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Full text of "Records of the American Society of Naturalists"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 






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RECORDS 



13!) i 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS, 



E. u. s. 



VOLUME I . , 

PART FIRST. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED B\^ THE SECRETARY 
1 884. 



RECORDS 



OF THE 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS, 



E. u. s. 



VOLUME I . , 

PART FIRST. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1884. 



RECORDS. 



THE CONSTITUTION, 

As it stands after the revision, in accordance with the amendments adopted 
at the New York meeting, December, 1883. 



ARTICLE I. 



NAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section i. This association shall be called The 
Society of Naturalists of the Eastern United States. 

Sect. ii. The object of this society shall be the 
association of working naturalists for the discussion of 
methods of investigation and instruction, laboratory 
technique and museum administration, and other 
topics of interest to investigators and teachers of 
Natural History; and for the adoption of such meas- 
ures as shall tend to the advancement and diffusion of 
the knowledge of Natural History in the community. 

ARTICLE II. 

MEMBERS. 

Section i. Membership in this society shall be 
limited to persons professionally engaged in some 
branch of Natural History as Instructors in Natural 
History, Officers of Museums and other Scientific 
Institutions, Physicians, and others. Any member 
may present to the Executive Committee names of 
candidates for membership, and those candidates who 



6 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

are approved by the Executive Committee may be 
elected to membership by a majority of the members 
present at any meeting of the society. 

Sect. ii. Each member shall pay to the Treasurer 
an annual assessment of two dollars, v^hich shall be 
considered due at the annual meeting. The name of 
any member two years in arrears for annual assess- 
ments shall be erased from the list of the society; and 
no such person shall be restored until he has paid his 
arrearages or has been reelected. 



ARTICLE III. 

OFFICERS. 

Section i. The officers of this society shall con- 
sist of a President, two Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, 
and a Treasurer. 

Sect. ii. These officers shall be elected by ballot 
at the annual meeting of the society, and their official 
term shall commence at the close of the annual 
meeting. 

Sect. hi. The same person shall not be eligible as 
President more than two successive years, nor as Vice- 
President more than three successive years. 

Sect. iv. The officers named in Section i. shall 
discharge the duties usually assigned to these respec- 
tive officers; they, together with two members elected 
from the society at large, shall constitute the executive 
committee. The executive committee shall recom- 
mend to the society from time to time such measures 
as they may deem expedient for the purposes of the 
society, besides discharging the specific duties assigned 
to them by this constitution. 



CONSTITUTION. 7 

Sect. v. Vacancies in the board of officers, occur- 
ring by death resignation, or otherwise, may be filled 
by election by ballot at any meeting of the society. 
A vacancy in the secretaryship or treasurership oc- 
curring in the interval of the meetings of the society, 
may be filled by appointment by the Executive Com- 
mittee; but the person so appointed shall hold office 
only until the next meeting of the society. 

ARTICLE IV. 

MEETINGS. 

Section i. Meetings of the society may be held in 
such places as may from time to time be designated by 
the society; no meetings shall be held without the 
territory in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jerse}", Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the 
District of Columbia. 

Sect. ii. The annual meeting shall be held during 
the week following Christmas, unless otherwise 
ordered by the Executive Committee. 

Sect. hi. Special meetings may be appointed at 
any time by a vote of the society or of the executive 
committee. 

ARTICLE V. 

QUORUM. 

Seven members shall constitute a quorum of the 
society, and three a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 



8 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

ARTICLE VI. 

ACCOUNTS. 

A committee shall be appointed at each annual 
meeting to audit the accounts of the treasurer for the 
year closing with that meeting. 

ARTICLE VII. 

AFFILIATED SOCIETIES. 

It shall be the policy of this societ}^, by correspond- 
ence and otherwise, to encourage the formation and 
cooperate in the work of societies of similar name 
and object in other parts of the country. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

BY-LAWS. 

By-Laws recommended by the Executive Commit- 
tee may be adopted at any meeting by a majority 
vote. 

ARTICLE IX. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Amendments to this constitution, recommended by 
the Executive Committee, may be adopted at any 
annual meeting by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present. 



BY-LAWS. 



I. A committee of three, to include the Secretar}', 
shall be appointed by the Executive Committee to 
arrange a programme for each meeting. 

II. The following persons shall be considered 
professionally engaged in natural history within the 
meaning of Article ii., Section i: — Only those who 
regularly devote a considerable portion of their time 
to the advancement of natural histor}^; fi^'^tf those 
who have published investigations in pure science 
of acknowledged merit; second, teachers of natural 
history, officers of museums of natural history, phy- 
sicians, and others who have essentially promoted 
the natural-history sciences by original contributions 
of any kind. 

[The committee appointed to draft this by-law feel that its 
importance renders it necessary for the by-law to be laid before 
the society for its action, but by the previous vote of the society 
the by-law will stand until further action upon it. — Secretary. '\ 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1884. 



President, Professor Alpheus Hyatt, 

Professor H. N. Martin. 
)fessor A. S. Packard, Jr. 
Secretary, Dr. Charles Sedgwick Minot. 
Treasurer, Professor Wm. B. Scott. 



Vice-Presidents, \ 

I Prof 



Members of the Executive Cominittee elected from the 
Society at Large. 

Professor H. Carvill Lewis. Mr. Lester F. Ward. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 

*Allen, Harrison, M.D. 

Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 

117 South 20th st.^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
♦AsiiBURNER, Charles A. Geology. v/ 

Geologist of the Pennsylvania State Survey. 

Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Baird, Spencer F., M.D., LL.D. Zoology. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Listitution ; Director of the 
U.S. National Museum ; Commissioner of Fisheries. 

Smithsonian Instittitio??,, Washington^ D. C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. I I 

*Bean, Tarleton IL, ISI.D., M.S. Ichthyology. 

Curator, Dcp't of Fishes, Editor of Proceedings, National 

Museum. 
National Alitsetifu, Washing-ton^ D. C. 
Benedict, James E. Natural History. 

Naturalist U.S. Fish Commission, Str. "Albatross." 
Smithsonian InstitutioJi^ Washington^ D.C. 
*BiCKMORE, Albert S. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Superintendentof the American Museum of Natural History. 
Atnerican Museum, Central Park, N.2. 
Bolton, H.Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy,Chemistry. 
Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Trinity College. 
Trinity College, Hartford, Conft. 
*BowDiTCH, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*Britton, N. L., E.M., Ph.D. Botany and Geology. 

Assistant in Geology and Botany, School of Mines, Columbia 
College, and Botanist, Geological Survey of New Jersey. 
School of Mines, Cohanbia College, N. 2\ 
♦Brush, George J., A.M. Mineralogy. 

Director of, and Professor of Mineralogy at, the Sheffield, 

Scientific School. 
Sheffield Scieittific School, Nexv Haven, Conn. 
*BuRGESS, Edavard, A.B. Entomology. 

Secretary of the Boston Society of Natural History, and 
Instructor in Entomology at Bussey Institution of Harvard 
University. 
Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
*Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
Williamstoivn, Mass. 
*Comstock, J. Henry, B.S. Entomology. 

Professor of Economic Entomology and General Invertebrate 

Zoology, Cornell University. 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N 2'. 
*Conn, Herbert W., A.B. Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 



12 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*CopE, Edward D. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

2100 Pine st.^ Philadelphia^ Pe/in. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliography. 

Stnithsonian Insiitution, Washi7igto?i^ D. C. 
♦Crosby, W. O., S.B. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy and Lithology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

Institute of Technology ^ Boston^ Mass. 
♦Cutting, H. A., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Geology. 

State Geologist and Fish Commissioner of Vermont. 

Lufiefzbtirgh^ Vermont. 
*Dana, James D.,Ph.D.,LL.D. Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Yale College. 

I'ale College, JVeiv Haven, Conn. 
*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E. Geology. 

Instructor in Geology, Harvard College. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Dewey, Frederic P., Ph.B. Metallurgy. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum, Washittgton, D. C. 
*Diller, J. S. Micropetrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Caffibridge, Mass. 
♦Donaldson, Henry H., A.B. Physiology. 

Assistant in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

yohns Hopkins University, Paltifnore, Md. 
♦Dudley, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
♦Dutton, C. E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
♦Dwight, William B., B.A., M.A., Ph.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Museum, Vassar 

College, etc. 
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, JV. Y. 



J 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



13 



Zoology. 



Geology. 



Botany 



•Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 
Amherst^ Mass. 
♦Emerton, James H. 

Assistant in Zoology, Yale College. 
T'ale College, New Haven, Conti. 
•Emmons, S. F. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*Farlow, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard College. 
Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Fernald, C. H., A.m. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Natural History, Maine State College. 
Orono, Maine. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology, and Lecturer on INlicro- 

scopical Technology, Cornell University. 
Cornell University, Jthaca, N. T. 
♦Gerrish, Frederick Henry, A.M., M.D. 
Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 
675 Congress street, Portland, Maine. 
♦Gilbert, G. K. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey, Washi?igton, D. C. 
•Gill, Theodore, M.D., Ph.D. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
•GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard College. 
Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 
•GooDE, G. Brown, A.M. 

Assistant Director U.S. National Museum. 
National Museian, Washington, D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 

History, New York. 
American Museum, Ceiitral Park, New York, N.T. 
Gray, William M., ^I.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Histology, University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn. 



J 



Anatomy. 

Geology. 

Ichthyology. 
Botany. 

Zoology. 



^ 



14 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Greenleaf, R. W., A.B. Botany. 

53 High street^ CharlestoW7i^ Mass. 
Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist U.S. Geological Survey. 
Ajuericafi Miiseuju, Central Park, JV. 7". 
*Hall, G. Stanley, A.M., Ph.D. Psychology. 

Professor of Psychology, Johns Hopkins University. 
Baltitnore, Aid. 
*Hall, James, M.S., A.M., M.D.,LL.D. Geology, Palaeontology, 
State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 

of Natural History. 
State Museum, Albany, JV. il 
♦Hayden, F. v., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Geologist U.S. Geological Survey. 
1S03 Arch street, Philadelphia, Penti. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Pakeontology and Geology. ^ 

Pi-ofessor of Invertebrate Palaeontology and Curator 
in charge, Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Hensita\v, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Boston Society of Natural History. 
Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
*HiTCHCocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 
Hanover, N.H. 
•Holder, J. B., M.D. Zoology. 

Curator of Veitcbrate Zoology, Am. Museum Nat. History. 
Americaft Museutti, Central Park, N. T. 
*Horn, George H., M.D. Entomology. 

President of the American Entomological Society, Corre- 
sponding Secretary Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. 
874 North ^th street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Hyatt, Alpiieus, S.B. Pakeontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Pro- 
fessor of Zoology and Palajontology at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 
Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 15 

Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Litliology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

American Museum^ Central Park, JVezu Tork, JV. 2". 
Jeffries, J. Amory, A.B. Anatomy. 

78 Devonshire street, Boston, Mass. 
*JuLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Petrography. 

Assistant in Chemistry, School of Mines, Columbia College. 

School of Mines, Columbia College, New Tork, N.T. 
*Kidder, J. H., A.M., M.D. Chemistry. 

Surg. U.S.N. , Chemist U.S. Fish Commission. 

Smithsoniait Institution, Washington, D. C. 
*KixGSLEY, J. S., A.B. Zoology. 

Editor of " The Standard Natural History." 

Ala I den, Mass. 
*Lee, Leslie A., M.A. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 

Brunswick, Maine. 
*Lewis, H. Carvill, A.M. Geology and Mineralogy. ^ 

Professor of Mineralog}', Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and Lecturer on Geology and Palaeontology 
at Haverford College, Haverford, Penn. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., Sc.D. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Vice-Director of the E.M. Museum of Geology and 
Archaeology. 

Princeto?t, N.f. 
*LocKiisGTON, W. N. Zoology. 

1104 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pejin. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. \^^ 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Pi'inceton College. 

Princeton, N. f. 
♦Marcou, John B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. National Afuseum, Washington, D.C. 



1 6 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

♦Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 

College Hill, Mass. 
*Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

yohns Hopkifis University, Baltitnore, Md. 
*Meehan, Thomas. Botany. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State Board of Agricult- 
ure, Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia. 

Germanto'wn, Penn. 
*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Vertebrates. 

Locust Grove, Lexuis Co., N.T. 
*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Acting Curator of Lithology, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
*Merrill, N. F., S.B., Ph.D. Lithology. 

Salem, Mass. 
*MiNOT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Listructor in Embryology and Histology, Harvard Medical 
School. 

Harvard Medical School, Bosto?i, Mass. 
*Morse, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Salem, Mass. 
♦Newberry, J. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 

School oy Mines, Columbia College, New York, NT", 
*Niles, William H., A.M., Ph.B, Physical Geography 

and Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Alass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
*OsBORN, Henry F., Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 

Princeto7i, N.y. 
♦Packard, A. S., Jr., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Brown University, Providence, R.I. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



17 



*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey^ Washington^ D. C. 
*Peckiiam, George W., IM.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
Mihvatikee^ Wisconsin. 
PiERSOL, George A., M.D. Histology. 

Demonstrator of Normal Histology, Medical Department, 

University of Pennsylvania. 
l/jtiversity of Pennsylvafiia, PhiladelpJiia^ Penn. 
♦PiLLSBURY, J. H. Biology. 

Science Teacher, High School, Springfield, Mass., and In- 
structor in Biology, Smith College. 
Springjield^ Mass. 
*Po\VELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 
Director of the U.S. Geological Survey and of the Bureau 

of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological Survey^ Washington^ D. C. 
♦Prentiss, A. N., M.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture and Arboriculture, Cornell 

University. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N. 2~. 
*Prudden, T. Mitchell, Ph.B., M.D. Normal and Pathol. 

Histology. 
Director of the Physiological and Pathological Laboratory of 
the Alumni Association of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, N.Y. 
1 14 East 26th street., New Tork., JV. 2^. 
*PuTXAM, Frederick W. Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Curator of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 
in connection with Hai"vard University, Permanent Secre- 
tary of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and Massachusetts State Commissioner on Inland 
Fisheries. 
Peabody Mzcseti?n, Cambridge., Mass. 
Randolph, N. Archer, M.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Demonstrator of Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania, and Instructor in Physiology, Towne Scientific 
School. 
3706 Locust street., Philadelphia., Penn. 



1 8 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Rathbun, Richard, M.S. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 

U.S. National Museum^ Washingto7t., D.C. 
Reichert, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 

University of Pennsylva7tia^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Natural History, Wesleyan University. 

Middletown., Conn. 
*RiDGWAY, Robert. Ornithology. 

Curator, Dep't of Birds, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution^ Washington .^ D. C. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 
Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 

1700 13/// street, JV. IV., Washington, D. C. 
*RoBiNSON, John. Botany. 

Treasurer in charge of JSIuseum of the Peabody Academy of 
Science at Salem. 

Peabody Academy, Salem, Mass. 
*RoTiiROCK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 

West Chester, Chester Co., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline, Mass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and Palseontology, Princeton College. 

Princeton, N.J. 
*Scudder, S. H., A.I^L, S.B. Entomology and Palaeontology 

Editor-in-Chief of " Science." 

Cambridge, Mass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. / 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 



s/ 



/ 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 1 9 

*SiiAKESPEARE, E. O., A.M., M.D. Histology. 

Opthalmic Surgeon and Pathologist to Philadelphia (Chanty) 

Hospital. 
1336 Spruce street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*SnARP, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 

Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
•*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 
Ariny Medical Museum, Washington, D. C. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
332 South Tiventy-first street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Smith, Sanderson. ^ Conchology. 

New Brighton, Stat en Island, N. T. 
*Smith, Sidney I., Ph.B. Crustacea. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale College. 
Tale College, New Haven, Conn. 
*Stevenson, J. J., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor, University of the City of New York. 
University, Washington Square, New 2'ork, N. 7. 
*True, Frederick W., M.S. 

Librarian and Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum. 
National Musejim, Washington, D. C. 
*Tryon, G. W., Jr. Conchology. 

Conservator of the Conchological Department of the 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Tylor, J. M. 
Professor. 
Amherst, Mass. 
*VanVi.eck,B.H.,S.B. ,,^^°^°f- 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 
Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
nVADSWORTH, M. E., A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 
Assistant in Lithology, Museum Comparative Zoology. 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 



20 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Walcott, C. D. Palasontology and Geology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Sui-vey, and Hon. Curator 
of invertebrate pal^Eozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum^ Washington^ D. C. 
Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

No. 2 College avonte., Rochester., N. T. 
*Ward, Lester F., A.M. 

Sociology, Vegetable Palaeontology, and Botany. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Honorary Curator of 
Fossil Plants, U.S. National Museum. 

P. O. Box 585, Washington, D. C. 
» Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Assistant in Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

107 Boy Is ton street., Boston., Mass. 

* White, C. A., A.M., M.D. Invertebrate Palteontology. 

Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, U.S. National Museum, and 

Paleontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. National Museum., Washi^igtoti., D.C. 
Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Palasontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.), Curator of Geology, 

American Museum of Natural History. 
Atnerican Museum., Central Park., N. 7~. 

* Whitman, C. O., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Museum Comparative Zoology. 
Museum, of Cojnparative Zoology, Cambridge, Alass. 

* Whitney, W. F., M.D. Pathology. 

Curator of the Museum of the Hansard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*WiLDER, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy and Zoolo- 
gy, Cornell University, and Professor of Physiology, Medi- 
cal School of Maine. 

Cornell Ujiiversity, Ithaca, N 2^ 
Williams, George H., A.B., Ph.D. Mineralogy. 

Associate in Mineralogy and Geology, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. 

jfohns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 21 

*\ViLLiAMS, Henry S., Ph.D. Paljeontology. 

Professor of PalsDontology, Cornell University, and Assistant 
Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cornell Unlvej-sity^ Ithaca^ N. T. 
♦Williams, S. G., A.M., Ph.D. Economic Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Cornell University. 

Coriiell University^ Ithaca^ N. T. 
*WiLsoN, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Lecturer on Biology, Williams College. 

Williamsto~iV7z^ A/ass. 
*WoRTMAN, J. L. Vertebrate Palseontology and Zoology. 

Anatomist to the U.S. Army Medical Museum. 

Arjfiy Medical Mtisetan^ WashingtotJ., D. C. 
♦Wright, G. Frederick, Rev. Geology. 

Oberlifi^ Ohio. 
♦Yarrow, H. C, M.D., Acting Asst.-Surg. U.S.A. 

Herpetology. 

Curator of Iler^Dctology, U.S. National Museum. 

JVational Musezwi^ Washington., D. C. 



ORIGINAL CALL. 



The following is a copy of the original call for the first meet- 
ing, which was issued by Professor Samuel F. Clarke, of 
Williamstown : — 

A number of American workers in Biology, desiring to have established 
an association of American naturalists for business purposes, extend to you 
a cordial invitation to join in a movement looking toward that end. 

The intention is to have an annual meeting, for the purpose of discuss- 
ing topics of common interest, for which, at present, no opportunity is 
afforded; as, for example, museum interests, in connection with which 
each museum director could indicate his plan of work, the special group 
of which he was making exhaustive collections, so that work may not be 
uselessly duplicated in manj'^ places; methods of museum work; methods 
of exhibition, etc.; methods of laboratory work; laboratory technique; 
new and valuable points in staining, mounting, cutting, and preserving 
of sections; systems of instruction in various departments of natural 
science ; methods with small elective classes ; with large college classes ; 
the position which the observational sciences should hold in the college 
curriculum ; the amount of natural science which should appear in col- 
lege entrance examinations ; the amount and character of such instruction 
in preparatory schools, etc. 

It is further believed that such a society could materially influence for 
the better the cause of science in America; that it would have a very health- 
ful general effect, and could exert a strong influence in many directions 
where at present it seems to be very much needed. It is proposed to have 
the first meeting, which will be preliminary to organization, and, there- 
fore, of prime importance, at Springfield, Mass., in the Springfield High 
School Hall, Friday, April loth. 

The following gentlemen are interested in the enterprise, and nearly all 
of them will be among those present : [the names are J. M. Tylor, A. Hyatt, 
C. S. Minot, A. S. Packard, Jr., S. H. Scudder, II. N. Martin, W. T. Sedg- 
wick, G. Macloskie, W. Libbey, H. F. Osborn, W. B. Scott, W. N. Rice, 
S. I. Smith; S. F. Clarke, (Sec re/a ry)}. 



RECORDS OF THE SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES. 



FIRST MEETING. 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS, APRIL, 1883. 

FIRST DAY, APRIL lOTH. 

I„ answer to a call issued in March, .883, a """b"' "f 
naturalists met on April .oth, in the High School Hall a ^ 
o'clock P.M., to discuss the advls.-,bility ol formuig a society of 
p,ofessional naturalists. Professor Alpheus Hyatt was elected to 
The chair, and Professor Samuel F. Clarke was elected Sec.etary 
in respo,:se to a request from the Chair, the Secretary, who had 
issned the call for the meeting, made some general remarks upon 
he object of the movement and the degree of interest expressed 
h reii Professor A. S. Packard, Jr., expressed h.s njteret 
in and sympathy with, the enterprise, and suggested very valuable 
wirkofvarouslinds. Dr. Packard also raised the quesfon of the 
fla ibility of uniting this project with the American Assocat.o, 
for tl,e Advancemem of Science. Dr. C. S. Minot spoke on th,s 
Itir question, taking the ground th... as ti,e A-r.an Assoc, 
tion comprises a very large and varied membersh.p and has such 
Ldtiferirus interests, it would be very difficult to pu,.u ny 
definite line of professional work without ■"'-■"if"'""*';; , 
bodv secondly, as the association meets m such w.dely d slant 
'ol ilies it woiid be impossible to maintain a consU,nt atter^aj,ce 
of the same persons for continuing the same hue of wo,k th udly, 
if s enterprise be kept separate it will be a more d,st,nct and 
definite and!therefore, much more highly eflective organ.at.on. 



24 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

If a few men, who are thoroughly in earnest, meet togetlier at an 
appointed place and time, for a single definite purpose, the chances 
are all in favor of their accomplishing something worth the 
doing. 

Professor W. N. Rice followed on the same question. He 
agreed in the main with the points made by Dr. Minot, and held 
that the character of the membership of the two organizations was 
decisive in regard to the advisability of uniting the two. Pro- 
fessor Rice then 

Moved^ That this be formed as a distinct organization. The mo- 
tion was seconded by Dr. Packard. Carried. 

Professor Packard then introduced the question of membership, 
suggesting that it be restricted to professional naturalists. 
Professor J. M. Tylor spoke in favor of admitting medical 
men. It was then, by Professor Rice, 

Moved^ That Museum Officers, Instructors in Natural History, 
Physicians, and others professionally devoted to some branch 
of Natural History, be eligible to membership. Seconded by 
Professor Tylor. Carried. 

The question of the geographical limit within which meetings 
can be held was the next topic considered. After remarks by 
nearly all present, including the Chair, Dr. Minot 

Moved., That the limits be as follows : — 

The New England and Middle States and the District of 
Columbia ; and that the meetings be peripatetic. Seconded 
by Professor J. H. Pillsbury. Carried. 

Dr. Minot 

Moved., That a regular meeting be held in the spring of each year ; 
that this be considered the first of such meetings ; and at each 
regular meeting it be determined whether any additional 
meeting or meetings be held that year. Seconded by Pro- 
fessor Rice. Carried. 



RFX'ORDS. 



25 



Dr. JSIinot 

Moved, That the officers of the society consist of a President, two 
Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and a Ticasurer, and that they 
constitute the Executive Committee of the Society. Seconded 
by Professor Tylor. Carried. 

Professor Rice oflered the following 

Alotion : That the President be recligible once ; the Vice-President 

reeligible twice, and that all the officers be elected annually. 

Seconded and carried. 

Professor Rice 

Aioved, That nominations for membership be sent in to the 
Executive Committee, and be recommended by that committee 
to the society, which shall vote upon such names. Seconded 
and carried. 

Professor Rice 

Moved, That the society form a branch or branches in other parts 
of the country. Seconded and carried. 

Professor Tylor 

Moved, That the Cliair appoint a committee of three to draft a 
constitution, and report as early as possible. Seconded and 
carried. 

The Chair appointed Professor Rice, of Wesleyan University, 
Professor Pillsbury, of Springfield, and Professor S. F. Clarke, 
of Williams College. 

The meeting then adjourned to meet at ten o'clock the next 
morning, in the same rooms. 

(Signed) 

SAMUEL F. CLARKE, 

Secretary. 



26 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

FIRST MEETING, AT SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 
SECOND DAY, FRIDAY, APRIL IITH, 18S3. 

Professor Hyatt in the chair. The minutes of the preceding 
meeting were read and adopted. The committee on the constitu- 
tion were called on to report. The articles were then read by the 
committee, and voted upon separately by the meeting ; and the 
constitution afterwards adopted as a whole. The by-laws were 
also read and adopted. 

Balloting for officers then ensued, and the following were 
elected. 

President. — Professor Alpheus Hyatt. 
Vice-Presidents. — Professor H. N. Martin ; Professor A. S. 
Packard, Jr. 

Secretary. — Professor S. F. Clarke. 
Treaszirer. — Professor W. B. Scott. 

It was 

Moved., That the thanks of the society be extended to Professor 
Pillsbury and the Trustees of the Springfield High School build- 
ing for their kindness and courtesy in provitling commodious 
rooms for the meetings. 

It was moved and carried that the Executive Committee have 
some discretionary power in recording as original members certain 
individuals, who could not be heard from to-day. 

(Signed) 

SAMUEL F. CLARKE, 

Secretary. 



RECORDS. 27 

SECOND MEETING, AT NEW YORK, N.Y. 

first day, dece.nrber 27, 18s3. 

School of Mines, Columbia College. 

Morning Session. 

President Alplieus Hyatt in the chair. The minutes of the 
preceding meeting were read and accepted. The resignation of 
the secretaryship by Prof. S. F. Clarke was announced by the 
Secretary pi-o tern. 

It was moved by Prof. Wilder, and carried^ that his resignation 
be accepted, and that the Chair and Secretary be instructed to ex- 
press to Professor Clarke the gratitude of the society for his in- 
valuable services in organizing the society, and acting as Secretary. 

Dr. C. S. Alinot was elected Secretary. 

The Secretary communicated the informal report of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. Owing to the unorganized condition of the 
society, only questions of a preliminary nature could be considered 
by the committee. Their principal work has been in securing 
the adherence of as many as possible of the leading naturalists to 
the society, and this duty has devolved chiefly upon the President 
and the Secietary, at first Professor Clarke, subsequently Dr. 
Minot, who was appointed Secretary pi'o tern, upon Professor 
Clarke's departure to Europe. No efforts have been spared to 
secure as large an attendance and as valuable communications as 
possible for this meeting. Your committee believe that their 
success has exceeded the most sanguine expectations, and feel 
that the future usefulness and prosperity of the society is assured. 
Further information as to the work of the society will be given 
you by the President in his address. Your committee recom- 
mend that this be declared an annual meeting, and that hereafter 
the annual meetings be held during the week from Christmas to 
New Year's. Your committee further recommend that two 
members elected from the society at large be added to the Ex- 
ecutive Committee.' 

The report of the committee was accepted. 

Professor Wm. B. Scott presented the following 

^ It is intended hereafter to present each year a formal written 
report by the Executive Committee. — Secretary. 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



Report of the Treasurer. 



Thirty-four members have paid the annual assessment, giving 
a total of sixty-eight dollars ($68.00). 

The expenditures to date have amounted to twelve dollars and 
six cents ($12.06), paid out for printing of circulars, etc., leaving 
a balance on hand of fifty-five dollars and ninety-four cents 

($55.94)- 

W. B. SCOTT, 

Treas. Soc. Nat. E.U.S. 

New York, Dec. 27, 1883. 

Prof. Rothrock moved that the constitution be changed so 
that this be declared an annual meeting, and that hereafter the 
annual meeting be held during the Christmas vacation. Carried. 

In the discussion which followed, it was decided that the exact 
days for the meeting be determined by the Executive Committee. 

The nomination of officers was called for by the chair. Prof. 
W. H. Niles moved that a committee be appointed by the Chair 
to nominate officers. Seconded and carried. Prof. E. D. Cope 
moved that the committee consist of five members ; seconded, 
and carried. The Chair nominated Profs. Cope, Wilder, Niles, 
Whitfield, and Rothrock. Prof. Rothrock asked leave to with- 
draw, as there was already one member from PhiladeliDhia upon 
the committee. The Chair appointed Prof. Emerson in his 
stead. 

Prof. Heilprin moved that the recommendation of the Executive 
Committee that two members be added to the Executive Commit- 
tee from the society at large, be adopted. Seconded and carried. 

Prof. Rothrock moved that the Nomination Committee nomi- 
nate also the two additional members of the Executive Committee. 
Seconded and carried. 

The invitation of the President of the American Museum of 
Natural History to the society to visit the Museum was read by 
the Secretary. Prof. Cope moved that the invitation be accepted 
with thanks. Carried unanimously. Considerable discussion 
followed upon the question of the time for the visit. Prof. 
Osborn moved that in acknowledgment of the cordial invita- 



RECORDS. 29 

tioii from Prof. Bickmore for the society to meet at the 
Museum, the meetiiior of the society be held at the Museum on 
Friday afternoon, at two o'clock. Seconded. 

Prof. Lee moved, as an amendment, that an extra session be 
held at the Museum Saturday morning. Prof. Osborn did not 
accept the amendment. The amendment was put and lost. The 
original motion was then put and carried. 

The President inquired whether the society would postpone 
listening to his address. Prof. Wilder moved that the address 
be read now. Seconded ; carried unanimously. 

The President read his address, which was warmly received. 
[The address was entitled " The Business of the Naturalist," and 
was published in Science, vol. Ill, p. 44-46.] 

The reading of papers was then proceeded with, as follows : — 

1. Prof. T. IL Gage. Applications of photography to the pro- 

duction of natural history figures and lectuie-room charts. 
Discussed by Prof. Harrison Allen. 

2. Prof. W. H. NiLES. Adaptation of lectures to the instruction 

of large classes. Discussed by Profs. Wilder, Heilprin, 
and Niles and by the President. 

3. Prof. James Hall. Methods of preparing rock sections. 



thursday, dec. 27, 1883. 

School of Mines, Columbia College. 

Afterjioon Session. 

President Hyatt in the chair. Twenty-seven members 
present. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Dr. Harrison Allen. On some methods of pursuing terato- 

logical research. Discussed by Profs. Scott, Wilder, Cope, 
Gage, and Mr. Kingsley. 

2. Dr. M. E. Wadsworth. On methods of instruction in min- 

eralogy and petrography. Discussed by Profs. Lew is and 
Emerson. 

3. Prof. B. G. Wilder. The arrangement of a museum of verte- 



) SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

brates. Discussed by Profs. Lewis, Allen. Dr. Allen called 
upon Dr. Sharp, who, in response, described Prof. Semper's 
" Trockejzmethode" for the preservation of anatomical prepa- 
rations. President Hyatt spoke of the value of this method, 
especially for the demonstration of very delicate structures. 
The discussion was then further continued by Profs. Heilprin, 
Cope, and President Hyatt. 
Prof. E. D. Cope. Academies of Science in America. Dis- 
cussed by Dr. M. E. Wadsworth, Prof. J. T. Rothrock, 
President Hyatt, Professors Macloskie, Heilprin. 



SECOND MEETING, AT NEW YORK, N.Y. 

second day, dec. 28, 1ss3. 
School of Mines, Columbia College. 
j\fo rn ing Session . 

President Hyatt in the chair. Thirty-eight members present. 

The Nominating Committee reported the following names: 
For President, Prof. Alpheus Hvatt, Vice-Presidents, Profs. 
H. N. Martin, and A. S. Packard, Jr. ; Secretary, Dr. Charles 
Sedgwick Minot ; Treasurer, Prof. Wm. B. Scott ; Members 
of the Executive Committee from the society at large, Prof. H. C. 
Lewis, and Lester F. Ward. After some discussion, it was 
voted that the Secretary deposit the ballot ; the Secretary cast the 
ballot, and the officers nominated were declared elected for the 
ensuing year. 

The following new members were elected upon recommenda- 
tion of the Executive Committee ; Prof. Henry A. Ward, Dr. 
George H. Piersol, Dr. R. Meade Smith, Dr. William 
Gray, Dr. E. T. Reiciiert, Dr. N. A. Randolph, Mr. J. A. 
Jeffries, Mr. J. P. Iddings, Mr. Arnold Hague, Prof. H. C. 
Bolton, Mr. Louis B. Gratacap, Mr. F. C. Hill, Prof. 
J. B. Ellis, Prof. J. L. Wortman, Mr. Sanderson Smith, 
and Mr. George H. Williams. 

Dr. C. S. Minot moved, That the Executive Committee 
prepare a list of persons, not professional naturalists, to be regu- 
larly invited to attend the meetings of the society as guests. 
Seconded and carried. 



RECORDS. 



31 



Prof. Cope moved, That a committee of four be appointed to 
cooperate with the Executive Committee to define the meaning of 
the term "professional naturalist." Seconded and carried. 
Prof. H. F. Osborn, moved that the entire committee estab- 
lished by Prof. Cope's motion, be directed to revise the constitu- 
tion in accordance with the alterations made by the recent votes 
of the society. Seconded and carried. 

Prof. W. H. Niles offered the following resolution : — 

Resolved, That the Society of Naturalists of the 
Eastern United States, recognizing the great importance of 
a thorough knowledge of modern languages especially of 
German and French to students in Natural History, re- 
gard it as a hopeful sign that a conference of professors in this 
department is now assembled at Columbia College, and hereby 
expresses its hearty sympathy with their work. This motion 
was seconded and carried ; and Profs. Niles and Cope were 
appointed to convey the resolution to the conference. 

After some discussion as to its form, the following motion was 
made by Prof. H. F. Osborn: That a committee of five be 
appointed to present to the society some means of advancing the 
interests of the biological section of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. 

The society voted that the new committees be appointed by the 
Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Prof. S. H. Gage. Bleaching skeletons with peroxide of 

hydrogen. 

2. Prof. S. H. Gage. A holder for demonstrations on whole 

animals. 

3. Dr. George Dimmock. Pure carminic acid for coloring 

microscopal preparations. 

4. Prof. Alpheus Hyatt. Methods of mounting specimens 

employed in the Museum of the Geological Survey of 
Canada. 

5. Prof. J. T. RoTiiHOCK. On the manner of distinguishing 

good and bad timber by the microscope. 

6. Dr. Charles S. Minot. On the classification of tissues 

and organs with regard to the arrangement of collections. 



32 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Profs. Walter and O'Connor, from the Convention of Modern- 
Language Teachers, were introduced, and, in reply tothe resolution 
sent by the society to the convention, presented the following 
resolution : — 

Resolved^ That the Convention of Modern-Language 
Teachers, now assembled in Columbia College, desires to express 
its thanks to the Society of Naturalists for its appreciation, and 
the hope that by the efforts here made greater interest in the 
scientific study of language, and greater efficiency in its practical 
study, may be secured. 



friday, dec. 28, 1 883. 

American Museum of Natural Hi.story. 

Aftei'uoon Session. 

President Hyatt in the chair. Twenty-two members present 
The chair appointed Profs. E. D. Cope, M. E. Wadsworth, 
W. N. Rice, and Mr. C. D. Walcott, on the committee to de- 
fine the term professional naturalist, and to cooperate in the 
revision of the constitution. The chair also appointed Profs. 
Osborn, Scott, and Sedgwick, and Messrs. Ryder and Kings- 
ley, for the committee to advance the interests of the biological 
section of the American Association. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Dr. George DiMMOCK. Some typographical materials useful 

in microscopical work. 

2. Prof. B. G. Wilder. The preparation of hollow organs, 

particularly the brain and heart, by the repeated or continu- 
ous injection of alcohol, 

3. Profs. B. G. Wilder and S. H.Gage. The anatomical, his- 

tological, and zoological uses of Nccturus. 

4. Dr. E.B.Wilson. Methods of section cutting. 

5. Prof. A. S. BiCKMORE. Methods of instruction cmplo^^ed at 

the American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, 
N.Y. [Illustrated by the lantern.] 



RECORDS. 33 

Prof. Hyatt brought forward the question whether, in view of 
tlic very great value of the papers read at this meeting, it is de- 
sirable for the society to undertake the publication of any of 
them. Prof. Scott moved that the matter be referred to the 
Executive Committee, with power to act. Seconded. In the 
discussion which followed Prof. Wilder inquired whether 
the proceedings could not be published in Science or the Ameri- 
can Naturalist, if necessary, partly at the society's expense. 
The Secretary called attention to the limited income of the society 
and the expense of printing. After further discussion the motion 
was withdrawn. 

Prof. Hyatt brought forward the question of having a com- 
mittee to obtain information in regard to persons available for 
vacant positions in colleges and elsewhere, where professional 
naturalists alone are suitable for appointment. This is rendered 
desirable by the too frequent abuses that occur in appointments 
of this character. A motion was made and carried^ that this mat- 
ter be referred to the Executive Committee to report at a future 
meeting. 

Prof. Heilprin moved that the next meeting of the society be 
held at Philadelphia. The motion was lost. The society voted 
to instruct the Secretary to convey the thanks of the society to the 
authorities of Columbia College and the authorities of the Ameri- 
can Museum, for the courteous hospitality they have extended to 
the society, and to Profs. Newberry and Bickmore for the ser- 
vices they have rendered the society in connection with this 
meeting. 

The society then adjourned. 

(Signed,) 

CHARLES SEDGWICK MINOT, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the Society of Jfaturalists of the Eastern United States 
will be distributed to members, and to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of any 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any person, otherwise qualified, is eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the society is especially 
directed to By-law II. 



I'ress of Rockwell iind Churchill, Boston. 



MAY 21 1900 



RECORDS 



U I- I- II fc 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



E. U. S. 



VOLUME T . . 

PART SECOND. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 



^885 



RECORDS 



OF THE 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS, 



E. U. S. 



VOLUME I . , 

PART SECOND. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1885, 



RECORDS. 



MAY 21 1900 



THE CONSTITUTION, 

As it stands after the revision, in accordance Avith the amendments adopted 
at the Washington meeting, December, 18S4. 



ARTICLE I. 



NAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section i. This association shall be called The 
Society of Naturalists of the Eastern United States. 

Sect. ir. The object of this society shall be the 
association of working naturalists for the discussion 
of methods of investigation and instruction, laboratory 
technique and museum administration, and other topics 
of interest to investigators and teachers of Natural 
Histoiy; and for the adoption of such measures as 
shall tend to the advancement and diffusion of the 
knowledge of Natural History in the community. 

ARTICLE 11. 

MEMBERS, 

Section i. Membership in this society shall be 
limited to persons professionally engaged in some 
branch of Natural History as Instructors in Natural 
History, Officers of Museums, and other Scientific 
Institutions, Physicians and others. Any member 
may present to the Executive Committee names of 
candidates for membership, and those candidates who 



36 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

are approved by the Executive Committee may be 
elected to membership by a majority of the members 
present at any meeting of the society. 

Sect. ii. Each member shall pay to the Treasurer 
an annual assessment of two dollars, w^hich shall be 
considered due at the annual meetin"-. The name of 
any member two years in arrears for annual assess- 
ments shall be erased from the list of the societ}'; and 
no such person shall be restored until he has paid his 
arrearages or has been reelected. 



ARTICLE III. 

OFFICERS. 

Section i. The officers of this societ}^ shall be a 
President, three Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and a 
Treasurer. 

Sect. ii. These officers shall be elected by ballot 
at the annual meeting of the society, and their official 
term shall commence at the close of the annual 
meeting. 

Sect. hi. The same person shall not be eligible 
as President more than two successive years, nor as 
Vice-President more than three successive years, and 
one Vice-President shall retire each 3'ear. 

Sect. iv. The officers named in Section i shall 
discharge the duties usually assigned to these respec- 
tive officers; they, together with two members elected 
from the society at large, shall constitute the Execu- 
tive Committee. The Executive Committee shall 
recommend to the. society from time to time such 
measures as they may deem expedient for the purposes 



CONSTITUTION. 37 

of the socict}', besides discharging the specific duties 
assigned to them b}^ this constitution. 

Sect. v. Vacancies in the board of officers, occur- 
ring by death, resignation, or otherwise, may be filled 
by election by ballot at any meeting of the society. 
A vacancy in the secretar^^ship or treasurership occur- 
ring in the interval of the meetings of the society, may 
be filled by appointment by the Executive Committee; 
but the person so appointed shall hold office only until 
the next meeting of the society. 

ARTICLE IV. 

MEETINGS. 

Section i. Meetings of the society may be held in 
such places as may from time to time be designated 
by the societ}^; no meetings shall be held without the 
territory in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jerse}', Penns3'lvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the 
District of Columbia. 

Sect. ii. The annual meeting shall be held dur- 
ing the week following Christmas, unless otherwise 
ordered b}' the Executive Committee. 

Sect. hi. Special meetings may be appointed at 
any time by a vote of the society or of the Executive 
Committee. 

ARTICLE V. 

QLTOKUM. 

Seven members shall constitute a quorum ol the 
societ}', and three a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 



38 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

ARTICLE VI. 

ACCOUNTS. 

A committee shall be appointed at each annual 
meeting to audit the accounts of the Treasurer for the 
year closing with that meeting. 

ARTICLE VII. 

AFFILIATED SOCIETIES. 

It shall be the policy of this society, by correspond- 
ence and otherwise, to encourage the formation and 
cooperate in the work of societies of similar name and 
object in other parts of the country. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

BY-LAWS. 

Section i. By-laws recommended by the Execu- 
tive Committee may be adopted at any meeting by a 
majorit}' vote. 

Sect. ii. By-laws may be repealed at any meet- 
ing, upon recommendation of the Executive Commit- 
tee, by a majority vote. 

ARTICLE IX. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Amendments to this constitution, recommended by 
the Executive Committee may be adopted at an}^ 
annual meeting by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present. 



BY-LAWS. 



I. A committee of three, to include the Secretary, 
shall be appointed by the Executive Committee to 
arrange a programme for each meeting. 

II. The following persons shall be considered 
professionally engaged in natural history within the 
meaning of Article ii.. Section i: — Only those who 
regularly devote a considerable portion of their time 
to the advancement of natural history; firsts those 
who have published investigations in pure science 
of acknowledged merit ; second^ teachers of natural 
history, officers of museums of natural history, physi- 
cians, and others who have essentially promoted the 
natural-history sciences by original contributions of 
any kind. 

III. At the opening of the annual meeting a com- 
mittee of five shall be appointed to nominate officers 
for the ensuing year. 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1885. 



President, G. K. Gilbert. 

!H. N. Martin. 
E. D. Cope. 
Harrison Allen. 
Secretary, Charles Sedgwick Minot. 
Treasurer, Charles A. Ashburner. 



Mejnbers of the Executive Co??imittee elected from the 
Society at Large. 

R. Ramsay Wright. Samuel F. Clarke. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[y\.n asterisk designates original membership.] 

*Allen, Harrison, M.D. 

Comparative Anatomy and Phjsiology. 

117 South 20th street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Ashburner, Charles A., M.S., C.E. Geology. 

Geologist in charge. State Second Geological Survey of 

Pennsylvania. 
907 Walnut street., Philadelphia^ Pom. 
*Baird, Spencer F.,M.D., LL.D. Zoology. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution ; Director of the 
U.S. National Museum ; U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries. 
Smithsouian IiistitHtio)i.^ Washington., D. C. 



I 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 4I 

*Bean, Tarleton I-L, M.D., M.S. Ichthyology. 

Curator Dep't of Fishes, Editor of Proceedings, National 
jMuscum. 

National Museum^ Washiug'toii., D. C. 
Benedict, James E. Natural History. 

Naturalist U.S. Fish Commission, Str. "Albatross." 

Sinithsoiiian Institution^ Washingto7i^ D. C. 
*BicKMORE, Albert S. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Superintendent of the American Musuem of Natural History. 

American Museum^ Central Park^ N. Y. 
Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Trinity College. 

Trinity College^ Hartford^ Co?i7z. 
*BowDiTCH, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Aledical School, JSoston, Mass. 
*Britton, N. L., E.M., Ph.D. Botany and Geology. 

Assistant in Geology and Botany, School of Mines, Columbia 
College, and Botanist, Geological Surve\' of New Jersey. 

School of Mines, Colmnbia College, N. Y. 
Brooks, W. K., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
*BuRGESS, Edward, A.B. Entomology. 

Secretary of the Boston Society of Natural Histor}', and 
Instructor in Entomology at Bussey Institution of Harvard 
University. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
Call, R. Ellsworth. Tertiary Palieontology, Mollusca. 

Principal of High School, Moline, 111. 

Moline, 111. 
*Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 

Williamstown, A/ass. 
*CoMSTOCK, J. Henry, B.S. Entomology. 

Professor of Economic Entomology and General Invertebrate 
Zoology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N T. 



42 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*CoNN, Herrert W., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Biology, Wesleyan University. 

Mtddlctozvji, CoiiJi. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

2IOO Pine street^ Philadelphia^ Pc7in. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 

Smithsonian Institution^ Washington^ D. C. 
*Crosby, W. O., 8.B. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy and Lithology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

Institute of Technology^ Bosto7i^ Mass. 
♦Cutting, H. A., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Geology. 

State Geologist and Fish Commissioner of Vermont. 

Lunenburgh^ Vermont. 
Dale, William Healey. Mollusca, PalcEontology. 

Palaeontologist U.S. Geological Surv^ey, Honorary Curator 
of Department of Molluscs, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsoniatt Iitstitiition., Washington^ D. C. 
*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D. Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 

Professor of Geolog}', Yale College. 

Tale College^ New Haven., Co7i>i. 
*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E. 

Geology, Geogriphy and Meteorology. 

Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard Col- 
lege. 

Museum of Co?nparaiivc Zoology., Cambridge, Mass. 
*Dewey, Frederic P., Ph.B. Metallurgy. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 

National Muscutn., Washittgtotz^ D. C. 
*DiLLER, J. S. Micropetrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Catnbridge, Mass. 
*DoNALDSON, Henry H., Ph.D. Phvsiology. 

Assistant in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, j\I.D. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 43 

*DuDLEY, WiLLiA]si R., M.S. Cryptogaiiiic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

Cornell University^ Ithaca^ N. T. 
*DuTTON, C. E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

^''.^S'. Geological Survey^ Washi72gto7i^ D.C. 
*DwiGHT, William B., B.A., M.A., Ph.B. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 
Vassar College, etc. 

Vassar College^ Po?ighkcepsie, N. 2^. 
*Emeksox, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Amherst^ Alass. 
*E>iERTox, James H. Zoology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Yale College. 

2'ale College, New Haven, Con?t. 
*Emmons, S. F. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
*Farlow, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard College. 

Hai'vard College, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Fernald, C. H., A.m. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Natural History, Maine State College. 

Orotio, Maine. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiolog}^ 

Assistant Professor of Physiology, and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cornell Ufiiversity, Ithaca, N. T. 
Gardiner, Edward G., B.S., Ph.D." Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

289 Marlborough street, Boston, Mass. 
*Gerrish, Frederick Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

675 Congress street, Portland, Ale. 
*Gilbert, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Surve}'. 

Geological Siirvey, \Vashingto?i. D. C. 



44 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*GiLL, Theodore, M.D., Ph.D. Ichthyology. 

S7nithso7iian Instihition^ Washhigtoii^ D. C. 
*GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard College. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown, A.M. Zoology. 

Assistant Director U.S. National Museum. 

JVatlonal JMuseiim, Washington, D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

77/^ street and ?>tk avemie, New York, N. T. 
Gray, William M., M.D. Histology, 

Microscopist, Army Medical Museum. 

Army Medical Museum, Washington, D.C. 
*Greenleaf, R. W., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

Boston City Hospital, Boston, Mass. 
Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography'. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey, Washitigton, D. C. 
*Hall, James, M.S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. 

Geology, Palaeontology. 

State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 
of Natural History. 

State Museum, Alba)iy, N. T. 
*Hayden, F. v., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Geologist U.S. Geological Sin^vey. 

1803 Arch street, Philadelphia, Penji. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Palaeontology and Geolog}'. 

Professor of Invertebrate Palaeontology at, and Curator-in- 
charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at tlie Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*HENSirAW, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
*HiTCncocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geologv and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover, N.H. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 45 

Hitchcock, Romyn. Fresh Water Alga3. 

Actino; Curator, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithso)iia)i Iiistltutio)i^ Mashuigtoii., D.C. 
*HoLDER, J. B., M.D. Zoology. 

Curator of Invertebrate Zoology, Am. Museum Nat. History. 

American Museum^ Central Park, N. T. 
Howell, William H., B.A., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Associate in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

yohns Hopkins University^ Baltiitiore^ Aid. 
Hunt, T. Sterry, A.M., Ph.D. Geology. 

Montreal^ Canada. 
*PIyatt, Alpheus, S.B. Pakeontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Pro- 
fessor of Zoology and Palaeontology at the Massachusetts 

Institute of Technology. 

Boston Society of Natural History ., Boston., Mass. 
-Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Lithology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

American Mtiseum^ Central Park., New I'ork, N. K 
Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertebrata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
Biological Department., University of Petitisylvania., Philadel- 
phia., Penn. 
Jeffries, J. Amory, A.B., M.D. Anatomy. 

78 Devonshire street., Boston., Afass. 
*Julien, Alexis A., Ph.D. Petrography. 

Assistant in Chemistry and Microscopy, School of Mines, 
Columbia College. 

School of JSIines., Columbia College^ Nezv l^ork, N.T. 
*KiDDER, J. H., A.m., M.D. Chemistry. 

Chemist U.S. Fish Commission. 

Stnithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
*KiNGSLEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Editor of "The Standard Natural History." 

Maiden., Mass. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 

Brunswick., Maitie. 



46 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Le\vis, H. Carvill, A.m. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Mineralogy, Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and Lecturer on Geology and Palceontology 
at Haverford College, Haverford, Penn. 
Acade?ny of Natural Sciences^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., Sc.D. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Vice-Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and 
Archaeology. 
Pri?iccto?i.i JV.y. 
*LocKiNGTON, W. N. Zoology. 

1 104 Walnut street., Philadelphia.^ Penn. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 
Princeton., N.J. 
*Marcou, John B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. National Mtiseiim., Washington., D.C. 
*Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 
College Hill., Mass. 
*Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 
Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 
Mason, Otis T., A.M., Ph.D. Ethnology. 

Curator of the Department of Ethnology, U.S. National 

Museum. 
Smithsonian Institjition, Washingto7i.^ D. C. 
*McGee, W J Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Surve3^ 
U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
McMuRRicH, J. Playfair, M.A., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 
Instructor in Osteology and Mammalian Anatomy, Johns 

Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins University ., Haltimore., Md. 
*Meeiian, Thomas. Botany. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture, 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia, 
Gcrmantown., Pe?i?i. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 47 

*]Mekriam, C. Hart, M.D. Vertebrates. 

Locust Grove^ Lewis Co., JV. T". 
*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Acting Curator of Lithology and Physical Geology, U.S. 
National Museum. 

National Museum, Washingto7i, D. C. 
*Merrill, N. p., S.B., Ph.D. Lithology. 

Professor of Chemistry, University of Vermont. 

University of Vermont, Burlingtoti, Vt. 
*MixoT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Embryology and Histology, Harvard Medical 
School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*Morse Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Saleni, Mass. 
Murdoch, John, A.M. Zoology and Ethnography. 

Naturalist and Observer, U.S. Signal Sen^ice Expedition to 

Point Barrow. 

Smithsonian Lnstitution, Washington, D. C. 
*Newberry, J. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 

School of Mines, Columbia College, New Tork, N. T". 
*Niles, William H., A. M., Ph.B. Physical Geography 

and Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Mass. Itistitute of Technology , Boston, Mass. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special sense 

Morphology and Physiology. 

Ophthalmic and xVural Surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital, Phila- 
delphia. 

1507 Locust street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*OsBORN, Henry F., Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 

Princeton, N.f. 
*Packard, a. S., Jr., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Brown University, Providence, R.L. 



48 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Surve3^ 
Geological Survey^ Washiiigton^ D. C, 
*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
Milwaukee^ Wisconsin. 
PiERSOL, George A., M.D. Histology. 

Demonstrator of Normal Histology, Medical Department, 

University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Pen7isylvania^ Philadelphia^ Pcnn. 
*PiLLSBURY, J. H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 
Spriugjicld^ ]\Iass. 
*PowELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 
Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Director of the 

Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological S?irvey, Washington^ D C. 
♦Prentiss, A. N., M.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cornell 

University. 
Cornell Utiiversity^ Ithaca^ JV. T". 
*Prudden, T. Mitchell, Ph.B., M.D. Normal and Pathol. 

Histology. 
Director of the Physiological and Pathological Laboratory of 
the Alumni Association of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons. N.Y., and Lecturer on Normal Histology, Yale 
Medical School. 
114 £ast 26th street, A^. K 
*PuTNAM, Frederick W. Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Curator of the Peabody Museum of Archoeology and Ethnology, 
in connection with Harvard University, Permanent Secre- 
tary of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and Massachusetts State Commissioner on Inland 
Fisheries. 
Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. 
Randolph, N. Archer. M.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Demonstrator of Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
University of /Pennsylvania, PJiiladclpliia , Penn. 



LIST OF MEM15ERS. 49 

*Ratiii;ux, Richard, M.S. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
i:/.S. National Miisctim, Washington, D.C. 
Reichert, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of l^hysiology, University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Pen7isylvania, Philadelp/iia, Penn. 
*RicE, William North, Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesleyan University. 
Middlctoxvn, Conn. 
*RiDGWAY, Robert. Ornithology. 

Curator Dep't of Birds, U.S. National Museum. 
Smithsonian Institution^ Washington! , D. C. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology, Mycology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 

Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 
1700 13/// street, N. W., Washington, D.C. 
♦Robinson, John. Botany. 

Treasurer in charge of Museum of the Peabody Academy of 

Science at Salem. 
Peabody Academy, Salem, Mass. 
*RoTHROCK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 
West Chester, Chester Co., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*Ryder, Johx a., A.m., LL.D. Embryology. 

Special Assistant in Embryology to the U.S. Fish Commis- 
sion. 
U.S. National Museiun, Washington, D.C. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 
Brookline, Mass. 
*Scott, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and PaliBontology, Princeton College. 
Princeton, N.J. 
*ScuDDER, S. H., A.M., S.B. Entomology and Palaeontology. 
Cambridge, Mass. 



50 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Skdgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology ^ Boston^ Mass. 
Sewall, Henry, B.vSc, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of ISIichigan. 

Ann Arbor .f Michigati. 
*Shakespeare, E. O., A.m., M.D. Histology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon and Pathologist to Philadelphia 
(Charity) Hospital. 

1336 Spruce street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Shaler, N. S., A.m., S.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Harvard College, and Director 
of the State Geological Survey of Kentucky. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 

Care of Smithsoniaji htstitution., Washington., D. C. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

333 South Twenty-first street., Philadelphia., Pefin. 
Smith, Sanderson. Conchology. 

New Brighton., St at en Island., N. T. 
*Smith, Sidney I., Ph.B. Crustacea. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale College. 

yale College., New Haven., Conn. 
*Stevenson, J. J., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor, University of the City of New York. 

University., Washington sqtiare^ New llyrh, N T". 
*True, Frederick W., M.S. 

Librarian and Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Mu- 
seum. 
National Museum., Washiugton., D. C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 51 

*Tkvox, G. W., Jr. CoMcliology. 

Conservator of the Conciiological Department of the 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Phihulelpliia. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*TvLOR, J. M. 
Professor. 
Amherst, ATass. 
*Van Vleck, B. IL, S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 
Boston Society of Natiwal History, Boston, Mass. 
*Wadsworth, M.E., A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 
Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Colby University 

Assistant in Lithology, Museum Comparative Zoology. 
Colby University, Waterville, Maine. 
*Walcott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

PalcEontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 
National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 
No. 2 College avenue, Rochester, N. T. 
*Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Assistant in Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 
107 Boy 1st on street, Boston, Mass. 

* White, C. A., A.M., M.D. Inverterbrate Palaeontology. 

Curator of Fossil Inverterbrates, U.S. National Museum, and 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. N'atio7ial Musetun, Washington, D.C. 

* Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Palceontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.), Curator of Geology, 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Ajuerican Museum of Nfatural History, ^"jth street and 
Sth avenue. New York, N'. 7". 
*Whitmax, C. O., Ph. D. Animal Morphology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Museum Comparative Zoology. 

Museutn of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 
*WniTXEY, W. F., M.D. Pathology. 

Curator of the Museum of the Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 



52 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*WiLDER, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zoology, 
and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell University. 

Cornell University^ Ithaca^ N. Y. 
Williams, George H., A.B., Ph.D. Mineralogy. 

