rea- 
son and my wishes are at war; aud I cannot help forebudiiig the worst. It is 
quite plain that your government will never be able to restrain a distressed and 

discontented majority. For with you the majority is the government, and has 
the rich, who are always a minority, absolutely at its mercy. The day wifl come 
when, in the State of New York, a nmltitude of people, none of whom has had 
morethanhalf a breakfast, or expects to have more than half a dinner, will chuse a 
legislature. Is it possible to doubt what sort of legislature will be chosen ( On 
one side is a statesman preaching patience, respect tor vested rights, strict obser- 
vance of public faith. Ou the other is a demagogue ranting about the tyranny 
of capitalists and usurers, and asking why any body should be permitted Jo 
drink champagne and ride in a carriage, while thousands of honest folks are in 
want of necessaries. Which of the two candidates is likely to be prefeiTed by a 
working man, who hears liis children cry for more bread? I seriously appre- 
hend that. you will, in some such season of adversity as I have described, do 
things which will prevent prosperity from returning; that you will act like people 
who should, in a year of scarcity, devour all the seed corn, and thus make the 
next year a year, not of scarcity, but of absolute famine. There will be, I fear, 
spohation. The spoliation will increase the distress. The distress will produce 
fresh spoliation. There is nothing to stop you. Your constitution is all sail and 
no anchor. As I said before, when a society ha.s entered on this downward pro- 
gress, either civilisation or liberty must perish. Either some Cresar or Napoleon 
will seize the reins of government with a strong hand, or your republic will be 
as fearfully plundered aid laid waste by barbarians in the twentieth century as 
the Roman empire was in the fifth; with this difference that the Huns and Van- 
dals, who ravaged the Roman empire, came from without, and that your Huns 
and Vandals will have been engendered within your own country by your own 
Thinking thus, of course I cannot reckon Jefferson among the benefactors of 
ankind. I readily admit that his intentions were good and his abilities con- 
siderable. Odious stories have been circulated about his private life ; but I do 
not know on what evidence those stories rest; and I think it probable that they 
are false, or monstrously exnggerated. I have no doubt that I shall derive both 
pleasure and information from your account of him. 
I have the honor to be, dear sir. 

Your faithful servant, 

T. B. Macaui.ay. 

And now for Carlyle. What said he of the Yankee nation ? Read : 

" Cease to brag to me of America and its model institutions, and constitutions. 
To men in their sleep there is nothing granted in this world, nothing, or as good 
as nothing, to men who sit idly ballot-boxing on the graves of their heroic an- 
cestors, saying, ' It is -well — it is well '.' Corn and bacon are granted, not a very 
sublime boou, on such conditions, a boon, however, that on such conditions can- 
not last ! No : America, too, will have to strain its energies, in quite other 
fashion than this; to crack its sinews, and all but break its heart, as the rest of 
us have had to do. America's haltle is yet In Jislit, and we sorrowful, but nothing 
doubtiug, will wish her .strength for it. She tcili hare her oien ngony and her ovon 
rirtory — but on other terms than she is yet aware of. Hitherto, she but plows 
and hammers in a very succes.sful manner; hitherto, in despite of her 'roast 
goose with apple sauce,' she is not much. ' Roast goose with apple sauce for 
the poorest man.' Well, surely that is something — thanks to your respect for the 
street constable, and to your continents of fertile waste land, but that, even if it 
could continue, is by no means enough ; that is not even an installment of what 
will be required <Jf you. My friend, briig not yet of our American Cousins. 
^^'llat great human soul, what thought, what great noble thing that one could 
worship or admire, has yet been produced there? None; the American Cousins 
have yet done none of these things. 'What have they done?' 'They have 
doubled their population every twenty years. They have begotten, with a raj^ 
piditv beyond recorded exam])le, eighteen millions of the greatest bores ever seen 
in this world before. That hitherto, is their feat in history! And so we leave 
them for the present, and cannot predict the success of democracy on this side the 
Atlantic, from their example." 

We have only now to give an iutelligent New Yorker's picture of the 

A recently received northern journal contains an .nddress delivered before the 
New Yorlc Young Men's Christian Association. This association, says the ad- 
dress, " stands pledged to attempt the mental, moral and social improvement of 
tlie ).50,0tl0 youug men who arc exposed to the temptations and bcsetments of 
this freat city." It is an "attempt" which might well appidl anyone acquainted 
with the " temjitations and besetraents" of that city- If any foreign journal or 
southern newspaper were to utter one tenth part of the statements contained in 
the addres.s, or expose a moiety even of the misery and rank rottenness in which 
the sub-society of New York fairly stews, there would bo one universal burst of 
indignation from the Central Park to the Battery, that the fame of the metropolis 
should be so blotted and belied. 

Nevertheless, a New York young christian, addressing his associates, speaks of 
" the surpassing sinfulness of the city — not so much to ieed curiosity as to stimu- 
late missionary zeal." 

And here is the directory: In a resident population of nearly 900,000 souls 
(and bodies), there were received last year into the charitable and correctional 
institutions of the city 57,034 persons; A\, •£)'■) persons were committed to prison 
lor ninety special offeiices; there are 6,000 liquor dealers in the city; 100,000 (the 
address says) Gennan infidels; 9.'),000 souls '•voluntarily destitute of the true 
means of grace;" " 13.000 families without a Bible;" 50,000 children who never 
attended a school; 15,000 children classed as homeless ones, who prey upon the 
community, either as beggars, thieves or vagabonds, and who are growing up, 
unchecked and unrestrained, into the next gener.ttiou of burglars, pickpockets 
and prostitutes : "obscene books and prints published, imported, and sold in our 
streets, at our wharves, aud in some of our bookstores" — "a periodical press not 
guiltless as respects immoral teachings and influences" — of 99."2;i2 arrests last 
year, " thiec-fuurths were directly ou account of intoxication and misdemeanors 

August 20, 1863.] 



arising thfi'ofrom" — nine tlientves, "six of which permit the presence of prosti- 
tutes" — aiuusenients " graduated so as to gvatiiy every class, however degraded, 
an3 every taste, however depraved" — model artist exhibitions, free concert sa- 
loons, dance hoii«es, dog; lights, and other such spectacles, attracting crowds 
every night — Ivventv- five thousand abandoned women, of all grades, and twenty- 
five hundred brothels — " Broadway flanked for morn than a mile, on either side, 
by streets whose very names are syuonj'ms of debauchery;" it is notorious that 
the great thoroughlare has scarcely a block above Canal street wliich is not dis- 
graced by an assignation house or a disreputable hotel. " More than half the 
population dwelling in crowded tenement houses, erected and arranged to have 
from four to one hundred and twenty-five families of five persons each" — "an 
underground population," according to Dr. Francis, of 2.5,000 persons, and with 
this enumeration, of which we have given a sketch, merely omitting much of the 
worst, the address defers the consideration of " gambling, lottery policies, desecra- 
tion of the Sabbath, the reckless disregard of sanitary rules, the increasing riotous 
character of city politics, and the vagrancy, ignorance and pauperism, so preva- 
lent in our community"— surely, subject matter sufficient for another address, if 
not for a volume. 

We have read of an artist monk who painted a picture of purgatory so fi-ight- 
ful in its details, that he went mad over his own work — and of yet another, who 
drew the devil in such a horrible form, that it killed him outright. Our young 
Christian has simply photographed a city in the year of grace 1863, 
and the picture is one which may well stagger our faith in the civilization of this 


I am afraid that our naval instructor has led me into a digression, and drawn 
me away from those who are still to be mentioned of his ward room messmates. 
But the duties of the gentlemen in question are so purely civil, that it will be 
Bufiicient to mention them in a very brief way. The surgeon and his assistant 
surgeons— (these last were only promoted into the ward room after much agita- 
tion, not many years ago) — have, of course, been educated for their profession, 
in just the same manner as their brother doctors of town and country. Their 
"sick list," presented to the captain every morning, has nothing distinctively 
naval about it; and their "sick bay" probably does not differ from any hospital 
w.ard, except in its modest size, and in the fact that the patients swing in "cots," 
which undulate gently with the undulations of the vessel. In action — as is well 
known — the surgical work is done under water on the orlop deck; and the table 
in the cockpit, at which the midshipmen perform their toilettes, bears the tradi- 
tional name of the amputation table from that circumstance. The names recall 
Roderick Random. But the surgeon of Smollett is as extinct as the chaplain of 
Dibdin and the purser of Marryatt. The purser — alternately Jack's butt and 
bugbear in old days — who was supposed to swindle him in his slops,* and poison 
him in his provisions — has bloomed into a paymaster in the age in which we live. 
He has become not only an irreproachably respectable, but, sometimes, a rather 
prominently genteel man. And the reader who has formed his notions of the 
service from the old sea novels would be surprised, on peeping into a \Vard room, 
to hear Smuggy, the paymaster, discussing the Piccolomini with the junior lieu- 
tenant of marines; while the surgeon and chaplain enlightened a little group of 
raessuLites on the effect of Dr. Lu.shington's judgment in the case of Essays and 
Retiews. Yon shrewd, grave, rather stiff-looking man — probably Scotch — is the 
chief engineer. This is an officer added to the ward room in quite recent times, 
by the universal adoption of steam in the navy; and at present, perhaps, a little 
ont of his element. The subordinate oflicej-s of liis branch, unlike those of 
others, have a mess to themselves, instead of passing through the gun room — an 
arrangement which must surely isolate them, and keep them from acquiring the 
tone of the profession. 

The gun room in a line-ofbattle ship occupies the afterpart of the lower deck, 
as the ward room does that of the main deck just above it The space, taken in 
comprises two guns, one on each " quarter." The port holes of these, and the 
stem ports, give the apartment its lig^t and air. A stranger would hardly be 
prepared for the amount of comfort which is realized under such conditions. 
But what w'.C.i a gbod oil cloth, and well cushioned lockers, and a judicious paint- 
ing of the gun carriages, and silk curtains over the port holes — perhaps, also, a 
cask of sherry in the corner — a gun room is a sufficiently pleasant looking place 
of abode. Here mess, some twenty strong, the youth of the junior grades of the 
navy — sublieutenants, midshipmen, naval cadets — to whom lies open the road 
(though it is no easy one) to the highest prizes of the service. The sublieute- 
nant has served his time (five years and a half, according to the latest regulation 
of the matter) as naval cadet and midshipman; has "passed" in seamanship, 
gunnery and navigation; and must now wait till merit, accident or interest raise 
him to lieutenant's rank. Men, still young, can remember having in the mess 
with them mates of ten years' standing, the pay being G^l. a year! 

Naturally, a ten years' mate was often fierce, querulous, and dangerous to 

ved out by go 

□ d d«duct«cl from the 

meddle with; besides being occasionally loo much given to strong drink. Now- 
adays, the want of lieutenants stimulates the promotion of this rank just below 
them, and the delay at the stage of sublieutenant is less unreasonable. 

A sublieutenant is so placed that he may have to do the same work as either 
the lieutenant above or the midshipman below hiui, according to the number of 
officers of the three graces in the ship at any given time. He may have charge 
ot a watch; command of one of the larger boats, i. e. launch, barge or pinnace; 
'command of a division of quarters ; charge of a deck; or lie may serve under a 
lieutenant in any of these capacities. In either case, the midshipman, of course, 
is undi-r him; though a midshipman's duties would bo just the same as his were 
sublieutenants deficient in that particular ship. There have been several changes 
during late years in the regulations relating' to midshipmen. They are now sent 
to the training ship Britannia, a venerable three decker, at present stationed 
at Portland, before being appointed to a sea-going ship at all. They have to 
"pass" to' get into her, and to "pass" to get out of her. After eighteen months' 
sea service, they "pass" again; and they complete their whole course in six 
months less than they used to do. Undoubtedly, the education of naval officers 
was much neglected twenty years ago, and is greatly improving now. But we 
may push a necessary reform too hard; and no Englishman can wish to see the 
grand hearty old navy filled with what the French call "Polytechnisfs." The 
recklessness of the old "mids," their gay impudence, their inextinguibhable 
fun, were elements in the superiority which made our officers beat all the world. 
They were the nitre in the gunpowder, an ingredient without which all the others 
would have been useless. 

Midshipmen, as the reader may suppose, have much more scientific and book- 
work than used to be the case ; and yet all the old functions of the rank must be 
discharged as usual. There is a midshipman to each of the smaller boats — first 
and second cutters, jolly-boat, &c. ; a midshipman to each " top," when the 
ship's company are working aloft ; one at each division of quarters ; and so on, 
just as I have described in the case of higher officers. They are the Jlereuries of 
the naval Olympus ; winged messengers of the higher deities, whose orders they 
convey, repeat, and see carried out. " Run, sir ! " I have heard a captain or first 
lieutenant say, when the midshipman seemed about to execute his commands in 
too leisurely and dignified a manner. And run he must ; especially en route to his 
top (that neat, but airy apartment, looking something like a crow's nest, at the 
head of the lower masts), unless he would be run over, and have his fingers 
squeezed by the tread of the swarm of stout fellows making the whole massive 
rigging shake in his rear. 

Of the duties of the second master and master's assistants, I know only one 
with which unprofessionaf readers can have an intelligent sympathy. From time 
immemorial these gentlemen have had to stand at the grog-butt, and see the 
grog served out — an important duty, the discharge of which has invested them, 
such is the playfulness of naval humor, with the title of Bungs. 

I have previously mentioned the warrant officers — boatswain, gunner and 
carpenter — as forming an intermediate rank between the regular and the "petty" 
officers, and having cabins of their own. But to attempt to describe their func- 
tions, or those of the petty officers, in detail, would lead us into technicalities not 
within the proper scope of this paper. The boatswain has always been a favorite 
with naval novelists; because, rising from the ranks, he brings freshness of 
character along with him, while his general education is just sufficient to induce 
him to speculate on intellectual subjects with a curious originality. He is more 
directly connected with the master than with any other officer, having peculiar 
charge, under him, of rigging, stores, &c. His pipe (a handsome silver whistle) 
summons the crew to deck, and screams musically responsive to the orders when 
the work is going on. Indeed, more than any man, the boatswain answers to the 
foreman of a business establishment, leading the hands, and being himself the 
first hand. The boatswalins are, in fact, the crack seamen of the service — em- 
bodying in a higher form the best qualities of the common seamen of the country. 
The gunner's most important duty is to take charge of every thing belonging to 
the powder fliacaziue, the keys of which he receives, when neces.^ary, from the 
commander, and of all the stores by which the fighting work of the vessel is 
done. The carpenter's duties are sufficiently indicated by his name. 

This system of subordination works so easily, because it works by help of a 
system of classification — as was pointed out above. Though essentially a living 
unity, a coherent individual whole, yet a man-of-war attains to be this by dint 
of a careful division and adjustment of parts. Her crew is classified in several 
distinct ways, according to the different classes of duty that devolve upon theny 
in different parts of the ship's daily life. Thus, a ship has to be sai^erf., |^ 
that purpose, her crew are divided, and appointed to particultg^statiobs.'wlie^p 
they go when nautical operations are on hand. Each luau bjlong's^tba g»f|cu- 
lar division, and a particular gun in the divieion, a'dJa'parTicufar" iumBtr in foe 


[August 20, 1863 

gun ; so when the dnim and fife call him to quarters, he knows just ns well 
where to go as he knew where to go when the boatswain's pipe called him to 
make or shorten sail. Once more, a ship has a social as well as a naval or mili- 
tary life, and men eat, drink and sleep there, as in a village or a barrack. Ac- 
cordingly, the men are divided into messes, — each mess having its own table at 
a certain place on the lower deck, and one member of the mess being cook, and 
going for its share of provisions to the galley each day. So, too, every man 
has his bag for his clothes and his hammock to sleep in, and has prescribed hours 
and places for the use of both. And since a ship, as a whole, neter sleeps, there 
being no snch complete suspension of life possible in a ship, as in a country 
mansion, all the officers are divided into three watches, and all the crew into two. 
The three watches are formed as follows : — Morning watch, fonr A. SI. to eight 
A. M. ; forenoon watch, eight to twelve ; afternoon watch, twelve to four p. Jl. ; 
first dog-watch, four to six ; second dog-watch, six to eight ; first watch, eight to 
twelve; middle watch, twelve to four A. M. This round completes the twenty- 
four hours, and the division into dog-watches secures that nobody shall have the 
same watch two sights running. The men's two watches are called the star- 
board and larboard watches, and are held alternately, according to the division 
of time thus described. 

The reader sees from this sketch in how many relations each man st;inds to the 
general work of a man-of-war, and how definilely each relation is fi.xi'd for him. 
Yon ringlettcd young seaman with the earrings — (a favorite nautical dandyism) — 
is, &r instance, a forftopman; is "No. 3, the loader," at the bow-gun on the 
main-deck; takes an oar in the pinnace, belongs' to the starboard watch, and 
sleeps in a hammock, of which the number is 240, and which he stows in the 
larboard waist hammock nettings. Under all conditions, that smart youth knows 
where lie is expected to be, just as his captain of the foretop knows that in reefing 
topsails his place is at " the weather earring.'' Observe, however, that as in each 
of his stations our foretopman does not necessarily work with the same batch of 
his shipmates, the dift'crent sections of ship life all interpenetrate each other. 
This contributes to the oneness of character of a ship, so that in every §qu.adron 
there is a certain individuality about eA'ery vessel. 

The public ophiion of a man-of-war, for e.\ample, is as definitely known and 
felt as that of a town. The men have their favorite officers and their unpopular 
officers— just as the officers tliemselves give a certain well-understocd status to 
each of their own body, and. have a tendency to split their messes into cliques, 
according to taste and inclination. To the credit of the navy, however, be it 
always remembered, that it has never been a quarrelsome profession. When 
duelling was common, it was ahvay,s less commou there than in similar societies. 
Yet, what strain can be greater on the human temper than for a set of men, arbi- 
trarily brought together, to be compelled to live in each other's sight, and at the 
same table, day after day, year after year — engaged iu occupations which are, apt 
to become very wearisome, viewed as a routii^e .' I have known men live together, 
day and night, eating and drinking in each other's company, and serving in the 
same •\vatch, without interchanging a word which the necessities of the service 
allowed them to help! This is called "Not passing the-salt," and may last for 
weeks and months ; in extreme cases even for the whole connnission. Mare com- 
monly, however, the pride of one of the parties to the qnaiTol gives way; he 
takes occasion, when the mess are entertaining strangers, and an unusual 

jollity of sentiment prevails, to send round a mess-servant to Mr. — , the 

enemy, and ask him to "take wine;" which having once been ac- 
cepted, friendly relations are resumed without explanation or remark. And in 
nine cases out of ten, the dispute which led to the rupture has been a trivial one; 
has risen out of some impatient expression, such as are irresistible when, by en- 
forced associations, men travel (as Goldsmith says) over each other's minds. 
Fortunately the conditions of grave quarrelling are absent, as a general rule, from 
naval messes. Cards are tabooed, betting discouraged and gambling unknown. 
Public questions are seldom of interest enough to i'umish occasion for a row. I 
have known fellows quancl on a AVhig and Tory questjon^ though .such quarrels 
are rare. Indeed, the navy has never been remarkable for keen political f.eiiiig. 
Men's nominal politics are usually those of their i'amilies— that is, of the party 
which brought them into the service, and to which they look for promotion. 
But the real politics of the navy are peculiar and sui generis. They are at once 
aristocratic and anii-oligarchi.-al,— ari.mocratic against " .snobs,"— and tinged wiih 
a not unnatural radicalism iu leiation to the too rapid promotion of "swells." 

And now, perhaps, I cannot do belter than briefly describe what a man-of-war's 
daily routine is. Let us suppose our line-of-batlle siii;) lying in harbor at JIalta— 
the head quarters and general rendezvous of the Mediterraneau station. At day- 
break, a shrill pipe sounds through the lower deck. The boatswain's mate runs 
to and fro, roaring— " Rouse out, herp— rouse out— show a leg!" And, with 
many a grunt, the mass of human beings waken into life, and. lushing up their 

hammocks, the men trot up the hatchway-ladders with them, and the ddy begins. 
W^hing decks is the first thing done. The grating noise of the holystone lo- 
gins, and covers the deck with a thin paste of gray sand; then, deluge.= of wati 
descend, besoms are brandished, the .smooth planks reappear, white as barkc' 
trees, and are rubbed dry and " dumb-scraped." Meanwhile, the cook and his 
myrmidons have had the oleaginous cocoa simmering in the huge coppers, and 
before eight the men are at their morning meal, dipping their biscuit into the hot 
brown stuflF, and cheerfully chattering over the sober bowl. 

