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Full text of "Records of big game with their distribution, characteristics, dimensions, weights, and horn & tusk measurements"

BIG GAME 




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SEVENTH EDITION 



1914 







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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/recordsofbiggame1914ward 



ROWLAND WARD'S 
RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



First Edition 


published 1892. 


Second , , 


1896. 


Third , , 


1899. 


Fourth , , 


1903- 


Fifth , . 


i9°7- 


Sixth 


1910. 


Seventh , , 


i9!4- 



ROWLAND WARD'S 

RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



WITH 



THEIR DISTRIBUTION, CHARACTERISTICS, DIMENSIONS, 

WEIGHTS, AND 

HORN & TUSK MEASUREMENTS 

SEVENTH EDITION 
EDITED BY 

R. LYDEKKER, f.r.s. 

AND 

J. B. BURLACE, f.r.g.s., f.z.s. 



"^s^m^Sfe- 



&%m0&& 









LONDON 
ROWLAND WARD, limited 

"THE JUNGLE," 167 PICCADILLY, W. 
I914 

cy 

A II rights reserved 






fetfcu 



tt/ 



TO THE 

SPORTSMEN OF THE WORLD 

WITHOUT WHOSE ENTERPRISE THESE RECORDS 

COULD NOT HAVE BEEN COMPILED 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED 



PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH EDITION 

There are three main points the great -game sportsman 
generally wants to ascertain : — ist, the name of his quarry ; 
2nd, how it compares in point of size with other specimens 
of the same species ; and, 3rd, what is the extent of its geo- 
graphical range. All these he will be able to ascertain from 
the present work. 

As in former editions, the finest known specimens of antlers, 
horns, tusks, and skins are, so far as possible, recorded. It is 
to be regretted that one pair of hands and a steel-tape are not 
responsible for the measurements of all the actual "records." 
But it has been found impracticable in some instances to verify 
the measurements of trophies, especially in distant parts of the 
world ; and such records must accordingly be taken on the 
responsibility of their respective owners or those who have been 
good enough to measure them. One of the many difficulties 
in connection with compilations of this nature is due to the 
circumstance that different measurements of the same specimen 
are sometimes received, this often arising from the use of a tape 
or string instead of a steel-measure. 

Great care has been taken with regard to the accuracv of 
the dimensions given ; and, considering the number of measure- 
ments, it will be readily understood the task attempted has been 
one of no ordinary difficulty. 



viii RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

In the case of the horns of freshly killed hollow-horned 
ruminants an allowance for shrinkage should be made when com- 
paring with older trophies. An average specimen of an Ovis 
amnion horn, for instance, will frequently shrink half an inch 
in length and proportionately in girth after it has left the field. 
Ivory tusks also deteriorate in weight. 

Among the deer tribe many difficulties have arisen as to 
comparison ; and it may be pointed out that although length of 
antlers is invariably put at the top of the list, other particulars, 
such as number of tines, general symmetry, spread, and weight 
of antlers, go in many instances to the making of a good trophy. 

A notebook for use on the field will be found in a pocket at 
the end of this volume. 

Acknowledgments are due to a number of sportsmen 
(especially to Sir Edmund G. Loder) and naturalists all over 
the world for the help they have afforded. 

As in the three previous editions, Mr. Lydekker is responsible 
for the technical nomenclature and descriptions. Since the text 
was printed off he has ascertained that Sika is the proper sub- 
generic name of the deer of the Sika group, and nippon the 
earliest specific designation of the type species. The amended 
names of the various members of this group will consequently 
stand as follows : — 

1. Cervus {Sika) nippon, p. 49. 

(a) C. nippon typicus, p. 50. 

{b) C. nippon manchuricus, p. 50. 

2. Cervus {Sika) tacvanus, p. 51. 

3. Cervus {Sika) hortulorum, p. 52. 

THE EDITORS. 

May 1 9 1 4. 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS 

— Owner's measurements and particulars, or other known authority. 

6 Male. ? Female. ... Unrecorded. 

R, Right horn or antler. L, Left horn or antler. 

G.S. Greatest spread. 

Measurements are usually on the outside of the longest horn from base to 
tip ; but in Deer from the bottom outside edge of the burr, or coronet, to the 
highest tip-point, except when notified to the contrary. 

Circumference is at the base ; in most Deer above brow-tine, but in the Red- 
Deer and Wapiti group between bez and trez tines. 

Length is expressed in inches, when not otherwise stated, and the tape 
should be laid on the centre of the front curve of antelope horns such as Reed- 
buck, etc. 

Weights taken in the field should be accepted as approximate, and, unless 
the contrary is stated, are those of adult males. 

Heights are in most cases taken at the shoulder of adult males (see p. 517). 

N.B. — Unless the contrary is stated, the specimens and illustrations are those 
of males. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Abyssinian Bohor Reed buck, Skull and 
Horns 
,, Buffalo, Skull and Horns 

,, Ibex, Skulls and Horns 

,, Oribi, Head 

Addax, Head .... 
Addra Gazelle, Skull and Horns . 
African Buffalo .... 
,, Horns and Skull, 

418, 421, 422 
,, Elephant, Head 
,, ,, Tusk 

American Bison, Skull and Horns 
Anoa, Head .... 
Arabian Ibex, Skull and Horns 

,, Oryx, Head 
Armenian Mouflon 
Arui, Head .... 
Asiatic Ibex, Head 



Babirusa, Head ..... 460 

Bantin, Head ..... 445 
Barasingha, Head . . . 54, 55 
Beira, Head . . . . . .167 

,, Skull and Horns . . . 168 

Beisa, Head ..... 291 

Bharal, Skull and Horns . . . 385 

Bison ....... 432 

Black Bighorn, Head .... 393 

Blackbuck, Skull and Horns . . 235 

,, Head .... 237 

Black Rhinoceros, Head . . 467 

,, ,, Horns . . . 466 
Blesbok, Horns and Head . 145, 147 

Blue Duiker, Head .... 162 

Bohor Reedbuck, Frontlet and Horns . 219 

Bokharan Argali, Skull and Horns . 403 

Bongo, Head ..... 323 

Bontebok, Head ..... 143 

Brindled Gnu, Frontlet and Horns . 150 



221 

422 
372 
176 
298 
272 
419 

424 

479 
481 

434 
431 
375 
295 
413 
387 
367 



Brindled Gnu, Head 
Brown Bear, Skull 
Bubal Hartebeest, Horns 
Bushbuck, Skull and Horns 
Head . 



PAGE 

151 
518 
Il8 

303 
307 

131 



Cape Hartebeest, Head 

Carpathian Red Deer, Skulls and Antlers 

16, 17, 24, 25 
Chamois, Skulls and Horns . 335, 338, 339 
Chilian Guemal, Skull and Antlers . 109 

Chiru 233 

Chital, Frontlet and Horns ... 70 
Cyprian Red Sheep, Head . . . 412 

Defassa Waterbuck, Skull and Horns . 191 

Dibatag, Head ..... 224 

Domesticated Goat, Head . . . 378 

Dorcas Gazelle, Head .... 250 
Duikerbok, Skull and Horns . .158 

Dybowski's Sika . . • • 53 

,, ,, Head. ... 52 

Eastern Red Deer, Skull and Antlers 28, 29 
Edmi Gazelle, Horns .... 248 

Eland, Head 325 

,, Horns (Cow) .... 329 
Elk, Antlers .... 96, 100 



Fallow Deer, Head 
Forest-Hog, Head 
Four-horned Antelope, Skull 
Fringe-eared Beisa, Head 



Gaur, Head ..... 439 

Gayal, Skull and Horns . . . 444 

Gemsbuck, Skull and Horns . . 288 

Gerenuk, Head ..... 278 

German Red Deer, Antlers ... 27 

Giant Irish Deer, Skull and Antlers . 77 



and 



• 74 

• 456 
Horns 300 

• 293 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Giraffe, Skull . . . . 113 

Gnu, Head 156 

Goa, Head ...... 238 

Goitred Gazelle, Head .... 242 

Grant's Gazelle, Skulls and Horns 265, 267 

Guemal, Skull and Antlers . . . 109 

Hangul, Skull and Antlers ... 32 

Heuglin's Gazelle, Head . . 259 

Himalayan Goral ..... 340 

Hog-Deer, Head ..... 72 

Hunter's Hartebeest . . 136 

Head . 13S 

Ibex, Head . . . . 371 

Indian Buffalo, Head .... 427 

Elephant, Skull and Tusks . 474 

Gazelle, Head .... 246 

,, Rhinoceros, Horn . . 462 

Jackson's Hartebeest, Skull and Horns. 129 

Javan Rhinoceros ..... 464 

Rusa, Antlers .... 68 

Kamchatkan Bighorn, Skull and Horns 394 

Kashmir Barasingha, Skull and Antlers 32 

Head ... 36 

Kennion's Gazelle, Heads . . 245 
Klipspringer, Head . . . .186 

Kongoni, Head . . . . 125 

Korrigum, Head . 137 

Kudu, Head . . . . 317 

Lake Chad Ox, Skull and Horns . 447 

Lechwe, Head and Fore-cjuarters . 196 

,, Head 199 

t Kudu, Head .... 321 

Lichtenstein's Hartebeest, Head . . 133 

Lion, Forepart ..... 488 

Livingstone's Suni, Skull and Horns 180 

Loder's Gazelle, Horns . . 257 

Lord Derby's Kland, Head . . 331 

,, Skull and Horns . 333 

Malay Sambar, Frontlet and Antlers . 65 

Manchurian Tiger, Skin . . . 496 

Marco Polo's Argali, Skull and Horns 404, 405 

Markhor, Head (Astor) . . 358 

Skull and Horns (Cabul) . 365 

,, ,, (Pir Panjal) 361 

,, ,, (Sulerrlan) . 364 

Marsh-Deer, Antlers .... 108 

-tamian Fallow Deer, Head 76 

Milu Deer, Head 79 

la Gazelle, Head . . . 262 



Mongolian Argali, Horns 

,, Gazelle, Frontlet and Horns 

Mourlon, Head ..... 
Mountain Nyala, Skull and Horns 
Mountain Reedbuck, Skull and Horns . 
Mrs. Gray's Lechwe, Head . 
Mule-Deer, Heads . . . 104, 
Muntjac, Skulls and Antlers . 80 

Musk-Deer, Head 
Musk-Ox, Head .... 



Neumann's Hartebeest, Skull and Horns 

New Zealand Red Deer, Head 

Nilgai, Head .... 

Nilgiri Tahr, Head 

North African Red Deer, Antlers . 

Nubian Ibex, Head 

Nyala, Horns .... 



Oribi, Head ..... 

Pala, Head 

Pallas's Tur, Head 
Pelzeln's Gazelle, Head 
Pere David's Milu Deer, Head 
Phillips's Dik-dik, Skull and Horns 
Pigmy Hippopotamus . 
Prongbuck, Head .... 
Przewalski's Gazelle, Head . 
Puku, Skull and Horns 

Red Deer, Antlers (Exmoor) 

,, Antlers in the Castle at Moritz 

burg . 
(Old English) ' . 
(Scotch) . 
,, ,, (Spanish) 

Red-fronted Gazelle, Skull and Horns 
Reedbuck, Head .... 
Reindeer, Antlers .... 83, 
Roan Antelope, Head . 

,, ,, Skull and Horns . 

Rocky Mountain Bighorn, Skull and 

Horns ..... 
Rocky Mountain Goat, Head 
Roebuck (Tien Shan), Head . 

Sable Antelope, Head . 

,, Skull and 1 buns 

Saiga, Head ... 

,, Horns .... 

Saikik Gazelle, Skull and Horns . 
Salt's Dik-dik, Dead . 
Sambar, Frontlet and Horns 
Head . 



401 
241 
414 
310 
216 
200 

105 
, 82 
112 
351 

128 

12 
3OI 
356 

31 

373 

308 

174 

226 

383 

255 

79 

170 

45i 
116 
240 
209 



27 

13 
1 

14 
260 
213 
84, 86 
284 
284 

389 

349 

94 

280 
283 
232 
231 
244 
169 

63 
61 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF LLLUSTRATIONS 





PAGE 




l'AGF. 


Sassaby, Head .... 


I48 


Tora Hartebeest, Head 


121 


Schomburgk's Deer, Skull and Antlers 


57 


Tsaine, Head ..... 


445 


Seistan Gazelle, Heads 


245 






Serow, Head .... 


343 


Uganda Kob, Skull and Horns 


204 


Shapo, Head .... 


407 


Urial 


410 


Sharpe's Steinbok, Skull and Horns 


184 


,, Skull and Horns. 


409 


Shou, Skull and Antlers 


37 






Siberian Argali, Head . 


399 


Vaal Rhebok, Head .... 


211 


Sika, Skull and Antlers 


49 






Sind Wild Goat, Skull and Horns 


376 


Walrus, Head ..... 


513 


Situtunga, Horns .... 


312 


,, Skull and Tusks 


515 


,, Western, Horns . 


315 


Wapiti, Head ..... 


41 


Scemmerring's Gazelle, Head 


269 


,, Skull and Antlers 


45 


Somali Hartebeest, Head 


123 


Wart- Hog, Tusks and Head . . 457 


» 459 


Spanish Ibex, Skull and Horns 


379 


Waterbuck, Frontlet and Horns . 


188 


Speke's Gazelle, Head . 


253 


Western Hartebeest, Head . 


119 


Springbuck, Horns and Head . 27 


5, 277 


,, Kob, Head .... 


202 


Steinbok, Skull and Horns . 


183 


,, Tur ..... 


381 


Head .... 


185 


White-bearded Gnu, Head 


153 


Sudani Bohor Reedbuck, Head 


222 


,, ,, Skull and Horns . 


154 


Sumatran Rhinoceros, Horn . 


465 


White Bighorn, Head .... 


39i 


Suni, Head . 


179 


White-eared Kob, Head 


207 


Swayne's Dik-dik, Head 


170 


White-maned Serow, Head . 


346 






White Oryx, Head .... 


296 


Tahr, Head ..... 


353 


White Rhinoceros, Head 


470 


Takin, Head .... 


347 


,, ,, . Horns 


47i 


Thamin, Skull and Antlers . 


60 


,, ,, Skull and Horns 


470 


Thomson's Gazelle, Heads . 


263 


White-tailed Deer, Mexican, Head 


103 


Tiang, Skull and Horns 


139 


,, ,, Virginian, Head 


IOI 


Tibetan Antelopes 


233 


Wild Boar, Head 


452 


,, Argali, Head . 


397 


,, ,, Tusk ..... 


454 


Tien-Shan Ibex, Head . 


367 






Tiger, Head .... 


493 


Yak, Skull and Horns . . 


436 


,, Skin ..... 


492 


Yarkand Stag, Skull and Antlers . 


35 


Topi, Head ..... 


141 


Yellow-backed Duiker, Head 


165 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 







Shot by Mr. Walter Jones. 



The RED DEER (Cervus elaphus). 

The red deer of Western Europe is the typical representative of 
the genus Cervus, in which the antlers of the stags are set on the skull 
at an oblique angle to the middle line of the forehead, and have a true 
brow-tine, while they are generally more or less nearly cylindrical. 
There is always a large bare portion on the muzzle, the face is long,, 
the ears are generally large, and the tail is comparatively short, often 
extremely so. Although there is almost always a gland and tuft on the 
hind cannon-bone, usually situated high up, there is none on the hock 

i B 



2 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

itself. The coat may be spotted in the adult, and is almost invariably 
so in the young. 

In the red deer the antlers are subcylindrical and complex, 
generally with a bez-tine, and always with a trez, the number of points 
exceeding five, and the crown frequently forming a cup. The tail is 
relatively long and pointed, and there is an orange-coloured patch on 
the buttocks, which includes or surrounds the tail. The general colour 
of the adult summer coat is reddish brown, and that of the winter dress 
greyish brown, often with a dark dorsal stripe ; stags frequently showing 
a throat-fringe. The young, in which the ground-colour is of a richer 
tint, are profusely spotted with white. 

Red deer, in the widest sense of the term, are inhabitants of 
Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, and Northern Persia. In the 
typical red deer (C. elaphus typicus) of Sweden, and its representatives 
in Western, Northern, and Central Europe, the antlers attain their 
maximum degree of complexity, sometimes having twenty or even 
more points, although in many Scotch examples the bez-tine is 
wanting. The Swedish red deer is the typical Cervus elaplius of Lin- 
naeus, in other words, Cervus elaphus typicus. From this race the 
Norwegian red deer differs by its inferior size, the lighter colour of the 
summer coat, and the presence of a distinct dark border to the rump-patch. 
The general colour of the Swedish race is dark reddish brown, almost 
chestnut, with the legs sooty or blackish brown ; while in the Nor- 
wegian animal the colour is yellowish brown tinged with grey, the legs 
being paler and of a brownish slaty grey. The rump -patch is also 
lighter in the Norwegian race, being reddish yellow with a blackish 
border, while that of the Swedish red deer is less distinct, sometimes 
scarcely differing in colour from the flanks. There are also differences 
in the skulls of the two races, especially noticeable in the case of hinds. 
The Norwegian red deer has been named Cervus elaphus atlanticus ; 
and the Scotch red deer, C. e. scoticus, is closely allied. Several races 
of red deer have been named in Germany, but these may be included 
under one heading as C. e. germanicus. This is a large deer, with a 
very light, and usually black-bordered, rump-patch. The Spanish race 
( C. e. hispanicus), which is smaller, with a greyer coat and narrower 
skull, is said to lack the abundant neck-fringe of Scotch deer. 

The red deer (C. elaphus corsicanus) of Corsica and Sardinia 
is a small race, without a bez-tine to the antlers, and the general 
colour of the upper-parts dark brown in summer, with the upper side 
of the tail coloured like the rump-patch, and blackish in the winter. 
Nearly allied is the North African red deer (C. elaphus barbarus), which 
is of rather larger dimensions, with a greyish-brown streak down the 
middle of the back, and small irregular whitish spots on the flanks 



RED DEER 3 

and sometimes on the back ; traces of such spots being occasionally 
observable in the summer coat of hinds of the typical race. The bez- 
tine seems to be very generally wanting. 

The Eastern red deer (C. elaphns viaral) is a large race, described 
on page 28. 

In a red deer killed at Spetchley Park the weight was 419 lbs. 
gross, and 2 1 6 when cleaned ; while in one shot at Knowsley many 
years ago the clean weight was no less than 424 lbs. The height at 
the shoulder reaches about 4 feet. H.R.H. the Duke of Braganza 
saw a Continental stag shot which scaled 584 lbs., and shot a 10-pointer 
with a spread of 5 5 inches. 

The late Lord Tweedmouth gave the following dimensions of a 
fine Scotch stag, shot October 9, 1880 : — 

Widest span over all, 39^ inches ; span inside below cups, 34 inches ; span outside below 
cups, 37 inches. 

Right antler. — Length, 39 inches ; length of brow, 10J inches ; of bez, IO inches ; of trez, 13 
inches. Length of tines in cup, 10, J, 4J inches. Circumference at coronet, Scinches ; between 
bez and trez, "]\ inches ; above trez, 6 inches. 

Left antler. — Length, 38 inches ; of brow, 10 inches ; of bez, 8 inches ; of trez, 11 inches. 
Length of tines in cup, 8, 6, and 4 inches. Circumference at coronet, 9 inches ; between bez 
and trez, "]\ inches ; above trez, 6\ inches. — Weight, 303 lbs. clean ; but stag was much run. 



.4.— BRITISH AND IRISH RED DEER (C. elaphus scoticus). 

a. — Scottish Specimens. 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Spread. 


Points. 


Weight, 
lbs. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


40^ 


5 


22 


33 




7 + 7 




Inverness, 1794 


. Col. W. Hall Walker. 


4°i 
1-40 


61 

6 




30 




8 + 8 
10 


203 


Glenartney . 
Glentilt 


Mrs. Campbell of Dun- 

staffnage. 
Duke of Atholl. 


-391 


5 




25 




6 + 6 




Ardverikie 


E. J. Wythes. 


-394 


4l 


26 


33 


35h 


5 + 5 


266 


Kinveachy . 


Major J. J. Porteous. 


-39 
39 


6 
6 


27i 


34 
34 


39i 
391 


6 + 6 
6 + 6 


303 


Guisachan 

? 


The late Lord Tweed- 
mouth. 
Duke of Portland. 


-384 


4i 




26 




11 




Isle of Rum . 


Sir George Bullough. 


3H 
3H 


6i 

5i 


1,3 

7j 


19* 

3i 


3°i 


9 + 8 
5 + 6 




Glenfiddich . 
Strathvaich . 


Duke of Richmond and 

Gordon. 
J. C. Williams. 


38i 


55 


14 


27I 


33 


6 + 5 


246 


Meoble 


Walter Jones. 


3§i 


6 


26 


33-1 


40! 


7 + 6 




? 


Duke of Beaufort. 


3H 


55 








5 + 5 




Kinlochewe . 


Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, 
Bart. 



Owner's measurements. 



1 Recorded by J. G. Millais. 



XECOjRDS of big game 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 

3Si 

3S 

o7i 

374 

374 

374 
-371 

37i 
-371 

37 
-37 
-36* 

3°4 
-364 
-364 
-364 
-364 
-364 
-36i 
-36J 

36i 
-36i 

364 

36 

36 
-36 

36 

36 
-36 

36 

35 . 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 

54 

4i 

4l 

5 

44 

54 
6i 

44 

54 

4f 
4i 

5 

4i 

5k 
4i 

5 

44 

44 
54 
4i 

5 

5^ 
4? 
5} 

4i 
4i 

4V 
44 

48 



^° ES? s p- d - 



3oif 
2 94 

2Si 

26 

30i 



34 



85 



2Si 

3 2 4 

24 

23 

30 

35 

37 



361 



274 



41 



3i4 
30i 
274 
26 

27 

254 

245 

24I 

22 

33i 

28 

27} 

26A ... 
214 27 

32* ... 
17 28 ■•< 3 l.i 
22^ 31J 34 



33i 



57.S 



Points. Weight. 

lbs. 

7 + 7 ••• 

6 + 6 ... 

6 + 5 ». 

6 + 5 ... 

5 + 5 ■•• 
10 

8 + S ... 

6 + 6 ... 

5 + 5 

6 + 6 

5 + 4 

6 + 6 

5 + 6 

6 + 6 
11 280 
11 

6 + 6 ... 

10 

6 + 5 235 

5 + 5 ■•• 

6 + 6 ... 

6 + 5 ... 

5 + 5 ••• 

7 + 7 ••• 

6 + 6 ... 
6 + 6 ... 
6 + 6 ... 
5 + 5 •■• 
5 + 5 22 5 
5 + 5 ••• 



Locality. 



Fannich 

Barrisdale 

Mar 

Wyvis . 

Conaglen 

Glenmoriston 

Brodick 

Forfarshire . 

Brodick 

Lettermorar . 

Glenmoriston 

Glenstrath- 

farrar 
Auchnasheen . 

Rhidorroch . 

Benmore, Mull 

Glomach 

Ben Klibreck 

Affaric . 

Cluanie 

Gaick . 

Arran . 

Kintail . 

Corrour 

Knoydart 

Dunroljin 

Langwell 

Caenlochan . 

Inchbaie 

Meoble. 

Strathvaich . 



Owner. 

The Hon. Mrs. Gordon- 

Cumming. 
V. J. Watney. 

W. Parrott. 

Mrs. E. Ross. 

R. Shoolbred. 

Lord Morton. 

J. M. Grant. 

Marquis of Graham. 

R. L. Scott. - 

Marquis of Graham. 

W. A. Dewhurst. 

The Hon. Mrs. Gordon- 

Cumming. 
W. Radcliffe (shot by the late 

R. Gordon-Cumming). 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Countess of Cromartie. 

Earl of Eglinton. 

The late Col. Baldock. 

J. W. Baxendale. 

S. Dennis. 

A. H. Straker. 

G. Hargreaves. 

H.R.H. Prince Arthur of 

Connaught. 
S. Loder. 

Sir J. M. Stirling-Maxwell, 

Bart. 
A. S. Bowlby. 

Duke of Sutherland. 
Duke of Portland. 
Mrs. Henry Tate. 
F. L. Davis. 
E. M. Crosfield. 
Do. 



- Owner's measurements 



RED DEER 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Spread. 


Points. Weight, 
lbs. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


36 


4§ 


I9l 


28f 


3°4 


5 + 4 




Ardgour 


Lord H. Vane Tempest. 


36 


5i 


I3l 


28| 


3 2 5 


5 + 5 




Glenkingie . 


W. M. Christy. 


36 


4i 




31 




5 + 5 


308 


N. Uist. 


W. Brigstock. 


36 


4§ 




26J 




5 + 6 




Morar . 


\V. A. Dewhurst. 


-36 


5& 




3°4 




6 + 7 




Glenquoich . 


J. E. B. Baillie. 


-36 


4l 




27 




2 + 2 


276 


Glenfinnan . 


F. Fenwick. 


-351 


4i 




26 




6 + 6 




N. Uist 


C. H. Dendy. 


-351 


4i 




3 2 4 




5 + 5 




Affaric . 


L. A. Ballance. 


-351 


41 


23 


28J 


31 


4 + 4 




Dalnamein . 


C. T. Garland. 


351 


44 




29i 




6 + 5 




Garrygualach 


Major H. G. Fenton 
Newall. 


-351 


44 




31 




5 + 5 




Loch Choire 


Duke of Sutherland. 


-35* 


4i 




27I 




12 




Ardnamurchan 


R. C. Donaldson-Hudson 


354 


54 




254 




6 + 6 


244 


Sutherland . 


Abel Chapman. 


-351 


4l 




27 




5 + 5 




Branlen 


Earl of Derby. 


351 


44 


H4 


26J 


30 


6 + 6 




Isle of Mull . 


W. Mure. 


354 


4l 




264 




10+ 10 




Glenquoich . 


Dowager Lady Burton. 


354 


44 




24! 




6 + 6 




Craiganour . 


H. Samuelson. 


354 


43 




31! 




5 + 5 




Benula 


Stanley M. Dennis. 


354 


44 


244 


29I 


324 


5 + 5 




Ben Alder . 


Lord Hythe. 


-354 


6 




384 




5 + 5 




Kinlochewe . 


Sir Kenneth Mackenzie 
Bart. 


-351 


44 




30 




4 + 4 




Gaick . 


J. Hargreaves. 


35i 


5 


25 


3°i 


35 


6 + 4 




Coignafern . 


J. Bradley Firth. 


35i 


5 




25i 




7 + 8 




Ardverikie . 


Sir J. W. Ramsden, Bart. 


-35i 






27I 




14 




Glenfeshie . 


Sir G. A. Cooper, Bart. 


35± 


44 




294 




6 + 6 


248 


Invercauld . 


L. Neumann. 


-35i 


5 




24! 




6 + 5 




Eskadale 


Major A. Robinson. 


-35± 


5i 




27i 




6 + 6 




Blackmount . 


Countess of Sefton. 


-35i 


Ai 


71 


22 


27I 


7 + 7 




Killiechonate 


F. Cooper. 


-351 


54 




26^ 




5 + 5 




Glenfinnan . 


G. Bainbridge. 


-354 


4l 


3'i* 


30 




6 + 6 




Deanich, Ross- 
shire 


G. P. V. Aylmer. 



Owner's measurements. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 

-35} 
-35i 


circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez 

5i 
5 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 

26 
32i 


Spread. 


Points. 

7 + 7 
6 + 6 


Weight, 
lbs. 


Locality. 

Glenartney . 
Ardnamurchan 


Owner. 

Dowager Countess of 

Ancaster. 
C. D. Rudd. 


351 


4} 




33 




4 + 3 




Caenlochan . 


J. J. de Knoop. 


35 


45 


i3l 


24h 


29 


5 + 5 




Glenkingie . 


W. M. Christy. 


35 
-35 


4l 


22 


2S 


34 


7 + 6 
10 


225 


Talladh-a-Bhe- E. Weller-Poley. 

ithe, Rannoch 
N. Morar . Major T. W. Gill. 


-35 






29 


41} 


7 + 6 




Monymusk . 


Sir Arthur Grant, Bart. 


-35 


4l 




38} 




5 + 4 




Invermark 


Earl of Dalhousie. 


35 


4i 


I2| 


24i 


27 


6 + 6 




Glenbruar 


A. M. Thomas. 


35 


4§ 




29J 




6 + 5 




Glenartney . 


V. Fleming. 


J -35 


5! 


26 


33 i 


37i 


12 




Guisachan 


The late Lord Tweed 


35 


4* 


I9i 


26| 


28| 


5^5 




Glenkingie . 


mouth. 
Sir Henry Hoare, Bart. 


-35 


4l 




29 




4 + 4 




Ledgowan 


L. A. Ballance. 


34l 


4} 


13} 


26 


28} 


5 + 5 




Dibiedale 


H. Hinton. 


341 


4i 




32} 




6 + 6 




Glenborrodale 


Captain N. Money. 


34S 


4} 


3i 


36§ 


38} 


4 + 3 




Ledgowan . 


H. B. Moser. 


34l 


4} 


23* 


29 


3i! 


5 + 4 




Kildermorie . 


H. Graeme. 


-34i 


4l 




33* 




5 + 5 




Fannich 


V. Watney. 


-34i 


5 




25i 




7 + 8 




Cluanie 


A. H. Straker. 


2 34i 


4} 


26^ 


31 


33} 


5 + 5 




Dalnaspidal . 


Mrs. Hall Walker. 


34i 


41 




23 




6 + 6 




Glentanar 


Ean Cecil. 


34i 


Si 


18 


26} 


34 


6 + 5 




? 


W. Brodrick Cloete. 


34l 


5} 


371 


34* 




12 




Braemore 


Sir John Fowler, Bart. 


34i 


4} 


18} 


27 




6 + 5 




N. Morar 


J. R. Hutchison. 


34i 


4} 




33 




6 + 5 




Isle of Skye . 


W. H. Lindsay. 


2 -34i 

34* 


5 
4l 


13 


25 


34i 
27 


12 
3 + 3 


231 

[clean) 


Glentilt 
Glenfeshie 


Duke of Atholl. 
P. K. Smiley. 


34} 


4§ 


22 


28 i 


3*1 


6 + 4 


204 


Cluanie 


St. George Littledale. 


34} 


4l 




261 




6 + 5 




Mamore 


F. Bibby. 


34} 


4i 




29 




9 + 8 




Ardverikie . 


Viscount Iveagh. 


-34} 


4} 




26 


28} 


4 + 4 




Wyvis . 


J. F. Wilkin. 




- Owner's measurements. 




1 


\bove trez. 2 Recorded by J. G. Millais. 



RED DEER 



Length 



Circum 
ference 



°" -Z 1 - between T j? t0 ™ St Spread. Points. Weight. Locality. 



Tip. inside. 



lbs. 



34i 

-34i 

-34i 
34 
34 

-34 
34 

-34 

-34 

-34 

-34 
33% 
33i 

-33l 

-33h 
33h 
33% 
335 
33h 

-33i 
33i 

-33i 
332 

-33§ 
33i 
33i 
33i 
33i 

-33i 
33i 



4 

4i 

5 

4 

4l 

5 

4! 

4i 

4l 

4S 

4l 

4 

4i 

5 

41 

4 

4j 

42 

51 
41 

5 

5 

35 

4 

4i 

41 

4l 

4¥ 

4 



2lf 

28A 



3°i 



164 

25i 

22 



26 
I 9 | 

I7i 



29J 

2I| 

311 

305 

27i 
26J 
36 
28 

34i 

27I 
35 

24| 

26 

34l 

34 

25 

2 4h 

28 

25S 

27 

24I 

30 

3i 
26 

i9i 

28 
26 
232 

22| 



314 

29i 



362 



3§i 



29 

35i 

305 



344 
32 



29; 



25 



6 + 5 
5 + 5 
5 + 5 

5 + 4 

6 + 6 
12 

5 + 5 

7 + 7 

6 + 6 

6 + 6 

6 + 5 

7 + 6 
7 + 8 
5 + 6 
5 + 5 
5 + 5 

5 + 5 
9 + 8 

6 + 5 

6 + 6 
12 
11 

5 + 7 

6 + 5 

6 + 6 

7 + 7 
5 + 5 

5 + 5 

6 + 6 . 

5 + 4 2 



308 



268 

(clean) 



Glenquoich 

Glenee . 

Knoydart 

Glenmuick 

Balmoral 

Achnacarry 

Jura . 

Kildermorie 

Glenbruar, 
Perthshire 



Owner. 

Duchess of Bedford. 

J. Bayly. 

Capt. H. V. S. A. Bowlby. 

Lieut.-Col. J. Ponsonby. 

His Majesty the King. 

J. C. Kennedy. 

Lord George Campbell. 

L. Wilkin. 

Sir W. Ogilvy-Dalgleish, 

Bart. 
S. Loder. 



2S0 



Col. Stephenson R. Clarke. 
Glenkingie . W. M. Christy. 
Ardverikie . E. J. Wythes. 
Ardnamurchan Mrs. R. Fleming. 
Dalness . J. G. Millais. 

R. Hargreaves. 

H. C. Pilkington. 



Gaick . 

Caenlochan 

Glenfiddich 

Auchnasheen 

Eskadale 

Kintail . 



Duke of Richmond and 

Gordon. 
A. G. Dickson. 

Hon. L. Hardy. 



Sir Edmund G. Loder, 
Bart. 
Forest Lodge Lieut.-Col. H. Kays. 

Dalness . Hon. Sir Schomberg 

M'Donnell. 
Dundonnell . R. B. Loder. 

Ben Alder . Sir R. W. Buchanan 

Jardine, Bart. 
Glendoe . Mrs. E. Ross. 

Ardverikie . Col. W. Hall Walker. 

Inverailort . J. Cameron Head. 

Arnisdale . T. Drake. 

Glencoul . Lieut. - Col. A. Weston 
Jarvis. 

The spread of the six widest heads in the late Duke of Fife's collec- 
tion is as follows : — 40 38 37 35 35 35 
The six longest measuring — 37 36 35I 35^ 35 35 



285 



Owner's measurements. 



8 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

The antlers of one of the red deer in Mr. C. Lucas's park at Warnham 
Court, Sussex, in 1889, had 35 points; 1890, 34 points; 1891, 38 
points ; 1892, 47 points, and weighed 17 lbs. ; 1893, 44 points, 16^ lbs. 



on out 
side 



between 

bez and 

trez. 



-41 
-40 

39l 
38 
3S 
37* 
351 
35! 
35 
35 
_ 35 
35 
34} 
34 
34 
34 
33i 
33 
33 
32i 



3ii 
3i! 
3*1 
3ii 



6 

5* 

5i 

5i 

51 

5i 

5S 

5! 

5 

4! 

4i 

5i 

5 

4i 

4l 

4i 

5 

4i 

5 
5i 



3*i 4) 



/wA Specimens (wild and park). 

Locality. 



^P t0 W»4f * ° uts 'd e Points. Weight 
Tip. inside, spread. ° 



Owner. 



171 

28 

144 
i5i 

9S 
2^5 



25i 

I 9» 
25* 

*3l 

24 



251 



'5 



23 
2 9i 

26| 

26^ 

23I 
28^ 

35 
20J 



3° 
30 
26! 
29 

28£ 

3ii 

25 

29^ 

24 

28} 

24! 

32} 

3If 

2I| 

251 



lbs. 

12 315 

IO + 9 325 

8 + 8 355 

7 + 7 375 

7 + 7 ■■■ 

8 + 8 ... 
34i 6 + 5 3S0 

5 + 5 264 

7 + 7 ••• 



32* 



3oi 36! 6 + 5 343 



34i 



29I 



14-: 258 272 

■ r's measurements. 



6 + 6 260 

6 + 5 282 

7 + 6 348 

( 364 as 
6 + 6'. he fell ; Powerscourt 
^ 280 clean 

6 + 5 372 
5 + 5 ••• 

8 + 7 360 
5 + 5 346 
5 + 5 281 

7 + 6 422 
5 + 6 ... 
5 + 6 ... 
7 + 7 - 

5 + 4 ■•• 

6 + 5 276 



Colebrooke . The late Sir Douglas 
Brooke, Bart. 
Do. . Do. 

Do. . Do. 

Do. . Do. 

Do. . W. Campbell. 

Roscommon . Earl of Kingston. 

Muckross . A. Vincent. 

Glenveagh . W. E. Laurie. 

Muckross . Ralph Sneyd. 

Roscommon. Earl of Kingston. 

Ireland . Hon. A. Charteris. 

Glenveagh . A. Arthur. 

Powerscourt . Viscount Powerscourt. 

Glenveagh . G. W. Hartley. 

Viscount Powerscourt. 

Muckross . Ralph Sneyd. 

Colebrooke . Major J. M. Rogers. 

Muckross . A. Vincent. 

Glenveagh . Col. W. Hall Walker. 

Do. . W. W. Ashley. 

Glena . . Earl of Kenmare. 

Killarney . G. Douglas. 

Donegal . Col. W. Hall Walker. 

Muckross . Lord Mayo. 

Do. . F. G. Menzies. 

Do. . C. E. Russell. 



1 See Millais's British Deer and their Horns. 



RED DEER 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 

40 
39 
39 
38J 

3§i 

37S 
37i 
37* 
37 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 

5* 

5i 

51 

51 

5* 

5 

6 

5 

54 

42 




Head of Exmoor Red Deer. Mr. R. A. Sanders. 
c. — West of England Specimens. 

Tip to Widest Outside r, ■ . t i- ^ 

Tip. inside, spread. Points - Locality. Owner. 



2*£ 32* 

10 28 

I5l 2%\ 

17I 314 

22i 30^ 

8i 24 



7 
27i 
20 

23 



2 9i 
351 
3iS 
334 



38 



344 



32 
34 
48 
36 

"OS 
j94 



5 + 5 Exmoor . Sir John Heathcoat-Amory, Bart. 
7 + 6 Do. . Do. 

6 + 6 Do. . R. A. Sanders. 
4 + 4 Do. . P. F. Hancock. 

6 + 6 Quantock Hills Earl Fortescue; killed in 1885. 



7 + 7 Exmoor 

6 + 6 Kiloe 

5 + 5 ? 

6 + 5 Exmoor 
6 + 5 Quantock 



C. Nelder ; killed in 1803. 

Hon. Mrs. Stanley. 

J. James. 

Sir John Heathcoat-Amory, Bart. 

E. A. V. Stanley. 



6+7 Bern bridge Capt. H. H. Amory. 
Wood 



1 Weight, 333 lbs. clean. Length of brow-tine, 17 inches. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 

on 
outside 

curve. 

36f 

36* 
-36J 

36 
36 
36 

35i 
35i 
35 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 

6 

5l 



45 
5i 

5s 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4* 



Tip to Widest Outside p ; nts 
Tip. inside, spread. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



2l£ 

12 

19 
IO 

I2j 

Ml 

20g 

Hi 

252- 



2SJ 

23§ 
28| 

24I 

23 

26 

27 

27i 
27| 

27 
32I 



3oi 

39 

30i 

29i 

34i 
33 

34 



6 + 7 

7 + 6 
6 + 6 
9 + 7 

6 + 5 

7 + 6 
6 + 6 
6 + 6 
6 + 6 

6 + 5 
5 + 6 



Exmoor . Lord St. Audries ; killed in 1S93. 

Stoodleigh . Ian H. Amory. 

Haddon . M. Greig. 

Exmoor . R. A. Sanders. 

Do. . Capt. H. H. Amory. 

Do. . M. Greig. 

Do. . Hon. G. Bampfylde. 

Do. . Earl Fortescue ; killed in 1S12. 

Cudden Hoyes Capt. H. H. Amory. 

Exmoor . Com. G. F. Inglefield, R.N. 

Do. . Sir C. T. D. Acland, Bart. ; killed 

in 1893. 



Length 



outside 
curve. 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 



45 
M4 
432 

421 

4ii 

Mi} 



7* 

5i 
5i 

6| 
Si 
5* 
5 

40I 51 
4oi 5S 
* 4 o 5 
40 
40 
! 39i 
: 39 
-39 
39 
39 
-38* 
37h 



Tip to 
Tip. 



23i 

24i 



i8| 

22| 

i8i 



d. — English and other Park Specimens. 

Spread. Points. JJ^ Locality. 



Widest 
inside. 



Owner. 



lbs. 



s'i 
5h 
Sh 

5-i 
4! 

5 



23i 



i8£ 

m 
17 

22 



332 
35i 

27 
28S 
32 
31 

34l 

39 

33i 

26| 

251 

23i 
27'i 
28J 

27-i 
29h 



5i} 

39 

40 

371 
41 



4°i 
355 



33i 
37 
3*h 
4ii 



11 + 11 

12 + 9 

6 + 6 
12 

11 + 10 
9 + 8 

7 + 6 

5 + 5 
10 + 8 

8 + 7 
32 

6 + 7 

5 + 5 

5 + 6 

6 + 6 
8 + 8 
6 + 6 
8 + 7 



Warnham 

Woburn 

Windsor 



C. J. Lucas. 
Duke of Bedford. 
His Majesty the King. 
Melbury, Dorset Earl of Ilchester. 
Ashridge Park Earl Brownlow. 
? Lord Hastings. 

Langley Park J. G. Millais. 

? R. V. Berkeley. 

Vaynol . J. Whitaker. 

330 Caithness-shire T. Pilkington. 
... Warnham . J. G. Millais. 
? W. Cooper. 

Woburn . Duke of Bedford. 

Ditchley Park Viscount Dillon. 
Bushey Park . R. Shoolbred. 



? 
( (smaston 
Whittlebury 
Stowe . 



W. Cooper. 

Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, 

Bart. 
I I.R.I I. It- Due d'Orlcans. 



Owner's measurements. 1 -Shed antlers. 

:; Killed by King James I. in 1608. 



Semi-feral. 



- White Stag. 



RED DEER 



Length C !rcura - 
& ference 



Owner. 



outside 
curve. 


between 

bez and 

trez. 


Tip. 


inside. 


r>preati. 


™ nts; (clean). ^a.uy. 
lbs. 


uwner. 


*37i 


5 




29i 


42i 


6 + 7 


Warnham 


C. J. Lucas. 


-37i 


1\ 


29h 


2 7h 


364 


10 + 9 


. Welbeck 


Duke of Portland. 


x 37i 


51 




33i 




6 + 7 


Ditchley Park 


Viscount Dillon. 


-37 


6§ 


iS| 


24 


43 


20+19 


Warnham 


C. J. Lucas. 


37 


6 


26 


33i 




11 + 13 


Do. 


Do. 


36i 


4i 


19 


29i 


j2 2 


4 + 4 


Wood Norton 


H.R.H. le Due d'Orleans. 


35* 


5 


22| 


28f 


33* 


6 + 6 


Do. 


H.R. H. the Comtesse de 

Paris. 
H. S. O'Brien. 


35^ 


5 


74 


20 


25 


6 + 6 


? 


35 


5i 


i9i 


24i 


29I 


10 + 9 


? 


Hon. M. Egerton. 


34i 


7 


32 


29* 


52i 


11 + 15 . 


Warnham 


C. J. Lucas. 


34i 


4i 


22 


271 


34i 


6 + 6 


Windsor 


G. L. Harrison. 


34 


4i 




23 




6 + 6 


Stowe . 


H.R.H. the Comtesse de 
Paris. 


34 


5fi 


2I| 


281 




7 + 7 


Dorset . 


Earl of Ilchester. 


34 


6 


2\\ 


32 


37i 


10+10 


? 


Earl of Warwick. 


2 33^ 


5 


2 £ 


24i 


3il 


5 + 5 


Surrenden 


W. Winans. 


33i 


4i 




33 




6 + 6 


Stowe . 


H.R.H. le Due d'Orleans. 



Some of the above measurements are recorded by Mr. J. G. Millais 
in British Deer and their Horns. 



- Owner's measurements. x Killed by King James I. in 1610. 2 White Stag. 

e. — Ancient British and Irish Specimens. 



Semi-feral. 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 

-471 

46 


Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 

8 
54 


Tip to 
Tip. 

35 

?8i 


Widest 
inside. 

3ii 


Spread. 

374 


Points. 

5 + 8 
9 + 8 


Where found. Owner. 

Manchester Ship Sir R. M. Brooke, Bart. 

Canal excavations 
Achvarasdal . T. Pilkington. 


4°i 


Sh 


2lJ 


27 


38* 




Forfarshire . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


40 


1\ 


22J 


28i 


43* 


12 + 9 


Combermere 


Duke of Westminster. 


3H 


5 


18 


30 


39* 


8 + 6 


Ireland 


Viscount Powerscourt. 


-37 


6i 

54 


30 

23i 


36i 


451 
39i 


7 + 5 
13 + 8 


N. Wales . 
Co. Leitrim . 


Sir R. Williams -Bulkeley, 

Bart. (See illustration.) 
J. Ormsby Lawder. 


36* 


5 


24 


25 


354 


8 + 8 


Ireland 


Viscount Powerscourt. 


36 


51 


23 


27 


374 


10 + 9 


Kerry, Ireland 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


35i 


51 


181 


25i 


32i 


7 + 7 


Lincolnshire 


C. W. Tindall. 


354 
33 


Si 

5i 


264 
23 


32§ 

28 


42i 

41 


13 + 11 

7 + 6 


South Ireland 
Cardigan Bay 


. Sir Victor Brooke's Col- 
lection. 
H. Marshall. 


3°h 


5 


\o\ 


20 


245 


9 + 8 


? 


Duke of Bedford. 












- Owner's measurements. 





RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of New Zealand Red Deer. Shot by Mr. H. E. Hodgkinson. 



Length prelim- 
on out- , ference Tip to 
side between q." 

„ bez and lp ' 

curve. 

trez. 



f. — New Zealand Specimens {introduced). 



inside* S P read - Points. Weight. Locality. 



Owner. 



48 


61 


7i 


322 


4oi 


6 + 5 • 


Rakaia . 


. C. Williams. 


47* 


7 






371 


6 + 6 


Do. 


G. Garrard. 


-46 


51 




37* 


42 


6 + 6 


N. Otago 


H. E. Hodgkinson 


-46 


Si 




3i 


38* 


6 + 6 


Do. 


Melville Gray. 


-45 


6 




27i 


36 


6 + 6 


Do. 


H. E. Hodgkinson 


45 


51 


i6i 


31 


4o| 


6 + 7 


Do. 


P. F. Hadow. 


-45 


5 






34 


6 + 6 


Do. 


Major Cliff. 


-45 


5i 






37* 


13 


Do. 


J. Forbes. 


44*. 


5 


81 


30 


36| 


6 + 6 


Do. 


H. M. Cliff. 


-44i 


5i 




33* 


37* 


7 + 7 


Do. 


C. D. Hodgkinson. 


44* 


5 






392 


7 + 6 


Do. 


P. F. Hadow. 


-44 


Sh 






40 


15 


Do. 


A. Cowie. 


-44 


sh 






38 


5 + 6 .. 


Do. 


A. E. Leatham. 


43* 


- 




30 


37 


7 + 7 


Do. 


C. E. Lucas. 


-43 


si 






38£ 


6 + 6 


Do. 


J. Horn. 


-43 


Si 






33 


7 + 7 


Do. 


J. Grindells. 


42.Y 


Si 


22 


32 : / 


<\o\ 


7 + 7 


Do. 


\V. II. Milburn. 


-42 h 


5i 






37* 


6 + 6 


Do. 


R. E. Clouston. 


42^ 


5 




29^ 




6 + 6 


Do. 


G. N. Ilorlick. 


-42 


47 




32 




6 + 6 


Do. 


D. Fraser. 


-42 


5^ 




38| 


5o 


7 + 7 


Do. 


J. Faulks. 



- Owner's measurements. 



RED DEER 



13 



Length 
on out- 
side 


circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Spread. 


Points. 


Weight. Locality. 


curve. 


trez. 












42 


5i 


24! 


33i 


37i 


6 + 5 


? 


- 4 I| 


51 






381 


7 + 8 


N. Otago 


-4I-J 


5 






37i 


6 + 7 


Do. 


-4ii 


5i 






364 


6 + 6 


Do. 


-41* 


5l 






343 


7 + 6 


Do. 


-41 1 


5i 




35 




5 + 4 


Do. 


-41I 


5i 




33* 


39i 


7 + 7 


Do. 


-41 


5 






39i 


6 + 7 


Do. 


-41 


6J 






361 


6 + 5 


Do. 


-41 


6 






38 


5 + 4 


Do. 


-41 


51 






38 


18 


Do. 


-41 


6 






37 


7 + 6 


Do. 


~4 2 


6 






38 


5 + 5 


Do. 


40i 


5i 


3lf 


37l 


40 


6 + 6 


Do. 


-39l 


si 






29I 


10+ 10 


Do. 


-39 


7 




3°i 


351 


6 + 6 


Wairarapa 


38! 


Si 


15 


26 


3il 


6 + 6 


Do. 


3§i 


6i 






33 


6 + 6 


Do. 


38| 


64 




28 


36 


17 


Do. 


-38 


5 






33 


6 + 6 


Do. 


37! 


Si 


I5l 


«i 


26 


5 + 5 


Otago . 


364 


5i 


i8i 


291 


32| 


5 + 5 

Owner's 


Wairarapa 

measurements. 



Owner. 

A. D. Whatman. 

H. E. Hodgkinson. 

J. Forbes. 

The late B. Armytage. 

Melville Gray. 

H. F. Wallace. 

C. D. Hodgkinson. 
R. M. Morten. 

J. S. Handyside. 

D. Bell. 

Baron von Kusserov. 

C. R. Westmacott. 

R. Nicholson. 

Capt. I. Macdougall. 

J. Faulks. 

C. P. Skenett. 

E. N. Senior. 
A. Pilkington. 
E. W. Bunny. 
E. C. Studholm. 
P. M. Stewart. 
A. Murray. 




Antlers of Ancient British Red Deer, 
belonging to Sir Richard Williams-Bulkeley, Bart. 



14 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Spanish Red Deer, 
shot by H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Connaught. 



.#.— SPANISH RED DEER (C. elaphus hispanicus). 



T ., Circum- 

Length ff .„ nrp 

on terence Tip to Widest c , 

f cM» between ^ ; ncM<i Spread. 



outside 
curve. 

43 

■ 41.5 

1-40 

38! 

-37i 

36 

-35* 

-34t 

33 



bez and 
trez. 

5* 
4* 

4i 

4i 

5} 

4§ 



18 

i6| 

26 

20| 

*3§ 

2li 



inside 
33i 

34 

36i 

28 

34* 

33i 

31 A 

261 



35 

37S 

35 

371 

4' r -: 
3ii 



30 37 



Points. 

6 + 6 

6 + 4 
17 

8 + 7 
15 

7 + 6 

7 + 7 
6 + 5 

13 



Locality. 

Sierra Morena 

El Pardo . 

Sierra Morena 

El Pardo . 

Sierra Morena 

PI 1'ardo . 

Sierra Morena 
Do. 

? 



Owner. 

J. M. Power. 

Duke of Arion. 

Abel Chapman. 

H.M. The King of 

Spain. 
Abel ( lhapman. 

H.R.H. Prince Arthur 

of Connaught. 
Duke of Arion. 

Do. 
Prince E. Demidoff. 



- Owner'-, measun n 
1 A mountain head. There are two races in Spain. By far the largest are those of the "sierras" (or moun- 
tains), where good heads run from 30 to 40 inches. The stags of the (01 wooded plains) seldom reach, and 
rarely exceed, 30 inches in antler-length, and the heaviest weighed 203 lbs. clean. 



RED DEER 



l 5 



T t-Vi Circum- 

"^ b e e r twee e n T * t0 ™ st Spread. Points. 

outslde bezand 1] P- ,nS,de - 
curve. .„_ 



Locality. 



Owner. 



"3 2 2 










13 


Plains of Andalucia 


W. J. Buck. 


-3ii 


4t% 


181% 


24H 


30S 


7 + 7 


Valle de Viejas . 


Duke of Arion. 


-3i 


41 


18H 


24i 


34* 


9 + 7 


Montes de Toledo 


Do. 


-3i 


4l 


28 






15 


Coto Donana 


P. Garvey. 


-29 


5i 




25 




12 


Andalucia . 


Abel Chapman 



C— NORWEGIAN RED DEER (C. elaphus atlanticus). 



Length 



outside 
curve. 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 

6* 



-34* 

-34 
3if 4l 
3ii 4l 



3H 

3i 
30 
30 
29J 



41 
Si 

5 

4i 

4l 



Tip to Widest g d _ 
lip. inside. r 



341 



25* 

2 42 

28 

24i 
29 

29i 3o| 
26 30J 



27i 



331 



Points. 


Weight, 
lbs. 


Local 

Norway 


7 




Do. 


6 + 5 




Do. 


5 + 5 




Do. 


4 + 3 




Do. 


8 + 4 




Do. 


12 


280 


Do. 


5 + 4 




Do. 


6 + 5 




Do. 


Owner's 


measurements. 



Owner. 

J. S. Brunn. 

J. H. Thomas. 

A. Brassey. 

Sir H. Seton-Karr. 

E. M. Denny. 

J. H. Thomas. 

E. M. Denny. 

Sir H. Seton-Karr. 

G. L. Denman. 



D.— GERMAN (C. elaphus germanicus) and CARPATHIAN RED DEER. 

The Carpathian red deer, as represented in the Marmoros Forest, 
appear to be in some degree intermediate between the western and 
eastern races, having the short face and red-brown summer coat of 
the former, but tending to blackness on the under-parts as in the 
latter. West Carpathian deer, at any rate, may however be in- 
separable from C. e. germanicus. In Marmoros there is a second deer, 
the Polish, or wandering stag, reported to be an immigrant from 
Galician Poland, which has been regarded as a dwarf form of the 
maral. In the Bukowina district of the Galician Carpathians there 
occurs a large grey stag in the plains and a smaller and darker one in 
the mountains. 




Skulls and Antlers of Carpathian Red Deer killed on the estate of the late Prince Henrj 
of Liechtenstein at Tartarow, Galicia. 



16 




Skull and Antlers of Carpathian Red Deer shot by the late Prince Henry of Liechtenstein at 
Tartarow, Galicia, 1895. Length of antler, 46 inches. Weight, 20 lbs. 14 oz. 



17 



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Antlers of Carpathian Red Deer in the Collection of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



24 



Hungary, 1868 



Styria, 1881 




Hungary, 1873. Hungary, 1873. 

Carpathian Red Deer heads belonging to His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Austria. 



^5 



^ 
^ 






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£/> 2 a. t3 

2 y u r> 
< o ^ 

X! «-> J "2 "3 -C 

•j c/i *-< C u w 



RED DEER 



27 




Antlers of German Red Deer. From a specimen in the Castle at Moritzburg 
After Dr. A. B. Meyer. 



Ancient Continental Specimens. 



Length Circum- Tip to c j n • . 

(on curve) ference. Tip. S P rea(L Polnts - 



-47i 



-46I 8§ above 5 ft. 2{ 
trez 



75f 14+14 



Locality. 
? 

? 



inside 



22 Switzerland 



39§ ty 22 3JI 6 + 6 Germany . 

39 outside 



Owner. 

H.M. the King of Saxony, 
Moritzburg. 

Count Erbach-Erbach. 

Do. 
Viscount Powerscourt. 



- Owner's measurements. 



28 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Antlers of Eastern Red Deer shot in the Western Caucasus by 
Mr. St. George Littledale. 

Length of Antler, 45 in. 



if.— EASTERN RED DEER or MARAL (C elaphus maral). 



In this race of the red deer, which may intergrade with some of the 
western races by means of the Carpathian form, the height at the shoulder 
reaches to about 4J feet, and the build is stouter, the neck thicker, 
and the face in the hinds longer and more pointed than in typical red 
deer. The summer coat of immature animals is very generally 
marked with numerous yellowish spots, and at all ages is much less red 
than in the British race, being, in fact, grey in September. The colour 
of the winter coat is dark slaty grey on the back, with the rump-patch 
of a very bright yellow, and a large amount of black on the shoulders, 
thighs, and under-parts ; this blackness of the under-parts also character- 
ising the summer coat. The large and massive antlers are generally 
less complex than those of the western races, the number of points being 
seldom more than eight on a side, and frequently only six ; while the 
bez-tine, which may be wanting, is often shorter than the long and 



RED DEER 



29 



upwardly curved brow-tine, and the fourth tine is generally more dis- 
tinct from the crown. The average weight is given as about 560 lbs. 

The typical locality of the maral is the Caspian provinces of Northern 
Persia, whence this or allied races extend into the Crimea, Asia Minor, 
and so on into Transcaucasia, the Caucasus, and probably Circassia. 
It is noteworthy that specimens from the Caucasus have shorter 
faces than those from Northern Persia, and thus approximate to 
the western types. Sportsmen call this race the Hungarian red 




Antlers of Eastern Red Deer from the Caucasus, in the Collection 
of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



deer, but this is scarcely legitimate, as Hungary is not the typical 
locality. (For other specimens, see p. 18 et seq.) The Crimean red 
deer have very massive, few-tined antlers. 



Length 

on out- Circum- Tip to Widest g d p ; nts 

side ierence. lip. inside. r 
curve. 

48S 6J 34 36 42* 



48i 



48 



6i 


34 36 


6 


3° 41 h 


7l 


(single antler 


71 





Locality. 



8 + 6 Asia Minor 

5 + 6 



Owner. 

H. O. Whittall. 



Ichater Dagh, H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe- 

Crimea Coburg and Gotha. 

Asia Minor . British Museum (Lord A. 

Hay). 
Caucasus . St. George Littledale 

(Liverpool Museum). 



EECOBBS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on out- 
side 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 

Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Spread. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


47? 


74 


33* 


434 


54l 


IO + 9 


Persia ? 


St. George Littledale. 


47*. 
40S 


51 

51 


iS 


36i 
33 


4i4 


6 + 5 
S + S 


Caucasus . 
Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, 

Bart. 
British Museum. 


-46! 


6g 




39 




8 + 6 


Asia Minor 


F. E. Whittall. 


45* 


r 3 

35 


423 


49 


52 


6 + 6 


Caucasus . 


S. H. Whitbread. 


-45* 


S*. 


654 






14 


Do. 


Grand Duke Mikhael. 


45* 


74 


3 2 5 


401 


46 


8 + 8 


Do. 


Prince E. Demidoff. 


-454 




174 


3ii 


39* 


10 + 8 


Do. 


J. C. Phillips. 


J 45s 
2 -45 


►,3 

8 


36 


42 




9 + 6 
IH- 10 


Asia Minor 
Caucasus . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, 

Bart. 
Prince E. Demidoff. 


45 


6+ 


3oi 


3Si 


442 


7 + 6 


Asia Minor 


H. O. Whittall. 


44* 


6| 


3i 


39* 


47* 


8 + 7 


? 


Duke of Bedford. 


44* 


7* 


194 


26 


364 


7 + 6 


Asia Minor 


F. W. Baker. 


444 
44 


61 
53 


(single 
28| 


antler) 
36 


4°*. 


9 

8 + 7 


Do. 

Ak-Dagh . 


British Museum (C. G. 
Danford). 
. J. L. Rees. 


43* 


6| 


26| 


353 


46* 


10 + 8 


Do. 


. D. Forbes. 


43i 


6 




40 




8 + 6 


Asia Minor 


. M. Le C. Findlay. 


43* 


5! 


16 


28 




6 + 6 


Crimea 


Earl of Dunmore. 


43 


5i 


38 


393 


49 


7 + 7 


Ak Dagh . 


. J. W. Williamson. 


43 


54 


22.3 


323 


37* 


7 + 6 


Do. 


H. Williamson. 


42} 


6 


22| 


3i 


363 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. H. 0. Whittall. 


42 


64 


28 


33*. 


44-* 


9 + 8 


? 


R. A. Cooper. 


42 


6 


26| 


34* 


42 


7 + 6 


Ak Dagh . 


. T. Bowen Rees. 


42 


64 


24 


30 


35 


7 + 7 


Asia Minor 


Capt. J. B. Jenkinson. 


37 


5 : / 


3.1* 


'343 


40 1 


7 + 6 


N. Persia . 


. Capt. C. T. Daukes. 


-37 


54 


2li 


30 




14 


Macedonia 


H. J. Elwes. 


36 


5i 


i5 


25 


37* 


7 + 7 


Persia 


. Major P. M. Sykes. 








1 Weight, 23 lbs. 


Owner's measurements. 

" Estimated we 


ght, 746 lbs. 



RED DEER 



3i 




North African Red Deer : Sir Edmund G. Loder's Specimen. 



F.—N. AFRICAN RED DEER (0. elaphus barbarus). 
For characters, see page 2. 



t .1. Circum- 

Length ference 

on ° ut " between T 'P t0 ^ ld f st Spread. Points. 

Slde bezand Tl P" lnslde - 

culve " trez. 

3 8| 51 271 28 

36I 4| 22| 28J 

3°i 3i 

, 2 4i 3l 20| 2l£ 



Locality. 

36 6 + 5 North Africa 
4 + 4 Do. 

... 4 + 3 ? 

4 + 4 Tunis 



Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
British Museum. 
Duke of Bedford. 
Major R. Rankin. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Antlers of Hangul or Kashmir Barasingha. 
Shot by Mr. P. B. Vander Byl. 

The HANGUL or KASHMIR BARASINGHA (Cervus cashmirianus). 

In this very distinct species the first, or brow, tine arises at a con- 
siderable distance above the burr, or coronet, of the antlers, instead 
of close to it, as in the red deer ; the bez-tine is usually longer than 
the brow ; the total number of points is generally only five a-side, 
although a third tine may occasionally be added to the normal 
terminal pair, thus forming an imperfect cup ; and the beam of each 
antler is much curved in towards the middle line of the head. The 
terminal fork is placed obliquely. The tail is short, and not included 
in the light patch on the rump, which is very small ; and the tuft 
on the hind cannon-bone is situated lower down than in the red deer. 
In winter the general colour of the coat is brown, brownish ash, or 
liver-colour, with the hairs speckled ; the light area on the inner side 
of the buttocks being dirty white, with a blackish line on the inner 
sides of the thighs, the upper side of the tail black, and the lips, chin, and 
inner surface of the ears white or whitish. In the fawns the spotting is 
stated to remain much longer than in the red deer. In the pairing season 
the old stags squeal like wapiti, instead of roaring in red-deer fashion. 

The hangul inhabits the forest-districts of the north side of the 
vale of Kashmir and some of the neighbouring valleys, at elevations 
ranging from 9000 to 12,000 feet in summer, but descending to about 



HANGUL 



33 



5000 feet in winter. The height at the shoulder varies from about 
4 feet to 4 feet 4 inches ; the average weight being about 450 lbs. 

The pale-coloured C. macneilli, of Sze-chuan, and C. m. kansuensis, 
of Kan-su and Yun-nan, are nearly related deer. 

The finest pair of antlers appears to be one given by Raja Gulab 
Singh many years ago to Colonel King, then commanding the 14th 
Hussars, at whose death they passed to Captain Prettyjohn of the same 
regiment. What became of these antlers the late Mr. A. O. Hume, 
who measured them at Meerut in 1852 or 1853, could not ascertain. 
The record stands, R. 52, L. 53-g-, measured along the curve inside. 
Girth, 10 inches at burr and 7 half-way between bez and trez tines. 
They were a wide-branching, symmetrical pair. 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 

-534 



47* 
-47 
47 
47 
47 
46 

45s 

451 

45i 

45i 

45 

45 

45 

44i 
-44i 
-44! 

444 

44 

44 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 



64 
6 



n 

6| 

6 



6 

6* 
51 
63 

5i 

6| 

51 
6 

64 

6 

7i 
6i 



Tip to 
Tip. 



14 

22 

21 

2li 

SO 

20 

13 

35 
25I 
1 64 
I7J 
19 

23i 

23 

174 

20 

3I ? 

27| 

30I 

23i 



Widest 
inside. 



39 
36 
36| 

35* 

34l 

341 

41 

36 

34 

34 

34 

36 

40 

33 

43 

44l 

38! 

4o£ 



Points. Locality. 

6 + 5 Lidar Valley, Kashmir 

6 + 6 Kashmir 

7 + 5 Do. 

5 + 5 Do. 

8 + 8 Do. 

6 + 5 Do. 

5 + 5 Do. 

6 + 6 Do. 
8 + 8 Do. 
6 + 5 Do. 

5 + 5 Do. 

6 + 6 Do. 
6 + 6 Do. 

4 + 4 Do. 
6 + 6 Do. 

5 + 5 Lidar Valley 
5 + 5 Kishenganga Valley . 

4 + 4 Sind Valley, Kashmir 

5 + 5 Do. . . 
5 + 5 Do. . . 

- Owner's measurements. 



Owner. 

See above. 
K. S. Laurie. 

P. B. Vander Byl. (See 
illustration, p. 32.) 

Bombay Natural History 
Society. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Duke of Wellington. 
Lieut. -Col. H. R. Cook. 
Capt. W, F. Brayne. 

British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collec- 
tion. 

Brig.-Gen. E. H. Molesworth. 

P. Radclyffe. 

Lieut. - Gen. Sir R. Pole- 
Care w. 
J. V. E. Lees. 

Capt. H. F. Bidder. 

Col. A. E. Ward. 

Queen's Own Corps of Guides. 

Do. 

J. V. Phelps. 

Major P. H.G. Powell-Cotton. 

Naval and Military Club. 

D 



34 

Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 

44 

44 

44 

431 

43S 

43f 

43* 

43* 

43* 

43* 

43* 

43} 

43 

43 

43 

42^ 

42| 

42^ 

42* 

42 

42 

42 
4if 
4I| 
4*1 

4'i 
41* 
4'i 
4l| 
4Li 
4l| 
41 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 

trez. 

6 

6| 

Sf 

6} 

H 

5i 

6* 

6 

6 

6 

51 

7*. 

5* 

5l 

5i 

5* 

5* 

6 

6i 

51 
5i 
6 
6 

53 
6 

5i 
6 

5f 

6 

5*. 
51 



Tip to 
Tip. 



27 

34* 

iS 

25S 

1 1 
i Si 

19 
rof 

15* 
i5i 

23* 

34 

261 

i 9 | 

18 

I7i 

15 

ii* 

i3i 

20 

22 

23 

23*. 

18^ 

I2.i 

25-} 

36 

23 

'55 



Widest 
inside. 



36 

47* 

3i 

37S 

32| 

29 

3i 

32* 

3S 

29S 

3ii 

37} 

41* 

J/5 

34*. 
33s 
33l 

32i 

26I 

26i 

35* 

34 

36} 

35 

3i4 

29I 

3^* 
41*. 
33*. 
29 



2 3*. 35 



Points. 

5 + 5 
5 + 5 

5 + 5 

6 + 5 

7 + 6 

5 + 5 
5 + 5 
7 + 6 

5 + 5 
7 + 7 

6 + 6 

5 + 5 

5 + 4 

6 + 5 
6 + 6 

6 + 5 
5 + 6 

5 + 5 
5 + 5 

5 + 5 

6 + 5 

5 + 5 

6 + 6 

5 + 5 

6 + 5 
5 + 5 
5 + 5 

5 + 5 

6 + 5 

7 + 6 
6 + 3 
5 + 5 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Kashmi 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

I >, ,. 

Do. 
Do. 



. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

. Major V. Rickard. 

. C. E. Bryant. 

. Capt. A. E. Cathcart. 

A. Danson. 
. C. H. Smith. 
. Sir J. Prestcott Hewett. 
. A. Williams. 
. Sir R. Douglas Powell, Bart. 

Capt. C. M. Truman. 
. Capt. A. M C B. Woodside. 

R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 
. His Majesty the King. 

Martyn Kennard. 
. Major F. W. H. Walshe. 

Major R. Baker-Carr. 

Major-Gen. 11. D'U. Keary. 

Major C. A. Vivian. 
. Capt. A. H. Wilson. 
. E. L. Phelps. 
. W. A. Conduitt. 
. Major W. Furnivall. 
. F. V. B. Witts. 

Major Kingsley Foster. 

11. A. Attenhorough. 
. Major R. A. N. Tytler. 

Col. F. II. Hancock. 

C. Arthur. 
. Capt. II. C. II. O'Brien. 
. P. W. Cobbold. 

Larly Jenkins. 

Hon. II. (]. O. I'.ridgeman. 



Y ARK AND STAG 



35 




Skull and Antlers of Yarkand Stag. From specimen bequeathed by 
Mr. A. O. Hume to the British Museum. 



The YARKAND STAG (Cervus yarcandensis). 

This stag, which inhabits the Tarim Valley and Maralbashi in 
Eastern Turkestan, differs markedly from the hangul by the large 
and well-defined light rump-patch, which includes the tail, and by the 
general colour being light rufous fawn. The antlers are usually 
5-tined, but by the development of a third snag to the crown may 
become (as in the figure) 6-tined. They differ from those of the 
hangul in that the terminal fork is placed at right angles to the 
middle line of the head so as to look directly forwards. The fifth 



36 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



tine, which is generally inclined inwards, is larger than the fourth, and 
the whole upper part of the antlers is often bent forwards in the 
manner of those of the shou. 



Length 

on Circum- Tip to Widest c , ,, ■ 

outside ference. Tip. inside. S P read Po,ntS - 

curve. 



Locality. 



59} 



i6i 28| 



6 + 6 



Do. 



Owner. 



4ii 


6 


3Li 


3ii 


44 


6 + 6 


Maralbashi . 


British Museum. 




40} 
40 


5i 

5^ 


25 


31! 
31 




5 + 5 

6 + 5 


Do. 
Do. 


British Museum 
Collection). 
. E. L. Phelps. 


(Hume 


39* 


6 


-Ah 


25 




7 + 6 


Do. 


British Museum 


(Hume 



Collection). See illus- 
tration. 
The late David T. 
Hanbury. 




Kashmir Barasingha Head. 



SHOU OR SIKH I M STAG 



37 




Skull and Antlers of Sikhim Shou. From a specimen bequeathed by 
Mr. A. O. Hume to the British Museum. 



The SHOU (Cervus wallichi). 

A very large stag with antlers, at least in the Sikhim race, of the 
general type of those of the hangul, but larger, and with the beam 
bent suddenly forwards at the trez-tine, so that the upper half over- 
hangs the face, the number of points being usually five. The brow- 
tine is less constantly longer than the bez, the fifth tine is large 
and inclined inwards, and the terminal fork looks almost directly 
forwards. In the typical race, which inhabits the neighbourhood of 
the Mansarowar Lake, Tibet, the white rump-patch is large, but it is 
smaller in the true shou (C. wallichi affinis), which inhabits the upper 



33 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



part of the Chumbi valley and some of the neighbouring valleys in 
Bhutan. An identical or nearly allied deer is also found in the Tsan-po 
basin, near Lhasa. 



Length 

on out- Circum- Tip to Widest 
side ference. Tip. inside. 



Points. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



curve. 
















551 


6£ 


i7i 


4?l 


7 + 6 


Tibetan Frontier 


British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). See illustration. 


551 


6| 


26! 


44 


5 + 5 


Do. 




British Museum (B. H. Hodg- 
son). 


54! 

54i 


6§ 


2lf 


37i 
35i 


5 + 5 
5 + 5 


Do. 
Do. 




British Museum (Dr. Camp- 
bell). 
His Majesty the King. 


53i 
-52$ 


6g 

7 


3° 


45S 
38 


4 + 5 

5 + 5 


Do. 
Do. 




British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


52 


8 








Do. 




Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


50 


6i 


2I§ 


35i 


8 + 6 


Do. 




H. J. Elwes. 


49* 


1\ 


38 


45* 


5 + 5 


Do. 




Col. J. Biddulph. 


-49i 

-48 


6 


391 
30 


42i 


5 + 4 

5 + 5 


Do. 

Chumbi \ 


alley . 


Bombay Natural History 

Society. 
Lord Curzon. 


-48 


6f 


30S 


*39 


5 + 5 


Tibetan Frontier 


H. J. Elwes. 


48 


6g 


17 


34l 


6 + 5 


Do. 




H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


Ml 


51 


30! 


4°i 


5 + 5 


Do. 




British Museum. 



- Owner's measurements. 
1 Spread. 



THOROLD'S DEER (Cervus albirostris). 



Thorold's deer is of the same approximate dimensions as the 
hangul, from which it is readily distinguished by the more flattened 
antlers, which have no bez-tine, and do not curve inwards, but are 
suddenly bent backwards at the point of origin of the trez ; the total 
number of points being either five or four. Equally distinctive are the 
pure white muzzle and chin ; the white inner surface of the ears ; the 
reversal of the hair on the middle of the back, so as to form a kind of 
hump on the withers with the points of the hairs directed towards the 
neck ; the low position and large size of the gland-tuft on the hind 
cannon-bone ; and the shortness of the tail, which is included in the 
very large straw-coloured area of the buttocks. The general colour of 



WAPITI 



39 



the coat is uniformly dark brown, with the hairs, which are remarkable 
for their coarse and brittle nature, minutely speckled. The antlers are 
smooth and white nearly throughout. 

The Tibetan plateau, north of Lhasa, is the home of this fine 
species of deer, which was originally described by the late Colonel 
Przewalski under the scientific name given above. Subsequently two 
examples were obtained by Dr. W. G. Thorold, to the north-east of 
Lhasa, at an elevation of between 13,000 and 14,000 feet, which, 
under the impression that they indicated a new species, were named 
C. thoroldi by Dr. W. T. Blanford. 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tl P . 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














47 










N. of Lhasa 


British Museum. 


384 


4i 


37 


27 


5 + 4 


Central Tibet . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


38 


si 


28 


31 


5 + 5 


Do. 


British Museum. 


x -36 


4i 


32 


32 


5 + 5 


? 


Indian Museum. 



- Owner's measurements. 
1 Bought at Darjiling, thither brought by Tibetans. 



The WAPITI DEER (Cervus canadensis). 

Wapiti are large deer of the red deer group easy of recognition 
by the form of their antlers, which are of great size, carrying, when 
fully developed, more than five tines, curving backwards, and being 
much flattened in the upper half. They always have the bez-tine 
developed, but their most characteristic feature is the great size of the 
fourth tine, which is larger than any of the others, and, with the fifth, 
which is also long, forms a nearly regular fork ; the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth tines being situated almost in the plane of the portion of the 
beam immediately below them, so that they more or less completely 
hide one another when viewed from the front aspect. The brow-tine 
rises close to the burr, and is nearly as long as the bez. The tail is 
extremely short ; the light rump-patch is very large and includes the 
tail ; the neck and under-parts are blackish ; and the general colour of 
the summer coat is yellowish brown on the upper-parts. 

Wapiti (known in America as elk) range from North America to 
North-eastern and Central Asia, the typical form being the Rocky 
Mountain wapiti. The height at the shoulder is about 5 feet 4 inches, 
and the weight from 700 to 1000 lbs. 



4o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



A.— KOCKY MOUNTAIN WAPITI (C. canadensis typicns). 
Distribution. — X. America, east of the Rockies, inclusive of that range. 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 


Circum- 
ference 
of burr. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 

inside 

beam 
of horn. 


Widest 
outside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


64A 
63i 


8 
8 




31* 

39 


45 
45i 


52 
52 


7 + 6 
7 + 7 


? 
Wyoming 


Sir Edmund J. 
Loder, Bart. 
. H. A. C. Darley. 


62i 


S 


1 -.1 
1 J-i 




46* 


55* 


17 


Do. 


. J. G. Millais. 


62 
61 
61 
61 

6oi 


8 
8 
8 

Si 




33i 

35i 
36i 


5°§ 
45i 
461 

55 


53i 
55 


7 + 7 

6 + 6 

8 + 8 

S + 7 

7 + 6 


Snake River 

Colorado 
Bighorn Mts. 

Wyoming 
Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 


, Ernest Farquhar. 

Sir H. Seton-Karr. 

Viscount Powers- 
court. 
Prince Nicolas 
Ghika. 
. E. Grant. 


6o| 


7i 




43 


46i 




6 + 6 


Do. . 


Major C. C. Ellis. 


60 


Si 




36 


371 


45 


6 + 6 


Do. . 


W. Winans. 


59i 

59i 


7 

Si 

Si 


13 
I6J 


3S 


4S| 

47 

43 


52 
53 


S + 7 
S + 8 
7 + 6 


Do. . 
S.E. Wyoming 

3 


. L. E. Sackville 
West. 
His Majesty . the 

King. 
J. G. Millais. 


59 


61 




3«>i 


45i 


5ii 


6 + 6 


Rocky Mts. 


. T. J. Burrough. 


59 


ll 




39 


46 


53 


9 + 7 


Wyoming . 


Sutton Timmis. 


58§ 

58 


9 between 
brow and bez 

9iV 


42 


46I 
47i 


Soh 


10+7 
7 + 6 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Lord Hythe. 
A. II. Straker. 


5$ 


/S 




43i 


49 




9 + 8 


Do. . 


W Moncrei ffe. 


57l 


7 




36 


43i 


47 


6 + 6 


? 


R. Fleming Crooks. 


57i 


6? 




24i 


351 




6 + 6 


Montana . 


Capt. Abdy. 


57} 
57 


62 


9§ 

10 


32 

52I 


42.i 

55 


57* 


7 + 7 
6 + 6 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Sir Humphrey de 

Trafford, Part. 
T. D. M. Cardeza. 


57 

57 
57 


7i 
7i 

74 


'5 


53 
35i 


49'. 
4i i 


61 


7 + 7 

8 + 9 
6 + 6 


Do. . 
Montana . 
Yellowstone J'ai 


Count F. Trautt- 

mansdorff. 
Sir Edmund <i. 

Loder, Hart. 
k British Museum. 


56J 


7-1 




37 


394 


43* 


7 + 6 


? 


Duke of Bedford. 


5^ 






34 


49 




6 + 6 


Montana . 


Andrew Jameson. 


S^ 


7 




3i 


39 


42^ 


6 + 7 


Wyoming . 


J. V. Colby. 




^OSTO/* 



PUBLI1 



Head of Rocky Mountain Wapiti. 



41 



42 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 

56 

55§ 

554 
554 
554 
551 
55* 
55 
55 
55 
55 
x 55 
54l 
54i 

544 
544 
544 
544 
54§ 
54i 
2 54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
53/ 
534 
53i 
53i 
53 



Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 

7 
7 

n 

7 

64 
7* 

6g 
8 

7* 
7 

74 
6f 

6i 



9 

6| 

6| 

64 

71 

7i 

64 

71 



Circum- t,. , ■.,.., . .... , . 

ference of T 'P to > X ,d , est ^ lde , st 
v. urr lip- inside, outside. 



Points. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



7} 

7 : ; 

8 

7-t 
74 

r 
6| 



434 
40 


5oi 
47§ 
4 6| 


5i4 

5° 


7 + 6 

6 + 5 
6 + 6 


Wyoming . 
Do. . 
Do. . 


Royal Automobile 

Club. 
MajorG. Dalrymple 

White. 
P. B. Vander Byl. 


29^ 


4°4 


454 


6 + 6 


Do. . 


T. P. Kempson. 


44 


454 




6 + 6 


? 


A. H. Pollen. 


46* 

434 


471 


5°4 


7 + 6 
6 + 6 


? 
Wyoming . 


St. George Little- 
dale. 
G. L. Harrison. 




454 
474 




7 + 6 
6 + 5 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Major Maitland 

Kirwan. 
E. N. Buxton. 


52 


50 


544 


6 + 6 


Do. . 


W. E. T. Bolitho. 


3S 


47 


524 


7 + 7 
14 


Do. . 

? 


Viscount Powers- 
court. 
Duke of Bedford. 


5oi 


5i 


60 


6 + 6 


? 


E. S. Crasten. 


37 


43i 


48 


7 + 6 


Montana . 


E. L. P. Burke. 




palmated 


14 
11 + 7 


Colorado . 
Montana (?) 


Sir Peter Walker, 

Bart. 
G. Wrey. 


28 


37 


46 


6 + 6 


? 


F. I. Mitchell. 


43 


434 


47 


7 + 7 


Wyoming . 


Duke of Roxburghe. 


381 


44i 




7 + 6 


Do. . 


E. N. Buxton. 


493 


48 




9 + 7 

8 + 7 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Hon. Walter Roths- 
child. 
Earl of Lonsdale. 


434 


44i 


474 


7 + 7 


Do. . 


H. II. Dutton. 


43 


42 


45 


8 + 7 


Do. . 


P. Niedieck. 




48 




7 + 8 


Do. . 


Earl of Lonsdale. 


25 


362 


42| 


6 + 6 


Siena Nevada 


P. Grace. 


48 


44 




12 


? 


M. P. Grace. 


35 
2 7h 


42 
35 4 


42* 


6 + 6 

7 + 6 


Wyoming . 


His Majesty the 
King. 
. P. Radclyffe. 


34 
47 
36 


39 
49l 

40.} 


47 V 
45 


8 + 7 

8 + 7 
palmated 

7 + 6 


Do. . 
Do. . 
Do. . 


. Rudolph dc Gold- 
schmidt. 
Ford G. Barclay. 

Lord Falconer. 



1 Shed antlers weighed 20 lbs. 



2 Shot by Sir (;. Gore, Bart. 



WAPITI 



43 



j , Circum- 

en £ ference Circum- T - . ,„■ . . «,,■.„, 

on , , c c lip to Widest Widest *>■„,„ 

..^:a„ between ference of -X n ... „,„-j„ Points. 



outside 



bez and 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

Locality. 



Tip. inside, outside. 



Owner. 



curve. 


trez. 
















66 










60 


6 + 6 


Wyoming 


J. Darley. 


65 
6 4 | 


71 


91 


4*4 


49 


40 


7 + 7 
6 + 7 


Laramie Plains, 

Wyoming 
Wyoming . 


Schoverling, Daly, 

and Gales. 
Col. J. J. Harrison. 


6 4 i 


8 






48 




7 + 7 


N.W. Wyoming 


A. Rogers. 


63! 


8i 




49i 


484 




7 + 9 


North Prong 


Frank Cooper. 


63* 


8| 




344 


So| 


64 


6 + 6 


Wyoming . 


J. C. Phillips. 


594 




ioj 




374 


59 




Bighorn Mts. . 


Sir Savile Crossley, 
Bart. 


5§i 


Si 






444 




6 + 6 


Do. . 


J. D. Cobbold. 


5H 


8i 




48 




5° 


6 + 6 


? 


F. B. Tolhurst. 


58 




10 


4i 




494 


7 + 7 


Do. . 


American National 
Collection. 


58 


Io| 


12 








7 + 8 


? 


P. F. Collier. 



44 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



£.— WEST AMERICAN WAPITI (C. canadensis occidentalis). 

Apparently very closely allied to the typical Rocky Mountain 
race, but with the head, neck, and limbs blacker in the winter dress. 
The antlers show considerable tendency to cupping and palmation, 
and in some cases the portion above the fifth tine is aborted. The 
range of this form extends from British Columbia and Vancouver to 
Oregon. 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference 
between 
bez and 
trez. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Widest 
outside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


52 


H 


37 


40 




6 + 6 


Vancouver . 


Barclay Bonthron. 


51* 


61 


35 


36i 


39i 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. J. M. Hanbury. 


-49* 


64 


33 


4 6i 




10 + 7 


Do. 


A. E. Leatham. 


4S 


71 


32S 


36* 


34i 


6 + 7 


Do. 


W. R. Thompson. 


47 


62 


37 


34 


41} 


8 + 7 


Do. 


. J. M. Hanbury. 


-45 


7i 


37 


37 




7 + 8 


Do. 


. Clive Phillipps-Wolley 


-45 


6| 


37 


39 


42 


6 + 4 


Do. 


. J. C. Phillips. 


-44i 




33h 


28 


32 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. Capt. C. R. E. Rad 
clyffe. 



Two other forms of wapiti have been described from North 
America, namely, C. canadensis merriami, of the White Mountains, 
Arizona, and C. canadensis nannodes, of the San Joaquin Valley, 
California. The latter is a small, pale-coloured race, with much white 
on the ears, a small rump-patch, and the front of the legs and feet 
golden fulvous. 



WAPITI 



45 




Skull and Antlers of Tien Shan Wapiti, shot by Mr. P. Church at Tarbagatai. 



C— TIEN-SHAN WAPITI (C. canadensis songaricus). 

Judging by the mounted specimen in the British Museum and 
numerous examples of the antlers, this race differs from the typical 
wapiti by the rump-patch being narrower, more orange in colour, and 
not including the middle line of the tail, which is coloured like the 
back. There is more black on the borders of the rump-patch, the 
thighs, and the flanks, and the general colour is greyer. The antlers 
are very large and have the fourth tine shorter and stouter. This 
wapiti inhabits the Tien - Shan range in the neighbourhood of 
Kulja ; it was first described by Dr. Severtzow under the name 
of C. maral, var. songarzca, and subsequently by Dr. Blanford, on 



4 6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



the evidence of detached antlers obtained by the Second Yarkand 
Mission, as C. eustephanus. Weight (W. Winans), 837 lbs. 



Length 



on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Spread. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 
















60 


Si 


62} 


45* 


70 


IO + 9 


Tien Shan 


. Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 


56* 


7i 


37* 


37* 


40* 


6 + 6 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


] -55 


S 








6 + 7 


Bought at Kash 


gar . Earl of Northbrook. 


54 


7i 


49 


46| 


5°* 


7 + 6 


Tien Shan 


. P. Church. 


-53 


9 

burr 








8 + 6 


? 


American National Collec 
tion. 


53 


6| 


3oh 


39 


46 


6 + 6 


Tien Shan 


. J. V. Phelps. 


53 


6| 


46 


41 


49 


8 + 8 


Do. 


Duke of Bedford. 


52 


6J 


24* 


3ii 




8 + 7 


Do. 


Capt. J. F. Turner. 


52 


6 


45i 


40} 


45 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. Capt. the Hon. G. H 
Douglas Pennant. 


5i 


6\ 


39S 


40I 


5°| 


6 + 5 


Do. 


A. Ezra. 


5' 


6| 


43i 


44*. 


46I 


7 + 6 


Do. 


St. George Littledale. 


5i 


6* 


44*. 


38 


49 


10 + 8 


Do. 


C. C. Tower. 


5i 


S 


44* 


5i 


55 


8 + 7 


Do. 


Col. H. Appleton. 


5o! 


6* 


4i| 


42*. 


45 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. C. H. Bury. 


50 


65 


39 


43 


5i 


6 + 6 


Do. 


Lord Osborne Beauclerk. 


50 


6£ 


26 


35 


38 


7 + 6 


Do. 


A. Bayley-Worthington. 


49* 


7i 


28 


33 


4i* 


8 + 7 


Do. 


. T. P. Miller. 


49i 


6g 


451 


54 


55 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 


-49 




42! 




48 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. Lt.-Col. H. M. Biddulph. 


AH 

47.} 


6*. 
6| 


39* 
42.} 


4 2 *. 
44i 


45* 
47* 


6 + 6 
6 + 6 


Do. 
Do. 


. Major A. D. Greenhill 
Gardyne. 
Lieut.-Col. G. E. Pereira. 


47 


6| 


24! 


32i 


4i 


7 + 6 


? 


Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 


46 K 


6 


36 


4°* 


43 


6 v6 


? 


S. W. Carpenter. 


46i 


7 


37*. 




44 


8 + 7 


Tien Shan 


P. F. Iladow. 



- Owner's measurements. 
1 Shed antlers bought by the late Sir Douglas Forsyth. 



WAPITI 



47 



D.— BAIKAL WAPITI (0. canadensis sibiricus). 

Antlers less massive and lighter coloured than those of the Tien- 
Shan race, with the fourth tine inclined outwards instead of inwards, and 
having only a slight bend at the tip, and with the beam at this point 
curving gradually inwards and backwards, so that the backward 
inclination is less marked than in the latter. Typically from the 
Sayansk and Baikal Mountains west of Lake Baikal. Also known as 
C. c. asiaticus. 



on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widfst s d 
inside. r 


5°i 


6 


29! 


384 - 


4§4 


71 




single horn 


46£ 


6i 


34 


404 -. 


454 


6i 


34i 


394 47 


45 


6 


5i4 




431 


6i 


37 


35 



Points. Locality. 

8 + 7 ? Altai . 



Owner. 



. Duke of Bedford. 

7 ? British Museum. 

6 + 6 Upper Yenisei Valley J. C. Phillips. 

5 + 5 ? Altai . . . H. J. Elwes. 

6 + 6 Upper Yenisei Valley Sir Edmund C. Loder, Bart. 
6 + 6 Do. Dublin Museum. 



E.— BACTRIAN WAPITI (C. canadensis bactrianus). 

Named on the evidence of a specimen formerly living in the 
Zoological Gardens at Moscow, which was at first regarded as related 
to the shou, although its wapiti-affinities were subsequently revealed 
by specimens from Chenkend, Turkestan, the head of one of which 
is now mounted in the British Museum. The colour is very light 
grey, and the dark markings on the lips differ from those of other 
wapiti. Has also been named C. hagenbecki. 

Distribution. — Chenkend and adjacent districts. The antlers of the 
British Museum specimen are somewhat malformed, and have 
therefore not been measured. 



Length 

on Circum- Tip to Widest c i t> • . 

outside ference. Tip. inside. S P read " Points - 



40 



26£ 



6 + 4 



Locality. 



Turkestan 



Owner. 
Duke of Bedford. 



4 S HE CORDS OF BIG GAME 



F.— MANCHURIAN WAPITI (C. canadensis xanthopygus). 

Antlers of a shorter and stouter type than in the Tien -Shan 
wapiti, with the fourth tine relatively smaller in immature specimens, 
and the portion above it less developed at all ages. In the 5-tined 
antlers of sub-adult stags the tips of the fourth and fifth tines curve 
towards one another like crabs' claws. General colour in winter 
brownish grey, in summer bright reddish brown, with the dark winter 
mane and under-parts of other wapiti. Also known as C. bedfordi. 

Distribution. — Northern Manchuria in the Upper Ussuri district. 

Length 

on Circum- Tip to Widest g d p int& Locality. Owner. 

outside ference. lip. inside. r 



curve. 



33 ... 6 + 6 Upper Yenisei T- C. Phillips. 

Valley 

3 2 f 35! 7 + 6 Do. Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

6 + 6 ? American National Collection. 

26J 28^ 6+5 N.E.Manchuria A. J. A. Douglas. 

24 26i 5 + 5 Do. Capt. H. L. Archer- Houblon. 

z\\ ... 6 + 6 ? 11. J. Elwes. 

z6f 291 7 + 5 ? Do. 

25! 29 8 + 7 ? Duke of Bedford. 

- Owner's measurements. 



Luehdorf's Wapiti {C. luehdorfi) appears to have been founded on 
aged individuals of this race. The type specimens came from Trans- 
baikalia, and were probably brought from the Bureatish Steppe of 
Northern Manchuria. 

The Obi Wapiti {C. c. biedermanni) comes from Lake Teletzh at the 
source of the Obi, and Barnoul, lower down the same valley. 



4ii 


61 


23 


4 oh 


H 


23 


-3»4 


71 




33h 


5 


23 


33 


5 


25 


33+ 


5i 


i8i 


324 


5i 


26; 


31.1 


6 


17 



SIX A BEER 



49 




Skull and Antlers of Tapanese Sika. From a specimen 
in the Collection of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



The SIKA DEER (Cervus [Pseudaxis] sica). 

The Japanese sika deer is the typical representative of a group of 
deer in which the antlers are shorter and simpler than is usually the 
case in the red, deer group, and have generally four tines, including a 
trez, but lacking a bez. The coat is spotted, at least in summer, and 
there is a black-bordered white area in the region of the tail, which is 
relatively long. They constitute the subgenus Pseudaxis. In the 
typical species the tail is white at the tip, but black above for at 
least some part of its length ; and the gland on the hind cannon-bone 
is covered with white hairs. The coat is chestnut-red with numerous 
white spots in summer, and browner, with no (or only indistinct traces 
of) spots in winter. These deer are distributed over Northern China, 
Manchuria, Japan, and the Liu Kiu Islands, where they are represented 
by two or three races differing chiefly in size. In the Japanese deer 
{C. sica typiais), which inhabits Japan and Northern China, the height 
at the shoulder varies from about 2 feet 8 inches to 2 feet 10 inches, 
whereas in the Manchurian deer {C. sica manchuricus) it reaches 3 feet 
3 inches. The Liu Kiu race is not yet named. Both the Japanese 
and the Manchurian races have been acclimatised in English and Irish 

E 



5° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



parks. Weight (\Y. Winans), I So lbs. — 12 stone clean (Marquis of 
Waterford). 



^.—JAPANESE SIKA (C. sica typicus). 



Length 
on out- 
side 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


-28| 


3l 


iSi 


4 + 4 


Japan 


. J. C. Phillips. 


26i 


31 


i9i 


4 + 4 


? 


British Museum. 


25i 


5 


171 


4 + 4 


Japan 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection 


25§ 


4i 


20$ 


4 + 4 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


23h 


4l 




4 + 4 


Bred in England 


W. Winans. 


22i 


4 


16 


5 + 4 


Do. 


. H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


X 22j 


3i 


12* 


4 + 3 


Bred in Ireland . 


Marquis of Lansdowne. 


22 


4 


l6| 


5 + 4 


Do. 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection 


2li 


31 


I3l 


4 + 4 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


20£ 


3l 


I2| 


4 + 4 


Bred in England 


. H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


20 


3i 


I2| 


4 + 3 


Do. 


. W. Winans. 


i9i 


2 JL 
■J2 


I7| 


4+4 


Bred in Ireland . 


. V. Brooke. 


»7i 


3 


i6i 


4 + 4 


Woburn 


. Duke of Bedford. 


16 


3* 


13* 


3 + 3 


Bred in Ireland . 


C. E. Russell. 


i6| 


3 


9l 


4 + 3 


Do. 


Hon. John Ward. 


2 i5l 


2? 


Mi 


4 + 4 


Do. 


Marquis of Hamilton. 






1 


12 stone 


clean. 


2 Weight, 143 lbs. as it fell. 



B.— MANCHURIAN SIKA (C. sica manchuricus). 



Length 

on out- Circum- Tip to t, • . ... ■ , . 

side fcrence. Tip. Po,nts - Ut, « ht - 



Locality. 



Owner. 



curve. 


















-26 


4} 




4 + 4 






M 


anchuria 


Paris Museum. 


23 


3i 


i8i 


4 + 4 








Do. 


Duke of Bedford 


23 


5-i 


«5i 


3 + 4 


164 lbs. 






Do. 


W. Winans. 


20\ 


3i 


16 


4 + 4 


153 lbs. 






Do. 


Do. 










_ 





neasurements. 





SIKA DEER 51 



The FORMOSAN SIKA (Cervus [Pseudaxis] taevanus). 

Nearly allied to the typical sika, but distinctly spotted in winter, 
when the coat retains more or less of the rufous summer-tinge. The 
dark line down the middle of the back is very strongly marked, there 
is a more distinct black bar above the white tail-patch, and the limbs 
are shorter and the body proportionately longer. The height at the 
shoulder is about 2 feet 1 1 inches. This species is confined to the 
mountains of the island of Formosa. 



Length 

on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 
















192 


31 


13 


i6f 


4 + 4 


Formosa 




British Museum. 


19 


3i 






4 + 4 


Do. 




. Duke of Bedford, 



52 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Dybowski's Sika. 



DYBOWSKI'S SIKA (Cervus [Pseudaxis] hortulorum). 

In addition to its larger size (between 3 feet 7 inches and 4 feet 
at the shoulder), this species is distinguished from the Manchurian sika 
by the hairs covering the gland on the hind cannon-bone being of the 
same colour as the rest of the coat in summer and only slightly grizzled 
in winter, and by the tip of the tail being apparently white. The head 
and neck are bluish grey, and in immature animals whitish spots 
persist in winter, although these disappear completely at this season in 
fully adult bucks, in which the coat becomes very long and shaggy, 
especially on the throat and neck. Hinds are more brightly coloured 
in winter than the stags, and retain distinct spotting. This deer was 
named C. hortulorum by Consul Swinhoe from an immature buck and 
doe taken at the sack of the Summer Palace, Pekin, and was afterwards 
obtained in the wild state in the Ussuri district of North-eastern 
Manchuria, when it received the name of C. dybowskii. In the typical 
Manchurian race ( C. hortulorum typicus) there is no dark line down 
the back ; but this is present in the smaller southern race (C. liortulorum 
kopschi of the Yang-tsi valley. 



PEKIN SIR A 



53 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














34* 
321 


51 
5i 


34i 

23i 


25i 
22| 


5 + 5 
4 + 4 


? 
N.E. Manchuria 


British Museum (Duke of 

Bedford). 
A. J. A. Douglas. 


31* 


5i 


27s 


26| 


4 + 4 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


27 


4* 


232 


20 


4 + 4 


Manchuria 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


26 


3i 


iS 


iSi 


4 + 4 


Do. 


E. P. Tennant. 


3 2 £ 


4* 


i6i 


234 


4 + 4 


(Shed antlers) . 


Duke of Bedford. 


32 


4i 


27 


24s 


4 + 4 


Do. 


Do. 


31* 


41 


.182 




4 + 4 


N.E. Manchuria 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


29I 


4l 


27S 


21 


5 + 5 


Do. 


W. Banks. 


2 7i 


4l 


164 


I9l 


4 + 4 


Do. 


A. Hardcastle. 


26 


4i 






5 + 4 


(Shed antlers) . 


W. Winans. 




Dybowski's Stag in summer coat, with the antlers in velvet. 
Photographed by the Duchess of Bedford. 



54 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head ot Barasingha. 



The BARASINGHA or SWAMP -DEER (Cervus [Rucervus] duvauceli). 



This species belongs to the rucervine group, in which the antlers 
lack a bez-tine, and apparently also a trez; the beam being regularly 
forked, and each branch again dividing, so that there are at least four 
tines. The gland on the hind-leg is absent or represented by a tuft. 



BARASINGHA 5 5 

In the swamp-deer the antlers are smooth and flattened, with a long 
brow-tine rising almost at right angles to the beam, which is undivided 
for about half the total length of the antler, and then splits into a fork, 
each branch being usually simply forked, but sometimes divided in a 




Head of Barasingha, from the Central Provinces, with antlers approximating 
to the Thamin type. 

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1899. 

more complicated manner. General colour bright rufous brown, often 
speckled near the back. Height at shoulder, from 3 feet 8 inches 
to 3 feet 1 inches ; weight, about 400 lbs. 

Distribution. — India, exclusive of Ceylon. 



56 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 



on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


41 


6h 


35i 


3S- 


S + 5 


Central Provinces 


Capt. W. W. Hancock. 


41 


54 


32 


371 


S + 7 




Do. 


Col. C B. Wood. 


41 

39l 


5l 

5 


(one antler 
broken) 
35* 37* 


6 + 6 
5 + 6 




Do. 

Do. 


Major C. S. Cumberland. 
Do. 


3Si 


51 


(shed antlers) 


6 + 5 




Do. 


C. F. Egerton. 


3S 


4S 


28| 


331 


6 + 6 




Do. 


J. A. McKee. 


3S 


53 


35l 


36i 


7 + 7 




Do. 


R. J. Purcell. 


-38 




43 




6 + 6 




Do. 


J. D. Inverarity. 


-.-1 
~5t 2 

3/1 


4i 
51 


28 

23§ 


3i 

28i 


5 + 5 
7 + 6 




Do. 
? 


Bombay Natural History 

Society. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


36| 


6 


2 7 i 




8 + 6 




? 


Major Lord Charles M. Nairne 


361 


42 


32 


20I 


5 + 5 




? 


Mrs. Macan. 


36i 


51 


311 


34 


8 + 7 


Kheri 




Capt. H. Pelham Burn. 


36i 


51 


29l 


26^ 


7 + 5 




? 


Capt. H. F. Salt. 


-36* 


5 


21 


25 


6 + 5 


Nepal 




. R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 


36 


5 


26! 


28I 


6 + 5 




? 


Major T. M. Ward. 


36 
36 


5 
4l 


292 

47 


33l 

47 


6 + 5 
6 + 6 


Nepal . 
Central Provinces 


British Museum (B. II. 

Hodgson). 
Col. C. B. Wood. 


-36 




29 




6 + 6 


Nepal 




J. D. Inverarity. 


-36 


51 


32* 




7 + 7 




? 


Major W. Anstruther Gray. 


35 h 


5 


30& 


32| 


5 + 5 




p 


Lieut. -Col. R. Gordon. 


35i 


44 


27 


29- 






? 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 


35i 


41 


2 9i 


32 : ;- 


6 + 5 




? 


Capt. H. J. D. Broughton. 


35i 


5l 


22} 




7 + 6 


Nepal 




II. C. V. Hunter. 


35 


4* 


27i 


3oh 


5 + 5 


Tarai 




Lieut. -Col. E. B. Cook. 


35 


51 


3il 


341 


8 + 6 


Central Provinces . 


Major R. Baker-Carr. 


35 


5 


29I 


32i 


6 + 6 




Do. 


British Museum. 


34i 


4l 


32 




6 + 5 




? 


Sir Guy Fleetwood Wilson. 


34 


41 


22i 


25I 


8 + 7 




? 


Capt. S. F. A. Hurt. 


33i 


5 


25* 


3 r ->} 


8 + 6 




p 


Duke of Penerenda, 


33 


5 


3° 


3°| 


4 + 4 




p 


< 1. P. Cosens. 



measurements. 



SC HO MB URGE'S DEER 



57 




Skull and Antlers of Schomburgk's Deer. From a specimen in the British Museum, 
presented by the late Mr. Rowland Ward. 



SCHOMBURGK'S DEER (Cervus [Rucervus] schomburgki). 

La-ong or La-on, Siamese. 

Allied to the preceding, but the antlers smooth, rounded, and 
more complex ; the brow-tine very long, frequently forked, and arising 
nearly at right angles to the beam, which is very short, compressed, 
and regularly forked, with each of the main branches about equally 
developed and again forking in a similar manner to terminate in long 
cylindrical tines. General colour uniform dark brown. Height at 
shoulder, about 3 feet 5 inches. 

Distribution. — Siamese territory east and west of the Menam River ; 
also Cambodia west of the Menam River south of Paknampho, 
and in swamps occasionally on the east ; in fact, chiefly the inland 
districts east of the Menam River in Northern Siam. 



3° 

Length 
on 

outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


j\.n 

Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














35 
-32* 


Si 


I7J 
1 


3ii 
29 


11 +9 

12+ II 


Siam . 
Do. . 


British Museum (Rowland 

Ward). 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


-3i* 
-3oJ 


6i 


24 


27i 


13 + 10 

IO+ 12 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Bombay Natural History 

Society. 
American National Collection 


3°l 


5 


i5§ 


33 


10+ 10 


Do. . 


British Museum. 


29! 


4f 


2S| 


3i§ 


IO+ 11 


Do. . 


Do. 


29i 


6 


i9i 


27 


6 + 7 


Do. . 


J. Carr Saunders. 


2Si 


5i 


1 1 


2 9s 


11 + 9 


Do. . 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection 


-28-s 


5'25 


9'5 


2S- 5 


10 + 9 


Do. . 


Indian Museum. 


28 


4^ 


1 91 


29I 


10 + 6 


Do. . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


27i 


5! 


20 


27! 


10 + 9 


Do. . 


J. W. Ford. 


26| 


6i 


18 


3oi 


10 + 8 


Do. . 


J. C. Phillips. 


26i 


5i 


23 


32i 


11 +9 


Do. . 


G. L. Harrison. 


20j 


4 


ill 


20 


6 + 6 


Do. . 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



- Owner's measurements 



The THAMIN or ELD'S DEER (Cervus [Rucervus] eldi). 



Although belonging to the same group as the two preceding 
species, this deer is readily distinguished by the peculiar form of the 
antlers. These are rounded and rough, with a long curved brow-tine, 
forming a continuation of the curve of the beam, which is set at right 
angles to the pedicle ; the beam unbranched for some distance, much 
curved, and finally forked, with the outer prong more subdivided than 
the inner. Height at shoulder, about 4 feet 3 inches ; weight, from 
210 lbs. to 245 lbs. There are three races of this species. First, the 
Burmese thamin (C. eldi typicus), ranging from near Manipur through 
Burma to the Malay Peninsula, in which the antlers are rounded 
throughout, and the coat is uniformly umber-brown. Secondly, the 
Manipur thamin (C. eldi cornipes), in which the under surface of the 
fetlock is horny instead of hairy. Thirdly, the Siamese thamin (C. eldi 
plutyceros), from Siam and Hainan, in which the tips of the antlers are 
flattened with a number of small snags, and the coat is redder, with 
yellowish spots. Swamp-deer from the Central Provinces show a re- 
markable approximation in the form of their antlers to the present 
species, as shown in the figure on page 55. 



THAMIN 



59 



Length 
on outside c;rcum . 

curve not ference _ 

including 

brow-tine. 

4 2 

41 

-41 

40i 

4oi 

40 

40 
-395 

39! 
J 39§ 
-392 
-39i 
-39 
-39 

3§§ 

38 5 

3H 



Tip to Widest 
Tip. inside. 



37 

37 

36S 

36S 

36* 

36o 

36 

36 

36 

36 

36 

35* 



5 

5* 

5i 

5 

5 

Si 

51 

5 

5 

5 

5 

7k 

5 

6i 

6i 

5 

4l 

44 

5 

6 

4S 
4i 
44 
Al 

4i 

4? 

5 

4i 

5 

4i 



24 

27i 
30 

252- 

3°i 

2lg 

21 

25i 
20j 

3lf 

29| 

212 
22^ 

41 
251 
24 
2ll 

295 
20j 

23l 

16 
22 
22f 

24* 

23 

295 

25 
3lf 

224 



29 
36 
36 

34i 
36| 

28 

32i 

35* 

3°i 

36| 

37 

33 

29 



29i 

36 5 

32 

3ii 

37i 

27 

27 

293 

28I 

31 
3ii 

33i 

37 

3ii 



Points. 

3 + 2 
5 + 5 

5 + 7 
7 + 6 

6 + 5 

5 + 5 

6 + 5 

7 + 6 
6 + 6 

20 

(small points) 

12 

10+ IO 

5 + 5 
16+ 19 

6 + 5 

7 + 7 
5 + 5 
5 + 4 

4 + 4 

4 + 4 
7 + 5 

5 + 4 

5 + 4 
10 + 9 

4 + 3 
4 + 4 
7 + 5 

6 + 4 
6 + 6 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Burma . . A. H. Collins. 

Upper Burma . Maj.-Gen. O. E. P. Lloyd. 

Do. . Col. G. H. Evans. 

Do. . A. B. Roberts. 

? C. B. S males. 

Upper Burma . Maj.-Gen. H. D'U. Keary. 

Do. . Col. H. Appleton. 

Do. . ' S. E. F. Jenkins. 

Burma . . Col. J. W. A. Morgan. 

Siam . . Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Burma . . Major E. W. M. Purvis. 

Do. . . Lieut. -Col. H. de H. Haig. 

Manipur . . Lieut. -Col. H. S. Wood. 
Lower Burma . • W. O. Hannyngton. 



Manipur 
Burma 
Pegu 
Burma 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Manipur 



Burma 



British Museum. 

British Museum (Hume 

Collection). 
P. Grace. 

G. R. Radmore. 

H. F. Hall. 

Major C. S. Cumberland. 

Capt. J. A. F. Field. 

Major L. E. Hopkins. 

Capt. M. E. Lloyd. 

H. Twyford. 

W. S. Powell. 

Capt. H. W. Marsden. 

Capt. L. P. Haviland. 

Duke of Bedford. 

L. G. Nunes. 

Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 



Kyaikto, Lower J. W. Clough. 
Burma 



- Owner's measurements. 
Measured on front of antler from highest tip to tip of frontal tine 56J inches. 



6o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 

0:1 outside 
curve, not 
including 
brow-tine. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


-35* 


5 


2 9 i 


32 


4 + 4 


Manipur . 


R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 


_ 35 


6 


22 


27 


5 + 5 


Burma 


Bombay Natural History Society 


35 


4i 


23 


30 


5 + 4 


Upper Burma . 


W. A. Conduitt. 


34h 


5 


i6£ 


24 


6 + 6 


Burma 


P. B. Vander Byl. 


34i 


4S 


3ii 


34i 


10 + 7 


Do. . 


W. 0. Hannyngton. 


34g 


5 


24 


32} 


6 + 6 


Do. . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



Owner's measurements. 




Skull and Antlers of Thamin. From a Burmese specimen. 



Extreme length 
of ri^ht antler 

the out- Circum- Tip to Widest Number of 
side curve, high- ference. Tip. span. Pi 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
Locality. 



1 lwn< 1 . 



est point, to tip 














56* 


i 


28 


37 


13 


Burma 


\V. F. Loftus-Tottenham 


55.1 




34i 


42] 


12 


Do. 


Do. 


55 


7 


28^ 


384 


12 


Do. 


Col. < j. II. Evans. 


55 


5i 


y> 


37 


'5 


Do. 


Do. 


55 


5 




42 


■3 


Do. 


Do. 



SAMBAR 



61 




Head of Sambar. 



The SAMBAR DEER (Cervus [Rusa] unicolor). 

The typical representative of the rusine group of deer, in which 
the antlers are rounded and three-tined, the bez and apparently the trez 
being wanting, and the summit of the beam forked. The relatively 
long tail is bushy, the tear-gland and the pit in the skull for its 
reception are large, and the upper ends of the nasal bones of the skull 
expanded. In the typical sambar the height reaches to 5 feet at 
the shoulder. Antlers large and rough, with the brow-tine given off 
at an acute angle to the beam, and the two terminal tines of nearly 
equal length. Hair coarse and shaggy, uniformly dark umber-brown, 
with some chestnut on the buttocks, in the adult. Face-glands very 
large, and capable of being turned inside out. Ears large, and the 
tail relatively long and bushy. Young uniformly coloured or 
spotted. 



62 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Distribution. — The wooded districts of India, Ceylon, the Malay 
countries, the Philippines, Formosa, Bonin Island, and parts of 
China. 



-J.— INDIAN SAMBAR (C. unicolor typicus). 

Size very large, young uniformly coloured ; weight, about 600 lbs., 
when cleaned 415 lbs. 

A pair of antlers, from the Central Provinces, measured 48 inches 
along the curve inside ( = nearly 50 inches on outside curve); they 
were sent to Mr. A. O. Hume by Mr. R. Blewitt. 

Distribution. — The wooded districts of India and Ceylon. 



Length Circum- 

on ference Tip to Widest -r, ■ . 

i_ t- • -j Foints. 

outside above 1 lp. inside. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



curve. 


brow-tine. 












5°£ 

4 S 
-471 


7* 

7 


24 3Si 

Single shed 
specimen 

28i 


3 : 3 
3 


Bhopal 
Khandesh . 
Cent. Provinces . 


Col. H. H. Shahzada 

Obeidulla Khan. 
R. H. Madan. 

A. P. Perceval. 


-463 




49 




3-3 


Do. 


R. Wordsworth. 


4 6i 


6i 


36| 


4ii 


3 + 3 


Do. 


Duncan J. A. Campbell. 


46A 


6i 


iS 


29 


3 + 3 


United Provinces 


A. V. Willcox. 


46^ 
-46$ 




24i 

45 


3°l 


3 + 3 


Cent. Provinces . 
Garhwal 


British Museum (Hume 

Collection). 
R. M. Nash. 


46 


9 








? 


C. J. Lucas. 


45i 


7 


171 


28i 


3 + 3 


? 


E. R. Loder. 


-45* 


7.i 


38 


42i 


3 + 3 


Saugor, C. P. 


Lieut. -Col. R. W. Mapleton. 


45 
45 


7- 

7. 


i7 : i 
8 


32^ 

33l 


3 + 3 
3 + 3 
3 + 3 


? 

Mayoghur, Cent. Pro- 
vinces 

? 


British Museum (Dr. II. 
Falconer). 

Sir John Morris. 

I). K. Wright. 


: 45 

4 5 
44 i 


9 
8 
6 


! u p by 
26 2 2 h 


Dr. 


Cent. Provinces . 
Orissa 

Provinces (?) 

? 


Bombay Natural History 

iciety, 
11.11. the Maharaja ol Tra- 
vancore. 

Heigliway | 

Lieut.-Col. 1". Jollie. 




51 




35i 


3 + 3 


? 


I.. W. Rej " 


44i 






454 


3 + 3 


Kangeer 


Col. W. J. Morris. 



- Owi • 
1 Tbi ■• a portion 1 ded in the Journaloj the B 
Natural History Society, iii. p. 2: 1 ..■ m shoi Vfr. R. Gilbert in the I entral Pi , but v,<a 

minus this [ ;■ ' .-.r. 



SAMBAR 




Frontlet and Horns of Sambar, shot by the Hon. J. Best. 
Spread, 49 J inches. 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference 
above 
brow-tine 


44 


6 


44 


61 


43l 


5§ 


43* 


5i 


43* 


6 


43i 


6i 


43* 


6 


43 


6 


43 


6 


43 


6i 


43 


6f 


42| 


Si 


42 


6i 


4iS 


51 



Tip to Widest t> • . 
rrf- - • , Point 
lip. inside. 



Locality. 



9i 2 4§ 3 + 3 Rewa". 

i9i 3if 3 + 3 Do. . 

Single horn 3 + 3 Do. . 

17 28 3 + 3 Do. . 

32 43 J 3 + 3 Cent. Provinces 
2o| 29! 3 + 3 Do. 

26^ 34! 3 + 3 Do. 

38 43i 3 + 3 ? 

2 4i 3° 3 + 3 Khandesh . 

33 35 4 + 3 Cent. Provinces . 
26| 34 3 + 3 ? 

2 6 3 2 i 3 + 3 Cent. Provinces . 

2 3i 35* 3 + 3 ? 

i9i 23 3 + 3 ? 



Owner. 

Major C. F. Pinney. 

H. E. M. Davies. 

British Museum (Hume 

Collection). 
Sir P. E. Bates. 

J. H. Beckett. 

Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 

C. A. Mortimore. 

J. H. Beckett. 

A. Cumine. 

H. W. Seton Karr. 

Capt. C. P. Graham. 

A. H. Pollen. 

Capt. A. H. Bailey. > 

Capt. W. F. Reichwald. 



64 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length Circuni- 

oii ference Tip to Widest p ; nts 

outside above Tip. inside. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



curve. 


brow-tine. 














4*1 


7 


-s.i 


34i 


3 + 3 




3 


lion. Walter Rothschild. 


41* 


7h 


27 




3 + 3 


Cent 


Province-. . 


Capt. Lord Charles Bentinck. 


4ii 


H 


3oi 


36A 


4 + 4 




Do. 


. P. Jay. 


4 i| 


5i 


22 


24i 


3 + 3 




Do. 


. Capt. W. O. Gibbs. 


4 li 


6 


12* 


*3i 


3 + 3 




Do. 


. Lieut. -Col. T. M. Ward. 


36| 


6| 


35i 


32 
Spreac 


S + 6 
, 49i- 




Do. 


Hon. J. Best. (See illustra 
tion. ) 



Ceylon Specimens. 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference 
above 
brow-tine. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Owner. 


32i 


H 


24 


26} 


3 + 3 


A. R. Hay. 


3ii 


5 


20 


17 


4 + 3 


Lieut. -Col. G. E. Hale 


-30 


8? 


2li 


I9l 


3 + 3 


J. Ryan. 


29 


41 


25 


22j 


3 + 3 


Earl Cairns. 


27i 


4i 


i6| 


20 


3 + 3 


A. M. Naylor. 



Owner's measurements 



SAMBAR 



65 




Frontlet and Antlers of Malay Sambar. 
Drawn from a Burmese specimen in the British Museum. 



B — MALAY SAMBAR (C. unicolor equinus). 

This local race is nearly as large as the Indian sambar, but the 
antlers are generally shorter and thicker, with the hind or inner tine 
of the terminal fork much shorter than the front one, and arising as a 
spur from the inner hind margin of the beam, of which the front tine 
forms the direct continuation ; the brow-tine is also generally longer. 
General colour of coat of adult darker, usually a light ring round the 
eyes, the ears smaller, often with a white margin, and the tail very 
bushy. Young spotted. The distributional area extends from Assam 
and Cachar through Burma and the Malay Peninsula to Siam, Hainan, 
Borneo, and perhaps Sumatra. 

F 



66 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 

rip. 


