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RECORDS 



AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 



EDITED BY THE CURATOR 



Vol VI H. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 



R. ETHERIDGE, Junr., J. P. 



Qturatov. 



SYDNEY, 1910-1913. 



5^^^ 



l^ 



^ll ^ 



CONTENTS. 



No. I. 
Published 1 5th November, 19 JO. 

North Queensland Ethnogi'aphy. By Walter E. Roth 
No. 14. Transport and Trade 
No. 15. Decoration, Deformation, and Clothing 
No. 16. Huts and Shelters 
No. 17. Postures and Abnormalities 
No. 18. Social and Individual Nomenclature ... 



pagb; 

1 
20 
55 
67 

79 



No. 2. 
Published 27th January, I9n. 

Description of Cranial Remains from Whaugarei, New Zealand 

By W. Ramsay Smith ... ... ... ... 107 

The Results of Deep-Sea Investigations in the Tasman Sea. I. 
The Expedition of H.M.C.S. " Miner." No. 5. Polyzoa 
Supplement. By C. M. Maplestone ... ... ... 113 

Mineralogical Notes. No. ix. Topaz, Quartz, Monazite, and 

other Australian Minerals. By C. Anderson ... ... 120 

No. 3. 

Published 6th May, J9I2. 

Descriptions of some New or Noteworthy Shells in the Australian 

Museum. By Chai'les Hedley. ... ... ... 131 

No. 4. 

Published 1 8th April, 19 13. 

Australian Tribal Names with their Synonyms. By W. W, 

Thorpe ... ... ... ... ... 161 

Title Page, Contents, and Indices ... ... ... 193 



LIST OF THE CONTRIBUTORS. 

With Reference to the Articles contributed by each. 



Anderson, Chas. : — 



PACK 



Miueralogical Notes. No. ix. Topaz, Quartz. Mouazite, 

and other Australian Minerals ... ... ... 120 

Medley, Chas. — 

Desoriptions of Ronie New or Noteworthy Shells in the 

Australian Museum ... ... .. ... 131 

Maplestone, C. M. :— 

The Results of Deep-Sea Investigations in the Tasman Sea. 
I. The Expedition of H.M.C.S. "Miner." No. 5. 
Polyzoa. Supplement ... ... ... 118 

Roth, Walter E. :— 

North Queensland Ethnography. Bulletin No. 14. Trans- 
port and Trade ... ... ... ... 1 

North Queensland Ethnography. Bulletin No. 15. Decora- 
tion, Deformation, and Clothing ... ... 20 

North Queensland Ethnography. Bulletin No. Ifi. Huts 

and Shelters ... ... ... ... 55 

North Queensland Ethnography. Bulletin No. 17. Postures 

and Abnormalities ... ... ... ... 67 

North Queensland Ethnography. Bulletin No. 18. Social 

and Individual Nomenclature ... ... ... 79 

Smith, W. Ramsay : — 

Description of Cranial Remains from Whangarei, New 

Zealand ... ... ... ... ... 107 

Thorpe, W. W. :— 

Australian Tribal Names with their Synonyms ... 161 



LIST OF THE PLATES. 



PART I. 



Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Logs of light wood vised as floats for crossing water. — 
Mitchell River, &c. 

„ 2, Logs tied together forming a simple primitive raft. — 
Tully, Russell, Winegrave Rivers. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. V. -shaped log raft of numerous light saplings, with butts 
all at one end. — Wellesley Islands. 

,, 2. The same form of raft with seat of dried gi-ass, ifcc. 
Plate III. 

Fig. 1. V.-shaped log raft afloat, showing method of propulsion. — 
Wellesley Islands. 

,, 2. The same ashore, with grass seat and paddle. 
Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Single-sheet bark canoe with bluut straight ends. — Gulf 
Coast. 

„ 2. The same afloat. 
Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Single-sheet bark canoe with oblique ends. — Gulf Coast. 

,, 2. Three-sheet bark canoes. — Whitsunday Island. 
Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Dug-out with outriggers, and projecting terminal lip or 
platform. — Batavia River. 

,, 2. Dug-outs showing position of Ijooms and method of 
attachment to the floats or outriggers. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. I. Dug-out cut square at either extremity ; with one 
outrigger. — Mossman River to Cape Grafton. 

Plate VIII. 

Fig. 1. Man. of the Carpentaria Gulf country. 

„ 2-3. Head nets worn to prevent the haii thrombs from 
dangling over into the eyes. 

„ 4. Long forehead-net, or miri-miri. 

,, 6. Digital-amputation. 



Pr-ATE IX. 

Fio. 1. 'I'libe ear ornameut worn by ineu oii the Peuuetather and 
Eiiibley Rivers, Giilf of Cai-pentaria. 

., 2. Decorative scars, or cheloids, on a man's back. 

Plate X. 

Fig. 1. Decorative scars, or cheloids, on man's chest and abdomen. 

„ 2. Feathering of the body for the Molonga performance of 
the Boulia Oorroboree. 

Plate XI. 

Fig. 1. Most primitive forui of artificial break-wind. — Wellesley 
Islands. 

,, 2. Sleeping platform. — Lower Normanby River. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 1. Another form of primitive break-wind. — Wellesley Islands. 

,, 2. Completed hut. — Lower Tully Eiver. 

Plate XIII. 

Fig. 1. An early type of shelter 

„ 2. Composite huts. 

Plate XEV. 

Fig. 1. Grass-thatched hut. — Normauton. 

,, 2. Simple ridge-pole form of structure in skeleton 

Plate XV. 

Fig. 1. Skeleton of dome-frame hut. — North-west Districts. 

,, 2. Another and more advanced form <>f ridge-pole structure. 

Plate XVI. 

Fig. 1. Circular frame work of switches.- Northern Coast-line. 

„ 2. Simplest form of bark shelter. 

Plate XVII. 

Fig. L 'J'hc sapling-framed hut seen in Plate xv., fig. 1, covered 
with bushes, iVc. — North-west Districts. 

,, 2. " Cabbage-tree " palm leaf hut. — Kennedy River. 

Plate XVIII. 

Fig. 1. Position assumed in sleep at Capes Bedford and Grafton. 

,, 2. Common position assumed in standing at ease. 

,, 3. Man climbing a straight tree with the aid of the climbing- 
cane. 

Plate XIX. 

Fig. 1. Man squatting with the shins doubled underneath. 

„ 2. Man squatting on the buttocks. 

„ 3. Man squatting, a modification of Fig. I. 

„ i. Man sitting. 



Plate XX. 

Fiif. 1. Butt of tree clutched with two feet. — Lower Tully River 
District. 

,, 2. Mjiu " walkiug up." 
Plate XXI. 

Fig. I. Miui climbing a vino hand-over-hand. 

„ 2-3. Man climbing a tree by means of the climbing cane. 

,, t. Forked sapling placed against a tree to be climbed. — 
Cape Bedford. 

Plate XX 11. 

Fig. 1. Man climbing tree with the aid of a bark strip. — Coen 
and Peunefatlier Rivers. 

„ 2. Tree climbing by cutting steps. 
Plate XXIII. 

Fig. 1. Partial absence of pigmentation in the hands and feet. — 
Princess Charlotte Bay. 

„ 2. Goitre in a Kalkadun woman. — (!loucurry. 
Plate XXIV. 

Fig. 1. Deformity allied to congenital club-foot. 
„ 2. A kind of hammer-toe seen in a woman at Cape Grafton. 
„ 3. A similar case at the Tully River. 
„ 4. Another instance from the Tully River. 
Plate XXV. 

Fig. 1. " Dinah of Yaamba." 
,, 2. Examples of the Charlotte 5ay District natives. 
Plate XXVI. 

Sketch mai5 of the Rockhampton and surrounding Coast 
District. 
Plate XXVII. 

Sketch map of Cairns and surrounding district. • 

Plate XXVIII. 

Fig. 1. Examples of Cairns District natives (men). 
„ 2. Examples of the Cooktowu District natives (women). 
Plate XXIX. 

Fig. 1. Examples of Cooktown District natives (men). 

,, 2. Examples of the Charlotte Bay District natives — Cape 
Melville women, 1899. 

„ 3. Mainlander abreast of Cairncross Island. 
Plate XXX. 

Sketch map showing the location of the Koko-minni and 
their relation to other tribes. 
Plate XXXI. 

Sketch map to illustrate the territorial divisions of the 
tribes in the Pennefather (Coen) River District. 



PART ir. 

Plate XXX [I. 

Cranial Eeniaius fioiii Wliaiigarei, N.Z. 
Plate XXX [IT. 

Skull fi-din Kpi, New Hebrides. 
Plate XXXIV. 

Polyzoa. — Selenaria. 
Plate XXXV. 

Polyzda. — Selenaria. 
Plate XXXVI. 

Topaz.— New South Wales and Queenshiud. 
Plate XXXVII. 

Topaz, Tetrahedrite, Gyp.siun, Quartz. 
Plate XXXVIII. 

Quartz. — New South Wales. 
Plate XXXIX. 

Wulfenite and Monazite. 

PART TIT. 

Plates XL. to XLV. 

New or Noteworthy Shells 



JNORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY. 

Bulletin No. 14. 
TRANSPORT and TRADE, i 

By Waltkr E. Roth, Magistrate of the Pomeroon District, 
British Guiana ; late Chief Protector of Aboriginals, Queens- 
land ; Corresponding Member of the Anthropological 
Institute, London ; Hon. Member of the Anthropological 
Societies of Berlin and Florence. 

(Plates i.-vii. ; Figs. 1-13). 

Contents. 

/. — I'ransport. 









page 


Sect. 1. 


Crossing water : — By natural fords, bridges. 


swimming 


2 


2. 


,, ,, Carrying impedimenta 




2 


3. 


,, ,, Precautions against accid( 


ent. etc. ... 


2 


4. 


Floats :— 




3 


5. 


Rafts: — On the East Coast 




4 


6. 


,, On the Wellesley Islands ... 




5 


7. 


Bark-Canoes :— Single-sheet, East Coast ... 




6 


8. 


,, ,, ,, ,, Gulf Coast ... 




6 


8a 


,, ,, Nomenclature 




9 


9. 


,, ,, Two-sheet 




10 


10. 


,, ,, Three-sheet .. 




10 


11. 


Dug-Outs : — 




11 


12. 


,, Double-outrigger, Batavia River 




11 


13. 


,, „ ,, Night Island and 


Claremont 






Point 




12 


14, 


,, Single-outrigger 




13 


15. 


,, ,, ,, Flinders Island to 


Bloomfield 






River 




13 


16. 


,, ,, ,, Moesman to Cape Grafton 


14 


17. 


,, Nomenclature 




15 


18. 


Introduced Boats, etc.... 




16 


19. 


Canoes at Brisbane 

//. — Trade and Barter. 




16 


1. 


On the Bloomfifcld River 




17 


2. 


At Princess Charlotte Bay • 




18 


3. 


At Cape Bedford ... 




18 


4. 


At Cairns and Cape Grafton 




18 


5. 


Amongst the TuUy River Natives ... 




19 


fi. 


,, Pennefather River Natives ... 




19 



1 Dr. Roth, when trausniitimg Ins MS., requested that tlie details of a 
few specimens in his collection left undescribed, might be added ; these 
are now incorporated and distinguished by being placed within brackets. 
-(Ed.) 



2 RECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

I.— TRANSPORT. 

1. As a matter of choice, the native will rather wade 
across a stream than go to the exertion of swimming it, and 
will often make a comparatively long detour to find a suitable 
ford. On occasion, the overhanging timber being suitable, he 
will climb over on the interlacing branches. Sometimes he may 
effect his purpose by utilising a log that happens to have fallen 
in the proper direction or to have been purposely placed there, 
such a natural bridge has a special name given it, and in the 
case of the Endeavour River Natives is known as walmba, the 
same term as is applied to the forked limb put against a tree in 
order to climb it, or to act as a .sort of platform on which to rest, 
while cutting out a bees' nest, etc. 

Though perhaps occupying country adjacent to the banks of a 
river, it certainly does not follow that its presence indicates any 
capability of the local blacks being able to svvim. Doth on the 
Burke and Georgina Rivers I noticed this peculiarity, which in 
the latter case was perhaps explical)le by the fact that the lands 
on the further side were claimed by another tribe, and that 
consequently the necessity for crossing not having arisen, the art 
had either not been practiced or had fallen into disuse. 

2. Where natives do know how to swim, the posture assumed 
varies in different localitie.s, and will be de.scribed when dealing 
with the whole question of postures generally. If saddled with 
impedimenta these are carried, according to size, either in the 
teeth, on the head, or in a bark or dug-out wooden vessel pro- 
pelled in front of them. When on the head, the weight is often 
balanced (as is usually the case when the transport is on land) 
by a head pad (KYI. CKn, mordi), made in the form of a thick 
circular ring, out of tea-tree bark, or grass; when a vessel is 
utilised, it is either one of the ordinary domestic water-troughs, 
" koolamoiis," etc., or else specially made for the occasion out of 
a length of l)ark tied up at both ends. 

3. When about to cross any large stream, the native, if by 
himself, will guard against pos.sible accident from crocodile or 
Rhark, by practising certain auguries, some of which have already 
been detailed-. When in company, such practices are usually 
discarded, all his companions swimming across in more or less 
close formation with a gootl deal of splashing and shouting. 
Wliere however necessity demands that a known crocodile- 
infested river has to be crossed, and there is no canoe, the black 
manages it by diving, a methml which I had an opportiuiity of 



a Roth— Bull. 5— fSect. 104. 



NOIITH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGUAPIIY KOTH. d 

witnessing on the Lower Nornianby River (Princess Charlotte 
Ba}'). Gliding silently below the surface of the water, he keeps 
close to the bottom ; if it is too wide, he loses no time in coining 
up for a breath of fresh air and down again : should he come 
across one of these saurians, he imniedintely stirs up around him 
the dark mud on tlie river bed, and makes good his escape very 
much on the same lines as a cuttle-fish when in danger. Similar 
precautions are taken in this same district when a black is 
diving for lily-seeds in any suspected pool, etc., there always 
being some friend of his or hers watching, either from the banks 
or an overhanging tree ; the latter, on seeing the shadow or long 
streaky film of fine bubbles indicating the approach of the 
reptile, immediately splashes the water surface violently with 
some heavy stick, etc., and so gives the signal to the individual 
lif-Iow, who quickly makes up the bank by ci'awling and kicking 
up the mud as already descril)ed. The Princess Charlotte Bay 
Natives never consider it safe to swim even silently on the 
surface of these waters, however clear they may be, when croco- 
diles are about. In the neighbourhood of the Proserpine River, 
the blacks will sometimes drag a heavy hooked club attached to 
a long ro])e across the stream to make sure that there is nothing 
lurking below to endanger their crossing. 

A river in flood is met by diving across close to the bottom, 
where the natives say the current is never so strong. In taking 
the water for diving from a height, I have only observed the 
position of feet fiist. 

4. At the mouth of the Mitchell River, and some of the rivers 
to the south of it, as well as^ I am told, on a few of the creeks to 




Fig. 1. 

the northward, the cut trunk of some very light tree {I White 
Mangrove) is utilised as a float. Such a log is cut to about 



4 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSKUM 

between five and six feet long, and when in the water can easily 
support the native who stretches himself upon it straddle-leg, 
with the thicker butt-end in front, soniewiiat in the position of a 
child riding a hobby-horse, and so paddles himself along ; being 
able to keep his balance with the one hand, he can thus have the 
othei- free to cany his speats, etc. (PL i., tig. 1, and fig. 1). To see 
these logs for the first time, lyiugas they were here and there on the 
sides of the river-hanks, and to suggest the purpose for which they 
weie intended, would certainly have constituted a puzzle which, 
without ocular demonstration, I should never have guessed. Upon 
enquiry, as' to how they had coaie to [)ractise such a manner of 
transport tlie blacks told me that having the hody so much out of 
the water, they could swim these estuaries with much greater ease. 
On the other hand, I cannot refrain from hazarding the opinion 
that the employment of the float in this manner may at the same 
time serve the purpose of protective mimicry from the attacks 
of crocodiles, which literally swarm in these waters, the thinner 
end of the float, whicli projects behind after the nature of 
a tail, giving the swimmer all the appearance, at no considerable 
distance, of one of these saurians ; that the natives here have but 
little dread of these creatures may be guaged from tiie fact that 
on the occasion of a visit of the Government ketch ' Mell)ider ' 
to the Mitchell River, eleven crocodiles were to be seen at one 
and the same time from the vessel's deck. 

On the eastern coast-line, floating logs were in use at the 
Keppel Islands up to the time of my last visit in 1897 — the few 
remaining survivors have since been removed — and were 
employed on those occasions when necessity forced the blacks to 
swim across to the difiBrent islands, and even on occasion to the 
mainland, the nearest distance from Big Keppel being at least 
six miles. Having floated a pandanus log, up to as much as 
thirteen or fourteen feet in length, according to the number in 
the party, the leader of the gang guides its lesser extremity with 
the one hand (say the left), and swims along with the otiier ; the 
man behind, resting his right hand on number one's loins propels 
himself with his left; number three holds onto number two with 
his left, and swims with his right, and so on. The most skilful 
part of the manoeuvre would appear to be in the ))i'oper use 
of the, leg so as to prevent its impeding the progress of those 
behind. When the leader gets tired, his place is taken by 
another, and if all reipiire a few minutes' rest, they have the 
float to hold on to. 

5. Log-Hafts ar(! met with among tlie scrub-lilacks from the 
Tully to the Russell ami Mulgra\e Rivers, the coastal ones 



NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGKAPHY — ROTH. 5 

employing bark-canoes. On the Lower Tully, amongst the Mal- 
lanpara Tribe, the raft or warra-jan (PI. i., fig. 2) is manufactured 
of two kinds of timber, the ponol and the pedu (Grewia pleios- 
tigma, F.v. M.) Four, sometimes five logs of one or other material, 
are cut off blunt at each end, no attempt being made at pointing 
them so as to better resist the friction of the water, and tied, while 
afloat, with a length of lawyer-cane at the two ends only. The 
tying consists of two parts (fig. 2) ; first round the outside logs 




Fyy. 2. 

(ab), and tixing the cane at any spot suitable (x) ; and secondly, 
fixing together the upper and under portions of the cane itself, 
as well as tlie intermediate logs, by what may be called a 
frapping turn. This is effected with another cane, represented 
loose (cd) in the figure, which after being tightened up at the 
first interspace (m), has its extremities brought over through the 
next interval (n), tightening up again, and passing through the 
last intervening space (o), where it is finally fixed. These log- 
rafts are used rather in times of flood than at others, and are 
generally discarded after use. Sometimes there are a few small 
pieces of timber placed crosswise at one extremity, and on them 
a piece of tea-tree baik, sand, etc., may be laid ; a tire can thus 
be kept burning. So far as the shape of the raft is concerned, 
sometimes the outer, sometimes the inner logs project ; there is 
certainly no attempt at uniformity or any approach to making a 
bow or stem. No blade or paddle is used for its propulsion, only 
a pole which can both steer and punt it. It can be worked by 
one or two occupants ; in the latter case with a pole on either 
side, but ai)parently no regular time is kept in their movements. 
6. A somewiiat different manner of Raft is to be seen on the 
Wellesley Islands. It is V-shaped (Pis. ii. and iii), composed of 
numerous light saplings (" White Mangrove") with butts all at 
one end, the larger logs underneath and at the sides, ail tied 
together fore and aft, a cross- tie connecting the two loops to 



KBCOHDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



prevent them from slipping ; over the wider portion of the raft^is 
placed a bundle of dried giass, upon which the traveller squats 
and paddles himself along. 

7. Bark-Canoes are made either of one. two or three sheets of 
bark, and in the main are river-craft, though on the East Coast 
they are often taken across to the neighbouring islands, and on 
the West Coast out on the sea, but only wlien the wind and 
weatlier are favourable. 

Those liuilt of a single sheet are found on the Gulf Coast, ex- 
tending from ihe Batavia and Ducie Rivers down to the Archer 
River, and on the eastern littoral along an area reaching from 
the Johnstone Kiver to a little below Cardwell. That their area 
of distribution on the latter coast was much further south than 
this within very recent times is rendered highly probable from 
the fact that the Keppel Islanders, who possessed no canoes wiien 
I first came amongst them, made me models of the single-sheet 
type to explain tlie craft they u.sed to have in days gone by. 
These models were all the more interesting in that the only 
traces of l)ark canoes that were discoverable amongst the 
neighbouring mainland natives of the Fitzroy River were of the 
three-sheet type. 

Tiie manufacture of such single-sheet canoes is practically the 
same on both coast-lines, the existing differences being only in 
detail. At tlie TuUy River (East Coast) the bark employed is 
obtained from at least five different timbers, known under their 
local IMallanpara names as nupa, kirau, kiri, yabandai, and 
kalkara, of which only the first has been identified as Calophi/l/um 
tomentosum, Wight. The method of stripping has alread}' 
been explained"^. I was further informed that the bark 
from these particular trees will strip more or less at any 
time of the year, i.e., not necessarily onl}' at the end of 
the wet .season when the sap is up. The sheet of bark, 
according to length required, having been removed, one 
of its ends is heated over a tire to render it pliable, and 
thewhole length then folded long ways, with the outerside 
of the bark outwards ; the end which has been heated is 
next clamped in a vice. This vice is made of two 
switches (tig. 3) tied tightly below around a stiff bundle 
of grass, bark, etc., so as to form a kind of fork, the ' leg ' 
ofwhich is implanted firmly into the ground ; the 'arms* 
are sul)sequently tit-d ov(>r the eiul of the folded length, 
which is thus held tightly in position (fig. 4). The name 
Fig. 8. given to this piece of apparatus is yuku nambil-nainbil 
(yuku:=:tree, log, tiuil)er ; nambil:=to squeeze). A spreader or 

3 Roth— Bull. 7— Sect. 1. 



NOKTU QUEENSLAND KTHNOGKAPHY — KOTH. / 

stretcher, any strong piece of timber, is next jambed into position 
so as to outline the future shape of the canoe, and also to serve 
as a guide for cutting ott' from the end projecting 
beyond the vice that portion which will subse- 
quently constitute the bow. The cutting, wiiich 
is effected with a strong sharp-edged shell 
(usually Gyrena jukesit, Desh.) is done from 
below upwards, through both portions of the 
fold simultaneously. It is not a straight incision, 
but curved more at the bottom than at the 
top, the operator standing face to face with 



Fig. 4. 

the extremity of the bark and cutting towards himself. After 
being cut into shape this bow end is finely sewn, or rather 
over-cast to use the correct term, with a split strip of lawyer- 
cane (Calamus), through holes which are drilled with an arti- 
ficially-pointed wallaby bone. At the same time some tea-tree 
bark (which swells when moistened) is included in the over- 
casting of the extreme lower limit of the cut, where water is 
very likely to enter owing to the tendency to stretch and split 
consequent upon the extreme degree of flexion to which the bark- 
length is subjected. The sewing completed, the clamp is opened, 
and the other end of the bark-length similarly treated to form 
the stern, but in this case a wider spreader is used, the stern of 
these canoes being always made .somev^^hat wider than the bows. 
Usually, by the time this stern of the future canoe is ready to be 
clamped, it has been already sufticieutly exposed to the sun to 
make it pliable enough for working, otherwise, it is heated over 
the fire. With both spreadei s still in position two strong withies, 
tapered at both ends to give greater flexibility, are attached to 
the inner top of either side of the vessel l)y over-casting with 
similar materials as before, and sewn in with them are unsplit 
lengilis of Calamus or FlageUaria indica, Linn., the whole consti- 
tuting the gunwale. It may be noted that though the withies start 
from the extreme limit of the stern, they do not as a rule reach 
quite up to the bow (tig. 5), on the other hand the unsplit Calamus, 
etc., surrounds both stern and bows completely. To strengthen 




8 RECORDS OF THE AU.SIRALIAX MUSBl'M. 

the canoe, some tive or six pieces of Iwrk, after being bent well 
into position, are made to lie inside and crosswise ; these are 
.^^ pressed against the inner surface of the vessel 

^"^' ;>, by means of as many ribs, formed of split cane, 

** which aie preventecl springing out of position 
by being forcibly tucked under the gunwale. 
A single tie is now sewn across the top at about 
tlie centre of the vessel, so as to prevent the 
two sides springing apart (from the action of the 
^5*''^ ribs) after the removal of the spreaders, which 

Fitr. 5. tiually takes place. Last of all, a hole is made 

at the top a little to one side of the bow, and througli it is 
fixed the rope to which the anchor in the shape of a heavy 
stone or piece of rock is attached. Such a canoe (PI. iv., fig. 2) 
has fairly abrupt ends, is usually small, being intended for one 
person only, and in the example which I saw manufactured took 
a little over a day to make, this including the removal of the 
bark from the tree. I am informed that it will last a long while 
provided it is kept away from the sun under a good sliade; 
should it crack, tiie tear is sewn up with intervening tea-tree 
bark and covered with l)ee's-wax usually, with one or other of 
their gum-cements on occasion ; when in use, the occupant 
assumes a kneeling position (PI. iv., fig. 1) with buttocks resting 
on the heels, his weight as low down as possible, and paildles 
himself along by means of a small oval-shaped piece of bark oi- a 
large pearl-shell held in each hand, the movements of one follow- 
ing those of the other. This bark-paddle is called parambi, the 
same name as is applied to the crest of a Cassowary. He 
carries a shell-bailer and often a tire, or else the materials and 
sand for making it on. 

8. The single-sheet l)ark -canoe of the Gulf Coast, eg. of the 
Batavia and Pennefather River Natives, is built on identical 
lines, a similar clamp being brought into requisi- 
tion. The main differences lie in the absence of 
any special gunwale, and ribs, and the peculiar 
arrangement of spreaders and ties. To keep the 
sides in position two spre-ulers or stretchers (fig. 6), 
bluntly-pointed pieces of stick, are put in, their 
„. effect bein" counteracted by two, sonjetimes three, 

ties, made of twisted vine, which aie Hxed into 
opposite sides of the vessel and stretche<l by means of two forked 
sticks placed cros.s-wise, their bases resting on extra pieces of 
bark (Hg. 7). Minor differences are to be found in their general 
size, which varies according as they are constructed to carry 
from one to five or six people, in their more sloping extremities, 




NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — ROTH. 



9 




which ricie the water higher than those on the 
East Coast,and in the fore and aft-port,ion being 
hardly distinguishable, the keel sloping away to 
the stem only a little more gradually at the 
narrower bows than at the wider stern. Further- 
more, during the process of sewing up the cut ends, 
the over-casting commences at about the centre 
of the cut, the lower and upper portions being 
next respectively completed. The bark employed is obtained 
from Eucalyptus letradoiita, F.v.M. (NGGr. arai-i). These canoes 
are worked with a single paddle (PI. v., fig. ], and 
fig. 8) held in both hands, and used on one or other 
side as may be required ; the paddle (NGG. ngamba) 
is of interest in that it is an example of a 'natural 
form,' being constituted of tlie spatulate root of 
Brugiiiera rheedii, Blume (NGG-. tcherda). or Ceriops 
candolleana, Arn. (NGG. larchanama). The natives 
are very expert in balancing themselves on these frail 
structures and can even manage to stand up and throw 
a spear. The Rev. N. Hey, Superintendent of the 
Mapoon Aboi'iginal Mission on the Batavia River, has 
seen one of these canoes tipped over in the open sea^ 
emptied of the water, and clambered into again by its 
occupants. When not in use, the vessel may be kept 
high and dry in the shade, or else left in the water. 
For tran.sport on land it may be carried on the heads 
of one or more persons walking Indian-file. 

8a. The names of the different parts of these single- 
sheet bark canoes on the TuUy and Batavia Ri%ers, as 
applied by the local Mallanpara and Nggerikudi 



rig. 8. 
Tribes, 



respectively, areas follows: — 








Tully R. 


Batavia R. 


English equivalent. 


Canoe as a whole 

bowa 


ku-kai 
ngorn 
mono 
chu-cha 

j kanga 


truno 

pai 

mo 

mbo-ini 

andro-ana 

churo 


= bark 

= fore-head 


stern 


= buttocks 


keel (unsewu portion) .. 

,, (sewn portion) 

inside 


= back, dorsum 


^= inside of anything 
= median depression of 

chest and abdomen. 
= adiacent breast & ab- 




gunwale 


mbau-o 

lo 


spreader, stretcher 

tie 




dominal walls on either 
side of this depression. 
= any piece of wood. 


doan-donno 
la-ta 


forked support for the 
tie 


^trunk of a tree. 




10 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

9. Canoes made of two sheets of bark were seen on the Tully 
River and are said to require a much longer time for their 
manufacture. The keel is sewn first, the extremities only after 
alternately repeated wetting and drying. Their raison detre is 
apparently the want of a suitably sized sheet to allow of folding ; 
they have no s|ieclal name to distinguish them from the ku-kai 
already described. 

10. The three-sheet type of bark-canoe is to be seen at the 
present day in use amongst the natives on Whitsunday and ad- 
jacent islands (PI. v., fig. 2), though within the present genera- 
tion its limits extended certainly as far south as the mouth of the 
Fitzroy River, where the local Tarumbal Blacks made me some 
models in 1894, by which time canoes of any description had 
ceased to be in vogue. Cut into more or less of a diamond 

shape, one sheet forms 
the bottom of the ves. 
sel, the other two the 
sides (fig. 9). On the 
Fitzroy River the tim- 
ber used was iron-bark, 
'^' ■ though the bottom 

piece was some times replaced by blue gum, and the completed 
vessel, from six tos^ven feet long, was known l)ythenameof winta, 
koka or okka, and wallo. Mi. VV. T. Wyndham^, gives a short 
description of such a canoe in the old days from Central Queens- 
land, and told me that it was the same as what he saw subse- 
quently on the coast-line: — "There is one kind of bark-canoe 
they make in Central Queensland that I have assisted in making, 
and do not recollect having seen in New South Wales. Tlie 
builder cuts three sheets of bark into an oval form, he inserts 
one sheet in a hollow in the ground, with the ends resting one 
on each side of the hole, he then puts a log or some other weight 
in the centre of the bark so as to cause the two ends to turn up, 
fire often l)eing used to get them into the proper shape, the ends 
are theti pared rather thin ; the peel of some fibrous root (gener- 
ally from a species of ticus) is used as a thread to sew the bark 
together ; the two pieces of bark are placed on their siiies, and 
the bottom sewn on to them by using an awl, a roll of the paper 
tea tree plant is used to caulk the cracks, two saplings are sewn 
inside to stitlen the outer rim of the canoe all round, and the 
okka is finished." The Whitsunday Island specimens usually 
have stretchers to keep the two sides apart. On occasion I have 



* VVyndham— Jourii. Roy. Soo. N.8. Wales, xxiii., i, 1889, p. 40. 



NOinil QUKKNSLAND KTHNOGRAPIIY ROTH. 11 

seen a more or less central tie, or a tie fore and aft, ia addition : 
fixed light forward in tlie bows is an upriglit fork upon wliicli 
the harpoon rests. A single paddle with a lanceolate l)lade is 
used, and is certainly very different from the model made foi' me 
by the Fitzroy River Natives, which was somewhat after the 
nature of a giadually-tapering comparatively shoit stick, the 
thicker extremity being whittled down on the one side only, into 
a shallow more or less concave blade. The material used for the 
Fitzroy paddle was said to have been originally made from 
" brigalow," but more usually from the less heavy " bottle-tree." 

11. Dug-Outs, in the condition met with along the Queensland 
Coast-line, are, like many other objects of Ethnological interest 
observable in Cape York Peninsula, of Papuan origin, and shew 
modifications in proportion with the distance from the area of 
main contact. At the same time it must be remembered tliat, 
certainly within the last eiglity years, the Torres Strait Islanders 
(all of them Papuans) would travel south a long way down the 
Barrier Reef during the north west season, and return with the 
south east. In its original form, the dug-out canoe consists of 
a body with two outriggers, of which the suppression of one 
constitutes the primary modification, their method of construction 
(attachment ot boom to float, etc.), forming the secondary. The 
body — the ' dug-out ' as its name implies — is made from a suitable 
tree-trunk fashioned more or less at each end into a recognisable 
bow and stern respectively, and hollowed out with native-gouges, 
etc., and tiring, as already described. The timber used varies 
with what is available in the different areas : — Thus, on the 
Endeavour River I found it to be Boinhax malabaricum, D.O. 
(KYI. nanggarbura), ExccBcaria agallocha, Linn. (KYI. melaba), 
Alstonia verticillosa, F. v. M. (KYI. morrangal), and Somierotia 
acida, Linu. (KYI. pornupan) ; at Cape Bedford, Canarium aus- 
tralasicuiu, F.v.M. (KYI. gundar), and Gmeliiia macrophylla, 
Benth. (KYI. detchi) ; at the Batavia River Bonibax, etc. It is 
distinctly a sea-going craft ascom|)ared with the bark-canoe. The 
original form of double outrigger dugout is found on both 
shores of the Cape York Peninsula ; at the Batavia River only, 
on the (jrulf side, and in the neighbourhood of Cape Grenville on 
the east coast. It is noteworthy that now and again during the 
north west season foreign dug-outs are washed ashore, at the 
mouth of the Batavia. 

12. On the Batavia River, the outer side of the body of the dug- 
out is but little worked, except of course at the ends, where there 
is a projecting ledge beyond the excavated part (tig. 10) ; that at 
the bows forms a sort of platform, that at the stern a kind of lip. 



12 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



witli the result that the line of keel makes a somewhat graceful 
angle with the former, but an almost abrupt ending with the 
latter. It is on the jirojecting j)latform that the hunter stands 




Fig. 10. 

when on the look-out for turtle, etc. It was ascertained that the 
butt end of the tree-trunk ultimately forms the hows, which 
accordingly ride wider and higher when floated. The greatest 
breadth in tlie bilge is not very markedly larger than the .space 
between the gunwale ; the sides tumble in but slightly. Two 
booms are fixed cross-wise over the body (fig, 10), at about between 
the middle and outer thirds (the anterior tliird being the greater), 
by means of a rope passed through a hole drilled in the gun- 
wale, and their ends are fastened by pegs to the float lying at 
each side; each set of two peg.", Iviug on a forward slope, is 
wedged below into a single mortice in the float, while above, its 
separated components are tied to the front of tlie boom. When 
a central staging is required, this is built up of two sticks tied 
parallel with the sides of the vessels, on to both booms, and 
smaller pieces in close apposition laid upon them transversely. 
The occupants, other than the one standing on the projection at 
the bows, sit either on the booms, on pieces of wood laid across 
the gunwale, or the stern ledge ; there is of course room for 
them to sit only one behind the other, and if there is but one 
man steering he will have his place at the stern. The timber 
used for the float is not usually the same as that em|iloyed for 
the Ijody, hut of a more buoyant variety. 

13. From Night Island down to Claremont Point, the afterboom 
is close to the stern (iig. 11), both booms being made to pierce the 
gunwale over which they are lashed to pegs driven through the 
sides l)elow. Furthermore, the extremities of the booms are 
lashed on to the float direct, without any intervening pegs, an 
arrangement wliereliy the whole centre of gravity of the vessel 
is raised, tlie consequenct- being I hat the occupants have to squat 
in the bottom of the canoe (PI. vi., Hg. 1). Theie may be a small 
peg forward, to attach the line to. The paddle, worked in all 



NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — ROTH. 



13 



dug-outs with both hands, on either side of the canoe alterna- 
tively, is fairly similar in all these northern types, with a long 
comparatively -narrow blade. 




Fig. 11. 

14. From the Flinders Group down to Cape Grafton there is a 
suppression of the left (port-side) outrigger, and following upon 
this — to ensure rigidity of the surviving float, an increase in the 
number of booms ; to restore the centre of gravity of the body 
to the vertical is the intervention of comparatively large pegs be- 
tween the boom-extremities and the float. At the same time, 
travelling from north to south, the stern projection gradully 
becomes more and more developed, until it closely approximates 
that of the bows, both extremities simultaneously changing from 
oval to square. The booms are all double, i.e., in sets of two, and 
form a staging on to whicli the spears and harpoons may be laid 
or tied. On the authority of reliable natives I learn that Cape 
Grafton constitutes the southern limit of the dug-out, and that 
any such vessels found below this are not of local coastal 
manufacture. 

15. Between the Flinders and the Endeavour Rivers two 
wash-boards are lashed on to the outer sides of the gunwale, with 
or without an intervening coil of tea-tree bark, and through their 
upper free margins the double booms are pegged (figs. 12 and 13). 
Though I have spoken of these narrow planks as wash-boards — and 




Fig. 12. 



the}' probably .serve that purpose — I fail to understand their 
signification unless they give indication of the lateral supports of 



u 



KECOKDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 




Fijf. 13. 



the Papuan central staging : they iiave already disappeared at the 
Bloom Held River, where the booms pierce the gunwale direct 
(PI. vi., fig. 2). The number of double booms will depend upon 

the size of the vessel, not less than 
four nor more than eight having been 
ol)served, a double one occasionally 
being made to pierce tlie extreme 
Ijows direct ; their two components are 
lashed — one above, tiie other below — 
to the angle formed by the tojis of the 
crossed pegs morticed into the float. 
Two double-booms are sometimes 
placed in very close apposition. At 
Cape Bedford, where the best speci- 
mens of canoe are to be seen, and 
whence the cast-offs arid inferior ones 
ai-e traded to Cooktown, the pegs are made from a special timber 
(KYI. dadetchin), while the floats are cut from a peculiarly light 
wood which is cast up on the beach, and preserved until required. 
The bow-end of the dug-out being made from the (wider) butt-end 
of the tree, it happens that the distance of attachment of the float 
from the side of the body is somewhat nearer in front than 
l)ehind : in other words, the total width of the vessel as a whole 
is practically the same fore and aft, an arrangement which would 
appear ♦^o be advantageous. Here at Cape Bedford, the dug-out is 
generally dragged down to the water's edge by three individuals, 
then put in the shallow water, and jiunted along with two poles 
— one at the bows, the other at the stern — until such time as the 
water i.s deep enough for the paddles to be made use of. At 
Flinders Island in 1902, I saw a dug-out canoe with stretchers 
placed within it cross-wise apparently with the object of pre- 
venting the sides approximating too much, an arrangement which 
recalled the crossed forked sticks supporting the ties in the Penne- 
futher River bark canoes. The Bloomfield River dug outs only 
differ from the Cape Bedford and Flinders type in the absence of 
wash-boards. 

16. From the Mossman River down to Cape Grafton the dug-out 
is cut very square at either extremity (PI. vii.), it often being very 
diflii'ult, in tlie ab.sence of the outrigger, to distinguish bow from 
stern, the former if anything being the larger ; neither is raised 
above tiie level of the body. The space between the gunwale is 
extremely narrow, the sides being cut to overlap ; the occupants 
sitting on the double-booms are obliged to have their legs cros.sed 
one (iver the other, and yet 1 have known Hve or six people at 



NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — ROTH. 



15 



one time travelling all the way from Port Douglas to beyond 
Cairns in this apparently uncomfortable and cramped position. 
This variety of dug-out can be made from at least five kinds of 
timber, and will range up to fifteen or sixtt^en feet in length. I 
am doubtful as to the original local type of paddle*". 

17. I attach the native name.s of the different parts of these 
dug-outs at the Batavia River (Nggerikudi language) and Cape 
Bedford (Koko-yimidir language), together with the meaning of 
the words where known. 



Part. 


Batavia R. 


Cape Bedford. 

wangga 
banchirn 


Meaning. 


Dug-out (as a whole) 


partara 






body j 


churongganna . . . 


= any excaxation or 
hollow. 


,, platform at bows 
,, bows -j 


or-kaiia 




pai 




— fore-head. 




wagaa 




mo 




— buttocks. 






guramun 




/ 


nibo-ini 


mo-ku 


= backbone. 
— the dorsum. 






wau-wu 


= inside of anything. 
— middle line of stern- 




churo 




mbau-o 




um and abdomen. 

= adjacent portion of 
breast & abd. walls 
on either side of 
this line. 

= rib. 

=? (of yirmbi=:lips) 

=? (cf tabul^nose-pin) 

^ hand 


,, outside - 

wash-board .. 




yirmbar 
yirmbar 
dabbul 


Boom ■) 

Float* ] 




ar 


ar-temma 




= little finger 




darman 


( 




( 




kauna-kanna 


=? (cf ga-na = digging- 

stick) 
= any splinter. 
= any rope or string. 


Pegs j 


landru i 


Rope for tying 

Paddle 


pro-alatanna ... 


gumbin 
biribe 









1^. I have purposely refrained from making any notice of the 
Torres Strait Island sailing craft (dug-outs), which although 
visiting the neighbourhood of Cape York, are of Papuan interest, 



^The Kungganji Blacks of Cape Grafton speak of the float as bunul, the 
local term for mullet, indicative of its habit of skimming along the surface 
of the water. 



16 RECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

and do not come within tlie scope of a work dealing with Aus- 
tralian Ethnography. At the same time mention may be made 
here of tlie toy sailing boats made by the boys at Mapoon 
(Batavia River), with a single outrigger, always on the weather- 
side, which can be shifted from port to star-boaid and vice-versa 
as occasion requires; liow far tliis innovation is due to civilising 
influences under missionary auspices, it is impossible to say. 

At Cape Bedford the blacks have native names for European 
made vessels. A steamer is known as gol-ngoi, but tlie actual 
etymology of the word is not known ; a l)Oat is called yulal, a 
term signifying any flat piece of wood, and so applied to the 
planks with which it is built. 

19. In the Brisbane District" a canoe was called kundul, the 
san:e term that was applied to every kind of tree-bark except that 
of the tea-tree, which was known as rguduru. The tree which 
was particularly used for making canoes was the buhirtchu or 
" bastard maliogany," the bark of which did not split, but when 
this was not obtainable recourse was had to the diura, one of the 
"stringy-barks," though this was liable to crack during the pro- 
gress of manufacture. The canoe was always made out of one 
sheet of bark, from ten or twelve to as much sometimes as twenty 
feet long, which was removed from the tree, during spring-time, 
as follows: — The native would climb up to the necessary height 
and make a deep transverse cut the whole circumference of the 
tree, with a vertical one where convenient ; while still up, he 
would pick oli'all the rough outer scales with a small spatulate 
pointed stick (which had its special name), and as he descended 
lower and lower would both lengthen tlie vertical cut, and peel 
ofl" the bark, finally cutting it cfl' below after having been thus 
cleaned. When removed, this sheet of bark was tied round at 
each end to keep it funnel-like, fires lighted inside, and the 
whole piece kept revolving, not only to prevent it catcliing alight 
but also to get it uniforndy heated. This j)rocess rendered the 
bark more pliable, with ihe result that wlien subsequently the 
men standing at either extrendty bent each up, it could easily be 
crinkled, folded, and skewered, in a manner almost identical with 
the pleat-type of bark trough," save that the adjacent surfaces 
of each fold were not pressed into such close apposition. The 
gunwale was strengthened by fixing along its inner edge a long 
withe of wattle (Acacia, sp.) or nanuam (Malaisia tortuosa 

" From iiifonnatioD giveu mo hy Mr. T. Petrie. 
"> Roth — Hull. 7— Sect. 58. 



NOKTU IJUEKNSLAND KTHNOGKAPHY — ROTII. 17 

Blanco), ami overcasting witli a split lenj^tli of yurol {Flagellaria 
indica, Linn), which was also sirnilaily employed for overcasting 
the two wooden skewers. The bark vessel, as now consti- 
tuted, was inclined to curl in at the sides with the heat of the 
sun ; this was counteracted by means of a stick placed cross-wise,^ 
which was prevented slipping by tying its nicked ends to the 
under surface of the gunwale. If a small canoe, the cross-piece 
vv^as fixed at the centre, but if large, one would be placed fore and 
another aft; both ends of the canoe were similar and indisting- 
uishable. The vessel was propelled by the individual (male) 
standing up in the centre and using a long pole, up to ten feet 
long and a couple of inches diameter ; it was a soi t of punting 
movement (not touching bottom of course), the pole being used 
on one side of the vessel alternately with the other according to 
the course to be steered. Some of these big canoes would carry 
as many as ten people, but with the larger vessels, one man 
would usually punt at the bows, and another at the stern ; the 
passengers always sat low down on their haunches at the bottom 
of the boat. In the smaller canoes, there might be two or three 
gins by themselves, especially when they went for short distances, 
to the little islands for crabs, oysters, and cobbra. In all these 
vessels there was always a fire kept glowing on some clay at one 
end, and, in case of leakage, a shell-hailer** or ningam (Melo 
diadema, Lamk.), and some whitish cla}'^ which, if necessary, 
would be plugged into the split. Canoes were identical whether 
intended for tresh or salt water. 

II.— TRADE AND BARTER. 

1. On the Bloomtield River (B. Hislop), the articles of home- 
production for trade and barter were dilly-bags, spears, wommer- 
as, edible pipe-clay (within receiit years), best kind of fighting- 
stick, shields and swords (in the old days), several varieties of 
gum-cements, and red ochre. These would be bartered for 
stingaree-spears, shell-ornamentsj yellow ochre, edible pipe-clay 
(in the old days), shields and swords (in recent times). There 
were no particular individuals to effect- the exchanae, each one 
acting on his own behalf, nor were there an}'' restrictions as to 
which of their neighbours they might l-arler with. The principal 
time of barter was during the laying-season at King's Lake 
country, i.e., whenever there happened to be a sufficient supply of 



8 Roth— Bull. 7— Sect. 55. 

9 Roth- Bull. 7— Sect. 15. 



18 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

food to attract theui^". Tlieie whs apparently no conception of 
relative values, an<l though not a regular practice, members of 
the same tribe woukl interchange. 

2. At Princess Charlotte Bay, the Koko-rarinul of the Morehead 
River give the Koko-warra (whose ' country' extends along the 
course of the Normanby and Deighton Rivers) reed-speers, iron- 
scraps, European tomahawks, etc., getting in return melo shell, 
grass-reed-spears, nautilus-shell necklaces, stingaree spears and 
fishing-nets. The Endeavour and Bloonifield River Blacks 
travel up in the direction of the Lnura Hiver, and supply the 
Koko-warra with red-ochre, white-cla}', grass-tree speais, etc., 
which are paid for with the same articles as are supplied to the 
Koko-rarmul. 

3. The Cape Bedford Blacks send out or export iron toma- 
hawks, iron digging-sticks, nautilus-shell, different kinds of dilly- 
bag, pearl-shell chest ornaments and nielo-shells. In return, 
they obtain forehead-bands, kangaroo-tail sinew, kangaroo 
bones (of a certain kind to be specially used for making bone 
awls), quartz-tipped spears, bark troughs, and a rough kind 
of fixed grind-stone. They travel in barter along the Northern 
Coast-line as far as, very probably, the Flinders River. They 
only come south to the North Shore (Endeavour River) encamp- 
ment, opposite Cooktown, owing to their employment in the 
township, but this is only of late years. Captain Cook' ^, it is 
noteworthy, when speaking of the Endeavour River Natives, is 
made to say : — " They had indeed no idea of traffic, nor could we 
communicate with any of tliem — they received the things that 
we gave them, but never appeared to understand our signs when 
we required a return." 

4. For purposes of trade and barter it may be said that the 
Cairns, and until recent years, the Cape Grafton Blacks travel 
along the coast-line between Port Douglas and the Mulgrave 
River ; tlie Barron River Natives wander up the coast as far as 
Port Douglas and inland up to Ivuranda and Mareeba ; the 
RusshII River boys 'walk about' to the Pyramid INlountain, the 
Mulgrave and Johnstone Rivers, and ( 'aiiiis ; whilst the Johnstone 
River Natives travel to between Clump Point and Liverpool 
Creek. Dealing now solely with the Cape Grafton Blacks, it 

1° In the Boulia District, it wouM appear that the trading .season com- 
menced witli tlic full maturity of tlie Pitiui plant, tlie local narootic (see 
Koth— Ktiinol. Stii.lifs, etc.. "IS07, Sects. '224, 2'2!)-2.3-l), wliile at Brisbane 
{T. Pe.lrif) it was wlien the liunya nuts were ripe. 

^* Hawkesworth'a Edition, London, 1773. 



NORTH QUKKNSLAND KTHNOGRAI'IiY ROTH. 19 

would appear that, prior to the institution of the Yarral)ah 
Missionary settlement, the followiug list coni|)iised the trade- 
articles of home production :--bicornual dilly-haskets (taken or sent 
to Port Douglas, the Mulgrave and Burron Rivers, M;ueeba and 
Herberton), grass-l)Ugle necklaces (for the Mulgrave and Russell 
Rivers), i'our-pronged fish-spears (iMulgrave and Upper Russell 
Rivers, Johnstone River, Cluniii Point, etc.), straight spear- 
thi'owers without the shell-iiaft (for the Mulgrave, Johnstone and 
Russell Rivers), l)ent or moon-shaped spenr-lhrowers, large fight- 
ing shields, and long single-handed swords (all for the J3;ii-ron 
River and northwards). The imports constituting the 
Cape Grafton northern trade, coming mainly from the 
Barron River and Port Douglas, included the following : — 
hour-glass woveu-pattern dilly-hags, round base basket diily-bngs, 
beeswax necklKces, straight shell hafted spear throwei's, a variety 
of bamboo spear, square-cut nautilus-shell necklaces, and cockatoo 
top-knot head-diesses. The soutliern foreign trade, whicli used 
to come in either directly oi- indirectly from the Mulgrave River, 
comprised : — long swords, boomerangs, shields, oppossum-string 
arndets, and the large oval-cut pearl-shell chest ornaments, the 
last mentioned being said to have reached the Mulgrave River 
via Atherton and Herlierton, whither it was believed to have 
been Ijrought from the Gulf Country. The trading, amongst the 
Cape Grafton Blacks, was not carried out by any particular 
members of the community, the bartering being apparently 
personal, each one doing business on his own account. 

5. Amongst the Tidly Ptiver Natives, theie are collective names 
for goods coming, not going, from one or other direction : — 

(rt) Irakanji (another name for the chau-an basket dilly-bag) 
implies collectively all the imports from the north and west. 

(6) Kun-yin (another name for the kwi-auchal pearl-shell chest 
ornament) iiicltidus all the goods that come in from the south. 

On tlie other hand, there is not much barter going on nowadays. 
To the Clump Point Blacks, these Tully River boys (the Mallan- 
para) give HeleocJuiris, getting tlie Cryptocarya hancrofti nut in 
return : to the Cardwell Natives they barter dilly-bngs for which 
they receive hark-blankets, etc. 

6. The Pennefather River Natives apparently do not carry on 
much in the way of trade ; they travel but a comparatively short 
distance up and down the coast-line, and never to any great 
distance inland. Their northern neighbours, the Mapoon, obtain 
from the northern shores of I'ort Musgrave the ' ombo ' spears, 
for these they give bamboo and stingaree-spears, which they have 

.obtained from the Pennefather River men. 



Bulletin No. 15. 
DECORATION, DEFORMATION, and CLOTHING. 



(Plates viii.-x., and figs. 1 4-3011.) 



Sect. 





Contexts. 




1. 


Introductory 


21 


2. 


Hair of Head, etc. .. 


22 


3. 


Beat d and Moustache 


22 


4. 


Head-net ... 


23 


5. 


False-hair ... 


23 


6. 


Forehead-nets ... ... ... ... . * 


23 


7. 


Forehead-feather-covers 


24 


8. 


Feather-tufts ; Aigrettes 


24 


9. 


Knuckle-bones 


25 


10. 


Tooth-ornanicnts 


25 


Jl. 


Sbell-hair-ornaments 


26 


12. 


Fillets and Circlets — Opossum-twine ... 


26 


13. 


,, Dingo-tail 


27 


U. 


,, Eel-bone 


27 


la. 


,, Nautilus-shell 


27 


l(j. 


,, Toad-stool 


2S 


17. 


Ear-piercing; Ear-rings 


2S 


IS. 


Nose- boring ; Nose-pins 


2i) 


1!). 


Tooth Avulsion 


.SO 


20. 


,, I'ennefather River 


30 


21. 


,, North West Districts ... 


31 


22 . 


,, Princess Charlotte liay... 


31 


2.'! 


,, Middle Palmer River ... 


32 


24. 


,, Bloomtield River 


32 


2."). 


Necklace-Shell 


32 


2(i. 


,, Opossum and Kangaroo twine 


33 


27. 


,, (irass-reed and Pandanus ... 


33 


2.S. 


,, Miscellaneous 


34 


2!>. 


Cross-shoulder Onuxiiieiits 


34 


■AO. 


Clicst and Hack Ornaments — Shell 


35 


:',]. 


,, ,, Twine 


36 


:v2. 


,, Eagle-claw 


'AC, 


X{. 


Waist skein 


.">7 


:u. 


Hidt .. 


37 


35. 


Circlet 


38 


;{(■>. 


Apron belt ... 


;i!t 


■M. 


Hip and Tail jdcces ... 


40 


38. 


(ii-nital Ornaments ... . . 


40 


:<'.i. 


Digital Amputation ... . . . 


-1-J 


•40 


.Armlets 


A-.i 


41. 


Anklets 


44 



NORTH QUKKNSLANI) KTHNO(;ii.\FII Y — UOIII. 21 

Sect. 42. Decorative Scars ... ... ... ... ... 44 

43. ,, Method of operation... ... ... 45 

44. ,, Pennefatlier liiver ... ... ... 46 

45. ,, Middle Paliner River ... ... 46 

46. ,. Princess Charlotte Bay ... ... 47 

47. ,, North West Districts ... ... 47 

48. ,, Cape Bedford and Bloomfield River ... 47 

49. ,, Tully River... ... ... ... 47 

50. ,, Rockhampton Area .. ... ... 49 

51. ,, Brisbane ,, ... ... ... 49 

52. Feathering of body . ... ... ... ... 49 

53. Painting of body ... ... ... .. ... 50 

54. Cloaks and Rugs ... ... ... .. ... 51 

55. Plaited-blankets ... ... ... ... ... 51 

56. Bark-blankets ... ... ... ... 52 

1. Owing to the immense number of variations met with in 
the way of fashion, I have foimd it impossible to carry out my 
original intention of describing seriatim all local costumes, but 
j)roiiO!5e, as far as possible, detailing the various ornaments and 
means of cover, constituting clothing, according to the portion 
of body decorated or covered. Even by this arrangement, diffi- 
culties are to be seen iu that : — A necklet may be worn as a 
waist-belt ; an article donned by a male may be forbidden to a 
member of the opposite sex, and vice versa ; an ornament worn 
throughout one district with a special significatioh attached to it 
may have no meaning wliatsoever in another ; certain ornaments 
according to their materials of construction are found only in 
certain areas; a decoration donned on different parts of the body 
will couvey different meanings, an article of dress essential in 
early life may be discarded wich adolescence; and often nothing 
at all may be worn in contradistinction to a complete costume 
indicative of rank, virginity, grief, fight, etc. It has been found 
convenient to distinguish certain waist-decorations or covers as 
skeins, belts, or bands, circlets, and apron-belts according to the 
method of fixation iu the first three cases, and the presence of a 
specially woven tassel-fringe in the last. Certain special decor- 
ations met with in the North-West District corrobborees, and 
initiation ceremonies^, which there is every reason to believe are 
of foreign origin introduced during the course of trade and 
barter, have been omitted here. 

As a matter of convenience, I al.so propose dealing in this 
Bulletin with certain deformations, e.g., tooth-avulsion, nose- 
boring, digital amputation, and the so-called decorative body- 
scars, the true origin of which is somewhat doubtful. 



1 Already described in Roth — Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897, chapters viii., 
xiii. 



22 KKCORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM- 

2. In the far Nortli-Weslein Distiicts, the hair of the head — 
and especially is this the case witli the males — is dressed 
with fat (snake, iguana, etc.) after growing a ceriain 
length, and put up very much after the st3'le of the throms in a 
mo[)-br()oni. This facilitates not only its removal when required 
for subsequent use in making liair-twine, but also prevents its 
becoming too closely matted together. On the Eastern Coast- 
line, from Princess Charlotte Buy to Cape Grafton, the fashion is 
adopted only by the immedi;ite relatives during the period of 
mourning, when the luiiris allowed to gtow previous to its being 
cut and manufactured into mourning-stiings ; with cliildren, how- 
ever, it is a matter of common routine, the throms tixed up with 
beeswax being still further decorated on occasion with the ivd 
and black Jequirety {Ahrus precatorius') seeds. Hair may be 
kept short by singeing with hre, or by cutting with quartz-crystal 
(Bioomtield River), split cuttle shell (Keppel Island), various 
bivalves {e.g. I'erna), stone-flakes, etc. At Brisl^ane, women's 
hair was always cut short, so as to prevent them catching hold 
of each oilier's when lighting — a very common habit this of 
tearing at the hair. They cut it with a shaip flint or the 3'Ugari- 
shell, its native name. The men's hair, combed out with a- 
pointed kangaiyo bone, was allowed to grow long, and when 
necessary the throms would be cut off to make hair-twine, 
tiead-lice were considered an advantage ; a man would often lie 
down with his head resting in his wife's lap when she would 
comb his hair, examine for the vermin, perhaps eat some, make a 
peculiar smacking noise when squeezing others, or, if it were 
perfectly clean in this respect, she would infect it from some one 
else's head. The beard was very seldom allowed to grow long. 
Each sex would have the entire limbs and hody, except the 
genitalia, rendered free from hair by singeing with a fiie-stick — 
parts which they could not reach, their friends would singe for 
them. The entiie surface would then be smeared with charcoal 
and grease {2\ Felrie). 

3. The pulling out of the moustache or beard, or both, hair by 
hair, was not uncommon on the Tully lliver ; either another man 
or his gin will do it for the individual interested, the depilation 
going on for hours at a stretch. No reason for the j)ractice was 
forthcoming, though the introduction of razors and glass is 
superseding it. On the other hand some men would fancy a 
long beaid, and accordingly retain it. Depilation was also 
practised on the Tully and Proseipeine Rivers ; on the latter, 
when hair first shewed on the upper lip or chin, the young men 
would take hold of a bit of it here and there with a blob of wax, 



NOrn'H QUEENSLAND ETHNOCIJA PIl Y BOTH. 23 

rub it well in, and so pull it out. The Cape Beclfoid natives en- 
couraged the growth of the beard. In tlie Boulia District, the 
beard is often tied close to its base witli a piece of twine to make 
it look tiash, both at corrobboree time and on other occasions ; 
in the Gulf country it may occasionally be seen waxed into one 
or two points (PI. viii., fig. 1). 

4. Head-net. — Where the growtli of the hair is encouraged as 
the usual thing, a special head-net (PI. viii., figs. 2 and 3) is used 

to prevent the throms from dangling over into the eyes : it i& 
woven- on a circular basal strand, made of flax-fibre {Psoralea 
patent!, A. Cnun.) and coated thickly with red ochre grease*. It 
is manufactured by men only in the Boulia and I.eicliliardt-Selwyn 
Districts ; its Pitta Pitta name is kulpuru, its Kalkadun one 
kantamara. Another form of head-net, an undoubtedly modem 
innovation, is made by the women throughout the same areas after 
the manner and mesh of a European fishing-net, with a conical 
blind extiemity. Another contrivance which ostensibly served 
to keep the hair from falling over the eyes and face was the now 
extinct kalgo of the Cloncurry District. It is a long strip of 
Opossum skin with the hair left on, and about seven or eight 
feet long, made out of the back by starting from about the centre, 
cutting out concentrically round and round, the strip being sub- 
sequently stretched and dried. Winding it roiuid and round the 
head, just above the ears, l)oth men and women wore it, the 
custom being to remove it at night. 