Associate Professor of Alineialogy and Petrography, Johns 
Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University^ Baltimore. 
*VViLLiAMS, Henry S., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Cornell University, and Assistant 
Geologist, U. S. Geological Surve\'. 

Cornell University., Ithaca^ N. T. 
*WiLLiAMS, S. G., A.M., Ph.D. Economic Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Cornell University. 

Cor7iell University^ Ithaca., JV. T". 
*WiLSON, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Lecturer on Biology, Williams College. 

Williamstozun., Mass. 
*WoRrMAN, J. L. Vertebrate Palaeontology and Zoology. 

Anatomist to the U.S. Armv jNIedical Museum. 

Army Medical Afuseiun., Washingtoji.^ D.C. 
*WRiGnT, G. Frederick, Rev. Geology. 

Oberlin, Ohio. 
Wright, R. Ramsay. M.A., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural Histor}^, University College, Toronto, 
Canada. 

University College^ Toronto., Canada. 
*Yarrow, H.C, M.D., Acting Asst.-Surg. U.S.A. 

Herpetology. 

Curator of Herpetology, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum., Washi^igton., D. C. 



RECORDS. 53 

THIRD MEETING, AT WASHINGTON, D.C. 
FIRST DAY, DECEMBER 29, 1SS4. 

Lecture Room, U.S. National Museum. 
Mo 7-n ing Sessio n . 
President Hyatt in the Chair. Thirt3'-t\vo members present. 
The following- was read : — 

Report of the Secretary. 
At the last meeting of the Society, in New York, in December, 
18S3, fourteen new members were elected, making a total of one 
hundred and twenty-five. Two members have offered their 
resignations, and one resignation has been accepted, making the 
total membership stand at one hundred and twenty-four. 

At the same meeting the attendance was large. Both the very 
great interest expressed in the eighteen papers, and the activity 
of the discussions, augur very well for the future of the Society, and 
confirm the wisdom of the limitations which it has placed upon 
itself. During the past year the adoption of By-Law ii., 
definino- the meaning of the term " professional naturalist," has 
accentuated the policy of the Society in regard to the standard of 
its membership, and, it is hoped, will steadily contribute to 
elevate the pursuit of Natural History in America. 

To better fulfil certain purposes of the Society it seems desira- 
ble to establish a bureau of information. A plan for accomplish- 
ing this will be announced later during the present meeting. 

In accordance with a vote of the Executive Committee, your 
Secretary has published Part I. of the " Records," containing the 
constitution, a list of members, and the records proper. The list 
of members, if it meet with the approval of members, will be 
continued annually, — as it is an authentic statement of data, 
which are considered important and desirable to have recorded 
and known. The " Records" have been sent to all the members 
and to a few other persons and institutions. 

In conclusion, the Secretary can only congratulate the Society 
upon its past prosperity and present prospects. 
Respectfully submitted by 

CnARi.ES Sedgwick Mixot. 



54 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The Secretary announced that the Executive Committee 
recommended the following amendments to the constitution, as 
follows : to amend Art. viii., so as to read : — 

Art. viii., Sect. i. By-Laws recommended by the Executive 
Committee may be adopted at anv meeting by a majority vote. 

Sect. ii. By-Laws may be repealed at any meeting, upon 
recommendation of the Executive Committee, by a majority 
vote. 

It was moved and carried that this amendment be adopted. 

It was announced by the Secretary that the Executive Commit- 
tee recommended the adoption of the following : — 

By-Law iii. At the opening of the annual meeting a commit- 
tee of five shall be appointed to nominate officers for the ensuing 
year. 

By a vote of the Society this By-Law was adopted. 

It was moved and carried that the Chair appoint this commit- 
tee. The Chair appointed the following persons the Nominating 
Committee : Profs. Goode, Osborn, Gage, Niles, and Lewis. 

After some discussion it w^as moved and carried that the Ex- 
ecutive Committe be directed to consider the desirability of found- 
ing a bureau of information concerning vacant posts in the Natural 
History Departments of Educational and other institutions. 

The following new members were elected : W. K. Brooks, 
Edward G. Gardiner, William H. Howell, T. Sterry Hunt, N. 
S. Shaler ; R. Ramsay Wright. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Dr. Charles S. Minot. A new cabinet for microscopical 

specimens. 

2. . A new feeding-trough for grain. 

3. . An apparatus for calcidating intervals of days 

rapidly. 

4. Prof. Simon II. Gage. On the use of Miiller's Fluid for 

the preservation of the natural colors of animals. 

5. • On the use of collodion for the preservation of 

rubber rings and stoppers, etc. 

6. . Glass-bulb canula^ for the injection of silver 

nitrate, etc. 



RECORDS. 55 

7- Prof. IIkxuv F, Osuorx. A simple method of injecting 
the entire iirterial and \-enous systems in dilTerent coh)rs. 

S. Prof. R. Ramsay Whkjut. On certain methods of stain- 
ing. 

9. Dr. Charlks S. Minot. On a new staining sohition fot 
histological use. 
10. Mr. Charles A. Ashburxer. Notes on barometric hyp 
sometry. 

monday, dec. 29, 1s84. 

United States National Museum. 

Aftei-noo7t Session. 

President Hyatt in the chair. Thirty-four members present. 

After a somewhat prolonged discussion concerning the future 

publications of the Society, Dr. Gill moved to refer the whole 

question to the Executive Committee. Seconded and carried. 

The following new members were elected : William Healey 
Dall, J. Playfair McMurrich, and Henry Sewall. 

The following papers \vere read : — 

1. Prof, H. C. Lewis. A summer school of geology. 

2. Mr. Charles A. Ashburner. Methods in practical geology. 

3. Prof, H. N. Martin, The use of modelling clay to illustrate 

lectures. 

4. Prof. Henry F. Osborn. Methods of investigating the em- 

bryology of the opossum. 

5. Dr. Theodore Gill. On osteological collections. 



THIRD MEETING, AT WASHINGTON, D.C. 

second day, dec, 30, 1SS4. 

Lecture-Room, U S. National Museum. 

Morning Session. 

President Hyatt in the chair. Thirty-nine members present. 

There was presented the followhig 



56 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



Report of the Treasurer. 

Princeton, Dec. 26, 18S4. 
Not having at hand the figures giving the exact balance at the 
tincie of the last report to the Society, a statement of the entire 
receipts and expenditures is given in this report : — 

Received from subscriptions ..... $204 00 
Paid out — 



1883. 



April 19. SpringfieldUnionCo.,forprinting, 

Oct. 25. James T. Robinson & Son, for 

printing .... 

Secretary, for expenses 



Dec. 28. 

18 84. 

Jan. 3, 
Sept. 23. 



W. H. Wheeler, for printing 
President, expenses 
Secretary, printing records, etc. 
Postage, and P. O. orders . 



Total 



Leaving balance 



$1 71 

10 25 
18 13 

12 50 

7 79 
86 06 

I 25 



137 69 



. $66 31 

W. B. Scott, 

Treasurer. 



There was presented the following 



Report of the Auditors. 

Princeton, Dec. 20, 1884. 
We have examined the accounts of the Treasiner of the Society 
of Naturalists of the Eastern United States, — extending from 
April, 1883, to Dec, 1884, and the vouchers and bank account, 
and find them correct. No vouchers for expenses and payments 
through the Secretary. The balance to the Society's credit at 
this date is sixty-six dollars and thirty-one cents ($66y^jj\,). 

George Macloskie, 
Henry F. Osborn, 

Auditors. 



There was presented the following 



RECORDS. 57 



Report of the Co^sfmittee to Advance the Interests 
OF the Biological Section of the American Asso- 
ciation FOR THE Advancement of Science. 

This committee was appointed in the belief that the members 
of the Society of Naturalists can, by cooperation, lend valuable 
aid to the Section of Biology of the American Association. In 
general, the committee have reached the conclusion that there are 
several measures which, if put forward and carried into eflect, 
will increase the efficiency, raise the standard, and widen the 
interest in the work of the above Section. At present there is 
little opportunity offered for the introduction or discussion of any 
reform measures in the crowded sessions of the Section, although 
we are fully confident that the general sentiment among the 
members is in sympathy with any changes that will tend to place 
the proceedings of the Section on a higher plane. 

The work of the committee during the past year has been 
mainly in the line of correspondence and consultation upon such 
measures as can be most advantageously proposed at the next 
meeting of the Association. Previous to the Philadelphia meet- 
ing, in September, Professor Cope kindly adopted a suggestion 
by the committee, and, as president of the Biological Section, sent 
a special invitation to the biologists of the British Association, 
inviting them to take part in the Philadelphia meeting. 

The committee have finally agreed upon the following sugges- 
tions, which, if they meet with the approval of this Society, may, 
we hope, be carried into effect during the coming year : — 

1. The proposal, by the vice-president, of two or three ques- 
tions relating to Biology, of especial current interest, to be brought 
before the Section for discussion ; these questions to be com- 
municated to members in advance, through the usual bulletins of 
the Association. This step has already been taken in two other 
Sections of the Association, and has shown very good results. 

2. At the direction of the vice-president, a number of invita- 
tions should be sent to English and other foreign biologists to take 
part in the work of the Section, or send abstracts of recent dis- 



58 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

coveries or researches. The measure was taken by Professor 
Ray Lankester, president of the Section of Biology of the 
Engh'sh Association, two years ago, and a number of papers 
were sent over from this countr}-, and well received on the 
other side. 

3. In regard to the admission of papers, the Sectional Com- 
mittee should carefully observe the requirements as to the pre- 
liminary abstracts being full enough to give some idea of the 
quality of the paper, and further the Sectional Committee should 
decide as to which papers should be printed in the Proceedings 
of the Association. Brief notes of the discussion following 
papers should in some cases be published. 

4. The Sectional Committee should, to a certain extent, 
classify the papers relating to different branches of Biolog}- and 
to laboratory technique, into groups, so as, in a measure, to bring 
the reading of papers of the same character together. 

Finally, the following questions arise : Whether the above 
changes ai^e desirable, and how it is best to introduce them ? As to 
the latter, there would seem to be one course which is least open 
to criticism, namely, that they should be introduced into the 
Association, not as coming directly from the Society, but by 
ourselves, as members of the American Association. This may 
be carried out in the following way : — 

1. These measures may be communicated to the next Presi- 
dent of the Biological Section, with the request that, if he concurs, 
he will execute part of them, acting upon his own responsibility. 

2. These measures may be brought forward for open discus- 
sion in the Section, upon motion that a committee be regularly 
appointed to consider them and present a report to the Section. 

The committee feel that they have by no means exhausted this 
question, and will therefore be glad to receive suggestions from 
any member of this Society. 

The action proposed above is open to the objection that it 
gives this Society the appearance of a peliminar}' caucus, seeking 
to ol)tain midue control in the larger Society. It can be said in 
reply tliat the same objection holds good against an}' previously 
concerted action which has in view the welfare of the Associa- 
tion. It is, however, with a view to avoid such criticism that 



RECORDS. 59 

the committee have proposed that these and other simihir meas- 
ures should be carried directly into the Association, to be brought 
forward and discussed there. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. S. KlXGSLEY. 

John A. Ryder. 
Wm. B. Scott. 
W. T. Sedgwick. 
Hexry F. Osborx, 

Chair7)ian. 
Washington, Dec. 30, 1884. 

The Secretary announced that the Executive Committee rec- 
ommended the following amendment to the constitution for adop- 
tion, viz. : to amend Art. iii. to read : — 

Article III. — Officers. 

Section i. The officers of this Society shall be a President, 
three Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. 

Sect. ii. Unchanged. 

Sect. hi. The same person shall not be eligible as President 
more than two successive years, nor as Vice-President more than 
three successive years, and one Vice-President shall retire each 
year. 

Sect. iv. The officers named in Section i shall discharge 
the duties usually assigned to these respective officers ; they, 
together with two members elected from the Society at large, 
shall constitute the Executive Committee. The Executive Com- 
mittee shall recommend to the Society, from time to time, such 
measures as they may deem expedient for the purposes of the 
Society, besides discharging the specific duties assigned to them 
by this constitution. 

Sect. v. Unchanged. 

This amendment was adopted by tiie necessary vote of the 
Society. 

The Nominating Committee reported the following nomina- 
tions for officers for the ensuinjr vear : — 



6o SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

President. — G.' K. Gilbert, of Washington. 
Vice-Presidents. — H. N. Martin, of Baltimore. 

E. D. Cope, of Pliiladelpliia. 

Harrison Allen, of Pliiladelpliia. 
Secretary. — C. S. Minot, of Boston. 
Treasurer. — Charles A. Ashburner, of Philadelphia. 
Me7nbers-at-large of Exectitive Co7ninittee. — R. Ramsay 
Wright, of Toronto ; Samuel F. Clarke, of Williamstown. 

It was moved and carried that the Secretary be directed to 
cast an affirmative ballot for the officers nominated by the com- 
mittee. The ballot was cast and the above enumerated nominees 
were declared duly elected. 

The following new members were elected : R. Ellsworth Call, 
Romyn Hitchcock, Horace Jayne, John Alurdoch, and Charles 
A. Oliver. 

The following pajDers were read : — 

1. CD. Walcott. The collecting and working of inverte- 

brate palceontologic material. 

2. G. K. Gilbert. Geological bibliography. 

3. George P. Merrill. Exhibition of a colored enlarged 

photo-micrograph of a thin section of a rock. 

4. G. Brown Goode. Account of the cases used in tlie U. S. 

National Museum. 

5. J. K. Ryder. On museum alcoholics. 

6. B. G. Wilder and S. H. Gage. An investigator's table 

with double or treble revolving tojD and movable book- 
rests. 

7. R. Ramsay Wright. On the use of series of sections in 

laboratory teaching, and a convenient way of obtaining 
them. 

tuesday, dec. 30, 1s84. 

Lecture-Room, U. S. National Museum. 

Afternoon Session. 
President Hyatt in the chair. Twenty-nine members present. 
The President announced that a communication of an informal 
character had been received from Prof. Baird, havintr reference 



RECORDS. 6 1 

to the publication of tiie " Records" of the Society through the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Dr. Theodore Gill moved to refer the matter to the Execu- 
tive Committee ; — seconded. Dr. C. S. Minot moved to amend 
by adding a request that the Executive Committee convey the 
thanks of the Society to Prof. Baird. The amendment was 
accepted The amended motion was put and carried. 

O. T. Mason was elected a member of the Society. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Dr. H. A. Howell. On the use of Terrajoin blood for the 

demonstration of the phenomena of coagulation. 

2. Dr. Harrison Allen. Exhibition of the palatograph. 

3. Dr. C. V. Riley. On the mounting of alcoholic specimens 

in insect cabinets. 

4. . On a preserving fluid for soft galls and plant 

tissues. 

5. Mr. John Murdock. New application of the towing-net 

in Arctic regions. 

6. Mr. F. W. True. On the preservation of type specimens. 

7. Mr. G. Brown Goode. Exhibition of a large diagram 

made by photography. 

8. Prof. William H. Niles. Shall we define groups of 

organisms? 

9. Prof. L. F. Ward. On a method of rapid drawing for 

photo-engraving. 
ID. Mr. R. E. Call. Dentition of certain molluscs. 

Prof, Niles moved that the thanks of the Society be conveved 
to the authorities of the Smithsonian Institution and of the 
National Museum for the courtesy and hospitality shown to the 
Society during this meeting. The motion was appropriately 
seconded by Prof. Gage, and carried by a unanimous vote. 

The Society then adjourned. 

(Signed), CHARLES SEDGWICK MINOT, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Beeords of 
the Society of Naturalists of the Eastern United States 
will he distributed to fnembers, and to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be ])urchn,sed of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of any 
errors in the list of members, and. of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherwise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wi,<ihing to 
propose candidates for election to the society is especially 
directed to Bylaw IT. 



Press of Rockwell and CNnirchill, Boston. 






'I'o'f RECORDS 

MAY 1396 

AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 

(formerly society of naturalists of the 
eastern united states.) 



VOLUME I . , 

PART THIRD. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 

■^rs 8 6 . 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS 



(formerly society of naturalists of the 
eastern united states.) 



VOLUME I . , 

PART THIRD. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY, 

1886. 



RECORDS. 



THE CONSTITUTION, 

As it stands after the revision, in accordance with the amendments adopted 
at the Boston ineeting, December, 1885. 



ARTICLE I. 



NAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section i. This association shall be called the 
American Society of Naturalists. 

Sect. ii. The object of this society shall be the 
association of working naturalists for the discussion 
of methods of investigation and instruction, laboratory 
technique and museum administration, and other 
topics of interest to investigators and teachers of 
Natural History; and for the adoption of such meas- 
ures as shall tend to the advancement and diffusion of 
the knowledge of Natural History in the community. 

ARTICLE II. 

MEMBERS. 

Section i. Membership in this society shall be 
limited to persons professionally engaged in some 
branch of Natural History as Instructors in Natural 
History, Officers of Museums, and other Scientific 
Institutions, Physicians and others. Any member 
may present to the Executive Committee names of 
candidates for membership, and those candidates who 



64 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

are approved by the Executive Committee may be 
elected to membership by a majority of the members 
present at any meeting of the society. 

Sect. ii. Each member shall pay to the Treasurer 
an annual assessment of two dollars, which shall be 
considered due at the annual meeting. The name of 
any member two years in arrears for annual assess- 
ments shall be erased from the list of the society; and 
no such person shall be restored until he has paid his 
arrearages or has been reelected. 

Sect. hi. Honorar}- members, exempt from the 
pa3'ment of dues, may be elected upon recommenda- 
tion of the Executive Committee, by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present at any meeting of the 
Society. The number of honorary members is lim- 
ited to five. 

ARTICLE III. 

OFFICERS. 

Section i. The officers of this society shall be a 
President, three Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and a 
Treasurer. 

Sect. ii. These officers shall be elected b}^ ballot 
at the annual meeting of the society, and their official 
term shall commence at the close of the annual 
meeting. 

Sect. hi. The same person shall not be eligible as 
President more than two successive years, nor as Vice- 
President more than three successive years, and one 
Vice-President shall retire each year. 

Sect. iv. The officers named in Section i shall 
discharge the duties usually assigned to these respec- 



CONSTITUTION. 6$ 

tive officers; they, together with two members elected 
from the society at large, shall constitute the Execu- 
tive Committee. The Executive Committee shall 
recommend to the society from time to time such 
measures as they may deem expedient for the pur- 
poses of the society, besides discharging the specific 
duties assigned to them by this constitution. 

Sect. v. Vacancies in the board of officers, occur- 
ring by death, resignation, or otherwise, may be filled 
by election by ballot at any meeting of the society. 
A vacancy in the secretaryship or treasurership oc- 
curring in the interval of the meetings of the society, 
may be filled by appointment by the Executive Com- 
mittee; but the person so appointed shall hold office 
only until the next meeting of the society. 

ARTICLE IV. 

MEETINGS. 

Section i. Meetings of the society may be held in 
such places as may from time to time be designated by 
the society; no meetings shall be held without the 
territory in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the 
District of Columbia. 

Sect. ii. The annual meeting shall be held during 
the week following Christmas, unless otherwise 
ordered by the Executive Committee. 

Sect. hi. Special meetings may be appointed at 
any time by a vote of the society or of the Executive 
Committee. 



66 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

ARTICLE V. 

QUORUM. 

Seven members shall constitute a quorum of the 
society, and three a quorum of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

ARTICLE VI. 

ACCOUNTS. 

A committee shall be appointed at each annual 
meeting to audit the accounts of the treasurer for the 
year closing with that meeting. 

ARTICLE VII. 

AFFILIATED SOCIETIES. 

It shall be the policy of this society, by correspond- 
ence and otherwise, to encourage the formation and 
cooperate in the work of societies of similar name 
and object in other parts of the country. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

BY-LAWS. 

Section i. By-Laws recommended by the Execu- 
tive Committee may be adopted at any meeting by a 
majority vote. 

Sect. ii. By-laws may be repealed at any meet- 
ing, upon recommendation of the Executive Commit- 
tee, b}'^ a majority vote. 



CONSTITUTION. 6"] 

ARTICLE IX. 

AMENDMENTS. 

Amendments to this constitution, recommended by 
the Executive Committee, may be adopted at any 
annual meeting by a vote of two-thirds of the mem- 
bers present. 



BY-LAWS. 



I. A committee of three, to include the Secretary, 
shall be appointed by the Executive Committee to 
arrange a programme for each meeting. 

II. The following persons shall be considered 
professionally engaged in natural history within the 
meaning of Article ii., Section i : — Only those who 
regularly devote a considerable portion of their time 
to the advancement of natural history; first^ those 
v^^ho have published investigations in pure science 
of acknowledged merit; second, teachers of natural 
history, officers of museums of natural history, phy- 
sicians, and others who have essentially promoted 
the natural-history sciences by original contributions 
of any kind. 

III. At the opening of the annual meeting a com- 
mittee of five shall be appointed to nominate officers 
for the ensuing year. 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1886. 



President, G. K. Gilbert. 

rE. D. Cope, 
Vice-Presidents, -j Harrison Allen, 

^George L. Goodale. 
Secretary, Samuel F. Clarke. 
Treasurer, Charles A. Asiiburner. 



Members of the Executive Committee Elected fro?7i the 
Society at Large. 

R. Ramsay Wright, Charles Sedgwick Minot. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



♦Baird, Spencer F., M.D., LL.D. Zoology. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution ; Director of the 
U.S. National Museum ; U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries. 

Smithsoniati Institution., Washington., D. C. 
*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D. Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Yale College. 

Tale College., JVav Haven., Conn. 
Gray, Asa, A.M., M.D., LL.D. Botany. 

Fisher Professor of Natural History and Director of the 
Herbarium, Harvard College. 

Cambridge., Alass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 

*Allen, Harrison, M.D. 

Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. 

117 South 20th street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*AsHBURNER, Charles A., M.S., C.E. Geology. 

Geologist in Charge Second State Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania. 

907 Walnut street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Barrows, Walter B., B.S. Ornithology. 

Curator of the Museum of Wesleyan University. 

JMiddletown^ Conn. 
*Bean, Tarleton H., M.D., M.S. Ichthyology. 

Curator Dep't of Fishes, Editor of Proceedings, National 
Aluseum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
Benedict, James E. Natural History. 

Naturalist U.S. Fish Commission, Str. "Albatross." 

Smithso7iian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
*BicKMORE, Albert S. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Superintendent of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Muscuni., Central Park., N. T. 
Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Trinity College. 

Trinity College^ Hartford., Conn. 
*Bowditch, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
♦Britton, N. L., E.M., Ph.D. Botany and Geology. 

Assistant in Geology and Botany, School of Mines, Columbia 
College, and Botanist, Geological Survey of New Jersey. 

School of Mines., Cohanbia College., N. T. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 7 1 

Brooks, W. K., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins University^ I^altitnore., Aid. 
*BuRGESs, Edward, A.B. Entomology. 

Secretary of the Boston Society of Natural History, and 
Instructor in Entomology at Busscy Institution of Harvard 
University. 
J3oston Society of Natural History^ Boston., Mass. 
Call, R. Ellsworth. Tertiary Palaeontology, Mollusca. 

Assistant Professor in Geology and Zoology, University of 

Missouri. 
Columbia., Missouri. 
*Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
Willianistoivn., Mass. 
*CoMSTOCK, J. Henry, B.S. Entomology. 

Professor of Economic Entomology and General Invertebrate 

Zoology, Cornell University. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N. 7". 
*CoNN, Herbert W., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Associate Professor in Biology, Wesleyan University. 
Middletoivn^ Conn. 
*Cope, Edward D. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

2IOO Pine street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 
Smithsonian Institution., Washi72gto7i., D. C. 
*Crosby, W. O., S.B. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy and Lithology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 
Institute of Technology., Boston., Mass. 
♦Cutting, H. A., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Geology. 

State Geologist and Fish Commissioner of Vermont. 
Lunenburgh., Verjnonf. 
Dall, William Healey. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

PaliEontologist U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator 

of Department of Molluscs, U.S. National INIuseum. 
Smithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 



72 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E. 

Geolog3% Geography, and Meteorology. 

Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard College. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology^ Cambridge^ Alass. 
*DEWEy, Frederic P., Ph.B. Metallurg3\ 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum^ Washington^ D.C. 
*DiLLER, J. S. Micropetrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washhigton., D. C. 
*DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Cambridge., Alass. 
*DoNALDSON, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiolog}-. 

Assistant in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

jfohns Hopkins University., Baltimore, M. D. 
*DuDLEY, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
*DuTTON, C. E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*DwiGHT, William B., B.A., M.A., Ph.B. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Museum, Vassar 
College, etc. 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsle, N. T. 
*Dv^riGHT, Thomas, A.M., M.D., Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Amherst, Mass. 
♦Emerton, James H. Zoology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Yale College. 

Yale College, New Haven, Conn. 
♦Emmons, S. F. Geolog}'. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 73 

*Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Demonstrator of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston , Mass. 
*Farlow, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botan}-, Harvartl College. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Fernald, C. H.. A.M. Microlepidoptcra. 

Professor of Natural History, Maine State College. 

Orono, Maine. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology, and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, JV. 1^. 
*Gardiner, Edward G., B.S., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

2S9 Mirlborough street, Boston, Mass. 
*Gerrish, Frederick Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

675 Congress street, Portland, Me. 
*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Sitrvey, WasJiingto7t, D. C. 
*GiLL, Theodore, M.D., Ph.D. Ichthyology. 

Smithsonian Ltstitution, Washington, D. C. 
*GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Hai'vard College. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Goode, G. Brown, A.M. Zoology. 

Assistant Director U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

77^-^ street and Sth avenue, JVeiv York, N. Y. 
Gray. William M., M.D. Histology. 

Microscopist, Army Medical Museum. 

Army Medical Musetun, Washingtoti, D. C. 
*Greenleaf, R. W., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Boston City Hospital, Boston, A/ass. 



74 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey^ Washington. D. C. 
*Hall, James, M.S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. 

Geology, Palaeontology. 

State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 
of Natural History. 

State Museum., Albany., N. T. 
*Hayden, F. v., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

1S03 Arch street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Palteontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Palaeontology at, and Curator-in- 
charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Penti. 
*Henshaw, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Boston Society of Natural History., Boston., Mass. 
*HiTCHCocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover., N^.H. 
Hitchcock, Romyn. Fresh Water Algae. 

Acting Curator, U.S. National Museum. 

S?nithsonian Institution^ Washingtoji., D. C. 
♦Holder, J. B., M.D. Zoology. 

Curator of Invertebrate Zoology, Am. Museum Nat. History. 

American Museum., Central Park., N. 7~. 
Howell, William H., B.A., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Associate in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Joh?is Hopkins University., Baltimore, M.D. 
Hunt, T. Sterry, A.M., LL.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Mo7itreal., Canada. 
*Hyatt, Alpiieus, S.B. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Pro- 
fessor of Zoology and Palaeontology at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 

Post 071 Society of Natural History., Boston, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 75 

Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Lithology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Suixey. 
American Aluseum., Central Park, New York, N. Y. 

Jayne, Horace, JM.D. Vcrtclirata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Biological Department, University of Penitsylvania, Phila- 
delphia, Penn. 

Jeffries, J. Amory, A.B., M.D. Anatomy. 

78 Devonshire street, Boston, Alass. 

*JuLiEX, Alexis A., Ph.D. Petrography. 

Assistant in Chemistry and Microscopy, School of Mines, 

Columbia College. 

School of Mines, Columbia College, Nezv York, N. Y. 

*KiDDER, J. H., A.M., M.D. Chemist. 

Chemist U.S. Fish Commission. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

*KiNGSLEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Editor of the " Standard Natural History." 
Maiden, Mass. 

*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geologv and Biology, Bowdoin College. 
Bru7isivick, Mai?ic. 

*Lewis, H. Carvill, A.m. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of JMineralogy, Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia, and Lecturer on Geology and PaliBontology 

at Haverford College, Haverford, Penn. 
Acade7)iy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pe7in. 

*Libbey, William, Jr., A.M , Sc.D. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 

Vice-Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and 

Archaeology. 

Pri?icetofz, Nf. f 

*LocKixGTON, W. N. Zoology. 

1 104 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Petifi. 



'j6 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 
Princeton. N.J. 

*Marcou, John B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. National Museum., Washingtoti., D.C. 

*Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 
College Hill., Mass. 

*Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 
Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 
Johfts Hopkins University., Baltimore., ]\Id. 

Mason, Otis T., A.M., Ph.D. Ethnology. 

Curator of the Department of Ethnology, U.S. National 

Museum. 
Smithso7iian histitution., Washington., D.C. 

*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 

McMuRRicH, J. Playfair, M.A., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Late Instructor in Osteology and Mammalian Anatomy, 
Johns Hopkins University. Professor of Biology, Haver- 
ford College. 

Haverford., Penn. 

*Meehan, Thomas. 

Botanist to the Pennsvlvania State Board of Agriculture, 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 
Germantown., Penn. 

*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, .Secretary of the 
American Ornithologists' Union, and Chairman of its 
Committee on the Migration and Geographical Distribu- 
tion of North American Birds. 
Washington^ D. C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 'J') 

Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, Geological Sun'ey of New Jersey. 
126 E. Goth street, Nexv Tork, N.T. 
*Merkill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Acting Cnrator of Litholog}- and Physical Geology, U.S. 

National Mnseum. 
National JSIusetiiu, Washington, D. C. 
*Merrill, N. F., S.B., Ph.D.- Lithology. 

Professor of Chemistry, University of Vermont. 
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 
*Minot, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Embryology and Histology, Harvard Medical 

School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
Mixter, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatom\\ 

Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, Harvard Medical 

School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*Morse, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 
Salem, Mass. 
Murdoch, John, A.M. Zoology and Ethnography. 

Naturalist and Observer, U.S. Signal Service Expedition to 

Point Barrow. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
*Xewberry, J. S.,M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 
School oj" Mines, Columbia College, New York, N. T. 
*Niles, William H., A.M., Ph.B. Physical Geography 

and Historical Geology. 
Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 
Mass. Instititte of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 
Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to vSt. Mary's Hospital, Phila. 

dclphia. 
1507 Locust street, Philadelphia, Penn. 



78 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*OsBORX, Henry F., Sc.D. Vertebrate Alorphology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 
Princeton^ N.J. 

♦Packard, A. S., Jr., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 
Brozvn University., Providence., R.I. 

*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 

*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
jSIihuaukee., Wisconsi7t. 

♦PiERSOL, George A., M.D. Histology. 

Demonstrator of Normal Histology, Medical Department, 

University of Pennsylvania. 
Utziversity of Pennsylvania., Philadelphia^ Petin. 

*PiLLSBURY, J. H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 
Sprijigjield., Mass. 

*Po\VELi., J. W., Ph.D., LL D. Anthropology and Geology. 

Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Director of the 

Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological Survey., Washington^ D. C. 

*Prentiss, a. N., M.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botan\', Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cornell 

University. 
Cornell University. Ithaca., JV. 2^. 

♦Pruddex, T. Mitchell, Ph.B , M.D. Normal and Pathol. 

Histology. 

Director of the Physiological and Patliological Laboratory of 

the Alumni Association of the College of Physicians and 

Surgeons, N.Y., and Lectiuer on Normal Histology, Yale 

Medical School. 

1 14 East 26th street, N.2'. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 79 

*PuTXAM, Frederick \V. Archieology and Ethnology. 

Curator of the Peabody Museum of Arcluiioloji^y and Ethnology, 
in connection with Harvard University, Permanent Secre- 
tary of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, and Massachusetts State Commissioner on Inland 
Fisheries. 
Pcabody Museiitn^ Cambridge^ Mass. 
♦Randolph, N. Archer, M.D. Ph3'siology. 

Assistant Demonstrator of Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
University of Pennsylvania., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Rathbun, Richard, M.S. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
U.S. National Museum., Washington^ D.C. 
*Reichert, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Pennsylvania., Philadelphia., Penti. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesleyan University. 
Middletown., Conn. 
*RiDGWAY, Robert. Ornithology. 

Curator, Dep't of Birds, U.S. National Museum. 
Sinithsonia?z Institution., Washington., D. C. 
*RiLEV, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology, Mycology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 

Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 
1700 iT^th street., N. W., Washington, D.C. 
*RoBiNSON, John. Botany. 

Treasurer in charge of Museum of the Peabody Academy of 

Science at Salem. 
Peabody Acade7ny , Salem, Mass. 
*RoTHROCK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 
West Chester, Chester Co., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washingtoji, D.C. 



80 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Ryder, John A., A.M., LL.D. Embryology. 

Special Assistant in Embryology to the U.S. Fish Commis- 
sion. 

C^.S. National Museum^ Washingto7i^ D. C. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline^ Mass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal IMorphology. 

Professor of Geology and Pala3ontology, Princeton College. 

Prbiceton., N.J. 
*ScuDDER, S. H., A.M., S.B. Entomology and Palaeontology. 

Cambridge., Alass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology ., Bosto7t., Mass. 
Sewall, Henry, B.Sc, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Universit}^ of Michigan. 

A7in Arbor., Michigan. 
*Shakespeare, E. O., A.m., M.D. Histology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon and Pathologist to Philadelphia 
(Charity) Hospital. 

1336 Spruce street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Shaler, N. S., A.m., S.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Harvard College, and Director 
of the State Geological Survey of Kentucky. 

Cambridge., Alass. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Pen?i. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Depaitment, U.S.A. 

Care of Smithsonian Institution., Wasliington., D. C. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

332 South Twenty-first street., Philadelphia., Penn. 



1 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 8 1 

Smith, Sanderson. Conchology. 

New Brighton^ Statcii Island^ N. Y. 
*Smitii, Sidney I., Ph.B. Crustacea. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale College. 

Yale College^ JVezv Havcn^ Conn. 
•Stejneger, Leonhakd, Ph.D. Ornithology. 

Assistant U.S. National Museum. 

U.S. National Museum^ Washington^ D.C. 
♦Stevenson, J. J., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor, University of tlie City of New York. 

University., VVashitigton square., Nezu York, N. Y. 
♦True, Frederick W., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Librarian and Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Mu- 
seum. 

National Muscian, Washington, D. C. 
*Tryon, G. W., Jr. Conchology. 

Conservator of the Conchological Department of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Acadcjny of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Tylor, J. M. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 

Amherst, ]\Iass. 
*Van Vleck, B. H., S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 

Bosto7i Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
♦Wadsworth, M. E., A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Colby University, 
Assistant in Lithology, Museum Comparative Zoology. 

Colby University, Waterville, JSIaine. 
♦Walcott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National ISIuseum. 

National Museujn, WasJiington, D.C. 
Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

No. 2 College avenue, Rochester, N 2^. 



82 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Waruex, J. W., A.B., M.D., Physiology. 

Assistant in Piiysiology, Harvard Medical School. 

107 Boylston street^ Boston^ Mass. 
*\Vhite, C. a., A.m., M.D., Invertebrate Paleontology. 

Curator of Fossil Itiverterbrates, U.S. National Museum, and 
Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. National ]\Iuseu7n., II ashing to?t., D.C 
*Whitfield, R. p., M.A. Paiffiontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.). Curator of Geology, 
American Aluseum of Natural History. 

American JMiisetim of Natural History .^ T7^^^ street and 
B,th avc7iue. New Tork, N. T. ■ 
*Whitman, C. O., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Museum Comparative Zoology. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology., Catnbridge., Alass. 
*WHrrNEY, W. F., M.D. Pathology. 

Curator of the Museum of ihe Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston, Mass. 
*WiLDER, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zoology, 
and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca^ N. T. 
Williams, George H., A.B., Ph.D. Mineralogy. 

Associate Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography, Johns 
Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltitnore. 
♦Williams, Henry S., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palajontology, Cornell Universit}', and Assistant 
Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. 2~. 
*WiLLiAMS, S. G., A.M., Ph.D. Economic Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. T. 
*WiLSON, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Bryn Mawr College, Penn, 

Bryn Mawr, Penn. 
*WoRTMAN, J. L. Vertebrate PaUcontology and Zoology. 

Anatomist to the U.S. Army JMedical Museum. 

Army Medical Museum, Washingto?i, D. C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 83 

♦Wright, G. Frederick, Rev. Geology. 

Oberliti^ Ohio. 
*\Vrigiit, R. Ramsav, M.A., B.Sc. Zoolofjy. 

Professor of Natural History, University College, Toronto, 
Canada. 

Ufiivcrsity College^ Toronto^ Canada. 
♦Yarrow, H. C, M.D., Acting Asst.-Surg, U.S.A. 

Herpetology. 

Curator of Herpetology, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum^ Washington.^ D. C. 



84 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

FOURTH MEETING, AT BOSTON, MASS. 

first day, december 29, 1ss5. 

Physiological Lecture-Room, Harvard jNIedical School. 

Morning Session. 

President Gilbert in the chair. Forty members present. 
The following was read : — 

Report of the Secretary. 

The Society now has one hundred and thirty-six members ; 
there has been a loss of four members by resignation, and a gain 
of fifteen b}' election at the last meeting. 

There were thirty-two papers presented at the last meeting, 
which fully occupied the whole of the two days. For the present 
meeting a considerable number of important communications are 
expected. 

Of tiie " Records," Part II. has been printed, and is now ready 
for distribution to the members. It contains the revised constitu- 
tion and by-laws, and the revised list of members, and also the 
proceedings proper of the last meeting. 

It is pleasant to be able to felicitate the Society on tlie remark- 
able immunity of loss from death of its members it has enjoyed. 
It is certainly verv remarkable that in so large a body there 
should have occurred not a single death during three years. 
Does the very fact of membership secure us immortality.'' It 
may be noted that election to the Society has become more val- 
uable and sought for since the more stringent rule in regard to 
admission has been adopted, and there appears to be no question 
that a rigid enforcement of the strict definition of the term "pro- 
fessional naturalist" will be advantageous for us and will give 
election to the Society the prestige and significance of a well- 
earned scientific degree. 

It has been suggested that the Society might undertake to 
publish a series of semi-popular monographs on the Natural 
History of the North Atlantic Region. It is deemed probable 
that a publisher could be found wilHng to undertake such a series 
of volumes, of moderate si/c and cost ; perhaps iluodecimos t)f some 



RECORDS. 85 

four luiiulix'd i^ai^cs. For instance, volumes might be written on 
the chniate ; another, to accompany a geological map, on the 
physiography, evergreens, mammals, etc. ; and these volumes 
might be not only readable and interesting to the public, but 
also contributions of permanent value to science : for experience 
has shown that technical language is not indispensable for recording 
knowledge. As it seems very desirable to widen the scope of the 
Society's usefulness your Secretary respectfully recommends that 
a committee of seven, to include the President, be appointed to 
consider the matter, and with full powers to take such steps as 
ma}- seem to them desirable, — it being understood that this com- 
mittee is not to form a board of editors, — which, if it shall become 
necessary, shall be appointed in such manner as the Society at its 
next meeting shall determine. 

Your Secretary, in presenting his last report, begs to thank all 
the members for the kindly relations which they have maintained 
with him throughout his period of office, and to express his 
moi'e than i-eadiness to be at the service of the Society hereafter 
to the extent of his ability and- whenever called upon. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Charles Sedgwick Minot, 

Secretary. 

It was moved, seconded, and carried, to accept the report. 

The following persons were elected members : Walter B. 
Barrows, F. J. H. Merrill, J. Francis Walsh. 

Upon recommendation of the Executive Committee it was 
voted to amend Article I., Section i, of the Constitution, so that it 
shall read : — 

This association shall be called the American Society of 
Naturalists. 

The fjllowing letter was read ; — 

" Botanic Garden, 

"^ Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 18, 1SS5. 
" Chas. S. Minot, Esq_. , Secretary of the Society of Natural- 
ists^ E.U.S. : — 
"Dear Sir, — Accept my thanks for the invitation to attend 
the ensuing meeting of 30ur Society. I will do so, if my time 



86 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

will allow. It is not probable that I can find time to prepare any 

communication. 

" I understand from Prof. Goodale tliqt your Society may, as a 

body or by many of your members, visit Cambridge together upon 

one of your days of session. Should you do so I shall be glad to 

receive the members here at any convenient hour in the afternoon, 

and would ask them to take a cup of tea with Mrs. Gray and 

myself. 

" Hoping the Society may do us this honor, 

" I remain, dear sir, 

" Very truly yours, 

'' Asa Gray." 

Prof. George L. Goodale invited the Society to hold one of its 
sessions in Harvard Hall, and to visit the botanical laboratory of 
Harvard College. 

It was voted to accept the kind invitations of Professor Gray 
and Professor Goodale for Wednesday afternoon, with the cordial 
thanks of the Society, and to hold an afternoon session on Dec. 
30, at 2.30 P.M., in Harvard Hall. 

The following letter was read : — 

" PlIILADEI-PIllA, Oct. 21, 1S85. 

"Dear Dr. Minot : — 

" I believe I neglected to refer, in my last, to your proposition 
that the ' Naturalist ' become the official organ, or medium of 
publication, of the Society of Naturalists for the E.U.S. 

" For my own part I should be glad to have it become so. 

Already its department of microscopy publishes material which 

covers a large department of the Society's work, and tlie rest of 

the Journal is, of course, open to anything that docs not enter that 

department. 

'' Very truly yoiu's, 

" E. D. Cope." 

The Secretary announced that the Executive Committee had 
carefully considered the subject, and considered it undesirable to 
maintain any other official publication than tlie "Records" of 
the Society; but tiiev liope that the members will all feci inclined 



I 



RECORDS. 87 

to send any suitable papers read before the Society to the 
"American Naturalist" for publication. 

The following committee to nominate officers for the ensuing 
year was appointed by the Chair : Messrs. Ilvatt, Lee, Emerson, 
Rice, and Comstock. 

Messrs. Davis and Kingsley were appointed a committee to 
audit the accounts of the Treasurer. 

The chair was then taken by Vice-President H. N. Martin, 
and the President delivered his address entitled : " The in- 
culcation of scientific method by example, with an illustra- 
tion drawn from the quaternary geology of Utah," by G. K. 
Gilbert. 

[This address has since been published in full in " The Ameri- 
can Journal of Science " for April, 1S86. — Sec.'\ 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Prof. E. S. Morse. On museum cases. 

2. Dr. H. P. BowDiTCH. Demonstration of physiological 

apparatus. 

3. Dr. H. P. BowDiTCH. Model of the eye for class demon- 

strations. 

tuesday, december 29, 1ss5. 

Harvard Medical School. 

After7ioon Sessioit . 

President Gilbert in the chair. Thirty -eight members present. 
The following papers were read : — 

1. Prof. B. G. Wilder. On the use of alinjected sheeps' hearts 

in class practicums. 

2. Prof. B. G. Wilder. Illustrations of the advantages of 

alinjection, vascular and visceral, in preserving material 
for class practicums and for permanent preparations. 

3. Dr. Thomas Dwight. Modern anatomical methods. 

4. Dr. S. J. MiXTER. Exhibition of corrosive preparations. 

5. Dr. H. C. Ernst. Cultivation of micro-organisms. 

6. Prof. W. M. Davis. Methods of observing thunder-storms 

and discussinsf the results. 



88 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

7. Dr. J. W. Warren. Exhibition of a I'eaction time apparatus. 

8. Dr. J. W. Warren. A simplified demonstration of tlie 

reaction of saliva. 

9. Prof. R. R. Wright. Improvement in rocking microtome. 
10. Prof. R. R. Wright. Photography as an aid to Natural 

History demonstration. 

After some debate the motion to consider the proposition to 
appoint a committee of seven, made in the Secretary's report, was 
laid over. 

Prof. F. W. Putnam invited the members of the Society to 
visit the Peabody Museum of Archeology. 

The Committee on Nominations presented the following re- 
port : — 

The expiration of the term of service of the first Vice-President 
obliges the committee to supersede this active and earnest officer. 

They also regret that the resignation of the Secretary, which is 
final and unresei'ved, admits of no alternative but the nomination 
of another person in place of the present energetic and popular 
incumbent. 

They have, therefore, prepared the following list of nominees 
for presentation to the society : — 

For President. — G. K. Gilbert. 
For Vice-Preside7its. — E. D. Cope, 

Harrison Allen, 

Geo. L. Goodale. 
For Secretary. — Samukl F. Clarke. 
For Treasurer. — C. A. Ashburner. 
For Executive Coftimittee. — R. Ramsay Wright, 

Charles Sedgwick Minot. 

(Signed,) A. Hyatt. 

L. A. Lee. 
B. K. Emerson. 
W. N. Rice. 

J. H. COMSTOCK. 



RECORDS. 89 

An nffirmativc vote for the nominees of the committee was 
cast hy the Secretary in accordance with the instructions of the 
Society, and the persons nominated were declared elected for the 
ensuinof year. 



FOURTH MEETING, AT BOSTON, MASS. 

second day, dec. 30, 1885. 

Physiological Lecture-Room, Harvard Medical School. 

President Gilbert in the chair. Thirty-seven members present. 

It was voted, in accordance with the recommendation of the 
Executive Committee, to amend Article II. of the Constitution by 
adding a new section, as follows : — 

Section III. Honorary members, exempt from the pa3'ment of 
dues, may be elected, upon recommendation of the Executive 
Committee, by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any 
meeting of the Society. The number of honorary members is 
limited to five. 

The following honorary members were elected : S. F. Baird, 
James D. Dana, and Asa Gray. 

The following members were elected : Thomas Dwight, H. 
C. Ernst, S. J. Mixter, and Leonhard Stejneger. 

The Secretary announced that the Executive Committee had 
voted to hold the next meeting of the Society at Philadelphia, 
Dec. 39 and 30, 1S86. 

It was voted to appoint a committee of three to consider the 
question of establishing a bin-eau of information. The Chair 
appointed the following gentlemen the committee : Messrs. Wm. 
North Rice, A. Hyatt, and G. Brown Goode. 

The following letters were read : — 

" Boston Society of Natural History, 

" Berkeley St., Boston, Mass., Dec. 30, 1S85. 

" The Boston Society of Natural History respectfully invite the 
Society of Naturalists of the Eastern United States to visit and 



90 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

make use of their Museum and Library during Iheir stay in this 
city. 

" Alpheus Hyatt, Curator. 

" Edward Burgess, Secretary." 

"Mass. Inst, of Technology, Dec. 30, 18S5. 
" Charles S. Minot, Secretary : — 

" Dear Sir, — I am requested by General F. A. Walker to ex- 
tend to the American Society of Naturalists a cordial invitation 
to visit the institute which is now in session, and to examine its 
different departments. I desire also personally to invite the 
members to visit the biological department, at any time during 
their stay in Boston. 

" Yours very truly, 

" Wm. T. Sedgwick." 
The following papers were read : — 

1. Prof. S. H. Gage. Dunnington's method of making colored 

diagrams, with modifications. 

2. Prof. B. G. Wilder. Exhibition of preparations illustrat- 

ing certain branch and class characters. 

3. Dr. Charles A. Oliver. Apparatus for the investigation 

of the color sense. 

4. Prof. J. H. CoMSTOCK. A new method of arranging en- 

tomological collections. 

5. Dr. Harrison Allen. Exhiljition of photographs in illus- 

tration of animal motion. 

6. Prof. M. E. Wadsworth. Laboratory instruction in min- 

eralogy. 

7. Mr. J. S. Kingsley. Some photographic processes of 

illustration. 

8. Prof. A. Hyatt. Muscology. 

9. Prof. W. O. Crosby. Arrangement of the mineralogical 

collection of the Boston Society of Natural Histor3\ 
10. Prof. W. M. Davis. Geological sections, illustrating rate of 
deposit and thickness of formations. 



RKCORDS. 91 

wednesday, december 30, 18s5. 

Harvard Hall, Camhridge, Mass. 

Aftcriiooii ^ CSS ion. 
President Gilbert in the chair. Thirtv-six members present. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Dr. C. O. Whitiman. Osmic acid and MerUel's fluid in em- 

bryological research. 

2. Prof. W. G. Farlow. Teaching biology at college. 

3. Prof. W. M. Davis. On the use of models for instruction in 

geology. 

4. Dr. C. S. MixoT. Some improyements in histological tech- 

nique. 

5. Prof. Geo. L. Goodale. Exhibition of botanical physiolog- 

ical apparatus. 

The following was read : — 

Report of the Treasurer. 

1884. Dr. 

Dec. 26. By cash balance .... %(y<C) 31 

1885. 

Dec. 28. By annual subscriptions rec'd by 

Secretary . . . . 60 00 

" " By annual subscriptions rec'd by 

Treasurer . . . . 212 00 

$338 31 



188{>. Or. 

Apr. 4. To 2 account-books . . . $2 00 

Dec. 28. " stamps . . . . 2 04 

" " " balance in hands of Secretary . 60 00 

" " " balance in hands of Treasurer, 274 27 

$338 31 

Chas. a. Ashburner, 

Treasurer. 



92 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The Auditing Committee made the following report : — 

Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 30, 18S5. 

The undersigned have examined the accounts of Charles A. 

Ashburner, Treasurer of the Society of Naturalists of the Eastern 

United States, and, with the exception of slight clerical errors 

that readily explain themselves, have found them correctly stated. 

W. M. Davis. 

J. S. KiNGSLEY. 

It was moved to accept and adopt this report. Seconded and 
carried. 

It was moved that the most cordial thanks of the Society be 
expressed to the authorities of the Harvard Medical School and 
to Prof. George L. Goodale for the very kind hospitalities shown 
to the Society during this meeting. 

The Society then adjourned. 

(Signed,) Charles Sedgwick Minot, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the Society of Jfaturalists of the Eastern United States 
will be distributed to members, and to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested, to notify the Secretary of any 
errors in the list of members, and of a>ny changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherwise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence ; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the society is especially 
directed to By-law II. 



Press of Rockwell and Churcliill, Boston. 



\JHfMm^2l|| 



Mf^m 



/at/fl RECORDS 



() K T II li 



MAY 1886 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I . , 

PART FOURTH. 



]^ O S T O N : 
PUBLISHED B\: THE SECRETARY 

^TS 8 7 . 



RECORDS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I. , 

PART FOURTH. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 

I 88 7. 



RECORDS. 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 188T. 



President, Harrison Allen. 

r E. D. Cope, 
Vice-Presidents, < George L. Goodale, 

C Henry S. Williams. 
Secretary, Samuel F. Clarke. 
Treasurer, William T. Sedgwick. 



Members of the Executive ComtJiittee Elected froyn the 
Society at Large. 

Henry F. Osborn, Charles V. Riley. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D., Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 
Professor of Geology, Yale College. 
Tale College^ New Haven, Conn. 
Gray, Asa, A.M., M.D., LL.D. Botany. 

Fisher Professor of Natural History and Director of the 

Herbarium, Harvard College. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Leidy, Joseph, M.D., LL.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Anatomy, University of Pennsylvania ; Director 
Biological Department, University of Pennsylvania ; Di- 
rector Wagner Institute of Science, Phila. ; President 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila. 
Lesley, Joseph P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 
907 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Penn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 

Allen, C. M. Natural History. 

Wyo?niizg Seminary, Kingston, Penn. 
*Allen, Harrison, M.D. 

Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. 

117 South 20th street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*AsHBURNER, Charles A., M.S., C.E. Geology. 

907 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Barrows', Walter B., B.S. Ornithology. 

Curator of the Museum of Wesleyan University. 

Middletown , Conn. 
Benedict, James E., A.M. Natural History. 

Naturalist U.S. Fish Commission, Str. " Albatross." 

Smithsonian Institution, Washi^tgton, D. C. 
*BiCKMORE, Albert S. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Superintendentof the American Museum of Natiu^al History. 

Americafi Aluseum, Central Park, N. Y. 
Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Trinitv' College. 

Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 
*BowDiTCH, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*Britton, N. L. , E.M., Ph.D. Botany and Geology. 

Assistant in Geology and Botany, School of Mines, Columbia 
College, and Botanist, Geological Survey of New Jersey. 

School of Alines, Columbia College, JV.T. 
Brush, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, Sheffield Scientijic School, JVezv Haven, Conn. 
BuMPUs, H. C, Ph.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology and Geology, Olivet College. 

Olivet, Michigan. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 95 

*BuRGESS, Edward, A.B. Entomology. 

Secretary of the Boston Society of Natm-al History, and 

Instructor in Entomology at Bussey Institution of Harvard 

University. 

Boston Society of Natural History^ Boston^ Alass. 

Call, R. Ellsworth. Tertiary Palaeontology, Mollusca. 

Assistant Professor in Geology and Zoology, University of 

Missouri. 
Columbia^ Missouri, 
♦Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
VVilliafustown, Mass. 
*CoMSTOCK, J. Henry, B.S. Entomology. 

Professor of Economic Entomology and General Invertebrate 

Zoology, Cornell University. 
Cornell University^ Ithaca, JV. 2''. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

2100 Pine street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 
Sfnithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
*Crosby, W. O., S.B. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy and Lithology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 
Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Dall, William Healey. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

Paleontologist U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator 

of Department of Molluscs, U.S. National Museum. 
Sfnithsonian Institution, Washington, I). C. 
*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E. 

Geology, Geography, and Meteorology. 
Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Har\^ard College. 
Museum of Co7nparative Zoology, Cambridge^ Mass. 
*Dewey, Frederic P., Ph.B. Metallurgy. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 
National Mtiseum, Washington, D. C. 
*Diller, J. S. Micropetrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, B.C. 



g6 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Catnbridge^ Alass. 
DoLLEY, Charles S. Biology. 

Professor of Biology in Swarthmore College; Instructor in 
Biology in the University of Pennsylvania. 

University of Pennsylvania^ Biological Department. 
♦Donaldson, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University^ Baltimore^ Aid. 
*Dudley, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

Cornell Uzlverslty^ Ithaca., A^. T'. 
*DuTTON, C. E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
Dv^^iGHT, William B., B.A., M.A., Ph.B. Palaeontology, 

Professor of Zoology and Curator of the Museum, Vassar 
College. 

Vassar College., Poughkeepsle., JV. 2^. 
*Dv^^iGiiT, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston, Mass. 
*Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Amherst., Mass. 
*Emerton, James H. Zoology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Yale College. 

Yale College., New Haven., Conn. 
*Emmons, S. F. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 
Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Demonstrator of Bacteriology, Plarvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
*Farlovv, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard College. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 97 

*Fernai.d, C. II., A..M. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Zoology, Mass. Agricultural College. 

Afn/icrst, Mass. 
Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assistant, Jefferson Medical College Hospital. 

1304 Walnut street^ Philadelphia^ Pcn?i. 
Frazer, Persifor, D. Sc. Geology and Chemistry. 

201 6". Fifth street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology, and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 
*Gardiner, Edward G., B.S., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

3S9 Marlborough street., Boston., Mass. 
Garman, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Museum Comp. Zoology. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Gerrish, Frederick Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

6^1^ Congress street., Portland., Me. 
*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology, 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Washington ^ D. C. 
*Goodale, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botan}', Hai-v'ard College. 

Harvard College^ Cambridge., Mass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown, A.M. Zoology. 

Seci"etary of the Smithsonian Institution, and Assistant Di- 
rector U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washingtofz. D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

77^^ street a7id ?>th avenue.. New York., N. TT. 
*Greenleaf, R. W., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

Bosto7t City Hospital., Boston., Mass. 



98 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

Associate in Botany, Bryn Mawr College. 

J3ryn Mawr^ Penn. 
Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey^ Washington^ D. C. 
*Hall, James, M.S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. 

Geology, Palaeontology. 

State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 
of Natural History. 

State Museutyi^ Albany^ N. T. 
Hare, Hobart, M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Experimental Therapeutics, University of 
Pennsylvania. 

117 South T-wenty-second street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Hayden, F. v., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Sui-vey. 

1803 Arch street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Palaiontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Palaeontology at, and Curator-in- 
charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Henshaw, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Boston Society of Natural History., Boston., Mass. 
*HiLL, Frank A. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, State Survey of Pennsylvania. 

907 Walnut street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*HiTCHCocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover., N.H. 
Hitchcock, Romyn. Fresh Water Algse. 

Acting Curator, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington., D. C. 
♦Holder, J. B., M.D. Zoology. 

Curator of Invertebrate Zoology, Am. Museum Nat. History. 

American JMusczan, Cejitral Park., N.T. 



LIST OF MEMBERS, 99 

Howell, William H., B.A., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Associate in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

jfo/ins Hopkins University -I Baltimore^ Aid. 
Hunt, T. Sterrv, A.M., LL.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Montreal^ Canada. 
*HvATT, Alpheus, S.B. PaliEontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Pro- 
fessor of Zoology and Palaeontology at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 

Boston Society of Natural History ^ Boston., Mass. 
Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Lithology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Atfierican JMusetitn, Central Park., New York., N. Y. 
Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertebrata. 

Professor of Vertebi^ate Morphology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Biological Department., University of Pennsylvania.! Phil- 
adelphia., Penn. 
Jeffries, J. Amory, A.B., M.D. Anatomy. 