The bumboat has come alongside by this time, with oranges and grapes, loaf 
bread (nautice, soft tack), herrings, and similar dainties; while in the cock pit, 
the gun room officers are attiring themselves over their pewter basins and little 
looking gla.sses, and giving audience to the sallow and too pertinacious Maltese 
dun. At eight, lop-gallant yards are crossed — a smart and pretty operation, in 
which the ships of a squadron love to vie with each other. At nine, comes quai'- 
tere, w^eu the men are mustered, inspected, and, perhaps, exercised ; while the 
ship's band plays lively airs on the poop. The surgeon's and other reports are 
received in the forenoon by the captain, and delinquents come before hijn to have 
their cases heard, being remanded to arrest if a serious oflencc is established 
against them. The minor punishments in a man of Avar are " watered grog," 
stopped leave, enforced walking of the deck, and such like. The most serious 
punishment is flogging, which is inflicted in the morning in presence of the whole 
officers and crew. It is now inflicted only for repeated dninkenness at sea, or for 
downright acts of insubordination. The captain cannot inflict more than four 
dozen Inshes on his own authority, nor can he flog till tweuty-fonr hours after the 
offence, and he must in every case prepare a " warrant" setting forth the crime, 
which is transmitted to the Admiralty in regular course. The various occupations 
of the day now proceed. Boats move away to the dock yard or victualling yard. 
Midshipmen start oft' in answer to the well known "signal for a midshi|>man" (a 
union-jack at the peak), and bring from the flag ship the admiral's new general 
orders. Parties are working at preparations of rope, blacking shot, and so forth ; 
and the sailmaker and his crew, the eaipenter and his crew, have all their several 
occupations on hand. Some of the officers depart in the green and yellow or 
otherwise gaudy shore boats, on leave ; others of them are at their desks, writing 
letters home, or lounging on the lockers, reading novels ; or taking a constitu- 
tional on the poop, and watching in the delicious southern air the stir of that no- 
ble Valetta harbor. At half past eleven, you may see the grog being mixed in a^ 
tub in the waist, and the ship's goat trotting up for his little tot of it to the fra- 
grant pool. The allowance of grog has been reduced since my day, and I ob- 
serve that the Yankees have abolished it altogether. Noon brings dinn<'r and the 
bumboat again ; and the men settle to their pork or beef at their messes on the , 
lower deck, and presently come up iu knots to enjoy on the forecastle the ever- 
welcome whifl'. In the afternoon, work is resumed; casks are sceu sw'nging in ; 
parties ard at musket and gun drill; lads are exercising with the niizzen topsail. 
About the time the men go to supper (that is, tea), the officers go to dumer; and 
in a crack Mediterranean ship a midshipman will give yon as good a diuner aa 
any gentleman need to sit down to. Sunset closes the day: bang! 
goes a musket, and down goes the ensign from the flag stalf; the topgallant yards 
descend as if by magic; and, after another in-spection of tin- men, and j)lpe down 
hammocks, all is soon still. The officers on leave go to the little opera in Strada 
Teatro, and wind up with a roast quail at Joe Micallef's, and an hour or two of 
billiards. Those on board take a smoke at the bowport on the main deck, or on 
chairs between the guns in the after part of it. 

At sea, all the strings of discipline arc drawn tighter, thongh the routine is 
very similar to that which has been described. The officers' dinner time is ear- 
lier; there is more exercising of dift'crent kinds; the niidshipmau of ihe watch 
has the log to heave everyhour, and the result to enter in the general log book, 
besides having more matter to write in his own private log than in harbor. He 
and his brother "mids" must take observations, too, at noon. 'J lie ordinary 
work — trimming sails, making and shortening sail, &c. is done at sea by the 
watch; and "all hands" are onlj' summoned fur heavier operations, aiid at sun- 
set, when the vessel is "made sung" for the night. The men of the watch are 
mustered at the beginning of each watch by the niid.shipman entering on duty, 
and at the close of it the midshipman " calls" the lieutenant, and the quarter- 
master the officer belov.' him, whose turn it is to succeed. Every kind of work 
is carried on, in a man of war, I may observe, in silence, and without the " Yo, 
heave, ho!" of the merchant service: and is done in set forms, and with a certain 
decorous orderliness. Thus, in reefing topsails, "Man the riggiijg," is one com- 
mand, "Way aluft," another; and each step of the work follows the clear loud 
cry of the oliicer, wlio.--e voice alone is audible by the hu'.idnds who are execut- 
ing his commands. Yet there is no pedantic jiicety of sili'iice at time .s when it 
is less necessary; and at night, during Ihe first watch, when the gn id ship is 
buwlipg along iu the quiet moonlight, a pleasant voice will be heard breaking 
into soug from the group of men huddled among their jiilot coats iu the waist. 
On such occasions, the officer of the watch, turning from the binnacle, where he 
has seen that she continues to lie her course, resumes cheerfully his mnnmonous 
walk — thanking, probably, in his heart, the good fellow whose voice reuiinds hiM 
that, life is not all labor and responsibility, and that there are such things as fun, 
and music, and hope, and love, and rest, ami home. 

August 20, 1863.] 



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ti3:e :recok,id. 



We are struggling for tlie right to lire. If conquered, as a people Ave are an- 
nihilated. If we succeed, there awaits us a national di:veIopnieut blending the 
better and more solid virtues of the English with the ideal and chivalric traits of 
the French people. Robust manliness will combine with natural delicacy in indi- 
vidual life, while religion and law will consecrate in our national life those heroic 
elements that have aUvudy attracted the admiration of the world in the conduct 
of our war. If the northern States succeed, their success will be the result of brute 
force, and their gains purely material ; no highej- inspiration mo-\-es them than that 
of profit and loss. If they conquer us, the South will be to them what India is to 
tngland — if they fail, out trade deserts them, and their cities become like the 
decayed commercial towns of the old world. The following extract only slightly 
indicates the value of the South to them : 

From the London Index. • 


The fact was first announced to the British public some mouths since by Com- 
mander M, F. Maury, in a letter to the Times, but lias since been abundantly 
confirmed by the ofEuial statements of the Confederate States treasury, that the 
receipts from customs at the port of Charleston have been larger since the com- 
mencement of the blockade than at any previous period within thirty years. In 
other words, the blockaded confederate port, under a reduced and exceedingly 
moderate tariff, imports a larger quantity of foreign merchandise than it did in 
the same space of time as an open port of the United States: Or, to state the 
case still more clearly, the commercial sj-stem of the old Union proved a more 
effective blockade upon the direct importation of European goods info southern 
ports, than do the fleets of men-of-war actually stationed at their entrance. In 
this pregnant fact will be found the solution of most of the mysteries which 
still enshroud, to the eyes of many, the great Transatlantie revolution. If we 
examine it ever so little in detail, we shall be at no loss to discover what it is that 
the North is so obstinately and desperately fighting for. 

We have now before us the official report, published by order of the United 
States congress, of the Secretary of the Treasury, on the " commerce and navi- 
gation" of the Uuiled States lor the year ending ,Iune 30, It!59. From this re- 
port it appears that in that year, the last but one of the existence of the Union, 
the total value of the foreign imports of all the States was $.338,963,130. Of this 
amouut the twentj'-two sbuthern ports of entry imported only $39,86.5,557, or 
less than one-tenth. In the same year, according to the same report, the value of 
the total exportation of all the States to foreign countries, was .'$38.5,894,385, of 
which the southern ports furnished $186,52 1, .537, or more than one-half If, 
then, we assume that the South consumed, of foreign iuiportcd merchandise, only 
its pro rata share, according to its white pnpulation, omitting the negroes alto- 
gether as consumers of foreign merchandise, say eight twenty-sixths of the 
whole, it follows that it tuught from the North, at second-hand, of such mer- 
chandise, to the value of at least £14,000,000, that being the difference in round 
numbers between the amount directly imported and actually consumed. If, how- 
ever, we estimate the capacity of the South for consuming foreign 'goods, by its 
share of the exports, the amount of such goods bougiit fi-om tlie North, or of 
northern manufacture, substituted in their place, swells to largely upwards of 

Eloquent as these figures are, they do not nearly tell the full truth of the enor- 
mous gains annually derived from the southern trade. First, because the direct 
foreign exportaiiou from the southern poi'ts, large though it is, does not ivpreseat 
the whole amount of exportable and exported values annually produced by the 
South. The cotton and tobacco crops are exclusively southei-u. but not the ouly 
southern staples; and these tjvo alone are estimated in the oflicjal statistics at 

|i 807,710,102 — or more than the rulire southern exporlation to foreign countries. 
A vast portion of southern prodiicls — cntlun, tobacco, sugar, rice, naval stores, 
etc. — are fhevelbre sent to the North as raw matc^rial for its nianulaetiifes, or are 
consumi'd there,, or are reshipped from northern ports. Secondly, the North has 
itself long been tho'most successful conijH'titor with Europe in the southern mar- 
ket, and has supplied that marlset with its own manufactures far more than with 
those of its rivals. Tho value of the annual product of nineteen leading manu- 
facturing pursuits in all the Slates, was, by the census of 1860, estimated at over 
one thous.nud million dollars iu round numbers, deduction being made for expor- 
tation As the same authority places the value of the entire manufactur- 
ing industry of the South at less than 150,000,000, it is clear — even if wo were 
again to omit tVom the calculation tho 4,000,000 of blacks — that, to have con- 
sumed its share of the domestic manufactures, the South must have boitght from 
the North, in these nineteen articles alone, to the value of over $150,000,000. 

,We have thus the means of forming an idea, albeit still an inadequate one, of 
the truly magnificent prize for which the North is contending. A writer who has 
profoundly studied the commercial statistics of tho United States, and whose 
figures have never been impugned, has drawn the international balance sheet be- 
tween North and South, with a nearer approach to precision than we in a ne«-s- 
paper article could venture to do. He estimates the credit side of the southern 
account, annually, and for bills upou Europe for produce shipped directly, and 
for raw material and produce of every description furnished to the North, at 
$ 462,000,000 ; against which he places the debits as follows : 
DonteStic goods (northern manufacture), - - 240,000,000 

Imported ditto (supplied by the North), - . 106,000,000 

Interest, brokerage and commissions, . - . . 63,000,000 

Southern travellers, .... 53,000.000 


The same writer, Mr. T. P. Ivettell, a northern man, m a book written and 
published nt the North,. and with a view of averting, if possible, the danger of 
disunion, then ouly impeuding, thus commented on thete facts three years ago: 

"This is the vast trade which approximates 'the sum of the dealings between 
the North and the South. These transactions influence the earnings, more or 
less direct, of every northern man." 


The following from The Index, referring to the tliily number of the Westmin- 
ster Keview, puts very strongly a fact, which is quite as much a fact in Ameiica 
as in England: 

We utterly repudiate the infidel doctrines of the V.'cstminster as we do its poli- 
tical theories, which conibiue all the vices of French .Did German socialism, with- 
out any of the virtues that grace, though they do not redeem that system. It is 
singular that wherever we go we find abolitionism and infidelity linked together. 
We do not moralize; we merely state an indisputable fact. We do not mean 
that a sincere and liearty opposition to slavery is incompatible with a .sincere and 
hearty profession of Christianity, we only refer to Take tip the 
U'estiiiinstiir. The first article is on "The Growth of ChristiciMty," and i.s just 
such an essay as Voltaire might have called extreme, and Hume and 'ihinnas 
I'liine would have cordially endorsed. When we come to Article JO, we find the 
southern defence of independence called an "iulernal project," and the cruel, 
vengeful and selfish war waged by the Nortli described as a resolution on the 
part of the North " to purge this stigma from mankind." 


The following is f'^e official letter from Governor Todd of Ohio to the warden 
of the Ohio penitentiary, containing directions for the c<jiifinemei,t erf Geueral 
Morgan and his officers in that institution : 

State of Ohio, Executive Drr^nTMF.XT, 

CuLauhns. .July 30, 18f;3. 
Nathaniel Mcrion, ll'iirilen of the Ohio Penilentiary : ■ 

YoTi have been advised, by a formidable and desfruclive raid through 
our State, of a band of desperate men, under the lead of 'the notorious John 
Morgan; also their capture by the military forces of the federal government, 
aided, however, materially by the militia forces of our State. 

Upon consultation with Maj. Gen. A. E. Buruside, commander in chii'f of this 
military department, I learn from him that he has not, subject to his command, a 
secure place ii; which to keep the principal officers of said band. I have, there- 
fore, tendered to the federal government the use of our penitentiary as a place of 
safe keeping for them until other provisions can be made. 

You will, therefore, please receive from the officers of the LTnited States govern- 



[August 20, 1863 

meiit the sakl John Morgiaii and thirty olhpvs, confeJrratc officers captured with 
him (a list of whose names is herewitli handed you), and safely and securely 
keep them within the walls of the penitentiary until other provisions shall be 
made for them. 

You will carefully search each prisoner as he may he handed over to you, and 
take from him all arms and articles of value (money included), and carefully 
preserve the same until you may receive further directions touching the disposi- 
tion thereof. 

You will keep said prisoners, so far as may be possible, separate and apart 
from the convicts. You will furnish them every thing nccessarj' in the way of 
food and clothing for iheir comfort, and impose only such restrictions upon them 
as may be necessary for their safe keeping. You will permit no one to hold in- 
terviews or connnunications, by writing or otherwise, except by written or tele- 
graphic order from General Bvirnside. 

You will emjiloy such additional force, for guard or other duty, as you may 
deem necessary. 

Should clothing be required for the prisoners, you will make a requisition upon 
me for the same. 

You will keep an accurate account of all increased cost to the institution con- 
sequent upon a compliance with this request, and report the same to me from 
tiuie to time as you may require funds to meet the expenditure. 
Respectfully yours, 

Davit) Topd, 
Goc. and Coinmunder in Chirf. 


The following, says the Richmond Enquirer, is the order recently issued by the 
general in chief o*' the Yankee army for the repression of " guerrilla outrages" 
on the line of the Orange and Alexandria rail road. It is worthy only of the 
cowardly author, who sit_s safely ensconced behind the entrenchments around 
Washington. We find it incorporated in an order from Gen. Howard to his 
command, the 11th corps, which ran so at Chancellorsville: 

"The numerous depredations committed by citizens, rebel soldiers in di.sguise, 
harbored and concealed by citizens along the Orange and Alexandria rail road, 
and within our lines, call for prompt and exemplary punishment. You will, 
therefore, arrest and confine for punishment, or put beyond our lines, every 
citizen against whom there is sufficient evidence of his having engaged in these 
practices. You will also notify the pt-ople, within ten miles of the rail road, that 
they will be held responsible in their persons and property for any injury done to 
the road, trains, depots or stations, by guerrillas or persons in disguise, and, in 
case of such injury, they will be impressed as laborers to repair all damages. If 
these measures should not stop such depredations, the entire inhabitants of the 
district of couutiy along the rail road will he put across the line, and their pro- 
perty taken for government use. 

H. W. Halleck. General in Chief." 


The assembly to which Perico had admitted nie, presented a strange aspect. 
About twenty men and women of the poorest class were seated in a circle, talk- 
ing, shrieking and gesiiculating. A fa-tid, cadaverous odor, hardly smothered 
by the smoke of cigars and the fumes of xeres and chiuquirito, filled the room. 
In a comer of the apartment was placed a table loaded with provisions of all 
sorts — with cups, bottles and flasks. At a more distant table the seated o-am- 
blers mingled the jingle of copper money with the technical terms of monte, and 
quarreled tor piles of cuartillas and tlacos, with the excitement caused by st'rouo- 
drinks. XJnder the triple inspiration of wine, womeu and gambling, tlie oro-ie', 
which I saw at its commencement, appeared as if it would quickly make foi-nii- 
dable progress : but what struck me most, was precisely what seemed -to preoe 
cupy the assembly least. A youug child, who seemed scarcely to have attained 
his seventh j-ear, was lying i>n a table. His pale brow, covered with flowers 
faded by the heat of the .•stifling atmosphere, his glazed eyes, and sunken, livid 
cheeks, already streaked with shades of violet, indicated that life had left him, 
and that it was some days perhaps since he first slept the eternal sleep. The as- 
pect of this little amid the shrieks, the laughter, the gambling and noisy 
conversations — amid these men and women who !au"-bed and sang like savii^es-^ 
was heartbreaking. The flowers and jewels that cnvered him, far from depnviuo- 
death of its .sad solemnity, only made it nmre hideous. " 

Such was the shelter for which I was indebted to Perico's ingenious solicitude. 
A general silence followed our entry. A man, in whom I soon recognized the 
master of the house and the father of the dead child, rose up to receive us. His 
brow, instead of bting overshadowed witli sadness, seemed, on the contrarv ra- 
diant with delight; and it was with a look of pride that lie pointed out to us' the 
numerous guests assembled to celebrate with him the death of his son— an event 
considered as u favor from Heaven, since it hud pleased God to take back the 

child before it readied the age of reason. He assured us that we were weleiuue 
to his honse, and that to hioi, on such a day, strangers became friends. 'I'hanks 
to Perico's loquacity, all eves were fixed upon nie. I had a character ditficnlt to 
sustain, Perico' having thought it necessary to affirm to all willing to listen, that ' 
it was impossible to kill people with better grace than I had done. In order to 
till my pait properly, I hastened to put my gloves in my pocket and aft'ect great 
assurance, convinced that it was prudent to follow the fashion. 

"What do you think of the asylum I have found you? (asked Perico, rub- 
bing his hands.) , Is it not better" than what I could offer? 'Moreover, you will 
now understand the meaning of a relorio. It is a resource on idle or dull even- 
ings. Thaidcs to me, you will thus acquire a title to the eternal gratitude of that 
worthy father, whose child, having died before the age of seven, is now an Vgel 
in heaven." And Pi^rico, anxious d(mbtless to insure himself a share in this 
tribute of gratitude, seized without ceremony on a large glass of chinguirito, and 
emptied it at a draught. I witnessed for the first time this barbarous custom, 
which compels a father to repress his tears, to dissemble his anguish beneath a 
smiling face, and to do the honors of his house to the first vagabond who, under 
ihe auspices of a sereno, comes to gorge himself with meat and wine before 
the corpse of his son, and share largess, which too often condemns the whole 
family to misery the next day. When once the orgie, for a moment distinbed. 
had relapsed into its former course. I felt a little calmer, and began to look around 
me. I then perceived, in the midst of an anxious group of those woiiTen who 
make it a duty never to miss a death wake, a pallid brow, lips trying to smile, in 
spite of eyes full of tears: and in this victim of a gross superstition I had no 
difficulty in detecting the mother, for whom an angel in heaven did not replace 
the angel she missed on earth. The women who crowded around Iter seemed 
vying with one aoolher as to who shuuld most increase the poor woman's afflic- 
tion by awkward importunities. One reccutnted the phases of the illm-ss and 
sufferings of the deiid child ; another enumerated the infallible remedies she 
would have tried if she had been consulted in' time — sucif as St. Nicholas' plas- 
ters, moxas, the vapor of purslain picked on a Friday in Lent, decoelions of 
herbs filtered through a bit of a dominican's frock : and tin' poor credulous 
mother turni^d away to wipe her tears, convinced that these remedies would in; 
deed have saved her child. 

Xeve-s and cigarettes followed rapidly during consultations ; then all the 
innocent games in vugue in Spanish America were proposed and played at; whilst 
the children, yielding lo fatigue, stretched themselves out to rest in all the corners 
of the room, as if envying the sleep of him whose discolored brow protested, 
beneath th(f faded flowers, against this odious profanation of death. 

Withdrawn into the recess of one of the windows which looked into the 
street, I followed all Perico's movements with .some uneasiness. It seemed to 
me as if the protection ho had so suddenly bestowed on me nnist conceal some 
snare. My physiognomy doubtless betrayed my anxiety, for the lepero came up 
to me and said, by way of consolation : 

" Senor cavalier, killing a man is like every thing else; the first step is the 
only painful one. Besides, your sereno will, perhaps, be like my Englishman, 
who is at this moment belter than ever. Those heretics have such tough lives! 
Ah, senor," said Perico, sighing, " 1 have always regretted not being a heretic 1" 

" In order to have a tough life .'" 

"No, lo be paid for my conversion. Unfortunately, my reputation as a good 
Christian is too well established." 

"But the cavalier you were to kill?" I asked Perico, naturally brought back 
to the remembrance of the melancholy young man I had seen kneeling at the 
morgue. "Do you think he is still alive?" 

Perictf shook his head. 

" Perhaps to nuirrow his mad passion avIU liave cost him bis life, and his mis- 
tress will not survive him. As for myself, I did not choose to make two victims 
at one?, and I renotluced the business" 

"These sentiments are highly creditable to you, Perico." 

Perico wished to profit by the favorable imprc!ssion his answer bad made upon 

" Donbt| one docs Qcit expose one's soul thus for a few piasters. But, speak- 
ing of piasters, senor," he continued, holding out his baud, "1 feel in the vein, 
and, perhaps, your purse i.s .still well filled ; in case I should break the bank, you 
shajl go halves witli my winnings." 

I thought it prudent not to refuse this new ofl'er of the zaragato's. The monte 
would besides free me for some lime from conipany which was becoming impor- t 
tunate. I therefore slipped a few piasters into Perico's hand. At that moment 
midnight struck. One of the company rose and exclaimed, in a solemn voice, 
" It is tlie hour of the souls in purgatory — let us pray." 

. The gaiuhlirs .itood up, diversions were suspended, and all pre.sent gravely 
knelt down. The prayer began aloud, interrupted by responses at equal inter- 
vals; and, for the first time, the object rif tlie meeting seemed remembered. Let 
any one imagine those guests, with their eyes glazed by diunkcimess, those wo- 
men almost naked, grouped round a corpse crowned with flowers ; and to this 
add tlie vapors of a dense atmosphere, in which putrid miasmas were mingled 
with the exhalations of strong liquors, and they will have an idea of the strange 
and horrible scene which I was forced to witness. 

Prayers over, the games began again, bnt with ardor than before. There 
always is, in nocturnal assemblies, a moment of discomfort, in which pleasure 
struggles with sleep; but this moment passed, joy becomes more noisy, and takes 
the asjiect of a sort of delirium or frenzy — that is the hour of tlie orgie, and it 
was now approaching. 


Colonel B. G Humphreys of Mississippi to be brigadier general, to command 
Barksdaie's brigade — to rauk from August l'2th, 1863. 

Colonel H. B. Davidson of Tennessee to be brigadier general, to command 
cavahy brigade — to rank from August I8th, 1803. 

Colonel II. W. Allen of Louisiana to be brigadier general — to rank from Au- 
gust I'Jth, \iHii. 

August 20, 1863.] 




133. AIoiizo C. C'liinii, Mobile, Ala. Jan. 3, 1803. Imprdvonient in 
projectiles. — Tliis improvement consists in a pin that passes through the 
apex of a cone, and cxteuds out heyond the apex, so that wlien the shell 
strikes it, it will be driven in and forced against the percussion cap, 
■which ignites a fuze and explodes the shell. 