5. False hair.— On the Embley River I met with adjustable 
fringes, used by the women, and made of small throms of human 
hair fixed on a top string, the extremity of each tassel being 
weighted with a blob of beeswax. Ihe Cloncurry District 
women and little boys for '■ flash " purposes wear an artificial 
whisker, formed of locks of hair cemented together at one 
extremity with Grevillea cement ; such a wolla-kuja is attached 
on either side to the temporal hair in frout of the ear, and hangs 
to a length of about two inches below the jaw. 

6. Forehead-nets.— The forehead-net or miri-miri (PI. viii , figs. 
4 and 5) — ^a name common throuiihout Nortli-West Queensland — 
is a spindle-shaped piece of netting (juite a foot long, also worn to 
keep the hair well back, passing over the ears and tied together 
at the Ijack of the head. It is woven after the ordinar}' fish-net 
pattern.^ though no netting needle is used; in some exaniples, each 



2 Roth— Bull 1— Sect. 25. 

3 Roth— Bull. I— Sect. 23. 



24 



RliCORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



individual mesh maj' be only one-eighth of an inch long. The 
materia] used in its manufacture is either human hair, flax-fibre, or 
Opossum twine, whichever is used causing variations in the mesh- 
size. The mifi-miri is one of the badges of the last of the initia- 
tion ceremonies in the Boulia District, and can be worn by both 
men and women, subsequently to that stage, at all times, whether 
conobboree or not. Made by males only. 

7. Forehead Feather-covers. — The emu-feather forehead dress of 
the Pennefather River is of two varieties according to the species 
of bird, black (NGG. araba) or wliite(NGG. enggenjingana) from 
which it is manufactured. The feathers are inteiwoven at their 
bases by means of two continuous strands in the form of a chain- 
twist, and as a necessary corollary to the article being constructed 
on tiie flat, tlie chain-twist runs zig zag, alternately from side to 
side, just like the strainers and colanders from the Lower Mitchell 
River. ^ It is more or less mitreform, coloured at its base in 
horizontal bands of red and white, tied V»y its two extremities to 
the back of the head, and known to the Pennefather River 
Natives as tai-pe ; though manufactured by women, it is used by 
men and boys when dancing and wlien fighting. 

8. Feather-lufts ; Aigrettes. — Feather-tufts or aigrettes are 
formed of various bird's feathers tied to a small sprig, which i.s 
stuck indiscriminately here and there into the hair ; on the other 
hand, feathers may he Used l)y themselves singly. Amongst birds 
thus utilised aie tlie emu, white cockatoo, eagle-hawk, pelican, 
turkey, etc., but on the Upper Georgina River I have seen feather- 
tufts replaced by the tails of the Pe.rcujale hujotis, Held. 

The white cockatoo feather-tuft is met witli almost throughout 
Northern Queensland, but is very common indeed in the eastern 
half of the State, and is used hy males only, either at corrobhorees, 
tor decorative purpo.ses generally, on Hghting expeditions 
often. At Headingley (Upper Georgina River) it is 
stuck into tlie forehead-band (or arudet) ; between the 
INIitcluill and Staaten liivers, theGunanni fix it upright 
Oil tliH top of the head and call it woikai-a (fig. 14). 
The Middle Palmer River IMacks obtain the ornament 
(KMl. kwa-chil) l)y trade and barter from the Mus- 
grave and .Saltwater River Native-; of the eastern coast. 
Fig. 14. On the Endeavour, Bloomfield, and certainly as far south 
as the Tully River, these cockatoo feather tufts may be made 
wholh' from the bird's " top knot," stuck into a large l»lol) of wax 



4 Roth— Bvdl 7— Sect. 52. 



NORTH QUKKNSLANI) KTIINOCiKAPIl V — KOIll. ZO 

fixed on the back of the individual's head, giving rise to a 
gorgeous-looking yellow halo ; at other times, especially between 
Cardwell and the Tully River, the head is first of all covered 
with blobs of beeswax, or else completely encased in this material, 
and the feathers then attached. Additional local names are : 
MAL. tchura, KYI. (Cape Bedford) mirinibal, KWA. arrirgurr.^ 

Emu-feathers are fixed witli beeswax to the hair in both men 
and women at Cape Bedford. 

On the Pennefalher River, in times of mourning, members of 
both sexes attach a red featiier, or two of a species of Blue 
Mountain-parrot to the forelock ; this feather ornament, lik(! the 
bird from which it is derived, is called a mantenuta. Similarly 
worn by women, under the same circumstances, is the red flower 
of the aranyi, the local name of the Coral-tree {Erythrina vesj>er- 
tilis, Bentham). 

9. Knuckle-hones. — Knuckle and similar bones from the kangaroo 
or dingo, and \\\) to about two and a half inches in length, are 
fixed with cement by string to the tuft of hair over the temporal 
region, whence they dangle one on each side in front of the ears, 
in the Boulia and Upper Georgina Districts. 

10. Tooth Hair-ornaments. — The double tooth-ornament^^ is 
formed of an oval-shaped blob of cement into which a couple of 
incisor teeth of the kangaroo, rarely of the dingo, are fixed ; the 
cement employed is that of the Triodia or Grevillea. There is 
an aperture in the base of the ornament through which a small 
lock of hair from over the centre of the forehead is passed and 
thus fixeil, with the result that the tips of the two teeth rest 
midway between the eyebrows. On occasion it is made to hang 
from a forehead baud instead. Though used by both sexes at 
corrobborees and other festive occasions, it is manufactured l>y men 
only in the Upper Geoigina, Leichhardt-Selwyn, Cloncurry, Upper 
Diamantina, and portions of the Boulia Districts. In IS97, it 
was not being made at Marion Downs, neither on the Mulligan, 
Lower Georgina, nor Middle Diamantina Rivers. Local names 
for this ornament are — PPT. milka, KAL. yirrara, MIT. yirran- 
ggal. In the Burketown area is to be fouud a similar single 

s At Brisbane the yellow top-knots made into bunches on wooden 
skewers, would be stuck into the hair tied up in a knot at the back of the 
head ; used by "doctors" and great Hghtnig men. Ordinary male mortals 
would just have feathers from the "Blue-mountain" or " Green " parrot, 
or (on the coast) swan's down stuck into the thromsof the hair and beard. 
(T. Petrie). 

5' See Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897, fig. 253. 



26 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MU8EUM 

kangaroo-tooth ornament attached to the hair at the temples, but 
here used by children only ; on Mornington Island, a double 
tooth-ornament is attached to the temporal hair of the females. 

11. Shell Hair- ornaments. — At Cape Grafton, around Cairns 
and Atherton, etc., a comparatively small oval-cut piece of pearl 
shell is fixed by means of beeswax to the liair of the beard, 
temples, or forelock. Nautilus shell (MAL. kopa-kopa) is 
similarly used on the Tully Biver. 

12. Fillets and Circlets; Opossum, etc., twine. — From the 
fact that Opossum twine is met with very much more commonly 
in the western than in the eastern portions of North Queensland, 
fillets, etc., made from this material are but rarely to be observed 
in the latter portions of the State ; that from the Tully River, 
•where the Mallanpara call it mitin alter the animal, is the only 
reliable example that I can call to mind. In the North-Western 
Districts, the Opossum-string fillet'' is made of four separate 
circlets of Opossum-twine bound together flat by means of four 
ties, with the result that a hand-like oi-nament. over a foot long, 
consisting of eiwht closely apposed strands, is produced ; the 
extremities of this composite band are looped into the two tying- 
strings to be kiotted at the back of the head. The Opossum- 
twine is of the winding type, '^ being spirally wound around a 
central human hair core, while, so far as the ties are concerned, 
they are always made of plant fibre. The strands, as well s-s the 
ties, are greased with red ochre— all Opossum-string ornaments 
are in fact treated in this manner throui^hout these districts. 
The fillet has sometimes lieen observed worn like a necklace in 
the Boulia District, and both as a necklace and armlet in the 
Cloncuny District. It is (1897) still manufactured, by males, in 
the former, but raiely now in the latter, and may be worn liy 
either sex any time subsequently to the first of the initiation 
ceremonies. Its Pitta-Pitta name is mungkala, the same as 
applied to some other Opossum-string ornaments ; in the Maita- 
kudi language it is the chabo of the Leichhardt-Selwyn District 
where exceptionallj'^ it used to be made of Rock-walhtby hair. 

There are two varieties of the Opossum-string ring or circlet 
(PPT, mnngkala, MIT. wnppulara) in the North West Districts, 
according as they are single or double. In the former case, 
according as the central core is thick or thin, around which the 
Opossum-twine is spirally and closely wound, the diameter varies 
for different examples ; in the latter, the two circlets are fixed 

6 linth — Kthnol. Studies, etc., 18'.)7, tigs. 258, 259. 

7 Roth— Bull. 1— Sect. 15. 



NOKTII QUKKNMl-AM) KTIINU*; KAPII V— liOTII . 2T 

together with two ties, at places more or less opposite. As 
usual, they are coloured red and j^reased. 8iiij,de Opossuiu-striiig 
circlets are also common along the Lower Gulf of Carpentaria 
coast-line, where as a general rule they are left free from both 
pigment and fat ; like the fillets of the same material elsewhere, 
they are ninde by men onl}^ but heie also u.>ed l)y men alone. 
GUN. minganda. On the Pennefather River Human-hair rope, 
NGG. prallatana, is manufactured by women for the use of the 
young men at initiation, when it is tied round the head. 

13. Fill-el; Dingo-tail. — In the Boulia District, a Dingo-tail 
may sometimes be worn over the forehead like a fillet and tied 
by strings at the back ; sometimes feather-tufts may be stuck, 
and so supported in position, underneath it. The Dingo-tail was 
also worn by the Brisbane males, who called it gilln ; used at 
corrobborees, fights, and first put on at the initiation ceremony. 
A twine fillet-band was similarly employed by the men. Tied 
round the forehead of the Kippas at the Kippa ceremony, and 
worn neither before nor after, was the snake-throttle which, 
after being cut out would be slit open and wound round a stick 
to keep it flat, when not in nse fT. Pelrie). 

14. Fillet ; Eel-bone. — The Eeel-bone ornament (MAL. wakai) 
of the Tully River and neighbourhood is formed of two such bones 
attached (fig. 15), with their concavities inwai'ds, 
into a blob of beeswax. Several of such units may 
be attached to a length of filjre-twine, and tied across 
the forehead at the back of the head ; sometimes, it /fj \Vv 
may be fixed and used as a necklace, while on ' ' \^i 
occasion a unit by itself may be seen attached to the 
fore-lock. 

15. Fillet; Nautilus-shell. — The Keppel Islanders Fi^Tis. 
used to string together a few comparatively-large 
irregularly ovate pieces of Nautilus (yellnm), each unit drilled 
with two holes, and tie the end at the back of the head, the 
shells resting over the forehead of the men ; amongst the 
Whitsunday Island and Cape Grafton folk I also saw true 
fillets similarly made with double-drilled pieces, but I have never 
met with them anywhere else. In all three cases the-se ornaments 
were also worn as necklaces by the women. Elsewhere, the 

individual units composing these shell 
fillets are drilled with a single aperture, 
through which the double-strand connect- 
ing string is woven on a chain-twist 
'^' ■ pattern. As a general rule, the units are 

cut rectangular (hg. 16) on the Peninsula and Eastern Coast-line 




28 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

but oval on the Lovver Gulf shores. It is true that oval ones are 
occasionallymetwith around Cairns, ('archvell and tlieTiilly River, 
but there is re^son to believe that they have been bartered from 
the Caipentaria coast, via the ranges and the Mitchell River. 
Worn by the men as fillets, by the women as necklaces^, at the 
Bloonifield River, Cape Bedford, and Princess Charlotte B^y. 
By the time that the Princess Charlotte Bay specimens are 
barterel to the Middle Palmer, via the Musgrave River, they 
are worn by both men and women as necklaces only. Local 
names: KYI. (Cape Bedford) dirl-ngar, KYE. jil-nga, KMI. 
ni-ra. 

16. Fillet; Toad-stool. — The only fillet of vegetable origin 
that I know of is that composed of pieces of the Red Toad stool 
{Polystictiis cinnahariufis, Fries), used by the women at Ke[>pel 
Island^. 

17. E(ir-inercing ; Ear-7'ings. — The piercing of the ears would 
appear to be [leculiar to the Cape York Peninsula. On the east 
coast it has been observed as far south as the Tally River, but 
the practice is said to have iieen acquired here within recent 
years through the South Sea Islanders and becliede-mer fishing- 
boats. Captain Cook's voyage^ ^ has a record from the En- 
deavoui- River, where the natives were said to " have holes in 
their ears, but we never saw anything worn in them." I have 
observed it from Princess Charlotte Bay northwards, in nules 
only, and also with nothing worn, the right ear at Saltwater 
Rivei-, the left on the Princess Charlotte Bay coast-line, and lioth 
at Night Island. Occasionally, the aperture may be so aitifici- 
ally enlarged {e.g. at the Coen River) as to allow of the loop) so 
produced being thrown forwaids over the whole organ. On the 
Gull side, e.g. Pennefather and Embley Rivers, the males also 
alone have both their ears pierced, and may wear ear-rings which 
could however be more correctly described as tubes (PL ix., fig. 1), 
they being as much as two and a quarter inciies external diameter 
and over four inches long. Such a tube (NGG. wa amanu) is made 
from the Bomhax malabaricnvi, De Cand.(NGG. baiperi),the core of 
which is hollowed out with a kangaroo-bone awl, the exterior being 
subsequently smoothed over with the rough leaves of Ficus orbi- 
cularis, -cind finally ])ainted reil. In the North-Western Districts, 

8 Sect. 35. 

" Lumholtz figures a complicated hrow-l)and from the Central Queens- 
land coast, but I have never found anytliing like it (Among Cannibals, 
p. 331.) 

^° Hawkeswortli's edition, London, 1773, p. 208. 



NOirril QUKKNSLANl) ICTHNOGRAIHY ROTH. 29 

but alone among the Cloncurry natives and then solely amongst 
some of the older men, ear-holes in which a kangaroo-bone is 
said to have been worn, were present (1897); piercing however 
is never practised here nowadays. 

18. Nose-boring ; iVose-jnns. — Tlie nose may be found pierced 
in both sexe.«, e.g., Pennefatlier, Middle Embley, Palmer, 
Endeavour, and Bloomfield Rivers, Ca|)e Bedford, and whole 
North West Queensland ; pierced in the males, sometimes in tlie 
females, e.g., Princess Charlotte Bay ; in males alone, e.g., Cape 
Grafton and apparently in the Wellesley I.slands ; sometimes, in 
the males it being non-obligatoiy, e.g., Kockliaiiipton. The 
operation is very usually but not always i)erforni(d by one ui 
their own sex (Pennefather River), is sometimes connected with 
the initiation ceremonies (Bloomfield River, Rockliamptoii, 
Brisbane) while at others is aWsolutely independent of it (North 
West Districts, Princess Charlotte Bay). The implement used for 
the operation is either a pointed piece ot bone or hardened wood. 
A short soft piece of " white wood " is often used immediately 
subsequent to, and continuously after, the operation during the 
next few days to keep the wound o|.en ; it is finally replaced by the 
proper nose-pin. At the Macdonnell Electric Telegraph Office 
the wound is said to be dressed with human breast-milk. At 
Brisbane, the nose was bored in all males, either before or at the 
kippa (initiation) stage; women's noses were never pierced. A 
drizzling rainy day was chosen, and the head held in tlie lap of 
an old man who would keep slapping the victim's ears, and 
shouting alond while the operation was lieing done — the rain, 
the slapping, and the shouting being supposed to take the pain 
away. Another old man — one who had especially long nails on 
the left thumb and fore-finger was generally chosen — would then 
catch hold of the septum drag it down, and, just above, pierce 
through it a pointed skewer. This was next removed, and its 
place taken by a short (two or three inclies) rounded piece of 
wood. If the victim proved obstreporous, his hands would be 
held down. Almost every day, he would go down to the water 
and, under the surface, slew the stick round and round in the 
w^o\ind, so as to prevent it sticking. This would continue until 
the aperture was healed enough to allow of a small flattened 
beeswax marble being inserted in it, and where it would be 
allowed to lemair-i until the distended opening was completely 
sound. The ball gave the nose a very swollen and up-turned 
a}ipearance (7'. Petrie). 

Nose-pins afford much variety in shape, size, and material. 
On the PeniH father River the h;df-moon sha] ed j)in (NGG. 




30 RKCORDS OF THE AUSVHALIAN MUSKUM. 

i-mina) is made from the shell of the Meg alatr actus aruanus, 
Linn. Unless the shell is fresh, it is soaked for some two or 

tliree days in water ; the operator, 
by means of a stone, then chips 
out the portion indicated (fig. 17), 
and grinds it down with water, 
the "rib" finally constituting the 
nose-pin. This imina is eniploj^ed 
by men only, the women using 
Fig- i"- a piece of grass. Similarly, be- 

tween the ^Mitchell and Staaten Rivers, amongst the Gunanni, 
the men alone make and use bone ones (GUN. rau-wor-injala) 
and the women grass-reeds (GUN. mo-banggir). Amongst other 
articles utilised I have observed the unfertilised flower-stalk 
of one of the Banksias (Bloom field River), a piece of Bamboo 
(Erabley River), or other kind of timi)er cut bluff at the ex- 
tremities, spirally ornamented (Cape Grafton) or not, a feather- 
quill, etc. Wooden nose-pins may also be put in the ear-holes 
when such have been pierced. On the Embley River the nose- 
pin (wood or reed) may be decorated with a bead of tiie Aden- 
anthera abrosperma, F.v.M., or Abrus precalorius, Linn., at 
either extremity ; used by the women as a sign of mourning, 
sometimes by the men as a decortion. Local names : — Capes 
Bedford and Grafton, tal)ul ; Atherton, yimpala ; Tull}' River, 
imbala. PPT. milya perkilli ( = nose large). 

19. I'ooth-Avulsion. — The knocking out of one or other or both 
upper central incisors is practised tliroughout the Peninsula, the 
North West Districts, at Prince.ss Charlotte B-aj, on the Palmer 
River and distiict around it, and on the East Coast, at the 
Bloomfield River, till very recently on the Endeavour River, and 
formerly as far south as the Kep|><.'] Islands. It is ab.sent 
amongst the scrub-blacks of the Lower Tully. When present, 
it ni^y either, be connected with, e.(j., Keppel Island ^^, Princess 
Charlotte Bay, or (juite dissociated from any of the initiation 
ceremonies ; tlie mutilation is not always ol)ligatory with either 
sex. That the custom has been in vogue for ages past is prob- 
able from the fact that in none of the.se Queensland languages 
are there any th, v, f, or *•, sounds, which require these teeth for 
their proper enunciation. 

20. On the Pennefather River avulsion was customary in both 
sexes and performed after the individual had arrived at the full 
completion of pu'ierty, after marriage, and in the case of a male 



11 On the authority of Mr. W. H. Ftowers. 



NOKTil tiUKKNSLAND lirilNOGKAPHY KOTIl. 31 

only subsequently to having attended tlie initiation dances some 
two or three times. The operation is performed by one of the 
older men as follows, both sexes being mutilated at the same 
time. A pit about three feet in diameter is sunk, and a bush- 
fence constructed along three quarters of its circumference, 
near the break in the bush a group of elders sit, with a line of 
women on one side and men on the other, all lying upon their 
left elbov-vs, each one coming up in turn to undergo the ordeal. 
One of the old men rests each individual's head on his open thigh, 
so as to be in a position convenient for pressing a thin wooden 
pencil on the pai-ticiilar tooth, and so hammering it out ; as each 
tooth falls out he calls out the name of the individual's home, 
i.e., the locality whence Anje-a brought his Clio-i^-. The teeth 
are all thrown into the pit, into which the blood is also spat and 
then covered up, the patient's bodies being smeared over with 
charcoal. 

21. In North- West Queensland, as well as up and down the 
Diamantina River, this custom of avulsion is gradually dying 
out; it is a mutilation which is ])erfectly voluntary, may be 
practised by both sexes, and most certainly at the present time 
has nothing whatever to do with any of the initiation ceremonies. 
In the Boulia District, the gums all round the teeth to be ex- 
tracted are loosened with the thumb and finger nails; this 
loosening is then aided by biting hard into a stick held trans- 
versely in the mouth for a good ten minutes or so. The indi- 
vidual in squatting position, with head raised, now holds a strong 
stick vertically behind the two to be extracted, and pushes it 
tirmly upwards and forwards, while a friend liammers away from 
the front with a wooden "chisel " driven by a heavy stone for a 
mallet. In the Upper Georgina District the patient lies on liis 
back with head touching the ground, while his friend takes a 
stick which he presses against the teeth to be removed and 
hammers away until they are broken out. 

22. Around Princess Charlotte Baj^ avulsion is a preliminary 
to betrothal in the case of the males, and to consummation of 
marriage in the femnles. The right oi- left upper incisor may be 
removed ; this is effected by hammering as before, with the 
individual's head resting on the lap of one of his mates, but here 
the subsequent hemorrhage is controlled by burning with a fire- 
stick The removed tooth is flung into water or buried. From 
this time onwards the boy leaves his mother's and sister's camps, 
to sleep with the single young men, though he continues to go 

12 Roth— Bull. 5— Sect. 68. 



6'2 RECOllDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

to his mother's for his meals. Avulsion here always takes place 
subsequently to nose-piercing. 

23. Ou the Middle Palmer River, the right central incisor is 
knocked out in both sexes, the left one being occasionally made 
to follow suit. At Butclier's Hill it is the left inci.«<or, that is 
reniovf'd ; here, the victim's eyes are covered so as to preclude 
the possibility of identifying the actual operator. 

24. At the Bloomfield River, the ^oung boys wlien about 
eleven or twelve years of age, get one or other of tlie central 
incisors hammered out, but this constitutes no ceremony, and is 
not absolutely necessary. 

25. Necklaces ; Shell. — The Pennefather River District provides 
a large number of shells that are utilised for necklaces. Square- 
shaped pieces of nacreous shell are made by breaking tl)e shell 
into chips, each chip being next drilled with the onyi diilP"% its 
edges bitten with the teeth, finally ground down on white, coral, 
and then strung on a fibre-twine. This form of necklace has the 
generic name of lankajana applied to it, whether manufactured 
from the lankajana ( Avicula lata, Gray, a fiat red-backed shell) 
from the wu-idi ( Meleagrina maryaritifera, Linn.) or from the 
arr6-anggati {Nautilus pompilius, Linn.) ; worn for purely 
decorative pui-poses, ))y vi'omen around the neck, by men over the 
forehead (as a fillet). The Solen doanii, Gray, pierced at one 
extremity, and numbers of them strung on twine, is worn liy 
women when in mourning, for children especially, either around 
the neck or from over one shoulder across to and under the 
opposite arm-pit ; it is called chera-a after the name of the 
mollusc, most of the other necklaces iiere being named aciording 
to the constituents of which tliey are composed. The manguru 
is worn by little boys and girls only, and made from tlie 
Dentalitim acictiluni, Gould ; the shell is broken up into seg- 
ments which are strung together, the whole having the a}>pear- 
ance of European glass-bugles. The k6-chi {Oliva anstvalis, 
Duclos) after being stood on its end, the apex gently hit with a 

wooden hammer, and tlien chip))ed ofl", 

thus forming an aperture through 

,,. ,„ which tlie threail passes end to end of 

1* \)i. 18. ■ . ' . 

the shell (fig. 18) ; is worn by mothers 
on tlie deatii of an infant ; instead of l)eiiig used on the neck, 
round and round which it is wound, it may be slung from 
across and over one shoulder to under the opposite armpit, 



I'' Roth— Bull 7— «ect. 42. 



NORTH QUEKNSLAND KTHNOGaAPHY ROTH. 33 

while at times it nuxy be seen around men's necks when enf^a£;ed 
in fight. The Cohimbe/la jjardallna, iMina^rck, is put to simihir 
uses as the Oliva. Between the mouths of the Mitchell and 
Staaten Rivers, necklaces of the Dentalium (GUN. mandaba- 
daba), Oliva (GUN. manggo-anda) and (?) Nautilus (GUN. 
binje-la) are manufactured and worn by men only, the last- 
mentioned being additionally used as a fore-head band. 

20. Xecklaces ; Oj)oss>i ni. and Kangai-oo Tivine. — There are two 
varieties of the Opossum-string necklace to l)e observed in the 
North Western Districts, one of which is constructed on a 
fringe-, the other on a helly-patterii. The former coii.sists of a 
main supporting string (a composite basal strand), from which 
hang some dozens of tassels formed of one continuous length suc- 
cessively twisted upon itself and around the supporting string ; 
each tassel is about four inches long^*. It is manufactured in 
the Boulia, Leichhardt-Selwyn, and Cloncurry Districts, usually 
by women, is coloured red and primarily intended for use at 
corrobl)orees ; when niade somewhat larger than usual, us is 
sometimes the case in the Boulia District, it may be worn as a 
woman's a})ron-belt. Local names : — PPT. munamalyeri, KAL. 
and MIT. mittamiko. In the belly-pattern, all the Opossum- 
hair strands are fixed at either extremity to the tying strings^ ^, 
but such necklaces, once manufactured at Glenormiston and 
Roxburgh Downs are extremely rare ; one specimen obtained 
from the latter station, though manufactured on the proper plan, 
had the Opossum-string leplaced by cotton threads drawn fron> 
out of an old sock. 

27. yecklaces : Grass-reed and Fandanus. — The Grass-bugle 
necklace is made throughout Queensland. In the North-Western 
Districts it is manufactured usually by the women and is the 
badge of the first of the initiation ceremonies, whence it can be 
worn subsequently, on any occasion, by both male and female. 
In its simplest form it consists of hundreds of grass-reed bugles 
threaded on a twine from twelve to sixteen feet long tied at its 
extremities ; the bugles are cut into lengths of from about half to 
five-eighths of an inch and ovec, either by means of the sharp edge 
of a mussel-shell or a stone-knife. Such a necklace can be worn 
just as it is, as a coil wound round and round the neck, or else rolled 
up into a thick loop so as to make two bellies of it, the ends 
being attached to tying-strings^®. In other cases the bugles may 

i^Rotli— Bull. 1— Sect. 14, and Plate vii., fig. 6. 
''-" Similar opossum-hair necklaces are foiuid on the Tully River. 
i« Hoth— Ethnol. .Studies, etc., ISOT—Fig. 2G7. 
3 



34 KECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSKUM. 

be strung on a number of shorter threads, fixed at their extremities 
to the tving-strings, so as to form a single-belly ornament^ " ; or 
again, two such bellies may he looped together, perhaps the com- 
monest form ^ **. On the East Coast the grass-bugle necklace is 
seen from certainly north of the Endeavour River to as far south 
as the Keppel River, and is made and usually worn only by 
women ; the pattern followed is that of one continuous length of 
string. On the Tully River, natives of both sexes wear it. On 
the Lower Gulf Coast, the ornament is made and worn only by 
the female portion of tlie community. Local names: — PPT., 
KAL., and MIT. konupa, KYI. wanggar, KYE. yirko, GUN. 
maner-gora Cmade from ra grass), MAL. waln-gara. 

Grass-bugles amongst the Brisbane Blacks were threaded on 
a length of string knotted at either extremity ; it was usually 
made by the old men and women, but mostly worn by men, at 
any time. It was called kulgaripin {T. Petrie). 

At Princess Charlotte Bay a necklace (al-wura) worn by the 
women and especially the younger girls is formed of strips of 
Pandanus leaf worked into a plait of from three to five strands^ ^ . 

28. Necklaces (miscellaneous).- — Amongst unusual objects I 
have oliseived strung together, and worn as necklaces may be 
mentioned the " calcareous eyes " of a cray-fish, and the vertebral 
bodies of a young shark, on the Batavia River ; and ])encils of 
hardened beeswax attached to a top-string on the Daintree 
River. In one such specimen I examined at Cape Grafton, 
whither it had been bartered, and which the local Kungganji 
Blacks called o-mor, I counted upwards of one hundred 
and fifty pieces of bee.swax (Hg. 19), eacli about one and 
a half inches long, coloured white, and suspended by 
an attached twine eyelet to the tying-string ; it was 
said to be used by men as a fighting ornament, by 
the women, as an ordinary decorative one. 

29. Cross-shoulder Ornaments. — Attention has 
already been drawn to the fact that certain of the 
necklaces may also be worn as cros.s-shoulder orna- 
ments, a method of fixation, ?'.«., from over one 
Fig 19. shouhler across to under the opposite armpit, which in 
certain areas indicates a .syinbol of grief and niourn- 
ing'-^". On the otlier hand, there are indeed here and tliere a few 
decorations only worn as cross-shoulder bands. Tiius, on the Upper 
Georgina Kiver, at Headinirly. an Opossum-striuir cross-slioulder 

!■' Roth— Etlmol. Studies, etc., 1897 — Fig. 2(j(j. 
i« Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc.. 1897— Fig. 264. 
)o Roth— Bull. 1— Sect. 11, and pi. v., tigs. 1-1. 
30 Moth— Bulletiu 9. (Rec. Austr. Mus., vi., .'), 1907, p. 31)7.) 




NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY ROTH. 35 

^liece (the kurnianja of the Yaro-inj^a) is worn by males and 
females; on the Pennefather River a strip of Kangaroo-skin tied 
at the ends, forms an ornament"^ (NGG. do-ana) that is used by 
women only at any time. So again, the Pennefather River 
women may wear on any occasion a cross-shoulder band made of 
fibre-twine interwoven with the feathers of the Emu or a variety 
of Blue jNlountain-parrot, the decoration being known lespect- 
ively as the taipe-pra and taipe-mandenuto ; hut this may also be 
used by them as a belt or as a sucking-string-". 

30. Chest and Back Ornaments. — Most of the chest and back 
ornaments consist of a portion of Pearl-shell, Nautilus, or Melo, 
drilled to carry the string that suspends it over the chest. On 
the Pennefather River the Pearl-shell chest ornament (NGG. 
gamaga) is of two kinds; the shorter and rounder pieces are 
worn oidy by a mother on the death of her child, by females 
when dancing round a corpse (children sometimes using the half- 
broken ones), while the longer ornaments are worn by the men 
at con obborees and on othei- special occasions. The outer layer 
of shell is removed by placing the specimen on the cold ground, 
face downwards, and covering carefully with hot ashes, after 
which the surface can be the more ea^il}'^ removed by grinding on 
a stone with water, when pearl-shell is scaice, the ornament may 
be manufactured here from Malleus vulsellatxis, Lamarck. 
Further down the Gulf-coast, e.g., between the Staaten and 
Mitchell Eiveis, these iridiscent-sliell chest decorations are worn 
by men only ; the Gunanni terms for them, according to the 
species of shell, being binje-la and pin-yertan. On the Eastern 
Coast-line at Ca})e Bedfonl, etc., the elongate form of it (KYI. 
komaral) is used by both girls and boys ; on the Tully 
River it is usually worn by the adults, who speak 
of it as kwi-anchal. With regard to the Nautilus, 
this is worn between the shoulders of the men 
(fig. 20), between the breasts of the women, at Cape 
Bedford, and on the Endeavour, Bloomfield, Laura, 
and Middle Palmer Rivers. Owing perhaps to its 
comparatively fragile nature, I have not observed the 
regular bartering of this shell to any very great dis- ^'g-20- 
tances inland. Local names : — KYI. milbar, KMI. trila-elpan 
(same term as applied to the pearl-shell^^). 

-'^ Tins snip ot skin is cut from tlie Hank of the animal (N(iG. adaut- 
chuko), and the hairs left on. 

■-- Opossum-twine (barbiin) was worn similarly across the shoulders of 
the Kippas only, at Brisbane (7'. Pe/rie). 

23 A piece of Nautihis shell, the tulin, was worn between the breasts or 
shoulders, in both sexes, at Brisbane ; it was much valued l)y the inland 
blacks (7'. Velrie.) 




36 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSKUM. ' 

As a general rule, the Mel.o diadenia, Lamk., is to be found 
worn more frequently iul.and tlmn on the coast line where the 
Pearl-shell as a decoration is in the ascendent, the iridescence of 
the latter naturally proving more attractive and so reducing its 
export to a minimum. The melo travels no inconsideiable dis- 
tances, e.g., into the Boulia District \\ hither I succeeded in 
tracing its course through the trade-routes as follows : — From the 
Gulf Coast-line between the Nassau and Staaten Rivers, whei-e 
the Gunanni call it ro-anda, it is brought into Normanton whence 
it gets to the Nau-an Natives at Mullangera and so to the Upper 
Flinders and Cloncurry District aboriginals (i.e., Wunamuna 
and Maitakudi), the Flinders ones bartering it to the Yirandalli 
Blacks around Hughenden ; at the head-waters of the Diamantina 
River, at Kynuna, and at Hughenden, the Goa folk from 
Elderslie obtain it from all three sources, trade it down the river 
to Diamantina Gates and Cork, whence it is brought via Spring- 
vale into the neighbourhood of Boulia, where it is occasionally 
but irregularly seen worn on the fore-head like a Kangaroo-tooth 
ornament. At Roxburgh Downs and south of that station, as 
well as elsewhere, I have observed this decoration being imitated 
by chipping and grinding-down pieces of broken chinaware. 
Local names : — PPT. kulinjeii, MIT. chikara. 

On the Peiinefather and Euibley Rivers, in fact on both sides 
of and within the extreme Cape York Peninsula, a flat circular 
shell chest-ornament may not infrequently be met with ; this is 
made by chipping oft' and grinding down the base of the Conns 
miHi.punctatus, Linn., and finally diilling the aperture through 
which the string passes. Another shell, worn just as it is found, 
is the Solarium perdix. Hinds ; the Pennefather Blacks speak 
of both these shells under the one name of devi-devi. 

31. In the Noitli-Western Districts, here and there, thick 
circlets of Opossum-twine, etc., may be thrown over the head and 
hang loosely upon the chest. 

32. Amongst unusual articles I have seen worn regularly as 
chest ornaments may be mentioned the large Eagle-hawk's claws, 
two of which '^'^ are attached inoon-shape-like into a piece of 
cemeut ; two of such double-claw hoops may l)e fixed to the same 
neck-string. The claw is brought to Boulia from the north, 
both from down the Georgina River, and down the Burke and 
Wills Rivers; PPT. mingkara, KAIi. pi-ko-". 



2* For an illustration see Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897, fig. 270. 

^^' The testicle.s of the Kangiiioo, with surrouiuHiig pouch and skin, 
after being removed and (h-ied, were cut into slices, rui)l)ed witli oliarcoal, 
and suspended over the client l)y a string passing tlirough a hcdc at the 
edge (T. Pelrie). 



NORTH QURKNSLANI) EIIINOGKAPH Y — KOI'H. 6l 

33. Wiiiftt-skeins. — Th(^ liunuui-liair l)elt, or prefeiabl}' .skein, 
found tliroui,fliout Nortli Queeiisland, except perliaps in the 
extreme Peninsula, consists of a lon^ piece of dout)le-plaited hair 
twine wound ronml and round the waist so as to form a thick 
skein ; the resulting size may lie guaged from the fact that a 
con)|)arativeiy small specimen when unravelled, was found to 
measure a length of over twenty-six yards. One extremity of 
the twine is often attached to a little wooden peg, which, by its 
speedy recognition, enables the wearer to start unrolling all the 
more readily. Such a hair-skein into which the knife, toma- 
hawk, etc., is often stuck, may not be removed from the body 
for weeks, perliaps months, at a time ; its very nature precludes 
it from getting rotten through moisture. In the Boulia District 
it is one of the ornaments allowed to be worn by both sexes 
subsequent!}' to the first of the initiation ceremonies ; the men 
usually dot) it continuously from this time forwards, but the 
women onl}- at corrobborees and Other special occasions, though 
not necessarily even then. In most of the other districts it is 
the men only who are allowed to wear it, although in several 
where it is known to have once been in vogue, it is now discarded 
even by both sexes, e.g., on the Endeavour River where, in 
Captain Cook's time"", the men are stated to have had " a string 
of plaited human hair, about as thick as a thread of yarn, tied 
round the waist." Local names : — PPT. wa-kula, KAL. wan- 
niga, MIT. u-rodo, the Yaro-ingo of the Upper Georgina calling 
it ai-tanja. On the Pennefather River, fibre-twine waist-skeins 
are wound around the belly and arms of women only, by whom 
they are perhaps more often used as mourning strings ; they are 
very often coloured red, made of over-cast twine, and known 
as tanga-a. 

34:. Waist-helts. — ""Among Waist-belts, i.e., bands, etc., 
which are tixed in front or behind, there are one or two inter- 
esting varieties. Fixation anteriorly however is comparatively 
rare, the nnly example known to me being that of the Opossum- 
(or kangaroo) twine waist-belt (KMI. aln-jo) of the Middle 
Palmer and TuUy Rivers ; in the former, the ends are attached 
in front by means of a knot passed through a loop, in the latter by 
tying. On the Batavia River, an Opossum-string (NGG. ogwar- 

2?? Hawkesworth's Edition, 1773, p. 207. 

■^^ The Brishane Blacks wore waist-bands made of Opossum- and 
Human-hair twine on the ordinary European fish-net pattern, tlires to 
four inches wide and from six up lu nine feet long ; the Opossum ones 
were worn at initiation by the Kipnas. and subsequently on any occasion, 
the latter, netted by themselves, being used by the medicine-men 
only ( T. Petrie). 





38 KKCOKUS OF THK AUSTKALIAN MUSKUM. 

agana=-name of animal) is used as a belt by the men, but as a 
cross-shoulder piece or necklace by the women-®. The Peune 
father River District natives have a very pretty shell waist-belt 
made from the Oliva australis, Duclos, the native name of 
which cowrie (NGG. ko-chi) gives the name to the completed 
article. The shells are strung vertically as in 
fig. 21, upon a double top-string, and tightened 
tocether, as many as one hundred and seventy 
having Ijeen counted on the one belt ; though 
'''^' "^'^ manufactured and used by women, it may be 

worn by the males for decorative and corrobboree purposes. The 
same folk also possess a bright yellow-coloured belt made from 
the prepared outer cortex of the Dendrohium hkjibhnm, Lindl. 
(NNG. zu-la), the belt itself being called a tchi-li, made by 
women, the larger kinds are used as belts for 
the men, the smaller as cross-shoulder bands by 
the women, on all or any occasion, fighting, 
dancing, etc. The actual i)rocess of its manu- 
facture (tig. 22) has already been described-^ ; a 
variation has since been met with, which is F'.-- — 

formed of three strips of cortex and four threads. 

35. Waist-circlets. — A Waist-circlet is invariablj' put on from- 
below up, great difficulty being often experienced in getting it 
into proper position. The Opossum-rope waist-circlet (.MIT. 
mun-dolo) is met with in the Cloncurr}' and Flinders Districts,- 
is ujnvards of an inch thick, and measures sometimes over a yard 
on its outer circumference. It is made of a thick skein of fibre 
— acting as a sort of core, around which a single external strand 
of Opossum-string (often replaced by fibrje, etc.) is over-cast ; a 
pattern representing areas of black bands is worked in with hair- 
twine in this outer layer. In the smaller varieties (i.e., those 
for females) the internal core or skein may be made of human- 
hair twine instead of fibre, and there may be a few opossum-string 
tags, forming a thin fringe as it were, hanging down in front. 
It is worn by adult males at corrobl)oree time only, by young 
boys at any time previous to reaching the first stage of social 
rank, while that for a female may be worn on any and every 
occasion. On the Middle Palmer, at Cape Bedford, etc., Waist- 
circlets, with a fringe attached in front, (KIMF. mi-na, KYI. 
yirpi) aie worn by the women only ; the circlet portion is usually 
manufactured on a core of human-hair overcast with Isangaroo- 



*8 I am ignorant of the metliod of attachment of the two extremities. 
" Roth— I'.ull. 1— Sect. 12 and pi. vi., fig. 2. 



NORTH QUKENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY KOTH. 39 

or Opossuni-liair twine, while tlie tassels^ ^ composing the fringe 
are often made of tihre-twine {e.g., Careya ansiralis, F.v.M.). 
The Bloonifield River women wear a circlet of human-hair or 
fibre-i'ope around the waist ; it is commonly met with on the 
older females, and those who have suffered any trouble over a 
recent accouchment, though in all cases it is looked upon^* in 
the light of an ornament, especially when some red colour is 
woven into it. 

36. Apron-belts. — The separate tassels forming the apron of 
the Pennefather River Apron-belt (NGG. andre-ata) are made 
on the same pattern as those of the Cape Bedford Waist-circlets ; 
they are strung on a top-string (NGG. ngora) stretched between 
two sticks, during their process of manufacture, and made of 
Careya australis, F.v.M. (NGG. kuiperi) twine. On com- 
pletion, the tassel apron is rolled up with the roots of the 
Morinda reticulata (NGG ada-a) which stains it a yellowish red. 
The apron varies in deptli from two to five inches and is worn 
double, a loop being inserted in the top-string where folded over, 
the two ends of the top-string being 
passed through it as represented in fig. 

23, the apron being thus worn double. _ 

Such an apron is worn only by the females ^MiMiMW§{ 
from the time they begin to toddle and ^^^.A^m^^^^^'^ 
are only discarded at full puberty ; the °" " ' 

reason given for such a practice is that the exposure of the female 
genital is indecent, but that when nature provides the hair no 
further artificial covering is required^ ^. In the hinterland of 
Princess Charlotte Bay, the Apron-belt is worn only l^y the women, 
though I have occasionally observed it put around their necks ; it 
is made of vegetable fibre (/i«r?'i?i^<o?iia racetnosa, Gaud., Bomhax 
malabaric7iin, Ue Cand.,or Malaisia tortuosa, Blanco), on the same 
pattern as the Pennefather River tassels already mentioned. 
The Bloomfield River women sometimes wear a similar Apron- 
iielt, but this has only been introduced of late years''^. Along 
the coast-line hetween the Fitzroy River and Broadsound, the 
women used often to wear a four or five inches deep apron belt 
of Opossum-twine. The larger sized e.xample of the Opossum- 
twine munamulyeri necklace has already been noted as occasion- 
ally worn by the Boulia Distiict women in place of an apron-belt. 

30 Roth— Bull. 1— Figs 4, 5., pi. vii. 
3' According to Mr. R. Hislop. 

32 The .same practice witli the same reason given was in vogue amongst 
the Brisljane girls with the Opossum-twine apron belt ( 7'. Petrie). 

33 According to Mr. R. Hislop's opinion expressed in 1898. 





40 RKCORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

Ill the Upper Georgina area, at Headingly, the Yaro-inga 

females wear tlie Opossum-twine apron-belt, the murrtara, either 

round the waist or neck, the males donning it as a necklace. 

There is a male corrobboree waist-apron belt found in the 

district around the Batavia River, with the apron 

portion formed of Pandanus strips (fig. 24), attached 

to the top-string in a manner different to what 

has been found anywhere else in Queensland ; it 

would be interesting to learn what the arrangement 

'^' ■ is in the corresponding New Guinea female article. 

37. Hip and Tail Pieces. — Throughout the North Western 
Districts, in times of corrobboree and other occasions for re- 
joicing, and on wife-hunting expeditions, etc., certain ornaments 
are tixed or rather suspended from the waist-skein in the oase of 
males only. Thus, the pingkara of the Boulia Natives is a bunch 
of Eagle-hawk feathers tied tightly round at their shafts into the 
form of a feather-duster and attached by the quill-end on either 
side of the skein so as to dangle over each hip; it is called a 
wan-pa by the Cloncurry boys, who let it hang down in the 
central line behind instead of at the sides. The Boulia tilyeri 
is a similarly bound bundle of Emu-feathers^*, but attached so 
as to fall between the fold of tiie buttocks ; on the Upper 
Georgina River, the Yaro-inga may stick this bundle (kwalla- 
kwalla) up\»'ards behind, such a ))Osition indicating the sign of 
sexual connexion when the wearer comes to steal a woman. 
The Opossum-string tassel (MAL. niitin) may similarly be sus- 
pended posteriorly on the Tully River ; at other times it may be 
seen worn over the chest hanging from a neck-string. On the 
Tully River stuck upwards into the belt behind is the ombir, an 
ornament made out of White or Black Cockatoo, Scrub-tuikey 
or Scrub-hen tail and wing feathers ; the pinnae are pulled down 
on each side of the barb, and the barbs then tied up into a 
bundle, which when com])lete makes the whole article look 
something like a feather-duster. It forms a portion of the 
special fighting costume"^ ^. 

38. Genitalia. — '^Lhe. epilation of the pubic hair was practised 
by both sexes on the Proserpine River, but by females only, on 
the Lower Tully River. At Brisbane, most of the old women, 

** Practically identical with the fly-flicks described in Bull. 7 — Sect. 48. 

^^ At tlie Brisl)ane initiation ceremony, the Kippas wore a "tail- 
business" calleil wonggiii (7'. Petrie). [The death of Mr. T. PetJ'ie, so 
often (|Uot('d in these pat/es, lias just taken place at Brisbane in liis 80th 
year. Me was one of the tiist settlers in tliat <listii':t, and a local autiiority 
on Aboriginal liahits and customs. 1 



NOKTIl QUKKNSLANI) KTHNOfJHAPHY ROTH. 41 

rarely tlie 3oiinger, would cut off the pubic hair ; it was said to 
be (lone for the convenience of the n)ales (T'. PetrieJ. 

Phallocrypts, only used by males at corrobborees and other 
public rejoicings are formed (-ither of pearl-shell or opossum 
twine. It is somewhat unfortunate that I introduced this 
term to express certain objects met with in the Nortii Western 
Districts which I was not then awaro were employed rather for 
purposes of decoration than for concealment. 

The chikaleri is a flat, more or less oval, piece of pearl-shell, 
three to four inches long, fixed with cement to a human-hair 
twine vvliich in turn is attached to the middle of the waist-skein 
in front so as to hang over the privates. This |>earl-shell which 
I have only observed in the Leichhardt-Selwyn, Upper Georgina, 
and Boulia Districts, comes into these parts from the head- 
water country of the Georgina River, though from which portion 
of the coast it is originally brouglit I have not been able to dis- 
cover ; most probably through the Nassau and Staaten Blacks on 
the Lower-eastern Gulf-coast, they obtaining it by barter from 
further north. 

The kumpara is the Pitta-Pitta name for the Opossum-string 
form of Phallocrpyt manufactured on exactly the same plan as 
the munamalyeri necklace which is subsequently wound in a 
spiral round itself, fixed in tliis position so as to form a kind of 
tassel, coloured red, and is hung from the waist-skein in front. 
Sometimes it is used in the hand as a fly-flick. It is manu- 
factured in the Boulia, Leichhardt-Selwyn, and Cloncurry 
Districts by males only ; the Kalkadun name for it is monaro, 
and the Maitakudi one tungga. These latter people under the 
same term tungga use a Phallocrypt in the form of two tassels 
made of Opossum-string, joined by an intermediate portion which 
suspends the article from the waist-skein ; the individual threads 
of each tassel looped upon themselves, are upwards of a foot long. 

Tin-jinna is the Pitta-Pitta name for a sort of miniature kum- 
j)ara which I have met with only in the 
Boulia and Upper Georgina Districts 
where the Yaro-inga folk of Headingly 
call it pilya ; the method of attachment 
is peculiar in that it is attached to the 
pubic hair, while on the event of a cor- 
robboree it may be painted white, the only 
occasion on which an opossum-twine orna- 
ment out in these areas is colouied other- Yig. 25. 
wise than red. It is manufactured as 

follows ; — A coil of Opossum-twine is wound round the first 
two or three fingers of the left hand (fig. 25) and tied on the 




42 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSKUM. 




Fig. 25d. 



Fig. 25c. 



palmar side, the coil thus becoming divided into a number of 
loops. The proximal loop {i.e., the one nearest the palm) is 

picked up on the dorsal aspect 
with a little stick or twig (fig. 25a), 
brought forward, and given a twist 
(flg. 256). The twist is then con- 
tinued V)y rolling between the fore- 
finger and thumb, and completed 
by rolling between the right palm 
and outer thigh ; what has thus 
become a tassel is now held down 
by the left thumb, while the next 
proximal loop is made into a tassel, 
and so on, each tassel being fixed 
with the thuml), until the star-like 
article (fig. 25c) is completed, and 
manipulated into sliape (fig. -250?). 
39. Digital Amputation. — All 
the Leichhardt-Selwyn District, 
whom I met, though but a few are left, had suffered the 
loss of the little finger, the left (PI. viii., fig. 6). A similar 
condition is reported from the Northern Territory^'', and as the 
same practice was once in vogue amongst the females in the 
Rockhaini)ton ai'ea, on Fraser Island, at Brisbane^ '^, and even 
at Sydney >'*', its original area of distribution must have been a 
comparatively large one. At Fraser Island, ^^, it was said to 
have been done during infancy by the mother, but when the 
baby cried too much, someone else had to do it, though in one 
particular case a woman had done it for herself wlien a girl. 
The method employed was by binding the finger tightly round 
and round with a strong cob-web, or when that was not available, 
hair-twine, thus allowing the top to turn black and mortify, 
when it was held in an ants' nest and eaten off. The reason 
assigned for the custom were that they could dig the yam? up 
better with three fingers than with four, and that when fighting it 



the Kalkadun women of 



•''8 In certain tribes visited by Mr. H. Basedow the amputation of the 
right index finger is general (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aiistr., xxxi., 1907, 
p. 8.) 

37 On the authority of Mr. T. Petrie. 

3** See G. Harrington's "History of New Soutli Wales," wi\ere tliere is 
an account given of the operation a.? performed at CJovernment House for 
the delectation of Governor VhilHp. [For an epitome of observations on 
this subject see Etlieridge — Rec. Austr. Mus., V., 5, 1904, p. 'J73]. 

^"■^ From enquiries made through Mrs. (iribble. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGUAPHY — ROTH. 43 

was better to get three fingers hurt instead of four ! At Brisbane, 
this mutilation served to distinj^uish tlie coastal from the inlnnd 
women, was performed by similar agency, usually l)y the old 
women, and when the child reached about nine or ten years of 
age. At Gladstone and Rockhampton, the amjjutation is said 
to have I)een pei formed at the first initiation cereaiony. 

40. Armlets. — Opossum-twine armlets (PPT. mungkala), in 
the form of circlets are met with everywhere in the North 
Western Districts, and in a single length commonly elsewhere. 
Feather tufts may be stuck in underneath them. In the iieigh- 
l)Ourhood of Burketown, whence they may have been obtained 
further westwards, the circlets often have tassels, etc., lianging 
from them. In the Cloncurry District, armlets are either single, 
made of one length of twine (MIT. jammal), or multiple, made 
of three or four (MIT. malyeri) and then [nactically identical 
with the chabo fillet* °. On the Gulf Coast-line between the 
Mitchell and Staaten Kivers (Gunanni Trihe) an Emu-feather 
twine armlet (yu-outabola = name of bird) is made and worn by 
men only. 

The Pandanus-strip armlet (fig. 26, 26«) in one form or another 
is met with throughout the Peninsula, to as low down as the 
Staaten River on the Gulf-side, and the Bloomfield River on the 
east coast. In its original form, it is 
made of a single strip of Pandanus leaf, 
the ends of which are fixed by splitting, 
as already described*^ ; on occasion 
however, the trouble of making it pro- 
perly is considered too much, the ends Fig. 26. Fig. 26a. 
of the strip being simply tied. In the 

more northerly areas {e.g., Pennefather River), it may ha 
ornamented after drying at the fire with a glowing charred stick 
so as to make a zig-zag pattern ; worn and made by men only 
for decorative and corrobboree purposes. Local names : — KYI. 
(Cape Bedford) monggan, KWA. rau-al, KM I. anjo-ana (the 
name of the plant), NGG. agantra (also the name of the plant), 
and GUN. malle-anga. 

The Pandanus-plait armlet is made and worn by men on the 
Embley River, at the Morett)n River, and on the higher reaches 
of the Batavia River. At the last-mentioned, it may be made 

*o At Brisbane, armlets were made from the skin cut vertically down 
the belly of the Kangaroo — this portion of fur was of a lighter colour ; it 
was worn by men on both arms, at corrobborees and other occasions for 
full-dress {T. Petrie). 

*i Roth— Bull. 1— Sect 8 (e). 





44 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 




Fig. 27a. 



by women, and called a langanjinyi (NGG.), but in that case is 
fixed around the leg above the calf, and worn by members of 
their own sex at any time, and also when dancing around the 
corpse at the burial ceremony. The process of manufacture has 
already been drawn attention to *-. 

On the Tally River are to be seen split Lawyer-cane armlets 
(MAL. raingkau) made of a single 
strip double-coiled (fig. 27, ■27a), and 
fixed according to two jiatterns, the 
construction of which diagrammati- 
cally has been described*^. 

From Whitsunday Island in 1901 
I obtained a coui)le of women's bangles 
from which a few pieces of Nautilus 
shell hung dependent ; the body of 
the bangle is covered with (?) opossum 
hair. 

41. Anklets. — On the Penuefather River fibre-twine with no 
special name beyond that of the plant from which it has been 
derived (e.g. Ficus malaisia), is tied around the ankles, above 
the calves, and around the waist ; worn by men alone, and only 
at coirobborees. 

42. Decorative Scars. — Decorative scars or cheloids can be recog- 
nised from all others, e.g., fighting, mourning, etc. not only by their 
constant jjosition upon the chest (PI. x., fig. 1) and upper abdomen, 
often upon the shoulders and either side of the vertebral column 
(PL ix.,fig. 2), but from the fact that they are invariably artificially 
raised, in some cases quite half an inch above the surrounding sur- 
face. These rai.sed scars contain pigment, are quite sn)ooth, have 
rounded edges, and possess the feel on touch of tougii fibrous tissue. 
They are said to remain many years, but eventually decline ; 
what lends colour to this statement is that, as a rule, the scars 
among the older men are not so strongly elevated as tho.se in the 
younger people, Tlie patterns followed are linear, dotted, 
rectangular or circular, the first being l)y far the most common, 
but the results of my various enquiries into any pictorial or other 
signification, except perhaps on the Tully River, has proved 
fruitless. Whatever tlie pattern be, it does not anywhere in the 
north, as far as could be learnt, remain constant for the whole 



*'» Roth— Hull. 1— Sect. 11. 
■ta Roth— Bull. 1— Sect. 12. 



NOHTH QUKENSLANl) KTilNOORAPHV — ROTH. 45- 

tribe. ^^ nor does it distinguish tlie different exogaiiious groups. 
Amongst the Brisbane BIhcIcs, the pattern did distinguisli the 
tribe {T. Petrie). On the Tully River, the more prominent the 
belly-scars are in a man, the more is he thought of l)y the women; 
indeed, in tlie full development of these particular cicatrices lies 
the conception of the female's highest ideal of a member of the 
opposite sex, but women do not care for a boy too soon afler he 
has been cut. Throughout the North Westeiii Districts, on the 
Bloonitield River, etc., the scarring has notliing whatever to do 
witli the initiation ceremonies, whereas on the Tully River, in 
tlie Rockhampton and Brisbane areas it certainly has or had. 

43. Tlie place for incision is first of all niiuked in with cliarcoiil 
or gypsum, and the cut made with a flaked flint, shell,'* ■'' or quartz, 
now often replaced by glass ; on the Tully River, two incisions are 
made along thesame area, a superficial and a deep one. Tlieaccount 
of what follows varies in the different districts, the idea prevalent 
being apparently to prevent too early union of the edges of the 
wound, which on the Bloomfield River may sometimes be purposely 
kept open for a month or two. At Boulia, the natives rub bits 
of Portidaca oleracea, Linn, (the local " Pig-weed ") into it for 
upwards of a quarter of an hour, and say that the nature of the 
elevation depends upon whether the particular individual has a 
tight or a loose skin, wliile the picking at it with the fingers is 
also subsequently adopted at intervals to make it "jump up." 
At Glenormiston and at Roxburgh Downs a quantity of bird's or 
other blood is said to be put on the wound so as to increase the 
size of tlie clot, while further up the Georgina River, at Head- 
ingley, a boy lokl me that amongst his own (Yaro-inga) people 
the wound is rubbed into with charcoal. The Cloncurry Blacks 
assured me that feather-down is first of all put on to prevent the 
blood running off, i.e., to cause coagulation, and left theie for 
two or three days until such time as the wound gets " rotten " 
and the "yellow muck," ^.e., pus, runs out; the latter is next 
removed by rubbing fat into it, and the wound "grows himself 
then." On the Pennefather River, the scars are briskly rubbed 
into with the milky sap of Alyxia splcata, R.Br. (NGG. wai-peri), 
and on the Bloomfield with clay, whilst the Tully River 

■^^ Yet here and there amongst certain of the tribe may he observed dis- 
tinctive scars which are not met with elsewhere {e.r/., circular scar around 
the umbilicus at Prince Charlotte Bay, square shoulder scar at the Penne- 
father River), giving rise to the suspicion that originally these decorative 
cheloids may have distinguished tribe or group. 

*5 e.g., Tellina perna, Spengler, and Tellina foUacm, Linn., ou the 
Pennefather River. 



46 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Blacks use a kind of white mud (MAL. niarchila). Nowhere 
does the process appear to disturb the general health, even when 
the belly-cuts are made, the native will only admit that he feels 
a bit stiff for a time. 

The dotted elevated scars on the arms I have witnessed beinpf 
made among the Cloncurry Blacks as follows : — The individual 
takes a small cold piece of charcoal, half an inch or so in height, 
and places it on the spot where he intends the dotted scar to be, 
and then puts a light to the top of it, which, after the preliminary 
flame is extinguished, goes on glowing until the base is reached, 
thus letting it burn out to a white ash, with the simultaneous 
scorching and destruction of the subjacent skin ; in 
two or three days the papule of cicatricial tissue begins to form. 
I have tried this nietliod on myself without any raised scar 
resulting, and I am more and more convinced that independently 
of anything septic or not being rubbed into the wound, it is more 
or less natural amongst these natives for the scar to become 
raised.'^ ^ Similarly, in the case of a half-caste girl in my ehiploy 
who met with an accidental burn on the wrist and hand, a very 
elevated scar resulted within the subsequent ten weeks. 

44. On the Pennefather River the scars (NGG. ga-ni) aie 
similar in men and women. As a rule, these natives do not make 
them for themselves ; married men cut them for the single 
boys, husbands for their wives. Fig. 28, '28a-d, repiesent the 
more common patterns on the chest and shoulders. On the 




4 




\<.y^ 





Fig. 28. 



Fig. 28a. 



Fig-. 2S&. 



Fig. 28c. 



Fig-. 28d. 



belly, are a series of transverse ones but these are rarely to be 
seen below the navel ; on the back one or two transverse ones 
are occasionally to be seen across the lines ; again, there is often 
a short one or two on the thighs. 

