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3 1833 00824 3161 



Forty-Fourth Massachusetts 

touuiNTEER Militia 


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Augu st 1862 to^_May_i86^ 




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? Massachusetts infantry. ', rent., 1SG-2-1SG3. 

8349 Kocord of ti.e sci-vico of t!i.> Forty-founli [Massachusetts f 

,47 volunteer militia iu North C'iirolinn, Aujjust l*^C>-2 to May 1863. 

Boston, Priv. print.. IRST. " ' ^ 

xvi, 30-J p. illus.. 1.1.. iioit., iii^H.s. fr.fslm. 20}™. i 

]. x:. S.— Hist.— Civil WQr— l!o-l:iiciit.aI filstorli's— Mn-s. Int. — 14th. j 
1. Oiu-dncr, Jiimr'.H lirowm-. 1M2- mi. ii. Title. f 


Library of Co::„-rv.'?s 



SlnibrrsitD i3rrss : 
John Wilson anu Son, Cambridge. 


IVhile these pages zvere passing through the press, the 
Colonel of the Forty-Fourth died at his home in IVestport, 
New York. 

The surviving members of the Historical Committee wish 
to testify here to the respect and affection felt for him by the 
Regiment, and therefore dedicate this Record 

Co tlje iTIemorp ' ' 




and' M>t-n N. flfw;-^ .vrn- ,-ii\u.<\ 



The Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regimental Associa- 
tion has been fortunate in one circumstance. T!ie regi- 
ment was so largely made up of clerks and students who 
are now business or professional men in Boston, with 
common ties of residence and occupation as well as of 
army service, that the yearly meetings of the Association 
are more largely attended and more heartily enjoyed than 
are the reunions of regiments wh.ose members have be- 
come scattered and estranged since the war. 

This cordial fellowship led, many years ago, to a wish 
for some permanent record of the service in which it 
had its origin. The fust reunion of the Forty-fourth was 
held March 14, 1S76. As early as the annual meeting 
held Feb. 5, 1S79, the project of publishing a regimental 
history was discussed, and referred, with full powers, 
to an Historical Committee consisting of Charles C. 
Soule, Edward C. Johnson, Col. Francis L. Lee, Frank 
G. Webster, and James B. Gardner. 

At the annual meetiiig held Jan. 20, 1SS6, William 
Garrison Reed, Charles J. Mclntire, Paul S. Yendell, 
John J. Wycth, and Eben X. Hewins were added to this 

The original Committee selected James B. Gardner to 
collect material and edit llie history. Diligent inquiry 

1 ''! 

.■rili'u'Ul-'i' J 

was made among mepbcrs of the regiment for old letters, 
diaries, ur sketehes. From material of this kind, from 
newspaper tiles, from the records of the War Department, 
from the four monographs already published concerning 
the regiment,^ and from all other available sources, Cor- 
poral Gardner had compiled the rough notes for a regi- 
mental history, when he received a railroad appointment 
in the West, and removed from Boston to Dennison, 
Ohio. His nevv' duties so thoroughly absorbed his time 
that he could not find leisure for working up his notes, 
and he therefore sent them just as they were to the 
Historical Committee. Tl^e members of this Committee 
were all exceptionally busy men, — far too busy to edit 
the history themselves. They were compelled to seek 
an editor outside of their own number; and much time 
was lost in trying to find among surviving members of 
the regiment some one with the leisure, zeal, literary 
ability, and patience needed for deciphering" and putting 
into proper shape Gardner's rough notes. Several com- 
rades were almost persuaded to undertake the task ; but 
laziness, diftidence, or actual inability to spare the neces- 
sary time finally overcame all of them. In despair, the 
Committee borrowed an idea from " The iMemorial His- 
tory of Boston," divided the regimental record into 
chapters, each embracing some phase or event of our 
service, and endeavored to get different comrades to write 
them. In this attempt they were successful, although 

1 "Letters from tlie Forty-four'Ji Regiment M. V. M., by Corporal " (Zcnas T. 
H.-iines of Company D) ; "The Bay State Forty-fourth." by De Forest Safford ; 
" RolJ of the Association of Company F, etc.," by E. N. Ilewins; and "Leaves from 
a Diary written while .serving in Company E, tic," by J. J. Wycth. . 

o :■ n 3rni 

progress was still slow, owing- to the unconquenible 
dilatoriness of some of the contributors. 

Fortunately, Gardner returned to Boston at this junc- 
ture, and came to the rescue with renewed zeal and 
energy. Indeed, the other members of the Committee 
wish to say that notwithstanding the services rendered 
by the writers of chapters and by other comrades (among 
whom they would especially mention and thank Reed, 
Hewins, and Wyeth), Gardner has done by far the 
greater part of getting this book together, and deserves a 
proportionate share of the credit. 

It was determined at an early stage in the enterprise 
that the history should- be illustrated. To this end the 
Committee have been fortunate in securing the services of 
Paul S. Yendell, of Company G, whose sketches have the 
merit of being reminiscences of incidents of actual service 
with the Forty-fourth. The maps and plans have been 
carefully prepared and drawn (without compensation) by 
Comrade Gardner. 

As the result of these prolonged efforts, — somewhat 
disproportionate, perhaps, to the size and importance of 
the book, — the Committee present to the Regimental 
Association this Record of the campaign o[ the Forty- 
fourth, believing that even the difficulties of preparation, 
and the consequent enlistment of so many different con- 
tributors, have tended to vary the style and increase the 
interest of the narrative. 

Lest this book sliould come into the hands of any 
others than our own comrades, it may be well to say 
here that the members of the I'orty-fourth, as only nine 
months' soldiers, recognize that they should speak 

;i;- ,.) -j^rt/' 

J:i .' 1 i j:-. ,■■ r;o J ''ll — ,;!oo.'i 

■r/ilirr rn ^di ";o :«j:' '^i 

modestly of their services. But while yielding admira- 
tion and precedence to the veterans whose patriotism 
prompted and whose opportunities allowed a longer 
enlistment, the short-time men may be permitted to look 
back with some satisfaction to the part, however small, 
which they played in the great War of the Rebellion. 
The service of the Forty-fourth Massachusetts included 
a representative variety of the experiences of the Ameri- 
can volunteer during a winter campaign, — camp life, 
provost-duty, marches, skirmishes, a siege, battles serious 
enough to test the courage of the regiment, exposure, 
hardship, and losses by disease and in action. So far 
as it went, this service was serious work, and not a 
mere holiday parade. Older and more seasoned veter- 
ans will not begrudge us these modest reminiscences. 

January, 1S87. 

■■-■ - ■'■: ,}ir<iT-;i!n:i 

■ ': . ■ •■ i:'T 

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<J3oaiir(r u,n ^tA. 

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■■ 1 


Chapter Pace 

I. The New Glards i 

James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 


yaiites B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

III. Voyage to New Berne 41 

Everett C. Biunpus, Co. H. 

IV. New Berne and its Garrison . . 53 

George F. Piper, Co. E. 

V. C.A.MP Life 69 

yavies B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

VI. The Tarboro' March, and the Affair of Lhtle Creek 

AND Rawle's Mill 


Charles J. Afc/ntire, Co. G. 

VII. The Goldsboro' Expedition 

Charles Storrow, Captain, Co. F. 

MIL The Pl\-molth ExPEDrriox 

Henry IV. Hart-well, Co. A. 
IX. Washington 



• 159 

Paul S. Yendell, Co. G. 

X. Pickf.t-Dltv of B and F 197 

Charles C. Scale, Second Lieutenant, Co. B. 

XL I'kovost Dltv, Voyage Home, and Musier out ... 205 
James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

U3 ..^i.iiir'O' >(■ 3.1 r 

J -70 vr'r:.^v, „*! 


Chapter Pacb 

XII. North Carolina Rfaisited ; . 223 

tl 'Uliain Garrison Reed, Co. D. 

XIII. Medical 233 

Dr. Tluodore \V. Fislur, Surgeon. 

XIV. Pe.'^sonnel 255 

Riv. Ed-djard H. Hall, Chaplain. 

XV. SuFSEQUEN-r Service 269 

Eben N. Hnfim, Co. F. 


James B. Gardner, Corporal, Co. D. 

Riot 293 


Roster 301 

Recapituutiox : Ages 336 

Recapitul.«ion : Pl.\ces of Enlisiiie-\t 337 

General Scmmarv 338 

Present Residence 339 

Present Occupation 340 

Fac-simile Signatures 341 

INDEX 357 


Group of Officers, Readville 

Gener.\ls Foster, Wessells, axd Stevenson 
Field and Si'aff of the Foriy- fourth . . 

To face page 2 1 
" 61. 
" 255 


Department of North Carolina Fol/t 

New Berne 

Barracks at New Berne 

R.\uxe's Mills 




ViciNHT of New Berne 

nci/ig Preface. 

To face page 53 







Bv P. S. Vendell. 


Imtl\l — Fourth Battalion Crest i 

Seal — Fourth Batialion Coat of Arjis 4 

Can'xox 5 

Tail-piece — Fort Independence 20 



Initial — Color-guard 21 

Going to Wash 26 

Interior of Barrack, after Dress Parade ' ... 32 

Tail-piece — Biae Hill from Camp-gkdund 



Initial — Wharf — Waiiing to go on Board 

Dick of "Mlkrimac" 46 

Ride to New Beknf , . 48 




Inmial — Coat nr Arms of Noriii Car(ili} 
Tailpiece — Attack on l'\>Rr .\niierson . 




- Pagb 

I.viTLVL — On Gl'ard 6^ 

Right Wi.Mj (ik Barracks 

Drawing R.\tions -4 

Hucksters at Guard Lini: yg 

Police Squad ■ -js 

Cle-aninc; up for Inspection 80 


Mentmnu Cluihes 
Opening Boxes 

Tail-piece — Indispensables ic 


Regiment ON THE ^Larch {from a sketch by Licut.-Col.Cabot^ . 109 

LvrruL — Reveille 109 

Cotton-press 112 

Gathering R_\ils 120 

F0R.AGING 123 

Making Coffee and Drying Dlankkps 130 

Tail-piece — Despatch Boat 131 



Initial— Field AND Staff Bivouac 

Camp Cooking 136 

Midnight in Bivouac 141 

"Cle.\r Gkit" 144 

Tail-piece — Luggage and Conveyance 146 



Initial — " X(^Rr[iERNER " at Wharf 147 

Old Mm 150 

Ham-fai' March 153 


chapti:r IX. 

\VASIII.\GTO.\. ( ^ 


IsmAL — Bird's-eye View of Li;n- Centre 159 

Co^K-HoLSE, Company G 161 

lilULKHOliE No. 2 163 

rK\viR>E AND Splinter-proof — Lefi' of Company G . . . . 177 


'1 AIL-PIECE 196 



Initial — "Halt! Who goes There : " 197 





Initwl — Sentry at Headquarters 205 

EX-\MINING PaS.>E3 208 

Sentry Fishing 209 

T.-UL- PIECE — Colored Washerwoman 222 

Initl\l — How We Tr-wel Now 223 



iNriiAL — Dispensary Door at Surgeon's C.\ll 233 



Initial 255 






IxiTiAL — Association Badge 





"TfN writing the biography of an individ- 
ual it is customary to refer to his an- 
cestry; and in writing what might be 
called an autobiography of the Forty- 
fourth Regiment it therefore seems 
appropriate to give a short account of 
the New England Guards, a military 
organization founded during the War 
of 1812-1815, and from which that 
regiment was lineally descended. "*The 
New England Guards were regularly 
organized at a meeting held at Con- 
cert Hall, Boston, Sept. 19, i8i3, un- 
der authority of an order issued by 
the Brigadier-General commanding 
the Third Brigade, First Division, 
M. V. M. Forty votes were cast, and Samuel Swett was elected 
captain; George Sullivan, lieutenant; and Lemuel Blake, ensign. 
The meeting then adjourned to the 24th, when James Dalton was 
chosen first sergeant; Stephen G. Brown, second; William Ward, 
third; and Isaac Mansfield, fourth. The corporals were chosen 
five days later. At this meeting the draft of the constitution 
was read and discussed, and on the following evening, Septem- 
ber 25, at a meeting held at Faneuil Hall, it was adopted. 
The preamble read as follows : — 

"To f.icilitate the performance of the duty which we owe to our counir)- 
of adiling to our chamcter as citizens some portion of the skill of the sol- 
dier ; to our usefulness as militiamen by adding to the zeal which 

^ 1 ./ 


is excited by patriotism, the ardor which is inspired by emulation ; and to 
give to each one of us, while exerting himself for his own and the State's 
defence, that confidence in each other's zealous and skilful co-operation 
which can result only from military discipline, we have \oluntarily asso- 
ciated ourselves for the purpose of forming a comi)any of light infantry ; 
and to govern us in the pursuit of these objects we have adopted the fol- 
lowing articles for our constitudon." 

This was quite lengthy, and contained the provisions usually- 
found in documents of that description. The uniform as origi- 
nally ordered would look strange in these days : — 

" A plain, dark blue coat, double-breasted, with gilt buttons ; white waist- 
coat ; white pantaloons ; blue cloth pantaloons ; half-boots with black tas- 
sels ; round hat with a black leather cockade, yellow eagle in the centre, 
and a gold loop extending down to the band ; a black silk stock. ..." 

The duties of the officers arc described with exceeding minute- 
ness. A clause in the article specifying those of the orderly 
sergeant reminds us how inadequate were the postal facilities in 
those days : — 

" He shall notify all the members of every meeting by signing a written 
or printed notification, which he shall seasonably deliver to the other ser- 
geants and corporals in equal parts ; and it is hereby declared to be their 
duty to deliver said notifications witiiout delay to the members to whom 
they are addressed." 

Previous to the declaration of peace in 1815. one hundred and 
twenty-six members had joined the Guards. Among them were 
many who in after years were enrolled among the "solid men of 
Boston;" and their children and grandchildren were found in 
most of the regiments sent to the front from Massachusetts, and 
in a few which went from other States. Abbott Lawrence be- 
came Minister to England; Joseph B. Henshaw was for some 
time Collector of the Port of Boston; William Greenough. Jr., 
was a well-known hardware merchant, and his son is now Presi- 
dent of the Trustees of the Public Library; Nathan Hale was 
editor of one of the most influential newspapers in \ew England 
and father of Rev. Edward Everett Hale; and the names of 
Samuel Swett, George Sullivan, Lemuel Blake, Stephen G. 
Brown, George Dana, ALissa Willis, Robert P. Williams, Reuben 
Richards, Jr., Charles Tidd, Moses Grant, Jr., Richard Ward, 


Watson Gore, Deming Jarves, Lorenzo Draper, Jonathan G. Bar- 
nard, Thomas Dennie, Jr., Joseph Callendar, Jr., Chcever New- 
hall, Joseph West, Jr., Benjamin F. White, Thomas R. Sewall, 
Joseph Balliiter, Jeffrey Richardson, Barney Tisdale, Samuel 
Hunt,' Isaac Child, Joseph Hay, and others will be readily re- 
called by all the older generation of Bostonians. Mr. Hay is 
still living.- Dan Simpson and Si Smith were the drummer and 
fifer. Simpson attended the annual reunion of our regiment in 

The company drilled regularly on Tuesdays, Thursda)'s, Fri- 
days, and Saturdays, from September 23 to N'ovember 19, when 
it made its first public parade under command of Captain Swett, 
and was presented with " an elegant standard " by General 
Welles. If those to whom his speech was addressed did not 
have the opportunity to practise its precepts, its spirit animated 
the members of the Guards, as their record from 1861 to 1865 
conclusively proved. A few extracts may well be given : — 

" In a free republic a permanent and standing military force has ever 
been considered dangerous if not hostile to the liberties of tlie people. 
The framers of our happy constitution of government have preferred an 
appeal to tlie patriotism of the citizens ; on the discipline, therefore, of its 
citizen soldiers the prosperity of the State essentially depends. 

"VVe witness with pleasure this day your enlistment among the de- 
fenders of their country ; the trust is sacred ; the duties imposing. On 
your patriotism we may confidently relv. Valor and discipline will 
point to you the path to glor}-. Remember that the independence of 
your country was purchased with the toils and blood of your fathers, and 
in your hands the sacred deposit is placed for posterity. . . . .\s honor- 
able citizens and undaunted soldiers cultivate harmony with each other, 
preserve subordination, perfect yourselves in discipline, and the reward 
yau will receive for this valuable service will be the sublime satisfaction 
which results from the discharge of duty with fidelity and the grateful 
acknowledgments of your fellow-citizens." 

The standard was accepted on behalf of the Guards by Ensign 
Blake. In his response occurred the sentence which the Guards 
after\vards adopted as their motto: — 

1 Father of C.ipt.i 

n Clmr 

c^ II;int, of Conip.inv ( 

2 Mr. Hay celcbr. 

tC'd hi> 

ninety sixtl: tiirtlidny .m 

.vcrsary, Jan. 15, 1SS6. 

' Dan .Simpson di 

ed, aitc 

r tliis chapter was ivritte 

1, at a good old age. 


"... .\ltlioiij;h our country is engaged in a war contrary to tiie views 
of the people of New England, yet, if in the course of its e\ents we 
should be called to the tented field by our venerable commander-in-chief 
'to repel invasion,' 'to suppress insubordination,' or 'to execute the laws 
of the Union,' we pledge our life's blood to preserve this standard from 
dishonor. 'Our Nation's honor is the bond or union.'" 


On this occasion it is noted 
as a fact worth rcnicnibcrintj 
that the Guards " partook of 
cake and wine with General 
Welles." and that they went 
^,^V — '— -' ^t.-y^ "from the Common to the 

^ \ (< j^ home of Captain Swett, where 

•1 * j'^'l'^'^V ^ r ^ superb collation uas pro- 

vided by his liberality." All 
through the orderly book such 
notations as these are contin- 
ually found, showing that the 
Guards had a keen apprecia- 
tion for the pleasures of the 
table; and on the principle of transmitted traits we may account 
for the distaste with which many of its later members received 
the hard-tack and salt horse furnished them half a century 

At a meeting held at Concert Hall the following evening, the 
company voted to present a piece of plate to General Welles 
" expressive of their resp-ect and gratitude for his honorable 
patronage." They also voted the thanks of the New England 
Guards to " the young lady who honored them with the elegant 
draft of the Roll of .Members." ^ 

■ At the suggestion of General Welles, the officers of the Guards, 
with the approval of the majority of the members, applied to the 

' On the margin of the orderly book is a memor.indum dated October,, to the 
effect that the yoiins l.idy was Miss Walter, afterwards wile of Mr. S. F. McClcary, 
the first City Clerk of Boston. Manvof our comrndes knew her personally, and the 
writer has heard her express the gratification she felt on this occasion. Miss Walter 
was an accomplished penwuman, and the original design which she made for the 
inscription on the |ilate presented lo (leneral Welles, as well as several other designs 
which she furnished, are preserved in one of the orderly books. 


Governor and Council for a couple of cannon for the use of 
the corps. The matter was considered at tlic council meeting 
in January, 1S13, but the officers having learned unofficially 
that the Governor did not feel authorized to act in the matter, 
the petition was, by consent of all parties interested, withdrawn, 
and General Boyd of the United States Army, commandant of 
the station, requested to loan the Guards the desired cannon. 
This request he kindly granted. On Jan. 19, 1813, " the weather 
was rainy and the roads wet with melting snow ; but the Guards 
resolving unanimously to march, they proceeded to the Navy 
Yard at Charlestown, whence they brought the cannon into 
Boston and lodged them at the artillery gun-house at four o'clock 
P.M." These were returned to the Navy Yard Feb. 9, 1814,^ at 
the request of General Gushing. On the same day it was voted 
that " the commissioned 
officers be appointed a 
committee to apply to the 
Legislature of the State 
for a pair of brass cannon 
for the use of the com- 
pany." There is no rec- 
ord of the time when 
these were received ; but 

on June 13, 1814, the "Guards started for Charlestown with the 
six-pounders." These cannon were in possession of the corps 
for several years. By some means they were lost, but were 
found a few years since, and for a while formed " the battery " 
at the residence of Colonel \V. V. Hutchings, Roxbury. Re- 
cently they have been placed in the rooms of the Bostonian 
Society, in the Old State House. Each piece bears the inscrip- 
tion, " Cast & Mounted by Order of the Board of War for the 
N. E. G., 1814."- 

February 18, 1S13, the Guards volunteered escort duty to 
the committee on the reception of Commodore Bainbridge of 
the " Constitution," who had just won the victory over the 

' There is doubt if this date is correct. 

- The orderly bix.ks and all the records of the Guards which can be found have 
been placed with the t'.ostonian Society in trust. 


" Guerri^re." Commander Rogers, Captain Hull, and others 

On Thursday morning, 5cpt. 2, 1S13, the company paraded. 
The day was intensely hot. The orderly notes, " Number of 
members small, but these were resoiuti:" After taking their 
guns and baggage-wagons from the gun-house on Beacon Street, 
they proceeded by West Boston Bridge, West Cambridge, and 
the west side of Medford Pond to Gardner's Locks. On the way 
" we made the hills and vales resound with our animated songs." 
Most of us undoubtedly recall many instances when, if our 
orderly sergeants had not been completely worn out with fatigue, 
they, too, might have made similar entries. Few of us will ever 
forget the inspiration we felt as we joined in the chorus of "John 
Brown" or " Kingdom Coming," or listened to the Howard boj-s, 
or Ewer, or Powers, or Perkins, in one of their special songs. 

When the Guards reached their destination, "the Lake of the 
Woods," they pitched their tents ; the encampment " was on 
streets running from front to rear, as practised in Europe." On 
Friday they marched to Medford, and after partaking of the 
hospitality of the adjutant-general, Peter C. Brooks, established 
their camp on the hill in rear of Mr. Tidd's house. On Saturday 
"they returned to Boston. The time had been well occupied in 
drill, target practice, and similar duties, not forgetting the social, 
which the Guards never neglected. The record in the orderly 
book is quite long, and concludes as follows: "Thus having 
the honor to be the first military corps that has marched out of 
town with complete camp equipage, made a regular encampment, 
and performed regular camp duty for three successive days since 
the establishment of our Commonwealth." 

Captain Swett having resigned (October, 1S13), to accept posi- 
tion as Topographical Engineer of the Xorthern A rm}", on April 2, 
1814, George Sullivan was elected captain and Lemuel Rlake 

Sunday, April 3, 1S14, the commanding officer learned from 
Commodore Bainbridge that the frigate " Constitution " had been 
chased into Marblohcad harbor by a sevcnt>--four and two frig- 
ates of the cncm\-. The news was received at 5. 30 A. Nf. The 
Guards assembled, formed, and started at 7 A. M. On the way to 


Marblehead they made a short halt at the residence of Commo- 
dore Bainbridge in Charlestown. Soon after resuming their 
march they were recalled by orders from the Commodore direct- 
ing them to return to Boston to take charge of some heavy 
ordnance which he intended to send to Marblehead. As the 
horses were not ready, the corps was dismissed till 1 1 P. M., when 
every member who had turned out in the morning reported for 
duty. Several others, whose notifications had not reached them 
early enough to enable them to join in the first march to 
Charlestown, were also present. News reached the armory about 
midnight that the enemy had retreated, and the Guards were 
dismissed. One of the older members,' whose recollection of 
this parade very distinct, said that Abbott Lawrence, who 
always manifested a very strong interest in the Guards, started in 
the morning shod in light dancing-pumps; that before reaching 
Charlestown he was practically barefooted ; but, far from being 
discouraged, he hired a boy to go home for his boots, and met 
him carrying them towards Marblehead as the column was 

June 13, 1 8 14, the Guards went into camp at Charlestown to 
guard the Chelsea bridge, which Commodore Bainbridge feared 
might be attacked. They remained there from Monday till 
Thursday, and in consideration of their services were invited to 
the launch of the sevent_\--four gunship, then almost completed, 
and to a collation at the residence of the Commodore after the 

During the week beginning Oct. 26, 18 14, a detachment of 
the Guards under command of Ensign Pickman did garrison duty 
at Fort Strong. Charles Tidd and J. Howe, Jr., were the ser- 
geants, and Abbott Lawrence and Richard Ward the corporals. 
In the regulations issued for the government of the detachment 
it is provided that the " commissary will furnish whatever spirit 
may be needed for the use of the mess." It may be that from 
this incident the word " commissary " came to be synon)-mous 
with a rather well-known article which was sometimes confiscated 
by our boys, but to which the colonel decidedly objected unless 
liberally diluted with quinine or supplied under the guise of 

1 Mr. Joseph West who died Oct. 16, 1S.S4, aged ninety-two years. 


" orange pickle." It also indicates that social matters received 
some attention, to rind a note saying, " It is expected that gentle- 
men will entertain their guests at their individual expense." 

Feb. 13, 1815, the morning on which was received the welcome 
news of the declaration of peace, the Guards fired salutes from 
the Common at noon and at sunset. 

The Guards seem to have continued the custom of going into 
yearly camp (the " summer campaign," as they called it) ; and 
although no direct statement to that effect appears in the orderly 
book, there are many entries which lead the reader to infer that 
this practice was not common to the other military organizations 
of the State. During the campaign of 1822 the orderly, in de- 
tailing the preparations made to receive guests, deems this fact 
worthy of record: "After dinner the tents were cleared of all 
rubbish. The members put on clean trousers." 

The encampment of 1823 was honored by the presence of 
John Quincy Adams, who reviewed the corps and highly com- 
plimented it. 

June 14, 1S24, appears this extraordinary resolution, especially 
surprising considering the reluctance with which their successors 
quitted the " soft side of a downy plank" when reveille sounded 
on a cold and disagreeable morning: " Voted, unanimously, that 
the company shall have a drill on Monday of each week at five 
o'clock in the morning untill the campaign." The experiment 
was evidently a failure, as the vote was rescinded on June 24. 

July 7, a destructive fire occurred on Beacon and Charles 
Streets. The Guards volunteered to protect the property, and 
forty minutes after the order had been issued by Captain Lyman 
two officers and forty members had reported at the armory for 

August 24, the company formed part of the escort on the occa- 
sion of Lafa\'ctte's visit to Boston, and were given the right of the 
line. The following day they went into annual encampment, 
where they were visited by General Lafayette, Governor Eustis, 
and a colonel of the British army who had " lost a limb at Water- 
loo." The latter jiaiil the Guards a \-ery ambiguous compliment 
when he remarked that he " never saw such discipline in any 
camp as ours." ■■ , 


Feb. II, 1S25, they attended the funeral of Governor Eustis, 
and on April S guarded the property sa\cd from the Doane 
Street fire, "a destructive conflagration which burned upwards of 
fifty stores and houses, and in consequence of which upwards of 
one hundred and fifty people were thrown out of employment." 

June 17, they participated in the laying of the corner-stone of 
Bunker Hill Monument, and ten days later were called upon by 
the Governor to be ready to aid in suppressing a riot at the 
North End; but fortunately their services were not required. 

Dec. S, 1829, the buttons were ordered to be stamped " N. E. G." 
The non-commissioned officers had evidently tired of acting as 
postmen, as at this meeting a vote was passed authorizing the em- 
ployment of a suitable person to deliver notices. 

Aug. II, 1S34, the convent at Charlestown was burned, and the 
Guards were on duty more or less from the I2tli to the i6th. 
June 29, 1835, the orderly notes a vote that we " go on the Com- 
mon to drill by the light of the pale moon ; " whether a variety of 
artificial light or a new kind of tactics he does not condescend to 

On Sunday, July 11, 1837, they were ordered out, and under 
command of Ensign Bigelow (after\vards Chief Justice of the 
Commonwealth) performed valiant service during the Broad 
Street riot. They were the first infantry compan)' that reported 
for duty. 

The annual encampment of 1S38 was held at Woburn in June. 
On one day it is estimated that they entertained over three 
thousand visitors ; at one hotel more than seven hundred chaises 
and carriages were taken care of. The Guards were always social 
favorites, and that their successors were so regarded is proved by 
the throngs of visitors which crowded the camps of the Second, 
Twentieth, Twenty-fourth, and Forty-fourth, which were essen- 
tially N. E. G. regiments. 

Aug. 31, 1839, they went to Barnstable and spent five days 
there during the centennial celebration of that to«-n. Being dis- 
appointed in the arrival of the steamer they had engaged (it 
was detained by a heavy storm), they chartered a schooner, and 
with nearly two hundred members reached Barnstable before 
the hour appointed for the beginning of the e.xerclscs. It was 


the first uniformed military compan>- that had ever been seen 

April 21, 1841, they jjerformed escort duty at llie funeral of 
President Harrison, and on June 17, 1S43, joined ia ihe proces- 
sion incident to th.e ceremonies at the dedication of lUiiikcr Hill 
Monument, the corner-stone of wliich they had assisted in laying 
eighteen years before. 

The records of the Guards up t'< 1845 have been preserved, 
and from them most of the facts in the account thus far given 
have been gathered. Subsequent to that year it is difficult to 
obtain full particulars, as all official papers and documents wei-c 
burned in the great tire of November, 1872. In coH'-equence of 
this loss the most inceresting portion of its histor\-, from a few 
years previous to the breaking out of the war until the departure 
of the Forty-fourth, is largely a matter of tradition. 

The interest of the members in tlie success of the Guards grew 
rapidly during the year or two previous to the outbreak of tlie 
Rebellion. The visit of the Ellsworth Zouaves of Chicago had 
a stimulating effect by showing how much was yet needed to 
bring the company up to the standard of e.Kcellence at which it 
aimed. As an indication that at that time they had made con- 
siderable progress in drill and discipline, Ellsworth is reported to 
have said that he anticipated having to compete w ith some well- 
drilled militia companies, but he did not expect to find- ofiC 
exhibiting so much proficiency as the Guards. 

The annual festival in January, 1S61. was largely attended, and 
was a gathering of much interest. It was on this occasion that 
Governor Andrew remarked that he had always been regarded as 
a peace man, and that he was so much a friend of peace that he 
was ready to fight for it. 

Jan. 23, 1861. Captain Gordon presiding. Governor Andrew's 
celebrated Order \o. 4^ was read. In accordance with its 


Headquarters, Boston, Jan. i6, iS^t. 
Gtneral Order No. 4. 

Events which have recently occurred, and : 
chusetts should be at all times re.ndyto furnis 
President of tlic United States, to aid in the 
of the Union. I (is Kxcelknov. the Commander-in-Chi 

That the cummanding oHicer of each company uf ^ 

now in progress, rcqui 

re that Massa 

icr qu"t I U|)on ;inv n , 

lisition of th 

intennuccf the l.iu.-. 

lid the pcac 

} .:■ -. ■ 


provisions every member, excepting one who excused himself on 
the ground of serious illness in his family, pledged himself to go 
to the front immediately should the company be called upon. A 
military critic, in commenting upon the Guards about this time, 
remarks : " The efficiency and improvement of the company in 
drill is owing very much to the skill and ability of Captain George 
II. Gordon, a graduate of West Point, who has done efficient 
service in the United States Army ; and also to the efforts of the 
excellent orderly, Thomas G. Stevenson." 

Just previous to the outbreak of the War the "Tigers" and 
the " Guards " formed respectively Companies A and B of the 
Second Battalion of Infantry. Alarch ii, 1861, Company B was 
set off as Company A of the Fourth Battalion ; a new company, 
B, was formed, and Captain Gordon elected major. 

The first call for troops was made April 15, 186 1. As the 
quota of Massachusetts was filled by the regiments which were 
selected by Governor Andrew, the battalions were not required 
for duty, and on April i8 Major Gordon offered his services to 
the Governor to raise and command a regiment of volunteers for 
the war. This was probably the first offer of the kind received 
by the Commander-in-Chief. Major Gordon's letter of resignation 
states so clearly the reasons for his action, and gives so plainly 
his views of the proper functions of the organized militia, that it 
has been copied in full: — 

In offering to the Governor of the Commonwealth my resignation of 
the office of Major of the Fourth Battalion of Infantry to assume com- 

care the roll of his company, .ind cause the name of each member, together with his 
rank and place of residence, to be properly recorded, and a copv of the same to be 
forwarded to the office of the Adjutant-General. Previous to which, commanders of 
companies shall make strict inquiry whether there are men in their commands who 
from .age, physical defect, business, or family causes, may be unable or indisposed 
to respond at once to the orders of the Comntander-in-Chief, made in response *o the 
call of the President of the United St.ates, that theyrn.av lie forthwith discharged; so 
that their places may be filled by men ready for any public exigency which may arise, 
whenever called upon. 

After the .above orders shall have been fulfilled, no discharge, either of officer or 
private, shall be granted, unless for cause satisfactory to the Commander-in-Chief. 

If any comi)anies have not the number of men allowed by law, the commander of 
the same shall make proper exertions to have the vacancies filled, and the men 
properly drilled and uniformed, and their names and places of residence forwarded 
to headquarters. . . . 

William Schouler, Ailjutant-Gi'itdral. 


mand of a regiment to be raised for •^^rvice during tin: existence of our 
present unhappy ilifficiilties, I deem it due to tLr meuiljers composing 
that battalion to state jiuljlicly my reasons therefor, ah fallows : — 

Wherever any son of Massachubetts (.an render tiie most efficient ser- 
vice to the State, there, in my judgment, should hi.-, eforts be given. Al- 
though in the first outbreak of war reli.uice must n, C'.., .^lily be placed on 
our militia, in whose ranks are founil men of the bc-.t ci.isses in our com- 
munity, }et for prolonged and continuous service a ror.i;..osition of forces 
like that constituting th.e Army of die C'.eneral GoveniiiiLiii is indisputably 
the most efficient and serviceable, — a composition ia wliich the character 
and intelligence of our best citizens nr.i-.t be used to oi.ganize and drill the 
bone and muscle of those upon whom we must rely IIt our armies. 

Thus we may with a small body of well-instnicted gentlemen impart 
information, raise into an organization, and render efficient very many 
large bodies of men, all of whom will in time become hoidiers rather than 
undisciplined mobs of raw militia. \Vhere, as in the present sudden emer- 
gency, any, even the least, capacity exists to impart information and effi- 
ciency to a company of privates, we c.mnot afioiil to waste precious 
material that may instruct others by calling it to render individual services 
as privates rather than officers. 

My aim as chief of the New England Guards has been to impart to 
my command the necessary instruction to enable them to command, rather 
than to build up a company to serve as privates during the fatigues of a 
long campaign. 

Ma.ssachusetts needs to-day military skill, science, and power to in- 
struct. No man has a right to refuse his skill to drill the body of the 
militia of our State, even though he sacrifice that ambition, so near to a 
soldier's heart, to be the first to bleed for his country. 

Believing firmly that my duty lies in the direction I have chosen, I 
have acted accordingly ; and knowing how hard it is for those of my com- 
mand with whom I have been so intimately associated, and for whom indi- 
vidually I entertain a respect that can never abate, and whose bravery and 
patriotism each and every member will show in the right direction, to 
be kept back from the foremost in this call of their country, I remain, ever 
devoted to the Constitution of the United States and the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, 

Gkorge H. Gordon.' 

This letter shows conclusively what had been his ambition. 
How well he succeeded, let the fact that his command of but two 
companies furnishcti to the arm)' during the war iiji wards of two 

' Gordon referred to this letter in !iis remarks at the tenth annual reunion, 
Jan. 20, 1SS6. • 

lic'o ^■f.-..f^^ -v). 


hundred commissioned officers and a large number of non-com- 
mi.ssioned officers and privates fully attest. Captain Putnam said 
at a meeting of the Guard Association held some time after the 
close of the war, that out of one hundred and sixty-one members 
who were on duty at Fort Independence in the spring of i86l, 
before the close of the year one hundred and sixteen had been 
commissioned and several had enlisted in the ranks. At the 
same meeting Colonel Hutchins said that of the whole number 
who were at the fort all but fifteen had gone into the army 
within a very short time after their return to the city. 

That the wives and mothers of the members were as patriotic 
as their husbands and sons it is needless to say, as women are 
always foremost in any work calling for self-sacrifice. On the 
same day that Major Gordon tendered his services, Mrs. J. 
Thomas Stevenson, the mother of our former orderly, captain, 
major, and brigadier-general, the beloved and lamented Thomas 
G. Stevenson, acting as the representative of three hundred Bos- 
ton ladies who were willing to go to the front as nurses if they 
should be needed, called on the Governor and offered their 

April 25, 1861, in accordance with the following orders, the 
Guards went on duty at Fort- Independence: — 

Htl.\DQUARTERS, BOSTON, April 24, 1S61. 

Sj'fdi!/ Order No. 75. 

Captain Thomas G. Stevenson, commanding Fourth Battalion, First 
Brigade, First Division, is hereby ordered, with the battalion under his 

command, to report at o'clock a.m., April 25, at the State House, 

thence to proceed, at'ter being supplied with the necessary arms and equip- 
ments, to Fort Independence, on Castle Island, in Boston Harbor, to 
garrison and protect said fort until further orders. 

These troops are charged with this duty in pursuance of their own pa- 
triotic wishes, and are to l)e supplied with rations by the State, but to 
perfonn the service without compensation. 
By command, 


, ..J..' Adjutant-General. 

He.\dquarters, Fourth Battalion Infantry, M. V. M. 
Boaiox, April 25, 1S61. 

You are hereby ordered to ajipear at the annoryofthe Fourth Battalion 
of Infantry, Boylston Hall, to-day at \z o'clock, for active service at Fort 


Independence, in dark pantaloons and cap. There will l>e provided by 
the State, overcoat, knap.,:ick, blanlcet, two pairs of stixkiiij;.s, two 
woollen shirts. Vou will provide yourself with tov/els, bru-'i^;,, etc., and 
one e.vtra pair cf boots or sliocs. 

Per order, 

Thomas G. SrrvE.Nbox, 

Captain Comnianding. 

Before leaving for Fort Independence the Guard v,ns presented 
with a beautiful silk flag by the young ladies of .Air. Caleb • 
Emery's school. Each member was also given a good service- 
able fatigue-jacket by Mr. Parker Whitney, of the Cadets. 

The battalion went to Fort Independence under conur.and of 
Captain Thomas G. Stevenson. Company .A, Lieutenant Osborn, 
had fifty-seven guns, and Company B. Lieutenant Otis, si.xty- 
three guns. ALay 4, iS6i, Ca[)Uiin Stevenson was elected Major. 
On May 1 1 the roster was as follows; — 

Major Thomas G. Stevenson. 

Adjutant John F. Anderson. 

Surgeon Dr. Hall Curtis. 

Quartermaster William V. Hutchings. 

Company A, Captain Francis A. Osborn. 

First Lieut John F. Prince, Jr. 

Second Lieut. . . . E. M. Dennie. 

Third Lieut. . . . Ciiarles H. Hooper. 

Fourth Lieut. . . . Stephen Cabot. 

Company B, Captain R. H. Stevenson. 

First Lieut. .... William C. Otis. 

Second Lieut. . . . Francis W. Palfrey. 

Third Lieut. . . . John Q. .Vdams. 

Fourth Lieut. . . . J. R. Gregerson. 

The complete list of the commanders of the Guards is a.s 
follows : — 

Samuel Swett elected Sept. 22, iSi 2. 

George Sullivan " April 2, 1S14. 

George \\'. Lyman " May 6, 1817. 

Franklin Dexter " Aug. 22, 1S20. 

Charles G. I.orin:; " May 23, 1.S23. 

William H. Gardiner " May 3,1825. 

William F. Otis " May 6, 1S2S. 


Edward G. Loring elected June 8, 1829. 

Richard S. Fay " March 31, 1831. 

Thomas Dwight " April 23, 1835. 

Alanson Tucker " May 3, 1836. 

H. H. \V. Sigourney " April 4, 1S38. 

George Tyler Bigelow " Jan. 15, 1S39. 

Charles Gordon " Jan. 9, 1841. 

J. Putnam Bradlce " March 20, 1845. 

Joseph L. Ilenshaw " March 16, 1852. 

George T. Lyman " Jan. 28, 1 85 7. 

Harrison Ritchie " Dec. 30, 1859. 

George H. Gordon " i860. 

Thomas G. Stevenson " May 4, 1861. 

Francis L. Lee " 1S62. 

The following extracts from reports of visitors to the fort, 
selected from newspapers published at that time, will indicate the 
opinion which was generally entertained of the organization : — 

" Everything looks like business, and West Point Cadets are not put 
through a more rigid drill by more competent officers." 

"... The first impression which strikes the observer is that of disci- 
pline. The commander, Captain Stevenson, has risen rapidly from the 
ranks, evincing peculiar capacity for military discipline and command ; and 
we may add that he is well supported by an enthusiastic and excellent 
body of officers and men." 

"The Fourth Battalion of Infantr}-. at present stationed at Fort Inde- 
pendence, is composed for the most part of sons of wealthy merchants in 
this city, and on tliis account they are inclined to be sensitive, fearing that 
the peculiar ser\ice to which they have been appointed will be construed 
as an indication of their desire to play the gendeman soldier and an un- 
willingness to be calleil into tiie field, which is far from the case. . . . 
These young men at Fort Independence are by strict discipline perfecting 
and inuring themselves in preparation for the real hardships of war and 
active service into which they may soon be called. Let them rest assured 
that their zeal and patriotism will not be (|uestioned, though they tempora- 
rily occupy Fort Independence instearl of Fort Monroe or Pickens." 

" The Fourth Battalion of Infantry, Major Stevenson (without dispar- 
aging other cor[)s wliich show as creditable proficiency in their drill), 
stands at the head of the military organizations of tliis State for precision 
of movement, skilful performance of complicated manLcuvrcs, and general 
discipline. There have been and there are companies which the Fourth 


would find hard to beat in rapid and correct execution of the manual ; 
but there are none as yel that can compare with the Fourth in the other 
qualities which constitute an incomparalile military association." 

The term of service at the fort was utilized to the best possi- 
ble advantage. All of our boys can bear witness to the rare skill 
of General Stc\enson as a commander, and have felt the personal 
magnetism which atiected all with whom he came in contact. 
He was fairly idolized b}' his men, and it is doubtful if any one 
less peculiarly fitted for the position could have maintained as 
strict discipline. 

May 26, in accordance with special order Xo. 249, dated May 
21, they were relie\-ed by the Fourth I^attalion of Rifles, under 
command of Major Leonard. On this occasion was performed 
for the first time the " P'ourth Battalion Quickstep," arranged by 
P. S. Gilmore, which immediately became such a favorite, and 
to the inspiriting strains of which we have all marched so many 
times. On reaching the Common they were received by the 
veteran, Colonel Swctt, their first commander, and there gave a 
dress-parade and battalion-drill, " to the delight of the spectators, 
among whom was found many a military critic who found no 
cause for disparagement." 

Colonel Gordon's regiment, the Second, drew largely on the 
battalion for its officers, as did also the Sixteenth, Twentieth, and 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts. There was scarcely a regiment 
raised in the eastern part of this State in which the Guards were 
not represented, either among the field, line, or staft'; and many 
were commissioned in the service of other States. Of six Bos- 
ton officers whose portraits appear in the third volume of the 
"Memorial History of Boston," — General Stevenson, General 
Bartlett, Colonel Revere, Colonel Shaw, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Dwight, and Major Abbott, — four received their early military 
training as privates in the New England Guards, as did the 
author of the chapter (Francis W. Palfrey), who rose to the 
rank of brigadier-general, and, subsequent to the war, was for 
many years in command of the Cadets. 

In August, 1S61, the battalion volunteered its sen-ices; but on 
the 2 1 St or 22d of the month they receixcd an answer from the 
War Department refusing to accept them as a battalion. On the 

. . .(■ Ui 


29th of that month they voted to raise a regiment, and on the 31st 
the official authority for so doing was granted Major Stevenson. 
Most of the hne, and all of the field and staff, were selected from 
the Guards, and se\-eral members, who were afterwards commis- 
sioned, enlisted in the ranks. This regiment, the Twentj'-fourth, 
formed a part of the Burnside expedition, and did not leave the 
State till the early part of December. Just previous to its de- 
parture, Past-Commanders Swett, Lyman, Loring, Gardiner, Fay, 
Tucker, Bigelow, Charles Gordon, Bradlee, Henshavv, and Ritchie 
presented to Colonel Stevenson a horse and suitable equipments. 
In the latter part of 1S60, when the prospect of civil war 
became imminent, there was a general desire on the part of citi- 
zens, yoimg and old, to learn at least the rudiments of military 
drill. Clubs for this purpose were organized all over the State. 
One of the largest and most successful of these was commanded 
by a Frenchman named Salignac, and at one time numbered 
nearly, if not quite, one thousand members. A fencing-club, in 
which several who were afterwards commissioned in our regiment 
had for a long time been interested, was tiie nucleus. Soon after 
the actual outbreak of hostilities the Government recalled the 
arms and equipments which had been loaned to the drill-club, 
and it consequently disbanded. Several who were unwilling to 
relinquish their military lessons then organized the " Massachu- 
setts Rifle Club," and engaged as instructor a Mr. Pease, who was 
a drill-sergeant in the Hythe School, England. Air. Pease, re- 
moving to the West, was succeeded by a Prussian officer of artil- 
lery, named Stefien. Under his tuition the instruction gi\'cn was 
extended to embrace field fortification, grand tactics, and various 
other subjects, the knowledge of which would prove valuable to 
an officer in active service. They secured the privilege of using 
the Fourth Battalion armory for drill and for the storage of their 
arms and equipments. The regiments which had already left for 
the seat of war had drawn so heavily on the Guards for their 
officers, and so many of its members had gone to the front, that 
the corps was completely demoralized, scarcely a corporal's 
guard remaining at home. In the winter of 1S61-1862 the 
Massachusetts Rifle Club united with the Guards. Major Francis 
L. Lee, who had been in command of the former organization, 

rcjrn ^i !i 


\vM.s elected io the command of the battalion, and renewed inter- 
est was nianiicjtcd immediatcl}-. 

In May, 1062, at the time of Banks's retreat, the militia of 
I\Iab~^achusclt.s were called out with the expectation that they 
would go to the front. (General Order No. 14, May 26, 1862.) 
Tlie order for them to assemble on Boston Common was issued 
on the 26th, and on the 27th some four thousand had reported. 
'I'ho Boston and Salem Cadets were mustered in immediately, 
and were sent to Fort Warren to relieve the companies stationed 
there in guarding the Rebel prisoners, as the latter were to be 
sent to the seat of war. Before the rest of the militia could be 
inustered it was found that inider the law they might be held for 
a period of eight months, and with the exception of the New 
England Guards, every companj- that had reported refused to be 
sworn in for longer than three months. Some of the companies 
were imanimous in their refusal and others nearly so. Under 
these circumstances, the Governor telegraphed to the War De- 
partment for authority to send them for three months. After 
j-.ome delay he received for answer that, owing to certain con- 
centrations, the men would not be needed, and they were ac- 
cordingly dismissed. The Fourth Battalion was mustered out on 
llie 2Sth (General Order No. 16, May 27, 1862), making their 
term of service just three days, having been mustered in on 
the 26th. 

The Boston " Herald" of the 27th says: "The strange appear- 
ance of one of our own corps ('Corporal ' Zenas T. Haines, of 
Company D) in Zouave dress, with a change of clothes strapped 
upon his back, at an unusually early hour in the editorial room, 
indicated the promptness with which the corps responded to the 
Governor's call." 

The roster of the battalion at that time was : Major, Francis L.; Adjutant, Charles C. Soule; Quartermaster, Charles H. 
Dalton. Company A: Captain, E. C. Cabot; First Lieutenant, 
E. M. Dennie; Second Lieutenant. J. H. Lombard. Company 
B; Captain, J. R. Gregerson ; First Lieutenant, J. R. Kendall; 
Second Lieutenant, F. W. Re\-noIds. 

When it was expected that the battalion was going to the 
iVont, a very large number of \"oung men joined. On the 27th,. 


Special Order No. 104 authorized the formation of a third com- 
pany, and directed the election of officers. No record can be 
found, however, that officers were chosen. The students of 
Harvard College offered a company to be attached to the bat- 
talion, and the President and Faculty approved, provided it 
should be found that their services were needed. 

One of the newspapers, in referring to the matter editorially, 
says : " But their action yesterday, in such marked contrast with 
that of other corps in this city, will be remembered to their 
credit, and give this gallant battalion an addition to their pre- 
vious honorable prestige." 

On the 28th Governor Andrew presented the Guards with a 
flag, and in his speech said: "Your conduct is what might be 
expected, and an earnest of what may be relied upon for the 
Fourth Battalion ; and I pledge you that during the brief space 
that I may occupy my present position with regard to the militia, 
there shall be no position of honor within my gift higher than 
that assigned to the Fourth Battalion." 

Aug. 4, 1862, the call came for 300,000 nine months' men. 
August 5, the battalion voted unanimously to serve for that 
length of time, but having had some experience of the difficulty 
of getting a battalion accepted, on the 7th they voted to raise a 
regiment, and before the meeting adjourned between two and 
three hundred members had signed the rolls. The battalion was 
swallowed up in the regiment. 

About the time the Forty-fourth went into camp, the older 
members \-oted to organize a " Home Guard," or " Veteran 
Association." This society existed for some time. The de- 
parture of the Forty-fourth had taken away nearly all the active 
members. After its return a large number of those who had 
formerly belonged to the Guards went into service again as com- 
missioned officers ; the others felt they were too few in numbers 
to keep up the active company ; many thought that it was no 
time to try to build up a militar>- company for home dut\' when 
every available man was needed in the field. For these and 
other reasons no attempt was made to form an active compan>' 
until 1S72 or 1S73, when at a meeting of the "Veteran Associa- 
tion " the subject was referred to, and for two or three years a 


Strong effort was made to revive the charter, but without a 
favorable result. 

The New England Guards was organized in September, 1812. 
It closed its existence, September, 1S63, when the Forty-fourth 
Regiment went into camp and the battalion was merged in the 
regiment. For fifty years it had had an honorable record, and 
on its roll of members are inscribed the names of some of the 
most prominent, best-known, and most widely influential of the 
citizens of Boston. 

At the annual meeting in 1862 Captain Charles G. Loring 
said : — 

" Why have the New England Guards excelled so much in military dis- 
cipline, in moral character, and always enjoyed so much of the public 
confidence? It was because in 181 2, when this venerable man (Colonel 
Swett), who was then its commander, and who commanded it so nobly 
and so gloriously, — it was because he and those associated with liim in 
getting up the New England Guards took care that it should be com- 
posed exclusively of gentlemen and men of good moral character. From 
that time to this, the New England Guards has been, as I belie\e, a most 
exemplary and moral company." 

The statement has been made, and so far as can be ascertained 
it is believed to be correct, that the New England Guards is the 
only military organization in this coimtry that ever lost its 
charter in consequence of sending so many of its members into 
active service that there was not a sufficient number left at home 
to keep it alive. 

.^^^ttc^:;Tj-^^j-^'::^ ^ --^-'^-cr^^^^ 




>■ v^ 


UGUST 4, 1862, President Lin- 
\ ^"Ji."* _''' 'PTT/ S coin issued a call for 300,000 
iZ ' : ^ ' ' ' y I / / S men to sei-ve nine months. 
The proportion to be fur- 
nished by Massachusetts, " by 
^.-^ ^ . some process of arithmetic 

f. hj _ _: known only to the authorities 

^-« -^ * '" '>y^-^y> in Washington," was fixed at 

19,090. The quota was to be 
raised by " draft, in accord- 
ance with orders from the War 
Department and the laws of 
the several States." These or- 
ders were issued August 9, 
and additional ones sent August 14. Governor Andrew was 
desirous of avoiding the necessity of a draft, and on August 8 
he wrote the President : — 

"... I am confident of getting more volunteers and militia this 
month by enlistments, and by wheeling militia into line, than conscription 
could bring in the same time. Meanwhile, will be preparing machinery 
for draft. 

" Our people want nothing to spur them 1 ut assurance from Washing- 
ton that the enemy shall be conquered, and right vindicated at all hazards 
by our arms." 

In filling this requisition for troops he acted on the plan here 

August 5, at a regular meeting of the Fourth Battalion, it was 
unanimously voted that the Governor be petitioned to authorize 


the corps to recruit to a full regiment for the nine months' 
service. The request received prompt attention and re:>iilied in 
the following order: — 

Commonwealth ok Massachusetts, 

Headquarteks, 1;oston, Air,'. 7, 1S62. 
Special Order A'o. 597. 

The Fourth Battalion of Infantry, First Brigade, First Division, JM. V. "si., 
is authorized to recruit to the size of a regiment of ten companies of 
ninety-eight enlisted men each, conformyig in all respects both as to the 
quality of the enlisted men and otherwise to the militia laws of the United 
States, each man in the regiment being required to sign an agreement to 
sen-e upon any requisition of the Government of the United States issued 
during the present year as a militia man for the term of nine months con- 
secutively, if orders therefor shall he issued to his regiment or any portion 
thereof by the Commander-in-Chief of the militia of Massachusetts. 

Major-General .Andrews, commanding First Division, will transmit this 

By command of his Excellency, 

John A. Ant)Re\v, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 
WiLU.\Ji Bro\\:n-, a. a. G. 

On the same day Special Order No. 596, worded like the 
above, gave permission to the Second Battalion, " Tigers," to 
recruit to a regiment, which after^vards became the Forty-third ; 
and on August 11 the following order authorized the formation 
of the Forty-fifth Regiment: 

Commonwealth of JFassachusetts, 

Headquarters, Boston, Aug. 11, iSCa. 
Special Order No. 607. 

Captain Charles R. Codman, of Boston, Adjutant of the Comjiany of 
Cadets, First Division, M. V. .\t., is hereby authorized to recruit for a 
regiment of infantry in the M. V. M., under the auspices of said company 
of Cadets. 

By command of his E.xcellency, 

J0H\ .\. .XXDRFW, 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief. 
WiLLUM ScHOVLER. Adjutant-Gcncral. 

A meeting of the Fourth Battalion was held at the armory, 
Boylston Hall, on the c\-ening of August 7. It was called to 
order by Captain Cabot. The reading of Special Order No. 597 
was received with cheers, and a grand rush was made for the 


enrolment lists, each wishing to get his name as near the head 
as possible. Nearly every one present signed the roll for the 
new regiment, and before the meeting adjourned almost three 
hundred men had joined. Major Lee had been passing the sum- 
mer at his place at W'cstport, X. Y. As soon as he learned from 
the newspapers that the call for nine months' troops had been 
made, anticipating the action that the battalion would take, he 
started for Boston, and reached the armory just as the men had 
begun to sign the roll. Before adjournment he suggested that 
each member make himself a " recruiting committee of one," and 
added, that as all could not go as officers and as undoubtedly we 
had a choice of associates, this plan would be much more likely 
to secure those who would be agreeable than the usual one of a 
regular recruiting headquarters and acceptance of all who might 
choose to volunteer. 

Authority was immediately granted to Messrs. J. H. Lombard, 
H. D. Sullivan, Spencer W. Richardson, Charles Storrow, Charles 
Hunt, J. R. Kendall, and F. \V. Reynolds, all of whom had been 
oflficers in the battalion, to raise companies. These gentlemen 
selected their assistants, who were afterwards commissioned lieu- 
tenants. James M. Richardson, who had been a captain in the 
Twenty-first, and William V. Smith, who had been a lieutenant in 
the Eighteenth, also received authority. A company recruited 
exclusively m Newton by John M. Griswold was afterwards 

Each member of the battalion seemed inclined to follow the 
advice of Major Lee, and worked as if the success of the regiment 
depended on his individual exertions. Most of the companies 
made the Boylston Hall armory their headquarters; but Com- 
pany E, Captain Spencer W. Richardson, located at the rooms of 
the Mercantile Library Association. Captain Richardson was an 
ex-president of that society, which took a strong interest in the 
company he commanded. August 11, it passed a resolution 
making all who should enlist in Company E members of the 
Library Association. 

At this time the interest in filling the quota of the city was 
most intense. Besides our regiment, there were being recruited 
m Boston and immediate vicinity the Forty-third, Forty-fifth, 

-f.l/. > 


Forty-seventh, and several companies for the Forty-second. The 
Fifth had tliree companies from Cliarlcstown, one each from 
Somerville, Medford, and Watertown ; and the Sixth, one from 
Cambridge. By general agreement many of the merchants 
closed their places of business at 2 or 3 P. M., and tlie afternoon 
was devoted to the work of .encouraging enlistments. 

On the 8th the battalion paraded, some wearing the " Chas- 
seur" uniform and some clad in citizen's dress. Other parades 
were made while the regiment was being formed. On the 20th 
we had about five hundred in the ranks. August 19, eight com- 
panies having reported the minimum number of enlisted men, 
the following order was issued : — 
Special Orikr No. 650. 

The Fourth Battalion, First Brigade, First Division, M. V. jM., will be 
forthwith organized into a regiment of ten companies and designated as 
the Forty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. 

Rolls of companies enlisted by J. H. Lombard, J. R. Kendall, Charies 
Hunt, H. D. Sullivan, Spencer W. Richardson, Charles Storrow, F. W. 
Reynolds, and W. V. Smith having been legally returned to the .Adjutant- 
General, the companies will be immediately organized by the election of 
officers and attached to said regiment. Tlie usual ten dajs' notice for the 
election of company and field otificers will be waived. 

Major-General .Andrews is charged with the execution of this order. 
By command of his Excellency, 

John A. .\xdrf.w, 
Go'dcnwr and Commatukr-in-Chief. 
WiLLL\.M ScHon.ER, Atijutant-GiUcral. 

August 29, the regiment went into camp at Readville, quite 
near the station, on the ground between the Boston and Providence 
and the New York and New England Railroad.s, south of the junc- 
tion, the field being just cast of the embankment of the latter 
road. The barracks — a separate building for each company — 
were built very nearly at right angles with die embankment, and 
the field in which we drilled and held our dress-parades was cast 
and north of the barracks. 

During the ten days intervening between the issuing of Special 
Order No. 650 and going into camp, quite a large number of men 
had joined, so that when the regiment reported at Readville it 
contained about the maximum number allowed b}- law. Still, 


recruits appeared who wished to belong to the Forty-fourth, and 
as it was very probable that the critical surgical examination our 
surgeons proposed making would cause the rejection of many 
who accompanied the regiment to camp, the late comers were 
accepted with the understanding that they should be selected to 
fill the anticipated vacancies. At one time there were nearly 
twelve hundred names on the rolls of the regiment. At the date 
that we were authorized to elect officers none of the towns in the 
State had offered bounties to the nine months' troops; and when 
we reached Readville with full ranks, comparatively few had 
taken action on the matter.^ The State paid no bounty to the 
nine months' troops. Although some of our men collected the 
town bounties, to which they were entitled under the provisions 
of the several votes granting them, they had enlisted before the 
votes were passed, and we think we can justly claim the credit of 
having been the last regiment recruited before the bounty system 
went into general operation. 

Among our members was Zenas T. Haines, Corporal in Com- 
pany D, a journalist by profession, who was the regular corre- 
spondent of the Boston " Herald " while the regiment was in 
service. His pictures of camp life are so vivid and complete 
that they will be quoted frequently, as even after the lapse of 
twenty years it would be difficult to improve his descriptions. 
In his first letter, dated " Barracks at Readville, Aug. 30, 1862," 
he says : — 

"... The Forty-fourth came one day too soon to barrack at Read- 
ville, but it was their own fault. The fine new barracks just erected there 
wure not completed, and will not be until to-night, although now habitable, 
and comfortable as heart can desire. But all have had to work to pro- 
duce tliis comfortable state of affairs so early, and the 'school of tlie 
soldier' has been neglected to-day. 

"Our first night in barracks was exceedingly jolly, as was to have been 
expected. Poor devils who depend on good sleep and a good deal of it 
for what vitality they can muster, might have probably sworn last night if 

' Bounties to nine months' men were voted as follows : Boston, September S ; 
C.imbri'lgc, August :o; Dorchester, August 21; Framingham, September i; West 
Roxbury, September 6; Walpole, August 19; Roxbur)-, August 27; Waltham, Au- 
gust 20; Maiden, -Vugust 27 ; Weston, .-\ugust 19; Chelsea, September 15. Newton 
ili'i not formally vote bounty, but on November 4 approved the act of the Selectmen 
in paying it. (Adjutant-General Schouler's "Massachusetts in the Rebellion.") 


they had been obliged to barrack at Readvillc. Not that the boys were 
riotous, or even obstreperous, but simply jolly. We supped on hard 
bread, and cofiee hotter than the crater of Vesuvius. Then, pipes and 
cigars lighted, the early evening was devoted to music — songs of home. 
After we had retired to our bunks, music of another cliar.icter ' beguiled ' 
the hours of the night. 

" Your correspondent slept not at all the first night in barrack, for ob- 
vious reasons. The inside musical performances opened with a barnyard 
chorus by the entire company, followed by rapid, iinintcrmitting succession 
of dog, hog, pig, and rooster solos, duets and quartets, single and com- 
bined, which continued in great volume until the une.xpected arrival of 
the captain and his lieutenants, who arc unfortunatelv uitliout any ear 
for music. After a short intermission the pertbrmauce was resumed in 
a greatly modified condition, commencing wiih admirable imitations of 

chickens astray from the shelter of the maternal wing, and coming to a 
pause with the low, small, satisfied twitterings of chickens in clover. 

"Then followed sounds less artistic, but not less suggestive to the gen- 
eral appreciation, intermingled with snatches of conversation of a highly 
festive character. The good wit of the occasion rendered endurable what 
would otherwise have been an intolerable nuisance to any one wanting 
sleep as badly as your humble servant ; but at last, as it must be confessed, 
even this element failed to satisfy a scientific audience. Objurgations, not 
lond but deep, came from a number of Inuiks where sleep had failed to 
come, or tarried a moment to be cruelly banished. 

"To-day we have lieen ai.plying finishing touches to our qu.arters, and 
exercising in company movements, by squads, etc. Tlie turn-out at 
reveille this morning at five o'clock was a new sensation, even to the 
'Corporal.' The style of the morning's ablutions was a novelty too. 


Instead of basins and soap at the barracks, we were ordered to 'fall in 
with towels,' and then were positively marched to a pond to wash our 
hands and faces. Oh the degradation of military' rule ! Such is war." 

This exuberance wore off quick!}', as none of us felt inclined 
to keep awake all niglit after several hours' severe drill during 
the day, with the certainty that at five o'clock the next morning 
the unuelcome reveille would rouse us from our luxurious 

Almost as soon as we reached camp one quality was developed 
which seemed to be characteristic of the Forty-fourth, that of 
making themselves as comfortable as circumstances would per- 
mit, and considering the ornamental as well as the useful. " Cor- 
poral " writes, September 6 : — 

"... There is some emulation among the companies in the way of 
neatness, convenience, and decorations about their several barracks. The 
palm is due to Company D for an early display of flags upon the outside, 
and also for certain novel decorations of the interior in the shape of one or 
two delicate articles of apparel probably wafted by the wind from a wash- 
ing hung out to dr\'. 

" Company F ha\ing had the temerity to erect a flagstaff taller than 
Conipany D's, the latter company extended its mast a few feet over that 
of its neighboring barrack. This ambition to excel exhibits itself in a 
variety of ways. Some of the barracks are prettily lighted with lanterns, 
and in one or two of them the bunks are lettered and ornamented in a 
very artistic manner. Afterwards Captain Spencer Richardson's boys se- 
cured the tallest pole which could be found in the neighboring woods, and 
at the present \mting their flag floats the highest. The barracks occu- 
pied by the companies of Captain Lombard, Captain Hunt, and Captain 
Kendall also have creditable displays of bunting, and contribute to give 
the encampment a beautiful and animated appearance. . . . 

".■\s our stay at Readville protracts, we are gathering about us many little 
comforts and luxuries which we shall probably have to sacrifice in the 
event of a sudden retirement before an enemy. But while we stay here 
our purpose is to make ourselves extremely comfortable ; and in this 
purpose a numerous constituency of friends are lending their assistance 
in the way of hampers and baskets and bundles of fruit and other 

.•\ very pleasant feeling existed between the officers and the 
rank and file, which \vas manifested by the presentation to the 
former of some little token of rcc^ard from the men in their com- 


mands. Swords, sashes, and belts were givc>i to Captain Sullivan 
of Company D; Captain Spencer W. Ricii..K'..ou of Company 
E; Horace S. Stcbbins, Orderly Sergeant of Company F; Frank 
W. Hatch, Orderly Sergeant of Company G; George L.Tripp, 
Orderly Sergeant of Company D; Clarence Sumner, Orderly 
Sergeant of Company I ; Charles A. Cunniii-lumi, Orderly Ser- 
geant of Company- C ; Eben R. Buck, Order!)- Sergeant of Com- 
pany B; Albert \V. Edmands, Orderly Sergeant of Company A; 
and Captain F. W. Reynolds of Company K. Lieutenants Blake 
and Stebbins, of Company D, were presented with shoulder- 
straps, and Captain James M. Richardson, of Company A, with a 
very handsome meerschaum pipe. " Uncle " Dan Simpson was 
not forgotten, the bo3's of Company C giving him a gayly deco- 
rated Turkish fez. 

Nothing produces more pleasure in camp ilian music, and the 
Forty-fourth Regiment was especially fortur.:>te in having a large 
number of singers in its ranks.i Scarcely an evening passed 
during our whole term of service without a gathering of the choir, 
and the performers were ahvays sure of a s\-mpatlictic and appre- 
ciative audience. Recognizing how pleasant it would be to have 
the words and music of our accustomed songs in some conven- 
ient form for reference, Mr. Charles White, of I\Iilton, father of 
Lieutenant White of Company G and Order))- White of Com- 
pany E, kindly offered to defray the expenses of such a publica- 
tion and furnish a copy to each member of the regiment. The 
compilation was made by Charley Ewer of Company D, and in 
addition to man)- familiar and \\ell-known airs the book con- 
tained some original songs and original mr-.ic furnished by our 
members. The " Forty-fourth Regimental Song-Book " was voted 
to be a complete success. 

When we went to Readville, Colonel Lee v, as placed in com- 
mand of camp, with military jurisdiction over a territorial radius 
of one mile.2 Although neither of our field ofticers belie\-ed in 
the principle of total abstinence, they reali-ed t!ie evil influence 

1 Two of the original members of the Ilovliton Club, William K. Millar and 
Aii-uitus Jacobs, wcie privates in Company D. 

= Six;cial order Xu 7.:;o i^sllcd under authority of General Order 99 from the War 
Department. The ai)[)umtnient dated fr mi Aug. 26, iSoj. 

.} V, ^^lq■ .. 3ff} 


caused by undue indulgence in intoxicating drinks, and for this 
reason, as well as to set an example to the men under their 
command, they mutually resolved not to taste any wine or ardent 
spirits while they were in the service of the United States, except 
on advice of the surgeon, — a resolution to which they scrupu- 
lously adhered. Colonel Lee in particular felt very strongly 
about this matter, and waged a relentless war against " traffickers 
in the ardent" who attempted to establish booths near our camp. 
Quite a number of enterprising speculators engaged in the busi- 
ness; but the confiscation of their stock in trade, and frequently 
of their building as well, caused their project to end in financial 

"Corporal's" letter of September 13 was quite " gossipy," and 
touched on several matters of interest to the boys : — 

"... We have received an order from the Commander-in-Chief of 
all the forces in Massachusetts ^ prohibiting us from bathing at all Chris- 
tian hours of the day, out of regard to the sensitive nerves of somebody. 
As nobody but soldiers live near the ponds, it is to be supposed that the 
order was promulgated as a measure of consideration of the naiads and 
nymphs habitint hereabout. We heartily wish that everybody was like 
Caesar's w-ife. 

"The 'women of America,' including a few Boston friends, have sent us 
m a grand lunch of Washington pies, coftee, and cold meats. Where 
these dainties went to is a profound mystery to the non-commissioned 
officers and privates, but it is doubdess 'all right.' 

" At dress-parade the other day Miss Josie Gregg, of Boston, through 
Colonel Lee, presented us an elegant flag, and the gift was acknowledged 
by three cheers. . . . 

" Flag competition continues, and now every barrack shows its bunting, 
that of Company D again floating the highest. Thursday morning Com- 
pany F's flagstaff presented to the eyes of an astonished camp the same 
small white bifurcated garment which Iiad previously served to decorate 
the interior of a neighboring barrack. The boys are bound not to ■ 'ha\e 
their selves,' as Uncle Sim Wilbur used to say. We now hope, however, 
for better things for our company, having sent the sergeants to a tent by 

1 By General Order 44, dated September 3, BriLradier-General John H. Reed, Qu.-ir- 
terraaster-General. was appointed commandant of .all camps of rendezvous in the 
State. By special order 790, dated September 9, Brigadier-General R. A. Peirce 
was assigned to command of the Readville camp. The bathing order to which 
" Corporal " alludL-s was probably issued in c<insequence of complaints made by the 
officials of the Boston and Providence Railroad. 


t!icm?elves, an 1 conferred tlic responsibility of keeping good order upon 
the corporals. 

" Captain James Richardson'^ company give their barrack a beautiful, 
almost Oriental appearance at evening by the introduction of numerous 
Chinese lanterns. In every barrack the fine arts are still cultivated in the 
1-Mteriiig and ornamentation of the bunks. One is labelled 'Squirrel's 
Nest ; ' another, ' Penguin's Nest ; ' another, ' Sleeping Beauties ; ' another, 
' J )amon and Pythias ; ' anoUier, ' Siamese Twins.' Some graduates of 
Tufts College, ^\■!io occupy a bunk together, inform the world in good 
classical phrase that it is sweet to die for your country. They may well 
say that, if living in the barracks at Readville be dying for your country. 
' Corj^oral ' cannot but look with amazement upon these classical young 
patriots elevated upon their bunks and devouring home dainties over this 
conspicuous motto, — ' Dulce et decorum est pro Patria mori ! ' . . . 

"The quarters of Company G, Captain Hunt, are tastefully ornamented 
with evergreen, and are much admired by visitors ; but it is on all hands 
conceded that the barrack of Company D, thanks to the oversight of our 
admirable Corporal Waterman, is most noticeable for its complete order 
and neatness. It is whispered that we are to have a piano, if we remain 
here much longer, and then, with such singers among us as Charley 
Ewer, from the Warren Street choir, we reckon upon very good times in 
the musical line. 

" Yesterday was a great day with the men of die Forty-fourth. We were 
mustered into the ser\'ice of the United States by companies. The event 
was hailed with cheering and general rejoicing ; and then the uniforms 
provided by Uncle Sam were opened for inspection. Many members of 
the regiment had already provided themselves with garments of superior 
quality, made to measure ; and those who had not taken this precaution 
regretted it the more when they came to see the half-cotton, shoddy, 
slouchy stuff sent to them through the State authorities. Colonel Lee, 
who has a natural abhorrence of shams in all shapes, advised his men not 
to draw such uniforms, and promised to assist them in procuring garments 
made to measure. The men gladly acted upon the suggestion of the 
Colonel, and will clothe themselves, not less as a matter of neatness and 
taste than of economy. 

" Last evening the barrack of Company F, Captain Storrow, was the 
centre of much attraction. The parents of the artists Cobb were present, 
and the delighted s])ectators of a country breakdown and other festive 
demonstrations. Mrs. Cobb delivered a little impromptu poem, and Mr. 
Cobb made a very stirring address, both of which were vociferously 
applauded. The Cobb brothers sang and i)layed exquisitely, and the occa- 
sion was one of touching interest. . . . 

■' AVe have been provided with mtiskets for guard duty only, and of 
course have much work to perform in the .manual of arms drill before we 

rl'-,!'.VJ-.''' .J 


shall be fit to take the field. In the facings we have made commendable 
progress, and have been highly complimented by Colonel Lee in this 

" Since the Forty-fourth went into barracks they have been favored with 
the sen'ices of the Boston Brass Band, under the lead of Mr. Flagg. It is 
said the e.xpense is to be defrayed by an assessment upon the regiment. 
Considering that the mass of the regiment have had no voice in the selec- 
tion of a band, a number of persons are inclined to consider this a little 
'rough.' What 'Corporal' and many others wish to suggest in this con- 
nection is, that a few of our rich friends in Boston unite to defray the 
expense of a good band, which shall accompany us to the seat of war. It 
is thought they would be pleased to confer this substantial benefit upon 
the regiment, and thus acknowledge the important assistance rendered by 
the Fourth Battalion of Infantry in raising the quota of Boston. Failing 
in this, a set of instruments would be gratefully acknowledged, and an ex- 
cellent band would then be recruited from the regiment." 

In his letter of September 20, he says : — 

"... We reasonably expect that a week of furloughs will be succeeded 
by work- Some of our little captains are threatening us hard. ■More drill 
and less guard duty will not be unacceptable to the poor fellows whose 
duty as sentinels for the past week has only been relieved by the relaxation 
of police guard work or scavenger service. Bootless has been the plea, ' I 
was on guard yesterday, and police guard the day before.' The orderly 
knew it^ There was no help for it. It costs hard work, but we have the 
cleanest camp in Christendom, if v.-e may believe visitors. Captain 
McLaughlin, our mustering-in officer, was profuse in his commendations 
of the Forty-fourth. It was, he said, the most orderiy and the cleanest 
regiment he ever mustered in. The company rolls were the neatest 
which had ever come under his inspection, and the number of ab- 
sentees (one sick and one unavoidably absent) the smallest in his experi- 
ence. We do not wish to be always elevating our hern, but we must 
record history." 

One compliment attributed to Captain McLaughlin, " Cor- 
poral " neglects to mention. He is reported to have said that 
although he had been detailed as mustering officer since the out- 
break of the war, he never before had mustered in a whole regi- 
ment on the same day. A rather critical examination of the 
" Record of the ^Lassachusctts Volunteers," issued by authority 
of the State, seems to pro\'c this statement, e.xccpt so far as it 
might refer to a few of the three months' regiments, to be 


" Since my last letter there have been added to the list of decorated 
barracks those of Company U, Captain Grisvvold, and Company A, Captain 
Richardson. Company D has introduced Cliinese lanterns, small flags, 
and the arms of ti:e New f^ngland Guards, neatly painted by one of our 
numerous artists, to wit, Fred. Saver, the lingual prodigy and pet of his 
corps. . . . 

" A large proportion of the regiment is now uniformed in neady fitting 
suits, liaving no relationship to the contractor's shoddy which was attempted 
to be foisted upon us. Our ajjpearance at the dress-parades is creditable; 
and every pleasant afternoon crowds of spectators honor us with their 
presence. Ihe number of pretty girls that adorn these occasions, coming 

'm^(!h . 

. r 


as they do laden ^\^th offerings of fruit and flowers for their favorites, is 
by no means the least interesting feature of the afternoon dis]3lays. The 
angels even besiege us in our barracks, and although we are delighted to 
see them, they seem sometimes to forget that we have no retiring rooms, 
and that we must perforce make our toilets in our bunks, or not make 
them at all. ' Corporal ' wants it distincdy understood that he don't care 
anything about this, personally. He speaks for the modest man of his 
company. . . . 

'■'Your correspondent could expatiate by the half column of the social 
fascinations of this life in barracks; of the genial friendships formed ; of 


the glorious hearts discovered ; of the roaring wit brought out by this free- 
and-easy companionship; of the freedom iVorn conventional restraints and 
the care of ever)--day pursuits. Do not, dear reader, tliink us too jolly 
and comfortable for soldiers, but rather thank Heaven for the sunny side 
and recompense of military life, which, perhaps, after all, has very feebly 
offset the shadows through which lies the pathway of liim wiio takes up 
arms in defence of liberty, imperilled as it is to-day." 

The crowds of visitors which thronged our camp attested our 
popularity. If our friends enjoyed coming to Rcadville, it is 
equally certain that we enjoyed receiving them. Many a suscep- 
tible young soldier lost his heart during those deliglitful moon- 
light promenades, and an interesting chapter might be written on 
this subject, could the number of matrimonial engagements which 
resulted from these mild flirtations be correctly ascertained. 
J. J. Wyeth, in his sketcli of Company E, sa}s, under date of 
September 12 : — 

"... .As this was probably die young ladies' last visit before our start 
for the South, we demanded and received our last good-by kisses ; but 
when they saw the same boys falling in the second time, and some of them 
strangers, they scattered like a drove of sheep over the fences and far 
away to the station. I think that was the last effort tlie company made 
(as aruorganization") to kiss them all a good-by." 

For some time previous to the formation of our regiment a 
pleasant little coterie of young ladies and gentlemen had existed 
in Cambridge, and there were but few evenings when they did 
not meet at a party, the theatre, or some similar entertainment. 
Most of the gentlemen enlisted in our regiment. The young 
ladies were so incensed at those who did not, that they resolved 
unanimously not to attend a party or a place of amusement dur- 
ing the absence of the Forty-fourth, and this resolution was most 
faithfully kept. Will not all our young lady friends agree that 
these Cambridge girls displayed as much self-sacrifice as if they 
had " donned the blue " and " shouldered the musket," even if 
the service were not quite so perilous? 

In "Corporal's" letter of September 27 he again refers to the 
unwelcome practice of early rising: — 

"... The most unmusical of sounds is the reveille at five o'clock a. m. 
Fven the freshness and mognificence of those star-gemmed morniuLis 


scarcely compensate us for this ghostly hour of turning out. But now we 
are threatened with calls amony the small houri for the purpose of prepar- 
ing us for surprises in the enemy's country. We would gladly excuse our 
officers from this laborious work in our behalf. In fact, we shall not be 
less grateful to them if they do not carry the plan into execution. Besides, 
midnight movements like these might excite the susjiicion of our ubi- 
quitous provost guard, and result in getting the whole regiment into limbo. 
We could not even visit our neighbors of the other regiments, last .Sunday, 
without falling into the hands of those merciless Philistines, who go about 
the country like roaring lions seeking whom they may devour." 

He also speaks of our double-quick marches and of the new 
sanitary discipline which our surgeon had introduced: — 

"Companies E and D have been making double-quick marches to Ded- 
ham Village by the three-mile route. An uninterrupted run of three miles 
is something incredible to the uninitiated. ' Corporal ' and five others 
confess, with proper self-abasement, that the last mile was rather too much 
for them, especially as your correspondent was tortured by a pair of new 
boots. We fell out. ... A little while before dinner a small, ' awkward 
squad ' (the six men mentioned) might have been seen descending the 
railroad embankment near Camp Meigs, and then proceeding by the right 
and left flanks until it safely passed the lines. The main party had not 
arrived, and we confidently reported them in the hands of the provost. 
On the contrary, as we learned upon their arrival, they had been detained 
by a number of beautiful Samaritans habitant along the road, who came 
out laden with smiles and kind words. Se\eral fellows came back to 
camp with hearts and pedal extremities equally damaged. 