Widest 

msiue. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


33 


; 


28I 


3° 


5 + 5 


Burma 


D. H. M. Boyle. 




5i 


26 


27} 


3 + 3 


Cochin China . 


II. R. IT. the Due de Mont 


3^ 


5 


32 i 


33i 


3 + 3 


Do. 


pensier. 

Do. 


31 


OS 


Mi 


i8i 


3 + 3 


? 


G. Monteath. 


3i 


Si 


26.}; 


26i 


5 + 5 


Burma 


E. M. Alexander. 


3oi 


6i 


I7i 


I9l 


7 + 7 


Borneo . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


3o£ 


4l 


20^ ! 


21.1 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


British Museum. 


29a 


51 


15} 


14 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


P. Grace. 




5i 


18 


20 


3 + 3 
OWNER'S: 


Do. . 
MEASUREMENTS 


J. H. Dauber. 


42 


S 


28 






Upper Burma . 


H. Shaw Dunn. 


34v 


83 


20| 


25i 


3 + 3 


Do. 


A. L. Bacon. 


32i 


7h 


24J 


27i 


3 + 2 


Burma . 


Major-Gen. O. E. P. Lloyd. 


3 2 


7k 


20| 


z 33 




Upper Burma . 


H. L. P. Walsh. 


V\ 


6 


24f 


26 


3 + 3 


Do. 


B. Lentaine. 


30L 


5J 


275 


I30 


3 + 3 


Burma . 
1 Outside. 


Col. G. H. Evans. 



C— FORMOSAN SAMBAR (C. unicolor swinhoei). 

This race is very closely related to the preceding, from which it is 
distinguished by its shorter head, concave profile, longer limbs, and 
certain differences in colour ; the lower part of the legs being brownish 
or whitish yellow, and the bushy tail black all round. It is confined 
to the island of Formosa. 



Length 

on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


•| ip to 

j i P . 


Point«. 


Owner. 




















9 


3 + 3 


liritish Museum. 




'7 


42 




5 


1 hike of Bedford. 




'7 


4 


104 




Sir Edmund ' \. Loder 


Bart 






16 


3 + 3 


Bi ni h M m. 








SAMBAR 



67 



D.— LUZON SAMBAR (C. unicolor philippinus). 

Nearly allied to the two last, the height at the shoulder being 
probably from 33 to 35 inches, the build stout and massive, with the 
hind-quarters specially elevated, and the form that of a small Malay 
sambar. On the head is a blackish streak starting from over each eye 
to form a line down the middle of the face separated by a band of 
pale fawn from a moustache-like dark mark on the muzzle. 

Distribution. — The island of Luzon, in the Philippines ; introduced into 
the Marianne Islands, specimens from which have been described 
as a separate species under the name of C. mariannus. 



Length 












on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 












21 


4i 


5h 


3 + 3 


Luzon . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


i9§ 


5i 


7* 


4 + 4 


Do. . 


British Museum. 


iS§ 


Si 


14I 


4+3 


Do. . 


Do. 



E. — BASILAN SAMBAR (C. unicolor nigricans). 

Smaller than the last, the height at the shoulder in a mounted 
specimen in the British Museum being 27 inches. Detached antlers 
indicate, however, larger animals. 



Length 










on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Points. 


Locality. 


curve. 










13! 


4i 


I2| 


3 + 3 


Basilan Island 


134 


4i 


I If 


3 + 3 


Do. 



Owner. 

British Museum (A. H. Everett). 
Do. 



F— SZE-CHUAN SAMBAR (C. unicolor dejeani). 

A large race from North-western China, with very massive antlers, 
which show a tendency to develop small supplemental snags. 



Length 

on Circum- Tip to Widest p_; nt _ 
outside ference. Tip. inside, 
curve. 



Locality. 



31 
.-.r.3 



22 i\\ 3 + 3 N.W. China 



Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
Paris Museum (type). 



Owner's measurements 



68 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Antlers of Javan Rusa. 
From a specimen in the collection of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



The RUSA DEER (Cervus [Rusa] hippelaphus). 

General form, coat, and colour sambar-like ; but the ears smaller, 
the tail thin, the hairs on the back banded with coloured rings, and the 
under-parts, chin, and inner sides of buttocks whitish. Antlers com- 
paratively slender and only moderately rough, with the brow-tine 
medium or short, and making a large acute angle with the beam ; the 
hind or inner tine of the terminal fork much longer than the front 
or outer one, and forming the continuation of the beam, from the 
front or front outer surface of which the brow-tine arises as an off- 
shoot ; the two antlers enclosing a lyrate space. Young, uniformly 
coloured. There are two races of this species — one the Javan rusa 
(C. hippelaphus typicus) of the approximate size of a red deer, and the 
other the Moluccan rusa (C. hippelaphus violuccensis\ from Celebes and 



RUSA DEER 



69 



the Moluccas, said to be smaller, and without a distinct mane on the 
neck or tuft to the tail. 



A. — JAVAN BUS A (0. hippelaphus typicus). 



outside 
curve. 

37h 
37h 

-36 
35i 
35i 
34h 
34 

2 34 
33i 



Circum- Tip to Widest p o ; nts _ 
ference. lip. inside 



Locality. 



Owner. 



51 
5 

4l 
4i 
Al 
5 

5 

4i 



16 

i6| 

iii 

22§ 

i7i 



17:, 
.19I 



17 



3 + 3 Java . . . His Majesty the King. 

3 + 3 Do. . . . British Museum. 

3 + 3 Mauritius (introduced) Admiral Sir William Kennedy 

3 + 3 Java . . . Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 

3 + 3 Do. . . . Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Do. 

Do. 

Rodriguez (introduced) Admiral Sir William Kennedy. 
3 + 3 Java 
3 + 3 Do. 
Owner's measurements. l Weight, 269 lbs. 



i7i 22} 3 + 3 

14 16^ 3 + 3 



12 

25h 



Vice- Admiral Sir Colin R. Keppel, 

R.N. 
J. C. Phillips. 



Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. (See 

illustration, p. 68. ) 
Duke of Bedford. 



B. — MOLUCCAN EUSA (C. hippelaphus moluccensis). 



Length 

on 
outside 
curve. 

36J 

274 

Sf 



Circum- 
ference. 



41 
4l 

4 



Tip to 
Tip. 



l8£ 

14A 

54 



Points. 

3 + 3 
3 + 3 



Locality. 



Batchian 



Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Duke of Bedford. 

British Museum (A. R. Wallace). 



7o 



RECORDS OF JUG GAME 




Frontlet and Horns of Chital. Shot by the Hon. J. Best. 



The CHITAL or AXIS DEER (Cervus [Axis] axis). 

This beautiful species is distinguished from all the other members 
of the rusa-like deer, except the Philippine spotted deer {C. alfredi), 
by the body being profusely spotted with white at all seasons and 
all ages ; the general colour of the upper-parts being light rufous 
fawn, with a dark stripe from the nape to the tip of the tail and 
a black band on the muzzle. Height at shoulder, from 36 to 38 
inches ; live-weight estimated at about 200 lbs. Antlers supported 
on short pedicles, long, slender, and moderately rough ; the brow-tine 
making nearly a right angle with the beam, and the front tine of the 
terminal fork, which forms the continuation of the beam, much the longer. 

The Ceylon chital (C. axis zeylanicus) has relatively small and light 
antlers, and also differs somewhat in coloration from the large typical 
race of Central India. There is also a small continental form (C. axis 
mim 

Distribution.- India and Ceylon. 



' r< umfer- 
■ above 



39 






4i 



'Si 






ilily. 

Tit. inces 
Jubbulpore 



Lady Eileen Elliol 
l . Pope. 



CHITAL 



7i 



th on 


Circumfer- 










utside 
urve. 


ence above 
the first 
point. 


Tip to Tip. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3§i 


4 


25 


5 + 5 


Mandla . 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


-384 

38 


42 

4l 


I 9 4 
18 


3 + 3 
3 + 3 


Asirgarh Jungle, Lieut. -Col. M. Cust. 

Central Provinces 
East Berar . . Brig. -Gen. F. H. Whitby. 


38 


44 1 


20 


4 + 4 


Do. 


Major-Gen. H. D'U. Keary. 


38 


44 


22 


4 + 4 


? 


Col. A. Pollock. 


372 


31 


19 


3 + 3 


Siwalik Hills . 


Major B. R. M. Glossop. 


374 
37* 


44 
44 


2 4 | 

21 


4+4 

4 + 3 


Bassim, C.P. . 


British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). 
Major A. D. Greenhill-Gardyne. 


37i 


44 


i6| 


4 + 5 


? 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 


3ll 


44 


17 


4 + 4 


United Provinces 


A. Courthorpe. 


-374 


44 


I2f 


4 + 4 


? 


J. C. Phillips. 


37i 


4 


214 


3 + 3 


Central Provinces 


. A. P. Jack. 


36| 


4 


20| 


41-4 


Do. 


. J. A. McKee. 


363 

364 


44 
44 


20 
25 


5 + 5 
4 + 3 


Do. 
Berar 


Hon. J. Best. (See illustration 
p. 70.) 
. C. H. Seely. 


351 


4 


I9l 


3 + 3 


Central Provinces 


. Major G. T. M. Bridges. 


354 


44 


1 84 


4 + 4 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


354 


4 


124 


5 + 5 


? 


G. W. Hatch. 


354 


4 


324 


3 + 3 


? 


Capt. R. Tudor Owen. 


354 


3i 


19 


3 + 3 


? 


Col. H. Denys. 


-35 


-3 


174 


3 + 3 


Ceylon . 


. R. Wilson. 


-344 


4f 


194 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


F. J. S. Turner. 


-344 






3 + 3 


Do. . 


G. A. Burney. 


-33s 


4A 


I4iV 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


. J. P. Ireson. 


-33* 


,18 

3t~<T 




3 + 3 


Do. . 


. A. J. Wickwar. 


-3 2 l 


44 


24 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


. E. M. Biggs. 


-32 


44 


Hi 


3^3 


Do. . 


. J. G. Napier. 


32 


34 


194 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


. W. J. Smith. 


3il 


4 


13 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


. M. J. Alderson. 


-3i4 


3l 


174 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


Count Scheibler. 


3i4 


3 


104 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


. A. R. Hay. 


-3ii 


3s 


17 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


G. B. Vernon. 


-3ii 


3 


9 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


H. Storey. 


30 i 


34 


10] 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


. Major F. H. N. Pym. 



- Owner's measurements 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Ho^-Deer. 



The HOG-DEER or PARA (Cervus [Hyelaphus] porcinus). 

In the group typified by the hog-deer the antler-pedicles are long, 
the bulla of the skull is large, and the pit for the face-gland much less 
deep than in the sambar group, while the nasal bones are not ex- 
panded superiorly, and the tail is shorter. In the Philippines the group 
(Hyelaphus) is represented by the Philippine hog-deer C. calamienensis, 
and by the species named C. culionensis. The Indian hog-deer is not 
dissimilar to the Bavian deer, but the antlers are larger, the build longer 
and lower, and the summer coat of the adult, as well as that of the 
young, spotted with yellowish white. General colour in winter rufous or 
yellowish brown, somewhat speckled above, and much darker beneath ; 
in summer, upper-parts paler and more or less spotted. Antlers on 
long pedicles, with the hind tine of the terminal fork the shorter. 
Height at shoulder, from about 25 to 29 inches ; weight, about 90 to 
100 lbs. A pair of antlers belonging to a specimen shot by Mr. A. O. 
Hume in the Ganges Khadir, near Meerut, measured 20 inches along 
the beam inside, and had a mid-beam girth of 35 inches. 

Distribution. — India, throughout the Indo-Gangetic plain from Sind 
and the Punjab to Assam, thence through Sylhet to Burma, Tenas- 
serim, and Siam. The Siamese race (C. p. hecki) differs from the 
typical hog-deer by its superior size and the absence of spots. 



HOG-DEER 



73 



Length on 
outside 
curve. 

-12\ 
2lf 

-2ii 

-21 

20§ 
-20§ 
-2Ci£ 

-2C>£ 
-20 

-i9l 
194 
igi 

19* 

19* 
19 
>-i8 
18 



Circum- 
;rence above 
brow-tine. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3i 


12* 


Burma . 


Col. G. H. Evans. 


3i 


20 


Do. . 


J. C. Phillips. 


3i 


6| 


Do. . 


British Museum. 


-.3 
J4 


22^ 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


3i 


is* 


Pegu . 


Major-Gen. E. M. Norie. 


31 


22| 


? 


Major W. Anstruther Gray. 


3i 




Nepal . 


Bombay Natural History Society. 


41 


i7i 


? 


J. Whitaker. 


3 


9i 


United Provinces . 


J. Nugent. 


3* 


16 


Burma . 
Meerut 


Indian Museum (Capt. R. C. 

Beavan). 
Major W. Q. Winwood. 


3^ 

3i 


13§ 
16 


Dudla Swamp, 
United Provinces 
? 


Major W. E. Stobart. 
Col. A. Short. 


3i 


i6i 


Burma . 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 


31 


i8| 


? 


H. C. V. Hunter. 


3i 


18 


Upper Burma 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


61 


19 


Ganges Khadir 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir R. Pole-Carew. 


2 a 


I2| 


Burma 


D. H. M. Boyle. 



Owner's measurements. 



1 Ten points. 



The BAVIAN DEER (Cervus [Hyelaphus] kuhli). 

A small deer allied to the hog-deer, standing about 27 inches at 
the shoulder, of light build, and of a uniform brown colour, without a 
dark stripe down the back. 

Distribution. — The Bavian Islands, between Borneo and Java. 



Length on 
outside curve. 



Circum- 
ference. 



Tip to Tip. 



Widest 
inside. 



IOs 



Points. 

3 + 3 



Owner. 

British Museum. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Fallow Deer. 



The FALLOW DEER (Dama vulgaris, or Dama dama). 

Antlers normally without a bez, but with a trez-tine, above which 
the beam is pal mated, with numerous snags on the hind edge. Coat 
spotted with white in summer (except in the black breed), with a black - 
bordered white area in the neighbourhood of the long tail. Height at 
shoulder, about 3 feet; weight, about 140 lbs. clean. 1 The original 
distribution includes Greece, Spain, Portugal, Anatolia, Rhodes, Sardinia, 
Minor, Northern Palestine, and North-western Africa, but the 
species has been introduced into Great Britain and some other countries. 
In Spain wild fallow abound in Estremadura, especially in the province 
of Caceres ; in Asia Minor they are found along the south coast as far 
a^ Adana, and at one spot in the interior ; whether they still exist in 
North Africa is doubtful. 



1 






FALLOW DEER 



75 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 

32 


Circum- 
ference. 

4* 


Tip to 
Tip. 

18 


Spread 
inside. 

28 


Points. 
12+ IO 


Width 
of Palm. 

Si 


Locality. 
Woburn 


Owner. 
Duke of Bedford. 


-3ii 




3 1 


281 






? 


Ernest Ritter von Wisely. 


\3i 
-3°i 


5 

5 


ioJ 


20j 


30 
13+II 


7 
5 


? 

? 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collec- 
tion. 
J. C. Phillips. 


2 30 


43 


231 


261 


IO + 9 


4i 


Drummond Castle 


J. G. Millais. 


30 


3l 




22^ 


12 + 12 




Uppark, Sussex . 


J. E. Harting. 


3° 


4 


194 


24 


II + II 


6 




Douglas M'Douall. 


-3° 
29! 


4l 

4h 


22 

22j 


37 

outside 
25^ 


l6+ IO 

9 + 8 


7 
5 


Drummond Castle 
? 


J. G. Millais. 

Capt. H. T. Timson. 


29i 


5 




284 


13 + H 


7 


Petworth, Sussex 


J. G. Millais. 


2 9i 


4l 




24s 


10+15 




Drummond Castle 


Earl of Ancaster. 


29? 


41 






14+ 11 


8 


Woburn 


Duke of Bedford. 


29i 


4s 




193 


16+ 15 




New Forest 


Hon. G. Lascelles. 


-28| 


63 




2 9h 


20 


63 


Bohemia 


W. Winans. 


-284 


4 


1 Si 


23 


9 + 8 


53 


Essex . 


W. H. Wilson. 


28J 


4i 


18 


243 


8 + 6 


4 


New Forest . 


E. Festus Kelly. 


3 -28| 


4 


i 4 i 


26 


10+ 11 


6 


Woburn 


Duke of Bedford. 


-284 

4 28| 

28i 

5 -28 


5 
4 

43 
4± 


30 

(Span 34) 

outside 

23 

26 26 


22 

19 

18 + 15 

23 


6 

6i 


Otago,New Zealand 

(Introduced) 
Colebrooke . 

? 
Surrenden Park . 


Rev. W. C. Oliver. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collec- 
tion. 

Sir Philip Brocklehurst, 
Bart. 

W. Winans. 


274 


4i 


i53 


20| 


8 + 9 


43 


Windsor 


Sir Charles Wakefield. 


27i 


4 


23 




10 + 8 




England 


J. Carr Saunders. 


26I 


33 


12 


17* 


10 + 7 




? 


British Museum. 


-264 


4i 


234 


2C4 


9 + 7 


51 


Perthshire 


A. Basil Brooke. 


26 


33 


H 


232 


7 + 7 


5 


? 


G. L. Harrison. 


-26 

25I 


5 

05 


20| 
I3l 


,-,3 
2 34 

2 32 


10+ 10 
13 + 12 


42- 
5 


Tasmania. (Intro- 
duced) 
? 


T. W. H. Clarke. 
T. G. A. Moncrieffe. 


6 25i 


■7 3 


173 


24i 


10+ 10 


6 


Surrenden Park . 


W. Winans. 


25 


33 




193 


8 + 8 




Epping Forest 


E. N. Buxton. 


25 

-24 


3i 
3h 


151 

27 


aii 


10 + 10 
23 


4 


Northamptonshire 
Surrenden Park . 


H.H. the Maharaja of 

Bikanir. 
W. Winans. 



- Owner's measurements. 

1 Recorded by J. G. Millais {British Deer and their Horns). 

2 Weight of antlers, 8 lbs. 1 oz. on skull ; no lower jaw (Millais. British Deer). 

■i Weight dressed, 165 lbs. 4 Seven years old : as he fell, 237A lbs. ; iq8 lbs. cleaned. 

5 Weight, 218 lbs. 6 Weight, 222 lbs. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Mesopotamia!! Fallow Deer. From a specimen in the British Museum. 



The MESOPOTAMIAN FALLOW DEER (Dama mesopotamica). 

Larger and brighter coloured than the ordinary fallow deer, with 
the spots near the middle of the back tending to form longitudinal 
stripes, and the tail wholly white. Antlers of a totally different type, 
being somewhat expanded at the origin of the trez-tine (which is 
large, and situated some distance above the short brow-tine), but at 
the summit only moderately flattened, and breaking up on the hind 
border into several snags. Weight, about 24 stone, clean. 

Distribution. — The mountains of Luristan in Mesopotamian 
Persia and part of Asia Minor. 



Length 

■- Circum- Tip to Spread Points 
side ferem e. I ip. inside. 
curve. 



36* 




1 6 v 


29 


4J 




21* 




nh 


2 °i 


5 


14 



24i 



Width 
of Palm. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



12+15 5! Karabogha, Asia F. E. Whittall. 

Minor 
10+ 11 5£ Asia Minor . . Do. 



9 7 ... Do. 

6 +• 5 Luristan Mts. 

■ 1M'-1|I . 



Paris Museum 

(Abbe; David). 
Sir Edmund ' '•. Loder, Bart. 



GIANT IRISH DEER 



77 




Skull and Antlers of extinct Giant Irish Deer (Irish Elk). 



The GIANT IRISH DEER (Dama(?) gigantea). 

(Commonly called " Irish Elk.") 

An extinct deer, probably standing at least 6 feet at the shoulder, 
with the antlers enormously expanded, and carrying several large tines 
on the front border, of which the one above the trez is the longest ; the 
brow-tine being often flattened and forked. In its typical form this 
magnificent deer occurs in the Prehistoric deposits of Ireland, England, 
and probably some of the western districts of the Continent. In the 
skull the vomer is welded to the adjacent bones. The following 
specimens are Irish : — 



o , t^- Length round Length of 

Spread Tip ;,f side of both antlers 



to Tip 

ft. in. 
IO 2 



ft. in. 

5 H 



9 
9 
9 

9 

9 3 
9 2 
8 ii 
8 io 
8 io 



5 io 
5 9 
5 io 



Circum- 
ference 
across skull. above burr. 

ft. in. 

9& 

IO 
12 5 II 

12 IO I3i 

i3 5 io 

13 6 

ii 9k . 9\ 

12 5 IO 



Width of 
Palm. 



I9i 

20 

17 

21* 

2I5 
24 

17 
17 
iS 



Points. 



Owner. 



19 British Museum. 

12+ 11 Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

13 + 10 J. G. Millais. 

1 1 + 1 1 Viscount Powerscourt. 
15+13 Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

12 + 10 Duke of Westminster. 

Mrs. Graham Lloyd. 

9 + 9 Viscount Powerscourt. 

12 + 1 1 Duke of Westminster. 

10 + 9 G. C. Whitaker. 



;8 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

c , •,.• Length round Length of Circum- \r;j,u„r 

Spread .lip inside of both antler, ference p ,1m Points ' 0wner - 

P" antler. across skull, above burr, 
ft. in. ft. in. ft. in. 

II 9 - io 9^ 18^ ... Public Library, Dublin. 

ii 6 ... ... ... 20 ... Marquis of Londonderry. 

ii e 63 9| 17 11 + 11 Dublin Museum. 

II 3 7 5^ 12^ 19J 17 Mrs. Donaldson-Hudson. 

II ii 6 9i 9| i6i 23 Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 

10 44 69 13 10 12 20 ... Earl of Bessborough. 

93 ... ... iof 12 7 + 7 Duke of St. Albans. 

92 1 1 10 10^ 22J 9 + 9 Dublin Museum. 

The MILU or PER.E DAVID'S DEER (Elaphurus davidianus). 

This deer differs from all the preceding groups by the peculiar 
form of the antlers, which rise in the plane of the forehead, and fork 
at a comparatively short distance above the burr, the front prong of 
the fork again dividing, while the hind prong is long and straight. 
The bushy tail is longer than in any other deer, and the neck of the 
male is maned. There is a gland on the outer side of the upper half 
of the hind cannon-bone, but none on the hock. The colour is 
uniformly tawny in the adult, but spotted in the young. Height at 
shoulder, about 3 feet 9 inches. In captivity the antlers are frequently 
shed twice a year. In the structure of the bones of the feet the 
milu resembles the red deer group, to which and the barasingha it is 
considered by Mr. R. I. Pocock to be allied. Mr. Pocock considers that 
the front prong of the main fork represents the brow-tine of the red 
deer groups. 

Distribution. — Probably northern China or perhaps Kashgaria ; re- 
corded in a fossil state from Japan. Unknown in the wild state, 
and apparently now represented only by the herd at Woburn 
Abbey, Bedfordshire. 

J.ength 





1 


1 i|. to 
•Ii,,. 


Widesl 
inside. 




Locality. 


< twner. 
















34 & 




23^ 




' 5 7 


Woburn . 


Smithsonian Institution. 




Si 


25i 




21 17 


y 


Mess of 19th Punjabi Infantry, 


32? 






18^ 


s 1 8 


Pekin 


. Sir Edmund ('•■ Lodei . Bart. 


'32 


7h 








Wob 


. Duke of Bedford. 



i| tdi , head measures 32J i 



MILU DEER 



79 




Head of Milu Deer. 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


curve. 






-31 


6 




31 


6i 


274 


31 


4l 


23 


-3°S 


5 


35tV 


3° 


51 


24! 


2 9h 


54 




-294 


6| 


29 


2 8i 


51 


20^ 


28| 


6* 




27 


5£ 


20| 


26i 


Si 


16 


x *5 


5 




22 


4l 





Widest 
inside. 



Points. 

3 + 3 
3 + 3 
7 + 6 



Locality. Owner. 

American National Collection. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



British Museum (Duke of 
Bedford). 

35 T \ 11 + 10 Imperial Park, Pekin Paris Museum (Type 

specimen). 
G. L. Harrison. 

Duke of Bedford. 

Major W. Anstruther Gray. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Duke of Bedford. 

British Museum. 

Royal Scottish Museum. 

Duke of Bedford. 

Do. 

1 Back tine measured 28 inches from beam of antler. 



3 + 2 


? 


5 + 5 


? 


3 + 2 


? 


3 + 3 


? 


8 + 8 


Woburn . 


6 + 5 


Do. . 


8 + 7 


Do. . 


6 + 4 


Do. 


4 + 3 


Do. . 


- O 


wner's measurements. 



So 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Antlers of Indian Muntjac. 



The MUNTJAC or BARKING DEER (Cervulus muntjac). 

This species is the typical representative of a genus of small Indo- 
Malay deer differing widely from all the foregoing groups. The 
antlers, which do not usually exceed half the length of the head, have 
a short brow-tine and an unbranched beam, and are supported on long 
skin-covered pedicles, continued downwards as convergent ridges on 
the forehead, whence the name of rib -faced deer. Tufts of bristly 
hair occupy the position of the antlers in the females. The muzzle 
has a large naked portion, and although there is generally a pair of 
glands on the face, there are none either on the hock or the cannon- 
bone. The young may be spotted, but the adults are uniformly coloured. 
The range of the typical muntjac, which is one of the reddish- 
coloured species, extends from Ceylon and India through Burma to 
China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. Reeves' muntjac 
(C. reevesi), from China and Formosa, a smaller species, is also 
reddish, as is Sclater's muntjac (C. sclateri) of Central China, and the 
Sze-chuan C. lachrymans ; C. bridgemani, of Central China, is darker ; in 
the Tenasserim muntjac {C. fecE) and the larger hairy-fronted muntjac 
( C. crinifrons) of Eastern China the general hue is dark purplish sepia- 
brown, with white on the buttocks and under surface of the tail. The 
average- height of the male of the typical species at the shoulder is 
from 20 to 22 inches, and the weight about 38 lbs.; a female stands 
about 20 inches and weighs about 32 lbs. 

Several local races of the ordinary muntjac doubtless exist. The 
typical form (C. muntjac typicus) is the Javan animal ; the Burmese 
race has been di tinguished as C. muntjac grandicornis, while the Indian 
form is known as C. m. vaginalis, and the Siamese as C. m. curvostylis. 



MUNTJAC 



The antlers of the 
name Muntiacus is 



Burmese race are large and massive, 
often used in place of Cervulus. 



The earlier 



Length on 

outside 

curve of 

antler from 

burr to tip. 


Circumference 
above burr. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


-IO§ 






Java 


'-9h 


44 


5 


Singapore . 


H 


3 


2| 


Java 


-88 


3S 


« 


Do. 


x 7f 


4i 


31 


Lombok . 


7§ 


3 


3 


Siwalik Hills 


7§ 


2i 


1 4 


U. Burma 


2 7i 


3i 


3^ 


Lombok . 


7 


3s 


44 


Burma 


-6f 


2f 


2i 


Perak 


6| 


2* 


3 


Ranikhet . 


6| 


2* 


3i 


Java . 


6* 


2 I 


3* 


Nepal 


6* 


31 


2| 


Buxa Duar 


-6i 


2| 


3i 


Namba Forest, 


-6i 


2| 


3i 


Ranikhet . 


-6| 






Garo Hills 



Owner. 

H. Van Son. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

M. Maxwell. 

Dr. Albert von Stephani. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Major W. E. Stobart. 

L. H. Baker. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Maj.-Gen. H. D'U. Keary. 

Perak Museum. 

Surgeon Lieut. -Col. B. W. C. 

Deeble. 
J. C. Van Son. 

British Museum (B. H. 

Hodgson). 
Capt. A. O. Creagh. 

Assam Lieut. -Col. H. S. Wood. 

Col. E. T. Taylor. 

D. H. Allen. 



CENTRAL CHINESE MUNTJAC (Cervulus lachrymans sclateri). 

About equal in size to the last, with the upper part of the head and 
fore-neck bright yellow and the body browner than in muntjac. The 
lower portion of the front of the fore-legs is blackish brown. In the 
typical C. lachrymans, of Sze-chuan, the head is orange brown, and the 
limbs are brownish fawn. Weight of male 38 and female ^6 lbs. 







Distribution. — Central Chin 


a. 








Length on out- 
side curve of 
longest antler. 


Circumference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 






Owner. 






51 
5 


1\ 
2 


3l 

3 


China 
Anghwei, China 






Comdr. the Hon. R 
Bridgeman, R.N. 
British Museum. 


0. 


B. 


3S 


2 

I| 

1-1 


,3 

3 

3i 


Tungkuan Shan, 

China 
Ningpo 

Do. 


C. 




Comdr. the Hon. R. 
Bridgeman, R.N. 
British Museum 

Swinhoe). 
Dublin Museum. 


O. 

(R. 


B. 




- Owner's measurements. 
1 Determination provisional. 


2 


Weight 37 lbs. 







RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Antlers of Muntjacs in the collection of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



The HAIRY -FRONTED MUNTJAC (Cervulus crinifrons). 



Length on out- 

\f- side curve of Circumference. Tip to Tip. 
longest antler. 



Locality. 



I', 



44 



Ningpo 



Owner. 
British Museum. 



REEVE'S MUNTJAC (Cervulus reevesi). 



Length on out- 



:urve of < 


Circumference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


it antler. 














4i 


2i 


Shed 




? 




Sir Edmund G. Loder, 
Bart. 


3^ 


2| 


3i 




? 




Comdr. the Hon. R. 0. B. 
Bridgeman, R.N. 


21 


2i 


3i 


Feng 


Luang 


Shan 


Do. 



BRIDGEMAN'S MUNTJAC (Cervulus sinensis = bridgemani). 



Length on out- 
side curve of Circumference. Tip to Tip. 
ntler. 



Locality. 



5 


2 


3 


Feng Luang Shan 


'34 


3 


3 


China 


»l| 


n 


[| 


Nyankingon the Y 


>i 




on 
1 


China 
Determination provisional. 



Owner. 

Comdr. the Hon. R. O. B. 

Bridgeman, R.N. 
Capt. II. L. Archer- 

[ioublon. 



Comdr. C. L. Lambe, R.N. 



REINDEER OR CARIBOU 



83 




Antlers of Woodland Caribou. From a specimen in the British Museum. 



The REINDEER or CARIBOU (Rangifer tarandus). 

Distinguished from all other deer by the presence of antlers in both 
sexes ; those of males being complex, with the brow-tines palmated 
and often unsymmetrical, and the bez, or second tine, also generally 
expanded. The muzzle is hairy, the ears and tail are short, and the 
throat has a fringe of long hair. The coat is very thick, and typi- 
cally dark cinnamon-brown in colour above, with the limbs, a flank- 
band, and some of the under-parts darker, the neck lighter, and more 
or less white in the region of the tail, on the under-parts, and fetlocks. 
In R. t. montanus the whole neck and lower surface are chocolate- 
brown, but in most American races there is some white in these regions, 
and R. t. pearyi, of Ellesmereland, is almost wholly white. The false 
or lateral hoofs are unusually large and spreading ; and there is a patch 
of long white hair covering a gland on the hock, but none on the hind 
cannon-bone. Glands between main hoofs. Height at shoulder reach- 
ing to 4 feet 10 inches (Newfoundland). Hinds weigh between 224 
and 280 lbs. 

Reindeer inhabit the circumpolar regions of both hemispheres, in 
Europe including Scandinavia, Lapland, and Northern Russia ; their 
southern limit varies from 5 2° to 54° N. latitude, while they extend 
to between 8o° and 8i° northwards. 



S 4 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

Numerous local forms of reindeer are recognised. The more important 
are : (i) the Scandinavian reindeer (R. tarandus typicus) of Sweden and 
Norway, which is rather small with moderately expanded antlers ; (2) 
the larger Finnish reindeer {R. t. fennicus), distinguished by the more 
vaulted nasal bones ; (3) the woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) of the forest 
districts of Arctic America, characterised by its large size and the short, 




Antlers of Woodland Caribou from Nova Scotia. 
From a specimen in the British Museum. 

much-palmated antlers, in which the brow-tines form huge " shovels," 
one generally much larger than the other ; and (4) the Barren-Ground 
reindeer (R. t. arcticus), from the open country north of the forests in 
America, nearly related to the Scandinavian reindeer, and characterised 
by its small bodily size, and the great length and simple form of the 
antlers, in which, except on the brow-tine, there is scarcely any palma- 
tion. The reindeer of Siberia and Novaia Zemlia, which approximate to 
the American types, have been named R. t. sibiricus and R. t. pearsoni. 
Names have been given to numerous American local forms, some of 



REINDEER OR CARIBOU 85 

which tend to connect the Barren-Ground with the woodland type. The 
Greenland caribou {R. t. grcenlandicus) is of the Barren -Ground type, 
but all the rest are nearer the woodland form. Among these, the 
Newfoundland R. t. terrce-novce has antlers of a very complex type ; 
R. t. montanus and R. t. osborni are mountain-races, probably pass- 
ing towards R. t. stonei and R. t. granti of Southern Alaska, which 
have somewhat longer antlers, and thus approach the Barren-Ground 
type, although they are large animals. Reindeer have brow-tined 
antlers, but otherwise appear to be related to the American deer. 



.4.— AMERICAN SPECIMENS. 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


62 


5i 


40 


50| 


21 + 17 


Hudson's Bay 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


59 


H 


2 9i 


4°2 


11 + 9 


Yukon . 


Hon. M. Egerton. 


58 


6 


27i 


41 


11 + 12 


Cassiar . 


R. Hayne. 


58 


5i 


4°i 


45 


20+14 


Labrador 


H. Hesketh-Prichard. 


J 57§ 


Si 


13! 




13 + 7 


Arctic America 


British Museum. 


57i 


51 


29i 


36| 


18+10 


Yukon . 


F. C. Selous. 


57 


5* 


i6| 


26£ 


20 + 9 


N. of Davis Strait 


Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 


551 


6| 


25 


35 


23 + 15 


Cassiar . 


Col. L. Parry. 


2 551 
55i 


8 
6 


28 


44 
(outside) 

43 


26+18 
13 + 10 


Alaska . 
Stikin River . 


American National Collection 

(Reed Collection). 
P. Niedieck. 


55 


6 


43 


48 


12 + 14 


Cassiar . 


F. C. Selous. 


55 


6 


21 


35 


12 + 10 


Do. 


W. A. Conduitt. 


55 


6* 


19 


40 


19 + 21 


Do. 


F. H. Bailey. 


54i 


51 


37J 


44i 


16 + 13 


Yukon . 


Sir A. Armstrong, Bart. 


54 


6 


28 


3if 


18 + 14 


Do. 


S. R. Vereker. 


54 


51 


3i 


38i 


13 + 16 


Cassiar . 


Lord Osborne Beauclerk. 


54 


H 


29 


37 


22 + 11 


Alaska . 


Hon. J. C. Lister. 


54 


4S 


48 


52 


21 + 14 


Canada . 


D. F. Mackenzie. 


53i 


54 


37 


45* 


24+ 14 


Labrador 


K. V. Painter. 


53 


4i 


48S 


54 


12 + 11 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


52£ 


5i 


15 


26i 


17 + 12 


N. Canada 


J. Talbot Clifton. 








1 K 


t. arcticus. 


2 R. t. 


osboiyii. 



86 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Mr. Hesketh-Prichard's 49-Pointer. 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














52 


51 


28^ 


31 


15+13 


E. Yukon 


J. Todd. 


52 


5 


32} 


37 


12+ II 


Cassiar . 


Lord Hindlip. 


52 


S\ 


6 


29 


15 + 20 


N. Canada 


E. E. P. Cuncliffe. 


5ii 


6k 


33 


33 


12+ 12 


Cassiar . 


F. C. Stern. 




44 


4°i 


48g 


17+14 


Hudson's Bay 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Part. 


5' 


5i 


27 


29i 


IS + IS 


Yukon . 


A. I). Pass. 


5i 


6i 


25i 


3»i 


20+17 


Cassiar . 


P. N. Graham. 


5' 


6 


36 


40.I 


l6+ II 


Do. 


II. C. Wilson. 


5' 


6 A 


333 


40 i 


IO + 8 


Do. 


J. S. Shepherd. 


5' 


6 


32 


36i 


15+ 12 


Do. 


M. W. Ward. 


5i 


51 


29! 


3H 


15+12 


Do. 


Capt. tin- 1 Ion. C. II. Douglas 
Pennant. 


50} 


4i 


3'i 


38 i 


IO + 9 


Do. 


' ol. II. Appleton. 



REINDEER OR CARIBOU 



on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














50 


H 


24 


35 


16+13 


Cassiar . 


Viscount Lascelles. 


5° 


Si 


27 


38 


12 + 11 


Barren Grounds 


A. Barclay Walker. 


49i 


5! 


254 


361 


13+12 


Cassiar . 


R. Beaumont. 


49i 


Si 


3S 


42i 


15+15 


Do. . . 


C. II. Young. 


49i 


5 


30 


32 


19+15 


Labrador 


H. Hesketh-Prichard. 


49i 


6| 


26 . 


43 


l8+I2 


Newfoundland 


St. George Littledale. 


49 


64 


25 


34l 


22+l8 


? 


Sir W. Bass, Bart. 


49 


6 


26 


274 


26+15 


Yukon . 


H. B. Alexander. 


49 


5i 


26J 


3i4 


19+19 


Do. . 


L. Cadbury. 


4S4 


64 


29 


36| 


20+I8 


Do. . 


J. Todd. 


4§i 


4l 


i9i 


264 


24+ 12 


Do. . 


R. H. Milvain. 


474 


64 


40I 


381 


15 + 14 


Itcha Mts., B.C. 


W. Neilson. 


47i 


51 


24I 


34 


22+ l8 


? 


C. II. Wilkinson. 


4&4 


5i 


3 2 l 


351 


l8+I2 


Cassiar . 


Major J. F. Church. 


46i 


64 


164 


28 


32 


British Columbia 


J. Turner-Turner. 


46i 


54 


384 


394 


I3 + IO 


Newfoundland 


T. P. Miller. 


464 


54 


M 


41 


20+ l6 


Do. 


Major G. H. A. Ing. 


464 


4i 


26 


32 


n + 8 


Do. 


J. T. Lewis. 


46 


44 


244 


3i4 


15 + 15 


Do. 


Capt. H. L. Cottingham. 


46 


5i 


26| 


35 


15 + 12 


Do. 


H. Charrington. 


46 


54 


28| 


3i4 


10+ 10 


Do. 


R. II. Venables Kyrke. 


454 


54 


3ii 


334 


13 + 12 


Do. 


F. C. Williamson. 


45 


51 


184 


374 


17 + 18 


Cassiar . 


J. M. Hanbury. 


44l 


5* 




294 


29 + 26 


Do. . 


J. G. Millais. 


444 


54 


i8| 


3i 


n+8 


? 


Major J. E. Piatt. 


444 


51 


2o£ 


264 


10+ 12 


Newfoundland 


W. R. Greene. 


44l 


54 


34 


37 




Do. 


C. H. Akroyd. 


44 


5i 


3i4 


37 


16 + 13 


? 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


44 


51 


24J 


324 


17 + 21 


Newfoundland 


J. G. Millais. 


44 


54 


i8J 


30 


18 + 13 


Do. 


Admiral Sir William Kennedy 


44 


51 


19 


264 


17+14 


Do. 


Capt. A. G. Allgood, R.N. 


434 


5 


29J 


3i 


18 + 10 


Cassiar . 


Sir Cavendish Boyle. 



88 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














43* 


Si 


20* 


30 


22 4-19 


Newfoundland 


A. Alexander. 


43 


Si 


17* 


22^ 


154-12 


Do. 


Major C. Hilder. 


43 


Si 


2l£ 


29i 


104-8 


Cassiar . 


Major R. H. Morgan. 


A 2h 


n 


33+ 


3Si 


224-18 


Do. . 


R. Gordon Smith. 


4 2i 


Si 


263 


30| 


234-13 


Yukon . 


A. Benitz. 


42* 


n 


2Si 


35* 


24 4-15 


Newfoundland 


Lieut. H. C. Rawson, R.N. 


42 


64 


24 


3if 


174-14 


Do. 


T. A. Armstrong. 


42 


4* 


14 


20$ 


7 + 7 


Quebec . 


Capt. the Hon. G. H .Douglas 
Pennant. 


42 


5h 


36i 


393 


204- 12 


Newfoundland 


Q. C. Colmore. 


42 


51 


3S 


41- 


104- 10 


Do. 


E. C. Russell. 


42 


6* 


20^ 


30A 


13 + 12 


Do. 


G. C. Whitaker. 


4ii 


5i 


15! 


25I 


18 + 15 


Do. 


Prince Nicolas Ghika. 


4li 


5i 


27 


30i 


16 + 18 


Do. 


Capt. F. Blacker. 


4i 


5i 


25i 


28^ 


144-13 


Do. 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


41 


6 


35 


33 


20 


British Columbia 


Lieut. -Col. C. C. Ellis. 


41 


5 


28^ 


32 


14+17 


Newfoundland 


S. H. Whitbread. . 


4<jf 


6| 


32* 


37 


20+17 


Do. 


His Majesty the King. 


40| 


5% 


2lf 


29 


13 + 9 


Do. 


Major S. Upperton. 


4°i 


5 


32 


36£ 


14 + 9 


Do. 


Sir Philip Brocklehurst, Bart 


40 


51 


I 9 | 


26 


12+ 11 


Do. 


P. B. Vander Byl. 


40 


6 


31* 


35i 


19 + 14 


Do. 


Admiral Sir William Kennedy 


40 


Si 


26 


34i 


12 + 11 


Do. 


Dublin Museum. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



678 


7 


'62 


Si 




71 




6 






584 


si 



2 S8 



44i 


38 


Hudson's Bay 


J. G. Millais. 


5° 


94-15 


Alaska . 


American National Collection 


(outside) 






(Reed Collection). 


43i 


20+ 14 


Do. . 


Do. 


(outside) 








5oi 


43 


Kenai Peninsula 


W. II. Case. 


34 




North Labrador 


United States National 


(outside) 






Museum, Washington. 


39* 


24+ 16 


Kenai Peninsula 


American National ( ollection. 


1 










••1 


North Labrador 


United States National 
Museum, Washington. 


I R. t 


grant i. 


2 R. t. t 


rcticus. 



REINDEER OR CARIBOU 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














574 


51 




47 


2I + l8 


Alaska . 


J. C. Phillips. 


57 










Cassiar . 


J. G. Millais. 


564 










Do. . 


C. Little. 


55 


71 






23 + 22 


Yukon . 


Wilson Potter. 


544 


54 


30 


444 


31 


Alaska . 


F. T. Colby. 


53i 


614 


444 


55 


22 + 23 


Yukon . 


C. T. Summerson. 


52 

52. 


54 

7 




394 

(outside) 
42 


II + IO 

17+14 


Cassiar . 
Do. . 


American National Collection. 
L. H. Green. 


x <Pk 






45 




Do. . 


American National Collection. 


50* 


64 




37i 


I3 + I8 


Do. . 


Wilson Potter. 


494 








36 


Do. . 


Count Chas. Hoyos. 


2 49 

3 49 






39 

(outside) 

34 


22 
36 


W. Coast Greenland 

? 


American Museum of Natural 
History. 

Do. 


484 


6| 


264 


34 


27 


Newfoundland 


F. Gillett. 


48 






43 


19 


Cassiar . 


Lieut. R. C. Dalglish, R.N. 


48 










Do. . 


Col. Max. C. Fleischmann. 


46 


64 


39 


43 


13+19 


Newfoundland 


G. L. Harrison. 


J 44 

4 424 

5 41 






J ,5 2 

(outside) 

294 

(outside) 

36 


36 
25 
36 


Cassiar . 

N.W. Coast of Hud- 
son's Bay 

Newfoundland 


Madison Grant. 

American Museum of Natural 

History. 
Madison Grant. 



B.— SIBERIAN RACE (R. tarandus sibiricus). 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














494 


44 


284 


37 


16+ II 


Upper Yenisei Valley . 


J. G. Millais. 


48 


5 


26 


32i 


l64- 12 


Do. 


J. C. Phillips. 


474 
46! 


5 
4l 


20| 
2C>£ 


28J 

304 


16+I4 

12 + 9 


Do. 
Do. 


British Museum (Natural 

History). 
Dublin Museum. 


43 


54 


29 


30! 


I4+II 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


39 


Si 


264 


27 


6+ 11 


Bought at Tashkend . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 




1 


R. t. osborni. 


2 


R. t. groenlandicus. 


3 R. t. stonei. 








i R. t. 


arcticus. 


5 R. t. terrce 


noz'K. 



9o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



C— SCANDINAVIAN RACE. 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circu in- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














»6o 


53 


38| 


41* 


22+15 


? 


Sir V. Brooke's Collection. 


5Si 


41 


24i 


354 


7 + 7 


Norway . 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


57} 


51 


25 


39i 


16+19 


Do. . 


Do. 


55} 


5} 


32 


37* 


17 + 15 


Do. . 


r. B. Vander Byl. 


551 


6i 


3S 


43* 


18 + 8 


Sundal Fjelds, Nor- 


Capt. Gerard Ferrand. 


54* 


4l 


33} 


4°| 


15 + 13 


way 
Norway . 


J. H. Thomas. 


54* 


4l 


3 2 4 


4i* 


18 + 13 


Do. . 


H. Hunt. 


54 


4l 


iS 


32 


10 + 5 


Do. . 


G. C. M. Dewhurst. 


54 


4* 


28| 


35 


10 + 7 


Do. . 


R. Persse. 


54 


5 


22 


4i| 


16+ 11 


Do. . 


Kenneth M'Douall. 


531 


4* 


26 


35* 


12 + 8 


Do. . 


J. M. Hanbury. 


53 


5 








Do. . . ' . 


J. G. Millais. 


53 


4! 


39* 


53} 


15 + 10 


Do. . 


A. Alexander. 


53 


5 


"} 


35} 


16+12 


Do. . 


H. Hunt. 


53 


4* 


3o| 


42* 


12 + 8 


Do. . 


R. L. Scott. 


52* 


4f 


20} 


5o} 


19+13 


Do. . 


C. M. Black. 


52* 


4i 


22J 


41 


10 + 9 


Do. . 


A. D. Pass. 


5ii 


4l 


30 


39} 


16 + 16 


Spitzbergen 


G. A. Shenley. 


5i 


4* 


3i 


39* 


14 + 8 


Norway . 


H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


5i 


4i 


3ii 


40* 


12 + 6 


Do. . 


F. C. Selous. 


5i 


4* 


lOh 


36J 


12 + 9 


Do. . 


A. Churchill. 


5o| 


43 


24 


29 


16+13 


Do. . 


H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe 


5° 


4? 


27A 


(outside) 
40* 


11 + 10 


Do. . 


Coburg and Gotha. 
Sir II. Seton-Karr. 


5o 


4} 


3 5Y 


4O.I 


12 + 9 


Do. . 


J. C. Maxwell. 








OWNER'S 


MEASUREMENTS 




59i 






4*1 


11 + 14 


Norway . 


R. L. Scott. 


59i 


7 


38 


44 


15+ 16 


Do. . 


J. Whitaker. 


59 
58 


4* 
6 


42£ 

3° i 


46 
(outside) 

37 


7 15 
33 


Do. . 

Do. . 


H. J. Klwcs. 
S. Ratcliff. 


52i. 


5 


27 


3°J 


26 

1 


Do. . 

Perished antlers. 


Abel ( 'li.-ipman. 



REINDEER OR CARIBOU 



9i 



Extract from a letter of Mr. J. G. Millais, 14th August 1907 : — 

" For the purpose of comparison with other local races of reindeer 
I give the measurements of the twelve best specimens of Newfoundland 
caribou which I have obtained in the island. In all scientific accounts 
dealing with the measurements of reindeer antlers no notice is taken of 
the size of the large brow-shovel, a matter of great importance in 
determining the respective merits of individual heads. Mere length of 
antler is not everything in judging the qualifications of deer heads, whilst 
in this species in particular we must consider beam, span, number of 
points, symmetry, and size of the large brow-tine, a feature which adds 
so much to the general character. 



Length 

on 
outer 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference 
above 

bez-tine. 


Breadth of 
brow-tine 
on anterior 
margin from 
base to top 
front point. 


Widest 
inside. 


46 


5i 


14 


31 


46 


6 


14 


3° 


43 


7 


i6£ 


35 


42 


6 


161 


34 


42 


Sh 


15 


3i 


40 


5 


IS* 


32 


40 


5i 


IS* 


39 


38 


5i 


15 


28 


38 


5* 


18 


31 


37* 


6| 


i.7i 


33 


36 


' 7 


i6| 


29 


36 


H 


13* 


38 



Points. 



Locality. 



45 Tamnapegawi Lake, 1906. 

35 Upper Gander, 1905. 

36 Shoehill Ridge, 1906. 
44 Upper Gander, 1903. 

31 Resequit Hills, 1906. 

38 Upper Gander, 1905. Picked up. 
25 Do. 1905. 

35 Do - !9°3- 

35 Millais's Lake, 1902. 

32 Migwell's Brook, 1905. 
49 Upper Gander, 1903. 
32 Resequit Hills, 1906. 



" The points of reindeer are difficult to count. No point should be 
included that does not fulfil the old watchguard or powder-horn test, 
unless it may be a clean blunt snag at least half an inch from the main 
horn. 

" The Germans count everything as a point upon which a torn piece 
of paper will rest, but we regard all small excrescences that do not fulfil 
the old British conditions as of no account. For instance, Captain 
Cartwright's famous '72 point Labrador head,' which I have recently 
traced, and on which he counted every prominence, has in reality 
53 points." 



92 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The ROEBUCK (Capreolus caprea). 

(Also known as Capreolus capreolus?) 

Roebuck may be recognised by the rudimentary tail, and the medium- 
sized antlers rising close together and almost vertically from the head, 
without a true brow-tine, and regularly forking at a point about two- 
thirds the total length, with the posterior prong again subdividing, so 
that the number of points is usually three. There is no gland or tuft 
on the hock, but one on the upper part of the outer side of the hind 
cannon-bone. In the European roe the height at the shoulder is 
about 26 inches. In winter the coat is dark speckly brown with a 
large white rump-patch, but in summer foxy red, with little or no 
white behind. As in the Japanese sika, the white hairs of the winter 
rump-patch expand under the influence of excitement to form a large 
disc. The range embraces the greater part of Europe as far as the 
southern Caucasus, Palestine, and perhaps Persia. 

In the typical Scandinavian roebuck there is a yellowish tinge in 
the winter coat, which is wanting in the greyer Spanish C. c. canus ; 
the Transylvanian C. c transylvanicus differs from both by the distinct 
whitish throat and neck patches, while the British C. c. thotti is dis- 
tinguished from all three by the face being darker than the body. 



,ength on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 




13 


4 


I4l 


Germany . 




Ml 




6i 


Forfarshire 




m* 


4l 


9 


Servia 




II§ 




6 


Monymusk, N.B. 




l IIl 






Orton, Speyside 




HrV 


6 


6 


Perth 




11 


7l 




Ross-shire 




11 


3i 


6i 


Dorset 




11 


5A 


71 


Ross-shire 




1 11 


2 8 


8S 


Germany . 




11 


7h 


61 


Sligo, Ireland . 




11 


31 


61 


Ballindalloch . 




log 


2.f 


41 


S.-W. Russia . 




iog 


2§ 


iol 


Austria 




iol 


61 


6 


Ballindalloch . 




\o\ 


34 


51 


Inverness . 





1 Recorded by J. G. Millais (British Deer and their Horns). 



Owner. 

Viscount Powerscourt. 

J. G. Millais. 

Viscount Powerscourt. 

Sir Arthur Grant, Bart. 

Sir J. Macpherson Grant, Bart. 

J. G. Millais. 

H. M. Warrand. 

F. Gordon Scott. 
H. M. Warrand. 
Viscount Powerscourt. 

Sir Josslyn Gore Booth, Bart. 

G. B. Macpherson Grant. 
Count Bobrinskoy. 

J. R. Luchsinger. 

Sir J. Macpherson Grant, Bart. 

C. Macpherson Grant. 

2 Abnormal (Perauque). 



ROEBUCK 



93 



Length on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


\o\ 


4 


6i 


Austria 


. H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


I of 


3ts 


5 


Inverness-shire * 


. J. Hamilton Leigh. 


\o\ 


3i 


64 


Do. 


E. G. Fraser-Tytler. 


\o\ 


3i 


2 


Perthshire 


. J. G. Millais. 


\o\ 


3 


!»4 

^4 


Austria 


R. Persse. 


10 


-3 
2 ? 


4s 


Russia 


. H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Con 
naught. 


10 




4i 


Ross-shire 


. J. J. de Knoop. 


IO 


4 


4l 


Glenmoriston . 


. J. Hamilton Leigh. 


9^ 


5 


5 


Dorset 


. J. E. Harting. 


9l 


31 


Si 


Spain 


A. de Zuleta. 


9l 


3* 


4 


Hampshire 


. J. Hamilton Leigh. 


93 


H 




Sligo 


Sir Josslyn Gore Booth, Bart. 


9l 




4l 


Aberdeenshire . 


. E. S. Hervey. 


9l 


3 


6i 


Scotland . 


. A. M. Yule. 


9f 




71 


New Forest 


Hon. Gerald Lascelles. 


9i 


3 


3i 


Scotland . 


Col. Ralph Vivian. 


9i 


3i 


2§ 


Spain 


R. de la Huerta. 


9* 


3 


ii 


Scotland . 


G. L. Harrison. 


.94 


2| 


3i 


Caucasus . 


. P. H. Thomas. 


91 


2* 


6i 


Scotland . 


. K. M. Chance. 


9 


,3 
2 4" 


2| 


Do. 


G. L. Denman. 



13 


6| 


H 


Germany . 


I2| 


->3 


44 


Austria 


12J 






Perthshire 


12. II 


6.12 


5-4 


Hungary . 


"ft 


4l 




Scotland . 


II 




4l 


Austria 


ioj 


34 


34 


Bohemia 


ioj 






Beaufort, Ross 


10 


2i 


44 


Ross-shire 


IO 


2| 


51 


Findrac . 


IO 


4 


3f 


Spain 


91 


2| 


40 


Bohemia . 


9l 


3i 


5 


Spain 


i 


Found dead. 




2 Recorded by 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha. 
. Lieut. -Col. J. Marriott. 

R. Moncrieff. 

Count Wenkheim. 

. Duke of Bedford. 

Duke of Ratibor. 

H.S.H. Prince Alexander of Thurn 
and Taxis, 
shire. . J. G. Millais. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

. E. C. P. Hull. 

. Jose de Irruele. 

H. S.H. Prince Alexander of Thurn 
and Taxis. 
. Abel Chapman. 

2 Recorded by J. G. Millais (British Deer and their Horns). 



94 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



MANCHURIAN ROEBUCK (Capreolus bedfordi). 

Rather larger than the European species, with the antlers small and 
slender, the winter coat less brown, and the cheek-teeth taller. 



Distribution. 



Length on 
outside 
curve. 

13! 

12 

"I 
10 j 

\o\ 
9i 



Circum- 
ference. 

4i 

ik 

31 
31 



-Manchuria and Shen-si ; the Kan-su roe has been 
separated as C. melanotis. 



Tip to 
Tip. 

n 

7 



Si 

5 

7i 



Locality. 

Mongolia 
W. Kan-su 
Shen-si 
W. Kan-su 

Do. 
S. of Minusinsk 



Owner. 

G. N. Atkinson. 

H. F. Wallace. 

K. K. Horn. 

G. Fenwick Owen. 

II. F. Wallace. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 




Head of Tien Shan Roebuck. 



The ASIATIC ROEBUCK (Capreolus pygargus). 

Paler and larger than the typical species, the height at shoulder 
being 30 to 34 inches ; the ears shorter and more hairy, the white rump- 
patch larger, and the antlers longer and more rugose with numerous 
knotted snags or " pearls." 



ASIATIC ROEBUCK 



95 



Distribution. — From the northern Caucasus, the Altai, and mountains 
of Turkestan to Eastern Siberia. The typical representative is 
the Altai roebuck. The Tien Shan race {C. p. tianshanicus) has 
antlers somewhat different in form and more branched. In one 
type of this race the antlers diverge widely, with 4 or 5 tines each, 
but in a second the divergence and the number of tines are less. 



Length on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


*i 7 f 


4 


124 


Tien Shan 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


17 


4l 


I2| 


Do. 


. Col. C. B. Wood. 


1 6i 


34 


8| 


Upper Yenisei Valley 


. J. Hamilton Leigh. 


*i6 


44 


16 


Tien Shan 


. R. F. Glyn. 


16 


41 


12 


? 


Viscount Powerscourt. 


iSl 


3S 


i6i 


Siberia 


Count Bobrinskoy. 


*i5l 


44 


134 


Tien Shan 


. J. V. Phelps. 


*i 5 f 


31 


12 


Do. 


. Capt. C. M. Threlfall. 


*i5f 


5 


95 


Do. 


. J. H. Miller. 


*i5i 


44 


1 84 


Do. 


. E. W. Dixon. 


'*i5h 


3* 


14 


Do. 


. Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 


*i5l 


34 


15 


Do. 


. P. F. Hadow. 


*i5l 


44 


i6§ 


Do. 


Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas 
Pennant. 


**5h 


5 


iif 


Do. 


. P. B. Vander Byl. 


i5i 


54 


8 


Siberia 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


isi 


34 


11 


Do. ... 


Major W. Anstruther Gray. 


*i5i 


44 


11 


Tien Shan 


Lord Osborne Beauclerk. 


*iSi 


4 


12 


Do. 


. T. P. Miller. 


15 


3* 


11 


Do. 


. C. H. Bury. 


*i S 


4 


104 


Do. . 


Prince Colloredo Mannsfeld. 


15 


3a 


15 


Altai 


Royal Scottish Museum. 


144 


•23 

3a 


154 


Do. ... 


. J. Hamilton Leigh. 


i4i 


4 


15 


Do. 


. Duke of Bedford. 


14* 


34 


I2g 


Tien Shan 


. B. Chew. 


Hi 


4 


IO 


Do. 


. Col. A. H. Hussey. 


Hh 


34 


i5i 


Do. 


. Major A. D. Greenhill Gardyne. 


*Hh 


3i 


i34 


Do. 


. W. R. Read. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



h i8A 

154 

ISA 



4^ 6| Tien Shan 

4§ 12J Siberia . 

1 Circumference of burr. - 



Carl Hagenbeck. 
J. C. Phillips. 
T. D. M. Cardeza. 
* Tien Shan race. 



9 6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 





'ik.. 



Skull and Antlers of Alaskan Elk. 
From a specimen in the possession of the Duke of Westminster. 



The ELK or MOOSE (Alces machlis). 

Elk are the largest members of the deer tribe, and distinguished 
by their ungainly form, long limbs, broad, produced, and flabby muzzle 
(all of which, except a small triangular patch below the nostrils, is 
covered with hair), the presence of a pendulous hairy organ (the so- 
called " bell ") on the throat of the males, and the form and position 
of the antlers in that sex. The latter are set on the skull with their 
bases at right angles to the middle line of the face, and have neither 
brow nor bez tines. Usually the antlers expand after a short distance 
into a broad palmation or " shovel," carrying a number of snags on the 
outer border. In young elk each antler is divided in a fork-like 
manner into a small front and a larger hind portion. The main hoofs 
are long and pointed, and the lateral pair large ; there is a gland and 
tuft of hair both on the hock and hind cannon-bone, the latter being 
situated high up. The tail is very short. From birth to old age 
elk are uniformly coloured ; the general tint of the hair, which is long, 
coarse, and somewhat brittle, varying from yellowish grey to deep 
blackish brown above, with the legs lighter, and being usually darker in 
the American than in the European race. The height varies from 5 feet 



ELK OR MOOSE 



97 



9 inches at the shoulder in Scandinavian examples to as much as 6 feet 
9 inches in the Alaskan race ; the weight from 900 to 1600 lbs., that of 
the antlers being from about 60 lbs. to 100 lbs. The antlers of American 
elk are more expanded and carry more points than European specimens. 
Elk inhabit the forests and marshy districts of Scandinavia, 
Eastern and Northern Russia, and the Altai ; and in America (where 
they are invariably known as moose) at the present time are found 
in Alaska, Montana, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. In some 
localities Scandinavian elk not unfrequently show little or no palma- 
tion of the antlers, and thus approximate to the East Siberian form. 
Elk appear to be nearly related to roebuck. 



Greatest 
width. 



741 

72 
70 
68 

671 

66 

66 

651 

65i 

64 

64 

63* 

63^ 

63 

63i 

62| 

62jj 

62 
591 
59i 
59 



Length to 

longest 

tine. 

44 

47i 
46 

47* 

43 

44 

42 

42 

44i 
47 
451 
45 

37 

49i 

46 

46£ 

3H 

48 

45 



.4.— AMERICAN and ALASKAN 
machlis americanus and A. m. 

Tip to Breadth r, • . T v. 

Tip. of palm. Polnts - Locahty. 



(A. 

Circum- 
ference 

above 

burr. 

12 



ELK 

gigas). 



Owner. 



45 



13! 15 + 13 Alaska 



9i 
9 
9 
11 



7\ 
8| 
io£ 
9 
7\ 
71 
8| 
74 
9l 
7 
7z 



yi\ i6£ 20+17 Do. 

42! 15 14+14 Do. 

44^ 13 14+H Do. 

48 15 15+12 Do. 

50 12 12+ 11 Do. 

42 19^ 19+17 E.Yukon 
52 ... 20+21 Alaska 

13+10 New Brunswick 

39! 14 14 + 20 Alaska 

40 13 16+16 Do. 

43 22 19+15 Do. 

41 15 15 + 13 Do. 

\6\ 16+15 Peace River 

39i x 5l 12+12 Yukon 

47 14J 16 + 8 Alaska . 

46 14 14+13 Quebec . 

35 21 18+16 Alaska 

40 13 9+10 Cassiar 

39J 17 14+ 11 Alaska 

37 \2\ 13 + 12 Do. 



Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 

Duke of Westminster. 

R. F. Glyn. 

Prince Nicolas Ghika. 

P. B. Vander Byl. 

Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 

F. C. Selous. 

Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 

F. II. Cook. 

Prince Nicolas Ghika. 

W. H. Welsh. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

David Davies. 

J. G. Millais. 

F. C. Selous. 

Capt. the Hon. F. E. Guest. 

Col. J. Caswell. 

Lord Elphinstone. 

P. N. Graham. 

W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 

Sir H. Lennard, Bart. 
H 



9 8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



ene-th to Circum- 
Greatest , ° ference Tip to Breadth 

width, above Tip. of palm. 



idth. 

58| 

sH 

57l 

57i 

57i 

571 

57i 

57 

57 

561 

56| 

56i 

56 

56 

55i 

55 

55 

54l 

54i 

54i 

z 78i 
2 77i 
75 
75 • 
74* 
74 
73i 
71* 
111 
7ik 
7i 
3 6 9 i 



tine. 
36| 

45 
431 

38 

36 

41 

35 

40h 

45 

41 

39i 

43 

38| 

41 

42I 

42| 

39! 

431 

36i 

40I 

42 



41 : 1 



49 



burr. 

6^ 

71 

6^ 

8 

6| 

8i 

61 

8 

Si 

8 

73 

7i 

71 

8 

8i 
81 

7 

8 

6| 

71 

7i 



10I 



91 

91 



361 
42 

35 

21I 

381 

35 

37 

35 

38 

43l 

37 

371 

30I 

33 

39 

361 

361 

40 

4ii 

35 
36 



Points. Locality. Owner. 

9 9 + 9 Cassiar . . Lord Osborne Beauclerk 

15! 14+14 New Brunswick E. C. Russell. 

Hi 

14 

12 

II 

1 I .', 



13 + 11 Do. 

18 + 15 Canada . 

12+ n Cassiar 

1 1 + 1 1 Maine 

10+10 Yukon 



13I 12+11 

i3i 10 + 9 
12 11 + 14 
14+ 1 1 



Maine 
Alaska 
Cassiar 



134 
II 

15 

12J 

13 

7* 



10+12 Cassiar 

15+ 11 Manitoba. 

16+14 Cassiar 
14+12 ? 

9 + 7 New Brunswick 

11 10 + 8 Cassiar . 

*7i 16+14 Alaska 

9 J 12+ 11 Cassiar 

13 9 + 9 New Brunswicl 

n§ 12+ 11 Alaska 



50 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS 
Yukon 



17+17 
23+19 



23 
16 

I7f 



24+14 
20 + 20 
18+16 
17! 18+16 
ioi 21 
26 



Alaska 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



1 Skull and antlers weighed 91 lbs. 



2 Weight of antlers an 



Lieut.-Col. W. H. Greenly. 
C. H. Akroyd. 
W. A. Conduitt. 
T. D. M. Cardeza. 
A. D. Pass. 
J. S. Braithwaite. 
Hon. J. Cunliffe- Lister. 
Major J. F. Church. 
Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 
C. H. Young. 
J. B. M. Thompson. 
R. L. Fenwick. 
Hon. M. Egerton. 
Major J. C. B. Statham. 
Col. L. Parry. 
L. Cadbury. 
J. S. Shepherd. 
A. C. Bell. 
Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 

Field Museum, Chicago. 

P. Niedieck. 

American National Collec- 
tion (Reed Collection). 
Canadian Pacific Collection. 

Chicago Academy of Science. 

American Museum of Natural 

History. 
C. F. Periolot. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

American National Collec- 
tion. 

Do. 

J. C. Phillips. 

H. C. Thompson. 

d skull, 77 lbs. ; no lower jaw. 



Height at shoulder, 6 ft. 8 in. ? ; skull and antlers, 68 lbs. ; estimated weight, 1700 lb 



AMERICAN AND ALASKAN ELKS 



99 



T eno-th r Circum- 
Greatest , e ■=> . ° ference Tip to Breadth _ . 

longest _,._„_ rr,f_ _ f _.i_ Points 



width. 
6 9 

682 
6Si 
67 

67 
66 

64i 



55 
49 

45* 

3§1 
47s 



above Tip. of palm 
burr. 

II ? 37 21 

II 36 



Locality. 
21 21 Alaska 

J 5i x 4+ r 4 Do. 
17 



Owner. 



. F. B. Tolhurst. 

. P. Niedieck. 

... ... 16 17 New Brunswick Dr. Munro. 

8J 4Si I2 18+ 11 Alaska . . F.T.Colby. 

23 Do. . . J. H. Whitehouse. 

9^ 44 14 28 New Brunswick S. Decatur. 

S§ 454 15^ 31 ? Grahamstown Museum. 



,5.— EUROPEAN ELK (A. machlis typicus). 
The Ural Elk has been distinguished as A. m. uralensis. 



Greatest 
width. 


i^engtn 

Ionges 

tine. 


48| 


3°i 


48 


3i 


48 


32 


471 


3°4 


146 


3°i 


444 


3oJ 


2 44 


3i| 


43l 


29 


43s 


32 


43k 


251 



Circum- 
, ° . ference Tip to Breadth _ . 
lol ?S eilt above Tip. of palm. P ™" ts - 
burr. 



52 


32 


7 


511 


33 


H 


49 






46 


3 2 h 


7h 


45 


3i 


7 


43i 


28J 


6 



44 
344 



Locality. 
5 4 + 4 Norway . 



3g 10 + 9 



Do. 



85 37l ill 10 + 9 Nr. St. Peters 

burg 

6| 32! 9 10+10 Norway 

61 43 iol 15 Do. 

7| 29-^ 10 9 + 8 Do. 

7i 35 io 4 11 +8 Stuttberg. 

7^ ... ioj 24 Norway . 

6 ... 9^ 7 + 8 Russia 

5i 35 3 6 + 6 Norway . 

OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS 

9 9 + 9 Norway 

36i I5i 10+10 Do. 

35 6 8 + 8 Sweden 

7l 33 XI 1 10+10 Do. 

28 ... 17 Do. 

33^ 11 12 + 10 Lithuania 



Owner. 

Capt. W. W. Pitt-Taylor. 

G. J. Van Heek. 

Prince E. Demidoff. 

D. W. Stobart. 

Abel Chapman. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collec- 
tion. 
O. Greaves. 

Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 

British Museum (Sir Edward 

Caley). 
F. H. Nye. 



H. J. Elwes. 

Capt. Gerard Ferrand. 

J. A. M'Mullen. 

Capt. Gerard Ferrand. 

S. Ratcliff. 

Prince Radziwill. 



1 Estimated weight, 1260 lbs. 



2 Estimated weight, 973 lbs. clean. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Antlers of East Siberian Elk, from the Hon. Walter Rothschild's specimen. 



C— EAST SIBERIAN ELK (A. machlis bedfordias). 

This race shows a marked tendency to absence of palmation in the 
antlers, which usually have four or five large tines on each side. 
Certain antlers from East Siberia are, however, distinctly palmated, 
but appear to differ somewhat in form from ordinary European 
specimens. 



t i Circum- 

Greatest . ° ference Tip to 
width. . • ° above Tip. 

tme - burr. 



42j 

37i 



3°i 
26I 

3i4 



7h 



Point?. 



Locality. 



28 


6 + 5 


Siberia 


37 


4 + 3 


Do. 


32 


5 + 4 


Do. 



Owner. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

British Museum. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



WHITE-TAILED DEER 




Head of White-tailed Deer. Shot by Mr. G. Graham-Clarke. 



The WHITE -TAILED DEER (Mazama [Odocoileus] virginiana). 



Exclusive of the wapiti, all the deer of America are distin- 
guished from those of the Old World, except elk and roebuck, 
by the structure of the bones of the feet, as they also are by the form 
of the antlers, which are either regularly forked or spike-like. In the 
white-tailed deer the antlers are large and complex, with a long 
sub-basal snag, and the front prong of the main fork developed at the 
expense of the hind one, and carrying a number of snags on its upper 
surface. Tail long. A gland-tuft on the hock, and a small cylindrical 
white one with a black centre near the lower end of the hind cannon- 
bone. Colour of upper-parts chestnut in summer and bluish grey in 
winter, with the under surface of the tail and the buttocks pure white. 
Typically from Eastern North America, where the height at the shoulder 
reaches to 3 feet 1 inch, but represented by numerous races in other 
parts of the continent, which gradually decrease in size and complexity 
of antlers towards the south, where they extend to Peru, Bolivia, and 
Guiana. Weight of a specimen of the typical race shot by Mr. Selous, 
12 st. 7 lbs. 

Mazama is the oldest name for the American deer, and may be 



102 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



employed if all are included in one genus. If they are split up, 
Mazama is the title for the brockets, while the white-tail and its allies 
may be called Odocoilens, a name originally based on a fossil tooth of 
the typical species. 



A.— NORTHERN RACES (M. virginiana typica, etc.). 

This typical race inhabits Virginia, its range including eastern 
N. America from Ontario and Maine to Florida, and westward to the 
Missouri. In Canada and New England it is replaced by the larger 
and greyer M. v. borealis ; and there are several other races in the 
States. 



Length 

on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














271 


51 


Single 
antler 




16 


N. America . 


British Museum. 


27i 


Si 


9k 


19 


8 + 6 


New Brunswick . 


G. Graham -Clarke. ( 

illustration. ) 


275 


4S 


Hi 


19 


6 + 6 


N. America . 


British Museum. 


26| 


4l 


9i 


20 


20 


Do. ... 


Major James Grant. 


26| 


51 


4l 


i7i 


13 + 13 


Ontario 


W. S. Browne. 


26 


41 


51 


18 


8 + 7 


Maine .... 


T. D. M. Cardeza. 


26 


4l 


9 


1 61 


6 + 6 


? 


C. A. Kitson. 


251 


4i 


9 


19 


11 


Maine .... 


H. S. Wellcome. 


25 


5 


"4 




6 + 10 


? 


British Museum. 


25 


5 


6§ 


19 


6 + 5 


E. Kootenay, B.C. 


Col. A. Charlesworth. 


242 


44 


I2§ 


iSi 


6 + 6 


? 


J. Carr Saunders. 


23! 


4i 


71 


i8i 


4 + 4 


New Brunswick 


W. H. Lindsay. 


23i 


4k 


6g 


17 


6 + 5 


Do. . . . 


Capt. E. C. Hamilton. 


23 


5 


5 


16 


6 + 6 


British Columbia . 


J. Turner-Turner. 


23 


4* 


14 


20J 


7 + 5 


Canada .... 


J. A. Douglas. 










OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 




32| 


6 


8 


20J 


17 + 15 


Michigan 


J. C. Phillips. 


29 


6 






18 + 24 


Maine . 


American National Col 
lection. 


27i 




184 




19 + 19 


Missouri 


Berlin Museum. 


25 


5i 


6| 


23 1 


10 + 9 


Michigan 


Wilson Potter. 


24 


6^ 


12 


16 


7 + 6 


Alberta 


N. J. Dinner). 


24 


4i 


1 i9* 




18 


Nebraska 


G. B. Grinnell. 


23I 


6 


12 


i6| 


5 + 4 


Wyoming 
1 Spread. 


Col. J. J. Harrison. 



(See 



WHITE-TAILED DEER 



103 




Head of Mexican White-tailed Deer in the Collection of 
"Major W. Anstruther Gray. 



£.— MEXICAN WHITE- TAIL (M. virginiana lichtensteini). 

This is one of the smaller races of the species, the height at the 
shoulder ranging from about 33 to 36 inches, and the antlers being 
usually smaller and simpler than in the northern race. 
Distribution. — Mexico. In Northern Mexico this race is represented 

by the Texan M. v. texana, and in the extreme south by M. v. 

tolteca, which does not turn red. The Central American specimens 

entered below belong to other races. 

Length 

on out- Circum- Tip to Widest t, ■ . T ■ .. n..,„„ 

side ference. Tip. inside. Pomts - Locality. Owner. 

curve. 



I3s 


3i 


6§ 


u| 


3 + 3 


Sonora . . . British Museum. 


i3i 


31 


7 


11* 


4 + 4 


Venezuela . . Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


n| 


3 


4i 


9i 


3 + 3 


Costa Rica . . Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


8i 


21 


4l 


6g 


3 + 4 


Mexico . . .Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 










OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 


1 81 




9^ 




5 + 4 


Sonora . . . J. C. Phillips. 


16I 


4i 




I4l 


4 + 4 


Rio-FrioMts., Mexico Pio Noriega. 


14 


3h 


9 






Sonora . . . Major W. Anstruther Gray. 



io4 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Mule- Deer. 



The MULE -DEER (Mazama [Odocoileus] hemionus). 

Antlers with a much shorter sub-basal snag than in the white- 
tailed deer, beyond which the beam is directed outwards for a short 
distance, and then curves upwards to form a regular fork, both prongs 
of which are usually equal, and generally subdivide so as to form five 
points on each side. Ears large and heavy ; tail short and small, 
naked below basally, with a black tip. Gland-tufts on hock and 
cannon-bone coloured like the leg ; the latter of these elongated and 
situated on the upper half of the cannon-bone. General colour of 
upper-parts yellowish tawny in summer, brownish or rufous speckled 
grey in winter, with a brown horse-shoe mark on the forehead. 
Height at the shoulder, 3 feet 3 or 4 inches in the typical form. 
Weight (exceptional), ly stone 2 lbs. (F. C. Selous). 

Distribution. — The greater part of North America westward of the 
Missouri, extending from British Columbia to California. There 
are several local races, among which the South Californian 
M. hemionus peninsulce is one of the smallest. 



MULE-DEER 



105 




Head of Mule-Deer from Colorado, in the possession of Mr. H. A. James. 



Length 
on out- 
side 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


34 


5 


18 


2I| 


I9 + l8 


Wyoming 


. J. G. Millais. 


3°§ 


55 


18I 


24i 


5 + 5 


? 


W. Moat. 


30 
28| 


51 
4i 


i3l 


41 

r 7 | 


17 
5 + 5 


White River, 

Colorado 
Wyoming 


II. A. James. 
Ford G. Barclay. 


28^ 


5 


i8| 


21 


6 + 4 


British Columbia 


. J. Mel. M'lver Campbel 


28! 






24i 




White River 


. Major Maitland Kirwan. 


28 


5 


20 


23i 


7 + 6 


Wyoming 


. J. Hall. 


28 


4i 


22^ 


24I 


6 + 6 


Do. 


. H. A. C. Darley. 


27I 


6 


1 Si 


i9± 


9 + 6 


British Columbia 


. G. Wrey. 


2 7h 


51 


Ml 


24i 


6 + 5 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


27i 


5 


Hi 


24S 


6 + 5 


Do. 


C. W. Janson. 


27! 


4i 


iSi 


26^ 


5 + 5 


North America 


. T. L. Fisher. 



io6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 



n out- 
side 
urve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


27 


5i 


x 94 


2l| 


6 + 5 


North America 


. Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


27 


si 


I9i 


22| 


5 + 5 


British Columbia 


. D. H. Crake. 


26| 


43 


I9l 


20j 


5 + 5 


Wyoming 


Ernest Farquhar. 


26J 


5 


iSl 


l8J 


6 + 5 


British Columbia 


T. P. Kempson. 


261 


51 




174 


12 


Wyoming 


Lord Rendlesham. 


26J 


6* 


i3i 


18 


5 + 4 


British Columbia 


. A. H. Goodall. 


26 


5 


154 


194 


4 + 4 


Do. 


. J. V. Colby. 


254 


4i 


I2| 


i6| 


5 + 5 


Sierra Nevada . 


P. Grace. 


25* 


54 




211 


8 


British Columbia 


. Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 


25i 


4* 


27 


29 


5 + 5 


Wyoming 


. Lieut.-Col. G.J. Fitzgerald. 


25i 


44 


19 


20 


5 + 5 


Do. 


. A. H. Pollen. 


25i 


5 


74 


i9i 


8 + 6 


? 


W. A. Warren. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



324 


6 


26! 


44s 


25 


B. Columbia 


. H. Whiting. 


32 


6 


26 




21 + 19 


Wyoming 


. C. R. F. Lutwidge 


3°i 


64 


i8i 


30 


12 + 11 


Alberta . 


N. J. Dinnen. 


294 


51 


25 


25i 


8 + 5 


Montana . 


. J. C. Phillips. 


29 


64 


294 




8 + 6 


Do. 


E. S. Cameron. 



BLACK-TAILED DEER 



107 



The BLACK-TAILED DEER (Mazama [Odocoileus] columbiana). 

Nearly allied to the mule-deer, but of inferior size, with relatively 
smaller ears and finer hair ; but specially characterised by the shorter 
gland and tuft on the hind cannon-bone, and the larger and longer 
tail, of which the upper surface is black and the lower mostly white. 

Distribution. — Western North America, from Alaska, British Columbia, 
and Vancouver to California. The Alaskan race {M. c. sitkensis) 
has the upper surface of the base of the tail coloured like the 
back ; in the Californian M. c. scdphiotus the general colour is 
paler and the ears are larger. 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 
















27 


Si 


13 


20f 


5+5 




? 


R. H. Venables Kyrke. 


i9i 


4i 


14 


l6J 


3 + 3 


S. 


California . 


. Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



22 


4i 




J 22 




Vancouver 


Clive Phillipps-Wolley. 


21 


5 


1 Si 


15 


5 + 5 


N. E. California 


. H. C. Nelson. 


20^; 


5 


17 


17 


5 + 7 


Do. 


A. E. Leatham. 


194 

16 


si 

33 


H 


21 

i4i 


5 + 5 
5 + 3 


? 
British Columbia 
1 Outside. 


Sir W. Gordon dimming, 

Bart. 
W. T. Hornaday. 



io8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Frontlet and Antlers of Marsh-Deer. 



The MARSH -DEER (Mazama [Blastoceros] dichotoma). 

Antlers without a sub-basal snag, forking regularly, with both 
prongs again dividing, and the upper one usually more complex than 
the lower. Ears large, with white hair internally. Hair long and 
coarse, reversed on the withers for a short distance. General colour of 
upper-parts bright rufous chestnut in summer, browner in winter ; legs 
black from the knees and hocks downward. No gland on hind cannon- 
bone. Size, approximately that of a red deer. Although ten is the 
usual number of points, sports are common. 

Distribution. — From Brazil to the inner wooded districts of Argentina. 



Length 

on out- Circum- Tip to Widest t> • 
side ference. Tip. inside. rolnts - 
curve. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



25 


S\ 


i8| 


2li 


5 + 4 


Paraguay 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


24^ 


5 


16 


18 


5 + 5 


Do. 


Admiral Sir William Kennedy. 


24i 


6^ 


21 


20j 


6 + 5 


N. Argentina 


. J. Todd. 


23! 


Si 


i5f 


i6i 


5 + 4 


Paraguay 


British Museum. 


23i 


6 




191 


12 


Do. 


. G. R. Stuart. 



MARSH-DEER 



109 



Length 
on out- 
side 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Points. 


Locality. 


curve. 












22§ 


51 


i7i 


i8| 


7 + 6 


Paraguay 


22§ 


6i 


20 


20J 


5 + 5 


Brazil 


22§ 


51 


25 




28 


Argentina 


22£ 


4* 


i8| 


1 8i 


4 + 3 


Do. 


21* 


5* 


22 


i6| 


6 + 6 


Paraguay 


211 


6 


131 




4 + 4 


Do. . 


2l£ 


5 


I2| 


16 


5 + 5 


Do. . 



Owner. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 

A. Vans-Agnew. 

G. L. Harrison. 

S. Pulley. 

H.R. H. the Due de Montpensier. 

Admiral Sir William Kennedy. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
25I 5 22J ... 6 + 7 Paraguay . . Dr. Albert von Stephani. 

22| 7^ ... 15I 6 + 6 Argentina . . Kenyon Slaney. 

22^ 6| 26 25 5 + 5 Do. . . Sir Edward G. Loder, Bart, 




Skull and Antlers of Chilian Guemal, shot in Patagonia 
by Mr. H. Hesketh Prichard. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The PAMPAS DEER (Mazama [Blastoceros] bezoartica). 

A small deer nearly allied to the last, but with the front prong of the 
antlers simple, and the hind one divided. A whorl in the hair on the 
middle of the back and another at the base of the neck, so that the hair 
of the withers is directed forwards for a considerable distance. Colour 
of upper-parts light reddish brown, under-parts and lower surface of tail 
white ; upper surface of latter black. Height at shoulder, 30 inches. 

Distribution. — -Brazil to Northern Patagonia, in open districts. 



:ngtn or 
outside 
curve. 


' Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Points. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


151 


3h 


5 


6 + 7 


Argentina 


Col. Heber Percy. 


14! 


2% 


i3i 


3 + 3 


Do. 


British Museum. 


I4l 


3 


rof 


3 + 3 


Do. 


E. M. Crosfield. 


i4i 


3 


11 


3 + 3 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


14 


4i 


"i 


3 + 3 


Paraguay . 


Admiral Sir William Kennedy. 


T->1 

l 3? 


42 


8 


3 + 3 


Do. . 


R. A. Cooper. 


13 


Z\ 


I2§ 


3 + 3 


? 


W. Livingstone-Learmonth. " 



The PERUVIAN GUEMAL (Mazama [Hippocamelus] antisiensis). 

Together with the closely allied Chilian guemal, this species 
constitutes a group of deer characterised by the antlers forming a 
single fork. There is no gland -tuft on the hind cannon-bone, the 
short tail is rather bushy, and the hair coarse and brittle. 



Owner. 

A. Y. Hardy. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
British Museum (H. Whitely). 
W. Buchanan Smith. 



Distribution. 


— Tl 


ie high Andes, 


Length 

on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality, 


curve. 








Ill 


43 


6 


Bolivia, 13,000 ft. 


IO 


3g 


8 


Ecuador 


9h 


71 


4l 


Tinta, South Peru 


85 


31 


5 


N. Argentina 



GUEMAL AND BROCKET 



The CHILIAN GrUEMAL (Mazama [Hippocamelus] bisulca). 

Distinguished from the last by its superior size (shoulder-height 
39^- inches) and more uniform colouring, as well as by several details 
connected with the latter. 

Distribution. — From the Chilian Andes to the plains of Patagonia. 



Length 



on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


tt3 


zl 


94 


\o\ 


3§ 


7* 


-11 


3 


4 


-4f 


i| 


4i 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Patagonia . . . . H. Hesketh Prichard. 

? British Museum. 

Chili J. C. Phillips. 

Do. . . . . - . American National Collection. 
- Owner's measurements. 



The WOOD -BROCKET (Mazama nemorivaga). 

The brockets are some of the smallest deer included in the genus 
Mazama, of which they are the typical representatives. They are 
recognisable by their simple spike -like antlers, the tufted crown of 
the head, and, in many, although not all, cases the radiation of the 
hair of the face from two whorls, which causes that on the nose to 
be directed downwards. The most widely distributed species is the 
red brocket (M. americana} or M. rufd), other species being the nearly 
allied M. zetta of Colombia and M. sheila of Venezuela, M. tenia of 
Guatemala, and the small M. simplicomis. The present species is 
distinguished by its small size (height at shoulder about 19 inches), 
its pale pepper-and-salt brownish or grey colour, the streak on the 
forehead, and the absence of a gland and tuft on the hock. 



Distribution. — Guiana, Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, and Trinidad. 



Length 



on 

front of 

horn. 


Girth. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


-4l 


?3 
04 


4 


Trinidad .... 


Dr. Percy Kendall. 


4l 


if 


2 


Do 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


-3 


2i 


2 


Do. .... 

- Owner's measurements. 


Dr. Albert von Stephani. 



1 In previous editions this name was applied to the white-tailed deer, a usage which has 
been recently shown to be inadmissible. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Musk-Deer. 



The MUSK-DEER, or KASTURA (Moschus moscMferus). 
She-lu, Chinese. Kashira, Kashmiri. 

From all living deer except the Chinese water-deer this species is 
distinguished by the absence of antlers, the function of which is dis- 
charged in the male by long upper tusks. The tail is rudimentary and the 
fur coarse and brittle, while the lateral hoofs are very large. The males 
have a glandular pouch which secretes the musk from which the species 
takes its name. Height at shoulder about 20 inches, at rump 22 inches. 
Distribution. — The forest-districts of the Himalaya as far west as Gilgit, 

at elevations of 8000 feet or more in summer, to Tibet, Siberia, 

Western China, Amurland, and Corea. 

Length of Tuslc T ,-. _ 

. -j .Locality. Owner, 

on outside curve. J wwuci. 

4 Kashmir Lieut.-Col. H. C. Tytler. 

exposed from gum 

3! Gurhwal Capt. G. W. Burton. 

3 Do. British Museum (Hume Collection). 

3 Amurland ...... British Museum. 

2\ Kashmir Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

4 Ta Chin lu M. Mitchell. 

3g Chitral Capt. J. T. H. Lane. 

1\ Do Dr. Albert von Stephani. 

3 Upper Kumaon Capt. K. Channer. 



GIRAFFE 



113 




Skull of Transvaal Giraffe. Presented to the British Museum 
by the late Mr. Rowland Ward. 



The GIRAFFE (Giraffa camelopardalis). 



IhuJila, Swazi. 
Indhlulamiti, Zulu. 
Tuthla, Basuto. 
Luomba ningo, Chilala. 
Intutiva, Chila. 



Ngabi, Mas a war a. 

Girt, or Halgiri, Somali. 

Kameel, Boer. 

Nyama marakiti, Asenga. 

Vakwnin deft, Hausa. 



Zaraff, Sudani. 

The long limbs and neck, the peculiarly formed head, and the 
blotched or netted hide, render giraffes distinguishable at a glance from 
all other living ruminants ; with none of which, except the okapi, 
they have any very close affinity, although their nearest relatives are 
the deer. So great is their distinctness that, with the okapi, they 
constitute a family by themselves — the Giraffidcs. One of the most 
marked peculiarities of the giraffes is to be found in the horns, of which 
the largest pair rise from the head between the ears, and are covered 
during life with skin. They are never shed ; and in the adult are 
immovably united to the bones of the skull, although separate in young 
animals. In addition to these, there is a more or less distinct third 
horn, or boss, situated on the forehead between the eyes, as well as 
a rudimentary pair at the back of the head, or occiput. Giraffes have 
a long, extensile tongue, hairy lips, and broad, low-crowned cheek- 

I 



ii4 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

teeth. There are no tusks in the upper jaw ; and in the outermost pair 
of lower front teeth the crown, as in the okapi, is double, or bilobed. 
Lateral hoofs are wanting. 

Among the local races of the species, the Nubian giraffe, G. c. 
typicus, is a pale-coloured animal with a large front horn and white 
legs ; and from this the Kordofan G. c. antiquorum differs by the smaller 
and more numerous spots on the upper part of the legs. The Baringo 
giraffe, G. c. rothschildi, is characterised by the black spots of the old 
bulls and the jagged markings of the cows ; and the Taposa G. c. cottoni 
is allied. The Nigerian G. c. peralta, the palest of all, is close to the 
Nubian. The Congo G. c. congoensis combines the presence of a third 
horn with fully spotted legs ; this being also the case with the Kilimanjaro 
G. c. tippelskirchi, in which the markings have an irregular star-like form 
and the legs are more or less spotted. The races with fully spotted 
legs and a more or less rudimentary front horn include the Angolan 
G. c. angolensis, the North Transvaal G. c. wardi, and the South African 
G. c. capensis. 

The SOMALI GIRAFFE (Giraffa reticulata) 

The Somali giraffe (for which the name netted giraffe would be 
appropriate, were it not that it has a double signification) may be 
described as a dull, liver-coloured animal with a coarse network of 
narrow white lines dividing the ground-colour into a number of large, 
irregularly quadrangular and sharply defined patches. The head and 
upper part of the neck are, however, spotted, while the ears and the 
legs from the knees and hocks downwards are white. 

Apparently this type of colouring is specially adapted for render- 
ing the animal inconspicuous when in covert. 



Estimated 

maximum 

height. 

ft. ins. ft. ins. 



.4.— NIGERIAN RACE (G. c. peralta). 

At shoulder. Locality. Owner. 



(J-16 4 no N. Nigeria .... The late Capt. G. B. Gosling. 

£.— EASTERN RACES (G. c. rothschildi, etc.) 



Estimated 

maximum 

height. 


At shoulder. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ft. ins. 


ft ins. 






19 3 




British East Africa . 


Col. J. Caswell. 


19 


12 O 


Do. 


. T. P. A. Holford. 


d -18 7 




South-east Africa 


F. Vaughan Kirby. 







GIRAFFE 


Estimated 

maximum 

height. 


At shoulder. 


Locality. 


ft. ins. 

<J-i8 6 


ft. ins. 


British East Africa . 


<J-i7 6 




Do. 


6-17 3 


IO II 


Do. 


6-17 3 




Do. 


(J -16 




East Central Africa . 


9-15 6 


Average height 


South-east Africa 


to 






16 
9-13 10 


8 9h 


British East Africa . 



115 

Owner. 

J. Hall. 

A. Vonwiller. 

British Museum (Major 
P. H. G. Powell-Cotton). 
Lady Hindlip. 

The late A. H. Neumann. 

F. Vaughan Kirby. 



British Museum (Major 
P. H. G. Powell-Cotton). 



C— SOUTHERN RACES (Gk c. capensis, etc.). 



Estimated 

maximum 

height. 


At shoulder. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ft. ins. 

c$-i8 4 


ft. ins. 


Angola .... 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


<J -18 
ct-17 


12 O 


South Africa 
W. Matabililand 


. . The late Sir W. Cornwallis 
Harris. 
. F. C. Selous. 


9-16 10 




North Kalahari . 

- Owner's measurements. 


. H. A. Bryden. 



n6 



RECORDS OF BJG GAME 




Head of Prongbuck. 



The PRONGBUCK or PRONG -HORN (Antilocapra americana). 

Although commonly termed an antelope, this ruminant differs from 
all the members of the Bovid<z by the forking of the horns. These are 
annually shed from their bony sheaths and replaced by a new pair, 
which commence to grow up beneath the old ones before they are cast 
off. In consequence of this, the species is generally regarded as repre- 
senting a family (Antilocapridce) by itself. Horns absent or rudimentary 
in the female. Ears long and pointed, tail short, and neck maned. 
General colour chestnut, with a white rump-patch, and white bars on 
the throat. Height at shoulder, 36 inches ; weight, 70 to 80 lbs. clean. 

Distribution. — Western North America, from British Columbia 

to Mexico. 



Length 

on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 




curve. 










1 51 


H 


51 




Wyoming 


i5f 


6i 


8S 




Do. 


i5i 


4i 


9\ 




Do. 



Locality. 



Owner. 

St. George Littledale. 
P. B. Vander By]. 
W. R. Cookson. 



PRONGBUCK 



117 



Length 

on Circum- Tip to Widest 



outside 


ference. 


Tip. 


curve. 






fSi 


6i 


n 


15 


51 


1 


is 


6 




15 


51 


5f 


15 


si 


71 


14I 


51 


12 


I4l 






I4l 


52 


Hi 


14* 


6 




!4l 


6f 


5i 


I4i 


6 


6 


I4i 


6 


2§ 


i4i 


7 


4i 


Hi 


Si 


51 


I4i 


51 


51 



Locality. 

? 

Wyoming . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

? 

Wyoming . 
Do. . 
Laramie Plains, Wyoming 
Wyoming . 



Alberta 



Wyoming . 
Do. . 



Owner. 

Col. Ralph Vivian. 

Sutton Timmis. 

H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 

St. George Littledale. 

Isaac Bell. 

C. F. Bengough. 

T. W. H. Clarke. 

British Museum. 

Ford G. Barclay. 

The late Lieut. -Col. Hon. 

W, Coke. 
F. I. Mitchell. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collec- 
tion. 
J. Mel. M'lver Campbell. 

Major A. J. Carstairs. 

Earl of Dartmouth. 



20 T V 


7i 


51 


17* 


64 




17 






17 




i7l 


161 


6i 




16 


61 




16 


51 


12 


15! 


6 


2I 


1 sh 


51 


2| 


i5i 


5f 


6'i 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



9 


N.W. Canada . 


20 

outside 


? 
Wyoming 


171 


L. California . 




N. Dakota 




Wyoming . 




Teton Mountains 




N.W. Territories 




Wyoming . 



Wilson Potter. 

J. Whitaker. 

The late Otho Shaw. 

J. G. Millais. 

J. C. Phillips. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

J. M. Geddes. 

Sir H. Lennard. 

N. J. Dinnen. 

Count E. Hoyos. 



n8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 





Horns of Bubal Hartebeest. From Sir Abe Bailey's specimen. 



The BUBAL HARTEBEEST (Bubalis boselaphus). 

This species commences the family of hollow-horned ruminants 
or Bovidcz, in which the horns are in the form of unbranched hollow 
sheaths supported on bony cores and carried permanently. The harte- 
beests are large antelopes with naked muzzles, abnormally long faces, 
doubly-curved horns, small apertures to the face-glands, large valvular 
nostrils (of which the lower rims are covered with stiff hairs), long, 
tufted tails, and large lateral hoofs. Both sexes are horned. The 
females have two teats. 

Typical hartebeests have a whorl of hair on the forehead, and the 
hair on the middle line of the face directed downwards below this till a 
short distance above the nose, where there is another whorl ; face- 
glands large. The present species is the smallest of the group, 
standing only 43 or 44 inches at the shoulder. It has a short pedicle 
supporting the horns, which are in the form of the letter U, and the 
colour is uniform tawny, with the tail-tuft black. 

Distribution. — North-west Africa (interior of Morocco, Algeria, 

and Tunisia). 

Owner. 
British Museum. 
. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
Sir Abe Bailey. 
British Museum. 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


151 


H 


Hi 


10 


i3i 


9i 


13! 


H 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


(,3 
71 


North Africa 


9 


Senegal 


91 


Tunisia 


7S 


North Africa 



WESTERN HARTEBEEST 



119 




Head of Western Hartebeest. 



WESTERN HARTEBEEST (Bubalis major). 
Kanki, Hausa. 

Apparently related to the preceding species, but larger, with more 
massive horns, which are more bent near the middle, and have long, 
smooth tips. Body uniform rufous fawn, varying from deep red 
almost to fawn-grey, face deep brown, the fore-legs streaked with dark 
brown or blackish from the knees downwards, and the tail-tuft black. 
Height at shoulder, from about 50 to 54 inches. 

Distribution. — Gambia, Nigeria, and interior of the 
Cameruns, Togoland, etc. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip 


Locality. 


Owner. 


26| 


I3l 


6i 


Nigeria . 


Capt. E. E. Williams. 


-26J 


I3S 


11 


Do. . 


Sergeant Lefanu. 


26 


I2| 


14! 


Do. . 


Lady Constance Stewart-Richardson 


2Sh 


Ilf 


12^ 


Do. . 


Capt. P. A. Clive. 


25i 


12^ 


Hf 


Gold Coast 


Dr. J. H. Collier. 


2Sh 


I2| 


IO 


Nigeria 


Capt. C. C. West. 


251 


I2l 


"i 


Do. . . " . 


R. J. Wolseley. 


25s 


I2| 


"i 


Yauri, Hausa States 


Major J. W. Carroll. 



Owner's measurements. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 




Owner. 


25i 


I2| 


I3l 


Near Borgu 


Capt. 


N. C. Welch. 


25 


II| 


IQi 


Benue Valley . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


25 


I2j 


\o\ 


N. Nigeria 


■ H.J. 


Vicat. 


25 


II| 


Si 


Gold Coast 


. Capt. 


Montray Read. 


25 


"i 


i6i 


Nigeria . 


. Capt. 


G. B. Scott. 


24! 


i3i 


H 


Do. . 


. Capt. 


H. T. G. Moore. 


24i 


"i 


I2f 


Do. . 


C. Francis. 


24i 


"I 


8| 


Do. . 


. Capt. 


S. B. B. Dyer. 


24* 


iai 


18 


Senegambia 


G. Fenwick-Owen. 


-24 


"4 


12 


Togoland 


Berlin 


Museum. 


24 


12 


51 


Nigeria . 


. The late Dr. W. H. Langley. 


24 


»4 


»i 


Do. . 


. K. V. 


Elphinstone. 


24 


12 


II 


Do. . 


. Capt. 


A. Noel Woods. 


24 


I2i 


6 


Do. . 


Capt. 


S. C. Peck. 


24 


"i 


84 


Do. . 


. G. F. 


Lobb. 


24 


124 


iii 


Do. . 


. Capt. 


W. T. Wilkinson. 


24 


11 


1 of 


Do. . 


. Capt. 


W. D. Wright. 


24 


124 


"I 


Do. . 


. c. s. 


Griffiths. 


23I 


124 


6| 


Do. . 


Capt. 


H. N. Kempthorne. 


23I 


12$ 


14I 


S. Nigeria 


. Capt. 


R. M. Heron. 


23I 


124 


11 


Nigeria . 


. Capt. 


G. C. Kelly. 


23S 


12 


71 


Gambia . 


G. Blaine. 


23§ 


12 


5i 


N. Nigeria 


. W. A 


. Judd. 


23i 


12 


9 


Nigeria . 


Major-Gen. P. S. Wilkinson. 


234 


12 


11 


Do. . 


. F. R. 


O'Neill. 


23i 


12 


4i 


Ashanti . 


C. Beddington. 


23i 


12 


134 


N. of Benue E 


iver . W. I 


. Broun. 


234 


"4 


4l 


N. Nigeria 


. Capt. 


D. H. Thorburn. 


234 


12 


10 


Do. 


. Major R. McDouall. 


*34 


10 \ 


Mi 


Do. 


. R. M 


. Borthwick. 


9 2I§ 


IO 


8 


Do. 


Major J. G. Browne. 


2l£ 


IOg 


"4 


Portuguese Gu 


inea . Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 



Owner's measurements. 



TOR A HARTEBEEST 




Head of Tora Hartebeest. 

TORA HARTEBEEST (Bubalis tora). 
Worobo y Abyssinian. Tora, Sudani. 

Horn-pedicle of medium length, the horns themselves in the form 
of an inverted bracket (■ — .— '). 



A. — TYPICAL RACE (Buhalis tora typica). 

Height at shoulder, from 50 to 54 inches. Colour uniformly pale 
tawny fulvous, with the exception of the tail-tuft and chin, which are 
black. Although of the same uniform colour, this species is easily 
distinguished from B. boselaphus by its superior size and differently 
shaped horns. Weight, from 300 to 400 lbs. 

Distribution. — Abyssinia and south and middle portion of Blue Nile. 
The Blue Nile B. t. rahatensis has the horn-tips markedly inclined 
inwards. 



Length 

on front 

curve. 

Z2\ 
22 

2\\ 
21 



Circum- 
ference. 



Tip to 
Tip. 



IOf 
i8f 



Locality. 

Sudan . 

Do. . 

Do. . 
Dinder Valley 



Owner. 

Carl Hagenbeck. 

Major Lord J. S. Cavendish. 

C. Bower Ismay. 

C. E. Russell. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 

on front 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


20| 


9i 


I4i 


Sudan . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


20j 


9i 


134 


Do 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


20§ 


10 


121 


Do 


Douglas M'Douall. 


20j 


91 


i6f 


Do 


Marquis Pizzardi. 


20j 


ioj 


I2| 


Dinder Valley 


Col. A. Colville. 


20\ 


\o\ 


17 


Sudan .... 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


20 


10I 


i6| 


Do 


Major H. H. S. Morant. 


20 


9§ 


i5l 


Do 


British Museum. 


20 


9i 


MS 


Lake Zuay, Abyssinia . 


Prince de Lucinge. 


i9i 


9i 


i3i 


Dinder Valley 


Major C. P. B. Wood. 


I9| 


9i 


Hi 


Do. 


Lord Villiers. 


I9l 


9 


i6| 


Dembelas, Abyssinia . 


British Museum. 


9i9l 


8 


15 


Setit Valley . 


H. Leney. 


I9l 


ioi 


I2f 


Abyssinia 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


i 9 i 


8| 


i7l 


Sudan . . . . 


Capt. J. C. Graham. 


iqJ 


9 


115 


Setit Valley . 


Countess of Sefton. 


I9i 


9 


"i 


Dinder Valley 


C. E. Oakley. 


I9i 


9i 


Hi 


Blue Nile . 


G. L. Harrison. 


9 19 


74 


i8i 


Setit Valley . 


Earl of Sefton. 



B.— KEILI RACE (Bubalis tora digglei). 

Horns intermediate between those of A and C; general colour 
dark fulvous, with a tinge of rufous. 

Distribution. — Keili northward along the Ofat River on 
Sudan Abyssinian frontier. 



Length ,,. 
on front p rcum " 
curve. ference - 

-2ll 
20^ 
20 
I9§ 



9t 

10 
10 



Tip to 
Tip. 



I2| 

II 

14 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Abyssinian Border of the W. H. Diggle. 
Sennar Province. 

Do. The Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



Blue Nile 



Hon. T. G. B. Morgan-Grenville. 



Abyssinian Border of the W. H. Diggle. 
Sennar Province. 



SIG OR S WAYNE'S HARTEBEEST 



123 




Head of Somali Hartebeest. Shot by Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 



C — SOMALI RACE (Bubalis tora swaynei). 



Sig; Somali. 



Korkei, Galla. 



Horns directed forwards and then inwards. Height at shoulder, 
about 47 inches ; weight, about 300 lbs. General colour deep 
rufous chocolate-brown, with white tips to the hairs ; face black, except 
the muzzle and a line between the eyes which, like the shoulders and 
upper part of fore-legs, as well as a patch on the upper part of the 
hind-legs, are black. 

Distribution. — Interior of Somaliland and Shoa ; in Somaliland on the 
dry plateau known as the Hand. The East Somali B. s. noacki 
is redder, with the face-mark inconspicuous and less defined. 



Length on 
"ront curve. 


Circumference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


io\ 


85 


26| 


Somaliland 


. Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 


19! 


9 


27 




Do. 


. C. Bulpett. 


*9l 


91 


22^ 




Do. 


G. H. Cheetham. 


i9i 


ioi 


29 




Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


-i9i 




24i 


N. 


Somaliland 


J. Menges. 



124 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



ngtn on 
it curve. 


Circumference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


I9i 




l6i 


Somaliland . 


D. D. Haskard. 


194 


10 


2l| 


Do. ' . 


H. A. Bryden. 


19 


IO 


23i 


N. Somaliland 


A. E. Butter. 


19 


9i 


1 i8J 


Do. . 


Capt. M. M'Neill. 


i8| 


9l 


21 


Do. 


Capt. R. M. Backhouse. 


i8| 


9 


2ii 


Somaliland . 


Major R. P. Cobbold. 


1 Si 
18I 


10 
9i 


19 
19 


Do. 
Do. 


Capt. F. L. Livingstone- 

Learmonth. 
J. R. Luchsinger. 


18J 


9i 


16 


Do. 


Ford G. Barclay. 


i8£ 


9i 


i9i 


Do. 


Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 


i8| 


8S 


18 


Do. 


Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 


18* 


ioi 


22i 


Do. 


T. Morse. 


i8| 


9 


171 


Do. 


Norman B. Smith. 


18 


81 


1 of 


Do. 


Count J. Potocki. 


18 


94 


20 


Do. 


W. F. Whitehouse. 


18 


9 


22 


Do. 


Major B. R. M. Glossop. 


T 72 

i 7't 


11 


17 


Gallaland . 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 


nl 


10 


211 


Somaliland . 


E. Lee Townshend. 


171 


10 


20 


Do. 


Digby Davies. 


-i7i 


91 


19 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


I7i 


9 


i8| 


Abyssinia . 


I. Buxton. 


i5i 


7 


"4 


Gallaland . 
Owner's measuremer 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 

ts. 



K0NG0N1 OR COKE'S HARTEBEEST 



125 




Head of Konsjoni. 



The KONGONI or COKE'S HARTEBEEST (Bubalis cokei). 

Horn-pedicle moderate ; horns bracket-shaped, very short and thick. 
Height at shoulder, 48 or 49 inches. Weight, about 300 lbs. General 
colour uniform bright fawn, with the lower lip somewhat browner, and 
the lower part of the rump paler ; tail long, with the black tuft ascend- 
ing some way up the hind surface. Two local races, B. c. rotksckildi, 
from the district north of Lake Rudolf, and B. c. kongoni, from the 
Guaso-nyero, have been named, while the Nakuru hartebeest may 
represent a third race, B. c. nakurce. 

Distribution. — Eastern Africa, from Usagara northwards to 
Kilimanjaro, Masailand, and north of Lake Rudolf. 



Length on 
front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


21 


9 


135 


East Africa 




. Capt. M. L. Pears. 


-20f 






Do. 




Sir Abe Bailey. 


20 


9\ 


Hi 


Do. 




. Col. J. Caswell. 


20 


9 


I3i 


Do. 




. Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


19! 


10! 


16 


Do. 




. Major the Hon. W. G. Cadogan 


19! 


9S 


11k 


Do. 




. Capt. C. Brook. 


195 


10 $ 


i3i 


Do. 




. Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


I9l 


ioj 


I2i 


Do. 

- Owner 


s measurements. 


C. W. Turner. 



126 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



^ength on 
front 
curve. 


Circum- T 
ference. 


p to 

rip. 


Locality 






Owner. 


194 


10J 


[ 3 


East Africa 


The Master of Belhaven. 


i9i 


IO 


<8f 


Do. 








. J. Gardiner Muir. 


i9i 


IO 


[ 7 | 


Do. 








Major J. A. Hannyngton. 


i9i 


IO} 


ioi 


Do. 








. Major P. II. G. Powell-Cotton 


1 91 


9§ 


[6 


Do. 








Lieut. -Col. E. G. Harrison. 


19 


10 


54 


Do. 








A. Vonwiller. 


19 


92 


5 


Do. 








Major C. E. D. Bud worth. 


19 


91 


i4 


Do. 








Dr. Welsh. 


19 


9S 


[24 


Do. 








Marquis of Tweeddale. 


19 


94 


74 


Do. 








. C. Frick. 


19 


ioi 


[2 


Do. 








W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 


19 


9i 1 


6 


Do. 








Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


19 


91 


5 


Do. 








R. J. Cuninghame. 


19 


9 J 


5i 


Do. 








F. W. Belt. 


19 


9i 


6 


Do. 








J. Anstruther. 


i8| 


10 : 


20 


Do. 








R. L. Scott. 


iSf 


94 


44 


Do. 








C. B. C. Storey. 


i85 


IO ] 


41 


Do. 








H. Sampson. 


iSf 


IO| 


2| 


Do. 








A. G. Murray Smith. 


i8| 


ioj i 


2^ 


Do. 








Duke of Alba. 


i8| 


IO ] 


°2 


Do. 








C. C. Wilson. 


i8| 


IO ] 


14 


Do. 








Dr. A. E. Herz. 


iSf 


IOj ] 


9 


Do. 








II. Fowler. 


i8| 


81 i 


64 


Do. 








Sir F. J. Jackson. 


184 


\o\ ] 


44 


Do. 








British Museum. 


i8i 


9i 


3 


Do. 








W. G. Niven. 


1 8i 


10 


2| 


Do. 








J. G. Millais. 


i8i 


91 1 


54 


Do. 








H. G. Watson. 


i8i 


10 


3 


Do. 








Prince de Caraman Chimay. 


i8i 


9i 1 


6f 


Do. 








Major A. Leslie Renton. 


18I 


ioi 


5 


Do. 








Lieut. S. R. Bailey, R.N. 


184 


10J 


3 


Do. 








Duke of Sutherland. 


184 


94 1 


6 


Do. 








J. Leslie. 


i8i 


ioi 


74 


Do. 








Capt. J. A. Morrison. 


?i6i 


7i 1 


41 


Do. 








E. H. Litchfield. 



The two following specimens represent B. c. nakura 



Length on 
front 
curve. 



194 
194 



Circum- 
ference. 

IOi 
IOi 



Tip to 
Tip. 

134 
Hi 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Lake Nakuru 
Do. 



Capt. E. Sartorius. 
H. W. Seton-Karr. 



HYBRID HARTEBEEST 



127 



The following East African heads belong to the type regarded — 
together with the Nakuru hartebeest — by Dr. O. Neumann as hybrids 



Owner. 

A. J. A. Douglas. 

W. W. Ashley. 

Hon. Guy Wilson. 

G. C. Slacke. 

C. J. Blackburne Maze. 

C. Mitchell. 

Guy Fenwick. 

S. Milsom. 

Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 

Lieut. -Col. the Hon. W. A. W. Lawson. 

W. P. J. Fawcus. 

Sir Richard Dane. 

Capt. M. A. Black. 

S. E. Milsom. 

W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 

N. C. Cockburn. 

The Master of Belhaven. 

Major L. H. R. Pope-Hennessy. 

H. Clarkson Williams. 

I. Barrington White. 

Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas 

Pennant. 
R. J. L. Ogilby. 

Percy C. Madeira. 

A. de L. Long. 

Major H. B. Dalgety. 

Major G. A. Swinton Home. 

Col. J. E. Gough. 

Sir F. J. Jackson. 

J. Todd. 

Maharaja of Datia. 

Capt. J. W. H. D. Tyndall. 

Sir F. J. Jackson. 



betweei 


1 cokei 


and 


lelwel jacksoni : — 


Length on 
front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


22 


10J 


ni 


East Africa . 


214 


II 


92 


Do. . '. 


2l\ 


II 


124 


Do. 


21* 


IOj 


16 


Do. 


2lJ 


"4 


18I 


Do. 


21* 


II 


2l£ 


Do. 


2ii 


12 


12 


Do. ... 


«i 


"1 


104 


Do. 


21 


1 of 


94 


Do. 


21 


9§ 


ni 


Do. 


21 


"S 


11 


Do. 


21 


91 


9l 


Do. 


21 


1 of 


104 


Do. 


20| 


JOf 


8i 


Do. 


20\ 


11 


III 


Do. 


20j 


10J 


15 


Do. 


20| 


10J 


15s 


Do. 


20j 


io| 


ioj 


Do. 


20^ 


104 


Hi 


Do. . 


20j 


12 


12 


Do. 


20 


IO| 


14 


Do. 


20 


lOf 


Ili 


Do. 


I9f 


II 


1 of 


Do. 


i9i 


III 


«i 


Do. 


i9i 


Hi 


8| 


Do. 


i9i 


114 


74 


Do. 


i9i 


II 


i34 


Do. 


i9i 


IOf 


i3i 


Do. 


i9i 


10 


III 


Do. 


194 


104 


94 


Do. 


i9i 


II 


III 


Do. 


? 18 


84 


1 of 


Do. 



128 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Neumann's Hartebeest. 



NEUMANN'S HARTEBEEST (Bubalis neumanni). 

In this species, which may be merely a race of B. cokei, the horns 
are to a considerable degree intermediate between those of the tora- 
cokei and those of the lelwel-cama group. 

Colour of hair fulvous fawn, much richer on the back, where there 
are also some darker spots, which may be stains or natural ; below 
very much paler. Chin blackish; tip of tail black. Male brighter 
and darker in colour than the female. There are also on the back 
some patches with longer, thicker, almost whitish-buff" hair, perhaps 
remains of the winter fur. Height at shoulder, from 48 to 50 inches. 

Distribution. — East Africa, in the neighbourhood of Lake Rudolf. 



Length on 
front 



i6i 



9 131 



Circum- 
ference. 



n 



Tip to 
Tip. 



9i 



Locality. Owner. 

N.E. of Lake Rudolf . A. H. Neumann. 
E. shore of Lake Rudolf Do. 



LELWEL HARTEBEEST 



129 




»# 



Skull and Horns of Jackson's Lelwel Hartebeest. 

The LELWEL HARTEBEEST (Bubalis lelwel). 

Mangazi, Waganda. Teital, Sudani. 

Related to the preceding, but the general colour uniformly rufous 
tawny, and the horns less abruptly bent. In the typical race the horns 
incline slightly outwards at the tips, and the lower part of the legs 
have some dark markings. In the Baringo or Jackson's race, B. I. 
jacksoni, the legs are coloured like the back, uniformly foxy red. B. I. 
niediecki of the White Nile differs by the parallel or inward direction 
of the horn-tips. B. I. insignis of the Albert Nyanza district has a 
black dorsal stripe and two small dark patches on the face, and dark 
markings on the lower part of the legs. Weight, about 450 lbs. 
Height at shoulder, about 52 inches. 

Distribution. — Typically from the Bahr-el-Ghazal, Upper Nubia, and 
Kordofan ; represented in the interior of British East Africa, 
north of Lake Baringo, and Uganda, by B. I. jacksoni, to which 
many of the undermentioned specimens belong. 



Length 



Circum- Tip to 



front 

curve. 


ference. 


Tip. 




-Locality. 


26 


"I 


I4l 


E. 


Africa 


-25S 


Hi 


9i 


Nr 


. Gondokoro 


251 


III 


14 


E. 


Africa 


25i 


I2 h 


71 




Do. 


25i 


ni 


n| 




Do. 


25i 


11 


i 4 h 




Do. 


25 


I2i 


I2| 




Do. 



Owner. 

E. H. Litchfield. 

Capt. E. T. W. McCausIand. 
Capt. H. C. Hart. 
A. Saunderson. 

F. C. Selous. 

W. N. McMillan. 
Duke of Medinaceli. 



Owner's measurements. 



K 



130 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 



on 
front 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 










25 


10$ 


IO| 


White Nile . 


. Duke of Alba. 


25 


Hi 


8 


Sudan . 


Sir Kenneth Crossley. 


25 


121 


ui 


Uganda 


. Douglas M'Douall. 


25 


12 


IO| 


Do. 


Major A. W. Jennings Bramly. 


24! 


12 


I4i 


Do. 


Capt. V. C. de Crespigny. 


24! 


Hi 


13! 


Kordofan 


. C. E. Lyall. 


24l 


"4 


"i 


Sudan 


. J. V. Colby. 


24! 


ni 


91 


East Africa . 


Sutton Timmis. 


24g 


n§ 


8 


Uganda 


. Capt. R. H. Leeke. 


2 42 


I2| 


74 


East Africa . 


. A. de Rothschild. 


2 42 


IO| 


ioi 


Do. 


. Col. R. Bright. 


24* 


«J 


i8J 


Do. 


C. Bower Ismay. 


24i 


12 


82 


Do. 


O. Mosley. 


24i 


12 


10 


Sudan . 


. R. H. Willan. 


24i 


II 


io| 


East Africa . 