7S Devonshire, street., Boston., Mass. 
*JuLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Petrography. 

Assistant in Chemistry and Microscopy, School of Mines, 
Columbia College. 

School of Mines., Colujubia College., New York., N.Y. 
*KiDDER, J. H., A.M., M.D. Chemist. 

Chemist, U.S. Fish Commission. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
*KiNGSLEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Editor of the " Standard Natural History." 

University of Indiana., Bloomington., Indiana. 
Lee, F. S., Ph.D., A.M. Physiology. 

Associate in Biology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bryn Mawr., Penn. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bovvdoin College. 

Brunswick., Me. 



lOO SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Leidy, Joseph, M.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Director of the Biological Department, President of the 
Faculty of the Wagner Free Institute, and President of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 
*Lewis, H. Carvill, A.m. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Mineralogy, Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and Professor of Geology at Haverford Col- 
lege, Haverford, Penn. 
Academy of Natural Sciences^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Libbey, Wili.iam, Jr., A.M., D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and Di- 
rector of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Archaeology. 
Princeton^ N.y. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 
Princeton^ N.y. 
*Marcou, John B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. National JMuseum^ Washington., D. C. 
♦Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology, 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 
College Hill, Alass. 
*Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 
Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 
jfohns Hopkins University., Paltimore, Md. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
McMuRRicH, J. Playfair, M.A., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 
Late Instructor in Osteology and Mammalian Anatomy, 
Johns Hopkins University ; Professor of Biology, Haver- 
ford College. 
Haverford College., Penn. 
*Meehan, Thomas. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture, 
Vice-President Academy of Natural ScicMices, Philadel- 
phia. 
Germantovjn., Penn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. lOI 

♦Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Secretary of the 
American Ornithologists' Union, and Chairman of its 
Committee on the Migration and Geographical Distribu- 
tion of North American Birds. 
Washingtoti^ D. C. 
Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, Geological Survey of New Jersey. 
126 B. 60th street. New York, N. T. 
*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Acting Curator of Lithology and Physical Geology, U.S. 

National Museum. 
Natioital JMuseum, Washingtoii, D. C. 
*MiNOT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Embryology and Histology, Harvard Medical 

School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
Mixter, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatomy. 

AssistantDemonstrator of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*Morse, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 
Salem, A/ass. 
*Newberry, J. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 
School oy Mines, Columbia College, New York, NY. 
*NiLES, William H., A.M., Ph.B. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 
Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 
Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 
Ophthalmic and Aural Surgeon to St. ^larj^'s Hospital, Phila- 
delphia. 
1507 Locust street, Philadelphia, Penn. 



102 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*OsBORN, Henry F., Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 
Princeton^ N.y. 
*Packard, a. S., Jr., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 
Brozvn University^ Providence^ R.I. 
*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey ., Washington., D.C. 
*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
Milwaukee., Wisconsin. 
*PiLLSBURY, J. H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 
Springfield., Jl/ass. 
*PowELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 
Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Director of the 

Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 
*Prentiss, a. N., M.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cornell 

University. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., JV. T. 
Prosser, Charles S., M.S. Palaeontology. 

Instructor in Palaeontology, Cornell University. 
Ithaca, N. T. 
*PuTNAM, Frederick W. ArchcEology and Ethnology. 

Curator of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy, in connection with Harvard University ; Permanent 
Secretary of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science ; and Massachusetts State Commissioner 
on Inland Fisheries. 
Peabody Museum., Cambridge, Jllass. 
Randolph, N. Archer, M.D. Pliysiology. 

Assistant Demonstrator of Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn, 



I 



LIST OF MEMBERS. IO3 

*Rathbun, Richard, M.S. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 

U.S. National ]\Tuscum.i Washington., D.C. 
Reichert, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Physiology, Universit}' of Pennsylvania. 

University of Pennsylvania.^ Philadelphia., Penn. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesley an University. 

yiiddletozvn., Cojin. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology, Mycology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 
Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 

1700 iT^th street, N. IV., Washington, D. C. 
*Rothrock, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 

West Chester, Chester Co., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
Ryder, John A., A.M. Embryology. 

Pi'ofessor of Comparative Embr3'ology, Univ. of Penn. 

Biological Dept., Univ. of Penn., Philadelphia, Pen?t. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Hansard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brooklitie, JSIass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Princeton College. 

Pritzceton, JV. y. 
*Scudder, S. H., A.m., S.B. Entomology and Paleontology. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Massachusetts Itistittite of Technology , Boston, Mass. 
Sewall, Henry, B.Sc, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 



I04 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Shakespeare, E. O., A.m., M.D. Histology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon and Pathologist to Philadelphia 
(Charity) Hospital. 

1336 Spruce street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
Shaler, N. S., A.m., S.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Harvard College, and Director 
of the State Geological Survey of Kentucky. 

Cajnbridge^ Mass. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences^ Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. W. ,M.D. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 

Care of Smithsonian Institutioft., Washington., D.C. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, Universit}' of Penn- 
sylvania. 

332 South Twenty-frst street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Smith, Sidney I., Ph.D. Crustacea. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale College. 

Yale College., New Haven., Conn. 
Stejneger, Leonhard, Ph.D. Ornithology. 

Assistant, U.S. National Museum. 

U.S. National Altisezim., Washiiigton., D.C. 
*Stevenson, J. J., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor, University of the City of New York. 

University., Washington square^ New Torky N 7". 
*True, Frederick VV.,M.S. Vertebrates. 

Librarian and Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Mu- 
seum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
*Tryon, G. W., Jr. Conchology. 

Conservator of the Conchological Department of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Nattiral Sciences., Philadelphia., Penn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 105 



TucKERMAN, FREDERICK, M.D. Auatomy and Physiology. 

Professor, Anatomy and Physiology, Mass. Agricultural 
College. 

Atuhcrst^ Mass. 
*Tyler, J. M., A.B. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 

Arnherst^ Mass. 
*Van Vleck, B. H., S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 

Boston Society of Natural History^ Boston., Mass. 
*WADSWoRTir, M. E., A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Colbv University, 
Assistant in Lithology, Museum Comparative Zoology. 

Colby University., JVaterville, Me. 
*Walcott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

PahBontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum^ Washijjgton. D. C. 
*\Vakd, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

N'o. 2 College avenue., Rochester., N. Y. 
*\Varren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Assistant in Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

107 Boylston street., Boston., Mass. 

* Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Palaeontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.), Curator of Geology, 

American Museum of Natural History. 
American JMuseum of Natural History., ']']th street and 

^tk avenue., New York., N. Y. 

* Whitman, C. O., Ph D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor, Journal of Morphology, Lake Laboratory. 

Alllwaukee., Wis. 
*Whitney, W. F., M.D. Pathology. 

Curator of the Museum of the Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
*Wieder, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zoology, 
and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell L^^niversity. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N. Y. 



I06 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Williams, George H., A.B., Ph.D. Mineralogy. 

Associate Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography, Johns 

Hopkins University. 
jfokns Hopkins University ^'Baltimore. 
* Williams, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology and Paleeontology, Cornell University, 

and Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Cornell University^ Ithaca^ JV. T. 
*WiLSON, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Bryn Mawr College, Penn. 
Bryn Mawr^ Petin. 
*Wright, R. Ramsay, M.A., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, University College, Toronto, 

Canada. 
University College^ Toronto^ Canada. 
♦Yarrow, H. C, M.D., Acting Asst.-Surg. U.S.A. 

Herpetology. 
Curator of Herpetology, U.S. National Museum. 
814 \*]t7i street^ N. W., Washington, D. C. 



RECORDS. 107 



FIFTH MEETING, AT PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 
December 28, 18S6. 

Assembly Room of the Engineers' Club, of Phila- 
delphia. 

MORNING SESSION. 

President Gilbert in the chair. Thirty-five members present. 

The report of the last session of the pi"eceding annual meeting 
was read and adopted. 

Upon recommendation of the Executive Committee it was 
voted that the annual assessment of two dollars shall be considered 
due in advance at the annual meeting. This will change Section 
2 of Article II. of the Constitution so as to read, " Each member 
shall pay to tlie Treasurer an annual assessment of two dollars, 
which shall be considered due at the annual meeting, in advance." 

The name of Professor Joseph Leidy, recommended to the 
Society by the Executive Committee for honorary membership, 
was unanimously elected. 

The names of Dr. Persifor Frazer and Professor C. A. Dolley 
were recommended to the Society by the Executive Committee, 
and were unanimoush^ elected. 

The President appointed as a committee to nominate officers 
for the fiscal year, Messrs. Farlow, Heilprin, Jayne, McGee, and 
Niles. 

Messrs. Rothrock and Diiler were appointed to the Auditing 
Committee by the President. 

The Society then listened to the presidential address upon 
" Special Processes of Research," which has since been pub- 
lished in the American yournal of Science for June, 1887. 

Professor E. B. Wilson, of Bryn Mawr, read a paper on " The 
Practical Study of Moulds." which was very interestingly illustrated 
by numerous mounted specimens. 

After the announcement of the programme for the afternoon, 
the following- invitations were read : — 



108 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

" iSii Spruce Street. 
" To Dr. Horace Jayxe : — 

" Dear Doctor, — May I beg you to transmit to the American 
Society of Naturalists a cordial invitation to visit the University at 
all times during the session of that body. 
" Yours faithfully, 

"William Pepper, 

" Provost. 

" December zS, iSS6." 

"Philadelphia, Dec. 22, 1SS6. 

" Harrison Allen, M.D., Chair juan of the Local Committee^ 
American Society of Naturalists : — 

"Dear Sir, — I have the pleasure to inform you that at the 
meeting of the Academy, held last evening, it w^as voted to tender 
the freedom of the museum and library to the members of the 
American Society of Naturalists during the coming meeting on 
the 2Sth and 29th inst. 

"It is hoped that the Academy may be able to contribute in 
some degree to the interest and profit of the session. 
" I remain, 

" Yours very trul}', 

" Edward J. Nolan, 

" Recording Secretary.'''' 

" Swarthmore College, 

" Swarthmore, Pa., 12 Mo. 25, 1SS6. 

" To the Society of Naturalists convened In Philadelphia : — 

" Esteemed Friends, — If at any time during the progress of 
your meetings in Phila., or at their close, it would be agreeable 
for you to visit this college, we should give you a most cordial 
welcome, and show you all that we are doing, and especially in the 
lines of study in which you are particularly interested. Dr. Chas. 
S. Dolley, our Professor of Natural History and Biology, will 
present this note, and will take great pleasure in escorting such 
to the college as may desire to come. 

" Very respectfully, your friend, 

" Edward II. Magill, 

" President. ^^ 



I 



RECORDS. 109 

SECOND SESSION. 
December 28, p.m. 

President Gilbert in the chair. Thirty-five members present. 

Dr. C. A. Oliver opened the afternoon meeting with an illus- 
trated paper on "■ Color Blindness and a Color Sense Measurer," 
followed by a discussion by Profs. Martin, Davis, and others. 

Prof. Hyatt delivered a paper entitled " A Method of Instruct- 
ing Large Classes with Specimens." 

Prof. H. Newell Martin exhibited several pieces of physiologi- 
cal apparatus recently devised at the Johns Hopkins Biological 
Laboratory. 

Prof. Henry Sewall displayed and explained the working of 
several pieces of Physiological apparatus lately invented at the 
Universitv of Michigan. 



THIRD SESSION. 
December 29, a.m. 

President Gilbert in the chair. Thirty-eight members present. 

The morning was mainly devoted to the two addresses by Prof. 
Henry S. Williamson methods of instruction in General Geology, 
and by Prof. William M. Davis on instruction in Geological In- 
vestigation. 

Joseph P. Lesle}^ LL.D., wliose name was recommended to 
the Society by the Executive Committee, for honorary member- 
ship, was unanimouslv elected. 

It was moved by Prof. Davis that the Executive Committee be 
requested to consider an amendment to Article 11. , Section i, of 
the Constitution, to the end tliat election to membership shall be 
accomplished by the Executive Committee ; and that a report on 
such amendment be made at the meeting a year hence. 

Cari'ied. 



no SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The following communications were read by the Secretary : — 

" American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 

" 104 South Fifth Street, Dec. 18, 1S86. 

"Prof. S. F. Clarke, Secretary^ American Society Natural- 
ists : — 
" Dear Sir, — I have the honor to present to you the enclosed 
resolution, and to state that the hall of the Society is open daily 
from 10 A.M. to I P.M. 

" Your obedient servant, 

" Henry Phillips, Jr., 

" Secretary. ^^ 

"American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 

" 104 South Fifth Street, Dec. 17, 1886. 

" At a meeting of the Society held this evening, it was resolved 
that this Society should invite the American Society of Naturalists 
to visit the hall of the American Philosophical Society during its 
forthcoming meeting. 

" CHiDped from the minutes. 

" Henry Phillips, Jr., 

" Secretary.^' 



FOURTH SESSION. 

December 29, p.m. 

President Gilbert in the chair. Forty-nine members present. 
Addresses were given as follows : — 

1. What sort of Botanical Investigation is needed in this 
Country, and how can it best be promoted? By Prof. William G. 
Farlow. 

2. The Best Metliods of Teaching Biology in Colleges. By 
Prof. H. Newell Martin. 

3. Biological Instruction in Universities. By Prof. C. O. 
Whitman. 

It was moved and seconded that the Executive Committee be 
requested to take such action as may be desirable to secure the 



RECORDS. I I I 

publication of the papers read to-day in some of the scientific or 
educational journals of the country. 

The Committee on Nominations made the following report to 
the Society : — 

" Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 29, 1886. 

"To the President a7id Members of the American Society of 
Naturalists : — 

"Your Nominating Committee beg to report that it has the 
honor to make the following nominations for officers for the en- 
suing fiscal year : — 

'■'For President. — Dr. Harrison Allen, of Philadelphia. 
^'•For Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Edw. D. Cope, of Philadelphia. 

Prof. George L. Goodale, of Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Prof. Henry Shaler Williams, of 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
'-'-For Secretary. — Prof. Samuel F. Clarke, of Williams Col- 
lege, Williamstown, Mass. 
'•'-For Treastirer. — Prof. William T. Sedgwick, of the Mass. 

Inst. Tech., Boston, Mass. 
'•'■For Members at Large of the Executive Committee. — Prof. 
Henry F. Osborn, of Princeton College, Princeton, N.J. 
Dr. C. V. Riley, Entomologist of the U.S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D.C. 

" Very respectfully, 

" W. G. Farlow. 
" Angelo Heilprin. 
" W. M. Davis. 
"W. J. McGee. 
" Horace Jayne." 

The annual dinner, given at the rooms of the University Club 
on the evening of the twenty-ninth, was a thoroughly enjoyable 
occasion to the thirty members who were present. 



112 . SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



FIFTH SESSION. 



December 30, a.m. 

The nominations for officers were unanimously elected. 

The names of Mr. C. M. Allen, Dr. L. W. Fox, Mr. Samuel 
Garman, Prof. Emily L. Gregory, Mr. F. A. Hill, Prof. F. S. 
Lee, and Mr. C. S. Prosser having been recommended to the 
Society for membership by the Executive Committee, were 
unanimously elected. 

The committee appointed at the last meeting to consider the 
question of establishing a Bureau of Information made the fol- 
lowing report : — 

" Tc* the Pi'esident and JSIembers of the A?Jiericait Society of 
JVaturalists : — 

" Your committee appointed to consider the desirability of es- 
tablishing a Bureau of Information, though not entirely agreed, 
present the following report : — 

" I. That we recommend to the Society the appointment of a 
committee whose duty it shall be to organize a bureau of infor- 
mation to serve as a medium of communication between those 
who are seeking for scientific assistants, teachers, etc., and those 
qualified to be considered as candidates for such posts. 

" 2. That we further suggest that this committee is in no case to 
endorse candidates, or make themselves in any way responsible, or 
seek for places, or otherwise act as an employment bureau, ex- 
cept in so far as the passive duty of furnishing information and a 
means of registration is concerned. 

"3. That as a means to this end the comn'iittee be instructed to 
keep on file the names of those desiring to be employed as 
teachers of science, or of assistants, etc., together with such di- 
plomas, letters of recomendation, etc., as may be sent them liv the 
persons whose names have been accepted, or a list of the same, 
at their discretion. 

" 4. That the committee have discretionar}' powers as to the 
means to be employed, and books to be kept, but that they shall 
keep an accurate record of names, and as far as practicable of 



RECORDS. 113 

places or positions obtained through their interposition, and full 
accounts of money received and paid, which last shall he ac- 
counted for- in the Treasurer's annual report to the Society. 

" 5. That the comniittee shall have also discretionary power in 
the selection of names, so as to enable them to reject the names of 
cranks and illiterate or obviously unsuitable persons. 

"6. It is, however, not the intention of the committee to ask the 
Society to set up a high standard of excellence, but simply to fur- 
nish a medium between two classes of people. Thus all names 
having any reasonable claims should be accepted and filed, only 
those being rejected whose pretensions are obviously without 
proper foundations. The burden of selection beyond this point 
should be thrown upon the judgment of the emplovers. The 
great difficulty of obtaining the lower classes of assistants and 
workers, as well as the higher, should be considered by the com- 
mittee when defining the classes of names considered admissible 
to their lists. 

" 7. In order to start this enterprise an appropriation of 

dollars should be made in order to advertise, print, and distribute 
a sufficient number of circulars, and ior paper, postage, etc. 

*■' 8. It is farther suggested that, after the first year, it would be- 
come expedient to limit the expenses of the bureau to an income 
derived by assessments from the persons benefited. For this 
purpose the committee is instructed to charge an entry fee of one 
dollar and an inquiry fee of two dollars ; the entry fee to be 
paid by candidates after their names are accepted, but before they 
are entered on the books or files of the committee, and the 
inquiry fee before any would-be employer is allowed to consult 
the lists or receive other information with regard to candidates. 
Perhaps better to make a somewhat higher entry fee, and no in- 
quiry fee. 

" Signed, 

" Alpheus Hyatt, ^ 

" William North Rice, V Co?nfniifce." 

" G. Brown Goode, ) 

After much discussion the whole matter was referred to the 
Executive Committee. 



114 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Papers were read as follows : — 

By Mr. Henry E. Summers, of Cornell University: 

1. On the Decalcification of the Skull by Nitric Acid to facil- 

itate the Removal of the Brain. By Professor Wilder 
and Mr. Summers. 

JVotes and Queries froin the Anato7nical Laboratory of Cor- 
nell University. 

2. Tilton's Liquid, a Preservative. 

3. The Determination of Combined Aquatic and Aerial 

Respiration. 

4. New Use of Slips in Scientific Correspondence. 

5. A Wheel for Slip Notes. 

6. Black Paper-muslin for Blackboard Use. 

7. Mounting of Human Skeleton in Normal Mammalian Po- 

sition. 

8. A Truck and Jar Protector, for Museums. 

9. Strengthening and Purifying Alcohol. 

Prof. C. H. Hitchcock. The International Geological Con- 
gress. 

Pi'of. J. Playfair McMuRRiCH. A Useful Form of Mould 
for Class Study. 

It was suggested by Prof. William B. Scott that the special 
topic for the next annual meeting be The Teaching of Science 
in Schools. 

Prof. William T. Sedgwick exhibited a new Form of Dia- 
gram, clips to be used with the same ; a new Form of Microscope 
Slide Boxes, and a very convenient Form of Dialyzcr. 

SIXTH SESSION. 

December 30, p.m. 

Biological Department of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania.. 

President Gilbert in the chair. Thirty-three members present. 
The names of Prof. H. C. Bumpus, Prof. Frederick Tucker- 



RECORDS. I I - 

man, Prof. C. S. Dolley, and Dr. Hobart Ilare were unanimously 
elected to membership, the}- having been duly reeommended by 
the Executive Committee. 

Papers were read by : — 

Prof. John A. Ryder. Description of a New Microtome. 

Dr, Horace F. Jayxe. A Method of Lecture Illustration. 

Prof. C. S. Dolley. A Dissecting Pad. 

Dr. Harrison Allen. 

Prof. R. Ramsey Wright. A communication from Pro- 
fessor Wright was read by the Secretary, giving descriptions of 
new models of Invertebrata and Cryptogams. 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Meybridge the Society enjoyed 
the pleasure of seeing a large and very interesting and instructive 
collection of serial stereoptic views of various animals in motion. 

A unanimous vote of thanks was given to Dr. Meybridge for 
his ver}^ valuable entertainment. 

The Treasurer's Report. 

The Treasurer of the American Society of Naturalists begs 
leave to make the following report, Dec. 28, 1SS6: 

Balance as per last report, Dec. 28, 1885 • $.334 27 

Dues received during 1SS6 . 

Feb. 9. Payment made to C. S. Minot, 

Sec'y Ex. .... 

Sept. 27. Payment made to S. F. Clarke, 

Sec'y Ex. .... 

" " Payment made for collection of 

draft 

Dec. 28. Stationery for Treasurer's use 
" " Stamps " " " 

" " Balance on hand 

$6S6 29 $686 29 
Respectfully submitted, 

Charles A. Ashburner, 

T'reasurer. 



• 


352 02 


$86 31 




89 46 




50 




5 50 




10 00 




494 52 





Il6 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The Auditing Committee made the following report: — 

" Philadelphia, Dec. 2S, 1886. 

"We, the Auditing Committee of the American Society of 
Naturalists, have examined the account of the Treasurer, and find 
it to be correct, and that the sum no\v on hand is four hundred 
and ninety-four dollars and fifty-two cents ($494.52). 

"J. T. ROTHROCK. 
"J. S. DiLLER." 

It was moved to accept and adopt this report. Seconded and 
carried. 

The following resolution was seconded and carried : — 

*•' Resolved^ That the thanks of the Society are due and are most 
cordially tendered to the Local Committee for their services, so 
kindl}' rendered and so promotive of the comfort and convenience 
of the members of the Society; to the Engineers' Club of Phila- 
delphia and to the authorities of the University of Pennsylvania, 
for the use of the rooms occupied for the meetings of the Society ; 
to the University Club, for the use of the rooms for the annual 
dinner ; and to the Philadelphia Academy of Science, the 
American Philosophical Society, and the Union League of Phila- 
delphia, for the privileges so courteously offered to the members of 
the Society." 

It was also moved and carried that this meeting has been more 
than usuall}' successful and instructive, and this result has been 
largely owing to the issue of a circular calling the attention of the 
members to subjects of special interest which were to be debated. 
This same policy, if continued in the future, is likely to produce 
similar results. The undersigned respectfully recommends that 
the following subjects be debated at the next meeting : Studies 
needed for the preparation of students for advanced courses in 
Geology, Pahtontology, Zoology, Botany, and Biology. 

Aepheus Hyatt. 

At the close of the meeting the Society was very delightfully 
entertained with a banquet prepared by their most cordial hosts, 



RECORDS. 117 

the gentlemen of tlie Biological Department of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

Appended is a nearly complete list of the members present : — 

Mr. C. A. AsiiBURNER, State Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 
Prof. Samuel F. Clarke, Williams College. 

" Edward D. Cope, Philadelphia, Penn. 

" WiLLLVM M. Davis, Harvard Universit}^ 
Mr. J. S. DiLLER, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Prof. George Dimmock, Cambridge, Mass. 

" C. S. DoLLEY, University of Pennsylvania. [ 

" William B. Dwight, Vassar College. 
Mr. James H. Emerton, New Haven, Conn. 
Prof. Ben K. Emerson, Amherst, Mass. 

" William G. Farlow, Harvard University. 
President G. K. Gilbert, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Prof. Angelo Heilpin, Academy of Natural Science, Phila. 
Prof. C. H. Hitchcock, Dartmouth College. 

" W. H. Howell, Johns Hopkins University. 

" Alpheus Hyatt, Boston Society of Natural History. 
Dr. Horace Jayne, University of Pennyslvania. 
Prof. Joseph Leidy, University of Pennsylvania. 
Mr. W. J. McGee, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Prof. George Macloskie, Princeton. 

" J. Playfair McMurrich, Haverford College. 

" H. Newell Martin, Johns Hopkins Universit3\ 

" W. H. NiLES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Dr. C. A. Oliver, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Prof. H. F. OsBORN, Princeton. 
Dr. A. C. Peale, U.S. Geological Surve}-. 
Dr. Edward T. Reichert, University of Pennsylvania. 
Prof. William North Rice, Wesleyan University. 
Dr. C. V. Riley, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 
Prof. J. T. RoTHROCK, University of Pennsylvania. 

" John A. Ryder, University of Pennsylvania. 

" W^iLLiAM B. Scott, Princeton. 

" William T. Sedgwick, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. 



Il8 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Prof. Henry A. Sewall, University of Michigan. 

" Benjamin Sharp, Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia. 
Mr. C. D. Walcott, U.S. Geological Sui-vey. 
Prof. C. O. Whitman, Director, Lake Laboratory, Milwaukee, 
Wis. 
" Henry S. Williams, Cornell University. 
" Edmund B. Wilson, Bryn Mawr College. 



The Society adjourned at 4.45 p.m. 

vSigtied, 



Samuel F. Clarke, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the Society of JVaturalists of the Eastern United States 
will he distributed to members, and to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies nun/ be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of any 
errors in the list of meinbers, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherivise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence ; but the meetings of tlie 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-Law II. 



Press of Rockwell and Clnircliill, Boston. 



/3,^/ 



f RECORDS 



MAY 1896 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



\' O L tj M E I . , 

I' A 11 T FIFTH. 



BOSTON : 
PUBLISHED BJ THE SECRETARY 

■•''"i 8 8 8. 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



^^ O L U M E I . , 

PART FIFTH. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1888. 



RECORDS. 



LIST OF OFFICEKS FOR 1888. 



President, Harrison Allen. 

r George L. Goodale, 
Vice-Presidents, < Henry S. Wii-liams, 

C Henry F. Osborn. 
Secretary, Samuel F. Clarke. 
Treasurer, William T. Sedgwick. 



Members of the Executive Committee elected from the 
Society at Large. 
Richard Rathbun, -Chtvm.es V. -Rw*^ 

George H. Williams. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D., Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology, 
Professor of Geology, Yale College. 
Yale College ., New Haven., Conn. 
Leidy, Joseph, M.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Director of the Biological Department, President of the 
Faculty of the Wagner Free Institute, and President of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 
907 Walnut street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Palieontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Yale University. 
8 Pcabody Museum., New Haven., Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 

Allen, C. M. Physics. 

Wyoming' Seminary, Kingston, Penn. 
*Allen, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

117 South 20th street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. ' Biology. 

Associate Editor of the Journal of Morphology. 

Mihvaukee, Wisconsin. 
*Ashburner, Charles A., M S., C.E. Geology. 

Penn Building, Pittsburgh, Penn. 
Barrows, Walter B., B.S. Ornithology. 

Curator of the Museum of Wesleyan University. 

Mid die town. Conn. 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Vertebrate Palaeontology. 

Assistant in Osteology, Yale University. 

Peabody Aluseuin, New Haveti, Conn. 
Benedict, James E., A.M. Natural History. 

Naturalist U.S. Fish Commission, Str. "Albatross." 

Smithsoniaii Institution, Washington, D. C. 
*Bickmore, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museutn, Central Park, N. T. 
Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

University Club, New York City. 
*BowDiTcii, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, JBoston, Mass. 
Brewer, William H., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale University. 

346 Orange street. New Haven, Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 121 

*Britton, N. L., E.INI., Ph.D. Botany and Geology. 

Assistant in Geology and Botany, School of Mines, Columbia 
College, and Botanist, Geological Survey of New Jersey. 

School of Mines ^ Cohunbia College^ N.Y. 
Brush, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, Sheffield Scientific School. 

New Haven ^ Conn. 
BuMPUs, H. C, Ph.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology and Geology, Olivet College. 

Olivet., Michigan. 
Call, R. Ellsworth. Tertiary Palaeontology, Mollusca. 

Assistant Professor in Geology and Zoology, University of 
Missouri. 

Columbia., Missouri. 
Campbell, John P., B.A. Physiology. 

Fellow by courtesy of the Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., j\Id. 
Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 

83 Trt(7nbtill street., Nexv Haven., Conn. 
Clark, William B., Ph.D. Pahcontology. 

Instructor in Palteontolog}-, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md . 
Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
Williamstovjn., Mass. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Vertebrate, Palaiontology and Zoology. 

3I03 Pine street., PJiiladelpJiia., Peitn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy . 

Smithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
*Crosby, W. O., SoB. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogv and Lithologv, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

Institute of Tech7iology ., Bostofi^ Alass. 
Dall, W^illiam Healey. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

Palaeontologist U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator, 
Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 



122 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Dana, Edward S., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Natural Philosoph}', Yale Universit}-. 
Ill Grove street^ Nevj Haven^ Co7in. 
*Dav]S, William M., S.B., M.E. Geology, Geography, and 

Meteorology. 
Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard College. 
Miisetim of Comparative Zoology^ Cambridge^ Mass. 
*Dewey, Frederic P., Ph.B. Metallurgy. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 
National Museum^ Washington. D. C. 
*DiLLER, J. S., S.B. Petrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist in charge of Petrographic Laboratory. 
U.S. Geological Survey, Washington., D.C. 
*DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Cambridge, Alass. 
DoLLEY, Charles S. Biology. 

Professor of General Biology in the University of Penn- 
sylvania ; Professor of Natural History in Swarthmore 
College. 
University of Pennsylvania, JBiological Departmefit. 
*DoNALDSox, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Associate in Psychology, Johns Hopkins University. 
fohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, M.D. 
*Dudley, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 
Cortiell Utiiversity, Ithaca, N. T. 
*DuTTON, C. E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 
U.S. Geological Survey, Washingtoji, D.C. 
DwiGHT, William B., B.A., M.A., Ph.B. Pala'ontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 

Vassar College. 
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. T. 
Dwigiit, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 



l.isr OF MEMBERS. 123 

•Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Amherst^ Mass. 
*Emerton, James H. Zoology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Yale College. 

Yale College, New Haven ^ Cotin. 
*E]MMoxs, S. F. ' Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey^ Washhigtoii, D. C. 
Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Demonstrator of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Aledical School., Boston .^ Mass, 
*Farlow, \Vm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botan}^, Harvard College. 

Harvard College., Cambridge., Mass. 
Fernald, C. H., A.m., Ph.D. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Zoology, Mass. Agricultural College. 

Amherst., Mass. 
Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiologv. 

Clinical Assistant, Jefferson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophthalmic Surgeon to Germantown Hospital. 

1304 Walnut street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Frazer, Persifor. Geology and Chemistry, 

Docteur es-Sciences Naturales (Universite de France). Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry. Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

201 S. Fifth street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technologv, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., ]V. Y. 
*Gardiner, Edward G., B.S., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

2S9 Alarlborough street. Bostoti.. A/ass. 
Garman, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Museum Comp. Zoology. 

Cambridge, A/ass. 
*Gerrish, Frederic Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bow^doin College. 

675 Congress street., Portland, Me. 



124 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

♦Gilbert, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey^ Washington^ D. C. 
GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard College. 
Harvard College^ Cambridge^ Mass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown, A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant Secretary' of the Smithsonian Institution in charge 

of the U.S. National Museum. 
Smithsonian Institution., Washington^ D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 

History, New York. 
']']th street and Sth avenue, New York, N. V. 
*Greenleaf, R. W., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

241 Boylston street, Boston, ]\lass. 
Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

Associate in Botany, Bryn Mawr College. 
Bryn Mawr., Penn. 
Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Hall, James, M.S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. 

Geology, Palaeontolog}'. 
State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 

of Natural History. 
State Museum, Albany, N. Y. 
Hare, Hobart Amory, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology'. 

Demonstrator of Experimental Therapeutics in the Medical 
Department, and Instructor in Physiolog}' in the Biologi- 
cal Department of The University of Pennsylvania. 
117 South Twenty-second street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Pakcontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertehrate Paleontology at, and Curator-in- 
charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 
Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia, Penn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. I23 

*Henshaw, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant Boston Society of Natural History. 

Boston Society of N^atural History, Boston, Mass. 
*HiLL, Frank A. Geology. 

Geologist ill charge Anthracite District, State Survey of 
Pennsylvania. 

208 South Centre street, Pottsville, Penn. 
Hill, Robert T. PaUeontoIogy. 

Assistant Pahcontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Washington, D. C. 
♦Hitchcock, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College.' 

Hanover, N.H. 
Hitchcock, Romyn. Fresh-water Alga. 

Acting Curator, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
*HoLDER, J. B., M.D. Zoology. 

Curator of Invertebrate Zoology and of Fislies and Reptiles. 
Am. Museum Nat. History. 

American Museum, Central Park, N. T. 
Howell, William H., B.A., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Associate in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University ,' Baltitnore, Md. 
Hunt, T. Ste^ry, A.M., LL.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Montreal, Ca7iada. 
*Hyatt, Alpheus, S.B. PaL^ontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and assist- 
ant in Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, 
Mass. 
Boston Society of A'atural History, Boston, Mass. 
Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Lithology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Washington, D. C. 
Jastrow, Joseph, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 



126 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertebrata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Biological Department^ U?iiversity of Pennsylvania. Phil- 
adelphia^ Penn. 
Jeffries, J. Amory, A B., M.D. Anatomy. 

91 Newbury street^ Boston^ Mass. 
Jordan, David Starr. Biology. 

President of Indiana University. 

Bloomington., Ind. 
JuLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Biology and Petrography. 

Instructor in Biolog}^ and Microscopy, School of Mines, 
Columbia College. 

School of Alines., Colufnbia College., Nexv York., N.T. 
*KiDDER, J. H., A.M., M.D. Chemist. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
*KiNGSEEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Editor of " American Naturalist." Professor of Zoology in 
Indiana Universitv. 

University 0/ Indiana., Bloomifigton^ Bid. 
Lee, F. S., Ph.D., A.M. Physiology. 

Associate in Biology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bry7t Mawr., Penn. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geolggy and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 

Brunswick., Ale. 
Lee, Thomas G., M.D. Histologv. 

Lecturer on Normal Histology. 

Tale University., New Haven.^ Conn. 
*Lewis, H. Carvill, A.m. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Mineralogy, Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and Professor of Geology at Haverford Col- 
lege, Haverford, Penn. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and Di- 
rector of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Archaeology. 

Princeton., Nf. 



LIST OF MEMUKRS. 1 27 

Lucas, Fkeokric A. Avian Osteology. 

Assistant Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, 
U.S. National Museum. 

Washington^ D. C. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc., LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 

jPf'/nceton, JV.jf. 
*Marcou, John B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

15 1 8 H street, N. W., Washington, D.C. 
Mark, Edward L. Biology. 

Hersey Professor of Anatomy, Harvard University. 

21 North ave?ztie, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 

College Hill, Mass. 
*Martin, H. Newell, A.m., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

yoh7is Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
McMuRRiCH, J. Playfair, M.A., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Haverford College. 

Haverford College, Petzn. 
*Meehan, Thomas. 

Botanist to the Pcnnsjdvania State Board of Agriculture, 
Vice-President Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

GermaiztowT? , Petzn. 
*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Secretary of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. 

Washiizgton, D. C. 
♦Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.B. Geology. 

Fellow in Geology, Columbia College. 

New York, N. r. 



128 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Curator of Lithology and Physical Geology, U.S. National 
Museum. 

National Museum^ Washington^ D. C. 
*MiNor, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Assistant Professor of Embryology and Histology, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., JSosion, Jlfass. 
MixTER, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatomy. 

Demonstrator of Anatom}', Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston. Mass. 
*MoRSE, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Salem., Mass. 
*Newberry, J. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 

School of Mines ^ Columbia College., Neiv York., N.Y. 
*NiLES, William H., Ph.B., A.M. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geolog}- and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Mass. Institute of Technology., Boston., Mass. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special Sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 

Ophthalmic .Surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital, Philadelphia. 

1507 Locust street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*OsBORN, H ENTRY Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 

Princeton., -IV. f. 
*Packard, a. S., A.m., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Brown University., Providence., R.I. 
*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Sui'vey. 

Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 
*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 

Milivaukee., Wisconsin. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 1 29 

Penfield, Samuel L., Pli.B. Mineralogy. 

Instructor in Mineralogy, Yale University. 
Pcabody Museum^ New Ilaven^ Conn. 
♦PiLLSBURY, J. H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 
Northampton^ Mass. 
*PowELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Aiithiopology and Geology. 
Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Director of the 

Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 
*Prentiss, a. N., M.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cornell 

University. 
Cornell University^ Ithaca., N.Y. 
Prosser, Charles S., M.S. Geology and Palasontology. 

Instructor in Paheontology, Cornell University. 
Ithaca, N.r. 
*PuTNAM, Frederick W. Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Peabody Professor of American Arcliteology and Ethnology, 
Harvard University ; Curator of the Peabody Museum ot 
Archeeology and Ethnology, in connection with Harvard 
University ; Permanent vSecretary of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on Inland Fisheries ; and President 
Boston Society of Natural History. 
Peabody Museum., Carnbridge., Mass. 
*Rathbun, Richard, M.S. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
U.S. National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
Reichart, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 
University oy Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Rice, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesleyan University. 
Middletown, Conn. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology, Mycology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 

Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 
1700 13//^ street, N. W., Washingtofi, D.C. 



I30 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*RoTHROCK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 

VVesi Chester^ Chester Co., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard Universitv, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline., Mass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Princeton College. 

Princeto7i., N.y. 
*ScuDDER, S. H., A.M., vS.B. Entomology and Palieontology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technolog}'. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology., Boston., Mass. 
Sewall, Henry, B.Sc, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor., Mich. 
*Shakespeare, E. O., A.m., M.D. Histology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon and Pathologist to Philadelphia 
(Charity) Hospital. 

1336 Spruce street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Shaler, N. S., A.m., S.D. Palieontology. 

Professor of Geology, Harvard College, and Geologist 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D., C.M.Z.S. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 

Care of Smithsonian Institution., Washington. D.C. 



' 



LIST OF MEMPERS. 131 

Smith, Joiix 1^. Entomology. 

Assistant Cmator of Entomology, U.S. National Museum. 
National AInscu/h., Washington^ D. C. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
332 Sonth Twenty-first street^ Philadelphia, Pcnn. 
♦Smith, Sidney I., Ph.D. Biologv. 

Professor of Com pa rati v-e Anatomy, Yale College. 
147 Whalley avenue^ Nexv Haven, Conn. 
Stejneger, Leonhard, Ph.D. Ornithology and Mammalogy. 
Assistant Curator, Ornithological Department, U.S. National 

Museum. 
U.S. National Museurn, Washington^ D.C. 
*Stevensox, J. J., Ph D. Geology. 

Professor, University of the City of New York. 
University, Washington square, New Tork, N. T. 
Thacher, James K., M.D., B.A. Zoology. 

Professor of Physiology and Clinical Medicine. Yale Uni- 

versit}'. 
206 Croxvn street. New Haven, Con?t. 
TiLTON, John L., A.B. Biology. 

Assistant in Natural .History, Wesleyan Universitv. 
Middletown, Conn. 
*True, Frederick \V., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Curator of Mammals. U.S. National Museum. 
NatioJtal Museum^ Washington, D. C. 
*Tryon, G. W., Jr. Conchology. 

Conservator of the Conchological Department of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Acade7ny of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Penn. 
.TucKERMAN, FREDERICK, M.D., B.Sc. Anatomv. 

Professor of Anatomy, Amherst College. 
Amherst, Mass. 
*Tyler, J. M., A.B. Zoo'logy. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 
Amherst, Mass. 



132 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Van Vleck, B. H., S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 

Boston Society of Natural History^ Boston^ Mass. 
Verrill, a. E., M.A. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale University. 

ZG Whalley ave?zue. New Haven^ Con?i. 
*Wadsworth, M. E., A.m., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Petrography, 

and Geology. 

Director of the Michigan Mining School and Professor of 
Mineralogy and Geology. 

Michigan JMining- School^ Houghton., Alich. 
*VValcott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological wSurvey, and Plon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Paheozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum., WasJiington., D. C. 
*Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

No. i6 to 26 College avenue .1 Rochester. N.T. 
* Warren, J. W\, A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Instructor in Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical Sc/iool^ Bosto?t^ A/ass. 
*Whitfield, R. p., M.A. Palaeontology. 

(Late Professor at Trpy, N.Y.)ii, Curator of Geology and 
Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museum of Natural History ., *11^^^ street and 
^th avenue., New York., N. 7". 
*WiiiTMAN, C. O., A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Etlitor Journal of Morphology and Director of Lake 
Laboratory. 

Milivaukee., Wis. 
♦Whitney, W. P., M.D. Pathology. 

Curator of the Museum of the Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
♦Wilder, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology, 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zoology, 
and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 1 33 

Williams, George Huntington, A.B., Ph.D. Mineralogy. 

Associate Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography, Johns 
Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University^ Baltimore. 
* Williams, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaiontologv, Cornell University, 
and Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cortiell University^ Ithaca^ JV. Y. 
WiLLiSTON, Samuel W., M.D., Ph.D. Anatomy. 

Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Yale University. 

New Haven ^ Conn. 
*WiLSON, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Bryn Mawr College, Penn. 

Bryn Mawr., Penn. 
Wilson, W. P., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Physiological Botany, Department of Biology, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Westchester., Penn. 
WiNCHELL, Alexander, LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Paleontology, University of Michi- 
gan. 

Ann Arbor., Michigan. 
Wolff, John E., A.B. Petrography. 

Instructor in Petrography, Harvard University. 

Caynbridge., Mass. 
*Wright, R. Ramsay, M.A., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, University College, Toronto, 
Canada. 

University College., Toronto^ Canada. 
*Yarro\v, H. C, M.D., Acting Asst.-Surg. U.S.A. 

Herpetology. 

Curator, Department of Reptiles, U.S. National Museum. 

814 17^/2 street., N. W., Washington, D.C. 



134 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS, 



SIXTH MEETING, AT NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

December 27, 1887. 
Lecture Room of the Peabody Museum. 

MORNING SESSION. 

President Allen in the Chair. Thirty-four members pi'esent. 
The Secretary's report was called for and I'ead, as follows : — 

Report of the Secretary. 

To the Society : — 

Gentlemen, — It is a matter of congratulation that our number 
varies but slightly, notwithstanding that this year, for the first time, 
Section 2 of Article II. of the Constitution has been enforced. 
Our number is now nearly one hundred and fift}'. The standard 
of admission was raised by the Executive Committee at the last 
meeting, and that committee, in their desire to keep the standard 
of admission at the highest, fairly reflect, I believe, the general 
opinion and wish of the Society. 

The change in the length of the meeting last year from two to 
three days met with such a degree of success as evidenced by the 
large attendance, and the twenty-eight papers read, that the same 
arrangement has been adopted this year, and will probably be 
continued. 

It is thought that the assignment of the geological and bio- 
logical papers to the first and last days, respectively, with the 
special topic on the second day, will prove satisfactory ; for, in 
the first place, it gives each member an opportunity to hear just 
what may be of interest to him, and that alone, and, in the second 
place, it necessitates but two days' attendance to all interested in 
but Geology or Biology. That some specialization of this kind 
is essential is shown, among other things, by the fact that a new 
society is soon to be organized for Physiologists solely. 

I would call your attention to the ftct that the Secretary has 



RFXORDS. 135 

lately received a recjiiest for a copy of our constitution, which is 
to be used as a basis in the or<^anizinf^ of a new society this week 
at Indianapolis. The objects of the new society arc to be identical 
or very similar to those of this one, and it is to receive members 
from Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Miiuie- 
sota. In connection v\'ith this, let me remind you of Article VII. 
of our Constitution. 

''ARTICLE VII. 

" AFFILI/TED SOCIETIES. 

" It shall be the policy of this Society, by correspondence and 
otherwise, to encourage the formation and cooperate in the work 
of societies of similar name and objects in other parts of the 
country." 

Death, for the first time, has this year been among us, taking 
from our list of Honorary Members the name of Spencer F. 
Baird, and from our list of regular members, Francis V. Hayden. 

The addresses by Professors Davis, Farlow, Whitman, and' H. 

F. Williains, delivered at the Philadelphia meeting, 1886, have 

since been published, and one thousand copies of each are ready 

for distribution among the schools, and wherev'er else the Society 

may direct. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Samuel F. Clarke, 

Secretary. 
December 28, 1887. 

The report was accepted. 

The Treasurer made the following report to the Society : — 

Report of the Treasurer. 
The Treasurer of the American Society of Naturalists begs 
leave to make the following report : — 

December 27, 1SS7. 

Balance as per last report .... $494 52 
Dues received during 1887 . . . . 314 00 

Amount carried, fortijard^ $808 52 



136 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



Amount brought forward^ 



$808 52 



Feb. 


4- 


Payment made S. F. Clarke, 








Secretary ..... 


$25 ^S 




9- 


Cash-box ..... 


I 75 


Apr. 


4- 


Assessment notices and receipt 








book ..... 


1 1 00 


Oct. 


22. 


Clerical work .... 


9 00 




25- 


J. P. Lippincott & Co. 


17 00 


Dec. 


27. 


Postage ..... 


7 44 






Balance on hand .... 


73668 



$SoS 52 $8oS 52 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. T. Sedgwick, 

Treasurer. 

The name of Professor O. C. Marsh, recommended to the 
Society for honorary membership b}' the Executive Committee, 
was unanimously elected. 

The following names were recommended for regular member- 
ship and were unanimously elected : — 



Mr. E. P. Allis, Jr., 
Dr. George Baur, ' 
Professor William H. Brewer, 
Mr. John P. Campbell, 
Professor R. H. Chittenden, 
Dr. Wm. B. Clark, 
Professor E. S. Dana, 
Dr. Joseph Jastrow, 
President D. S. Jordan, 
Professor Thomas G. Lee, 
Mr. Frederic A. Lucas, 



Professor Edward L. Mark, 
Mr. Samuel L. Penfield, 
Mr. John B. Smith, 
Professor James K. Thacher, 
Mr. Robert T. Hill, 
Mr. John L. Tilton, 
Professor A. E. Verrill, 
Dr. Samuel W. Wiiliston, 
Professor W. P. Wilson, 
Professor Alexander W inchell, 
Mr. John E. Wolff. 



The presidential address on " The Inconstant in Biology," was 
then delivered, Professor E. S. Morse in the chair. 



RECORDS. 



n? 



The President appointed the followinrr committee to nominate 
officers for the fiscal year : — 



Professor H. N. Martin, 
S. H. Caere, 
S. I. Smith, 
" B. K. Emerson, 

J. P. McMurrich. 

It was voted that the President appoint a committee to consider 
the question of publication of papers by the Society. 
The following gentlemen constitute that committee : — 

Professor H. N. Martin, 

W. T. Sedgwick, 
E. S. Morse. 

A paper on " Perfected Wools for Detection of Sub-normal 
Color Perceptions," with illustrations, by Dr. C. A. Oliver, was 
communicated by the President. 

Professor S. H. Cage, of Cornell, described a new method of 
" Injection of the Thoracic Duct." 

The morning session concluded with a descriptive paper by 
Mr. James H. Emerton, on '' A Method of Life-size Modef- 
making of the Larger Animals." 



SECOND SESSION. 
Tuesday, December 27, p.m. 

Professor E. S. Morse read an exhaustive paper on " Museum 
Cases in Europe," to which he added numerous crayon sketches 
of all the styles of cases in Europe and most of their contents. 

Professor H. Newell Martin exhibited some newly devised 
physiological apparatus forgetting repeated " making " shocks, 
or " breaking " shocks, as may be desired. 



138 SOCIETY OF NATURAIJSTS. 

Methods of Cutting Serial Brain and Spinal Cord Sections were 
described and illustrated by Professor Henry F. Osborn. 

A new Automatic Microtome, to be worked by hand or by 
a motor, was exhibited and described by Professor Charles S. 
Minot. 

" The Preparation of Serial Sections" was the subject of a 
second paper by Professor Minot. 

A Lecture-room Illustration of Variation under Domestication 
and in Nature, by Professor Samuel F. Clarke, ended the 
list of papers for the da^^ 

It was moved and carried that the Records be published as 
soon after the annual meeting as possible. 



THIRD SESSION. 

Wednesday, December 28, a.m. 

The special topic for the day w^as " Science-teaching in 
THE Schools." 

The first paper was by Professor Ramsey Wright, of Toronto. 

The second paper w^as by Professor Alexander Winchell, of 
Ann Arbor. General discussion of these papers occupied most 
of the remaining time of this session. 

The Nominating Committee made the following report: — 

" New Haven, Dec. 28, 1887. 
" The Committee on Nominations recommend that officers for 
the ensuing year be elected as follows : — 

" President. — Harrison Allen, University of Pennsylvania. 
" Vice-Presidents. — George L. Goodale, Harvard Univer- 
sity. 
Henry S. Williams, Cornell University. 
Henry F. Osrorn, Princeton College. 
'■'•Secretary. — Samuel F. Clarke, Williams College. 
" Treasurer. — William T. Sedgwick, Mass. Institute Tech- 
nology. 



RECORDS. 139 

" Members of Hxecutive Committee frotn Society at I^arge. — 
Richard Ratiibun, National Museum. 
George H. Williams, Johns Hopkins University. 
'' Signed. 

" H. Newell Martin, 

" Chairman." 

The report was accepted by the Society. 

It was moved that a committee be appointed by the Chair to 
consider the propriety of adopting- a resolution to be presented to 
Congress, requesting the repeal of laws imposing a duty on scien- 
tific books and apparatus, the committee to report to-morrow. 

The President appointed Professors Cope, Goode, and Rice. 



FOURTH SESSION. 

Wednesday, December 28, p.m. 

The afternoon meeting was opened by Professor Macloskie, of 
Princeton, with a paper on the special topic for the day. 

Prof. William North Rice, of Wesleyan University, delivered 
the last address on "Science-teaching in the Schools." This was 
followed by general discussion of the afternoon progranime. 

It was moved by Professor S. F. Clarke that a committee of five 
be appointed to develop a scheme of instruction in Natural Science 
to be recommended to the schools, and to suggest methods of action 
for this Society which shall tend to establish more and better 
science-teaching in the earlier part of the educational course, say, 
from the age of seven to the time of entering college. The com- 
mittee to report at the next annual meeting. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

The President appointed on that committee : — 

Professor Samuel F. Clarke, 
" William North Rice, 
" William G. Farlow, 

" George Macloskie, 
" C. O. Whitman. 



140 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

It was moved, seconded, and carried, that the Executive Com- 
mittee be requested to consider the advisability of so changing 
the Constitution, or By-laws, as to secure the sending to every 
member of the Society notice of the nominations for honorary 
membership before the election takes place. 

It was moved, seconded, and voted, that the Executive Commit- 
tee be I'equested to consider the advisability of so changing the 
Constitution as to reduce the annual dues from two dollars to 
one. 

At seven, o'clock, between thirty and forty sat down to the 
Annual Dinner, at the New Haven House, which proved to be a 
most enjoyable occasion. 



FIFTH SESSION. 
Tuesday, December 29, a.m. 

The first paper of the day was by Professor James D. Dana, on 
" The Volcano of Kilauea." 

A paper on "A Simple Method of Measuring the Thickness of 
Inclined Strata," by Mr. C. D. Walcott, was read by Professor 
H. S. Williams. 

Professor William B. Dwight exhibited and explained the 
working of "Improved Machinery and Appliances for cutting 
Sections of Rock and Fossils in any desired Planes." 

The following resolution was brought before the Society by 
Professor : — 

" Resolved^ That tlie American Society of Naturalists send 
to the editors of " The Journal of Morphology " their congratula- 
tions on the work which they have undertaken, and that the 
sum of $60 (sixty dollars) be appropriated from the funds of the 
Society for the purchase of ten copies of the first volume, 
and — 

" Resolved^ That a committee of three be appointed by the 
Chair to decide upon the best manner of distributing the copies 



KKCORDS. 141 

purchased, witli a view to securing to the Journal a wider circula- 
tion." 

The above was voted. Tlie President appointed on this com- 
mittee Professors E. L. Mark, \V. T. Sedgwick, A. Hyatt. The 
Publication Committee submitted the following report: — 

"The Committee on the Publication of Papers read before the 
Society rejjorts that the publication bv the Society of such 
papers is undesirable. 

" The committee is of opinion that any valuable communica- 
tion can readilv obtain publication tlirough some of the existing 
journals. 

" H. Newell Martin, 

" Chairman of Cofntniitee." 



This report was accepted, and it was voted that the Society 
deems it unadvisable to undertake at present any particular sys- 
tem for the publication of papers. 



SIXTH SESSION. 

Thursday, December 29, p-.m. 

A paper on " Instructioti in Mineralogy and Structural Geology 
in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology," by Professor \V. 
O. Crosby, was communicated by Professor \V' illiam T. Sedgwick. 

Professor George H. Williams read a paper on " The Educa- 
tional Value of Micropetrography." 

A new American Lithological Microscope was displayed and 
described by Professor George H. Williams. 

The Auditing Committee presented the following report, which 
was accepted : — 



142 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

"December 29, 1887. 
'" The undersigned, members of the committee appointed to 
audit the accounts of the Treasurer, report that they have ex- 
amined the account for 1886-S7 and find it correct. 
" Signed, 

" J. P. MCMURRICH, 

" H. Newell Martin, 
" Henry F. Osborne." 

It was moved, seconded, and carried, that the Treasurer be and 
hereby is instructed to pay to the Secretary the sum of $35 as 
some expression of the Society's appreciation of his long-continued 
and devoted services. 

It was announced by the Executive Committee that a very 
cordial invitation had been received from Professor Martin, and 
accepted, to hold the next annual meeting in Baltimore. Pro- 
fessor C. H. Hitchcock presented the following resolution : — 

'''-Resolved^ That the American Society of Naturalists cordially 
join the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
the American Philosophical Society, and other scientific and 
educational institutions, in cordially inviting the International 
Congress of Geologists to hold their next meeting — the one fol- 
lowing the London meeting of 1888 — at some convenient locality 
in the United States." 

It was moved and carried. 

The following resolution was seconded and recei\'ed a unani- 
mous vote : — 

'•''Resolved., Tliat the thanks of the Society are due and are 
most cordially tendered to the Trustees of the Peabody Museum 
for the use of the rooms occupied for the meeting of the Society, 
and for the many kindlj- courtesies which contributed so much 
to the comfort and convenience of the members and to the success 
of the meeting." 

The committee appointed to consider the pnjpricty of adopt- 
ing a resolution to be presented to Congress, requesting the 
repeal of laws imposing a duty on scientific books and apparatus, 
presented the following resolution : — 



RECORDS. 143 

" Whereas, The cause of education in science is retarded by the 
restrictions placed by Congress on the importation of scientific 
books and apparatus ; whereas we believe that advance in the arts 
and industries depends on the development of science and is 
impeded by the before-mentioned import duties, and that all re- 
strictions on education and scientific research are unworthy of 
enliojhtened government; whereas the scientific books published 
abroad are absolutely essential to students and investigators, and 
are but rarely duplicated in this country ; whereas the value of 
scientific apparatus is in nearly all cases dependent on the 
individuality of the maker; and whereas colleges and incorporated 
institutions are now permitted to import apparatus duty free, 
while private investigators, usually less able to afford expense, 
are obliged to pay duty, therefore 

^'Be it Resolved^ That 
hereby requests the representatives of 

in the Congress of the United States to use all possible eflbrts 
to have placed on the free list, books pertaining to the physical, 
natural, and medical sciences, and apparatus intended for purposes 
of scientific research or of education ; and further be it 

"Resolved^ That a copy of these preambles and resolutions be 
forwarded to each member of Congress." 

It was 

" Resolved^ That a copv of the above resolution be forwarded 
to the Universities and Colleges of the United States by the Sec- 
retary, with a recommendation that it be adopted by them at an 
early date, and that information of the same be communicated 
to Professor Eastman, United States Naval Observatory, Wash- 
ington, D.C." 

Signed, 

E. D. Cope, 

CJiair7nan. 

The resolution was seconded and carried. 

The Society adjourned at 5 P.M. 

Sx\MUEL F. CLARKE, 

Secretary, 



NOTICE 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the Society of Jfaturdlists of the Eastern United States 
will be distributed to members, and- to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

.Members are requested to notify the Secretary of amj 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherwise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held, outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The abtenti^on of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Societij is es])cci()lly 
directed to By-Law II. 



Press of Rockwell and Churchill, Boston 



13, lo,J 



RECORDS 



IVIAY 1396 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I., 

PART SIXTH. 



15 O S T O N : 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1889. 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I . , 

PART SIXTH. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 

I S89. 



RECORDS. 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1889. 



President, George L. Goodale. 

C Henry S. Williams, 
Vice-Presidents, < Henry F. Osborn, 

^ G. Brown Goode. 
Secretary, Henry H. Donaldson. 
Treasurer, William T. Sedgwick. 



