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Full text of "Records of the Franklin family and collaterals"

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RECORDS 

OF THE 

FRANKLIN FAMILY 

AND COLLATERALS 



RECORDS 

OF THE 

FRANKLIN FAMILY 

AND COLLATERALS 

COMl'ILEU BY 

ARTHUR ELLIS FRANKLIN 




4 ri"^ ^ 



(fs ,s ,^€>' 



pvintci) for private Circulation b^i 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE fer SONS, LIMITED 
LONDON 

1915 



^ PREFACE jgc3^^3 

^^ ^^^\'^ the death of my father in May, 1909, I came into possession 

* ^ m^ M of certain records dealing with the history of the Franklin 

. I family which had been collected by my grandfather, and I 

\ proposed to put these into more permanent form in order that they 

'^' might be available for use of other members of my family. In the 

course of arranging them I found it necessary to communicate with 

representatives of the various branches of the family in order to 

^ confirm some of the details, and by this means I obtained much 

further information, thus enlarging the scope of the work to a 

considerable extent. 

In the result I have been able to compile a list of collateral 
relatives of the Franklin family which, though not complete, is fairly 
lengthy, and to this I have added a list of the connections of my 
mother's family as far as I have been able to trace them, as well 
as an extract from the records of my wife's mother's family, which 
were compiled by Mr. Dann. 

I have had very much assistance from Professor Dr. Brann, of the 
Breslau Seminary (whose knowledge of Jewish History is unrivalled), 
as well as from Mr. Colyer-Fergusson, Mr. Percy Isaacs, Mr. Montie 
Jacobs, Mr. Alfred Henry, Mrs. Goodman Levy, Mrs. Meldola, 
Mrs. Bamberger, Mrs. Simeon Singer, Mrs. Charles Meyerstein, 
Mr. Joseph Myers, of Manchester, the Rev. Edwin Franklin, of 
Southampton, Miss Eliz. Maude Marks, of Birmingham, and many 
others of the family connections who have taken great trouble in 
adding to and correcting the records of their respective branches, 

ix 



Preface 



By kind permission of Mr. Claude Montefiore I have been able 
to include the history of the Bacharach family, from whom the 
Franklins are descended, as compiled by the late Professor Kaufmann, 
and translated for the "Jewish Quarterly Review" by the Rev. 
Michael Adler. 

The statements made herein have been verified as far as possible 
by reference to Synagogue records, tombstones, wills, and family 
Bibles, but this has not been possible in every case, and I should 
feel grateful to be informed of any error that may be found. 

At two points my researches were interrupted by the present war, 
and I regret that I have to leave these matters incomplete. 

The first is the connection between Rabbi Menachem Mendel 
Franckel, of Breslau, the great-grandfather of Ellis Abraham Franklin 
and husband of Sarah Sussel Bacharach, with the family of Rabbi 
Jonas Franckel of the same city. The proofs are probably to be found 
in the archives of the Jewish community of Lissa in Prussia. 

The other is the connection between the Israel family of Hamburg, 
the ancestors of Ellis Franklin's grandmother, and the Israels of 
Halberstadt, the ancestors of his wife's mother. From the fact that 
in each case the name in Hebrew is " Ezrael," and from other 
circumstantial evidence, I have every reason to believe that this 
connection exists, but up to the present moment I have been unable 
to verify it. The proofs are probably to be found in the archives of 
the Jewish communities of Altona and Halberstadt. 



ARTHUR E. FRANKLIN. 



35 PORCHESTER TERRACE, LONDON, 
December, 1914. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 




PAGE 


INTRODUCTION . 


I 


Arthur E. Franklin 


54 


Menachem Mendel and Sarah 




Ernest L. Franklin 


55 


SussEL Franckel 


6 


George S. Joseph 


55 


Benjamin Wolf and Sarah 




Leonard B. Franklin 


56 


Franklin 


10 


Frederic S. Franklin . 


56 


Abraham Franklin and his 




James Castello . 


56 


Family .... 


16 


Right Hon. Herbert L. Samuel 


57 


Ellis Abraham Franklin 


30 


Lewis Franklin . 


58-61 


Pedigrees of Ellis Abraham 




AARON 


62 


Franklin 




Jacob Aaron . 


62 


Franckel . 


40 


Ralph Isaac . 


62 


Bacharach . 


41 


Abraham Yoell 


64 


Lazarus 


43 


Matthew John Segre 


64 


Aaron 


44 


Solomon Aaron 


65 


Alexander . 


45 


David Aaron . 


65 


COLLATERALS OF FRANKLIN 




Nerwich 


65 


FAMILY . . . 46-61 


John Aaron . 


66 


Franklin .... 


46 


Nathan Spiers 


66 


Franckel .... 


46 


Myers . 


67 


Schweitzer 


46 


John Aaron, Senior . 


67 


Abraham Franklin 


47 


Lazarus 


68 


Isaac Franklin 


48 


Henry Berens 


68 


Esther Prins . . 48 


-S3 


Saul Samuel . 


69 


Maurice Franklin 


S3 


Aaronson 


70 


Lewis Abraham Franklin 


53 


Blanckensee . 


70 


Abraham Gabay Franklin 


54 


Samuel Davis 


71 


Ellis Abraham Franklin 54 


-57 


Dr. Samuel Solomon 


• 72 



Contents 



ALEXANDER 

Solomon Isaac 
Alexander Isaac 

VOGEL . 

Frederick Isaac 
Joseph Isaac Leon 
Julius Simon . 
Philip Isaac . 
Lewis Leon . 
George Isaac Leon 
Solomon Alexander 
Alexander Alexander 
Samuel Pyke . 
Henry Family 

FRANCKEL PEDIGREE 

BACHARACH FAMILY AND 
COLLATERALS . 86-96 

FRANKEL-SPIRA . . 94 

Mrs. Arthur E. Franklin 
Pedigree . . . -97 

Mrs. Ellis A. Franklin's Col- 



page 
75 
75 
76 
76 
77 
78 
78 
79 
79 
79 
81 
82 
82 



laterals . 
Samuel . 
Nathan Samuel 
Barnett Joseph 
Michael Henry 
Louis Samuel 
Spielmann 
St. Losky 
Edwin Samuel 
Moss Samuel . 
Martin Schlesinger 
Lord Swaythling 
MosES Samuel 
Samuel Woodburn . 



99-110 

• 99 

• 99 
. 100 

100 
100 

. lOI 

■ 103 

. 103 

. 104 
104 

. 106 

. 107 

. 108 



Charles Reis . 
Sandheim 
Bamberger 
Jonas Reis 
Walter Samuel 
ISRAEL . 

Isaac Israel . 

Israel Israel of Bury St 

SOLOMON . 

Isaac Solomon 
Jacob Davis 
John Davis 
Arthur Davis 
Levy Jacobs . 
Albert Davis 
Marcus Sachs 
Dr. Maurice Davis 
Abraham Myer 
Lewis Cowan . 
Elias Solomons 
Maurice Solomons 
Lewis Solomon 
Naphtali Pass 
Samuel Solomon 
Israel Solomon 
Jonah Israel 
Israel Israel of St. Mary 
Axe 

H ELBERT 

Ellis 
Solomon 
Newton 
Weiner 

Jair Chayim Bacharach, by Pro- 
fessor David Kaufmann 



127 



Records of the Franklin Family 

ELLIS ABRAHAM FRANKLIN was the son of Abraham 
Franklin, son of Benjamin Wolf Franklin, who came 
from Breslau in or about 1763. 

In Breslau, in the first half of the eighteenth century, there 
were several families of the name of Franckel. The most eminent 
was that of the merchant Jonah Joseph Franckel, called also 
Chaim Josiah Franckel, who was one of the few Privileged 
Jews (ten out of 3,000) who had equal rights with Christians, and 
had also the right of protecting others. In 1754 he became the State 
Rabbi. It is recorded that on one occasion he declined to hear and 
settle certain disputes, as most of the local Jews involved, certainly 
those of the name of Franckel, were his relatives. 

The grandson of this Jonah Joseph Franckel, known as Com- 
merzienrath Jonas Franckel, died in 1846, a very wealthy man, and 
bequeathed the bulk of his fortune to trustees for certain public 
purposes. Among other institutions endowed by this legacy was 
the Breslau Jewish Theological College. The town ordered that the 
open place in front of the old Jewish Cemetery where he was buried 
should be called the Franckel Platz in his honour. It is opposite the 
railway station as one enters the town. 

Among the unprivileged Jewish inhabitants of Breslau were 



Records of the Franklin Family 

two brothers, Menachem Mendel Franckel and Jakob Franckel, 
who originated from the town of Lissa, in Prussian Poland, 
then an important Jewish settlement and educational centre. Men- 
achem Mendel Franckel was a Rabbi, and is so called on the family 
tombstones. 

It is a tradition in Breslau that he was responsible for the 
funerals at Dyhrenfurth (a village a few miles from Breslau) of Jews 
who died in Breslau previous to the opening of a cemetery in that 
city, and he is mentioned in connection with the burial of thirty-three 
Jews who were killed in June, 1749, by the explosion of a powder 
magazine in the Wallstrasse of Breslau. It is evident, therefore, 
that he was what is called the Kevronim Rabbi, or Rabbi of the 
Holy Brotherhood, for attending to the last rites. He is said also 
to have had independent means of livelihood. 

It is related of him that when, at last, a burial ground had 
been obtained in Breslau, he was asked to fix the spot for the first 
interment (the first interment consecrates a burial ground). He threw 
a stone over his shoulder and designated the spot where it fell as the 
place for the grave. He died shortly after this and was buried on 
that spot — his being the first grave dug. It is in the centre of 
the oldest part of the Burial Ground by the Franckel Platz and is 
numbered 3480 in the list recently made. On the title page of the 
Communal Register of Burials is the following statement : — 

Die erste Leiche welche auf dem Friedhofe beerdigt 
wurde war laut folio 253 dieses Buches 

1 76 1 1'"^"'^ "«"3"p"n P'3 "T'3 '^^psns b-f3ytt "1 



Records of the Franklin Family 

His epitaph runs thus : — 

lanK bDMS rrw^ 
i:tta mxia asn 

bn^ya onjo "inn 

p-a"'? "D"s"n"a p^3 "T'd 
n"n"2f"3"n 

The initial letters of the lines form the word Menachem, and the 
letters used for the date have the meaning " sudden," evidently 
referring to the mode of his death. 
The translation is : — 

Here lies one who served his Lord in the sanctuary — 

Who was faithful in his innermost thoughts to Him who sent him. 

He loved his duty at all times. 

He subsisted from the work of his hands. 

He occupied himself with the commands of his Creator. 

Rabbi Menachem Mendel, the son of (not decipherable) Franckel, 

died Thursday, 26 Nissan, 5521 (i8th April, 1761). 



His wife was Sarah Sussel, daughter of Samson Bacharach of 
Nikolsburg, and granddaughter of the famous Jair Haim Bach- 

* The line, where the name of the Father should be, is obliterated. 

3 



Records of the Franklin Family 

arach of Worms (1638- 1703). Her ancestress Eva Bacharach (died 
in Sofia 165 1) was one of the most learned of the Jewish women of 
her day. This Bacharach family* was allied by numerous intermar- 
riages with the leading Jewish families of the seventeenth century — the 
Oppenheim, Brillin, Teomim Franckel, Eskeles, Wertheimer families, 
etc., and most of its connections achieved distinction. Some details 
of the members of this family are given on page 86. At the time of 
the marriage of Sarah Sussel her family was occupying an influential 
position in Nikolsburg, a town in Moravia then populated by some 
three thousand Jews, of whom a large proportion had come from 
Vienna after the expulsion in 1670. It was a great centre of Jewish 
culture and contained a Rabbinical School. 

Sarah Sussel Franckel died on 8th November, 1762, and was 
buried next to her husband — No. 3481. Both tombs are somewhat 
more important than those surrounding them and are well carved, 
but the stone being soft, the inscription is rubbed in places. 

Her epitaph runs thus : — 

nn bo^T ma m^ 
mntr'?p^3D h'r\ ♦ ♦ * ♦ tttr 'n 

p"B"b "j"3"p"n n2tt^ p^n "td "a av '-idb3 
na-sfS'Ti 

* A biography of Eva and Jair Haim Bacharach was published by Dr. David Kaufmann, and 
was translated by the Rev. Michael Adler and published in vol. 3 (1890) of the "Jewish Quarterly 
Review." It is reprinted on page 127. Notices also appear in the "Jewish Encyclopaedia." 



Records of the Franklin Family 

The translation is : — 

" Here lies a lady, an honoured lady, Sarah Sussel, 
daughter of Rabbi Samson of blessed memory of Nikols- 
burg, wife of the late Rabbi Mendel Franckel of blessed 
memory, died Monday 22 Heshvan (8th November) 
5623—1762." 

* As it is practically certain that Menachem Mendel Franckel and 
Jonah Joseph Franckel had a common origin, the Franckel pedigree 
is given on page 84. 

Jakob Franckel had a son, Meyer, born in 1736, Meyer had a 
son, Jakob, born in 1769, Jakob had a son, Joseph, who died in 1830, 
Joseph's son Jakob was born on 29th February, 18 16, and his 
daughter Emma is the wife of Dr. Marcus Brann, Professor of 
History at the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau, founded by 
Commerzienrath Franckel. 

* On pages 89-95 are some details of the Theomim-Franckel family and their alliances with 
the Bacharachs. It is possible that the brothers Franckel derived their descent through Asher 
Anschel Franckel and Jares his wife (pages 92-93). In view of the custom of calling children by 
names borne by deceased members of the family, note should be taken of the similarity between the 
names of this group and those of Menachem Mendel's family. 



MENACHEM MENDEL AND SARAH SUSSEL 
FRANCKEL 

Of the children of this pair we can trace : — 

David Mendel Franckel, born 1733, died 181 2. 

AsHER Anschel Franckel, died 1776. 

Benjamin Wolf Franklin, born about 1740, died 1785. 

Perhaps also a Simcha or Simon. 

SiMCHA, if he existed, seems to have died before 1784, because the 
Emanuel Franckel referred to below is in that year stated to have 
been a son of the late Simcha, and a nephew and adopted son of 
David. But he may have been a son of a brother of David's first 
wife (see later), 

David, who was born in 1733, is stated by his nephew Abraham 
to have been a banker in Breslau. In 1776, when the local authorities 
took a census of Jews and their occupations, he is described as a 
pastrycook, and again in 1790 as a dealer in clothes. At that 
time, in view of the heavy taxes on trades, many Breslau Jews 
described themselves as following occupations less heavily taxed than 
those they actually pursued. Perhaps, however, he may have de- 
veloped into the banking business gradually as many did at this 
period, 

David married Chaye Scheftel, who was born in 1755. 

He is said to have previously married a lady named Frankel, but 
of this there is no definite evidence, though his recorded marriage is 

6 



Records of the Franklin Family 

at a somewhat late age. He had no family, but formally adopted his 
nephew Emanuel (called Manele), son of Simcha or Simon Franckel. 
On 20th August, 1796, Emanuel became a partner with David, and 
was so registered. David also adopted his nieces Esther Wolf 
Franklin of London, and Sussel Wolf Franklin, her sister, 
daughters of Benjamin, as is mentioned hereafter. He died, 
aged 79, on 2nd November, 181 2, a rich man, and was buried in 
the Franckel Platz Cemetery, Breslau. His tomb is No. 2644. 
The epitaph runs : — 



mri2 *?« «'^' tt>'« ^"^ 

•nisiisi itt?s3 ban ^^ -im; 

iirT'iJtt inn mns by 
|■'D^'^ i^p -D yi3 in 

bn3y» Dn3i3 'maa nn "n "n"n 

•a DV3 inTbS n3tt^ nyu^n 

•i Dva imniD'? napj |wn "rs 

p-s-b ry'p'n ia 'n-a 

•n'n'X'yn 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Translation : — 

" If in the Garden of God the voice cries, 
The Rose will give its scent and bloom. 

Oh Death 
Why hast thou swung thy scythe over the Man who feared 

God from childhood, 
Who served God with all his soul and all his might. 
In his house he brought up orphan children, 
With his bread he fed the poor, 
But why should we weep so bitterly over the parting of his soul 

from his body ? 
Lo, we know that at the end of days 
It is ordained that he shall live again. 

" Rabbi David, son of the learned Rabbi Menachem 
Franckel, died at the high age of 79 years after his 
birth. Monday, 27 Chesvan (2nd November, 1812), and 
was buried on the following day, Tuesday, 28 Chesvan, 
5573." 

His widow, whose portrait has been preserved, was living in 
August, 1 82 1, when her nephew Abraham (then of Liverpool) visited 
her and received from her an old chased silver-gilt cup, which is still 
in existence, and bears a dedicatory inscription. She died 31st 
October, 1849, ^g^d 76 or 77. 

AsHER Anschel seems to have been a doctor, and to have died 
unmarried on 22nd August, 1776. His grave is No. 3390, and the 
epitaph reads : — 



Records of the Franklin Family 

"re 

'n"tt"n b^tt^^K "i"nn 'nan "n"n 
b'l "^psy-iB bni:;tt cnjo 



bx '1 



v'^-pTl 



n'S'Trn 

Translation : — 

" Here lies a Godfearing man who has returned to his 
home in the Earth where his body lies, whilst his soul 
rests on high. He devoted himself to visiting the sick, 
and he occupied himself with the commands of the Lord 
all his life. The Bachelor Rabbi Anschel, son of the 
learned Rabbi Menachem Mendel Franckel of blessed 
memory. Died 7 Ellul, 5636 (22nd August, 1776)." 

This Asher Anschel (the name spelt Antschel) described as a 
brother of Benjamin and David Franckel, appears in a deed of 
Halizah at the time of the marriage of his brother Benjamin, dated 
8th December, 1765. 



BENJAMIN WOLF AND SARAH FRANKLIN 

Benjamin Wolf Franckel went to London about 1763, probably 
at the same time as the daughter of Rabbi Jonah Joseph Franckel, who 
married Saul, son of the then London Chief Rabbi, Hirschel, or Lyon 
Hart (1756- 1 763). On settling there Benjamin anglicised his name to 
Franklin. Perhaps this was suggested by the fact that, in accordance 
with local custom, his mother, when a widow, had been called in official 
documents " Die Fraenckelin." He was appointed Rabbi of the 
Talmud-Torah Hevra, a school for religious instruction, founded in 
1770, and later merged into the Jews' Free School. He also taught 
in many private families, among others in those of the Goldsmids, 
Gompertz, De Symons, Waleys, etc. At the time of his death he 
resided in Cock Court, Jewry Street, E.C. In 1823 this house, with 
others in the same street, was purchased and presented to the Portu- 
guese Jewish community by Sir Moses Montefiore and still belongs 
to them. 

On 1 8th Ellul, 28th August, 1765, Benjamin married an English 
Jewess named Sarah Joseph, daughter of Lazarus Joseph and 
Hannah, his wife. Lazarus Joseph's name was originally Lazarus 
Israel. His Hebrew name was Eleazar, and in a Haliza document 
he is cited as Eleazar Leiza, the Hamburger. 

The father of this Lazarus Israel, named Esriel, the son of Eliezar, 
died in Altona in 1710, and was buried in the Konigstrasse Cemetery, 
grave No. 1336. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

The inscription on the tombstone is as follows : — 

rs 

uro Kb S^m n3pT "im 
p"S"b T'n nian ': "j or -nDB^ 

Translation : — 
" Here lies Esriel, son of Eliezar, died 3 Tammuz, 
5470. He was a pious and holy man who studied the 
Law of Moses until the end of his long life." 

The grandfather of Lazarus Israel, who bore the same name, is 
recorded as one of the visitors from Hamburg at the Leipzig fairs 
between 1665- 1699. 

One branch of this Israel family settled in Gluckstadt. In 1759 
Isaac Israel married Esther, daughter of Salmon Moses Warburg of 
Altona. Martin Mendel, son of Salmon Moses Warburg, married 
Sophie Israel and came to London in 1815. 

In the Hebrew registers of Hamburg, Lazarus Israel is mentioned 
as " Elieser Leser, Esriel," and in 1720 he was assessed on an income 
of 500 Reichsthalers, and paid 31 Marks tax. From 1735 to 1739 he 
paid 49 Marks, and then he falls out of the list, as he left for 
London in 1740. The name Israel is a variant of Esriel,* and was 
the secular name of this family. 

In Lazarus Joseph's will, proved 19th February, 1773, it is 
stated that his name is "Lazarus Israel otherwise Joseph." His 

* It is remarkable that the Israel family to which the mother of Mrs. Ellis A. Franklin belonged 
had the same somewhat unusual Hebrew name. Possibly the two famiHes were connected. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

wife is mentioned as Hannah Israel otherwise Joseph. Possibly 
her maiden name was Joseph and her husband adopted it. 

The mother of Lazarus Joseph was Baleh Israel of Hamburg, 
daughter of Simon Lazarus of London. Her brother Lazarus 
Simon, in a will dated 1764, bequeathed £,100 consols to his 
nephew Lazarus Israel and ;^400 consols to his nephew's children. 

Lazarus Simon was the son of Simon Lazarus and Gitla Moses, 
his wife, and married Margolies, daughter of Naphtali Levi, and 
sister of Moses Hart of Breslau, the head of the Ashkenazi Jews, and 
Aaron Hart, the Rabbi of the Great Synagogue. Lazarus Simon 
was a rich man and left a large legacy to the Duke's Place 
Synagogue, now held by the United Synagogue conditionally 
on the tombs of himself, wife, and parents, being kept in order. 
These tombs are in the Globe Road (now called Alderney Road) 
Cemetery, and are as follows : — 

Simon, son of Eleazar Lazarus of Goslar, died 1725. 

Gitla Moses, his wife, died 1727, also of Goslar. 

Eleazar, called Lazarus Simon, died 1764. 

Margolies, his wife, died 1788. 

Hannah Joseph seems to have been a great beauty and is spoken 
of as "The famous Schoene Anna." 

The Josephs lived at 3 Bury Court. Besides Hannah there were 
two other daughters, Gitla married to Judah Isaacs, and Sophy (or 
Zipporah) married to Henry Marks. 

Abraham Franklin kept a small case containing the portrait 
of Zipporah Marks with her hair and ring, and these are extant. She 
appears to have been a pretty, slight young woman with a great 
mass of light brown hair drawn off a high forehead. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Henry Marks had a brother, David, a tailor of Great Alie Street, 
Goodman's Fields, and an uncle, Ephraim Polak, a tailor, who lived 
at Mansel Street. Ephraim was a noted Chazan, and his portrait 
was engraved and is extant. He died 2nd May, 1812. 

The ladies' baths at 3 Henry Court belonged to the sisters, but 
as Mrs. Isaacs was a widow the family made them over to her for 
the maintenance of herself and children. She had two sons, Joseph 
and Isaac, and two daughters, Betsy and Miriam. Betsy married 
Abraham Solomon, a painter, who died 26th May, 1839 (?), and 
Miriam, Yidla Isaacs, a clothier. The two sons married and had 
large families all living in London. 

A document exists, a release, from Hannah Joseph to her son-in-law 
Henry Marks, witnessed by Benjamin Franklin and David Marks. 
Hannah signs by a mark. It is dated ist April, 1775, and gives her 
address as in Cree Church Lane, where Henry Marks also resided. 

In 1784 (December) Benjamin was in Breslau on a visit. 

There he made a contract with his brother David that his daughter 
Esther should marry David's adopted son Emanuel on 23rd December, 
1786, and that he would send her over not later than New Year 5546 
(5th November, 1785). David contracted to provide a gift of 500 
thalers, payable on the wedding day, in cash or in a bill payable in six 
years with five per cent interest. He also undertook to provide for all 
the requirements of the young pair, dwelling, food, clothing, etc., free 
for six years, so that they would have no expenditure to make of any 
kind. As Esther was born in 1773, she would have been 13 or 14 at 
her marriage. Benjamin gave a draft of 300 thalers payable in 
London as soon as he should be rich or receive a legacy — evidently 
anticipating the sum to be received from his father-in-law's uncle. 

13 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Benjamin signs as having come from London. 

As a matter of fact this marriage did not take place until 1797, 
when Esther was 24. 

Benjamin had the following children : — 

A daughter who died in 1785, and was buried near her parents. 

Esther, mentioned above, born in 1773. 

Zese (probably a variant of Sussel), born in 1775. 

Mendler, who died as a young man in the house of his uncle, 
David Marks. 