45. Amongst the Koko-minni of the Middle Palmer River, in 
front, with both males and females, the usual ))attern consists of 
transverse scars across tlie lower chest and upper abdomen, 
vertical ones on the shoulders, and small vertical ones together 



*" Mr. T. Petrie, who saw Davis, the convict(" Darramboi"), when he 
came in after being fourteen years with the natives, tells nie that none of 
^is decorative scars were raised. 



NORTH QUKKNSLAND ETHNOGKAPHY KOTH. 47 

forming liorizoiatal bands around the arms ; on the back, vertical 
bands of small horizontal cuts on either side of the vertebral 
column, and occasionally oblique over on the outer buttocks. 

46. To the north-west of Princess Charlotte Bay, the few 
Koko-olkulo whom I have come across, have a very distinctive 
small circular scar around the umbilicus, in addition to the 
transverse ones above. Otherwise at Princess Charlotte Bay, 
the cicatrices are of the ordinary linear type, seen in both sexes, 
though of far more regular pattern, design, and distinctiveness 
in the males. 

47. Throughout the North-Western Districts, scars are to be 
seen in both sexes* '^. As a rule they consist of numerous trans- 
verse scars cut across the trunk from about the level of the 
nipples to the navel, and a few, from one to three longitudinal 
cuts along the to|) and front aspect of each shoulder ; using the 
local Pitta-Pitta terms of Boulia, the former marks are spoken of 
as tipardo, and the latter as muturu. These are the positions 
most commonly adopted, but additional ones may occasionally 
be found, as on the upper portions of the che.st and on the 
back. Amongst the Cloncurry Blacks, on the back are five or 
six pairs of small cuts on either side of the vertebral column 
from the loins up, and intervening between these may Ije found 
two or three pairs of longer bands coming right round the flanks 
to join those in the front ; again, here and there may be found 
additional small dots scattered irregularly over the arms and 
back. In the Yaro-inga Tribe of the Upper Georgina River I 
have noticed a couple of transverse scars on the upper arms just 
below the orthodox longitudinal shoulder ones. 

48. At Cape Bedford, both sexes are scarred, with varying 
pattern about which there does not appear to be anything special 
to be noted. On the Bloomfield River, raised scars are to be 
seen only on the men ; transverse on the chest, upper abdomen, 
and back, vertical on the outer tliigh and shoulders. A few 
transverse ones like armlets are sometimes seen on the arms ; 
exceptionally among the women, there may be armlets formed 
of small component vertical scars. 

49. On the TuUy River, the nature and position of the scars 
varies with the sexes. In the males, one cut is made on the boy 
horizontally across the lower level of the great pectoral muscles, 
about a year or two before puberty ; it is an essential cut, made 
by the father, or other tribesman, is called chindnl (MAL. ) and 

*'' On Mornington Island they are also to be seen on both sexes. 



48 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

is believed to assist in making tlie boy grow. A boy with such 
a cut is known as a kokai-kokai. The belly-ones (MAL. 
moingga) are made at tlie initiation ceremonj" and are also 
essential, indeed all males must have both these previously to 
being married. They are cut somewhat as follows: — About an 
hour or two l)efore sunset, the bara nut wliich has been specially 
prepared by the women is crammed into the novices -^ lio, when 
quite " stodged" so to speak, are forced to drink more and more 
water, and are not allowed to speak, with the result that the 
belly becomes grossly distended. The youth lies on his Itack, 
with head resting on an old man's lap while the lines along 
which the cuts are to be made, are marked out with charcoal. 
One of the elder men will express a wish to Of^erate and he is 
chosen, or two may be chosen. At any late, the operator takes 
a small flint-flake (kwi-an) between his thumb and forefinger and 
gauges the depth of tlie pi'oposed incision by the amount of stone 
projecting. There is a single quick cut for each scar, and while 
doing so he calls out "ku ! ku ! ku ! etc.," this noise being sup- 
posed to prevent the youth hearing the sound of the flint as it 
cuts through the flesh. There are generally about six of these 
cuts made ; they are allowed to bleed well, and finally yellow 
mud is rubbed all over the belly. If the scars smart and hurt a 
good deal, it is signiflcatory that they were not cut at exactly 
the riglit time, an hour or two before sunset. If long in healing, 
it means that a woman saw him during the ceremony without 
his bark-blanket wrapped round liim. Lastly, if the scars do 
not develop prominently it is indicative that he has been tamper- 
ing with a woman already ; sucli an individual would be ridiculed 
and called burlchul, a term meaning any small mark. After 
the belly-cuts, the lad is no longer known as a kokai-kokai but 
as a ngu-tcha. Among the optional ones, which may be put on 
at any time are two or three vertical ones on the outer shoulders 
and a ring of smaller vertical ones on the arm, these scars, like 
those on the back are known as kargal (MAL.) and are said to 
have l^een introduced here from the Townsville District Blacks. 
Other o])tional scars are the half-moon ones (MAL. ngau-o) over 
the breast, very small horizontal cuts on either side of the 
median line of the chest as far down as the chiudal, and pairs of 
small horizontal cuts on either side of the vertebral column""^. 
In the females, the scars, if any, though they are not essential, 
are put on only after marriage and tlien by the husbands ; they 
may be cut on the arms and l)ack with small ones on the l)uttock, 
but there are never any on the belly. 

*" For tho scars cut oil tlie buitocks of expert climbers, see under Tree- 
Climbing — Bull. 17— Sect. 8, footnote. 



NORTH QUKENSLAND KTIINOfiUA HIIY — ROTFI. 40 

50. Ill the Hock ham pton area, the various raised scars are 
said to have been usually imposed at the first initiation cere- 
mony. On the mainland, with both sexes, the ordinary run of 
these consists of a few long transverse cuts across the lower chest 
and upper abdomen as far as tlie umbilicus, with corresponding 
ones behind, and longitudinal scars down each shoulder. These 
may be supplenienteil by bands of small vertical cuts on the arms 
and numerous small irregular ones on the chest, while, on 
occasion, the outer sides of the thighs may be scarred. Among 
the Keppel Islanders I found on males and females, both in front 
as low down as the umbilicus, and back, numerous small vertical 
rows of scars composed of sliort horizontal ones in close appo- 
sition ; furthermore on the outer thighs of the females a single 
composite vertical row of horizontal ones, and on the upper 
arms (also in the males) a few transverse rows of short vertical 
scars. 

51. Amongst the Brisbane Blacks*-', the pattern of the scars 
was alike for the one tribe, both men and women. Boys and 
girls when they were about eleven or twelve years of age were 
operated on by men, and then received their chest- and back- 
marks (fig. 29, 2ya), and (the girls only) 
their shoulder-scars; it was only at their 
initiation (kippa) that the boys got their 
shoulder ones. The Moreton Islanders and 
inland blacks had belly-marks right across 
as low down as the navel ; further north, 
the belly-scars were cut on either side of "' " ' 
the middle line. Each tribe indeed had a different pattern, alike 
for its male and female members. The incisions were made with 
a flint or shell, and rubbed in with the fine powdery charcoal 
obtained from the sapling bark of the Blood-wood {E%icalyptus 
corymbosa, .Smith) ; within a week these scars would be observed 
raised, 

52. Feathering of the Body. — Feathering of the body is in vogue 
throughout all the North-Western Districts, and here and there in 
the Peninsula, in the Caidwell area, etc., but limited to men only at 
corrobboi'ees, fighting, or wife-hunting expeditions (PI. x., fig. 2). 
In the North-West, white feather-down required for the purpose 
is obtained from the duck, wild-turkey, etc. ; it can be made red 
when that colour is wanted, by dusting the feathers over with 
greased red ochre which has been previously pounded on a 
nardoo or other pounding stone. These two sets of feathers (no 

*9 Notes from Mr. T. Petrie. 
4 




50 RECORDS OF THK AUSTKALIAN MUSEUM. 

yellow ones are made) are put by and retained for subsequent 
use in respective dilly-bags, koolauions, etc. A sufficient supply 
of blood, obtained by the ordinary bleeding process'' ° from the 
posterior ulnar vein, is collected into any convenient receptacle. 
This blood, by means of feathers tied to the end of a stick, is 
painted over the required pattern, previously deliminated with 
gypsum, and dab upon dab of feather-down put on — this remain- 
ing in position with the coagulation. Sometimes, the whole day 
may be thus occupied in preparing for the night's festivities, but 
no women or children are ever allowed to watch the procedure. 
In tlie Cardwell area the whole of the individual's head face and 
body, back and front, except the hands, feet (and sometimes, 
calves and shins)" ^ are covered entirely with white cockatoo 
feather- down after the parts have been smeared over with the 
milky juice derived from the Ahtonia scholaris, R.Br. The 
more carefully the warrior is thus decorated, the more successful 
in the fight is he supposed to be. 

53. Painting of the Body. — It would be practically impossible 
to give a detailed description of all the different designs adopted 
in body painting, be it for occasions of rejoicing, sorrow, or 
fighting, and I accordingly propose only mentioning a few of the 
more typical patterns ordinarily met with, omitting all mention 
of the many different ornaments and decorations alieady detailed 
which will generally be found accompanying them. 

In the Nortli-Western Districts-''-, at corrobborees, or other 
causes of rejoicing, certain transverse and semilunar bands of 
white paint, or greased yellow and red ochre may be daubed on. 
On similar occasions, and also at any time, the women throughout 
the Boulia District may adopt a greased yellow or red tri-linear 
pattern. This is put on by means of the three first fingers 
dabbed simultaneously on the paint, and then smeared sinuously 
but separately along the limbs, both upper and lower, and more 
or less transversely across the trunk. 

On the Pennefather River a flash painting of the males would 
be somewhat as follows : — Oliarcoal over the forehead ; a white 
band from eitlier eyebrow down the front of the ear, along the 
side of the neck, down the shoulder and arm ; a dab of red on 
eitlier cheek ; alternate wliite and red l)ands across the chest ; 
and one mass of red over tlie fore-arms, lower extremities and 
back — this mass of red may be broken up into fine longitudinal 
lines by sci*aping with the back of the shell of Cardium verte- 

fio Roth-Kthnol. Studies, etc., 1897— .Sect.283. 

ni lloth— Hull. 4— Phites xxix and xxx. 

2 Roth— Etlmol. Studies, etc., 1897— fig. 275, aud tigs 2S3-2'.I2. 



NOKTII IJUEKNSLAND ETHNOGKAPHY — KOI'lI. 51 

hratum, Jonas, after the manner of a Iiouse-painter's graining- 
comb. 

At Cape Bedford, body-painting is indulged in only by the 
men, Ked, white, and yellow are the colours, mixed with water, 
which are put on in horizontal rows as far down as the waist, 
but below that in vertical rows. 

On the Bloonifield Kiver, painting varies according to the 
purposes intended — mourning, tighting, initiation or general 
corrobborees. For any pur[)Ose, the women are oulyvpainted in 
designs on the fuce. 

Amongst the Lower Tully River natives, no particular patterns 
are followed but a general smear all over with one or other pig- 
ment. The body is thus painted not only for decorative purposes 
but also for comfort ; a very cooling effect on a broiling hot day. 
Hardly any ornaments are worn by the women, and 
comparatively few by men. 

In the Kockhampton District, red ochre was often used for 
smearing in vertical streaks down the trunk and limbs, while 
the Keppel Islanders would often paint the trunk and limbs in 
vertical bands of alternate red and white stripes, both front and 
back, with the head completely raddled. 

54. Cloaks and Rugs. — The manufacture of Opossum-cloaks 
and Kangaroo-rugs is now a lost art in Queensland, and in the 
course of all my wanderings I have never seen a single specimen. 
The preparation of the leather however has already been drawn 
attention to""'. 

55. Plaited- Blankets. — These were made on the Embley, 
Pennefather and Batavia Rivers, up to within recent years, so 
late as 1899 ; I watched some being made on the Batavia River, 
where the Nggerikudi folk speak of them as anji-ana-anji. They 
ave of two types, circular and rectangular. The former is 
manufactured from the whole stems of the Ileleocharis sphacelata, 
on a chain-twist pattern"^ from a central core, and working 



^=* llotli — Bull. 7 — Sect. 12. Mr. T. Petrie says that at Brisbane an 
Opossum-skill cloak six by four or five feet, suHicieiitly large for two people 
to shelter under, would be made up of from tliirty to forty skins, out in 
sijuares, and edges over-cast with kangaroo sinew ; the holes were pierced 
with a pointed kangaroo or swan bone, sometimes a porcupine-quill, and 
the tendon passed through by hand. After the cloak was tiiorouglily dry, 
after the sewing, it was scarred over by means of stone or shell into 
straight-line, cross-hatch, or S-shaped patterns, and then covered with 
red pigment. The hairy side of the cloak was next to the people lying 
underneath it. The kangaroo skin, from one animal, was prepared in 
similar fashion, and laid upon like an under-l)lanket. 

'i Roth-Bull. 1— Sect. 29. 



52 



ItECOKDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



round and round until the required size is obtained; sometimes 
emu-fesithers are worked into it. The completed blanket is said 
to be very warm for sleeping under on cold nights. The rect- 
angular variety is made from split Pandanus leaves also on the 
chain-twist pattern, but woven from side to side, somewhat after 
the style followed in the Pandanus colanders^ ^. All plaited 
blankets are manufactured by the women. 

56. Bark Blankets.- — ^Sheets of soft tea-tree {Melaleuca) bark 
are often to be found used as blankets in cold weather, in many 
districts, and would appear to answer the purpose admirably. 
On other occasions the inner bark of various Fig-trees, e.g., the 
Ribbed-fig (Ficiis pleurocai-joa F.v.M.), Ficus ehretioides F.v.M., 
undergoes special preparation before its conversion into a pliable 
coverlet. At Atherton, some six or seven years ago, I had the 
rare good fortune to l)e an eye-witness of the entire manufacture 
of such a bark blanket. The individual who made it climbed a 
Ficus pleurocarpa tree (the local kar-pi) to a height of som^ 
forty feet and there removed a sheet of bark, the entire circum- 
ference of the trunk. The removal was effected by transverse 
cuts above and below, joined by a vertical one, and pounding 
along its connecting edge as it was being picked off the tree ; in 

former times, he told me that this 
> pounding was done with a stone. 
■ ■■ . ^ On regaining the ground he uncurled 

Fig. 30. the sheet so removed (fig. 30) which 

was now very moist on its inner 
surface, and which measux'ed aljout 
forty-two by twenty inches. He 
next rolled it in its vertical length 
(fig. Wa) with the external layer of 
Fig. zob. the bark outside. Across its width, 
about four or five inches from the 
free end, he made an incision with the sharp edge of a broken 
piece of Candle nut [Aleuriles vwluccana, Willd.) shell ; this 
cut however only went through the thickness of the outer layer, 
which thus formed a kink ^- 

(fig. 306), and so enabled , , \ 

him to obtain two free 
edges to pick up and tear 
off. The smaller piece of 
outer baik he liad but little 
difficulty in removing, the pjj,. 30c. 

larger taking some consider- 
able time ; the sketches (fig. 30c, d) will serve to explain a couple 

5'' Roth— liiill. 7.— Sect. 52. ' 





Fig. 30a. 




Fig. 30rf. 



NOllTll QUEENSLAND ETHNOGUAPIIY — UOTII. 



53 




Fig. 30/'. 



of the positions assumed in this manipulation, wliich required no 
small amount of strength, judgment and skill. The outer layer 
of bark, not being required, is now cast aside. The next stage 
in the procedure is to find a suitable tree— suitable in the 
sense that it has a comparatively large root-branch exposed above 
the surrounding ground-surface 
which can be cleared of its bark, 
and used as a table. Upon this 
convex table, the oblong sheet of 
internal bark is placed, and ham- 
mered on its inner surface with a 
piece of wood (fig. 30e) shaped 
like a narrow cricket-bat with 
handle cut-short, the whole imple- 
nient measuring about twenty- 
four by two inches. The blows 
are inflicted (fig. 30/) with the 
bat's edge struck sharply in a 
slanting dix'ection at an angle 
with the run of the fibre, consider- 
able force and rapidity being brought into requisition. During 
this process the bark-sheet (drawn as it gradually is more and 
more towards the operator) gets struck in its entirety, simul- 
taneously becoming softer and more pliable, thinner, and 
correspondingly-increased in surface area. Doubled on its outer 
side, so as to leave its inner surface again exposed, it is again 
hammered along the same lines of direction as before, the doubling, 
pounding, etc., being further twice repeated until what may now 
be called the blanket is folded into a pack- 
age, about a foot long, a size just convenient 
for carrying in a dilly-bag. The sketch 
(fig. 30^') will illustrate the method o 
doubling which takes place; T draw special 
]{] attention to this because the other examples 
only met with in the Cairns and Cardwell 
Districts are folded on almost identical 
lines. The blanket is next opened out 
and exposed to the sun with a view to getting all the moisture 
out. The particular one under consideration measured on 
completion four feet by two feet four inches, and took 
between five and six hours to make. It proved of still further 
interest in that I had an opportunity of watching the operator 



Fip. 30^. 



54 



KKCOKIJS OF THK AL'STKALIAN MUSKUM. 




mend an accidental tear (fig. 'SOh). This he did with a piece 

of fihie-twine and a sharply 
pointed piece of wood, cut just 
for the occasion, though it is 
not to be denied that the 
mend shewed considerable 
Local names : — 
NGI. wo-nian, CHI. and 
NGA. kambilla, MAL. mag- 
ura (:=:narae of the Ficiis 
ehretioides fi'oni which der- 



Fig. SOA. — The proximal end of the sewir);^ , 

string; (on left of figure) is not tied but prevented puckering 
from slippinfj' by means of a knot in it, sus- 
pended by the next loop. The distal end of 
the sevvinj; string (on the right of the figure) is 
also prevented from slipping by means of a 
knot. Tlie scwinaf was carried out from proxi- 
mal to distal (left to right of the figure). 



ived) and keba (=name of tree not identified] 



BUM.KT1N No. 16. 

HUTS AND SHELTERS. 
(Plates xi.-xvii., and Figs. 31-42.) 

CONTEST.S. 



Page 
55 



Sect. 1. lutroductory ■•■ ^ ••■ .••• •• ''. 56 

2. Primitive types of Bieak-wind, etc. ... •■• ^g 

3 , Bark-hut... ... "■ gg 

4! HutJ-Don.e framework type-^b^j^--^^ ^^ ^ 60 

^- " " Brisbane ^^ 

^ " " Peninsula... ^i. 

'• " " Eockhampton ... ■•• "^ 

Q " " Brisbane ... ••.• ••• ^X 

y- " " Korth West Districts ... bd 

10- " , " , . ... 65 

11. ,, Square framework type 

1 Undoubtedly there are certain definite types on ^vhich 
shel'teVs and habitations are constrncted, ..,., break wxnds^ and 
ten pox-T ^1-lters, bark-covers, huts .-ith a square f-^-Jo^^' 
rts'w.tlf a don,e £ran.ework-but of t-e genealogy o.- re at^on- 
shin it is difficult to speak with certainty. The break xv in as 
w7uld naturally appear i^-st, thougli the ^^^fV^^^^^^ 
forked uprights are probably of Papuan ^f ^^<^^^ ^^^ ^"^^^^^^^^^ 
the latter arrangement is certainly connected with t e squa e 

auiework hut met with only in the P;""-"^- ^"^^^l^'^,^,^^^^^ 

but whether connected in the way of progress ^yf^^^'^^^l 

it is impossible to say ^ The common anangem nt o - « ^ o e 

or less bent sticks interlocking at their loiks, met with at sucn 

wice -sepovldareasasin the districts around Rockhampton 

In the whole North- West, coupled with the interlocking of a 

^l:;n;:th^a purposely-cracked stick at B-bane, may po.nt o 

a condition of affairs where the ndge-pole ^^^^ ^'J'' ^^^^^J 

with, the two forked uprights coa.ing into ^' ^''^ f ^ ^;^;^\^^ 

while the simple (single-piece) hoops met with on the -LuH i^^^cr 

IdC alt-line' northwards n.ay be an.imitation accounted for by 

the substitution of a pliable material {e.g. Ccdainns, sp.) met 

vYthTo ay in abundance. Any (a) single bent -ithe or lioop 

or (b) two ^bent withes tied or otherwise interlaced on top, m 

lc)tll forked sloping uprig hts locked a t_theirfork^^ 

the scaffolding upon which tl>e corpse was laid in the Brisbane 
See Roth— Ball. 6-Sect. 13, tig. 60. 



56 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



stitute an arch supporting the dome roof. Not only is it thus 
quite possible, that the square or dome-like basis of construction 
of any iiut is more intimately connected than might at first 
sight be supposed but that the dilierent varieties of dome-type 
also bear intimate relationship as expressed in the following 
table : — 

Huts with a dome framework. 



Framework 


Arches 


Supports 


Hut-entrance formed by 


A. Multiple, i.e., 








formed of many 








arches 


■(a)parallelwith 
one another 








(Sect. 4) 




one of the arches 




(h) cross - wise 








with one aii- 








^ other (Sect 5) 




interspace between ^ny 
two arches 


15. Simple, i.e. 








formed of one 








arch held in 




(a) a single 




position by 




-'(i) the whole arcii (Sect. 






support^ 

i 


6,7) 

(ii) either the arcii alone 
or with the support 
(Sect. 8) 

(iii) the whole arch divid- 
ed by the support 






(b) many 


V (Sect. 9) 






supports 


portion of arch and one of 
the supports (Sect. 10). 



The scooped-out camping grounds of the Wellesley Islanders 
and the excavated huts of the I>oulia District may indicate traces 
of an under-ground or cave-dwelling population. 
:,^In most of the camps there is a .special hut for the use of the 
unmarried men, unmarried adult females always staying with 
married relatives, nevei' by tliemselves. 

Camps may be shifted on account of death, if there has been 
a good deal of sickness about, though more generally on account 
of fleas, vermin, refuse, as well as scarcity in tlie local food 
supply. 

2. Independently of the protection and .shelter provided by 
natural forms, e.g., overhanging bushes, cave-shelters, etc., 



- After tlie manner of a tripod. 



NOllTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOOKAPHY — IJUTII. 57 

the most primitive form of artificial break-wind is to be 
seen in the native camps scattered over the Wellesley Islands. 
This is composed of bundles of grass (PI. xi., fig. 1 ; PI. 
xii., fig. 1), cuscutii, leafy switches, or blood-wood boughs 
with the stems outwards, just thrown on the ground and 
arranged in such fashion as to form a seniicircuUir liedge up to 
between eighteen inches and two feet high surrounding the cir- 
cular excavation in which a couple or more blacks will be lying 
curled round the central fire. The fact of these natives sleeping 
without any hut or covering whatsoever may account for their 
rising with the early dawn, a most unusual circumstance. It 
was also strange that on the four or five occasions that I 
examined this group of islands, no evidence was observable of 
the apparently numerous pits described by Flinders, although it 
is possible that in the interval between his visit and mine — 
upwards of a century — the pits have become .shallower and 
shallower until tliey are now repre.sented by the circular ex- 
cavations referred to. 

Other early types are those wheie the ground or a ti-ee 
convenient are utilised. Thus, instead of the bundles of leafy 
switches being thrown down in a heap one on top of the other, 
they are now fixed vertically into the soil, and inter-twined with 
others, and with tussocks of grass maybe, placed cross-wise. 
Such a break-wind for instance would be observed anywhere and 
everywhere; in the Bonlia District where it is usually from 
about two and a half to three feet high and known as a wallo-a 
or yangko'^, it is often to be seen on one or both sides of the 
hut-entrance so as to protect not only the fire itself but also the 
individuals who may choose to be squatting down in the open 
around it. Or again, as in the Lower Tully area, a stick or 
sapling may be tied up at an angle to any convenient tree, and 
some leafy switches leant up against it. A remaining early type 
(PL xiii., fig. 1) is a sheet of bark fixed lengthways and edgeways 
into the ground though even this apparently simple arrange- 
ment means at least ability to climb a tree, the knowledge of 
how to remove the bark, and the possession of special tools to 
effect the purpose. 

Amongst more advanced varieties are the winji-winji of the 
Boulia District, and the ridge-pole shelter of all the more 
northern area of the Peninsula. Strictly speaking, the former 
is any temporary bough-shed for protection from rain shoidd it 
suddenly come up and is built of light sticks grass and bushes. 
A very common arrangement* is to have it attached to the hut 

^ It is called rnyi-i on the Pennefuther River. 
* Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897, fig. 248. 



58 



RKCORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



with a view to sheltering the fire wliich is usually kept burning 
just outside the entrance. In such a case the two " back-bones " 
of tliis kind of winji-winji are built as high as, or liigher even 
than those of the attached habitation and the " legs " instead of 
being fixed vertically are kept in position more or less liorizun- 
tally one above the other by being stuck into the vertical inter- 
spaces surrounding the original entrance-way ; the occupants 
pass in and out on either side of the fire between it and its 
shelter-cover. 

The ridge-pole would appear to be the most advanced of all, 
not only in principle, but in the requirement of specialised, i.e., 
forked, upriglits. Such an arrangement may be simple or 
multijtle, in the former case completed with some leafy switches 
leant up against it (PI. xiv., fig. ">) ; in the latter, a couple may 
be placed side by side (PI. xv., fig. 2), the overlaid foliage con- 
stituting a shelter from tlie sun when well over-head, or linearly 
to form a palisade. There may be an extra thatch of tea-tree 
bark in certain cases. 

3. The simplest form of bark-hut met with is that composed 
of a single sheet either curved or more usually bent at its 
middle (PI. xvi., fig. 2), the ends being firmly fixed into the soil. 

A development of this is where, as on 
the Pennetather River, two or three 
such bent sheets overlap one behind 
the other, the extremities being fairly 
jambed into the sand which is heaped 
u|) against them slightly ; it is known 
locally as rju-ini (fig. 31), tlie same 
name given to the oval-framework hut made here and on the 
Batavia River. On the Jardine River, on the extreme north of 
the Peninsula I have seen a single-sheet bark hut with one of its 
otherwise-open ends enclosed with leafy boughs. 

4. On the Lower Tully River the following is the orthodox 
method of building a liut (fig. 32) : — 

Three pairs of unsplit withes ahc are fixed /'/ 
in po.sition, theii- ends bent over, and tied 
on top with lawyer-cane. Three hoops 
are thus formed, the middle b being the 
tallest, and c ultimately forming the 
entrance, the smallest. Beyond the third 
arch, some five or six i)ieces of split cane 
jwe stuck into the ground, bent over, and tied (not usuall}' 
interlaced) on to the arches as to constitute the frame- 
work. The next thing is to thatch which is done either 




Fig. 31. 




NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — KOTH. 59' 

with grass (PI xii., tig. 2), leaf, or bark. Tlie grass employed 
is the " Bladv-grass " {Jmperata arundinacea, Cyr.) growing 
from two and a lialf to tliree feet long ; haiulsful of it, with 
the butts down, are laid against this frauuwork all the 
way round, to be similarly followed by anotlier layer but 
with the butts up. These two layers of bundles are next fixed 
in position l)y means of a split cane which, fixed to one side of 
the doorway, passes right round tlie hut, perhaps tied here and 
there to the frame-work on its course, to be attached to the 
other side of the entrance. Then, with the butts up, the liuiider 
starts again with a single row of thatch, \)ut tixes it with cane 
as he goes along, round aud round, s[)iral-wise, until he gets to 
the top. Finally, at the very top he puts on some tea-tree bark 
or palm-leaves, a couple of boughs i-esting on them and so 
keeping everything in position^. The area enclosed by such a 
hut (MAL. kanna) is of course oval, while the height is usually 
well under four feet; the ground within is not excavated, nor 
is the earth shovelled up around on the outside, although this 
practice has been learnt of late years. The leaf used for 
thatching is that of the Ijawyer-vine {Calamus sp.) and Fan- 
palm (Licuala muelleri, Wendl. and Drude) though unfortu- 
nately I never enjoyed an opportunity of watching their 
employment. Where the thatcliing is of Tea-tiee {Melaleuca, sp.) 
it is put on as follows (tig. 33): — Along 
sheet (a) right round the base of the hut, 
then vertical pieces (bj witli their ends 
tucked into the frame-work and overlapping 
the long sheet, to be followed by several ^ _ 

pieces laid horizontally on top (c), all kept j,j„ 33 

in position by means of a heavy log or two. 

Round the base of such a bark-thatched hut, sand is thrown 
up against it to a height of five or six inches with a view to 
prevent the bark from springing out. Both men and women 
build the huts here. 

5. Alone the Coast-line northwards, e.g., at Cape Grafton, the 
Bloomfield River, Cape Bedford and around the shores of 
Princess Charlotte Bay, there is a tendency to construct the 
circular framework of these huts by firmly sticking the saplings 
or switches composing it into the ground along the limits of the 
area to be enclosed (Fl. xvi., fig. 1), and then bending them over 

^ The hut for the special use of the boys during their initiation is- 
similarly grass-thatclied, but is a very much larger building, and has no 
bark or palm-leaves on top. 




'60 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM, 



and tying, not inter-locking, so as to form a series of hoops crossing 
one anotlier ; these hoops are finally stiengthened liy transv'erse 
and oblique pieces fixed across tlieni, in and out. At Cape 
Bedford, the hut (KYI. bayen) may be built of five or six such 
crossed hoops (KYJ. karar), at Princess Charlotte Bay of over 
a dozen, the future entrance (KYI. barkar = mouth) being con- 
stituted of one of the intervening spaces ; sometimes, there may 
be two such entrances. The thatch is eitlier of bark, blady- 
grass, lawyer-vine, C5'^cad- or palm-leaf accordinji; to the local 
vegetation, and certainly both on the Bloomfield River and at 
Cape Grafton, the leaves are invariably commenced with from 
the fop, succeedhig layers being placed from above down, heavy 
boughs or rather logs weigh theui .into position, the rain being 
kept out not so much owing to the ariangement of the leaves as 
to the quantity put on. Furthermore, the leaf-thatch ma}', as at 
Cape Grafton, be preceded by odd scraps of l»ark, placed more 
or less vertically so as to act as drains for the rain. The height 
of these huts averages about four or four and a luilf feet ; there 
is no floor excavation. There is usual)}- a fire burning inside 
the structure wlien built for winter-use, and one or two entrances 
according to the size of hut. Tliu.s, on the Bloomfield River, 
a man with one wife and a small family will occupy a hut with a 
single entrance ; if he has one old wife, and other wives and 
children, a larger habitation will he used, the old woman having 
a separate entrance and separate fire to herself. 

6. A similar type of hut'% made by the Brishane women, was 
often seen at Eagle Farm, on the Coast-line, and at Bribie and 
Moreton Islamls. It was much larger than the other made by 
the men, being about nine feet across and 
four feet high. It was constructed of a 
series of four hoops (fig. 34) crossed, stuck 
at both extremities into the ground, the 
timber employed being the local wattle 
or "oak". Filling up the segments, other 
straight withes were stuck into the 
ground with their tips tied to the hoops 
where they crossed each other ; there 
were no sticks fixed in obliquely or 
transversely, indeed, no interweaving. One of the segments 
was left open, to act ultimately as an entrance. The whole 
was then covered with sheets of tea-tree baik, but (unlike 
the bark-hut made by the men) these were jtlaced transversely 
and made to overlap after the manner of a shingle roof, with a 




Fig. 34. 



6 According to Mr. T. Petrie. 




NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — ROTII. 61 

large one on top licanging over tlie "door" which was only just 
hig enougli to allow a person to crawl in ; heavy sticks were 
leant up against the bark to keep it in position. These huts 
wore mostly made in winter-time, and would hold eight or nine 
people ; a small tire was kept glowing inside in the centre. 

7. In the hinterland of Princess Charlotte Bay, across and in 
the Peninsula to the opposite Coast-line on the Pennefather 
River, the dome-framework type of hut shews a formation of 
door-way similar to that met with on the 
Tnlly River, namely in the possession of a 
special hoop of its own (fig. 35), supported 
at its apex by another bent withe tied there 
at right-angles, on to which the remaining 
scaffolding is attached. For instance, on the 
Kennedy River, 1 watched the construction j,.^ 35 

of the " Cabbage-tree" ])sdm-]eni (Livit>io7ia 

anstraUs, Mart.) hut represented in PI. xvii., fig. 2. Gnarwin, the 
head of the local tiilie made it for himself and wives, who are here 
represented. Withe ^ bent over into a hoop and fixed into the 
ground at both extremities, forms the door-way ; withe ^, placed 
at right angles to it and tied, has successively attached to it, the 
remaining withes in the order indicated, all of which are subse- 
quently strengthened by bent sticks interwoven or otherwise 
attached more or less obliquely. In this particular instance tliere 
did not appear to be any definiteness in the arrangement of the 
axes of the leaves, up, down, or sideways, the 

y^^^^^^^ whole being prevented blown away liy means 

fl f \ of heavy timbers fixed firmly into the ground 

3// J I and pressing at an angle against them. Fig. 36 

■■:■ % -' " shews a similar method of construction from 

* J ^ the Pennefather River. Two long withes 

t'ig. 36. 1, 2^ twisted around each other for strength 

rind stability are fixed in the ground at either extremity, 
hoop fashion, and tied low down on each side ; this double 
one constitutes the future hut-entrance which is always 
turned away from the prevailing wind. Withe ^ is fixed in 
at its base at a point about midway between the imaginary line 
joining the bases of ^ and - ; it is bent down and either by its 
own spring held under the top of the original hoop, or else 
jammed into its interstices, or else tied there. Nos. ^ , °, etc., 
are then attached in similar fashion, usually by their own 
elasticity, but also interlacing one another may be on top. 
Sheets of bark {^Melaleuca sp., Eucalptus tetradonta, F.v.M.) ai e 
next put on, and held in position by logs as before. The 



62 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 





Nornianton huts, for wet season use, shew a similar basis of 
construction, and are thatched with grass; the entrance is 
comparatively small (PL xiv., fig. 1). 

8. This tripod basis of construction of a dome-frame work hut 
— represented by the two halves of the hoop 
and its support in the previous examples — is 
parallelled in the Rockhampton and Brisbane 
areas, with the distinction however that the 
supporting withe divides the comparatively 
large door-wa}', which occupies one or both 
sides of the tripod. Thus at Gladstone, Miriam 
Vale, etc., I have often observed such an 

'"■ ■ arrangement made of two forked sticks (fig. 

37) interlocked with a third support, the bark sheets being 
loosely attached on whichever aspect required". 

9. Again, at Brisbane"*, with tlie ordinary type of hut made 
by men, a stittish withe would be cracked, not broken in two (l)y 
bending over the top of the head, and pressing 
the ends down with the outstretched hands) and 
stuck at either extremity into the ground, the bent 
portion being supported by a forked stick similarly 
Stuck into the soil (fig. 38). On the side of the 
ben^t cross-piece or hoop, further removed from the 
fork, were slanted up against it several secondary 
withes, their bases in the ground limiting the 
floor-circvxmference of the hut. Up against the 
secondary sticks were vertically placed sheets of 
tea-tree bark, and covering them on top was an 
extra large sheet after the manner of a ridge-cap 
(fig. 39). To prevent cold wind passing in be- 
tween the edges of these sheets, two would be 
placed side by side and one in front (fig. 40) ; while, to keep 
the sheets in position a trench was dug and the earth thrown 

up against them all the way rouud. If wind was 
expected, heavy poles were laid upon the sides and 
top. The comparatively large "door" or rather 
opening of such a habitation was always in the 
direction whence its occupants had come, its position 
having nothing whatever to do with the prevailing 
winds ; if however the wind proved too strong in 

'• At Rockhampton such a hut Mas known as a tu-ra to the local T.ii uin- 
bul Blacks. 

** From notes supplied by Mr. T. Potrie. These huts were known as 
nguduiu after tiie Melaleuca liark with wliich tiie^' were thatched. Ualu, 
signifying fire was the name applied to a camp in general ; it also signitied 
home in the same sense tiiat we speak of hearth. 



Fig. 38. 




Fig. 39. 



m] 



Fig. 40. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — UOTH, 63 

he door-Wcay, a break-wind would always be put u}) in front, 
he fire being between it and the entrance. Such a hut was 
about four feet high. Supposing the blacks were travelling, 
-and a woman had no baby she might be seen carting the bark- 
sheets for the hut to be erected at the next camping-place, 
especially if it were known that there was no such bark in its 
vicinity. On other occasions when travelling and no tea-tree 
bark was available, they might use " stringy-bark," '* iron-bark," 
or " gum " though not so good ; failing these, they would thatch 
with tussocks of long " bkdy-grass," beginning from below up, 
and fixing them in position as before with heavy sticks pressed 
up against them. 

10. Over the larger portion of the North-West Districts 
another type of dome-frame hut is to be observed ; this is the 
kurau-i of Boulia^, tlie yin-bur of Cloncurry, etc., which is 
originally designed for withstanding rain, but now devoted to 
indiscriminate use, and is almost always constructed on a piece 
of high ground, so as to ensure the more rapid dispersal of the 
water. Building operations are commenced with two naturally- 
bent forked saplings which are fixed deeply into the ground 
below — and made to interlock above ; to obviate tlie trouble of 
finding and cutting suitable lengths of the orthodox forked 
pattern they may occasionally be seen manufactured with spliced 
timbers and tied. These two primary supports pass by the name 
of wandaru (PPT.=:back-bone) their lengths varying according 
to the size of hut required, the summit of which on an average is 
about four feet and upwards from the ground-level (PI. xv., fig. 1). 
Pressing up against them on either side are a number of lighter 
saplings or prinna (PPT.=legs) fixed firmly into the ground along 
the area to be enclosed ; to allow for the future entrance or tera, 
the prinna are omitted over the larger portion of the base end 
of one of the wandaru, the particular " leg " limiting the door- 
way not being necessarily always larger or in any way specially 
distinctive from the ottiers. Along the intervals between the 
prinna, light bushes are laid and intertwined with their foliage 
down, these being followed by tussets of grass, then a coating of 
mud, and lastly by another layer of bushes (PL xvii. fig.l), but the 
covering of mud, which requires no inconsiderable time and skill, 
is often omitted. The ground-space enclosed by the hut-wall is 
more or less circular in the smaller varieties, somewhat elliptical 
in the larger. If the rain beats in at the door-way, the aperture 
is just covered in with an armful of bushes thrown up in front 
of it, and if the hut, as in the larger sizes, has two entrances, 

9 Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897, figs. 247a and v.. 



64 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

the rain can lie thus easily blocked fioui either quarter. The 
level of the ground inside is not purposely lowered, though what 
with the constant treading upon, it often gives one this appear- 
ance. In the Cloncurry District specimens, in addition to the 
thatch already described, the whole is usually covered with bark- 
sheets retained in position b}'^ means of heavy boughs resting on 
top. Talking of bark reminds me that so far as the district 
around Boulia is concerned — and the same holds good for certain 
otlier areas — its use as a wall-covering is unusual in the con- 
struction of any variety of hut, but whether this is due absolutely 
to scarcity of timber it is impossible to say, though the advent of 
the European has been certainl}"- responsible for its substitution 
by cattle-hides and galvanised iron with an accompanying 
degeneracy in the framework. The annakadyi is another kind 
of Boulia District hut built on a similar scatFolding as the 
kuraui, but designed especially for warmth, and so for use in the 
winter months. A flat-bottomed hole is dug into the ground to 
a depth of about one and a half feet, or even more, the rather 
elliptical outline of its sides forming the limits of the habitation 
to be erected over it, the bottom of the excavation constituting 
the future floor. The frame-work of "back-bone" and "legs" 
is next inserted. Wet grass is then collected and wedged into 
the spaces intervening between the j)rinna, and thick layers of 
mud covered on ; the mud thus moistened soon becomes hardened 
and, by means of the grass, fixed in position ; a ring of wet mud 
about a foot in width is finally smeared round the limits of tiie 
entrance for which it forms a sort of artificial door-frame, and 
at the same time gives it a rather ornamental appearance. On 
completion, a big tire is kindled witliin, near the further side, 
opposite the door, with the result that, by sun-down, when the 
embers are removed, the place is warm enough to sleep in. The 
introduction of European clothes and blankets has liowever been 
responsible for the giadual and marked disappearance of this 
particular form of hut. Finding that tliey can obtain protection 
from cold i)y the use of such coverings, the natives are dispensing 
more and more with these structuies which entail no inconsider- 
al)le amount of time, toil, and patience in their making ; the 
change itself, owing to the.se civilising influences, has iiot been 
a sudden one, the depth of the flooi- below the ground-surface 
having been slowly decreased, while the height of the liut above 
ground has been corres])ondin<i]y increased^". 

^° Mr. J. Craigie, late of Roxburgh Downs, had noticed this gradual 
modification in liei^lit and depth during a stay on the Georgina River of 
upwards of .seventeen years, but the explanation was given me by the 
Hotilia natives. 



NulMIl t^UKENSLAND BTHNOGKAPHY — ItOTM. 



Gf) 



11. North of the Palmer River, scattereil right througli the 
Peninsula, up to oei'tainly the Embley Uiver on the Gulf (>0!i.st, 
is to l)e seen a type of hut built on a .square framework on the 
pi'inciple of a ridge-pole supported by two upright-forked stick.s, 
very commonly of Pandanus, the dichotomous growth of whicli 
lends itself admirably for tlie purpo.se. In its simplest form 
it consists of a single ridge-pole (tig. 41rt) over whicli a sheet 
or sheets of bark are made to rest; in May, 1902, at a spot 
east of the telegraph line between Moreton and Macdonnell I 
passed a native encampment made up of a series of these, fixed 
end on end, like a huge tunnel quite thirty feet long. On the 



f^ 




41a. 



Fi-. ilb. 



Middle Palmer, the Koko-minni make use of the bark obtained 
from one or otiier of the following timbers : — " Iron-wood " 
{Erythrophlceum laboucherii, F.v.M.), Melaleuca sp., " Aless- 
mate " or " Box- wood." In the next stage the hut will consist 
of two ridge-poles similarly supporting a bark-sbeet (fig. 416). 
Then comes the condition where short sticks are laid across the 
lidge-poles to form a bunk upon which an individual may sleep at 
night, and below which shade may be obtained by day. These 




Fig. 42. 

sleeping platforms ;^tig. 42) are common in the hinterland 
of Princess Charlotte Bay, a sheet or two of bark on the cross- 
pieces making it more comfortable to lie upon. PI. xi., tier. 2, 
represents one from the Lower Normanby River. To the right of 
the platform in the picture can be seen a " step " also formed of 
a forked limb pressed against the upright at an angle with the 
ground, while to the front will be detected the remains of a 
fire, the smoke from which keeps the sleepers free from 
mosquitoes ; the tire is never built immediately beneath. Such 
a platform is built from five to .six feet high, and may accommo- 
5 



66 RECORDS OF THE AUSTHALIAN MUSEUM. 

date three or four people ou top ; local names — KWA. barpur, 
KLA. arrianggar, KRA. iigamba. To form the fourth stage 
this sleeping platform is enclosed with two more ridge-poles 
resting on correspondingly longer forked supports, which, when 
covered in with bark-sheet, constitute a habitation raised above 
the surface of the ground. The furthest north at which 1 have 
observed such a composite hut was on the Enibley River ; in 
the neighbourhood of the junction of the Palmer and Mitchell 
Rivers (PI. xiii., fig. 2), Suh-Inspector Garraway tells me the 
platform is fixed at a height varying from six inches to three feet. 
On the Embley River the men use the platforms, the women 
having to be content with the ground, their business being to 
mind the fire. 



JiULLBTIN No. 17. 

POSTURES AND ABNORMALITIES. 
(Pis. xviii.-xxiv. ; fjgs. 43-51.) 

Contents. 

Sect. 1. Sleep 67 

2. Standing 67 

3. Walking 68 

4. Sitting 68 

5. Swininiing ... ... ... .. ... ... 68 

6. Tree Climbing 69 

,, (a) without apparatus ... ... ... 69 

,, (b) with apparatus .. ... ... 69 

7. ,, forked stick ... ... ... ... 69 

8. ,, cane-climber 70 

9. ,, and (variations) 70 

10. ,, cutting steps ... ... ... ... 72 

11. Micturition and Defecation ... ... ... ... ... 73 

12. Menstruation ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 74 

13. Pregnancy and Labour ... ... ... ... ... 74 

14. Cord and After birth 75 

15. Notes on Abnormalities ... ... ... ... ..77 

1. Sleep. — Judging from my own experience I cannot say that 
any position assumed during sleep is customary, but from that of 
others whose opinions are worth considering, it would seem that 
the habitual posture of sleep is a coiled condition of the body 
resting upon its side (PL xviii., fig. 1), without the head being 
raised, at Cape Bedford and Ca))e Giafton, but with the head rest- 
ing on a hand or arm at the Tully River and Princess Charlotte 
Bay. On the other hand, I have noticed that in the coiled 
position, it is the stomach and not the back which is invariably 
turned towards the fire. The natives are said to habitually 
sleep on the back with the head low on the Pennefather River, 
but with one or both hands supporting the head on the Bloom- 
field River. The Princess Charlotte Bay Blacks are also said to 
often lie on the stomach, or back, with the head supported by 
the hand.s. There is reported to be a very marked habit 
amongst the Cape Grafton children of swinging their heads and 
bodies from side to side, while in the sitting position-, when 
lulling themselves to sleep. 

2. Standing. — Amongst the males there is everywhere a com- 
mon position a.'^sumed in standing at ease, viz., the placing of 
one foot just above the opposite knee (PI. xviii., fig. 2), the balance 



68 HBCOHDS OF 'I'HE AUSTKALIAN MUSEUM. 

of the body being maintained by resting ifc against a tree, llie 
arm upon a spear, the hand or thigli upon a wommera. 

3. Walking. — In walking there would appear to be great 
variations in the degrees to whieli the feet are turned outwards. 
The palms are usually held to the side ; amongst the Cape 
Bedford Tribe only two individuals were noticed to liold them to 
the front. The faster the gait, the greater the swing of the 
arms, unless of course one hand happens to be carrying the 
spears. They can all walk their twenty-five to tliirty miles a 
day easily, if required. 

4. Sitting. — la the neighbourhood of the Pennefather and 
Batavia Rivers, and elsewhere in the Peninsula, and often 
observable in the North West, the native, before sitting down, 
clears a circular space in which to squat. If on sandy soil, he 
will stand on one foot and brush aside with the other, in a more 
or less circular movement, any leaves or sticks that may be lying 
there ; if on grass, he will bend down to pluck out the main 
tusHOcks. In the bush, in the Pennefatlier River area certainly, 
it is the business of the woman to clear this circular space (of 
grass, leaves, etc.), on which she and her husband will be camp- 
ing for the night. 

Men usually squat with more or less open thighs, and the 
shins doubled underneath (PI. xix., ^gri. 1 and 3) ; but, as I 
have noticed both in the extreme west and east of the State, 
while one shin may be tucked under one thigh, the other 
may be lying upon the opposite one (Pi. xix., fig. 1). The 
illustrations shew the more common of the postures assumed 
by the males in the sitting position. With the women, the 
thighs are closed, and turned more or less laterally, with the 
shins tucked underneath, and feet projecting from one side. 
But ordinarily, so it seems to me, a female will sit with the legs 
closely apposed, and stretched straight out in front of her. 
When, however, a woman is in any strange camp, or in her own 
camp, with strangers present, she often sits with the thighs 
open, but with the one heel ilrawn vvell up into tier foi-k as a 
screen. 

5. Swimming.^— '\!\\e Lower Tully River Natives swim in a 
far more vertical position than do Europeans ; furtliermore, in- 
stead of breasting the water, the right shoulder appeal's to 
occupy the most advanced position. The right arm, starting 
with l)ent elbow, makes a clean sweep downwards, outwards and 
backwards until, at the end of the stroke, the elbow is fully 
•extendeil. The left arm remains sharply bent througiiout the 



NOKTll t,>UKKN',sl,A\|) I';thNO(;I<A ['H V — KOTK. 69 

stroke and limits a far smaller circle, the elbow appearing aliove 
the water-surface at each stroke. 'I'he legs, not much separated, 
■ would seem to work " dog-fashion." Jf I could liken this manner 
of swimming to anything of ours, it would be something after 
the style of the ordinary side-stroke. When swimming any long 
distances, the Bloomfield River Blacks will go liand-over-hand 
fashion like a dog; otherwise, the body is tilted laterally, one 
arm doing the usual side-stroke, the other working pretty close 
to the body, ant! moving the fore-arm somewhat vertically. In 
diving any long distance, and to ensure rapidity of speed, the 
one arm, instead of doing the ordinary side-stroke will be 
strongly circumrotated vertically from behind forwards over the 
head. In all cases, the lower extremities are markedly brought 
into requisition. On the Pennefather River and at Cape Bed- 
ford, either the breast — or side-stroke, according to pace required 
is brought into requisition. The fact of a whole group of 
natives, though occupying the lands bordering a river, not being 
able to swim has already been drawn nttentiou to^. 

6. 2'ree-C limbing. — Tlie various methods adopted in climbing 
depend in very j.'reat measure upon the size, height and slope of 
the tree. Where the butt is comparatively small and vertical, 
the native will clutch it with the two feet on the same horizontal 
level, the knees being kept well out (PI. xx., fig. 1) ; thus firmly 
planted, he drags his body up hand-over-hand fashion, and by a 
repetition of the movement rapidly advances. This sort of 
climbing is the chati-balgin of the Mallanpara occupying the 
Lower Tully River District, the second half of the word 
signifying the jumping-motion of a wallab3\ 

In the case of a long dependent vine, the black climbs it hand- 
over-hand (PI. xxi., fig, 1), getting a purchase by grasping it 
between the first and .second toes — MAL. parpaji. 

Where the size and slope of the butt admits, e.g., a cocoa-nut or 
other palm, the native will just walk up the tree (PI. xx., fig. 2), 
throwing the weight of his body backwards, overbalancing being 
prevented by his clutching the tree firmly with his hands. MAL. 
balngai-chanin, where balngai signifies "to cross" in the sense 
of a log laid horizontally, and clianin means " to stand."- 

7. When the butt i.s too large, and the first limb not within 
reach, a very common practice is to place a forked stick at an 
angle up against the tree (PI. xxi., fig. 4) and walk up it. At 
Cape Bedford such a forked sapling is called a walmbar, the same 



1 See Navigation — Ante, p. 2. 



70 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 




term as is applied to a log thrown across a stream for walking over 

it. On Mornington Island an interesting development of this 
method consisted of two such forks placed " 
upon the butt in such a way as not only 
to interlock hut also to support a hori- 
zontal piece (fig. 43) ; this foims a kind 
of platform upon which the islander can 
stand securely while cutting out a bees' 
nest, etc. 

8. To ascend a tree with the Calamus 
"lawyer-cane" climber-, the following 
procedures are adopted : — the}' were all 
demonstrated to me by a Tully (left- 
handed) native, an expert in the art, in 
that he had the moon-shaped cicatrix cut 
on either buttock, indicative of his special 
skill in the craft-^. This pliable cane- 
\0 climber (MAL. kambai) is specially pre- 
^'?- 43. pared by greasing with fat, and wlien not 

in use is always kept in the shade, and at one extremity is tied 

into a knot*. 

(a) A more or less straight tree. The right hand holds the 

cane just in advance of the knot, the cane being then passed 

round the tree, tightened up with the left hand, 

and passed in a half-turn from under the wrist 

to over the elbow-groove and so to under the 

arm-pit (fig. 45). Slanting himself backwards 

(PI. xviii., fig. 3), the native, with elbows a 

little out, gives a jerk as he raises the cane, 

simultaneously taking a step np ; by repeating 

the movement, he thus gradually makes pro- 
gress. The advance is always on the outer 

<jurve of the bend of the tree. Thus, supposing 

the tree is spirally curved, the course of the ascent is in a 

'■^The local Mallanpara word bumareii is the verb indicating the ascent 
of a tree by this means. 

A specimen in Dr. Roth's collection from Miriam 
Vale, where it is known as yn-rol, measures t\\enty-four 
feet in lengtli ; to theTarumbal of Rockhanipton it was 
known as a ba-rin or ku-ti. 

2 Here on the TiiUy River, there is a lialf-mooa 
cicatrix cut on the buttocks of men who are considered 
to be expert tree climl)ers (fig. 44). Such a half-moon 
scar (MAL. kauren), which may be supplemented with 
small horizontal cuts, is said to teacli tiie owner how 
Pip 44. to climl) iiroi)eily. 




Pifr. 45. 




.-«? 



NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — ROTH. 



71 



spiral, and some boys can thus only climb such a more or less 
straight tree. 

(b) The trunk branches into an acute fork. Should the tree- 
trunk after attaining a certain height, branch into an acute fork, 
the native will slack out more and more of the cane over the 
further limb while he advances correspondingly up the nearer 
one, until such time as he can step into the intervening wedge 
whence he can make a fresh start on either of the limbs more 
convenient. 

(c) To free the hand holding the distal extremity of the cane, 
he accomplishes his purpose by passing the extremity of the 
cane behind his knee (PI. xxi., fig. 2), which is 

■very acutely bent, along the shin into the grasp 
of his first and second toes (fig. 46). 
■ (d) To free the hand holding the proximal 
(knotted) extremity (PI. xxi., fig. 3). Having 
completed the previous movement he passes his 
now free hand under the cane and reaches 
gradually along until he seizes the knotted 
extremity ; as soon as he has a firm grip, the 
original one can be released. 

(e) To manoeuvre an outstanding branch at a considerable 
height is only what a few expert climbers can do. It is mastered 
thus : — The hunter will carry up with him, by means of a loop 
around his fore-head or neck (tig. 47) a sort of " guide-rope," i.e., 
another length of much lighter cane (but about twice as long 
as the height of the outstanding branch from the ground) and 
advance as high up as the limb .in question will admit. He 
then frees one hand, and i;asses the " guide-rope " over the 
branch to his friends below (fig. 48) ; as soon as it reaches them. 




Fis;. 4G. 




L>1 



vh 





Fig. 47. Fig. 4S. Fig. 49. 

he lets go of it. His mates underneath now attach a much 
heavier cane to this guide-rope, and pull it up again (fig. 49). As 
soon as this latter one readies him from over the branch, he 




72 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

detaches it (the guide thus falling to the ground), makes a slip- 
noose (fig. 50) in it with his fiee hand and 
teeth, and tightens it with a pull (fig. 51). 
He next lakes a rest for a few minutes, 
comes down the tree, and when refreshed,^ 
reclimbs the hanging cane hand-over-hand 
fashion with the lielp of his toes ; he is thus 
enaliled to climb on to and over the branch, 
and then start afresh, if necessary, up the 
contiimation of the trunk. 

This method of climbing a tiee with a 
Fig. ."-jo. Fijr. 51. |)iepKred cane I have seen used along the 

coast-line from Cape Grafton in the north to as far south as 
Miriam Vale, i.e., below Gladstone in the south. I have never 
come across anything like it however in the North-Western 
Districts. 

9. On the Bloomfield Kiver and in the Peninsula, there are 
modifications of it as follow.s. Thus, in the former district, when 
the tree is of comparatively laige size and somewhat l)eut, the 
black will take some handfuls of a species of " flag-grass," so 
common liere, put tips to roots, make a few twists, and thus 
form a short rope — he puts this roiind the butt, catches hold of 
each extremity, and climbs upon the upper side with successive 
upward jerks of the arms which are kept in, and the elbows well 
back*. Any such method is nevertheless ap|)arentl\- unknown 
to the Cape Bedford Nati^ es. In the Peninsula, cy., at the Coen 
River and on the Peunefather River trees ma}- be climbed with 
a bark strip of the " mess-mate " (Eucalyptus tetradonta), 
" match-box bean " (Entada scandens), etc., held at either ex- 
tremity without any knot in it, and pressing on the tree-butt 
with the elbow-tips (PI. xxii., fig. 1), and so jerking a wav up ; 
in the neighbourhood of Mapoon, this procedure is only resoited 
to in extreme cases, most of the timber being small enough to 
climb with hands and feet. 

10. Tree-climbing by cutting steps alternately right and left 
is fairly common, met with even out on the Wellesley Islands. 
It has apparently been introduced on the Tully River of late 
years^ altliough practised at Cardwell only about thirty miles 
distant ; the Tully Natives speak of it as chinda-balgin, chinda 
signifying any mark or cut, and l)algin the jumping motion of a 
wababy (PI. xxii., tig. 2). Though 1 have used the word " steps" 

* From Mr. R. Hislop. 

« On the Mutlioritv of Mr. K. Hrooke. 



NORTH VUEKNSLANI) K'lHNOCKAHUY — KOTII. 75 

these are but kiiicks, cut usually with one lioiizoutal and one 
verticHl blow by means of a metal touiahawk, just deep enoui^li 
to atFord adequate support for the Ing toe ; where, as on Mor- 
niniiton Island, a celt of some sort has been used, the knicks 
must evidently have been hacked with many a blow. Though I 
have seen this method used on the Pennefather River it is some- 
what rare there, but of course, as in all cases of tree-clinibinji;, it 
is onl}' when the l)utt does not lend itself to the body obtaining 
a firm foot-hold, that the tomahawk, the cane-climVjer, and the 
forked sapling are brought into requisition. 

11. Mictiirition a^ul Dejecation. — From observations made at 
Capes Grafton and Bedford, on the Bloomfield and Lower Tully 
Rivers, at the McDonnell and Moreton Overland Telegraph 
Stations, and in the North-AVestein Districts, as to the position 
assumed by the sexes in micturition, I find that it is customary 
for the male to squat, except on the Bloomfield River, at the 
McDonnell and Moreton Stations, and for the female to stand 
with legs apart except at Cape Bedford and in the North West. 
On the Bloomfield Hiver, the women may occasionally relieve 
the bladder in the squatting position. The ]»rivates are never 
handled. In the neighbourhood of Glenormiston'"', outside the 
hut there has often been noticed a small mound of earth the top 
of which is scooped out and subsequently beaten down, with the 
resulting appearance of a volcano in miniature; this receptacle, 
which is capable of holding quite a quart of fluid, is intended for 
the women to micturate into. All over the State it is a common 
practice to wash the hands by urinating over them. A Tully 
River native to keep himself warm on a cold night, will often 
urinate over his own legs purposely. 

In the Tully River District it is an invariable custom among 
both sexes, during defecation, to squat with legs apart on a 
broken bough, stick, or fallen log, always off the ground, on to 
which they let the droppings fall ; both here and on the Bloom- 
field River a child's excrement is put away in the fork of a tree'^* 
Stones, sticks, grass, sand, anj'thing handy in fact, sometimes 
nothing at all, is used to cleanse the person with after defecation. 
On the Pennefather River, in the North West, and elsewhere, 
but certaiidy not everywhere, a few liandfuls of earth are 
scratched up, and in the excavation so formed, the emunctories 
after being discharged are covered over with soil. 



•' According to Mr. J. Coghlau, the late manager there, who is not bure 
whether tiiis mound is used by the men. Possibly, the receptacle is em- 
ployed with a view to the preservation of the urine, etc., for subsequent 
use— see Roth — Bull. 5 — Sect. 158. 

"' Roth— Bull. 5— Sect. 80. 