Alembers of the Executive Committee elected frojn the 

Society at Large. 

George H. Williams, J. Playfair McMurrich, 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D.,Ph.D., LL.D., Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 
Professor of Geology, Yale University. 
Tale University., New Have7i.i Contt. 
Leidy, Joseph, M.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Director of the Biological Department, President of the 
Faculty of the Wagner Free Listitute, and President of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 
907 Walnut street., Philadelphia., Penii. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Yale University. 
8 Pcabody Museum., New Haven., Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 



Allen, CM. Physics. 

Wyoming' Seminary^ Kingston, Penn. 
*Allen, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

117 SoutJi 20th street, Philadelphia, Pe?i?i. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. Biology. 

Associate Editor of the Journal of Morphology. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Andrews, E. A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Osteolog}^, Johns Hopkins University. 

yohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
*Ashburner, Charles A., M.S., C.E. Geology. 

Penn Btiildifig, Pittsburgh, Penn. 
Barrows, Walter B., B.S. Ornithology. 

Department of Agriculture. 

Washington, D.C. 
Barton, B. W., M.D. Botany. 

Baltimore, Md. 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Vertebrate Palaeontology. 

Assistant in Osteology, Yale University. 

Peabody Museum, New Haven, Conn. 
Benedict, James E., A.M. Natural History. 

Naturalist. 

147 Dakota avenue, St. Paul, Minn. 
*BicKMORE, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Musetim, Central Park, N. 7". 
Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

University Club, New Tork City. 
*Bowditcii, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 147 

Brewer, William II., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale University. 

246 Orange street^ Ncxv JIaven, Conn. 
Brush, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, Sheffield Scientific School. 

Ncxv /laven^ Conn. 
BuMPus, H. C, Ph.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology and Geology, Olivet College. 

Olivet, Mich. 
Call, R. Ellsworth. Tertiary Palaeontology, Mollusca. 

Instructor in Natural Science, West Des Moines High 
School. 

631 Tenth street, Des Moines, la. 
Campbell, John- P., B.A. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Georgia. 
Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 

83 Tru/nbull street, New Haven, Conn. 
Clark, William B., Ph.D. Paleontology. 

Instructor in PaUeontology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 

Williamsto'ivn, Mass. 
Conn, H. W. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Wesleyan University. 

Aliddletown, Coniz. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Vertebrate Paleontology and Zoology. 

2102 Pine street, Philadelphia, Pe7in. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 
*Crosby, W. O., S.B. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy and Lithology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Dall, William Healey. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

Paleontologist U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator 
Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 



148 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Dana, Edward S., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Natural Philosophy, Yale University. 

Ill Grove street^ JVezu Haven^ Conn. 
*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E, Geology, Geography, and 

Meteorology. 

Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Museum of Co?nparative Zoology., Cambridge., Mass. 
*Dewey, Frederic P., Pli.B. Metallurg}'. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 

National ISIusciim., Washijigton., D. C. 
*DiLLER, J. S., S.B. Petrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist in charge of Petrographic Laboratory. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
*DiMMocK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
DoLLEY, Charles S. Biology. 

Professor of General Biology in the University of Penn- 
sylvania ; Professor of Natural History in Swarthmore 
College. 

University of Pennsylvania., Biological Department. 
*DoNALDSoN, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Neurology. 

Clark University., Worcester., Mass. 
*DuDLEY, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N. 7~. 
*DuTTON, C. E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

U.S. Geological Sui'vey., Washington., D.C. 
DwKiiiT, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

235 Beacon street., Bosto7i., Mass. 
DwiGHT, William B., B.A., M.A., Ph.B. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 
Vassar College. 

Vassar College., Poughkccpsie., N. Y. 
*Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Amherst., A/ass. 



LIST OF MEMRKRS. 1 49 

*Emeutox, James II. Zoology. 

I I SL yawcs avontc^ Boston, .}/^ass. 
*Emm()xs, S. F. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey-, Washington^ D. C. 
Ernst, Harold C, A.M., MD. Bacteriology, 

Demonstrator of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School^ Boston^ A/ass. 
*Fari.ow, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogam ic Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University., Cambridge., Mass. 
Ferxald, C. II., A.M., Ph.D. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Zoology, Mass. Agricultural College. 

Amherst., JSIass. 
Fewkes, J. Walter. 

Secretary, Boston Society of Natural Historv ; Assistant, Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology^ Cambridge^ Mass. 
Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assistant, Jeflerson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophthalmic* Surgeon to Germantown Hospital. 

1304 Walnut street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Frazer, Persifor. Geology and Chemistry. 

Docteur es-Sciences Naturelles (Universite de France). 
Professor of Chemistr}', Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. 

PoofJi 1042, Drexel Building., Philadelphia., Penit. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N. V. 
Ganong, Wm. Framcis. Zoology. 

Cambridge., Mass.. 
*Gardixer, Edward G., B.S., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

2S9 Alarlborough street., Boston., Mass. 
Garmax, vSamuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Museum Comp. Zoology. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Gerrisii, Frederic Henry, iV.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

675 Congress street^ Portland., Ale. 



150 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
P.O. Box 591, Washingtoti., D.C. 
GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard University. 
Harvard University, Cambridge., Mass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown, AM., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge 

of the U.S. National Museum. 
Smithso7iian Institution.^ Washittgton., D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 

History, New York. 
77//J street and St/i avenue., Nezv York.^ N. y. 
*Greenleaf, R. W., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

241 Boylston street^ Boston., Mass. 
Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey. Washington., D. C. 
Hall, James, M.S., A.M., M.D. , LL.D. , 

Geology, Palteontology. 
State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 

of Natural History. 
State Museum., Albany, N. 2^. 
Hare, Hobart Amory, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Experimental Therapeutics in the Medical 
Department, and Instructor in Physiology in the Biologi- 
cal Department of the University of Pennsylvania. 
117 South T'wenly-seco7id street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Heilprin, Axgelo. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertel')rate Palaeontology at, and Curator-in- 
charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 
Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Henshaw, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant Boston Society of Natural History. 
Boston Society of Natural History., Boston., Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 151 



♦IIiLi-, Frank A. Geology. 

Geologist in charge Anthracite District, -State Survey of 

Pennsylvania. 
208 South Centre street^ Pottsvillc, Pcfni. 
Hill, Robert T. Pala-ontology. 

School of Geology, l^niversity of Texas. 
Art stilly Texas. 
*HiTcricocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 
Hanover., N.H. 
Hitchcock, Romyn. Fresh-water Al"a). 

Acting Curator, U.vS. National Museum. 
Smithso7iian Institntio)!., Washington^ D. C. 
Howell, William H., B.A., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Associate in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 
jfohns Hopkins University., BaIti?nore, JSId. 
Hunt, T. Stekry, A.M., LL.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Care Mr. yames Donglas., Sp7iyte7i Duyvil^ N'. T. 
*Hyatt, Alpheus, S.B. Paheontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Assist- 
ant in Museum of Compaiative Zoology, at Cambridge, 
Mass. 
Boston Society of Natiiral History., Boston., Mass. 
Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Lithology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Washington., D. C. 
Jastrow, Joseph, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Madison., Wis. 
Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertebiata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
Biological Depart))icnt., University of Pennsylvania., Phil- 
adelphia., Penn. 
Jeffries, J. Amory, A.B., M.D. Anatomy. 

91 Nevjbnry street., Boston., JMass. 
Jordax, David Starr. Biology. 

President of Indiana Universit}-. 
Bloo}?iii2gton., Ind. 
JuLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Biology and Petrography. 

Instructor in Biology and Microscopy, School of Mines, 

Columbia College. 
School of Mines., Cohimbia College., Neiv York., N.T. 



152 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*KiDDER, J. H., A.M., M.D. Chemist. 

1606 Nexv HampsJiire avenue^ Washington^ D.C. 
*KiNGSLEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Editor of "American Naturalist," Professor of Zoology in 
Indiana University. 

University of Indiana^ Bloomington^ J?td. 
Knowlton, Frank H., M.S. Botany. 

Assistant Curator U.S. National Museum, Professor of 
Botany, Columbian University, Washington, D.C. 

^. .S". Natiotial Museiim. 
Lee, F. S., Ph.D., A.M. Physiology. 

Associate in Physiology and Histology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bryn JMazvr^ Penn. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bovvdoin College. 

Bru nsivick , Me . 
Lee, Thomas G., M.D. Histology. 

Lectures on Normal Histology. 

Tale University^ Nexv Haven^ Conn. 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and Di- 
rector of the E. M. Museum of Geology and AixhEeology. 

Pri?iceton.i JV.y. 
Lucas, Frederic A. Avian Osteology. 

Assistant Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, 
U.S. National Museum. 

Washington., D. C. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 

Pri?iccton., N^.J. 
*Marcou, John B. Geology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

15 18 H street, N. W., Washington, D.C. 
Mark, Edward L. Biology. 

Plersey Professor of Anatomy, Harvard University. 

21 North avenue., Cambridge., Mass. 
*Marshall, John P., A M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 

College Hill., Mass. 
♦Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 



LIST OF MEMRKRS. I 53 

*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washhigton ., D.C. 
McMuRRiCH, J. Playfair, M.A., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Haveiford College. 

Haver ford College^ Peiui. 
*Meehan, Thomas. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture, 
Vice-President Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

Gerniantozvn.f Peizn. 
*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. 
Washington., D. C. 
*Merrill, F.J. H., Ph.B. Geology. 

Fellow in Geology, Columbia College. 

Nezu York, N. r. 
*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Curator of Lithology and Ph3'sical Geology, U.S. National 
Museum. 

National jShisctun., Washington. D.C. 
Mills, T. Wesley, M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Physiology, McGill University. 

Montreal., Canada. 
*MiNOT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Assistant Professor of Embryology and Histolog}', Harvard 
Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
MixTER, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatomy. 

Demonstrator of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

Hai'vard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
*MoRSE, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science," Salem, Mass. 

Salem., Mass. 
*Newberry, J. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 

School of Alines., Cohitnbia College., JVexv York., N. Y. 



154 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*NiLES, William H., Ph.B., A.AI. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Mass. Institute of Technology., Boston., ]\Iass. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M.,M.D. Special Sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital, Philadelphia. 

1507 Locust street., Philadelpliia., Peiin. 
*0sBORN, Henry Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 

Princeton., N.J. 
*Packard, a. S., A.m., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoolog}' and Geology, Brown University. 

Brown University., Providence., R.I. 
*Peale, a. C, A.M., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Washington^ I). C. 
*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High Scliool. 

Alihvaukee, Wis. 
Penfield, Samuel L., Ph.B. Mineralogy. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, Yale University. 

Peabody jSIuseum., Neiv Haven., Conn. 
*PiLLSBURV, J. H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 

Northampto7i., JMass. 
*Powell, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 

Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Director of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 

Geological Szirvey., Washington^ D.C. 
*Prentis.s, a. N., M.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cor- 
nell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca. N. 7". 
Prosser, Charles S., M.S. Geology and Pahcontology. 

Instructor in Palicontology, Cornell University. 

Ithaca, N. T. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. I 55 

*PuTNAM, FiiEDKKiciv W. Aichacology aiid I'^thnology, 

Peabody Professor of American Archa3ology and Etlitiology, 
Harvard I'liiversity ; Curator of the Peabody Miiseuin of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, in connection with Harvard 
University ; Permanent Secretary of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on Inland Fisheries ; and President 
Boston Society of Natural Ilistorv. 
Peabody JMuseutji, Cambridge^ Mass. ^ 

*Rathbun, Richard, M.S. Invertebrates. 

Curator Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
U.S. Natio7ial Museiun., Washington., D.C. 
Reichart, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvaniji. 
University of Pennsylvania^ Philadelphia., Penn. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Weslejan University. 
Middleto'dV7t., Conn. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology, Mycology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 

Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 
1700 13M street, JV. W., Washington, D.C. 
*RoTHROCK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 
West Chester, Chester Co., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 
Brookline, Alass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geologv and Palieontolog}', Princeton College. 
Pri7zccto?t, JV. y. 
*Scudder, S. H., A.m., S B. Entomology and Palaeontology. 
Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology. 
Massachusetts Institnte of Technology , Boston, Mass. 



156 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Sewall, Henry, B.Sc, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Michigan. 

Aim Ardor, Mich. 
*SnAKESPEARE, E. O., A.M., M.D. Histology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon and Pathologist to Philadelphia 
(Charity) Plospitai. 

1336 Spruce street, Philadelphia, Pemi. 
Shaler, N. S., A.M., S.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology, Harvaid College, and Geologist, U.S. 
Geological Survey. 

Cainbridge, Mass. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. VV., M.D., C.M.Z.S. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.iV. 

Care of Smithsojiiau Iiistiti(tio7z, Washington, D.C. 
Smith, John B. Entomology. 

Assistant Curator of Entomology, U.S. National Museum. 

National JMiiseum, Washingtoii, D.C. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

332 South Tzventy-frst street, Philadelphia, Pemi. 
*Smxth, Sidney I., Ph.D. Biology- 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale University. 

147 Whalley ave7i?-ie. New Haven, Confi. 
Thacher, James K., M.D., B.A. Zoology. 

Professor of Physiology and Clinical Medicine, Yale Uni- 
versity. 

206 Crozvft street, Ne-jo Haven, Conn. 
TiLTON, John L., A. 13. Biolog)'. 

Assistant in Natural History, AVesleyan University. 

Indianola, la. 
*True, Frederick W., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum, 

National Musenin, WasJiington, D. C. 
Tuckerman, Frederick, M.D., B.Sc. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Amherst College. 

Amherst, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. I 57 

TuTTLE, Alrkrt H. Biologv. 

Professor of Biology, University of Virginia. 
*Tyler, J. M., A.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 

Amherst^ j\/ass. 
*Van Vleck, B. H., S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 

Boston Society of Natural History^ Boston. ATass. 
Verrill, a. E., M.A. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale University. 

86 W/i alley avenue., Nczu Haven, Co7in. 
*VVads\vortii, M. E., A.m., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Petrography, 

and Geology. 

Director of the Michigan Mining School, and Professor of 
Mineralogy and Geology. 

Michigan Mining School, Hotighton., JMich. 
*Wai.cott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum, Washington.^ D. C. 
*Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

A^o. i6 to 26 College avenue, Rochester., N. T. 
*Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Instructor in Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston., JMass. 
Watase, S., B.S. Biology. 

Fellow in Morphologv, Johns Hopkins University. 

yohns Hopkins Uttiversity, Baltimore., Md. 
White, Charees D., B.S. Paleobotany and Geology. 

Assistant Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 
* Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Palaeontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.), Curator of Geology and 
Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museum of Natural History, ^'Jth street and 
Sth avenue, Nezu York, N. Y. 
♦Whitman, C. O., A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor Journal of Morphology, and Director of Lake 
Laboratory ; Director of the Marine Biological Labora- 
tory, Woods IIoll, Mass. 

Milwaukee., Wis. 



158 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

♦Whitney, W. F., M.D. Pathology. 

Curator of the Museum of the Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School^ Boston^ Mass. 
*WiLDER, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Aiiatomv, and Zoology, 
and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell University. 

Cornell University ., Ithaca., N. 7~. 
Williams, George Huntington, A.B., Ph.D. Mineralogy. 

Associate Professor of Mineralog}" and Petrography , Johns 
Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University^ Baltijnore. 
♦Williams, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology and Paljeontology, Cornell University, 
and Assistant Geologist, U.vS. Geological Survey. 

Coriiell Uiiiversity., Ithaca.^ N. 7~. 
WiLLisTON, Samuel W., M.D., Ph.D. Anatomy. 

Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Yale Univ^ersity. 

JVeiv Have7i, Co7tn. 
*WiLSON, Edmund B., Pli.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Bryn Mawr College, Penn. 

Bryn Maivr., Penn. 
Wilson, W. P., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Physiological Botany, Department of Biology, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Westchester., Penn. 
WiNCHELL, Alexander, LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, University of Michi- 
gan. 

AnTi Arbor., Mich. 
Wolff, John E., A.B. Petrography. 

Instructor in Petrography, Harvard University. 

Cambridge., Alass. 
*Wright, R. Rams.\y, M.A., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, University College, Toronto, 
Canada. 

University College., Toronto., Ca?iada. 
*Yarro\v, H. C, M.D., Acting Asst.-Surg., U.S.A. 

Herpetology. 

Curator, Department of Reptiles, U.S. National Museum. 

814 17/// street., N. W., Washington., D.C. 



RECORDS. 



159 



SEVENTH MEETING AT BALTIMORE, MD. 

Dec. 27, 1S88. 

General Lecture-Room of the Physical Building, Johns 
Hopkins University. 

MORNING SESSION. 

President Allen in the chair. Twenty-seven members present. 
The Treasurer reported to the Society as follows : — 

TREASURER'S REPORT, 1888. 

American Society of Naturalists. 



1SS7. 



Income. 

Balance as per last report . 
Dues received durinsr 1888 



Outgo. 



Dec. 29. S. F. Clarke, services as pe 
vote .... 
1888. 
Jan. 3. Stationery for Treasurer's use 
" 13. J. P. Lippincott & Co., Print 

ing .... 
" 21. S. F. Clarke, Exp. N. Haver 
Meeting 
Feb. 7. H. C. Melius, Printing, N 
Haven Meeting . 
" 9. J. T. Robinson, Printing 

" II. D. Appleton & Co., Printing 
Mar. 3. Rockwell & Churchill, Rec 

ords, 1SS6 . 

June 29. Rockwell & Churchill, Rec 

ords, 1887 . 

Amounts carried fortvard,, 



$736 68 
310 00 



$1,046 68 



$25 


00 


6 


00 


56 


50 


44 35 


4 50 

2 50 

12 60 


5S 


17 


67 ^^ 



$277 37 $1,046 68 



l6o SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Amounts brotigJit forxvard^ $-77 37 $^5046 68 

Dec. 26. Postage ..... 4 5° 

$281 ^1 
Balance on hand . . . 764 81 



$1,046 68 $1,046 68 
Of which $60 has been already voted. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. T. Sedgwick, 

Treasurer. 
Baltimore, Dec. 27, 188S. 

The presidential address, " On the Study of the Human 
Cranium, with the Description of a New Craniophore," was then 
delivered, Prof. W. H. Niles being called to the chair. 

The Committee on the "Journal of Morphology" were called 
upon and made the following report : — 

The committee appointed at the New Haven meeting to decide 
upon the method of distributing the copies of the "Journal of 
Morphology" purchased by the .Society, beg leave to submit the 
following preliminary report : — 

The object of the Society being to increase the circulation of 
the Journal, it seemed to the committee undesirable to present 
copies to individuals or to institutions, where subscriptions could 
be readily procured without such aid. Accordingly, the members 
of the committee endeavored by personal correspondence with 
officers representing various institutions to secure subscriptions, or, 
failing in that, to elict such information as would guide them in 
determining what to do with the copies purchased. 

As a result of correspondence with upwards of thirty persons, 
five subscriptions have alieady been secured, and it is believed 
that there are several more of those whose attention has been di- 
rected to the enteipiise who may ultimately aid in its support. 
Information which will be of value in the proposed distribution 
has also been received. 

Although the committee was of the opinion that the resolution 
was intended to confer on it the power of presenting the Journal 
in the name of the Society, no such presentations have as yet been 
made, and the committee would prefer, before assuming the duty, 
to have the Society express its wish to that elTect, if it so desires. 



RECORDS. l6l 

The coniniittcc will also be glad to receive suggestions on the 
subject tVom any member of the Society. 

A. Hyatt (per E. L. M.), 

W. T. Sedgwick, 

E. L. Mark, Chairvian. 

The President appointed the following Nominating Com- 
mittee : — 

Prof. B. K. Emerson, 

" W. H. NiLES, 

" H. N. Martin, 

" E. B. Wilson, 

" Angelo Heilprin. 

The Auditing Committee appointed by the President consisted 

of 

Prof. George Macloskie, 

" S. I. Smith, 

" W. H. Howell. 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Forty members present. 

The Executive Committee recommended to the Society that 
Article II., Section 2, of the Constitution be amended to read as 
follows : Section 2. Each member shall pay to the Treasurer 
an annual assessment of one dollar, which shall be considered due 
in advance at the annual meeting. 

This was moved and carried. 

Papers were read by Professor Macloskie : — 

1. On an Improved Method of constructing Analytical Keys. 

2. On the Mouth Parts of the Mosquito. 

Both of which were illustrated, and were discussed by the 
Society. 

The Committee on Science in the Schools, appointed last year, 
made the following report : — 

Txvo distinct topics tvere referred to its for consideration: — 
I. The plan of work in natural science which the Society 
should recommend. 



I 62 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

2. The methods which the Society should adopt to give effect 
to its recommendations. 



I. 

In regard to the first topic, we believe the following proposi- 
tions fairly formulate the views which are held by the members 
of the Society, and which the Society should use its influence to 
diffuse : — 

1. Instruction in Natural Science should commence in the 
lowest grades of the primary schools, and should continue 
throughout the curriculum. 

2. In the lower grades, the instruction should be chieflv by 
means of object-lessons ; and the aim should be to awaken and 
guide the curiosity of the child in regard to natural phenomena, 
rather than to present systematized bodies of fact and doctrine. 

3. More systematic instruction in the Natural Sciences should 
be given in the high schools. 

4. While the Sciences can be more extensively pursued in the 
English course in the high schools than is practicable in the clas- 
sical course, it is exceedingly imdesirable that scientific stud}' 
should be entirely omitted during the four years of the high-school 
course by students preparing for college. 

5. An elementary (but genuine and practical) acquaintance 
with some one or more departments of Natural Science should be 
required for admission to college. 

Believing that the propositions stated above will command 
general acceptance, we are aware that there must be difference of 
opinion in regard to details, and that the precise subjects to be 
introduced into the curriculum must vary somewhat with the cir- 
cumstances of different localities. We offer the following, not as 
necessarily the best scheme, but as a reasonable and practical 
scheme which may at least serve to illustrate the general piin- 
ciples which we have formulated : — 

In the primary schools and in the lower grades of the grammar 
schools we would recommend that the study of plants antl animals 
should be the main part of the scientific work. The botanical in- 
structions should commence with such simple exercises as chaw- 
ing and describing different forms of leaves, and should gradually 
advance to the easier and more conspicuous flowers, and later to 



^\ 



RECORDS. 163 

the more obscure and dilliciilt forms of flowers, the fruits, and 
seeds. 

The zoological instruction in the lower schools should not 
attempt a systematic survey of the whole animal kingdom, but 
attention shoukl be directed chiefly to the most familiar animals, 
and to those whicli the pupils can see alive. The common do- 
mesticated mammals should first be studied, and later the birds, 
the lower vertebrates, the insects, Crustacea, and mollusks. While 
the range of zoological instruction must be limited as regards the 
number of forms studied, those few familiar forms should be so 
compared with each other as to give the pupils, very early, some 
conception of the main lines of biological study, — morphology, 
physiology, taxonomy. 

Special prominence should be given to the study of plants and 
animals which are useful to man in any way ; and the teacher 
may advantageously, Irom time to time, give familiar talks in 
regard to useful products of vegetable and animal origin, and the 
processes of their manufacture. 

A most important feature of the scientific instruction in the 
lower grades should be to encourage the pupils to collect 
specimens of all sorts of natural objects, and to make those 
specimens the subject of object-lessons. The curiosity of the 
children will thereby be rationally cultivated and guided. 

The subject of human physiology and hygiene is of so immense 
practical impoitance, and so few comparatively of the pupils ever 
enter the high school, that we regard as desirable some attempt 
to teach the rudiments of the subject in the grammar, and even in 
the primary, schools. 

We would recommend the introduction of exceedingly rudi- 
mentary courses in physics and chemistry in the highest grades 
of the grammar school. 

We would recommend as perhaps the most desirable branches 
of science to be included in the classical courses in the high 
school, and to be required for admission to college, physical 
geograph^', pheenogamic botany, and human physiology. The 
first is suggested as tending to keep alive in the student's mind a 
sympathetic acquaintance with nature in its broader aspects ; the 
second, as aflbrding unequalled opportunities for discipline in 
observation ; the thirtl, as affording knowledge of the greatest 
practical importance. 

The rudiments of physics and chemistry, which we propose for 



1 64 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

the grammar schools, will enable physical geography and physi- 
ology to be intelligently studied in the early years of the high- 
school course. 

For the scholars in the English course in the high school, there 
will naturally be more advanced and systematic instruction in 
chemistry, physics, and zoology, and also instruction in geology 
and astronomy. But the classical students may, with propriety, 
leave these studies until the}' reach them in the college course. 
The scientific instruction they will have received in the primary 
and grammar schools, and the study of the three branches above 
specified in their high-school course, will be sufficient to preserve 
that natural and wholesome sympathy with nature, the loss of 
which is now the main obstacle to the successful stud}' of Natural 
Science in the colleges. 

II. 

The methods which the Society should adopt to give effect to 
its recommendations. 

Something, we believe, can be accomplished by making proper 
representations before some of the leading educational organi- 
zations. We would accordingly recommend that a delegate from 
this Society be appointed to present the subject before each of the 
following bodies at its next meeting : — 

1. The Annual Convocation of the University of the State of 
New York. 

2. The New England Society of College Presidents. 

3. The New England Association of College Officers and 
Preparatory Teachers. 

4. The National Educational Association. 

5. The American Institute of Learning. 

6. The Association of College Presidents of the Middle States. 

We recommend that a committee be appointed at this meeting, 
whose duty shall be to appoint a delegate to each of the above- 
named organizations, and to arrange with the officers of those 
organizations to secure a hearing for the delegates. We further 
recommend that the travelling expenses of such delegates be paid 
by the Society. 

In view of the fact that in most of the States tlie arrangement 



RFXORDS. 165 

of the school courses of instruction is ahiiost cxcliisivcl\- in the 
hands of local boards, with very little centralization or super- 
vision, we believe that the prosecution of the movement for the 
desired reform should enlist the personal effort of everv member. 
Each, in his own neighborhood, should be ready to use his 
influence with teachers' institutes, boards of education, school 
committees, and trustees of particular institutions. We believe 
that the time is ripe for the effort, and tliat the educational public 
will welcome the advocacy of the reform. 

Samuel F. Clakke, 

CJiainuan. 

It was moved by Prof. H. N. Martin that as many copies of 
this report be printed as the committee sliall find use for. Sec- 
onded and voted. 

Prof. W. T. Sedgwick suggested that the study of miner- 
alogy be recommended in the report, and moved that the whole 
subject be referred back to the committee, with full power to act 
in establishing and extending their methods and in increasing 
their numbers. Seconded and carried. 

The Annual Dinner was given Thursday evening at 7.30, and 
was attended by over thirty members of the Society. 



Friday, December 28. 

Biological Lecture-Room of the Johns Hopkins 
University. 

MORNING SESSION. 

President Allen in tlie chair. Forty-five members present. 

The morning was given to the special topic for this meeting, 
which was, " How can Laboratory and Lecture-Room Instruction 
hi Biology and Geology be best adapted to developing Mental 
Independence in the Student, while presenting him with the Facts ; 
especially when the Number of Students is large .^" 

Addresses were delivered by Professors George L. Goodale, 
Harvard ; Edmund B. Wilson, Bryn Mawr ; W. H. Niles, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology ; George H. Williams, Johns 
Hopkins. 



1 66 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The following men, recommended by the Executive Com- 
mittee, were elected to membership in the Society: — 

J. Walter Fewkes, 
T. Wesley Mills, 
Charles D. White, 
Albert H. Tuttle, 
Frank H. Knowlton, 
William F. Gaxong. 

Mr. John E. Wolft', of Harvard, exhibited specimens of and 
described the process of making " Large Bromide Prints for Lect- 
ure Illustration in Geology." 

The Nominating Committee reported the following list of offi- 
cers for the ensuing year : — 

President. — George L. Goodale. 
Vice-Presidents. — Henry S. Williams, 

Henry F. Osborn, 

G. Brow^n Goode. 
Secretary. — Henry H. Doxaldson. 
Treasurer. — William T. Sedgwick. 

Meinbers of the Executive Committee at Large. — George 
Huntington Williams, J. Flayfair McMurrich. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

December 28. 

The question of the advisability of changing the character of 
the Societj- by making the meetings cover less time, and by intro- 
ducing only matters of very broad scientific interest, having been 
referred to the Society by the Executive Committee, came up for 
discussion. 

It was finally decided that, while it may be well to have the 
meetings cover less than three days, that it svill best serve the in- 
terests of science to maintain the present character of the Society. 
The following men, having been recommended by the Execu- 
tive Committee, were elected to membership in the Society: — 

S. Watase, 
B. W. Barton, 
E. A. Andrews. 



RECORDS. 167 

. The noniiiintions picsetitcd by the Nominating Committee were 
elected by tiie Society. 

The following telegram was sent at the request of the vSocietv : — 

To Prof. J. J. Stevenson, Secretary : — 

Ithaca, N.Y. 
The American Society of Naturalists has voted to leave the 
selection of the place of the next meeting to the Executive Com- 
mittee, with the hope that an arrangement may be made by which 
those interested in the woi k of both societies may attend both 
meetings, one }ear from this time. It is thought probable that 
such an arrangement will be made with the Physiological Societs'. 

Samuel F. Clarke, 

Secretary. 

It was moved by Prof. J. M. Tyler that the Societv tender 
its most hearty thanks to the retiring Secretary for his wise and 
successful efforts in its foundation, and in helping to bring it 
to its present prosperous condition. Seconded and carried. 

The following resolution was offered as a motion by Prof. 
B. K. Emerson : — 

Resolved, That the general principles and lines of work indi- 
cated in the report of the Committee on Science Instruction are 
heartily approved by this Society. 

Seconded by Prof. W. M. Davis, and voted by the Society. 

The Auditing Committee reported as follows : — 

Baltimore, Dec. 28, iSSS. 
The undersigned members of the Committee appointed to 
audit the accounts of the Treasurer, report that they have exam- 
ined the accounts for 18S7-SS, and compared them with vouchers, 
and found them correct. 

George Macloskie, 
S. I. Smith, 
W. II. Howell. 

Papers were then listened to by the Society : — 

By Piof. W. M. Davis, on " Geographic Models for Instruc- 
tion in Physical Geography." 

By Prof. E. D. Cope, on "The Evolution of the Elbow-Joint 
in the Alammalia." 



1 68 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

By Dr. E. A. Andrews, " Exhibition and Explanation of a 
Model of the Frog's Cartilaginous Skull." 

The thanks of the editors of the "Journal of Morphology " were 
tendered to tlie Society by Prof. C. O. Whitman for the reso- 
lution of appreciation and congratulation voted to the editors at 
the last annual meeting. 

The following communication was received from the Zoological 
Society of France through Professor Leidy : — 

" The Zoological Society of France, in a communication 
addressed to Professor Leidy, of Philadelphia, under date of No- 
vember 29, annoimces that it is organizing an International Con- 
gress of Zoologists, to convene about the beginning of August 
next. It requests the cooperation of working naturalists." 

The following was moved, seconded, and received a unanimous 
vote : — 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society are due, and are most 
cordially tendered, to the Johns Hopkins University, to the gentle- 
men of the Local Committee, and to the University Club for their 
great kindness and courtesy to the members of this Society 
throughout the time of this annual meeting. 

The Society adjourned at 5 o'clock. 

SAMUEL F. CLARKE, 

Secretary, 



NOTICE, 



Copies of this part of the first volitme of the Records of 
the Society of JVaturalists of the Eastern United States 
will be distributed to members, and to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of amj 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherivise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-Law IT. 



Press of Rockwell ami Cluircliill, Boston. 



/L^y^' ^-'^ J- r 



1 3, loll RECC)m)S 



IVIAY 1896 

AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



V O L U M E I . , 

PART SEVENTH. 



BOSTON : 

PUBLISHED BY^ TITE SECRl r\i^V 

I 8g o . 



R E CORD S 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I . , 

PART SEVENTH. 



B O vS T O N : 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 

I S 9 o . 



RECORDS 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1890. 



PrcsidcMit, 11. Newell Martin. 

r Samuel F. Clark k, 
Vice-Presidents, } VVm. North Rice, 

( R. Ramsay Wright. 
Secretary, IIenrv II. Donaldson. 
Treasurer, William T. Sedgwick. 



Mcjnbers of the Executive Committee elected from the 

Society at Large. 

Wm. Lip.bev, Jr., Wm. M. Davis. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Pli.D., LLD., Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 
Professor of Geology, Yale University. 
Tale University., New Haven., Conn. 
Leidv, Joseph, M.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Director of the Biological Department, President of the 
Faculty of the Wagner Free Institute, and President of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 
907 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Pe?in. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Pahcontology. 

Professor of PaUeontology, Yale University. 
8 Peabody Museum, New Haven, Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original memljership.] 



Allen, C. M. Physics. 

Pratt Institute^ Brooklyn^ N. Y. 
*Allen, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatoni}-. 

1933 Chestnut street^ PJiiladelphia^ Penn. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. Biology. 

Associate Editor of the "Journal of Morphology." 

Milwaukee^ Wis. 
Andrews, E. A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Osteology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Aid. 
Barrows, Walter B., B.S. Ornitholog}'. 

Department of Agriculture. 

Washingto7i., D. C. 
Barton, B. W., M.D. Botany. 

Baltimore., Aid. 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Vertebrate Palaiontology. 

Decent in Comparative Osteology and Pala-ontology, Clark 
University. 

Clark University^ Worcester., Mass. 
*Bickmore, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in Charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Ahiseiim., Central Park., A^. 1'. 
Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

University Club., New York City. 
*Bowditcji, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Piiysiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard JMedical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
Brewer, William H., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale llniversity. 

2^6 Granite street^ New Haven., Conn. 



LIST OF MEMHKRS. IJl 

Buusii, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, SliciVicld vScicntiilc School. 
A'Civ Ilavoi^ Coin. 
BuMPUs, II. C, Ph.B. • Zoology. 

Fellow in Zoology, Clark University. 
Worcester., Jfass. 
Call, R. Ells\voi{th. 'IVrtiary Palaeontology, Mollusca. 

Instructor in Natural Science, West Des Moines High 

School. 
621 Tentli street., Des Moines^ la. 
Campbell, John P., B.A. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
Casey, Thomas L. Entomology. 

Captain, U.S. Engineer Corps. 
U.S. Army Biiildijig., New Tor k, N.T. 
Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 
83 Trumbull street.. New Haven., Conn. 
Clark, William B., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Instructor in Palaeontology, Johns Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 
Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
Williamstown., Mass. 
Conn, H. W. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Wesleyan University. 
Middletown., Conn. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Vertebrate Pakeontology and Zoology. 

3I02 Pine street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 
Sfnithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 
*Crosby, W. O., S.B. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy and Lithology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 
Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Dall, William Healev. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

Paheontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator, 

Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museuiu. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 



1/2 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Dana, Edward S., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Natural Philosopli}-, Yale University. 

Ill Grove street^ New Haven^ Conn. 
*Davis, WiLLiAxM M., S.B., M.E. Geology, Geography, and 

Meteorology. 

Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology., Cambridge., jMass. 
*Dewey, Frederic P., PMi.B. Metallurgy. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum., Washingtoji., D.C. 
*DiLLER, J. S., S.B. Petrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist in Charge of Petrographic Laboratory. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 
*DiMMocK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
DoLLEY, Charees S. Biology. 

Professor of General Biology in the University of Penn- 
sylvania ; Professor of Natural Plistory in Svvarthmore 
College. 

University of Petmsylvania., Biological Department. 
*DoNALDSON, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Neurology, Clark University. 

Worcester^ Mass. 
*Dljdeey, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogam ic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 
*DuTTON, C. E, Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 
DwiGiiT, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

235 Beaco7j street., Boston., J^Iass. 
DwiGHT, William B., B.A., M.A., Pii.B. Palaiontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 
Vassar College. 

\ assar Ccl/rgr. Pouglikcipsic. /V. V. 



I.ISI" OF MKMl'.KRS. I 73 

*Emekson, r>. K.,l*li.l). Geology ami Mineralogy. 

Professor of (ieology, Amherst College. 

Anihcrst^ Mass. 
*EMi!:Kr()N, James II. Zoiilogy. 

II St . Janus avenue., Boston., Mass. 
*Emmons, S. F. (Jeology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Wasliington^ D. C. 
*Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Demonstrator of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
*Faiu.o\v, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University., Cambridge., Mass. 
Fernald, C. H., A.M., Ph.D. Microlepidojitera. 

Professor of Zoology, Mass. Agricultural* College. 

Amherst, Mass. 
Fewkes, J. Walter. 

Secretary, Boston Society of Natural History : Assistant, 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Aluseum of Comparative Zoology., Cambridge., Mass. 
Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assistant, Jetierson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophthalmic Surgeon to Germantown Hospital. 

1304 Walnut street., Philadelphia, Pen?i. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., JV.7'. 
Ganong, Wm. Francis. Zoology. 

646 Cambridge street., Cambridge., Mass. 
*Gardiner, Edward G., B.S., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

131 Mt. Ver?ion street, Boston, Alass. 
Garman, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Cambridge, A/ass. v 



174 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Gerrish Frederic Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 
675 Congress street^ Portland^ Mc. 
*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 
P.O. Box 591, Washington., D. C. 
GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard University. 
Harvard University., Catnbridge., A/ass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown, A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge 

of tlie U.S. National Museum. 
Smithsonian Institution., Washington, D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 

History, New York. 
77/// street and Sth avenue, Nezv York, N. 7'. 
*Greenleaf, R. W., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

341 Boy/ston street, Boston, A/ass. 
*Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

343 Madison avenue, Nexv York, N. Y. 
Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Hall, James M.S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. 

Geology, Paleontology. 
State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 

of Natural History. 
State Museum, Albany, JV. Y. 
Hare, Hobart Amory, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Experimental Therapeutics in the Medical 
Department, and Instructor in Physiology in the Biologi- 
cal Department of the University of Pennsylvania. 
117 South Pzventy-second street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Hkilprin, Angelo. PaUuontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertehrate PaUeontology at, and Curator-in- 
chargc of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
tlelphia, ami Professor of (ieology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 
Academy of N^at7iral Sciences.. Philadelphia, Penn, 



LIST OV M KM HERS. I 75 

*Hensiia\v, Samuki-. Zoology. 

Assistant, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Bosto)i Society of Natural History., JJostofi, A/ass. 
*Hn.i., Frank A, Geology. 

Geologist in Charge, Anthracite District, State Survey of 
Penns\l\ ania. 

3oS South Centre street^ Pottsville^ Peiin. 
Hill, Robekt T. Paheoutology. 

School of Geologv, University of Texas. 

Austin., Texas. 
*HiTCHcocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 

Havover., N. H. 
Howell, William H., B.A., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor., Alichigaii. 
Hunt, T. Stkrry, A.M., LL.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Care Mr. James Douglas., Spuyten Duyvil., N. Y. 
*Hyatt, Alpheus, S.B. Palaeontology and Zoolog) . 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Assist- 
ant in Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Bostoji Society of Natural I listo/y, Boston., A/ass. 
Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Lithology. 

Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Washington., D. C. 
Jackson, Robert Tracy, B.S., D.S. 

Zoology and Pakeontology. 

89 Charles street., Boston., Alass. 
Jayne, PIorac'E, M.D. Vertebrata, 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of I'enn- 
sylvania. 

Biological Department., University of Pennsylvania. 
PhiladclpJiia., Penn. 
Jeffries, J. Amory, A.B., M.D. Anatomy. 

3 Exeter street., Boston., Alass. 
Jordan, David Starr. Biology. 

President of Indiana University. 

Bloom in "ton, 7 ml. 



176 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Jordan, Edwin O., B.vS. Biology. 

Assistant in Bacteriology, Mass. State Board of Health ; 
Lecturer on Biology, Mass. Institute of Technology. 

Mass. histitute of TccJinology ^ Bosto?i., Mass. 
JuLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Biology and Petrography. 

Instructor in Biology and Microscopy, School of Mines, 
Columbia College. 

School of Mines., Columbia College ., New York., N. T". 
*KiN(;sLEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Editor of "• American Naturalist," Professor of Zoology in 
University of Nebraska. 

A in coin, A^ed. 
Knowltox, Frank II., M.S. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
Lee, F. S., Ph.D., A.M. Physiology. 

Associate in Ph3siologv and Histology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bry)i Mazu?'., Pcnn. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geolog}' and Biology, Bov\'iloin College. 

Brunswick., Ale. 
Lee, Thomas G., M.D. Histology. 

Lectures on Normal Histology. 

Tale University., JVezu JIavcn., Conn. 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Arclue- 
ology. 

Princeton., N.J. 
Lucas, Frederic A. Avian Osteology. 

Assistant Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, 
U.S. National Museum. 

Washington., D. C. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.I). Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 

Princeton., N.J. 
Mark, Edward L. Biology. 

Hersey Professoi- of Anatomy, Harvard University. 

21 North avenue., Cambridge., Mass. 



i.isi' oi' Mi:Mi;Kks. 177 

*]M.\Ksii.\i.i., John P., A.M. MiiK'iali)!:;\ and ( icolo^jy. 

Professor of Mineralogy aiul (Jcologv, Tufts College. 

CoUcgc Hill, Mass. 
*Maktin, H. Nkweli., A.M.,M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 

Professor of l?iology, Johns Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins Ihiivcrsity., Baltimore^ Md. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

C/.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
McMuruicii, J. Pi.AVFAiR, M.A., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Docetit in Morphology, Clark University. 

Clark University., Worcester., Mass. 
*Meeiian, Thomas. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State l^oard of Agriculture, 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

Gcrniantozvn^ Pcnn. 
*Mekriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Ciiief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. 

Wash ingi on., D.C. 
*Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.B. Geology. 

Fellow in Geology, Columbia College. 

New York, N. T. 
*Merrii.l, George P., M.S. IJthology. 

Curator of Lithology and Phvsical Geology, U.S. National 
Museum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
Mills, T. Wesley, M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Physiology, McGill University. 

JMontreal., Canada. 
*]\IiNOT, Charles .Sedgwick, S.B., .S.D. Biology. 

Assistant Professor of Embiyology and Histology, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., ^fass. 
MixTER, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatomy. 

Demonstrator of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard ^ledical School., 73oston., Mass. 



1/8 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*]MoRSE, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Feabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Salem ^ JMass. 
*Newberry, J. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 

School of Mines ^ Columbia College^ New York^ N. T. 
*NiLES, William H., Ph.B , A.M. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Mass. Institute of Technology., Bos to ft ^ Mass. 

Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. vSpccial vSensc Morphology 

and Physiology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon to vSt. Mary's Hospital, Philadelphia. 

1507 Locust street., Philadelphia., Penn. 

OsBORN, Henry Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 

Princeton., JV-f 

*Packard, A.S., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Broivn University., Providence., R. I. 

Parker, George Howard, S.B. Animal Morphology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard College. 

8 Harris street^ Cambridge., Mass. 

*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., IVashitigton., D. C. 

*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee Higli .School. 

Mihvaukee., Wis. 

Penmeld, Samuel L., Ph.B. Mineralogy. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, Vale University. 

Peabody Aluseum., New Haven., Conn. 

*PiLLSKURY, J. II. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 

Northampton^ Mass. 

*PowELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 

Director of 4he U.S. (ieological Survey, and Director of the 

I^urcau of Etimologv, Smithsonian Institution. 

Geological Survey., M'ashii/gton, D.C. 



LIST ov mi:mi:krs. 179 

*Pke\tiss, a. N., Nr.S. Botany. 

Professor of Hotaiu , llortictiltun.', and Ail)()iiciilturc, Cor- 
nell University. 
Cornell University, It/iaca, N. 1'. 
Prosser, Charles S., M.S. (icoloj^^y and I'ala'ontology. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 
I Washington, D. C. 

*PuTNAM, Frederick W. Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Peabodv Professor of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Harvard University ; Curator of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, in connection with Harvard 
University ; Permanent Secretary of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on Inland Fisheries ; and President, 
Boston Society of Natural History. 
Peabodv M?iscum, Cambridge, Mass. 
Rankin, Walter M., A.M., M.Sc, Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Curator of Museum, Princeton 

College. 
Princeton College, Princeton, N.J. 
*Rathbun, Richard, M.S. Invertebrates. 

Curator Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 
Reichart, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesleyan University. 
Middletown, Conn. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology, Mycology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 

Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 
1700 13//- street, N. W., Washington, D.C. 
*RoTHROCK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 
West Chester, Chester Co., Petin. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 



l8o SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Sai{gent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookluic^ Mass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and Pakuontology, Princeton College. 

Princctojz., N.J. 
*ScuDDER, S. H., A.M., S.B. Entomology and Paheontology. 

Palitontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Massachusetts histitide of Technology^ Boston., Mass. 
Sewall, Henry, B.Sc, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Adirondack Cottages., Saranac Lake., Frankliii Co.., N. Y. 
*Shakespeare, E. O., A.m., M.D. Histology. 

Ophthalmic Surgeon and Pathologist to Philadelphia (Char- 
ity) Hospital. 

1336 Spruce street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Siialer, N. S., A.m., S.D. Pala'ontology. 

Professor of Geology, Harvard College, and Geologist, U.S. 
Geological vSurvey. 

Cambridge., JMass. 
*SiiARP, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D., C.M.Z.S. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 

Care of Smithsonian Institution., Washington, D.C. 
Smith, John B. Entomology. 

Rutgers College. 

New Brunswick, N.J. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

332 South 7\venty-frst street, Philadelphia, Penn. 



l.isr OF MKMl'.KUS. l8l 

*Smitii, SiDNKV M.. Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of ConiiKirative Anatomy, Yale University. 

147 WliaUcy avoiiic^ JVczv Haven, Conn. 
TiiAcuKK, Jami;s K., M.D., B.A. Zoology. 

Professor of l*li\si()lo<^y and Clinical Medicine, Yale Uni- 
versity. 

206 Crown street, Nczu Haven, Conn. 
TiLTON, John L., A.H. Riology. 

Professor of Natnral Science, Simpson Centenar}' College. 

India?iola, la. 
*True, Frederick W., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum. 

National jSTuseiim, Washington, D. C. 
TucKEKMAN, FREDERICK, M.D., B.Sc. Anatomy. 

Fellow in Anatomy, Clark University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Alass. 
TuTTEE, Albert II. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Virginia, Va. 

University of Virginia, Va. 
*Tyler, J. M., A.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Zodlogy and Botany, Amherst College. 

Amherst, Alass. 
*Van Veeck, B. H., S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 

Boston Society of Natural History^ Boston, Mass. 
Verrill, a. E., M.A. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale University. 

86 Whalley avetnce, Nezv Haven, Conn. 
*Wadsworth, M. E., A.m., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Petrography, 

and Geology. 

Director of the Michigan Mining School, and Professor of 
Mineralogy, Petrography, and Geology ; also State Geolo- 
gist of Michigan. 

Michigan Mining School, Houghton, Mich. 
*Walcott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

PaltEontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

Natio7ial Museum, Washington, D. C. 



1 82 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

No. i6 to 26 College avenue., Rochester., N. 1'. 
*VVarren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Instructor in Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical Sc/iool., Boston., Mass. 
Watase, S., B.S. Biology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Johns Hopkins University. 

yo/ins Hopkins UniversitVi Baltimore., Md. 
White, Charles D., B.S. Pala^obotany and Geology. 

Assistant Palieontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. National Museutn., Washington., D.C. 

* Whitfield, R. P., M.A. PahTeontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.), Curator of Geology and 
Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 

Americati Museum of Natural History., 'J'jth street and 
Sth avenue. New lork, A^. 7'. 

* Whitman, C. O., A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor, "Journal of Morphology ;" Director of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Holl, Mass. ; Professor of 
Morpholog}', Clark University. 
Worcester., Mass. 

* Whitney, W. P., M.D. Pathology. 

Curator of the Museum of the Harvard Medical School. 
Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 

* Wilder, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertelirate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zoology, 

and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell University. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N^. 2^. 
Wh.liams, George Huntington, A.B., Ph.D. Mineralogy. 
Associate Professor of Mineralogy and Petrography, Johns 

Hopkins University. 
yohns Hopkins University., Baltimore. 
*WiLLiAMS, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and Pahcontology, 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Cornell University, 

and Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 



LIST OK MKMIJKRS. 1 83 

Wii,LiSTC)N, Samuki. W'., M.I)., Ph.D. Anatomy. 

Assistant Professor of Anatomy, ^'alc Uni\crsity. 

N^eiv Haven, Com. 
*WiLSON, Edmund P., Ph. P., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Pryn Maw r College, Peim. 

Bryn Maivr, Poui. 
Wilson, W. P., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Physiological l^olan)-, Department of Biology, 
University of I'ennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, Pe>/n. 
Winch ELL, Alexander, LL.D. Geolog\'. 

Professor of Geology and Pahuontology, University of Michi- 
gan. 

A /in Arbor, Mich. 
Wolff, John E., A.B. Petrography. 

Instructor in Petrography, Harvard University. 

15 Story street, Cambridge, Mass. 
* Wright, R. Ramsay, M.A., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Uni\'ersity College, Toronto, 
Canada. 

University College, Poronto, Canada. 
*Yarrow, H. C, M.D., Acting Asst.-Surg., U.S.A. 

Herpetology. 

Curator, Department of Reptiles, U.S. National Museum. 

814 17/// street, N. W., Washitigton, B.C. 
YouMANs, W. J., M.D. Biology. 

Editor of "Popular Science Monthly." 

Office of ''^ Popular Science Mof/thly,'" i Bond street. New 
2^ork, N. r. 



Number of honorary members ...... 4 

"• " memliers . . . . . . .154 

Total 158 



I 84 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

EIGHTH MEETING, AT NEW YORK CITY. 

December 37, 1SS9. 

Lecture-Room 15, Columbia College. 

MORNING SESSION. 

President Goodale in the chair. Sixteen n'iem])ers present. 

The President appointed — 

Samuel F. Clarke, 
George Macloskie, 
E. A. Andrews, 

a committee to andit the Treasurer's Report. 

Samuel F. Clarke reported on behalf of the Committee on 
Science Teaching in the JSchools. (The text of the report has 
been joined with that made at the next session, and will be found 
in that portion of the minutes.) 

The report was accepted, and a continuance of the Committee 
voted. 

The President's address was then delivered. 

Gentlemen, — I invite you to consider next the perplexing 
general question of Science in the Schools. This question has, 
at some time or other, in some form or other, engaged the atten- 
tion of every member of the Society. To its consideration we 
have devoted much time in our annual sessions, and we have 
asked some of the most judicious and experienced teachers in our 
ranks to give it their special study, and to report to the Societ}^ the 
results of their deliberations. One of these reports of progress, 
characterized by thoroughness and acuteness, is before us in print, 
and has doubtless been examined with interest by every j^erson 
now present. 

It is not with any expectation that I can add anything of 
much \aluc to a report which is well-nigh exhaustive, that I 
venture to bring before you a single phase of this ever-recurring 



RECORDS. 185 

problem ; but it has scciiied to luc that tlic phase whicli I shall 
now ask you to look at for a tew uiiiuites may assume some new 
relations of perspective and be worth a glance. It is barely 
possible that it may provoke fresh discussion. 

Let me disavow, at the beginning of my remarks, any claim to 
originality in the propositions which are to be sulimitted. My 
manner of regarding the problem has been forced upon me by 
conversations and discussions with my colleagues, and with a 
great many other teachers. Hence the case is decidedly one 
of limited liability. 

It will be well for us to be sure at the outset that we all occupy 
nearly the same point of view in looking at the main points of the 
problem. Hence I may ask, — 

I St. Are we not agreed in believing that although the courses 
of studies in our primary and grammar schools are, in popular 
phrase, crowded to repletion, the results in discipline and acquisi- 
tion are by no means commensurate with the enormous expendi- 
ture of money, strength, and time.^ Do we not find that many 
of our young people come to the high and preparatory schools 
with a distinct disrelish for hard and telling study.-* Is there not 
a great amount of listlessness or dawdling.'* And yet we know 
that the teachers are working well up to the full measure of their 
strength ; alas, in too many cases, far beyond their strength. 

One can perhaps take it for granted that you have asked your- 
selves whence comes this tendency to dawdle. It cannot spring 
wholly from mere idleness, for youths of both sexes are naturally 
inquisitive, and are prone to ask even awkward questions until 
they are subdued by timely or untimely snubbing. Now, at some 
point in the current discipline of a few, at least, of our schools 
this alertness of mintl is replaced liy dulness anil inattention. 
Often enough this unfortunate change tlatcs from the period of 
discouragement when the pupil, compelled to try too many 
things at once, gives up in despair — or it is coincident with 
the time when the teacher makes the fatal mistake of doing the 
pupil's work. There is no class of pupils more apathetic than the 
personally-conducted. They camiot tell for their lives whether 
they are in one strange city or another at any given moment. In the 
case first mentioned, the living structure has been weighted above 
its limits of elasticity, and becomes deformed beyond hope of 



1 86 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

recovering its normal relations of shape. In the other, the 
structure which should be able to carry easily and without 
the least distortion a given weight, is absurdh' and unnaturally 
supported by clumsy outside aids. Both kinds of discipline are 
faulty. Both kinds result in crippling the organism, and reducing 
its power of efficient work. 

2d. But if the discipline is faulty, what shall we say of the 
poverty of atquisition? It seems as if some teachers in their 
praiseworthy striving after methods of mental discipline had over- 
looked the need of mental furnishing. And hence it has come to 
pass that some pupils who have gone through all the grades up 
to the plane of the first year in college, are imacquainted with the 
simplest facts in nature. There is not a teacher here who has 
not fallen in with a few of these helpless beings. The question 
before us is, Can any part of this mischief be remedied by the 
treatment which we, as a Society of Naturalists, propose? We 
must remember that in all branches of study these defects which I 
have mentioned are recognized, and we must bear in mind that 
ours is not the only remedy suggested. 

In passing to the main proposition, I must refer for a moment 
to a question of the second order, which concerns all teachers in 
all grades ; namely, the daily sequence of studies. 

A curriculum covering a term of years regai"ds the arrangement 
of studies term by term and year by year, but ordinarily pays 
little attention to the order in which these studies follow one 
another each day or in the days of the week. The dail}' arrange- 
ment in most schools is based chiefly on convenience in running 
the machine : studies are put in where they will lit, and many a 
roimd peg finds itself in a scjuare hole. 

It makes little difibrence to some people whether the 
order of dishes at a dinner follows tlie line of least I'esistance 
from soup through fish, and thence to the joint, and afterwards 
to the salad, and so on, or the reverse ; and, so far as the stomach, 
considered as a mere receptacle, is concerned, it, amounts to 
pretty much the same thing. But the stomach, as an organ for 
digestion, does not take that view of it at all. It does make 
some difference when one dish takes its place. Now, if the 
pupil's mind is a mere hold-all, that is one thing, and the dail}' 
order makes no particular dinbrence ; if, on the other liand, tlie 



Rl'X'OKDS. 187 

iiiiiul is ail organ lor diocstion and assimilation of materials for 
healthful mental growth, that is quite another. In one sequence 
you can keep up a natural eager relish for that which is to come 
next ; by some unwise sequence you may create a disrelish. 

This brings me to my main proposition. It has appeared to 
me more than likely that part of this listlessness on the one hand 
and of poverty of mental furnishing on the other, might be 
changed for the better by the introduction into tlic curriculum of 
each of our schools, no matter what its grade, of a simple scien- 
tific work which should aim at ixvo things. As a rule, in shoot- 
ing, or in teaching others to shoot, it is considered rather better 
to aim at one thing at a time ; Init my suggestion aims at two, 
namely, discipline and the acquisition of a few facts worth having. 
But mine is a shot-gun policy. 

In brief, my plan is this : to have a short composite treatise on 
what, for want of a better term, we call Ph} siography, or Physical 
Geography, giving in the clearest manner the few absolutely 
necessary facts and essential princij^les of the tributary sciences 
so far as these bear on the ordinary simple matters of common 
observation; but all of the work to be done by masters in these 
sciences and to be edited by a master in Paidagogics. Such a 
w^ork would consist of these facts and principles of the following 
long list of the tributary sciences ; viz., rudimentary astronomy, 
meteorology, lithology, physics, chemistry, botany, zoolog)', and 
possibly dynamical geology, arranged in an orderly, natural man- 
ner, and given in the fewest words. The facts and principles 
thus brought together would be within very narrow limits, for 
they would be simply the focts and principles which illustrate 
elementary physical geography, being those only which every 
well-educated person in these days of extreme ditVerentiation 
ought to be ashamed not to know. So much for the rote part of 
the work. But my impracticable proposition contemplates also 
that which is far removed from rote ; namely, the attachment to 
each of these fragments of an outline of laboratory or practical 
work, giving the soundest methods of independent study in that 
science. 