Lazarus, called afterwards Lewis. 

Abraham, of whom more hereafter. Born 19th May, 1784. 

Benjamin and his wife both died during an epidemic in 1785. 
A daughter — the eldest — died at the same time, all within three 
weeks. They are buried in the old Globe Road Cemetery. In 
accordance with a prevailing custom Benjamin was " blessed " in 
Synagogue, and a new name given him — Jacob. Therefore, on his 
tombstone, the name stands " Jacob Benjamin Wolf." Curiously 
enough Abraham, who was one year old when his father and mother 
died, was under the impression in later life that they died in 1786, 
and he had the dates of their deaths reversed in his family records. 

On the death of their parents, the five children were distributed among 
the family. The two daughters were sent for by David Franckel of 
Breslau, and he formally adopted them as mentioned above, and 
Mendler and Abraham were adopted by their aunt, Zipporah Marks. 

Esther married Emanuel Franckel in 1797, and died 31st 
October, 1850, aged 77. She had several children, (i) Simon, 
who was born in 1799. In 1821, when Abraham returned from 
Breslau, he (Simon) sent a handsome edition of the Psalms in 

14 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Hebrew to his cousin Jacob in Liverpool, then about to be 
Barmitzvoh. This book is extant, and has an embossed dedication 
on the cover to " Jacob Franckel of Liverpool." There was another 
son, Henry, and three daughters, Mini, Schandel-Edel, and Sarah. 
Sarah married a Mr. Gutentag, a timber merchant of Breslau ; they 
had no family. Gutentag, or his brother, was later on a partner in 
Bleichroder's Bank in Berlin. 

Mini married a cloth and print merchant of Breslau, and left issue. 

Abraham's sister Zese married Julius Hermann Schweitzer, a 
broker of Breslau, and had several children. One, Dr. Emanuel 
Schweitzer, was a physician practising in Wiesbaden, where he died 
unmarried. He was a great authority on Moli^re, and was the Presi- 
dent of the Moli^re Association. A compendious book on the subject 
was published by him, and a copy is preserved. 

A Miss Schweitzer married Jehuda Loeb Schnitzer, and the son, 
Edward Carl Oscar Schnitzer, born 1840, was the Emin Pasha who 
perished in Central Africa, 1892. 

Another son was Julius Wolff Schweitzer, born 19th November, 
1 80 1. On 4th November, 1822, he was at the house of his uncle 
Abraham, 21 Pool Lane, Liverpool (near Lower Castle Street), and 
wrote a German ode in honour of his cousin Jacob ; this is extant. 
It is believed that he subsequently called himself William, and 
married a Christian lady named Russel, and died in England. One 
son became a clergyman of the Church of England, and two sisters 
(one named Augusta) were governesses in Paris. 

Julius Hermann Schweitzer and his wife died of cholera in 
Breslau within a year of each other. The part of the burial ground 
then in use has been devastated, and no tombstones are standing. 

15 



ABRAHAM FRANKLIN 

Abraham lived with Mr. and Mrs. Henry Marks in High Street, 
St. Giles, where they had a large silversmith's shop and also sold 
clothing. They were then childless. 

In after years Abraham related the following story of his child- 
hood. In order to benefit him he was given a money-box, into 
which were put all the profits from watch-glasses and his savings 
out of his pocket-money. At the age of eight he was taken to the 
burial ground in Globe Road, Mile End, to see his parents' graves. 
He remarked that there were no headstones over the graves, only 
" a stone to mark who was buried underneath." On asking why his 
parents should not have tombstones equally as good as those of any- 
one else, the reply was that though none deserved better, still, owing 
to the children being so young, it was thought better by the family to 
wait until some of them were old enough to attend to the matter. This 
caused him to enquire whether he himself was not quite able to do so, 
having as much as ^8 accumulated from savings, presents, and the 
profit on watch-glasses. This he offered for two suitable stones, but 
the price asked was ;^io. He refused either to accept any gift 
towards paying for them or to take stones of a smaller size, so 
at last the mason accepted the little boy's offer of all his savings. 
He always kept the stones in good condition, and fifty years later 
replaced them with new ones, burying the old ones where they 
stood. 

i6 



Records of the Franklin Family 

The epitaphs run : — 

ID'S 

^i2?:itt^tt nS^Dm n-iin bipb o^mo 

bpjy-is Dnott n"D nsi p^n apj?^ 

napn n^tt^n tidd ra dv np3i ntsB) 

pa*? 

N N ^ • 

n D 2t 3 n 

tr"n"n nb\-i mx^ina Dpin 
133 onnax 

pnb on-QK 133 ntr^T 

iD2£;3 nttipttb nn^tt^nSi nsin \^^r\ dk 

pa'? n"-i"n ax Dn3o 3"3 n dv 

Translation : — 

" Here lies a just man among princes. He walked 
the path of righteousness and hearkened to the voice 
of the law and of prayer. His name was well known 
and respected by all. Rabbi Jacob Benjamin Wolf, 
son of Rabbi Menachem Franckel, died and was buried 
15 Tammuz, 5545." 

"This stone was erected at the cost of his son 
Abraham, a child of eight years. After fifty years his 
son Abraham returned and repaired this stone and 
replaced it with his own hands 23 Ab, 5604." 

D 17 



Records of the Franklin Family 

rr\'^*''n nyi:2:m ns^u^n ntrK 

•n rrr\ ntrx mj;''?^ '"i na r\yo 

n'tt'p'D n3tra as on^a 'k dv ap:i 'k or 
ps'? 

n a "it '3 n 

tt^"n"3 nS^-l ms^ina opin 

naa ntr^i nstr u^^^n j^pD \'T'i 
pn'? Dnnas 

p£)b T-i'D as cnaia i"3 'n di^ 

Translation : — 

" Here lies Sarah, daughter of Rabbi Eliezar, wife 
of Jacob Benjamin Wolf Franckel, who died ist Ab, 
5545, and was buried the same day. A woman revered, 
modest and pious, she was a virtuous woman, the 
crown of her husband." 



" This stone was erected at the cost of her son 
Abraham, a child of eight years. After fifty years her 
son Abraham returned and repaired this stone and 
replaced it with his own hands 23 Ab, 5604." 

18 



Records of the Franklin Family 

These stones are still standing and a granite stone with the 
following inscription in Hebrew and English marks the site : — 

Benjamin Wolf Franklin. Sarah Franklin. 

Married August 28th, 1765, 

died 

January 15th, 1785. April nth, 1785. 

On May 25th, 1792, when Abraham was seven years old, Zipporah 
Marks died, and Abraham promised to say the Kaddish for her on 
each anniversary of her death, which promise he faithfully fulfilled. 

On 27th June, 1797, when thirteen years old, he was articled for five 
years to Mr. John Brogan, a wholesale watchmaker, of 148 Aldersgate 
Street, Clerkenwell. The premium was ;!^io. The witnesses were 
Henry Marks, guardian, and Simon Davis. An undertaking was given 
by Mr. Brogan to permit the boy to keep all Jewish Sabbaths and 
holidays. He served several years, but his home became uncomfortable. 
On August 27th, 1793, Mr. Marks was married again to Elizabeth Solo- 
mon, of Exeter, by whom he had several sons, and Abraham now felt 
himself in the way, so he decided to seek his own living elsewhere. His 
master, Mr. Brogan, gave him his discharge, and he was thus free. The 
indenture and agreement are preserved. He went with his brother 
Lewis to Portsmouth, and took a situation as shop-boy to a distant 
cousin, Mrs. Hannah Davids, wife of Leimber Davids, pawnbroker 
and silversmith, of Havant Street, Portsea. But he soon left, and 
after working for Lesil Lazarus (called Lesil Bumber), became clerk 
to John Zachariah (called "London Jack"). Here he managed to 
save a little money, and after a time started on his own account. 

19 



Records of the Franklin Family 

In or about 1803, when the scare of invasion led to the raising of 
a volunteer force, he joined the Volunteers, and used, in later life, to 
recount tales of his lonely patrol duties on the shore. After a time 
he joined his brother Lewis (Lazarus) in a shop, first in Bath Square 
and later on in Broad Street, Portsmouth. His brother had been 
apprenticed as tailor to Ephraim Polak of Alie Street, London, men- 
tioned above, but he did not follow the trade, but had gone to try his 
fortune at Portsmouth. He married a Miss Miriam Abrahams, daughter 
of Mordecai Abrahams of Arundel, who died in childbed with her 
youngest daughter, Miriam, at the same time as the Princess Charlotte. 

In conjunction with his sons Lewis carried on business in Liver- 
pool as a money-changer and foreign banker at 2 Dale Street, and also 
as a merchant at 17 Great George Street, Liverpool, and 53 North 
Bridge, Edinburgh, mainly dealing in marble and leasing quarries 
in Carrara, Ireland and Scotland. Some of his family resided in 
Edinburgh and some in Florence. With the exception of the eldest 
son, who left no issue, all the marriages of this family were 
with Christians, and the descendants of the following generation all 
became Christians. Lewis died in Birkenhead on the 23rd June, 
1845, and was buried in the Jewish cemetery of Liverpool. 

The descendants of Lewis Franklin are recorded on page 58. 

Abraham became engaged to Miriam (Polly) Aaron, daughter of 
Jacob Aaron of Clock Lane, Portsea, and Alice (Telsea), his wife. 
He was known as " Khiva Brummagem," having come from Bir- 
mingham. Alice Aaron was a daughter of Isaac Alexander, called 
"Alleker Alexander." The members of both the Aaron and Alexander 
families are set out on pages 62 and 75. 

Abraham joined Mrs. Aaron in a shop in Bath Square with the 



Records of the Franklin Family 

understanding that he was to have sole possession on his marriage, 
and on 20 Heshvon, 5568, or 19th December, 1807, the marriage 
took place. He was then twenty-three years of age. At his wedding 
his supporters were his brother Lewis, his cousin Betsy Solomon, 
daughter of Abraham Solomon, the painter, Mrs. Aaron, and Mr. 
Henry Marks, his uncle. Evidently Mr. Jacob Aaron was an invalid, 
as he died on 19th June, 1808. 

Abraham Franklin was successful in business in Portsmouth, 
and took a prominent part in local Jewish affairs ; the title deeds of 
the land purchased for the Synagogue stand in his name. He had 
twelve children, of whom two died in infancy. Details are set out 
on page 47, He moved in 181 5 or 1816 from Portsmouth to 
Liverpool, where he resided and carried on business as a Navy Agent 
and silversmith at 22 Pool Lane and 54 King Street, near Castle 
Street, where his son Ellis was born on 5th October, 1822. Three 
months after the birth of this son, in the early part of 1823, he moved 
to Manchester, where he first lived at i St. Ann's Place and at 
67 Bridge Street. In 1828 a Navy Agent's licence was issued 
to him as residing at the latter address. He subsequently moved 
to 20 St. Ann's Square, near by, where he had a large place 
of business as silversmith and jeweller, developing into a money- 
changer and stockbroker. He also became a merchant trading 
with the West Indies. His business reputation is best indicated 
by the fact that he was known among his associates as " Honest 
Abraham." His residence, which he called " Gesunde Cottage," 
was a corner house with a large garden at the junction of 
Broughton Lane and Bury New Road. The Law Courts are near 
the site, which is now covered with small houses. In the summer 



Records of the Franklin Family 

he occasionally rented a cottage called Singleton Cottage for his 
children. 

Esther, his second daughter, was married in October, 1839, to 
Jacob Prins of Arnheim, Holland. Abraham Franklin went over to 
arrange the marriage, and on his return travelled with the young 
Prince Albert, who was on the same boat. They became friendly, and 
Abraham chaffed him for coming over after "our Princess," saying 
that he had himself been over to Holland after a "Prins" for his 
daughter. On leaving, the Prince offered him as a souvenir a set of 
Saxe-Coburg coins of the year 1835, but he refused to accept them 
unless he were permitted to give new English coins of equivalent 
value. The Prince said that he had already received a set from the 
English Court as a present. Finally Abraham accepted one thaler. 

When the engagement of the Prince was announced and his 
biography appeared in the papers, this visit was not recorded, and 
Jacob Franklin wrote to his secretary asking whether it was not an 
error ; and if so, if it might be corrected, as his father had been made 
to look foolish. The secretary replied that the omission was an error, 
and that the Prince well recollected the incident and his pleasant 
conversation with Mr. Abraham Franklin. 

The coin came into the possession of Arthur E. Franklin through 
Jacob and Benjamin Franklin, and when in 1909 his daughter Alice 
was presented at Court in the reign of Edward VH, he had a bouquet 
holder made for her with the coin let in at the bottom, and she used 
it at the ceremony. 

Abraham Franklin interested himself a great deal in Jewish affairs 
in Manchester, without, however, taking any office in the Synagogue 
except that of President of the Burial Society. His eldest son Jacob 



Records of the Franklin Family 

and his daughter Sarah (who died in 1849) were both possessed of great 
strength of mind, and became the ruling spirits of the family. Jacob 
retained this position until his death in 1877. Sarah established classes 
for the teaching of religion to Jewish children in the empty nurseries 
of Gesunde Cottage, where her brothers assisted her, Isaac becoming 
the honorary secretary. These classes developed into the present 
Manchester Jews' Schools, an institution now of very great import- 
ance, of which Dr. Isaac Franklin was secretary for fifty years. At 
the end of this time he became President, and died at the first public 
meeting at which he presided. 

In 1836 there was a dissolution of partnership of the firm, 
Abraham Franklin & Sons, merchants, trading with the West Indies, 
and it was divided into two parts, J. A. Franklin & Brother of Man- 
chester, and B. A. Franklin of Kingston, Jamaica. J. A. Franklin was 
successful in business, while Benjamin Franklin of Jamaica had an 
uphill struggle. 

Abraham continued interested in the silversmith's and stock- 
broking businesses, but the latter was brought to an end by the 
railway crisis of 1845, which much impaired his fortune, and a few 
years later the failure of his bankers made it necessary for him to 
withdraw from active business. His sons bought out his share of the 
silversmith's business in consideration of an annuity, and he and his 
wife left their house, and after living a short time in Great Ducie Street, 
near his sister-in-law Mrs. Segr^, went over to Arnheim, in Holland, 
where his married daughter Esther Prins lived. There he died in 
1854, and is buried in the Arnheim Jewish Cemetery. When he 
was in the prime of life he was a man of energy and enterprise, 
possessed of a constant fund of humour and having considerable 

23 



Records of the Franklin Family 

influence over those surrounding him. The following is an extract 
from his will : — 

" I implore the blessing of God on my beloved Wife and Children, 
including especially those who may not be able to see me again in this 
life, assuring all of my forgiveness wherein it may be needful, but 
exhorting them severally to live piously in the religion of their father 
Abraham, to love and cherish their affectionate mother and one 
another, and so to comport themselves through life as to merit 
the respect of good men and realize the promises to the just in 
Eternity." 

The following is a copy of the inscription on his tombstone : — 

\roh 
X^pr\t^ nKi p^js Dpi?' T-i"i«^"i::"a nnnns n-n 

"n"3":i"D"n 



in^in njjb nnnn 



nns nmsb rnb-i 
tyis-is':' ^S53 ni3pb 

vjn f3p pnna 



24 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Translation : — 

In Memory of 

Abraham Franklin 

Who went forth from his birth-place in the Isle of the 

West to sojourn in Arnheim. He breathed his last, 

aged 69, on the 9th day of Tebeth, 5614. 

" May his soul be bound up in the bundle of Life Eternal." 

On the tablets of the hearts of those who knew him his 

doctrine remains ever engraven ; 
For he had faith in God, and he lived up to his faith. 
His doors were opened to the stranger, he brought the 

castdown into his house. 
To win souls, not wealth, were all his strivings. 

And when his hour drew nigh, the hour of sickness and 

agony, 
He gathered his sons from a distance, and spake unto 

them in kindness ; 
He charged them to act righteously — All who heard him 

marvelled 

Through the valley of the Shadow of Death hath he gone, 
On the Mount of the Lord will he appear. 

After her husband's death Miriam Franklin returned to Manchester 
and resided with her nieces, the four Misses Segre, who lived in a large 
house in York Street, Cheetham Hill, where they kept a boarding 
school for girls. On the marriage of Theresa Segrd to her son, 
Dr. Isaac Franklin, she took up her residence with them at Bury 
New Road until her death in 1870. 
E 25 



Records of the Franklin Family 

The following is a copy of the inscription on her tombstone : — 

DDS nstrn nb^K3 tit D^n br intr DnisD 
niap Tr ppm n'? jw n^T nsi 
nnnn as ntTK^i n^jn is is^^p"" 
nms^n p Dpbn d:i ^np'' -itrx nr 

Translation : — 

In Memory of 

Miriam 

Widow of Abraham Franklin. 

Died nth August, a.m. 5630. 

Aged 81. 

Her life was all one sweet-toned lay of love, 
A prelude to the harmonies above ; 
In word and deed alike devoid of guile, 
She wore below a more than earthly smile ; 
The reflex of a spirit all divine, 
That wins to heaven with influence benign. 
So shall her children rise and call her blest, 
Nor cease her labours till they share her rest. 

Esther Theresa Arayne married Matthew John Segr^, a member 
of a Spanish-Italian Jewish family. They lived first in Faulkner 
Street, Liverpool, where the two eldest daughters were born, then in 
Deansgate, Manchester, where the third daughter was born. They 

26 



Records of the Franklin Family 

then moved to Kingston, Jamaica, where Segr6 had important busi- 
ness interests. He left his family there and proceeded to the United 
States, where he died. His wife returned to England, via New York, 
where her youngest daughter was born. She died in Great Ducie 
Street, Manchester. The details of her family are recorded on page 64. 
Jacob Franklin studied at the Mechanics' Institute in Manchester, 
the first one established. Subsequently he joined the staff of 
honorary teachers, taking mathematics as his subject. He practised 
as an optician in St. Ann's Place with considerable success, and was 
also interested in the English branch of the West Indian business. 
In 1840, at the age of 31, he retired on a competence and went to 
London, in order to take an active part in the agitation in favour of 
Jewish emancipation. He started a newspaper called "The Voice of 
Jacob," the first organ of Anglo-Jewry, and conducted this for five 
years, at first at considerable loss. At soon as it was firmly estab- 
lished, he handed it over to two friends, Henry Jessel and Dr. Benisch, 
and under the latter's guidance it was subsequently merged into the 
" Jewish Chronicle." He then made use of his mathematical training 
to practise as a " Public Accountant," and was employed in many im- 
portant affairs, among others in conducting the investigation on behalf 
of Prince Albert into the Provident Savings Bank, and on behalf of 
Lord George Godolphin Osborne into the affairs of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel. He was secretary of the (English) North 
of France Railway and other French railways originally established in 
England, and became auditor of some of the chief Indian and Brazilian 
railways. Some of these posts he held until his death. He took 
great interest in Jewish public affairs, especially in connection with 
the Jewish Board of Guardians, the Board of Deputies, and in Jewish 

27 



Records of the Franklin Family 

religious education in England and secular education in the East. 
By his will he provided for the carrying on of the subjects in which 
he had interested himself. He did not marry, but adopted the children 
of his brother Abraham. He died in 1877. 

Benjamin went to Jamaica early in life, and as long as he was 
representing the firm of his father and elder brother was prosperous. 
He had many vicissitudes, but always held an influential position in 
the island, and was one of the principal workers in the various Jewish 
institutions. He never married and died at sea in April, 1888, on his 
way home from Jamaica, and was buried in Montego Bay. 

Isaac was educated at the Edinburgh University as a doctor, and 
studied under Dr. Abernethy. He practised successfully in Man- 
chester, and was the principal surgeon Mohel of that time in the 
North of England. He married his cousin Theresa Segrd, but had 
to retire from practice some years before his death in consequence of 
failing health. He died suddenly in December, 1880, in the circum- 
stances mentioned above. 

Maurice, together with his brother Abraham, took over the silver- 
smith's business when their father retired, but in 1849 he emigrated 
to the then newly discovered goldfields in San Francisco. He 
married a Miss Victoria Jacobs, who had emigrated at the same time 
with her parents from Manchester. By her he had two sons. After 
her death he married her sister. 

Lewis went out as a young man to assist his brother Benjamin in 
Jamaica, but subsequently moved on to Baltimore and San Francisco. 
He returned to London, where he married Emily, daughter of James 
Phineas Davis, and went into business as a merchant, but died at the 
comparatively early age of 59. 

28 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Abraham, after the winding up of his father's business, which he 
had taken over in conjunction with his brother Maurice, joined the 
firm of Levy and Nephew in Leadenhall Street, and married a 
connection of that family, a Miss Phoebe Harris of 2 Lemon Street, 
Truro. He was in business as a merchant at 14 South Street, Fins- 
bury, but died early at the age of 49. 

Henry was first educated at Mr. Neumegen's of Kew, where he 
subsequently became a teacher. He attended the Berlin University, 
and had the intention of studying for the Rabbinate, but owing to the 
deterioration of his sight, which troubled him throughout his life, 
decided to go in for a teaching career. He established himself at 
Frankfort-on-Main, where he practised as a teacher and also received 
at his house English boys to be educated in Germany. On his retire- 
ment he came to London and took an active part in public work in 
the district of Kensington, in which he lived, both in connection with 
the Guardians of the Poor and school management, and was also one 
of the leading workers in connection with the Jews' College, the 
Anglo-Jewish Association, the Jews' Temporary Shelter, etc. He 
married his cousin Virtuosa Victoria Segr6. He had no children. 
After the death of his brother Jacob he adopted the children of his 
brother Abraham. 

The details of the various branches of this family are set out on 
pages 47 to 57. 



29 



ELLIS ABRAHAM FRANKLIN 

Ellis Abraham Franklin was born in Lord Street, Liverpool, 
on 5th October, 1822. This was the sixth day of the Feast of Taber- 
nacles, on which festival he always kept his birthday. Three months 
later the family moved to Manchester. 

He was educated first at a preparatory school kept by a Dr. Bailey, 
and then at the Manchester Grammar School, where Dr. Baird was 
Principal. The brothers Franklin were the first conforming Jews to 
attend the school, and there was some difficulty because they objected 
to join in the Christian religious worship. At first they were put in 
the front row during prayers, and instead of kneeling down like the 
rest they remained standing, as they said, out of respect to those who 
were praying. Next day they were ordered to go to the back row 
among the taller boys, but even then their standing figures discon- 
certed the teachers. A meeting of the masters was called to consider 
the difficulty, and it was decided that they should come to school later 
so as to arrive after the prayers had been said. 

Some of his school reminiscences were published, when he was an 
old man, in the Manchester Grammar School Magazine, the "Ulma." 

When he was Barmitzvah his sister, who was engaged to be 
married, wrote a description of the event to her fianc6, and this letter 
has been preserved. 

His father, who had great belief in education, sent him when 
fourteen or fifteen, during his holidays, to his own bankers, so that he 

30 



Records of the Franklin Family 

might learn accounts, and he was all his life a very excellent book- 
keeper. When the bank was turned into an unlimited company, his 
father became a shareholder and would have been involved in its sub- 
sequent failure, had he not been able to prove that by an informality 
in its constitution he was freed from liability. 

Ellis studied drawing and painting under a Mr. Edward Tavard, 
and at one time, on the advice of Abraham Solomon, it was in 
contemplation to bring him up as an artist. In 1839 or 1840 when 
his brother Lewis was representing the firm in Jamaica (in the 
absence of Benjamin in England), it was suggested that Ellis should 
go out to act as assistant. The business seems to have been doing 
very badly just then — there was a financial crisis in the West Indies 
— and the moral surroundings at Kingston were such that Lewis (who 
was twenty) considered that it was dangerous to send so young a 
boy out. Nevertheless, Ellis prepared himself by learning the Spanish 
language, his teacher being Professor T. Theodores, later one of the 
Professors of Owens College. 

When he was just twenty years of age his father's old friend, 
Abraham Bauer, a banker of Manchester, London, and Sierra Leone, 
offered him a post as junior clerk in the London ofiice at a salary of 
j^6o a year. This he accepted, and went to London on the 2nd 
October, 1842. The office was then at 40 King Street, Cheapside, but 
on the 23rd January, 1843, was moved to 2 Copthall Chambers. His 
fellow clerks were Mr. Gerstenberg (later founder of the Corporation 
of Foreign Bondholders) and Philip Gowa, both of whom married 
daughters of Mr. Bauer. 