A. Vonwiller. 


24 


12 


84 


Do. 


. Duke of Alba. 


24 


III 


ioi 


Do. 


G. Henry. 


24 


ni 


9 


Do. 


Capt. H. C. S. Ashton. 


23I 


log 


12 


Do. 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


23f 


1 of 


6 


White Nile . 


Capt. A. H. Vivian. 


23S 


n| 


"1 


Do. 


Earl of Sefton. 


23I 


11 


I2i 


East Africa . 


B. Dominick. 


23I 


12 


I if 


Do. 


F. Santos Saurez. 


23! 


ni 


7i 


Do. 


. Col. Max. C. Fleischmann. 


23S 


12* 


8§ 


Do. 


. J. Leslie. 


23I 


I2i 


9i 


Do. 


Sir J. Hume Campbell, Bart. 


23i 


II 


i3i 


Kordofan 


Capt. H. S. Hearn. 


23* 


I2| 


IO| 


East Africa . 


. Major H. B. Dalgety. 


234 


"1 


"4 


Uganda 


Capt. P. Garrard. 


23I 


12 


5§ 


East Africa . 


R. J. Cuninghame. 


234 


«'i 


71 


Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


23i 


"i 


ni 


Do. 


Col. Stephenson R. Clarke. 


23i 


"i 


IO^ 


Do. 


H. Sampson. 


23i 


12 


84 


Do. 


Mrs. Percy C. Madeira. 


23 i 


"1 


74 


Uganda . 


Miss C. Buxton. 


23i 


11 


7 


Do. . 


Dr. J. 0. Shircore. 


23i 


«i 


io£ 


East Africa 


Capt. P. Chapman. 


23i 


12 


74 


Do. 


. A. Fowler. 


$ 22 


8i 


6£ 


White Nile . 


. Col. St. G. Henry. 


? 21 


IO| 


"i 


Uganda 


. Dr. A. Paget. 


20| 


ioi 


i3i 


Blue Nile 


Capt. E. S. Stephenson. 


20 


10 


ii| 


Do. 


. Capt. J. A. Pollock. 


20 


9i 


ioi 


Do. 


. Capt. N. A. Orr-Ewing. 



CAM A OR CAPE HARTEBEEST 131 




Head of Cape Hartebeest. Shot by Mr. R. Bosworth-Smith. 

The CAMA or CAPE HARTEBEEST (Bubalis cama). 
Kama, Bechuana. Ingama, Makalaka. 

Horn-pedicle greatly elongated ; horns very sharply bent, and form- 
ing a letter V when viewed from the front. Height at shoulder, from 
48 to 54 inches. General colour reddish brown, darker than in any of the 
preceding ; face (except between the eyes), back of neck, chin, shoulders, 
thighs, and tail black or blackish ; lower portion of buttocks with a 
conspicuous whitish or yellowish blaze. The typical southern form is 
extinct, and the name B. cama selbornei has been proposed for the race 
found north of the Orange River, as typified by the Kimberley herd. 

Distribution. — Africa southwards of the Limpopo, but extending 
farther northwards along the confines of the Kalahari desert. This 
species (the rooi hartebeest) is now nearly exterminated in the Cape, 
but a few still linger in the old Bushman country in the north-west 
of Cape Colony. Although practically exterminated in the Orange 
River Colony and in most of the Transvaal (except to the north- 
west), numbers are to be found in the plains and open forest of 
British Bechuanaland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Basutoland, 
and in farms near Kimberley and Mafeking. In the North Kalahari 
and the desert-regions about the Botletli River big troops are to 
be met with. In Basutoland these hartebeests live in mountainous 
country, at a high elevation, where there is a heavy snowfall in 
winter. 



132 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


26 


I2J 


254 


I2i 


25 


II 


24l 


\o\ 


242 


12 


245 


12 


24i 


\2\ 


23! 


IO 


23! 


II 


23* 


"1 


23i 


Hi 


23i 


12 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


I3l 


Orange River Colony 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


"i 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


10 


Do. 


C. Rube. 


9s 


? 


R. T. Coryndon. 


11 


Near Boshof, O.R.C. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


9i 


South Africa . 


C. D. Rudd. 


10 


Ngamiland 


F. T. Garbutt. 


8| 


Do. 


British Museum (Sir Andrew Smith) 


5S 


? 


J. C. Phillips. 


ioi 


Kamaland 


F. C. Selous. 


"1 


Bechuanaland . 


G. L. Harrison. 


84 


? 


N. H. Barton. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



26 


II| 


13 


Natal 


C. S. Mann. 


25S 


12 


4 


Orange River Colony 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


25 


«i 


io| 


Do. 


Capt. W. Jardine. 


24I 


11 


7 


Nata River 


American National Collection. 


24§ 


»l 


"4 


? 


B. Senior. 


245 


1 if 


12 


Damaraland . 


Berlin Museum. 


24I 


roj 


9:ro 


Do. 


Th. Rehbock. 


24I 


11 


i7i 


? 


P. C. Keytel. 


24J 


11 


71 


Orange River Colony 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


24 


ioj 


H 


Griqualand 


A. F. Williams. 


22 


"i 


14 J 


Basutoland 


R. Bosworth-Smith. 


?2I| 


84 


134 


Orange River Colony 


Sir Abe Bailey. 



LICHTENSTEIN'S HARTEBEEST 



i33 




Head of Lichtenstein's Hartebeest. 



The KONZI, or LICHTENSTEIN'S HARTEBEEST (Bubalis lichtensteini). 



Inkulando, Mashona. 
Kokotombwi, Barotsi. 



Konzi, Chila, Chilala, and 
Chibisa. 



Konshi, Chinyanja. 



Horn-pedicle very short and broad, and the horns themselves much 
flattened and curved inwards towards one another below the terminal 
backward inclination. Height at shoulder, 50 to 52 inches; weight, 
about 300 lbs. General colour tawny fulvous, becoming more rufous 
along the back, with the chin, tail-tuft, and front of cannon-bones black. 

Distribution. — East Africa north of the Sabi River, including Nyasaland, 
Mozambique, German East Africa to Usagara, and N.E. and 
N.W. Rhodesia. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


■2.2\ 


"1 


15 


Barotsiland 


T. G. Davey. 


22\ 


I2| 


20 


B.C. Africa 


Sir Alfred Sharpe 


2\\ 


I2J 


9 


E. of Tanganyika 


0. L. Berringer. 


211 


\2\ 


9 


Batoka Plateau, Northern 
Rhodesia 


F. Smitheman. 


2I| 


13! 


4 


N.E. Rhodesia. 


F. H. Melland. 


2ii 


14 


"I 


Chambesi Valley 


L. Harger. 


2li 


I2| 


8| 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Capt. P. R. Bald. 



134 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


214 


I2j 


5i 


2li 


iog 


9i 


21 


I2| 


4S 


21 


13 


I3l 


21 


II| 


4i 


21 


13 


8i 


21 


134 


ioi 


20§ 


13 


i3i 


20| 


II| 


9§ 


•20f 


II 


73 


20| 


I2| 


ioi 


20| 


13 


Si 


20| 


II| 


6| 


20| 


12 


41 


20j 


13 


9i 


20j 


"4 


17 


2.0\ 


I2i 


3i 


2Cl£ 


14 


7 


20\ 


131 


61 


20 


13 


5S 


20 


124 


84 


20 


I2i 


51 


20 


13 


6 


I9l 


1 31 


74 


19I 


I2| 


9l 


19I 


13 


74 


19I 


I2| 


6i 


19I 


134 


7i 


5i5 


H 


aI 



Locality. 
? 
N.W. Rhodesia 
N. E. Rhodesia . 
N.W. Rhodesia 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
N.E. Rhodesia . 
N.W. Rhodesia 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
N.E. Rhodesia. 
N.W. Rhodesia 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
N.E. Rhodesia. 
N.W. Rhodesia 

Do. 
N.E. Rhodesia . 

Do. 

Do. . 

Sabi Valley, Mashonaland , 



Owner. 

L. A. Wallace. 

Lieut. -Col. H. W. Wilberforce. 

Col. C. F. Blane. 

A. de L. Long. 

P. K. Glazebrook. 

G. F. Watherston. 

Dr. W. D. Waterhouse. 

G. L. Harrison. 

Hon. M. W. Elphinstone. 

T. D. M. Cardeza. 

J. H. Leche. 

Lady Scott. 

A. Willis. 

Capt. J. Harington. 

Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 
W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 

A. W. Griffin. 

R. Hayne. 

Lieut. -Col. R. W. R. Barnes. 

Capt. F. C. L. Grieve. 

Capt. H. L. Archer-Houblon. 

A. C. Brandon. 

R. D. Waterhouse. 

Hon. Guy Wilson. 

Eastman Bell. 

Earl of Kingston. 

Hon. W. Guinness. 

A. Dickinson. 

British Museum (F. C. Selous). 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
23 13 74 ? Major H. Chamney. 

22g 1 1 7| ? Mr. Justice Hopley. 



HUNTER'S HARTEBEEST 



i3S 




Head of Hunter's Hartebeest (Female). 



The HIROLA, or HUNTER'S HARTEBEEST (Damaliscus hunteri). 



Aroli, Somali. 



Blanketla, Galla. 



With this species we come to a group of antelopes closely allied to 
the true hartebeests, but with the frontal region not elevated into 
a horn-pedicle, and the horns themselves forming in most cases a 
lyrate or simple curve, and the face of medium length. The hair of 
the face is directed uniformly upwards ; there is a transverse fold 
of skin, underlain by fat, immediately behind the horns. In the 
present species the slender horns are indeed doubly curved, although 
without the sudden angulation of the true hartebeests. They slant 
upwards and outwards, and then bend downwards, after which the 
long points are directed upwards. Colour uniform rufous, with a 
chevron on the face, the inner surface of the ears, and the tail-tuft 
white. Height at shoulders, about 48 inches ; build light and graceful. 

Distribution. — Southern Somaliland (Jubaland) to north bank 

of Tana River. 



136 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length. 

On front c . • ■ . 
Straight, 
curve. B 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


26| 22^ 


sg 


ioi 


Joreh 


I. N. Dracopoli. 


26| 


8k 


Mi 


Jubaland 


British Museum. 


26^ 22 


84 


I2i 


Tana Valley . 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart 


26 22^ 


84 


IS* 


Do. 


. G. Blaine. 


-25 22j 


8 


12 


Jubaland 


Col. E. G. Harrison. 


24s 


8* 


151 


Tana Valley . 


. H. C. V. Hunter. 


24§ 2l£ 


8| 


9f 


Do. 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart 


-?2l£ I9| 


55 


11 


Jubaland 


Col. E. G. Harrison. 


? 20§ l8 


6 


i5i 


Tana Valley . 


G. Blaine. 


20| 


51 


85 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


195 I7l 


51 


10 


Joreh 
- Owner's measurements. 


I. N. Dracopoli. 




Hunter's Hartebeest. Shot by Mr. I. N. Dracopoli. 



KORRIGUM, TIAJVG, OR TOPI 137 




Head of Korrigum. Shot by G. Blaine. 

KORRIGUM, TIANG, or TOPI (Damaliscus corrigum). 

Korrigum, Bornow. Devvi, Hausa. 

Horns with a single slightly lyrate curve. Size large. General 
colour reddish with a blackish blaze on the face and usually similar 
patches on the upper part of the fore-limbs, hips, and thighs, which 
extend in the form of a garter on the inside of the limbs above the 
knees and hocks. Tail-tuft black. Face-blaze usually black, but 
buffish or white in the guasingishu (D. c. phallius). 

A.— TYPICAL KORRIGUM or SENEGAL HARTEBEEST 

(D. corrigum typicus). 

In this race the black markings are strongly pronounced, and a 
streak is given off from the face-blaze to run upwards and outwards 
below the eye. The lower parts of the legs appear to be coloured like 
the body. 

Distribution. — Senesrambia and the interior of West Africa. 



138 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip 


Locality. 


Owner. 


-23£ 


1 of 


4l 


N. Nigeria 


. Capt. C. F. Watson. 


-26| 


94 


i5i 


Senegambia . 


Imperial Museum, Vienna. 


26^ 


9i 


Si 


Lake Chad 


. Major D. F. MacCarthy Morrogh. 


-251 


10 


8 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


"25i 


9i 


14 


Gambia . 


. Capt. W. B. Stanley. 


24i 


10 


6f 


Lake Chad 


. A. L. Ross. 


24J 


94 


4i 


N. Nigeria 


Capt. L. C. Brodie. 


24S 


9 


9 


Nigeria . 


Capt. A. B. Baillie-Hamilton. 


24S 


IO| 


7 


Benue 


. Capt. E. J. Wolseley. 


24i 


9l 


91 


Gambia . 


G. Blaine. 


-24I 


10J 


9 


? 


J. C. Phillips. 


24§ 


9l 


4S 


Lake Chad 


Major J. B. Cockburn. 


244 


94 


lOf 


Do. 


Capt. P. Chapman. 


?24i 


7 


31 


Do. 


. Major D. F. MacCarthy Morrogh. 


24i 


ioi 


i3i 


N. Nigeria 


. Dr. G. J. Pirie. 


24i 


10 


10 


Do. 


P. E. Bradney. 


24 


91 


6 


Lake Chad 


Capt. L. C. Jackson. 


24 


10 


5 


N. Nigeria 


Major T. Astley Cubitt. 


24 


9 


9 


Lake Chad 


Sir F. Lugard. 


23! 


94 


9i 


Do. 


Major E. J. Lugard. 


23! 


9i 


71 


Nigeria . 


. W. F. Gowers. 


23I 


10 


8 


Lake Chad 


. Capt. S. B. B. Dyer. 


23I 


9l 


12 


Do. 


. C. S. Burnett. 


23I 


9i 


134 


N. Nigeria 


. Capt. C. C. West. 


23I 


104 


13' 


Do. 


Capt. G. Bonham-Carter. 


9 2lf 


6| 


5i 


Do. 


. II. Maynard. 



Owner's measurements. 



TIANG 



i39 




Skull and Horns of Tiang. 



B. — TIANG (D. corrigum tiang). 

Tiang, Dinka. 

The East African representative of the korrigum, from which it 
differs by the larger area of black on the inside of the limbs, and 
the tan colour of their lower portion. The tiang of the Mau Plateau, 
B.E.A. {D. c. selousi) is distinguished by the bright chestnut colour of the 
muzzle and of the area round the eye above the dark eye-stripe. 
D. c. jonesi of the Upper Sudan is said to inhabit sandy tracts in place 
of swamps, and is reported to be a plumper and browner animal, with 
no dark eye-stripe, and no dark markings on the limbs. 

Distribution. — Sennar, Kordofan, and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


25s 


91 


1 1! 


Kordofan 


Major C. J. Hawker. 


24! 


io\ 


91 


Do. 


Major A. J. B. Percival 


24i 


9i 


9 


White Nile . 


H. Cookson. 



140 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


24i 


IO 


74 


W. Kordofan . 


. A. L. Butler. 


24i 


IO 


i5i 


Kordofan 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


23I 


8 


7 k 


White Nile . 


. T. D. M. Cardeza. 


23i 


10 


io£ 


Kordofan 


G. L. Harrison. 


23^ 


8| 


7k 


Sudan 


Col. J. J. Asser. 


23i 


8f 


H 


Dinder Valley 


C. D. Eyre. 


23i 


8| 


2| 


Sudan 


C. R. Gurney. 


23 


9h 


»i 


White Nile . 


E. C. Crispin. 


22J 


8| 


si 


Do. 


Lord St. Oswald. 


22§ 


8| 


9 


Do. 


. British Museum (R. McD. Hawker) 


22§ 


9 


7 


Sudan 


. Capt. R. J. Collins. 


22j 


9 


6£ 


Do. 


. G. C. Whitaker. 


22| 


8j 


6J 


Do. . 


Capt. G. S. Cameron. 


22j 


8i 


9i 


Dinder Valley 


C. Bower Ismay. 


?22| 


8| 


7* 


Kordofan 


Walter Jones. 


22j 


9 


6i 


Sudan 


. Col. A. Colville. 


22§ 


91 


14 


White Nile . 


. Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 


22| 


9 


Si 


Sudan 


Capt. G. S. Nickerson. 


22^ 


8i 


6i 


White Nile . 


. Major H. N. Dunn. 


22j 


8| 


6 


Do. 


Capt. A. H. Vivian. 


22^ 


8| 


41 


Do. 


. E. M. Tabor. 


22^ 


91 


4 


Lado 


Q. Grogan. 


22^ 


9* 


7i 


Sudan 


Capt. E. H. Francis. 


22j 


9 


5 


Sobat District 


. Capt. J. A. Pollock. 



TOPI 



141 




Head of Topi. From a specimen shot by the late Mr. A. H. Neumann. 



C. — TOPI (D. corrigum jimela). 



Korki, Galla. 



Mangazi, Waganda. 



Differs from D. c. typicus by the darker colour and absence of dark 
eye-stripe (see illustration). General colour dark reddish brown, with 
a silky bluish grey gloss ; shoulders and thighs with blue - black 
patches ; no dark stripe from the frontal blaze to the eye ; under-parts 
bright cinnamon. Dark markings absent in young. Horns lyre- 
shaped, with the tips inclined backwards and inwards. A topi from 
the Upper Congo appears to connect typicus with jimela, having a 
vestige of the black eye-stripe. Height at shoulder, 48 to 50 inches. 
Weight, about 300 lbs. 

Distribution. — Typically from the Juba district to British East Africa, 
thence to the Sabuki River, also near Lake Rudolf. The Uganda 
form apparently represents a distinct race of darker colour and 
larger stature. 



14: 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


2l\ 


H 


51 


Gallaland 


. D. P. MacGillivray. 


21 


8 


61 


North end of Lake Rudolf 


The late H. Andrew. 


-20j 


81 


7l 


Uganda .... 


. Dr. A. MacCarthy Morrogh. 


I9i 


9i 


74 


Do 


Lord Hindlip. 


i9l 


6| 


3l 


East Africa 


. H. C. V. Hunter. 


19J 


8i 


8 


S. Albert Edward Nyanza 


E. S. Grogan. 


i9i 


84 


64 


East Africa 


A. de L. Long. 


I9i 


71 


64 


Uganda .... 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


19 


71 


8 


Lake Rudolf 


. A. E. Butter. 


19 


84 


74 


Uganda .... 


Major A. W. Jennings Bramly 


19 


6| 


81 


East Africa 


A. Louw. 


9 19 


74 


5S 


Lado Enclave . 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


i8| 


9 


8 


German East Africa . 


Sir A. Sharpe. 


i8| 


71 


7 


Do. 


. Hon. M. W. Elphinstone. 


18I 


6i 


4l 


? 


I. N. Dracopoli. 


i8| 


8| 


8 


Albert Edward Nyanza 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


i8i 


71 


5i 


Tana Valley 


. Major H. de Pree. 


i8£ 


8| 


81 


East Africa 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i8i 


8| 


54 


Do. ... 


. J. Carr Saunders. 


18I 


9 


8| 


Do. ... 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


i8i 


81 


8 


Do. ... 


B. Barr Smith. 


i84 


84 


51 


Jubaland .... 


L. Aylmer. 


i8i 


81 


84 


Uganda .... 


E. Canaple. 


9 18 


61 


71 


East Africa 


Duke of Medinaceli. 



- Owner's measurements. 



BONTEBOK 



M3 




Head of Bontebok. 

The BONTEBOK (Damaliscus pygargus). 

Distinguished from the preceding species of the genus by the 
lower portions of the limbs being mainly white, as well as (if one race 
of the korrigum be excluded) by a white blaze on the face, which is 
continuous from the horns to the nose. Height at shoulder, about 40 
inches. Weight, about 200 lbs. Colour of fore part of back rufous 
fawn darkening into blackish on the back of ears, upper part of face, 
near the rump, flanks, shoulders, front of limbs, and tail-tuft ; side of 
basal part of rump, upper half of tail, under-parts, and much of hind 
surface of limbs white. 

The horns very nearly resemble those of the blesbok in shape, but 
their colour is much darker. 

Distribution. — Cape Colony, south of the Orange River ; now nearly 
exterminated. Although formerly occurring in tens of thousands 
on the Karus of Cape Colony and near Cape Agulhas, bontebok 
are reduced to a single herd preserved on some fiats on the estate 
of Mr. Vander Byl, near Swellendam, in the south of Cape Colony. 



ngth on 
at curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


i6| 


6| 


9h 


? 


British Museum. 


16* 


6| 


81 


Bredasdorp 


A. C. Campbell. 


151 


6J 


8 


Do. ... 


British Museum (F. C. Selous) 


154 


6i 


H 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


i5i 


6£ 


7 


Do. 


W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 


1 Si 


6i 


91 


Do. 


A. C. Humbert. 


i5l 


6* 


H 


Cape Colony . 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 



1 Weight, 200 lbs. Height, 41J- at shoulder. 



144 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



^ength on 
ont curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip 


Locality. 


Owner. 


15 


6| 


H 


Cape Colony . 


F. C. Selous. 


15 


6 


7 


Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


15 


H 


6| 


Bredasdorp 


. W. S. Curtis. 


15 


6i 


10 


Do. 


. A. W. Guthrie. 


9 141 


5l 


75 


Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


9 i4i 


5i 


7 


Do. 


. W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 


9i3i 


5i 


7i 


Do. 


. British Museum (F. C. Selous 



1 Height at shoulder, 36! . 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



i5l 


6| 


7A 


Bredasc 


iSi 


6£ 


5 


Do. 


1 51 


6f 


• 9i 


Do. 


iSi 


64 


9 


Do. 


15 


6i 


71 


Do. 


15 


6 


94 


Do. 


14* 






Do. 


9 13 


5 


64 


Do. 



Capt. W. Jardine. 

A. Ohlsson. 

Mr. Justice Hopley. 

P. C. Keytel. 

Sir Abe Bailey. 

Dr. Albert von Stephani. 

South African Museum. 

Abel Chapman. 



BLESBOK 



145 




Horns of Female and Male Blesbok. 



The BLESBOK (Damaliscus albifrons). 
Nunni, Bechuana. 

Closely allied to the bontebok, but with the white blaze on the 
forehead divided by a brown line between the eyes, the absence of a 
white rump-patch, the wholly brown tail, and the yellowish rings of 
the horns ; the horns themselves showing a greenish tinge. 

Formerly to be numbered by hundreds of thousands, the beautiful 
blesbok had in the last sixty years grown very scarce, being [only 
met with in small numbers on a few Boer farms in the Transvaal 
and the Orange River Colony ; but since the Boer War they have 
increased enormously in numbers, and it is estimated that there are 
now over 50,000 on farms in the Orange River Colony. Seventy 
years ago blesboks often literally darkened the face of the land with 



146 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



their innumerable legions. The north of the Cape Colony, Griqualand 
West, the Orange River Colony, and the plains of the Western and 
Southern Transvaal were the true home of this beautiful antelope. 
Gordon Cumming wrote as follows of the blesbok-country in 1 848 : 
" The plains exhibited one purple mass of graceful blesboks, which 
extended without a break as far as my eyes could strain ; the 
depth of their vast legions covered a breadth of about six hundred 
yards." 

Distribution. — Northern plains of Cape Colony, Orange River Colony, 
Transvaal, Griqualand West, and Bechuanaland. 



Length on 
front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


i8| 


6£ 


IO 


South Africa . 


H. G. Supple. 


i8i 


51 


12* 


Do. 




. Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i7i 


6J 


i5i 


Orange 


River Colony 


Major B. Horsbrugh. 


i7i 


6| 


7 


Transvaal 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


i7i 


7i 


6i 


Orange 


River Colony 


B. J. Fitzherbert. 


i7i 


6« 


8i 




Do. 


Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 


17 


6f 


7 




? 


F. V. Worth ington. 


17 


7 


10 




? 


J. L. Drege. 


16! 


6| 


7 




? 


T. Stephenson. 


i6| 


6i 


9l 


Orange 


River Colony 


. Col. W. H. Sitwell. 


i6h 


7 


8 




Do. 


. Capt. H. D. Livingstone. 


i6£ 


6i 


9i 




Do. 


Capt. Sandilands. 


16J 


6| 


6 




Do. 


. Major C. F. Pinney. 


16* 


6i 


Si 




Do. 


. Hon. R. A. Ward. 


i6| 


6i 


4i 




Do. 


Major I. Brooke. 


i6| 


7 


6f 




Do. 


. A. E. Croker. 


i6i 


6g 


7i 




Do. 


Lieut. -Col. F. Fitzherbert. 


i6£ 


6| 


7i 




Do. 


. Major G. F. Henry. 


i6i 


6 


64 




? 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


i6i 


7 


9i 


- 


? 


British Museum. 


i6i 


6f 


9i 


Transvaal 


. Capt. C. G. Leslie. 


16 


6g 


7 




? 


Capt. E. W. S. Balfour. 


16 


6| 


8§ 


Orange 


River Colony 


Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 



BLESBOK 



147 



Lengthen circum . T ; to 

front ference. Tip. 
curve. 

16 6| 7 

!i5j 6h 10 

915 Si 



Locality. 

Orange River Colony 
Do. 



Owner. 



W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 
Sir Owen Philipps. 



Driefontein, Orange River British Museum (F. C. Selous). 

Colony 
Orange River Colony . Capt. H. D. Livingstone. 




Head of Blesbok. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



i8| 






? 


W. Colson. 


18 


64 


IOg 


Orange River Colony 


. F. R. N. Findlay. 


17I 






Do. 


. C. S. Mann. 


ni 


6i 


81 


Transvaal 


. J. B. Wheelwright. 


174 


61 


ioi 


Orange River Colony 


Capt. W. Jardine. 


17 




H 


? 


Major W. Anstruther Gray. 


17 


6f 


9h 


? 


J. C. Phillips. 


i6§ 


7 


7\ 


Orange River Colony 


Count E. Hoyos. 


9i6i 


6£ 


8| 


Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


16 


6| 


ioi 


? 


A. F. William. 


151 


6| 


7i 


Transvaal 


. H. A. Bryden. 


9i4l 


4l 


H 


Orange River Colony 


. P. C. Keytel. 



1 Weight, 180 lbs. Height at shoulder, 39J- inches. 



148 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 





Head of Sassaby. From a specimen shot in Mashonaland by Mr. F. C. Selous. 



The SASSABY or BASTARD HARTEBEEST (Damaliscus lunatus). 



1 'n co lorn o, Matabili. 
Ingalowana, Basuto. 
Ijikweko, Masubia. 
Inyundo, Makalaka. 
Kaboli, Barotsi and Ngami. 



Luclin, Masara. 

IFtengo, Chilala and Chibisa. 

Msanci, Swazi. 

Mzanzi, Zulu. 

Unchuru, Makuba. 



Horns short, starting obliquely outwards, with a single upward and 
backward lunate curve. Height at shoulder, from 3 feet 10 inches to 
4 feet. General colour dark chestnut-red, with the face, shoulders, hips, 
upper portions of limbs, and tail-tuft black, and the region of the groin 
and margin of the ears white. 

The sassaby has the reputation — in the opinion of all hunters 
who have tested its speed — of being the fleetest and most enduring 
antelope in South Africa ; and were it not that, in common with the 
Cape hartebeest, it happens to be lacking in presence of mind, it would 
very seldom fall to the sportsman's rifle. A troop of sassaby may be 
often turned from its course, or brought to a halt, by firing over the 
heads of the fleeing animals. Or if the leader of the troop be wounded 
and turned out, the rest of the herd become confused and now and again 
offer easy shots. 



SASSABY 



149 



Distribution. — South-East Africa, from north of the Orange River to 
the Zambesi, westward to Lake Ngami, and northwards to British 
Central Africa. 



Length on 
front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


i7i 


7k 


II 


N.E. Rhodesia 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


i7i 


8| 


98 


Do. 


Earl of Kingston. 


i7i 


8* 


io| 


Do. 


. R. D. Waterhouse. 


i7i 


7* 


111 


Do. 


. Col. C. F. Blane. 


17 


84 


I2i 


Do. 


. Col. A. Colville. 


17 


7l 


104 


Do. 


. P. M. Stewart. 


1 6f 


7i 


12 


Do. 


. W. A. Conduitt. 


16J 


7i 


ni 


Ngamiland 


. Hon. C. Legge. 


1 6| 


8i 


io| 


N.E. Rhodesia 


]. Turner. 


i6§ 


71 


i3l 


Do. 


. F. H. Melland. 


164 


7i 


14 


Do. 


. R. Hayne. 


1 6| 


6S 


i3i 


Ngamiland 


. A. G. Stigand. 


i6| 


74 


I2i 


N.E. Rhodesia 


EI. Cookson. 


1 6i 


7 1 


IO-5 


Do. 


. Capt. S. Id. Christy. 


i6J 


71 


ioi 


S. Rhodesia . 


. C. W. Adams. 


i6i 


7i 


114 


N.E. Rhodesia 


Hon. W. Guinness. 


16 


71 


111 


? 


A. Hugh Bainbridge. 


16 


71 


I2| 


Chinama, B.C. A. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


9 16 


6i 


I4l 


N.E. Rhodesia 


. Col. A. Colville. 


1 si 


71 


1 Si 


Mashonaland . 


. Sir John Willoughby, Bart. 


15I 


74 


1 1 


N.E. Rhodesia 


. F. H. Melland. 


15I 


71 


US 


S. Africa 


. Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


15* 


8 


n| 


N.E. Rhodesia 


. A. de L. Long. 


1 si 


8i 


IOrj; 


? 


W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 


i5i 


8 


13 


N.E. Rhodesia 


P. K. Glazebrook. 


i.5i 






Mashonaland . 


. F. C. Selous. 


1 si 


7 


1 4s 


? 


F. T. Garbutt. 


*5i 


84 


I3l 


? 


W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 


1 Si 


8 


I2j 


S.E. Africa 


. British Museum (Sir Andrew Smit 


1 si 


7k 


III 


Rhodesia 


. N. H. Barton. 



174 



Hi 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

N.E. Rhodesia . . J. C. Phillips. 



ISO 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Frontlet and Horns of Brindled Gnu. From specimen in the British Museum, 
presented by the late Mr. Rowland Ward. 



The BRINDLED GNU or BLUE WILDEBEEST (Connochsetes taurinus). 



Ee-vumba, Makalaka. 
Ikokoni, Basuto. 
Inkoni-koni, Amandebili. 
Inkongoni, Swazi and Zulu. 
Kokong, Barotsi and Batoka. 



Minyumbzvi, Batonga. 

Munyumbzva, Chila. 

Num'bo, Masubia. 

Nyamba, Chilala and Chisenga. 

Unzozo, Makuba. 



From their near relatives the hartebeests the gnus, or wildebeests, 
are distinguishable at a glance by their grotesque shape and smooth 
horns, as they also are by their habits. The long, broad, and massive 
head has a blunt and bristly muzzle, and tufts of coarse hair on the 
forehead and chin ; the chin -tuft also extending on to the throat. 
The horns, which are placed on the crown of the head, are approxi- 
mated at their bases, especially in old bulls, and are nearly smooth, 
more or less flattened at the bases, but almost cylindrical at the tips ; 
the curvature being at first outwards, or outwards and downwards, 
and then bending upwards at the tips. An abundant mane of long 
hair clothes the back of the neck ; and the tail is covered with longer 
and softer hairs, reaching considerably below the hocks. It is from 
the equine form of the tail that these animals were long popularly 
known by the name of " horned horse." The hoofs are characterised 
by their narrow form. 

The blue wildebeest, as this species is called in S. Africa, is a large 
animal, standing from 4 feet 3 to 4 feet 4J inches at the shoulder. 
Its most characteristic features are the outward direction of the horns, 
which are but little expanded at the base and not unlike those of a 
buffalo ; the almost uniformly black tail, the partially pendent mane, the 
presence of a fringe on the throat, the downward direction of the long 
hair on the face, and the absence of long hair on the lower part of 
the chest and between the fore-legs. The general colour varies from 



BRINDLED GNU 



151 



grizzled roan to blackish slaty brown, with more or less distinct 
vertical dark stripes, most conspicuous in the lighter-coloured speci- 
mens, on the sides of the neck and fore-quarters. Typically, the 
fringe of hair on the throat, like the mane and tuft on the forehead, 
is black. 

Distribution. — Formerly ranging from the north of the Orange River for 
a long distance up East Africa, the brindled gnu is now practically 
exterminated in the Orange River Colony and the adjacent dis- 
tricts south of the Limpopo. It survives in parts of Griqualand 




Head of Brindled Gnu. 

West and the Kalahari, as well as in British Bechuanaland, and 
is numerous in northern Zululand, as well as in Khama's country, 
the Orange River Colony, and Rhodesia, and thence northwards 
through Central and East Africa, and it also occurs in Mozambique. 
In spite of its clumsy and ungainly appearance, the brindled gnu 
is a rapid mover ; and even when severely wounded will not un- 
frequently succeed in making good its escape from the mounted 
hunter. 

It is generally distributed in South-East Central Africa, and 
north of the Zambesi is represented by the Nyasa race (C. taurinus 
johnstoni), distinguished by the white chevron on the face. Another 
race is noticed below. 



152 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



^.—TYPICAL (C taurinus typicus) and NYASA RACES. 



Widest 
outside. 


Widest 
inside. 


Length 
on front 
curve. 


Breadth 
of palm. 


Tip to 
.Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


"2l 
J Z 2 


29 


20 


4 


26i 


P.E. Africa . 


British Museum (late Mr 
Rowland Ward). See illus 




29 


31 


x i3i 


iSi 


Sabi Flats 


tration, p. 150. 
Dr. R. P. Mitchell. 


32 


28 


24 


45 


21 


P.E. Africa . 


J. C. Phillips. 




zSh 


2I| 


Si 


1 71 


Matabililand . 


G. H. M. Banks. 


3I| 


28 


22^ 


44 


i8| 


Nyasalancl 


Capt. G. M. P. Hawthorne. 




28i 


20| 


5 


16 


Pungwe . 


C. C. Gouldsmith. 


3°S 


26! 


21 


4i 


2lJ 


S.E. Africa . 


American National Collection 


3of 


26§ 


235 


5i 


i6j 


? 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


3°2 


261 


234 


6A 


184 


S.E. Africa 


F. C. Selous. 


3oi 


26I 


24A 


4i 


iS 


P.E. Africa 


Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


3°2 


26 


22l 


4i 


1 84 


Do. 


Col. A. Colville. 


3°i 


26 


22 


4i 


i75 


Do. 


W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 




26i 


2li 


4§ 


20^ 


Matabililand . 


Major R. Hayes-Sadler. 


3°* 


26i 


I9| 


5 


21$ 


? 


B. Nicolson. 


30 


251 


2ll 


45 


i9i 


Pungwe . 


Dr. S. Martin. 


30 


26^ 


2ll 


4i 


iSi 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


30 


26 

25* 


21 
22 


4i 
4i 


I9i 

17 


Do. 
S. Africa . 


Count R. Coudenhove- 

Kalergi. 
G. Richards. 


29I 


25i 


22 


4l 


16} 


G.E. Africa . 


J. R. Rolls Richardson. 


295 


24* 


24§ 


4i 


i8i 


S.E. Africa 


H. W. Elliott. 


29I 

2 9a 


26 

25 


22 

I9i 


4 

5 


i8| 

20* 


? 
? 


British Museum (Sir A 

Smith). 
G. Bateman. 


29^ 


25i 


20 i 


5 


20 


Zululand . 


Maj. -Gen. Sir David Bruce. 


29^ 


254 


21* 


44 


185 




Sir Owen Philipps. 


29 


26 


19 


4 


21* 


N.E. Rhodesia 


H. Cookson. 


29 
29 


254 

2 4 g 


20£ 


3i 

4i 


19 

i6| 


Pungwe . 
? 


H.R.H. Prince Pedro 

d 'Orleans et de Braganza. 
A. Hugh Painbridge. 



33h 
30? 



28I 

27 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

6-i- 24 Sabi Flats 

4 20^ S.E. Africa 

] Circumference. 



B. Secretan. 

H. M. von Archer. 



BRINDLED GNU 



15; 




Head of White Bearded Gnu. 



B.— NY AS A RACE. 



Widest 
outside. 



29 rV 
29 
26 
26 

9 25J 
25S 
25i 



Widest 
inside. 



255 
25 

24! 

22 

2lJ 

21^ 
2lA 



Length 
on front 
curve. 

24i 
20| 
21 
13 

i3i 
18J 
i8| 
i7i 



Breadth 
of palm. 



44 

5 
42 

5 

4i 

4 

4^ 

4 



Tip to 
Tip. 



16 

14 

19 

172 

I2§ 

1 3* 
15 



Locality. 



1 8| Nyasaland 



Do. 
Do. 



Owner. 



Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 

A. R. Andrew. 

T. Mills. 
N.W: Rhodesia G. Crompton. 
Nyasaland . Sir Alfred Sharpe. 
Mashonaland . J. Ff. Darling. 
Nyasaland . R. II. Storey. 
Barotsiland . R. T. Coryndon. 



154 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of White-bearded Gnu. 



C— KILIMANJARO or WHITE -BEARDED RACE (C. taurinus 

albojubatus). 

Nyumbu, Swahili. Lavagadli, Somali. 

Engat, Masai. 

A race distinguished by its slightly paler colouring, and the yellowish 
white throat-fringe, a few whitish hairs being also mingled with the 
mane. The form of the widest part of the front of the horns is 
somewhat different from the corresponding region in the typical race. 
Weight, about 550 lbs. 

Distribution. — East Africa — Athi plains, Ukambani, north of Kilimanjaro. 



Widest 
outside. 


Widest 
inside. 


length 
on front 
curve. 


Breadth 
of palm. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


29^ 


26i 


24± 


4h 


I8| 


East Africa 


. W. L. Spencer Churchill. 


29J 


25i 


24 


5i 


i6| 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart, 


29J 


252 


21* 


4f 


171 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


29 


25 


255 


43 


i6| 


Do. 


. Mrs. J. E. R. Oldfield. 


29 


24S 


21 


4l 


18 


Do. 


. H. C. Phipps. 


28| 


25 


2lJ 


4* 


iSf 


Do. 


. C. Bulpett. 


28| 


25i 


21 


4f 


18 


Do. 


. W. Sewall. 


28i 


25 


21 


4i 


i7i 


Do. 


. The late G. G. Longden. 


28J 


244 


21 


5 


i8| 


Do. 


Abel Chapman. 



WHITE- BEARDED GNU 1 55 



Widest 
outside. 


Widest 
inside. 


Length 
on front 
curve. 


Breadth 
of palm. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


2%\ 


24i 


22 


5 


16 


East Africa 


. J. H. Penruddock. 


28^ 


25 


22 


4i 


19 


Do. 


. W. Neilson. 


28i 


2 4 4 


22;\ 


44 


15 


Do. 


. R. H. R. Brocklebank. 


2&1 


2 4 4 


21 


\l 


i6| 


Do. 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


28£ 


24 


21^ 


4S 


i6J 


Do. 


. R. W. McKergow. 


28 


2 4 J 


24| 


4l 


18 


Do. 


. Dr. A. E. Herz. 


28 


234 


20 


4i 


18I 


Do. 


. Capt. V. C. de Crespigny. 


28 


25 


24 


4i 


1 Si 


Do. 


. Capt. G. F. Phillips. 


28 


24i 


22| 


5 


19 


Do. 


. G. W. C. Drexel. 


27! 


24I 


21 


5 


i8| 


Do. 


. C. B. C. Storey. 


2 7 | 


24i 


22f 


Al 


i9i 


Do. 


. J. Anstruther. 


27S 


2 J? 


2I| 


Sh 


i7i 


Do. 


. Comdr. H. L. P. Herd, R.N. 


27I 


24 


23h 


4f 


i'si 


Do. 


. Col. D. M. Lumsden. 


27I 


25i 


22\ 


51 


144 


Do. 


. Capt. T. H. Rivers Bulkeley. 


27I 


23i 


25i 


4l 


i6J 


Do. 


. W. N. McMillan. 


27f 


24 


25i 


44 


14* 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 


27I 


25 l 


23i 


4l 


21 


Do. 


. G. C. Slacke. 


27S 


01 3 

23? 


23 


54 


23 


Do. 


. W. H. Levy. 


274 


2 J4: 


2\\ 


4i 


i5i 


Do. 


C. Craig. 


274 


23I 


15* 


4l 


20§ 


Do. 


. T. D. M. Cardeza. 


27.1 


23I 


21 


4i 


i6| 


Do. 


. Master of Belhaven. 


27J 




22 


6 


154 


Do. 


Lord Delamere. 


2 74 


24 


i8| 


4± 


18J 


Do. 


. Dr. Clifford Brookes. 


27I 


24 


244 


4i 


1 6i 


Do. 


. S. E. Milsom. 


27i 


23S 


i8J 


4§ 


19 


Do. 


. Lord Alex. Thynne. 


27i 


23 


21 


4i 


,144 


Do. 


. A. de Rothschild. 


27-I 


22| 


23 


54 


15 


Do. 


Major J. A. Hannyngton. 


27i 


23J 


21 


44 


i6| 


Do. 


Percy C. Madeira. 


^7! 


232 


20\ 


45 


214 


Do. 


. C. Frick. 


27i 


24 


23 


44 


1 Si 


Do. 


. Lt.-Col. T. A. Colfox. 


9 22f 


194 


161 


3i 


I2| 


Do. 


R. E. Wemyss. 



1 5 6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Gnu. 



The GNU or BLACK WILDEBEEST (Connochsetes gnu). 

This southern species is the true gnu, which was formerly known to 
the Hottentots by that name, although, by the colonists, it is termed the 
black wildebeest. Its inferior size (height at shoulder, about 3 ft. 10 ins.), 
the downward curvature of the horns at starting and their great 
expansion at the base, the white tail, the abundant fringe of long hair 
on the lower part of the chest and between the fore-legs, the upright 
mane, and the crest of hair on the face, distinguish it from the brindled 
gnu. The general colour is uniform deep umber-brown, passing into 
black. Females are much smaller than males ; and have the horns 
more slender and less expanded at the base. 

Distribution. — The northern range of this species was approximately 
limited by the Vaal, or northern branch of the Orange River. At the 
time of the Boer War this gnu was represented by herds of a few 
hundred in the Orange River Colony and on Mr. C. D. Rudd's estate 
near Cape Town. On the plains of the latter country, as well as 
on the Karus of Cape Colony, it was formerly found in vast herds, 
generally in company with quaggas. Fierce and treacherous in 
disposition, it was especially characterised by its habit of indulging 
in grotesque capers and frolics on the approach of strangers. 



GNU 1 57 



Length on 
front curve. 


Breadth 
of palm. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


26i 


7S 


144 


Orange River Colony 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


25* 


7§ 


21* 


Do. 


Major P. A. Cox. 


25 


6| 


i5i 


Do. 


A. Payne-Gallwey. 


24i 


8 


16 


Do. 


W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 


2 4 | 


7i 


iS 


Do. 


Capt. C. Staveley. 


245 


8 


171 


Do. 


Major C. D. Vaughan. 


2 4 £ 


74 


194 


Do. 


G. B. Plumptre. 


24 


8.4 


15 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


24 


94 


154 


Do. 


Major C. L. Graham. 


24 


Si 


i3i 


Do. 


C. D. Kudd. 


24 


8 


14 


Do. 


Col. Lord Douglas Compton 


2 3a 


8 


164 


Do. 


E. McClellan. 


Z 32 


7i 


154 


Do. 


A. F. William. 


23 


74 


114 


Do. 


Capt. V. C. de Crespigny. 


23 


74 


15 


Do. 


Bloemfontein Museum. 


23 


8 


124 


Do. 


R. T. Coryndon. 


23 


7i 


134 


Do. 


Major B. Horsbrugh. 


23 


1 71 


I4i 


Do. 


B. J. Fitzherbert. 


22| 


7* 


15 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 


22j 


84 


16J 


Do. 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


22f 


7g 


124 


Do. 


Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 


?i 9 | 


*I34 


log 


Do. 


Dr. W. P. Y. Bainbrigge. 



2(1— '12-1 

3° I0 4 

294 62 

27s 7 

274 IO 

26| 7 

2.6J 84 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



14 


Kalahari . 


Dr. F. H. H. Guillemard. 


174 


? 


Mr. Justice Hopley. 


7 


Orange River Colony 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


ii 


Do. 


Count E. Iloyos. 


n4 


Do. 


C. S. Mann. 


14 


? 


Major W. Anstruther Gray, 


IS 


Cape Colony . 

1 Circumference. 


Grahamstovvn Museum. 



i 5 8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Abyssinian Duiker shot by Mr. J. G. Millais. 



The DUIKERBOK (Cephaloplius grimmi). 



Putt, Bechuana. 

Impunzi, Matabili. 
Gwapi, Chinyanja. 
Nagi, M'Kua. 



Impungi, Swazi and Zulu. 
Imputi, Basuto. 
Gudda, Hausa. 
Mpewo, Waganda. 
Nakasha, Chila. 



The Cape duiker, or ' diver,' is a southern representative of an 
extensive group of, mostly small, antelopes confined to Africa. In all 
of these the muzzle is naked ; face - glands of a more or less elon- 
gated form are present, as are lateral hoofs ; the tail is of medium 
length, the knees have no tufts of long hair, and the females are pro- 
vided with four teats. The horns, which are short and straight, are 
generally present in both sexes, but are smoother and more slender in 
the does than in the bucks ; while in both sexes they are more or 
less hidden by a tuft of long hairs growing from the crown of the head. 
The upper cheek-teeth have low crowns, with square grinding surfaces, 
and the face-glands are arranged to form a bare line of pores on each 
side of the muzzle. The present species — the true duikerbok — is 
characterised by the horns (absent in the females) inclining upwards 
at an obtuse angle to the plane of the profile of the nose. Other 
features of the sub-group are the long and pointed ears, the general 
yellowish fawn colour, devoid of dark markings, except a brown nose- 
streak. The Cape duiker, which measures from 23 to 26 inches at the 
shoulder, ranges on the west as far north as Angola, and on the east, 
in the shape of local races, to the Shire Highlands, north of which it is 



DUIKERBOK 



-159 



replaced by shorter-eared races akin to the Abyssinian C. g. abyssinicus. 
Weight, about 30 lbs. Throughout its habitat the duikerbok is to be 
met with wherever sufficient covert exists ; and its furtive, squatting, 
dodging habits are most aptly indicated by its name. Occurring 
either singly or in pairs, it strictly avoids both open plains and steep, 
rocky mountains. 







^.- 


-CAPE AND ALLIED RACES. 


Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Ti 


p. Locality. 


Owner. 


6| • 


2i 


2ft 


Transvaal . 


. Dr. W. Gibson. 


H 


2| 


3i 


Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


Si 


H 


2| 


South Africa 


W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 


sf 


2 


3i 


Do. 


. R. McClellan. 


51 


2-Xr 

•"ITT 


2^ 

■'4: 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Guy Nickalls. 


5^ 
Si 


2 1 


21 

2§ 


Selinya, Khama's 

country 
Cape Colony 


F. C. Selous. 

Mr. Justice Hopley. 


51 


2 


2i 


Delagoa Bay 


F. W. Parish. 


si 


2i 


I| 


Zululand 


. Major L. O. Williams. 


5i 


2* 


If 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Earl of Kingston. 


51 


2i 


3A 


Do. 


Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 


Si 


2^E 


2 


Do. 


. J. C. Phillips. 


5k 


2 


3 


S. Rhodesia 


. . Capt. N. Livingstone Learmonth 


5h 


2* 


3 


S.W. Transvaal 


. W. F. Tuthill. 


5i 


2 


2| 


Transvaal . 


. H. T. and A. H. Glynn. 


Si 


2ft 


2g 


Cape Flats . 


Capt. W. Jardine. 


5 


2 


If 


South Africa 


. J. J. B. Saffery. 


5 


2i 


2i 


Do. 


G. Richards. 


5 


2| 


2i 


Do. 


. G. B. Plumptre. 


5 


2i 


2i 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 


5 


2i 


2i 


Angola 


C. H. Pemberton. 


5 


2i 


2i 


? 


C. C. Bowring. 


5 


2i 


2| 


Ngamiland . 


Mervyn G. Williams. 


5 


2l 


3i 


Northern Rhodes 


ia . F. Smitheman. 


5 


2i 


Ii 


Do. 


R. Beaumont. 


5 


2i 


2S 


Nyasaland . 


. Dr. J. O. Shircore. 



i6o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



Length on 


Circum- 


front. 


ference. 


6^ 




6| 


2i 


6 


2§ 


6 


->3 


5s 


2? 



Tip to 


Tip. 


Locality. 
Angola 


2 4 

— 8 




S. Africa 


i t 




Do. 


2| 




Do. 


-4 




Do. 


2 1 




Do. 


2-L 




Do. 



?4f 



Owner. 
E. P. Cooper. 
C. S. Mann. 
Col. J. J. Harrison. 
H. Henderson. 
Major H. Chamney. 
Sir Abe Bailey. 
J. Whitaker. 
I'. C. Reytel. 



£.— ABYSSINIAN (C. grimmi abyssinicus) AND ALLIED GRACES. 

Midaku, Abyssinian. 

Smaller than the Cape duiker, and agreeing in size and in the 
relative shortness of the ears with the crowned duiker [C. g. coronatus), 
this race differs from the latter by the general colour of the fur being 
greyish brown instead of bright yellow. Allied but larger races occur 
in the Kenia and Zomba districts of Eastern Africa, respectively known 
as C. g. hindei and C. g. sliirensis. 

Distribution. — The highlands of Abyssinia : the East African 
specimens mentioned below belong to the allied races. 

Owner. 
A. de L. Long. 
Abel Chapman. 

E. B. Home. 
Viscount Ennismore. 
W. II. Lindsay. 
Gerard Buxton. 
R. F. C. Tompson. 
J. F. Franks. 
J. G. Millais. 
Major P. M. Dove.] 
D. P. MacGillivray. 
W. F. Whitehouse. 

F. C. Selous. 



ength on 
front. 


Circum 
ference. 


5i 


2* 


4i 


24 


4l 


2i 


4i 


28 


Ah 


2i 


Ah 


2 


Ah 


2i 


45 


2 3 

-s 


4i 


2g 


4l 


2 


44 


2* 


4i 


24 


A\ 


25 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


2 


E. Africa 




Do. 


2i 


Do. 


Ii 


Do. 


•?3 


Do. 


15 


Do. 


2| 


Do. 


2i 


Do. 


2i 


Do. 


2 


Sudan 


3 


Abyssinia . 


r| 


Do 


7 


Bahr-el-Ghazal 



DUIKERBOK 



161 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


4% 


2 


2 


Gallaland . 


Lord Hindlip. 


4l 


2i 


Ij 


Abyssinia . 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


4i 


2 


If 


Do. 


. F. Gillett. 


4l 


2 T 3 <; 


I 


E. Africa 


. E. H. Litchfield. 


4i 


2* 


2| 


Do. 


K. V. Painter. 


4i 


2 


2i 


Do. 


Sir Richard Dane. 


4h 


2§ 


I* 


Do. 


. Capt. C. J. Murray. 


4k 


2g 


I* 


Do. 


Sir J. Hume Campbell, Bart. 


4h 


2 


2 


Sudan . 


. Col. A. Colville. 



C— WESTERN RACES (C. grimmi coronatus and C. g. campbelliae). 

A small short-eared race standing about 15 or 16 inches in height, 
of a bright yellowish fawn colour, showing a faint tinge of black ; C. g. 
campbellics is an allied West African race, with much more dark speckling 
in the coat, to which most or all of the following specimens probably 
belong. Distribution.— West Africa. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


4tt 


2} 


4l 


2* 


4\ 


2 h 


41 


2i 


4i 


2| 


4l 


2 ? 


48 


2i 


4f 


2i 


4TT7 


2 h 


4T5 


2 i 


4 


2g 


4 


2 


,15 


ij 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


2g 


N. Nigeria 


S. M. Grier. 




Do. 


Capt. G. C. Kelly. 


7 
S 


Do. 


Major E. M. Baker. 


2g 


Nigeria . 


Major J. A. Burdon. 


If 


Do. . 


Major J. B. Cockburn. 


2| 


Do. . 


Capt. W. M. Fowler. 


I? 


Do. . 


G. W. Webster. 


ij 


Gold Coast 


Capt. B. E. Murray. 


If 


Okutu, S. Borgu . 


Major B. R. M. Glossop. 


2| 


Nigeria . 


C. Bryant. 


-.1 
02 


Do. . 


Capt. F. Call. 


If 


Lokoja, Niger 


Capt. T. N. Puckle. 


II 


Portuguese Guinea 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 



THE BLACK DUIKER (Cephalophus niger). 
Distribution. — Liberia to the Gold Coast. 



Length on 
front. 

3i 



Circum- 
ference. 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

2 ? 

1 1 Gold Coast 



Owner. 



J. C. Phillips. 

Capt. G. Wolfe-Murray. 



M 



162 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Blue Buck. 



The BLUE DUIKER or BLUE BUCK (Cephaloplms monticola). 

Ipiti, Zulu. 

In the great majority of duikers, that is to say all except those 
included in the group mentioned above, the horns, which are generally 
present in both sexes, slope backwards either in or just below the line 
of the profile of the nose. The present species is included in a sub- 
group characterised by the smoky-brown or blackish colouring, and is 
especially distinguished by the rufous legs and uniformly coloured rump, 
the height at the shoulder being I 3 inches. Weight, about 8 lbs. clean. 

Distribution. — Southern Africa, from the wooded districts of Cape 
Colony northwards to Benguela on the west, and Nyasaland on 
the east. 

.4.— TYPICAL RACE. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality, 




Owner. 


2l 


If 


ii 


Tushila Plain, 


B.C.A. . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


2k 


If 


7 

5 


? 




Sir Owen Philipps. 


2 lV 


ii 


If 


Nyasaland . 




D. D. Lyell. 


2 


ii 


ii 


Pondoland . 




Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


2 




If 


Natal . 




F. C. Selous. 


2 


it 


If 


Benguela 




G. W. Penrice. 


2 


if 


Ii 


N. Rhodesia 




L. de Fries. 


2 


if 


l5 


? 




Col. E. St. C. Pemberton. 


9i| 


if 


ii 


Nyasaland . 




D. D. Lyell. 


if 


i| 


if 


Benguela 




Hon, Walter Rothschild. 




B.- 


-SUDANI 


RACE (C. monticola 


sequatorialis). 


Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 




Owner. 


lh 


I 3 - 


Ii 


Sudan . 




Capt. C. Leigh. 


n 




I 


Uganda 




Capt. H. S. Toppin. 



DUIKERS i6- 



MAXWELL'S DUIKER (Cephalophus maxwelli). 

This species belongs to the sub-group characterised by the smoky- 
brown or blackish colour. In size it is small (height at shoulder, about 
14 inches). The face is coloured like the back; the limbs, like the 
body, are greyish brown ; and the rump is not parti-coloured. It was 
first brought to England by Col. C. Maxwell, and described by Col. 
Hamilton Smith in 1827. 



Owner. 
Viscount de Thiene. 
M. V. Hay. 
L. J. Jones. 
D. H. M. Boyle. 
Major E. M. Baker. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
Major E. M. Baker. 



The RED or NATAL DUIKER (Cephalophus natalensis). 

Rooi-Bosch-bokje, Boer. Msumbi, Swazis and Malonga. 

Mkumbi, Zulu. Izikupu, Basuto. 

Chisimbi, Lower Zambesi. 

This duiker is classed in another sub-group of small or medium- 
sized species characterised by the fulvous, rufous, or chestnut ground- 
colour ; and is specially distinguished by its small size (height at shoulder, 
18 to 19 inches) and completely uniform colouring, having no dark 
markings on either the face or body. The horns are short and thick. 

Distribution. — Natal, Transvaal, and Mashonaland (including all the 
forest and bush country of the East Coast), and perhaps the 
Lualwa River district of the Mozambique Province. 





Distribution — 


-West 


Africa, from Ga 


Length 
front 


on 


Circum- re- 
ference, f 


to Tip. 


Locality. 


2 1 




2| 


if 


Portuguese Guinea 


?1 




2* 


2i 


Do. 


-2| 






2 f 


Sierra Leone 


2i 




*\ 


I| 


Ashanti 


2| 




2i 


2 


S. Nigeria . 


l| 




2i 


2 


Fanti . 


9i| 




If 


iA 


S. Nigeria . 



Length on Circum 
front. ference 



Tip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 

-3I 2.| 2 ? Sir Abe Bailey. 

~3§ 2| if ? Major H. Chamney. 

-3| 3i 3£ Natal C. S. Mann. 

3§ z\ z\ Sabi Flats ..... Col. J. J. Harrison. 

3J 2§ 2 ? S. Butcher. 

- Owner's measurements. 



164 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



bengtn on 
front. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3 


2| 


H 


? 


Col. E. St. C. Pemberton 


3 


2§ 


If 


Natal . . . 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


3 




is 


? 


J. H. Leche. 


*3 


2| 




N. Makualand . 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


?2| 


ll 


I 


Foot-hills of Kahlamba 


F. Yaughan Kirby. 


9 if 




I 


Near Durban 


F. C. Selous. 



Owner's measurements. 



1 Determination provisional. 



The BAY DUIKER (Cephalophus dorsalis). 

From the last species the bay duiker, together with some allied 
West African forms, differs by the presence of a black stripe running 
along the back and continued to the tail. As a species, its special 
characters are the dark colour of the buttocks, and the evenly haired 
tail, which shows no sign of a tuft, and is white below. 

Distribution. — West Africa, from Sierra Leone to the Gold Coast, 
being replaced in the Cameruns by C. castaneus. 



ength on 
front. 


Girth. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ill 
ore 


2* 


2 


West Africa . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3* 


J5 


31 


Cameruns (C. castaneus) . 


C. S. Mann. 


2I 


2i 


i£ 


Sierra Leone . 


Major-Gen. P. S. Wilkinson 


2i 


If 


i« 


S. Nigeria 


Major E. M. Baker. 


2h_ 


2\ 


ifi 


Portuguese Guinea . 


C. S. Burnett. 



BANDED DUIKER or ZEBRA-ANTELOPE (Cephalophus doriae). 

The tiger-like transverse black bands on the orange ground of the 
back suffice to distinguish at a glance this pretty little duiker from all 
its kindred. 

Distribution. — The interior of the West Coast of Africa from Liberia to 
Sierra Leone, where it is commonly known as the mountain deer. 



Length on Circum- ~ T ; 

front. ference. ' r 



ifi 



i| 



Locality. Owner. 

Liberia . . . British Museum (Dr. J. Biittikofer). 

Do. . . . Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



DUIKERS 



165 




Head of Yellow-backed Duiker. 



YELLOW- BACKED DUIKER (Cephalophus sylvicultor). 

This species, which is the type of the genus, is distinguished from 
mpst other duikers by its large size, coupled with its blackish colouring, 
and the presence of a yellowish crest on the back and a similarly 
coloured longitudinal patch on the rump. Height at shoulder, 34 
inches. The N.E. Rhodesian form of the species has been named 
C. coxi, and the Ituri yellow-backed duiker has also received a name, but 
neither appears entitled to rank even as a distinct race. 

Distribution. — The West Coast of Africa from Liberia to Angola, and 
thence eastwards through the forest-zone. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


7h 


43 


4| 


N.E. Rhodesia 


. E. R. D. Hall. 


7 


,1 
j 2 




Sierra Leone 


. Major C. E. Palmer. 


-61 


3 


3 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. Dr. Albert von Stephani. 


61 


3t 


4i 


Fanti . 


British Museum. 


6g 
6| 


3* 

■j 8 


3g 
5 


Luapulu River, N 

Rhodesia 
Sierra Leone 


. E. G. M. E. Leyer. 
. W. St. J. Oswell. 


6i 


3i 




Ashanti 


. C. Beddington. 


-6| 








C. S. Mann. 


-?5i( 


3 4 
-.3 


-.3 
4i 


Congo 
Gabun 


Do, 
. Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


5 


3S 


44 


Angola 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


5 


3! 


4i 


Do. 


. G. W. Pemice. 


5 


3 




N.E. Rhodesia 


H. Cookson. 


5 


3 


2§ 


Do. 


Earl of Ringston. 



Owner's measurements. 



i66 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



HARVEY'S DUIKER (Cephalophus harveyi). 

This East African species is in size and its dark chestnut -red 
colour very similar to the Natal duiker, but with a dark brown or 
blackish blaze on the face, and the horns thick at the base and 
rough. C. isaaci is an allied species. 

Distribution. — East Africa. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum 
ference. 


4iV 


2g 


_ 3s 


2 


2 3l 


05 


3§ 


2i 


3i 


2| 



3! 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

2| Kikuyu Forest . 
East Africa 

Mau Forest, East Africa 
2\ Do. 

2g East Africa 

2§ Do. 

Owner's measurements. 



Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Major H. W. A. Christie. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Sir F. J. Jackson. 

The late Rear- Admiral 

R. A. J. Montgomerie. 
Sir J. Hume Campbell, Bart. 

1 Cephalophus isaaci. 



Length on 
front. 



LEOPOLD'S DUIKER (Cephalophus leopoldi). 
Distribution. — Ituri Forest. 



Circum- 
ference. 



3* 



Tip to Tip. 

iS 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Uganda 



Capt. H. S. Toppin. 



RED-FLANKED DUIKER (Cephalophus rufilatus). 
Gudda-n Kurimi, Hausa. 

This species stands about 14 inches, and is orange-rufous in colour, 
with the front of the face, the dorsal stripe, and the tail and limbs 
bluish grey, the crest black, the under-parts paler, and the throat whitish. 

Distribution. — -West Africa, from Senegambia to Nigeria. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3l 


-,1 

J2 


If 


N. Nigeria 


H. de C. Mathews. 


3f 


2i 


2 


Do. 


R. M. Blackwood. 


3i 


3 


2g 


Do. 


B. C. B. Tower. 


3rV 


2l 


2g 


Gambaga, Gold Coas 


British Museum (Capt. W. Giffard) 


3§ 


2| 


13 


Nigeria 


Capt. C. C. West. 


3i 


Zh 


Ig 


Portuguese Guinea 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


3i 


2* 


2 


Nigeria 


Capt. P. A. Clive. 


3 


2| 


I* 


Okutu, S. Borgu 


Major B. R. M. Glossop. 


2i 


2* 


2| 


Lagos 


Capt. W. A. Ross. 


2| 


2^ 


i£ 


N. Nigeria 


G. W. Webster. 


2a 

" -■ 


2J 


If 


Lokoja, Nigeria 


Major-Gen. P. S. Wilkinson. 


2 5 


2i 


if 


Nigeria 


Capt. II. V. Venables Kyrke. 


2| 


24 


li 


Do. 


W. D. Downes. 


2g 


2g 


ii 


Do. 


. Dr. M. W. Manuk. 


If 




1 


Ashanti 


Capt. B. E. Murray. 



BEIRA 167 




Head of Beira. 

The BEIRA (Dorcotragus melanotis). 

Beira or Baira, Somali. 

Although at one time classed with the gazelles, this peculiar little 
Somali antelope is considered to be best placed in the neighbourhood 
of the dik-diks. The beira is characterised by the moderately long 
and spike-like horns of the bucks ; but its most striking peculiarity is 
the great size of its ears, which led its discoverer, Mr. Menges, to 
describe it as a species of klipspringer. Another noticeable feature 
is the large size of the rounded hoofs, which are supported on globular 
pads. In colour, the upper-parts and legs are greyish fawn, with a 
tinge of pink ; a darker band defining the fawn from the white of the 
under-parts, which (the white) is continued down the inner surfaces of 
the limbs as far as the knees and hocks. The head, from the ears to 
the nose, is bright rufous. Height at shoulder, about 23 inches. 

Viscount Edmond de Poncins writes that " beira are good hill- 
climbers, and keep on rocky ground. The general shape is slender, 
the legs are long, the head is kept erect, the ears are very big and 
broad, shaped like the dik-dik's, eyes big and dark, nostrils black. 

" Colour a sort of greyish blue, a bit like what we call in French 
gorge-de- pigeon, and exactly matching the colour of the ground, so, 
unless they are on the move, it is difficult to distinguish them. Unlike 
a gazelle, the tail is generally kept down. Horns resemble those of 
the klipspringer, but curve forward slightly more." From nose to root 
of tail, 32^; height at shoulder, 21 inches; horns, 4 inches; weight, 
about 20 lbs. 



i68 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Distribution. — The interior of Somaliland 
Blue Nile. The species appears to be 
either singly or in pairs, and inhabitin 
first made known to science in I 894 



and the upper part of the 
rare and local, going about 
g the open desert. It was 



ength 011 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


5 


If 


.1 5 
4ts 


li 


4s 1 


If 


-42 


If 


-42 


If 


4§ 


2 


4i 


If 


4i 


2 


4i 


II 


4iV 


I| 


4 


2 


4 


Z 8 


-,7 

J8 


2 


->3 


If 


3i 


If 



ip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 




Somaliland 


. J. Rosen. 




Do. 


Lord Delamere. 


If 


Do. 


Capt. J. H. Brocklehurst. 


^ ITT 


Northern Somaliland 


J. H. II. Doclds. 


2| 


Do. 


R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 


2| 


Abyssinia 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


2§ 


Northern Somaliland 


F. N. Ransford. 


2l 


Abyssinia 


W. F. Whitehouse. 


If 


Somaliland . 


A. de L. Long. 


2§ 


Do. 


Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


2 T V 


French Somaliland 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 


2| 


Somaliland 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


2j 


Do. 


Capt. II. C. Dobbs. 


2i 


Do. 


W. Mure. 


2-1 


Do. 


H. D. Briggs. 


2| 


Do. . 
- Owner's measurements. 


P. K. Glazebrook. 




Skull and Horns of Beira, from specimen shot by 
Major P. II. G. Powell-Cotton. 



DIK-DIKS 




Head of Salt's Dik-dik. 



SALT'S DIK-DIK (Madoqua saltiana). 

This species, the Beni Israel of the Arabs, is the typical representa- 
tive of a group of tiny, slenderly built antelopes characterised by the 
elongated, trunk-like nose, of which the tip is almost entirely hairy, the 
tuft of hair on the crown of the head, the short and almost rudiment- 
ary tail, and the minute size of the lateral hoofs. In the present 
species the last tooth in the lower jaw lacks the third lobe found in 
almost all ruminants, the muzzle is but moderately developed, and the 
general colour yellowish or fulvous grey, scarcely more rufous on the 
sides than on the back. Height at the shoulder, 14 inches. 

Distribution. — The Coast Range of Eastern Abyssinia and 
adjacent districts. 



Length on Gircum- Tip to 
front. ference. Tip. 



Locality. 



J 3 

2| 

2 4 
2§ 



I'. 



If 


Abyssinia 


I 


Do. 


14 


Do. 


I§ 


Do. 


ii 


E. Sudan 


ii 


Abyssinia 




North Kassala 


i§ 


? 



Owner. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
V. Bell. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
H. Boughton Leigh. 
Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 
Major H. H. S. Morant. 
Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 
Col. Ralph Vivian. 
British Museum. 



1 Determination provisional. 



170 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 





tr r -^~ 



Skull and Horns of Phillips's Dik-dik. Head of Swayne's Dik-dik. 



SOMALI DIK-DIKS 
A. — Madocrua swaynei, M. phillipsi, and M. [Rhynchotragus] guentheri. 

Sakdro, Somali. 

Different districts of Somaliland are inhabited by several species of 
dik-diks, of which three are named above. The first of these is allied to 
Salt's dik-dik but smaller ; it inhabits the northern half of Somaliland. 
Phillips's dik-dik, which also occurs in Northern Somaliland, is inter- 
mediate in size between Salt's and Swayne's dik-dik, from both of which 
it is distinguished by having the back grey and the sides and shoulders 
rich rufous or cinnamon. On the other hand, Giinther's dik-dik is 
widely different from both, being nearly allied to the undermentioned 
Kirk's dik-dik, from which it is distinguished by the form of the nasal 
bones in the skull. It inhabits the central plateau of Northern Somali- 
land. 

Height of Swayne's dik-dik at shoulder, about I 3 inches. 
Weight, S 6 lbs. ; 5 5 lbs. 



Length on 
front. 


Girth. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


J 3§ 


If 


2 


Somaliland 


Col. H. D. Olivier 


3*. 


14 


If 


Do. 


J. Kenneth Foster. 


34 


li 


If 


Do. 


. W. W. Ashley. 


3s 




I* 


Do. 


P. K. Glazebrook. 


3h 


i£ 


I \ 


Do. 


Col. C. F. Blane. 


x 3l 




If 


Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


3h 


• i& 


If 


Do. 

1 M. guentheri. 


P. II. Thomas. 



DIK-DIKS 



171 



Length 1 
front. 



Girth. 



•*5 

2^-0 

2| 

2| 

2| 

2| 

2 2 f 

o5 

— s 

24 

2| 
2i 



If 
I* 
l| 

if 
I 

II 
I* 

ii 

i± 



Tip to Tip. 

If 
If 

ii 

1 
if 

if 
i§ 
if 

i* 
1 

ii 

ItV 

If 

I§ 

If 

Ig 

1 M. guentheri. 



Locality. 
Somaliland 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Abyssinia . 



Owner. 
A. E. Pease. 

Capt. F. L. Livingstone- 

Learmonth. 
J. H. H. Dodds. 

J. H. Miller. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Capt. G. H. Hastings. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

Lord Delamere. 

Lord Hindlip. 

Lieut. -Col. E. G. Harrison. 

R. E. Drake-Brockman. 

T. W. H. Clarke. 

A. E. Butter. 

C. Liddell. 

Major W. Anstruther Gray. 

A. de L. Long. 

J. C. Monteith. 

Capt. A. H. Mosse. 

R. Hayne. 

M. phillipsi. 



The following are the dimensions of a specimen of M. guentheri 
shot at Njemps by Sir F. J. Jackson : — 

Length, 23 1 Height, 15 J. Horns, 2 J. Weight, 8^ lbs. 



B. — M. piacentinii. 



:ngth on 
front. 


Girth. 


Tip to Tip. Locality. 


Owner. 


2 T 5 U 


ItV 


i T V Somaliland 


. British Museum. 


ai 


If 


ii Do. . . 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild 



172 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



KIRK'S DIK-DIK (Madoqua [Rhynchotragus] kirki). 

This dik-dik belongs to a small group of species differing from the 
one containing M. saltiana by the presence of three lobes to the last 
tooth of the lower jaw, and likewise by the more decidedly trunk- 
like character of the muzzle. From the other members of the group 
M. damarerisis differs by its superior size, and M. guentheri by the still 
greater development of the trunk. They belong to the subgenus 
Rhynchotragus. Weight, about 7 lbs. 

Distribution. — East Africa, from Southern Somaliland to Ugogo, 
most numerous on the coast. 



Length on 
front. 



Circum- 
ference. 

13 



JTF 


l i 


-.3 




->3 


*i 


31 


ii 


3ttt 


i* 


-. 1 

J4 


ii 


3i 


2 


3i 


if 


3i 


ii 


31 


H 



Ii 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


Is 


East Africa 


J. V. Colby. 


I| 


Rift Valley . 


C. Steuart Betton. 




East Africa 


The late Prince P. Demidoff. 


I| 


Do. . . 


J. B. Wheelwright. 


ii 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 


2 


Do. 


Marquis of Tweeddale. 


2 


Do. 


P. Fleming. 


i T V 


Uganda . 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


Ii 


East Africa 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


Ii 


Do. 


K. V. Painter. 


2g 


Do. 


Capt. M. L. Pears. 


It 


Do. 


H. Johnson. 


If 


Do. 


W. P. Lowe. 


If 


Do. 


J. Todd. 


2k 


Do. • . 


Major W. E. Stobavt. 




Do. 


A. Benitz. 


Ii 


Do. 


G. C. Slacke. 


Ig 


Do. 


G. de P. Colvile. 


I| 


E. of Lake Chomo . 


Lord Hindlip. 


If 


East Africa 


II. Fowler. 


i.V 


Do. 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


Owner's measurements. 


1 M. cavendishi. 



Length on 
front. 



Circum- 
ference. 



If 





DIK-DIKS 


173 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ii 


East Africa 


Capt. R. H. Hermon-Hodge. 


if 


Do. 
Do. 


Capt. the Hon. G. II. Douglas 

Pennant. 
R. de la Huerta. 


ii 


Do. 


Percy C. Madeira. 


2 


Do. 


Gerard Buxton. 


2 


Do. 


S. S. Steele. 


If 


Do. 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


if 


Lake Baringo . 

1 M. cavendishi. 


Rhys Williams. 



DAMARA DIK-DIK (Madoqua [Rhynchotragus] damarensis). 

Characteristics mentioned under heading of the preceding species. 

Distribution. — Damaraland and Angola. 



Length on Circum- 

front. ference. 

4 l| 

-3i ii ' 



Tip to Tip. 



ih 



-2i 



Locality. 

? 

? 

? 

Omararu 

Do. 
Damaraland . 



Owner. 

Sir Owen Philipps. 

P. C. Keytel. 

Capt. M. Jurich. 

J. B. Wheelwright. 

Capt. W. Jardine. 

South African Museum. 
(Type specimen.) 



HEMPRICH'S DIK-DIK (Madoqua hemprichiana). 

Further information is desirable as to the claim of this dik-dik to 
distinction from M. saltiana. 



Length on Circum- 
front. ference. 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 




Owner. 


ii 


Basaland 


Hon. 


Walter Rothschild. 


i.4 


Blue Nile . 


Capt. 


J. A. Pollock. 


irV 


Abyssinia 

- Owner's measurements. 


Hon. 


Walter Rothschild. 



174 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Oribi. 



The ORIBI (Oribia scoparia). 

Also known as Oribia oribi. 

Inla, Swazi and Zulu. Pulukudukamani, Basuto. 

Nakafwifwi, Chila. Kamunda, Barotsi and Batoka. 

Mazia, Hausa. 

The oribis, grysbok, klipspringer, and their allies constitute a group 
of comparatively small African antelopes presenting the following char- 
acters in common. The muzzle has a naked tip, the head is devoid 
of a tuft of hair, large face-glands open beneath the eyes by a small 
aperture on each side, the tail is short or moderate, and lateral 
hoofs may or may not be retained. Horns are usually present only 
in the bucks, and are short, almost or quite straight, with smooth tips 
and ridged bases. The upper cheek-teeth have tall and narrow crowns. 
The oribis, which are the largest members of the group, have normal 
hoofs and hair, and are specially distinguished by the presence of a 
bare glandular spot beneath each ear, and of a large opening in the 
skull beneath each eye-socket. In the typical species the horns of the 
bucks are comparatively smooth and slender, with only their basal two 
inches slightly ridged ; there is a black patch on the forehead between 
the horns ; and the tail is tufted and moderately bushy, with its terminal 
two-thirds black. Height at shoulders, 24 to 26 inches. 

Distribution. — Typically, Africa south of the Zambesi. On grassy plains 
this graceful little antelope is still plentiful in many districts. 









<9i?/5/ 


Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


7A 


2A 


2 i 


Angola 


. G. W. Penrice. 


6| 




2 § 


Near Ladysmith 


. Col. P. J. R. Crampton. 


6| 


2 1 


Ig 


N.W. Rhodesia 


, P. R. Ramsey. 


6i 


2i 




E. Griqualand . 


. British Museum (J. ff. Darling). 


6 


,1 


2i 


Spitzkop . 


. H. T. and A. H. Glynn. 


6 


i4 




Rhodesia . 


. H. H. Williams. 


6 


2 


2§ 


Angola 


. C. H. Pemberton. 


6 


2 


4 


N.W. Rhodesia. 


. R. E. Critchley-Salmonson. 


5i 


2 


3f 


Do. 


. T. D. M. Cardeza. 


51 


2§ 


34 


Do. 


. R. C. Wood. 


51 


2§ 


2f 


Nyasaland . 


. J. H. Hayes. 


51 


2 


3i 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


H. Timmins. 


51 


2 


2i 


Do. 


. Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


5i 


2 


2| 


Do. 


. Lady Sarah Wilson. 


5§ 


2 


2| 


Bengueolo 


F. Smitheman. 


c5 

38 


2 1 


I| 


Transvaal . 


. F. R. N. Findlay. 


51 


2 


2§ 


N.W. Rhodesia 


. Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 


51 


2 


2| 


Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


54 


2 


34 


Do. 


. . Capt. H. T. Lumsden. 


54 


If 


2g 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


54 


2 


2; 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


Hon. W. Guinness. 


54 


2* 


2i 


N.W. Rhodesia 


. Hon. Guy Wilson. 



175 



74 



6i 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
2§ Zomba, Nyasaland . . D. MacAlpine. 
if Batoka Plateau . . . E. Folley. 
3| ? J. L. Drege. 



176 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Abyssinian Oribi. Shot by Lieut. -Col. P. Polovtsoff. 

The ABYSSINIAN ORIBI (Oribia montana or 0. coerulea). 
Facko and Miivaka, Abyssinian. Mori or Loyik, Dinka. 

Very similar in most characters to the typical species, but with a 
shorter and less bushy tail, the tip of which has only a few sparse 
black hairs. Height at shoulder, 22 to 23 inches. These antelopes 
are shy and rarely seen in the open, preferring the thick bush and long 
grass. If disturbed, they go at a great pace with their heads quite 
close to the ground. The flesh is good. 

A male weighing 38 lbs. stood 22^ inches at the shoulder. 

Distribution. — Abyssinia and Bogosland, with part of the Sudan. 



lgth on 
-ont. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


5A 




2* 


Bahr-el-Ghazal . 


Capt. J. L. ¥. Tweedie 


Sh 




zh. 


Bahr-el-Zaraf 


E. M. Tabor. 


S\ 


2 


I* 


Kordofan . 


E. A. T. Bayley. 


5§ 


2 


2| 


Abyssinia . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


5^ 


2 


2g 


Sudan 


Capt. G. Wauhope. 



EAST AFRICAN ORIBI 



177 



EAST AFRICAN ORIBIS (Oribia kenyae, 0. cottoni, etc.) 

Several oribis allied to the last have been described from B.E.A. ; 
0. kenycB being from Mt. Kenia, and O. cottoni and O. viicrodon from the 
Guasin-ffishu Plateau. 



Owner. 

Lieut. -Col. P. Polovtsoff. (See 

illustration, page 176.) 
G. P. L. Cosens. 

Capt. H. C. S. Ashton. 

Col. Max. C. Fleischmann. 

G. J. Muir. 

H. B. Tate. 

C. Bower Ismay. 

W. A. Baird. 

R. B. Loder. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. 

Capt. M. L. Pears. 

Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 

W. N. McMillan. 

Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 

E. B. Home. 

G. de P. Colvile. 

Lieut. S. R. Bailey, R.N. 

Duke of Medinaceli. 

F. C. Selous. 

Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 
A, G. Murray Smith. 
Capt. C. Brook. 
Sir Richard Dane. 
L. L. Biddle. 
H. Fowler. 
A. de Rothschild. 
H. S. Keating. 
Sir F. J. Jackson. 
Duke of Peneranda. 
R. de la Huerta. 
H. B. Cox. 
C. W. Turner. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 
N 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Loca 


ity. 


6| 


2 a 


31 


E. 


Africa . 


6| 


2l 


3 




Do. . 


61 


ai 


3i 


Near Mount Elgon . 


6i 


2l 


2| 


E. 


Africa . 


6| 


2| 


2 


Near Lake Victoria . 


6£ 


ai 


3 


E. 


Africa 




6i 


2* 


2i 




Do. 




6| 


2 


3 




Do. 




6£ 


2 


2| 




Do. 




6 


2| 


2g 




Do. 




6 


2i 


21 




Do. 




6 


2i 


3i 




Do. 




6 


2 


2| 




Do. 




6 


2l « 


2* 




Do. 




5l 


2i 


2l 




Do. 




5S 


2i 


2 




Do. 




51 


2| 


2 




Do. 




Si 


If 


31 




Do. 




5* 


2 


ai 




Do. 




51 


2l 


23 

^4 




Do. 




51 


2^ 


2 




Do. 




51 


2i 


2^ 




Do. 




51 


2 


21 




Do. 




51 




3 




Do. 




51 


2 i 


24 




Do. 




51 


2J 


2i 




Do. 




51 


2i 


2 




Do. 




51 


21 


3i 




Do. 




51 


2| 


il 




Do. 




51 




21 




Do. 




Si 




3 




Do. 




51 




3 




Do. 




51 


2| 


2g 


U 


janda 





i 7 8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



A 
greyer, 
Heieht 



The GAMBIAN ORIBI (Oribia nigricaudata). 
Bevsia, Hausa. 

species very close to the Abyssinian oribi, but of smaller size, 
and with a distinct black tip to the tail, as in the Cape species, 
at shoulder, 2 1 inches. 

Distribution. — The open country of Senegal and Nigeria. 



Length on 
front. 

4i 

4l 
44 

4t<T 

4i 
44 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
31 



Circum- 
ference. 

2i 
If 
If 
I| 
If 



14 



Tip to Tip. 

2 

2i 

2 
2 



Locality. 

Lake Chad 
N. Nigeria , 
Nigeria 

Do. 

Do. 
Gold Coast 
Nigeria 

Do. 

Do. 
Senegambia 
N. Nigeria 
Ashanti 



Owner. 

Capt. S. B. B. Dyer. 
Capt. T. N. Puckle. 
Capt. G. B. Scott. 

F. Dwyer. 

Capt. H. V. Bastow. 
Capt. B. E. Murray. 
Capt. H. A. Porter. 
Major J. A. Burdon. 
Capt. S. C. Peck. 

G. Fenwick Owen. 
Major E. M. Baker. 
D. H. M. Boyle. 



HAGGARD'S ORIBI (Oribia baggardi). 

Taya, Swahili. Nsilatso, Uganda. 

Distinguished from other oribis by the stouter horns, which are 
strongly ridged for rather more than the basal half of their length. 
Height at shoulder, about 24 inches. 

Distribution. — The coast districts of East Africa in the neighbourhood 
of Lamu. Some of the undermentioned specimens may belong to 
allied species. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


6| 


2* 


3 


East Africa . 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


6 


24 


2 h 


Do. 


PI. Twyford. 


51 


24 


2 


Tana Valley . 


Capt. J. Harington. 


5f 


2i 


2i 






54 




A 


Do. 


C. C. Bowring. 


54 


2i 


34 


Do. 




51 


2 


2g 


Tana Valley . 


Capt. Mackenzie Murray 


51 




2§ 


East Africa . 


. Dr. A. Paget. 


l sh 


2| 


2 


East Central Africa 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


l sh 


lit 


■^8 


North end of Lake 


Albert . Col. Trevor Ternan. 


54 


2 


3i 


East Africa . 


. Col. A. Colville. 



1 Determination provisional. 



sum 



179 




Head of Suni. Shot bv Mr. F. C. Selous. 



The SUNI (Neotragus moschatus). 

The elegant little antelopes included in the genus Neotragus are 
near relatives of the oribis, from which they are distinguished by 
the absence of a naked glandular patch below the ear and the want 
of lateral hoofs. They are further characterised by the horns being 
directed backwards nearly or quite in the plane of the face, as also 
by the large size of the open spaces in the skull in front of the sockets 
of the eyes, and the breadth of the nasal bones. In the present species 
the horns, although short, project behind the back of the head, are 
somewhat elevated above the plane of the forehead, and strongly and 
closely ridged, while the colour of the upper parts, inclusive of the tail- 
tip, is greyish fawn. Height at shoulder, 13 to 14 inches. 

Distribution. — Zanzibar, adjacent islets, and mainland coast from 
B.E. Africa, through Kilimanjaro, to Mozambique. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3i 


I* 


2 


Zanzibar 


Sir John Kirk. 


3i 


I| 


ii 


Do. 


British Museum (Capt. Speke). 


3i 


ii 


ii 


Do. 


British Museum (Sir John Kirk) 


m 


ii 


if 


Kikuyu . 


Master of Belhaven. 


ol 3 


if 


if 


Do. . 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


2| 


ii 


ii 


Near Nairobi . 


F. C. Selous. (See illustration. 








OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 


3S 


i| 


if 


Zanzibar 


Dr. Albert von Stephani. 


3§ 




i| 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 



i8o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Livingstone's Suni. 



LIVINGSTONE'S SUNI (Neotragus livingstonianus). 
Lumswi, Shupanga. Inhlengana, Amatonga. 

Distinguished from the preceding species by its slightly superior 
dimensions (height at shoulder, 14 to 15 inches), the longer and thicker 
horns, more rufous coloration, and the blackish upper surface of the tail. 

Two specimens killed by Mr. F. Vaughan Kirby measured — 

Male. Female. 



8 

3i 



ins. 



Extreme length over all, tip of nose to end of tail 27 
Length of tail ...... 

Perpendicular shoulder-height . . . 14^ „ 

Girth behind the shoulder . . . . 14^ „ 



25f 

3 
*3i 

i3| 



ins. 



Distribution. — South-East Africa, from Mozambique to Zululand ; the 
race from Zululand being distinguished as N. livingstonianus 
zuluensis. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


4l 


If 


4§ 


2h 


4t\ 




4i 


li 



Tip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 

1 1 Zambesia . . . Rowland Ward. 

Gungunyana's country British Museum (H. T. Glynn), 

ig Inhambani . . Major J. Stevenson-Hamilton. 

1 1 Delagoa Bay . . Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 



LIVINGSTONE'S SUNI 



Length on Circum- 
front. ference. 



43 
4 

4 

3s 7 

->3 
JI 

-.3 
J? 

ill 
JITS 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


I 


Delagoa Bay 


F. C. Selous. 


is 


Do. 


A. Torre do Valle. 


ii 


Do. 


A. F. Williams. 


12 


Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


If 


Zambesia . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


ai 


Delagoa Bay 


W. E. Butcher. 


2f\ 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



4^ 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

2j ? C. S. Mann. 

2\ ? Sir Abe Bailey. 



ii 



Delagoa Bay 



F. J. Newnham. 

Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




>.i£*$. 



Skull and Horns of Record Steinbok, the property of Mr. D. Mackintosh. 



The STEINBOK (Rhaphiceros campestris). 



Isha, Swahili. 

Ingaina, Swazi. 

Timba, Barotsi and Batoka. 



Impulupudi, Basuto. 
Phuduhudu, Bechuana. 
Umgwena, Matabili. 



From the other members of the oribi group the grysbok and its 
cousin the steinbok are readily distinguished by the absence of a bare 
ear-patch, and by horns rising nearly vertically from the skull, in which 
the open spaces below the eye-sockets are unusually small. As 
mentioned below, this species is at once distinguished from the 
grysbok by the absence of the lateral hoofs and the uniform colour 
of the coat. The general tint of the latter is bright sandy rufous, 
becoming richer on the head, with a black horseshoe-mark on the crown. 
Height at withers, about 22 inches. Weight, about 25 lbs. 

Distribution. — Africa south of the Zambesi on the east, and the Cuneni 
on the west, the north-east Transvaal race being separated as 
R. c. capricoruis, and coming nearer to the Nyasa R. c. nenmanni, 
which is paler. Probably owing to its small size, the steinbok has 
managed to escape the fate that has befallen so many South African 
antelopes. Wherever the traveller journeys on the veldt, he is 



STE INBOX 



183 



almost certain to meet this species, which may be regarded as the 
most familiar game-animal of the plains. Like many of its kin- 
dred, it is independent of water, and can exist in the heart of the 
Kalahari, where water may not occur for fifty miles. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


71 


ii 


32 


Cape Colony . 


D. Mackintosh. (See illustration.) 


6* 


2 


2| 


? 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


6 


2 


2* 


N. Transvaal . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


51 


if 


If 


East Africa . 


Percy C. Madeira. 


5tt 




2§ 


Near Middelburg . 


Major E. H. E. Abadie. 


51 


2 


l| ' 


South Africa . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


2 5i 




iA 


Kimberley 


F. C. Selous. 


5tV 




2| 


Cape Colony . 


British Museum. 


08 


2 


If 


East Africa . 


E. Gedge. 


51 


2l 


,3 
-s 


? 


G. B. Plumptre. 


51 




ii 


South Africa . 


J. B. Neilson. 


5i 


Ii 


2| 


Do. ... 


Capt. Lord R. Wellesley. 


5i 


iS 




East Africa . 


Capt. E. H. Sinkinson. 


51 


If ' 


2* 


Cape Colony . 


E. McClellan. 


51 


If 


IS 


East Africa . 


F. C. Selous. 


51 


If 


IS 


Do. 


Mrs. Percy C. Madeira. 


?5 






Do. ... 

1 Killed with hound; 


J. G. Millais. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



71 






Cape Colony . 




C. S. Mann. 


6| 






Graaf Reinet, 


C.C. 


American National Collection 


51 


ii 


3 


? 




Mr. Justice Hopley. 


51 


if 


ii 


? 




J. Whitaker. 


5S 


if 


*l 


? 




Major H. Chamney. 


51 


2 


Ii 


? 




Sir Abe Bailey.. 


51 


if 


If 


Griqualand, West . 


A. F. Williams. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Sharpe's Steinbok. 



I 
SHARPE'S STEINBOK (Rhaphiceros sharpei). 

This species has the white-speckled chestnut coat of a grysbok, 
coupled with the feet of a steinbok. The crown of the head has a 
crescent-shaped black mark ; and the large ears are very sparsely 
haired externally. 

Distribution. — Nyasaland and Rhodesia ; represented by a local race, 
R. s. colonials, in North-eastern Transvaal and Swaziland. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


2- 8 - 


I| 


If 


B.C. Africa . 


. H. S. Buist. 


z ? 


i/s 




Near Tete 


. D. D. Lyell. 


t5 
1 8 




If 


N.E. Rhodesia 


. Major L. Boyd-Moss. 


T 9 


Ih 


ii 


Lower Shire River 


Lord William Percy. 


ji 




2 


B.C. Africa . 


. R. C. Wood. 


T 1 
1 2 


lh 


2h 


Do. 


Dr. J. 0. Shircore. 


lh 


i* 


lh 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Marquis Pizzardi. 


H 


a 


If 


N.E. Rhodesia 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild 


Ik 


i% 


If 


B.C. Africa . 


L. Ii. Cripps. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

N.W. Rhodesia . . Dr. A. H. B. Kirkman, 
Do. . . C. S. Mann. 



GRYSBOK 



185 




Head of Steinbok. 



The GKRYSBOK (Rhaphiceros [Nototragus] melanotis). 

Isikupi, Basuto. Kulu, Makua. Timba, Chila. 

Grysbok retain the lateral hoofs, which have disappeared in steinbok, 
and are further distinguished by the fur showing a large admixture 
of white, instead of being uniformly coloured. Height at shoulder, 
22 inches. Weight, 24 lbs. The species has been made the type of 
a separate genus — Nototragus. 

Distribution. — South Africa, extending as far north as Natal 
and Mozambique. 



ingth on 


c 


rcum- 


front. 


fe 


rence. 


4s 




13 


\\ 




If 


41 






31 




if 


1 9 




If 


3i 




I* 



Tip to 


Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


is 




Cape Colony. 


R. A. Cooper. 


2 




Do. 


. Lieut. -Col. H. J. G. Lloyd. 


ii 




Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


II 




Knysna, C.C. 
Cape Colony . 


Commander the Hon. R. 0. B. 

Bridgeman, R.N. 
F. C. Selous. 


If 




Knysna 


. Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
1 J Cape Colony . . .P. C. Keytel. 



Caledon, C.C. 



South African Museum. 



1 36 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Klipspringer. 

The KLIPSPRINGER (Oreotragus saltator). 

Alaktid, Somali. Klipbok, Boer. 

Chipomco, Chilala. Ligoka, Zulu and Swazi. 

Chinkomo, Chinyanja. Njereri, Batoka. 

Ingululu, Makalaka. Sassa, Abyssinian. 

Ikumi, Basuto. Ngombani, Chila. 

Not only from the other members of the oribi group, but from 
antelopes of all kinds, the agile little klipspringer, or " rock-jumper," 
is distinguished by the peculiar conformation of its hoofs and the 
structure of its hair. The former are large, cylindrical, blunt, and so 
situated in regard to the rest of the limb that the animal walks on 
what corresponds to their tips in other antelopes, the whole hoof thus 
rising vertically from the ground. As regards the hair, this may best 
be compared with that of the musk-deer, having the same brittle, 
pithy structure. Lateral hoofs are retained ; the tail is reduced to a 
mere rudimentary stump ; and the horns of the bucks rise nearly 
vertically from the head, with a slight forward curvature, and are 
ringed for their basal third. The hairs are olive-grey tipped with 
golden yellow, thus giving the characteristic speckled hue to the 
coat. Height at shoulder, from about 20 to 22 inches. 

Distribution. — Mountainous and rocky districts in South and East 
Africa, from the Cape northwards to Nigeria in the west and 
Abyssinia in the east. The species has been divided into several 
local races of which the typical southern one has relatively short 
ears, with little black on them. In the East African O. s. schillingsi 
the females carry horns ; the Nigerian race is O. s. porteousi. 



KLIPSPRINGER 



187 



Length on 
front. 


Circum 
ference 


s*t 


2i 


,-1 

32 


2| 


5i 


2 


5i 


2j 


54 


2 


4l 


if 


4S 


2 



4S 
4s 
4* 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 

4/0 

4f 

4l 

4i 

4§ 
4l 

44 
44 

44 
4 
94 
3§ 

3J 

ii 1 
6tg 

9 3* 



2i 



2* 

24 

ii 

2* 



2 
24 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


I| 


N.E. Rhodesia 


x 8 


P.E. Africa . . 


24 


N.E. Rhodesia ' . 


2± 


Swaziland 


2i 


Lebombo Mts. 


2§ 


East Africa . 


24 


Nyasaland 


24 


Rhodesia 


24 


East Africa . 


2 H 


Witberg, Cape Colony . 


23 


N.E. Rhodesia 


24 


? 


If 


S. Rhodesia . 


34 


East Africa . 


2g 


Do. . . . 


24 


B.C. Africa . 


24 


E. Mashonaland . 


2i 


Matabililand 


2± 


N.E. Rhodesia 


^8 


East Africa . 


24 


Do. ... 


2 


Somaliland . 


2§ 


Do. . . . 


2i 


Do. . 


If 


North Nyasaland . 


2 


Sudan : 


24 


East Africa . 


24 


Abyssinia 


24 


Do. . . . 


2§ 


N. Nigeria . 


2 


East Africa . 



P. M. Stewart. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Dr. F. O. Stoehr. 

C. H. Taylor. 

R. T. Coryndon. 

Capt. W. B. Brook. 

J. Stewart Wells. 

Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 

Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 

H. A. Bryden. 

Major L. Boyd- Moss. 

Capt. J. Harington. 

Major L. Williams. 

E. Gedge. 

Sir Owen Philipps. 

E. Homer. 

F. C. Selous. 
Hon. R. A. Ward. 
H. Cookson. 

W. H. Levy. 

G. B. Blackwell. 
Capt. C. Steele. 

Capt. R. A. McClymont. 

A. de L. Long. 

James Yule. 

Major PI. H. S. Morant. 

Capt. R. Hall. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

J. H. Miller. 

British Museum (Dr. E. J. 

Porteous). 
Stephenson R. Clarke. 



51 
?4l 



24 

2 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
3 Transvaal . . . C. S. Mann. 



il 



East Africa 



Capt. R. S. Hart. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Frontlet and Horns of Waterbuck. 



The WATERBUCK (Cobus ellipsiprymnus). 



Chuzu, Chilala and Chizenga. 
Kring-gaat, Boer. 
Li Tumogha, Matabili. 
Mukulo, Chila. 



M 'dongoma or Matutwi, Barotsi. 
Kuru, Swahili. 
Tumoga, Bechuana. 
Na'Toro, M'Kua. 



The waterbucks and their smaller allies the kobs, together with the 
reedbucks and vaal rhebok, constitute a well-defined group of large or 
medium-sized African antelopes presenting the following characteristics. 
They have the muzzle naked, rudimentary face-glands, a moderately 
long tail, well-developed lateral hoofs, and the horns confined to the 
bucks. In shape and size the horns are variable, being either long or 
medium, but never spirally twisted, and always with smooth tips, below 
which they are ridged ; usually they are at first inclined somewhat 
backwards, after which they are curved upwards and more or less for- 
wards, although they may have a sinuous curvature, and in the vaal 
rhebok are straight. The upper cheek-teeth are tall and narrow. In the 
waterbucks and kobs, which include the largest representatives of the 



WATERBUCK 189 

group, there are no naked patches on the head below the ears, the tail 
is comparatively long, with a slight terminal tuft, and the lateral hoofs 
are large. A characteristic feature of the skull is the presence of a 
deep hollow in the forehead. From its allies the true or common 
waterbuck is recognisable at a glance by the elliptical white ring on the 
buttocks, which extends downwards to the thighs. Height at shoulder, 
from 48 to 53 inches. Weight, about 360 lbs. clean. 

Distribution. — Africa north of the Limpopo along the eastern coast 
region as far as the Shebeyli River in Somaliland ; thus including 
Nyasaland and British and German East Africa. Its present strong- 
holds are the districts between the Sabi and Zambesi, the affluents 
of the latter, and the Chobi, Okavango, and other rivers above 
Lake Ngami ; it occurs locally in Mozambique and Portuguese 
Amatongaland ; but in Barotsiland, N. W. Rhodesia, it is stated to 
be replaced by the defassa. White waterbuck, with eyes of normal 
colour, occur on the Guasu - nyero, near the Lorian swamp, 
B.E. Africa. Numerous local races have been named. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


36^ 


8| 


2o£ 


Delagoa Bay . 


American National Collection. 


35 


9l 


i6| 


Sabi River 


Major J. Stevenson Hamilton. 


JJ2 


9i 


2I2 


S.E. Africa 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


33 


8! 


22§ 


Nyasaland 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


33 


91 


IlJ 


Mashonaland . 


British Museum (F. C. Selous). 


33 


8| 


24 


Do. 


. J. G. Millais. 


32| 


9S 


2l| 


South Africa . 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 


32| 


8| 


25i 


N. Transvaal . 


Major F. W. Jarvis. 


3 2 i 


9h 


2 9h 


N.W. Rhodesia 


R. T. Coryndon. 


32 


10 


2.2.h 


Rhodesia 


Val Gielgud. 


3if 


9i 


24 


Zululand 


Major L. O. Williams. 


3if 


11 


i8| 


N.W. Rhodesia 


. J. H. Leche. 


3if 
3i* 


81 
9i 


22^ 
I3i 


P.E. Africa . 
Do. 


British Museum (the late Rowland 

Ward). 
J. Pinto Leite. 


3ii 


9 


23i 


Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


3i± 


9 


16 


East Africa 


A. Saunderson. 


3H 


IO| 


13I 


Pungwe . 


Earl of Dunmore. 


3iJ 


98 


i9i 


South Africa . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



190 






RECORDS OF 


BIG GAME 


Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 

Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


31 


9* 


22 


Zululand 


R. D. Talbot. 


31 


9* 


15 


Rhodesia 


. A. W. Griffin. 


31 


8f 


32 


Zambesia 


R. H. Storey. 


31 


9i 


22 


Mashonaland . 


. F. C. Selous. 


3°T 


9i 


27 


E. C. Africa 


C. E. Dashwood. 


30| 


9± 


24i 


Ngamiland 


Mervyn G. Williams. 


30| 


8 


23i 


Pungwe . 


Col. Lord Douglas Compton 


3 U 4 


8i 


24^ 


Do. . 


. J. C. Phillips. 


3°i 


8| 


25 


Nyasaland 


S. Robins. 


29I 


9 


i5i 


Rhodesia 


C. W. Adams. 


29I 


8| 


25 


East Africa 


. J. Giffard. 


29 


9 


10 


P.E. Africa . 


R. Elliott-Cooper. 


29 


81 


3 2 4 


Do. 


Rhys Williams. 


29 


9i 


26 


East Africa 


E. Gedge. 


29 


9 


23I 


S.E. Africa 


R. E. Critchley-Salmonson. 


29 


9i 


i6| 


East Africa 


. Col. W. H. Williams. 


28! 


8* 


23 


Lake Baringo . 


H. Hyde-Baker. 


28| 


8i- 


8i 


P.E. Africa . 


Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


28I 


ioi 


i3i 


Rhodesia 


Dr. Sauer. 


281 


io| 


22J 


Do. 


W. Harcourt Webb. 


28! 


10 


i5i 


S.E. Africa . 


. H. W. Elliott. 


284 


9i 


20| 


N.E. Rhodesia 


F. H. Melland. 


28J 


9l 


IO 


East Africa 


G. de P. Colvile. 


27I 


8 


18 


Somaliland 


A. E. Butter. 


27 


8| 


2li 


Gallaland 


Ivor Buxton. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



36f 




39 


? 




C. S. Mann. 


35i 


9 


14 


? 




Mr. Justice Hopley. 


34^ 
33 


83 


17} 


Limpopo Valley, 
Africa 
Do. 


S.E. 


H. T. and A. H. Glynn 
A. Ohlsson. 


3*i 


H 


2I| 


North of Pungwe 




Count E. Hoyos. 


3i* 


9 


17 


? 




Sir Abe Bailey. 



DEFASSA 



191 




Skull and Horns of Defassa Waterbuck, in the Tervueren Museum. 



The DEFASSA or SING- SING WATERBUCK (Cobus defassa). 



Defassa, Abyssinian. 
Gururnes, Galla. 
Nsama, Waganda. 



Pz'or, Dinka. 
Katambur, Sudani. 
Kuril, Swahili. 



Distinguished from the typical waterbuck by the general presence 
of a large white patch on the lower part of the buttocks, instead of a 
white elliptical ring extending higher up. Several local races of this 
species have been named. Among these, the West African or sing-sing 
(C. d. unctuosus), of Senegal, Nigeria, etc., is characterised by its rufous 
colour and the small amount of white in the region of the eye ; 
Crawshay's defassa (C. d. crawsJiayi), from Nyasaland, has a dusky 
coloration and shorter horns ; while in the Angola defassa (C. d. 
penricei), from the interior of Benguela, Angola, the general colour is so 
dark as to appear almost black at a distance. Then follows the typical 
Abyssinian defassa {C. d. typicus), from Western Abyssinia, but generally 
stated to extend through Sennar, Kordofan, and the valley of the White 



192 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Nile to British and German East Africa. The ears are longer and more 
pointed, and there is more white in the region of the eye than in the 
preceding races ; the general colour being brownish rufous. Nearly 
allied are C. d. matschiei of Lake Abaya and C. d. ugandce, of Uganda ; 
the latter characterised by its bright rufous colour, especially on the fore- 
head, and having the finest horns of all. Many other names have been 
given to local forms. 

^.—ABYSSINIAN DEFASSA (C. defassa typicus). 1 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


34* 


8* 


18 


White Nile 


i G. W. Egerton. 


-33* 






Bahr-el-Ghazal . 


. A. L. Butler. 


-334 


84 


324 


G.E. Africa 


. S. E. White. 


33i 


8* 


254 


Sudan 


. Capt. C. E. Hills. 


33* 


84 


193 


Pibor River 


Capt. H. V. Venables Kyrke 


33 


8 


17 


Sudan 


Lord Desborough. 


33 


9 


314 


East Africa 


■ J- J a > T White. 




S3 


22 


Do. 


Hon. H. Brougham. 


32| 


H 


21* 


Sudan 


N. C. Cockburn. 


3 z h 


Si 


18* 


Bahr-el-Ghazal . 


. R. Colville. 


32i 


9 


i8| 


Do. 


Capt. E. P. Blencowe. 


32* 


8| 


25S 


Do. 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


3 2 2 


84 


18 


Sudan 


. Major P. M. Dove. 


32* 


8| 


20* 


Do. 


A. J. Grieve. 


32i 


8| 


3° 


East Africa 


. Baron M. de Rothschild. 


32i 


8S 


24f 


Dinder Valley . 


. C. E. Russell. 


32* 


9* 


I7S 


Abyssinia Border 


. Capt. J. A. Pollock. 


32* 


8 


204 


Sudan 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon 


32 


9 


224 


Bahr-el-Ghazal . 


Lieut. -Col. G. Christian. 


32 


9 


20 


Sudan 


Major C. S. Cumberland. 


32 


9 


26| 


Do. . 


. C. E. Oakley. 


31! 


8S 


164 


Do. . . . 


. Capt. J. P. V. Hawksley. 


3i* 


8 


15* 


Do. . . . 


F. W. Greswolde-Williams. 


3*1 


8 


20| 


Do. . . . 


. S. H. Whitbread. 


3i* 


10* 


22| 


East Africa 


. E. H. Litchfield. 


3i* 


91 


"3 


Do. 


Major G. A. Swinton Home. 


3i* 


7* 


24 


Sudan 


Capt. E. C. Hamilton. 


3i 


9 


20 


East Africa 


B. Dominick. 


3i 


84 


174 


Sudan 


Earl of Kingston. 


3i 


84 


I4l 


Do. . . . 


. Lieut. -Col. J. W. Yardley. 


31 


9i 


184 


East Africa 


. N. E. F. Corbet. 


3°i 


84 


34 


Sudan 


. W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 


3°! 


94 


15 


Do. . . . 


. E. M. Tabor. 



- Owner's measurements. 
1 Inclusive of the large number of local forms named by Dr. Matschie. 



DEFASSA 



i93 



lgth on 
-ont. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 




3°3 


II 


284 


East Africa 




3°i 


IO 


I2| 


Do. 




3°3 


10J 


20f 


Do. 




3°i 


84 


24 


Dinder Valley 




3o| 


8| 


20 


Sudan 




30! 


8| 


21 


? 




3°i 


10 


16 


East Africa 




3°i 


8| 


174 


Sudan 




305 


83 


94 


Do. 




30^ 


9i 


IS* 


Do. 




30i 


8f 


25 


East Africa 




30I 


9g 


16 


Do. 




30i 


9i 


143 


Do. 




3°4 


8i 


194 


Sudan 




3oi 


8J 


28J 


Do. 




3°£ 


8 


184 


Do. 




3oi 


8 


194 


Do. 




3°i 


10 


213 


East Africa 




3°i 


91 


13I 


Do. 




3°1 


9l 


124 


Do. 




3° 


8i 


iS 


Sudan 




30 


84 


304 


Do. 




3° 


84 


21 


Do. 




30 


8| 


16 


Do. 




30 


9 ' 


12 


East Africa 




30 


ioi 


15 


Do. 




30 


94 


18 


Do. 




30 


8 


ioi 


Do. 




30 


81 


21* 


Sudan 




3° 


93 


12 


Do. 




29I 


94 


I 4 4 


East Africa 




2,9! 


9* 


20| 


Do. 




29I 


84 


214 


Do. 




29S 


83 


1 51 


Sudan 




29! 


83 


18 


Do. 






293 


Si 


12 


Do. 






29! 


83 


163 


Do. 






29i 


H 


214 


Do. 






29? 


91 


23± 


Do. 






294 


83 


17 


Do. 






2 94 


8| 


i8g 


Do. 






2 9i 


94 


i8| 


Do. 






2 94 


10 


20 


East Africa 




2 94 


9 


194 


Do. 




29h 


83 


15 


Do. 




2 94 


10 


154 


Do. 







Owner. 

W. N. McMillan. 

Duke of Alba. 

H. Sampson. 

Lord Villiers. 

Capt. Lord R. Innes-Ker. 

N. E. Waterfield. 

H. G. Watson. 

W. D. Roberts. 

N. Macklin. 

Major F. F. Carroll. 

Earl of Warwick. 

Capt. H. C. S. Ashton. 

J. G. Millais. 

Major R. M. Sanders. 

R. H. Willan. 

Col. A. Colville. 

W. Mure. 

Gerard Buxton. 

Capt. R. Clemm. 

G. P. L. Cosens. 

R. McD. Hawker. 

Capt. O. C. Downes. 

Capt. G. S. Nickerson. 

Capt. H. Craufurd. 

Duke of Medinaceli. 

R. B. Loder. 

Sutton Timmis. 

H. Fowler. 

C. C. Branch. 

W. R. Rhinelander Stewart. 

S. S. Steel. 

A. G. Murray Smith. 

F. C. Havemeyer. 
Major A. J. B. Percival. 
Capt. E. S. Stephenson. 

G. Munn. 
C. A. Munn. 

Capt. R. F. Balfour. 

W. H. Lindsay. 

Capt. C. Leigh. 

Capt. the Hon. M. P. Macnaghten. 

Capt. J. G. A. Massy. 

O. Mosley. 

G. P. Gough. 

W. Sewall. 

Capt. M. L. Pears. 

O 



194 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



ngth on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


29! 


9 


i7i 


2 9h 


9i 


19I 


29h 


9 


22 


29J 


8 


21 


29i 


7S 


33 


29i 


8* 


r6| 


29i 


9i 


24 


29i 


9§ 


19 


29i 


S 


I0§ 


29i 


9 


2I| 


29i 


82 


231 


29i 


9 


17 


29i 


9 


i9i 


29i 


94 


ill 



Locality 




Owner. 


East Africa 


A. Vonwiller. 


Do. 




. G. de P. Colvile. 


Sudan 




. Major C. P. B. Wood. 


Do. 






C. R. Gurney. 


Do. 






Major the Hon. H. Fraser 


Do. 






. F. L. Slade. 


Do. 






Capt. P. M. Larken. 


Do. 






Norman B. Smith. 


Do. 






. H. W. Thornton. 


Do. 






A. Robinson. 


Do. 






. C. D. Eyre. 


East Africa 




Sir Kenneth Crossley. 


Do. 




Viscount Ennismore. 


Do. 






Sir H. Seton Karr. 



B.— UGANDA DEFASSA (C. defassa ugandse). 



,ength on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


37i 
36! 


8| 

9l 


25l 
36 


Kivu District . . . Tervueren Museum. (See illus- 
tration. ) 
Nr. Lake Albert Edward . A. F. R. Wollaston. 


36| 


9 


20J 


Do. 


F. A. Knowles. 


36S 


H 


19! 


Semliki Valley . 


Duke of Peneranda. 


3 35i 


10 J 


22| 


Uganda 


Major de Courcy Ireland. 


35 


9i 


29| 


Lake George 


. Col. C. F. Blane. 


34l 


9* 


22j 


Do. 


. Dr. H. B. Owen. 


34 1 


9i 


35i 


Semliki Valley . 


The late G. G. Longden. 


34i 


8f 


27 


Uganda 


British Museum (Sir F. J. Jackson). 


34i 


10& 


i8J 


Edward Nyanza . 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


34i 


10 


32 


Uganda 


Capt. R. H. Leeke. 


34i 


IO^ 


23^ 


Semliki Valley . 


Hon. G. Legge. 


34i 


9i 


3ii 


Uganda 


Douglas M'Douall. 


34^ 
338 


8| 

8i 


20J 

27I 


Toru, Uganda 
Do. 


. British Museum (Sir H. H. 
Johnston). 
Sir F. J. Jackson. 


33i 


9i 


17 


Lado . 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


33i 


10 


29I 


Semliki Valley . 


G. Blaine. 


33i 


9 


i9i 


Uganda 


E. Canaple. 


33i 


9h 


22| 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3 2 l 


9 


i8| 


Do. 


H. Twyford. 


32I 


H 


27S 


Semliki Valley . 


. Col. R. Bright. 


32i 


10 j 


18 


E. Congo . 


. Hon. M. W. Elphinstone. 


32£ 


9 


194 


Edward Nyanza . 


. Mrs. P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


32 


9i 


22 


Semliki Valley 


R. de la Huerta. 


3i| 


9 


21 


Do. 


. Major R. A. Markham. 


3i4 


10 


26J 


Do. 


D. Carruthers. 


3ii 


91 


21 


Gondokoro 


Major A. W. Jennings Bramly. 



1 In collection of Sir Hy. E 



M. James. 



DEFASSA 



i95 



C— RHODESIAN DEFASSA (0. defassa crawshayi). 



Idcitivi, Barotsi. 



Ingonduma, Matoko. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


29 


9 


22 


Lake Mweru 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


271 


8i 


20 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Capt. C. G. Leslie. 


2 7i 


7% 


I2j 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


G. Sandeman. 


274 


9 


12 


Do. 


. P. M. Stewart. 


27i 


8 


i6| 


Lake Mweru 


. K. C. North. 


27 


9i 


i7i 


Do. 


. Capt. H. E. Hambro. 


27 


9l 


12 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Capt. J. F. Laycock. 


27 


81 


i7fi 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. W. A. Conduitt. 


?6| 


Si 


13I 


Do. 


. Capt. L. E. H. Molyneux-Seel 


26| 


9 


I3i 


Nyasaland 


. L. H. Cripps. 


26| 


9 


i5i 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. Major L. Boyd-Moss. 



Z>. —WESTERN DEFASSA, or SING -SING (0. defassa unctuosus). 

Dadoko and Gwombaza, Hausa. Sing-sing, Gambian. 

Height at shoulder, 47 to 48 ins. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


311 

29f 

292 


io£ 
71 ' 


I9l 
2I| 

23 


Sierra Leone 
N. Nigeria 
Nigeria 


C. Cary Barnard. 
. Capt. N. K. Street. 
. Maj.-Gen. P. S. Wilkinson. 


29i 

28£ 

281 


.8i 

H 

8 


174 

i9i 

i8| 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


R. Marmon. 
Capt. A. C. Aubin. 
. Capt. H. T. G. Moore. 


28 


8 


i7i 


Sierra Leone 


Major W. Gillman. 


27S 


8 


15 


Gambia 


. H. North. 


278 
2 7i 


Si 
7h 


i7i 

12 


Nigeria 
Do. . . . 


. W. F. Gowers. 

Lady Constance Stewart Richardson 


27 
26| 


8 
8 


141 

1 74 


Do. 

Senegambia 


. Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 
G. Fenwick Owen. 


26^ 

26 


7 
7h 


191 

i9i 


Gold Coast 

Nigeria 


. Capt. P. J. Mackesy. 
. Major E. M. Baker. 



£".— ANGOLA DEFASSA (0. defassa penricei). 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


29 
28| 

25i 

24i 


8| 
71 
Sf 
8 


i8i 

IO| 

9i 


28i 


8| 


20 


28J 


Si 


"4 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Benguela . . . . G. W. Penrice. 

Do. .... Major Boyd A. Cuninghame. 

Do W. C. Neilson. 

Do Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS 

Benguela . . . . E. P. Cooper. 

Do A. Ohlsson. 



196 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head and Fore-quarters of Lechwe. From a photograph by 
Mr. Poulett-Weatherley. 



The LECHWE (Cobus [Onotragus] leche). 



Umbundu, Angola. 
Lechivi, Barotsi and Ngami. 
Mumembi (male), Ngia (female), 
Chilala and Chibisa. 



Lechi or Li-gwi, Makololo. 

Ijiya, Masubia. 

Unya, Makuba. 

Bainanja, Mushu Kulumbwi. 



Naz/ij'a, Chi la. 

In this antelope the horns are relatively long, considerably exceed- 
ing twice the length of the head, and show a tendency to a double 
curvature ; the front of the fore-legs is black, and the hair is long and 
coarse. Height at shoulder, 40 or 41 inches. 

Like the puku, this antelope was discovered by Livingstone and his 
companions Oswell and Murray during their journey to Lake Ngami 
in 1849. In point of size it approximates to the true waterbucks. 



LECHWE 197 

The general colour is fulvous, of a lighter tint than in the Uganda 
kob. 

Seldom found very far from water, this antelope is most abundant 
in the lagoons and swamps formed by the annual rising of the Upper 
Zambesi, the Botletli, Chobi, Tamulakan, and other rivers of the interior, 
in localities where the surrounding flats are inundated for some part of 
the year. Lechwe seldom venture into the deep rivers from fear of the 
crocodiles, but frequent the reed-beds, shallow lagoons, and flooded 
flats, and in the less accessible regions frequently occur in vast herds. 
Excellent swimmers they progress by a succession of splashing bounds 
at great speed through the lagoons and shallows. They are extremely 
tenacious of life. 

Distribution. — Zambesia, Barotsiland, and Nyasaland. 



:ngth on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


34i 


H 


I4§ 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


0. C. Bevan. 


33 


9 


i9i 


Do. 


Major G. A. Swinton Home. 


33 


85 


26 


Do. 


. Major P. G. A. Cox. 


32i 


8 


29i 


Do. 


. R. C. Wood. 


32i 


7S 


i 9 | 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


32^ 


«4 


1 Si 


Do. 