74 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

12. Menstruation^. — In the Boulia and Cloncurry Districts, a 
woman during the menstrual period (PPT. kimba-maro=blood- 
possessor) keeps strictly to herself out of camp, and will not 
even walk along the same tracks as the men. On the Tully 
River she ties a bark blanket round her waist but takes no 
measures to prevent the dischax'ge soiling her thighs ; anything 
however that is soiled with whafe comes away from her is planted 
up in the fork of a tree'^. She occupies the hut which the 
husband now vacates for another, though as often as not he will 
now camp in the open, on the further side of the tire. The 
males here are said to be frightened at touching women in this 
condition not only on account of the smell but also for fear of 
some of the discharge getting on to their persons. On the 
Bloomtield River she lives in camp under the same roof as her 
husband, but both here and in other localities where it is not 
customary for her to betake hex'self away, a fire .separates 
husband and wife. On the Pennefather River, though remain- 
ing in camp, both she and lier male partner take every precaution 
that he neither touches nor steps over anything that passes from 
her. Everywhere a woman in this condition is unclean and 
tabu, and may be even more carefully avoided than the mother- 
in-law ; she generally cooks for herself at a separate tii'e whether 
living in the camp or out of it. 

13. Pregnancy and Labour. — During the latter nionths of 
pregnancy, a North-West District woman will often rub over her 
breasts and body .some warm powdered ashes with the idea of 
making the child healthy and strong. All through the period, 
no restrictions are imposed upon her, but in other districts, her 
eating certain dietaries will produce various deformities in the 
child^*^. In the neighbourhood of Cspe Bedford the vomiting 
of pregnancy is certainly known. When the confinement is 
about to take place, the expectant mother invariably betakes 
herself to a secluded spot at some distance from the camp, and is 
attended on by her mother or mother's sister (Princess Charlotte 
Bay, Musgrove and Morehead Rivers), by her mother-in-law 
(Pennefather River), by an old woman friend, sometimes by no 
one at all. Alone, in one district (the Upper Georgina), the 
husband though not in attendance, may be present at the confine- 
ment ; very old men are similarly privileged in the Leichhardt- 
Selwyn area, but never young men or boy.s. 

" Roth— Bull. 5— Sects. 89, 00. 

"Compare the disposal of a child's excrement (Roth — Bull. 5 — Sect. 
80.) 

1" Rotli— Bull. 5— Sect. 95. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — ROTH. 75 

15. The position assumed ilurino; labotir is far from constant. 
In the hinterland of Princess Charlotte Bay, the woman will 
either lie on her back with her head raised, or more generally, 
bend forwards and support herself on her hands and knees ; only 
if very strong will she take up a sitting position, squatting more 
or less on her heels. A Bloomtield Kiver Native will assume a 
kneeling position, her hands and arms supported on a friend's 
shoulders sitting in front. On the TuUy and on the Pennefather 
Rivers, areas extremely remote, confinement takes place in the 
squatting position, with thighs well apart, the body resting on 
the extended arms behind ; in the former district, the sutf'erer 
may be assisted by a woman-friend either bending over her from 
behind and pressing, with her hands at the sides, downwards, 
forwards, and inwards, or at the front with her arms around the 
patient's loins pressing them towards herself. In the case of the 
Pennefather woman, she will stay away from cam[) with her 
mother-in-law, for three or four weeks. Among the Yaro-inga 
of the Upper Georgina River, the woman lies on the ground 
upon her back, with open thighs and drawn-up knees, while the 
old gin appointed to attend holds her down by the neck and 
head to prevent her raising herself. The husband, if he be so 
minded, can take up a position on his wife's left and front 
whence, a few paces ofl", he can witness the whole of the pro- 
ceedings. Amongst the Kalkadun (at Quamby) the patient does 
not return until about eight or ten days after baby is born. A 
very old man or two may be present during delivery. Having 
made a fairly shallow excavation in the sandy soil, she sits over 
this on her shins and knees, with the thighs well apart ; as 
labour progresses, she either throws her body strongly back- 
wards, as on the Tully and Pennefather Rivers, or forwards so 
as to rest her hands on the ground, or, if conveniently situated, 
may grasp some overhanging branch of a tree. In the intervals 
between the pains a thick cord may be tied pretty firmly round 
her waist to assist in " pushing the child out," while another old 
woman will take up mouthfuls of water from a vessel and spit 
them over the distended aI>domen, upon which a sort of massage 
may also be performed. The genital passages are never touched 
by anyone, and the baby, without any guidance, is allowed to 
fall into the shallow depression below, 

14. The navel-string, before the mother shifts her position, is 
next held, close to its attachment to the child, between the flats 
of both hands of one of the old gins, and briskly rolled back- 
wards and forwards until a very marked twist is visible, when it 
is cut to a length of about five or .six inches. Similarly the 
after-birth is allowed to fall into the cavity where it is either 



76 . RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

buried, or more generally destroyed by tire. In other districts, 
the cord is both tied and cut — tied with Opossum-twine (in the 
North-West), cane-stiip (Lower Tully River), and hacked 
asunder with stone or sliell. Its ultimate fate is either to he 
buried with the after-birth (Tully Eiver), to be destroyed by fire 
(Bloomfield River), to decorate the infant, to be presented to 
certain relatives, or to tabu certain articles in the neighbourhood 
of which it may be placed. Aroimd Princess Charlotte Bay the 
only area where 1 (ind it customaiy to tie the cord (KKA. 
bo-ra) in two places, it is forcibly pulled away from the after- 
birth (KRA. nai-vina) and fixed around the infant's waist. On 
the Bloomiield River it is similarly dragged off so as to ol>tain 
the gieatest continuous length possiWe, and left for quite twelve 
dajs or a fortnight hanging lound the baby's neck, or coiled 
around its neck and arm-pit ; if at the end of this time it has not 
rotted away from off the infant, it is removed and burnt close 
by. At Cape Bedford, the cord^'- is tied up in a coil and hung 
on a string round the child's neck, where it is worn for some 
time, it being finally presentetl to the father's father if a boy, 
to the mother's father, if a girl ; should either of these old men 
place it upon a heap of yams, etc., this would be rendered tabu 
from everybody else except the other grandfathers. In the 
Upper Georgina area, the navel-string is wound into a ball or 
roll and forwarded by messenger, at the instance of the father, 
to his relatives and friends in the neighbouring camps whence 
presents will now come pouring in. At Cape Grafton the navel- 
string may be sent round with similar objects in view by tying 
pieces of it in a waist-circlet. On the l*ennefather River the 
placenta, which is buried at birth, is credited with being con- 
nected with the vital principle^-. Here, when the portion of 
cord finally falls off baby, it is covered with beeswax, wra))ped 
around with bark, and carried in the mother's dilly-bag ; she 
does not bury it until such time as the little one begins to toddle, 
because were she to make away with it previously, the inf«nt 
would surely die, 

Confinemetits are easily got over ; I remember in particular 
the case of a woman who walking from Cooktown to Cape Bed- 
ford, a distance of twenty-five miles, was confined the same day, 
and then started the following morning for Cape Flattery*^. 

^^ The local name for the placenta is bonor, i.e, a aliig. 

'2 Foth-Bull. r> Sect. 08. 

'•'• Amongst the Brisbane natives, immediately the placenta had come 
away, the mother would go into the water, provided the confinement took 
place in the day-time ; if at night, she would wait until the following 
mornint; (T. Petrie). 



NORTH <iUBKiNSLAND KTHNOCJKAPIIY — ROTJI. 77 

15. Noted on ^6«c»/-ma/tV-tes-. -Baliluess in old people i.s the 
exception; out of four Imndred aiid ten -natives met with in 
the neighbourhood of Princess Charh)tte Bay, only two old men 
were thus characterised (Jurliness of hair is particularly marked 
amongst the Tidly River Scrub-Blacks as compared with the 
coastal ones who have it more waved. A more or less wavy 
condition is prevalent throughout the North Western Districts. 
The only case of erythrism known to nie on the Blootntield River 
was that of a little boy ; indeed, only three other instances, and 
these amongst the TuUy Natives, were come across during all my 
travels in Northern Queensland. They were Narro, a lad about 
eight or nine years, in the local camp on Brooke's Selection, 
Kachula now (Aug. 1900) on the Johnstone River, as well as 
his two full-blooded children, a boy and a giil. Red-hair is 
looked upon by these Mallanpara Blacks as a disgrace, and 
ridiculed when noticed in Europeans ; the local belief is tliat a 
person so adorned has a hot temper. In the far North Western 
Districts, I have noticed a fine growth of hair, over the entire 
body, including the buttocks, especially amongst the women. A 
peculiarity of want of pigmentation in the hands and feet (Pl.xxiii., 
fig. I) has been seen in two cases from Princess Charlotte Bay. 
One example of simple hare-lip, was observed in a male on the 
Embley River, and one single example of goitre (? malignant) in 
a Kalkadun woman at Cloncurry(Pl. xxiii.,fig. 2). Left-handedness 
is fairly common. In one case at Cape Bedford, where not existent 
in the parents, the four soris are all left handed. Congenital club- 
foot is not rare ; amongst four hundred and ten natives around 
Princess Charlotte Bay, there were three cases noticed ; one of 
these was of the left, another of the right, and one of both feet. 
An allied deformity was seen in two old men in the neighbour- 
hood of Barrow Point, and in Palmer the old chief of the Wakka 
people at Gladstone. Ln all three cases the soles could rest 
perfectly fiat as on the gun-case in PI. xxiv.,fig. 1, the malformation 
evidently residing only in the metatarsus and phalanges. The 
two old Barrow Point folk were brothers, the younger being 
deformed only in the left foot, similarly to what both parents are 
stated to have been. A kind of hammer-toe is very prevalent, 
more in the females than males, around Cape Grafton and the 
Mulgrave Kiver District generally. At Cape Grafton the fourth 
toes of both feet are affected (PI. xxiv., tin. 2), on theTuUy River 
the third (PI. xxiv., fig. 3) and fourth (PI. xxiv., tig. 4), in both 
areas the peculiarity appearing to run in families. The names of 
the individuals underlined in the following genealogical trees, 
indicate those who bear (1902) the deformity : — 



78 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Cape Grafton (a) 



Billy Church his wife 



I ! I I 

Nora Maggie 1st Maggie 2nd Alec Bibby 

I n ' 

5 children Albert 



b) 



Edie's Husband Edie 



I I I 

Nelly Rosie Tommy 



I I 

Namo Eosie Toby 

(c) Katie ; not iu her parents. She'^ has no brothers or 
sisters. 



Mulgrave River 



(^1) 



Father Mother 

~V^ I 

I 



Four-mile Cairns (e) 



I I I 

boy Lucy Stella 

Father Mother 



I I I 

Martha Topsy Maudie 



,, (f) David ; but only on one foot ; neither in brothers, 

sisters, nor parents.^ 

Saltwater Creek (g) Annie Bergmann ; both feet, but neither in brothers, 
(Cairns) i sisters, nor parents 



Bulletin No. 18. 
SOCIAL AND INDIVIDUAL NOMENCLATURE. 

(Plates xxv.-xxxi.) 

PONTENTS. 

Sect. 1. Recognition of General Features of the Country ... 79 

2. Specialisation of People according to lands occupied ... 81 

3. Collection of Groups of People into Tribes ... ... 82 

4r. Certain Ethnographical Districts -that of Boulia — ... 83 
5-J2. ,, RockhamptonandCentral Coast 84-91 

12-13. ,, Cairns and Atherton ... ... 91 

14. ,, Bloomfield River ... ... ... 92 

15. ,, Conktown, etc 93 

16. ,, Princess Charlotte Bay ... ... 94 

17. „ Middle Palmer River 95 

18. ,, Peuuefather River 96 

19. Internal Divisions of the Groups ... ... ... ... 97 

(a) depending upon rank ... ... ... ... ... 97 

20. (b) depending upon " family " relationship ... ... 99 

21. (i) exogamous or totemic? .. .. ... ...101 

22. (ii) or connected with food-supply ? ... ...103 

23. Secondary Divisions of the Groups ... ... ..104 

24. Classification of Inanimate and Animate Nature ...106 

1. The many variations in the pliysical characteristics and 
general contour of the country are not only recognised but 
expressed, amongst the generic terms thus met with being those 
indicative of island, .sea, beach, mainland, river, swamp, forest, 
desert plain, preci[)ice, mountain, etc\ Each tract of country 
is specialised by the people traversing, occupying, or hunting 
over it, and hence, as often happens, may lie called by different 
names. Barrow Point, for instance, is known to the local blacks 
as E-polin, to the Starcke Rivei- ones as Mo-yir, and to the 
natives of the Normanby and Deighton Rivers as Par-cham- 
moka. On the other hand, there are certain large tracts to 
which a single name is applied, but in tlie.se cases any reference 
to them is made l>y Aboriginals speaking a similar language. 
The meaning of the actual words so applied to such an area is in 
many cases Ic^t, whilst in others it is signihcatory of some local 
peculiarity. Amongst the former may be mentioned an inter- 
esting example from a camping ground in the neighbourhood of 
Cape Flattery known as Yaborego, from which a present-day 

1 Roth— Bull. 2— Sect. 10. 



80 HKCOHD.S OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEyM. 

family name ar, (Jrt|>e BeJford is derived, apparently identical 
with that of Yaparico given in Captain Cook's narrative^ as 
that of an individual with whom the " Endeavour " crew came 
into personal contact. Amongst the latter, we have siniiles 
drawn from shape, soil, vegetable or animal life'^ Tamal-nobun 
(^=foot-one) is applied to a mountain in the neighbourhood of 
Cape Bedford which rises sheer vertically frou) the surrounding 
plain. Katu (=end, extremity) is Stanage Point., Broadsound, 
wliilst WoUo-in (= iguana's tail) is one of the western spurs in 
the neighbouring Normanby Range. Dogai' ( =sand) expresses 
the country at the base of Mount Saunders, Endeavour River, 
between it and the sea,\and Wargain (=clean sand) the stretch 
of coast-line between Port Clinton and Shoalwater Bay. Bipu 
(=:any large creek) is the area soutli of the Fitzroy River be- 
tween Yaamba and Craiguauglit. VVarra (=wild guava), 
Butcha (=honey-suckle), Bitchal (=small grub) and Riste 
(=sand-fly) denote respectively Gracemere, Bayfield, Yaamba, 
and Raspberry Creek country, and are all indicative of the local 
phenomena prominently met with ( W. H. Hoivers). The limits 
of the different ti-acts of country are of course invariably 
natural:— a mountain range, desert, plain, forest, scrub, coast- 
line, or river. Rivers are named after the tracts of country 
through which they run, any large-sized stream thus bearing 
dozens of names in its course. The Munbarra Gold-Field was so 
named after the word Munbar, the mountain range east of the 
Starcke River, the country on either side of the stream here 
being Dun-jo, the river itself being accordingly called Piri-dunjo. 
So again, the Mclvnr River, at its mouth, is Piri-kulal, at 
Wallace's Selection Piri-bindi, and at its junction with Cocoa 
Creek Piri-wundal. The same holds good at Princess Chorlotte 
Bay, vvhere the Koko-warra term for a river is tai-ir, whence a 
poi'tion of the Lower Normanby liiver at the crossing is known 
as Tai-ir-karwin. In some cases, owing to the close proximity of 
two streams, identical terms are applied ; thus the Koko-warra- 
speaking people call both Marrett River and Birthday Creek 
Tai-ir-arii-o. A similar practice of naming rivers is found on 
tlie Gulf-coast, between the Nassau and Staaten Rivers, and in 
the far western areas. At every chief encampment, nay, at 
every recognised camping-ground, there is a name for every 
landmark, or whatever else can possibly be used as such in the 
vicinity; each sandliill, water-hole, river-bend, stony ridge, 
gully, pathway, bigger or peculiarly shaped tree, indeed any- 



- Hawkesworth's Edition, London, 1773. 

^ Mi . '1\ Petrie gives several examples in his native place-names. 



NORTH (iUKENSr-AND KTHNOGRAPHY — ROTH. 81 

thin<; and everytliin<; out of tlie ordinary has a special name 
applied to it. At Koxhuigli Downs I have seen a fairly sized 
water-hole, the different edges, etc., of which were described 
under at least seven different names. Upon the occasion of my 
once asking a native why every little nook and cranny in the 
neighbourhood of his camp had a special name, he turned the 
tables on me by enquiring why all the streets of a township were 
differently termed : — "Street along town all same bush along my 
country!" in the far western districts, and other areas com- 
paratively subject to drought, tlie importance of water both in 
the neighbourhood of camp and along the different lines of travel 
will explain in some measure how it happens that, except in the 
case of some otherwise strongly-marked physical peculiarity, e.g., 
a mountain, most of the geographical location is indicated by 
words denoting creeks, rivers, water-holes, lakes or springs. 
And it thus comes to pass that many a name of a head station, 
township, etc., of the white settlers which has been built on a 
site selected for exactly similar reasons, has its aboriginal 
equivalent in the name of its adjacent water-hole, etc*. 

2. Any group of natives living more or less permanently to- 
gether may be specialised according to the tract of country 
where they have first claim on the native foods ; in other words, 
they may be, and are, spoken of according to the place-name of 
their main encampment, their " home " so to speak. Thus we 
have — 

At Cooktown, the Kai-ar-ara, i.e., natives occupying the 
countrj' round Kai-ar (Mt. Cook). 

On the Bloomfield River, Yalmba-ara, i.e., natives occupying 
the country round Yalmba (between Wyalla Station and 
sea-coast). 

At Bowen Bay, Arwwr-angkana, i.e., natives occupying the 
country round Arwur (Bowen Bay). 

At Cape Melville, Yalnga-bara, Yalnga (C. Melville). 

On the Norman by River, Karwin-inna, i.e., natives occupying 
the countiy round Karwin (Lower Normanby). 

At Duyphen Point, Taini-kudi, Taini (mangroves). 

On the Batavia River, Denya-kudi, Denya (bush-country). 

In Broadsound District, Riste-burra, i.e., natives occupying 
the country round Riste, (country around Raspberry 
Creek). 

This " home," after which the group of natives occupying it 
happens to be called may or may not be the birth-place of the 

* Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897— Sect. 226. 
6 



82 RECORDS OP THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

occupants, for, according to the district, a child lias claims on 
its father's or on its mother's (Bloomtield) country, and sonie- 
timtts on neither (Pennefather River) ^. In many cases, as in the 
far Wpstern Districcs, owing to forced migrations on account of 
scarcity of water, advancing European settlement and other 
causes, the place-name of the home has been i)reserved, but its 
exact geographical identification lost*', while on the Wellesley 
Islands, and here and there in the Peninsula, natives are to be 
found amongst whom no necessity has apparently arisen for 
having a collective or specialised name at all. 

3. As a general rule, however, within certain limits, each 
group has more or less friendly, commercial, or other interests 
with some one or other of its neighbours ; its meml)ers, though 
speaking different dialects may render themselves pretty 
mutually intelligible and possess in common various trade-routes, 
markets, hunting-grounds, customs, manners and beliefs with 
the result that they might as a whole be well described as mess- 
mates, the one group sometimes speaking of another by a term 
corresponding with that of friend. There may, or may not (e.g., 
Boulia District) be one single term applied to such a collection 
of friendly groups, i.e , a tribe occupying a district, the meaning 
of the collective name being either unknown (eg., Kalkadun, 
Workai-a), or bearing reference to the physical conformation of 
the country, or else depending apparently upon the nature of 
the language spoken. So far as physical conformation is con- 
cerned, the collective name indicates groups of people occu))ying 
forest {e.g., Martchi-tchi of the Bloomtield River), scrub or bush 
country {e.g., Barti-tchi of the Bloomfield River), low-lymg 
plains {e.g., Ku-inmur-burra of Broadsound District), mountains, 
coast-line, etc. As far as I have been able to judge, it is these 
variations of site which have a great deal to do, nay, which I 
might also say, have given rise to distinctive ethnographical 
differences ; generally speaking, there is always er.mity between 
occupants of the coast-line and inland tribes, between the inhabi- 
tants of the plains and the mountain people. The collective name 
dependent upon the language or dialect spoken by the separate 
gi'oups may bear reference to peculiarities or differences of 
speech. In the following examples for instance on the North- 
east Coastline and its hinterland, this is very striking. Koko- 
yimi-dir, and Koko-yerla (n;^-tchi which has become corrupted 
into Koko-yellanji, are two words, each in their own dialect, 



B Roth —Bull. 5— Sect. 68. 

« As in certain of the groups in the Houlia District. 

' The n is euphonic. 



NORTH gUEKNSLAND ETHNOGRAPHY — ROTH. 83 

indicating " speech-similar-with," applied to and by the natives 
around the Endeavour River, and over Butcher's Hill country 
respectively. Koko baldja signifies " speech-abrupt," descriptive 
of the blacks of the mouth of the Bloonifiekl River, the Mission 
Reserve, and Conneuiara Selection. Koko-piddaji or "speech- 
poor devil ! ", a term employed in the sense of pity and 
compassion, in reference to the Aljoriginals who speak it being 
in their time the weakest and most imposed upon ; they used to 
occupy King's Plain country, the Tableland, and Mount Amos, 
but are almost extinct now. The Ko-ko-minni or "speech-good 
people" have their home around the Middle Palmei' River. The 
Koko-warra, i.e., " speech-bad, crooked," etc., in the .sense of not 
being intelligible to others, and so " foreign " i"* applied by them- 
selves as well as by their more southern neighbours to various 
mutually-friendly groups of natives wandering over the hinter- 
land south ai.d east of Princess Charlotte Bay, speaking within 
certain limits similar dialects and practising similar usages and 
customs ; 1 say certain limits advisedly because although foi- 
instance the Kennedy River boys speak very difterently from 
those on the Jack River, they are yet mutually intelligible. It 
is indeed curious to find a few hundreds of these people 
collectivel}'^ .speaking of themselves and their mes.s-mates as 
Koko-warra without apparently having any idea as to the 
meaning of the term. Anothei' example is Koko-nego-di, or 
" speech-there-with," a term applied by the Cape Bedfoi d Blacks 
to the people (and language) along the coast-line from Barrow 
Point to Cape Melville. On the other hand, in very many cases, 
tiie name of the language has nothing whatever to do with the 
people speaking it. Indeed, it may be absent altogether, there 
being no occasion for its use, it may have a now unknown 
meaning, it may be compounded from the first person pronoun 
(e.g., the tennn-ngada and marma-n^a^i dialects of the Mission 
River, Albatross Bay), and it may be indicated by its place of 
origin — thus, Yuro-Kappa, Kia-Kappa, and Yilbar-Kappa denote 
the Bowen,' Proserpine, and Charters Towers languages 
respectively, while Koko-rarmul, and Koko-lama-lamadescril)es 
what is spoken on portions of the Moreliead River and Princess 
Charlotte Bay. Similarly in the Cairns District, the Kungganji, 
Yirkanji, and Yidinji speak kunggai, yirkai, and yidi 
respectively. 

4. In the following notes dealing with Ethnographical 
Districts I propose leferring only to those few where, during the 
past thirteen years I have lived, with the natives on terms of 
fairly personal intimacy, and then but to' place on record the 



84 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

more iinportant of the separate groups'* comprising them, the 
trade routes followed, and some of ti»e more important place- 
names The Boulia and neighbouring districts have aheady been 
threshed out in a previous work, while the more important of 
the remaining details of the other areas have been discussed 
according to their subject matter in my different Bulletins. 

5. The Rockhanipton and Central Coast-District. ]\Iy tirst 
introduction to the Rockhanipton Aboriginals was through 
" Yorkie," whom 1 met early in June 1897'' at Holly Hill where 
he was taking a contract for clearing timber. He is an aged 
adult and ex-tracker, and while in the Police Department 
visited Normanton, Cloncurry, the Upper Leichhardt River, 
etc., and hence was able to identify the social class-systems of 
his own group or tribe, the Tarumbal, with those discoverable 
in the North- Western areas of the State. Like all the rem; 
nauts of his people, his own wife being a rare exception, he is 
addicted to the opium-habit. He speaks English veiy well and 
is locally known as a curiosity in that he often comes in among 
the settlers to borrow a sixpence, and invariably re|)ays it ! 
Yorkie travels now between Rockhanipton and Gladstone, 
occasionally going a bit further south towards Miriam Vale. 
His family, which accompanies him, consists of a wife (Tujomi), 
a son (Mari), a pure-blood son-in-law and daughter with pure- 
blood grandson about fifteen months old, and a half-caste 
daughter about nineteen years of age; his own individual name 
is Tu-wal-wal. 

Of the original Rockhanipton tribe, the Tarumbal, not many 
remain now. At the North Rockhampton Camp, the one near 
the ponnd-yaid, there were about seven or eight adults, of whom 
three were females, and two or three children. At the other, 
on the Yaamba Road where Moore's Creek crosses it, I found 
four males, two females, all aged and a yQung boy. At South 
Rockhampton in the Depot Hill Camp, I came across over a 

^ These groups, etc., have been referred to throughout the various 
Bulletins by their initial letters bracketed. 

•' The notes on this district wore originally written in July, 1898, I 
having been in continuous correspondenceduring the twelve months' interval 
witli many of the "old hands'' who supplied me with much important 
information wliich, at the actual time of my journey, I was unable to 
obtain. Among such gentlemen, two at least of whom are deceased, I 
gratefully mention the names of Mr. W. H. Flowers, of Medway, Bogan- 
tungan (who was on Torilla and Pine Mountain Stations from 1867-01) ; 
Mr. W. T. Wyndham, of Boyne Island (the first European occupant of 
Keppcl Island in 1884); Mr. C. K. Roe, of Miriam Vale (tldrty years' 
resjdt-nt in the district) ; and Mr. A. Cowie (upwards of twenty years in 
Rockhampton). 



NORTH VUKENSLANI) KrilNOliHArU Y— KOTH. 85 

dozen younger adults of both sexes ; these latter occupy Llieir 
time in collecting ferns, manufacturing " weapons " for the local 
European market, and selling their women to their white, 
Chinese, or Kanaka camp-visitors. Among them was a surly 
looking woman, a Maikulan from the Upper Leichhardt River 
who had lieen brought down here by the police, as a tracker's 
wife, but as usual never sent home again. The pre.sent-day real 
old medicine-man of this Tarumbal Tribe is one "Buckley" 
who, with a couple of younger women, resides perniatiently at 
Balnagowan Station ; he has the reputation of knowing every- 
thing, all the legends about animals and birds, about death and 
ghosts, etc., but unfortunately he is too old and decrepid to 
render himself sufficiently intelligible. I met with some settled 
remnants of this same trilie again at Mount Morgan, whereas at 
Emu Pai'k which comprises country certainly belonging to them. 
I saw none at all, though I was informed that "Old Pluto," a 
locally-born black is occasionally to be found there. The head- 
centre or " home " camp of the various groups comprising the 
Tarumbal tribe used to be in the neighbourhood of the site now 
Occupied by Paterson's slanghtei-yard, about one and a quarter 
miles from Rockhampton in the eastern angle of the triangle 
formed by the main road, Alligator Creek, and the main drain, 
this block of country being known as Raudol. Large numbers 
of them have been buried between the yard and the creek and 
up along it, on the township side, whence, in times gone by, 
their bones were subsequently removed to hollow trees. In 
close proximity to this camp used to be their permanent initi- 
ation ceremony (Bora) ground, called Kang-kal. They occupied 
country on both sides of the Fitzroy River which they crossed 
in canoes. On the northern side of the river they travelled to 
Broadmoant, Balnagowan, and to Emu Park where they would 
exchange courtesies with the blacks from the northern-coast-line 
and islands, as well as with those from Yaamba, Mt. Hedlow, 
etc. South of the river, they would go, for fighting purposes 
only, along the present Rockh.tmpton-Gladstone road as far as 
the site of the present " 12-Mile Stock-yard," i.e., the water- 
lioles about two and a half miles north of Raglan Post and 
Telegraph Office. Starting on this route fiom Rockhampton 
they passed Archer's Cattle-station at the 15-Mile, the 6-3Iile 
Creek (Ri-umba) close to Cross's Hotel at Bajcjol, the water-hole 
(Rular-viillam), the name of which " Yorkie " says gave the white 
settlers their present township name of Ulam) at the same 
hostelry, the 1-Mile Creek (Kindor) beyond tlie hotel, the stony 
ridges (Karaivi) three miles further on, the succeeding six or 
seven miles of dense scrub (Kiitalmal) until they reached the 



86 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

water-holes (Pd rul) close by the 12-Mile (from Kaglaii Head- 
station) Stockyard already referred to ; Mount Larconibe they 
saw in the distance. Raglan country was at one time occupied 
by Riiii-lmrra and Hurkavara (groups perhaps of the (Jrambal) 
all dead now ; togetlier with the blacks from Gladstone, from 
Miriam Vale, and even (the Vungkono) from Bundaberg they 
used to meet the Tanimbal in battle iiere at Parul. Mr. 
McDonald of Holly Hill tells nje that twenty years ago he has 
seen as many as a couple of hundred natives congregating here 
just for a fight. Occasionally, the i'arumbal would pay a visit 
to (jlracemere and Westwood, and in very eaily times weie known 
to have travelled up to Mount Morgan. 

6. Graceniere, in the olden days, formed tlie home of the 
Warra-burra Group (of the Tarumbal) ; their peregrinations 
included Calliungal, Mt. Morgan, Westwood, Rosewi.od, Rock- 
hampton, Kimi Park and Gladstone, than which they never 
travelled further south ; there are no blacks at the station now. 

At Mount Morgan, I visited the blacks' camp situate some 
two and a half miles from the township on the banks of the Dee 
River. There are a dozen adult natives here of whom eight are 
women, half of these aged, and several children, the former 
living ill fairly comfortable circumstances with their Chinese 
and Malay partners. They have their meals at fixed hours, jtass 
an existence far less debased than their sable brethren at Rock- 
hampton, and at the time of my visit had up the clothes' line on 
which the children's garments, nicely washed and mended, were 
drying. These blacks are of Rockhampton and Giacemeie 
parentage, the original local WoUea-burra, whose " walk-about " 
extended out towards the Prairie and Banana way, having all 
been exterminated. 

Rosewood was the home of another Tarumbal Gi'oup, the 
Karun-burra, whose peregrinations included Morinisii, Yaamba, 
Rockhampton, Westwood, and the Dawson River as far as 
Duariiiga. At the {)resent day, when visiting Rockhampton — 
there are still a few surs'iving — they camp on the south side in 
tiie scrub at the base of the Hospital Hill. 

Another of the Tarumbal groups, the Kaki-wurra, hav e their 
home at Yeppoon, where there are just about a score left. In 
the old days, they used to visit and be visited by the Keppel 
Islanders, and would also travel coast-wise to Woodlands, 
I'.yheld, Maryvale, up along the Peninsida and back again ; at 
the present time, they occasionally journey to Kmu Paik and to 
Rockhampton. fjong ago, Yeppoon used to be a meeting place of 
the roiilli, Bockhampton, Vaamba, and Mt. Hedlow natives. 



NORTH yUKKNSLANI) KTHNOGKAPHY — ROTH. 87 

In connection with the Mt. Hedlow ones it is of interest to 
note that tlie hast survivor, " Old Charlie " was buried 30th 
June 1?97, a few weeks before my visit, at a si)ot about twenty 
yards from Mr. Bosonnvorth's on the Greenlake road {i.e., the 
liranch-oflf from Wyatt's on the main Kockhampton-Yeppon 
road). 

7. At Yaamba (PI. XXV., fig. l)is a small camp consisting in the 
main of old and diseased individuals, of mixed origin, though the 
Bichalburra Group of the Warrabal Tribe constitute the local 
one : none of them however could speak or understand English 
sulhciently well to allow of my collecting a reliable vocabulary. 
On the Yaamba-Marlborough road in Smith's Paddock at tlie 
4-Mile Creek {i.f., four miles south of Priuchester) is a camp of 
three old males and one aged female, remnants of the Mu-in- 
burra Group of the Ku in-murr-burra Tribe. This tribe owned 
the coast-country comprising Torilla, Banksia, Tilpal, Raspberry 
Creek and Pine Mountain ; Torilla was the main camp or home 
whence the blacks would travel down the coa6t to Emu Park, 
and inland to Yaamba and Rockhampton. At Marlborough I 
met some Bauwi-wurra natives, some eighteen or twenty of 
whom are still living. Their chief camp is at Apis Creek, the 
other side of the range, their " walk-about " including Marl- 
borough, Stoodleigh, Princhester, Leura, Waverley, Willanji, 
Tooioombah, and Broadsound, i.e., 8t. Lawrence where thej* ex- 
change courtesies with the visiting Mackay Blacks, a fact which 
accounted for my coming across two Mackay-made boomerangs 
in the Marlborough camp. 

8. Turning attention now to the southern portions of this 
Rockhampton (Fl. xxvi) and Central Coast-District there are the 
Gladstone and Miriam Vale, as well as the Island Blacks to con- 
sider At Gladstone, I visited the native camp situate at Police 
Creek about three miles from town; it was stocked with fowls, cats, 
and ilogs. The several bark huts were pretty substantially built, 
giving shelter to twelve or fourteen occupants, mostly old men 
and WDmen. Some of these blacks work during the day either 
in the township at liouse-work, or on the shore at fishing, and 
together with various odd jobs, manage to get along fairly com- 
fortably ; everything however in the way of money is sacrificed 
for opium. They are of very mixed origin being representatives 
of Duppil (from Barney Point), Koreng-Koreng (Miriam Vale), 
Wakka ((jlads one, Calliope), Yungkono (Bundaberg) and other 
tribes. As a remiiant oi the Wakka, there was "Palmer " (who 
long ago was in the employ of .Mr. C. Hedley at Boyne Inland) 
a well-known Gladstone identity ; he is an old ex-tracker, very 



88 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

infirm mentally and physically with narcotics and senility, 
though managing to crawl into town and out again in spite of a 
deformity of both feet (double talipes equi no- varus). The head- 
camp of these Wakka, of whom only two or three are said to 
survive in the district, used to be on the present site of Glad- 
stone whence they would travel southwards as far as Bundaberg, 
and westwards to a distance which I was unable to locate. In 
former days the home of the Duppil — of whom only four now 
remain locally — was situate some three miles south of Gladstone 
at Barney Point, known as Dolowa, whence the name of the 
main Gladstone thoroughfare has evidently been applied. 

9. At Miriam Vale I came across the comparatively large 
permanent camp of the Koreng-Koreng with about tweuty-live 
to thirty adults, and the majority of them diunk. They travel 
northwards as far as Gladstone, .southwards to Bundaberg, and 
westwards out to Cania Station and the diggings. Mr. C. E. 
Roe has known them travel as far inland as the Bunya Ranges 
(Rosalie, etc.), but does not think they ever went very far north 
or south beyond the limits just .stated ; he has seen a camp with 
visitors — a total of six or seven hundred — congregated at Miriam 
Vale and stretching over a length of three miles, though they 
were perforce to keep shifting owing to the food-supply. 

10. Two excursions to the Keppel Islands gave very interest- 
ing results. On Big Keppel where the nineteen remnants of the 
islanders are now congregated, there are sixteen full-bood adults, 
two half-caste children, and a full-blood six-month old (October 
1898) female infant; among the adults only three are males, the 
overwhelming preponderance of women being easily explicable 
when the character of some of the previous European visitors to 
the island is borne in mind. On North Keppel is still to be 
seen the actual camping ground where at least seven males were 
shot down one night in cold blood, the father of one of the 
surviving women (who described to me the scene as it actually 
took place) being butchered while his little girl was clinging 
round his neck. Other males were deported and decoyed to the 
mainland, by false promises of food, etc. ; some of them (including 
Yulowa) succeeding in swinn»nng l)ack the distance of between 
six and seven miles whilst others were shark-eaten. Mr. Wynd- 
ham, the first white occupant of Big Keppel, in 1884, tells me 
that there were thf^n about fifty-four individuals there ; lie was 
just and kind to thein. The manner in which he first entered 
into communication with them is interesting : — in his own 
words — " At first when 1 was there the blacks used to keep 
away from me and the two mainland natives who accompanied 



NORTH QURENSLANl) KTHNOGKA I'll V — KOTH. 89 

me, till we managed to surprise aiul catcli eight or more of the 
tribe that inhabited the south end of tlie island. Mr. Ross was 
there at the tinje hnt he could not get them to communicate with 
him ; he offeied them tea and bread, but they only smelt it and 
would not taste. Then I told him 1 would try my hand, and J 
sat down opposite to tliem in the same way I had learned and 
seen years before on the Mclntyre River, and smoothed the 
ground next me with my hand, when " Old Yulowa " who was 
evidently the head-man, or doctor, of the tribe, got up and sat 
down by me at once. 1 then took some sugar and mixed it 
witli water, broke a little bread in it, and let him see me eat it, 
and he tasted it; he then called out to the other blacks that it 
was the hone}' of the Banksia (the blossoms of which they used 
to steep in water and drink), and they all ate. After this, 
whenever I saw them, they used to come up to me ... in 
time, they used to fetch Hsh." The name of Yulowa was given 
the boy by Wyndhani after that of a bay on the island facing 
Emu Park ; he is an old man novv, but ha-< a son, " Paddy," and 
the little female grandchild left him. Wyndham says that, in 
his day, Big Keppel was inhabited by two " tribes," the one on 
the south extremity speaking Tarundjal dialect, the other, on the 
north, a Broadsound one. A peculiarity amongst them is their 
rapidity of utterance, a fact of wliich 1 had been previously in- 
formed by the Rockhampton and Yeppoon natives, the latter on 
this account speaking of them as "crows." 

11. Thanks to the kindness of .Mr. W. H. Flowers who 
supplied me svith a copy of a map of the district which he drew 
up in 1881, it is possible to indicate approximately (PI. xxvi.) 
the boundaries of the main tribes, some half dozen or so, 
which in those days roamed the country. These main tribes 
were formed of various groups, of greater or less number, named 
as a rule after some physical peculiarity of that particular spot 
of country wliich the individual members regarded as their home. 
One or two of the main tribes have disappeared in their entirety, 
though several of the groups, as already mentioned, I was 
fortunate enough to meet with. In the following list Mr. 
Flowers has given me a translation of the ditt'erent group-names ; 
the suffix — burra denotes of, or belonging to. The reference 
numbers are marked on the Sketch-map in circles. 

I 1. Katu-bmra end, tinish 

2. wandu- ,, mountain 

Ku-in-n»urr-buna | S. wollo-in- ,, iguana tail 

Tribe -J 4. warm- ,, " damper " of zaniia nut 

[Ku-in-murr=a plain] I -5. mu-in- ,, ashes 

I 6. pankan- ,, gap in a range 

I 7. riste- ,, sand -fly 



90 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ningebal 
Tribe 



Tarumbal 
Tribe 



Wairabii! 
Tribe 

Tarraiiibarra 
Tribe 



f 8. war-gain- 
I 9. randii 
-{ 10. tarru- 

111. kuki- 

112. bu-cba- 

[ 13. warra- 
J 14. konku- 
j 15. baril- 
la 16. woppa- 

/ 17. karun- 
J 18. bi-chal- 
1 19. bi-pu- 

1,20. woUe-a- 

21 banbara- 



clean sand 
Townshend Island 
fig that is fly-blown 
green-headed ant 
Banksia tree 

wild guava 

sickness, retching 

flame caused by fat when cooking 

island 

flesh 

small grub 
big river 



The following are some of the 
names collected (hiring my itinei 
are embodied in the text : — 

Apis Creek 

Archer's f'attle Station at 

the 15-mile R'tou 
Balnagowan 
Banksia 
Broadaiount (tlie hill 

itself) 
Calliope 
Calliungal 
Cania 
CanooiiH 
Duaringa 
Emu Park 
Gladstone 
Gracemere 
Keppel Islands : — 

Big Keppel 

North Island 

Middle Island 

Myall Island 

Hum|>y Island 

Barren Island 

Corrobboree Mountain 

Outer Rock 

Man and Wife fsland 

10 lit=r()fk-two. 



open country 

Rockliampton District native 
ary, exclusive of those which 

kanya-nalyana 

wanno-wallim 

ruval-uval 

tirpara 

haltaran 

dirralli 

nu-rer 

ba 

wang-in 

tarwo-daninji 

wu-pal 

kardabai 

ba-dul 

woppa 

kan6mi 

hallabba 

mammalonbi 

burr-yi burr-yi 

animmi 

terrimal 

6-nan 

bangka-bulari' ** 



NOKTU ^>UEENSI,ANI) ETHNOOKA PIIY — KOTH. 91 

Leura yawalgiiriii 

Mailltorougli waiidowaiii^ain 

Miriam Vale ku-rung-i^an 

Moriiiisli inundu 

Mt. Hedlovv karvara 

Mt. LHicoinbe paryelli 

Mt. Morgan kunu-wauihalli 

Pine Mountain kun-yan 

Princhester nia-run 

Raspberry Creek narbuni 
Rockhanipton near Alii- kap-pai i 

gator Creek 

Rosewood nialkurii 

St. Lawience hanbara 

Tilpal ka-runii 

Toolooiiibali liun-bil 

rp -ji ( Station woUa 

\ neighbouring liill wandu-borru 

VV^averley kaniinupalkai-o 

West wood kappariii 

Willangi kur-garo 

xaamba < - . ^ 

I ynnar-ipo 

Yeppoon i-pun. 

12. Tlie Cairns and Atlierton District (PI. xxviii., tig. 1). The 
sketch-map of the neighbourhood of Cairns (Pi. xxvii.) sliews the 
distribution of the tliree main trii)esas tliey were in August; 1898, 
but what with the progress of the mission work at Vairabah on 
the further side of False Cape, and the increase of area under 
settlement on the Cairns side, the arrangement may not possibly 
hold good at the present day. The following are a few of the 
native place-nanes : — 

False Cape kai-ka Saltwater Creek baddaliadii 

Cape Grafton jilliburri Palmer Point mun-ju 

INlurray Prior Range jur-bo Pyiamid Mountain jaro-jaro-kan 

Fitzroy Island kar-par Cairns (site) ka-moi 

High Island wannaga Barrier Heef yur-pin. 

13. At Atlierton, the natives to l>e met with, as well as in the 
neighbourhood, belong to three groups or tril)es speaking difiFer- 
ent dialects — the Chirpal-ji, Ngai-kungo-i, and Ngachan-ji who 
speak chirpal, ngaiknngo, and ngachan respectively. The 
Chirpalji have tlieir main camp in the vicinity of Carrington at 
Sciubby Cieek (Ku-rongul), tra\elliiig to Atlierton (Kar-kar)and 



92 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

the Herl^erton Ranges (Uraiig-iindi), The Ngaikungo-i with 
their home at Atherton go on the " walk-about " to Watson- 
villn (Ilanbare) passing on the way the heads of the Walsh 
River, country which they speak of as Balkin. The remaining 
group have their main camp (in 1898) at Putt's Selection, two 
miles above the Cairns-crossing, on the Upper Barron River 
(Takkara-il country), whence they wander to the head of the 
Upper Russell River (Ku-par country). The Tinaroo Ranges 
are spoken of locally as Miin-gija. 

14. The Bloomtield River District^ '. Banna-billa (occasion- 
ally corrupteil by the local settlers into Banana Billy) is the 
countr}' at the mouth of the Bloomtield River, the native name 
designating the selection (Osmundsen's). The gioup here 
(Bannabillara) includes some three or four remnants from 
Bailey's Creek (Gangaji) about four miles south, and perhaps the 
same number from Tchul-gur, the present Toolgoor Selection of 
Cochrane's some little distance north of the Bloomtield River. 
These blacks are the best workers, the most civilised, the best 
turtle-fishers, and yet the weakest throughout the district, and 
consequently often made the scape-goats to account for the deaths 
of any of the more important members of the neighbouring tribes. 
From tlieir chief home at the mouth they travel along the ri\er 
as far as the heads (Banna-yirri, i.e , water-falls) ; southwards, 
they visit Bailey's Creek. In former times, they used to travel 
up the northern coast along Cedar Bay to Archer Point, a 
distance about midway l^etweeu the Bloomfield and the Endeavour 
Rivers ; but ncjwadays, they very rarely come nortli of their 
river home ; they speak Koko-baldja. Wyalla, locally known as 
Wai-alal is regarded as a head camp ; it. is the resting-place for 
natives from Ku-na (Mt. Finlayson, .'Finnegan), from Wii-lu- 
mu-pan (a tract north of Bauer's Uap), from Wol-pa (tiie big 
range lying westwards from Mt. Romeo), and from Yalmba (the 
district between Wyalla north-eastwards and the sea) ; they 
speak Koko-yerla-n-tchi here. The natives met witl) on the 
]\lission Reserve (Wudjal-wudjal) and at Connemara, i.e., Baird's 
Selection (Bori'u) come from country (Nu-ru) at the head of 
Granite Creek (the northern branch of the Bloomfield River), 
from the district (Mu) l)etween Gi-anite Creek and the Bloom- 
field River, from The Springs, i.e., Cook's Selection (Bul-pan) 
fiom west (.Mulujin) of Baird's Selection whence they travel to 
Mareeba (and so get into touch with the Cairns and Atherton 
District) and from country (Gan-gu) along tlie eastern branch of 

' ' Based upon my tirst journey undertaken here in March, 1898, and 
from information kindly put at my disposal by Mr. R. Hislop. of Wyalla. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND KTHNOGRAPflY — KOTU. 93 

the Daiutree River; clie\' all speak Koko-l>aldja like tiie Baiiiia- 
billara. Various reinnaiits of what are said to iiave once been 
large and powerful tribes now run between Rossville, Helen vale 
and ]\lt. Romeo; they comprise Ai)originals from Tandi (King's 
Lake country and heads of the Middle and East Normanby 
Rivers), from Cliokon (district comprising Mt. Komeo, the 
Tablelands, Slatey Creek, etc., and perhaps Mt. Amos), and 
Tau-al-tau-al (country west of King's Lake to the Noiniaiihy 
River). The Wulbur-ara blacks travel from the head of the 
Mossman River to Byerstowu and May town ; the head-camp of 
those on the Daintree River would appear to be at Fischer's 
Selection. I was able to account for two hundred and eigfity- 
seven natives in the whole of this Bloomtield River District. 

15. The Cooktown and surrounding district (PI. xxviii., fig. 2 ; 
PI. xxix., fig. 1). South of the Endeavour River the Koko-yimidir 
dialect is very corrupt, the natives belonging to this area comprising 
Mt. Cook, the lower portions of the Annan River, and the coast- 
country down to Archer Point speaking of it as Koko-imoji. The 
" homes " of these people are at Mount Cook (Kaiar), their actual 
camping ground at the base of the mountain being called Wain-bur, 
along the Annan River (Yu-iu country), and in the area (Bul-kon) 
round about Oakey Creek, a branch of the Annan. Tliey visit 
Cooktown, known to them all as Kankar, and often camp at the 
3-Mile (Worra-jagga). North of Cooktown, Cape Bedford is 
where the natives speak the Koko-yimidir language in its full 
purity^-. The Starcke River Natives travel to the Mclvor 
River, to Cape Bedford, and to Cooktown where they camp at 
the 2-Mile. Among their place-names (these blacks speak 
Koko-yimidir) on the McTvor are the following — Gorton's 
Selection, Parra ; Thygeson's Karm-bar ; Bramighaii's, N6-kal ; 
Webb's, Winbar-winbar. They speak of Barrow Point as 
Mo-yir ; Look-out Point, Tan-yil ; Cape Flattery, Yorro, and the 
countr}' through which the Morgan and Jeannie Rivers run as 
Walmbar and Yorl-bun respectively. More or less west of 
Cooktown is the Boggy Creek Reserve for Aboriginals, a stretch 
of country (Birbira) on Butchers Hill Station (Yung-kur). 
These Yung-kurara used in the old days to have a peregrination 
including the head of the Daintree River, the Bloomfield River, 
Mt. Windsor (Kalmbar), and .sometimes the Laura River and 
Maytown, at )>resent however (1899) there are some party feuds 
on, and the travelling is very limited. At Maytown (Wulbur- 

^2 Roth— Bull. 2— Sect. 1. 



94 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

jurbur) they visit the Wulbur-ara who wander between that 
township, Laura and Palmerville and speak Koko-miuni^^. They 
have apparently always been, and still are, at enmity with the 
Deighton Blacks who speak Koko-warra. 

16. In the Princess Charlotte Bay District (PI. x.xv., tig. 2 ; 
PI. xxix., figs. 2, 3), the main original camp or home of the 
Koko-warra, i.e., where most of their higher initiation ceremonies 
usually take place is in close vicinity to Balser's Knob. They 
follow the Normanby and Deighton Rivers as far as the 
Laura Settlement, they travel up Station and Sandy Creeks 
to the Morehead River, and westward.s they wander over 
Jeannette's Tableland. In the course of their travels south- 
wards, these- Koko-warra come into communication with the 
Koko-minni from the Middle Palmer River. The Koko- 
lamalama have their main camp in the vicinity of the mouth of 
the Bizant River and Jeannette's Tableland • primarily, they 
are llms coa.stal blacks, though of late years they have com- 
menced to wander along the tracks of, but not quite to such 
lengths as, their southern Koko-warra neighbours. In days 
gone by, the Koko-olkulo had their " home " at the water-holes 
in the neighbourhood of what is now the Musgrave Native 
Police Camp. At the present time (1899) they " walk-about " 
along the higher portions of Saltwater River, and across to the 
upper reaches of the Hann and Morehead Rivers, while in a 
northerly direction they wander up to Port Stewart, etc. The 
Koko-rarniul, the last of the more important of the Princess 
Charlotte Bay Trilies are somewhat limited in their peregri- 
nations along Saltwater and Morehead Rivers. The following 
are some of the local place names in the Koko-warra language : — 

Balser's Knob lii-imba Jeannette's Tableland gai-wara 

Bathurst Head and \ , .. Lakefield Station g6-ra 

linders group J 

Barrow Point apollin Musgrave Station pAr-janja 

Breeza Station rilu-o Musgrave station )^,^^.^^_^ 

(18- mile camp) J 

r-. -.» 1 -11 f tu-a, valn-ga. Noble Island mor-kon-den. 
Cape Melville | ,,^ j.-^.b^i 

Country at back of Bowen Bay ar-wur 

Eastern half of Princess Charlotte Bay coast lamalama 

Country to west of Saltwater River olkulo vel w61kulo 

While the tracts of country through which the following rivers 
run are named thus : — 



»3 See Middle Palmer River District, Sect. 17. 



NORTH (QUEENSLAND ETHNO<illAPHY — ROTH. 95 

Saltwater River ngorpal North Kennedy River nar-nu 

Morehead River rar-mul South ,, ,, tembu-kumana 

Hann K. and Station Creek uguni- Laura River rilr tal 

bu-ar 

Koolburra Creek ne-mar-o Deighton River kar-imika 

Hizaiit River urr-thurr-wa Jeannie River albun, yorl-buxi 

.)ack River te-ra Starcke River kun-jar, dun jo 
Nornianby River \vin-j;irko, kar-win 

17. Tlie Middle Palmer River District is of interest especially 
in that the Koko-minni, who occupy it (PI. xxx.), form the means 
of communication between natives on tlie Gulf and East Coasts. 
These blacks have their main camp, at the head of the King 
River at a spot known as Irrangga ; their country soutli of the 
Palmer River they call Cliuramada, while that which lies north 
of it is Oninta. They speak of Mt. Daintree as Konongo, 
Fernhill Mountain as Mo-yeraka, and Strathleven country as 
Arthau. In 1896 their estimated number was over two 
hundred. They have a large circle of friends and acquaintances, 
and visit the Koko-yerlantchi natives on the J^aura River, at 
Maytown which they speak of as Walpom, and Palmerville 
known to them as Koron. Their lighting expeditions take thera 
westwards down to the junction of the Palmer and Mitchell 
Rivers, to a locality known as Antalba where they fight the 
Kau-waranga. When after food they travel via Maytown to 
Limestone — yams being very plentiful on this route — and there 
come into contact with the Hodgkinson (Union Camp) Blacks, 
etc. Nowadays, they never go in a southerly direction, having 
been hunted from Gamboola and Highbury. For purposes of 
trade they travel northwards to meet the Koko-warra, Koko- 
rarmul, and Koko-olkulo people. The Kau-waranga follow the 
course of the Lower Mitchell River as far as its junction with 
the Palmer River. Two important Gulf tribes with which these 
Kokominni come into indirect contact are the Gunanni and the 
Kundara. The Gunanni are coast-blacks running between the 
Mitchell and Staaten Rivers ; they certainly cross the Mitchell 
and on the south may proceed to the Gilbert River to meet the 
Kundara whose territory extends down to Norman ton, while to 
the eastwards they do not go further than Dunbar. The main 
camp of these Gunanni is believed to be in the close proximity 
of Topsy's Waterhole, not very remote from the New Mitchell 
River Aboriginal Reserve. The Kundara exercise rights over 
the coast country between the Nassau and Staaten Rivers. 
Mentana Station which is in the close neighbourhood of their 
main camp is called Ngabengamadam. 



96 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

18. The Pennefather (Coen) River District^ ^ — Although this 
account of the district-bhicks was gathered at Mapoon it was 
given me by Pennefather River ( = Coen River on the old maps) 
Aboriginals, the Nggeri-kudi, who speak Yopo-dimi (jopo:=lst. 
personal pronoun). It would appear that there are probably not 
lialf-a-dozen remnants left of the original Mapoon ])eople. The 
following groups of natives are found in this ethnographical 
district, the numbers in brackets referring to the sketcli map 
(PI. xxxi.). The Nggerikudi (2) (Nggeri^sand-bank), whose home 
is on the north side of the Pennefather Ri\ er ; they are the most 
numerous of all the coastal people, and the majority of them are 
no,w settled at Mapoon. The Gamiti (1) are on the north shore 
of Port Musgrave, i.e., between the Ducie River and Seven 
Rivers country. R^-kudi (3) occupy the south side of the 
Pennefather River ; Taini-kudi (4) (taini = raangrove) the country 
between Pennefather and Pine Rivers, speaking Anga-dimi 
(anga=lst. pers. ])ron.) ; Denya-kudi (5) ((lenya:=bush) low down 
on the south side of the Batavia River ; and Chong-anji, or 
Mapoon natives, that portion of Port Mu.sgrave coast-line 
terminating in Cullen Point. Other groups are the Laini-ngadi 
(7) ; 0-amro-koro (8) who speak Te-ana-ngada (te-ana=lst. pers. 
pron.) ; Cherakundi (9) ; Gautundi (10) ; and Winda-Winda (11) 
who speak Marma-ngati (marma^lst. pers. pron.) ; the last three 
groups, perhaps the last four now visit Wei pa Mission Station on 
the Erabley River. Amongst the real inland or bush-blacks who 
naturally do not mix with these coastal ones are the Ducie, 
Bertiehaugh, and Moreton Tribes, who appaiently have no 
names to specialise themselves by, and possess markedly different 
vocabularies. 

Cullen Point is known as Tratha-m-ballayanyana (tratha=a 
certain fish, the rest of the word signifying sheltering-under- 
rocks), corrupted into Tullanaringa on the maps. Duyphen 
Point is called Mo-o-dangana. The country drained by the 
following livers is : — 

Ti - ^, ,,. ( rinffdaniino Mission River ar6-aneana 

Penuerather River ; , . ,. t? ui t>- j' 

I aru-indi Jlimbiey River aderama 

Pine River yi-parno 



1* These notes were originally compiled in 1899 during my first official 
visit of inspection to the Mapoon and VVeipa Mission Stations, to the 
various cattle runs in the hinterland, and to the Mein, Moreton, and 
McDonnell otiicos on the Cape York Overland Telegraph line. 1 am 
indebted to the Rev. N. Hey of Mapoon for niudi of this information. 



NOKTll yUKUNSLAND ETIINOCKAPHY — ROTH. 97 

19. In every j^rotip or tribe there exist certain divisions or 
relationships of rank and family between its individual mem- 
bers, such relationships also commonly holding good between 
persons of different groups or tribes. Tlie first of these 
relationships I propose recording is that upon which the 
ijidividiial's social status depends, and which gives him his 
titulai- rank or clima-nyni^ ^. This rank depends upon his 
bodily development and in most cases upon his having undergone 
certain of tlie initiation ceremonies. 

In the Rockhampton District, except perhaps in the area 
around Miriam Vale, any boy at the first sign of puberty is 
known as a walpara. As soon as lie arrives at the full develop- 
ment of this physiological condition lie undergoes the first of the 
ceremonies, and gradually advances in rank under the following 
" titles " :— 

Rockhampton — Ku-rai-i (when the decorative scars are cut) ; 

ka-wula (when he has his nose pierced and can marry) ; 

min-dara, and mu-lin (any very old man). 
Gladstone — Ka-ra, yanpi, ku-nu-an, kanka-ankan. 
Rosewood — Yeppoon — Ka-wula ; katta (adult man). 
Miriam Vale — yanbi, inggardo, wur-balim. 

In the case of the females, any very young girl is spoken of 
as nai-yin-duro (Rockhampton), or ne-kii-rian (Gladstone). At 
first puberty she is called walparan (Torilla), kam-bal (Rosewood, 
Marlborough), or bal kun (Rockhampton). Having undergone 
the first ceremony (after which she can marry) at full puberty, 
she now bears new clima-nyms : — 

Rockhampton — tapu-ran.doro, and gradually mu-lin ^^ (a-oy very 
old woman). 

Gladstone — wakalo, ka-kalal, kii-nu-an^", kanka-ankan. 
Rosewood — nammuni, kin-kil. 
Yeppoon — ar-wuli, dapparo. 

On the Tully River, amongst Mallanpara, kokai-kokai is the 
term applied to a boy from the time he receives the chest-cut or 
chindaP " up to the time he eats the eels at the initiation 



IS Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897— Sect. 68. 
^8 The same name as applied to men in corresponding stage. 
1' Roth— Bull. 15— Sect. 49. 
7 



98 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

ceremony when he is known as a ngu-tcha. He is a malari 
during the time that tlie belly-cuts are healing, and a chahna 
onwards, the fully-developed man. A female is a nai-ili when 
tbe breasts first begin to protrude, a gatcliir at fully developed 
puberty (corresponding to the clialma stage of the males), a 
kau-el before bearing a child, and balgari after having borne 
children. 

The progressive titular changes in an individual's life in the 
Cairns District are here given both in the Yidinji (Y) and 
Kungganji (K) languages : — 

When an infant of either sex walks and gives up suckling it is 
a ka-winji (YK), the sexes being distinguished from this time 
onwards — 

Female — kum-ba (YK) from completion of kawinji .stage up to 
close upon puberty ; yabbnr (YK) at puberty, when she tnay 
have shoulder-scats inflicted ; and tarkanji (YK) when her 
first baby appears upon the scene. She then passes 
gradually into the maitin (K), or tar-anki (Y) stage 
apparently expressive of the climacteric. 

Male — wang-ar-re (YK) from completion of kawinji to puberty ; 
wur-kun (YK) at puberty, when he undergoes initiation 
and receives the transverse cuts (mo-in, moingga, or war- 
dir) between the navel and breast. He is then spoken of 
as a manda-kanjanji (YK) when his first child begins to 
walk about; nganda (YK) if his children are still all 
young ; bi-nnrla when the latter are all old ; and wallo-buri 
when he is very old, indeed to express the disappearance in 
great measure of the body-scars. 

The Cooktown District clima-nyms. from the lower to the 
higher grades, are waral, kabir, ngando, and kamba-kamba for 
the females, with diran, yerka, bama, and dirainggur for the 
males. 