Ellis undertook to keep the accounts of the Jamaica business in 
London, and to conduct the correspondence there, and for this his 

31 



Records of the Franklin Family 

father gave him £^ on his birthday. He shared rooms with his 
brother Jacob, but though he found it very difficult at first to make 
both ends meet, he never told his troubles. 

He used to dine at Genese's restaurant near Bevis Marks, and 
there met several young men who became his life-long friends. One was 
Joseph Brandon, who subsequently went to San Francisco, and another, 
Edward Jacob, an indigo merchant. Jacob Franklin, Ellis Franklin, 
and Edward Jacob one summer took a house in the country together, 
and used also to row together on the river. Most of Ellis's friends, 
however, outside his family, were members of the Portuguese com- 
munity. 

In or about the year 1845, when he was little over twenty-two 
years of age, he was induced by his brother Jacob, who seems to have 
guaranteed him against loss, to invest some ^300 in a partnership 
with a Mr. J. A. Joseph in a small wholesale grocery business in 
Newington Butts. On the occasion of Passover in 1845, and again 
in 1846, he advertised in "The Voice of Jacob" under his own name. 

It appears that he took no personal part in the management of the 
business, but left everything to his partner, who did not treat him 
fairly. He then took control for a time and opened a branch at 
20 Vine Street, more under his own eye, but as his duties at the bank 
required all his attention, he arranged with Mr. J. G. Sturch, a large 
wholesale grocer, to transfer his connection to him in consideration of 
a commission on the trade done. There is no record as to what he 
lost or whether he claimed on his guarantee, but Mr. Sturch remained 
in friendly relations with him for many years. Mr. Sturch's daughter, 
when over seventy years of age, spoke of the charming manner of 
Ellis and his kindness to her as a child. 

32 



Records of the Franklin Family 

He referred to this period in later life as a very unhappy one, and 
used to say that he had never cared for any business occupation 
except banking. 

Among his activities he used to do a little literary work, for which, 
however, he was not paid. He read the proof sheets of Dr. Benisch's 
translation of the Bible, and assisted his brother Jacob in the editor- 
ship of " The Voice of Jacob." He became a member of the Sussex 
Hall Institute in Leadenhall Street (subsequently the site of the City 
of London College), and was an active member of the executive. He 
became chairman of the Debating Society, and his secretary was 
Lewis Isaacs, subsequently M.P. for Walworth. When the various 
bills for the enfranchisement of the Jews were brought forward he 
assisted his brother in much of the literary work necessary to obtain 
support for Jewish interests. 

He rose in Mr. Bauer's service until, when his employer had to go 
for some time to Sierra Leone, he became manager and lived in 
Mrs. Bauer's house. At that time the marriage of her two daughters 
took place, and he had to make all the necessary arrangements. 
When Mr. Bauer returned he wished to reduce Ellis's authority, and 
as this was contrary to his views he left, and worked on his own 
account for a year or so as bullion broker. He made the acquaintance 
of a young man, Samuel Montagu, with whom henceforward he 
became closely associated. Montagu was in somewhat like case, 
and the two after working independently all day met at the eating 
house in the evening and pooled their transactions. 

Montagu, who was the younger son of Louis Samuel, of Liverpool, 
had been employed from the age of thirteen with his brother-in-law 
Adam Spielmann, a money changer of Lombard Street, but thought he 
F 33 



Records of the Franklin Family 

saw no prospect of making his way. He said in later life that had he 
seen any chance of rising to a position of ;^300 a year he would have 
been satisfied. As it was he left and became Manager to the London 
branch of the Paris firm of Monteaux at 21 Cornhill. He took the 
premises for them and opened business, but finding that the firm 
intended to send over a relative to assume control, he resigned and 
started as independent bullion broker. 

After a time, at the end of 1852, he decided to open a business 
for himself, and approached his father for funds, and his friend Ellis 
Franklin for experience. He was not yet of age, and his father, a 
very cautious man, would not entrust him with money, but agreed 
to advance a moderate sum to his elder son Edwin, who was 
established as a banker and money changer in Liverpool, on con- 
sideration that the two brothers should open in London in partnership. 
The terms offered to Ellis Franklin were a fixed salary and a share in 
the profits. This, according to the then existing law, constituted him 
a partner, but the official recognition of his position was postponed 
by agreement until Montagu should marry, and this took place in 
1862. 

The business was carried on first of all at 142 Leadenhall Street, 
Montagu and Ellis Franklin living over the business, where Montagu's 
sister Mrs. Moss Samuel kept house for them. In 1854 Monteaux 
were in difficulties, and Montagu bought their lease and removed to 
21 Cornhill. In 1863 the growth of the business necessitated taking 
additional premises, and they moved to 60 Old Broad Street, leaving 
the Cornhill house in charge of Messrs. Assur Keyser and Gustav 
Bitter, the managing clerks. In 1868 this was constituted into a 
separate firm under an agreement providing for the succession to the 

34 



Records of the Franklin Family 

sons or nephews of the partners in Samuel Montagu & Co. Ellis 
Franklin remained a partner in the firm of Samuel Montagu & Co 
until his death, and he also had a large amount of capital in the firm 
of A. Keyser & Co. 

Ellis Franklin made the acquaintance of Montagu's family, and in 
October, 1855, became engaged to Montagu's sister Adelaide Samuel. 
The marriage took place on July 9th, 1856, at the residence of the 
bride's parents in Hunter Street, the ceremony being performed by 
Dr. Nathan Adler, Chief Rabbi. 

The details of the Samuel family are given on page 99, and those 
of the Israel and Solomon families to which Mrs. Louis Samuel 
belonged on pages in and 125. i-^03:J_43 

At the time of the marriage Ellis was 33 years of age and his 
wife 25. They first resided at 39 Burton Crescent, W.C, now 
Cartwright Gardens, where their four eldest children were born. 
In 1862 they disposed of this house, and after residing for a year 
in furnished houses in Gypsy Hill, Norwood, and at 3 and 17 
Gloucester Crescent, they purchased the lease of 2 Leinster Gardens 
(then Leinster Terrace), where they lived for 15 years. Their three 
younger children were born there. In 1878 they acquired 35 Por- 
chester Terrace, built a wing to the house and adapted it to their 
requirements. Here in 1902 Adelaide Franklin died at the age of 71 
and Ellis in 1909 at the age of 86. 

That part of the history of Ellis and Adelaide Franklin which is 
within the recollection of their children it is unnecessary here to record. 
They are buried side by side in the Jewish cemetery at Willesden, and 
the following are the inscriptions on the tombstones : — 



35 



Records of the Franklin Family 

nan n^ p"ir d^d nott> D-^rnu?! nnK nn 
p'tih \h^ "inbi nu^v nstt? 

n i k 3 n 

Translation : — 

Sacred to the Cherished Memory of 

Adelaide 

For six and forty years the devoted wife of 

Ellis A. Franklin 

Her simple noble life was passed in unswerving allegiance 
to the divine precepts of her inherited faith, in the zealous 
and cheerful discharge of her responsibilities as wife and 
mother, in loving solicitude for the well-being of all her 
kindred, and in unceasing kind and generous service to 
hosts of friends and acquaintances who never turned to her 
in vain for sympathy, wise counsel, or material help. 

She was indeed 
"A True Mother in Israel" 

Born Jany. ist, 1831. a.m. 5591. 

Died July 19th, 1902. . . 5662. 

36 



Records of the Franklin Family 

:& 
p"i2i brisi D^;2n "fbm d^oi^k' u?\^ 

rnnK ':'« ^dsd ntrx 

in rs p"t:>y T'^i Dva -insn nnpji 
p's'b 'innns'? mpn trr^i r^w 

n '2 'ic 'J 'n 

Translation : — 

To the Dear Memory of 

Ellis Abraham Franklin, 

Born in Liverpool October 5, 1822-5583, 
Died in London May 11, 1909-5669. 

His life was an example of 

steadfast devotion to the faith of his fathers 

and of kindliness and charity to all 

in thought and deed. 

Lord, who shall abide in Thy Tabernacle ? 
Who shall dwell in Thy Holy Hill ? He that 
Walketh uprightly and worketh righteousness 
And speaketh the truth in his heart." 



37 



PEDIGREES OF FRANKLIN FAMILY AND 
COLLATERALS 



FRANCKEL 

Menachem Mendel Franckel (see p. 6), died i8 April, 1761, 
married Sarah Sussel Bacharach, died 8 November, 1762. Buried in 
Franckel-Platz, Breslau. 

THEIR SON 

Benjamin Wolf Franklin (see p. 10), born about 1740, died 
1785, married 28 August, 1765, Sarah Israel, otherwise Joseph, died 
II April, 1785. Buried in Globe Road, London. 

THEIR SON 

Abraham Franklin (see p. 16), born 19 May, 1784, died January, 
1854, married 19 December, 1807, Miriam Aaron, born 29 March, 
1789, died II August, 1870. Buried in Arnheim. 

THEIR SON 

Ellis Abraham Franklin. 



40 



Records of the Franklin Family 

BACHARACH (see also page 86) 

Rabbi Haim of Worms. 

HIS SON 

Rabbi Bezalel Ben Haim. 

HIS SON 

Rabbi Judah Liwa Ben Bezalel, Hoher Rabbi Lob, Gaon of 
Prague, born about 15 15, died 1609, married Perl, daughter of Rabbi 
Samuel Schmelker, a member of the Altschuler family which came from 
Provence to Prague in 1302 (Jewish Encyclopaedia, Vol. VII, p. 353). 

THEIR DAUGHTER 

FoGELE, married Rabbi Isaac Ben Simon Cohen. 

THEIR DAUGHTER 
Eva, born 1580 in Prague, died at Sophia in 1651 (Jewish Ency- 
clopaedia, Vol. II, p. 419). In 1600 became second wife of Rabbi 
Abraham Samuel Ben Isaac Bacharach, born 1575, died 12 May, 
1615 (Jewish Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, p. 418). 

their son 
Samson Bacharach, born 1607, died 9 April, 1670 (Jewish Ency- 
clopaedia, Vol. II, p. 420). Married in 1627 Dobrusch, daughter of 
Isaac ben Phobus, died 1662. 

THEIR SON 

Simon Jair Haim Bacharach, born 1638, died 1703 (Jewish 
Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, p. 419), married Sarl Brillin, died 1705. 

THEIR SON 

Samson Bacharach, died 1721, married Cheile Briinn. 

G 41 



Records of the Franklin Family 

THEIR DAUGHTER 

Sara Sussel Bacharach, died 8 November, 1762, married 
Menachem Mendel Franckel, died 18 April, 1761. Buried in Breslau. 

THEIR SON 

Benjamin Wolf Franklin, born about 1740, died 1785, married 
28 August, 1765, Sarah Israel, otherwise Joseph, died 11 April, 1785. 

THEIR SON 

Abraham Franklin, born 19 May, 1784, died January, 1854, 

married 19 December, 1807, Miriam Aaron, born 29 March, 1789, 

died II August, 1870. 

THEIR SON 

Ellis Abraham Franklin. 



42 



Records of the Franklin Family 



LAZARUS 

Eliazar Lazarus, of "Goslar." 

HIS SON 

Simon Lazarus (see p. 12), died 1725, married Gitla Moses, died 
1727. Buried in Globe Road, London. 

THEIR DAUGHTER 
Baleh Lazarus (see p. 12), married Esriel, the son of Eliezar 
Israel, who died in Altona 17 10. 

THEIR SON 

Lazarus Israel, otherwise Lazarus Joseph, died 1773 (see p. 10), 
married Hannah (Joseph ?) (see p. 11). 

THEIR DAUGHTER 

Sarah Israel, otherwise Joseph (see p. 10), died 11 April, 1785, 
married 28 August, 1765, Benjamin Wolf Franklin, born about 1740, 
died 1785. Buried in Globe Road, London. 

THEIR SON 

Abraham Franklin, born 19 May, 1784, died January, 1854, 
married 19 December, 1807, Miriam Aaron, born 29 March, 1789, 
died II August, 1870. 

THEIR SON 

Ellis Abraham Franklin. 



43 



Records of the Franklin Family 



AARON 

Moses Aaron, born in Birmingham 1718, died 22 February, 1812, 
married Friandia (Frances), born 1723, died 1800. Both buried in 

Birmingham. 

HIS SON 
Jacob Aaron, of Birmingham, born 1756, died 19 June, 1808, 
married Alice (Telsea) Alexander, born 1764, died 30 November, 18 16, 
in Portsmouth. Buried in Portsea. 

THEIR DAUGHTER 

Miriam Aaron, born 29 March, 1789, died 11 August, 1870, 
married 19 December, 1807, Abraham Franklin, born 19 May, 1784, 
died January, 1854. Buried in Manchester. 

their son 
Ellis Abraham Franklin. 



Records of the Franklin Family 



ALEXANDER 

Isaac (Alleker) Alexander of Portsmouth, born in Hamburg 
before 1740, died 13 March, 1810. Buried in Portsea. 

HIS DAUGHTER 

Alice (Telsea) Alexander, born 1764, died 30 November, 18 16, 
married Jacob Aaron, born 1756, died 19 June, 1808. Buried in Portsea. 

THEIR DAUGHTER 

Miriam Aaron, born 29 March, 1789, died 11 August, 1870, 
married 19 December, 1807, Abraham Franklin, born 19 May, 1784, 
died January, 1854. Buried in Manchester. 

THEIR SON 

Ellis Abraham Franklin. 



45 



Records of the Franklin Family 



FRANKLIN 

Menachem Mendel and Sarah Sussel Franckel. 

A. David Mendel, born 1737, died 2 November, 181 2, married Chaye 

Sheftel, born 1755. No issue. 

B. AsHER Anschel, died 22 August, 1776, unmarried. 

C. Simon. 

I. Emanuel, adopted by his Uncle David. 
T D. Benjamin Wolf Franklin, born about 1740, died 1785, married 
28 August, 1765, Sarah Israel, otherwise Joseph. 



D. Children of Benjainhn Wolf and Sarah Franklin. 

1. Daughter, died 1785. 

2. Esther, born 1773, died 31 October, 1849, married, 1797, Emanuel 

Frankel (see p. 13). 

a. Simon. 

b. Henry. 

c. Mini, married in Breslau. 

d. Sarah, married Mr. Gutentag. 

e. Schandel-Edel. 

3. Zese, born 1775 (see p. 15), married Julius Hermann Schweitzer. 

a. Dr. Emanuel Schweitzer. 

b. Daughter, married Jehuda Loeb Schnitzer. Their son, 

Edward Carl Oscar Schnitzer, born 1840 (Emin Pasha). 

c. Julius Wolf Schweitzer. 

4. Mendele, died in childhood. 

5. Lazarus (Lewis) (see p. 20). 
^S" 6. Abraham (see p. 16). 

46 



Records of the Franklin Family 

ABRAHAM FRANKLIN 

Abraham Franklin, born 19th May, 1784, died January, 1854. 
Buried in Arnheim, Holland. 

Married 25th December, 1807, Miriam Aaron, born 29th 
March, 1789, died nth August, 1870. Buried in Manchester. 

A. Jacob Abraham, born 2nd February, 1809, died unmarried 3rd 

August, 1877. Buried in Willesden (see p. 27). 

B. Sarah, born 29th January, 1810, died unmarried 5th May, 1847. 

Buried in Manchester (see p. 23). 

C. Benjamin Abraham, born 17th February, 181 1, died unmarried 

26th April, 1888, buried in Jamaica (see p. 28). 

D. Isaac Abraham, born 21st July, 181 2, married Theresa Segr^, died 

26th December, 1880. Buried in Manchester (see p. 28). 

E. Mendler Abraham, born nth September, 1813, died an infant 

nth August, 1 8 14. Buried in Portsmouth. 

F. Esther, born 23rd January, 181 5, married i7tli October, 1838, died 

1887, widow of Jacob Prins of Arnheim, Holland. Buried in 
Arnheim (see p. 22). 

G. David Abraham, born 20th May, 1816, died an infant nth January, 

181 7. Buried in Liverpool. 
H. Maurice Abraham, born nth December, 18 17, married Victoria 
Jacobs in California, died 2nd September, 1874, Buried in San 
Francisco (see p. 28). 

I. Lewis Abraham, born i8th February, 1820, married Emily Davis, 

died i6th June, 1879. Buried in Willesden (see p. 28). 
J. Abraham Gabav, born 5th September, 182 1, married Phcebe Harris 

of Truro, died 19th January, 1870. She died loth March, 1869. 

Buried at West Ham (see p. 29). 
^^ K. Ellis Abraham, born 5th October, 1822, married Adelaide Samuel 

9th July, 1856, died nth May, 1909. Buried in Willesden (seep. 30). 
L. Henry Abraham, born 9th November, 1826, married Virtuosa Victoria 

Segr^ died 5th October, 1907. Buried in Willesden (see p. 29). 
47 



Records of the Franklin Family 

D. Isaac Abraham Franklin, 1812-1880, married, 1859, Theresa 
Segr^, born 22nd April, 1833. 

1. John Jacques Albert, born 12th February, 1862. Unmarried. 

2. Marcus Segre, died an infant. 

3. Esther Segre, born 9th July, 1864. Unmarried. 

4. Daniel Moss, born 5th March, 1869. Unmarried. 



Jacob Liepman Prins, 1809- 1880, and Esther his wife, 1816- 
1887, married 1838. 

1. Liepman Jacob, born 1840, died 1880 in Amsterdam, married in 

1 87 1 Elisabeth Schaap, born 31 October, 1842. 

2. Sarah, born 1841, died January, 1901, at Koevorden, married in 

1866 Abraham Frank. He died October, 1890. 

3. Raphael Jacob, born 12 July, 1842, died 1913, married (i) 16 

February, 1873, Mathilda Cohen, died i July, 1B79, and (2) 
5 October, 1881, Carolina Haas. 

4. Jacques, born 4 August, 1843, married in 1881 Sarah Davids, who 

died 1882. No issue. Lives at Chicago. 

5. Dinah, born 2 January, 1846, died April, 1891, married Asser Hoek 

of Goor. 

6. Miriam, born 18 July, 1846, married in 1871 Karel Roos, who died 

1905. Lives at Koevorden. 

7. ZipPORAH, born 1849, married 3 July, 1882, Joseph Schaap. He 

died 7 November, 1900. Lives at Johannesburg. 

8. Isaac, born 1850, died 1904, unmarried. 

9. Hannah or Annie, born 19 February, 1851, married in 1878 

Maurits Schaap, born 16 May, 1847. Lives at Arnheim. 

10. Abraham, born 1852, died 1906. Married (i) Gotteling Vinnis, 

(2) Goedbloed. Had two children who live in East Indies. 

11. Henri Jacob, born i November, 1853, married (i) in 1881 Edie 

Tak, died 1882, and (2) Esther Tak. Lives at Chicago. 

12. Therese, born 1855, died 1878, unmarried. 

13. Victor, born 1858, unmarried. Lives at Machadadorp, Transvaal. 

48 



Records of the Franklin Family 
F. I. Children of Liepman and Elisabeth Prins. 

a. Esther, born 25 March, 1872. Unmarried. 

b. Emilie Zipora, born 4 May, 1873. Unmarried. 

c. Alexander Jacob, born 25 November, 1874, married Jeannette 

Davids, born 22 March, 1867. Lives at Amsterdam. 

1. Liepman, born 30 August, 1902. 

2. Aaron Barend, born 15 April, 1904. 

3. Elisabeth, born 20 January, 1906. 

4. Hanna, born 17 June, 1907. 

5. Estella, born 7 September, 1908. 

d. Lea Sarah, born 14 October, 1875. Unmarried. 

e. Lewis, born 20 June, 1879, married Erna Loewenthal, born 

5 April, r866. Lives at Amsterdam. 

1. Elsa, born 30 January, 1909. 

2. Greta. 

f. Liepman Jacob, born 26 November, 1880, married 15 July, 1908, 
Jetta Schaap, born 12 June, 1882. Lives at Amsterdam. 

I. Benjamin Liepman, born 24 July, 1909. 



F. 2. Children of Sarah and Abraham Frank. 

a. Heintje, born 11 April, 1867, married in 1892 Joseph Franken, 

born April, 1859. Lives at Arnheim. 

1. Maurits, born 4 January, 1895. 

2. Abraham, born i May, 1899. 

b. Philip, born January, 1870, married Betje Koster, born February, 

1870. Lives at Assen. 
I. Abraham. 

c. Isaac, born 13 October, 1872, married Jeannette Hoek. Lives at 

Graveland. 

1. Sarah, born i January, 1905. 

2. Abraham, born 28 May, 1909. 
H 49 



Records of the Franklin Family 

d. Esther, born 5 November, 1874. Unmarried. 

e. Akiba, born 20 December, 1877, married Heintje de Lange, born 

7 May, 1872. Lives at Amsterdam. 

1. Abraham, born 8 October, 1904. 

2. Marcus, born 22 July, 1906. 

3. Ellis Salomon, born 13 September, 1908. 

4. Gesine. 

5. Philip. 

f. Diena, born 21 April, 1883. Unmarried. 



F. 3. Children of Raphael and Mathilda Prins. 

a. Sadie, born 16 November, 1873, married 15 March, 1898, Julius 

Blumenthal. 

1. Irving, born 12 December, 1899. 

2. Mathilda Claire, born 16 November, 1901. 

b. Jeannette Miriam, born 18 December, 1875, married 3 September, 

1905, Albert Greenberg. 

I. Albert, born 25 May, 1906. 

c. Leo, born January, 1878, married 29 July, 1908, Gerthie Meister. 

J. Leo. 

Children of Raphael and Carolina Prins. 

a. Gabriella, born 18 May, 1883, died 13 September, 1883. 

b. Jacob, born 10 September, 1884, died 18 June, 1894. 

c. Beatrice, born 22 October, 1885. 

d. Victor Ludwig, born 21 January, 1888. 



F. 5. Children of Dinah and Asser Hoek. 

a. Jacob Ezechiel, born 2 November, 1875, niarried Kaatje Gots- 
CHALK. Live at Goor. 

1. Andries. 

2. Dinah Estella, born 23 March, 1905. 

3. Isaac Jacob, born 21 November, 1906. 

50 



Records of the Franklin Family 

b. JoHAN, born 30 October, 1876, married Jenny Meyer. Lives at 

Enschede. 

1. Andries, born 7 July, 1906. 

2. Sarina Thea, born 6 March, 1909. 

3. Nico. 

c. Louis, born 4 September, 1878, married Antje Temans. Lives at 

Enschede. 

1. Lena. 

2. Dina. 

d. Theodora, born 4 September, 1878. 

e. Jacques, born 4 February, 1880, married Roosje Prins, his cousin. 

(See F. 1 1, a.) Lives at Dordrecht. 

1. Henri, born 9 March, 1909. 

2. Edina. 

f. Henri, born 16 June, 1882, married Anna Kesler. Lives at Paris. 

No children. 

g. Arthur, born 17 November, 1885, married Anna Benedictus in 

1 914. Lives at The Hague. No children, 
h. Ellis, born i July, 1889. 



F. 6. Children of Miriam and Karel Roos. 

a. Estella, born 28 April, 1873, married Moses Cohen, who died 

3 June, 1902. 

1. Simon, born 15 November, 1893. 

2. Miriam, born 15 January, 1895. 

3. Jeannet, born 8 November, 1897. 

4. Dina, born 9 January, 1899. 

b. David, married Mietje Polak. Lives at Groningen. 

1. Miriam, born 3 June, 1903. 

2. Bertha, born 7 March, 1905. 

3. Karel, born 8 February, 1907. 

51 



Records of the Franklin Family 

c. Philip, born 8 September, 1877, married Margo Jacobsen. Lives 

at The Hague. 

1. Karel, born 6 April, 1909. 

2. Martin. 

d. Isaac, born 16 September, 1878, married Sophie Vos. Lives at 

Koevorden. 

1. Karel, born 10 May, igo8, 

2. Henry. 

e. Paulina, born 2 August, 1880. Unmarried. 



F. 7. Children of Zipporah and Joseph Schaap. 

a. Jacoba, born 11 April, 1883, married 25 August, 1903, Alex 

ZwARENSTEiN. Lives at Johannesburg. 

1. Samuel, born 7 June, 1904. 

2. Josephine, born 23 January, 1906. 

3. Dorothy, born 21 April, igo8. 

b. Mathilda, born 11 August, 1884, married Joseph Zwarenstein. 