" Our rifles have been distributed at last, and we have commenced 
drilling with great industry. . . . 

" On Thursday we had a grand cleaning out of barracks. Everything 
was removed from them, and exposed to the air and sunshine. Most of 
the regiment being absent on escort duty, the task devolved upon a few. 
It was a work of vandalism. Cherished shehes, pictures, flags, and 
flowers came down at one fell swoop. The personal effects of absentees 
were tumbled down and bestowed in promiscuous piles into the bunks, 
and then carried outside. They comprised a heterogeneous collection of 
valuables, like pats of butter, soap, packs of cards and Testaments, tooth- 
brushes and cutlery, spare clothing and baskets, haversacks, havelocks, 
night-caps and smoking-caps, pipes, tobacco and matches, now and then 
a bottle, and one umbrella. Having the exauiijle before them of tlie army 
in Flanders, the absentees of the Forty-fourth swore when they came i.iack 
and witnessed the ' improvements' wiiich had been made while they vvere 



" U"o have occasional evening entertainments here in the shape of 
groiind-and-lofty tumbling {en costume-) and sparring matches. Between 
our lioiirs of drill, camp duties, reception of visitors, music, letter-writing, 
etc., there is no possibility' of time dragging upon our hands. Now 
visitors are restricted to the hours between half-past four and half-past 
eight P.M. . . . 

" Our Surgeon, Dr. Ware, of Boston, is drawing a tight rein over the 
regiment. His experience upon the Peninsula has given him notions of 
sanitary discipline which some think too severe for soldiers in barracks at 
home. He has stripped our quarters of everything but prime necessaries, 
and we are reduced to a very bald condition indeed. We shall probably 
see the wisdom of this severity more clearly by and by. At present a 
majority of the boys don't see it at all. Thursday night we tried the 
experiment of sleeping without straw in our bunks. It didn't work, and 
now we propose to provide ourselves with canvas bags to keep the straw 
in place, and thus avoid the continual nuisance of straw litter inside 
and our. ^ 

" On Thursday detachments from six companies of our regiment acted 
as escort at the funeral of the late Lieutenant-Colonel Dwight. Consider- 
ing the short time of our practice in the manual of arms, the regiment was 
awarded the credit of great proficiency, particularly in the firing of volleys. 
Colonel Stevenson paid the regiment the highest compliment." 

The marches we took proved of great benefit in toughening 
us for active service, and the comparatively small percentage of 
straggling shown by our regiment when actually in the field 
demonstrated conclusively the wisdom of our colonel in adopting 
this plan. The sanitary regulations introduced, although griev- 
ous to bear at the time, we afterwards acknowledged to be wise 
and beneficial. 

" Corporal's " letter of October 4 gives an account of two of 
these marches : — 

"The past week Colonel Lee has wisely varied our drill by taking the 
regiment on marches through portions of the country surrounding Camp 
-Meigs. Our first of these marches, after escort duty at the funeral of the 
late Lieutenant-Colonel Dwight, was through that portion of Milton of 
wliich we have such delightful glimpses from camp. We were forced to 
breathe dust freely, b\it through the clouds which rose wherever the regi- 
ment moved we caught refreshing views of stately homesteads, blushing 
orchards, and autumn-tinted landscapes. . . . Since the march to Milton 
we have surprised the good people of Mill Village and round about Ded- 
ham Court- House by a sudden appearance in their midst. For the 


36 FORTV-Fouin'ii MAssACHusi:! rs ini'a:;trv. 

gratification of our many friends wiio are anxiously watchin,:; tlie progress 
of this regiment, I have to report liiat our maiching extoricj great praise 
from Colonel Lee, who, by the way, is quite as prompt to L;i\ e us a sound 
blowing-up as he is to compliment. In i'f)int of fact, he tloes neither by 
halves. His outspoken franknebs and generosity are creating hun hosts of 
warm friends in the regiment. . . . 

"We received marching orders last Thursday,' and ar-." gnip.g to New 
Berne, N. C, as soon as a transport vessel can be got in ii.adiness. At 
New Berne it is expected we shall be brigaded under General (now 
Colonel) Stevenson. This will be gratifying to the regiment. . . . 

"Our indefatigable surgeon is organizing and training a corps of assist- 
ants who are to lend their aid to the woimded upon tl e field of battle. 
The training consists of binding up imaginary wounds, pointing out the 
position of art<.>ries, showing how to handle fractured limbs, placing men 
upon litters, and showing how to carry them with the least iiossible dis- 
turbance of the wounded parts." 

In the same letter he mentions tin" fact that Mr. Steffen, for- 
merly instructor of the Arassachusetts Ritlc Club, was delivering 
a series of military lessons to our commissioned ofiicers. 

In his letter of October 1 1 he makes mention of a march over 
Brush Hill Turnpike: — 

" ... On Thursday we were treated to a magnificent march over 
Bnish Hill, — our first brush. . . . Our march; which included a distance 
of fourteen miles, was, considering the state of the atmosphere, the 
severest of our experience ; luit it was cheered by the smiles and waving 
handkerchiefs of beautiful women in windows, gateways, balconies, and 
groves, and by their more substantial favors in the shape of apples, pears, 
and cool water. The few men who fell out of the ranks from faintness and 
exhaustion were of the reputed tougher sort, — men of outdoor life and 
pursuits. Vour professional men and clerks, clean-hmbed and elastic, are 
the men to endure hardshijis, all the talk to the contrary notwithstanding. 
This, I believe, was the obserwation of the " Little Corporal.' 

" Among the late testimonials in the Forty-fourth deser\ ing of mention 
is the presentation of a knile. lork, and spoon, in a case, to each of 
the recruits from Frainingham by their friends in that touii . . . 

"Your correspondent, and the other members of Company D, are 
indebted to Corporal Gardner for tlie introduetion of a comixtny dog, — 
Romeo, a promising fellow, whose laughing countenance and waving tail 
and general intelligence ha\e already won him a host of friend.s. Several 

» Special Order 1007, d.ited Get. -. 1S62. 


of tlic bo) j are indiHtriously liboring to rcruncile him to llie society of a 
cat whicli lias come to our barrack. 

"Mr. Barrage, of the firm of J. M. IJeebe ^'v Co., has I'los.-uted to cch 
member of Company C, Captain Lombard, one of Sli )ri's patent box 
knapsacks. If they can be manufactured in season to s'-pplv us before 
our departure South, the other members of the regimen; nill probably 
supply themselves with this knapsack at their own expense, which will 
amount to $2.50 per This knapsack is so adjusted in th- shoulders 
as to be carried with much greater ease than the Government article." 

Unfortunately, an order promulgated from headquarters sent 
" Romeo " out of camp and " Juliet," in despair, follcvcd the ex- 
ample of her illustrious namesake; at least it was so supposed, 
as pussy died very suddenly the day following Romeo's depart- 
ure. One of the members of Company D was accused of mu.-- 
dering her, tried by court-martial, and convicted ; but the 
evidence against the alleged culprit was far from conclusive. 

After the m.uskets were given out to the guard, the officers 
took great pains to teach the men the duties of a sentry. Fre- 
quently they were so much interested that they induced the 
sentinel to loan them his musket while they practically demon- 
strated how it should be handled. Many of our boys will recall 
the consternation they felt when they realized that they had been 
disarmed and their gun was in the hands of the enemy. Some 
of them found it difficult to remember the formula for challen,c;e 
and answer, or for calling the corporal of the guard as prescribed 
in the Army Regulations, and the cry of " Corporal of the Guard, 
Post Nagle," was one familiar to us all. 

In the last weekly letter from " Corporal " previous to the 
departure of the regiment, dated Octobei 18, he speaks of the 
similarity in some respects between the life of a soldier and that 
of a convict, and refers to several donations which had been 
made to many of the companies : — 

" The close resemblance between the life of a soldier in barrack and 
that of a State Prison con\ict, regarded in certain outward aspects, affords 
mingled amusement and disgust. We go for our rations in single file, and 
with tin mugs and plates. The intercourse between officers and subor 
dinales is scarcely less reserved, and the punishment for small offences 
scarcely less severe with the soldier than with the prisoner. On insi)ec- 
tion days we stand up like well-burnished automata, and are as sensitive to 


praise or censure reganlini; the coiKliiiun oj' our ij 'a:tv.;--;, mins, etc., ;is so 
many cluklreu. At our meals and in omc 1 Mnks ::■■■ :^o: stared at by visit- 
ors just as I remenil^er to have su'ied .■,- tiie ]).■<: v Liiiily of ' Hon. 
Gideon Haynes ' at Clijrlestoun on var: ims ocm.,' -:,- 'i\ iien impelled 
by 'sanitary reasons,' our keen-eyed siir-i-or.s pa.-.s i:!".' ,;!i ihc barracks to 
see that nothing contraband nestles in r'le bunks, mat liie bkinkets and 
overcoats are accurately folded, and that only a rerla::i a'Tiount of cloth- 
ing and bagyage per man is retained ; ^ve stand abo •: ,,\id ■jue at them 
just as your readers will remember tiiey were ga>.f<l a" ly ilie inmates of 
the House of Correction which they \i..;;ei1 i;oi Ion-; ..-u. . , . 

"More princely donations have been inaJc to so.i;;; >i .he companies of 
the Forty-fourth Regiment. To Com|,.iny K. Captain 1' i-liiirdson, William 
Cumston, Esq. (father of Lieutenant Cim; luii). of liie nvia of Hallclt & 
Cumston, has presented a check fur fi\e ^.';a^i^ed <io Las. 

"To the same compan_\ donations anioraiLlng tu tlu'.c baudred dollars, 
for the purchase of the imjiroved knapsaik, have bcei: luaal'' by the follow- 
ing gentlemen : J. M. IJeebe & Co. : F. Skir.ner & Cc. ; .^icxander Beal ; 
C. W. Cartwright; W. P. Sargent ; J. R. 1 ibbets : Read, Gardner, & Co. ; 
Wilkinson. Stetson, & Co. ; J. C. Con\erse .V Co. ; <■:. >v F. King & Co. ; 
Horatio Harris ; Gorham Rogers. 

"To Company H, Captain Smith, C. 1'. }[o\ey tv i 'o. ;i.a\'e presented a 
full set of the patent knapsacks. Conipanx- K, Ca;i...r:ii Reynolds, have 
been favored in the same way by a number of friends "f that company. 
. . . Company F, Captain Storrow, have received iLe [iresent of a set of 
patent knapsacks. The generous donor is too moclf;; ;o let his name be 
known, but it is surmised that a young corporal of ('oii.pany F knows all 
about it. 

"The wife of Colonel Lee has kindly remembere'i eat h soldier of the 
regiment by the gift of a little testimonial card, upon .'ie -ide of which is 
printed the Old Hundredth Psalm, and u]jon the otliei the name of the 
recipient written in a neat hand. . . . 

" We have had a good share of disniad weather the |,'.-..-t v.-eek, and have 
not been allowed the consolation of smv 'king in the baaracks ; but the 
boys have managed to keep the blue ilevils at bay wirh inoc]; parades and 
shows of great effectiveness. One ilay the camp was e'ctiriiied by the 
appearance of an exceedingly well got-up elephant, not unprovided with 
a tail, and waving a tnmk of twisted shoddy. Airoiiier day we were 
visited by citizens of Brobdingang. ten feet high in thfir stockings." 

The expenses of our regiment while recniitinri and in camp 
were about $6,200, of \\ liich ncarlv .S3,COO \ras paid for music. 
This amount came from the regime 11 tal fund, o[ wbicli William 
Gray, Jr., was treasurer, — a fund rai:5cd by coniril.'ution, the city 



c;iving' and the rest being donated by individuals. Most 
of the companies were presented with Short's knapsacks by 
their friends, and those companies which were not so fortunate 
were supplied at the expense of tlie regimental fund. The corre- 
spondence with the state officials and the War Department arising 
from the endeavor to have this style of knapsack supplied by the 
Government is rather unique and decidedly interesting. The let- 
ter from " Corporal " last referred to concludes by saying: — 

" We now exijcct to remain at Readville till the close of the war, except 
in case Readville is invaded by the enemy, when we shall make a masterly 
retreat to .Mill Village." 

Alas for the claims of " Corporal" as a prophet! Three days 
after this letter was printed we had orders to pack, and on the 
fourth day, Thursday, October 23, we bade good-by to our bar- 
racks and the friends who had been so much interested in our 

1 August iS it was ordered, "That the committee 
said appropriation, to each of the four regiments . . 
expedient, for a regimental fund." 

. . be authorized to pay out of 
such a sum as they may deem 



'ADAM RUMOR, who at Read- 
ville had no better reputation 
for veracity than the " intel- 
hgent contraband," had so 
many times announced our 
departure for this or that 
dangerous point at the 
South, that when the order 
finally formulated into the 
fact that we must go, we 
could hardly realize it until 
we found ourselves, early in 
the morning of October 22, under the weight of knapsacks, idly 
waiting in line to be escorted to the station. Standing there, now 
hitching up one strap, then unbuckling another that had not got 
accustomed to its place upon us, with our backs well piled with 
many things soon to be thrown away, we looked across the fields, 
where in awkward squads we had strayed to the larger camp, that 
was a'i\e with the bustle and noise of a recruiting headquarters; 
thence bo}-ond the meadows to the beautiful Blue Hills, covered 
by the many-tinted colors of autumn ; and the query must have 
come to all. How many of this one thousand will be present at 
the retiiin to answer "Here"? There was no voice to that 
thought as up and down the lines came nothing but the cheerful 
\'oices of the men, bantering one another, bidding their old 
quarters, even to the familiar boards upon which they had lain, 
good-by, with almost tearful fondness. 

" Attention, company ! " ■ " Shoulder arms ! " The men stood 
steady in their ranks, we jauntily marched after the band, gave 


hearty cheers to the escort and all blue-coats and friends at tltc 
station, and went Bostonwards on the cars to meet friends there. 

The history of old Readville camp should be written to present 
the picture of the bri^^ht and eager-hearted youths who gathered 
around its camps, and after the preparatory lessons there recci\c J 
went marching awaj', thousands after thousands, the flower of 
our generation, with no thought but of duty to a country which 
was worthy of the sacrifices these young boys made. 

It was more than an ordinary soldier departure day when we 
marched through Boston. Three regiments, made up, for the 
larger part, of men from the city and its inin;ediate vicinity, 
were going. 

As we marched up Boylston Street the town seemed alive with 
people to bid us God-speed. The escort, composed of gentle- 
men whose every action bespoke a desire to go with us in our 
Southern pilgrimage ; the blessings and cheers that were show- 
ered upon us by the thousand of ladies whose frieijds were of us, 
or of others who had gone before ; the hearty hand-shake of sonic 
old gentleman who broke into the ranks with, "God bless you, 
boys, my Tom is just dead at Antietam ! " still remain as \-ivid 
pictures. Forgotten then were all distinctions of rank, whether 
he who marched bore an eagle, or but the blue on his shoulders ; 
whether he had no one who knew him but the old lady in black, 
who hung to his neck and had nothing to bestow but a blessing, 
or whether some elegant home opened its doors to bid their 
soldier-boy good-by. As the Boston "Journal," speaking of 
this reception, says: "Notwithstanding the strenuous efforts 
of the guard and police to keep the Common clear of almost 
everj'thing that did n't wear a uiiiform, many of the ladies could 
not be resisted, and soon they were seen freely and happily min- 
gling with their friends in the Forty-fourth, determined to enjo_\- 
their society until the last moment." The flurry of rain that 
occurred on the Common, which drove some of the spectators 
away; the march up past the State House, down State Street, 
with the ringing cheers of the crowd of men who gathered as 
by magic from every quarter, arc scenes that will ever remain 
as pictures the details of which we. can through our memory 
fill in. 

••5f-v.::v-. ^^.;::4ii.. 

1^1 •' ,1t I) 

(bv;.:;i ; 


When \vc took our departure, the time had come for steady, 
concentrated work in the war. In April, 1861, wc had heard the 
mad scream of excited people rushing after the first soldiery that 
went their wa}- ; and when the first three-years regiments marched 
past the old State House, you could see old men follow their 
dipping banners with the tears of patriotism, and hear half- 
exclaimed prayers of sobbing women. The lumbermen of Maine, 
the stanch regiments of New Hampshire, had had their day; but 
when the tide of war had reached October, 1862, Antietam had 
been fought. The streets were filled with wounded men. The 
war had permeated into every relation of life ; and the good-by 
that we got was from a people who knew then what all this sacri- 
fice meant. The Boston "Traveller" of October 22, gives this 
account: — 


This splendid corps left their camp at Readville at a litde after 10 
o'clock this morning, reaching the Providence Railroad depot at about 11. 
The regiment was under arms as early as 8 o'clock, and on reaching the 
depot were honored with a salute from the Cadet Regiment, which was 
drawn up in line and gave nine rousing cheers, which were returned with 
interest, making a most enthusiastic parting. The Forty-second cheered 
them vociferously, also, when they were passing their camp. 

There were other parting ceremonies last evening at camp, when at the 
dress parade the regiment was formed in a liollow square and the chap- 
lain, Rev. Mr. Hail, oftered prayer. The band played an appropriate air, 
and Colonel Lee then called for cheers for the old Commonwealth, and 
for the dear ones they were to leave behind them. The regiment re- 
sponded heartily, and then gave nine cheers for their commander. The 
colonel replied to the compliment in a brief but feeling manner. 

.\fter arriving in Boston this noon the regiment formed on Boylston 
Street, and marched upon the Common, where the New England Guard 
Resen-e Corps and past members were in line and presented arms. The 
regiment was drawn up on the diaries Street mall, and grounded arms, and 
about an hour was allowed for the hosts of friends present to say their 

Thousands of people were on the Common, and lined the route of 
march on lieacon, Park, Trcmont, Court, State, and Commercial Streets. 
State Street, down which the corj)s passed at one o'clock, was crowded 
with spectators. 

The line w.xs formed as follows : — 

Platoon of sixteen police under Sergeant Dunn. \ '^'" <•<'' 


The iull Gilmore Baml. 

Rcsvjrvc corps and p-ist members of the New England Guard, under 
Major J. Putnam Bradk-e and Captains J. L. Henshaw, Thomas Chick- 
ering, J- M. Howe, and Sewall H. Fesscndcn. 

The I'ni.^rds escorted a number of past members and officers, including 
Hon. J. '['. Stevenson, S. H. Gookin, and other gentlemen. 

They numbered a himdred bayonets and were in citizens' dress. 

The regiment, loio strong, with Flagg's brass band in the centre of its 
right v.-ing. 

On their way to Boston in the cars there were frequent groups of people 
on the r.-id who cheered heartily, and at Roxbury an artillery salute was 

The regiment is in splendid condition ; on the Common, at the salute 
by the Reserve New England Guarils, while the Gilmore Band played 
"Auld Lang Syne," the soldiers wheeled into column of platoons and 
moved by with the steadiness of veterans, showing the interest they have 
taken in securing a high degree of skill in manceuvTing. 

The corps is armed witii Enfield rilies cajatured from an English 
steamer, and their belts, bayonet-sheaths, and cap-pouclies were similarly 

The hank of the belt is a snake of brass, — so emblematic of the vileness 
of the Rebel cause. Probably the shippers little imagined they would be 
used against the Rebels. 

After we reached the wharf it was but a short time before we 
found oar places on cither the steamer "Mississippi" or the 
" Merrimac," and amidst the cheers of the thousands who had 
followed to the water side vvc slowly steamed to anchorage for 
the night. 

The change that we had been doting on had come ; we were 
novv- to loarn some of the tribulations of a soldier's life, and to 
find thn.t his experience on board a transport is not altogether 
calculated to make him "wish that he had come." He found his 
bunk in the hold; and just as he was finding his, he found several 
hundred others. Just as intent, employed in that occupation. A 
place that he thought too small for his sister's poodle was to be 
used for three other strapping fellows besides himself. Meantime, 
the fact that there was such a thing as bilge-water, and that sol- 
diers no cleaner than they ought to be had occupied this place 
before, presented themselves vividly to Iiis sense. He remarked 
that the ventilation might be improved, that the decks were half 

. :. 1 

>r ,: 'rf-u. 

-,fij wl , 

,'• I'jil 

:.'. . ■■-■^ 1 


lighted, and as he picked his way towards deck was crowded to 
and fro by the many who seemed to fill all places before him. 
The water-tanks had alwa}-s a band of thirsty customers, and to 
get anything like coffee, or the better phrase, " bilge-water," or 
anything to eat, he must stand in rank and wait until he is counted 
off, while sergeants and other uncommissioned officers arc work- 
ing here and there to find places or food for their men, or per- 
chance medicine for some one taken sick so early on the way. 
The two great transports lay at anchor off Deer Island, and most 
of the men found their decks by far the most pleasant place on 
board. They could see the lights of home shining almost all 
around them. There is a little cluster off towards the South 
Shore, and a little band uf the boys, all from that village, gather 
together and speculate upon what Tom, or Hilary, or father, or 
So-and-so can be doing over there, — whether that light that 
seems higher than the rest comes from a home just saddened by 
a soldier's death. 

The lights on Beacon Hill flash upon the night, and there were 
some in private's toggery on board to whom the homes were fa- 
miliar. There was a constant bobbing of lights at and upon the 
forts, while a gunboat went rushing by towards the Navy Yard. 
Presently voices upon the forward deck let us know that "there 
is music in the air," and every man had soon forgotten discom- 
fort in letting the world for a mile or t\vo about know that beans 
can always be procured " down by the Readville camp." The 
music changed: sometimes it became pathetic, and there was 
something plaintive in its sounds, while the lights of distant 
homes, and the thoughts that would fill the mind, made it still 
more potent; then it would break into the patriotic, and our souls 
be aroused from sadness and carried away to martial sights and 
sounds, into which we hoped, if carried, to engage with honor. 

Some got drowsy and went to join that mighty chorus of those 
who could sleep, while others remained on deck mooning the 
night away; until presently, the anchors being weighed, the ves- 
sels started, soon leaving home a dim line of blue hills that 
would insist in getting very misty in so short a time. 

I recall, as I stood looking homewards early in the morning, 
one of the oldest officers of the regiment coming close to where 


I was, an.d as he i; izni into the mist that kept his home out of 
sight, [ licard him icjicat that always sweet Thackcrarian, — 

" Aiid when the day was breaking, 
My little girls were waking, 
And smiling and making 
A prayer at home for mo." 

Tlie sun the next morn looked out upon a pleasant day at sea, 
and .soon tlie crowd came tumbling one on another for fresh air. 
The sound of every animal that man can imitate blended with 

''ill l!|l\ \\^^\ ^ 

the laugh and shout of tlie crowd. The hungry man was on the 
alert, with his eager eye towards every quarter; he snift'ed the 
officers' breakfast being prepared, and mutiny, if not something 
worse, was stamped on his face. Occasionally one particular 
man anxiously asked for water for his daily libations. He got no 
consolation, excepting to have the transport men state that, 
thougli they had carried fifty thousand soldiers, this was the first 
regiment that wanted water for washing purposes. Dirt, the 
soldier's comforter, began to put on her grim mask. Some, over- 
come b\' scasicki-.css, wandered about with a fiendlike look of 


resignation on their faces, while there ran through the crowd a 
curious fancy to examine the old hulks, with all the curiosity a 
Yankee can exhibit. 

As we rounded the Cape and got well set on the trip, we 
began to make ourselves as comfortable as we could, and ac- 
cepted the situation without conditions. 

I should like to have a picture of the crowd upon the decks of 
one of the transports, — many lying about upon their backs, 
smoking their pipes in quiet amusement, observing some frolic- 
some mate attempting a breakdown, or a hand-spring that would 
land him in a crowd of grave-looking savants discussing some 
knotty Greek problem, or the more practical game that Sarah 
Battles so much and under such different circumstances en- 
joyed. Here a group of strategists were settling the problem of 
where we were to go ; there a party watching distant smoke on 
the horizon, and querying whether it may not be the terrible 
"Alabama;" near by, a sad-voiced youth reading "Michelet" 
to a band of hard-heads, who guy the poor youth until he is 
obliged to withdraw from the contest; everywhere, men lying 
upon their backs, enjoying the rapture of looking into the sky 
while the vessel is seesawing along. Guns are ever>'\vhere, and 
accoutrements are tumbling about. The diary fever becomes 
contagious, and now and then some genius undertakes a sketch 
of something picturesque, to find his efforts spoiled by some sad 

Transport life is the art of holding on to existence with a fierce 
patience while praying all the time to reach port; but it has its 
peculiarities which cannot be found on any shipboard. It is a 
good place for those who accept, a bad place for growlers. 

Beaufort Harbor, with its little village of old-fashioned houses 
encircling the shore, with the fort at the other end of the circle 
and the dismal wharf called Morehead City, greeted us, on the 
morning of October 26, v.-hen we pulled up to our place of 
debarkation. Our e>'es were everywhere. This, then, was the 
part of the sunny South to which we were invited. It hardly 
looked fit to conquer. Yet when we landed, the pleasure of 
getting "out of the black hole" was so great that the country 
round about put on a better tone. A hungry friend just then 

irff.. b j.u I' 


gave me a piece of sweet-potato pie that he had bought of a fat 
old Dinah, wiio had a really clean-looking basket, and after the 
first mouthful, hungry as I was, this experience became my first 
and last experiment with " sweet-potato pie." 

Of course there was delay. The cars backed down past the 
long building on the wharf with exasperating slowness, while we, 
with our concentrated Readville equipage still packed in our 
knapsacks, stood by doing everything but swearing (that was 
forbidden by the army regulations). The magnificent structures 



in which we were expected to ride, consisting of open (platform) 
freight-cars, w ith room for some to stand and some to sit, having 
been finally made ready, we climbed upon them and stowed 
ourselves away as best we could. 

At 1.30 P.M., after interminable delay=, we started for New- 
Berne, forty miles awa}-. The Ninth New Jersey, with whom we 
were destined to march man\- wear}' miles, were quartered at 
Morehcad City, and greeted us with hearty cheers. The railroad 
carried us through a country guarded in fact by block-houses, 
around which as we passed by were gathered \'eterans who gave 
us a glance half-curious, half-satirical, as though they doubted 
the entire efficienc}- of our overpowering newness; but the route 

,i v :" '■• 1 


was made ver>' interesting in catching glimpses of the country- 
through which Burnside had conducted his brilliant campaign 
when he captured New 15erne. 

As the train approached the clearings that were in front of the 
breastworks that ran down to the river's bank, surrounded by 
the thick forests that prevail in that country, — other than the 
mounds of earth built by the enemy, there was no sign that a 
battle had ever been fought. The more vivid reminders of the 
existence of war were the chimneys of burned houses, and the air 
of desolation that was added to the character of the country, 
dreary enough before the war. The rain in its most pronounced 
Southern style poured upon our unprotected heads, but there 
was very little glumness. Jokes were passed. The Mark Tap- 
ley in us struggled upwards, and we secured a certain amount 
of interest in the excitement that war scenes always bring to 
mind. Corporal Gardner, whose letters upon this and other in- 
cidents connected with our history are exceedingly graphic and 
interesting, gives the following incident that occurred upon this 
train : — 

"Yankee genius is apt to run to invention ; and at the outbreak of the 
war one would have judged by the number of new patents that were con- 
stantly appearing, — patents for cartridge-boxes, muskets, haversacks, and 
in fact everything that could by any possible means be enumerated in a 
soldier's outfit, — that the whole nation had devoted itself to invention. 
Among these numberless inventions was a patent canteen. It was a com- 
bined lunch-box, writing-desk, and fluid storehouse. One of the principal 
advantages claimed for it was, that when a soldier was too wear}- to lift it to 
drink, he had but to apply his lips to the end of a mbber tube which was 
fastened along the strap iTom wiiich the canteen was suspended and which 
was close to his mouth ; a slight suction was then all the exertion recjuired 
I was the proud possessor of one of these articles. Previous to the de- 
parture of the regiment the canteen had been filled with some whiskey 
which I resolved to keep for a case of emergency. This resolution, in the 
innocence of my heart, I confided to many of the boys, and showed them 
how the famous canteen could be easily emptied of its contents. The 
morning the regiment landed at Morehead City was threatening, and be- 
fore the train had started it began to rain, — a genuine Southern rain. 
The officers and cooks having appropriated the only covered car on the 
train, the rest of us were obliged to stand on open platform cars that were 
filled up like a hay-cart. Rubber blankets were no protection, and in a 


few minutes we were completely <iiiic!icfl. The air was chilly, aiv.l ilie 
boys huddled together to keep warm ; nearly all the buvs in Cor.ip.iny D 
seemed to have a particular desire to keep me uarii', 'aKl ahh();;^Ji the 
individuals who surrounded me were constantl)- changing, the number 
remained about the same. Time and time again, a- a > jM shiver lAi-sed 
over me, I was tempted to take a Mp iVom the patent cmieen; but I man- 
fully resisted the temptation. Finally I became too told, the tcn:[.u'tion 
was too great. I succumbed and sucked. No whiskiy rose in t! ■• ui!>e. 
I sucked again. No response. An expression of tloubt and (iistia^^t 
passed over my face. The boys could keep quiet no longer ; while I had 
been thanking them almost for their kindness in protecting nnj from 
the wind, they had been drinking my precious whi;,key. I felt a sense 
of righteous wrath. But of what avail? The wh!ske> had disafi'Kared, 
and probably there was no member of Company D, barring nnseit" and a 
few anti-alcoholites, but could have tend the quality of the ii<]uor." 

But the long jaunt came to an end; we rumbled over the 
bridge into tlie city of New Berne, where, letting Cortjoral 
Gardner tell the remainder of ttiis stor\-, " \Vc reached after dark 
and found quite a number of the Twenty-third Abssachusetts at 
the depot to recci\e us. Tlic T'wcnty-tliird are guarding the 
town. It was raining when we reached the city, and we met ^^ith 
the delay usually incident to all military proceedings. At last 
our company (Company D) ami tliree others v.cre safely l.'.used 
in the machine-shop connected with the railroad. This was 
about 7 P. M. It took us but a short time to iinsling knapsacks 
and select our ' bunking places.' Then arose a great demand 
for eatables. A box of very good codfish and a barrel of bread, 
hard, were opened, and found a market very quickly. The only 
water we could procure was by holding our cups under the rain 
spout; but the supply did not equal the demand. We were all 
gratified to hear that the Twent_\'-fourth were jircparing some liot 
coffee, and soon after that the coffee had arri\ed. Cold, wet, and 
tired as we were, it tasted better than anything I have had >ince I 
left home. As soon as we fairly emptied the mess kettle, we 
turned over and under our blankets, and in a few minutes were 
sound asleep." 

To me, as I go o\-er the details tliat then seemed so imjjortant 
and now so mist;.- anil almost inron^equential, tliere comes up a 
picture of the briglit faces that went with us in the life of the 

;.'■>■? 03 


rej^inicnt. They have all gone their way these many a year, — 
some are resting under 

"the low green tent 
Whose curtain never outward swings," 

and the rest have so changed in the last twenty years that one 
coidd almost dream the days wc spent in the old Forty-fourth 
were in another existence, and with other men than those we 
meet now and call comrades. 

* ;' 


'\. I 


^'*W \^^ 





E\V BERNE, the county seat 
of Craven County, and the 
largest town in eastern North 
Carolina, is situated on the 
southwest bank of the Neuse 
River, — at this point over a 
mile wide and navigable. — at 
its confluence with the Trent, 
thirty miles from Pamlico 
Sound, and one hundred and 
twenty miles southeast from 

At the beginning of the 
jir^-- ^ ^ Civil War the population of 

r__*_ - -^ ^^-, ^ -'"<■■ -^ New Berne was about five 

"^■^-'•^f^ thousand. It was a port of 

entry, exporting large quanti- 
ties of grain, lumber, tar, and turpentine, and having also a 
considerable coastwise commerce. Railroads connected it with 
Beaufort on the coast, and through Weldon with Goldsboro' and 
its converging roads in the interior. It had a bank, a theatre, 
two good hotels, a daily newspaper, and other features of a 
thriving city. The paper was revived under Yankee auspices 
after the capture, and as " The New Berne Progress," containing 
as much news as the military authorities deemed it proper to 
allow, was a welcome visitor in the camps. 

The town was an attractive one. of the Southern t\-pe. Wide 
streets, running generally at right angles, and shaded by large 
trees, were bordered by detached dwelling-houses, mainly built 


of wood, with broad verandas and luxuriant gardens. At the 
time of our occupation the better part of the native whites had 
left the city. Their houses, occupied by troops, had been 
neglected and fallen out of repair. Negroes swarmed through 
the town, and populated its outskirts. 

Early in the war the attention of the Federal authorities was 
directed to the facilities aftorded by the inlets and sounds of the 
North Carolina coast for collecting and forwarding supplies for 
the Virginia armies ; for exporting the naval stores which could 
be turned into money abroad ; for the entrance of blockade- 
runners returning with arms, ammunition, and clothing; and 
for sheltering small privateers, which could issue from the inlets, 
dash upon coasting merchant-vessels, and return at discretion to 
the friendly shelter of the sounds. The formation of the coast, — 
a narrow strip of sand enclosing extensive land-locked bodies 
of water, — while favorable to such commerce, was also favorable 
for naval attacks from the ocean, and correspondingly weak for 

As early as August, i86l, a naval expedition accompanied by 
a small land force under General Butler captured and occupied 
the forts at Hatteras Inlet. In January, 1862, a large force under 
General Burnside (the Burnsidc Expedition), embarking at Hamp- 
ton Roads, was transported with difficulty over the shallow and 
shifting bar at Hatteras, and in February attacked and carried the 
Rebel works at Roanoke Island, the key to Albemarle Sound. 

A month later, the naval forces and transports left Roanoke 
Island, steamed up the Neuse, and landed the troops of the ex- 
pedition sixteen miles below New Berne. On the morning of 
March 14 a line of earthworks running from the river across the 
Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, and defended by ten 
thousand Confederates, was attacked and gallantly carried by our 
forces, in about equal numbers. Generals Foster, Reno, and Parke 
commanded the three columns of attack, which pushed forward 
after the retreating Rebels, and took possession of New Berne. 

Through these successi\c victories the army and navy effected 
a permanent lodgment in eastern North Carolina, which they 
held until the close of the war. Our occupation efi'cctually 
stopped blockade running, exporting, and privateering, as far 

r!i V-' r)is>'- . '..I/! 



south as Wilmington, N. C, and was a constant menace to the 
flank and rear of the Confederate armies around Richmond. 

In July, 1862, General Burnside was ordered, with a large 
portion of his force, to Virginia, and General Foster assumed 
command of the Department of North Carohna. On Sep- 
tember 24, he addressed a letter to General Halleck, General-in- 
Chief of the United States Army, at Washington, making formal 
application for more troops. He writes: — 

" The advantages of this post for drilling and perfecting new regiments 
are very great The place is healthy, wood in great abundance, water 
sufficient, and subsistence and quartermaster's supplies are easily brought 
from New York, both to this place and to Beaufort, from which point the 
railroad is in good order and running. I have some eight regiments of 
infantry here, of old troops divided into two brigades, commanded by most 
excellent officers (acting brigadier-generals), Colonels Amory and Steven- 
son, and with other excellent colonels could readily drill any number of 
new regiments. My artillery force (Third New York Artillery) is good. 
They number five light batteries with twenty-eight pieces, Rhode Island 
battery with six pieces. Rocket battalion with eight pieces. My siege train, 
ready for transportation, though at present on shipboard with supply of 
ammunition, consists of four 30-pounder Parrott guns ; in addition to 
which I can land for the investment of any sea-coast place ten 3 2 -pounders 
in ship carriages. My cavalry force is one good and efficient regiment, — 
Third New York Cavalry. My knowledge of the country in this region, 
derived ft-om being stationed here as engineer officer in charge, and more 
lately in command of this department, enables me to use the small force 
at my disposal to advantage ; which advantages would of course be greatly 
increased by having a much larger force at my disposal." 

Again, Oct. 3, 1862, he addressed a letter to the War Depart- 
ment requesting reinforcements of infantry to be sent, " if it 
is expected of me to go .into active service during the cool 

" Further reflection on this subject has convinced me of the propriety 
of my request, and especially as regards new regiments ; and I beg leave to 
re-urge this matter, and to further say that even if it is not intended that I 
should make any decided movement, tiiis place presents very great facili- 
ties as a camp of instruction for a very large body of troops, and would be 
more available for operations on the flank of the enemy, should that be 
rendered necessary by their retreat from Richmond, or from any other 
cause. Even if thirty or forty new regiments be sent, I will devote my 
personal time to drilling and perfecting them in their duties. I am 

U !i-r-,.rj,'fi..l 


advancing the defences of tlic town, and they are now strong enough to 
require a siege to take, I tiiink." 

In answer to these suggestions a number of new troops (prin- 
cipally nine months' regiments) were sent to New Berne in 
October. After the Tarboro' expedition General Foster asked 
again for more troops, in these terms : — 

" The enemy luu e much increased their force and their activity in this 
State. They show a determination to withstand my advances in their rich 
country of the eastern sections, and also, if possible, to diminish my hold 
in that section. On the other hand, the weakening influences of the past 
malarious season have so weakened the strength of my old regiments that 
for hard active service I have scarcely available one half their nominal 
strength. The Third, Fifth, Forty-third, Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, and 
Forty-sixth Massachusetts Regiments, arrived here, are good troops. I 
■would most respectfully suggest that if possible I should be allowed 
at once ten thousand troops in addition to my present force. The 
sooner I have this force, the sooner I will endeavor to prepare my plans 
of cutting the Weldon and \Vilmington Railroad, and the taking of 
Wilmington and the works at the mouth of the Cape F^ear Ri\-er." 

Additional troops were sent in response to this appeal, until 
the Federal troops in the Department of North Carolina num- 
bered (in Januar}', 1S63) nearly thirty thousand men. 

The relative strength of the opposing forces in the State dur- 
ing the period in which we are especially interested is shown in 
the following tables, taken from the .Appcndi.K to iVdmiral Am- 
man's " Na\y in the Civil War: The Atlantic Coast: " — 

Abstract from Returns of the United States military forces sei-ing in 
North Carolina. 

Probent for duty. Aggre^ale present. 

September, 1S62 6,642 8,647 

October, " 8,967 11,415 

November, " 12,872 'S.569 

December. " 18,468 21,917 

January, 1S63 25,023 28,194 

February, " 15,806 18,548 

March, " 14,672 17,105 

April, " 13,9(^2 15,920 

May, " 16,643 19,71^ • 

In .\ugust the forces had been reduced to 7,699 present for duty. 


Abstract from Returns of the Confederate military forces sen-ing in 
North Carolina. {Xo returns accessible for September, October, and 
Nm-ember, iS6j.) 

Present for duty. Aggregate present. 

December, 1 86 2 11,074 12,207 

January-, 1S63 26,958 31,273 

February, " i5,904 i9>894 

March, ' ■' 20,733 

April, " 7,501 8,385 

May, " 22,149 26,838 

In August there were 7,391 present for duty. 

A small portion of our forces were distributed as garrisons 
along the coast, and in towns like Plymouth and Washington, 
at the head of navigation in the larger rivers. The larger portion 
of the troops remained in and around New Be-rne, occupying per- 
manent camps in the outskirts of the town, on both sides of the 
Trent River, within a strong line of forts which had been con- 
structed after our occupation. The picket line lay six or eight 
miles out, following on the west, or side toward the enemy, the 
course of Batchelder's Creek. The sparsely inhabited country 
around New Berne is flat, low, swampy, heavily wooded with 
pines, and tra\ersed by numerous creeks. The roads are wet, 
sandy, heavy, and unfavorable to the movement of troops. 

The Rebel force in North Carolina in November, 1S63, was dis- 
tributed somewhat as follows : — 

Between New Berne and Raleigh, with headquarters at Golds- 
boro', eight thousand men, including t^vo regiments of cavalry 
and a small force of light artillery. 

At and near Wilmington, three thousand men. 

Between the Tar and Roanoke Rivers, a movable force of three 
thousand men. 

A regiment was also stationed at Weldon, where further forces 
could be readily and speedily concentrated from Petersburg and 

The aggregate of these detachments would appear to be nearly 
fifteen thousand men. — three thousand more than the returns 
given above indicate for the following month of December. 

1, .iilSi; .1 _ .i bill 


Wlicn llio I'liily-fourlh reached New Berne the Union forces 
under Foster were known as the " Department of North Caro- 
Hiia." Nov. 21, 1S62, General Orders No. 58, Department Head- 
quarters, formed the infantry regiments into temporary brigades, 
our regiment being assigned to the Second (under command 
of Col. Thomas G. Stevenson), consisting of the Twenty-fourth 
Massachusetts, Lieut.-Col. Osborn ; Fifth Rliode Island, Major 
Arnold; Tenth Connecticut, Colonel Leggett; and Forty-fourth 
Massachusetts, Col. Francis L. Lee. The First Brigade, about 
4,500 men, was commanded b_v Col. T. J. C. Amorj-; the Second, 
about 4,000 men, by Col. Thomas G. Stevenson; the Third, 
.-;bout 4,000 men, by Col. Horace C. Lee ; and there were unas- 
signed about 3,200 men, — a total of about 16,000 men, infantry, 
cavalry, and artillery. 

On the 24th of December the following general order was 
issued from the War Department at Washington: — 

War Dep.\rtment, .Adjutant General's Office, 
Washinc.ton, Dec. 24, 1S62. 
General Order Xo. 314. 

By direction of the President, the troops in North Carolina will con- 
stitute the Eighteenth Army Corps, and Major-General J. G. Foster is 
assigned to the command. 

Four days later, General Order No. 84, Corps Headquarters, 
was issued as follows : — 

Heapquarters Eighteenth Army Corps, 
New Berne, N. C, Dec. 2S, 1S63. 
General Order No. 84. 

The assignment of infantry to brigades from this date will be as follows, 
and commanding officers of regiments will report at once to their brigade 
commanders : — 

Brig.-Gf.n'. L. C. Hu>rr. 

85th Pennsylvania Col. J. B. Howell. 

103d Pennsylvania Lieut.-Col. ^V. H. Maxwell. 

85th New York Lieut.-Col. A. J. Wellman. 

9 2d New York 

loist Pennsylvania Lieut.-Col. D. M. .\rmor. 

96th New York Capt. George \V. Hindes. 

Brig.-Gex. Tho.mas G. Stevenson. 

24th Massachusetts Lieut.-Col. F. A. Osbom. 

44th •' Col. F. L. Lee. 

■i3'T It 


5th Rhode Island Maj. Tew. 

loth Connecticut Lieut.-Col. Leggett 

Brig.-Gen. C. a. Heckman. 

9th New Jersey Maj. Zabriskie. 

23d Massachusetts Maj. J. G. Chambers. 

jd « ..... Col. S. P. Richmond. 
gist " Col. A. B. R. Sprague. 

Col. T. J. C. Amorv. 

17th Massachusetts Lieut.-Col. J. F. Fellows. 

43d " Col. C. L. Holbrook. 

45th " Col. C. R. Codman. 

8th " Col. Coffin. 

Col. Horace C. Lee. 

27th Massachusetts Lieut.-Col. Luke Lyman. 

25th " Col. Pickett. 

46th " Col. George Bowler. 

5 th " Col. G. W. Pierson. 

First Division of the Eighteenth Corps will consist of Brigadier-General 
Hunt's and Stevenson's brigades, to be commanded by Brigadier-Genera! 
Wessells. Brigadier-Generals Hunt and Stevenson will report at once to 
Brigadier-General Wessells. 
By command of 

Major-General John G. Foster, 

J. F. Anderson, Captain and A. A. A. G. 
[Official] : 

William Pratt, A. A. A. G. 

On the 29th, General Orders from Division Headquarters was 
read : — 

Headquarters First Division, Eighteenth Army Corps 
New Berne. N. C, Dec. 2(), 1S62. 
General Order Xck i . 

I. Pursuant to orders from Headquarters Eighteenth .\rmy Corps, 28th 
inst., the undersigned assumes command of this division, composed of 
Hunt's and Stevenson's brigades. The following are announced as staff 
officers of this division : — 

Capt. .\ndrew Stewart, \. \. G. 
" R. C. Webster. A. Q. ^L 
" John Hall, C. S. 


Surg. D. G. Rush, Chief of Medical Staff. 

ist Lieut. Daniel F. Beigh (loist Pennsylvania) , .A. D. C. 

2d " M. C. Frost (Q^d New York), A. D. C. 

The brigades will be known as First and Second in the order above 
enumerated. H. W. \Ve.ssells, 

Brigadier- General I 'oiuiiteers, 
Commanding Division. 
[Official] : 

William Prvit, A. A. A. G. 

The force at New Berne was considcrabl}- increased in January, 
1863, by the arrival of troops ordered to this department from 
the Department of Virginia, Major-Cjcneral Di.x, Brigadier-Gen- 
erals Ferry, Wessells, Spinola, and Xaglee reporting with their 
respective brigades. jV reorganization of the Army Corps fol- 
lowed, and five divisions were created. 

The monthly reports subsequent to this date (January 12) show 
that the First Division was commanded by Brig. -Gen. I. N. Palmer, 
the Second Division by Brig.-Gen. Henry M. Naglee, the Third 
Division by Brig.-Gen. O. S. Ferry, the Fourth Division by Brig.- 
Gen. Henry W. Wessells, the Fifth Division by Brig.-Gen. H. 
Prince. The first North Carolina Union volunteers were com- 
manded by Capt. C. A. Lyon, the artillery brigade by Brig.-Gen. 
J. H. Lcdlie, and the Third New York Cavalry by Col. S. H. Ali.x. 

The Fourth Division, General Wessells, comprised the two 
brigades of Hunt and Stevenson as defined in General Order 
No. 84 above. 

Under this organization the Fort}--fourth Massachusetts Regi- 
ment was in the Second Brigade of the Fourth Division of the 
Eighteenth Army Corp.'^. with Major-General Foster as our corps 
commander, Brig.-Gen. Henry W. Wessells our division com- 
mander, and Brig.-Gen. Thomas G. Stevenson our brigade 

' There has been considerable discussion among our members as to which divi- 
sion we belonged to. The writer has examined carefully all the jiapers on file at the 
State House, including the regimental order-book, and all the uiticial documents in 
Washington to which he could get access. He has failed to find any order assigning 
the regiment to the Fourth Division, while there is one (flc-ncral Order No. 14) 
assigning it to the Fir>t : yet all the ofiicial papers subsequent to January ij speak 
of Geneial Wessells as in comtiiand of the F.iurth Division. So far as we can see, 
there is at present nu means of settling the question s;3ti^factorily. 


Our corps commander, Jolin G. Foster, Major-Gcneral of 
Volunteers, -was born in Xew Hampsliirc in 18^4, was graduated 
at West Point in 1846, and appointed a brevet second lieutenant 
in the corps of engineers. He was brevettcd as first lieutenant for 
gallantry during the Mexican War at Contreras and Chcrubusco, 
Aug. 20, 1847, and as captain for gallantry at Alolino del Rey, 
Sept. 8, 1S47, where he was one of the party which stormed the 
Mexican works and was severely wounded. He was assistant 
professor of engineering at West Point in 1854, became a cap- 
tain Jul}' I, i860, and was brevetted as major, Dec. 26, 1S60. 
On April 28, 1858, he took charge of the fortifications in North 
and South Carolina, which duty he was performing on the break- 
ing out of the Civil War in 1861. He was one of the garrison 
of Fort Sumter under ?iIajor Anderson, and participated in the 
defence of that fort. After its surrender he was employed upon 
the fortifications of Xew York. He was appointed a brigadier- 
general of volunteers, Oct. 23, 1861, and commanded a brigade 
in the Burnside expedition, taking a leading part in the capture 
of Roanoke Island and New Berne. After the capture of Xew 
Berne he was made governor of that place. In August, 1862, 
he was appointed major-general of volunteers. After General 
Burnside left X'orth Carolina to join the Army of the Potomac, 
General Foster became the commander of the department, and 
on the creation of the Eighteenth Army Corps he was appointed 
to the command. 

From July 15 to Nov. 15, 1863, he was in command of the 
Department of \'irginia and North Carolina. P^rom Dec. 12, 
1863, to Feb. 9. 1864, he commanded the Army and Department 
of the Ohio. This command he was obliged to relinquish on 
account of severe injuries which resulted from, a fall from his 
horse. After remaining two months on sick leave at Baltimore, 
he assumed command of the Department of the South, retaining 
it from ^lay 26, 1864, to Feb. 11, 1865. From August, 1865, to 
December, 1866, he commanded the Department of Florida. 
He was mustered out of the volunteer ser\'ice, September, 1866, 
and died at Nashua, N. H., Sept. 2, 1874. 

General Foster was made Lieutenant-Colonel in the Engineers 
of the regular army ?*Iarch 7, 1867; and was brevetted March 13, 

,11 ..;-. ! .; .,,.>^'i .:■": 71.-.' ., (1 u 


1865, Brigadier-General ami Major-Gencrai, also of the regular 

By a general order dated Xew Berne, Jan. 12, 1863, the follow- 
ing-named Lifiiccrs were announced as constituting the staff of the 
major-general commanding : — 

Brig.-Gen. Edward E. Totter, chief of staff. 
Lieut.-Col. Soutiiard Hoffman, assistant adjutant-general. 
Capt. James H. Strong, aide-de-camp and assistant adjutant and in- 
spector general. 
Maj. J. L. Stackpole, JLidge-ad\ocate. 
!Maj. John F. Anderson, senior aide-de-camp. 
Maj. Edward X. Strong, aide-de-camp. 
Capt. George E. Gourand, aide-de-camp. 
Capt. Louis Fit/gcrald, aide-de-camp. 
Capt. Daniel Messinger, provost marshal. 
Lieut.-Col. Herman Briggs, chief quartermaster. 
Capt. J. C. Slaght, assistant quartermaster. ''"' 

Capt. Henry Porter, assistant quartermaster. 
Capt. William Holden, assistant quartermaster. 
Capt. J. J. Bowen, assistant quartermaster. 

Lieut. Joseph A. Goldthwaite, acting commissary of subsistence. 
Surg. F. G. Snelling, medical director. 

Lieut. F. W. Farquhar, United States Engineer Corps, chief engineer. 
Lieut. M. F. Prouty, acting ordnance otiicer. 
Lieut. J. Myers, United States Ordnance Corps, ordnance officer. 

Our division commander, Henry \V. Wcssclls, was born in 
Litchfield, Conn., Feb. 20, 1809. At the age of nineteen he 
entered a military school at iMiddletown, Conn., and the following 
year went to West Point, where he was graduated in 1833. He 
was brevetted second lieutenant in the Second Infantry; was 
engaged in the Creek War in Georgia in 1835, and the Seminole 
War in Florida in 1S37-43; was promoted to be first lieuten- 
ant in 1S3S, and captain in 1S47; was brevetted major for 
gallantry at Contreras and Chcrubusco during the Alexican war, 
in the former of which engagements he was wounded. After 
the close of the war with .Mexico he went with his regiment to 
California, and thence in 1S54 to Kansas and Nebraska. In June, 
1 861, he was appointed major in the Sixth Infantry. During the 
winter of iSui-62 he was granted leave of absence and organized 


the Eighth Regiment of Kansas Volunteers. In the spring of 
1863 he joined his own regiment before Yorktown in General 
Sikes's command, and was wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks. 
He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, April 25, 
1862, serving in the Department of Virginia, Major-General Dix. 
In December, 1862, he was transferred from the Department of 
Virginia to the Department of North Carolina. In May, 1863, he 
was assigned to the defence of Plymouth, N. C, which place he 
was compelled to surrender, April 20, 1864, after a fight of four 
days, and was taken prisoner and held until August, when ex- 
changed. He was mustered out of the volunteer service, January, 
1866. In February, 1863, he was appointed a lieutenant-colonel in 
the Eighteenth Regular Infantry. He was retired Jan. I, 1S71. 

Our brigade commander, Thomas G. Stevenson, was born at 
Boston in the year 1836. He became an active member of the 
State Militia, rising from the ranks to become major of the Fourth 
Battalion of Massachusetts Infantry, which body, under his care 
and instruction, attained a high degree of excellence in discipline 
and drill. In the fall of 1861 he was commissioned colonel of 
the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers. He participated 
in the battles of Roanoke Island and New Berne. In an official 
report, dated New Berne, Nov. 12, 1862, to the War Department, 
after the Tarboro' expedition. General Foster writes : — 

" I recommend Colonel Stevenson, for his efficient ser\-ices on this march 
and in the affair at Little Creek and Rawle's Mills, as well as previous 
ser\-ice3 at the batde of Roanoke Island and New Berne, be promoted to 
the rank of brigadier-general." 

In November, 1862, Colonel Stevenson was appointed brigadier- 
general. In the Richmond campaign of 1864 he commanded a 
division of the Ninth Corps, and lost his life at Spottsylvania 
Court House, May 10, 1864. 

With this description of New Berne, the forces which occupied 
it, and the commanders under whom the Forty-fourth served, 
this chapter might be considered as complete; but it may be 
well to include here one or two incidents connected with our 
stay in the town which do not come within the scope of any 
other chapter. 


In January the Twcnty-foiirtli Massachusetts and Tct;;:h Con- 
necticut of our brii;ade, under General Stevenson, were sent with 
other regiments of the Ei^^hteenth Army Corps, first to I'eaufort, 
N. C, and thence to South Carohna, where they joined tlie forces 
operating against Charleston. 

The concentration of troops in North Carolina, and their sub- 
sequent embarkation at Beaufort, puzzled and alarmed the Con- 
federate authorities, who anticipated a simidtaneous attack upon 
Weldon at the north and Wilmington at the south. General D. 
H. Hill was assigned to the command of the troops in North Caro- 
lina, then (Feb. i, 1S63) composed of Daniels's and Pettigrcw's 
infantry brigades, Robertson's cavalry brigade, and some artil- 
lery. In March, Garnett's brigade, from Petersburg, was ordered 
to report to Hill. 

When it was ascertained that Charleston, and not Wilmington, 
was the objective point of the new expedition. General Hill 
planned a strong movement against New pjernc and the other 
Federal positions along the coast. About this time General 
Foster wrote to the War Department: — 

" I have received information that the corps of M:ijor-General D. H. Hill 
is within the limits of this State and that he commands this department. I 
referred, in my last letter, to some iron-elads being constructed on the Tar 
and Roanoke Rivers. I understand that the iron-clad on the Roanoke 
River is neariy completed, and to prevent its being destroyed b}- our gim- 
boats before it is ready for service, the enemy have assemUcd a large 
force at Hamilton, said to be 7,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry, and seven 
batteries of between six and eight pieces each. The fortifications at Rain- 
bow Bluff, just below Hamilton, destroyed by me last November, are being 
repaired and heavy guns being mounted from Weldon. A considerable 
force is at Weldon, and the enemy are busily engaged in fortif)ing that 
point. ... To prevent the enemy from putting their threat into execution 
of taking the town of Plymouth, taking the gunboats or driving ihem out 
of the river, I propose to reinforce that point, nnd at the saiiK- time I 
have prepared a strong reconnaissance, under General Prince, to move 
in the direction of Wilmington antl so prevent too great an accumulation 
of force on the Roanoke until such time as I shall be strong enough to 
attack with advatitJge. The command is only waiting for a suitable con- 
dition of the roads to move, the recent rains having rendered tiiem almost 


As before stated, General Mill's force was increased by the 
arrival of Garnett's brigade on the loth of March. The com- 
bined force numbered some 15,000 men. On the nth of March 
General Hill moved his army towards Xew Berne. On the after- 
noon of Friday, March 13, the enemy's scouts were seen in various 
directions. Belger's Battery, the Fifth and Twenty-fifth Massa- 
chusetts Regiments, were sent out on the Trent road, leading 
towards Kinston. At dawn on the 14th a strong force under 
the Confederate General Pettigrew placed sixteen guns in posi- 
tion near a small fort opposite the town on the north, across the 
Neuse River. This fort was almost directly opposite the camp 
of the Forty-fourth ^lassachusetts Regiment. Two or three 
thousand infantry supported the artillery. They came into a 
clearing about sixty yards from the fort and began a rapid 
fire of shell and canister. After a few rounds they sent in to 
Colonel Anderson, of the Ninety-second New York (four hun- 
dred and fifty of whom held the place), a flag of truce, demand- 
ing a surrender, saying that a combined attack was to be made 
that day on New Berne, and that resistance was useless. To 
gain time for the gunboats to get into position, Colonel Ander- 
son asked for half an hour to send and consult General Foster. 
The flag of truce went back, and returned granting the half-hour, 
and when the time had expired, returned again for the response. 
Colonel Anderson replied, " My orders are to hold this place, 
and I shall never surrender it." During this interval the Con- 
federates had put all their guns in position, straightened their 
lines, and formed their infantry in three lines behind the guns. 
General Pettigrew was mounted on a large white horse, and was 
constantly riding up and down the lines, giving orders. When 
the flag of truce went back the third time, and the result was 
known, the Confederates opened a rapid and terrific fire. The 
men in the fort, not wishing to show their strength, lay close 
behind the sand wall and waited for a charge. The soldiers in 
the fort prepared for the expected charge by biting off car- 
tridges and putting them up before them on the logs, so as to 
be ready to fire fast. The camp in the fort was completely rid- 
dled with balls. A thirty-pound Parrott threw shells across 
the ri\-er, striking near our cam.p. The Union gunboats came 

I ■ , li., ■ :■<"■■■ ■!■' 


around from the Trent River, ;uid getting into position, began 
a vigorous shelling of the woods beyond the fori, causing the 
enemy to retire. A thirt\--poimd siege-gun of the enemy buist, 
and killed a number of their own men. In the afternoon 
they attempted to creep up anil plant a batter}- in tlie wood?, 
but were prevented from so doing by the constant shelling of the 

About noontime a train of platform cars with a locomotive in 
the rear stopped before the camp of the Fifth Rhode Island. In 
twenty minutes that regiment was on the train and moved rapidly 
out to the camp of the Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, doing 
picket duty some eight miles out from New Berne, on the Kinston 
road. Reports came that a force of 8,ooo or men, with 
thirty pieces of artillery and some cavalr\-, had reached a point on 
the flank of the picket force nearer New Berne than they were. 
Colonel Jones, of the Fifty-eighth Pcnnsj'lvania Regiment, com- 
manding the picket-post, was ordered, if pressed, to retire on New 
Berne, fighting his way as he came in. At dusk the outer pickets 
were driven in. At night tattoo was beaten at several points and 
the cars were kept running, to give the enemy the impression tliat 
a large force was near. The entire force in and around the town 
were kept constantly under arms. Everj' preparation was made 
for an attack. 

After threatening the town at various points, the enemy during 
the night disappeared from New Berne. It was supposed that 
Washington, N. C, might be in danger, and to reinforce and 
strengthen the garrison of that town, on the following day 
(March 15) eight companies of the Forty-fourtl-. Massachu- 
setts Regiment were ordered to Washington. Companies B and 
F of the regiment were at this time doing picket duty at Batch- 
elder's Creek, a few miles out of New Berne towards Kinston. 
Between this date (March 15") and April 22 the main body of the 
regiment was at Washington, N, C, the greater part of the time 
surrounded and hemmed in by the Confederate troops under 
General D. H. Mill, as narrated in another chapter. 

General Foster was with the small force at Washington, N. C, 
during the siege of that town. During his absence Brig.- 
Gen. I. N. Palmer, commanding First Di\ision of Eigliteentli 


Army Corps, was in command at Xcw Berne. On April J, 1863, 
he wrote from New Berne to the War Department, stating that 
General Foster was at Washington, N. C, and that that place 
was being attacked by the enemy in force; that there were only 
parts of two regiments there as garrison; and that three regi- 
ments and a battery of artillery had been sent him, but they were 
unable to reach there, the eneni}- having two batteries on the 
river below tiic town. Commander Davenport, United States 
Navy, sent from New Berne all the available gunboats to engage 
the batteries. The enemy were reported as being in large force 
in North Carolina, and as acting on the offensive. On the same 
date (April i) an urgent request by letter was made by General 
Palmer to Major-General Dix, commanding Department of Vir- 
ginia at Fortress Monroe, for assistance. He says: " There is a 
fair prospect of success for the Rebels at Washington [N. C], and 
if they succeed this place will be attacked. I only suggest to 
you, General, as ' food for thought,' whether it would not be best 
to reinforce this place with, say, 5,000 men temporarily. . . . 
We are sadly in need of gunboats." 

In response to this request General Di.K made preparations to 
send assistance, and had actually embarked a portion of his com- 
mand on transports for that purpose, v.hen General Longstreet 
made an attack on his front, which necessitated the withdrawal 
of the troops from the transports, and their detention in that 

An attempt was made to relieve Washington by a force sent 
overland from New Berne, which was unsuccessful. On the 
8th of April an expedition left New Berne for the purpose of 
relieving Washington, under the command of General Spinola. 
They had gone but a short distance when they found themselves 
confronted by a large force of the enem\-, v.ith batteries arranged 
to command the roads approaching in that direction. The 
bridges had been cu; away, and breastworks erected command- 
ing every approach. Finding the contest so unequal, and the 
possibility of advancing so small, General Spinola ordered his 
command to fall back, and returned to New Berne. At mid- 
night of the 14th of .\pril the transport " Escort," with the Fifth 
Rhode Ibland Regiment on board, ran the blockade on the Tar 


River, and passed the batteries, reaching Wasliington. On the 
following day General Foster left Washin-ton on the " Escort," 
passed the batteries, and, reachinn; New Berne, collected his force 
and marched to Washington, to be successful relief of that 




J- - 



r\ ATTLE is merely an incident 
n the life of a soldier. The 
arger part of his service is 
spent in preparing for it. His 
experience might be compared 
with that of the professional 
athlete who devotes months to 
training for a contest which a 
few seconds will decide. In 
foreign nations which maintain 
large standing armies most of 
this preliminary work is accom- 
plished in time of peace, but in 
ours it had to be done while in 
actual conflict. Undue haste 

_^ in forcing battle subjected us 

to the disastrous defeat of Bull 
Run, — a defeat which was not an actual misfortune, as it taught 
the nation that the soldier's profession demanded capacity and 
experience, and that armies could not be made effective until 
they had attained a certain homogeneity which time and dis- 
cipline alone could give. For this reason, among others, much 
of the time of most regiments, at least in the early part of the 
war, was passed in camp. 

On our main lines of operation there was more or less con- 
stant fighting; but at many places along the coast held by us 
mainly as bases for future operations our forces were not large 

1" ■-•-! V 


enough to take tlic offensive on any cxtciuin! scale, and there- 
fore a few days of active, hard, spirited i\orl; ucre followed by 
longer periods of inaction. This was t'uc casf in our depart- 
ment; and altliough not the most iniportaiU part of our ser\ice, 
our life in camp was not the least, interest;; ly-. 

Our barracks not being completed at tl'.e time we reached 
New Berne, some of the comjianies were (.inaitf-red in tents for 
a few days, and almost as soon as we had rjaiMved to the bar- 
racks were sent otf on the Tarboro' expedition. Part of the 
regiment returned to New Berne on the iii;:;ht of Thursday, 
November 13; but the rest did not land till tlie following noon, 
as their steamer had been delayed. We went immediately to 
our barracks, and our camp life in the Soalh I'airly began. On 
the 17th Colonel Lee issued Special Order No. 6: — 

"As a slight demonstration of the affection and esteem we have all 
learned by our recent experiences to feel for our present commanding 
officer, it is ordered that the present ngimenlal camp be hereafter known 
and denoted as Camp Stevenson, and all letters ami orders shall hereafter 
be so dated." 

The name "Camp Stevenson" was retained as long as we 
remained on tlie old " Fair Ground." 

The camp was very pleasanll)' located. It was situated on 
the southerly side of the Neuse, very nearly on the river-bank, 
a short distance westerly from the town. After passing the rail- 
road station we came to the quartermaster's stables and cavalry 
corral on the right and the Go\-ernment wood-\-ard on the left; 
then the camp of the Twenty-fourth Massachu.setts on the right; 
crossed a small stream spanncil b}- a light wooden bridge, and 
our camp-ground was reached. Our line of sentries extended 
from the river along the stream to the bridge, near which our 
guard-house was placed, then at right angle- to the stream and 
parallel to the river for quite a distance, again turning at right 
angles and thence running norlhorl)- to the river. 

Beyond us were the camps of the Third and Forty-sixth 
Massachusetts. 0[)posite to ours, but ftrlhcr from the river, 
and reached bj- the same bridge we have mentioned, was that 
of the Tenth Connecticut, one of the best regiments in the 
ser\-ice. It might be appropiiatc to menti'ja here that the 


young lady, a resident of Stamford, who presented a standard 
to this regiment just before it left for the seat of war, afterwards 
became the wife of Charles H. Demcritt, of Company D, Forty- 
fourth Massachusetts. The drill-ground, which was used in 
common by all the regiments of our brigade, was west of the 
camp of the Tenth, and southwesterly from our own. 

The barracks were situated nearly equidistant horn the easterly 
and westerly boundaries, but much nearer the road than they 
were the river. They consisted of a long wooden building, one 
half of which was parallel to the river and the other half at right 
angles to it, each part being divided into five apartments about 
fifty feet front by thirty-eight feet deep, an apartment being 
assigned to each company. Those at right angles to the river 

were occupied by the companies of the right wing, and those 
parallel to the river by the companies of the left wing. The line 
officer's quarters were in separate buildings erected at either 
end of the barracks, a room being assigned to each company, 
and the tents of the held and staff were pitched in front of the 
wing occupied by the right flank and parallel to it. The cook- 
houses — one to each company and one to its officers — were 
built on to the rear of the barracks and officers' quarters, and 
the quartermaster and commissary building was in the re-entrant 
angle formed by the two wings of the barracks. The guard-tent 
was pitched close by the bridge, and the sutler's quarters — a 
structure about the size of a compan\- barrack — was built a 
short distance easterly of the end of the building occupied by 
the left wing. .!..,,., 


The right flank is tlie post of honor in regimental line; next 
in importance comes the left flank; then the right centre, the 
position of the color company, etc. L'sually these positions are 
determined b}- the sonority of the captains ; but where the com- 
missions bear the same date they are arbitrarily assigned by the 
colonel. Beginning at the right, the company whose captain 
held the oldest commission would naturally be number one; 
the captain who was sixth in rank would be second in line, etc. ; 
the order being as follows : — 

Position in line i — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 — 7 — 8 — 9 — 10 

Position in rank i — 6 — 4 — 9 — 3 — S — 5 — 10 — 7 — 2 

Soon after we went into camp at Readville the companies were 
assigned positions in the following order : — 

H— C— E— I— F— D— B— K— C— A 

On November 21 this order was changed, Company A being 
given the right flank, and the new order was — 

A— D— E— G— C— K— H— I— B— F 

This arrangement lasted for some time. December 28, Cap- 
tain Reynolds resigned on account of ill health, and for the same 
reason Captain Jacob Lombard followed his example January 14. 
There were not many changes in our roster, but such as there 
were it may be well to particularize here. Dr. Ware died 
April 10, and Assistant-Surgeon Fisher was promoted to Surgeon 
on the same day. March 26, Daniel McPhee was commissioned 
assistant-surgeon. May 29, our youthful and popular adjutant, 
Wallace Hinckley, was transferred to the corresponding position 
in the Second Heavy Artillery, and was succeeded by E. C. John- 
son, first lieutenant of Company H. In Company B, P~irst Lieu- 
tenant F. H. Forbes resigned Oct. 13, 1862, before we left 
Readville. Second Lieutenant J. A. Kenrick was promoted to 
the first lieutenancy, and Charles C. Soule, at that time serving 
as a private in Company F, appointed second lieutenant.^ On 
the acceptance of the resignation of Captain Jacob Lombard, 
George Lombard was commissioned captain of Company C, and 
William Hedge, formerly sergeant in the same compan\', elected 
first lieutenant. Second Lieutenant 15riggs of that company was 

I Lieutenant Soule had been adjutant of the F.xirth Battalion. See p.ige rS. 


i i' 

I. rr.r 


away from the regiment on permanent detail. Alfred S. Hart- 
well, first lieutenant of Cumpany F, having resigned to accept a 
commission in the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, Second Lieutenant 
Theodore E. Taylor was promoted, and P'irst Sergeant Horace S. 
Stebbins appointed second lieutenant. Captain Reynolds's resig- 
nation was followed by the promotion of Lieutenant Weld to be 
captain, Second Lieutenant Brown to be first lieutenant, and 
Sergeant John Parkinson, Jr., to be second lieutenant. These 
were the only changes among the commissioned officers. After 
Lieutenant Johnson's promotion to the adjutancy, Lieutenant 
Howe acted as first, and Sergeant Mulliken as second lieutenant, 
but no record can be found of their having been commissioned. 
These changes made necessary a readjustment of the line and 

on '■ the companies took position as follows : — 

A— G— H— K— E— I— D— C— B— F 
This was their order at the time the regiment was mustered out 
of service. 

When an army is in motion and rarely bivouacs two successive 
nights on the same ground, it is impossible to carry routine and red 
tape to such an extent as when occupying a camp that is relatively 
permanent. Camp duty does not vary much; and the following 
order, which was put in force soon after our return from Tar- 
borough, describes essentially the routine of most regiments : — 

Reveille 6 a. m. 

Breakfast 7 a. m. 

Morning report 7.15 a. m. 

Surgeon's call 7.303.10. 

Guard mounting 8 a. m. 

Squad drill under sergeants 8.30 to 10 a.m. 

Drill for commissioned officers under lieutenant-colonel 10 to 11 a. m. 

Rifle drill for sergeants under major 10 to 11 a.m. 

Company drills, corporals .icting sergcints . . . . 1 1 to 1 2 a. m. 

Block drill for sergeants under captains 11 to 12 a.m. 

Dinner 1 2 a. m. 

First sergeant's call i p. m. 

Company drill 1.30 

Battalion drill 3 to 4 p. m. 

Company parade 4.30 p.m. 

,■) ' Have been unable to ascertain the date. :■•''" 


Dress parade 5 p. m. 

Supper . . 6 p. m. 

Tattoo and roll-call 7.30 p.m. 

Taps 8.30 p. m. 

Few of our men were used to earl>' rising, and having to turn 
out before daylight was a new and not altogether welcome expe- 
rience to most of them. To be sure, we were obliged to retire 
early, but that was merely aggrava- iiv^ the matter. After reveille 
came a trip to the river, where thj- -Men could enjoy a good swim 
or wade as preferred, and tlicn .1;. y returned to the barracks, 
where breakfast was served. H.nvevor much some of us might 
have been disposed to shirk drill caul guard duty, it was very 

seldom that one attempted to shirk his rations. The food fur- 
nished was ample in quantity and generally of excellent quality, 
although our cooks would have scarcely found favor at Del- 
monico's. Young's, or Parker's. TIil armj- ration consisted of 
twelve ounces of pork or bacon, or one pound and four ounces 
of salt or fresh beef; one pound and six ounces of bread or 
flour, or one pound of hard bread, or one pound and four ounces 
of corn meal to each man. To each one hundred rations, fifteen 
pounds of beans or peas and ten jiounds of rice or hominy; ten 
pounds of green coffee, or eight [K.iiuds of roasted (or roasted 

CAMP LIl-E. 75 

and i,m-i>uir1) cutlcc, or one puiuul ani.1 cii^lit ounces of tea; fifteen 
poundi of >u;^ar; k.ur quarts of \ineL;ar; one pounil and four 
ounces of adamantine or star candles; four pounds of soap; 
three pounds and four ounces of salt; four ounces of pepper; 
one quart of molasses ; and when practicable, thirtj- pounds of 

The bill of fare was not in all respects such as most of us had 
been used to, but the food was wholesome, and our exercise in 
the open air gave us appetites to which many had heretofore 


m- . I- ,. /'"i', ' 

been strangers. Hunger pro\-cd an excellent sauce; but in spite 
of this appetizer there was some growling because we were not 
furnished with butter for our bread or milk for coffee. All of 
us tried to eke out the Go\-ernment rations with private supplies; 
and " goodies" from home were devoured witli far greater relish 
than when as children we assisted at the snrreiititious disappear- 
ances of pie or cake or jam from our mothers' pantries. 

Among the native delicacies to which we took very kindly 
from the start were sweot-potato pics, 'the negroes were adepts 
at this kind of co(-iI;erv, .uul many <if them made a comfortable 
income b>' suppljing the boys. There was a "white nigger" 


who was an especial favorite, and no matter how large his stock, 
it was always disposed of before he left camp. The darkies 
must have thought that "the day of jubilee" had actually arrived, 
as we are sure that the money they received from our regiment 
exceeded in amount the wildest expectations of their dreams, — 
that is, provided they were imaginative enough to indulge in 

After breakfast the first sergeants made their morning reports, 
and then came the surgeon's call. This was a general invitation 
to " the lame, the halt, and the blind " to appear before the 
doctor. We are glad to believe that as a rule few of our men 
answered this call unless they were actually ill ; but the knowledge 
that the surgeons had power to excuse men from duty was a 
great temptation to some when they felt lazy, as all do at times. 
It was amusing to watch those who reported ; to see the different 
expressions of countenance and hear the different stories each 
would tell. The stereotyped formula of the surgeon was : " Let 
me see your tongue. Barnaby, give this man some C. C. drops." 
" Barnaby, give this man half dozen compound cathartic pills." 
" Barnaby, give this man a dose of castor-oil." " What do j'ou 
mean by coming here? There's nothing the matter with you. 
Go to your quarters." Occasionally a case would require more 
attention than could be given in barracks, when the man would 
be sent to the regimental hospital ; and if the accounts of those 
who went are reliable, nowhere could one have received better 
care or kinder treatment than was given by our surgeons and 
their assistants. Some who never reported at surgeon's call but 
once or twice, thought the surgeons were unnecessarily severe; 
but it was often difficult to discriminate. Among one thousand 
men there must always be a percentage under medical treatment, 
but we think the general health of our regiment compared favor- 
ably witli that of any in the department.' 

Then came guard mounting. The detail was usually announced 
at tattoo roll-call the previous evening. The ceremony was a 
dress parade in miniature, with some additions and a few sub- 
tractions. General!}-, quite an audience assembled to witness it. 
After the ritual as laid down in the Army Regulations had been 
full)' complied with, the old guard was relieved and dismissed. 


and the care of the camp placed in charge of the new guard for 
the succeeding twenty-four hours. 

Guard duty was in some respects very pleasant. The turn 
was two hours on and four off, although the men were not 
allowed to leave the vicinity of the guard-tent without permis- 
sion when off duty. Some of the posts were very desirable. In 
stormy weather the colonel was always considerate, and sentries 
that could be spared were relieved from their posts and allowed 
to return to their quarters. At least once during the twenty-four 
hours they were called out to receive the " grand rounds." When- 
ever a general officer, the commandant of the camp, or the officer 
of the day, approached the guard-house it was expected that the 
guard would be turned out; but the colonel, and generally the 
officer of the day, were satisfied with receiving this honor once 
from each guard, and left word not to turn it out a second time. 
Before reporting for duty each man was required to don his 
dress suit, have his boots nicely polished, his brasses bright, his 
gun clean, his gloves of spotless white, etc. If a soldier trans- 
gressed in any particular he received some very fatherly advice 
given in a very paternal manner. Sentries were required to carry 
their pieces as prescribed in the Army Regulations, to salute all 
commissioned officers passing near their beats, to prevent un- 
authorized persons from entering the confines of the camp, and 
to preserve order generally. If a sentry wished to be relieved 
for any purpose he had to call for the corporal of the guard and 
give the number of his post. Some of our men could not get 
this idea, and none of us will ever forget the call of " Corporal of 
the Guard, Post Nagle." The soldier who instituted this call was, 
by the way, one of the best men in the regiment, and whatever 
orders he recei\-ed were always obeyed to the letter. After being 
on duty the men were excused from the time they were relieved 
in the morning until dress parade that afternoon. 

Camp guard was pleasant enough, but few if any of the men 
enjoyed being detailed for police guard. The duties of the latter 
were that of cleaning up camp, for which many thought a fox-ce 
of contrabands should have been regularly engaged ; and there 
were few in the regiment who would not willingly have paid 
any reasonable assessment to provide a substitute. There was 


nothing especially fascinating; in sweepiiv,; i:j) tlic camp-grounds, 
particularly when as large as ours, in cnipl\ i:ig ^'will-pails, digging 
sinks, etc. ; but the work had to be done, antl some one had to 
do it. There was one satisfaction, however, — we could wear our 
old clothes and did not wear our equipnv.its ; and from guard 
mounting in the morning to dress parade in the afternoon, except 
when actually engaged in work — a periMi'. mrt.-ly exceedi;<g three 
hours — our time was our own. 

As soon as guard mounting \\as finislu u, all the men excepting 
those on guard or who had ju^t come otV, tin; detailed men, and 
those on sick leave, were taken out for company drill. The 
number was rarely more than half the crToccive strength of the 
company. The length and severity of drill varied materially, 
some of the officers keeping their men liard at work during 
the whole of the time assigned, whllo others gave frequent 
" rests," and brought their companies intn cajnp long before its 

After dinner came'company drill again, and then battalion drill. 
Occasionalh' the programme was divcrsii'io.l \>y a brigade drill 
under General Stevenson. The labor of ni\ paring f<ir the dress 



parade which followed was not inconsiderable, as we usually re- 
turned from drill hot, tired, and dusty, and it was essential that 
on parade we should appear in apple-pie order. A regiment of 
bootblacks would have found business excellent had they visited 
us about that time in the day. Apropos of dress parade. On 
leaving Read\-i!le we thought the regiment was well drilled, and 
probably it was, compared with the militia generally ; but the first 
time we saw the Tenth Connecticut go through the Manual, it 
was a revelation to us; and although before being mustered 
out we had undoubtedly attained nearly or quite as great pro- 
ficiency, none will ever forget the feeling of despair which 
came over us at the idea of ever being able to equal such pre- 
cision. Supper immediately followed dress parade. Later came 
tattoo and roll-call and finally taps, at which sound all hghts in 
the quarters of enlisted men were extinguished and the day was 

Saturda}' afternoon we often had inspection of barracks, and 
Sunday morning came the regular weekly inspection. Saturday 
was " cleaning-up day." The officers were very particular about 
the condition of camp and barracks. The least thing amiss was 
quickly noticed. One plan adopted soon after our arrival at 
New Berne to promote good order and cleanliness, which proved 
very successful, was to detail a corporal in charge of each com- 
pany barrack for a v.-eek at a time. The officer of the day would 
send in a detailed report to headquarters, and the company that 
he reported " best " was excused from guard duty for the follow- 
ing day, the men who would otherwise have gone on guard were 
furloughed, and the company he reported " worst " had to furnish 
double its allotted number of men. The competition betiveen the 
companies was very keen and often it was difficult to decide. 
On Sunday morning each company was mustered in its own 
street; it formed in two ranks, and the inspecting officer made 
a careful examination of the condition of the uniforms, muskets, 
cartridge-boxes, knapsacks, etc. Woe unto the unlucky private 
who displayed anything contraband among his possessions or 
whose equipments were not up to the standard of brilliancy! 
As the officer passed down the ranks he would step in front of 
each soldier, examine his appearance carefull}-, take his musket. 