135. ('. A. McEvoj', Richmond, A'a. Jan. 7, 1863. Improvement in 
fnzes. — This improvement consists in a friction raechanisiu for the igni- 
tion of time fuzes. 

143. R. A. Barrett, Murfroesboro', N. C. Jan. 2(5, 18(i3. Tmprnve- 
uient in projectiles.- — This invention consists in two knives or blades, 
which shut into the ball, and which are thrown open by springs at the 
instant the ball leaves the gun. 

148. J. H. Tarpley, Greensboro', N. C. Feb. 14, 18C3. Improve- 
ment in breech-loading lire arms. — This improvement consists in a 
liiiiged solid breech piece, to which a spring catch is attached for retain- 
ing it in position, and the front edge of the breech piece serving as a 
cartridge cutter. 



Col. 'Walter Gwynn has received from Governor Vauco the appointment of 
Jlajor General of Cavalry of North Carolina. 

Tlie mother of Gen. John A. Wharton of Texas has written a nohle letter de- 
clining, in behalf of her son, who is absent from home in the military service, a 
nomination for Congress. She says General Wharton went to the field with the 
purpose of fighting the enemy to the last, and such she believes to be still his 

The first sixteen days of August, throughout the country, were marked by an 
intensity of heat rarely experienced for so long a period. ■ Careful observation of 
the thermometer at various hours during this time, induces us to believe that at 
no hour of the day or night did the mercury fall below bO° of Fahrenheit. 

Hon. Thomas H. Watls, Attorney General of the Confederate States, has been 
elected Governor of the State of Alabama. 

Governor Milton of Florida lately addressed a letter to the Secretary of War 
on the subject of the exemption of postmasters from conscription, and received 
in reply the following, which efl'ectually settles the matter: 

"In reply I have the honor to state th;:t the act of exemption in favor of post- 
masters, relieved from con..,criptio)i only those who were appointed by that Presi- 
dent and confirmed by the Seuate. The postmasters whose nominations are re- 
quired to be made to the Senate, are tliose whose salaries amount to l$l,UUO per 
annum, and none ofters are exempt by law " 

The Hon. James P. Holcombe is addressing the people of Lynelibuig and the 
counties adjacent, on "The Condition of the Country." 

Colonel Thomas Jordan, chief of General Heaurcgard's staff, informs the Mer- 
cury that the negroes captured on the islands have been turned over to Governor 
Bonham, in accordance with the President's order. 

Mr. H. P. Livingston, of Clinch county, Ga., has distributed two hundred and 
twenty five pairs of cotton cards to th<* mothers, wives and widows of the sol- 
diers in service from that couuty. 11 i.< donations to the soldfers and their fanji- 
lies in the county, since the war comincncud, have amounted to over thirty thou- 
sand dollars. 

The bombardment of'the forts defending the entrance to Charleston harbor, 
was recommcnred with great fury on Monday the 17th iustant. The Ironsides, 
six inonitors and six gun boats, united with the laud batteries of the enemy on 
Morris .island, in shelling Battery Wagner, and kept up the fire for six hours, at 
the rate of one shell every three seconds. The fire was then turned upon the 
southern face of Fort Sumter, and maintained for three hours, at a distance of 
three quarters of a mile, when the fleet withdrew, with flags at half mast, as for 
the loss of some distinguished officer. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was 
continued through the night by the land batteries, and again renewed on Tuesday 
the 18tli. Our loss on Jlonday was at Fort Wagner, 7 killed and '24 wounded; 
at Fort Sumter, I killrd and lo wounded. 

Gen. S. P. Myrick of Baldwin count}-, Georgia, writes to the Macon Telegraph 
that the whole of his crops of wlitat and corn have been set aside for the army 
and the families of soldiers. 

An iinportaut decision under the law of copy-right has recently been rendered 
by Judge Jones of the Confederate States district court of Alabama. S. H. 
Guetiiel, bookseller and publisher of Mobile, sued out aud obtaiued an injunction 

several months ago against F. Titeomb, also a bookseller of that. city, to restrain 
him from selling an edition of Hardee's Tactics, published by J. W. Randolph 
of Kiehmond, of which book he (Goetzel) claimed to hold the copy-right. Upon 
the hearing of the case it was agreed that the edition published by Randolph was 
copied from an edition printed for the U. S. government in the year IS.'iS, by 
Lippincott, Grambo & Co. of Philadelphia, on which no copy-right had been 
taken out, and that Goetzel's work was the same, with some additions made by 
Gen. Hardee since that time. The jndge decided that the failure to take out a 
copy-right for the book in ISS.'i amounted to a dedication of it to the pidilic, and 
that therefore no invasion could be now pret<-nded of a right which had no 

The following order has been addressed by Gen. Lee to the Army of Northern 
Virginia : 

Head Quarters Army Northern Va. 
August 13, 1863. 
General Orders, No. S3. 

The President of the Conffderale States has, in the name of the 
'people, appointed the 'Jlst day of August as a day of fasting, humiliation and 
prayer. A strict observance of the day is enjoined upon the officers and soldiers 
of this army. All military duties, except such as are absolutely necnssary, will 
be suspended. The commanding ofBcers of brigades and r.giinents are requested 
to cause divine services, suitable to the occasion, to be perlormed in their respec- 
tive commands. 

Soldiers ! we have sinned against Almighty God. We have forgotten his sig- 
nal mercies, and have cultivated a reveugeful, haughty and boastful spirit. "Wo 
have not remembered that the delV-ndi'rs of a just cause should be pure in his 
eyes; that " our time.'i are iu his hands" — aud we have relied too much on our 
own amis for the achievement ofour indnpendence. God is our only refuge and 
our strength. Let us humble oufselvi-s before him. Let us confess our many 
sins, and beseech him to give us a highrr courage, a purer patriotism and more 
determined will; that he will convert the hearts of our enenues; that he will 
hasten the time when war, with its sorrows and suft'evings, shall cease, and that 
he will give us a name aud place among the nations of the earth. 

R. E. Lee, General. 

Judge R. L. Caruthers has been elected Governor of Tennessee, to succeed 
Governor Harris. 


The anti-slavery Standard of Boston repudiates the overtures made to the Hon. 
James M. Mason by the Rev. M. D. Conway, as altogether unauthorized, aud de- 
clares that nothing less than absolute and unqualified submission on the part of 
the " Rebel" States will avail to procure the cessation of hostilities from the 
northern people. 

A correspondent of the New York Times, writing from "Off Ch.arleston bar," 
ijays, "On Sunday next we will certainly hold Sumter, and within a few days 
after, Charleston or its ruins will bo in our possession." The date here is of no 
possible consequence, the same thing having been said of every Sunday these 
three montlis, and likely to be said again for an indefinite period in future. 

A Washington paper, in speaking of the new 10-ineh 300-pounder Parrott 
riflf' gun used against Fort Sumter in this latest bombardment, thus compares its 
po*er for battering down walls with the power of a 24-pounder siege gun : 

A •.24-pounder lotmd shot, which starts with a velocity of ],625 feet per second, 
strikes an object at the distance of 3,5(X) yards with a velocity of 3(J0 feet per 
second. The fO-inch rifle 300-pound shot has an initial velocity of 1,111 feet, 
LOid has afterwards a remaining velocity of 700 feet per seccmd at a distance of 
3,.")(10 yards. From well-known mechanical laws, the resistance which these pro- 
jectiles are capable of overcoming is equal to 32,700 pounds aud 1,914, l.'iO 
pounds, laised one foot in a seeimd resjiectively. Making allowances for the- dif- 
tereuce of the diameters of these projectiles, it will be found that their penetra- 
ting power will be as 1 to 196 , , , . ,.n 

The pi-notrations of the 24-pounder shot at 3,500 yards m brick work is b2 
inches. The penetration of the ]0-inch projectile will, therefore, be between six 
and seven feet into the same material. To use a more famibar illustration, the 
pow.-r of the 10-inch rifle shot at the distance of 3,.'500 yards may be said to be 
equal to that of tlie united blows of 200 sledge liammers, weighing 100 pounds 
each, falling from a height of ten feet, and acting upon a drill ten inches m diame- 

Throughout the northern States the officers engaged in carrying out the con- 
scription have every where enrolled the lame, the halt and the blind, absentees 
and exempts, men of unsound mind, and men who have been dead for years, in 
order to swell "the enrollment list, and thus increase the quota to be drawn. In 
many places blind men have been drawn, as also men who have not for years 
resided in the district, and sometinua the dead have been summoned to join the 
armies of Lincoln. 

The 24th instant is the d.iy fixed upon by the fedt-ral authorities for the re- 
sumption of the draft iu certain districts of New York City and State, and the 
conservative journals of the city tell us that Governor Seymour stands pledged 
not to let a man be taken from the confines of his magisterial jurisdiction unta 
the constitutionality of the conscription act has been tested by the courts. Mean- 
\\ bile the districts are strongly garrisoned with federal troops to repress resistance. 



[August 20, 1863 

Among tho recent deaths of eminent persons in foreig-u counrrips we notice 
.General Ondinot, I>uke of Reggin— Ihe same who cnmniandcd the French army 
jn thi' attack tipon Rome in J849— in Paris; the Hereditury Prince Frodtrick 
Ferdinand, nncle to the present King, and lioir U> the tlirone, of Dcnnmrk, in Co- 
peuliacrpD ; General Sir Thomas Erskine Xai.ier, much distinguished in the Pe 
ninsular war, of which his kinsman was the' historian, and brother of the late 
Admiral Sir Charles Napier, at his seat in Scotland ; Sir Cressweil Cresswell, thi^ 
well known jndge in all cases of divorce, and Sir Joshua Jeljb, th.e chief director 
of convict prisons in England, in London; and the Dnke of Kamiiton, in Paris. 
The last named two came to their end under singular circumstances. Sir Joshua 
Jehb was taken suddenly ill on the top of an omnibus at Charing- Cross, and ex- 
pired almost immediately on being set down. The Duki: of Hair;i!t( n, who was 
the o-randson, on the mother's side, of tho celebrated Wm. Bccktord of iMiulhiil 
Abbey, author of Vathek, and viho luarried a cousin of Louis Napoleon, fell down 
the narrow, precipitous staircase whicli leads down to the street iVoni the private 
rooms of the Maison Dorc, one of the most fashionable restaurants in Paris'. He 
was taken to his lodgings, but survived his injuries but a few days. 

The correspondent of the Index, writing from Paris, gives instances of foui 
cases of death resulting from careless driving in the streets of that city. 

In all parts of England and Ireland the harvest has been abundant. The 
potato has yielded well, and is free from disease ; the crops of cats and barley 
are good, and the wheat, in bulk and yield, exceeds any thiug that lias been 
known since the memorable harvest of the year 1854. 

Mademoiselle Poustowijtloff, the airte dc camp of Langiewicz, the Polish Gene- 
ral, has escaped from Prague, and the Austrian authorities are puzzled to know 
what has become of her. Before her departure, she had instituted legal proceed- 
ings against a German editor for speaking of her as the nustress of the general. 

The Emperor Kapoleon has given another proof of his faith in the great prin 
ciplcs of political economy, by the publication of a decree, proclaiming entire 
freedom in the baking trade in Paris from and after the Ist of September next. 
Hitherto the number of bakers and the price of bread have been determined by 
the Prefect of the Seine, and the price has often been kept down by large sub- 
sidies from the municipal exchequer. In future any person ipay ■establish him- 
self as a baker; tho public and the bakers are to settle the price between them, 
the prefect interfering no furthfer than to take precautions that the bread is ol 
good quality, and that the purchaser obtains fair weight. 

Rev. M. D. Hogc writes to the editor of the London Index, under date ol 
July 1st, from " Clarence Terrace, Uegenfs Park." requesting that his signature 
may be appended to the " Address to Christians throughout the World," recently 
sent forth by clergymen of various denominations in the Confederate States. 
This document has been printed in pamphlet form in London, and is very widclj- 
circulated in the United Kingdom. 

The musical world has recently been excited by no less an event than the final 
retiremeut of Thalberg from all public performance. His valedictory was held 
under the grand canopy of the Crystal Palace, on the Ilth July, and was called 
a "Recital," whatever that may be. Another musical note is that a company 
has been formed of amateurs belonging to the clile of English society, called the 
" Wandering Minstrels," who give concerts and perform at private entertainments 
to further the cause of charity. These aristocratic claimants for ariistic celebrity 
are said to be unsurpassed by the first class professionals. They are led by the 
Hon. Seymour Egerton. 

The anniversary festival of the Acclimatization Society of Loudon must ha\ e 
been a very queer affair, as it is 'described in the English papers. The particular 
purpose of the banquet, we are told,_wa3 " to illustrate in the first place some of 
the special objects of the society — as for example, the introduction of the Chinese 
sheep, and the yam, or dioscorca batatas ; and in the second place, tlje food of 
other countries, which do not usually find their way to our (British) tables." 
Among the celebrities present were Captain Speke and Captain Grant and Mons. 
P. -Du Chaillu The peculiar dishes were the white soup of the Channel islands, 
lucioperca (?) grenouilles or edible frogs, pepperpot, Chiuese lamb, with pilaft' 
and Kuscoussno (!l), poulets a 1' t mancipation des uegres (can any one tell us 
■what " abolitiou chickens" are ?) and ostrich eggs. Greek, Hungarian, Austra 
lian aud Californian wines were drunk. The rooms were of tropical temperature, 
and decorated with the horns aud skins of many strange beasts. 

The grand annual meeting.»t' the British National Rifle Association was held 
at Wimbledon Common on the first Monday of July. The Prince of Wales at- 
tended, and of course showed himself an expert marksman both at the fixed aud 
moveable targets. The latter represented a "running deer" and a "running 

volunteer," the 'deer painted on iron by Sir Edwin Landseer, and consequently a 
marvel of art. Among- the flags of all nations displayed in the encampment, 
of the Confederate States was conspicuous. 

The latest style of head dress in England is thift of the Lady Godiva and 
mother Eve — no style at all, but wearing the hair loose about the shoulders. 
This moiicth likely to meet with opposition from those who have not Lady Go- 
diva's chceclure. 

Miss Braildon, .'tuthiu- of "Aurora Floyd" and "Lady Audley's Secret," hafl 
obtained an injuu.;tion in the court of chaiicerj' to prevent the representation of 
dramatizc-d versions of those novels on the Loudon stage. 

A. Universal l-^^position of Industrial and Agricultural Products for the year 
i8G7, ha.s been announced by a decree of tlie Freuch Emperor. It will com- 
mence on the ist of May, and close on the '.iCCii of September, and will include 
an Exhibition of the Fine Arts. 

Popidar disturbances 'have occarred in Berlin. Ten thousand people were at 
one time in revolt against the armed police — the mutiny growing out of the ejec- 
tion of a tenant by his land!t>rd — bitt I5ei-lin, from the width of the streets aud the 
iibsenco of pavements, beiug unfavorable for the constructiou of barricades, the 
riot was easily subdued by the military. 

Russian Georgia is iu rebellion against the Czar. 

There has bee'n a revolution in Madagascar, lu' which the King (Radama II) 
suftered death by strangulation, and his widow (Rabodo) has been elevated to 
tho throne, under the title of Rasaohtry-Mangaka, which signifies Strolig-power, 
aud under the very salutary restriction that lier Majesty is not to indulge in 
strong drink. 

Sir. aud Mrs. Cliuiles Kean have sailed for Australia for a professional tour of 
the English colonies in the South Pacific. 

Published by WEST & JOHNSTON, 145 Main Street, Richmond : 

The Judge Advocate's Vade Mecum, - - - - $ 5 HO 

Gilham's Manual (new edition, with plates), - - - - 8 dO 

Mahau's Permanent Fortifications (with plates), 2 vols. - - 20 00 

Mahan's Field Foilifications (with plates), - - - - 3 00 

Patten's Cavalry Drill (with plates), - - - - ] .'iO 

C. S. Army Regulations uiu'horized edition), • - - 3 00 

Lee's ^'olllnteer■s Hand Buck, - - - - - 1 00 

The Volunteer's Camp and Field Book, ... 75 

Roberts' Hand Hook of Artillery, - - - - - 1 50 

Gilham's Field Artillery, - - . . . 50 

The School of the Guides, - - - - - 1 (10 

Kiehai-dsou's Evolutions of the Line (Scott's 3d vol., with plates), - 3 00 

The Ordnance Field Jlanual, - - - - - 2 00 

Napoleon's Maxims of War, - - - - - 1 00 

Instructitms for Heavy Artillery (with plates), - ■* - 5 00 

The Qnarterma.-'ter's Guide, - - - - - 1 00 

Notes on Artillery (with drawings), ----- 50 

Manual of Arms for Heavy Infantn-, . . - . 25 

Cary's Bayonet Exercise aud .Skirmisher's Drill (with plates), - 1 00 

The" C. S. 'Ordnance Manual for lH(i:{ (with {ilates), - - - .8 00 

Warren's Surgery for Ciunp and Field, - - - - 5 00 
Jomiui's Piactice of War (translated from the French). " This very 
valuable work ought not to he separated from any Officer's Prayer 

Book in the Confederate .States" — Maj. Gen. J. E. li. Stiiait, - ] 50 

Now Pocket Maji of Virginia, - - - - - 2 50. 
Upon the receijit of the price of eithei- of the above mentioned books, wo will 
forward them. po.-,t'paid, to any part of the Confederacy. 
Address orders to 

Booksellers and Publishers, 145 Main St., liiclimond. 

D\RBY, READ & GENl'RY, Di;.*LEtss jn Booi.s, Shoes, Le.^theu, 
L.AUiES' .*KU Gekt'.s Flusishisg Good.s, and M.\sl'f.\cti-rers op 


STORE — Belvin's Block, on 12th, opposite Bank Street, Richmond, Va. 



161 Main st. Richmond, Va. 
SEAL ENGRAVING, WOOD ENGRAl'ING, i,-c. attended to. 


Thp of Ature.«, 

I )rtlera of Grreral Interest, 

.Macaulay aua C.irlvleon Americu, 

TliB Inn.r Lifu ..f :\ yUia of War. 

Ttie War— Its Ou'urn to North and South, 

Abf.litioiiismand Iiiniility, - 

Order f>r Morgaii'.s Imprisonment. &,c. 

H .IrtiuK l-'armurs rL-sponsiblt- for Kail Koads, &c 

A Mexi-iin Wakp, - ■ • — - 


List . f O.nfi-dora'e Patents, ■ 

Suulnrary of Kews, 

Volume I.] 


[Number 11. 


In Persia, iu olden time, lived a great King, 

Whose name was Shall Norshirwan : 
'Twa-s his custom, whenever he he»'d a good thing, 
To say " Zeh !" and his treasurer then would fling 

A parse to the fortunate man. 

This King, when out hunting on one fine day, 

Saw an aged man planting trees : 
He rode up aud said, " with your hair so gray, 
Don't you tliink you are throwing your time away 7 

You'll never eat fruit from these." 

" For three-score years I have eaten sweet food 

From trees that I did not sow : 
And would it not be base ingratitude 
If I took no thought of posterity's good, 

And paid not the debt that I owe? " 

" Zeh, Zeh !" said the King; and the treasurer straight 

To the old man a purse hath thrown, 
" See, see ! for good works it is never too tete : 
God hath given me fruit without needing to wait, 

Before all my trees are sown." 

" Zeh, Zeh!" once again: ere the word was said. 

Another pnrse flew on its way. 
"Till God placed the crown on your Majesty's head, 
Was such a strange thing ever heard of, or read. 
As to reap two crops in one day?" 

" Zeh, Zi'h I" yet again, and a third full purse 

To the old man's hand falls nigh; 
But the King iu hi.s horse's flank drives his .spurs, 
Nor waits for more answer in prose or in verse, — 
Lest the wit of that old man, so prompt, so terse,. 

Should drain his full treasury dry. 


The bill imposing a tax iu kind, in its purpose to feed the ai'my and to relieve 
the treasury, was by far the most important law passed at the late session of Con- 
gress ; and iu order to familiarize the people with its provisions and to facilitate 
its collection, wo' publish the instructions of Ihe Qiiai-termaster General regard- 
ing it. We append rules for the measui'emeut of the dift'erent articles taxed in 
kiad -. 

Assistant Q. M. Genkral's Office, 
Richmond, Va., June 22, 1863. 

Authority for the collection of the tax in kind, is derived from the Hth, 12th 
and 13th sections of act of congress, approved 24th April 1863. 

In executing this act, an officer of the Quartermaster General's Department will 
be assigned to the special charge of the subject. 

A controlling quartermaster, with the rank of major, is assigned to each State, 
and a post quartermaster, with the rank of captain, to each congressional district 
in the State, where it is p'racticable to collect the tax. The congressional district 
will be subdivided, by the post quartermaster in charge of it, into sections for the 
convenient delivery, by the tax payer, of his quota of produce ; and agents will 
be appointed by the post quartermaster to take charge of the depots to be estab- 
lished in each section. 

The articles taxable under the law are: Sweet potatoes, corn, oats, buckwheat, 
cured hay and fodder, molasses made of cane (not of sorghum), cotton, tobacco, 
beans, Irish potatoes, wheat, rye, rice,, wool, peas, grouud peas — and after 
the 1st March 1864, one-tenth of all the h'ogs slaughtered between the date of the 
passage of the act (24th April 1863) and said. 1st March 1864, payable in bacon 
at the rate of sixty pounds of bacon to one hundred pounds of pork. 