Lives at Johannesburg, 

c. Henri, born 23 October, 1886, married. Lives at Johannesburg. 

d. Maurits, born 3 May, 1888, married. Lives at Johannesburg. 



F. 9. Children of Annie and Maurits Schaap. 

a. Emilie Adelaide, born 3 July, 1880, married 5 May, 1912, Nardus 

Schryver. Lives at Harderwyk. No children. 

b. Jacoba Esther, born 17 August, 1881. Unmarried. 

c. Joseph Henri, born 31 October, 1882. Unmarried. 

d. Ida Edith, born 6 March, 1883, married 21 April, 1909, Bernard 

Schryver. Lives at Amsterdam. 

1. Helena. 

2. Maurits. 

e. Esther Judith, born 30 September, 1886. Unmarried. 

f. Lucie Sipora, born 10 March, 1891. Unmarried. 

52 



Records of the Franklin Family 

F. II. Children of Henri and Edie Prins. 

a. RoosjE, born ii October, 1881, married Jacques Hoek (see F. 5. e.). 



Children of Henri and Esther Prins. 

b. Jacobus David, born 13 June, 1898. Lives at Chicago. 

c. TUGELA, born 25 February, 1900. Lives at Chicago. 

d. Isaacs, died. 

e. Theresa, died. 

H. Maurice Abraham Franklin, 1817-1874, married (i) Victoria 
Jacobs, (2) her sister. 
I Abraham. 
2. Selim. 

\. Lewis Abraham Franklin, 1820-1879, married 12th December, 
1866, Emily, daughter of James Phineas Davis, died 5th 
February, 1902. 

1. Alfred, born 12th December, 1867, died s.p. i6th June, 1885. 

2. Miriam, married Aron, born 5 July, 1866, son of David May II 

of Beerfelden Odenwalde, Hessen, and his wife Amalia, nde 
Meyer. 
2. a. Frances, born 21st December, 1900. 

b. Lewis Aron, born 9th June, 1902. 

c. Emily Sarah, born 9th June, 1903. 

d. Jonas Alfred, born 28th February, 1905. 

e. Phineas Leopold, born 9th May, 1906. 

3. Frank Everard Lewis, born 9th April, 1870, died i8th October, 

1870. 

53 



Records of the Franklin Family 

J. Abraham Gabay Franklin, 1821-1870, married Phoebe Harris, 
daughter of Henry Harris of Truro and his wife, nde Levy, died 
1869. 

1. Sarah, born 19 April, 1866, married James Castello, as second 

wife, 1910 (see K. 6.). 

2. Henry Abraham, born 1867, died unmarried March 13, 1896. 



^ K. Ellis Abraham Franklin, born 5th October, 1822, died 
nth May, 1909; married 9th July, 1856. 

Adelaide Samuel, born ist January, 1831, died 19th July, 1902. 
Both buried at Willesden. 

CHILDREN 

1. Arthur Ellis Franklin. 

2. Ernest Louis Franklin. 

3. Henrietta Marian Franklin. 

4. Leonard Benjamin Franklin. 

5. Frederic Samuel Franklin. 

6. Edith Sarah Franklin. 

7. Beatrice Miriam Franklin. 



K. I. Arthur Ellis Franklin, born i8th April, 1857, married 
28th February, 1883, Caroline, fourth daughter of Edward Jacob 
of Grove End House, born 20th January, 1863. 

CHILDREN 

a. Jacob Arthur, born 4th Febuary,_^i884. 

b. Alice Caroline, born ist June, 1885. 

c. Cecil Arthur, born 9th March, 1887. 

d. Hugh Arthur, born 27th May, 1889. 

e. Helen Caroline, born 6th January, 1892. 

f. Ellis Arthur, born 28th March, 1894. 

54 



Records of the Franklin Family 

2. Ernest Louis Franklin, born i6th August, I1859, married 
7th October, 1885, Henrietta Montagu, eldest daughter of first 
Lord Swaythling, born 9th April, 1866 (see p. 99, B. 8. e.) 

CHILDREN 

a. Sydney Ernest, born i6th August, 1886. 

b. Marjorie Ellen, born 17th December, 1887. 

c. Geoffrey Montagu Ernest, born nth May, 1890. 

d. Olive Netta, born 14th March, 1892. 

e. Cyril Montagu Ernest, born 31st October, 1898. 

f. Michael Arthur Ernest, born nth April, 1903. 



3. Henrietta Marian Franklin, born 22nd February, 1861. 
Married 29th April, 1880, George Solomon, born 3rd July, 1844, 
youngest son of Solomon Joseph and his wife, nde Jane Selig. 

CHILDREN 

a. Francis George Joseph, born 25th June, 1881. 

b. William Franklin George Joseph, born 30th December, 1882. 

c. Edwin George Joseph, born 25th June, 1887. 

d. Jane Marian Joseph, born 31st May, 1894. 



K. 3. a. Francis George Joseph. Married nth March, 1908, 
Matilda Waley Cohen, born 23rd September, 1885, daughter of 
Nathaniel Louis Cohen and his wife, iide Julia Matilda Waley. 

CHILDREN 

1. Robin Ellis Waley Joseph, born 27th December, 1908. 

2. Margaret Frances Waley Joseph, born 29th April, 1910. 

3. Peter Nathaniel Waley Joseph, born 29th December, 1913. 

55 



Records of the Franklin Family 

K. 4. Leonard Benjamin Franklin, born 15th November, 1862. 

Married nth January, 1888, Laura Agnes, second daughter of 

William Ladenburg, of 2 Inverness Terrace, born 19th March, 

1866. 

CHILDREN 

a. Jeannette Laura, born loth December, 1888. 

b. Ruth Laura, born 21st March, 1891. 

c. Adrian William Leonard, born 4th November, 1903. 

d. Adelaide Gertrude Leonaura, born 8th January, 1906. 



K. 5. Frederic Samuel Franklin, Born 9th June, 1864. Married 
17th June, 1891, Lucy Amy, only daughter of Sir Philip 
Magnus, M.P. for London University, and his wife Katie, nde 
Emanuel, born 19th February, 1871. 

CHILDREN 

a. DuLCiE, born 28th June, 1892. 

b. Alan Philip, born 14th November, 1893. 

c. Margaret Lucy, born 13th July, 1897. 

d. Dorothy Kathleen, born 23rd February, 1901. 



K. 6. Edith Sarah Franklin, born 13th June, 1866 ; married 4th 

November, 1896, to James, eldest son of Daniel Castello, born 

29th May, 1863. She died 24th June, 1907, aged 41. Buried at 

Golders Green. 

CHILDREN 

a. Ellis James, born 20th September, 1897. 

b. Iris Sarah, born 9th July, 1898. 

56 



Records of the Franklin Family 

K. 7. Beatrice Miriam Franklin, born nth July, 1871 ; married 
17th November, 1897, Herbert Louis, youngest son of Edwin 
Louis Samuel (her cousin), born 6th November, 1870, Privy 
Councillor 1908 (see p. 103, B. 4. d.). 

CHILDREN 

a. Edwin Herbert, born nth September, 189S. 

b. Philip Ellis Herbert, born 23rd December, 1900. 

c. Daughter, born nth August, 1902, died 12th August, 1902. 

d. Godfrey Herbert, born 12th January, 1904. 

e. Nancy Adelaide, born 24th June, 1906. 



57 



Records of the Franklin Family 

LEWIS FRANKLIN 

(SON OF BENJAMIN WOLF AND SARAH FRANKLIN) 

Lewis Franklin, married Miriam, daughter of Mordecai Abrahams 
of Arundel. 

CHILDREN 

A. Benjamin, born 1816, married Maria, born 1816, daughter of Moses 

Lionel Levy and sister of the founder of the " Daily Telegraph." 
No children, but adopted a daughter, who married Sir George R. 
Prescott in 1872. 

B. Edward (Emanuel), died 1871 in San PVancisco, unmarried, aged 62. 

Buried in New York. 

C. Lewis David, died unmarried in London 1893, aged 82. Buried in 

Willesden. 

D. Selim, died unmarried in San Francisco. 

E. LuMLEY, married. 

F. Phineas. 

G. Walter Lewis, married Sarah Phillips. 
H. Frank, married Theodosia Balderson. 

I. Joseph, married daughter of Lord St. Clair, died s.p. 

J. Sarah, died unmarried. 

K. Marie Louise, married Major Ashton. 



G. Children of Walter Lewis Franklin, born 1818, married in 
Scotland, Sarah Phillips of Whaddon, Wilts; died 1872. 

CHILDREN 

1. Frederick Walter. 

2. Emily. 

3. Edwin Lewis. 

4. An Infant Son, died young. 

5. Valentina Marie Louisa, born 1864; married in 19 13 the Rev. 

John Francis Ashton. 

58 



Records of the Franklin Family 

I. Children of Frederick Walter Franklin, born 1852, 
married in 1877 Mary, daughter of Owen Lloyd, an Irish solicitor. 
She died February, 191 2. 

a. May, born 1878, died 1887. 

b. Walter Frederick Daniel, born 1879, died 1897. 

c. Robert, born 1882, Rector of Waitotara, N.Z., married 1910 Corah 

Wildash. Son, Theodore Robert, born. 191 1. 

d. Kathleen, born 1884, a hospital nurse. 

e. Emilie Frances Sarah, born 1886. 

f. Ellen Violet, born 1888. 

g. Mary Lloyd, born 1891. 

h. Frederick Ernest, born 1S93. 
i. NoRAH Rose Tina, born 1897. 



G. 2. Children of Emily Franklin, born 1853, died 1912. 
Married Edward Russell Moncrieff, Rector of Portstewart, 
Co. Derry. 

a. Emmeline Louise, born 1883, hospital nurse, U.S.A. Not married. 

b. Walter Russell, born 1884, engineer, U.S.A. Married. 

c. Edward Russell, born 1886, died 1886. 

d. Frederick Edwin, born 1888, engineer, U.S.A. Not married. 

e. Joseph Franklin, born 1890, died 1891. 

f. Annie Valentina, born 1892. 

g. Norah Evelyn, born 1895. 



59 



Records of the Franklin Family 

G. 3. Children of Edwin Lewis Franklin, m.a., Dublin, Vicar 
of St. Mark's, Southampton, born 1855; married in 1893, Eva 
Ellen Adela, born 1866, eldest child of Colonel Hugh Pearce 
Pearson, C.B. 

a. Ellen Dorothy, born 1895. 

b. Edwin Eric, born 1896. 



H. Children of Frank Franklin, born 1809; married Theodosia, 
daughter of Major G. R. Balderson, born 1831, died 1858. 

1. Charles, born 1852, died about 1890. Unmarried. 

2. Minnie Florence, born 1854. 

3. Ada, born 1856. 

4. Isabel, born 1858, died about 1874. 



H. 2. Children of Minnie Florence Franklin, married Alfred 
Yarrow, torpedo-boat builder of Glasgow. 

a. Florence, married Captain Percy Royds, r.n. Two daughters 

and one son. 

b. Evelyn, married Ernest Yarrow. Three sons and one daughter. 

c. Ethel, married Sir Bertrand Dawson. Three daughters. 

d. Harold, married a daughter of Canon Aitken of Norwich. Two 

daughters. 

e. Norman, engineer. 

f. Eric. Unmarried. 

H. 3. Children of Ada Theodosia Franklin, married in 1888 
Leonard Temple Thorne, ph.d., born 1855. Chemist. 

a. Arthur Temple, b.sc, born 1889. 

b. Frank Oswald, born 1892. 

60 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Children of Marie Louise Franklin, married as second 
wife Major J. Thomas Ashton, Madras Horse Artillery, 25th 
May, 1856. He died December 6th, 1887. 

1. Marie Louise Sarah, born 1857. 

2. Florence Clare Caroline, born 1859, died unmarried, 1902. 

3. John William Devekeux, born i860, married Bertha Gerard of 

New York, 1907. 

4. Augusta Pauline, born 1861, married (i) Ritter, an American; 

(2) a doctor. Died s.p. 1903. 

5. Lucy, born 1863. Unmarried. 

6. Rowena Jane Emma, born 1869. Unmarried. 



K. I. Children of Marie Louise Sarah Ashton, married in 1882 
Edward Henry Whinyates, now deceased, late Rector of Fretherne, 
Gloucester. 

a. Guy, late West Indian Civil Service. 

b. Ralph, late 8th Hussars. 

c. Cecily. 

d. Amy. 



61 



Records of the Franklin Family 

AARON FAMILY 
Moses Aaron, born 17 18 in Birmingham, died February 22, 18 12, 
married Friandla (Frances), born 1723, died 1800. 
HIS CHILDREN 
^W A. Jacob (Akibaii), 1756 — June 19th, i8o8,of Birmingham, married Alice 
(Telsea) in Portsea, daughter of Isaac Alexander, Merchant and 
Shipowner of Portsmouth, born 1764, died 30th November, 18 16 
(see p. 75). 

B. Solomon, Pencil-maker, married Abigail Aaron, died 1823. 

C. Elizabeth, born 1760, died 181 5, married Dr. Samuel Solomon, m.d. 

(died 18 19), native of Cork, afterwards of Gilead House, Liver- 
pool, owner of " Balm of Gilead." 

D. Levi, married Esther. 

E. Dinah, married Rev. Samuel Lyon of Liverpool, brother of Rev. 

Solomon Lyon of Cambridge (2., page 83a). 



Children of Jacob and Alice Aaron. 

1. Sophia, married Ralph Isaac of Liverpool, born 1772, died 1840, son 

of Henry Isaac of Oxford (1740-1813) and Sarah (1739-1809), 
daughter of Isaacher Barnet and Esther Raphael. 

2. Amelia, married Abraham Yoell of Portsmouth. 

^° 3. Miriam (i 789-1870), married Abraham Franklin (see p. 47, Franklin 
Family). 

4. Henry, who changed his name to Arayne. 

5. Sarah, second wife of John Michael Isaac of Salford. 

6. MOSELEY. 

7. Joseph. 

8. Abraham. 

9. Esther Theresa, married Matthew John Segr^. 



A. I. Children of Ralph and Sophia Isaac. 

a. John Raphael, born 1809, died 1870. Appointed Medallist, Litho- 

grapher and Engraver to H.R.H. Prince Albert in 1846. 
Married in 1839 Sarah Amelia, eldest daughter of Sylvester 
Coleman and granddaughter of Rev. Benjamin Yates of Liver- 
pool. She was born 181 3, died 1900. 

b. Henry, died at sea a bachelor. 

62 



Records of the Franklin Family 

c. Edward Ralph, married and died in Jamaica, s.p. 

d. Benjamin Ralph, born 1 817, died 1 88 1. Liverpool R. A.M. Married 

in 1847 Abigail, daughter of Joseph Cohen of Dublin, born 1821. 

e. Esther Sophia, born 1806, died 1840, married John Michael Isaac of 

Manchester, who afterwards married Sarah Aaron (A. 5). Their 
only daughter Henrietta, married Samuel Jacob of Falmouth. 

f Elizabeth, died in Manchester a spinster. 

g. Caroline, died a spinster. 

h. Sarah, died a spinster. 

i. Alice, married A. Muller. One son, two daughters. 



A. I, a. Children of John Raphael Isaac and Sarah Amelia 
Isaac. 

1. Raffaelle Coleman, born 1840, married Ellen, daughter of Mr. Moses 

of Birmingham. Died s.p. 

2. Esther Flora, died 1906 a spinster. 

3. Theresa Sophia, married J. F. Ehrenbacher of Liverpool, who died 

1907, s.p. 

4. Percy Lewis, born 1845, married in 1885 Florence Maud, daughter 

of Alexander Alexander of London. She was born 1866. 
Nellie Elizabeth, born 1886. 
Rose Amelia, born 1889. 
John Robert, born 1891. 

5. Blanche Elizabeth, died 1893 a spinster. 

6. Edith Rose, married Leopold Farmer, Alderman of Hampstead. 

Cecil, died a bachelor. 

Mabel. 

Harold. 

Herbert. 

7. Georgina Eugenie, married M. J. Alexander of London, s.p. 

8. Benjamin Richard of Liverpool, married Effie Robson of Edinburgh. 

Frederick. 

Gladys. 

Marjorie. 

63 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. I, d. Children of Benjamin Ralph and Abigail Isaac. 

1. Ralph Henry, died a bachelor. 

2. Rebecca, married Alfred Jackson of Liverpool. 

3. Sophia, married Rev. Joseph Polack, b.a., of Clifton. 

4. Joseph. 

5. Albert, married Edith Samuel of Birmingham (B. 3. 3. h.). 



A. 2. Children of Mr. and Mrs. Abraham Yoell. 

a. Hester, married Samuel Sternberg of Cheltenham. 

b. Ellen, died unmarried. 

c. Francis, married Edward Lowe of Cheltenham, died s.p. 

d. Caroline. 

e. Alice. 

f George, went to California. 
g. Jack, went to California. 



A. 2, a. Children of Samuel and Hester Sternberg. 

1. Frederick, died unmarried. 

2. Lilly Ray, died unmarried. 

3. Alice, married Joseph Shoops of Manchester, s.p. 

4. Minnie, married Dr. Henry Dutch of London. One daughter. 



A. 9. Children of Esther and Matthew John Segre. 

1. Abigail Esther, born 29th February, 1832, married, 1867, Isaac 

Moss of Sheffield. He died, no issue. 

2. Theresa, born 22nd April, 1833, married, 1859, Isaac Abraham 

Franklin, m.r.c.s (see D., p. 48). 

3. Virtuosa Victoria, born 24th May, 1834, married, 1863, Henry 

Abraham Franklin. No issue (see L., p. 47). 

4. Camilla, born in New York 17th October, 1836. Unmarried. 

64 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. Children of Solomon and Abigail Aaron. 

1. David, 1772-1842, Pencil-maker and Pawnbroker of Birmingham, 

married Maria Myers, 1 784-1857. 

2. John (Akiba), married twice. 

3. Elizabeth, married Lewis Lazarus of Bury Street, London. 

4. Sarah, lived with David and Maria Aaron, died i860. 

5. Ann, married Samuel Davis, Optician of Leeds, brother of Jacob 

Davis (A. 2. B., p. 112). 

6. Daughter, died 1802. 

B. I. Children of David Aaron and Maria his wife. 

a. Clara, i 807-1 872, married Abraham Nerwich. 

b. Maurice, 181 2-1865, married his cousin Abigail Aaron (B. 2. 3). 

c. Henry, died unmarried. 

d. Isaac, i 8 19- i 891, married Matilda Levin of Penzance. 

e. John, 1814-1886, married (i) a sister of Abraham Nerwich, daughter 

Mathilda, died aged 1 1 . 
(2) Dinah Benjamin of Hammersmith, 
1822-1899. 
f. Betsy, married Nathan C. Spiers. 

g. Sophie, i 808-1 884, married the same when a widower, 
h. Juliana, 182 2- 1909, married Jacob Myers of Winchester, later of 

Birmingham, 1 808-1 870. 
i. Emma, i 824-1 899, married Isaac Lowthime, died 1885. 
j. Rose, died in infancy. 



B. I. a. Children of Abraham and Clara Nerwich. 

1. Matilda, married Maurice Myers of Birmingham. 

a. Annie, married Harry Hayman. 

b. Adolph. 

c. Leo. 

2. Lizzie, married Joseph Joseph of Birmingham and Port Elizabeth, 

two daughters. 

3. Selina, married Baron Adolph de Stein of Antwerp. 

a. Clara, married Sigismund Sinauer (his second wife). 

K 65 



Records of the Franklin Family 
B. I. b. Children of Maurice and Abigail Aaron. 

1. David, a Hazan in a provincial Australian town. 

2. MosELEY, married Miss Solomon of Birmingham. 

3. Saul. \ 



4. TiLLiE, married. 

5. Lizzie. 

6. Maria. 



In Australia. 



B. I. d. Children of Isaac and Matilda Aaron. 

I. Maria, married Alfred Michael of Bristol, now in Chicago ; two 
daughters. 

B. I. e. Children of John and Dinah Aaron. 

1. Frances, born 1853, married Marcus Gumpelson, South African 

Merchant, Edgbaston. 

2. Rose, married Albert Nathan. 

3. TiLLiE, died young. 

4. David, married Hester Rosenthal of Manchester. 

a. Madge, married Mr. Gosschalk, of Hull. 

b. John. 

c. Nellie. 

5. Joe, married, died ; son and daughter changed name to Arnold. 

6. IsiDOR, dead. 

7. George, married. 

8. Louie, married Ben Nathan, theatrical agent. 

a. Queenie, married Bertie Chapman. 

b. Herbert, married Ethel Heilbronn. 

c. Lionel. 

9. Hettie, single. 

B. I. f. Children of Betsy and Nathan C. Spiers. 

I. Saul, married Rachel Benjamin, sister of B. i. e. (2), p. 65. 

a. Sara, married George Michael. 

1. Cyril, married Nora Kerin. 

2. Dorothy, married Mr. Mendelsohn. 

b. John, married Florence Greenberg. 

I. Kathleen. 

c. Sophie, married Mr. Myers ; has issue. 

d. Alphonse. 

66 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. I. g. Children of Sophia and Nathan Spiers. 

1. David, died at Davos. 

2. Henry, married Rebecca Greenberg. 

3. Lionel Spiers, manufacturing silversmith, Birmingham, married 

Annie Sytner. 

4. Lizzie, single. 

B. I. h. Children of Jacob and Juliana Myers. 

1. Alfred, dead. 

2. David, married Eliza Jones, three children, dead. 

3. Joseph Myers, born 1846, of Manchester and Blackpool, married 

Sara Leonora, daughter of David Cowen of Manchester ; has 
two sons and two daughters. 

4. Lizzie Lotheim, Bournemouth, a daughter Julia. 

5. Sarah Myers, Bournemouth. 

6. Clara de Montagnac, London. 

7. Matilda, married Frederick Joseph, Port Elizabeth. 

8. Annie Myers, died 1873. 

9. Emily Levy, died in Pretoria. 

B. I. i. Children of Isaac and Emma Lowthime. 

1. David Lowthime of London, married, died 191 3, s.p. 

2. Matilda, married B. Simmons. 

3. Maria, dead. 

4. Clara, dead. 

5. Annie, dead. 



B. 2. Children of John Aaron by his second wife. 

1. Daughter, married Geo. Alexander, went to Melbourne before 1856, 

was alive in 1872. 

2. Henry, died in Melbourne, unmarried. 

3. Abigail, married her cousin Maurice Aaron, son of David Aaron 

(B. I. b). 

4. Eliza, married Isaac Blanckensee. 

5. Clara, married. 

67 



Records of the Franklin Family 
B. 3. Children of Elizabeth and Lewis Lazarus. 

1. Henry, married Emma Lazarus. 

2. Julia, married Henry Berens of Birmingham. 

3. Louisa, married Saul Samuel of Birmingham. 

4. Maria, married John Aaronson of Bangor. 

5. Mary Anne, married Moses Blanckensee of Bristol, 12 January, 1842. 

6. Charles, married Clara Joseph of New Orleans. 

7. Frederick, married in Auckland, N.Z. 

8. David Harvey, born 1834, married 1870 Matilda Schwarzenski in 

New York. 

9. Mathilda, died unmarried. 



B 3. I. Children of Henry and Emma Lazarus. 

a. Lizzie, married Rudolph Lowenstein of Birmingham. 

b. Marian, died. 

c. Lewis, died. 

d. Charles, unmarried, in Sydney. 

e. Alfred, married Selina Aarons, died. 

f. Walter, died. 

ff. Frederick, died. 



B. 3. 2. Children of Henry and Julia Berens. 

a. Bernard, dead. 

b. Lewis, dead. 

c. Arthur. 

d. Lizzie, married Mr. Strauss of Bakus and Strauss, Hatton Garden 

e. Gertrude, married (1888) Seward Brice, k.c. ; he died 1914. 
f Louisa, married Walter B. Styer, Solicitor. 

1. Wilfred. 

2. Vera, married, 1914, Ernest, son of Rev. Dr. Herman 

GoUancz. 

3. Dorothy. 

68 



Records of the Franklin Family 
B. 3. 3. Children of Saul and Louisa Samuel. 

a. Lewis, married Miss Solomon of Dawlish. 

b. Lizzie, married Montagu Davis of Birmingham, died 19 14. 

c. Annie, married Joseph Salaman, Silversmith, Birmingham, formerly 

of Dublin. 

d. Alfred, bachelor, in Australia. 

e. Charles, bachelor, died in South Africa. 

f. Laura, married Abraham Abelson, and secondly T. E. Wright. 

g. Frederick Harvey, married Florence, daughter of Daniel Depass. 
h. Edith, married Albert, son of Benjamin Raph and Abigail Isaac 

(A. I. d. 5.) of Liverpool. 