Those for the Princess Charlotte Bay District have already 
been detailed when dealing with the local initiation cere- 
monies^^. 

Amongst the Kundara, with whom, as 1 have alread}' men- 
tioned the Koko-minni of the Middle Palmt-r District coiner into 



»8 Roth— Bull. 12 -Sect. 6. 



NOHTH QUKKNSI,ANI> KTHNOGUAPHY — ^KOTll. 99 

contact, tli(^ following are tlie titnlai names applied to the 
males : — 

Kaina-ugauian is a lioy at eaily puberty ; he attends his first 
initiation ceiemony or yindarang. 

Yel-vigvig after full puberty with a little moustache; he attends 
the second ceremony oi- yiial. 

Pita-mak is after he develops a full beard and moustache, and 
having undergone the ceremonies, is now allowed to marry. 

Mo-kauan as age progi'esses, ami mo-(fkwallim when very old, 
aud the cicatrices fade. 

In the Pennefather River District the following are applied : — 
Dai-ingata is a boy at early puberty when he first attends the 
initiation dances (prumo) ; pungandrichi at late puberty when 
the tooth avulsion takes place ; trallakuto with a beard and 
moustache ; watapu a verj'^ old man. Ji-opadi is a girl at early 
puberty ; morgatana at late puberty ; dro-anana after bearing 
her first child ; and ilo-apruto after the child-bearing age. 

20. With regard to the internal divisions of the group or 
tribe, depending upon family relationships, I cannot do better 
than refer the reader, as a preliminary, to a perusal of Chapter 
iii. of my " Ethnological Studies." 1 there threshed the subject 
out fairly thoroughly for that district, with the result that, in 
spite of the very few alterations and additions since discovered 
and now incorporated, I propose taking it as a standard for 
comparison. Gamo-matronyms have been found in the East- 
coast Districts ; in the Rockhampton area^^, except at Gladstone 
and Miriam Vale, as wittaru and yangaru, corresponding with 
the Boulia (Pitta-Pitta) utaru and pakuta respectively. 

The four paedomatrouyms of the North West Districts — ^the 
Kupuru, Wungko, Kurkilla, and Banbari — I have been able to 
trace personally, since 1895, and to identify practically through- 
out the length and breadth of North Queensland, except in the 
Peninsula. (Pennefatlier River) about which something further 
lias to Ije said. The following is a fairly typical list of them-'" : — 



*" I liad previously denied its occurreuceat Rogkhampton — See Ethnol. 
atiidies, etc., 1897 -Sect. 62 i. 

^" Only the male form is given, the female is denoted by -n, -an and 
other sufii.xes. 



100 



HECORDS OF THK AUSTHALIAN MUSEUM. 



ja fco -5 



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a a* S n 2 



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= S ? 3^ rt 3 js 



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NOKTH iiUKENSLANl) KTIINOGRAPHY^ — KOTH. 101 

Amongst tiibes occupying the borclei-country between (^ueiiii.s- 
land and the Northern Tei-ritory, are tlie Yaro-inga to Ix; met 
with at Headingley and Lake Nash on the Upper Georgina 
River, and tlie Workai a'-* liigher up the rivei- at Camooweal, 
etc. These, in connuon with other people in the 'Territory have 
eight paedomatronyms, (with the one term applicable to botii 
male and female members of eacli division) traceal>]e into the 
four of the rest of North Queensland as follows : — 
Yaro-inga Workai-a 

alloguara -pelyarinio ( , 

andraja pieugo t 

odalia woreto | i 

■' . > wungko 

angalaja jerameramo ) ^ 

a-ngella kangil I , in 

'^ , " V kurkilla 

anaura yekamaro ) 

biltara pangarinjo I , , . 

mo- jo warko j 

The Karawa Tribe, at the head of Settlement Creek in the 
Gulf Country, to be often met with at, proV^ably their chief camp, 
Wollogorang Station, about four miles within the Noi'thern 
Territory border, also have the eight primary divisions, but 
having separate terms for the male and female members, appar- 
ently possess sixteen; so far I have not had sufficiently reliable 
interpreters to identify them with the Boulia ones. 
;''21 Throughout the whole of North Queensland, sexual 
connnnnism, with its specialisation of marriage, is only 
permissible on the following lines, hence these four divisions 
have been termed exogamous groups or divisions : — 

male + female = resulting otfspring 



Kupuru 


+ 


Kurkella = 


= Banbari 


Wungko 


+ 


Banbari 


= Kurkulli 


Ktxrkilla 


+ 


Kurpuru = 


= Wnngke 


Banbari 


+ 


Wangkii 


Kupuiu 



the arrangement being graphically ilhistrated in the table in the 
"Ethnological Studies "--. 

But if the term "exogamous" division is to be preserved, it 
must be clearly borne in mind, that the arrangement does not 
per se prevent consanguinity, that it does actually prevent the 

^' These are identical, so one of the authors tells me, with the Waaga 
of Messrs. Spencer and Oillen. 

^'-^ Roth — Ethnol. Studies, etc.. 1897., opp. p. 04 — Up till about four 
years ago I thought tliat T had obtained from the Annan River District a 
eet of divisions shewing a different line of descent to that met with in 
Boulia ; on further investigation they conform to the usual rule. 



102 



KKCOKDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



union of couples between whom there cannot possibly be any 
consanguinity, and that on certain detinite occasions over a large 
area of country it may be ignored-'"'. Consanguinity is every- 
where prevented by laws of its own ; a man for instance may not 
marry his mothei's brother's daughter, his father's sister's 
daughter, his daughter's daughter, etc., although they fall witliin 
the division out of which it is lawful for him to pick a wife — 
this is usually the solution of the difficulty which I understand 
observers have now and again come across in the case of natives 
unable to live sexually with others apparently belonging to the 
proper exogaraous divisions. 

As is well known, each of these exogamous divisions is tal)U 
from either eating, killing, touching, etc., certain animals, and 
if b}' totemism pure and simple is to be understood a certain 
relationship between an individual or group of individuals and 
an animal or gruup of animals, then b}' all means let these 
divisions be called totemie. In no way, however, can they be 
deemed totemie in the sense of the totemism described as being 
met with in the Central Australian Tribes by Messrs. Gillen and 
(Spencer, my views on this matter being recently confirmed for 
the extreme North Australian Tribes by Professor Klaat.scii. 
More tha)i this, though as already shewn I have traced the 
identity of the divisions from one end of North Queensland to 
the othev, the animals tabu vary with each particular locality, 
i.e., there is no constancy between the alleged " totem "' and the 
division. Some typical examples taken at randoni throughout 
the country are the following : — 



Eastbrn Coast-link 



Pr. Charlotte 

Bay 
(I) Koko- 
olkulo Blacks 



(2) Koko- 
warra Blacks 



Bo wen (Yuro) 
Blacks 



Kwpnru 



H'lini/Lri 



variousspecies I carpet snake: 
of poison- bird like the 
snakes 1 niorpork I 



red kangaroo 

dingo 

giant lily 

hrown snake 

owl 

emu 

eel 

turtle 



(same prolii- 
bitioub as 
Kurkillal 



KiirkilUt 



goose 
plover 



goose 
black duck 
alligator 
cockatoo 
blue Ulv 



brown snake 'rainbow 'opos 
carpet snake sum; ground 
iguana; frilled 
I liisard i 



Banhari 



bird like 
an owl 



(same prohi- 
bitions aa 
Kupuru) 



sp. of houey 
bandicoot 

eagle hawk 
stingaree 
porcupine 



■:i Both -Ktbnol. Studies, etc., 1S07— Sect. 71, «, '>, c 



NORTH gUKKNSLANI) KTHNOORAPHY H<T1I. 



103 



ii. Across Country to Lowkk Uulk & Wkstkrn Disikhits 

rod kangaroo rock wallaby 
alligator (?) opossum 



Btheridge 

River and 

Georgetown 

Blacks 



UpperFIinders 

Riser 
(Wunamurra) 



carpet snake 
ei)". u 



emu 
bony bream 
garfish 



eagle liawk 

black & brown 

snakes 



iii LowEK GrLF ok Cakpkntaria and Western Districts 

Between Sta- 

aten & Nassau 

Kivers 

Kundara 

Blacks 



Cloncurry 
(Maitakiidi) 



Leichhardt- 
Selwyn 
Ranges 

(Kalkadun) 



Boulia District 
(Pitta Pitta) 



poison snake (two unidenti- 
owl Ified species of 

bird 



Iguana 
whistler duck 
carpet snake 



emu 

carpet snake 

brown snake 

mountain - 

snake 
porcupine 
wallaby 

rat 
opossum 
mountain- 
kangaroo 



Iguana 
whistler duck 
black duck 
blue-fellow- 
crane 
yellow dingo 
small yellow 
sp. of fish 



porcupine 

emu 
kangaroo 



emu 
mountain- 
kangaroo 
wallaby 

honey 

porcupine 

opossum 

carpet snake 

brown snake 

mountain - 

snake 

fish,varioussp. 

scrub turkey 
eagle hawk 
bandicoot 
brown snake 
black dingo 
white duck 



water snake 
carpet snake 

water snake 

corella 

eagle hawk 

black duck 

turkey 

pelican 

whistler duck 

black duck 

turkey 

plain 

kangaroo 

fish, varioussp. 



rock kangaroo 
black bream 



black duck 
turkey 



tiger snake 
brown snake 



carpet snake 
dingo 



whistler duck 
wood duck 

native- 
companion 

rat 
bandicoot 

plain- 
kangaroo 
carpet snake 



kangaroo 
carpet snake 

teal 
brown -headed 
white-bellied- 

duck 

various sp. 

diver birds 

trumpeter fish 

black bream 



emu 
yellow snake 
galah parrot 
sp. of hawk. 



22. On the other hand, as I have already shewn''* it i»prob- 
aVile that these (exogainous, for want of a better term) divisions 
have been originally devised, by a process of natural selection, 
to regulate the proper distribution of the total quantity of food 



^* Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897— 8ect. 71 ; Bull. 12— Sect. 2. 



104 KK<;oKl)8 Oh' TICK AUSTKALl.VX MUSEUM. 

aviiilalile. Examples lieie aiui tliere lend confirmation to this 
probahility. At the mouth of the Batavia River for instance, 
ou the proniontary of land to the left of it projecting into 
Albatross Bay, there are, or rather used to he, before the 
civilisation of the natives was taken in hand by the Mapoon 
Missionaries, four exogamous divisions named after separate 
localities. The Nama kurgi and Ba-kurgi were named after and 
owned lands on the rivei- side, the Lar-nganama and Ba-marango 
on the Gulf side of the promontory in question. The Bakurgi 
and Baniarango were so named after islets (ba), tlje Namakurgi 
after the superabundant local growth of the nama plant (used for 
thatching huts), while the Lar-nganama yot their name applied 
on account of a special timlier. Acacia rothii, Bail. — the local lai . 
These four divisions, whicli 1 was unable to identify with the 
four otherwise common throughout Northern Queensland, could 
only marry on the following lines : — 

male + female = child 

nauia-kurgi ba-marango ha-kurgi 

bakurgi lar-nganama nama-kiirgi 

lar-nganama ba-kurgi ba-marango 

ba-maiango nama-kurgi lar-nganama. 

The wife took up her abode at her husband's camp, but the 
offspring as they grew up became members of and belonged to 
another camp. 1 found traces of a similar arrangement in vogue 
at Murray Island in Torres Strait, and am informeil that a 
.similar one is here and there met with in New (xuinea. 
In the Bloomfield River District, the four divisions were all 
names of bees each being specially associated with different 
districts. Again, amongst the large Koko-warra Tribe of the 
Princess Charlotte Bay District is to be met the cuiious example 
of identical animals being tabu to two of the exogamous 
divisions, the Kurkilla and the Kupuru with the result that the 
limit of food-supply available is exactly balanced. Another trace 
of the probable origin of these exogamous divisions lies in the 
fact, that in any camping place, all tlie members of the same 
division (except of course those who are consanguineous) occupy 
the one area of the camp. The grouping of certain animals, 
plants, etc., on the TuUy River may (Sect. 24) also prove to be 
another remnant. 

23. According to the particular exogamous division to which 
an individual Ixdongs, so he bears relationship (o other members 
of the remaining divisions. For as alredy explained ■■^''' every 
male is primarily someone'.s brother, father, bi otherin-law, or 

"5 Roth— Ethnol. Studies, etc., 1897— Sect. 63. 



NORTH QUEENSLAND BTHNOGRAPHV ROTH. 



105 



mother's brother, wliile every female (virgin or matron) is some- 
one's sister, mother, sister-in-law, or father's sister. These 
particular relationship names, which, for reasons given, 1 have 
called hetero-nynis, vary in the different ethnographical districts. 
In the Rockhamptou District, they are : — 



Locality and 


Rockhainpton 


Torilla, PineM't'n 


Gladstone 


Miriam Vale 


tribe 


Tarumbal 


Ku-inmiir-burra 


VVakka 


Koreng-koreng 


brother (older) 


m.i-rami 


marang 


k^-ro 


dadtha 


„ (younger) 


,, 


wu-yiru 


ku-ni 


, , 


sister (older) 


n;i-buru 


n a burn 


ya-wunan 


wa-dini 


,, (younger) 


,, 


,, 


yi'-lan 


,, 


mother's brother 


namnio 


nammo 


bd-bi 


mdmma 


mother 


nai-ya 


nai-ya 


nilbba 


md-mi 


brother-in-law 


nii-pa 


nu-pa 


kinulam 


mu-nilam 


sister-in-law 


gen 


kin-kil26 


m-won 




father 


bi-na 


bi-na 


pi-ya 


ba-ba 


father's sister 


bin-dir 


bin-diru 


bd-bo 


yabbi 



In the Princess Charlotte Bay district they are :- 





Kokowarra 


Koko-rarmul 


brother (old) 


dr-ma 


ar-ma 


(young) 


ar-thiirrta 


arrdrda 


sister (old) 


p4rpa 


parka 


„ (young) 


i-thiirrta 


urrliada 


mother's brother 


garwuta 


arwuta 


mother 


mang 


marka 


brother-in-law 


ku-danta 


ting-an 


sister-in-law 


ku-danta 


pan 


father 


addi 


a-wi-aka 


father's sister 


iniii la 


mi-ad a 



And so I could go on throughout all the areas of North 
Queensland over which I have wandeied, but such details would 
only render this work too cumbersome, and are not of sulficient 
importance for publication, suffice it to know that they exist. 
For the same reason I am omitting all mention of the genea- 
nyms, and auto-nyms ; the former have already been carefully 
worked out for the Cooktown District^ ^ where I have had the 
assistance of local linguists in checking them. 



'^^ Also means adult woman. 
27Roth— Bull. 2— Sect. 6. 



106 RECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

24. Divisions of inauiiuate nature, uniniaLs, and plants, have 
been occasionally met with, Ijut really satisfactory explanationn 
have not been forthcoming, 'rhiis, at Gape Griafton in 1897, 
independently of the local mission auspices, 1 came across a local, 
account of a binary division of Kuragulu and Kurabanna 
(banna^water), that is to say things on land generally dis- 
tinguished from those ou water. The former, indicative of red 
earth includes everything relating to the land, e.y., red cla}'^, 
gra.ss, sun, wind, rock, star, tire, ar>d land animals such as 
kangaroo, bandicoot, black iguana, yellow iguana, emu, and 
pelican ; the latter comprises water, and white or light coloured 
things and includes mud, cloud, rain, tliunder, fresh and salt 
water, eels, wild duck, shark, alligatoi', watei-snake, and all white 
timbers. 

On the TuUy River the respective grouping is more certain. 
Thus, plants (wherein sex is not recognised) are divisible into 
four groups, containing special timbers as follows : — 

Chalkai-gatclia . Pencil Cedar, Moreton Bay Chestnut. 
Chalkai-dir... Contains a particular white-wood, the sap of which 

is utilised for sticking feather-down on the body. 
Chalkai-chamara... Silky Oak. 
Chalkai-chiri... Myrtle. 

Chalkai is the Mallanpara term foi' anything big and so old 
(and thus comes to be also applied to an old person). Grasses 
and small shrubs are not put into groups or divisions. Indoed, 
very little ap[)ears to be known concerning these groups, they 
being referred to nowadays only ou particular occasions. For 
instance, in m^' presence, in 1902, a man on the river-bank was 
talking to my host, Mr. Brooke, of a canoe passing down the 
stream which had lt>een manufactured from the liark of a Myrtle- 
tree that was portion of his real estate ; lie spoke of the vessel, 
not by the term kukai (signifying a canoe) but expressed himself 
by saying, *' there goes my chalkai-chiri." These same Tully 
River Natives do not classif}'^ the animals like the plants into 
groups, but anything extra big, large, etc., anything out of the 
common, with each kind of animal is spoken of V>y a different 
name"". 



I iiavt! alrciidy recorded this in Bull. 2— Sect. 2— (note). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 1. 



Fig. 1. Logs of light wood used as floats for crossing water. — Mitchell 
River, &c. 

,, 2. Logs tied together forming a simple primitive raft. The man 
propelling the structure with a pole had attended a prun (Bull. 
4 — Sect. 15), his head and face being more or less still covered 
with feather d(>wn. — TuUy to Russell and Mulgrave Rivers. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. \ i:i. 



ri.AiK 1. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE IL 



Fig, 1. V. -shaped log raft of numerous light Baplings, with butts all at 
one end. — Wellesley Islands. 

,, 2. The same form of raft with seat of dried grass, kc. 



KKC. AUSTI{. MUS. VOL. VI II 



Pf.ATK ir. 



r'" 



I '^'l 




r 



'M^^^i^ 



8L*3w^*i1* _^ — j4-.-.<l^^. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE IIL 



Fig. 1. V. -shaped log raft afloat, showing method of propulsioD. 
Wellesley Islands. 
,, 2. The same ashore, with grass seat and paddle. 



KEC. AUSTK. MUS., VOL. Vlll. 



VU\TK IT I. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

Fig. \. Hiugle-aheet bark uauoe with blunt straight eutls. — (Julf Coast 
(Batavia and Ducie Rivers to the Archei- River). 
,, 2. Tlie same afloat showing capacity for one occupant who kneels 
resting his buttocks on his heels, and paddling with two oval 
pieces of bark. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VII 1, 



Platk IV. 





KXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 



Fig. I. Single-sheet bark canoe with oblique ends, showing method of 
spreading the sides by nieaiia of a stretcher, and means ot 
propulsion. ^Gulf Coast (Batavia and Peunefatlier Rivers). 
,, 2. Threoblieet bark Canoes. — Whitsunday Island. 



KKC. AUSTU. MUS., VOJ,. Vlll, 



Plate V. 








■m: ■ Sw/^ »J- . 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VL 



Kig. i. Dug-out witli outriggers, and projecting terminal lip or platform 
for Ihe iuuiter to stand upon. — Batavia River. 
,, "J. Ihig-outs showing position of booms and method of attachment 
to the floats or outriggers. 



REC AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Platk VI. 





tSJ^SSB^^'-H^. --- '^# 



KXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 



Fig. I. Dug-out cut syuiire at uitlier extremity; \\ itli mie dutrigger, 
capable of carrying Hve or six people. — Mossnian River to Cape 
(jlrafton. 



EC. AUS'll; MIS., Vol, \l||. 



ri.ATK VII. 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE \ HI. 



Fig. 1. Man of the Carpentaria Gulf country with beani waxed into t^'o 

points. 
,, 2. Head net worn to prevent the liair tlironihs from dangling over 

into tlie eyes ; nianufrtotured by men only in t!ie Boulia and 

Selwyn-Leichhardt Districts. 
,, 3. Similar net to Fig. 2. 

,, L Long foreliead-net. or miri-miri, \\orn to kfcp the hair well back. 
,, G. Digital amputation. 



REG. AUSTR. MILS., VOr. \MI!. 



I'LATE VTll. 





• ■"iw.. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATP: fX. 



Fig. ]. Tube ear ornament worn by men on the Peuuefather and Embly 
Rivers, Gulf of Carpentaria. 
,, 2. Decorative scars, or cheloiils, on a man's back. 



IIEC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VTTI. 



Plate IX. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 



Fig. ]. Decorative scars, or cheloide, on man's chest antl abdomen. 
,, 2. Keatliering of tlie body for the Molonga performance of the 
Boulia Corroboiee, and limited to men only ; prevalent through- 
out the North-western Districts. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VJII. 



Plate X. 




' — ■■ 



"i''^': 



n 



4 ■ ■'••^ 











m 


nJii 









EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 



Fig. 1. Most primitive form of artificial Ijreak-wiud. — Wellesley Islaiuls. 
,, 2. Sleeping platform.— Lower Normanby River. 



IlKC. AITSTR. MUS, VOL VIII 



Pl.ATK XI, 





EXPLANATION OF PLATK XII. 



Fig. I. Another form of primitive V)rcak-\vind. — Wellesley Islands. 

,, 2. Completed hut, thatched with " blady-grass " over a withy 
frame-work of hoops. — Lower Tully River. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. Vlll. 



Plate XII. 







^ ..;'-,;^'j 







KXl'LANATION OK I'LATE Xlll. 



Fig. I. An early type of slielter, consisting c)f a sheet of bark fixed 
leugtliways and edgeways into the ground. 
,, 2. Composite huts at the junction of the Palmer and Mitchell 
Rivers. — i'hotographed by Inspeotor (Jarroway, 1S99. 



REC. AUSTK. iMUS., VOL. VIII. 



Plate XIII. 





EXPLANATION OF PLA'IE XIV. 



Fig. 1. Grass-thatched hut, with small entrance. —Normanton. 

,, "2. Simple ridge-pole form of structure in skeleton, before leafy 
switches are leant against it. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Plate XIV. 




.^^mi£ 



^■^-■^i^^^f^L-' 




i.**^A,i>>. 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 



Fig. ]. Skeleton of dome-frame hut formed of heavy saplings. — Nortli 
west Districts. 
,, 2. Another and mure advanced form of ridge-pole structure. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIIL 



Plate XV 



/ 






EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 



Fig. 1. (Circular frame work of switches struck iutu the ground along tiie 
limits of the area to he enclosed. — Northern Coast-line. 
,, '2. Simplest form of hark shelter composed of a single sheet hent at 
its middle, tlie ends l)eing tiinily fixed in tlie soil. 



REC. AUSTR, MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Platk XVT. 





I 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIL 



Fig. I. The sapliugfranied hut seen in Plate xv., lig. 1, covered with 
bashes, &c. — North-west Districts. 
,, 2. "Cabbage-tree '' palm leaf liut. - Ivennedy River. 



nKC. AlIStl5. MUS., VOL. Vltl. 



fr.ATK \'VT1, 






EXPLANATION OF PLATP: XVI II. 



Position assumed in sleep at I'apes Bedford and (Grafton. 
Common position assumed in standing at ease. 
Man climbing a straight tree with the aid of the climbing-eane, 
and the free end of the cane passed over the elbow. 



UEC. AirsPR. MUS, VOL. VI IT, 



Pl,ATK XVI II, 





p- -li 




I 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 



Fig. L Mail squatting with tlie shins doubled underneath, the righi one 
tucked under the left thigh, the left shin lying on the right 
thigh. 

,, 2. Man squatting on the buttocks. 

,, 3. Man squatting ; a modification of Fig. 1. 

,, 4. Man sitting, the right leg prone and doubled, the left upright 
and bent. 



REC. AUSTR. MIJS., VOL VIII. 



Platk MX. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATP: XX. 



Fig. 1. Butt of tree clutclied with tlie two feet on the same horizontal 
level, the knees being kept well out. — Lower Tully River 
District. 
,, 2. Man " walking up,'' the weigiit of the body thrown backwards. 



KEC. AITSTH. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Platk X.\. 





f:xplanation of plate xxi. 



Fig. I. Man cliinUing a vine hantlover-haud. 

,, '1. Mau climbing a tree by means of the olimbing-cane, the extremity 
of the cane passed behiml his right knee, whicli is acutely hent. 
,, 8. Another example of climbing by means of the climbing-ean«'. 
,, 4. Forkeil sapling placed against a tree to be climbed, to aid ascent, 
—Cape Bedford. 



UEC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Pl.vik .\.\I. 





I 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIL 



Fig. 1. Man climbing tree with the aid of a bark strip held at either 
extremity. — Coen and Pennefather Rivers. 
,, 2. Tree climbing by cutting steps rigiit and left alternately. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Platk XXII 




!^'"^"' 




•S-;^'^.. 'Jit^J ■-.TftZ,'^. 



KXP SANATION OF PLATE XXI II. 



Fig. 1. Partial absence of pigmentation in the hands and feet. — Princess 
Charlotte Bay. 
,, 2. Goitre in a Kalkadun woman. — Cloncurry. 



KKU. Al'STn. MUS, Vol. VI 11. 



I'LATK Will. 





DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XXIV. 



Fig. 1. Deformity allied to oongeuital clubfoot, seeu iu two old men, 

brothers, near Barrow Point. Iu both cases the soles could 

rest perfectly fiat on the gun case below. 
,, "2. A kind of hammer-toe seen in a woman at Cape Grafton, the 

fourth toes of botli feet being affected. 
,, 8. A similar case at the Tully River in whicli the third toes are 

aflfected. 
,, 4. Another instance from the 'I'ully River in which the fourtli toes 

are affected. 



kfiC. AUSTR MltS., VOL. vin 



Kaik XXtV. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV. 



Fig. 1. "Dinah of Yaamba " — An example of a Bockhampton District 
MOID an. 
,, 2. Examples of the Charlotte Bay District natives — Cape Melville 
men, 18i)9. 



REC. AtTSTR. MlJS., VOJ. VIII. 



Platk XXV. 




"^ "MStM 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVi. 



Sketch map of the Rockhiuiipton and snnouuding Coast District, 
showing the main tiibal boundaries. The uunibers in circles 
refer to the component groups of the different tribes. 



REC. AU8TR MILS., VOL. VTIl. 



Plate XXVI. 



Unions hrnd 




r 

KORENG KORENG 



Miiiam yslr. 



EXPLANAJION OK PLATE XXVII. 



Sketch map of Cairns and surrounding district, sliowing the 
locations of the various tribes. 



[!KC. AUSTH. MUS., VOL. VIM. 



I'l.ATK XX\ II. 




QHighls'. 



-'"'S'^ifn 



EXPLANATION OF PLATK X.XVIII. 



Fig. I. Examples] of Cairns District natives (men). — Photograph by 
Messrs. HaiuUy and Cross, Cairns. 
,, 2. Examples of the Cooktovvn District natives (women). 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIIT. 



Pl,ATK XXVTIT. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXJX. 



Fif;. ]. Examples of Cooktown District natives (men). 

,, 2. Examples of the Charlotte Bay District natives — Cape Melville 

women, 1899. 
,, 3. Mainlander abreast of Cairncross Island. —Photographed by Capt. 
G. Pym. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS, VOL. VI 11. 



Platk XXIX. 




■^KH^^HBi^''' '^' ^'''^ 


^I^B^^j^HpVS^^^^^k. 


a 


Lfm 


m.4 




.'"4 


11 


m --'1 




'. ' . ■£':■'' - % 




J» ,^ 


Cy_^,j- 




T- 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX. 



Sk(;tch map allowing the location of the Koko miiiiii and their 
relation to other tribes. 



HEU. AUSTK .M(^>, VOL. VIII. 



Pl.ATIC XXX. 



It. 




'^ 1119 



EXPLANATION OF PLATK XXXI. 



Sketch map to illustrate the teriitoiial divisions of the tribes in 
the Periiiefatlier (Coen) Kiver District. 



R^X'. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VJIT. 



Pl.ATK XXX 



CARPENTARI\ 



, rV- Oonncll 
. £75 




DESCRIPTION OF CRANIAL REMAINS from 
WHANG ARET, NEW ZEALAND. 

By W. Ramsw Smith, D.Sc, M.B., F.R.S.E , Permanent Head 
of the Department of Public Health of South Australia-. 
Fellow of tlie Royal Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

(Plates xxxii.-xxxiii.) 

In February, 1910, Mr. W M. Eraser, County Engineer of 
Whangarei, New Zealand, wrote to me that he was forwardino' a 
box containing the upper part of two human skulls. He said 
that until about two yearsago these remains had been hermetically- 
sealed under tiftyfeet of decomposed sand for not less than seven 
hundred or one thousand years, judging by the nature and 
formation of the country, and that the bone marked " A " was 
found on a lower level than the one marked " B." The box 
contained two packages. In one were two pieces of bone marked 
" A" ; in the other there were five or six pieces marked " B." 

I first cemented together the parts marked " A," and examined 
them. They formed the whole of a frontal bone and part of the 
parietals. After an extensive examination of the fragments and 
a comparison with other skulls of various races I made a summary 
of the facts and inferences. 

After I had pieced together the fragments marked "B" I 
found that they and those marked "A " all belonged to the same 
skull. The amount of skull [)re.sent made it possible for one to 
make a far greater number of measurements for comparison, and 
gave a fairly accurate idea of its peculiarities (PI. xxxii., tig. 1). 

Although the bones have the appearance of having been 
exposed to the weather, the lines defining the boundaries or 
attachments of muscles are fairly well marked. From this fact 
and from certain other appearances one infers that it is the skull 
of a full-grown subject, in all probability a male. There is no 
appearance of disease nor any sign of artificial deformity pro- 
duced either during life or after death. 

One striking feature is the thickness of the bones. In some 
parts the frontal bone measures 16mm. in thickness, and the 
8 



108 RECORDS OF THK AUSTRAMAV MPSKUM. 

parietals in places arn little if anything less. Tlie thickening is 
also pronounced in the region of the asterion and the occipital 
protuberance. The .spongy l)one i.s well marked between the 
outer and the inner tables. 

In a view from above the cranium in seen to be elongated, and 
were it not for the fairly well marked paiietal eminences it would 
be properly termed oi)long-looking. The frontal portion is 
unusually long, smooth, and rounded. Tt has the frontal 
eminences distinctly marked. There is no trace of a metopic 
sutuie. There is a flattened lozensie-shaped area above the 
glabella. From the upper part of this to the bregma there 
is a slight ridge. Beliind this the cranium is distinctly 
scaphocephalic in form, with marked flattening on the left side 
and still more marked flattening on the right between the bregma 
and the parietal eminence, and this is associated with an inciease, 
on the right side, in the distance between the sagittal suture and 
the parietal eminence (PI. xxKii., fig. 2). The median ridge gives 
the skull a distinctly pentagonal outline when viewed from behind 
(PI. xxxii., fig. 3). The temporal ridge of the frontal l)one, about 
midway in it^ course backwards, divides into an upper and a lower 
limb. The upper limbs on each side run high up on the vault 
and at a point about 1cm. liehind the bregma are within 68mm. 
of each other. Each passes backwards well up on the parietal 
eminence and strikes the lambdoid suture about midway between 
the lamda and the asterion. On the parietals these superior lines 
are markedly double, the distance between the component parts 
being about 1cm. The superior curved lines of the occipital 
bone form a large raised crescentic mass. This <!oes not appear 
to be caused by any diseased conditiori. Unfortunately the lower 
portion of the occipital, forming the posterior boundary of the 
foramen magnum, is imperfect. Probably about 14mm. of the 
arc is wanting. 

The coronal suture is simple from the bregma as far as the 
stephanion on each side. P>eyond this it is obliterated. The 
sagittal suture has been dentated in character, but is nearly 
obliterated except at its posterior portion. The lambdoid suture 
is well milked and dentated or serrated. There is no appearance 
of oathological synostosis. 

There is one parietal foramen : it is on the right side. Below 
the superior curved lines of the occipital there is one foramen in 
the middle line, and there are two foramina, a right and a left, 
below this. 

A view from below shows that the sutures on the inner table 
are all obliterated. The depressions for the blood vessels are 
fairl)' large and correspond in distribution with those seen in the 



CRANIAL RKMAINS FROM NKW ZKALAND — RAMSAY SMIXri. 109 

higher races. The lateral sinuses of the occipital bone are at the 
same level as the superior curved lines The frontal crest begins 
half-way down the bone and as it passes downwards it becomes 
a very prominent ridge. 

An examination of the eyebrow region (PI. xxxii., fig. 4) shows 
that the internal third of the supra orbital margin on each side 
is much rounded, and is coalesced with the superciliaiy eminence ; 
the external two-thirds is sharper, but still conies within the 
category of "rounded" as orbital margins go. On the right 
side there is a notch for the supra orbital nerve, on the left a 
foramen ; and fiom these a groove or depression passes obliquely 
upwards and outwards on each side, separating the superciliary 
eminence from the trigonum supraorbitale. The trigoiium is not 
so flattened as in modern peoples but has the rounded appearance 
often seen in the Australian aboriginal and some other races. 
The superciliary eminences are distinctly marked ou each side 
and are continuous with the glabella. The conditions in this 
region conform with Cunningham's type II, which is very common 
in the Australian aboriginal and is the form that exists in the 
skull of Pithecayithropus. 

The frontal sinuses are fairly large (PI. xxxii., tig. 5). It lias 
to be noted that the front and back walls of the.se sinuses are 
Itoth thick as contrasted with the condition found in many 
Australian aboriginal skulls, in which the posterior wall is very 
thin while the anterior wall is much thickened to form a very 
large portion of the projecting glabella and the superciliary 
ridges. The notch at the loot of the nose is shallow as con- 
trasted with the deep indentation which is almost universal in 
the aboriginal. This character in the Australian, however, as 
appears from a variety of considerations, is not a primitive one ; 
nor is its associated feature, viz., the great projection of the 
glabella. 

One other character demands sttention. A horizontal line 
drawn through the nasion shows a relatively large part of the 
orbits above it, and these portions of the orbits are rounded in 
form — the right more so than the left. This, together with the 
characters already mentioned, forms an assemblage of primitive 
characters in the eyebrow region of this skull. 

It may be well at this point to give some details regarding the 
curve of the front bone. 

For purposes of comparison, I have tabulated (see Table 1) 
certain measurements of this skull along with those of two 
Moriori skulls in my possession, four Maori and one Fijian skull 
in the South Australian Museum, which the Director, Profe.ssor 
E. C. Stirling, kindly allowed me to examine, and a New Cale- 



110 UKCORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MU3EUM. 

douiaii skull in my collection exhibiting mixed Polynesian 
characters described by Professor David Waterston. 

The table shows that the frontal curve angle, 134°, is less open 
(that is, the curvature is greater) than in the two Moriori skulls 
and than in the average of all the Maori skulls, 134-75°. This 
means that the actual forehead portion is more rounded, less 
flattt^ned, than among the Morioris and Maoris. The following 
figures from Cunningham will show how the frontal curvature 
compares with skulls of Australian aboriginals. In eight males 
from Victoria the figures for the angles were 134*, 136°, 133°, 
133°, 130°, 131-5°, 133-5° and 133°, giving a mean of 133°. In 
five females from Victoria the figures were 130', 132°, 131°, 133° 
and 126°, giving a mean of 1304°. In ten males from Queens- 
land the mean was 133°, the extremes being 127*5° and 146*. 
In two females from Queensland the figures were 125° and 140**. 
In one South Australian skull the angle was 141°, in a Central 
Australian 141°, and in a skull from New South Wales also 141°. 
I measured two aboriginal skulls^almost the first that came to 
hand, and I find that one gives an angle of 127° and the other 
an angle of 146° — almost the extremes of roundness and flatness. 

Cunningham is inclined to place more reliance on the results 
yielded by the index of the frontal curve tiian on the angle of 
the curve. This index in the Whangarei Skull is larger {i.e., the 
curving of the bone is greater) than in the two Moriori and the 
four Maori, and much the same as in the Australian where the 
means of indices given in Cunningham are 22-4, 23-9, 214, 233 
and the indices of single skulls are 17-3, 18-4 and 182. In 
seven Scottish crania (six male and one female) the figures were 
20-2, 26-2, 221, 25-4, 23-8, 252 and 21-7, giving a mean of 23-7. 

It may be said that the Whangarei Skull in respect to the 
curving of the frontal bone, comes within the limits of the Aus- 
tralian which are very wide, corresponds with what is found in 
some Maoris, Fijians and New Caledonians, and does not difTer 
greatly from what may be found in individuals belonging to white 
races. 

Before I had discovered that all the fragments sent to me 
belonged to one skull, I had made a somewhat extensive inquiry 
into the occurrence of frontal l)ones liavin;; a longitudinal arc as 
large as this one. From a consideration of the meastirements 
made of Australian and South Seas skulls by Turner, Scott 
Waterston, Duckworth, Klaatsch and others, and of Bainard 
Davis's descriptions of skulls of Ancient Britons, aboriginal 
Swedes and panes. Ancient Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Scandi- 
navians and Romano- liri tons, it appears that frontal bones with 
a longitudinal arc of 136mm. or over have usually small trans 



CRANIAL KKMAINS KltOM NKW ZKAI.ANO -liAM.SAY SMITH. I 11 

verse diameters and Welon*;; to skulls that are very lon<i, very 
narrow, of great cubic capacity and not infrequently of great 
thickness. 

For the purposes of comparison several important absolute 
measurements can be made on the .skull and also some approxi- 
mate ones. Tliese are tabulated (see Table IE) along with those 
I liave made of the skulls already mentioned and a South 
Australian skull in the Stuttgart Museum described by Klaatsch. 

The chief feature of the skull is its great length both absolutely 
and relatively to its l)readth. It is in a very high degree doli- 
chocephalic, its cephalic index being only 67. The height, 
unfortunately, can only be estimated comparatively and a|)proxi- 
matel}'. When Moriori "B" and Whangarei are placed with 
the occipital bone resting on a table and the nasion in each case 
sit the same height above the table the top of Whangarei skull 
stands 2cm. above the top of the Moriori skull. This would 
give a basi-bregmatic height of 148mm. This estimate can be 
checked by comparison with other skulls through approximate 
determination of the nasion jjoint in various ways. The skull 
theiefoie is remarkable for its height as well as its length, the 
height also being greater than the Ijieadth. From the measure- 
ments thus obtained one would estimate, by Topinard's formula 
modified by Manouvrier, the capacity of this skull at about 
l,600cc., allowing for thickness and other peculiarities. 

In order to facilitate comparison of the brain-containing portion 
of t,his Whangarei skull with the corresponding cavity of the two 
Moriori, four Maori skulls, the Fijian and the Stuttgart South 
Australian skull, I have made tracings with what rough appli- 
ances were ready to my hand and have set forth the measure- 
ments in Table III. Tlie tracings of this skull (fig. 52), and the 
measurements are made in such a way as to allow them to be 
compared with Klaatsch's. An examination of the figures will 
show that the part of the skull that lodges the bruin is very 
capacious, even after all allowances are made for thickness of the 
bones and for the projecting mass at the inion, and for the small 
transverse diameters. The Stuttgart South Australian skull, 
which is the longest in Klaatsch's list is practically of the 
same length as the Whangarei skull but is considerably less in 
the height of its cranial poition, had a capacity of 1,450 cubic 
centimetres. 

In view of recent researches and speculations regarding the 
value to be attached to certain characters as primitive features, 
some remarks are necessary regarding other measurements of the 
"Whangarei skull. 



112 



HKCOKDS OF THK AUSTKALIAN MUHKUM. 



It will be noted that the glabello-inion, glabelio-lanibda and 
greatest lengths are practically equal, a condition found in the 
Neanderthal type and Fitkecauthropnif, and a feature that is 
regarded as marking a very primitive condition, It is interest- 
ing to note that the Moriori skulls "A" and "B" show a 
greater departure from this condition than do the four .Maori 
skulls. 




The glabello-inion-lainlxhi angle is 78° in ihe Whangarei skull 
■which is considerably larger than in tlie Neanderthal type and 
Pithecanthropus, and is within tlie limits of Australian and 
Tasmanian skulls. The inde.x of frontal curvature, measured for 
comparison by Klaatsch's method, is 16; of parietal curvature, 
18-7 ; and of occi|)ital curvature, 9"3— all of tlie.se lieing within 
the limits of Australian aboriginal skulls. 

The angle of the bregma, the si/e of which is looked upon a.s 
an important intlication of specialisation, is f)!)'. In the Nean- 
derthal type it is from 45" to 47"; in Fithecanthropns it is 41"; 
among Europeans it is 54" to 64" ; in Tasmanians, 54" to 59" ; and 
in Australian aborisrinals from 51" to 6U°. The index, of the 



CRANIAL REMAINS KKOM NKW ZKALAND RAMSAY SMITH, 113 

height of the bregma is 49 7, and the index of the height of the 
vertex is 56 ; but in connection with these somewhat low figures 
tlie great length of the glabello inion line has to be taken into 
account. 

Scott's records sliows that of seventy-six Maori skulls measured 
by him 434 per cent, were dolichocephalic. Three had cephalic 
indices under 70, viz., 699, 69-6, and 69-1. None were so low 
as in this Whangarei skull. The vertical indices of those three 
were 72, 68 and 701 respectively. In none of the three was the 
absolute height so great — being 134, 132 and 136mm. respectively. 
Investigations by Flower and Turner bear out Scott's figures 
regaidiiig Maoris. The vertical index of the Whangarei skull is 
prol>al)ly 774, much higher than the average of the Auckland 
skulls measured by Scott and of the Whangarei skulls measured 
by Flower, although within the range found in other Maori skulls 
possessing a higher cephalic index. 

The vault corresponds generally with what is not unusual in 
Maori skulls, being rafter-shaped with a median ridge and show- 
ing a flattening of the parietal legion between the ridge and the 
eminences, giving the skull, as has l)een noted, a pentagonal 
outline when viewed from behind. The sutures have the same 
characters as are found in Maori skulls, and the temporal ridges 
also run above the parietal eminences. 

Of a total of fifty Moriori skulls examined by Scott and 
Duckworth, nine {i.e., eighteen per cent.) are dolichocephalic. 
Maori skulls show about forty-three per cent, of dolichocephalic 
specimens. Scott found no Moriori skull with a cephalic index 
below 70 ; and among ten Cambridge specimens described by 
Duckworth the lowest was 731. In respect to this index and 
also to the great height compared with the width, the Whangarei 
skull difters greatly from the Moriori, although in some features 
there may be a resemblance. 

One would certainly not expect to find such a skull as the 
Whangarei one among Morioris, and although it might possibly 
occur among Maoris its appearance would be somewhat pheno- 
menal even in that race notwithstanding the mixed racial 
characters of the Maoris. 

One must search elsewhere in order to find a race in which the 
members usually possess the cranial chaiacter exhibited by the 
Whangarei skull, viz., strongly dolichocephalic, with a high verti- 
cal index, the height being greater than the breadth, the cranial 
vault roof-shaped, the glabella and superciliary ridges fairly 
marked and the root of the nose not greatly depressed. Skulls 
with these characters well marked in the majority of the indivi- 



114 RECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

cIukIs have been described by Tuiner from Llie soutli and east of 
New Guinea, by the same wiiter from tlie Admiralty Islands, 
from the interior of Fiji by Turner and by Flower, and from New 
Caledonia 1)}' Turner and by Watersion. They have also been 
recorded from the Loyalty Islands. Recently by the courtesy 
of the Trustees of the Australian Museum in Sydney, I had 
the privilege of examining a collection of skulls from various 
parts of the South Seas, and in it I found a skull from Epi in the 
New Hebrides corresponding closely to this type (PI. xxxiii.). Its 
measurements are given in the tables. 

It has to be remembered that among the Sandwich Islanders, 
a distinctly Polynesian race, there is a dolichocephalic type as 
well as a brachycephalic type ; but among the dolichocephalic 
specimens recorded by Turner the lowest cephalic index is 71 — 
in fact the index is strangely constant, since in fifteen skulls it 
ranges from 71 to 74. This bears out the statement which is 
being found true in so many instances that in every primitive 
race one finds a dolichocephalic and a brachycephalic element co- 
existing. It will be apparent that there is little resemblance 
between the Whangarei skull and these Hawaiian specimens. 

The Whangarei skull, in its resemblance to specimens from 
parts of New Guinea, the Admiralty Islands, the interior of Fiji, 
New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands and tlie New Hebrides, is 
distinctly Melanesian, differing in this respect from the Polynesian 
type of Maoris and Morioris even when the mixed characters of 
these tvvo races is taken into account. 

Some reference is required to the relative length of the frontal 
and parietal arcs. So far as I can find, in the vast majority of 
skulls of Melanesians of pure race the parietal arc is longer than 
the frontal ; but it sometitnes occurs that the frontal is the 
longer, as is the case in the Whangarei skull. 

One must admit the possibility of a " freak specimen " in any 
race ; but if one were asked to classify the Whangarei skull from 
a consideration of its most obvious characters and without the 
knowledge that it was found in New Zealand one would almost 
certainly class it as the skull of a Melanesian, and would ilescribe 
it as possessing certain well-marked primitive racial characters. 

There is some evidence in support of the theory that the 
Melanesian or Negrito element, at a time prior to the Polynesian 
(Indonesian or Caucasian) emigration, spread over the whole of 
the South Seas. It any further lemains res«!mbling the Whang- 
arei skull were found in New Zealand there would lie fairly 
strong evidence that the tnembers of liie Melanesian race liad 
reached that land if they had not a<."tually peopled it. 



CKANIAL KKMAINS FUOM NKW /KALAN D — H AMSA Y SMITH. 115 



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KKCOKDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 





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CO 
1 CI1<<»»CIQOl«OOOOaO>CtCMCOOOO 

1 aoo50w-*i-o — cicio — t^ccoocMi- 


<i 


1 00 a-, o — CO 1 ~ — CI — • ■M CO ov i~- 1-- 00 <o t~ 


Whan- 
garei. 


1 — — SOC0I-C050M — OO — O — ^-t 
1 Ol C- O O CM -J — CO CO --I X CO Jl a> 3-. -r |-^ 






a 

0) 

c 
it 

u 
3 

01 

a: 
it 


> 
'Z 

et 

c 
« 


Glabello-occipital length 
Minimum frontal width . 

Stephanie breadth 

Asterionic breadth 

Greatest width 

Ppnlialif index 


Horizontal circumference 

Frontal arc 

PiiripfHl arc 


u 

1. 
« 

'Z 
C 


t 

o! 
'1 

c 


Glabello-inion arc 

Glabello-inion length ... 
Glabello lambda length.. 

Greatest length 

Basi-bregmatic height.. 
Vertioal index 





CRANIAL KKMAINiS FKOM VKW ZKALANl) — KAMSAV HMITH. 
Table III. 



iir 



Crania. 


A 

Glabello-inion 
length 


B 

Heightot' breg- 
ma above A 


C 

Heightofbreg- 

ma above gla- 

bello-lanibda 

line 


D 

Height of ver- 
tex above gla- 
bello-inion 
line. 


Whangarei 

Moriori "A" ... 
Moriori '■ B" ... 

Maori 1 

Maori 2 


191 
174 
173 
179 
180 
165 
171 
177 
192 

186 


95 
85 
90 
88 
90 
77 
90 
89 
86 

91 


65 
58 
52 
59 
68 
62 
64 
66 
62 

1 


107 
99 

108 
93 

102 


Maori 3 


82 


Maori 4 

Fiiian 


98 
100 


South Australian 

(Stuttgart) 
Epi 


94 
102 



THE RESULTS of DEEP-SEA INVESTIGATIONS in the 
T ASM AN SEA. 

I— THE EXPEDITION of H.M.C.S. "MINER." 

No. 5. — PoLYzoA Supplement.* 

By C. M. Maplestone. 

(Plates xxxiv. xxxv.) 

I have now completed the examination of the le.st of the 
Polyzoa in the collection forwarded to me by Prof. Haswell. 

Unfortunately they aie mostl}' in such a fraj^mentary and im- 
perfect condition that it is impossible to satisfactorily determine 
the greater portion of them speciticallj^ but I have been enabled 
to add to the list of known species in the collection the following : — 

A inphiblestrum attmilus, Manzoni, sp. 

Honiera airensis, Mapl. 

Liripora lineata, McGil. 

Fasciculipora gracilis, McGil 

Heteropora pisifonnis, McGil 

Of these Hornera airensis and Heteropora pisiformis have 
hitherto been recorded only as fossil from the Victorian Tertiary 
deposits. Amphiblestriini a/mnlus is also found fossil in Victoria, 
but Dr. P. H. MacGillivray records it as living in the Falkland 
and Kerguelen Islands. 'J'he otlier two are living on the 
Victorian coasts. 

In addition to these there are two specimens 1 liad laid 
aside for special examination but overlooked when )>reparing my 
previous report, which are among the most interesting in the 
whole collection on account of the very long vibracula with which 
they are furnished. They are the following: — 

SeLBNAKIA FLA(iELLlFEHA, Sp. HOV. 

(Plate xxxiv.). 

Zoarium (illiptical, 65 mm. long, T) mm. wide; raised in the 
centre longitudinally. Zooecia irregularly hexagonal, rounded 



* For Report on Polyzoa to whicli this is a Supplement see Keo. Austr. 
Mufi., vii., 4, 1909. p. 267. 



RKSUMS OK DKEP SKA INVKS IKJATION'S M A IT.KSTON K. I 1 i) 

above ; margins raised ; iinhricated. 'I'livrostome seini-ellipt.ical 
(?). Vihracula 3 mm. \ouif, curved, tlexihle. 

Ohs. — Tliis is a very inberestinj:; form ; the sliape of the zoarium 
is unusual, not circular hut elliptical with a lon<i;itu(Iinal ridge in 
the centre. The membranous layer covers the whole surface so 
that the exact sha|)e of the thyrostomes cannot be seen, they 
being hidden by the closed opercular ; but the great peculiarity 
of the species is the (comparatively) enormous length of the 
vil)racula, 3 mm. 

Sklenaria flagellifera, var. minor, va7\ nov. 
(Plate XXXV.) 

Zoarium Hat, suborbicular. Zooecia elliptical or irregularly 
hexagonal ; margins raised. Thyrostome semi-elliptical. Vi- 
bracula long and curved. Some of the marginal zooecia have 
inverted infundibular peri.stomes. 

Ohs. — The specimen froni which this variety is described may 
possibly be a young form of S. flagellifera, as the zooecia are 
similar, also the vibracula, which however are not so long, but 
the peculiar inverted infundibular peristomes seen on six of the 
marginal zooecia justify not merely making it a variety but 
possibly considering it as a distinct species, for I have never seen 
this form of peristome in any Selenaria ; it is however present in 
the marginal or basal zooecia of some Biporce ; it is not present 
in the specimen of S. flagellifera. 



X 



MINERALOGICAL NOTES: No. IX.— TOPAZ, QUARTZ, 

MONAZITE, AND OTHER AUSTRALIAN MINERALS. 

By C. Anderson, M.A., D.Sc. (Edin.), Mineralogist. 

(Plates xxxvi.-xxxix.) 

TOPAZ. 

Cow Flat, near Torrington, New South Wales. 

(Plate xxxvi., fig. 1.) 

Three fine, isolated, colourless crystals, the largest measuring 
'1 X 14 X 1-6 cna., have been recently added to the Museum col- 
lection ; the exact locality is Meehan's Lease. The crystals, 
which have a pyramidal liabit, are slightly waterworn, but tlie 
two which were measured gave fairly good signals. 

angles. 



Forms. 


Measured. 


Calculated. 
(Goldschmidt.) 


Difference. 


<t> 


P 





P 


<t> 


P 


/// 


110 


62 


6 


90 


62 8 


90 


2 





M 


230 


51 


35 


89 58 


5 i 35 


>> 





2 


I 


120 


43 


26 


90 


43 25 


>) 


1 





<i 


130 


32 


28 


90 


32 14 


)» 


14 








560 


57 


42 


— 


57 37 


>) 


5 





d 


201 


89 


58 


60 48 


90 


61 


2 


12 


f 


021 





4 


43 33 





43 39 


4 


6 


o 


221 


62 


7 


63 46 


62 8 


63 54 


1 


8 


71. 


in 


62 


16 


45 41 


62 8 


45 35 


8 


7 



The prism faces are in general vertically striated ; on 7n (110) 
are raised rectangular markings (inachfuvis-figitren), similar to 
those described on the topaz of Carpet Snake Creek ' . Reflect ion.s 
were obtained from the sides of tln'se markii)g.><, the average (h 



'Anderson — Ausir. Mue. Rec, vii., 11)09, pi, Ixxix., tig. 2. 



MINKKALO(;iOAL NOTKS ANOKfiHON. 



121 



angle being 64°28. On y (130) are striations with = 29", ap- 
proximately. The form O (560) is represented by lines in m ( 1 10). 

TaTB lilVKK, QUKENSLAND. 

(Plate xxxvi., tigs. 2-5.) 

For the loan of theHe and other Queensland topaz described in 
this paper I am indebted to Mr. H. Dunstan, Government Ge- 
ologist of Queensland. 

The topaz of the Tate River was shortly described by G. vom 
Rath= ; he found the forms m (HO), / (120), /■(021), y (041), d 
(201), o (221), but did not figure the crystals. The specimens 
which I have examined are small, averaging 4 x 6 x "7 cm ; some 
are very well formed with smooth Ijrilliant faces giving good 
reflections ; the habit is either pyramidal (figs. 2, 3), or domal 
(fig. 4). The terminal faces are etched progressively from the 
apex downwards, the base when present l)eing quite dull • this 
.seems to be a constant feature of worn topaz crystals. The form 
V (121), present on one crystal, 1 liave not previously encountered 
on the ninnerous Australian crystals which have passed through 
my hands. 

Below are the average co-ordinate angles obtained from tlie 
three measured crystals. 









Measured 




Calculated. 
(Goldsohinidt.) 


Diflference. 


Forms. 












(b 


P 


<!> 


P 





P 






o 


' 


o 




, 


/ 


' 


o / 


C 


001 





_ 


















'in 


1 10 


62 


9 


90 





62 8 


90 


1 





xt 


230 


51 


39 




)> 


51 35 


>i 


4 





I 


120 


43 


26 






43 25 


>> 


1. 





•n 


250 


37 


12 






37 7 


,, 


5 





II 


130 


32 


12 


89 


59 


32 14 


>) 


2 


1 


,1 


201 


_ 


_ 


60 


57 


90 


61 


— 


3 


h 


203 





_ 


30 


44 


„ 


31 2 


— 


18 


f 


021 








43 


39 





43 39 








V 


041 








62 


20 




62 20 








<> 


221 


62 


9 


63 


53 


62 8 


63 54 


1 


1 


11 


111 


62 


8 


45 


33 


,, 


45 35 





•> 


i 


223 


62 





36 







34 14 


8 


1 46 


V 


121 


43 


46 


52 


48 43 25 1 

1 


52 42 


21 


6 























"Rath— Sitz. Niedenh. Ges. Bonn, xliv., 1887, p. 291. 



122 



RECORDS OK THK AUSTRALIAN MUSKUM. 



Stanthorpe, Quebnsland. 

(Plate xxxvii., figs. 1, 2.) 

The crystal shown in fig. 1 is from Spring Gully ; it measures 
•4 X '6 X 1- cm,, and is clear and colourless. The terminal planes 
are much corroded and towards the apex even channelled. On 
the faces of /(021) are elongated markings the Munt ends of which 
are directed towai'ds the apex and the |)ointed ends towards y 
(041) ; y is striated parallel to its intersection with f. 



MBASURBD AND CALCULATED ANGLES. 









Measured. 




Calculated. 
(Ooldschmidt.) 


Difference. 




















^ 




P 


</> 


P 





1 ' 









' 


o 


' 


C> ' 


O ' 


' 


' 


h 


010 





1 


89 


57 





90 


1 


3 


in 


110 


62 


8 


90 


1 


62 8 







1 


M 


230 


51 


22 


90 


1 


51 35 




13 


1 


I 


120 


43 


21 


90 


2 


43 25 




4 


2 


d 


201 


90 


32 


61 


21 


90 


61 


32 


21 


f 


021 





3 


43 


47 





43 39 


3 


8 


y 


041 





1 


62 


If) 


«i 


62 20 


1 


4 





221 


62 


13 


64 


10 


62 8 


63 54 


y 


16 


n 


111 


62 


14 


45 


58 


»» 


45 35 


6 


23 



Fig. 2 represents a crystal of which tlie locality is given as 
Stanthorpe simply. It is light blue in colour, domal in habit, 
and measures 1-2 x 1*3 x 1-8 cm. It resembles somewhat the 
Stanthorpe crystal previously described in these Records' ; prob- 
ably these larger crystals belong to an older generation than 
does the Spring Gully specimen described above. The rectangular 
markings on m (110) are very pronounced ; the faces of o (001) 
and f (021) are much etched as shown in the figure ; all the ter- 
minal planes are somewhat worn, and gave only approximately 
correct angles. The prism n (140) is doubtfully present as 
striations in y (130). 



^Anderson — Rec. Austr. Miis., vii., 1908, p. 61, pi. xiii., figs. 3, 4. 



MlNBKALOr.lCAL NOIKS ANDKRSON. 



123 



MEAN ANrJLKS. 



Forms. 


Measured. 


Calculated. 
(Goldschmidt.) 


Difference. 


<^ 


P 


<^ 


P 


<t> 


P 






• 


' 


^ 





o 


' 


o 


C 


001 




— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


b 


010 





39 


90 2 





90 0; 


39 


2 


m 


no 


62 


7 


90 


62 8 




1 





M 


230 


51 


35 


89 59 


51 35 







1 


I 


120 


43 


23 


90 


43 25 




2 





g 


i:i0 


32 


16 


^ ^ 


32 14 




2 





l.n 


140 


25 


54 


89 59 


25 19 




35 


1 


d 


201 


90 





61 


90 


61 " 








h 


203 




— 


32 25 


)) 


31 02 


— 


1 23 


f 


021 





9 


43 10 





43 39 


9 


29 


o 


2-21 


62 


16 


63 44 


62 8 


63 54 


8 


10 


M, 


111 


62 


4 


45. 49 


)) 


45 35 


4 


14 



Lancewood Tin Mines, Chillagoe, Queensland. 
(Plate xxxvii., fig, 3.) 

This is a bluish crystal of donial habit measuring 13 x 16 x 1-5 
cm. It is simple with / (021), m (110) and I (120) largely de- 
-veloped ; the faces of h (010), M (230), and o (221) are small. The 
prisms are strongly striated and o and / are much worn towards 
the apex. 

TETRAHEDRITE. 

Hercules Mink, Mt. Read, Tasmania. 
(Plate xxxvii., tig. 4.) 

A hand specimen from this mine carrying crystallised tetra 
hedrite was lent to me for description by the late Mr. W. F. 
Petterd, of Launceston. The tetraheilrite, in minute but beauti- 
fully formed and brilliant crystals, occurs with rhombohedral 
calcite and siderite in small vughs of the country rock, which con- 

9 



124 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

tains veins and patches ot clialcopyrite. The mineral was ex- 
amined chemically and found to he normal tetrahedrite, contain- 
ing copj)er, antimony and sulphur ; no arsenic was detected but it 
may be ])resent in slight amount as the quantity available for 
testing was very small. 

Two crystals were measured ; they show the tetrahedral de- 
velopment, the forms present being o (111), o, (1 11), c? (HO), 7i 
(211), ?• (332). One line face of the cube was observed. The 
crystals are of almost ideal symmetry as represented in the 6gure. 



GYPSUM. 