The scheme proposes the selection, by the teacher, of owe of 
these practical outlines ; it does not ask that any teacher or any 
pupils should be compelled to use more than one of the outlines. 
That is to say, if a teacher does not care for botany or /.oology or 



I 88 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

physics or chemistry, let him put his students to work in meteorol- 
ogy, and, with the simplest appliances, examine the changes in 
the sky. 13ut the teacher who is inclined to botanical study might 
make use of the botanical outline for his pupils, and the chemically 
inclined, the chemical one, and so on. The teacher would naturally 
use that study which he likes best as the entering wedge to secure 
a little preliminary training in scientific method, and he would 
let the other outlines alone. In this way we ought to obtain for 
our pupils efficient instruction in the method of some one science. 
It is inconceivable that the range of selection which I have sug- 
gested should not be sufficiently large to meet every case. At 
any rate, if a teacher couldn't find some one outline which he or 
she could make use of, that teacher is not fit to be trusted with a 
school or a child. 

Thus, according to my proposition, the grammar-school 
teacher would have a well-edited compend of the rudiments of 
the various sciences tributary to the study of Physical Geography, 
and in this coordinated handbook would be given the methods 
for simple practical laboratory work in the beginnings of each of 
those sciences, one of which i/iust supplement the mechanical 
teaching and the learning by rote. It appears to me a matter of 
absolute indifference which science is studied for a glimpse of 
scientific method ; one is as good as another. Tiie main thing is 
to wean the helpless from the book as their exclusive source of 
nourishment ; for this study of nature a cloud is as good a thing 
to examine as a plant or a butterfly. 

One of the chief advantages to be gained by the pupil would be 
the recognition of the fact that the scientific method is apj)licable 
to every branch of study. In fact, it has won some of its greatest 
victories in fields remote from the territory occupied by the 
sciences properly so called. Faithfully studied, and honestly 
used as a guide, the simple treatise would place every pupil in 
possession of a few uncontroverted facts and fundamental prin- 
ciples in the elementary physical and natural sciences. 

More than this, and better than this, it would show each pupil 
what is meant by scientific method. We believe, do we not, that 
tiie true scientific method is characterized by singleness of pur- 
pose, directness of aim, thoroughness, and absolute truthfulness; 
that it stands inflexibly op])osed to aimlcssness, supcrficialit}', and 
lack of candor. 



Rl'XORDS. 189 

Above all, it iiiiisl he ri-mciuhercd that our proposition would 
meet the cases of the vast majority of our grammar and high 
school pupils who cannot find time or means for a college course. 
Even the slight glimpse, which such a work as that now referred 
to would give, of scientilic data and scientilic incthotl, might ])rove 
of lasting benefit. 

There are numerous objections to my suggestion. 

In the first place, it may seem too much like an attempt to pro- 
vide a treatise on Qiiaternions in words of one syllable, or a 
pocket encyclopedia for infimts. Hence it might be found 
difficult to secure the separate contributions from authorities of 
the first rank. But when I remember that first-class science 
primers have been made by men who have a right to speak with 
authority and at first hand, I have been encouraged to think that 
our series of shorter science primers could be secured for the 
composite which I have ventured to propose. It will be found 
more diflicult to secure a proper editor for the coiirdinating of 
these most rudimentary of primers. But there is one of our 
former members in whose hands the work would be perfectly 
safe, viz., President Stanley Hall. 

The second objection to the scheme is that it seems to be par- 
tially analogous to what is called in agriculture the method of 
ensilage. In ensilage almost anything, even remotely nutritious, 
is cut fine enough and crowded with a host of odds and ends into 
a receptacle known as a silo. In this silo, if the things are left 
long enough, they are believed to undergo a change analogous 
to fermentation by which the mass can be utilized as food for 
animals. Now, it is no such incongruous ensilage that I beg for 
our youth. I ask, simply and solely, for coordinated authoritative 
primers, and for some selection in the matter of laboratory work. 

A third objection, and a weighty one, is that it might result in 
evolving a good many students of that objectionable class who 
know it all. Well, on the whole, if this book of coordinated 
fragments could be made what I should wish, it would be well 
worth learning, and its method well worth securing, and a 
student who knew it all would be l)ettcr than the one who does 
not know anything. 

I intrust to your charitable and serious consideration this frail 
raft of suggestions, freighted though it is with a heavy weight 



190 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

of grave objections. I have some forebodings that it may speedily 
be wrecked, and come to grief when it meets discussion. It is 
asking too much to hope that the scheme will hold together, but 
if it is wrecked, there may perhaps be enough material from 
which under your hands a better and stronger craft can be 
constructed. 

THE TREASURER'S REPORT, 1SS9. 

American vSociety of Naturalists. 

Income. 

Balance as per report, Dec. 37, 1SS8 . . $764 Si 

Dues received to Dec. 24, 1889 . . . 149 00 



Ollfe^O. 

1889. 
Sept. 5. S. F. Clark, Exp. Baltimore 

meeting . . . . $28 10 

Apr. 29. Guggenheimer, Weil, & Co., 
printing for Baltimore meet- 
ing . . . . . 21 00 
July I. Rockwell & Churchill, Rec- 
ords, 1889 .... 
Dec. 19. S. F. Clarke, Exp. Committee 
Science in Schools 
" " H. H. Donaldson, Exp. of 
Secretary .... 
" 33. Ginn & Co., for six copies 

"Jour. Morph." . 
" " Postaire 



$913 81 



To balance on hand, 



49 


40 


34 


53 


10 


95 


60 


00 


5 


(~^?> 


$309 


61 


704 


30 



$913 Si $913 81 



Respectfully submitted, 

William T. Sedgwick, 

Treasurer. 



Deo. 27, 1889. 



RIX'ORDS. 191 

The following papers were presented : — 

GEortGE Baik : On the Morphology of the Vertebrate Skull. 

J. Plavfaiu McMuRKicii : On Wax Models. 

Charles A. Om\'Ek : Description of a Series of Tests for the 
Detection and Determination of Sub-normal Color-perception 
(Color-blindness), designed for use in Railway .Service. (Read 
by the Secretary.) 

It was voted that a Committee on Conference, composed of 
three members, be appointed b) the Society to confer with the 
new Geological, Physiological, and Anatomical Societies, and 
arrange for the future cooperation of the Society of Naturalists 
with these special societies. 

The Committee named were — 

J. Plavfair McMurrich, 

J. H. PiLLSBURY, 

Henry F. Osborn. 

The Society then adjourned, to meet in the same place Decem- 
ber 28, at 9.30 A.M. 

On December 37, 8 P.M., the Annual Dinner was held at 
the Grand Union Hotel, twenty-three members attending. 



Saturday, December 28. 

Columbia College, 9.30 A.M. 
President Goodale in the chair. Twenty-nine members present. 
A Nominating Committee was appointed by the President, as 
follows : — 

E. S. Morse, 
H. F. Osborn, 
J. H. Emerton, 
W. N. Rice, 
J. H. Pillsbury'. 

Wm. T. Sedgwick made an informal report in behalf of the 
Committee on the "Journal of Morjohology." The report was 
accepted, and the Committee continued. 



192 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The full Committee on the "•Journal of Morpholog}'^ " being — 
A. Hyatt, 
W. T. Sedgwick, 
E. L. Mark. 

The Nominating Committee recommended the following per- 
sons as officers for the ensuing year : — 

President. — H. Newei.i. Martin. 
Vice- rrcsidents. — Samuel F. Clarke, 

William North Rice, 
R. Ramsay Wright. 
Secretary. — IIexry H. Donaldson. 
Treasurer. — Wm. T. Sedgwick. 

Members of Executive Cojnmittee frotii the Society at 
Large. — Wm. Librey, Jr., Wm. M. Davis. 

They were duly elected. 

The Committee on Conference, appointed at the previous 
session, was instructed to report at the uext meeting of the Society 
in 1890. 

In behalf of the Committee on Science Teaching in the Schools, 
Samuel F. Clarke made a report, which was discussed by para- 
graphs, and finally adopted in the following form : — 

The Committee on Science Teaching in tlie Schools beg 
leave to submit the following report : — 

An edition of several thousand copies of the Report adopted 
at the Baltimore meeting has been published, and most of them 
have been distributed. 

Many of the dailj' papers and periodicals, scientific, educa- 
tional, and general, have given more or less extended notices of it. 

We have secured the puljlicatiou of a pamphlet on .Science 
Teaching in the Schools, by D. C. Heath & Co., of l^oston, as 
one of their series of Educational Monographs. This pamphlet 
contains the address delivered by Professor W illiam Xortii Rice 
before this .Society at the New Haven meeting, the l^eport of this 
Committee presented to you last year, and a detailed statement of 
the work in Natural Science prescribed for the Public .Schools 
in Middletown, Conn., where the Board of Education has recently 
adopted a comse of study based on the principles announcecl in 
our Report. 



RKCORDS. 193 

While the pamphlet is not issued as an oilleial doeiunciit, for 
which the Society or their Coniniiltee are responsible, but is pub- 
lished by Heath &. Co. as one of their series on allied subjects, 
and without expense to the Society, it is believed that the views 
presented in Professor Rice's address and illustrated in the 
Mitldletown course of study are in substantial harmony with the 
aims of the Society, and that the publication of the pamphlet will 
be serviceable to the cause. 

One line of work contemplated in the report adopted at the 
Baltimore meeting was the presentation of the views of the report 
by delegations at some of the leading educational associations. 
Circumstances have prevented the accomplishment of as much as 
was intended, but somewhat has been done. 

In April was held in Boston the Annual Meeting of the Com- 
mission of New England Colleges on Entrance Examinations. 
Professors Farlow and Rice were present as delegates from the 
Society to advocate the addition of somewhat of Natural Science 
to the requirements for admission to College. Professor Tyler, of 
Amherst College, was present as a member of the Commission. 
The subject was discussed in a free and conversational manner at 
considerable length. The result of the discussion is embodied 
in the following circular of Professor Poland, Secretary of the 
Commission, addressed to the Faculties of the various Colleges : — 

"7 Cooke Street, Providence, R.I., 33 October, 1SS9. 

" The Commission of Colleges in New England on Admission 
Examinations, at its last annual meeting, l)y request of the 
American Society of Naturalists, listened to arguments presented 
by accredited i^epresentatives of that Society in support of the 
following proposition : — 

" ' An elementary (but genuine and practical) acciuaintance with 
some one or more departments of Natural Science should be 
required for admission to College.' 

" Professor W. N. Rice, of Wesleyan University, and W. 
G. Farlow, of Harvard University, representing the Society, 
and J. M. Tyler, of Amherst College, sitting as a member of the 
Commission, urged that the existing requirements do not prepare 
the minds of students for College instruction in Natural Science ; 
that students coming without suitable preparatory training bring 



194 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

faculties of observation pretty nearly atrophied by long disuse, 
and are thus incapable of receiving much benefit from such in- 
struction ; that so important a part of education ought not to be 
neglected in schools of any grade ; that a recognition of it by the 
Colleges in their requirements for admission is the best means to 
introduce it in the lower schools. 

" The Commission discussed the proposition carefully, and ques- 
tioned those who urged it, as to the details involved, and as to 
how the difHculty of introducing such a requirement may be met. 
Finally it was voted : — 

"i. That the Commission regards the communication made 
by Professors Rice and Farlow as important and deserving the 
consideration of the Colleges. 

" 2. That a report of this communication be transmitted to the 
several Faculties of our Associated Colleges. 

''Will you, therefore, when convenient, la}' this report before the 

Faculty of for their consideration.? I shall send you 

for distribution among the members of the Faculty copies of a 
circular issued by the American Society of Naturalists, in which 
their propositions and plans are set forth. On the third page is 
their statement of what they recommend as desirable branches of 
Natural Science to be required for admission to College. I also 
send you a copy of a Monograph in which the whole subject is 
discussed less briefl3^ A course of study in Natural Science 
actually followed in the Public Schools in Middletovvn, Conn., is 
exhibited in this pamphlet. 

" I have the honor to remain, 

" Very respectfully yours, 

" W. C. Poland, 
" Secretary of the CoDDiiission." 

At the University Convocation of the State of New York, lately 
known as the Regents of the University of the State of New York, 
our Committee was represented by Professor Samuel F. Clarke. 
The subject of Science Teaching was given the post of honor 
on the programme, and the remarks were listened to with aj)- 
parcnt interest. Some discussion followed, which sliowed a 
decided sympathy with our views, not only among the teachers of 
science, but also in marked degree among the teachers in other 
departments. 



RI'X'ORDS. 195 

In October was held in Boston tlic Aiuuial Meeting of the 
New En<2jhni(l Association of Collej^es and Preparatory Schools. 
The snbject of the addition of Natural Science to the preparatory 
course was presented by Professor Rice. His address is pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of the Association. The fulness of the 
programme for the meeting rendered any extended discussion 
impracticable, but the sympathy of the meeting with the cause 
was expressed in the following resolution introduced by President 
Capen, of Tufts College, and unanimously adopted : — 

'"'•Resolved^ That the subject brought to our attention by the 
American Society of Naturalists, through Professor William 
North Rice, is one of great importance ; and therefore we would, 
as far as we are empowered to act, commend it to the careful 
consideration of the New^ England Colleges and the teachers of 
the Secondary Schools." 

In November was held in New Haven the Animal Meeting of 
the Association of New England Colleges. The subject of the 
addition of somewhat of Natural Science to the preparatory 
course was discussed at considerable length, the discussion being 
opened by Professor Rice, who was present as the delegate from 
Wesleyan University. No vote was passed by the Association ; 
but the general sentiment in the discussion was that of belief in 
the desirability of such a change, though the majority seemed to 
believe the practical difficulties insuperable at present. 

The general subject of Science in Schools of all grades was 
presented by Professor Rice at the meeting of the Association of 
High School and Academy Teachers of Western Massachusetts, 
in Holyoke, in December. 

There is much of encouragement to be derived from the interest 
shown by educators everywhere in the subject of science work in 
the schools. The subject was discussed at the meeting of the 
American Institute of Instruction, and the sentiment of that repre- 
sentative body of teachers was thoroughly in favor of the proposed 
reforms. A place on the programme had been assigned to a 
member of your Committee, but he was prevented by illness 
from attending. The Committee have also been asked to ap- 
pear by delegate at the Holiday Conference of Associated Aca- 
demic Principals of New York State, meeting at Syracuse 
to-day. 



196 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The Massachusetts State Boaid of Education strongl)- favor the 
introduction of science into the lower grades of schools, and the 
Normal Schools are preparing to furnish their students with 
specific training for that work. Courses designed to fit the 
teachers for elementary science work are in successful operation 
in the Connecticut Normal Schools. 

While it would be too sanguine an expectation to look for 
any speedy establishment of improved courses of study in the 
majority of the schools, it is evident that the public mind is be- 
coming awake to the importance of the subject, and progress is 
being made in the right direction. 

There seem to be certain special difficulties attentling the ad- 
dition of Natural Science to the preparatory course for College at 
present. The growing tendenc}' of most of the Colleges to uni- 
formity of requirements increases the resistance of simple inertia 
to any change. The collective Colleges form a larger mass than 
any indiviilual College. The agitation commenced some years 
ago in favor of the addition of Modern Languages to the pre- 
paratory course increases the difficulty of adding anything else at 
present. There is also difterence of opinion among those who 
favor the introduction of science into the preparatory course as 
to what sciences should be chosen for this purpose. While the 
majority of the Committee still believe in the eligibility for this 
purpose of the three branches recommended in the former rej^ort 
(Botany, Physical Geography, and Physiology), they believe 
that the question of the introduction of some science is vastly 
more important than the question what particular branches should 
be selected. It might be well to lca\e the selection in some 
degree optional. 

The Committee would express the hope that the discussion of 
the subject at this meeting will result in sending to the Colleges, 
in behalf of the Society, a renewed appeal for the requirement of 
a certain amount of Natural Science for admission. And, in re- 
gard to the work in the lower schools, the Committee would repeat 
the urgent recommendation contained in their report of last year, 
that each member in his own neighborhood use his influence with 
teachers' institutes, boarils of education, school committees, and 
trustees of particular institutions, to promote the refoiins advo- 
cated by the Society. 



RFXORDS. 197 

The Committee recommend the adoption of tlie following 
resolutions : — 

Resolved^ That the Society of Naturalists reafHrms its adhesion 
to the following propositions, formulated in the report on Science 
Teaching in the Schools, adopted at the Baltimore meeting ; and 
that it will use all means of influence at its command to secure 
the modification of educational courses in accordance there- 
with : — 

1. Instruction in Natural Science should commence in the 
lowest grades of the Primary Schools, and should continue 
throughout the curriculum. 

2. In the lower grades the instruction should be chiefly by- 
means of object-lessons ; and the aim should be to awaken and 
guide the curiosity of the child in regard to natural phenomena, 
rather than to present systematized bodies of fact and doctrine. 

3. More systematic instruction in the Natural Sciences should 
be given in the High Schools. 

4. While the sciences can be more extensively pursued in the 
English course in the High Schools than is practicable in the 
Classical course, it is indispensable for a symmetrical education 
that a reasonable amount of time should be devoted to Natural 
Science, during the four years of the High School course, by 
students preparing for College. 

V An elementary (but genuine and practical) acquaintance 
with some one or more departments of Natui"al Science should be 
required for admission to College. 

Resolved^ That the Committee on Science Teaching in the 
Schools be instructed to prepare a memorial to be presented to 
the Faculty of each of the Colleges in the country, urging that 
some work in Natural Science be added to the requirements for 
admission to College, even though that addition should necessitate 
some diminution of the requirements in Classics. 

Resolved^ That the Society express its approval of the prin- 
ciples underlying the recommendation in the President's address, 
in relation to the preparation of a collection of Science Primers ; 
and that the Committee on Science Teaching be instructed to 
consider the feasibility of the plan, and to report thereon at the 
next meeting. 

Resolved^ That Professor Goodale, of Harvard University, 



198 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Professor Osborn, of the College of New Jersey, and Professor 
Sedgwick, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, be 
added to the Committee; and that the Committee have power, if 
they shall deem it expedient, to make further additions to their 
number. 

Resolved, That the resignation of Professor Farlow be not ac- 
cepted, but that the Society earnestly request him to continue to 
serve on the Committee. 

Resolved^ That tlie Society approve of the presentation of the 
subject by representatives of the Society before influentinl educa- 
tional associations ; and that the Treasurer be authorized to pav 
the travelling expenses of delegates to such associations, and 
also the travelling expenses of members of the Committee in 
attending meetings of the Committee. 

Samuel F. Clarke, 

Chairma)! . 

The following persons, recommended by the Executive Com- 
mittee, were elected to membership in the Societv : — 
w. j. youmans, 
George Howard Parker, 
Walter M. Raxkix, 
Robert Tracy Jackson, 
Edwin O. Jordan, 
Thomas L. Casey. 

By a unanimous vote the Secretary was instructed to formally 
thank the authorities of Columl^ia College for the courtesies and 
privileges extended to the Society during its present meeting. 

It was voted, further, to print four hundred copies of the Presi- 
dent's address and the report of the Committee on vSciencc I'cach- 
ing in the Schools, in separate form, besides printing them in the 
official records of the Society. 

The topic set for discussion, " The Use and Object of Scientilic 
Gatherings," was presented first by H. F. Osborn and \Vm. T. 
Sedgwick. In the debate following, Messrs. Morse, Brewer, 
Riley, Cope, Osborn, and otliers took j^art. Without reaching a 
formal decision, it appeared to be the general sense of the meet- 
ing that a more general character might be given to the papers 



RECORDS. 199 

presented to the Society, and that, if necessary, the tinie devoted 
to the meetings might be shortened. The decision of the matter, 
so for as the next meeting was concerned, was delegated to the 
Executive Committee. 

As an aid to the attainment of this ol)ject, H. F. Osborn pro- 
posed an amendment to the Constitution, according to which 
Article I, Section 2, shall read as follows: '' The object of this 
Society shall be the association of working naturalists for the dis- 
cussion of methods of instruction, museum administration, and 
other subjects of general interest to investigators and teachers of 
Natural Science ; and for the adoption of such measures as shall 
tend to the advancement and diffusion of the knowledge of 
Natural Science." 

This was accepted by the Society with the proviso that the Ex- 
ecutive Committee be empowered to make any merely verbal 
changes that were required. The phrase " other subjects of 
general interest" was intended to warrant the selection of more 
general topics than had heretofore been admitted. 

The control of papers to be presented was lodged with the 
Executive Committee, who were given power to reject any com- 
munication deemed to be outside the scope of the Society. 

The Committee of Conference was requested to report to the 
Executive Committee of the Society at the earliest date possible, 
with a view to facilitating the arrangements for the next meeting. 

The following despatch was received : — 

" To Prof. Geo. L. Goodale, President of Afiierican Society 
of Naturalists^ Columbia College^ N.l~. : — 
" The Association of American Anatomists sends greetings to 
the iVmerican Society of Naturalists, and expresses a wish for 
heartv cooperation. 

"A. H. P. Leuf, 

" Secretary.''' 

The Society then adjourned, at i P.M., to meet next vear at 
the place and time to be determined by the Executive Committee. 

HENRY H. DONALDSON, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE, 



Copies of tills part of the first volume of the Records of 
the Society of Jfatwralists of the Eastern United States 
will be distributed to members, and to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of a,ny 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherivise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, wliatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by, 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-La,w II. 



Press «f RockWcU "and Churchill, Boston. 



— ■ --■- - -- ^ — - 


/3,/cff RECORDS 


i 1)1 nil , 

; ivAAY 1896 


AMERICAN SOCIETY 

1 ' oi.- 


i 

NATURAT.ISTS. 


> 

VOLUME I . 


PART EIGHT. 


BOSTON: 


PIMILISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 


'i 891. 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I 

PAKT EIGHT. 



BOSTON : 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1 S 9 1 . 



RECORDS. 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1891. 



President, Wm. North Rice. 

r Samuel F. Clarke, 
Vice-Presidents, J T. Wesley Mills, 

( C. O. Whitman. 
Secretary, Henry H. Donaldson. 
Treasurer, William T. Sedgwick. 



Metnbers of the Executive Committee elected from the 
Society at Large. 
H. F. Osborn, Richard Rathbun. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D., Alineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 
Professor of Geology, Yale University. 
Yale University^ New Haven ^ Conn. 
Leidy, Joseph, M.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, and 
Director of the Biological Department, President of the 
Faculty of the Wagner Free Institute, and President of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 
907 W-almit street^ Philadelphia, Penn. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Yale University. 
8 Peabody Museutn., New Haven., Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 



Allen, C. M. Physics. 

Pratt Institute^ Brooklyn^ N.V. 
*Allen, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

1933 Chestnut street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. Biology. 

Associate Editor of the "Journal of Morphology." 

Milwaukee^ Wis. 
Andrews, E. A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Joh7is Hopkins University., Paltittiore^ Aid. 
Barton, B. W., M.D. Botany. 

Baltimore, Md. 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Veilebrate Palaeontology. 

Docent in Comparative Osteology and Palaeontology, Clark 
University. 

Clark University., Worcester, Mass. 
*Bickmore, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in Charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

Atnerican Museutn, Central Park, N. 7'. 
Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

University Club, Nexv 2'ork City. 
*BowDiTCH, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical vSchool. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
Branner, John Casper, A.M., Ph.D. Geology. 

vState Geologist. 

Little Rock, Arkansas. 
Brewer, William H., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale University. 

246 Orange street, JVezv Haven, Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 203 

*Brush, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, Slieffield Scientific School. 

Ne~v Haven ^ Conn. 
BuMPUs, H. C, Ph.B. Zoology. 

Associate Professor of Zoology, Brown University. 

£rozvn University.) Providence^ R.I. 
Call, R. Ellsworth. Tertiary Palaeontology, Mollusca. 

Instructor in Natural Science, West Des Moines High 
School. 

662 Twentieth street., W. Des Moi)ies^ la. 
Campbell, John P., B.A. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
Casey, Thomas L. Entomology. 

Captain, U.S. Engineer Corps. 

U.S. Army Buildings Nexv 7'ork., N.7'. 
Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 

S3 Tr7nnbull street., New Haven., Co?tn. 
Clark, William B., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Associate in Palaeontology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Aid. 
*Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
Will iamstozvn ., Mass. 
*CoNN, H. W., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Biolog}^, Wesleyan University. 

Mid die to -jo n , Co n n . 
*CopE, Edward D. Vertebrate Palaeontology and Zoology. 

2102 Pine street., Piiiladelphia., Pe?in. 
*CouEs, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washingtoti., D.C. 
*Crosby, W. O., S.B. Geology. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy and Lithology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

Institute of Technology ., Boston., Mass. 
Dall, William Healey. Mollusca, Pakeontology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator 
Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsotzian Institution., Washington., D.C. 



204 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Dana, Edward S., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Natural Philosophy, Yale University. 

Ill Grove street^ New Haven^ Conn. 
Davenport, Charles B., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Hai'vard University. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E. Geology, Geography, and 

Meteorology. 

Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology.^ Cambridge., Mass. 
*De\vey, Frederic P., Ph.B. Metallurgy. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
*DiLLER, J. S., S.B. Petrography and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist in Charge of Petrographic Laboratory. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washijigton., D.C. 
*DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Canobie Lake., N.H. 
DoLLEY, Charles S. Biology. 

Professor of General Biology in the University of Pennsylva- 
nia ; Professor of Natural History in Svvarthmore College. 

University of Pennsylvania., Biological Department., 
Philadelphia., Penn. 
*DoNALDSON, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Neurology, Clark University. 

Worcester., Mass. 
*DuDLEY, William R., M.S. Cryptogam ic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 
*Dutton, C. E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

U.S. Geological Stirvey., Washington, D.C. 
DwiGHT, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

235 Beacon street., Boston., Mass. 
*DwiGHT, William B., A.B., A.M., Ph.B. Pahoontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 
Vassar College. 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. T. 



LIST OV MEM HERS. 205 

Edwards, Chas. L., A.M., Ph.U. Zoology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Clark Ihiiversity. 

Clark University Worcester^ Mass. 
♦Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Am/icrsi^ Afass. 
*Emerton, James H. Zoology. 

1 1 St. James avenue^ Bosto7i.^ Mass. 
*Emmoxs, S. F. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., IVashingtoti^ D. C. 
Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Demonstrator of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School ., Boston., JMass. 
*Farlow, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogam ic Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University., Cambridge^ Mass. 
♦Ferivtald, C. H., A.M., Ph.D. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Zoology, Mass. Agricultural College. 

Am/ierst., Mass. 
Fewkes, J. Walter. 

Secretary, Boston Society of Natural History ; Assistant, 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology., Catfibridge., Mass. 
Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assistant, Jefferson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophthalmic Surgeon to Germantown Hospital. 

1304 Wabiut street^ Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate JSIorphology and Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technologv, Cornell University. 

Corfiell University .f Ithaca, JV. T. 
Ganong, Wm. Francis. Zoology. 

119 Oxford street., Cambridge., Mass. 
Gardiner, Edward G., S.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

131 Mt. Vernon street. Boston., Mass. 
Gardiner, Frederic, A.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Natural Science, Trinity College. 

Trifiity College., Hartford., Cottn. 



206 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Garman, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Cambridge^ Mass. 
*Gerrish, Frederic Henrv, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

675 Congress street., Portland., Me. 
*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
*GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University., Cambridge. Mass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown, A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in cliarge 
of the U.vS. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geologv. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

77/,^ street and Sth avemee.. New 2'ork., JV. 7". 
*GREENi.EAr, R. W., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

241 Boylston street^ BostoJt., Mass. 
Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany.- 

343 Madison avenue., New I'ork, N. 2'. 
Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.vS. Geological Survey. 

Geological Sui-vey., Washington., D. C. 
*Hall, James M. S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. Geology, Palaeon- 
tology. 

State Geologist of New York, Director of the State ISIuseum 
of Natural Histor)\ 

State Museum., Albany., N. V. 
Hare, Hob art Amory, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Experimental Therapeutics in the Medical 
Department, and Instructor in Physiology in tlic Biologi- 
cal Department of the University of Pennsylvania. 

117 South Twenty-second street., Philadelphia., Penn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 20/ 

*Heilprin, Angelo. Palaeontoloo;y and Geology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Palaeontology at, and Curator in 
Charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 

Acade/ny of Natural Sciences^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*Henshaw, Samuel. Zooloo-y. 

Assistant, Boston Society of Natural History. * 

Boston Society of Natural History^ Boston, Afass. 
Herrick, F. H., A.B., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Adelbert College. 

Adelbert College^ Clevela?id, O. 
Hill, Frank A. Geology. 

Geologist in Charge, Anthracite District, State Survey of 
Pennsylvania. 

208 South Centre street, Pottsville, Penn. 
Hill, Robert T. Palaeontology. 

School of Geology, University of Texas. 

Austi7t, Texas. 
*HiTCHCocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover, N.H. 
Hodge, Clifton F., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Fellow in Psychology and Assistant in Neurology, Clark- 
University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
Howell, William H., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Hunt, T. Sterry, A.M., LL.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Care Mr. Ja?ncs Douglas, Spuyten Duyvil, N. Y. 
♦Hyatt, Alpheus, S.B. Paleontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Assist- 
ant in Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Alass. 
Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Wash ingto n, D.C. 



208 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Jackson, Robert Tracv, S.B., S.D. Zoology and PalEeon- 

tology. 

33 Gloucester street^ Boston^ Mass. 
Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertehrata, 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of Penn- 
S3lvania. 

Biological Department^ University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Fe7in. 
Jeffries, J. Amory, A.B., M D. Anatomy. 

3 Exeter street, Boston, Mass. 
Johnson, Herbert P., A.M. Biology. 

Assistant in Biology, Williams College. 

Willia 7ns town , Mass . 
Jordan, David Starr. ' Biology. 

President of Indiana University. 

Blooinington, Ind. 
Jordan, Edwin O., S.B. Biology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Clark University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Alass. 
*Julien, Alexis A., Ph.D. Biology and Petrography. 

Instrnctor in Biology and Microscopy, .School of Mines, 
Columbia College. 

School of Mines, Columbia College, New T'ork, N. Y. 
Knowlton, Frank H., M.S. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
Lane, Alfred Church, A.M., Ph.D. Petrography and 

Geology. 

Instructor in Petrography and Geology, Michigan Mining 
School, and Assistant on Michigan Geological Survey. 

Houghton, Mich. 
Lee, F. S., A.M., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Associate in Physiology and Histology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bry7i Mawr, Penn. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 

Brunswick, Me. 
Lee, Thomas G., M.D. Morphology. 

Lecturer on Normal Histology and Embryology. 

Yale University, N'ew Haven, Co?zn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 209 

*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Archae- 
ology. 

Princeton, N.J. 
Lucas, Frederic A. Avian Osteology. 

Assistant Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, 
U.S. National Museum. 

Washington, D. C. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 

Princeton, N.J. 
Mall, F. P., M.D. Histology and Vertebrate Embryology. 

Associate Professor of Anatomy, Clark University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
Mark, Edward L., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Hersey Professor of Anatomy, Harvard University. 

21 North avenue, Cambridge, Mass. 
*MARSHALLi John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 

College Hill, Mass. 
*Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
McMuRRiCH, J. Playfair, A.m., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Docent in Morphology, Clark University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
*Meehan, Thomas. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture; 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

Germantown, Penn. 
*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. 
Washington, D. C. 



2 10 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.B. Geology. 

Assistant State Geologist, State Museum. 
Albany, N. T. 
•Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Curator of Lithology and Physical Geology, U.S. National 

Museum. 
National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
Mills, T. Wesley, M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Physiology, McGill University. 
Montreal, Canada. 
*MiNOT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Assistant Pix)fessor of Embryology and Histology, Harvard 

Medical School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
MixTER, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatomy. 

Demonstrator of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
Morgan, Thos. Hunt, B.S., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Bruce Fellow, Johns Hopkins University. 
, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md . 

*MoRSE, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 
Salem, JMass. 
*Newberry, J. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Columbia College. 
School of Mines ^ Columbia College, Nenv York, N. T. 
Nichols, Herbert, B.S. Psychology. 

Fellow in Psychology, Clark University. 
Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
*NiLEs, William H., Ph.B., A.M. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 
Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 
Massachusetts Institute of Tcch)iology. Boston, Mass. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special Sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 
Surgeon to Wills Eve Hospital and Ophthalmic Surgeon to 

the Presbyterian Hospital. 
1507 Locust street, Philadelphia, Pen?t. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 2 I I 

♦OsBORN, Henry Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 
Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Princeton College. 
Princeton^ N. J. 
♦Packard, A. S., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 
Brown University^ Providence^ R.I. 
Parker, George Howard, S.B. Animal Morphology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard College. 
8 Harris street^ Cambridge.^ Alass. 
*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Geological Survey .1 Washitigton., D. C. 
*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology, 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
Milwaukee., Wis. ^ 

Penfield, Samuel L., Ph.B. Mineralogy. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, Yale University. 
Peabody Museum., New Haven., Conn. 
*Pillsbury, J. H. . Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 
Northainpton., Mass. 
*Po\VELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 
Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Dii^ector of the 

Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological Survey., Washington ., D. C. 
*Prentiss, a. N., S.M. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cor- 
nell University. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N. Y. 
Prosser, Charles S., S.M. Geology and Palaeontology. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 
Washington., D. C. 
*Putnam, Frederick W. Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Peabody Professor of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Harvard University ; Curator of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, in connection with Harvard 
University ; Permanent Secretary of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on Inland Fisheries ; and President, 
Boston vSociety of Natural History. 
Peabody Museum., Cambridge^ Mass. 



212 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Rankin, Walter M.. A.M., M.Sc, Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Curator of Museum, Princeton 
College. 

Princeton College^ P>'i7iceton^ ^ J- 
*Rathbun, Richard, S.M. Invertebrate^. 

Curator. Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 

U.S. National Muse7im^ Washington., D.C. 
Reichart, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 

Univej'sity of Pennsylvania^ Philadelphia.^ Petin. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesle3'an University. 

jMiddletozuJi, Conn. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Entomology, Mycology. 

» Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 
Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 

1700 13//^ street., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
*Rothrock, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 

West Chester, Chester Co., Pemi. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botan3\ 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline, Mass. 
*Scott, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Princeton College. 

Princeton, N.J. 
*Scudder, S. H., A.m., S.B. Entomology and Palaeontology. 

Pakcontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associiite Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Boston, Mass. 
Shaler, N. S., A.m., S.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology, Harvard College, and (jeologist, U.S. 
Geological Survey. 

Cambridge, Mass. 



l.isr iiK MKMHKKS. 213 

*Sharp, Benjamin, M.U.. Ph.D. Animal MorphologN . 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Acadcnn of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences^ PhiladelpJiia^ Pen 11. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D., C.M.Z.S. Anatomy of \'crtebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 

Care of Smithsonian Institution^ Washington^ D.C. 
Smith, John B. Entomology. 

Rutgers College. 

JVeiv Brunswick, ^-J- 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., M.D, Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

332 South Twe7ity-jirst street^ Philadelphia, Penji. 
*Smith, Sidney L, Ph.D. Biolog}-. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale University. 

147 Whalley avenue. New Haven, Conn. 
TiLTON, John L., A.B. Biology. 

Professor of Natural Science, Simpson Centenary College. 

Indianola, la. 
*True, Frederick W., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum. 

National Musettni, Washington, D. C. 
TUCKERMAN, FREDERICK, M.D., B.Sc. AnatoiiiN'. 

Amherst, Mass. 
TuTTLE, Albert H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Virginia, Va. 

University of Virginia, Va. 
*Tyi,er, J. M., A.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, x\mherst College. 

Amherst, Mass. 
*Van Vleck, B. H., S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 

Poston Society of Natural Pistory, Post on. A/ass. 
Verrill, a. E., A.m. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale Universit\'. 

86 Whalley avenue, New Haven, Conn. 



2 14 SOCIETY OF XATrRALIS'lS. 

*\\\\DS\voRTii. M. E., A.?*!., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Petrography, 

and Geology. 
Director of tlie Michigan Mining School, and Professor of 
Mineralogy, Petrography, and Geology ; also State Geolo- 
gist of Michigan. 
Alichigan Alining School^ Houghton^ Mich. 
*Walcott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 
National Museutn., WasJiingtoii., D. C. 
Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 
No. i6 to 26 College avenue., Rochester., N. 7~. 
*Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Instiuctor in Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 
Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
Watase, S., B.S., Ph.D. Biology. 

Assistant and lecturer in Zoology, Clark Universit\ . 
Clark University, Worcester^ Mass. 
Wheej>er, William M. . Embryology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Clark University. 
Clark University., Worcester. JSIass. 
White, Charles D., B.S. Paheobotany and Geology. 

Assistant PalcEontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. National Museian., Washington., D. C. 
Whitfield, R, P., M.A. Palceontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.) Curator of Geology and 

Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 
American Museum of Natiiral History.. ']']th street and 
Sth avenue, Nexv 7'ork., N'. T. 
*\Vhitman, C. O., A.m., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor, " Journal of Morphology;" Director of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Wood's IIoU, Mass. ; Professor of 
Morphology, Clark University. 
Worcester, Mass. 
*Wilder, Bi'RT G., B.S., M.D. W'rtebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zo()logy, 

and Curator of \'eitebi-atc Museum, Cornell University. 
Cor //ell University, Ithaca, N. 7'. 



LIST ov mi;miu-:rs. 215 

*WiLLiAMs, IlKXin S., Ph.D. Geology and Palicontolo^jy. 

Professor of Geoloj^y and Paheontology, Cornell University, 
and Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cornell University^ ItJiaca^ N. T. 
WiLLisTON, Samuel VV., M.D., Ph.D. Anatomy. 

Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Yale University. 

New Haven^ Conn. 
*\Vii.soN, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Bryn Mawr College, Penn. 

Bryn Mawr^ Penn. 
Wilson, Henry V., A.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Resident Naturalist at U.S. Fish Commission, Wood's Iloll. 

Wood's Holl, Mass. 
Wilson, W. P., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Physiological Botany, Department of Biology, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelpliia, Penn. 
WiNCHELL, Alexander, LL.D. Geolo"-v. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, University of Michi- 
gan. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 
WooDWORTH, WiLLL\M M., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Assistant in Microscopical Anatom}-, Harvard University. 

149 Brattle street., Cambridge., Mass. 
Wolff, John E., A.B. Petrography. 

Instructor in Petrography, Harvard University. 

15 Story street., Cambridge., Mass. 
* Wright, R. Ramsay, A.M., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, University College, Toronto, 
Canada. 

University College., Toronto., Canada. 
YouMANS, W. J., M.D. Biology. 

Editor of " Popular vScience Monthly." 

Office of ^'Popular Science Monthly " Bond street, Neiv 
Fork, N. 7'. 



Number of honorary members ...... 4 

'• "• members . . . . . . .160 

Total . . . . . . . . .164 



2l6 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

NINTH MEETING, AT BOSTON. 

December 31, 1S90. 

Physiological Lecture-Room, Harvard Medical School. 

MORNING SESSION, 10 A.M. 

President Martin in the chair. 
Thirty members present. 
The President appointed — 

W. H. Brewer, 

J. H. PiLLSBURY, 

E. A. Andrews, 

a committee to nominate the officers for the ensuing year. 
The Treasurer's report was then read. 

The American Society of Naturalists, in Account 
WITH William T. Sedgwick, Treasurer. 

Balance as per repoit of December, 18S9 . $704 20 

Dues received to Dec. 30, 1890 . . . 148 00 



Total $852 20 

Deduct expenses . . . . . . 162 43 



Balance on hand, Dec. 31, 1S90 . . . $689 77 

Expenses. 
1890. 
Jan. S. Paid W. N. Rice, expenses Science Com- 
mittee ...... $15 49 

Oct. 2. " Rockwell & Churchill for printtng — 

a. President's address . . . ^7 34 

b. Records ..... 63 05 

c. Pamphlets on Science Teach- 

ing ..... 20 34 



Amount carried forward . . . . $116 22 



RECORDS. 217 

Amount bro7tg7it foriuard . . , . $116 22 
Oct. 9. Paid Thomas Todd, printing notices of 

dues, and receipts for same . . 5 00 
" 13. " H. H. Donaldson, Secretary, ex- 
penses of New York meeting . 13 II 
Dec. 30. " Rockwell & Churchill, printing cir- 
culars for Science Committee . 22 00 
" Treasurer for postage and envelopes, 6 10 



Total expense . . . . . $162 43 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. T. Sedgwick, 

Treasurer. 

The President appointed 

E. L. Mark, 

T. Wesley Mills, 

a committee to audit the I'eport. 

They found the same correct, and it was accepted by the 
Society. 

The Nominating Committee recommended the following offi- 
cers for the ensuing 3'ear : — 

President. — Wm. North Rice. 

Vice- Presidents'. — Samuel F. Clarke, 
T. Wesley Mills, 
C. O. Whitman. 

Secretary. — Henry H. Donaldson. 

Treasurer. — Wili-iam T. Sedgwick. 

Members of the Executive Co7nmitte& elected fro?n the Society 
at large. — Henry F. Osborn, 
Richard Rathbun. 

The nominees were duly elected. 



2l8 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

In behalf of the Committee on Science Teaching in the Schools, 
Prof. Wm. North Rice gave a verbal statement of the proceed- 
ings of the committee during the past year, and Prof. Henry F. 
Osboni read the report which follows : — 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE 

TEACHING IN THE SCHOOLS. 

December,^ 1890. 

The Committee beg leave to submit the following report : — 

At a meeting of the Committee, held in New Haven, in March, 
there were present Professors Clarke, Osborn, and Rice. 

A preliminary draft of an address to the Colleges on the re- 
quirement of Natural Science for admission was agreed upon, 
copies of which were subsequently sent to the other members of 
the Committee for criticism. 

Prof. S. I. Smith, of Yale University, was elected a member of 
the Committee, and he has accepted the election. 

A second meeting was held in Boston, in July, at which were 
Professors Clarke, Farlow, Goodale, and Rice. It was there 
moved by Professor Goodale, and carried, that Prof. William 
North Rice be asked to edit a text-book of Natural Science, of 
the general scope outlined in the presidential address of last 
year. It was the belief of the Committee that if a considerable 
part of the book should be written by the editor himself, and the 
remainder by persons in consultation with him, a higher degree 
of symmetry and unity could be secured in the work than b}^ the 
original plan of having the various parts written independently 
by a considerable number of writers, subject only to some edito- 
rial revision. It was believed that an arrangement could be made 
for the submission of various parts of the book (in manuscript or 
in proof) to a number of specialists of acknowledged authority 
for revision ; and that thereby a truly authoritative character 
could be secured for the book without sacrificing its unity of 
plan. 

It was voted to ask Professor Rice to draw up a table of con- 
tents of the book, to be submitted to the Society at the Annual 
Meeting. Such a draft has been prepared, and is submitted in 
print. It is understood that a leading publisher is desirous of 
undertaking the jiublication of such a book. While the majority 



RECORDS. 219 

of the Committee (at least so far as tliere has been an opjjortunity 
to learn their opinion) believe that the publication of the book 
will be serviceable to our cause, it is a question whether the 
Society should assume any further responsibility than is involved 
in an expression of approval of the general design. 

The address to the Colleges has been completed and adopted 
by the Committee ; and, as authorized by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Society, there have been printed seven hundred and 
fifty copies. 

There have also been printed under the same authorization 
seven hundred and fifty copies of a letter to the presidents of the 
Colleges; these, together with the two reports of the Committee 
and the last President's address, accompany the address to the 
Colleges. 

These are ready to be mailed, and will be sent out, after the 
busy time of the holidays is past, to the nearly four hundred Uni- 
versities and Colleges of the country. 

The address has already been published, and commented on by 
a number of the daily papers, and it will appear in the next 
numbers of the " Academ}^ " and of the " Educational Review." 

A place on the programme of the American Institute of Instruc- 
tion, at its meeting in Saratoga, in last July, was given to a 
member of the Committee, who discussed the place of Natural 
Science in the Educational Course. 

A very cordial invitation was sent to the Committee to appear 
before the Convention of College Officers of Ohio, at Cleveland, 
in the week following Christmas, and as that is not possible, the 
subject will be presented by Prof. F. P. Whitman, of Adel- 
bert College, to whom the Committee would express "their grate- 
ful acknowledgments. 

The Committee believe that the cause of science in the schools is 
making progress. In all educational circles the subject is attracting 
increased interest. A very gratifying evidence of sympathy with 
the views of the Society is to be found in the unanimous adoption, 
by the Association of Colleges in New England, of the following 
resolution, moved by President Eliot, of Harvard, and seconded 
by President Carter, of Williams : — 

" The Association of Officers of Colleges in New England 
desires to support the endeavor of the American Society of 



220 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Naturalists to introduce instruction in Natural Science into 
schools; and the Association agrees with the Society in thinking 
it indispensable that the methods of instruction should invariably 
be demonstrative." 

Samuel F. Clarke, 
William G. Farlow, 
George L. Goodale, 
George Macloskie, 
Henry F. Osborn, 
Wm. North Rice, 
Wm. T. Sedgwick, 
Sidney I. Smith, 
C. O. Whitman. 

The report was accepted, and the Committee continued ; but it 
was the sense of the meeting that the Society should not formally 
recommend any particular book, although they did wish to sup- 
port the eflbrts of their Committee. 

To meet this situation Prof. W. H. Brewer introduced the 
following resolution : — 

Resolved^ That this Society recommends that instruction in 
Elementary Science, following some such general plan as that 
reported by the Committee, be given in the secondary schools. 

This motion was adopted. 

The Committee on the " Journal of Morphology " made the 
following report : — 

The Committee on the "Journal of Morphology" beg leave 
to report that of the ten (lo) copies of the '" Journal " purchased 
by the Society, five (t^) copies have been given away to secure 
subscriptions to the " Journal." The Committee asks the author- 
ization of tlie Society to use the remaining copies in securing 
subscriptions from individuals^ in case it seems to tliem improb- 
able that the desired number of institutions will accept the 
terms offered by the Society. 

E. L. Mark, 

W. T. Sedgwick, 

Alpheus Hyatt. 

The report was accepted, and the Committee continued. 



RECORDS. 221 

Papers were then presented by 

Professor Pillsburv : A New vSchenic of Color Nomencla- 
ture. 

Dr. Jacksox : Methods in Museum Work. 

Pro"f. B. G. Wilder : New Methods of Preparing Sheep's 
Brains and Cats for Practicums. 

Dr. G. Baur : Ideas on the Origin of the (jalapagos Islands. 

Professor Farlow then gave notice that he would be happy to 
show the new botanical laboratories at Cambridge to any mem- 
bers who desired to see them, and who would visit him there on 
the morning of January i. 

The meeting then adjourned, to reassemble in the same place 
at 3.30 P.M. 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Professor Martin in the chair ; thirty members present. The 
following gentlemen, whose names had been posted in the 
morning, were elected to membership: — 

John C. Branner, F. P. Mall, 

Chas. B. Davenport, Alfred C. Lane, 

Chas. L. Edwards, Thos. H. Morgan^ 

Frederic Gardiner, Herbert Nichols, 

F. H. Herrick, Wm. M. Wheeler, 

C. F. Hodge, it. V. Wilson, 

H. P. Johnson, Wm. M. Woodworth. 

The Society then proceeded to consider the tojjic, "The Inheri- 
tance of Acquired Characteristics," which had been chosen for 
discussion. The pa[>ers were as follows : — 

Prof. H. F. Osborn : Are Acquired Variations inherited.'' 

Prof. W. H. Brewer : The Inheritance of Acquired Char- 
acters. 

Prof. Wm. G. Farlow spoke on the question from the botani- 
cal standpoint. 

Prof. W. K. Brooks, who was expected to speak, was unable 
to be present, but sent the manuscript of his paper. It was 
decided, however, that, owing to the difficulty of reading it 



222 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

properly, the lateness of the hour, and strong probability that 
some arrangement would be made for the publication of all 
the papers, this paper should be omitted, and the Society 
proceeded at once to the discussion of the papers which had 
been read. 

It was resolved that the Executive Committee be requested to 
take measures to secure the publication of the papers on ''The 
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics." 

The Secretary was instructed to tender the thanks of the So- 
ciety to the authorities of the Harvard Medical School and the 
St. Botolph Club for their kindness and hospitality during the 
present meeting. 

The Society then adjourned, to meet at time and place to be 
hereafter determined by the Executive Committee. 

HENRY H. DONALDSON, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the Society of Jfaturalists of the Eastern United States 
will be distributed to members, and to persons and societies 
designated by the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of any 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherioise qualified, are eligihle to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-Law II. 



I'resR of 'Rockwell and Churchill, Boston. 






/3,(r/ 



1 



RECORDS 



1AY ' 1896 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS 



VOLUME I. 

PART NINE. 



BOSTON: 

PUBLIvSHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1892. 



R 1^: CORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I 

PART NINE. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1892. 



RECORDS. 



LIST OF OFFICEI^S FOU 1892. 



Presiilent, Hi:.\rv F. Osborn. 

f Samuel F. Clarke, 
Vice-Presidents, < George Baur, 

( Williajm H. Dali-. 
Secretarv, Thomas H. Morgan. 
Treasurer, William T. Sedgwick. 



^Fembcrs of the Executive Co/inii/'tfee elected from the 
Society at lari^e. 

J. Plavfair McMrRRicii. W. P. Wilson. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D., Mineralogy. Znr)logy,Geolo_uy 

Professor of Geology, Yale University. 

Talc University^ Ne-c Haven, Conn. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 

907 Walnut street, PJiiladeJphia , Pom. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Paleontology, 

Professor of Palaeontology, Yale b^niversity. 

8 Pcabody Museum, A'cuc Haven, Con/i. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 



*Ai.LEN, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

1933 Chestnut street^ PhiladclpJiia^ Peun. 
Allex, J, A., Ph.D. Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

Curator of the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York. 

American Museum of Natural History. 

']']th street and St/i avenue, jVezv Tork, N. T. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. Biology. 

Associate Editor of the "Journal of Morphology." 

A/ilwaukee. Wis. 
Andrews, E. A., Ph.D. Biology, 

Associate in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore^ Md . 
Barton, B. W., M.D. Botany. 

Instructor in Botan}', Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, ^fd . 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Vertebrate Pahtontology. 

Docent in Comparative Osteology and Pahuontology, Clark 
University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
*BiCKMORE, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museum, Centra/ Park, \. 1 . 
BiGELOw, R. P., vS.B. Animal Morphology. 

Bruce Fellow, Jolms Ilopi^ins University. 

1 50 1 Eighteenth street, Washington, D.C. 



T,isr OF mi:mi!Krs. 225 

Bolton, II. Caukin(;ton, A.M., Ph.D. Mincralo<4y, Cliciuistry. 

University Cluh^ Nc'c York City. 
*Bo\VDrrcH, IIenrv P., A.M., M.D. Pliysiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical ScJiool .^ Boston.^ Mass. 
Branner, John Casper, A.M., Ph.D. Geology. 

State Geologist. 

Little Rock^ Arkansas. 
Brewer, William II., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale University. 

346 Orange street, \ezc Haven ., Conn. 
*Brush, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, Sheffield Scientific School. 

JVew Have)!., Conn. 
BuMPUs, H. C, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Associate Professor of Zocilogy, Brown University. 

Broivn University., Provide/ice., R.I. 
Campbell, John P., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Universitv of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
Casev, Thomas L. Entomology. 

Captain, U.S. Engineer Corps. 

US. Army Bjiilding., Neiv York., N. Y. 
Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistrv, Yale University. 

83 Triinihitll street., Neiv Haven., Conn. 
Clark, Williajvi B., Ph.D. Pahuontology. 

Associate in Palaeontology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 
*Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zo()logy. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 

Willi a mstoivn , Mass . 
*CoNN, H. W., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Wesleyan University. 

Middletown., Cojdi. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Vertebrate Paheontology and Zoc'ilogy. 

2102 Pine street., PhiladeipJiia., Penn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 

Smit/isonian Institution., Washington^ D. C. 



226 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Dall, William Healev. Mollusca, PaUeonlology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator, 

Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museum. 
S)nitJisonia)i Institution^ Washiug'ton^ D. C. 
Dana, Edward S., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Natural Philosophy, Yale University. 
Ill Grove street^ New Haven^ Conn. 
Davenport, Charles B., A.B.. A.M. . Zoology, 

Assistant in Zoology, Harvard University. 
Cambridge^ J/ass. 
*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E. Geology, Geography, and 

Meteorology. 
Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 
Museum of Comparative Zoology^ Cambridge^ Mass. 
*Dewev, Frederic P., Ph.B. Metallurgy. 

Curator of Metallurgy, U.S. National Museum. 
621 F street N. IV., Washington, D. C. 
*DiLLER, J. S., S.B. Petrograpliy and Geology. 

Assistant Geologist in Charge of Petrographic Laboratory. 
U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
*I)L\f.MOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Canobie Lake, N.H. 
DoLLEY, Cpiarles S. Biology. 

Professor of General Biology in the University of Pennsylva- 
nia ; Professor of Natural History in Svvarthmore College. 
University of Pennsylvania, Biological Department, 
Philadelphia, Penn. 
*DoNALDSoN, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Neurology, Clark University. 
Worcester, Mass. 
*DuDLEv, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Cornell Univer- 
sity. 
Cornell University, Ithaca, X.V. 
*DuTTON, C.E. Geology. 

Captain of Ordnance, U.S.A. 
U.S. (icoloijical Survey, WasJiim^ton . D.C. 



LIST OK IMEMr.KRS. '12'] 

D\\ 1(111 r, I'lioMAs, .\.M., M.D. iViuitoiny. 

rarknian Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical Scliool. 

23^ JJcaco/i street^ Boston^ ^lass. 
*D\viGHT, William B., A.B., A.M., Pli.P,. PtxUcontology. 

Professor of Natinal History and Curator of the Museum, 

Vassar College. 
^'assar College^ Pougiikccpsic\ X. }'. 
Edwards, Chas. L., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Fellow ill Morphology, Clark University. 

Clark U)iiversit\'^ Worcester^ J/ass. 
*Emkrsox, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

AmJicrst^ JSIass. 
*Emertox, James H. Zoology. 

II St. James avenue^ Boston ., Mass. 
*Emmons, S. F. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Washhigtoii^ D. C. 
Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bactcriologv. 

Demonstrator of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical Scliool. 

Harvard Medical School .^ Boston ., A/ass. 
*Farlo\v, VVm. G., A.B., M.D. ^ Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard Uni\crsity. 

Harvard University., Cambridge. Mass. 
*Fernald, C. H., A.m., Ph.D. Microlepidoplera. 

Professor of Zoolog}', INIass. Agricultural College. 

Am/ierst, Mass. 
Fernald, Henry T., M.S., Ph.D. Morphology. 

Professor of Zoology, Pennsjlvania State College. 

State College, Centre Co.., Pciin. 
Fewkes, J. Walter. 

Secretary, Boston Society of Natural History ; Assistant, 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Mnseiftn of Comparative Zoology., Cambridge., Mass. 
Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assislant, Jefferson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophtlialmic Surgeon to Germantown Hospital. 

130-I Walnut street., Philadelphia, Penn. 



228 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Fuller, GeoiktE W., S.B. Bacteriology. 

Chief Assistant-Biologist, State Board of Healtii of Massa- 
chusetts. 

La~i.vrc)ici\ Mass. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Associate Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on IVIicro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cor/icII L^i/ivcisitw ItJiaca. X. V. 
Ganong, Wm. Fraxcls. Biology. 

119 Oxford street^ Ca)]ibrid^\\ M(7ss. 
Gardiner, Edward G., S.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

131 A/f. }'enio}i street. Boston., Alass. 
Gardiner, Frederic, A.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Natural Science, Trinity College. 

Po/iiy/'ct^ Couii. 
*Gerrisii, Frederic Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

675 Co)ig'ress street^ Port/a/id., Me. 
*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological vSurvey. 

U.S. Geological Survey., WasJiingto)}., D.C. 
*GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University., Cambridge., A/ass. 
*GoODE, G. Brown, A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant vSecretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge 
of the U.S. National Museum. 

S/iiit/isoi/ian Institution., WasJiington., D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph. 15. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

77/// street and'^tJi avei/ue., A^ezv I'ork, N^.T. 
*Greenleaf, R.W., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

561 Boylsto)} street., Boston., Mass. 
Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

343 Madison ave/iue., iVezv I'ork., N^.T. 
II.\GUE, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 



LIST Ol' iMEMliKRS. 229 

*IIali., Jamks M. S., A.m., M.D., LL.I). Geology, Palaeon- 
tology. 
State Geologist of New Wnk, Diieetor of the State Museum 

of Natural Histoiy. 
State Musciun^ A/ba/iy-, -^ • -?'• 
Hare, Hobart Amorv, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Experimental Therapeutics in the Medical 
Department, and Instructor in Physiology in the Biologi- 
cal Dej^artment of the University of Pennsylvania. 
117 South Tzveiitx-seco)id street., PJiiladelpliia ., Pe)iii. 
Hargitt, Charles W., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Syracuse University. 
Syracuse University., Syracuse., N.T. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Paheontology at, and Curator in 
Charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 
Academy of JVatura/ Sciences., Philadel pJiia. Pen/?. 
*Henshaw, Samuel. Zoology. 