The enactment requires the assessor (an ofSeer of the Treasury Department) to 
visit the farmers or planters, and to Kx the quantity, quality and value of pro- 
duce due under the act. The assessor makes this estimate in duplicate, leaving 
one with the producer, and transferring the other to the ))ost quartermaster, who 
receipts to the assessor for it, and thus makes himself accountable for the pro- 
perty which it calls for. Having these estimates, the post quartermaster distri- 
butes them to the agents at the depots nearest to the producer, and gives as pub- 
lic notice as possible to the producers, that the agents are ready to receive their 
quota of tax in kind. 

The place of produce may be over eight ffliles, s.ay twelve, from a collection 
depot established on a rail road or other means of casj' transportation, and the 
nearest depot to him may be only four miles distant. It woidd be to the interest 
of the government that the produce should he delivered at the rail road. Where 
the producer, in such cases, can be induced thus to deliver, he shall be allowed 
liberal pecuniary compensation for the distance in excess of that from the place 
of produce to the nearest depot. Being J2 miles from the depot on the rail road, 
and the nearest collection depot being only 4 milts in the opposite direction, the 
producer will be allowed compensation for tlio 8 niiles of excess. This rule may 
be generally applicable. 

The quartermaster will instruct his agents to note particularly that the 
produce will comjily iu qiiantily and ijuaiily with tlie assessor's estimate. 

Ho will supply the producer with bags for the delivery of grain, which he will 
obtain by requisition upon the controlling quartermaster. 

He will estimate upon the controlling quartermaster for funds to rent or erect 
storehouses at the depots, to pay agents and laborers, and for transportation. 

In case the producer should fail to deliver any part or all of his quota of tax to 
the post quartermaster within two months after the date of the assessor's esti- 
mate, he will deliver said estimate to the district tax collector, aud take his re- 
ceipt therefor, having previously endorsed upon the estimate any portion of the 
tax he may have received. 

Tlie wool collected under the tax Law will not he delivered to the district col- 
lector, but will be transferred to the Quartermaster's Department for manufacture 
into clothing, and the post quartermaster, or officer receiving it from the produ- 
cer, will take the receipt of the district collector for it, and pay him for it, at its 
market value. The cotton aud tobacco collected will be held subject to the or- 
ders of tho district collector, and when disposed of under his orders, receipts will 
be taken for it. 


• » 

S'^' V -^ 



[August 27, 18fi3, 

He will notify the controlling quarfennaster of the places where the produce 
can neither be used or transferred for army purposes, and will receive the orders 
of the controlling quartermaster for its sale, under the enactment. 

In transferring the produce collected, from the depots to the distributing offi- 
cers, he is authorized to deliver articles suitable for Ibod for soldiers, to the offi- 
cers and agents of the Commissary Department; and when the means of trans- 
portation under the control of those officers are sufficient to convey quartermas- 
ter's stores to the army, they also may be delivered to those officers, in all cases 
taking receipts. 

Controlling and post quartermasters will each be allowed one clerk, who must 
be a detailed or disabled man from the army, or in case none such can be had, a 

have turned their attention almost exclusively to the production of the necessaries 
of life. When the comparative statement above given is studied in connection 
with the fact that the southerners nmiiber only about, half as many as the people 
of the North, it must be apparent to the least observing mind that they have sup- 
plies in abundance, and that the talk of starving them out is the silliest gammon. 

The census of the Southern States for 1860 has beenpublished at the North 
since the war began, and we have to rely on the northern journals for its results. 
We give below a statement, vouched to be correct, that cannot fail to interest. 
We append for record a curious table of prices in the Northern States and the 
Confederate States, of date June 1803. 

It will be remembered that the Republicans went into this war with the expec- 
tation of starving the South into submission in a montli or two. The leaders 
willfully and wickedly imposed on the credulity of the people. They could not 
have been ignorant of the facts, but they were determined to plunge this country 
into civil war for the purpose of carrying out tlieir abolition scliemcs, and resorted 
to deception to enable them to obtain the consent and support of the people. 
The following statistics are compiled from the census returns of 1860. We invite 
attention to the 6gures. They sliould be examined particularly by tlie exclusive 
patriots who promise every three months that the rebels will soou have to give up 
on account of the scarcity of food : 

Xumhcr of Hogs. 
Free States, - - 11,904,085 | Slave States, - - 20,652,18^ 

The slave States, therefore, have ticice as many hogs as the free States, and only 
half as many people to eat them ! 

Bushels of Indian Corn. 
Free States, - - 395,513,644 | Slave States, - - 4:!4,95S,063 

Bushels of iriicat. 
Free States, - - 121,177,689 | Slave States, - ' - 50,005,712 

The slave States beat the free States in com, and, in proportion to population, 
raised nearly as much wheat. " 

I'alue in Dollars of Lire Stock. 
Free States, - -$ 583,1.53,473 | Slave States, - -$524,336,743 

The value of southern live stock was nearly equal to that of the North. 
' Cask I'alue of Farms. 
Free States, - $ 4,080,404,472 | Slave States, 

Value of Fanning Implements. 
Free States, - - $142,019,080 | Slave States, 

Numhrr of Mihh Coirs. 
Free States, - - 5,300,851 | Slave States, 

Number of Working Oxen. 
Free States, - - 1,063,789 | Slave States, 

Number of Sheep. 
Free States, - - 16,253,640 | Sl.ave States, - - 7,064,116 

Other Cattle. 
Free States, - - 6,484,275 | .Slave States, - - 8,187,125 

Asses ami Mules. 

Free States, - - 118,181 | Slave States, - - 1,011,362 

The South has, therefore, seren times as many asses and mules as the North. 

Number of Horses. 

Free States, - - 3,589,564 | Slave States, - . 2,528,874 

Number of Bushels of Oats. 
Free States, - - 139,330,173 | Slave States, - - 33,224,515 

Number of Acres of Improted Land. 
Free States, - - 88,638,334 | Slave State.-;, - - 74,623,055 

Peas and Beans in Bushels. 
Free States, - - 3,195,124 | Slave States, - - 11,992,809 

Value of Animals Slaughtered. 
Free States, - - ^100,509,578 | Slave States, - - $106,362,075 

These are startling figures to those who have never taken the pains to investi- 
gate the matter ; but they are taken from the census returns, and may therefore 
be relied upon as correct. But this is not all. Since the war commenced the 
product of breadstuft's and of hogs and cattle has been greatly increased. It is 
probably double what it was in 1800. The coufiiderates having no outlet for 
jheir cotton, and ^iopscious that they must rely solely upou ij^eir own resources. 


We put on record, for the convenience of agriculturists, the following simple 

rules for gauging cribs, hogsheads, &c. &c. The tithing law will make much 

measurement necessary, and the rules given were prepared by a correspondent of 

the Enquirer, to facilitate the labor of both the government officer and the citizen. 

1. It is a very easy matter to find the number of cubic feet in any crib or box, 
square at the corners. Multiply the length by the breadth (in feet) for the num- 
ber of square feet on the floor, and this product by the depth, for the required 
number of cubic feet in the box or room. Thus, if a room lie 12 feet long by 6 
feet wide, it contains 12X0=72 square feet on the floor, and if 5 feet deep, it con- 
tains 72X5=360 cubic feet. 

2. To find the number of bushels is also easy. A cubic foot contains 1723 
cubic inches, and a bushel about 2160 (accurately 2150.42) inches. A cubic foot 
is therefore 1728-2160=4-5 or 8-10 of a bushel. A wuie gallon C(juliiins 231 
cubic inches. A cubic foot, therefore, contains about 7i, and a bushel about 9i 
wine gallons. 

3. (^orn is usually put up on the cob, or in the shuck, while it is sold by the 
biishel or barrel of shelled corn. The proportion of shelled corn to corn on the 
cob is nearly uniform, but compared with corn in the shilck it varies conside- 
rably — depending on, ], the size of the ears — 2, the way it is shucked, and 3, 
the way it is packed or trodden in. One bushel of shelled corn is equal to two 
bushels of corn on the cob, to about <«hree bushels of corn in slip shuck (say 2i 
to 3J), and to about four of com in full shuck (say 4 to 4i). 

4. If a crib of com on the cob is 12 feet long, 10 wide, and 8 deep, it will hold 
as follows : 

12 Length in feet. 
10 Width. 

120 Square feet on floor. 
8 Depth. 


- $105,008,280 



960 Cubic f-ift. 
8 =8 JO SlultipUer for bushels. 

76r0 (The right hand figure cut olT), number of bushels of 
corn on the cob — 768. 

384 Number of bushels of shelled com. 

3)768 Bushels — if in slip shuck. 

256 Bushels of shelled corn. 

4)768 Bushels — if in full or whole shuck. 

192 Bushels of shelled com. 

5)384 Bushels of shelled com. 

76 4-5 Barrels of shelled com. 

The above example gives the methods in fVill of solving each of the problems 
as to contents of a crib. Other rules will be given, which abbreviate the process. 
It is necessarj- also to exglain some practical difficulties. If the corn be not level 
in the crib, the depth not being uniform, it must either be reduced to a level, or 
else averaged. This may be done with tolerable accuracy by measuring where, 
after careful observation, it is thought to be of average depth. For greater accu- 
racy, measure in a number of different places, and divide the sum by the number 
of measurements.' If found at five places, to be respectively 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 feet, 
add these numbers together, making 34 feet, and divide by the number of mea- 
sui-ements (5), and the average depth will be 34 — 5=6 4-5 feet. 

[Where corn reaches into the roof, if it reaches the comb of the house, it is 
easy to find the contents. Consider half the height of the comb above the plate 
to be the average depth. If the house be 10 feet long, 8 feet wide, and the comb 
be 6 feet above the plate, 10X8=80 feet — number of square feet on floor. Mul- 
tiply this by half of 6 feet, i. e. 3. 80X3=240 cubic feet. 

If the corn does not reach the comb, then half the depth of the com, .above the 
plate, is not quite enough. The fraction expressing the average depth is more 
difficult to find — but it may be found thus: Add the width of the corn at the 
bottom to its width at the top, and half of this will be the numerator. The width 
at the bottom is the denominator of the fraction. Thus, if the roof be 8 wide at 
the plate, and at top when the, corn gives out it is 4 feet wide, add 8 and 4, 
milking 12. One-half of this (6) is the numerator, and the width at bottom (8) 
the denominator, and so 6-8 of the actual depth would be the average depth. 

As this problem is a little diflacult, most persons judge of the average depth 
above the plate by the eye.] 

5. We will now present in the most concise form the rule for finding the con- 
tents in shelled corn of a crib of corn put up on the cijb. 


Multiply together the length, breadth and average depth, expressed in feet. 
Multiply the product by 4, and cut off one figure from the right, for the answer 
iu bushels of shelled corn. 

6. If the crib was 9 feet deep to the plate, and full up above the plate to the 


August 27, 1863.] 



comb — say 6 feet from plate to comb — tbeu the average depth of the whole would 
be found thus: 
To U R'ct add .] of 6 feet or 3=12 fee.t — whole average depth. 
180X13=2160 cubic feet. 

8l540=8(i4 bushels shelled com. 

7. If the corn be in .slip shuck, multiply the cubic feet by 3, aud if in full shuck, 
by 2, and cut ofl' one figure as decimal, for the answer in bushels of shelled corn. 

8. Concise rule for reducing cum on the cob, to barrels of shelled corn. 
Take 8 per cent, of the product of length, width and depth, expressed in feet. 

In a crib of corn on the cob 20 feet long, 10 wide, aud 9 deep, how many bar- 
rels of shelled corn ? 

SOX 1 0=200— -200X9= 1 800 

8 per cent. . 

■ 14400 cut ofi" 2 decimals=]44 bbls. 

9. For all grain, wheat, shelled corn, Sec, which are sold as they stand, the 
iTile is very simple. 


Multiply together the length and bi'eadih and depth in feet for the number of 
cubic leet: multiply this by 8, aud cut oft" one decimal for the answer in bushels. 

1 0. Pe.'is in the shell yield very few shelled peas. lu one sort I found it required 
If) of the former to make 1 of the latter. If this proportion be correct, the fol- 
lowing would be the 

Ruh for Peas in the Shell. 

Multiply together the length and breadth and depth in feet for the number of 
cubic ; divide this pro'liict by 20 for the number of bushels of shelled peas. 

To find the number of bushels in a hogshead, barrel, or other vessel of a cir- 
cular base, and appro.>Limating a cylinder in form, measure the inside diameter 
one-third of the way down hom the top, and the depth, in inches. 


Multiply the diameter in inches by itself, and the product by the depth. Then 
multiply by 3l)J, aud cut oS" 5 decimals for the answer in bushels. 

1). To tiud the number of wine gallous in a hogshead, &c. 

Multiply the diameter (one-third from the top) by itself, aud this by the depth. 
Then multiply by 34, and cut oft' 4 figures for decimals. 

12. To find the number of bushels iu a potato bank, piled in the form of a 


Multiply the diameter at the base by itself, and the product by the height in 
feet. Then multiply by 21, and cut off 2 figures for decimals for the answer in 

If the potatoes do not come to a point at the top, but round considerably ; 
then divide the 180 by 4 for the answer — say 180 — 4=45 bushels. 

13. Every farmer would find it a great couvenience to kcejl a bushel measur- 
ing rod. Cut a rod Exactly 51 j inches long, and measure it off into 4 equal 
parts. Each part will be a line bushel (12 900-1000 inches). A box just as 
long, wide and deep as this, would contain exactly one bushel. Subdivide each 
line bushel into ten equal parts, calling them tenths. 

When the dimensions are found with this rod, the product of length, breadth 
and depth, is the answer in bushels. 

It the crib is lull of corn on the cob, divide by 2 to reduce it to shelled corn, 
and so in other cases. U. 

From Fraaer's Magazine. 


Every year a i-eco^irfa, or battue, takes place throughout the hacienda, when 
thousands of horses, mules and bulls are driven into the toriles. The colts and 
young bulls which the preceding year has added to the riches of the owner, are 
thrown down by the vaqueros with their lasso, and marked with the distinguish- 
ing sign of the hacienda. The five year old colts are tamed, that is, mounted 
two or three times (quebrantados) ; after which novillos, heifers aud colts endeavor 
to forget in their querencias the shame which the saddle has inflicted on" their 
sides, or the sign of servitude which red-hot iron has imprinted on their still 
reeking flesh. They await thus the moment when a final sale will take them 
from their wilds and bring them to the towns iu the interior. There, to the im- 
minent peril of their possessors and the passengers, the horses become accus- 
tomed to the sight of houses, to the roll of carriages, and even to the presence of 
man. Under the rough Mexicdn ri'ders, and the pricking of the iron spurs in use 

among them — spurs of which the rowels are sometimes six inches in diameter 

this second education is as soon completed as the first. The epithet of quebran- 
tados (broken in) applied to horses thus tamed, is of undoubted justice. Often 
after three years of absolute independence, during which time the pj-esence of 
man has never recalled to them the affront they have endured,- these animals 
have not forgotten the terrible vaqueros who have pressed their loins and crushed 
their pride. 

From infancy tho vaquero is trained to horsemanship; his legs can no sooner 
cross a horse than his father fastens him with a handkerchief to the back of the 
saddle, and rides over hill and valley with him. lie grows up thus. A day 
cpuies when his legs are bowed along the sides of thi; horse, and his whole body 
made supple by its uneven pace. Tho vaquero then learns in his wanderings to 
throw the lasso, to know the ground (saber la ticrra), that is, to join the reason- 
ing of man tu>tho instinct of the horse, which discerns at tho distance of twenty 
leagues the odor of the plants ho is accustomed to tread, tho emanations of the 
trees which shade him nightly, and takes a direct course over plains, mountains 
or torrents, towards the querencia he likes best. Amidst the solitudes in which 
he spends his life, without regular roads, unacquainted with the spots where a 
keen pursuit may lead him, the vaquero never hesitates as to the road he ought 
to follow. Tho moss on the trees, the course of the rivers or of rivulets, the po- 
sition of the sun, the leaning of the grasses, the signs of tho wind, are so many 
signs which the desert seems to nuiitiply under his steps to indicate his road. To 
this singular keenness of perception the vaquero adds unusual moderation. 
Scraps of tortillas, a bit of dried meat, a pomegranate, a pimento, a cigarette of 
maize straw, sustain him a whole day; puddles of reddish water, forgotten by the 
sun in some print of a bull's or horse's hoof, refresh him ; he is equally insensible 
to the chilly nig'hts and scorching days. Once in pursuit of some animal, nothing 
stops his career; neither ravines, torrents, nor forests. Clothed in leather from 
head to foot, he gallops intrepidly through the forests as if in the middle of plains. 
Sometimes bent to the right or left lovei" his steed as if his body were without 
bones, sometiipes his torso bent over_the fore part of his saddle, or with his head 
thrown back ovjr the horse's croup so as to avoid contact with the large branches, 
which would otherwise dash out his brains, he never slackens the impetuosity of 
his course. When his inevitable lasso has caught the animal he is in pursuit of 
to tame, intrepidity shows itself united to suppleness and vigor. Then the busi- 
ness of the vaquero becomes perilous ; but, at the end of a two hours' struggle, 
the horse returns docile, his body cover^with foam, his eyes sunken — broken 
in, in short. Sometimes he brings back lifeless the horseman whom he has dashed 
against a rock ; but the vaquero died as he ought — on his horso ! 

About a stone's throw, from the hacienda, stood some thirty huts, prettily 
grouped, the dwellings of the PEOXS, or paid laborers. The aspect of these 
cabins did not announce poverty ; it seemed as if nature had delighted in throw- 
ing the veil of luxuriant vegetation over the bamboo or log walls,, which were 
completely hidden by the broad leaves and climbing stems of the calabash plants 
with the goldcm chalices. Each hut was surrounded by a hedge of cactus, 
entwined with the bells of the many-colored couvolvolus; but the interiors of 
the cabins were not in keeping with these brilliant exteriors. There every thing 
betrayed the fearful want which is the lot of the peon. The laborer is permitted 
only to grow tobacco and pimento on the small bit of ground allotted to him by 
the master of the farm, and the time required for its cultivation is taken from his 
hours of rest. A pitiless monopoly compels him to buy, at the hacienda, com, 
maize, and all the manufactured articles requisite for his consumption, at prices 
which far exceed his small salary. The free laborer of the hacienda buys almost 
every thing on credit, therefore ; aud the farmer remains eternally his creditor. 
Consequently, the dia de raya (pay day) is an unhappy day in these farms, in- 
stead of being, as elsewhere, a holiday; for every week adds to the already 
heavy burden weighing on the peon. It may be fearlessly affirmed that the con- 
dition of these paid laborers is worse than that of negro slaves. The negro 
slave has his cabin in which he rests after the hours of labor, the number of 
which is fixed by law. A plentiful supply of salt fish, his favorite food, recruits 
his strength; and, if he falls ill, lie is never in want of a doctor. The master's 
carelessness, on the contrary, leaves the peon exposed without protection to ill- 
ness and hunger. The black slave looks forward to tho time when he will pur- 
chase a freedom — useless to him, no doubt, but the prospect gladdens him; the 
free laborer has before him an unlimited slavery, for his salary will always be 
less than the debts which monopoly compels him to contract. My walks were 
frequently directed towards the huts inhabited by the peons. 

The provision shop was in the middle of the village ; and one morning I stood 
before it to observe the various transactions taking place there. Each peon drew 
from his pocket a hollov/ reed, about six inches long, in which were rolled up 
two little squares of paper, one debtor, the other creditor. These accounts are 
primitive in their simplicity. A horizontal line, traced from one end of the paper 
to the other, forms the basis of the running account. On this longitudinal line, 
other perpendicular lines more o;- less lengthened (such is the etymology of the 
word raya, or pay); naughts aud semi-naughts represent the piasters aud half 
piasters, reals and half reals. Amidst the buyers, who retired after haggling a 
lone while about prices, I soon remarked one individual, thinuer and more 



[August 27, 1863 

ghastly than the rest, who walked about with an appearance of hesitation, and 
glanced with intense desire at the shop. From the perseverance with which 
he smoked cigarette after cigarette, it was easy to see that the unfortunate peon 
was endeavoring to appease the cravings of an empty stomach. At last he 
seemed to come to an heroic determination, and walking into the shop, asked for 
a cuartillo of maize. "Let us see your account," said the clerk. The peon took 
his reed out of his pocket, and drew from it his banker's book; but the horizontal 
line of creditor was as deficient in hieroglyphics as that of debtor was loaded 
with signs of every sort. The clerk harshly refused to sell him any thing until 
fresh orders, and returned him his account. The peon had, apparently, foreseen 
this reply, and resignation should have been easy to him : yet his countenance 
betrayed painful disappointment, and it was with a trembling hand that he sought 
to put back into its reed case the paper which he convulsively rolled up. 

I felt touched with compassion, and paid the clerk for the trifling loan which 
the poor laborer had solicited in vain. The peon instantly testified his gratitude 
by borrovfing a second real (sixpence), and begging me to go with him to his 
hut to cure his wife, who had been long ill. I leamt, as we walked thither' to- 
gether, that it was this illness which had thrown him so far behind hand as to 
cause him to be refused credit, now that he wanted it more than ever. 


Some space in your valuable periodical may be well occupied, by call- 
ing attention to what hag been doing gradually, silently, yet effectually, 
for some years past, by the institution of the Deaconessdfe of Paris, on 
principles of devoted, yet clearly protestant and evangelical piety. They 
sought for their guide only in the Bible, and strove to form a Sisterhood 
of Charity, not in imitation of those of Rome, but of those of earlier scrip- 
tural institutions, which were the o^in of all that is really useful and 
valuable in modern societies. To form such deaconesses as those of the 
primitive, and in latter times, of the Moravian church, It needed only to 
find those possessing faith as pure, love as fervent, and self-denial as en- 
tire: and we have reason to rejoice thankfully that snch elements are 
still alive and active among modern christians. Tlie circumstances of 
the protestant body in France, called more decidedly for such an institu- 
tion than those of any other country. They are a minority in a large 
nation, much isolated in feeling. Every public charity, hospital, prison 
or refuge is in the hands of Roman Catholic bodies. It was therefore 
highly desirable to have small model institutions of such charities, con- 
ducted on protestant principles, and to train deaconesses-devoted to the 
work of the Lord, among the poor desiring to know nothing but Jesus 
Christ, and him crucified, and to show their faith only liy works. 