■a MASSACllL': 

IS 1M'A.\IRV. 

look scrutinizia;;;:' ::t tl-.e poliVlicJ work, tC5t the action of the 
lock, and then'i^ oi'.t the ramrod, which had been previously 
placed in the ba>ioi, rub the end of it across his immaculate 
white glove. If i' leic a mark, be it never so slight, the soldier 
was in a state cff-.r . :nl tremblin;.; till his doom was announced. 
One week a noa-c.jinniissioncd oflicer who had a constitutional 
aversion to hou^j-t;;.-.i'iing was detailed as " corporal of the bar- 
racks." The man w.i-, disposed to decline the honor, but in the 
army, resignations !'r<:ni the rank and file are not in order; he 

accordingly resolved if possible to win new laurels in this posi- 
tion, albeit in op!H.-;tipn to his instincts, and succeeded 
so well that his company was rclie\-cd from guard duty at least 
once if not twice tluring the week that he was in charge. En- 
couraged by succcr^. he was tempted to still higher eftort; and 
on Satuida\-, after liaving attended to his duties relating to the 
barracks, he turn.d liis attention to his own equipment. The 
labor spent in b i^h'cning and cleaning his musket, belt, car- 
tridge-box, and clL^rhos, the expense of rags, tripoli, and soap 
was simply enonni^r.--". Sunday morning dawned bright and 
sunny. The conii>;i;i\- ordered out for the regular weekly 
inspection. The Ci'jioral took his place in the front rank. 


confident that he would pass with flying colois. The inspecting 
officer wiped the musket with a clean handkerchief or a pair of 
white gloves. He gazed at the corporal with a look of great 
interest. The surgeon reached the spot. He looked at the 
young man's clothes and tlien at him. The corporal was de- 
lighted. He felt sure that he was to be publicly complimented; 
and his intuition was correct, for the surgeon, after a silent look 
at the inspecting officer as if for corroboration, exclaimed, " Cor- 
poral ,^ you 're the dirtiest man in the regiment ! " 

One of the boys, in writing home under date of November i6, 
says: "At 3 P. >l. yesterday (Saturday) had inspection by Gen- 
eral Foster, who complimented us highly. Said he never saw a 
better-looking set of men, — men who conducted themselves bet- 
ter, or kept their persons, equipments, and muskets in better con- 
dition. One of the boys in Company E, — John Wyeth, — in the 
skirmish a fortnight ago to-day had a bullet pass through the 
stock of his musket, partially shattering it. General Foster in- 
quired the cause, and being told the circumstances, said : ' Keep 
that musket, and send it home as a troph}- by which to remem- 
ber your first fight. I will see that you are provided with an- 
other, and as good a one as Uncle Sam can make.' That fellow 
grew half an inch while the general was talking to him." 

Soon after reaching New Berne, one by one our comrades 
would disappear from daily drill or roll-call, and on making in- 
quiries regarding the cause, we would learn that they had been 
detailed. The administration of an army corps, or even of a 
brigade, requires quite a force of clerks at headquarters and in 
the various departments, few of whom are civilians; and details 
were made for duty not onl}- in our own camp, but at brigade, 
division, and corps headquarters. A part of the time the regi- 
ment was without its colonel, as he was commanding the brigade, 
his place being supplied by Lieutenant-Colonel Cabot. One of 
the first men we lost from this cause was Lieutenant J. H. Blake, 
Jr., of Company D, who was on the staff of General Stevenson 
during the time we were in North Carolina. His detail was 
dated October 27. Lieutenants Briggs, of Company C, and 
Field, of Company L were most of the time on the signal corps, 

' Out of respect to his (rlencls tlie name of the man is suppressed. 



and other of uur ofi'■^:cr^ were away fur i 
while yet otlicrs, being in char'^e of spc 
with their companies. Aniont^ the \Tiri 
detailed men were assigned were those 
headquarter^ and deparlincnts, pione^ 
cians and members of the band, signa 
orderlies, cooks, harness-n.ial;ors, etc. 
pany D., was first assistant to the chi: 
Wheelock and Curtis, of 1", were on tli; 
Wheeler, of D, was sign-paintcr-in-chiL- 
it was currently reported that one of 
upon to rim ^Irs. Genera! Foster's sewing-machine. In some 
respects it was much more agreeable to be detailed than to re- 
main with the regiment; but, on the whole, wc rather think those 
who " stuck by the old Hag," even if ihc " appropriation " was 
small, had the best time. Among the p lyjcrs which the colonel 
has kindly loaned the commiticc is a li 
and members of the band, which will i 
to our readers : — 

wi.'.cr or shorter periods, 
iai work, did not do duty 
i.- positions to which the 
'!" clerks at the different 
■, ambulance men, musi- 
•^■0)[)s, wagoners, nurses, 

Min F. Bacon, of Com- 
f carpenter, Mr. Wilson ; 
y as draughtsmen; C. E. 

if the department; and 
he men had been called 

the drummers, fifers, 
ibtedly be interesting 





E. C. Lee . . . 

Co. A 


Co. 1^ N, H. Dadnmn . Co. A 

G. W Brooks . . 

'• B 

J. E. I.ei 

i-hton . 

'■ I) S. T. Sh.iclvford ' 

■ A 

I. Jones . . . 

" C 

C. K. Ci 

.litis . 

■ M T. F. Gibbs . ■ 

■' A 

G. VV. Springer . 

■' C 

E. P. U 

I,ham . 

■■ 1 E. Graef. . . ■ 

■ B 


•' D 

F. A.H:, 


■■ K A. Hemenway . ' 

• D 

G. F. Pulsifer . 

'• E 

C. H. Park . . 

• E 

J. H. Myers . . 

■' E 

E. A. Ramsay . ' 

■ E 

C. F. Morse . . 

" F 

N. H. Ingraliam ' 

u F 

J. M. Gibbs . . 

" F 

W. F. Ingraham 

■• F 

E. S. Fisher . . 

•' G 

C. Cobb ... 

•' F 

E. Hayden . . 

" H 

D. Cobb . . . 

" F 

F. O. Peterson . 

" H 

F. VV. Clapp . 

" H 

D. F Redman . 

•• 1 

C. E Hook. . ' 

" H 

C. A. Annable 

'• I 

C. E. Hovey . ■ 

'• H 

A. Fisher . . . 

'■ K 

E.S. Hemenway 
G. F. Hall . . 
H. A. Spe.-ir . 
I. A. Lewis . . 
j. Fowler . . 
H. 15. HaiLshorn 

" H 
•' I 
" K 
'• K 
" K 
" K 

From those who failed to stand the fi 
pedition a detachment was selected, st) 

'.es of the Tarboro' e.x- 
the " Invalid Guard," 


which was sent to garrison a block-liouse at Brice's Creek, a picket 
station some miles outside of New Berne. The duty was light, 
but the men say they were very lonesome. A list of these will 
be found on page 251. Several whose names appear here did not 
join the " block -house squad," as they were detailed to various 
positions in the town. As might be imagined, time hung heavily 
on the hands of those doing garrison duty at this out-of-the-way 
spot, and the men were always ready to welcome any incident 
that would break the monotony. An anecdote is told, more 
amusing to those who perpetrated the joke than to its victim. 
One day several of the men crossed the creek. After enjoying 
themselves for some time on the farther side, an alarm was given 
that the " Johnnies " were coming. All but one of the party 
rushed for the boat, and before their comrade could reach the 
shore, they were on their own side of the creek. It was too deep 
to ford, the man could not swim, the boys were calling to him 
that if he remained on the other side he would surely be cap- 
tured, and his entreaties " to bring over the boat " were heart- 
rending. After tormenting him until they were tired, the boat 
was sent for him and the joke explained ; but it is doubtful if he 
ever forgave the perpetrators. 

November 27 was Thanksgiving Day, and was celebrated very 
generally by the members of the Forty-fourth. On the 26th, at 
dress parade, General Order No. 9 was read: — 

" To-morrow being Thank.sgiving Day in this department, there will be 
no duties. Captains will issue twice the number of passes, and taps will 
not be beat till 10 p. m." 

All the men had been very much interested in the arrange- 
ments for this holiday. Companies A, C, E, F, and G had com- 
pany dinners, and Companies B and D di\ided up into squads. 
Diarists in H, I, and K fail to give an account of their doings. 
Each company celebrated on its own account. The most elabo- 
rate programme was laid out by Company A, a full account of 
which is contained in the diary lent the committee by Sergeant 
E. R. Rand, which, by the way, with that of Everett, of C, are 
two of the fullest and most interesting placed at their disposal. 
Most of the comrades of Company A followed the example of 


our friend Silas Wcc;g in the " Mutual Friend," and on this occa- 
sion " dropped into poetry." Althout^li somewhat of a machine 
character, the efiusions were replete with wit and personal allu- 
sions, and created a great deal of merriment. First Sergeant 
Edmands presided. .\. L. Butler, afterwards killed at Whitehall, 
was orator of the da>-, and his speech is reported in full in the 
"Bay State Forty-fourth," — a magazine to which reference will be 
made later in this chapter. Sergeant Clark read a poem after 
the style of " On Linden, when the sun was lov/," which began, 
" In New Berne, when the sun was high." Henry Lyon read an 
ode appropriate to the occasion, and then C. C. Murdock gave 
an account of the operations of the regiment up to that time, his 
style being evidently modelled after that of the " New Gospel of 
Peace." Hiram Hubbard, Jr., officiated as toast-master, and 
responses were made by Sergeant Clark, Captain Richardson, 
Lieutenant Coffin, Corporal Conant, and Sergeant Rogers. A 
letter was read from Colonel Lee, and there was frequent singing 
by the company. A song written by A. S. Bickmore was ren- 
dered by S. T. Shackford, and then Sergeant Rand read some 
machine poetry full of local hits, and introducing the name of 
every member of the company, with the exception of one which 
was inadvertently omitted. 

The bill of fare as given in bulk consisted of one barrel ham 
sandwiches, ten gallons oysters, one hundred pounds fresh 
beef, one and a half barrels apple-sauce, two barrels Baldwin 
apples, two kegs ginger-snaps, twelve " big " plum-puddings, 
and numerous smaller articles, with cigars ad libitnin. Ser- 
geant Rand, in conmienting on the dinner, notes: "Sat down 
with tightly buttoned coats, but — " Language probably failed 

One mess of eighteen men from Company B went down town 
to dinner. The\- paid fifty cents per plate, and the uicmi con- 
sisted of fried trout, roast beef, beefsteak, roast goose, onions, 
sweet and Irish potatoes, and apple and potato pies. 

In Company F the after-dinner^ exercises were of rather a 
formal character, and were decidedly the most finished, from a 
literary stand]joint. Private Francis C. Mopkinson presided, and 
his speech was really eloquent. Company F had man}- graduates 

.! . oi. -n: 


and undergraduates of Harvard College in its ranks, and the 
University might well have been proud of its representation in 
that compan\'. During the exercises every available inch of 
space was occupied by men from other companies, and those 
who could not get into the barrack thronged the doors and win- 
dows. The Cobb brothers were as usual among the enter- 
tainers, and their music added not a little to the pleasure of 
the anniversary. 

In Company D there were a few set speeches, and some 
extemporaneous ones in response to a series of toasts, but no 
attempt at any elaborate performance. In Company G the lit- 
erary exercises followed immediately upon the dinner. Private 
E. G. Scudder presided, and responses were very general from 
members of the company. In the evening Companies E and D 
united in giving an entertainment in Company E's quarters, of 
which the following w^as the programme : — 


Song. — " Happy are we to-night, boys " . . . . 

Declamation. — " England's I nt^-rference " . . . F.S.Wheeler. 

Song. — " Oft in the stilly night " 

Declamation. — '• The Dying Alchemist " . . . ". S. G. Rawson. 

Readings. — Selections J. W. Cartwright. 

Song. — " Viva 1 'America " 

Declamation. — " Spartaciis to the Gladiators " . . J. H. Waterman. 
Declamation. — " The Beauties of Law " . . . . ' H. T. Reed. 

" Contraband's Visit " Myers and Bryant. 

Song. — " Gideon's Band " 



Song. — " Rock me to sleep, mother " 

Declamation. — '• Garibaldi's Entri5e to Naples " . G. H. Van Voorhis 

Song. — " There 's music in the air " 

Imitation of Celebrated Actors H. T. Reed. 

Declamation. — " Rienzi's Address to the Romans " . N. R. Tv.itchelj. 

Old Folks' Concert ( Father K-mp) 

^.^ Ending with '• Home, Sweet Home," by the audience. 


Companion '" .iw', H each li.ul an entertainment in the evening, 
but no report- iia. c been found, and the members of these com- 
panies, togeih •!- with those of 1!, I, and K, have failed to record 
the proceed ;:v^;^ S'j far as the historical committee have been 
a.blc to discjvj'-. 

At the Th.itiksgiving festivities in Company E's barracks Lieu- 
tenant Cii!n::l--i! 'A-'..- called upon for some remarks. Towards the 
end he said thee was a Boston man in camp gathering statistics, 
and among the ihings he wished to find out was how many of 
the men smolceu. The lieutenant thought it would be better to 
reverse the c[v.estion, and aslc how many did not smoke, and 
requested such " to stand up and be counted." Several arose, 
and among tin :n some of the most inveterate smokers in the 
comjiany, e\ident!\' desirous that the " statistics" should indicate 
Company E to be very abstemious. As soon as the men were 
on their feet, Ihe lieutenant remarked that he had some cigars, 
not quite enough, to supply the whole compan)-, but as there 
were so man>- non-smokers he thought they would go round; 
tho-e who did no: smoke of course must not take an}'. 

During the nmrning the men amused themsehes with football, 
ba.-ie-ball, etc., ruid in the evening Company A ga\-e a variety 
entertainment in the quarters, beginning with a mock dress 
parade under command of Sergeant Wilkins, and ending with 
dancing, singing, readings, and acrobatic performances, the bar- 
. racks being crowded by men from the other companies. 

Not an incident happened to mar the festi\itics of the pro- 
gramme; the J rescnce of friends who had heretofore passed this 
holiday with u^ being all that was needed to make our enjoyment 
perfect. Colonel Lee complimented the regiment in General 
Order Xo. ir, read at dress parade the following day: — 

" Colonel Lee desires to congratulate the comjianies of ills command 
on the success of tiieir Thanksgivinf; festivities, and to express his extreme 
satisf'.etion at tli.j orderly manner in which the d,a)- closed, and the sol- 
dierly discipline sbrnMi i?i the perfect silence of the camp after taps." 

It is no ea-x- m.ittcr to enforce strict discipline in a regiment, 
especially- whe:; the thousand men who compn-e it are young, 
active, and ovet thiwing with animal spirits. The writer enjoys a 


very wide acquaintance among his comrades of the Forty-fourth, 
and can conscientiously say that, so far as his knowledge extends, 
he does not believe there was a single member of the regiment 
who was maliciously inclined, or who disobeyed any order 
through a spirit of insubordination. The feeling of the men 
was well shown in the case of a member of Company D, a boy 
of only sixteen, who had been sent to the guard-house for im- 
pertinence to First Sergeant Tripp. On his release, he imme- 
diately hunted up the orderly and said to him, " You did just 
right to put me in the guard-house. I shouldn't have had a 
d — d bit of respect for you if you had n't It 's just what I de- 
served." As a rule, obedience in our camp was prompt and 
discipline excellent, but there were times when punishments were 

One of the most difficult problems to be solved by an officer 
is how to punish an infraction of the rules v.hen committed by 
but one or two men, and these undetected. The innocent then 
have to suffer with the guilty. One night about midnight there 
was a loud explosion in one of the barracks. Had it occurred 
twenty years later, it would doubtless have been attributed to dy- 
namite. Every one jumped from his bunk. The officers rushed 
in, and the captain, in a voice that expressed his feelings, de- 
manded the name of the person responsible for the disturbance. 
There was an awful pause. Probably not more than two or three 
men in the company knew the offender. " If I do not find out 
the name of the man who caused this trouble within one minute, 
I will have the whole company out for drill," thundered the cap- 
tain. The minute passed very rapidly. " Orderly, fall in Com- 
pany D for drill," was the command. The men fell in, the 
sergeants searched the bunks carefully so there should be no 
skulking, one poor fellow who had been sleeping through all the 
disturbance was rudely .iwakened and ordered to join his com- 
rades, — for what he knew not, — and the company marched out 
on the parade-ground. It was rather cold, and in going through 
the different manoeuvres the men showed very much more enthu- 
siasm than was absolutely necessary. After about half an hour 
the company was ordered back to the barracks, the captain being 
satisfied that his experiment was rather enjoyed by the boys. 


For :i long wbiK.- the sianding comindrum was, "Who put tlic 
pov.iicr in the stove ?" Company G and one or two of the other 
companies had a similar experience, with a Hke result. 

Company I licld the championship for throwing hard-tack. 
As voon as taps had sounded, " whiz " would go a piece of hard- 
tack from one end of the barrack, followed by a profane ejacula- 
tion from the man it chanced to hit at the other. At first the shots 
were scattering, then began " firing by file, firing by platoon," 
and finally, "volley by company." The officers endeavored to 
stop ihc performance, but their efforts were at first unsuccessful. 
One night a watchfiil lieutenant entered the barrack with a dark- 
lantern, prepared to turn its flash in the direction from which 
came the first shot One of the men, suspecting his design, crept 
from Jiis bunk, and throwing open the stove door, the light from 
the fire unmasked the intruder. The lieutenant seized the man 
and had him marched to the guard-house, where he passed the 
niglit in spite of his earnest protc.t>tations tliat he was merely 
going to replenish the fire. As "midnight drills " were apparently 
enji'}-c(l by the men, the officers adopted the novel plan of cut- 
ting off the hard-tack rations. This unheard-of severity created 
a consternation. Wen who would never touch a piece when able 
to get anything else, immediate!)' declared it was their main arti- 
cle of diet, and that they would inevitably star\-e if it were not 
furnished. The sudden hunger for hard-tack was amazing. 
Company I appealed to the others by means of notices posted 
throughout the camp, and it was not long before the most gen- 
erous contributions began to arrive. The excitement lasted a 
day or two; but the cajUain finall}- talked to the men, they ac- 
knowledged they had been wrong, and the rations were restored. 
Allusion to this incident is made in the opera. 

Almost as soon as our camp was established, contrabands 
began to throng in. They could be hired for a very small sum, 
and in a few dajs there was scarcely a mess in the regiment that 
had not engaged a servant. It was quite con\enicnt to call on 
some one to wash your tin plate or dipper, or polish your boots, 
or dust your coat, instead of ha\ing to perform these menial 
duties for yourself; but there were so man\' emplo\eti that they 
soon became a nuisance, and on December 4, much to the 

.. ■■, .... : ./ ■.- ;'t >'H.b 7/ 

■(.■'■ ■'] J.'.r. ,-T, . r, by-^h-^ii 

CAMP LIFE. • 89 

regret of most of us, an order was issued sending out of camp all 
negroes not servants of commissioned officers, or provided with 
a pass granted by one of our field officers. Some of the ser- 
geants and a few of the corporals succeeded in retaining the 
contrabands they had engaged ; but as a rule the order was rigidly 

Notwithstanding that the prescribed orders of camp routine 
provided some occupation for almost every minute in the day, 
we found many leisure hours. Rainy days there were when 
drilling could not be thought of; the guard was excused on the 
day following its term of duty ; there were always several oft" on 
account of illness ; and in one way and another we had a good 
deal of time at our own disposal. 

Nothing gave us more pleasure than to receive a large number 
of letters when our assistant-postmaster Fish distributed the mail, 
and those whose names were not called might have served an 
artist as a study for " Disappointment." We have sometimes 
thought it impossible for any regiment to have devoted more 
attention to letter-writing than we did. At any hour of the day, 
from reveille to taps, some of the boys would be found with 
paper and pencil, jotting down for the inforrruation of their friends 
incidents of their daily life. On the march or in the camp it 
was the same, and at every halt out would come the unfinished 
letter and a few lines be added before the order " Forward " was 
given. We had some regular newspaper correspondents in our 
ranks, and the list of " occasional " would have embraced half 
the membership. Many of the men used to boast that they had 
sent from ten to twenty letters by a single mail, and had received 
a number equally large. The general prevalence of this habit 
was especially remarkable, and there were comparatively few 
who did not send and receive at least one letter by every 
mail. It is estimated that on the arrival of each steamer at least 
fifteen hundred letters reached our camp. At home it was quite 
fashionable for young ladies to ha\-e a large number of army cor- 
respondents, and columns of newspapers were filled with adver-/ 
tisements asking for the addresses of those who were willing to 
write. Frequently the boys would receive letters from entire 
strangers; not unfrcquenll\- they wrote first, and their replies 



often resulted in establishing a most entertaining correspondence. 
Sometimes the real name would be given, but more frequently 
the correspondence would be conducted under a itovi-df-plume. 
A large number of letters have been submitted to the committee 
for examination, and it is surprising how " chatty " and readable 

most of these missives are. This constant and frequent commu- 
nication with home friends was undoubtedly very potential in 
keeping up the morale of the regiment. 

As our respected Uncle Samuel tlid not suppl)- regimental 
tailors, and as clothes would wear out, buttons disappear, and 
holes be unexpcctedl_\- found in stockings, no small part of our 
leisure was devoted to mending. Some of the bo\-s proved them- 
selves very skilful in the use of the needle, while others made 

■il-< '^'■■!i i^h-: ■^'.^^hy-: 


CAilP LIFE. 91 

but poor work of their attempt?. Stockings were darned, but 
the verbal darning was far more in accordance with the feelings 
of the workman than the yarn process. Most of us were pro- 
vided with "housewives" containing a supply of thread, needles, 
yarn, buttons, etc. ; and it was really pathetic to watch a poor fel- 
low who had always depended on the kind offices of mother or 
sister or wife to keep his raiment in repair, tr\ing to mend a rent 
or sew on a button, and the first sergeant calling on the company 

to " fall in, lively." It 
.1 seemed too as if the 
; ' J repairs were always 
j?;?/;';/- - ■ ■ — i=_r--s— ^_ ^ needed at the most 

(■■.'-•■; "'' « ''''1 inconvenient times 

. -'■' ; , M ^' "''^/SX|'~]7;'ii and seasons; as for 
';'' - I \ ! 'j ^'^y/ I; 4 1 instance just as the 

>'-■-'-■ '^<' j ','"''''■ ^ * :"j:i'i assembl}- for guard 

': __^- ''^' , ' ,.; !, ,1 mounting or dress 

t^ir^.^ ' . ' ' : ..;,:; parade had sounded. 

;^-,^ ' . „...,' / 'i Next to letters, news- 

>■' . -^'- .•Ij'' papers were more eagerly wel- 

'i:.T_^,' •"'•''•. ' 'i- • ■' H comed than anything that could 

' / be sent us. Our friends at home 
kept us well supplied with locals, 
but the only ones we could get of 
recent date were the Xew \'ork dailies. These papers were not 
glanced at and then thrown aside ; they were read carefully, 
advertisements and all, and then passed along to our less fortu- 
nate comrades who had failed to secure a copy. We are confi- 
dent we were as conversant with all published news as an>' of our 
friends at the North. News from our own department received 
especial attention, and some of the correspondents would not 
have felt flattered could they have overheard the criticisms on 
their published letters. The correspondent of the " New York 
Herald " was a most entertaining, newsy writer, but correspond- 
ingly unreliable; as for instance giving the credit of our success 
at Kinston to the Ninth Xew Jersey, when all who participated 
in that action knew it was the charge of the Tenth Connecticut 
that decided the battle. If our boys could have interviewed 


correspondent immediately after they had read his account of 
the expedition, the surL^eons would ha\-e had another patient. 
There was a local paper published at Xcw Heme, which con- 
tained most of the general orders and some matters of local 
interest, but had very little general news. 

After the battle of New Berne the Twenty-seventh Massachu- 
setts discovered several weather-beaten cornets, bearing the 
names of " Tolmau & Russell, Boston," luuigiiig from some trees, 
which the "Johnnies" had left in their hasty flight, and they 
naturally took possession of them. On learning when we re- 
turned from the Tarboro' expedition that these instruments 
would be placed at our disposal if we wished them, the idea of 
a regimental band suggested itself; a sufficient number of men 
were at once detailed, and practice began immediately. As 
early as December some of our members appealed to our friends, 
through the Boston press, to send us a new and complete set. 
The Goldsboro' expedition delayed progress somewhat; but 
on January 4 the band made its first appearance at dress parade 
and was most enthusiastically received. It improxed rapid!}-, and 
our demands for a complete set of instruments became more 
urgent. Early in this month, after waiting for some' one else to 
take the initiati\e, Mr. George B. Foster, father of Corporal Fos- 
ter of Company K, advertised that he would receive subscriptions 
for this purpose. Before noon of the day tlie notice appeared 
he had received fifty-nine responses, when Mr. George S. Hall, 
father of George F. Hall of Company I, called on him, requested 
him to cancel the notice, as he intended to supply these instru- 
ments himself. They reached us February 14, and being a much 
fuller set than those we had been using, an additional detail was 
required. If Mr. Hall enjoyed half as much in giving them to 
the regiment as the regiment did in receiving them, he was 
many fold re])aid for his gcnerosit}'. .After our return these 
instruments were sent to the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, but 
what became of them when that regiment was mustered out 
has not been learned. One of our men ( Macombcr, of Com- 
pany F), in writing to a Boston paper, under date of Febru- 
ary 17, says: — 


"Our band received their instruments by tiiis steamer (' Augusta Dins- 
more') and Sunday eveniny appeared on dress parade witii tlu-m. If the 
people who so kindly and generously contributetl towards presenting them 
to our regiment could hear the thanks which are literally showered on their 
heads by the boys, they would never regret their kindness, or the happi- 
ness they have caused in all our breasts. It is with a feeling of gratitude, 
of contentment, and happiness, we witness the kindness and remembrance 
from our friends at home." 

The curiosity to see these instruments was most intense 
among the men, and on the day following their receipt Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Cabot, then m command of camp, issued the 
following order: — ,,^ . . 

General OrJer No. 30. 

Hereafter no person will enter the enclosure formed by the tents de- 
voted to the band. 

Any person violating this order will subject himself to punishment. 
By command of, 

Lieut.-Col. E. C. Cabot. 

This order caused much indignation, as curiosity had been 
raised to the highest pitch; but the order was enforced, and we 
did not see the new instruments till Sunday. 

Nothing excited more general interest than the arrival of the 
express. Indeed, it was currently reported that the coming of 
the Forty-third, Forty-fourth, and Forty-fifth Regiments obliged 
the express company to put on some additional steamers. W^e 
had many friends at home, and the most common way in whicli 
they expressed their interest was by sending a box of "goodies," 
which it would be superfluous to say was always kindly received. 
It would be impossible to mention one half the things that were 
sent us. " Corporal," in referring to this matter, gives the follow- 
ing list of articles received in one box, as a model to be followed 
by those desirous of contributing: "A large sealed tin box of 
mince-pies and cake, a large paper of ditto, a tin box of sugar, 
a tin box of pepper, a jar of pickles, a box of eggs, together 
with apples, pears, pins, stationery, and last but not least, letters " 
The father of Hezekiah Brown of Compan}- G sent down a large 
box of troches, which the son distributed with the utmost liber- 
ality and impartiality. B. F. Brown &: Co. contributed a gener- 


ous supply of tht'r liquid blacking. Rt-j^ulntions regarding the 
admission of any kind of spirituous liquor were \ery stringent, 
and many were the means adopted to evade them. The mother 
of one of our bi.ys, althou.^h strongly opposed to the use of any 
intoxicant as .i beverage, recognized the benefit of alcohol as a 
medicine, ant! fearing that her son would be unable to procure 
any except through direct application to the medical department, 
resolved to try and supply him. She took a quantity of nice 
oranges, removed the peel ani_l quartered them, being careful not 
to break the thin covering of the pul[), put them into a large jar, 
and then filled it to the brim with choice whiskey. The jar was 
tightly sealed, and reached the young man safely. The day after 
its arrival chanced to be inspection of barracks. As the inspect- 
ing officer was going his rounds, the soldier inquired of him if he 
had ever eaten an_\- orange pickle. " Orange pickle ! " he replied ; 
"I never heard of it." "Would \'ou like to try some?" The 
answer being in the affirmative, a sample was given him. The 
officer tasted, looked at the soldier, tasted again ; a peculiar smile 
passed o\'er his face as he said, " I don't think pickling impro\es 
the orange, but I 'd like another sample of that pickle." Mason 
of Compan\- K was especially favored by having large quantities 
of canned fruit and vegetables .^cnt him, and the opening of 
his boxes al\va\s attracted a curious and s\-mpathizing crowd. 
Thanksgiving and Christmas were the tv.'o occasions when our 
friends especially remembered us, and there were very few mem- 
bers of the regiment who did not receive some reminder from 
home. About Tlianksgis'ing Mr. Frederick Grant, of Boston, 
chartered a schooner, the " I'latten Sea," and started for New 
Kerne with a load of delicacies for the Fort>--third, Forty-fourth, 
and Forty-fifth Regiments. Unfortunately, the wind and weather 
were adverse, and the schooner was vcr\" long in making the 
passage. Most of the perishable articles were spoiled, and many 
of us were disappointed at not receiving our "Thanksgiving," as 
we had expected. 

Another bo.x catalogued by " Corporal" contained tea, coffee, 
sugar, butter, pepper, salt, capsicum, cheese, gingerbread, confec- 
tioner's cake, Bologna sau:iage, condensed milk, smoked halibut, 
pepper-box, canip-knu'e, matches, ink, mince-pies, candy, tomato 

■{■■': ■ :7^ .mv 

l...r-.-,, ::.d 


catchup, apples, horse-radish, emery-paper, sardines, cigars, 
smoking-tobacco, candles, soap, newspapers, pictorials, letters, 
pickles, and cholera mixture. (Perhaps the latter was another 
name for orange pickle.) 

Mr. C. P. Lew is, of the firm of William K. Lewis & Brother, 
who had some friends in the regiment, was very generous, and 
kept them well supplied with condensed milk, olives, sardines, 
and a good assortment of canned meats and vegetables. One 

^A'l'i^'il .; ( , 

'^M'- ;i f _, i\ 

y -f-" -^- ^^■ 

mess, on January r, 1863, dined off salmon and green peas 
furnished by this gentleman's liberality. The contents of one 
more box will perhaps suffice to show the endless variety of 
articles that were sent us: preserve, tobacco, two boxes cigars, 
matches, a ream of letter-paper, doughnuts, gingerbread, quills, 
sticking-plaster, envelopes. " Les Miserables" (sometimes called 
" Lee's miserables," but which was certainly a misnomer if ap- 
plied to us) newspapers, apples, lemons, glue, butter, sugar, silk 
handkerchiefs, gun-rags, chocolate, woollen blanket, maple sugar, 
rubber boots, one or two packages for comrades o^ the recipient, 
some hairpins, shell back combs, and jewelry, for " properties " 

-..,„ri?- .IK- 

!'.;yyi v. .■ 'li-i'cf 


in our dramatic pcrfdrniaiices and opera; and an old jacket, coat, 
and hat, which were probably put in for " ballast." 

In this connection it may not be inappropriate to allude to a 
few of the names by which the Forty-fourth was sometimes 
designated, especially as one of them was deemed of sufficient 
importance by a candidate for the governorship of Massachusetts, 
— himself an officer whose reputation is world-wide, — to merit 
extended mention during the heated campaign of 1883. About 
the time we went to Readville, one of the Boston newspapers 
stated that we had in our ranks " the pets of many a household," 
and from this expression we were called the "pet" regiment. 
Our men paid more attention to dress and personal appearance 
than is usual among enlisted men, as they failed to comprehend 
why the fact of being soldiers should cause them to becom.e lax 
in this respect; and from this circumstance we were sometimes 
-referred to as the "kid glove," " patent leather," "white choker," 
or "gold watch" regiment. But the name by \\hich we were 
most generally known, and of which the highly distinguished 
candidate above referred to meanly endeavored to rob us by at- 
tributing it to the Forty-fifth Massachusetts, was that of " seed- 
cakes." About Thanksgiving the Forty-fourth received a very 
large number of boxes from home, — many more than the men of 
some of our sister regiments thought its fair share. One day 
quite a knot of soldiers had gathered in the town of New Berne, 
when one of our men rather exultingly spoke of the large 
number of packages we had been receiving. " There' s nothing 
surprising in that," retorted one of his evidently envious com- 
panions ; " your boys can't come down to salt horse and hard- 
tack like the rest of us, and if your folks did n't keep you 
supplied with seed-cakes, you 'd starve to death ! " 

This joke had just enough foundation in fact to create a hearty 
laugh, and passed from mouth to mouth, both in the regiment 
itself and outside, until " the sccd-cake regiment " became the 
principal sobriquet of the Forty-fourth, — a nickname of which 
the boys are rather proud. » 

It was much easier to get boxes into the department than it 
was to get them out. On the arrival of an express steamer 
packages were rapidly separated, then loaded on the regimental 


wagons, and sent to the various camps for distribution. The 
guard, and some men specially detailed for that purpo.>5e, watched 
each box as it came from the vessel, and detained only such as 
they suspected might contain articles " contraband of war." To 
send a box out of the department, unless some stratagem was 
used, a provost-marshal's permit was required in every case; and 
this was about as difficult to get, if it contained anything worth 
sending home, especially articles obtained while in the service, 
as. it was for a private to be allowed to sit down in the Gaston 
House dining-room at any time subsequent to our first morn- 
ing in New Berne. One of our men found a volume of " Audu- 
bon's Birds " in a deserted shanty just outside of Williamstown. 
He carried it on his back during the rest of the expedition, and 
on reaching New Berne tried to get permission to send it North, 
but did not succeed. It finally reached his home in Wisconsin, 
in spite of the provost-marshal. Most of the men who had me- 
chanical tastes and ingenuity devoted part of their leisure to 
manufacturing brier or clay pipes, or horn jewelry. Brier-root 
was found in great plenty in the swamp just beyond our drill- 
ground. When dug it was very soft, but in drying it was apt to 
crack, — a trouble that we found with the clay pipes as well. 
Those who experimented with horn jewelry were more generally 
successful, and many of our men now have studs, watch-charms, 
scarf-rings, etc., they made while in North Carolina. 

No place in the world will equal a camp for gossip. Rumors 
seemed to spring spontaneously from the ground, and no matter 
how improbable one might be it always found believers. One 
minute the report would come that the regiment was ordered to 
South Carolina or to the Potomac, followed immediately by the 
statement, " based on official knowledge," that we were to remain 
in camp till our muster out; the next hour came news that we 
were going on picket, and instantly would be circulated a counter 
report that we were to go on provost. All sorts of stories regard- 
ing the prominent officers were in the air, — as to what this one 
was going to do and that one was not going to do ; where this 
one was going and where the other was not going, etc. Did 
space permit, it would be interesting to give some specimens. 
One rumor which gained some currency may well be stated, 


especially as it is one of the very few that can be traced from 
its inception. The morning of the 14th of March, the day of 
the attack on New Berne, all was excitement. The air was full 
of authentic statements of what we were going to do, of where 
we were going, of changes in command, of Rebel successes, of 
contemplated manceuvres, etc. Davis Howard had been on guard 
that night and posted in front of the colonel's tent. As soon as 
the guard was relie\ ed he rushed into the barracks and called for 
Corporal Haines. The latter was the regular correspondent of the 
" Boston Herald," and known as such to most of the members 
of the regiment. Whenever any startling news had been learned, 
Haines was always the first to whom it was given. " Corporal" 
was writing to his paper an account of the attack, when Dave 
came up apparently out of breath. " Corporal, I 've just come 
off duty at the colonel's tent, and have got a piece of news that 
interests everj' man in the regiment. ' It 's the most important 
thing that '.s happened to us for a long time." So many wild 
and improbable stories had been brought him, that the corporal 
was incredulous ; but the evident sincerity of Howard's manner 
was impressive. All the boys within hearing distance anxiously 
awaited tlie disclosure. " I 've just come from headquarters," 
repeated Dave. " A little while ago one of Foster's orderlies 
came into camp with his horse on a run and handed colonel a 
letter. Lee wrote something in reply and the orderly went off 
on a gallop. Just as I was relieved, another one came, and as 
soon as the colonel read the paper delivered him he seemed very 
much excited and sent for the lieutenant-colonel and major. I 
made up my mind it was something very important, and that if 
I could, I would know what it was about." All of us had seen 
orderlies riding into the camp and then riding out again, and were 
ready to believe that some important movements were about tak- 
ing place. We knew that Howard was a fellow of resources, and 
that if he could not succeed in getting this information probably 
others would fail. " I succeeded in overhearing what he told 
Cabot and Dabney." added Dave, with much apparent earnest- 
ness, " and find that Pcttigrew has sent over a flag of truce de- 
manding the surrender of New Berne. Foster refused to give 
up the place. Pettigrew then sent back word that he would 


ri : ■. ■ .1 »•// . 
i- . .t II.-.. 


shell the town immediately, and has ordered the removal of the 
women and children and the Forty-fourth Massachusetts before 
he begins, and has given Foster two hours to get us out. The 
general has asked Lee where he wants the regiment to go to. 
Colonel told Cabot that he thought it best to let the men vote 
on the question, so I suppose you will all hear about it quite 
soon. He says Jlc wants to stay and let them shell." The laugh 
that followed Dave's disclosure was tremendous, but he had to 
run for his life. It is difficult to realize the surprise and amuse- 
ment of our men when they read in the first New York paper 
that reached them after the raising of the siege of Washington, 
a full account of the sending and receipt of this flag of truce 
stated as an absolute fact, only the locality had been transferred 
to Washington. In this connection it is reported that some years 
after the war Colonel Lee was travelling in the West, when a gen- 
tleman whom he met, finding that he had been in command of a 
regiment, asked him which one. On being told the Forty-fourth 
Massachusetts, he inquired if that was not the one ordered out of 
Washington with the women and children. " Yes," replied our 
colonel. " Well, if I were in your place I should be ashamed 
to acknowledge the fact," remarked his questioner. "Why so?" 
said our colonel ; " the Rebels well knew that they could not get 
into Washington as long as our regiment stayed there, and 
thought that if they sent such a message Foster might order us 
out. He was not kind enough to oblige them ; the regiment did 
not go out; the 'Johnnies' did not get in. I think Hill paid us 
a high compliment and have always felt proud of it." Whether 
this conversation ever occurred we do not know. We have been 
unwilling to ask the colonel, lest he might deny it and so spoil 
a good story. 

Soon after our return from the Goldsboro' expedition it be- 
came fashionable among the boys to sit for their pictures. A 
style called " melainotype " was most in vogue, and it was a 
matter of pride to see who could send home one showing the 
greatest appearance of dilapidation. A corporal of Company D 
had one taken which was a great success in this respect. A 
netted worsted smoking-cap replaced the regulation fatigue arti- 
cle ; one suspender was visible, the other concealed ; one leg of 


the pants was torn off just below the knee, the other showing an 
enormous hole made by friction of canteen and haversack ; the 
shoes were not mates. The original garments were worn by the 
owner for the last time when he sat for the picture, as they were 
immediately presented to one of the numerous contrabands who 
thronged the camp. Among the corporal's home friends was an 
elderly aunt, one of the kindest-hearted old ladies that ever lived, 
who looked at ever}-thing from the most charitable view, but was 
a warm friend of the " boys," and would quickly resent anything 
that she thought savored of inattention or neglect towards them. 
On receipt of this picture she was most indignant, and wrote 
Governor Andrew in very strong terms, requesting him to per- 
sonally in\estigate and see that Massachusetts soldiers were pro- 
vided with suitable clothing. J. J. Wycth, of Company E, sent 
home one of a similar character. His fond mother gazed at it 
sadly for some minutes and then remarked, "If John has become 
as dissipated and reckless as this picture shows him to be I hope 
he will never return." Little did we imagine such would be the 
effect of a desire to let our friends realize our appearance " in 
camp." It took a large amount of correspondence to explain 

Most of our time was spent in the open air. Generally the 
weather was warm, and it was pleasant to sit in front of our 
barracks after tattoo and listen to the singing, which was one of 
our daily pleasures. Charley Ewer, till he was wounded at White- 
hall, was the acknowledged chorister. There were good vocalists 
in all the companies, and rarely did a pleasant evening pass but 
" Kingdom Coming," " Louisiana Lowlands," " Rest for the 
Weary," or some other of the popular airs were heard in the 

The entertainments given on Thanksgiving were so successful 
that they were followed by others, each more elaborate than 
those preceding. One was given on New Year's evening, the 
programme being as follows; — - -. — 



grHiiiiitit ;inb IHiisltal 





PROLOGUE— (Original.) Harry T. Reed. 


RECIT.\TION — C^elected.) F. D. Wlieeler. 

SONG. Quartette Club. 


RECITATKJ.V — (Humorous.) E. L. Hill. 

B A TS^ D. 

After wliich the Giand Final .Scene from 

The Merchant of Venice. 

SHYLOCK, H. T. Reed. 

DUKE, W. Howard. 

ANTO.MO, De F. Salford. 

BASSAMO, ,.,■ F. U. Wheeler. 

GRATIANO, ' ■ . . ■ J. H. Waterman. 

PORTIA, L. Millar. 

SOLAN lO, F. A. S.ayer. 

To be followed by 

^ tsm a'HtS'f'Eii nmmu 



DOLLY DAY. F. A. Saver. 



HAM FAT MAN. J. H. Myers. 

The whole to conclude with 

A Terrible Cat-ass-trophe on the North Atlantic R.R. 


Director, H. T. l:i:i;l). 

Assistant M.-inasjer, De F. SAFFOIID. 

Secretary, W. HOW.\KD. 

Treasurer, J. M. AVATEn.VIAN. 

F. D. Wheeler, I.. MlllHr, F. A. Sayer. 

Uf^ir':-!' /' 


The next affair, which was entirely impromptu, occurred in the 
barracks of Company D, January 19. One of the boys was play- 
ing a dancing tune on the flute. The idea of a ball was suggested. 
No time could be taken to prepare suitable costumes, but it is 
doubtful if the grandest society ball was more enjoyed by the 
participants than was this. It was all too brief; so a more elabo- 
rate one was arranged for the following evening in the same 
barrack. The card of invitation was as follows: — 


Sir, — The pleasure of your company, with ladies, is respectfully solicited at a 
Grand Ball, to be held in the Grand Parlor ot the Fifth Avenue Hotel. 
(No. 4 New Benie), on Tuesday Evening, January 20, 1S63. 


C. H. Demeritt, \Vill.\rd Howard, J. E. Leigiiton. 


Benj. F. Burchsted, C. D. Newell, \V. G. Reed, H. D. Stanwood, 

W. E. Savery, F. A. Saver, F. M. Flanders, H. Howard, 

J. B. Gardner, Joe Simonds, Charles Adams, G. W. Right. 


Quintzelbottom's Grand Quadrille and Serenade Band. 

(One Fio/in.) 

Tickets S00.03 each, to be had of the Managers. 
No Postage Stamps or Sutler's Checks taken in payment. 
N. B. — Ladies will be allowed to smoke. 

Persons wishing carriages will please apply to LIEUTENANT White, of the 
Ambulance Corpse. 

Persons wishing anything stronger than Water are referred to the " Sanitary." 

The following was the order of dances : — 

1. Sicilian Circle, March to Tarboro'. 

2. Quadrille, New England Guards. 

3. Polka Quadrille, Kinston Galop. 

4. Quadrille, Yankee Doodle. 

Waltz, Polka Redowa, Schottische. 

5. Quadrille, Bloody 44th Quickstep. 

6. Les Lanciers, Connecticut loth .March. 

7. Quadrille, Lee's March. 

8. Contra | rirgmia Reel), Rebel's Last Skedaddle. 

' ,' (- /f" 


Shelter-tents, artistically draped, made excellent skirts for the 
ladies, albeit they were rather short and not o\Tr-clean. They 
were expanded by hoops procured from some of the quarter- 
master's empty barrels. A blouse with the sleeves cut off at 
the shoulder and the collar turned down as far as possible 
made a very respectable waist, although not as low in the neck 
as many fashionable belles would demand. Evidently the cos- 
tumes must have been effective, for a member of another com- 
pany, after glancing in at the door, returned to his own quarters, 
polished his boots, brushed his hair, donned his dress-coat, and 
claimed to have tried to find a paper collar before he ventured 
into the ball-room. " I was n't going in among ladies looking as 
rough as I did," he afterwards explained. The last call of the 
"Lancers" was original: — "Promenade to the bar for quinine 
rations." The barracks were crowded, and the officers enjoyed 
the no\elty no less than the men. 

On January 24, Company E, determined not to be outdone, 
gave a masked ball at its barracks, and extended an invitation 
to members of other companies. It was wonderful, with the 
limited means at our disposal, what a variety of costumes were 
got up at such short notice. Among the characters represented 
were an old gentleman and lady of '-jG, attended by their negro 
servant. The lady were a real crinoline and wished the specta- 
tors to know it. There were personifications of " His Satanic 
Majesty," " Pilgrim Fathers," policemen, farmers, harlequins, 
clowns, monks, ladies tall and ladies short, ladies stout and ladies 
slender, ladies white, black, and Indian red. Nearly all the char- 
acters were admirably sustained. Several of the officers of the 
Tenth Connecticut were present on invitation and evidently en- 
joyed the occasion. 

The rivalry between Companies D and E not being settled, 
they agreed to combine efforts, and the result surpassed all pre- 
vious attempts. The managerial card is here reproduced : — 

Sir, — The pleasure of your company, with ladies, is respectfully solicited at a 
Grand Eal Masque to be given under the auspices of the 44th Regimental 
Dramatic Association, at the Barracks of Companies D and E, on 

I04 FORTV-i' rum MASSACHL'SETTS ixfantkv. 



eaire to state th 

It nothing w 

U be left undone 

to render it 

t/u- tj.iri 









D. Rice, 

Harry T 

. RE£D. 





Sergeant G. L. Ts 





A. Sayer, 




H. A. H 








KL z. T. n. 




" J- 

H. Waterman, Jr 




J. B. Ga 





H. Eradish, 




F. 1 W 




H. Demlrii T, 



M. E. Bi 









C. E. Ti 





L. Hill, 



In order to defray t'le expenses, Tickets will be placed at lO cents each, to be pro- 
cured of the Managers. Xo tickets sold at the door. Visitors are e.\pected to appear 
en coitttrne. 

Music by the X'ew Berne Quadrille Band, five pieces. 

The Management dc.*ire to e.\press their sincere thanks to the Otticers of this 
Regiment fur the many favors granted by them in aid of this undertaking. 
• The ha'.l will be nppropriatclv decorated. 

B}- permission of the officers the partition was removed be- 
tween the barracks of the two companies, making a large room 
about thirty-eight b}- one hundred feet. The decorations were 
elaborate; and thanks to Charley Wheeler's skilful brush, the 
walls were adorTicd with appropriate mottoes. Corporals Rice 
and Carturight of Company E, and Willard Howard and Corporal 
Gardner of Company D, acted as floor managers. Harry Reed 
attended to other duties equally important. Generals Foster and 
Wessells were present, as were also a number of field, line, and 
staff officers. Our regimental band furnished military music, and 
a string band played for the dancing. The barracks were liter- 
ally packed. We regret that space forbids giving a full descrip- 
tion. " Corporal " and one of our diarists wrote home full and 
glowing accounts. 

Just after one of these entertainments the colonel met Willard 
Howard and congratulated him on its success, adding, "I am 
proud of what the boys are doing and will help them in any way 
that I can." This conversation was repeated to one or two of the 
men, among whom ^va■: Corporal Haines. He immcdiatel}' pro- 
posed to write the text of an opera if Howard and others would 


attend to the music and staging. The idea was most favorably 
received, committees were appointed, and tlie result was '' 11 Re- 
cruitio." Xo one would confess to a knowledge of Italian, so, as 
we wished to call the opera " The Recruit," we translated it after 
the rule given by some humorous author as nearly as we could. 
This opera was founded upon the imaginary adventures of one of 
our members, and described his enlistment at Boylston Hall; the 
hardships and trials endured on his introduction to military life; 
his perils by sea and by land ; recounted in glowing verse his 
valorous deeds in pursuit of personal safety and forage; and 
finally bade him adieu in Plymouth, a captive to the charms of a 
pretty " Sccesh " maiden, one " Nancy Skittletop." ' Where so 
many contributed to the success, it would be invidious to particu- 
larize ; but we think none will deny that a large share of the credit 
belongs to W'illard, Da\is, and Henry Howard, — the "Howard 
boys," as the\- were universally known, — and to our incomparable 
scenic artist and " Xancy Skittletop," Fred. Saver. Scenery from 
the old New Berne theatre was placed at the disposal of the 
committee, and shelter-tents, flags kindly loaned by difierent 
regiments and the Navy, and red and blue shirts and drawers 
furnished by the hospital department were utilized in the deco- 
ration. Companies B and F were on picket at Batchelder's Creek, 
so their barracks were used for the performances. A stage was 
erected at the lower end of F's barrack, toward the sutler's. The 
orchestra, composed mainly of members of our regiment, with 
Charley Hooke as leader, was reinforced by Captain Daniel of 
the One Hundred and Fifty-eighth Xew York, and Mr. McCready, 
a civilian. 

The opera was given on Wednesday evening, March 11, to an 
audience composed principall}- of members of our own regiment. 
On Thursday evening the performance was complimentary to 
General Foster and staff, and one diarist notes that by actual 
count there were twenty-seven ladies present. On Friday even- 
ing it was given for the third time, to satisf\' the demands of 
those who had failed to gain admission to cither of the previous 

' It \v,-is intended t" reproduce ■' II Kecniitio " in the .\ppendix.biit tl.c Committee 
li.ive decided that, aIthon;h very amusing a quarter of a centurv- ago, it is not of 
>n!hcient interest to warrant reprinting. 


representations. At the close of the final pcrfortnance tlie com- 
mittee and actors, with the approval of the colonel, u !'.o thought 
they had earned some privileges, adjourned to the (juuterT of the 
officers of Company B, where they enjoyed quite a nice supper, 
the bill of fare being a decided change from the usual regi- 
mental diet. After our return to Boston, the opera, wilh but a 
few changes in the cast, was given at Tremont Tcniijle, and 
received most favorable comment from dramatic critics. 

Another scheme to employ part of our leisure that of 
debating clubs. These were formed in several con ipn [lies, and 
proved quite attractive to many of our men. Some uf the topics 
discussed were rather abstruse, but at the age we then w ere that 
fact did not trouble us, and we settled them all to our entire satis- 
faction. Another literary enterprise attempted was that of the 
establishment of a magazine. It was called " Tlie V>.<y State 
Forty- fourth," being printed and published in Boston, Ijut edited 
by DeForest Safford of Company F; the articles, which related 
wholly to regimental matters, were contributed b}- different mem- 
bers. Only one number was published, as various causes pre- 
vented the continuation of the enterprise. 

February 25, General Foster reviewed the corps. The ground 
on which the review took place was on the other siiie of the 
Trent River. The march was short, — we left camp at S.30 A. M. 
and returned at 3 P.M., — but it was one of the most fatiguing days 
in our experience. Colonel Lee was in command of the brigade, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Cabot had charge of the regiment. Un- 
doubtedly it was a fine sight to the spectators, but the men cer- 
tainly thought " the play was not worth the candle." Colonel 
Lee told us afterwards that General Foster gave the T \vcnt\'-fifth 
Massachusetts the credit of doing the finest marchiiig of any 
regiment that participated, but that the general's statT were 
unanimously of the opinion that none deserved more praise than 
the Forty-fourth. 

Whenever we went otT on an expedition there was always 
a percentage who from illness or other causes were luiable to 
accompan\- us. These men were styled the " ll'jine Guard." 
While wc were absent their duties were light, camp aitd police 
guard being the only ones they were called upon to perform. 


Once or twice they were alarmed by an attack on the pickets, 
and were called out for defence of the town, although they saw 
no actual fighting. On one occasion Harry Hunt, who was act- 
ing as sutler in absence of his father, bravely shouldered his 
musket and took a place in the ranks, thus showing his willing- 
ness to share in the fortunes of the regiment, whatever they 
might be. 

At last we all had the experience of an attack on the place. 
March 14 was the anniversary of the capture of New Berne. 
An elaborate programme had been arranged to commemorate 
that victor}-. We were to raise a flag on a new staff just erected ; 
Belger's battery was to fire a salute ; his officers and ours were 
to provide a collation ; and we were anticipating a pleasant and 
mildly e.xciting celebration. Just before daybreak we were awak- 
ened b\' the sound of a cannon. We thought it earl}- for the 
salute, but in a few seconds it was followed by another, this one 
evidently shotted. Thoroughly aroused, we sprung from our 
bunks, and going outside the barracks, could distinguish, in the 
gray of the morning, that Fort Anderson, on the other side of 
the Xeuse River, was being attacked. Shot and shell were drop- 
ping into the water just opposite our camp, and occasionally one 
would reach the vicinity of the officers' stables. No reveille was 
needed that morning to induce the bo}'s to turn out. There had 
been an affair of the pickets the previous evening, of which we 
were all aware, but none of us thought it was anything more 
serious than was happening frequently. Probably our officers 
knew more about it than we did. The men were ordered to put 
on all equipments, including knapsacks, and the morning was 
passed in waiting orders. The Ninet)--second New York garri- 
soned Fort .Anderson, and soon after the attack began were 
reinforced by the Eighty-fifth New York. A rumor was circu- 
lated that our regiment would be the ne.Kt sent across the river; 
but word came that they had all the men that they could use 
to advantage, — a fact for which we hope we were duly thankful. 
That night Companies A and K were sent out on picket, and the 
ne.xt morning were relieved by Companies I and H. The attack 
was not serious, although for a time the excitement among the 
men was intense and the air was full of rumors. 



The next evcniiiij, Sunday, about 5 r. M., we received orders 
to go to Washington, and within an hour or tuo were on our 
way to the wharf. Our camp experience was ended, as imme- 
diately on our return we were assigned to provost duty and 
remained in town until we left \orth Carolina for home. 

•/^ '/, 


A\L> RAWLE'S mill. 

" Strike up the drums ; and 
Plead for our interest." 

X Sunday evening, Oct. 26, 1862, after 
an afternoon's ride on platform cars 
through a drenching rain-storm, we 
arrived at New Berne from the trans- 
ports. Only three days later the sev- 
^T*,'i xi^^- u eral companies were called out before 

.f;*^J K --rr-;^;;:,; Tt their quarters for the distribution of 

cartridge-boxes and ammunition, when 
we were informed that we must make 
immediate preparation for a move in- 
to the interior ; for early the following 
morning we were to leave camp in 
light marching condition, surrendering our knapsacks and their 
contents to be stored here until our return. The cooks were 
instructed to prepare five days' rations, and most of the night 
they toiled over tlieir fires. Rumors and speculations regarding 
the duty to which we were so suddenly summoned filled the 
camp, and few eyes closed in restful slumber. 

At four on Thursday morning we were turned out to draw 
rations. At si.K, regimental line was formed and we m.arched to 
the transports which were found waiting to convey a portion of 
the force to "Little" Washington, on the Tar River. 

The First Brigade, under command of Colonel T. J. C. Amory, 
and the artillery, cavalry, baggage-wagons, and ambulances, had 
started early to march across the country. The Second Brigade, 


under Colonel Stevenson, and the Third, under Colonel H. C. 
Lee, were to go by transports. 

Si.K companies of the Forty-fourth, with the field and staff, 
went aboard the steamer " George C. Collins," and Companies 
A, B, G, and K, the remainder of the regiment, under command 
of Captain James ]\I. Richardson, were taken in tow on the 
schooner " Highlander," which latter also carried two companies 
of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts. 

We soon got under way, and sailing down the Neuse, passing 
the batteries silenced by Burnside at the capture of New Berne 
and the vessels sunk in the river as obstructions to his advance, 
entered Pamlico Sound about three in the afternoon, and after all 
day and night aboard found ourselves at Washington the next 

Disembarking about noon, we marched through the principal 
street, wide and shaded with fine elms, to an open cornfield on 
the east side of the town; where we stacked arms and encamped 
to await the arrival of the forces coming by land. The field and 
staff took possession of an old saw-mill on the field of our en- 
campment. This town, the capital of Beaufort County, about 
forty miles from the sound, we found neat and pretty. Its streets 
ran at right angles, were broad and well shaded, and bounded by 
many old-fashioned, pleasant houses with fine gardens of orna- 
mental shrubs and trees. In abundance were fig, aloe, Spanish 
bayonet, mulberry, magnolia, and large rose trees, and English 
ivy gave a cosey and charming- effect to many of the dwellings. 
One house was approached by a romantic arbored walk, over 
three hundred feet in length, of red cedars, the branches of 
which were so closely interlaced as scarcely to admit the rays 
of the sun. 

The place was garrisoned by a small number of Union soldiers, 
supported by gunboats which were anchored in the river. Quite 
a number of the buildings bore evidence of the recent Rebel raid, 
being seriously marred by shot and shells, and at certain dis- 
tances the streets were now barricaded by chevaux-de-frise to 
guard against a sudden dash of cavalry. 

We were shown the place where the raiders entered the town 
through the field of one Grice, who was one of the few whites 

j i' ■:^-...-!.JJf. , ..t) Vi\A\{ 

-r. ti ■:■■' "-•■I 


remaining since the occupation by our forces. He called him- 
self a Unionist, but was much suspected of sympathy with the 
enemy, and was accused by the garrison of covertly advising and 
assisting the raiders upon their visit.^ 

On the field of our camp were remains of the enemy's intrench- 
mcnts six or seven hundred feet in length. 

Wandering about on the second day of our arrival, the explo- 
sion of a torpedo, which had lain in the bed of the river where 
it passes the town, reminded us that the occupation by Union 
soldiers was not originally welcomed. This engine of destruction 
had been planted before our forces took possession. Its prob- 
able location was pointed out by the blacks, and a number of 
fruitless efforts from time to time had been made to explode it 
by the sailors on the gunboats. On this day, however, the hulk 
of an old vessel, drawn for that purpose over the spot, caught the 
trigger and accomplished the object. The craft was blown into 
the air and the water strewn with debris. 

Colonel Amory and his force did not arrive until late on Satur- 
day, having been delayed by obstructions placed in the line of 
their march and by skirmishes with a guerilla force. Meanwhile 
we fully improved our opportunity to explore the town and make 
friendships among the garrison. On Sunday, Nov. 2, we were 
awakened by a conflagration in the camp which deserves descrip- 
tion. Soon after we were marched on to this field, to camp until 
the arrival of the remainder of the force, our boys discovered in 
a building near by, which had evidently been used as a sugar- 
box manufactory, a large quantity of planed boards of convenient 
length for the construction of shelters, and in an incredibly short 
time most of these boards were transferred to the camp, and the 
field was covered with little wooden huts. Just before sunrise 
some of the guard, finding their fires low and the air frosty and 
cold, knowing we were to march, with a spirit of mischief took 
the boards of an adjoining hut and threw them upon the fire 
for fuel. The inmates, who had been wrapped soundly in slum- 
ber, awakened by the sudden admission of the frosty air, startled 
by the proximity of the flames, jumped to their feet, and, taking 

' He proved himself loyal just before the arrival of the Confederate troops to 
attnck Little Washington, in April, 1S63. 

'leJ^: -:'■' ":•-'■■ l^u-^^^ 


in the situation, showed their appreciation of the joke by per- 
petrating the same upon their neighbors, who in turn did the 
same, until soon over the entire field were roaring, soaring fires 
of dry pine boards, which affurded a weird and novel sight. 

After fully enjoying the scene, we began to boil our coffee and 
make preparation to march from the town. Although deprived 
of our knapsacks, and the change of clothing which they con- 
tained, upon departing from New Berne, yet we had been per- 
mitted to take along our woollen blankets ; but now that we were 
about to tramp, we were told that we must surrender those like- 


wise, and leave them here to await our return, it being the inten- 
tion of General Foster to put us in the best possible condition to 
cover long stretches. Remembering the frosty nights, reluctantly 
we parted with them, and at five o'clock we took up our line of 
march in the direction of Williamstown, about twenty-two miles 
north, on the Roanoke River. 

Our brigade (the Second), commanded by Colonel Stevenson, 
took the advance, the New York cavalry preceding as scouts, 
followed by the Tenth Connecticut as skirmishers; then came 
the marine artillery, with four guns; the Fifth Rhode Island; the 
Forty-fourth Massachusetts and the Twent\--fourth ; and Belger's 
battery, in the order named. Following us were the First and 
Third Brigades; the whole force consisting of about five thou- 
sand men and twenty-one pieces of artillery, under the personal 
command of General Foster. 


We marched out through an open field and entered the woods 
by a road leading from the north of the town, when we were 
halted and ordered to load our muskets. Continuing the march, 
we made the woods ring with " Coronation " and other hymns 
and songs, until about ten o'clock, when firing was heard ahead, 
— first volleys of musketry, then some artillery, and a column of 
smoke arose a quarter of a mile or more away to the left. We 
were stopped, and soon a cavalryman rode down the line lead- 
ing a wounded horse to the rear, and we learned that the head 
of the column had encountered and driven a company of the 
enemy's cavalry pickets, capturing one prisoner. 

The line was again set in motion, and we soon arrived at the 
place of the skirmish. By the side of the road stood a horse 
with its hoof mangled by a bullet, and close by it another with a 
shattered leg. There were many evidences of the hasty departure 
of the enemy. Fires still burning, haversacks hanging upon 
branches of the trees in the grove where they were surprised, 
and blankets, quilts, and other articles scattered along the road. 
Their quarters were in a mill near a bridge, which latter, set on 
fire to cover their retreat, caused the smoke we had seen. The 
prisoner was a youth of about seventeen years, armed with a 
double-barrelled shot-gun. He appeared pleased to have been 
taken without being injured. 

Our five days' rations, distributed on the morning of departure 
from New Berne, lasted but three, and provisions being short, 
permission was given to forage, and the deserted houses and 
outbuildings scattered along our route were searched for food. 
A number of horses and mules were found, confiscated, and 
made to do ser\'ice with the Yankee force. Chickens, geese, and 
turkeys were run down and captured, and many hives of honey 
emptied of their contents to tickle the palates of hungry soldiers. 

Soon we reached fine plantations. About one o'clock we 
passed a planter's house where the family were all seated upon 
the piazza, reminding us of the peaceful Sunday at home. Here 
we were filed ofi" into a large field for rest and dinner, and we 
cooked our poultry and boiled our coftee over fires of fence-rails. 
After a short stay we were ordered to fall in once more and 
resume the march. 


The sun had become quite hot, and the roads, of fine, loose 
sand rc-cp.ibling the sands which border our sea beaches, were 
hard lo walk in and extremely dusty. There were many swampy 
places where the water flowed across the road from a few inches 
to two or more feet in depth, and sometimes three hundred yards 
in width. Wading through these, our shoes took in the dry sand 
beyond, which, held by the water, worked through the woollen 
stockings and blistered and lacerated our feet. Some of the 
deeper of these wet places had along one side rude foot-bridges 
constructed of a single line of hewn logs raised upon upright 
posts, which, though convenient for a lone traveller, were of no 
avail whatever unto us. Being inviting, however, to the weary 
and now footsore men, Colonel Lee was for some time kept busy 
in vigorously discouraging those who, contrary to his orders, 
persisted in mounting the logs to cross the water. 

When the sun was setting, we approached a bend in the road 
turning to the left, within a few miles of Williamstown. Our 
advance was here fired upon from the woods, and two of the 
pieces drawn by the sailors were unlimbered and brought to bear 
upon the spot where the enemy seemed to be. Our regiment 
being now the second in the advance, the Tenth Connecticut, 
which was leading, was filed off to the right into a field and 
formed in line of battle, and our right flank companies, H and C, 
under Captain Smith, were detached as skirmishers and started 
at the double quick. Passing the Connecticut bojs, they were 
encouraged by such kind exclamations as " Bully for the Forty- 
fourth ! " — " Go in, boys 1 " — " Give 'em hell ! " — " Drive them 
out ! " etc. Coming to where the sailors stood at their guns, they 
found a creek called Little Creek, about fifty yards in width, 
crossing the road. Here they received orders from an aide to 
Colonel Stevenson to advance through the water and hold one 
company in reserve upon the other side, deploying the other 
for\vard until they met and felt the enemy's force. 

Captain Smith, therefore, after ordering them to drop their and rubber blankets, advanced them down the slope 
into the water. I5efore they had got over, and while most of them 
were sn'omerged to their waists, out of the blackness of the woods 
which surrounded them suddenl)- there came a flash, as a \-olley 


of musketry opened within a few yards. There being no sus- 
picion that the enemy had remained so near our artillery, our boys 
were thrown into momentary confusion, and the command, " Fall 
back ! " being given by an officer upon the bank, a portion of 
Company C, which was in the rear, obeyed ; the others, not hear- 
ing, pressed on with a cheer, gained the opposite side, and shel- 
tered themselves under the bank formed by the edge of the road. 
Here they opened fire to the right and left up the road, valiantly 
keeping their position against a brisk fire of musketry. It was 
soon discovered that much of their ammunition had become wet 
in crossing, and the firing on our side was consequently light. 
Word was sent that they had been ordered back; and, still sub- 
jected to the volleys of the enemy, slowly they made their way 
across the creek again, firing as they retired. Here they shel- 
tered themselves in a shallow sand-pit on the right of the road, 
and, as far as their wetted ammunition would permit, kept up 
their fire until, finding that they were endangering the gunners 
on the left in front, they were ordered farther back to guard the 
overcoats of Companies E and I. Had the enemy directed his 
fire lower, the casualties would have been very great. As it was, 
private Charles E. Rollins was killed, and Lieutenant Briggs, 
Sergeant Pond, Corporal Smith, and Privates Peakes and Small- 
idge of Company C, and Privates Parker and Jacobs of Company 
H were wounded. 

While this afiair was taking place, the column had advanced to 
within a few rods of the ford, and was greeted with a shower of 
bullets which went whistling by unpleasantly just over our heads. 
Thereupon wc were ordered to lie down; and, footsore and tired, 
we gladly threw ourselves upon the ground. The remainder of 
the brigade was filed off to the left, aides galloped back and 
forth, the artillery at the rear was brought forward, and Belger's 
battery and the Napoleon guns were soon pouring shot and shells 
thick and fast into the woods. Volley after volley of musketry 
came from both sides, and the wounded went by on stretchers 
and were laid in a little grove near by, where the surgeons and 
aides were busy with instniments, lint, and bandages. 

Companies H and C having been ordered back. Companies E 
and I, under Captain Spencer W. Richardson, were ordered to 

■ ■- ;.iJ . ■ . ■ 


relieve them. Company I was stationed on our side of tlic creek 
as a reserve, and Company E, first loosening cartridge-boxes that 
they might hold them above the water, pushed across aiid de- 
ployed at once in the woods to the right and left. Achaacing 
gradually up the declivity, exchanging shots with the enemy, 
they dislodged and drove him before them. 

A signal olTicer sent up a rocket to inform the general tliat the 
enemy had fallen back, and Companies E and I were tlien with- 
drawn, having lost one killed, Private Charles Morse, and one se- 
verely wounded. Private Charles E. Roberts, both of Company E. 
They brought back with them three prisoners, captured s'"\erally 
by Parsons, Tucker, and H. T. Pierce, of Company E. Private 
De Peyster of Company H, the colonel's orderl}-, while bravely 
attempting to recover the body of an artillery man in front of 
our hnes, was so badly wounded that Surgeon Otis was obliged 
to amputate his arm in a cabin upon the field. 

The remainder of the regiment was now ordered to " fix bay- 
onets " and cross the stream; so, holding up our cartridge-boxes, 
silently and slowly we marched down and into the ford. It was 
pitchy dark, and, heated and perspiring as we were b\' our long 
and hurried tramp under a scorching sun, the water seemed an 
Arctic current. 

The firing had ce.ised for about half an hour; but whil'..- in the 
stream, some of us to our middle, we weie again opened upon, 
this time with artillery, and crashing through the woods sur- 
rounding us came their shells, tearing down trees and branches, 
and bursting all about and near by. We now got through as 
quickly as possible, and were ordered again to lie down in the 
road. They had quite accurate range, many of their cannon- 
shot burying themselves in the bank of the road close above 
our heads, their shells bursting uncomfortabl\- near, and small 
trees and heavy branches tumbling among us where we lay. 

We did not reply to their fire, but after they ceased and re- 
treated wc were ordered up and on. The enemy had retired to 
Rawle's Mill, about a mile beyond, where tiiey made another 
stand. The Twenty-fourth was now thrown for\\ard as skirniish- 
ers, and obstructions having been placed at e\'ery practicable 
point, our progress was great!}' delayed, and the advance made 

'J ■/;.■• 

















very fatiguing. Word was quietly passed that we were expected 
to take some worl<s on the left. Line was to be formed upon the 
field, our regiment to deploy on the right and left of the road, 
with the Tenth Connecticut on our right flank and the Twenty- 
fourth on the left, and we should first deliver one round and 
then charge. 

Cautiously and noiselessly we moved. After midnight we en- 
tered a side-cut road, ha\ing an extensive cornfield on its left, 
and came to a halt just at a little bend. The stiUness was pain- 
ful, for we felt ourselves to be near the enem>'. Suddenly a 
volley of musketry was poured into us at the head of the column, 
seemingly from no greater distance than a couple of rods. There 
was a rush upon- our front, and tumbling into the narrow road 
where we were cooped up came horses and men of the marine 
battery in wildest confusion. Lieutenant Stebbins of Company 
D was wounded. Colonel Lee was knocked down, and those for- 
ward were thrown back in great disorder ; but the word " Steady ! " 
being given by the lieutenant-colonel, the men at once recovered 
and stood firm. The qplonel, regaining his feet, ga\-e the order 
to fall back, and we retired to a position farther back in the road, 
while Belger's battery and a battery of the Third New York Artil- 
lery Regiment, drawn up in the field, commenced shelling the 
enemy. The roar of the guns and screeching of shells gave to us 
a grand experience, and the woods shook with the fearful din. 

The enemy replied at first with his artillery, but soon ceased ; 
and it being ascertained that he had fled, burning the bridge as 
he crossed, at about two o'clock on Monday morning we were 
permitted to lie down on our arms and sleep in the field, in line 
behind the batteries. 

Cold, wet, and exhausted as we were, with nothing over us but 
our rubber blankets, in that frosty field under the open sky, after 
twenty hours of almost constant marching and engagement, we 
were thankful for the privilege, and in a short time were soundly 
wrapped in slumber. 

The general established his quarters at a small house adjoin- 
ing Rawle's Mill, a little in advance of our position, near to the 
bridge which had been burned at our approach. The dead were 
gathered, and solemnly and hurriedly buried by the light of 


lanterns in the grove of pines on the left, before crossing the 

During the latter part of this day's experience many became 
so tired that they slept while standing in the road during the 
numerous little halts when we were cautiously advancing; and 
when softly the order " Forward ! " was given, they would topple 
like tenpins before they could recover themselves. Whenever 
permitted to lie down, in spite of the roar of cannons, the rattle 
of musketry, and bursting of shells, most would be asleep in an 
instant, only to be awakened by that recurring "Forward!" 
which seemed to be the only sound that reached their compre- 
hension. There was something so curious about this that it ex- 
cited universal attention. On the Goldsboro' march, a soldier, 
sleeping, tired, and weary, with his feet to the burning stump of 
a tree for warmth, rolled over upon it and set his clothing afire. 
Two or three of his comrades seized and vigorously shook him, 
shouting themselves hoarse in trying to awake and warn him of 
his danger; but he rolled like a dummy in their hands, and slept 
on as placidly as if undisturbed, until one mischievously uttered 
the command " Forward ! " when he was on his feet in an in- 
stant, rubbing his eyes, and gathering himself together ready to 

About three hours later we were awakened, and stiff and sore 
we got on to our feet. The water in our canteens was frozen, and 
a thick white frost covered our rubber blankets and such parts 
of our arms and equipments as had been exposed. We were 
obliged to move about briskly for a while to take the stiffness 
out of our joints and gi\e circulation and warmth to the blood. 
The pioneers had rebuilt the bridge during the night. With little 
delay we fell into line, Companies A and G being placed at the 
right, and moved on toward Williamstown, passing some of the 
enemy's dead lying torn, ghastly, and unburied where they fell. 

At about t\velve o'clock we marched into the town and halted 
for breakfast, stacking arms in the street before a fine mansion. 
The inhabitants had deserted at the sound of our guns the night 
before, taking with them much of their furniture and goods. 
Like Washington, the streets were broad and finely shaded, bor- 
dered with residences having enclosures containing many pretty 

1 1 . •• ' 1 , ;■■!/; 


trees and shrubs. We found that several gunboats had sailed 
up the Roanoke and arrived here, waiting to co-operate with us. 
Blacks in great numbers had joined us on our march and soon 
began to ransack the deserted houses. Some of the soldiers 
partook too freely of discovered apple-jack, and under its influ- 
ence joined in pillage and destruction of furniture and orna- 
ments, until forcibly prevented by the provost-guard. With 
pleasure I relate that the Forty-fourth took no part in such 

Our object in coming here was to attempt the defeat and cap- 
ture of a force of the enemy which had gathered upon the river 
below, near Plymouth, threatening to attack and retake that town 
garrisoned by United States troops. They had already con- 
structed a bridge over which to transport their artillery; but, 
warned of our approach, a portion went up to Rawle's Mill to 
hold us in check, while the remainder passed to the interior. 
Their rear-guard passed through Williamstown very early this' 
morning in full retreat and much demoralized. We also e.xpected 
to intercept large convoys of provisions which the Rebels were 
transporting from the section to the east and south of Plymouth. 
This we failed to accomplish. 

Refreshed a little by our rest, we left Williamstown between 
three and four o'clock in the afternoon and. advanced westerly 
toward Hamilton, passing scenes similar to those of yesterday 
and this morning. The country grew higher and more undu- 
lating. Substantial and extensive plantation buildings, with pic- 
turesque cotton-presses and ginning-houses, stood in the fields 
and added to the beauty of the landscape. The soil, a rich 
sandy loam without a stone, was easy for the plough, and furrows 
three quarters of a mile in length, as straight as a line, were seen 
on either side. Great fields of white, full-rowed corn, on stalks 
ten to twelve feet in height, stood unharvested, and acres upon 
acres of cotton were still unpicked. 

The planters' dwellings, surrounded with broad verandas, 
standing back from the road, almost hidden by clumps of acacias 
and other ornamental trees, presented a most hospitable appear- 
ance. Beyond extended the forest, with its leaves turned to a 
liquid amber, relie\'ed in places by the deep evergreen of the bay 


and myrtle and by the richer colors of ihc largc-lcavod oak, 
while here and there the stately and nuije-tic c_\-press presented a 
deep golden tint. Nearer the road perAiuiinon-trces witl; heavily 
laden branches invited us to partake, antl the fruit be'iig fully 
ripe was plucked and greatly enjoyed. 

This day was also hot; but being up.m higher ground, and 
no longer compelled to v.-ade through creeks auvl swamps, 
marching was more easy, and we did not suffer as on the day 
previous, though many were forcing themselves along. bli.<tered 
and ulcered, some without shoes, having had to remove them to 
relieve their swollen and lacerated feet. 

Long after dark wc were filed by brigades into one of ihe great 
cornfields to bivouac. Every other man in the files, having 
passed his musket to his comrade, took a couple of fence-rails 
upon his shoulder for fuel. Soon the lines were distinctly 
marked by fires, with dark figures moving over and around them. 
Sweet potatoes, found in an adjoining fiekl, were roasted and 
enjoyed with our coffee, and cornstalks antl husks were gathered 
as fodder for the horses. 

It was another cold night, and in spite of the fires, we suffered. 
Rubber blankets are neither warm nor ■^■■i':. Few couki sleep, 
and many wore away the niglit revolving before the scant fires in 
futile attempt to keep all sides comfortable at once. 



The next morning \vc fell in at daylight and continued on until 
eleven o'clock, when we were delayed about two hours while the 
pioneers rebuilt another bridge which had been burned by the 
enemy.' The road had followed the river for some distance, and 
we were halted near to Rainbow IJlufif, where was constructed an 
elaborate fortification to command the river, and many embraced 
the opportunity afforded to examine it. At this point, where the 
river makes a bend or bow, the bluff rises perhaps more than a 
hundred feet; and here was placed the fort, so high that, the 
river being narrow and winding, boats could not elevate their 
pieces to bear upon it, making it a place of great natural defence 
from that side, and enabling the enemy to prevent the farther 
passage up the river of our gunboats. On the land side, how- 
ever, it was unprotected except by a light breastwork which had 
recently been thrown up ; so the garrison wisely concluded not to 
stay and contest the place with us. It had been mounted with 
field pieces, which ungenerously they carried off with them. 

From this eminence was viewed a charming prospect of the 
river and surrounding country, — extensive fields, some golden 
with yellow stalks, others white with cotton as if covered with 
snow, dotted here and there with little nest-like groves containing 
inviting mansions, the homes of the planters. The silvery stream 
wound in and among these, and bounding all was the forest, rich 
in its autumn-hued foliage. While examining this fort and the 
fine prospect afforded, six gunboats steamed by in succession up 
the stream, each of which in its turn was heartily greeted by 
rounds of cheers. 