Earl of Kingston. 


32i 


9k 


26i 


Do. 


C. M. Rolker. 


3ii 


8 


22 


Do. 


Hon. Guy Wilson. 


3ii 


7 


18 


Do. 


Col. C. Harding. 


3ii 


8 


I9l 


Do. 


. Capt. A. Willis. 


3ii 


8| 


2ll 


Do. 


Major G. J. Fitzgerald. 


3ii 


s§ 


2 4 i 


Do. 


. Capt. F. W. Reichwald. 


3ii 


8J 


22^ 


Do. 


. Capt. F. 0. Grenfell. 


3i 


8 


i8i 


Do. 


A. de L. Long. 


3i 


H 


23i 


Do. 


W. H. Rawnsley. 


3i 


8| 


13 


Do. 


P. K. Glazebrook. 


3°S 


8 


25i 


Do. 


. G. de P. Colvile. 


305 


8 


r8| 


Do. 


. Lieut. -Col. R. W. R. Barnes. 


3°i 


7i 


251 


Do. 


. H. M. P. Hewett. 


30f 


H 


i9i 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


3°i 


8 


20| 


Do. 


. Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


3°i 


8i 


21* 


Do. 


. G. F. Watherston. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



;ngth on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


3°i 


8 


19} 


N.W. Rhodesia 


3° 


8 


25S 


Do. 


3° 


Si 


20i 


Nyasaland . 


29! 


8i 


iSf 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


29I 


8 


20| 


Do. 


29I 


8i 


i7i 


Do. 


295 


71 


I5l 


Do. 


291 


8i 


20| 


Do. 


29 


8 


i9i 


Do. 


29 


8 


i6i 


Do. 


28| 


8 


28J 


Do. 


28| 


71 


12^ 


Do. 


28| 


8 


18 


Do. 


28| 


§i 


16 


Do. 


28| 


7i 


21 


Do. 


28| 


8 


28 


Do. 


28S 


Si 


26| 


Do. 


28J 


6i 


18 


Do. 


28J 


8 


. 171 


Do. 


28 


74 


i7i 


Do. 


27I 


8 


6 


Ngamiland . 


2 7i 


7h 


14I 


Do. . 


27i 


1 of 


I9s 


Chobi Valley 


27h 


8 


2oJ 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


271 


8 


i7i 


Chobi Valley 


27i 


Si 


12 


Do. 



Owner. 

Capt. Viscount Bury. 
. V. F. Bishop. 
. J. H. Hayes. 

Capt. G. M. Lumsden. 

Duke of Westminster. 
. B. Ryan. 
. Sir J. Walton, Bart. 

Major J. Carden. 
. P. B. Vander Byl. 

Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 

R. T. Coryndon. 

. H. H. Williams. 

. Capt. P. R. Bald. 

. T. D. M. Cardeza. 

Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 
Capt. J. F. Laycock. 

Hon. Mrs. Guy Wilson. 

Dr. Russell. 

R. D. Waterhouse. 

R. Beaumont. 

A. G. Stigand. 

. F. T. Garbutt. 

British Museum (F. C. Selous). 

Lord H. Seymour. 

R. Campbell Heathcote. 

Capt. C. G. Leslie. 



34it 

33i 

33i 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
17 N.W. Rhodesia . . A. Faulkener. 



26ij 

27 



Lake Bangweolo 
N.W. Rhodesia . 



Poulett- Weather ley. 
Major W. Q. Winwood. 



In the Field of September 17, 1910 (vol. cxvi. p. 551), Mr. H. W. 
Martin states that he once came across a herd of white lechwe with 
black points, of which one was killed, but the skin subsequently lost. 
The locality is not mentioned. 



BLACK LECH WE 



199 




Head of Black Lechwe. 



The BLACK LECHWE (Cobus [Onotragus] smithemani). 

Nearly allied to the last, of which it may be only a local race, but 
the upper-parts of adult males blackish brown, and the horns with a 
more distinct double curvature. 
Distribution. — Lake Mweru district, and thence to Lake Bangweolo, 

North-east Rhodesia. A North Rhodesian black lechwe has been 

separated as C. robertsi. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


29! 


71 


19 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


J. E. Hughes. 


25i 


7 


I9l 


Do. 


P. M. Stewart. 


-24s 


7i 


15 


Do. 


C. S. Mann. 


244 


7 


I 4 1 


Lake Bangweolo . 


Claude Francis. 


23I 


1\ 


20| 


Do. 


Earl of Kingston. 


232 


7k 


I2§ 


Do. 


Major L. Boyd-Moss. 


23 2 


71 


I3i 


Do. 


Capt. S. H. Christy. 


232 


6| 


22| 


Do. 


J. Turner. 


23i 


7i 


Il| 


Do. 


Hon. W. Guinness. 


23? 


7 


I3l 


Do. 


W. A. Conduitt. 


2 3i 


Si 


US 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild 


23? 


6£ 


17 


Do. 


P. K. Glazebrook. 


22| 


6§ 


1 31 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


R. Hayne. 


22| 


7l 


i7i 


Do. 


A. de L. Long. 


22f 


6| 


«i 


Do. 


G. F. Watherston. 


22| 


61 


1 Si 


Do. 


F. H. Melland. 


22 


7 


16 


Do. 


Capt. J. Harington. 


22 


7h 


"1 


Do. 


O. L. Beringer. 



Owner's measurements. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Mrs. Gray's Lech we. 



MRS. GRAY'S LECHWE (Cobus [Onotragus] maria). 

This handsome species is distinguished by the long, slender, doubly 
curved horns, ridged nearly to the tips, and the blackish brown body- 
colour of the old bucks ; the dark colour being relieved by a whitish 
patch in front of the withers, the yellowish white ears, a yellowish 
white patch in front of and behind each eye, and the yellowish muzzle, 
chin, and lower part of the throat. The limbs and much of the under- 
pays are wholly dark-coloured. Coat long and rough. Height at 
shoulder, about 38 inches. Young males and females of all ages are 
chestnut-coloured. 

It seems not improbable that Mrs. Gray's lechwe is the supreme 
development of the lechwe stock (with which it agrees in its long, 
rough coat) ; thus occupying a position analogous to that held by the 
white-eared kob as compared with Buffon's kob. The black lechwe 
forms in some respect a connecting link between the true lechwe and 



MRS. GRAY'S LECH WE 201 

the present animal, in which the extreme blackness is doubtless due to 
the hot, moist climate of the Bahr-el-Ghazal. 

Distribution. — The swamps bordering the White Nile and its 

tributaries. 



^ength on 
front. 


Circum 
ference 


34* 


63 


-33i 




32I 


6* 


-32§ 




32i 


n 


32 


63 


311 


6i 


-3ii 


7i 


3i4 


6| 


31 


7h 


3i 


H 


3°i 


7 


3°i. 


7 


3°i 


- 


1P\ 


7 


30 


7 


30 


H 


29S 


6 5 


29S 


7f 


29I 


6i 


29s 


7i 


29i 


7i 


293 


72 


29i 


7i 


*9i 


7 


2 9 | 


6§ 


29 


71 


29 


7 


29 


7 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


24 


Sudan 




Do. . 


18 


Do. . . . 




Do. . . . 


i6£ 


Do. . 




Near Junction of Bahr- 
el-Gebel and White 
Nile 



194 


? 


i8i 


Bahr-el-Ghazal . 


n| 


Do. 


194 


Sobat-Pibor District 


214 


? 


21* 


Bahr-el-Ghazal . 


14 


Do. 


9 


Do. 


Ml 


Bahr-el-Zaref 


142 


Do. 


14* 


Do. 


ioi 


White Nile 


i/l 


Do. 


12 


Do. 


16 


Do. 


i9i 


Do. 




Do. 


i7i 


Sudan 


20| 


Do. 


I2§ 


Do. 


I2| 


Do. 


16 


Tonga Island, White 




Nile 


24i 


Sudan 



Owner. 
J. C. Phillips. 
Lieut. W. Scott-Hill, R.N. 
Col. A. Colville. 
C. S. Mann. 
Sir Abe Bailey. 
Major H. N. Dunn. 

R. H. Willan. 

Sir W. Garstin. 

Norman B. Smith. 

Capt. J. A. Pollock. 

Col. J. J. Asser. 

Capt. A. H. Vivian. 

Capt. H. Gordon. 

R. A. Colvin. 

Capt. C. E. Hills. 

Major W. H. Drake. 

H. St. C. Garrood. 

Major P. M. Dove. 

Countess of Sefton. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

C. H. Goschen. 

Major A. W. Jennings Bramly. 

N. C. Cockburn. 

Capt. C. Hankey. 

Duke of Alba. 

G. L. Wingrield. 

Col. E. G. T. Bainbridge. 

Col. W. Hayes-Sadler. 

G. W. Egerton. 



- Owner's measurements. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Western Kob. Shot by Lady Constance Stewart Richardson 
in Nigeria. 



THE KOB (Cobus [Adenota] cob). 
Maria^ Hausa. 

There is little doubt of the existence of a more or less complete 
gradation from the wholly fulvous typical or Buffon's kob to the 
white-eared kob, in which the general colour of old bucks is blackish 
brown. The simpler form and smaller size of the horns affords a 
sufficient distinction from C. maria. 

Distribution. — The Forest Zone and Swamps of the White Nile. 

.4.— WESTERN RACES (C. cob typicus), etc. 1 

This race has the back of the ears rufous like the body : the horns 
are less than twice the length of the head, the hair is short, and the front 
of the fore-legs black. The approximate height at the shoulder is 
from 32 to 35 inches. 

Distribution. — Gambia to Nigeria and Lake Chad district. 

1 Several allied races have been described from the Lake Chad (Shari) district, which are included under the 
present heading. 



KOB 



203 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


22^ 


7 


"I 


N. Nigeria 


22§ 


/s 


71 


Do. 


22 


6| 


u| 


Do. 


2I| 


71 


10 


Do. 


2li 


74 


94 


Do. 


21 


64 


84 


Do. 


21 


6 


144 


Do. 


20| 


64 


93 


French Congo 


20^ 


6| 


104 


Nigeria . 


20j 


7i 


10 


Lake Chad 


-20\ 


7 


74 


Nigeria . 


20| 


6* 


124 


Do. . 


20 


7 


7 


Do. . 


20 


7 


73 


Do. . 


20 


6fi 


63 


Lake Chad 


20 


7i 


144 


Do. 


20 


7 


104 


Nigeria . 


19! 


7 


34 


Do. . 


I9l 


71 


9 


Lake Chad 


I9| 


6i 


74 


Nigeria . 


19! 


64 


8 


Do. . 


I9i 


64, 


64 


Do. . 


194 


6 


14! 


N. Nigeria 


i 9 i 


64 


54 


S. Nigeria 


I9± 


7 


85. 


N. Nigeria 


I9i 


6 


ii4 


Do. 


i 9 4 


64 


64 


Do. 


i9i 


63 


13 


Lake Chad 


I9i 


6| 


II 


N. Nigeria 


19 


6| 


134 


Lake Chad 


19 


64 


II 


Do. 


19 


6£ 


83 


Nigeria . 


19 


64 


93 


Do. . 


i8£ 


6 


5l 


Gambia . 


i7l 


53 


64 


S. Nigeria 


174 


64 


iof 


Sierra Leone . 


i7i 


6 


8| 


Portuguese Guinea . 


i6| 


6 


log 


Sierra Leone . 


i6g 


64 


91 


Portuguese Guinea . 


i5i 


6 


73 


Senegambia 


15 


54 


53 


Gold Coast 



Owner. 

Major E. M. Baker. 

Capt. G. Bonham-Carter. 

E. H. M. Bennett. 

J. Goold Adams. 

Capt. L. C. Brodie. 

Dr. C. W. O'Keefe. 

Lady Constance Stewart Richardson. 

W. S. Race. 

Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 

Capt. L. C. Jackson. 

Capt. P. Chapman. 

Capt. A. B. Baillie-Hamilton. 

W. F. Gowers. 

Sir E. Stewart Richardson, Bart. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Major J. B. Cockburn. 

C. S. Burnett. 

Major Lord J. S. Cavendish. 

Maj.-Gen. T. L. N. Morland. 

Major A. H. Festing. 

Major T. Astley Cubitt. 

Capt. R. W. Fox. 

L. C. Murray. 

Capt. W. V. Nugent. 

C. S. Mann. 
Dr. G. J. Pirie. 
Capt. F. E. Bissell. 
Capt. J. C. Parker. 
Major C. A. Booth. 
Capt. A. Noel Woods. 
Capt. S. B. B. Dyer. 
Capt. G. C. Kelly. 

D. W. Pawle. 
G. Blaine. 

C. E. Stewart. 

C. Cary Barnard. 

M. V. Hay. 

Major W. Gillman. 

Major P. II. G. Powell-Cotton. 

G. Fenwick Owen. 

Capt. G. H. Hastings. 



Owner's measurements. 



204 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Uganda Kob. 



£.— UGANDA RACE (Cobus cob thomasi). 
Nsuna, N'Sttnu, or Sunu, Waganda. 

From the typical Buffon's kob the eastern or Uganda race is 
distinguished mainly by its superior size, and the presence of a 
complete white ring round each eye, instead of having only a white 
line above the same. General colour rich fulvous, with the muzzle, 
lips, chin, under-parts, and inner surfaces of upper portion of fore-legs 
and thighs white ; front of fore-legs with a black line, and hind-legs 
with a similar line, which does not, however, ascend within some dis- 
tance of the hocks. Height at shoulder, about 35 inches. 

Distribution. — East Africa, from Kavirondo to Uganda. 



,engtn on 
front. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


-24i 


7i 


12 


Wadelai 


Major G. A. S. Cape. 


23i 


Ik 


63 


Mruli . 


Lieut. -Col. J. Ponsonby 



Owner's measurements 



KOB 



205 



Length on 
front. 


Circum 
ference 


-23 


74 


22| 


71 


22| 


7i 


22^ 


7S 


22^ 


6i 


22^ 


8i 


22^ 


6| 


22 


7i 


22 


7 


2l| 


7 


2I| 


61 


2I| 


71 


2l| 


6£ 


21^ 


74 


2li 


8 


2IJ 


6| 


2li 


6§ 


2I| 


7i 


-21* 


74 


2l| 


7i 


21 


6j 


21 


7i 


21 


63 


21 


7S 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


i6Jj 


Edward Nyanza . 


154 


Uganda . . t . 


"4 


Do. . 


Hi 


Do. . 


ioj 


Albert Nyanza 


IS* 


Uganda 


iof 


Do. . . . 


I2f 


Do. . 


72 


Do. 


151 


Do. 


121 


Do. . . . 


9 


Do. 


6 


Do. 


104 


Do. 


91 


Do. 


13 


Do. 


74 


Do. 


14 


Do. 


i3i 


Lado . . . . 


7S 


Wadelai 


5 


Uganda 


11 


East Africa . 


i4i 


Semliki Valley 


94 


Do. 




- Owner's measurements 



Owner. 
Mrs. P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 
P. F. Hadow. 
Major C. A. Sykes. 
Capt. W. S. Nicolson. 
Capt. P. Garrard. 
Major R. H. Price. 
Dr. Shircore. 
Capt. A. J. Whittle. 
P. B. Vander Byl. 
Capt. P. M. Larken. 
Col. C. F. Blane. 
Major R. A. Markham. 
G. C. Slacke. 
Sir F. J. Jackson. 
Douglas M'Douall. 
Sir F. J. Jackson. 
R. de la Huerta. 
Miss C. Buxton. 
Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 
Lieut. -Col. M. L. Carleton. 
G. L. Harrison. 
F. C. Selous. 
M. P. Lupton. 
R. E. Dent. 



2o6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



C— VAUGHAN'S RACE (Cobus cob vaughani). 

Very similar to the last, but the general colour of old bucks at one 
season bright foxy red, much as in the typical race ; the red extends 
on to the bases of the ears, and there is rather less white on the face 
than in the next race. Adult bucks may become more or less black 
at one season. Possibly the name vaughani will have to be replaced. 



Distribution. 



Length on Circum- 
front. ference. 



-The south-western districts of the Bahr-el-Ghazal 
province. 



23 

2li 

2 °i 
2 °i 

20 

i9i 

19 

i8£ 

i8i 



6 

7l 
6i 

6| 

7 

6| 

6| 

61 



Tip to Tip. 
151 
9i 
12 

8* 
11 

9fi 

"I 
54 

7 
85 



Locality. 
Nr. Wau . 
Bahr-el-Ghazal 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Owner. 
Capt. L. D. Spencer. 
H. St.-C. Garrood. 
Major P. M. Dove. 
G. L. Wingfield. 
C. Mathews. 
Major F. F. Carroll. 
Capt. P. E. Vaughan. 
J. C. Phillips. 
Major J. L. J. Conry. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



Z). —WHITE- EARED RACE (Cobus cob leucotis). 

Hamaraia dyl, Sudani. Kala, Niam-Niam. 

Jwil, Dinka and Shooli. 

The old bucks of this race are of the same blackish-brown 
colour as those of C. maria, but have no light patch in front of the 
withers, and are further characterised by the ears, a large patch 
extending from the same to surround each eye, the muzzle, chin, 
upper portion of the throat, the under-parts, and portions of the inner 
and front surfaces of the limbs being pure white. The direction of the 
hair on the middle line of the back is reversed from the loins instead 
of from the middle of the back. Young bucks and females are red. 
Height at shoulder, about 34 or 35 inches. 

Distribution. — The region of the Upper Nile, including the Sobat, 
Bahr-el-Ghazal, and their tributaries. 



KOB 



207 









■ "■,.■;■'.. 










^I|fefc. 




"ffiBIB 


, ■ . ■ ■ . , 










Bnli^'' 




Jr 
















6 . 










BsEfe*"- 


















1 


wT %§ 


jfer* 






V 


• 'i^tav 


181 <s 

3? 





Head of White-eared Kob. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 




Owner. 


i 24 i 


7i 


II 


Bahr-el-Ghazal 




Capt. J. P. V. Hawksley. 


23i 


64 


I2i 


Do. 




Major A. J. B. Percival. 


23i 


6i 


I Of 


White Nile . 




C. Bulpett. 


23i 


6| 


Hi 


Sobat-Pibor District 


Capt. J. A. Pollock. 


23 


6* 


10 


White Nile . 




Capt. A. H. Vivian. 


23 


6i 


"1 


Bahr-el-Ghazal 




Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


22g 


71 


151 


White Nile . 




Capt. G. L. Cameron. 


22| 


6| 


Hi 


Do. 




W. H. Lindsay. 


22j 


6 


IOg 


Pibor District 




Capt. H. V. Venables Kyrke 


22j 


51 


III 


Sudan . 




E. M. Tabor. 


22 


61 


10 


White Nile . 




F. W. Greswolde-Williams. 


22 


6 


13 


Do. 




Capt. A. Craufurd. 


2l| 


61 


1 31 


Do. 




Major J. H. Rivers. 


2I| 


6 


141 


Do. 

1 Determination 


provisional 


Lord Desborough. 



2o8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Localitj^. 


Owner. 


2I| 


6^ 


91 


White Nile . 


E. C. Crispin. 


2lf 


6| 


8^ 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 


2lf 


6i 


74 


Do. 


P. M. Tottenham. 


2I| 


6| 


i3i 


Do. 


F. L. Slade. 


2li 


71 


I2j 


Do. 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon 


2l£ 


7 


ni 


Do. 


H. Fitzroy. 


2lJ 


62 


12 


Do. . ^ . 


R. McD. Hawker. 


2\\ 


6| 


io| 


Do. 


Capt. E. C. Hamilton. 


211 


6i 


7 


Do. 


C. Bower Ismay. 


2l4 


64 


13 


Do. 


C. de la Huerta. 


21* 


6 


9i 


Do. 


C. C. Branch. 


21^ 


6| 


7h 


Do. 


Major W. F. Sweny. 


2li 


7i 


«i 


Do. 


E. D. H. Tollemache. 


2li 


6 


i3i 


Do. 


Capt. G. Stewart. 


2I| 


6J 


ii 


Do. 


Major W. Hayes-Sadler. 


2li 


6} 


8. 


Do. 


Major R. M. Sanders. 


2lJ 


6i 


8* 


Do. 


Capt. H. R. Headlam. 


2li 


6| 


4 


Do. 


W. R. Rhinelander Stewart. 


21* 


7 


"1 


Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


2li 


71 


9S 


Do. 


G. Munn. 


2l| 


ll ' 


i5 


Do. 


. Capt. R. G. C. Brock. 


2lJ 


6 


ni 


Do. 


Duke of Alba. 


ll\ 


6| 


wj 


Do. 


G. L. Wingfield. 


21 


6i 


8| 


Do. 


Capt. G. F. Pridham. 


21 


6i 


ioi 


Do. 


J. H. Greathead. 



E.— LODER'S PUKU (C. cob loderi). 

Typified by the under-mentioned skull, but probably identical with 
a puku-like kob subsequently described as Adenota pousarguesi. 
Horns of a somewhat puku-like type. 



Length on Circum- 
front curve. ference. 



Tip to Tip. 

Si 



Locality. 

? 



Owner. 
Sir Edmund_G. Loder, Bart. 



PUKU 



209 




M 



Skull and Horns of Puku. 



The PUKU (Oobus [Adenota] vardoni). 



Impuku, Masubia. 
Muntinya, Barotsi. 



Puku, Ngami. 
Seula, Chilala and Chibisa. 
Sichisunu. Chila. 



From the other small kobs with the back of the ears rufous, the 
puku is distinguishable at once by the uniformly foxy colour of the 
fore-legs, as well as by the greater length of the hair, especially in the 
region of the back and loins, where it has a tendency to curl. General 
colour reddish yellow. Height at shoulder, about 39 or 40 inches. 
Weight, about 190 lbs. 

Distribution. — Chobi and Zambesi valleys, including Barotsiland, very 
common, and found in small herds of ten to twenty in North-west 
and North-east Rhodesia. 

P 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


20§ 


73 


17 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


■ZO\ 


6| 


II 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Dr. Cole. 


-20j 


7 


15 


Do. 


C. S. Mann. 


2o£ 


8i 


I2j 


Lake Bangweolo 


F. Smitheman. 


20 


7S 


7i 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


T. D. M. Cardeza. 


I9l 


71 


6J 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. W. A. Conduitt. 


I9i 


64 


4 


Do. 


H. Cookson. 


I9i 


74 


94 


? 


T. G. Davey. 


I9l 


6| 


84 


? 


J. Carr Saunders. 


19 


7l 


51 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Major J. Carden. 


19 


7i 


8 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. F. H. Melland. 


-19 


74 


6 


Do. 


. J. C. Phillips. 


18I 


8 


6| 


Do. 


Earl of Kingston. 


i8| 


°3 


84 


N.W. Rhodesia. 


R. T. Coryndon. 


i8| 


7 


6i 


? 


J. L. Drege. 


i8| 


6 


6 


Nyasaland . 


. Dr. A. MacCarthy Morrogh. 


i8i 


6i 


9i 


? 


S. R. Price. 


184 


64 


44 


? 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


i8i 


7i 


71 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. Col. C. F. Blane. 


i8i 


7 


Si 


? 


W. H. Fountain. 


m 


7i 


8 


? 


Capt. G. M. Spencer-Smith 


m 


7i 


74 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. P. M. Stewart. 


18 


7 


94 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Capt. H. E. Hambro. 


18 


7 


11} 


Do. 


Col. C. Harding. 


18 


71 


6 


Do. 


The late George Grey. 


171 


64 


84 


Do. 


Capt. A. L. Godman. 


171 


6 


74 


Do. 


J. Ripley. 


17s 


71 


8 


Ulanga Valley . 


R. Berridge. 


I7§ 


H 


94 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


J. Turner. 


174 


61 


7l 


Tanganyika Plateau 


Claude Francis. 


I7i 


74 


5§ 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


Col. A. Colville. 


174 


7i 


H 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Capt. H. L. Archer-Houblon 


X7i 


7 


I2| 


Do. 


Major A. H. Daukes. 


174 


7 


7 


Do. 


E. McClellan. 


174 


74 


51 


Do. 


J. H. Leche. 


174 


6| 


8 


Do. 


E. Fowler. 


9 51 


3f 


Si 


Loru Valley 


J. Gibson Hall. 



Owner's measurements. 



VAAL RHEBOK 




Head of Vaal Rhebolc. 



The GREY or VAAL RHEBOK (Pelea capreolus). 



Vaal Rhebok, Cape Dutch. 
Iliza, Swazi. 



PsJiiatla, Basuto. 
Peeli, Bechuana. 



The short, upright, straight, and slender horns, together with the 
somewhat woolly nature of the hair, serve to differentiate the vaal 
rhebok from the antelopes of the kindred genera. The tail, like that 
of the reedbucks, is moderately long and bushy ; the ears are tall and 
narrow ; the build is slight and graceful ; and the general colour is 
uniformly pale grey, tending somewhat to fawn on the head and limbs. 
Height at shoulder, about 28 inches in females and 30 or 3 1 inches 
in males. The chief distinctions between this antelope and reedbuck 
are the form of the horns and the absence of the bare patches below 
the ears. 

Distribution. — The open hilly districts of Africa south of the Zambesi. 
In the mountain ranges of the eastern and northern districts of 
Cape Colony, and thence onwards to the Zambesi, the vaal rhebok 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

affords good sport ; and although its somewhat stiff and stilty 
appearance is not at first suggestive of unusual activity, yet the 
pace and regularity with which a party of these antelopes will race 
up the steep flank of a mountain are wonderful. A peculiar feature 
of the vaal rhebok is the soft and woolly nature of the grey coat ; 
the horns afford insignificant trophies, and the flesh is of poor 
quality. 



sngth on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


"4 


2i 


I of 


2 


ioA 


2* 


io T V 


2 


9i 


2i 


9 


2f 


8g 


2§ 


8§ 


2i 


84 


2\ 


8 


2i 


8 


2 


8 


2 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


44 


? 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


2h 


Basutoland . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


3 


Cape Colony 


H. Hodgson. 


3i 


Near Middelburg . 


Major E. H. E. Abadie. 


2| 


? 


Dr. Oakeshott. 


2| 


? 


Mr. Justice Hopley. 


2| 


Cape Colony 


R. H. Venables Kyrke. 


2| 


South Africa 


British Museum (Dr. Burchell). 


2 


? 


G. Richards. 


2| 


? 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


4* 


? 


R. E. Critchley-Salmonson. 


34 


? 


V. Ryves. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



"4 






Spitzkop 


American National Collection 


"4 






Cape Colony 


South African Museum. 


I of 




6 


Do. 


E. T. Murray. 


104 


24 


4i 


Transvaal 


H. T. and A. H. Glynn. 


ioi 


2i 


54 


? 


Major H. Chamney. 


94 




3i 


? 


Major W. Anstruther Gray. 


9f 


2 


4i 


Basutoland 


Lord Milner. 


9i 


2* 


24 


Near Cape Town . 


Capt. W. Jardine. 


9 


2* 


34 


Natal . 


C. S. Mann. 



REEDBUCK 



213 




Head of Reedbuck. 



The REEDBUCK (Redunca 1 arundinum). 



Rietbok, Cape Dutch. 
Bushmat, Sudani. 
Bemba, Masara. 
Inzigi, Amandebili. 
Im-vwi, Masubia. 
Um-vwi, Makuba. 
Inhlango, Swazi. 
Iklabn, Basuto. 



Impoyo, Lower Zambesi. 
Msiki, Zulu and Matabili. 
Natafwi, Mashukulumbwi. 
Mutobo, Barotsi. 
Sibtighat, Ngami. 
Mpoyo, Chilala and Chibisa. 
N't obi, M'Kua. 
Maluvivi, Chila. 



Reedbucks, none of which is so large as a waterbuck, differ from 
the latter and the kobs by their lighter build, and the presence of a 
completely bare or very short-haired patch on each side of the head 
immediately beneath the ear. The tail is more bushy and shorter, the 

1 Commonly known as Cervicapra ; a name which is unfortunately preoccupied. 



214 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



lateral hoofs are relatively smaller, and the black horns, which are of 
medium length and stoutness, diverge in an upward and outward 
direction, with a forward curvature at the tips, which may be hooked. 
Till very late in life the basal portion of the horns is of a pasty con- 
sistence, and sportsmen's measurements on the field often include this. 
The present species, the true rietbok of the Boers, is the largest of the 
genus, standing about 36 or 37 inches at the shoulder; and has the 
ear-patch completely bare, and the horns curving regularly forwards 
without terminal hooks. Reedbuck are generally met with in small 
family parties, and when excited or alarmed utter a shrill whistle. 
Their flesh is of fair quality. 

Distribution. — Africa, from the Cape to Angola on the western side, 
and on the eastern side through Mozambique and South Nyasa- 
land to lat. 8° 25' N. in the Bahr-el-Ghazal district. As their 
name implies, reedbuck frequent the reed-brakes fringing so many 
African rivers ; some of the rivers where they are still fairly 
abundant being the Lotsani in Bamangwato and those of Ngami- 
land and the country between Mashonaland and the east coast. 
The under-mentioned Rhodesian specimens probably belong to 
R. a. occidentalism distinguished by a greyish tinge in the coat. 



Length 1 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


17 


6 


I5l 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


C. Mathews. 


i6f 


H 


i5i 


Sabi River . 


Major J. Stevenson-Hamilton. 


i6| 

i6| 


5f 

6 


I4i 

I2| 


P.E. Africa 
Do. 


British Museum (the late Rowland 

Ward). 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


i6| 


63 


II 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Capt. P. R. Bald. 


i6i 


6 


i6| 


Matabililand 


R. C. Batley. 


i6i 


61 


i5i 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 


1 61 


54 


20£ 


Barotsiland, N.W. Rhodesi; 


i R. T. Coryndon. 


16 


74 


94 


Do. 


Col. C. Harding. 


16 


74 


III 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


. Capt. F. W. Reichwald. 


153 


Ok 


IO| 


? 


C. D. Rudd. 


i5l 


6* 


i4i 


? 


British Museum. 


2 1 52 


6* 


134 


Transvaal . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


i5i 


6 


19 


Tanganyika Plateau 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


15! 


7i 


I6J 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


. Lieut.-Col. R. W. R. Barnes. 






1 Horn 


only, not the pad. 


2 Abnormal head. 



REEDBUCK 



215 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


151 


5h 


194 
13 


Mpimbi, Nyasaland . 
Nyasaland .... 


British Museum (the late Col. F 

Trollope). 
Capt. J. Harington. 


iSi 


Si 


I9i 


? 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


1 Si 


6± 


135 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


A. P. Henderson. 


iSi 


6i 


I3l 


Barotsiland, N.W. Rhodesia 


F. V. Worthington. 


iSi 


6 


134 


Do. ... 


Norman B. Smith. 


iSi 


6 


13! 


Do. 


The late George Grey. 


iSi 


6i 


124 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


J. E. R. Oldfield. 


i5i 


64 


10 


Do. ... 


M. C. Crawshay. 


IS* 

15 


6| 

64 


Hi 

91 


Manica Plateau, N. of 

Zambesi 
Mashonaland 


F. C. Selous. 

Sir John Willoughby, Bart. 


15 


64 


13 


N. Zululand 


R. T. Coryndon. 


15 


6i 


84 


N. E. Rhodesia 


Col. C. F. Blane. 


is 


5* 


11 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


G. T. Hutchinson. 


is 


6| 


i4i 


Do. 


J. Bell. 


is 


64 


9i 


Do. ... 


T. D. M. Cardeza. 


I4l 


54 


94 


Do. ... 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


I4i 


6| 


154 


Do. . . 


Capt. H. E. Hambro. 


14I 


6 


104 


Do. ... 


R. E. Critchley-Salmonson. 


I4l 


64 


"4 


Do. ... 


Capt. H. E. E. Pankhurst. 


14I 


6| 


9i 


Do. ... 


Capt. C. G. Leslie. 


14I 


6i 




Do. . . . 


J. H. Leche. 


14I 


7 


134 


Do. ... 


Val Gielgud. 


X \2\ 


5i 


94 


Congo .... 


H. M. Stephenson. 


2 12 


64 


124 


Nyasaland .... 


Mrs. C. B. C. Storey. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

18 ... ... South Africa . . . F. Vaughan Kirby. 

174 64 174 Barotsiland, N.W. Rhodesia Percy C. Reid. 

i6| ... ... ? C. S. Mann. 

i6| s| 1 34 Zululand . . . .J. Sealy-Bell. 

1 Determination provisional. 2 Albino specimen. 

3 This was seen and measured by Mr. Kirby. It had one horn only ; the other was shot off. 



2l6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Eastern Mountain-Reedbuck. 



MOUNTAIN- REEDBUCK or ROOI RHEBOK (Redunca fulvorufula). 

This reedbuck is considerably smaller than the type species, 
measuring from about 2 8 to 3 1 inches at the shoulder, but has horns of 
much the same type, without distinct hooks to the tips. The general 
colour is greyish fawn, showing in some cases a more or less distinct 
rufous tinge. 

Distribution. — Eastern Africa to the south of the Zambesi, particularly 
Natal, Zululand, and Bechuanaland ; represented farther north by 
the undermentioned race. Rooi (red) rhebok differ from the 
typical representative of the genus in being inhabitants of the 
basal slopes of mountains, at a lower level than the tract frequented 
by the vaal rhebok. They are generally found in small troops of 
a dozen head or less ; and from their active habits and the difficult 
nature of the ground they frequent, afford excellent stalking. In 
the neighbourhood of the tributaries of the Limpopo, on the 
Mabubi, Tamulikan, Machabi, Sunta, and Chobi rivers, as well as 
the tributaries of the Zambesi east of the Victoria Falls, they are still 
abundant. Those from the Manica plateau, north of the Zambesi, 
may be the East African race. 

Certain reedbuck from the Lydenburg range of the Transvaal 
exhibit a tendency to albinism, and have been described as a distinct 
race {Redunca fulvorufula subalpind), but are more probably " sports." 



MO UNTAIN-REEDB UCK 



217 



A reedbuck from the Mount Kenia district of East Africa appears 
to be a local race of this species (R. fulvorufula chanleri). In the 
original specimen the nose shows a dark streak like the one often seen 
in this and the typical reedbuck. 



A— TYPICAL RACE (R. fulvorufula typica). 



Length on Circum- 
front curve, ference. 



73 

7% 

71 

71 

7 

7 

7 

7 



6z 
5 

3± 



3i 



Tip to Tip. 

3i 

43 
4* 
3 

3i 

4i 

4* 

6 

51 



Locality. 

S.E. Africa 

? 

Zululand 

Near Bloemfontein 



Zululand 



Owner. 

H. W. Elliott. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. (Shot 

by F. C. Selous.) 
Sir Owen Philipps. 

Major R. Rankin. 

R. T. Coryndon. 

A. Cameron. 

II. E. Berry. 

P. H. Stewart. 

G. Bateman. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



9xV 


5 


6J 


Zululand 


8S 


45 


4l 


Humansdorp 


8A 


51 


5 


? 


8i 


33 


4i 


Transvaal . 


71 




2l 


Do. 


7\ 


4 


3i 


Lebombo Ra 



C. S. Mann. 

F. Vaughan Kirby. 

P. C. Keytel. 

F. R. N. Findlay. 

J. L. Drege. 



£.— EASTERN RACE (R. fulvorufula chanleri). 



Length on 
-ont curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 


Tip. 


Locality. 


7 


4i 


41 




East Africa 


6| 


41 


3 




Do. 


6| 


3 


2§ 




Do. 


-6| 


3* 


51 




Do. 


6| 


4 


3i 




Do 


6| 


3h 


41 




Do. 


6| 


3h 


3^ 




Do. 


6| 


3S 


31 




Do. 



Owner. 

. H. G. Watson. 

Earl of Kingston. 
. A. E. Butter. 
. Major H. W. A. Christie. 
. Capt. T. H. Rivers Bulkeley. 
. N. J. Hitchings. 

Duke of Sutherland. 
. Capt. J. A. Morrison. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum 
ference 


6g 


4i 


6§ 


4^ 


6| 


Al 


6| 


->3 
J4 


6f 


3i 


-6§ 


Si 


6i 


4* 


6i 


4 


6i 


3i 


6| 


4 


64 


3i 


6| 


,3 


6| 


4i 


6| 


,1 

32 


6| 


44 


6| 


31 


6i 


4l 


6i 


J2 


6i 


->3 

J>5 


6i 


4 


6i 


J2 


6i 


4i 


6* 


Ss 


6i 


4i 


6| 


,3 

J-4 


64 


44 


6| 


3^ 


6^ 


4l 


64 


4* 


64 


31 


64 


J4 


64 


4 


64 


4 


64 


4 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 




East Africa 


Capt. E. H. Sinkinson. 


->3 
05 


Do. 


. G. W. C. Drexel. 


2| 


Do. 


G. Henry. 


3i 


Do. 


Lord Waleran. 


31 


Do. 


Col. J. E. Gough. 


4l 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


2.1 


Do. 


K. V. Painter. 


-1 

0-t 


Do. 


Sir H. Seton Karr. 


-,1 


Do. 


. Col. C. F. Blane. 


4i 


Do. 


. W. A. Baird. 


5 


Do. 


. D. L. Seth-Smith. 


4 


Do. 


. Capt. H. C. Hart. 


31 


Do. 


. S. H. Christy. 


5i 


Do. 


P. K. Glazebrook. 


3i 


Do. 


. J. R. Bradley. 


4 


Do. 


Mrs. Percy C. Madeira. 


2§ 


Do. 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 




Do. 


. J. Jay White. 


34 


Do. 


E. B. Bronson. 


4§ 


Do. 


A. de L. Long. 


3S 


Do. 


R. Holmes. 


2| 


Do. 


. J. Leslie. 


J8 


Do. 


Capt. A. Neave. 


,3 


Do. 


G. P. Gough. 


4S 


Do. 


R. de la Huerta. 


4i 


Do. 


A. Fowler. 


44 


Do. 


Gorham Brooks. 


4 
34 


Do. 
Do. 


. Major P. H. G. Powell- 
Cotton. 
S. L. Hinde. 


3 


E. of Lake Marghe 


rita . Lord Hindlip. 


4 


East Africa 


H. Johnson. 


4 


Do. 


G. C. Slacke. 


2 i 


Do. 


I. Barrington White. 


3i 


Do. 


. R. B. Loder. 



- Owner's measurements. 



BOHOR REEDBUCK 



219 




Frontlet and Horns of Eastern Bohor Reedbuck. 



The BOHOR REEDBUCK (Redunca redunca). 

Kzvantan Rafi, Hausa. Njaza, Waganda. 

Distinguished from the mountain-reedbuck (with which it agrees 
approximately in size) by the distinct forward curvature of the tips of 
the horns, so as to form hooks. General colour uniformly bright fawn, 
usually with somewhat darker markings on the face and part of fore- 
limbs ; tail only slightly bushy, fawn-coloured above and white 
beneath. The height of the East African race is about 28 inches. 

Distribution. — West, East, and North-east Africa. 



In addition to one other the following races are recognised : — 

R. redu/ica typica. — Senegal, Gambia, and Gold Coast. Size small ; horns short 
and stout, very thick at base, curved in front, points turned inwards. 

R. redunca nigeriensis. — N. Nigeria. Size larger and horns larger and depressed 
below level of frontal plane. 

R. redunca cottoni. — Kordofan, White Nile, and Isle of Meroe, to east of Lado 
and western Somaliland. Horns long and thin, much curved outwards and back- 
wards, with the points curled straight over, or turning outwards or inwards. 1 

R. redunca bohor. — Central Abyssinia. Horns shorter, stouter, and less curved 
than in cottoni. 

R. redunca wardi. — East Africa. Horns larger, stout, curved outwards, with 
the points much turned inwards. 

1 In the Dinder Valley the type of head with in-curving horns described as Ccrvicapra r. donaldsoni inter- 
grades with cottoni. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAAtE 



.4.— TYPICAL RACE (R. r. typica), 



L,engin on 
ont curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


IO 


4i 


H 


Gold Coast . 


Capt. G. H. Hastings. 


8| 


51 


4i 


Gambia 


. Commr. A. A. Ellison, R.N. 


Si 


5l 


5 


Senegambia 


G. Fenwick-Owen. 


Si 


41 


51 


Portuguese Guinea . Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 






,5.— NIGERIAN RACE (R. r. nigeriensis). 


Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


II 


5 


7 


N 


Nigeria . 


L. Donisthorpe. 


IO| 


6* 


7 




Do. 


■. Major C. A. Booth. 


I of 


6 


4i 




Do. 


. F. Beckles Gall. 


I of 


6J 


2 J 


Lake Chad . 


. Capt. S. B. B. Dyer. 


I of 


5* 


8 


N 


Nigeria . 


Capt. O. Oakes. 


-io£ 


5i 


4i 




Do. 


. Capt. C. F. Watson. 


ioi 


5 


4i 




Do. 


Capt. G. C. Kelly. 


IO 


51 


51 




Do. 


Capt. J. C. Parker. 


IO 


51 


6| 




Do. 


Capt. L. C. Brodie. 


IO 


5* 


5i 


N 


geria 


. Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


9l 


51 


5 


N 


Nigeria . 


. A. A. Smith. 


9! 


5 


7 




Do. 


. H. C. Bridges. 


9l 


5i 


73 




Do. 


. Capt. A. Noel Woods. 


9i 


5 


31 




Do. 


. Major J. W. Carroll. 


9\ 


51 


71 




Do. 


. Capt. A. C. Aubin. 


9k 


51 


2| 




Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


9k 


5 


4* 




Do. 


. Capt. W. C. N. Hastings. 


9k 


51 


4i 




Do. 


Major Lord J. S. Cavendish. 


9h 


54 


6i 




Do. 


Major W. Anstruther Gray. 


9k 


4i 


6| 




Do. 


. Capt. S. C. Peck. 


9h 


6^ 


3 




Do. 


Capt. G. Bonham-Carter. 


9 
9 


41 
5 


71 

5i 




Do. 
Do. 


Lady Constance Stewart- 
Richardson. 
Sir E. Stewart-Richardson, Bat 



Owner's measurements. 



BOHOR REEDBUCK 




Skull and Horns of Abyssinian Bohor Reedbuck. 



C— ABYSSINIAN RACE (R. r. bohor). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


lOf 


l 5S 


"1 


West of Lake Tana 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


iog 


54 


5 


Abyssinia 


D. P. MacGillivray. 


IO 


44 


-, i 
3s 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


9i 


5S 


5 


Lake Zuay . 


Lord Hindlip. 


9S 


6 


8 


Zuguala Mt. 


A. E. Butter. 


91 


5§ 


9i 


Abyssinia . 


R. Hayne. 


9i 


5S 


54 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



D.— SUDANI RACE (R. r. cottoni). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


16 




5 


15 




44 


i5 




5i 


Hi 




5i 


I4§ 




6 


1 4-s 




5i 


144 




4l 



Tip to Tip. 




Localitj'. 


231 


Mongalla 


17 


Dind 


er Valley 


I2| 




Do. 


i6| 




Do. 


iif 




Do. 


13 




Do. 


15 


Blue 


Nile . 



Owner. 
. E. M. Sinauer. 

R. von Rothermann. 

C. Bower Ismay. 
. Capt. B. W. Y. Danford. 
. Col. A. Colville. 

Lord Villiers. 

. G. L. Harrison. (See illustration, 
p. 222.) 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




c Ijfc / 




Head of Sudani Bohor Reedbuck, showing the divergent type of horns. 
Shot by Mr. G. L. Harrison. 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


I4l 


Si 


13 


Sudan 


14 


6 


i6| 


Dinder Valley 


-14 




i6| 


Blue Nile . 


-14 




18 


Do. 


i3f 


5i 


9 


Sudan 


13? 


5i 


7h 


Dinder Valley 


i3l 


Si 


15 


White Nile . 


i3l 


6 


9i 


Dinder Valley 


132 


5 


I2i 


Do. 


i3l 


6 


9§ 


Do. 


132 


6 


12 


Do. 


nl 


5i 


7i 


Dc. 



Owner. 
Prince Colloredo Mannsfeld. 
Norman B. Smith. 
A. L. Butler. 
G. B. Middleton. 
Douglas M'Douall. 
C. D. Eyre. 
P. Santos Saurez. 
Miss C. Buxton. 
Major C. P. B. Wood. 
Prince F. Liechtenstein. 
Capt. J. C. Graham. 
Capt. A. Craufurd. 



Owner's measurements. 



BOHOR REEDBUCK 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality 


i3i 


5 


i8i 


Binder Valley 


I3i 


5i 


I2§ 


Mongalla 


i3i 


5i 


I Si 


White Nile. 


I2| 


6i 


8 


Blue Nile . 


I2| 


5 


i5 


Sudan 


I2§ 


5s 


»i 


Mongalla 



Owner. 
. C. E. Russell. 
. Capt. P. A. Wilson. 
. Duke of Alba. 

Hon. T. G. B. Morgan-Grenville. 

Major P. M. Dove. 
. Capt. R. F. Balfour. 



E.— EASTERN RACE (R. r. wardi). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


i3i 


54 


S£ 


East Africa . 


British Museum (Sir John Kirk) 


i3i 


54 


44 


Do. 


. Maj.-Gen. Sir J. R. Macdonald. 


-12 


7 


54 


G.E. Africa 


. S. E. White. 


"1 


6i 


9i 


East Africa 


Lord Hindlip. 


"1 


54 


74 


Do. 


. S. H. Christy. 


IO§ 


6| 


84 


Do. 


A. Fowler. 


IO| 


51 


71 


Do. 


Sutton Timmis. 


I of 


44 


54 


Do. 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


\o\ 


54 


94 


Uganda x 


Duke of Peneranda. 


ioi 


6| 


3i 


Do. 


. Col. C. F. Blane. 


ioi 


6| 


7 


East Africa . 


F. C. Selous. 


\o\ 


5i 


ioi 


G.E. Africa 


. F. H. Melland. 


\o\ 


6* 


4 


East Africa . 


Lord Montgomerie. 


ioj 


6 


4i 


Do. . 


Lord W r odehouse. 


\o\ 


5i 


74 


Do. 


H. Fowler. 


ioi 


64 


54 


Do. 


. J. Todd. 


io| 


51 


7i 


Do. 


. B. Barr Smith. 


ro| 


6 


5i 


? 


Col. Max. C. Fleischmann. 


IO 


54 


6i 


Mau Plateau 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


IO 


7i 


4l 


East Africa . 


C. Craig. 


IO 


5S 


5 


Do. 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


IO 


6 


74 


Do. 


R. de la Huerta. 


IO 


6 


5 


Do. 


Duke of Medinaceli. 


IO 


51 


64 


Do. 


. Duke of Alba. 


IO 


54 


6 


Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


IO 


5i 


7 


Do. 


. W. N. McMillan. 




- Owner 


's measurements. 


1 May belong to K. r. Uganda. 



224 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Dibata^. 



The DIBATAG (Ammodorcas clarkei). 

Although resembling the gazelles in the face-markings, the dibatag 
approximates in foot-structure and the form of the horns to the reed- 
buck group, to which it may be related. The horns of the males are 
rather short, and have a regular upward and- forward curvature, some- 
what like those of a reedbuck ; they are ridged on the front for a con- 
siderable portion of their length. The neck is considerably elongated, 
and the tail long and thin. The general colour of the upper-parts 
is a deep cinnamon. Height at shoulder, about 33 inches; weight, 
from 65 to 70 lbs. When running, the long neck is thrown back 
towards the tail, which is elevated, so that the two look as though 
they would touch. Discovered by Mr. T. W. H. Clarke in 1890. 

Distribution. — Central Somaliland, in the eastern districts of 

the Haud. 

r ,. Circum- Tip to .-. 

on front r rf- Owner. 

Terence. 1 id. 

curve. ^ 

I2§ 5! 4§ Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

1 if 4I 3§ Gen. Sir Arthur Paget. 

I If 4I 3§ T. W. H. Clarke. 

n| 4J: 6 R. McD. Hawker. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 

Hi 

II 

II 

I of 
iof 
I of 

iQl 

io| 

9! 

9i 

9^ 
9i 





DIB ATA G 


Circum- 
ference. 


T }P. to Owner. 
Tip. 


4* 


4| Col. J. E. Gough. 


sh 


i\ Major B. R. M. Glossop. 


5 


5^ S. Payne-Gallwey. 


4i 


4§ Mr. Justice Hopley. 


5* 


4 Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


44 


3 t Capt. B. E. Murray. 


4S 


4§ Capt. A. H. Mosse. 


4i 


4l Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


4$ 


5£ British Museum (T. W. H. Clarke; 


4 


3^ Capt. H. A. Carter. 


4l 


4§ Dr. R. E. Drake-Brockman. 


5 


5 Capt. F. I\. Tarleton. 



225 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



13 






J. D. Inverarity. 


ia| 






Capt. G. G. S. Brander. 


12 






C. S. Mann. 


n| 


4i 


5 


Capt. J. Brander-Dunbar 


"i 


4* 


5fV 


Capt. M. McNeill. 


iog 


4i 


5 


P. C. Keytel. 



226 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Pala. 



The PALA or IMPALA (iEpyceros melampus). 

Rooibok, Cape Dutch. Pala, Waganda, Basuto, and Be- 

Inzero, Masubia. chuna. 

Swala, Swahili. Impala, Zulu, Swazi, and Matonga. 

Luondo and Mpala, Barotsi, Luboudar, Chila. 
Ngami, Chilala, and Chibisa. 

The pala, saiga, and chiru have been generally classed with the 
gazelles, but apparently form independent groups. The specific name 
(black-footed) of the first refers to the pair of black tufts on each 
hind-foot. The horns of the bucks, which are of considerable length in 
proportion to the size of the animal, show a characteristic and graceful 
double curvature ; and the bright foxy-red hue of the shining hair of the 
upper-parts is very characteristic. Height at shoulder, from about 34 to 
37 or 38 inches. Weight, from about 130 to 160 lbs. 

Distribution. — Southern and Eastern Africa, extending as far north 
as Lower Kordofan. In Angola replaced by an allied form, 
usually regarded as a distinct species, but which is perhaps only a 
local race (s£. melampus petersi), distinguished by the presence of 
a purplish-black streak down the middle of the face and another 
through the line of each eye. In the days of their abundance pala 



PALA 



227 



were found in big troops, such as are still to be met with on the 
Upper Zambesi, in East Mashonaland, and parts of British East 
and Central Africa. Some half-century ago they were to be found 
in similar numbers among the covert on the banks of every river 
in the Transvaal and Bechuanaland ; but it is not till the northern 
border of the former country that they are now to be met with, 
and then only in small parties. Pala are some of the fleetest 
of all antelopes, and are in the habit of leaping high in the air ; 
their presence always implies the neighbourhood of water. 







^.—TYPICAL 


RACE (jE. melampus typicus). 


Length. 








On front 
curve. 


Straight 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip 


Locality. Owner. 


3*1 


25* 


H 


i8i 


East Africa . . Sir Richard Dane. 


3i* 


24§ 


6 


i6g 


Do. 




. W. Judd. 


3ii 


25 


6| 


13 


Do. 




E. M. Crosfield. 


3°i 




51 


23i 


Do. 




Capt. E. Berry. 


3°! 


24I 


fii 


24i 


Do. 




T. de Halpert. 


3°1 


23i 


H 


151 


Do. 




. J. G. Millais. 


3° 


24S 


64 


20| 


Do. 




Count C. Podstatzky. 


3° 


24 


61 


i7* 


Do. 




Lord Delamere. 


29I 


24 v 


5S 


I9l 


Do. 




P. F. Hadow. 


29! 


24I 


61 


17 


Do. 




' Capt. W. M. Burrell. 


29§ 


232 


64 


18 


Do. 




G. C. Slacke. 


2 92 


25 


6 


24 


Do. 




H. Hyde-Baker. 


2 9h 


24S 


6 


22J 


Do. 




C. Fahnestock. 


2 9a 


24 


6 


181 


Do. 




J. E. R. Oldfield. 


29i 


234 


6* 


i9i 


Do. 




G. P. L. Cosens. 


2 9h 


23! 


61 


15S 


Do. 




A. E. Butter. 


29i 


24* 


6 


1 91 


Do. 




Count E. Hoyos. 


291 


23! 


^3 


16I 


Do. 




W. W. Ashley. 


29J 


Mh 


6h 


22^ 


Do. 




H. B. Cox. 


29i 


24I 


61 


1 61 


Do. 




A. J. A. Douglas. 


29I 


23I 


5S 


iSf 


Do. 




Capt. G. V. Clarke. 


29k 


23I 


6f 


17 


Do. 




Capt. E. Sartorius. 


29 


24i 


6 


27i 


Do. 




Capt. F. H. Span. 


29 


23I 


61 


I9l 


Do. 




Major W. E. Stobart. 


29 


24I 


6 


211 


Do. 




Capt. M. L. Pears. 


29 


22J 


6 


14 


Do. 




Marquis of Tweeddale 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length. 

On front Cl . . . 
Straight, 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


29 


2\\ 


6§ 


i6| 


East Africa 


H. S. L. Scott. 


29 


2 4 i 


6i 


22j 


Do. 


T. W. H. Clarke. 


29 


23 


6i 


i7i 


Do. 


Capt. T. H. Rivers Bulkeley. 


29 


22| 


5S 


19I 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. P. Polovtsoff. 


29 


22^ 


6 


Q2 


Do. 


Dr. A. Paget. 


2S§ 




34 


i7l 


Do. 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


28f 


24 


6* 


i7i 


Do. 


Major L. Boyd-Moss. 


28I 


23i 


6J 


19 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


2Sf 


22^ 


6 


i6J 


Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


28| 


24J 


6i 


18I 


Do. 


Capt. C. Steele. 


28| 


23^ 


6 


iSi 


Do. 


Capt. E. C. Hamilton. 


28| 


23i 


6 


I2i 


Do. 


Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


28| 


23* 


6 


24 


Do. 


W. N. McMillan. 


2S| 


22| 


6i 


134 


Do. 


Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 


28^ 


23i 


6 


16 


Do. 


C. W. Turner. 


28* 


23 


6i 


2lJ 


Do. 


C. J. Blackburn Maze. 


28i 


22 


6i 


"i 


Do. 


Major Lord J. S. Cavendish. 


284 


23i 


6i 


i6i 


Do. 


Capt. E. F. Hausburg. 


28£ 


22^ 


6| 


12* 


Do. 


Capt. L. H. Lloyd. 


28* 


24J 


6 


20£ 


Do. 


Capt. L. H. Hickson. 


281 


24l 


6i 


24i 


Do. 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


2%\ 


23 


6i 


ni 


Do. 


J. R. Bradley. 


28J 


23 


6 


19 


Do. 


G. F. Archer. 


28J 


2l| 


51 


i7l 


Do. 


H. C. Allfrey. 


28^ 


23i 


H 


22^ 


Do. 


Duke of Sutherland. 


28i 


23i 


6 


193 


Do. 


E. B. Home. 


2 S£ 


23i 


6i 


i6f 


Do. 


Capt. R. Clemm. 


28J 


23i 


5S 


*4i 


Do. 


R. B. Loder. 


28} 


23 


6£ 


2I| 


Do. 


Col. C. F. Blane. 


282 


23i 


5i 


174 


Do. 


R. de la Huerta. 


28* 


23 


6 


18 


Do. 


A. Hamilton Gault. 


28i 


23h 


6 


20| 


Do. 


H. H. Williams. 


28 
28 


23 

22§ 


6^ 
6| 


12 

25 


Do. 
Do. 


H.R.H. Prince Arthur of Con 

naught. 
Earl of Warwick. 


28 


23 


6i 


13 


Do. 


Walter Jones. 


28 


24i 


6| 


m 


Do. 


R. Hayne. 



PALA 



229 



Length. 

0n front Straight, 
curve. " 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Localitj'. 


Owner. 


28 


*3i 


51 


22 


East Africa 


Hon. E. Coke. 


28 


23S 


5« 


i7l 


Do. 


C. H. Tritton. 


28 


24 


6 


22| 


Do. 


H. B. Tate. 


28 


221 


6 


12 


Do. 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


28 


21 


5i 


12^ 


Do. 


G. E. Smith. 


28 


22 


54 


i6i 


Do. 


Capt. F. W. Barrett. 


28 


22| 


51 


I3i 


Do. 


The Master of Belhaven. 


28 


23i 


6i 


22 


Do. 


Capt. C. J. Murray. 


28 


22| 


51 


24I 


Do. 


Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


28 


22^ 


51 


i9l 


Do. 


Capt. J. Fitzgerald. 


28 


22^ 


6 


13 


Do. 


D. Davies. 


28 


22| 


6i 


9i 


Do. 


G. O. Sloper. 


28 


22^ 


6| 


i8| 


Do. 


P. Fleming. 


27| 


23 


6i 


19 


Do. 


Lord Wodehouse. 


27| 


22^ 


6 


"i 


Do. 


Capt. G. F. Phillips. 


27f 

27f 
27f 


22 
21 

23 


51 
6 

51 


i6f 

94 

18 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas 

Pennant. 
Lieut.-Col. the Hon. W. A. W. 

Lawson. 
Hon. Mrs. Blyth. 


27f 


23i 


6 


134 


Do. 


Major H. F. T. Fisher. 


27f 


2I| 


6 


I2f 


Do. 


F. Garside. 


275 


22^ 


51 


i5i 


Do. 


Major S. Belfield. 


27i 


23i 


51 


I2| 


Do. 


Rhys Williams. 


27i 


22^ 


6 


"1 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 


274 


2li 


51 


I3i 


Do. 


Lord Hindlip. 


27i 


23 


6 


I9i 


Do. 


. . . G. C. Whitaker. 


27i 


22^: 


6* 


Hi 


Do. 


A. Brocklehurst. 


27I 


22j 


6i 


104 


Do. 


Major C. U. Price. 


27h 


23^ 


6 


18! 


Do. 


A. Bayley-Worthington. 


27i 


2li 


6* 


lOf 


Do. 


G. de P. Colvile. 


27i 


23i 


51 


214 


Do. 


H. C. Phipps. 


27i 


22^ 


H 


i7i 


Do. 


Capt. J. A. Morrison. 


274 


23i 


51 


i9i 


Do. 


Arthur James. 


27i 


21 


5l 


Hi 


South Africa 


British Museum (Dr. Burchell) 


24 


I9i 


6| 


12 


N. Zululand 


Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 


2 Ji 


i8| 


5* 


io| 


Ngamiland 


A. G. Stigand. 



230 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



B.— NYASA RACE (&. melampus johnstoni). 

Most of the following specimens are only referred provisionally to 
this race. 

Mr. R. T. Coryndon writes that although in N.E. Rhodesia horns 
of 20 inches are rare, in the Northern Transvaal and Swaziland, where 
pala abound, horns of 22 inches are not uncommon, and a few specimens 
are still longer. 



Len 


jth. 














On front 
curve. 


Straight. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 


22j 


i8i 


5i 


9i 


N.W. Rhodesia 






H. D. Hannay. 


22^ 


i8i 


5i 


?i 


N.E. Rhodesia 






R. D. Waterhouse. 


22 


i8i 


5J 


11 


Nyasaland . 






A. V. Willcox. 


21 


i8| 


4! 


n| 


Do. 






Capt. J. S. Brogden. 


21 


174 


Si 


151 


Rhodesia 






A. W. Griffin. 


20£ 


17 


6 


94 


N.W. Rhodesia 






J. Bell. 


20 


16 


Si 


H 


N.E. Rhodesia 






F. H. Melland. 


20 


16 


5 


6\ 


Do. 






H. Cookson. 


20 


16 


5 


64 


N.W. Rhodesia 






Hon. J. Cunliffe-Lister. 


I9l 


i6| 


51 


6| 


Do. 






Major J. Carden. 


I9l 


16 


41 


9i 


Do. 






R. C. Wood. 


I 9 1 


1 51 


5 


6i 


Nyasaland . 






K. L. Storey. 


19} 


17 


5 


71 


N.W. Rhodesia 






J. H. Leche. 


I9i 


i6J 


54 


I2| 


Do. 






H. R. Phillips. 


19* 


i5i 


4l 


74 


N.E. Rhodesia . 






Col. A. Colville. 


•i 9 i 


i5i 


5 


6i 


N.W. Rhodesia . 






Capt. the Hon. G. PI 
Douglas-Pennant. 



C— ANGOLA RACE (JE. melampus petersi). 



Length. 
On front 
curve. 



c. • t_. Circum- «,. . r,,- 
Straight. ferencg _ T.ptoTip. 



23f 

234 

23i 
23! 
2ii 
21 



i9i 

194 

184 
18 

173 



6 

54 

54 

5§ 

54 

Si 



141 
13? 
15 

9§ 
194 
1 15 



Locality. 
Angola 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
S.W. Africa 
Angola . 



Owner. 
C. W. Sharp. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
A. H. Harrison. 
W. C. Neilson. 
A. N. Henderson. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



SAIGA 



231 




Horns of Saiga. From the Hon. Walter Rothschild's specimen. 



The SAIGA (Saiga tatarica). 

One of the most remarkable of all antelopes is the Central Asian 
saiga, which differs from most of its kindred by the inflated and puffy 
nose. This forms a kind of trunk, comparable to that of the dik-diks, 
with the nostrils directed downwards. The tail is short, and lateral 
hoofs are present. In summer the colour is dull yellowish above and 
whitish beneath, but in winter the whole coat is uniformly whitish. The 
short and blunt ears are thickly covered with hair, and the horns of 
the males pale amber-colour. Height at shoulder, about 30 inches. 

Distribution. — The Kalmuk steppes of Southern Russia, Northern 
Russian Turkestan, particularly between the Sea of Aral and Lake 
Balkash ; and locally throughout Zungaria as far east as the 
western edge of the Gobi. Formerly the range extended to the 
confines of Poland. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


14! 


Si 


3i 


Siberia . 


I3l 


5 




Volga Steppe . 


I3l 


4l 


3i 


? 


i3f 


5 


51 


Sarepta, South Russia 


I3i 


5 


3S 


Eastern Zungaria 


-I2§ 


5 


2 


? 
- Owner's measurements. 



Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

(See illustration.) 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 

British Museum. 

J. H. Miller. 

Imperial Museum, Vienna. 



232 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


-I2§ 


5 


5 




? 


J. C. Phillips. 


-\2\ 


5 


4i 


Siberia . 




Dublin Museum. 


I2j 


5 


5£ 


Do. . 




. Duke of Bedford. 


I2i 


5 


4* 


Do. . 




Rowland Ward. 


-Hi 


4l 


54 


Do. . 




Dr. Albert von Stephani. 


Si 




5i 


Do. . 




Major W. Anstruther Gray 



- Owner's measurements. 




Head of Saiga. 



CHIRU 



233 








Chiru. Shot by Mr. H. C. V. Hunter. 



The CHIRU or TIBETAN ANTELOPE (Pantholops hodgsoni). 

Among several animals peculiar to the Tibetan plateau none is 
more interesting than the chiru, whose beautiful horns form some of 
the most cherished trophies of the sportsman. Although very unlike 
in general appearance, the chiru is related to the saiga, having the 
nose even more swollen at the sides, at least in the male, but less bent 
downwards at the tip. The long black horns of the bucks, which 
are somewhat compressed, rise almost vertically from the head, and 
are slightly divergent, nearly straight below, but evenly curving for- 
wards above, and ridged in front. General colour of hair, which is 
very dense and short, pale fawn above, with a pinkish suffusion, 
but the face and part of the limbs of the males black or dark 
brown. Height at shoulder, about 31 or 32 inches; weight, from 90 
to 120 lbs. The genus is peculiar in having only two pairs of 
premolar teeth in each jaw. 

Distribution. — The plateau of Tibet, at elevations of from 13,000 to 
1 6,000 feet, or even more ; the species associates in pairs or small 
parties. 



234 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum 
ference 


273 


64 


27! 


5i 


271 


5i 


27 


6 


27 


5 


26 


Al 


25§ 


Si 


25i 


51 


25S 


51 


25i 


5i 


24! 


5 


24! 


Si 


24! 


5 


242 


5 


2 4i 


5 


24^ 


4l 


24i 


5i 


24 


5i 


24 


5i 


24 


5 



Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


13* 


North 


of Beansi Pass . 


ni 


Tibet . 




154 


North of Beansi Pass . 


i 4 i 




? 


i-3i 


Tibet 




12I 


Do. 




122 




? 


iii 


Tibet 




i4i 




? 


I2| 




? 


II 




? 


i5i 


Tibet 


. 


i9i 


Do. 




I2| 


Do. 




i3i 


Do. 




i8i 




? 


13* 




? 


15 




? 


ni 


Tibet 




12* 


Do. 





Owner. 
British Museum (Hume Collection). 
Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 
British Museum (Hume Collection). 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
P. F. Hadow. 
Capt. G. Campbell. 
Arnold Pike. 
Major C. B. Vandeleur. 
Major Sir W. Codrington. 
Miss Barber. 
E. L. Phelps. 

Capt. J. A. Stewart-Balmain. 
Royal Scottish Museum. 
Capt. H. H. P. Deasy. 
Capt. J. F. Turner. 
Capt. D. L. R. Lorimer. 
Capt. W. F. Corbett. 
Capt. L. Oldfield. 
Sutton Timmis. 
P. Radclyffe. 









OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 


27 


6 


17 


Mansarawar Lake 


Capt. F. M. Bailey. 


27 


51 


14I 


Tibet . 


Major G. K. Channer. 


27 




12 


? 


J. D. Inverarity. 


263 


6 


I3l 


Tibet . 


Dr. Albert von Stephani. 


261 






Chang-chenmo . 


Lieut. -Col. A. E. Ward. 


26£ 


51 


12 j 


Tibet . 


. J. C. Phillips. 


25i 


5 


lOf 


Do. . 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


25 


51 


11 


Chang-chenmo . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


24i 


4i 




Tibet . 


Major-General A. A. A. Kinloch 



BLACKBUCK 



235 




Skull and Horns of Blackbuck. From the late Mr. A. O. Hume's specimen. 



The BLACKBUCK or INDIAN ANTELOPE (Antilope cervicapra). 

Although in former days nearly all the then known species of 
antelopes were included in the genus Antilope, the extent of the latter 
has been gradually whittled down until it now comprises the Indian 
blackbuck alone. In addition to being the sole representative of the 
genus, this species is also the type of a subfamily or group of 
antelopes, embracing the springbuck, gazelles, and gerenuk. These are 
small or medium-sized antelopes, with hairy muzzles, generally short 
tails, and tall, narrow-crowned cheek-teeth, like those of sheep. In 



= 36 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



the springbuck and the majority of the gazelles horns are present in 
both sexes, but in the rest are confined to the males. From all 
the other members of this assemblage the blackbuck is distinguished 
by the beautiful spiral formed by its horns. It has large, expansile 
face-glands, a short and compressed tail, and lateral hoofs. Height 
at shoulder, about 32 inches; average weight, 85 lbs. It is only in 
adult males that the characteristic dark tint from which the species 
takes its name is developed, young males being uniformly brownish 
fawn above like the does ; the latter, like gazelles, have two teats. 

Distribution. — India, from the foot of the Himalaya to Cape Comorin, 
and from the Punjab to Lower Assam ; unknown in Ceylon and 
the countries to the eastward of the Bay of Bengal. 



Length 
straight. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


2%\ 


5 


1 7| 


Near Delhi 


British Museum (Hume Collection) 


27f 


5i 




Central Provinces 


A. H. Morris. 


27! 


5 


i8| 


Bikanir . 


H.H. the Maharaja of Bikanir. 


27 


51 


I9l 


Patiala . 


Major W. Cox. 


26J 


4S 


26 


Alwar 


Lieut. -Col. L. Impey. 


26f 


4l 


25i 


Bhurtpore 


Lieut.-Gen. Sir E. T. H. Hutton. 


26£ 


S\ 


«i 


Alwar 


Hon. E. S. Montagu. 


261 


5i 


27I 


United Provinces 


Capt. C. B. Oldfield. 


26i 


43 


I4l 


Bikanir . 


Lord Hardinge. 


26! 


5 


i7l 


Sirsa, Punjab . 


British Museum (Hume Collection) 


26A 


Si 


22 


Bikanir . 


Col. G. D. F. Sulivan. 


26A 


4i 


20 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


2b\ 


5 


19 


Alwar 


H.H. the Maharaja of Alwar. 


261 


5 


23! 


Oudh . 


E. St. J. Lawson. 


26\ 


5 


23i 


Bikanir . 


H.H. the Maharaja of Kotah. 


26 


5 


2I| 


Do. . 


Lieut. -Col. H. W. Codrington. 


251 


41 


19 


Jeypore . 


Hon. A. Holland-Hibbert. 


251 


4i 




Agra 


Capt. F. W. Van der Kiste. 


258 


54 


19 


? 


Lady Jenkins. 


25^ 


\l . 


18 


Punjab . 


Lieut. -Col. R. H. Rattray. 


25i 


4i 


19 


Jeypore . 


A. B. Graves. 


25i 


5i 


15 


Kathiawar 


Lieut. -Col. L. L. Fenton. 


25 


5 


18* 


? 


Lieut. -Col. H. G. Mainwaring. 


24I 


5 


20 


Jeypore . 


Lieut. -Col. J. B. Buchanan. 


24I 


4i 


i7i 


Dholpur . 


A. J. Coppinger. 



BLACKBUCK 



■37 



Length 
straight. 

24i 
24i 



Circum- 
ference. 

5i 

5 
5 



Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


isj 




? 


Capt. G. S. Bull. 


15 




? 


The late Earl of Minto 


18 


Bik 


inir . 


P. B. Vander Byl. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

Capt. J. MacRae-Gilstrap. 
General Sir B. Blood. 
Lieut. -Col. P. Durell Pank. 
T. Le Mesurier. 
R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 
Brig.-Surg. A. D. Campbell. 
Capt. Harry V. Brooke. 
Major R. P. Wemyss Quin. 
1 Measured and recorded by the late Mr. A. O. Hume, but not now in the possession of General Sir B. Blood. 



3°i 






? 


28! 






Jeypore . 


28 




20 


Do. . 


28 


5 


15 


Near Ahmedabad 


27! 


5i 


i6i 


Jeypore . 


27 


5 


20| 


Rajputana 


27 


5 


I 9 1 


Bikanir . 


26! 


5 


2l| 


Punjab . 




Head of Blackbuck. 



233 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Goa. 



The GOA or TIBETAN GAZELLE (Gazella [Procapra] picticaudata). 

The goa is the typical representative of a subgenus of gazelles 
characterised by the short tail, the absence or small size of the 
face-glands and the tufts of hair on the knees, and the lack of horns in 
the female. Face-markings are also wanting. As a species, the goa 
is distinguished by its comparatively small size, and the strongly 
marked backward curvature of the horns, which are not hooked at the 
tips, as well as by the large size of the white rump-patch, and the 
pale colour of the coat. Height at shoulder, about 24 or 25 inches. 
Weight, about 45 lbs. 

Distribution. — The plateau of Tibet and some of the adjacent 
parts of Central Asia. 



=ngtn on 
nt curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


14! 


31 


5 


Ladak 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


Hi 


3f 


2 


Hanle, Spiti . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


nl 


31 


8§ 


Gyantse, Tibet 


Capt. R. S. Kennedy. 


13! 


31 


3 


Ladak 


Major G. F. Mockler. 


i3i 


31 


51 


N. of Sikhim . 


British Museum (Hume Collection 


13* 


3* 


5 


Tibet 


C. Hamilton. 


i3i 


4i 


3i 


Ladak 


Major Neill Malcolm. 



GO A OR TIBETAN GAZELLE 



239 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


13* 


4 


3l 


Tibet 


H. C. V. Hunter. 


13 


4i 


44 


East Ladak 


Col. J. Biddulph. 


13 


3S 


14 


? 


Major C. B. Vandeleur. 


13 


3i 


4l 


? 


Capt. W. T. Hodgson. 


13 


3s 


4i 


Tibet 


P. K. Wise. 


13 


31 


5i 


N. of Sikhim . 


Major A. Pearse. 


I2| 


31 


64 


? 


E. McClellan. 


I2| 


4 


6J 


Ladak 


Baroda State Museum. 


I2| 


4 


4l 


Do. 


Earl of Ilchester. 


I2| 


-.1 

2 


2i 


Do. 


K. C. Zarzhetsky. 


I2l 


n 3 
OS 


5 


Do. 


Dr. T. G. Longstaff. 


I2j 


o7 
OS 


2 4 


? 


Major Lord Charles M. Nairne 


I2| 


3i 




? 


G. W. Grabham. 


I2§ 


34 


54 


South of Hanle 


Col. F. C. Lister-Kay. 


12} 


3l 


24 


? 


T. R. Ubsdell. 


I2i 


34 


6} 


Ladak 


The late David T. H anbury. 


I2i- 


-.3 

05, 


4 


Tibet . 


W. A. Conduitt. 


I2i 


,3 
04 


44 


Do. 


Major F. G. T. Deshon. 


12 


32 


3fi 


Kan-su, Tibet Border 


K. K. Horn. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



14 






Ladak 


14 






Do. 


131 


,1 
2 


64 


Do. 


i3i 


34 


3 


Do. 


i3i 


31 


6i 


S.E. of Hanle 


13 


3S 


5S 


Tibet 


13 


34 


4 


Do. 


1 2ff 


3l 


4 


Do. 


I2J 


34 


74 


Gyantse, Tibet 



Major Brown. 

C. C. Winn. 

Capt. F. M. Bailey. 

Lieut. -Col. H. W. Codrington. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

Bombay Natural History Society. 

Capt. F. W. A. Wells. 

Officers' Mess, 3rd Gurka Rifles. 

Capt. A. O. Creagh. 



240 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Przewalski's Gazelle. Shot by Mr. G. Fenwick-Owen. 



PRZEWALSKI'S GAZELLE (Gazella [Procapra] przewalskii). 

Nearly allied to the goa, from which it differs by its rather larger 
size, and the distinct hooks formed by the tips of the horns of the 
bucks. General colour in summer, deep fawn ; in winter, pale finely 
grizzled fawn ; white of buttocks running up in an angle on each side 
of the tail, which is very short, and almost concealed by the fur. 
Front of limbs more or less brown. 

Distribution. — Northern Kan-su and Ordos. 



igtn on 
t curve. 


L-ircum- 
ference. 


T: 


ip to Tip. 


I2l 


4l 




44 


IOJ 


4§ 




2| 


IO 


4 




4i 


91 


4s 




4l 


9§ 


4§ 




ii 


-8H 


3t 




4§ 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Nr. Shiakou, 2 days G. Fenwick-Owen. 
S.E. of Kanchow 

? British Museum. 

? II.R.H. Henri de Bourbon, Comte 
de Bardi. 

North of Pekin . British Museum (R. Swinhoe). 

Nr. Shiakou, 2 days H. F. Wallace. 

S.E. of Kanchow 

North China . . Paris Museum (Pere A. David). 



Owner's measurements. 



ZEREN GAZELLE 



241 




Frontlet and Horns of Altai Zeren Gazelle. 



The ZEREN or MONGOLIAN GAZELLE (Gazella [Procapra] gutturosa). 

Zeren or Seren, Mongolian. Hxvang-yang, Chinese. 

Much larger than the goa, this species takes its name from the 
swollen condition of the throat of the bucks during the pairing-season. 
In addition to its size (height at shoulder, about 30 inches), it is 
characterised by the comparatively slight backward curvature of the 
light brown or grey horns, which are relatively small and not hooked at 
the tips ; the general colour of the upper-parts and fronts of the legs in 
summer being pale fawn, with the front of the face light brown, and 
the white of the rump reaching to the sides of the short tail. The 
ears are relatively small. Rudimentary knee-tufts and small face- 
glands, as well as inguinal glands (lacking in the goa) are present. 

Distribution. — The whole of northern Mongolia from the Kosh-Agatch 
steppe in the west to the Khingan region in the east. Also the 
central Gobi. 

Two closely allied races are recognised, the typical G. gutturosa 
typica and the Altai G. g. altaica. The following specimens belong to 
the Altai race. 

R 



242 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



ngcn on 
nt curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


I3l 


4S 


02 


Altai 


12 


4§ 


6 


Do. . . . 


II| 


4i 


51 


Do. . . . 


II 


4l 


4l 


Do. . 


II 


4* 


61 


Do. . 


II 


4 


7 


Do. . . . 


io| 


4 


6| 


Do. . . . 


\o\ 


4 


51 


Do. . . . 



Owner. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
J. H. Miller. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
St. George Littledale. 
A. Louw. 

British Museum (R. Hayne). 
P. B. Vander Byl. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 




Head of Goitred Gazelle. Shot by Mr. G. Fenwick-Owen. 



The GOITRED GAZELLE (Gazella subgutturosa). 

With this species we come to the true gazelles, in which the tail 
is considerably longer than in gutturosa, przewalskii, and picticaudata, 
being from six to eight inches in length and black, while tufts of long 
hair on the knees, glands on the face and in the groin are always 
developed. In immature animals a dark streak in front of the eyes is 
present, but in many adult specimens this and the light fawn of the 
upper part of the face are very indistinct and often wanting in the 
winter coat. Horns, which are absent in the female, relatively large 



GOITRED AND SAIKIK GAZELLES 243 

and divergent. The rump-patch extends to the root of the tail, and 
the ears are small. Height at shoulder, from 26 to 27 inches. The 
larynx is swollen in males during the breeding-season, when it forms a 
prominence on the front of the upper part of the throat of the bucks. 
The Marica gazelle is smaller, with horns in the females. 

There are two races of this gazelle, the Caspian and Persian G. s. 
typica, and the Altai G. s. sairensis, in which the size is large but the 
horns are relatively small. 

Distribution. — From north - west Persia, eastern Asia Minor, and 
Caucasia in the west, through Russian Turkestan and Zungaria to 
the southern Gobi in the east. 



igtn on 
it curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


I5S 


4! 


4^ 


Persia 


Sir W. Preece. 


-151 


41 


7l 


Sheraz 


Dr. Albert von Stephani. 


14! 


4i 


9h 


? 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


I3l 


4l 


71 


Hi Valley . 


Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 


I3f 


4* 


6 


Saissan, W. Siberia . 


British Museum (Dr. O. Finsch). 


I3l 


4l 


41 


S. Zungaria 


J. H. Miller. 


n\ 


4i 


Si 


San-cao-tion, Kan-su 


G. Fenwick-Owen. 


13 


4i 


4i 


Persia 


E. Rennie. 


"i 


4t' 


5i 


San-cao-tion, Kan-su 
- Owner's measurements. 


H. F. Wallace. 



The SAIKIK GAZELLE (Gazella yarcandensis). 
Saikik, Turki. 

A larger species than the goitred gazelle, standing some 28 inches, 
with the ears much longer, the face-markings distinct, and the general 
colour darker. The horns, present only in the bucks, are somewhat 
heavier and longer than in the typical form, and the white markings 
on the rump extensive. 

Distribution. — Chinese Turkestan from Yarkand to Lob Nor. 



ijengtn on 
ront curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


Ti 


p to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


17 


4i 




6J 


Eastern Turkestan 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


16 


5 




31 


Yarkand 


British Museum (Hume Collection 


-i5i 






5 


Maralbashi 


Sir H. Lennard, Bart. 


i4f 


4s 




3 


Eastern Turkestan 


Major C. S. Cumberland. 



Owner's measurements. 



244 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Saikik Gazelle, in the possession of 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



engtn on 
ont curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Ti 


p. Locality. 


Owner. 


i4i 


5 


5i 


Tien Shan 


G. L. Harrison. 


14 


5 


55 


Eastern Turkestan 


. Col. J. Biddulph. 


1 35 


5 


4 


Chinese Turkestan 


. J. V. Phelps. 


131 


4i 


44 


Do. 


. E. L. Phelps. 


i3i 


43 


6g 


Maralbashi 


. The late David T. Hanbury. 








OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 


I4f 


1 3 


4? 


Lob Nor 


Paris Museum (Prince Henri 

d'Orleans). 



THE SEISTAN GAZELLE (Gazella seistanica). 

The Seistan gazelle of Eastern Persia differs by the much smaller 
extent of the white on the rump, which does not reach the root of the 
tail, and the white muzzle. 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Hi 


5 


14 


4 


I2| 


4i 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality 


Owner. 


n 


N. Persia . 


Capt. C. T. Daukes. 


3h 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. R. L. Kennion. 


5i 


Do. 


British Museum (Lieut. -Col. R. L 
Kennion). 



KENNION'S GAZELLE 



= 45 




Heads of Seistan Gazelle and Kennion's Gazelle. The three upper figures are 
the Seistan, and the three lower (of which the middle one is a doe) Kennion's 
gazelle. 



KENNION'S GAZELLE (Gazella fuscifrons). 

Allied to the last (which it serves to connect with the Indian 
gazelle), but with horns in both sexes, and no goitre in the throat of 
the bucks. 

Distribution. — Typically Jalk, but ranging over Seistan and 
Kain to Baluchistan. 



on front 
curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


-l ip CO 

Tip. 


LoCc 


Hi 


43 


4h 


Baluchistan 


12 


4 




S.E. Persia 


II| 


4 


3i 


Do. 


91 


31 


3i 


Do. 



Owner. 

Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 
Lieut. -Col. R. L. Kennion. 
Capt. C. T. Daukes. 
Capt. A. McCleverty. 



246 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Indian Gazelle. Shot by Lieut. -Col. P. C. Palin. 



The CHINKARA or INDIAN GAZELLE (Gazella bennetti). 

Closely allied to the last species, this gazelle (the ravine-deer of many 
Anglo-Indian sportsmen) is characterised by the absence of in-turning 
of the tips of the horns, the restriction of the white on the rump to 
the back and inner sides of the thighs, so that it does not reach the 
root of the tail: the height at the shoulder varies from 25 to 26 
inches, and the general colour of the upper-parts is dull fawn. 

Distribution. — Peninsular India. 



Length on 
front curve. 

151 

15! 

-15 

I4l 

14* 

14! 



Circum- 
ference. 

4i 
4i 

5 

4i 
4f 
4i 



ip to Tip. 


Local 


5i 


? 




Ferozepore 




Rajputana 


8 


Punjab 


Ik 


Sind 


8g 


Dholpur . 



Owner. 

Lieut. -Col. P. C. Palin. (See 

illustration.) 
Mess of the 14th Sikhs. 

H. H. Maharaj Rana Bahadur of 

Jhalawar. 
C. H. Shanan. 

Capt. J. L. Sleeman. 

L. M. le Champion. 



Owner's measurements. 



CHINKARA OR INDIAN GAZELLE 



247 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


I4i 


4l 


I4i 


4l 


i4i 


4i 


14 


3l 


14 


4i 


I3l 


4i 


I3l 


4i 


I3l 


4l 


i3i 


4l 


1 3s 


4i 


i3i 


4 


i3i 


4 


i3i 


4i 


134 


4l 


13 


31 


13 


3i 


12 j 


,4* 


I2| 


4l 


I2| 


44 


I2| 


4i 


I2f 


4s 


I2| 


4 


I2f 


4 


I2i 


48 


?7* 


2 


9 7s 


| 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


-71 
7a 


Patiala 


6 


Bikanir 


3 


Wana Plain, Wazir- 




istan. 


7s 


Patiala 


6g 


Bikanir 


7 


? 


85 


Sincl 


74 


Bikanir 


6| 


Muttra 


6J 


Punjab 


4i 


? 


6* 


? 


4 


Khelat . 


6| 


? 


6 


Bikanir 


6 


? 


5 


Goorgaon, Punjab 


74 


? 


5s 


North Punjab . 


7 


? 


5S 


Bikanir 


6 


Jodhpore . 


8 


? 


63 

°8 


? 


2i 


? 


2i 


? 



Owner. 

Major J. F. P. Langdon. 

J. A. ffolliott Powell. 

A. J. Grant. 

Major R. P. Wemyss Quin. 

Maharaja of Bikanir. 

R. H. Edmondson. 

L. Napier. 

Capt. C. F. Vander Byl. 

Major G. F. Mockler. 

R. H. Heath. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Major O. A. Chambers. 

British Museum (Hume Collection). 

Mess of the 2nd Central Indian 

Horse. 
Lieut. -Col. H. C. Morland. 

Lieut. -Col. R. H. Rattray. 

British Museum (Hume Collection). 

H. C. V. Hunter. 

Col. J. Biddulph. 

Major L. I. B. Hulke. 

Capt. E. N. Jones- Vaughan. 

H.H. the Maharaja of Bikanir. 

J. Gouldsmith. 

Major A. D. Greenhill-Gardyne. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Horns of the Edmi Gazelle. 



The EDMI or ATLAS GAZELLE (Gazella cuvieri). 

The African representative of Kennion's gazelle and the chinkara, 
characterised by the horns in the bucks diverging more or less regularly 
upwards, and not incurving at the tips. There is a blackish spot on 
the tip of the muzzle, and the coat is rough. General colour dull fawn, 
with a very indistinct lateral band, well-defined face-markings, the lower 
portion of the tail crested with black, and the under-parts, buttocks, and 
inner surfaces of fore-legs white. Height at shoulder, 26 to 27 inches. 

Distribution. — The mountains of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, where 
it is known by the name of edmi or admi. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. Owner. 


Hi 


5 


3§ 


Algeria . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


I4l 


4l 


4i 


N. Tunis 


. J. I. S. Whitaker. 


I4t 9 s 


Al 


8 


Constantine 


British Museum (E. Richardson Cox) 


Hi 

Hi 


4l 


7 
5^ 


Do. 
Algeria 


Royal Scottish Museum (E. Richard 

son Cox). 
A. Louw. 


-Hi 






Do. 


. C. S. Mann. 


-Hi 


4 


ll 


Do. 


American National Collection. 


9i3l 


3h 


7h 


Do. 


. E. N. Buxton. 


i3§ 


4i 


7i 


Do. . 


Hon. G. Gordon. 


13 


3i 


6g 


Do. . 


. A. F. Williams. 


13 


4 


5 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


9 11 


2* 


5s 


Do. 


. J. I. S. Whitaker. 



- Owner's measurements 



ARABIAN GAZELLE 249 



The ARABIAN GAZELLE (Gazella arabica). 

From the edmi the ordinary Arabian race of this gazelle, as met 
with at Aden, may be distinguished by its smaller size, smoother 
hair, and darker colour, the general tint of the upper-parts being dark 
smoky fawn, with a distinct dark flank-band, the central face-band 
rufous fawn, and a black spot on the tip of the nose. The horns are 
relatively small. Height at shoulder, 24 or 25 inches. The Aden race 
has been named G. a. erlangeri ; the typical race, G. a. typica, which is 
from the island of Farsan, in the Red Sea, being lighter, with no dark 
flank-band. The Sinaitic G. a. rueppelli is coloured like dorcas with 
the face-markings of a. erlangeri ; the nose being reddish brown with a 
distinct blackish spot. 

Distribution. — Western and South Arabia, where it is known as 
ghasal, its Syrian title being ariel or aiel. 

Ownei. 

II. H. Youssouf Kamal. 

Dr. Albert von Stephani. 

. British Museum (the late W. T. 
Blanford). 

Charterhouse Museum. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 

Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 

Owner's measurements. 



^engtn 01 
front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
T.p. 


Locality. 


log 


4l 


4i 


Syria 


-ioi 


4i 


44 


S. Arabia 


H 


4 


2 


Mocha, South Arabia 


?7i 


2 


4? 


? 


4i 


3h 


31 


South Arabia 


9 4i 


if 


25 


? 



250 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Dorcas Gazelle. 

The DORCAS GAZELLE (Gazella dorcas). 

Rozal or Hemar, Algerian Arabic. Ghasal, Syria. 

The typical race of this species is characterised by the indistinctness 
of the dark lateral band dividing the fawn of the upper-parts from the 
white beneath, and the perfectly lyrate form of the horns, which are of 
medium length, with the middle portion twisted outwardly, and the 
tips converging towards one another; ears short (125 mm.). Height 
at shoulder, 21 to 22 inches; total length, about 42 inches. General 
colour of upper-parts pale fawn, of rather variable tint, with the face- 
markings distinct. 

Distribution. — Typically Lower Egypt ; thence eastwards to Palestine 
and Syria ; westwards to the plains of Morocco, Algeria ; and 
southwards to Nigeria and the Sudan. 

.4.— TYPICAL RACE. 

Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
. F. P. Nathan. 

H. II. Youssouf Kamal. 

Capt. L. Buxton. 
. Capt. B. W. Y. Danford. 

Owner's measurements. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality 


i3i 


3i 


2l 




? 


i3§ 


41 


2% 


Kordofan 




13* 


4 


31 


Syria . 




-I3i 






Kordofan 




13 


44 


2 


Sudan 











DORCAS GAZELLE 251 


Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


13 


4 


31 


El Obeid, Kordofan . 


Capt. J. G. A. Massy. 


I2| 


4 


zl 


Sudan . ■ . 


Capt. C. P. Heywood. 


I2| 


35 


4 


Algeria 


A. Louw. 


I2| 


4 


4l 


Kordofan . 


Capt. J. C. Graham. 


TO 3 

X ^3 


4 


i| 


Do 


Lord Villiers. 


I2| 


4 


3 


5 


P. K. Glazebrook. 


I2§ 


3i 


4§- 


Sudan 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 


I2| 


4 


3§ 


Kordofan 


Capt. P. E. Vaughan. 


12* 


n 5 
05 


3i 


Southern Sahara 


J. I. S. Whitaker. 


I2i 


4 


2| 


Kordofan . 


Lieut. -Col. C. J. Hawker. 


T2l 


41 


3 


Do. ... 


Major C. S. Cumberland. 


I2§ 


31 




Southern Sahara . 


British Museum. 


I2g 


31 


2 


Sudan 


H.H. Prince Omar Toussoun. 


"i 


4i 


3 


Palestine 


P. B. Vander Byl. 


I2i 


3i 


5 


Kordofan . . 


G. L. Harrison. 


124 


4l 


31 


Do. ... 


Major J. H. Rivers. 


Mi 


31, 


2| 


Do. ... 


Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


12 


,3 


02 


Do. ... 


Capt. F .L. Livingstone-Learmonth. 


12 


3-4 


31 


Do. . . . 


. B. Chew. 


12 


34 


51 


Do. ... 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


12 


3a 


,3 

2 S 


Do. ... 


Capt. J. P. V. Hawksley. 


12 


4 


31 


Southern Sahara 


J. H. Thomas. 


"1 


31 


48 


? 


R. E. Fawkes. 


"i 


4 


4 


Kordofan 


Major G. Lumsden. 


»i 


4 


2 


Do. ... 


Capt. C. E. Hills. 


Ilf 


4i 


51 


Do 


Walter Jones. 


II| 


4 


4 


Do 


Norman B. Smith. 


"I 


4 


33 


Algeria 


E. C. Miller. 


"1 


3t 


if 


Dongola . . . 


Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


9 ni 


2 rs 


51 


Kordofan . 


Major J. H. Rivers. 


n| 


4 


31 


N. Nigeria 


C. S. Burnett. 


I0| 


4i 


2i 


Lake Chad 


Major J. K. Cochrane. 


-?9l 






Algeria 

- Owner's measuremen 


A. E. Pease. 

s. 



252 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



^.—ABYSSINIAN (ISABELLA) RACE (Gazella dorcas isabella). 

Gannai of the natives. 

The so-called Isabella gazelle is now regarded as the Abyssinian 
race of dorcas. It is typically characterised by the tips of the horns 
being strongly hooked inwards so as to form nearly or completely a 
right angle. The colour of the upper-parts is rufous fawn, with the 
lateral band well developed. Height at shoulder, about 25 inches. 



Length on Circum- 
front curve. ference. 



Distribution. — Abyssinia. 

Tip to Tip. Locality. 

4 Komayli, Abyssinia 



Owner. 



British Museum (the late W. T. 
Blanford). 



ERYTHRAEAN GAZELLE (Gazella littoralis). 

Ghazal of the Sudanese. 

Rather smaller than G. dorcas ; general colour pale reddish fawn, 
with a pale lateral band, and the dark flank-band rich rufous or madder- 
brown ; nose-spot blackish; ears very long, 144 mm. Skull long and low, 
with the brain-case flatter, the profile from crown to occiput less nearly 
vertical, and the basisphenoid more inclined than in dorcas ; auditory 
bullae small ; row of upper cheek-teeth larger (56 mm.) than in dorcas 
but the molars narrower. 

Distribution. — The African coast of the Red Sea, from Suakin 
northwards, and adjacent parts of Nubian desert. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


"I 


4 


I I 


38 


II 


-.7 


II 


4 


iog 


3 


log 


4l 


lOf 


4 


iog 


3l 


iog 


4 


\o\ 


3k 


1 of 


3k 


10} 


3f 


10J 


3l 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3 


Red S 


sa Province 


H. G. Watson. 


31 




Do. 


Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 


2| 




Do. 


W. B. Cotton. 


3k 




Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


-j 3 

Jo 




Do. 


P. H. Thomas. 


4l 




Do. 


Capt. P. C. Lord. 


Al 




Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


3\ 




Do. 


W. Mure. 


3k 




Do. 


W. H. Lindsay. 


3 




Do. 


G. C. Whitaker. 


2 




Do. 


J. H. Miller. 


4 


Suakin 




C. E. Russell. 


2 1 


Sudan 




Major H. II. S. Morant. 



SPEKE'S GAZELLE 



253 




Head of Speke's Gazelle. 



SPEKE'S GAZELLE (Gazella spekei). 

Dhero, Somali. 

From the edmi and its allies, with which it agrees in its leading 
characteristics, this gazelle is readily distinguished by the development 
of a flabby corrugated elevation on the skin of the nose of both sexes. 
The coat is thick and the general colour of the upper - parts pale 
brownish fawn, with the lateral band darker than in the other members 
of the sub-group. Height at shoulder, from 23 to 24 inches. 

The protuberance on the nose is connected with the sexual 
function ; in dead specimens it exhibits a slight cavity beneath the 
skin which can be inflated by blowing air into the nostrils, and it seems 
therefore capable of distension during life. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 

I2j 

II| 
"I 
"I 
III 
Hi 



Distribution.- 


— The plateau 


of Somaliland. 


Circum- Tip to 
ference. Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


4 51 


Somaliland . 


Col. P. Schletter. 


-.3 -,3 


Do. 


A. F. Williams. 


31 4l 


Do. 


Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 


3l 24 


Do. 


Gen. Sir Arthur Paget. 


,3 3 

4h 2 i 


Do. 


T. W. II. Clarke. 


-,3 ,3 

3s 3? 


Do. 


Capt. A. H. W. Temple 



254 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


Hi 


33 


2| 


Somaliland . 


. , . Capt. H. du B. O'Neill. 


«i 


4 


4i 


Do. 


. Col. H. D. Olivier. 


«i 


4 


4 


Do. 


. W. H. Cobb. 


"i 


41 


4 


Do. 


Capt. H. W. Thorpe. 


«i 


34 


4 


Do. 


A. de L. Long. 


«i 


4 


4 


Do. 


Major P. C. Elliott-Lockhart 


«i 


4 


4i 


Do. 


Capt. F. R. Tarleton. 


-"i 


4 


5i 


Do. 


R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 


"1 


4 


Si 


Do. 


C. Liddell. 


ii 


4 


4l 


Do. 


J. H. Whitehouse. 


ii 


4 


4 


Do. 


A. H. Straker. 


ii 


3l 


5 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. H. C. Morland. 


ii 


4l 


3i 


Do. 


Lord Delamere. 


ii 


34 


4 


Do. 


Capt. A. E. H. Breslin. 


ii 


4 


2 5 


Do. 


Dr. R. E. Drake-Brockman. 


io| 


4 


4l 


Do. 


P. H. Thomas. 


iol 


3i 


3S 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


IO| 


3? 


4l 


Do. 


. J. H. Miller. 


lof 


4l 


5i 


Do. 


Major B. R. M. Glossop. 


IO| 


4 


4 


Do. 


R. McD. Hawker. 


IO| 


3i 


3 


Do. 


. C. N. Welsh. 


I of 


3i 


31 


Do. . 


E. Lort-Phillips. 


IOf 


4 


3i 


Do. 


Major B. Vincent. 


I of 


4 


4i 


Do. 


A. Louw. 


I0| 


4 


3i 


Do. 


Col. E. St. C. Pemberton. 


?9i 


2^ 


3i 


Do. 


. T. W. H. Clarke. 



Owner's measurements. 



PELZELN'S GAZELLE 



255 




Head of Pelzeln's Gazelle. 



PELZELN'S GAZELLE (Gazella pelzelni). 

Dhero, Somali. 

This species, the lowland gazelle of Somaliland, is nearly related 
to the last, from which it differs by the absence both of the corrugated 
elevation on the nose and of the black spot on the muzzle. It is also 
slightly larger than Speke's gazelle, the height at the shoulder being 
about 2 5 inches ; and its colour is somewhat more rufous, the light 
flank -band being distinct, and the dark band rufous brown, only 
slightly darker than the back, without any tendency to blackness. 
The dark and light bands on the cheeks are relatively short and 
indistinct. 

Distribution. — The plains of northern Somaliland, bordering the sea. 
Within fifty miles of the shore this gazelle is exceedingly numerous, 
and may often be seen in large herds. 



Length on .-,. 

c . Circum- 

front r 

ierence. 
curve. 



14 



13^ 

'3 



3f 

4i 



Tip to 
Tip. 



4A 
4i 

4S 



Locality. 

Somaliland 
Do 
Do. 



Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

W. Mure. 

A. de L. Long. 



2 5 6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



ength on 
front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Localit} 7 . 


Owner. 


13 


4 


6i 


Somaliland 


. H. D. Briggs. 


I2l 


-, 1 
02 


51 


Do. 


. Capt. H. McLear. 


I2| 


->7 


51 


Do. 


. Capt. H. C. Dobbs. 


125 


44 


4i 


Do. 


R. P. Dennistoun-Webster. 


I2i 


->3 


44 


Do. 


Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 


I2J 


4i 


5k 


Do. 


Lord Delamere. 


I2J 


4 


4i 


Do. 


. Major K. L. W. Mackenzie. 


12 


3i 


51 


Do. 


. Capt. F. W. Richey. 


12 


3i 


44 


Do. 


Major A. G. Stevenson. 


12 


->3 


5i 


Do. 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 


12 


5 1 

32 


54 


Do. 


. Major C. R. Kelly. 


II| 


4 


5 


Do. 


. Lieut. H. V. B. Firman, R.N 


II| 


4i 


4 


Do. 


Dr. R. E. Drake-Brockman. 


Ilf 


4 


3i 


Do. 


. Capt. H. du B. O'Neill. 


"i 


J2 


5i 


Do. 


. T. W. H. Clarke. 


Hi 


3k 


44 


Do. 


. Lieut. -Col. H. C. Morland. 


"i 


3i 


5 


Do. 


. Capt. W. H. Williamson. 


115 


3i 


44 


Do. 


. C. S. Mann. 


»i 


-.3 
0-4 


4g 


Do. 


. W. F. Whitehouse. 


«i 


3i 


4l 


Do. 


Capt. G. W. Denison. 


99 






Do. 


. C. S. Mann. 


9 8^ 


2* 


3k 


Do. 


. W. F. Whitehouse. 



RH1M OR LOEER'S GAZELLE 



257 




Horns of Loder's Gazelle. 



The RHIM or LODER'S GAZELLE (Gazella leptoceros). 

Rhim, Arabic. 

Although originally described so long ago as the year 1842, very 
little was known of this gazelle till specimens were procured by Sir 
E. G. Loder, and described as a new species under the name of G. 
loderi. Further investigation proved them to be inseparable from the 
species named by F. Cuvier. This species is easily recognisable by 
the long and slender form of the nearly straight horns of the bucks, 
and the very pale tone of colouring of the upper-parts, which may 
be described as pale sandy fawn, with the characteristic gazelle- 
markings only indistinctly defined. On the face the dark streaks are 
sandy instead of rufous, and the light bands on the flanks are almost 
imperceptible, while the dark ones below them are pale sandy with the 
very slightest tinge of brown ; the tail being sandy at the base, and 
gradually darkening to brownish black towards the tip. In the male 
the horns are about twice the length of the head, very slender, and 
closely and heavily ridged almost to the tips. Knee-brushes very 
small. Height at shoulder, about 28 inches. Weight, 34 lbs. 

S 



258 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Distribution. — The desert tracts of the interior of Western Egypt, 
thence extending southwards into Nubia and Sennar ; represented 
by a distinct race on the sand-dunes of the Algerian and Tunisian 
Sahara. 

A— TYPICAL RACE. 



Length on Circum- 
front curve, ference. 



Tip to Tip. 



i3i 



4i 



Locality. 
Fayum, Egypt 



Owner. 

Capt. S. S. Flower. 



^.—TUNISIAN RACE (G. leptoceros loderi). 



:ngtn on 
nt curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to T 


p. Locality. 


Owner. 


i5l 


3i 


71 


Tunisian Sahara . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i5i 


3l 


6i 


South of Biskra . 


. , Dr. Dawtrey Drewitt. 


i5l 


4 


4i 


Tunisian Sahara . 


. J. I. S. Whitaker. 


15 


31 


71 


Algerian Sahara . 


G. L. Harrison. 


15 


02 


4i 


? 


J. C. Phillips. 


14J 


3l 


51 


South of Biskra . 


American National Collection 


14 A 


Si 


4l 


Algerian Sahara . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


I4§ 


34 


8 


? 


C. S. Mann. 


Mi 


31 


61 


Algerian Sahara . 


H. H. Prince Omar Toussoun. 


144 


31 


10* 


Do. . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


14 


3l 


3 


Do. . 


. Hon. R. A. Ward. 


*3f 


3f 


51 


Do. . 


. W. E. Pease. 


I3i 


31 


82 


Tunisian Sahara . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i3i 


31 


10 


Algerian Sahara . 


British Museum. 


i3i 


31 


3l 


? 


A. Louw. 


i3i 


31 


51 


Tunisian Sahara . 


. J. I. S. Whitaker. 


n| 


2 


3i 


Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 



HEUGLIN'S GAZELLE 



259 




Head of Heuglin's Gazelle. 

HEUGLIN'S GAZELLE (Gazella tilonura). 
Tel-Badu, Tigri. 

This well-marked species represents a small sub-group in which 
the dark band on the flanks is very strongly defined, and black in 
colour ; the present species being distinguished from its allies by the 
abrupt inward hooking of the tips of the horns. The general colour is 
deep sandy, with the central face-band but little darker than the back, 
no black nose-spot, and the tail sandy at the base but black elsewhere. 
Height at shoulder, about 27 inches. 

Distribution. — Bogosland, Abyssinia, Sennar, and Northern 
Bahr-el-Ghazal. 



>engm on 
Dnt curve. 


circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


Hi 


4i 


3i 


Atbara River . 


W. B. Cotton. 


II| 


5 


2 


Sudan 


Major F. J. L. Howard. 


"5 


4i 


2 


Atbara River . 


. W. B. Cotton. 


Ilf 


4 


7 


Sudan 


H. Leney. 


II 


4 


3i 


Do. 


Lord Villiers. 


io| 


41 


2i 


Do. 


H. Boughton Leigh. 


iof 


31 


4l 


? 


E. Lort-Phillips. 


lOf 


4 


21 


Bogosland 


British Museum. 


iol 


4§ 


3 


Near Kassala . 


Prince Colloredo Mannsfeld 


10J 


44 


31 


Sudan 


C. E. Russell. 


i<4 


4* 


4i 


Basaland 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


10J 


4i 


2j 


? 


Col. Ralph Vivian. 


10 


4l 


21 


Setit Valley . 


Earl of Sefton. 


?7 


21 


3i 


Do. 


Do. 



260 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Red-fronted Gazelle. 



The KORIN or RED -FRONTED GAZELLE (Gazella rufifrons). 



Seni, Gambian. 
Bavewa, Hausa. 



El Hamra, Dinka. 
Ngdr, Sudani. 



This medium -sized and rather stoutly built species agrees with 
Heuglin's gazelle in the narrow dark brown flank-band, but differs by 
the absence of a distinct inward hooking of the tips of the horns. 
The general colour of the upper parts is deep sandy rufous, brightening 
into rich rufous on the forehead and face, where there is no nose-spot. 
The tail, with the exception of the sandy upper surface of the basal 
portion, is black. Horns relatively small, regularly divergent, curving 
at first slightly backwards and then forwards, heavily ridged till the 
terminal two or three inches. 

Distribution. — Senegal, Gambia, Northern Nigeria, Kordofan, and White 
Nile, to Northern Uganda. The typical race is from Gambia and 
Nigeria ; the eastern race being distinguished as G. r. Icevipes, with 
which the so-called G. salmi is identical. 



KORIN OR RED-FRONTED GAZELLE 



261 



.4.— TYPICAL RACE (G. rufifrons typica). 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum 
ference 


i3i 


4§ 


i?i 


5 


1 2 


4i 


nf 


4i 


"4 


4l 


ui 


4l 


n| 


4i 


"i 


44 


"i 


4* 


»i 


4l 


11 


44 


11 


4i 


11 


4i 


9 9^ 


24 



ip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


Si 


Northern N 


geria 


Capt. C. V. Boyle. 


44 


Do. 




Capt. L. C. Brodie. 


51 


Do. 




Capt. A. C. Aubin. 


3S 


Do. 




Capt. G. Bonham-Carter. 


44 


Do. 




H. C. Bridges. 


4l 


Do. 




C. Francis. 


4l 


Do. 




Capt. G. C. Kelly. 


4f 


Do. 




Capt. C. C. West. 


4i 


Do. 




F. B. Gall. 


4 


Do. 




Major R. McDouall. 


3i 


Do. 




C. S. Burnett. 


4f 


Do. 




Major J. G. Browne. 


4l 


Do. 




Capt. Lord Henry Seymour 


44 


Do. 




Capt. L. C. Brodie. 



^.—EASTERN RACE (G. rufifrons laevipes). 



Length on 
front curve. 

134 

i3i 

13 
13 
13 

I2| 

I2f 
I2f 
I2§ 
I2| 
I2§ 
124 
124 
124 
124 
I2§ 
I2§ 
I2i 
I2i 
12* 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
? I04 



Circum- 
ference. 

Si 
4l 

54 
4l 
44 
4i 
44 
Al 
4% 
4l 

4i 

5 
4l 

44 

5 
5 
5 

A 9 

4 is 

44 

4l 

4S 

48 

41 

4i 

4f 

5 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality 


74 


White Nile 


6§ 


Kordofan . 


8 


White Nile 


4l 


Do. 




Do. 


54 


Kordofan . 


71 


Do. 


7 


White Nile 


7 


Do. 


4i 


Kordofan . 


6| 


White Nile 


5 


Do. 


6i 


Do. 


6 


Do. 


54 


Kordofan . 


4i 


White Nile 


51 


Do. 


5i 


Do. 


51 


Do. 


5i 


Do. 


6 


Do. 


51 


Do. 


6 


Do. 


51 


Do. 


44 


Kordofan . 


6 


Sudan 


,3 

2 5 


Kordofan 



Owner. 

Lieut.-Col. J. W. Yardley. 

B. Chew. 

F. W. Greswolde-Williams. 
Capt. R. F. Balfour. 
Capt. A. H. Vivian. 

Col. A. Colville. 
Capt. C. E. Hills. 
Capt. B. W. Y. Danford. 
R. McD. Hawker. 
Capt. B. H. S. Romilly 
H. Cookson. 
Capt. E. Berry. 
Capt. J. C. Graham. 
J. C. Phillips. 
Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 

C. Cookson. 
R. H. Willan. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 
C. Bower Ismay. 
Col. II. W. Guinness. 
Norman B. Smith. 
Major J. F. Wolseley. 
Lieut. W. B. Drury, R.N. 
T. D. M. Cardeza. 
Lieut.-Col. C.J. Hawker. 
A. L. Butler. 

G. L. Harrison. 



262 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Mongala Gazelle. 
From the type specimen. 



MONGALA GAZELLE (Gazella albonotata). 

Closely allied to G. tJiomsoni, of which it may be merely a race. 

Distribution. — According to the late Capt. H. S. Logan, from Gondokoro, 
in Uganda, to Bor, in the Mongala district of the Sudan, on the 
Abyssinian side of the Bahr-el-Gebel. 



;ngth on 
front. 


Circum 
ference 


I2§ 


4i 


I2§ 


4i 


I2§ 


4l 


12 


5 


12 


41 


"3 


5 


Ilf 


4i 


"1 


44 


II 


4i 


iog 


41 


iog 


41 


10 


4fi 


?4§ 


ri 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


6^ 


Mongala . 


Capt. P. E. Vaughan. 


4 


Do. . 


P. Niedieck. 


6i 


Do. 


Major A. W. Jennings Bramly. 


3 


Do. . 


Duke of Alba. 


5 


Do. 


Capt. E. E. B. Mackintosh. 


5 


Do. . 


Capt. R. F. Balfour. 


5 


Do. 


Capt. B. W. Y. Danford. 


3i 


Do. 


Major P. M. Dove. 


4} 


Do. 


Capt. P. A. Wilson. 


3 


Pihor River 


Col. J. J. Asser. 


31 


Mongala . 


J. V. Colby. 


5? 


Do. 
Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

(Type specimen.) 
C. Logan. 



THOMSON'S GAZELLE 



263 




Heads of Thomson's Gazelle. 



THOMSON'S GAZELLE (Gazella thomsoni). 

Sivalla, Svvahili. Engoli, Masai. 

The distinct black nose - spot, the pure white eye-streak, and the 
great depth of the black flank-band serve to distinguish this species from 
G. rufifrons', with which it agrees in the general form of the horns. 
The prevailing colour of the upper parts is deep sandy rufous, with all 
the markings well developed and sharply defined ; the central face- 
streak being a deeper rufous mingled with black, and having a black spot, 
and the light flank-band present, although only slightly paler than the 
back. There is also a narrow black band bordering the white on the 
sides of the rump. The horns are long, and rather like those of the 
Indian gazelle on an enlarged scale. Height at shoulder of males, from 
about 25 to 27 inches; of females, about 23^ inches. Weight of 
bucks, from 52 to 62 lbs.; of does, about 32 lbs. The species has 
been divided by a German naturalist into a number of races, but at 
least many of these can scarcely be regarded as valid. 

Distribution. — The interior districts of British and German East 
Africa, from Lake Rudolf southwards to Irangi. 



:6 4 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


16I 


5 


4i 


East Africa 


H. Fowler. 


i6i 


4-4 


5 


Do. 


Earl of Kingston. 


16 


4§ 


44 


Do. 


. • . W. A. Baird. 


16 


4l 


3h 


Do. 


Lady Margaret Loder. 


iSi 


44 


5s 


Do. 


. J. G. Millais. 


i5l 


44 


7 


Do. 


Sir Richard Dane. 


i5i 


5 


44 


Do. 


R. de la Huerta. 


i5l 


5i 


4l 


Do. 


H. Irvine. 


i5l 


4l 


6 


Do. 


. W. N. McMillan. 


1 si 


44 


44 


Do. 


. C. W. Turner. 


15I 


5 


4l 


Do. 


. W. P. Lowe. 


15I 


44 


54 


Do. 


. Major H..B. Dalgety. 


iSf 


4i 


34 


Do. 


C. J. Murray. 


isi 


44 


64 


Do. 


. E. M. Crosfield. 


1 51 


5 


3h 


Do. 


. F. W. Belt. 


i54 


4l 


54 


Do. 


Duke of Peneranda. 


i5i 


4l 


t3 
04 


Do. 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


i5i 


44 


3 


Do. 


. Capt. M. L. Pears. 


i5l 


4i 


51 


Do. 


G. Henry. 


15S 


41 


5 


Do. 


Stephenson R. Clarke. 


i5l 


54 


44 


Do. 


G. P. L. Cosens. 


iSf 


44 


3 


Do. 


The Master of Belhaven. 


i5i 


4l 


Si 


Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


i5i 


4i 


4§ 


Do. 


British Museum (Sir F. J. Jackson) 


1 Si 


44 


44 


Do. 


. Major A. E. Smith. 


iSi 


44 


5 


Do. 


Guy Fenwick. 


i5i 


5 


4h 


Do. 


. C. B. C. Storey. 


iSi 


5 


3i 


Do. 


Gerard Buxton. 


i5i 


44 


»i 


Do. 


. F. C. Cobb. 


154 


4| 


6 


Do. 


Sir J. Hume Campbell, Bart. 


i5i 


4l 


5s 


Do. 


Lord Basil Blackwood. 


T -1 
OH 


4l 


6 


Do. 


Capt. C. Brook. 


154 


54 


5 


Do. 


I. N. Dracopoli. 


154 


5 


6| 


Do. 


. Major W. E. Stobart. 


15 


4l 


4 


Do. 


. H. B. Tate. 


15 


44 


5i 


Do. 


. Major C. U. Price. 


15 


4i 


si 


Do. 


B. Dominick. 


15 


5 


4 


Do. 


. J. F. Franks. 


15 


4i 


4g 


Do. 


. Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


15 


5 


5i 


Do. 


F. Santos Saurez. 


15 


4l 


4f 


Do. 


. Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


15 


5 


4 


Do. 


. W. J. Barry. 


15 


5 


6 


Do. 


Lord Wodehouse. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS: 



i6g 


54 


5* 


German East Africa . 


S. 


E. White. 


16 


44 


2 


East Africa 


c. 


S. Mann. 


*6J 


2 


24 


Do. 


c. 


Steuart Betton. 



GRANT'S GAZELLE 



265 




Skull and Horns of Grant's Gazelle. 



GRANT'S GAZELLE (Gazella [Nanger] granti). 
Suara, Swahili. Ngoli, Nodorobo. 

This handsome species is the first of a group of gazelles char- 
acterised by their large size and by the fawn colour of the back being 
encroached upon to a greater or less degree by the white of the rump. 
In this species the horns are very long and typically lyrate ; there 
is a dark streak on the front border of each side of the rump-patch ; 
the middle face-streak is chestnut, with a black nose-spot ; and the tail, 
with the exception of the black crest, is either wholly white, or sandy 
above and white beneath. On the neck and back the hair has a 
peculiar wavy appearance, recalling that of watered silk. Height at 
shoulder, from about 32 to 34 inches ; weight of male, from about 150 
to 165 lbs., when cleaned, about 1 1 5 lbs. 

Distribution. — East Africa ; throughout Masailand, Kilimanjaro, north 
of Baringo, Mount Elgon, and the Suk country ; generally on 
open grass -lands. In G. granti typica, of the interior of East 
Africa, the flank-bands are faint in the adult, and the fawn area 
does not extend far on to the white of the rump-patch. In the 
Usukuma race, G. g. robertsi, the horns show a peculiar outward 
twist, so that their points are far apart. In the Tana G. g. petersi 
the stature is smaller, the horns are nearly straight, and the fawn 



266 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



of the back extends along the middle of the upper surface of the 
tail. In the Loroghi G. g. notata the flank-bands are very distinct 
with a dark one above and below the light one, and the horns 
are nearly straight. The Lado G. g. brighti is a small race, 
without dark flank-bands, and a narrow black border to the rump- 
patch. The Abaya G. g. laccuum, which is also rather small, has 
a dark flank-band in the young, and horns of the petersi type. 



A.— Many of the following belong to the TYPICAL RACE. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


29 


7 


14 


East Africa 


. R. O. Preston. 


29 


6^ 


20| 


Do. 


Sheffield Neave. 


281 


6| 


13! 


Do. 


. A. Fowler. 


28f 


6| 


171 


Do. 


. Capt. F. W. Barrett. 


28^ 


6| 


154 


Do. 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


28J 


6| 


131 


Do. 


Capt. E. C. Hamilton. 


2%\ 


7 


i7i 


Do. 


Lord Wodehouse. 


28 


7 


21 


Do. 


. K. V. Painter. 


28 


7h 


16 


Do. 


. • Douglas M'Douall. 


28 


6| 


24I 


Do. 


. Capt. N. E. Playfair. 


27$ 


6| 


i8| 


Do. 


. H. C. V. Hunter. 


2 7 | 


6| 


14 


Do. 


. J. Jay White. 


27f 


6| 


11 


Do. 


. C. C. Wilson. 


273 


7 


18 


Do. 


Major G. E. Tuson. 


27a 


7i 


i6| 


Do. 


. W. H. Levy. 


27* 


6^ 


6| 


Do. r 


Capt. A. Neave. 