The institution commenced on a small scale in 1841, in Paris, where 
the principal house is situated in one of the suburbs, and surrounded by 
a large manufacturing population. The deaconesses, when properly 
trained, are destincil to be transferred to any of the evangelical congre- 
gations in France. The institution is under one council of direction, 
which consists of at least one clergyman, the superior, and three other 
ladies. Another clergyman is a joint member, so as to take the place 
which the absence or the illness of his brother minister mav create. 
The chief direction of the work and the final decision of all important 
questions rests with this body. All the authority over the members of 
the community rests visibly with the lady superior, wlio resides with the 
deaconesses, guiding and directing all. None are admitted as candidates 
for deaconesses, without the consent of their families, unless they are 
orphans, widows, or above thirty years of age. They are generally be 
twcen twenty and forty-five years of age. The engagement to become 
a deaconess is made for only two years. They are bound by no further 
vows, are always free to return to tlieir families, or to leave the institution 
to marry, if desirable. All remuneration for their services as nurses 
goes to the community. The sisters wear a species of uniform— a sim 
pie black dress and bonnet. Their wardrobe must be well supplied when 
they first eijter. The society, after this, provides for this as well as every 
other want; takes entire charge of them in sickness, and provides for 
the old age of those who have devoted their life to this work. All the 
sisters, withoqt exception, are trained to household duties; to the care of 
the xick ; to visits amon^ the poor, and to all female industrial work — 

such as laundiy and needle work — superintending the cooking, and pre- 
paring food and even medicines lor the sick. All are capable of these; 
while the more responsible offices of directress of schools, asylums, 
refuges or other charities, are reserved for those who show talents and 
dispositions peculiarly suited to them. It is necessary each deaconess 
should be capable of writing a letter easily, and a summary of their 
occupations ; of keeping an account of all work committed to them, as 
well as of reading the Bible with fluency, and of explaining its meaning 
in a simple manner. 

It was on these rules that i^ 1841 the committee began their work with 
five sisters only, having been very happily guided in their choice of a 
superior ; while the number of sisters gradually increased, and they 
were being trained to the various employments their profession would re" 
quire, they by degrees enlarged their circle; and it is instructive to mark 
how gradually tliis has been done. Step by step as each department de- 
veloped itself and succeeded, another was added. 

The dea.conesses were first instructed in hospitals in Paris. They then 
formed a dispensary; commenced visiting their poor neighbors; gathered 
their children into a sunday school. Next they opened an infirmary for 
sick children, and a school of discipline for those who were vicious or un- 
ruly. They then turned their attention to creating a hospital for women 
and children, and afterwards for men, on a small scale. As it was desi- 
rable for thq deaconesses to learn at home their duties, they would have 
to practice on a larger scale. They persevered through many difliculties 
and discouragements, adding a nursery for infants, a da)- school for girls, 
and an asylum for j'oung girls sent from the courts of justice, while their 
chapel was a place of worship for many in their vicinity. 

Could there be any where found a more truly missionary work for wo- 
men, giving them daily opjiortunities of spreading gospel light and the 
consolations of faith and charity aronud them, while pursuing the most 
simple and humble habits of daily life. Every thing appeared in admi- 
rable order, while the spirit of love and benevolence, which guided and 
animated all, was expressed in the countenances and manners of the dea- 
conesses, who kindly showed us their liomes and employments; and we left 
ihem, thankful that the spirit had been given them to form such an insti- 
tution in that pleasure-loving capital, and praying that this society might 
be the parent of many others. — Fraser's Magazine. 


The following table of prices in New York and Richmond, said to have been 
compiled in one of the public departments, is published in the northern papers : 




New York. 

Prop. dif 
as 100 to 


$1 45 <1 

1 50 lb. 

$0 055 « 





1 55 

1 60 lb. 





White Beans, 

18 00 

20 00 bus. 

3 30 

3 40 



Butter, good. 

1 75 

2 00 lb. 






u no 

- lb. 






y 50 

10 00 bus. 





-■Vda. Candles, 

4 50 

5 00 lb. 






:! 75 

4 00 lb. 





Dried Apples, 

10 00 

11 00 bus. 

1 65 




" Peaches, 

15 00 

16 00 bus. 

2 86 

3 08 




31 50 

35 00 bbl. 

5 40 

9 00 



Flax Seed, 

7 00 


2 40 

2 50 




8 00 

10 00 100 lbs. 



100 lbs 


Hides, dry, 

1 52 

1 60 111. 






1 50 

1 .55 lb. 





Leather, sole. 

3 50 

3 75 lb. 





Leal her, upper, 

5 00 

5 50 lb. 






10 00 

- bbl. 

1 00 





8 25 

8 50 gal. 






5 50 

6.00 bus. 




Potatoes, Irish, 

10 00 

15 00 bus. 






10 00 

15 00 bus. 

1 00 

1 05 




7 00 

- bus. 

1 m 

1 05 





20 lb. 





Timothy Seed, 

7 50 

- bus. 

3 00 

2 25 



Clover Seed, 

•24 00 

25 00 bus. 

4 48 

5 18 




126 00 

- bbl. 

2 50 





1 55 

1 50 lb. 






6 50 

7 00 bus. 

1 08 

1 13 




25 00 

35 00 gal. 





Cotton in Richmond 50n5.5c. per lb., in New Y'ork 57n90; proportion as 100 
to 140. 

Thus, on 31 .irticles, the average price is greater in Richmond than in New 
York as 100 to 1,314. 

August 27, 1863.] 



Notice to Subscribers, &c, 

The Record Is issued every Thursday Morning, at our B.<ok»toro, 145 Main Street. 

Terms Ten Dollars per aunum. Six DollarB lor six months. No subseription will be 

taken for a shorter period. The Trade supplied at Fifteen Dollars per hundred copies. The 
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Any person sending tho money for 'five subscribers, will receive ft sixth copy without 
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We have no TraveliuK Agents. Persons wishing to subscribe, should send their names 
direct to us, and with as little delay as possible, in order to secure the back numbers. 
. WE.ST & JOHNSTON, Piihlishcrs, 

145 Main street, Richmond. 



/We sacrifice much of the variety of the Record, In its present issue, in order 
that we may lay before our readers the admirable letter of William Henry Tres- 
cot, Esq. of South Carolina, to the Hon. J. R. Ingersoll of Pennsylvania, on the 
causes which led to the strug^gle for southoni nationality. The letter does not 
admit of division, so connected and continuous is the argument, and we were 
unwilling to strike out from it a single paragraph. 

We make no apology for devoting a large space to the agricultural interest of 
the country. It is on this branch of industry that we are to rely chiefly for the 
means of carrying us through the war, and the day, we, is iar remote when 
any other class with us will predominate over the cultivators of the soil. The 
educated country gentlemen of England, of which class Virginia and the Caro- 
linas, after the revolution of 1776, had many specimens, form an element in 
England's greatness she could least dispense with; and it is the absence of 
such a class that has placed the North at the mercy of the agitators who have 
brought ruin upon the land. 


The subjoined article from the London Index gives us an insight into the 
causes which brought about the sudden withdrawal of Mr. Roebuck's motion in 
the House of Commons. As a matter of contemporary history, it is of interest, 
even though we have ceased to regard foreign intervention as a probable event at 
any short period. 

It is an understood rule of parliamentary courtesy, that v.heii a Minister of 
the Crown takes upon himself to declare that the discu.ssion of a question — espe- 
cially a question of foreign policy — at a particular moment would be detrimental 
to till- public service, the members interested in the subject defer to his wishes, 
and V ithdraw any motions of which they may have given notice. But for this 
prac ice the House of Commons, with its restless an.xiety to supervise every pro- 
ceeding of the Executive, and its well-grounded fear that the goveruu:ent maybe 
committing the country, withotit its knowledge, to measures involving the most 
serious consequences, would l^ apt to go iuto discussions that would paralyse the 
fliplomacy of the government, and make negotiation with foreign powers abso- 
lutely impossible.. Government cannot be carried on in public, however neces- 
sary it may be that its every act should, ore long, be liable to public criti- 
cism ; and a Legislature sitting with open doors must be oonteut to forego the 
privilege of controlling the foreign policy of the administration otlrerwise than by 
informal expressions of feeling, from which the administration may judge what 
course is most likely to meet with parliamentary approval. Indeed, if any mem- 
ber so far doubts the word of the Minister as to hold that discussion is less incon- 
venient than silence, it must be on the ground that the Minister is so little to be 
trusted that he is not tit to have the conduct of the foreign policy oftlie country 
without direct interference on the part of Parliament ; and if such distrust be 
really felt, the proper remedy is not to the government, but to change it; 
not to persevere with the motion pronounced by the Executive to be unsafe and 
unseasonable, but move a vote of want of confidence. 

Now. it is probable that Mi'. Roebuck does not disbelieve the personal assertion 
of Lord Palmcrstou; it is more than probable that he would not be willing to 
concur ill* a vote of want of confidence in the noble Lord; it is almost certain 
that such a vote would he rejected by a large majority, oven in a House which is 
almost evenly divided between Liberals and Conservatives, and in which at least 
one-fourth of the Liberals are not staunch supporters of the Liberal government. 
When the motion was first brought forward, we expressed our fear that, if op- 
posed by Lord Palmerston, it would be rejected, not on its own merits, but on 
his; not because the House desires to withhold recognition, but because it does 
not choose to quarrel with the present Prime Minister. And from the moment 

that tlio Premier expressed his objection not merely to the motion, but to its fur- 
ther discussion, it became obviously the duty of Mr. Roebuck as a member of 
Parliament, and his policy as a friend of the Confederacy, to yield to the'request 
of the responsible chief of her Majesty's administration, and withdraw a motion 
which threatened to embarrass a Cabinet which he did not desire to overthrow. 
Aud therefore, though somewhat disappointed by the issue of a debate by which 
much good might have been done — which might havtj ended in giving peace to 
America and restoring prosperity to England — we are not disposed to quarrel 
with Mr. Roebuck's motiou of Monday night, that the order for the continuunco 
of that debate be read aud discharged. 

The ostensible reason for Lord Palmerston's objection to proceed with the dis- 
cussion, was the manner in which the name of the Emperor of the French had 
been mixed up therewith ; and we incline to think that this reason may have 
been the true one. It does not follow that Mr. Roebuck was in any degree to 
blame for introducing that name in the way and for the purpose for which he em- 
ployed it. Those who charged him with using the Imperial authority to iuflu- 
enco the House of Commons, and with making himself the organ and mouth- 
piece of French dictation, said not only what was not true, but what they must 
have known not to be true. We except from this reproach Lord Robert Monta- 
gu, whose rapid, random, reckless style of talking, may naturally lead him to say 
uuiuy things which he does not mean, and who is quite silly enough to be capa- 
ble of meaning what he said. It matters to no one, except the noble Lord him- 
self, what he says or what ho believes ; for nothing that falls from his lips can 
affect for a moment the opinions of any rational being; but v.'e are willing to 
give him the credit of sincerity. We caunot do as much for Mr. Forster, who 
hinted rathpr than stated this accusation ; or for Mr. Bright, who stated it boldly 
and in the coarsest form. These gentlemen understand plain English, as they 
speak it admirably well. They knew that Mr. Roebuck bad not attempted to 
persuade the House of Commons that they ought to follow the policy of France. 
They had heard the Emperor's werds quoted ; and they knew, as we know, that 
those words declared that he would follow the policy of England, whatever it 
might be, but that, for his part, he wished that it should be a poHcy of recogni. 
tion or of mediation. They knew that there was not in this the semblance of 
French dictation, or of an attempt to bias the House ; and they knew therefore 
that the charge they pressed against their colleague and quondam friend, was not 
only not true, but was the very reverse of the truth. There had, however, been 
an attempt to influence, or rather to coerce the House by means of the alleged 
opinions of the Emperor. A rumor had been circulated, with great diligence, by 
some party or parties unknown but not unsuspected, that the Euqjcror's mind 
had changed ; that he had become a convert to Lord Russell's policy of servile 
complaisance and cowardly inaction. The object of this falsehood was, of course, 
to defeat Mr. Roebuck's motion, by persuading the House that it would be useless ; 
that the Emperor, if addressed as he proposed, would refuse to listen to us. .This 
disgraceful intrigue was defeated by Mr. Roebuck's prompt and vigorous mea- 
sures ; and its origin may be confidently attributed to those who turned round on 
hiui who had bafHed it, and accusq;! him of trying to do, by a true statement of 
the Emperor's views, that which they had tried to prevent by a false one. The 
second falsehood was worthy of the first ; and both were worthy of the friends 
of General Butler and of Abraham Lincoln. 

If Mr. Roebuck could have relied on the good faith of the goverument, he 
might have allowed this rumor to circulate, and appealed to them to contradict it. 
And this would have been the regular proceeding. Or he might have suggested 
10 the Emperor that the contradiction should be administered by the Moniteur, 
which would havt; been the most effective and satisfactory method of accomplish- 
ing the purpose; but it is possible that his Majesty had reasons of his own for 
avoiding this course. It was clearly impossible for Mr. Roebuck to depend on 
the honesty of the English Cabinet. Their recent conduct has shown them ca- 
pable of worse treachery than would have been involved in an ambiguous speech 
irom Mr. Layard, stating that he did not know whether the Emperor's mind had 
changed, but suggesting that it probably had. This justified, in his opinion 
and in ours, his "irregular" appeal to Paris, and his citation of the Emperor's 
words in the House of Commons. " Irregular and iuconvenient" such a course 
may be ; but there is worse inconvenience in the circulation of false rumors on 
questions of foreign policy under the tacit sanction of the government, and 
more serious irregularity in the communication of the private notes of an ally to 
(he very governmeut for whose perusal they were not intended, and whose hos- 
tility they were certain to excite. 

In regard to this last matter, it is certain that a gross falsehood has been told, 
willfully nr not, by one of three persons. No one believes that Mr. Roebuck has 
willfully lied ; of that he is incapable ; and that he neither lied nor was mislaken, 
may be inferred from the fact that this statement was not contradicted or modi- 



[August 27, 18G3 

fied in tlie paragraph in whicli the Moniteur referred to iiis audience. It is im- 
possible to suppose that the Emperor said, either voluntarily or not, that wliich 
was not tlie case. He must have known the fact; and he could not tell a false- 
hood with the certainty of having it published or contradicted witliin a fortnight. 
It is, of course, impossible, lilievvise, that Lord Russell should have kept his 
under secretary in ignorance of the receipt of .the conmiuiiication in question; 
impossible- that ho should have betrayed it to Mr. Seward; in.possible'that he 
should have allowed Mr. Layard to get up in the House of Commons and deny 
the existence of such a comrauniration, if it had really existed. Tlieso things_ 
are impossible — but we are by no means sure tliat tlie impossible has not occur- 
red. We remember Lord Russell's prevarications about the Vienna negotiations ; 
and we feel tliat there is scarcely any equivocation of which he may not be 
guilty. And Mr. Layard's conduct on Friday night proved either that he has a 
very impejfect knowledge of the business of his defiartnient, or a very extraor- 
dinary notion of the license to which minister.s are entitled. He sneered at Mr. 
Lindsay as an amateur diplomatist, he reminded him that on one occasion he had 
come over from Paris after au interview with the Emperor, fancying himself a 
special envoy, and had been repudiated by telegraph. On Monday Mr. Liudsaj 
replied to this charge. It then came out that for three years ho has been em- 
ployed unofBcially, but with the aid, sanction, and full knowledge of the minis- 
try, in trying to supplement the work so blunderingly done by Mr. Cotiden. In 
the of a long series of conversations with the Emperor, he was 
make a certain communication to the Foreign office here, and he did so. On. his 
return to Paris he was received as usual, and heard nothing of any telegraphic 
or other "repudiation." Passing strange, he called Mr. Layard's stoi^y, remark- 
ing, very sensibly, that if he had exceeded his instructions in such a manner a.s 
to provoke a repudiatory telegram, he would, ou his next call at the Tuilleries. 
have found the Emperor " not at home." 

From this story it is plain that either Mr. Layard is ignorant of a matter so 
important as Mr. Lindsay's relations with hi.s department, or thinks hinifeelf en- 
titled to misrepresent stlch a matter in the grossest way, and that he is, fur some 
reason or other, liable to tell stories "passing strange," to the detriment of those 
who oppose him in debate. 

As it is granted on all hands that the account given by Mr. Roebuck, and con- 
firmed in the most absolute manner by Mr. Lindsay, of tlieir audiences, is per- 
fectly accurate, the continuance of the debate must have brought out in painful 
distinctness the obvious fact that a lie has been told, and that it has been told 
either by his Imperial Majesty or by the British Foreign office. Unless Lord 
Palmerston was prepared to dismiss his colleague and apologize foe his conduct, 
he could not allow a discussion to proceed in which such au issue wa« involved. 
But the necessity of withdrawal arose not fronr the painful truths told by the 
member for Sheffield, but/ronr tlie extraordinary contradiction given to them by 
the Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs, ilr. Layard, not Mr. Roebuck, is an- 
swerable for the necessity which induced Lord Palmerston to close the debate. 

Independently of this diplomatic reason for a withdrawal of the motion, there 
was the obvious parliamenlarj- reason that it could not have been carried, and 
that its defeat would have done great harm. 

On Friday night it was well observed by Lord Robert Cecil — than whom no 
man in the House of Conmious takes a juster or bolder view of our American 
policy — that the well wishers of the South all (^sired the ivithdrawal of the motion, 
while the avowed devotees of the northern democracy were eager to have it 
pressed to a division. Mr. Fojster, the self-styled fanatic who ,'*it6 for Bradford, 
and Mr. Peter Taylor, whom Leicester has sent to Parliament, in order to show 
that neither' sense, eloquence, nor manners are necessary qualifications for a seat 
in the House of Common.', were strongly opposed to the withdrawal of the mo- 
tion. Thry knew that the resistance of the ministry, several of wliom are sup 
posed to be friendly to the confederate cause, would depiive it of a large number 
of votes; that many more would vote against it for fear of war; and tiiat the 
silence of the conservative leaders would make their party reluctant to run the 
risk of ousting the govenmicnt on a questioa on which the chii'fs of opposition 
do not seem to have made up their minds. The result of an unfavorable division 
would have been to strengthen the northern faction in the Hoiise and in the Cabi 
net; to mortify the Emperor of the French; to gratify Mr. Lincoln; to insult the 
South ; and to fetter the discretion of the government for the future. It is well, 
therefore, that a division has been avoided. We know, as every one knuw.s, that 
four-fifths of the House of Commons rejoice to see,the Confederate States inde 
pendent, and believe that they ought to be recognized ; and we are glad that the 
minority have not been able to snatch a division, which would have utterly mis 
represented the real views of Parliament and of the countrj-. 

The administration is now left free to act as it pleases; and its chief has taken 
upon himself the whole responsibility of action or inaction, by de'.:iiuiug to re- 

ceiv^froiu Parliament either advice or absolution. He is at liberty to avail him- 
self of the opportunity now opening to him, and to recognize the Confederacy 
under, circumstances which will afford a triumphant answer to all cavillers. He 
ha« -it in his. power to receive the ambassador of a government whose armies are 
actually, overrunning the enemy's territory; to send an amba.ssador to a capital 
wKieh, rid-1bngi-r threatened by a hostile force, echoes vv-ith thanksgiving fur vic- 
tories >vhich have trausferred'fhc war beyond the southern frontiers. Who can 
say. th'at-'hfi has not th't)' right to recognize the independence of a power whicli 
seems able, if she were ivilling, to subjugate her rival? or that he would not do 
wisely to secure the friendship of a people who will probably, before many weeks 
are. aver, itiipose terms of peuc^n those who have pretended to treat them as 
rebels, aiid threatened them now with conquest and now with extermination'; 
And hojV' can he excuse himself if he throw away such an opportunity, if he re- 
nounce so glorious a title to the good will of our nearest kinsmen, and the con- 
fidence-.of our most valuable conunercial ally, if, for fesr-of quarrel with the cun- 
qucrcd, he sacrifice the friendship of the conquerors; if he persist in au injustice 
in order to avert an unspeakable blessing .' 



•An ■expedition, under command of Lieut. J. Taylor Wood, li-ft this city on Wed- 
nesday; (,)ie ]'2th instant, and proceeded to the-lowor Rappahannock river, where, 
ou Saturday night, the '22d iuslanf , two United States gun boats, the Satellite and 
the Iieliance, were bnarded and captured. It was a most daring adventure; our 
men had to climb over bulwarks eight feet high, surroundi'd by nettings and 
awiiin"s, and board the vessels in the face of the enemy's fire. Several of the 
Yankees were severely wounded, among them Ca|)t. Wallers of the Reliance, 
danoerously, and three mortally. One negro was killed. On our side, Lieut. 
Huge was wounded sev<Mely in the neck. Midshipman Cooke and three men 
slightly. Ainong'the prisoners taken are John Robinson and brother of Middle- 
sex, notorious scoundrels. Two flags and a large nuniber of spy-glasses; quad- 
rants, &c., captured with the vessels, have reacheil Riclunond. We append 
Lieut. Wood's report of the brilliant affair, received at the Navy Department: 

C. S. Steamer Satellite, 
. August 23, 1863. 
Sir: I am th.ankftd to report to you the capture, last night, off the mouth of 
the Rappahannock, of the U. S gun boats " Satellite." two guns and forty men, 
and the "Reliance," two guns and forty men. Lieut. Hoge was dangerously 
wounded ; Midshipman Cooke and three men slightly. Capt. Walters, of the 
" Reliance," dangerously wounded, and some seven or eight others of the enemy, 
and one or two killed. 