On our march to this point the fifth division of our regiment. 
Companies A and G, were sent out on another road with some 
cavalry and two Napoleon guns to endeavor to entrap the gar- 
rison of the fort. They were led down a road leading to the left 
and into the woods. Proceeding some distance, they halted at a 
place very similar in appearance to that where we met the enemy 
on Sunday evening. It was expected that they would pass 
through here, so the infantry was drawn up in the woods above 
the road at a point which commanded it, the guns were pointed, 
and the cavalry placed among the trees out of view. Here they 
waited patiently and in silence about two hours, and until the 

i^iill ■■•>•> :A:;t^-vAl 


videttes came in and reported that the enemy had taken another 
route; when, felling trees to prevent future approach on this road, 
tiiey were turned back to join the main force, which was over- 
taken waiting for the building of the bridge before spoken of, 
luiving previously destroyed and made useless the fortification. 

The bridge being soon completed, we marched to Hamilton 
about three o'clock in the afternoon. Here, by the surgeon's 
orders, thirty of our wounded, sick, and disabled were put on 
board of a small steamer, with about two hundred others of 
the various commands, and sent back to New Berne. 

Being on short rations, foraging parties were detailed from 
each regiment to enter the town and collect food, the inhabitants 
having also retreated and gone to Tarboro', a place of some 
importance on the railroad, upon the line of direct communication 
with Richmond. The streets soon resounded with despairing 
cries of fleeing pigs and poultry relentlessly pursued by des- 
perately hungry men. Without leave, some stole into the town 
to forage upon their own account, and commenced wholesale 
pillage which the officers vigorously attempted to restrain ; but 
the streets soon became full of these, many of whom, made fren- 
zied by apple-jack, which was found in plenty, commenced to 
deface and destroj' household articles and carry off furniture and 
goods. Our boys, here as at Williamstown, refrained from such 
unsoldierly conduct, and, beyond searching for and securing 
articles and animals for food, they respected the property of the 

Sitting around our camp-fires in the evening, our attention was 
called to a cloud of smoke arising above some of the houses, 
which rapidly increased in volume, and it was seen that a con- 
siderable portion of the town was in flames, caused by the care- 
lessness or malice of some soldier or sailor. After eight o'clock, 
by the light of the burning houses, we were marched through the 
town and a few miles beyond, where we bivouacked. 

Before leaving Hamilton, and at the suggestion of Colonels 
Stevenson and Aniory, who had already made similar represen- 
tations, our field officers waited upon the general and represented 
to him that the men were fatigued, footsore, and broken by the 
continuous marching, lack of rest and sufficient food, and would 

rod <.-,: (K .- 

iiai.-l \ 'la;'.' 



be unable to proceed much farther. He expressed regret at 
being obliged to press his force so hard, and said that he would 
only have to move them a little farther, where there was im- 
portant work which would soon be accomplished, after which he 
would at once turn homeward to New Berne. 

At daylight Wednesday morning wo broke camp and went on 
in the direction of Tarboro'. We met large numbers of pigs, lean 

and active as hounds, many of which were sacrificed to appease 
our hunger. Had it not been for the pigs, fowls, and sweet pota- 
toes which we foraged, we could hardly have gone so far into the 
enemy's countr}-, for no meat was given out after our start. Our 
five days' rations were consumed in three, and three pieces of 
hard bread, with a little coffee and what we could pick up, had 
been for some time our daily ration. At one period of th's 
march, during forty-eight hours some of us received but a single 
piece of hard-tack. 

We were halted at noon and allowed to make coffee and cook 
whatever we had foraged during the forenoon. There was here a 
fork in the road, ene branch leading directly to Tarboru' and 
the other by a circuitous route to the same place. After lunch 


the same detachment sent forward yesterday — namely, Com- 
panies A and G of the Forty-fourth, under Captain James M. 
Richardson, with a few of the cavalr)', and two small brass how- 
itzers, all commanded by Major Garrard of the cavalry — were 
sent forward on the direct road to make a demonstration, while 
the main body followed the other road, which passed through 
many swamps.' The air was close and murky, and the marching 
very hard upon the footsore and hungry men. 

The two companies proceeded without adventure until about 
the setting of the sun, when they passed a house on the left of 
the road with the doors standing open, apparently just deserted. 
On the opposite side of the road was a blacksmith's shop with 
the fires in the forge still lighted. There was unnatural quiet, 
only broken by the complaint of a grumbler who was declaring 
his belief that there was not a Rebel within twenty-five miles, and 
that it was a confounded shame thus to march the legs off the 
men, when — Jiash, dang! — from the brush on the side of the 
road came a volley, emptying two or three saddles and wounding 
two of the horses at the head of the little column, bringing it to 
a sudden halt. Company A, with some of the cavalry and one 
howitzer, was in the advance, and Company G, with the remain- 
ing cavalry and howitzer, followed. Immediately upon firing the 
volley, and before our men could recover from their surprise, the 
ambushers fled across the fields to the woods beyond. Looking 
across to the left near to the wood, around some hay or fodder 
stacks could be seen men cautiously moving with guns in their 
hands. Order was given to face to the left, and the fences were 
torn down for the cavalry to pass into the field. This order, 
however, v.-as countermanded, and facing again forward they were 
marched a little farther on, both howitzers were planted in front 
pointing up the road, and Company G was put into position to 
support them, with Companj- A as reser\c. The major rode a 
few feet in advance of the guns, and with his glass tried to make 
out the position of the enemy. He had hardly applied it to his 
eyewhen a rifle-shot was fired, and the involuntar}- ducking of his 
head told how near the bullet passed. A scout who had been 
sent out cautiously to examine and ascertain what force was be- 
fore them, at this time came in from woods on the right, reporting 


that strong works with many men and guns opposed farther 
advance. In front, where the road entered the forest, it appeared 
as if intrenchments crossed, and it was said that the glass dis- 
tinguished guns in position to sweep the road whereon our men 
stood. This caused alarm to our diminutive force, and with little 
hesitation the order was given, " About, face ! forward, march ! " 
and after a few steps, " Double-quick, march ! " Thus for nearly 
four miles they were compelled to run before the command was 
given, "Halt!" Notwithstanding the intimation given that if 
any fell out they would be sabred by the cavalry bringing up 
the rear, so that the enemy might not be able to get informa- 
tion of the littleness of the force, a few gave out completely in 
this rapid retreat, and were put upon the gun-carriages so as not 
to be left behind. One of the dead cavalrymen was also taken 
along upon a gun. Arriving at the place where they had halted 
for lunch at noon, exhausted, they stopped to rest and bury the 

The main force was gone. They were in the midst of the 
enemy, and, lest their presence should be betrayed, it was ordered 
to hold no conversation, not even in a whisper, and pickets were 
stationed with directions to shoot without challenge any one who 
approached. It had been dark for more than half an hour when 
this spot was reached, and the men threw themselves down upon 
the ground for rest. Now it began to sprinkle, and soon to rain 
heavily. Scouts were sent forward, some of whom returned say- 
ing the road was clear, and the men were awakened and ordered 
to advance. Stiff, tired, and footsore, they hobbled along in the 
rain for about t^vo miles, when another scout came in who re- 
ported he had found the camp some distance ahead, and that 
General Foster had sent word for them to rest where they were 
until morning. Thereupon they sought soft places in and near 
the road, and despite the falling rain and chilly atmosphere soon 
fell into sound slumber. 

In about an hour one of the posted guard came in saying that 
a considerable force of the enemy had just crossed the road be- 
tween them and the camp, about half a mile ahead. For a short 
time things looked serious, and it seemed doubtful if they would 
be permitted to join the main force; but about two hours later 


a messenger from the camp found and gave them directions to 
move there immediately. 

The mud was now deep, and so sticky that walking was more 
difficult. It was sunrise when they reached camp, jaded and 

After hot cotTee and something to eat, it having been ascer- 
tained that Tarboro' was strongly reinforced with artillery and 
cavalry from Richmond, the general, after a council of his offi- 
cers, determined it not to be prudent to make an attack, for the 
reason that the infantry force was insufficient to protect the guns, 
the loss of which he could not aftord to risk; and therefore he 
faced us homeward. 

All that day until dark we marched through mud, rain, and 
snow, back to Hamilton, many falling out through exhaustion, 
who were taken up by the ambulances and baggage-wagons, 
the enemy's cavalrj' in considerable numbers hanging on our 
skirts and rear, watching an opportunity to cut some of us off. 
At Hamilton, wet to the skin, we took possession of the de- 
serted buildings, — the first shelter which we had had since leav- 
ing " Little " Washington. Getting what rest and sleep we could, 
on the next morning, Friday, we awoke to find an inch of snow 
upon the ground, and the flakes falling as thick and merrily as 
on a Christmas Day in New England. 

Fearing an attack under disadvantage, we were not permitted 
longer delay; so we fell in and wearily marched to VVilliamstown, 
reaching there about half-past four in the afternoon, where we 
were once more quartered in the empty dwellings. On this day's 
march large quantities of honey were secured from the many 
hives abounding in the vicinity, and officers as well as privates 
were seen tramping on, their dippers filled with the luscious 
comb, regaling themselves by the aid of clean-licked fingers, 
their besmeared faces giving silent but expressive voice to feel- 
ings of gratitude for the unexpected treat. 

At VVilliamstown we remained until Sunday morning to give 
us rest, being now under protection of the gunboats. Many 
were here obliged to go into a temporary hospital established in 
one of the houses. Colonel Stevenson being among the number. 
Yesterday, forty more from our regiment, entirely used up, were 


put upon gunboats at Hamilton. Other regiments suffered pro- 
portionately more than ours, the youth of our men proving more 
elastic in recover}- from the effects of hardship and privations. 
Our long marches at Readville, too, which at the time seemed 
so unnecessary, had done much to toughen and prepare us for 
this kind of work. 

It being considered unwise to leave the protection of the gun- 
boats, instead of marching us back to Washington we were to 
continue down bjthe Roanoke River to Plymouth, about twenty- 
two miles away. Therefore at daylight Sunday we resumed the 
road. Notwithstanding our rest, we were still lame and unfit to 
march, and must have resembled a host of beggars. Those in 
the worst condition were placed at the head of the column where 
marching is easier, and many officers kindly gave up their horses 
for them to ride, while they varied their own experience by pro- 
ceeding on foot. Walking limbered our joints and took the stiff- 
ness from our limbs, and after the halt for dinner, the roads being 
much improved, the near approach of the termination of our jour- 
ney revived our spirits, and one or two breaking forth in song, 
the others joj'ously took up the refrain, and " We 're going home " 
was rendered with deep and appreciative feeling. 

At four in the afternoon we filed into a cornfield as usual to 
encamp, and the invahds, Assistant-Surgeon Fisher being now 
among that number, were comfortably established in a neigh- 
boring farm-house. The day had been fine, the air cool and 
bracing, and the marching, on account of better roads, much 
easier. The moon arose bright and charming, and with serious 
feelings the officers and men assembled around the fire at head- 
quarters, where hymns were sung, Chaplain Hall oft'ered prayer, 
and after\vard addressed us, impressively alluding to the com- 
rades we had lost and the hardships wc had shared. At the 
close we broke up and retired, much overcome by the novel 
scene and our reflections. 

The following morning we started early, and halted just outside 
the town of PUmouth at noon. The weather was fine, and many 
embraced the opportunity of taking a bath in the river. The 
transports expected here to convey us to New Berne not hav- 
ing arrived, we were again introduced to a cornfield to use for 

') In. Rol |j 


our mattress. Our former good spirits had now fully returned, 
and we looked forward to a happy arrival at our comfortable 

Some got a chance to enter and view the town, which was 
found to be, like Washington, picturesque. The trees overhung 
the streets, and meeting formed a vista like the nave prolonged 
of a Gothic cathedral, and the houses with chimneys built on the 
outside, gathered in at the second story, many of tliem covered 
with ivy, seemed homelike and coscy. 

The next day, Tuesday, November 1 1 , at noon, our regiment em- 
barked on the transports " Collins " and " Northerner," the former 
having the schooner "Recruit" in tow, carrying a portion of an- 
other regiment Soon by some mismanagement the schooner was 
upon a shoal, over which the captain of the " Collins " attempted 
to haul her, thereby quickly getting her into a bad position. 
Colonel Lee ordered him to shift the hawser and pull her oft" stern 
first, which the captain refused to do, whereupon the colonel at 
once put him under arrest and sent him to his cabin. General 
Foster, coming up in the " Pilot-boy," appro\ ed this action, and 
gave charge of the " Collins " to the captain of the " Recruit," 
which was soon taken off" the shoal and proceeded on its way 
with the rest down the ri\-er. The behavior of the captain of the 
"Collins" aroused suspicion in all minds, for he seemed in no 
hurry to relieve the vessel from her condition, where in case of 
an attack we would have been in a very embarrassing situation. 
He, however, professed great indignation at his arrest and con- 
finement, and informed the colonel that he intended to "meet 
him on the field of honor," and also in the courts of law. 

Our run down the river was greatly enjoyed ; for though the 
banks were low, yet the growth of trees, shrubs, and brakes, — 
the former draped with moss, — and the richl}'-colored reeds, 
foliage, and grasses, rendered it pleasant to the view. 

That night we cast anchor, but early on Wednesday morning 
we again steamed away through Albemarle Sound, passing Roan- 
oke Island, into Pamlico Sound. The "Northerner" ran upon 
a bar and was compelled to wait some hours before it could be 
got oft'. Soon it was again fast, and all were taken aboard another 
steamer until it was relieved. The day was fine, and the monoto- 


nous sound from the engines, combined with our fatigue, caused 
us to pass the time in charming rest and dozing. In the night the 
" Northerner" once more was aground, and about ninety horses 
aboard were taken upon another boat before she could be floated. 

After another day upon the water, at half-past eight on Thurs- 
day night, those upon this vessel, because of its drawing too 
much water to get to the wharf, were taken upon the " M. S. 
Allison," and at about nine were safely landed at New Berne, 
when they hastened to the barracks, where, to their joy and sur- 
prise, a princely supper of baked beans, fried onions, sweet 
potatoes, hot coftee, and hard-tack awaited them, prepared by the 
boj-s who had been left in charge. Joyously and ravenously they 
set to and devoured the repast, filled with gratitude for their 
present relief from hardship. 

The boys upon the "Collins" did not land until daylight on 
the next day, November 14, when they too were treated to a 
generous meal at their barracks, which was truly a " break fast " 
for them. 

They had just been experiencing lively times at New Berne, a 
serious attack having been made at various points and the pickets 
driven in. But the enemy had delayed too long, for many of 
the troops connected with our expedition having returned were 
immediately sent out to repel them, and the iron-clad car " Moni- 
tor" ran up on the railroad and shelled the woods, driving them 
off with some loss. Our casualties were one man killed of the 
Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, and six wounded. 

Thus was accomplished our first expedition. Its object, to 
destroy the iron-clad ram "Albemarle," then constructing at Tar- 
boro', to save Plymouth from capture by the enemy, and if 
possible to entrap the force gathering for that purpose, was but 
partially successful, as they were too wary and strong for us. 
But we gained valuable experience, which was well calculated to 
try our mettle as soldiers. Under our baptism of fire we had 
stood firm and unflinching. Though by the blunder of an offi- 
cious staff officer overruling the previous order of the colonel 
our t^vo right flank companies, unsuspicious of danger, were 
massed in the waters of the creek just before the sheltered 
enemy, yet they hardly wavered under the murderous volley so 

■lu.. <J ■<lti:ii: 


suddenly poured into tliem, but rushed forward with enthusiasm 
without waiting for orders. Of our demeanor, at an inspection 
had immediately after our return. General Foster took occasion 
to say publicly that we " behaved like veterans." In marching, 
too, the best did not surpass us, and in every manner we won 
the praises of our commanding officers, as also the esteem and 
respect of the older regiments. The good humor manifested by 
our boys under adverse circumstances drew forth remark Toil- 


■s^i^- ■ •:> ^S..-: 

ing weary miles over the worst of roads, with blistered feet and 
clothing saturated by water from the skies above and swamps 
beneath, with no prospect ahead more cheering than that of a 
bivouac under the open sky, upon the damp and frosty earth, 
often some genial comrade would enliven the spirits of his com- 
panions by a witty remark, or make them forget their discom- 
forts by breaking forth in melody to be contagiously taken 
up in chorus by all. In that dismal swamp on our return march, 
closed in by the gloom of the surrounding woods and the night, — 
on such an occasion, the " Old Mountain Tree " was rendered 
with such feeling that it left an impression which will never be 

The friendship entered into upon this march between us and 
the other regiments of our brigade, strengthened by subsequent 

;i:.^:>^ .^i-DtLfit 

t 'rr.oi-: .fj vd 


common hardships and dangers, will never be severed. Dear 
to us always will be our comrades of the Fifth Rhode Island, 
Tenth Connecticut, and Twenty-fourth Massachusetts ; and " Lit- 
tle Creek," " Rawle's Mill," and the " Tarboro' March" will 
ever be subjects of interest to the survivors of the Massachusetts 

] It 

1 f ■ 


U'\ 1 


ARLY on Thursday morning, 

Dec. II, 1862, all was life 

and bustle in camp, the final 

touches were given to our 

preparations made the day 

^IWW M before, and by 6 A.M. regi- 

;■!, mental line was formed. But 

our start soon proved rather 

^^ the prelude to one of those 

' -^^ "'- 1"^'"^^ ,_^J tediouswaits that often accom- 

- -^ ^ — ,.£i , — ^---^^ pany the moving of a large 

force except when near the 

enemy; and, for our field of operations, it was indeed a large 

force that was now about to cut loose from its base, and, relying 

largely upon the resources of the country, to penetrate into the 

interior of the Old North State. 

The brigade of which we formed a part was composed of the 
Twenty-fourth and Forty-fourth Massachusetts, Fifth Rhode 
Island, and Tenth Connecticut Regiments, and was commanded 
by Colonel Stevenson. The rest of our force consisted of Colonel 
H. C. Lee's brigade, the Fifth, Twenty-fifth, Third, Forty-si.xth, 
and Twenty-seventh Massachusetts Regiments ; Colonel Amory's 
brigade, the Seventeenth, Twenty-third, Forty-third, Forty-fifth 
and Fifty-first Massachusetts Regiments ; Brigadier-General Wes- 
sell's brigade, the Eighty-fifth, Ninety-second, Ninety-sixth New 
York, Eighty-fifth, One Hundred and First, One Hundred and 
Third Pennsylvania Regiments. .-\lso the Ninth New Jersey In- 
fantry and Third New York Cavalry; six batteries of the Third 
New York Artillery, and Belger's Battery of the First Rhode 


Island Artillery, with sections of Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth 
New York Independent Batteries, numbering in all about ten 
thousand infantry, forty guns and six hundred and forty cavalry, 
and all under the personal command of Major-General J. G. 

Our previous expedition had inspired us with absolute confi- 
dence in the skill and resource of our commander, and we were 
ready to be led wherever he chose, confident that with him suc- 
cess was certain. 

We beguiled the tedium of our various halts with stories of our 
last expedition and conjectures on what the Rebs might have in 
store for us. Proverbially light-hearted as the soldier fortunately 
is, we joked each other on this or that peculiarity of outfit which 
our late experiences had taught us was useful ; but indeed we 
were carrying much more than before, for fifty rounds of cart- 
ridges, instead of forty, had been served out to each man, besides 
his woollen blanket, overcoat, and well-filled knapsack. 

At last, by 2 P. M., our part of the line was fairly started, and 
we kept on without noticeable incident till about 7 P. M.,when we 
halted for the night. Being towards the rear of the column, the 
camp-fires of the troops in advance of us were blazing in all direc- 
tions as we turned into the cornfield where we were to bivouac. 
Place yourself in one of our public squares at night and see the 
long lines of gaslights radiating in half a dozen directions ; then 
imagine each light a camp-fire, each street a regimental or brigade 
line rising and falling with the undulations of the ground, horses 
neighing, men shouting, the great white-topped wagons of the 
supply-train drawn up in line, the flames here shooting high and 
there turned to glowing embers, and for a background the dark 
night with the sentinel pacing to and fro, and you have a wild 
and inspiring scene, such as greeted us; but we soon fell into our 
proper position, and ourselves became part of the scene, eager to 
put an end to our cold and hunger. The middle of the day and 
early afternoon had been very hot, so oppressive that many nearly 
fainted ; but at dark it grew cold, and water froze in our canteens 
during the night. Camp-fires, however, made us comfortable ; 
and with our feet to the fire and plenty of fence-rails both for bed 
and fuel, we slept soundly till early reveille. 

1 ' : U 



On Friday the column started by sunrise, but it was not till 
about half-past nine that our regiment moved out from the field. 
Our march was a hard one. The roads were muddy, and as the 
column will always open out at a mud-hole, so when it comes to 
good travelling again, the lost ground must be regained; thus we 
had a succession of halts and double-quick, with mud and water 
between. Our strong pioneer force did capital service this day 
in clearing the road of the felled trees with which the Rebels had 
sought to delay our progress. Much of our way also was through 
deep sand ; and indeed we had specimens of the several compo- 
nent parts of the foundations of the State ; namely, sand, clay, 
and water. 

We halted for dinner about one P. M., but before we could get 
our fires ready to boil our coftee the order came, " Fall in. Forty- 
fourth, lively! " and we were hurried off two or three miles on 
the double-quick. Early in the afternoon our adjutant told us we 
were within five miles of Kinston, and should march but a short 
distance farther that night, — tantalizing information indeed it 
proved to be ; for it was not until ten o'clock that we bivouacked 
for the night, and then we had neither seen nor heard anything 
of Kinston. 

All this was better understood a few days later, when we learned 
that the enemy had felled trees, planted cannon, dug rifle-pits, and 
in various ways had prepared to meet us and drive us back on 
the main road , while our ever-ready General Foster had learned 
of their plans, and at daylight had sent out some cavalry who had 
a skirmish with the enemy about four miles beyond our camp. 
Coming to a cross-road known as Vine Swamp road, three com- 
panies of this cavalry pushed rapidly up the main road towards 
Kinston and found the bridge over Beaver Creek partially 
destroyed. Hastily repairing this, and leaving a regiment of 
infantry — the Fifty-first Massachusetts — and a section of the 
Twenty-third New York Battery, which had now come up, to 
hold the bridge, the cavalry kept on, occasionally skirmishing 
and keeping up the show of an advancing force, while the main 
body turned off by the Vine Swamp road. 

To continue this digression: the next day, Saturday, a detach- 
ment was sent up another road to engage the attention of the 


enemy, and at Southwest Creek, about six miles from Kinston, 
found them posted in force, but after a sharp fight drove them 
from their position and took one gun. Some Rebels who had 
fled into the woods came in and gave themsehes up. The de- 
tachment slept on the wet ground in sight of the enemy's fires, 
but were not allowed any for themselves. 

-^=^.'^^fi^^^:rf"''' i:^ 

But to resume the account of our own special movements. We 
left camp on Saturday about 8.30 A.M. and marched till i P.M., 
when we turned into a cornfield and formed line of battle in rear 
of a battery. In front of us was a thick wood in which the enemy 
were supposed to be. Soon we heard heavy cannonading at the 
front, with dense smoke. After waiting in suspense for about 
two hours, momentarily expecting orders to move, we were told 
to prepare to camp, and as fires were not to be allowed, a squad 
was detailed to cut pine boughs for shelter. Fortunately for us, 
however, the prohibition against fires was aftonvards removed. 
Provisions were nearly out, but the quartermaster issued fresh 
rations when the wagons came up, so we passed a comfortable 
night. Sunday morning wc left camp soon after eight o'clock, 
and after marcliing about five miles, occasionally hearing heavy 

:3 . • =.' oJ 

(. : .tfj ?(;i ••• ^ .'o. 


cannonading ahead, we turned into a cornfield in support of a 
battery. After a short time we returned tu the road, and march- 
inij past a thicii piece of woods, turned into anotiier cornfield on 
our right and again formed in support of a battery. Meantime 
the firing at the front grew louder and more distinct every mo- 
ment, and unslinging our knapsacks and leaving them in charge 
of one man of each company, we prepared to move on towards 
the front. 

To make more clear the position and the action in which we 
were now about to take a part, though not a leading one, it is 
necessary to go back a little. 

Directly in front of the position which we then occupied, the 
upland sloped down through a piece of woods on the right of the 
road to a narrow belt of swamp, which was thick with small trees, 
vines, briers, and all the luxuriant and tangled growth of a South- 
ern jungle ; be\'ond the swamp the ground rose very slightly, just 
enough to clear the water, and became a nearly flat plain, covered 
on the right of the road with an open growth of heavy pine-trees, 
each large enough to aftbrd considerable protection to a sharp- 
shooter. Near the road, in this grove of pines, and perhaps three 
hundred feet beyond the swamp, was a rudely built church, giv- 
ing an admirable shelter to the enemy. A short distance further 
on was the river, running at right angles to the road, and crossed 
by a bridge. On the hither side of the river, across the road from 
the wood, the ground rose into an open cornfield which stretched 
away to the river-bank, rising slightly without interruption except 
for a trifling earthwork just at the bank of the stream, which all 
along here was twenty or thirty feet below the level of the fields. 

The action (to which was given the name of the battle of 
Kinston) began by our force, with WesseH's brigade in front, 
advancing down the road and being met and checked by the 
enemy, who were posted on both sides of the road beyond the 
swamp. A line was then deployed on the right of the road, 
on our side of the swamp, and was slowly and persistently moved 
forward to meet the enemy, who were in strong force; and upon 
our brave fellows, struggling knee to waist deep in the mud-holes 
and tangled in the vines and briers of the .swamp, their fire rained 
with pitiless and most destructive violence. Following the Tenth 


nrf": ./• odl 1<.> Oi'w 



Connecticut and Forty-fifth Massachusetts, the right wing of our 
regiment pushed its way through the swamp and joined the left 
wing, which meantime had led the way down the road and had 
formed line in the cornfield on the left and beyond the water. 
Almost at that moment there was a loud shout in front, and we 
saw the gallant Tenth Connecticut, with other troops, in hot pur- 
suit of the enemy towards the bridge. So close was the pursuit, 
that though the enemy succeeded in firing the bridge, — for which 
they had made full preparation, — yet our men soon extinguished 

it and crossed over, passing the charred body of the poor fellow 
whose duty it had been to set the fire, but who, struck by our 
bullets, had fallen into the flames he himself had kindled. Our 
advance pressed on to the town, but the Forty-fourth had to 
march back for its knapsacks; and when we returned to the 
bridge we had to V\-ait some time before crossing, and many of 
us talked with the Rebel prisoners wliom we found waiting there 
also. They seemed perfcctl)- miserable, and several said that 
they were quite ready to take the oath of allegiance. 

The road on our side of the bridge was at right angles with the 
river, but on the other sitle di\-ided right and left, with a consid- 
erable earthuork with .^ix guns opposite the end of the bridge. 

■■■'•■■'""1 ■■-■'-'■■■■■■' 


and a long line of rifle-pits stretching down river to the right. 
The enemy retreated in great confusion, most of them to the left 
towards the town, but a considerable portion to the right down 
the river-bank. U'e followed the left-hand road towards Kinston, 
and all along it was strewn with their trappings, which they had 
thrown away in their flight, — blankets (an old comforter or a 
piece of carpet), haversacks, canteens, cartridge-boxes, etc. 

We marched directly into the town. It was a remarkably 
pretty place, well laid out, with broad streets at right angles, 
neatly painted houses, well-kept yards, and a decided air of thrift 
about it. In the street were huge piles of corn and cotton burn- 
ing; but the houses were unharmed, and their occupants had 
mostly remained. The railroad station had been fired, but was ex- 
tinguished before much damage had been done ; and after march- 
ing about town some time, we formed in line near this station 
to support a couple of batteries which were shelling the outskirts 
of the town. Presently they started along the road leading 
beyond the town, shelling occasionally as they advanced, and 
we after them. After about a mile of this we all returned and 
bivouacked near the station. A well-stocked grocery-store near 
by was confiscated to our use; and many a man will remember 
the welcome corn-dodger, baked on a shingle and sweetened with 
molasses, with which he regaled himself that night. 

We afterwards learned that General Foster, after our occupa- 
tion of the town, had sent a staff officer with a flag of truce to 
General Evans, commanding the Confederate forces, summoning 
him to surrender. This, however, General Evans declined to do, 
and moved back for the night to a strong position at Falling 
Creek, about six miles from Kinston, towards Goldsboro'. 

Next morning we recrossed the bridge, and, passing the scene 
of the previous day's fight, took the road for Whitehall and Golds- 
boro'. We realized then, even more than we did the day before, 
what an iron rain we had passed through ; for the pine-trees 
around the church were literally riddled, and in many cases cut 
in two, by the shot which had poured upon them. Our march 
that day, of about fifteen miles, mostly through sand}-, fatiguing 
roads enlivened by an occasional ford, was without special inci- 
dent; and towards dark we turned into a cornfield, and foraging 

ij ?.:.' .::r.jf 


parties having replenished our scanty larder, we got our suppers 
and slept in peace. 

The following morning, Tuesday the i6th, we broke camp as 
usual, but had gone a short distance only, when, about nine o'clock, 
heavj- firing began. Advancing slo\\ ly, we ai--lorLafh_turncd to 
the left into a path which wound through a rather open wood, up 
a slight ascent and on to a ridge overlooking a cornfield, beyond 
which was a thin belt of woods bordering on the Neuse River. 
The road which we had just left kept along the flat land and 
crossed the river by a bridge, near which the Rebels were build- 
ing a gunboat. The few houses scattered along this road, and 
mainly on the other side of the river, formed the village of White- 
hall. W'e marched through the open wood, receiving on our 
flank a heavy fire of shot and shell from the batteries across the 
river. One shot crashed through our ranks, instantly killing two 
men of Company A. Reaching the crest of the ridge, we turned 
sharp to the right, came down into the cornfield, crossed it, and 
formed line along a rail fence at the edge of the woods bordering 
the river. Here for nearly two hours \\c received the fire of the 
batteries and the sharpshooters who were posted in the trees 
across the ri\'er, but with little opportunity ourselves to make 
any effective return. At last we were withdrawn, after some loss 
in killed and wounded, and posted in rear of Belger's Rhode 
Island Battery, which began shelling the other side of the river. 
When at last the Rebel batteries were silenced, and nothing was 
heard from the enemy but the occasional fire of their sharp- 
shooters, then our batteries were withdrawn, a few of our men 
were detailed as sharpshooters to keep the enemy employed, and 
the force resumed its march. 

Among the numerous incidents of the day was the following, 
the truth of which many of our regiment can doubtless vouch for: 
One of our men, while lying behind the rail fence, was struck by 
a Rebel bullet ; clasping his hand to his side, he felt his life-blood 
gushing from the wound. His captain approached, and to him 
the soldier whispered the words of farewell which he wished sent 
to his friends after his spirit had departed. The captain, failing 
to see any blood, asked where he was wounded. "A bullet right 
through my side, captain ; I know there 's no hope." " I don't 

I O'^l 

: oi\hf..irx . ,. ' ; ■-■.■A. 

7 -^ 


i^: ■J'- ^ 


itr ri- ,-r>''filflifif ApTifA' iir^- - n#^tB,l *i:^.-JJ«:^^i-iM^:-^ 


see any blood," the captain replied ; *' perhaps you are not hit as 
hard as you think." " What ! no blood ! " cried he, his voice 
gaining sudden strength and for the first time looking at his side. 
The dying man suddenly came to life, and seizing his musket 
resumed his place. A Rebel bullet had shot away the top of his 
canteen; the water was warm, and pouring over his hand, he im- 
agined it to be blood, and so dictated his last will and testament. 
That night we encamped near a small settlement about eight 
miles from Goldsboro'. During the night, which for our own 
regiment was a quiet and uneventful one, active preparations were 
being made on both sides for the struggle, which all expected to 
come the next day, for the possession of the railroad bridge, — 
the key of communication between the Confederate army in Vir- 
ginia and its Southern sources of supply. The destruction of this 
bridge was, in fact, the main object of our whole expedition. 

-The Confederate General GustavusW. Smith, then in command 
of the Departrnent of North Carolina and Southeast Virginia, had 
for some days been telegraphing urgently to his Secretary of War 
for reinforcements for Goldsboro' and vicinity, and had been 
promised six regiments and two batteries from Richmond, three 
regiments from Petersburg and its vicinity, and five thousand 
infantry and three batteries from Beauregard, then at Charles- 
ton, S. C. The Petersburg reinforcement had arrived on the morn- 
ing of the i6th, the day of the action at Whitehall; but only one 
regiment of infantry, with si.x hundred dismounted cavalry and 
a battery, all under command of General Robertson, had taken 
part in that engagement. General Evans in the mean time had 
returned to Kinston, in the expectation of crossing the Neuse 
bridge and harassing our rear. Finding, however, that we had 
destroyed the bridge, Evans returned and was ordered to report 
at Goldsboro', where he arrived early on the morning of the 
17th. Meantime, we on our side were not idle. Five companies 
of the Third New York Cavalry, with a couple of pieces of artil- 
lery of the Twenty-third New York, had been sent towards the 
railroad south of Goldsboro' and struck it at Mount Olive sta- 
tion, about fourteen miles from Goldsboro', in the direction of 
Wilmington. The little village was taken completely by surprise, 
the track was torn up, station and water-tanks destroyed, and the 

• JUi '{■ •'; >n'-Mni 

ir.; (I, ;i,.c. 


work of destruction completed by detachments sent up and down 
the road for several miles. By midnight all these outlying parties 
had returned to the main body. 

The position and action of the opposing forces on the 17th was 
as follows : On the south side of the river, near the railroad bridge 
and in the line of our advance, lay Clingman's Brigade of infantry 
and artillery. In his rear, towards the county bridge, which was 
about half a mile higher up stream, Evans's Brigade was posted. 
On the north side of the river, artillery was posted at both bridges, 
and also at a bend in the stream between them, so as to brin"- 
an enfilading fire to bear on the southern approach to the railroad 
bridge. Having little or no cavalry, the enemy early in the day 
had made a reconnoissance in force with infantry, and soon dis- 
covered our approach. 

At early dawn our force had moved forward and taken up a 
commanding position on high ground about a mile from the river, 
from which position our artillery began to pour a destructive fire 
upon the enemy on both sides of the stream. Meantime a portion 
of our infantry, under cover of our artillery fire, advanced across 
the open fields towards the high embankment of the railroad, and 
for a while the struggle for the possession of this important posi- 
tion was severe, both sides fighting with great obstinacy. The en- 
emy was finall}- driven back, Evans retiring by the county bridge 
and Clingman by the railroad bridge. As soon as the latter had 
crossed, their battery at the other end of the bridge was pointed 
directly down the track, and in face of this murderous direct fire, 
and of the fire from the flanking battery up stream, volunteer 
after volunteer advanced to set fire to the bridge. At last Lieuten- 
ant Graham of the Twenty-third New York Battery, acting as aide 
to Colonel Heckman of the Ninth New Jersey, who commanded 
the advance, succeeded in firing the structure and it was soon 
enveloped in flames. 

Our own part in this battle was simply that of spectators ; and 
it was indeed a sight rarely to be seen except in pictures of battles. 
Our brigade was posted en rising ground, overlooking the low 
land bordering the river, through which ran the railroad embank- 
ment leading from the bridge. Below us, in full view, were the 
bodies of troops moving hither and thither, while the incessant 

,;m)v;. '.r 


boom of cannon, the rattle of musketry, the screaming of shells, 
the smoke, now obscuring now revealing the action, — all com- 
bined to make a scene we shall never forget. When the volumes 
of smoke rising from the bridge showed us that the final object of 
our expedition was at last accomplished, we knew what was to 
follow, and our own brigade commander, our loved Tom Steven- 
son, drawing his sword half way from its scabbard and thrusting 
it back again, called out to us, " We '11 go home, boys, we '11 go 
home ! " Such shouting as arose when the order came down the 
line, " Fall in, sling knapsacks, by the right flank countermarch, 
and you 're bound home," had never been heard before in that 
lonely country ; and the cheers we gave General Foster, whom we 
passed just as we filed into the road homeward bound, were wild 
enough to awaken all the echoes of the Old North State. 

Though the batteries were still keeping up an occasional shell- 
ing, yet we all supposed the battle was virtually over, and our 
brigade had marched perhaps a mile and a half when we heard 
the cannonading fiercely resumed, and along the line came the 
order to countermarch ; and back we went on the double-quick 
nearly to our former position. 

It seems that the enemy, after the destruction of the railroad 
bridge, determined if possible to save the county bridge and its 
communications, and for that purpose despatched a strong force 
under General Evans to cross the bridge and advance to feel our 
position. It was their intention to attack us on both wings at 
once and to turn our flank. Meantime, however, our force was 
moving oft", returning towards Kinston ; and as the enemy came 
in sight only one battery and a small force of infantry and cavalry 
appeared opposed to them. Thereupon the Fifty-first and Fifty- 
second North Carolina Regiments of the Confederates were or- 
dered to charge and take our battery. On they came, almost a 
perfect line, in gallant st)le; the cool and determined officer in 
command of Morrison's Battery waited till they were within very 
short distance, when he gave the order to fire ; the guns belched 
forth their deadly missiles, and the advancing ranks were mown 
down like grain. Re-forming, tlicy again and again advanced, 
only to be pitilessly slaughtered by the intrepid and relent- 
less battery. Meanwhile Bulger's Battery had returned near to 



Morrison's position, and at once opened fire to the left, where the 
woods were lined with Rebel infantrj-. The enemy then replied 
with a well-directed fire from a concealed battery. Riggs's Bat- 
tery was then ordered to Bclger's left, and after an hour of vigor- 
ous cannonading the fire of the enemy, both musketry and 
artillery, was silenced, and the fight was over. 

After remaining for some time in suspense in this our last 
position, we were ordered to resume our homeward march. 
Somewhat less light-hearted than we 
had been some hours before when 
first turning our steps homeward, we 
now trudged on, till towards night 
we reached our previous camping 
ground and there bivouacked. 

Next day we continued our march, 
wearily for the most part, the road 
sometimes a mere causeway through 
a swamp, sometimes between neg- 
lected corn or cotton fields, some- 
times through forests of blazing 
'_jj5-.i-'^y;' ."'^-'"'^ trees, whose flaming trunks of resi- 

•^ .. ♦^ 1 , / ^->i^siN nQjjg pi^g ^^,g^£ jjj.g colossal torch- 

es ; enlivening ourselves witli songs, 
' ' "- ~ ~ '^= ^'^ while occasionally a band would 

strike up and make our march easier, 
as we insensibly fell into a steady swing in time to the music. 
The cheering and inspiriting eft'ect of music, which the histcr>' of 
many a campaign often recites, was time and again realized by us 
as we plodded along through sombre forest or dreary clearing, 
the excitement of batde over, wearily longing for the end of our 
tramp and for what then seemed to us the unspeakable comfort 
of our old barracks. That night we halted not far from Kinston, 
and next morning, proceeding nearly up to the town, took the 
main road towards Xew Berne by which the Rebels had expected 
us to come when we started out on our march, but which the 
wariness and strategic skill of our General Foster had avoided, — 
though he kept up a show of advance upon it, — thus rendering 
useless tlic very considerable defences and obstacles which the 


Rebels had prepared for us, and wliich \\c now saw in reverse as 
we marched for home. That night we all understood that New 
Berne was only about twenty miles distant, so making a start 
about se\en o'clock the next morning we pushed on ; but the 
way seemed longer and longer, and as the afternoon wore away 
we were still an unknown distance from the town. Tlie colonel 
halted us and said that ail who wished it might push on with him 
for camp, but the others might stop where they were for the 
night. Many of us kept on, and about eight o'clock that Satur- 
day night the lights in our old barracks came in sight, and soon 
we were greeted by the few comrades who had been left be- 
hind, unable from sickness or other causes to go with us, and 
were cheered by the enlivening music of our new regimental 
band which Drum-major Babcock had been training during our 

The next morning the stragglers came in, and excepting only 
those whom death or wounds had taken from us, we were all at 
home again and our expedition was over. Its labors and achieve- 
ments are commemorated in the following General Order, which 
was read on dress parade, Jan. 17, 1S63, namely: — 

Headquarters Eighteenth .Army Corps, 
New Berne, Jan. 15, 1S63. 
General Orders, No. 18. 

In consideration of, and as a reward for, their brave deeds at Kinston, 
Whitehall, and Goldsboro', the Commanding General directs that the 
regiments and batteries which accompanied the expedition to Goldsboro' 
inscribe upon their banners these three victories, 

KiNSTOX, Dec. 14, 1862. 

Whhehall, Dec. 16, 1862. 

Goldsboro', Dec. 17, 1S62. 

The Commanding General hopes that all fields in future will be so fought 

that the record of them may be kept by inscription on the banners of the 

regiments engaged. 

By command of 

Major-General J. G. Fosfer. 


Assistant Adjutant- General. 

The casualties of the Federal troops on this expedition were as 
follows: Officers, killed 4, wounded 19; enlisted men, killed 88, 
wounded 46S, missing 12 : total 591. 



The compiler of tliis chapter has drawn freely from numerous 
and interesting letters of various members of the regiment, and 
from the following publications: " Wearing of the Blue," " Sol- 
diering in North Carolina," " Historj- of Ninth New Jersey," 
" Confederate War Papers by Cieneral G. W. Smith; " and from 
advance sheets of Government War Records, both Union and 



Headquarters Department of North Carolixa, 
i8th Army Corps, New Berne, Jan. 31, 1S63. 

Forty -fourth Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia : 

Colonel, — You will embark your com- 
mand to-morrow morning at 7 o'clock 
",.|. j .. •, r ' ^-. '^ on the steamer "Northerner" and pro- 

[.''!■ ■' " - ' '1,! ceed directly to Plymouth, N. C. 

K' I -''.^ _-,. :; The " INIassasoit " will be at the wharf 

-;, I' _ '• \ .. J at the foot of Middle Street for the pur- 
i;'. ^^"' ,^i---.'5r pose of transferring your regiment to the 

^^ . ■T'-i'^'lJ -S-^ "Northerner." 

■;"rr\ :j^'-- _ ~ -'"- '"" Upon your arrival at that place you will 

\'\ '^^' '^^^ assume command of the post, and immedi- 

-i^l~S"f%_;;! ■ ately after consultation with Captain Flusser, United 

Ls"' ' ' States Navy, and ^^lajor Bartholomew, Twenty-seventh 

Massachusetts Volunteers, take the necessary steps to 

drive in the enemy's pickets. 

It is reported here that the enemy is in force (about 1,000) at James- 
ville. Should \-ou find this report corroborated by the information you 
may receive at Plymouth, you will advance on that place and whip the 
enemy; and if upon consultation with the above officers it should be 
deemed advisable, you are authorized to advance as far as Williaraston. 

It is necessary that the advance should be made \ery shortly after your 
arrival, so that the enemy may not receive information of your arrival at 
the place ; and you are therefore advised to close the lines. 

Captain Flusser, United States Navy, will furnish you with some boat 
howitzers and crews, and he, as well as Major Bartholomew, are strongly 
recommended to you from their long experience at the post. 

t ■ 



Much of course must be left to your own discretion, and the gre:ttest 
confidence is placed in your judgment and abilities. The general's desire 
is to drive the enemy back and prevent their annoying our tbrce,i at 

Yours very respectfully, 

Southard Hdifman, 
Assistant Adjutixnt- Genera'. 

In obedience to this order the regiment was in line at 7.30 
next morning, February i (Sunday), and soon moved to liie 
wharf in New Berne, whence we were transferred to the steam^-r 
" Northerner," — of blessed memory, — which was waiting to re- 
ceive us. We soon started", and, followin'^ the \\-ell-kno\vn cour.=-c 
through Pamlico Sound, past Roanoke Island, anchoring for the 
night, next day keeping on through Albemarle Sound into the 
mouth of Roanoke River, and, as the shores drew nearer, between 
swamps of low trees and shrubs, bordered with golden rice, pine 
woods, cornfields, and solitary houses, at 4 P. M. on Monday, 
the 2d, we made fast to the wharf at Plymouth. Since our pre- 
vious visit in November Plymouth had suftered the fortune of 
war. Then it was a pleasant, peaceful town, upon which the 
shadow of strife had not fallen. A month later it had been 
raided and partially burned by the Rebel cavalry, and now the 
scars were deep and blaclc upon it. 

But why were we here? Rumor told of Rebel forces who were 
building earthworks, and possibly gunboats, at Rainbow BluiT 
(the Rebels called it Rainbow Bend), some miles farther up the 
river,' and that we were to move upon them in the morning. 

But we lay at the wharf that night. The evening was brilliant 
with the light of a full moon, the atmosphere soft and pleasant. 
The band on deck played, the darkies on shore danced around 

1 That this rumor was not iiiifminded, witness a leUer from Colonel J. F. Gilmer, 
of the Coiifeder.Tte Engineer lUire.iu, to Colonel Walter dwynn, C(mimanding do- 
fences in eastern North Carolina, which savs (under date of Xov. 3. 1S62 — tliiec- 
months before our trip to Plymnuth) : " I am glad to hoar that so sati-.fa(_iory a puji- 
tion for the defence of the Roanoke River has been founil at Rainl'ou liciid. Tliu 
line of infantry to cover one and one-half miles to the pond, cau?inu' the enemy to 
make a detour of fifteen miles, soems a good sugu'e.stion. It Is not^il.lo at prcsont 
to furnish all the armament rcpiired; still, iilatfornis and positions >hmild be pre- 
pared for formidable river batteries (a part of these platforms should bo prepared for 
siege carriages)." 


blazini'^ fires, the " boys" sang, smoked, and discussed the cam- 
pai;4n. The cHmate seemed that of New England under the 
harvest moon; and so the evening closed. 

Next morning (this too might have been New England) six 
inches of snow lay upon the ground. Light, fluffy stuff to be 
sure, but snow all the same, — snow that makes water; snow that 
makes mud; snow that makes the intended movement, the sur- 
prise of the garrison at Rainbow Bluft", impossible; snow that 
was not to be stained with the blood of Rebel or of Patriot, else 
some v.'ould have died that day. Who? Whose life hung with 
the snowflake in the air that winter night? Did yours, comrade, 
or yours? Did mine? Who knows? 

We only know that the snow came, the course of the expedi- 
tion was changed, and from that hour it became impossible to 
regard it seriously from a military point of view. 

It became simply a pictiiresqiie incident of our service in North 

For six cold, raw, disagreeable days we remained in Plymouth. 
The "Northerner" was crowded. To give more room to all. 
Companies A, C, D, E, G, and K were removed to a large un- 
occupied warehouse ujion the wharf It was like an ice-house. 
We tried to read, to write, to whittle. We smoked, some of us 
danced — anything tJ keep alive, pass the time, and hold our- 
selves together. There was dress parade, of course, even if there 
was no blacking; and the gloves ! Well, they were at New Berne, 
in the barracks, which some "sanitary engineer" was white- 
washing against our return. 

But dre.-^s parade seemed to amuse the darkies and encourage 
the " Union men," of whom there were several living though 
pallid examples in the town ; but chiefly it ser\'ed to get at the 
eftective force of the regiment at the moment. " All present or 
accovmtcd for," said a second sergeant, on one of these occasions. 
" Except thirty privates, six ' non-coms,' one orderl\-, and 

two commissioned officers," added the captain of Company , 

between his teeth. For were there not warm houses, and chairs, 
and tables ; hot sausages, hoe-cake, and apple-jack, all danger- 
ously near? Were there no attractions just (^ut^iele the lines, 
and no enemy nearer than Rainbow Bluff? All were not present. 


but most could be nccounted for; and if they did not turn in at 
taps, they gciicrall}- turned up at reveille. 

But, if we had failed of the " object of the expedition," and 
missed a possible tragedy, something was yet in store for us, and 
rumor said there were se\-erai tons of it; to wit, of savory hams, 
sides and shoulders of bacon, killed " in the full of the moon," no 
doubt, " for luck," some moons before, and now hidden in the 


\ ,-i -l^ 


mysterious rec^csses of certain smoke-houses a night's march out- 
side the lines, and only awaiting fa\'orablc opportunity for trans- 
port to some hungry quartermaster of the forces of the Southern 
Confedcrac}'. This would never do. From Rainbow Blufif we 
had been turned back by the driven snow; should soot and 
smoke-houses baffle us too? We had been dissuaded by the 
elements of light; should the powers of darkness also prevail 
against us? Should the succulent ham be lost to the cause of 
the Union? Forbid it, commissaries and commissioned officers ! 

So an e.Kpedition was organized for the rescue of the hams, and 
Companies A, B, C, D, E, and G were selected for the hazardous 
duty. The line was formed at 1.30 ('Saturda>-, February 7), and 
at 2 P. M., under the immediate command of the colonel, moved 
out upon the Washington road, making a detour to pass obstruc- 
tions, — trees which had been felled across the road to check any 

I. ■■^. 


attempt that might be made to surprise the town. \Vc were 
soon in the wild country lying between Plymouth upon the north 
and '• Little " Washington upon the south, these towns being con- 
nected by a main road from which, a few miles out from Plym- 
outh, a less frequented thoroughfare branches at a right angle 
toward the east. This is known as the Long Acre road. On pass- 
ing our picket line, orders had been given to take possession of 
all carts, wagons, horses, mules, or other means of transport, 
together with the owners thereof, — the latter being temporarily 
held in custody to prevent information of our movements being 
conveyed to the enemy. These men were mostly left at the 
junction of the Washington and Long Acre roads, in charge of a 
guard consisting of Compan>- B and a part of Company C, under 
command of Captain Griswold, which force picketed the roads 
and kept open a line of retreat for the main force. Here was a 
blacksmith's shop, in which the prisoners were allowed to huddle 
for shelter from the (to them ) severe and inclement weather, 
while the forms of their more hardy guard of Northern men, 
grouped about the fires by the roadside, under the keen winter 
sky, filled in the ever-present element of the picturesque. 
An officer of Company B describes the scene thus: — 

" Early in the evening the scene was somewhat striking. The rude 
blacksmith's hut, near which was our picket reserve, was glowing with 
light from fires which the prisoners had been permitted to make inside. 
Two sentries stood at the door, half in light, half in shade. Outside, 
groups of our men were huddled about three or four charcoal fires, which 
gleamed redly from the roadside. Captured carts and horses were tied to 
the fence. Stacks of arms stood in the road. Occasional laughs from the 
prisoners inside, the subdued conversation of our men, the clank of offi- 
cers' swords, the distant barking of dogs, the tinkling of a cow-bell, the 
grunting and squealing of rooting hogs, the clattering of geese, the doleful 
cry of the coon, mingled to render the sounds of the night more apparent, 
and to piizzle our pickets, placed as they were in lonely and secluded 

spots. During the night 's platoon, picketing the Washington road, 

was alarmed and drawn up in line to repel what turned out to be a row 
of stumps." 

A cypress-swamp has peculiarities of its own. Insidiously they 
creep upon you. Vou are marching along the dry, dead level of 
the open country. Soon trees appear skirting the road on either 


hand, i^rcwing closer and closin^j in as you advance, until pres- 
ently )-ou find that you have passed completely within their 
shade, and the road sinks as you proceed within tlie gloom of the 
thick masses of rank green foliage, with gnarled roots, half out 
of ground, the trees on tiptoe, as it were, struggling to overtop 
each other and free themselves from the muddy ooze from which 
they spring. 

Midway of the breadth of this belt of darkness runs a deep 
and narrow stream, at right angles tn the road, — which has now 
sloped down until it is at the summer level of the stream, — 
which it crosses at a single bound by means of a bridge, always 
of wood, springing high above the current in order not to be 
swept away in the wet season, when the waters are abroad and 
fill the swamp from side to side and cover the road to unknown 
depths ; stealing out iVom the darkness upon the one hand, to 
gleam above the sunken track for an instant, and then to dis- 
appear in silence and gloom upon the other. 

In the days before the war there had been maintained along- 
side each road through the swamp a walk, consisting of a line of 
single planks, or of logs with the upper surface hewn flat, these 
being supported upon posts set somewhat away from the wagon- 
track, and just at the edge of the woods. Upon these the skilful 
native passed, dry-shod, over the raging waters. On the night of 
Feb. 7, 1863, a swamp of this character one-half mile (some said 
one and one-half miles) in width, lay between us and our booty. 
'Twas ever thus in North Carolina. Were we to halt for dinner, 
were we to bivouac for the night, were we to do anything in par- 
ticular, the happy spot, the shining shore, was alwav's the farther 
shore of a swamp, —and the waters were abroad. 

But who that pas-ed through this s>\ amp this night will ever 
forget it? The path through the black woods; splash — a little 
water; splash again — more water; over the shoes ^ cold ; over 
the ankles — ice-cold, with the blood of the snow melted into it. 
But we are in and must go through. No use dodging; though 
some get upon the remains of the foot-walk, they slip and plunge 
into deeper water beyond ; or, saving this, are induced by the 
mildly pcrsuasi\ e voice of the colonel to forego their advantage 
and share the lot of their fellows in the road, whose legs — by 


this time knee-deep in tlie water — are fast losing all feeling, and 
are but little better than legs of wood as we mount the bridge 
and enter the flood upon the farther side. 

In due time we reached dry ground and, passing over a few- 
miles of high, rolling land covered with plantations, finally 
reached our destination (namely, the smoke-houses, which were 
situated about fourteen miles from Plymouth ) at 9 P. M. 

Here some time was spent in collecting such of the fatness 
of the land as it was thought best to transfer to loyal posses- 
sion. This work — the regular part of it — was done by detach- 

.^^i^^^^^ffk^r....^ ,<^^ 

ments to whom the duty was assigned ; while considerable vol- 
unteer foraging was accomplished by numbers of enterprising 
privates and non-commissioned officers, resulting in the capture 
of the usual fowls, pigs, and apple-jack, tin cans, conee-pots, odds 
and ends, — and one man reported a lot of hymn-books. The 
official result, as stated by the colonel in his report, consisted of 
twenty-two horses and mules, sixteen carts, and 3,385 pounds 
of bacon, which latter circumstance gave to this night's work 
the name of the " Ham Fat March." Of this, little more remains 
to be said. Our guards were called in, and the return march 
commenced at midnight. 

It was the fortune of the writer to be with the rear company 
upon the return trip. Since we had passed the swamp upon our 
outward way, and while our foraging was going on, the moon 
had come up high over the woods, and the spectacle of that 
home tramp through the water was one long to be remembered. 


Stiaight out u.-I'tc us, in the brilliant moonlij^ht, went five hun- 
dred men, !ai:.:,b.;M-, shouting, ^phisliing and tossing the water, — 
still as cold, .-in'l now, in tiic clear moonlight, as brilliant as jewels 
of ice. In lii-j niiu'rt of all this were mounted the field officers, 
and, hurrieii aloiig by their escort, came the teams which liad 
been imprcr^s -il into the service ior the night, and for any dut\' 
that might be jir.t upon them. 

Ifcomrade.s and thought to save a second wetting, 

and took [)o-,.-c\>-ion of a disengaged mule-cart for the return trip, 
and if in the niid.^t of the deepest water the pin came out and 
they went under, to the great delight of their fellows, the ?iluse 
of History shall record the fact, but will hide their names (which 
she knows) in her heart, lest future descendants of these heroes 
fall out among themselves and call her a beldame and an igno- 
ramus for not recording (what she docs not know) who got the 
first wetting. 

At 5.30 the next morning, Sunday, February S, we reached 
Plymouth, wet, tired, and lumgr\', and at once sought such food 
and shelter as were to be had. This was our last day in Plym- 
outh, the lack of fuel obliging the " Northerner " to leave the 
river earlier than might otherwise have been the case. We went 
on board that afternoon, passed down the river, and, after anchor- 
ing at Roanoke Island and securing a supply of coal, arrived at 
New Berne on the evening of Tuesday, February 10. 

Landing upon the south side of the Trent River, we crossed the 
bridge, whence a march through the city soon brought us to our 
barracks, which opened their gleaming and freshly whitewashed 
arms to receive lis. 

Thus ended the Pl\-mouth expedition of February, 1863. To 
gi\'c historical finish to the narrative. Colonel Lee's official 
report is given in full below. 


IIf.adqu.xrters FoRTv-roruTU Regimunt Mass. Vol. Militia, 
Camp Stevenso.v, .\ew Berne, Fo)) 14. 1863 
CAFiArs', — I ha\e tiie honor to report that in obedience to order of 
J:in. 31, iSo;,. I cmli.irked my command on steamer •■ N'orthemer " and 
arrived at'aih, X. C, at 4 p.m. on Febru.iry 2. 


Upon landing I consulted with Major Bartholomew, Twenty-seventh 
Massachusetts Regiment, commander of the post, in regard to closing the 
lines ; but learning from him that information of our arrival and probable 
force had undoubtedly been sent furward to the enemy e\en before our 
arrival, I deemed it unwise to interfere with existing arrangements in 
regard to passing the lines. 

Learning that Commodore Flusser was absent, I proceeded in company 
with Major Bartholomew to inspect the location of his pickets and his 
preparations for defence, and found the pickets well placed, his precau- 
tions against surprise sufficient, and ever>' advantage taken of the nat- 
ural defences of the town, the major having almost completed a ditch 
connecting the two swamps lying south of the town. Inside of this 
ditch, which is about si.x feet in depth and about fifteen feet wide, the 
earth is thrown up sufficiently high to afford shelter for sharpshooters. 
Major Bartholomew proposes to erect a small block-house where the 
Long .'Vcre road crosses this ditch, and also one upon the Jamesville 
road at the crossing of the ditch. My carpenters built drawbridges for 
each of these roads, and I would respectfully suggest that two field how- 
itzers would render the defence of these roads easy against any force 
likely to be brought against them, and that they are most earnestly de- 
sired by Major Bartholomew. I would also recommend a further supply 
of axes and shovels, as the want of these tools prevents Major Bartholo- 
mew from availing himself fully of the ser\-ices of the contrabands in 
his command. 

Upon the Long Acre road the picket is stationed at the ditch, about 
three-quarters of a mile from the custom-house, with an outer picket of 
five men half a mile in advance at the junction of the road with the Lee's 
Mill road. At this point there is a blockade of trees fallen across the 

Upon the Columbia road the picket is established just west of the 
bridge, crossing Coneby Creek, about two miles from the custom-house. 
This bridge is taken up each night and affords an easy and sure defence, 
as the creek is very deep. 

Upon the Jamesville road the picket is at the ditch, about one mile 
from the custom-house, and a cavalry vedette is stationed about half a 
mile in advance. 

Upon inquiring as to the probable force and location of the enemy, I 
learned from Major Bartholomew that he, in company with Commodore 
Flusser, had, on January' 30, made a reconnoissance as far as Jamesville 
on the gunboat '• Commodore Pertv," shelling the woods at various points 
but finding no signs of the presence of the enemy. It was the opinion of 
Major Bartholomew that the position and strength of the enemy was as 
follows ; Two companies of the Seventeenth North Carolina Regiment at 
Rainbow Bluff, with two field pieces ; tiie remainder of that regiment, with 

r. .■'.•. ■■■!! ■''<■-> 


four field pieces, in the vicinity of the bluff, anywhere between Hamilton 
and W'illianiston ; four companies of infantry some seven miles northwest 
of Washington, and the remainder of their regiment at or near Greenville ; 
three companies of cavalry scoutin^' anywhere between the Tar and 
Roanoke Rivers. 

A cavalr)- scout to Ward's Bridge, some four miles from town, failed to 
discover any signs of Rebel scouts, though they learned tliat parties of two 
or three cavalrymen had been seen in that vicinity within a week. 

Commodore Flusser arrived on the evening of the 2d of February, and 
after consultation I arranged to go with my regiment on Iiis diree gunboats 
to Wiliiamston, starting the next morning at seven o'clock and landing at 
Williamston or Jamesville as might be thought best, — the landing party to 
be supported by tliree boat howitzers and their crews, imiler command of 
Lieutenant Furncss, of the " Valley City." On the following morning a 
drifting snow-storm rendered any advance by land or water impossible ; 
the impassable state of the roads also pre\ented an e.Kpedition to Windsor 
to confiscate bacon packed for Rebel use. 

On Friday, February 6, finding that no coal could be furnished to our 
transport by the Navy, and that my pioneers were unable to supply the 
requisite quantity of wood, I was obliged to send out some three miles to 
buy and draw some dry wooi.l belonging to Mr. Harrison, a loyal man 
living on the Long Acre road. Bctbre starting the wagons Major Bar- 
tholomew told me that he had good reason to believe that many of the 
inhabitants upon that road had abused their protection papers by smug- 
gling out salt in larger quantities than they needed for home consump- 
tion ; that they had packed large stores of bacon intended for the use 
of the Rebel troops ; that he thought an examination and confiscation of 
a portion of their bacon, if found in such large (juantities, would be de- | 

sirable. I therefore took four of my companies and went some thirteen ! 

miles out, taking on the way the horses, mules, and carts to transport j 

the pork if found. I examined the farms of the persons suspected, and I 

finding from two to three tons of bacon, took from four of them 3,385 i 

pounds. leaving much, for want of transportation, which I think would { 

properly have been brought away. This bacon, with twenty-two horses • 

and mules and sixteen carts. I handed over to Major liartholomew, leav- 
ing it to his judgment to return any of the horses and carts to persons I 
in whose loyalty he hail confidence, and directing him to see that quar- ; 
termaster's receipts for the property taken should be given to the parties, i 
in order that if they could rebut the testimony with regard to their sym- 
pathy and aid for the Rebel cause they might receive pa) ment from the 

On Sunday morning, being informed by the captain of our transport 
that unless we started ihen he would be obliged to lay at Plymouth until 
coal was lound him, and my rations not being sutikient for o\cr two days 

THi: rLVMouTn iapeuition. 157 

loiii^cr, 1 left Plymouth that afternoon, and after anchoring at Roanoke for 
coal, arrived here on the evening of Tuesday. February lo. 
Yours, with respect, 

Fr.\ncis L. Lee, 
Colonel Commanding Forty-fourth Regiment M. V. M. 
Captain Andrf.w Stewart, 

Assistant Adjutant- General. 

P. S. — F.nclosed please find instructions received from headquarters 
relative to the movement above stated. 


Headquarters Eighieenth Army Corps, 

New Bkrne, X. C , Febmar}- 15, iS6j. 
Approved and respectful!)' forwarded. 

f ' H. W. Wessells, 

Brigadier-General Volunteers. Commanding. 


& z J „ 





,*/"^'. "•* 





N Sunday, March 15, 
V the day following the 
; attack on Fort An- 
derson, things had 
seemingly returned to 
'' . their usual state ; the 

' ' ' ordinary routine of inspec- 
gy^r^<^-g_ ^^;.. ^ , ^.^^_ ^^^^ ^^^g followed, and 

l.„-,-..r-i>~i--"- .. '\ ^-~ - nothing uncommon happened 

uncil late in the afternoon. 

"~ At half-past five o'clock, 

-^~~ . J . -^~-'-' while Company G were draw- 

£r .< _, ing their supper at the cook-house 

-r' ," ..' ''-J--, wmdow, Lieutenant Odiorne came 

saying, " Boys, we Ve got march- 

"jx^^^'-T '"S orders," adding that we were to 

carry shelter-tents, and in fact could 

" go heavy," as we should probably have no marching to do, — 

" and be ready to move in half an hour." 

The manner in which the news was received was in marked 
contrast with the wild excitement caused by the orders for the 
Tarboro' and Goldsboro' expeditions ; few remarks were made ; 
the knapsacks had been packed since the day before : the men 
went on getting their supper, and ate it quietly, without any 
hurry; and in half an hour the company was ready to fall in, 

' The author of this chapter wishes to state that it was put into his hands by the 
Historical Committee at the last moment, — having been then given up by the one 
first selected to write it; and that it has been impossible, in the short time allotted 
to him, to look up any material except what was placed in his hands by the Com- 
mittee, and what he could draw from his own recollection and memoranda. 



haversacks and canteens full, blankets rolled, and knapsacks ready 
to sling. Our winter's experience had given us that quality of 
the veteran by virtue of which, realizing the uncertainty of any 
present condition, he trouble.-^ himself about no future, but ac- 
cepts in a philosophic spirit what the day may bring forth. 

Our destination was understood to be " Little " Washington. 
At seven o'clock the whole regiment, with the exception of Com- 
panies F and B, which were on picket, was on board the " Escort." 
It was pretty close packing; the men slept on the decks every- 
where ; the writer found his place in the starboard gangway on 
the freight deck, and woke in the morning in about three inches 
of water, which was brought in by the paddle-wheels, the boat 
being very low in the water. I remember one squad of men 
pitched a shelter-tent on the upper deck near the pilot-house ; 
however, as we knew the trip was to be a short one, this crowding 
was regarded with great unconcern. A mail of newspapers was 
distributed while we were on board, which were very welcome, 
and served to pass the time, always tedious enough on these 

At about three o'clock of Monday, the i6th, the boat drew up to 
the wharf in Washington ; the houses in the town still bore the 
marks of the raid made upon it the autumn before by the enemy; 
one house was pitted all over with a stand of heavy canister-shot; 
another had two eight-inch shot-holes through it. In the river just 
below the bridge lay the gunboat " Louisiana," thereafter looked 
upon by us as a tower of strength; and many a time within the 
next four weeks did we welcome the roar of her eight-inch pivot- 
gun as an assurance of safet}-. 

The whole town turned out to see us land; the street swarmed 
with darke\-s, " without regard to age, sc.x, color, condition, or 
previous condition of servitude ; " many of the women with ginger- 
bread and fruit for sale drove a roaring trade. .Among the crowd 
were many of the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, and some North 
Carolina volunteers, but the native white civilian was scarce. 

After waiting awhile here in the street we were marched to the 
westcrl}- end of the town, to a large cornfield in the rear of the 
house of J. Grist, Esq., afterwards better known to us as a (sup- 
posed) bitter Rebel; but who, I have since been assured, was our 





Stanch friend, having done us substantial services during our stay. 
Ranks were broken, with orders to pitch our shelter-tents and 
camp for the night. The tents were pitched that night with 
nuiskets for tent-poles; and no regular order of lay-out having 
been given, the result was most picturesque, particularly after 
dark, when the tents were lighted up. In some cases as many as 
ten or twelve sections of shelter would be used to form a tent to 
cover as many men. JMysclf and mates smoothed down the corn- 
hills of our floor, in so doing scraping the dry sand from the 
surface, — a piece of work which we bitterly rued before morning. 
After pitching the tents we walked out to in\estigate our situation. 
It was near where Fort Gouraud afterwards stood; south of us 
was the river, east of us the town, north and northwest the line 
of earthworks, and west, at the point where the line touched the 
river. Blockhouse No. r, afterwards familiar to Company D. 

It was a clear, cold night, and with only a rubber blanket be- 
tween us and the raw surface of sand we had more rawly exposed, 
myself and mates 
shivered through 
it; the writer 
hopes never to 
sleep so cold 
again — he never 
has, so far. Upon 
rising in the 


\ 1 -;^ 

m o rn 1 n g we 
found a thick 
feathery coating 
of hoar-frost on 

the outside of our 

tent and over 

everything; as soon as the sun had removed this, orders were 
given to strike the tents and pitcli them with proper tent- 
poles, in regular streets, two streets to a company, three men 
to a tent. Most of them were proper!}- pitched and ditched 
about; but some, ambitious of more headroom, dug six or 
eight inches bchnv the surface to lay their floors, with disas- 
trous results m the rains which occurred later. This work was 

l62 I 



finished b\ 

noon, and 

cookintj-slianties of quite picturesqut 


were also h 

liit at the upper end of each company' 


This \va=; Tuesday, thi- ijlh; duriiu^ tlie day the enemy's ad- 
vance made its appearaiiee south of the river, though we at the 
time did n(5t know it. The " Louisiana" pitched a few shells into 
the woods in the afternnnn, but it caused little excitement in the 
camp, as we did not then know that it was the enemy's advance 
that was being shelled. In the afternoon details were made to 
work on the intrcnchnients, principally in lengthening and height- 
ening traverses, besides l.i>ing out a few new ones. 

Washington lies on the north side of the Tar River, at its junc- 
tion with the Pamlico (or Pamplico, as some maps give it) ; before 
the war it was actively engaged in the lumber trade, and its river 
front is lined with wharves and warehouses, one of which latter, 
of brick, had been loopholcd to be used as a place of refuge and 
defence fur the garrison in case of need. 

The town extends for about a mile along the river-bank, and 
back into the country for perhaps half that distance ; it is almost 
surrounded in the rear b)- low- swamp)- ground, from which rises 
a row of hills encircling it from the river above to the river below; 
on the south side the river-bank is wooded, and the swamp 
extends inland some distance; the banks of the river below the 
town are comparatively high, and clayc}-, and afforded excel- 
lent positions for the blockading batteries afterwards placed 

On the north side three roads run out from the town : beginning 
on the left, the Grccn\-ille road running nearly northwest, the 
Jamesville road running northeast, and the Pl\niouth road nearly 
eastward; on the south side, only the Xew Berne road, which 
crosses the bridge. 

The defences of the town consisted, at the time of our occupa- 
tion, of a line of earthworks, of good profile but weak trace, ex- 
tending from the ri\-cr-bank about a mile abo\-e the bridge to the 
creek about as far below, foHowing the line of low hills next the 
town; in the centre was I'ort Washingtem, on a slight rising 
ground, coininanded howe\er by the main line of hills before 
referred to, about half a mile away. It was a small, square. 

i...q -r.,1 

WASHINGTON. , . 163 

bastioncd work, mounting four thirt\--t\vo-pounciers, one of them 
rifled, two six-pound steel W'iard rifles, and two twelve-pound 
Napoleon guns. Fort Hamilton, on the e.xtreme right, was of 
irregular trace, and mounted two twehe-pound Napoleons, one 
thirty-pounder Parrott, and one thirt\--twu-pounder Rodman gun. 
Blockhouses numbered from one to four in the order in which 
they are here mentioned were placed — at the extreme left on 
the river, at the Greenville road, between the Jamesville and 
Plymouth roads, and on the extreme right at Fort Hamilton. 
They were strong log buildings, loopholed for musketry, banked 


..=^. ■ .^fi^^- 



^.- 'p-- ■ 

• \^^-'y.'>'^ 

- ' '<.'■ 

^ ';^:1- 


/ - ?V?^' 

- " 



'- \ 





:<r^'— ' 

and ditched, and armed as follows: Nos. i. 2, and 3, each one six- 
pounder; No 4, one twelve-pounder. In an epaulement command- 
ing the Jamesville road was mounted a thirty-two-pounder. 

Around Fort Washington was a line of rifle-pits and a good 
abatis, and the intervals benveen the blockhouses Nos. i and 2 
and the lines were also filled with abatis. Traverses had been 
thrown up at various points along the main line, and were after- 
wards extended and added to as occasion demanded. 

During the investment a small work was thrown up on the 
Grist place near our first camp, named, as I have always under- 
stood, from Major Gouraud of the Third New York Cavalr\-, 


though on the map it is called Fort Ceres ; it mounted one thirty- 
pound Parrott and one t\velve-[)ound rifled howitzer. 

In the river lay the gunboats "Louisiana," " I'^aglc," and " Com- 
modore Hull," whicii contribuLeii materially to the defence of the 
place. Just above the bridge and near our camp lay the wreck 
of the gunboat " Picket." 

The garrison before our arrival consisted of eight companies of 
the Twenty-seventh .Massachusetts, one company First North Car- 
olina Volunteer Infantry, Captain L}'on, one company Third New- 
York Cavalry, and Battery G, Third New York Artillery, — about 
600 men in all. Our arrival and the arming of a force of negroes, 
which was done by Colonel Lee, raised our numbers to 1 160. 

By \Vedncsda\-, the iSth, we had settled down to routine work, 
guard-mounting, company and battalion drills, as usual. This 
day there was a brigade dress-parade; but the writer, being on 
guard, was not present. The guard was quartered in a corn-barn 
belonging to Mr. Grist. 

In the evening a violent shower and gale demoralized many of 
the tents ; but, thanks to the Taple\ish spirit of the boys, the 
demoralization spread no farther. This night the roads were 
picketed by Company I. 

Thursday, the 19th, it began to rain. At night Company D 
was sent out on picket, and an attack was evidently expected. 
At about half-past four the next morning, Friday the 20th, Com- 
pany E was ordered out and marched to the edge of the swamp 
beyond Blockhouse Xo. i. The rest of the regiment were also 
turned out and stationed on the lines, where wc remained until 
daylight. The tents ha\ing become very damp, the regiment 
was now sent into the town and quartered in various deserted 
buildings. Company G being in the Farmers' Hotel. 

Saturday, the 21st, the rain still continuing, wc were routed out, 
for a change, at 3.30 .\. M., and remained under arms, as before, 
until roll-call. While we lay behind the lines we saw the light of 
a considerable fire on the farther side of the river. This day 
came in two deserters from Roger A. Pryor's brigade, who stated 
that the cnenn- had been in hca\-}' force within twenty miles of 
us, but that the rain had so cut up the roads that they were 
impassable to their artillery; which was not improbable, as they 


-1.' V 

U\ ■.''■-l.Tji.1.~i"A0':) £ 

i'.'.,!; ■ If! r.'i ;■:'.■■ 
. . . : fiv jii ' ,■ 


were difficult for our cavalry. They said also that the officer in 
command at Charleston had called away all the troops that could 
be spared. 

Sunday, the 22d, it was still raining. Services were held in 
several churches. This night Company G picketed the JamcsviUe 
road ; the writer was in the reserve, and has a most vivid memory 
of sitting and shivering in the drizzle, with a tour of sentry duty in 
the road about dawn as a variation, until it was time to go in. 

The next day, Monday the 23d, the steamer " North Shore " 
arrived with ten days' rations and our sutler; which, looking like 
a longer sojourn here, rather discouraged the majority of us who 
had come away with only the clothes we stood in, leaving our 
others with the " aunties " who had taken them to wash in New 
Berne. In the afternoon we were ordered back to our tents on 
the Grist estate. 

Tuesday, the 24th, was a day of routine duty; drill, etc., being 
the staple of the diaries. Our friend Grist went out of the place 
this day, but little regretted by us. 

From this time until the 30th our life was simply the usual 
monotonous routine of camp duty ; there was more or less heavy 
rain, and those who had sunk their tent floors below the level of 
"the surrounding country" were drowned out and thrown upon 
the hospitality of those in drier shelters whose " chums " were on 
guard or other detail. 

On Monday, the 30th, General Foster and his staff arrived from 
Plymouth, and the effect of his presence was at once manifest in 
an increased activity. He at once inspected the works, and took 
measures to improve their defensibility, details being set to work 
everywhere ; orderlies rode to and fro, and reconnoitring parties 
were pushed out on all the roads. It is with the one on the New 
Berne road that this history chiefly has to do. 

About eleven o'clock Companies A and G were assembled, 
carrying only arms and canteens, and under the command of 
Captain James M. Richardson of Company A marched down 
toward the bridge ; on the way we were joined by about a dozen 
cavalrymen under Lieutenant "Teddy" O'Brien, and a squad of 
artillerymen drawing a Wiard three-inch rifle; the whole part)- 
was under command of Captain Richardson. 

J I- - 11 

'lu-li. '..;:. I Vf ,!,': 


Passing out u[K)n the bridge, the tread of the column caused it 
to shake before our whole length had fairly i^ot out upon it. I 
remember Captain Richardson turning and calling out, " Break 

step, boys, or we'll shake the d d thing down into the river! " 

which was accordingly done. Passing off the bridge we came 
upon the road, bordered on both sides by the s"wamp, of unknown 
depth ; about a mile out a halt was made, and a shell fired up the 
road, with what effect, if any, I do not know. This was repeated 
several times ; about a mile farther on we came to a low line of 
earthworks at the crest of a slight rise, where some one picked 
up a bright tin canteen of a different pattern from ours. Here we 
assumed a formation not set down in the tactics, marching by the 
right flank undoubled, each rank on its side of the road, Company 
G taking the advance ; the writer, being in the rear rank, was on 
the right of the road ; at the head was a sort of squad of skirmish- 
ers consisting of Orderly Sergeant Hobart, Corporal Lawrence, 
Adams (W. \\'.), Leonard, Molden, Eliot, and Jones of Company 
G ; with them, and on the left of the road, were Captains Hunt and 
Richardson and Lieutenant O'Brien. At the foot of the little 
hill a brook crossed the road ; the planks had been taken up, leav- 
ing only riie roughly squared string-pieces, on which we crossed. 
I do not remember seeing anything of the cavalr}' or infantry 
after crossing the brook, until we returned to the earthwork 
above mentioned. We moved out beyond the brook perhaps a 
hundred j'ards ; in front of us was a brush barricade across the 
road, which gave no signs of being occupied, so far as the writer 
knows, until, when we were within some fifty yards of it, a volley, 
immediatel)- followed by another, was fired from it in our very 
faces; a third volley followed before we could start to dcplo}-, 
which we did at once without waiting for the order; that, how- 
ever, came promptly in Captain Hunt's voice, " Deploy ! deploy ! " 
We formed an irregular skirmish-line, taking the benelit of such 
trees as offered, and opened a fire, noisy if not effective. The 
fire of the enemy, from smooth-bore muskets with both buck- 
and-ball and the half round " Mississippi" bullet, was principally 
confined to the road. After a few minutes of this we heard the 
call, " Fall back, men, fall back ! " which we did, keeping as long as 
we could in the shelter of the swamp, but finding the water growing 

.,.■ ■, :riv 


deeper as we approached the stream, were at last forced to take 
to the road ; the writer was one of tlie last to ^jct in. When we 
struck the road, about a hundred yards from the barricade from 
which the enemy were firing, we at once found ourselves under a 
heavy and close musketry-fire from apparently a hundred men or 
more ; we knew nothing of what might have happened, but we ran 
Hterally " for dear life." The dust pattered up in the road where 
the bullets grazed, and it seemed as if the next shot must bring 
one down, but the writer for one ran fast and straight. The man 
preceding me slipped on the timber and soused up to his neck in 
the brook ; but before he had scrambled out I was across the log 
and on my way up the slope. As we got farther away the fire be- 
came less serious, and presently we were beckoned by some one 
at the top of the hill to take the sides of the road; as we did so 
a shell from the Wiard rifle passed us. We assembled at the 
little line of earthworks, one or two stopping by the way to take 
a last shot; then we looked around to see who was missing. 