B. 3. 3. b. Children of Lizzie and Montagu Davis. 

1. Lulu. 

2. Stanley. 

3. Walter. 

4. Emma. 

B. 3. 3. c. Children of Annie and Joseph Salaman. 

1. Winifred, married Lewin Phillips of Birmingham (has three children 

— Albert, Nancy and Clive). 

2. Louis, married Alice Samuel of London. 

3. Elsie. 

B- 3- 3- g- Children of Fred, and Florence Harvey-Samuel. 

1. Guy. 

2. Keith. 
3- Joan. 

B. 3. 3. h. Children of Edith and Albert Isaac. 

1. Maud. 

2. Fred. 

3. Alan. 

69 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. 3. 4. Children of John and Maria Aaronson of Bangor. 

a. Julia, married David Rosenthal of Melbourne. 

b. Eliza, married Abraham Berens of Birmingham. 

c. Lewis, married Leah Barnard of Ryde, L of W. 

d. Emily, married Harry Friedlander of London. 

e. Saul, married Miss da Costa. Their daughter married Mr. Coburn 

f. George, married Charlotte Myers, London. 

g. Fred., married Zara Baar of Sydney. 

h. Arthur, married Miss Woolf of London. 

i. Muriel. 

j. Charles, dead. 

k. Amelia, married Mr. Beyerts, Melbourne. 



B. 3. 5. Children of Mary Anne and Moses Blanckensee. 
a. Henrietta, married Isaac Silverstone. 



I. 


Marion. 




2. 


Gertrude, married Baron Harris. 




3- 


Bertrim, married Amy Blanckensee. 




4- 


Ethel, married B. C. Myers. 




5- 


Dora Julia. 




6. 


Lilian Violet. 




7- 


Gladys. 




Rose 


:, married Charles Marcus. 




I. 


Herbert Maurice, married Grace Dolmann. 


2. 


LiLLiE John. 




3- 


Sophia. Margaret, married Percy H. S. 


Phillips. 


4- 


Norman. 




5- 


Marion Julia, married Albert Strauss. 




6. 


Reginald Charles, married Alberta Barnhart. 


7- 


Violet. 

70 





Records of the Franklin Family 

c. Julia, married John Silverstone. 

1. Cyril John. 

2. Harold. 

3. Austin John. 

4. Clive. 

5. Doris Rose. 

d. Lewis, married Agnes Rousseau. 

1. Mervyn. 

2. Leslie. 

3. Cecil. 

4. Elsie. 

e. Louise, married Gerard Moseley. 

1. Archie Gerard, married Scylla Neame. 

2. Ellen Gerard. 

f. Leon, married Nell Solomon. 

1. Dorothy. 

2. Ruth. 

3. Stanley. 

g. Emma, married Sydney Mendelssohn, 
h. Fred. 



B. 5. Children of Ann and Samuel Davis of Leeds (subse- 
quently Dublin). 

a. John. Lived in Dublin. 

b. David, born 1800, married (1823) Elizabeth Lazarus of Birmingham, 

lived in Glasgow. 

c. Lewis. 

d. Sophia. 



71 



Records of the Franklin Family 



B. 5. a. Children of John Davis of Dublin. 

1. Maria, married Joseph Levy. 

2. Sarah. 

3. A son, married Henrietta Friedlander. 



B. 5. b. Children of David and Elizabeth Davis of Glasgow. 

1. Edward, married Aline David, five children. 

2. Charles, married Caroline , eight children. 

3. John, died a bachelor. 

4. Juliana, married Adolph Cohen, five children. 

5. Henry, married Eliza Moore, three children. 

6. Samuel, unmarried, killed in battle, Bull's Run. 

7. Sophia, died unmarried. 

8. Alfred, died unmarried. 

9. Frederick, died unmarried. 

10. Sarah, married Samuel Woolf, four children. 

11. Elizabeth, died young. 

12. Helene, married Montague Montague (A. 2. B. 3. c, page 116). 

13. Louisa, married 

1. David Woolf. 

2. Arthur Henry Tritton. 



C. Children of Dr. Samuel and Elizabeth Solomon. 
I. Abraham (1790-1827), married Helen Tyrie. 

a. Elizabeth. 

b. Samuel, married Marie Antoinette Bastide. 

c. Sophia. 

d. Helen. 

e. Margaret. ^yy - i^u^ • '"f Af^^ 7 

f. James Vose, married Mary Collins. — .^^O-^ ^Sh-C-**.-^"-^-^ *^'t 

I. Lucy, married Daniel Matthews. ^ ,' . .-^j/uft^- 

a. Arthur Daniel, married Miriam Warburton. 

b. Frank, married Evelyn Holder. 

c. Pauline. 

d. Ethel. 

72 



Records of the Franklin Family 

g. Sarah, married Frederick Houghton. 

1. Frederick Houghton, married M. C. E. Brieley. 

2. John R. Houghton, married M. F. Bailey, 
h. John, married Ann Richards. 

i. Lucy. 

2. Sophia (1792-1813), married in 1810 S. Isaac Tobias of Jamaica. 

a. Samuel Tobias of New York. 

3. Maria, born 1795, married (i) i February, 1815, Dr. Moses Lemon 

of Liverpool, her first cousin ; he died 13 March, 1815 ; 

(2) 4 December, 1815, Dr. James Byron Bradley of Buxton. 
a. Josephine, married 1834 Henry Bryon ; she died 1856. 
I. Henry James Byron (1835-1884), dramatist. 

4. Henry (1796-1797). 

5. John (1798-188-). 

6. Eliza, born 1800, married George Bradnock Stubbs. 

a. Eliza Jane, married Rev. — Gordon. 

b. Emily Eliza, married Rev. Henry J. Newbolt, Rector of St. 

Mary's, Bilston. 

1. Emily, married Thomas Willes Chitty, k.c. 

2. Henry John Newbolt, poet, born 1862, married 1889 

Margaret Edwina Duckworth. 

3. Francis George Newbolt, k.c, born 1863, married Alice 

Clara Franck Bright. 

7. Frances (1802-1805). 

8. Matilda (1804-186-), married Clement Redfern. 

a. Matilda, married Mr. Stack of Birmingham. 

b. Harriet, married Mr. Clark of Dublin. 

c. Clement, married Miss Edmunds. 

9. Amelia (1807 — ), married Rev. Mr. Warner. 

a. Biddulph. 

b. Henrietta, married John Black of Ceylon. 

I. Lily, married (i) 13th Lord Louth (son 14th Lord Louth) ; 
(2) Richard Muldowney. 
10. Sarah, born 1808. 
L 73 



Records of the Franklin Family ^ c^*k^ ^ ^'^ 

Children of Rev. Samuel and Dinah Lyon. ffi£) 
,„, I. Maria, married S. J. Neustadt of Birmingham. . ' tflt^'X. K? 

a. Norton, died unmarried, 1872. 

b. Henry, died unmarried, 1878. 

c. Hannah, married Maurice Beddington. 

1. Esther, married Harry Sylvester Samuel. 

2. Mary, married Edward Nicholls. 

3. Fanny, married Henry Behrens. 

4. Ada, married Monty Nicholls. 

5. Florence, married Arthur Moro. 

6. Maude. 

7. Beatrice. 

2. Leah, died unmarried. 

3. Fanny, married David Barnett of Birmingham. 

a. Mathilda, married Maurice Marks. 

1. Francis, married James Shilton. 

2. Sera, married Hugh Paterson Tucker. 

3. David, died 1890. 

4. Elizabeth Maude, unmarried. 

5. Walter, married Connie, daughter of Alfred Pyke 

(D. 4. a., p. 82). Daughter, Eileen Alice. 

6. Henry. 

b. Sophie, married Julius Wolff. 

1. George D. Wolff, married Annie Robinson. 

2. Fanny, married Alfred Furst. 

c. Elizabeth, died unmarried. 

4. Henry, married Rebecca Bright (Lyon). 

a. Frank, died unmarried. 

b. Charlotte, died 1884, unmarried. 

c. Harry. 



74 



Records of the Franklin Family 



ALEXANDER FAMILY 

Isaac Alexander, Merchant and Shipowner of Portsmouth. Born 
in Hamburg. Died a widower, intestate, 13th March, 1810. 
(Called Alleker Alexander.) His sister Alice married Abraham 
Loew. See page 83^ (Henry Family). 

CHILDREN 

A. Sender, born 1761, died s.p. 

B. Elizabeth or Bila, born 1762, died 18 13, married Solomon Isaacs of 

Portsmouth, born 1739, died 1808. 
^^ C. Alice or Telsea or Tilgchi, born 1764, died 30th November, 18 16, 
aged 52, married Jacob Aaron of Birmingham (see p. 62, A). 

D. Solomon, Navy Agent of Portsea, born 1 766, died 20th November, 

1829, married Amelia (1777-1861), eldest daughter of Moses 
Hart and Eleanor Adolphus (aunt to Sir Jacob Adolphus, of 
Jamaica). 

E. Ellen or Gialak, born 1769. 



B. Family of Solomon and Elizabeth Isaacs. 

1. Alexander Isaac, married 7th June, 1809, Sophia, daughter of 

Benjamin and Golda Levi of Canterbury. He died in 1863 ; she 
in 1865. 

2. Simeon Isaac Leon, born 1803, died 1826. 

3. Joseph Isaac Leon, born 1794, died 1864, married Sarah Lucas, 

born 1803, died 1877. 

4. Philip Isaac, married Charlotte, youngest daughter of Moses Hart 

(see supra). 

5. Amelia, married 25th January, 1826, Israel, son of Levi Abraham 

(page 83fl). 

75 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. I. Family of Alexander and Sophia Isaac. 

a. Phcebe, born 1810, died 1851, married 18 January, 1832, Albert 

Leopold Vogel. 

b. Solomon, born 1813, died 1849. 

c. Eliza. 

d. Rebecca, born 28 November, 181 5, died 1851. 

e. Lewis, born 22 October, 181 7. 

f. Matilda, born 5 September, 18 19. 
g. Annie, born 23 December, 1820, died 1914. 
h. Moses. 
i. Benjamin. 

j. Esther, married John Samuel, who died 1864. 
k. Emma, born 29 May, 1827, died 1849. 
1. Maria, born 1829, died 1846. 
m. Leon Alexander, born 27 March, 1826. 
n. Jane, married Moyses Buzaglo. 
o. Louisa. 

p. Frederick, married Sara Levin, died 191 5. 
q. Adelaide, born 1834, died 1866, married Moyses Buzaglo of Lisbon ; 

one daughter, Jane, 
r. Albert. 
s. Alexander, died 191 2. 



B. I. a. Family of Phcebe and Albert Leopold Vogel. 

1. Sir Julius Vogel, born in London February 25th, 1835. Married, in 

1867, Mary, daughter of William Henry Clayton. Prime Minister 
of New Zealand. Died March 13th, 1899. 

Harry, married Elsa Levin. Three sons. 

Frank Leon, killed in Matabeleland in 1893. 

Julius. 

Phcebe. 

2. Frances. 

3. Lewis Hurwitz, born 18 August, 1841. 

76 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. I. j. Family of Esther and John Samuel. 

1. Henry. 

2. Emily. 

3. Alexander. 

4. Louisa. 

B. I. n. Family of Jane and Moyses Buzaglo. 

1. Salome. 

2. SiML 

3. Benjamin. 

4. Mair. 

B. I. p. Family of Frederick Isaac and Sara Levin, his wife. 

1. Annie, married 1887 Ernest Jessel. Both dead. 

Valerie Maud. 
Mabel Annie. 

2. Emmie, married 1890 D. E. Higham. 

Eric Edward. 
Winifred Alice. 
Alan Frederick. 

3. Albert Lewin. 

4. Bernard Alexander. 

5. Francis Lewis, married Gladys Moss. 

Frederick. 

Deren. 

Claud. 

6. Mary, married 1907 Dr. A. Goodman Levy. 

Elsie Sara. 
Bernard Frederick. 
Ruth Frances. 

7. Wilfred Leon, married Florence Carney. 

77 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. 3. Family of Joseph Isaac Leon, i 794-1864, married 1832, 
Sarah, 4th daughter of Sampson Lucas, died 23rd March, 1877, 
aged 74. 

a. Eliza, born 15 April, 1833, died 3 June, 1889. Married i860 Julius 

Simon, born 1830, died 27 July, 1906. 

b. Edward Micholls, born 20 June, 1834, died 26 July, 1885. Un- 

married. Buried at Willesden. 

c. Horatio Sampson, born 28 November, 1835, died 1887. Buried in 

Paris. 

d. Philip Lucas, born 10 May, 1837, died 1889. Buried in Alexandria, 

Egypt. 

e. Emily Rebecca, born 9 June, 1840, died 12 June, 1907. 



B. 3. a. Family of Eliza and Julius Simon. 

1. Beatrice, married Henry Hyman, son of Reuben Salomons. 

a. Edward Henry, died. 

b. Mabel Winifred. 

2. Constance Emily, married Herbert Elliot Thorndike. 

3. Edgar Leon, married Lilian Nelson. 

4. Marguerite Bertha, married Armand Guggenheim. 

a. Edward Armand. 

b. Oscar Armand. 

c. Dora Marguerite. 

5. Julian Henry, married Florence, daughter of Hyman Montagu. 

a. Violet. 

b. Ronald Montagu. 

c. Arthur Leon. 

78 



Records of the Franklin Family 

6. Horace Frances, married Brenda Caroline Allenberg. 

a. Horace Jack. 

7. Helen Maud, married Dr. Edward Clarke-Cohen. 



B. 4. Family of Philip and Charlotte Isaac, of 9 Great 
Prescott Street, London. 

a. Simeon Isaac Leon, of Jamaica, died 1826. 

b. Lewis Leon, married. 

c. Ellen Isaac, died 1898 (?). 

d. George Isaac Leon, married Juliana Samuel, 26th May, 1847. 



B. 4 b. Family of Lewis Leon, married, 1830, Rebecca Pollock. 
Went to Australia. She died 1845. 

1. Annie, born 1831, died 1898, unmarried. 

2. Philip, born 1840, married Alice Montefiore (6. d., page 83^). 

Wilfred, married Vera Stackpool, two children. 
Florence, married Frank Schloesser. Died s.p. 
Ethel, married Durham Stokes, three sons. 
Arthur, married Lilian Levy, one daughter, Dorothy. 

3. Charlotte, born 1842; married Philip Solomon. 

Kate, married Mr. Sichel. 
Margaret, married Mr. Lindo. 
Emily, married. 

4. Kate, born 1843. 

79 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. 4. d. Family of George Isaac Leon, 1821-1885; married, 1847, 
Juliana Samuel, 1826-1901. 

CHILDREN 

1. Frank Philip Leon, born 1848, died 1893. 

la. Dorothy Maud, 1886. 

2. Sir Herbert Samuel Leon, Bart., born 1850. 

Married (i), 1873, Esther JuHa, daughter of Edward Beddington. 
She died 1875, aged 22. 
Children: a. Mabel Julia, 1874. 

b. George Edward, 1875. 
Married (2), 1880, Fanny, daughter of David Hyam. 
Children: c. Margaret Alice, 1881. 

d. Reginald Herbert, 1882, married Ritu, daughter 
of A. de Mattos Mocatta. 
2 a. Mabel Julia Leon, married Henry Hyman Haldinstein, k.c, son 
of Ph. Haldinstein of Norwich, 1897. 
Children: 2a'. Barbara Rachel, 1898. 
2A°. Audrey Mabel, 1899. 
2 b. George Edward Leon, married Mildred Ethel Jennings, 1899. 

Children: 2 b'. Esther Mildred, 1899. 
2 c. Margaret Alice Leon, married Cecil F. Raphael, son of late 
Henry Raphael, 1899. 

3. Arthur Lewis Leon, married Marion Grant, 1885. 

Issue: Marjorie Leon, 1887, married Roland Venables Vernon. 

4. Dr. George Alexander Leon, married Minna Webber, 1891. 

Issue : May, 1892. 

Ellen, 1893, married, 191 2, Thos. Martin Jones, of 
Mandalay. 

80 



Records of the Franklin Family 

5. Constance Ellen Leon, married Charles I. Meyerstein, son of 

late William Meyerstein, 1881. 
Issue: Ethel Gladys, 1882. 

William Charles, 1884. 

6. John Temple Leon, married Catherine Friend, 1905. 

Issue : Phyllis, 1905. 
Geoffrey, 1909. 

7. Amy Annie Leon, married Dr. Arthur P. Luff, 1893. 

Issue: Mary Constance, 1897. 
Brian, 1900. 



C. Family of Jacob and Alice Aaron {see Aaron Family A). 



D. Family of Solomon Alexander (1766-1829) and Amelia his 
WIFE ( 1 777-1861), of 33 Cannon Street, London. 

1. Amelia, spinster. 

2. Anna, spinster. 

3. Simeon of Jamaica, died 1828, aet. 25, s.p. 

4. Alexander of Clapham Park, married Rose Constance, youngest 

daughter of Sylvester Coleman of Liverpool. Granddaughter of 
the Rev. Benjamin Yates of Liverpool. He died 1873. She 
died 1877. 

5. Julia, died i860, s.p. 

6. Alice, died a spinster ist March, 1844. 

7. Esther, spinster. 

8. Eliza, married Samuel Pyke. 

9. Maurice, married Fanny, sister of Sir Saul Samuel, Bart., of 

Sydney, 1853, only son, Risden Solomon, died 1853. 

10. Naphtali, died a bachelor. 

11. Ellen, spinster, died 1905. 

M 81 



Records of the Franklin Family 

D. 4. Family of Alexander and Rose Alexander. 

a. Alice Flora, died 1893, married Alfred Pyke. Three sons, two 

daughters (E. 3. a. 5, page 74). 

b. Sylvester. 

c. Simeon, died a bachelor in South Africa. 

d. Adolphus. 

e. Maurice John, married Georgina Eugenie Isaac, youngest daughter 

of John R. Isaac of Liverpool, s.p. 

f. James. 

g. Fred William, Medical Officer of Health for Bow and Bromley ; 

married Diana Pyke. Has two daughters, 
h. Leon. 
i. Henry. 
j. Florence Maud, married Percy Lewis Isaac, m.i.n.a. Has two 

daughters, Nellie Elizabeth and Rose Amelia, and one son 

John Robert. 



Family of Eliza and Samuel Pyke. 

a. Clara, married David Asher, ph.d., of Leipsig (both dead). 

1. Leon, Dr. Professor at Berne, married Else, daughter of Pro- 

fessor Lacquer, of Strassburg. 

2. Willie, d.s.p. 

b. Alexander, married Rosa Kortosk (both dead). 

1. Arthur, married May Campbell. One daughter. 

2. Amy, married Sydney Jeffrey. One son, one daughter. 

c. Ellen, died unmarried. 

d. Amelia, married Alexander Isaacs, a widower, s.p. 

e. Selina, unmarried. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

f. Maria, married Judah Afriat. 

I. Phcebe, married Abraham, son, by first marriage, of Alexander 
Isaacs. 

a. Laurence, of Winnipeg. 

b. Frank. 

c. May. 

d. Harry, deceased. 

2. Esther, married Jacob, son of Alexander Isaacs (dead). 

a. Dorothy. 

b. Marjorie. 

c. Willie. 

3. Kate, married Alfred Posener. Two sons and one daughter. 

g. Charlotte, married Rabbi Simeon Singer, of the West End Syna- 

gogue. 

1. Frederica, married Dr. Israel, third son of Dr. Barnett 

Abraham. 

a. Beatrice. 

b. Phyllis. 

2. Julius, married Alice, daughter of Stephan, son of Major Samuel 

Isaac. 
a. Christabel. 

3. Samuel Alexander, New Zealand, married Mabel, daughter 

of Joseph Levy. 

a. Ida Marian. 

b. Martin Simeon. 

c. Peggie. 

d. David Simeon. 

M 2 82a 



Records of the Franklin Family 

4. David Jacobs, married Isabel Daisy, sister to Alice, his brother 

Julius's wife. 

a. Ruth Seruja. 

b. Eleanor Mary. 

c. Gwendolen, died. 

d. Barbara. 

e. Evelyn Harty. 

5. Charles, m.d., married Dorothea Waley, daughter of late 

Nathaniel Louis Cohen. 

6. Richard Arnold, New Zealand. 



83 



Records of the Franklin Family 



HENRY FAMILY 

(Details kindly supplied by Alfred Henry, Esq.) 

Alice Alexander, sister of Isaac Alexander (p. 75), married Abraham 
Loew of Thalmessingen, Frankfort-on-Main. 

Son Levi (Judah) Abraham, born 1752, died 1847. Came to England 
and lived with Isaac Alexander 1772-1777, married 1787 Elizabeth 
(1760-1811), eldest daughter of Henry and Zipporah Moses of 
Dover, and lived in Ramsgate. Both buried in Canterbury. 



Children of Levi and Elizabeth Abraham, all of whom, except 
Israel, changed their surname to Henry. 

1. Rebecca (1788-1864), unmarried. 

2. Abraham Henry, married 1816 Emma Lyon the poetess (1788- 

1870), daughter of Rev. Solomon Lyon of Cambridge and his 
wife Rachel, daughter of Barnet Hart of Ely (see E., page 62). 

a. Eliza (1817-1824), unmarried. 

b. Floretta (1818-1879), married Julius J. Valery. 

c. Richard Loew (1819-1898), married Rebecca Lyon, his first 

cousin, daughter of Hart Lyon and his wife Sarah Miriam, 
daughter of Jacob Mendes da Costa of Barbados. 

1. Emily, unmarried. 

2. Lucy, unmarried. 

3. Alfred, married Jessie Kisch. 

a. Arthur Richard. 

b. Michael. 

c. Cyril Alfred. 

83« 



Records of the Franklin Family 

d. Julia (1820-1824). 

e. Saphira (1822-1905), married 1856 Solomon Lindo, first cousin. 

1. Henry Elias, unmarried. 

2. Flora Valery, married 1899 Harold Felix Aguilar. 

3. Michael Alexander, unmarried. 

f. Charles (1823-1889), married Eliza. 

1. Rosetta, married Joseph Rosemont. 

2. Julius Valery, unmarried. 

3. Floretta Eliza (1863-1901), married 1892 Marcus Danziger. 

1. Dorothy. 

2. Lucy. 

3. Charles. 

g. Alexander {1825-1911), unmarried, 
h. Edward (1826-1829). 

i. Rebecca Georgina (1827-1829). 

j. Michael (1830-1875), unmarried, editor of "Jewish Chronicle." 

3. Alexander (1791-1832), unmarried. 

4. Michael Henry, married 1836 Eliza Samuel (A. 4., page 100). 

5. Edward (1794-1863), married 1835 Sarah Lindo. 

a. Billah Lindo, married Benjamin Lindo. 

b. Esther Lindo, married Isaac A. Joseph. 

1. Edward Aron, married Elsie Lindo. 

2. Louisa, married Joseph Michael. 

3. Ethel, married Percy Abrahams. 

4. Walter, married Dora Meredith. 

c. Rosa Lindo, unmarried. 

d. Jemina Lindo, married Rev. Samuel de Sola (afterwards married 

Lawrence Jacob). 
I. Samuel de Sola. 

83* 



Records of the Franklin Family 

e. David Lindo, married his first cousin, Rebecca Henry (see 

A. 4. d., page 100). 
I. Gladys. 

f. Abraham Lindo, married May Halford. 

I. Dorothy, married 1914 Charles Coburn (6. d,4). 

6. Israel (1796-1858), married 1826 Amelia Isaac (B. 5., page 75). 

a. Henry Solomon Henry (1826-igoo), married 1888 Justina Louisa 

Hendricks of New York. Two daughters, one son. 

b. George (1826-1830). 

c. Elizabeth (1829-1891), married 1850 Samuel Nunes Carvalho of 

Jamaica. No issue. 

d. Alice, born 1830, married Alexander Israel Montefiore. 