Respectfully, your ob'dt serv't, 

J. T.WLon Wood, 

Lieut. Commanding. 
Hon. S. R. Mallory, Sccrctnrij of the Nary. 

The officers and crews of the gun boats were brought to this citj' on Wednesday 
last, aud lodged in the Libby prison. 

Hon. Robert Jemison, jr. ha-s been elected a Senlitor for the State of Alabama, 
in the Congress of the Confederate States, to supply the vacancy occasioned by 
the death of the late Wm. L. Yancey. 

Maj. Gen. John B. Floyd died at his residence in Abingdon, Va., on Wednes- 
day, the "ieth instant. 

Hon. John T. Monroe, the deposed Mayor of New Orleans, arrived in L'ich- 
mond a day or two sinci', and is stopping at the Spottswood hotel. 

In Petersburg, on Wednesday, Judge Joynes delivered the decision of the ha- 
beas corpus cases of the Commonwealth for Chas. Baker Raine, James W. Jack- 
son aud Meredith T. Broocks vs. Lieut. Col. Davenport and Brig. Gen. Jenkins. 
The petitioners sought to bo discharged from militia service by reason of having 
substitutes in the Confederate States army. The opinion is able and elaboiate, 
occupying nearly live columns in the "Express." The judge decided against 
the petitioners, aud remanded them to the custody of Col. Davenport. 


Col. John Morgan and his companions have been compelled to undergo the 
prison discipline of the Ohio penitentiary at Columbus, having their heads and 
faces shaved as ordinary felons. 

There are 3,262 prisoners reported in Camp Chase. Delegations from Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee, largely composed of ladies, with clothing and comforts for 
their relatives, daily importune to see the prisoners, though but few succeed. A 
marriage took place on the 12th inside the prison. "Both parties were Kentucky 
F. F." 

August 27, 1863.] 




of honest passion. I ■will admit that this war was inevitable. I did not think so 
uncB." Towards the close of Mr. Buclianau'.s administration I did believe that it 


.•..■,.••■.•-;•. ■■. M>if-i, 1863. •■■• 

My Dear Mr. INGERSOLL : ■ . ••■•.■ 

On this day ten years ap;o I bid you good-byo at the LegatioD.of the 
United States in Loudon. As Secj-etary to the- mission .of which you wero.thc 
chief, I had the opportunity to see and to appreciate the virtue and the aibility.which 
made you the worthy representative of a great nation.. We partedi I 4m,gbd to 
know, as friends, and as friends we have met since. When in the course, of time 
I was honored with a larger confidence, and. intnisted with higher dutiw in that 
department of the public service into which yonr mission had ■introd'ticed me, 
very few felt and none expressed a kinder or mor>' hopeful interest in my public 
fortunes ; and yet to-day, if the northern press has not nusrepresented yon, you 
look upon me as a rebel and a traitor. The pleasant association in days' which 
I have not forgotten, the friendship which I still feel was born of a sincere and 
mutual respect, if remembered at all, only serve to kindle a fiercer indignation 
and to embitter your passionate denunciation. It is true that time has wronght 
great charges. We stand na longer upon the soil of a common country. If an 
earthquake bad cleft this continent in twain, we could not be furthe;' separated 
than we are by that great, red^ver of kindred blood, which, swollen by the dis- 
mal streams from JIanassas and Murfreesboro', Antietara and Fredericksburg, 
now rolls its fearful barrier between two hostile nations. We no longer stand 
under the same flag which once ennobled and protected the common home we 
shared together in a foreign land. I have lived to see its stars shed baleful light, 
and rapine, and lust and murder, glutted under the shadow of its ample folds. 
We are no longer protected by a common constitution. To that constitution, as 
I knew it, as it was perfected by the patient wisdom of the fathers of the Re- 
public, you yourself dare not now appeal in the city of its birth for the protection 
of your own liberties. When it was published in Philadelphia, and that great 
man Alexander" Hamdton undertook its defence before the people, this was the 
first sentence in his celebrated argument : "After full experience of the insufli- 
ciency of the existing federal government, you are invited to deliberate upon a 
new constitution for the United States of America." That discussion has been 
resumed, and we are upon opposite sides in the argument. But grave and mo- 
mentous as was the discussion then, infinitely graver as it is now, is force the 
only or the fitting arbiter of such a question ? Have eighty years' political life 
under this very constitution only unfitted us to do now, what our forefathers were 
invited to do then ? I appeal to your long and candid experience of the past. 
Up to the date of this revolution, in all your recollection of men and measures, 
has the South ever betrayed the Union 1 While wo were with you did we not 
do our duty to the coiuitry and to the whole country ? Think over that long list 
of southern men with whom you have acted, and against whom you have striven, 
in the political contests of yofir day and generation, and name me one who was 
not in every sense an American statesman, whose character you did not feel to be 
•part of the nation's honor, whose ability you did not know to be part of the na- 
tion's strength ! And when you see all these men as one with the South in this 
contest, has it never struck you that there must l^a an adequate cause for such an 
effect, and that while your own feeling and your own judgment are strong in this 
strife for what you believe truth, that there must be something that at least looks 
very like truth in the cause which can so entirely pervert the feeling and the 
judgment which you once respected in others ? 

I confess I would be pained to think that it gratified you, but i;ven if it does, I 
■will say it. This revolution has not spared me : it has driven me a fugitive from 
home, and scattered the labor and hopes of many years. I am irhankful that I 
have been permitted to offer even so small a sacrifice to a great cause, but I am 
even more thankful that neither public nor private wrong has disturbed my 
sense of justice, and that whatever may be your feelings, and however violently 
you may have expressed them, I can speak to you to-day as I would have spoken 
two years ago, and that even through the battle smoke which hangs lika a heavy 
cloud between us, I can recognize the virtues I respected and the ability I ad- 
mired. I still remember with pleasure that I have enjoyed the confidence of men 
who, like yourself, were charged -ivith the care of the honor and interests of what 
was once a common country, and I cannot believe that such men are either hy- 
pocrites or ruffians, either tools or fanatics. Can you uot do as much, and has 
not the time come when we can understand each other ? 

I can readily understand that it would take both time and sad experience to 
convince not only the masses of the northern people, who have never thought 
gravely on the subject, but men like yourself, that this Union could be dissolved. 
I can and do make all allowance for the violence done to a national love, for the 
bonification to a national pride, which I know was genuine, and which I feel 
was natural, and in a strife like this I would not retort the exaggerated 

was in the power of northern statesmen to have made this a peaceful separation, 
and thus to have added to our wonderful history its noblest chapter, by calmly 
and wisely accepting the truth of facts, and affording the world such an example 
of political wisdom as it has not yet recorded. But it seems that our boasted in- 
titutions have not made us ■wiser or better than other men ; that we have only 
added another proof that — 

OM and 



T, disastroufl fend 

k, Hki' nprni'd fnen, 

tnii", till time iiliall close, 

pies arn rained iu blu'od." 

I shall not therefore dwell upon the horrors and miseries of this war, for there is 
a terrible sameness in the ravages of human passion, and you have repeated the 
past. But if it be true that we have pnifitediio little by experience, that the ac- 
tual cautery, fire and the sword, is still necessary to reduce us to a condition of 
reason, it has been steruly applied, and by this time it should have had some 
effect upon the temper of the discussion. I propose then to examine with you 
the condition of the country, and the questions which this war has raised. It is 
not my intention to debate any of the vexed questions of constitutional ric-ht 
which belong to the politics of the past. I shall indulge neither in crimination 
nor recrimination. I will accept facts as they are to-day, and will argue neither 
from a northern nor a southern stand-point, but as I would before a council of 
European statesmen, as I would if you were'authorized now to negotiate a settle- 
ment of this whole question. I will state that question broadly, avoiding as far 
as I can any minor issues. Eleven of the States forming hitherto a portion of 
the Conunonwealth recognized by the world as the United States of North Ame- 
rica, have formally withdrawn their allegiance from their federal government; 
have held a convention ; have created between themselves a new Federation ; 
have organized and put iu action a separate government, and under the style and 
title of the Confederate States of North America, claim to be and to be recognized 
as an Independent Power among the nations of the world, 

' ■The international question thus forced upon the attention of the world by the 
secession of the Southern States, is not a novel one. In fact it is the same con- 
stantly rectnring question which in various forms, but identical in principle, has 
engaged the profoundest attention and employed the highest intellect of Euro- 
pean statesmen, from the Treaty of Westphalia to the Conferences of Paris ; and 
it is a most remarkable fact, indicating the existence of a great law, underlying 
all historical progress, that under all times and all circumstances the solution of 
this question lias been the same. The question has been how to reconcile the. 
riglits of existing governments with the development of those new political and 
commercial interests -vvhich every generation produces, and how for the peace of 
the world and the welfare of mankind to make each government the actual re- 
presentative of the living interests of the people it controls ; and the answer has 
been by the restraint or destruction of overgrown empires, and the creation or 
recognition of new governments or nationalities. Look at the political map of 
the world for the last two centuries, and what are the changes ? In what direc- 
tion do they tend ? The neparation of Austria from Spain — the independence of 
the Low Countries — the preservation of Portugal — the check upon the exten- 
sion of France — the foundation of Prussia — the recognition of the United 
States — the formation of the Spanish Colonies into Independent States — the crea- 
tion of Holland — the separation of Belgium — the establishment of Greece — the 
defeat of Russia-^the strengthening of Sardinia — the creation of Italy as a na- 
tion. The political work of these two centuries has been the division of power — 
a constant eft'ort to adjust the political boundaries of the world in accordance 
with the political wants of the world; and as if to point the lesson with warn- 
ing, as well as to illustrate it by example, the partition of Poland and the arbi- 
trary arrangements of, 1815, stand as exceptions forced upon the law of nature 
by the folly of man. It is not pretended that this principle was systematically 
applied in all its consequences from the beginning, but it ■worked itself gradually 
through the various conflicts of national interests, until it was clearly and dis- 
tinctly admitted as the basis of the world's action in the recognition of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. That recognition established : 1. a colony — 
a part of an existing nationality — might by the development of its resources, be- 
come large enough and complete enough for an independent uational existence ; • 
and 2. That whi;re such interests by their extension had become involved with 
the interests of other powers, that the time and circumstances of the recognition 
of this independence was a matter of legitimate concern to such powers, a ques- 
tion upon which they were entitled to act in view of their own interests ; and 
since that recognition, the principle has been invariably applied by the statesmen 
of Europe to all of the many oases jp which new States have been created, or 
old oues divided. 



[August 27, 1863 

Upon the secession of the Southern States, therefore, the question was submit- 
ted to the decision of the world, whether that secession was the legitimate birth 
of a new nation, whether it was the natural and necessary development of those 
elements of social and political life, which, under the protecting influence of the 
old order of things, had reached that maturity of strength which required an in- 
dependent sphere for their future wholesome action upon the aifairs of the world. 

This question was not difEcult of solution. Giren the physical geography of 
the United States, its difi'erences of climate, its sectional variety of production 
and above all, its striking contrasts in character of labor, and it must follow, if 
there is any truth either in the physical sciences, or in that of political economy, 
that there would bo at least two great sections differing widely in the concentra- 
tion of their population, the distribution of their wealtli, tljeir systems of taxa- 
tion, and in those habits of political thought dependent upon the social conse- 
quences of the different sorts of labor. Differences such as these go to the .very 
essence of national life. Now what a student in his closet would have predicted, 
the practical life of the country has accomplished, and the political history of the 
United States is simply the develojiment of the long train of consequences which 
the laws of nature had established on this continent. . 

The colonial settlements were begun and completed upon different principles, 
so different as to be summed up in a popular antithesis. They worked througli 
their colonial existence and the war of independence in a sort of rough compa- 
nionship, very far removed from national identity. After the war, the immediate 
necessities of their political life led to the formation of the constitution, and in 
the formation of that constitution the elements of their future differences began 
to manifest themselves. From that period the two sections, protected externally 
by the government which did represent them as far as the outer world was con- 
cerned, have developed tlieir natural differences, at first with mutual encourage- 
ment, then with grave but lionest discussion; and finally, as in the history of the 
world it always has been and always will be, with anger and in blood. 

It is needless to refer to the differences of individual opinion which marked the 
progress of the discussion of the constitution, for they could not and did not 
control the development of those elements of conflict which that instrument un- 
avoidably contained. They would simply indicate what the great and wise men 
of that day thought would be the probable future of the counby. It is sufficient 
to note the fact that by all it was regarded as an experiment, by a large majority 
as a most hopeful experiment ; but that by many the very results which have fol- 
lowed were anticipated, and that Benjamin Hanison of Virginia expressed the 
conviction of a large class of able and patriotic men, when he wrote, October 4, 
17S7, to Gen. Washington, "I cannot divest myself of an opinion that the seeds 
of civil discord are plentifully sown in very many of the powers given both to 
the President and- Congress, and that if the constitution is carried into effect, the 
States south of the Potomac will be little more tlian api>endages to those to tlie 
northward of it." Upon the adoption of the constitution there arose two great 
parties, the one desirous of using the constitution as an instrument to establish a 
great nation by centralizing and strengthening the federal powers. By con- 
sti-uiug grants of power liberally, they hoped to absorb the political individuali- 
ties of the States, and thus constract one homogeneous government. This great 
party, known in our history as the Federalists, was in point of ability, purity, 
energy and influence, hy far the highest political organization this country has 
ever known, but they were fighting against laws too strong even for them, and 
they were destroyed, without hope of resurrection, by the election of Mr. Jeffer- 
son, the great representative of Ihe second party, having held the administration 
of the government about ten years, the last two years of Mr. Adams' term beino- 
thrown out of the calculation. The two leading facts in. the admiuislration of 
Mr. Jefferson and that of Mr. Madison, which was simply the logical sequence 
of Mr. Jefferson's, were: 1. The creation and cultivation of that direct popular 
influence upon every act of government, wluch soon converted a Federal IJe- 
public into a monstrous Democracy, and developed a fierceness and tyranny of 
party rule almost unexampled in history ; and 2. The subordination of domestic 
politics in a large measure to the exigencies of our foreign relations and the neces- 
sities of the war of 18I2, which in some measure delayed and in a great measure 
concealed the' immense revolution which had taken place in the interior politics 
of the country. The consequences of these two facts did not exhibit themselves 
until after the end of the war, but at the close of Mr. Monroe's administration, 
the last President who had been an actor in the great revolution, the Tariff and 
the Missouri Compromise had drawn with a I'atal precision, and never to be eradi- 
cated, the lines of sectional division. The Tariff controversy was perhaps rather 
a symptom of the disease that lay deeper than any thing more serious. It was, 
speaking very generally, cured hy palliatives. But the disease was unchecked, 
and the vital organs of the national life were soon attacked. 

As to the Missouri Compromise, the dissolution of the Union, sooner or later, 
was written in every clause of that famous act of legislation. If the Missouri 

line could have been fairly preser^-cd, if the laws of nature then at work could 
have permitted its extension to the Pacific, the Union might have been preseiTed 
for some years longer. But it established truths that could not rest quiet; that 
must develop into their necessary consequences. For this basis of the future 
national life of the country was clearlj- unconstitutional, in the most favorable 
light, extra constitutional, which is very nearly the same thing, was in contradic- 
tion with the fundamental organic law of our national existence ; and the princi- 
ple upon which it rested was the existence tinder one government of two great 
sections whose interests were so opposed that the nation was forced literally to 
dismember itself, to draw the boundary line of a geographical and political sepa- 
ration. Since the passage of that act, the efi'orts of all the ])olitical parties of the 
country has been to hide this truth, to govern Ihe nation as one which the statute 
book itself declared to be two. How this has affected our political history ; how 
it modified Ihe Democratic party, and may almost be said to have created the Whig 
party ; how it gave to BIr. Clay his peculiar character as the great but unsuccess- 
ful mediator before the country ; how it placed the South in a perpetually false 
position, by compelling its alliance with the Northern Democracy, I cannot stop 
now to explain. But at last this anomalous and untruthful condition of things 
broke down ; the truth, terrible as it might be in Tts results, forced itself on the 
nation, and in I860, by the passage of what w^ so ludicrously called the Com-, Ihe Missouri line was destroyed, the miserable sham of a common coun- 
try was exploded, and the territories were appointed as the field for the final 
struggle between the two sections. Hmicst indeed I believe were the men who 
strove for what they called a final settlement, but never was a truer word spoken, 
however unwelcome the authority, than when Mr. Collamer of Vermont, on he- 
half of the minority of the Senate commiltee, said: " The Kansas-Nebraska act 
was passed, the Missouri Compromise line declared inoperative, and the subject 
of slavery was purposely turned over to the people who should go and inhabit 
the country. This was an invitation to all men to enter this field of competition 
for free and slave institutions ; and it was to be expected that the friends and pro- 
moters of these two systems would make vigorous exertions in the struggle, and 
that settlement by friends of each would lie highly stimulated by all lawful 

When the Compromise bills were passed, many wise and good men at the 
.South thought that the time had indeed come for final action. They were over- 
ruled, and Ihe .South accepted the issue '• in the Union" tendered by the North. 
They were beaten in Kansas ; how, it is not worth while now to enquire, and the 
northern triumph consummated by the election of ^Ir. Lincoln, an election best 
described in the plain statement of facts sent by Mr. Buchanan in his last Diplo- 
matic Circular to the Foreign Ministers of the Unilad States. " You are of 
course aware that the election of last November resulted in the choice of Mr. 
Abraham Lincoln; that he was the candidate of the Republican or .4.nti-slavery 
party ; that the preceding discussion had been confined almost entirely to topics 
connected directly or indirectly with the subject of negro slavery ; that every 
Northern State cast its whole electoral vote (except three in New Jersey) for Mj. 
Lincoln, while in the whole South the popular sentiment against liim was abso- 
lutely universal." 

Now, while this result had been slowly but surely approaching, the South, as a 
section, had been steadily increasing in wealth, population, and above all, in com- 
mercial importance to the world. Its great staple was becoming more and more 
a necessity in the world's industry, and its institutions more and more incoi-po- 
rated with its social and political life. Its territory capable of almost limitless 
agricultijfal development, conformed to the physical geography of the continent, 
for the Potomac, the Ohio and the Missouri formed a natural rtorthem boundary, 
and what was an apparent separation made by the Mississippi was more than 
cprrected by the concentrating influence of the Gulf of Jlexico. The doctrine 
of states rights, which was the first article in the southern creed, had induced on 
the part of the States habits of self-reliance and self-government. Both the 
statesmen and the peojjle of the South had anticipated and prepared for such a 
result. When, therefore, the election of Jlr. Lincoln declared that in future the 
Union must be governed solely by the convictions or opinions of a northern ma- 
jority, as to the national interests and the national honor; that Ihe daily life, the 
industry, the political faith of the South were to be revolutionized ; that a circle 
was to be drawn around Ihe South, beyond which its institutions should not 
grow, and within which it was the expressed desire of an all powerful govern- 
ment that they .should gradually perish, and that it should stand like one of its 
oaks, "rung" for slow but certain destruction; the southern people acted as they 
had again and again warned the North they would act, and thirteen States exer- 
cising the right upon which the whole nation itself had always rested, and'which 
they claimed to bold under express provision of the general constitution, seccdsd 
formally fro^ the Union, and formed between themselves a new Coutedtraiy. 

August 27, 1863.] 






:' Thus closed the first chapter of the history of the Great Republic; and looking 
at the events of the last two years, no language coiild more fitly record that con. 
elusion than the eloquent words of one of the ablest intellects that have ever 
adorned the Senate of the United States. Words which every true southern man 
may hopefully and proudly regard as prophetic of the verdict of impartial his- 
tory. "You complain," said Senator Hammond of South Carolina, speaking to 
the Republican party on the 4th of March 1858, "you complain of the rule of 
the South. That has been another cause which has preserved you. We have 
kept the government consen-ative to the great purposes of government. We 
have placed her and kept her upon the constitution, and that has been the cause 
of your peace and prosperity. The Senator from New York (Mr. Seward) says 
that that is about to end ; that you intend to take the government from us ; that 
it will pass from our hands. Perhaps what he says is true — it may be — but do 
not forget — it can never be forgotten — it is written on the brightest page of hu- 
man history — that wCj the slaveholders of the South, took our country in her in- 
fancy, and after ruling her for's'ixty out of the seventy years of her existence, we 
shall sm-render her to you without a stain upon her honor, boundless in pros- 
perity, incalculable in her strength, the wonder and the admiration of the world. 
Time will show what you will make of her, but no time can ever diminish oiu 
glory or your responsibilitj;." ^^^ — >,.-"».-' — "^ — - - 

Parallel with this progress of the internal history of the Republic — this steady 
preparation for its final development into two or more living nationalities — runs 
the striking coincidence of its external relations in acciuiring and securing the 
field for their future existence and action. A single nation, bounded only by the 
limits of such a continent as North America, the world has not seen since the 
destruction of the Roman Empire, and it may safely be predicted, it will never 
see again. But it is equally true that there never could have been a healthy 
growth of any independent nation on this continent as long as the great powers 
of Europe held large colonial possessions here, which provoked and justified 
their active interference in the domestic policy of the country. The great neces- 
sity, therefore, for the futirre free life of the people of the new world, was the ab- 
sorption of jurisdiction, which coidd only be eflected by the acquisition of terri- 
tory. Gradually but surely the process has gone on, and by diplomacy and con- 
quest Louisiana, the Floridas, Texas, California, have been added to the territory 
of the LTnited States, settled trnder the old constitution, and initiated into the in- 
dependent responsibility of State life, while the questions of boundary with the 
remaining colonial possessions of Great Britain were, after long and perplexing 
negotiation, brought to their final solution just before the secession of the South- 
em States. During the same time the increasing maritime power of the United 
States to some degree counterbalanced the naval supremacy of Great Britain, and 
contributed indirectly but largely to those new and liberal modifications of mari- 
time law both in peace and war, which were consummated by the Treaty of Paris, 
and wliich are so necessary to the unfettered and commercial growth of the nem 
Republic. Thus internally and externally the United States completed its work. 
Internally by the discipline of its federal life it gave the elements of being to new 
Confederacies ; externally it prepared the sphere for their operation. 