Orderly Sergeant Hobart, Corporal Lawrence, Private Leonard, 
killed or wounded, no one seemed to know definitely. Captain 
Richardson sat on a horse belonging to one of the cavalrymen, 
looking weak, and evidently " hard hit." As the companies fell 
in. Captain Hunt went to him for orders. " Do the best you can, 
Charley," I heard him say. We immediately started on our return, 
a platoon of Company A under Lieutenant Coffin being detailed 
to act as rear-guard. The march was quick, though not espe- 
cially hurried, that I can remember. Once we halted to transfer 
Captain Richardson, who had become too weak from loss of blood 
to sit his horse, to the gun-carriage. About half-way back the 
now familiar shriek of an eight-inch shell made us all duck and 
then grin at each other as we realized that it was going in the 
direction from whence we were coming, and was in fact from the 
" Louisiana," and fired to cover our retreat. 

We arrived in camp without further misadventure. Our losses 
turned out to be as follows: Captain Richardson, flesh wounds 
in left arm and shoulder, and had lost much blood; Sergeant 
Hobart, seriously wounded, perhaps mortally; Pri\'ate Leonard, 
apparently seriously wounded; Corporal Lawrence, unknown. 
We had brought in Captain Richardson, but the others we had 


been obliged to leave, General Foster, upon application for per- 
mission to send out a Bag of truce with an ambulance, saying that 
he doubted if a flag would be respected just then; but those who 
escaped unmarked, at least in Company G, were few, — grazed 
skins, cut clothes, and damaged arms and equipments being the 
rule. It seems we were sent to find where the enemy's picket 
reserves were ; we found tliem. 

Lieutenant O'Brien was said to have left for the rear at the first j 

volley, his clothing wounded in divers places, v.ith the remark i 

that " He'd be d d if he was going to be killed in any little \ 

infantry skirmish ! " It appears to have been at this little party of | 

officers and men on the left of the road that the first volley was ■ 

principall)- directed, as all who were wounded seem to have been 
hit by this volley. j 

At the same time the enemy appeared on the roads on the | 

north side of the river, driving in the pickets, and a general attack 
being apprehended, measures were taken accordingly. The regi- - | 

ment was ordered out on the line of the works; Companies E, C, 
and D, with a company of the First North Carolina, were formed 
in line as a reserve in the rear of Fort Washington. 

The weather, which had been bright and warm in the forenoon, 
had by this time become overcast and cold, and towards night 
it set in to rain, much to the discomfort of the men on the line. 

About dark a rocket was sent up from Fort Washington, burst- 
ing over the Greenville road, as a signal to direct the fire of the 

We lay behind the line in the rain all night, the gunboats 
shelling the woods in our front, their shells passing over our heads 
at short intervals. 

In the evening Captain Lyon of the First North Carolina, with 
a force variously stated as one and two companies, was sent down 
the river to Rodman's Point with orders to intrench and hold it 
against the enemy. The gunboat " Commodore Hull " also 
dropped down the stream to cover his position. At daybreak 
they were attacked and driven to tlie ri\-er-bank with a loss of 
eight wounded, in spite of strenuous resistance on their part, 
seconded by the fire of the " I hill." 

While they were trying to put off, one of their flatboats grounded 

WASiiiNiriox. 169 

hard and fast; the men were bin;^ tlat to escape the terrible 
musketry-fire; one of the negio boatmen rLinaikJng, "Some- 
body's got to die to git us out of dis, and it may as well be 
me," deliberately got out of the boat and pu.^lud it off, falling 
into it pierced by five bullets. fJr. Ware aft'.rw aiv's amputated 
a leg and cut out part of the bone of one ar:n, "but the vian 
died," — an instance of pure hcroi.m unsurpa^'Cd by any the 
war affords. 

The enemy who seized Rodman's Point biouqht with them a 
battery of English Whitworth guns, which they afrcrwards placed 
in the battery they threw up there; and more tlian once or twice 
during the siege the peculiar sound of their projectiles was heard 
passing over Company G's position from the right and rear. Much 
to our comfort we learned that two of them were burst by trying 
to use home-made ammunition. 

On this day, the 31st, it is said that Hill ordered an assa^ilt on 
our works. The men were already drawn up and all dispositions 
made for the attack; but the app;'.rcnt strength of the works when 
reconnoitred, and the evident unwillingness of the men, caused 
the attempt to be given up. Be this as it may, this morning 
Hill summoned the town to surrender. The stmimons was ad- 
dressed to "The Colonel in Command," and offered twenty-four 
hours to send out the women and children. General Foster 
would not allow the flag to ent.:r the place, but sent out officers 
to meet it. When they reported at the I'ort, officers of Battery G 
heard him say, "Go back and tell them if they want Washing- 
ton, come and take it." When this reply was returned as com- 
ing from the General, the Confederate officer is said to have ex- 
claimed, " My God! is General Fi -ler here?" 

This day the enemy began to throw up works to shelter 
their batteries at the edge of the woods near the left of their line, 
and upon being discovered were promptly shelled from Fort 
Hamilton and Blockhouse N'o. 4. 

To-day also Virgil Gilbert, a civilian from the " Louisiana," ran 
the blockade in a lighter, with despatcliLS for the gunboats below. 
The blockade consisted of a row of piles in the river nearly opposite 
Hill's Point, crossing tlu stream and leaving only an opening 
close under the guns of the bat^-iy there. Batteries were also 


planted at other points. notabI>- Uixlinan's I'ci'it. 'he guns at 
which phice afterwards caused us nmcli ami') ;ncc. In short, 
we found we had to do with an ac'a\ .■ .ind entt;;-;>:i^;'ig enemy. 

The batteries at Hill's Point were cut in the i-.i-Ii clay bank so 
as to be practically in\uhierablc to the -uns li'ct. 

Wednesday, April i, the batter\- at Rodman's i.jint, mounting 
two Whitworths and a Parfttt rifle, and also a Imlt'.ry some dis- 
tance above, with one thirty-two-pounder, o:/i:rt:d on the right 
of the line and Fort Hamilton, where Company C was stationed; 
one Whitworth shot went throu-h the corner of Blockhouse 
No. 4, tearing blankets, knapsacks, i. lc., and sca'a :ring the con- 
tents of a big box of cayenne-pejiper, causin-;- much sneezing; 
the town also came in for a share of these f,, 

The " Louisiana " could hardly be sprung >-'•> as to bring her 
broadside to bear on the upper battery, but tiic ciuniy's fire was 
returned briskly by all the gunboats. Between ei-ht and nine 
o'clock the " Commodore Hull" was obliged to cb.ange her posi- 
tion, and in doing so, grounded, the water in ti'.c ri\er being very 
low on account of se\eral days' westerl)- winds. She became a 
target for the enemy's Whitworth-, being hit c^ver a hundred 
times, and two or three shells exploding on board. Several of 
her guns were disabled, and three of her crew woMiided; but the 
engines escaped without injury. 

The working parties in Fort Hamilton spmt a good part of 
their time in dodging shells; and along the wliole line details 
were at work, heightening, extending, and tliickening traverses. 
At the one where the writer w^as posted, a return at a considerable 
angle was thrown up to co\'cr us from the Wiiitwjrth projectiles 
from Rodman's Point. The transports, with Prince's brigade, ar- 
rived in sight this day. Foster sent down orders to Prince to land 
his troops ; but Prince reported it to be impracticable, and it was 
not done. The town was now completely invested, and all commu- 
nication with our forces outside had to be held by running the 
blockade in sail-boats and lighters. i\mmunitiiin also was found 
to be running short. The investing force consisted of — Daniel's 
Brigade of Infantry, five regiments ; Garnett's Pri.Mde of Infantry, 
six regiments; Pettigrew's Brigade of Infaiiti_\', si.x regiments; 
Robertson's Brigade of Cavalry, three rrglments; artillery 

.t-lit.? r:. ■_.:.-,, 1;.-.IJ 


amounting to forty guns, and some independent battalions, which 
made up the total to close upon 15,000. 

No regular siege operations were carried on, but the enemy 
seemed to rely upon star\-ing us out, and annoyed us in the mean 
time with his artillery. We often heard from his pickets that they 
had " got us just where they wanted us," had " got us bagged," 
etc. About midnight the "Hull" got afloat, and took position 
abreast of the town ; firing ceased on both sides at nightfall. 

The New Berne road was picketed this night by a detachment 
from Company C, who learned from the Rebel pickets that our 
wounded were at a house some two miles up the road, with good 
medical attendance, and in care of ladies, and doing well. Hobart 
was shot through the left lung, not considered dangeroush', 
Leonard had lost his right eye, and Lawrence was slightly 
wounded in the neck with a buckshot. 

Thursday morning, the 2d, the gunboats below ran up and 
engaged the Hill's Point battery, but without effect, and after 
considerable expenditure of valuable ammunition dropped down 
the river again, — being the first of a daily series of such perform- 
ances. Renshaw says of the boats within the lines : — 

"The 2d instant one hundred and twenty-one shot nnd shell of various 
calibre and description were fired at the gunboats and town by the enemy 
without doing any damage. .After consulting with General Foster 
I ordered that no notice should be taken by returning their fire. The 
enemy were briskly engaged during the latter part of the day erecting bat- 
teries opposite our intrenchments." 

Virgil Gilbert ran the blockade up the river with despatches 
to-day; reports Rebel pickets all along the river-banks. A brisk 
fire was kept up on the right of our lines through the daj- by the 
Rodman's Point battery. 

Friday, the 3d, a new battery on Ellison's Hill, near the 
enem)-'s left, opened on the forts, making things especially lively 
for those in Fort Hamilton. Commodore Renshaw says : — 

" On the 3d instant, together with the two batteries that had been playing 
on us, a third one opened directly abreast of us. containing a rifled twelve- 
pounder ( about six hundred yards : they succeeded in firing five 
shots, when it silenced, our shells completely demolishing the work. 
The other two batteries fired ninety-eight shot and shell during the day." 



The writer was on guar'! 'Ju- day, niul uliilc on post saw a 
mounted man ride out from the cut in Rcv] Hill, through which 
the Jamesville road passes, and, dismounting within some six or 
se%-en hundred yards of our line-;, take a leisure')- survey of them ; 
several thirty-two-pound shtis were fired at iiim, but he paid 
them no attention until he got ready to t^o, when he mounted, 
and deliberately rode back into tlic cut. About ten o'clock the 
gunboats below came up for the usual di\ersion at Hill's Point. 

Commodore Renshaw sent a small despatcli-boat down to the 
fleet, under Master's Mate McKeever; he was fired at twenty-one 
times from Rodman's Point, and narrowh' escaped being hit; 
was fired upon twice from fl ill's Point. At 6 r.M., despatches 
were again sent down to General Palmer, wlio was below, but the 
boat was not fired upon. 

At night the "Ceres" gunboat, acting volunteer Lieutenant 
McDearmid com.manding, ran the blockade with a supply of am- 
munition, which, as already mentioned, was running short, as well 
as our commissary stores, with the exception of coffee; meat had 
by this time disappeared from our rations, and we were reduced 
to two-thirds rations of bread height hard-tack per day). Two 
men of the Twenty-seventh were badly injured in Fort Hamilton 
by a premature explosion of the thirty-two-pounder, being blown 
over the parapet. 

Saturday, the 4th, the Rodman's Point battery being reported 
abandoned. Companies H and K and two companies of the 
Twenty-seventh were sent down on the "Ceres" to occupy it, 
but with orders to return if th':- battery had not been removed. 
When well towards lier destination two guns opened fire, and she 
turned to come back, but the ri\ cr was so low that she grounded. 
Boats were immediately sent to her assistance, and the troops 
were brought back with the loss of three wounded. Conmiodore 
Renshaw says : — 

"Fortunately no damage was done excepting two men who were 
wounded by the enemy's shrapnel. While the 'Ceres' was aground she 
did good work with her guns. For want of anminnilion, or being de- 
ceived by her apjjcarance, the enemy ceased firing, and all the troops, 
fortunately, were safely landed." 

In the evening the " Eagle " towed the " Ceres " off. 

•WASHINGTON. * 1 73 

About 2 P. M. a new battery was opened b)' the enemy on the 
Widow Blunt place, in rear of Fort Hamilton, but was soon 
silenced by our guns. They had two six-pound rifled guns, but 
their shot mostly fell short ; they were seen from Fort Hamilton 
to come up and fire their guns, then run back and hide. We 
learned from the previous night's pickets that our wounded had 
been removed to Greenville. A tobacco ration was this day 
served in Company G, from the company fund, and thereafter 
every two or three daj's. 

Sunday, the 5th, was comparatively quiet on our part of the 
line by Blockhouse 2, but Hall (" History Third New York Artil- 
lery") says under this date that the fire on the fort began to 
grow heavy. Ammunition \vas short and our fire slow and accu- 
rate ; the supply was now brought up by sail and row boats at 
night. The weather began to be warm, and we also began badly 
to feel the need of our spare clothing left at New Berne, as most 
of us had only what we wore when we left there, and wanted a 
change badly. Heavy firing reported, as usual, down the river; 
it was said that nine gunboats were seen below. 

Monday, the 6th, was warm and pleasant. Company G was 
formed in rear of its place on the line, and each platoon de- 
ployed as skirmishers, and the skirmish-line marched up to the 
works; then each man was directed to mark his place on the 
line, and construct a loophole to fire through, with a shelter for 
his head, which was done. The loopholes were revetted with 
sods, and in many instances were ver}- neat and workmanlike 
afi"airs, commanding a good sweep, and completely sheltering 
the rifleman. Camp-fires were visible all about us. This day 
General Foster visited Fort Hamilton and directed the abatis 
strengthened on the land side; also had the parapet loop- 
holed as above. Commodore Renshaw"s report says : — 

"An occasional shot from thirty-two-poandcr in Rebel upper battery. 
The enemy busy at Rodman's clearing the woods antl building a raft. 
About 4 p. M. an explosion at that point followed by the burning of a large 
building. .Kt 8 p. m. started a dummy do»vn the river ; the wind being 
light and the tide slack, it did not arrive ol'f Rodman's imtil nearly 
1 1 P. M., when they upened fire from their batteries upon it, also volleys 
of musketry." ,«ii 


.1 It 

ij !.' (i---'\.i' 


•r^-,. , , 


Tucsclay, tlic Jtli, there was quite a lively little fight between 
the ]\oJman's I'oiiU and Widow Blunt batteries on the enemy's 
side, and Fort Hamilton and the " Eayle " on ours. Renshaw 
says : — 

" IJu'. '11^; heen informed that the enemy were fitting a steamer and two 
fiats lo come down the river, also that they were well proteeted by cotton- 
hales. 1 conLrred with General Foster, and determined to build a naval 
battery in n position that commanded the channel above. At lOP. m a 
thirt)-[)uund Parrott gun from the ' Ceres ' and a twelve-pound rifled how- 
itzer from tlie ' Louisiana ' were in battery ready for action. The river 
was well protected two miles above by our torpedoes. One hundred and 
twelve shot and shell were fired from the enemy's batteries during the day 
at the gunboats and town without material injury ; none were replied to 
except one in the swamp, which was instantly silenced." 

With regard to the above, another account says: — 

" The Rebels planted a gun in the swamp this morning and opened on 
the gunboats, which opened broadsides of one-second shells and canister, 
the ran- • being only about one hundred yards. The firing from the boats 
was terrific, but for all this they managed to fire the gun once more, and 
I haN e not the least doubt that nearly e\ery man there was killed, as they 
did not fire again." 

Another account says of the boys in the lines: — 

"Ojiened again towards night. Down we go into the dirt. Both bat- 
teries directed here, — Widow's and Rodman's, — also from 32 across the 
river. Shells burst directly over us. Some one stands on parapet to 
watch ; when he sees smoke at Rodman's cries out, and down we go 
close to the bank in that direction. Soon he is up again and cries '32 ! ' 
Down we go again. Again he rises, cries out ' Widow's ! ' Down again. 
Sometimes two batteries fire at the same time, but it 's always all of thirty 
seconds after we see the smoke before the shot strikes." 

Thursday, the 9th, we were turned out at half-past three in the 
morning, but nothing unusual happened. Two schooners came 
up in the fog about f>nc A. M., with fifteen tons of ammunition, 
and were fired into by our sentries. Aothing else of note hap- 
pened lliis daj-. Artillery firing was heard during the afternoon 
which proceeded from Spinola's column, who had run against the 
encm}- at IJlount's l?ridge. 

About noon of the 8th General Spin<da, with a force of some 
5,000 infantry, including the Third, I~ifth, Eighth, Seventeenth, 

WASiiiNmox. 17s 

and Forty-third Massachusetts, and the Fifth Rhode Island, with 
Riggs's, Ashbay's, Huwells's, Bclger's, and Ransom's batteries, 
started from New Berne to come overland to our relief. 

About noon the next day, the 9th, the head of the column 
came upon the enemy in force, in a strong, natural position at 
Blount's Creek. He was posted on a hill on the farther side of 
the creek, his flanks covered by a swamp, and his position was 
approachable only by a narrow mill-dam, completely enfiladed 
by his guns. Belger's battery was at once ordered forward, 
and opened, under a heavy fire of grape and canister from the 
enemy. Belger himself was wounded ; and some eight or ten 
more casualties having occurred in about two hours' firing, 
Spinola gave up the idea of proceeding, and drew off his men, 
having made no attempt either to force or to flank the enemy's 
position. He retreated direct to Xew Berne, marching with con- 
siderable haste, and reached that place on the evening of the loth, 
with his men well used up with marching. So ended the only 
attempt made to relieve us from New Berne. An officer of the 
Seventeenth in a letter to a friend says: "It was considered a 
most perilous one, — a forlorn hope. Most of the officers con- 
sidered we were marching to entire defeat, and to death or a 
prison." There certainly seems to have been a plentiful lack of 
energy and capacity shown in the conduct of the expedition, and 
it seems very strange that the extended line of the enemy could 
not have been broken through by a force of at least one third of 
his own entire number, and with his forces divided by a river, the 
only bridge by which direct crossing could be made being closed 
to them. If the same dash and push had been shown as was 
done at Southwest Creek in the previous December, in a some- 
what similar situation, it appears to the writer that a way might 
have been found to force or flank the position. 

Spinola's loss of the confidence of the men was quaintly ex- 
pressed thereafter by a transposition of the letters of his name, 
he being familiarly mentioned as " Pi-snold ; " he was also known 
as " General By-Jesus," and " General Dickey," in allusion to the 
high white collars which he then did and does still, we hear, 
make himself con-picuous by wearing. 

It was the cu.stom of each company on the kuid side to picket 

1. rur 


its own front; this night, the Qth, among Company G's detail 
were the writer's two tent-mates, Dolbcare and Atwood. We 
occupied a tent about the right of the hne held by the company, 
and very near the second traverse on the right of Blockhouse 
No. 2. The well, on the top of the plateau on the western slope 
of which was our tent, was about a hundred yards to our right 
and rear; it was an old-fashioned affair, with curb and sweep and 
a " dug-out " trough, and with the tree beside it, and Company 
G's cook-house which stood " convanient," must have been a 
conspicuous object from the enemy's batteries on Red Hill. 

On the morning of Friday, the loth, my two comrades had 
come in from picket duty, and had turned in to make up their 
sleep; about nine o'clock I was engaged in hanging out my 
blanket to air behind the tent; a squad of men were at the well, 
drawing water and washing, some of them stripped to the waist; 
some firing was going on as usual, but attracted no attention, until 
one shell seemed rather nearer than common, when I looked up 
just in time to see it burst, seemingly almost overhead ; the group 
at the well stood not on the order of their going, but scattered 
with more haste than dignity, some of them making comical ex- 
hibitions m their endeavors to combine rapid locomotion with the 
completion of their interrupted toilet. I started to seize my gun 
and equipments, and to warn my comrades in the tent ; as I 
emerged with my traps in my hand, a second shell cracked as 
near as the first, and I saw a splinter come spinning and bound- 
ing down the slope as I ran for my place at the next traverse ; 
when I got into its shelter I found most of the boys of the second 
platoon comfortably seated in the sand, with their backs to the 
traverse, laughing at those who had to come in later under fire, 
which was quite severe, coming apparently from eight guns in a 
new battery, the first to reach our part of the line; as wc were 
on the left face of the salient between the fort and Blockhouse 
No. 2, the fire enfiladed us and took us slightly in reverse; the 
mark of a shell in the inside of the line was noticed by the writer 
later in the day. 

The fort and blockhouses promptly turned their attention to 
the stranger, and in half an hour the firing was stopped so far as 
we were concerned. When this seemed definitely ascertained, a 


detail of twents' of us were despatched to the town to see what 
lumber we could raise to make a roof for a splinter-proof We 
went straight to the Grist place, where we found that his gin- 
house had disappeared, with the exception of its floor ; this we 
raised bodily from its foundations, and bore it back with us on 
our shoulders, with many groans but much satisfaction, and it 
became the principal factor in the construction of our " rat-hole," 
as we called it, of which the illustration will give as good an idea 
as I can do in writing; it was a fair sample of the shelters made 

all along the line, though there were as many differences in detail 
as there were varying circumstances. 

The tent in the traverse ditch was occupied by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Cabot, who commanded that part of the line, and Cap- 
tain Hunt; and according to the former was known to the officers 
as " Hotel Hunt." 

The enemy opened on us again about noon from the new bat- 
tery, and again at dark ; but by that time our " rat-hole " was 
nearly finished, in spite of these interruptions. On the forenoon 
of this day Dr. Ware died. The news of his death cast a sadness 
over the whole regiment, as he had won his way into the confi- 
dence and regard of the entire command. The fire on the fort 
this day was very intense, amounting. Hall saj-s, to two hundred 
shots per hour. " The topmast of the flagstaff was shot away, 
bringing the flag down by the run. David Myrick of Battery G, 
Third New York Arlillerv, climbed the mast and nailed the flag 


to its place. Shots struck tlie pole above and below him while 
he was up there, and one of them jarred him down." 

When Colonel Cabot was quartered at our traverse, he asked 
for a man to act as orderly ; upon which Colonel Lee called Cor- 
poral Stephen A. Powers of Company G, and presented him in 
these words: " Here, Colonel, here 's Corporal Powers; he'll sing 
you a comic song, dance you a jig, or shoot you a Rebel, which- 
ever you want." Powers was thereupon duly accredited as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel's orderly, and obeyed and respected accordingly. 
He really was the life of the company, making fun of everything. 
On one occasion as we sat in the splinter-proof listening to the 
whir of the shell overhead he remarked, " Oh, thim 's onl}- pigeon- 
wings, boys ! " and shortly after broke into song with a parody of 
one of the songs of " II Recruitio," itself a parody: — 

" We 're the boys that 's awful hungry, 
For there 's nothing we can eat ; 
The bloody Rebs are trying to starve us. 
And we cannot now retreat ; " 

and all hands joined in the chorus. 

The position of sentry on this traverse was rather trying during 
the " morning exercises," and in one or two cases was filled, when 
a volunteer was called for, by Private Alden J. Adams, who was 
as gay when under fire as when safe and snug in the " rat-hole." 

And here it may be as well to ervplain Aoza we did guard duty 
at Washington. Each man of the platoon went on in rotation, 
there being two posts on the line between the traverse and the 
blockhouse, and the ceremony of a sentinel at Lieutenant-Colonel 
Cabot's headquarters being dispensed with. The tour of duty was, 
during the day, t\vo hours; at night, one. The sergeant of the 
guard sat with the corporal by a fire behind the works, at the 
meeting of the two beats ; at night, when a man's time was up, 
the corporal would hail him as he came to that end of his beat, 
"Your time's up, — who relieves you? " " Cogswell, sir." "Well, 
go and wake him up." Having obeyed which order, the ex- 
sentry would turn into his own blankets without further cere- 
mony. We thought this was getting guard duty " right down 
fine ; " and it certainly was a contrast to the elaborate guard- 
mountings of our New Berne quarters. 


Saturday, the iith, the batteries opened on us promptly when 
the river-fog cleared, about 8 A. M. The firing was quite rapid; 
most of the projectiles were twelve-pound Parrott fuse-shell, few 
of which burst, but most of them " tumbled " handsomely, making 
a great racket as they passed. There seemed to be also a few 
six-pound smooth-bores. Some of the shot reached the extreme 
left to-day, one falling in the river, very near two of Company 
D's men who were washing there at tlie time. 

Yesterday, when I returned to my tent to get my blankets, as 
we were to sleep in the splinter-proof, I found a shot-hole 
through the side toward the batteries ; in Company A one shot 
plunged through the " guy" end of a tent, picked up a knapsack, 
and out with it through the other side of the tent, tearing the 
guy to ribbons, and dropping the knapsack a little farther on, in 
a very demoralized condition ; in fact, as a knapsack, its useful- 
ness was over when the shot got through zoith it. 

Some of Company D's men found on the .Schenkl fuse-plugs of 
some shells picked up in the lines the mark of Messrs. George D. 
Fox & Co. of Boston ; perhaps they came to Mr. Hill, in care of 
Maj.-Gen. John D. Pope, the summer before. The companies on 
our right, nearer the fort, seem to have experienced more annoy- 
ance from the enemy's fire than we did ; and it seems very singu- 
lar that there were absolutely no casualties in the regiment after 
March 30. 

This night, about 1 1 P. M., Company E's sentry heard a noise 
in their front, and gave an alarm which turned out the company; 
on investigation a man was found wandering about who proved 
to be one of our own pickets; how he got there was not 
explained. We were ordered back to our tents to sleep this 

Sunday, the 12th, we were all busy pitching our tents near our 
place in the line, so that we could all be on hand in case of 
alarm. About 9.30 A. M. the enemy commenced the ordinary 
morning diversion, wiiich lasted about three quarters of an hour, 
with the usual results. General Palmer arrived below this day. 
To-day we wore served a ration of flour in the shape of soft bis- 
cuit instead of hard-tack ; but it was questionable whether the 
change was for the better. 


Renshaw says : — ■ 

"i2th instant, finding that the enemy had repaired their fort in the 
swamp abreast of us with sand-bags and cotton-bales, I directed the gun- 
boats to fire on it, at the same time ordering small pieces of port-fire to be 
put in the shells, which had the desired effect of setting fire to the cotton. 
The enemy, under the galling fire of the gunboats, attempted to extinguish 
the flames, but their efforts proved unsuccessful. They then placed a red 
flag with a dark cross directly in an embrasure and left it ,; when we ceased 
firing there was but little vestige of fort or flag left. One hundred and 
four shots were fired during the day at the gunboats and town ; the latter 
suffered slighdy." 

At night the enemy opened on the "Louisiana" and bridge, 
but without efifect; at the same time the " Widow Blunt" scolded 
at the fort for a while, but also without results. 

Monday, the 13th, we woke and found it raining Fire was 
opened from the fort on the Red Hill batteries about eight 
o'clock, but drew no reply. After the enemy left we found that 
they made a practice of bringing up their guns each morning and 
putting them in battery under cover of the river fog; when this 
cleared away they would open fire, often with a volley, and when 
things got too warm for them they would haul them off out of 
range again. 

Commodore Renshaw says of this day's operations: — 

"Our batteries on shore fired a few shots, but no response from the 
enemy. Rodman's and the battery containing the thirty-two-pounder above 
fired one hundred and twenty shots at the gunboats and town ; the 
' Eagle ' was struck twice, producing but little injury. At 5 p. m. a thirty- 
pound rifled gim opened fire on the ' Louisiana,' one-half mile distant on 
the New Berne road, doing no damage except cutting some of the light 
rigging and blocks away, the shots mostly passing over and taking effect in 
the town ; this gun was silenced in fifteen minutes by the ' Louisiana.' 
During the night I directed tlie mastheads to be decorated with bushes to 
correspond with the woods, the enemy having range of us from both 
sides. Having understood that the Rebel infantry were in the habit of 
keeping guard on the river below to prevent our small boats coming 
through, I ordered acting volunteer Lieutenant MacDearmid to take any 
small schooner he could find, mount a howitzer, and drive the Rebel 
pickets from the water. About ro p. m. he encountered the Rebel boats 
filled with infantr}- ; after exchanging a few shots they were compelled to 
retire, since which they have not ventured on the river to prevent our 


small boats from j-n-iHiiig up ami down. At 11.25 ■'■ ^'- 'h^ steamer 
' Escort ' gallantly ran iIk- blockade with reinforcements for our army." 

Towards midui^lit there was heavy artillery firing on the river, 
increasing in iiuo'.i.-ay and nearness, followed by great cheering 
and shouting in tiu- town. VVc were turned out, but soon found 
that instead of the Rtbcl.s having assailed our works, the " Escort," 
with our old co- r..!. - of the Fifth Rhode Island, Colonel Sisson 
on board, had sj.cj sfully run the blockade and arrived at the 

The boat wa, i>...iilcd with baled hay, and the men protected 
as much as p->^ibie: and although they ran the gauntlet of a 
heavy artiller}- aii nuisketry fire, their losses were slight, being 
only a few wouiiLud. 

The New Yorl: '• Herald " says : — 

"It appears that on Saturday night, April 11, just after the return of 
General .Sitinola to New Berne, and before any time had been given them 
to recover from the fatigues of their previous labors, the officers of the 
Fifth Rliode Lsla iJ c,:!!ed on General Talmer, and stated that their men 
had dv/ iH.issi reqiiestcd permission to run past the batteries below Wash- 
ington, or to land ami capture them bodily. 

" The offer to do this former was gladly accepted, and the transport 
' Escort ' having be^ :i selected, the brave boys of Little Rhody, with the 
mud of tlieir pre\ ions march not \et dry upon their clothing, went on 
board at midnight, hardly any one but themselves knowing of the circum- 
stance. So comi'leitiy exhausted were the men with their four days' hard 
marching and n,'i:ti:v_;. that when they found themselves on board the 
steamer they sanlc to rest and sleep upon the bare decks, as only 
tired warriors can. . . . 

" A run of se\eatc-eii hours brought them to the fleet of gunboats, five 
miles below the baii:iy at Hill's Point, where delay was necessarj^ in order 
to arrange a plan tor running the Rebel blockade. This displeased the 
Rhode Islanders, wlio wished to face the music at once ; but tliey were 
obliged to wait tlic trial of their heroism till Monday night. 

"About ten o'clvick on Monday night the gunboats which had taken 
position just below tlic MiU's Point battery opened a brisk fire upon the 
Rebel works, but were luiable to elicit any reply. 

" During the cannonade the ' Escort,' loaded with supplies and troops, 
steamed up past the gunboats, and before the Rebels could realize the 
fact, was abreast of the battery, and had entered the pass of the blockade, 
which had been iiuoyed out by Captain McDermott [MacDearmid] of 


the ' Ceres,' through which she passed in safety. The Hill's Point battery 
did not molest her in passing, owing to the foct that the gunboats kept up 
such an incessant and well-directed fire upon the fort as to make it impos- 
sible for the Rebels to get their guns into position. 

" But after the steam^-r had passed the blockade her trip was a decid- 
edly exciting one. The Rebels had posted their sharpshooters on rafts in 
the river, in the bushes on the shore, and they also had planted light field 
batteries along the south bank of the river, near which the channel runs, 
from which they kept up a continuous firing of volley after volley of mus- 
ketry, and roar upon roar of artillery, until the craft was lost in the distance. 
For six miles she ran the fiery gauntlet, a part of the time being within 
three hundred yards of a shore which swarmed with gray-backed riflemen 
and butternut-colored artillerists, whose every word of command and shout 
of defiance could be distinctly heard by those on board. 

" When she arrived opposite the battery on Rodman's farm, the guns 
which had so nearly demolished the ' Commodore Hull,' belched forth 
their hostile welcome, and for twenty minutes the thunder from the Rebel 
guns was continued. Guided only by the firing upon shore, the brave 
pilot headed her on until the last discharges of cannon and musketry were 
heard far astern, and he knew he was close upon Washington. Then he 
espied the low black hull of one of our gunboats, and heard the watch-bell 
upon the deck tolling out the hour of the night ; then he saw the dim 
lights of the town, and heard the half-suppressed voices of our men on 
shore, and he doubly realized that the immediate danger was over. 

" You know that I have seen many feats of valor during the war, and 
can judge somewhat of the boldness and nen^e requisite for them, and can 
also appro.ximate unto something like a reasonable comparison of such 
events ; and here allow me to say that this feat of the ' Escort ' and those 
on board has had no parallel during the war. Gunboats and iron-clads, 
to be sure, have run past batteries in wide rivers, as it was their place to 
do, and the events have been telegraphed far and wide : but I have yet 
to learn of an unarmed transport loaded with a regiment of men and a 
cargo of supplies and ammunition even attempting such a thing as here 

At the same time three schooners laden with provisions and 
ammunition ran the blockade, being manned by thirty volunteers 
from the Forty-third Massachusetts, who were also lying below. 

Tuesday, the 14th, the fog cleared early. We were all feeling 
happy that now the " charm was broken," and we were both 
physically and morally reinforced by the arrival of our old com- 
rades of the Fifth Rhode Island. 

While Company G was drawing breakfast in the hollow between 


the traverses, the batteries opened on us; those who had al- 
ready received their eiyht hard-tack and their coffee suddenly 
evaporated; those who had not, hung on, cocking tlieir e\-es up 
at each passing shot hke a hen in a shower, but keeping in hne 
for their turn, and vamooing with remarkable suddenness as soon 
as their dippers were fulL The writer had to wait for some five 
or six, and it is still fresh in his memory how he stumbled in the 
drain which was dug from the traverse ditch, just as he was ready 
to dive for shelter, losing half his coffee up his sleeve, to the huge 
and undisguised amusement of his laughing comrades. The 
firing was of short duration this morning. 


" The enemy," Renshaw reports, " attempted to raise again 
their flag on the swamp battery ; a few well-directed shell from 
the 'Commodore Hull' tore it to pieces." 

At night the writer was on outside picket; it rained steadily all 
night, and we were entirely unmolested and quiet, and came in 
next morning at daybreak very tired and sleepy; had had just 
about time to eat breakfast when, as my diary says, " the ball 
opened at twenty minutes before seven," and continued the usual 
forty-five or fifty minutes; this day they pelted us with six-pound 
round fuse-shell, which burst well and made things particularly 
interesting for the sentry on the traverse. 

Meanwhile the firing all round had been severe, — in fact, since 
we came in from picket ; we afterwards heard that General Foster 


.J .■ 'ff! /;'ir V, :■ ■ ■ .Ml*. 


had run the blockade down the river in the " Escort," and had 
gone to New Borne to bring up a column overland to raise the 
siege. He left us the following farewell order: — 

Headquarters Eighteenth Army Corps, 
Washington, X. C, April 14, 1S63. 

The commanding general announces to the garrison of this town that 
he is about to leave for a brief space of time the gallant soldiers and sailors 
of this garrison. Brijradier-General Potter will remain in command, and 
in him the commanding general has the most perfect confidence as a 
brave and able soldier. The command of the naval forces remains im- 
changed ; therefore that arm of the senice will be as effective and perfect 
as heretofore. The commanding general leaves temporarily, and for the 
purpose of putting himself at the head of a relieving force. Having raised 
the siege, he expects soon to return ; but before leaving he must express 
to the naval force here, and to the soldiers under his command, the 
Twenty-seventh and Forty-fourth Massachusetts regiments, detachments 
of the Third New York Cavalry and First North Carolina volunteers, his 
thanks for and admiration of the untiring zeal, noble emulation, and excel- 
lent courage which have distinguished them during the sixteen days of the 
enemy's attack on this post ; and he feels confident that the display of 
those qualities under General Potter will hold tlie place till the siege be 

J. G. Foster, 
Major- General Commanding EighteciUh Army Corps. 

The "Escort" left Washington on the morning of the 15th at 
5.30 A. M., having on board General Foster and his A. A. G., 
Lieut.-Col. Southard Hoffman, and others of his staff. When the 
boat arrived within range of Rodman's Point the batteries opened 
upon her, and as she approached the shore she came under 
heavy musketry fire; the boat, however, kept on, passing at last 
the Hill's Point battery; she was struck by eighteen shot and 
shell ; her upper works were literally riddled with bullets (the 
writer afterwards saw her at New Berne). The pilot, Mr. Pethe- 
rick, a loyal North Carolinian, was killed at his post as the boat 
passed Rodman's Point. 

Thursday morning, the l6th, the writer was detailed for guard at 
the traverse upon turning out; this was the critical tour of the 
day, as it included the daily artillery exercise ; so I kept a very 
sharp lookout on Red Hill as the fog cleared away, and grew 


more and more anxious; time wore on, and still "no reports." 
After a while a small squad of men in butternut appeared on the 
Jamesville road, coming in the direction of our lines ; after pass- 
ing out of sight behind Fort Washington they did not reappear ; 
but in a short time a column of men in blue filed up the same 
road to the cut in Red Hill, and then to the right along the 
hillside. A platoon was deployed as skirmishers and began to 
move cautiously upward toward the Rebel works. By this time 
all of us were on the line, watching anxiously for the smoke and 
flash of a volley from the works, but none came ; and on coming 
within fifty yards the skirmish line made a rush, and in a moment 
the yellow sand parapet was crowded with blue-coats, and we 
could hear their cheering as they swung their caps in exultation. 
It was Companies E and B, Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, who 
had been immediately sent out upon receipt, from the party of 
deserters who had just come in, of the news of the enemy's de- 
parture. These men reported that the enemy were in bad condi- 
tion. They had been put on shorter rations than ourselves; 
namely, one quart rob meal and one quarter of a pound of bacon 
per day; their artiller\' was all light (we knew of one thirty-two- 
pounder, and the writer still has a piece of shrapnel from it). 
They were falling back up the roads toward Greenville and 

Meanwhile on the New Berne road beyond the river Company 
E's pickets had made the same discovery ; their historian says : 

" While we were on picket last night we heard noises which were un- 
accountable, on which a few shells were thrown into the swamp. At four 
o'clock this morning we heard tfie Rebel drums beat for roll-call, at five 
o'clock the bugle call for advance ; so we suppose the Rebels have 
started. They came near to the creek, but it w;is so dark we could not 
make out much. We saw a man on a white horse at the picket-post, as a 
lantern was in a position to throw a strong light on him. To-day Com- 
pany I's picket advanced to the okl earthworks, where Hobart, Leonard, 
and Lawrence were taken, and found everybody gone from that side of the 

Renshaw says : — 

" Discovering that the gims had been removed from Rodman's Point, 
I ordered the 'Commodore Hull.' 'Ceres,' and 'Eagle' to shell the 
point well before landmg cur troops. Acting third Assistant-Engineer 


'i'hos. Mallahan of the ' Ceres,' while attempting to land in one of her boats, 
was killed by a musket ball." 

It seems a small party were still left in the works, and when 
Mr. Mallahan, Master's Mate Hudson, and two men attempted to 
land and raise the colors on the works, about fifty of the enemy 
rose from behind rifle-pits and fired into the boat, with the result 
above stated. A small schooner with four or five men of the 
Forty-third, who had come up the night previous with ammuni- 
tion, was running close to the shore when the enemy opened fire, 
wounding Francis Tripp mortally and one other of the Forty- 
tliird slightly. The gunboats came back, and at 2 P. U. the 
"Eagle" went down again, running as close to Point as she could, 
and sending shell into the batteries with great precision. Mr. 
Lay with eight men of the First North Carolina, his gun's crew, 
went ashore, followed by Master's ]\Iate Tucker, with a howitzer 
and five men, and planted the colors on the Rebel works. Half 
an hour later, three hundred of the Fifth Rhode Island, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Tew, and one gun of Third New York Artil- 
lery under Lieutenant Mower, arrived, and proceeded out on a 
reconnoissance; they surrounded four Rebels, one of whom was 
killed in trying to escape, but the other three were captured, 
being Captain Parker of the Fiftieth North Carolina Volunteer 
Artillery, Brigade Commander, Drum-Major Mott, and a private 
of the same regiment. The captain reported Hill's force at 
6,000, and 3,000 at the Cross-roads. He said ^/laf town would 
be stormed again within three days. 

Two of their guns — a twenty-pound Parrott and a Whit- 
worth — were found burst; and also the following notice was 
found posted up. 


We leave you, not because we cannot take Washington, but because it 
is not worth taking ; and besides, the climate is not agreeable. A man 
should be amphibious to inhabit it. We leave you a few bursted guns, 
some stray solid shot, and a man and a brother who was rescued from the 
waves to which some foray among his equils consigned him. 

But this tribute we pay you : you have acted with much gallantry- during 
the brief siege. We salute the pilot of the " Escort." 

Co. K, 3 2d Regt. N. C. Vols. 
Fort Hill, .\pril, 1S63. 


Renshawsays: " Enemy burst four guns at Rodman's, — two 
Whitworth and two Parrott, rifled, latter marked ' Tredegar Works 
Richrnond.' " 

In the afternoon the following order was received : — 

Headquartlk.s, April 16, 1S63. 
Special Order. 

Colonel Lee, commanding Forty-fourth ?ilassachuseus, will detail three 
companies to proceed on board steamer " Eagle " at 6.30 o'clock to 
Hill's Point. The men will Uke three days' rations, blankets, over- 
coats, etc. 

The three companies will, widi two companies of the Forty-third 
Massachusetts, be under command of the major of that regiment. 
By order of 

General PorrER. 
G. W. Atwill, a. a. a. G. 

In accordance with this order Companies C, D, and I were 
detailed, under Major Dabney, to whom the command of the 
entire force was afterwards transferred, and went on board the 
" Eagle," where they slept. 

Next morning, the 17th, they landed in small boats at Hill's 
Point. " Corporal " says : — 

" It was the strongest point of the Rebel blockade. Behind the earth- 
works, which were mostly erected at an early day in the Rebellion, are a 
plenty of bomb-proofs. . . . Between the shore and the woods is a Rebel 
rifle-pit. This forenoon we skirmished out a mile or so, encountering 
an old Rebel camp, and the one the Rebels have recently occupied. 
We picked up one ' butternut ' gentleman with a carpet-bag containing a 
Rebel uniform, and the picture of a Rebel officer. ' Butternut ' said he 
picked up the carpet-bag in the woods as he was going home from mill. 
He said the ' Rebs ' were robbing the population of their provisions, and 
had nearly cleaned him out." 

The "Phoenix" came up this morning with ammunition. 
Captain Richardson came out in a carriage to-da>' to see his 
company, previously to leaving for New Berne. He was quite 
advanced in convalescence, and expected to be again on duty 
shortly. Nothing was heard from the enemy to-day. 

Saturday, 18th; the cavalry picket on our left was fired upon 
and wounded in the wrist this afternoon; a party of Company E 
with some of Company B, Twenty-seventh, started out from 


Blockhouse No. i, but after an hour's search found nothing. 
About eight P. M. there was an alarm from this blockhouse and 
we turned out. A couple of shell were fired from the howitzer 
there, after which all was quiet, though we remained under arms 
until eleven o'clock. This was our last alarm. 

Lieutenant Commanding W. P. McCann, of the " Hunchback," 
sa}-s : — 

" Owing to buoys being removed, pilots were afraid to attempt to run 
batteries. .'\lso we engaged Hill's Point battery three times without 
silencing it, and on consultation with the commanding officers it was 
deemed improper to attempt to run the gunboats tlirough to Rodman's 
until a demonstration was made by the army [referring to Spinola's 

Sunday, the 19th, guns were heard six or eight miles away, 
across the river. The advance of General Foster's column 
arrived about noon, and he himself came up the river on the 
" Escort" in the afternoon. The town now seemed full of troops ; 
we had little to do for a day or two but to draw full rations, and 
write letters home, and laugh at the wild accounts which now 
reached us in the home papers of the affair we had just been 
engaged in. 

Before dinner on Tuesday, the 21st, we received orders to be 
ready to go on board the boat for New Berne at an hour's notice. 

Next morning we were up at four o'clock, and at half-past five 
were on board the steamer " Thomas Collyer ; " cast off and got 
under way at 6.17. We stepped at Hill's Point to take on board 
the detached companies, and at about 9.45 were fairly on our 
way to New Berne, which we reached about midright of the 22d. 

So ended the heaviest piece of service in which the regiment 
was engaged ; for seventeen days we were constantly on the 
alert, and during all but two days of the time there was no day 
when those stationed toward the right of our line were not under 
fire, often for the greater part of the day. The cannonading was 
nearly continuous. 

The reports of expenditure of ammunition in the gunboats will 
give some idea of the service done by the navy. Commodore 
Renshaw reports for the " Louisiana " 105 8-inch shells for 
everj' " up to 20; 301 32-pound shells from i" to 20 "; 50 solid 


shot and 25 i2-poiin(l shells. Captain AlacDearmid 213 shells of 
all kinds; Saltonstall, of the " Hull," 331 30-pound Parrott shells 
and shrapnel; 138 24-pound howitzer ditto and canister. 

The regiment was csi<jciaily favored in the matter of casualties, 
the four who were wounded in the skirmish of March 30 making 
up the entire list. 

General Foster while with us paid constant attention to the 
state of the garrison and works; there was seldom a day when he 
did not pass along the line with General Potter, and often one or 
two other staff officers: after returning to New Berne, he issued 
the following order : — Eighteenth Army Corps 
New Berne, April 24, 1S63. 
General OrJer N.>. 63. 

The garrison of Washington, N. C, composed of the Twenty-seventh 
Massachusetts Regiment, Forty-fourth Massachusetts Regiment, Fifth 
Rhode Island, First North Carolina Volunteers, Company I Third New 
York Ca\alr_\-, Battery G Third New York Artillery, have well merited, by 
their steadiness, courage, and endurance, the honor of inscribing, and they 
are ordered to inscribe on their banners and guidons, " Uashington, April, 

Per order 

Major-General J. G. Foster. 

SouTH.ARD Hoffman, .•/. A. G. 

In the history of the Third New York Artillery, Hall says of 
this defence : — 

"The success of Foster's gallant little band of 2,300 \^sic\ in keeping at 
bay a whole Rebel corps for twenty days, and notwithstanding an aggres- 
sive siege of twelve days, has been justly regarded as unparalleled in the war. 
The merit of the achievement is prominently and perhaps principally due 
to Battery G, of the Third New York Artillery." 

A comrade comments on this: "The gunboats deserve a large 
share, as well as General Foster's personal presence, and our 

Captain Denny, in " Wearing the Blue," makes the following 
remarks : — 

" When it is considered that the defence of this line was made against 
fourteen thousand Confederate troops under skilled commanders, we do 
not hesitate to say that the defence against such odds rises to the pitch of 
heroic grandeur equ-illed during the war only by Mulligan's glorious de- 
fence of Lexington, Missouri, in the autumn of 1S61." 


During the siege our comrades of companies F and B, on 
picket at Batchclder's Creek, listened daily with anxious hearts 
for the sound of the guns at Washington. As long as the firing 
could be heard they felt that we still held out ; when there was a 
quiet day, or the wind was unfavorable for the guns being heard, 
they said sadly to themselves. "The boys are gone up; " but 
ne.xt day the dull rumble of the distant cannon would again reach 
their ears, and they thought, " No, the Forty-fourth is all right 
yet." Great was their anxiety on the night when the Fifth Rhode 
Island came through, supposing that the heavy firing denoted the 
night assault that all expected. They probably suffered as much 
from anxiety as ourselves, who were present and absorbed in 
what had to be done from day to day. 

The newspaper reports of the siege during its continuance, 
though they seem to us now funny enough, were of the most dis- 
quieting nature for our friends at home, as will appear from a 
quotation from one of the writer's letters from home under date 
of April 14. 

" I thought to have finished mother's letter yesterday ; but I was quite 
engaged most of the day, and in truth did not feel much like writing under 
the uncertain prospects in regard to your whereabouts, or if e^•er it would 
reach you. The uncertainty still remains ; the conflicting accounts, even, 
make it apparent that you are in a dangerous position. But as we can do 
nothing but hope for the best, I shall continue as if this were sure of find- 
ing you United States troop somewhere." 

In looking over these old letters, a " pocket " of cuttings mostly 
from the " Transcript," and relating to the siege, was " struck ; " 
these the writer proposes to quote verbatim et literatim. 

" New York 5th [Apr/t]. The ' Post ' learns that on the 4th inst. General 
Foster was at Little Washington with a brigade, a regiment of North Caro- 
lina troops, and some other troops, and were virtually surrounded by 
rebels, wlio have erected batteries on Tar River, between Newbeme and 
Little Washington, which the naval force of wooden gunboats are unable 
to pass. 

" It was understood that a battle had taken place between Foster and 
the rebels, but notiiing definite was known. Heavy firing was heard, 
lasting from Wednesday night to Friday night, evidently from the rebel 


" Gen. Foster's means of defence are deemed ample, Iiiving a fort and 
entrenchments with sulticient ammuniiion and pro\ i^i'jr.s. 

" Large reinforcements are in transports below the 'oalteries imable to 
reach Foster for want of some naval force competeiu to lake them. 

" The reported surrender of Gen. Foster is discredited. It is understood 
that he is confident of Iiis ability to succrssfully v.ii'-.Jmvv his forces, even 
if compelled to relinquish the town and Pamlico Ri\i.r. ' 

"New York April C). Passengers from Beaufort, X. C, state that on 
the 5th the rebel pickets on the Trent lo.nJ were cxiciv.led to a point nine 
miles from New Berne. 

" Affairs at Little Washington looked threatening. Sunday evening the 
rebel Gen. Hill was opposing Gen. Foster's litde band, and on Monday 
afternoon, rumor at New Berne said that Gen. Focler bad surrendered. 
This is not credited, as it was believed that reinforcements from Suflblk 
Va., had reached Washington. Gen. Foster's position was strongly en. 
trenched by rifle pits and ditches. Cannonading was heard at Newbern 
all day Sunday and Monday. 

"The steam gunboat Chocura and State of Georgia were coaling at 
Morehead City to run the blockade of Pamlico Ri\er. where there was but 
one gunboat." 

'^ New York April iT,t/i. The steamer Dudley Buck, from Newbern 
9th, brings the report that it was expected Gen. Foster would have to sur- 
render from want of provisions." 

" New York April 13/"//. A letter from Col. Sissell, [query, Sisson .?] an 
officer under Gen. Foster, under date of the 9th inst., says the latter can- 
not hold out more than a day longer, being short of provisions and com- 
pletely surrounded." 

"New York, April i^th. The gunboat Valley City, which passed the 
rebel batteries below Washington, N. C, to Gen. Foster's assistance, was 
struck by sixty-three shot Her subsequent fate is not known." 

From other collections we glean the following. From the 
" New York E.Kpress : " — 

" On the 20th ult.. Gen. Fester with a jiortion of S|iinola's and Prince's 
brigades comprising the Penn. Regts. of Cols. ISIcKibbin, Dyer, Bear, the 
1 2th N. v., [57th N. Y. and jst N. C. started for Little Washington on 
the junction of the Tar and Pamlico rivirrs, where they entrenched them- 
selves. In the mean time the Rebels erected a verv powerful battery on 
Scoon Pt., some 5 miles below Washington, which commands the channel, 
which at that point is very narrow and runs close in sliore. . . . 

" Gen. Magruder with 5000 rebels attacked Foster's position from the 
land side and thus completely surrounded him." 


From the " Journal," April 2 : — 

" Gen. Foster ordered out Co. A, Capt. Richardson and Co. D, Capt. 
Sullivan, on a reconnoissance. They went out of the earthworks and while 
out their retreat was cut off. So Capt. R. ordered the men to cut their 
way through, which they did with considerable loss — some 1 6 killed and 
wounded. Among thorn was Capt. R. who was wounded and Orderly 
Edmands who was killed." 

A private letter from a member of the regiment dated .April 7 : " Re- 
port to-day is that our Colonel Lee was killed in a charge on the rear of 
the rebels' batterj'. 

" Ed. — The report in relation to Col. Lee we do not feel at liberty to 
withhold, although it is more than probable that it is entirely unfounded." 

" One letter from New Berne gives a rumor that 8 companies of the 
Mass. 44th at Little Washington had made a sally and captured quite a 
number of rebels." 

This will show the wild character of many of the reports which 
found their way to our friends at home; others were nearer the 
facts, but scarcely more encouraging. Many incidents of the 
siege were amusing enough. A comrade of Company D con- 
tributes the following: — 

" During the siege of Little Washington, before the duties became so 
arduous that we were glad to obtain sleep even if in five-minute instal- 
ments, a quartette from Company D was one morning engaged in a quiet 
game of euchre just outside the company quarters. John Payne was sit- 
ting with his back to the shanty which had been erected as a shelter for 
the company, to avoid further trespassing on the kindness of the comrades 
of Company B, Twenty-sc.enth Massachusetts, who had been assigned 
quarters in the blockhouse. The boys had just gathered up their cards, 
and Payne was laughing over some joke, when a solid shot passed over 
Fort Washington, ploughed up the sand just in front of the quarters, 
almost buried the boys in the shower, and then plunged into the river. 
Payne's mouth was wide open, and he received more than his share of the 
sand. As soon as he could articulate he exclaimed, ' I 'm not hungry, 
Johnny ; I "ve had my breakfast ! ' " 

One day during the siege Johnson, Bedell, and Tackney of 
Company E, thinking that we were deficient in artillery, cast 
about to supply the want so far as they could. Rummaging about, 
they found an old pair of wheels and some stove pipe, and 
having mounted the funnel on the wheels, ran it up toward the 

, ,,,)> v-ll ..,.') 



works. Some of the Johnnies had evident!}- been w.itching the 
proceedings with a great deal of interest, for just as the boys had 
got their "piece" in position, puff went a gun at the Widow 
IMunt place, and a solid shot from the enemy struck uncomfort- 
ably close. The boys concluded that an attempt was being made 
to dismount their new gun, and feeling that enough had been 
done for honor, and that should the Rebels be successful no 
great damage would be done to our armament, they retired to 
the shelter of their bomb-proof 

One of our cavalry pickets, under cover of a flag of truce, 
entered into conversation with a Rebel officer, a lieutenant, who 
wished to know how large a force we had; the man told him, 
"Enough to take care of all the Rebels in Xorth Carolina." " I 

should think so," was the reply, " for you are a d d sight 

longer winded than any of us imagined." 

Our regimental band was one morning stationed in the fort, in 
a sheltered place, while the firing from Red Hill was going on, 
and played for some time, chiefly national airs ; it was remarked 
that "Dixie" seemed to draw rather an extra warm acknowledg- 
ment from "our friends the enemy." It has since been suggested 
that the object of this demonstration was to give the impression 
that a brigade was present. 

It seems as if the enemy must have been deceived as to our 
numbers, for Garnett said, when ordered to assault upon the 
14th of April, that he would " lose half his men getting there, 
and the other half getting back." A story to the same effect 
reached the writer's ears not long after the siege. After the in- 
vestment was raised, it is said Lieutenant "Teddy" O'Brien of 
the Third New York Cavalry was reconnoitring on the south side 
of the river with a small platoon of his company; upon turning a 
bend in the road he saw, not two hundred \-ards away, a squad- 
ron of Rebel cavalry coming towards him. Running away seemed 
risky, so he drew his sabre, and giving the order, " Battalion, 
charge ! " rushed down upon them with his sabre in air, as if he 
really had a regiment at his back; they were entirely taken in 
by his " check," and thinking it was the advance guard only of a 
heavy column, surrendered at once without resistance, and with 
their ofiicers and colors fell captive to his bow and spear. When 

■ ' ..:\i V.v-m: 

flcOi' oil llO.-if:! 



the captain in comniaml was brought into the town, upon looking 
about him he asked with great eagerness, " Where have you 
hidden all your men?" 

Some comical incidents happened to the men under fire. The 
writer was one morning detailed to wield the shovel among a 
squad who were set to heighten the traverse. Being slight, and 
not mighty in throwing sand hiL;]ier than his head, he with an- 
other was put on the top of the traverse to pat down and level 


'rf 1 

what was thrown up to them ; it being about the ordinary hour 
of our morning salutation from Red Hill, we kept a wary eye on 
the embrasures there. After a while came the long-Iooked-for 
puff of white smoke, and with a call of "Heads below!" the 
writer dropped his shovel in the tra\'erse ditch, himself sliding 
down the slope of the work in its wake ; as his feet reached the 
bottom, the shell screamed overhead, and all immediately sought 
shelter in the splinter-proof The fire, as usual upon opening, 
was heavy and rapid : and just as we were comfortably settled 
down to await further developments, the captain, catching sight of 
one man without his weapon, immediately called to the. writer, 
"Where's your gun and equipments?" " In my tent, sir." (I 
had forgotten to bring them when I went to work.) " Go and 

( II' VI ';; -ii.v/ 


get them." It might have been about thirty feet each way that 
this particular private of Company G had to go, exposed to the 
fire, and never did any one strive with more earnestness to make 
himself as small as possible. That journey took about a week, and 
if none of the shells hit, every joke from the rat-hole did, as those 
laughing boys sitting there in safety " guyed " their comrade who 
had to go out in the shower. 

Corporal Powers and Private Brown of G one day got leave to 
go to the river to wash ; they improved the opportunity to wash 
some of their clothes, waiting, while they dried, in rather primi- 
tive array; somehow or other they managed to draw the fire of 
one of the batteries on the opposite bank, and became the occa- 
sion of quite a little e.\:change of compliments, making themselves 
scarce in about as dignified a manner as the bathers at the well 
did when the Red Hill batteries opened on them. 

This siege was, as has been said, our most important piece of 
service. What we did from day to day seemed then to us ordi- 
nary enough, and the idea of giving up the place without a fight 
entered into no head within the lines. Most of us, I think, were 
therefore rather surprised to find ourselves in a manner made 
heroes of on account of it. As I have heard it said by one of 
the garrison, "What would they ha\'e had us do?" 

The service done by the Fifth Rhode Island, however, served 
to bind yet closer the tics of comradeship that held the two 
remaining regiments of Stevenson's Brigade together, as will 
appear from the following correspondence : — 

Camp Thomas G. Sievensox, New Berne, 1S63. 
Colonel Henry T. Sisson, Commanding 5th R I. 

CoLOXEL, — At a meeting of the field, staff", and line officers, held at 
Washington, X. C, on Tuesday evening April 21, Col. F. L. Lee presiding, 
the following resolutions were unanimously adopted : — 

IV/u-reay, During the late siege of Washington, N. C, when the town 
had been bombarded and all its communications cut off" for fifteen days. 
after several ineff"ectual attempts had been made to relieve the garrison, 
and the enterprise had been virtually pronounced impracticable. Colonel 
Si.sson volu'nteered the services of his regiment, and succeeded, against 
every obstable and discouragement, in running the blockade witli the 
steamer " Escort." thus bringing to the licsieged forces the much-needed 
reinforcements, ammunitions, and supplies. 

(I'' r"''^' ":'!?; 


Resolved, That in tliis achievement Colonel Sisson with his brave regi- 
ment has performed one o{ the most heroic acts of the war, and that this 
act, by so disiieartening the enemy that within two days he was led to 
retire, was the immediate cause of liic raising of the siege. 

Resolved, That the members of tiie Forty-fourtli Massachusetts feel that 
thanks are peculiarly chie from them tu their comrades in arms who so 
generously volunteered their services and met so great risks in carrying 
succor to a brother regiment. 

Resolved, That as an expression of tb.eir gratitude and admiration, if 
it meet the wishes of the Fifth Rhode iMand Regiment, a set of colors 
be presented to them, bearing a dc^ ice commemorative of this act of 

To which a reply was returned as follows: — 

CamI' Anthony, New IJerne, April 2S, 1S63. 

Colonel, — I take great pleasure in acknowledging to you and the offi- 
cers of your command rjiy sense of the high honor which you have done 
us in the very complimentary resolutions which I have ju^t received. 

Be assured. Colonel, they are the more acceptable as coming from a 
body of men whose character and good opinion \vc respect so highly as 
the regiment you have the honor to command. Yom- generous action 
will tend not only to cement more clo-^ely our two brother regiments, 
but also the sister .States from whiiJi we came, alreadv closely united 
by a common history, and by struggles and dangers in defence of our 

May we be more closely knit togetlier in peace and union under the 
flag which both Massachusetts and Rhode Island have rloue so much to 

Accept, sir, the thanks of the Filth Rhode Island for your kind 
sentiments, and believe me. 

With respect, very truly yours, 

H.T. Sisson, 
Colonel CommaihliH':; Fifth Rhode Island Volunteers. 


^ B 

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r^iiONDAY, March 2, 1863, Com- 
panies B and F, under the com- 
mand of Captain Storrow of 
Company F, were taken three 
miles up the railroad, upon open 
cars, and relieved two companies 
of the Fifty-first Massachu- 
^_ setts on picket. On the 6th 
the battalion marched three 
miles farther out, and went 
into camp in the pine woods near Batchelder's Creek, along 
which the outer pickets of New Berne were posted. 

Former occupants of the post had nearly finished eight log 
huts in the thick woods. These were not utilized as quarters for 
the battalion, but around them, as a centre, smaller huts were 
constructed, roofed in by shelter-tents, littered with straw, warmed 
by brick fireplaces, and rendered homelike by conveniences and 
ornaments wliich the ingenuity and good taste of the rank and 
file improvised. These occupied three sides, while the wall tents 
of the officers filled the fourth side. The trees, stumps, and 
"pine-trash" were removed from the enclosure, leaving a firm, 
even camp-ground, — fortunately insoluble in rain-water, and 
never muddy. In the centre of the camp was erected a double- 
masted flag-pole, topped with a weather-\-ane, and bearing on its 
cross-trees the legend, " Camp Lee, occupied March 6, 1863." 

The two companies remained in tliis camp for two months, 
enjoying the brightest and pleasantest part of a soldier's life. 
There was a good deal of night work, but not enough to wear 


the men out. The open-air life in the pine woods was so invigo- 
rating that tiierc was ver^- little sickness in the detachment. 
There was enough of excitement — a sultici,:nt consciousness of 
the proximity of the enemy — to give a zest to the routine of 
duty. The detachment which occupied (he post before and after 
the Forty-fourth, met with serious losses, hut during our occupa- 
tion not a man of our detachment was injure i or captured. It 
was a long military picnic. The season of the year was a de- 
lightful one. .As the spring advanced, violets, anemones, honey- 
suckle, and the fragrant jessamine blossomed thickly along the 
lanes and roads. Birds of gorgeous plumai^e- — bright orange or 
brilliant scarlet — chattered among the young leaves. The woods 
were full of rabbits, 'possums, and 'coons ( which the men were 
successful in trapping), with traces now and then of a prowling 
fox. The creek was full of fish, — herrin;.;, horn-pout, "Welsh- 
men," and robin or red-fin (bream), for v.hicli we angled with 
hooks baited with worms or soaked hard-tack. A net was found 
during one of our scouting expeditions, and was strung across 
the creek near the lower picket-post, who took from its meshes 
every morning a finny breakfast. With this plenitude of game 
came a disagreeable accompaniment in the profusion of snakes, — 
black snakes four or five feet long, meiccasins as large as a 
child's arm, and " copperheads even more venomous than their 
namesakes in the Xorth." 

The chief duty to be performed was the picketing of the line 
of Batchelder's Creek. There was one picket of two " non- 
coms " and twelve men at the burned bridge on the right (Wash- 
ington) road, and another of three " non-coms" and twenty men 
two miles to the south, at the left (or Xeuse) road, where the 
piles and stringers of the bridge were standing and planks were 
ready to lay if an advance was desired. 1 here were other posts 
on the flanks and rear of our camp, and at night a patrol was 
maintained around the camp and down a cart-path that led to 
the wooded banks of the creek. These details were quite as 
much as two companies could perform, and brought each man 
on duty about c\er\' other day. 

Another (and favorite) duty was the acouting b}- land and 
water. When the companies first occupied the picket-posts, 



there were no boats of any kind to be found. A vigorous searcli 
was instituted along the banks of the creek, toward the river, and 
several canoes and tlat-boats were found concealed in the dense 
cane-brakes. These were brought to the Washington road and 
repaired, and every few da\-s a scouting party was sent down the 
creek and up the river on a reconnois- 

.. -o-.. -. - sance. The " Rebs " were rareh- 

^:\.:f--^.!i',r, seen; and the principal result 

i.V^v'"V' ■ ' '"''''" '" "*, °f these expeditions was the 

, ' ■' collection of a 

'■ y,-^ ^'V^jsi^ number of useful 

^.^i^' -^ — articles of camp 

(^^- -is^Jirii. .^ '(. ' ■'^' Zr^^""^^ ~ equipage from 

^,^^:^'^^TP^'^ _; _- — "^^ITT^ the deserted huts 

_===^_i^^^ : -_^" "^_ --"~T~ and houses along the 

^J5- — -,^ ---^ - "iz creek. 

The scouting by land was 
constantly followed, usually in small parties. Fortunately, the 
" Rebs " kept beyond Core Creek and the Neuse River most of 
the time, and our scouting parties met no mischances. Their 
most exciting adventure is thus narrated in a letter : — 

" Colonel Jones having directed Captain Storrow to ascertain whether 
the Rebels sent out boat patrols at night from Street's Ferry, an officer and 
two men were despatched at 9 p. m. to scout on the Washington road. 
Crossing Batchelder's Creek in a canoe, and lea\ing behind them our ad- 
vanced picket-posts, they advanced cautiously along the road about three 
miles, wlien they came to the point where it enters the swamp along the 
Neuse Ri\er. A strong wind during the (lav had blown the water to our 
side of the river and filled the swamp so full that even the road waa sub- 
merged. The wind had subsided, leaving the water so smooth and the 
woods so quiet that the slightest sound could be heard a mile away. The 
Rebel pickets were posted just at the other side of the ferry, and their 
voices could be plainly heard as they chatted around their camp-fire. In 
order to obser\e tiieir motions it was necessary to get to the river bank. 
The first step of the scouting party into the water which covered the road 
attracted their attention, but with the remark, 'It's only cattle in the 
swamp,' they continued their conversation. Mo\ing. therefore, with ex- 
treme caution, — noiselessly pushing one foot after the other without lifting 
it from the water, the scouts waded over a quarter of a mile of sulimerged 
road. At the bank of the river the}' halted, with the Rebel picket-fire in 


full sight a short distance down strfani, opposite liie feriy-landing. No 
dry spot was to be found, so the three shivering iiu-ii lay down in shallow 
water among the bushes and waited for denouemeiib. The situation was 
impressive. The smooth river gleamed dimly bcLween the daik and 
swampy opposite shore and the dense shadows of llic cypresses under 
which they lay. The stillness of midnight was onl) 'lo;.;-:!! by the sounds 
peculiar to the region, — which had grown famiiur fro'.n many nights of 
picket duty on Batchelder's Creek, — the tinkling ■cling' fif the 
frogs, the trill of the tree-toads, the screech of the owl, the occasional 
scream of a wildcat, or the frightful )-oll of the Carolina 'coon. 

"Thus they lay quietly in three or four inches of water for four hours. 
Suddenly, at three in the morning, they were rouse 1 by a stir on the other 
side. A fog had gathered over the river, but a red g'.-.Tai shining through 
it showed that the picket-fire had been repleni-p.ed and the sound of 
many voices told that the Rebel picket had been rjinUrced. The voices 
approached the farther ferry-landing, there was a sound of launching a 
boat, of embarkation, of dipping oars, and for an anxious moment it 
appeared certain that the Rebels were crossing the nv.r to land on our 
side. To have retreated through water knee-deep wmld only have been 
to attract a volley, so that there was nothing to do but to lie in ambush 
and wait. Fortunately, the boat turned down the river and was soon out 
of hearing. Noiselessly and thankfully the little jiarty waded to dry land, 
and returned to camp to report that the Rebels diJ send out a boat patrol. 
The object of the e.xpedition had been accomplislied."' 

Except these scouting parties, there was not mucli to vary the 
monotony of camp life and picket-dut}-. The ua\- of our arrival, 
a lieutenant and thirty men were ordered in ;:!'jai haste to occupy 
the camp of the Fifty-eighth Peniisyl\ania, at the railroad bridge 
over Batchelder's Creek, two miles beyond the Neuse road, 
while that regiment marched out to surprise the Rebel pickets 
at Core Creek. The Fifty-eighth had siiont their eighteen 
months of service almost entirely on picket. Tlieir commander, 
Colonel Jones, was a little old man, who.^e careless and unsol- 
dierly appearance belied his character, for he was cool, brave, 
prompt, alert, and fertile in resources. His men idolized him, 
and followed him into danger with implicit confidence. Shortly 
after we were withdrawn to Xew Berne he was shot and instantl)' 
killed during an attack on the picket-post or. the Neuse road. 
The only noteworthy thing at the camp of liic !■ irt_\--cighth was 
the "Railroad Monitor," — an iron-plated :;i;iilioat on wheels, 
mounted with two six-pound Wiard [)ivot-guns, and kept always 

..h: ,., c :,L„.-- 


in readiness to run up or down tlie railroad wherever it might 
be needed. 

On Saturday, March 14th (the anniversary of tlie capture of 
New Berne), we were startled at daybreak by heavy firing in the 
direction of the town. While we were wondering what it meant, 
an orderly dashed into camp with the news that New Berne had 

"\ ^ 


been attacked from the other side of the river, and was threat- 
ened on our side, and that we were ordered to move our whole 
force to the bridge on the Xeuse road. Forming hastily, we 
double-quicked across country by the plantation road which our 
picket reliefs usually followed, and on arriving at the bridge were 
ordered to tear up its planks, and to construct breastworks to 
command the approaches. The day and night were spent in 
felling trees and in digging trenches. A letter thus describes the 
scene at night: — 

" Under the serene starli:;ht, nml a faint slimmer from the old moon, risiPLj, Bntcheldcr's Creek lay tranquil in the deep shade of its fringe 
of trees. The clay of the road-bed gleamed white along the bank. The 


skeleton framework of the dismantled bridge ; the pier, barricaded with 
logs, on u iuuii stood four motionless sentiiicl:^ with guns in the hollow of 
their arms ; the riile-pits where half the men lay uneasily on the damp 
earth, while the muftled sound of pick and siiadc, the occasional gleam of 
a dark-lantern, and the subdued orders of the officers, showed that the 
other half were busily at work ; the knowledge that the Rebels were in 
force only three miles away; the expectation of an immediate attack, — 
these things made the niglit memorable." 

But, after all, the enemy withdrew without further demonstra- 
tion, and on Sunday morning the battalion returned to camp, 
only too glad of a chance to rest. 

Before leaving the bridge, a letter was received from Colonel 
Jones and read to the detachment, thanking them for the zeal 
and energy displayed. 

After this threat of attack the Rebels were more audacious, and 
frequently stole down on our lines and tried to catch the pickets 
napping. Wednesday, March 25, a sergeant of the Third New 
York Cavalry, while on outpost duty a quarter of a mile from our 
post at the bridge on the Neuse road, was surprised, captured, 
and carried off. Captain Storrow, who happened to be at the 
bridge, started at once with t\venty men in pursuit, and a party 
was ordered out from camp to a fork of the roads near the ferry, 
in the hope of intercepting the " Rebs " there ; but they had too 
good a start, and got away safely with their prisoner. 

During the next two weeks we heard frequent heavy firing 
from the direction of " Little" Washington, and felt anxious for 
the safety of the other eight companies of our regiment. 

Monda}-, April 27, General Palmer started with two brigades 
on the " Gum Swamp expedition." Company F received orders, 
just at dusk, to march with overcoats, rubber blankets, and such 
scant rations as could be scraped together. Joining the Fifty- 
eighth Tcnnsylvania at the Neuse -bridge, they were given the 
place of an absent company as eighth in the regimental line. 
One brigade of Palmer's force, including the Forty-fifth Massa- 
chusetts, advanced bv the railroad; while the other brigade, 
consisting of the Fifth and Twenty-se\'enth Massachusetts, two 
companies of tiie Forty-sixth Mass.acluisetts, the Fifty-eighth 
Pennsylvania, Companj- F of the Fort\-fourth, and two pieces 


of artillery, started up the Xeuse road at half-past seven. The 
weather was disagreeably close and miiLjLj}-, and a hard rain set 
in, so that we were glad to lialt and bi\"ouac ten miles out, near 
Core Creek, tlie enemy's picket line. At noon the next day 
the Twent\'-seventh Massachusetts and Fifty-eighth Pcnnsx-h-ania 
marched on, with nothing but arms and equipments, taking the 
left fork, or Dover road, through the Do\-er (or Gum) Swamp. 
After wading many miles through water ankle-deep, we came to 
Sandy Ridge, where a small earthwork, the remains of a burnt 
camp, and the carcasses of dead horses marked the place where 
Colonel Jones had surprised the " Rebs " two months before. 
Striking the swamp again, we marched on with increasing dif- 
ficulty till firing was heard at the head of the column, and we 
learned that a Rebel regiment, marching down our road to flank 
the Forty-fifth Massachusetts, which was advancing on the rail- 
road, had been surprised to meet the Twenty-seventh Massachu- 
setts, and were retiring in disorder. We were double-quicked in 
the direction of the firing, which was growing hotter. Several 
companies of the Fifty-eighth were sent forward, and we were 
eagerly awaiting our turn; but a combined charge on the Dover 
road and the railroad drove the " Rebs " from their rifle-pits and 
ended the skirmish. This was about sundown, and was followed 
by a retrograde movement. It had rained hard all day, and the 
road was in a miserable condition. The logs with which it had 
been " corduro\-ed " through the swamp were all afloat. The 
swamp was one vast lake, and it is not exaggeration to say that 
we marched through one puddle four miles long. Reeking above 
the knees with perspiration and below them with swamp water, 
our feet clogged with sand, and stumbling among the floating 
logs, the men of our detachment, exhausted by continuous night 
duty on picket, struggled and staggered along through the dark- 
ness and rain. Occasionally a man would fall out of the ranks, 
but his- gun would be taken by some friend, and he would be 
supported and led on between hardier comrades. For the 
few miles most of us felt at each step as if no power on earth 
could move us an inch farther. Our legs seemed [jowerless'. 
We were dazed and almost unconscious, as if we had been 
drug^icd. Those who have stood similar trials know how des- 

-f=4-qi;-! ^i .-v- wr-ih^r y\. 


perately a man clings to his determination to hold out; how he 
mechanically counts his steps, or the trees as he passes them ; 
how he clenches his teeth and sings monotonously to himself; 
how he fixes his e\'e on the cartridge-box plate of the man in 
front, and tries to shut out every idea except that he must keep 
that in sight. Finally we reached camp thoroughly and abso- 
lutely worn out. 

The official reports of this expedition all refer to the weather 
and the difficulties of marching. Colonel Jones says: "The road 
runs principally through swamps, with an occasional oasis of dry 
ground, and, being chief!}' covered with water or very wet mud, 
is heavy and difficult." General Palmer reports : " At midnight 
it commenced to rain very heavih-, and continued until noon of 
Tuesday, the 28th instant. At the conclusion of the storm the 
whole country seemed flooded ; the roads were in a horrible 
condition." And in a despatch to New Berne, dated the morning 
of April 28, General Palmer states that " The whole country 
is under water. One shower succeeds another very quickly, 
and we are waiting patiently for a lull in the storm." To this 
despatch he adds a postscript which will touch the hearts of 
all old soldiers who read it, and recall similar circumstances: 
" Unofficial P. S. A ration of whiskey ought to be sent for the 
men if provisions are sent." 

This was the last notable event of picket service. On Satur- 
day, May 2, two companies of the Forty-sixth Massachusetts 
straggled into our camp, in shirt-sleeves and straw hats, to relieve 
us, and in the afternoon we bade adieu to " Camp Lee," and 
returned to our barracks at New Berne. The flag which had 
flown from the flag-staff was inscribed " Gum Swamp," and to 
this day graces the annual reunions of Company F. 



N one of our popular operas the chorus 
sings with much gusto, and in a man- 
ner that leads one to think it does 
not believe in the sentiment, — 
" The policeman's life is not a 
happy one." Every member of 
the Massachusetts Forty-fourth in 
May and June, 1863, would have 
>] unhesitatingly indorsed the opinion 
p expressed by the operatic author. 
. : '^.^ In the spring of that year 

_- several of the Boston news- 
papers gravely announced 
^..^ that the Forty-fourth Regi- 

ment Massachusetts Volun- 

teers was doing police duty 
in New Berne. Those who have served in the army will readily 
appreciate the feeling of indignation and disgust which this 
statement created among the men of that regiment. This will 
he easily understood by others, when it is explained that 
" police duty " in the army is synonymous with " scavenger 
duty" in civil life; "policing a camp" not meaning the main- 
tenance of good order and strict discipline, as civilians would 
naturall}' suppose, but including such disagreeable and miscella- 
neous duties as sweeping the grounds, emptying swill, carrying 
water, etc. The error was, however, a very natural one, and 
was founded on the following order: — 

Headquartfr^ Dfpartmknt North Carolina, April 23, 1S63. 
Speda/ Order No. 1 1 7. 

In accordance with the custom of the department, the regiment now 
doing provost duty will be relieved. 

2o6 FORTV-Fd irni ^F\ssAClR•sl;lTs infantry. 

Tho r oiiimandint; '^e'li, on chanjjing the guard of tlic town, (iesires 
to counlv lo ColoMc! v'jihiian, and through hiui to liis ottiucrs and men, 
his high ;i])preciation of t'no manner in uliich the duties of the guard have 
been performed; and lie !'.a^ noticed with great pleasure th.e drill, disci- 
pline, aud general eifc^'-iiry c>f the regiment. 

The i'oru -fourth >.' -.-■■!v,;sctts Volunteer Militia will relieve the Forty- 
fifth Massachusetts V.ilu;ncer Militia on Saturday, 25th inst., at 9 a. m. 
Ily ■'.limmand, 

JoH\ G. Foster, 
Major- Gai'ral Commanding Department. 
Southar:. Hoffman, ./. .-/. G. 

On returning frMTj} Washington \vc had all hoped we should 
go directly to our old barracks; but finding these in possession 
of the Ninth Xe\:- Jersey, we were temporarily assigned to those 
formerly used by the Tenth Connecticut, very near the ones 
we had previously ucctip;ed, only a short distance farther from 
the Ncuse River, 'i'itc few days that intervened before we as- 
sumed o'.'.r new dutie.s were spent by the men in recovering from 
the fatigue of the siege of Washington, in letter-writing, mend- 
ing clothes, etc. 