Assistant, Boston vSociety of Natural Historv. 
Boston Society of Natural History., Boston, A/ass. 
Herrick, F. H., A.B., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Adelbert College. 
Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. 
Hill, Frank A. Geology. 

Geologist in Charge, Anthracite District, State Survey of 

Pennsylvania. 
Dunbar, Fayette Co., Peiiii. 
Hill, Robert T. Palicontology. 

School of Geology, University of Texas. 
Austin, Texas. 
*Hitchcock, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 
Hanover, N.H. 
Hodge, Clifton F., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Instructor in Biology, University of Wisconsin. 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 



230 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Howell, William II., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Michigan. 

57 E. U/i /'versify aveuue^ A1//1 Arbo)\ MicJi. 
Hunt, T. S terry, A.M., LL.D. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Care Air. James Douglas, S pay ten Duyvil., N^.V. 
*HvATT, Alpiieus, S.B. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Assist- 
ant in Museum of Comparative Zo()logy, at Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Boston Society of Natural History^ Boston .^ Mass. 
Iddlvgs, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological vSurvey. 

Washington^ D.C. 
Ives, J. E. Invertebrate Zoology. 

. Assistant to the Curator in Charge of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., PhiladelpJiia., Pa. 
Jackson, Robert Tracy, S.B., S.D. Zo()logy and Pahton- 

tology. 

33 Gloucester street, Boston., Mass. 
Jayxk, Horace, M.D. Vertebrata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, Uni\ersity of Penn- 
sylvania. 

1826 Chestnut street, Philadelphia., J\vn/. 
Jeffries, J. Amor's-, A.B., M.D. Anatomy. 

3 Exeter street, Boston., A/ass. 
Johnson, Herbert P., A.M. Biology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Clark University. 

Worcester., Alass. 
Jordan, David Starr. Biology. 

President of Leland Stanford Jr. University. Palo Alto, Cal. 

Palo Alto, Cal. 
Jordan, Edwin O., S.B. Biology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Clark University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Alass. 
*JiiLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Biology and Petrography. 

Instructor in Biology and Microscopy, School of Mines, 
Cokmibia College. 

School of Alines, Columbia College, N^eiv I'ork, N. 2^. 



I.ISI Ol' MKMUKUS. J31 

Knowlpon, Frank II., M.S. (icology. 

f\S. Gco/og'/cal Sitrvcy. \\\rs/////i^ii>//, />.( . 
Lank, .Vlfrkd Chuucii, A.M., rii.I). l*etro<^rapliy aiul 

(ieology. 
Instructor in Pctro^rapln' and (ie()Io<;\', Michi;4an Mining 

vSchool, and Assistant o\\ Michigan (Teological Sur\'c\'. 
Hough ton , Mich . 
Lke, F. S., A.m., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Deinonstrator of Physiology, Columbia College, Medical 

Department. 
College of PJiysiciatis and .S/ngeo/is, At^tc I'orh City. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biolog3\ 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 
B?-/tiiszcick., Me. 
Lee, Thomas G., M.D. Morpholog}'. 

Lecturer on Normal Histology and Embryology. 
Va/e U/iiversify., N'exv Haven., Coun. 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., D.vSc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Archae- 
ology. 
Princeton .1 N.J. 
Lucas, Frederic A. Avian Osteology. 

Assistant Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, 

U.S. National Museum. 
Washittgton., D.C. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 
Princeton., N.J. 
JMall, F. p., M.D. Histology and Vertebrate Embiyc^logy. 

Associate Professor of Anatomy, Clark Uni\ersity. 
Clark University., Worcester., Mass. 
Mark, Edward L., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Hersey Professor of Anatomy, Harvard University. 
31 North avenue., Cambridge., Mass. 
♦Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 
College Hill., Mass. 



232 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Mautin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

JoJnis Hopkins University^ Balti?norc^ Md. 
McClure, Charles F. W., A.B. Embryology and \"ertebrate 

Morphology. 

Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 

Princeton. N.J. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U..S. Geological .Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey, IVas/iington., D.C. 
McLaut]ilin, George V., S.B. I^iology. 

Assistant in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Massac/insetts histitute of Technology., Boston., Mass. 
McMuRRicrr, J. Playfair, A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Cincinnati. 

Cincin)iati., Ohio. 
*Meeiian, Thomas. Botany. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania .State Board of Agriculture ; 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural .Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

Germantozvn^ Penn. 
*Merkiam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary of 
the American Ornithologists' Union, 

W ash ingto « , D. C. 
*Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Assistant State Geologist, .State Museum. 

Albany., N. 1'. 
*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Curator of Lithology and Physical Geology, U.S. National 
Museum. 

National Museum., Washingtofz., D. C. 
Mills, T. Wesley, M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Physiology, McGill University. 

JMontrcal., Caitada. 
*MiNOT, Charles Sedgwick, S.J^., S.D. Biology. 

Assistant Professor of Embryology and Histology, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston, Mass. 



i.isi oi- mi;mhi:rs. 



■jj 



MixTKK, Sa.mi i:i. )., B.S., M.D. Aiuitomv. 

Demonstrator of Anatomy, Harvard Medical .Scliool. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
Morgan, Thos. Hunt, B.S., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bryn Maxvr, Peiiii. 
*MoRSE Edwakd S., Ph.D. Anilnopolog)- and Zoiilogy. 

Diiector of the Pcahody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Salc/u, J/ass. 
*Newi5erhv, j. S., M.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, School of Mines, Cohnnbia College. 

65 Grove street, A^eza Havoi, Coini. 
Nichols, Herbert, Ph.D. Psychology. 

Assistant in Psychology, IIar\ard L'niversitv. 

13 Kirkla7id place, Cambridge, Mass. 
*NiLES, WiLEiAM H., Ph.B., A.M. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of TecJniology, Boston Mass. 
Oliv'ER, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special Sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 

Surgeon to Wills Eye Hospital and Ophthalmic Surgeon to 
the Presbyterian Plospital. 

1507 Locust street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*OsBORN, Henry Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Da Costa Professor of Biology, Columbia Collage, Curator 
of Department of Mammalian Pakeontology, American 
Museum of Natural History, N.Y. 

Afnerican Museum of Natural History, Ncxu York City. 
♦Packard, A. S., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Broivn University, Providence, R.I. 
Parker, George Howard, S.B. Animal Morphology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard College. 

8 Harris street, North Cambridge, Mass. 
*Peale, A. C, A.M., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D . C. 



2 34 SOCIETV OF NATURALISTS. 

*Peckham, Geokgp: W., INI.D, Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
Mihvaukee., TF/V. 
Pexfield, vSamuei. L., Ph.B. Mineralogy. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, Yale University. 
Peabody Museum^ New Haveii^ Cotiii. 
Piiiij.iPS, Ai-EXANDER H., S.B. Vertchrate Anatomy. 

Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 
Priiiccto)i^ N.J. 
*PiELSBURY, J. H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 
North a mp ton , Mass . 
*PowELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 
Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Director of the 

Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological Survey., Washi)igton., D.C. 
*Prentiss, a. N., S.M. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cor- 
nell University. 
Cornell Uiziversity, Ithaca., N. T. 
Prosser, Charles S., S.M. Geology and Palceontology. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 
Washington., D. C. 
*PuTNAM, Frederick W. Archteology and Ethnology. 

Peabody Professor of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Harvard University ; Curator of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, in connection with Har\ard 
University; Permanent Secretary of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on Inland Fisheries; and President, 
Boston Society of Natural History. 
Peabody Museum., Cambridge., j\Tass. 
Rankin, Walter M., A.M., M.Sc, Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Curator of Museum, Princeton 

College. 
Princeton College., Princeton., N.J. 
*Ratiihun, Richard, S.M. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
U.S, National Museum., Washington.^ D.C. 



T.TST (»!• mi:mi;i;rs. 235 

Ri'.ic iiAK r. ICnwAKi) T., jSI.D. Physiology. 

Pioiessor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 

University of Pciiiisylvaiiia ^ PJiiladclpJiia^ Pciiii. 
*Rici':, Wii.r.iAM Noiirir, PIi.D., LL.D. (ieology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesleyan Universitv. 

Middlctinv)!^ Conn. 
*RiLEv, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Biology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 
Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 

Sniihiirv., Wyofning ave. ^Washington., D.C. 
*RoTHRocK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 

West C //ester., Chester Co., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

^. ..S". Geological Survey., Washii/gton, D.C. 
Ryder. John A., Ph.D. Embryology. 

Professor of Comparative Emliryology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Ilarvartl University, and Direc- 
tor of tlie Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline., Mass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geologv and PaUeontology, Princeton College. 

Princeton., A". J. 
*Scudder, S. H., A.m., S.B. Entomology and Palaeontology. 

Pakcontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Sedg\vick, William, T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Chief Biologist of the State Board of Health of Massa- 
chusetts. 

Alassach/isetts Institute of Technology., Boston., Mass. 
Sktchell, William A., A.B., Ph.D. Botany. 

Assistant in Biology, Yale University. 
7^ale University., New Haven., Conn. 



236 SOCIETV OF NATURALISTS. 

SiiALER, N. S., A.M., S.D. Palteontology. 

Professor of Geology, Harvard College, and Geologist, U.S. 
Geological Survey. 

Cambridge^ Mass. 
*SiiARP, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
vSciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Scioicc, PJiiladcIpJiia ., Pom. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D., C.M.Z.vS. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, ISIedical Department, U.S.A. 

Care of SniitJisofiia)! Iiistitutio)i .^ WasJiiiigto)!.^ D. C. 
Smith, John B. Entomology. 

Rutgers College. 

Nczu Brunsxvick., N.J. 
S^^TH, Robert Meade, A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparati\e Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

333 SoiitJi P-vc II tv- first street. PJiiladel fhia^ Peiiii. 
*S>nTH, Sidney I., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale University. 

147 WJiaJley avenue., Neiv Haven., Conn. 
.Sth.es, Charles W., Ph.D. Helminthology. 

Medical ZoiUogist, Department of Agriculture, Washington, 

D.C. 
WasJilngto)i, D. C. 
Tn/roN, John L., A.B. Biology. 

Professor of Natural Science, Simpson Centenary College. 

India no/a, la. 
*True, Frederick W., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Cuiator of Mammals, U.S. National IVluseum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
Tuckerman, Frederick, M.D., B.Sc. Anatomy. 

Af nil erst., Mass. 
Ti'TTLE, Albert H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Virginia, Va. 

CJiarlottcsville., I a. 
*TvLER,J. M., A.B. Zo()logy. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 

Amherst, A/ass. 



LIST OF MEMIUIRS. 



-J/ 



*VaX Vi.IXK, r.. II.. S.B. l^iolocry. 

Instiuclor in Hiology aiul Physiology in I^oston Uni\cisit\-. 

/iosfo/t Soc/'rfv of NatiD-al Iltstory^ Jiostoii^ ^fass. 
\'i;i{KiLi,, A. E., A.M. Zocilogy. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale University. 

'$,6 Whallcy avenue, Nexv Haven, Conn. 
*\Vadswortii, M. E., A.m., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Petrography, 

and Geology. 

Director of the Michigan Mining School, and Professor of 
Mineralogy, Petrography, and Geology ; also State Geolo- 
gist of Michigan. 

MicJu'ga)i ]\f/'n/no- Sc//ool, Houghton, i\Iic/i. 
*\Valcott, C. D. PalaBontology and Geology. 

Paheontologist, U.vS. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

16 to 26 College avenue, Rochester, N. 2'. 
Ward, Hexry B., A.B. Zo()logy. 

Holder of a Morgan Fellowship, Harvard University. 

13 Fa rwcU place, Ca/nbrlclge, j\/ass. 
*Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Bryn Mawr College, 

Bryn j\lawr, Penn. 
Watase, S., B.S., Ph.D. Biology. 

Assistant and lecturer in Zocilogy, Clark University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Alass. 
Wheeler, William M. Embryology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Clark University. 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
White, Charles D., B.S. Pakeobotany and Geologv. 

Assistant Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. National MuseuDi, Washington, D.C. 
Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Palaeontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.) Curator of Geology and 
Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museum of Natural History, 'J^th street a/ni 
Sth avenue. New York, N. T. 



238 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

♦Whitman, C. O., A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor, " Journal of Morphology ; " Director of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Holl, Mass. ; Professor of 
Morphology, Clark University. 
Worcester, Jl/ass. 
* Wilder, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zo- 
ology, and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell Uni- 
versity. 
Cornell University^ Ithaca^ N. ]'. 
*WiLLiAMS, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and Palieontology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Cornell Universit}^, 

and Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Cornell University^ ItJiaca^ N'. 2'. 
*WiLSON, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morpholog)'. 
Adjunct Professor of Biology, Columbia College. 
Columbia College^ New 7'ork City. 
Wilson, PIenry V., A.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, University of North Carolina. 
Chapel Hill, N.C. 
Wilson, W. P., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Physiological Botany, Department of Biologv, 

University of Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia^ Penn. 
Winchell, Alexander, LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, University of Michir 

gan. 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Wolff, John E., A.B. Petrograph}-. 

Instructor in Petrography, Harvard University. 
I =5 Story street, Cambridge, Mass. 
WooDwoRTH, William M., A.B., A.M. Zoiilogy. 

Assistant in Microscopical Anatomy, Harvard University. 
149 Brattle street, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Wright, R. Ramsay, A.M., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Universit}' College, Toronto, 

Canada. 
University College, Toronto., Canada. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 239 

YoUMAXS, W. J., M.D. IJiology. 

Editor of" Popular Science JMuuthly." 

Office of '•'• Popi/hir ■Science Monthly^'' Bond street^ Nciv 
York, N. r. 



Number of hoiior;n"\- meiubers ...... 3 

'• " nieinbers . . . . . . .168 

Total . . . . . . . . .171 



240 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



TENTH MEETING, AT PHILADELPHIA. 

December jy, 1S91. 

Hall of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 

AFl^ERNOON SESSION, 3.30 P.M. 

President Rice in the chair. 

Twenty-five members present. 

The .Secretary reported the recommendations of the Executixe 
Committee. 

The following recommendation was read with the announce- 
ment that it would be brought up for discussion at the next 
session : — 

" The Executive Committee recouimends to the Society the 
appropriation of $too for the ensuing year, towards the mainten- 
ance of an American table at the Naples Zoological Station. 

" Also, that the Society memorialize the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, recommending that the Institution assume the responsibility 
of maintaining an American table at the Naples Zoological 
Station in future years." 

The President appointed 

G. Macloskie, 
E. D. Cope, 
G. Baur, 

a coir.mittee to nominate otiicers for the ensuing year. 

vS. F. Clarke and W. N. Rice, in behalf of the Committee on 
Science Teaching in the .Schools, reported as follows: — 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE 
TEACHING IN THE SCHOOLS. 

The Committee are glad to be able to report progress in several 
directions. 

At the meeting of the Ohio College Association, December, 
i8c)0. the following resolution was unanimously adopted: — 



kl'.CoKDS. 241 

"• This Association is of the opinion that the Natinal Sciences 
should he taiij^ht denionstiati\ely, as far as possii)le, in all grades 
of the Common Schools ; and that, so soon as feasihle, some 
branch of science should he included in the leiiuirements for 
admission to Ct)lle<;e." 

Since our last annual meeting", a circular letter has Ijeen sent 
out to the American Universities and Colleges, in number neailv 
four hundred. The circular reads as follows: — 

" To the Faculty of 

" In behalf of the x\merican Society of Naturalists, we respect- 
fulh' petition your honorable body to take into consideration the 
tjuestion of making such a change in your requirements for 
admission as to include therein some work in Natural or Physical 
Science. 

"In presenting this petition, it is appropriate for us to give 
briefly the reasons \\iiich have led the Society to this action. 

" The Society of Naturalists is a body of investigators and 
teachers of Natural .Science. The majority of its members are 
professors of Biology or Geology in colleges or other higher 
institutions of the north-eastern United States. Its meetings 
have been mainly occupied with discussions as to the methods of 
carrying on the various branches of scientific work in which its 
members are engaged. The discussion of education in science 
has accordingly occupied much of its attention. 

'• In the consideration of scientific instruction in College, with a 
view to its improvement in method and result, the conclusion 
has forced itself upon our minds, that the main cause of the 
unsatisfactory results of scientific instruction in College is to be 
found in the lack of suitable elementary scientific training on the 
part of the students. 

" While a liberal allowance of time is devotetl to scientific 
studies in most of the College courses and in the English courses 
in Academies and High Schools, there is generally little or no 
tune allotted to science in the Classical courses in Academies and 
High Schools, and in the schools of lower grade. Most of the 
students in the Colleges have therefore received no training or 
instruction in the sciences before I'eaching those studies in the 
College course. By so many years of exclusive attention to 



242 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

other subjects, their powers of observation and of imagination of 
physical plienomena are well-nigh atrophied ; and the loving 
interest in nature, innate in every normal child, instead of being 
svstematically developed, is well-nigh extinguished. 

*•' The remed\' for this state of things is to be found in the intro- 
duction of elementary lessons in science at a much earlier period 
of the course. We believe that the studv of nature should begin 
in the Primary School, and should continue, in incieasingly 
svstematic and philosophical methods, through all grades of the 
educational system. We believe that, in the light of sound 
])rinciples of pedagogics, a system of education must be pio- 
nounced radically defective, which fails to gratify and to stimulate 
the cm^iosity of children in regard to the things about them and 
within them, confining them to more abstract studies, some of 
which are better suited to maturer minds. 

" .So far as the reform which we advocate relates to schools 
below the grade of the High School or Academy, we can ask 
from you only sympathy and moral support. But one most im- 
portant step of progress is absolutely dependent upon the action of 
College Faculties and Corporations. The better class of High 
Schools and Academies are prepared to furnish instruction of 
very respectable quality in various departments of science ; and 
actually do furnish such instruction to those of their students who 
are not preparing for College. They are ready to furnish such 
instruction to those students who are preparing for College, just 
as soon as it can find recognition in the Colleges as a part of the 
preparatory course. 

" Hence we are led to make an earnest appeal to the Faculties 
of the Colleges to make some work in science form a part of the 
requirements for admission, being assured that in so doing they 
will be taking a most important step in the direction of a sym- 
metrical and philosophical arrangement of the educational course. 

"The question of the particular sciences which should be re- 
(juired for admission is a comparatively unimportant one. In 
the report adopted at the meeting of the Society in i8S8 (a copy 
of which is forwarded herewith), the Committee recommended 
the selection of Phienogamic Botan}', Human Physiology, and 
Physical Geography ; the first, as furnishing most conveniently a 
thorougii observational discipline; the second, as aflbrding in- 



RKCOkDS. 243 

formation of great utility; the third, as tending to keep alive a 
general sympathy with nature. It was, moreover, believed that 
the High Schools and Academies in general are prepared to 
teach these at least as well as any other sticnce studies. There is, 
however, room for diflerence of opinion on the qu(;stion whether 
other sciences, as Pln'sics, Chemistrv, and ZoiWogv, mav not 
have equal or even superior claims; and it is not unlikely that 
some preparatory schools are able to atlbrd better instruction in 
some other sciences than in those recommended in the report. It 
would probably be best for the present, especially in view of the 
great inequality in the resources of diflerent preparatory schools, 
to allow some degree of option to the candidate in regard to the 
particular science or sciences in which he should be examined. 
The point which we consider essential is that some study of nature 
should be required before admission to College. 

" If it is deemed impracticable to make the proposed change in 
the requirements immediately, we would earnestly request that 
the principle be recognized by the insertion in the next Catalogue 
of a notice that some work in Natural Science will be required 
for admission after the year 1892 (or some other date that may 
seem convenient). 

" We send }ou herewith the reports of the Committee on Science 
Teaching in the .Schools, which have been unanimously adopted at 
the last two annual meetings of the Society, and an address of the 
President at the last annual meeting bearing upon the same sub- 
ject. These documents will serve to set forth somewhat more fully 
the views of the Society, and will also give some history of the 
etibrts which the Committee has made to call attention to these 
views, and of the favor with which they have been regarded by 
l^rominent Educational Associations. 

" In addition to the endorsements of our views on the part 
of prominent Educational Associations, quoted in our second 
report, we would call attention to the following resolution, unani- 
mously adopted by the Association of Officers of Colleges in New 
England, at its meeting in Middletown, Connecticut, Nov. 7, 
1890. 

"'The Association of Officers of Colleges in New England 
desires to support the endeavor of the American Society of 
Naturalists to introduce instruction in Natural Science into 



244 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

schools; and the Association agrees with the Society in thinking 
it indispensable that the methods of instruction should invaiiably 
he demonstrative.' 

" Samuei. F. Clarke, Williams College. 

" William G. Farlow, Harvard University. 

" George L. Goodale, Harvard University. 

" George Macloskie, College of New Jersev. 

" William North Rice, Wesleyan University. 

" Hexrv Fairfield Osborn, College of New Jersey. 

" William T. Sedgwick, Mass. Institute of Technology. 

" Sidney I. Smith, Yale University. 

" C. O. Whitman, Clark University." 

Answers to this circular were not solicited ; but information has 
come to us from several of the New England Colleges showing 
that the matter has received the serious consideration of the several 
Faculties. All of the Colleges from which we have heard are at 
least unwilling to say they will not make the change in a few years, 
and two of the Colleges have taken definite steps in tliis direction. 
The}' all believe that soinething ought to be done. One wishes 
to see what certain other Colleges will do ; another has made 
sufficient changes this \ear, but may be willing to move in this 
direction another year. A third has announced in its Catalogue 
that hereafter an examination in Natural Science will form one of 
the requisites for admission to the scientific course. At still an- 
other College, the ofl'er is made in its Catalogue to receive men 
into advanced standing in Science who can pass special examina- 
tions re([uisite for those courses. 

Prof. S. F. Clarke read a paper at the sixth annual nieeting 
of the New England Association of Colleges and Prepaiatory 
Schools, entitled, "Natural Science as a Recjuisite for Admission 
to College." One of the facts stated in that paper is worth men- 
tioning here. The writer was one of a committee of three which 
sent a circular letter to one hundred of the schools from which 
W^illiams College has received students in the last four years, ask- 
ing them if they could prepare their students on the basis of a 
Natural Science recpiisiteby 1S93, or later. Of the ninety answers 
received, tliirty-two are from Massachusetts, twenty-six are from 
New York, and the others are from all the other New England 



RECORDS. 245 

States, New York, New Jeisey, l\'mis\ Ivania, Ohio, Illinois, and 
Minnesota. It is a remarUable and significant fact that every 
school replied that they couUl so prepare their pu[)ils. Again, 
of the ninety, nine answer, " yes," but object to the plan ; the 
main objection being lack of time in the already busy course. 
Fortv-Hve answer simply, '• yes," and tliirtv-.six add some word 
of decided approval. 

In the discussion following this paper. President G. Stanley 
Hall ofiered the following suggestion : — " There is a great diH'er- 
ence between subjects which ha\'e had for years the benefit of a 
good pedagogic manipulation and those which have not. Peda- 
gogic thought has not been given to vScience study. Text-books 
in Science ha^•e not had the benefit of pedagogic experience. Re- 
sults might be attained if we vvere to appoint, for instance, a 
committee to arrange a conspectus of the work in Science." 

Thereupon it was moved and voted by the New England 
Association of Colleges and Preparatory Schools : 

'• That the Executive Committee be instructed to consider the 
expediency of appointing a committee to formulate suggestions 
relating to Elementary vScience as a requisite for admission to 
College, and have full authority to appoint such a committee if 
this action seems desirable." 

The Executive Committee will meet next month, and the 
►Secretary informs me that such a committee will probably be 
appointed. 

At the recent meeting of the Association of Colleges in New 
England, it was voted to send the following circular letter to the 
Faculties of the Colleges included in its membership : — 

^ /o the Faculty of 

" At the 35th annual meeting of tlie Association of Colleges 
in New England, held at Brown University, Nov. 5-6, 1891, it 
was 

*•' Voted, That the memorandum printed below be transmitted 
to the various Faculties for their consideration and for action by 
this Association next year; also voted, that the memorandiun, 
with a statement of this reference of the same to the Faculties, 
be oiiered to the press for publication. 



246 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



" MEMORANDUM. 

''Tlie Association ot Colleges in New England, impressed with 
the real nnitv of interest and the need of mutual S3'mpathy and 
help throughout the ditl'erent grades of public education, invites 
the attention of the public to the following changes in the pro- 
gramme of New England Grammar Schools, which it recommends 
for gradual adoption : — 

*•' I. The introduction of Elementar}' Natural Ilistorv into the 
earlier years of the programme as a substantial subject, to be 
taught by demonstrations and practical exercises rather than 
from books. 

'• 3. The introduction of Elem.entary Physics into the later years 
of the programme as a substantial subject, to be taught by the 
experimental or laboratory method, and to include exact weighing 
and measuring by the pupils themselves. 

" 3. The introduction of Elementary Algebra at an age not 
later than twelve years. 

"4. The introduction of Elementary Plane Geomctrv at an age 
not later than thirteen years. 

" V The offering of opportunity to study French, or German, 
or Latin, or any two of these languages, from and after the age of 
ten years. 

*■' In order to make room in the programme for these new sub- 
jects, the Association recommends that the time allotted to Arith- 
metic, Geography, and English Grammar be reduced to whatever 
extent may be necessary. 

"The Association makes these recommendations in the interest 
of the public school system as a whole : but most of them are 
ort'cred more particularly in the interest of those children whose 
education is not to be continued beyond the Grammar School. 

"John Howard Appleton, 

" Secretary." 

An investigation has been made to ascertain the actual status 
of the Colleges and Preparatory Schools in the territory with 
wliicli the Society of Naturalists is especially concerned (namely, 
the region of tlie North Atlantic States from Maine to the District 
of Columl)ia inclusive) as regards the inclusion of Science in tiic 



RECORDS. 247 

Preparatory Course. Circulars were sent to all the Institutions 
within that area catalogued, in the latest Report of the Commis- 
sioner of Education, as Colleges or Scientific Schools, and also 
to the Academies and High Schools catalogued in the same 
Report as having respectively six or more teachers, asking for 
catalogues or statements of courses of study. The Institutions 
catalogued as Colleges or as Scientific Schools vary considerably 
in grade; but it was deemed best to follow the classification 
given in the report of tlie Commissioner of Education, rather 
than to exercise a personal judgment in the case of individual 
Institutions. The limitation of the inquiry, in legard to Acad- 
emies and High Schools, to those having a Faculty of not less 
than six instructors, was intended as a rough way of eliminating 
very small and unimportant schools. A number of the High 
Schools and Academies from wliich information was received, 
proved to be not Preparatory Schools for College at all, and are 
accordingly not counted in the following statistics. The answers 
received from a few schools were so vague as not to admit of 
tabulation. Institutions having a course of study of more than 
four years, of which the last four years correspond approximately 
to the Collegiate Course, and the previous year or years to the 
closing part of the Preparatory Course, are counted in the follow- 
ing statistics both as Colleges and as Preparatory Schools. 

Of sixty-nine Colleges from which answers have been received, 
only eighteen now require vSciencc for admission to the Course 
for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts. These are Howard Univer- 
sity, Baltimore City College, Johns Hopkins University, Western 
Maryland College, Boston University, Harvard University, Alfred 
University, Wells College, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, 
College of the City of New York, Manhattan College, Syracuse 
University, Lebanon Valley College, Geneva College, Mononga- 
hela College, Franklin and ]Marshall College, Allegheny College, 
Swarthmore College. 

Eleven other Colleges recognize the place of Science in the 
pre-collegiate portion of the educational course, by requiring it 
for admission to Scientific Courses, by allowing it as an optional 
subject in the examination for admission, or by announcing it as a 
prospective requirement. These are Wesleyan University, Smith 
College, Williams College, Dartmouth College, Colgate Univer- 



248 SOCIETY OF xVATURALISTS. 

sity, Lafayette College, Ursinus College, Pennsylvania College, 
Haverford College, Westminster College, Universitv of Penn- 
sylvania. 

The remaining forty Colleges aflbrd no recognition whatever 
of the place of Science in the pre-collegiate course of study. 

Of twenty-one Institutions catalogued as vScientific Schools 
from which answers have been received, ten do, and eleven do 
not, require some Science for admission. 

Of one hundred and forty-one Preparatory Schools from which 
answers have been received, ninety-eight include Science, either 
as a required or as an elective study, in the course preparatory for 
the Classical Courses in the Colleges. This fact seems to indi- 
cate that the Academies and High Schools are in advance of the 
Colleges in the recognition of the claims of Science to a place in 
the pre-collegiate part of the educational course. There is no 
doubt tiiat nearly all Preparatory Schools of high grade would 
be ready to give liberal attention to scientific instruction, if their 
scholars could receive credit for it as meeting thereby a require- 
ment for admission to the Colleges. 

One of the most frequent objections urged against the reciuire- 
ment of Science for admission to College is the alleged impossi- 
bility of finding time for the study in the four years' course of 
the Preparatory Schools. We believe that this objection is 
sufficiently refuted by the information which we have gathered in 
regard to the actual courses of study in the Preparatory Schools. 
The requirements for admission to the Classical Course in most 
of the Colleges consist substantially of Latin, Greek, and 
Mathematics, with a little History and English Literature. In 
order to meet these requirements, the student is ordinarily ex- 
pected to spend four years in a High School or Academy after the 
completion of the courses in the Primary and Grammar Schools. 
A length of four 3'ears for the preparatory course is necessitated 
by the amount of Latin required, which, with the methods of 
study at present in use, is amply sufficient to occupy the time 
of a recitation five times a week for four years. The work in 
Greek and in Mathematics, however, is much less than four years' 
work ; and the slight requirements in History and English Litera- 
ture do not suffice to bring the work up to the standard of about 
sixteen recitations per week for the tour years. There remains, 



RKCOKDS. 249 

therefore, in a four years' cduisc in an Academy or High .School, 
some time which may be, and which actually is, occupied by 
other studies than those required for admission to College. Many 
Schools actually tlo include Science or Modern Languages in their 
Classical Courses, although these studies are not now recjuired 
for admission to most of the Colleges. Many .Schools include 
more extended studies in English Literature than are required for 
admission to College, or other advanced studies entirely outside 
of the College requirements. A large number of Schools occupy 
a considerable part of the iirst year with studies in the common 
English branches, which should be completed in the Grammar 
Schools. And a considerable number of the Schools devote the 
greater part or the whole of the last term to reviews of the 
studies of previous years — a time-wasting plan, whose justifica- 
tion, if it ever had any, has been largely removed, since many of 
the Colleges now accept certificates from first-class Prejiaratory 
Schools in lieu of examination, and since nearly all the Colleges 
allow preliminary examinations on the earlier portions of the 
Preparatory Course. 

Among the Preparatory Schools from which sufficiently definite 
information has been received, there are seventy-four which 
appear to have substantially the normal four years' Preparatory 
Course. In selecting this number of schools for further consider- 
ation, we have rejected all those in which the time devoted to the 
Course preparatory for College (as indicated by the period of com- 
mencing Latin) is either more or less than four years; and have 
rejected also those few schools whose Pi'eparatory Course is largely 
elective, in adaptation to the peculiar requirements of Harvard 
University. Of the remaining seventy-four schools from which 
we have information, forty-seven include in their courses more or 
less of Science, thirty-two include one or both of the Modern 
Languages, fifty include miscellaneous advanced studies not re- 
quired for admission to College, fifty-five occupy a considerable 
time with common English branches, and fifty occupy a con- 
siderable portion of the last year with reviews of the previous 
years. It is a very noteworthy fact that, of the whole number, 
there is not one which does not fill out its course in one or more 
of the five ways specified. These facts, we claim, conclusivel}'^ 
pro\e that the studies no\\ recpiired for admission to College do 



250 SOCIETY OK NATURALISTS. 

not occiip}" the whole time of a four years' course subsequent 
to the completion of the Grammar School course. There is, 
therefore, ample time in the High School or Academy Course to 
meet a moderate requirement in Natural Science for admission to 
College. 

The facts which have come to the knowledge of the Committee, 
and some of which are presented in this report, indicate clearly 
that there exists, among all ranks of educators, a conviction con- 
tinually widening and continually growing more active, that a 
prominent place should be given to Natural Science in the 
earlier portions of the educational course. We believe, however, 
that there is danger that in many quarters this movement mav 
fail of the good results which it should accomplish, by reason of 
a misapprehension in regard to the true purpose and method of 
scientific instruction. There is danger of getting, in many 
schools, the form of science teaching without the substance, — 
a memorizing of definitions and verbal statements of scientific 
facts, without bringing the minds of the pupils into inspiring and 
vitalizing contact with nature. However important the knowl- 
edge of scientific facts may be as matter of information, it should 
never be forgotten that the main benefit of scientific study lies in 
the discipline of the powers of jJerception, imagination, com- 
parison, and reasoning, by the practice of observation and experi- 
ment upon natural objects, and by judiciously guided reflection 
upon the phenomena which are brought before the student's atten- 
tion. Especially pernicious will it be, if the learning of verbal 
propositions is allowed to take the place of those object lessons 
in Science which should form the main part of the scientific in- 
struction in the Primary Schools. In the lower grades of the 
schools, systematized bodies of fact and doctrine are altogether 
out of place. While the scientific instruction in the High 
Schools and Academies may be and should be more systematic 
than in the lower schools, it should be continually remembered 
that the discipline gained by actual contact with nature in obser- 
vation and experiment is worth far more than anv amount of 
second-hand information. 

The greatest difficulty in the way of securing tlie right kind of 
instruction arises, of coinse, from the lack of properly trained 
teachers. It is, however, a profoundly gratifying fact that this 



RECORDS. ^51 

lack is gradually but surely being supplied. Within the last 
twenty years, a great change has taken place in the boards of 
instruction in High Schools and Academies. Twenty years ago 
the faculty of an average Higli .School in a second-class town 
consisted of one College graduate, who taught Latin and Greek, 
and a number of young ladies, graduates only of the High 
School itself, who taught all the other branches. Now, thanks 
to the work of the women's Colleges and the co-educational 
Colleges, the teachers in the High Schools and Academies are 
coming to be almost exclusively College graduates. High 
School teachers who have had Laboratory training themselves 
in some of the Sciences, will not be content to teach those 
Sciences without giving some Laboratory work to their pupils. 
Hence it is gradually coming to pass that the graduates of High 
Schools, Academies, and Normal Schools, from whose ranks 
the teachers of the Primary and Grammar Schools are chiefly 
supplied, possess an acquaintance with Science which, though 
limited in scope, is in considerable part sound in method. The 
Summer Schools and Sea-side Laboratories aflbrd the opportu- 
nity for scientific instruction of the right sort to those ambitious 
teachers whose opportunities of early education are recognized 
by themselves as inadequate. Let it be clearly recognized that 
the teacher of Science demanded even in the Primary Schools is 
not one who has committed to memory some verbal propositions 
about Science, but one who has learned to observe and experi- 
ment, to compare and reason, — and the conditions are already 
in existence which will not fail to supply that demand. 

The work of the Committee during the year has involved some 
expense in j^rinting, postage, etc., which expense the Committee 
ask the Society to assume. 

We also ask to have authorized the publication of a special 
edition of five hundred copies of this report for distribution in 
educational circles. 

The above is respectfully submitted. 

Samuel F. Clarke, 

Chairuiaji . 

The report was accepted, with expressions of appreciation on 
the part of the Society for the work done by the Committee, and 
the Committee was continued. 



252 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

The following invitation, extended to the members of the 
Society, was then read : — 

"Dr. E. J. James, President of the American Society tor the 
extension of University Teaching, invites the members of this 
Society to the President's reception, given in connection with the 
first Annual National Conference on the extension of University 
Teaching." 

The morning session for Wednesday was fixed for lo A.M., 
and tlie afternoon session for 2.30 P.AI. 

The President's address, 

"Twenty-five Years of Scientific Progress," was read by 
Prof. Wm. North Rice, the retiring president. 

The following papers were then read : — 

Miss Emily L. Gregory, on "The two Schools of Plant Physi- 
ology as at present existing in Germany and England." 

Professor Macloskie, on "The Structure of Insect Tracheie," 

Professor Macloskie (for Mr. McClure, of Princeton), " Ob- 
servations on the Poison Apparatus of Young Rattlesnakes." 

Professor Pillsbury, "A Device for Attaching Labels to 
Specimen Bottles." 

Prop\ H. F. Osborn, " Nomenclature of the Mammalian 
Molar Cusps." 

The meeting then adjourned. 



December 30, 1S91. 
MORNING SESSION, 10 A.M. 

President Rice in the chair. 

Thirty members present. 

In the absence of Prof. Wm. T. Sedgwick, the Treasurer's 
report was read by the Secretary. 

The Treasurer of the American Society of Naturalists respcct- 
fullv submits the foUowin"- 



RECORDS. 



253 



Rei'ort 



Balance on hand, Dec. 30, 1S90 
Income, from dnes, 1S91 . 

Total .... 

Ont-go for 1S91, as shown below 

Balance on hand, Dec. 39, 1S91 



$689 77 
134 00 

$823 77 

108 3 2 

$715 55 



ExPKNSE Account, 1S91. 
II. II. Donaldson, Secretary, expenses, Boston meet- 

i'^g 

S. F. Clarke, expenses of Committee on Elementary 

Science Teaching in the schools 
Rockwell & Churchill, printing Records, Vol. I. 

pt. 8 . . . \ . . 
Postage ........ 

Total expenses ...... 

Total income ...... 

Excess of income for 1891 .... 



$24 43 

30 31 

49 09 
4 50 

$108 33 

134 00 

$35 78 



On Dec. 37, 188S, it was voted by the Society to reduce the 
annual fee from $3 to $1. The balance then on hand was 
$764.81. In spite of this reduction of the annual income, how- 
ever, the amount now on hand ($7i5-55) is nearly equal to that 
on hand three years ago. The explanation is to be found in a 
marked decrease in the annual expenses, especially in the pub- 
lishing account. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Wm. T. Sedgwick, 

T^rcasurer. 
Dec. 30, 1891. 

The President appointed 

W. II. Dall, 

J. II. PiLLSBUUV, 

a Committee to audit the report. 



254 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Thev found the same correct, and it was accepted by the 
Society. 

J. H. Pillsburv was appointed Deputy Treasurer to collect 
the dues during the meeting. 

As recommended by the Executix^e Committee at the previous 
session, the following persons were elected members of the 
Society : — 

J. A. Allen, C. F. W. McClure, 

R. P. BiGELow, G. V. McLauthlin, 

H. T. Fernald, a. H. Phillips, 

G. W. Fuller, W. A. Setchell, 

C. W. Hargitt, C. W. Stiles, 

J. E. Ives, H. B. Ward. 

The recommendation of the Executive Committee concerning 
a table at the Naples station was taken up, and, after discussion 
by Professor Osborn and Dr. Stiles, it was adopted in the form 
above given. 

The Nominating Committee reported the following list of 
persons to act as officers to act during the coming year : — 

Report of Committee on Nominations. 

We recommend for 

President^ — II. Fairfield Osborn. 
ViccPresidc?its, — Samuel F. Clarke, 
George Baur, 
Wm. H. Dall. 
Secretary, — Thos. H. Morgan. 
Treasurer, — William T. Sedgwick. 
-For Executive Committee elected from the Society at 
large, — 

J. Playfair McMurricii, 
W. P. Wilson. 

The report was accepted, and the persons named in it duly 
elected. 

The Society proceeded next to ct>nsidcr the topic chosen for 
discussion, viz. : 

Definite versus Fortuitous Variation. 



I 



RKCOKDS. 255 

By previous ;ii r;m;4cnicnt ihc discussinn was opened in the 
loilowiuy; inaniier : — 

(i.) Mr. Tlioiiias AJcehan j^resented the evidence derived from 
the stiulv of plants. 

(2.) Prof. J. P. AIcMnrricii presented that derived from the 
stiuly of invertebrates. 

(3.) Dr. J. A. Allen presented that derived from the study 
of recent vertebrates. 

(4.) Prof. E. D. Cope presented that derived from the study 
of fossil forms. 

When the question was thrown open, some iifteen members 
availed themselves of the opportunity to speak on the topic, and 
the discussion continued until 1.30 P.M., when the Society 
adjourned for lunch. 

AFTERNOON SESSION, 3 P.M. 

President Rice in the chair. 

Twenty members present. 

The following motion was introduced by Professor Ma- 

closkie : — 

Resolved^ That the thanks of the Society be tendered to 

I. The Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, for the 
generous use of their hall. 

3. To the officers and members of the Art Club for their hos- 
pitable invitation. 

3. To the authorities of Bryn Mawr College, of Ilaverford 
College, of Swarthmore College, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and to the Committee of Reception in connection with the 
American Association for the Extension of University Teaching, 
for their kind invitation to their reception proffered to the mem- 
bers of this Society. 

This motion was unanimously adopted. 

It was voted to leave the determination of the time and place 
of the next meeting with the Executive Committee. 

The following reports on Scientific Expeditions were then 
made : — 



256 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Dr. G. Baur : On the Examination of the Flora and Fanna of 
the Galapagos Islands. 

Prof. A Heilprin : A Description of the West Coast of 
Greenland, from Observations made during the Summer of 1S91. 

Prof. S. A. Lee : A .Summary of the Scientific Results of the 
Bowdoin College Exploring Expedition, sent to the East Coast of 
Labrador in the Summer of 1891. 

Prof. W. Libbey : Some Results of the Study of Warm and 
Cold Ocean Currents ofl the Southern New England Coast in the 
neighborhood of the Gulf vStreani. 

The Society then adjourned, to irieet later in the evening at 
the Colonnade Hotel for the annual dinner. 

HENRY H. DONALDSON, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the American Society of Jfaturalists will be distnbutecl 
to members, and to persons and societies designated' by 
the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of any 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or a.d dresses. 



Any persons, otherwise qualified, are eligible to member- 
fihip, whatever their residence ; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot he held, outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-Law II. 



PreBR of Rockwell and Churchill, Boston. 



/ ; ^ ' // 



'^,<oi<f RECORDS 

UY 1886 

AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I 

PART TEN. 



BOSTON : 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1893. 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I . 

PAKT TEN. 



BOSTON : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

1S93. 



RECORDS 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1893. 



President, R. H. Chittenden. 

f Samuel F. Clarke, 
Vice-Presidents, < George Baur, 

( William Libbey, Jr. 
Secretary, Thomas H. Morgan. 
Treasurer, William T. Sedgwick. 



Members of the Exec?(tive Committee elected from the 
Society at large. 

W. G. Farlow. John A. Ryder. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D., Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Yale University. 

Yale Universlty-i JVezu Haven. Conn. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 

907 Walnut street, Philadelphia^ Peniz. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Yale University. 

8 Peabody JMnsezun, JVezv Haveji, Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membersiiip.] 



*Allen, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

1933 Chestnut street^ Philadelphia^ Penii. 
Allen, J. A., Ph.D. Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

Curator of .the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York. 

American Mitseujji of Natural History. 

']']th street and 8t/i ave?t?ee, New york^ N. T. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. Biology. 

Associate Editor of the "Journal of Morphology." 

Mihvaukee. Wis. 
Andrews, E. A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor in Biology, Johns Hopkins Universit}^ 

Johns Hopkins University^ Baltimore^ Md. 
Ayers, Howard, Ph.D. Biology. 

Director Lake Laboratory ^ Milwaukee., Wis. 
Bamhart, John H., A.B. Biology. 

Curator in charge of Museum of Weslevan University'. 

Middletown., Co7tn. 
Barton, B. W., M.D. Botany. 

Instructor in Botany, Johns Hopkins Universit}'. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Vertebrate Paluiontology. 

Assistant Professor of Comparative Osteology and Palaeon- 
tology, University of Chicago. 

University of Chicago., Chicago., III. 
*Bickmore, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Miisciim. Central Park. N. 1'. 



LIST OF MEM15KRS. 259 

BlGELOw, R. 1'., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Bruce Fellow, Johns Hopkins University. 

1 50 1 EigJitcoith street, W'as/iiifj^ton, D.C. 
Bolton, H. Cakrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralog}-, Chemistry. 

University Club, Nexv York City. 
*Bo\VDiTCH, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical vSchool. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Afass. 
Branner, John Casper, A.M., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. 

Palo Alto, Cal. 
Brewer, William H., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale University. 

346 Orange street, Ne'jo Haven, Conn. 
*Brush, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, Sheffield Scientific School. 

N'ezu Haven, Conn. 
BuMPUS, H. C, Ph.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

Associate Professor of Zoology, Brown University. 

Bro-iVn University, Providence, R.I. 
Calkins, G. N., B.S. Biology. 

Assistant Biologist, State Board of Health of Massachusetts. 

Institute of Technology, Boston, Alass. 
Campbell, John P., Ph.D. Physiology, 

Professor of Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
Casey, Thomas L. Entomology. 

Captain, U.S. Engineer Corps. 
U.S. Army Building, Nezv York, N. Y. 
Chapman, Frank M. Mammalog}- and Ornithology. 

Assistant Curator, American Museum of Natural History. 

77M street and Zth avenue. Neve York, N. Y. 
Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 

83 Trumbull street., New Haven, Conn. 
Clark, William B., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Associate in Palaeontology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
*Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
Williamstown, Mass. 



26o SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*CoNN, H. W., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Biology, Wesleyan University. 

Middletoivn^ Conn. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Vertebrate Palaeontology and Zoology. 

Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

2I02 Pine street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washington^ D. C. 
Dall, William Healey. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator, 
Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution.^ Washington., D. C. 
Da\a, Edward S., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Natural Philosophy, Yale University. 

Ill Grove street^ New Haven., Conn. 
Davenport, Charles B., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard University. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*Davis, William M., S.B., M.E. Geology, Geography, and 

Meteorology. 

Assistant Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology., Cambridge., Mass. 
Dean, Bashford, Ph.D. Vertebrate Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology. 

Columbia College., JVezu York., N. T. 
*DiMMocK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Ca7iobie Lake., N,H. 
Dolley, Charles S. Biology. 

Professor of Natural History in Swarthmore College. 

Woodland avenue.^ Philadelphia., Penn. 
*DoNALDsoN, Henry H,, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Neurology, University of Chicago. 

Chicago., III. 
*DuDLEY, William R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Leland Stan- 
ford, Junior, University. 

Palo Alto., Cal. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 26l 

♦Button, C. E. Geology. 

Major of Ordnance, U.S.A. 

C/.S. Geological Survey, Washiiigtoi^ D.C. 
DwiGHT, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

23^ Beacon street^ Boston, JMass. 
*DvviG^HT, William B.. A.B., A.M., Ph. B. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 
Vassar College. 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsle, N'. T. 
Edwards, Ciias. L., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, University of Texas. 

Austin, Texas. 
Elliot, D. G. Mammalogy and Ornitholog}-. 

American Museum Natural History, New Tork, N. 2'. 
*Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Amherst, Mass. 
*Emerton, James H. Zoology. 

II St. Jarties avemie, Boston, Mass-. 
*Emmons, S. F. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Assistant Professor of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical 
School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
*Farlow, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University, Cambridge. Mass. 
*Fernald, C. H., A.m., Ph.D. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Zoology, Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Amherst, Mass. 
Fernald, Henry T., M.S., Ph.D. Morphology. 

Professor of Zoology, Pennsylvania State College. 

State College, Centre Co., Penn. 
Fewkes, J. Walter. Ethnology. 

Secretary, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Boston, Mass, 



262 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assistant, Jefferson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophthalmic vSurgeon to Germantown Hospital. 

1304 Walnut street, PJiiladclphia^ Penn. 
Fuller, George W., S.B. Bacteriology. 

Chief Assistant-Biologist. State Board of Health of Massa- 
chusetts. 

Laivrence, A/ass. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Associate Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on IVIicro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cor)ieU University, ItJiaca, N^. T. 
Ganong, Wm. Francis. Biology. 

119 Oxford street, Ca)]ib ridge, Mass. 
Gardiner, Edward G., S.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

131 Mt. Vernon street, jBoston, Alass. 
Gardiner, Frederic, x\.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Natural Science, Trinity College. 

Pom fret , Con n . 
*Gerrisii, Frederic Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

^IS Congress street, Portland.^ Me. 
*(jiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological St/rvey, Washington., D.C. 
*GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard University. 

10 Craigie street, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Goode, G. Brown, A.M., Ph.D. Zoologv. 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge 
of the U.S. National Museum. 

SniitJiso)iian Institution, WasJiington, D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

*]']th street andStk avenue, JVezv Tork, N.T. 
*Greenleaf, R.W., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

561 Boylston street, Bosto)i, Mass. 
Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

343 Madison avenue., N'ezu I'ork, A.}'. 



LIST OF MlvMIiERS. 263 

Hague, i\RXor.n. Geology and Petrogiapliy. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

^'.^S'. Geological Survey^ Washliigtoii^ JJ.C. 
*Hall, James M. S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. Geology, Palaeon- 
tology. 

State Geologist of New York, Director ot" the State Museum 
ol' Natural History. 

State Museum^ Albai/y^ A^. 2". 
Halstei), Bvron D., D.Sc. Botany. 

Botanist and Horticulturist, Agricultural T^xperiment Station. 

JVezv Brmiszvick^ N.J. 
Hare, Hobart Amory, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Therapeutics in Jefferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia. 

2 33 South FifteeutJi street., Philadelphia.^ Pe)iii. 
Hargitt, Charles W., Ph.D. ZoiUogy. 

Professor of Biology, Syracuse University. 

Syracuse University., Syracuse^ N. Y. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Pakeontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Palaeontology at, and Curator in 
Charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia. Pe/in. 
*Hensha\v, Samuel, Zoology. 

Assistant, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Boston Society of Natural History., Boston., Mass. 
Herrick, F. H., A.B., Ph.D. " Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Adelbert College. 

Adelbert College^ Clevelatzd., O. 
Hill, Frank A. Geology. 

Geologist in Charge, Anthracite District, State Survey of 
Pennsylvania. 

Dunbar^ Fayette Co.., Penn. 
*Hitchcock, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover., N.H. 
Hodge, Clifton F., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Clark University. 
Worcester., Mass. 



264 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Howell, William H., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Ph^'siology, Harvard jMecHcal School. 

Boston^ Mass. 
*HvA'rT, Alpheus, S.B. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural Histor\-, and Assistant 
in Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, Mass. 

Boston Society of Natural History., Boston. Mass. 
Iddlvgs, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
WasJiington.^ D. C. 
Ives, J. E. Invertebrate Zoology. 

Assistant to the Curatoi' in Charge of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences^ P/iiladelphia., Pa. 
Jackson, Robert Tracy, S.B., S.D. Zo()logy and Paleon- 
tology. 

33 Gloucester street., Boston., Mass. 
Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertebrata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, Universitv of Penn- 
sylvania. 

1826 Chestnut street^ Philadelphia. Pe?in. 
Johnson, Herbert P., A.M. Biology. 

Fellow in Morphology, Clark University. 

Worcester^ Mass. 
Jordan, David Starr. Biology. 

President of Leland Stanford, Junior, University, Palo Alto, 
Cal. 

Palo Alto., Cal. 
Jordan, Edwin O., S.B. Biology. 

Tutor in Anatomy, University of Chicago. 

Chicago., III. 
*JuLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Biology and Petrography. 

Instructor in Biology and Microscopy, .Scliool of Mines, 
CoTumbia College. 

School of Mines., Columbia. College., N'eiv 2orh, N. 2'. 
Kei.lar, Ida A., Ph.D. Botany. 

Lecturer, Bryn Mawr College. 

Academy of Natural Science., Philadelphia^ Penn. 
KxowLrox, Frank H., M.S. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey. Washington., D.C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 265 

Lane, Alfred Cmiu 11. A.M., Ph.D. Pctioi^iaphy and 

Geology. 

Instructor in Potrograpliy and Geology, Michigan Mining 
School, and Assistant on Michigan Geological Survey. 

Ho7ighton , J licJi . 
Lee, F. S., A.M., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Physiology, C()luml)ia College, Medical 
Department. 

College of Physicians ami Surgeons^ Nexv York City. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 

Brunswick^ Ale. 
Lee, Thomas G., M.D. Morphology. 

Professor of Biolog}', University of Minnesota. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
*Libbey, William, Jr., A.]\L, D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Director of the E. JSI. Museum of Geology and Archae- 
ology. 

Princeto7i., N.J. 
LixTON, Edwin, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Washington and Jefferson 
College. 

Washington., Pe/in. 
LoTSY, T. P., Ph.D. Botany. 

Fellow, Johns Hopkins University. 

Baltimore, jMd. 
Lucas, Frederic A. Avian Osteology. 

Assistant Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, 

U.S. National Museum. 
Washitigton, D. C. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 

Princeton, N.J. 
Mall, F. P., M.D. Histology and Vertebrate Embryology. 

Associate Professor of Anatomy, L^niversity of Chicago. 

Chicago, III. 
Mark, Edward L., A.]VL, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Hersey Professor of Anatomy, Harvard University. 

21 North avenue, Cambridge, Mass. 



266 SOCIETV OF NATURALISTS. 

*Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 

College Hill^ Mass. 
*Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 
McClure, Charles F. W., A.B. Embryology and Vertebrate 

Alorphology. 

Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 

Princeto7i., JM.J. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Surve}'. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington., D.C. 
McMuRRiCH, J. Playfair, a.m., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Cincinnati. 

Ciftcinnati., Ohio. 
*Meehan, Thomas. Botany. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State Board of Agriculture ; 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

Germantoivn., Penn. 
*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mam.malogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. 

Washington., D. C. 
*Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Assistant State Geologist, State Museiun. 

Albany, N. T. 
*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Curator, Department of Geology, U.S. National Museum. 

Natio7ial Aluset-cm., WasJiiiigton., D. C. 
Mills, T. Wesley, M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Physiology, McGill University. 

]\Iontrcal., Canada. 
*MiNOT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Assistant Professor of Embryology and Histology, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston s A/ass. 



i.isr oi' mi;mi'.i:ks. 267 

MixTKK, Samiki. j., H.S., M.D. Aiuitomy. 

Demonstrator of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School^ Boston^ Mass. 
Morgan, Thos. Hunt, B.S., Ph.D. IJioloi^^y. 

Associate Professor of Biology, Hryn Mawr College. 

Brvn Ma-vr^ Penn. 
*MoRSE, EinvAKD S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zo<)logy. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, .Salem, Mass. 

Salem, Mass. 
Nichols, Herbert, Ph.D. Psychology. 

Instructor in Psychology, Harvard University. 

\2 Kirkland place, Cambridge, Mass. 
*NiLES, William H.. Ph.B., A.M. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special Sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 

Surgeon to Wills Eye Hospital and Ophthalmic Surgeon to 
the Presbvterian Hospital. 

1507 Locust street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*OsBORN, Henry Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Da Costa Professor of Biology, Columbia College, Curator 
of Department of Mammalian PaliBontology, American 
^Museum of Natural History, N.Y. 

American Museum of Natural History, Nezv Tork City. 
*Packard, a. S., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Brown University, Providence, R.I. 
Parker, George Howard, S.B. Animal Morphology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard College. 

8 Harris street. North Cambridge, Mass. 
*Peale, A. C, A.M., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey, WasJiington, D. C. 
Peck, James I., A.M. Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology, Williams College. 
VVilliamstozun , Mass . 



268 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Peckham, George W., M.D. Biology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
Milwaukee^ Wis. 
Penfield, Samuel L., Ph.B. Mineralogy.. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, Yale University. 
Pcabody Aluseum^ New Haven., Conn. 
Phillips, Alexander H., S.B. Vertebrate Anatomy. 

Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 
Princeton ., N.J. 
*PiLLSBURY, J. H. Biology. 

50 Alattoon street.^ Springfield., Mass. 
*PowELL, J. W., Ph.D., LL.D. Anthropology and Geology. 
Director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Director of the 

Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution. 
Geological Survey., Washington ., D. C. 
Pratt, Henry S., Ph.D. Zoology. 

26 Mellen street., Cambridge., Mass. 
*Prentiss, a. N., S.M. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cor- 
nell University. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 
Prosser, Charles S., S.M. Geology and Palseontology. 