1. Alice, married Philip Leon (B. 4. b. 2., page 79). 

2. Flora, married Sydney McLorg. 

3. Arthur, died unmarried. 

4. Adah, married Henry Isaac Coburn (see 5. f. i.). 

5. Edith. 

6. Henry. 

e. Simeon Alexander Henry, born 1835, died unmarried. 

f. Flora (1837-1898), married Frederick Cohen, 

I. Sophie, married Charles Delgado. Two sons and one 
daughter. 

g. Michael Leon Henry (1840-1890), died unmarried. 

7. ZiPPORAH (1798-1847), unmarried. 

8. George (1803-1875), married 1833 Kate Lyon, sister of Emma. 

1. Alexander George, died unmarried. 

2. Isabel Rachel, unmarried. 

3. Elise, died unmarried. 

4. Leonora, died an infant. 



83 f 



Records of the Franklin Family 



FRANCKEL PEDIGREE 

Eliezar Halevi of Mainz, lived in the fourteenth century. 

HIS SON 

JuDAH MiNZ, born in Mainz about 1408, died at Padua in 1508 

having been forty-seven years Rabbi of Padua. The most prominent 

Rabbi of his day. 

HIS SON 

Abraham ben Jehuda Halevi Minz, born 1445, was Rabbi of 

Padua until 1526, and died in 1530. 

HIS DAUGHTER 

Hannah, died 1564, married Meir Katzenellenbogen, son of 

Isaac of Katzenellenbogen, where he was born in 1482. Called also 

Meir Padua. Died in Padua January 12th, 1565, as Rabbi of that 

city and of Venice. 

HIS SON 

Samuel Judah Katzenellenbogen, born in 1521 in Padua, 

Rabbi in Venice from 1565, died in 1597. Friend of the Polish 

Prince Radziwill. His wife's name was Abigail, died 1554. 

HIS SON 
Saul Katzenellenbogen, born in Padua 1545, went to Poland, 
was known as Saul Wahl, and is said to have been elected as tem- 
porary King of Poland in 1586 pending the completion of the election 
on the nomination of Prince Radziwill. Married Deborah Drucker, 
died 1617. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

HIS SON 

Meir Katzenellenbogen, born in Brest Litovsk, known as 

Meir Wahl, was Rabbi in Brest Litovsk until his death in 1631, and 

in 1623 founded the Lithuanian Council by permission of Sigismund 

III, his father's friend. He married Hinda, daughter of Rabbi 

Horowitz. 

HIS DAUGHTER 

Bela, married Jonah ben Isaiah Theomim, Rabbi of Prague, 
subsequently of Nicolsberg, and then of Metz from 1660 till his 
death in 1669. 

THEIR SON 

Joshua Feiwel ben Jonah Theomim-Fraenkel was a Rabbi in 
Little Poland during the latter end of the seventeenth and beginning 
of the eighteenth centuries. A book was published by him in 17 15. 

HIS SON 
Jonah Haim Ben Joshua Feiwel Theomim-Fraenkel, Rabbi 
at Przemysl, Zulz, and Breslau. Published books in 1723 and 1724. 

HIS SON 
Haim Jonah Fraenkel, Rabbi of Schlesien by Royal Patent 
in 1755- 

^ Menachem Mendel Franckel, Rabbi of the Burial Society of 
Breslau, married Sarah Sussel, daughter of Samson Bacharach of 
Nikolsburg. He died i8th April, 1761. She died 8th November, 
1762. 



85 



Records of the Franklin Family 



BACHARACH FAMILY AND COLLATERALS 

Children of Rabbi Haim of Worms (fifteenth century). 

A. Rabbi Jacob ben Haim, Imperial Rabbi, died 1563 in Worms. 

A. I. Isaac. 

2. Judah. 

3. Sinai, died 1607, had a son Jacob, who had a son Getschlik. 
^° B. Rabbi Bezalel ben Haim. 

B. I. Rabbi Haim ben Bezalel, Rabbi of Friedberg, died 1588. 
^° 2. Rabbi Judah Liwa ben Bezalel ("Jewish Encyclopaedia," 

vol. vii, 353),."Hoher Rabbi Lob," Landes-Rabbiner of 
Nikolsburg, and the famous Chief Rabbi of Prague, born 
about 1 51 5, died 1609, married Perl, daughter of Rabbi 
Samuel, Schmelker, Preacher and Actuary of Prague. 
She was a member of the Altschuler family, which came 
from Provence and settled in Prague in 1302. 

3. Rabbi Samson ben Bezalel, Rabbi of Krzmienic. 

4. Rabbi Sinai ben Bezalel, Landes-Rabbiner of Nikolsburg. 



B. 2. Children of Rabbi Judah Liwa ben Bezalel and his wife 

Perl. 
^° C. FoGELE, married Rabbi Isaac ben Samson Ha-Cohen (died 1624), 
Assistant Rabbi and Magistrate of Prague (J.E., vol. vi, 629). 

D. GuTEL, died 1634, had a grandson Rabbi Lipman Brandeis, died 1665. 

E. Bezalel. 

E. I. Samuel, Primator of Prag, whose daughter Bella married 
Rabbi Haim Cohen, her father's cousin. 
2. Rechl, married Pinchus Hurvir, Rabbi of Fulda, Prag, 
died 1653. 
E. 2. a. Lasl. 

b. David. 

c. Lob, married Freidl, died 163 1. 

86 



Records of the Franklin Family 

C. Children of Fogele and her husband Rabbi Isaac ben Simon 
Cohen. 

F. Rabbi Naphtali Ha-Cohen, Rabbi of Lublin. 

G. Rabbi Haim Ha-Cohen, Rabbi of Frankfort a.M., Prag, Posen,. 

married Bella (died 1677), daughter of his cousin Samuel ben 
Bezalel, Primator of Prag. 
!^° H. Eva, born 1580 in Prag, died at Sophia in 165 1. In 1600 became 
second wife of Rabbi Abraham Samuel ben Isaac Bacharach, 
Prediger of Prag, Rabbi of Jung Bunzlau and Worms. Successor 
to Rabbi Isachar Spira, born 1575, died 12th May, 1615, at the 
age of 40. Buried in Alsbach. 



H. Children of Eva and Rabbi Abraham Samuel ben Isaac 
Bacharach. 

^" I. Samson Bacharach, born 1607 at Pohrlitz near Nikolsburg, died 9th 
April, 1670, married (a) in 1627 Dobrusch, daughter of " Diinn- 
Isak" or Isaac ben Phobus, S.B. Rabbi of Coding, Beipnik, Prag, 
Worms ; she died 1662 ; (b) in 1662 Phega, widow of the Rabbi 
Cohen Nerol, of Metz, son of the Physician Rabbi Moses Cohen,, 
and brother of Tobias Cohen (called Moschides) ; she died 1666. 

J. Daughter, married Rabbi Lipman Giinzburg. 

K. Telzel, died 1669 at Prag, married Moses Perez Sabele, Rabbi of 
Schneittach. Their son Simon, who died 1729, married Rebecca 
(died 1 7 14), daughter of Favid Lovotik, whose name Simon took, 
and had a son Isaac Lovotik, Primator of Prag. 

L. HiNDL, died 1641 at Prag, married Liebermann ben Lob Darschan. 

M. Slove, died at Vienna 162 1, second wife of Jacob ben Meschulem 
Solomon Teomim of Prag. (See Theomim family, L.) 



Children of Samson Bacharach and his wife Dobrusch. 
N. Daughter, married Lob, son of Rabbi Simon Gunzburg (Sch.\tels), 
who died 2nd April, 1664. 

87 



Records of the Franklin Family 

O. Lea, married Moses ben Abraham, called Mosche PniLiPPBtiRG. 

Had a daughter Bobrusch. 
P. Fogele, married Solomon Schulhof, " Moschels," Rabbi Assessor 

of Prag, died 1689. 
O. Daughter, died 1666. 
R. Isaac, died 1689, married the daughter of Rabbi Ephraim Cohen, 

Rabbi of Ofen, Prag. 
S. Hendlein, married David ben Isachar Oppenheim of Worms. 
T. Simon Jair Haim, born at Leipnik 1638, married Sarl, who died 

22nd Tebeth, 1705, daughter of Sussman Brillin, Rabbi of 

Fulda. Simon became Rabbi of Coblenz and Worms, died 22nd 

Tebeth, 1703, in the 64th year of his life. 



T. Children of Simon Jair Haim Bacharach and his wife Sarl. 

U. Gabriel. 
^F" V. Samson Bacharach, " Aschkenasi," died at Nikolsburg 3rd Ab, 
1 72 1, married Cheile, daughter of Isaac Brunn. 

W. Sussman, died 1670. 

X. Dobrusch, died 1736, married Solomon Oppenheim. (See Oppen- 
heim family, C i.) 

Y. Saul Samuel Sanvel, died 1739, married daughter of Rabbi Meir 
ben Judah Selke Grothwohl. His son Meir, the poet, died 
1729. His descendants were Simon Bacher, the poet, 1823-1891, 
and his son Professor William Bacher, born 1850, died 1913. 



V. Children of Samson Bacharach and his wife Cheile. 

Z. Itzek-Isaac, died 1756 at Nikolsburg. 

Z. I. Cheile, died Nikolsburg, married Abraham Koritschoner. 
2. Chai Sara, died 1774 at Nikolsburg, married Gabriel Bohm. 
Z. 2. a. Solomon Bohm, died 1842 at Nikolsburg, married 
Rebekka, died 1843 in Nikolsburg. Had a son 
Gabriel Bohm, the last descendant living in Nikols- 
burg, died s.p. 1907. 
^" A A. Sarah Sussel, died 1762, buried at Breslau, married Rabbi Menachem 
Mendel Frankel or Franckel. (See Franckel Pedigree.) 



Records of the Franklin Family 



BACHARACH (BRILLIN) 
Children of Rabbi Sussman Brillin. 

^p= A. Sarl, married Simon Jair Haim Bacharach. (See Bacharach 
family, T.) 

B. Henele, married Wolf Oppenheim. 

C. Isaac, married daughter of Simon Wolf Oppenheim. (See Oppen- 

heim family, D.) 
C. I. Sanvel. 

D. Frumeh, married Samson Wertheimer, Chief Court Factor and 

Landesrabbiner at Vienna. 

E. HiNDCHEN, died 1728, married Lema Hanau of Frankfort a.Main. 



BACHARACH (THEOMIM) 

Children of Moses Aaron Leml Theomim, died 1608 (his brother 
Jakob Theomim, Vorsteher of Wien, died 1627, brother-in-law of 
Rabbi Pinchas Halevi Horowitz). 

A. Jonah Theomim. 

A. I. Isaac Maier Theomim. (See U, page 92.) 

B. Samuel Phcebus Theomim - Leml- Munkh, died 1616, married 

Gertrud Munkh. (See page 90.) 

C. Meschulem Solomon Theomim of Prag, died 1621. (See page 91.) 

D. Edel, married Aaron Malka. 

E. Rachel, married Rabbi Lipman Heller, Landesrabbiner of Nikols- 

burg. 
E. I. Abraham, married the granddaughter of Salomo Lurja. 
N 89 



Records of the Franklin Family 

F. Kela, died 1616, married the Gaon Moses Meor Katon, died 1605. 
F. I. The Gaon Judah Lob Meor Katon Lucerna, died 1635. 
F. I. a. Rechel. 

I. b. Miriam, died 1654, married Solomon Wolf Fischhof 
Auerbach, whose second wife Malka (died 1661), was 
the widow of Rabbi J. Israel ben Mordechai Lipschutz 
and daughter of Aaron Malka Theomim. (See above, 
Edel.) Auerbach had as sons Menachem Mendl 
Auerbach and Simon Auerbach, the poet, died 1638. 
I. c. Vogel. 



B. Children of Samuel Phcebus Theomim and his wife Gertrud 
MuNKH. (See p. 89.) 
G. Simon Lemlius Theomim, died 1650, married Selda (died 1626), 
daughter of Moses Cohen Rafa. 
G. I. Sela, died 1621, married Aaron Anav. 
G. I. a. Tesoma. 

2. Elia, died 1665. 

3. Moses, died 1639. 
G. 3. a. Joseph. 

3. b. Aaron, Durschan Theomim, Oberrabbiner of Krakau. 

Had three daughters, Cheile, 1684, married Aaron 
Hohen Ottingen ; Miriam, died 1744, married David 
Ulif, Rabbi of Mannheim ; and one who married 
Aaron Frankel of Flirth, brother of Rabbi Berman 
Frankel. 
G. 4. Phcebus, married Mindl, daughter of Todro. 
G. 4. a. Selda, died 1654. 

4. b. Pinchas, 1664. 

H. Nathan Veidel Theomim, died 1629, Rabbi of Worms, married 
RosI, who died in Jerusalem. 
90 



Records of the Franklin Family 

H. I. Samuel Phcebus. 

2. Sarl, died 1666, married Isaac Solomon, ben Abraham Joseph 
Isaac Munkh Aschkenazi Katzenellenbogen, Oberrabbiner of 
Lemberg, died 1655. 

H. 2. a. Nathan Veidl Veitel, died in Kremsior. 

3. Veidl. 

I. Bathsheba, married Veitch Munkh. 

J. Resl, died 1665, married Aaron Meor Katon Lucerna. 



C. Children of Meschulem Solomon, son of Moses Aaron 
Theomim. (See page 89.) 

K. NissEL, died 1666, married Hirsch Munkh Theomim, 

L. Jacob Munkh Theomim, d. 161 7, married (i) Bela (murdered 1610), 

daughter of Jacob of Nikolsburg ; (2) Slove, died 162 1, daughter 

of Rabbi Abraham Samuel ben Isaac Bacharach. (See Bacharach 

family, M.) 
L. I. Maier, died 1634, " Hofjude," married Eva. 

2. GiJTL, died 1637, married Rabbi Hirsch of Brod. 
M. Aaron, died 1620, married Mirl, daughter of Solomon Salkind 

Zigeiner. 
M. I. Samuel. 

2. AviGDOR, married Jochebed, daughter of Menachem Weli, 1664. 

N. MiRL Miriam Sara, known as " Mirl Fraenckhlin the Court Jewess," 
died 1639, married Jacob Koppel Heller-Wallerstein- 
Frankel ha-Levi. 



Children of Jacob Koppel Heller-Wallerstein-Frankel 

AND Mirl Miriam Sara Theomim, his wife. 
O. Rachel, died 1664, married Jacob David Neumark-Mirls-Frankel, 
died 1657, son of Naphtali Hirsch, grandson of Koppel and great- 
grandson of Aaron Heller- Wallerstein Neumark. He was known 
as David Franckel. 

91 



Records of the Franklin Family 

O.I. Solomon Frankel Mirls Neumark, 1624-1707, Oberrab- 
biner of Hamburg. 
a. Sara Mirls Neumark, 1677-1719, married Zevi Hirsch 
ASCHKENASI, 1659-1718, Oberrabbiner of Sarajevo, Ham- 
burg, Amsterdam, Lemberg, and Moravia. Their daughter, 
Miriam, died 1753. Married LoEB Saul Lowenstam, 
Rabbi of Amsterdam, 1691-1755. Their son, HiRSCH 
Lewin, who married Golda Cohen, 1 721-1800, was the 
chief Rabbi HiRSCHEL, of London, mentioned on page 10. 
2. Benjamin Frankl Mirls Neumark, founder of the Berlin 
community, died 1662, married daughter of Isachar 
Berman ben Jeremia Isaac ha-Levi Franckel. 
P. Moses Mirls, married Elkele, daughter of Tanchum Meinster 

Perlhefter, known as Moses Franckel. 
Q. Aaron, married Nechla, daughter of Jomtob Lippman Heller. 
R. Rebecca, died 1659, married Mordechai ben Zevi Mirls, died 

1654. 
S. Dverl, died 1660, wife of MosES Mendel Bacharach. 



P. Children of Moses Mirls (Moses Franckel) and Elkele 
Perlhefter his wife. 
T. Abraham Frankl. 

U. Sara, married Isaac Meier Theomim (A i. p. 89). 
V. Jares, married Ascher Anschel (Frankel-Spira, C), who adopted 
his father-in-law's name, Frankel.* Husband and wife died in 
1661. 
V. I. Jakob Koppel, died 1689. 

a. Jares, died 1699, wife of Meir, son of Anschel Schulhof of 
Vienna. 
V. 2. Benjamin Wolf, died 171 5, married Esther, died 1720, 
daughter of Jacob Koppel ben Jeremiah Isaac Frankel, 
who died 1670. 

* From the remarkable similarity of names it is believed that Menachem Mendel Franckel was a 
member of this family (see also page 94). 

92 



Records of the Franklin Family 

V. 2. a. Slove, died 1727, married Jonah Landschreiber, had a son 
Mendl Landschreiber and grandson Jonas Bunzlau Land- 
schreiber. 

b. Jacob Koppel, had a son Israel. 

c. Elkele, died 1697. 

d. Asher Anschel, died 1711 (daughter Freidel). 

e. Hindele, died 1704. 

f. Ritschel, died 1719. 

g. Simon Wolf Frankel Spira, the Primator or Head of the 
Community of Prague, died 1745, married (l) Lena, daughter 
of Abraham b. Jehuda Berlin (Jost Liebermann), Chief 
Rabbi of Amsterdam ; she died 1723 ; (2) his niece, Freidel, 
daughter of Asher Anschel Frankel (V. 2. d.), died 1767. 

1. Freidel, died 1724. 

2. Ritchel, died 1721, married Rabbi Meir Bunzlau. 

3. Ekele, died 1772, wife of Lipman Neustadl. 

4. Berman, died 1812. 

5. David Simon, died 1773, President of the Com- 

munity of Prague, married Miriam, daughter of 
Rabbi Joel of Halberstadt. 
h. Moses, had a son Israel. 
V. 3. Rebekka, died 1707, married Aaron Jechiel Michael 
BEN Benjamin Wolf ben Aaron Simeon Spiro. 
3. a. Ascher Anschel, died 1713, had a son Jacob, died 1743, 
President of the Prague Talmud-Torah. 
b. Moses Isaac, died 1750, had a daughter Jares and grand- 
daughter Elkele, married Rabbi Jonathan Eibenschiitz. 
W. ZiERL, married Aaron Speier. 
X. Bella, married J udah Lob Krochmal, Landesrabbinerof Nikolsburg, 

died 1 68 1. 
Y. Tanchum Meinster, Heller Mirls, died 1663. 
Z. Jacob Koppel, married Zartel, who died 1661, daughter of Avigdor. 
93 



Records of the Franklin Family 



FRANKEL-SPIRA.* 

A. Jechiel Michael Spira, lived about 1560, Chief Rabbi of Prague. 

A. I. Benjamin Wolf Spira, Dayan of Prague, died 1630. 

a. David Haim, Dayan of Prague, died 1640. 

b. Aaron Simon, 1599-1679, Chief Rabbi of Prague and of 

Bohemia, married Chaya, daughter of SiMON Neuhaus, died 
1676. 

A. i.b. Children of Aaron Simon Spira and Chaya his wife. 

B. Benjamin Wolf, Chief Rabbi of Bohemia, 1640-1715, married 

SCHEBA, daughter of R. Samuel Kalisch, died 1710. 
B. I. Aaron Jechiel Michael, Rabbi of Prague, died 1723, married 
Rebecca Franckel (Bacharach-Theomim, V. 3.). 

a. Asher Anschel Wiener Spira Frankel, Rabbi in Prague, died 1713. 

1. Jacob, President of the Talmud-Torah, died 1743. 

2. Chaya, died 1721, married Samuel (B. 2. c). 

3. Jares, died 1764, married Jacob Wendeles. 

I b. Moses Isaac, died 1749, Rabbi in Lissa, subsequently Land- 
rabbiner of Bohemia, married (i) Mattie, daughter of Mor- 
decai ha-Cohen, President of the Hamburg Congregation ; 
(2) Bela, daughter of Arjeh Leib (B. 2. b.). 
I. Elkele, in 1710 married Rabbi Jonathan Eibeschutz. 
B. 2. Elias, the Darshan and Rosh-Yeshiba of Prague, died 1712. 
married DoBRUSCH, daughter of the Primator, Azrael 
Bondi, died 1725. 

a. Simon Elias Wendeles, died 1731, the President of the Com- 

munity of Prague. 

1. Benjamin Wolf, died 1731. 

2. Asher Anschel, died 1761. 

b. Arjeh Leib, died 1712, married Sari, daughter of the Dayan 

Kathriel b. Hirsch Krotoschin (see D.). 

* Extracted from Dr. Brann's article on the "Frankel Family in Monatschrift,'' vol. 45, 1901, p. 193. 
t Menachem Mendel Franckel came from Lissa. 

94 



Records of the Franklin Family 

c. Samuel President, of the Beth- Din of Prague, died 1740, 

married Chaya (B. i. a. 2.) 

1. Simon, died 1741, President of the Talmud-Torah, 

married Rosel, daughter of Arjeh Leib (B. 2 b.), 
d. 1741). 

2. Asher Anschel, died 1741. 

3. Eliesar Mendel, married Malka, who died 1737. 

d. Rebecca, died 1740, married Jacob Benjamin Wolf ha-Levi 

b. Issachar Baermann Frankel of Furth. Her descendant 
was Zacharias Frankel, the first Principal of the Breslau 
Jewish Seminary. 
B. 3. ScHiFRA, died 1737, married David Oppenheim, the Landes- 
rabbi, of Bohemia. (See Bacharach-Oppenheim, A. I. a.) 

C. Asher Anschel, died 1661, married Jares, daughter of MosES 

MiRLS. (See Bacharach-Theomin V.) 

D. Malka, married Day AN Kathriel b. Hirsch Krotoschin, both died 

1691. 
D. I. Sarl, died 1740, married Arjeh Leib (B. 2. b.). 



BACHARACH (ESKELES) 

Children of Gabriel Eskeles of Cracow, died Nikolsburg as 
Landesrat, 17 18. Descended from Hoher Rabbi Lob. 

A. Joachim, had three sons. 

B. Bella, married Lemberger. 

B. I. Rabbi Moses Lemberger (Leuwuw), died 1757, Landesrat 
Nikolsburg. 

2. Dona in Boskovitz. 

3. Hindele, married Josef Eisenstadter. 

4. Daughter, Rabbinerin of Chovlisk. 

95 



Records of the Franklin Family 

C. IsACHAR Berend Berusch Eskeles, married (i) Hanni, daughter of 

Samson Wertheimer ; (2) . . . 

C. I. Lea. 

2. Bernhard, Freiherr VON Eskeles, posthumous, died 1839. 

D. A son. 

D. I. Lov FURSY. 

2. Rebecca, married Moses Biny. 

3. Rosa, married Rabbi Pinkas of Boskovitz. Son, Gabriel, 

and daughter. 

E. Teibele. 

E. I. Miriam. 
2. Jochebed. 



BACHARACH (OPPENHEIM) 

Simon Wolf Oppenheim (Worms). 

A. Abraham Oppenheim, Worms, died 1692, Director of the Com- 

munity of Worms, 1664-1736. 
I. a. David Oppenheim, Landesrat Nikolsburg, Landesrabbi of 
Bohemia. Founder of the Hebrew Library now in the 
Bodleian. Married ScHiFRA, daughter of Benjamin Wolf 
Spira (Frankel-Spira, B. 3.). 

B. Samuel Oppenheim, 1635-1703, Heidelberg, Court Factor of 

Emperor Leopold. 

C. Moses Senior Oppenheim, Heidelberg, and Worms, died Worms 

1 701, married Hendlin, d. Vienna 1696. 
C. I. Solomon Oppenheim, died 1737, married Dobrusch, daughter 
of Jair Haim Bacharach (Bacharach X). 

D. Daughter, married Isaac, son of Rabbi Sussman Brillin (Brillin, C). 



Records of the Franklin Family 



PEDIGREE OF CAROLINE JACOB, WIFE OF 
ARTHUR ELLIS FRANKLIN 

Samuel Alexander Levi (Frankfort), 

married 
Edel Oppenheim (died i6 July, 1627). 

Salomon Samuel Levi (died 4 Oct., 1638). 

Moses Salomon Levi (died 27 July, 1676), 

married (i Sept., 1650) 

HiNDSCHEN Cahn (died 24 Dec, 1662). 

I 
Wolf Moses Levi (died 12 July, 1728), 

married (31 Aug., 1672) 

Hindle Bierschenk (died 7 Oct., 1750). 

I 

Jacob Israel Levi (died 19 Aug., 1757), 

married 
JiTTLE Hausen (died 7 Oct., 1750). 