Early on Saturday morning the regiment, in full-dress uniform, 
equipped in heavy marching order, was formed in line and pro- 
ceeded to the city, ^\her(.• it relieved the Forty-fifth. After the 
usual exchange of salutes, the guard for the day, which had been 
detailed before we left camp, relie\'ed the sentries of the Forty- 
fifth, and then the rest of the regiment proceeded by companies 
to the qtiarters in the town to which they had been respectively 
assigned. They ^verc the same occupied by the different regr- 
mcnts which had done [jrovnst duty previous to our tin-n. Each 
company had one or more houses allotted to its use, and among 
them were some of the pleasantest residences in the city. The 
Forty-fifth had left them in good condition, decorated them pret- 
tily, atid many little tokens of welcome greeted our arrival. It 
was a debatable question among our boys — one which we believe 
was ncN'cr satisfactorily settled — whether it was more enjo\-able 
to be quartered in a large room with from ten to fifteen compan- 
ions, or in a small one witii from tliree to \^\■c. 

The chriuge from camvi life was jilea^ant in the beginning, but 
it soon became veiv monL^tonous. Tliere was a freedom in the 


former, wlicrc \vc were allowed to appear in undress uniform, — a 
uniform wiiich at times was decidedly undress, — and do about as 
we pleased when off dut\-, compared with the constraint we felt 
when it was found to be an unpardonable offence to appear on 
the street except in full-dress suit, with boots nicely polished, 
belts blackened, and brasses brightened. Provost duty, unlike the 
usual camp duty of "two hours on and four hours off," was " four 
hours on and eight hours off." It was an advantage to those who 
were fortunate enough to be on between 8 and 12 l'. M., as they 
could enjoy uninterrupted sleep till 8 A. .M. the following day; 
but four hours seemed a long time to the poor sentry pacing his 
beat, and many of the boys would gladly have changed to the 
old hours. 

The duties of a provost guard are — to preserve order in the 
town; see that no enlisted man passes unless provided with a 
written permission suitably signed, indorsed, and dated ; pre- 
vent fast riding or driving through the streets ; act as guards at 
the railway station and the wharves ; and to do anything and 
everything required of them of a similar nature. Most of the 
boys thought the principal duty of a sentry was to salute com- 
missioned officers ; and it is conceded b}' all who have ever stood 
four hours on a post that this work consumed no small part of 
the time. 

For a few da\'s the novelty was pleasing. There was a great 
deal of excitement compared with the routine of a strictly camp 
life. Soldiers are in some respects veritable children, and they 
hailed. the promise of a furlough for a day in town with as much 
pleasure as would a small schoolbo}- that of a day's holida\-. It 
was quite a common occurrence when some member of another 
regiment visiting the town was stopped by a sentry for examina- 
tion, to have the latter, after reading the name on the pass, and 
finding it to be familiar, glance up, and recognizing the bearer, 
remark, " Why, Tom, when did you come to New Berne? Bill 
and George and Charley are all in our company, and we are 
quartered in Craven Street. Go down and sec the boys. I shall 
be off dut\' to-morrow, and will try and get o\-er to your camp." 
Such meetings were happening continually, and none but those 
who have shared in them can realize the pleasure they bring. 

2o8 FORrv-i-oLirrii m.\>.^ ^ciir-Rrrs infantry. 

It was not loiiLj before the r.o'. c'l.y wore off. mid tlien provost 
duty became drudqer)-. As th ^ town covcrc.i quite an area, it 
was divided into three guard ui-lncts, and d.-tails were assigned 
to the first, second, or third, r- the case nii:_:ht be. No record 
has been found sliowing the e; i:t number of ^entries required 
in each district. Corporal 1-il/ ^->( Conipimy C had a plan of 
New Berne on whicli tiie nuMi'.r-!- of eacii jjost \\as marked, but 

unfortunately it has been lost or destroyed since his return. As 
nearly as can be remembered, tiv. re were about fifty posts in the 
first, from t\vent\--fi\-e to thirt}' in the second, and tlie same number 
in the third district, mak-ing about one hundred posts in all. There 
being three reliefs, a detail of "ico men, exclusive of commis- 
sioned and non-commissioned officers, would be required dail)', 
or a total detail of about 325 men. The nominal strength of the 
regiment was at that time about <jOo; but so mans- had been per- 
manently or temporarily detailed, and there ahva\-s being a per- 
centage in hospital or excuse^l b\- the surgeon, the effective 

I, (i Ml 


Strength was probablj' less than 650, obhging the privates to go 
on duty at least every other day, and sometimes two days in suc- 
cession. Commissioned and non-commissioned officers fared 
somewhat better, but they e\'en were called upon much oftener 
than they wished.^ The demand being so severe, drilling was to 
a great extent discontinued, and the men excused from every- 
thing but policing quarters and the daily dress parade. 

May 2, Companies B and F, which had been on picket duty at 
Batchclder's Creek while the regiment was at " Little " Washing- 
ton, rejoined us at New Berne. This made the work somewhat 
easier for the others. 

The instructions issued for provost duty laid a great deal of 

stress on the importance and proper manner of saluting commis- 

■ J, . sioned officers. 


Sentries were 
required to car- 
ry their muskets 
at "shoulder" 
or " support; " 
but after dark, 
when they be- 
gan to chal- 
lenge, were per- 
^^h V^^7- mitted to carry 

them at "right shoulder shift." 
It is needless to say that these 
instructions were implicitly followed 
— whenever the sentry thought that 
he might be observed by a commissioned officer, or by a non- 
commissioned officer on duty. They may have done so at other 
times; but for the credit of the regiment it might be well not to 
investigate too closely. 

So far as the commissioned officers were concerned, the change 
was undoubtedly agreeable. In camp, drills and other duties 

1 Since writing the above .i dian- has been found which gives the number of men 
detailed for guard on April 25 as 200, and on April 26 as 102 privates, 10 cprporals, 
3 sergeants, and 3 lieutenants. If the number of privates given is correct, the effect- 
ive strength must have been nuich less than estimated above, as the privates were 
certainly on duty almost every other day. 



demanded a yreat deal of their attciilio!! ; while now, e.vccpt 
when acting as officer of tlie day or oinccr of the guard, they 
had comparatively little to occupy t!'L"'r time. At any large j 

military post there is alwaj-s a great dca! of social ga\-et\-, and 
our officers imdoubtcdly eujovcd the (..(loortunitics ottered to 
their fullest extent. { 

The weather during May and Jui;c '.>.a.? \'cry warm, and to s.^ 

those who had never been South before, tin.' Hies were an intolera- 
ble nQisance. " Corporal," in writing to the Boston " Ilerald," I 
devotes a full paragraph to these pest^ : — : 

" The fly-statistics of your Port Royal con-cspoai.lent must not lead your 
readers to suppose that the Department of the South enjoys a monopoly j 

of this interesting insect. I allude to common liouse-flies. Fleas and i 

mosquitoes do not greatly abound at New lierae, but house-flies swarm j 

like the locusts of Egypt. The wood-ticks of IT ill's Point, which adhered ; 

to the cuticle with a death-grasp, deserved a p.nagraph, but the house-flies | 

of New Berne are even a greater nuisance. Tlic printers will not fail to 
notice the peculiar manner in which they \v.yc punctuated this sheet of 
manuscript. Tlieir tracks are visible upon every object which they can 
touch, — upon our plates, dippers, knives, forks, bread. They attack us 
with desperation at meal-times, and if we have anything better than usual 
they are sure to find it out, and rally upon the sweet point, so that while 
we convey the food to our mouth with one Innd, we are forced to figlit 
flies with the other. ' Tempus fugit,' commences a letter of your New 
Berne correspomJent ' Tiger.' ' Fly-time — very appropriate,' parentheti- 
cally remarked the free translator Frederick, as he read, and described 
curves in the air," 

May 24, Company F, Captain Storrow, was detailed to accom- 
pany a lot of Rebel prisoners to Fortrc.->.- ?\Ionroe. This was an 
agreeable duty to the men of that, and a very pleasant 
break in the monotony of their daily routine. 

During our residence in the city quite a small-pox epidemic 
broke out among the negroes, and among the pleasant duties 
assigned to our regiment was that of searcliing for those afflicted 
with that disease and superintending their removal to the small- 
pox hospital, which was situated just outside the city limits. 
The negroes evinced great repugnance to being sent to it, and 
frequently had to be removed by force. So far as is known, none 
of the boys caught the disease. 

■I /, ,. 

il' .ill. Jt". j.>o^ 


There were two jails in town, one used mainly as a place of 
safe-keeping for Rebel prisoners, the other for the detention of 
those, soldiers or civilians, who needed such a place of confine- 
ment. We had to furnish guards for these, in addition to our 
regular street patrol. 

There was a marked difference in the discipline in various regi- 
ments, being so slack in some as to be scarcely worthy of that 
name. The guard-house at Station One was a very large build- 
ingj to whicPi was attached an ell containing a single room capa- 
ble of holding a great many men. It was in this room that were 
confined soldiers who had been found in town without proper 
permission, who had been indulging too freely in " commissary," 
and who were punished for the infraction of some of the minor 
rules of the department. One day an officer wearing the uni- 
form of a colonel approached the non-commissioned officer on 
duty at this guard-house and asked if he could tell where any 
of his regiment were. "What regiment do you command?" in- 
quired the "non-com." "The th New York," was the 

answer. " Yes, sir," the " non-com." replied. " Where are 
they?" interrogated the colonel. "A few of them are in the 
guard-house." "May I see them?" "Certainly, sir," was the 
answer; and leading the colonel towards the ell in the rear, al- 
lowed him the opportunity of looking through the door. The 
room was crowded almost to the point of suffocation, and among 

its inmates were very few that did not belong to the th New 

York, commanded by the anxious colonel. As soon as he was 
recognized by those in confinement there was a general cry, 
"Hullo, colonel, let us out! We want to go back to camp." 
The colonel considered a minute. " On the whole, boys. I think 
you will do very well where you are for to-night. I have just 
come from camp, and the major, one lieutenant, and five pri- 
vates are all there are within its limits. I want to go off to-night 
myself; so I think I will go back and furlough these, and then I 
shall have no one to look after until you are released at guard 
mounting to-morrow morning. Good-by ; " and off he went. 
The boys passed the night in the guard-house, but the little 
sleep that any of them succeeded in getting was not very 



Shortl}- after our rctuin to Xcw Bcnio, Corporal Lawrence of 
Company C created quite a sensation by marrying a resident 
of that toua. Those who were fortunate enough to receive 
" cards " were objects of envy to their less favored comrades. 
Mrs. Lawrence, since her husband's death, has resided in Boston 
with Corporal Lawrence's father. 

One advantage we hatl while on dut\- in town was the privilege 
of buying fresh eggs, vegetables, etc., from boats which used to 
come in froni the country just outside of the lines. Under what 
regulations the trade was allowed we never disco\-ered, but some 
one person in each boat was provided with a duly authorized 
permit. No sales were allowed until the officer in charge had 
made his appearance, and then to no one except commissioned 
officers or their servants. After these had carefully selected 
such portions of the cargoes as they wished, certain civilians 
were allowed to make their purchases, and when they were sat- 
isfied, if an\'thing was left, private soldiers were at liberty to buy. 
It was a singular fact, however, that it almost invariably happened 
some of the choicer articles had been accidentally mislaid or 
covered up, and the fact was not discovered until the sentries on 
the wharf began trading, when they \\ould suddenly be found; 
but it was just as singular that the discovery was never made 
while a commissioned officer was in sight. On the whole, the 
boys fared very well. 

During the time we were in town an attempt was made to re- 
produce " II Recruitio," with an additional act descriptive of our 
adventures in Washington. The lines were all written and the 
parts assigned; but the arduous duty of provost prevented us 
from giving much time to preparation, and the design was finally 

Our band seemed to be thoroughh' appreciated by our general 
and staff officers. Daily at guard mounting and dress parade it 
made its appearance with the regiment, but at other times it was 
fully occupied at some of the various headquarters in the town. 
The players probably enjoyed it, although they were not always 
allowed to retire at taps. William F. Ingraham, who was the first 
leader, died in January, and in May his brother, A. W. Ingraham, 
a noted bugle-player, came out to go home with us. On .May 19 


an order was issued defining the duties of those sharing tlie man- 
agement of the band. Babcock was to direct rcliearsals, arrange 
programmes, conduct the band on all parades, etc., and select the 
music. Ingraham was to perform the duties of leader, and fix 
the hours and length of practice. Corporal Hovcy was to act as 
business manager. In the concluding paragraph of this order the 
colonel complimented the band highly, and expressed the hope 
that it would do credit to itself and the regiment when it readied 
Boston. We are glad to say that this hope was realized. Late 
in the wint(fr and early in the spring of 1863 Mr. P. S. Gilmore 
had given a series of concerts for the benefit of the Massachusetts 
regiments in the Department of North Carolina. Among the 
list of subscribers were some of the most influential and best- 
known merchants of Boston. The different military associations, 
such as the New England Guards Association, Tigers, Cadets, 
and Lancers, took a warm interest in the success of the enterprise. 
Hallett & Cumston contributed a grand piano, wliich yielded the 
handsome sum of $1,691. The total receipts were $5,772.65; 
and on May 18 an order was read at dress parade thanking Mr. 
Gilmore, and acknowledging the receipt of $500, — our share of 
the net proceeds. 

As the term of our enlistment drew near its close, the boys 
began to count the remaining days as anxiously as do boys of a 
younger age the hours before vacation begins. Many were the 
rumors rife in barracks ; and no matter how improbable one might 
be, there were always some who believed it. At last the following 
welcome order was read on dress parade : — 

Hf.adqu.\rters Eighteenth Army Corts, 
New Berne, X. C, June 4, iSGj. 
Special Order N'o. 159. 

2. It is hereby ordered that the Forty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia be relieved by the Twenty-seventh Regiment Massacliu- 
setts Volunteers, as provost guard of this town, on Saturday morning next, 
June 6, at 6 o'clock. 

By command of Major-General JriiiN G. Fosikk. 

S. HOFF.MAN-. A. A. G. 
Headquarters Second Erigade. 

'E.C]oi\.sio^, Aiijiitant. 


Although \vc did not regret that tlie term of service was so 
near its close, there had been, after all, a great many pleasant cir- 
cumstances connected with our enlistment, and we had actually 
enjoyed this brief scr\ice in the emplo}'ment of Uncle Sam. We 
had a great many friends in the other regiments, and a lar;^e part 
of our leisure during the days that intervened between the 
reading of this order and our departure was spent in bidri.ig 
good-by to these acquaintances. 

The night before our departure General Foster gave a recep- 
tion to the officers of our regiment. As the writer of this chapter 
was not forjunate enough to hold a commission, he cannot sjieak 
from personal knowledge of the proceedings, but he is assured by 
all who attended that they had a most delightful time. The rank 
and file were also determined to enjoy themselves, and various 
were the schemes adopted by the boys. Although as a gepcial 
rule but very little "commissary" was to be found in our camp, 
that night was an exception, and there were not many, e:;cept 
those who were consistent total-abstainers, w^ho did not drink at 
least one toast to the friends they were to leave behind and to a 
safe passage home. Notwithstanding this, there was no unseemly 
conduct, so far as known, on the part of any of the men. They 
were simply enthusiastically jolly. One of the boys, feelin;: 
clothing too oppressive, and having no fear of being called upon 
to receive visitors, appeared in his quarters in a state of nature, 
but fully equipped with belt, cartridge-box, and knapsack, carry- 
ing a piece of old stove-pipe on his shoulder. While en[^;ac;cd 
in this amusement his captain suddenly came on the scene, aad 
with a good deal of indignation in voice and manner, inquiied 
what he meant by appearing in such a condition. " I am a 
heavy artillery-man in light marching order," was the road\- 
reply. The captain quietly remarked that he was unaware that 
the man had been transferred from the infantry, and advised 
him to return to his own room and resume the regulation 
uniform. It is needless to add that the captain's advice was 
promptly followed. 

An excellent locality on Broad Street was assigned for our 
dress parades, and the last one held by us in New Berne \vc 
think would have done credit to any regiment in the service. 

-i iJ .l.'.t ,")ijj 


Each man tiicd to do his best. At this parade the following 
order was read : — 

Headquarters Eighteenth .\rmy Corps, 
New Berne, N. C, June 5, iS6j. 
Special Order No. 160. 

17. The commanding general, on bidding f.ire\ven to the Forty-fourth 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, conveys to tiiem his higli appre- 
ciation of and thanks for their services while in tliis department. 

As a part of the garrison of Washington, and in the various duties 
to ^\-hich they ha\-e been assigned, they have always done their duty as 

The commanding general, in parting, expresses his hopes to officers and 
men that he may have the pleasure of welcoming their return here, and 
tenders them, one and all, his best and kindest wishes for their future. 
By command of 

Major-General J. G. Foster. 
S. HoFFiiAxV, A. A. G. 

General Wessclls, an old regular army officer, and a strict dis- 
ciplinarian, to whose division we had been assigned, also took 
occasion to issue the following: — 

Headquarters Fourth Division, Eighteenth Army Corps, 
Plymouth, N. C, June 10, 1S63. 
General Order A^i. 7. 

III. Having learned that the Forty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer 
Militia is about to leave the department, its term of service being ful- 
filled, the brigadier-general commanding the division cannot allow tlie 
occasion to pass without expressing his sincere regret at thus losing one 
of its brightest ornaments. 

The gentlemanly deportment and soldierly bearing of all grades have 
rendered his intercourse with the regiment, both socially and officially, 
peculiarly agreeable ; and in changing the rough duties of camp for the 
peaceful pursuits of civil life, the commanding general desires them a safe 
return to the green hills of New England, with his best wishes for their 
future happiness and prosperity. 

13y command of 

Brigadier-General W. \\. Wessells. 

Andrew Stewart, .-/. A. G. 

Headquarters Forty-fourth Regiment, June iS, 1S63. 

E. C. Johnson, Lieutenant and Adjutant Forty-fourth M. V. Af. 

We landed at Xew Berne in a rain-storm and wc left there in 
a rain-storm, although the last was not as heavy as the first. 

2l6 1--ORTV- Iivji.TlI MASSAi-arsL'.ns im-antrv. 

Early on the nvu-;:'.:;"; of Juno 5 our rcLjimcntal line was formed 
for the la:,t tin;- :-. N.irtli Caroli;ia: and, escorted by the Third 
Massaciiusetts, Colon; 1 Richmond, one of the regiments which 
accompanied us tj ."^tate, \\e ti;>ok our line of march for the 
depot. There \\ - rMi.', irked ':<n platform cars and started for City. C.jloncl ilolbiouk of the Forty-third had in- 
tended to have his le.jment form part of our cscoi't, but the 
shower ii^erfered \,;:!i ihc programme. Soon after starting, the 
rain ceased and v e had a very })leasant trip to Morehead City. 
By noon the regiment v. as on board of the steamers and ready to 
proceed on its homo.ird way. The right wing, Companies A, 
G, H, K, and K, \,ere on the " Guide," accompanied by the 
colonel, licuitenant cC'lonel, major, the regimental band, the sur- 
geon, and the sick. Colonel Sisson and other officers of the 
Fifth Rhode Island tuuk passage on this steamer. The left wing 
was on the " Geoige Peabody," and included Companies F, B, D, 
C, and I, under com i-,.iiid of Captain btorrow. Quite a number 
of men from other rt|.;imcnts, \\ho had been granted veteran fur- 
loughs on account . f re-enlistment, were on this steamer. The 
passage was very pleasant, although on the first night out we 
had a hea\-y wind and sea. There A\as the usual amount of sea- 
sickness ; but the sufferers invariabl}' called it by some other name, 
and were very inclignant if accused of succumbing to "Father 
Neptune's curse." .Ys Mark Twain afterwards graphically de- 
scribed it, they had the " Oh, my ! " badly. During the 9th 
of June wc ran along the eastern shore of Cape Cod, and just 
before sunset dropped anchor in Boston Harbor. In passing 
Fort Warren the ciuire gavrison turned out, the band at the P'ort 
played " llonie, S\', Home," and we continued to exchange 
cheers while within hearing of each other. It was a beautiful 
evening, and how gl.^d '.'.-c were to reach dear old Boston, all our 
boys can bear witne-s. The dome of the State Mouse loomed 
up in the evening li-ht, and the sound of the nine-o'clock bells 
which reached us, mellowed by the distance, gave a home 
feeling that none of our men Iiad known for nine long months. 
The "Guide" had not arrived, so we remained at anchor off Fort 
Independence till morning. 

Just before darl; a tug came down from the city and hauled 


alongside the " George Peabody." Perhaps our officers can say 
what news its passengers brought; but the " being in command," 
who wore the shoulder-straps of a brigadier-general, evidently 
considered privates beneath his notice. As might have been 
expected, the ubiquitous representative of the press was on 
board and made " Corporal " the recipient of a bottle of choice 
whiskey. Another corporal, as chief of his squad, had the cus- 
tody of several lemons ; and so the two corporals combined forces 
and the result was a toothsome compound, in which several of 
us drank the health of " dear old Boston," and then retired to 
the softest spots we could find, "Corporal" stretching himself 
on a huge chest, about amidships on the main deck, and the 
others bunking within supporting distance. 

As soon as it v\-as known that we were homeward bound, it was 
proposed by the Reserve of the New England Guard and others 
of our friends to give the regiment a reception. A meeting was 
called to make the necessary arrangements, and after some dis- 
cussion, the date of our arrival being uncertain, it adjourned sub- 
ject to the call of the committee.^ When the " George Peabody " 
was reported in the harbor, all who were to participate were noti- 
fied as rapidly as possible. The " Guide " arrived during the 
night and steamed directly up to Central Wharf, where the men 
immediately disembarked. The " George Peabody" followed as 
soon as possible. Before we had made fast, Captain Jake Lom- 
bard of Company C, who had resigned from ill health, and 
Charley Ewer of Company D, who had been discharged in con 
sequence of se\ere wounds received at Whitehall, came on board 
of the vessel, and we were as glad to meet tliem as they were 
to meet us. On the wharf were many of the friends we had left 
behind nine months before, and pleasant the greetings and many 
the questions asked and answered. Messrs. Whall and Dyer, who 
had sons in Company E, and who probably had been informed 
from some source that almost any change of diet' from that of 
" salt horse and hard-tack " would be agreeable, furnished a nice 
collation, which it is needless to say the boys appreciated. Some 

1 The committee of nrrangemcnts consisted of Messrs, J. M- Ciimston, J. C. Dur- 
rage, J. G. Lombard, \V. H, Odiorne, .ind W. H. Baldwin. Colonel Francis Hoyd 
was chief m.irsli-al. .\nother authority gives General Tyler as chairman. 

1o t 


lecci'.ed brief finloughs ; and one squad, on invitation of the father 
of Coi[)orai Gardner of Company D, who felt as keen and warm 
an interest in the regiment as if all the members had been his 
children, partook of a sumptuous breakfast at Parker's. 

Our escort reached the wharf shortly after lo A. >r. Major J. 
Putnam Bradlee was in command. The New England Guard 
Reserve turned out with 93 guns; the ]Massachusetts Rifle Club, 
Cajitain Moore, 114 guns; the Battalion of National Guards, 
I\Iaior C. VV. Stevens, 102 guns ; and the Roxbury Reserve Guard, 
Capt;.in Wyman, 80 guns. Gilmore's and the Brigade bands fur- 
nished music. Our regiment fell in and formed promptly, the usual 
salutes were exchanged, and in charge of our escort we started for 
Boston Common. The number of spectators on State Street was 
immense ; we had intended to march up that street company front, 
but the crowd was so dense that we had to form by column of 
platorjiis, and even then, in spite of the efforts of the guides, it 
\'-as impossible to keep a perfect alignment. The. right guide of 
the second platoon of Company D we know had actually to 
fight his way through, and probably most of the other guides 
had a similar experience. Old Dan Simpson and Si Smith, the 
veteran drummer and tlfer of the Guards, marched at the head 
of cokimn, and our band received many encomiums from the 

On reaching the Common, the regiment wheeled by company 
into line, the right resting on the Beacon Street Mall, when Mayor 
Lincoln, accompanied by Colonel Kurtz, Chief of Police,^ chair- 
man of the committee of arrangements, took position in front, 
and in behalf of the city of Boston welcomed the regiment home. 
In c<3iicluding his remarks he returned thanks to Colonel Sisson 
and the Fifth Rhode Island for their gallant action in running the 
blockade at Washington. Colonel Lee responded, the regiment 
wheeled into column of companies, stacked arms, and broke ranks. 
During the speaking the boys had been wistfully eying their " sis- 
ters and their cousins and their aunts," as well as many others of 
the gentler sex who were not related by such ties of consanguin- 
ity; although some of them frankly acknowledged afterward that 
their thoughts had been directed to a row of ten tables — one 

' Another autliority says "accompanied by General Tyler." 


opposite each company — in the rear of the ladies. As soon as 
the order to break ranks was given tlie greetings indulged in 
on the wharf were repeated on a larger and more demonstrative 
scale. We were the " heroes of the day," and probably there 
was not a member of the regiment who did not enjoy the distinc- 
tion. It is said that the collation was choice and bountiful, — it 
must have been, as it was provided by J. B. Smith, — but the 
writer has thus far been unable to find even one man who could 
speak from experience. Each acknowledges that he got a mouth- 
ful or so, but claims that he was so busy in shaking hands with 
this one, answering earnest questions from that, replying to sin- 
cere congratulations of the other, that he found no time to inspect 
the tables or sample carefully what they bore. 

After an hour or so the regiment was called to attention and 
then furloughed to the following Monday, June 15, at sunset; at 
which time the members were ordered to report at the old camp 
ar Readville. 

The day following our arrival home. Colonel Lee received a 
letter from Lieutenant-Colonel A. G. Browne, Jr., the military 
secretary of Governor Andrew, w-ritten in obedience to a request 
from the Governor (who at that time was in New York City), 
that the Forty-fourth be given an official welcome. He quotes 
from Governor Andrew's letter of instructions : " I beg that you 
will cause a proper expression to be officially made to Colonel 
Frank Lee and the Forty-fourth Massachusetts, announced by 
telegraph this morning to be now in Boston Harbor, of my in- 
terest in this fine and most exemplary corps and its commander. 
It will meet a splendid popular reception." In Colonel Browne's 
letter he refers to the fact that General Foster requests our arms 
and equipments to be returned at the earliest possible moment, 
so they could be used in arming General Wilde's brigade of 
colored troops which he was then recruiting in North Carolina. 

Company B was the only distinctivel}' local company in the 
regiment, all its members, with but two or three exceptions, 
having enlisted from Newton. Shortly after the muster out of 
the regiment the citizens of that town ga\e Company 15 a recep- 
tion at Newton Corner. The stores were closed and the schools 
dismissed. William O. Fdmands was chief marshal and Hon. J. 


Wiley Edmands presided. Several approijriate spe-'cln s were 
made, and the exercises concluded with a banquet in Elliot 

On June 15, pursuant to orders, the regiment as-cinbicd at 
Readville. Much to our disappointment \\c were nut pciniittcd 
to occupy our old barracks, as they were in posscssii'ii .jf the 
Fifty-fifth, but were quartered on the other side of the roa 1. far- 
ther east, where the Forty-third and Forty-fifth had been located 
during our first residence in that town. , On the i6t!i wc went 
into Boston and performed escort duty for the Third R-egiment, 
which had performed like dut}" for us on our departure fi oai New 

The morning after we reached camp, Special Order Xd. 71 was 
received, as follows : — 

Headquarters, Camp Meigs, 

Re.\dville, June 15, 1S63. 
Special Order IVb. 71. 

Copy of General Order No. 17 from these headquarters i; I.erewith 
transmitted to Colonel P. L. Lee, commanding Forty-fourth ^la-sachu- 
setts, who will govern himself accordingly. 

R. A. Peirce, I)risad:cr-Gau-ral. 

The order to which this referred was the fcillowing: — 

Headquart£ks, Camp Mi.:!;->, 

Readville, Jane 10, 1S63. 
General Order A'o. 17. 

On and after June 10 the following will be the daily duty throuL,hout the 
entire camp : — 

1. Reveille. Roll-call 5 a. m. 

2. First sergeant's call. Report to adjutant. . 5.30 a. la. 

3. Breakfast 6.30 a. m. 

4. Surgeon's call 7.30 a. tn. 

5. Guard-mounting 8 a. m. 

6. Drills 9 to 12 n. m. 

7. Dinner 12 m. 

8. First sergeant's call. Report to adjutant . . i p- m. 

9. Drills 1.30 to 4 p. m. 

10. Dress parade 5 P- ro- 
il. Supper 6 p. m. 

12. Retreat and roll-call Siuiset. 

13. Tattoo 8.30 p. ni. 

14. Taps 9 p. m. 



Regimental adjutants will make their returns to these headquarters at 
7.30 A. M. each (lay. There will be three stated roll-calls daily, attended 
by at least one commissioned officer to each company ; namely, at reveille, 
retreat, and tattoo. Lights will be extinguished at taps in the quarters of 
enlisted men. Length of drills at the discretion of the different com- 
manders.^ One copy of this order will be placed in each barrack. 
By command of 

R. .A.. Peirce, Brigadier-General. 
Lieutenant H. Holt, Post Adjutant. 

The men, who had naturally been talking over the matter of 
their muster out, generally understood that their term of service 
having expired, the only duties that could be demanded of them, 
as they were not in the presence of an enemy, — when, of course, 
none would have thought for an instant of taking advantage of 
any technicality, — were that of policing and guarding the camp. 
We were proud of our proficiency in drill, we were most anxious 
to be given an opportunity to show the results of our nine months' 
experience and instruction, and we had all indulged in pleasant 
dreams of the astonishment we would create by our steadiness in 
the Manual and battalion movements when given an opportunity 
for an hour or t\vo each afternoon to exhibit on the plains of 
Readville. But when we found that the above order was to be 
enforced literally, that we were expected to attend " squad drill," 
and w-ere to be treated in all respects like " raw recruits," we 
were very indignant; but the discipline to which we had been 
subjected for the previous nine months was not without its effect 
and the opposition was passive rather than active. Our officers 
were no more in sympathy with this order than the men, but 
their position made them more circumspect in expressing it. 
We may have done the commandant of the camp injustice, but 
he was not popular with the regiment when we were here the 
previous fall, — a fact which he himself fully recognized at the 
time; and now that we were enduring the restlessness engen- 
dered by the nearness of our muster out, the an.xicty to be again 

1 No copy of the order as actually posted in the barracks has been found ; but 
according to the recollection of all who have been consulted, this sentence, owing 
probably to an omission in copying, was not contained in tlie order as it reached us, 
and the first drills were speciried as "squad." The order having caused some dis- 
cussion at the time and since, is here given in full. 


free from t!ic restraints of army rule, and the natural reaction 
from the strict discipline under which we had been kept, we 
were probabl}' incapable of judging calmly or dispassionately. 
Colonel Lee was absent from camp at the time the order was 
posted. On his return he had the obno.xious features modified. 

Thursday, June i8, we were mustered out of the service of the 
United States. 





'N January, 1884, Colonel C. 
G. Attwood, formerly of 
the Twenty-fifth Massachu- 
' f'' f V setts, issued a circular in- 

viting all who had served 
in North Carolina to join 
a party on a trip to the old 
^ ' n North State. Like many 

I others, I had always in- 
^T I i') tended to revisit the places 

' Ij.^ '■^ ' ' connected with the histor>' 

of the Forty-fourth, and at 
this time the first opportunity was presented. Comrade Charles 
J. Mclntire, of Company G, and I decided to join ; but when we 
called on Colonel Attwood we were informed that owing to vari- 
ous causes the proposed expedition had been abandoned. We 
had talked about the trip so much that it was a great disappoint- 
ment, and as it would be very inconvenient for us to be away in 
March, — the time named in Colonel Attwood's circular, — we 
decided to wait until the fall and go, with or without others. In 
August, after consulting with Colonel Attwood, eight hundred 
circulars were issued in his name, reviving the project suggested 
the January previous. A few favorable answers were received, 
but an equal number of resignations followed, and the party was 
finally composed of Mclntire and myself. 

I left home Tuesday evening, Sept. 30, 18S4, with feelings hard 
to describe. It seemed almost as though I was again " going to 
war." The old barracks, the river, camps, troops, drilling, and 




l''.:e n:it 


were in my 

mind. I 



iit\- of soldiers n;oving 

with c;i 


jn, \var vessels in the 

that I X-,- 


to travel about without 

L.l railw 


cars, or ride 

over the 


various scenes of a uiii^!'; 

could not picture New W 

about, the old forts hi: 

river. I could hardly .e. 

a " pass," unmolested, in 

country roads instead of marching. However, I was on my 

way to the ne\er-to-be-ii. rf^./L'oii place-, and must expect great 


For many years I had hud a strong desire to visit Gettysburg. 
I started a little in advance of Comrade Alclntire, whom I was to 
join at Baltimore. Havinp; had quite an experience in photog- 
raphy (as an amateur j, I decided to take my camera and a 
supply of dry plates, so as to secure view.: of the most interest- 
ing points; and in this sketch of the trip the number enclosed in 
parentheses following the mention of any place indicates that I 
succeeded in getting a picture of that locality, and is the number 
of the negative. 

Space will not permit giving an account of the Gettysburg 
visit. It will be sufficient in say that I mode some most pleasant 
acquaintances, who were cn;.;ngcd in and thoroughly familiar 
with the action of the battle, and I felt well repaid for the time 

On Friday morning, October 3, I boarded the south-bound 
train at Baltimore, where I joined Mclntire. Passing through 
Washington, Fredericksburg, Petersburg, and Weldon, we reached 
Goldsboro' at 7.30 P. M. Selecting the nearest hotel, we told the 
landlord the object of our vi-:t, expressing a desire to meet some 
of our late opponents. lb? .-:oon found some, with whom we 
passed a very pleasant evening. 

Having arranged to send our baggage to New Berne by train, 
on Saturday morning we tn.jl: a carriage and drove to the Golds- 
boro' battlefield. To our si;rprise it was nearly five miles from 
the village. As we approached the field (568) by a different 
road from tlie one \vc had followed twenty-two years before, it 
was difficult to locate tlie various points. The railroad bridge 
was unmistakable ; but we at last concluded that the trees had 
grown so that now we coiiki wA see the bridge from the memo- 
rable turnip-field in which we had rested Dec. 17, 1S62. Time 


was precious; as one view of the field was sufficient, we were 
soon in motion for Whitehall. 

Our driver professed to know the route, but by noon he ac- 
knowledged he had not been over it for many \ears and had 
lost his way. We were disappointed, as we had hoped to ride 
over the same road that we marched o\"er in 1862. Stopping at 
a farm-house for directions, the woman replied in the familiar 
North Carolina phraseology, " II '3 a right smart distance fur- 
ther this wa}', but I 've beared my husband say this road is a heap 
better than the other; " and so we kept on. About 2 p. M. we 
turned into the main street (574) of Whitehall,^ at the point 
where Newcomb and Siocum, of Company A, were killed, Dec. 
16, 1862. 

Driving immediately to the Seawell House and ordering lun- 
cheon, we proceeded to view the position occupied by the Forty- 
fourth at the time of the action. Fortunately we found a Mr. 
Whitfield, who owned most of the land about there and was a 
resident of the place during the war. We found the little burial- 
lot (570) on the river-bank near Company G's position. We 
were shown the places where many of the killed had been buried, 
and were told that since the war all the bodies had been re- 
moved, — he supposed to the Federal Cemetery at New Berne, — 
with the exception of one whose name or regiment was unknown, 
and a house having been built over the soldier's last resting- 
place, the body could not be disinterred. Walking out on the 
bridge (569) we took a view of the bank opposite our position 
(572), and then of the spot where the Confederate gunboat was 
built (571). The place had changed greatly. The south bank 
is now thickly studded with young trees, so that it is difficult to 
find a place from which the river can be seen. The half-dozen 
buildings which formed the town of Whitehall, and in 1862 were 
burned when we left, have been replaced by some twenty or 
thirty, among them a church, hotel, and saw-mill. About half 
a mile west of the main street is a hotel for summer guests near 
some springs which have been found to possess medicinal prop- 
erties. There are seven of them, and tlie name "Whitehall" has 

' The map shows Whitehall Bridge. The vilbge of Seven Springs, formerly 
Whiteh.Tll, or, as maps say, "Jericho," is on the south bank of the river. 


been discarded, the place now being known as " Seven Springs." 
The main street of tlie town extends to about where Ncwcomb 
and Slocnin were killed (573 ), which at the time of our first visit 
^^■ai an open lield. A gentleman pointed out a tree in his garden 
nnder which they had been buried. 

After iunciie<:>u we drove over the bridge on our way to La 
C range, where wc were to take the train for New Berne. Four 
miles an hour appears to be the ma.xinuim rate of driving in 
North Carolina, and it was 5.30 P. ^[. when we stepped on the 
platform of the raihva\- station at that place. 

At half-past six the train from Goldsboro' arrived, and glad 
enough we were to get on board. We frankly stated to those we 
met the object of our trip, and the greatest cordiality was shown 
us. On this train we had the pleasure of meeting Captain Car- 
roway. He had been in the Confederate cava!r\', and while the 
Fort3'-fourth was in the department, commanded the pickets on 
the north side of the Xeusc, with headquarters at or near Street's 
Ferry. Mclntire remembered, when detailed on a flag-of-truce 
boat to carr}' some refugees up the ri\'cr, ha\ing seen him near 
that place. Captain Carroway stated that for a long time he 
belonged to the " unreconciled," but at last realized that it was no 
use "kicking against the pricks." \ow, he saj-s, he can see that 
the war had its good results ; that the people of both sections are 
becoming better acquainted, are disco\-ering good points in each 
other that they knew not of before, and that tiieir minds are being 
gradually cleared of prejudices. For his part he "was right glad 
to see us." He got off at Kinslon, expressing a wish that he 
might be able to be of scr\ice. 

At 9 P. M. the train stopped and the brakcman shouted "New 
Berne." We were as glad to reach our journey's end as we had 
been twent\'-two j'cars before, and we alighted at the same spot, 
opposite the railway round-house and machine-shop (606). We 
were not at all anxious to try that caravansary again. Dim memo- 
ries of the reputation of the Gaston House rose in our minds, — 
those old fair}' talcs of realms of bliss to which enlisted men were 
not admitted; of beds with sheets; of tables with white cloths 
and napkins. We decided to go there, regardless of the expos- 
tulations and praises bv another stage-driver of a rival hotel. 


Unlike, too, our original method of procccdinc:^, we rode from the 
station through Craven Street to our destination (579). It was 
like, yet unlike. No sentries parading up and down, no officers 
lounging on the piazza, none of that bustle we had known in 
1862 and 1 8*53. It was a beautiful moonlight night, and we could 
not resist the inclination to stroll about the town. Up Craven 
Street, by the house occupied by the colonel when the regiment 
was on provost duty (601); down Pollock Street, by the quar- 
ters of Company D (602, 603), and the old guard-house of Dis- 
trict No. I (60S). All were closed, no signs of life visible. 
Passing up Broad Street, we stopped in front of Company E's 
old quarters (604, 605). The front door was open and a young 
lady seated in the hall reading. Our escort was evidently well 
acquainted ; he called her out and introduced us. She was very 
agreeable, and said that her recollections of the war were very 
dim, as she was but a baby when it broke out. On being told 
that we proposed photographing the places with which we were 
familiar as soldiers, she kindly otifered to stand on the piazza ; 
but as we could not appoint an hour, she unfortunately was 
absent when we returned for that purpose. 

Sunday morning we started for a longer stroll, but the intense 
heat soon drove us back to cover. In the afternoon Mr. Street, 
to whom we had letters of introduction, took us to drive — out in 
view of the old camp-grounds of Stevenson's brigade ; to the 
National Cemetery (577, 588), where we looked up the recorded 
burials of the Forty-fourth men (578, 5S7) and visited their 

The National Cemeter\' is located on the westerly side of the 
field on which we used to have our brigade and battalion drills, 
on the left of the wagon-road which, passing Fort Rowan (or 
Star Fort), runs in a northwesterly direction till it crosses the 
swamp near where Fort Stevenson was located. The grounds are 
about eight acres in e.xtent, surrounded by a substantial brick 
wall. On entering, the first object to attract attention is the 
keeper's lodge, a one-stor)- and French-roof cottage, built of 
North Carolina marl. Opposite the house maple-trees have been 
set out in such a way that wlien fully grown there will be an en- 
closure in the shape of a cross, roofed by the arching of the 

228 rORTV-Fi_)l,-in(I MA-'-ACin'sETTS INFANTRY. 

limbs. It is knowr. as Sylvan Jl.iii. Trees in ever)- variety tiiat 
will floiirisii in the locality are ^:;',ticred through the enclosure 
in profusion, togctir:T with tl>->\-.:ri.'L.- shrubs. Every grave is 
marked with a marble headstone cn;^n-aved with the name of the 
soldier, if known; in nianycase". VLlriLix-es have erected handsome 
monuments. By em idling the ;;;rfnind with soil from the swamp, 
a beautiful turf has been sccuntd, v. liich is green when all grass out- 
side is dry and parchc'J by the shimmer heat; and the whole effect 
is such that a visitor, on cnterir.r,. can easily imagine that he is in 
a Northern cemetery. The frie.if'j of diose buried there can feel 
assured that the last rc^ting-plJ. -o of their lo\-ed ones is as well 
cared for and as bcaiUiful as any l>i.:t the most expensive of our 
own " cities of the dead." The ?vat:onaI Government has pro- 
vided that in these re-j-ects its deiJ heroes shall be perpetually 

One woman onl}- is buried iiere. In 1864, learning that her , 
betrothed, Charles V. Collcdge, private in the Twenty-fifth Mas- 
sachusetts, had been stricken with yellow fever, Carrie E. Cutter 
went to New Berne to nurse hini. lie died, and she, heart-broken, 
fell an easy prey to the same disease. Her last wish has been 
gratified in allowing her remains to forever rest beside those of 
him she loved so wlII. 

Returning, we saw the mouiuls of earth representing Forts 
RoW'an (5S1) and Toiten (58J, v>3). On Monday we went again 
to these places and photograpI\cd tlicni. 

By advice of many who learned wc were to visit "Little" 
Washington, we engaged a carryall, driver, and pair of horses. 
and left New Berne at 4.30 P.M. i\l the end of an hour we had 
gone three miles, and it was alter se\X!i when we reached Street's 
Ferry, only ten miles from New Berne. At 2.30 A. M., Tuesday, 
October 7, we dro\-e into Washington. After disturbing the 
peaceful sleep of scxi-ral citi;cens, wc found a boarding-house 
kept by I\rr. Adam^, where we secured accommodations. 

In the morning we engaged the scr\'ices of one Joe Chauncey 
to drive us to Rawle's .Mills. Some se\-en or eight miles out we 
came to the first swaaip (305), though not the last, of u'hich we 
ascertained the depth while aceonip;inying General Foster in his 
North Carolina exiic'liiions. .\ two-months drought had had its 


effect, and we might have walked through without having the 
water come over our shoes. Wishing to reach Rawle's Mills 
before it was too late to photograph, we hurried on. We came 
to a sharp bend on the left, a small house on the right, open 
fields on both sides, and in front a ford between steep banks. 
We thought we had reached the location of our first action. 
After photographing it (596) we sought for the graves of our 
men, but could find no trace of any. Returning to the house 
and consulting an old lady who well remembered " Foster's raid," 
we learned that we were mistaken regarding this place being 
Rawle's Mills. We drove on some two miles, when we reached 
a saw-mill owned by a Mr. Lilly, with whom our driver was ac- 
quainted. Mr. Lilly said the place ue were seeking was about 
a quarter of a mile beyond the bend. He was not on the ground 
at the time of the fight, but knew all about it, and told us where 
some of our men had been buried, including one named Rollins. 
Their graves were originally under some trees which have been 
felled since the war, and the ground is now a cornfield. We 
drove to Rawle's Mills (585). The deepest part of the stream 
is now spanned by a substantial wagon-bridge. The course of 
the road has been somewhat changed, that part in which we 
were standing when ambushed being overgrown with bushes. 
The old breastworks have been levelled, but the field in which 
we bivouacked (584) is still cultivated. We then returned to 

On Wednesday morning we began our inspection of Washing- 
ton. We met a Colonel Carrow who ottered to guide us, and 
found the accounts of his war experience ver\' entertaining. We 
first went to Fort Washington (584), and then to the Grice place 
(590). The colonel's son had married one of the Misses Grice, 
and on invitation we entered the house, where we passed a most 
delightful half-hour with the family. Leaving the place, we 
paused to take a parting shot (591) and then went to the bridge. 
A Mr. Winfield, whom we fortunately encountered, gave us much 
valuable information. It appears that what our bo\-5 took to be 
a bend in the road near where Companies A and G were ambus- 
caded March 30, 1863, was a breastwork formed by felling a 
cypress-tree si.x feet in diameter across the road. Part of the 


trunk still lays there slowly rottiiiL,' (594)- Mr. Winfield claims to 
have assisted in removing three men, one of whom was wounded 
in the breast (Sergeant Hobart), one in the t) e (John Leonard), 
and another in the neck (T.J. Lawrence), to his mother-in-law's 
house, where the\- were nursed until able to stand removal to a 
hospital in the interior. 

About 4 P. M. we started on our return to New Berne. When 
nearly across the bridge we slopped, and adjusting the camera 
took views of the bridge (6oo), the town above (579), and the 
town below (59S; ; also the river, including Castle Island and 
Rodman's Point (593). Another ten-hours ride, broken onl\' by 
a short halt at Vanceboro', and we were again at the Gaston 
House, tired and sleepy. 

Thursday was comfortably cool, and we spent the day in roam- 
ing about the town, taking views and recalling old memories. 

On Friday morning we took the train for Kinston, reaching 
there about 11 A.M. We inspected the station (614, 621) and 
the fields beyond ; then drove to the scene of the battle. We 
first went to the field in which the right wing formed on that 
memorable Sunday morning. As one experience of passing 
through the swamp was enough for a lifetime, we returned by 
the road which our left wing had taken (616). The little church 
on the farther side of the swamp was burned several years ago, 
and the field is now so overgrown with trees that not a glimpse 
of the bridge or the town beyond could be had. The old house 
(619), used as a hospital, was there, its front still showing where 
it had been struck with bullets. The owner was just beginning 
to repair. On visiting the bridge (617) we looked over the side 
to see where the man in gra)- uniform had lain the Sunday we 
crossed it in December, 1S62. The channel of the river is now 
deep and the current strong. A view down the river (618) shows 
the jetties recently built by the United States Government to im- 
prove navigation. After our-battle the Confederates built strong 
and elaborate works to protect the bridge against another attack. 
We found them in the same dilapidated state as were similar field- 
works erected during the war. The only places that looked at 
all natural were the hospital and the bridge, the latter being a 
duplicate of the one burned by our forces when we recrossed the 


river. Its days are numbered, as the material of an iron bridge 
whicli is to take its place was being unloaded from tlic cars wliilc 
we were in Kinston. We loft that evening, reaching Goldsboro' 
about midnight. We can say with much more certainty than we 
could have said on former occasions, " The object of the expedi- 
tion has been accomplished." 

On our way home we visited Richmond, sailed down the James 
River, passing Fort DarHng, Malvern Hill, Harrison's Landing, 
Bermuda Hundred, City Point, and other places of historical 
interest, to Norfolk, whence we took steamer for Boston, reaching 
home Friday night, after an absence of eighteen days. The 
North Carolina part of the trip might be accomplished in ten 
days by using the railroad only. 

The visit was exceedingly interesting. Those who had been 
in the Southern army were particularly cordial, and anxious to 
do all they could to make our trip agreeable. All were hospita- 
ble, and hoped that more of the boys who wore the blue in North 
Carolina would pay them a visit. 

On our return from North Carolina I obtained all the informa- 
tion possible from those who A\ere present at the burial of com- 
rades Morse and Rollins, near Rawle's Mills, Nov. 2, 1862. This 
I sent to the superintendent of the National Cemetery at New 
Berne, with a request that the remains of these men might be 
removed to that place. Sometime afterwards I received the 
letter of which a copy is gi\-en below, showing that the removal 
had been accomplished: — 

United States National Cemetery, OfFtcE of SurERiNTENDExr, 
New Berne, N. C, May -2, 1SS5. 

Mr. \V.\I. G. Reed, S,r. 44//; .Uass. I'ols. Assoc, 24 Fx Pi., Boston, Afass. 
Sir, — In compliance with your request, you are informed that the 
bodies of the three United States soldiers at Rawle's ^Nlills, North Carolina, 
have been disinterred, brought to this cemetery, and reinterred. They 
were in fair preser\ation, and each readily recognized from your descrip- 
tion. Their numbers are as follows : Charles Morse. Company E, Forty- 
fourth Massachusetts, grave No. 3256 ; Charles E. Rollins, Company C, 

Forty-fourth Massachusetts, grave No. 3257 ; King, Marine .\rtillery, 

grave No. 325S. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servnnt. 

Ei>. TAUBE.xsfixK, Superintendent. 


Aside from the pleasure dcriv.-d from again seeing those 
places so prominent in our ri'-in.iries of ami)- life, tliere is a 
peculiar gratification in havin'^ b .< ii the mea.ns of securing the 
removal of the remains of thu-^ inllen comrades from neglected 
graves to the beautiful resting, n'dcc: provided b}- the United 
States Government. 



'HE medical and surgical care of a thou- 
sand men under the exceptional cir- 
cumstances of army life is no trifling 
matter. If the history of a regiment 
is not written in blood, the unusual 
conditions of camp and field entail no 
small amount of risk, suffering, and 
death upon its members, and of labor 
and responsibility on its medical staff. 
These results are largely increased by 
the youth and inexperience of the 
men who compose a regiment. The 
Forty-fourth was made up in large 
part of boys accustomed to all the luxuries of city and suburban 
life. The average age was about twenty-two years; the average 
height, five feet eight inches ; and the average weight, one hun- 
dred and thirty-seven pounds. 

The preliminary encampment at Readville was, for a time, a 
sort of picnic, at which daily drill was relieved by moonlight 
promenades to the strains of the Boston Brass Band. The daily 
routine was enlivened by the stirring notes of Dan Simpson's 
drum and Si Smith's fife. The severity of commissary diet was 
tempered by an abundant overflow from home tables. Nothing 
was too good for the " flower of the youth of Boston," and these 
" pets of many a household " for a time, like Dives, fared sump- 
tuously every day. Contractors' shoddy was rejected for custom- 
made uniforms, fancy bouts took the place of army shoes, and 
Short's knapsacks were provided by the generosity of the busi- 
ness men of Boston. 


Meanwhile the surL;coiis were ocluj'icJ with prrj^arations for 
the sterner duties of tlie campaign ;ii prospcci.. i'he cheery 
notes of the surgeon's call fir the fiisl time resounded through 
the camp. As it soon became a fa\-oi it'- air for all S'jrts of im- 
provised words, descriptive of the diitj^e most prewucnt at the 
time, it is reproduced here. 

The pcrsoinul of the surgical staff and hospital ofr.ccrs was as 
follows ; namely : — 

Surgeon Dr. RoNcrt ^\'are. 

Assistant-Surgeon . . Dr. Ti;evx!'>ie \A'. Fisher. 

Hospital Steward . . William ;,'. Drigham. 

Wardmaster .... James P.. Breivster, Co. D. 

Hospital Cook . . . Seth J. Hob'os, Co. G. 

Nurse Noah W. Brooks, Co. C. 

" Thoma=. J. Ijaniaby, Co. G. 

This list was subsequently increased, according to th.e hospital 
muster-roll of Feb. 2S, 1S63, as follows: — 

Clerk Henry \V. Lirtlcfield. Co. D. 

Assiitant-Cook . . . H. Clay Cross, Co. E. 

■ Nurse Joseph F. Dean, Co. F. 

.Andrew II. Curry, Co. H. 

" Harrison I'arker, 2d, Co. H. 

Benjamin F. Bates, Co. 1. 

" Charles IT. Roberts, Co. E. 

" George 11. Ray, Co. C. 

" Cummiiigs 1). \Vhitcomb, Co. C. .,, 

" 'William A. Smallidge, Co. C. 

" John 11. IVarre. Co. E. 

Dr. Ware was a graduate of Harxard, of the class of 1S52, 
and of the Medical College, class of 1856, and was a- son of one 
of its most distinguished professors. Dr. John Ware. He had 
had some experience as a surgeon of tlic .Sanitary Commission 
on board a hospital steamship in the Peninsular Campaign, 
and was in ever>- way well qualified f u- his place. Dr. Fisher, 
after a business and academic education, graduated at Harvard 



Medical College in the class of 1861, and had had two years' 
experience in hospital service at the Boston Lunatic Hospital 
and as Resident Physician to the city institutions in Boston 
Harbor. He applied for a surgeoncy in a three years' regiment, 
but had not practised the requisite number of years. 

It was soon found by the surgeons that, in consequence of the 
great pressure for admission to this regiment, some physically 
unfit men had been passed by the examining physicians of the 
cities and towns. Deception as to age had been practised to 
some extent, and boys under eighteen, puny and undeveloped, 
had been passed, through their own urgency to enlist. This 
necessitated a re-examination of every man by the regimental 
surgeons. This duty was thoroughly performed at Readville, 
every member of the regiment being stripped, inspected, and 
tested in various ways. Confession of weakness or disability 
could only be extorted after actual discovery. As an example 
of this pressure, a squad of young men from W'alpole refused to 
enlist unless one of their number, named Hartshorne, whose foot 
had been partially disabled, was passed. Richard V. De Peyster, 
of Framingham, of good family and in good circumstances, being 
rejected for near-sightedness, insisted on going in some capacity, 
if only as company cook. He was passed and assigned for duty 
in the stretcher corps, and at Rawle's Mill was wounded in the 
thigh and lost an arm while carrying his stretcher. Necessarily 
many slender youths were admitted ; but they were believed to 
be sound, and proved better able to hold out on long marches 
than some older and heavier men, even of the veteran regiments. 

The regiment was also re-vaccinated in all cases requiring it. 
Hospital stores and extra medical supplies were secured from 
governmental and private sources. Welcome addition to the 
hospital fund was made by friends of the regiment. Our stock 
of Government whiskey and sp. vin. Gall, was supplemented by 
Hungarian wine, cherry cordial, arrack, tinto Madeira of 1816, 
and old port which had mellowed in the cellars of the Emperor 
of Brazil ! Let this be no reflection on the regiment or its offi- 
cers, for it was professedly and actually a temperate regiment. 
When it became necessary to issue whiskey and quinine rations 
as a prophylactic against malaria, alcohol, water, and cayenne 

'f r-.Oc fJG 

^,f a ; .( iJiii. 


pepper were substituted for \vhiske\- by the surgeons, and no 
soldier is known to have acquired a dangerous hankering for 
this mixture. 

The hospital was indebted for lu.xurics and delicacies for the 
sick to the Warren Street Society and Fifth Universalist Society, 
of Boston, the Channing Circle at Newton, and the Soldiers' Aid 
Society of Waltham. Also to William H. Ireland, Esq., Dr. C. H. 
Allen, and numerous young ladies of Boston, of whose names I 
find the following on record : Misses Lizzie G. Cumston, Sadie K. 
Galloupe, Mary L. Dexter, Nellie E. Lovett, Carrie B. Streeter, 
Julia Streeter, and Louisa Prcscott. May they find perennial 
youth in these pages! The barrack assigned for hospital pur- 
poses had a room for use at surgeon's call in front, and a ward 
with ten beds in the rear. But little sickness prevailed at Read- 
ville, however, except a mysterious complaint during the first 
week, attributed by the boys to senna put in the coftee by 
medical order! 

The nurses were daily instructed in the art of bandaging and 
dressing wounds. A stretcher corps was organized, composed 
of specially detailed men selected from each company, to which 
was added the drum-and-fife corps, and to which afterwards the 
band belonged, ex officio, according to army regulations. This 
corps was furnished with stretchers devised by Assistant-Surgeon 
Fisher, 6nd put in charge of Chaplain Hall, who afterwards gal- 
lantly led it in every engagement. It was drilled in carrying 
stretchers over rough ground, fences, and walls, breaking step to 
prevent swinging. The men were also taught how to make and 
apply tourniquets and compresses. After the regiment was mus- 
tered in, the soldiers were more nearly restricted to Government 
rations. The Sunday inspections grew more rigorous, and the 
extra dainties, such as cake, pickles, preserves, canned goods, 
etc., were excluded from the bunks and barracks by order of 
Surgeon Ware, who thereby got the not uncomplimentary 
sobriquet of " Old Sanitary." 

The regiment having been well prepared for ser\nce by con- 
stant drilling and occasional marches, sailed for New Berne, N. C, 
October 22, on the " Mcrrimac," in compan\- with the right wing 
of the Third Massachusetts Regiment. The hold and bunks had 


been pre\'iousl}- cleaned nnd whitewasheti b}' order of Surgeon 
Ware ; but the men suffered much from overcrowcHng, bad 
ventilation, sea-sickness, and inadequate provisions for cooking 
for so many men. Had the weatlier been rough, serious conse-; 
quences might have resulted to heahh. Some colds were con- 
tracted by the wet ride in open cars from Beaufort to New 
Berne, and rheumatism made its first call on us. 

The day after arrival was spent by the surgeons in securing 
quarters for a hospital. A house on Craven Street was selected 
and furnished \\ith twenty-fi\e or thirty beds. Here the sick and 
wounded were afterwards made very comfortable, thanks to our 
ample fund and stores. That nothing might be wanting, two 
stray cows by some fortunate chance found their way into the 
back yard, and, fed on Government haj-, gave milk for the sick 
until restored to their reputed owners by an order from Provost- 
Marshal Messenger. 

The Tarboro' expedition occurred immediately on the ar- 
rival of the regiment; and the men, not being fairly acclimated, 
were put to a severe test in many ways. It lasted a fortnight, 
and included a skirmish and a march of one hundred and 
twenty-five miles in seven days. The blankets were all left 
at "Little" Washington by general order, and the weather 
proved unusually cold for the season. Our ideal sunny South 
suffered rapid deterioration in the presence of ice and snow. 
The latter fell to the depth of several inches, and the stiff cold 
mud and constant fording of icy creeks shrunk the boys' 
custom-made boots and produced ugl\' ulcers and blisters on 
hundreds of feet. Strips of old linen and junks of mutton 
tallow, foraged on the wa\-, were served out night and morning, 
and wide army shoes commanded a premium. Many were 
forced to cut their boots off and walk in their stockings. Ice 
formed in the woods an inch and a half thick, and the water 
froze in our canteens on one or two nights as they lay on the 
ground beside us ; and \-et the heat at noon was sufficient, with 
the unaccustomed pressure of the accoutrements on the chest, 
to produce many heat-strokes. 

The surgeons were constanth' busy attending the sick and ex- 
hausted men, and gi\'ing passes to lame ones for the ambulances. 


These could not accommodate a tenth part of tlic stragglers, who 
were obh'ged to fall bcliind and make their slow and painful way 
into camp in the night. And yet ours was the liveliest regiment 
in the line, and held out, except for the sore feet, as well as the 
veteran regiment^. 'i"he boys enlivened the march with singing, 
which not only cheered their comrades but the whole line. There 
was also a deficiency of rations, and many an extra mile was 
covered in the search for provisions along the route. The first 
day a mule-team was confiscated (" ' convey,' the wise it call ") 
for the use of the hospital department, and loaded with supplies. 
This was driven immediately in the rear of the regiment, so 
that we did not depend on the distant ambulances. At Rawle's 
Mill, on Sunday evening, Nov. 2, 1862, the regiment was under 
fire for the first time. This engagement will be described else- 
where, and by referring to the list of killed and wounded its 
results will be seen. The first wounded were attended in a gro\c 
of pines just before coming to tlic creek (Chopper's) on the left 
of the road. De Peyster and others were taken into a Secesh 
cabin on the right. Here his arm was amputated by Surgeon 
Otis, senior at that time and place. One soldier was led out of 
the fight by two comrades in a frenzied condition, having been 
made temporarily delirious by the suddenness of the attack. The 
dead having been buried by Chaplain Hall, who had bravely led 
the stretcher corps into the creek, the wounded were placed in 
ambulances and sent forward in charge of the assistant-surgeon, 
who attended a mortally wounded Rebel in a little house on the 

At the end of the third day's march thirty di.^abled men were 
put on board a gunboat at Hamilton, which had accompanied us 
on the Tar River. On the fifth day forty more were so disposed 
of. On our return, these, with the wounded from the skirmish 
at Rawle's Mill, were sent back to Xew Berne on board the " North- 
erner" in charge of Assistant-Surgeon Fisher, getting aground 
five times on the way. The delay, with the heat, insufficient 
supplies, and a fearful stench from the horses on the forward 
deck and the suppurating wounds, caused great discomfort to 
the sick and wounded. 

On our return to Xew Berne the regimental hospital ser\'ice 

■.;': rio HJ.-r) y^ii 


was thoroughlv- organized b}- Surgeon Ware, strict orders for the 
daily routine being issued November 20. Assistant-Surgeon 
Fisher had ciiarge of tlie sick in quarters, of whom tlicrc were 
many suffering from diarrhoea, bronchitis, and rheumatism, con- 
tracted on the Tarboro' march. By reference to the Sick Re- 
port Summary it will be seen tliat the aggregate number for 
November was t,37> against 206 for October. The barracks, 
which were of such contracted dimensions as to give but one 
hundred and fifty cubic feet of air space to each man, were ven- 
tilated by openings at the ridge and sides, at the expense of the 
hospital fund. November 21 a detail of twenty-four men was 
made, selected by the surgeons from a list of twice that number, 
of an invalid guard, which was sent to garrison a block-house up 
the Trent River. These were mostl>- cases of rheumatism, her- 
nia, and varicose veins, brought on b)- lying on the wet ground 
and by continued .marching. 

The Goldsboro' e.xpedition set out December 1 1, and returned 
December 20. In nine days the regiment marched one hundred 
and fifty miles, bivouacking at night and participating in three 
engagements with the enemy. The weather was clear, with hot 
days and frosty nights. A less number fell out of the ranks 
and there were fewer sunstrokes than on the previous expedition. 
The men had their blankets this time, and were provided with 
the low, wide army shoes, thus escaping to a great extent the 
suffering from sore feet. There were similar creeks to cross, 
however, and the constant halting and unexpected starting of 
the column made marching difficult and wearisome. 

At Kinston, December 14, as the regiment formed in line of 
battle, the surgeons were directed by iMcdical-Director Snelling 
to station themselves in the edge of some woods and attend to 
the wounded indiscriminately as they were brought to the rear. 
This order was complied with for half an hour, when the work of 
dressing wounds and extracting balls was continued in a little 
house in the edge of the swamp where the regiment had gone in. 
In a short time another move was made to a large house full of 
wounded near the Kinston bridge, where work was in progress 
till after dark. Fortunately the regiment escaped without wounds, 
although under fire for some time in the swamp. 


At Whitehall the i ■■.anient went hiI.j line of battle on a hill 
behind Beltjer's battery. Two nv_n had just been killed by a 
shell, when Edwin S. I'lsiicr of Boston, a drummer-boy of Com- 
pany G, was wounded in the knee, a large flap of integument 
being torn off and left h.ui'^ing by ilu explosion of a shell. He 
was attended at once l-y Assistant-Surgeon Fisher, and during 
the painful and tediou.^ '.irocess of ititching the flap into place 
showed great coolne--; by calling fur a pencil with which to enter 
the occurrence in his diary. Meanwhile the regiment had moved 
forward to the extreme fr.jiit, and Surgeon Ware had collected a 
number of wounded behind a little cabin on the right flank. 
When rejoined by tlij ussistant-surgeon the regiment was under 
a hot fire from rebel ?1-,irp-shooters concealed in the tree-tops, 
and the rear of the lint: was anything but a pleasant place. 
Belger's battery, a few yards from hospital headquarters, was 
losing rapidly in hordes and men. Stout Captain Belger, with 
arms akimbo, ordered nv: guns loaded with grape and canister, 
and then shouted, " I'ire into the trees! Now, boys, stand by 
my battery!" A hospital attcnd;an, Joseph F. Dean, of Cam- 
bridge, Company F, w as hit about this time. It was feared the 
fire of the battery would draw an artillery fire on their frail 
shelter, so the dead and wounded were put on stretchers and 
carried to a grove in the rear, where the angry spit of bullets 
was less frequent. An attempt here to tie the subclavian artery 
was a failure, the pa'iicnt dying of hemorrhage from a deep 
wound in the axilla. George E. Xoyes, of West Roxbury, 
Company K, declined .surgical aid, sa\ing he was past help and 
others needed it more. Tie died the next day from a wound 
in the abdomen. 

As the firing slackenctl the dead were buried under direction 
of Chaplain Hall, and the wounded removed to a general ren- 
dezvous on the hill, tierc more surgical work was done, and 
Medical-Director Snelling ordered the assistant-surgeon to put 
the wounded in ambulances without distinction of regiment, al- 
though a detail of ambulances had been assigned to each regi- 
ment. This order was ^'.i^regarded, and all the wounded of the 
Forty-fourth able to br i.i.)\cd were sent on their waj- to Golds- 
boro'. As they passe'l al-ng the road parallel to the river the 


ambulances were fired on by lingerinfj Rebels across the river. 
Assistant-Surgeon Fisher, who was searching for wounded in the 
field near the bridge, was also fired at two hours or more after 
the fight was over. "He means you, Doc.!" said a soldier 
guarding a pile of knapsacks behind a chimney. Such incidents, 
as well as the flag-of-truce trick at Goldsboro', were somewhat 
characteristic of Rebel ideas of honor. 

Insensibility to pain was noticed in many cases as a conse- 
quence of the excitement of battle, as in the cases of Fisher and 
Noyes already mentioned. At Kinston also a bullet was being 
extracted with some difficulty from among the bones of the foot, 
when the soldier, being asked if it hurt, cried out: "Dig away, 
Doctor, and damn the pain ! We 've licked 'em ! " The con- 
trasting condition was seen at Whitehall, when a soldier who had 
accidentally or purposely shot off his right forefinger was bellow- 
ing like a calf under the process of dressing it, while from a room 
full of seriously wounded men around him not a groan was heard. 

At Goldsboro' the regiment went into line of battle in reserve 
just out of sight of the field of battle, which was in a fine, open 
country between the railroad and river. The surgeons rode for- 
ward, and learning that the objective point of the e.xpedition was 
in our hands, assisted for several hours at the hospital head- 
quarters in a large house overlooking the field. In the afternoon 
they rode down to the front,- where Belger's and Morrison's bat- 
teries, with a regiment in support, were slowly shelling the woods 
near the railroad bridge. A squad of cavalry occupied the right 
flank. Just at this moment a white flag was seen waving in the 
edge of the woods, and the cavalry galloped up to it to bring in 
the prisoners supposed to be in waiting, when they received a 
volley which sent them back in haste. The shelling was renewed 
for half an hour with more vigor, when from beyond the railroad 
embankment was heard a Rebel yell, shrill, like the screams of a 
multitude of women and children, and in a moment three regi- 
ments mounted the bank and charged directly on the batteries. 
The left one was seen to falter under the artillery fire and seek 
safety behind the railroad, while the other two regiments came 
bravely on. the grape and canister cutting great gaps in the 
ranks till they were compelled to withdraw with great loss. The 


supports coraiiv.; up alio showed the Rebels tlie hopelessness 
of tlieir attcn.pL After this charge Surgeon Ware remained 
awhile to as-^isi; at the general hospital, and Assistant-Surgeon 
Fisher rejoined the regiment, which went into line of battle 
across a road in (he woods. Here perfect silence was enjoined, 
and one poor fellow with a spasmodic cough was dosed with 
opium and hinried to the rear between two comrades, with his 
handkerchief stuft'ed into his mouth. Nothing came of all our 
precautions, the army took up its line of march through a 
burning forest towards New Berne. 

On our return he same crop of lung and intestinal diseases ap- 
peared as had followed our Tarboro' expedition, but they were 
less amenable to treatment. Bronchitis and diarrhoea were re- 
placed by pneumonia and dysentery. The total number under 
treatment for December was 331, and the daily average of sick 
and wounded in hospital and quarters was 85. Our losses on 
the Goldsboio' expedition may be learned from the tables ap- 
pended. Deccinher 25, the first case of a new and alarming dis- 
ease occurred ii'. our regiment, proving fatal in a few days. The 
epidemic, which followed and extended to other regiments, was 
entirely outside the experience of any of the surgeons in the 
department. The fever was at first regarded as a virulent type 
of malarial disease. The autopsy in the case of Henry G. Kim- 
ball, of Andover, Company G, who died Jan. i, 1863, made by 
the assistant-surgeon, showed the presence of inflammation in 
the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. The disease was 
afterwards recognized as cerebro-spinal meningitis, which is iden- 
tical with the disease once known as spotted fever, occurring as 
an epidemic in Massachusetts between the years 1807 and 1S16. 
The next death was that of John C. Pollitz, Boston, Company F, 
on January 7. Having been previously well, he came in from 
guard in the morning, was sent to the hospital, and died the same 
afternoon. This sudden fatality naturally produced much con- 
sternation in the regiment. Quinine rations were issued as a 
prophylactic measure, and Surgeon Ware was untiring in his 
efforts to determine the cause of the epidemic. 

In a letter to Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Muzzey, Medical 
Inspector United States Army, he describes the barracks as 


supports coiii;;v-; up also sliowcd the Rebels the hopelessness 
of their attcivnt. After this charge Surgeon Ware remained 
awliile to a.i^isi .it the general hospital, and Assistant-Surgeon 
Fisher rejoined tlie regiment, which went into line of battle 
across a road in I he woods. Here perfect silence was enjoined, 
and one poor fellaw with a spasmodic cough was dosed with 
opium and 'n'.:rr!i.d to the rear between two comrades, with his 
handkerchief ^tutted into his mouth. Nothing came of all our 
precautions, aud the army took up its line of march through a 
burning forest towards New Berne. 

On our return die same crop of lung and intestinal diseases ap- 
peared as had followed our Tarboro' expedition, but they were 
less amenable to treatment. Bronchitis and diarrhoea were re- 
placed by pneumonia and dysentery. The total number under 
treatment for December was 331, and the dail}- average of sick 
and wounded in hospital and quarters was 85. Our losses on 
the Goldsboio' expedition may be learned from the tables ap- 
pended. Deccniher 25, the first case of a new and alarming dis- 
ease occurred in our regiment, proving fatal in a few days. The 
epidemic, which followed and extended to other regiments, was 
entirely outside the experience of any of the surgeons in the 
department. The fever was at first regarded as a virulent type 
of malarial disease. The autopsy in the case of Henry G. Kim- 
ball, of Andover, Company G, who died Jan. i, 1863, made by 
the assistant-surgeon, showed the presence of inflammation in 
the membranes of the brain and spinal cord. The disease was 
afterwards recognized as cerebro-spinal meningitis, which is iden- 
tical with the disease once known as spotted fever, occurring as 
an epidemic in Massachusetts between the years 1 807 and 1S16. 
The next death was that of John C. Pollitz, Boston, Company F, 
on January 7. Having been previously well, he came in from 
guard in the morning, was sent to the hospital, and died the same 
afternoon. This sudden fatality naturally produced much con- 
sternation in the regiment. Quinine rations were issued as a 
prophylactic measure, and Surgeon Ware was untiring in his 
efforts to dotcrniine the cause of the epidemic. 

In a letter to Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Aluzzey, Medical 
Inspector United States Army, he describes the barracks as 

i - ■ ■■M'nh 


" placed so near the edc^c of a swamp tliat the space allotted for 
the sinks and pools of refuse is much too small for a permanent 
camp, and too near the barracks. The barracks are built of green 
pine, and the sills are laid directly on the ground. The buildings 
are placed end to end, those of each wing forming one side of a 
square, the retreating angle of which is directed towards the 
swamp." The dimensions of the barracks which he gives allow 
but one hundred and fifty cubic feet per man, or cue src'cnth of 
the air space which the British Army regulations require for per- 
manent -barracks. Surgeon Ware further states that up to Feb- 
ruary 20, nineteen cases of the fever had occurred, with twelve 
deaths. No new cases appeared after January 19, when the first 
hea\y rains fell. The epidemic was preceded by a long dry 
and warm spell of weather. The first symptoms in most cases 
were of intense cerebral congestion, followed by convulsions, 
rigidity of the muscles, and coma. There were usualh' head- 
ache, stupor, small, quick pulse, duskiness of the face, and 
sonietimes collapse in the first stage, followed by a noisy de- 
lirium, deafness, squinting, rigidity, and lastly a petechial or pur- 
puric eruption, t>-phoid symptoms, coma, and death. Dr. Ware 
thought the disease was probably both of typhous and malarial 

- February- i, in consequence of the epidemic, and the possible 
connection of the swamp and barracks with it, the regiment was 
sent to Plymouth. Assistant-Surgeon Fisher was detailed for 
service in the Foster General Hospital the last of January, much 
against his desire and the remonstrances of Colonel Lee and Sur- 
geon Ware. A promise was exacted that if the regiment took the 
field or moved he should go with it; and the Plymouth expe- 
dition having been ordered about this time, he was reluctantly 
allowed to go. The regiment remained in Plymouth ten days, 
quartered on board the " Northerner " at first, and afterwards in 
some empt\' warehouses without fire. The weather was verj' cold 
and the ground covered with snow. One mysterious night march 
of twenty-fi\-e miles was made with the usual mud, and ice-cold 
creeks to ford. Measles first appeared here, and the assistant 
surgeon was one of the first victims. L>'ing on the floor of a 
Southern house, with a Northern snow-storm raging at every 


crevice, very- sick with a disease one is ashamed not to have had 
in early hfe, is no joke, however it may appear to one's brother 
officers ! After our return, February lO, to New Berne the regi- 
ment suffered from measles and diphtheria. The cases were severe 
and in a few instances fatal. The assistant-surgeon was sent as a 
patient to the Stanley General Hospital, putting the whole burden 
of the regimental work upon Surgeon Ware. On February 20 
there were 44 sick in quarters and 66 in hospital, general and 
regimental, of which 30 were cases of measles. The daily aver- 
age in January was 72, in February, 6j. On his recovery the 
assistant-surgeon went on duty at the Foster General Hospital. 
He had under his charge one half of the patients, medical and sur- 
gical, officers and men, in the large building formerly used as a 
theatre and masonic hall, amounting to about 75 on an average. 
In the first storj' the stage and auditorium of the theatre made 
one large ward, the drop-scene being nailed up over the stage to 
form its ceiling. In the masonic hall overhead the sick and dying 
were cheered by the masonic emblems painted in the panels of 
the ceiling, a coffin being conspicuous in one corner ! The regi- 
mental hospital was removed for convenience from Craven Street 
to a hospital barrack at the camp the last of February. 

March 14, during the attack on our outposts across the Neuse 
River, shot and shell fell near the hospital and officers' quarters 
about breakfast-time. Shells for breakfast were a novelty. 
The sick and the horses having been removed, the cannon- 
ading was watched with less anxiety. March 15, the regiment or 
rather eight companies of it were sent by transport to " Little " 
Washington under medical charge of Surgeon Ware, leaving two 
companies, F and B, wliich were on picket duty at Batchelder's 
Creek, and tlie invalid guard at Brice's Creek in charge of the 
assistant-surgeon, who also continued his duties at the Foster Gen- 
eral Hospital. No amount of influence or persuasion which was 
brought to bear on the chief medical authorities sufficed to re- 
voke his detail or annul the above arrangement. As it afterwards 
proved, a disproportionate amount of work devolved on Surgeon 
Ware, which may have been influential in causing his sickness 
and untimely death. But this result was not and could not have 
been foreseen. As Surgeon Fisher took an affectionate leave of 


his senior on board the " Escort," neither for a moment imagined 
it was a final farewell. 

The details of the long siege and the consequent sufferings of 
the men are narrated elsewhere. The casualties were few, but the 
constant night alarms, heavy work by day on short rations, and 
the exposures and an.\icties of the siege entailed much unusual 
labor on Surgeon Ware, who was the senior medical officer of 
the garrison. The surgeon's-call book having been lost, the 
proportion, of sickness in this part of the regiment cannot be 
determined. No fatal disease prevailed, but cases of diarrhcea, 
dysentery, bronchitis, and tonsilitis were frequent. Surgeon 
Ware's duties also extended to the other regiments and to the 
large number of negroes engaged on the defences. The following 
newspaper item relates to one of Surgeon Ware's patients: — 

" I must tell you of one hero who saved a company of soldiers from 
certain death. .\ flat full of soldiers, with a few negroes, attempted to 
land at Rodman's Point, but were repulsed by a terrible fire of Rebel bul- 
lets, all tumbling into the boat and lying flat to escape being shot. Mean- 
while the boat stuck fast on the shore, when this noble African said : 
' Somebody 's got to die to git us out of dis, and it may as well be roe ! ' 
He then deliberately got out and pushed the boat ofi", and fell into it, 
pierced by five bullets. Dr. Ware afterwards amputated a leg and resected 
a part of one bone in the arm ; but the man of course died." 

Surgeon Ware was attacked with double pneumonia of a 
typhoidal type about April 5, and died April 10, four days before 
the raising of the siege. He had been seized with a dangerous 
attack of syncope during our former visit to " Little " Washington 
in November, of which he made light, but which probably in- 
dicated cardiac debility not favorable to a long life. He was 
afterwards apparently as vigorous as ever, and his death was a 
surprise and shock to all. His unsparing activity and zeal in 
the performance of his official duties made his death seem more 
untimely. He had become endeared to the men of the regi- 
ment, who had learned his real worth and his kindness of heart, 
and his death was the saddest event of the sad and gloomy 
weeks of the siege. His brother officers of the field and staft 
had early learned to love him as a brother. He was, in fact, 
the connection, friend, or familiar acquaintance of several of 

.- 1. j.rAi'.iie 
•1:1. i-i jlriu Ai 

I...1J;: 'li 'Xii .ii;»/ .in' 


tlicm before the war, and his death came Hke a family loss to 
them. This is not the place for an adequate memorial sketch 
of so diligent a student, so talented a surgeon and sanitarian, so 
noble a character, or even of so good a soldier. His alma inatcr 
will preserve his memory in marble as pure as his fame; his 
classmates will recount his virtues ; his friends and comrades will 
long mourn his loss; and his name will stand in his country's 
roll of honor, high among those whose self-sacrifice, though 
"sweet and fitting," was sad and disheartening to the last 

During the siege the distant boom of guns daily aroused new 
apprehensions for the safety of their comrades in the men left at 
New Berne. The lack of reliable intelligence became positively 
painful, until about April 11, when rumors reached them of the 
death of Surgeon Ware. Assistant-Surgeon Fisher at once de- 
manded permission to join the regiment, but was detained a day 
or two, until the rumor was confirmed. He then left on the 
" Escort," expecting to run the blockade, but fortunately found 
Hill's Point in possession of our men. Ihe last gun of the siege 
was fired the night of his arrival. The boys plainly showed the 
effects of the siege in their worn and anxious looks, but soon 
recuperated under the cheering influences of sleep, good rations, 
and the prospect of an early return to New Berne. 