27i 


7 


17 


Do. 


. Capt. D. H. Macdonell. 


27I 


7i 


13 


Do. .. ' . 


. Lieut. -Col. G. S. McLoughlin 


2 7h 


7 


i7l 


Do. 


. R. B. Loder. 


27! 


6| 


20| 


Do. 


H. Fowler. 


27* 


6| 


8| 


Do. 


R. B. Seager. 


27} 


6i 


i8| 


Do. 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


27i 


7 


19 


Do. 


Marquis of Waterford. 


27i 


7 


i6i 


Do. 


. E. H. Litchfield. 


27 


7 


■Si 


Do. 


. A. J. A. Douglas. 


27 


7 


\2\ 


Do. 


. H. T. Barclay. 


27 


7 


20 


Do. 


. Major Lord J. S. Cavendish. 


27 


6| 


Mi 


Do. 


. Dr. A. E. Herz. 


27 


7i 


i4l 


Do. 


. L. M. Douglas. 


27 


7 


i6| 


Do. 


Hugh G. Barclay. 



GRANT'S GAZELLE 



267 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


27 


6£ 


22^ 


East Africa 


G. Williams. 


27 


6J 


II| 


Do. 


. C. W. Fuller. 


27 


7 


145 


Do. 


C. Fahnestock. 


27 


6£ 


IO 


Do. 


Sir Owen Phillips. 


26| 


11 


I4l 


Do. 


. J. G. Millais. 


26| 


7 


i 4 i 


Do. 


. A. Bayley-Worthington 


26| 


6i 


121 


Do. 


. Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



3°l 


n 


20 


Kilimanjaro 


284 


7 


i.5l 


Do. 


926J 


51 


i9i 


Do. 



Major F. A. Dickinson. 
C. S. Mann. 
Nairobi Club. 




Skull and Horns of G. sranti robertsi. 



Length 
on front 



29 
28 
28 



B.— UStTKUMA EACE (G. granti robertsi). 



Owner. 

W. N. McMillan. 
Capt. R. S. Hart. 
Capt. C. Brook. 



Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 








Locality 


6| 


2 3i 








? 




28^ 


K< 


d 


ang 


Valley 


6i 


29 








? 



268 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


*27i 


6* 


22 


Lemek Valley 


26j 


6* 


20j 


East Africa 


26| 


6i 


20 


Do. 


26§ 


6 


22| 


Do. 


26^ 


5S 


23i 


Do. 


26^ 


6^ 


25i 


Do. . 


26I 


H 


25i 


Do. 


26i 


6| 


19! 


Do. 


26^ 


6 


172 


Do. 


26| 


6 


26^ 


Do. 


261 


6i 


24 


Do. 


25* 


6 


i'8i 


Do. 


25I 


5i 


251 


Do. 


24I 


6 


I8J 


Do. 


24i 




28 


German East Africa 



Owner. 

Capt. the Hon. O. H. Stanley. 

Mrs. A. K. Muir. 

C. Bower Ismay. 

II. Johnson. 

A. Fowler. 

H. Sampson. 

H. Fowler. 

H. R. M'Clure. 

G. P. L. Cosens. 

R. B. Muir. 

J. F. Franks. 

Capt. H. C. S. Ashton. 

Capt. H. C. Hart. 

F. C. Stern. 

British Museum (F. Russell 
Roberts and G. Blaine). 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

28J Sh 3 8 i Sotik . . . . R. J. Cuninghame. 

* Determination provincial. 



C— TANA RACE (G. granti petersi). 
Distribution. — Coast districts of East Africa. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Lc 


23! 


6i 


1 1 


E. Africa . 


22^ 


6| 


8 


Voi 


22^ 


6f 


S 7 » 


Mherereni 


22 


5i 


7h 


Tana Valley 


2I| 


61 


11 




«i 


6g 


H 




2li 


H 


6h 




21 


6i 


9 


Tana Valley 


2o£ 


51 


9h 


Do. 


ZO\ 


51 


5§ 


Do. 



Locality. 



Owner. 

Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

British Museum (Sir F. J. Jackson). 

G. Blaine. 

Major L. Boyd -Moss. 

T. F. V. Buxton. 

C. S. Mann. 

C. H. Young. 

Capt. C. Hankey. 

Major H. De Pree. 



SCEMMERRING'S GAZELLE 269 




Head of Scemmerring's Gazelle. 

The AOUL or SCEMMERRING'S GAZELLE (Gazella [Nanger] soemmerringi). 

Aoul, Somali. Meidafihel, Abyssinian. 

Maededo, Danakil. Ariel, Sudani. 

In this species the white of the rump-patch intrudes more into the 
fawn-area than in grant i ; there is generally no black streak dividing 
the sides of the rump-patch from the fawn of the body, the face- 
markings are black, and the horns, which are shorter and more massive 
than in granti, hook inwards at the tips. The tail, except for its 
black crest, is white. Height at shoulder, about 35^ inches. Weight, 
clean, about 90 lbs. 

Distribution. — The Abyssinian coast of the Red Sea, Berber, East 
Sennar, Danakil, Bora-Gallaland, and Somaliland ; in the latter 
country occurring all over the Haud and Ogaden. The North 
Somali G. s. berberana is larger and darker than the typical form, 
with differently curved horns. 

A.— SOMALI RACE (G. soemmerringi berberana). 

Length on Circum- .... „,. T .. 

front curve. ference. J »P t0 Tl P" Locality. Owner. 

23 4I 13I Somaliland . . . G. H. Kirkpatrick. 

21 Si 10 Do. ... Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 



270 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


21 


6i 


4l 


Somaliland 


. Col. V. M. Stockley. 


20* 


6S 




Do. 


. W. N. McMillan. 


20| 


51 


3§ 


Do. 


G. H. Cheetham. 


20j 


6 


4g 


Do. 


Norman B. Smith. 


20\ 


5i 


71 


Do. 


. .Capt. A. E. Burnett. 


2<3£ 


51 


3 


Do. 


. Capt. J. W. C. Kirk. 


2o£ 


Si 


6| 


Do. 


. Capt. A. E. H. Breslin. 


20£ 


51 


81 


Do. 


Major F. Rowley. 


20 


Si 


51 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


20 


5S 


4 


Do. 


. Lieut.-Col. J. W. H. Flanagan. 


20 


6 


7i 


Do. 


A. Louw. 


20 


5i 


51 


Danakil 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 


9-20 




5S 


Somaliland 


A. E. Pease. 


20 


51 


Si 


Do. 


. Capt. II. du B. O'Neill. 


20 


5J 




Do. 


. Maj.-Gen. Sir A. N. Rochfort. 


20 


5i 


iog 


Do. 


G. Blaine. 


10,1 


5i 


6| 


Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


i9i 


5* 


51 


Do. 


. T. W. II. Clarke. 


i9i 


C 9 
5 ITT 


2 


Do. 


. Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart, 


i9i 


51 


4l 


Do. 


Major J. J. Richardson. 


i 9 i 


51 


4l 


Do. 


Count J. Potocki. 


I9i 


5i 


i5i 


Do. 


. R. McD. Hawker. 


I9i 


Si 


41 


Do. 


Major B. L. Carew. 


i9i 


51 


7S 


Do. 


. Capt. H. C. Dobbs. 


i9i 


51 


72 


Do. 


P. K. Glazebrook. 



Owner's measurements. 



Length on Circum 

front curve, ference. 

17 5 

i6| Si 

i6J 5* 



B.— TYPICAL RACE (G. soemmerringi typica) 

Locality. 



Tip to Tip. 

5 Sudan 

io Do. 

31 Do. 



Owner. 
Count J. Potocki. 
J. H. Butler. 
Prince Colloredo Mannsfeld. 



SCEMMERRING'S GAZELLE 



271 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum 
ference 


i6| 


5 


i6£ 


6 


16 


5i 


16 


5 


16 


5 


16 


4i 


16 


51 


I5S 


51 


1 Si 


51 


i5§ 


51 


i5l 


51 


1 Si 


SI 


- 15I 


5 


1 Si 


Si 


?i5i 


2i 


iSi 


5 


15 


( 5 


15 


5 


15 


51 


15 


51 



Tip to Tip. 


Loc 


ality. 


51 


Sudan . 




Si 


Do. . 




5 


Do. . 




4i 


Do. . 




3i 


Do. . 




Si 


Do. . 




3 


Do. . 




4i 


Do. . 




51 


Do. . 




5 


Do. . 




^4 


Do. . 




5 


Do. . 




5 


Do. . 




6| 


Do. . 




71 


Do. . 




4i 


Do. . 




4| 


Do. . 




6 


Suakin . 




6| 


Sudan . 




2g 


Do. . 





Owner. 

C. D. Eyre. 

W. H. Lindsay. 

Commdr. A. H. Home, R.N. 

Capt. N. A. Orr-Ewing. 

G. L. Harrison. 

Col. A. Colville. 

H. G. Watson. 

W. H. Diggle. 

Major H. H. S. Morant. 

C. Bower Ismay. 

Capt. P. C. Lord. 

Col. Ralph Vivian. 

Major Lord J. S. Cavendish. 

Earl of Sefton. 

The late Lieut. -Col. Hon. W. 

Coke. 
Miss C. Buxton. 

H. S. Smiley. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

F. W. Greswolde-Williams. 

Hugh C. E. Ross. 



C. — BORANI RACE (G. scemmerringi butteri). 



Length on 
front curve. 



i3i 



Circum- 
ference. 



44 



Tip to Tip. 
02 



Locality. 



Boraland 



Owner. 
A. E. Butter. 



272 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Addra Gazelle. 

The DAMA, MHORR, or ADDRA GAZELLE (Gazella [Nanger] dama). 

Addra, Dongolese. Riel, Dinka. Ariel, Sudani. 

The largest species of the genus Gazella, standing 36 or 37 inches 
at the shoulder, and characterised by the white of the rump including 
the tail (which may be tipped with fawn), coupled with the absence' of 
a black border to the rump-patch and of a dark flank-band, and the 
forward hook of the tips of the horns. In the mhorr or Moroccan race 
(G. d. mhorr) of Southern Morocco there are dark face-markings, and 
the rufous of the body extends down the legs. In the Senegambian 
G. d. permista the rufous occupies a smaller area on the body, and 
there is only a narrow bridge connecting the rufous of the back with 
that of the hind-legs, while in the fore-legs the upper part is wholly 
white, and there is only a rufous streak in front below the knee. The 
typical G. d. typica, probably from Lake Chad, connects the mhorr 
with the addra or Kordofan race (G. d. ruficollis), in which the rufous 
is limited to the neck and a saddle-shaped area on the back. 

Distribution. — The desert regions of northern, western, and north- 
eastern Africa, from Nigeria and Senegambia through Morocco to 
Kordofan. 



DAMA GAZELLE 



273 



.4.— TYPICAL RACE (G. dama typica). 



Length on Circum- Tip to 
front curve. ference. Tip. 



Locality. 



Hi 


51 


84 


Lake Chad 


14 


H 


5i 


Do. . 


13S 


H 


9 


Do. . . . 


13? 


Sh 


6| 


Do. . . . 


13I 


5f 


71 


Do. . 


13I 


C-2 


3i 


Do. . . . 


i"3fi 


5b 


8§ 


Do. 


i3i 


5i 


6J 


Do. . . . 


131 


51 


3 


Do. . . . 


"i 


51 


6 


N. Nigeria 


VI2^ 




34 


Lake Chad 


I2| 


51 


6f 


Do. . 



Owner. 
C. S. Burnett. 
Capt. L. C. Brodie. 
Capt. G. Bonham-Carter. 
Capt. A. B. Baillie-Hamilton. 
Major J. B. Cockburn. 
Major D. F. MacCarthy Morrogh. 
J. Goold-Adams. 
F. Beccles Gall. 
Capt. Lord Henry Seymour. 
Capt. G. C. Kelly. 
C. S. Mann. 
Sir F. J. Lugard. 



B.— SENEGAMBIAN RACE (G. dama permista). 



Length on Circum- Tip to 
front curve. ference. Tip. 

84 34 5§ 



Locality. 

? 



Owner. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



C— MHORR or MOROCCAN RACE (G. dama mhorr). 



Length on Circum- 
front curve, ference. 



Tip to 
Tip. 



Locality. 



3! Wednoon, Mogador . 



Owner. 

British Museum (W. Willshire). 



D.— ADDRA or KORDOFAN RACE (G. dama ruficollis). 

Locality. Owner. 

Kordofan .... Capt. B. H. S. Romilly. 

Do Col. A. Colville. 

Do Capt. C. E. Hills. 

Do H. A. MacMichael. 

- Owner's measurements. 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


1 51 


6 


"4 


154 


Si 


81 


i5i 


54 


154 


-i5i 


51 


6 



274 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


-15 






Kordofan 




A. L. Butler. 


-15 


5§ 


H 


Do. 




J. C. Phillips. 


Hi 


5 


-.7 
JS 


Do. 




W. Mure. 


i4i 


6 


7 


Do. 




Major II. G. F. Stallard. 


14! 


51 


lOf 


Do. 




G. L. Harrison. 


143 


4S 


92 


Do. 




Lord Villiers. 


H% 


52 


6§ 


Do. 




Norman B. Smith. 


Hi 


52 


62 


Do. 




Walter Jones. 


Hi 


5f 


Us 


Do. 




Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


Hi 


5i 


72 


Do. 




Lieut. -Col. C. J. Hawker. 


1 4s 


5* 


5f 


Do. 




Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


I4l 


51 


8j 


Do. 




Capt. G. M. Lumsden. 


Ml 


5 


91 


Dongola 




Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


Hi 


5s 


11 


Kordofan 




Capt. A. K. Hargreaves. 


14 
14 


5 
51 


92 

7h 


Dongola 
Kordofan 




Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas 

Pennant. 
Capt. B. W. Y. Danford. 


i3l 


5h 


4l 


Do. 




Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 


i3l 


6 


51 


Do. 




G. Chetwynd. 


i3i 


5i 


4l 


Do. 




Capt. G. S. Cameron. 


13k 


5s 


lof 


Do. 




Capt. F. L. Livingstone- Learmonth 


uh 


52 


II| 


Do. 




Earl of Kingston. 


I2| 


6 


52 


Do. 




Major C. S. Cumberland. 


I2| 


5i 


4 


Do. 




Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


? I2| 


3f 


62 


Do. 




Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 


I2i 


51 


6| 


Do. 




E. N. Buxton. 


12* 


4 


51 


Sennar 

- O 


vner's measurements. 


British Museum. 



SPRINGBUCK 



275 




Horns of Springbuck. From a specimen in the American National Collection. 



The SPRINGBUCK (Antidorcas euchore or A. marsupialis). 
Springbok, Cape Dutch. Itsaypi, Maklaka. 



Tsipi, Bechuana. 



Menya, Angola. 



Although nearly allied to the preceding group of large gazelles, 
the springbuck presents a peculiarity entitling it to be regarded as 
the representative of a genus by itself. This peculiarity is the presence 
of a fold, or narrow pouch, running down the middle of the hinder 
part of the back, and lined with long pure white hairs. In periods 
of excitement this pouch is capable of being turned partially inside-out, 
when the long white hairs are erected, and give a totally different 
appearance to this region of the animal. With the exception of a 
chestnut eye-streak, and in one form of a patch of the same colour at 
the base of the horns, the springbuck has the whole face white ; and 
the white on the rump, which includes the tail and joins that of the 
middle of the back, also occupies a large area. Height at shoulder, 
30 inches. Weight, from 70 to 80 lbs. 

Distribution. — -The plains of Southern Africa, extending in the central 
districts of the continent to about latitude 20 S., where its limits 
are defined by the forests to the south of the Mabebi River ; in the 
west ranging as far north as Mossamedes and Benguela in Southern 
Angola, and in the east at least up to the Limpopo. Although now 



276 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



never found in the countless thousands which formerly swarmed over 
the plains of the Transvaal and Bechuanaland, springbuck are still 
abundant in many districts. Protected to a certain degree by law, 
they are to be met with in parts of Cape Colony and the Orange 
River Colony ; while on the plains bordering the Botlitli and the 
neighbouring salt-pans, as well as in Great Namaqualand, Damara- 
land, and the Ovampo Flats, they occur in large numbers. Spring- 
buck-stalking on the open veldt affords excellent rifle- practice ; 
zest being added to the sport from the fact that the venison is most 
excellent for the table. 



Length on 
front curve. 

i6| 

16 

15! 
i5i 
i5l 

154 

1 54 

i5i 

15* 

i5i 

*5i 

15 

15 

14I 

Hi 

I4i 

14 

14 
14 

14 
133 



Circum- 
ference. 

5 
6 
6 



61 

H 

6| 
6 

5l 

61 

51 

6i 

51 

51 

51 

6i 

6 

6 

5! 

6i 

6 

51 

6 

6 



Tip to Tip. 

20| 

6 

7 

7i 

5 

31 

2| 

7 

3l 

7 

5§ 

7 

Si 

4l 

5 

2| 

ai 

4i 

6i 

3 

5 

2i 

53 



Kalahari 



Locality. 

? 

? 
? 
? 



Cape Colony 



Owner. 
The late W. F. Webb. 
J. Rosen. 

W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 
J. G. Millais. 
Hon. T. Thynne. 
Sir Abe Bailey. 
C. D. Rudd. 



S. of Great Namaqualand Th. Rehbock. 

Orange River Colony . Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 

? Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

? Major W. Anstruther Gray. 

Ovampo Flats . . The late Capt. F. Cookson. 

The late George Grey. 
Major E. J. Lugard. 
C. L. Blundell. 
C. Ansell. 
C. Cliallis. 

Ngamiland . . . F. T. Garbutt. 
? British Museum. 

? Sir Owen Philipps. 

Hon. J. C. Lyttelton. 
F. E. Potter. 
N. H. Barton. 
Griqualand . . . F. C. Selous. 



1 A malformed specimen. 



SPRINGBUCK 



277 



Length on 
"ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


I3l 


6 


55 


? 


Earl of Kingston. 


13! 


5i 


51 


Benguela. 


. G. W. Penrice. 


I3l 


54 


4i 


Angola . 


. C. W. Sharp. 


13^ 


si 


3i 


Orange River Colony 


Capt. V. C. de Crespigny 


135 


5i 


5 


Angola . 


A. H. Harrison. 


>3i 


54 


5 


Ngamiland 


H. A. Bryden. 


132 


51 


41 


Near Kimberley 


G. L. Harrison. 


?i3i 


4 


6f 


? 


Sir Abe Bailey. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



I9i 


6 


7i 


Near Beaufort West 


. W. H. Allhusen. 






I 2^ 


? 


P. C. Keytel. 


17 
1 6i 






Middelburg Flats . 
Bechuanaland 


American National Collection 

(See illustration, page 275.) 
Vryburg Club. 


16 




6J 


Griqualand West 


. Capt. G. S. Leslie. 


155 


5 


2* 


German S.W. Africa 


. H.R.H. Prince George of Bavaria 


IS* 


6 




? 


Dr. Maloney. 




Head of Springbuck. 



278 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Gerenuk. 



The GERENUK or WALLER'S GAZELLE (Lithocranius walleri). 
Gerenuk, Somali. Gudan Godu, Danakil. Giigufto, Galla. 

The gerenuk is easily recognised by the great elongation of the 
neck and the slender legs, which are lengthened in proportion. Horns 
are wanting in the females, and those of the males curve forwards at 
the tips, where the ridges stop, in a peculiarly characteristic manner. 
The general colour of the upper parts is deep rufous fawn, but down 
the middle of the back runs a broad brown band, nearly eight inches 
in width. The skull is characterised by its dense and solid structure, 
as well as by its straightness, the shortness of the facial portion, and 
the very small size of the cheek-teeth. Height at shoulder, from about 
36 to 41 inches ; weight, 1 15 lbs. 

This antelope, first described by the late Sir Victor Brooke, 
is in the habit of raising itself on its hind-legs when browsing, and 



GERENUK 



279 



is thus enabled to reach boughs at a very considerable distance above 
the ground. 

Mr. Oscar Neumann pointed out in 1899 that the Somali and 
Abyssinian gerenuk {L. walleri sclateri) is somewhat different from the 
East African or typical gerenuk. The northern race is larger, with 
finer horns, a longer neck, a less rufous colour, and brown instead 
of black knee-tufts, while the white markings of the tail are also 
different. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum 
ference. 


17 


5i 


i6i 


51 


16 


51 


16 


5i 


i-Si 


54 


-i5i 


5§ 


15! 


51 


i5l 


51 


15I 


5i 


i5i 


54 


1 Si 


54 


i5i 


53 


154 


54 


15 


54 


15 


54 


15 


54 


15 


51 


15 


5 


15 


51 


143 


54 


143 


5 


Hi 


54 


Hi 


51 


Mi 


58 


Ml 


51 


Ml 


5 


i4i 


6 


H§ 


5i 


Hi 


51 


H4 


51 


Hi 


54 


Hi 


54 


Hi 


5 



Tip to Tip. 



Locality. 



3i 


Somaliland 


ig 


Do. 


6 


Do. 


2| 


East Africa 


3 


Somaliland 


43 


Do. 


4 


Do. 


44 


Do. 


45 


Do. 


4l 


Do. 


2| 


East Africa 


51 


Do. 


24 


Do. 


if 


Do. 


5i 


Do. 


44 


Do. 


6§ 


Somaliland 


4i 


Do. 


44 


Do. 


6 


East Africa 




Abyssinia 


5i 


East Africa 


51 


Somaliland 


44 


East Africa 


2* 


Do. 


3 


Do. 


4i 


Do. 


5 


Do. 


3s 


Somaliland 


64 


East Africa 


4l 


Do. 


2| 


Do. 


4f 


Do. 



Owner. 

H.R. H. the Due d'Orleans. 

Mr. Justice Hopley. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

W. H. Levy. 

J. Kenneth Foster. 

American National Collection. 

Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 

C. Liddell. 

Lord Wolverton. 

Sir Abe Bailey. 

R. B. Loder. 

Capt. F. Blacker. 

R.'L. Scott. 

Capt. R. Clemm. 

P. F. Iladow. 

J. E. R. Oldfield. 

F. G. Gunnis. 

Lieut. -Col. J. McCall Maxwell. 

Capt. H. Maclean. 

P. Fleming. 

N. C. Cockburn. 

G. de P. Colvile. 

Lieut. -Col. H. G. Main waring. 

C. C. Wilson. 

Lieut. -Col. J. H. Patterson. 

Col. C. F. Blane. 

C. Frick. 

C. Bower Ismay. 

A. de L. Long. 

H. S. L. Scott. 

Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 
Hon. W. Guinness. 

A. F. Williams. 



Owner's measurements. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Sable Antelope. 



The SABLE ANTELOPE (Hippotragus niger). 

Qualata inchu, Bamangwato and 

Makololo. 
Utjieli, Amandebili. 
Kivalata titso, Barotsi. 
Qualata Tskumu, Ngami. 
Mperembi, Chilala and Chibisa. 
Mpalari, M'Rua. 



Impetigo, Masubia. 
Impalampala, Swazi and Zulu. 
Ukwa, Makuba. 

Potoquani, Southern Bechuana. 
Pala-hala, Swahili. 
Pala-pala, Makalaka. 
Solupi, Masara. 



Kantanta, Chila. 

Among the leading features of the group of antelopes which in- 
cludes the present species, the roan antelope, the gemsbuck, addax, etc., 
are the scimitar-shaped, conical, or spiral horns, which are placed just 
over the eyes and are present in both sexes, the hairy muzzle, the 
absence of face-glands, and the long, tufted tail. The upper molar 
teeth have square grinding-surfaces and tall crowns, like those of oxen. 
Several of the species have face-markings like those of the gazelles, to 
which the group is probably related. There are four teats. 

From the other members of the group the beautiful sable antelope 
and its near ally the roan antelope are well distinguished by the 
scimitar-shaped horns, which arise at an obtuse angle with the plane 
of the face, as well as by the maned neck, the tufts of long white hair 



SABLE ANTELOPE 281 

below the eyes, and the large ears. By far the handsomer of the two 
is the present species, whose sable coat and great length of horn render 
the buck the most striking of its tribe. Other distinctive features are 
the continuance of the white eye-stripe to the muzzle, the length of the 
mane, and the relatively moderate size of the ears. The sable antelope 
when wounded is a dangerous antagonist, to be approached with ex- 
treme caution ; it runs with considerable speed, and possesses much 
staying power. Height at shoulder, about 4^ feet. A single horn in 
the Florence Museum, measured by Mr. F. C. Selous, is 61 inches on 
the front curve ; and other specimens approximating to, or even 
exceeding this length are in existence. 

Distribution. — From about the centre of the Transvaal northwards to 
Nyasaland and the adjacent districts of South -East and East 
Africa, and westwards to Angola. Still abundant in parts of 
Eastern Mashonaland, and thence towards the coast, as well as on 
the Batoka plateau to the north of the Zambesi. Scarcer in 
Central East Africa and Mozambique. 



^.—TYPICAL RACE. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


60 


IOf 


178 


Angola 


. J. C. Phillips. 


58i 


9§ 


131 


Do. 


. J. W. Walker. 


56 


ioi 


13! 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


55 


9§ 


Hi 


Do. ... 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


538 


9l 


,,-.1 

2 J2 


Do. 


American National Collection 


52g 


10 


234 


Do. ... 


Major Boyd A. Cuninghame. 


5i 


104 


11 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Capt. A. P. Heneage. 


5o§ 


9h 


i8i 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


5o| 


9h 


24s 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


R. D. Waterhouse. 


5o| 


10 


i9i 


N. W. Rhodesia . 


. G. F. Williams. 


5°l 


9i 


231 


Do. 


Capt. C. G. Leslie. 


50 


ioi 


7i 


Do. 


Norman B. Smith. 


50 


iog 


ioi 


Do. 


Earl of Kingston. 


49l 


10 


I2§ 


Do. 


. Capt. W. F. Reichwald. 


49§ 


io| 


12 


Do. . . 


T. P. Kempson. 


49 


10 


175 


S. Rhodesia 


. A. T. Reid. 


48f 


9i 


IO| 


N.W. Rhodesia 


. Lieut. -Col. R. W. R. Barnes. 


4 8| 


10 


23i 


Do. 


. J. H. Hayes. 


48S 


9i 


171 


Do. 


Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


48! 


94 


124 


Do. 


. J. H. Leche. 


484 


9i 


22| 


Do. 


. E. Caldwell. 


48* 


ioi 


9 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


. W. A. Conduitt. 



282 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


4 8± 


IO 


20 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


48 


9 


I4l 


Do. 


48 


Id 


151 


Matabililand 


471 


I of 


21 


Do. 


47! 


IO 


23l 


Do. 


471 


9i 


i3i 


Do. 


471 


10 


13 


Do. 


471 


9l 


11 


Do. 


47i 


10 


9 


Do. 


47i 


9s 


2 32 


Do. 


46S 


10 


2I| 


British Central Africa 


46! 


9i 


13 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


46! 


9i 


I9i 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


46* 


91 


I2| 


Do. 


4 6£ 


10 


15 


Ngamiland 


46* 


9l 


18 


N.E. Rhodesia . . . 


46i 


91 


14 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


4*1 


10 


"1 


Do. 


46^ 


i(4 


I9| 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


46I 


9i 


2li 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


4 6i 


9S 


51 


S. Rhodesia 


46 


10 


II? 


N.W. Rhodesia. 


46 


9§ 


1 of 


Do. 


46 


10J 


21 


Do. 


46 


\o\ 


151 


Do. 


46 


91 


1 61 


British Central Africa 


451 


I0| 


12* 


Do. 


451 


1 of 


1 61 


Rhodesia . 


451 


91 


"I 


Do. 


45i 


9i 


i5l 


Mashonaland . 


45i 


ioi 




N.W. Rhodesia . 


454 


ioi 


i3i 


Do. 


451 


10 


13 


Do. 


45i 


91 


i5l 


Do. 


?39s 


61 


6| 


Mashonaland 



Owner. 

Major P. A. Cox. 
C. Phillips. 
Major J. P. Grenfell. 
J. Bell. 

R. T. Coryndon. 
J. L. Philips. 
Guy Nickalls. 
Major E. de L. Hayes. 
S. R. Price. 
Col. C. Harding. 
J. B. Davey. 
H. Cookson. 
Dr. E. H. Tripp. 
F. Barker. - 

F. T. Garbutt. 

E. M. Crosfield. 

Hon. Sir Arthur Lawley. 

G. L. Harrison. 
Col. C. F. Blane. 
J. M. Kearney. 
Val Gielgud. 

T. G. Davey. 

Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 
H. M. P. Hewett. 

T. Clemens Usher. 

Capt. R. S. Chichester. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

A. Yale Massey. 

C. W. Adams. 

Major G. A. L. Carew. 

H. B. Marshall. 

A. C. Brandon. 
Dr. Cole. 

B. Ryan. 

F. C. Selous. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



62| 

541 
Si* 

49l 

48 



23l 



1 51 



Angola 


E. J. Boake. 


Do. 


Essington Brown. 


? 


W. Colson. 


? 


C. S. Mann. 


Transvaal . 


. Lieut. -Col. R. B. Fell 



SABLE ANTELOPE 



= 83 



B.— EAST AFRICAN RACE (H. niger roosevelti). 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


40 


93 


20 


British East Africa 


. Capt. C. J. Murray. 


37* 


8 




Do. 


. R. B. Loder. 


37 


9 


III 


Do. 


C. Bower Ismay. 


35 


8i 


6i 


Do. 


. British Museum (G. J. Muir) 


34^ 


8| 


i3i 


Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


34i 


9i 


iSi 


Do. 


. Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


34 


9i 


6| 


Do. 


. The late G. G. Longden. 


33f 


9 


15 


Do. 


. Capt. M. Kincaid Smith. 



The East African race was described, as a distinct species, in 19 10 
by Mr. Heller on the evidence of a female killed in the Shimba Hills, 
British East Africa, and said to be paler in colour than the typical 
race. 




Skull and Horns of Sable Antelope, Quanza River District, Angola. Length, 60 inches. 
In the collection of Mr. J. C. Phillips. 



284 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 





(l) (2) 

(i) Head of Roan Antelope, and (2) Skull and Horns ol the record specimen 
shot by Major the Hon. C. B. O. Mitford. 

The ROAN ANTELOPE (Hippotragus equinus). 



Anion, Sudani. 

Abu urnf y Dinka and Arabic. 

I-taka, Amandebili. 

I-pala-pala chena, Makalaka. 

Gwenki, Hausa. 

Impetigo eetuba, Masubia. 

Kwar, Masara. 

Klabakila, Basuto. 

Ipewa, Chilala and Chibisa. 



Mtagaisiy Swazi and Zulu. 
U-ka-niuh-ivi, Makuba. 
Qualata, Northern Bechuana. 
Kwalata and Etselta, Ngami. 
Qualata Tseu, Barotsi. 
Tai-hait-sa, Southern Bechuana. 
Wunderbiy Abyssinian. 
Abu aruf Sudani. 
Chilumbulunibu, Chila. 



Its much larger size (height at shoulder, about 4 feet 9 inches), the 
shorter horns and mane, the larger ears and eye-tufts, and, above all, 
the grizzled roan or rufous coat, render the present species easily dis- 
tinguishable from its sable cousin. A marked character of the face of 
the roan antelope is the cutting-off of the white eye-stripe from the 
muzzle by a transverse dark bar connecting the dark nose-streak with 
the brown of the cheeks ; while the dark nose-streak itself likewise stops 
short of the muzzle, which is thus wholly white. Weight, about 625 lbs. 

Distribution. — From north of the Vaal and Orange Rivers through East 
and East Central Africa to the Sudan and Abyssinia, and westward 



ROAN ANTELOPE 



285 



to Angola, Nigeria, and Senegambia. The name H. equinus 
langheldi has been applied to the East African race, one Sudani 
race is known as H. e. bakeri, the West African as H. e. gambianus, 
and others have been named. Gordon Cumming shot roan antelope 
just north of the Orange River in Griqualand West, where the 
species has long been exterminated. Nowhere abundant, it is now 
most plentiful in Mashonaland and neighbouring districts ; in the 
Transvaal it is only sparsely distributed. South of the Orange 
River this group of antelopes was formerly represented by the 
much smaller blaauwbok or blue antelope (//. leucoph<zus), exter- 
minated about the commencement of last century. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 


4Qi 


9i 


n 


34i 


9 


9i 


34* 


9 


7 


32| 


sg 


9\ 


32! 


9\ 


ill 


32i 


9 


9k 


32 


>9i 


12 


31s 


9h 


Si 


3ii 


9h 


"J 


3ii 


ioi 


8| 


3i! 


9 


10I 


9 3i* 


7 


i3-i 


3»i 


9l 


I4i 


3ii 


9 


13 


31 


8| 


13 


?3°i 


7 


7S 


3°2 


9 


i3i 


3°i 


9 


I3i 


3oi 


10 


5! 


3°s 


9i 


13 


30 


9i 


5 


3° 


9h 


6| 


3° 


10 


Hi 


3° 


8£ 


i3l 



A.— TYPICAL RACE (H. equinus typicus). 

Owner. 
Major the Hon. C. B. O. Mitford. 



Locality. 
Rhodesia . 
S. Rhodesia 
Okavango Valley 
Rhodesia . 

Do. 

Do. 
Hanyani Valley 
South Africa 
Mashonaland 
Angola 
N.W. Rhodesia 

Do. 
N.E. Rhodesia 
N.W. Rhodesia 
Mashonaland 

Do. 
South Africa 
Angola 
Matabililand 
British C. Africa 
Rhodesia . 
British C. Africa 
N.W. Rhodesia 
? 



A. T. Reid. 

Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 

Sir Abe Bailey. 

R. E. Gunther. 

W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 

F. C. Selous. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

F. C. Selous. 

Surgeon C. G. Sprague, R.N. 
Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 
Capt. E. C. Hamilton. 

G. Sandeman. 
J. Bell. 

J. A. Jameson. 

F. C. Selous. 

G. Richards. 

Major Boyd A. Cuninghame. 

Capt. Lord H. Seymour. 

Dr. J. E. S. Old. 

Capt. G. M. Spencer-Smith. 

Capt. G. M. P. Hawthorn. 

Capt. L. C. Brodie. 

Sir Owen Philipps. 



286 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


29! 


IO| 


Hi 


Matabililand 


. W. Van Ness. 


29s 


9i 


»i 


Mashonaland 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


29? 


9i 


10 


Do. 


Sir John Willoughby, Bart 


29? 


9i 


6 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Duke of Westminster. 


29s 


81 


9 


Do. 


. Capt. W. F. Reichwald. 


9291 


7 


6i 


British C. Africa 


. R. H. Storey. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



39? 




35 


9l 


3i4 


10! 


3°i 


9§ 



Tokwi Valley, South 

Rhodesia 
South Africa 



n£ Angola 



South African Museum 

(R. C. Camp). 
A. Ohlsson. 

E. P. Cooper. 

A. F. Williams. 



B. — SUDANI RACE (H. equinus bakeri). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum 

ference. 


37? 


IO 


34i 


IO 


34 


91 


34 


9? 


33? 


10 


33 


8| 


33 


9i 


32? 


9 


32i 


9 


32i 


9? 


3 2 h 


92 


32i 


9 


32? 


10 


32? 


9? 


-32i 


9i 


32 


9fi 


32 


9? 


32 


9b 


3i| 


91 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


7? 


Sudan 


. P. Niedieck. 


9 


Do. 


Lieut.-Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 


3i 


Do. 


. The late Major J. L. J. Conry. 


5f 


Do. 


. Major G. de H. Smith. 


17? 


Do. 


Marquis Pizzardi. 


10 


Do. 


. S. H. Whitbread. 


6| 


Do. 


Capt. A. K. Hargreaves. 


14I 


Do. 


Sir Savile Crossley, Bart. 


12? 


Do. 


. Capt. E. Berry. 


13I 


Do. 


. Capt. C. R. G. Mayne. 


15 


Do. 


Capt. G. Stewart. 




Do. 


. R. McD. Hawker. 


8| 


Do. 


G. H. Cheetham. 


11 


Do. 


Lord Villiers. 


i3l 


Do. 


. British Museum (Sir W. Garstin). 


5? 


Do. 


. C. Adeane. 


13 


Do. 


. E. D. H. Tollemache. 


13? 


Do. 


Norman B. Smith. 


iif 


Do. 

- Owner's measui 


. Hon. T. G. B. Morgan-Grenville 

ements. 



ROAN ANTELOPE 



C. — WESTERN RACE (H. equinus gambianus). 

(Including H. e. scharicus, of the Lower Shari Valley.) 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip 


Locality. 


Owner. 


33 


9h 


i7i 


N. Nigeria 


. G. C. W. King. 


32* 


9 


I2i 


Do. 


. W. A. Judd. 


3°4 


9 


IO| 


Nigeria 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir James Willcocks. 


29i 


9 


9fi 


Do. 


. Capt. E. J. Wolseley. 


29 


94 


i3i 


Do. 


A. F. Hordern. 


-28| 
9 281 


8f 

61 


12} 

2| 


Gambia 
Nigeria 


Dr. Percy Rendall (Charterhouse 
School Museum). 
. The late Capt. G. H. F. Abadie. 


28! 


94 


8| 


Gold Coast 


Capt. G. H. Hastings. 


28£ 


94 


13 


Nigeria 


. Dr. G. J. Pirie. 


28 


84 


I0| 


Do. 


Capt. H. N. Kempthorne. 


28 


8* 


iof 


Do. 


. W. Dales. 


27I 


9i 


Ilj 


Do. 


. Capt. G. C. Kelly. 


271 


9 


ioi 


Do. 


Dr. E. Charteris. 


27I 


9i 


9 


Do. 


. S. F. Birch. 



£>.— EASTERN RACES (H. e. langheldi). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum 
ference 


29f 


9 


294 


9 


29! 


91 


29 


9i 


28! 


81 


274 


9i 


274 


94 


27 


94 


26^ 


9 


26! 


8i 


26 


8| 


26 


84 


251 


9 


251 


8* 


254 


9 


25i 


94 


254 


8| 


25i 


8 


25I 


94 


25* 


8| 


925 


6 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


91 


East Africa 


. K. V. Painter. 


54 


Do. 


Gerard Buxton. 


9 


Do. 


Stephenson R. Clarke. 


74 


Do. 


. M. Bell. 


8| 


Do. 


Walter Jones. 


7i 


Do. 


Percy C. Madeira. 


8 


Do. 


. W. L. Spencer Chyrchill 


4i 


Do. 


A. Vonwiller. 


64 


Do. 


. Capt. G. F. Phillips. 


3 


Do. 


._ Lieut.-Col. F. Wormald. 


74 


Do. 


Sir Kenneth Crossley. 


7S 


Do. 


Capt. Mackenzie Murray. 


5 


Do. 


. VV. A. Baird. 


1 of 


Do. 


. H. B. Cox. 


64 


Do. 


. N. Flower. 


10 


Do. 


. J. G. Millais. 


9 


Do. 


. W. H. Lindsay. 


94 


Do. 


. Capt. R. A. McClymont. 


12 


Do. 


. E. M. Crosfield. 


10 


Do. 


. Capt. H. C. S. Ashton. 


2 


Do. 
- Owner's measut 


C. Bower Ismay. 
ements. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Gemsbuck. From Mr. F. H. Barber's specimen 
in American National Collection. 



The GEMSBUCK (Oryx gazella). 
Gemsbok, Cape Dutch. Knkama, Bechuana. 



Ko, Burman. 



The long, straight, spear-like horns, of which even the lion fights 
shy, render the gemsbuck and its more immediate allies an easily- 
recognised sub-group. And even when, as in the white oryx, the horns 
are scimitar-shaped, they differ from those of the sable antelope by 
starting in the plane of the face. It is also a noteworthy fact that in 
the present species the horns of the females are longer and finer, and 
therefore more prized, than those of the bulls. An adult gemsbuck 
stands about 4 feet at the shoulder. In addition to the length of 



GEMSBUCK 



289 



its horns, the species is sufficiently characterised by the presence 
of a tuft of dark hair on the throat, and the cutting-off of the white 
eye-stripe from the muzzle by the union of the dark central nose-streak 
with the black of the cheeks. 

Distribution. — The desert regions of South-Western Africa, from the 
northern Karus of Cape Colony through the Kalahari and 
Damaraland to Southern Angola, in Mossamedes, and perhaps 
Benguela. North of the Chobi and eastwards of Khama's country 
the species appears to be unknown. About 1846 Gordon 
Cumming found gemsbuck abundant on the northern Karus of 
Cape Colony ; and even now a few linger on the plains to the 
south of the lower reaches of the Orange River. In the northern 
Kalahari, where they exist for months without water, they are 
still abundant. The splendid horns of the gemsbuck are always 
regarded as prime trophies of the hunter's skill ; the finding, 
riding-down, and shooting of one of these wary and enduring 
desert-bred antelopes being a feat of which any man, however 
well mounted, may be deservedly proud. 



Length 
on front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


48 


8i 


23l 


Bechuanaland . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


47i 


6f 


174 


South Africa 


The late J. S. Jameson. 


46I 


7 


22§ 


Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


46 


7 


251 


Do. 


W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 


45i 


6i 


19! 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


?45i 


H 


33S 


Ngarniland 


Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 


45i 


6| 


20g 


Do. 


. G. M. Bond. 


45 


H 


1 8i 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


45 


7 


26 


Do. 


R. H. Venables Kyrke. 


44 


74 


20 


S.W. Africa 


C. G. Carew Elers. 


43§ 


6| 


iSi 


Nata Valley 


F. C. Selous. 


All 


6| 


20g 


? 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection 


All 


6h 


1 8$ 


? 


British Museum. 


434 


6| 


1 6 


Kalahari . 


. A. F. Williams. 


All 


H 


161 


? 


M. Drew. 


43 


6^ 


22 


? 


W. Y. Campbell. 


42i 


7 


20} 


Bechuanaland . 


. A. Neilson. 



:9o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
on front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


42§ 


6i 


I 9 i 


\2\ 


6i 


24l 


42 


8£ 


24i 


42 


6$ 


20| 


4 ii 


7 


2l£ 


4 ii 


7^ 


1 8i 


4i 


11J 


235 



Locality. 


Owner. 




Bechuanaland 


Capt. F. H. Lehmann. 




Do. 


Col. St. C. Pemberton. 




Do. 

? 


. Capt. the Hon. G. H. 
Pennant. 
A. Ryley. 


Douglas- 


? 


Dr. S. Martin. 




? 


R. T. Coryndon. 




Bechuanaland . 


G. L. Plarrison. 





OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



? 4 6i 






Bechuanaland 


9 451? 






Do. 


45i 




23§ 


Ngamiland 


44i 


6| 


25 


? 


44 


6h 


17 


? 


43i 


8 


16 


? 


42i 


7 


23 


Kalahari . 



C. S. Mann. 

American National Collection. (See 

illustration.) 
H.R.H. the Due de Montpensier. 

P. C. Keytel. 

A. Ohlsson. 

Col. J. J. Harrison. 

H. A. Bryden. 



BEISA 



291 




Head of Beisa. 



The BEISA (Oryx beisa). 

Biid, Somali. Sa/a, Danakil. 

The beisa may be regarded as the north-eastern representative of 
the gemsbuck, from which it is distinguished at a glance not only by 
the absence of a fringe of hair on the throat, but also by the separation 
of the black nose-stripe from the eye-stripes. There is also no black on 
the haunches or thighs, and the horns are considerably shorter and less 
divergent. Height at shoulder reaching 4 feet or rather more. Weight, 
about 450 lbs. 

Distribution. — North-east Africa, from Suakin through Abyssinia to 
Berbera in Somaliland, and south to the Tana River. The 
Galla beisa, on account of its darker colouring, is separated as 
O. b. gallarum ; the Kilimanjaro race, O. b. callotis, is characterised 
by its tufted ears ; and intermediate between this and the typical 
race is O. b. annectans of the Laikipia plateau. 



29: 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



^.—TYPICAL RACE (0. beisa typica). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip 


Locality. 


Owner. 


9 39 


-1 

32 


s 


Hargeisa, Somaliland . 


E. P. Hare. 


M 


54 


114 


East Africa . 


Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


38 


7 


10 


Do. 


Capt. F. H. Span. 


$ 


5 


13 


Abyssinia . 


N. C. Cockburn. 


372 


6| 


8 


East Africa . 


Capt. W. M. Bmrell. 


37§ 


58 


92 


Do. 


C. Fahnestock. 


1 ,,5 

3/B 


"4 


14 


Do. 


P. Fleming. 


?37i 


6 


10 


Do. . 


W. N. McMillan. 


37l 


7 


»i 


Somaliland . 


G. D. E. Chapman. 


36! 


7l 


i2j 


Do. 


A. E. Butter. 


36* 


6 


10 


East Africa . 


Rhys Williams. 


36| 


H 


• /5 


Somaliland . 


G. J. A. Troyte. 


& 


6i 


84 


Gallaland . 


M. V. Hay. 


36i 


6| 


9i 


East Africa . 


Col. J. Caswell. 


36 


64 


ioi 


Somaliland . 


Capt. J. T. Brinkley. 


36 


6 


8 


Do. 


Count J. Potocki. 


36 


74 


8 


East Africa . 


The late G. G. Longden. 


36 


62 


10 


Do. 


J. L. Baird. 


351 


5i 


9i 


Do. 


G. F. Archer. 


351 


6| 


94 


Somaliland . 


Lord Delamere. 


9 352 


64 


94 


East Africa . 


British Museum. 


9 351 


52 


94 


Do. 


Capt. G. H. Riddell. 


-■-3 


Si 


82 


Somaliland . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


35§ 


7 


10 


East Africa . 


J. E. R. Oldfield. 


9 354 


6 


II 


Do. 


W. F. Whitehouse. 


9 354 


5i 


7 


Do. 


Maj.-Gen. Sir A. N. Rochfort. 


354 


6 


9i 


Do. ... 


C. S. Collier. 


354 


64 


82 


Somaliland . 


Prince Nicolas Ghika. 


9 35i 


6 


104 


East Africa . 


Capt. Lord Gerard. 


35i 


64 


94 


Do. 


G. Fenwick-Owen. 


35i 


64 


ioi 


Do. 


E. V. Hemmant. 


35 


6 


7i 


Do. 


. W. N. McMillan. 


35 


6 


9 


Somaliland . 


Gen. Sir Arthur Paget. 


35 


51 


92 


S. Abyssinia 


T. Morse. 


35 


r 3 
31 


64 


Do. 


Capt. F. L. Livingstone- Learmonth 


35 


52 


75 


Somaliland . 


A. S. Trevor. 


9 35 


54 


91 


East Africa . 


. Col. C. F. Blane. 


35 


62 


7 


Do. 

OWNER'S MEASUREM 


. Capt. G. V. Clarke. 
ENTS. 


9 38A 


6 


9 


Somaliland . 


. Major E. Bell. 


37i 


7 


74 


Do. . 

1 Abnormal Girth. 


. J. C. Phillips. 



FRINGE-EARED BEISA 



293 




Head of Fringe-eared Beisa. 



B.— KILIMANJARO or FRINGE -EARED RACE (0. beisa callotis). 

Distinguished from the typical beisa by the fringe of long hairs 
surmounting the ears, by the extension of the eye-stripe to the lower 
jaw, along which it generally runs to join the throat-stripe, by the 
absence of any black on the front of the legs below the knees, and 
by the rich fawn of the ground-colour of the upper part of the face. 
Height at shoulder, 48 inches. 



.ength on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Loca 


lity. 


Owner. 


33i 


7 


13 


Makindu . 




. R. B. P. Cator. 


33i 


71 


III 


Near Lake Nalaron 


. Capt. Mackenzie Murray. 


33 


7 ■ 


9i 


Kilimanjaro 




. The late G. G. Longden. 


32! 


6| 


n| 


East Africa 




A. Fowler. 


32! 


74 


. 12 


Do. 




A. Murray Smith. 


3 2 ! 


7 


11J 


Do. 




G. N. Crisford. 


32j 


11 


13 


Do. 




Lieut. S. R. Bailey, R.N. 


3il 


6i 


8| 


Do. 




H. Fowler. 


3ii 


71 


9i 


Do. 




W. H. Levy. 


3i 


6 


10 


Do. 




. W. M. Greiss. 


3i 


71 


10 


Do. 




. A. W. Mayo Robson. 


?3i 


51 


12JL 


Do. 




. J. Leslie. 


3°l 


6h 


9h 


Do. 




. G. de P. Colvile. 


3oi 


5! 


lOh 


Do. 




Sir F. J. Jackson. 



294 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



ength on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality 


Owner. 


30i 


... 


6 


Sabaki Distric 


t . . Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 


2Qiy 


6 


122- 


East Africa 


Sutton Timmis. 


29i 


68 


IO 


Do. 


. H. G. Watson. 


2 9i 


51 


7! 


Do. . 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


29I 


1\ 


9^ 


Do. 


. Capt. R. H. R. Brocklebank 


29i 


H 


"i 


Do. . 


Count B. Tyszkiewicz. 


29l 


6i 


ioJ 


Do. 


Sir J. Hume Campbell, Bart. 


29i 


6| 


121 


Do. 


. F. C. Stern. 


29 


7 


io| 


Do. 


David Davies. 


29 


7i 


xoj 


Do. . 


Count A. Tyszkiewicz. 


29 


6 


II 


Do. 


. E. H. Litchfield. 


29 


Si 


"1 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


29 


6S 


131 


Do. . 


Lord Wodehouse. 


29 


5S 


II 


Do. 


H. Sampson. 


28J 


5l 


6 


Do. 


. H. C. V. Hunter. 


?28§ 


4S 


"j 


Do. 


Henry Charrington. 


28^ 


7 


ioi 


Do. 


A. Hamilton Gault. 



?33i 
32i 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
5f 14^ Kilimanjaro . . Major F. A. Dickinson. 

6 12J Do. . . Do. 



ARABIAN ORYX 295 




Head of Arabian Oryx. Shot by Mr. D. Carruthers. 



The ARABIAN ORYX (Oryx leucoryx). 

This oryx is a smaller animal than the beisa, measuring about 
2 feet 8 inches at the shoulder, and is of a whitish colour, with a 
dark spot on the face, and a large dark patch on each cheek, which 
meets its fellow beneath the throat ; the knees and the front of the 
lower portion of the legs being blackish brown, and the tail-tuft black. 
The horns are slightly curved. 

Distribution. — The interior of Arabia, especially the Nejd district and 
the confines of the great desert east of Oman. 

Tip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 

9^ Arabia . . . Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

10 Do. . . British Museum (P. B. Vander Byl). 

4i Head of Persian Gulf . Do. (B. T. Ffinch). 

OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

27i 4i 12^ Tebuk . . . D. Carruthers. 

26if 4! io| Arabia . . . Paris Museum. 



Length on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


23? 


5 


22 


4 


?I5 


31 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




•/' 



Head of White Oryx. 



The WHITE ORYX (Oryx algazel). 

Abu harb, Sudani. 

A very distinct species of the genus, agreeing approximately in size 
with the beisa, but with long recurving scimitar-shaped horns and a 
generally whitish colouring, showing a more or less distinct chestnut 
tinge. The chestnut is developed on the neck, shoulders, under-parts, 
upper portions of the limbs, and the face ; the last corresponding very 
closely with the dark markings of the beisa in their arrangement. 

Distribution. — North-western Central Africa, from Nigeria to Sennar, 
Kordofan, and parts of Nubia and the Eastern Sudan generally. 



Length 
on front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


T 


p to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


45 


6* 




H 


Kordofan 


G. Blaine. 


44i 


(ri 




9 


Do. 


. Major II. G. F. Stallard. 


431 


61 




ioi 


Do. 


. Major H. H. S. Morant. 


9 43i 


4? 




I2f 


Do. 


Norman B. Smith. 


?43 


5i 






Gold Coast 


P. J. Partridge. 



WHITE ORYX 



'■97 



Length Circum- 
on front. ference. 



42J 
42| 

42 

142 

2 4i| 
4i| 
4i| 
4i| 
4i| 

4*1 
4 oi 

4oJ 
? 4 oi 

39l 

391 
?39i 

39-! 

39i 
: 39 

39 



64 

5h 
7k 
5 

5 

63 

6 

6| 

6| 

53 

6| 

5i 

54 

6± 

54 

«6A 

58 
54 
Si 



Tip to Tip. 
9 



i6i 

81 

9 

6! 
Si 
*54 

Hi 

44 
6^ 



ioi 



Locality. 

Kordofan 

? 

Northern Territories, 

Coast 
Nigeria . 

Lake Chad . 

Kordofan 

Dongola . 

Kordofan 

Do. 
N. Nigeria 
Kordofan 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
N. of Sokoto 

Donsola 



Owner. 

. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Sir Owen Philipps. 

Gold Capt. H. Read. 

Capt. W. D. Wright. 

E. B. Macnaughten. 

Walter Jones. 

Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 

E. N. Buxton. 

Capt. A. K. Hargreaves. 

Capt. S. C. Taylor. 

Capt. J. C. Graham. 

Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 

Do. 

The late Prince Henry of Liechten- 
stein. 
British Museum (Major H. N. Dunn). 

Capt. G. S. Cameron. 

C. E. Lyall. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 

Major-Gen. P. S. Wilkinson. 

Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 



43 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
15 Kordofan . . . Major A. J. B. Percival. 

1 Single horn. 



298 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Horns of Addax. 
In the collection of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



The ADDAX (Addax nasomaculatus). 
Kubbaji, Arabic. 

This antelope is another member of the oryx group, but is referred 
to a genus apart, of which it is the sole representative. Its most 
distinctive features are the spirally twisted and closely ringed horns 
(which recall those of the lesser kudu). The general colour in summer 
is sandy above and whitish below, with a brown patch on the forehead. 
In winter, at any rate in the case of the typical Tunisian race, the coat 
is grey and a heavy mass of long brown hair developed on the neck, 
shoulders, and forehead, although a streak across the face below the 
eyes, the lips, and a spot on the outer surface of each ear are white. 
Hoofs very wide and shallow, almost like those of the reindeer. 
Height at shoulder, about 3 feet 6 inches. 



ADD AX 299 

Distribution. — North Africa, as far south as lat. f 15' N. in the 

Egyptian Sudan. 

Length. 



On front 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality.' 


Owner. 


39t^ 


344 


5§ 


i8| 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. (See 
illustration.) 


?394 


32I 


4l 


24 


Sudan 


H. Hodgson. 


39 


3i 


6§ 


20| 


Dongola . 


Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas 
Pennant. 


39 


33 


6 


20^ 


? 


Carl Hagenbeck. 


3H 


3°4 


64 


124 


South Tunisia . 


British Museum (J. I. S. 
Whitaker). 


371 


31S 


5S 


Z J2 


Sahara 


W. Barry. 


37i 


3i 


6i 


284] 

■13 J 


Sudan 


H. Hodgson. 


36! 


29i 


64 






36i 


3i4 


6 


I9f 


South Tunisia . 


American National Collection. 


36 


30i 


6i 


i8g 


Dongola . 


G. Blaine. 


36 


28| 


6| 


12 


S.W. Dongola . 


Major A. J. B. Percival. 


35! 


28 


6f 


i3l 


North Africa . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


?34S 


28 


4S 


74 


Do. 


Do. 


.34* 


29 


6i 


20^ 


W. of Dongola 


Earl of Kingston. 


34 


292 


5S 


I4l 


Do. 


Mr. Justice Hopley. 


34 


29 


6| 


io| 


Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


334 


26 


54 


"i 


Do. 


Hon. R. A. Ward. 


J 2 4 


271 


6i 


14 


Do. 


. Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


32§ 


274 


6| 


18 


S.W. of Dongola 


. Capt. P. E. Vaughan. 


32i 


27i 


64 


17 


Algeria 


. A. F. Williams. 


3*4 


26 


5S 


121 


Do. 


Major R. Rankin. 



554 



30* 



6h 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
20 ? J. C. Phillips. 



3oo 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Four-horned 
Antelope. 



FOUR-HORNED ANTELOPE or CHOUSINGHA 

(Tetraceros quadricornis). 

This antelope, which was formerly classed 
with the African duikers, is now regarded as 
a relative of the nilgai. Typically there are 
two pairs of horns, and the face-glands form 
deep slits ; the females being hornless. The 
upper molar teeth have low, squared crowns. 
Height at shoulder, about 25 inches, and 
weight, about 40 lbs. General colour dull 
rufous brown, becoming whitish beneath, 
with the muzzle, the outer surface of the ears, 
and a line down the front of each leg 
blackish brown, and some white on the outer 
side of the pasterns. The front horns are 
not infrequently mere knobs, and may 
even be wanting, as in most Madras and 
Kathiawar specimens. 



Distribution. — Peninsular India south of the Himalaya. 



Length of horns Circumference. Tip to Tip. 
on front. 



Rear. 


Fore. 


41 


2| 


4i 


A 


4! 


A 


4 


2| 


4 


2 


4 


2f% 


4 


if 


3S 


I 


3'i 


2 



Locality. 



Owner. 



2i 

I. 1 , 



2i 



Fore. 


Rear. 


Fore. 






2i 


3 




? 


G. Masters. 


2i 


3 




? 


Major J. C. B. Statham. 


2| 


If 


2 i 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


H 
if 


3 
if 

15 


1 J 

2\ 


Indore 

Karkote Jungle, 

near Mhow 

? 


British Museum (Col. J. 

Evans). 
Col. G. D. F. Sulivan. 

C. Cunningham. 


if 


2* 




Central Provinces 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


2 

2i 


if 




Do. 
Do. 


Major A. D. Greenhill- 

Gardyne. 
W. Moylan. 




OWNER'S 


MEASUREMENTS. 




li 


2 l 


I 


Jhalawar 

Lulitpur 

? 


H.H. Maharaj Rana 
Bahadur of Jhalawar. 
General Walker. 

J. D. Inverarity. 



NILGAI 



301 




Head of Nilgai. 



The NILGAI or BLUE BULL (Boselaphus tragocamelus). 

This ungainly and small-horned antelope is an Asiatic repre- 
sentative of a group whose other members, apart from the chou- 
singha, are African. Most are large, and, with the exception of the 
elands and bongo, lack horns in the females. In the males the horns 
are angulated in front and generally spirally twisted, but in no case 
ridged. Face glands are wanting in the African genera, the muzzle is 
naked, and the tail is either hairy throughout or long and tufted. The 
upper cheek-teeth have broad crowns. The females have four teats. 

From the other members of the group the nilgai is readily 
distinguished by its short, upright horns, which, although angulated in 
front, show no distinct spiral twist. With a long and pointed head, 
this antelope has the fore-legs considerably longer than the hind 
pair ; and it is chiefly to this peculiarity that its ungainly appearance 
is due. Both sexes have a mane on the neck, but the bulls alone 
possess a tuft of long hair on the middle of the throat. The general 
colour of the adult bull is dark grey, tinged with blue or brown ; but 
the mane and tufts of long hair are black, and streaks and patches on 
the face, ears, and throat, the chin, the under-parts, the lower surface 
of the tail, a streak down the buttocks, and a ring above and below 
each fetlock, are white. Height at shoulder, from 4 feet 4 inches to 



302 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



4 feet 8 inches. The late Mr. A. O. Hume shot a specimen in the 
Aligurh district in 1855 in which the horns measured ii|- along 
the front curve, with a circumference of 9^. They were unfortunately 
destroyed in the Mutiny. 

Distribution. — The peninsula of India, from the foot of the Himalaya 
to the south of Mysore ; common in parts of the Eastern Punjab, 
the United Provinces, Guzerat, and the Central Provinces. 



:ngth on 
front. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


9tt 


92 


54 


? 


9i 


6i 


6 


? 


94 


74 


6} 


? 


9§ 


8| 


5i 


Nepal Terai 


9i 


6| 


4s 


? 


9i 


7* 


72 


? 


9 


6g 


"1 1 


? 


9 


8* 


6| 


United Provinces 


8J 


6A 


5i 


Central Provinces 


8f 


6* 


51 


Bhurtpur 


8? 


8 


6i 


Central Provinces 


8| 




5l 


Do. 


82 




7 


Do. 


8| 




H 


? 


8§ 


8i 


H 


Bhopal 


n 


74 


4l 


Central Provinces 


%\ 


8 


54 


Do. 


H 


72 


5 


? 



Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Major G. F. Mockler. 

J. Whitaker. 

Capt. J. L. Sleeman. 

British Museum. 

Capt. G. W. Hemans. 

British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). 
. A. V. Wilcox. 

C. D. Twopeny. 
. Lieut. -Col. J. M. Fawcett. 

Duke of Peneranda. 
. Capt. L. P. Haviland. 
. Capt. F. A. B. Johnstone. 

J. Gouldsmith. 
. C. H. Payne. 
. Capt. E. H. R. Hibbert. 
. Major C. D. White. 

H. T. Cawley. 



10I 

10 

10 

9tf 

9h 

9 

9 

82 

82 



72 
8* 

9\ 
7§ 



5k 

5 
6| 

7 

54 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

Capt. R. W. Hutton. 
Capt. W. R. P. Henry. 
J. W. Pickthall. 
M. Rawlence. 
Major E. R. Gordon. 



Baratpur 

United Provinces 

Agra . 

Central Provinces 

Bhurtpur 

Muttra 

Bignor 

Jumna Valley 

United Provinces 

Oudh . 



Capt. S. H. Charrington. 

R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 

Indian Museum. 

C. Rose. 

Mess, 3rd Gurka Rifles. 



BUSHBUCK 



303 




\ ! I 



Skull and Horns of Bushbuck in the Collection of the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



The BUSHBUCK (Tragelaphus scriptus). 

M'baba/a and Serolo buchuhu, 

Ngami. 
Mbawara, Swahili. 
Mazo and Bidiimgito, Hausa. 
Ngabi, Waganda. 
Scrolobntuku, Bamangwato. 
Ungurungu, Makuba. 
Dol, Somali. 
Decula, Abyssinian. 
Skichiba?tge i Chila. 



Abu Nabah, Sudani. 
Assali, Danakil. 
Bata, M'Kua. 

Chiwalawala, Chilala and Chibisa. 
Boschbok, Cape Dutch. 
Ibawara, Lower Zambesi. 
Imbabala, Swazi and Matonga. 
Inkonka (male), Imbabala (female), 
Zulus. 



M'babala, Barotsi. 

The bushbucks, or harnessed antelopes, form an extensive group of 
species nearly allied to the kudus, but usually displaying great sexual 
differences in the colour of the coat, and generally having a simpler 
spiral to the horns. The does are nearly always striped with white 
on a chestnut ground, but the bucks may be darker and more 
uniformly coloured. As in the kudus, the females are hornless. The 
true bushbuck is the smallest and at the same time the most widely 
spread member of the group, having many local races. The height 
at the shoulder ranges from 2\ to 3 feet, and the weight from 100 lbs. 
to 170 lbs. Bucks have a crest of long hair, which may be white and 
erectile along the middle of the back ; while in many, and especially 



3°4 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



the southern races, there is a collar round the neck on which the hair 
is quite short. In the Abyssinian T. scriptus decula, which ranges into 
the forests bordering the Webbe in Somaliland, and is known as dol, 
the build is low and stout, and the general colour cinnamon, the light 
stripes being nearly obsolete. The Nile T. s. bor is allied. In the West 
African T. s. typicus, from West, Central, and South-Central Africa, the 
ground-colour is bright rufous, and the spots and stripes are very con- 
spicuous. In the Limpopo T. s. ronaleyni the bucks are dark brown, 
with only faint indications of white markings, but in the Cape T. s. 
sylvaticus the colour is dark brown without transverse white stripes, and 
the spots are reduced to a few indistinct ones on the haunches and 
behind the shoulder. The bucks of the Arusi T. s. meneliki are nearly 
black, with much white on the legs and a dark dorsal crest ; and those 
of the smaller Shoan T. s. powelli are also dark, but with white tips 
to the dorsal crest and dark legs. Many other races have been named, 
several based on specimens in the collection of Major Powell-Cotton. 

As an abnormality, females may carry horns. In bushbuck, kudu, 
and nyala the outer edge of the tips of the hoofs is rounded, thus 
producing very characteristic slots. 

Many of the following belong to the Cape T. s. sylvaticus, but the 
one from the Limpopo represents T. s. roualeyni, while the specimens 
from Nyasaland and neighbouring districts belong to other races. 



Length on 
"ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


2I| 


64 


7i 


B.C. Africa 


2O5 


61 


6 


Do. . 


20 iV 


61 


103 


? 


20 


6i 


54' 


B.C. Africa 


I 9 | 


61 


7 


Do. 


I9l 


61 


4i 


Upper Shire Valley . 


I9l 


65 


SS 


N.E. Rhodesia 


19 


5§ 


J4 


B.C. Africa 


183 


6 


io! 


■> 


i Si 


6 


sg 


Pungwe . ■ . • 


is* 


61 


95 


S. Africa 


i8i 


5i 


Si 


B.C. Africa 


i8i 


61 


7l 


E. Transvaal 


i.s.l 


61 


7 


N.W. Rhodesia 


in 


Si 


4i 


Zululand .... 


i7i 


6 


51 


N.E. Gazaland . 


i7i 


7 


73 


Near Port Shepstone . 


I7J 


63 


71 


S.E. Africa 


«7i 


6 


31 


Do. . . . 


17* 


7J- 

/2 


5i 


? 



Owner. 

Dr. J. O. Shircore. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

W. Kirby Green. 

G. Dickie. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

illustration. ) 
H. S. Thornicroft. 

Dr. J. E. S. Old. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

P. H. Illingworth. 

Col. E. St. C. Pemberton. 

J. Sealy Bell. 

Major J. Stevenson-Hamilton. 

G. de P. Colvile. 

Sir Abe Bailey. 

A. M. Naylor. 

Major E. H. E. Abadie. 

H. Miller. 

Sir Owen Philipps. 

British Museum. 



(See 



BUSHBUCK 



3°5 



Length on 
"ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


17 


Si 


8« 


Zomba, B.C. A. . 


1 6i 


51 


7§ 


B.C. Africa 


i6| 


r-3 

35 


n 


Pungwe 


i6i 


6 


7 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


16 


6i 


71- 


Do. 


16 


54 


4i 


Do. 



Owner. 

C. C. Bo wring. 

R. II. Storey. 

Major G. T. M. Bridges. 

R. E. Critchley-Salmonson. 

Capt. Sir K. Fraser, Bart. 

W. H. Tapp. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



19& 


5S 


11 


Lower Zambesia 


. Fleet-Surgeon W. II. S. Stalkartt 

R.N. 
. J. A. Knip. 


18 


64 


12) 


B.C. Africa 


i7h 


64 


7i 


Zomba, B.C. A. 


D. MacAlpine. 


i7i 


54 


IO| 


Limpopo Valley 


. Grahamstown Museum. 



The following belong to the West African T. s. typicus :- 



Length on 
"ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Localitj'. 




iSi 


5 


4l 


N. Nigeria 




13 


si 


6 


Do. 




I2i 


5± 


7 
— S 


Nigeria 




I2i 


5 


5 


Do. 




I2J 


5 , 


5 


Do. 




124 


5i 




Do. 




12 


41 


44 


Do. 




12 


5 


61 


Do. . . 




12 


5i 


il 


Senegambia 




Hi 


6i 


40 


S. Nigeria 




II? 


5 


4S 


Nigeria 




II 


5 


4S 


Sierra Leone 




ioi 


5 


44 


Nigeria 




IO \ 


4i 


2* 


Gambia 




ioi 


4i 


44 


Gold Coast 




91 


4i 


2i 


Do. 





Owner. 

Capt. W. M. Fowler. 

Capt. L. C. Brodie. 

Capt. H. T. G. Moore. 

Major J. A. Burdon. 

Capt. G. C. Kelly. 

Capt. W. C. Street. 

Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 

Major-Gen. P. S. Wilkinson. 

G. Fenwick-Owen. 

Capt. R. M. Heron. 

Capt. N. F. Baynes. 

R. H. Gill. 

Capt. A. K. O'Brien. 

British Museum ( 1 3th Earl of Derby). 

T. E. Fell. 

Capt. A. H. Hobbs. 



The followine belong to the Masai T. s. masaicus : — 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


2o4 


7 


84 


l84 


64 


54 


1 84 


Sh 


84 


18 


61 


74 


18 


7i 


71 


18 


7 


61 


17 J 


61 


51 



Locality. 


Owner. 


East Africa 


Capt. J. A. Morrison. 


Do. 


. R. P. Carroll. 


Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


Do. 


Gerard Buxton. 


Uganda 


. J. Leslie. 


East Africa 


. Capt. J. W. H. D. Tyndall. 


Do. 


Sir John Kirk. 




X 



3°6 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


i7i 


6i 


61 


East Africa 


R. J. Church. 


i7i 


6| 


6 


Do. 


R. B. Loder. 


17 


71 


7h 


Do. 


J. Hall. 


17 


7 


8 


Uganda 


H. Twyford. 


17 


6 


9 


Do. . . 


Marquis of Tweeddale 


17 


6 


10 


Do. 


Capt. C. Brook. 


i6| 


6 


7 


Do. 


T. D. M. Cardeza. 


i6| 


6i 


72 


Do. 


J. K. Hill. 


i6| 


7 


4 


East Africa 


I. N. Dracopoli. 


i6§ 


5s 


6i 


Manda Island . 


British Museum. 


16A 


7 


7 


East Africa 


Sheffield Neave. 


i6i 


61 


S 


Do. 


Major H. B. Dalgety. 


164 


7 


7h 


Do. 


E. H. Litchfield. 


164 


6 


71 


Do. 


F. W. Belt. 


i6i 


6 


4i 


Do. 


Count B. Tyszkiewicz. 


i6§ 


6* 


9 


Do. 


Hon. H. Brougham. 


1 6i 


64 


7 


Do. . . . 


F. C. Selous. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



20^ 
i8| 

I7l 
i6J 



6i 



6 

63 
3 
54 



East Africa 
Unyoro 
East Africa 
Do. 



C. S. Mann. 
F. A. Knowles. 
Capt. C. H. Elliot. 
S. E. White. 



The following belong to the Upper Nile T. s. dor : — 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


144 


4l 


54 


1 31 


6 


5^ 


13* 


5 




i3l 


32 


4i 


13! 


6 


if 


13! 


6 


51 


i3i 


6 


4i 


J 3 


54 


44 


13 


5 


6 


!2§ 


si 


51 


I2f 


sh 


31 


I2| 


5i 


4V 


I2j 


5 


34 


124 


5h 


2g 


"I 


44 


si 


I2J 


5 


5 


"i 


61 


4S 


I2i 


51 





Locality, 

Sudan 
Blue Nile . 

Do. 
Bahr-el-Ghazal 

Do. 
Setit Valley 
Sudan 

Do. 

Do. 
White Nile 

Do. 
Dinder Valley 
S. of Abukutu 
Sudan 
White Nile 
Sudan 
Blue Nile . 
Sudan 



Owner. 

The late Capt. H. S. Logan. 

Capt. J. A. Pollock. 

G. L. Harrison. 

Major R. B. Airey. 

Capt. H. M. Hutchinson. 

W. B. Cotton. 

Capt. C. E. Hills. 

Capt. B. W. V. Danford. 

Capt. A. C. Jeffcoat. 

Earl of Kingston. 

E. C. Crispin. 

C. Bower Ismay. 

Major R. M. Sanders. 

Prince Colloredo Mannsfeld. 

G. C. Whitaker. 

Col. E. G. T. Bainbridge. 

J. G. O. Thomson. 

G. C. Brock. 



BUSHBUCK 



3°7 




Head of Bushbuck. 



Of the following specimens some belong to the Abyssinian T. s. 
decula, but the one from the H awash River represents T. s. multicolor, 
while the Somali examples may be either T. s. delamerei, or T. s. 
fascia Iks. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


r 9 i 


H 


3j 


Somaliland 


C. S. Mann. 


19* 


6i 


7k 


Do. . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


i3i 


5S 


4i 


Harar, Abyssinia 


Ivor Buxton. 


I2j 


5i 


5i 


Abyssinia . 


R. Hayne. 


12 


6 


4 


Do. . 


Lord Wodehouse. 


12 


5* 


5* 


Do 


British Museum. 


ilf 


6 


54 


Do. . 


A. E. Butter. 


IlJ " 


4s 


4s 


Do. . 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


II 


4i 


5i 


Do. . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


II 


5i 


5 


Setit Valley 


Col. Ralph Vivian. 


II 


4i 


2| 


Northern Abyssinia . 


British Museum. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



17 






Somaliland 


Col. II . G. C. Swayne. 


i6i 


6i 


5 


Do. ... 


A. II. Straker. 


13! 


51 


5i 


Harar, Abyssinia 


. Prince de Lucinge. 


12I 


Si 


3i 


Hawash Valley, Abyssinia 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins 



3 o8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Horns of Nyala. From a specimen presented by the late Mr. Rowland Ward 
to the British Museum. 



The NYALA (Tragelaphus angasi). 



Nyala, Zulu. 



Bo, Nyasa. 



This representative of the bushbuck group is a large, delicately built 
species, standing about 3 feet 6 inches at the shoulder. Weight, about 
250 to 300 lbs. In the males the hair is long and soft, forming a 
fringe on the throat and the under-parts of the body, and a white crest 
along the back, the general colour being dark slaty grey, with a few 
indistinct white transverse stripes. In females the hair is short 
throughout, and the general colour bright reddish chestnut, with 
numerous distinct white stripes. The lower parts of the legs are tan, 
and the hoofs are short. 

Distribution. — South-east Africa, including Zululand, Delagoa Bay, and 
Nyasaland ; on the West Coast it has been reported from Angola, 
although this form may indicate a distinct local race. 











NYALA 


30 


Len 


gth. 










On front 
curve. 


Straight. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3ii 
3if 


26 
24§ 


8i 

si 


123 

91 


Zululand . 
Do. . 


British Museum 

(Late Rowland Ward). 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3i* 


2 4 i 


Si 


3i 


Shire Valley, B.C. A. 


Fergus Maclagan. 


3<>i 


24s 


Si 


17 


? 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


29f 


23 


8 


13 


S. E. Africa 


Col. Lord Douglas Compton. 


29l 


25 


7? 


I4i 


Zululand . 


Surgeon-Gen. Sir D. Bruce. 


29^ 








Delagoa Bay 


American National Collection. 


29i 


242. 


9 


13 


? 


C. B. Addison. 


28| 


22| 


Si 


H 


S.E. Africa 


H. L. Pattinson. 


28i 


o->3 
^04 


8 


I2| 


Zululand 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


28^ 


22 


8i 


74 


Do. 


C. S. Jameson. 


281 


23l 


71 


ill 


Do. 


H. C. da Costa. 


28^ 


2IJ 


71 


91 


Delagoa Bay 


R. T. Coryndon. 


28^ 


2 4 1 


n 


13 


Do. 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


281 


24 


7i 


9 


Do. 


Col. E. St. C. Pemberton. 


28^ 


23l 


Si 


9 


Do. . 


H. W. Elliott. 


28 


24 V 


8 


15 


Katanga, B.C. A. 


John Yule. 


28 


23 


7i 


i3i 


Near Chiromo, B.C. A. 


Surgeon J. Dowson, R.N. 


28 


22| 


71 


i7i 


Delagoa Bay 


F. A. R. Zurcher. 


27I 


22^ 


8 


lOf 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


27! 


Z 34 


8 


i5i 


Do. 


R. T. Coryndon. 


275 


22^ 


7s 


10 


Do. 


Marquis Pizzardi. 


27i 


22j 


8 


91 


Do. . - . 


Major-Gen. Sir J. Dartnell. 


272 


22j 


71 


81 


Do. 


C. D. Rudd. 


27l 


20 


8 


5i 


Do. 


R. Elliott-Cooper. 


27i 


232 


74 


i5l 


Do. 


Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 


27 


2I§ 


72- 


91 


P.E. Africa 


H. C. Brocklehurst. 



30 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

? C. S. Mann. 



3i° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of the Mountain Nyala. 
From the specimen presented by Mr. Ivor Buxton to the British Museum. 



The MOUNTAIN NYALA (Tragelaphus buxtoni). 

Allied in the form of the horns and the colouring of the male to 
the nyala, but nearly as large as the typical kudu, and the two sexes 
nearly similar in colour. The male has a dark-brown coat of 
moderate length, with the usual face-markings ; the under surface of the 
lower jaw, two gorgets on the throat and chest, a few spots on the 
flanks, and in some cases two stripes — one larger than the other — 
white. There is no fringe on the under-parts, but a crest of longish 
white and black hairs along the back. Legs with the front surface much 
like the back in colour, but elsewhere white. Horns with yellow tips ; 
varying somewhat in form, and intermediate in this respect between 
those of the nyala and the kudu. 



MOUNTAIN NY ALA 3 

Distribution. — The Sahatu (Shabatu) Mountains of North-western 
Gallaland, to the east-north-east of Lake Zuay (Zwei). 



Length. 

On outside Straight 
curve. line. 



44 
39 
37 
36f 

33a 
3i§ 
29I 
29 



2 7h 
3oi 

25 

26J 

26 

23l 
21* 



Circum- 
ference. 



IO 

9i 

9i 
io 

9i 

94 

9 

81 



Tip to 
Tip. 



Locality. 



2i§ E. of Lake Zuay 

22 Sahatu Mountains 
21 Do. 

14.3 Arusi Country 



I2f 

6 

10 J 
io| 



Do, 
Sahatu Mountains 

? 
Arusi Country 



Owner. 

R. Hayne. 

M. C. Albright. 

British Museum (Ivor Buxton) 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Lord Wodehouse. 

Ivor Buxton. 

D. R. Brodie. 

C. S. Mann. 

Rowland Ward Collection. 



312 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Horns of Situtunga. From Mr. John Yule's specimen. 



The SITUTUNGA (Tragelaphus [Limnotragus] spekei). 



Situtanga, Barotsi. 

Zowi, Chilala and Chibisa. 

Nakong y Batauwani of Lake 

Ngami. 
Njobiy Waganda. 
N'zoiy Lakanga. 



Kawi, Cameruns. 

Mhiriy Duala. 

Nkaya and Nkoko, Congo. 

Situtunga, P uvula, Unzuzu, Chobi 

and Central Zambesi. 
Shichinzebe, Chila. 



The typical situtunga differs from the other members of the group 
by the elongation of the hoofs, which are thus adapted for supporting 
the weight of the body on the spongy soil of the marshes in which 
these antelopes dwell. The lateral hoofs are much more developed 
than in the other species. In the typical eastern race from the 
Victoria Nyanza district the adult males are uniformly greyish brown 
without stripes, while the females are rufous with faint stripes. On 
the other hand, in the Zambesi T. s. selousi, the adults of both races 
are uniformly greyish brown. In the western T. s. gratus, the colouring 



SITUTUNGA 



3i3 



of the upper-parts approximates to that of the nyala, the ground-colour 
of the male being brownish grey, and that of the female bright rufous, 
marked in both with white stripes on the back and spots on the face 
and flanks, with two white gorgets on the throat. There is no fringe 
on the throat. In T. s. albonotatus, of which the habitat is unknown, the 
white face-markings are larger. Height at shoulder, from about 45 
to 48 inches. The horns of the males are longer and more twisted 
than in other members of the genus, and wear yellow at the tips. 

Distribution. — The situtunga is typically an inhabitant of the dense 
reed-swamps bordering the rivers of Central, South-Central, and 
East Africa. These antelopes are semi-aquatic in habits, frequently 
sinking themselves up to the eyes in the water. Consequently 
they are some of the most difficult of all antelopes to kill ; but by 
firing the reed-beds in the dry season, the natives are able to spear 
the situtunga as they cross open water. At night these antelopes 
leave the reed-brakes for the islands in the rivers, but before dawn 
return to their impenetrable covert. A few are found on a bush- 
clad rocky island far out in the Victoria Nyanza ; in which 
neighbourhood the species was first discovered by Captain Speke. 



A— TYPICAL and CHOBI RACES (T. spekei typicus). 



Lei 


gth. ( 










On front 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


35 


28| 


8 


26 


Bahr-el-Ghazal 


3^8 


2dh 


8i 


I2| 


Uganda 




30 


24 


7 


i7i 


Bahr-el-Ghazal 




29? 


24 


74 


19 


Do. 




2Si 


23i" 


ll 


20 


Do. 




2 7 1 


22 


7i 


"i 


Do. 




275 


23 


7\ 


"S 


Uganda 




25i 


22| 


hi 


9i 


E. Congo . 




23S 




il 


6| 


Lake Kivu . 




23 


l81 


6| 


81 


Uganda 




l 22\ 


20^ 


7 


"1 


Do. 




22 


19 




7\ 


Do. 












(T. s. selousi). 


351 


28g 


8 


IS* 


Lake Mweru 


zsh 


2 9i 


8| 


i9l 


B.C. Africa 


35 


244 


11 


i4i 


N.E. Rhodesia 





Owner. 
lion. Walter Rothschild. 
Lord Cranworth. 
Major R. B. Airey. 
Lieut. W. B. Drury, R.N. 
Capt. P. E. Vaughan. 
Col. J. J. Asser. 
J. Leslie. 

Major W. I. Webb-Bo wen. 
N. A. H. Campbell. 
C. E. Lamb. 
Major de Courcy Ireland. 
Major R. H. Price. 



Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
F. E. F. Jones. 
J. Turner. 



1 In the collection of Sir H3-. E. JNI. Jame 



314 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length. 



On front 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


35 


27 


7 


8 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


J. E. Hughes. 


35 
34 


2S 
28 


74 
8 


154 
173 


South end of Lake 

Tanganyika 
N.E. Rhodesia . 


John Yule. (See illustration.) 
J. C. Phillips. 


34 


27l 


7i 


1 Si 


Do. 


Earl of Kingston. 


33S 


27| 


74 


143 


Do. 


R. D. Waterhouse. 


33i 


26J 


8 


i6§ 


Okavango Valley 


Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 


32f 


271 


7§ 


26| 


Chinde 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


32g 


27 


74 


i6f 


Chobi Valley 


F. C. Selous. 


324 


25i 


74 


7% 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


A. J. Brandon. 


321 


251 


8 


i 9 4 


Do. 


A. F. Williams. 


32 


25 


8J 


i6i 


? 


G. M. Bond. 


3if 


264 


81 


i7l 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


J. H. Whitehouse. 


3i4 


24! 


7 


i6* 


Chobi Valley 


British Museum (F. C. Selous). 


3i* 


23.1 


8 


15 


Ngamiland . 


Mervyn G. Williams. 


3ii 


255 


74 


i3i 


Bangweolo . 


F. Smitheman. 


3i* 


27 


78 


214 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Dr. W. D. Waterhouse. 


3i* 


26J 


74 


244 


Ngamiland . 


H. D. Hannay. 


3ii 


25i 


8 


155 


? 


N. H. Barton. 


3ii 


25i 


7S 


174 


Ngamiland . 


F. T. Garbutt. 


3i 


2 J4 


8 


94 


? 


G. Richards. 


3°f 


26^ 


74 


16 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


H. Cookson. 


3oh 


241 


Si 


Hi 


Barotsiland . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


3oi 


254 


7k 


i6| 


Do. 


Majpr J. Carden. 


3°4 


24i 


7k 


124 


B.C. Africa 


Grahamstown Museum. 


3oi 


25S 


74 


I9l 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


G. L. Harrison. 


3o| 


25i 


8 


MS 


Do. 


A. C. Brandon. 


3° 


2 4 4 


8 


i 4 4 


Do. 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


30 


24i 


7i 


16 


Do. 


E. McClellan. 


30 


24 


8 


16 


Bechuanaland 


Sir Ralph Williams. 


254 


22| 


74 


134 


Angola 


Major Boyd A. Cuninghame. 


24i 


21 


6£ 


94 


Do. 


C. H. Pemberton. 


20| 


I8J 


6i 


10 


Benguela 


G. W. Penrice. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



34i 


2H 


71 


21 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


334 


2 7g 


7 1 


19 


? 


3«i 


25 /'.T 


/ - 


14I 

1 


Congo . 
Determination provisional 



C. S. Mann. 

Sir Abe Bailey. 

Paris Museum (S. de Brazza). 



SITU TUNG A 



3'5 




Horns of Western Situtunga from the Gambia. 
^.—WESTERN EACE (T. spekei gratus). 

Length. 



)n front 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


34S 


281 


8 


21 


Gambia 


. H. C. Goddard. 


32f 


27i 


94 


164 


Gabun 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


32g 


25i 


7 


8 


Gambia 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3oi 


26! 


8 


Hi 


French Congo 


Do. 


30 


26} 


75 


145 


? 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


29J 


24h 


Si 


14 


Gabun 


. American National Collection. 


281 


23 


8 


8 


Gambia 


A. Ohlsson. (See illustration.) 


ii\ 


22| 


8i 


6i 


N. Nigeria . 


J. C. Sciortino. 


27 


23i 


8 


I3l 


Gabun 


. F. M. Milligan. 


25I 


2IJ 


6J 


I2i 


Gambia 


Guy H. Sangster. 


24S 


21 


7 


I5l 


S. Nigeria 


. C. E. Stuart. 


24i 


2ll 


7g 


IO 


Do. 


. A. W. Hunt. 



27i 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



Hi 



Nigeria 



A. F. Williams. 



1 6 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The KUDU (Strepsiceros capensis, or S. strepsiceros). 

Agarzin, Abyssinian. Kudu, Hottentot. 

Ibala-bala, Amandebili. Ngomo, Chilala and Chibisa. 

I-zilarwa, Makalaka. Novo, Mashona. 

Divar, Masara. Tata, M'Kua. 

Godir, Somali. Tolo, Bechuana, Barotsi, and 

Itolo, Basuto. Ngami. 

Itshongonons, Swazi. Unza, Mazubia. 

Muziloua, Batonga. Unzwa; Makuba. 

Nylat, Sudani. S/wmbololo, Chila. 

Although rather less brilliantly coloured than some of the bush- 
bucks, the two kudus are among the handsomest of all antelopes, their 
spiral horns, striped coat, and noble carriage rendering them really mag- 
nificent creatures. Their chief difference from the bushbucks is to be 
found in the fuller spiral formed by the horns and the larger ears, both 
sexes being nearly similar in colour. The special characteristics of the 
greater or true kudu are the large size (height at shoulder reaching to 
4 feet 10 inches or 5 feet), the presence of a thick fringe of long hair 
on the throat, and the open spiral of the horns of the bull. The colour 
is too well known to require description. The Somali kudu (S. c. chord) 
differs from the typical southern form in having only about five trans- 
verse stripes instead of the usual nine or ten. 

Distribution. — The kudu, in suitable localities, ranges over the greater 
part of Africa south of the Sahara, extending from Abyssinia and 
Somaliland through East and Central Africa to the Cape, and west- 
ward across the continent to Angola, where the Congo apparently 
forms its northern limits. In spite of its bulk, it is an adept at 
concealment ; and this trait, coupled with its general wariness and 
acute sense of smell and hearing, has largely contributed to its sur- 
vival in districts where it is much hunted. Except in the Uitenhage 
jungles, where it is preserved by British farmers, the kudu has 
been exterminated from Cape Colony. In Eastern Mashonaland 
it is still abundant, as it is in the highlands of Somaliland, in which 
country it is rarely met with on the plains. The Somali form 
inhabits less thickly wooded country than the southern race, and 
it is in accordance with this that it has fewer stripes. 

Although unrivalled at traversing rocky hills, the kudu is by 
no means a good performer on the flat (where it seldom allows itself 
to be surprised), and can be ridden down without much difficulty 
by a fairly well-mounted hunter. Horned females occur rarely. 



KUDU 



3i7 




Head of Kudu. 



A. —TYPICAL RACE (S. capensis typicus). 



Leng 


th. 










On outside 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


64 


41 


II 


2 3 


Mashonaland 


. F. C. Selous. 


63 


484 


I2l 


49 


Macloutsie Valley 


E. W. Tompson. 


62f 


42^ 


"2 


37i 


? 


Sir Owen Philipps. 


6l 


40 


III 


144 


N.W. Rhodesia 


M. Tennant. 


6og 


45! 


ni 


33 


Macloutsie Valley . 


F. C. Selous. 


59* 


4l'f 


12 


3oi 


Rhodesia 


. W. Griffin. 


594 


44 


"2 


25I 


? 


S. T. Teague. 


59s 


434 


11 


38 


South Africa . 


. W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 



3i8 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Leng 


th. 








On outside 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


59i 


42} 


Ilg 


19 


? 


59} 


434 


H4 


30S 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


58! 


46} 


12 


362 


Do. 


5 Si 


444 


II 


JJ2 


Do. 


5§i 


46 


IO 


393 


South Africa . 


5§i 


44} 


12 


41 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


58 


46 


II§ 


39 


S.E. Mashonaland . 


58 


46 






Zomba, B.C. A. 


58 


434 


IO} 


324 


Okavango Valley . 


571 


46} 


I2± 


43! 


S. Rhodesia . 


574 


40J 


ni 


22f 


B.C. Africa . 


574 


4i 


n| 


2lJ 


N.E. Transvaal 


574 


4i4 


10 


27 


Do. 


574 


41 


iot 


25 


B.C. Africa . 


574 


44 


»i 


31 


Transvaal 


574 


45i 


12 


41 


B.C. Africa . 


57§ 


47 


io| 




Do. 


57i 


451 


1 of 


35 


Do. 


57i 


44s 


III 


34i 


South Africa . 


57i 


4i| 


"§ 


23 


N.W. Rhodesia 


57} 


444 


II 


29 


? 


57 


43 


14 


32 


South Africa . 


57 


42} 


II 


3i 


Do. 


57 


4°} 


12 


21* 


? 


57 


4o4 


12 


243 


? 


57 


454 


I2i 


40.| 


? 


57 


404 


iof 


28| 


N.W. Rhodesia 


56S 


43 


"4 


304 


Do. 


56A 


434 


"4 


26i 


Matabililand . 


56i 


4i 


10 


294 


p 


5^ 


41A 


io| 


2 J4 


Matabililand . 


56* 


44i 


n4. 


371 


N.E. Rhodesia 



G. Richards. 

Col. H. Clifton Brown. 

B. Ryan. 

Capt. H. T. Byas. 

Sir Abe Bailey. 

R. D. Waterhouse. 

J. G. Millais. 

D. MacAlpine. 

Sir H. J. Goold-Adams. 
A. Doughty. 

F. A. Coe. 
A. M. Naylor. 
Capt. D. J. Marker. 
J. H. Hayes. 

Capt. A. C. H. Kennard. 

E. Homer. 
J. B. Davey. 

H. C. Macdonald. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

G. L. Harrison. 
T. N. G. Jennings. 
A. Moseley. 

Lieut. -Col. M. D. Graham. 
G. V. Blackwell. 
Capt. G. M. Spencer-Smith. 
T. Stephenson. 
G. de P. Colvile. 
Capt. P. R. Bald. 
W. Van Ness. 
J. W. Williamson. 
Hon. C. Greville. 
Earl of Kingston. 



KUDU 



3i9 



Length. 

On outside Straight 
curve. line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


56^ 


41I 


II 


285 


S. Rhodesia 


56i 


39 


Hi 


22 


Do. 


56^ 


4i 


II 


364 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


?37 


10 






South Africa . 








OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS 




48I 






Ngamiland . 


63i 


46^ 


Hi 


45s 


Upper Shire Valley 


63i 


47i 




4 6i 


N.W. Rhodesia 


63 


44* 




42 | 


Near Tete, Zambesia 


63 


39 


ioi 


12 


? 


62 




12 


27 


Delagoa Bay . 


6i| 


45^ 


I of 


34 


? 


6ii 


423; 


1 of 


24I 


? 


6o| 


44 




3i 


South Africa . 


bo\ 


47 


IOi 


443 


Do. 



Owner. 

R. C. Dundas Firth. 
Col. E. St. C. Pemberton. 
Sir J. Walton, Bart. 
F. C. Selous. 



American National Collec- 
tion. (See illustration.) 
Capt. C. H. Stigand. 

F. J. Nottage. 

Major P. W. Forbes. 

Mr. Justice Hopley. 

C. S. Mann. 

A. Griffiths. 

J. C. Phillips. 

H. T. and A. II. Glynn. 

A. Ohlsson. 



B.— SOMALI (S. c. chora) and EAST AFRICAN (S. c. bea) RACES. 



Length. 



a outside 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


6l 


424 


II 


34 


East Africa . 


58i 


4ii 


II 


29 


Do. 


58 


43 


IO 


40 


Somaliland . 


57i 


42 


"1 


41 


Lake Baringo 


57 


39 


9§ 


364 


Somaliland 


57 


4 oi 


9'i 


2S 


Do. 


564 


35 


io| 


30 


Do. 


564 


364 


§i 


21 h 


Do. 


56 


44i 


IO| 


44i 


East Africa . 


55 


40^ 


11 


-,c2 
J04 


Do. 


54i 


39i 


10 


27i 


Sudan 


54i 


43 


1 of 


39l 


Somaliland . 



Owner. 

The late G. G. Longden. 
. G. F. Archer. 

G. Chetwynd. 
. The late H. Hyde Baker. 
. H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 

Capt. J. H. Brocklehurst. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Dr. R. E. Drake-Brockman. 
. H. C. Phipps. 

Major the Hon. C. H. C. Guest. 

Major the Hon. H. Fraser. 
. Capt. R. A. McClymont. 



320 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Lei 


gth. 










On outside 
curve. 


Straight 

line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


54i 


J$5 


io| 


22§ 


Somaliland . 


. Major P. H.G. Powell-Cotton. 


54 


t83 


9f 


29! 


Do. 


Capt. E. J. F. Vaughan. 


54 


39 


10I 


32 


Do. 


Norman B. Smith. 


54 


40.1 


10 


3§2 


Do. 


. Capt. J. C. Monteith. 


54 


3Si> 


10 


2I| 


Sudan . 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 


54 


37 


IO| 


261 


Somaliland . 


. Capt. J. L. Baird. 


„3 
33i 


372 


10 


32 


S. Abyssinia . 


. T. Morse. 


53l 




IO| 


41 


East Africa . 


. Major P. H.G.Powell-Cotton 


53* 


36* 


9 


28 


Sudan . 


Earl of Sefton. 


S3h 


4 o 


11 


25 


East Africa 


Hon. Guy Wilson. 


5j-t 


36S 


94 


i3i 


Somaliland . 


P. K. Glazebrook. 


53i 


35 


9l 


2 7i 


Do. 


. H. J. T. Hamer. 


53 


4ii 


"1 


47i 


Lake Rudolf . 


. A. E. Butter. 


53 


38| 


94 


29 


Sudan . 


Earl of Kingston. 


53 


391 


11 


'"71 
37s 


Lake Baringo 


. Capt. W. H. Nicolson. 


53 


36i 


10 


85 


Sudan . 


Capt. G. Stewart. 


52? 


39l 


io* 


36 


East Africa . 


. Capt. D. I. Shuttleworth. 


52* 


39i 


n£ 


28 


Do. 


. Plon. Walter Rothschild. 


52 


37i 


ui 


3ii 


Do. 


Baron Maurice de Rothschild 


5i| 


39i 


ioJ 


26| 


Do. 


Duchess of Sutherland. 


5il 


40 


10 


42 


Sudan . 


Lieut. -Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon 


5il 


36* 


"2 


25S 


Somaliland . 


Capt. A. E. H. Breslin. 


5ii 


34i 


10 


19 


Do. 


Capt. F. M. Ransford. 


5ii 


384 


Hi 


32 


East Africa . 


K. V. Painter. 


5i 


-.73 


II 


32S 


Somaliland . 


A. de L. Long. 


5 1 


-. -1 1 

332 


9s 


Hi 


Do. 


Major G. G. Gilligan. 


5i 


3«i 


10 


30 


Sudan . 


Capt. A. C. Parker. 


5i 


42 


«i 


T-.3 

3^-i 


East Africa . 


Dr. E. D. Anderson. 


S r 4 


34i 


iof 


20^ 


Somaliland . 


. J. H. Miller. 


5oi 


365 


93 


in 3 

3j5 


Sudan . 


. Capt. J. A. Pollock. 


5oi 


39i 


10 


315 


Do. . 


Capt. S. J. Burton. 


50 


38 


10 


37 


Somaliland . 


. P. H. Thomas. 



LESSER KUDU 



321 




Head of Lesser Kudu. 
Shot by Mr. Norman B. Smith. 



The LESSER KUDU (Strepsiceros imberbis). 



Andeiro or Godir, Somali. 
Gadams, Galla. 



Sara, Danakil. 
Kwigu, Swahili. 



Except for its brighter colour, the closer spiral and smaller diver- 
gence of the horns, the absence of a fringe of long hair on the throat, 
the more numerous stripes, white throat-bands, and narrower ears, this 
antelope might almost pass for a miniature of its larger relation. 
Height at shoulder, about 3 feet 5 inches. Weight, about 230 lbs. 

Distribution. — North-east Africa, from Somaliland to British and 
German East Africa. This antelope generally goes in pairs or threes, 
and is partial to the covert of thick bush, from which it seldom 
emerges except for the purpose of feeding. Its coloration is 
typical of that of forest-dwelling antelopes, and is essentially of a 
protective nature. 

Y 



322 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length. 



outside 
urve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


35i 


26\ 


74 


16} 


Somaliland 


Norman B. Smith. 


35i 


26£ 


5l 


I7S 


Do. 


G. Chetwynd. 


344 


25 


7 


Hi 


Do. 


. T. Higgins. 


34i 


26 


64 


11 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


34 


26i 






Do. 


Col. H. G. C. Swayne. 


34 


26 


6? 


Hi 


Do. 


. W. W. Ashley. 


34 
334 


27 
26i 


6| 

71 


11 
10} 


Do. 
Do. 


. British Museum (R. McD 

Hawker). 
. A. E. Butter. 


334 


27 


7i 


"4 


Do. 


Vicomte de Thiene. 


33 


2S| 


6J 


14 


East Africa 


The late A. H. Neumann. 


34 


25h 


7 


8 


Somaliland 


Lieut. -Col. T. R. Harkness. 


2> 2 l 


25I 


7 


17 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


32 


244 


7 


144 


N. Somaliland 


. W. F. Whitehouse. 


3i| 


24i 


6i 


144 


Do. 


Lord Delamere. 


3*4 


25i 


6g 


iig 


Do. 


Sir John Kirk. 


3ii 


24 


64 


12 


Do. 


. T. W. H. Clarke. 


3i4 


24 


6j 




Do. 


. Col. C. C. Ellis. 


3i* 


23i 


64 




Abyssinia . 


R. Hayne. 


3il 


25 


7 


10 


Somaliland 


. Major G. F. T. Leather. 


3i 


25 


7i 


94 


Do. 


. W. H. Cobb. 


3i 


24 


6| 


94 


Do. 


G. H. Cheetham. 


3i 


23i 


7 


10} 


East Africa 


. Capt. G. F. Phillips, 


3i 


235 


6i 


14 


Do. 


. Major W. E. Stobart. 


3i 


24i 


7i 


II 


Do. 


. Capt. G. V. Clarke. 


3°4 


23I 


6 


94 


Tana Valley 


Capt. C. Hankey. 


3°£ 


23i 


7 


6| 


East Africa 


. W. H. Lindsay. 


30 


22| 


6| 


1 si 


Do. 


C. Bower Ismay. 


30 


23l 


7 


134 


Do. 


G. Blaine. 


294 


23i 


6S 


»4i 


Do. 


. A. J. B. Wavell-Paxton. 


29I 


23l 


7i 


13 


Do. 


. W. N. McMillan. 


29i 


25 


6| 


12* 


Do. 


. Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


29 


234 


7 


9i 


Do. 


Lord Wodehouse. 


29 


22| 


7 


»4i 


Do. 


. J. Giffard. 








OWNER'S MEASUR] 


2MENTS. 


36 


27S 


74 


20 


? 


A. Bolle. 


33 




64 


19I 


? 


J. C. Phillips. 



BONGO 



)23 




Head of Bongo. 



The BONGO (Bobcercus euryceros). 

This magnificent antelope, which comes next in point of size to 
the eland and kudu, was long considered a member of the bushbuck 
group, with which it agrees in the general type of colouring. It 
differs, however, in that the tail is tufted (like that of an eland), and 
also by the presence of horns in both sexes. The general colour of the 
coat is bright chestnut-red, marked with a number of narrow vertical 
white stripes, a white crescent on the breast, a white chevron on the 
forehead, two white spots below each eye, and some white marks on 
the legs ; the front of the face being brown, with a tawny patch round 
each eye. In old bulls the coat becomes mahogany-colour. There 
is no dewlap, throat-fringe, or frontal tuft, and the hair is short. The 
worn tips of the horns are yellow. Height, about 4 feet. 

Distribution. — West Africa, from Liberia, through Fanti to the 
Ashkankolu Mountains, the Gabun, and Sierra Leone, and thence 



324 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



through the forest district to Uganda. The East African 
sentative of the species has been named B. e. isaaci. 



repre- 



TYPICAL RACE. 



Ler 


gth. 










On front 


Straight 


Circum- 


Tip to 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 


line. 


ference. 


Tip. 






?37§ 


3° 


8 


9 


Ashanti 


Dr. M. Graves. 


35 


29s 


10 


II 


Do. . . . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


35 


29i 


n 


8| 


Do. . . . 


D. H. M. Boyle. 


34 


29 


iif 


16 


Ivory Coast 


British Museum (G. Chetwynd 


33 




12 


14 


Ashanti 


T. E. Fell. 


3 2 s 


25 


9l 


5 


Gold Coast . 


Capt. T. W. Breckenridge. 


32± 


26 


IO| 


i5§ 


Do. 


Ivor Lewis. 


32i 


26g 


\o\ 


12I 


Togoland . 


C. Beddington. 


31 




11 


11 


Do. 


British Museum. 


30* 


26 


lOf 


i3i 


Sierra Leone 


Capt. E. J. Carter. 


30} 


24^ 


9i 


9i 


West Africa 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


30 


24g 


9§ 


"i 


Ashkankolu Mountains 


British Museum. 


30 


25S 


io£ 


13I 


Sierra Leone 


Capt. E. R. A. Hall. 


2 92 


253 


9l 


10J 


Gabun 


British Museum (P.DuChaillu 


281 


25i 


10 


1 of 


Cameruns 


. J. C. Philipps. 


28i 


24 


9 


51 


Togoland 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


?27i 


24i 


74 


4* 


Gold Coast . 


Do. 



EASTERN RACE (B. e. isaaci) 



Length. 










On front 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


39i 


3 2 § 


IIJ 


i6| 


East Africa . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


36| 


294 


"i 


11 


Mau Forest, E. Africa . 


Pretoria Museum (Dr. Sauer) 


36i 


3°4 


Hi 


2I| 


Do. 


J. Jay White. 


351 


29i 


"4 


\2\ 


Do. 


W. N. McMillan. 


33f 


27i 


11 


i3i 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


33i 


2 7f 


11 


'3l 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


334 


27i 


IOi 


1 Si 


Do. 


G. C. Whitaker. 


33 




12 


14 


Do. 


J. H. Milton. 


30I 


25S 


»* 


15 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


?3o£ 


27i 


8i 


11 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3°i 


Z4i 


11 


8 


Do. 


Rev. S. Weeks. 


3°i 


26i 


1 1 


16 


Do. 


Capt. J. A. Morrison. 


930 


2 74 


74 


"4 


Do. 


A. F. Williams. 


?29i 


26J 


8 


34 


Do. 


Capt. J. W. H. D. Tyndall. 


29 


244 


iqJ 




Do. 


R. J. Church. 


29 


22| 


iog 


7 


Do. 


The late G. Grey. 


28£ 


23i 


io£ 


ii| 


Do. 


A. W. Reid. 


?27i 


25 


8 


6| 


Do. 


Viscount Ennismore. 


?25S 


22 


71 


2j 


Do. 


W. N. McMillan. 


?22i 


2ij 


71 


8 


Do. 


Lord Wodehouse. 


?2l£ 




74 


3 


Do. 


Capt. M. Kincaid-Smith. 



ELAND 



325 




Head of Eland. 



The ELAND (Taurotragus oryx). 



Du, Masara. 

I-pofo, Makalaka. 

Eland, Cape Dutch. 

Impofo, Amandebili. 

Insefo, Masubia and Batonga. 

Mofo, Mashona. 

Moju, Galla. 

Mpofu, Barotsi and Ngami. 



Ntamu, Waganda. 

Msongo, Chilala and Chibisa. 

U-schefo, Macuba. 

Pakala, Makua. 

Pofo, Bechuana. 

Mpofu, Svvahili. 

Bogga, Sudani. 

Musefu, Chila. 



Eland, which are the largest of all antelopes, resemble the bongo 
in the presence of horns in both sexes ; these forming a close spiral 
like a screw, with an upward and outward direction. They likewise 
resemble the bongo in possessing a long, tufted, ox-like tail, but 
have a distinct dewlap. Horns of cows are more slender than those 
of bulls. 



3 26 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

Bulls of the eland stand from 5 feet 9 inches to perhaps as much 
as 6 feet at the shoulder. They have a large tuft of hair on the 
forehead, and the horns are of moderate length and stoutness. The 
typical race {T. oryx typicus), which formerly extended from the Cape 
nearly to the Zambesi, has a uniformly tawny skin, without transverse 
white stripes or a dark brown band above the knees, and appears to 
be the largest form. Farther north a dark brown knee-band is 
assumed by adult bulls ; and towards the Zambesi, and thence 
north and east into the heart of the continent, the bulls have not 
only this dark knee-band, but the body in both sexes is marked by 
fine vertical white lines. The Zambesi race is named T. oryx living- 
stonei. In Mashonaland eland show an incomplete white chevron on 
the face, with a large brown tuft on the forehead ; this race, as typified 
by heads figured in A Hunters Wanderings, has been called T: 0. selousi. 
In the British East African T. 0. pattersonianus the sides of the fore- 
head are chestnut in place of dark brown, a white chevron is present, 
the frontal tuft is shorter, and the pasterns are black behind instead 
of white. Westward the species ranges into Angola. 

Throughout Southern Africa, largely owing to the skin-hunters, 
eland are now becoming exceedingly scarce ; and they have already 
more or less completely disappeared from Cape Colony, Natal, the 
Orange River Colony, Griqualand West, and the Transvaal. In the 
Northern Kalahari, where they exist for a great part of the year with- 
out water, large herds still remain. Occasionally female eland develop 
horns in which the spiral is almost obsolete and the length exaggerated. 

.4.— ZAMBESI RACE (T. oryx livingstonei). 



»ngth on 
it of horn. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


37 


I2f 


23! 


Barotsiland(N.W.R.) 


T. G. Davey. 


34i 


«4 


27 


B.C. Africa 


F. E. F. Jones. 


34 


I2| 


22i| 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


Lieut. -Col. H. W. Wilberforce, 


33! 


I2§ 


19 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


H. Cookson. 


33 


131 


144 


N. W. Rhodesia . 


Major C. L. Graham. 


323 


\zh 


2li 


Do. 


Dr. Ellacombe. 


32| 


13! 


22| 


Do. 


G. Mitchell. 


32i 


Ilf 


i5i 


Do. 


G. F. Watherston. 


32 


131 


I2| 


Rhodesia . 


Major C. A. Sykes. 


3I4 


"i 


22f 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3if 


1 1 


174 


Do. 


T. N. G. Jennings. 



Length on 
front of horn. 


Circum- 
ference. 


3ii 


12% 


3ii 


12 


3ii 


13 


34 


14 


3ii 


13* 


3a 


i3i 


3i* 


"4 


3ii 


I4f 


3i 


16 


3i 


ii 


3i 


I2i 



J u 4 

3°i 



!i 

jof 
>oh 
3°h 
30* 
303 

3°3 

3°l 

30| 

3°i 

3°i 

3oi 

3o| 

30 

30 

30 

30 

30 

30 

3° 



12 
13 
"1 

121 
iii 

Hi 
12 

I3l 

12 

»4 

13 

I2| 

i4i 
121 

13 

"4 

12I 

14I 

I2| 

i3i 



Tip to Tip. 

«4 

20| 

isi 

22 

9 

13* 

24i 
H4 

14 

i9i 

I5i 

18 

I5S 
iif 

20| 
20^ 
IO 

7i 

171 

1 6i 

18 

20 

20j 

IO 

I5l 

i6i 

22 
21 

18 
8i 
12J 



ELAND 

Locality- 
Rhodesia . 
N.W. Rhodesia 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
N.E. Rhodesia 
S.E. Africa 
Rhodesia . 
S. Africa . 
Rhodesia . 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
N.W. Rhodesia 
B.C. Africa 
Rhodesia . 
Do. 
Do. 
N.W. Rhodesia 
S. Rhodesia 
B.C. Africa 
Do. • 
N.W. Rhodesia 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
S. Rhodesia 
N.E. Rhodesia 
Do. 
Do. 



327 



Owner. 
British Museum (F. C. Selous). 
R. C. Wood. 
Marquis Pizzardi. 
Col. C. Harding. 
Dr. Saner. 
Norman B. Smith. 
J. E. Hughes. 
H. Knieson. 

F. C. Selous. 

W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 

H. H. Williams. 

R. T. Coryndon. 

Major J. P. Grenfell. 

E. McClellan. 

J. H. Leche. 

Capt. F. D. Markham. 

Capt. P. R. Bald. 

G. Cronipton. 
L. Messel. 

W. H. Rawnsley. 

W. Harcourt Webb. 

E. Sharpe. 

A. R. Andrew. 

R. Campbell Heathcote. 

A. de L. Long. 

J. E. R. Oldfield. 

Capt. R. A. McClymont. 

Sir Randolph Baker, Bart. 

Capt. Mackenzie Murray. 

A. Doughty. 

P. M. Stewart. 

Earl of Kingston. 

A. Dickinson. 



!2S 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on Circum- 
front of horn, ference. 

SO Hi 

3° 14 

30 13 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

13^ B.C. Africa 

\~]h Rhodesia . 

21 1 N.W. Rhodesia 



Owner. 
C. B. C. Storey. 
H. C. da Costa. 
G. L. Harrison. 



B.— EAST AFRICAN RACE (T. oryx pattersonianus). 



Length on 
front of horn. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


32i 


13 


16 


German East Africa . J. R. Rolls Richardson. 


3*f 


io£ 


25i 


East Africa 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


3° 


11 


i3i 


Do. 


E. B. Home. 


30 


12 


i7i 


Do. 


Lady Grizel Hamilton. 


29 


I2| 


16J 


Do. 


G. Henry. 


29 


12 


14 


Do. 


R. L. Scott. 


28| 


1 -.3 
i 0-i 


12I 


Do. 


G. Blaine. 


28 


12 


17! 


Do. 


Capt. G. F. Phillips. 


28 


II 


i9l 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. J. H. Patterson. 


271 


ni 


10 i 


Do. 


Gerard Buxton. 


27! 


12 


"i 


Do. 


Dr. E. D. Anderson. 


271 


12J 


i3i 


Do. 


H. G. Barclay. 


27h 


»i 


9 


Do. 


. G. N. Crisford. 


27i 


10 


I5l 


Tana Valley 


Major H. De Pree. 


27l 


124 


"* 


East Africa 


E. H. Litchfield. 


27l 


n£ 


II| 


Do. 


. L. L. Biddle. 


27* 


ui 


23 


Do. 


Capt. V. C. de Crespigny. 


27 


i3i 


"4 


Do. 


The late G. G. Longden. 


27 


»i 


i3i 


Do. 


W. Neilson. 


26| 


124 


15 


Do. 


Lieut.-Col. P. Polovtsoff. 


26I 


10J 


15I 


Do. 


Capt. L. W. Sadlier -Jackson 


26^ 


12 


9i 


N. of Machakos . 


E. J. Mardon. 


26J 


I04 


13 


East Africa 


Mrs. A. K. Muir. 


26J 


"1 


16 


Do. 


H. S. Keating. 


264 


12 


6i 


Do. 


The Master of Belhaven. 


26§ 


IO \ 


16* 


Do. 


Major H. B. Dalgety. 


26^ 


Hi 


84 


Do. 


. J. Hall. 



ELAND 



329 




Malformed Horns of Cow Eland in the Collection of Major W. Anstruther Gray. 



The following are female specimens : — 



ngth on 
t of horn. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


39i 


7 


26| 


? 


Major W. Anstruther Gray. 


351 


7i 


15 


Angola 


. C. W. Sharp. 


33i 


9 


15! 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


. J. H. Leche. 


32i 


6| 




Chobi Valley . 


M. C. Greaves-Bagshawe. 


3*i 


6| 


53 


South Africa 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


32j 


7* 


8| 


? 


Mr. Justice Hopley. 


32 


8 


20 


B.C. Africa 


Capt. J. S. Brogden. 


3°i 


/2 


i3i 


Do. 


R. C. Wood. 


29I 


8 


1 1^ 


Angola 


Sir H. E. M. James. 


29I 


8i 


19 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


. A. Willis. 


29i 


71 


20 


East Africa 


F. W. Greswolde-Williams 


29i 


8i 


21 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


R. Beaumont. 



33° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
"ont of horn. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip 


to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


28| 


71 




13* 


East Africa 


Capt. T. H. Rivers Bulkeley. 


27^ 


71 




»8i 


Do. 


J. Leslie. 


27I 


71 




Mi 


Do. 


Capt. C. Brook. 



41 


7l 


13 


36 


7h 


2IJ 


35r 3 T7 


8A 


20^ 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

German East Africa . Major von Tiedemann. 



Zomba Plain, B.C. A. 



P. C. Keytel. 

Charterhouse Museum (Dr. Percy 
Rendall). 



C— MASHONA RACE (T. oryx selousi). 

Length on Circum- m. . T ' T r. r> „ . 

front Sf horn, ference. Tip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 

9 32 aJj 2oJ Mashonaland . . F. C. Selous. 



LORD DERBY'S ELAND 



33i 




Head of Lord Derby's Eland, from Senegambi 



LORD DERBY'S ELAND (Taurotragus derbianus). 

In this species the horns are larger than in the typical eland, the 
ears are broader and truncated at the tips, and the dewlap commences 
at the chin, instead of on the throat. Sub-adult bulls have the fore- 
head chestnut, but a chocolate frontal tuft is developed later ; there 
is an imperfect white chevron below the eyes ; the lower part of the 
face is dark brown ; a dark collar bordered below with white occupies 
the sides of the neck ; the back of the neck carries a dark brown 
mane. The general colour of the hair is chestnut or rufous in the 
typical race, but paler in the Sudani race ; the number of white body- 
stripes being 14 or 15 in the former and about 10 in the latter. Dark 
knee-bands are present ; and the pasterns are black behind. 

Distribution. — The open districts of the interior of Senegambia, 
Gambia, and Portuguese Guinea, and thence to the Bahr-el-Ghazal, 
Lado, and the Upper Congo. 



332 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



A.— SENEGA.MBIAN RACE (T. derbianus typicus). 



Length on 
front of horn. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


4 2i 


i3i 


44* 


French Congo . 


4 2 


14 


22^ 


Do. 


36i 


i5i 


i8i 


Senegambia 


36i 


14 


27i 


Gambia . 


36 


13* 


23i 


Do. 


?34i 




25i 


Portuguese Guinea . 


34i 


1 4s 


22| 


Gambia . 


34 


I2f 




? 


33i 


14 


25l 


French Guinea . 


33 


I3l 


26 


Gambia . 


32i 


I2l 


29S 


Do. 


32i 


9i 


123 


? 


3 2 i 


13 


23i 


Gambia . 


311 


12 


20 


Portuguese Guinea . 


3ii 


12^ 


151 


Gambia . 


3o| 


io| 


262 


? 


929I 


ioi 


13 


Portuguese Guinea . 


925 


9 


1 of 


Gambia . 


?2 4 i 


9 


H 


Do. 



Owner. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

American National Collection. 

Major J. C. B. Statham. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

G. Fenwick-Owen. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

J. Carr Saunders. 

W. C. Rose. 

C. Sharland. 

British Museum (13th Earl of 

Derby). 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

H. C. Goddard. 

British Museum (F. W. Reade), 

Vicomte de Thienne. 

H. C. Goddard. 

British Museum (F. W. Reade). 



#.— SUDANI RACE (T. derbianus gigas). 



Length on Circum- 

front of horn. ference. 



41 

4°? 

39? 

39'! 