Moses Levi (died 4 June, 1760), 

married (26 Nov., 1756) 

HiNDSCHEN Goldschmidt (died 4 April, 1790) 

(daughter of Lob Simon Goldschmidt of Cassel, who died 7 Dec, 1764, 

and Gutchen Haben, 14 Feb., 1764). 

Bella Lew (born 6 Jan., 1758, died 10 April, 1804) 
married (9 July, 1777) 
o 97 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Amschell Abraham Hahn (born 2 Dec, 1758, died 12 Feb., 1831), 

(son of Abraham Hahn, died 29 Sept., 1793, and his wife Schonl Falk, 

died 2 April, 1784). 

GuTCHEN Hahn (born 15 July, 1780, died 14 March, 1842), 

married (2 Nov., 1800), 

Jacob Isaac Weiller (born 1782, died 14 March, 1819) 

(son of Isaac Weiller of Lousheim and his wife Jettchen Lechnich of Frankfort). 

Herz Weiller (born 4 March, 1808, died November, 1887), 

married 

Jeannette Doctor (born 27 March, 18 18) 

(daughter of Isaac Liebmann Doctor, born 4 Oct., 1788, died 5 Feb., 1864, 

and his wife Gutelchen Wimpfen, born 8 Nov., 1783, died 2 Jan., 1862). 

Julia Weiller (born 11 Sept., 1836, died 31 May, 1902), 

married (25 March, 1855) 

EsiAS (Edward) Jacob (born 19 April, 1819, died i July, 1906) 

(son of Solomon Jacob, of Berlin, died 1 1 Aug., 1858, 

and his wife Rachel Vauti of Berlin, died 3 Oct., 1858). 

^P° Caroline Jacob (born 20 Jan., 1863), 
married (28 Feb., 1883) 
Arthur Ellis Franklin. 



Records of the Franklin Family 



PEDIGREE AND COLLATERALS OF ADELAIDE 
SAMUEL, WIFE OF ELLIS ABRAHAM FRANKLIN 

SAMUEL 

DESCENDANTS OF ASHER SELIG (SAMUEL) 

HIS SON 
^ Emanuel (Menachem) Samuel, married Hannah (Hinde), 
daughter of Israel. She was born 1752, died 29 December, 
1822, at Pitt Street, Liverpool. 

THEIR CHILDREN 
A. Nathan Meyer Samuel, died 24 March, 1835, in Liverpool, married 
Miriam, daughter of Solomon. 
^F" B. Louis Samuel, born 1794 in City of London, died 24 August, 
1859, in Hunter Street, London, married 17 November, 1819, 
Henrietta, daughter of Israel Israel, of Bury Street, London, 
born 1797, died 14 March, i860 (see p, 1 11, A. i. d.). 

C. Moses Samuel, born in London 1795, died i860, married 1821 

Harriet, daughter of Israel Israel, of Bury Street, London, born 
1793, died 1843, in Paradise Street, Liverpool (see p. iii, A. i. e.), 
author and publisher of the periodical " Cup of Salvation." 

D. Frances Samuel, married 24 February, 1819, John Nathan. Two 

daughters. 

A. Children of Nathan and Miriam Samuel. 

1. Fanny, married 8 December, 1819, Moss Joseph, son of Samuel and 

Hannah Joseph. 

2. Rose, married 31 August, 1825, Barnett Joseph, son of Samuel and 

Hannah Joseph. 

3. Mary, married 18 February, 1829, Charles Harris. One son, two 

daughters. 

99 



Records of the Franklin Family 

4. Eliza, married 5 May, 1836, Michael Henry, of London, son of 

Judah Lowy (otherwise Levi Abraham), whose sons (except 
Israel) called themselves Henry (see page 83a:). 

5. Saul, lived in Dublin as jeweller. Retired and went to Liverpool. 

Married Eliza Solomon. Had a daughter, Evelina. 

6. Amelia, married a Mr. Ezechiel, went to America, where she died, 

leaving issue. 
7 and 8. Two sons went abroad and died. 



A. 2. Children of Rose and Barnett Joseph. 

a. Henry, went to Ballarat and became Mayor there. 

b. Edward, died unmarried. 

c. Charles, married and died, leaving issue. 

d. Hannah, married (i) Mr. Wolff, (2) Charles Berger, widower, 

related to the musician. 



A. 4. Children of Eliza and Michael Henry. 

a. Miriam, married 6 June, 1859, David, eldest son of Elias Lindo, 

died 26 May, 1902. Left four sons and three daughters. 

b. Elizabeth, born 1841, married Capt. Henry Aguilar, brother 

of Grace Aguilar. One daughter. 

c. Frances, married Rev. Morris Joseph, died 1914 s.p. 

d. Rebecca, married 17 August, 1881, David Lindo Henry (see 

5. e., page 83^). One daughter. 



B. Children of Louis and Henrietta Samuel. 

1. Israel, born 12 January, 1821, died 1821. 

2. Marian, born 1822, died 1858, married in 1845 Adam Spielmann, 

born in Wreschen 181 2, died 1869 at West Brompton. 

3. Hannah, born 1824, died 28 January, 1883, married Samuel St. 

LosKY, son of Rabbi Hischel Shen Kolowsky of Kempen. 
100 



Records of the Franklin Family 

4. Edwin Louis, born 19 September, 1825, died 28 March, 1877, at 

Kensington, buried at Willesden. Married 24 October, 1855, 
Clara, only daughter of Ellis Samuel Yates, born i January, 

5. Eliza, born 1827, died, married 1847 Moss Samuel, of London. 

6. Kate, born 1829, died 1902, married Martin Schlesinger, Dentist, 

of Paris. 

7. Adelaide, born i January, 1831, died 19 July, 1902, buried at 

Willesden. Married 9 July, 1856, Ellis Abraham Franklin, 
born 5 October, 1822, died 11 May, 1909, buried at Willesden 
(see p. 35). 

8. Sir Montagu Samuel-Montagu, Baronet, and first Baron Swayth- 

LiNG, born at Liverpool 21 December, 1832, died 12 January, 
191 1, married 5 March, 1862, Ellen, daughter of Louis Cohen. 

9. Miriam, born 1835, died 1836. 



B. 2. Children of Marian and Adam Spielmann. 

a. Lionel Adam, born 19 June, 1846, at Lombard Street, died 1878 

unmarried. 

b. Amelia Marian, born 12 February, 1848, at Lombard Street, died 

1850. 

c. Edwin, born 6 August, 1849, at Lombard Street, died 1850. 

d. Dora, born 23 February, 1851, at Lombard Street, died 30 April, 

1874, unmarried. 

e. (Annie) Jessie, born 14 February, 1853, at Camden Town, married 

1877 Edward Wiener of Brussels, died in Belgium 9 June, 
1899, buried at Uccle (see B 6. b. 3., page 126). 

f. Sir Isidore Spielmann, c.m.g., born 21 July, 1854, at Camden Town, 

married 1879 Emily, daughter of Sir Joseph Sebag Montefiore, 
born 1857. 

g. Meyer, Adam, born 10 September, 1856, at Mecklenburg Square, 

married 1884 Gertrude Emily, daughter of George Raphael, 
born February 7, 1864. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Marion Harry Alexander, born 22 May, 1858, at Mecklenburg 
Square, married 8 December, 1880, Mabel Henrietta Samuel 
born 31 August, 1862 (see B. 4. e.). 



B. 2. e. Children of Jessie and Edouard Wiener. 

1. Marian Dora, born 1878, died 1878. 

2. Lionel Edward, born 1879, married 1909 Sylvia de Bock. 

Edward Lionel Ernest, born 191 1. 

3. Ernest Edward, born 1882. 

4. Dora Marian Hannah, born 1887. 



B. 2. f. Children of Sir Isidore and Lady Spielmann. 

1. Ferdinand, born 1880, married 1914 Louise Davy-Brown. 

2. Dora, born 1882, married 1903 Laurie Magnus. 

Philip Montefiore, born 1906. 
Jessie Dora, born 1907. 
Hilary Barrow, born 1909. 
Pamela Lucy, born 19 14. 

3. Maude, born 1884, married 1904 Claude Lousada. 

Jack, born 1906. 
Eric, born 1910. 

4. Harold, born 1893. 

5. Adelaide, born 1895. 



B. 2. g. Children of Meyer and Gertrude Spielmann. 

1. Edgar Raphael Meyer, born 22 March, 1885. 

2. Eva Marian, born 13 April, 1886, married 31 August, 1911, Francis 

William Hubback, 

Diana Mary, born 191 2. 
Rachel Gertrude, born 1914. 

3. Claude Meyer, born ig April, 1889. 

4. Winifred Jessie Gertrude, born 21 November, 1898. 

102 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. 2. h. Children of Marion and Mabel Spielmann. 
a. Percy Edwin, d.sc, born 1881. 



B. 3. Children of Hannah and Samuel St. Losky. 

a. Florence, married Frederic Michael Halford, son of Samuel 

Hyam, died 5 March, 1914. She died 15 April, 1907. 

b. Herbert, died 1865. 



B. 3. a. Children of Florence and Frederic Halford. 

I. Ernest Samuel, born 8 October, 1872, married Constance Rachel 
Manville, born 26 March, 1875. 

a. Cecil Frederic, born 17 December, 1898. 

b. Nora Eileen, born 8 September, 1904. 



B. 4. Children of Edwin Louis and Clara Samuel. 

a. Sir Stuart Montagu Samuel, born 24 October, 1856, at Liverpool, 

Baronet, 8 July, 191 2, married 10 April, 1893, Ida, daughter of 
Alphonse Mayer. 

b. Dennis Edwin Samuel, born 5 March, 1858, died 30 May, 1909, at 

Leamington, buried at Willesden, married 21 November, 1900, 
(Katie) Lilian, daughter of Abraham Lewis Lazarus. 

c. Gilbert Ellis Samuel, born 30 June, 1859, at Liverpool, married 

24 September, 1889, Louise Victoria, daughter of Isaac Stiebel. 

d. Herbert Louis Samuel, Under-Secretary of State for Home Depart- 

ment 1905-9, Privy Councillor 1908, Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster 1909-10, Postmaster- General 1 910- 14, President of 
Local Government Board 19 14, born 6 November, 1870, married 
17 November, 1897, Beatrice Miriam, daughter of Ellis 
Abraham Franklin (see p. 57, K. 7). 

e. Mabel Henrietta, bom 31 August, 1862, married 8 December, 1880, 

Marion Harry Spielmann (see B. 2. h.). 
103 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. 4. a. Children of Sir Stuart and Lady Samuel. 

1. Vera Evelyn, born 4 March, 1894, married 1914 Jack Brunel 

Cohen, of Liverpool. 

2. Eileen Victoria, born 18 April, 1897. 



B.4. b. Children of Dennis and Lilian Samuel. 

1. Clara, born 24 April, 1902. 

2. Donald Edwin Lewis, born 19 July, 1903. 

3. Dorothea, born 9 August, 1904. 

4. Esmond, born 14 May, 1906. 



B. 4. c. Children of Gilbert and Louise Samuel. 

1. Wilfrid Gilbert, born 3 September, 1890. 

2, NoRAii Gilbert, born 4 April, 1894, married Donald, son of Henry 

Van den Bergh. 



B. 5. Children of Eliza and Moss Samuel. 

a. Sydney Montagu, born i January, 1848, at 9 Castle Street, Hounds- 

ditch, died a bachelor 1885. 

b. Ada, born 25 November, 1848, at 48 Houndsditch. 

c. Annette, born 11 January, 1850, at 48 Houndsditch, died a spinster. 



B. 6. Children of Kate and Martin Schlesinger. 

a. Malvina, married Alfred Mosely, 23 December, 1874. He died 

29 December, 1879. 

b. Barthold, born 1853, died 1874. 

c. Helene, born 12 February, 1855, married 23 June, 1880, Henry Kisch. 

d. Leonard Bernhard, born 1857, married 3 August, 1887, Mary 

Nathan. 

e. Louis (Sinclair), born 7 January, 1861, married 3 November, 1886, 

Nina de Pass, born 15 February, 1863. 
104 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B.6. a. Children of Malvina and Alfred Mosely. 

1. Julia, born 3 November, 1875, married 28 January, igo8, Ellis 

Keyser Yates, of Liverpool. 

George Alfred, born 2 November, 1908. 
Kate Margaret, born g June, 1910. 

2. Martin Ephraim, born 6 August, 1877. 



B. 6. c. Children of Helene and Henry Kisch. 

1. Violet, born 13 June, i88r, married 31 October, 19x1, Julius Jacob, 

brother of Caroline Franklin (K. i, p. 54). 
Helen Margaret, born 2 October, 1913. 

2. Barthold, born 25 October, 1882, married 18 October, igo6. 

Madeleine. 

3. Martin, born 4 June, 1884, died in West Africa, unmarried, 24 Feb- 

ruary, igog. 

4. Mabel, born 8 September, 1887, married igi5 Philip Joseph Hartog. 



B. 6. d. Children of Leonard and Mary Schlesinger. 

1. Hilda, born 17 May, 1888. 

2. Gerald, born 23 November, i88g. 

3. Arthur, born 13 December, 1892. 

4. Ruth, born 28 August, 1896. 



B. 6. e. Children of Louis and Nina Sinclair. 

1. Trevor, born 12 August, 1887. 

2. Harry, born i February, 1889. 

3. John Reginald, born 2g June, iSgs. 

4. Nina, born 3 August, 1898. 



B. 7. Children of Adelaide and Ellis A. Franklin (see 
Franklin K, p. 52). 

p 105 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. 8. Children of Montagu, first Baron and Lady Swaythling. 

a. Louis Samuel-Montagu, 2nd Baron Swaythling, born 10 Decem- 

ber, 1869, married 9 February, 1898, Gladys Helen Rachel, 
daughter of Albert Edward Williamson Goldsmid, Colonel in 
the Army. 

b. Edwin, born 6 February, 1879, Under-Secretary for India, Secretary 

to the Treasury 19 14. 

c. Gerald, born 29 September, 1880, married 2 February, 1909, 

Florence, daughter of Percy Manuel Castello. 

d. Lionel, born 8 September, 1883. 

e. Henrietta, born 9 April, 1866, married 17 October, 1885, Ernest 

Louis Franklin (see p. 55, K. 2). 

f. Florence, born 6 May, 1867, married 15 July, 1889, Montefiore 

Simon Waley, who died 15 October, 19 10. 

g. Marian, born 26 October, 1868. 

h. Ethel, born 16 February, 1871, married 12 April, 1893, Henry 

d'Arcy Hart. 
i. Lilian Helen, born 22 December, 1873. 
j. Ruth, died in childhood. 
k. Elsie, born 5 March, 1877. married 31 October, 1905, Reginald 

Myer. 



B. 8. a. Children of Louis Montagu, second Baron Swaythling, 
and Gladys Lady Swaythling. 

1. Stuart, born ix September, 1898. 

2. EwEN, born 29 March, 1901. 

3. Ivor, born 23 April, 1904. 

4. Joyce, born 10 January, 1909. 



B. 8. c. Children of Gerald and Florence Montagu. 

I. Ina, born 1913. 

106 



Records of the Franklin Family 

\. f. Children of Florence and Montefiore Waley. 

1. Evelyn Matilda, born 1891. 

2. Ruth Ellen, born 1892. 

3. Rhoda Florence, born 1895. 

4. Jack Harold Montagu, born 1900. 



B. 8. h. Children of Ethel and Henry d'Arcy Hart. 

1. Ronald Henry d'Arcy Hart, born 1895. 

2. Walter „ „ „ born 1897, 

3. Philip „ ,, ,, born 1900. 

4. Joan d'Arcy Hart, born 1904. 

5. Betty d'Arcy Hart. 



B. 8. k. Children of Elsie and Reginald Myer. 

1. Kenneth. 

2. Sheila. 

C. Children of Moses and Harriet Samuel. 

1. Hannah, born 5 February, 1823, married 1846 Samuel Woodburn, 

died 1879. 

2. Henry Israel, born 4 July, 1824, married Rachel, daughter of 

Schreiner Wolfe, of Manchester. Seven daughters, three sons. 

3. Marian, born 20 July, 1825, married 1848 Jonas Reis, at one time 

partner with Adam Spielmann, died June, 1900. 

4. Walter, born 18 November, 1829, died 1863, married Harriet, 

daughter of Schreiner Wolfe, of Manchester. 

5. Alfred, born 26 February, 1831, married Emma, daughter of 

Schreiner Wolfe, of Manchester, died 1907. Seven daughters, 
four sons. 

J 07 



Records of the Franklin Family 

C I. Children of Hannah and Samuel Woodburn. 

a. Alfred Henry, born 1847, died 1857. 

b. Harriet, born 1849, married 1870 Davis Hayman, died in South 

Africa, 1880. Son solicitor in Johannesburg. 

c. HiNDA, born 1851, married 1867 Samuel Anidjar Romain, died 1911. 

Three daughters, one son. 

d. Elizabeth, born October, 1853, married 1872, her cousin Charles 

Lionel, son of Jonas Reis. 

e. Annie, born November, 1855, married 1877 Isaac Sandheim, died 

1892. 

f. Ada, born July, 1857, married 1875 Benjamin Goldberg. One son, 

one daughter. 

g. Thomas, born 1859, married Jane Thompson, died in Cape Town, 

1907. Four sons, one daughter. 
h. Emily, born May, 1861, married 1879 Louis Bamberger. 
i. Reginald, born May, 1861, went to Australia, unmarried, 
j. Amy, born 1863, unmarried. 



i.d. Children of Elizabeth and Charles Lionel Reis. 

1. Maud Beatrice, born November, 1872, married 1910. 

2. Henry Vincent, born 1873, died in South African War. 

3. Percy Harcourt, born 1875, married his cousin Laura Swallow. 

One son, Charles Ivor. 

4. Violet Ida, born 1879. 

5. Claire Itala, born 1881, died 1892. 

6. Dr. Vera Dagmar, m.b., ch.b., l.m., born 1883, married 1911 

Dr. Robert Bruce. One daughter, Elizabeth. 

7. Eileen, born 1892. 

8. Eric, born 1893. 

108 



Records of the Franklin Family 
C. I.e. Children of Annie and Isaac Sandheim. 

1. May Catherine, born 1878, died 1909. 

2. Herbert J., born 1882, married. Two daughters. Minister at 

Swansea Synagogue at Winnipeg. 

3. Lionel, born 1884. 

4. Violet, born 1894. 



C. I. h. Children of Emily and Louis Bamberger. 

1. Hannah Beatrice, born April, 1880, married 1905 Samuel Nunes 

Carvalho. One son, one daughter. 

2. Maud Muriel, born April, 1882. 

3. Captain Cecil David Woodburn, r.e., born December, 1883, killed 

in battle December 19, 19 14. 

4. Arthur Prier Woodburn, born September, 1885. 

5. Harold Rudolph Woodburn, born May, 1887. 

6. William Ewart Woodburn, born June, 1891. 

7. Frank Oswald Woodburn, born March, 1893. 

8. Ursula Teleste Woodburn, born March, 1899. 



Children of Marian and Jonas Reis. 
children 

1. Charles Lionel, born 1849, married his cousin Elizabeth Wood- 

burn 1872. Five daughters, three sons. 

2. Harriet, born 1850, married ARTHUR Swallow 1880. One 

daughter Laura, married her cousin Percy H. Reis. 

3. Theresa, born 1852, married Adolph Breslauer 1877. Three 

sons, two daughters. 

4. Arthur M., born 1858, married his cousin Lilian Samuel 1880. 

Five sons, three daughters. 

5. Alphonso Louis, born i860, married Marian Dugan 1882. Si,\ 

sons, one daughter. 

109 



Records of the Franklin Family 

C. 4. Children of Walter and Harriet Samuel. 

a. Evelyn, born 1853. 

b. Arthur. 

c. Florence. 

d. Edgar, married daughter of Alderman L. S. Cohen of Liverpool. 

e. Lucille. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

ISRAEL (EZRAEL) 

DESCENDANTS OF ISRAEL ISRAEL OF HALBERSTADT 

^- A. Isaac Israel, of Halberstadt, died 6 April, 1793, married 
Henrietta (Chaya) Moses, of London, died 13 April, 1795. 

B. Jonah or John Israel, in 1790 a Jeweller at 27 Bury Street. 

C. Jessie Israel, died 14 June, 1829. 



CHILDREN OF ISAAC AND HENRIETTA ISRAEL 
A. I. Israel Israel, of London, died 28 January, 1817 (of 41 Bury Street 

St. Mary Axe), married 16 August, 1780, REBECCA Pearl, 

daughter of COLEMAN SoLOMON, died 20 February, 1816. 
A. 2. Maria or Merle, married Isaac Solomon, otherwise Neuberg, of 

Chatham. 
A. 3. Moses Israel, married Kitty, he died in Castle Street, St. Mary 

Axe, on 18 January, 1829, she died 26 July, 1819. 
A. 4. Judah or Lewis Israel, married Sarah, he died 30 May, 1837, she 

died 18 January, 1830. Daughter Maria married Isaac Levy, of 

Dublin, 1833. 



A. I. Children of Israel and Pearl Israel. 

a. Coleman Israel, born 3 September, 1781, died 13 August, 1788. 

b. David Israel, born 2 July, 1792, died 6 June, 1796. 

c. Harry Alexander, died unmarried. 

W d. Henrietta, born in London, 1797, died 14 March, i860, married 
17 November, 1819, at the Hambro' Synagogue, LouiS Samuel, 
of London (see p. 99, B.). 

e. Harriet, born 1793, died 1843, married 12 September, 1821, 

at the Hambro' Synagogue, MoSES Samuel, of Liverpool (see 
p. 99, C). 

f. Ann or Nancy, died unmarried 1862. 

g. Amelia, died unmarried 1855. 
h. Moss, died 1829. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. Children of Isaac Solomon (formerly Neuberg) and his 
WIFE Maria. 

A. Fanny, married Mr. Micholls. 

B. Anne, married Jacob Davis, of Thame (1778-1856). 

C. Hannah, married Lewis Cowan (1788-1856). 

D. RoSETTA, married 8 October, 1828, GEORGE SOLOMONS. 

E. Sophia, married 16 November, 1831, Elias Solomons, brother of 

above. 

F. Lewis (1787-1860), married Anne Solomon (1800-1882). 

G. Samuel (1781-1863), married Hannah Isaacs (1799-1886). 
H. Israel (died 1872). 

I. Morris, married, daughter Maria (changed name to Sloman), 
(1821-1889). 



A. 2. B. Children of Anne and Jacob Davis. 

1. Edward (Leeds) (1807-1895), scientist, married Louise Joseph. 

No children. 

2. John (Derby) (1810-1873), scientist, married 1842 AMELIA Fried- 

BERG, who died 1899. 

3. Caroline (1817-1899), married 1835 Levy Jacobs (1792-1879). 

4. RoSETTA, died 1894, married in 1844 Lewis Hyman of Plymouth. 

No children. 

5. Maria (1819-1892), married ALBERT John Davis, dentist, in 1849. 

6. Elizabeth (1824-1911), married (i) Marcus Sachs in 1855, and 

(2) Joshua Spitzer in 1864. 

7. Dr. Maurice Davis, born 1821, died 1898, married 1854 Esther, 

daughter of James Graham Lewis, and sister of Sir George 
Lewis, born 1831, died 1891. 

8. Sackville, barrister, born 1829, died 1913, married (i) Annie 

Thomas in 1849, ^"^ (2) in 1881, Caroline Swanston. No 
children. 

9. Selina (1817-1843), married 1838 as first wife ABRAHAM Myer 

(1796-1872), of Hereford. 
10. Samuel (1818-1858). 

112 



Records of the Franklin Family 
A. 2. B. 2. Children of John and Amelia Davis. 

a. Frederick, archaeologist, born 1843, died July 14, igoo. 

b. Alfred, born 21 March, 1844. 

c. Arthur (1845-1906), married 1874 LOUISA Jonas. 

d. Edith, married 1881 Leopold Zossenheim, died 1884. 

e. Emma, married 1878 LuciEN Marcan. 

f. Bertha, born 1854, married 1900 JoSEPH FREEMAN. No children. 

g. Henry, born 1852, married (i) Edith Daniel, (2) Marian. 
h. Frank, married 1880 Emily Jonas (sister of Louisa, B. 2. c). 
i. Herbert, born 1858, married 1883 Bellese Erlaub. 

j. Edward, born i860, married 1889 Isobelle Salaman. 