Professor of Geology, Washburn College. 
Topeka., Kan. 
*PuTXAM, Frederick W. Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Peabody Professor of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Harvard University ; Curator of the Peabody Museum of 
Archceology and Ethnology, in connection with Harvard 
University ; Permanent Secretarv of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on 'Inland Fisheries; and President, 
Boston Society of Natural Histor}-. 
Peabody Museum., Cambridge., Mass. 
Rankin, Walter M., A.M., M.Sc, Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Curator of Museum, Princeton 

College. 
60 University place., Princeton., N.J. 
*Rathbun, Richard, S.M. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
U.S. National Museum., Washino-ton, D.C, 



LIST OF MKMHKRS. 269 

REiCHAur, iMnvAKO T., M.I). Physiology. 

Pi-ofessor of Physiology, Uiiivcisity of Pennsylvania. 

University of Poiiisylvaiiia ^ Pliiladcl f>/iia ^ Pcini. 
Reighard, Jacob E. Morphology. 

Professor of Animal Morphology, Uniycrsitv of Michigan. 

An7i Arbor^ Mic//. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesleyan University. 

Aliddlefoivn^ Conn. 
*RiLEv, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Biology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agricnlture, and 
Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 

Snnb?iiy.i Wyo?ning- ave.^ Washington^ D.C. 
RrrTER, William E., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor of Zoology, University of California. 

Berkeley.^ Cat. . 
*RoTHRocK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Penns3'lvania. 
West Chester, Chester Co., Pen ft. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 
Ryder, John A., Ph.D. Embryology. 

Professor of Comparative Embryology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Sargent, Charles .S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline, Mass. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Princeton College. 

Princeton, N.J. 
*ScuDDER, S. H., S.B., A.M. Entomology and PaUcontolog}'. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Ca?nbridge, Mass. 
*Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Chief Biologist of the State Board of Health of Massa- 
chusetts. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 



2/0 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Setchell, William A., A.B., Ph.D. Botany. 

Assistant in Biology, Yale University. 

I'alc University^ New Have/i, Conn. 
SiiALER, N. S., A.M., S.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology, Harvard College, and Geologist, U.S. 
Geological Survey. 

Cambridge^ Mass. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Scioice., PhiladelpJiia., Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D., C.M.Z.S. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 

Care of Smithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
Smith, John B. Entomology. 

Professor of Entomology. Entomologist to the College Ex- 
periment Station. 

Neza Brunswick., Nf- 
Smith, James Perrin, A.M., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Assistant Professor of Palaeontology, Leland Stanford, Junior, 
University. 

Palo Alto, Cal. 
Smith, Robert Meade, x\.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

332 South Twenty- first street. Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Smith, Sidney L, Ph D. Biology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatom}', Vale University. 

147 Whalley ave/nte., New Haven., Conn. 
Stiles, Charles W., Ph.D. llelminthology. 

Medical Zoologist, Department of .Vgriculture, Washington, 

D.C. 
Washington, J). C. 
Sthong, Oliver S., M.A. Biolog}-. 

Preparator in Biology, Columliia College. 

N'cxv York, N. T. 
Thaxtek, Roland, Ph.D. Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

Cambridge., Mass. 



IJST OK MEMBKRS, 2/1 

TiLio.N, John L.. A.B. Biology- 

Professor of Natural Science, Simpson Centenary Colle^i^e. 

Indianola^ la. 
*'rKUE, Fkedekick VV., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
TucKERMAN, FREDERICK, M.D., B.Sc. Anatomy. 

Amherst., Mass. 
TuTTLE, Albert H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Virginia, Va. 

Charlottesville .1 la. 
*TvLER, J. M., A.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 

Amherst, A/ass. 
*Vax Vleck, B. H., S.B. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Physiology in Boston University. 

Boston Society of Natural History., Boston , Mass. 
Verrill, a. E., A.m. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale University. 

'^G Whalley avenue., Neiu Uave/t., Conn. 
*Wadsworth, M. E., A.m., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Petrography, 

and Geology. 

Director of the Michigan Mining School, and Professor of 
Mineralogy, Petrography, and Geology ; also State Geolo- 
gist of Michigan. 

Michigan Mining School, Houghton., Mich. 
*VValcott, C. D. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum, Washington., D. C. 
Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

xd to 26 College avenue, Rochester, N. 7'. 
Ward, Henry B., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Morphology, University of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor., Mich. 
*Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Associate Professor of Physiology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bryn JMawr., Penn. 



272 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Watase, S., B.S., Ph.D. Biology. 

Reader in Cellular Biology, University of Chicago. 

Chicago^ III. 
Wheeler, William ISI. Embryology. 

Instructor in Embryology, University of Chicago. 

CJiicago., III. 
White, Charles D., B.S. Paleobotany and Geology. 

Assistant Palaaontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. National MuscKin, Washington., D.C. 
Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Palaiontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.) Curator of Geolog\^ and 
Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museum of Natural History., 'j'jth street and 
^tli avenue, Nezv York, N. T. 
*WniTMANr, C. O., A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor "Journal of Morphology;" Director of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Holl, Mass. ; Professor of 
Biology, University of Chicago. 

Chicago., III. 
*WiLDER, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zo- 
ology, and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell Uni- 
versity. 

Cornell University Ithaca, N.Y. 
Wilder, Harris H., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Smith College. 

Northampton, Mass. 
WiLLEY, Arthur, B.A. Biology. 

Assistant in Biology, Columl)ia College. 

Nexv York, N Y. 
*WiLLiAMS, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology and PaUeontologv, Cornell University, 
and Assistant Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
*VViLSON, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Adjunct Professor of Biology, Columbia College. 

Columbia College, New York City. 
Wilson, Henry V., A.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Universit\' of North Carolina. 

Chapel Hill, N C. 



LIST OK mi:mi!I-:rs. 273 

Wilson, W. P., U.S., D.Sc. Botaii)-. 

Professor of Physiological Botany, Dcpailiiiciit of Biology, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia^ Pom. 
Wolff, John E., A.B. Petrography. 

Assistant Professor in Petrograpli\ , Harvard University. 

I ^ Story street^ Cambridge^ Mass. 
WooDwoKTii, W^iLi.iAiM M., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor in Microscopical Anatomy, Harvard University. 

149 Brattle street., Cambridge^ J/ass. 
WoRT^LVX, J. L. \"eitel)rate Palaeontology. 

Assistant in Pahvontology, American Museum of Natural 
History. 

A^ezu York, N. T. 
* Wright, R. Ramsay, A.M., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Toronto, Canada. 

B iological Department., University of Toronto., Canada. 
YouMANS, W. J., M.D. Biology. 

Editor of " Popular Science Monthly." 

Office of '•'•Popular Science Mo/ithly.,''' Bond street., Nexu 
York, N. Y. 



Number of honorary members ...... 3 

" " members . . . . . . .180 

Total 1S3 



274 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



ELEVENTH MEETING, PRINCETON, N.J., 
December 28-39, 1S92. 



General sessions held in the Physical Lecture Hall of the John 
C. Green School of Science. 

The American Society of Naturalists held its hrst formal meet- 
ing on Wednesday, December 28, at 2 P.M. 

Under the auspices of the Society, Dr. C. Hart Merriam gave 
an illustrated lecture on "The Death Valley Expedition." The 
lecture was given Tuesday Evening, December 27, at S P.M. 
After the lecture President Patton tendered a reception to the 
members of the Society at his home. 

The Anatomical, Morphological, and Physiological Societies 
held meetings at Princeton at the same time. 



AFTERNOON SESSION. 
Wednesday, December 28, 2 P.M. 

President Osborn in the chair. 

About forty members present. 

President Patton, of Princeton, gave an opening address of 
welcome to the Society. Notification was given that on the next 
day the question of a Table at the Naples Station would be 
brought before the Society for consideration. 

The names of the applicants for membership, recommended 
by the Executive Committee, were posted, and according to usage 
were laid over until the next session of the Society. Miinites of 
meeting of Executive Committee read and accepted. 

The report of the Treasurer was read : 



RECORDS. 275 

Boston, Dec. 24, 1S92. 

\Vii,MAM T. Sp:dgwick, Treasurer, in account with American 
Society of Naturalists. 

Du. 

To balance, as per report December 30, 1891, $715 55 
To (lues for year 1892 . . . . . 153 00 



$868 



.^:5 



Cr. 

Expenses for Year 1892. 

Jan. 5, by expenses of Committee on Science 

Teaching, through \V. N. Rice . . . $20 52 

Feb. 21, by Table at Naples Zoological 

Station, through C. W. Stiles . . . 100 00 

March 3, by expenses of Philadelphia meet- 
ing, H. H. Donaldson, Secretary . . 28 93 

March 10, Thomas Todd, printing of assess- 
ment notices . . . . . . 2 00 

March 10, Charles Hamilton, printing of 
annual meeting notices .... 

May 16, Rockwell & Churchill, printing 
annual records ...... 

May 16, Rockwell & Churchill, printing of 
Report of Science Committee . 

Dec. 24, W. T. Sedgwick, Treasurer, postage 
and stationery ...... 



1 1 


80 


67 


56 


16 


00 


6 


75 



'5.-) :)^ 



Balance $614 99 

William T. Sedgwick, 

Treasurer. 



A committee of two. Professor Libbey and Dr. Rankin, were 
appointed to audit the Treasurer's report. 

Professor Cope suggested that a committee of live be appointed 
by the Chair to consider whether the Anatomical and Morpho- 
logical Societies could not be united into a single body. 



276 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Professor Minot offered an amendment to Professor Cope's mo- 
tion, viz., that a committee be appointed to confer with the Exec- 
uti\ c Committees of tlie other societies, to bring about a closer 
alhliation of the Anatomists and Morphologists. Carried. 

The President appointed Professors Cope, Allen, Minot, 
McMurrich, and Sedgwick on the committee. 

Professor Sedgwick read a report from Professor Clark, Chair- 
man of the Committee on Science Teaching in the Schools. 

The Committee on Science Teaching in the Schools beg leave 
to submit the following report : 

Fi\e himdred copies of their Report for December, 1891, have 
lieen distributed to the Universities, Colleges, and Fitting Schools, 
to the leading papers, and to the educational journals. 

The memorandum voted at the meeting of tJie Association of 
Colleges in New England, held at Brown Univei^sity November, 
1891, was discussed at the meeting of that Association in Novem- 
ber of this year. The recommendations in that memorandum 
were as follows : 

'' I. The introduction of Elementary Natural History into the 
earlier years of the programme as a substantial subject, to be 
taught by demonstrations and practical exercises rather than from 
books. 

" 3. The introduction of Elementary Physics into the later 
years of the programme as a substantial subject, to be taught by 
the experimental or laboratory method, and to include exact 
weighing and measuring by the pupils themselves. 

" 3. The introduction of Elementary Algebra at an age not 
later than twelve years. 

"4. The introduction of Elementary Plane Geometr\' at an age 
not later than thirteen years. 

" 5. The ottering of opportunity to study French, or German, 
or Latin, or anv two of these languages, from and after the age of 
ten years. 

" In order to make room in the j^rogramme for these new suli- 
jects, the Association recommends that the time alloted to Arith- 
metic, Geography, and English Grammar be reduced to whatever 
extent may be necessary. 



RKCORDS. 277 

"The Association makes these recoinmeiulations in the interest 
ot" the pnblic-school system as a whole; hut most ol them are 
otlered more particuhuly in the interest of those children whose 
education is not to he continued bcNond the Grammar School." 

While there w'as considerable diversity in the opinions ex- 
pressed, a lari^e majority were in favor of the several propositions. 
If 1 remember rightly, there were only two who were opposed to 
the j^eneral plan. While your Committee was not otiicially rep- 
resented at that meetin<^, it has urged upon that body, as upon the 
several College Faculties, a consideration of this subject, which 
makes it natural and reasonable to have reported the views of that 
organization here. 

Under the auspices of the National Council of Education a 
committee often, representing the leading colleges and secondary 
schools in diflerent parts of the country, has been formed. This 
committee of ten has appointed nine sub-committees to hold con- 
ferences on the following subjects: i, Latin. 2, Greek. 3, ETng- 
lish. 4, Other modern languages. 5, Mathematics. 6, Physics, 
Astronomy, and Chemistry. 7, Natural History (Biology, in- 
cluding Botany, Zoology, and Physiology). S, History, Civil 
Government, and Political Econoni}-. 9, Geography (Physical 
Geography, Geology, and Meteorology). Each conference is ''to 
consider the proper limits of its subject, the best methods of in- 
struction, the most desirable allotment of time for the subject, and 
the best methods of testing pupils' attainments therein; and each 
conference to represent fairly the different parts of the country." 
The results of these various conferences are to be submitted by the 
committee often to the National Council of Education. 

Your Committee is represented on the conunittee of ten for the 
department of Natural History, whose first meeting takes place 
in Chicago, December 28, 1892. 

It is a pleasure to note the steady growth in extent and vigor of 
our cause in all our educational circles. It is a cause wdiich this 
Society, since its founding, has supported, and which we will, I 
trust, continue to encourage in every possible way, in the more 
difficult work which is to come. 

There has now been awakened a stronger and more widespread 
interest in having science studies introduced in the elementary and 



278 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

high school courses. It is recognized that if this be wisely clone, 
the congested condition of the \vork in High School and College 
will be greatly relieved, the student will be farther advanced in 
the course at any giv-en age, and will possess a better-trained 
mind. 

Better teaching, of course, is much neeiied, but it is an encour- 
aging fact that a larger number of good teachers is available every 
year. We are beginning to see efforts being made to establish 
these improvements in the schools. These attempts need encour- 
agement from every one who is connected with this department of 
work. It is possible for everv member of the Society to do some- 
thing towards furthering the progress of this movement toward 
better things. A great deal may be done by friendly talks with 
Principals, Head-Masters, and Science Teachers in one's own 
neighborhood. 

Your Committee have been doing that in addition to their con- 
certed work, and we would respectfully and earnestly suggest 
that every member of the Society do that much for the cause to 
which all of us give our life work. 

Samuel F. Clarke, 

Chair ?na)i. 

Report accepted and committee continued. 

Professors vSidney Smith, Pillsbury, and Sedgwick reported 
successful results already reached through the etibrts of the Com- 
mittee on Science Teaching. 

The President appointed a Committee for the Election of Offi- 
cers for the ensuing year, as follows: Prof. E. L. Mark, Dr. E. 
A. Andrews, Prof. W. H. Brewer, Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Prof. 
W. T. Sedgwick. 

Addresses on Marine Biological Laboratories were given as 
follows : 

Dr. E. a. Andrews, Johns Hopkins Universitv — "A 
Marine Station in Jamaica." 

Dr. Bashford Deax, Columbia College — "The Marine 
Laboratories of Europe." Illustrated by stereopticon. 

Prof. C. O. Whitman, University of Chicago — '' The Out- 
look for a Marine Observatory at Woods Holl." 



RECORDS. 279 

Prof. Minot moved '' that the Executive Committee he author- 
ized, \vitl\ Dr. Wliitman's permission, to secure reprints of his 
article on 'A Marine Biolo<;ical Observatory at Woods IIoll,' to 
tHstribute to members of the Societv, and to such other persons 
as the committee shall deem advisable." 

INIotion carried unanimously. 

Dr. Stiles reported that during the past year the American 
Table at Naples, toward the support of which the American 
Society of Naturalists had subscribed, had been occupied by 
Prof. E. B. Wilson and Dr. G. W. Field. Dr. Stiles said that 
a memorial had been sent out already, urging the need of such a 
table, and that it had been signed by over one hundred teachers 
of biology. 

Prof. C. O. Whitman presented a motion to the effect that it 
was the opinion of the Society that this country should be repre- 
sented by at least one table at the Naples Zoological Station. 

Professor E. B. Wilson read a letter from Dr. Eisig, of Naples, 
written in answer to inquiries, showing that, since the founda- 
tion of the Naples Laboratory, eleven Americans had occupied 
foreign tables, while only five had occupied American tables. 

Professor Whitman's motion was re-read : 

(i) That it is the opinion of the American Society of Natu- 
ralists that America should be represented by a table at the Naples 
Station. 

(2) That the Society indorse the preamble of the memo- 
rial. 

(3) That the President appoint a committee of three to con- 
vey these resolutions to the Smithsonian Institution. 

Whereas, A memorial, signed by most of the working biolo- 
gists throughout this countrv, is to be presented to the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution, at Washington, D.C., petitioning 
that the Institution support a table at the Zoological Station at 
Naples, Italy, for three or five years ; and 

Whereas, Said Station is in every sense an international in- 
stitution, devoted exclusively to advanced research, and open to 
all countries on the same terms ; and 

Whereas, In the opinion of this Society it is of high impor- 



280 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

tance that American biologists should hav^e the unequalled facili- 
ties of said Station ; and 

Whereas, The representation from America should be placed 
on an official and national basis ; be it 

Resolved (i) That, in the opinion of this Society, this coun- 
try should be continuously represented at said Station by at least 
one table ; and be it 

Resolved (2) That this Society give to the aforesaid petition 
its hearty and unqualified indorsement ; and be it 

Resolved (3) That the President of this Society be empow- 
ered to appoint a committee of three members, who shall have 
power to act for the Society in promoting the above project. 

C. O. Whitman, 
Edm. B. Wilson. 

Motion carried. Committee appointed: C. O. Whitman, 
E. B. Wilson, C. W. Stiles. 
Adjourned. 

Wednesday, S P.M. 

Annual dinner of the Society, in University Hall. 
The President's Address. — Professor Henry F. Osborn, 
Columbia College. 



MORNING SESSION. 
Thursday, December 29, 9.30 A.M. 

Professor Macloskie moved that the Secretar}' be instructed to 
cast the vote of the Society for the applicants recommended by the 
Executive Committee. Carried. 

The following were admitted to membership in tlie Society: 

Howard Ayers, Ph.D., Director of tlie Lake Laboratory. 

J. H. Bamiiart, A.B., Curator Museum Wesleyan University. 

G. N. Calkins, B.S., Assistant Biologist, State Board of 
Health of Massachusetts. 

F. M. Chapman, Assistant Curator Mammalogy antl Orni- 
thology, American Museum Natural History. 



RECORDS. 281 

Basiifokd Deax. Ph.D., Assistant in l^iology, Columbia 
College. 

D. G. Elliot, American Museum of Natural History. 

B. D. Halsted, D.Sc, Botanist and Horticulturist at the 
Agricultural Station, New Brunswick, N.J. 

Ida a. Kellar, Ph.D., Lecturer of Botany, Bryn Mawr 
College. 

Edwin Linton, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Geology and J^iol- 
ogv, Washington and Jefterson College. 

T. P. LoTSV, Ph.D., Fellow by Courtesy, Johns Hopkins 
University. 

J. L Peck, A.NL, Assistant in Biology, ^\'illiams College. 

H. S. Pratt, Ph.D., Holder of Townsend Scholarship, Har- 
vard University. 

J. E. Reighard, Professor of Animal Morphology, Univer- 
sity of Michigan. 

William E. Ritter, A.M., Instructor of Zoology, Univer- 
sity of California. 

J. P. Smith, A.M., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Palasontol- 
ogy, Leland Stanford, Jimior, University. 

O. S. Strong, M.A., Preparator in Biology, Columbia 
College. 

R. Thaxter, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Bot- 
an}^, Harvard University. 

H. H. Wilder, Ph.D., Professor of Biology, Smith College. 

Arthur Willey, B.A., Assistant in Biology, Columbia 
College. 

J. L. WoRTMAN, M.D., Assistant in Palaeontology, American 
Museum of Natural History. 

The committee appointed to consider the question of a closer 
union between the American Society of Naturalists and the Ana- 
tomical, Morphological, Physiological, and Geological Societies 
reported as follows : 

Recommend that the Society of Naturalists invite the Morpho- 
logical, Anatomical, Physiological, and Geological Societies to 
unite with them in a general association of professional naturalists, 
with a common treasury and a common general secretary, and to 
effect a union at the next annual meeting, on terms to be deter- 



282 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

mined by a committee of conference of two from each society. 
The Society of Naturnhsts also suggests that fusion of the Ana- 
tomical and Morphological Societies inight prove advantageous to 
all concerned. 

The report presented by the committee (given above) was 
then discussed by members of the Society. 

Professors Cope, Macloskie, Osborn, Sedgwick, Howell, Mer- 
riam, Libbey, and other members took part. 

It was agreed to consider the report in two pai'ts, the first 
part extending to " The Society of Naturalists also suggest," etc. 

Professor Libbey offered as a substitute to the first part of the 
report this statement : " That a committee be appointed to attempt 
to bring about an affiliation of the Physiological, Morphological, 
Anatomical, and Geological Societies with this bod}-." 

Vote taken by the Society on the amendment. Carried. 

Professor Libbey explained that the indefinite form of the 
motion gave the Executive Committee freedom of action in the 
matter. 

Professor Merriam moved that the matter be referred to the 
Executive Committee with power to act. Carried. 

Second part of Professor Cope's original motion was taken into 
consideration. 

Professor Minot moved that this be also referred to the Execu- 
tive Committee with power to act. Carried. 

The President reports from the Executive Committee that New 
Haven, Conn., is considered the most appropriate place of meet- 
ing for the next — twelfth — annual meeting. 

An amendment to the Constitution, Art. IV., Sec. i, was pro- 
posed by Professor J. Playfair McMurrich and seconded by Pro- 
fessor William Libbey, Jr., as follows: 

After the word " Maryland " the \vord " and" be omitted, and 
after the words " District of Columbia " the words " Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Michigan, and Illinois be inserted." 

After a short discussion, it was agreed to let the motion for 
amendment stand over till the next meeting of the society. 

The committee for nomination of officers for the ensuing year 
reported as follows : 



RECORDS. 283 

Presideni. — R. II. Chittenden, New Haven, Conn. 
Vice- Prcsi Jen fs. — Geokge Bauu, Chicai^o, 111. 

William H. Dall, Washinii^ton. D.C. 

William Libbev, Jr., Princeton, N.J. 
Secretary. — T. H. Morgan, Bryn Mavvr, Pa. 
Treasurer. — W. T. Sedgwick, Boston, Mass. 
Committee at Large. — W. G. Farlow, Cainbridge, Mass. 
John A. Ryder, Philadelphia, Pa. 

E. L. Mark, 
CJiairman Coiiwiittce on Nominatio)i. 

It was moved that the Secretary be instructed to cast the ballot 
for the above officers. Carried. 

It was moved that the place of meeting of the Society for 1893 
be left to the decision of Executive Committee. Carried. 

Special reports were then heard. 

" The Summer Work of the United States Fish Commission 
Schooner ' Grampus,'" Professor William Libbey, Jr., Princeton 
College. 

*■' Expeditions of the American Museum of Natural History 
into New Mexico, Wyoming, and Dakota," Dr. J. L. Wortman, 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Report of a recent PalcEontological Expedition, Professor E. D. 
Cope. 

The committee appointed to audit the Treasurer's report 
announced : 

The undersigned, having examined the account-book of W. T. 
Sedgwick, Treasurer American Society of Naturalists, and having 
compared the accounts with the vouchers submitted, report that 
they find the accounts correct. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William Libbey, Jr., 
Walter M. Rankin. 

A report was read from Professor Wilder, of Cornell, in which 
he drew the attention of the Committee on Science Teaching to 
the fact that examinations in Ph3'siology had long been required 
for admission to Cornell University. Typical examination papers 
were also submitted. 



284 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



THIRD SESSION. 

Thursday, December 29, 2 P.M. 

Annual discussion. 

Subject: "■What were the Former Areas and Relations of the 
American Continent, as determined by Faunal and Floral Distri- 
bution .'' " 

" Introduction and Evidences from Fast and Present Distribu- 
tion of Mammals" — Professor W. B. Scott, Princeton College. 

" Evidence from the Distribution of Birds " — Professor J. A. 
Allen, American Museum of Natural History. 

" Evidence from the Distribution of Plants " — Dr. N. L. 
Britton, Columbia College. 

In the general discussion that followed the reports, the tollo^v- 
ing members took part : 

Professors Libbey, Merriam, Cope, Osborn, Morse, Brewer, 
Conn, Sedgwick, McMurrich, Ryder. 

Professor Sedgwick moved that the Societv extend to the local 
committee, to the Nassau Club, and to the officers of Princeton 
College, thanks for their hospitable reception and entertainment 
of the Societ\'. Carried unanimously. 

The society adjourned until the next annual meeting. 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first'vohune of the Records of 
the American Society of Jfatiiralists ivill be distributed 
to inemhers, and to persons and societies designated hy 
the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid . 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of any 
errors hv the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherwise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-Law II. 



.1" Ilockuoll and Cliurcliill, Hostoii. 



lOJp ' 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS 



VOLUME I 

PART ELEVEN. 



BOSTON : 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 

1894. 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I 

PART ELEVEN. 



BOSTON : 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY 

I 894. 



RECORDS. 



MAY 21 1900 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOK 1894. 



President, C. S. Mi not. 

rW. H. Dall, 
Vice-Presidents, -| William Libbey, Jr., 

(.Sidney I. Smith. 
Secretary, VV. A. Setchell. 
Treasurer, E. G. Gardiner. 



Members of the Executive Coinniittee elected from the 
Society at large. 

H. F. OsBORN. C. W. Stiles. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D., Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Yale University. 

Tale University., Nexv Haven ^ Conn. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 

907 Walmd street, Philadelphia, Petzn. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Yale University. 

8 Peabody Mnseiun, New Haven, Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original niembership. J 



*Allen, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

1933 Chestnut sircet, Philadelphia., Penn. 
Allen, J. A., Ph.D. Mammalogy aiul Ornithology. 

Curator of the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, New York. 

77^^^ street and ^th avenue^ Nexv Tork^ N. 1^. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. Biology. 

Associate Editor of the "Journal of Morphology." 

Milwaukee. Wis. 
Andrews, E. A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor in Biologv, Jt)hns Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins University ., Baltimore, Md. 
Ayers, Howard, Ph.D. Biology. 

Director Lake Paboratory., Milwaukee^ His. 
Barnhart, John H., A.B., A.M. Biology. 

Par/-]' town., JV. P. 
Barton, B. W., M.D. Botany. 

Instructor in Botany, Johns Hopkins University- 

University Chib, Charles street., Baltimore, Md. 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Vertebrate Palaeontology. 

Assistant Professor of Comparative Osteologv and Palaeon- 
tology, University of Chicago 

University of Chicago., Chicago, III. 
*Bickmore, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museum, Central Park, N.T. 
BiGELOW, R. P., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Instructor in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 287 

Bolton, H. Cakringtox, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

Lhilversity Chib^ Netv Tork City. 
*B()\\ DITCH, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston,, Mass. 
Branner, John Casper, A.M., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Leland Stanford Junior University. 

Palo Alto., Cal. 
Brewer, William H., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale University. 

41 S Orang-c street., New Haven, Conn. 
*Brush, G. J. Mineralogy. 

Director, Sheffield Scientific School. 

IVeiv Haven, Conn. 
BuMPus, H. C, Ph.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

Associate Professor of Zoology, Brown University. 

Brown University., Providence, R.I. 
Bush, Katharine J. • Zoology. 

Assistant in Peabody Museum of Yale University. 

New Haven, Conn. 
Calkins, G. N.,'B.S. Biology. 

Cohi?nbia College, Nexu York, N. T. 
Campbell, John P., Ph.D. Physiology. 

•Professor of Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 
Casey, Thomas L. Entomology. 

Captain, U.S. Engineer Corps. 

U.S. Army Building, Nezu Tork, NT. 
Chapman, Frank M. Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

Assistant Curator, American Museum of Natural History. 

77//^ street and Sth avenue. New Tork, N. T 
Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 

S3 Trumbull street, Nezv Haven, Conn. 
CoE, Wesley R., Ph.B. Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology, Yale University. 

New Haven, Conn. 
Clark, William B., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Associate in Palaeontology, Johns Hopkins Universitv. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Aid. 



288 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*Ci.ARKE, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 

Williamstown^ Mass. 
*CoNN, H. W., Ph.D. Zoology; Bacteriology. 

Professor of Biology, Wesleyan University. 

Middletown^ Conn. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Vertebrate Palgeontology and Zoolosry. 

Professor of Vertebrate Palaeontology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

2I02 Pine street., Philadelphia.! Penn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 

i"] 26 II street, Washington., D.C. 
Dall, William Healk:y. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator 
Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithso7tian htstitutioiz., Washington., D. C. 
Davenport, Charles B., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard University. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
Dean, Bashford, Ph.D. Vertebrate Zo5logy. 

Assistant in Biology. 

Coluffibia College., New York., N. Y. 
*DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology, 

Canobie Lake., N.H. 
DoLLEY, Charles S. Biology. 

Professor of Natural History in Swarthmore College. 

Woodland avenue., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*DoNALDSON, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Neurology, University of Chicago. 

Chicago., III. 
*DuDLEY, W. R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Leland Stanford Junior University. 

Palo Alto, Cal. 
DwiGHT, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Parkman Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

235 Beacon street., Boston., Mass. 
*DwiGHT, William B., A.B., A.M., Ph.B. Palaeontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 
Vassar College. 

Vassar College., Poughkeepsie., N. T. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 289 

Eaton, Daniel C, M.A. Uotjiny. 

Professor of Botany, Yale University. 

70 Sachevi street^ Nexu Haven, Conn. 
Edwards, Ciias. L., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, University of Texas. 

Austin, Texas. 
Elliot, D. G. Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

American Museum Natural History, Nezv I'ork, N. T. 
*Emerson, B. K., Ph.D. Geology and Mineralogy. 

Professor of Geology, Amherst College. 

Amherst, Mass. 
*Emertox, James II. Zoology. 

II St. James avenue, Boston, Mass. 
Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Assistant Professor of Bacteriology, Plarvard Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
EvAxs, Alexander W., Ph.B., M.D. Botany. 

House Surgeon, New Haven Hospital. 

13 High street. New Haven, Conn. 
*Farlovv, Wm. G., A.B., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Fernald, C. H., A.m., Ph.D. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Zoology, Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Amherst, Mass. 
Fernald, Henry T., M.S., Ph.D. Morphology. 

Professor of Zoology, Pennsylvania State College. 

State College, Centre Co., Penn. 
Ferris, Harry B. Anatomy. 

Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Yale Medical School. 

Nexv Haven, Conn. 
Fewkes, J. Walter. Ethnology. 

73 Pitickney street, Boston, Mass. 
Field, George Wilton, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. Morphology. 

Associate Professor of Cellular Biology. 

Brown University., Providence, R.I. 
Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assistant, Jetierson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophthalmic Surgeon to Germantov.-n Hospital. 

1304 Walnut street, PhiladelpJiia, Penn. 



290 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Fkothingham, Langdon, M.D.V. Bacteriology. 

Assistant in Veterinary Science and Bacteriology, Yale 
University. 

z Hill Jioiise avenue^ Nexv Havcn^ Conn. 
Fuller, George W., S.B. Bacteriology. 

Chief Assistant-Biologist, State Board of Health of Massa- 
chusetts. 

I^azurence, Mass. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Associate Professor of Phvsiologv and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca^ N. T. 
Ganong, Wm. Francis. Biology. 

119 Oxford street., Cambridge^ Mass. 
Gardiner, Edward G., S.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

12 Otis place., Boston., Mass. 
Gardiner, Frederic, A.B., i\.M. Biology. 

Instructor in Natural Science, Trinity College. 

Pomfret., Coiin. 
*Gerrish, Frederic Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

675 Congress street., Portland., Me. 
*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington., D.C. 
*GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard University. 

10 Craigie street., Cambridge., Mass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown, A.M., Pli.D. Zoology. 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge 
of the U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Insiitutiotz., Washington., D. C. 
Gkatacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

77^^ street and Sth avenue., Nexv Tork^ N. T. 
•Greenleaf, R. W., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

561 Boylston street., Boston., Mass. 
Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

343 Madison avenue., Nexv 2'ork., N. T. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 29 1 

ITagite, Arnoi.p. Geoloi^y and Petro<^ra|5hy. 

Geologist, U.vS. (Geological Survey. 
(/.S. Geological Survey^ Washington^ D.C. 
*IIai.i., Jamks M. S., A.m., M.D., LL.D. Geology, Palaeon- 
tology. 
vState Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 

of Natural History. 
State Mil sen VI ^ Albany^ N. )'. 
Hai.sted, Byron D., D.Sc. Botany. 

Botanist and Horticulturist, Agricultural Experiment Station. 
A^ew Bninszvick^ N.J. 
Hake, Hobart Amokv, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Therapeutics in Jeti'erson Medical College of 

Philadelphia. 
zzz South Fifteenth street.^ J'hiladclphia, I^cnu. 
Hargitt, Charles W., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Syracuse University. 
Syracuse University., Syracuse., N. T. 
Harrison, Ross Granville, A.B. Animal Morphology. 

Fellow of Johns Hopkins University. 
Baltiniore., Md. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Palaeontology at, and Curator in 
Charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Henchman, Annie P. Zoology. 

8 Frisbie place., Cambridge., Mass. 
*Hensha\v, Samuel. Zoology. 

Secretary, Boston Society of Natural History. 
Boston Society of Natural History., Boston., Mass. 
Herrick, F. H., A.B., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Adelbert College. 
Adelbert College., Cleveland., O. 
Hill, Frank A. Geology. 

Geologist in Charge, Anthracite District, State Survey of 

Pennsylvania, 
loii South 48/// street, Philadelphia, Penn. 



292 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

*HiTCncocK, C. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover^ N.H. 
Hodge, Clifton F., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Clark University. 

Worcester^ Mass. 
Hough, Theodore, B.A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Physiology, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology., Bostotz., Afass. 
Howell, William H., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology.' 

Professor of Phjsiology, Johns Hopkins University. 

yohns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 
*Hyatt, Alpheus, S.B. Palaeontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Assistant 
in Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, Mass. 

Boston Society of Natural History., Boston., Mass. 
Iddings, Joseph P., Ph.B. Geology and Petrography. 

Associate Professor of Geology, University of Chicago. 

University of Chicago. 
Ives, J. E. Invertebrate Zoology. 

Assistant to the Curator in Charge of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Pa. 
Jackson, Robert Tracy, S.B., S.D, Zoology and Palaeon- 
tology. 

33 Gloucester street., Boston., Mass. 
Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertebrata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

1826 Chestnut street., Philadelphia^ Penn. 
Johnson, Herbert P., A.M. Biology. 

University of Chicago. 
Jordan, David Starr. Biology. 

President of Leland Stanford Junior University. 

Palo Alto., Cal. 
Jordan, Edwin O., S.B., Ph.D. Biology. 

Tutor in Anatomy, University of Chicago. 

Chicago, III. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 293 

* Jur.iEN, Ar.Exis A., Ph.D. Hiology and Pctrocrraphy. 

Instructor in Biology and Microscop}-, School of Mines, 

Columbia College. 
Sc/iool of Mines ^ Colinnbia College^ New Tork^ N. T. 
Keith, Simeon C, Jr. 

Assistant in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technologs-. 
Alassachusetts Institute of Technology^ Boston., Mass. 
Kellar, Ida A., Ph.D. Botany. 

Academy of Natural Science., Philadelphia, Penn. 
KiNGSLEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor Zoology, Tufts College. 
College Hill., Mass. 
Knowltox, Frank H., M.S. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Sufvey. Washington., D.C. 
Lane, Al?red Church, A.M., Ph.D. Petrography and 

Geolog)'. 
Instructor in Petrography and Geology, Michigan Mining 

School, and Assistant on Michigan Geological Surv'ey. 
Houghton., Mich. 
Lee, F. S., A.M., Ph.D. ■ Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Physiology, Columbia College, Medical 

Department. 
College of Physicians and Surgeons., New Tork City. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 
B7'unswick., Me. 
Lee, Thomas G., B.S., M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Histology and P^mbryology, University of Min- 
nesota. 
Min n eapolis , Min n . 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Archae- 
ology. 
Princeton., N.J. 
Linton, Edv^in, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Washington andjetierson 

College. 
Washington., Penn. 



294 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

LoTsv, T. P., Ph.D. Botany. 

Associate, Johns Hopkins University. 
Baltimore^ Md. 
Lucas, Frederic A. Avian Osteology. 

Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, U.S. Na- 
tional Museum. 
Washington^ D. C. 
LusK, Graham, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology, Yale Medical School. 
Neiv Haven^ Conn. 
Macfarlane, John M., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Biology, University of Pennsylvania. 
Lansdowne^ Penn.., or Department of Biology., University 
of Pennsylvania., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 
Princeton., N.f. 
Mai.l, F. p., M.D. Histology and Vertebrate Embryology. 

Professor of Anatomy, Johns Hopkins University. 
fohns Hopkins University., Baltimore.^ Md. 
Mark, Edward L., A.M., Ph.D. 

Hersey Professor of Anatomy, Harvard University. 
21 North avenue., Cambridge^ Afass. 
*Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 
College P/ill, Mass. 
*Martin, H. Newei.l, A.m., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physi- 
ology. 
Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge. 
Cambridge., England. 
McCi.URE, Chari.es F. W., A.B. Embryology and Vertebrate 

Morphologv. 
Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 
Princeton., N.f. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U. S. Geological Survey., Washington^ D. C. 
McMuKKicH, J. Playfair, A.m., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 
Professor of Biology, University of Cincinnati. 
Cincinnati^ Ohio. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 295 

* Meehax, Thomas. Botany. 

Botanist to the i*enns\lvani;i .State Board of A<4iiciilture ; 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

Germantow)i . Pent/. 
Meltzer, vS. J., M.D. Physiology. 

66 East 1 2^t/i street^ New York City. 
Mendel, Lafayette B., Ph.D. Pliysiology. 

Assistant in Ph} siological Chemistry, ^'ale University. 

Neiv Haven., Conn. 
*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of ?2conomic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary of 
the American Ornithologists' Union. 

Washington., D. C. 
*Merrili., F. J. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Assistant State Geologist, State Museum. 

Albany, N. 1^. 
*Merrill, George P., M.S. Lithology. 

Curator, Department of Geology, II. S. National Museum. 

National Museum, Washington, D. C. 
Mills, T. Wesley, M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Physiology, McGill University. 

Cote St. Antoine, Montreal, Canada. 
*MiNOT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Professor of Histology and Human Embryology, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Haivard Medical School, Boston, Mass. 
MixTER, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatomy. 

180 Marlborough street, Boston, Mass. 
Morgan, Thos. Hunt, B.S., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor of Biology, Bryn Mavvr College. 

Bryn Mawr, Penn. 
*MoRSE, Edward S., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Salem, Mass. 
MiJNSTERBERG, HuGO, M.D., Ph.D. Psychology. 

Professor of Experimental Psychology, Harvard University. 

38 ^uincy street, Cambridge, Mass. 



296 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Nichols, Herbert, Ph.D. Psychology. 

Instructor in Psychology, Harvard University. 
12 Kir Hand f lace ^ Caitibridge^ Mass. 

NiCKERSON, WiNFIELD S., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Harvard College. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
*NiLES, William H., Ph.B., A.M. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology., Bosfo?t^ Mass. 
O'Grady, Marcella I., S.B. 

Professor of Biology, Vassar College. 

Vassar College, Poughkeepsie^ JV. 7'^. 
Oliver, Charles A., A.M., M.D. Special Sense Morphology 

and Physiology. 

Surgeon to Wills Eye Hospital and Ophthalmic Surgeon to 
the Presbyterian Hospital. 

1507 Locust street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*OsBORN, Henry Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Da Costa Professor of Biology, Columbia College, Curator 
of Department of Mammalian Palaeontology, American 
Museum of Natural History, N.Y. 

American Mtcseiun of Natiiral History., New York City. 
Osterhout, WiNTHROP J. V., A.B. Botany. 

Instructor in Botany, Brown University. 

Brown University., Providence., R.I. 
♦Packard, A. S., A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Zo()logy. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Broxvn University., Providence., R.I. 
Patten, William, B.S., Ph.D., A.M. 

Professor of Zoology, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover., N.H. 
Parker, George Howard, S.B., S.D. Animal Morphology, 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard University. 

8 Harris street., North Cafnbridge., Mass. 
*Peale, a. C, A.M., M.D. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Washington^ D. C. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 297 

Peck, Jamks I., A.M. Zc>o\o<i;y. 

Assistant in Biology, Williams CoUeLfe. 
Wi//iamstozvti, Mass. 
*Peckham, George \V., M.D. l^iology. 

Teacher of Biology, Milwaukee High School. 
646 Marsliall street, Milwartkcc, W/'s. 
Penfield, Samuel L., Ph.B. Mineralogy. 

Assistant Professor of Mineralogy, Yale University. 
Peabody Aluseum^ New Haven.^ Conn. 
Phillips, Alexander H., S.B. Vertebrate Anatomy. 

Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 
Princeto/i., N.J. 
*PiLLSBURV, J. H. Biology. 

50 Mattoon street., Springfield., Mass. 
Pratt, Henry S., Ph.D. Zoolog\'. 

Instructor in Biology, Haverford College. 
Haverford., Pa. 
*Prentiss, a. N., S.M. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Plorticiilture, and Arboriculture, Cor- 
nell University. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 
Prosser, Charles S., S.M. Geology and Palasontology. 

Professor of Geology, Washburn College. 
Topeka., Kan. 
*PuTNAM, Frederick W. Arclucology and Ethnology. 

Peabody Professor of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Harvard University ; Curator of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, in connection with Harvard 
University ; Permanent Secretarv of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; and Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 
Peabody Museum., Cambridge., Mass. 
Rankin, Walter M., A.M., M.Sc, Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Curator of Museum, Princeton 

College. 
60 University place^ Princeton., N.J. 
*Rathbun, Richard, S.M. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Muscimi. 
U.S. Fish Com7nission., Washington., D.C. 



298 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Reichart, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 

University of Peniisylva)iia^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
Reighard, Jacob E. Morphology. 

Professor of Animal Morphology, University of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor ^ Mich. 
*RicE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D, Geology. 

Professor of Geologv, Wesleyan University. 

Middietoivn., Conn. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Biology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agricnltnre, and 
Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 

S/mbuiy., Wyoming avenue., Washington., D.C. 
RrrxER, William E., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor of Zoology, University of California. 

Berkeley., Cal. 
*RoTHROCK, J. T., M.D., B.S. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 

West Chester., Chester Co.., Penn. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Suj'vey., Washington, D.C. 
Ryder, John A., Ph.D. Embryology. 

Professor of Comparative Embryology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Sargent, Charles S. Botany. 

Professor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline., Mass. 
ScHivELY, Mary A. Zoology. 

Teacher of Zoolog}^, Friends' School, Fifteenth and Race 
streets, Philadelphia. 

Academy of Natural Sciences., Philadelphia., Penii. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and PahBontology, Princeton College. 

Priitceton., N.J. 
Scripture, Edward W., Ph.D. Psychology. 

Instructor in Experimental Psychology, Yale University. 

NcVO Haven., Conn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 299 

*ScuDDER, S. II., S.B., A.M. Entomology and Pahcontology. 
Pahuontologist, U.vS. Geological Survey. 
CatJibridge^ Mass. 
♦Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Chief Biologist of the State Board of Health of Massa-. 
chusetts. 
Massachusetts Institute of Tech nolo oy, Boston, Mass. 
Setchell, William A., A.B., Ph.D. Botany. 

Assistant in Biology, Yale University. 
Tale Univei-sity., 'New Haven., Conn. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, Academy of Natural 

Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D., C.M.Z.S. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 
Captain, Medical Department, U.S.A. 
Pakoma^ D. C. 
Smith, Herbert E., Ph.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Chemistry, Yale Medical School. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Smith, John B. Entomology. 

Professor of Entomology. Entomologist to the College Ex- 
periment Station. 
New Brtinsxvick, N.J. 
Smith, James Perrin, A.M., Ph.D. Palaiontology. 

Associate Professor of Paleontology, Leland Stanford Junior 

University. 
Palo Alto, Cal. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 
Box 4 1 8, Colorado Springs, Col. 
*Smith, Sidney I., Ph.B. Biology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale University. 
147 Whalley avenue. New Haven, Conn. 
Stiles, Charles W., Ph.D. Parasitology. 

Medical Zoologist, Bureau of Animal Industry, Department 

of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 
Washington, D.C. 



300 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Sthong, Oliver S., M.A. Biology. 

Preparator in Biology, Columbia College. 

New York, N.T. ^ 
TiiAXTER, Roland, Ph.D. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

3 Scott street^ Cajnbridge^ Mass. 
TiL'roN, John L., A.B. Biology. 

Professor of Natural Science, Simpson Centenary College. 

I/idia/io/a^ la. 
*True, Frederick VV., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
TucKERMAN, FREDERICK, M.D., B.Sc. Anatomy. 

Amherst^ Mass. 
TuTTLE, Albert H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Virginia, Va. 

Charlottesville., Va. 
*TyLER, J. M., A.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 

Amherst^ Mass. 
Verrill, a. E., A.m.. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale University. 

86 Whalley avenue, New Haven., Conn. 
*Wadsworth, M. E., A.m., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Petrography, 

and Geology. 

Director of the Michigan Mining School, and Professor of 
Mineralogy, Petrography, and Geology ; also State Geolo- 
gist of Michigan. 

Michigan Mining School., Houghtoji., Mich. 
*VValcott, C. D. PalcBontology and Geology. 

Pakeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palceozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

National Museum., Washington., D. C. 
Ward, Henry A., A.M. Natund Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

\G to 26 College averiue., Rochester ., N. T. 
Ward, Henry B., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Associate Professor of Zoology, University of Nebraska. 

University of Nebraska., Lincoln, Neb. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 30r 

♦Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Associate Professor of Physiology, Biyn Mavvr College. 
Bryn Maxvr^ Poin. 
Watase, S., B.S., Ph.D. Biology. 

Reader in Cellular Biology, University of Chicago. 
Chicago, III. 
Wheeler, William M. E!nl)ryology. 

Instructor in Embryology, University of Chicago. 
Chicago, III. , 

White, Charles D., B.S. Paheobotany and Geology. 

Assistant Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U. S. National Museum, Washii/gton, D. C. 
Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Paheontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.) Curator of Geology and 

Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 
Americaji Museum of Natural Histoty, ^"jth street and 
Sth avemie. New Tork, N'. T". 
* Whitman, C. O., A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor " Journal of Morphology ; " Director of the Maiine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Holl, Mass. ; Professor of 
Bioiogv, University of Chicago. 
Chicago, III. 
*WiLDER, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comparative Anatomy, and Zo- 
ology, and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell Uni- 
versitv. 
Cornell University , Ithaca, N. T. 
Wilder, Harris H., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Smith College. 
No rth a mp ton. Mass . 
WiLLEY, Arthur, B.A. . Biology. 

Assistant in Biology, Columbia College. 
New York, N T. 
♦Williams, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology, Yale University, and Assistant Geolo- 
gist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Tale University, Nexv Haven, Conn. 
*WiLSON, Edmund B., Ph.B., Pli.D. Animal Morphology. 
Adjunct Professor of Biology, Columbia College. 
Columbia College, Nexv York City. 



302 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Wilson, Henry V., A.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Uiiiv^ersity of North Carolina. 

Chapel Hill, N.C. 
Wilson, W. P., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Physiological Botany, Department of Biology, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, Perm. 
Wolff, John E., A.B. Petrography. 

Assistant Professor in Petrography, Harvard University. 

I ^ Story street, Cambridge, Alass. 
WooDWORTH, William M., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor in Microscopical Anatomy, Harvard University. 

149 Brattle street, Cambridge, Afass. 
WoRTMAN, J. L. Vertebrate Palaeontology. 

Assistant in Palaeontology, American Museum of Natural 
History. 

JVew York, N. T. 
Wright, James Homer, A.B., M.D. Pathology, Bacteriology. 

Assistant in Pathology, Harvard Medical School. 

38 St. Botolph street, Boston, Mass. 
*Wright, R. Ramsay,- A.m., B.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Toronto, Canada. 

Biological Department, University of Toronto, Canada. 
YouMANS, W. J., M.D. Biology. 

Editor of " Popular Science Moiiihly." 

Office of '''•Popular Science Monthly," Bond street. New 
York, N. Y. 



Number of honorary members ...... 3 

" " members ....... 19S 

Total ......... 201 



RECORDS. 303 



TWELFTH MEETING, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 
December 27-2S, 1893. 



The American Society of Naturalists met on Wednesday after- 
noon, December 27, and Thursday morning, December 28. 

These meetings were held in Osborn Hall of Yale University. 

The American Physiological Society held its sixth annual 
meeting in New Haven on December 28 and 39. 

The American Morphological Society held its meetings in 
New Haven on December 28 and 29. 

The programme of the American Society of Naturalists was 
as follows : 

Wednesday, December 27, 2.30 P.M. Meeting in Osborn 
Hall for the following General Business : 
I. Report of committees. 
II. Special reports. 

III, Recommendation of new members. 

IV. Discussion as to the possibility of a closer union of 
the affiliated societies with the Society of Naturalists. 

V. Discussion of the advisability of extending the terri- 
tory in which meetings of the Society may be held. 

Wednesday, 8 P.M. Illustrated Lecture in ^Osborn Hall, by 
Professor Leslie A. Lee, of Bowdoin College. Subject: 
Labrador and Patagonia ; a comparative study. 

Wednesday, 9 P.M. Immediately following the lectiue a 
Reception was given to the members of the Society of 
Naturalists and of the affiliated societies, by President and 
Mrs. Dwight. 

Thursday, December 28, 9.30 A.M. General Session. 
I. Election of new members. 
II. Election of officers for 1S94. 
III. Other business that may arise. 



304 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

TiiUHSDAV, 10.30 A.M. Annual Discussion. Subject: Recent 
Discoveries regarding the Cell. (Addresses limited to 30 
minutes each.) 

I. Presentation of the subject from the chemico-physio- 
logical side. (President's address.) 

Prof. R. H. Chittenden, Tale University. 
II. Consideration of the subject from the botanical side. 
Prof. W. P. Wilson, University of Penfi. 

III. Consideration of the subject from the zoological side. 

Prof. E. L. Mark, Harvard University. 

IV. General Discussion. 

Thursday, 7.30 P.M. Illustrated Lecture by Professor W. 

Libbey, Jr. Subject: Hawaii. 
Thursday, 8 P.M. Annual Dinner of the Society of Natu- 
ralists and affiliated societies at the New Haven House. 

The minutes of the meeting were as follows: 

President Chittenden in the chair. 

About forty-five members present. 

The minutes of the meeting of the Executive Committee, held 
in Boston, were read by the Secretary: 

The Executive Committee of the American Society of Natu- 
ralists met in Boston on June 6, 1S93. Three members were 
present. Professor Chittenden, Professor Farlow, and Dr. 
Morgan. 

Final arrangements were made to meet in New Haven on 
Wednesday afternoon, Dec. 37, 1S93, and Thursday morning, 
December 28. 

The annual dinner was fixed for Thursday evening. 

It was arranged that the afternoon session on Wesdnesday 
should be devoted to the business of the Society, and that the 
morning session on Thursday should be given up to a discussion 
of recent discoveries regarding the cell. 

It was thought advisable by the committee not to take any defi- 
nite action in regard to a closer union of the Naturalists with 
the affiliated societies, but to refer the matter back to the Society 
of Naturalists. The committee recommended., however, that 
a committee be appointed from the Naturalists to confer with 
two members from each of the affiliated societies, to consider 
wheliier it ^vas advisable to have a closer union with these 



RECORDS. 305 

societies. The committee also recommended that the Presi- 
dent of the Society of NaturaUsts ask the other societies to 
appoint sncli committees of conference. 

The Treasurer's report was read : 

TREASURER'S REPORT, 1893. 

Boston, Dec. 26, 1893. 
W. T. Sedgwick, Treasurer^ in account with American Soci- 
ety of Naturalists. 

Dr. 

To balance, as per report Dec. 2'$)^ 1892 . . . $614 99 

To dues for year 1S93 . . . . . . 160 00 



Cr. 
By Expenses for Year 1S93. 

Dec. 39, 1S92, T. H. Morgan, Secretary, 

expenses printing . . . . . $31 35 

Dec. 29, 1892, S. F. Clarke, expenses Sci- 
ence Conunittee ..... 

Jan. 5, 1893, postage, W. T. S. . 

Jan. 13, 1893, postage, W. T. S. 

Feb. 28, 1893, Thos. Todd, printing re- 
ceipts ....... 

March 10, 1893, D. Appleton & Co., print- 
ing 

Ma}^ I, T. H. Morgan, Secretary, expenses, 

printing, etc. ...... 

July 12, Rockwell & Churchill (records) 

Oct. 26, postage, W. T. S. 

Dec. 36, T. H. Morgan, Secretary, ex- 
penses ..... . . 5 05 



6 


00 


5 


00 


2 


CO 


3 


00 


31 


90 


30 


30 


53 


41 


3 


00 



$774 99 



149 91 



Balance $625 oS 

Wm. T. Sedgwick, 

Treasurer. 



306 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

A committee to audit the account was appointed by the Presi- 
dent. Professors Verrill and McMurrich were placed on the 
committee. 

The names of candidates for admission to memhership in the 
Society were posted. A committee to nominate oHicer* for the 
ensuing year was appointed, consisting of Professors Bowditch, 
Farlow, Thaxter, Libbey, and Howell. 

President Chittenden called for the report of the committee ap- 
pointed to consider the possibility of a closer union of the affili- 
ated societies with the Society of Naturalists. 

The report was as follows : 

The following members of the '• Affiliation Committee " met 
at Osborn hall, New Haven, Conn., on Dec. 27, 1S93 : 

C. S. Minot, W. Libbey, Jr., representing the '■ Naturalists." 

S. I. Smith, representing the " Morphologists." 

J. G. Curtis, W. P. Lombard, representing the " Physiolo- 
gists." 

It was unanimously voted to recommend the affiliation of the 
societies represented, and of the Society of Anatomists, on the fol- 
lowing terms, viz. : 

L The affiliated societies shall elect each its own members, 
but none but " professionals" shall be eligible to anv one of them. 

Election to any one of the affiliated societies shall carry with 
it membership in the "Naturalists" society. 

II. The common fiuul shall be held bv the treasury of the 
Society of Naturalists, said fund to be used for common purposes ; 
each society to be free to levy special assessments on its own 
special meml>ers, collect and expend the same. 

The administrative expenses connected with calling and hold- 
ing all meetings, whether general or special,. of all the societies, 
shall be considered common purposes in the abcne sense. 

III. The meetings of the afliliated societies to be held at the 
same time and place ; these to be determined by a committee to 
consist of the presidents of the affiliated societies, ex officio^ with 
the Executive Committee of the Naturalists. 

IV. The only official publication to be paid for out of the com- 
mon fund shall be one comprising the constitutions, by-laws, and 
lists of members of all the aifiliated societies, together with the 
Secretary's records of the meetings, whether regular or special, 
of all the societies. 



RECORDS. 307 

V. The affiliated societies reserve the right to form or main- 
tain otlier atliliations, to meet at such other times and places, and 
to issue such additional publications, as they may severally deter- 
mine. 

This report was discussed by the foUowin;^ mcm])ers : Pro- 
fessors Mark, Minot, Rice, McMurrich, Libbey, Bowditch, 
S. I. Smith, Conn, Chittentleu, Stiles. 

The main points discussed and the general results decided upon 
were as follows : 

It was intended that a common treasurer for all the societies 
should hold the common treasury. 

Expenses of meetings other than those of the Christmas meet- 
ings were to be met bv tlie common treasury. The amount of 
money held at present by each society was to continue the 
property of that society. 

That a report of the proceedings of all of the afhliated societies 
was to be published in the Records of the Society of Naturalists. 

Professor Minot proposed that a copy of the resolutions of the 
AfKliation Committee be presented to the Geological Society, with 
a request to join the affiliated societies. 

The report of the Affiliation Committee was accepted by the 
Society after a few verbal changes had been made. Professor 
Mark moved : That the Executive Committee make such altera- 
tions of the Constitution as the vote just passed necessitates, and 
submit them during the present meeting, to be adopted by the 
Society; but to go into etiect when the proposed plan of affilia- 
tion is accepted by one or more of the following societies: So- 
ciety of Anatomists, Society of Physiologists, and Society of 
Morphologists. 

The resignation of the following members was accepted by the 
Society: S. F. Emmons, W. M. Davis, N. S. Shaler. 

At the request of the President, Dr. Stiles reported that the 
Naples Table, towards which the Society at one time subscribed, 
had had a most successful year, and promised to be a great ser- 
vice to American naturalists. The table had been continuously 
occupied, and applications for a year ahead had been already 
received. 

It was pointed out by the Secretary that no record had been 
kept by the Society of the deaths of its members. It was voted 



308 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

by the Society that a hst of the deceased members be made out 
by the Secretary and pubbshed in the Records.' 