Mount Elliott, Gloncurry, Queensland. 
(Plate xxxvii., fig. 5.) 

Since a short description of a crystal of seleuite from this mine 
was published*, additionul specimens have been obtained from 
Mr. W. T. Watkin Brown. Particularly fine are the groups of 
large, interpenetrating crystals, in the interstices of which are 
small well lormed crystals, suitable for goniometric investigation. 
The large crystals seem to be without excei)tion twinned on a 
(100) and elongated parallel to the c axis, while the smaller 
crystals are untwinned and elongated along the a axis, by one 
end of which they are usually attached. 

Mr. W. H. Corbould, general manager of the mine, has kindly 
furnished me with the following particulars of the mode of occur- 
rence. "The country rock is slate. The ore body in places is over 
one hundred feet wide. . . At the 400 ft. level (No. IV.) the ore 
is primary sulphide and, judging by the way the ore makes at this 
level and the large vughs, it points to the copjjer being deposited 
through ujirising watei's. In all the vughs there is lime. 
Between the Nos. II. and III. levels the ore has been alteied in 
places and even at the pre.'sent time there is a large amount of 
chemiyal action going on, as is noticed by the heat generated. Jt 
is between the Nos. II. and III. levels that the selenite is found, 
not always in vughs but at times in large deposits — one face 1 
saw was quite twenty feet long by fifteen feet high of nothing but 
crystals It was a great sight but I regret to say it was used as 
flux." 

*Aiuler80ii — Rec. Austr. Mus., vii. 1909, p. 276. 



MINERALOGICAL NOTES — ANDBRSON. 



125 



Four crystals were measured ; tliey are about 5 x "2 x -2 cm. 
and colourless and transparent as ii;las3. Twelve forms were 
identified, the indices and angles being tabulated below. 







Measured. 


Calculated. 
(Goldschniidt.) 


Difference. 






<^ p 





P 


<P 


P 






" 


' 


o 


' 


o 


O 1 


' 


1 


a 


100 


89 


59 


89 


59 


90 


90 


1 


1 


b 


010 








90 








J, 








z 


310 


77 


12 


89 


59 


77 11 






1 


1 


a 


210 


71 


11 


90 





71 11 












X 


320 


65 


32 


90 


1 


65 35 






3 


1 


m 


110 


55 


45 


90 





55 44 






1 





8 


350 


41 


24 


90 


3 


41 22 






2 


3 


h 


120 


36 


14 


90 





36 17 




3 





k 


130 


26 


17 89 


56 


26 5 






12 


4 


I 


111 


61 


34 41 





61 36 


41 


2 





n 


111 


47 


14 


31 


18 


47 22 


31 23 


8 


5 




313 


72 


57 


25 


6 


72 57 


25 10 





4 



The crystals have the following combinations (iii is figured). 





a b z a y\r m b h k I n 


Crystal. 


100 010 310 210 320 110 350 12U 130 111 111 313 


i. 


X XX XX XX 


ii. 


_X— — _X — X — XX '] 


111. 


XX XXXX X— XX X 


IV. 


XX XX XXX XX — 



The largest faces are usually those of ni{l 10) and ^ (111); some 
of the prism faces are slightly striated vertically ; n is striated 
parallel to its intersection with b. The form 313, of which two 
faces giving good signals were observed, has been previously re- 
corded by Artini^ on the gypsum of Ballabio. 



^Aitini — Reud. K. Inst. Loinb. 
App., Syst. Min., 1909, p. 48.) 



xxxvi., 1903, p. 1181 (fidt Dana— 2nd 



126 



KECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



QUARTZ 

MooNBi, New South Wales. 

(Plate xxxvii., fig. 6.) 

Mr. D. A. Porter informs me that this fine example of a quartz 
crystal twinned on the Japan law (twinning plane ^ (1122)) was 
found with several similar twins in situ at a depth of ten or 
fifteen feet about two and a half miles S.S.E. from Moonbi 
Railway Station. It has the usual flattened form of the Japan 
twin and the two segments are united in an irregular line ; 
height 2 cm. For measurement each segment in turn was 
mounted in the conventional position to furnish the meridian and 
polar plane to which the poles of both segments were referred. 

ANGLES. 



Forms. 



m 
r 

z 

8 

m 



Measured. 



Calculated. 



11/ 



1010 
1011 
01 
1121 

iqlo 

lOll 

01 Fi 



29 59 

9 15 

5 34 

21 55 



89 59 

51 49 

65 44 

30 24 

42 40 

86 39 



4> 


" 


' 














30 





9 


23 


5 


29 


21 


35 



90 
51 47 
33 



(jo 

30 27 

42 36 

86 38 



Difference. 






1 

s 

5 
20 



11 
3 
4 
1 



NuNDLE, New South Wales. 

(Plate xxxvii., fig. 7.) 

This Japan twin differs somewhat from the preceding. One 
segment is much larger than the other and above the junction (as 
fiaured) the larger segment tapers rapidly, while below it is of less 
dTameter ; height 2-7 cm. The apex of the smaller segment can 
be traced within the other but not distinctly. The twin is very 
similar to that from Dauphine, described by Goldschmidt*. 



eOoldschmidt— Zeits. Krynt., xliv., 1908, p. 415, pi, ix., figs. 2. 3. 



mineralogical notes —anderson. 127 

Hepfernan's Lease, Torrin'gton, New South Wales. 

(Plate xxxviii.) 

Here we have a large Japan twin in a group of untwinned 
crystals of quartz. It has the characteristic flattened form. 
Towards the bottom of tlie figure can be seen the impression of a 
crystal of beryl with prismatic striations, beryl being associated 
with quartz at this mine'^. 

WULFENITE. 

Junction Mine, Broken Hill, New South Waleb. 

Plate xxxix., figs. 1,2.) 

At this mine wulfenite occurs in small crystals, light red in 
colour, of about 3 cm. in diameter. Two somewhat different 
habits are recognisable as shown in the . figures. Forms present 
are :— c (001), m (110), g (310), k (210), e (101), n (111). The 
prisms are not well developed, in being very narrow while 
k and q are very much rounded. When both n and e are present 
e is the larger and is dull with drusy appearance ; n is bright and 
gives a good reflection. In every case there is apparently a 
horizontal plane of symmetry. 

Leigh Creek, South Australia. 

At this locality small brown crystals of wulfenite are associated 
with galena. The crystals are very simple, n (111) being the only 
form px-esent 

MONAZITE. 

King's Bluff, Olary, South Australia. 

(Plate xxxix., figs. 3-7.) 

Monazite was found in October, 1906, in small veins and 
vughs in the quartzite at the King's Bluff gold mine"*. It has 
also been obtained in the alluvial gold deposits of the same dis- 
trict. The Trustees recently acquired a collection of the crystal- 
lised monazite from Mr. Charles Bogenrieder, Mining Engineer. 
The crystals are about 5 cm. in greatest diameter, and of a 



■^ Anderson— Rec. Austr. Mas., vii., 1908, p. 62, 63. 
"Brown- Record Mines S. Aujtr., 4th Edit., 1908, p. 362, 



128 



RECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



reddish brown colour. The faces are often wavy and imperfect, 
hence the signals are sometimes hazy and indistinct, and the 
readings obtained not goorl. Both simple and twinned crystals 
occur. 

Four crystals were measured with results as tabulated below ; 
the form \ (212) is new. The anglesof c (001), « (120) and < (212) 
were obtained from single faces, of .s(l21) and X from two faces. 
In addition to the seventeen forms enumerated there were observed 
on one crystal (No. I.) a single face each of what may be a (^01) 
previously observed on monazite from California Creek, Queens- 
land^ (p obs =67°20, calc. 69 43), and a new form (302) (p obs = 
49°26, calc. 50 55). The crystal is apparently untwinned, but the 
supposed new face (302), wliich consists of small patches giving a 
fairly good signal, may possibly belong to the form to (101) (p = 
5 0"lO) of a twinned portion. 

FORMS AND ANGLES. 



Forms. 




Measured. 




Calculated. 

(Goldschiiiidr. 


) 


Difference. 


^ 


P 




<i> 


p 





P 






° 


, ' o 


' 


o 


/ 


c 


1 


C 


001 


88 


18 


12 


29 


90 


13 


40 


1 42 


1 11 


a 


100 


89 


59 


90 


5 


)i 


90 





1 


5 


b 


010 





3 


90 


8 





) 




3 


8 


m 


no 


40 


46 


90 


2 


46 43 






3 


2 


n 


120 


26 


28 


— 


- 


27 58 




) 


1 30 


-.- 


w 


101 


89 


52 


50 


37 


90 


50 ' 


48 


8 


11 


X 


101 


89 


40 


36 


27 


90 


36 


29 


20 


2 


e 


on 


14 


39 


43 


35 


14 43 


43 


44 


4 


9 


r 


111 


53 


2 


56 


35 


52 57 


56 


56 


5 


21 


s 


121 


34 


17 


67 


18 


33 31 


65 


45 


46 


1 33 


t 


112 


57 


53 


40 


42 


57 47 


40 


58 


6 


16 


*\ 


212 


70 


32 


52 


15 


69 20 


52 


40 


1 12 


25 


V 


111 


38 


32 


49 


49 


38 37 


49 


50 


5 


1 


t 


212 


58 





40 


6 


5"7 58 


41 


6 


2 


I 


u 


r2i 


21 


51 


63 


4 


21 46 


63 


21 


5 


17 


i 


211 


6i 


44 


62 


51 


6l 45 


62 


55 


1 


4 


•v 


311 


70 


43 


70 


47 


71 6 


70 


43 


23 


4 



"Anderion — Rec. Austr. Mus., vii., 1909, p.'2Sl, pi. Ixxxi., tig. u. 



MINERALOGICAL NOTES — ANDERSON. 129 

The four crystals exhibited the following combinations (i. figs. 
3 4 ; iii, figs 5, 6) :— 

c (I It III X "■ .'■ '' r s f \ V t I z 

Cryst. 001 100 010 110 120 101 Fol Oil 111 121 112 212 Ul 212 HZI 211 311 

i. — X X X — X X XX X — — X — X X X 

ii. — X — X — X — X — - - — — X — — X X 

iii. — X X X xxxx X — xxxxxxx 

iv. X X — X — X x X X X — - — X — X X X 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXII. 



CPwANIAL I'vEMAIXS FROM \V HANGARKI, X.Z. 

Fig. L I'artially restored portion of skull : aide view. 
,, 2. Do. do. view from behind. 

,, li. Partially re.stored skull, to show median ridge. 
,, 4. J)o. to show upi'a orbital margin. 

,, 5. Partially restored skull, to show frontal sinuses. 



IIEC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. V 1 1 T. 



Pl.ATK XXXII 





^•■\ 





W. RAMSAY SMITH, photo. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX I II. 



Skull from Kpi, New Hebrides, in tiie Australiau Museum. 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Platk XX \ 1 11. 




^i^- 




H. BARNKS, Jr.NK., photo. 
Aiistr. Mus. 



EXPLANATION OK I'LATE XXXIV 



POLYZOA. 
Fig. i . Portion of Selenariu flwie.lliftra— x 20. 
,, "J. Base of vibraculum anil zooecia — x 40. 
,, 3, Photograph of whole zoariiiin— X 6. 



REC. AUST15. MU8., VOL. Vm. 



Pr.AiK X.WIV 




^s!3^. 





C. M. MAPLESTONE, del. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXV 



PdhYZOA. 

Seknaria liagtllifera, var. minor. — x 4S 



REO. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Platk XXXV. 







k.^^iVl 







%^ 



C. M. MAPLESTONE del. 



KAPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVI 



Toi-A/,. 
Fig. 1. Meehan's Lease, near Toiringtou, N. S. Wales. 
Figs. '2-5. Tate Hiver, QueenslaiuL 

Forms.— (• (001), m (110), ^f (230), / (120), tt (250), </ (130), d 
/■(021). y (0U\ (221), u (111), i (223), r (121). 



201), /( (203) 



KEC. AUSTR. MUS.. VOL. VI 11 



Pl.ATK XXXVl. 




C. AXDERSON and M. AUROl'SSEAU, del. 
Austr. Mus. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVIL 



TOI'AZ. 

Fig. ]. Spring (Jiilly, Stanthorpe, QuefMishiiul. 

,, "2. Stantlioi'pe, Oueensland. 

,, ;{. LtUicewood Tin Mines, ("liillagoe, (^iieeiislainl. 
Forms.— r (001), l> (010), m (110), M {2:10), I (1'20), g (i:JO), w (UO), d ('201), 
/t (•20.3),/(021), o(2'21), n (111). 

Tetrahkdihtk. 

Fig. 4. Hercules Mine, Mt. Read, Tasmania. 
Forms.— 0(111), o, (HI), d (110), n (211), »• (S.S2). 

Gyi'Su.m. 

Fig. 5. Mt. Elliott, Cloncurry, Queensland. 

Forms— .( (100), h (010), ". (:-ilO), « {•.M0),\/^(:V20), v/) (llOi, ^ (^50), h (120) 
/•(i:50), /(111), u (Til), (.•iKil. 

(,)|TAKT/.. 

Fig. 6. M()onl)i, N. S. Wales ; twinned on ^ (1 122) (Japan Law). 

, 7. Nundle, N. S. W.Ues do. ( do. ) 

Forms.— w (1010). r (1011), -. (01 fl ), s ( 1 121). 



REC. AUSTR. MUS., VOL. VTIT. 



Plvik XXX VTl. 




C. ANDERSON and M. AUROUSSEAU del. 
Austr. Mus. 



KXPLANATION OF PLATK XXXVIIT. 

Qtartz. 
Hefteriian's Laaoe, Toi lingtoii, N. S. Wales; twiiiiieil on | ( 1 1'2"2) ('apiui 
Law). 



RKC. AI7STR. MUS., VOL. VIII. 



Plath; XXXVI 11. 




H. BARNES, JUNR., photo., 
Austr, Mus. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXLX. 

WULFENITE. 

Figs. 1, "2. Junction Mine, Broken Hill, N. S. Wales. 
Forms.- r (001), m(llO), f/mO), A; (210), e(lOl), ?mH1). 

MONAZITK. 

Figs, o 7. King's Bluff, Olary, S. Australia. 

Forma.—- (t»01), a (100), b (010), m (110), n (120), iv (101), .c (101), e (Oil) 

/• (lU), Ml21),/(112), X (212), r(lll), M-21-2),o(121), u2li; 

z (311). 



EEC. AUSTR. xMUS., VOL. VITl. 



t'LATK XXX IN. 




C. ANDERSON and M. AUROUSSEAU, del. 
Austr. Mus. 



DESCRIPTIONS of some NEW or NOTEWORTHY 
SHELLS IN THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

By Charles Hedley, Assistant Curator. 

(Plates xl.-xlv.) 



I 



a/e^o ;;;';„;^ ■'-' ^^' --PlHad: a„„ther „„„,e.. a,.d ilrfex 



01 iVMUti-ni. „w^_. , 

The size and habitat of Nucula loringi, Adams anu Augao y 
correspond to that of iV^. superba, but their phrase " margine 
intus simplice," is inconsistent. The crenulation of the inner 
margin of N. superba is only visible on good specimens and 
under a lens. But had it been overlooked by the authors, Mr. 
E. A. Smith would have referred to N. loringi in discussing the 
large Queensland Nucula"^. 

Hah. — The examj)le figured is 19 mm. long, 15 mm. high, the 
single valve 4 mm. deep; it was taken by Mr. A. U. Henn in 
10| fathoms near Bow Reef off Cape Sidn)outh, North Queens- 
land. I have obtained the species in 15 fathoms off the Paln> 
Islands, in 5-10 fathoms Hope Islands, and in 4-14 fathoms- 
Albany Passage, Queensland. 

1 Adams and Angas— Proc. Zool. Soc, 1863(1864), p. 427; Cooke- 
Cambridge Natural History, Mollusca, 1895, p. 273, fig. 189A. 

2 Smith— Chall.'.Rep., Zool., xiii., 1885, p. 225. 

10 



DESCRIPTIONS of some NEW or NOTEWORTHY 
SHELLS IN TUB AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

By Charles Hedlky, Assistant Curator. 

(Plates xl.-xlv.) 

NucuLA SUPERBA, Hedhy. 

(Plate xl., figs. 1, 2). 

Nucula superha, Hedley, Austr. Mus. Mem. iv., 1902, p. 292. 

In treating of N^icula ohliqua, Lamarck, I suggested that 
whereas the type of that species had a smooth inner margin to 
the valve and was a native of Tasmania, the name had been in 
error applied to a much larger shell from tropical Queensland 
with an inner margin microscopically crenulated and with long 
rake-like teeth. For this Queensland form I proposed the name 
of Nucula sicperba. 

The size and habitat of Niicula loringi, Adams and Angas^» 
correspond to that of N. superha, but their phrase " margine 
intus simplice," is inconsistent. The crenulation of the inner 
margin of N. superha is only visible on good specimens and 
under a lens. But had it been overlooked by the authors, Mr» 
E. A. Smith would have referred to N. loringi in discussing the 
large Queensland Nucula^. 

Hah. — The exami)le figured is 19 mm. long, 15 mm. high, the 
single valve 4 mm. deep ; it was taken by Mr. A. U. Henn in 
10| fathoms near Bow Reef off Cape Sidniouth, North Queens- 
land. I have obtained the species in 15 fathoms off the Paln> 
Islands, in 5-10 fathoms Hope Islands, and in 4-14 fathoms- 
Albany Passage, Queensland. 

1 Adams and Angas— Proc. Zool. Soc, 1863(1864), p. 427; Cooke- 
Cambridge Natural History, MoHusca, 1895, p. 273, tig. 189A. 

2 Smith— Chall.lRep., Zool., xiii., 1885, p. 225. 

10 



132 RECORDS OP THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

Myodoka pavimenta, sp. nov. 
(Plate xl., fig. 3). 

Shell transversely elongate, posteriorly truncate, thin, cora- 
preased. Colour uniform pearl gray, towards tlie umWo of the right 
valve are a few opaque radial streaks on a translucent ground. 
Right valve shallow, left slightly concave, especially round the 
margins. In both valves a broad posterior area is sharply 
defined. Ventral margin rounded, forming an obtuse angle at 
the intersection of the po.sterior ray, truncated end straight, 
broad, slightly oblique to the axis of the shell, forming a right 
angle with the posterior dorsal concave margin. Umbo acute, 
incurved. Anterior dorsal margin nearly straight, meeting the 
ventral margin in a blunt angle. Sculpture : a decided keel runs 
from the umbo to the postero-ventral angle. From this branch 
about a dozen widely spaced concentric ridges, similar to the 
radial, these gradually fade on the anterior side. On the left 
valve a furrow corresponds to the radial ridge. Length, 14 ; 
height, 8 ; depth of conjoined valves, 2 mm. 

Hab. — I dredged three specimens alive in five fathoms, in 
Van Dieraen Inlet, Gulf of Car[)entaria. About five hundred 
and sixty miles to the north-north-west, the " Challenger " dredged 
an un-named species, closely related and perhajis identical 
with this^. In 15 fathoms, ofif the Palm Islands, Queensland, I 
dredged several dead and mostly small specimens. 

i Myodora tessera, s/>. nov. 

(Plate xl., fig. 4). 

Shell large, thin, compressed, equiUteral, sub-rhomboidal. 
Posterior dorsal margin concave, anterior dorsal margin straight 
in the young, convex in the adult. Colour uniform cream butf; 
both valves brilliantly nacreous within. Left perfectly flat, 
right very shallow. Sculpture : on both valves shallow, l)road, 
irregularly spaced, concentric corrugations, abruptly limited 
by a posterior ray which is bordered in the flat valve by a 

" Smith— Chall. Rep., Zool., xiii., 1885, p. 66. 



SOMK NEW OK NOTEWORTHY SHELLS — HKDLEY. 133 

iunow, in the deep valve by a ridge. Continuous over all is a 
n)iciosco[)ically grained surface. Length, 36 ; height, 29 ; depth 
of single valve, 5 miu. 

This fine species has some resemblance to M. striata, Quoy 
and Gaimard, from New Zealand. But that is more strongly 
scul|)t,ured, more solid, more inflated, and shorter in proportion 
to height. 

Hah. — I collected several specinienH of this on the beach at 
Mapoi)n and Karumba. At Mapoon I found also another 
apparently new species more compressed, more delicately sculp- 
tured, and with the posterior area less diflferentiated. 

LOKIPES ASSIMILIS, AuyaS. 

Loripes nssimilis, Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, pp. 910, 926, 
pi. xliv., fig. 8. 

Lucina (^Loripes) jacksoniensis. Smith, Chall. Rep., Zool., xiii., 
1885, p. 185, pi. xiii., fig. 11. 

Both of these were described from Sydney Harbour ; the 
•discrepancy between the accounts may be reconciled if we 
considered that the single specimen used by Smith was worn but 
that Angas had fresh material. For good specimens show fine 
close concentric laminae but no trace, or hardly any, of radial 
lines. As wear of the shell proceeds, the lamellae go, and over 
the whole shell appear fine close radial Hues, which are not 
surface sculpture, but opaque substance within the shell, 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel with whom I have discussed the subject and 
who examined the types of each in the British Museum agrees 
with me that these names should be united. 

Angas contrasted his L. assimilis with L. icterica, Reeve. No 
locality for that species was given by Reeve, and Mr. Gabriel 
was unable to find Reeve's type in the British Museum. I 
suggest that the Sydney shell which Angas rightly or wrongly 
took for L. icterica was that afterwards called Lucina ramsayi 
by Smith. In that case Angas used small examples, for in my 
experience L. ramsayi exceeds L. assimilis in size. It is also 
likely that the L. icterica, Reeve, which Melvill and Standen* 
reported fiom Warrior Island was also L. ramsayi, as I found 
that species on Murray Lsland. 

* Melvill and Standen— Journ, Linn. Soc, Zool., xxvi., 1899, p. 200. 



134 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

Among Australian collectors tliere has been a tendency to 
confuse L. icterica with L. assimilis. Thus "J'enison Woods' 
remarks on L. icterica^ seem to refer to L. assimilis. Smith 
compares Lucina jacksoniensis to L. parvula, Gould^ also a Port 
Jackson species. But Pilsbry states'^ that Gould's species does 
not differ from L. pisidium, Dunker. In this case Bunker's 
name must take precedence.'* 



ROCHEFORTIA EXCELLENS, Sp. nov. 

(Plate xL, figs. 5, 6, 7, 8). 

Shell unusually large, oblong, twice as long as high, rather 
inflated, glossy, thin, translucent. Anterior side slightly longer 
Ends rounded, dorsal margin arcuate. Ventral margin apparently 
straight, but on rigid examination a slight median insinuation is 
perceptible. Sculpture : external surface delicately concentrically 
striate. Under high magnification the dorsal area is finely 
shagreened and faint radial lines appear towards the median 
ventral margin. Inner ventral margin slightly finely crenulated. 
Inner part of pallial impression fimbriated. Length, 25 ; height,. 
13-5 ; depth of single valve, 4 mm. 

This, one of the giants of its tribe, is readily distinguishable 
by size and shape. 

Hab. — I gathered several specimens on the beach at Green 
Island, Queensland. I also found a single valve on the beach at- 
Suva, Fiji. 

Edenttellina typica, Gatliff a,nd Gabriel. 

Edenttelllna typica, Gatliff and Gabriel, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict.,. 
xxiv., (n.s.), 1911, p. 190, pi. xlvi., figs. 5-6. 

A new genus is here founded for a supposed bivalve with a spiral 
tip, in which neither cardinal nor lateral teeth, neither resilium, 
chondroi)hore, nor ligament, neither lunule nor escutcheon, 

s Ten. Woods -Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1877 (1879), p. 53. 
6 Gould— Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., viii., 1861, p. 36. 
T Pilsbry— Cat. Mar. Moll. Jap., 1895, p. 133. 

8 Dunker— Malak. Hlatt., vi., 1860, p. 227 ; M— Moll. Jap., 18G1,. 
p. 28, pi. iii., tig. 9. 



SOME NKW OK NOTKWOUTIIV SI1^:LLS — IIEDLKY. 135 

• neither adductor, pedal, nor pallial muscle scars are to be found. 
Its authors refer it to the Pelecypoda but not to any division or 
family. It is now suggested that no Pelecypod family would 
contain it, because it is the internal shell of some Tectibranch 
Gasteropod. Edenttellina should be compared with such a shell 
as that of Bouvieria siellata, Kisso, figured by Vayssiere. *** 

If so, it would be associated with such puzzles as Thelidonuis, 
an insect larva case described by Swainson as a Gasteropod; 
Allportia, a I'lanariau described by I'enison Woods as a Nudi- 
branch ; and Amalthea coxi, a barnacle described by Sowerby as 
a Gasteropod. 

According to figure and description, the genus Ludovicia^ is 
very similar to Edenttellina, and, if both were really bivalves, 
might serve to contain the Australian species. 



MONTHOUZIERA CLATHRATA, Souvsrhie. 



Montrouziera clathrata, ^o\\\evh\e, J onvn. de Conch., xi., 1863, 
p. 282, pi. xii., fig. 5. 

The genus J/ont7-o7iziera was founded on a single species 
represented by a single specimen in the Bordeaux Museum. 
Souverbie proposed that it should be classified next to Cumingia. 
The species does not appear to have been again recognised, and 
for nearly fifty years no further information has appeared in 
literature. iSnbseqnent writers, like Fischer and Tryon merely 
repeat the original matter. 

Fioni Mr. J. Brazier we lately obtained four specimens 
dredged in three fathoms in Mozelle Bay near Noumea, New 
Caledonia, the original locality. Except in being rather smaller, 
viz. 10 mm., these agree with Souverbie's excellent figure and 
■description. 

Their examination induces me to suggest transference of the 
genus from the Semelidse to the Psammobiidro. Monlroicziera 
seems to me to be nearest to Asaphis but whereas Asaphis has 

8* Ann. des Sciences Naturelles., Ser. viii., Zool., viii., 1898, p. 306, 
pi. XX., figs. 84, 84. 

9 Cossmann— Mem. Soc. Roy. Malac. Belg., xxii., 1887 (1888), p. 45, 
.pi. ii., figs. 21-22. 



136 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

two cardinal teeth in each valve, Montrouziera has in the right 
valve a third cardinal additional, and posterior to the otliers. 



Clanculus comarilis, sp. nov. 
(Plate xl., figs. 9, 10, 11). 

Shell solid, conical. Whorls, seven, parted by impressed sutures. 
Colour, white, clouded with pale brown, every third or fourth 
bead in every row picked out with dark madder-brown, giving a 
general effect of irregular dark radial stripes on a pale ground. 
Apex articulated with crimson. Sculpture : on the upper whorls 
are four gemmule rows, and part of a fifth is visible along the 
suture, the last whorl has twelve rows, of which seven are on the 
base. The gemmules are prominent, glossy, about fifty to a 
whorl, their breadth apart from row to row, but closer within 
the row. The anterior row of each whorl lias larger and more 
crowded gemmules. The interstices between tlie rows are 
microscopically reticulated by spiral and oblique strife. Tlie 
aperture descends two gemmule rows. Within the liase are tour 
entering plications, otherwise the armature agrees with that of 
C. unedo and related forms. Heiglit, 13; maj. diam., 10; min. 
diam., 8 mm. 

The novelty is perhaps nearest to Clancuhis vnedo, A. Adams' *', 
a species already reported from Australia by Messrs. Melvill and 
Standen'^. Adams' name is without locality or size and was in 
literature unrecognisable until Fischer'- figured and redescribed 
it from New Caledonia. C. comarilis is distinguishable from the 
New Caledonian species by its narrower form and its colour both 
of hue and pattern. C. unedo has more ridges within the outer 
lip than G . comarilis. By its narrow elevated shape the no\elty 
concludes a sequence from 6'. clanguloides to C. stigmariits to 
C. unedo. 

Hah. — Palm Islands (type, C. Hedley) ; Barnaid Islands (Dr. 
R. Pulleine) ; and Cooktown (J. O. Day), all in tropical 
Queensland. 



10 A. Adams— Proc. Zool. Soc, 1851 (1S53). p. 161. 

*• Melvill and Staiulen — Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool., xxvii., 1S99, p. 175. 

i=» Fischer— Coquillea Vivantea, Trochus, 1880, p. 32:^, pi. 101, fig. -'. 



SOME NEW OR NOTEWORTHY SHELLS UBDLKY. 137 

MONODONTA DIMINUTA, sp. 710V. 

(Plate xli., fig. 12). 

Shell small, solid, ovate-turbinate, dull and rough. Wlioils 
five and a half, separated by impressed sutures. Colour very 
variable; entire maroon or entire slate or eitlier with broad 
radiating stripes of buff, or the spiials articulated with buff' on a 
maroon or slate giound, or combinations of tliese ; tlie nacre of 
the interior of the aperture bordered with emerald. Sculpture : 
elevated spiral ridges, four or five on the upper whorls, about 
sixteen on the last, smaller and closer on the base, both ridges 
and interstices are obliquely crossed by fine growth striae. 
Aperture subquadrate, brilliantly nacreous with a narrow border. 
Base of the columella externally expanded, internally bearing 
thi-ee small tubercles. Throat with about seven entering ridges 
which commence at the bevel within the lip, body whorl with 
a slight smear of callus. Height, 7 ; maj. diam., 7 ; niin. diara., 
6 mm. 

As a dwarf form this represents within the Queensland tropics 
the Austroclea of temperate Australia. 

Apart from the great difference in size, J/, diminuta is 
distinguished by several tubercles at the base of the columella, 
where M. zebra and M. constricta have but one. 

Hab. — I have collected this species on the beach at Mapoon 
(type), Sweers Island, Cape York, Cairns, Dunk, Hinchinbrook 
and Palm Islands. It was sent as from Port Curtis by Mr. J. 
Shirley, and from Thursday Island by Dr. C. G. Seligmann. 

Minolta henniana, Melvill. 

(Plate xli., figs. 13, 14, 15). 

Minolia henniana, Melvill, Journ. of Conch., vi., 1891, p. 410, 
pi. ii., fig. 14. 

The type of this species was obtained at Magnetic Island, near 
Townsville, Queensland. The figure of it is rough, the descrip- 
tion brief and it is therefore not easy to identify. Not without 
hesitation I assign here a species which I collected at several 
places in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Mapoon, Van Diemen Inlet, 
Sweer Island and IVtornington Island, a specimen from the last 



138 RECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

being figured herewith. It is 4 mm. in major diameter but has 
five whorls, as is usual in the genus, not four as is ascribed to 
M. henniana. A microscopic sculpture of fine radial threads 
over-run the spirals and are more apparent on the base. In 
colour it is variable, the figured example has walnut-brown 
radial flames on a grey ground, in others the flames are brick 
red and in some the flames break up into small chequers. 



Larina C?) turbinata, Gatliff and Gabriel. 

Larina{?) hirbinata, Gatliff and Gabriel, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
xxii., (n.s.), 1909, p. 35, pi. xiii. 

Under this title was described a mollusc dredged alive in five 
fathoms in Western Port, Victoria. The same species was 
subsequently procured by Mr. W. L. May in fort}' fathoms oflf 
Schouten Island, Tasmania. ^^ 

Though first described from " Moreton Bay," Mr. E. A. Smith 
shows that Larina is related to Vivipara and is "undoubtedly a 
fresh water form. " In rebuttal Messrs Gatliff and Gabriel 
suggest that tidal influence might prevail in the Mackenzie 
River, Queensland, at the spot where typical Larina occurred. 
Unfortunately for this argument the Mackenzie flows not into 
the sea, l)ut into the Fitzioy more tlian a hundred miles from 
marine influence. Another species of Larina was discovered by 
D'Albertis in tlie Upper Fly River, British New Guinea. 

Pictures of the two shells look alike, but actually L. iurbinata 
has but superficial resemblance to the real Larina. Though 
destructive criticism of this classification is eas}', constructive 
work of correctly placing the Victorian shell is liard. With 
happier treatment the radula and operculum might have directed 
us to its natuial position. But the operculum was lost, the radula 
left undescribed and figured as a featureless blur. 

Failing the introduction of a new genus I would suggest for 
the reception of L. (?) Iurbinata, Pfeff^er's Antarctic genus 
Pellilitorina.^* To this belong P. serosa, Smitli, from Kerguelen, 
and F. pellita, Martens, from South Georgia. 

IS May- Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasin., 1910, p. 308. 

1* Ffeffer— Jahrb. Hamb. Wiss. Auat., iii., JSS6, p. 77, pi. 3, tigs. 6, 7. 



SOME NEW OR NOTEWOIITIIY SIIKLF.S — HKDLKY. 139 

Ainmirojisis (1) rossiana, Smith, ^•''' from McMurdo's Sound 
appears akin. Somewhat similar features are presented by the 
Antarctic genera Neoconcha, Smith, and Trichoconcha^ Smith. 

Probably Amauropsis morchii, Adams and Angas^" should 
accompany these in a transfer to Pellilitorhia. 

Alvania ph.etornatilis, sp. nov. 

(Plate xli., fig. 16). 

Shell solid, conical, glossy, narrowly perforate, periphery 
angled, shoulder smooth steeply sloped, base sculptured. Colour 
uniform dull wliite. Whorls five parted by deeply channelled 
sutures. Sculpture : first whorl and a half with about six 
uniform equidistant spiral threads, vanishing on latter whorls, 
which have the shoulder smooth, periphery girt with prominent 
double keel, and base with five feebler spirals. Umbilicus a 
narrow furrow. Aperture entire subcircular, outer lip much 
thickened. Height, 3 ; breadth, 1-6 mm. 

This nearest approaches Jiissoa imbrex, Hedley,'^^ in which the 
spire whorls are more exsert, though of similar sculpture. The 
novelty is shorter, broader, more solid and has the base spirally 
ridged, whereas in R. imbrex it is smooth. 

Hob. — The species is represented by a single specimen dredged 
in November, 1880, in 35 fathoms off Broughton Island, Port 
Stephens, N. S. Wales. It is recorded on p. 21 of the Annual 
Report of this Museum for 1881 as " No. 62 Rissoa, )<p. nov." 

RiSSOINA CARPENTARIENSIS, sp. UOV. 

(Plate xlii., fig. 20). 

Shell small, solid, ovate. Colour : the beachworn specimens 
before me are white. Whorls five, rapidly increasing. Sculpture : 
stout projecting spiral ribs parted by interstices of equal breadth, 
of these the body whorl has seven to nine, the penultimate four, 

isSmith— Nat. Antarctic Exp., iii., Moll., 1907, p. 5, pi. 5, fig. 6. 

* s Adams and Angas — Proc. Zool. Soc, 1863, p. 42.'i ; Hedley — Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxvi., 1901, p. 700, pi. xxxiv., figs. 19, 20. 

1^ riedley— Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, xxx., 1908, p. 469, pi. x., 
£g. 33. 



140 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

the antepenultimate three. A heavy funicle runs round the- 
basal axis into the varix. Aperture perpendicular elliptical, 
bordered by a singularly prominent varix. Length, 3-4 ; breadth,. 
2'1 mm. 

The small size, strong spiral sculpture, and ab.sence of emargina- 
tion on the anterior lip, characterise this eccentric species. 

Hab. — I gathered a few specimens on the beach at Mornington 
Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland. 



RiSSOlNA RHYLLENSIS, GatUff and Gabriel. 

Rlssoina rhi/llensis, Gatliff and Gabriel, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
xxi., 1908, pp. 367, 379, pi. xxi., tig. 8. 

Rissoinafausta, Hedley and May, Rec. Austr. Mus., vii., 1908^ 
p. 117, pi. xxii., fig. 10. 

After interchange of specimens, it has been mutually agreed 
that these names refer to the same species. That of R. rhyllensis 
enjoys a few days precedence over R Janata. The species was 
simultaneously observed by Dr. Verco in South Australia. i^ 

POTAMOPYRGUS RUPPIiE, Sp. nov. 

(Plate xli., tig. 17). 

Shell small, rather thin, oblong ovate, narrowly perforate. 
Colour sometimes uniform brown, or buff or olive, more frequently 
ground colour olive-buff with two cinnamon bands, one at the 
horizon of the lip insertion, another midway between that and 
the suture. Whorls four rounded. Surface smooth, but faint 
keels are sometimes and irregularly developed. Aperture simple 
entire, rounded l)elow and angled al)ove ; columella margin a 
little reflected, inner lip consideral^ly thickened in the adult. 
Length, 215; breadtli, IS mm. 

This is related to the Victorian /'. buccinoides, Quoy and 
Gaimard ^^ but is smaller, proportionately broader, less tightly 
coiled with fewer whorls. 

18 Verco— Trana. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xxxii., 1908, p. .3-41. 
1" Quoy antl Gaimard^Voy. Astrolabe, Zool., iii., IS.'U, p. 175, pi 58^ 
figs. i:M5. 



SOME NKW OK NOTEWORTHY SHKLLS — HEDLEY. 141! 

Hah. — Type from brackish water in Deewhy Lagoon a few 
miles north of Sydney. Here I found the species living in 
abundance on the thread-like foliage of a plant which Mr. J. H, 
Maiden has kindly identified for me as Ruppia maritima, Linr.e. 
It was associated with Tale.a rvjilabris, A. Adams, Salinator 
fragilis, Lamarck, and Modiola stibtorta, Dunker. The shell was 
also taken in the neighbouring las^oou of Fieshwater by the late 
Mr. F. E. Grant. I have also seen it in a mangrove swamp in 
Lane Cove, Port Jackson. 



CrOSSEA GEMMATA, sp. 710V. 

(Plate xli., fig. 19). 

Shell rather large, thin, pellucid. Colour uniform white. 
Whorls four and a half, rounded, last whorl descending, almost 
free finally. Sculptux'e : protoconch of a whorl and a half small 
and smooth, on the following whorls about half a dozen sniKll 
sharp spiral keels whose interstices are latticed by radial ribs, 
these latter fade gradually away. On the body whorl the spirals 
amount to about thirteen, broad flat smooth interstices separate 
narrow sharp erect ridges. The crest of each spiral is beset Avith 
a row of very minute and crowded beads, about eighty to a whorl. 
Aperture subcircular, the outer lip fimbriated by the ends of 
the spirals. A funicle represented by the innermost spiral running 
out to the anterior angle of the lip. Umbilicus deep and narrow. 
Length, 375 ; breadth, 3 5 mm. 

No other species in the genus has beaded ribs, though in 
cancel late sculpture C. concinna, Angas, and C. cancellaia, Ten. 
Woods, make an approach. 

Hab. — I collected a single specimen on the beach at Mapoon, . 
Gulf of Carpentaria. 

COUTHOUYIA ASPERA, Sp. nov. 

(Plate xli., fig. 18). 

Shell ovate-acuminate, thin. Colour white. Whorls six, 
rapidly increasing, gradate, last descending almost uncoiled. 
Sculpture : last whorl with about twenty-five fine spiral sharp 
equal threads, decussated by tine radial threads which latterly 



142 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

and especially towards tlie base Uecorae evanescent. On the 
upper whorls radial lamellae predominate and the spirals gradually 
disappear. Aperture D-shaped, guttered at the anterior angle, 
whence a serrate crested funicle winds into the umbilicus. 
Umbilicus sub-cylindrical, deep, narrow, longitudinally striate 
within by growth lines, overhung by the curled margin of the 
columella. Length, 53; breadth, 35 mm. 

This is intermediate between the two Australian .species alrea<ly 
known, being less rough than C. acrdeata, Hedley,-*^ but rougher 
than C . gracilis, Brazier."^ Appai'ently Ctlielacme, Melvill"-, 
from the Persian Gulf is also related. 

Hah, — I obtained a few specimens of this species in 17-20 
fathoms off Masthead Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland. 



Vanikoro sigaretiformis, Potiez and Michaud. 

(Plate xlii., figs. 21, 22). 

Velutina sigaretiformis, Potiez and Micliaud, Galerie Moll. 
Douai, 1838, p. 508, pi. xxxv., figs. 21, 22. 

Narica sigaretiformis, Recluz, Mag. de Zool., 1845, p. 55, 
pi. cxxxii., fig. 3. 

The Vanikoro which is commonest in Sydney Harbour appears 
to me to be V. sigaretiformis, Potiez and Michaud. Mr. E. A. 
Smith is of the opinion that the V. recluziana, Adams and 
Angas, described -"^ from Sydney should be united to it. 

In the genus Vanikoro it is frequent that earlier whorls carry 
comparatively prominent radial ribs, which at a certain stage 
cease abruptly and are succeeded by un entirely different scheme 
of delicate spiral threads. Tliese diversely ornamented upper 
whorls api)ear to afford the most tangil)le features for specific 
differentiatioii in tliis difiicult group. So sudden and complete is 
the change that observers have failed to connect the young with 

= Hedley— Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxv., 1900, p. 89, pi. iii. 
fig. 10. 

2^ Brazier — Loc. oil., p. 506, pi. xxvi., fig. 13. 

a- Melvill— Proc. Malac. Soc, vi., 1904, p. 54, pi. v., fig. 20. 

23 Adams and Angas — Proc. Zool. Soc , 1863, p. 424. 



SOME NEW OR NOTEWORTHY SHELLS — HEDLEY. 143 

the adult of the same shell. Thus Dr. Verco concluded that his 
Vanikoro denselaminata was the young state of Adeorbis viiicetit- 
iana, Angas."* 

To make clear the change which V. sigaretijonnis undergoes, 
I present drawings of one specimen 3 5 mm. in diameter and of 
another 7 mm. in diameter, the species finally reaching a diameter 
of 1 1 mm. 

Mr. Smith explains"^ that the adult shell of V. expansa,. 
Sowerby, is unrecognisable from the figure and description of the 
immatuie type. This species has as yet only been recorded 
from North West Australia. The additional information now 
available leads me to identify as V. expansa a shell widely 
distributed in Queensland, which I collected on the beaches at 
Mapoon, Karumba, and Forsyth Island, Gulf of Cai-pentaria, 
dredged in 7-10 fathoms at Port Curtis, and received from 
Caloundra. 

As far as my experience goes, V. cancellata is restricted to the 
coral reefs, and in Queensland V. expansa replaces it in the 
muddy water of the mainland coast. 

Nerita cancellata, Chemnitz, on which Lamarck founded his 
Sigaretus cancellatus is quite different from the species which 
Herman had previously and regularly described as Nerita 
cancellata. " ^ 

Mr. E. A. Smith in the paper above cited, transfers to Vanikoro 
Adeorbis vincentiana, Angas. Two other species should accompany 
this, viz. Adeorbis angasi, A. Adams, ^'' and A. angxUata, 
Hedley2 8. 

These three appear to constitute a distinct section of the 
genus. 

Syrnola manifesta, sp. nov. 

(Plate xlii., figs. 23, 24). 

Shell rather large, elongate conical, solid, smooth and glossy. 
Colour uniform milk white. Adult whorls, ten, tapering, 
gradually increasing, each with a narrow but sharp step at the 

2* Verco— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xxxiv., 1910, p. 118. 

25 Smith— Proc. Malac. Soc, viii., 1908, p. 109. 

^6 Herman— Naturforscher, xvi., 1781, p. 56, pi. ii., figs. 8, 9. 

27 Adams— Proc. Zool. Soc, 1863, p. 424, pi. xxxvii., figs. 11, 12. 

»8 Hedley— Rec Austr. Mus., vL, 1905, p. 50, fig. 15. 



fl44 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

summit. Protoconch small, slightly immersed, half turned over, 
of an involute whorl and a half. Aperture pyriform, broadly 
rounded below, constricted above. Columella margin reflected. 
Plication prominent, entering obliquely. Beneath it a narrow 
axial crevice. Length, 155 ; breadth, 45 mm. 

This appears near to a South Australian Pleistocene fossil, 
Syrnola jonesiana, Tate. "^ I have no specimen of the fossil for 
comparison, it is of smaller size with fewer whorls. 

Hah. — A single specimen (the type) from the Six Mile Beach, 
Port Stephens, N. S. Wales, was obtained from Mr. J. Brazier. 
Three others were collected by Mr. C. Laseron at Trial Bay, 

N. S. Wales. 

Odostomia revincta, sp. nov. 

(Plate xlii., fig. 25). 

Shell small solid, sub-cylindrical imperforate. Colour unitorm 
bufif. Whorls two and a half, exsert, procumbent nuclear whorls 
and three adult whorls parted by deeply channelled sutures. 
Sculpture massive, on each whorl a chain of beads, about fourteen 
to a whorl, above a simple solid peripheral rib. On the base 
five spiral keels diminishing in descending order. Aperture 
obliquely pyriform. Length, 1-35; breadth, 065 ram. 

This species appears to belong to the sub-genus Miralda.^'^ Its 
striking sculpture readily distinguishes it from kindred forms. 
To Miralda should also be transferred the Queensland shells I 
described as PyrguJina umeralis, P. zea and P. sentx. 

Hab. — I obtained two specimens in 15 fathoms off the Palra 
Islands, Queensland. 

Chileutomia couallina, sp. nov. 

(Plate xlii., fig. 26). 

Shell minute, sub-cylindrical, thin, smooth and glossy. Colour 
white. Ou the decollated specimen under examination, five 
whorls remain, these increase rapidl}' and are parted by inipiessed 

2 9 Tate— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xxii., 1898, p. 70, p. 83, text 
.fig. 

3 Dall and Bartsch— Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 68, 1909, p. 176. 



SOME NEW OH NOTEWORTHY SHELLS — HEDLEY. 145 

sutures. On each side ascend a series of nearly continuous 
varices, which cause the shell to appear slightly compressed from 
back to front. Aperture pyriform, outer lip advanced periph- 
erally, columella margin thickened. Length, 2 25 ; breadth, 
•0"65 mm. 

Compared with C. anceps, Hedley,^^ the novelty has less 
developed varices and is much smaller and more slender. 

Hah. — A single specimen was taken by Mr. A. U. Henn, in 
lOi fathoms near Bow Keef, off Cape Sidmouth, North 
Queensland, 

SCAPHELLA MOSLEMICA, sp. nOV. 

(Plate xliii., figs. 29, 30). 

Shell small, thin, ovate-fusiform. Whorls three besides a 
protoconch of three and a half whorls. In the adult the spire 
whorls are coated with thick opaque callus. Colour cream to 
salmon buff, longitudinally painted by about a dozen deeply 
sinuate narrow cinnamon lines. Columella with four plications, 
between the upper pair an interstitial thread sometimes occurs. 
Length, 55 ; breadth, 25 mm. 

The novelty is closely related to S. undulata, Lamk., which it 
i-epresents and teplaces in deep water, and from which it differs 
by being a smaller thinner shell with a smaller protoconch and 
having the spire whorls wrapped in a white sheet of callus. The 
Tertiary fossil, Voluta inasoni, Tate,^^ approaches in form and 
size but differs in colour pattern. 

Hab. — East of Sydney in 250 fg-thoms, off Wollongong in 100 
fathoms, 80 fathoms 22 miles east of Narrabeen, (G. Hedley) ; 
and deep water between Gabo and Flinders Island (Mr. H. C. 
Dannevig). 

Marqinella geminata, sp. nov. 

(Plate xlii., fig. 28). 

Shell biconical, glossy, solid, and opaque in the old, thin and 
translucent in the young. Colour uniform white. Whorls four, 
flattened above the shoulder, contracted at the base. After 

31 Hedley— Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxv., 1900, pp. 90, 505, 
,pl. iii., figs. 5, 6, 7. 

3a Tate— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xl, 1S89, p. 128, pi. iii., fig. 9. 



146 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

maturity the spire is overspread with a callus sheet obscuriug the- 
sutures;. Another and thicker layer is extended on the body- 
whorl in advance of the aperture. Aperture narrow, anteriorly 
subrostrate, posteriorly channelled and ascending the previous^ 
whorl. Outer lip with a thick varix externally and about ten 
evenly spaced small denticules internally. Columella with four 
strong elevated folds, the posterior horizontal about half way 
along the aperture, the anterior running into the margin of the 
subrostrate extremity. Length, 6 ; breadth, 4 mm. 

In size, shape, colour and general appearance M. geminata 
closely resembles Marginella Icevigata, Brazier, ^^ from Torres 
Strait and New Guinea. At first acquaintance of J/, geminata 
I figured it and considered it a variety of M. hevigata.^*' On 
reconsideration the differences though slight are found to he 
constant and, supported by a very different habitat, are believed 
to justify specific independence. 

M. tcevigata has a narrower aperture, taller spire, less angled 
spire whorls, the varix more wing-like and has more and closer 
denticules within the outer lip. It also iidial)its very warm 
water but its twin lives in cold water. Marginella haiidinensisy 
Smith, ^^ from tropical West Australia appears to be identical 
with Brazier's species. To assist comparison I now re-figure 
both species, M. Icevigata (PI. xlii., fig. 27) from Torres Strait and 
M. geminata (PI. xlii., fig. 28) from 100 fathoms off Wollongong,, 
N. S. Wales. 

Hah. — M. geminata is characteristic of the continental shelf,. 
ranging from 25 to 250 fathoms and from Cape Byron in the- 
North to Tasmania in the south. Under the wrong name of 
M. Icevigata I have already reported it from several localities. In 
this Museum it is represented as follows:— 100 fathoms off 
Wollongong (type); 80 fathoms off Narrabeen ; 250 fatlioms off 
Sydney (C Hedley) ; off Cabbage Tree Island (Museum Expe- 
dition of 1880) ; 1 11 fathoms off Cape Byron (G. H. Halligan) ; 
Westernport, Victoria (C. J. Gabriel) ; 63-75 fathoms Port 
Kenibla (figured in 1903); 40-50 fathoms Cape Three Points; 
54-59 fathoms Wata Mooli ; 50-52 fathoms Botany Heads (Thetis 
Expedition) ; 40 fathoms off Schouten Island, Tasmania 
(W. L. May). 

33 Brazier— Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, i., 1877, p. 22 o ; Hedley— 
Rec. Austr. Mus., iv., 1901, pi. xvi., fig. 5. 

34 Hedley— Austr. Mu.s. Mem., iv., 1903, p. 365, fig. 89. 
a-'"' Smith— Proc. Malac. Soc, iii., 1899., p. 208, fig. 2. 



SOMK NEW OU NOTKWOinHY ^SI1KI,^S IIKDLKY. 147 

Du PLICA HIA VALLKSIA, Sj). UOV. 

(I'hitexliii., tig. 31). 

Sliell el()ngate-.sul)ulate, glos.sy, latlier tliin. Colour : a median 
cream band between pale orange on the upper half of the wlioil 
and on the base, six .summit whorls dark orange. Whorls 
fourteen, including a two whorled tuibinate protoconch. 
Sculpture : a deep furrow winds along the upper third of each 
whorl. Straight rather oblique riblets, discontinuous froui whorl 
to whorl, parted by wider interstices, about eighteen to a whorl, 
are well developed at the suture, interrupted by and reform 
below tlie sulcus, and fade at the periphery. Between the riVjs 
appear under a lens a few faint spiral threads. Aj)erture small, 
narrow, deeply notched anteriorly. Length, 27 ; breadth, 6 mm. 

On account of anatomical characters detailed by Troschel, Dr. 
W. H. Dall ranked the species grouping round Buccitium 
dnplicahim, Linne, as an independent genus of the Terebridae, 
under the name of Duplicaria.'^^ This prin)itive group is well 
developed in Australia. Among local species, D. nstvlata, 
Deshayes, is comparable to the novelty in size and shape. It is 
however more solid, of a uniform colour with finer and more 
numerous ribs. 

Hah. — Trial Bay, N. S. Wales, several specimens collected by 
Mr. Carl Laseron and presented by the Curator of the Tech- 
nological Museum, Sydney. 

CONUS MICARIUS, sp. 710V. 

(Plate xliii., tig. 32). 

Shell small, conical, spire a third of the total length. Whorls 
six and a half, parted by a channelled suture. Colour variable, 
opaque white bosses, ten to a whorl, are wreathed round the 
summit of the last whorl and ascend the spiie, where tliey are 
frequently underlined by brown. Another opaque white band 
often occupies the middle of the body whorl and may be flanked 
above and below l)y translucent fawn belts, lea\ing the anterior 
end white. Or V)elow the persistent white shoulder zone tlie 

s« Dall— Nautilus, xxi., March, 1908, p. 1'24, and Bull. Mus. Comp. 
ZooL, xliii., 1908, p. 245. 

11 



148 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

remainder may be mottled with opaque white and fawn, or upon 
such a ground there may run interrupted spiral lines of chocolate. 
Sculpt,ure : below the opaque shoulder band, about sixteen raised 
spiral threads surround the shell and penetrate the aperture. 
Length, 6 ; breadth, 3"5 nun. 

But for C. parvus, Pease, this would be the smallest of its 
family. Pease has given little information of the Hawaiian shell, 
but, judging from Langkavel's^ '^ figure, the Australian shell 
appears to differ by a shorter spire, absence of radial scul|»ture 
and presence of opaque ocelli. Pease's species is considered by 
Pace^^ to be a member of the " Columbella dormitor group. " 

Hah. — Beach near Cable Station, al)Out fifteen miles south- 
west of Cape York — type (Hedley) ; Prince of Wales Island 
Froggatt) ; Murray Island (Hedley and McCuUoch). 

Daphnella versivestita, sp. nov. 
(Plate xliii., fig. 33). 

Shell large, rather thin, elongate conic, earlier whorls angled, 
last rounded. Colour cieam wiih a few irregidarly scattered pale 
brown spots. Whorls nine, including a two-whorled protoconch. 
Sculpture : the minute turbinate protoconch is finely spirally 
grooved. In contrast to tids the tirst adult whorl appears with 
a broad shoulder, beneath which are two conspicuous keels. 
Fresh spirals arise l)y intercalation on the subsequent whorls, till 
alternately larger and smaller, they amount to sixteen on the 
penultimate. Behind tiie aperture are about twenty-eight spiral 
cords of various sizes, sometimes with minor threads in their 
interstices. On the second mature whorl, nine prominent radial 
ribs arise, undulating the keels. After increasing to eleven and 
maintaining their relative prominence for several whorls, the 
ribs commence to fade on the antepenultimate, t\w,y disappear 
from the last whorl. About the penultimate and last wliorl, 
equal radials and spirals produce by intersection an evenly beaded 
surface. The anal fasciole occupies a siielf on the summit of the 
whorl and is scidptured by crescentic threads. Aperture ovate, 
outer lip dentate from the revolving sculpture, inner lip with a 
thin callus, at the posterior angle a slight sinus, canal short and 
broad. Length, 23 ; breadth, 9 mm. 

^'Langkavel — Donum. Bismark, 1871, p. 32, pi. i., fig. 1. 
»8 Pace— Journ. de Conch., 1., 1902, p. 421. 



SOME NEW OR NOTEWORTHY SHELLS — HEDLET. 149 

This is tiie largest of local Daphnella, D. fragilis, Reeve, ])Hing 
next in size. From that D. versivestita is distiitguisliahle by the 
strong radial ribs of the upper whorls. In the novelty the l)0(]y 
whorl is about half, in D. fragilis about two-thirds of the total 
length, 

Hab. — Botany Heads (type) ; Broken Bay (W. H. Hargraves) ; 
'Port Jackson (J. Brazier) ; Newcastle (J Mitchell) ; Catherine 
Hill Bay (R. L. Cherry); Woolgoolga (C Laseron) and Gerrin- 
gong (R. Etheridge, Junr.). 



Latirus fischerianus, Tapparone- Cane/ri. 

Latirns /ischei-ianns, Tapp. Can., Joiirn. de Conch., xxx., 1882, 
p. 33, pi. ii., tigs. 8, 9. 

Nassaria viordica, Hedley, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
xxxiv., 1909, p. 462, pi. xliv., fig. 100. 

Mr. J. C. Melvill in a recent review^'' of the genus Latirus^ 
conjectured that Nassaria mordica would prove identical with 
Peristeniia coraUina, Melvill and Standen. That he might 
definitely decide the question I forwarded to him specimens of 
the former. Having examined these he replied {8 = ix= 1 1) that 
though N. mordica is distinct from P. coralliua, it is identical 
with L. fischerianus, Tapp. Can. 

Latirus paeteliana, Kohelt, 

var. carpentariensis, var. nov. 

(Plate xliii., fig. 34), 

Shell slender, fusiform, canal long. Colour uniform ochraceous. 
Whorls nine, including a smooth two-whorled protoconch. Ribs 
broadly undulating, alternate vertically, vani'shing on base and 
•towards the suture. Both ril)s and interstices over-run by low 
spirals of which there are ten on the penultimate and about 
thirty on the last whoil. Within the outer lip tiiere are a dozen 
revolving raised threads which fail to reach the edge. Length, 
34 ; breadth 14 mm. 

39 Melvill— Journ. of Conch., xiii., 1911, p. 168. 



150 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

From Turhinella paeteliana, Kobelt,*" this appears to differ in 
colour and by having the same number of whorls in three quarters^ 
the size. Still in general appearance it agrees so far with 
Kobelt's figure and description tliat it seems better to introduce 
it as a variety than as a new species. 

Hah. — I dredged several specimens in 10 fathoms oS Mapoon, 
Gulf of Carpentaria. 

MiTRA NODOSTAMINEA, S}). nov. 

(Plate xliii., fig. 35). 

Shell small, solid, fusiform. Colour uniform gray buff. Whorls 
seven, including a smooth two whorled protoconch, divided by 
channelled sutures. Sculpture : all adult whorls are clo.sely 
latticed by radial and revolving cords. The radials amount on 
the last whorl to fifty, densely packed, varying from slight to 
stout, the larger appearing under the lens as a bundle of fibres. 
Spirals on the last whorl fifteen, on the upper whorls four, 
deeply impressed by narrow radial interstices, chiefly appearing 
as polished knots on the radial cords. Aperture very narrow, 
outer lip simple, inner overspread with a layer of callus. Columella 
plications three, anterior slight, posterior well developed. Length, 
14; breadth, 6 mm. 

This is a deep water representative of Mitra str<i7iyei, Aiigas'*^, 
in which spiral sculpture prevails or predominates. Gatlift' and 
Gabriel have reduced Mitra franciscana to a synonym of J/. 
strangei.'^'^ In the original description Angas states that M. 
atrangei was also obtained at Moreton Bay by F. Strange to 
whom he dedicated it. Overlooking this note I failed to include 
the species in the catalogue of the Marine MoUusca of Queensland. 

Hah. — As Mitra strangei the novelty is recorded from 63 to 75 
fathoms off Port Kembla (type of M . nodostamincn) ; from 50-52 
fatlioms off Botany"*^; and from 80 fathoms off Nairabeen.** 
I have also taken it in 100 fatliomx off Wollongong. 

40 Kobelt— Conch. Cab., 2ud Ed., iii., pt. 3, 1876, p. 71, pi. 18, figs. 2,3. 

*i Angas— Proc. Zool. Soc, 1867, p. 110, pi. .\iii., fig. 4. 

*^ GatlifT and Gabriel— Proc. Koy. Soc. Vict., u.a., xxi., 1908, p. 371. 

4» Hedley— Austr, Mus. Mem., iv., 1902, p. 372. 

** Hedley— Kec. Austr. Mas., vi., 1907, p. 287. 



SOME NEW OR NOTliWOinil Y SHELLS — HEDLEY. 151 



Pyrene intricata, uoDi. mnt. 