39h 

39i 

39 



133 

I4J 

Hh 
12J 
13 
14* 



Tip to Tip. 

251 
24! 

29! 

27 

3o£ 
39k 



Locality. 
Bahr-el-Ghazal 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Owner. 
Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 
Capt. R. C. Greenwood. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
Capt. J. L. F. Tweedie. 
G. Blaine. . 



Near Lado, White Nile Gen. Sir F. R. Wingate. 

Near Wau, Bahr-el- British Museum. 
Ghazal. 




Skull and Horns of Sudani race of Lord Derby's Eland, in the Collection of 
Sir Abe Bailey. 




333 



334 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front of horn. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


39 


14 


29i 


Bahr 


el-Ghazal . 


Capt. R. J. Collins. 


3§i 


13! 


i9i 




Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


381 


151 


33 


Tembura . 


Capt. E. S. Stephenson. 


3§i 


II| 


22| 


Bahi 


-el-Ghazal . 


. Major C. A. Wilding. 


38 


14* 


25i 




Do. 


. Col. A. Colville. 


371 


14 


3ii 




Do. 


A. F. Williams. 


37^ 


T-.2 
J J4 


28J 




Do. 


Major A. J. B. Percival. 


37* 


135 


35 




Do. 


Major R. B. Airey. 


37i 


H\ 


Z J4 


Yei 


Valley 


Major P. M. Dove. 


361 


14 


2 92 


Bahi 


-el-Ghazal . 


Capt. G. F. Pridham. 


36i 


134 


JJ2 




Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


36i 


13 






Do. 


Capt. J. G. A. Massy. 


35* 


14 


34 




Do. 


Major R. B. Airey. 


34i 


i3i 


i9i 




Do. 


Baron F. Nicolics. 


?34 


9i 


29i 




Do. 


Capt. H. R. Headlam. 


? 33i 


ioi 


i6| 




Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



Measurements of an old bull, shot near Wau, Bahr-el-Ghazal, by 
Capt. R. J. Collins (horns 39^ inches): — 

Height just behind centre of shoulder . . 5 feet 8 inches 

Nose to base of tail 

Girth 6 inches from fore-leg 

Length of tail 

Length of body 

Round centre of neck 



9 , 


, „ 


7 , 


-i , 


2 


> 3 .. 


6 , 





4 , 


, k I 



C— CONGO RACE (T. derbianus congolanicus) 



Length on 
front of horn. 

29i 



Circum- 
ference. 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

19I Stanley Falls 



Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



CHAMOIS 



335 




Frontlet and Horns of Count Arpad Teleki's Chamois. 



The CHAMOIS (Rupicapra tragus, or R. rupicapra). 

The chamois does not belong to the antelopes properly so-called, 
but represents a group connecting the former to a considerable extent 
with the true goats, one member of the group being indeed commonly 
designated the Rocky Mountain goat. Most of these ruminants are 
more or less goat-like in general appearance, having narrow goat-like 
molar teeth and short or moderately long tails. Their horns, which are 
black in colour, are, however, quite distinct from those of the goats, 
being for the most part cylindrical in section, and curving backwards. 
From the other members of the group the chamois is at once dis- 
tinguished by the sharp hook formed by the backward curvature of the 
horns, which rise almost vertically from the head. The colouring is 
too well known to need description, although attention may be 
directed to the dark streak running from the eye to the side of the 
muzzle. Height at shoulder reaching 32 inches ; weight of male, 
generally about 65 lbs. (although 125 lbs. has been recorded in one 
case), that of female from 45 to 50 lbs. 

Distribution. — The mountains of Central and Southern Europe, from 
the Pyrenees to the Apennines and Caucasus, and those of 
Asia Minor. Chamois vary in colour according to season, but 



336 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



it seems that some races are darker than others. Several local 
races are recognised, such as the true chamois, or gems, of the 
Alps ; the smaller and lighter coloured izard (R. t. pyrenaicd) of 
the Pyrenees, and the darker R. t. parva of the Cantabrian 
Mountains of Spain. The Apennine R. t. ornata has the light 
throat-patch larger, and the upper side also light ; the Carpathian 
race, not yet named, is very dark, old bucks being nearly black 
above. The Caucasian R. t. caucasica is distinguished by its 
relatively short and stout horns and certain features of the bones of 
the nasal region of the skull ; while the light-coloured Trebizond 
R. t. asiatica is likewise distinguished by horn and skull characters. 
A great feature from an Austrian sportsman's point of view is the 
length of the beard, which in old chamois may measure over eleven 
inches in lensth. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


T i? to Spread. Locality. 


Owner. 


?I2| 
I2£ 


3i 
3* 


Si 
51 


Carinthia 
5jj Branu, Carpathians 


J. D. Heaton Armstrong. (See 

illustration, p. 339.) 
C. G. Danford. 


H§ 


4l 


7 


? 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


1 L H 


3§ 


71 


S. Austria 


J. Hamilton Leigh. 


H| 


31 


5tV 


Do. 


R. K. Cross. 


Hi 


31 


64 


? 


Col. Howard. 


II e L 


4 


->3 

J4 


Austria 


J. R. Luchsinger. 


II 


32 


4A 


Transylvania . 


F. C. Selous. 


II 


->3 


71 


Do. . 


St. George Littledale. 


II 


33 


7h 


Austria . 


J. R. Luchsinger. 


IO| 


J5 


4-TU 


Tyrol 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


lOf 


3 


4i 


Austria . 


M. D. V. Holt. 


?iog 


3 


5i 


Do. . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


IO§ 


^2 


51 


? 


Rev. J. F. Glossop. 


ioi 


•7 9 




Do. . 


L. R. Rate. 


? ioj 


31 


63 


S. Austria 


J. Hamilton Leigh. 


ioJ 


31 


Si 


? 


E. N. Buxton. 


ioi 


3i 


5i 


Austria . 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


IO 


3i 


31 


W. Caucasus . 


A. F. Broadley-Smith. 


9l 


3l 


3 


? 


Norman Lamont. 


91 


3n 


4l 


? 


Capt. W. Waring. 


91 


3l 


2 


Carinthia 


R. C. Graves Sawle. 


9l 


2f 


61 


Pyrenees. 


D. Davies. 



CHAMOIS 



337 



Leneth ^ 
on front 



91 

94 

91 

9 

9 



ircum- 
ference. 



2i 

3 
34 



T |? t0 Spread. 



Locality. 



3 


W. Caucasus 


3s 


Gerlos 


5 


Pyrenees 


5i 


Do. 


2| 


Caucasus 


3 


Do. 



Owner. 

St. George Littledale. 

Hon. M. W. Elphinstone. 

P. H. Thomas. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 

Rhys Williams. 

Prince E. Demidoff. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



1 I2| 


44 




71 


Hungary 


"i 








Do. 


2 I2i 


44 






Retyezat, Carpathian 


12 


4 






Hinter Riss 


12 








Tyrol (?) . 


12 








Carpathians 


Hi 


3i 


3l 




Do. 


III 








Retyezat 


"4 

9 Hi 


31 


4« 




Albreis Morteratch, 

Engadine 
Retyezat 


"tV 








Do. 


II 


-i3 
J4 


54 




? 


i oil 


31 


4 




Tyrol 


log 


3i 


6| 




Bulgaria . 


log 


o3 
35 


74 




Herzegovina . 


9 iof 




5i 




Retyezat 


$ log 








S. Austria 


I of 


3s 1 


44 




Styria 


io£ 


34 


51 




Austria . 


i.oj 


2| 


5 




? 


wi 


J2 


43 




Austria . 


io T 5 ^ 


i3 


31 




S. Austria 


ioj 


3 


51 




Do. 


9 ioj 








Grindelwald . 


IO 


3 i 

J2 


44 


54 


S. Austria 


84 


3 


31 




N. Spain 




1 1 


3 when killed. 




2 123J lbs. not clean, ar 



Baron Donald Schonberg. 
C. G. Danford. 

Count Arpad Teleki. (See illus- 
tration, p. 335.) 

H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe-Coburg 
and Gotha. 

Count Arco. 

Count Zdenko Kinsky. 

Archduke Carl Franz Joseph. 

Count Erbach. 

A. E. Pease. 

Baron A. Nopcsa. 

G. von Kendeffy. 

Count John of Meran. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Dr. Albert von Stephani. 

Eberhard Hollinek. 

C. G. Danford. 

R. K. Cross. 

Dr. H. Sonnenthal. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Braganza. 

Count John of Meran. 

T. V. Holt. 

J. Kenneth Foster. 

Count Palffy. 

F. A. Labouchere. 

W. Winans. 

Abel Chapman. 







The best Chamois Heads shot by His Majesty the Emperor of Austria. 



338 



CHAMOIS 



339 



The following are the best specimens in the collection of His 
Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Austria, who between 1 849 and 
1902 shot 1 99 1 chamois: — 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Date. 




?-ni 


3i 


6| 


Salzkammergut 


. July 26, 1889. 




-11 


3l 


5i 


Do. 


December 10, 


1859- 


-iof 


3l 


4s 


Do. 


28, 


1868. 


-\o\ 


1,1 


4s 


Do. 


. July 31, 1885. 




-iof 


-.3 
OS 


5s 


Do. 


November 10, 


1870 


-iof 


31 


4s 


Do. 


. July 31, 1885. 




?-9§ 


2| 


7\ 


Do. 


„ 10, 1886. 





Owner's measurements. 




Frontlet and Horns of Chamois, shot by Mr. J. D. Heaton Armstrong. 



J4o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Himalayan Goral. 



HIMALAYAN and BURMESE GORALS (Nemorhsedus goral, etc.). 

Goral, W. Himalaya. Py, Par, Rat, Rom, Kashmiri. 
SdJiari, Sarr, Sutlej Tribes. 

The gorals are near relatives of the serows, from which they may be 
distinguished by their generally smaller size, shorter horns, and absence 
of face-glands, as well as by certain differences in the conformation of the 
skull. The horns curve regularly backwards, are conical in form, and 
marked by small irregular ridges for the greater part of their length. 
The hair is somewhat rough and shaggy, and the tail considerably 
longer than in the chamois. Height at shoulder, from 26 to 28 inches ;; 
weight, from 58 to 63 lbs. 

The following species occur in the Indo-Burmese countries : — 

Nemorhcedus hodgsoni. — Tail short. Colour brown, with a white 
patch on the throat and chin, a black dorsal stripe and tail, and a 
black stripe down the front of each leg and over knee. Horns 
comparatively straight, and not heavily ringed. Eastern Himalaya. 

Nemorhcedus goral. — Tail short. Colour yellowish grey fawn 
suffused with blackish, throat-patch white, little or no distinct dorsal 
stripe, a dark streak on muzzle ; base of tail and knees blackish, the 
rest of the legs being fawn. Horns more curved and more heavily 
ringed than in the last. Western and part of Eastern Himalaya. 



GORAL 



34i 



Nemorhcedus griseus. — Tail larger. Colour brownish grey fawn 
suffused with brown ; throat-patch small and yellow ; no stripe on 
muzzle or back ; tail and back of legs dark brown, rest of legs rufous 
fawn. Horns very small. Sze-chuan to Upper Burma. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Girth. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


8§ 


31 


Il 


Kishtwar 


H 


3i 


if 


Garhwal 


8 


-j3 


34 


Chamba 


ll 


•73 
3* 


3 


Do. 


71 


31 




Near Musuri 


71 


4* 


2i 


? 


71 


31 


34 


? 


74 


3 


2§ 


Near Musuri 


7h 


,3 

J4 


3 


Do. 


71 


3i 


34 


? 


7A 


34 


2| 


Chamba 


71 


3J 


34 


Kishtwar 


7s 


4 


54 


Garhwal 


71 


3* 


3f 


Jhelam Valley 


7i 


3 


3 


Chamba 


7i 


3§ 


24 


Do. 


74 


3i 


24 


Do. 


71 


4 


23- 


? 



Owner. 
P. F. Hadow. 
Capt. D. L. R. Lorimer. 
Major C. Levita. 
Capt. R. A. C. Murray. 
Col. C. T. McM. Kavanagh. 
D. Lawrie. 

British Museum (Hume Collec- 
tion). 

British Museum (Hume Collec- 
tion). 

R. Stephens. 

Capt. P. H. H. Bailey. 
Major A. H. Ogilvy Spence. 
P. B. Vander Byl. 
Major L. W. S. Oldham. 
Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 
Major F. W. H. Walshe. 
Capt. F. Pope. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
Capt. M. E. D. Hepenstat. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



94 


31 


4tb 


Near Musuri 


H. Simons. 


8| 


31 


3 


Musuri 


. V. A. Mackinnon. 


84 






Bissahir 


. Lieut.-Col. A. E. Ward 


84 


34 




? 


Col. J. Biddulph. 


98 


2* 


4 


Garhwal 


. J. O'Brien. 


8 






Chamba 


Major C. B. Vandeleur. 


71 


3i 


s 


Do. 


D. Cameron. 


n 


4 


2f 


Near Musuri 


. Major J. T. C. Murray. 


74 


4 


3 


Mohand Pass 


R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 



342 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



VARIOUS CHINESE GORALS AND SEROWS. 

Gni Lu of Chinese. 



Species. 



Length 



Tip to 



Collected by on front Girth, rj!. 



Locality. 



Owner. 





curve. 










Capricornis milne- 
edwardsi 


Abbe A. David -%\\ 
-8A 


7h 

7s 


4 
2 


Moupin, Sze- 
chuan 


Paris Museum 
(Type). 




-8 






Ichang . 


Comdr. F. B. 
Noble, R.N. 




75 
/5 


3§ 


3i 


Shen-si . 


K. K. Horn. 


Nemorhsedus cinereus 


Abbe A. David -j\ 
9 7h 


3s 
3 


3t^ 


Sze-chuan 
Nank'ou . 


Paris Museum 

(Type). 
W. F. Collins. 


,, caudatus 


Abbe A. David -6^ Ti 
61 


-, 9 
4 


3b 
3* 


North of Pekin 

? 


Paris Museum 

(Type). 
British Museum 


griseus . 


Do. -4| 


3s 


2| 


Sze-chuan 


Paris Museum 

(Type). 



Owner's measurements. 



JAPANESE SEROW (Capricornis crispus). 
A rather small species of serow with a coat of long grey hair. 

Distribution. — The southern islands of Japan ; an allied species 
{C. swinhoei) inhabiting the island of Formosa. 



ength on 
>nt curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


-7 


4 


3s 


Japan 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


-6£ 


31 


32 


Do. 


Imperial Museum, Vienna. 


5i 


3s 


3s 


Do. 


British Museum. 


4! 


3 


31 


Do. 

- Owner's measurements. 


. E. L. Fletcher. 



SERO W 



343 




Head of Serow. 



The SEROW (Capricornis sumatrensis). 



Serow, serowa of Gurhwal and 

Himalaya. 
Ramu-Halj\ Salabhir. 

Yamu, Kulu. 



Aimu, Kumaon. 
Jungal, Kangra. 
Goa, Chamba. 



Serows are clumsily built ruminants generally larger than gorals,. 
with face-glands and longer horns. The ears are long ; the hair is 
coarse, rather thin, and elongated into a crest from the nape to the 
withers ; the under fur found in the gorals being usually absent. In 
the typical species the general colour of the upper-parts is normally 
black or dark grey, with a grizzled appearance, owing to the whitish 
bases of the hairs ; the under-parts, shoulders, and thighs being rusty 
red. There is, however, great local variation ; some races being 
wholly or mainly rufous and others black, while the lower portion of 
the legs may be white or rufous or a mixture of both. The form 
of the skull also differs. Height at shoulder, from about 34 to 38 
inches. Weight, 120 to 190 lbs. 



i44 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Distribution. — Typically from Sumatra, but ranging from Yun-nan and 
Sze-chuan to the Eastern Himalaya, and occurring throughout the 
elevated tracts of Assam, Burma, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula. 
In the Sumatran race the limbs are wholly rusty ; in the Darjiling 
N. s. jamrachi the lower portions of the legs are mingled rufous 
and white, while in the Nepalese C. s. bubalinus they are white. 
The Chamba C. s. rodoni is dark, with under-fur ; but in the 
Kashmiri C. s. humei the head is rufous brown, and in the 
Arakan C. s. rubidus bright rufous. The Malay C. s. swettenhami 
and C. s. robinsoni are almost wholly black, but the Sze-chuan 
and Burmese C. s. milne-edwardsi is black with rufous shanks. In 
rubidus the nasal bones are very short ; in swettenhami they are 
longer and narrower, and the profile of the skull is more vaulted. 



,4.— EASTERN RACES. 



Length on Circum- 
front curve, ference. 



II* 
\0\ 

9l 
9l 

9 
99 



5i 

5 

6 

6 

4* 

5 

4* 

5i 

5i 

5i 

5 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

3| Mishmi Hills 

1 1 Burma 

5 Do. 

2| Chin Hills 

4§ Burma 

2 Sumatra 

Upper Burma 
? 
4| Muleyit 

3^ Upper Burma 

3i Do. 



Owner. 
R. Sinclair. 
O. F. Wheeler-Cuffe. 
A. L. Bacon. 
Capt. F. W. A. Wells. 
British Museum (Hume Collection). 

Do. 
H. Shaw Dunn. 
H. E. Stephens. 

British Museum (Hume Collection). 
H. O. Whittall. 
Capt. L. Trevor Goff. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



io| 

9i 

9i 

9 

9 

8 T 9 x 
81 



5^ 
5i 

5 
5 
5i 

5 

5i 

4i 



5 


Ta-chi-lu, China 


. M. Mitchell. 




Upper Burma 


H. Shaw Dunn. 


5^ 


Arakan Hills 


British Museum (Hume Collection) 


4i 


Burma 


. H. L. P. Walsh. 


5i 


Do. 


Bombay Natural History Society. 


5 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. G. H. Evans. 


4i 


Manipur 


. Lieut. -Col. H. S. Wood. 


2* 


Perak 


Perak Museum. 



SEROW 



345 



^.—WESTERN RACES. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


I2i 


61 


2| 


Garhwal 




ioi 


S 


3i 


Chamba 




? io£ 


5! 


3! 


Kumaon 




IO 


4l 


31 


Garhwal 




IO 


6 


7 
8 




? 


9l 


Si 


6 


Kashmir 




9f 


5i 


3 

4 




? 


9l 


5l 


4 




? 


9i 


51 


43 


Kashmir 




9l 


4* 1 


3i 


Nepal 




9i 


5§ 


^3 




? 


91 


5i 


'i 


Kashmir 




91 


c 3 


3§ 


Chamba 




9i 


5 


31 


Do. 




9i 


'4i 


3 


Do. 




9* 


4! 


4i 


Do. 




9i 


5i 




Do. 




9i 


Si 


3 


Do. 





Owner. 

British Museum (HumeCollection). 

H.H. the Raja of Chamba. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir R. Hart. 

Major J. C. B. Statham. 

C. B. Atkinson. 

British Museum (R. Lydekker). 

Col. C. M. Haggard. 

K. C. Zarzhetsky. 

St. George Littledale. 

British Museum (the late B. H. 

Hodgson). 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Bombay Natural History Society. 

Lieut.-Col. C. W. Tribe. 

Capt. H. Meynell. 

Major the Hon. A. Hamilton- 
Russell. 
H. L. P. Walsh. 

Capt. L. R. Hogge. 

Capt. W. B. Baker. 



I2| 
12 

IO| 

■?9l 



5 

5§ 

Si 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

? E. C. Stuart Baker. 

Himalaya . . . Lieut.-Col. A. E. Ward. 
4 ? V. A. Mackinnon. 

3l Garhwal . . A. P. Davis. 

4 Sind Valley, Kashmir . Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 



346 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




White- Maned Serow. Shot by Mr. G. Fenwick-Owen. 



WHITE -MANED SEROW (Capricornis argyrochcetes). 

A large species of a mingled rufous grey colour, with more or less 
white in the mane and the thighs, and whole of the limbs rufous. 
Weight, about 250 lbs. (G. Fenwick-Owen). 

Distribution. — Sze-chuan, Kan-su, and Shen-si. 



Length on Circum- 
front curve. ference. 



9t 9 tt 
-9i 

ll 
9 71 



5f 

7h 
A% 
4i 



Tip to Tip. 

4 
4 
Ai 

2g 



Locality. 
Sze-chuan . 

Do. 
W. Kan-su . 



Owner. 

British Museum (the late J. W. 

Brooke). 
Paris Museum. 

G. Fenwick-Owen. 



Kan-su, Tibet Border . K. K. Horn. 



Owner's measurements. 



TAKIN 



347 




Kan-su Takin. Shot by Mr. G. Fenwick-Owen. 



The TAKIN (Budorcas taxicolor). 

Probably also akin to the musk-ox, this ruminant is a relative of 
the serows. It is heavily built, with stout limbs, large lateral hoofs, a 
short tail, a convex profile, and a partially hairy muzzle. The 
horns, which are large, massive, and bent somewhat after the 
fashion of those of the gnu, curve at first outwards and somewhat 
downwards, and then bend abruptly upwards about the middle of 
their length. Height at shoulder, about 3^- feet. Horns are present 
in both sexes, as in the serows and gorals, those of females being 
smaller than those of males. The general colour varies from greyish 
brown with a light saddle, and passing into blackish on the head, limbs, 
and underparts, with a continuous dark dorsal streak, to deep rufous 
or black. 

Distribution. — Typically the Mishmi Hills on the northern frontier of 
Assam, but represented by the small - horned B. t. whytei in 
Bhutan. 



348 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
"ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


23i 


I2i 


IO| 


Mishmi Hills 


Capt. II. C. Nicolay. 


22* 


«i 


12 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


22§ 


iof 


I4l 


Do. 


British Museum. 


22| 


II 


12 


Do. 


. Duke of Bedford. 


22^ 


ioi 


1 of 


? 


. Major C. P. Gunter. 


2ii 


iij 


10 J 


Abor Country 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


21 


12 


13* 


Mishmi Hills 


. A. J. Walter. 


20j 


iif 


III 


Do. 


. British Museum (Hume Col- 


20| 

20| 




121 

10 


Do. 

S.E. Tibet . 


lection). 
British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). 
. Capt. F. M. Bailey. 


I9| 


I2| 


I2j 


Tibet (?) 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


SI5 


9 


84 


Do. 


Lord Osborne Beauclerk. 






OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 


25 


13 


Hi 


Mishmi Hills 


. F. J. Needham. 


24} 






Do. 


. Col. J. Biddulph. 


24^ 


I2| 


12* 


Do. 


Indian Museum. 


22 


I2| 


I2| 


Do. 


Bombay Natural History Society 


2li 


II 


71 


Do. 


. R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 



SZE-CHUAN and KAN-SU TAKIN (Budorcas tibetana and B. bedfordi). 

Typically the colour of the fore-quarters in the Sze-chuan race is 
bright orange, passing into greyish behind and beneath, with the ears 
and lower part of the face black, and the dorsal stripe stopping at 
withers. In a second phase the orange area is replaced by dirty 
white and pale grey. Horns relatively long and slender. In Shen-si 
and part of Kan-su this race is replaced by B. bedfordi, which is 
wholly orange, or orange-brown. 

Distribution. — The first race inhabits Sze-chuan, Yun-nan, Tibet, 
and part of Kan-su. 



Length on 
front curve. 



20h 
20h 
2C>£ 

-I9l 

1 71 



Circum- 
ference. 

lOj 

"I 
«1 
"4 

"I 

12 

I2l 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

9-2- Tsinling Mountains 

Shen-si. 
I if Kan-su, China 

1 if S. Shen-si 

8f Tsinling Mountains 

Shen-si 
I3§ Sze-chuan 

16 Nr. Ta-chi-lu 

nj Shen-si . 

- Owner's measurements. 



Owner. 

G. Fenwick-Owen. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
British Museum. 
H. F. Wallace. 

Paris Museum (Abbe A. David). 
M. Mitchell. 
K. K. Horn. 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT 



349 




Head of Rocky Mountain Goat. 



The ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT (Oreamnus americanus). 

(Also known as Haploceros montaiius?) 

This is one of the very few mammals that are permanently white 
or whitish at all seasons ; and although commonly termed a goat, really 
belongs to the same group as the serows, which it closely resembles in 
the form and colour of the horns. In winter the hair is very long and 
pure white in colour ; along the back it is erect, and much elongated 
on the withers and haunches, so as to give to the animal the 
appearance of possessing a pair of humps. The summer coat is 
comparatively short, and has a yellowish tinge. There is a black gland, 
sometimes as large as half an orange, at the back of the base of each 
horn. Height at shoulder, from 3 feet to 3 feet 9 inches ; weight, 
about 300 lbs. Four local races have been named. Of these, the 
typical Rocky Mountain race is of medium size, with a broad skull ; 
the British Columbian 0. a. columbce is larger, with a narrow skull ; 
while the Montana O. a. missoulce, which also has a narrow skull, is 
small. The Alaskan 0. a. kennedyi differs by its slender and widely 
divergent horns. 

Distribution. — North America ; throughout the Rocky Mountains, from 
the Salmon River, Idaho, nearly as far north as Cook's Inlet,. 
Alaska. 



35° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


IOg 


6 


71 


Cassiar 


. Major J. F. Church. 


iof 


6J 


71 


Do. 


K. K. Horn. 


\o\ 


6 


6| 


Montana . 


D. Davies. 


IQi 


Si 


51 


British Columbia 


R. Rankin. 


io| 


6 


7 


Do. 


. H. B. Tate. 


\0\ 


6 




Cassiar 


R. Beaumont. 


io£ 


51 


6 


Do. 


C. H. Young. 


io| 


5 


61 


? 


E. N. Buxton. 


IO| 


51 


71 


British Columbia 


. Hon. M. Egerton. 


10 


51 


51 


Do. 


Rev. Lord Victor Seymour. 


10 


Si 


71 


Cassiar 


. M. W. Ward. 


9i 


54 


6i 


Do. 


. W. A. Conduitt. 


9S 


41 


71 


? 


S. H. Christy. 


9i 


6 


6| 


Cassiar 


. H. C. Wilson. 


91 


.3 

4s 


6 


Do. 


. A. H. Goodall. 


9§ 


6 


6| 


Do. 


J. S. Shepherd. 


91 


5i 


51 


British Columbia 


. G. C. Whitaker. 


9§ 


41 


7 


Do. 


T. A. Henderson. 


91 


Si 


61 


Cassiar 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart, 


9i 


51 


5 


? 


F. Edelmann. 


91 


43 


6| 


British Columbia 


P. N. Graham. 


9i 


4i 


8| 


Do. 


. R. M. Spence. 


91 


51 


61 


Alaska 


St. George Littledale. 


91 


41 




North America . 


. J. D. Cobbold. 


91 


51 


6| 


East Kutenay, B.C. 


. A. E. Butter. 


9i 


6 


5 


British Columbia 


. W. Neilson. 


91 


51 


Si 


Do. 


. H. F. Wallace. 


9i 


51 


6 


Do. 


P. K. Glazebrook. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



I2l 


54 


"1 


British Columbia 


. Wilson Potter. 


"1 






Do. 




Clive Phillipps-Wolley. 


? Hi 


4l 


61 


Montana . 




G. L. Harrison. 


i°£ 


7 




Cassiar 




Col. Max C. Fleischmann 


IOg 






? 




S. E. White. 


\o\ 


51 




Montana . 




Walter James. 


io& 




Ai 


British Columbia 


Madison Grant. 


9ioi 


4+ 




Do. 




Capt. A. Egerton. 


10 


6 


61 


Idaho 




R. Edmunds. 



MUSK-OX 



35i 



■:•.■■; "•■■ '• 

- ■'.■:-■•. 




Head of Greenland Musk-Ox. 



The MUSK-OX (Ovibos moschatus). 

In spite of its name, this Arctic ruminant has no near affinity with 
the members of the ox tribe, the cheek-teeth being more like those of 
the sheep and goats, the muzzle, except for a small strip between the 
nostrils, hairy, and the tail reduced to a mere stump concealed among 
the long hair of the hind-quarters. On the other hand, the resemblance 
to the sheep is by no means close, the horns, which in old males nearly 
meet in the middle line of the forehead, being of a totally different form 
and structure, and the skull likewise very distinct. Probably the genus 
is more or less nearly related to the serows and takins. In the males 
the horns are much flattened and expanded at the bases, after which 
they are bent suddenly down behind the eyes, to curve upwards again at 
the tips. In the females they are much smaller, less expanded, and 
not approximated at their bases. In both sexes their texture is coarse 
and fibrous, and the colour yellow. The long coat of dark brown 
hair depending from the back and sides like a mantle affords an 
adequate protection against the rigors of an Arctic winter ; and the 
broad spreading hoofs, with hair on their under surface, give a firm 
foothold on snow and ice. Several races are known, including the typical 



352 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Canadian and the Greenland O. moschatus wardi. The latter is charac- 
terised by the presence of a certain amount of white on the forehead 
and the smaller expansion of the horns. Height at shoulder, about 
4 feet. Weight of a bull (piecemeal), 579 lbs. (the late D. T. Hanbury). 

Distribution. — Arctic America, approximately north and east of a line 
drawn from the mouth of the Mackenzie River to Fort Churchill 
on Hudson Bay, Greenland, and Grinnell-land ; approximate 
southern limit, lat. 6o° N. About a century ago musk-oxen also 
inhabited the districts west of the Mackenzie, including Alaska. 

.4.— CANADIAN RACE (0. moschatus typicus). 



ngtn on 
ide curve. 


creacnn 01 
palm. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


27| 


IO 


27i 


Barren Grounds 


27i 


IO 


2 3a 




Do. 


27k 


I2l 


27 




Do. 


26| 


II 


27 




Do. . . . 


26I 


I2§ 




Arctic America 


24! 


II 


25i 


Barren Grounds 


24i 


7l 


19 




Do. . . 


24i 


IO| 


26 




Do. 


24 


9l 


2 3s 


Arct 


c America 


23i 


6 


22| 




Do. 


23 


10 


23i 




Do. 


23 


7 


21* 




Do. 



Owner. 

The late David T. Hanbury. 

H. Darrell. 

Earl of Lonsdale. 

American National Collection 

(Warburton Pike). 
British Museum (J. Rae). 

Warburton Pike. 

J. Talbot Clifton. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

A. Barclay Walker. 

His Majesty the King. 

Royal Scottish Museum. 



24I 

?24i 
23 



B.— GREENLAND RACE (0. moschatus wardi). 



Length on Breadth 
outside curve. of palm. 



71 

7 



Tip to T 


P- 




Locality. 


22| 




G 


reenland 


27 






Do. 


232 






Do. 



Owner. 

British Museum (the late Row- 
land Ward). 
Do. 

H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



33 
3o£ 


I2l 
I3l 


241 
3o^t 


Barren Grounds of 
Northern Canada 
? 


N. J. Dinnen. 
J. C. Phillips. 


29 


II 


28 


Greenland 




. Dr. M. E. Johnstone. 


28f 


132- 


23! 


? 




G. L. Harrison. 


27! 


II| 


23 


Barren Grounds 




Caspar Whitney. 


27^ 


IO| 


27£ 


Do. 




Imperial Museum, Vienna 


2l£ 


4l 


20§ 


Arctic America 




Do. 



TAHR 



353 




Head of Tahr. 



The TAHR (Hemitragus jemlaicus). 



The tahr and its relatives are the first representatives of that great 
group of ruminants which includes the true goats and sheep. In all 
these animals horns are, as a rule, present in both sexes, and are 
generally more or less distinctly angulated ; while the cheek-teeth 
have tall and narrow crowns like those of the serows, which the tahr 
serve to connect with the true goats. From the latter tahr are readily 
distinguished by the small size of their horns, which exceed but little 
in length the head, as well as by the absence of a beard on the chin of 
the males. The typical tahr is easily recognised by the great 
length of the hair of the body, which, although in museum specimens 
generally combed straight, is very shaggy in nature ; and likewise by 
the form of the horns, which have a knotted sharp keel in front. Height 
at shoulder, from 36 to 40 inches ; weight, about 200 lbs. Mr. Wilson, 
" Mountaineer," had a pair of horns with a 
10^ inches, as measured by Mr. A. O. Hume. 



length of 16^ and girth 



Distribution, — The Himalaya, from Bhutan to Kashmir. 



2 A 



54 






RECORDS OF BIG 


GAME 


Length 

on front 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


15 


91 


Si 


Chamba .... 


Col. C. M. Haggard. 


Ht 9 * 


81 




Do 


Major J. S. Rivett-Carnac. 


Hi 


8| 




Do 


Earl of Altamont. 


Hi 


9 


42 


Kishtwar . 


Capt. W. F. Corbett. 


Hi 


8| 


4§ 


? 


Lieut. -Col. A. Cadell. 


Hi 


8| 


°8 


Kurriaon . . . . 


British Museum (Hume Collection). 


H 


9 


6 


Chamba . . . . 


H.H. the Raja of Chamba. 


H 


9 


6g 


Do 


Major R. St. J. Gillespie. 


H 


8i 


51 


? 


R. Heber-Percy. 


H 


8| 


7 


? 


C. V. Stockwell. 


H 


9 


3i 


Padir . 


, P. F. Hadow. 


I3l 


9 


m 


Chamba . . . . 


Hugo de Burgh. 


I3l 


8| 


71 


Do 


P Radclyffe. 


I3l 


9 


ui 


? 


British Museum (Hume Collection), 


I3l 


81 


71 


? 


I. Morse. 


13! 


9h 


6| 


? 


G. M. Ram. 


13* 


H 


7i 


Kashmir ... 


J. H. Phelps. - 


i3i 


H 


7i 


Chamba . 


, Col. H. D. Olivier. 


i3i 


9 


6| 


Kishtwar . 


. P. B. Vander Byl. 


i3i 


9\ 


6i 


p 


R. C. Watson. 


13* 


9 


7h 


? 


Sir H. E. M. James. 


'3§ 


9 


8* 


Garhwal . 


Capt. A. W. Robertson-Glasgow. 


i3i 


9h 


5S 


? 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

15£ 8£ 8| Garhwal . . . . V. A. Mackinnon. 

14-1% 8| 5 Chamba .... Major J. T. C. Murray. 

H£ 9i 7i Garhwal .... Mess of the 3rd Gurka Rifles. 

14^ 9^ 75 Chamba . . . . R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 



ARABIAN TAHE 355 



The ARABIAN TAHR (Hemitragus jayakeri). 

A much smaller and rather shorter-haired species than the last, of 
a generally tawny -brown colour, with relatively longer and more 
slender horns, which are less boldly knotted on the front edge. Height 
at shoulder, about 24^ inches. 

This species, of which the type specimen is in the British Museum, 
was first obtained by the late Col. Jayaker, in honour of whom it was 
named by Mr. O. Thomas in 1894. 

Distribution. — Jebel Taw, and probably some of the other ranges of 
Oman, South-East Arabia. 

Length on front Circum- T ,.. r\ 

c Locality. Owner. 



Oman Mountains . . The late Lieut. -Col. A. S. G. 
Jayaker. 

? Bombay Natural History Society. 

- Owner's measurements. 



356 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Nilgiri Tahr. 



The NILGIRI TAHR or "IBEX" (Hemitragus hylocrius). 

Although commonly designated by British sportsmen the " Nilgiri 
ibex," this species (the warriattu of the native shikaris) is really a 
member of the same genus as the Himalayan tahr. From that species 
it is at once distinguished by its short hair and the form of the horns ; 
the latter having the outer surface convex instead of flat, and lacking 
the knotted front keel. The general colour is dark blackish brown, 
old males developing a light saddle-like patch on the back. Height 
at shoulder, from 39 to 42 inches in the males and up to 35 inches 
in the females. 

Distribution. — The hill-ranges of Southern India, including the Nilgiris, 
Anamalais, and the Western Ghats nearly to Cape Comorin ; usually 
at elevations of from 4000 to 6000 feet, but occasionally descending 
to lower levels. This species was greatly reduced in numbers by 
constant persecution, but since the herds have been under Govern- 
ment protection, and a special permit is necessary for shooting, 
there has been a large increase. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


i6| 


81 


51 


Nilgiris , 




. British Museum (Hume Collection) 


16J 


H 


5 


Do. . 




Col. R. Hoare. 


i6i 


H 


6 


Do. . 




. S. G. Bird. 



NILGIRI TAHR 



357 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


15! 


71 


51 


Nilgiris . 




J. II . Whitehouse. 


i5i 


8§ 


n 


Do. . 




Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i5§ 


8| 


6f 


Do. . 




Martyn Kennard. 


i'sl 


8i 


6 


Do. . 




St. George Littledale. 


i5i 


71 


51 


Do. . 




G. L. Harrison. 


15 


8i 


54 


Do. . 




The late Sir H. D. Tichborne, Bart 


14I 


8J 


5! 


Do. . 




Capt. C. S. Timins. 


Hi 


8i 


71 


Anamalai Hills 


M. Loam. 


i4i 


8S 


6J 


Nilgiris . 




British Museum. 


14* 


8§ 


5* 


Do. . 




Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 


I4l 


8 


4§ 


Anamalai Hills 


Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 


9 I2| 


5i 


2§ 


Do. 




M. Loam. 


9 ni 


Si 


4i 


Do. 




. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



i7h 


93 


17 


9l 


164 




i5i 


H 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
Nilgiris .... Rhodes Morgan. 

Measured by Gen. Mac Master, i{ 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



St. George Littledale. 
Major F. W. H. Walshe. 



358 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Astor Markhor. Shot by Capt. H. Barstow in Gilgit. 



The MARKHOR (Capra falconeri). 

The markhor, of which there are several races, passing more or less 
completely into one another, introduces us to the true goats {Capra). 
The males differ from the tahr by their larger horns, the length of 
which greatly exceeds that of the head, and likewise by the presence of 
a distinct beard on the chin. In most races of the markhor the beard 
is extended so as to form a fringe on the throat and chest ; the hair 
on the body is also elongated ; and the horns form a spiral, unlike the 
scimitar-shape characteristic of the ibex and goat. In Gilgit the 
summer coat is yellowish white, and the winter-dress of the old bucks 
dark iron-grey. 

Distribution.— The Western Himalaya, Gilgit, Afghanistan, 
Bokhara, etc. 



MARKHOR 



359 



A and B.— ASTOR and PIE PANJAL MARKHOR 

(C. f. typica and C. f. cashmiriensis). 

In the Astor, C. falconeri typica, and Pir Panjal, C. falconeri 
cashmiriensis, races of the markhor the horns take the form of an open 
corkscrew-like spiral, with comparatively few turns, recalling those of the 
kudu ; the spiral being most open, the spread widest, and the turns 
fewest in the Astor form. Height at shoulder of a Gilgit specimen, 
38^ inches; of Kashmir specimens, from 38 to 41 inches; weight, 
from about 200 to 240 lbs. The Astor race is found in Astor, 
Baltistan, and Chilas, while the Pir Panjal form inhabits the Pir Panjal 
and Kajnag ranges of Kashmir, and extends to the north-west into 
Hazara. In Chitral and Gilgit occur gradations between horns of the 
Pir Panjal and Astor types. 



Length. 










On outside 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


6o| 

59 


39± 
36 


IO| 


46 


Gilgit 
Kajnag 


Capt. H. Barstow. (See 

illustration, p. 358.) 
Lieut. -Col. S. D. Turnbull. 


571 


42 


IO| 


41 


Do. 


Major A. R. Knox. 


57i 


40 ( 




47i 


Drosh 


Capt. B. C. Graham. 


56 


5i* 






Near Bunji 


Capt. T. S. Johnson. 


55 


44i 


II 


47 




East India Club. 


55 








Astor 


The late Otho Shaw. 


54* 
54 




10$ 

1 of 


261 
33i 


Astor 


British Museum (Hume 

Collection). 
Martyn Kennard. 


53i 


38* 


12* 


4°2 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. J. Manners Smith. 


531 ' 


371 


IO 


35 


Chilas 


Major C. A. Smith. 


53i 


405 


12 


433 


Do. 


Capt. J. A. Pottinger. 


J 53i 
53 


42^ 
40 


Hi 
I I 


52 about 

42 


Astor 
Gilgit 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collec 

tion. 
Capt. H. F. L. Grant. 


53 


383 


9i 


35i 


Do. . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


53 


351 


n| 


34^ 


Pir Panjal 


Major F. W. H. Walshe. 


53 
52l 


34i 
37^ 


11 

1 1 


32 
35i 

1 Shot t 


Astor 
Kajnag 
)y Capt. Harry V. Brooke. 


Lieut.-Col. the Hon. C. Wil 

loughby. 
Major A. G. W. Malet. 



360 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Len 


gth. 










On outside 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


52* 


39 


II 


39 


Gilgit 


Col. G. D. F. Sulivan. 


52i 


38| 


I2i 


44i 


Chilas 


. P. F. Hadow. 


5i§ 


&l 


"1 


372 


Gilgit 


Lieut. -Col. B. E. M. Gurdon. 


5i* 


40^ 


I3l 


34 


Astor 


. Capt. H. Whitaker. 


5i§ 


37s 


IO 


33 


Pir Panjal 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


5i* 




12 


44i 


Haramosh 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


5i 


36* 


"i 


40i 


Chilas 


Capt. A. H. Cameron. 


5i 


36i 


"i 


31 


Kaj nag 


. Sir H. E. M. James. 


5i 


36i 


11 


34% 


Do. 


. Col. J. W. A. Morgan. 


5°! 

50* 


36i 
36i 


12 
11 


35i 
. 35 


Do. 
Do. 


Mess of the Seaforth High 
landers. 
. J. Arbuthnot. 


5°i 


351 


IOj 


45* 


Haramosh 


Capt. B. H. Shaw-Stewart. 


50J 


39 


12 




Do. 


. W. R. Read. 


50 


38 


iif 


36 


Astor 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


5° 


36i 


12 


36 


Chilas 


Major W. Hayes-Sadler. 


50 


37 


11 


46 


? 


Major C. R. Kelly. 


5° 


32i 


10 


3i 


? 


Capt. S. M. Toppin. 


49i 


371 


12 


35 


Baltistan . 


H. PL Cripps. 


49i 


39 


I2£ 


3 2 h 


? 


G. 0. Smyth. 


49i 


36 


ni 


32 


Chilas 


. Major L. W. S. Oldham. 


49i 


36i 


»1 


3i 


? 


Capt. A. Young. 


49 
49 


35 
34* 


14 
ioi 


44 
37 


Astor 

? 


British Museum (Hume 

Collection). 
Lieut. -Col. E. B. Cook. 


49 


33i 


ioi 


37A 


? 


P. Radclyffe. 


49 


32I 


III 


36S 


? 


N. S. Regnart. 


48S 


34i ■ 


"i 


36| 


Haramosh 


Hon. H. G. O. Bridgeman. 


4 8| 


34 


io£ 


3°i 


? 


Capt. H. A. G. Chamier. 


48i 


39h 


9 


27 


Pir Panjal 


. J. G. Millais. 


4§i 


35 


13 


4i 


Chilas 


. J. D. Cobbold. 


4§i 




«i 


45 


Astor 


. Capt. M. Murphy. 


48i 


32 


11 


3ii 


Baltistan . 


. Major C. A. Smith. 


48i 


36i 


11 


33i 


? 


Capt. A. H. Wilson. 



MARKHOR 



361 




Skull and Horns of Pir Panjal Markhor. 
From a specimen presented by the late Mr. A. O. Hume to the British Museum. 



Length. 



1 outsid 
curve. 


e Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


T 


p to Tip. 


Locality 


4 8| 


35 


II 




2 9i 


.? 


48 


34 


I of 




36 


Astor 


48 


-.-,3 

J/5 


I2| 




29 


Pir Panjal 


48 


37 


II 




41 


? 


48 


34 


9k 




39 


? 



Owner. 

Capt. the Hon. A. C. Murray. 
His Majesty the King. 

British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). (See illustration 
on this page.) 

Capt. E. Berry. 

Capt. A. Marshall. 



362 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Len 


gth. 










On outside 
curve. 


Straight 
line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. Owner. 


48 


34 


lOf 


3*4 


? 


H. W. Seton. 


48 


36i 


II 


30 


Chilas (?) 


Capt. E. Le G. Whitting. 








OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 


x 6 3 

60 








Pir Panjal 
Astor 


. Major -General A. A. A. 
Kinloch. 
Lucknow Museum. 


59 




12 


36 


Kajnag 


The late Major J. C. Shirres. 


571 




Hi 


40 


Do. 


. Capt. H. D. McLaughlin. 


57 


4oi 


9l 


38 


Gilgit 


Marquis of Lansdowne. 


56i 


38 


11 


38 


Kashmir . 


. J. Benett-Stanford. 


56i 


35 


IO| 


37 


Gilgit 


. W. P. Appleford. 


56 


36§ 


13* 


34i 


Kashmir . 


Viscount Edmond de Pon- 


55i 

55 


39 


9i 

II 


3i* 

34 


Chilas 
Gilgit 


cins. 
. Mess of the Queen's Own 

Corps of Guides. 
. F. M. Hodgkins. 


55 


38H 


II 


41} 


Do. 


. Mess of the 3rd Gurka Rifles. 


53 


33* 


\o\ 




Baltistan . 


W. M. Logan- Home. 


53 


3i4 


10 


33s 


Gilgit 


. Capt. H. R. P. Dickson. 




1 Picked 


up either 


on the Pir Pa^ 


al or the Kajnag 


Range by the late Col. Cuppage, 



and measured by General Kinloch. 



Certain horns in the Hume Collection indicate a type in some 
degree intermediate between the Panjal and the Cabul type ; their place 
of origin is unknown, but was probably somewhere west of the Indus. 



MARKHOR 



363 



Length. 



CHITRAL SPECIMENS. 



curve. 


line. 


ference. 


lip CO lip. 




5°i 


37 


IO 


34i 


Chitral 


50 


36 


IO 


33 


Do. 


47i 


34 


IO& 


39 


Do. 



Owner. 
Capt. R. A. Lyall. 
Major R. H. Macdonald. 
H. Gous;h. 



57 
56 


38 
41 


10J 
"1 


W VV IN £, i\ 

35 
32 


Chitral . 
Do. 


jIN 1 0. 

. Bombay Natural History 
Society. 
Major C. Rose. 


53 




n 


34 


Do. 


. Col. A. C. O'Donnell. 


52 


34 


10 


33l 


Do. 


. Capt. G. W. Burton. 


5H 




11 


3°2 


Do. 


. Capt. J. Carruthers. 


Sii 






36 


Do. 


. Major G. A. Leslie. 


49 


39i 


«i 




Do. 


. Major C. R. Johnson. 



C— CHIALTAN RACE (C. falconeri chialtanensis). 

Differs from other races in the form of the spiral of the horns. 
May perhaps turn out to be a hybrid between the markhor and 
domesticated goat ; some Chialtan specimens being almost certainly 
of this nature. 

Distribution. — The Chialtan Range of Baluchistan. 



Length. 
On outside Straight Circum- ry „,. 

nirvp lin*v Wnrp 



curve. 
-36 

342 
-34 



line. 

25 

26 

27 



I3i 



Locality. 

Chialtan Range 

Do. 

Do. 



Owner. 

Capt. W. M. Hunt {The 
Field, June 7, 1913). 

British Museum (Col. H. 
Appleton). 

Capt. W. M. Hunt {The 
Field, June 7, 1913). 



Owner's measurements. 




Skull and Horns of Suleman Markhor. From a specimen presented by thedate 
Mr. A. O. Hume to the British Museum. 



364 



MARKHOR 



365 




Skull and Horns of Cabul Markhor. From a specimen presented by 
the late Mr. A. O. Hume to the British Museum. 



D. and E.— CABUL and SULEMAN RACES 
(C. falconeri megaceros and C. f. jerdoni). 

In the Cabul race of the markhor {C. falconeri megaceros), typically 
from the trans-Indus districts near Cabul, the horns are nearly straight, 
but show a slightly open spiral ; being, in fact, intermediate between 
those of the Pir Panjal and Suleman races. Markhor from the Chitral 
valley generally have horns of the Cabul type, but in some cases these 
conform to the Pir Panjal type ; both types occurring in the members 
of one and the same flock. In the Suleman markhor {C. falconeri jerdoni) 
the horns form a perfectly straight cone, upon which the spiral ridges run 



366 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



like the " worm " of a screw. The distributional area of the latter race 
includes the trans-Indus hill- ranges on the frontier of the Punjab, 
Afghanistan, and Baluchistan, extending in the Suleman range as far 
as Mithankot, and also to the Ouetta district. 



Length. 

Straight 

line. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


48^ 


71 


Odd horn 


? 






Suleman race 


391 


10^ 


24i 


Afghanistan 


39i 


I2i 


38 


Range 25 miles N.W. 
of Wana 


3H 


ioi- 


23l 


Afghanistan 


38 


IO 


26 


Cabul . 


37 


IO 


32 


Kurram Valley 


obi 


9l 


IS 


Khyber Pass 


34 


11 


23 


? 


33 


9i 


i9l 


Afghanistan 


32S 


92 


20 


Waziristan . 


32I 


91 


28 


? 


32 


10 


2 7l 


Cabul 


3i* 


9l 


27 


Suleman Range . 


3o| 


10 


25 


Baluchistan . 


3° 


91 


2C>g 


S. Waziristan 


29! 


H 


23S 


Baluchistan . 


29* 


10 


19 


Khyber Pass 


29 


ioi 


16 


? 


28! 


94 


i8f 


Sheik Budin 


27 


9 


18 


Do. 


26S 


Hi 


22 T j 


Suleman Range . 



36 


11 


32 


33i 


ioJ 


23 


32! 


10 


22^ 


3ii 


9h 


I7J 


3i 


92 


25 



Owner. 

British Museum. 

British Museum (Col. Grant). 

A. J. Grant. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe-Coburg 

and Gotha. 
Capt. O. H. Radford. 

Lieut. -Col. Sir G. Roos-Keppel. 

Major E. Kirkpatrick. 

G. F. Giffard. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Major G. Dodd. 

British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). 

British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). See illustration on 
page 365. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Col. J. Biddulph. 

Capt. A. G. Shea. 

Lieut. -Col. R. H. Rattray. 

Major A. L. Bickford. 

American National Collection. 

J. C. Phillips. 

Col. J. Biddulph. 

British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). See illustration on 
page 364. 

OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

Bunnu . . . F. M. Hodgkins. 

? Bombay Natural History Society. 

Bunnu . . . Mess of the Queen's Own Corps 

of Guides. 
? C. P. Henderson. 

? R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 



SARIN OR ASIATIC IBEX 



367 




Head of Tien Shan race of Asiatic Ibex. From Lord Elphinstone's specimen. 



The SAKIN or ASIATIC IBEX (Capra sibirica). 

The first of the true ibexes, in all of which the long scimitar-shaped 
horns carry bold transverse knots on the front surface. In the present 
species the horns are characterised by their large size and well- 
developed front surface ; the second distinctive feature being the long 
beard of the males. Height at shoulder, from 40 to 42 inches. Weight, 
about 206 lbs. ; when cleaned, from 128 to 153 lbs. 

Distribution. — The mountains of Central Asia, from near Lhasa, the 
Tien Shan, and the Altai to the Himalaya (exclusive of the Pir 
Panjal), and from the neighbourhood of Herat to Kumaon and 
adjacent districts as far east as the source of the Ganges. Several 
local races of this species are recognised ; the typical race {C. 
sibirica typicd) of the Sayansk range, the Irtish race (C. s. altaicd), 
the Tien Shan race (C. s. almasyi), the Gilgit race {C. s. pedri), 
the Katutay ibex (C. s. lydekkeri), the Balti ibex (C. s. wardi), 
the Himalayan ibex (C. s. sarin) from the mountains to the north- 
ward of Kashmir, and the Lahul (C. s. Jilippii). 



363 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



TIEN SHAN RACE. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


58 


ni 


44i 


Tien Shan . 


Col. H. Appleton. 


57S 


11 


40J 


Do. . 


C. H. Bury. 


57i 


I0f 


24 


Do. 


H. M. von Archer. 


57h 


"I 


28 


Do. 


Capt. G. R. H. Cheape. 


571 


11 


30 


Do. 


A. Bayley-Worthington. 


5 6f 


ni 


36^ 


Do. 


Lord Elphinstone. 


56! 


IO| 


31 


Do. 


Capt. J. F. Turner. 


56* 


II 


40 


Do. 


R. F. Glyn. 


56 


ioJ 


2I| 


Do. 


P. F. Hadow. 


541 


"i 


29 


Do. 


P. B. Vander Byl. 


54l 


"i 


3°i 


Do. 


Major A. D. Greenhill-Gardyne. 


54i 


Hi 




Do. - . 


B. Chew. 


] 54 


10! 


45 


Do. 


His Majesty the King. 


53l 


Hi 


45 


Do. 


. J. H. Miller. 


53l 


ioi 


33* 


Do. 


Ford G. Barclay. 


531 


Hi 


34 


China 


Major P. Hambro. 


53i 


Hi 


42 


Tien Shan . 


R. Hayne. 


53i 


io| 


2I| 


Do. 


Col. C. B. Wood. 


53i 


I2i 


35 


Do. 


Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 


53 


12 


35* 


Do. 


St. George Littledale. 


521 


I2i 


26 


Do. 


P. Church. 


52$ 


ni 


22J 


Do. . 


T. P. Miller. 


52 


ni 


40.I 


Do. 


W. R. Read. 


5if 


12J 


48 


Do. ... 


Capt. H. Whitaker. 


5if 


12 


34 


Do. 


Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 


5o| 
5oi 


"i 

IO| 


35-1 
3i 


Do. 
Do. 


British Museum (St. George 

Littledale). 
C. C. Tower. 


50 


1 1 


3°i 


Do. . 


Marquis of Lansdowne. 


50 


Hi 


24 i 


Do. 


Col. A. H. Hussey. 


50 


12 


I9i 


Do. . 


. J. V. Phelps. 


4H 


ioi 


3H 


Altai . 


Col. C. B. Wood. 


46A 


12 


20* 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 






1 


Shot by St. George Litt 


edale. 



SARIN OR ASIATIC IBEX 



369 



LADAKI, BALTI, and KASHMIRI RACES. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


55 


ni 


53* 


io| 


5i£ 


9h 


49S 


10 


49 


io\ 


4§3 


io\ 


4 8i 


9l 


4§i 


9 


4§i 


io£ 


4§i 


ioi 


471 


8| 


47 


io^ 


465 


10 


46| 


9i 


46| 


' 91 


46S 


91 


46i 


10 


46i 


io| 


4 6i 


IO| 


46 


ioi 


46 


10J 


46 


1 of 


46 


10 


46 


II 


46 


1 of 


451 


ioj 


452 


II 


451 


9 


451 


IOL 


45* 


9i 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


35 


Gilgit 


Lieut.-Col. B. E. M. Gurdon. 


20J: 


Do. . 


Col. J. Biddulph. 


34* 


? 


Lieut.-Col. J. Manners Smith. 


2li 


Chitral 


British Museum (Lieut.-Col. 
B. E. M. Gurdon). 


92 


Skardo 


Major George Douglas. 


33 


Baltistan . 


H. H. Cripps. 


3°i 


N ubra, north of Leh . 


British Museum (Hume Codec 
tion). 


22f 


Kashmir . 


Col. G. D. F. Sulivan. 


28 


Do. 


Capt. S. H. Charrington. 


29? 


Ladak 


Capt. R. H. R. Brocklebank. 


29l 


Chitral 


M. Ostreham. 


35 


Baltistan . 


Lady Constance Stewart- 
Richardson. 


181 


? 


E. R. Harris. 




Kashmir . 


Lieut.-Col. E. B. Cook. 


25i 


Do. 


P. Radclyffe. 


22^ 


Do. 


Lieut.-Col. W. Goring. 


25i 


Kashmir 


G. A. Lloyd. 


23i 


? 


Major J. S. Bogle. 


I2 2 


? 


Capt. E. T. W. McCausland. 


173 


Baltistan . 


Capt. R. S. H. Walpole. 


2I| 


? 


Major C. E. Palmer. 


I2i 


Ladak 


P. F. Hadow. 


2 4i 


? 


Capt. H. G. Stafford. 


144 


Kashmir 


Capt. H. Meynell. 


25i 


Do. . 


J. Piatt. 




Do. . 


Capt. H. Nicolay. 


i3i 


Do. . 


F. PI. Norton. 


19 


Baltistan 


Hon. A. G. Brand. 


18 


? 


J. V. E. Lees. 




Pamir 


Major J. B. Mackintosh. 



2 B 



37o 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


45i 


91 


i9i 


Pamir 


Lieut. -Col. R. L. Kennion 


45i 


9f 


194 


Baltistan . 


. T. R. Ubsdell. 


45* 


\o\ 


27 


Do. 


His Majesty the King. 


45i 


IO 


i8| 


? 


Capt. A. Courage. 


45 


9 


I2i 


Baltistan . 


Major C. B. Vandeleur. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



56i 


»i 


371 


Tien Shan . 


Lieut. -Col. H. M. Biddulph. 


55 






Tagdumbash 


. Col. A. E. Ward. 


^41 

52| 


ioi 
11 


25 
nf 


Gilgit 
Hunza 


Mess of the Queen's Own Corps 

of Guides. 
Capt. H. R. P. Dickson. 


52 


10 




Baltistan . 


H.H. the Maharaja of Travancore. 


514 






Kashmir . 


Martyn Kennard. 


51 






Do. 


. Col. A. E. Ward. 


51 


ioi 


29 


Gilgit 


F. M. Hodgkins. 


45i 

45 


9l 
10 


24I 
2o£ 


Baltistan . 
Gilgit 


Mess of the Queen's Own Corps 

of Guides. 
Col. J. Biddulph. 






1 Picked up by Maj.-Gen. R 


E. Hutchinson. 



The IBEX or STEINBOCK (Capra ibex). 

This species, which only survives in a protected state, differs from 
the Asiatic ibex by the much smaller size of the beard of the male, as 
well as by a slight variation in the horns ; the height at the shoulder 
reaching to about 34 inches. Weight, from 85 to 106 lbs. clean. 
Formerly distributed throughout the higher Alps of Switzerland, Savoy, 
and the Tyrol, but now surviving only in a few valleys on the Italian 
side of Monte Rosa. Most of the few specimens now obtainable are 
comparatively small, and good horns are very scarce in English 
collections. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 

34i 
29 

28J 
28 



Circum- 
ference. 

91 
8| 



9i 



Tip to 
Tip. 

26£ 
I7i 

m 



Locality. 

Styria 

Valley of Aosta 

Do. 

Do. 



Owner. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
Rev. J. M. Gordon. 
J. Hamilton Leigh. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



IBEX OR STEINBOCK 



37i 



Length 

on front 

curve. 

27* 
26f 



Circum- 
ference. 



9i 
81 



Tip to 
Tip. 



Weight. 



Locality. 

Valley of Aosta 
Do. 



Owner. 

Royal Scottish Museum. 
British Museum. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



44§ 


ioi 


39! 


\o\ 


38| 




3° 


9 


28i 


9l 



170 lbs. 



4oi 



Valley of Aosta 
? 

Valley of Aosta 
? 

Valley of Aosta 



H.M. the King of Italy. 
Imperial Museum, Vienna. 
H.M. the King of Italy. 
Dublin Museum. 
C. II. Wilczek. 




Ibex Head, in the possession of H.M. the King of Italy. 



372 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Abyssinian Ibex. Shot by Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 



The WALA or ABYSSINIAN IBEX (Capra vali). 

This ibex, the wala of the natives of Simien, differs from the 
Nubian ibex by its stouter build, shorter beard, and larger and more 
massive horns, on which the knots are but slightly prominent, as well 
as by its darker colour and superior size. The forehead of the skull 
has a conspicuous bony prominence. Although described by Ruppell 
in 1835, this ibex was practically unknown till 1901, when a fine 
series of specimens was brought home by Major Powell-Cotton. 
Height at shoulder, about 40 inches. Weight, about 260 lbs. 
Distribution. — The mountains of Simien, Abyssinia. 



Length on 
front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


43! 


ni 


27 


Abyssinia 




43 % 


»i 


I2£ 


Do. 




43 


ioi 


23 


Do. 




x 42| 


"4 


I8J 


Do. 




4if 


11 


1 62 


Do. 




4Qg 


11 




Do. 




9i3i 


45 


8g 


Do. 





Ov 



British Museum (Major P. H. G. 

Powell-Cotton). 
Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

Admiral the Hon. Sir Hedworth 

Meux. 
Her Majesty Queen Alexandra. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 



1 Presented by the late Ras Makunnan, 1902. 



BEDEN OR NUBIAN IBEX 



373 




' 



■■.^"yv':-:.:-: : : - ■ ■■ 



Head of Nubian Ibex. 
Shot in the Red Sea Province by Mr. J. H. Miller. 



The BEDEN or NUBIAN IBEX (Capra nubiana). 



This species may be easily distinguished from both the Asiatic 
and the Alpine ibex by the form of the horns, which are very long, 
rather slender, and with the outer front angle much bevelled off, so 
that the proper front surface is very narrow, and its transverse knots 
proportionately short. Three races are recognised, namely, the typical 
Nubian form, C. n. typica, the S. Arabian C. n. mejigesi, and the 
Sinaitic C. n. sinaitica. In the form of its horns the latter approximates 
to the wild goat. 

Distribution. — The mountains of Southern Arabia, Palestine, the Sinaitic 
Peninsula, Upper Egypt, and probably also those of Morocco and 
the interior of Senegambia. Arabian name, beden. 



374 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



.4.— NUBIAN RACE (C. nubiana typica). 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


46£ 


8 




North Africa 


British Museum. 


454 


8 


3 2 4 


Do. 


H. H. Prince Omar Toussoun. 


45 


-3 

/5 


i6| 


Red Sea Province 


G. E. Burnett-Stuart. 


442 
43l 


8 
9i 


i6i 
6| 


Do. 
North Africa 


J. H. Miller. (See illustration 

P- 373-) 
Percy C. Madeira. 


43* 


71 


22J 


Do. 


. Lieut. -Col. H. R. Lloyd. 


43 


8 


19 


Near Suakin 


A. L. Butler. 


42 


74 


20 


Do. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


4i| 


71 


171 


North Africa 


Major W. H. Besant. 


4o| 


71 


20| 


Do. 


. W. H. Watney. 


40i 


7h 


24 


Do. 


A. Fowler. 


4C>i 


7h 


i8| 


Do. 


H. Boughton Leigh. 


4 o 


8 


194 


Do. 


Major H. H. S. Morant. 


381 


71 


124 


Upper Egypt . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


3§i 


74 


*4i 


North Africa 


Prince E. Demidoff. 


38^ 


81 


1(4 


Do. 


Lord Villiers. 


38£ 


7 


2I| 


Suakin 


L. C. G. Clarke. 


384 


71 


23 


Do. . . . 


P. B. Vander Byl. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



5i 
43l 



394 Upper Egypt 
Do. 



The late Prince Henry of Liechten- 
stein. 
C. S. Mann. 



BEDEN OR NUBIAN IBEX 



375 



X 



m 



*>/H 



ir *■>- %, > 







/♦ r 






Skull and Horns of Arabian Ibex. Shot by Major W. Merewether. 



,5. and C— -S. ARABIAN and SINAITIC RACES (C. nubiana mengesi 

and sinaitica). 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


50 


9 




Southern Arabia 


Capt. J. T. Brinkley. 


42 


7i 




Arabia 




East India Club. 


414 


8 


l6b 


Do. 




Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


39i 


8| 


19I 


South- East Arabia 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3§i 


7h 


12 


Sinai 




R. Hayne. 


37f 


7 


i3i 


Do. 




Capt. C. P. Hey wood. 


374 


6i 


12 


Do. 




P. Swan. 


36| 


74 


9i 


Do. 




. W. H. Tottie. 


36| 


7 


10 


Do. 




P. A. Kennedy. 


? i°l 


3i 


2i 


Do. 




W. E. Pease. 



494 
39 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS 
Southern Arabia 
Sinai 



Major W. Merewether. (See 

illustration.) 
Capt. L. Buxton. 



376 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Sind Wild Goat. From a specimen presented by the late 
Mr. A. O. Hume to the British Museum. 



The PASANG or WILD GOAT (Capra hircus). 

The horns of the wild goat (C. hircus cegagrus) of the Caucasus and 
p ers i a — which is the ancestral form of the domesticated goat of Europe 
and Asia {C. hircus) — differ from those of the various species of ibex 
by having no distinct front surface, but merely a sharp notched keel, 
representing the inner front angle of the ibex horn. In old males 
the beard is very long. The general colour of the upper-parts is brownish 
grey in winter and reddish brown in summer, while the under-parts 
are white, and there are blackish brown and white markings on the 
body, face, and limbs. Height at shoulder reaching to 37 inches. 

The so-called Sind ibex (C. hircus blythi) forms a second local race 
of the species, inhabiting Sind and parts of Baluchistan, where it prob- 
ably passes imperceptibly into the Caucasian race. It is distinguished 
mainly by a slight difference in the form of the horns. Other races 
are found in some of the islands of the JEgean Archipelago, where they 
appear to have been more or less crossed with domesticated breeds. 

Distribution. — The islands of South-Eastern Europe, and the mountains 
of South -Eastern Europe and South- Western Asia from the 
Caucasus through Asia Minor and Persia to the confines of 
Baluchistan and Sind. Persian name, pasang (rock-footed). 



PASANG OR WILD GOAT 



377 



.4.— CAUCASIAN RACE (C. hircus segagrus). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


554 




24 


Persia 


Carl Hagenbeck. 


5ii 


9 


7 


Russian Turkestan 


. The late Prince P. Demidoff. 


4 8i 


84 


1 3s 


Caucasus 


British Museum. 


47i 


71 


8| 


Persia 


Lieut. -Col. R. L. Kennion. 


464 


8| 


i8| 


Asia Minor 


F. C. Selous. 


46i 


9i 


Hi 


Do. 


T. Bowen Rees. 


454 


8| 


5 


Do. 


R. Graham. 


45 


71 




British Mekran . 


. Capt. A. W. White. 


444 


H 


2I§ 


Caucasus 


British Museum. 


43* 


IO 


124 


Persia 


Hon. W. Erskine. 


43 


9 


isi 


Taurus Range 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


43 


8^ 


i 4 4 


N. Persia . 


. Capt. C. T. Daukes. 


43 


84 


22§ 


? 


J. Carr Saunders. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



53 


IO 


4 6 


Asia Minor 


. B. Hodder. 


5o| 


9± 


14 


Taurus Range 


Count C. Deym. 


474 


9i 




Cilician Taurus . 


C. G. Danford. 


451 


8| 


9l 


Daghestan . 


. E. N. Buxton. 


45i 


9i 


21 


Damascus . 


. Dr. Albert von Stephani 


434 


IO 


214 


Asia Minor 


. D. Forbes. 



B.— SIND RACE (C. hircus blythi). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




52| 


71 


8f 


Sind 


494 


71 


11 


Do. 


-48 


8 


204 


Do. 


4 6| 


71 


14 


Do. 


46 


71 


11 


Do. 



Locality. 



Owner. 

British Museum (Hume Collection). 

(Shot by Col. F. Marston.) See 

illustration. 
Capt. L. P. Haviland. 

J. D. Inverarity. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Major C. S. Cumberland. 



Owner's measurements. 



378 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Domesticated Goat from Daghestan. Sir Edmund G. Loder's specimen. 



DOMESTICATED GOATS. 



Length on Circum- 
front curve. ference. 



52* 

44i 
4o£ 
372 
-37 
351 
34! 
34 
332 



io£ 

6 

9§ 

7i 

1\ 

71 

72 

82 



to Tip. 


Locality. 


40| 


Daghestan . 


29} 


Angora 




Daghestan . 


32| 


Scotland 


35 


Meoble 


38i 


? 


38i 


Scotland 


3 2 2 


Do. 


261 


Meoble 



Owner. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
Do. 
Do. 
. Col. W. Hall Walker. 
Walter Jones. 
B. de Bertodano. 
Duke of Bedford. 
F. C. Selous. 
. Hon. O. C. Molyneux. 



Owner's measurements. 



SPANISH IBEX 



379 




Skull and Horns of Spanish Ibex. H. M. The King of Spain's record specimen. 



The SPANISH IBEX (Capra pyrenaica). 

Although commonly designated an ibex, the Spanish wild goat has 
horns more like those of one of the Caucasian ture, and is therefore 
better regarded as a species of that group. The horns, which have a 
sharp inner edge, are twisted in a very open semi-spiral, with the tips 
generally turned outwards, and are quite unlike those of the true ibex. 
In having dark and light markings on the limbs the species is, however, 
much more like the wild goat than either of the Caucasian ture. 
The beard of the males varies greatly in size according to age and 
season. Height at shoulder, from about 27 to 32 inches ; weight, 
when clean, about 10 stone. 

Distribution. — The Pyrenees and the high ranges of Central Spain, 
Andalucia, and Portugal. The typical race of the species inhabits 
the Pyrenees ; the ibex of the Serra do Gerez, Portugal, said to 
have less spreading horns, is separated as C. pyrenaica lusitanica ; 
those of the Sierra Nevada form a third race (C. p. /lispanica), 
characterised by the slight development of the black markings ; 
and a fourth race (C. p. victories), intermediate between the typical 
race and hispanica, is found on the Sierra de Grados. 



38o 



Length on 
outside 
curve. 


Circu 
feren 


-.-.1 

J>J2 


91 


31 


Sf 


30h 


9 


29i 


91 


28 


9k 


27I 


9 


251 


H 


25* 


71 


24i 


10 


2 3s 


8 


22§ 


9i 


22§ 


10 


?9l 


51 



RECORDS OF BIG 

Tip to Tip. Locality. 



GAME 



2.Q 


Sierra de Gredos 




Pyrenees . 


26 


Sierra de Gredos 


23i 


Sierra Nevada . 


23l 


Spain 


25 


Central Spain 


i6g 


Spain 


ioi 


Nr. Cordova 


H 


Val d' Arras 


16 


Southern Spain . 


i8| 


Val d' Arras 


15A 


Sierra de Gredos 


61 


Val d'Arras 



Owner. 



H.M. the King of Spain. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 

i Marquis de Viana. 
^Marquis de Villaviciosa. 

Abel Chapman. 

British Museum. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Lord Hindlip. 

E. N. Buxton. 

Marques Marzales. 

E. N. Buxton. 

Duke de Turancon. 

E. N. Buxton. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



3oi 


91 


23! 


Central Spain 


Abel Chapman and W. J. Buck. 


29! 


H 


23i 


Almeira 


H. Brinsley Brooke. 


29I 


9s 


20J 


Sierra de Gredos 


Natural History Museum, Madrid 


29I 


8i 


20J 


Sierra Nevada . 


Do. 


28| 


iol 


2S§ 


? 


Imperial Museum, Vienna. 


28£ 


91 


24I 


Sierra de Gredos 


Marques de la Torrecilla. 


27i 


9§ 


201 


Do. 


Marques de Viana. 


27l°* 


ioi 


■''to 


Do. 


H.M. the King of Spain. 


2 7l 


81 


201 


Do. 


. Jose del Prado. 


27 


10 J 


201 


Do. 


H.M. the King of Spain. 


251 


91 


13 


Spain 


. W. J. Buck. 


? iof 


51 


71 


Val d'Arras 


. A. E. Leatham. 



WESTERN TUR 



381 




, Western Tur or Caucasian Ibex. Shot by Mr. P. B. Vander Byl. 



WESTERN TUR or CAUCASIAN IBEX (Capra severtzowi). 



Of the two peculiar kinds of wild goats inhabiting the Caucasus 
and locally known as ture, the present species is easily recognised by 
the approximation in the form of its horns to those of true ibex, and 
the uniform chestnut-brown colour of the male in the summer coat ; 
the chin, beard, and lower part of the legs being dark brown. In 
adults the beard, when fully developed, is long, straight, and narrow. 
Height at shoulder, about 42 inches. 

Distribution. — The western half of the main chain of the Caucasus. 
The typical race {C. severtzowi typicd) inhabits the mountains west 
of Elbruz. It is the larger, and has the knots on the horns 
moderately developed. Still farther west, in the North-western 
Caucasus, although somewhat overlapping the range of the first, 
comes Dinnik's race (C. s. dinniki), the range of which to the west, 
like that of the species, is limited by Mount Shungus. 



382 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 

on front 

curve. 

40 

37 
34! 



Circum- Tip to 
ference. Tip. 



.4.— TYPICAL RACE (C. severtzowi typica). 

Locality. Owner. 



I 3t *4i "W. Caucasus 

ni 26h Do. 

11 16 Do. 



St. George Littledale. 

Do. 
British Museum. 



B.— NORTH-WESTERN RACE (C. severtzowi dinniki). 



Length 

on front 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


345 


12 


22 


Kuban 


, N.W. Caucasus . 


Prince E. Demidoff. 


33i 


12* 






Do. 


. P. B. Vander Byl. 


3*2 


II| 


22| 




Do. 


Do. 


3 2 k 


Hi 


25i 




Do. 


Prince E. Demidoff. 


3°§ 


"1 


i6§ 




Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


3° 


"i 


i9i 




Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



EASTERN TUR 383 




Head of Pallas's Eastern Tur. Shot by Prince E. Demidoff. 



EASTERN TUR or CAUCASIAN BHARAL (Capra caucasica). 

Distinctly different from the last is the wild goat commonly 
designated by sportsmen the " Caucasian bharal " ; this name being 
derived from the resemblance of its horns to those of the true 
Himalayan bharal. In spite of this point of resemblance, its affinities 
are, however, evidently with the goats, although it indicates a step 
from the more typical members of that group in the direction of the 
bharal. Both races are characterised by the width and shortness of 
the beard, which forms a curling fringe on each side of the chin. The 
general colour of the coat in the bharal-like race is uniform dull 
brown, except on the chin, the tip of the tail, and portions of the legs, 
where it is blackish brown. Height at shoulder, about 3 feet. 

Although generally classed as typifying a species, Pallas's tur is 
best regarded as a race of the true C. caucasica, in which the horns 
are somewhat less bharal-like, and may show small knots in front. 

Distribution. — The Central Caucasus and the Eastern Caucasus, 
from Kasbek to Daghestan. 

^.—TYPICAL RACE (C. caucasica typica). 
Distribution. — Central Caucasus to east of Elbruz. 



Length Circum . T ip t0 

on front c r£- Locality. U 

ference. 1 lp. J 



wner. 



curve. 



2 9h I2 i ? Central Caucasus . . Specimen described by Dinnik. 



384 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The following specimen, which has been regarded as a hybrid, is 
intermediate in character between the above and C. severtzowi. 



Length 

on front 

curve. 



Circum- 
ference. 



ioj 



Tip to 
Tip. 

22^ 



Locality. 



Elbruz District . 



Owner. 



St. George Littledale. 



B. — PALLAS'S EACE (C. caucasica cylindricornis). 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


46 


132 


Si 


Eastern Caucasus 


Prince E. Demidoff. 


44! 


I3i 


IO 




Do. 


The late Prince P. Demidoff. 


43 

4°2 


14 
I2± 


174 

i5i 




Do. 
Do. 


British Museum (the late Prince 
P. Demidoff). 
. P. B. Vander Byl. 


40 


12^ 


10 




Do. 


P. H. Thomas. 


39 


i3tV 


19 




Do. 


St. George Littledale. 


3§i 


13 


17 




Do. 


Do. 


3H 


12^ 




Eastern Caucasus 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


36! 


i3i 


i6| 




Do. 


Count H. de Ganay. 


36 


13 




Daghestan . 


. J. D. Cobbold. 


35* 


12 


iSi 


Eastern Caucasus 


Rhys Williams. 


35 


I2| 


20| 




Do. 


Mervyn G. Williams. 


35 


12^ 


16 




Do. 


S. Whitehouse. 


34! 


I3l 


24i 




Do. 


. Duke of Alba. 


341 


iog 


134 




Do. 


. Major Talbot. 


33t 


13 


i7i 




Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


32 


13 


19 




Do. 


. Berthold Smith. 


32 


"4 


22 




Do. 


Sutton Timmis. 


314 


12 


7i 




Do. 


F. G. Barclay. 


3i 


II 


28 




Do. 


. Capt. H. H. P. Deasy. 



BHARAL 



385 




Skull and Horns of Bharal. 



The BHARAL or BLUE SHEEP (Pseudois nahura). 

Ta-sang-yang, Chinese. 

With horns not unlike those of Pallas's tur, the bharal or blue 
sheep of Tibet differs from the goats by the absence of a beard 
and a strong odour in the males, and on account of these and other 
points of difference from the goats is placed next the sheep, of which 
group it forms a very aberrant member. The most distinctive external 
features are the comparatively smooth and olive-coloured horns, which 
curve at first outwards and then backwards from the sides of the head, 
and the bluish grey colour of the thick coat of the back and sides, the 
flanks, under-parts, and legs being handsomely marked with black and 
white. Height at shoulder, about 36 inches; weight, about 130 lbs.. 
In the complete absence of glands on the face, and the rudimentary 
condition of those between the hoofs, the bharal differs from typical 
sheep and approximates to goats. 

Distribution. — From Hunza, and Shigar, in Baltistan, and near Sanju, 
south-east of Yarkand, to Sze-chuan and Shen-si, and from the 
main axis of the Himalaya, or locally some distance south of the- 
same, to the Kuenluen and Altyn Tag ; in summer usually met: 
with at elevations between 14,000 and 16,000 feet, and apparently 
never found below about 10,000 feet. 

2 c 



386 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 


Circum- 


: ront curve. 


ference, 


311 


i3i 


30l 


I2i 


3oh 


10 


30 


i3i 


3° 


11 


29J 


1 ig 


29L 


12 


28| 


1 64 


28| 


124 


28^ 


11-4 


281 


«i 


28 


11 


28 


11 


271 


104 


271 


ioi 


274 


13 


2jh 


1 of 


27i 


II 


^7^ 


12 


21 


I2i 


27 


Hi 


21 


H4 


26| 


104 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


22^ 


Ladak 




2lg 


Garhwal 




184 




? 


25i 


Ladak 




24 


Hanle, Spiti 


254 




? 


26i 


Northern 


Sikhim 


214 




? 


22 


Chang-chi 


:nmo 


i6i 




? 


264 


Hanle . 




20^ 




? 


16 


Hanle . 




2 32 




? 


10 


Ladak 




34 


Kumaon 




i6| 




? 


214 


Ladak 




25i 


Do. 




22\ 


Do. 




251 


Do. 




28 


Tibet . 




i6i 


Ladak 





Owner. 

J. Campbell of Kilberry. 

British Museum (Hume Collection). 

Major F. G. T. Deshon (King 
Edward's Hospital for Officers). 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Major B. L. Carew. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe- 

Coburg and Gotha. 
Major A. Pearse. 

Major Lord Charles M. Nairne. 

Capt. B. II. Shaw-Stewart. 

Major C. A. Vivian. 

Major F. W. II. Walshe. 

British Museum (Hume Collection). 

Arnold Pike. 

R. II. Edmondson. 

Capt. G. Campbell. 

E. R. Neave. 

P. Radclyffe. 

St. George Littledale. 

Col. H. Appleton. 

Capt. R. S. H. Walpole. 

Capt. A. E. Cathcart. 

Major C. S. Cumberland. 

Capt. W. F. Reichwald. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



33i 

324 
x 3o4 
30 
29 
284 
284 



12 
11 
io4 



12 

154 



Shot on Lhasa Expedi- H. H. Hayden. 

tion, 1904. 
Milam Pass . . Major W. de L. Williams. 



Ladak 
Baba Pass 

Ladak 



Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 
Major R. W. Johnston. 
Lieut. -Col. A. E. Ward. 
R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 
Indian Museum. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


-264 


12 


24i 


"4 


i8| 


11 


174 


iof 



Chinese Specimens. 

Tip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 

29 Ta-chi-lu . . . M. Mitchell. 

31 \ Kan-su, Tibet border . K. K. Horn. 

27I S.-W. border of Kan-su II. F. Wallace. 

24 Do. G. Fenwick-Owen. 

■ Owner's measurements. Picked up. 



ARUI, OR BARBARY SHEEP 



387 




Head of Arui, 



The ARUI, UDAD, or BARBARY SHEEP (Ammotragus lervia). 



The only wild sheep found throughout the continent of Africa is 
the arui or fechstal of the Arabs, the udad or Barbary sheep of 
naturalists ; a species with horns not very unlike those of the bharal, 
and also lacking glands on the face, but readily distinguished by its 
uniformly tawny colour, the fringe of long hair depending from the 
throat, chest, and the upper portion of the fore-legs, and the unusual 
length of the tail, which exceeds that of all other wild sheep. In the 
length of this appendage the arui approaches many domesticated 
sheep, of which, however, it is not the ancestor. Height at shoulder, 
about 3 feet 3 inches. Three races are recognised. 

Distribution. — The mountains of Northern and North-Eastern Africa, 
from Morocco to Egypt, and thence southwards nearly to Khartum, 
in about lat. 16 N. ; also the desert south of Biskra. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


33-i 


i3i 


12| 


Algeria 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


2 9s 


\z\ 


19 


Do. 


V. Cholmondeley. 


28| 


12 


I4l 


Do. 


R. A. Cooper. 


28^ 


Hi 


l8 


Do. 


. British Museum (Hon. John Ward) 


28J 


II§ 


i8£ 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


27I 


16 


3oi 


Sudan 


. D. P. MacGillivray. 


2"]\ 


12 


21 


Tunisia 


P. H. Thomas. 


26J 


II 


19 


Algeria 


. W. H. Lindsay. 


26 


Hi 


16^ 


Do. 


. W..H. Edgar. 


26 


13 


24 


Sudan 


. A. L. Butler. 


25i 


"1 


17! 


Algeria 


Hon. John Ward. 


25i 


»i 


17 


Do. 


. F. de Murietta. 


25s 


IO§ 


16 


Do. 


. Col. G. J. Cuthbert. 


24I 


iog 


16 


Tunisia 


. Capt. W. W. Pitt-Taylor. 


24S 


Ili 


i7i 


Algeria 


E. Richardson Cox. 


24I 


II§ 


i8| 


Do. 


. H. G. Watson. 


241 


I2i 


i7i 


Dongola 


. 0. Atkey. 


23i 


ioi 


17 


Tunis 


C. Trevor Wingfield. 


22| 


ioi 


22^ 


Algeria 


. F. M. Bailey. 


22§ 


Hi 


I4i 


Tunisia 


Capt. J. B. Jenkinson. 


22i 


II 


Mi 


Algeria 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


22^ 


12 


i6f 


Dongola 


. Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


9 22 


II| 


I5i 


Dongola 


. 0. Atkey. 


22 


ni 


16 


Red Sea Littoral 


. R. Wavell-Paxton. 


2li 


io£ 


i8i 


Do. 


. Capt. S. S. Flower. 


2IJ 

21 


I0| 

ioi 


I7i 

15* 


Do. 
Do. 


. Capt. the Hon. G. H. Douglas- 
Pennant. 
. G. C. Whitaker. 


21 


ni 


184 


W. of Dongola 


Earl of Kingston. 



28 


»4 


1 6i 


S. Tuni 


27f 


ni 


14A 


Algeria 


27^ 


12% 


I3& 




?20| 


10 


16 


Algeria 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

. J. I. S. Whitaker. 



Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 
Imperial Museum, Vienna. 
A. E. Pease. 



BIGHORN 



389 




Skull and Horns of Rocky Mountain Bighorn. 



The BIGHORN SHEEP (Ovis canadensis). 

The bighorn of the American continent, inclusive of its local races, 
is a large sheep, distinguished from the Asiatic argalis, among other 
features, by the comparative smoothness of the horns, in which the 
outer front angle is prominent and the inner one rounded off, and also 
by the smaller size of the face-glands. There is a well-marked whitish 
patch on the rump, but the amount of white on the under-parts and 
legs shows considerable local variation. In the typical Rocky 
Mountain race {O. canadensis typicd) the ears are long and pointed, 
with short hair, and the horns, which are very heavy, diverge but little 
outwards, and generally have the tips broken. The Californian O. 
canadensis nelsoni is a paler southern race. In O. canadensis stonei of 
the North-West Territories the colour of the back is very dark, and 
the white on the hind part of the belly and legs sharply defined. Both 
in this race and the white O. canadensis dalli of Alaska the horns are 
lighter, more divergent, and more sharply pointed, while the ears tend 
to become shorter, blunter, and more hairy. The grey O. c. fannini 
tends to connect stonei with dalli, and as a matter of fact all three 
intergrade. Height at shoulder, about 3 feet 2 inches. Weight, about 
350 lbs. Numerous other American races have been named. 

The horns of the ewes are very small in comparison with those of the 
rams, seldom measuring more than 1 5 inches on the curve from base 



39° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



to tip. Large male horns are now difficult to obtain, and of late years 
it is seldom that those of fresh-killed specimens are seen exceeding 
38 inches on the curve from tip to tip. 

Distribution. — The range of the American representatives of the 
bighorn extends from the Rocky Mountains southwards to Sonora, 
Northern Mexico, and California, and northwards to Alaska and 
the shores of Bering Sea. On the Asiatic side of Bering Strait the 
species is represented by two, or perhaps three, races nearly allied 
to the northern New World forms. 

A.— ROCKY MOUNTAIN BIGHORN (0. canadensis typica). 

Specimens referable to some of the allied American races are 
included in this list. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


42 


16 




Wyoming 


T. W. H. Clarke. 


41 


17 


14 


Alberta . 


G. L. Harrison. 


40| 


i6£ 




Yellowstone 


British Museum. 


4°i 


i5i 


20£ 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


40 


15 


2li 


British Columbia 


J. W. R. Young. 


39§ 


151 




Colorado 


St. George Littledale. 


39i 


161 


24l 


Montana 


British Museum. 


392 


152 


19 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


39i 


14 


214 


Mexico . 


R. O. Crewe Read. 


38! 


iS4 


22 


? 


Gerald Buxton. 


3§i 


i6§ 




Bighorn Mountains . 


Sir H. Seton-Karr. 


3H 


15* 


I9i 


Montana . 


Edmund Littledale. 


3H 


16 


19 


N.W. Territories 


S. Ratcliff. 


38 


17 




Alberta, N.W.T. . 


Arnold Pike. 


38 


18 


21 


? 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


371 


i5l 


23l 


Mexico . 


J. A. H. Drought. 


37i 


152 


18 


Do. 


I. N. Dracopoli. 


37 5 


16J. 


322 


Californian Baja, Mexico 


L. J. Cadbury. 


37h 


16 


15 


British Columbia 


Col. A. Charlesworth. 


37* 


i5i 


16 


Do. 


J. Turner-Turner. 


37 


i6i 




Montana . 


Major Maitland Kirwan. 


37 


i6g 


16 


British Columbia 


R. H. Venables Kyrke. 


37 


1 Si 


192 


Wyoming 


II . A. C. Darley. 


37 


152 


i8£ 


Do. 


Lord Rodney. 


36| 


19 


15 


British Columbia 


C. H. Kennard. 


361 


15} 


222 


Wyoming 


Earl of Lonsdale. 


36! 


Hi 


22^ 


Do. . 


A. Willis. 


36! 


16 


15 


Do. . . . 


W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 


36£ 


14 




? 


J. D. Cobbold. 


36 2 


15* 


192 


? 


Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 



BIGHORN 



39i 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum 
ference 


36i 


I4l 


36 


15 


36 


Ml 


36 


I4l 


351 


1 si 


351 


13I 


352 


16 


35* 


iSi 


35i 


i6£ 


35i 


16 


? io£ 


Si 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


iS 


British Columbia 


9 


Wyoming 


1 6i 


Montana . 


16 


Wyoming 


20 


Mexico . 


i7i 


British Columbia 


21 


Do. 


1S1 


Do. 


17 


Do. 


12 


Do. 


13 


Do. 



Owner. 

Capt. W. A. Armitage. 

J. L. Scarlett. 

R. H. Sawyer. 

Major G. Dalrymple White. 

R. F. Glyn. 

Hon. S. Tollemache. 

T. P. Kempson. 

Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 

L. Ardern. 

G. C. Whitaker. 

A. Neilson. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



44i 


17 


21 


Near Golden, B.C. . 


43s 


i6| 


'1S2 


British Columbia 


43 


i8i 




? 


42i 


i6J 


251 


Lower California 


42^ 


i6| 


i4i 


Do. 


42 2 


i6i 


25I 


Do. 


42 


16 




Do. 




i7i 




Wyoming 


41! 


172 


19 


Rocky Mountains 


4i* 


15 




Kootenay, B.C. 


4°i 


i6i 


17 


S. E. of British Columbia 


40 


i5i 


25* 


Lower California 


40 


i6| 




Do. 


39i 


i7« 




Mexico . . ■ . 



Madison Grant. 

Wilson Potter. 

H, E. Knobel. 

American National Collection. 

S. E. White. 

G. H. Gould. 

Capt. E. H. Funke. 

T. W. H. Clarke. 

N. J. Dinnen. 

Provincial Museum, B.C. 

American National Collection. 

J. C. Phillips. 

W. Kent. 

G. L. Harrison. 




Head of White Bighorn. Shot by Lieut. R. C. Dalglish, R.N. 



392 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 





B. 


—WHITE 


BIGHORN (0. canadensis dalli). 


Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


47 


I3l 


28 


Yukon 


. Lieut. R. C. Dalglish, R.N 


434 


154 


26 


Alaska 


His Majesty the King. 


43} 


Hi 


271 


Do. . 


. H. B. Alexander. 


43 


I3k 


27i 


Do. . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


4i 


14 


23! 


Do. . 


. Hon. M. Egerton. 


4o| 


I2j 


27* 


Do. . 


. F. T. Colby. 


40 


14 


284 


Do. . 


. J. Todd. 


39 


13! 


234 


Yukon 


S. R. Vereker. 


3«i 


I2| 


2li 


Alaska . 


. P. B. Vander Byl. 


38 


i3i 


18 


Do. . 


. A. E. Butter. 


371 


154 


2 9h 


Yukon . 


. Surg. C. R. Rickard, R.N. 


371 


131 


2li 


Alaska . 


Lord Elphinstone. 


37 


13! 


20| 


Do. . 


Hon. J. C. Lister. 


36J 


i3i 




Do. . 


Sir A. Armstrong, Bart. 


36i 


13 


l8 


Do. . 


. R. F. Glyn. 


36 


i 4 i 


171 


Do. . 


C. G. Cowan. 


36 


I2i 


l8 


Do. . 


. Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



49i 


144 


29! 


Yukon 


Major A. L. Snyder. 


44i 


Hi 


344 


Do. . 


. Wilson Potter. 


4i| 


i4i 


29 


Do. . 


American National Collection 


41} 


124 


. 284 


Do. . 


. J. C. Phillips. 


40i 


i34 


274 


Do. . 


H. Disston. 



C— GREY BIGHORN (0. canadensis fannini). 
A race characterised by the grey colour of the back. 



Length on 
"ront curve. 


Circum 
ference 


424 


14 


-404 


13 


37 


I3§ 


35! 


14 


3Si 


13} 


99 


54 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 




Owner. 


29} 


Yukon . 




Hon. M. Egerton. 


20 


Near Dawson C 


ty • 


Provincial Museum, B.C. 


i8i 


Yukon . 




Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


24? 


Do. . 




W. H. Bell. 


24} 


? 




K. K. Horn. 


9ft 


Do. . 




Prince Colloredo Mannsfeld 




- Owner's measurement; 





BIGHORN 



393 



^K--' '"• 






^1 






J W v wfr 




SB „Jr 


y| *&*; 


i ^^P~j» 




Mi 







Head of Black Bighorn. Shot by Major J. F. Church. 



D.— BLACK BIGHORN (0. canadensis stonei). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. Owner. 


4 2 


Hi 


28 


Cassiar 


. M. W. Ward. 


41 


14 


28£ 


Do. 


Viscount Lascelles. 


40f 


I3l 


25 


Do. 


. Lord Hindlip. 


40 


15 


24^ 


Do. 


. C. H. Young. 


40 


14 




Do. 


. C. D. Butler. 


40 


I2| 


2Il 


Do. 


. Major J. F. Church. 


39i 


I2l 


275 


Do. 


. Col. H. Appleton. 


39 


i3i 


22| 


Do. 


K. K. Horn. 


39 
37i 


i4i 

13I 


23l 
23 


Do. 
Do. 


. Capt. The Hon. G. H. Douglas 

Pennant. 
. W. M. Tangye. 


37i 


13* 


184 


Do. 


. R. Hayne. 


36! 


i4i 


24 


Do. 


R. Beaumont. 


36S 


121 


2li 


Do. 


. British Museum (J. M. Hanbury). 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



44 


14 


25 


Cassiar 


43i 


I4i 


30 


Do. 


43 


14I 


30 


Do. 


41I 


14 


29 


Do. 


3§i 


13! 


19 


Do. 


36 


i3i 


2 3i 


Do. 



Col. Max C. Fleischmann. 

Wilson Potter. 

J. C. Phillips. 

C. F. Collins. 

P. N. Graham. 

Count C. Hoyos. 



394 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Kamchatkan Bighorn. Shot by Prince E. Demidoff. 



E.— KAMCHATKAN BIGHORN (0. canadensis nivicola). 

Although the Kamchatkan wild sheep is readily distinguished 
from the Rocky Mountain bighorn (0. canadensis typica) by the slender- 
ness of the horns at the points, and their wider tip-to-tip measurement 
as well as by the shorter, blunter, and more thickly haired ears, the 
shorter face, the longer hair of the body, and the inferior size of the 
white patch on the rump, yet the white Alaskan and the black bighorn,, 
in which the horns are of the Kamchatkan type, and the ears are 
shorter than in the Rocky Mountain race, tend to bridge over these 
points of difference. These transitions indicate that all the bighorns 
are essentially local modifications of the same animal ; the Asiatic 
forms being, as might be expected, the most aberrant. Height at 
shoulder, about 37 or 38 inches ; weight, about 250 lbs. 

DistribiLtion. — Kamchatka. 



Length 

on front 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


39i 


14^ 


m 


Kamchatka 


Prince E. Demidoff. 


38| 


14! 


3°§ 


Do. 


Do. 


-38 


131 


26 


Do. 


. Dr. F. H. II. Guillemard, 


351 


i3i 


24 


Do. 


P. Niedieck. 



Owner's measurements. 



BIGHORN 



395 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


351 


!4i 


24l 


Kamchatka 


St. Petersburg Museum. 


35i 
35 


I4l 
I3l 


243 
24 


Do. 
Do. 


British Museum (St. George Little 

dale). 
W. S. Race. 


341 


Ml 


25i 


Do. 


. St. George Littledale. 


34 


131 


23I 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


33 


I3l 


22 


Do. 


. Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 


32f 


»3i 


23 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


?io| 


5 


144 


Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 



F. — CLIFTON'S BIGHORN (0. canadensis borealis). 

An East Siberian race closely allied to the last, but of a generally 
lighter colour, with a much larger and less well-defined white rump- 
patch, more white on the face, a darker tail, and larger ears. 

Distribution. — The Stanovoi Mountains, the range between the valleys 
of the Yana and Lena, and other parts of Eastern Siberia. The 
only known examples in England were shot by Mr. J. Talbot 
Clifton, by whom a male was presented to the British Museum in 
1902. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Loca 


37* 


II 


22j 


Yana Valley 


33 


13 


22l 


Do. 


32| 


\\\ 


24i 


Do. 


?5l 


31 


5i 


Do. 



Owner. 



J. Talbot Clifton. 

British Museum (J. Talbot 

Clifton). 
J. Talbot Clifton. 

Do. 



396 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The ARGALI SHEEP (Ovis ammon). 

In common with the following members of the genus Ovis, this 
splendid sheep has the transverse wrinklings of the horns well developed, 
and glands present on the face, with pits for their reception in the 
skull. In the present species the horns of the adult rams are charac- 
terised by their large size, massiveness, and the outward direction of 
their tips. The hind-quarters often show a large amount of white, 
extending on to the thighs ; and the throat may be furnished with a 
voluminous ruff of long white hairs, which may or may not disappear 
in summer. Height at shoulder reaching in some races to about 
4 feet ; weight of adult male about 22 stone. 

Regarding all forms of big Central Asiatic sheep, or argalis, as 
races of a single species, they may be classified as follows : — (1) The 
Tibetan race, Ovis ammon hodgsoni, of Tibet, with thick, massive horns, 
which do not form more than one complete circle, and have a maximum 
length of from 48^ inches to 57 inches, and a girth of from 17 inches 
to 19 inches; (2) O. a. mongolica, of Mongolia, nearly allied to the 
last; (3) O. a. typica, of the Altai, with the massive horns forming 
more than a complete circle, rounded in front, approximated to the 
sides of the face, and having a maximum length of from 59 inches 
to 62 inches, and a girth of from 18 inches to 20 inches ; (4) 0. a. 
storcki, of south-eastern Kamchatka, distinguished by its small size ; 
(5) O. a. sairensis, from the Saiar Mountains, with small but relatively 
massive horns, measuring from about 45^- inches to 47 inches in 
length, and 14^ inches to 15^ inches in girth; (6) O. a. karelini, of 
the Alatau, with a small rump-patch, and the horns more angulated in 
front than in 0. a. typica, diverging more from the sides of the face, 
and having a maximum length ranging from 45^ inches to 49^ 
inches, and a girth of about 16 inches ; (7) O. a. humei, of the Tien 
Shan N.-W. of Kashgar, nearly allied to the preceding, but with a 
larger rump-patch and other slight colour-differences, and outer angle 
of horns often rounded ; (8) O. a. littledalei, of the Kulja district of 
the Tien Shan, with a rufous (instead of grey) colouring and no rump- 
patch, and long, thin horns, of which the maximum length ranges 
from 55 inches to 58 inches, with a girth of 17 inches or a fraction 
more ; (9) 0. a. nigrimontana, a small outlying race from the Karatau of 
Bokhara, allied to littledalei ; (10) 0. a. poll, of the Pamir, in which the 
horns are narrower and longer than in any of the other races, forming 
much more than one complete circle, with the front surface markedly 
angulated, and the maximum length ranging from 69 inches to 75 
inches, and the girth from 14^ inches to 16 inches, or, rarely, 17 inches. 



ARGALI 



397 



Although the gradation in horn-characters may not be absolutely 
complete from the hodgsoni to the poli type, it is sufficiently well 
marked to justify the view here taken of the mutual relationships of 
these wild sheep. 

It cannot be guaranteed that all the undermentioned specimens are 
correctly classified. 

Distribution. — The Highlands of Central Asia, from Bokhara 
to Mongolia ; also Kamchatka. 




Head of Tibetan Argali. 



A— TIBETAN ARGALI (0. ammon hodgsoni). 

Chiefly distinguished from the Siberian argali by the development 
of a distinct white ruff on the throat of the males, which appears to 
persist in summer, and also by the less degree of lateral expansion of 
the horns, which do not form more than a single complete circle, are 
not " nipped in " below the eyes, and generally broken at the tips. 
The wrinkles on the horns are perhaps somewhat less prominent, and 
the outer front angle is frequently well developed. 

The height at the shoulder is apparently rather less than in the 
typical argali. A ram shot by Lieut.-Col. Greenaway measured j6 inches 
from the nose to the tip of the tail, and weighed about 2 1 2 lbs. In 
another ram, whose age was estimated at 10 years, the height at the 



398 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

shoulder was 43 inches, the girth 50 inches, and the weight 205 lbs. 
(Major Powell-Cotton). 

Distribution. — The plateau of Tibet, from Northern Ladak to the 
districts north of Sikhim, and northwards to the Kuenluen ; eastern 
limits unknown. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


57 


i8| 


29 


Tibet . 




Arnold Pike. 


5oi 


18J 


19 


Pangon 


1 Lake . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


494 


19 


2li 


Tibet . 




. Capt. F. M. Bailey. 


48 


16 


23 


Rudok 




. Major G. A. L. Carew. 


48 


\%\ 


20 


Ladak 




. Lieut. -Col. II. C. Morland. 


48 


18 


31 


Do. 




. Lieut.-Col. Hon. A. Dalzell. 


47i 


i6| 


24 


Do. 




K. C. Zarzhetsky. 


47 


17 


27i 




? 


Col. H. Appleton. 


46i 


19! 


20 


Ladak 




British Museum (Hume Collection) 


4 6i 


i6| 




Do. 




. Lieut.-Col. H. M. Biddulph. 


46 


16 


17 




? 


Hon. R. A. Ward. 


45i 


16J 


17 




? 


Duke of Teck. 


45* 


i7i 


19 




? 


C. P. Radclyffe. 


45i 


i7i 


i74 




? 


Capt. R. S. Kennedy. 


45i 


i8i 


I9i 




? 


C. E. Bryant. 


45 


17 


16 


Ladak 




. J. V. Phelps. 


45 


16 


194 


Do. 




. P. F. Hadow. 


45 


17 


22| 


Do. 




. Col. C. B. Wood. 


44i 


i7i 


19 


Do. 




. W. A. Conduitt. 


44i 


17 


22 




? 


Major F. G. T. Deshon. 


44 


16 


i7i 


Ladak 




. Duke of Bedford. 


44 


16 


174 


Do. 




. W. R. Lawrence. 


44 


17 


181 


Do. 




. Major C. Mad. Ritchie. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



50 


17 




Tibet . 


. Major W. H. Lane. 


49i 


18 




Ladak 


. Capt. G. W. S. Sherlock. 


49i 


18 




Tibet 


G. Burrard. 


48 J 5 


19 




Do. 


E. Howard Brooke. 


48 


i8| 




Do. 


. Col. T. K. E. Johnston. 


47 


i74 


18 


? 


Lieut.-Col. G. W. Brazier-Creagh 


464 


i6i 


21 


Do. 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


46 


19 




? 


Major C. S. Cumberland. 



1 Picked up. 



ARGALI 



399 




Head of Siberian Argali. Shot by Mr. J. H. Miller in the Altai. 



B. — SIBERIAN ARGrALI (0. ammon typica). 

A more or less distinct white patch on the rump, not extending on 
to the thigh, which is dark-coloured like the back ; no ruff on the 
throat, even in the long winter-coat. In summer the coat of old males, 
which is very short, tends to become more or less light-coloured all 
over. Height at shoulder, from about 45 inches to 4 feet ; weight, from 
about 250 to 350 lbs. As in the Tibetan race, considerable individual 
variation may be noticed in the horns, some having the outer front 
angle much more developed than usual ; it does not appear that these 
differences can be accounted for by age. 

Distribution. — In former times apparently extending from the Baikal 
Mountains to the Altai ; now chiefly restricted to the latter area. 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


62| 


19! 


3§i 


Altai 




62j 


i9i 


4ii 


Do. 




62 


19 


381 


Do. 




6ii 


20j 


371 


Do. 




6ii 


i9i 


39i 


Do. 





Owner. 

St. George Littledale. 

Col. C. B. Wood. 

H. T. Elwes. 

J. II. Miller. (See illustration. 

British Museum (St. George 
Littledale). 



4<oo 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




60 


20 


41 


Altai 


59* 


21* 


4 2i 


Do. 


59* 


20 


41* 


Do. 


59i 


I9& 


3H 


Do. 


-59* 


*9h 


40 


Do. 


59 


18 


36i 


Do. 


59 


19 


37* 


Do. 


56i 


18I 


33* 


Do. 


56 


i8| 


35 


Do. 


56 


17I 


33 


Do. 


55i 


18$ 


36i 


Do. 


55 


18 


39 


Do. 


55 


19! 


34S 


Do. 


55 


191- 


39 


Do. 


54* 


19 


33 


Do. 


54i 


18 


332 


Do. 


53i 


2l| 


33* 


Do. 


53i 


19 


22 


Do. 


53 


18 


39 


Do. 


52I 


195 


39 


Do. 


52 


21 


3°* 


Do. 


-926 


7i 


23I 


Do. 



Locality. 



- Owner's measurements 



Owner. 

Lord Elphinstone. 

T. P. Miller. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

St. George Littledale. 

American National Collection. 

H. W. Seton-Karr. 

Ford G. Barclay. 

Major C. S. Cumberland. 

British Museum. 

E. W. Dixon. 

Count E. Hoyos. 

Prince E. Demidoff. 

D. Carruthers. 

Col. Max C. Fleischmann. 

R. Hayne. " 

Lord Osborne Beauclerk. 

Duke of Bedford. 

St. George Littledale. 

W. E. Pease. 

J. R. Bradley. 

P. B. Vander Byl. 

Berlin Museum. 



ARGALI 



401 




Mongolian Argali (0. a. mongolica). Shot by Col. J. H. Abbot Anderson. 



C— MONGOLIAN ARGALI (0. ammon mongolica). 

Allied to the Tibetan race, having a distinct yellowish -white 
throat- ruff, but apparently less massive horns, in which the outer 
front angles may be much rounded off. The white on the buttocks 
and hind surface of legs more abundant and purer in colour. 



Distribution. 



-Eastern Mongolia and Manchuria to the 



Length on Circum- 
front curve. ference. 



5oi 

49 

47 

44! 

4i 

41 



iS 

i6i 

i6| 

i6| 
i7i 
i7i 



Tip to Tip. 
29 
25 

25i 

23 

24i 



north of Pekin. 

Locality. Owner. 

N. Shan-si, S. Manchuria Col. J. H. Abbot Anderson. 

S. Mongolia . . H. Fowler. 

Do. . . G. N. Atkinson. 

Manchuria . . . H.R. H. Henri de Bourbon, 

Comte de Bardi. 

N. Shan-si . . Major Sir T. S. Tancred, Bart. 



Do. 



M. G. Brisker. 



D. — SAIAR ARGALI (0. ammon sairensis). 

This rather small sheep is in some respects intermediate between 
poll and ammon, but differs from both in having the face brown 
above and white on the muzzle. The horns are less finely ridged than 
those of ammon and form a longer spiral. 

Distribution. — The Saiar or Sair Mountains. 



2 D 



402 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


47i 


isi 


27 


Saiar Mountains 


-47 


is* 


30 


Do. 


2 46J 


I4i 


27 


Irtish District 


46 


i3i 


27! 


Saiar Mountains 


Mo 


14I 


2 9i 


Nr. Saii-am Nor 



Owner. 

British Museum (St. George Little- 
dale. Type). 
American National Collection. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

J. C. Phillips. 

Lord Elphinstone. 



E.— ALATAU ARGALI (0. amnion karelini). 

Rump-patch smaller than in next race ; horn characters mentioned 
under head of species. 



Distribution. — Typically the Alatau and adjacent parts of Altai. 

igth on Circum- t- . t- t v. r\ 

lip to lip. Locality. Owner. 

t curve. ference. ft- 3 ^ 

53 i6£ 33^ Alatau Mountains . J. H. Miller. 



49i 
45i 



i6J 
I4i 



25h 
34 



Do. . Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Do. . Do. 



F.— KASHGARIAN ARGALI (0. ammon humei). 
General colour in winter greyish, with a ruff and large rump-patch 
Distribution. — Tien Shan, north-west of Kashgar. 

Owner, 
irve. icicnuc. - 



Length on 
front curve 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

40 N. -W. of Kashgar 



British Museum (co-type ; Hume 
Collection). 



£.— LITTLED ALE'S ARGALI (0. ammon littledalei) 

General colour in winter rufous, with a yellowish ruff but no rump- 
patch. 

Larger than sairensis, with the same brown forehead and white 
muzzle, but the ears smaller and rather farther away from the horns, 
and the latter less " nipped in " below the eyes than in the typical argali, 
and showing more of their inner surfaces in a front view. This is 
a " thin-horned " sheep. 

Distribution. — Typically the east end of the Tien Shan, to the 
south-east of Kulja, or Hi. 



Owner's measurements. 



1 Determination provisional. 



ARGALI 



403 



Length on 
ront curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. Owner. 


58 


17 


4I| 


Tien Shan 


A. Bayley-Worthington. 


5S 


i5i 


4°i 


Do. 


. W. R. Read. 


57i 
55i 


i7i 

15 


4i 
45 


Do. 
Do. 


. Major A. D. Greenhill 
Gardyne. 
Col. H. Appleton. 


55* 


i6| 


35i 


Do. 


. Capt. J. N. Price Wood. 


551 


16 


37 


Do 


Lieut. -Col. G. E. Pereira. 


55 


18 


43 


Do. 


Col. H. Appleton. 


55 


16 


44 


Do. 


. H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


55 


16 


43 


Do. 


Lord Osborne Beauclerk. 


54i 


i4l 


36J 


Do. 


. T. P. Miller. 


54i 


16 


34 


Do. 


. A. W. Berg. 


53* 


*5i 


38 


Do. 


. . . C. H. Bury. 


53^ 


17 


4iJ 


Do. 


. B. Chew. 


53i 


isi 


40* 


Do. 


. H. Whitaker. 


52 


15I 


42| 


Do. 


. J. H. Miller. 


51* 


17 


411 


Do. 


St. George Littledale. 


5i 


i6| 


39 


Do. 


British Museum (St. George 
Littledale. Type). 




Bokharan Argali. 



H.— BOKHARAN ARGALI (0. ammon nigrimontana). 
The characters of this race are given under the heading of the species. 
Distribution. — The Karatau (Black Mountain) of Bokhara, Russian 



Length on Circum- T; T; 
front curve. ference. r 

351 I0 i 



Turkestan. 

Locality. 



Owner. 



ioi 



24 
2l| 



Bokhara 
Do. 



D. Carruthers. (See illustration. ) 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



404 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and horns of Marco Polo's Argali. Sir Edmund G. Loder's specimen. 



/.—PAMIR or MAECO POLO'S ARGALI (0. ammon poli). 

Distribution. — The Pamir plateau, extending to Hunza. This argali 
was first definitely made known in England by specimens obtained 
during the Second Yarkand Mission under the late Sir D. Forsyth 
during the years 1873 and 1874; since which date it has been 
killed by Mr. St. George Littledale, Major C. S. Cumberland, 
Col. H. Bower, Viscount de Poncins, and other sportsmen. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 

70i 

70 

70 

69i 

69! 

68f 

68i 

68 

67 

661 

66| 

66 

66 

65* 



Circum- 
ference. 



151 

17 

i5i 

141 

15 
15 
17 

154 

i5l 
133 

i5i 

1 si 
16 



Tip to 
Tip. 

44l 

45 
52 

56 

39 

5 oi 

351 

43 

42J 

46 

46i 

44 
42 

53 



Locality. 



Yuldez 
Do. 
Do. 

? 
Tagdumbash 

? 

Pamir 

p 

Tagdumbash 



Owner. 

G. L. Harrison. (See illustration, 

page 405.) 
His Majesty The King. 

H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch- 
Behar. 

Marquis of Lansdowne. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. (See 

illustration.) 
H. J. Elwes. 

Lewis Flower. 

Lieut. -Gen. Sir R. Pole-Carew. 

Duke of Westminster. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



Valley between Little and British Museum (Hume Collection). 
Great Pamir 

Do. Do. 



Great Pamir (16,000 feet) 



A. Leslie Renton. 

British Museum (the late Gen. Sir 
T. E. Gordon). 



ARGALI 



405 





Skull and horns of Ovis poll in the collection of Mr. George L. Harrison. 



Length 
on front 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Locality. 


65 


1 6| 


494 


? 


6 4 4 


i6i 


46 


Pamir . . . . 


64* 


161 


4i 


Do 


6 4 i 


iSi 


39 


Do 


64 


i54 


5o 


Little Pamir 


64 


i5 i 


39 


Do. . . . 


64 


15 


49 


3 


631 


i6J 


424 


Pamir . 


63 


I4l 


3 2 £ 


Do. . 


63 


16 


494 


Little Pamir 


62! 


i6J 


51 


Tagdu'mbash 


621 


15 


57 


Do. . 


62 


iS4 


464 


Do. ... 


62 


14* 


434 


Do. . . . 


6i| 


i5i 


4H 


Do. . . . 


6o| 


i5l 


46I 


Pamir . . . . 


60 


1 51 


46I 


Tagdumbash 


60 


154 


46 


Do. . . . 


60 


i5l 


43 


Do. . . . 


59i 


16 


46 


Do. . . . 


59 


154 


40 


Do. 


59 


i5l 


4i 


? 


59 


164 


44i 


? 



Owner. 

Col. C. F. Blane. 

Major C. C. Ellis. 

W. Lawrence. 

H. C. V. Hunter. 

Major R. P. Cobbold. 

A. Ezra. 

Duke of Portland. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Col. G. D. F. Sulivan. 

Bachelors' Club (Major R. P. 

Cobbold). 
Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

G. L. Harrison. 

L. C. Sanford. 

E. L. Phelps. 

St. George Littledale. 

Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 

P. Church. 

J. C. Phillips. 

Capt. H. H. P. Deasy. 

Lord-Curzon of Kedleston. 

Martyn Kennard. 

R. F. Glyn. 



406 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 

on front 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Loc; 


57f 


i5l 


47 


Pamir 


57* 


i6i 


48 


? 


57i 


I4§ 


43i 


? 


57 


I4l 


4 Si 


Russian Pamir 


57 


i5i 


42 


Tagdumbash 


56| 


i5ft 


35* 


Do. 


56i 


i6| 


49* 


Do. 


56 


14 


451 


? 


56 


is* 


43* 


Pamir 


56 


14* 


43 


? 


551 


i6* 


43 


Pamir 


55* 


i6| 


40 


? 


55* 


i6J 


46* 


Pamir 


54* 


i6| 


39* 


Do. 


54* 


Hi 


43* 


Do. 


53l 


1 6i 


44* 


Do. 


53* 


I4l 


38! 


N. Pamir . 



Owner. 

H. M. von Archer. 

J. Forbes Crombie. 

Col. C. B. Wood. 

Col. H. Appleton. 

Hon. R. A. Ward. 

St. George Littledale. 

C. C. Tower. 

Lieut. -Col. J. Manners Smith. 

Col. A. H. Hussey. 

W. O. Bell-Irving. 

Major C. S. Cumberland. 

P. Radclyffe. 

P. F. Hadow. 

H.R. H. Prince Pierre d'Orleans 

and Braganza. 
Major J. B. Mackintosh. 

K. V. Painter. 

R. Hayne. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



75 


16 


54* 


Pamir 


73 


15 


48 


Little Pamir 


7i 


15* 


53i 


Great Pamir 


68i 


IS* 


45S 


Do. 


68 


16 


52 


? 


671 


16 


53! 




67 


16 






65 


16 


41 




63 


15 


54i 


? 


61 


15 


48 


Killik Pass, Gilgit 


?4tV 


5fV 


15! 


Great Pamir 



Field-Marshal Earl Roberts. 

The late Col. H. C. B. Tanner. 

Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 

Mess of the Queen's Own Corps of 

Guides. 
Indian Museum. 

Indian Museum (Col. J. Biddulph). 

H.H. the Maharaja of Travancore. 

Dublin Museum. 

R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 

F. M. Hodgkins. 

Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 



URIAL 



407 




Head of Shapo or Ladak Urial. 



The URIAL or SHAPO (Ovis vignei). 

A much smaller sheep than most of the Asiatic argalis, with com- 
paratively slender and well-wrinkled horns of considerable length, 
which when fully developed curve forwards along the sides of the face ; 
the males with a more or less developed mainly whitish ruff on the 
throat. General colour varying from rufous brown to grey in summer, 
with the chest, under-parts, and portions of the legs white, and some- 
times blackish " points." Females with small horns. Height at 
shoulder, about 32 inches; weight, about 120 lbs. 

Distribution. — From Ladak and Zanskar to Russian Turkestan, 
Transcaspia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Southern Persia, the North- 
West Frontier of India, the Punjab Salt-Range, and Sind. Four 
local races, two of which probably intergrade in the Indus valley, 
are recognised : — The typical urin of Astor, the sha or shapo of 
Ladak {0. vignei typicd) with much black in the ruff; the Afghan 
urial (O. v. cycloceros) of Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and the Trans- 
Indus districts, in which the points of the horns tend to turn up, 
and the front angles may be knotted ; the Punjab urial (0. v. 
punjabiensis) of the Cis- Indus Punjab, in which the size is less, 
the colour redder, the ruff much developed, and the horns form 
a close-coiled spiral ; the Kopet-Dagh urial (0. v. arkal) of the 
Ust-Urz plateau and the Kopet-Dagh and Alag-Dagh, in which 
the front of the horns is much flattened, with the two angles very 
pronounced, and the ruff wholly white in front, the general colour 
beingf rufous. 