I think then I may fairly claim that, however different from the anticipations 
and hopes of those who founded the old Republic, the secession of the Southern 
States is the true and legitimate consequences of the laws of national progress, 
and those elements which were from the beginning incorporated into our national 
life ; that it is therefore a normal result, a development rather than a revolution, 
and that thus the question which this event submitted to the world has been 
answered fully and in our favor. But although I think that I have proven my 
point, I do not at this stage of the argument require you to admit it. On the 
contrary, I recognize your right at the commencement of this war to deny it. 
Views like these, long familiar to the South, were strange and repugnant to the 
North. You had accustomed yourselves to look only at the increased and in 
■ creasing greatness of the Union. You felt yourselves set up as an example to 
the nations, ordained of God to illustrate the perfection of self-government on a 
scale more magnificent than history had yet recorded. To you the failm-e of the 
Union was the humiliation of your forefathers, and your shame before posterity. 
Beside which, no government can be expected to abdicate willingly, and you 
were the government. With such feelings it was not to be expected that you 

would listen to our reason, and there could be then no arbiter but the sword. 
That appeal I admi^ your right to make, but for a distinct purpose. You might 
doubt both the sincerity and tenacity of our purpose, and you had the right to 
test whether this new power, which claimed independence, had the strength, the 
consistency, the resources, the capacity for doing and sufifering which every na- 
tion must have to vindicate its claim to recognized existence. You liad the right 
to appeal to force to test this, but you had and have no right to use force to de- 
stroy that which your own test compels you to admit exists. If we had yielded 
to force, shnink from the consequences of our own action, you would have 
proved the emptiness of our boast, and justified your rejection of our claim. But 
if your force has proved both our courage and capacity, if it has convinced you 
that we have the elements of natural and vigorous life, you change the whole 
issue when you attempt to crush what you do not deny we have created. For 
your professed object was not to subjugate the South, but to put down by arms a 
local and temporary disaffection. 

You have applied the test of force, a larger force than either I or you anticipa- 
ted. You have organized vast armies, you have equipped great fleets, you have 
fought battles greater and more numerous than have sealed the fate of ancient 
kingdoms, and you have fought sometimes successfully, many times bravely. 
You have, discovered ample credit to sustain enormous expenditures, you have 
suppressed opposition at home, and you have acted without let or hindrance from 
abroad, you have displayed no common energy, unity and persistency of pur- 
pose, and yet what have you accoraphshed ? You have not executed the plan of 
a single campaign, you have not any where attained any result which the most 
sanguine of your statesmen would call decisive. Where you have succeeded, 
what have you effected ? You have destroyed a thousand fruitful fields, and de- 
solated a thousand happy homes in Virginia, but you have not been able to pass 
through the wilderness which you yourselves have created. You have obtained 
a footing on the shore of North Carolina, and occupied one or two of its most 
exposed seaports, but by no effort have you been able to destroy the great line of 
seaboard communication, the possession of which coidd alone reward your labor. 
You have seized the islands lying along the South Carolina coast for about thirty 
miles, and commanding water communication that runs up ten or twenty miles 
from the ocean, but you cannot with all your strength take or hold a foot of 
ground on the main land. As that section of country was particularly rich, you 
have ruined some hundreds of proprietors, and captured some thousands of 
slaves, but this individual loss does not perceptibly weaken the national resour- 
ces. You have taken New Orleans, and have unquestionably struck a heavy 
blow, and with wisdom its consequences might have been very disastrous. But 
with singular judgment you made it a warning, instead of using it as a tempta- 
tion. You hold Nashville and keep us out of Kentucky, proving, let me remark 
here, that your military force is only successful where it has the support of pub- 
lic opinion, for it is only fau' to admit that in Tennessee anil Kentucky popular 
opinion is divided, and there are many who stiU adhere wai'mly to the Union. I ' 
put out of view the various incutsions and raids which have not had and were 
not intended to have permanent result. At the end then of two years of war in 
which you have spent without stint both blood and gold, which does tax your 
resources to their utmost, you have been able only to maintain a cordon of mili- 
tary occupation along a portion of the sea and land boundary of the Confede- 
racy, and by constant attack every where repulsed, to prevent an advance be- 
yond your lines, and it is doubtful whether you can much longer maintain even 
this condition. This is not.success. Between two independent nations at war 
on any of the usual causes of national quarrels, such a position on the principle 
of " uti possidetis" (which, however, no nation would ever admit under such 
circumstances) would have its advantages in the negotiation for peace. But you 
do not stand in this category. You still profess, whatever be your action, to be 
fighting for the restoration of the Union, the return into a common government 
of these thirteen .States, who, as Mr. Seward declares in his dispatches to Mr. 
Adams, "must always continue to be equal and honored members of this Fede- 
ral Union," with their constitutional rights unimpaired, and their political power 
in the national councils undiminished. It does seem to me that, in the face of 
the history of the last two years, this simple statement is in itself a perfect " re- 
dnctio .ad absurdum." But even had your military success been greater, you 
hiid still, in order to solve your own problem, to revive that love for the Union, in 
the existence of which for a long time you all so stubbornly beljeved. That be- 
lief yon have at length abandoned ; there is not a man among you whose eyes 
are any longer blinded by that delusion. 

I am not surprised that you were slow of belief Familiar as I was, at the out- 
set, with the hopes and fears of this movement, I shall venture to say that no man 
anticipated the spontaneous, energetic, passionate unanimity of this whole south- 
ern people in the cause of southern independence, which this war hat developed. 



[August 27, 1863 


I am writing at this moment among the hills at the foot of the Blue Eitlge,-in 
tie midst of a section of country where there are no great prOprifetors-^-^o" slave 
aristocracy," to use a favorite northern word. It is inhabited by a hArdy, intelli- 
gent, industrious population, whose sons are brought up to the plow, and- whose 
daughters are reared at the spinning wheel— an earnest, religious, sober people, 
who took but little part in the political coutroversies of the State, and syiapa- 
thized rather with the old national democracy than any other party intheicoun- 
try. Sprung mostly from that old Scottish Presliyterian revolutionary stock, 
which gave so piany sturdy settlers to Virginia and the Carolinas, they had a 
traditional love for the Union. With ambition bounded by their hills, and wants 
amply satisfied in their valleys, they were reminded of the existence of a national 
government only by the periodical electiou of their members of Congress. ■ 

If ever there was a lair subject for your test, here it was. ' The war came and 
has tested them. From Manassas to Fredericksburg, the heroic regiments re- 
cruited from these homes, have proved what the people of the South understand 
by their love of the Union. I think I am within tinithful limits when I say, that 
within a circle of twenty miles from this place there is not one house in ten out 
of which some member has not proved his truth by death or wounds, and to-day 
the spirit is as strong, the resolution as firm as it was in the beginning. But you 
do not require proof of this. You yoiu'selves acknowledge it. For when you 
failed to discover what you had believed to be your strength, you attempted to 
profit by what you considered our weakness. When you failed to excite a love 
of the Union in the free man, you endeavored to rouse the love of liberty in the 
slave. And again, I ask, what has been your success ? You have, indeed, by 
force, taken away from their owners many thousand slaves, and converted so 
many useful laborers into costly vagabonds. You have degraded your own sol- 
diers, by making negroes their equals in the ranks. With that, however, I have 
nothing to do. It is sufiicient for me to point out that your influence for mischief 
does not extend beyond your own lines ; that you have not only failed to exaspe- 
rate the slave against his master, but you have failed in what was more likely and 
even more dangerous, you have failed to exasperate the master against the slave ; 
and that even as to the unfortunate victims whom you have forced into your ar- 
mies, as General Banks avows in his last proclamation, not because you want 
their sympathy as freemen, but because you need their labor as slaves, we will 
be readier to-morrow to forgive the natural weakness which they exhibited, under 
your compulsion, than you ever will be to forgive the crimes which they have not 
committed at your instigation ; that great as is the loss you have inflicted on in- 
dividuals, it has had no appreciable eflect uj)on the great mass of southern labor; 
that nowhere has the slave revolted against his master; and that with an immense 
proportion of the men of the country in the army, there has been no iiitermption 
in the agricultural work of the nation ; and that by a wise and patriotic policy, 
diverting the bulk of their labor from the great staples of foreign consumption, 
the planters and farpiers of the South have concentrated their labor upon the 
crops necessary for provision ; and that to-day our fields promise such a harvest 
of food as we have never known in the palmiest days of our agriculture. And 
while the necessities of the country have so far enabled the government to call 
into the field but a portion of its conscript force, those who have remained to su- 
perintend this very labor have fulfilled their task, and under the provisions of the 
tax bill just passed Congress, will furnish to the government, in kind, such a pro- 
portion of this abundant harvest as puts the question of supply beyond contin- 

And this brings me to the point to which all these remarks have tended. I 
claim that the secession of the Southern States, so far from being a revolution, 
/ was but the natm'al and necessary development of our past history. I claim 
that, denying this conclusion, you have submitted the young Confederacy to your 
own tests — you have endeavored to reduce it by force, and have failed — you have 
endeavored to divide^ its sentiments and revive an old aflx?etion for an obsolete 
government, and have failed — you have endeavored to destroy the system of 
slave labor, which gives to its social fabric consistency and strength, and you 
have_ foiled. I claim that your own experiment is conclusive. But now I go 
further, and claim that, by your own action, you have admitted the complete and 
independent life of the new Commonwealth. iV^i ' '" .''^ > .' ■' ' J 

At the commencement of this movement Mr. Seward, Serfetary of State of the 
United States, used the following language to Mr. Adams, the United States Mi- 
nister at London: "For these reasons he would not be disposed to reject a car- 
dinal dogma of theirs (the Secessionists), namely, that the federal government 
could not reduce the seceding States to obedience by conquest, even although he 
were disposed to question that proposition. But in fact the President willingly 
accepts it as trae. Only an imperial or despotic government could subjugate 
thoroughly disaffected and insurrectionary members of the State. This Federal 
Republican s.ystem of ours is of all forms of government the veiy one most un- 
fitted for such a labor. 

' " You will indulge in no expression of harshness or disrespect or even impa- 
tience, concerning the seceding States, their agents or their people. But you 
will on the contrary remember that those States are now, as they always hereto- 
fore have been, and notwithstanding their temporary self-delusion, must always 
continue to be equal and honored members of this Federal Union. 

" Even the present disunion movement is confessedly without any better cause 
than an apprehension of dangers which from the very nature of the government 
are impossible, and .speculations of aggressions which those who know the phy- 
sical and social arrangements of this continent must see at once are fallacious 
and chimerical." 

Now I am one of those who believe that at that time Mi'. Seward meant what 
he said. As long as your government held that language, you were consistent 
if you were not correct. You were fighting a political battle in a Union which 
you professed to believe still existed, fighting for the preservation of a recognized, 
well estabUshed government, which the world knew as the American Union, for 
a constitution, which, however misinterpreted, did exist to be misinterpreted. 
But facts were too strong for you, and you recognized these facts by the eman- 
cipation proclamation of the 1st of January 1 863. That proclamation changed 
your whole position. I am not about to discuss its morality or its wisdom, still 
less its character as a measure of legislative philanthropy. With all that I have 
no concern. All I ask you to admit, and you cannot refuse the admission, is, 
that the seizure and confiscation of the great bulk of onr property, the complete 
revolution of our whole social system, the destruction of the essential element of 
our political power in the old Union, and the reasons you gave for it, was an 
attempt " to subjugate thoroughly disaffected aud insunectionary members of the 
State," which Mr. Seward declared could only be effected by "an imperial or des- 
potic government," the very labor for which " this Federal Republican sj-stem of 
ours is most unfitted." That it was a distinct aunouncement that " the seceded 
States" were no longer " equal and honored members of this Federal Union," 
and an open, undisguised avowal " of dangers which from the vefy nature of the 
government, are impossible," and "aggressions which those who know the phy- 
sical and social an-angements of this continent, must see at once are fallacious 
aud chimerical." When your government took this step it had abandoned all 
hope of the restoration of the Union, and commenced its preparation for final 
recognition. Other facts prove that unwillingly and gradually you have come to 
this conclusion. First you abandoned your pretended right to treat confederate 
privateers as pirates, then you consented to a regular exchange of prisoners, thus 
recognizing the Confederacy at least as a belligerent. Lately you have adopted 
the policy of sending persons with southern sympathies beyond your lines, and 
finally the President has commuted Mr. Vullandighaui's sentence from imprison- 
ment to banishment. Now, if there is any logic in his action, what is banish- 
ment but the expulsion of a convicted criminal out of your country and beyond 
your jurisdiction ? And when you sent him South, you sent him to our cotmtry 
and within our jurisdiction. For surely if you still consider us only a disaffected 
portion of yoiu: own country, undergoing the process of reduction, it was a most 
singular policy, a most c<irious punishment to send among us the man whom 
you have condemned for treason as our most dangerous ally, and whose presence 
must of necessity largely encourage that very spirit of rebellion which all your 
efforts are directed to crush. Mi\S eward , who, whatever be his faults, is the 
Ei^tutegt^statesmau you have in power, knows better than either you or I, that 
rQcognition of the Confederacy is inevitable and imminent. He knows that the 
delay is owing to two things : 1 . The impossibility of such a step by the Black 
Republican party, and the consequent necessity of waiting t he advent of the 
Democ ratic partes with whom, when the proper time comes, he is prepared to 
act ; aud H. His success in persuading the European powers that it was better 
for all parties-that the United States should be the first to recognize, and that 
they would do so whenever that course became necessary. Aud the war is now 
prolonged not with the faintest hope of restoring the Union, but for such advan- 
tages as may result in the final settlement from our respective military positions. 
But this proclamation had sketched the broad, rough outline of the distinction 
between the free and slave Republics whicJh aie to divide the old Union. If 
Europe could have been deluded into the belief that this was the expression of a 
genuine and unselfish philanthropy, the government of the United States would 
have gladly acquiesced in the delusion, in order to divert all sympathy from the 
South, and pmsue its plan of conquest, but this was impossible. The next best 
thing was to accept what could not be avoided, to fake this step, which was in'e- 
vocable, to procrastinate further, if possible, and postpone by sjiecrous represen- 
tations European recognition, to give time for this great and abiding difference 
to impress itself upon the European mind, to trust to the gradual diminution of 
foreign sympathy as our success grew more certain, and in the mean while direct 
this war to the exhaustion of our resources, the Umitation of our territory, and to 

August 27, 1863.] 



the attainment of such positions as would throw the advantages of negotiation 
into your hands, and thus to come to a final settlement with positive strength, 
while the world, weary of the unnatiual strife, and not too anxious for the undue 
development of a slave empire, would be ready to applaud yoiti*terms of final 
separation. Such I believe to be Mr. Seward's policy, and it is, I admit, adroit 
diplomacy, more adroit than any with which he has yet had to contend. But, 
diplomacy sometimes fails as well as war. 

If I am right — if, putting aside altogether any discussion as to the origin of 
this bloody conflict, we can agree that the wants of this war have demonstrated 
corn-age, capacity, resources on both sides, sufficient to show that the elements of 
a vigorous national life exist, both at the North and the South — if, to-day, we are 
two nations, is it not the highest political wisdom, ou your part, to recognize that 
result at the earliest moment and in its simplest form. This recognition does not 
necessanly imply a cessation of war. It leaves all the international questions 
between us open, and only prepares for their settlement by giving such a status 
to the present belligerent parties, as enables them to negotiate as well as fight. 
But what do you gain by continued hostilities ? There are some questions be- 
tween nations, which war successfully prolonged, on either side, can settle, and 
some which are beyond and above the decision of war. In the controversy be- 
tween us, whether you recognize us to-day or ten years hence, there are two 
questions which can only be decided one way. They are the integrity of the 
tenitory of the States, and the integrity of their internal institutions. The for- 
tunes of war may determine whether Kentucky shall or shall not be one of the 
States of the Confederacy, or they may compel both parties to lea'we that question 
to Kentucky herself, but whenever you recognize Virginia or Carolina as States 
of the Confederacy, you recognize the whole of Virginia and the whole of Caro- 
lina, your occupation of their territoiy and of all their territory ceases as an exer- 
cise of sovereignty. The common stand-jioint of state rights from which we 
both started in this conflict, and a common habit of constitutional thought, 
which we learned from our joint experience of eighty years, compel the admis- 
sion of this principle. The question of boundary, therefore, being a question of 
States, cannot be settled by war, if either party adheres to the principles it pro- 
fesses, for a separation once admitted, the border States which, like Kentucky, 
may now be doubtful, can alone determine upon which side of the fine they will 
fall, and the only solution is to withdraw all force, and let them decide the ques- 
tion. Unless you admit that this war has entirely revolutionized the United 
States, and substituted a centralized despotism lor the Federal Union, you can- 
not deny this conclusion. So as to the domestic institutions of the States, a se- 
paration once admit{|^you have no more to do with them than have England or 
France. There remains, therefore, only that class of questions comprised under 
the general .term of our foreign rek^ions, embracing our commercial policies, our 
mutual influence on each other, and our relations with other nations. After such 
a war as the present, I think every reflecting man would agree that a simple 
recognition, leaving time to begin its work of conciliation, would be wisest. 
But whether these questions are to be settled now or hereafter, would it not be 
best for all parties to approach near enough for a mutual understanding, before 
foreign recognition complicates both our obligations and our desires. Mr. Seward 
may think that his skill has so far prevented this recognition, and if so, he can 
claim a temporary diplomatic success, but it must be a .short one. 

For the first question which this secession submitted to the world has been an- 
swered in our favor. "When England and France recognized the Confederate 
States as belligerents — when they iJlowed the confederate flag to give character 
to the confederate navy — they recognized its existence and its right to existence ; 
and this recognition was further confirmed by the formal and joint official invita- 
tion of these powers to the Confederate States, to accede to the provisions of the 
Treaty of Paris, Ijy ^vhich the maritime relations of the leading nations of the 
world were regulated, and by which their duties and rights," in time of war, 
were determined. Whether the new nationality was sufiiciently perfect to re- 
quire the ordinary means of diplomatic intercourse — whether the circumstances 
under which it was acting involved the interests of foreign powers to such an ex- 
tent as to require intervention, were questions of a diii'erent order. But the 
prompt, almost immediate recognition of the belligerent character of the Confede- 
racy, indicated that Europe was prepared for the event — that it was based upon 
conditions that established themselves in the European mind in advance of the 
result, and which gave it an orderly and legitimate character, while the recogni- 
tion itself gave the Confederacy a status in the world of which this, at least, can 
be said, that history has yet to furnish an example of a power sufficiently strong 
to occupy such a position, which has ever been sent back to its original condition. 
It was only natural that the powers of Europe, having recognized the belligerent 
rights of the South, and equality of the contending parties, should wait to see 
how they would settle their differences. They might agree to part peaceably — j 

they might try each other's strength, and then come to terms — they might find 
some solution which would restore the interrupted national life. They did wait. 
The course of events upon which they have waited, they understand as well as 
you do. They could not be described by tho most ardent southerner in tnier or 
more exultant language than they have been in a speech by a distinguished mem- 
ber of the British Parliainont, which lias reached nic while writing these lines. 
The condition of things at present, and which threatens to continue, is an irrita- 
ting and inefficient blockade of the southern coasts, and a repetition of bloody 
and disastrous land attacks by the northern armies on our land frontier, accom- 
panied by enormous expenditure on both sides, and the withdrawal of both par- 
ties from their ordinary intercourse with the world, and the destruction of theur 
industrial and commercial life. Such a condition affects directly other nations. 
In the first place, no war of any extent, least of all one between two such large 
actors in the affairs of the world, can now exist without working general disturb- 
ance. It is the interest of the world that it should be terminated — that the rela- 
tions of the two sections should be promptly settled, so that they may resume, as 
speedily as possible, their normal place in the world's relations. The legitimate 
nature of the secession — t)ie inability of the North, after immense effort to con- 
quer it, authorize the intervention of the world to force the recognition of that 
fact by the only power that any longer disputes it. Cotton is not king, but it is 
no exaggeration to say that the sudden destruction or very great diminution of 
its supply, must work, nay has worked such mischievous results as will justify, 
in their own interest, the action of those dependent for a large portion of their 
national wealth and consideration upon its manufacture. You are familiar 
enough with the industrial history of England to know that the adoption of her 
system of commercial reciprocity and tho repeal of her old navigation laws, did 
not increase her foreign trade or shipping, and that she would have been the loser 
but for the enormous development of her colonial trafSc. And you know 
enough of our industrial history to see that an independent South would be the 
most perfect complement of that system, and profit, to an incalculable extent, 
the shipping interests of Great Britain. That such a power offers equal advan- 
tages to Frepch commerce, in ailditiou to political advantages, is patent to the 
careful observer of the history of the last ten years ; and that it opens to Spain a 
field for a lucrative trade with a people having similar institutions, no possible 
rivalries, and freed by that fact from those necessary jealousies which, up to the 
date of our separation, gave increasing iiTitation to the diplomatic relations of 
Spain with the United States. 