Colnmhella clathrata, Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 
i., 1877, p. 229; LL, Hedley, Rec. Austr. Mus., iv., 1901, 
p. 123, pi. xvi., fif^. 6 (not of Dujardin, 1835, of Guinitz, 
1875, nor of Tate, 1893, vide Pace, Proc. Malac. 8oc., v., 
1902, p. 67). 

It has been shown that in Palaeontology the name of Cohim- 
heUa clathrata has been thrice proposed. As Brazier's choice of 
tliis name is thereby twice invalidated a substitute is here 
suggested. 

MUREX PATAGIATUS, Sp. UOV. 

(Plate xliii., fig. 36). 

Shell rather small but solid, biconical. Six whorls remain on 
the type, which is decollated. Colour cream. Sculpture : there 
are three varices to a whorl, midway between each pair is a rib 
almost as prominent as a varix. Fine even spiral threads at the 
rate of about twenty to the last and eight to the penultimate 
whorl overrun the shell. These ai'e crossed by a radial system of 
close fine scales elaborately ])licated in the interstices. Aperture 
ovate, fortified without by a broad and unbranched varix, on 
tlie opposite side the inner lip stands clear of the shell for some 
distance. Canal short and broad. Length of type, 34 ; breadth, 
18 mm. Another specimen 46 and 26 ram. 

The novelty is clo=ely related to if. denudatus, Perry, but 
whereas M. denudatus has always two intervariceal ribs, M. 
patagiatus has, like M. territus, Reeve, but one. Further, as far 
as limited material permits me to judge, the varices of M. 
patagiatus are not prone to sprout into fronds like M. denudatus. 
In being so bare of frills it resembles M. capucinus, Larak. 

Hah. — Type dredged by Mr. J. Brazier in 8 fathoms off Green 
Point, Watson's Bay, Port Jackson. Two worn specimens were 
gathered by myself on the beach at Ballina, N. S. Wales. Mr. 
Brazier's specimen is the only one that I liave seen from the 
-neighbourhood of Sydney, so the species is rare here and is 
(probably an intruder from the north. 
\ 



152 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

Thais ambustulatus, sp. nov. 
(Plate xliv., fig. 37). 

Shell of a medium size, very solid, biconical. Colour cream, 
stained with chocolate ou the peripheral projections. Whoils 
seven. Sculpture : six prominent perpendicular ribs appear on 
the periphery, but fade away above and below, on the spire these 
are represented by peripheral knots. Dense spiral threads 
surround the shell at the rate of about fourteen on the penultimate 
and thirty-two on the last, a pair at the periphery and two or three 
below much exceed the rest in size. AH these are overrun by 
small close scales. Columella, broad and smooth. Outer edge 
of lip wrinkled by external sculpture, deeper within lie four small 
tubercles. Behind the short and broad canal is variously 
developed an axial cavity. Length, 33 ; breadth, 22 mm. 

No other Australian shell seems close enough to be worth 
comparison with this. Under my manuscript name this s))ecies 
is included in a list of additional Queensland species by Mr. J. 
Shirley.*^ I may take this opportunity to suggest that though 
much valuable information is conveyed in this list, yet in many 
cases Mr. Shirley has been misled by correspondents who furn- 
ished him with foreign shells. From Torres Strait especially 
several exotic species are noted, among which the European 
Gibhula inagus is a glaring example. Our surprise at finding 
Cyjircea onyx in an Australian Catalogue is not lessened by 
observing that it is reported from an inland locality — Burketown. 
By restricting his records to his own experience Mr. Shirley 
might have avoided adding a fresh water shell, Neritina 
pulligera, to the marine fauna ; or a synonym for an additional 
entry, as Austriella sordida, Teuison Woods, for Lncina contigata, 
Deshayes. 

Hab. — Caloundra, Queensland, on rocks (Kesteven and 
Shirley) ; Ballina, N. S, Wales (Hedley), and Trial Bay (Laseron). 

Cassidula nucleus, Martyn. 

Limax nucleus, Martyn, Universal Conchologist, 1784, pi. 67, 

outer figures. 
The identity of this species has been the subject of debate. 
Dr, von Martens made a critical examination*" of Martyn's work 

*5 Shirley— Proc, Roy. Soc. Q'land., xiii., 1911, p. 102. 
*« Martens— Malak. Blatt., xix., 1S7'2, p. VI. 



SOMK NliW OK NOTICWORTHY SHKLI.S — IIEDLKV. 153 

and concluded that PlcilFei', Cas.sies and otlieis who had 
attempted to identify C iixclfits had failed to do so. He thouglit 
that tins shell was represcMited by Aiiricti/a siifciilosd, IMousson.' "^ 
Afterwards he altered this opinion and re-establisiied* ** C. 
sidctilosa. Dr. von IMartens seein.s to have been unaware of the 
falsity of the locality " Otaheite " ascribed to the species in 
question. Garrett states that no Gassidula penetrates further 
east into the Pacific than ^amoa."^'-' This statement not only 
corrects an error but limits the area within wliich C. imcleus is 
to be .sought. It may be assumed that with Martyn's other shells 
this was procured by Capt. Cook's expedition. Within the 
range of the genus, that expedition visited Tanna in the New 
Heljrides, Baladeand an islet lie Aniere, south of New Caledonia, 
several places on the east coast of Australia and Pulo Condore, 
an island south of Cochin China. Had it occurred in the last, 
Dr. von Martens who made so clo.se a study of the East Indian 
mangrove mollusca could not iiave failed to recognise it. There 
is a New Caledonian shell identified by Cros.se^^ and excellently 
figured by Gassies for C. nucleus. But that consistently diflFers 
in its pioportions, being shorter and broader than the original 
illustration. From Cooktown and Moa Island, Torres Strait, 
there are in this collection specimens whose proportions exactly 
coincide with the figure in the " Universal Conchologist ". The 
Queensland shells are 15 mm. long, whereas the figure is 20 mm. 
If it be permissible to suppose that the artist enlarged his drawing 
the correspondence would be complete. The figure shows a shell 
without an upper parietal plait, our specimens show tliat this 
plait is a senile character which does not appear till the rest 
of the arn)ament of the aperture has formed. While the 
" Endeavour" was being repaired on Cooktown bench her people 
had the opportunity of gathering the species wliere it still occurs. 

CaSSIDULA BILABIATA, S}). nov. 

(Plate xliv., figs. 38, 39, 40). 

Shell small solid ovate, pointed above, obliquely truncate 
below. Colour buflF, banded with chocolate, sometimes four 
dark bands are separated by light bands of equal breadth, 
sometimes the lower bands coalesce, usually a dark and a light 

*'^ Mousson — Land. Siisswass. Moll. Java, 1849, p. 45, pi. v., fig. 8. 

■*8 Martens in Weber — Zool, Erg. Niederland. Ostind.,iv., 1897, p. 143. 

49 Garrett— Proc. Zool. Soc, 1887, p. 297. 

*o Crosse— Journ. de Conch., xlii., 1894, p. .318. 



154 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

baad ascend tlie spire, callus of the aperture ochraceous. Wiiorls 
six. Sculpture : close fine spiral threads, crossed by tine growth 
strite, a stroiig(n' subsutural cord ascends the upper whorls. Base 
a funnel, surrounded by a strong keel. A stout projecting varix 
continues the basal keel and sligiitly intrudes upon the suture. 
Beyond the varix tlie aperture is considerably produced but the 
ordinary colour and sculpture is not repeated upon this part of 
the shell. Within the outer lip a projection rises from the base 
for two-thirds the height of the aperture and there ends abruptly. 
Midway down the aperture on the left side, at the horizon of 
the basal keel, is a stout entering plication. The space above 
and below this is divided by a smaller parietal tubercle and a 
stronger columella plait. Length, 7*5 ; breadth, 4 mm. 

Hub. — I obtained eight specimens from the roots of mangrove.s 
near the beach about a mile south of Cooktown, Queensland. 
The uniformity of the series precludes the idea that the twisted 
base might be a deformity. 

Papuina muensis, sp. nov. 
(Plate xliv., figs. 44, 45). 

Shell small, trochoidal, spreading towards the base and thus 
gaining a concave profile, minutely perforate. Whorls six, rather 
rapidly increasing, slightly convex and parted by impressed 
sutures. Colour buff with a narrow zone of chocolate on the 
p.riphery, continued as asupersutural tliread on the upper whorls 
and visible within the aperture ; the apex and tlie columella are 
also chocolate. Sculpiure : oblique irregular growth lines which 
tend to form knots on the periphery, under the lens appear also 
close incised waved spiral lines. Aperture elliptical, abruptly 
descending and very oblique, lip produced and narrowly reflected 
margins continued and united by a callus ridge. Columella very 
short and oblique. Base tumid. Umbilicus narrow and oblique. 
Height, 14; maj. diam., 14; min. diam., 12 mm. 

The nearest^Australian r<datiou to P. miiensis seems to be P. 
piirttiana, Pfeiifer, fiom Night Island, about one hundred and 
eighty miles to the st)uth. The latter is far larger, proportion- 
ately narrower and the aperture is less contracted. The figure 
oi Helix bertiniana, Tapparone Canefri''^ has some resemblance 
to the novelty. 

JIab. — Mua, Moaor Banks Island in Torres Strait. Collected 
by Mr. H. Elgner. 

SI Tapparone Canefri — Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, xix., 1883, pi. ii., figs. 

21-26. 



SOME NEW OR NOTEWORTHY SHELLS — HBDLBY. 155 

Planispira cyclostomata, Le Guillou. 
(Plate xlv., figs. 51, 52, 53, 54). 

Among fallen leaves under bushes by the sea-side at Mapoon, 
•entrance of the Batavia River, on tlie east coast of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, I gathered in May, 1903 a few land shells. One of 
these was MlcvDphynra heniickwsa, Tate, and another was the 
shell illustrated herewith. It is a pale horn colour with a russet 
peripheral band, maj. diam. 7 ; niin. diani., 55 ; height, 3 mm., 
and has a remarkable sculpture of elongate grains. 

This character leads me to identify it as Helix cyclostomata^ 
described by Dr. .Le Guillou"- as '* papillis linearibus obsita. " 
The tyi)e came from Warrior, Tud, or Toud Island in Torres 
Strait, about seventy-two miles north-east of Cape York, and 
was doubtless gathered by himself when the " Zelee, " of which 
he was surgeon-major, touched there in June, 1840. 

The official account of the Zoology of this voyage ignores the 
publication of this and other species by LeGuillou, who seems 
to have been on bad terms with the authorities. Under the 
manuscript name of "Helix strangidata, Hombron and Jacquinot," 
L. Rousseau^^ described from Toud Island a shell having regular 
numerous transverse striae, which in other respects agrees with 
LeGuillou's description. Tliis name had previously been used 
for a West Indian shell by C. B. Adams. ^ ^ 

The illustration of H. strangidata, which had appeared previous 
to the description of Rousseau, was claimed by Pfeiffer^^ as 
representing his Helix tuckeri. This latter, whose sculpture was 
defined as " breviter et sparsim pilosa, " was described'" from 
Sir Charles Hardy Island, about one hundred and eight miles to 

^tlle south-east of Cape York, and was gathered by Macgillivray 
in 1844. It was i-oughly figured in the second edition of 
Chemnitz's "Conchilien Cabinet," Bd., i., Abth. 12, 184G, pi. 79, 
tigs. 10-12. Subsequently Dr. Pfeiffer suggested the identity of 

-his H. tuckeri with S. cyclostomata. ^ "^ 

52 Le Guillou— Rev. Soc. Cuv., 1842, v., p. 141. 

53 Rousseau— Voy. au Pole Sud, Moll. 1854, p. 16, pi. vi., figs. 1-4. 
'* C. B. Adams — Contributions to Conchology, ii., p. 30, 1849. 

Es Pfeiffer— Mon. Helic, iii., 1853, p. 236. 

»« Pfeififer— Symbolia; ad Hist. Helic, iii., 1846, p. 77. 

57 PfeiEFer— Mon. Helic, i., 1848, pp. 345, 379. 



156 RKCORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

Prof. E. Forbes confirmed the identity of H. cyclostomata, 
H. strangulata and H. tuckeri, he added a fresh habitat, Sunday 
Island, a few miles west of Sir C. Hardy Island. ^^ 

Mr. E. A. Smith gave an obscure figure of II. cyclostomata, 
reported it from Blackwood Bay, Cape York, and added as 
synonyms, H. tiickeri, Pfr. and H. strangulata, Hombron and 
Jacquinot. ^^ But in his subsequent report on the land shells 
collected by Prof. A. C. Haddon in Torres Strait, he altered his 
opinion and without explanation separated H. cyclostomata from 
H. tuckeri, attaching H. strangulata to the latter. "° 

Those who united these three names paid no regard to the 
discrepancy in the sculpture assigned to each ; H. cyclostomata 
with elongate pa{)illse, H, tuckeri with short scattered bristles 
and H. strangulata with numerous regular transverse striae. I 
find that H. cyclostomata has a wide range both geographically 
and in variation. It inhabits all the islands of Torres Strait 
and both coasts of Cape York Peninsula. On Naghir Island I 
collected specimens in which tiie grain sculpture had almost 
disappeared, instead were fine radiating thread riblets, thus 
showing that the II. strang^data sculpture is within the variation 
range of H. cyclostomata. PfeifFer's definition " breviter et sparsim 
pilosa " does not apply to any specimens that I have examined, 
possibly he mistook the grains for bristles. Since, however, he 
withdrew H. tuckeri as a synonym of H. cyclostomata, and 
Macgillivray, who collected it agreed, I am content to accept 
their judgment. 

Another form has been confused with the foregoing species. 
I propose now to distinguish it as — 

Planispira truculenta, sp. nov. 

Planispira tuckeri, PiLsbry {non Pfeiflfer), Man. Conch., 2nd 
ser., ix., 1894, pi. xix., figs. 18, 19. 

In shape, size and colour it agrees with P. cyclostomata, but it 
is without the grained surface, has a more open umbilicus and 
possesses a tubercle on the inner base of the aperture. Its 
habitat is Port Curtis, Queensland, twelve degrees south of the 
locality of the otlier species. An excellent figure of it has been 
given under the title of Planispira tuckeri, Pfr., I)y Pilsbry. 

«8 Forbes— Voy. " Rattlesnake," ii., 1852, p. 370. 

B» Smith— Zool. "Erebus" and " Terror," Moll., 1874, p. 2, pi. iv.,fig. 13. 

«o Smith— Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc, 1890, p. 10. 



SOME NEW OU NOTEWOKTHY SHELLS — llEULEY. 157 

Xanthomelon marcidum, sp. nov. 
(Plate xlv., figs. 47, 48, 49, 50). 

Shell solid, deeply lenticular, carinate, spire moderately 
elevated, base rounded, narrowly perforate. Colour uniform raw 
umber. Whorls four and a half, gradually increasing, the last 
suddenly and deeply descending at the aperture. Sculpture : fine 
irregular oblique growth lines, entire surface roughened by 
microscopic granules, a well developed keel winds along the 
periphery of the last whorl and up the spire above th(; suture. 
Aperture subrhomboidal, very oblique, margins united l)y a 
callus ridge. Lip expanded, slightly thickened and a little- 
reflected, especially at the base. Umbilicus deep and narrow, 
partly covered by the lip. Specimen figured, maj. diam., 17 ; 
min. diam., 15; height, 10 mm.; another specimen, 19; 15; 
9 mm. 

The form and sculpture of the shell is considerably modified 
in dry countries, so that the afiinities of a species is thereby 
masked. In the present case the shell characters are an insuffi- 
cient guide to generic classification and its reference to Xantho- 
melon awaits contradiction or confirmation from anatomical study. 

Hah. — XJabba Range, twelve miles west of Lake Cudgellico, 
Central New South Wales. One shell from Mr. R. P. Sellois 
and several from Mr. James Knight. 

Atys palmarum, sp. nov. 
(Plate xliv., fig. 41). 

Shell small, thin, involute, ovate-truncate, .smooth, glossy, 
narrowly perforate above and below. Sculpture : three incised 
lines on the base and two on the shoulder, intervening area 
smooth. Aperture crescentic, lip angled at base and vertex, 
columella reflected. Height, 1-5; breadth, 1*2 mm. 

By its inflated form this is related to the typical Atys, such as 
A. nancum, Linn., from which it differs by size, by the reduction 
of impressed lines and by absence of fold on lip and columella. 

Hab. — I dredged a few specimens in fifteen fathoms off tlie 
Palm Islands, Queensland. 



' 158 RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

Hydatina ExrGUA, sp. nov. 
(Plate xlv., fig. 46). 

Shell minute, thin, gloV)ular, truncate above, rounded below, 
imperforate. Colour : on a white ground are two narrow 
peripheral chocolate bands, twice their breadth apart, connected 
with a wash of cream, and visible internally, Sui'face smooth. 
Within the aperture a layer of dull callus is spread on the 
preceding whorl. Columella deeply spirally ins;erted. Apex 
perforate, spire immersed. Height, 1'9 ; breadth, 1-5 mm. 

By size and colour pattern this diifers widely from co-generic 
forms. 

Recent additions bring the family Ajtlustridte to have their 
focus of di.stribution in Eastern Australia. Hydatina jjJiysis, 
Linne, is of ordinary occurrence from Sydney northwards. H. 
albochicta, Hoeven, was recorded by G. F. Angas from Port 
Stephens, N.S. Wales, and latterly by J. Shirley from Stradbroke 
Island, Queensland;''^ it is also in this Museum from Keppel 
Bay. An example in this Museum of //. circulata, Miirtyn 
(usually known under the younger name of //. velum, Gmelin), 
from Port Stephens establishes another Australian record. The 
novelty makes the fourth. BuJlina scabra, Gmelin, is common 
in New South Wales. Shirley record.s it from Caloundra. I 
found it at the Palm Islands, Qneen.sland, whence it ranges to 
South Tasmania. Aplustriim ampbistre has been noted from 
North Queensland by J. Brazier, Melvill and Standen, it has also 
occurred to me at Green and Murray Islands. It is contended"^ 
that this genus should he extended to embrace D'laphana brazieri, 
Angas. From Botany Heads, N. S. Wales, Micromelo giiameiisis, 
Quoy and Gaimard, has been reported.""'' 

H. exigua was sent to me from Tasmania by Miss M. Lodder 
as the obscure Akera tasmanica, Beddome. Tran.sferring the 
species to Hijdatina I used her shell for a figure. Subsequently 
this species appeared in Sydney Harbour."* Messrs Gatliff and 

«i Shirley— Proc. Roy. Soc. Qneenslan.l, xxiii., 1911, p. 102. 

8 2 Hedley-Proc. I. inn. Soo. N. S. Wales, xxvii., 1902, p. 16, pi. iii., 
fig. .%. 

fi' Henn — Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xx., 1S96, p. 5'20. 

«* Hedley— Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, xxv., 1901, p. 7'25, fig. 22 ; 
Op. cit., xxvii., 1003, p. 603. 



SOME NKW OR NOTKWORTHY SHKLLS IIKDLKY. 159 

Gabriel fortunately obtjiinetl the real Akera tasvuiiiica, illustrated 
the shell and corrected my error. Their identification was 
confirmed by Mr. W. L. INlay,'^"' who, with I'lof. 11. Tate had 
redescribed it. From these gentlemen's observations it is clear 
that I was misled by a wrong identification. This I now with- 
draw and bring forward the Ili/datina as a new species distinct 
from Beddome's Akera. 

Hah. — The original of the present figure and description (type) 
I obtained (15 5/02) from a bottle sunk in a rock pool at Middle 
Head, Sydney. Miss Lodder's shell which I drew and returned 
probably came from North Tasmania, perhaps Ulverstone. 

Philine angasi, Crosse and Fischer. 
(Plate xliv., figs. 42, 43). 

A large Philine, common on the Australian and New Zealand 
coasts was described by Crosse and Fischer as Bnlhea angasi, 
and they afterwards remarked that it was abundant at Suez.^® 

This Suez form w.as subsequently named P. vaillanti by Issel. ^ ^ 

The Australian form has usually, but not unanimously, been 
maintained as distinct. Kobelt indicates"^ as supporters, Angas, 
Brazier, Sowerby, Hutton, Watson and Pilsbry. The first to 
question the current nomenclature was Tenison Woods®® who 
referred the Tasmanian mollusc to P. aperta, Linn.; in this he 
was followed by Tate and May. '^'* To the European P. aperta, 
Cook has united both P. angasi, P. vaillanti, Issel, and P. 
erythrcea, H. Adams. ^^ Treating of the New Zealand form 
Suter'^^ reduces P. angasi to a synonym of P. aperta. On the 
contrary when discussing the Victorian mollusca, Pritchard and 
Gatliff"' distinguish P. angasi from P. ajjerta. 

«« Tate and May— Proc. Lhin. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1901, p. 460. 
^* Crosse and Fischer— Jouru. de Conch., xiii., 1S65, pp. 38, 110, pi. ii., . 
fig. 8. 

«■' Issel— Malac. Mar. Rosso., 1869, p. 166, pi. 1, fig. 14. 

«8 Kobelt— Couch. Cab., 2ed., 1., pt. xi., 1896, p. 152. 

69 Ten, Woods— Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1877, p. 47. 

■70 Tate and May— Proc. Linn. Soc. N, S. Wales, xxvi., 1901, p. 418. 

■^1 Cook— Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), xvii., 1886, p. r:'2. 

•" Suter— Index Faun. Nov. Zealand, 1904, p. 69. 

■^3 Pritchard and Gatliff— Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., xv., 1903. p. 218. 



160 RECORDS OF THE ACSTRALIAX MUSEUM. 

Pilsbrv comments on this controversy."* He suggests that 
• means for discrimination might be furnished by the gizzard plates. 

Such plates from a Norwegian specimen are figured by Sars'* 
- and more elaborately from a French specimen by Guiart'* and 

Vayssiere. " " 

For contrast with these I now ofier figures from Sydney 
material of the small ventral and one of the larger dorso-lateral 
plates of P. angasi. Unfortunately I have no plates of the 
European form for actual comparison. The likeness to a cocked 
hat noted by the original authors holds good with our specimens. 
Angas stated that the gizzard of the Australian form resembles 
that of the British P. quadripartita ( = P. aperta).' ^ It has l>een 
generally overlooked that tigures of the radula of a Victorian 
specimen were published by Maplestone. "^ 

"^^ Pilsbry— Man. Couch., xvi., 1895, p. 8. 
'5 Sars — Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., 1878, pL xi. (anat.), fig. 15. 
'6 Guiart— Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xiv., 1901, p. SO, figs. 40, 41, 42. 
"^^ Vayssiere — Ann. Mus. Marseilles, Zool., ii., 1SS5, p. 33, pi. i., 
J figs. 20, 21. 

"^ Angas — Proc. Zool. Soc, 1S67, p. 227. 
^^ Maplestone — Monthly Micro. Journ., 1S72, p. 53, pL xxvii., fig. 23. 



teitPLANATION OF PLATES. 



PLATE XL. 

Figs. 1, 2. Nuada suptrba, Hedlej-. 
Fig. 3. Myodora pavimenta, Hedley. 

,, 4. ,, tessera, HecUey. 

Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. Various aspects, liinge ami sciili)ture of Rochfjorlia 
excellens, Hedley. 
„ 9, 10, IL Various [aspects and sculpture of Chinrnlas co7narili>i, 
Hedley. 



UKC. AU8TR. MITS.. VOL. \ III. 



ri.ATK XI. 




WINIFRED WEST, del. 



PLATE XLI. 

Fig. 12. Monodonta diviiimta, Hedley. 

Fig8. 13, 14, 15. Various aspects of Minolia hemiicnia, Melvill. 

Fig. Ifi. Alrania prcntornaUlif, Hedley. 

,, 17. fotamopi/rgun rnppia', H.ed\ey. 

,, ^^. Conthoitt/ia n>iperci, UciWej, 

,, 1!». CrOH'^ca <if'tnmal(i, Iledley, 



REO. ALI8TK. MUS., Vol.. VIII. 



Pl.ATK XM 




WINIFRED WEST, del. 



PLATE XLII 



Pig. 20 
Figs. 21 

Fi-. 25 



28 



R i'<>ioina carpentariensis, Hedley. 
22. Yonng lUid half grown Vanikoro sigaretiforini<, Reclu/. 
24. Shell and apex of Syrnola maniftsta, Hedley. 

Odimlomia rerincta, Hedley. 

Chile.nlomhi corallina, Hedley. 

MarijineJla /'i-tngala. Brazier. 
,, ijeminata, Hedley. 



[EC. AUSTR. MUS., VOI. VITT. 



21 







24 








WINIFRICD WKST, del. 



Figs 


•29, 


Fig. 


31. 


,, 


32. 


,, 


33. 


,, 


34. 


,, 


35. 


>j 


36. 



50. Sraphelln mosltmica , Hedlcy. 
Daplicaria vallesia, Hedley. 
Conns micarms, Hedley. 
Daphndla versivestita, Hedley. 
Latirus paeteliana, v. carpentariensis, Hedley. 
Mitra nodostaminea, Hedley. 
Murex patagiatus, Hedley. 



KEC. AUSTU. :\IUS., VOL. Vlll. 



1*I,ATK X 




WIMFKED WEST, del. 



PLATE XLIV. 

Fig. 37. Thah anihnstiiJatKs, H^illey. 

Figs. 38, 39, 4U. Front, base and back of Cassidula hilahiain, Hetlley. 

Fig. 41. Aty s jKilmarnm, Yie^WQy. 

Fi"s. 4-, 43. Gizzard of Philine amjam, Crosse and Fislier. 

,, 44, 45. Papuina nmensis, Hedley. 



REO, AUSTR. I\1U8., VOL. VlFI. 



1*1. ATI-. XIJV 




WINIFRED WEST, del. 



PLATE XLV. 

Fig. 46. Hydntina exigua, Hedley. 

Figs. 47, 48, 49, 50. Various aspects and sculpture of Xantlionwlon 

marcidiim, Hedley. 
,, ol, 52, 53, 54. Various aspects and sculpture of f/a«!.syji/(( 

ci/i-/oslomatn, LeduiUou. 



UKC. AUSTK. MI'S,, VOL. VIM 



I'l.XlK XI.V. 






53 



VVINIFREU WEST, del. 




'/ 









54 



CO 




AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES, WITH THEIR 
SYNONYMS. 

Compiled from Ethnographical Works in the Australian 
Museum Library, 1909. 

By W. W. Thorpe, Ethnologist. 

I. — Introduction. 

This compilation was originally intended as a hand-list for 
personal reference, to enable the writer to see at a glance the 
approximate, if not the definite, locality of any given Tribe, 
"without having to search through the literature of the subject. 

As the title implies, the matter was derived from Ethno- 
graphical works in the Australian Museum Library, but to these 
are added, or interpolated, a few obtained from other reliable 
sources. A Bibliography of the works consulted is given at 
the end. 

As to Synonyms : — The writer has tried to make cross- 
references to obviously identical Tribes. In this connection,^ 
the various phonetic interpretations placed upon tribal names 
by different authorities, resulting in many spellings of the same 
word or words, are remarkable. Although upwards of six 
hundred names are in the list, the synonymy would reduce it by 
ten or fifteen per cent. 



Owing: to a fire at the printer's the iss«e of this 
part has been delayed. It now contains title pagfe and 
indices and completes Vol. VIII. 



AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES, WITH THEIR 
SYNONYMS. 

Compiled from Ethnographical Works in the Australiaa 
Museum Library, 1909. 

By W. W. Thorpe, Ethnologist. 

I. — Introduction. 

This com])ilation was originally intended as a hand-list for 
personal reference, to enable the writer to see at a slance the 
approximate, if not the definite, locality of any given Tribe, 
without having to search through the literature of the subject. 

As the title implies, the matter was derived from Ethno- 
graphical works in the Australian Museum Library, but to these 
are added, or interpolated, a few obtained from other reliable 
sources, A Bibliography of the works consulted is given at 
the end. 

As to Synonyms : — The writer has tried to make cross- 
references to obviously identical Tribes. In this connection,, 
the various phonetic interpretations placed upon tribal names 
by diflfereut authorities, resulting in many spellings of the same 
word or words, are remarkable. Although upwards of six 
hundred names are in the list, the synonymy would reduce it by 
ten or fifteen per cent. 

The useful abbreviations adopted by Dr. W. E. Roth in his. 
Ethnographical works have been included. 

It is obvious that the Catalogue is far from complete, many 
Tribes luiving passed into oblivion before being recorded, wliile 
others may have yet to be discovered. It is possible that an. 
occasional dialectal name has been included, bub this is 
unavoidable. Where two hyphened localities are given, the- 
intention is to show that the Tribes are, or were, situated in 
the intervening areas. 

12 



AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES — THORI'i:. 



1G3 



iRef. 
No. Tribal Name. 

1 Aguagwilla 

2 Ajokoot 

3 Allaua 



4 Aminungo ... 

5 Angara-pingan 

6 Angoothbriban 

7 Antakerrinya 

8 Anula 



9 Arkaba-tura 



10 Arunta 

11 Auanbura 

12 AUMINIE 

13 

14 Awarakal 



15 BABBINBqRRA 

16 Babingbura 

17 Badjeki 



18 Bahkunji ... 

19 Baipulbura 



20 Bakanji 

21 Ballakdong 
:22 Ballbrdokkino 



II. — Catalogub, 



AUTHORITTi 

Curr 
Curr 

Spencer and Gillen 



Curr 
Curr 

Curr 

Taplin 

Spencer and Gillen 



Ctirr 

Spencer and Gillen 

Howitt 

Gason 

Curr 

Howitt 



Locality. 

Raffles Bay Distriot, 

Northern Territory 

South of Daly 

Waters, Central 

Australia 
Fort Cooper, Q'land 
Raffles Bay District, 
Northern Territory 
G o u 1 b u r n-Murray 

Rivers, Victoria 
Central Australia 
Gulf of Carpentaria 

(South Australian 

Territory) 
70 miles from Port 

Augusta, S. Austr. 
Central Australia 
North-east of 455 
Neighbours of 106 
Dieyerie District 
Between Hunter and 

Hawkesbury 

Rivers, N.S.Wales 



Curr 


Near Clermont, 




Queensland 


Howitt 


North of Clermont, 




Queensland 


Howitt 


Paroo River, Q'land, 




near N. S. Wales 




border 


Curr 


... Bourke, N.S. Wales 


Howitt 


... Fitzroy River, south 




of W o d V i 1 1 6, 




Queensland 


Eraser 


Pastoral plains, be- 




tween Lachlan and 




Darling, N.S.Wales 


Curr 


... York District, West- 




ern Australia 


Curr 


... York District, West- 




ern Australia 



164 



RKCORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 

No. 



Tribal Name. 
23 Baluk-meknkn 



24 Baluk-willam 

25 Baluung-kakar 

26 Bangsrang 



27 Bangbrang 

28 Barababaraba 

29 Barraba-barraba 

30 Barkinji 



42 Bikalbura ... 

43 BiMUHItAJiURRA 

44 BlNlilNGA 

45 BiNGABURA ... 



AUTHORITT. 

Howitt 

Hotvitt 
Howitt 



Howitt 
Howitt 

Smyth 
Howitt 



31 
32 


Barnawatha 
Barratii 




Smyth 
Smyth 


33 


Barrumbinya 




Howitt 


34 


Barunga 




Howitt 


35 


Beixumbellum 




Smyth 


36 
37 


Benbedores 
Bendalgubbeb 




Curr 


38 
39 

40 
41 


Berriait 

Biduelli (Clan of 
Kuunai) 
Bii)wiaL = 3£ 

Bl(iAMBUL ... 


Howitt 

Hotvitt 
Smyth 
Hoivitt 



Locality. 
North of Lake Hind— 

mar.sh, Victoria 
South of 360 
Upper Ovens River, 

Victoria 
Junction Goulburn 

and Murray Rivers, 

Victoria 
North Goulburn 

River, Victoria 
North of Murray 

Rive r, n e a r 

Deniliquin 
Between Kchuca and 

junction Murray 

and Darling, 

Victoria 
East of Darling, 

betw^een Menindie 

and Bourke 
North-east Victoria 
Sherbrooke Creek, 

West Victoria 
North-east of Bourke, 

New South Wales 
East of Paroo River, 

New South Wales 
Lake Wellington, 

Gippsland, Victoria 

B u r d e k i n River,. 

Queensland 
Central N.S. Wales 



Gippsland, Victoria 

Gippsland, Victoria 

G wydir-M a c i n t yre 

Rivers, border 

New Soutli Wales 

Howitt ... West of Rockhanip- 

ton, Queensland 
Curr ... Nogoa River, Q'land 

Spencer and Gillen Mac-art hurRiver,Gulf 

of Carpentaria 
Hoivitt ... Between Cauipaspe 

a n d Burdekin- 
Rivers, Q'land 



AUSTRALIAN TRIMAL NAMBS — THORPK. 



165 



Fef. 

No. 


Tkiral Name. 


Am 


46 


BlNGOGlNA ... 


Spencer 


47 


BlllRIA 


Cur 7' 


48 


BiTHELBURA 


Iloioitt 


49 


BlTTABITTA= 417 


Curr 



50 BoANBURA ... ... Howitt 

51 BoiNJi Roth 

(Bo. Roth abbreviation) 

52 BOMHARABURA ... Howitt 

53 BooANDiK (c/'. 71) ... Mathcw 

54 „ „ ... Gurr 



55 BOONGATPAN 

56 BooNOORONG (c/. 79) ... 

57 BOONOOROONG ,, 

58 BOORA BOORA 

59 BOOKONG 

60 BOORT 

61 BOOTHERBOOLOK (c/. 88) 

62 bootherbullok ,, ... 

63 boulboul ... 

64 Brabralung 

{Clan o/KuRNAl) 

65 Brabrolong 

66 Brabrolung 

67 Brabriwoolong 

68 Brataualung 

{Clan o/KuRNAi) ... 

69 Brayakaulung 

{Clan of KuRNAl) ... 



Cur 7' 

Smyth 

Smyth 
Smyth 

Mathew 
Smyth 

Ctirr 

Curr 

Smyth 

Hoivitt 

Smyth 

Curr 
Smyth 

Howitt 
IJoivitt 



LOCAMTT. 

Central Australia 
( West of Newcastle 
Waters) 
Junction Thomson 
and Bar coo 

Rivers, Q'land 
South of Clermont, 

Queensland 
Hamilton River, near 
Boulia, Queensland 
Soutli of No. 45 
Boulia D i s t rict, 

Queensland 
Broad Sound, Q'land 
South Australia 
Mount Gambler, 

South Australia 
Goul burn-Murray 

Rivers, Victoria 
Soutli Coast of 

Victoria 
Westernport, Victoria 
Between Ecliuca and 
Darling - JNIurray 
junction, Victoria 
Lake Tyrill, Victoria 
Lower Loddon River, 

West Victoria 
Upper G o u 1 b u r n 

River, Victoria 
Upper G o u 1 b u r n 

River, Victoria 
Gippsland Lakes, 

Victoria 
Gippsland, Victoria 

North Gippsland, 

Victoria 
Gippsland, Victoria 
Between ^I itchell and 

Tiimbo, Victoria 

Gippsland, Victoria 
Gippsland, Victoria 



i66 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Rkf. 






No. 


Tribal Namk. 


AUTUORITY. 


70 


Brekara 


Curr 


71 


BUANDIK (c/. 53-4) ... 


Howitt 


72 


BULALLI 


Howitt 


73 


Bulla 


Curr 


74 


BUMBARRA ... 


Curr 


75 


BUNDAH-WARK-KANI .. 


Smyth 


76 


BUNGABARA... 


Curr 


77 


BUNGEHA ... 


Curr 


78 


BUNTAMURRA 


Iloivitt 


79 


BUNURONG (c/. 56-7).... 


Howitt 


80 


BURABURA ... 


Ilowit 



81 BURAPPA 

82 BURAPPER ... 

83 BURUWUNDKIRTCH 

84 BURIBURA ... 



Iloivitt 
Ifowitt 
Smyth 

Howitt 



85 


BuRNGALA ... ... Curr 


86 


BuRHiNGAH ... Miller and Meslon 


87 


BUTCIIABUKA ... Jlovntt 


88 


BUTHERA BaLUK (r/.61-2) Hoivitt 


89 


Byellee .. ... Curr -. 



Locality. 

Head of Burdekin 
River, Queensland 

North-west of Mount 
Gambler, S. Austr. 

East of Barrier 
Kaiige, North-west 
New South Wales 

Cape River District, 
Queensland 

Port Denison - Cape 
Gloucester, Q'land 

Lake Tyers, Victoria 

Halifax Bay, Q'land 

Mount Remarkable 
District, Flinders 
Ra., S. Australia 

North-west of Bulloo 
Creek, Queensland 

Coast, Port Phillip- 
Wilson's Promon- 
tory, Victoria 

Murray River, at 
junction with- 
Loddon River, 
Victoria 

Loddon River,. 
Victoria 

]M u r r ay R i \- e r, 
Victoria 

East of !M u s t o n 
Creek, West 
Victoria 

INIountains on main- 
land, west of Great 
Keppel Islands, 
Queensland 

South of 226 

Georgijia River, Q'ld 

Coast, south of Cape 
Manifolil, Q'land 

South Goulhurn 
Hiver, Victoria 

Kepjiel Bay, Calliope 
River, and Curtis 
Island, Queensland- 



AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES — THORPE. 



167 



RlF. 

No. 


Tribal Names. 


Authority, 


90 


Carbineyinburha 


Curr 


91 


Caktoulounger 


Curr 


92 


CHEANCaVA ... 


, . . Curr 


93 


Chepara 


... 


94 

95 


Chirpal Roth 
(Chi., Eotli abbreviation) 

COB15LKB0RBER ... Curr 


96 


COLCALEEOA 


J. A. Thorpe 


97 


COLONGULAC 


Smyth 


98 


Cnanji 


Spencer and Gi 


99 


COONAWANNE 


Smyth 



100 


CUDJALLAGONG 


Smyth 


101 


CULBAINGKLLA 


Curr 


102 


CUMARINIA ... 


Curr 



Locality. 

Burdekiu li i v e r, 
Qupeii.sland 

B u rd e k i n Kiver, 
Queensland 

Irwin and Murchison 
Rivers, Queensland 

Tweed River - Bris- 
bane, Queensland 

Atherton, Q'land 

B u r d e k i n River, 

Queensland 
Cape York(Soinerset), 

Queensland 
C a n) p e r d o \v n, 

Victoria 
South-east of Daly 

Waters, Central 

Australia 
Mount Shadwell, and 

west of Emu 

Creek, West 

Victoria 
Macquarie Range, 

Victoria 
Burdekin River, 

Queensland 
Burdekin River, 

Queensland 



103 Daleburra 



Ilowitt 



104 


Dandan = 467. 


Ctirr 


105 


Dartvdarty 


Smyth 


105a 


Deerie 


\. Smyth 


106 


DiEVERIE 


Curr 


107 


DiERI 


Fison 



Mount Norman 
District, Q'land 

Boyne River, Q'land 

Between Echuca and 
junction Murray- 
Darling, Victoria 

Lake Hope, Cooper 
Creek (Central 
Australia). 

630 miles north of 
Adelaide, Central 
Australia 

Cooper Creek, 
Central Australia 



168 



RECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 

No. 


Tribal Names. 


Authority. 


108 


DiEYERIH 


Gason 


109 
110 


DiPPEL 
DiPPIL 


Curr 
Ridley 



111 DiRITYANGURA 



112 Djappuminyou 

113 doen-baurakkt 

114 doolebara ... 
114a Doora 



115 Dorabuka ... 



Howitt 



Smyth 
Howitt 

Curr 
Curr 



Howitt 



116 


DOVERAAK-UA-DAAN ... 


Smyth 


117 


DUNGADUNGARA 




Roth 


118 


DURROBIJRRA 


... 


Curr 


119 


DUVVINBARAP 


... 


Smyth 


120 


Eaw 




Curr 


121 


EnvAjA 


... 


Curr 


122 


Elookera ... 




Roth 


123 


Kmon 




Howitt 


124 


Emu-mudjug 




Smyth 


125 


Eticup 




Ctirr 


126 


KUKONBBA ... 




Curr 


127 


EURA:^475 




Curr 


127a 


EUAHLAYI 




L. Parker 




(c/. 56r,, 565-6, 


650-51) 





Locality. 
630 miles north of 

Adelaide, Central 

Australia 
Moreton Ba}', Q'land 
Moreton and Wide 

Bwys, and Burnett 

River, Queensland 
Junction Barcoo and 

Strzelecki Creek, 

Queensland 
Glenorchy, Victoria 
West of Lake Hind- 
marsh, Victoria 
Halifax Bay, Q'land 
Mount Remarkable 

District, Flinders 

Ra., S. Australia 
East of Belyando 

(Burdekin River), 

Queensland 
Buclian and Snowy 

Rivers, Victoria 
B o u I i a District, 

Queensland 
Burdekin and Suttor 

Districts, Q'land 
West of Wimmera 

River, Victoria 

Nortlianiplon, West 

Australia 
Raffles Bay District, 

Northern Territory 
Upper Georgina 

River, Queensland 
East of No. 324 
Bar nawatha, Victoria 
90 miles nortli-westof 

KingGooroe Sound, 

W. AustrKJia 
Bui'dekin River, 

Queensland 
Mount Sprle,Flinders 

Ra., S. Australia 
Narran River, North- 
west X S. Wales 



AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES — THORPE. 



169 



Ref. 

No. TKruAL Name. 

128 Gaiamba (Kamilaroi) 



129 


C1aL(JALBULLUK 


130 


Garkgo = 357 


131 


Geawegal ... 


132 


Geawegal ... 


133 


GlLAMHABURA 


134 


GlNNIX(;-MATONG 


13.5 


GOA 


136 


GOA 


137 


GOA 


138 


GOKNPUL 


139 


GOOCJAIJURRA 


140 


GOOWAR 



141 GOUKNDITCII MARA 

142 GoUKNDITCn MARA 

143 GUERNO 



144 GUNDANORA 

145 GuNNANi ("Gun." 

Roth abbreviation) 

146 gununo-willam 

147 Gringai 



148 GUUANG 



Authority. 


Locality. 


Fraser 


North central New 




South Wales, south 




of Darling lliver 


... 


See Jajowerong 


Fraser 


M o n a r o District. 




New Houtli Wales 


llotvilt and Fisou 


Hunter River, New 




South Wale.s 


Ho trill 


North of Hunter 




River, N.S. Wales 


Uowllt 


Central Fraserlsland, 




Queensland 


SinyUi 


Tallangatta Creek, 




Victoria 


Curr 


Diiiniantina River, 




Queensland 


Curr 


"Kulka(loon"District 




Queensland 


Roth 


Upper Dianiantina 




River, Queensland 


Ciirr 


Central and South 




Stradln-oke Island, 




Queensland 


Curr 


Islands off Broad 




Sound, Queensland 


Curr 


S t r a d b r k e and 




Moreton Bay, 




Queensland 


IluicUt 


North of Portland 




and Warrnanil)ool, 




Victoria 


Howittand Fison 


Glenelg - Eumerella 




Rivers, Victoria 


Hotvitt 


Warrego River, north 




of Bourke, New 




South Wales 


Smyth 


Onieo, Victoria 



Roth 
Hotvitt 

Hewitt 



J. A. Thorpe 



Staaten River, Q'land 
South Campaspe 

River, Victoria 
Hinterland of Port 

Stephens, New 

South Wales 
Cape York (Somerset 

District), Q'land 



170 



KECORDS OF THK AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Rkf. 






No. 


Tribal Names. 


Aui 


uy 


GUDANG 


C'?tJ"r 


150 


HiLLERI 


Hoioitt 


151 


Ikelbara ... 


Ciirr 


152 


Iliaura 


Spencer 


153 


Tllagona . . . 


Cnr7- 


154 


Iliaura 


Spencer 


155 


Ilpirra 


Speticer 


156 


Ilpirra 


Spencer 


157 


In.iilin.ti 


... Hoth 



158 J ACKALBAIiAP (r/! 164). Smyth 



159 Jajaukung (?= 161-3). Eountt 



160 


Jajowkrong (see 159). 


Smyth 


161 


Ja.towkrong (see 159) 


Smyth 


162 


Ja.iowrong {see 159).... 


Smyth 


163 


Ja.towurroxg (see 159). 


Smyth 


164 


Jakklbai.ak (c/. 158). 


Smyth 


165 


Jarambiuk ... 


Smyth 


166 


JUNDAI 


Ciirr 


167 


Jupagalk ... 


Ilowitt 


168 


Kaangooi.oo 


Curr 


169 


Kabi 


Mathew 


170 


Kabi 


Cnrr 


171 


Kailthiban = 






Waaringulum ... 


Curr 



rnoRiTT. LocALixr. 

Cape York (Somerset 
District), Q'land 

... Anxious Bay Bight, 

S. Australia 
... Halifax Bay, Q'land 
and Gille7i Centra,] Australia 

Lynd River District, 
Queensland 
and Gillen East of BarrowCreek, 
Central Australia 
and Gillen North of Macdonnell 
Ranges, Central 
Australia 
and Gillen Central Australia 

Leichhardt-S e 1 w y'n 

Di.stricf, Q'land 
Wimmera District, 
Victoria (west of 
" DUWINBARAP ") 

South Loddon River, 

Victoria 
Western Victoria 
Serpentine - Loddon- 

Mount Macedon, 

Victoria 
Colac, Victoria 
Loddon Hive r, 

Victoria 
Winnnera Diiitrict, 

Victoria 
Wimmera District, 

Victoi-ia 
Stradl)rokeand More- 
ton Islands, Q'hind 
Westof AvocaRiver, 

Victoria 

Lower Dawson River, 
Queensland 

Head of Mary River, 
Queensland 

Mary River, Q'land 

Coulhurn- M u r r a y 
area, Victoria 



AUSTRALIAN TRIbAL NAMES — THOUl'K. 



171 



Ki.t. 

No. Tkihal Names. 

172 Kaitisii 



173 Kaitish 

174 Kakahakala 



17') Kalkadoon ((■/. 239) 
("Kal." Roth ab- 
bieviation) 

176 Kalkkalkgoondeetch 

(see 159-163) 

177 Kamal-arai (cf. 180-1) 



178 Kamilaroi {cf. 180-1) 



179 Kamilaroi {cf. 180-1) 



182 K AM INK 

183 Kanoloo 



185 Karahara ,. 

186 Karanguru {cf. 168?) 

187 Kahanya ... 

188 Karawa ... 

189 Kara WALLA 

190 Kardagur ... 

191 Karranrul,., 



Authority. Locality. 

Spencer and Cillen Barrow Creek, 

Central Australia 
Spencer and Gillen Central Australia 
Curr ... North-west Caj»e, 

thirty miles south 
of Gascoyne River, 
West Australia 



Roth 

Fraser 
Howitl 
Ridley 



180 Kamilaroi {cf. 177-9) Curr 



181 Kamilaroi {cf. 177-9) Curr 



Smyth 
Curr 



184 Kapun-kapunbara ... Smyth 



Curr 

I/otoitt 

Roth 

Spencer and Gillen 

Curr 

Curr 

Curr 



Leichardt - Selvvyri 
District, Q'laiid 

North and soutii of 
Nainoi River, New 
South Wales 

Southern tributaries 
of Darling River, 
N. S. Wales 

Namoi, B a r w o n , 
Bundarra, and 
Balonne Rivers, 
Liverpool Pin ins 
and Upper Hunter 
River, N. S. Wales 

Tributaries of Dar- 
ling River, New 
South Wales 

Namoi and Gwydir 
Rivers, N.S.Wales 

North-west Victoria 

Head of Comet River, 
Queensland 

Wimmera River, 
Victoria 

Halifax Baj-, Q'land 

East of 575 

B o u 1 i a District, 
Queensland 

Gulf of Carpentaria 
(N. Territory) 

Lower Dianiantina 
River, Queensland 

Blackwood District, 
West Australia 

Lower DawsonRiver,. 
Queensland 



172 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Eef. 

No. 



Tribal Names. Authority. 

Karhanuek Ctirr 

( = Kauunti?) 



192 
il93 Kakriarua 



194 

.195 

196 

197 



Karunhura 
Kaukna 



Curr 



Hoioitt 
llowitt 



Keidnamutiia (c/. 490) Curr 
Keilamueitch ... Smylh 



198 Kerinma 



Hoivitt 



199 


KiNIYEN 


Howitt 


200 


KlRR.t;-WUURONG 


Dawson 


201 


Knenkorkn-wurro . 


Smyth 


202 


Knindowurrong 


Smyth 


203 


Kocai 


Smyth 


204 


Kojoxup 


. Ctirr 


205 


KOKAR 


Curr 


206 


Koko-la.ma-lama 


.. Roth 



("IvLA'Mluth ab- 
hrevialioii) 

207 KoKo-MiNM (" Kmi." 

llotli ;il)breviHtion) Roth 

208 KOKO RAKINIDL ("KrA." 

liotli ;il)l)ieviation) Roth 



209 Koko-wara ("Kwa." 

Rutli aljbreviatjon) Roth 



209\ KoKo-Nn;oi)i 



.. Roth 



Locality. 
]\Iouth of Norniau 

River, Queensland 
North of l)e Grey 

River, North- wesfc 

Australia 
South of 522 
North of Adelaide, 

South Australia 
East of 226 
East of Lake Terarig, 

West Victoria 
Between Euston and 

junction Murray 

and D a r I i n g, 

Victoria 
Hervey Bay (Isis 

River) Queensland 
Mount Shad well, 

Victoria 
Goulburn R i \ e r, 

Victoria 
Pyrenees, AVest 

Victoria 
West o f Balonne 

River, Victoria 
90 miles north-west 

of King George 

Sound, W. Austr. 
Mount Stirling, West 

Australia 
Princess Charlotte 

Bay, and hinter- 
land Queensland 

Middle Palmer River 
Queensland 

Princess Charlotte 
Bay, and hinter- 
land, Queensland 

Princess Cliarlotte 
J3ay, and hinter- 
land, Queensland 

Bathurst Head, 
Queensland 



AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES — TIIOHPK. 



173 



Bef. 
No. Trikal Namss. Authority. 

210 KOKO-YKLLAN.TI (" KyE." 

Koth jil)breviatiou) Roth 



211 KoKO-YiMiDiR ("Kyi." 

Rotli .•il)l)reviation) Hoth 



212 KoLoii 

213 KOLOKE 



Daivson 
Smyth 



214 KOMBAINGHERI ... Howitt 



215 


KOMBOBURA 


. . Howitt 


216 


KONGAIT 


. . Hotoitt 


217 


KONGULU ... 


Hotvitt 


218 


KONKUBURA 


Eowitt 


219 


KOOCATHO ... 


Ciirr 


220 


KOOMBOKKABURRA 


Curr 



221 KoOMBOKKABURRA 



Curr 



222 KOONARIE ... 


Curr 


223 KOONGERRI ... 


Curr 


224 KOONKOOLENYA 


... Roth 


225 KOONKURRI 


Cu,rr 


226 KOOYIANNIE 


Curr 


227 KOPARBURRI 


Curr 


228 KoROCHE ... 


Smyth 


229 KoROTCH ... 


Smyth 


230 KOWRAREGA 


... Curr (quoted) 



Locality. 

Bufcclier Hill and 
Blooinfield River, 
Queensland 

Cooktown and Cape 

Bedford, Q'land 
Western Victoria 

West of M uston 
Creek, W. Victoria 

Coast between Clar-- 
ence and Macleay 
Rivers, N.S.Wales 

Laguna Bay (S. of 
Wide Bay), Q'land 

North of Cadell 
River, North-west 
New South Wales 

Dawson River, west 
of Rockhanipton, 
Queensland 

Coast, east of Rock- 
hampton, Q'land 

West of No. 226 

Main Range,between 
Belyando and Cape 
Rivers, Queensland 

Bower Downs, Q'laud 

North of No. 226 
Junction Thomson 

and Barcoo Rivers, 

Queensland 
B o u 1 i a District, 

Queensland 
C 1 o n c u r r y River, 

Queensland 
North-east of Bel tana, 

South Australia 
Barcoo River, Q'land 
East of iMoyneRiver, 

West Victoria 
East of M oyne River, 

West Victoria 
Prince of Wales 

Group, Cape York,. 

Q'land 



174 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 

No. 


Tribal Names. 


Authority 


231 
^32 


Krauatungalung 
{claii of KUHNAI) . 

Kromelak ... 


Jlowitt 
Smyth 


.233 


Krowitjiun-koolo 


S)nyth 


234 


Kuinmurbura 


Howitt 


235 
-236 


KUINMUKHUHA 
KUKATHA ... 


Howitt 
Taplin 



237 KUKEBURA 



Howitt 



.238 


KULBAINBURA 


Howitt 


.239 


KuLKADOON (see 176) 


Curr 


-240 


KULKYNE ... 


Smyth 


241 


KUMBUKABURA 


Howitt 



242 KUNDARA ("KUN." 

Roth abbreviation) Both 



.243 KUNGALBURA ... Cw, 



244 KUNGARIJITCIIA 



•245 KUNGGAN.TI ("KUG." 

Roth abbreviation) Both 
246 KuRiG-GAi ... ... Fraser 



247 KuRM-ME-LAK ... Smyth 



248 


KURNAI 


Howitt 


249 


KURNAl 


Hotvitt and Fison 


250 


KURNANDABURl 


Howitt 



251 KURUNQ 



Hotvitt 



Locality. 

Gippsland, Victoria 
Wimmera District, 

Victoria 
East of Snowy River, 

Victoria 
Shoal water Bay-Port 

Bowen, Queensland 
Broad Sound, Q'land 
Port Lincoln-Fowler 

Bay, S. Australia 
Head of Port Bowen, 

Queensland 
Gympie, Queensland 
Cloncurry River, 

Queensland 
Lower MurrayRiver, 

Victoria 
North-east of Bowen 

Downs Station, 

Queensland 

Coast, Staaten- 

Nassau Rivers, 

Queensland 
Between PortMackay 

and Broad Sound, 

Queensland 
Junction Thomson 

and Barcoo Rivers, 

Queensland 

Cape Grafton, 
Queensland 

East of Dividing 
Range, Hunter 
River to Picton, 
New South Wales 

Lake Hindmarsh, 
Victoria 

Gippsland, Victoria 

Gippsland, Victoria 

Mt. Howitt, North of 
Thargoinindah, Q. 

Werribee River, Nth. 
of Geelong, Vict. 



Ai;STKALlAN TRIBAL NAMK8 — THORPE. 



175 



Kkk. 






No. 


Tkihai, Namks. 


AtlTHORITV. 


252 


KUTUHUKA ... 


Hoioitt 


253 


KUUKN KOFAN-NOOT .. 


Dawson 


254 


KUYAM 


Howitt 


555 


KWOKWA 


. Roth 



L<tCAI,lTY. 

Hroad Sound, Q'laiid. 
Western Victoria 
South of Lake Eyre, 

South Australia 
Ijoulia Dist., Q'land. 



256 





and 266, 268-9, 272). 


Fraser 


... Euston - Balranald, 
lliveriua, N.S.Wales 


257 


Lailuuil 


Smyth 


W^immera District, 
Victoria 


258 


Laitciik-laitciie (c/.256 








and 266,268-9 and 272) 


Cnrr 


... Kulkyne, Victoria 


259 


Laitchelaitche (c/! 256 








and 266,268-9 and 272) 


Curr 


... Bum bang, Murray 
River 


260 


Larrakkkyah 


Taplin 


Northern Territory, 


261 


Larkakia ... 


Curr 


... Adelaide River -Port 
Patterson, N.T. 


262 


IjARRIKEEYA 


Mathetv 


... Port Darwin, N. Ter. 


263 


Larriquia ... 


Curr 


Fort Darwin, N. Ter. 


264 


Learkabulluk 
{see Jajowerong) 


Smyth 


... 


265 


Lekhookah 


Smyth 


Mt. Leura District, 
West Victoria 


266 


Lbitchi-Leitchi (cf. 








256,258-9,268-9,and272) 


Howitt 


Victoria (south of 
Eu.^ton) 


267 


LiMHA-KARADGEE 


Cnrr 


... Port Es.sington, Nth. 
Australia 


268 


LlTCHOO-LlTCIIOO (cf. 








256, 258-9, 266, 272)... 


Smyth 


... Tyuitynder, Victoria 


269 


LiTOHY-LlTCHY (cf. 256, 


Smyth 


Between Echuca and 



258-9, 266, 272). ... 

270 LURITJA 

271 LURITCHA ... 

272 LUTCHYE-I.UTCHYE (c/'. 

256, 258-9, 266, 268-9) 

273 Maitakudi (" Mit." 
Roth abbreviation) ... 

274 Majanna ... 



junction Darling 
and Murray 

Spencer and Gillen Liixke Auiadeus (and 
south) Cent. Austr. 

Spencer and Gillen Central Australia 



Smyth 

Roth 
Curr 



Victoria 



Cloncurry, Gulf Car- 
pentaria, Q'land 

Shark.s' Bay, West 
Australia 



176 



RECORDS OP THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 

Ko. Tribal Names. Authority. Locality, 

275 Mallanpara ("Mal." 

Roth aVjbreviation) Roth 

276 Mandambaua ... Cnrr 
111 Manuley ... ... Ctirr 

278 Mara ... ... Spencer and 

279 Mardala ... ... Howitt 

280 Maroura {cf. 282) ... Taplin 

281 Maroura ... ... Taplin 



282 Marowera {cf. 280-1) Curr 



283 Marula 

284 Maudalgo ... 

285 Meebin 

286 Merrooni ... 



Howitt 

Ctirr 

Maihexo 



288 Miappi ... ... Curr 

289 MiKOOLAN(r/341 and 342) Curr 

290 Mikoolun(c/:34 land 342) i?o<A 

291 Milpulko ... ... Howitt 



292 Milya-uppa ... Curr 

293 Mingun ... ... Cxirr 

294 Mining ... ... Howitt 

295 Minnal-yungar ... C'mjt 

296 Minung {cf. 294 ?) ... Curr 

297 Meening ... ►.. Cu?T 



Lower Tally River,. 

Queensland 
Halifax Bay, Q'land 

Mount Remarkable 
District, Flinders 
Ra., S. Australia 
Gillen Gulf Carpentaria, 
N. Territory 
East of Lake Torrens,. 

N.!S. Wales 
Lower Darling River, 

N.S. Wales 
Junction Darling and 
Murray Rivers, 
N.S. Wales 
Junction Darling and; 
Murray Rivers, 
N.S. Wales 
... East of 038 

Lower Dawson River, 
Queensland 
... Point Danger, New 
South Wales 
Bustard and Rodds 
Bays and hinter- 
land, Queensland 
Leichardt - Selwyn 
District, Q'land. 
C lo n cu r ry River, 
Queensland 
... Cloncurry District, 

Queensland 
... West of Darling, 
north of Menindie, 
N.S. Wales 
Torrowotto Lake 
Gulf of Carpentaria 
Port Eucla, Austra- 
lian Bight, W. A. 
... Victoria Plains, W. A. 
King George Sound, 

West Australia 
DeGrey River- King; 
Geo. Sound, W. A. 



Rek. 




No. 


Tkibai- Names. 


298 


MlNYUNG ... 