From April 23 to the close of its term of service the regiment 
was acting as provost-guard of New Berne. A large mansion- 
house on Broad Street was taken for a regimental hospital. Sur- 
geon Fisher, whose commission dated from the day of Surgeon 
Ware's death, took charge of it. Daniel INIcPhcc had been com- 
missioned Assistant-Surgeon late in March, and joined the regi- 
ment on its return. Typhoid fever became prevalent, and was 
increasing in frequency and severity when the regiment sailed 
for Boston. Seven cases were too sick to be moved, and were 
sent to the Foster General Hospital, where four of them died. 
Many others, though very weak, were put on board the " Guide," 
in care of Surgeon Fisher. Assistant-Surgeon McPhee accom- 
panied the left wing on board the " George Pcabody." 

To summarize the results from a medical point cjf view of our 
nine months' service, the following table will suftlcc : — 

o-t'ttxi nwiit 

. ■■■■ : Lib , ' :■;■ - ; ■ '. bK''-l^iu~\- 

,'jL (M i.I V .: ' ; r-Tv e^j J. n.v^r noiro; lo) 

■ !} lo T.'^l .•::.'ii i/". •.'■'■.: ''t.rjri'j.'i iMj.'o'*i 'jflj oj jape 

: ' . • '■ ' ' r^-iir:,'- 'lo ou.j i:i 


Killed and died of wounds 11 

Wounded 32 

Died of disease 26 

Disciiarged for disability 65 

Invalid guard 25 

Total sick for eight months 2,128 

Pensions granted 46 

Claims pending 35 

The regiment was an average one phybicaily, but above the 
average in activity, intelligence, and esprit de corps. Its short 
term was made up of active service well calculated to test its 
mettle and endurance, and in no case did it fail to exhibit all 
those manly qualities characteristic of Massachusetts soldiers. 

Killed and died of Wounds. 

Charles E. Rollins, Brookline . Company C, Rawle's Mill, Nov. 2, '62. 

Charles Morse, Boston ... " E, " " " " 

Matthew R. Meagher, Boston . " .A, Whitehall, Dec. 16, '62. 

D. Tyler Newconib, Medford . " A, " " " 

J. Watson Slocum, Holliston . "' A, " " " 

Sergeant A. Stacy Courtis, Cambridge " C, " " " 

Corporal Edwin H. Curtis, Boston " C, " " " 

Antonio F. Polio, Boston . . " C, " " '■' 

George E. N'oyes, West Roxbury " K, " " " 

Albert L. Butler, Cambridge . " k, " Dec. 19, '62. 

Sergeant David K. Hobart, Boston, " G, Wash'n, N. C, Apr. 24, '63. 

Taken Prisoner. 

Sergeant David K. Hobart, Boston, Company G, Washington, N. C, Mar. 

30. '63- 
Corporal Theodore J. Lawrence. Boston, Company G, Washington, N. C, 

Mar. 30, '63. 
Private John Leonard, Roxbury, Company G, Washington, N. C, Mar. 

30, '63. 

William Gibson, Chelsea . . Company A, Readville, Oct. 8, '62. 

Patrick Dalton, Newton . . " B, " " 21, " 

Morris P. Lenihan, Boston . " H, Boston, " 22, " 


JamesW.Briggs, 2d Lieut., Roston,CompanyC, Rawle's Mill, Nov. 2, '62. 
Sergeant .\lbert C. Pond, Boston " C, " " " •' 

i1 n'',Vr'y\ .'? .i-n^ 


William A. Smallidge, Cambridge, Company C, Rawle's Mill, Nov. :, '6.;. 
Sergeant Frederick W. Smidi, Jr. " C, " " " 

John C. Peakcs " C, " 

Asa H. Stcbbins, zd l.ietit., Boston " I), " '■ " 

Charles H. Roberts, Melrose . " E, " 

Richard V. De Peyster, Framingham " H, " " " '• 

Harrison Parker, 2d, Winchester " H, " '• " " 

E. Augustus Jacobs, South Scituate " II, " " " 

Alexander H. Everett, Cambridge ■' A, Whitehall, Dec. 16, '62. 

.\lbert S. May, Needham . . " A. 

John F. Berry, Boston ... " A, " " 

Sgt. James F. Clark, \V. Cambridge •' A, " " '■' 

Amos K. Tappan, Bobton . . " A, " " " 

John W. Greenwood, Xeedham " A, " " •' 

William Bamford, North Andover " A, " " " 

Warren P. Everett, Newton . " B, " " 

Charles C. Ewer, Boston . . " D, 

Frederick Jackson, Boston . '•' I), " " " 

Joseph F. Dean, Cambridge . " F, " " " 

Francis E. Lincoln, Boston . " G, " " " 

Edwin S. Fisher, Boston . . " G, " " " 

Sgt. William W. Howe, Framingham " H, " " " 

Edward C. Crosby, Framingham " H, " " " 

George H. Colby, Boston, Company D, Signal Corps service on gunboat 

on Neuse River, near Kinston, Dec. 14. '62. 
Captain James M. Richardson, Hubl,>aid=ton, Company s\, Washington, 

N. C, Mar. 30, '6^. 
Corporal Theodore J. Lawrence, Boston, Company G, Washington, N. C, 

Mar. 30, '63. 
Corp. John King, Boston, Company G, N\"ashington, N. C, Mar. 30, '63. 
John Leonard, Roxbury, " G, " " " 

Coqx John D. Priest, Boston, " G, •' " 

Frederic (Jdiome, 2d Lieut., Company (t, clothing riddled with balL at 

same place. 

Henry G. Kimball, Andover, Compan)- G, Jan. i, '6;^, ccrebro-spinal 

John C. Pollitz, Boston, Company F, Jan. 7, '63, cerebro-spinal meningitis. 
-Alfred B. Moulton, Framingham, Company C, Jan. 9, '03, cercbro-s[.iaal 

Josiah Moody, South Hadley, Company V, Jan. 14, '63, cerebro-spinal 

Corijoral .Adiur J. Uphara, Boston, Company G, Jan. iS, '63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 


Georpe F. Boynton, Dorchester, Company G, Jan. 19, '63, cerebro-spinal 

Walter S. Bradbury, Cambridge, Company C, Jan. 22, '63, cerebro-spinal 

William F. Ingrahani, South Hadley, Company F, Jan. 24, '63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

Sergeant Albert F. Potter, Newton, Company B, Jan. 29, '63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

George B. Young, Andover, Company G, Feb. 3, '63, cerebro-spinal men- 

Francis C. Hopkinson, Cambridge, Company F, Feb. 13, '63, cerebro- 
spinal meningitis. 

Charles A. Bradt, Lowell, Company C, Feb. 19, '63, cerebro-spinal men- 

Ezra N. Fuller, Needham, Company A, Feb. 21, '63, measles. 

Sergt. Charles E. Harwood, Boston, Company I, Feb. 26, '63, diphtheria. 

James S. Gilmore, Walpole, Company K, Feb. 26, '63, diphtheria. 

Otis S. Merrill, North Andover, Company C, Mar. 2, '63, cerebro-spinal 

Reuben J. Gilman, Billerica, Company I, Mar. 7, '63, cerebro-spinal men- 

Surgeon Robert Ware, Boston, .\pr. 10, '63, pneumonia. 

Edmund L. Cutter, ^\■eston, Company I. Apr. 25, '63, pneumonia. 

Henry F. Melville, Brighton, Company A, May 15, '63, inflammation of 

James A. Mickel, Charlestown, Company K, May 28, '63, pneumonia. 

Timothy S. Boynton, Framingham, Company C, June 8, '63, typhoid 

Frank B. Hanson, Boston, Company A, June 11, '63, typhoid fever. 

Matthew Howard, North Andover, Company A, June 17, '63. typhoid 

Eben R. Buck, Newton, Company B, June 1 7, '63, typhoid pneumonia. 

William A. Barnes, Boston. Company H, June 18, '63, typhoid fever. 

Dist/iari^cd for Disability. 
Capt. Jacob H. Lombard, Boston, Company C, Resigned, Jan. 14, '63. 
Capt. Frank W. Reynolds, Boston, 
Corp. John T. Sargent, Jr., Boston, 
John F, Berry, Boston .... 
John W. Greenwood, Needham , 
Hiram Hubbard, Jr., Boston . . 
Albert S. May, Needham . . . 
Henry E. \\'arner, Boston . . . 
Henry C. Whittier, Boston . . . 

K^, js.esigne<i, 
K, '• 

J an. 

14, "3- 
28, '62. 

A, Dischargee 

, Mar. 

9, '63- 



14, '63- 



I, '63. 



16, '63. 



28, '63 



7, '62 



14. '63 

,; I .;t/ i 
,<> ■'<'■' 



Corp. Gs'orgt; \V. Laniso!), Newton, Company 

John Lrcniian, ... " 

Stephen M. Dresser, Neu ton . . " 

Edwani i>. Kingsbury, Neuton . " 

Rodney .^[. Lucas, Newton . . " 

WillniLi I. Mdlicn, New tun . . " 

Bowipjp. G. Salsbury, Newton . . " 

John A. ^^■Js!ll)llrn, Newton . . " 
FraiiV < ). llradt, Lowell .... 

Cli:ir!i--, U. Hiscock, Cambridge . " 

Thoni:',=. ITulmes, Lynn .... " 

Edsvord 1''. Mahoney, lloston . . " 

Charlc; L. Plummer, Boston . . " 

George y^. Rollins, Brookline . . " 

. David J. Thomas, Boston ... " 
William Ware. Milton .... 

J. Albert Blanchard, ^Vest Cambridge " 

Charles C. Ewer, Boston ... " 

William B. Leatherbee, Boston . " 

Theodore L. Barnes, Waltham . " 

George E. Buttrick, West Roxbury " 

William Dean, Waltham ... " 

Peter F. Jones, Ro.xbury ... " 

Edward Richardson, Cambridge . " 
Charles }L Roberts, Melrose . . 

Williimi 1". Sawyer, JSLilden . . " 

Joshua B. Warren, Boston . . " 
George \V. Wheelwright, Jr.. Roxbury " 
Henry A. Clark, South ILulley . 

Horace V.. Learned, Boston . . " 

John \\ . i'itman, Jr., Maiden . . " 

Georu'e S. .^anford, Sherborn . . " 

Edwin S. Fisher, Cambridge . . " 

J. Augustus Hall, Dorchester . . " 

Francis F. Lincoln, Baston . . " 

Thomas F. Phipps, Dorchester . " 

Joseph M. Bannister, Franiingham " 

Allen F. I'lOone, Winchester . . " 

Austin .\L Copp, Maiden ... " 
Charles li. Fuller, Franiingham . 

E. Augustus Jacobs, South Scituate " 

Alonzo E. LeMoyne, Boston . . " 

Chadcs C Rice, Winchester . . " 

Benjamin V. Bates, Brewster . . " 

B, D 

scharged, Jan. 14, '63. 


Jan. 30, '63. 


Jan. 30, '63. 


Sept. 25, '62. 


Jan. 30, '63. 


.Mar. 9, '63. 


Oct. 3, '62. 


May 28, '63. 


Mar. 14, '63. 


Oct. 4, '62. 


Sept. 30, '62. 


Jan. 31, '63. 


Oct. 7, '62. 


Apr. 15, '63. 


Apr. 15, '63. 


Mar. 14, '63. 


Mar. 9, '63. 


May 6. '63. 


Oct. 3, '62. 


Apr. 3, '63. 


Mar. 9, '63. 


Nov. 3, '62. 


" Mar. 9, '63. 


" Mar. 24, '63. 


" Jan. 14, '63. 


Oct. 3, '62. 


Oct. I, '62. 


Oct. 3,-62. 


Oct. 4, '62. 


Oct. 4, '62. 


Oct. 4, '62. 


Jan. 23, '63. 


May 18,-63. 


Oct. 6, '62. 


" Mar. 31, '63. 


Oct. 6, '62. 


Mar. 9, '63. 


" June 5, '63. 


Oct. 2, '62. 


^Lar. 9, '63. 


Mar. 13, -63. 


Jan. i7, -63. 


.\pr. 14, '63. 


.Apr. I, '63. 

.1 •■'■« f 


Edward H. Judkins, Boston * . 

Company I, Discharged, Sept. 30, '62. 

Herbert B. Richardson, Weston 

" I, 

May iS, '63. 

Forrest L. Whittredge, Boston . 


May I, -63. 

Charles E. Wyett, Boston . . 


May 18, '63. 

William Bowers, Boston . . 

" K, 

Feb. 7, '63. 

Guy Boyce, Sherbom . . . 

" K, 

Jan. 14, '63. 

Ithamar W. Copeland, Dedham 


Jan. 14, '63. 

Charles M. Garland, Boston . 

" K, 

Jan. 31, '63. 

George W. Xickerson, Walpole 

" K, 

Jan. 14, '63. 

Thomas Seavey, West Roxbury 

" K, 

Jan. 31, -63. 

James W. Spinney, Sherborn . 

" K, 

Jan. 14, '63 

Joseph T. Stedman, Roxbury . 

" K, 

' Feb. 17, '63 

Invalid Guard. 

Corporal Charles A. Yendell, Jr., Boston Company A. 

Matthew Howard, North Andover " A. 

Henry C. Whittier, Boston " A. 

Antonio J. Fayes, Newton " B. 

Richard T. Robinson, Cambridge " C. 

Isaac R. Steams, Chelsea ; " C. 

Horace P. Tuttle, Cambridge " D. 

James A. Blanchard, West Cambridge " D. 

Levi Kenerson, Hingham " D. 

George I.. Dyer, Boston " E. 

William E. Copeland, Roxbury " F. 

Peter R. Guthrie, Boston " G. 

Charles L. LeCain, Dorchester " G. 

T. Robinson Harris, Cambridge " G. 

Lyman J. Sawyer. Boston " G. 

Heman H. Belcher, Framingham " H. 

Rufus C. Bruce, Framingham " H. 

Matthias J. Moore, Boston " H. 

Alonzo E. LeMoyne, Boston " H. 

Henry W. Webster, Cambridge " H. 

Theodore Pinkham, Chelsea " L 

LawTence Rhoades, Boston " I. 

Guy Boyce, Sherborn " K. 

James W. Spinney, Sherborn " K. 

George W. Nickerson, \Valpole " K. 

L,..:;: v>::^' 1 

.'/ ::;..■{ 

yi )RTV-KOL" RTl I MASSAC ! it S i; ITS 1 N KAN 


October . . . . 
November . . . 
December .... 

Jamary . . . . 
Februarj- . . . . 




Total . . . . 
Monthlv averacre 

65 337 

4^ 331 

-^ 337 


S 248 

161 7 16S 

^65 I o I 265 

I.917 I 211 2,I2S 

I -I 



20 ' 53 i 72 

-1 I 46 67 

<'j : 43 ' 62 

15 i 27 j 42 

t6 i 2S j 44 

130 1 294 I 424 

"-'' 1 37 S3 

■"■ ■ Pension Claims of all Classes admitted. 

Matthew R. Meagher,' Boston Company A. 

John F. Berry, Boston " A. 

Albert S. May, Needham " A. 

John W. Greenwood, Needham " A. 

Henry C. Whittier, Boston " A. 

James M. Richardson,* Hubbardston " A. 

Amos K. Tappan, Boston " A. 

Francis B. Hanson,' Boston " A. 

John Brennan. Needham " B. 

John A. Washburn, Newton " B.-^ 

George N. Hill,' Neu'ton " B. 

Eben R. Buck,' Newton " B. 

John R. Holmes.' Newton " B. 

James S. \Vithington,' Newton " B. 

Samuel 15. Hadley,' Boston " C. 

George H. Ray,' Boston " C. 

Walter S. Bradbury,' Cambridge " C. 

Antonio F. Poilo,' Boston " C. 

' Deceased. 

in :|; :;i M "-ini 

■ J^r;-.'! ■. ^; 


Otis S. Merrill,' North Andover Conijiany C. 

George H. Hobart, Newton " D. 

Theodore L. IJanies,' Waitham " E. 

James W. Lovejoy, Cambridge " E. 

Charles H. Roberts, Melrose " E. 

Albert K. Page,* Boston " E. 

John H. Hanson, Boston " F. 

Edwin S. P'isher, Boston " G. 

John Leonard, Roxbury " G. 

Theodore J. Lawrence, Boston " G. 

Henry G. Kimball,' Andover " G. 

George B. Young,' Andover " G. 

Elisha A. Jacobs, South Scituate " H. 

Richard V. De Peyster,' Framingham " H. 

Edward C. Crosby, Framingham " H. 

Edward S. Hemmenway, Framingham " H. 

Alonzo E. LeMo}-ne,' Boston " H. 

Frank W. Clapp,' Holliston " H. 

Benjamin F. Bates, Brewster " I. 

Edwin P. Uphani, Weston " I. 

Michael Shaaghnessy, Cambridge " L 

George \V. Nickerson, Walpole " K. 

James W. Spinney,' Walpole " ^K. 

Ithamar W. Copeland, Dedham " K. 

Thomas Seavey, West Roxbury " K. 

William L. Mitchel,' Sherbom " K. 

George E. No_\es.' 'West Roxbury " K. 

Joseph F. Stedman, Roxbury " K. 

Pension Claims of all Classes pending. 

George W. Lovejoy, Andover Company A 

Henry Ingraham, Framingham " A 

John G. \\"hitmar=h, Needham " A 

Frederick T. Brown, Boston " A 

D. Tyler Newcomb,' Medford " A 

William T. Mullen,' Newton " B 

Samuel H. ^Vhite, Quincy " B 

Rodney M. Lucas, Newton " B 

John G. Erhart, Newton " B 

Seth T. Snipe, Newton " B, 

William ^L Rogers, Newton " B 

William W. Robinson, Newton •' B 

Charles A. Belcher.' Newton " B 


. ,r „. .. '•••riti O r.oi. 


William H. Hclcher,' Newton Company B. 

Jacob H. Lombard,' Boston " C. 

Zenas T. H.iincs, Strong, Maine " D. 

Edward \V. Crane, Boston " D. 

Charles C. E«er,' Boston " D. 

Franklin D. Magoun, Cambridge " E. 

Francis C. Hopkinson,' Cambridge " F. 

Samuel Moore,' Wayland " G. 

Thomas McCarty, West Roxl)ury " G. 

Hezekiah N. Brown,' Wayland " G. 

Rufus C. Bruce, Framingliam " H- 

Christopher Riley, PVamingham " H. 

Nathaniel J. Foster, Kingston " I. 

Lawxence Rhoades, Boston " I. 

Samuel H. Corlis, Weston " I. 

William A. Jessop, Wayland " K. 

William W. Wild, Leominster " K. 

Walter Bailey, Needham " K. 

Albert Fisher, Walpole " K. 

VVilham P. Sanderson, West Roxbury " K. 

James S. Gilmore, Walpole " K. 

James A. Mickel,' Charlestown " K. 

1 Deceased. . ■ ^ ,i- 



I- k-s i 


^ ' |.«r;4 

' *'OVVAR0 ^ 


Wert ^"^ 

Vo w. f^*" 







ty J 


CHAPTER XIV. • • ■■ ■•• 


Forty-fourth Regiment pre- 
sented the usual entertaining 
\ariety in its ranks as to age, 
position, and occupation. The 
average age, on recruiting, 
was twenty-two years seven 
months ; Company E being 
the youngest, with an aver- 
age of twenty-one years five 
months; Company B, the 
most venerable, with an aver- 
age of twenty- four years seven 
months. Looking at occupa- 
tions, in Company C, seventy-nine out of one hundred were 
mercantile clerks; in Companies D, G, and E, the clerks were 
in a great majority ; in Company B, there was an equal number 
of clerks and of laborers (twenty each) ; in Company F, there 
were twenty-two Harvard College students. In the entire regi- 
ment there were four hundred and fifty clerks, one hundred and 
eight farmers, seventy-five college students. Forty-five occupa- 
tions in all were represented in the regiment, including carpen- 
ters, merchants, hotel-keepers, blacksmiths, musicians, barbers, 
lawyers, astronomers, and cooks. There was the same number 
of civil engineers and of butchers (seven) ; the same number of 
editors and of bakers (two^ ; the same number of musicians and 
of upholsterers (three) ; nearly the same number of artists (eigh- 
teen) and of shoemakers (sixteen) ; precisely the same number 
of clergymen and of coachmen (three). 

The individuality of character was even more marked than the 
variety of callings, and could be fully appreciated only by those 


;>■. . ;.. . ■ .■-•v/ Dr. ni iru ■: 

■>.,: .fs =-;_ : Ml]-' iJ / ,i v_v/r;i 

■ '■ -■'■■,-,.; \-, L/ir ( ".o) 


whose good fortune it was to spend month after month in such 
bright, amusing, and stimulating companionship. Tlic qiiahty 
of these common soldiers and their ofhccrs (for there was little 
difference, in this respect, between officers and men) can best 
be judged from the character of those whom we lost; and it is to 
these, in our reminiscences of the past, that our thoughts first 
turn. In the statistical tables which follow will be found the 
exact record of our losses ; let me give here such brief allusions 
to the individuals themselves as I have been able to gather. If 
of the living we cannot say all that we could wish, of the dead 
we are privileged to speak unreservedly. 

Of those who died during the campaign no loss was more 
keenly felt by both officers and men than that of Surgeon Robert 
Ware. Of all the memories that come back to us from those 
troubled months, none is more beautiful than that of this pure- 
souled, refined, high-minded officer, going his rounds of labor 
with tireless devotion and winning the respect and admira- 
tion of all for his noble conception of a soldier's duty. Dr. 
Ware had graduated at Harvard College in 1S53, and from 
the Har\'ard Medical School in 1S56, and was in rapidly rising 
practice in Boston at the outbreak of the war. His first ser- 
vice was in connection with the Sanitary Commission, which he 
joined as inspector in 1861, acting in that capacity during the 
disastrous and soul-trying scenes of the Peninsular Campaign. 
No officer in the army was more keenly alive than he to 
official shortcomings and abuses, or more outspoken, at proper 
times and places, in denouncing them ; yet none showed readier 
resources or quicker wit in improvising means for meeting the 
terrible exigencies of that campaign, or in making the hospital 
provision for half a dozen patients serve the needs of a hundred. 
His unsleeping attention to the wounded, as they came pouring 
in from the field to the transports, and his cheerful, indefatigable 
toil in the hospital, by the ambulance, and at the boat, profoundly 
impressed his co-laborers in the Sanitary Commission, and called 
out the most touching testimonials of gratitude and appreciation.^ 

> Sec the sketch entitled "The United St.ites S.initary Commission," prcixircd for 
the Boston Fair, Uecembcr, 1S63, page S9; also the liule book called "Hospital 


)t. Di ^/Irj 

.}/..>-. ir,j r, l.,nr 

n; i 10; .''i.! 'JO ■.' . ■' - iqi 


As a regimental surgeon, Dr. Ware possessed qualities rarely- 
united in one man; having tender sympathies and tiie tinest 
delicacy of feeling, yet exacting of the men the strictest oa.-.erv- 
ance of sanitary regulations, and pitilessly exposing all their 
shams. Though resenting his severity at first, the soldiers found 
at once that it was only the impostors who had anything to 
dread, and soon learned to trust his skill, to appreciate fidel- 
ity, and to recognize the dignity and unselfish purity of his char- 
acter. His last illness was brought on, during the siege of " Little " 
Washington, by the unusual labors required of him ami >ng the 
negroes, as well as in his own regiment, to which, as u^iial, he 
gave himself unsparingly. He died, April 10, 1S63, in his thir- 
tieth year. 

Major Charles W. Dabney, who came of the famil}- so long 
and so honorably known in connection with the Amci iean con- 
sulship at Fayal, graduated at Harvard College in 1844-, and was 
engaged in active business in Boston when the call for nine months' 
troops was made. No one was more active or eager than he in 
organizing the regiment, and no officer served more cfnciently 
than he through all our campaigns. He retired to civil life at 
the close of our service, carrying with him the deep affection of 
his army comrades, to add to the esteem and confidence he had 
already won and was still to win from his business associates and 
friends. Indeed, he was a man from whom entire trust and atfec- 
tion could not be withheld. The rare combination of the finer 
and manlier qualities in his nature was irresistibly engaging. Im- 
pressing every one at first by the exquisite and almost feminine 
gentleness of his bearing, he soon disclosed himself as one to 
look to in emergencies where only courage and endurance tell. 
He seemed as noteworthy for toughness of moral filn'c as for 
delicacy. The stories told of his coolness and pluck in critical 
hours were innumerable. His was the great privilege through 
life of surrounding himself with appreciative friends. The sad 
news of his death in England, seven years after he left the army, 
called out charming tributes, full of genuine feeling, from every 
hand. From a very striking notice in the " Boston Ad\ortiser" 
of Jan. 17, 187 1, written by one who knew him well, I take these 
brief extracts: — 



" While ail the parts of his character fitted well together, his scale was 
large, and he was full of strength and hearty vigor, . . . the most trustworthy 
of men, in whose hands you would place all that you possess, from fortune 
to reputation. The most sympathetic in joy or son-ow, the most faithful 
in the performance of daties : a very rare man, and yet so natural as to be 
a compliment to his race. . . . His life was, for the most part, a fortunate 
and happy one. He amassed a large fortune of respect and affection, 
which he invested securely in the memories of many friends." 

Major Dabney's physical constitution was very vigorous, and 
he resisted the influences of climate and exposure to wiiich so 
many of his comrades succumbed; but he was never quite well 
after the war, and the great excitement and exhaustion caused 
by the burning of his house and his efforts to save it, in 1S67, 
made him soon afterwards an easy victim to the disease which 
attacked him. He died of pneumonia, in Malvern, England, 
Dec. 22, 1870, in his forty-eighth year. Funeral services were 
held in the Church of the Disciples, Boston, Jan. 17, 1871. 

Adjutant Wallace Hinckley, the youngest and gayest of our 
military household at headquarters, whom we remember for the 
buoyancy and evident enjoyment with which he threw himself 
into the soldier's work, received his education and training in 
the Highland Military Academy of Worcester, Mass. After serv- 
ing the Forty-fourth Regiment with admirable efficiency dur- 
ing its earlier experiences, and endearing himself to his com- 
panions by his amiable and happy traits, he left us to become 
adjutant of the Second ^Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, in which 
capacity he made for himself an honorable record through- 
out the war. He died of malarial fever, in Beaufort, N. C, 
Sept. 4, 1865.1 

Quartermaster Francis Bush, Jr., was a most faithful and dili- 
gent officer in a very harassing branch of military service, and 
secured the hearty good-will of his comrades by his frank and 
obliging ways. He returned to civil life after the disbanding of 
our regiment, and became eventually the sole member of the old 
and well-known firm of Bent & Bush, in Boston. A few years 
after resuming his business cares his health began to fail him, 
and in the summer of 1S74 hi? friends were startled by his sudden 

' For fuller nutice of Adjiilaiu Hinckley, see ch.ip. xv. 

1 ?,><-: 

■■ : "■■■ 1 ,* iq,' 
■■■: y, ni ror'? ^■J^ 

■ ,M-- .;■: Ill L;:r. 


dcatli. The notices of his death bore testimony to the regard 
in wiiich he was held by the community both as a merchant and 
as a friend. " Both in social and in business circles," says one of 
these tributes, '.' he was respected and loved as only the noblest 
men and most honorable merciiants can hope to be; and the 
memory which he leaves behind is of that precious kind which 
requires no effort to keep green." He died of heart-disease, at 
the Isles of Shoals, Aug. 16, 1S74. 

Of those who were killed in battle or died of their wounds, 
during our service, I have been able to gather only the follow- 
ing facts : — 

Charles Morse of Company E, who was killed in our first 
skirmish at Rawle's Mill, enlisted from Framingham at the age 
of nineteen, and had been a driver in the employ of the Adams 
Express Company. He was killed instantly, Sunday evening, 
Nov. 2, 1872, and was buried, with Charles E. Rollins of 
Company C, in a grave close by the little building used that 
evening as a hospital' 

Sergeant Ambrose Stacy Courtis of Companj' C, a graduate of 
the Cambridge High School, was in a counting-room in Boston at 
the time of his enlistment. His period of service, short though 
it was, seems to have been long enough to inspire his com- 
rades with admiration of his cheerfulness under hardships, his 
consideration for others, and his gentlemanly traits of charac- 
ter. His appointment as sergeant gave the greatest satisfaction 
to the company, and his death was a sad event among compan- 
ions who had learned in a few weeks' campaign to love and trust 
him. He was killed instantly in the battle of Whitehall, Dec. 16, 
1862, in his twenty-first year. 

Albert L. Butler of Company A was clerk of the Cambridge 
Police Court at the time of enlistment, and went into the war, 
like so many others, to insure the freedom of the slave. His 
motives seem to have been of the highest and purest, and his 
conduct as a soldier won the hearty approval of his officers. 

* .\ letter from the superintendent of the soldiers' cemetery at Xcw Berne, d.itcd 
^tay 25, 1.SS5. reports the bodies of fxollins and >[orse were disinterred last 
year, and found in such state of preservation that it was easy to identify them. 
They are now buried in the cemetery and their graves numbered. 

. ■ .: ■■•' ■ ■■til Zf^C^ 

■'"■:. hi ■)!!!.'. ■::[■■ jr. Iiur, t j-ji'-> i 
./ •;(() no/,' rjii)lo„ r. ot- ;'^ubr!0.:: 


"Your son \\as brave," wrote Capt.'.in Kicliard-:.".! to the be- 
reaved mother, " and did his duty nobh liglitiny, 'Vt his coun- 
try." His comrades, too, bore witness to his cahnacs.; under fire 
and the fortitude with which he cndurctl liis suftci!;i;^c. He was 
wounded at Whitehall, and died in the ambulance which was 
carr}-ing him from the field. He died in liis thirty-nr^t ycar.^ 

David Kimball Hobart of Compnn)- G was born in iJoston in 
1835, and graduated from the Boston Hl!.;h School ai si.xteen, to 
enter on a business career. At the age of t\vent}"-t\'.o he estab- 
lished himself as a merchant in McGregor, Iowa, nlicre lie be- 
came mayor of the city, but had returned to Bosl< n just before 
the war. Preferring the position of private with liis companions 
in the Forty-fourth to a commission elsewhere, he had become 
orderly sergeant of his company at the time of his last engage- 
ment. He was wounded in a skirmish at " Little " Washington, 
March 30, 1863, and with two other wounded men fell into the 
hands of the enemy, and was taken first to the Confederate ho.s- 
pital at Greenville, then to that at Wilson, N. C. Whatever may 
have been the experiences of the Union prisoners elsewhere, 
nothing could have exceeded the kindness or skilful medical 
attention received by Hobart at both these hospitals. He had 
the gentlest of nursing, the best of care from the MirLjcons, fre- 
quent visits from ministers, and daily gifts of flo.rors from the 
women of the neighborhood. He had been shot through the 
lungs; but the native vigor of his constitution, aided by such 
devoted ministrations, prolonged his life for many days. He 
died April 14, 1863, in his twent\--eighth )-car, and was lionorably 
buried in the hospital cemetery at W^ilson.- 

The Surgeon's Report, in another chapter, gives the sad list of 
the brave, uncomplaining men who were not permitted to fall in 
battle, but died in the regimental or general hospital at New- 
Berne. No words that we can write to-da\- can do justice to the 
patient and heroic suffering witnessed b>- those who \-i'^ited our 
soldiers in those trying hours. A soldier's death in the hospital 

• An interesting; incident connected with the dc.ith c.f George E. Xore? of Com- 
pany K, who W.1S also wounded at \Vhitch.-ill, will be found in the chajitcr contributed 
by the surgeon. 

- See " Conditions of Teace : " a di.scourse delivered in ihe West Cnurch (Boston), 
in memory of David K. Hobart, June 14, 1S63, by C. .\. Il,irtol. 

-.^.:::- i^:^^r^y-' 

I .:^'■. 1.' VtM : I'f'i'-' 

' tc:ll r;\y,-.,,i >:/.. -iT.-:^ 


is always sadder than death upon the field ; and although in our 
case the trials of sickness were reduced to a minimum by the 
excellence of the medical arrangements and the skill and devo- 
tion of th.e surgeons, many touching memories come back to us 
as we recall this portion of our experiences. I can only allude 
to the two or three cases about which I have been able to get 
special information. 

Ezra X. Fuller, of Necdham, Company A, left Tufts College to 
enter the Forty-fourth Regiment, served faithfully through all 
our marches and engagements, and died at the age of nineteen, 
in Stanley Hospital, Feb. 2i, 1863, — the year in which he would 
otherwise have graduated from college. His remains were sent 
home to Xeedham, where the burial took place March 12, 1S63. 
His classmates, together with the president and faculty of the 
college, were present at the funeral. Of this same company, 
Matthew Howard will be remembered as a tall Irishman of si.x 
feet four inches, and of great strength. He was left behind in 
Stanley Hospital, with seven or eight others, and died at about 
twenty-two years of age, within a week after his comrades were 
mustered out of service. 

Few deaths in the regiment caused more sorrow than that of 
Francis C. Hopkinson of Company F. Hopkinson graduated 
from Harvard College in 1859, after a brilliant course of study 
both in college and at the Boston Latin School, took prominent 
part as a young orator in the political campaign which resulted 
in Lincoln's election, and had just finished his course in the Har- 
vard Law School when the call for nine months' troops \\as 
made. Entering the Forty-fourth Regiment with many of his 
college companions, he brought the same qualities which had 
signalized him among his fellows in school and college into the 
new experiences of camp life. Among many tributes to his 
memory from his army comrades, these words show the marked 
esteem in which he was held, under circumstances where only 
manly qualities can win esteem : " We shall remember him as a 
leader among us, always recognized as such for his acknowledged 
talents, even though he was only a private. We shall delight to 
remember him as a true, fearless, resolute, patient soldier, setting 
an example of fidelity, bravery, and unj'iekling pluck. None will 

t,."i ■■_■ - y f r a r 


forget his generosity, and the many ways he devised to keep up 
the morale as well as amuse the company." He died of typhoid 
fever, in Stanley Hospital, Feb. 13, 1863, in his twenty-fifth year.' 

Turning to those who died in the ser\"ice after having re- 
enlisted in other regiments, we think first of all, naturally, of 
the brave officers of the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth, as the first 
raising of negro regiments concerned our regiment so closel}-. 
While in camp at New Berne an official conmiunication from 
Governor Andrew, dated Feb. 18, 1863, was received by Colonel 
Lee, saying, " We are raising a black regiment, the Fifty-fourth, 
under Colonel Robert G. Shaw, and want tJie very best officers. 
If you can recommend the following officers, I shall be obliged 
by your finding some means to send them up promptly, on 
leave or other\vise." A lieutenant and two sergeants of the 
Forty-fourth are mentioned for this service, and the letter adds: 
" We consider it a great compliment to offer a commission in 
this regiment, and do not wish you to make the ofter unless it 
is likely to be accepted. We mean to make it a model regi- 
ment." Colonel Lee responded promptly to this appeal, sending 
the officers asked for, and recommending several others for the 
same service. In a postscript to his letter to Governor Andrew, 
under date of Feb. 27, 1863, he says: "I believe the regiment 
is a mine of military wealth to the State; and if my belief is 
correct, the object which its officers have always had in view 
and labored to accomplish is attained, and they may well thank 
you for the privilege they have enjoyed in being instrumental 
in such a result." 

The first instalment of officers was soon followed by others, at 
the special request of Colonel Shaw. In one of several letters 
written on this subject, Colonel Shaw says (April 8, 1863): "If 
you send me such officers in future as those who have already 
come from your regiment, there is no doubt of my having a well- 
drilled and well-disciplined regiment. They are all excellent offi- 
cers, and is one of the most efficient of men." 

The result of this then novel and doubtful experiment more 
than realized, as is well known, Governor Andrew's enthusiastic 
expectation ; and it is a great pleasure to remember the important 
' See Harvard Biogr:iphie5, vol. ii. p. 21. 

) r.-ji : jiH br -- :i' 

rERSO.NXEL. ■ 203 

contributions made by the Forty-fourth to the equipment of these 
first colored regiments recruited under State authority. In the 
Fifty-fourth and Fifty-fifth Massachusetts, as the tabular state- 
ments- will show, were eventuall}' one colonel, one lieutenant- 
colonel, twelve captains, and seven lieutenants from the Forty- 
fourth.' One of these was brevetted brigadier-general for gallant 
service at the battle of Honey Hill, S. C, where he was severely 
wounded and supposed at the time to have been killed. A cor- 
respondent of a Southern paper (" Savannah Republican," Dec, 3, 
1864), in an account of this disastrous engagement, says: "We 
made a visit to the field the day following, and found the swamp 
and road literally strewn with the dead. Some eight or ten 
bodies were floating in the water where the road crosses, and in 
a ditch on the roadside just beyond we saw six negroes piled one 
on top of the other. A colonel" of one of the negro regiments, 
with his horse, was killed while fearlessly leading his men across 
the creek in a charge." 

In the assault upon Fort Wagner of July 18, 1S63, the Fifty- 
fourth Massachusetts led the column, and lost, besides its heroic 
colonel, t\vo of the young men, Russel and Simpkins, who had 
so recently been sent them from the ranks of the Forty-fourth. 
Cabot J. Russel entered Harvard College with the class which 
graduated in 1865, and was accompanying a scientific party in a 
trip over the Western prairies, when the seven days' battle before 
Richmond inspired him with a desire to enter the army, where 
some of his friends had already fallen. He enlisted as a private 
in the Forty-fourth Regiment, and had become sergeant of Com- 
pany F, when the request for officers came from Go\ernor 
Andrew. Sergeant Russel was one of the first three reconi- 
mended by Colonel Lee for this service, and received his com- 
mission as first lieutenant of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, 
March 23, 1S63. Ma\- 11 he became captain. In both regiments 
he showed himself an admirable soldier, and drew his comrades 
and officers to him by his frank and engaging personal qualities. 
In the Fifty-fourth he rendered e.Kcellent service in drilling the 

' The ranks here riven nro thnsc finally rcachoil. 

'This colonel was Cai-tain Wniiani 1). Crane, aid to Colonel Hartwell, .md 
formerly a private in Company D of the Torty-fourth. 

. .1 >ir» «n no ifn 

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n-jA recruits, and liii company became noted for its thorough 
cli:^ci;ili!ic. He sja\e himself witli the utmost hdcHt)- to his work, 
b'-)!!':; .Mixious onl)- tliat his blaet: soldiers should do themselves 
cr.'iJu and justiiy by their beluu'ior the experiment which the 
G^i-'ei-nmcnt was making. He was with them just long enough 
to bCe then: tried in one severe engagement where, out of seventy 
jiieu, furly-hve were lost, and where he was full}- satisfied by their 
s.jliiieri}- conduct. He wrote to his father in the last letter re- 
ceived from him, " My men diil nobl}-." Their young com- 
mander also did nob!\'. according to the testimony of his brother 
ofiicers, one of whom wrote afterwards that " Captain Russel 
took part in the sharp skirmish on James Island, July i6, where 
his company bore the brunt of the battle, and he showed dis- 
tinguished ability and courage." Two days after this, in the fatal 
.assault on Fort Wagner, when again his company held the most 
dangerous post, he displayed the same coolness and gallantry, 
ai:d fell at the head of the assaulting column and was left upon 
the field. It was learned afterwards that the officers and sol- 
diers of the negro regiments were buried together by the Con- 
federates in a common trench.^ " Xo stone need mark the place 
where his bones moulder," says his biographer, "for future 
generations will reverently point to the holy ground where the 
colonel and two captains of the Fiftj'-fourth ^Massachusetts were 
btiricd with their soldiers." "^ 

The other captain was W. H. Simpkins, an intimate friend of 
Russel's in both regiments, who was killed while in the act of 
ministering to his comrade in his d\-ing moments. Simpkins, 
Russel, and Sergeant G. W. James formed a little group of kin- 
dred spirits in Company F of the h^ortj-'fourth Regiment, who had 
talked over together the question of emplo\-ing colored troops 
long before the experiment was first tried, and all of \\hom were 
ready to engage in the work as soon as officers were called for. 
They all won for themselves an enviable record during their 
brief serv'ice ; two of them were killed together at Fort Wagner, 
while James, the adjutant of the regiment, was se\'crely wounded 
in the same battle, and has since died. 

' See Harvard >[ Biogr.iphics, vol. ii. p. 211. 
• Sec Ibid , p. 49r. 

' ■'- ',1. r^rf. ,,■;-,•:■;; I -j,' '■'. tl 


In regard to those killed in other regiments tlian the Fifty- 
fourth, the following facts have been obt.uned : — 

A. VV. Bussell, Company K, re-enlisted in the Massachusetts 
Fifty-eighth, and was killed at Petersburg, Va. \V. D. Crane, 
Company D, a member of the class of 1863, Harvard College, 
re-enlisted June 7, 1S63, in the newly recruited colored regiment 
(Massachusetts Fifty-fifth), was commissioned first lieutenant and 
immediately afterwards captain, served with conspicuous gal- 
lantry in the South Carolina campaign, and was killed at Honey 
Hill, S. C, while acting as aid and chief of staff to Colonel A. S. 
Hartwell. He died Nov. 30, 1864, when just entering his twenty- 
fifth year.' Edward L. Stevens, Company E, member also of the 
class of 1S63, Harvard College, was commissioned second lieu- 
tenant of the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth, Jan. 31, 1864, and first 
lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1S64, and was killed in the front of battle at 
Boykin's Mills, S. C, April iS, 1865, in his twenty-third year. 
He is supposed to have been the last Union officer killed in the 
war.^ Corporal Samuel Storrow, Company H, member of the 
class of 1864, Harvard College, was commissioned first lieutenant 
in the Massachusetts Second, Sept. 23, 1864, and died March 16, 
1865, in his twenty-second year, of wounds received near Fayette- 
ville, N. C, while acting as aid to Brigadier-General Cogswell. In 
a letter to Lieutenant Storrow's father, General Cogswell says : 

" My brigade had been engaged with the enemy nearly all day, and at 
about four oxlock P. .M. Mr. Storrow was wounded while carrying an order 
to the left of the brigade, and died in about fifteen or twenty minutes 
afterwards. He was not insensible when first wounded, and he had the 
coolness and self-possession to send word to me that he was wounded, 
that he had carried out my instructions, and also sent me the information 
that I had wished for. . . . Allow me to claim in part this loss as my 
own, for neither in my old regiment nor in my present command can 
I replace him." ^ 

Stephen H. Parker, Company I, became sergeant of the Massa- 
chusetts Fifty-ninth, and died of wounds received in battle in 
1S64. Benjamin P. Chandler, Company I, died of disease in 
Florida. James M. Foss, Company I, also became sergeant of 

> See Harvard Memorial Biographies vol. ii. p. 393. 
- See Ibid., p. 410. ^ gee Ibid., p. 473. 

.1 vrE(>iiioJ,r- 


the Massachusetts Fifty-ninth, and died of disease. Charles 
Wood, Company G, became sergeant-major of the Massachusetts 
Fifty-sixth, and died of disease. CHfton H. Vose, Company D, 
became sergeant of the Massachusetts Fifty-eighth, and died in 
prison in South CaroHna, Oct. 28, 1S64. LoweU E. Hartshorn, 
Company K, re-enhstcd in the Massachusetts Fifty-eighth, and 
died in Andersonville Prison Dec. 17, 1864. Walter L. Ray- 
mond, Company G, re-enlisted in the First Massachusetts Cav- 
alry, and died in prison in Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 25, 1864. 
Albert W. Townsend, Company G, re-enlisted in a New York 
regiment, and died in prison in Florence, S. C. 

The full list of officers and men, so far as known, who re- 
enlisted in other regiments, will be found in the " Roster." 

It is hard to part from these pleasant companions. To go 
over this list of the departed, and recall the still fuller list of their 
comrades who have survived them, is to live over again the 
delightful nine months' intercourse which for so many of us con- 
stitutes one of the happiest memories of our lives. No pastor 
could ask for a more interesting, intelligent, or wide-awake parish 
than the ranks of the Forty-fourth Regiment afforded for quite 
too brief a pastorate. The vicissitudes of campaigning were apt 
to make short work, it is true, of the usual ministerial functions; 
but only to substitute other and more personal relations of quite 
as engrossing a kind. I am not alone in counting that close com- 
panionship with such a buoyant, eager, high-minded, and high- 
hearted body of youths one of the kindest strokes of good 
fortune that could have befallen me. Even nine months of army 
life, in barracks, on provost-guard, and in the field, test the real 
quality of officers and soldiers; and it was gratifying to all 
connected with the Forty-fourth to see how well they bore the 
trial both of action and of idleness. I cannot aver that thete 
was no complaining in camp or on the march, or no criticism 
of military plans or military management. With such acute ob- 
servers in the ranks, no official blundering or incompetence was 
likely to pass unnoticed ; and the tedium of inaction or weari- 
ness of the tramp was not unlikely to be relieved by frank 
and pungent comments which showed an alarming amount of 
thinking. This is not the ideal composition of an army, perhaps ; 

,((, nt.'.:l\m 


and the question often aro?c among us as to the relative cRlciency 
of regiments endowed witli brains througiiout and those wliich 
carried only muscle and sinew in their ranks. Yet in our case the 
s^rumbling was of a very innocent kind, and even colonels and 
major-generals were known to smile at the good-natured satire and 
badinage which anticipated Gilbert and Sullivan, and found arr 
excellent safet\--valve in comic opera. The spirit of insubordina- 
tion never found entrance into the Fort\--fourth. Their sol- 
dierly recognition of authorit}' and submission to the strictest 
discipline were as marked as the light-hcartcdness which would 
have ser\'ed them in far sterner tasks than any to which they 
were called. General Foster is quoted as saying of this regi- 
ment, while on its first expedition, that " they were the gayest 
of all the troops, and greeted him with cheers whenever he came 
in sight." ^ Brigadier-General Wessells, one of the toughest of 
regular army officers, whose order on taking leave of the Forty- 
fourth will be found in another chapter, offered unequivocal tes- 
timony to the discipline and good conduct of this portion of his 
command. A later communication from this same officer, dated 
May 29, 1876, in answer to an invitation to a company reunion, 
says: " I well remember that glorious regiment when I had the 
honor to call it a part of my command, and its fine appearance 
in line ; and it is pleasant to trace the footsteps of those who did 
such good service to the regiment and to their native State." 

In the quiet hours in barracks at New Berne, on picket, or on 
provost duty in the city, the companies maintained a good be- 
havior, and heartily seconded, for the most part, the strict pre- 
cepts and example of the regimental headquarters in the matter 
of temperance. The chaplain can testify that in these peaceful 
interludes the ample regimental library was generously patron- 
ized, and that at all times the mail-bags, going and coming, 
were portentously full. The list of details from the regiment for 
detached service at department or brigade headquarters, cover- 
ing the most varied occupations, from the taking of a census 
of the black population of New Berne, or the drafting of topo- 
graphical plans, to nursing at the general hospital, shows some- 
thing of the varied talent of which the regiment was composed. 

1 Hcadley's " Ma--5acliu5ctti in the Rebellion," p, 416. 

■r,' '- rp ■■d' 

.■! TO ■^■■, '.', Gj., >n! 

• ■-'■•'>'-l ■"■>'" 

26S I'ORTV-Fouirrij Massachusetts ixfantrv. 

The grfjr.t anmber of officers, as already shown, which it supphcd 
to otiicr '•.■c,ir:icnts, with their lionorablc record of service, testi- 
fies to it'~ soi'J.icrly cjuahty and admirable discipline. 

The vi cloni of calh'p.g out troops for nine months' service, 
subjectir.g liicn to army discipline, and bringing them to a fine 
state of ^'ilicienLy only to scatter them to their homes again, or 
of p!ac;;\, .-k!c by side with veteran troops, enlisted for the war, 
these crc.itiuns of a summer day, may well be questioned, and 
a-as no\\I;ti J more seriously debated, I am sure, than among the 
nine' troops themselves. But whatever our opinion on 
this point, il must be remembered that to enlist for nine months, 
at that juncture, seemed to be enlisting for the war; and that the 
call was issued on the distinct understanding that such large and 
immediate additions to the army would certainly hasten the 
desired end. When the Forty-fourth was organized, no bounties 
had been offered or were thought of; and its recruits went into 
the ranks \\ill; just as serious a purpose, and with quite as full 
expectation of active and constant service, as any before or after 
them. Th.y liad no knowledge where they should be sent, and 
no tlio'jj'ht or choice about it, but assumed, as a matter of 
course, thac the)- would be placed where the need was greatest 
and the peril most imminent. Any disappointment or chagrin 
that they felt was rather in consequence of the unimportance of 
theser\'ice required of them than because of its hardships or dan- 
gers. Th.c folly of the measure itself, if folly it was, is not to be 
visited upon those who responded in perfect good faith, and with 
absolute In alt}-, to the nation's eager appeal for aid. Certainly 
during that ycdv of the war no dift'crcnce was known, in the duties 
imposed, tlio discipline exacted, or the work required, beUveen 
the regiments of the longest and those of the shortest terms. 

It is jiloasaiit, after so many years have passed, to bear this tes- 
timony to one at least of these nine months' regiments. Without 
instituting an\' comparison with other organizations, or claiming 
the slightest superiority for my own, I wish only to offer this 
tribute to the fidelity, the loyalt}', the high spirit, and pure aims, 
of the su!u:ors of the Massachusetts Forty-fourth. 

{ --u .:n r-z ~f)'!); Ji> .'■r. i ; :i jl 


"^"PT is generally considered that the en- 
hstment of troops for short terms 
was a mistaken poHcy. They were 
hardly perfected in drill and disci- 
pline, and inured to the hardships of 
army life, before they were dis- 
charged, and their places in the 
field were filled by raw troops, who 
had to go through the same ex- 
perience to fit them for efficient 

But although the short- 
term regiments did not re- 
main in the field as organiza- 
^~-^~^ -^ — ii . tions, very many of their men 

returned to the army in other 
regiments, and through these veterans the nine months' troops 
contributed most permanently to the efliciency and strength of 
our armies. 

The following roll shows how many Forty-fourth men re- 
enUsted, and presents the honorable record of their subsequent 
service. In this record their first regiment can take a pardonable 
pride, as the number of commissioned officers in tlie list, and the 
evidence of fidelity and bravery shown in the casualties in action, 
"'ipeak well for the school in which these veterans received their 
soldierly education. 

Although instances of re-cnlistnicnt may have escaped the 
notice of the compiler, it is believed that this list comprises 



nearl}- all who went back into the .scr\-ice in any capacity. To 
sunuiiai ize: — 

ToUl immher re-i::n]hted [u'itA r/t/i/; (7S /i///ows'\ . . 173 

(..'oionel and Brevet llrigadier-General i 

Lieuteiant-Coloncl i 

Maio's 2 

C^M't^ins 24 

Fu-t Lieutenants 25 

.>xond Lieutenants . . . .• 15 

Assistant Surgeons 3 

Xon commissioned Officers 48 

Privates 46 

Ensign U. S. Navy i 

Assistant Paymasters U. S. Navy 2 

Assistant Engineer U. S. Navy 2 

iilaster-at-Amis U. S. Navy i 

Matt U. S. Navy i 

Captain's Clerk U. S. Navy i 


Killed in action or died of wounds 9 

\^■wunded 16 '*' 

Died prisoners of war 3 

Died from disease i ' 

Discharged for disability 2 


fmi'^> staff. 

Hdccklt:v, \Vall.\ce. First Lieutenant and Adjutant. Was discharged 
Mas- 29, 1863, and commissioned First Lieutenant and Adjutant 
2d ^L^^s. Heavy Artilk-ry, and served with his regiment until June 8, 
1S6-, at Fort .Macon, N. C. After he was mustered out he remained 
on tlic island for some time setding his accounts, and in the early 
pan (i'i August was seized with typhoid fever, and died Sept. 4, 1S65. 
His 'leath was v'ery sudden, as he had been pronounced convalescent 
by the ph)-sicians and was supposed to be on the road to recovery. 
His body is buried in the old cemetery at Hingham, Mass. 

The following, written by one of his school friends, is so appre- 
ciative that it is inserted here. 

■x mouths at a milit.iry scliool made him a proficient in tlic manual 
II : and when the loyal drums beat to arms in iS6r, he offered bis 
es in instructing tl'C raw levies which the city of Lowell had then 


' i' 



got to-^'ether. The renown subsequently won by the company which 
he drilled will always cast a reflex lustre on the memory of its gallant 
young tutor. Returning to his studies, it was not long before he was 
called upon to draw his sword in good earnest. The great heart of 
Mass.ichusetts was thrilled by a prayer from the Government for help; 
and foremost among the choicest youth of the Commonwealth who, 

' Stepping like Homer at the trumpet's call,' 
crowded under the banners of the famous Forty-fourth, was young 
Hinckley. Scarcely eighteen, he was at once appointed Adjutant. Ar- 
dently loving the profession of arms, he was now in his element. His 
e.xact and thorough knowledge of his duties, his intense devotion to his 
work, and moreover his handsome person contributed to make him the 
most brilliant officer of that brilliant regiment. . . . 

" His life was short, but in twenty years he accomplished as much as 
most men in fifty. We may regret that the brilliant promise of his youth 
■ was prevented by death from the fulfilment of a glorious manhood; but 
the lofty words of one of the prophets of tlie Elizabethan age, rolling to 
our ears from the past like the thunder-peal of an organ, proclaims that 
"tis immortality to die aspiring.'" 


GiFFORD, Frederic S. Quartermaster Sergeant. Previous service, Q. M. 
Sergt. 3d Mass. Vol. Militia, from April 23 to July 22, 1S61. Second 
Lieutenant 6th Unattached Company Mass. Heavy Artillery. First 
Lieutenant 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery, July 11, 1S64. Resigned April 
20, 1S65. 


Barker, Eben Francis. Corporal. First Lieutenant 75th U. S. C. T., 
December, 1863 ; Captain, January, 1865 ; discharged November, 
1865, on expiration of ser\-ice. 

Bellows, Henry Hcdson-. Private. Private Co. D, Fiontier Cavalry, 
Jan. 2, 1S65 ; discharged June 30, 1S65, on expiration of senice. 

CoNANT, John H. Private. First Sergeant 29th Unattached Company 
Heavy Artillery, Sept. 19, 1864. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., 
May I, 1865 ; First Lieutenant, July 11, 1S65 ; mustered out as Act- 
ing Adjutant, Aug. 20, 1865, on expiration of ser\ice. Died at Cam- 
bridge, June 16, 1S6S. 

Cracix, George Nathan. Private. Corporal Co. A, 5th Mass. Infantry, 
July 25, 1864 ; discharged Nov. i6, 1864, on expiration of ser%-ice. 

Fuller, Alhert. Private. Sergeant Company D, 2d :\rass. Hea\y Artil- 
lery, Aug. 22, 1863. Discharged — no date given. The record of 
Volunteers shows he was promoted Quartermaster Sergeant ; but his 
name does not appear among the non-commissioned staff. 

.t .'J 


Rica\RDSON, James Mieick. Captain. First entered the ser\'ice as Cap- 
tain 21st Mass. Infantry, Aug. 21, iS6i ; resigned July 25, 1S62 ; 
was wounded during siege of '• Little " Washington wiiile on a scouting 
party, March 30, by two bullets through left arm. Second Lieutenant 
1 2th L'nattached Company Mass. Heavy Artillery (after\vards 3d 
Mass. Heavy Artillery), July 16, 1S63; Captain, Nov. 16, 1S63 ; 
Major, Nov. 16, 1S64; mustered out Sept. 18, 1S65. Brevettcd 
Lieutenant-Colonel U. S. Vols, from March 13, 1865. Died at 
Boston, Oct. 7, 1878. 

Whipple, Alon'zo Lv.m.\x. Private. Private Co. H, 3d Heavy Artiller}-, 
Dec. 4, 1863 ; discharged September, 1S65, on e.xpiratioii of ser\ice. 


Brooks, George William. Private. Pri\ate Co. K, 42d Mass. In- 
fantry, July 18, 1S64; discharged Nov. 11, 1S64, on expiration of 

Cupp, David C. Private. Sergeant ist L^'nattached Company Infantry, 
April 29, 1864; discharged .^ug. i, 1864, on expiration of service. 
Second Lieutenant 8th U. S. C. T., March 10, 1865 ; discharged 
Dec. 9, 1865, on expiration of ser\-ice. 

Demond, Alphels. Private. Corporal Co. F. 60th Infantry M. V. ?>I., 
July 20, 1S64; discharged Nov. 30, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Gillespie, Willlvm. Sergeant. Was commissioned Second Lieutenant 
2d Maine Cavalry while in the 44th, but served out his original 
enlistment. Remained in the Maine Cavaby " until Confederacy 

Harding, Nath.\n Fkanxis. Private. Pri\ate i ith Mass. Battery, Jan. 2, 
1864; discharged June 16, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

^L^•SFIELD, Theodore Fr.a.xci3. Private. Private Co. F, 5th Infantry 
M. V. M., July 16, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration 
of service. 

Re.\d, Hexry Fa\XKLi>r. Private. Pri\ate Co. I, 2d ]Mass. Ca\alr)% 
Aug. 20, 1864; discharged May 8, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

SoLT-E, Ch-arles Carroll. Second Lieutenant. First mustered into 
U. S. service as First Lieutenant and .•\djutant of 4th Battalion of 
Infantry M. V. M., May 25, 1S62, but the battalion not being needed, 
^ was mustered out June i, 1S62. Captain 5sth Mass. Inflintry, June 
19, 1863 ; slightly wounded in the arm at the battle of Honey Hill, 
S. C, Nov. 30, 1S64. Brevetted Major, to date from March 13, 
1865, but declined the brevet ; mustered out with regiment, Aug. 
29, 1S65. 

Teague, Fr_axk W. Corporal. Second Lieutenant rSth U. S. C. T., 
Dec. 19, 1863. Discharged Jan. 6, 1S66, on expiration of service. 
Died at St. Louis, Aug. 17, 1S66. 

i I f 11/ 

. !/ 

I ill 



Brv.-^nt, Albert. Private. Corporal ist Unattachetl Company In- 
fantr)-, April 29, 1S64; discharged Aug. i, 1864, on expiration of 

CooTi-Y, Phiup I. Corporal. Captain Co. F, 5th Mass. Infantry, July 
16, 1S64; discharged Nov. 16, 1S64, on expiration of ser\'ice. 

Cl'-NNINt.ham, A. First Sergeant. Second Lieutenant 2d Heavy 
Artillery, June 4, 1S63 ; First Lieutenant, .\pril iS, 1S64; mustered 
out Sept. 19, 1S65, on expiration of service. Died at South Boston, 
April 5, 1S74. 

Drew, Arthur. Private. Private Co. A, 42d Infantry M. V. M., July 
14, 1864 ; discharged Nov. 11, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Hedge, William. First Lieutenant. Declined commission in 20th 
Mass. Regiment. 

HoRTON, Andrew T. Private. Coqjoral Co. C, 6ist Mass. Vols., Sept. 
5, 1864; discharged June 4, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Jones, Ir\tng. Private. Private in Signal Corps, U. S. .\., March 29, 
1S64; discharged .Aug. 16, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Jones, Svlvester .Allen. Private. Corporal Co. K, sgtii Mass. 
Vols., Aug. 2t, 1S64 ; discharged June 13, 1S65, on expiration of 

Monroe, Theodore James. Private. First Sergeant Co. E, 56th 
Mass. Infantry, Jan. 12, 1S64 ; discharged June 25, 1S65, on expira- 
tion of service. Subsequently enlisted as Hospital Steward, 9th 
Corps, U. S. .\. ; afterwards appointed Hospital Steward, U. S. A. ; 
resigned February, 1S66. 

Morse, George Julius. Private. Corporal Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols., 
July 16, 1S64; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of ser\-ice. 

Proctor, George. Private. Corporal ist L'nattached Company In- 
fantry, April 29, 1S64 ; discharged Aug. r, 1S64, on expiration of 

Richmond, \\'illiam Thom.^s. Private. Enlisted in Signal Corps, 
U. S. A., and served until close of war. 

TRESCorr, Edward WHrriNC. Private. Sergeant Co. F, 5th Infantry 
M. V. M., July 12, 1S64 ; discharged Nov. 16, 1S64, on expiration 
of ser\-ice. 

Walker, Eugene Clifeord. Private. Private in 2d Battery, Feb. 12, 
1S64 ; discharged .Aug. 11, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Whiitemgre, Curtis H. Corpora!. Second Lieutenant 5th Mass. Cav- 
alry, July 7, 1864; First Lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1S64; discharged 
Oct. 31, 1S65, on expiration of ser\ice. 

WiLL\RD, Edward Augustus. Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, 
Dec. 2, 1864 ; discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

.1 V .1 


Co.MPA.W D. 

Bates, Daniel Dwight. Private. Landsman, U. S. Navy; discharged 
as Assistant Master-at-Arms, U. b. Navy, June, 1865, oa expira- 
tion of service. 

Beal, Charlfs \V. Private. First Sergeant, Co. A, 42d Mass. In- 
fantry, July 14, 1864; disciiarged Nov. 11, 1S64, on e,xpiration of 

Beal, Georoe \V. Private. Sergeant Co. B, 60th Mass. Infantry, July 
II, 1864 ; discharged Xov. 30, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Brewster, James Bartlett. Private. Early in 1S64 was attached to 
the Relief-rooms of the Sanitary Commission in Boston, as Surgical 
dresser. .Assistant Surgeon 2d Division, 9th .\rmy Corps, Anny of 
the Potomac, June i, 1S64; stationed at White House and on the 
James during the summer campaign. 

'Carter, George Henry. Sergeant. Second Lieutenant 55th Mass. 
Vols, Nov. 15, 1S64 ; First Lieutenant. June 25, 1865. Brevetted 
Captain U. S. Vols., to date from March 13, 1865; discharged 
Aug. 29, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Crane, Edward W. Private. Declined commission in 55th Mass. 
Vols., dated June 9, 1864. Died at Marshfield, Mass., May 21, 1886. 

Crane, Willlaji Dwight. Private. First Lieutenant 55th Mass. Vols., 
June 7, 1S63; Captain Co. I, June 19. Killed at the battle of 
Honey Hill, S. C, Nov. 30, 1864. 

The following was written by a brother officer, one of Crane's 
former playfellows, and like himself a graduate of Harvard Col- 
lege : — 

" He was first commissioned as a Lieutenant, but gained his cap- 
taincy before muster-in, by h.ird work and soldierlv aptitude. We 
were barracked together in July, 1S63, and from that time until his 
death were rarely separated. 

" It was a pleasure to be with and watch him — square, sturdy, fresh, 
and handsome soldier that lie was — tlirougl! the desert heats of Folly 
Island, the toilsome fatigue of the trenches before Wagner, the malarious 
picket details on marsh and sand-liill, the fervid drills upon the sea- 
beach, the sickness and weariness of the autumn of 1S63, the mingled 
rest and activity of the succeeding winter, and the toilsome Florida 
marches of February, 1S64." 

At the battle of Honey Hill, Xov. 30, 1S64, Crane was acting aide 
and chief-of-staff to Col. Hartwell, commanding the brigade of which 
the 55 th formed a part. 

" At the charge on the enemy's batteries along a narrow road, ex- 
posed to canister at close range t'rom seven guns, and in the focus of an 
infantry tire Irom over a thousand rifles, he was sl^iin. 1 have heard 
that he was instantly killed by a shot tlirough the head, and attracted 


the attention of the Rebels, who held the field after the battle, by his 
fine, handsome face and touching attitude. He was honorably buried, 
— SO we le.irn from participants in the battle, — both out of respect for 
his bravery, and because of his being a newly made Freemason. In 
probity, singular purity of life and conversation, in upright manliness 
and military talent, I know of no young man who could surpass the 
brave soldier who thus met death and an unmarked grave, not in 
victory, but in defeat. It was a sad loss to us who remained. The 
men of his company almost idolized him." — Harvard Memorial. 

GoFF, WiLLi.ui CuLLEN'. First Lieutenant Co. F, 5th Infantry M. V. M., 
July 16, 1864; discharged Xov. 16, 1864, on expiration ot"ser\ice.\vay, .^ugustl-s k. Private. Band-master 4th Mass. Cavalry, 
March i, 1864 ; discharged Nov. 14, 1865, on expiration of service. 
Drowned Aug. 30, 1872, at wreck of steamer "Metis" off \Vatcli 
. Hill, Conn. 

HoBART,. George Henry. Private. Sergeant Co. A, 42d Mass. Vols., 
July 4, 1S64 ; discharged Nov. 1 1, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Hovv.ard, \Vill.\rd. Private. Discharged for promotion at New Berne, 
April 26, 1863. Second Lieutenant 54di Mass. Vols., May 13, 
1863 ; First Lieutenant, May 31, 1863. Slightly wounded at assault 
on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863. Acting .\djutant, November, 1863 ; 
Adjutant, March i, 1864; Captain, Dec. 3, 1864; discharged Aug. 2, 
1865, on expiration of service. 

J.4COBS, AuGL"3TLS. Private. First Sergeant Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols., 
July 12, 1864; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

LrrrLEFiELD, Henry Warren. Private. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. 
Vols., May 11, 1863; First Lieutenant, Oct. 7, 1S53 ; resigned 
Feb. 9, 1865, on account of wounds received at battle of Olustee, 
Fla., Feb. 20, 1S64. 

NouRSE, Harrison. Private. Corporal Co. D, 6th ALiss. Infantry, 
July 16, 1S64; discharged Oct. 27, 1S64, on expiration of senice. 

SiMONDS, Joseph Warren. Private. Private in Co. E, 8th Mass. In- 
fantry, July 19, 1864; discharged Nov. 10, 1S64, on expiration of 

SruKTEVANT, Whitmore. Private. Cominissary-Sergeant Co. L, 
ist Mass. Cavalry, Jan. 6, 1864; discharged June 26, 1865, on expira- 
tion of ser\ ice. 

Tripp, George Leighton. First Sergeant. First Lieutenant Co. H, 6th 
Mass. Vols., July i6. 1S64 ; discharged Oct. 27, 1S64, on expiration 
of service. Died at .\lfred. Me., March 13, 1867, of disease con- 
tracted during ser\'ice. 

rmTLE, HoR.\CE p. Private. Discharged .April 26, 1863, for disability. 
Assistant Paymaster in United States Navy, July 2, 1864, and served 
several vears. ;>. .. 

■ ■- : '■/' ;<.'i )n,,i ,.,/ 


VosE, Ci.irroN- Hi-XRv. Prh^-itc. First Sergeant Co. F, 58th ^rass. 
Infantry, .\pril 20. 1S64. Died at RitkersviUe Hospital, S. C, Oct. 
28, 1864, while prisoner of wai- ; was buried at Charleston, S. C. 

C0MP.\NY E. 

Ad.\.ms, William Robert. Corporal. Sergeant Co. H, 6th Mass. Vols., 
July 16, 1S64 ; discharged Oct. 27, 1804, on expiration of service. 

Bradish, .Alreut Henrv. Private. Second Lieutenant 55th ^[ass. Vols., 
Feb. II, 1S64 ; -Acting Post Ordnance officer at Palatka, Fla., during 
the stay of the regiment at that point; resigned June 27, 1S64, for 

Brewster, Warren Joshua. Private. Discharged Sept. 30, 1862, for 
disability, .\fterwards re-entered the senice (particulars of which 
cannot now be learned) and served for a time on staff of General 
Cooke, in the West. 

CARnvRiGirr, J.\.mes Weld. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. 
Vols., July 30, 1S63; First Lieutenant, Nov. 21, 1S63 ; Captain, 
May 17, 1S64 ; mastered out July 12, 1S65, on e.xpiration of ser- 
vice. Wounded May 12, 1S64, at Spottsylvania, and again, April, 
1865, at Petersburg, Va., slightly in left hand and right shoulder. 

Cross, Henrv\, Private. Pri\ate in ist Tennessee Home Guards, 
1864, and served until end of war. 

Derby, Oliver Carpenter. Private. Sergeant Co. H, 3d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Nov. 20, 1S63 ; discharged Sept. 18, 1S65, on expira- 
tion of ser%-ice. 

HiGHT, Henry OR^L\ND. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 82d U. S. C. T., 
Nov. 12, 1S63; discharged Captain, Sept. 16, 1S66, on expiration of 
service. Brevetted Major for gallantry at siege of Fort Blakely, 
April, 1S65. 

Homer, Hen-ry Augustus. Sergeant. Declined commission in 51st 
Mass. Vols. Captain 19th Mass. Vols., April 22, 1S65 ; discharged 
June 30, 1S65, on expiration of service. Died at Cambridge, Mass., 
Dec. II, 1S75. 

Joy, Charles Frederick. Private. Sergeant Co. F, 2d Heavy .Artil- 
lery, Oct. S, 1863. Transferred as Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. 
Vols., Sept. 30, 1S64; First Lieutenant, ;March 30, 1865; Captain, 
July 17, 1865 ; discharged .Aug. 20, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Kent, Fred. .Augustus. Private. Captain's clerk in U. S. Navy, and 
served four years. 

King, Benjamin Fli.vt. Private. First Lieutenant Co. B, iSth 
U. S. C. T., Dec. 7, 1S63. .\ppointed Judge .Advocate, on staff 
of Gen. George L. .Andrews. Resigned .Aug. 10, 1864, on account 
of ill health. Died at Iloston, Jan. 24, 1S6S, of heart disease. 


LivERMORK, William Belden. Private. Corporal Co. H, 6th Mass. 
Vols., July 16, 1S64; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration 
of service. Died at Charlestown, .Mass., Sept. 23, 1870. 

Myers, John Hen-ry, Jr. Private. Sergeant in Co. H, 4th Mass. 
Cavalry, Feb. 8, 1864; discharged Nov. 14, 1865, on expiration of 
service. The scjuadron to which he was attached carried the first 
national colors into Richmond. Died Jan. 21, 1873. 

Newell, James Shuitlfavorih. First Lieutenant. First Lieutenant 5th 
Mass. Cavalry, Dec. 29, 1S63 ; Captain, Feb. 15, 1S65 ; discharged 
Oct. 31, 1865, on expiration of service. 

Park, Charles SrL'ARr. Private. Declined Second Lieutenant's Com- 
mission 56th >Li5s. Vols. Acting Assistant Paymaster, U. S. Navy, 
from November, 1864, to .August, 1S65. 

Patien, Tho.mas Hexrv. Private. First Sergeant Co. I, 2d Mass. 
Heavy .Artillery, Dec. ii, 1863 ; Second Lieutenant, Jan. 17, 1S65 ; 
discharged Sept. 3, 1865, on expiration of ser\'ice. Feb. 22, 1865, 
was appointed Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., but declined 

Plimpton, Merrill Fr.\nci.s. Private. First Sergeant Co. C, 56th 
Mass. Vols., ^Llrch i, 1864; commissioned Second Lieutenant, 
July I, 1865, but not mustered; discharged July 12, 1865. by Spe- 
cial Order No. 162, War Department, Washington, D. C. Wounded 
by a buck-shot at Petersburg, June 17, 1864, and again by a frag- 
ment of a shell in the thigh, and in tiie hand by a bullet, at the 
mine explosion, July 12, 1S64. 

Robeln-s, Ja.mes Arthl-r. Private. Private Co. E, 57th Mass. Vols., 
Feb. iS, 1864; promoted Quartermaster Sergeant; discharged July 
30, 1865, on expiration of senice. 

Stevens, Edward Lewis. Private. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., 
Jan. 31, 1S64; First Lieutenant, Dec. 16, 1864. Killed April 18, 
1865, at Boykin's .Mills. S. C. He is believed to have been the last 
Union officer killed during the war. The remains of Lieutenant 
Stevens, and of Corporal Johnson of his regiment, were disinterred July 
29, 18S5, and re-interred in the National Cemetery at Florence, S. C. 

Tucker, Charles Edward. Corporal. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. 
Vols., May 13, 1S63 ; First Lieutenant, May 28, 1863; Captain, 
Feb. 3, 1S64. Wounded by a bullet in temple and ear at the assault 
on Fort Wagner, July iS, 1863; mustered out .Aug. 20, 1865, on 
expiration of service. 

Walcott, George Phin-ney. Private. Sergeant Co. F. 5th Mass. Vols., 
July 16, 1S64 ; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of service. 

Wallace, Edwin .Ashley. Private. Sergeant Co. C, 56th Mass. Vols., 
Dec. 28, 1863 ; First Lieutenant, Oct. 22, 1864 ; t.aken prisoner at 
North .Anna River, and was in prison at Andersonville six months ; 

^■. h in... 1 

V';'| .1 nV.rx. II 'T.''! 


exchanged at Millen, Ga., and rejoined his regiir:cnt at Petersburg; 
discharged July 22, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Wheelwright, George William, Jr. Si r;^',:uii. Discharged Sept. 30, 
1862; was appointed by tlie city of Koxbury as Asbistant Sanitary 
Agent, in which capacit) was with the Rcxxbury men in the Army of 
the Potomac months, until olili,:;ed to give up on account of 
sickness. In January, 1S63, sailed for New Berne in the " Frye ; " 
rejoined the Forty-fourtli a^ volunteer and acted as Colonel's orderly 
on the Plymouth expedition. On tlie day of the Grand Review, Feb- 
ruar)- 26, was taken to the Stanley Hospital sick, and left New Berne 
for the North, March 16, 1S63. 

White, Edward Peters. First Sergca;:f. Second Lieutenant 2d Mass. 
Heavy .\rtillery, June 4, 1S63 ; First Lieutenant, Aug. 14, 1S63. Served 
for some time on staft' of General Palmer; resigned Jan. 7, 1865. 

WnrrxEY, William Lambert, Jr. Priviitc. Second Lieutenant 54th 
Mass. Vols., Dec. 4, 1S64 ; First Lieutenant, June, 1S65 ; Acting' 
Adjutant, April, May, and June, 1S65 ; discharged Aug. 20, 1865, on 
' expiration of service. 

WoRTHLEY. J.uiES CcsHLXG. Private. Scr_'eant Co. H, 3d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Nov. 20, 1863; Second Lieutenant, July 23, 1865; dis- 
charged Sept. iS, 1S65, on expiration of service. 


Atkins, Francis Higgivson. Private. Medical Cadet U. S. A. 1S63-64; 
Acting .Assistant Surgeon U. S. Nav}-, .Admiral Farragut's Squadron, 
1864; practising physician until 1S73; .Acting .Assistant Surgeon, 
U. S. -Army, from June, 1S73. to 1SS4. 

Bartleit, Edward Jarvis. Private. Second Lieutenant sth ^Liss. Cav- 
alry, July I, 1864; mustered out Oct. 31, 1865, on expiration of 

Cogswell, Edw.^rd Russell. Sergeant. Declined commission in i8th 
Mass. Vols. 

Cook, Cr\rles Edward. Private. Ser-eant Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols. 
July 16, 1864; discharged Nov. 16. 1.S64, on expiration of service. 

Dodge, Frederic L. Private. Second Lieutenant 18th N. H. Vols., 
March 22. 1865 : mustered out July 29. 1S65, on expiration of 
service. Second Lieutenant 23d Regt. U. S. Infantry, INLarch 7, 
1867 ; First Lieutenant, Jan. 22, 1873. Still in scr^•ice. 

Goodwin, Frank. Private. Lieutenant 55th Mass. A'ols., June 7, 
1863 ; Captain, July 20, 1S63. Wound.eil at battle of James Island, 
S. C. Brevctted M.ijur, for " gallant and meritoriou.s conduct ; " 
mustered out with ve,:,nment. .Aug. 29, 1S65. 

Hartwell, -Alfred Stedmax. First Liculcnant. First entered the ser- 


vice Corporal 3d Mo. Vols., May, 1861 ; Captain 54th Mass. Vols., 
March 16, 1S63. Transferred, Lieut.-Col. 55th Mass., May 30, 1863 ; 
Colonel, Nov. 3, 1S63. At batde of Honey Hill, S. C, Nov. 30, 
1864, while leading a charge, his horse was killed and fell on him. 
While thus helpless and wounded in the hand, he would have been 
left to fall into the hands of the enemy but for the bravery of Lieu- 
tenant Ellsworth, who turned back under a terrific fire, and while one 
of the men, who was killed the next minute, partly lifted the horse 
and thus released him, the lieutenant dragged die colonel across 
the ditch into the woods, and then to the rear. In thus going from 
the field Hartwell was hit three times by spent balls, but Ellsworth 
escaped unharmed. Brevetted Brig.-Gen. U. S. Vols, for " gallant 
services at the battle of Honey Hill, S. C. ; " discharged .\pril 30, 
1866, on expiration of service. 