In the next place, the progress of the relative strength of the nations of Europe 
and the gro-wth of their colonial possessions, give increased importance to the 
condition of this continent, and have forced upon the consideration of Europe 
the question, whether it is better for the future of the world that this continent 
shall be held by one vast, unscrupulous empire, willing and able to absorb Cana- 
da, Mexico and the West Indies, and to dominate over South America, or that it 
should be divided into nations strong and large enough for the healthy develop- 
ment of those natural resources which will secure their own happiness, and con- 
tribute to the wealth and welfare of the world, and which will at the same time 
permit the exercise of that influence to which their commercial relations and the 
history of their colonies fully and justly entitle the maritime nations of the old 
world. Your levies of armed millions, your gigantic iron navies, your claim of 
undivided empire, do not promise aid in a satisfactory solution, and neither Eng- 
land nor France nor Spain can forget that the greatest of southern statesmen ral- 
lied the country against the arrogant pretension of "54 40 or fight," and protested 
singly against the declaration of war against Mexico, or that the Ostend Confer- 
ence was tho work of a New Hampshire P;'esident, a New York Secretary of 
State and three Ambassadors, of whom two were Pennsylvania statesmen, and 
the third a naturalized foreigner, whose great abilities and democratic experience 
had not then unlearned the lessons of a bad school of continental poUtics. 

Finally. It is clear now, however you and those like you may hide yourselves 
from the truth, that this war has changed its character. It is to-day a war of 
opinion. The Black RepubHcan party of the United States is the same as the 
Red Republican party of Europe. Butler combines the principles of Mazzini 
with the practices of Ilaynau. You are fighting against chartered privileges for 
the absolute tyranny of the mob, and upon your banners, beneath the old blazon- 
ing of tho stars and stripes, can be read those words of desolation, "Liberie, 
Equalite, Fraternitc," as plainly as upon any- revolutionary flag that ever cast a 
bloody shadow in the Faubourg St. Antoine. Your creed is the same, your end 
tho same, your means the same. When the German refugee who was made United 
States Minister to Spain by Mr. Lincoln for his electioneering services, said in 
one of his eft'ective speeches — and let me tell you that his speeches were the very 
ablest and most cfl'ective of that presidential campaign, because they were the 
truest — that this continent was reseiTed for the fiee white man who has been op- 



[August 27, 1863 

pressed for ages in Europe, and who is to recover the fullness of his stature here, 
he announced your creed. When you sent your Minister to Belgium, the especial 
friend of Mr. Seward, post haste from Spezzia to Capri, to offer the command of 
your armies to Garibaldi, you avowed your practice. And the Radical of Eng-- 
land, the Republican of France, the Conspirator of Italy, have recognized the 
brotherhood. Attempt for a moment yourself to realize the success of this party. 
What sort of government will that of the United States be, when four millions of 
slaves, ignorant, indolent and sensual, suddenly freed, stimulated by want and 
played upon by every base demagogue, are added to the political representation 
of the country, creating and controlling by their votes the new representation of 
the southern section, acting too in the proud ignorance of their new gratitude 
with the triumphant Abolition party of the North, a party made up of the refuse 
of every nation upon earth, and sworn to every article in the creed of the most 
reckless and licentious Democracy ? How long would this huge and horrible 
Democracy tolerate 3'ou, or that constitution for which you profess to be fighting 
to-day, but which they have long ago denounced as "a covenant with hell?" 
And do European statesmen suppose that so monstrous and malicious a creature, 
with a brain shrewd for evil, a heart full of malignity, and a material power such 
as few empires have ever possessed, can long exist without disturbing the peace 
of the world ? Do they think that there are no evil passions to be roused on the 
other side of the water to respond to wild and wicked sympathies on this? Have 
they forgotten the experience of the last fifty years, and is it not possible that the 
same mad spirit which with blood and labor, with police laws and standing 
armies, they have driven as they hope from Europe, may return fiercer, wilder 
and tenfold more temble ? The pestilence, as they called it then, of the French 
revolution spread over Europe more rapidly than and as fatally as the plague. 
As late as 1848 more than one throne tottered, and more than one social fabric 
was shaken, and they may find that a spirit worse because wiser in its mischief, 
more dangerous because more desperate in its assured strength, can cross even 
three thousand miles of ocean as fast a,s steam and without the aid of an Atlantic 

Now add to considerations two others : 3. That in the prosecution of the 
war and the maintenance of the blockade, you are every day running greater risk 
of foreign complication, and that however often you may escape by explanation 
and apology, eveiy new case, like the Trent, and the Peterhotf, and Butler's in- 
terference with the Consuls in New Orleans, and the seizure of vessels in the 
neutral waters of the West Indies, proves that no precautiouaiy wisdom, no post 
facto disavowals, can prevent finally what the very condition of the continent 
must inevitably provoke, serious difference with foi'eign nations : and 2. That 
according to your own confessions, you have shown that you cannot conduct 
such a war as this and preserve your liberties at home, and that even such suc- 
cess as you have obtained have cost you your constitution, and been purchased 
by the suppression of free speech, the suspension of habeas corpus, military ty- 
ranny and a corruption so stupendous, that your enormous expenditure is a viru- 
lent hut not an adequate symptom ; and is it not both a seasonable and a reason- 
able question to ask whether the future may not bring you weakness instead of 
strength, ^nd whether it is not wiser to accept the present result and settle now 
the terms and condition of our permanent relations. 

I am one of those who, in the midst of to-day's passion, am ever thoughtful of 
the great necessity of both our futures, viz : that settle this question when we 
may, it is our fate to live together on this continent. I believe the continent 
large enough for both. I believe that here God meant us to be to each other a 
help, not a hindrance, I believe the prosperity of each will be the advantage of 
both. Looking at the history of the past, the colonization and settlement of this 
continent, the practical supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon race, the achievement of 
the independence of the British Colonies, the divergence of the two sections un- 
der a common government, the growth of slavery and cotton, the rapid consum- 
mation of events in the last two years, unequalled in unity of purpose and com- 
pleteness of execation, I believe we are but the result of great laws, and that the 
sooner we recognize and act in harmony with them, the sooner will we enter upon 
the path of national honor and happiness. Eleven years ago I ventured to use 
the following language : 

"There are many men who have grown old in the Union, who feel an honest 
and pardonable regret at the thought of its dissolution. The enthusiasm of their 
boyhood, the hopes of their manhood, the calm honors of their age, belong to the 
completed circle of the past. They have felt themselves parties to the great ex- 
periment of political self-government, they have prided themselves on the suc- 
cessful demonstration of that great problem, and they feel that the dissolution of 
the Union proclaims a mortifying failure. But it is not so. The vital principle 
of political liberty is representative government, and when federal aiTangements 
are discarded, that lives in original vigor — it hss become the characteristic of our 
race, to spread with our emigrant millions over continents, and into the hidden 
isles of distant seas. Who does not consider the greatest triumph of the British 
constitution, the facility with which it adapted itself to the altered condition of 
its colonies — the vigor with which, under slight modifications, it developed into 
the great republican government, under which we have accomplished our na- 
tional progress. 

" And so it will be with our own constitution ; the elements of constitutional 
liberty may be slightly varied in their action under different governments ; but 
they will act with energy, for they have been incorporated into the national cha- 
racter. The experiment instituted by our fathers will receive its highest illustra- 
tion, and a continent of great repubhcs, equal, independent, and allied, will 
demonstrate to the world the capabilities of republican, constitutional govern- 
ment. That the dissolution of the Union must come, even without the present 
agitation, at no distant day, is almost a historical necessity; for the history of the 
world is the record of the aggregation and dissolution of great empires. National 
individuality seems to be the agent of Providence in the conduct of the world ; 
and having, in the extension of cur territories to the extiemest western verge, 
accomplished the_ first part of our destiny, we are about to fulfill the second, in 
creating those separate national interests and individual national peculiarities, to 
the attrition of which is due the varied and brilliant civilization of modern times. 
"We believe that the interests of the southern country demand a separate and 
independent government. We believe that the time "has come v.-hen such a 

government can be established temperately, wisely, strongly. But in effecting 
this separation, we would not disown our indebtedness, our gratitude to the past. 
The Union has redeemed a continent to the christian world — it has fertilized a, 
wilderness, and converted the rude force of nature into the beneficent action of a 
civilized agriculture. It has enriched the world's commerce with the untold 
wealth of a new and growing trade. It has spread -over the vast tenitories of 
this new land the laws, the language, the literature of the Anglo-Saxon race. 
It has developed a population with whom liberty is identical with law, and in 
training thuty-three States to manhood, has fitted them for the responsibility of 
independent national life. It has given to history sublime names, which the 
world will not willingly let die — heroic actions which will light the eyes of a far- 
coming enthusiasm. It has achieved its destiny. Let us achieve ours." 

This language I can now repeat in all sincerity, but God be thanked, with this 
addition — we have achieved our destiny. That destiny you cannot prevent, but 
you can save your own. For two years the Black Republican party have shaped 
the fortunes of your country. Their work is before your eyes, and needs no lan- 
guage of mine to describe it. I know that hundreds of thousands of good and 
brave men stand in speechless sorro^v amid the mighty wreck with which you 
are surrounded. The late elections prove that your people see the dangers of the 
future — they have not proved that you see where safety alone lies. You do not 
want the boldness to defend the truth, but yotr want that rarer courage which 
dares to see it. You have Mr. Vallandigham for a warning. That brave man 
has fought his fight and has been defeated. It could not be otherwise. If the 
Union is to ho ])reserved, Mr. Lincoln is right and Sir. Vallandigham is wrong. 
If your people believe that you must establish a great despotism, they will not 
quarrel with the exercise of a small tyranny. All history proves that in such an 
issue as is made between the North and the South, there never has been, there 
never will be, there never can be a successful third party. For fifty years the 
same two parties have been fighting for compromises in the Union, and they both 
have grown wearied of the contest. Out of the Union there is but one issue, and 
those who arc not for us are against us. 

There 'is but one way to stop this war. Recognize the independence of the 
South, and commence direct negotiations for the settlement of our future rela- 
tions. I have told you the reasons why I think the time has come when you 
can do so. Your opposition to the Black Republican party must take ground as 
high as theirs ; if they insist upon the Union, you must insist upon separation. 
With the necessity of the coming presidential election, the prepaiations for which 
must begin this autumn — with the condition of your foreign relations and ours — 
with the results of this two years' war as they stand now — with the truth of facts 
as God lias written them over this continent, and all through our history, if you 
will make this issue, you will triumph. Foreign intenx'ution will come sooner 
or later. However plausibly you may account for its delay, great laws of na- 
tional interest are at work, which are stronger than the personal sympathy of 
cabinets or the policy of parties. It cannot be much longer delayed, but it can- 
not save US great suffering and much son'ow, and secures a future of long con- 
tinued strife and bitterness. This I believe wisdom and courage on your part 
can save now. You may not believe me — you may set all this down to the ex- 
travagance of sectional, in your eyes, disloyal feeling. If so, let the future come 
as you will have it. As to the final result I have neither fear nor shadow of 
doubt. The (<outh has coimted the cost and made her rcsplution. Two years of 
a war bitter and relentless, stimulated by the hate which'"<iJipes energy to the fa- 
natic, and the plunder which gives courage to the mercenary, have not abated 
her spirit. The cause to which she devoted herself from conviction, is now sa- 
cred by the blood of her martyrs, and glorious by the deeds of her heroes. For 
the world she has neither prayers nor professions, neither threats nor bribes. 
Simply in witness of her claims to independent national life, she points — and 
how many older nations can do more ? — to a well ordered government ; to laws 
firmly and duly administered ; to ample resources for a fair and profitable com- 
merce ; to a system of labor which has stood such a test as any statesman in 
Europe would shudder to see applied to the laboring population of his own 
country ; to armies promptly raised and steadily maintained ; to defeats manfully 
borne ; to victories bravely won — and above all, to such a unanimity of senti- 
ment and sacrifice among her people as the v.-orld has never seen surpassed. 
With these proofs of title in her hands, she will fight until she wins, tmsting to 
that Supreme Providence which has given her an appointed place among the 
nations, to justify his work, and to vindicate her pretensions. 

And now, sir,"l have finished what is -probably a very idle labor. I do not 
even know if this letter will ever reach you. In saying what I have said, I have, 
as far as it was possible, avoided all topics that could in'itate, all language that' 
could exasperate, and have suppressed strong feeling, to which I was unwilling 
to give its natural expression. For I still believe that even in the excitement of 
such a contest, the great body of the northern people have not lost their practical 
character, that power of calculation, that quickness in appreciating and readiness 
in adapting themselves to facts, which has been hitherto the chief element in their 
national success. And I cannot resist the hope that even in an alien country, 
and in hostile camps, there are some to whom a familiar voice will bring profit- 
able because pleasant memories, and wiser because kinder thoughts, thus illus- 
trating the trath of that sad reflection of a great historian, a truth which every 
human revolution has taught, and every revolution taught too late, " How often 
would parties the most opposite be reconciled if they could meet and read each 
other's hearts." 

Very respectfully, 

Wm. Hrxuv TRESrOT. 


•Shah N 
The Itc 
Rules ft 

ivan, King of Perela, • 

?3 of the South, 

ging Cribs, Hogsheads, &c. 

Protestant .Sisters of Cha 
Prices in Northern Bnd Ct 
The Discharged Order, 

Summnrv of News. . - - - 

Leftor fi-'um W. H. Trescot. Esq. of S. C, to IIo 

ifederate States Contrasted, 

J. R. Ingersoll of Penn. 

i^a^ aaais^a^ 



[Number 12. 


The maid who binds her warrior's sash. 

And smiling, all ber pain dissembles. 
The while beneath the drooping lash 

One staiTy tear-drop hangs and trembles — 
Though Heaven alone records the tear. 

And fame shall r»ever know her story, 
Her heart has shed a drop as dear 

As ever dewed the field of glory ! 

The wife who girds her husband's sword, 

'Mid little ones who weep and wonder. 
And bravely speaks the cheering Word, 

What tho" her heart be rent asunder — 
Doomed nightly in her dreams to liesx 

Tlie boks of vrzr around him rattle, 
Has shed as sacred blood as e'er 

AVas poured upon the plain of battle! 

The mother who conceals her grief. 

While to her breast her son she presses, 
Theii breathes a few brave words, and brief, 

Kissing the patriot brow she blesses. 
With no one but her secret God 

To know the pain that weighs upon her. 
Sheds holy blood as e'er the sod 

Received on Freedom's field of honor .' 


It is a. gratifying proof (says the London liidex of July 2, 1863) of the una- 
Tiimity of public opinion, well worth being put on record, that two of the ablest 
London journals, representing in all otlier respects the most opposite and even 
hostile views, agree substantially in the one question of recognition of the Con- 
federate States. The Morning Post, which has the credit of enjoying the confi- 
dence, and not unfrequently receiving " inspiration" from the respectable section 
of the Ministry, has never failed to treat this subject with manly independence 
and sound good sense. On the debate it said, with equal truth and force, refening 
to the recent movements of the confederate armies northward : 

"At this side of the Atlantic they will also tend to direct men's minds into a 
channel from which Euroirean disturbances have for a time diverted them. All 
attempts at mediating between the belligerents have failed, but their failure has 
not necessarily satisfied neutral powers of the expediency erf remaining perfectly 
I)assive so long as the Federal Government are mad enough to protract a hopeless 
struggle. Tho question of recognizing a State which bus now for upwards of 

two years maintained its independence despite the herculean efforts made to crush 
it, constantly recurs, and will <m this evening be discussed in the British House 
of Commons. Mr. Koel)uck proposes to submit to Parliament the expediency of 
recognizing the independence of tho Southern Confederacy; and he will be in no 
want of arguments to support his proposal. The preseut invasion of the Northern 
States by tlie confederate forces carries with it conclusive proof of the strength 
and vigor of the Confederacy, and affords a convincing reply fo those who would 
contend that it has not yet given evidence of being able to maintain its indepen- 
dence. On the other hand, we nmy expect to heai- the ott-repeated argument that 
the time has not yet com« when the recognition to which a just claim has been 
long since established should be accorded. If this argument, however, means any 
thing, it means that the Southern Confederacy should not be recognized until the 
federal government have agreed to conclude a peace ; or, in other words, that neu- 
trals should not anticipate tlie aAs^ersaries of the infant State in admitting it into 
the family of Nations. It is needless, however, to say that such a principle is not 
sanctioned by international law, and that the real issue left for the decision of 
neutral States is simply the ability or inability of the new State to maintain its 

If the claims of the Southern Confederacy had been estimated by this test, it 
would have been long since diplomatically "represented at the courts of Europe. 
But tlie fact is tliivt from an extraordinary desire not to give umbrage to the federal 
government, and in order to avoid embittering or possibly prolonging the conflict, 
neutral States li»ve hesitated to accord to the Soutlteru Confederacy that recogni- 
tion which, nevertheless, it is well known it must ultimately receive. However 
sound the policy may have been which dictated this course in the early period of 
the war, we think the time has long past when it could be wisely pursued. Until 
the xlose of last autumn the question was certainly an open one whether thS 
seceded States could sBcceed in establishing the government of their choice; and 
until then the fi-elings of the northern population were such that the formal ac- 
knowledgment by Europe of the prowess of their opponents would only have 
had the result of exciting them to increased efforts to eftVct their subjugation. 
But during the past nine months a great change has taken place in the sentiments 
of the inhabitants of the Northern States. During that time the armies of the 
established government have been invarial^y defeated whene-i'er they came in 
collision with those of the new Confederacy. Against a long series of damaging 
drfcats they are unable to set off a single victory. In regard to the possession 
of feri'itory, the rela'tivn positions of the belligerents remain unchanged. The 
consequences have been that tho North is heartily sick of war, and only wants a 
pretext for discontinuing a purposeless struggle. Such a pretext would to our 
minds be supplied by the official declaration by the chief European Slates that 
the attempt to coerce the South was hopeless. Those who think otherwise, in 
effect say that the North should confess itself beaten, whilst neutral States by their 
silence still admit the subjugation of the South to be feasible. This we h.ive no 
right to expect from the North. It is for us to pronounce ti.e contest unavailingj, 
and thus afford to ii pertinacious and proud combatant an opportunity of yielding 
to the voice of imlilic upininn. We sincerely believe that the recognition of the 
South by Europe ivuuM be hailed with satisfaction by the people of the Northern 
States, and that tlu' we:ik and contemptible government which at present directs 
public afl'airs in America could not long oppose itself to the uuanimous expres- 
sion of opinion on both sides of the Atlantic." — [^Mucning Post, June 30. 

The arguments of Mr. Gladstone have not shaken its convictions, and in its 
impression of the day succeeding the debate, it reiterates them pointedlj'; 

"In Mr. Gladstone's objections to Mr. Roebuck's views upon the point, we 
entirely concur. But, on striking a balance between tho pros and cons advanced 
respectively by the member for Sheffield and the Cliancellor of the Exchequer 
on the expediency of immediate recognition, the reasoning of the former appears 



[Seftember 3, 18G3 

able. Keeognize the South, said llr. Enebnel:, and you publicly 
1 c-iunot conscientioHsIv deny — niuuely, tbat the Siuithtiu Statt-s 

cics, a party which supplies by vehpinence of inrectire and falsification of facts, 
what it lacks in logic and reason. Tliese organs are, fortunately, as weak in in- 
fluence as they are few in nnnibcr, pnd the youth may congratulate itself upon 

to us unnr.swerati 

admit what you cannot conscientiously cleiiy- 

have deraonstrHied their ability to maintain tliciv national independence; and by 

BO doing yon will convince the Northern Sintes of the folly of the ctiterprise ' , , . ^ , - 

which they are enn-ai't'd. Keco^nize the South, witLimt at the same time inter- thcip hostility as the most coiiviucing testimony of the justice of its cause aad ot 

veiling in some other manner, said Mr. Gladstone, and you will only iirit.ite the j tj,^, English fyaipiithy fur it. 

government of the KeJe.ral States, without nt the .samn time beueliiing the iiitant 

t'oofederaty. On the consefiuences of recognition it is of course only open to | ■ 

ns to form conjectures : but, ciiEsidcring the cour.-^e wliieh the war has taken, and 
the present iva'i-tioii in Ibe ^cutiiiieii!s of ths iiorthern popuiatinii, we cannot help 
thinking that tlie lonual achiimvledgment by the principal State.s of J!uropo ot 
southern indepcuuence, would coiitvibute luoie thau any thing else to bviug the 
present contest to a close." 

There can, from the respective poFilion.s of the two jouinals, be So few points 
of resemblance between the Morning Post and the orgaa of the Conservative 
parly, that it is iiit.'restieg and suggestive to place side by side the views of the 
former and (hose of the Morning Herald, wliich has been the earli<'3t, and, despite 
occasional differences of opinion iu its o« n party, the inosi consistent advocate 
of southern recognition : 

"And who can for a moniejit deny that it is the interest of this country to be 
the tiiend of the Confederate States! With a vast and fertile tenitury, thinly 
peopled, but capable of almost infiuite improvement ; with openings for British 
capital and British energy, hitherto monopolized by the rapacious greediness of 
the northein commercialists ; with a people of aristocratic tendencii'S and many 
of those instinctive refinements, the total absence of which makes the society of 
Yankees intolerable ; with a scope for our philanthropists of humane predilections 
such as a close alliance ■would afford for facilitating our efforts to soften and tiually 
subdue slavery, the Southern Confederacy offers attractions to invite our friend- 
ship, such as are presented by no other nation on the globe. The folly of King 
George III.'s Ministers lost us the emp