4o8 



RECORDS OE BIG GAME 



A.— SHAPO or LADAK UFJAL (0. vignei typica). 



Length 

on front 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 




39 


II| 


151 




331 


I2i 


Hi 




3Sh 


»i 


H 


Near Leh 


36* 


III 


4± 


Do. 


36} 


10I 


Ilg 


Baltistan 


34! 


II 






33i 


12 


12 


Ladak . 


33 


II 


i7i 


Do. . 


33 


ioi 


15 


Do. . 


3*1 


9i 


J3i 


Do. . 


32i 


10 


11 


Do. . 


32 


io| 


13I 


Chitral . 


3If 


iQi 


14 


Ladak . 


31! 


ioi 


7 


Do. . 


3i* 


10 


15 


Gilgit . 


34 


IO;j: 


i3i 


Do. . 


31* 


II 


91 




31 


II 




Do. . 


31 


Hi 


12 


Ladak . 


3°h 


Si 


19 


Gilgit . 


3ol 


9S 


6i 


Chitral 


30 


u| 


16 




3° : 


10 


10 


Ladak . 


2% 


IO§ 






29h 


«4 


9 




29i 


ioi 


13 


Ladak . 



Locality. Owner. 

? Maj.-Gen. Sir H. S. Rawlinson, Bart. 

? J. Carr Saunders. 

E. L. Phelps. 

British Museum (Hume Collection). 

Major Sir T. A. Salt, Bart. 
? East India Club. 

Arnold Pike. 

P. F. Hadow. 

Major F. W. H. Walshe. 

Capt. H. R. P. Dickson. 

Capt. D. L. R. Lorimer. 

Capt. B. A. R. Blewitt. 

Capt. L. Trevor Goff. 

Col. F. C. Lister- Kay. 

Lieut. -Col. B. E. M. Gurdon. 

Capt. B. II. Shaw-Stewart. 

Major'F. W. Wormald. 

J. D. Cobbold. 

N. C. Cockburn. 

Capt. K. Dingwall. 

Capt. A. W. Robertson-Glasgow. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Lady Jenkins. 

H. C. V. Hunter. 

Col. C. B. Wood. 

J. V. Phelps. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



36} 


n| 




Near Leh 


36 


10 


13 


Gilgit . 


33s 


"i 


IOg 


Ladak . 


3i 


hi 


9 


Chilas . 



Lieut. -Col. A. E. Ward. 
F. M. Hodgkins. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 



URIAL 



409 




Urial Skull and Horns in the Mess of the S.W. Militia, Wana. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


4ii 


12 


39i 


K>f 


38S 


91 


37i 


1 Pi 


36S 


9 


35* 


ioi 


35i 


IO| 


35i 


ioi 


34* 


ioi 


34h 


Si 


33h 


9g 


33h 


9l 


3 2 2 


91 



^.—AFGHAN URIAL (0. vignei cycloceros). 1 

Owner. 

The late Major G. Dodd. 

Major F. H. Taylor. 

Royal Artillery Mess, Woolwich 

(Lieut. -Col. C. F. Massey). 
British Museum (Hume Collection). 

Mess of the 60th Rifles (Lord 

Walter Fitzgerald). 
British Museum (Dr. J. Aitchison). 

Capt. A. G. Shea. 

Major F. H. Taylor. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

L. Napier. 

Major R. L. Tottenham. 

Capt. J. F. Turner. 

Capt. E. A. Fielden. 



Tip to Tip 


Locality. 


1 Si 


? 


i8J 


Waziristan 


9i 
11 


Chita Oapar Range, 

near Attock 
Haji Khan, Kelat, 


9 
16 


3000 ft. 
Hills north - west of 

Peshawur 
Gulran, Afghanistan 


12 


S. Waziristan 


94 


Waziristan 


11 


Do. . . . 


16 


Sind . . . . 


81 


2 


i5l 


Waziristan 


11 


? 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum 
ference 


34i 


91 


34 


9l 


33h 


9i 



C— SALT RANGE URIAL (0. vignei punjabiensis). 

Tip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 

7i Kala Chitta Hills, Punjab Hon. H. G. O. Bridgeman. 

4.5 Salt-Range . . . Capt. L. Trevor Goff. 

12J Do. . . . British Museum (Hume Collection). 



1 Blanford {Fauna Brit. India Mamm.) pointed out that the type of 0. cycloceros has heavier horns than 
the Punjah Urial, hut does not seem to have been aware that it came from Afghanistan. 



4io 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Urial. Shot by Col. H. V. Biggs, near Rawal Pindi. 



mgtn on 
nt curve. 


L-ircum- 
ference. 


Tip to Ti 


p. Locality. 


Owner. 


33i 


9 


i 4 i 


Salt -Range 


. Capt. R. Milne. 


3 2 s 


9 


121 


Near Rawal Pindi . 


Major E. G. de Labilliere. 


3 2 § 


73 


12 


Punjab . 


G. Blois Johnson. 


32i 


10 


ill 


? 


British Museum (Hume Collection) 


3ih 


9h 


i6f 


Salt-Range . 


Lieut. -Col. H. W. Codrington. 


3i* 


12 


10} 


? 


Lieut. -Col. J. Manners Smith. 


3i 


9 


I7l 


Jhelam 


Capt. W. F. Brayne. 


3i 


9l 


Hh 


Do. . 


Lieut. -Col. R. H. Rattray. 



D.— KOPET DAGH URIAL (0. vignei arkal). 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


45i 


II 


39* 


12} 


384 


12 


38 


Hi 


38 


ioi 


37 1 


12 


37 


II 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

164 N. Persia 
14! Russian Turkestan 
14J N. Persia 
Persia . 
Do. . 



Hi 

13 

'7 



Owner. 
Capt. C. T. Daukes. 
Prince E. Demidoff. 
Capt. C. T. Daukes. 
Lord Osborne Beauclerk. 
Major P. M. Sykes. 



IO* 



Elburz Mountains, Persia Lieut. -Col. R. L. Kennion. 

(north side) 

North Persia . . A. Bayley-Worthington. 



RED SHEEP 



411 



Length on Circum- 
front curve, ference. 



36S 
36 

34l 



10 
11 



Tip to Tip. Locality. 

\"]\ Persia . 
15 Do. 

12 Russian Turkestan 



Owner. 
Major J. W. Watson. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
St. George Littledale. 



VARIOUS RACES— OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



39! 

39s 


10 


9 


? 

Seistan, Persia 


Mess of the 27th Punjabis (the late 

Major G. Dodd). 
Bombay Natural History Society. 


38 

371 


. io| 
8| 


9 
9 


Waziristan 
Do. 


. Mess, S.W. Militia, Wana. The 
late Capt. G. B. Brown. (See 
illustration, page 409.) 
R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 


37i 


9l 




Near Rawal Pindi . 


Col. H. V. Biggs. (See illustration, 


36| 


9l 


51 


? 


page 410.) 
Dr. Albert von Stephani. 


36* 


9h 


14 


Near Quetta 


. F. Beaty. 


35i 


10I 


20f 


? 


Mess of the 21st Punjab Infantry. 


34i 


ni 


21 


Gilgit . 


. J. West. 



The RED or GMELIN'S SHEEP (Ovis orientalis). 

Apparently differs from all the preceding species by the absence 
of horns in the females ; the horns of the males being not unlike 
those of the urial, but usually curving backwards, so that their points 
are situated behind the neck instead of beneath the eyes. General 
colour of upper parts some shade of yellow or foxy red in summer ; 
in winter, brownish with a whitish saddle-patch ; the under parts and 
lower portions of the legs, as well as muzzle, white. A smaller throat- 
fringe than in the urial, which is always black. Height at shoulder, 
typically about 2 feet 9 inches. 

Distribution. — Cyprus, Persia, Asia Minor, and Transcaucasia. 



A.— CYPRIAN RACE (0. orientalis typica). 

The typical race, distinguished by its small size, coloration, and 
the complete rounding-off of the front outer angle of the horns of the 
rams. This is the smallest of the wild sheep, standing only about 28 
inches at the shoulder. Weight, about 70 lbs. 

Distribution. — Troodos Mountains of Cyprus. 



412 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Cyprian Mouflon. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Owner. 


27 


7i 


8f 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


251 


7% 


73 


J. A. Bucknill. 


25 


8 


I5l 


H. Williamson. 


23h 


84 


"J 


Col. J. Biddulph. 


-23* 


82 


94 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


23 


7 


5^ 


British Museum. 


22§ 
22| 


7? 
8 


6 

I2| 


British Museum (Gen. Sir R, 

Biddulph). 
Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 


20^ 


7f 


9S 


Sir II. J. Goold Adams. 


-i7i 


8 


i£ 


Dublin Museum. 


16 


7i 


1 6i 


Cambridge Museum. 



- Owner's measurements. 



B — AEMENIAN RACE (0. orientalis gmelini). 

Distribution. — The mountains of /Armenia and other parts of Asia 
Minor, and Transcaucasia. Heads from the Cilician Taurus 
approach the Cyprian type and may indicate a distinct race. 



Length on Circum- 
outside curve, ference. 

IOg 



40.} 
36.1 



Tip to Tip. 

51 



Locality. 
? 



Owner. 

British Museum (W. Burchart 

Barker). 
British Museum. 



RED SHEEP 



4i3 




Armenian Mouflon. Shot by Mr. V. H. Thomas. 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip 


Locality-. 


Owner. 


3l! 


9 


161 


Near Daghestan 


R. Graham. 


3°2 


9 


i7i 


Cilician Taurus 


. P. II. Thomas. (See illustration.) 


-29I 


9l 


94 


Axylon 


E. N. Buxton. 


28i 


10 


I4i 


Asia Minor 


R. P. Page. 


27i 


9* 


21 


W. Asia Minor 


. T. Bowen Rees. 


26i 


9i 


14 


Asia Minor 


. Col. C. M. Dobell. 


26| 


95 


I2| 


Do. 


Capt. F. Blacker. 


26^0 


8i 


121- 


Cilician Taurus 


. C. G. Danford. 


24I 


9l 


16 


Asia Minor 


. II. 0. Whittall. 


24i 


9i 


II| 


Persian Frontier 


Prince E. Demidoff. 


244 


9 


i6§ 


W. Asia Minor 


. C. G. R. Lee. 


24 


9l 


17 


Asia Minor 


. Col. J. Biddulph. 


24 


9i 


1 8| 


Do. 


. W. N. Williamson. 


23 


9l 


1 44 


Do. 


. Capt. W. W. Pitt-Taylor. 



C— PERSIAN RACE (0. orientalis erskinei). 

In some instances the horns curve forward, when this sheep is 
practically indistinguishable from an urial. If the two really inter- 
grade, the name O. orientalis has priority over O. cycloceros. 

Distribution. — South flank of the Elburz Mountains of Persia. 



Length on Circum- 

front curve. ference. 

27^ IO 

2 4 f 94 



24 



94 



Tip to Tip. Locality 

14 Elburz Range 



15! 

(no beard) 

i7i 

(beard) 



Owner. 

Hon. W. Erskine. 
S. slopes of the Elburz . Capt. the Hon. G. II. Douglas- 



Pennant. 



Do. 



Do. 



414 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Mouflon. Shot by Count Andrassy. 



The MOUFLON (Ovis musimon). 

The large light-coloured saddle on the otherwise dark winter-coat 
of the rams and the form of the horns are so distinctive of the species 
that nothing in the way of description need be attempted in this place. 
The horns of rams normally curve forwards so as to have their tips 
near the eyes, and are comparatively massive, with the wrinkles of a 
type somewhat different from that obtaining in the red sheep. 
Two races appear recognisable, in one of which the ewes are hornless, 
while in the other they have short horns. Height at shoulder, about 
27 inches. 

Distribution. — At the present day the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. 
Probably the race with hornless ewes is restricted to one of these 
islands. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


3H 


8 


"i 


Sardinia 




Duke of Bedford. 


34i 


8| 


i6§ 


Do. 




. W. Moncreiffe. 


33 J 2 


9 


9 


Do. 




lion. M. Egerton. 


32i 


9 


9 


Do. 




C. Sloane-Stanley. 


32 


8i 


144 


Do. 




American National Collection 


3i 


84 


10 


Do. 




. C. G. R. Lee. 



MOUFLON 415 



Length on Circum 
front curve. ference 



344 


9i 


32| 


9i 


3ii 


8i 


29a 


8| 


29i 


9x x , 


27^ 


io£ 


27 


Si 


26 


iof 



ip to Tip. Locality. Owner. 

30^ 8§ 14 Sardinia . . . Rhys Williams. 

30^ ' 8J 10 Do. . . . Major B. H. Piercey. 

29I 8 \?\ Do. . . C. Sloane-Stanley. 

29I 8 ... Do. ... J. D. Cobbold. 

29I 8| 11 Do. . . Hon. R. A. Ward. 

28| 8| 21 Do. ... E. N. Buxton. 

28f 9 10 Do. . . F. G. Barclay. 

28^ 8f 91 Do. ... Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

28| 8f 7 Bohemia (introduced) J. Hamilton Leigh. 

28^ 9§ 9g- Sardinia . . . Edinburgh Museum. 

27^ 8| si Do- ... W. E. Pease. 

27I 8| 9 Do. . . . Prince E. Demidoff. 

27J 8| 6\ Do. . . Commander J. E. Cameron, R.N. 

27§ 8J 6J Do. . . . Lieut. E. S. Fleetwood Nash, 

R.N. 

27 Sh 10 Do. . . . British Museum. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
l8f? Hungary (introduced) Count M. Andrassy. 

Count G. Andrassy. 
W. W'inans. 
Count Erdody. 
W. Winans. 
J. H. Thomas. 
W. Winans. 
. Col. J. Marriott. 





Austria 


do. 


ni 


Bohemia 


do. 


ioi 


Do. 


do. 


i3i? 


Do. 


do. 


181? 


Do. 


do. 


19? 


Do. 


do. 


ioj? 


Corsica 





4 i6 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



DOMESTICATED SHEEP (Ovis aries). 

The history and ancestry of the various breeds of domesticated 
sheep are lost in the mists of antiquity, and naturalists are unable to 
point with certainty to the wild stock from which any or all of them 
are derived. This is the more to be regretted, seeing that the Swedish 
breed is the type of the genus Ovis. Most domesticated breeds differ 
from wild sheep by the woolly nature of their coat ; but since hairy 
tame sheep are met with in Africa and elsewhere, this point of 
difference is of comparatively little importance. More weight has 
been attached to the length of the tail, which may be longer than in the 
ami ; but in some breeds like that of Soa, and also in the Himalayan 
Barwal and Hunia sheep, this appendage is comparatively short, and 
its length in other breeds is probably due to a kind of degeneration. 
The ancestry of domesticated breeds may therefore be looked for 
among the mouflons or urial or some allied extinct form, since the 
horns of most breeds approximate to the mouflon-type. In many 
breeds — Dorsetshire, for example — the females are horned ; and four, or 
even five, horns occur in the males of certain breeds. Some eastern 
sheep, like the Wallachian, have departed from the mouflon-type by the 
development of upright corkscrew-horns comparable in form with those 
of the markhor, but with the twist of the spiral in the opposite direction. 



:ngth on 
iide curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip 


1 to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


45i 


9 




15 


Scotland . 


. J. A. H. Drought. 


4i 


10 




21 


Do. 


. J. C. Lyell. 


39i 


8| 




21 


? 


H. E. Surtees. 


37 


8i 




20 


Loch Awe, N.B. 


H. Murray. 


35i 


8 




i6f 


? 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 


35i 


8i 




24 


Dorset 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


33 


11 




22^ 


Yarkand . 


British Museum (Hume Collec- 
tion). 


23i 


7i 




32^ 


W. Kan-su 


. H. F. Wallace. 



43i 


10 


I4i: 


Scotland 


42 J; 


8i 


15 


p 


37 


9i 


14 


Scotland . 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

R. Shoolbred. 
J. C. Phillips. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



Length on 
aside curves. 


Circum- 
ference. 


23 ...20§ 


6J...41 


2ii...i7i 


7i-5 


2 1... 20 


6|-.4i 


20^...l6 


6.. , 4 | 


I9I...I4 


6i... 44 


192 -Hi 


8... 5 i 


I91...I9 


7-4l 


19 ...184 


9.. .6 



Nlumber of 
Horns. 


Owner. 


Six 


J. G. Millais. 


Four 


Capt. H. II. Banner. 


Do. 


D. McDouall. 


Do. 


The late Sir H. B. Meux, Bart, 


Do. 


P. C. Millbank. 


Do. 


British Museum. 




R. J. Cuninghame. 


Four 


Sir Basil S. Brooke, Bart. 



DOMESTICATED SHEEP 417 

Many-horned Breeds. 

Tip to Tip. 
29 

35 

25} 

154 

21. .16 

27 -9k 
9I...22 

0,1 e 3 



The following 1 belong to the Wallachian breed : — 

Girth. Tip to Tip. Owner. 

8 40! British Museum. 

7\ 19^ H.R.II. the Due d'Orleans. 

7i 38 Do. 

7\ 38I Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

8^ 33^ Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

4I \7\ British Museum. 

An artificial product from the Himalayan 

Locality. Owner. 

Nepal . . . Duke of Bedford. 



Length on 
the curve. 


Length in a 
straight line. 


34! 


243 


33 


171 


32 


24 


28 


19 J 


235 


21 


9 I2 § 


\o\ 


Unicorn 


Sheep. 


Barwal breed 


: — 


Length on 
curve. 


Girth. 


I9l 


14 



2 E 



4 iS 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Horns of Limpopo Buffalo from the Sabi Valley. 
(In American National Collection ; shot by Mr. F. H. Barber.) 



The AFRICAN BUFFALO (Bos [Bubalus] caffer). 

Mbogo and Nyati, Swahili. 
Nadi, in Barotsi and Ngami. 
Nari, Basuto. 
Beva, Hausa. 



Gamus, Sudani. 

Gadars, Gal la. 

Inyati, Swazi and Zulu. 

Mboa and Nyati, Chilala and Chibisa. 



All African buffaloes may be regarded as referable to a single 
species, of which the extreme forms are represented by the great 
black Cape buffalo and the small red buffalo of the Congo ; B. c. 
cottoni of the Semliki Forest, in which only adult bulls are black, being 
one of the intermediate types. The number of races that have been 
named is so large that they cannot be quoted here. 



.4.— SOUTHERN RACES (B. caffer typicus, etc.). 

Among the distinctive features of the typical race may be noted 
the enormous helmet-like mass formed by the closely approximated 
bases of the horns in old bulls, the backward inclination and com- 
paratively slight angulation of the horns themselves, the shortness of 
the face, and the great width and size of the heavily fringed and 
flapping ears. In colour, both the skin and the sparse hairs with 
which it is clothed are for the most part jetty black ; the hairs 
themselves being directed uniformly backwards from the nape to the 
rump. Height at shoulder, about 5 feet. 

Distribution. — Southern and Eastern Africa. Except on the Zambesi, 
Chobi, and some neighbouring rivers, buffaloes have now become 
very scarce in South Africa ; but between Umtali and the east 
coast at Beira, and also from the latter station to the mouth of 



AFRICAN BUFFALO 



419 



the Zambesi, they are to be met with in vast herds, and a few 
years ago existed in countless numbers. Here they are much 
protected by the unhealthy nature of the country, which is deadly 
to Europeans, except between the end of May and November. 
Except a few protected herds in the Addo bush, the Knysna and 
Zitzikamma forests, and thickets of the Fish and Sunday rivers, 
the species has long since been exterminated in the Cape. The 
Ankoli buffalo has been described as B. c. radcliffei, and is 
characterised by the flattened and less rugged horns ; while the 
name B. c. neumanni has been given to the buffalo of northern 
Uganda, and B. c. athiensis to the B.E. African race. The Kivu 
B. c. mathezvsi of the Albert Edward Nyanza district is a smaller 
horned animal, with a white tail-tip, related to the Sudani race. 








Ankoli Buffalo. Shot by F. A. Knowles in Uganda. 



(greatest width. 
Outside. Inside. 


Length 
on front 
curve. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Width ot 

palm 

measured on 

face of horn. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


52^ 

5ii 


47 




47 
39:1 


"1 
II 


Uganda . 
East Africa 


Her Majesty Queen Alexandra 
(Shot by F. A. Knowles.) 
S. J. Pearson. 


5oi 


464- 




43i 


IO 


Do. 


G. N. Crisford. 


50 


451 




37 


Il| 


Do. 


Col. Max. C. Fleischmann. 


50 


45* 




40-I 


II 


Bechuanaland 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


49l 


47 




45i 


II 


East Africa 


H. A. Penton. 


49l 


443 




J> 2 2 


I Of 


Do. 


Major H. W. Stevens. 


49i 


45i 




4oi 


9 : i 


Do. 


Maharaja of Datia. 


49§ 


47i 




4 8i 


IOi 


Do. 


R. Holmes. 


491 


44l 




35i 


III 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Major P. J. Bailey. 



420 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Greatest width. Length r T . 

on front T jP to 
Outside. Inside. curve. "' 


Width of 

P alm , Locality, 
measured on J 

face of horn. 


Owner. 


49 


451 


4 6i 


9i 


East Africa . 


R. G. C. Napier. 


49 
49 


4 6i 
44* 


47 
40* 


1 of 

Hi 


Lomagundi's 
Country. 
Limpopo 


E. T. Palmer. 

Sir Richard Glyn, Bart. 


4 8| 


43 4i 3 2 


IOj 


East Africa 


E. C. Gepp. 


48| 


44 


35* 


92 


Chiromo, B.C.A. 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


48 


43 


36 


12 


East Africa 


E. B. Home. 


48 


44! 


39 


9 


Rhodesia 


C. Grey. 


471 


42* 


31* 


ni 


East Africa 


S. S. Bagge. 


472 


43! 


42 


9* 


Do. ■ . 


F. Santos Saurez. 


471 


44i 


4oi 


1 of 


Do. 


Sir J. Hume Campbell, Bart. 


47* 


43* 


34i 39* 


10 


Do. 


H.R.H. Prince William of 

Sweden. 


47* 


42 


371 


11* 


Ngamiland 


Mervyn G. Williams. 


47* 


423 


36* 


I2± 


Natal 


Capt. J. C. Phillips. 


47i 


422 


42 


IO 


East Africa 


Capt. H. A. Case. 


47 


4°5 




12* 


Do. 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


47 


42* 


35* 


"* 


Do. 


H. G. Barclay. 


47 


4 2i 


38 


ioi 


Do. 


Duke of Alba. 


4 6| 


42* 


3if 


9l 


Do. 


Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


4 6| 


411 


36* 


11 


Do. 


Duchess d'Aosta. 


46I 


41* 


35 


7* 


Do. 


Col. G. Gimlette. 


46i 


4 2 i 


38* 


9i 


Do. 


A. F. C. Hartley. 


464 


42* 


3i* 


10} 


Do. 


Marquis de la Scala. 


46* 


41* 


33i 


8* 


Do. 


Hon. Mrs. Blyth. 


46i 


42J 


4ii 


10 


Do. 


I. N. Dracopoli. 


4 6i 


43 


42* 


ioi 


Do. 


Baron M. de Rothschild. 


46^ 


42* 


39± 


ioi 


Do. 


S. E. Milsom. 


46 


4°2 


36 


IO 


Do. 


Lord Hindlip. 


451 


41 


2 7 f 


S 


Pungwe . 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


451 


4i* 


37* 




South Africa . 


British Museum. 


45! 


42* 


44i 


92 


East Africa 


F. C. Stern. 


451 


40J 


3iS 


11 


Do. 


Capt. F. W. Barrett. 


45* 


41* 


32I 


102 


Do. 


H. S. L. Scott. 


45* 


40 


27S 


1 1 


Do. 


Capt. D. H. Macdonell. 


45* 


41 


34l 


IO 


Nyasaland 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


45*. 


4o£ 


3"i 


II 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Hon. Guy Wilson. 


45* 


40 


29* 


9 


East Africa 


Capt. T. H. Rivers Bulkeley. 


45* 


42S 


431 


9i 


Do. 


H. Sampson. 


45i 


41* 


371 


10 


Do. 


Major S. Belfield. 


45* 


41 


3°1 


92 


Do. 


M. Seth-Smith. 


451 


40I 


32| 


9 


Tana Valley . 


Major H. De Pree. 


451 


4ii 


37* 






British Museum. 


45 


39* 


33 


10 


East Africa 


Capt. G. Wynne Finch. 


45 




44 


10 


Do. 


H. S. Keating. 


45 


41* 


342 


io| 


? 


H. de la Pasture. 


45 




44 


10J 


East Africa 


H. H. Williams. 


45 


41 


32 


9* 


N.W. Rhodesia 


Lieut. -Col. Frank Lee. 


45 


39i 


29 


"1 


East Africa 


Capt. R. Clenim. 


45 


39* 


26 


"1 


Do. 


L. L. Biddle. 


45 


4of 


3ii 


IO 


Do. 


P. F. Hadow. 



AFRICAN BUFFALO 



421 



Width of 



Greatest 
Outside. 


width. Length T . 
on front ^ 
Inside. curve. r 


vv lain 01 

palm 

measured on 

face of horn. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


445 


4O5 


36| 


9 


East Africa 


Capt. P. Chapman. 


44! 


39l 


2 7i 


H 


Uganda . 


G. Blaine. 


44i 


39l 


2 7i 


ni 


East Africa 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


44i 


4i| 


39i 


iii 


N.W. Rhodesia 


G. de P. Colvile. 


44l 


39* 


2 A \ 


9? 


Do. 


O. C. Bevan. 


44? 


4O3 


3H 


"i 


Ngamiland 


F. T. Garbutt. 


443 


39? 


29 


12 


Pungwe . 


F. S. Staples. 


44* 


38| 


29 


. 9* 


East Africa 


H.R.H. the Duke of Con 
naught. 


44* 


39i 


29 


i5 


Chobi Valley . 


F. C. Selous. 


44i 


40 


38 .. 


ioj 


East Africa 


D. Davies. 


44i 


39i 


33? 


io| 


N.W. Rhodesia 


J. H. Leche. 


44i 




37h 


12 


East Africa 


F. Charrington. 


44* 


40 


39? 


11 


Do. 


Dr. A. E. Herz. 


44i 


41 


384 


10 


N.W. Rhodesia 


R. Beaumont. 


44 


39 


27S 


11 


Do. 


Capt. H. E. Hambro. 


44 


39i 


36 


9i 


N.E. Rhodesia 


W. A. Conduitt. 


44 


41 


39i 


ioi 


B.C.Africa . 


Dr. J. 0. Shircore. 


?43i 


4 o| 


29 


6i 


East Africa 


N. C. Cockburn. 


?42* 


38£ 


32 


5 


N.E. Rhodesia 


J. Turner. 






OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 




54§ 






1 64 


German E. Africa 


E. von Sick. 


5i 


47 


40 


11 


Uganda . 


Major H. W. A. Christie. 


5i 


47 


39 


I4i 


East Africa . 


H. B. Kittermaster. 


48I 


. .^. 


35f 




UpperZambesi 


F. W. Walker. 


4 S£ 


43 


3°5 


n£ 


Sabi Valley 


American National Collection 
(See illustration, p. 418.) 


48 




44l 


ni 


East Africa 


R. O. Roberts. 


47 




3* 


12 


Zitzi Forest, S. 
Africa. 


Capt. E. H. Studdy. 


4&i 


\°\ 


39 


12 


N.E. Rhodesia 


O. Letcher. 


46 




35 




N.W. Rhodesia 


C. S. Mann. 



As will be seen from the illustrations, the greatest width scarcely conveys a correct idea of all specimens. 




Horns of Bechuana Buffalo. Sir Edmund G. Loder's Specimen. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Sudani Buffalo. 



B.— NORTHERN RACES (B. caffer sequinoctialis, etc.). 

The Sudani race is a smaller animal than the Cape buffalo (height 
at shoulder, about 4 feet), with the general colour blackish or tawny 
brown, tinged locally with rufous, and tending to greyish on the legs. 
Horns smaller, much more flattened at the bases, where they are more 
widely separated, and in some, although not all, cases retreating less 
markedly behind the plane of the eyes. The Sudani race was originally 
described on the evidence of a skull from East Central Africa, but also 
occurs on the White Nile. The name B. c. asracensis has been applied 
to the buffalo of the Bahr-el-Azrek, a tributary of the Blue Nile, on 
the southern frontier of Abyssinia. Its horns are described as being 
more like those of the Cape race. 



Greatest width. 
Outside. Inside. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Width of 
palm. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


44 


4 2 i 


43 


H 


White Nile 


. P. Niedieck. 


4ii 


37i 


343 


s>. 


Mongala 


. E. M. Sinauer. 


40 


39 


39 


10 


White Nile 


. Lieut.-Col. J. W. Yardley. 


40 


37i 


38s 


8* 


Kordofan 


. Capt. C. C. Maud. 


40 


37 


32 


"i 


Abyssinia 


. E. Lort- Phillips. 


39^ 
39i 


35i 
35 V 


2 7i! 

34 


9 

S!, 


Sudan 
White Nile 


Capt. F. L. Livingstone-Lear 
month. 
. Capt. A. H. Vivian. 



AFRICAN BUFFALO 



423 



Greatest width. 
Outside. Inside. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Width of 
palm. 


Locality. 


39 


36 


33i 


IO 


White Nile 


38S 


33 


25i 


12 


Do. 


384 


35i 


3oi 


84 


Do. 


38* 


34* 


324 


7 , 


Do. 


3§i 


34s 


32i 


82 


Do. 


38J 


34 


23i 


10 


Do. 


38 


34 


33 




Do. 


38 


344 


28| 


7'i 


Do. 


38 


34 


29 


8 


Do. 


37S 


0,1 

JJ2 


26^ 


10 


Do. 


37i 


34i 


111 
JJ4 


8| 


Lado 


37k 


34 


1-.1 

JJ4 


94 


White Nile 


37i 


33 


2Si 


9 


Do. 


37 


34i 


35i 


ioi 


Bahr-el-Ghazal 


37 


3 2 4 


23s 


91 


White Nile 


36§ 


3 2 4 


26 


8J 


Sudan 


36* 


3 2 1 


26^ 


8 


Do. 


364 


33 


304 


94 


Do. 


36* 


3if 


29 


9 


Do. 


3°1 


3 2 l 


324 


74 


Do. 


3&i 


32 


29i 


9 


Do. 


36i 


32 


22g 


84 


White Nile 


36 


32* 


29 


94 


Do. 


36 




32 


94 


p 


351 


32 


304 


9 


Sudan 


351 


T>1 

J J 2 


35 


74 


Do. 


354 


3If 


28^ 


81 


White Nile 


35i 


32 


28j| 


8 


Lado 


354 


325 


3i* 


7t 


White Nile 


?354 


32 


25i 


5 


Dinder Valley . 


35i 


31* 


29I 


81 


Blue Nile 


35i 


30§ 


2I| 


93 


Do. 


35i 


30 


l81 


84 


Do. 


35 


32 


3i* 


8f 


Do. 



Owner. 

W. F. Wailes-Fairbairn. 

Douglas McDouall. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught. 

Major P. M. Dove. 

R. McD. Hawker. 

Capt. R. F. Balfour. 

F. W. Greswolde-Williams. • 

G. H. Cheetham. 
Major H. D. Pearson. 
Capt. C. E. Hills. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

P. Santos Saurez. 

Capt. W. E. Reymes-Cole. 

G. Blaine. 

Lord Desborough. 

Capt. A. Craufurd. 

P. M. Tottenham. 

Col. A. Colville. 

Capt. the Hon. M. P. 

Macnaghten. 
Countess of Sefton. 

C. C. Tower. 

H. E. Allen. 

J. V. Colby. 

British Museum. 

R. A. Colvin. 

G. C. Whitaker. 

E. N. Buxton. 

Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 

S. H. Whitbread. 

C. D. Eyre. 

Capt. N. A. Orr-Ewing. 

Capt. H. R. Headlam. 

Lieut. -Col. J. Ponsonby. 

Norman B. Smith. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



43 1 


37^ 


28I 


11 


Nimuli . 


F. A. Knowles. 


39! 


34' 


3o4 


84 


Sobat . 


. E. M. Tabor. 


38S 


35' 


35^ 


91 


White Nile 


Sir W. Garstin. 



424 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Congo (?) Dwarf Buffalo. 



C— SHORT-HORNED RACES (B. caffer brachyceros, B. c. planiceros, 

B. c. nanus, etc.). 

Bona, Hausa. 

Despite the differences in size, colour, and the form of the horns 
between the dwarf red buffalo of the Congo (B. c. nanus) and its gigantic 
black cousin of the Cape, such a gradual transition can be traced from 
the one type to the other, that both are evidently nothing more than 
local modifications of one variable species. In the dwarf buffalo of 
the Congo the colour of the hair is red or yellow, the ears are fringed 
with very long hair, and the horns are much flattened at the base, with 
long smooth tips directed upwards. This type may be traced, with 
some modifications, to the Gabun. In Ashanti it is replaced by the 
red B. c. beddingtoni. In Gambia and Senegambia there is a larger 
brownish buffalo, with more laterally expanded and recurved horns 
known as B. c. planiceros. In the south Nigerian B. c. hunti cows and 
young bulls are dun. In the Kwilu district of the Congo occurs a 
dark-coloured race (B. c. simpsoni,) typified by a female head in 
the British Museum. Another type is the Lake Chad buffalo 
(B. c. brachyceros), first discovered by the early explorers Denham and 
Clapperton. In height the Congo dwarf buffalo only reaches some 
42 inches at the shoulder. Weight, 579 lbs. clean. 



AFRICAN BUFFALO 



425 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to T 


p. Locality. 


Owner. 


28 


20 


20 


Senegambia 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


2 7a 


20| 


I2f 


Gold Coast 


Capt. C. H. Armitage. 


26i 


19 


18 


N. Nigeria 


Capt. J. C. Parker. 


26J 


i9i 


7 


Do. 


Capt. H. V. Venables Kyrke. 


26 


i8f 


22| 


Do. 


G. C. W. King. 


26 


22^ 


20 


French Congo . 


C. S. Mann. 


2 5 | 


i7l 


174 


S. Nigeria 


W. D. Downes. 


25i 


i8| 


15 


N. Nigeria 


F. Cogan. 


25i 


20J 


12 


S. Nigeria 


Lieut. A. W. Hunt, R.N. 


25 


i7i 




Portuguese Guinea 


M. V. Hay. 


24I 


19 


74 


Sierra Leone 


Capt. W. B. Stanley. 


24I 


233 


I4i 


N. Nigeria 


Capt. 0. M. Harris. 


24I 


2I| 


26 


Do. 


H. de C. Mathews. 


24i 


i8| 


15 


Do. 


J. C. Sciortino. 


24 


i5i 


7 


Do. 


Capt. L. M. Bucknill. 


24 


i9i 


17 


Do. 


Capt. G. C. Kelly. 


24 


i8| 


134 


Nepoko Valley, Congo R. de la Huerta. 


23-2 


23i 


12 


Do. 


Duke of Peneranda. 


235 


-15 


10 


Gold Coast 


Major G. S. C. Jenkinson. 


235 


20 


i6i 


Do. 


Capt. G. W. Dawes. 


23 


19 


204 


N. Nigeria 


R. M. Blackwood. 


23 


1 6i 


8i 


Nigeria 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


22| 


1 6i 


12 


Ashanti 


C. Beddington. 


22f 


I7S 


20j 


N. Nigeria 


H. S. Berkeley. 


22| 


17 


14 


Gold Coast 


Capt. T. W. C. Carthew. 


22^ 


1 6i 


i8J 


Nigeria 


Major-Gen. P. S. Wilkinson. 


22^ 


21 


I2| 


N. Nigeria 


C. S. Burnett. 


22 


14 


15 


Congo 


Capt. II. M. Stephenson. 


22 


191 


9i 


Do. 


J. Seally Bell. 


2I| 


I7i 


9\ 


Near Kumasi 


The late Dr. W. H. Langley 


2ll 


15 


8 


Gold Cdast 


Capt. G. H. Hastings. 


2lJ 


I2| 


2i 


West Africa 


British Museum. 


21 


i~7l 


i4i 


Portuguese Guinea 


C. S. Burnett. 


21 


15 


9i 


Nigeria 


A. Ohlsson. 


21 


174 


1 61 


Do. 


Major J. F. Loder-Symonds. 


?2I 


1 1 


16 


N. Nigeria 


G. J. Letham. 



426 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 


Tip. Locality. 


9 20j 


II 


6| 


Nigeria . 


ZO\ 


17 


17I 


Senegambia 


2O5 


i6i 


10 


Nigeria . 


?20i 


I3i 


Hi 


Do. . 


20i 


15 


11 


Benue Valley . 


20i 


Hi 


6h 


N. Nigeria 


io\ 


20 


Hi 


S. Nigeria 


20\ 


i$i 


12 


Do. 


20j 


i7i 


16 


Sierra Leone . 


20 


iS 


I2i 


S. Nigeria 


19! 


14 


13 


Sierra Leone . 


19 


10 




Lake Chad 


i8| 


ni 


-.1 


Nigeria . 


i8| 


16 


8i 


? 


i8i 


12 


65 


Gambia . 


i8| 


17 


15 


N. Nigeria 


i8i 


17 


Si 


Do. 


i8i 


ni 


p5 
X J4 


Senegambia 


?i8i 


IOj 


"3 


Do. . 


i8i 


174 


4l 


Congo 


$i8£ 


IO| 


5i 


Lake Chad District . 



Owner. 
W. D. Barker. 
G. Fenwick-Owen. 
Major D. F. MacCarthy Morrogh. 
R. M. Blackwood. 
Capt. E. J. Wolseley. 
A. B. Harcourt. 
C. Bowyer-Smijth. 
Capt. R. M. Heron. 
Capt. J. F. Bill. 

Capt. W. V. Nugent. 

Capt. E. J. Carter. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

W. H. Broun. 

A. W. Boddy. 

H. C. Goddard. 

Major J. B. Cockburn. 

J. F. Pett. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
G. Fenwick-Owen. 

Col. J. J. Harrison. 

British Museum (Capt. Denham, R.N. 
and Col. Clapperton). 



26S 

22| 



21^ 
17 



26^ 
I4J 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
N. Nigeria . . H. G. Glenay. 



Sierra Leone 



Capt. H. A. Carter. 



The following specimens from the French Congo may belong to 
B. coffer brachyceros :■ — 

Shot by the late Prince P. Demidoff. 



Length. 


Girth. 


T 


p to Tip. 


28 


2 4 v 




I3S 


26 


21.1 




i8i 


25i 


25 




21 J. 


?22| 


16 




i6i 



INDIAN BUFFAIO 



427 




Head of Indian Buffalo. Shot by the late Maharaja of Cooch Behar. 



The. INDIAN BUFFALO or ARNA (Bos [Bubalus] bubalis). 

No one is the least likely to confuse this animal with the African 
species. Both belong, indeed, to the same group of the genus Bos, 
and have the same rounded upper portion of the head and angulated 
horns. In the Indian species, however, the head is much longer, the 
ears are narrower and less heavily haired, and the horns of the male 
are widely separated on the forehead and totally different in form. 
Two types of horns may be recognised — one very massive, and curving 
regularly up from each side of the head in a subcircular manner ; the 
other more slender, directed for the greater part of their length 
almost straight out from the head, and always with a wider spread. 
The first is the typical race (B. bubalis typicus), while the second, or 
Assam, race (probably now extinct) is B. bubalis macroceros. A third 
race from Assam has been named B. b. fulvus, and is distinguished by 
the concave profile of the skull and its dun colour. Height at shoulder, 
about 6 feet 2 inches ; girth behind shoulder, 1 o feet 8 inches. In 
a bull shot by the late Maharaja of Cooch Behar the length from the 
nose to the tip of the tail was 14 feet 2 inches, and to the base of 
the tail 1 1 feet ; the maximum girth being 1 o feet 8 inches, and the 
weight of the head, when cut off, 158 lbs. 



428 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Distribution. — Typically India, where the range includes the plains of 
the Bramaputra and Ganges from the eastern end of Assam to 
Tirhut, and the Terai as far west as Rohilcund, the plains near the 
coast in Midnapore and Orissa, and also the plains in the Eastern 
Central Provinces as far south as the Godaveri and Pranhita rivers. 
Buffaloes also occur in Ceylon, as well as in the Malay and Indo- 
Chinese countries ; but whether any of the latter are truly wild is 
uncertain. In a domesticated state, South Europe, Egypt, etc. 
Native name of male, arna ; of female, ami. 



Length 

on Circum- Tip to Widest Widest 

outside ference. Tip. inside, outside. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



curve. 














771 


17* 








? 


British Museum (Sloane Col- 


70 


\%\ 


60 


6 7 | 


72 


Near Dubri, Assam 


lection). 
J. H. Whitehouse. 


65I 

62 


20\ 
17 


IOI 






Do. 
Do. 


British Museum (Col. J. 

Mathie). 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


96ig 


1 51 


22i 


45i 




Cooch Behar . 


H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 
Behar. 


9 6i^ 


16 


22 


48 




Assam . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


60 


22 




64 


72 


Central Provinces . 


Major B. Vincent. 


60 


20 


40 


52 




? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


9 6o 


«3i 


57* 


62| 


671 


Assam . 


Capt. L. P. Haviland. 


9 591 


16 


48 


57 


63i 


Do. 


J. C. Phillips. 


59 


23 


34 


49 


561 


Do. 


T. H. Monteath. 


57S 


171 


55i 


65 


7ii 


Central Provinces . 


J. May. 


57 


1 81 


4i* 


60 




Do. 


Col. G. D. F. Sulivan. 


57 


15 


49 


52 




Assam . 


A. H. Straker. 


9 57 


14I 


53 


61 




? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


56i 
9 56 


2I| 
194- 


40 

33s 


52f 
50* 




Assam . 
Cooch Behar . 


British Museum (Hume Col- 
lection). 

H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 
Behar. 


56 


i7h 


62 


61I 


644 


Bengal 


G. Monteath. 


56 


i8| 


108 






Assam . 


H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


55i 


i8i 


29 


44 




? 


J. Carr Saunders. 


55 


22 


55 i 


62 


66 


Central Provinces . 


L. T. Harris. 


54i 


18J 


38i 


48I 




? 


British Museum (Hume Collec- 
tion). 


9 54i 


I2| 


69! 


70 




Assam . 


Do. 


54i 


I9l 


24I 


4o£ 


49 


? 


Stockholm Museum. 



INDIAN BUFFAIO 



429 



Length 



on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Widest 
outside. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


curve. 














544 


19 


50 


59 


64 


? 


Viscount Powerscourt. 


54 


i8i 


34 


474 


543 


Cambodia 


H.R.H. the Due de Mont- 


J S3i 


2 3 


30 


42* 




Cooch Behar . 


pensier. 
H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 




(6 ft. 2^ ins. at shoulder) 






Behar. 


53 


19 


36i 


483 


56 


? 


Col. H. Lysons. 


52 


20 


«i 


414 


49i 


Central Provinces . 


Earl of Sefton. 


5i| 


l8A 


22 


38i 




Assam . 


Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 


Si* 


18 


38 


5o 


56 


Central Provinces . 


Hon. J. Best. 


5ii 


19 


43 


52¥ 


60 \ 


Do. 


Capt. A. McB. Woodside. 


5i§ 


I9l 


451 


50 




Do. 


Major P. H. G. Powell- 
Cotton. 


5ol 


22 


341 


444 


5oi 


Cooch Behar . 


The late Sir Henry D. Tich- 
borne, Bart. 


5°f 


i8| 


544 


6oi 


65 


Patna 


Brig. -Gen. F. H. Whitby. 


50! 


191 


344 


463 


54 


Central Provinces . 


H. Tyler. 


504 


I9i 


23I 


4 2| 


494 


Do. 


H. H. Cripps. 


5° 


20 


34i 


47 


534 


Cochin China 


D. Dickson. 


5° 


i8| 


4 8i 


60 




Central Provinces . 


Major C. F. Pinney. 


50 


13* 


33 


384 




Assam . 


Noel Fenwick. 


50 


17 


3i| 


5o 




Do. . . 


Col. D. M. Lumsden. 


50 


»9i 


364 


46 


524 


Do. . 


A. Ezra. 


49l 


i9i 


331 


48 


55i 


Central Provinces . 


Countess of Sefton. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



71 

?7o4 


214 
18 


343 


60 
64 


78 


Near Dubri, Assam 
Do. 


Measured by the late A. O. 

Hume ; shot by A. Forbes. 

The late Sir A. Campbell-Orde. 


674 










Do. 


Major H. Gidney. 


?6 4 i 


18 


424 


60 


96 


Do. 


J. Campbell of Kilberry. 


594 


184 




54 


6ii 


Eastern Bengal 


R.E. Mess, Roorkee. 


594 


15 




53 


59 


? 


Sir Savile Crossley, Bart. 


?574 
57 


1 51 

18 


954 




964 


Cooch Behar . 
Central Provinces . 


H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 

Behar. 
J. D. Inverarity. 


56 


18 


2 94 




574 


? 


J. Whitaker. 



1 Measured round outside curves across skull, 9 ft. nj- ins. Another pair, 10 ft. 5 ins. ; 
circumference of horn at base, 21 inches. 



43° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The following specimens are, with one exception, from Ceylon 



Length circum- Tip to Widest Widest 
: ference. Tip. inside, outside. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



curve. 




* *^. 










40 


i5i 


24 


35-4 


42 


Ceylon 


F. T. Wright. 


?37i 


9l 


42* 


47 


50* 


Do. 


M. J. Alderson. 


35 


133 


iS 


3°i 


37s 


Do. 


Marquis of Stafford. 


34i 


i5i 


25i 


35 




Do. 


Earl Cairns. 


?33i 


9 


314 


37 




Do. 


Do. 


33i 


13 


r-l 


38 


43 


Do. 


Major F. H. N. Pym 


3i| 


16 


28 




M 


Do. 


Marquis Camden. 


3ii 


i5i 


27 


34 


38 


Do. 


P. Niedieck. 


3ii 

29 


16 
134 


2Si 


47i 

JJ4 


37 


South Australia 

(introduced) 
Ceylon 


H. L. Heber Percy. 
K. J. F. Bickersteth. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



35 


i 4 * 


39i 


42 


M\ 


Ceylc 


928 


9l 


i8£ 


26 


3i* 


Do. 


9 2 7 i 


9i 


15 


25 


295 


Do. 



H.R.H. Prince George of 

Bavaria. 
H. M. von Archer. 

IT.R.H. Prince Pedro d'Orleans 
and Braganza. 



ANOA 431 




Head of Anoa. 



The ANOA (Bos [Bubalus] depressicornis). 

The smallest wild member of the ox tribe, characterised by its 
straight, upright horns, and the frequent presence of white spots on the 
sides of the head or elsewhere. Although so different in the form 
of the head and horns from the adult Indian buffalo, the anoa is in 
these respects much more like the young of the latter ; and the two 
are connected to a considerable extent by the tamarau, or Philippine 
buffalo {Bos mindorensis) of the island of Mindoro. As in all the 
Oriental buffaloes, the hair of the fore-part of the back is directed 
forwards in the anoa. Height at shoulder, about 3 feet 3 inches. 
Two races are recognised. 

Distribution. — The island of Celebes. 



Length 

on front 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Owner. 


I2§ 


6 


6* 


British Museum. 


I2j 


6 


5* 


G. A. Wright. 


ioi 


64 


7 


Carl Hagenbeck. 


IO 


6 


5^ 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


IO 


51 


5§ 


Sir Victor Brooke's Collection 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
15I 7£ i\ Paris Museum. 

13 J 9! 5 Jesuit College, Manila. 

of 5I 7^ Dr. Albert von Stephani. 

91 Sh, $h Dublin Museum. 

1 Measured by the late Rear-Admiral R. A. J. Montgomerie. 



432 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of European Bison. Shot by H.H. the Prince of Monaco. 



The BISON (Bos [Bison] bonasus). 

The great elevation of the fore-quarters, the mass of long hair 
clothing the head, shoulders, and fore part of the body, together with 
the peculiar form of the head and horns, the latter of which are 
cylindrical, serve at once to distinguish bison from the other members 
of the ox tribe. There is also a difference in the number of ribs 
between the bison and the more typical oxen, the number in the 
former being 14 pairs, against 1 3 in the latter. In the European 
species the mass of hair on the fore-quarters is not so long as in its 
American cousin, the form of the skull is different, and the hind-quarters 
do not fall away nearly to the same extent. Some differences may be 
noted between Caucasian and Lithuanian specimens, which are now 
referred to separate races. Height at shoulder, 6 feet 1 or 2 inches. 
In a Caucasian bull killed by Mr. Littledale, the length from the nose 
to the root of the tail measured 10 feet 1 inch, the height at the 
shoulder, 5 feet 1 1 inches, and the approximate girth of the body, 
8 feet 4 inches. Weight (Mr. W. Winans), 2001 lbs. 

Distribution. — At the present day restricted to the Caucasus and the 
forest of Bielowitzka in Lithuania ; the herds in the latter district 
existing in a protected state. The name aurochs, commonly mis- 
applied to the bison, belongs to the extinct wild ox of Europe. 
The Caucasian race is named B. b. caucasius. 



BISON 



433 



Length 

on outside 

curve. 

20 

18 
i7h 

i7i 

i6| 

i6f 

? 16 

9iSi 
14 
913 



Circum- Tip to 
ference. Tip. 



12 

ril 
A -3 

12$ 
10 

i3i 

I2i 

8i 

8 



20 

i3l 

16 

18$ 

17 

18I 
12 

6 
26^ 

9l 



Widest 
inside. 



i9i 

20 



24i 
21$ 



14 



Locality. 

Pilawin Game 

Park 
Lithuania . 



Caucasus 

Lithuania 

Do. 

? 

Woburn 
Do. 

Lithuania 

Woburn 

Caucasus 



Owner. 

W. Winans. 

British Museum (H.I.M. the 

Tzar Alexander). 
St. George Littledale. 

Major Algernon Heber-Percy. 

Prince of Monaco. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

G. L. Harrison. 

Royal Scottish Museum. 

Major Algernon Heber-Percy. 

Royal Scottish Museum. 

St. George Littledale. 



i»i 


1 of 


i7l 


13* 


IS* 


I2| 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

17 J 20 f Lithuania . 

13! 20 T V Do. . 

21 J ... Do. . . Imperial Museum, Vienna, 



The late Prince Henry of 
Liechtenstein. 
Do. 



2 F 



434 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Record American Bison. Shot by Lord Rendlesham. 



The AMERICAN BISON (Bos [Bison] bison). 

Some of the points distinguishing this species from the European 
bison have been mentioned under the head of the latter, but it may be 
added that in the typical race of the former the horns are shorter, 
thicker, blunter, and more sharply curved. In the skull of the American 
animal the sockets of the eyes have a more tubular form. Height at 
shoulder, about 5 feet 9 inches; weight, from 15 to 20 cwt. ; an adult 
bull weighed by W. T. Hornaday scaled 2100 lbs. 

Distribution. — The greater portion of Western North America, ascend- 
ing to the Great Slave Lake, and descending to New Mexico and 
Texas ; now nearly exterminated. American writers recognise two 
races — the prairie-bison {B. bison typicus), and the larger wood-bison 
{B. bison athabasco?) of the forest highlands of the North- West. 



L ! n .?. t : h ,.. Circum- 
ference. 



on outside 
curve 



20f 

i6§ 



15 

I2§ 
12 

13* 
"i 

Hi 



Tip to 
Tip. 



21 
iof 

24 



Widest 
inside 
spread. 



Locality. 
30! Wyoming . 



2$h Wyoming 



1 7h 



Owner. 

Lord Rendlesham. 

H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe- 

Coburg and Gotha. 
H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 

Viscount Powerscourt. 

British Museum. 



Bighorn Mts., Wyoming Earl of Lonsdale. 



AMERICAN BISON 



435 



Length 

on outside 

curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside 
spread. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


1 i6i 


I2j 


I9l 




Colorado 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i6i 


131 


Hi 




? 


Duke of Portland. 


i6i 


J 3 


22§ 




Wyoming . 


Prince Nicolas Ghika. 


2 i6J 


iSi 


25S 




Colorado 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i5l 


14 


27f 




N.W. Territory . 


E. G. Jenkins. 


iSl 


Hi 




I 9 | 


Wyoming . 


St. George Littledale. 


IS* 


1 of 


i5i 




Do. 


Abel Chapman. 


14 


»3 


21* 




Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 



2o£ 


i6i 


331 


19 


121 




i8| 


15 


27i 


1 84 


iS 


25 


18 


14 




i7i 


I2| 




17 


14 


174 


i6| 


1*4 


20§ 


i6| 


13 


194 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

? W. II. Root. 

W. Montana . . P. Liebinger. 

? American National Collection. 

Wyoming . . . P. N. Graham. 
Montana . . . F. Sauter. 
S.W. Montana . . Theodore Roosevelt. 
Yellowstone, Montana Count E. Hoyos. 
Wyoming . . . Dr. Albert von Stephani. 
Nebraska . . . Imperial Museum, Vienna. 
1 Wood Bison. 2 Prairie. 



436 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Wild Yak. From a specimen in the British Museum, 
presented by the late Mr. A. O. Hume. 



The YAK (Bos [Poephagus] grunniens). 

The plateau of Tibet is remarkable for the number of its peculiar 
mammals, among which is the yak. Apparently its nearest relatives 
are the bisons, but the yak has not the great elevation of the withers 
in comparison with the hind-quarters so distinctive of the latter, and 
the long hair forms a fringe on each side of the flanks, shoulders, and 
thighs, as well as a tuft on the chest, while the tail is clothed with a 
huge mass of similar long hair, forming, when cut off and mounted, the 
well-known " chowries." Yak-horns are much larger than those of 
living bison, and have a totally different curvature ; while there are 
also important differences in the skull. Height at shoulder, from about 
4 feet 10 inches to at least 5^- feet; girth behind shoulder, 9 feet \\ 
inches ; length from between horns to base of tail, 8 feet ^ inch ; 



YAK 



437 



tail, 3 feet 2^- inches ; from between horns to nose, 1 foot 3A inches 
(Lieut-Col. H. M. Biddulph). Weight, about 1140 lbs. Wild yak are 
uniformly blackish brown in colour, any trace of white indicating 
domestication, and probably cross-breeding. 

Distribution. — The plateau of Tibet, part of the Kan-su province of 
China and North-eastern Ladak, at elevations between about 14,000 
and 20,000 feet. The grunting cry from which the animal 
takes its name is peculiar to the domesticated breeds. 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


3§i 


17 


19 


Kuenlun Mts. 


British Museum (Hume Collec- 
tion). 


35* 


15 


16 


? 


E. L. Phelps. 


35i 


I 4 4 


17 


Tibet . 


St. George Littledale. 


34 


12 


3oi 


Ladak 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


0^2 


Hi 


174 


Tibet . 


. P. F. Hadow. 


3 2 h 


16 


25 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


3 2 i 


14 


Hi 


Do. 


Capt. R. Longstaff. 


32 


I3s 


154 


Do. 


. H. C. V. Hunter. 


32 


Hi 


9 


Do. 


. I. Morse. 


32 


16 


17 


Do. 


. P. Church. 


32 


i5l 


2l| 


Do. 


Capt. D. L. R. Lorimer. 


3ii 


iS4 


i5f 


Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


3ii 


iSi 


174 


Chinese Tibet 


. Capt. J. A. Stewart Balmain. 


3ii 


1 Si 


13 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. II. W. Codrington. 


3ii 


Hi 


i6| 


Do. 


Major Sir E. F. Coates. 


314 


1 Si 


i"8i 


Do. 


. Lieut.-Col. H. M. Biddulph. 


31 


14 




Do. 


. Col. F. C. Lister-Kay. 


31 


i3i 


14 


Ladak 


. Arnold Pike. 


31 


i6£ 


i7l 


Kumaon 


E. R. Neave. 


31 


Hi 


i6J 


Tibet . 


. Hon. J. D. Boyle. 


3°l 


15 


20 


Do. 


. R. S. H. Walford. 


30S 


16 


22^ 


Do. 


. C. F. M. Pike. 


3o| 


i3l 


ioi 


Ladak 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


?3°f 


13 


20 


Do. 


. Major L. Oldfield. 


?3° 


"i 


45i 


Tibet . 


Duke of Bedford. 



438 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
outside curve. 

SO 
30 



Circum- 
ference. 

Hi 
14! 



Tip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


19! 


? 


Major Sir W. R. Codrington 


30 


? 


J. C. Phillips. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



40 


18 




Kuenlun Mts. 


. A. D. Carey. 


39 






? 


Lucknow Museum. 


3§i 
33 


l8J 

16 


26i 
18 


Kuenlun Mts. 
N.W. Tibet 


British Museum. (Hume Coll< 
tion ; shot by late A. Dalgleis 
. Capt. S. H. Charrington. 


5 z a 


134 


19 


Tibet 


Capt. B. H. Shaw-Stewart. 


3 2 I 


14 


171 


Chang Chenmo . 


. Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


311 


I4l 


i8| 


Do. 


Do. 



GAUR 



439 




Head of Indian Gaur. 



The GAUR or INDIAN BISON (Bos [Bibos] gaurus). 

This splendid wild ox, the so-called bison of Anglo-Indian sports- 
men, is the typical representative of a group of Oriental species nearly 
related to the domesticated ox, but presenting certain well-marked 
points of difference. Among these may be noted the shorter head and 
tail, the frequently elliptical section of the horns, and, above all, the 
presence of a more or less distinct ridge running from the withers to 
the middle of the back, where it terminates in a sudden step. In the 
gaur this ridge is strongly developed, and in the typical race the 
summit of the forehead forms a high arch between the horns, which 
bends forward to form a concave profile. With the exception of the 
white " stockings " common to all the members of the group, the colour 
of the gaur is uniform ; but the much-flattened horns are of a peculiar 
yellowish-green tint at the base. The height of adult bulls at the 
shoulder usually varies from about 6 feet to 6 feet 4 inches, though 



44o RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

specimens of more than 5 feet 5 or 6 inches are not often killed ; it is, 
however, stated that a Nilgiri bull stood 6 feet 10 inches, while Kachar 
and Burmese bulls have been asserted to reach 7 feet at the withers. 

Distribution. — The forest hill-tracts of Peninsular India, Assam, Burma, 
Siam, and the Malay Peninsula, as well as the forests along the outer 
Himalaya as far west as Nepal. South of the Ganges, where it 
has not been exterminated, the gaur inhabits suitable districts in 
Chutia Nagpur, Orissa, the Northern Circars, Central Provinces, 
Hyderabad territories, and all the Western Ghats. The Burmese 
race, or pyun {B. g. readei), is nearly black, with a throat-tuft ; 
and in the Malay race, or saladang (B. g. hubbacki), the arch on the 
crown of the skull is less developed, and may be absent. 

A.— WILD RACES. 



Widest 
outside. 


Circum- 
ference 
at base. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Length on 

outside 

curve of 

longer 

horn. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


44i 


20 


42 


4ii 


23i 


Eastern Bengal 


Capt. L. P. Haviland. 


44i 


21 


2 9i 


. 3«i 


33i 


Burma 


J. McF. Petters. 


43i 


171 


34 


39 


3o2 


Parambikolam . 


G. Elliot Browning. 


43 
43 

42i 


20 
1 H 


3i 

32* 

25 


38 
33? 


32 
29J 

33i 


Cooch Behar 

Coimbatore, S. 

India 
Travancore 


H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 

Behar. 
P. Church. 

Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 


42i 


19I 


3i 


35S 


3ii 


Madras 


Col. T. J. R. Lucas. 


42 


18 


34i 


371 


29I 


Central Province.' 


; Hon. H. G. O. Bridgeman. 


414 


16 


30 




29 


Assam 


A. J. Walter. 


4*1 


i9i 


261 


36 


31 


Mysore 


Capt. C. P. Graham. 


4a 


20 


325 


36i 


30 


? 


J. F. Bryant. 


41 
41 


18 
i7i 


24 

2Sh 


35 


31! 


Madura District 
Central Provinces 


Bethnal Green Museum 

(J. D. Goldingham). 
W. J. Considine. 


41 


20 


34h 


36^ 


27 


Siam 


J. H. Thurston. 


41 

4°£ 


19I 

20 


37 
25 




27I 

34i 


Kalkerry, S. 

India 
Vardi Mullay . 


Col. W. E. Fairholme. 
Baron von Massow. 


40 


19I 


28! 


34i 


3i 


Travancore 


A. Lampard. 


40 


19} 


26 


34i 


32 


Burma 


A. E. English. 


40 


17 


3ii 


34 


27I 


E. Madras 


W. 0. Home. 


40 


is 


334 




26 


Central Provinces 


; C. F. Egerton. 


39l 


I8J 


34i 


35* 


26£ 


? 


R. McD. Hawker. 



GAUR 



441 



Widest 
outside. 


Circum- 
ference 
at base. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Length on 

outside 

curve of 

longer 

horn. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


39* 


20 


25i 


-.-.1 
33a 


31 


Anamalais 


C. W. Wood. 


39i 

39i 


17 

20^ 


3oi 
3i 


34i 
33* 


2S| 
2 72 


? 
? 


Major F. C. Samborne- 

Palmer. 
Capt. E. W. Thompson. 


392 


l8J 


22 


3 2 i 


332 


? 


A. M. Leake. 


-iC3 
J S 5 


I 7 1 


251 


32I 


3° 


? 


A. H. Sharp. 


3§i 


171 


28* 


33a 


27I. 


Cooch B.ehar . 


H. R. Beaumont. 


38 


18 


22^ 


33 


3I| 


Madras 


S. Cox. 


38 


l8 


23i 


32 


29 


Burma 


H. E. Beamish. 


38 


19 


18 


3i 


34i 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


38 


I9i 


24 


3i* 


3i 


? 


Rev. H. C. B. Stone. 


3/8 


i7i 


3°f 


32 


24J 


? 


Capt. A. C. H. Trevor. 


37i 


20| 


33 


33i 


25 


Burma 


Capt. T. A. Headlam. 


37i 


i'7i 


2 7i 


32S 


25l 


? 


G. Sandeman. 


37ir 


18 


19 


3H 


3i 


? 


Colonel Baillie. 


37i 


18} 


26J 


3if 


28 


Central Provinces 


J. C. T. Fairweather. 


2>ll 

37 


20 

17* 


25 
3il 


3ii 

33 


29 

24 


Chutia Nagpur 
District 

? 


Lieut. -Col. J. W. Yardley. 
Duke of Sutherland. 


36i 


2Il 


22^ 


29S 


28 


Pahang 


J. Scott Mason. 


36* 


174 


17 




28 


Mysore 


Col. G. H. Evans. 


36i 


16 


18 


3i 


3*1 


? 


W. Evetts. 


36i 


i8i 


26| 




26| 


? 


Lieut. -Col. R. H. Fraser. 


36i 


i8i 


20| 


29I 


2 9i 


Marutha . 


J. G. Heyder. 


36i 


i8| 


24l 


3o| 


27! 


Malay States . 


G. Hemmant. 


36 


174 


23i 


29i 


28 


S. India . 


Capt. C. S. Timins. 


36 




21J 


3ii 


24! 


Malay States 


H. E. Stewart. 


?3i 


Ml 


20| 


26^ 


24I 


? 


Capt. E. H. Wildblood. 


¥27 


i3i 


13 


22 


24 


N. Travancore . 


British Museum (Hume 



Collection). 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 





20 






4o| 


Belgaum . 


H. Murray. 


46 


20| 


33 


40 




Malay States . 


H. Da. Prah. 


454 


i7i 


36 


39! 


33i 


N. Travancore . 


G. E. Bewley. 


44 


2075 


23 




40 


Wynaad . 


F. Ditmas. 


43S 


18 


33 


38 


3i 


Burma 


G. H. Bell. 


432 


til 


28| 






Travancore 


H.H. the Maharaja of 
Travancore. 



442 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



'idest 
itside. 


Circum- 
ference 
at base. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


43 


20* 


i8| 




43 


17 


3of 




42§ 


1 81 




34i 


4 2 £ 


i6| 


J 2 5 




42 


22 


2 9i 




4^ 


i7 






39i 


20^ 


28 




3S* 


20 


2 3s 


32 



jength on 
outside 
curve of 

longer 

horn. 


Locality. 


39i 


Salwin, Burm 


291 


? 


3°i 


Pegu, Burma 




? 




Madras 


33 


Burma 


2 7i 


Duars 




S. Madras 



Owner. 

Bombay Natural History 

Society's Museum. 
K. J. K. Juntke. 

Capt. W. F. Brayne. 

W. B. Drury. 

C. W. G. Morris. 

S. E. F. Jenkins. 

E. T. Partridge. 

Capt. S. H. Charrington. 



N.B. — In the following specimens the maximum width is inside 

measurement. 



Widest 
inside. 


Circum- 
ference 
at base. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Length on 

outside 

curve of 

longer 

horn. 


Locality. 


39 


1 7| 


28^ 


2 9i 


Siam 


37* 


i8J 


22 


3°* 


Travancore 


36 


17 


26* 


27J 


Assam 


36 


15 


26* 


26 


Central Provinces 


35 


I7i 


20* 


2 7i 


Tezpore, Assam 


35 


18 


23 


26 


Burma 


34l 


18 


22J 


28 


Assam 


34* 


18 


23^ 


33l 


Cooch Behar . 


34 


i8i 


20* 


2 7i 


Travancore 


34 


1 51 


24I 


2 4i 


? 


34 


19 


27 


2 4 


Burma 


33l 


18 


23I 


2 5 


Kanara 


33i 


18 


151 


2 8£ 


Travancore 


ll\ 


15 


22 


2 3 


Assam 


32! 


i7i 


32* 


2 7s 


Central Provinces 


32! 


1 8i 


23I 


26 


Do. 


32^ 


19 


161 


26 


Do. 


3 2 i 


m 


2lf 


3i'i 


Travancore 


922 


io£ 


I4l 


22 


? 



Owner. 

A. Waley. 

A. T. Mackenzie. 

L. Truninger. 

Major John Fuller. 

A. Y. Thomson. 

Capt. S. L. Robinson. 

Hon. S. Tollemache. 

H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 

Behar. 
Lieut. -Col. the Hon. E. Baring. 

Major H. De Pree. 

W. F. Loftus-Tottenham. 

Lieut. -Col. G. J. Fitzgerald. 

Capt. H. L. Cottingham. 

Col. E. T. Paul. 

Major C. S. Cumberland. 

Major G. de H. Smith. 

Major C. F. Pinney. 

British Museum (Hume 

Collection). 
Major H. De Pree. 



u 



^ =1 



o a 



.fci 



-c £ 



o pq 
(35 



t: u o 







.3 


in 




as 


V >\ & 


a 


ON 


ON 


< 


M o 








hH 










< 










S 


u. C 

o <u 










■5 fs 


i 


CI 




< 


^"3 til 


^ 


N 


N 


a 


fit g 




M 




X 


5 '3 








h 


H <a 








w 


rt d. 








K 


™ S 

_bp.G 


c 


ro 


m 


>H 






ON 


o 


pq 


wl 


■a 

.J3 




cs 


P 










63 










a 











K~ 



4 12 





rt 


en 


|1 


w 




£ 


c 


H 


v ■ 



w 



Horns, 

ip to Ti 

round 

outer 


H 


One horn 
round 
outer 
curves. 



u 



443 



444 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Skull and Horns of Gayal. From a specimen bequeathed to the British Museum 
by the late Mr. A. O. Hume. 



^.-DOMESTICATED BREED or GAYAL. 

The gayal is a rather smaller animal than the wild gaur, nearly- 
black in colour, with a large dewlap, and a straight line between the bases 
of the massive horns, which are but little divergent, curved upwards, 
nearly cylindrical in section, and of dark colour. The head is short, 
with the forehead broad and fiat. It is a domesticated breed of the gaur, 
probably derived from the Malay and Tenasserim race of the latter. 

Distribution. — Kept in a semi-domesticated condition by many of the 
hill-tribes of Assam, Chittagong, etc. 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


T 


ip to Tip. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


i7i 




17 




41 


? 


British Museum. 


15 




"1 




26§ 


? 


Do. 


Hh. 




134 




28 


Tenasserim 


British Museum (I 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



22| 


12 


42 


Assam 


16 


Hi 


' 3°2 


Mishmi 


14 


14 







E. C. Stuart Baker. 

Bombay Natural History Society. 

Indian Museum. 



THE BANTIN OR TSAINE 445 




Head of Tsaine or Burmese Bantin. From a specimen shot by 
Maj.-Gen. H. D'U. Keary. 

The BANTIN or TSAINE (Bos [Bibos] sondaicus). 

This member of the gaur group departs somewhat less widely from 
the normal type of cattle than does the gaur, the ridge on the withers 
being less developed, and the horns almost cylindrical. The cows are 
always reddish coloured, although the bulls may be black, and in the 
latter sex at least there is typically a large white patch on the rump. 
Very distinctive of the species is the presence of a horny shield on 
the crown of the head connecting the bases of the horns. Height at 
shoulder, about 5 feet 9 inches. The humped cattle of India are 
probably domesticated derivatives of the bantin. 

Distribution. — Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Siam, Borneo, Java, Bali, 
and perhaps Sumatra. Several distinct races of the bantin are 
distinguishable. First, the true bantin, or Java ox \B. sondaicus 
typicus), from Java, and perhaps some of the other Malay islands 
and the Peninsula. In this race the old bulls become of a deep 
blackish -brown colour. The same tint is characteristic of the 
adult male Bornean bantin {B. sondaicus lowi), but the horns are 
directed more uprightly. A third race is the tsaine (B. sondaicus 
birmanicus), which inhabits Burma, and may extend northwards to 
Manipur. Old bulls generally retain the fawn-colour of the cows 



446 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



throughout life, showing more or less of grey on the head, but it is 
stated that very old individuals are occasionally nearly black. The 
Siamese tsaine, which, in at least some individuals, is profusely 
speckled with white, has been named B. s. porteri. Another race 
is represented by the Cochin China tsaine, of which the general 
colour is orange. 



Length on 
outside 
curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Widest 
outside. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


34* 


«3 


21 


32* 


361 


Cochin China . 


. H.R.H. the Due de 
Montpensier. 


3i4 


i6i 


21* 


3ii 


36} 


Upper Burma . 


H. W. James. 


30 


i6i 


24* 


32 




Do. 


. Capt. H. W. Marsden. 


29 


13 


24I 


33? 


371 


Do. 


Capt. W. R. Savage. 


29 


16 


28 


34l 




Burma 


. H. L. P. Walsh. 


28^ 


171 


281 


34 




Do. 


W. O. Hannyngton. 


28I 


I6S 


40I 


40| 




Do. 


Capt. T. A. Headlam. 


28 


15 


19S 


29* 


35 


Do. 


Capt. L. E. Burne. 


27I 


Mi 


19* 


3°* 


35 


Do. 


Capt. J. M. Stewart. 


27J 


15 


34* 


381 


42! 


Do. 


. Maj.-Gen.H.D'U.Keary. 
(See illustration, p. 445). 


27 


Ml 


20£ 


28i 




Upper Burma . 


. British Museum (R.McD. 
Hawker). 


27 


i7f 


24f 


32| 




Do. 


. J. McF. Petters. 


27 


i6| 


23l 


29I 


34i 


Do. 


P. Grace. 


26^ 


i6£ 


2I| 


28 




Java 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, 
Bart. 


26 1- 


Mi 


24* 


32 




Lower Burma . 


S. F. Hopwood. 


26i 


16 


22 


30* 


35* 


Do. 


T. Norman. 


26 


i6| 


32 


35 


39S 


Burma 


. Major C. P. Gunter. 


25S 


i6§ 


20j 


26! 




Siam 


. H. C. V. Hunter. 


251 


I7l 


13 


24 




Burma 


Major C. S. Cumberland. 


25 


15 


22§ 


28 


3 2 5 


Java 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


24* 


16 


21* 


28^ 


33 


* Do. 


Capt. L. P. Haviland. 


24i 


Ml 


22 


28 


32i 


Do. 


. M. Maxwell. 


24 


16 


25 


30 


33* 


? 


E. V. Ellis. 


23f 


M 


2lJ 


11 


26^ 


Java 


British Museum. 


23 


i6| 


30 


29I 




Do. . 


. C. W. A. Buma. 


?23 


I2i 


i6£ 


25 




Upper Burma . 


. R. McD. Hawker. 


?22£ 


13* 


i5l 


23 




Java 


. C. W. A. Buma. 


22 


Mi 


11* 


20J 


24* 


Borneo . 


. H. P. Perry. 








OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS 




331 


17 


264 


35 




Upper Burma . 


. Lieut. -Col. H. S.Wood. 


3°* 


i5i 


271 


36 




Do. 


S. E. F. Jenkins. 


3° 


17 








Java 


Indian Museum. 


3° 


15* 


20 


38* 




Burma 


Bombay Natural History 
Society. 


29 


151 


24 


33 




Do. ... 


. J. P. Cook. 


28* 


174 


3°* 


36 




Do. 


Lieut. -Col. G. H. Evans. 


28£ 


15 


264 


36| 




Do. 


II. Van Son. 


27* 


18 


29* 




40* 


Do. 


. J. E. F. Marshall. 


27* 


15 


23* 


3 2 § 


37* 


Do. 


. Capt. C. H. Elliot. 


27i 


Ml 


24i 


33i 


37M 


Do. 


Capt. W. F. Brayne. 


24 


16! 


24 


28f 




Borneo . 


P. C. Brackenbury. 



DOMESTICATED CATTLE 



447 




Skull and Horns of Lake Chad Ox. Presented to the British Museum by Capt. A. C. Aubin. 

DOMESTICATED CATTLE (Bos taurus and B. indicus). 

The ordinary domesticated cattle of Europe, such as the Spanish 
fighting bull, the Kerry, Pembroke, Highland, and Jersey breeds, are the 
descendants of the primitive wild ox, or aurochs (a name frequently 
misapplied to the bison) of Europe and North Africa {Bos taurus 
primigenius), now completely extinct in the wild state, although it 
survived in Poland till the sixteenth century. On the other hand, 
some of the large light-coloured cattle of Southern Europe, such as the 
draught-oxen of Northern Spain, and the cattle of Italy, Greece, and 
Hungary, appear to be derived from the zebu, although some have been 
crossed with North European cattle. Their horns are unlike those of 
the aurochs. The zebu or humped cattle of India and the Galla 
and other large-horned cattle of Africa evidently represent a distinct 
species {Bos indicus), probably descended from the bantin. To the 
same species belong the Ankoli cattle of Uganda and the ancient 
Egyptian long-horned breed, as well as the trek oxen of the Cape, in 
all of which the hump is obsolete. 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Locality. 




Owner. 


8ii 


i§i 


I032 




Ngamiland . 


The late W. 


C. Oswell. 


_? 


17 


IOO 


124 

- Owner's 


Do. 

measurements. 


A. Ohlsson. 





448 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on Circum- 
outside curve, ference. 



57 

57 

564 

56 

52* 

5° 

4»S 

47 
42| 

4i| 
4il 

41* 
4°i 

39* 

-381 

38* 

37l 

3il 

3i 
3°s 

29s 

24* 

171 



17 

19* 

17* 

25* 

iS 

i6| 

i5l 
23I 

14 
27 

14* 

«i 

15 
I2| 
10* 
12 

IQj 

18 

I2 i 

11* 

8| 

io§ 



Tip to Tip. 

72 
82 
76* 
101 
40 

93 
67 

21* 

22* 
52f 

45* 



6o§ 

51* 

53l 

543 
60 

23! 
32* 
35 

iSi 
30* 



Widest 
inside. 



Locality. 

South Africa 
Bechuanaland 
South Africa . 
Ngamiland 
Bahr-el-Ghazal 

Natal . 

German 

E. Africa 
Gallaland 

Borneo 

(N. W. Africa). 
Madagascar . 

N. Nigeria . 



Ankoli . 

Vienna (Polish 

Bull) 
Uganda 

Hungary 

Italy . 

Cape of Good 

Hope 
Gallaland 

Nigeria 

Spain . 

Gambia 

Mysore 

Buenos Aires 
(Niata Breed) 

- Owner's measurements. 



Owner. 

W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 
R. A. Cooper. 
British Museum. 

British Museum (Capt. F. W. 

Woodward). 
British Museum (Col. H. W. 

Feilden). 
Berlin Museum. 

British Museum (Sir H. Salt). 

British Museum (Capt. Clapper- 
ton, R.N., and Col. Denham). 
Bethnal Green Museum. 

British Museum (Capt. A. C. 

Aubin). (See illustration, 

page 447.) 
British Museum. 

Do. 

C. Craig. 

Dr. Albert von Stephani. 
Bethnal Green Museum. 
British Museum. 

A. E. Butter. 

P. M. Dwyer. 

British Museum. 

British Museum (13th Earl of 

Derby). 
British Museum. 

British Museum (G. Claraz). 



The following specimens belong to British white park-cattle, which, 
although now half wild, are the descendants of domesticated breeds, 
probably nearly allied to the Pembroke : — 



Length on Circum- „■■ ry,- 

ifcirlf rnrvp ffrpnrf t' 



outside curve. ference. 



18* 


9* 


18* 


7 


18* 


IO§ 


?i8£ 


7 


iSi 


91 


15 


7* 



348 

20 

10* 
i7i 

20? 



Widest 
inside. 



i5l 
i84 



Locality. 

Chartley Park 

Do. 

Chillingham 
Park 
Do. 

Do. 
Chartley Park 



Owner. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Major James Grant. 

British Museum (Earl of 
Tankerville). 
Do. 

British Museum (Duke of 

Hamilton). 
Capt. G. W. Hill, R.N. 



HIPPOPOTAMUS 449 



The HIPPOPOTAMUS (Hippopotamus amphibius). 

Gumari, Abyssinian. Robi, Galla. Jzr, Somali. 

Ikubu, Basuto. Dprina, Hausa. Kiboko, Swahili. 

Zee-koe, Boer. Macozv, Masai. fmvubu, Swazi. 

Mourvu, Chilala. Tumunto, M'Kua. Moubu, Waganda. 

Dul, Danakil. Girinti, Sudanese. Chivhubwe, Chila. 

Such a familiar animal as the uncouth and unwieldy hippopotamus 
— the largest member of the swine group — requires but little in the 
way of description here. It is distinguished from the pigs and wart- 
hogs by the broad and rounded muzzle — so unlike the disc-shaped 
snout of the latter — and consequently typifies a family by itself. The 
tusks and molars are likewise of a totally different and distinctive 
type ; while the feet have four sub -equal toes with symmetrical, 
rounded nails. In all its organisation the hippopotamus is beautifully 
adapted for a semi-aquatic life ; the eyes and nostrils forming the 
highest points of the head, and thus allowing it to come up and breathe 
with the least possible exposure of its body. The weight of a full- 
grown bull hippo is at least three tons, and the total length about 14 ft. 
Height at shoulder, about 3 ft. 10 ins. Hippos are chiefly hunted 
for the sake of their hides, which are manufactured into sjamboks, or 
raw-hide whips. Their tusks also have a certain commercial value, 
although not so great as formerly, when they were employed for 
artificial teeth. 

Distribution. — Formerly this animal frequented most of the rivers of 
Africa south of the Sahara, but it has long since been exterminated 
from the lower reaches of the Nile, and is daily becoming scarcer 
in the South African rivers. In the Zambesi, where it is less easily 
attacked than in the smaller rivers of Mashonaland, it is still 
abundant, as it also is in the Chobi and neighbouring rivers, as 
well as in Lake Ngami ; and even in the lower reaches of the 
Orange River a few are still to be met with. North of the 
Zambesi these animals occur in great numbers. 



Lower Curved Tusks, or Canines. 

Weight. Locality. Owner. 

E. Africa . . . Sir F. J. Jackson. 

B.E.Africa . . . Dr. G. A. Macdonald. 
1 Malformed. 



Length round 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


64! 


7i 


^44 


61 



2 G 



45° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length round 
outside curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Weight. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


4i£ 


81 




S.E. Africa . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


1 4 I 


8 




Tana River, East Africa . 


J. Benett Stanford. 


2 37i 


8i 




Shire River 


Capt. A. T. Hunt, R.N. 


35 
34l 


9 
9i 


8 lbs. 

7 4 11 


J- Sudan . . . . 


Capt. J. A. Pollock. 


33 


9i 




N.W. Rhodesia 


K. C. North. 


32 


94 




Lualaba, Central Africa . 


S. L. Hinde. 


-) T 3 
3 l 4= 


6| 




B.C. Africa . 


F. W. Bowman. 


3I| 


1 of 




? 


The late Sir Clement Hill. 


3I| 


9* 




? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


3*i 


9 




? 


E. L. Fletcher. 


31 


10 




N.E. Rhodesia 


G. M. E. Leyer. 


30I 


9i 




Abyssinia 


D. P. MacGillivray. 


30I 


7! 




Sierra Leone . 


Major G. S. McLaughlin. 


30 


9 




Shire River 


Surgeon J. Dowson, R.N. 


3° 


9 




Zambesia 


E. W. Tompson. 


3° 


9 




British Central Africa 


R. M. Irwin. 


28| 


8J 




Gold Coast 


H. J. Hobbs. 


3 22 


91 




N. Nigeria 


F. B. Shafto. 



x 5i 

2 38 
3°i 
29i 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

S.E. Africa . . .J. Lamont. 



Nyasaland 
Lower Zambesi 
N. Nigeria 



Major P. W. Forbes. 
H. M. von Archer. 
Capt. C. F. Watson. 



2\\ 

20§ 

194 
19 

i8i 



6| 

7h 

7h 

71 



Lower Straight Tusks, or Incisors. 

Abyssinia . . . D. P. MacGillivray. 

Lower Zambesi . . Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

. Capt. J. A. Pollock. 



3f lbs -\ Sudan 



Nigeria . 
N.W. Rhodesia 



Major J. A. Burdon. 
K. C. North. 



1 Malformed. 



2 Malformed and protruding from jaw. 



3 Protruding from gum. 



PIGMY HIPPOPOTAMUS 



451 




Young Pigmy Hippopotamus. 



PIGMY HIPPOPOTAMUS (Hippopotamus [Chceropotamus] liberiensis). 

The pigmy hippopotamus of Liberia and the adjacent parts of the 
West Coast, measures only about 6 feet in length, and has habits 
approaching those of a pig. It also differs from the typical species by 
having, as a, rule, only one pair of incisor teeth between the tusks, in 
place of two pairs, as well as in the relative size of the head and the 
conformation of the limbs. 

Measurements of a specimen shot near Salon, on the Mauwa River, 
about 2 miles from the Liberian frontier : — 



Length from nose to tip of tail 
Height at withers .... 

Girth behind shoulders 

Weight about .... 

Curved tusks measured 3-| and 3-§ ins. (projecting 
from skull) ; girth 



7%\ ins. 
37 ins. 
56 ins. 
600 lbs. 



3f ins. 



Skull measurements of a Liberian specimen in the Tring Museum 



Length 

Width 

Weight 

Tusks. 
Total length. 



Girth. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



13^ ins. 
7% ins. 
5 lbs. 



(Skarcies River, ] 
Karene District, J- Capt. E. J. Carter. 
Sierra Leone j 



45: 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Wild Boar. 



The WILD BOAR (Sus scrofa). 

The European wild boar is a large coarse-haired species usually 
with an under-coat of woolly fur, no warts on the face, and standing 
from about 33 to $6 inches at the shoulder. It often lacks the crest 
or mane of long black bristles running from the nape down the back 
in its Indian cousin. Hungarian and Russian wild swine represent a 
race (S. scrofa attild) distinguished by its large size ; and several other 
local races have been named. 

A Spanish boar killed by H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans weighed 302 lbs. 

Distribution. — Europe, North Africa, and South-Western 
and Central Asia. 











Tusks. 


Length on 

outside curve. 

Right. Left. 


Length of 
tusk out 
of gum. 




Locality. 


13 






Albania 




12 






Do. . 




9l 






Andalucia . 




9l 






Asia Minor 




J 9i 






Caucasus . 




9} 






Do. 




9 






Albania 




8 


24 




Russia 





Owner. 

Lord Brackley. 

Lord Carnegie. 

H.R.H. the Due de Montpensier. 

Admiral Sir Michael Culme-Seymour, 

Bart. 
Prince E. Demidoff. 

Do. 

Sir Reginald Cathcart, Bart. 
Count J. Potocki. 



13 
"1 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 
New Zealand (introduced) . G. W. Campbell. 
Caucasus .... Col. Veernhof. 
1 Weight, 372 lbs. 



INDIAN WILD BOAR 



453 



Length on 
outside curve. 
Right. Left. 

Ill 



84 



8i 



Length of, 
tusk out 
of gum. 



Locality. 

Caucasus . 

New Zealand (introduced) 

Hungary . 

Algeria 

Near Bona, Algeria . 

Algeria 

1 Weight, 275 lbs. clean. 



Major Robert Finnie. 

H. J. Mussen. 

Count G. Andrassy. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 

Lieut. -Col. J. Marriott. 



INDIAN WILD BOAR (Sus cristatus). 

This species is allied to the typical wild boar, from which it is 
distinguished by the strong development of the dorsal crest and the 
rather more complex character of the last lower molar tooth. Other 
and more distinct species, such as wS". vittatus, S. verrucosus, and the 
long-snouted S. barbatus, inhabit the Malay countries. 



Length on 
outside curve. 



I2§ 
I2j 

Hi 
I Of 
IO§ 

9l 

9i 



'} 



9l 

91 

9i 

9 

82 

81 



Weight. 



Locality. 



Gosrama 
Upper Assam 

Kotri Dun . 

Assam 
Meerut 



Burma 

North Kanara 
Central Provinces 
Ceylon 
182 lbs. Jhelam 
Oudh 
Roorkee 
Meerut 



Owner. 

V. N. Hickley. 
J. D. Berrington. 
C. F. Knyvett. 
T. H. Carlisle. 
N. Williamson. 
A. F. Brooke. 
Dr. Travers. 
Langford Whitehouse. 
Major C. Gough. 

Lieut. -Col. L. L. Fenton. 

Lieut. -Col. J. S. Ashby. 

Major F. H. N. Pym. 

Capt. W. F. Brayne. 

J. C. Faunthorpe. 

C. Bovill. 

Capt. S. H. Charrington. 



454 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Weight. 


Locality. 


14! 




Behar, Purneah . 


Hi 

(malformed) 




Purneah 


mi 




Hills above Jamu 


io| 




North Kanara 


\o\ 




Burma 


ioi 






10 




Ceylon 


9f 




- 



Owner. 
Capt. L. Cheape. 

H. R. P. Carter, recorded in Field, 
19th January 1895. (See illus- 
tration. ) 

Col. Sir Neville Chamberlain. 

Bombay Natural History Society. 
Mrs. O. F. Wheeler-Cuffe. 
Meerut Tent Club. 
H. Storey. 
Meerut Tent Club. 



The following specimen belongs to one of the above-mentioned 
Malay species. 



Length on w . h 

itsinp rlrvp. to 



outside curve 



Locality. 



North Borneo 



Owner. 
C. P. Brook. 




in I . 1 1 . 



2 

III III 



<il ii 1 1 l 1 1 1 5 

I I I I I I I 



11 " I 1 ' 14 
I 1 I I I 1 I 



1 1 1 1 I 1 
Mill 



2 



inch. 



Abnormal Lower Tusk of Wild Boar. 



BUSH PIG— RED RIVER- HOG 45 5 

The BUSH -PIG (Potamochoerus chreropotamus). 

Bosch-vark, Cape Dutch. Ingulubi, Swazi and Zulu. 

The bush-pigs, or river-hogs, of Africa and Madagascar form a 
peculiar group of swine characterised by having only 42, in place of 
44, teeth, small tusks, and the presence in old boars of two pairs of 
ridge-like prominences on the sides of the face, the lower one being on 
the sheath of the tusk. The ears are surmounted with tufts of long hair. 
The various species are best distinguished by the characters of their 
skulls, colour forming an uncertain guide. The Cape bush - pig, or 
bosch-vark, in which the upper prominences on the skulls of old boars 
are convex and raised above the line of the nose, is generally grey, 
although scarcely any two specimens exhibit the same colours, some 
being brownish black variegated with white, and others almost entirely 
light reddish brown or rufous, without any white markings. In British 
Central Africa they are invariably reddish, and form a distinct race, 
P. c. nyasce. Height at shoulder, about 3 1 inches ; weight, 3 5 lbs. 
Lower tusks average 6 to 7 inches long. 

Distribution. — South and South- East Africa. 



Lengt 
Upper. 


h. 
Lower. 


Exposed 
from gum. 


Locality. Owner. 


31 


6J 




N. E. Rhodesia . . Hon. Walter Rothschild 






43 


P.E. Africa . . . F. Vaughan Kirby. 


Height at 
shoulder. 




Weight. 




-23i 




35 ^s. 


Shire River, British Central Dr. Percy Rendall. 
Africa 

- Owner's measurements. 



The RED RIVER -HOG- (Potamochoerus porcus). 

In this species the prominences on the skulls of adult boars are 
fiat-topped, and do not reach above the line of the nose ; the colour is 
always some shade of rufous, either shining brownish red with a tinge 
of yellow, or dark reddish yellow with black on the forehead, ears, and 
limbs, and the mane of the back, part of the margins of the ears, the 
tips of the long tufts of hairs with which they are surmounted, and 
streaks above and below the eyes white. Weight, 250-260 lbs., 
Nigeria (Major J. B. Cockburn). 

Distribution. — West Africa. 



456 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Head of Forest-Hog. Shot by Lieut.-Col. J. W. Yardley. 



The FOREST -HOG (Hylochcerus meinertzhageni). 

A huge black pig serving in some respects to connect the bush-pigs 
with the wart-hogs, although markedly distinct from both. The boars 
have a large fungus-like warty growth below each eye. Height at 
shoulder, 30 ins.; weight, 265 lbs. clean (Capt. F. L. Archer-Houblon). 

Distribution. — Kenia, the Nandi Forest, and Abyssinia ; represented by 
a local race in the Eastern Cameruns, and a third in the Ituri 
Forest. 

Upper Tusks. 

Owner. 

G. St. J. Orde Browne. 
R. Kenyon-Slaney. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Lieut.-Col. J. W. Yardley. 
British Museum. 
E. B. Home. 
G. C. Slacke. 



G. St. J. Orde Browne. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

British Museum. 

G. C. Slacke. 

Lieut.-Col. J. W. Yardley. 

R. Kenyon-Slaney. 

E. B. Home. 



Total 


Protruding 


Circum- 


Locality. 


Length. 


from gum. 


ference. 


\z\ 




4g 


Kenia 




IO| 


5« 


Mount Kenia 


ion 

91/ 




4l 


Nandi Forest 




H 


4i 


Mount Kenia 




H 


si 


Do. . . . 




7h 


4i 


Do. 




7* 


Si 


Do. . 
Lower Tusks. 


9k 




2% 


Kenia 


HI 




3h 


Nandi Forest 




6| 


3h 


Do. . . . 




4l 


3 


Mount Kenia 




Si 


3 


Do. . 




Si 


2| 


Do. 




yi 


2| 


Do. . 



WART-HOG 



457 






Tusks of Wait-Hog in American National Collection. 



The WART-HOG (Phacochcerus aethiopicus). 



Bango or JStguruwi, Swahili. 
Halliif, Sudani. 
Ikulubi, Basuto. 
Indaigasana, Swazi and Zulu. 
Karkari, Somali. 



Ngolobivi, Barotsi and Ngami. 
Njiriox Injiri, Chilala and Chibisa. 
Vlak-vark, Boer. 
Gado and Darunga, Hausa. 
Ngron, M'Kua. 



Shmikoli, Chi la. 

For downright ugliness the African wart-hog is hard to beat, and 
as it is well armed and possesses a bad temper, it is in all respects an 
undesirable acquaintance. The name is derived from the presence of 
two pairs of wart-like protuberances on the sides of the face between 
the eyes and the tusks ; the head itself being characterised by the 
disproportionate length and flatness of the face. Unlike typical pigs, 
the stout upper tusks are longer than the lower pair ; the inferior 
surfaces of their basal halves being worn to smooth facets by the 
points of the latter. Another peculiarity of the upper tusks is that 
they have no enamel, except at the extreme tips, which are soon worn 
off by use. The last molar teeth of each jaw, which, together with the 
tusks, are often the only teeth remaining in very old animals, are large 
and tall-crowned, consisting of a number of closely-packed cylindrical 
columns of enamel, which, when worn, present a characteristic pattern. 



458 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



This type of tooth is quite unlike that of ordinary pigs, in which the 
last molars are low-crowned and simple. Except along the neck and 
back, where it carries a mane of bristly hair, the skin is nearly naked ; 
and the young differ from those of ordinary pigs in being neither 
striped nor spotted. Height at shoulder, 30 inches. Weight (Capt. 
R. Meinertzhagen), 210 lbs. 

Distribution, — The wart-hog is typically an inhabitant of South and 
South-East Africa. Pigs of the same genus extend, however, 
right through East and Central Africa to Abyssinia ; those from 
the latter country forming a local race {P. <zthiopicus africanus). 
Wart-hogs, possibly from their habit of going to ground when 
pursued, are but seldom hunted with the spear ; " pig-sticking " 
being, in fact, a sport practically unknown in Africa. The lower 
tusks seldom exceed 6 inches on the front curve. 



Outside 
spread. 



34 







Upper Tusks. 




Length on 


Length exposed 


Locality. 


Owner. 


outside curve. 


from gum. 






22§ 


21 


Uganda 


Rev. A. B. Fisher. 


22 




? 


J. N. Coute. 




16 


South Africa 


W. A. Simpson Hinchliffe. 




151 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 




i5i 


British Central Africa . 


A. J. Swann. 




i4i 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


H. Cookson. 


I7| 


i5i 


East Africa 


R. S. Meikle. 


i7i 




Portuguese Nyasa 


C. F. Tristram. 


i6i 


I2i 


East Africa . 


Capt. the Hon. O. H. Stanley 


i6i 




Do. . 


Capt. V. C. de Crespigny. 


I5i 


15! 


N. Nigeria . 


Capt. C. F. Watson. 


i5l 


15 


East Africa 


A. J. A. Douglas. 


i5i 


13 


Somaliland . 


Major K. L. W. Mackenzie. 


i5l 




N.E. Rhodesia . 


F. H. Melland. 




I3l 


S. Rhodesia 


C. W. Adams. 




i3i 


East Africa . 


Mrs. J. E. R. Oldfield. 


i5 


134 


British Central Africa 


R. II. Storey. 


Hi 




Do. 


John Yule. 




I2f 


Do. 


Capt. C. J. Murray. 


Ml 


12 


Do. 


Dr. J. E. S. Old. 




"i 


Sudan 


Lord Desborough. 


14 


»i 


Do. 


Capt. A. C. Jeffcoat. 


133 


1 if 


N. Nigeria . 


Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


i3tV 




Somaliland . 


Major B. R. M. Glossop. 




13* 


East Africa 


Walter Jones. 




13 


South- East Africa 


F. C. Selous. 




I2i 


East Africa 


Major H. W. Stevens. 




iai 


Do. 


Percy C. Madeira. 




12 


N.W. Rhodesia . 


J. Ripley. 




12 


East Africa 


C. W. Turner. 




"1 


? 


J. Kingdon. 




«i 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


P, M. Stewart. 



WART-HOG 



459 



Outside 
spread. 



Length on 
outside curve. 



Length exposed 
from gum. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


Hi 


East Africa 


Gorham Brooks. 


II* 


Do. 


B. Dominick. 


I I 


N.E. Rhodesia . 


Sir Philip Brocklehurst, Bart 


II 


? 


R. B. Loder. 


II 


East Africa 


F. Santos Saurez. 


I of 


Do. 


Major H. B. Dalgety. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



371 



20 


164 


South Africa 


27 \ 
26 J 




Annesley Bay 


25 




British East Africa 




i6i 


S. Nigeria . 




"1 


Angola 



American National Collection. 
(See illustration, p. 457.) 

Capt. Ralph Berners, B.N. 

C. S. Mann. 
E. A. Martin. 
W. C. Neilson. 



11* 
9* 



Lower Tusks. 

Somaliland 
Do. 

-Owner's measurements. 



Major K. L. W. Mackenzie. 
J. D. Inverarity. 




Modelled in the Rowland Ward Studios. 

Head of Wart- Hog. 



460 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



p™ jA 


rJ 


"0 ; v 


Y t 


> v , 4 > 




ya, 


^yiil 






■ • V •: «*'' —.-* 1 


s 'km 


jsfr# ^s^'iai 



Head of Babirusa. 



The BABIRUSA (Babirusa celebensis). 

Pig-deer (to translate the Malay name) are not the least notable of 
several remarkable animals restricted to Celebes and Boru ; the peculiar 
form and position of the upper tusks of the boars rendering them almost 
comparable to horns. Unlike those of other pigs, in which they curve 
upwards from the sides of the lips, the upper tusks pierce the skin 
of the upper part of the snout, and, as they are not worn by the 
lower pair, attain extraordinary dimensions. Both pairs are quite 
devoid of enamel, the lower ones growing from the sides of the jaw in 
the ordinary manner. The cheek-teeth are somewhat less numerous 
than in ordinary pigs. In other parts of their organisation babirusas 
are, however, very like the latter, although the nearly naked skin of 
B. celebensis is of a coarse and rugged nature, being almost comparable 
to the bark of a tree. The height at the middle of the back, the 
highest point of the animal, is about 42 inches. Unlike the rest of 
its tribe, the female babirusa produces only a pair of young at a birth, 
which are of the same uniformly slaty hue as their parent. Babirusa 
are confined to the islands of Celebes and Boru, where they afford good 
sport to the natives, who drive them into nets and then spear them. 
The Boru species (B. alfurus) is clothed with greyish hair, and also 
differ in the character of the skull and tusks from the Celebes 
B. celebensis. 



BABIRUSA 461 

Dr. Guillemard, in the Cruise of the " Marchesa" recorded the 
following weights and dimensions : — 

Weight, male, 128 lbs.; female, 85 lbs. 
Height at shoulder, 27^ ins. ; female, 25^ ins. 



Tusks. 

Length. 



Owne 



Upper. Lower. 

i6| 13! Rowland Ward. 

14I 12 M. Maxwell. 

OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

17 ... H. Van Son. 

Hi ... Dr. F. H. H. Guillemard. 

13^ 15 Imperial Museum, Vienna. 

11 8 § Dr. Albert von Stephani. 



462 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Record Horn of Great Indian Rhinoceros. Shot by the late T. Briscoe. 



The GREAT INDIAN RHINOCEROS (Rhinoceros unicornis). 

In addition to being the giant among its Asiatic kindred and 
possessing only a single horn, this species is specially characterised by 
the form of the folds in its hide, and the large tubercles on the fore- 
and hind-quarters, which look as though the skin had been fastened 
to the body by means of rivets. Folds before and behind the 
shoulder mark off one large triangular shield on each side, while 
another fold before each thigh separates a large rump- shield ; the 
saddle -shaped body- shield being denned by the fold behind the 
shoulder and the one in front of the thigh, both of which extend across 
the back. Very characteristic, too, are the great folds which form 
heavy rings of skin round the neck. Although the tubercles are 
largest on the fore- and hind-quarters, they also occur on other parts 
of the body. Height at shoulder, from 5 feet 8 inches to over 6 feet ; 
girth behind shoulder, 105 inches. Weight of living animal, 1010 
lbs. {New York Zool. Soc). 



GREAT INDIAN RHINOCEROS 



463 



Distribution. — The Assam plain and the Tarailand of Nepal and some 
of the adjacent territories. Formerly this rhinoceros was found 
over the greater part of the Indian peninsula, as attested by fossil 
remains. There is evidence of the occurrence of a more or less 
nearly related rhinoceros, apparently with two horns, in the Singpu 
district of Upper Burma. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circum- 
ference. 


W( 


:ight. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


24 


2 4 f 






Assam 


British Museum (the late T. Briscoe) 


I9§ 


22§ 






Assam (?) . 


Ipswich Museum. 


i8| 


23i 


4 lbs. 


9 oz. 


Assam 


. D. H. Felce. 


? 18 


16 






Do. . ' . 


. The late M. H. Logan. 


i6| 








Belsire, Assam . 


. W. C. Sherwill. 


?i6i 








Cooch Behar 


H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch Behar. 


? 16 




J2 


lbs. 


Nowgong, Assam 


L. Fabre Tonnerre. 


15 


22| 






Nepal 


Dr. T. G. Longstaff. 


14* 


21 






Assam 


. Dr. W. P. Y. Bainbrigge. 


9 14 


22j 


4l 


lbs. 


Nowgong, Assam 


L. Fabre Tonnerre. 


I3i 


22 






Nepal 


His Majesty The King. 


13 


20 






Do. 


. Capt. M. L. Pears. 


13 


20j 






Assam 


. G. A. Dolby. 


13 


20| 






Do. 


. W. A. Doxat. 


I2| 


23 






Do. 


II. B. Firman. 


I2| 


2l| 






Do. 


. H. C. Holland. 


12* 


21 






? 


J. W. Grieve. 


12 


2li 






Cooch Behar 


. A. Ezra. 


12 


2I| 






Nepal 


Major Lord Charles M. Nairne. 


"8 


I9f 






Do. 


. H.S.H. the Duke of Teck. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



2l£ 

13 
13 

I2i 



245 



15! 



Nepal 


Lord Curzon of Kedleston. 


Cooch Behar 


H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch Behar 


Do. 


Do. 


? 


Indian Museum, Calcutta. 


Cooch Behar 


Col. J. J. Harrison. 



1 Height at shoulder, 6 ft. 6 ins. 



464 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Javan Rhinoceros. Shot by Mr. M. Maxwell. 



The JAVAN RHINOCEROS (Rhinoceros sondaicus). 

A less gigantic and smaller-headed species than the last, with the 
skin marked by a kind of mosaic pattern, and the fold in front of the 
shoulder continued right across the body like the two hindmost folds. 
The neck also lacks the large ring-like masses of folded skin. Horn 
never very large, and generally almost or completely wanting in the 
female. A female has been measured which stood 5^ feet at the 
shoulder, and it is probable that the male is not much inferior in 
height to the Indian species, although of lighter build. 

Distribution. — The Sanderbans and other parts of Eastern Bengal, to 
the Tarai, Sikhim, Assam, and thence through Burma and the 
Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 



Length on 
front curve. 


Circumference. 




Locality. 


Owner. 




lOf 
IO| 


20 
I9§ 


Java 
Do. 




M. Maxwell. (See 

tion). 
British Museum. 


illustra 


IOg 


19^ 


Do. 




H. Van Son. 




H 


20 


Do. 









SUM A TR AN RHINOCEROS 



465 



^aax^ggs 




Front Horn of Sumatran Rhinoceros. Shot by Mr. G. F. W. Curtis. 



The SUMATRAN RHINOCEROS (Rhinoceros [Ceratorhinus] l sumatrensis). 

The smallest of the Asiatic rhinoceroses, and the only one with two 
horns ; differing, however, from the African members of the genus by 
the presence of folds in the skin and of teeth in the front of the jaws. 
Only the fold behind the shoulders is continued across the back, and 
the brown or black skin is rough, granular, and more or less hairy. 
Height at shoulder, from about 4 feet to \\ feet ; weight, about 2000 lbs. 

Distribution. — From Assam (where the species is very rare) to Siam, 
the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The Assam animal is. 
a distinct local race {R. sumatrensis lasiotis). 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circu 


mfei 


■ence. 




Locality. 


Owner. 


Front. 


Rear. 


Front. 




Rear. 








324 




• 171 








? 


British Museum, 


275 




i7l 








? 


Do. 


15 


7h 


1 7h 




17 


Malay 


Peninsula 


. C. B. Smales. 


II 


3h 


i5i 




"i 




? 


Sir T. S. Tancred, Bart. 


7 


2l 


14 




IO 




? 


Capt. P. Hudson. 


5 


2| 


13 




II 


Burma 




. Capt. W. F. Braync 



1 An earlier name is Dicerorhinus, but this is too like Diceros, the subgeneric (or generic) name of the African 
rhinoceroses. 

2 H 



466 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Mr. S. L. Hinde's Horns of Black Rhinoceros. 



The BLACK RHINOCEROS (Rhinoceros [Diceros] bicornis). 



Aurarissi, Abyssinian. 
Abu Gesn-Kkartyl, Sudani. 
Chipamberi, Lower Zambesi. 
Chipemberi, Chilala. 
Fava, Swahili. 
Gurhu, Danakil. 
Muin, Masai. 
Kifuvi or Marili, Hausa. 



Mcgi, M'Kua. 

Sipejana, Swazi and Matonga. 

Upejana, Matabili and Zulu. 

Upelepi, Basuto. 

W arises, Gal la. 

Wil, Somali. 

Zwart Rhinaster, Boer. 

S/iempola, Chila. 



The African rhinoceroses are two -horned animals, distinguished 
from their Asiatic relatives by the absence or slight development of 
the folds of skin which form such a characteristic feature of the latter, 
and also by the lack of front teeth in both the upper and lower jaws. 
The hide, too, is almost completely naked, although there are some 
bristly hairs on the margins of the ears and the tip of the tail. 

Perhaps the most distinctive external feature of the black rhino- 
ceros, as the present species is commonly called, is to be found in the 
prehensile tip to the upper lip, which is rounded and not very wide in 
front. Other points of distinction are, however, shown by the form of 
the horns and ears and the position of the eyes ; while in bodily size 



BLACK RHINOCEROS 467 

this animal is also considerably inferior to the next. The black 
rhinoceros is likewise well characterised by the comparative shortness of 
its skull, and the form and structure of the cheek-teeth, which are adapted 
for a diet of twigs and leaves. Average height at shoulder, 5 feet. 
Weight (Capt. R. Meinertzhagen), 1 ton 1 cwt. 1 qr. 8 lbs. 

Black rhinoceroses sometimes have more than the usual two horns. 
Gordon Cumming, for instance, records having killed a three -horned 




Head of Black Rhinoceros. 

specimen ; and several others have been recorded from East Africa, 
including a five-horned specimen. 

Distribution. — From Abyssinia and Somaliland through East and 
Central Africa, in suitable localities, to the Cape. Now rare to 
the south of the Zambesi, but probably more abundant in the 
districts between the interior of Somaliland and Lake Rudolf 
than anywhere else. Although more alert and active than the 
white rhinoceros, and thus a more dangerous animal, this species is 
by no means difficult to kill with modern weapons ; and in the old 
days hunters frequently shot half-a-dozen in a single evening as they 



468 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

came to drink at a pool. Of the local races at present named, the 
E. African R. bicomis holmwoodi is distinguished by the long 
and compressed front horn ; while the Somali R. b. somaliensis is 
a relatively small form characterised by the proportions of the 

skull. 

6 Living animal, 602 lbs. {New York Zool. Soc. ). 
? >= „ 1080 „ 



.Lengtn on 
outside curve. 


Circumference. 






Front 
horn. 


Rear 
horn. 


Front 
horn. 


Rear 

horn. 


' Locality. 


Owner. 


53i 




18 J 




East Africa 


Dr. C. H. Orman. 


47 


22^ 


22 


20 


Do. 


S. L. Hinde. 


44 








Do. 


The late F. Holmwood. 


M31 

43 




2I| 

2 ii 




Congo- Uganda 
Boundary 

? 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
The late A. Beit. 


4ii 
40 

39 


IO 

Hi 

i9i 


20^ 
i8£ 
i9l 


i6i 

20j 
17 


Zululand 

Mt. Kenia, British East 

Africa 
East Africa 


The late Lieut. -Col. the Hon. 

W. Coke. 
The late A. H. Neumann. 

E. B. Home. 


381 




21 




? 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


3H 




19 




Masailand . 


Sir John Kirk. 


?35i 




i-7i 




Do. 


Capt. G. H. Riddell. 


35 


Hi 


21 


20 


East Africa 


Capt. L. W. Sadlier-Jackson. 


33l 


16 


20 


I9i 


Do. 


T. P. Kempson. 


?33i 




i7i 




Matabililand 


W. Van Ness. 


33 


22 


i9i 


20j 


East Africa 


A. J. A. Douglas. 


325 


16 


22 


19 


Do. 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


3ii 


12 


i6i 


16 


Do. 


G. St. J. Orde Browne. 


31 




18 




Do. 


R. P. Carroll. 


931 


I3l 


18J 


18 


Do. 


W. Neilson. 


3i 


19J 


16 


164 


Do. 


H. C. V. Hunter. 


3°^ 


i6| 


2I| 


20l 


Do. 


R. W. McKergow. 


2 30 


2l£ 


22i 


232 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. the Hon. A. Greville. 


30 


7l 


21 


194 


Do. 


K. V. Painter. ; 


29i 


144 






Somaliland 


A. H. Straker. 


1 


Determination provisior 


ial. 


2 Weight front horn, 13J 


lbs. Weight rear horn, 15 lbs. 



BLACK RHINOCEROS 



469 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circumference. 






Front 
horn. 


Rear 
horn. 


Front 
horn. 


Rear 
horn. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


29 


2 92 


i7i 


18 


South Africa 


R. B. Keeling. 


29 




19 




East Africa 


. S. H. Christy. 


28i 


Hi 


20| 


20j 


S. E. Africa 


Dr. Sauer. 


28i 


8| 


i8| 




South Africa 


F. C. Selous. 


28 




23! 




East Africa 


F. Baden- Powell. 


28 


7h 


17S 


l8i 


Do. 


F. C. Selous. 


9 27f 


22 


i9l 


20^ 


Do. 


. The Master of Belhaven. 


27i 


10 


21 


17 


Masailand . 


The late Rear- Admiral R. A. J. 
Montgomerie, R.N. 


27 


I2i 


24I 


20 


East Africa 


Abel Chapman. 


27 




20| 




Do. 


E. Gedge. 


27 


i6i 


171 


171 


Do. 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


27 


12 






Do. 


Sir John Willoughby, Bart. 


26| 


20| 


2I| 


19 


Do. 


. W. N. McMillan. 


264 


IO| 


I9i 


15 


Do. 


Henry Charrington. 


26I 


25^ 


1 8i 


19 


Do. 


H. Sampson. 


26} 


II 


24 


20 


Do. 


. Col. A. Colville. 


26 


13 


20| 


23-2 


Do. 


C. Craig. 


26 


9 


18 


17 


Do. 


. Lieut.-Col. M. Tighe. 


26 


10 


20| 


19 


Do. 


. F. W. Belt. 


26 


i3i 


i8J 


17 


Do. 


Stephenson R. Clarke. 


26 


I2| 


171 


I7l 


Do. 


. H. S. L. Scott. 


26 


i6| 


20^ 


21 


N.E. Rhodesia 


. P. M. Stewart. 


26 


19* 


"1 


22 


N. Nigeria 


. Capt. N. K. Street. 


26 


u| 


23l 


22 


East Africa 


. H. C. Allfrey. 


25I 


io| 


20| 


l6| 


Nigeria 


Major J. G. Browne. 


22J 


»4i 


17 


16^ 


Somaliland 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


22| 


10 


22| 


19 


Do. 


The late Sir H. D. Tichborne 
Bart. 


22 


6| 


i7i 


16 


Do. 


. Col. H. D. Olivier. 


2I| 


17 


14 


16 


Abyssinia . 


British Museum. 


2o£ 




I9i 




Lake Chad 


Capt. G. W. Moran. 


19^ 


9l 


18 


14 


Nigeria 


Capt. H. V. Venables Kyrke. 



47° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circumference. 




Front 
horn. 


Rear 
horn. 


Front 
horn. 


Rear 

horn. 


Locality 


171 


8 


i6| 


15! 


Nigeria 


16 


9S 


17 


iSl 


Do. 


i4i 


9 


i7i 


14 


Benue, Nigeria 


13 


6| 


i7i 


161 


Abyssinia . 



Owner. 
Major J. B. Cockburn. 
P. E. Bradney. 
Capt. E. J. Wolseley. 
O. Neumann. 



44i 
4ii 

4i 

40 

19\ 

38 

37 

36 

35* 



11 

12* 



Z2\ 

22 
2ll 

24 
20l 

18 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

East Africa . . Imperial Museum, Vienna. 



Orange River Colony . Major - Gen. Sir William 
Crossman. 
? Carl Hagenbeck. 



2I| 

i7i 



East Africa 
South Africa 

Do. 
Uganda 
East Africa 
? 



Berlin Museum. 

J. Lament. 

Earl of Dartmouth. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Sir Bartle Frere, Bart. 

H. Murray. 




Head of Northern White Rhinoceros. 



Skull and horns of White Rhinoceros from Lado in 
the possession of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 




Front Horns of Female White Rhinoceros. 

From specimens in the Collection of the late Roualeyn Gordon Cumming, 
in the possession of Col. W. Gordon Cumming. 




471 



AI- 



RE CORDS OF BIG GAME 



The WHITE or BURCHELL'S RHINOCEROS (Rhinoceros [Diceros] simus). 



Um Girin, Sudani. 



Vit R/iinaster, Cape Dutch. 



Next to the Indian elephant this is the largest existing land 
mammal. Its huge bulk, the bluntly truncate muzzle, which has no 
prehensile tip, the great length of the skull, and the enormous front 
horn, with its expanded base and fiat front surface, form the most strik- 
ing external characteristics of this species. The cheek-teeth are of a 
different type of structure from those of the preceding species, being, in 
fact, adapted for chewing grass. In walking, the animal carries its 
head low, so that in examples in which the front horn bends forward, 
its tip becomes worn by being pushed along the ground. It is stated 
that the colour of the skin is rather lighter than that of the black 
species. 

Distribution. — South and South-East Africa, in suitable localities, as far 
north as the Zambesi ; and again in Equatorial Africa at Lado, 
just north of the equator. Exterminated early in the last century 
to the south of the Orange River, and now represented in South 
Africa at the most by a few survivors in North-East Mashonaland, 
and possibly by others in the reedy swamps at the junction of 
the Black and White Umvolosi rivers. Between the Zambesi 
and Orange rivers the species was abundant about half a century 
ago ; Andersson alone having killed sixty in the course of a 
few months. Its existence in Central Equatorial Africa was 
indicated by Sir Samuel Baker on the evidence of horns, and sub- 
sequently made certain in the neighbourhood of Lado by Major 
Gibbons. The northern race {R. s. cottoni) is distinguished by the 
proportions of the skull, and apparently by the sculpture of the skin. 



A— SOUTHERN or TYPICAL RACE. 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circumference. 






Front 
horn. 


Rear 
horn. 


Front 
horn. 


Rear 
horn. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


56i 
5of 


IO 


23* 
about 

25 


22 


South Africa . 
Do. 


British Museum. 
. W. N. McMillan. 


46i 




27 




Do. 


. Carl Hagenbeck. 


44 




20 




Do. 


. British Museum. 


431 




23! 




Do. 


. The late A. Beit. 


42| 




25§ 




Limpopo 


. The late W. C. Oswell. 


40| 




29! 




South Africa . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


4o£ 




20| 




Do. 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


4<>£ 




22* 




Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 



WHITE RHINOCEROS 



473 



Length on 
outside curve. 


Circu 


mference. 






Front 
horn. 


Rear 

horn. 


Front 
horn. 


Rear 
horn. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


39! 




23 




? East Africa 


Lord Delamere. 


?3S§ 




244 




South Africa . 


. The late W. C. Oswell. 


38£ 




22^ 




Do. 


. J. B. Taylor. 


371 


i7i 


274 




Mashonaland . 


. F. C. Selous. 


36 




28i 




Do. 


. C. D. Rudd. 


"354 

334 


n 


26 
23 


21 


Mount Domo, Ma- South African Museum (late Cecil 
shonaland Rhodes). 

? Sir Abe Bailey. 


33 


i3i 


23? 




Mashonaland . 


F. C. Selous. 


3U 


8i 


26f 


26 


Zululand 


. J. C. Phillips. 


3i 




22 




Mashonaland . 


. J. G. Griffiths. 


929I 


5* 


23 


2o£ 


Zululand . 


. Pretoria Museum (Julius Jeppe). 


Y 21\ 


74 


26£ 




Mashonaland . 


. Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


X 20f 


7 


28g 




Do. 


British Museum. 


J 20 


6 


25I 


I8J 


Zululand . 