Ho\T, Hexrv :Morris. Private. Sergeant Co. E, 6th ^^ass. Vols., July 
1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 

James, Garth W'ilkensox. Sergcaiit. Sergeant James was discharged 
for promotion, March 31, 1863. He was commissioned First Lieu- 
tenant and Adjutant of the 54th Mass. Vols., March 23, and mus- 
tered in April 24. The following sketch of his career is from the 
pen of a brother officer in the 54th : — 

" James was with tlie regiment at Readville and Beaufort, S. C : 
St. Simons and Darien, Ga.; St. Helena Lsland and James Island, S. C. ; 
always on duty, clieerful, active, and a universal favorite for his endear- 
ing qualities of heart and mind. Of the part he took in the assault on 
Fort Wagner, July IS, 1863, I have his own account; and in it he says 
that 'when we received the first discharge of the enemy's cannon' his 
action was as follows : ' Gathering together a knot ot men after the sus- 
pense of a few seconds, I waved my sword for a further charge towards 
the living line of fire above us. We had gone then some thirty yards, 
but determinedly onwards, the ranks obliquely following the swords of 
those they trusted,' etc. James states that 'at the chevaux-de-frise in 
front of the ditch . . . I received another wound, — a canister-ball in my 
foot ; ' having just after receiving the enemy's first fire been wounded in 
the side by a shell. Having dragged himself away some distance, some 
ambulance men of the 54th found him and took him to the rear. He 
was sent North, to his home in Camliridge. Findini; himself after a 
number of months still unfit for duty, he finally resigned Jan. 30, 
1864. . . . His longing for active service caused him to apply for a 
commission. Stronger, but still a sufferer, and limping as he did 
throughout the rest of his life from the wound in his foot, on Dec 3, 
1864, he was re-commissioned as First Lieutenant in the 54th, then 
near Devaux"s Xeck. S. C. But he was unable to do duty as a line 
officer, and was appointed Actinj; A. D. C. on the staff of Colonel E. N. 
Hallowcll of the 54th, then commandin^j the Second Brigade of General 

- -:!:r'.',l 

v.n 'di 



', J 



J. P. Hatch's ' Coast Division.' Lit-utenant James was commissioned 
Captain of Company C, M..rcli 30, 1S65, and mustered as sucli, ^^ay 12, 
1865. He was with General Gilmore's staff at Georgetown, S. C, about 
April 2. He was mustered out with the 54th, Aug. :o, 1S65. He was a 
sufferer all his life from his wounds, and died at Milwaukee, Wis., March, 
1SS3, aged thirty-eight. Thus passed away one of the sweetest, most lova- 
ble of men ; a brave soldier, and the truest, most constant of friends. To 
those who knew him in the old days it is needless to say how free he \vas 
from the caprices and humors of most men. His smile was always bright, 
his words cheery and genial, his manner polished and winsome " 

Jones, Edward Llovd. Corporal. First Lieutenant 54th Mass. Vols., 
May 13, 1863 ; Captain, May 14, 1S63 ; took an active part in the 
assault on Fort Wagner, S. C, July 18, 1S63, where he was severely 
wounded, from the effects of which he never recovered ; mustered 
out Dec. 16, 1S64. Died at Tompleton, Mass., Jan. 3, 18S6. 

Kent, Barker B., Jr. Private. First Sergeant ist Unattached Com- 
pany, M. V. M., April 29, 1864 ; <lischaiged, Aug. i, 1864, on 
expiration of service. Caj)tain Co. G, 60th Regt. M. V. M., July 
28, 1864 j discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 
Died at Boston, Feb. a, 1873. 

Lathrop, William Henrv. Private. Medical Cadet at Satterlee Hos- 
pital, Philadelphia, August, 1863, where he remained until October, 

1864, when he was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, 
and was assigned to duty at the Depot Field Hospital of the 2d 
Corps at City Point and Alexandria, Va ; sened there until May 20, 

1865. Assistant Surgeon in the 55th Mass. Vols., June 14, 1S65. 
When the regiment returned home, .\ug. 29, 1865, he was mustered 
out at Charleston, S. C, to take a commission as Acting Assistant 
Surgeon, U. S. Army, wiiich he retained until Nov. i, 1S66. 

Mitchell, Fr.vnk A. Private. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. Vols., 
Sept 5, 1S63 ; First Lieutenant, May 17, 1864; wounded at the 
battle of the Wilderness ; discharged for disabiUty, March 13, 1865. 
Was subsequently commissioned Captain and Brigade Quartermaster. 

Morse, Charles Fairbanks. Musician. Musician 3d Heavy Artillery. 
Died Nov. 21, 1878. 

Perkins, William Edward. Sergeant. S.-cond Lieutenant 2d 
Vols., Jan. 26, 1S63 ; First Lieutenant, July 7, 1S63; Captain, 
March 7, 1865 ; mustered out July 14, 1865. Died at Boston, 
Jan. 18, 1879. The following extract is from an appreciative obitu- 
ary notice in the Boston " Advertiser : " — 

"Most suddenly and unexpectedly has he been taken from our midst. 
Few men of his age have been better known. He was gi-aduated at 
Harvard in the class of 1S60. William at first entered the service as a 
Sergeant in Co. F, Forty-fourth Regiment, but when his term of service 

• -I I 


was hnlf over, lie obt.iined a commission as Second Lieutenant in tlie 
famous 2d Mass. Infantry. On the 3d of .May, iSGj, lie was wounded at 
the battle of Chancellorsville. He rejoined his regiment on the evening 
of the last day of lighting at Gettysburg. With the 2d Mass. Infantry 
he went to the West in tlie fall of 1S63 ; aiid in 1S64 he sliared in the 
Atlanta campaign, and in the famous march to the sea. He was with 
the regiment in the march through the Carolinas, was at the battles of 
Averysborough and BentonviUe, at the former of which his captain, the 
gallant IngersuU Grafton, was killed, and he was present at the surrender 
of Gen. folmston. After the war he took up again his legal studies, 
which the war had interrupted, and he shortly after commenced practice 
in Boston. He was always ready, however, to give up his time, and his 
practice even, at the call of political duty. He served for some years 
in the common council and the legislature, and in both capacities he 
made himself known and felt as a hard-working, clear-headed, sensible 
man. ... He was a thoroughly manly man. His character was one of 
great simplicity and sweetness. He was unselfish, perfectly ingenuous, 
giving his friendship unreservedly, and always the same. There was 
nothing suspicious or e.xacting about his triendship. He was a fast 
friend, and he attached his friends very closely to him, and his name will 
long be affectionately remembered." 

Pope, George. St-rgeant. Captain 54th ^[ass. Vols., May 11, 1863; 

severely wounded at the assault on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1S63. 

Major, Dec. 3, 1S64 ; Lieut.-Col., July 11, 1865; mustered out 

with regiment, Aug. 2, 1S65. 
Rus.sEL, Cabot J.\ckson'. Sergeant. Captain 54th Mass. Vols., May 11, 

1863. Killed at the assault on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863. The 

New York " Evening Post " says : — 

"One of the notable features of our war is the development of char- 
acter, energy, and heroism in our young men. Beardless lads have 
exhibited proofs of mature capacity, and endurance worthy of veterans. 
One of the leaders of the 'Charge of the Dark Brigade' at Fort 
Wagner was Captain Cabot Jackson Rnssel, of the Fifty-fourtli Massa- 
chusetts Regiment (Colonel Shaw's colored regiment). This youth, 
scarcely nineteen, after serving with the Massachusetts Forty-fourth in 
North Carolina, was oftercd a captaincy in Colonel Shaw's re'..;iment, 
and at that notable charge he led his men gallantly to the parapet of 
the Rebel intrenchments, and fell wounded in the hottest of the fight. 
. . . Captain Russel's manly bearing and excellent qualities endeared 
him strongly to his friends. He gave evidence of precocious abilities 
as an officer, and his early career was full of promises of honorable 

Si.MPKiNS, WiLLi.AM H.AKRis. Corporal. Captain 54th Mass. Vuls., May 11, 
1S63. Killed at the assault on Fort Wagner, July iS, 1S63. The 
following is from the Shaw •' Memorial " ; — 

jTU.r.r ';.o..-. ! ■■ii.'Kd' 

■ i-.. ' ■(. 


" These two young men [Simpkiiib and RusselJ, one not yet twentv- 
four and the other only nineteen, served together in Company F, 
Forty-fourth iMabsachusetts Regiment, lor the nine months' term, re- 
turning a short time before the regiment in order to take commissions 
in the Fifty-fourtli. 

" Let us give due honor to the men who sought commissions in the first 
negro regiment from such motives as theirs. Captain Simpkins wrote 
from New Berne when liis name was selected for a commission : ' I have 
now to tell you of a pretty important step that I have just taken. I 
have given my name to be forwarded to Massachusetts for a commission 
in the Fifty-fourth (negro) Regiment, Colonel Shaw. . . . This is no 
hasty conclusion, no blind leap of an enthusiast, but the result of much 
hard thinking. It will not be at first, and probably not for a long time, an 
agreeable position, for many reasons too evident to state ; and the man 
who goes into it resigns all chances in the new white regiments that must 
be raised. ... If I am one of the men selected, why should I refuse ? 
I came out here, not from any fancied fondness for a military life, but 
to help along the good cause.' This was the letter of a youth to whom 
a military life was distasteful, but wlio, following his idea of duty, had 
fitted himself for it by careful study so well that, as captain in the Fifty- 
fourth, he commanded the respect as well as affection of his brother 
otBcers, who say he would have adorned the high position which only 
death prevented liis attaining. . . . The writer of this knew Captain 
Simpkins. His sweet and manly nature, liis clear and strong intellect, 
made his friendship dearly prized by all who knew him well ; but only 
those nearest to him recognized under his natural modesty of character 
the possible hero whose life became complete and glorious on the 
bastion of Fort Wagner." 

The story of the return of Captain Shiipkins's pistol to his family 
several years after the war is too interesting to be omitted. 

In September, 1S75, the following letter appeared in the Boston 
" Globe." 

Office of R. A. W. James, Attorney and Counsellor at Law-, 
Dyersburg, Tenn., Sept. 25, 1S75. 
To the Editors of the Globe. 

Gentle.mek, — I have in my possession a six-inch Smith & Wesson 
repeating pistol, upon the handle of wliich is engraved " Captain W. H. 
Simpkins, Fifty-fourth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, from J. L." 

I took it from the body of a dead Federal officer on the 27th of June, 
1864, at the salient on the Kenesaw Mountain line, Georgia. 

As this is the era of reconciliation between the Gray and the Blue, 
and as the gallant officer may have relatives or friends who would ap- 
preciate a memento of him, I am an.xious to restore it to them if thty 
will place themselves in communication with me. 

Believing that a mention of this, if published in your paper and 
copied throughout your State, might lead to inquiries by the friends of 
the deceased officer, I anxiously ask its insertion. My address is 

R. A. W. jAMES,'zVr.3«/y, Tcnn. 

-■M (f. ^0 


This letter soon came to the notice of (Captain Simpkins's father, 
the late John Sinii)kins, Esq., of Jamaica Plain, who opened a cor- 
respondence with Major James, which resultetl in the return of the 
pistol, accompanied by the following generous letter : — 

Office 01 R. A. \V. James, .\rTORNEY and Counsellor at Law, 
Dyerskuro, Tex.n., Oct. 27, :S75. 
John Simpki.vs, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir, — Your favor of 3d came to liand in due course of 
mail, and I would have replied to it sooner, but for an e.xtraordinary press 
of business. I forwarded the pistol by mail, according; to your instruc- 
tions, about a week ago, and hope that you have received it. I wish I 
could place you in possession of such information as would enable you to 
trace it back to your son, but 1 am afraid I shall never be able to do 
so. On the 27th June, 1S64, the Confederate line occupying the salient 
to the left of Kenesaw Mountain was attacked by a Federal division 
whose number and commander I have forgotten, but you can ascer- 
tain by reference to almost any history of the late war. Am sorry 
I have none at band to which I could refer and intbrni you. The attack 
was a terrible one, and the fighting, at one time, almost hand to hand. 
The attacking division, after a desperate charge, which was unsuccess- 
ful, retired. E.xpecting a countercharge, a number of our troops ad- 
vanced a short distance in front of the Confederate works, where I took 
the pistol from the body of an officer whose rank I eitlier did not 
notice or have forgotten. He must have been a gallant fellow, — prob- 
ably a friend and comrade of your son, — for his body was not more 
than twelve or fifteen feet from tlie Confederate works and surrounded 
by heaps of dead comrades. 

Receiving no orders to charge, and tlie firing in a few moments becom- 
ing again heavy, those of us wiio had advanced beyond the works retired 
into them again, and the firing continued almost unremittingly until on 
the 29th — I believe it was — a truce was had and the dead between 
the lines were buried. The body of the officer I mention was lying 
partially on a beautiful stand of colors, which bore the name of some 
regiment, I presume, — I know there was some inscription on it. The 
colors were picl<ed up and subsequently presented to General Hardee, 
to whose corps I belonged. General Hardee gave the colors back to the 
captor and told him to give them to his sweetheart. I knew the man ; 
his name was Woltz, and he resided in Midw.ay, East Tennessee, but 
I have not heard of him since the close of the war, e.xcept that he has 
left Midway. General Hardee is dead, as you perhaps know, and I know 
of no means of ascertaining to what regiment the colors belonged, 
unless indeed some of iny comrades in arms, who are now widely scat- 
tered, should remember, which I think improbable. 

The vicissitudes of the campaign of North Georgia were such that 
minor circutiistances in engagements were soon forgotten e.xcept by 
those particularly affected by thein. If I could ascertain to what regi- 
ment the colors belonged, — and Woltz could tell that, — it miglit pos- 

-,>! ' l;:i,: .-:'in,\ Jv 


sibly furnish a clew which would lead to the nnme of the officer, for 
I think he and the colors beloii^'ed to ihe same regiment. 

Any information 1 may hereaiter be able to obtain touching the 
matters of wliich you inquire I will communicate to you. I shall 
preserve your kind letter as a memento but little less dear to me than 
the pistol to you. I only care to remember the late war in so far as it 
teaches its participants to respect each other's feelings, honor each 
other's bravery and magnanimity, and love each other's common mother 
country. Hoping to hear from you again, and that you have received 
the pistol, 1 have the honor to be 

Yours fraternally, 

R. A. W, James, 
Formerly Major wth Rei^t. Tenn. Infantry, C. S. A. 

Note. — It will be seen that the pistol has had an eventful histop,- : First 
belonging to a Federal officer at his death, it fell into the hands of tlie Con- 
federates. It then passed into the possession of a Federal soldier, when and 
where we can probably never know, and then it once more passed into the 
possession of a Confederate ofricer in the manner rehated. The weapon is in 
fine condition, and has evidently been carefully preserved. 

SouLE, Ch.arles Carroll. Frivaic. Sen-ed as pri^•ate in Co. F from 
October 6 to October 22, when he was transferred to Company B 
as Second Lieutenant. (For subsequent service, see Cornpany B.) 

Tewksbcry, George H. Private. Corporal Co. H, 6th :Mas3. Vols., 
July 16, 1864 ; discharged Oct. 27, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Tweed, Willl^m Henry. Private. Corporal Co. A, 42d Iklass. Vols., 
July 14. 1S64 ; discharged Nov. 11, 1S64, on e.xpiration of sen-ice. 

Weld, George Mlvot. Sergeant. Declined commission in 18th Mass. 

\VESTO^r, George. Private. Second Lieutenant iSth Mass. Infantry 
March 4, 1S63. Died at Boston, Jan. 5. 1S64, of wounds received 
at Rapp.ihannock Station, Va., Nov. 7, 1S63. 

Weston left the company before its term of ser\ice expired, le.iving 
behind him the memory of a man always prompt and brave in every 
duty, and of a singularly bright and cheery disposition. One of his 
comrades and former classmates writes lovingly of him : — 

" Weston had been a good private soldier, and he made an admirable 
officer, — cheerful and bright when in health, uncomplaining and patient 
in sickness, and in the march and on the battlefield the soul of fortitude 
and courage. . . . But the strength of his character was, after all, in the 
exquisite kindliness and geniality of his nature. This it was which 
m.ade him so universally a favorite. His sunny humor was a sort of 
intellectual outgrowth of those trai's of his moral nature, and seemed to 
answer perfectly to that definition of a great writer which makes humor 
to consist of Move and wit.' .Among his friends Weston's name was 
almost a svnonvm ibr %n\\i\\\\\t.'^ — Har-^'ard .Memorial. 


Woodward, G forge Moore. Private. First Lieutenant 55tli Mass. 
Vols., June 7, 1S63 ; Captaiii, July 27, 1864 ; severely wounded in 
the leg at tlic battle of Honey Hill, S. C, Nov. 30, 1S64; mus- 
tered out with regiment, Aug. 29, 1S65 

Company G. 
Au.uis, JOHX. Private. Private Co. K, 57th Mass. Infantry, April 6, 

1864 ; discharged July 30, 1S65, on expiration of service. 
Adams, Warrex Whitney. Private. First Lieutenant Co. B, 60th Mass. 

Vols., July 16, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1S64, on expiration of 

Ali-EN, Walter B.-vi.four. Private. Private Co. B, nth Mass. Vols., 

Aug. 31, 1S64; discharged June 4, 1865, on expiration of service. 
Bunker, Nath.-lniel Wveth. Private. Private Co. I, 56th Mass. Vols. 

March 10, 1S64; Second Lieutenant July i, 1S65, but not mus- 
tered; discharged July 12, 1865, on expiration of service. 
Chase, Lorixg Augustus. Corporal. Sergeant Co. F, 5th Mass. Vols., 

July 16, 1864 ; discharged Nov. 16, 1864, on expiration of ser- 
Delano, Willi.\-M C. Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, June 2, 

1864 ; Discharged June 16, 1S65, on expiration of service. 
G.\RDNER, Ja.mes Fr.\ncis. Sergeant. First Lieutenant in Washington, 

D. C, Rifles, from June i, 1864, to July, 1865. 
Hersey, .Andrew J. Private. Sergeant Co. H, 3d R. L Cavalry, April 

15, 1864; discharged Nov. 29, 1865, on expiration of service. 
Hersey, J.\coe H. Private. Sergeant Co. H, 3d R. L Cavalry, April 

15, 1864; discharged Nov. 29, 1865, on expiration of service. 
HOEBS, SEiH J. Private. Third Assistant Engineer, U. S. Navy. He 

was last seen in the Mediterranean, on board of a United States 

Hodges, Aemon Daxforth, Jr. Private. Second Lieutenant Co. B, 

42d Mass. Infantry, July 20, 1864; discharged Nov. n, 1S64, on 

e.xpiration of sen'ice. 
Holt, Ball.\rd, 2d. Private. Private Co. B, nth Mass. Infantry, 

Aug. 26, 1S64 ; discharged June 4, 1865, on expiration of service. 
L4NE, Thonl\s J. Private. Quartermaster Sergeant 4th Mass. Cavalry, 

Feb. iS, 1864; Second Lieutenant May n, 1865; First Lieutenant 

Aug. 9, 1SG5 ; discharged Nov. 14, 1865, on expiration of senice. 
Le Cain, Charles La.mont. Private. Corporal Co. II, 6th Mass. 

Vols., July 16, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of 

LiFP, Leodeoak M. Private. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. Infantry, 

July 30, 1S63 ; First Lieutenant Nov. 21, 1S63 ; Captain, Sept. 21, 

1S64 ; discharged July 12, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

: ".. /J) ^' 

286 FOUrV-ruL-RTH MASSACirUSETlS i.vr\..TRY. 

Merkim., Thomas Tocie. Friva/<-. Pri\ate 4ih 1. niatached Company 
Infantry, May 3, 1S64; disLl'.a'.cd Aug. 6, 1K.J4, nn expinaicjii of 
service. Private Cc. D, ist Frontier Cavalry. Ji!'. 2, 1S65 ; dis- 
charged June 30, 1S65, on expiration of sei-. ice. 

Perkins, Ezr.\. Private. Second l.lL'.itenant '- ■', G, 6otl) Infantry 
M. V. M., Jtdy 19. 1S64; di.icli;irgei.l Xuv. .:o, i^'iJ4, on expiration 
of ser\ice. 

Powers, Stephe-v A.mcrose. Corfaral. Sergeant ''-j. T, 2d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Bee. 25, 1S63; discliarged Sept. s. iSo^. After the war 
was in U S. Marine Corps for se-.eral years. 

Priest, John Dodd. Corfoial. Second Lieutenant 56th Mass. "\"ols., 
July 30, 1863; First Lieutenant, May 17, 1S64. Died at George- 
town, June 22, 1S64, from a woand received wLae on liie skinnish- 
line at "Salem Church," May 31, 1S64. 

The following extract from tlie letter of a ' Tothor officer, written 
hurriedly from tlie field, shows the regard in \\hlc!i he was held by 
the members of liis regiment : — 

" It on this occasion becomes a duty, tboug'.i a sorry one, to cummu- 
nicafe to you the fact that my cear friend an(l fcllow-oflicer, your de- 
voted son, was last evening, in an action witli the enemy, wounded by a 
bullet in the groin. 

" I did not see liim, as I did net come to tl;p le'a" uniil late at night. 
He was sent to the rear m an ambulance, and v.ill proiiably have a fur- 
lough to go home. Poor words of mine cannot properly expres-i the 
feeling of regret with which tlie fellow officers and soldiers of this 
command part with Lieutenant Priest. He is a w'm to be proud of, a 
man to be admired, a soklier whose conscientious bravery is an example 
for officers and men to follow. 

" He is on the eve of promotion, wliich is nn-i'ted in a high degree. 
You have my heartfelt sympatliy in his illness, bi:t I hope to see him 
with us again in his new rank which he lias so gloriously earned." 

Rayjioxd, W.\lter L.VXDOR. Private. Private Co. L, ist ?vlass. Cavalry, 

Jan. 6, 1S64. Died Dec. 25, 1S64, of piieiiinonia, at Salisbury, 

N. C, while prisoner of war. 
S.\wvER, Lv.\UM J. Private. Pri\ate Co. C, 311 M.iss. Heavy Artillery, 

Oct. 6, 1863 ; deserted Jan. 27, i;s64. 
TowxsEND, Albert W. Private. Fnlisted in a New York regiment. 

Died at Florence, S. C, January, 1S65, while [iri'ioner of war. 
White, J.ames Cushing. First Lieutenant. Captain 2d Mass. Heavy 

Artillery, Aug. 14, 1S63 ; discharged Sept. 3, 1S65, on expiration 

of senice. 
Wood, Charle.-^. Private. Sergeant-Major sotli M;i>s. Infantry, Dec. 

28, 1S63. Died Feb. 5, 1S64, nt rs.cadville, M iss. 


Company H. 

BOLLES, Geokge B. Private. Corporal Co. F, 5th Mass. Infantry, July 
20, 1S64 ; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of Service. 

BuMPUS, EvERErr C. Private. First enlisted as private in Co, C, 4th 
Regt. M. V. M., April 22, 1861 (company commanded by his 
father) ; discharged July 22, 186 1, on expiration of service. Second 
Lieutenant loth Co. Heavy Artillery, Sept. i, 1863. Afterwards 
attached to 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery. First Lieutenant Oct. 28, 
1864; discharged Sept. 18, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Dawes, Richard Craxch. Private. Acting Ensign, U. S. Navy, Dec. 
14, 1863; resigned Jan. 11, 1867. 

Hersev, John W. Private. Sergeant Co. D, 60th Infantry M. V. M., 
July 16, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of service. 

HiGGixs, Ben-j.A-MIN. Private. Private Co. '\\., 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery, 
Aug. 26, 1S64; discharged June 17, 1865, on expiration of service. 

HiGGiNS, George Allen. Private. Private nth Mass. Battery, Jan. 2, 
1864; discharged June 16, 1865, on expiration of service. 

Howe, .-Albert RicH-IKDS. Second Lieutenant. Second Lieutenant 5th 
Mass. Cavalry, Dec. 17, 1S63 ; ist Lieutenant, Jan. 7, 1864; Cap- 
tain, Jan. 18, 1864; Major, Feb. 16, 1865; mustered out Oct. 
31, 1865, on expiration of ser\ice. Died of heart disease, at 
Chicago, June i, 1S84. 

Moore, Matih(as J. Private. First Sergeant 14th Mass. Battery. Feb. 
27, 1864. Wounded at Crossing of North Anna River. Second 
Lieutenant, Jan. 25, 1S65 ; discharged June 16, 1865, on exjjiration 
of service. Died at Northfield, N. H., Nov. 15, 18S5, aged 52 

MouLTON, Gr-ANVille W. Private. Private Co. A, 2d Mass. Cavalry, 
Feb. 26, 1864; discharged July 25, 1S65, on expiration of scr\ice. 

Nash, Osborn Preble. Private. Private in Signal Corps, U. S. Army, 
March 30, 1S64. Served at New Orleans, Natchez, Vicksburg, and 
on the Mississippi River ; discharged Aug. 3, 1865, on expiration of 

P.^CK.'VRD, Elisha. Private. Corporal Co. B, 60th Mass. Vols , July 16, 
1864 ; discharged Nov. 30, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Peabody, Lv.%l\n Everett. Private. Private Co. M, 3d Mass. Heavy 
Artillery, Aug. 27, 1864 ; discharged June 17, 1865, on expiration of 

Rennard, George WASurxoTON. Private. Private Co. G, 58th Mass. 
Vols., March 26, 1S64; discharged July 13, '865, on expiration of 

Sawyer, Wu.lakd G. Private. Pnvate Co. C,3d Mass. Heavy .Artillery, 
Oct. 6, 1S63 ; deserted Jan. 27, 1864. 


S.\irrir, "WiLii.wi \'. Captain. First entered the service as Second Lieu- 
tenant I'-':: ^'dss. Vols., Aug. 20, 1S61. Resigned June 11, 1S62. 
Captain 7th U. S. C. T., Oct. 22, 1863. Discharged with brevet 
rank of Lieutenant- Colonel, Oct. 22, 1S66. 

Storrow, Sam;;; :,. Private. First Lieutenant 2d Mass. Infantr}-, Sept. 
22, 1S64 : tVcd of wound received at Averysboro', N. C, ]March 16, 
1S65. (See Harvard Alciiwrial Bioi^raphy.) 

Wf.EKS, Geof:..:; %;. Private. Private Company G, 56th J^Iass. Infantry, 
Jan. 19, I. -.05 ; discharged June 30, 1S65, on expiration of service. 


EURBANK, Ai.ON/JO F. Private. Corporal Co. E, 6th Mass. Infantry, 
July 18, I? Jd : discharged Oct. 27, 1S64, on expiration of ser\-ice. 

Chandler, R' wj.'.mix P.a.rker. Private. Acting Civil Engineer in M . S. 
Navy, aluxhcd to the Pensacola Navy Yard. Died there Sept. 1 2, 
1S74, of yi;'l::iv fe\er. 

CoHniiORXE, W'liiiAM. Private. Private Co. .A, 40th New Jersey In- 
fantry, March 10, 1S64; discharged July 25, 1S65, on expiration of 

Currier, HfCH I.i.gare. Private. Private nth Mass. Infantry, Sept. 
7, 1864; discharged June 4, 1S65. on expiration of service. Died 
at Everett, Mass., Dec. 29, 1S79. 

Fletcher, \\'Ai;Rrx Giul\n. Private. Pri\-ate nth Mass. Battery, 
Jan. 2, 1.S64 : discharged June 16, 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Foss, jAiiES }irADr;oN. Private. Sergeant Co. I, 59th Mass. Infantry, 
.\ug. 2, ih'.-x. Died Nov. 4, 1S64, at McDougal Hospital, New 

JONFJ, HExr\ Lrowx. Sergeant. First Lieutenant i ith Unattached 
Company Heavy .Artillery (afterwards 3d Mass. Heavy Artillery), 
Oct. 21, 1063. Resigned for disability, Dec. 22, 1S64. 

Maco.mler, Hkxrv Seymour. Corporal. Sergeant Co. H, 6th Infantry 
■ M. V. M., July 16, 1S64 ; discharged Oct. 27, 1S64, on expiration 
of ser\-ice. 

Newell, Julil? T. Private. Second Lieutenant 4th Heavy .Artillery, 
Aug. 16, 1064 ; First Lieutenant. Feb. iS, 1SG5. On duty at Rich- 
mond and Manchester, Va., and for a while served on staff of Gen. 
Carey; discharged June 17, 1865, on expiration of service. 

Parker, SxEniEX Henry. Private. Sergeant Co. D, 59th ^lass. In- 
fantry, Feb. 9, 1S64. Died July 30, 1S64, of wounds received at 
Petersburg, Va. 

Poole, Fraxcis H. Private. Enlisted as seaman in U. S. Navy, Sept. 
21, 1S63. Promoted mate, and was on duty on L'. S. S. S. "Wa- 
bash," at Chariest own Navy Yard, for several years. Died at VVelies- 
ley, Mas,., Dec. 4, iSS6. 


Pr-ATT, Gfjirge Henry. PrtTtitc. Sergeant Co. E, 56th Mass. Infantry, 
Jan. 12, 1S64; discharged July 12, 1865, on expiration iif service. 

PuRBECK, Marcellus Augustl^s. Private. Private in Signal Corps, 
U. S. .-\rmy, March 29, 1S64; liischarged Aug. 26, 1S65, on expira- 
tion of service. 

RHO.-iDES, Lawrence. Private: Was discharged from the regiment at 
New Berne, to remain with Capt. J. A. Goldthwait, District Com- 
missar)-, Jime 4, 1S63. Was appointed Commissary of Subsistence, 
U.S. Vols., with rank of Captain, July 2, 1864; mustered out Aug. 
22, 1S65. Brevet Major, U. S. V., March 26, 1S65. "for faithful 
and meritorious services during the campaign against the city of 
Mobile and its defences." Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. V., 
March 26, 1S65 ; and brevet Colonel, U. S. V., March 28, 1S65, 
" for faithful and meritorious senaces during the war." 

Taylor, William A. Private. Sergeant Co. K, 4th Mass. Cavalry, 
March i, 1S64; discharged Nov. 14, 1S65, on expiration of service. 
Died at Boston, Dec. 4, 18 78. 

TiLDEN, Joseph. Sergeant. Second Lieutenant 54th Mass. Infantrj-, April 
I, 1S63 ; First Lieutenant, May 13, 1863. Transferred to 55th 
Mass. as Captain, May 27, 1863 ; discharged for disability, July 14, 

1863 ; served as A. A. G. on staff of General Pierce during the draft 
riots in Boston. Died at Honolulu, H. I., July 9, 18S5, in conse- 
quence of injuries received at fire. 

Tyler, Herbert. Private. Sergeant Co. A, 42d Mass. Vols., July 14, 

1864 : discharged Nov. 11, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Company- K. 

Bailey, Walter. Private. First enlisted in regular army, Jan. 3, 1861. 
Sent with the reinforcements to Fort Sumter, and was on duty during 
the bombardment under ^L^jo^ Anderson. Upon surrender of the 
fort was sent to New York, and assigned to Co. H, 2d U. S. Infantry, 
and took part in the battle of Bull Run. Discliarged by civil author- 
ity, being under age. In the fall of 1863, re-enlisted in Co. C, ist 
Vermont Cavalry. Wounded in front of Winchester, Nov. 12, 1864, 
while on picket, and discharged soon afterwards. 

I'l'ssei.t, Alfred W. Private. Private Co. G, 5Sth Mass. Infontry, 
March 26, 1S64. Killed at Petersburg, Va., July 12, 1S64, while 
acting as color-sergeant. 

Dorr, John. Sergeant. First Lieutenant Co. G, 6oth Mass. Infantry, 
July 19, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1S64, on expiration of service. 

Fisher. .\i.ncRT. Private. Private Co. L, 2d Mass. Heavy .\rtillery, 
Dec. 22, 1863; discharged Sept. 3. 1S65, on expiration of service. 

Fisher, Naihan U'arrex. Private. Private Co. K, 42d Infantry 



M. V. M.jjuly iS, 1S64; discharged Nov. 11, 1864, on expiration of 

GiLMORE, Lu.MAN \V. Private. Private 16th Mass. Battery, May ii, 

1864; discharged June 27, 1865, on expiration of scr\ice. Received 

spinal injury at Fairfax Court House. 
Gould, William A. Private. Corporal Co. F, 5th Infantry M. V. M., 

July 20, 1864; discharged Nov. 30, 1864, on expiration of senice. 
Gray, Charles L. Private. Private in Co. K, 42d Infantry M. V. M., 

July iS, 1S64 ; discharged Nov. 11, 1S64, on expiration of service. 
Hartshorn, Lowell Ebexi-:zer. Private. Private Co. A. 56th Mass. 

Infantry, Dec. 26, 1S63. Died while prisoner of war at Anderson- 

ville, Ga., Dec. 17, 1S64. 
jESStiP, A\'illh.m k. Private. Private Co. K, 42d Mass. Infantry, July 

18, 1864; discharged Nov. 11, 1864, on expiration of ser\-ice. 
Jones, Dennis Hartwell Private. Enlisted in 44th Regt. at tlie 

age of sixteen. First Lieutenant 5Sth Mass. Infantry, June 19, 1863. 

Killed accidentally, March 23, 1864. 
Keen, Jarius P. Private. Private Co. E, 56th Mass. Infantry, Jan. 12, 

1864; discharged July 20, 1865, on expiration of service. 
LORING, FR.ANK MiNOT. Private. Private in Co. B, 6th Infantry M. V. M.. 

July 17, 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 
MouLTON, Edward C. Private. Corporal Co. F, 59th Mass. Infantry, 

Feb. 20, 1S64. Killed at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 
Rhoades, Charles J. Private. Corporal Co. K, 6th Mass. Infantry, 

July 14. 1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of ser\-ice. 
Trout, Thomas K. Private. Private Co. .\, 6th Mass. Infantry, July 15, 

1864; discharged Oct. 27, 1864, on expiration of service. 
Wentworth, George .Augustus. Private. Private in Co. G, 2d Mass. 

Cavalry, March 31, 1864; discharged June 28, 1865, on expiration 

of service. Wounded in the head by a sabre-cut, at batrie of Aldie, 

July 6, 1S64. 


r/:.«. ■«?*!>. 



OT lone; after the muster out of the horty- 
fourth Regiment the draft riots occurred, 
and it was called together by the foilow- 
insj order: — 




Boston, July 14, 1863, 
S/'etidl Order JVo. .303. 

Colonel Lee, Forty-fourth Massachusetts Vol- 
unteer ^niitia, will cause his regiment to assemble at their armory, 
Boylston Hall, forthwith, and await further orders. 
By order of the Cominander-in-Chief. 

Wm. ScHOt'i.ER, Adjutaiit-Gi'tcral. 

So many men had gone away on business or pleasure th;it our 
ranks were far from full, but all who were within call responded 
promptly. The regiment remained on duty till the i6lh, when 
they were dismissed by the following order: — 

Headquarters. Faneuil Hall Square, Eosto.n, July 21. 1863. 
Special Order No. 6. 

Colonel F. L. Lee, commanding Forty-fourth ^L^ssachusett5 Volunteer 
Militia, and Colonel Charles R. Codman, commanding Forty-fiflh Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Militia, are hereby ordered to dismiss their resijecti\e 
commands until further orders \\\ issuing this order the general com- 
manding is desired by his Excellency the Go\ernor to express to them, 
their officers and men. his thanks for their prompt response to tlie call of 
duty and the admirable manner in which they have performed it. 

Every duty has been performed to the entire satisfaction of the com- 
manding general. 

By command of 

R. A. Pi:!RCF., Brigadier-Genen,!. 
C. J. HlGGINSON, ../. A. G. 

294- f'' APPENDIX. 

The last order entered in the regimental order-book relates to 
the draft riots, and refers to sending out pickets and reconnoitring 
parties. There is a postscript in Colonel Lee's o\\ n handwriting, 
— the first time it appears in the book, — which is very charac- 
teristic to those who knew him well : — 

" Enjoin upon the officers to save the detachments on duty as much 
fatigue as possible." 

•"t ■ ■' , 



;iO EARLY every year since the return of the 
' Forty-fourth some of the companies have 
been in the habit of holding reunions, — 
among tliem C, D, E, and F. Companies 
C, E, and F are regularly organized, but 
Company D never formed an association, 
although it elected officers at each meeting. 
At the reunion of the latter company, De- 
cember, 1875, the subject of forming a 
regimental association was broached and 
discussed, and by vote of those present 
I ^-^ the secretary was authorized to call a 

KaV-t ■;■ ' meeting at Parker's, Jan. 13, 1876, of all 

termer members of the regiment, to consider 
the subject. About si>:ty responded; and after several questions 
had been asked and suggestions made, the constitution as re- 
ported by a self-constituted committee was adopted, and the vote 
passed to form an association. The officers elected were : 
Colonel F. L. Lee, president; Adjutant E. C Johnson, treasurer; 
Corporal James B. Gardner, secretary. The constitution pro- 
vides that any former member of the regiment who has been 
honorably discharged may become a member of the Association 
by the payment of one dollar. This constitutes a life member- 
ship, as there are no assessments. 

The first annual meeting was appointed for December 14, the 
fourteenth anniversary of the battle of Kinston. As man\' of 
our men wished to come together earlier, a special meeting was 
arranged for March 14, the anniversary of the battle of New 
Berne. At this special meeting there were one hundred and 
thirteen members present. Annual meetings have been held 

:r'v ':;j 

■:-' aV 

Jfr'y; .' ! ii 

^^■:>5.,-, '1,. :\ ■n^itJ fl. [iii-^ 
rjil; out !. l-.:ini; 1<-|f> ''I 

; ■ - ,'. .■■, fy .^i .,■ f!jrr; tuo 


regularly since 1876, and latterly the third Wednesday of Jan- 
uary has been the date selected. 

On Sept. 17, 1S77, the regiment paraded, — probably for the 
last time as a regiment, — on the occasion of the dedication of 
the Soldiers' Monument. Lieutenant Colonel Cabot was in com- 
mand, and one hundred and sixty-four members answered at 

At the annual meeting in iSSo a committee was appointed to 
act with similar committees from the other regiments of our 
brigade to arrange for a brigade reunion. The Twenty-fourth 
Massachusetts and Tenth Connecticut did not appoint commit- 
tees ; but the Fifth Rhode Island and ours made the necessary 
arrangements, and delegates were present from the regiments 
first named. The reunion was held at Rocky Point on July 30, 
about four hundred being present. 

On Aug. 29, 1882, the regiment celebrated the twentieth anni- 
versary of its going into camp, by a gathering at the Point 
of Pines, quite a delegation from the Fifth Rhode Island being 
present as invited guests. 

Soon after the election of Wm. Garrison Reed to the secre- 
taryship he suggested the idea of securing for the Association 
portraits of our field and staff, and of our brigade, division, and 
corps commanders. His suggestion met a favorable response, 
the necessary expenses were promptly subscribed, and at the 
annual meeting in 1883 the pictures were exhibited to the mem- 
bers of the regiment. They are in crayon, and were drawn by 
Mr. Charles Stanford. Generals Foster, Wessells, and Stevenson, 
Adjutant Hinckley, and Colonel Sisson are framed singly, and 
hang in one of the private dining-rooms at Young's. The large 
picture of the field and staff is stored, except when brought out 
at the regimental reunions. The portrait of General Thomas G. 
Stevenson was presented by his brother. General Robert H. 
Stevenson, and that of Adjutant Hinckley by his father, Isaac 
Hinckley, Esq., of Philadelphia. 

At the annual reunion in January, 18S5, Comrades Reed and 
Mclntire gave an account of their recent trip to Xorth Carolina, 
and by aid of a stereopticon exhibited views of many places which 
were familiar to us when wc were wearing the blue. 

C' •<• 




The officers of the Association have been as follows : 

Colonel F. L. Lee. . . . . 
Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. Cabot 
Captain S. W. Richardson 
First Lieutenant Wni. Hed^e . 
Second Lieutenant C. C. Soule 
First Sergeant A. C. Pond . . 

1876' Sergeant G. B. Maconiber 
1S77: Private C. J. Mclntire . 
187S Adjutant E. C. Johnson . 
1S79 Captain C. Storrow . . 
iSSo Private E. C. Bumpus . 



E. C. Cabot, Charles Hunt, George B. Lombard 1876 

S. W. Richardson, \V. V. Smith, W. Hedge 1877 

H. D. Sullivan, J. W. Cartwright, W. Hedge 1878 

VV. A. Simmons, A. D. Stebbins, A. B. Wetherell 1879 

C. J. Mclntire, A. C. Pond, C. Storrow 18S0 

F. G. Webster, George Pope, F. S. Gifford 1881 

C. W. Chamberlain, R. C. Waterman, H. W. Hartwell 1882 

E. C. Johnson, George L. Keyes, VV. C. Cotton 1S83 

H. D. Sullivan, Theoiore M. Fisher, C. Storrow ....;.. 1884 

John Parkinson, W. H. Alline, William Gillespie 1885 

A. S. Hartwell, L. W. Rogers, George B Lombard 1886 



H. W. Hartwell 1876 

F. D. Montgomery .... 1877 

L. W. Rogers . ' 1878 

E. R. Rand 1S79 

A. W. Edmands iSSo 

J. A. Wallace 1881 

C. H. Bailey 18S2 

F. F. Gibbs 1S83 

J. E. Gott 1S84 

S. A. F. Whipple 18S5 

G. F. Wellington 1SS6 

Co.MP.WY B. 

S. A. Walker 1876 

G. L. Keyes 1877 

A. B. Wetherell 1S78 

C. C. Soule 1S70 

J. S. Barrows 18S0 

W. Gillespie 1 88 1 

G. W. Brooks 18S2 

E. D. Farnu; 
C. C. Patten 
H. N. Hyde 
C. W. Knigh 



Company C. 

A. C. Pond i8''6 

G. R. Rogers 1877 

W. Ware^ 1878 

A. Cutting 1879, 'S84 

W. H. Alline ..... 1880 

E. C. Burrage i88t 

C. E. Barker 1882 

H. S. Bean 18S3 

J. VV. Small 1S85 

VV. C. Cotton 1 886 

H. D. SuUiv 
VV. K. Mill.i 
George Saw 

1877, 18S 

r. ,(l.-.V/ ./ 


I. W. Moody .... 
E A. Messinger . . . 

W. H. Nc-al 1SS2 

S. S. Bartlett .... 
Henry Howard .... 
J. B. Gardner .... 
E. B. Hosmer .... 


1879 !E H. Adams 1.S78 

18S0 C. A. Hovey 1S79 

E. C. Bunipus 18S0 

1SS3 J. W. Hersey .... 1881, 1S83 

1S84 H. Merriam 1882 

iSSs i G. A. .Murray ...... 1SS4 

E. Packard i8Sj 

O. P. Nash i8S6 

C. E. Tucker . 
J. J. VVyeth . . 
G. Russell . . 
G. P. Walcott . 
J. B. Rice. Jr. . 
Leslie Millar . 
J. P. Flagg, Jr. 
G. VV. VVheelwr 
W. R. Adams . 
W. S. Wilder . 


A. VV. Denny . 
G. B. Macomber 
E. N. Hewins . 
D. Cobb . . . 
J. F. Dean . . 
G. F. Jones . . 
R. E. Ashenden 
J. M. G-bbs . . 
H. B. Coburn . 
J. W. Hayward 

George Ellis 
T. J. Lawrence 
F. G. Webster 
C. J. Mclntire 
Samuel May 
P. S. Yendell 

E. S. Fisher 

F. P. Adams 
W. C. Clapp 
H. Newhr.ll . 
Jonathan Dorr 







F. M. Mears .... 
R. Maijuire 


C. Sumner . . 
R. Loudon . . 
B. F. Field, Jr. 
B. F. .'\dams . 
J. T. Sliackford 
J. McCriUis, Jr. 
T. Pinkham . . 
W. A. Gaylord . 
J. L. Eldridge . 
H. B. Jones. . 
H. N. Bridges . 



H. A. Thomas . . 

C. Chenery 

John Dorr 187S, 

W. H. Lord 

R. H. Weld 

J. Parkinson 

.Mannin:.; Emery 

F. W. Reynolds 

L N. Meserve 

T. W. Fisher . 
J. W. Cartwright 

A. Jacobs . . 

W. C. Ireland . 

F. S. Gifford . 
C. Hunt . . . 
J. R. Kendall . 

G. R. Rogers . 
J. Owens . . . 
Fred. Odiorne . 
W. B. Allen . . 





U^Q.llA^'li.,^j. . 

■W.-.ij .3 ., • 

- ir:..*.i-/i .H 


At the time of going to press three hundred and tliirty-nino 
have joined the Associati<jn. 

At the annual meeting, Jan. 20, 18S6, the treasurer showed 
a balance on hand in the general fund of S508.65 ; and the trus- 
tees of the Permanent I-"und, its nucleus being the old regimental 
fund which had been in the hands of the colonel since the war, 
at time of the transfer amounting to $875.86, reported on hand 

It is to be hoped that the Association will continue so long as 
a single member can answer " Here " at roll-call. 


To the members of the Forty-fourth the RoSTER will undoubt- 
ealy be one of the most interesting features of the Record. The 
plan of arranging the names in alphabetical order, without refer- 
ence to company or rank, was one of the first matters agreed 
upon after it was determined to compile a regimental history 
(1879), and is, we think, original with this Committee. 

A great deal of time has been devoted to ascertaining the 
present addresses and occupations of the members. Every one 
whose address is here given has replied to communications sent 
him; or, as letters sent in "request" envelopes to the given 
address have not been returned, we presume it to be correct. 
As residences and occupations are being constantly changed, 
it is of course practically impossible to have the Roster abso- 
lutely perfect, but it is believed that it will be found essentially 

Where tlie date of muster is not given, it was Sept 12, 1862; 
and where date of discharge is not stated, it was June 18, 1863. 

Readers noting errors, omissions, or changes will confer a 
favor if the}- will notifj- J. B. GARDNER, 23 Crawford Street, 
Roxbury, Mass., so that the official Roster of the Regimen- 
tal Association may be kept at all times as nearly correct as 

iiri-jOf. . . In 



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Discharged March 9, 1.S63. Disa- 
bility. Died 

Died at Marion, M.uch 25, i,S65. 

Must. Oct. 8, i8G2. Re-enlisted. 
Chapter XV. 

Dis. April 3, 1S63. Disability. 

Died at Waltham, April 5, 1S64. 

Died at New Berne. N.C.. Tune 18, 

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Mustered Oct. 13, 1862. 

Dis. Jan. 30, 1S63. Disability. 

Re-enlistei Chlpter XV. 

Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 

Pro. from 2d Lieut., Feb. 26, 1863. 







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Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Died at Gardner, Oct. 30, 1865. 

Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Rc-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Diedat Boston, Aug. 10, i8f.4. 
Diedat Portland, Me., Aug. 26, 1875. 

Re-enlistcd. Chapter XV. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 

Dis. April I, iSC^i. Disability. 
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Glazier, B. . 
Gieas.m, Mirh.ael . 
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Goodwin, Frank . 
(iolf, William C. . 

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Died at llillcrica, Jan. 6, 1S69. 
Priv. Co. G, 8th Slass., June 19 lo 

Aug. I, ISO I. 
Dis. Jan. 30, 1S63. Disability. 

Died at .Sasua la Grande. Cuba, 
Apr. iS, iSOS. 

Re-cnli.sted. Chapter XV. 
Dis. Jan. 31, 18O3. Disability. 

Died at Maiden, Dec. 18, 1875. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 





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Re-cnlisted. Chapter XV. 
Died at liostoii, July 3, 1S63. • 

Kt-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Re-enhVted. Chap. XV. Died at 


Is 6 





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Rc-cnlisted. Chapter XV. Died at 
lioston, June 30, 1874. 

Dis. Feb. 13, i,SCi3. Promotion. 
Re-enlisted. ChaplcrXV. Died 
at Boston, Jan. 18, 1879. 


Dis, Oct 6, 1S62. Disability. 

Dis. Oct. 4, 1862. Disability. 
Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Dis. Oct. 7, 1S62. Disability. 
Died at New Berne, N. C'jan- 7. 

Killed at Whitehall, N. C, Dec. 

1(5, 1863. 

Keenlisied. Chapter XV. Died 
at Wellesley, Dec. 4, I'^i^^. 

Dis. April 16, 1863. Promotion. 
Re-cnlistcd. Chapter XV. 

Died at lioston, Nov. 30, iSSo. 
Died at New Berne, N. C, Jan. 29, 

Bookkeeper . . . 

Merchant . . . 
Caulker .... 

Tanner ! ! ! ! 

sidesman! ! ! ! 
I'liysician. . . . 
Merchant . . . 

Piaper! ! ! ! ! 
Lawyer .... 

hisukailce" ! ! ! 

Machinist . . . 
Stove manufacturer 
Farmer .... 

Lumber .... 
Grocer .... 

Shipping clerk . . 

lioston .... 

Southbridge . . 
Boston .... 
Boston .... 

Bridgeport, Conn. 

Bo.s'ton ! ! ! '. 
Xcw York . . . 
P.oston .... 
Fverett .... 

Boston ! ! ! ! 
lioston .... 

Fitcliburg . . . 

Boston .... 
Boston .... 
Littleton Centre . 

Boston .... 
Waltham . . . 

lioston .... 


II iMliiiiitMc^'^ 1 Jill 1 III 1 

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tst Serg. 





Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. 
Re-enlisled. Chapter XV. 

Died at Wcynioulh, Jan. 13, 1S65. 

Re-eidislcd. Chapter XV. Died at 
Georgetown, June 22, 1864. 

Re-cnlistcd. Chapter XV. 
Rcenlisted. ChaiJtcr XV. 

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Dis. Oct. 3, 1863. Disability. 

Dis. Jan. 23, 1863. Disability. 
Died at Framinj^tiam, June 7. 1867. 
Dis. March 9, 1SO3. Disability. 

Mustered Oct. 10, 1862. 

Ke-enlistL-d. Ch. XV. Died 

Ke-enlistcd. Chapter XV. 
Dis. Oct. 3, i,Sf,2. DiMbility. 
Died at New VorU, ,\Iay 19, 1877. 
Dis. from ist Mass. in 1S61. Under 

Dis. Jan. 31, 1863. Disability. 
Died at Aiken, S.C, 187-. 

Dis. April 16, 1863. Promotion. 
Re-enlisted. Ch. XV. Killed at 
Fort Wagner, -S.C, July 18, 1863. 





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Killed at 

Died at C 

"Ji - ij! 

Holcl-clerk . . . 

Hoots and Shoes 
Carver'. '.'.'.'. 

Fa. mer ! ! ! ! 
Clerk File Comm. 

Salesman. . . . 
Salesman .... 
U.S. Sub-Treasury 
(irocer .... 

Lieutenant police . 
M.uhinist ... 
Boots and Shoes . 

Contracting agt. . 
Cottr>n-broker . . 

s" < 


II ■ ■ 1 "1 " 

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lioslou . 

New \-ork 

lio-,lon . 
Bath, Me. 
Boston . 

Boston . 
Boston . 

iioslon . 

\ew York 
Brooklvn. N 

, M 

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i ^ 3 5 

l!,)Ston . 
Boston . 

Kxeter, N. 1 
Boston . 
Newton . 

Bi.ston . 

W. C.inibric 
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2d Lieut. 


2d Lieut. 

Jill ^Jf^^ 

X X X X X X X X X x'x'x'x' ■jr-T.7. 7. 

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Dis. Feb. 17, 1S63. Disability. 

Died at Uinghani, Oct 27, 1875. 

Re-cnli.sted. Ch.XV. Killed at lioy. 
kcn':= Mills, S. C, Apr. 18, 18O5 

Re-enlisted. Chapter XV. Killed 
at Averybboro', N. C, March 16, 

Rc-eiili;,ted. Chapter XV. 


Died at lioston, March 28, 1S69. 
Killed on R K. 



Pro. from 2d Lieut., May i, 1S63. 

Died at New York, Nov. 17, 187 1. 
Reenlisttd. Chapter XV. Died at 

Boston, Dec. 4, 187S. 
Re-en!isted. Chapter XV. Died at 

St. Loui.% Aug. 17, 1866. 





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Machinist . . . 

Merchant. . . . 
Jewelry .... 

Hookscller . . . 
Express .... 
I'rov. R. R . . . 
Snp.Masun& Hamlin 
Mining .... 

Farmer .... 
Janitor .... 


' s 5 J ' s ' ' ' ' 

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Maple Hill, 'Kan. 
l'"all River . . 
Ware. . . . 
Huston . . . 

Toledo, Ohio ' '. 

Charlestown . 
Hudson . . . 

Medford . . . 
New \'ork . . 

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lioston ." ." .' 
Newton . . . 
Salida, Cal. . 

Rockton, Kan. 
Hoston . . . 

M = s.i-W; ill 

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Waltham . 
N'ewton . . 
lioston . . 

Roxburv. . 
Huston ' . . 

lioston . . 
lioston . . 
Boston . . 
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Hoston . . 

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< V 

Rc-enlisted. Chapter XV. 

Died at GambriilKC, Feb. 21, 1871. 
Keenlisted. Chapter XV. 

Died at New Heme, Jan. iS, 1S63. 

Re-enlistcd. Chap. XV. Died in 
prison, t)ct. 2H, 1S64. lUnied at 
Charleston, S. C. 

Died at Charlestown, July 25, 1873. 
Keenlisted. Chapter XV. 
Died at lioston, June 50, KS63. 
Re-enlisted. Ch"apler'XV. 

Re-enlisted. .Chapter XV. 

Died at Washington, N. C, Apr. 
ID, 1S63. Previous service with 
Sanitary Commission. 

Dis. March 14, 1S63. Disability. 

Dis. Oct. 7, 1862. Disability. Af- 
terwards served in Signal Corps. 
Died at TcwUsbury, 1S7-. 








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Mannfacturer . 
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Salesman. . . 




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lioston . . . 
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lioston . . . 
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Died at Chelsea, Nov. 17, 1866. 
Dis. Oct. 3, 1863. Disability. Snb- 

Keenlistcd. Chapter XV. 

Dis. May 30, iS(')2. rroniotion. 

Rc-ei,l,Med. t:hapter XV. 
Ke enlisiL,!. Chaptei XV. 

Died at Boston 

Rceiilisted. Chapter XV. 

ke-enlistcd. Chapter XV. 
l)i.s. [an. 14, 1K63. Disability. 
Dis. M.iy I, 1863. Disability. 

Ke-CMlislcd. Chapter XV. 
Died : 

Died at Lexington, Feb. 4, i86g. 
Died at 


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41 to 44 






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i°3 : 







;ci 102 



» Many o£ ihe men gave their n;;es more than thev nctially were, learin- rh.i 
the right ages known, (The compilt;r knows personally of several, reporied 



r:;Tirs and towns to which menu-.ers were credited 

AT i*NLisT>n:x-i'. 

Ciii^s Tcio^tis. 













Boston . . 


26 j 2] 56 



Newton . 


i f'3 


















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4 i 








i " 




Roxb'TV . 












Wai;,..!- . 



W. r.-.-.bury 







Waltl am 







Malcieri . 









Chel^ua . 









Weair.a . 









W.Cnn'. . 


i 5 



AndovLT . 





Brooki;r:e . 












Slicrhon. . 



Otl<cr tov.ns 
in .Vass.^ 













Other to-.v!i< 

outside Suitt- 













Total . . 



■ Thi^ ii'.cliide^ sixty-three cities and towns. One town is credired uith nine m-mber<; 
e, wilii ic.'.-n; three, with ^Ix : !■ -it. v iih five: tivc. with four; Light, with three: 1 

tv.enty-tl-.rce towns with one nieinh^r each. 

■ Tiii,^ represents the Stales of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Wisconsin. 


_. jo .... —i - p, ^ 

■A so ro r^ t^ O i 

^ "" ' ' ro TT - I 

?i 00 ^ 

5 ; K ^ 

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and I 



Mass. (except Uoston) . 

Total in Mass. 



California (except San Fra 
Cisco) I 

San Francisco . . . j 


Connecticut .... 





Illinois (except Chicago) 

Chicago .... 












New Hampshire . . . 
New Jersey .... 
New .Mexico .... 
New York (except New York 
City and Lrooklvn) . . 

N. Y. Citv and Brooklyn 
Ohio ...'.....' 


Rhode Island 

South Carolina .... 



Washington, D. C. . . . 



Ne'w Brunswick .... 

Nova .Scotia 





20 Us 4 

66 69 Si S 

13 ' 27 
34 17 

. I.S. 

TAJ jthaoh;! 

3v U' ■■■■: l/i 

.... I 




Skilled Mechanics . . . 

Clerks, etc ( 

Mechanical or Manufacturing 
(Principals or Managers) i 

Farmers, Planters, Stock, etc.l 


Merchants, wholesale . . 


Merchants, retail .... 


Mercantile, miscellaneous . 

Professional, miscellaneous 

Brokers and Com. Merchants 

Bookkeepers, eta . . . 

R. R. Olticers and Employees 

Government Officials (Na- 
tional, State, and City) . 

Foremen & Superintendents 

Coachmen, Laborers, etc. 


Bankers and Officers 

Out of business .... 





Real Estate 









66 69 

! ^ 

72 I 71 64 


63 723 


;' : - ■■■■,. ^iU 


44th Regiment Massachusetts Vols. 

Reproduced from Photographic Copy of Pay Rolls kindly furnished 
the Committee by 

adjt. gen. drum, u. s. a. 







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-i,\ •X'''i' ■-1--«vv<jjv 


Abbott, Henry L, i6 
Adams, John, 2S5. 
Adams, John Quincy, S. 
Adams, Warren \V., :Ay 
Adams, William R., 276. 
Allen, Dr. C. H., 236. 
Allen, Walter B., 236. 
Anderson, Colonel, 05. 
Andrew, Gov. John A , 10, 19. 
Association, Regimental, 295. 
Atkins, Francis H., 27S. 
Attwood, Cornelius G., 223. 

Rabcock, George L., 213. 

Bacon, John F., S2. 

Bailey, Walter, 2S9. 

Ballister, Joseph, 3. 

Band, Regimental, 31, 92, 21 

members, 82. 
Barker, Eben F., 271. 
Barnard, Jonathan G., 3. 
Barracks at New Berne, 71; cU 

Bartlett, Edward ]., 27S. 
Bartlett, Gen. William F.. 16. 
BatclielJer's Creek, 19S. 
Bates, Daniel D., 274. 
Bay State Forty-fourth, 106. 
Beal, Alexander, ^i. 
Beal, Charles W., 274. 
Beal, George W., 274. 
Bedell, Ch.irles H., 192. 
Beebe, J. M., & Co., 37, 38. 
Belger's Battery, 140, 143, 175. 
Belger, Capt. James, 236 
Bellows, Henry H., 271. 
Bickinore, .-Mbert S., S4. 
Bigelow. George Tvlcr, 9 
Blake, James H, Jr., 2.S, St. 
Blake, Lemuel, i, 2. 3, 6. 
Blockhouse Squad. S3. 
Blount's Creek. 175. 
Holies, George B., 2S7. 

Boston Brass Band, 31. 

Boxes from home, 93. 

liradish, Albert H., 276. 

Brewster, James B., 276. 

Hrice's Creek, S3. 

Brigades, iSth Army Corps, 58. 

Briggs, James W., 72, 81, 1 15. 

Broad Street riot, 9. 

Hrooks, George W., 272. 

Brown, B. F. & Co., 93. 

Brown, Frederick T., 73. 

Brown, Hezekiah, 93. 

Brown, Stephen, I, 2. 

Browne, Lieut.-Col. Albert G., Jr., 219. 

Brvant, Albert, 273. 

Buck, Edward R., 28. 

Bimipus, Everett C, 2S7. 

Hunker Hill Monument, 9, 10. 

Bunker, Nathaniel W., 2S5. 

Burbauk, Alonzo F., 2S8. 

Burnside Expedition, 54. 

I!urr.ige, Mr. , 37. 

Bush.Vrancis, Jr., 258. 
Bussell, Alfred W., 265, 2S9. 
Butler, .-Vlbert L., 84, 259. 

Callend.\r, Joseph, Jr., 3. 

Camp Life, 69. 

Camp, at Readville, 24; Stevenson 

(Thomas G.), 70; Lee, 204. 
Carter, George H., 274. 
Cartwright, Charles W., 38. 
Cartwriglit, James W., 276. 
Cemetery, National, at New Kerne, 227. 
Chandler, Benjamin P., 265. 2S8. 
Channing Circle of Newton, 236. 
Chase. Loring A., 285. 


5aac. 3. 

Clapp, David C, 272. 
Clark. James F., 84. 
Cleaninc up, 79. 
Cobb, Sylvanus, 30. 


•...:.' .L.-3I),-.J!A 


Cobb, Mrs. Sylvanus, 30. 

Cobb "Twins," 30,85. 

CoflSn, Jared, S4. 

Cogswell, Edward R., 27S. 

Company F., reception at Newton, 219. 

Companies K and B, Picket Duty, 197. 

Conant, John H., S4, 271. 

Concerts, 85. 

Confederate Forces in North Carolina, 

57; at Washington, N. C, 170. 
"Constitution," frigate, 5, 6. 
Contrabands, 88. 

Convent at Charlestown, burning of, 9. 
Converse, J. C, & Co., 38. 
Cook, Charles E., 278. 
Cootey, Philip I., 273. 
Copithorne, William, 288. 
Correspondence, 89. 
Courtis, A. Stacy, 259. 
Cragin, George N., 271. 
Crane, Edward W., 274. 
Crane, William D., 263, 265, 274. 
Cross, Henry C, 276. 
Cumston, James S., 86. 
Cumston, Miss Lizzie G., 236. 
Cumston, William, 38. 
Cunningham, Charles A., 28, 273. 
Currier, Hugh L., 288. 
Curtis, Joseph H., 82. 

Dabney, Maj. Charles W., 257. 
Daily routine of duty, 73. 
Dalton, James, i, 6. 
Dana, George, 2. 
Daniel, Cajitain, 105. 
Dawes, Richard C, 287. 
Dean, Joseph F., 240. 
Delano, William C, 2S5. 
.Demeritt, Charles H., 71. 
Demond, Alpheus, 272. 
Dennie, Thomas, Jr., 3. 
De Peyster, Richard V., 116, 235, 238. 
Derby, Oliver C, 276. 
Desertions, list of, 247. 
Detailed men. Si. 
Dexter, Miss Mary L., 236. 
Died of disease, 248 ; of wounds, 247. 
Discharged from disability, 249. 
Discipline, 86. 
Dodge, Albert L., 278. 
Dorr, John, 2S9. 
Dover Swamp, 223. 
Draft Riot, 293. 
Dramatic performances, 85. 
Draper, Lorenzo, 3 
Drew, Arthur, 273. 
Drummers, list of, 82. 

Dwight, Lieut.Col. Wilder, 16, 35. 
Dyer, Mr., 217. 

Edmands, Albert W., 2S, 84. 
Eighteenth Army Corps, 58. 
Ellsworth Zouaves, 10. 
Emery, Caleb, his school, 14. 
Entertainments, 85, 100. 
" Escort," steamer, 67, 181. 
Eustis, Governor, 8, 9. 
Everett, George H., 83. 
Ewer, Charles C, 28, 100. 

Farewell orders, 215. 

Field, Benjamin F., Jr., 8r. 

Fifers, list of, 82. 

Fifth Rhode Island, 67, 195. 

Fifty-eighth Pennsylvania, 66, 200. 

Fifty-fourth Massachusetts, 262. 

Fire in Boston, 8, 9. 

Fish, Abner C , 89. 

Fisher, Albert, 2S9. 

Fisher, Edwin S., 240. 

Fisher, Nathan W., 2S9. 

Fisher, Dr. Theodore W., 72, 127, 234. 

Fletcher, Warren G., 2S8. 

Foraging, 122, 123. 

Forbes, Francis H., 72. 

Forces in North Carolina, Confederate, 

57; Union, 56. 
Fort Anderson, attack on, 65, 107. 
Fort Independence, 13. 
Forty-fifth .Massachusetts, 22, 206. 
Forty-third Massachusetts, 22. 
Foss, James M., 265, 28S. 
Foster, George B., 92. 
Foster, George H., 92. 
Foster, John G., 55, 61. 
Fourth Battalion, 11, 15; Roster of, 14, 

i8; Quickstep, 16. 
Fuller, Albert. 271. 
Fuller, Ezra \., 261. 
Fund, regimental, 38. 

Galloupe, Miss Sadie K., 
Gardner, Francis, 21S. 
Gardner, James I!., 49. 
Gardner, James F., 285. 
Garnett, General, 193. 
Gifford, Frederick S., 271. 
Gilbert, Virgil, 169, 171. 
Gillespie, William. 272. 
Gilmore, Lunian W., 290. 
Gilmore, P. S , 16, 213. 
Goff, William C, 275. 


■ «iM.d<to3 

;.:-^-:-.s^i " 


Goldsboro', 133; revisited, 234. 

Goodwin, Frank, Z'S. 

Gordon, George H., 11. 

Gore, Watson, 2. 

Gould, William A., 290. 

Graham, Licutenam. 142. 

Grant, Frederick, 94. 

Grant, Moses, Jr., 2. 

Gray, Charles L., 290. 

Gray, William, Jr., 3S. 

Gregg, Miss Josie. 29. 

Greenough, William, Jr., 2. 

Grice or Gri>t place, 160, 229. 

Guard, Camp, 77 ; mounting, 76 ; police, 

" Guerriere," frigate, 6. 
Gum Swamp, 203. 

Haines, Zenas T., i8, 25, 98, 104. 

Hale, Nathan, 2. 

Hall, Kev. Edward H., 238. 

Hall. George F., 92. 

Hall, George S., 92. 

Hallett & Cumston, 3S, 213. 

" Ham Fat" Expedition, 147. 

Hamilton, 119, 122, 126. 

Hard-tack throwing, SS. 

Harding. Nathan F , 272. 

Harris, Horatio, 3S. 

Harrison, William Henry, 10. 

Hartshorn, Lowell E., 266, 290. 

Hartwell, Alfred S., 73, 278. 

Harvard College. 19. 

Hatch, Frank W., 2S. 

Hay, Joseph, 3. 

Hedge, William, 72, 273. 

Hemenway, Augustus A., 275. 

Henshaw, Ji.seph B., 2. 

Hersey, Andrew J.. 2S5 

Hersev, Jacob H , 2S5. 

Hersey, John W.. 2S7. 

Higgins, Benjamin, 2S7. 

Higgin.s George A., 2S7. 

Hight, HenrvO.,_276. 

Hill. Gen. U. H., 64- 

Hill's Point, 1S7. 

Hinckley, Wallace. 72. 25S, 270. 

Hobart. David Kimball. 167, 260. 

Hobart, George H., 275. 

Hobbs, Seth J., 2S5. 

Hodges. Almon D., fr., 2S5. 

Holt, Ballard, 2d, 2S5. 

" Home Guard." 106. 

Homer. Henrv .\.. 276. 

Hookc. Charles. lOv 

Hopkin.on. Francis C.. S4, 261 

Horton, .\ndrew T.. 273. 

Hovey, Charles A., 213. 

Hovey, Charles F., & Co., 38. 

Howard, Davis, 98, 105. 

Howard, Henry, 105. 

Howard. Matthew, 261. 

Howard. Willard, 27. 65, 104, 105. 

Howe, Albert R., 73, 2S7. 

Howe, J., Jr., 7. 

Hoyt, Henry M , 279. 

Hubbard, Hiram, Jr.. 84. 

Hunt, Harry, 107. 

Hunt, Samuel, 3. 

Hutchins, Col. William V., 5. 

Il Recruitio, 105. 
Ingraham. A. W., 212, 213. 
Ingraham, William F., 212. 
Inspections. 79. 
" Invalid Guard," 82, 251. 
Ireland, William H., 236. 

Jacobs, Augustus, 276. 
Jacobs. Augustus P., 115. 
James. Garth W., 264, 279. 
Jarvis, Deming, 3. 
Jessup. William A., 290. 
Johnson, Edward C, 72. 
Johnson, Henry W.. 172. 
Jones, Colonel, 200. 
Jones, Dennis H., 290. 
Jones, Edward L., 2S0. 
Jones, Henry B., 28S. 
Jones, Irving, 273. 
Jones, Sylvester A., 273. 
Joy, Charles F., 276. 

Kee.v, J.vrius p., 290. 
Kenrick, John, 72. 
Kent, Barker B., Jr., 2S0. 
Kent, Frederick A.. 276. 
Killed, list of, 247. 
Kimball, Henry G., 242. 

King, ,23,. 

King, B. Flint, 276. 
King, E. & F.. & Co., 38. 
Kinston, 135. 230. 

Laf.vyette. General. S. 
Lane. Thomas J.. 2S5. 
Lathrop, William H.. 2S0. 
Lawrence, Abbott, 2, 7. 
Lawrence, Charles C. 212 
Lawrence. Theodore J , 167. 
Le Cain, Charles L , 285. 

>,..„c. ^.; I 

.11 ..>; 


Lee, Francis L., 17, 86, 99. ri7. 
Lee, Mrs. Francis L., 3S. 
Leonard, John, 167. 
Letter-writing. S9. 
Lewis, Charles P., 95. 
Lewis, Wra K., 6i: Bro., 95. 
Lipp, Leudegar M., 2S5. 
Little Creek, 109. 
Littlefield, Henry W., 27 5. 
Livermore. B , 277. 
Lombard, George, 72. 
Lombard, Jacob, 73. 
Loring, Frank .M , 290. 
Lovett, Miss Nellie E., 236. 
Lyon, Henr), 84. 

MacDe.\rmid, Lieutenant, [7 
Macomber, Grenville U . 92. 
Macomber, Henry ,S., 2SS. 
Mansfield, Isaac, i. 
Mansfield, Theodore F., 272. 
Mason, Thomas D , 94. 
Massachusetts Rii^e Club, 17. 
McCleary, Mrs. S. F., 4. 

McCreadv, , 105. 

Mclntire,' Charles J., 223 
McLaughlin, Capt X. I;. 31. 
McPhee, Dr. D.inie!. 246. 
Medical and Surgical. 233. 
Mending clothe^. 90. 
Mercantile Libr.irv .Xssociatio 
^rerri^, Thomas T.. 2S6. 
Midnight drills. S7. 
Mitchell, Francis A.. 2S0. 
Monroe, Theodore I , 273. 
Moore, Matthias J.,' 2S-. 
Morehead Cit\-, 47. 
Morse, Charles, 116. 231. 259, 
Morse, Charles F., 2S0. 
•Morse, George ].. 273. 
Moulton, Edward C. 290, 
Moulton, Granville \V., 2S7. 
Mount Olive Station. 141. 
Mulliken, John, 73. 
-Murdock, Charles C, S4. 
Musicians, list of. S2. 
Muster in, jO. 
Muster out, 222. 
Myers, John H . Jr.. 277. 
Nlyrick, David, 177. 

X.\GLE, "Corporal of the Guard," 
" Xancy Skittleton," 105. 
Xash, Osbon) P., 2^7. 
Xew Feme and iti G.irri-on, ;3. 
Xew P.erne, vovage to, 41; attack c 



cs S., 277. 

Newell, juli 

i> T., 2SS. 


ul Guards, i 

; motto of 


cannon, 5 

t-, 6, S, 9: 


of, I 


s fur 

lished by, i„ 

; commanders 1 


:i, ci 

■ever, 3. 

. .■ ■ 1 



■ ■ 






d New York 

65, 107. 



i.a Kevisit.d, 


Xoursc, n.i, 

lison, 27;. 



cic E., 240. 


X, L, 

•nt "Teddv, 

' 16S, .93. 







t, 94- 





P.\CK.\l;r>, Vj IsH.A. 287. 

Palfrev, Fi.mcis \V., 16. 

Park, CharKs .S., 277. 

Parker, Harrison, 2d, 115. 

Parker, .Sltphen H , 265, 28S. 

Parkinson, John, Jr., 73, 

Parsons, Michael A., n6. 

Patten. Tln.iaas 11., 277. 

Payne, John, 192. 

Pe.ibody, Lvnian E., 287. 

Peakes, John]), 115. 

Pease, - — — , 17 

Peirce, Gen R .A., 220. 

Pensions, 2:;2, 

Perkins, Ezra, 2S6. 

Perkins, Willi .m E., 2S0. 

Personnel, 255. 

Petherick 01 Kdrick, Captain, 1S4. 

Pettigrcvv, General, 65. 

Picket Dutv of L. & F., 197. 

Pickman, Ensign, 7. 

Pierce, Henry T.. 116. 

Plimpton, Men ill F, 277. 

Plymouth, first visit to, 127; repo 

e.xpcdiiloii, 154. 
Police Guard, 77. 
Points, J,.ln, C, 242, 
Pond, Albeit C , 115. 
Poole, Francis II,. 2SS. 
Pope, George, 2S1. 
Portraits, 99. 


t of, 


■G, 2S6. 

Powers, Stephen A 
I Pratt, Ce.Mgc II. 2S9. 
I Prescott, Miss Louisa. 236. 
I Priest. John 1)., 2S6. 
I Prisoners, list of, 247, 

v,VI i 


. CO .?«? .:■' 



Proctor, George. ;73. 
Prom.. lions. 7;. 
Provost, rov 
Purbeck, Marccllu>. zSf). 
Putium, Capt. John C, 13. 

Rail-fkncks. 1:0. 
" Monitor," 200. 
Rainb-nv liiuii. i;i. 
Rami. ICJwm R., S3. 
Ralioii>, 74. 
Rawle's Mills. 109. 
Rayiiionc!, Walter L., 266, 2S6. 
Read, Oardner, & Co., 3S. 
Read, IIctiryF.. 272. 
Readvillc, camp at, 21 ; depar 


Reception in Boston. 2t7. 
Rccoiinoissance Companies A. and G , 

Regimental Fund, 3S. 
Rennard, George \\'., 287. 
Resignations, 72. 
Revere. .M.ii. Paul J., t6. 
Review at New Berne. 106. 
RevnioUls. Frank \V., 2S, 72. 
RhoaddS, Charles J., 290. 
Rhoad;s, I^awrence, 289. 
Richards, Reuben, jr., 2. 
Ricliardsim. (.lines .\I., S4, 124, 167. 271. 
Richardson, Jcrtrey, 5. 
Richard=on. Spencer W., 28. 
Richmond. William T., 273. 
Robbins, James A- 2S7. 
Roberts, Charles E., ir6. 
Rodman's Point, 16S, 245. 
Rogers, Gorham, 38. 
Rogers, I.y-auder W., S4. 
Roflins, Charles E., 115. 23 
Roster, 301. 
Rumois, 97. 
Russel, Cabot J., 263, 2S1.'KORP. DtFoREST, 106. 
Salignac Drill Corps, 17. 
Sargent. W. 1'.. 3S. 
.Sawver, I.vman J., 2S6. 
Sawyer. Willird G . 2.S7. 
Saver. Freik-rick. 32, 105. 
Scoutin'.;. i.^S. 
Scudd-r, i::i-ha G.. S5. 
'• Sced-Cakes." 0. 
Sewell, Thomas R., 3. 
Shackloid. Silas T.. S4. 
Shaw, Col. R,,bort G.. 16. 
Sick Rtports. 252. 


Simonds, Joseph W., 271. 

Simpkins, William II., 264. 281. 

Simpson, Daniel, 3, 2S. 

Sisson, Col. Henry T., iSl. 

Skinner, F.. & Co., 3S. 

Smallidge, William .\., 115. 

Smith, Frederick W., Jr., 115. 

Smith, Gen. G. W., 141. 

Smith, " Si." 3. 

Smith. William V., 2SS. 

Soldier's Aid Society, 236. 

Song-I!ook, Regimental. 28. 

Soulc, Charles C, 72, 272, 284. 

Southwest Creek, 136. 

Spinola, General, 174. 

Staff of General Foster, 59 ; General Wes- 

sells, 02 : surgical, 234. 
Statistics, 255, 270. 
Stealing whiskey, 49. 
Stebbins, Asa D., 2S, 117. 
Stebbins, Horace S., 28, 73. 

Steffen, , 17, 36. 

Stevens, Edward L., 265, 277. 

Stevenson, Nlrs. J. Thomas, 13. 

Stevenson, Thomas G., 14, 16, 17, 63, 70. 

Storrow, Samuel, 265, 2^8. 

Stove-Pipe Battery, 192. 

Streeter, Miss Carrie B., 236. 

Streeter, Miss Julia, 236. 

Sturtevant, Charles W., 27 1. 

Subsequent Service, 269. 

Sullivan, George, i, 2. 

Sullivan, Henry D., 28. 

Sumner, Clarence, 28. 

Surgeon's Call, 76, 234. 

Surgical and Medical, 233. 

Swett, Samuel, i, 2, 6, 16. 

T.\CKNF.v, John, 192. 
Tarboro'. 109. 
Taylor, Theodore E, 73. 
Taylor, \Yilliam A., 289. 
Teague, Frank W., 272. 
Tenth Connecticut. 70. 13S. 
Tewksbury. George H., 2S4. 
Thanksgivin;;. S3. 
Tibbetts. T. R.. jS. 
Tidd. Charles R.. 2, 7. 
Tilden, Joseph. 2S9. 
Tisd.ale, Barncv, 3. 
Townsend. Albert W.. 266. 2S 
Trcscott, Edward R., 273. 
Tripp, George L.. 28, 275- 
Trout, Thomas K., 290. 
Tucker, Ch.irles E., 116, 277. 
Tuttle. Horace P.. 275. 
Tweed, William H., 284 

.'.)-■ ' ^. y':\ .1 ' lit :t:' 

.; ''^ I 

1 <, M .'>t.M 

«^ .^ 


Twenty-fourth Massachusetts, 17. 
Tyler, Herbert, 2S9. 

Uni\-ersalist Socitnr, Fifth, 236. 

Vine Swamp road, 135. 
Vose, Clifton H., 266, 275. 
Voyage to New Berne, 41. 
Voyage Home, 216. 

Walcott, George p., 277. 

Walker, E. Clifford, 273. 

Wallace, Edwin A., 277. 

Ward, Richard, 2, 7. 

Ward, William, i. 

Ware, Dr. Robert, 72, 177, 234, 236, 245. 

Warren, Joshua B., 276. 

Warren Street Society, 236. 

Washington, description of, no, 162; 

force and garrison, 163. 
Waterman, Rodolph C, 30. 
Weeks, George M., 2SS. 
Weld, Ge'orgc M., 284. 
Weld, Richard H., 72. 
Welles, General, 3. 
Wentworth, George A , 290. 
Wessells, Gen. Henry W., 62. 

West, Joseph, Jr., 3. 
Weston, George, 2S4. 

Whail, ,217. 

Wheeler, Charles E., S2 
Wheelock, Mcnill G., S: 
Wheelwright, George \V 
Whipple, Alonzo I,., 27: 
White, Benjamin F., 3. 
White, Charles, 2S. 
White, Edward 1'.. 278. 
White, James C, 286. 
Whitehall, 140, 145, 225. 
Whimev, Parker, 14. 
Whitney, William I 
Whittemort. Curtis H.,' 
Widow Blount, 192. 
Wilkins, Joseph F., S6. 
Wilkinson, Stetson, & C( 
Willard, Edward A., 273 
Williams, Robert P., 2. 
Williamstown, 119, 126. 
Willis, Massa, 2. 
" Women and Children " 
Wood, Charles, 266, 2.S6. 
Woodward, George M., 2 
Worthley, James, 27S. 
Wounded, list of. 247. 
Wyeth, John J., tji, loO. 

•■ Jr., : 


University Press : John Wilson and Son, Cambridce 

hf^J: ^^'^ 


.(.oi it:. iy. mill .vT.' 


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