The Treasurer in his report called the attention of the Society 
to the fact that there existed in the treasury the sum of $635.08, 
an amount far exceeding- the necessities of the Society. The 
Treasurer suggested that $500 of this amount might profitably be 
given by the Society towards the advancement of some scien- 
tific undertaking. 

Professor Minot suggested that, since the Marine Laboratory 
at Woods Holl was an institution doing much good to natural- 
historv studies in this country, the amount would be well placed 
and fill a great need if turned over to that institution. 

The question was raised and discussed whether the donation, 
if given, had better be given without limitations, or whether for a 
specific purpose. The latter suggestion seemed to meet with the 
approval of the Society. 

Professors Andrews, Libbey, Brewer, Stiles, S. I. Smith, 
Farlow, Mark, spoke in regard to this matter. 

It was finally voted : That the sum of $500 be given as an en- 
doxumcnt to the library of the Marine Biological Laboratory at 
Woods Holl, Mass. 

Professor Minot spoke in regard to the duty, at present de- 
manded, on imported microscopes and other strictly scientific 
instruments. 

Professor Minot moved that a committee be appointed to con- 
sider the matter and report results to the Society. 

Carried. Committee appointed: Professors Minot, Brewer, 
Andrews. 

Society adjourned. 

SECOND SESSION. 

Thursday Morning, December 28, 1S93. 

A meeting of the Executive Committee was called to meet 
before the regular meeting of the Society. Three members pres- 
ent. The two following resolutions were passed : 

"The Executive Committee after careful consideration deem it 
inadvisable at the present time to recommend any change in Sect. 
1, Art. IV., of the Constitution, referring to those States where 

' It has not been possible to prepare this list for publication in the present number, but 
the steps necessary to complete it will be undertaken. 



RECORDS. 309 

meetings may be held, believing that the interests of the majority 
will be best subserved by adhering to the original plan; and 

*•' The Executive Committee would recommend that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed by the Chair to carefully consider thfc 
changes made necessary in the Constitution by our recent action 
with regard to the affiliated societies. It shall be the duty of this 
committee to ascertain the action taken by each of these societies 
in this matter, and to make, in the form of a report to the spring 
meeting of the Executive Committee, a revision of our Constitution 
and By-laws, which shall carry out the results that we seek to 
obtain by this action." 

At the meeting of the Society on Thursday morning the fol- 
lowing business was transacted : 

The committee appointed to audit the Treasurer's account re- 
ported : 

That having examined the account-books of W. T. Sedgwick, 
Treasurer American Society of Naturalists, and having compared 
the accounts with the vouchers submitted, the}' find the accounts 
correct. Report accepted. 

It was moved and carried that the Secretary be instructed to 
cast the vote of the Society for the following applicants for mem- 
bership : 

Katharine J. Busn, Assistant in Peabody Museum of Yale 
University. 

Wesley R. Coe, Ph. 15., Assistant in Biology, Yale Uni- 
versity. 

Daniel C. Eaton, M.A., Professor of Botany, Yale Uni- 
versity. 

Alexander W. Evans, Ph.B., ISI.D., House Surgeon, New 
Haven Hospital. 

Harry B. Ferrls, Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Yale 
Medical School. 

George Wilton Field, A.M., Ph.D., Associate Professor 
of Cellular Biology, Brown University. 

Langdon Frothingham, M.D.V., Assistant in Veterinary 
Science and Bacteriology, Yale University. 

Ross Granville Harrison, B.A., Fellow of Johns Hopkins 
University. 

Annie P. Henchman, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



3IO SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Theodore Hough, Ph.D., Instructor in Physiology, Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Simon C. Keith, Jr., S.B., Assistant in Biology, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. 

J. vS. KiNGSLEY, D.Sc, Professor of Zoology, Tufts College. 

Graham Lusk, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physiology, 
Yale Medical School. 

John M. Macfarlane, D.Sc. Professor of Biology at the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

S. T. Meltzer, M.D., New York City. 

Lafayette B. Mexdel, Ph.D., Assistant in Physiological 
Chemistry, Yale University. 

Hugo Munsterberg, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Experimen- 
tal Psychology, Harvard University. 

WiNFiEi.D Scott Nickerson, Assistant in Zocilogv, Harvard 
University. 

Marcella I. O'Grady, S.B., Professor of Biolog}', Vassar 
College. 

Winthrop J. V. Osterhout, A.B., Instructor in Botany in 
Brown Univeisity. 

William Patten, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Zoology, Dart- 
mouth College. 

Mary A. Schively, Teacher of Zocilogy at Friends' School, 
Philadelphia. 

Edward W. Scripture, Ph.D., Instructor in Experimental 
Psychology, Yale University. 

Herbert E. Smith, Ph.B., M.D., Professor of Chemistry in 
Yale Medical School. 

James Homer Wright, A.B., M.D., Assistant in Patholog}', 
Harvard Medical School. 

The committee appointed to nominate officers for the ensuing 
year reported as follows : 

President. — C. S. Minot. 

Vice Presidents. — William H. Dall. 

William Libbey, Jr. 

Sidney I. Smith. 
Secretary. — W. A. Setchell. 
treasurer. — E. G. Gardiner. 
Coni/nittee at Large. — H. F. Osborn. 

C. W. Stiles. 



RECORDS. 311 

It was nioN cd that the Secretary be instructed to cast the vote 
of the Society tor these officers. Carried. 

President Chittenden spoke of the duties that the retiring 
Treasurer and Secretary had performed for the Society. A vote 
" expressing the gratitude of the Society to the Treasurer and 
Secretary for their services to the Society" was carried. 

Professor Libbey reported from tlie Executive Conimitlcc in 
regard to its action rehitive to the necessary changes in the Con- 
stitution. (See ante.') It was moved that the report l)e accepted. 
Carried. 

The President appointed as members of this committee Pro- 
fessors Minot, Bowditch, and McMurrich. 

The committee appointed on tlie importation of scientific and 
philosophical instruments presented the following report: 

The committee recommends the passage of the following pre- 
amble and resolutions : 

Whereas., In the opinion of this Society it is of the utmost im- 
portance for the educational and scientific development of this 
country that all scientitic and philosophical instruments whose 
chief use is for instruction or research be admitted without duty: 

Resolved., (i) That a petition, prepared and signed by the offi- 
cers of the Societv, be sent to both Houses of Congress from this 
Society, to request that all scientific and philosophical instru- 
ments whose chief use is for instruction or research be placed 
on the free list. 

Resolved., (3) That a committee of five be appointed by the 
Societv, with power to add to its numbers, to take such steps as 
thev deem expedient to secure the passage by Congress of an 
act placing scientific and philosophical instruments on the free 
list. 

Resolved., (3) That the Societies of Morphologists, Physiolo- 
gists, and Anatomists be requested to appoint each a committee 
to cooperate with the committee appointed by this Society. 

The report was accepted by the Society, and the following 
committee was appointed by the President: Professors Minot, 
H. F. Osborn, S. I. Smith, W. H. Howell, and William 
Libbey, Jr. 

In the absence of the Treasurer, Prof. E. A. Andrews was 
appointed Treasurer pro tern. 



312 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Professor Mi not spoke of the difficulties that teachers meet 
with in handhng large classes in the laboratory, and suggested that 
at the next meeting of the Society the subject be discussed. Carried. 

The Society then heard the two following addresses on " Recent 
Discoveries regarding the Cell : " 

(i) Presentation of the subject from the chemico-physiologi- 
cal side, Prof. R. H. Chittenden. 

(2) Consideration of the subject from the zoological side, 
Prof. E. L. Mark. 

Prof. W. P. Wilson was unable to be present at the meeting to 
take the part assigned him.' 

In the general discussion that followed these addresses the fol- 
lowing members took part: Professors Minot, Mark, E. B. 
Wilson, Morgan, Conn. 

The meeting adjourned. 



APPENDIX. 



Immediately after the meeting a motion was carried expressing 
the gi'atitude of the members of the Society to the authorities of 
Yale University, and to the local committee, for the hospitable 
reception extended to the members of the Society. 

It has been arranged by the Executive Committee that the ne:xt 
meeting of the Society will be held in Baltimore, Md. 

The members of the Society have subscribed for an investiga- 
tor's room at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods IIoll, 
Mass., for the summer of 1894. Applications should be sent to 
the Secretary, Dr. W. A. Setchell, Yale University. 



I 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the American Society of .Naturalists will be distri,huted 
to memjhers, and to persons and societies designated hy 
the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may he purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of amj 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or addresses. 



Any persons, otherwise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of tlie 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-Law IT. 



li.uq 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS 



VOLUME I. 

PART TWELVE. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 

■1895. 



RECORDS 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



NATURALISTS. 



VOLUME I. 

PART TWELVE. 



BOSTON : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SECRETARY. 

1895- 



RECORDS. 



MAY 31 1900 



LIST OF OFFICERS FOR 1895. 



President, E. D. Cope. 

!\V. G. Farlow, 
William Libbey, 
C. O. Whitman. 
Secretary, H. C. Bumpus. 
Treasurer, E. G. Gardiner. 



Members of the Executive Committee elected from the 

Society at large. 

W. H. Howell. E. B. Wilson. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



*Dana, James D., Ph.D., LL.D., Mineralogy, Zoology, Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Yale University. 

Tale University^ New Haven, Conn. 
Lesley, J. P., A.M., LL.D. Geology. 

State Geologist of Pennsylvania. 

907 Walnut street, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Marsh, O. C, Ph.D., LL.D. Paleontology. 

Professor of Palaeontology, Yale University. 

S Peabody Museum, New Haven, Coftn. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



[An asterisk designates original membership.] 



*Allen, Harrison, M.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

1933 Chestnut street^ Philadelphia^ Pen77. 
Allen, J. A., Ph.D. Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

Curator of the Department of Vertebrate Zoology. 

American Museum of Natural History^ New Tork, N.T. 
Allis, Edward P., Jr. Biology. 

Associate Editor of the "Journal of Morphology." 

Milwaukee. Wis. 
Andrews, E. A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor in Biology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Md. 
AsHMEAD, William. Entomology. 

Investigator in Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

1738 ^ street., N. JV., Washing-ton, D. C. 
Ayers, Howard, Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Missouri. 

Columbia^ Mo. 
Barnhart, John H., A.B., A.M. Biology. 

Tarry town, N T. 
Barton, B. W., M.D. Botany. 

Instructor in Botany, Johns Hopkins University. 

University Club, Charles street, Baltimore, Md. 
Baur, George, Ph.D. Vertebrate Palaeontology. 

Assistant Professor of Comparative Osteology and Palseon- 
tology, University of Chicago. 

University of Chicago, Chicago, III. 
*Bickmore, Albert S. 

Secretary and Professor in charge of Department of Public 
Instruction of the American Museum of Natural History. 

American Museum, Central Park, N. T. 
Bioelow, R. p., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Instructor in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 315 

Bolton, H. Carrington, A.M., Ph.D. Mineralogy, Chemistry. 

University Club^ Nexv York City. 
*BowDiTCH, Henry P., A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Harvard Medical .School. 

Harvard Medical School., Bostott., Mass. 
Branner, John Casper, A.M., Ph.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Leland Stanford Junior University. 

Palo Alto., Cal. 
Brewer, William H., Ph.D. Biology. 

Professor of Agriculture, Yale University. 

41 S Orange street.. New Haven., Conn. 
*Brush, G. J., M.A., LL.D. Mineralogy. 

Director, Sheffield Scientific School. 

New Haven., Conn. 
Bumpus, H. C, Ph.D. Comparative Anatomy. 

Associate Professor of Zoology, Brown University. 

Brown University., Providence., R.I. 
Burrage, Severance, S.B. Biology. 

Assistant Biologist, Mass. State Board of Health. 

Mass. Institute of Techtiology ., Boston., Mass. 
Bush, Katharine J. Zoology. 

Assistant in Peabody Museum of Yale University. 

133 Hozve street., New Haven., Conn. 
Calkins, G. N., B.S. Biology. 

Colli tub ia College, New York, N. T. 
Campbell, John P., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Biology, Universit}- of Georgia. 

Athens, Ga. 
Casey, Thomas L. Entomology. 

Captain, U.S. Engineer Corps. 

U.S. Army Building, New York., N.Y. 
Castle, William E., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Assistant in Zoology, Harvard University. 

5 College House., Cambridge, Mass. 
Chapin, H. E. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Ohio. 

Athens., O. 
Chapman, Frank M. Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

Assistant Curator, American Museum of Natural History. 

77//^ street and ^th avenue, New York, N. Y. 



3l6 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Chittenden, R. H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University. 

83 T7'U77ibull street. Nexo Haveii^ Conn. 
*Clarke, Samuel F., Ph.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Natural History, Williams College. 
Williainstoivn., Mass. 
CoE, Wesley R., Ph.B. Zoology. 

Assistant in Biology, Yale University. 

New Haven., Conn. 
*CoNN, H. W., Ph.D. Zoology; Bacteriology. 

Professor of Biology, Wesleyan University. 

Middletown., Conn. 
*CoPE, Edward D. Vertebrate Palaeontology and Zoology. 

Professor of Vertebrate Palasontology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

2102 Pine street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
*CouES, Elliott, A.M., M.D., Ph.D. Vertebrates, Bibliog- 
raphy. 

1736 H streets Washington., D.C. 
Dall, William Healey. Mollusca, Palaeontology. 

Paleontologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Honorary Curator 
Department of Mollusks, U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washirigton ., D. C. 
Davenport, Charles B., A.B., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard University. 

Cambridge., Mass. 
Dean, Bashford, Ph.D. Vertebrate Zoology. 

Assistant in Biolog3\ 

Columbia College., New York., N Y. 
♦DiMMOCK, George, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Canobie Lake., N.H. 
DoLLEY, Charles S. Biology. 

Professor of Natural History in Swarthmore College. 

Woodland avefiue, Philadelphia, Penn. 
*DoNrALDSON, Henry H., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Neurology, University of Chicago. 

Chicago., III. 
♦Dudley, W. R., M.S. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Leland Stanford Junior University. 

Palo Alto^ Cal. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 317 

DwiGHT, Thomas, A.M., M.D. Anntomv. 

Park man Professor of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School. 

235 Beacon street^ Boston^ Mass. 
*DwiGHT, William B., A.B., A.M., Ph.B. Palitontology. 

Professor of Natural History and Curator of the Museum, 
Vassar College. 

Vassar College., Poiighkeepsie., N. T. 
Eaton, Daniel C, M.A. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Yale University. 

70 Sachem street., New Haven^ Conn. 
Edwards, Chas. L., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, University of Cincinnati. 

Cincinnati^ O. 

Austin., Texas'. 
Elliot, D. G. Mammalogy and Ornithology. 

Field Cohimbian Museum^ Chicago., III. 
*Emerton, James H. Zoology. 

11 St. James avenue., Boston., Mass. 

Ernst, Harold C, A.M., M.D. Bacteriology. 

Assistant Professor of Bacteriology, Harvard Medical School. 

Hari'ard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
Evans, Alexander W., Ph.B., M.D. Botany. 

12 High street.. New Haven., Conn. 

*Farlow, Wm. G., A.m., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University. 

Harvard University., Cambridge., Mass. 
*Fernald, C. H., A.m., Ph.D. Microlepidoptera. 

Professor of Zoology, Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Amherst., Mass. 
Fernald, Henry T., M.S., Ph.D. Morphology. 

Professor of Zoology, Pennsylvania State College. 

State College., Centre Co., Penn. 
Ferris, Harry B., M.D. Anatomy. 

Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Yale Medical School. 

317 Crown street. New Havejt, Conn. 
Fewkes, J. Walter. Ethnology. 

73 Pinckney street, Boston., Mass. 
Field, George Wilton, A.B., A.M., Ph.D. Morphology. 

A-ssociatc Professor of Cellular Biology. 

Brozvn University, Providence, R.I. 



3l8 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Fox, L. Webster, M.D. Anatomy and Physiology. 

Clinical Assistant, Jetferson Medical College Hospital, 
Ophthalmic Surgeon to Germantown Hospital. 

1304 Waltnit street^ Philadelphia^ Penn. 
Frothingham, Langdon, M.D.V. Bacteriology. 

Care Robt. Thode S Son^ Dresden^ Germany. 
Fuller, George W., S.B. Bacteriology. 

Chief Assistant-Biologist, State Board of Health of Massa- 
chusetts. 

Laivrence., Mass. 
*Gage, Simon H., S.B. Vertebrate Morphology and Physiology. 

Associate Professor of Physiology and Lecturer on Micro- 
scopical Technology, Cornell University. 

Cornell University., Ithaca., N.T. ' 

Ganong, Wm. Francis, Ph.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Smith College. 

1 1 Massasoit street., Northampton., JMass. 
Gardiner, Edward G., S.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

131 AJt. Vernon street., Boston., Mass. 
Gardiner, Frederic, A.B., A.M. Biology. 

Instructor in Natural Science, Trinity College. 

Pomfret., Conn. 
*Gerrish, Frederic Henry, A.M., M.D. Anatomy. 

Professor of Anatomy, Bowdoin College. 

675 Congress street., Portland., Me. 
*GiLBERT, G. K. Geology. 

Geologist of the U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington.. D.C. 
*GooDALE, George L., A.M., M.D. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Harvard University. 
Cambridge., Mass. 
*GooDE, G. Brown,. A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge 
of the U.S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Institution., Washington., D. C. 
Gratacap, L. p., M.A., Ph.B. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Assistant Curator of Geology, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

77/// street and 'Sth avenue., Ncxv Torky JV. 7". 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 319 

♦Greenleaf, R. W., a.m., M.D. Botany. 

561 Boylsion street, Boston^ Mass. 
Gregory, Emily L., Ph.D. Botany. 

18 West 60th street. New York, N. T. 
Hague, Arnold. Geology and Petrography. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey- 

fJ.S. Geological Survey, Washiytgton, D.C. 
*Hall, James M. S., A.M., M.D., LL.D. Geology, Palaeon- 
tology. 

State Geologist of New York, Director of the State Museum 
of Natural History. 

State Museum, Albatty, N. T. ♦ 

Halsted, Byron D., D.Sc. Botany. 

Botanist and Horticulturist, Agricultural Experiment Station. 

New Brunswick, N.J. 
Hare, Hobart Amory, B.Sc, M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Therapeutics in Jefferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia. 

2 23 South Fifteejith street, Philadelphia, Pejin. 
Hargitt, Charles W., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Syracuse Universit}-. 

Syracttse University, Syracuse, N. 7". 
Harrison, Ross Granville, A.B. Animal Morphology. 

Bryn Alatur, Penn. 
*Heilprin, Angelo. Palaeontology and Geology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Palaeontology at, and Curator in 
Charge of, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, and Professor of Geology at the Wagner Free 
Institute of Science. 

Acadejny of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Penn.^ 
Henchman, Annie P. Zoology. 

8 Frisbie place, Cambridge, Mass. 
*Hensha\v, Samuel. Zoology. 

Secretary, Boston Society of Natural History. 

Bosto7i Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 
Herrick, F. H., A.B., Ph.D. ^ Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Adelbert College. 

Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. 
Hill, Frank A. Geology. 



320 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Geologist in Charge, Anthracite District, State Survey of 
Pennsylvania. 

I on Sotith Af^th st)-eet, Philadelphia .^ Penn. 
Hodge, Clifton F., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Clark University. 

Worcester^ Mass. 
Hough, Theodore. B.A., Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Physiology, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. 

Massachjisetts Institute of Technology ., Boston., Mass. 
Howell, William H., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University. 

yohns Hopkins University., Baltimore., Aid. 
Humphrey, James Ellis, S.B., S.D. Botany. 

Fellow, Johns Hopkins University. 

Balti7nore., Md. 
*Hyatt, Alpheus, S.B. Palceontology and Zoology. 

Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and Assistant 
in Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, Mass. 

Boston Society of Natural History., Boston., Mass. 
Ives, J. E. Invertebrate Zoology. 

Drexel Institute of Art., Sciejicc, and Industry .^ Philadel- 
phia., Penn. 
Jackson, Robert Tracy, S.B., S.D. Zoology and Paleeon- 

tology. 

33 Gloucester street., Boston., Mass. 
Jayne, Horace, M.D. Vertebrata. 

Professor of Vertebrate Morphology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

1826 Chestnut street., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Johnson, Herbert P., A.M. Biology. 

University of Chicago. 
Jordan, David Starr, M.S., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D. Biology. 

President of Leland Stanford Junior University. 

Palo Alto., Cat. 
Jordan, Edwin O., S.B., Ph.D. Biology. 

Tutor in Anatomy, University of Chicago. 

Chicago., III. 



LIST OF MKMIIKRS. 32 I 

*JuLiEN, Alexis A., Ph.D. Riology and Pctrognipliy. 

Instructor in Biology and Microscopy, vSchool of Mines, 

Columbia College. 
School of Mines ^ Colionhia College^ New Tork^ N.T. 
Keith, Simeon C, Jr., S.B. 

Assistant in Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technol(jg\ . 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology^ Boston^ Mass. 
Keller, Ida A., Ph.D. Botan\ . 

4S23 Springjield street., Philadelphia. Pent/. 
*KiNGSLEY, J. S., D.Sc. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Tufts College. 
Tufts College., A/ass. 
Knowlpon, Frank H., M.S. Geology. 

a.S. Geological Survey. WasJiiiigtoii., D.C. 
Lane, Alfred Church, A.M., Ph.D. Petrography and 

Geology. 
Instructor in Petrography and Geology, Michigan Mining 

School, and Assistant on Michigan Geological Survey. 
Houghton., Midi. 
Lee, Frederic S., A.M., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Demonstrator of Physiology, Columbia College, Medical 

Department. 
College of P/ivsicians a?id S?irgeo?ts, Nexv York City. 
*Lee, Leslie A., Ph.D. Geology and Biology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Bowdoin College. 
Brunswick., Me. 
Lee, Thomas G., B.S., M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Histology and Embryology, University of Min 

nesota. 
Min n eapolis , Alin n . 
*LiBBEY, William, Jr., A.M., D.Sc. Histology. 

Professor of Physical Geography, Princeton College, and 
Director of the E. M. Museum of Geology and Archae- 
ology. 
Princeton., N.f. 
Linton, Edwin, Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Geology and Biology, Washington andJetVcrson 

College. 
Washi?igto7z., Penn. 



322 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

LoTSY, T. p., Ph.D. Botany. 

Associate in Botany, Johns Hopkins University. 

Baltimore^ Md. 
Lucas, Frederic A. Avian Osteology. 

Curator, Department of Comparative Anatomy, U.S. Na- 
tional Museum. 

Washington^ D. C. 
LusK, Graham, Ph.D. Physiology. 

Assistant Professor of Physiology, Yale Medical School. 

Alezv Haven ^ Conn. 
Macfarlane, John M., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Biology, University of Pennsylvania. 

Latisdoivfte^ Penn.^ or Department of Biology .^ University 
of Pennsylvania^ Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Macloskie, George, D.Sc, LL.D. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, Princeton College. 

Princeto7t.i Nf. 
Mall, F. P., M.D. Histology and Vertebrate Embryology. 

Professor of Anatomy, Johns Hopkins Universit}'. 
Johns Hopkins University., Balti??io?'e., Md. 
Ma'ik, Edward L., A.M., Ph.D. 

Hersey Professor of Anatomy, Harvard University. 

109 Irving street., Cambridge, A/ass. 
*Marshall, John P., A.M. Mineralogy and Geology. 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Tufts College. 

College Hill., Mass. 
*Martin, H. Newell, A.M., M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. Physi- 
ology. 

Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge. 

Cambridge, Etigland. 
McClure, Charles F. W., A.B. Embi-yology and Vertebrate 

Morphology. 

Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 

Princetofz., N.J. 
*McGee, W. J. Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington, D.C. 
McMurrich, J. Playfair, A.M., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Anatomy, University of Michigan. 

86 S. State street, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



LIST OK MEMBERS. 323 

* Meehan, Thomas. Botany. 

Botanist to the Pennsylvania State Board oi" Agriculture ; 
Vice-President, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel- 
phia. 

Germantoiv?i, Penn. 
Meltzer, S. J., M.D. Physiology. 

66 East 1 2^th street^ Nexv Tork City. 
Mendel, Lafayette B., A.B., Ph.D. Physiology. 

Instructor in Physiological Chemistry, Vale University. 

22 Trumbull street., Netv Have?i, Conn. 
*Merriam, C. Hart, M.D. Mammals and Birds. 

Chief of Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy 
of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Washi^igton., D. C. 
♦Merrill, F. J. H., Ph.D. Geology. 

Assistant State Geologist of New Vork. 

State JMiiseum., Albany., N. 7~. 
Metcalfe, Maynard, M., Ph.D. Morphology. 

Associate Professor of BiologN , Woman's College of Balti- 
more. 

Baltimore .1 Md. 
Mills, T. Wesley, M.D. Biology. 

Professor of Physiology, McGill University. 

Cote St. Antoifie, Mo?2 treat., Canada. 
*MixoT, Charles Sedgwick, S.B., S.D. Biology. 

Professor of Histology and Human Embryology, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Harvard Medical School., Boston., Mass. 
Mixter, Samuel J., B.S., M.D. Anatomy. 

I So Marlborough street., Bostofi., Mass. 
Morgan, Thos. Hunt, B.S., Ph.D. Biology. 

Associate Professor of Biology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bryn Mawr., Penn. 
*MoRSE, Edward S., A.M., Ph.D. Anthropology and Zoology. 

Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass* 

Salefn., Mass. 
MuNSTERBERG, HuGO, M.D., Ph.D. Psychology. 

Professor of Experimental Psychology, Harvard University. 

38 ^uincy street, Catubridge., Mass. 



324 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Nichols, Herbert, Pli.D. Psycholog}'. 

Instructor in Psychology, Harvard University. 
12 Kirkland place^ Cambridge^ Mass. 

NiCKERSON, WiNFIELD S., S.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology. 

Boiildeif Col. 
*NiLES, William H., Ph.B., A.M. Physical Geography and 

Historical Geology. 

Professor of Geology and Geography, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. 

Massachusetts Institute of Techjiology., Boston., Mass. 
O'Grady, Marcella I., S.B. 

Professor of Biology, Vassar College. 

Vassal' College^ Potighkeepsie^ N. 2'. 
*OsBORN, Henry Fairfield, Sc.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Da Costa Professor of Biology, Columbia College, Curator 
of Department of Mammalian Palaeontology, American 
Museum of Natural History, N.Y. 

Columbia College^ New York City. 
OsTERHOUT, WiNTHROP J. V., A.M. Botany. 

Instructor in Botany, Brown University. 

Brown Univei'sity., Providence., R.I. 
*Packard, a. S., A.m., M.D., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University. 

Brown University., Pi'ovidence., R.I. 
Parker, George Howard, S.B., S.D. Animal Morphology. 

Instructor in Zoology, Harvard University. 

6 Avon place., North Cambridge., Mass. 
Patten, William, B.S., Ph.D., A.M. 

Professor of Zoology, Dartmouth College. 

Hanover^ N.H. 
*Peale, a. C, A.m., M.D. ' Geology. 

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Geological Survey., Washington., D. C. 
Peck, James I., A.M. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Williams College. 
Williamstown., Mass. 
Penfield, Samuel L., Ph.B. Mineralogy. 

Professor of Mineralogy, Yale University. 

Sheffield Scientijic School., New Haven., Co)in. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 325 

Phillips, Alexander H., S.B. Vertebrate Anatomy. 

Instructor in Biology at Princeton College. 
Princeton^ N.J. 
*PiLLSBUKV, J. H. Biology. 

50 Mattoon street., Springfield^ Mass. 
Porter, Hobart C, Ph.D. Botany. 

Biological Department, Uni\ersity of Pennsvlvania. 
Philadelphia^ Pom. 
Pratt, Henry S., Ph.D. Zooloo-y. 

Instructor in Biology, Haverford College. 
Havcrford^ Pom. 
*Prentiss, Albert N., S.M. Botany. 

Professor of Botany, Horticulture, and Arboriculture, Cor- 
nell University. 
Cornell University .^ Ithaca., N. T. 
Prosser, Charles S., S.M. Geology and Palaeontology. 

Professor of Geology and Palaeontology, Union College. 
Schenectady .1 N. T. 
*PuTNAM, Frederick W. Arclneology and Ethnology. 

Peabody Professor of American Archteologv and Ethnology, 
Harvard University ; Curator of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, in connection with Harvard 
University ; Permanent Secretary of the American Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Science ; and Massachusetts 
State Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 
Peabody Museum., Ca?nbridge^ Mass. 
PvNCHON, W. H. C, M.A. Geology. 

Instructor in Natural Science, Trinity College. 
Hartford., Conn. 
Rankin, Walter M., A.M., M.Sc, Ph.D. Biology. 

Instructor in Biology and Curator of Museum, Princeton 

College. 
Box 23, Princeto7t., N.J. 
*Rathbun, Richard, S.M. Invertebrates. 

Curator, Dep't of Marine Invertebrates, National Museum. 
6^.6". Fish Commission., Washington., D.C. 
Reichart, Edward T., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania. 
University of Pennsylvania., Philadelphia., Penn. 



326 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Reighard, Jacob E., Ph.B. Morphology. 

Professor of Animal Morphology, University of Michigan. 

Attn Arbor ^ Mich. 
*RiCE, William North, Ph.D., LL.D. Geology. 

Professor of Geology, Wesleyan University. 

Middletoxvn., Conn. 
*RiLEY, C. v., A.M., Ph.D. Biology. 

Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and 
Curator of Insects, U.S. National Museum. 

2135 Wyo7ning avenue .f Washington., D.C. 
RiTTER, William E., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor of Zoology, University of California. 

Berkeley., Cal. 
*RussELL, Israel C. Geology. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washington^ D.C. 
RvDER, John A., Ph.D. Embryology. 

Professor of Comparative Embrvologv, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Philadelphia., Pe}i7i. 
*Sargent, Charles S., A.B. Botany. 

Professor of Aiboriculture, Harvard University, and Direc- 
tor of the Arnold Arboretum. 

Brookline., Mass. 
ScHiVELY, Mary A. Zoology. 

Teacher of Zoology, Friends' School, Fifteenth and Race 
streets, Philadelphia. 

1503 Centennial avcnne., Philadelphia., Penn. 
Schuchert, Charles. , Inverteln-ate Palaeontology. 

Assistant Curator, U.S. National Museum. 

Washington., D.C. 
*ScoTT, William B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Geology and Palfeontology, Princeton College. 

Princeton., N.J. 
Scripture, Edward \\^, Ph.D. Psychology. 

Instructor in Experimental Psychology, Yale University. 

109 Rlni street., Netv Haven, Conn. 
*ScuDDER, S. II., S.B., A.M. Entomology and PalcEontology. 

PakeoiTtologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Cambridge, Mass. 



LIST OF MEMI5ERS. 327 



♦Sedgwick, William T., Ph.D. Biolo^^v. 

Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Chief Biologist of the State Board of Health of Massa- 
chusetts. 

Massachusetts Institute of TecJinologx^ Bosto/i^ Mass. 
Setchell, William A., Ph.D. Botany. 

Instructor in Biology, Yale University. 

7~ale University., New Haven. Conn. 
*Sharp, Benjamin, M.D., Pli.l). Animal Morphology. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoiilogy, Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Ahifural Scietices. Philadelphia., Penn. 
*Shufeldt, R. W., M.D., C.M.Z.S. Anatomy of Vertebrates. 

Associate in ZoiUogy, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington., D. C. 
Smith, Herbert E., Ph.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Chemistry, Yale Medical School. 

430 George street., New Haven., Conn. 
Smith, John B., S.D Entomology. 

Professor of Entomology. Entomologist to the College Ex- 
periment Station. 

New Prunswick., N.J. 
Smith, James Perrin, A.M., Ph.D. Palaeontology. 

Associate Professor of Palaeontology, Leland Stanford Junior 
University. 

Palo Alto., Cal. 
Smith, Robert Meade, A.M., M.D. Physiology. 

Professor of Comparative Physiology, University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Box 418, Colorado Springs., Col . 
*Smith, Sidney I., M.A. Biology. 

Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Yale University. 

147 Whalley avenue., New Haven., Conn. 
Stiles, Charles W., Ph.D. Parasitology. 

Medical Zoologist, Bui^eau of Animal Industrv , Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 

Washington, D. C. 
Strong, Oliver S., M.A. Biology. 

Preparator in Biology, Columbia College. 
Nexv York, N. r. 



328 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Thaxter, Roland, Ph.D. Cryptogamic Botany. 

Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

3 Scott street^ Cainbridge^ Mass. 
TiLTON, John L., A.B. Biology. 

Professor of Natural Science, Simpson Centenary College. 

I?zdianola, la. 
*True, Frederick W., M.S. Vertebrates. 

Curator of Mammals, U.S. National Museum. 

National j\IiiJeti?n^ Washington., D. C. 
TucKERMAN, FREDERICK, M.D., B.Sc. Auatomy. 

Amherst., Mass. 
TuTTLE, Albert H. Biology. 

Professor of Biology, University of Virginia, Va. 

Charlottesville .1 Va. 
*Tyler, J. M., A.B. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology and Botany, Amherst College. 

Amherst. Mass. 
Verrill, Addison E., A.M. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Yale University. 

86 Whalley avenue., Neiv Haven., Conn. 
*VValcott, Charles D. Pakeontology and Geolog}'. 

Palaeontologist, U..S. Geological Survey, and Hon. Curator 
of Invertebrate Palaeozoic Fossils, U.S. National Museum. 

U.S. Geological Survey., Washifzgton, D.C. 
Ward, Henrv^ A., A.M. Natural Science. 

Head of Ward's Natural Science Establishment. 

\6 to 26 College avenue., Rochester ., N. 7~. 
Ward, Henry B., A.M., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Associate Professor of Zoology, University of Nebraska. 

University of Nebraska., Lincohi, Neb. 
* Warren, J. W., A.B., M.D. Physiology. 

Associate Professor of Physiology, Bryn Mawr College. 

Bryn Mawr., Penn. 
Watase, S., B.S., Ph.D. Biology. 

Reader in Cellular Biology, University of Chicago. 

Chicago., III. 
Wheeler, Wu^liam M., Ph.D. Embryology. 

Instructor in Embryology, University of Chicago. 

Chicago^ III. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. ' 329 

White, Charles D., B.S. Palaeobotany and Geology. 

Assistant Palaeontologist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
U.S. National jShiscnm^ Washington., D.C. 
Whitfield, R. P., M.A. Palaeontology. 

(Late Professor at Troy, N.Y.) Curator of Geology and 

Conchology, American Museum of Natural History. 
American Museuin of Natural History., Tll^^- street and 
^tk avenue.1 Nexv York., N. T. 
*Whitman, C. O., A.m., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 

Editor "Journal of Morphology;" Director of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. ; Professor of 
Biology, University of Chicago. • 

Chicago., III. 
*WiLDER, Burt G., B.S., M.D. Vertebrate Morphology. 

Professor of Physiology, Comj^arative Anatomy, and Zo- 
ology, and Curator of Vertebrate Museum, Cornell Uni- 
versity. 
Cornell University., Ithaca., N. T. 
Wilder, Harris H., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Zoology, Smith College. 
Northampton., Mass. 
WiLLEY, Arthur, B.A. Biology. 

Assistant in Biology, Columbia College. 
New York, N.Y 
* Williams, Henry S., Ph.D. Geology and PaljEontology. 

Pi^ofessor of Geology, Yale University, and Assistant Geolo- 
gist, U.S. Geological Survey. 
Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 
*WiLsoN, Edmund B., Ph.B., Ph.D. Animal Morphology. 
Adjunct Professor of Biology, Columbia College. 
Columbia College., New York City. 
Wilson, Henry V., A.B., Ph.D. Zoology. 

Professor of Biology, Universit}' of North Carolina. 
Chapel Hill, NC. 
Wilson, W. P., B.S., D.Sc. Botany. 

Professor of Physiological Botany, Department of Biology, 

University of Pennsylvania. 
Philadelphia, Penn. 



330 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

WooDWORTH, William M., A.B., A.M. Zoology. 

Instructor in Microscopical Anatomy, Harvard University. 

149 Brattle street^ Cambridge^ Mass. 
WoRTMAX, J. L. Vertebrate Palaeontology. 

Assistant in Palaeontology, American Museum of Natural 
History. 

New york, N. T. 
Wright, James Homer, A.B., M.D. Pathology, Bacteriology. 

Assistant in Pathology, Harvard Medical vSchool. 

38 St. Botolph street., Boston., Mass. 
*Wright, R. Ramsay, A.M., B.Sc. Zoology. 

• Professor of Biologv, University of Toronto, Canada. 

Biological Department., University of Toronto., Canada. 
VVyld, Norman. Biology. 

Late Assistant in Biology with Prof. Lloyd Morgan, Bristol, 
England. 

146 S. Elliot Place., Brooklyn., N. T. 
YouMANS, William J., M.D. Biology. 

Editor of " Popular Science Monthly." 

72 Fifth avenue., New York., N. Y. 



Number of honorary members ...... 3 

" " members . . . . . . . 19S 

Tbtal . 201 



RECORDS. 331 



THIRTEENTH MEETING, BALTIMORE, MD. 
December 27-28, 1894. 



The American Society of Naturalists met on Tlunsday after- 
noon, December 27, and Friday morning, December 28. 

These meetings were held in the Physical Laboratory of the 
Johns Hopkins University. 

The American Physiological Society held its seventh meeting 
in Baltimoi'e on December 37 and 28. 

The American Morphological Society held its meetings in 
Baltimore on December 27 and 28. 

The programme of the American Society of Naturalists was as 
follows : 

Thursday, December 37, 3 P.M. Meeting in the Physical 
Laboratory for the following General Business: 
L Reports of committees. 
IL Special leports. 
IIL Recommendation of new members. 

IV. Discussion. Subject: Environment in its Lifluence 
upon the Successive Stages of Development, and as a Cause of 
Variation. 

Prof. H. F. OsBORN, Colw7ibia College. 
Prof. E. B. Wilson, Columbia College. 
Prof. W. K. Brooks, Johns Hopkins University. 
Doctor C. Hart Merriam, U.S. Dept. of Agricult- 
ure. 
Thursday, 8 P.M. Illustrated lecture in Levering Hall by 
Professor William Libbey, Jr., of Princeton University. 
Subject: Two Months in Greenland. 
Thursday, 9 P.M. The Johns Hopkins University invited the 
members of the Society and their friends to a social assembly 
in McCov Hall. 



332 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

Friday, December 28, 9 A.M. General Session. 
I. Election of new members. 
II. Election of officers for 1S95. 
III. Other business that may arise. 
Friday, 10 A.M. 

I. President's Address. Si/b/ccf : The Work of the 
Naturalist in the World. 

Prof. C. S. MiNOT, Harvard University. 
II. Annual Discussion. Subject: Laboratory Teaching 
of Large Classes. (Addresses limited to 30 minutes each.) 

1 . Introductory. 

Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, Boston Society of Nat- 
ural History. 

2. Zoological. 

Prof. H. C. BuMPUS, Browfi University. 

3. J^otanical. 

Prof. W. F. Ganong, Smith College. 

4. General Discussion. 

Friday, 7.30 P.M. Annual Dinner of the Society of Natu- 
ralists and affiliated societies at The Stafford. 



MINUTES. 

FIRST SESSION. 
I 

Thursday^ December 3j^ 2 P.M. 

President Minot in the chair, and a quorum being present, the 
Society proceeded to the transaction of business. 

The minutes of the meetings of the Executive Conmiittcc were 
read by the Secretary. 

The Executive Committee met at Woods Hole on August 7, 
1894, Professor Minot, Dr. Gardiner, and the Secretary being 
present. The dates of the annual meeting were fixed for Thurs- 
day, December 27, and Friday, December 28. The annual din- 
ner was fixed for Friday, December 28, at 8 P.M. The table at 
the Marine Biological Laboratory for the summer of 1S94, sub- 



RECORDS. 333 

scribed for by the members of the Society, was assigned to Wesley 
R. Coe, Assistant in liiology in Yale University. 

The Executive Committee, consulted by a letter dated Novem- 
ber 15, 1S94, authorized the President as follows: 

1. To appoint a committee to arrange the programme for the 
coming meeting. This committee, according to the By-Laws. 
must include the Secretary and two others. Professors S. I. 
Smith and H. F. Osborn were recommended. 

2. To authorize Professor H. F. Osborn to arrange for a dis- 
cussion on "Environment and Variation," to include not more 
than four papers, of not more than tvventv minutes' length each, 
and to request Professor Osborn to prepare the introductory 
paper. 

3. To authorize the President to iiave two or three papers 
prepared on Laboratory teaching of large classes, one paper bv 
Prof. H. C. Bumpus, another by Prof. A. Hyatt, or a substitute, 
and a third by some botanist or geologist. 

4. To recommend to the Society to change the Constitution, 
Article IL, Section IL, by striking out the words " of two 
dollars." 

5. To recommend that a By-Law I)e passed to tix the amount 
of the annual dues at two dollars. 

At a meeting held in Baltimore on the morning of Thursday, 
December 27, there being present President Minot, Professor 
Osborn, Dr. Gardiner, Dr. Stiles, and the Secretary, action was 
taken as follows : 

I. The new members proposed later are recommended to 
the Society for election. 

3. The Report of the Committee on the Constitution is rec- 
ommended for acceptance. 

3. It is recommended that the Treasurer be authorized to ex- 
pend a sum not exceeding twenty dollars for clerical assistance. 

The Treasurer's report was read : 



334 



SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 



TREASURER'S REPORT, 1894. 

E. G. Gardiner, Treasjirer^ in account with American Society 

of Naturalists. 



Dr. 



Balance from 1893 
Dues received in 1894 



Cr. 



Jan. 5, postage and envelopes 

Jan. 28, postage and envelopes 

Jan. 26, Laurence Minot, Treasurer of 

the Marine Biological Laboratory 
Feb. 3, Thomas Todd 
April 8, Prof. S. L Smith 
April 8, Rockwell & Churchill 
April 8, Alfred Mudge & Son . 
April 8, Prof. T. H. Morgan . 
April 17, postage .... 

Total expenses .... 



^3 


00 


4 


00 


500 


00 


4 


00 


23 


44 


5S 


25 


7 


00 


H 


15 


2 


00 



$625 oS 
195 00 

$820 08 



614 84 



Balance 



. $205 24 
Edw. G. Gardiner, 

Treasurer. 



An Auditing Committee, consisting of Dr. Bigelow and Dr. 
Harrison, was appointed by the President. 

The report of the committee on the changes made necessary in 
the Constitution was read by the Secretary as follows : 



RFXORDS. 335 

To the Executive Committee of tJic American Society of 
Naturalists : 

The committee appointed by the Society at its last annual 
meeting to report upon the changes in the Constitution and By- 
Laws made necessary by the action of the Society in regard to 
the affiliation of kindred societies, begs to present the following 
report : 

No changes are necessary in Articles L, II., and III. of the 
Constitution. The committee recommends that the succeeding 
articles shall be as follows : 

Article IV. 

Meetings. 

Section I. The annual meeting shall be held during the 

week following Christmas, at such time and place as shall be 

designated by a committee consisting of the President of this 

Society and the presidents of the affiliated societies. 

Section II. Special meetings may be appointed at any time 
by a vote of the Society or of the Executive Committee. 

Article V. 
Quorum. 

Seven members shall constitute a quorum of the Society, and 
three a quorum of the Executive Committee. 

Article VI. 

A committee shall be appointed at each annual meeting to 
audit the accounts of the Treasurer for the year closing with that 
meeting. 

Article VII. 

Section I. It shall be the policy of this Society, by corre- 
spondence and otherwise, to encourage the formation and coop- 
erate in the work of societies of similar name and object in other 
parts of the country, and also to encourage the affiliation with it 
of societies whose chief object is to promote the advancement of 
knowledge in any of the various departments of Natural History. 

Section II. Societies having the object mentioned in the last 
paragraph of Section I. of this Article, on application and on 



336 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

recommendation of the Executive Committee of this Society, may 
be admitted to affiliation with this society at any annual meeting 
by a majority vote of the members present. Application for 
affiliation by any society shall be held to carry with it an agree- 
ment on the part of the said society to the conditions of affilia- 
tion as set forth in the "Terms of Affiliation" as adopted by 
this Society, as set forth in By-Law No. 4. 

Article VIII. 
Piiblications. 
The only official publication of the Society shall be one com- 
prising the Constitution, By-Laws, and list of members of the 
vSociety and of the affiliated societies, together with the Secre- 
tary's record of the meetings, whetlier regular or special, of all 
the societies. 

Article IX. 
By-Laws. 
Section I. By-Laws recommended by the Executive Com- 
mittee may be adopted at any meeting by a majority vote. 

Section II. By-Laws may be repealed at any meeting, upon 
recommendation of the Executive Committee, by a majority vote. 

Article X. 

Amendments. 

Amendments to this Constitution, recommended by the Execu- 
tive Committee, may be adopted at any annual meeting by a vote 
of two-thirds of the members present. 

With regard to the By-Laws, the committee begs to recommend 
that By-Laws 1-3 be allowed to stand unaltered, and that there 
be added a By-Law, No. 4, as follows : 

4. Section I. The affiliated societies shall each elect its 
own members, but only such persons as are indicated in By-Law 
No. 2 of this Society shall be eligible to meml^ership in any one 
of them. Members of affiliated societies shall be ipso facto mem- 
bers of the American Society of Naturalists, and it shall be the 
duty of the Secretary of each of the affiliated Societies to give 
written notice of anv alterations which may occur in the member- 



RECORDS. 337 

ship of the Society of whicli lie is Secretary, to the Secretary of 
the American Society of Naturalists. 

Section II. The annual meeting of the affiliated societies 
shall be held at the same place and time as the annual meetins; of 
this Societ) . 

Section III. The proceeds of the annual assessment men- 
tioned in Article I., Section II., of this Constitution shall be held 
by the treasury of the American Society of Naturalists as a 
common fund (i) for the defrayal (a) of the administrative ex- 
pense connected with the calling and holding of all meetings, 
whether general or special, of both the Society of Naturalists and 
the afiiliated societies, and (d) of the expenses connected with 
the official publication; and (3) for application to such other 
purposes as the Society may from time to time determine 
upon. 

Section IV. Such moneys as may be in the treasury of any 
society at ihe time of its admission to affiliation with the Society 
of Naturalists shall not become a part of the common fund, but 
shall continue to be the special property of the said society. 

Section V. Each of the affiliated societies shall reserve the 
right of levying special assessments on its own members, and of 
collecting and expending the same; of holding special meetings 
at such times and places as it may determine upon ; of issuing 
special publications; and of forming and maintaining such other 
affiliations as it may desire. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. Playfair McMurrich. 

The Society adopted by unanimous votes both the changes 
proposed in the Constitution and in the By-Laws. 

The report of the Committee on the Repeal of the Duty on 
Scientific and Philosophical Apparatus was read by the 
Secretaiy : 



338 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE REPEAL 
OF THE DUTY ON SCIENTIFIC AND PHIL- 
OSOPHICAL APPARATUS. 

Your committee report that the}' prepared the following peti- 
tion, which has been very numerously signed and duly presented 
to Congress : 

We, the undersigned, respectfully petition the Senators and 
Representatives of the United States, in Congress assembled, to 
remove all duties upon scientific and philosophical apparatus, 
whose chief use is for instruction or research. 

It is evident that the welfare and prosperity of the entire 
country depends primarily upon the education of the people and 
the difllision of knowledge, and that, to secure happiness at home 
and success in commercial competition abroad, every practical 
means to improve education and advance science must be utilized 
unhesitatingly. To fail in this respect is to fail in patriotism. 
Education is the foundation of national well-being, and the de- 
mands of education must precede, therefore, all other special 
demands. In a government like ours, " of the people, by the 
people, for the people," education is rightlv regarded as the 
corner-stone of the whole fabric. 

It is indispensable for teachers and investigators of all branches 
of natural science to obtain numerous pieces of apparatus, most 
of which are incapable of use for other purposes than those of 
instruction and research. The duties upon such apparatus act as 
a direct, serious, and unpatriotic interference with the education 
of the country, and injure the whole nation to an incalculably vast 
extent. Experience shows that the provision now in force for the 
free importation of scientific instruments by institutions is entirel}' 
inadequate to remedy the great evil. 

Finally, the duty collected on scientific and philosophical 
apparatus imported into this country, while a serious tax upon 
individuals, is so limited in amount that the loss consequent upon 
the removal of the duty will be insignificant compared to the gain, 
whicli will be for the highest purposes of the whole people. 



RECORDS. 339 



NAMES. 



OFFICIAL TITLES. 



Two copies of this petition were sent to every member of the 
Society, together with the accompanying letter: 

Harvard Medical School, 

Boston, Mass., Jan. 9, 1894. 

My dear Sir : It is my duty, as Chairman of the committee 
appointed by the American Society of Naturalists to secure the 
repeal of the duties on Scientific Apparatus, to ask for your ac- 
tive cooperation. On behalf of the committee I request you : 

Pirst. — To write personal letters to your Senators and Rep- 
resentatives, urging them to give their active support to the 
petition of the Society. 

Second. — To obtain as many signatures as possible to the 
enclosed petition, and then forward it to the Hon. H. C. Lodge, 
U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C., who has consented to present 
the petitions to Congress. 

Third. — To have petitions similar in purport sent to Congress 
by all the scientific societies with which you are connected. 

In conclusion, permit me to add that, if our efibrts are to pro- 
duce effect, our action must be taken with the utmost prompti- 
tude. I have the honor to remain, 

Yours, with great respect, 

Charles Sedgwick Minot, 

Chairman. 

The sio-natures were so numerous and representative of the 
various natural sciences, that it is evident that the opinion of the 
scientific men of the United States is almost, perhaps absolutely, 
unanimous in favor of the repeal of the duty. 

Your committee regrets extremely that action was taken so 
late that the tarifl' bill was before the Senate before your petition 
could be presented to the House, and that in spite of their earnest 



340 SOCIETY OF NATURALISTS. 

and continued cttbrts it was impossible to have the desired altera- 
tion incorporated in the Gorman bill. 

Inasmuch as the repeal of the present iniquitous dut}- on scien- 
tific instruments is imperatively needed by the interests of the 
countrv, we recommend that a committee be appointed to pre- 
sent our just demands to the President, to the Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance of the Senate, and the Chairman of the 
Committee of Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, 
and to take such other steps as may be practicable to secure the 
immediate repeal of the duty. 

(Signed) 

Charles S. Minot, Chairi7ian^ 
Henry F, Osborn, 
Sidney I. Smith, 
William Libbey, Jr. 

The report of the committee was accepted by the Society, and 
the recommendation in regard to the appointment of a committee 
adopted. 

The recommendations of the Execiftive Committee in regard 
to the annual assessment, as given before, received the consent of 
the Society. 

The names of the candidates for admission into the Society 
were read and posted by the Secretary. 

A committee to nominate officers for the ensuing year was ap- 
pointed by the President, consisting of Professors S. F. Clarke, 
King.sley, Lee, Lotsy, and Osborn. 

The resignations of the following members were accepted : 
W. B. Clarke, J. P. Merrill, C. A. Oliver, J. W. Peckham, 
J. T. Rothrock, and M. E. Wadsworth. 

The Society passed a resolution instructing the Secretary to 
renew the invitation to the American Society of Anatomists to 
affiliate, and to send a similar invitation to the American Psy- 
chological Association. 

The Society then listened to the discussion upon "Environ- 
ment in its Influence upon the Successive Stages of Development, 
and as a Cause of Variation." 

Prof. H. F. Osborn, of Columbia College, introducetl the sub- 
ject ; 



RECORDS. 341 

Prof. E. B. Wilson, of Columbia College, discussed the changes 
in our views brought about by experimental embryological study ; 

Prof. W. K. Brooks took up the discussion from the point of 
genealogies ; and 

Dr. C. H. Merriam contributed illustrations from the protec- 
tive coloration and dynamic variations of birds and mammals. 

Remarks were made upon this subject by C. S. Minot, E. D. 
Cope, A. S. Hyatt, and C. V. Riley. 

The Society then adjourned to listen to Prof. E. B. Wilson, 
who explained a satisfactory process of photographing micro- 
scopic preparations, showing the cytological changes taking place 
during maturation, fecundation, and segmentation. Photographs 
thus taken were thrown upon the screen by the stereopticon. 



SECOND SESSION. 



Friday mornings December 28, iSgs- 
W^ith the President in the chair, and a quorum present, the 
Society proceeded to business at 9.30 A.M. The following per- 
sons were elected members of the Society : 

William Ashmead, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Severance Burrage, Mass. Institute of Technology. 

W. E. Castle, Harvard University. 

H. E. Chapin, University of Ohio. 

J. E. Humphrey, Johns Hopkins University. 

M. M. Metcalf, The Woman's College of Baltimore. 

H. C. Porter, University of Pennsylvania. 

W\ H. C. Pynchon, Trinity College, Hartford. 

Charles Schuebert, U.S. National Museum. 

Norman W^vld, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Professor Kingsley detailed to the Society the scheme of Dr. 
H. H. Field by which certain needed reforms were proposed 
in the bibliography of zoological literature. Professor Osborn 
moved that a committee of seven (amended to five by Professor 
Cope) be appointed by the President to consider the ways and 
means, and supporting Dr. Field in his work, and that this com- 
mittee report in print both in the American Naturalist and in 
Science, 



342 SOCIETV OF NATURALISTS. 

This motion as amended was adopted by the wSociety, and the 
President appointed the following committee : S. H. Scudder, 
Chairman ; J. S. Kingsley, Secretary ; H. F. Osborn, H. P. 
Bowditch, and E. A. Andrews. 

The report of the Auditing Committee was received, and the 
report of the Treasui'er was accepted by the Society. 

The Nominating Committee reported as follows: 

President. 
Prof. Edward D. Cope, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

^ ice-Presidents. 
Prof, William Libbey, Jr., of Princeton University. 
Prof. W. G. Farlow, of Harvard University. 
Prof. C. O. Whitman, of the University of Chicago. 

Secretary. 
Prof. H. C. Bumpus, of Brown Universitv. 

Treasurer, 
Dr. E. G. Gardiner, Boston. 

Executive Comfnittee. 
Prof. E. B. Wilson, of Columbia College. 
Prof. W. H. Howell, of Johns Hopkins University. 

It was moved that the Secretary be instructed to cast the ballot 
of the Society for these officers. The motion was carried. 

Professor Bumpus called the attention of the Society to the fact 
that tlie American table at the Naples Station was not equipped 
with instruments, and the occupant was compelled to carry his 
own with him, at a considerable inconvenience and expense. He 
therefore moved that a sum, not to exceed $130, be taken from 
the funds of the Society for the purchase of one or more micro- 
tomes to be deposited with the Zoological Station at Naples for 
the use of the American investigators, the instruments, however, 
to remain the property of the Society, and that a committee of 
three be appointed to attend to this matter. 

The Society adopted this motion, and the President appointed 



RECORDS. 343 

as members of this committee. Professor Bumpus, Piofcssor 
Sedgwick, and Dr. Gardiner. 

President Oilman, of Johns Hopkins University, then welcomed 
the members of the visiting societies to Baltimore and to the 
Johns Hopkins University in a very pleasant and cordial way. 

The business being finished, the Society listened to an address 
from President Minot on the subject, " The Work of the Natu- 
ralist in the World." 

The annual discussion followed the Presidential Address. The 
subject was as follows : " Laboratory Teaching of Large 
Classes." 

Prof. A. S. Hyatt, of the Boston .Society of Natural History, 
introduced the subject ; 

Prof. H. C. Bumpus, of Brown University, considered the 
matter from a zoological standpoint ; and 

Prof. W. F. Ganong, of Smith College, gave the results of 
botanical experience. 

The subject was further discussed by H. W. Conn, Marcella I. 
O'Grady, E. S. Morse, and C. S. Minot. 

After passing a vote of thanks to the authorities of the Johns 
Hopkins Universitv, to the University Club, and to the citizens 
of Baltimore, for their kindness and hospitality, the meeting 
adjourned. 

WILLIAM A. SETCHELL, 

Secretary. 



NOTICE. 



Copies of this part of the first volume of the Records of 
the American Society of Jfaturalists will be distributed 
to members, and to persons and societies designated by 
the Executive Council of the Society. 

Copies may be purchased of the Secretary for thirty 
cents, post-paid. 

Members are requested to notify the Secretary of amj 
errors in the list of members, and of any changes in their 
occupations or axldresses. 



Any persojts, otherivise qualified, are eligible to member- 
ship, whatever their residence; but the meetings of the 
Society cannot be held outside the territory prescribed by 
the constitution. The attention of members wishing to 
propose candidates for election to the Society is especially 
directed to By-Law IT. 



& CHUKCHILL 



nii;i;llili:llii:i,iiiiiiii"iiiiiii 

J -044 072 218