. H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



59 

52* 

41 



22^ 


South Africa . 


. Col. W. Gordon Cumming. 


1\\ 


Do. 


Do. 




Do. 


. J. W. Fitzherbert. 



B.— NORTHERN RACE (R. simus cottoni). 



41 


11 


26 


22^ 


Mongalla 


Major P. M. Dove. 


4°i 




25 




Bahr-el-Ghazal 


Major F. G. Poole. 


39 


11 


26I 


251 


Do. 


Capt. C. Graham. 


36| 




19I 




S. Sudan 


Lieut.-Gen. Sir B. T. Mahon. 


36£ 


14 


27 


1 8J 


Lado 


The late G. G. Longden. 


35 


1 31 


2l£ 


204 


Do. 


H. Twyford. 


?35 


1 of 


22j 


20§ 


Do. 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


33l 


12 


25* 


20 


S. Sudan 


The late Prince Paul Demidoff. 


32i 


\2\ 


2ll 


19 


Near Lado 


Col. J. J. Harrison. 


32 
32 


13 

7 


27i 
21 


254 

i6| 


Do. 
Do. 


Capt. the Hon. M. P. 

Macnaghten. 
Douglas McDouall. 


3ii 


i3i 


25i 


24 


Lado 


C. Mathews. 


31 
3of 


12 


27 

251 


27 


Do. 

White Nile 


British Museum (Major P. H. G 

Powell-Cotton). 
Lieut. -Col. C. J. Hawker. 


29 


10 


25 


23 


Do. 


Major R. M. Sanders. 


27! 




28I 




S. Sudan 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 


27 


9 


25i 


224 


Do. 


A. A. R. Boyce. 


27 


9 


22| 


2li 


Do. 


. Capt. F. W. Woodward. 


26 


IS* 


26 


i9i 


Do. 

1 Mounted specimens. 


Sir Kenneth Crossley. 



474 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Under Surface of Skull of Indian Elephant. 



The ASIATIC or INDIAN ELEPHANT (Elephas maximus). 

In general a decidedly smaller animal, the Indian elephant differs 
from its African relative not only in external form, but also in the 
structure of its molar teeth, which are composed of a greater number of 
much thinner vertical plates. The females, as a rule, have only very 
small tusks, not projecting beyond the jaw ; and in some cases those of 
the males are equally poorly developed. Five nails are usually present 
on the fore-feet, and four on the hind pair. Externally, the most 
characteristic distinction is the comparatively small size of the ears ; 
next to which comes the presence of a finger-like process on the front 
edge only of the tip of the trunk ; the African species having one in 
front and a second behind. The skin is nearly smooth ; and the 



INDIAN ELEPHANT 47 5 

bristles on the tail are confined to the front and back edges for some 
distance above the tip. Other noticeable points are the comparative 
flatness of the forehead, and the regular convex form of the back, as 
well as the perfect flexibility of the trunk, which may be compared in 
structure to an india-rubber tube. In the African elephant the trunk 
may be compared to a telescope consisting of segments of different 
calibre. Although males do not generally exceed 9, and females 8 feet 
in height, specimens have been killed measuring over 1 o feet, while one is 
stated to have reached 1 1 feet, and a skeleton in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, indicates a still larger individual. 

Distribution. — The forest -districts of India, Ceylon, Assam, Burma, 
Malay Peninsula, Siam, Cochin China, Sumatra, and Borneo. There 
is some doubt as to which is the typical form of the species. It 
has been considered that the Ceylon elephant holds this position, 
but the specimens originally named were probably tuskers 
introduced from the mainland. The Indian race may therefore 
be taken as the type. In the Ceylon race (E. maximus zey- 
lanicus) the males have very small tusks, and the females are 
tuskless. The Sumatran race {E. m. sumatrensis) is characterised 
by the coarser structure of the molar teeth, and the Malay E. m. 
hirsutus by the shape of the ear. 

6 Indian elephant, living, 6800 lbs. {New York Zool. Soc). 
9 „ „ „ 45°° »- 

Height (Owner's Measurements). 

At shoulder. Locality. Owner. 

ft. ins. 

10 6 Burma ..... H. Shaw Dunn. 

10 5 Coorg ..... Capt. S. H. Charrington. 

10 4 Burma A. E. S. Minett. 

10 4 Garhwal, United Provinces . Col. J. E. Campbell. 

10 1 Ceylon ..... Col. J. J. Harrison. 

10 1 India ..... Major-General A. A. A. Kinloch. 

9 8 Southern India . . . . F. Gompertz. 

Tusks. 

M^rTciJXlnc, Weight. Locality. Owner. 

ft. ins. ins. lbs. 

-9 IOi 15^ ... ) 

. ? 

-9 o 15I •■■ J 



Royal Siamese Museum, Bangkok. 



Owner's measurements. 



476 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length out- 
side curve. 

ft. ins. 

-8 9R 



-8 2L 

-8 9 

-8 6 

8 o 

i 7 9 

-7 6 

-7 o 

-7 4i 

2 7 3§ 

7 3i 

6 ii 

6 6 

6 io 

-6 8 

-6 5 

6 71 

-6 7 

3 "I 

-6 6 
-6 4 
-6 4 
-6 34 
6 2 

5 «1 
-6 i 

-5 "I 

6 i 

5 io 



Greatest cir- 
cumference. 



i7i 



i6| 

17 

i54 

h4 

i8| 

174 
i74 
i54 

i54 

i74 

i8| 
i8| 

I4§ 

12* 



1 64 
1 64 

171 

174 
1 64 
i6J 



Weight. 

lbs. 
8l 

8o-2 



Locality. 



464 



734 
7i4 



Assam 



Burma . 

90 S. India . 

Burma . 

Sumatra 

85 Assam . 

102 



Burma 

974J 

106 Do. 

65! India 

84 ) 

\ Burma 
83 J 

52^ Mysore 



Owner. 
The late Earl of Lytton. 

Government House, Rangoon. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 
Royal Palace, Mandalay. 

. G. F. W. Curtis. 

. T. H. Monteath. 

Marquis of Waterford. 

R. Gordon Smith.' 

Bethnal Green Museum (J. D. 
Goldingham). 

H. Shaw Dunn. 
. Viscount Powerscourt. 



Yala, S. Provinces, Lieut. -Col. R. J. Marker. 



29 |f Ceylon 



Burma 



A. E. S. Minett. 



Assam . . . G. H. Moore. 
73J Madura District . British Museum. 



58 } 

564 J 
564) 
534J 
484) 
42 J 



North Coimbatore . Rev. H. C. B. Stone. 



Assam 



Burma 



Noel Williamson. 



E. M. Alexander. 



1 Exposed from gum. 



- Owner's measurements. 
2 The tusks of the sacred white elephant from King Thebaw's Palace, Mandalay. 



INDIAN EIEPHANT 



477 



Leng 
side 


th out- 
curve. 


Greatest cir- 
cumference. 


ft. 


ins. 


ins. 


6 


oil 




5 


8/ 




6 


o 




5 


II 


16 


5 


IO 


16 


-5 


IO 




-5 


3 


15 


4 


I of 


I3l 


4 


7i 


i3i 



Weight. 


Locality. 


Owr 


lbs. 








109 


S. India . 




F. Gompertz. 


50 


Madras . 




. J. Fortune. 


45 1 

46i J 


- Bengal . 




H. K. Robinson. 




Borneo . 




. C. M. D. Stewart. 


42 


Ceylon . 




. W. S. Murray. 


28 ") 
27 j 


Malaya . 




. J. Scott Mason. 




- Owner's 


; measurements. 



Feet (after preservation). 



Circumference 
at base. 


Width at bottom, 
back to front. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


631) 

621} 




Pegu, Burma 


. Capt. W. F. Brayne. 


621 




South Arcot District - 


. J. Fortune. 


61 


20 


Travancore 


. Col. D. M. Lumsden. 


60 


18 


Mysore 


Viscount Powerscourt. 


59 


19 


? 


Lieut. R. Home, R.N. 


sH 


18 


Travancore 


Capt. H. L. Cottingham. 


584 


18 


Assam 


A. H. Cuming. 


58 


19 


Do. . 


. Major F. B. Stapleton-Bretherton. 


58 


l8 


Travancore 


Hon. E. Stonor. 


571 


19 


Assam 


. H. C. Holland. 


571 


18 


? 


L. V. Bagshawe. 


S7h 


1 8J 


Assam 


. D. D. F. Hosack. 


56 


17 


Do. 


. G. M. Norrie. 


56 


174 


? 


Capt. G. P. Evans. 


x 55 


17 


Garhwal 


B. B. Osmaston. 


2 55 


20| 


? 


Lieut. R. Home, R.N. 




1 Measured, 59A when shot. 


2 Hind foot. 



478 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



Circumference Width at bottom, 
at base. back to front. 

674 

6i£ 

6o£ 

57i 

56 

56 18 



Locality 
? 
N. Burma 
Coorg 

Ceylon 
S. India 
Ceylon 
Do. 



Owner. 



From living elephant, by Major-Gen. 

G. W. Hanson. 
H. Shaw Dunn. 

Capt. S. H. Charrington. 

Major-Gen. A. A. A. Kinloch. 

R. Gordon Smith. 

Col. E. T. Taylor. 

E. J. Brooke. 

Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 



1 Measurements, 54 ins. X 17 ins. when dried. 



AFRICAN ELEPHANT 



479 




Head of African Elephant. 



The AFRICAN ELEPHANT (Elephas [Loxodon] africanus). 



Arb y Gal la. 
Dakana, Danakil. 
Fyl y Sudani. 
Gtwa, Hausa. 
Marodi, Somali. 
Muzovu, Chi la. 



Njovu, Chilala and Chibisa. 
Njovu, Waganda. 
Temba, Swahili. 
Tepo, M'Kua. 
Thlo, N garni. 
T/o, Barotsi. 
Zahon, Abyssinian. 



Some of the distinctive features of the African elephant are indicated 
under the heading of the Indian species. 

The African elephant, although still abundant in many regions of 
Central Africa, in the southern part of the continent is rapidly 
approaching extinction. A remarkable exception to this process of 
extermination is, however, to be found in the south and east of Cape 
Colony, where, since the year 1830, wild elephants have been 
systematically preserved by Government. Strong troops of these 
protected elephants still roam the dense and impenetrable jungles of 
the Addo Bush and the Knysna and Zitzikamma forests. Farther 
inland the ivory-hunters have for a generation past been so actively 
employed that, despite the vast numbers of these great mammals 
which forty or fifty years ago thronged the interior from the Orange 



480 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



River northwards, but few herds are now left south of the Zambesi. 
The species has been divided into a number of local races, mainly 
distinguished by the form and size of the ears and tusks. 



BODILY SIZE.— OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



Height at 

shoulder 

in straight 

line. 


Total 

length 

(trunk to 

end of tail). 


Girth of 
fore-foot. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ft. ins. 


ft. ins. 


ft. ins. 






II %\ 






Abyssinia . 


. H. Weld-Blundell. 


J n 6i 


15 5 


5 Si 


Near Wadelai . 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton. 


ii 6 




4 io 


Do. 


E. S. Grogan and Major G. A. S 


ii 4 






Kavirondo Hills 


Cape. 
E. B. Bronson. 


ii 4 






Sudan 


Earl of Sefton. 


ii 3 






East Africa 


The late A. H. Neumann. 


ii 3 






Do. . 


H. B. Tate. 


11 2.\ 






Blue Nile . 


Capt. J. A. Pollock. 


11 I 


17 3 


4 ii 


Mozambique 


Col. J. J. Harrison. 


II I 




5 4 


Toro, E.C.A. . 


E. S. Grogan. 


II I 






East Africa 


Abel Chapman. 


II O 






Do. 


G. F. Archer. 


II o 






Uganda 


G. M. Norrie. 


IO IO^ 






Sudan 


. G. C. Whitaker. 


IO ioi 






Sierra Leone 


Capt. W. P. Pearse. 


IO IO 






N.W. Rhodesia 


Dr. A. H. B. Kirkwood. 


IO IO 






White Nile 


Major R. M. Sanders. 


io 9 


2 12 8 


5 o 


Lake Rudolf . 


The late A. H. Neumann. 


io 8 






Uganda 


M. Mitchell." 


io 8 




4 io 


Tana Valley 


Major H. De Pree. 


io 7 ' 


'Jumbo " 




? 


Barnum and Bailey. 


io 6 




4 8 


Tana Valley 


Capt. C. Hankey. 


io 6 






S.E. Africa 


F. C. Selous. 


io 4 






N.E. Rhodesia . 


R. D. Waterhouse. 


io 3 


21 o 


5 i 


Nyasaland 


Sir John Kirk. 


9 7i 




4 6| 

(dried) 


Somaliland 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 


i 


Length of 


humerus, 3 


ft. 8 ins. 2 Length fror 


a root of tail to eye, in straight line. 



AFRICAN ELEPHANT 481 

With reference to the height of elephants, the late Mr. A. H. Neumann, 
in Elephant Hunting in East Equatorial Africa, stated that " I am an 
unbeliever in 14 ft. elephants or anything like it. Possibly (though I 
doubt even that) there may be a 1 2 ft. one in existence, but I have had 
some experience (and probably more opportunities of judging than 
most of those who pose as authorities), and I have never killed one 
that could be absolutely guaranteed to be over 11 ft. 3 ins. in height 
(to be quite on the safe side, for as a fact I made it an inch more). I 
have killed two of that height in my time, and not another within 
several inches of this." 




African Elephant Tusk in the American National Collection. 



Length Greatest -^, ■ , 

(outside curve), circumference. ° 



ft. ins. 

11 5i 

11 o 

10 4 

9 7 

10 z\ 

10 2 

9 10 

9 5 



ins. 

iSiJ 
i8| 

19 

24i 

19 



Tusks. 

Locality. 



293 East Africa 
Mongalla 



126 \ 



226^ East Africa 
159 Marsabit 



247 



Do. 



Owner. 



American National Collection. 
(See illustration.) 



H.R. H. the Due de Montpensier. 

British Museum. 

F. J. Watson Taylor. 



Charles Pulley. 



2 I 



482 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length Greatest Weieht 

(outside curve), circumference. 5 



Locality. 



Owner. 



ft. 


ins. 


ins. 


lbs. 






9 
9 


5* 



i8| 
i8i 


I20 1 
"7 J 


Tana Valley . 


Major H. De Pree. 


9 


5 


22| 


184 


? 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


9 


4 


2O5 


160 


East Africa 


Sir John Kirk. 


9 4 
(tip broken) 

-9 4 


18 


no 
151 


Do. 
Elgayu, E. Africa . 


Duke of Westminster. 
Sir F. J. Jackson. 


9 

9 


4 
1 


22 
22| 


i68ij 


Uganda . 

i 


R. Grauer. 


9 


3* 


iSf 




Tana Valley . 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


-9 


3 




129 


East Africa 


Sir F. J. Jackson. 


9 


2 a 


20 




Tana Valley . 


Sir Robert Harvey, Bart. 


9 

8 


2 

5 


24] 
24 J 


340 


Uganda . 


Capt. H. S. Burrough. 


9 
8 


9l 


24 

24§ 


176 ^ 
i79lJ 


Do. . 


Capt. E. B. Place. 


9 
8 


1 

ioi 


i9i 
19} 


114 1 
108 J 


East Africa 


Col. A. Eric Smith. 


J 9 

8 



11 


2I| 
22^ 


i6i^| 

167J 


Tana Valley . 


His Majesty The King. 


2 9 
8 



6 


2ll 
21* 


139 | 

141J 


Uganda 


Frankfort Museum. Shot by t 
late G. G. Longden. 


9 





25 


198) 
174J 


Central Africa 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton, 


8 


11 


2 3* 






9 
8 



10 


21 
21 


130] 
124J 


East Africa 


J. Elkington. 


8 


11 


20 


i3° | 

1 24* J 


Do. 


N. C. Cockburn. 


8 


8£ 


I9| 






-8 
-8 


11 
9 


i8| 
i8i 


iio'l 

108/ 


Mt. Elgon, E. Africa 


Lieut. -Col. J. D. Ferguson. 


8 


10 


18 


105 


East Africa 


Lord Delamere. 


-8 


9\ 




102 "j 


Tana Valley 


Major H. De Pree and Capt. C 



91 



Hankey. 



- Owner's measurements. 



1 Presented by H.H. the Aga Khan. 



2 Presented by Rudolf de Goldschmidt. 



AFRICAN ELEPHANT 



483 



Length 
(outside curve 


Greatest 
). circumference. 


Weight. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ft. ins. 


ins. 


lbs. 






8 9l 


17 


9cA 


East Africa 


Sutton Timmis. 


7 IX 2 


i7i 


92 J 






8 9 


195 


104 ~j 


Do. 


G. M. Norrie. 


8 34 


19I 


1 00 J 






8 7l 


22| 


165 


Do. 


His Majesty The King. 


8 6 


i7i 


781] 


Congo . 


Duke of Peneranda. 


8 6 


17 


78h) 






8 54 
8 


171 

i7h 


Sol] 
79 J 


Do 


Sir A. Sharpe. 


8 5 


23I 


175 


Uganda . 


Graham Pownall. 


8 5 


I9f 


1391 s ) 


Bahr-el-Gebel 


Major R. M. Sanders. 


8 if 


19I 


137 J 






8 4 1 


I9i 


9911 


Sudan 


Capt. E. C. Hamilton. 


7 6 


19 


96I/ 






8 4l 


18 


971) 


B.E. Africa . 


Capt. W. H. Wilkin. 


7 


i8i 


9i J 






8 4 


.171 


884 


East Africa 


W. Neilson. 


8 4 




76 


M'bogo 


E. S. Grogan. 


8 4 


21I 


150) 
147J 


Near Wadelai . 


W. Y. Wyndham. 


8 3 


21 






8 3 


i8| 


81I) 


East Africa 


Capt. T. W. Greenfield. 


8 2 


i8| 


80 J 






8 3 


22 


13511 


Sudan 


Sir W. Garstin. 


7 11 


23i 


I591J 






8 2 
7 8| 


20| 
2o£ 


1451 
121J 


Gondokoro 


His Majesty The King. 


8 1 


I7l 


86 


? 


Major G. G. P. Humphreys, 


8 1 


16] 








7 2 


J 




East Africa 


Capt. C. J. Murray. 


8 1 


2o£ 


108/ 










Abyssinian Sudan . 


W. N. McMillan. 


8 


20 






8 


20 


118 I 






7 8i 


192 


io6iJ 


Uganda . 


Capt. C. H. Stigand. 



484 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length 
(outside curve) 


Greatest 
circumference. 


Weight. 


Locality. 


ft. 


ins. 


ins. 


lbs. 




x 7 

7 


II 

8f 


20\ 


98^1 
I38j 


Sierra Leone . 


7 
7 


II 
o 


1 71 
17 


90] 

SoJ 


White Nile . 


7 
7 


io* 
5* 


20 
20^ 


US) 

108 J 


Upper Nile 


7 
7 


IO 

6* 


17* 

17 


«5J 


East Africa 


7 
7 


IO 

8* 


1 6i 
i"6* 


6 n 

68jJ 


Do. 


7 


9 


17* 


95* 


Do. 


-7 
-7 


9 

Si 


22 

20i 


119] 
110J 


N.E. Rhodesia 


7 
7 


9 

7 


22*| 
2I*J 


26S 


Lake Rudolf 


7 

7 


7 
6 


i6|] 
i6|J 




Lake Naivasha 


7 
6 


6| 
91 


i9 


icn'l 

91] 


S. Abyssinia 


7 
7 


6* 

2 


17* 


784) 

75fJ 


Congo 


7 
6 


6 
9 


20 

I9l 


103) 
93 J 


East Africa 


7 
6 


6 
"4 


i7i 
18 


76] 
8:/ 


Uganda . 


7 
7 


51 

5 


18 
i8i 


851 

SoJ 


Sudan 


7 


5 


194 


84 


Do. 


7 
7 


5 

2 


22* 

23 


"4] 
112J 


Lado 


7 
7 


4* 

44 


20 
19* 


92*) 
9i*J 


Uganda 



Owner. 

Major C. E. Palmer. 

Capt. E. R. Wishaw. 

Douglas McDouall. 

C. Bower Ismay. 

R. Holmes. 
P. Niedieck. 
F. H. Melland. 

A. E. Butter. 

T. W. Brooke. 



R. de la Huerta. 

Col. Max C. Fleischmann. 

H. Leney. 

Major A. W. Jennings Bramly. 
Major H. D. Pearson. 
Capt. R. S. Hart. 

J. Jay White. 



- Owner's measurements. 
1 In Hon. Walter Rothschild's Museum at Tring. 



AFRICAN ELEPHANT 



485 



Length 
(outside curve). 

ft. ins. 
7 2| 

6 7 


Greatest 

circumference. 

ins. 

i8i 


Weight, 
lbs. 

85/ 


Locality. 
Abyssinian Sudan 


Owner. 

C. Bulpett. 


7 
6 


2 
10 


i9l 
19 


88 \ 

77 f 


Uganda . 


G. M. Norrie. 


7 
6 


2 

/2 


174 

171 


8i|) 
8o|J 


Sudan 


Countess of Sefton. 


7 

7 


O 
O 


2I| 
21^ 


93 ) 
9«J 


Uganda . 


G. Blaine. 


6 
6 


10J 



i7i 

i7i 


6 M 
594 1 


N. Nigeria 


Capt. G. C. Kelly. 


6 
6 


10 

4 


22 
22 


112 "| 
103 J 


Uganda . 


G. M. Norrie. 


6 


7 


164 




South- East Africa . 


F. C. Selous. 


6 
6 


7 


i7i 
174 


73 i 


N.E. Rhodesia 


Hon. M. W. Elphinstone. 


6 
6 


6 

4i 


,i8i 
i8i 


^ 1 
634/ 


S.E. Africa . 


P. Neergaard. 


6 
6 


6 ! 

4/ 


iSi 




B.C. Africa . 


R. H. Storey. 


<?6 


5h 


I2| 




N. of Lake Rudolf . 


The late A. H. Neumann. 


6 
_ 5 


2\ 

7l 


l84 | 

mi 




Lomagundi's Country 


Duke of Westminster. 


-?5 
-V5 


io| 




40 ^ 
39 J 


Uganda . 


Capt. E. B. Place. 


5 
4 




8 


hi 
141 


49 ] 
47 J 


Abyssinia 


A. E. Butter. 


4 


11 


15 


26 


Somaliland 


A. H. Straker. 


4 


91 


14! 


511 
J02 


Do. 


Major E. W. S. Brooke. 


4 


8i 


134 




Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


4 


5 


124 




Do. 


Lord Delamere. 


4 


4 


131 


26 


Do. 


Lieut. -Col. J. McCall Maxwell, 



486 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The following specimens probably belong to the Dwarf Congo race 
{E. africanus pumilio) : — 



Length Greatest Weight 

(outside curve), circumference. ° 

lbs. 



ft. 


ins. 


ins. 


5 


6 


i3i 


5 


4 


i3i 


3 


8 


12 


3 


7* 


"i 


92 


ii 


8i 


?2 


ii 


8i 



Locality. 



274) 

27iJ 

J 7 "1 
17 
71 



,- Semliki 



> Umfumbro, E. Congo 



Owner. 



G. Blaine. 



Major J. Webb Bowen. 



; 



Feet (after preservation). 



Circumference 
at base. 


Width at bottom 
back to front. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


66^ 


22 


East Africa 


G. F. Archer. 


65* 


20i 


Near Albert Nyanza . 


H. S. Keating. 


65* 




Near Wadelai 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


-65 




Central Africa . 


Arnold Mathews. 


64 




Uganda 


G. M. Norrie. 


64 


20j 


Toro . 


E. S. Grogan. 


63i 


20 


White Nile 


Sir W. Garstin. 


634 


2li 


Uganda 


The late G. G. Longden. 


63 


20 


White Nile 


Major C. J. Hawker. 


-63 




Blue Nile . 


Capt. J. A. Pollock. 


621 


21 


Sudan 


Earl of Sefton. 


62i 




Do. 


M. C. Radford. 


62 


20 


East Africa 


C. Craig. 


61 




N. Nigeria 


Capt. G. C. Kelly. 


-61 




East Africa 


Marquis Pizzardi. 


-6o| 




Somaliland 


. Capt. M. S. Wellby. 


60^ 




White Nile 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


6o| 


20 


Sudan 


G. C. Whitaker. 


60 


19 


Wadelai 


Lieut. -Col. M. L. Carleton. 



Owner's measurements. 



MAMMOTH 



487 



MAMMOTH or EXTINCT SIBERIAN ELEPHANT (Elephas primigenius). 

Nearly allied to the Indian elephant, but the plates of the teeth 
still narrower and more numerous, the tusks spirally twisted, the 
ears smaller, and the skin clothed in woolly fur with long bristles inter- 
mixed. The height is generally inferior to that of the Indian species. 

Remains of this species occur in the superficial deposits of Europe 
and Northern Asia. In the frozen soil of Siberia the skin, flesh, and 
hair are frequently preserved, and the ivory is often suitable for the 
purposes of the turner. 



Length (out- 
side curve). 

ft. ins. 
12 I0£ 

12 8 

12 6 

12 O 

II 9 

11 5 

II o 



Greatest 
circum- 
ference. 

ins. 
31* 



23 
19 

35 

171 

2o£ 



Weight, 
lbs. 



Locality. 



330 
(estimated) 



173 



Siberia 



Siberia 



Owner. 

Stuttgart Museum. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

British Museum. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Milan Museum. 

Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



488 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 




Modelled in the Rowland 1 7 "ard Studio 

African Lion (fore part). 



The LION (Felis leo). 



Ambassa, Abyssinian. 

A sad, Arabic. 

Imbubi, Ibubesi, Inyonyama, 

Matonga, and Marhanganga, 

Swazi and Zulu. 
Karamo, M'Kua. 
Lendjandnek, Gal la. 
Libba, Somali. 



Leeuzu, Cape Dutch. 

Libbaka, Danakil. 

Nkango or Nkalamo, Chilala and 

Chibisa. 
Shumba, Chila. 
Simba, Swahili. 
Tau, Basuto and Bechuana. 
Tauw, Barotsi and Ngami. 



Zaki, Hausa. 

Any description of such a familiar animal as the lion (the only cat 
in which the male is furnished with a mane on the head and shoulders, 
and a tuft of long hair to the tip of the tail) would obviously be 
superfluous here. One of the points of interest attaching to the 
species is its wide distribution. Several local races are now recognised. 
Somali lions are smaller and greyer than those from either the Cape or 
Algeria, although their manes are often very fine, and the East African 



LION 



489 



(F. I. masaicus) is distinguished by the persistence in the adult, especially 
the female, of the chocolate spots of the cubs. The Indian lion 
(F. leo gujratensis), distinguished by its small, straight, and tawny mane 
and pale tawny colour, is another race. Heights of 3 feet 3-^ and 3 feet 
8 inches at the shoulder have been recorded in African specimens (the 
larger measurement by Mr. Selous), and 3 feet 6 inches in an Indian 
example (by Gen. W. Rice). Mr. Selous killed an African lion weigh- 
ing 500 lbs. ; and between 400 and 500 lbs. may be taken as the 
average weight. Wild lions seldom develop such enormous manes as 
menagerie examples. 

A lion's skull may be easily recognised when placed beside that of 
a tiger by the fact -that in the former the terminations of the sutures 
dividing the frontal from the nasal and maxillary (jaw) bones are 
situated nearly in the same transverse line, while in the latter 
the nasal bones extend much farther back than the maxillary. More- 
over, the lower jaw of a lion will stand much flatter on a table than 
that of a tiger. 

Distribution. — In modern times Africa from Algeria to the Cape, 
Mesopotamia on the west flanks of the Zagros range, Persia south 
of Shiraz, and India in the districts of Kathiawar, Sind, the Central 
Provinces, and Bundelcund. Now rare in India, where it is con- 
fined to the Gir Forest in Kathiawar. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



Skin 
Total Length measure- Estimated 

length from nose ment from height 

before ,to root tip of nose at 

of tail. to 



skinning. 



ft. 


ins. 


10 


5 (a 


10 


5 


10 


4 


10 


4 


10 


2h 


10 


2 


10 


2 


10 


I 



shoulder. 



ft. ins. 



7 6 



7 3 



Mane. 



tip of tail. 








ft. ins. 


ft. 


tins. 




10 10J 


3 


7 


Black 


(raw) 






Fine 


10 3 






Fair 


(dressed) 








11 2 






Good 
Fair 


10 2^ 






Do. 




3 


6 


Do. 
Fine 



Locality. 



Owner. 



S.E. Africa . F. Vaughan Kirby. 

East Africa . Dr. W. S. Rainsford. 

Gir Forest, India Lord Lamington. 

East Africa . Capt. the Hon. G. H. 

Douglas-Pennant. 

N.E. Rhodesia. R. D. Waterhouse. 

N.W. Rhodesia Major R. Gordon. 

Blue Nile . . Capt. C. C. Maud. 

East Africa . Capt. E. Sartorius. 



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490 



LION 



491 



Skulls. 



Length 

from back to 

front. 1 


Width across 

the zygomatic 

arches. 


Weight 
cleaned. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


I6J (A) 


IO 




South-East Africa 


F. Vaughan Kirby. 


16 


10J 


5 lbs. 


East Africa . 


E. Gedge. 


(end broken) 

ISA 


IO 


6 lbs. 8 oz. 


Do. 


Hon. C. G. Murray. 


15I (b) 


ioi 


5 lbs. 3 oz. 


Do. 


The late Rear- Admiral R. A. J. 


1 Si 


9i 




Pungwe 


Montgomerie, R.N. 
Hon. T. Thynne. 


iSl 


9i 




S. Rhodesia 


C. W. Adams. 


ISA 


9i 




E. Africa . 


H. H. Williams. 


15 


10 




Mashonaland 


Basil H. Woodd. 


15 


9i 




Somaliland . 


H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 


15 


IO 




Do. 


Gen. Sir Arthur Paget. 


15(c) 


10 


5 lbs. 8 oz. 


South-East Africa 


F. C. Selous. 


15 


10& 


5 lbs. 6 oz. 


East Africa . 


Capt. A. E. F. Fawcus. 


145 


9 




Do. 


G. L. Harrison. 


14I 


9i 


5 lbs. 8 oz. 


Do. 


Sir Thos. R. Dewar. 


14I 


9tV 


5 lbs. 


N.W. Rhodesia 


J. H. Venning. 


Hi 


9l 




Do. 


J. Bracken. 


14? 


9 




South-East Africa 


H. M. von Archer. 


14! 


9 




Matabililand 


Capt. Sir K. Fraser, Bart. 


14** l 


i°tV 


5 lbs. 


East Africa . 


C. C. Branch. 


14H w 


n 9 

9t^ 


5 lbs. 3 oz. 


Do. 


Capt. M. Kincaid- Smith. 


I4l 


9l 


4 lbs. 8 oz. 


S. E. Africa 


E. P. Frost. 


I4l 






Nigeria 


N. J. Dodd. 


I4A 


i°rf 


4 lbs. 12 oz. 


East Africa . 


Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton 


i4i 


9l 


4 lbs. 


South Africa 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i4i 


9i 




Do. 


Sir Abe Bailey. 


I4i 


IO 




East Africa . 


Norman B. Smith. 


i,4i 


10 


5 lbs. 


Do. 


H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught 


I4l 


9l 




Rhodesia 


W. Robinson. 


i4i 


9i 


4 lb. 14 oz. 


East Africa . 


Hon. W. Guinness. 


?I4£ 


8g 




South-East Africa 


F. Vaughan Kirby. 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 



17 


"t 1 " 


16 


ioi 


isi 


9! 


i5i (h) 


91 


I4l(K) 


9i 



6 lbs. 



Delagoa Bay 

? 
South Africa 
Mushukulumbwe 
Somaliland . 



Berlin Museum. 

P. C. Keytel. 

J. Lamont. 

Major A. St. H. Gibbons. 

A. E. Leatham. 



1 The measurements are taken from the summit of the occiput to the front of the upper jaw. 










Indian Tiger-Skin. 
492 



TIGER 493 




Head of Tiger. 

The TIGER (Felis tigris). 

Sher or Bag/i, Hindustani. 

A much less noisy animal than the lion, the great striped cat of 
Asia is also a more variable species, of which several local races are 
recognised. First is the typical Bengal tiger, a large, long-limbed, 
lithe, and short-haired creature. A smaller and rougher-haired race 
(F. tigris septentrionalis, likewise known as F. t. virgatd) inhabits the 
Caspian provinces of Persia, and also extends into the Caucasus. 
The Manchurian tiger {F. t. mongolica) is characterised by its large size, 
heavy build, short limbs, and the great length and thickness of the 
winter coat, which may be less fully striped than in Indian specimens. 
The Javan tiger {F. t. sondaica) differs, among other features, by the 
amount of white on the face. The Maharaja of Cooch Behar measured 
a tiger standing 3 ft. 10^- ins. at the shoulder. 

Distribution. — From the Caucasus through Northern Persia, India, 
Assam, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and China, 
to Manchuria, Amurland, and Korea. In India ranging from an 
elevation of some 7000 feet in the Himalaya to Cape Comorin, but 
unknown in Ceylon. 



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495 




Manchurian Tiger-Skin. 
496 



TIGER 



497 











Skulls. 




Length 
rom back 
front. 1 

-i5! 


Breadth 

across the 

zygomatic 

arches. 


Weight 
cleaned. 

lbs. oz. 


Locality. 
Cooch Behar 


Owner. 
H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch Behar 


-15! 


Hi 






? 


Col. A. Pollock. 


iSi 


ioi 






Cooch Behar 


Lord Stavordale. 


-15(a) 


ioi 






Bengal 


Col. Evans Gordon. 


I4s (F) 


IO 






Duars 


Major S. H. Pollen. 


I4i(G) 


I of 






Deccan 


Major W. J. R. Wingfield. 


- J 4i 


IO 






Tarai 


Bombay Natural History Society. 


1 44 


io| 






Central Provinces 


Major W. H. Hunter. 


-Hi (c) 
i.4i 


IQi 

9g 


4 


12 


Bijnor District, United 

Provinces 
Duars 


The late A. M. Markham. 
Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i4i(H) 


ioj 


5 


2 


Central Provinces 


Major M. D. Goring-Jones. 


i 4 i 


I of 






Do. 


Lieut. -Col. E. A. D'Arcy Thomas. 


141(D) 


9i 






Kanara Jungles 


W. Holland. 


I4i (E) 


9i 






Tarai 


R. Nolan. 


i4l 


9l 


4 


8 


Rewah 


H.H. the Maharajah of Rewah. 


I3l 


91 


4 


IO 


N.E. Bengal . 


A. M. Murdoch. 


-13! (B) 


9i 






North Kanara 


Lieut. -Col. L. L. Fenton. 


i3i 


9§ 


4 


IO 


Mirzapur . 


P. B. Vander Byl. 


i3l 


9H 


4 


6 


? 


Col. H. W. Gordon. 


i3i 


IO 


5 


o 


Persia 


Lieut. -Col. R. L. Kennion. 


?i3i 


9t(T 






Kalchi . 


H. B. Learoyd. 



— Owner's measurements. 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H. For skins see pp. 494-495. 









Skins 


^ength of skin dressed, 
ft. ins. 

13 6 


Mongolia 


Locality. 


12 


4 


Do. 




12 





Do. 




11 


3a 


Do. 




10 


8 


Persia 





Owner. 
A. Bignold. 

H.H. the Sultan of Johore. 
H.R.H. the Due d'Orleans. 
Col. W. Hall Walker. 
Lieut. -Col. R. L. Kennion. 



1 See note on p. 491. 



2 K 



498 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The LEOPARD (Felis pardus). 

Chita, Hindustani. Nimr, Sudani. 

Damissa, Hausa. Ngo, Waganda. 

Harvard, M'Kua. Nyalugwi, Manganza. 

Ingwi, Zulu, Swazi, Matabili, Shabel, Somali, 

and Matonga. Siveri, Alomwi. 

Inkwi, Bechuana and Basuto. Tijger, Cape Dutch. 

The leopard has an even larger range than the lion, and is probably 
the most widely distributed of all the cats. Sportsmen in India 
recognise a larger " panther " and a smaller " leopard," although 
naturalists fail to distinguish them as separate forms. The typical 
representative of the species is the larger Indian leopard. African 
leopards often have the spots on the body of smaller size, and many of 
them without light centres, like those on the head. The West African 
race is F. pardus leopardus, and large-spotted East African leopards 
have been named F.p. suahelica and F.p. ruwenzorii. The Somali F.p. 
nanopardus is a very small light-coloured race. In Persia, Baluchistan, 
the mountains of Sind, and probably Kashmir, is found a race of the 
leopard (F.p.panthera or tulliand), characterised by its pale colour, long 
fur, and thick tail. The Malay leopard (F. p. variegatd) is a large- 
spotted race ; as is also the Korean and Chinese F. p. orientalis. 
Very distinct is the Amur and Manchurian F. p. villosa, an animal 
of heavy build, with a pale ground-colour to the fur, which is very long 
and thick, and the spots in the form of large complete rings. In the 
forest districts of Asia black leopards are not uncommon, and they 
also occasionally occur in Abyssinia, the home of the large F. p. nimr. 
Some Siamese leopards show small spots within the dark rosettes. 
Height at shoulder, from about 2 feet (India) to 2 feet 4 inches (Africa). 
A large leopard killed by Lieut-Col. L. L. Fenton in the Gir Forest, 
Kathiawar, measured 7 feet %\ inches in length ; the length of the 
tail being 35^ inches, the girth of the neck 21^ inches, of the fore- 
arm iil inches, and of the body behind the shoulder 35-^ inches; 
weight, 160 lbs. 

Distribution. — Africa, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and Asia generally, 
with the exception of Northern Siberia, the Tibetan plateau, and 
Japan. 



LEOPARD 



499 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS— INDIAN SPECIMENS. 



Length 

before 

skinned. 

ft. ins. 

8 6 


Total length 
dressed. 

ft. ins. 


Weight, 
lbs. 


Locality. 
Kashmir . 


Owner. 
Major A. G. Arbuthnot. 


8 


4 






S. India 


F. Gompertz. 


8 
8 


4 






Cooch Behar 
Do. 


H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 
Behar. 

Do. 


8 


ii 






Central Provinces 


Capt. G. W. Hemans. 


8 
8 


o 
o 


8 ff* 


154 


Cooch Behar 
India 


H.H. the Maharaja of Cooch 

Behar. 
Count J. Potocki. 


7 


ii 






Mandla 


O. Kauffmann. 


7 


IO 


8 4 I 




Ganges Kadir . 


See below. 1 


7 


IO 






Mhow 


Major F. W. H. Walshe. 


7 
7 


IO 

9i 


8 6 




Nepal 

Central Provinces 


Lieut. -Gen. Kaiser Shumsher 

Jung, R.B. 
Col. J. J. Harrison. 


7 


9 






Nepal 


C. H. H. B. Caldwell. 


7 


9 






Oudh 


Mrs. Innes. 


7 
7 


8 
8 






Hyderabad, Deccan 
Ganges Kadir . 


Major C. E. G. Norton and Capt. 

Sir K. Fraser, Bart. 
Muttra Tent Club. 2 


7 


8 






U. Burma . 


H. Shaw Dunn. 


7 


7 ( 


8 71 




Siwaliks 


E. H. E. Green. 


7 


7 


8 io 




Central Provinces 


Capt. R. D. Gard'ner. 


97 


4 


8 i 


145 


Bijnor District . 


Major E. McK. Williams. 



1 Speared by Capt. H. Hoare (5th D.G.), Major J. G. Rotton (R.A.), and Major W. Gillman (R.H.A.). 
2 Speared by Major A. C. King and some officers of the 5th Lancers, when out with the Muttra Tent Club. 



The following are the dimensions of two leopards shot in Ceylon 
by Count Scheibler : — 

Length from tip of nose to end of tail 
,, ,, root of tail 

Height at shoulder (estimated) 

Girth 

Circumference of upper arm . 
,, forearm 



Male. 


Fe 


male. 


ft. ins. 


ft. 


ins. 


7 


6 


4 


4 Z\ 


3 


7 


2 2\ 


1 


9 


2 7 


2 


1 


O 13 





10 


iof 





H 



The following specimen belongs to one of the Chinese or Man- 
churian races : — 



before Tot - al len g th 
skinned. 



ft. 

<*5 



dressed, 
ft. 



Weight. 

lbs. 
65 



Locality. 



Tai Kung Shan Moun- 
tains 



Owner. 



Commander the Hon. 
Bridgeman, R.N. 



R. O. B. 



500 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 







OWNER'S 


MEASUREMENTS- 


•AFRICAN SPECIMENS. 


>ength before 
skinned. 


SSStef w ^ ht - 


Locality. Owner. 


ft. 


ins. 


ft. ins. 


lbs. 






8 


7 






East Africa . 


. K. V. Painter. 


8 

7 


ioi 


2 7i 




Niwimbi, 

Nyasaland 
Sudan . 


Portuguese J. Sealy-Bell. 

Marquis Pizzardi. 


97 


9 


2 3i 




Matabililand 


, . Rhodesia Museum. 


7 


9 






Sudan . 


Gustav von Dippe. 


7 


7i 


2 6 




East Africa 


Percy C. Madeira. 


7 


6 






Do. 


Lady Grisel Hamilton. 


7 


4 






Do. 


L. F. Eames. 


7 


3i 






Somaliland . 


Count J. Potocki. 


7 


3i 




1364 


N.W. Rhodesia . . C. H. S. Bellis. 


7 


3 






Wadelai, E.C 


. Africa . Maj.-Gen. W. P. Pulteney. 


7 


2 






Somaliland 


Count Scheibler. 


7 


O 




no 


Sudan . 


. W. B. Cotton. 


6 


ioi 


2 4i 




Gondokoro 


. Dr. A. MacCarthy Morrogh 


6 


IO 






Somaliland 


. Count Scheibler. 


6 


IO 




140 


Nyasaland 


. A. White. 


6 


3 






Somaliland 


Norman B. Smith. 


6 


o 






Do. 


Count E. Hoyos. 


?5 


ioi 


2 I 


55 


East Africa 


Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 


5 


7 


I IO 

(girth 2ijj ins. 1 




Nigeria 


. Maj.-Gen. T. D. Pilcher. 



The following specimens were shot and measured by Mr. F. 
Vaughan Kirby ; the first being from the Nguanetsi River, and the 
second from the Matamiri Bush, S.E.A. : — 



Length, tip to 

tip in a straight 

line. 


Length 

over all — 

"sportsman's 

measurement 


Estimated 
, shoulder 
height. 


,-,•., c Girth 

Girth of . 1 ■ j 

, behind 

shoulder. 


Girth of 

forearm. 


Length of Zygomatic Cleaned 
skull. width. weight. 


ft. ins. 


ft. 


ins. 


ft. ins. 


ins. ins. 


ins. 


ins. ins. lbs. oz. 


6 11 


7 


2 


2 7 


22 35i 


I2| 


9i 6J 1 8 


6 9 


7 


2 


2 7 


20 33& 
Skulls. 


ni 


9 Si 


Total length. 


Width. 




Weight. 


Locality. 




Owner. 


ins 


ins. 




lbs. oz. 








"i 


7i 




I 12 


Gabun . 




Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


I of 


6A 






N. Nigeria 




B. C. Parr. 


-ioJ 


6g 






Bijnor District, 
Provinces 


United 


The late A. M. Markham. 


io| 








White Nile . 




A. L. Butler. 


-10A 


6i 






Gir Forest, Kath 


a war . 


Lieut. -Col. L. L. Fenton. 


IO 


6i 




I 6 


Belgaum, India 




Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart 


9A 


6| 






East Africa 




L. F. Eames. 


9 


5R 




I 3 


Somaliland 




J. H. Thomson. 



- Owner's measurements. 



SJVO W-LEOPARD 



501 



The SNOW- LEOPARD or OUNCE (Felis uncia). 

Shieh Pao, of Chinese. 

Although the Persian leopard is in some degree intermediate in 
respect to colour and the length of the coat, the ounce differs from the 
leopard by the ground-colour of the long and dense fur being dirty 
white, with the spots on the back, sides, and tail in the form of large, 
irregular, ill-defined and interrupted rings, and by the great thickness 
of the tail, which scarcely tapers, and is about three-quarters the 
length of the head and body. Height at shoulder, about 2 feet 4 
inches. 

Distribution. — The high ranges of Central Asia, including Gilgit, Hunza, 
Turkestan, Trans-Baikalia, Ladak, Tibet, Amurland, and Western 
China, extending in the north-west to the Altai, and in the west, 
it is said, to Persia. In Prince Demidoff's Hunting Trips in the 
Caucasus a snow-leopard is figured as coming from that range, but 
the animal found there is F. pardus panthera. The snow-leopard 
generally dwells at elevations of over 8000 feet, but descends in 
Gilgit during winter to 6000 feet. 



Length dressed. 




Weight. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ft. 


ins.- 










8 


8 






Central Asia 


. A. Ezra. 


8 


8 






Baltistan . 


. Capt. C. M. Hawes. 


8 


6 






? 


Capt. B. C. Graham. 


8 


6 


Skull, 7| x 5I 


Baltistan 


R. Rankin. 


8 


2h 






Do. 


E. Langworthy. 


(raw) 










7 


10 






Near Leh . 


Lieut. -Col. S. Frewen. 


-7 


8 






China 


. M. Mitchell. 


-7 


51 






Pamir 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins 


-7 


5 






? 


Lieut. -Col. F. J. Harden. 


-7 


4 


Skull, 7 T V x 4J 


Kashmir . 


. Lieut. -Col. H. C. Tytler. 


-7 


4 




(24 inches at shoulder) 


The late R. A. Sterndale. 










- Owner's measi 


irements. 



S02 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The CLOUDED LEOPARD (Felis nebulosa). 
Kwei ko-pao, Chinese. 

The arimau-dahan, as this species is called by the Malays, is the 
size of a small leopard, with a very long and thickly furred tail, and 
large upper tusks. The ground-colour of the fur varies from greyish 
brown to fulvous, upon which are large dark blotches, frequently 
bordered in part with black. In old specimens the blotches often 
disappear, leaving only the black borders. 

Distribution. — From the Sikhim and Bhutan Himalaya, through Assam, 
Burma, Siam, and the Malay Peninsula, to Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo. Represented by a smaller race {F. nebulosa brachyurus), 
with somewhat different markings and a shorter tail, in Formosa. 









Skins. 




Length 
ft. 

-6 


dressed, 
ins. 

6 


Weight, 
lbs. 


Locality. 

Assam . 


Owner. 

The late B. H. Hodgson. 


6 


5 




Yun-nan 


M. Mitchell. 


-6 


4 


44h 


? 


The late R. A. Sterndale. 


6 


3 




? 


Sir Guy Fleetwood Wilson, 


5 


i io 




Sumatra . 


British Museum. 


5 


9 




? 


Major B. R. M. Glossop. 


5 


7h 




Assam 


P. Russel. 



Owner's measurements. 



Basal length from 
back to front. 

6-2 ins. 





Skulls. 




Breadth. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


475 


Assam . 


. The late B. H. Hodgson, 



J A G UAR—PUMA 503 



The JAGUAR (Felis onca). 

This cat may be regarded as the American representative of the 
leopard, which it fully equals, even if it does not exceed, in size. The 
colour and markings are generally similar to those of the latter, but 
the dark rings are larger and arranged more definitely in groups, each 
ring usually enclosing one or more dark central spots, and the enclosed 
light area being of the same tint as the general ground-colour of the 
fur, which is typically of a rich tan. Usually seven or eight more or 
less distinct longitudinal rows of rosettes may be noticed on each side 
of the body. The tail is shorter than a leopard's. 

Distribution. — America, from Louisiana, Texas, and Northern Mexico 
to about the Rio Negro on the northern confines of Patagonia in 
lat. 40 S. 



Length before 
skinned. 


Length 
dressed. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ft. ins. 


ft. ins. 






-9 3 


9 3 


Brazil 


Count Henry Coudenhove. 


-8 3f 




Do. 


Do. 


-6 11 


7 9 


Paraguay . 


Col. J. J. Harrison. 



The PUMA (Felis concolor). 

With the exception of the small and long-tailed jaguarondi 
and eyra, the puma (pronounced pooma) is the only uniformly 
coloured cat found in America, where its range extends from British 
Columbia and Maine in the north to the Strait of Magellan in the 
south. The size is inferior to that of the jaguar, the height at the 
shoulder being about 2 feet, and the weight 150 lbs. The general 
colour of the fur is tawny, tending, like that of the white-tailed deer, to 
reddish in summer and to greyish in winter, with the middle of the 
back darker, and a whitish patch on the back of the otherwise black 



5o 4 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 

ears. But with such an enormous geographical range, it is inevitable 
there should be much local variation ; and a number of races are now 
recognised, most of which are distinguished by size or the redder or 
greyer tint of the fur. A Patagonian race has pale ears. 



:ngth before 
skinned. 

ft. ins. 

-8 6 


Weight. 

lbs. 

about 150 


Locality. 

? 


Owner. 
A. Pendarves Vivian. 


-7 6g 




Brazil ..... 


Count Henry Coudenhove. 


-7 5 




Gallegos River, Patagonia 


W. Moncreiffe. 


-7 3 




Fraser River, British Columbia . 


The late J. Fannin. 


-7 o 




Wyoming ..... 


J. L. Scarlett. 



- Owner's measurements. 



LYNXES (Felis [Lynx] lynx, etc.). 

The lynxes form a well-marked group connected with the more 
typical members of the cat tribe by the jungle-cat (F. chaus), and 
distinguished by the tuft of long hairs at the. summit of the ears, and 
the absence of the first upper cheek-tooth. From the others the caracal 
(F. caracal), of Africa and India, is broadly distinguished by its long 
tail and uniform rufous colour. The short-tailed lynxes are, however, 
a group in which it is very difficult to determine whether the variations 
indicate distinct species or local races. In the typical European lynx 
{F. lynx) the tail is very short, the throat has a ruff of long hair, and 
the coat is spotted with dark brown, the Tibet lynx (F. lynx isabellina) 
is a pale race, and the Canadian lynx (F. lynx canadensis), which 
ranges as far south as California, is another race ; while the Caucasian 
and Persian lynx is now classed as a distinct species, F. cervaria. 
The red lynx {F. rufa), which is also widely extended in America, and 
has numerous local races, is a third species. From differences in the 
form of the skull, the Spanish lynx (F. pardina), which is a fully 
spotted animal, is also classed as a distinct species. It ranges over 
a large portion of Southern Europe, including Turkey, Greece, Sicily, 
Sardinia, and Spain and Portugal. The ordinary lynx stands from 
16 to 18 inches at the shoulder. 



LYNXES 



5°5 



.4.— EUROPEAN LYNX (Felis lynx). 



Length before 
skinned. 



-49^ ins. 

-46 „ 

-42-9 ., 
-42 ,, 



Estimated 
height at 
shoulder. 



23 



Locality. 

Andalusia 

Near St. Petersburg 

Eastern Carpathians 

Do. 



Owner. 

Abel Chapman. 

Count Bobrinskoy. 

Prince Henry of Liechtenstein. 

Count Henry Coudenhove. 



B.— CANADIAN LYNX (F. lynx canadensis). 



Length before Height at We[ h 

skinned. shoulder. ° 



-38 ins. 



25 



Locality. 



60 lbs. 
(about) 



Wyoming 



Owner. 

Major G. Dalrymple White. 



Owner's measurements. 



Length before Height at 
skinned. shoulder. 



-33 lns - 
-32 „ 



17 
22 



C — RED LYNX (Felis rufa). 

Weight. Locality. Owner. 

Wyoming . . . Capt. M. McNeill. 



40 lbs. Nova Scotia 

(about) 



Major G. Dalrymple White. 



D. — CARACAL (Felis caracal). 

Flat skin. Locality. 

-465 ins. Nr. Grahamstown, S. Africa 



Owner. 

Dr. H. Smith. 



Owner's measurements. 



5 o6 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



The HUNTING -LEOPARD or CHITA (Cynaelurus jubatus). 

Although this animal is commonly called chita (cheetah) by Anglo- 
Indian sportsmen, that name is at least as often applied in India to 
the leopard. From all the true cats and lynxes the hunting-leopard 
differs by the claws being capable of only partial withdrawal into their 
sheaths, so that their tips are always exposed. The body also is more 
slender, and the limbs are proportionately longer. The black spots on 
the skin are small and without light centres, like those on the head of 
the leopard. Length, 7 feet or less ; height at shoulder, 30 to 39 inches. 
A specimen speared by Lieut.-Col. L. L. Fenton in Kathiawar measured 
6 feet \ inch in length, the tail being 2 feet 2\ inches. 

In Africa the chita is the " Ihlose " of the Zulus and Swazis. It is 
distributed sparsely throughout S.E. Africa. Hunting-leopards usually 
hunt in couples, and fairly stalk their game, securing it with a swift 
rush at the last. Mr. F. Vaughari Kirby wrote that " I have seen a 
party of six hunting together and another of eight. Though I have 
often tried, I have never yet succeeded in running into one on horse- 
back ; they are incredibly swift of foot. They invariably kill their 
prey by strangulation." Many local races have been named.- 

Distribution. — Africa and South- Western Asia, extending from Persia 
to Western Turkestan and the countries east of the Caspian, 
and eastwards into India ; unknown in the latter country on the 
Malabar coast and to the north of the Ganges, as it also is in 
Ceylon. 

Length before Length of ^ghfat Locality. Owner. 



skinned. tail 

ft. ins. ft. ins 



shoulder. 
79 ... East Africa 



-7 3I ... ... N.W. Rhodesia . 

136^ lbs. 
-6 6 22 ... East Africa 

-6 6 26^ ... Zululand . 

-6 4! 2 2>\ 2 &h N.E. Transvaal 

90 lbs. 
-63 2 4I 29^ East Africa 

- Owner's measurements. 



Capt. R. Meinertzhagen. 
C. H. S. Bellis. 
Percy C. Madeira. 
A. Cameron. 
Dr. Percy Rendall. 
H. C. Williams. 



The following are the dimensions of a specimen shot in the Eastern 
Transvaal by Mr. F. Vaughan Kirby : — 

Total length in straight line. Do. over all. Tail. Vertical height. Girth of forearm. Do. shoulders. 

6 ft. 8 ins. 7 ft. 7 ins. 2]ft. 9 ins. 2 ft. u£ ins. 8| ins. 31 ins. 



HYENAS 



507 



The SPOTTED HYjENA (Hysena [Crocuta] crocuta). 



Uaraba, Somali. 
Yangula, Danakil. 
Jib, Abyssinian. 
Kuva, Hausa. 
Kochupa, M'Kua. 



Marjain, Sudani. 

Ugandu, Mpisi. 

Setongwani, Barotsi. 

Piri, Ngami. 

Chimbwi, Chilala and Chibisa. 



The hyaenas form a small family of Carnivora allied in some 
respects to the cats, but distinguished by the structure of the skull, 
the more numerous teeth (which are, however, to a considerable extent 
cat-like), and the four-toed feet, with non-retractile claws. The spotted 
hyaena, of which there are several races, is the largest of the three 
species, and takes its name from the large dark blotches on its tawny 
coat. Its carnassial teeth are more cat-like than those of the other 
species. 

Distribution. — Africa, south of the Sahara. 



Length 
before 
skinned. 

ft. ins. 

-5 o 

-4 9h 
-4 8 



Length Extreme Estimated Girth 

of length standing behind 

tail. over all. height. shoulders. 

ft. ins. ft. ins. ft. ins. 



6 3 



3 o 
2 6 



ins. 
29 

391 



Weight. 

lbs. 
121 



Locality. 



Owner. 



East Africa Capt. R. Meinertz- 
hagen. 
F. Vaughan Kirby. 

Somaliland J. H. H. Dodds. 



Skulls. 



Length, 
ins. 

-"i 

-I2i 
12 

"4 
-11 
-iog 
-io§ 



Width, 
ins. 

7i 



7xV 
7k 
■ 6§ 
6g 



Weight, 
lbs. oz. 
2 8 


Locality. 
South-East Africa 


Owner. 
F. Vaughan Kirby. 


2 12 


Zomba, B.C. A. 


, D. MacAlpine. 




Somaliland 


J. H. H. Dodds. 




Benue Valley . 


. Capt. E. J. Wolseley. 




Somaliland 


Viscount Edmond de Poncins. 




South-East Africa . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


2 3 


East Africa 


The late Rear-Admiral 

R. A. J. Montgomerie, R.N. 



The STRIPED HY-ffiNA (Hyaena striata). 
Distribution. — India, Arabia, Syria, etc., and North and East Africa. 

Locality. • Owner. 



Length before 
skinned. 

ft. ins. 

-4 4i 
-3 6 



Length of 
tail, i 

ft. ins. 



Standing 
height. 

ft 

2 



ins. 
2* 



Somaliland 
India 
Owner's measurements. 



>]. H. H. Dodds. 
The late Dr. T. C. Jerdon. 



508 RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Skull of Kamchatkan Bear. 



BEARS (Ursidse). 



Bears are so unlike other animals and so like one another that no 
one has the slightest difficulty in recognising a member of the group 
when he sees it. They constitute a family of Carnivora — the Ursidce — 
and are spread over the greater part of the globe, with the exception of 
Africa to the south of the Sahara desert, and the Australasian islands. 
As some of their leading characteristics, mention may be made of their 
large bodily size, clumsy build, shaggy fur, generally uniform coloration, 
the very short tail, and the application of the whole sole of the foot to 
the ground in walking. The skull and teeth are likewise very peculiar 
and distinctive, although these need not be taken into consideration in 
this place. 

In consequence of the marked similarity to one another of most 
members of the group, it is a matter of extreme difficulty to come to a 
definite conclusion as to the number of species of bears. The typical 
member of the group is the familiar brown bear (Ursus arctus) of Europe, 
in which the colour is generally a darker or lighter shade of brown, 
but occasionally tends to greyish. The Syrian bear (U. arctus syriacus), 
in which this greyish tinge predominates, may be regarded as a local 
variety, and the same is the case with the snow -bear of Kashmir 
(U. arctus isabellinus), in which the colour is generally a light creamy 
brown. European specimens probably seldom exceed 8 feet, but the 
East Siberian and Kamchatkan bears (U. arctus piscator) grow to 
9 feet. Even more gigantic is the Kodiak bear (U. arctus midden- 
dorffi) of Kodiak Island, Alaska; while the Yezo bear {U. arctus 
yesoensis) of Japan is another large race, with much the external 
appearance of a grizzly. The Alaskan bear {U. arctus dalli), from the 



BEARS 509 

mainland of Alaska, is also a huge animal, slightly smaller than the 
one from Kodiak Island, with more resemblance to an ordinary brown 
bear than to a grizzly. The grisly, or grizzly, of the Rocky Mountains 
is a smaller bear, with longer, straighter, and whiter claws, and is 
generally regarded as representing a second species (U. horribilis). 
A race of this species is the Barren-Ground bear {U. h. richardsoni) ; 
and the species may be represented in Asia by the Tien Shan 
U. leucoityx. Another member of the group is the Atlas bear {U. arctus 
crowtJieri), of North -Western Africa, still imperfectly known. The 
extinct cave-bear (U. spelcsus) is a large species allied to the brown bear. 

The little blue bear {U. pruinosus) of Tibet, with more or less of 
white on the head and shoulders, seems to form a distinct species. The 
same is the case with the American black bear {U. americanus), which 
exhibits distinctive features in the skull and teeth, and is generally 
black, although it may be grey, or even white (U. a. kidderi\ The 
Himalayan black bear {U. torquatus), which may be recognised by the 
conspicuous white gorget on the breast, is a relative of the last-named 
species. In Japan it is represented by the Japanese black bear 
{U. japonicus). One of the smallest species of the genus is the very 
distinct Malay bear {U. malayanus), which ranges into Sze-chuan ; and 
allied to this is the spectacled bear ([/. ornatus) of the Peruvian and 
Bolivian Andes, distinguished by the light-coloured rings generally sur- 
rounding the eyes from which it derives its name. 

The most distinct of all the species included in the genus Ursus is 
the Polar bear (U. maritimus), so distinct, indeed, that many naturalists 
consider it ought to form a genus by itself. Externally its chief charac- 
teristics are its white coat, and the presence of a certain amount of 
hair on the soles of the feet ; both these peculiarities being evidently 
adaptations to the Arctic habitat of the animal. Very old Polar bears 
exhibit a tendency to the development of a brownish tinge in the fur. 
Last of all comes the Indian sloth-bear (Melursus ursinus), which is so 
different from the other kinds as to represent a genus by itself. It is 
too well known an animal to need description, some of its characteristics 
being the long and bare snout, the ragged, wiry hair, extensile tongue, 
small cheek-teeth, and the diminished number of front teeth. 



5io 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 











(a) Skulls. 




Basal length 
from back 
to front. 


Width 
across the 
zygomatic 

arches. 


Weight 
cleaned. 


Race, or 
Species. 


Locality. 


Owner. 


ins. 


ins. 


lbs. 


oz. 








-2o£ 


"i 








Alaska . 


J. W. Anderson. 


l8| 


"I 


12 


o 


Cave bear Europe . 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


-lS§ 


lof 






? 


Alaska . 


F. T. Colby. 


18 

17* 


II 
io| 


IO 

8 


O 

4 


Kamchat 

kan 
Alaskan 


Siberia . 
Alaska . 


Hon. Walter Rothschild. 
Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 


-i7i 


I of 






Do. 


Do. . 


Rev. Dr. R. J. Nevin. 


i7i 

16 


IO 

91 


6 

5 


12 

8 


Kamchat 

kan 
Polar 


Kamchatka . 
Novaia Zemlia 


P. Niedieck. 
J. Lamont. 


iSS 


\o\ 


5 


13 


Do. 


Polar Seas 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


i5M 


9§ 


5 


8 


Do. 


Greenland 


C. A. Hamilton. 


iSi 


9ttt 


5 


14 




Kamchatka . 


Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 


i5i 


log 


6 


I 




Alaska . 


L. J. Cadbury. 


i5l ( D ) 


9i 


5 


IO 


Grizzly 


Brit. Columbia 


Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 


i5§ 


9i 


4 


IO 


Kamchat 
kan 
Do. 


Kamchatka . 


Capt. R. E. R. Benson, R.N. 


iS* 


9i r ir 


5 


IO 


Do. 


W. S. Race. 


i4« 


9 






Brown 


Do. 


St. George Littledale. 


-i4fi 


84 


4 


2 


Grizzly 


Montana 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


145 


8i 


4 


8 


Do. 


Brit. Columbia 


S. B. Bennett. 


I4§ (c) 


8i 


5 


O 


Do. 


New Mexico . 


Montague Stevens. 


Hi 


8i 


3 


12 


Brown 


Europe 


Walter Winans. 


138 


8| 






Snow 


Kashmir 


Capt. B. H. Shaw-Stewart. 


-i3i 


8 


3 


I 


Do. 


Do. 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


12 J 
-I2j 


8 T 3 ir 
7 


3 


3 


Black 
Sloth 


Nepal . 
Mysore 


Lieut. -Gen. Kaiser Shumsher 

Jung, R.B. 
Capt. M. McNeill. 


I2l 


71 






Do. 


Cent. Prov. . 


C. F. Egerton. 


I2J 


7 






Grizzly 


Wyoming 


J. L. Scarlett. 


I2j (B) 


6| 






Sloth 


Cent. Prov. . 


Surgeon- Major M. O'C. Drury 


I2| 


71 






Snow 


Kashmir 


A. Ezra. 


I2f 


71 






Do. 


Do. 


Col. C. B. Wood. 


I2§ 


71 


3 


O 


Black 


Do. 


P. B. Vander Byl. 


I2j 


7H 






Grizzly 


Wyoming 


J. L. Scarlett. 


12 


74 






Sloth 


Cent. Prov. . 


C. F. Egerton. 


-Ug 


7* 






Black . 


Newfoundland 


Percy C. Madeira. 


II J (A) 


6| 






Brown . 
- Ownt 


W. Caucasus 

r's measurements. 


St. George Littledale. 



BEARS 



5" 



Length 

before 

skinned. 

ft. ins. 



of raw height at Girth. Weight. g pec '; es 



7 94 



IO 

7 



8 3 



8 o 
7 8 



7 1 



Length Estimated 

of raw height at 

skin. shoulder. 

ft. ins. ft. ins. ft. ins, 

13 6 

11 6 



OWNER'S MEASUREMENTS. 

Locality. 



II 
9 
9 
9 
9 



4 O 



9 4 
-9 4 

8 10 



8 7 



8 6 

(across 

front paws) 

4 o 

(mounted) 



8 oi 



4 34 



8 o(d) 3 11 

8 o(c) ... 

7 11 

7 9 

7 54 

7 54 "... 

7 4 



lbs. 
1656 Kodiak 



1460 



? 

? 
Alaskan 

Do. 
Polar . 



Kodiak Island, 

Alaska 
Alaska . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Baffin Bay 



1014 



Alaskan Alaska 
Do. Do. 



Owner. 



J. C. Tolman. 

American Museum of 

Natural History. 
J. W. Anderson. 

South African Museum. 

Dublin Museum. 

W. Livingstone- 

Learmonth. 
Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Capt. C. R. E. Radclyffe. 





Do. 


Do. . 


American National 
Collection. 




Do. 


Do. . 


British Museum. 




Polar 


Barents Seas . 


Duke of Peneranda. 


1600 


Do. . 


Arctic Seas 


Captain Lyon. 




Grizzly . 


Wyoming 


T. P. Kempson. 




Polar . 


Spitzbergen 


A. Barclay Walker. 




Do. 
Do. 


Franz Josef 

Land 
Greenland 


Dr. S. H. T. Armitage. 
Col. Max C. Fleischmann. 


1020 


Black . 

Kam- 
chatkan 
Polar 


Kashmir 

Kamchatka 

Greenland 


Lieut. -Col. W.Westropp 

White. 
Dr. F. H. H. Guillemard. 

C. A. Hamilton. 




Grizzly . 


Wyoming 


T. W. H. Clarke. 




Alaskan 


Alaska . 


J. H. Kidder. 




Snow . 


Kashmir 


W. Graham. 




Grizzly . 


Brit. Columbia 


. Sir Peter Walker, Bart. 


735 


Do. . 


New Mexico . 


Montague Stevens. 


800 

(about' 


Brown . 
Snow 


Norway . 
Kashmir 


Capt. Gerard Ferrand. 
, Lieut. -Col. C. F. Blane. 




Sloth . 


? 


W. L. Hogg. 




Black . 


Wyoming 


T. W. H. Clarke. 




Brown . 


Hungary 


Count M. Andrassy. 




Snow 


Kashmir 


, Capt. B. H. Shaw- Stewart. 



512 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length Length Estimated 

before of raw height at 

skinned. skin. shoulder. 



Girth. Weight. * ace '. or 
& Species. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



ft. ins. 


ft. 


ins. 


ft. 


ins. 


ft. 


, ins 


. lbs. 










7 
7 


o| 

o 










68o Brown . 
(about) 

Snow 


Lithuania 
Kashmir 


. Prince Radziwill. 

. Major C. Mel. Ritchie. 




7 


o 


3 


2 








Sloth . 


India 


. Lieut. -Col. A. E. Ward. 




6 


II 












Black . 


Wyoming 


. Col. J. J. Harrison. 




6 
6 


IO 
IO 


3 
4 


O 
I 


4 4i 

forearm 


423 


Sloth . 

? 


Cooch Behar 
Alaska . 


. H.H. the Maharaja of 

Cooch Behar. 
. R. P. Blake. 




6 


9h 






= 


25 




Snow 


Kashmir 


S. V. Occleston. 




6 
6 


81 

8(B 


) • 










Black . 
Snow 


Garhwal 
Kashmir 


Capt. A. W. Robertson- 
Glasgow. 
A. Ezra. 




6 


8 


4 


O 






625 


Kodiak 


Kodiak I. 


A. W. Merriam. 


6 7 


6 


7 












Black 
Do. 


Kashmir 

N. Brunswick 


, Lieut. -Ccl. L. L. Fenton. 
Sir Kenneth Crossley. 




6 
6 


6 
6 










700 


Do. . 
Grizzly . 


Nepal . 
Wyoming 


Lieut. - Gen. Kaiser 

Shumsher Jung, R.B. 
Count E. Hoyos. 




6 


5 












Do. . 


Do. 


J. L. Scarlett. 




6 


4 












Black . 


Kashmir 


The Master of Belhaven. 




6 


3 












Grizzly . 


Wyoming 


J. L. Scarlett. 




6 


2i 












Black . 


Brit. Columbia Count E. Hoyos. 




6 
6 


I 












Sloth . 
Cinnamon 


Mandla, Cent. 

Provinces 
Wyoming 


Capt. B. H. Boucher. 
Col. J. J. Harrison. 




6 


oi 












Sloth . 


Hyderabad 


Count E. Hoyos. 




6 


o 


3 


o 






280 


Do. 


? 


The late G. P. Sanderson. 




6 


o 












Black . 


Newfoundland 


Percy C. Madeira. 




5 


IOi 


3 


o 


3 


4 




Snow 


? 


Lieut.-Col.H. M.Biddulph. 




5 

9 5 
5 


5 

2(A) 


2 

2 ] 
... 


51 


2 

4 


iof 

4 


250 

about 

600 

about 


Black . 
Grizzly . 
Brown . 


Brit. Columbia 

Do. 
W. Caucasus . 


Count Scheibler. 

Do. 
St. George Littledale. 


5 2 


4 


7 


3 


4 


2 


8 


242 


Do. . 
Do. 


W. Kan-su 
Asia Minor 


G. Fenwick-Owen. 
H. 0. Whittall. 



N.B.— Some of 
Barren-Ground bear. 



the specimens entered as " Grizzly " may be the 



WALRUS 



5*3 




Head of Walrus. 



The WALRUS (Odobaerms rosmarus). 



The unwieldy seal-like animals commonly known by a corruption 
of the Scandinavian name valross (whale-horse) form in some respects 
a connecting link between the true seals and the eared seals, although 
differing from both in the huge upper tusks which depend from the 
muzzle of males and females alike, as also by the thick yellow bristles 
covering the muzzle itself. Like the true seals, walruses have lost all 
traces of external ears, but, unlike the former, and like the eared seals, 
their huge hind-flippers are turned forwards beneath the body when on 
land. The molar teeth have simple flattened crowns, unlike those 
of most seals. Although young and adolescent walruses have fairly 
thick coats of yellowish fur, in old individuals the tough hide becomes 
almost bare, except for the aforesaid bristles. Walruses are estimated 
to attain a weight of from 2250 to 3000 lbs. 

Walruses are exclusively confined to the Arctic seas, where they 
spend much of their time on the ice. There are two kinds, which 

2 L 



5*4 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



may be regarded as races of a single species ; the one restricted to the 
North Atlantic, and the other to the North Pacific. The distribution of 
these animals is by no means of circumpolar extent, the Atlantic walrus 
(0. rosmarus) apparently not ranging on the Asiatic coast east of the 
mouth of the river Lena ; while in America walruses do not appear 
to inhabit the vast extent of coast lying between the western shore of 
Hudson Bay and Alaska. The Pacific walrus (0. r. obesus), which is 
the larger of the two, with longer tusks, always had a restricted range, 
and is now scarce. Formerly the Atlantic walrus occurred in countless 
thousands, but in accessible situations its numbers have been greatly 
reduced, owing to incessant persecution for the sake of its valuable 
oil and ivory. Between 1870 and 1880 at least 100,000 of these 
animals are estimated to have been slain. 

The largest walrus shot by Mr. W. Livingstone-Learmonth measured 
12 feet 8 inches in length, and the tusks when extracted measured 
25^- inches in length and 8|- in circumference at the largest part ; but, 
as is the case with those of nearly all old bull walruses, they were much 
broken at the points. 

Tusks. 



Total length Length 
of tusk. from gum. 



36 

-33i 
32! 

32 
-32 
-32 
-34 

3ii 

3°§ 
29 

-2 7 i ' 

-25I 
-25* 



25i 



Weight, 
lbs. oz. 

7 io| 



9 9 



9 4 



Girth. 



Locality. 



Kamchatka 



io3r 



7 IO 



22^ 
20| 

? 18 





Pacific 


9l 


Point Barrow 


H 


Do. 


9i 


Alaska] 


9i 


Kamchatka 


9i 


Arctic America . 


si 


Pacific 


H 


Do. 


H 


Baffin Bay . 


9 


Bering Sea . 


71 


Spitzbergen 


7h 


Do. 


7i 


Do. 


4V 


Do. 



Owner. 

Sir Thos. Hesketh, Bart. 

British Museum (The late Major 

G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton). 
Bethnal Green Museum. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Norwich Museum. 

British Museum (Col. H. W. 

Feilden). 
American National Collection. 

Prince Nicolas Ghika. 

Lieut. H. A. Gillett, R.N. 

C. C. Branch. 

F. T. Colby. 

British Museum (The late Major 

G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton). 
W. Livingstone-Eearmonth. 

Lieut. C. H. G. Benson, R.N. 

Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 

Sir Victor Brooke's Collection. 

Arnold Pike. 

A. Barclay Walker. 



Owner's measurements. 



NAR WHAL 



5i5 




Skull and Tusks of Walrus in the collection of Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 



The NARWHAL (Monodon monoceros). 

The Arctic narwhal is the only cetacean furnished with tusks. 
These are present only in the male, and generally the left one alone is 
developed. Occasionally, however, both grow, as exemplified in a 
specimen in the British, and a second in the Cambridge Museum. A 
model of this whale is exhibited in the British Museum. 

Distribution. — Arctic Seas. 
Tusks. 



Length. 


Circumference. 


Weight. 


Owner. 


ft. ins. 




lbs. 




9 44 


7h 




Major H. A. Steward. 


8 8i 


8| 




Bethnal Green Museum. 


s n 


9 


17 


H.R.H. the Due de Montpensier. 


-8 7 


* 




Royal Scottish Museum. 


8 7 


' H 


15 


Sir Edmund G. Loder, Bart. 


8 7 


8 




Carl Hagenbeck. 


8 3i 


71 




Bethnal Green Museum. 


-8 2 






American Museum of Natural History 


8 


71 




A. Barclay Walker. 


7 11 






J. H. Whitehouse. 



Owner's measurements. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



5i7 



HINTS 

For recording the Length of Animals in the Field. 

As the body lies on the ground, and where circumstances permit, 
proceed as follows : — 

Length. Pull the nose and the tail so as to get them as nearly as 
possible in a straight line. Fix body with four pegs ; one at end of 
the nose, one at end of tail, one at root of tail, and the fourth at the 
nape of the neck behind the ears. 

Height at sJwulder. Put the leg or paw in a standing position and 
place a peg at top of withers and measure carefully standing height (a) 
with extended paw, (b) with spread paw, as well as length of fore and 
hind legs from pegs at the stomach-line. 

The entries in the game-book should be as follows : — 



Length, straight from nose to tip of tail, 
along curve to root of tail 
,, of tail . 

,, of head to nape of neck 
Girth, upper arm 
„ forearm . 
,, of body . 
„ of head . 
Height at hind-quarters 

„ shoulder 
Length of foreleg 

,, hind-leg 
Weight, cleaned 

,, not cleaned 
Cleaned skull, length 
,, breadth 

,, height 

,, weight 



In addition to these measurements, the sex, estimated age, locality, 
and condition of the animal, with any other features of interest, such 
as colour of the eyes and skin, length of the hoofs, condition of teeth, 
etc., should be recorded. 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 5*9 



T tV, Circum- 

Greatest Yonwst **?*** T £ t0 B V^ h Points. Locality. Owner. 

width. longer above Tip. of palm. ' 

tme - burr. 



Length 

on out- Circum- Tip to Widest Points. Locality. Owner, 

side ference. Tip. inside. 



Length 

on 
outside 


Circum- 
ference. 


Tip to 
Tip. 


Widest 
inside. 


Widest 
outside. 


curve. 











Points. Locality. Owner. 



520 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Length on 
front curve. 



Circum- 
ference. 



ITip to Tip. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Greatest width. 
Outside. Inside. 



Tip to Width of 

Tip. palm. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



Length, Circum- -p. , qt- 

straight line. ference. Up to lip. 



Locality. 



Owner. 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND RACES 



Abyssinian Buffalo 






. 422 


Antidorcas marsupialis 








275 


, , Bushbuck 






• 307 


Antilocapra americana 








116 


, , Defassa 






192 


Ant Hope cervicapra 








235 


,, Duiker 






160 


Aoul . 








269 


,, Ibex . 






• 372 


Arabian Gazelle . 








249 


Oribi . 






. 176 


Ibex 








375 


Addax . 






. 298 


, , Oryx 








295 


Addax nasomaadatus 






. 298 


, , Tahr 








355 


Addra Gazelle 






• 273 


Argali 








396 


/Epyceros melampus 






. 226 


,, Alatau 








402 


, , , , johnstoni 




- 230 


, , Bokharan . 








403 


,, ,, peter si 




• 230 


, , Kashgarian 








402 


African Elephant . 




• 479 


,, Littledale's . 








402 


, , Rhinoceroses 






466-473 


,, Marco Polo's 








404 


Alaskan Bighorn . 






• 392 


,, Mongolian 








401 


Alatau Argali 






. 402 


, , Pamir 








404 


Alces machlis 






. 96 


,, Saiar . 








401 


, , , , atnericamis 




• 97 


, , Siberian 








399 


, , , , bedfordice 




100 


,, Tibetan 








397 


,, ,, gigas 




• 97 


Arna . 








427 


, , , , typicus 






• 99 


Arui 








387 


Alpine Ibex . 






• 37o 


Arusi Bushbuck . 








304 


Altai Gazelle 






• 243 


Asiatic Elephant . 








474 


American Bison . 






• 434 


,, Ibex. 








367 


Ainmodorcas clarkei 






. 224 


Astor Markhor 








359 


Ammotragus lervia 






• 387 


Atlas Bear . 








509 


Ancient British and Irish Red Dee 


r . 11 


,, Gazelle 








248 


,, Continental Red Deer 


• 27 


Axis 








70 


Angola Defassa 


• 195 












Pala . 






• 230 


Babirusa 








460 


Ankoli Buffalo 






• 419 


, , Boru 








460 


Anoa . 






■ 431 


, , Celebes . 








460 


Antelope, Four-horned 






• 300 


Babirusa alfurus . 








460 


, , Indian 






• 235 


, , celebensis 








460 


, , Roan 






. 284 


Bactrian Wapiti . 








47 


,, Sable 






. 280 


Baikal Wapiti 








47 


,, Tibetan 






• 233 


Banded Duiker 








164 


Antidorcas euchore 






• 275 


Bantin . 








445 



521 



522 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Barasingha . . . . 






54 


Bos caffer beddingtoni 






424 


,, (Kashmir) . 






3 2 




,, brachyceros 






424 


Barbary Sheep 






387 




,, cottoni . 






418 


Barking Deer 






80 




, , hunti 






424 


Basilan Sambar . 






67 




,, mathewsi 






419 


Bastard Hartebeest 






148 




,, nanus 






424 


Bavian Deer . . . . 






73 




,, neumanni 






419 


Bay Duiker . 






164 




,, planiceros 






424 


Bears . 






508 




,, raddiffei 






419 


Beden .... 






373 




,, simpsoni 






424 


Beira . 






167 




,, typicus . 






418 


Beisa . . . . . 






291 




depressicornis . 






431 


Bharal 






385 




gaurus . 






439 


,, Caucasian . 






383 




,, hubbachi 






440 


Bhutan Takin 






347 




,, readei . 






440 


Bighorn . . . . 






389 




grunniens 






436 


Black . 






393 




indicus . 






447 


Clifton's 






395 




mindorensis 






43i 


., Grey 






392 




sondaicus 






445 


Kamchatkan . 






394 




, , birmanicus 






445 


., Rocky Mountain 






390 




, , lowi . 






445 


White . 






392 




, , porteri 






446 


Bison .... 






432 




taurus . 






447 


,, American . 






434 




,, primigenius 






447 


,, Indian 






439 


Boselaphus tragocamelns 






301 


Black Bighorn 






393 


Bridgeman's Muntjac . 






82 


Blackbuck . 






235 


Brindled Gnu 






150 


Black Duiker 






161 


,, ,, Nyasa 






153 


,, Lechwe 






199 


Bubal Hartebeest . 






118 


, , Rhinoceros 






466 


Bubalis boselaphus 






118 


Black-tailed Deer . 






107 


,, cama 






131 


Black Wildebeest . 






156 




.. ,, selbornei . 






131 


Blesbok 






145 




,, cokei 






125 


Blue Bull . 






301 




., ,, kongoni . 






125 


,, Duiker 






162 




., ,, naktmz . 






125 


,, Sheep 






385 




, , , , rothschildi 






125 


• ,, Wildebeest . 






150 




., lelwel 






129 


Bohor Reedbuck . 






219 




,, ,, insignis . 






129 


Bokharan Argali . 






4°3 




,, ,, jacksoni . 






129 


Bongo 






323 




,, ,, niediecki . 






129 


Bontebok 






H3 




, , lichtensteini 






• 133 


Bobcercus euryceros 






323 




,, major 






. 119 


,, , , isaaci 






324 




. , netwianni 






. 128 


Bos bison 






434 




, , , , noacki 






• 123 


,, ,, athabasca 






434 




tora . 






. 121 


,, bonasus . 






432 




,, ,, rahatensis . 






. 121 


,, caucasius . 






432 




,, ,, swaynei 






• 123 


,, bubalis . 






• 427 


Budorcas bedfordi . 






• 348 


,, fulvus . 






■ 427 


, , taxicolor 






• 347 


., . , macroceros 






■ 427 


, , , , wkytei 






• 347 


,, ., typicus . 






■ 427 


, , tibetanus 






• 348 


., caffer 






. 418 


Buffalo, African . 






. 418 


,, ,, aquinoctialis . 






422 


,, Cape 






. 418 


,, ,, asracensis 






. 422 


., Indian 






• 427 


, , , , at hi ens is . 






• 419 




,, Short-homed Africa 


n 




• 424 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND RACES 



523 











PAGE 






PAGE 


Buffon's Kob 202 


Capricomis sumatrensis hutnei 


344 


Burchell's Rhinoceros . 






472 


,, ,, jamrachi . 


344 


Bushbuck .... 






303 


,, ,, milne-edwardsi . 


344 


Bush- Pig .... 






455 


,, ,, robinsoni . 
,, ,, rodoni 


344 
344 


Cabul Markhor 






365 


,, ,, rubidiis 


344 


Cama Hartebeest . 






131 


,, ,, swettenhami 


344 


Canadian Lynx 






5°5 


,, swinhoei . 


342 


Cape Buffalo 






418 


Caracal ...... 


505 


,, Bushbuck 






3°4 


Caribou ...... 


83 


,, Bush-Pig 






455 


Caucasian Bharal . . . . . 


383 


,, Duiker 






158 


,, Ibex .... 


38i 


,, Hartebeest . 






131 


Central Chinese Muntjac 


81 


Copra caucasica 






383 


Cephalophus coxi .... 


165 


,, „ cylindricornL 






384 


. , doritz 


164 


,, ,, typica . 






383 


,, dorsalis 


164 


,, falconeri 






358 


,, grimmi 


158 


,, ,, cashmiriensis 




359 


,, ,, abyssinicus . 


160 


, , , , chialtanensis 




363 


,, ,, campbellicE 


161 


,, ,, jerdoni 




365 


,, ,, coronatus 


161 


, , , , megaceros 






365 


,, ,, hindei . 


160 


,, ,, typica . 






359 


,, ,, shirensis 


160 


, , hircus . 






376 


,, harveyi 


166 


,, ,, cegagrus 






377 


,, isaaci 


166 


,, ,, blythi 






377 


,, leopoldi 


166 


,, ibex . 






37o 


,, maxwelli . 


163 


,, nubiana 






373 


,, monticola . 


162 


,, ,, mengesi . 






375 


, , , , aquatorialis 


162 


, , , , sinaitica 






375 


., natalensis . 


163 


,, \, typica 






374 


,, niger 


161 


,, pyrenaica . 






379 


,, rufilatus . 


166 


, , , , hispanica 






379 


,, sylvicultor 


165 


, , , , hisitanica 






379 


Cervidus bridgemani 


82 


, , , , victoria 






379 


,, crinifrons 


82 


,, severtzowi . 






38i 


,, fea .... 


80 


, , , , dinniki 






• 382 


,, lac/iryma/is 


. 80 


,, ,, typica 






. 382 


, , , , sclateri . 


81 


,, sibirica 






• 367 


,, muntjac .... 


. 80 


, , , , almasyi 








• 367 


,, ,, ctirvostylis . 


. 80 


, , , , altaica 








• 367 


" ,, ,, grandicomis 


80 


, , , , jilippii 








■ 367 


,, ,, tamulicus . 


. 80 


, , , , lydekkeri 








• 367 


,, reevesi .... 


. 82 


,, , , pedri 








• 367 


,, sinensis .... 


82 


, , , , sarin 








• 367 


Cervus albirostris . 


• 38 


, , , , typica 








■ 367 


,, aljredi .... 


• 70 


, , , , ivardi 








• 367 




, axis ..... 


70 


,, vali 








• 372 




, ,, ?ninor 


• 70 


Capreolns bedfordi 








• 94 




, ,, seylaniats . 


• 70 


, , capreolus 








• 92 




, calamienensis 


• 72 


, , pygargus 








• 94 




, canadensis 


• 39 


, , tianshanictts 








■ 95 




, ,, bactriailus 


- 47 


Capricomis argyrochates 






• 346 




, ,, biedermanni 


. 48 


, , crispus 






• 342 




, ,, luehdorji . 


. 48 


,, sumatrensis 






• 343 




, ,, merriami . 


44 


„ 


buba 


Units 




• 344 




, ,, nannodes . 


44 



524 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Cervus canadensis occidentalis 
. , sibiricus . 
, , songaricus 
, , typicus 
, , xanthopygus 
cashmiriamis 
culionensis 
duvauceli . 
dybowskii . 
elaphus 

, , atlanticus 
, , barbarus 
, , corsicanus 
. , germanicus 
, , kispanicus 
, , maral 
, , scoticus . 
eldi . 
, , cornipes 
, , platyceros . 
eustephamis 
hagenbecki 
hippelaphns 

, , mohiccensis 

, , typicus 

horttdorwn 

, , kopschi 

kuhli 
macneilli . 

, , kansitensis 

»ia?-ia?tmis 
nippon 
, , manchurictis 
, , typiczis . 
porcinus 

, , hecki 
schombiMgki 
sica . 
, , manchuricus 
,, typicus 
taevanus . 
thoroldi 
unicolor 

dejeani 
equimcs 
nigricans 
philippinus 
swinhoei 
typicus . 
wallichi 

, , affinis . 
yarcandensis 
Ceylon Buffalo 
,, Chital 
Chamois 



44 
47 
45 
40 
48 
32 
72 

54 

52 

1 

15 

3i 

2 

15 
14 

28 

3 
58 
58 
58 
46 

47 
68 

69 
69 
52 
52 
73 
33 
33 
67 
viii 
viii 
viii 
72 
72 
57 
49 
5o 
5° 
5i 
39 
61 
67 
65 
67 
67 
66 
62 
37 
37 
35 
428 
70 
335 



Chialtan Markhor 








363 


Chilian Guemal 






in 


Chinese Goral 








342 


Chinkara 








246 


Chiru . 








233 


Chita . 








506 


Chital . 








70 


Chousingha . 








300 


Clifton's Bighorn 








395 


Clouded Leopard 








502 


Cobus cob 








202 


, , , , leucotis 








206 


, , , , loderi 








208 


,, ,, thomasi 






204 


,, ,, vaughani 






206 


,, defassa 






191 


, , , , crawshayi 






195 


, , , , matschiei 






192 


,, ,, penricei . 






195 


,, ,, typicus 






192 


,, ., ugandce . 






194 


, , , , unctuosus 






195 


,, ellipsipiy??inus 






188 


,, /«r^£ . 






196 


,, maria 






200 


,, robertsi 






199 


,, smithemani 






199 


,, vardoni 






209 


Coke's Hartebeest 






125 


Connochcetes gnu . 






156 


, , taurimis 






150 


, , , , albojubatus 




154 


,, , , johnstoni 




151 


,, ,, typicus . 




152 


Continental Red Deer . 






16 


Corsican Red Deer 






2 


Crowned Duiker . 






. 161 


Cyncelurus jubatus 






506 


Cyprian Sheep 






411 


Dama Gazelle 






. 272 


Dama gigantea 






77 


, , mesopotamica 






76 


,, vulgaris 






74 


Damalisczts albifrons 






• 145 


, , corrigum 






• 137 


, , , , jimela 






141 


,, , , jonesi 






139 


,, , , selousi 






139 


, , , , tiang 






• 139 


, , , , typicus 






137 


, , hunteri 






135 


, , lunattis 






148 


pygargus 






H3 


Damara Dik-dik 








173 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND RACES 



525 











PAGE 








PAGE 


Deer. See Red Deer, etc. 


Elk, East Siberian .... 100 


Defassa, Abyssinian . 19 2 


,, European 






99 


,, Angola . 








195 


English Park Red Deer 






10 


,, Rhodesian 








195 


Erythraean Gaztlle 






252 


,, Uganda . 








194 


European Bison . 






432 


,, Western . 








195 


,, Lynx 






505 


Derbian Eland 








331 


,, Mouflon 






414 


Dibatag 








224 


,, Roebuck 






92 


Dik-dik Antelopes 








I69 










Dol . 








303 


Fallow Deer 






74 


Domesticated Cattle 








447 


,, ,, Mesopotamian . 






76 


,, Goats 








378 


Felts caracal .... 






505 


, , Sheep 








416 


,, cervaria 






504 


Dorcas Gazelle 








250 


,, chaus .... 






504 


Dorcotragus melanotis . 








167 


,, concolo}' 






503 


Duiker, Abyssinian 








160 


,. leo . ... 






488 


Banded . 








164 


,, ,, gujratensis 






489 


Bay. 








164 


,, ,, masaica . 






488 


Black 








161 


,, lynx .... 






5°4 


Blue 








162 


,, ,, canadensis . 






505 


,, Cape 








158 


' , , ,, isabellina 






504 


Crowned . 








161 


,, nebulosa 






502 


Harvey's . 








166 


, , , , brachyurus 






502 


Leopold's 








166 


,, onca 






503 


,, Maxwell's 








163 


., pardina . . . 






504 


., Red-flanked 








166 


, , pardtis . 






498 


Red or Natal 








163 


,, ,, leopardus . 






498 


. , Sudani 








162 


, , , , nanopardas 






498 


,, Yellow-backed 








165 


,, ,, nimr 






498 


Duikerbok . 








158 


,, ,, orientalis . 






498 


Dybowski's Sika . 








52 


, , , , ruwenzorii 






• 498 


Dwarf Buffalo 








424 


,, ,, suahelica . 






• 498 


,, Congo Elephant 








486 


,, ,, vai'iegata . 
,, ,, villosa 






• 498 

• 498 


East Siberian Elk 








100 


,, rufa 






• 505 


Eastern Red Deer 








. 28 


,, tigris . 






• 493 


, , Tur . 








■ 383 


,, ,, mongolica . 






• 493 


Edmi Gazelle 








. 248 


, , , , septentrionalis 






• 493 


Eland . 








• 325 


,, ,, sondaica 






■ 493 


,, Lord Derby's 








- 33i 


,, ,, virgata 






• 493 


,, Sudani 








• 332 


,, uncia . 






• 5oi 


Elaphurus davidianus 








■ 78 


Forest -Hog . 






• 456 


Eld's Deer . 








■ 58 


Formosan Sambar 






. 66 


Elephant, African 








• 479 


,, Sika 






• 5i 


, , Dwarf Cong 









. 486 


Four-horned Antelope . 






• 3°° 


,, Indian . 








• 474 


Fringe-eared Beisa 






• 293 


,, Siberian 








• 487 










Elephas africanus . 








• 479 


Gambian Oribi 






. 178 


,, ,, pumilio 






. 486 


Gaur .... 






• 439 


,, maximtis . 






• 474 


Gayal .... 






• 444 


, , , , sumatrens 


j 




• 475 


Gazella albonotata . 






. 262 


, , , , zeylanicus 






• 475 


,, arabica 






• 249 


,, primigenius 






• 487 


, , , , erlangeri 






• 249 


Elk or Moose 






• 96 


,, rueppeli . 






• 249 


,, American and Ala 


skan 






• 97 


,, beimetti 






246 



526 


RECORDS OF BIG GAME 








PAGE 




PAGE 


Gazella cuvieri .... 


2 4 8 


Gaze 


lie, Mongala 


262 


,, dama 


272 




Mongolian 




241 


, , mTwrr 


273 




Pelzeln's 




255 


,, per mist a . 


273 




, Przewalski's 




240 


. , ,, ruficollis . 


273 




Red-fronted 




260 


,, ,, typica 


273 




, Saikik 




243 


dorcas 


250 




, Seistan . 




244 


,, Isabella 


252 




, Soemmerring's 




269 


,, fuscifrons . 


245 




, Speke's . 




253 


,, grant i . • • 


265 




, Tana Grant's 




268 


,, brighti . 


266 




, Thomson's 




263 


., lacuum . 


266 




, Waller's . 




278 


,, ,, notata 


266 


Gemsbuck 




288 


,, petersi . 


268 


Gerenuk 




278 


,, ,, robertsi . 


267 


Giant Irish Deer . 




77 


>i j) typica 


265 


Giraffa ca7nelopardalis 




113 


., gutturosa .... 


241 


,, ,, angolensis . 


114 


,, altaica 


241 


, , , , antiquorum 


114 


, , leptoceros . . . . 


257 


,, ' ,, capensis 


. "4 


, , loderi . 


258 


,, ,, congoensis . 


114 


,, littoralis . . ~ ■ 


252 


,, ,, cottoni 


114 


,. pehelni .... 


255 


,, ,, peralta 


114 


,, picticaudata 


238 


,, ,, rothschildi . 


114 


,, przewalskii 


24O 


,, ,, tippelskirchi 


114 


,, rufifrons .... 


260 


,, ,, typicus 


114 


,, lavipes 


26l 


,, ,, wardi 


114 


,, ;) typica . 


26l 


, , reticulata .... 


"3 


seistanica .... 


244 


Giraffe . 




"3 


,, scemmerringi 


269 


Gmelin's Sheep 




411 


,, berberana 


269 


Gnu 




156 


,, btctteri . 


271 


Goa 




238 


>> typica 


270 


Goat, Domesticated 




378 


,, spekei .... 


253 


,, Rocky Mountain 




349 


,, subgutturosa 


242 


,, Wild . 




376 


,, sairensis 


243 


Goitred Gazelle 




242 


,, thomsoni .... 


263 


Goral, Chinese 




342 


, tilonura .... 


259 


,, Himalayan and '. 


Burmese . 


340 


., yarcandensis 


243 


Grant's Gazelle 




265 


Gazelle, Addra 


273 


Greater Kudu 




3 J 6 


Altai 




243 


Grey Bighorn 




392 


Aoul 




269 


„ Rhebok 




211 


,, Arabian 




249 


Grisly Bear . 




509 


,, Atlas 




248 


Grysbok 




185 


,, Dama 




272 


Guemal, Chilian . 




in 


Dorcas 




250 


, , Peruvian 




no 


,, Ed mi 




248 








Erythraean 


252 


Haggard's Oribi . 




178 


,, Goa .... 


238 


Hairy-fronted Muntjac 




82 


,, Goitred .... 


242 


Hangul 




32 


,, Grant's .... 


265 


Haploceros motitanus 




349 


,, Heuglin's 


259 


Hartebeest, Bubal 




118 


,, Indian .... 


246 


,, Cape . 




131 


,, Kennion's 


245 


, , Coke's 




125 


,, Loder's . 


257 


,, Hunter's 




135 


Mhorr 




273 




,, Jackson's 




129 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND RACES 



527 



Hartebeest, Kongoni 








125 


Indian Lion . 








489 


,, Korrigum or Senegal 




137 


,, Muntjac . . . . 80 


,, Lelwel 




129 


,, Rhinoceros .... 462 


,, Lichtenstein's 






133 


,, Sambar ..... 62 


,, Neumann's 






128 


,, Wild Boar . . . .453 


,, Tora . 






121 


Inyala. See Nyala 


, , Western 








119 


"Irish Elk" . . . • . . 77 


Harvey's Duiker . 








166 


Irish Red Deer . . . . . 8 


Hemitragns hylocrius 








356 




, , jayakeri 








355 


Jackson's Hartebeest . . . 120. 


, , jemlaicus 








353 


Jaguar . 








503 
342 


Hemprich's Dik-dik 








173 


Japanese Serow 








Heuglin's Gazelle . 








259 


, , Sika 








5° 

464 


Himalayan Goral . 








34° 


Javan Rhinoceros 








,, Serow 








344 


,, Rusa . 








60 


Tahr . 








353 




Hippopotamus 








449 




PicrniV 








451 
449 


Kamchatkan Bighorn .... 394 


Hippopotamus amphibius 






Kashmir Barasingha 








32 


, , liberiensis 






45 1 


Kastura 








112 


Hippotragus equinas 






284 


Kennion's Gazelle 








245 


,, ,, bakeri ■ 






286 


Kilimanjaro Beisa 








293 


, , , , gambianus 




287 


Kirk's Dik-dik . 








172 


, , , , langheldi 




287 


Klipspringer 








186 


, , , , sharicus 




287 


Kob, Buffon's 








202 


,, leiicophaiis ,. . 




285 


,, Uganda 








204 


, , niger 






280 


,, Vaughan's . 








206 


, , , , roosevelti 






283 


,, White-eared 








206 


Hirola .... 






135 


Kongoni 








125 


Hog-Deer, 








72 


Konzi . 








133 


Hunter's Hartebeest 








135 


Korin . 








260 


Hunting- Leopard 








506 


Korrigum 








137 


Hytena, Spotted . 








507 


Kudu . 








3i6 


,, Striped 










507 


,, Lesser 








321 


Hycena crocuta 










507 




, , striata 










5o7 


Lechwe ...... iq6 


Hylockcerus meiiiertzhageui 






456 


,, Black 

,, Mrs. Gray's 






199 
200 


Ibex, Abyssinian 








372 


Lelwel Hartebeest 






129 


, , Alpine 










37o 


Leopard 






498 


, , Arabian 










375 


Leopold's Duiker . 






166 


, , Asiatic 










367 


Lesser Kudu 






321 


, , Caucasian 










381 


Lichtenstein's Hartebeest 






*33 


, , Nilgiri 










356 


Lion .... 






488 


,, Nubian 










373 


Lithocranius walleri 






278 


, , Spanish 










379 


Littledale's Argali 






402 


Impala 










226 


Livingstone's Suni 






180 


,, Angola 










230 


, Loder's Gazelle 






257 


Indian Antelope 










235 


Puku 






208 


,, Bison 










439 


Lord Derby's Eland 






33i 


,, Buffalo 










427 


Luehdorf s Wapiti 






48 


,, Elephant 










474 


Luzon Sambar 






67 


,, Gazelle 










246 


Lydenburg Reedbuck . 






216 


,, Hunting-Leopard 






506 


Lynx .... 






504 


,, Leopard 










498 


,, Canadian and Rec 


I 






505 



528 


1 


REC 


'OR, 


DS OF BIG GAME 








PAGE 


PAGE 


Lynx, Caracal ..... 505 


Mongolian Gazelle . . . .241 


., European . 






• 505 


Monodon monoceros 






■ 515 


,, Tibetan 






• 504 


Moose 

Moschus 7)ioschiferus 






. 96 
112 


Madoqua damarensis 






• 173 


Mouflon 






• 4H 


, , guentheri 






. 170 


Mountain Nyala . 






• 3 J o 




hemprichiana 






• 173 


, , Reedbuck 






. 216 




, kirki 






172 


Mule-Deer . 






104 


- 


phillipsi 






170 


Muntjac 






. 80 




piacentinii 






• 171 


,, Bridgeman's . 






. 82 




, saltiana 






169 


,, Central Chinese 






. 81 


, 


, swaynei 






170 


,, Hairy-fronted 






. 82 


Malay Sambar 






• 65 


,, Reeves's 






. 82 


Mammoth 






• 487 


,, Sclater's 






. 81 


Manchurian Leopard 






499 


, , Tenasserim . 






. 80 


Sika . 






5o 


Musk-Deer . 






. 112 


, , Wapiti 






48 


„ Ox . 






• 35i 


Maral .... 






28 










Marco Polo's Argali 






404 


Narwhal 






• 515 


Markhor, Astor and Pir Panjal 




359 


Natal Duiker 






• 163 


,, Cabul and Suleman 




365 


' Nemorluedus goral 






• 340 


,, Chialtan 




363 


, , griseus 






341 


Marsh-Deer . 






108 


, , hodgsoni . 






340 


Maxwell's Duiker 






163 


Neotragus livingston ian us 






180 


Mazama americana 






in 


, , vioschatus 






179 


, , antisiensis 






no 


Neumann's Hartebeest 






128 




bezoartica 






no 


New Zealand Red Deer 






12 




bistdca . 






in 


Nilgai .... 






301 


, 


cohimbiana 






107 


Nilgiri Ibex . 






35 6 




, , scaphiotus 




107 


,, Tahr 






356 




, , sitkensis 




107 


North African Red Deer 






3i 


. 


dichotoma 




108 


Norwegian Red Deer . 






15 


,, 


hemionns 






104 


Nubian Ibex 






373 


, 


, , peninsula 






104 


Nyala .... 






308 


• 


nemorivaga 






in 


,, Mountain . 






310 




rufa 






in 


Nyasa Gnu . 






151 


, 


sheila 






in 










, 


simplicomis 






in 


Obi Wapiti 






48 


, 


tenia 






in 


Odobanus obesus . 






5H 


. 


virginiana 






IOI 


,, rosmarus 






513 


. 


, , borealis 






102 


Oi'ea?>imis americanus . 






349 




, , lichtenste 


ini 




103 


,, ,, columbce 




349 




, , texana 






103 


,, ,, keunedyi 




349 




, , lolteca 






103 


,, ,, missoulce 




349 




, , typica 






102 


Oreolragus saltator 




186 


., zetta 






in 


,, ,, portotisi . 




186 


Melnrsus ursinus . 






509 


, , , , schillingsi 






186 


Mesopotamian Fallow Deer 






76 


Oribi 






174 


Mexican White-tailed Deer 






103 


,, Abyssinian 








176 


Mhorr ..... 






273 


,, Gambian 








178 


Milu Deer .... 






78 


,, Haggard's 








178 


Mrs. Gray's Lechwe 






200 


Oribia cottoni 








177 


Moluccan Rusa 






69 


, , haggardi 








178 


Mongala Gazelle . 






262 


, , kenya 








177 


Monj 


jolian Argali 






401 


, , microdon . 








177 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND RACES 



529 



Oribia montana 






176 


Pasang ..... 






376 


,, nigricaitdata 






178 


Pekin Sika 






52 


,, scoparia 






174 


Pelea capreolus 






211 


Oryx, Arabian 






295 


Pelzeln's Gazelle . 






255 


„ White 






296 


Penrice's Sing-sing 






195 


Oryx algazel 






296 


Pere David's Milu Deer 






78 


,, beisa . . . . 






291 


Persian Gazelle 






243 


, , , , annectans 






291 


,, Wild Goat 






376 


,, ,, callotis 






293 


Peruvian Guemal 






no 


,, ,, gallant m 






291 


Phacochcerus lethiopicus 






457 


,, gazella 






288 


, , , , africa 


nus . 




458 


,, leucoryx 






295 


Pigmy Hippopotamus . 






45i 


Ounce . 






S 01 


Pir Panjal Markhor 






359 


Ovibos moschalus . 






35i 


Polar Bear . . ; . 






509 


,, ,, I y pic its 






352 


Potamochosrus charopotannts ' 






455 


,, ,, wardi 






352 


,, porcus 






455 


Ovis amnion 






396 


Prongbuck or Prong-horn 






116 


,, ,, hodgsoni 






397 


Przewalski's Gazelle 






240 


,, ,, hitmei 






402 


Psendois nahura . 






385 


,, ,, karelini 






402 


Puku .... 






209 


,, , ,, liltledalei . 






402 


,, Loder's . . . 






20S 


,, ,, mongolica . 






401 


Puma .... 






503 


, , , , nigrimontana 






403 


Punjab Urial 






409 


, , ,, poli . 






404 


Pyrenean Ibex 






379 


, , , , saifensis . 






401 










,, ,, slorcki 






396 


Rangifer tarandus 






83 


,, ,, typica 






399 


. , , , arcticus 






84 


,, aries 






416 


,, ,, caribou 






84 


,, canadensis 






389 


, , , , f amicus 






• 8 4 


,, ,,< borealis 






395 


, , , , grant i 






85 


,, ,, dalli 






392 


, , , , gra-nlandicus 




85 


,, ,, fannini 






392 


,, ,, montamts 




85 


, , , , nelsoni 






389 


,, ,, osborni 




• 85 


, , , , nivicola 






394 


,, ,, pearsoni . 




84 


,, ,, stonei . 






393 


,, ,, pearyi 




• 83 


,, ,, typica . 






390 


,, ,, sibiricits . 




. S 4 


,, musimon 






414 


,, ,, stonei 




• 85 


,, orient 'alt's 






. 411 


,, , , terrce-novce 




• 85 


,, ,, erskinei . 






413 


,, 5 ) typicits 




. 8 4 


,, ,, ginelini . 






412 


Red Deer . . ' . 




1 


,, ,, typica 






• 4" 


,, ,, Ancient British and Iris 


h 


11 


,, vignei . 






• 407 


. ,, ,, ,, Continental 




■ 27 


,, ,, arkal 






. 410 


,, ,, Carpathian . 




15 


,, ,, cycloceros 






• 409 


,, ,, Corsican 






2 


, , , , punjabiensis 






■ 409 


,, ,, Eastern or Maral 






. 28 


,, ,, typica 






. 40S 


,, ,, Irish 

,, ,, New Zealand 






8 
12 


Pala .... 






. 226 


■ ,, ,, North African 






• 3i 


,, Angola . 






• 230 


,, ,, Norwegian 






• 15 


,, Nyasa . 






• 230 


,, Park . 






10 


Pallas's Tur . 






• 384 


,, ,, Scottish 






3 


Pamir Argali 






• 404 


,, ,, Spanish 






14 


Pampas Deer 






no 


,, ,, West of England 






9 


Pantholops hodgsoni 






■ 233 


Red Duiker . 






. 163 


Para .... 






• 72 


Red-flanked Duiker 






. 166 



2 M 



53° 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 





PAGE 










PAGE 


Red-fronted Gazelle 


. 260 


Rupicapra tragus ornata . . .336 


Red Lynx .... 


• 505 


,, ,, parva 






336 


,, River- Hog 


• 455 


,, , , pyrenaica 






336 


,, Sheep .... 


. 411 


Rusa Deer 






. 68 


Redunca arundinum 


• 213 










, , , , occidentalis 


. 214 


Sable Antelope 






280 


,, fulvorufula 


. 216 


Saiar Argali . 








401 


, , ,, chanleri 


. 217 


Saiga . 








231 


, , ,, subalpina 


. 216 


Saiga tatarica 








231 


,, reditnca . 


. 219 


Saikik Gazelle 








• 243 


,, ,, bohor . 


. 221 


Sakin . 








367 


,, ,, cottoni 


. 221 


Salt's Dik-dik 








169 


,, ,, nigeriensis . 


. 220 


Sambar 








. 61 


,, ,, typica 


. 220 


,, Basilan 








67 


,, ,, wanti 


223 


, , Eormosan 








66 


Reedbuck .... 


• 213 


,, Indian 








62 


,, Bohor . 


. 219 


,, Luzon 








67 


,, Eastern 


. 217 


,, Malay 








65 


,, Mountain 


. 2l6 


,, Sze-chuan 








67 


Reeves's Muntjac . 


. 82 


Sassaby 








148 


Reindeer .... 


• 83 


Schomburgk's Deer 








57 


Rhaphiceros cam pest ris . 


. 182 


Sclater's Muntjac . 








81 


, , , , capricomis 


. 182 


Scottish Red Deer 








3 


, , , , neumanni 


. 182 


Senegal Hartebeest 








137 


,, melanotis . 


• 185 


Senegambian Eland 








332 


,, sharpei 


. 184 


Serow . 








343 


, , , , colonicus 
Rhebok .... 


. 184 
211, 2l6 


, , Japanese . 
,, White-maned 








342 
346 


Rhim 


■ 257 


Shapo . 








407 


Rhinoceros, Black 


. 466 


Sharpe's Steinbok 








184 


,, Great Indian 


. 462 


Sheep, Argali 








396 


,, Javan 


• 464 


, , Barbary 








387 


,, Sumatran . 


• 465 


, , Bighorn . 








389 


,, White or Burchell's 


• 472 


,, Blue 








385 


Rhinoceros bicornis 


. 466 


Shou 








37 


,, , , holmwoodi 


. 468 


Siberian Argali 








399 


, , , , somaliensis 


. 468 


,, Elephant 








487 


,, si/mis . 


• 472 


Sig . . . 








123 


,, ,, cottoni 


. 472 


Sika Deer 








49 


,, sondaicus 


• 464 


, , Formosan 








5i 


,, sumatrensis . 


• 465 


,, Japanese 








5o 


,, ,, lasiotis 


• 465 


,, Manchurian . 








5o 


,, unicornis 


. 462 


,, Pekin . 








52 


Rhodesian Defassa 


• 195 


Sikhim Stag 








37 


Roan Antelope 


. 284 


Sinaitic Ibex 


^ 






375 


Rocky Mountain Bighorn 


• 390 


Sind Wild Goat . 








377 


,, ,, Goat . 


• 349 


Sing-sing 








195 


,, ,, Wapiti 


. 40 


Situtunga 








312 


Roebuck, Asiatic . 


• 94 


, , Western 








315 


,, European 


. 92 


Sloth-Bear . 








509 


,, Manchurian . 


• 94 


Snow-Leopard 








501 


Rooi Rhebok 


. 216 


Scemmerring's Gazelle 








269 


Rupicap?-a tragus 


• 335 


Somali Dik-diks . 








170 


,, ,, asiatica 


• 336 


,, Gazelles 








253 


,, ,, caucasica 


• 336 


,, Giraffe 








114 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND RACES 



53i 



Spanish Ibex 

,, Red Deer 

Speke's Gazelle 

Spotted Hyaena 

Springbuck . 

Steinbock 

Steinbok 

,, Sharpens 

Strepsiceros capensis 

, , ,, c h° r 

» _ typ> 

, , imberbis 

Striped Hysena 
Suleman Markhor 
Sumatran Rhinoceros 

,, Serow 
Suni 

,, Livingstone's 
Sus barbatus 
, , cristatus 
, , scrofa 
, , , , attila 
Swamp-Deer 
Swayne's Dik-dik 

,, Hartebeest 
Syrian Bear . 
Sze-chuan Sambar 
„ Takin . 

Tahr 

, , Arabian 

, , Nilgiri . 
Takin . 

,, Bhutan 

,, Sze-chuan . 
Taurotragus derbianus 



oryx 



livingstonei 
pattersonianus 



,, ,, selousi 

Tenasserim Muntjac 
Tetraceros quadricornis 
Thamin 

Thomson's Gazelle 
Thorold's Deer 
Tiang . 
Tibetan Antelope . 

,, Argali . 

,, Gazelle 

, , Lynx 
Tien Shan Wapiti 
Tiger . 
Topi 
Tora Hartebeest . 



379 


Tragelaphus angasi 


• 308 


14 


,, buxtotii 


• 31° 


253 


,, scriptus 


• 303 


507 


,, ,, bor 


• 30° 


275 


,, ,, decula . 


• 307 


370 


,, ,, ' detainer ei 


• 307 


182 


,, fasciatus 


• 3°7 


184 


,, masaicus 


• 305 


316 


,, ,, meneliki 


• 304 


319 


,, ,, multicolor 


• 3°7 


3i7 


,, powelli 


• 304 


321 


,, ,, roualeyni 


• 304 


507 


n ,, sylvaticus 


• 304 


365 


,, j) typicus . 


• 305 


465 


,, spekei 


• 3 12 


343 


,, albonotatus 


• 3i3 


179 


„ gratus . 


• 3i5 


180 


,, ,, selousi 


• 3i3 


453 


,, >j typicus 


• 313 


453 


Tsaine . 


• 445 


45 2 


Tur, Eastern 


• 383 


452 


,, Pallas's 


• 384 


54 


,, Western 


• 381 


170 






123 


Udad 


• 387 


508 


Uganda Defassa . 


• 194 


67 


Kob 


. 204 


348 


Urial . . 


. 407 




,, Afghan and Punjab 


■ 409 


353 


,, Kopet Dagh 


. 410 


355 


,, Ladak 


. 408 


356 


Ursus aniericanus 


• 5°9 


347 


,, arctus 


• 508 


347 


,, ,, crowtheri . 


• 509 


348 


,, ,, dalli 


• 508 


33 1 


,, ,, isabellinus 


• 508 


332 


,, ,, kidderi 


• 509 


325 


,, ,, middendorffi 


. • 508 


326 


,, ,, piscator 


• 508 


32S 


,, syriacus . 


• 508 


330 


,, yesoensis . 


• 508 


80 


,, horribilis . 


• 509 


300 


,, ,, leuconyx 


• 5°9 


5'8 


,, richardsoni . 


• 5°9 


263 


,, japonicus . 


• 509 


38 


,, malayanus . 


• 5°9 


139 


,, maritimus . 


• 509 


233 


,, ornatus 


• 509 


397 


,, pruinosus 


• 509 


238 


,, spelaus 


■ 509 


504 


,, torqiiatus 


• 509 


45 






493 


Vaal Rhebok 


. 211 


141 


Vaughan's Kob 


. 206 


121 


Virginian Deer 


. IOI 



532 



RECORDS OF BIG GAME 



Wala . 

Wallachian Sheep 
Waller's Gazelle 
Walrus 
Wapiti 

, , Bactrian 

,, Baikal 

,, Luehdorfs 

,, Manchurian 

,, Obi. 

,, Rocky Mountain 

,, Tien Shan 

,, West American 
Ward's Ibex 

,, Musk-Ox 

,, Reedbuck 
Wart-Hog . 
Waterbuck . 

, , Defassa 

West African Bushbuck 

,, Duiker 

West American Wapiti 

, , of England Red Deer 
Western Defassa . 

,, Hartebeest 

,, Kob 
Tur 



372 

417 
278 

513 
39 
47 
47 
48 
48 
48 
40 

45 

44 

367 

352 

223 

457 
188 
191 

305 
166 

44 
9 
195 
119 
202 
381 



White-bearded Brindled Gnu 






154 


White Bighorn 




392 


White-eared Kob . 








206 


White-maned Serow 








346 


White Oryx . 








296 


,, Rhinoceros 








472 


White-tail, Mexican 








103 


White-tailed Deer 








IOI 


,, Gnu . 








156 


Wild Boar . 








452 


,, Goat . 








376 


Wildebeest, Black 








156 


Blue . 








150 


, , Nyasa 








152 


,, White-bearded 






154 


White-tailed 






156 


Wood-Brocket 






in 


Yak 436 


Yarkand Gazelle ..... 244 


Stag . . . . . 35 


Yellow-backed Duiker . . . .165 


Zanzibar Suni . . . . .179 


Zebra-Antelope ..... 164 


Zeren . 








241 



THE END 



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WITH MANY ILLUSTRATIONS 



I 




" With this in his portmanteau, no one fond of shooting and collecting need 
any longer lament his inability to preserve his trophies, since the directions 
o-iven 'for skinning and preserving animals of all kinds are extremely clear and 
simple, and rendered all the more intelligible by the wood engravings by which 
they are accompanied. Quadrupeds, birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects are all 
dealt with in turns, and directions given not merely for skinning them, but also 
for mounting them, if desired, a year or two (it may be) after they have been 
procured . ' ' — Field. 



ROWLAND WARD, limited 

"THE JUNGLE," 167 PICCADILLY 

LONDON 



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DATE. 



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SPECIES. 



MEASUREMENTS. 



REMARKS. 




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