299 


Miour.i 


300 


MlKKlN 


301 


MlUBBf 


302 


^lOGULLUMBITCII 


303 


MOITHKRIBAN 


304 


MOKABUKKA 


305 


MONGUI.LABURUA 


306 


MONULGUNDKECH 


307 


MOOCHKRRAK 


308 


MOOLOOLA ... 


309 


MOONDJAN ... 


310 


]\100N0BA-NGATPAN 


.311 


MOORLOOBULLOO 


312 


MOORUNDEE 


313 


MOPOR 


314 


MOPORII 


315 


MORRUBURRA 


316 


MOURALUNG-BULA 


317 


MUINBURA ... 


318 


MUK-JARAWAINT 


319 


MUIJAKRA ... 


320 


MULKALI 


321 


MULLUNGKILL 


322 


MULYA-NAPA 


323 


MUMKELUNK 




13 



RIBAL NAMES— 


-TIIOKPK. 177 


AlTTirORITY. 


Locality. 


Fraser 


Clarence Iliver, New 




South AValea 


Roth 


... Jiouliii District, Q'ld. 


Ciirr 


Palmer Kiver, Q'land 


Roth 


Cloiicurry District, 




Queensland 


Howilt 


... South Ovens River, 




Victoria 


Cnrr 


... Uoulburn - Mu r ray 




area, Victoria 


Curr 


Ravensbourne Cretk, 




Queensland 


Curr 


... Fort Cooper, Q'land 


Smyth 


... Daylesford, Victoria 


Smyth 


South- West of Pyre- 




nees, W. Victoria 


Ciirr 


Between Brisbane 




and Gympie, Q'land 


Curr 


Strad broke and More- 




ton Island, Q'land 


Smyth 


Macalister & Thom- 




son Rivers, Vict. 


Curr 


Georgina Kiv., junc- 




tion King's Creek, 




Queensland 


Taplin 


Murray River, South 




Australia 


Dawson 


West Victoria 


Smyth 


AVest of Hopkins 




River, Victoria 


Curr 


Lynd River, QMand 


IJowitt 


... Goulburn Riv., Vict. 


Ilowitt 


... Headof Broad Sound, 




Queensland 


Iloioitt 


South of Wimmera 




River, Victoria 


Curr 


... Upp.Sandford River, 




West Australia 


Curr 


Lower Dawson River, 




Queensland 


Smyth 


South of Lake Bur- 




rumbete, W. Vict. 


Cnrr 


North-east corner of 




New South Wales 


Smyth 


Between Moyne and 




Shaw Rivers, West 




Victoria 



178 



FtECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 

No. Teibai, Name^. 

324 MUNDAINBURA 

325 MUNGABEIIA 



326 


MUNGABIRRA 


... 


Curr 


327 


MUNGERA ... 




Curr 


328 


MUNGUBRA ... 




Curr 


329 
330 
331 


MUNGULBARA 

MUNKIBURA 

MuNYABURA 


... 


Curr 
Curr 
How lit 


332 


MURABURA ... 


... 


Uowitt 


333 


MURRAWORRY 


... 


jUatheiv 


334 


MURRINJAKI 


... 


Fraser 


335 


MURRUMNINGAMA 


Curr 


336 


MUKUNUDA ... 


... 


Mathew 


337 


MUTARURA (c/. 339) ... 


Howilt 


338 


MUTIIIMUTHl 


... 


Hoivitt 


339 

340 
341 


MUTIIOHURRA (c/. 337) 

mutlhkrabura 
Mykooloon 


Curr 
Ho Witt 
Curr 



{cf. 289-90 and 342) 
342 Mykoolan 

{rf. 289-90 and 342) 

343 

344 Narikjomurkk 

345 Narhagoort 

346 Nahrangga... 

347 Narrinyeri (se(s349)... 

348 Narrinykri (see 349)... 



AuTHORiTT. Locality. 

Hoieitt ... North of Denliam 

Range, Queensland 
Spoicer and Qillen Cewitral Australia 



Cape Iliver District, 
Queensland 

Cape River District, 
Queensland 

Ca|)e River District, 
Queensland 

Halifax liaj', Q'iaiid 

South of No. 50 

Tinaiia Creek, West 
of Wide Bay, Q'ld. 

Soutli Fraser Island, 
Queensland 

Between Wariego 
and Culgoa lUvers 

East coast N.S.Wales, 
from Bulii to Gabo 
Island 

Condamine River, 
Queensland 

Soutli Gregory Dis- 
trict, Queensland 

Bowen Downs Sta- 
tion, Queensland 

Lachlan, near junc- 
tion with Murray 

Elgin Downs, Q'land 

East of No. 115 

Leichardt - Selwyn 
District, Q'land 

Between Gregory and 
Leichardt Rivers, 
Queensland 

Logan Iliver, Q'land 

East of Cuidie Ck., 
West Victoria 

North York Penin- 
sula, S. Australia 

M urray River - Laca- 
pede liay, S. Austr. 

j\Iun-ay River, South 
Australia 



Curr 

Curr 

S)iii/th 

Huwiit 

Curr 

T(ij)lin 



AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES — THORPK. 



179 



Rkk. 
No. Tkium, Namks. 

349 Nakkinykki {cf. 3i7-8) 

350 Natinukro ... 



Authority. 
Iloivilt 

Curr 



351 


Nathakbooi.ak (cf. 54) 


Ciirr 


352 


Nkitcheyong 


Smyth 


353 


Neuihullok 


Curr (quoted)... 


354 


Netrakbullok (c/. 51) 


Curr (quoted).,. 


355 


Ngaikungo ("Ngl" 






Rotli abbreviation) 


Roth 


356 


Ngamkni 


Jloivltt 


357 


Ngarkgo ( =: 130) ... 


Howitt and Fison 


358 


Ngaukgo ( - 130) ... 


Fraser 


359 


Ngarigo ( = 130) ... 


Ilowitl 


•360 


Ngarrimowro 


Curr 


361 


Ngarun-willam 


Howitt 


362 


Ngatchan (" Nga." 






Rotli abbreviation) 


Roth 


363 


Ngokgurring 


Curr 


364 


Ngookaialum 


Curr 


365 


Ngooraialum 


Curr 


366 


NgUR/UVOLA 


Hoivilt 



367 Ngurla 

368 NlMALDA ... 

369 Ningkrul .. 

370 Niraua-baluk 



Curr 

Tapliii 
Howitt 
Hoivitt 



LocALiTr. 
Encounter Hay and 

the C o o r o n g , 

South Australia 
200 mil(*s nortli-east 

of Newcastle, West 

Australia 
Tabilk, Goulburn 

River, Victoria 
East of Mt. William, 

West Victoria 
Up))er Goulburn 

River, Victoria 
Upper G o u 1)) u r n 

River, Victoria 

Atlierton, Q'land 
Warburton River, 

Central Australia 
M o n a r o District, 

New South Wales 
M o n a r o District, 

New South Wales 
M o n a r o District, 

New South Wales 
Goulburn - Murray 

Rivers, Victoria 
South of Dandenong, 

Victoria 

Atlierton, Q'land 
Doubtful to Israelite 

Bays, W. Austr. 
Seymour to Murchi- 

son, V^ictoria 

Goulburn River, Vict. 

East of Warburton 

Ranges, C. A ustralia 

jNIouth of DeGrey, 

River, North-west 

Australia 
Mt. Freeling, South 

Australia 
Islands off Port 

Bowen, Q'land 
South C a ni p a a p e 

River, Victoria 



180 



RECORDS OF THK AUSTUALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 

No. Tribal Names. 

371 NOONUKUL ... 

372 NouuN 

373 nukunukubura 

374 nutiikk-galla 

374a Nggehikudi (Ngg.) ... 

375 Oborindi ... 

376 Obouoondi ... 

377 Olongbura ... 

378 Onderleburri 

379 (3oLooPOOLOo 

380 Oonamurra = 585 ... 

381 oorallim ... 

382 Okambul 

383 Oriba-kulba 

384 owanburra = 

kowanburra 

385 Owanguttiia 
386 



ACTHOBITY. 

Curr 

Roth 

Hoioitt 

Cnrr 
Roth 

Curr 

Roth 

lloivitt 

Curr 
Roth 
Cni'v 

Curr (quoted). 
Howitt 

Curr 

Curr 

Smyth 



Locality. 
North Stradbroke 

Island, QueeDsland 
UpperFlindersRiver, 

Queensland 
North of Gayndah, 

Queensland 
Melbourne, Victoria 
Batavia River, AVest 

Cape York, Q'land 

" Kalkadoon " Dis- 
trict, Queensland 

Leichardt - Selwyn 
District, Q'land 

North Fraser Island 
Queensland 

Barcoo Rivex", Q'land 

Boulia District, Q'ld 

Flinders and Clon- 
curry Rivers, Q'ld. 

Goulburn River,Vict. 

West of Curtis Island 
(mainland), Q'land 

Mount Black, Q'land. 

Upper Bely ando 
River, Queensland. 

GouU)urn - Murray 
area, Victoria 



387 


Padthaway 


I'aplin 


388 


Paikalyug... 


. . Fraser 


389 


PALLANfJANlIlDDAH . 


Smyth 


390 


PaLLANGANMII)I>AII 


Smyth 


391 


Pangarang... 


.. Curr (quoted) 


392 


Panggarano 


Smyth 


393 


Pangorang 


Smyth 



394 Pangurang... 



395 Paringnoba 



Smyth 



Ilorvitt 



Salt Creek, S. Austr. 
Richmond - Clarence 
Rivers, N.S.\N'ah'3 
N.E. Victoria 
Kiewa River, Vict. 



Moira, V^ictoria 
Angle of Goulbuiii- 

Murray, Victoria 
Lower Goulburn (and 

M u r ray) Rivers, 

Victoria 
Tin-Can Bay, Wide^ 

Bay, Queensland 



AUSTKALIAN TRIBAL NAMES — THORPK. 



181 



Ref. 

No. Triiul Names. 

396 Paunkali.a 



397 Taiinkalla 

398 Parooinge 

399 Pakuin.ii 

400 Pekchkka 

401 Peedona 

402 Peedong 



403 Pebk-vvjiuurong 

404 Peepin-borri 

405 Pegulloburra 

406 Peopleman (sic) 



Authority. 
llowilt 

I'aplin 

Curr 

Hotvitt 

Curr 

Curr 

Curr 

Davson 

Curr 

Curr 

Curr 



407 
408 


Perenbba ... 
Pertobe = 532 


Curr 
Smyth 


409 


Pikkolatpan 


Cu>rr 


410 


PlKUMBUL ... 


Curr 


411 


PiKUMBUL . . 


Matheio 


412 


PlKUMBUL ... 


Ridley 


413 

414 
415 


Pilau hingoondeetcu 

{see 159-63) 
Pinjarra ... 
Pinoba 


Curr 
Hotvitt 


416 
417 

418 


PlRT-KOPAN-NOOT 

Pitta-pitta =49("Ppt." 
Roth abbreviation) 
Pukanbura 


Dawson 

Roth 
Hotvitt 



419 PUNNOINJON ... Smyth 

420 PURTEET-CHOWEL ... Smyth 



Locality. 
West S|)encei* Gulf, 

South Australia 
Port l.iiiculii, .South 

Australia 
Paroo River, New 

South Wales 
West Paroo River, 

New South Wales 
Muiigaleh^Ila Creek, 

Warrejio River, 

Queensland 
East DeGrey River, 

North-west Austr. 
Upper jNIurchison, 

W. Australia 
Port Fairy, Victoria 
Barcoo River, Q'land 
Natal Downs, Cape 

River, Q'land 
Lower Blackwood, 

West Australia 
Burdek in River, Q'ld 
Lake Terang District, 

West Victoria 
Goulburn- Murray, 

Victoria 
Weir and Maclntyre 

Rivers, N.S.Wales 
Duniaresque River, 
New South Wales 
Calaiidoon, Q'land 

(and same as 410) 
Western Victoria 

Western Australia 
Noith of mouth of 
Mary River, Q'land 
Western Victoria 

BouHa, Queensland 
Broad Sound, Q'land 

East of Serra Range, 
W^est Victoria 

Mt. Hamilton Dis- 
trict, W. Victoria 



182 

Ref. 
No. 

421 

422 



423 
424 

425 

426 

427 

428 

429 

430 

431 
432 

433 

434 

435 

436 
437 
438 

439 

440 

441 



Tribal Names. 

QUKKAKIBURRA 
QUKKBINBIRRA 

RiNGA-RINGA 
RiNGA-RlNGAROO 

RiNGO-KINGO 
RiSTEHURA ... 
RUKKIA 

rundubuha 

runga-kungawaii ,. 

rungorungo 

'I'aa-tatty (o/. 442) .. 
Tangamballanga 

Taxgaija 

Taoungurong (c/.470 ?) 

Taruawarrackkl 

TAHltAWARRACKA 

Tarririclung 
'I'arabura ... 

Taru.miutl ... 

TAKlir.MHLriiA 

Tata 1,1 



THE AUSTRALIAN 


MUSEUM. 


Authority. 


Locality. 


Ciirr 


Lyiid River, Q'land 


Cnrr 


Cape River District, 




Queensland 


Curr 


Hamilton River, 




Queensland 


Ciirr 


Between Georj^ina 




and Burke Riveis, 




Queen.sland 


. . Roth 


... B o u 1 i a District, 




Queensland 


Howitt 


yiioal water Bay,. 




Queensland 


Roth 


B o u 1 i a District, 




Queen.sland 


Howitt 


Townsliend Island,. 




Queensland 


, Curr 


Roxhurgli Downs, 




Queensland 


. Roth 


... Boulia District, Q'Id. 


Smyth 


Victoria 


. S/nyth 


North-east Victoria 


Howitt 


.. East of Dry Salt 




Lakes, Cent. Austr. 


) Smyth 


Campaspe and Goul- 




burn Rivers, Vict. 


Smyth 


Lake Wellington, 




Vicioria 


Smyth 


Port Albert, Victoria 


Howitt 


Bundaberg, Q'land 


Hoiritl 


Heail of ISlioalwater 




Bay, Queensland 


. Howitt 


Head of Dee River, 




Keppel Bay, Q'land 


. Hoiritl 


Nurtlj east of Peak 




Downs, Q'land 


Finser 


Euston - Balranald, 



44 2 Tata rill (r.f. l.'U) ... //n>ri.tt 



41.) Taikburra 



Citrr 



Riverina, N. 8. 

Wales 
Kast of junction l\[ur- 

ray and Darling 

Rivers 
'J'ower Hill and Cor- 
nisli Creeks Q'land 





AUSTRALIAN 


TKIBAL NAMK3 — 


THOkPK. 1 83 


Rkf. 








No. 


Tribal Names. 


AUTHOBITT, 


LOCAMTY. 


444 


Tatungalong {Clan o 


/ 






KUUNAI) 


//ofvitt 


Gippslaiid, Vicloria 


445 


Tawakhuua .. 


Ilowiit 


Mary Hivei', C^'laiid 


446 


Tkhkabukka 


Cnrr 


Alice River, Q'IhikI 


447 


Tkkkabuha 


. Iloviitt 


North-east of Haical- 
(line, Queensland 


448 


Tekhkmukhal 


Smyth 


... Hopkins River-Fiery 
Creek, W. Victoria 


449 


TkHKIN CUAI-LUM 


Smyth 


... Ertst of Salt Creek, 
Western Victoria 


450 


'I'HAHAMIIMTONG 


Smyth 


KiewaRiver, Victoria 


451 


Thiiujha 


Iluwitt 


South of Gayndah, 
Queensland 


452 


TlIUNKUMIUMiA 


Iloicitt 


... West of Maryhoro', 
Queensland 


453 


Thukibuua ... 


Hoivitt 


Poison, Hervey Hay, 
Queensland 


454 


TiDNI 


Ilowitt 


Central Australian 
Ri^'ht (coast) 


455 


TlLBABURA ... 


Ilowitt 


North of T a \\\ h o , 
Queensland 


456 


Tinoatingana 


Smyth 


Strzelecki Creek, 
Cooper Creek Dis- 
trict, S. Australia 


457 


TlNGUL.JULLER 


Curr 


... Burdekin River, 
Queensland 


458 


TiNKA-TINKA 


.. Roth 


... Boulia, Queensland 



459 TiRTALOWA-KANI 



Smyfh 



460 


TlKTHUN(; ... 


Smyth 


461 


TlTNIE 


2\iplin 


46-2 


T.TINGILI.I 


Spencer 


463 


Tonga HANK A 


Ilowitt 


464 


ToOLKNYAGAN 


Ctirr 


465 


ToOLGIXISOKRA 


Cnrr 


466 


ToOI.KEMliUKKA 


Cnrr 


467 


'rOOLOOA ( = 104) 


... Cnrr 


468 


ToiiFtAUUHUI 


Curr 


469 


TOOUAM 


Smyth 



Between Tainbo and 

Snowy liivers, Vict. 
Nicholson River, Vict. 
Fowlers Bay, South 

Australia 
andGillen Powell Creek, Central 

Austrnlia 
South of Barrier 

River, N.S. Wales 
Coulburn - Murray 

Rivers, Victoria 
... WVst of No. 243 
Burdekin Hiver, 

Queensland 
Boyne River, Q'land 
IJarcoo River, Q'land 
... West of Curd ies Ck., 

West Victoria 



184 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM, 



Rrf. 
No. Tribal Names. Authoritt. 

470 TouRAiiONONG (c/. 434) Smyth 

471 ToWNIMBURRLAKGOON- 

DEETCH 



liOCALITY. 

Poftland, Victoria 



472 TuWROONBAN 

473 TUMBULLA ... 

474 TUNBEHUI ... 

475 TuuA =127 

476 TuituA 

477 TuRRUBUL {Dialect) . 

478 TuiiKBAF. 

479 TuiiUwcL (Dialect) . 

480 

481 Ulaolinyi ("Ula." 

Roth al>breviation) 

482 Umbaia 

483 Umbkktana 

484 Unalla 



485 Undekerkbina ("Und." 

Roth abbreviation) Roth 



Smyth ... See Jajowerong 

Cur7- ... GouUturn - Murray 

Hivera, Victoria 
Ciar ... Cape River District, 

Queensland 
Cu7-r ... Lower Dianiantina 

River, Queensland 
Cvrr ... Mt. Serle, Flinders 

Ra., 8. Australia 
Howitt and Fison Y o r k e Peninsula, 

South Austialia 
RuUey ... Brisbane River, 

Queensland 
Howitt ... Moreton Bay, Q'land 

RiilUy ... Port Jackson, New 

South Wales 



Roth ... B o u 1 i a District, 

Queensland 

Spencer and Gillen Kast of Powell Cieek, 
Central Australia 

Curr ... DeCrey River Dis- 

trict, N.W. Austr. 

Curr ... Raffles Ba}', Northern 

Territory 



486 Unduamo 

487 Unghi 

488 Ungouki 



489 Unmat.ikra ... 

490 Unyamootiia = 196 

491 Urablna 

492 uuabunna .. 
493 



Upp. Geoigina River, 
Queensland 

J. A. l^horpe ... Somerset, Cape York, 
Queenshtnd 

lloioitt ... Cliarlevillo, Q'land 

Howitt ... Condaniine River, 

east of junction 
with M a r a n a, 
Queensland 

Spencer and Gillen Hann Ran^e, Central 
Australia 

Gason ... Beltaini. S. Australia 

Hoicitl ... Neale River, Central 

Australia 

Spencer and Gillen South of Oodnadatta, 
South Australia 

Spencr and G illen Central Australia 



AUSTRALIAN TKIHAL NAMKS — THOUPK. 



185 



Ref. 

No. 


Tkihal Namks. 


Authority. 


494 


Waagai 


Spencer and Gillen 


495 


Waakingulum = 171 


Curr 


496 


Wacigaiu ... 


Fraser 



497 


Wa(;a 


... Curr 


498 


AVacjgitk ... 


Curr 


499 


WaGGUMBURA 


Howllt 


500 


Waiky-waiky 


Smyth 



501 Wailwun ... 

502 Waimbio ... 

503 Wakklbura 

504 „ 

5C5 Walarai (Kamalarai) 

506 Wallaroo ... 

507 Walkonda .. 

508 Walmundi ... 

509 Walooka ... 

510 Walookeha ("Wal." 

Roth abbreviation) 

511 Walpaki 



Ciirr 

Hoioitt and Fison 

HowiU 
Hoivilt 
Fraser 

Taplin 
Cnrr 
Cnrr 
Cnrr 

Rotli 



I,0( ALIIY. 

Central Australia 
Goulburn - Murray 

Rivers, Victoria 
East of DividintJ 

Range, between 

Clarence and Mac- 

leay Rivers, New 

.South Wales 
Dawson River, 

Queensland 
West of Pahnerston, 

N. Territory 
S.H.E. of Gayndah, 

Queenshmd 
Between Echuca and 

junction Darling- 

M u r r a v Rivers, 

N.S. Wales 
Barwon River, New 

.South Wales 
Junction Darling- 
Murray and Rufus 

River, N.S. Wales 
Peak Downs-Araiuac, 

Queensland 
Mt. Nariien, west of 

Clermont, Q'land 
Tributaries Darling, 

Nth. Central New 

South Wales 
Yorke Peninsula, 

South Australia 
Mth. of Roper River, 

E. North. Territ. 
Burdekin River, 

Queensland 
Upper Roper River, 

E. North. Territ. 



512 
513 



Wal- wall IK 



Upper Georgina 
Rivei, Queensland 
Spfiicer and Gillen West of Tennant 
Creek, C. Australia 
Spencer and Gillen Central Australia 
Miller and Meston Georgina River, 

Queensland 



186 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 










No. 


Tribal Names 




Authority. 


514 


Wamba-wamba 






IJowitt 


515 


„ ( = 


cf. 


611) 


Smi/th 


516 


Wambia 






Spt'.iicer atid Gilleii 


517 


Wandandian 






Ridley 


518 


Wandubuua 






Ilowitt 


519 


WANIN(iOTBUN 






Smyth 


520 


Wanmung-wanmungkur 


Smyth 


521 


Wan NGN 






Smyth 


522 


Wakabl'L ... 






IIoTvitt 


523 


Warabura ... 






Ilowitt 


521a 


Wapa-bara 






Roth 


524 


Wa1£ANBI'KA 






llovntt 


525 


Warbaa 




... 


JloP'itt 


526 


Waring-illan 




... 


Iloioitt 


527 


Warooko ... 






C^trr 


528 


Warramunoa 






Spencer and Gillen 


529 


., 






Spencer and Gillen 


530 


Warrangoo 






Ciirr 


531 


Warhtalgona 






Curr 


632 


Warrnambool 


= 


408* 


Smyth 


533 


Watchandi 






Curr 


534 


Watiii wAini 






Ilowitt 



535 Wattv-Wattv {cf. 594) Smyth 



536 
537 



Waukaboonia 



{cf. 594) Smyth 
Curr 



Locality. 

North Campaspe 

River, Queensland 
Same region as 500 
Central Australia 
Slioalhaveu coKst, 

New vSouth Wales 
Shoal water Bay, 

Queensland 
Angle Goulburn and 

M u r r uy Rivera, 

Victoria 
Lake Hindniarsh,. 

Victoria 
Sandford and Hamil- 
ton, Victoria 
Yaamba, Queensland 
South of Stanwell, 

Victoria 
Great Keppel Island, 

Queensland 
Peninsula North of 

PortBowen, Q'land 
West of Bundaberg, 

Queensland 
South Goulburn 

River, Victoria 
Raffles Bay District, 

N. Territory 
Central Australia 
Tennant Creek, Cen- 
tral Au.stralia 
Kent District, West 

Australia 
liynd River, Q'laiid 
Lake Teiang District, 

West Victoria 
JNl outh Murchison 

River, W. Australia 
Murray River, East 

of Lake Tvrrell, 

Victoria 
Tyntyndyer, Victoria 

Same region as 500 
" Kalkadoon " Dis- 
trict, Queensliiml 



AUSTRALIAN TUIBAt. NAJIKS — TIlKKPK. 



i87 



Rkf. 






No. 


TiiiBAL Names. 


\V 


538 


Wawuhkonc; ( - Yarra) 


Smijth 


539 


W A woo HONG ( = YaRUA) 


Smyth. 


540 


Waykkuonggoondektch 

(<•/: 160, etc.) 




541 


Wkkdookaruy 


Cnrr 


54-2 


Wkelko 


Roth 


543 


Wekrkitcii-wkereitch 


Smyth 


544 


Wkki-wkki 


Ho Witt 


545 


Wkluinbura 


IloioUt 


546 


Wkrrupurrong 


Smyth 


547 


WHA.TOOK ... 


Ciirr 


548 


Whitewurndiuk 


Smyth 


549 


WlLINGURA... 


Spencei 


550 


Willara 


Hovntt 


551 


WiLLRUHOO... 


I'aplin 


552 


WiLYA 


Howitt 


553 


WiPIK 


Curr 


554 


WiRA DIIARI 


Fraser 


555 


WlHA-DJUKI 


Howitt 


556 


WiRAIARAI ... 


Curr 


557 


WiRANGU ... 


Howitt 


558 


WlTHAI.TU ... 


Hoioitl 


559 


WiTOURO ... 


Smyth 


560 


WlTOWURRONO 


Smyth 



561 VYoGicE 



Curr 



\UTH0RITV. Locality. 

... Port Pliillip to Mt. 
i\I;iCP(loii, V'ic'torii\ 
Southern Yictoria 



Shaw River, trib. D& 
GieyRiv., N.VV.A. 

Bouliii District, 

Queenslaiitl 
East of Eumeralla,. 

West Victoria 
Murray liiver, south- 
east of Eustoi), Yic. 
Ilinterhiiid of Slioal- 
water Bay, Q'land 
East of Fiery Creek^ 
West Victoria 
... York District, West 

Australia 
... Bast of 165 
and Gillen Daly Waters, Cen- 
tral Australia 
N o r t li of Stuart 
Range, C. Australia 
Gawler Eanges, 

S. Australia 
East of Grey Range,. 
Nortli-w«st New 
South Wales 
... South of 496 

Large area of Cen- 

tral N. S. Wales 
South Central New 

South Wales 
Barwon River, N. S. 

Wales 
West of Lake Toiren.'!,. 

C. Australia 
East of Lachlan, near 
junction with 
Murray K.,N.S.W. 
Geelong, Victoria 
Geelong and nortli^ 

Victoria 
More ton Islands^, 
Queensland 



188 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Ref. 

No. TuiuAL Names. 

562 WOKKKLUURHA 



Authority. 



563 WoLKiioi (r-f. 127a) ... Cxirr 

564 WoLGAL ... ... Jlowitt 



565 WOLLAIIOI ( = EUAHLAYl) 

c/! 127a ... Parker 

5U6 WoLLARoi (c/. 127a)... Jlowitt 



567 WoLLiTHiGA ... Curr 

568 WoLLONGURMKE .. Ctirr 

569 W0LLUM = (WOLLOOM 

OK Woolloom) ... Smyth 

570 Won GAT PAN ... Curr 

571 WONGHIBON ... Ilowitt 

572 WONGHURHAGHEERAR- 

GOOXDKKTCn 

573 \VoN(}KAO0iioo ... Gason 



574 „ ... Cia 



575 WoNKA-jEiiA ('• Won." 

Roth abbreviation) Roth 



676 VVONKAUALA 
577 WONKANGURU 



llou'itt 
Ho It' lit 



578 WoNKATYKRI (c/. 575) Howitt 

579 WoNNAKUA ... ... Ciirr 

580 WONUNDA MEENING ... Clirr 

581 WooKRWOOKONG ... Smyth 



Locality. 
Lower Belyando and 
Suttor Rivers, 

Queensland 
Moonee and Weir 

Rivers 
North of Australian 
Alps, South New 
South Wales 



Nortli Darling River, 
east of Bourke, 
New Sou til Wales 

Goulburn - Murray 
area, Victoria 

Middle Norman 
River, Queensland 

Lake Wellington, 
Gippsland, Vict. 
Same as 567 
Central N.S. AVales 

See Jajowerong 
Neighbours of 

"Dieyerie," South 

Australia 
Neighbours of 

" Diej'erie," South 

Australia 

Boulia District, 

Queensland 

E. Charlotte Waters, 
Central Australia 

B a r c o o or Cooper 
Creek, north of 
Lake Eyre, C. Aust. 

North Maciimba 
Ri\ei-, Queensland 

Hunter River, New 
South Wales 

Eyre Sand Patch, 
West Australia 

Yaira and Western- 
port, Victoiia 



AUSTRALIAN TKIIiAl. NAMES— THOUPIC. 



189' 



Rek. 

No. 


Tkiuai. Names. 


AUTUORITY. 


L()( AI.ITY. 


582 


WOOLLATHARA 


Smyth 


. M oa ni a, M u r c ay 
Kiver, Victoria 


583 


WoOLr.OOM-HA-BKLLOOM- 







BKLLOO.M 



584 WooLNA 



585 WooNAMURUA (" Woo." 



hnyth 



Ciirr 



Roseda'e and Lake 
lleeves, Victoria 
Adelaide River and 
Coburg Peninsula, 
N. Territory 





Rotli abbreviation) 


Roth 


586 


WoOLOOAMI... 


... 


Curr 


587 


WOOUVONGA 




C'wrr 


588 


WORADJKRG 




Smyth 


589 


WORGAI 




Spencer 


590 


WORKIA 




Miller a 


591 


WORKOBOONGO 




Roth 


592 


"NVORREKKE-BA- 








KOONANGYANG 


Smyth 


593 


WOTJOBALUK 


.. 


Iloioitt 


594 


WOTTI-WOTTI (cf. 


534-6) 


Curr 


595 


WUDTHAURUNG 




Hoivitt 


596 


WULMALA ... 


... 


Spencer 


597 


WlIMBAIO ... 


... 


Howitt 



598 WiiRATiiEKi {cf. 554-5) Ctirr 



599 
600 



wurungjebi 
Wychinga .. 



... Upper Flinders River, 

Queensland 
... Middle Roper River, 

E. North. Territ. 
... South of No. 262, 

etc. 
... Between Howlong 
and Dora Dora, 
Victoria. 
Spencer and Gillen East of 'IVnnant Ck., 

Central Australia 
Miller and Meston Upper Georgina 

River, Queensland 
Leichardt - Selwyn 
District, Q'land 



Mitchell, Nicholson, 

and Tambo Rivers, 

Victoria 
North of Winnnera 

River, Victoiia 
Swan Hill, Victoria 
West of Geelong, 

Victoria 
and Gillen West of Barrow Ck., 
Central Australia 
Junction Murray and 

Darling Rivers, 

Victoria 
Macquarie, Upper 

Castlereagh, and 

B o g a n Rivers, 

N. 8. Wales 
North of Melbourne,. 

Victoria 
Macuniba River, 

Queensland 



Howitt 
Curr 



190 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



Rkf. 

No. 

601 
€02 



Tkibal Names. 
Wyingukiu 
WyiNURiii 



AuTHORiTT. Locality. 

Spencer and Gillen Central Australia 
Spencer and Gillen Central Australia 



003 Yaako-yaako 



Smyth 



€04 
G05 
606 


Yairy-yaikv 
Yaitmathang 


Smyth 
Smyth 
Ilowilt 


607 


Yakka.jari 


Fraser 


608 


Yakunbura 


lleivitt 


609 
610 


Yaldikowera 
Y'alibura ... 


Curr 
Hoivitt 


611 
612 
613 


Yamha-yamua ( = 514-5) 
Yambeena .. 
Yanda 


Smyth 

Curr 

Curr 


614 
615 
616 


Y''aNI)KAWONTHA 

)) ■ • • 

Yangauella 


Curr 

Gason 

Curr 


617 
618 


Yangarilla 
Y^'angeeberra 


Curr 
Cxirr 


619 
6-20 


Yankibura... 
Yantruwl'nter 


Hotvitt 
Smyth 



621 Y''antrawunta 

622 Y''aRI) IKKN ., 

623 Yargo 
€24 Yaki-yari .. 

625 Yarmuura .. 

626 Yaroin<;a .. 

627 Yakra (- 538-9) 



Hoivitt 

J. A. Thorpe 

Hoivitt 

Fraser 

Hoivitt 

Ruth 

Smyth 



Lake Victoria and 

Rufus River, New 

South Wale.s-Vict. 
North-we.st Victoria 
Same as No. 500 
Australian Alps 

(Victorian side) 
Inverell - Warwick, 

N.S. Wales-Q'land 
Western tributaries, 

Dawson River, 

Queensland 
North of 490 
Hervey Ba}' (Burrum 

River). Q'land 
Same as No 500 
Peak Downs, Q'land 
Head of Hauulton 

River, Q'land 
" Dieyerie " District 
Neighbours of 106 
Nicholson River to 

Coast Dist., Q'land 
Gulf of Carpentaria 
Barco River, 40 miles 

west of Blackwall, 

Queensland 
Aramac, Queensland 
East Cooper Creek, 

South Australia 
East Barcoo or 

Cooper Creek, S. 

Australia 
Somerset, Cape York, 

Queensland 
Central Mary River, 

Queensland 
Euston - Balranald, 

Riverina, N.S.W. 
Boonara Creek, soutli 

of Gaynilali, Q'land 
Upper Georgina 

Rivei', Queensland 
Southern ^'i^•toria 



AUSTRALIAN TRIBAL NAMES — TIIORPK. 



191 



Kef. 

No. 


Thihai, Naue5. 


AUTHORITT, 


«28 
629 
630 
631 
^32 
^33 


Yarra (= 538-9) . 

YaRRAWAI'KA 

Yarrawaurka 
Yakkk-varrk 
Yarkikuna... 
Yauuouka ... 


Smyth 
Crirr 
Gason 
Smyth 
Ciirr 
.. Hoi via 


634 


Yauung-illam 


Jloiritt 


€35 


Yawai 


Howitt 


636 
■637 


Yelina 
Yellunga ... 


Ciirr 
... Jioth 


638 
«39 
640 


Yelyuyendi 

Y''kure-yerrb 
Yetti-maralla 


Howitt 
Smyth 
Howitt 


€41 


Yetti-maralla 


Howitt 


€42 


YlARlK 


Curr 



643 YioiNJi ( 'YiD." Roth Roth 
abbreviation) 



644 


YlKCLA-MEENING 


Curr 


€45 


YlRUN-ILLAM 


Hou'itt 


€46 


YiTTHA 


Fraser 


647 


Ynarrkeb-ynarrkeb 


Smyth 


€48 


YOEMBARA ... 


Curr 


€49 


YOURWYCIIALL 


Smyth 



€50 YuALARoi = (127a) 

€51 YUALLORAI = ,, 

€52 YuGGAi ... ... Fraser 

€53 YuiN ... ... Hotvitt 

€54 YuiPERA ... ... Curr 

655 YusDA ... ... Jioth 

€56 YUNTAUNTAYA ... Both 



f.OCALITT. 

Yarra Rivcr.Victoria 
" Dieyerie " District 
Neighbours of 106 
North-West Victoria 
East of No. 490 
Lake Howitt, Cen- 
tral Australia 
Soutli (joull)urii 

KivtM', Victoria 
BurnettRiver,west of 
Bundaherg, Q'land 
Burke River, Q'land 
B o II 1 i a District, 

Queensland 
Eyre Creek, Q'land 
Mildura, Victoria 
East of Peak Downs, 

Queensland 
West of Broad Sound 

Range.s, Q'land 
Raffle.s Bay District, 

N. Territory 

Mulgrave River and 

coast ; Murray 

Prior Mountains, 

Queensland 

Eucla, W. Australia 

South Broken River, 

Victoria 
Euston - Balranald, 
Riverina, N.S.W. 
]Mt. Sturgeon to Lake 
Boloke, W.Victoria 
Halifax Bay, Q'land 
Wannon River to 
Grange Burn, Vict. 



Bundara to Bingara, 
New South Wale.s 

South-east coast of 
New Soutli Wales 

Port Alackay, Q'land 

B o u 1 i a District, 
Queensland 

B o u 1 i a District, 
Queensland 



ir. — Bibliography. 



CuRR (E. M.)— "The Australian Race," Melbourne, 1886. 

Dawson (Jas.) — "Australian Aborigines," Cambridge, 1885. 

FisoN & HowiTT. — " Kamilaroi and Kurnai," Melbourne, 1880. 

Fraser (John) — ''Aborigines of New South Wales," Sydney, 1892. 

Gason (S.) — " The Dieyerie Tribe of Australian Aborigines," 
Adelaide, 1874. 

HowiTT (A. W.) — " Native Tribes of South-Eastern Australia," 
London, 1904. 

Matiikw (John) — "Eaglehawk and Crow," London and Mel- 
bourne, 1899. 

Parker (K. L.)— "The Euahlayi Tribe," London, 1905. 

Ridley (W.) — "Kamilaroi and other Australian Languages," 
Sydney, 1875. 

Roth (W. K.) — "Ethnological Studies," Brisbane and London, 
1897. 

Roth (W. E.)— "North Queensland Ethnography," Bulletins 
1-8, Brisbane, 1901-6; Bulletins 9-18, Australian 
Museum Records, VI. - VIIL, 1907-10. 

Smyth (R. Brough) — "Aborigines of Victoria," 1878. 

Spencer (W. B.) & Gillen (F. J.) — "Native Tribes of Central 
Au.stralia," London, 1899; " Northern Tribes of 
Central Australia," London, 1904. 

Tapms (G.)—" Folklore, ike, of South Australian Aborigines,"' 
Adelaide, 1897. 



INDEX. 



103 



Aboii<fiuul Tiibiil Nanios .. 161 

abrosperma, Adknanthera ... 30 
XnKVii precaloriu-s ... 22, 30 

Al'Akia, -sj). ... ... ... 16 

adder, Sonnkratia ... ... 11 

aculeata, Couthouyia ... 142 

Apknantheka ahro-sperma ... 30 

.Adkorbis (fiirjiiKi ... ... 143 

an(/iil(ifn ... ... ... 143 

riiicenf'iana ... ... 143 

agallucha, ExCECARiA ... 11 

airoisis. Hornera ... .. 118 

Akera ia.'tmanica ... ... 158 

a/6oc(«r/(7. Hydatina ... ... 158 

Aleurites molnccana ... 52 

Alstonia .vr/io/ffj't* ... ... 50 

verticil losa ... ... 11 

XhVkti\K prwtoriiatili.s ... 139 

Alyxia xpicafa ... ... 45 

Amauropsis morchii ... ... 139 

Amauropis (?) ro.i.nanc ... 139 

amhuitulrffus, Thais ... ... 152 

.\MPHI BLEST RUM aniinliis ... 118 

aiiip!u.itre, Aplustrum ... 158 

anceps, Chilentomia ... ... 145 

awijrrt.yi, Adeorbis ... ... 143 

ang'isi,\ivt.v,iEK ... ... 159 

aii/ff/si, Philine ... ... 159 

angulcita, Av>'E.OR'Bl& ... ... 143 

annnlns, .\mphiblestkum ... 118 

rtpf;-/!a, Philine ... .. 159 

.\PLUSTRUM amplustre ... 158 

aruanu-<<, Megalatractus ... 30 

arnndiiiacea, Imperata ... 59 

AsAFHis, #;;. ... ... ... 135 

a-spera, Couthouyia ... ... 141 

«.v.vijwt7w, LoBiPES ... ... 133 

Atys tiaitcum ... ... ... 157 

palmarum ... ... ... 157 

Auricula .s«/r«/o.sv/ ... . 153 

au-tfraln-iicum, (Janarium 11 

Australian Tribal Names ... 163 

nuxlrrffis, C\RE\\ ... ... 30 



ai(.\fra/i.\-, Livistona ... 

anstralis, Oli V A 

AUSTRIELLA .varrffV^M .. 
AUSTROCLEA, .V/?. 

AvicuLA lata ... 
avicidiriii, Dkntalium... 

B 

Barkingtonia lyicciiio-y'i 
haudi)ieti.\i.s-. IMarginklla 
hertinirnia. Helix 
bigihbum, Dendrobium 
bi/ahiafa, Cassidula ... 
BoMBAX mahiharicum... 11, 
BOUVIERIA s/e//ff<« 
brazieri, Diaphana 
Beuguieka rheedi 
bitvcinoides, Potamopyrgus .. 
BucciNUM diiplicatum 
BuLL^A aiiffa.si 
BuLLiNA scabra 



PA G H 

61 

32. 38 

. 152 

. 137 

32 

32 



39 

146 

. 154 

38 

. 153 

28,39 

. 135 

. 158 

9 

. 140 

. 147 

, 159 

158 



Calamus, .sp. ... 7, 55, 59, 70 

Calophyllum foiiietilo.sum ... 6 

Canarium australasicum ... 11 

cdticellata, CoNciNNA ... ... 141 

caiicelfata, 'Nerita ... ... 143 

caticellata, Vanikobo ... 143 

cancel latus, Sigaretus ... 143 

candulleana, Ceriops ... ... 9 

capuciiiu.i, MuREX ... ... 151 

Cardium vertebratnm ... 50 

Carey'A auHtralis ... ... 39 

carpenlarienHi.s, (var.) Latibus 

paeteliana ... ... 149 

carpentnriensis, Rissoina ... 139 

Cassidula bilabiata 153 

nucleus ... ... ... 152 

.sulculosa, ... ... ... 153 

Cebiopk caiidolleana ... . . 9 

Chilentomia anceps ... ... 145 

corafliiia ... ... ... 144 



194 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

PAGE 
ernthrcea, Philine ... ... 159 

Erythrlna veHpertilis ... 25 

Erythrophlceum laboucherii 65 
Eucalyptus for(/»iio.v« ... 49 

tfffcidonta ... 9,61,72 

Exc JEC AUi A a f/a II ochft ... 11 

e.roel/&n.s; RoCHEFORTlA ... 134 

txigiia, Hydatina ... ...' 158 

expansa, Vanikoro ... ... 143 





PAGE 


circulata, Hydatina . 


158 


Clanculus clanguloides 


136 


comarili-s ... 


136 


stiff marius ... 


136 


unedo 


136 


clang II foide-i, Clanculus 


136 


clathrntd, Columbella 


151 


clathrata, Montrouzieka 


135 


Columbella clathrata 


151 


dnrniitor ... 


148 


pardaliiia ... 


33 


fo/Mffri/w, Clanculus 


136 


CONCINNA caiicellata ... 


141 


concinna, Crossea 


141 


constricta, Monodonta 


137 


CoNUS micarius 


147 


millipunvtatiis 


36 


parvus 


148 


coraUina, Peristernia 


149 


(•oraW(H«, Chilentomia 


144 


corruffata, isocitfA 


152 


corymhosa, Eucalyptus 


49 


CouTHOUYiA avuJeata 


142 


a.spera 


141 


ffraciiis 


142 


the I acme 


142 


Crania ... 


107 


Crossea coiicinna 


141 


gemniata 


141 


cyclostomafa. Helix ... 


155 


cuclostumata, Planispira 


155 


Cypr^ea onyx ... 


152 


Cyrku A J itkesii 


7 


D 




Daphnella fragilifs ... 


149 


ver.sive.slita 


. 148 


Dendrobium biffibbum 


38 


denselamiuala, VanikoRO 


143 


DeNTALIUM rf(!U-M/M«( ... 


32 


doiuddtiis, Murex 


151 


diadema, Mklo 


17. 36 


DlAPHANA brazier i 


158 


dimnnita, Monodonta 


137 


dormifur, Columbella 


148 


DUPLICARIA nstnlata ... 


147 


vallesia 


147 


diiplica/tim, KucciNUM 


147 


E 




Edenttellina lypica 


134 


fhrefioides, Ficus 


52, 54 


Entaua .v(V7nrfc«* 


72 



Fasciculipora gracilis 


. . 118 


fansta, RissoiNA 


.. HO 


Ficus ehrefioides 


52,54 


vialai.na 


44 


orbicularis 


... 28 


pleiirocarpa 


... 52 


fischenanus, Latirus 


.. 149 


Flagellakia indica ... 


.. 7, 17 


Jiageliif'era, Selenaria 


.. 118 


flagellifera, var, minor, Sklk- 


NARIA 


... 119 


fragilis, Daphnella ... 


... 149 


franc iscana. MiTRA 


... 150 



_7eH2iBa^«, Marginella 145 

^e;H;«(7<a, Crossea .. . 141 

GiBBULA magus ... ... 152 

Gmelina uiacrophylla ... 11 

//r«C77/.V, CoUTHOUYIA .. 142 

//rrtciVis, Fasciculipora ... 118 

gua inensis, Mii:KOMEho .. 158 

Gypsum, Cloncuny, Q'ld ... 124 

H 

Hklkochaihh sphaceldt'i ... 51 

Helix berfiniana 154 

cyclostomafa .. 155 

sfrangiilata ... ... 155 

fucfrci'i ... ... • ■ 155 

hemiclansa, Microphyura ... 155 

htnniana,'^i\iiO\,\A ... 137 

Heteropora /x'-Vl/o/'WI-v 118 

Horn era «i/v'M.vi> ... 118 

Hydatina albicitula ... ... 158 

cirmlata ... 158 

cxigiia ... ... 158 

jihysis ... 158 

relurii ... 158 



INDEX. 



195 



I 



irferifo, Lokihes 
Imperata anindiinicea 

indiva, Fl.AGELLARIA .. 

intricala, Pybenk 
imbrex, KissoA ... 



PACK 

1:3:} 

59 

. 7. 17 

. 151 

. 139 



jacksoniensis, LOEIPES 
Jacksonieusiii, LuciNA 
Jonesiana, Syknola 
jukesii, Cybena 

L 

IfBvigata, MARGiNEIiLA 
lagotis, Peragale 
Larina fiirbiiiata 
lata, AvicuLA ... 
LATiRUsy?.vf/*er/««MS ... 

pceteliana, var. carpeii- 
tai'ien.sis 
LlCUALA miielferi 
hiMAX micleii>i ... 
lineata, Likipoha 
LiRiPORA lineata 
LiVlSTONA (/«.v^>*«/i« ... 

loringi, Nucula 

LoRiPES a.s.simili.'i 

Lcterica 

jacksoniennis 

ramaaiii 
LuciNA corrugata ... , 

jack.sonieiixis' 

par aula 

pixidium 

famsapl 
LuuoviciA, >ip. ... 

M 

macrophyUa, Gmelina 
magns, Gibbula 
malabaricum, Bombax 11 

Malaisia torfuosa 
Malleus vulsellalux ... 
manifesta, Syrnola ... 
maroidum, Xanthomelon 
margaritifera, Meleagrina . 
Marginella baii.dineii.sis 

geminaid 

Icetngata 
maritima, RvppiA. 
masoni, Voluta 



133 
133 
144 



146 
24 

138 
32 

149 

149 
59 
152 
118 
118 
61 
131 
133 
133 
133 
133 
152 
133 
124 
134 
133 
135 



11 
. 152 
28. 39 
16, 39 

35 
. 143 
. 157 

32 
,. 146 
,. 145 
,. 146 
,. 141 
.. 145 





PAGE 


Megalatkactub aruanus 


30 


Melaleuca ... 52, 59 


61.65 


Meleaorina margaritifera . 


32 


Melo diademii ... 


17, 36 


mivarius, CoavH 


. 147 


MiCROMELO gudinenxis 


158 


Microphyura heviirldlixil 


. 155 


MlNOLA lienni'ina 


137 


minor, (var.), Selenaria 




Jidgeliiferii 


119 


Miralda sp. ... 


144 


MlTHXfronciscana 


150 


nodoslaminea 


. 150 


strangei 


.. 150 


MODIOLA subtorta 


.. 141 


moluccana, Aleurites 


52 


Monazite, Olaiy, S. Aust. . 


.. 127 


MoNODONTA conxtricta 


. 137 


diminiita ... 


.. 137 


zebra, 


.. 137 


MONTROUZIERA clathruia 


.. 135 


morchii, Amauropsis ... 


.. 139 


mordica, Lassaria 


.. 149 


Moriori cranium 


.. 107 


MoBiNDA j-e^icw/rt/a ... 


39 


moslennca, Scaphella 


.. 145 


mueUeri, Lieu ALA 


59 


j»«eH.s('.v, Papuina 


.. 154 


MuREX cdpncinus 


., 151 


denudatus ... 


.. 151 


patagiatu.s ... 


.. 151 


territus 


.. 151 


^Iyodoha. pavimenta ... 


.. 132 


.striata 


.. 133 


tessera 


.. 132 


i N 




1 
Narica siqaretifurmis 


.. 142 


\ naucttm, Atys ... 


.. 157 


N XVTii,VH pompilius ... 


32 


Neoconcha. -sp. 


.. 139 


Nerita cancel la frr 


.. 143 


li -ERniti A puUigera ... 


.. 152 


New Hebridean Cranium 


.. 114 


nodo-sfaminea. MiTBA ... 


.. 150 


North Queeusland Ethno- 




graphy— 




Abnormalities 


67,77 


After-birth ... 


75 


Aij^rettes 


24 


Anklets 


44 


Apron-belts ... 


39 


Armlets, opossixm-twine 


43 


' Pandanus 


.. 43 



196 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



PAGE 



North Queensland Ethno- 
graphy — • 
Atherton District ... 
Back ornaments 
Bailer, shell ... 
Bark blankets 
Bark-canoes 
Bark -covers ... 
Barter 

Blankets, bark 
Bloomfield River District 
Boats introduced ... 
Boulia District 
Breakwinds ... 
Cairns District 
Canoes, bark 
Canoes at Brisbane 
Central Coast District 
Chest ornaments 
Circlets 
Classification of nature 

Cloaks 

Clothing 

Coen River District 
Cooktown District ... 
Coral-tree flower 
Crossing water 
Cross-shoulder ornaiiients 
Decoration ... 
Defecation ... 
Deformation 
Depilation ... 
Digital amputation 
Domo-framework hut 
Double-outriggers ... 

Drill 

Dug-outs 

Ear-piercing 

Ear-rings 

Exogamy 

Feathering of the budy 

Feather-tufts 

Ficus malaisia 

Fillets 

F'loats 

Forehead Feather-covers . 

Forehead-nets 

Genitalia 

Grass-bugl"' necklace 

Groups, Internal division of 

Hair, false ... 

Haii-oriuunents, shell 

tooth 

Hair-singeing 
Head-net 



PAGE 





North Queensland Ethno- 






graphy— 




91 


Hip-pieces 


40 


35 


Human-hair belt ... 


37 


17 


Huts 


55 


52 


Individual uouieuclature ... 


79 


6 


Jequirety seeds 


22 


55 


Knuckle-bones 


25 


17 


Labour 


74 


52 


malaisia, Ficus 


44 


c 92 


Mantenata ... 


25 


16 


Menstruation 


74 


84 


Micturition ... 


73 


55 


Mimicry of crocodiles 


4 


. 91 


Mourning 


25 


6-10 


Native groups 


81 


16 


Necklaces, grass-reed 


33 


. 84 


kangaroo twine ... 


33 


35 


miscellaneous 


34 


26 


opossum twine ... 


33 


. 106 


Pandanus ... 


33 


51 


shell 


32 


21 


Nomenclature 


79 


96 


Nose-boring... 


29 


93 


Nose-pins 


29 


. 25 


Outriggers ... 


11 


2 


Painting of the body 


50 


34 


Palmer R. District, Middle 


95 


21-52 


Pennefather River District 


96 


73 


Phalloci-ypts 


41 


21 


Place-names ... 


79 


22 


Plaited-blankets 


51 


. 42 


Postures 


<;7 


. 58 


Pregnancy ... 


74 


. 11-12 


Princess Charlotte Bay Dist 


. 94 


7 


Pubic hair, removal of 


40 


11 


Rafts 


4 


28 


Rafts, tiro on 


5 


. 28 


Ridge-pole shelter ... 


57 


. 101 


Rockhampton District 


84 


. 49 


Rugs ... 


51 


24 


Scars, decorative ... 


44 


44 


Shelters 


55 


. 26.28 


Single-outriggers 


13-14 


3 


Sitting 


68 


24 


Sleep ... 


67 


23 


Social nomenclature 


7!i 


40 


Standing 


67 


33 


Swimming ... 


cs 


f 97 


Tail-pieces ... 


HI 


23 


'I'arumbal Blacks ... 


lu 


26 


Tooth-avulsion 


30 


25 


Totem ism 


102 


22 


Trade... 


17 


23 


Tninsporl 


2-16 



INDEX. 



lit/ 



North Qiieenslfind Ethno- 
graphy— 
Treo-climbiug 
Umbilical cord 

Waist-belts 

Waist-circlets 
Waist-skeins 

Walking 

Winji-winji ... 

nucleits, Cassidui.a 

nucleux, LiMAX 

NucuLA loriiigi 

obliqua 

superha 



obliqua, NucuLA 
Odostomia, revincta 
oleracea, Portulaca 
Oliva (lustralis 
omix, CtpBjEA ... 
orbicniaris, Ficus 



Pandanus, sp. ... 

paefeliana, var. carpentnrien.sii, 

Latirus ... 
pnlmarum, Atyr 
Papuina mi(ensi.<t 

poiretana ... 
pardalina, Columbella 
parimla, LuciNA 
parvus, CoNUS ... 
patagiatus, Murex 
paten.s, PsORALEA 
pavivienta, Myodora ... 
pellita, Pellilitorina 

PeLLILITORNIA /^f/^iVff 

.■ieto.sn 
Perahale triflofi.i 
Perdix, .vo/c/m/>w 
Peristertna corrtf/inrr 
Perna, ■<ip. 
Philine nut/a.ii 

aperta 

erfiilirtvri ... 

tliKidri partita 

cdiUctufi ... 
phfial.t, Hydatina 
pi.ndium, Lucina 
pi.siformi.'i , Hkteropora 
Pithecanthropus,.?^. 



AGK 




pAf.i-: 




Plantspira cficloKtomnt/t 


155 




truculent a ... 


156 


fiO 


ttickeri 


. 156 


7G 


pletirocarpa , Fioub 


52 


37 


poiretiaiia, Papuina ... 


. 154 


39 


POLYZOA 


. 118 


37 


pompilius, Nautilus ... 


32 


68 


Portulaca oleracea ... 


45 


57 


Potamopyrgur burciiioidet .. 


140 


152 


riippia> 


. 140 


152 


prmtornatili.'^, Alvania 


. 139 


131 


preca fori 11.1, Abrus 


22,30 


131 


PSORXI.V.A pateii.t 


23 


131 


pulligera, Nkritina ... 


. 152 




Pyrene intricata 


. 151 




Pyrgulina se«ea- 


. 144 




Kmeralii 


. 144 


131 


zea ... 


. 144 


144 






45 


Q 




I, 38 
152 

28 


quadriparfiia, Philine 


. 160 


Quartz, Nundle.N.S.W. 


. 126 


Moonbi, N.S.W 


. 126 




Quartz, Torrington, N.S.W 


. 127 




R 




fi5 








racenwua, Barringtonta 


39 


149 


ram.<tai/i. Loripes 


133 


157 


ram.9ai/i, Lucina 


. 133 


154 


reclitziana , Vanikoro 


142 


154 


reticulata, Moulin li. ... 


. 39 


33 


revincta, Odostomia ... 


J 44 


134 


rheedi, Bruguiera 


9 


148 


rhylleii.si.s, Rissoina ... 


140 


151 


Rissoa inihrex ... 


139 


23 


RissoiNA carpentariensis 


139 


132 


faunta 


140 


138 


rhyllensis ... 


140 


138 


Rochefortia excellent 


134 


138 


rossiana, Amauropsis (?) 


139 


24 


riiJilahris,l!K'V'E\ 


141 


36 


RuppiA maritima 


141 


149 


rvppifP, Potamopyrgur 


140 


22 


s 




159 






159 


SxJAiiATORfragili.'} ... 


141 


159 


.scahra, Bi'llina 


158 


160 


.scanden.s-, Entada 


72 


159 


Scaphella mo.ilemica 


145 


158 


undulata 


145 


134 


.icholari.i, Alstonia ... 


50 


118 


S EIj-en A-RT A. ft agel I if era 


118 


109 


flagelUfera var. minor ... 


119 



198 



RECORDS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 



senex, Pyrgulina 
setosa, Pellilitorina 
sigaretiformis, Narica 
nigarefiformis , V anikoro 
sigaretiformis, Velutina 
SiGARETUS cancel hit us 
■sloani, SoLEN ... 
Solarium ^erf/('.i' 
SoLEN sloanii ... 
Sonneratia acida 
sordida, Aurtrtella ... 
.•iphacelata, Heleocharis 
■spicafa, Alyxia 
.stigmarius, Clanculus 
sfraugei, Mitra 
strnngidata. Helix 
striata, Mtodora 
suhtorta, Modiola 
sulculusa. Auricula ... 
sulculosa, Cassidula ... 
superba, Nucula 
SYRHOljAJonesiaiiri 
manifextd ... 



tasmanica, Akerx 
T ATEA riijilahri-i 
terrUns, Murex 
tessera, Myodora 
^e/rr/rfortirt, Eucalyptus 9, 
Tetrahedi-ite, Mt. Read, Tas. 
Til Ais ambastu/atus 
thelacme, CouTHOUYiA 
tomentosum, Calophyllum .. 
Topaz, Chillagoe, Q'd. 

Stautliorpe, Q'd. 

Tate R., Q'd 

Torrin^'tou. N.S.W. .. 
tortuosa, Malaisia 
'I'ribal Names, Australian 
Trichoconcha, .^y;. 
trucnienta, Planispira 
tuckeri. Helix 



PAGK 




PAGE 


144 


tuckeri, Planispira ... 


.. 156 


138 


turbinata, Larina 


.. 138 


142 


%^ica, Edenttellina 


.. 134 


142 






142 


U 




143 
32 
36 
32 
11 


umerahs, Pyrgulina ... 


.. 144 


zmrfw/rt/fl-. Scaphella ... 


.. 145 


7ZHprfo, Clanculus 


136 


ttstulata, Duplicaria ... 


.. 147 


152 


V 




51 






45 


^jaiZ/flw^i, Phi LINE 


.. 159 


136 


vafle.iia, Duplicaria ... 


147 


150 


Vanikoko cancel lata ... 


143 


155 


denselam inala 


. 143 


133 


expansa 


.. 143 


141 


recluziana ... 


.. 142 


153 


sigaretij onn is 


.. 142 


153 


velum, Hydatina 


.. 158 


131 


Velutina sigartlifurmis 


.. 142 


144 


versivesiiia, Daphnella 


.. 148 


143 


vertebratiim, Cardium 


.. 50 




verticillosa, Alstonia 


11 




vesperiilis, Erythrina 


25 


158 
141 
151 
132 


vincentiana, AdeORBIs 


143 


ViVlPARA, .'i'^;. ... 


. 138 


VoLUTA mason i 
inilsellatiis. Malleus 


.. 145 
35 


61, 72 


W 




123 






152 


Wliaiifitarei ciatiiiiui ... 


.. 107 


142 


Wulfe'nite, Brokeu Hill, 




6 


N.S.W 


.. 127 


123 


Leij^h Ok., S. Aus. 


.. Vll 


122 






121 


X 




. 120 
16, 39 


Xanthomelon marcidum 


. 157 


161 


Z 




. 139 






. 156 


zea, Pykgulina 


144 


. 155 


zebra, Monodonta 


., 137 



'Wm 



mm' 



Um 



WB