A. 2. B. 2. c. Children of Arthur and Louisa Davis. 

1. Elsie Naomi, born 21 February, 1876, married Dr. Samuel B. 

Schryver. 
Rosalind Leah, born 191 1. 
Priscilla Naomi, born 1913. 

2. Pauline Ruth (Nina), born 15 July, 1877, married 1901 Dr. Red- 

CLiFFE Salaman. 
Myer Head, born 1902. 
Arthur Gabriel, born 1904. 
Edward Michael, born 1904, died 1913. 
Raphael Arthur, born 1906. 
Ruth Isabelle, born 1909. 
Esther Sarah, born 1914. 



A. 2. B. 2. e. Children of Emma and Lucien Marcan. 

1. Leslie, solicitor. 

2. Alec. 



Twins. 



"3 



Records of the Franklin Family 



A. 2. B. 2. g. Children of Henry and Edith Davis. 

1. Wilfrid, married Julia Hornsby. 

Joan. 

2. Hilda, married Cecil Heathcote. 



A. 2. B. 2. h. Children of Frank and Emily Davis. 

1. John, born i88i. 

2. Gilbert, born i888, married igi2 SuzANNE Lecocq. 

Daughter, Jacqueline. 

3. Ella, born 1882, married Antoine Gillaux. 

Anne. 
Jean. 

A. 2. B. 2. i. Children of Herbert and Bellese Davis. 

1. Alfred. 

2. Walter. 

3. Erma. 

A. 2. B. 2. j. Children of Edward and Isobelle Davis. 

1. Romney. 

2. Herbert. 

3. Clement. 

4. Catherine. 

A. 2. B. 3. Children of Caroline and Levy Jacobs. 

a. Henry, born 1836, married 1862 Kate Emanuel, his cousin. 

b. Edward, born 1838, married 1862 ALICE Afflalo, who died in 1906. 

c. Montague, who assumed the surname Montague, born 1839, married 

1866 Helen Davis, his cousin (B. 5. b., page 72). 
114 



Records of the Franklin Family 

d. Walter (1852-1853). 

e. Sidney (1841-1903), married 1872 Frances Joseph, who died 1914. 

f. Isabel, born 1843, married Michael Emanuel, her cousin. 

g. Lionel (1844-1892), married 1875 Zillah Davis (A. 2. 6.5.3., p. 118). 
h. Alfred (1847- 1889), married 1875 Emily Flatau. 

i. Blanche (1850-185 1 ). 

j. Charles, born 1853, unmarried. 

k. Alice, married Joseph Levy. 



A. 2. B. 3. a. Children of Henry and Kate Jacobs. 

1. Walter, married Ada Webber. Three sons and two daughters. 

2. Percy. 

3. Arthur Michael (1865-1875). 

4. Alfred. 

5. Ernest. 

6. Gertrude Sarah (1874-1879). 

7. Adele Violet ( 1 883-1884). 



A. 2. B. 3. b. Children of Edward and Alice Jacobs. 

1. Herbert, married Agnes Larkom (vocalist). One son, Eric, born 

1895- 

2. Harold, married 1893 Amy Green. Two sons, Allen Edward and 

Stanley. 

3. Caroline, married. 

4. Louise, married 1894 Baron Lennenfeldt (two children). 

5. Nance. 

6. Linda Florence, married Sydney Jameson. Four sons one 

daughter. 

7. Frank Horace, married Louise Campbell. Two daughters. 

8. Cecil Claude, married Dorothy. One daughter, Alice Heather. 

i»5 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. B. 3. c. Children of Montague and Helen Montague. 

1. Reginald, dead. 

2. Ethel, born 1867, married Maurice Moseley. 

Montague Philipp, born 1894. 
Cecil, born 1897. 
Nelson, born 1899. 
Geoffrey, born 1906. 

3. Ruth, married 1902 George Davies. 

4. Charles William, married 19 10 Jeanne Guilemin. One son, 

William. 

A. 2. B. 3. e. Children of Sidney and Frances Jacobs. 

1. Leonard (1873-1891). 

2. Lucille Blanche, born 1877, married 1899 Montagu Alex, son 

of Sydney Myer (A. 2. B. 9. b.). 
Beryl Lucille Alex, born 1900. 
Ronald Francis Stanley Alex, born 1905. 

3. Arthur Cyril, born 1880, married 1904 Hannah Ena Isaacs. 

Frances Vera, born 1905. 



A. 2. B. 3. f. Children of Isabel and Michael Emanuel. 

1. Henry. 

2. Edward, married 1898 Marie Boulet. 

Albert, born 1899. 

3. Victor Charles, married 1894 Martha Isaacs, his cousin. 

Michael, born 1896. 
Clifford, born 1898. 
Stanley, born 1899. 

4. Sidney. 

5. Fred, married Jessie Jordan Robinson. 

Nita. 
Isabel. 

6. Jane Beatrice, born 1S72, married 1898 Hyam Brodziak. 

Isabel Rose. 

7. Louis, bom 1874, married Ellen Amelia Florence Rossner. 

Ernest Henry. 

116 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. B. 3. h. Children of Alfred and Emily Jacobs. 

1. Ida, born 1876, married 1907 John Israel Hart. Two daughters, 

Sybil and Emily. 

2. Gertrude Violet, born 1880, married 1909 Richard Abeles. 

One daughter, Muriel. 

3. Arthur Cecil, born 1882. 



A. 2. B. 3. k. Children of Alice and Joseph Levy. 

1. Caroline, married 1898 Herbert Edward Cohen. 

Alice Edna, born 1901. 
Edward Allen, born 1903. 
Joseph, born 1904. 
Robert Vincent, born 1905. 
Ella, born 1907. 
Leslie Herbert, born 19 10. 

2. Howard, married Margaret de Loyyers, a widow. One daughter, 

Maggie. 

3. Reginald. 

4. Ella, married STANLEY Larmoyer. No children. 

5. Vera ( i 894-191 i). 



A. 2. B. 5. Children of Maria and Albert John Davis. 

a. ZiLLAH H. Davis, born 1849, married LIONEL JACOBS (A. 2. B. 3. g.), 
he died 1892. She has taken name of Jetley. 

b. Edgar Albert, barrister, married in America, died 1890. 

c. Conrad John, solicitor, born 1853, died 1895, married 1893 

Henrietta Fuerst. 

d. Amy Ann, bom 1855, married 1907 Dr. Charles Lovegrove, j.p., 

M.D. 

e. Florence Maria, born 1854, married 1883 Daniel Seymour 

(Solomon). Daughter Marjory. 
117 



Records of the Franklin Family 

f. Percy VVarnford, born 1856, j.p., married 1892 Annie Cashmore, 

daughter of J. CashMORE. 

g. Constance, bom 1857, married 1884 Laurie Nathan of Liverpool, 
h. Marcus John, l.d.s.r.c.s., born 1858, married 1901 Edith Maud, 

daughter of ARTHUR MiCKLEY, m.d. 
i. Edward Maxwell Radford, married 1898 Catherine Porter, 
died 1906. 

A. 2. B. 5. a. Children of Zillah and Lionel Jacobs (Jetley). 

1. Eileen Bertha Jetley, born 1876. 

2. Olive Amy Jetley, bom 1882. 

3. Hugh Esmond Jetley, bom 1886. 



A. 2. B. 5. e. Child of Florence and Daniel Seymour. 
I. Margery. 

A. 2. B. 5. f. Children of Percy Warnford and Annie Davis. 

1. Darryl Warnford-Davis. 

2. Roy Warnford-Davis. 

3. Maidie Warnford-Davis. 



A. 2. B. 5. g. Children of Constance and Laurie Nathan. 

1. Wilfrid, artist and advertising agent. 

2. Dollie. 

3. Enid. 

A. 2. B. 5. h. Children of Marcus and Edith Davis. 
I. Barbara Amy Marcus Davis, born 1903. 
. 2. Desmond Conrad Marcus-Davis, bom 1907. 



A. 2. B. 6. Child of Elizabeth and Marcus Sachs. 
a. Minna, born 1858, married Max Rudolf. 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. B. 6. a. Children of Minna and Max Rudolf. 

1. Marcus. 

2. Carl. 
3- Jack. 

4. Gilbert. 

5. Albert. 

6. Olga. 

7. Carrie. 

A. 2. B. 7. Children of Dr. Maurice and Esther Davis. 

a. Anita, born 1855, married 1876 Hermann Cohn. 

b. Blanche Harriet, born 1856. 

c. Minnie Gertrude, born 1858, married igoi Dr. David Summer- 

ville. 

d. Graham James, born 1859, married May Keppel. 

e. Hamilton Sackeville, born 1861, married Louise Bradfield. 

f. Ella Frederica, born 1863, married 1886 Professor Raphael 

Meldola. 

g. Reginald George, born 1865, married 1892 Lilian Amy, daughter 

of Henry Lemon, engraver, 
h. Louise Susan, born 1868, married 1890 Percy Jonas. 



B. 7. a. Children of Anita and Hermann Cohn. 

1. Maud Ella. 

2. Maurice Davis, married Muriel McKinley, daughter Yvette. 

3. Jefferson Davis, married Florence Bottomley. 

4. Ruth Marjory Blanche. 



A. 2. B. 7. d. Children of Graham and May Davis. 

1. Reginald Graham, actor. 

2. Geoffrey Leonard. 

119 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. B. 7. g. Children of Reginald and Lilian Davis. 

1. Kenneth James, born 1894. 

2. Dudley Graham, born 1897. 

3. Clive Maurice, born 1900. 



A. 2. B. 7. h. Child of Louise and Percy Jonas. 
I. Louise Esther. 

A. 2. B. 9. Children of Selina and Abraham Myer. 

a. Ellen Rosa, born 1840, died 1841. 

b. Sydney, bom 1841, died 1911, married 1869 SoPHiA, daughter of 

Montagu Alex, of Cheltenham. 



A. 2. B. 9. b. Children of Sydney and Sophia Myer. 

1. Abraham Joseph Alex, born 1870, married 1903 Helena Frances 

Lindo. 
a. Joan Alexia. 

2. Hannah Caroline Alex, born 1871, married 1894 Harry Philip 

Phillips. 

a. John Sydney. 

b. Dora. 

3. Montagu Alex, born 1872, married Lucille Blanche Jacobs 

(see A. 2. B. 3. e. 2.). 

a. Beryl Alex. 

b. Ronald Ale.x. 

4. Sydney Alex (1873-1890). 

5. Ernest Alex, born 1874, married 1903 Emmy Jacob. Killed in 

action April, 1915. 

6. Denzil Granville Alex, born 1876. 

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Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. C. Children of Hannah and Lewis Cowan. 

1. Henry (1817-1890), married 1861 Charlotte Levy (1827-1907). 

2. Phineas, Colonel (1832-1899), married 1859 Rosetta, daughter of 

Samuel Moses. (See A. 2. G. i.) 

3. Samuel, married Marion Levy, sister of Henry's wife, 25 Novem- 

ber, 1865. 

4. John (1824-1912). 

5. Lydia, married J. Hart. 



A. 2. C. I. Children of Henry and Charlotte Cowan. 
a. Hannah, married Henry Montagu (Moses). 



A. 2. C. 2. Children of Colonel Phineas and Rosetta Cowan. 

a. Lewis Phineas (1860-1908). 

b. Hannah. 

c. David. 

d. Lily, married Dr. Lassa Oppenheim, Whewell Professor of Inter- 

national Law, Cambridge. One daughter. 

e. Henry, married Lucy Loeb. One or two children. 

f. John. 

A. 2. D. Children of Rosetta and George Solomons. 

a. Maria, born 28 September, 1831. 

b. Isaac, born 25 January, 1834, died 16 March, 1836. 

c. Jessie, born 2 July, 1836. 



A. 2. E. Children of Sophia and Elias Solomons. 

1. Maurice Solomons, j.p., born 15 September, 1832, Consul to 

Austria at Dublin, married RosA, daughter of Bethel Jacobs 
of Hull. 

2. Albert. 

3. Sara Maria. 

4 Isaac, died as a boy in 1872. 

R 121 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. E. I. Children of Maurice and Rosa Solomons. 

a. Edwin M. Solomons, j.p., married daughter of Mr. Michaelson. 

b. Dr. Bethel Solomons, late assistant master of Rotunda Hospital. 

C. ESTELLA. 

d, Sophie. 

A. 2. F. Children of Lewis and Anne Solomon. 

a. Maria (1826-1897), married Naphtali Pass (1813-1878). 

b, Louisa, married CHARLES SoLOMON (cousin) (A. 2. H. i.). 



A. 2. F. a. Children of Maria and Naphtali Pass. 

1. Rebecca, born 1851, married Samuel Samuels. 

a. Herbert, born 1876, married Kate, n^e Cowan, widow of John 

Solomon. (A. 2. F. b. i.) One son. 

b. Caroline Anne (Lena). 

c. Ernest John (Saville). 

2. Charles, born 1856, married 1881 Mabel Garrett. Two children. 

3. David, died 21 March, 1876. 

4. Ann, born 1852, married 14 January, 1877, Maurice Britton. 

a. Beatrice Esther, married 1908 Herbert Winder. One son. 

b. Arthur, born 1871, married 1906 Sarah Goldhill. Two sons. 

c. Marie Rebecca, born 1892. 

5. John, born 1850. 

6. Benjamin, born 1854, married Eleanor Falck. Seven children. 

7. Lewis, married Rosetta Hendricks. 

a. Hermann Leonard, born 1876. 

b. Gilbert John, born 1880. 

c. Dora Blanche, born 1878. 

8. Samuel, bom 1853, married Jennie Solomon. 

122 



Records of the Franklin Family 

A. 2. F. b. Children of Louisa and Charles Solomon. 

1. John, married Kate Cowan 30 January, i8go. One son. 

2. Henry Benjamin (1865-1904). 

3. Samuel (1864-1910). 

4. Miriam. 

5. Anne, married Morris Levy. 

6. Lewis, married Florence Cohen. 

7. Frank. 

8. Isabel Mary. 

9. Maria. 



A. 2. G. Children of Samuel Solomon. 

1. John Isaac Solomon, solicitor, married Sarah, daughter of Samuel 

Moses. (See A. 2. C. 2.) 

a. Edith, married Henry Isaacs. Three sons. 

b. Alice. 

c. Maud, married Arthur W. Hallenstein, now Halstead. 

d. Florence. 

e. Samuel. 

2. Maria, died. 

A. 2. H. Children of Israel Solomon. 

1. Charles, married Louisa Solomon (A. 2. F. b.), died 1886. 

2. Henry. 

3. Louisa, died 1876. 

4. Fanny, died 1880. 

5. Maria. 

6. Isaac. 

7. John. 

8. Bella, died 1865. 

123 



Records of the Franklin Family 

CHILDREN OF JONAH ISRAEL 

B. I. George Israel, died 1826. 

B. 2. Israel Israel, of 44 St. Mary Axe, died May 4, 1822, married 

Maria, died 18 July, 1832. 
B. 3. Jacob Israel (wife died 1800). 
B. 4. Merle Israel, died 1805. 



CHILDREN OF ISRAEL AND MARIA ISRAEL 
B. 2. a. Louis Helbert Israel (his wife Ann died 1828). 

b. George Helbert Israel, died 18 July, 1832. 

c. John Helbert Israel, born 1785, died 1861, married 29 January, 

1817, Adeline, daughter of L. B. Cohen. 

d. Samuel Helbert Israel Ellis, born 1787, married Fanny Symons, 

born 1795, died 1837. 

e. Matilda, married Aron de Symons. 

f. Eliza, married Alexander Goldsmid, 1814. 



B. 2. c. Children of John Helbert and Adeline Israel. 

1. Lionel Frederick, born 10 December, 1817, married Emily, daughter 

of Mr. Barnet, of Barnet, Moseley and Co. of Liverpool. 

2. Lydia, born 9 January, 18 19, died 1907, married DuKE DE Laurito 

who died 1907. 

3. Adeline Matilda, born 8 November, 1824, married 1844 Daniel, 

WeISSWEILLER, of Madrid. 

4. Charles Helbert, died 1903, married 1895 Evelyn Mary, daughter 

of Lord David Kennedy. 

5. Frederick John, born 17 December, 1829. 



B. 2. d. Children of Samuel Helbert Israel Ellis. 

1. Sir Barrow Helbert Ellis, k.c.s.l, born 1823, died 1887, unmarried. 

2. Edmund Helbert Ellis, born 1830, died 1851. 

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Records of the Franklin Family 



SOLOMON 

Coleman Solomon, of London. 

children 
^ A. Rebecca Pearl, married 1780 Israel Israel, died 1816 (A. i., 
p. III). 

B. Anne, born 1753, died 1790, married Moses Levy, brother of 

Sampson Lucas, born 1752, died 1823. In 1800 adopted the 
name of Levy Newton (Great Prescot Street). 

C. David Coleman, died 31 March, 1809, leaving four children. 



Children of Anne and Moses Levy Newton. 

1. Sarah Levy, bom 1773, died 1814, unmarried. 

2. Kitty Levy, born 1775, died 1827, unmarried. 

3. Lewis Levy, born 1779, died in Jamaica 1796, unmarried. 

4. Coleman Levy, bom 1784, died 1834, married. Three children. 

5. Philip Levy, born 1785, died in Jamaica 1812. 

6. Mary, born 1789, married 1814 Alexander Levy, of Bury Street, 

St. Mary Axe, born 1789. In 1824 assumed name of Levy Newton. 



B. 6. Children of Mary and Alexander Levy Newton. 

a. Edward Levy, born 1815. 

b. Annette, born 1816, married Jacques Wiener, of Brussels. 

c. Sampson Levy, born 1822. 

d. Sarah, born 1823, married Leopold Wiener, of Brussels. 



125 



Records of the Franklin Family 

B. 6. b. Children of Annette and Jacques Wiener. 

1. Helene, married Isaac Stern, director of the Banque de Bruxelles. 

2. Alexander, married Eugenie Straus, of Frankfort. 

3. Edward, married Jessie Spielmann (B. 2. e., page loi). 

4. Samson, Senator, married Jessie, daughter of SAMPSON Lucas, of 

London. 



B. 6. d. Children of Sarah and Leopold Wiener. 

1. Mary, married MiCHAEL, brother of Isaac Stern (B. 6. b. i.). 

2. Philip, married Amy, daughter of SoLOMON Schloss, of London. 

3. Lucy, married JuLES Konigswerther. 

4. Edmund. 



126 



Jair Chayim Bacharach 

A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 
By Professor DAVID KAUFMANN 

EVEN Fame has its accidents. It is not always the greatest minds, 
and certainly not the most important scholars concerning whom 
the history of literature furnishes us with information. In our 
every-day life, both complicated circumstances and trivial causes 
often work together to exclude a man, who is above the common level, from 
the position in which his brilliancy ought really to shine forth, and to pure 
accident, that most unconscientious of heirs, is left the task of dealing with 
the intellectual work that he leaves behind him as a heritage. But none of 
the heroes of Jewish literature have experienced so fully this fate, both in 
lifetime and after death, as that most learned, versatile, and original of the 
German Rabbis of the seventeenth century — R. Jair Chayim Bacharach. 

The most gloomy century in the modern history of Judaism — the century 
that witnessed the horrors of the Thirty Years' War, the massacres by Bogdan 
Chmielnicki, the crimes of Sweden, Poland, and the Cossacks, as well as the 
spiritual plague-spots of the behef in Sabbatai Zebi, the spread of the Cabbala 
and general intellectual obscurity— this same century produced in Chayim 
Bacharach a man who was in advance of his time, and who, in full possession 
of all the knowledge and learning of his day, was unfettered by it, but rose 
high above it in fuU intellectual freedom. He might have become the founder 
of a true scientific spirit among the Jews of Germany and of other lands, the 
teacher of the exile in systematic study of the Talmud and the whole body of 
traditional literature : so complete was his command of this wide-spreading 
branch of learning, so profound and independent was his intelligent and 
thorough grasp of it. He was orthodox, and strict in his adherence to the 
minutiae of German-Jewish observances and piety, yet his knowledge of 
philosophy was equalled by but few of his contemporaries. Devotedly 
attached to the Cabbala, he busied himself, as far as the materials to hand 

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Records of the Franklin Family 

permitted, in the study of natural science. Although he evinced remarkable 
acumen, both in the intricacies of the traditional law and the profound spirit 
of the Talmudic legends, he still found leisure to occupy himself seriously 
with mathematics and astronomy, and to display abihty in historical and 
critical studies. The highest degrees of receptivity and of productiveness 
were united in him. Although he was deeply absorbed in his main studies, 
he did not allow them to crush him to the ground. With a strength of mind 
which we alone, who now regard it from a distance, can fully appreciate, he 
shook himself free from the bonds of the self-destructive dialectic, which 
enthralled the intellect like an iron chain. Thus he was able to contem- 
plate the phenomena of Talmudic dialectics with a keen, unclouded glance, 
and to catch the spirit of its laws. Whilst other men looked down with in- 
difference or contempt upon all non-Talmudic subjects, and allowed the 
study of the Bible, grammar, and all historical knowledge to decay, and he 
neglected, his untiring assiduity and zeal for inquiring into every branch 
of Jewish learning led him to collect whatever came to his hand, whether it 
consisted of notes upon the Texts or on philosophy, upon the Legends or on 
mathematics, upon the traditional laws or on natural science, whether it was 
an ancient poem, an historical remark, or a ritual practice. All this work was, 
in truth, the first revelation of a scientific spirit among the German Jews, 
the development of which has evolved for us the history and science of 
Judaism. In his diligence in collecting and tabulating information, I can 
compare him only to his great Itahan contemporary, Abraham Joseph 
Solomon Graziano, except that he displayed more originality and independent 
research in his work, and did not rely upon borrowed or purchased materials. 
In order, however, to comprehend this truly singular combination of profound 
erudition with a versatile scientific method, it is necessary to examine the 
soil upon which this rare mind flourished, to consider the circumstances which 
surrounded him from his birth onwards, and to take a glance at the distin- 
guished family of which he was the intellectual heir. It is said that nature 
gathers strength through several generations of a family, and ultimately to 
the astonishment of the world produces a creative mind. That this is some- 
times true R. Chayim Bacharach furnishes a convincing proof. 

At the head of this family, hke a sun in the heavens, stands R. Jehuda 
Liva b. Bezalel, " the High Rabbi Low," the most famous and most important 
Rabbi of his day. Through his eminent son-in-law, R. Isaac b. Samson Cohen 



Jair Chayim Bacharach 



and his wife, the rabbinically learned Fogele, he became the ancestor of the 
house of Bacharach. Eve, the daughter of Isaac, in the year 1600, became 
the second wife of R. Samuel b. Isaac. Brought up under the eyes of her 
grandfather, that light of the exile, at the side of her distinguished brothers, 
R. Chayim, afterwards Rabbi of Prague, Frankfurt-on-Main and Posen, 
and R. Naphtali, afterwards Rabbi of Lublin, well educated by her illus- 
trious parents. Eve grew to be one of the most extraordinary women of whom 
Jewish literature speaks. She was as well versed in the Scriptures and the 
Midrash as any learned man, and was, moreover, thoroughly acquainted 
with Hebrew and Aramaic. She read both Agadic works and the liturgical 
poetry of the Synagogue, without needing a commentary, and was ready with 
an explanation of passages that puzzled many a competent Rabbinical 
scholar. Her husband, however, who was twenty years of age when he married 
her, was worthy of her rare talents and ability. It was not long before the 
renown of the young and learned Rabbi, who received additional distinction 
by his union with a noble family, spread throughout the country. After 
acting as preacher in Prague and Rabbi in Jung-Bunzlau, in Bohemia, he was 
appointed to the important post of Rabbi in Worms, which had already been 
occupied by many celebrated Rabbis. Energetic in action, determined and 
self-conscious, with all his humility, he succeeded, in spite of his youth, in 
winning unbounded respect. Like his grandfather and teacher, the High Rabbi 
Low, he boldly showed his contempt for calumny, and allowed nothing to deter 
him from doing what he deemed to be right. But, in the midst of his peaceful 
and prosperous activity, a terrible misfortune befell him, which threatened 
to ruin his ancient and honoured community, and which, unhappily, cost 
him his life. One of those persecutions, which seemed indeed the very off- 
spring of hell, broke out against the Jews of Worms, who took to flight in 
fear of the horrors that menaced them, leaving their most precious posses- 
sions, the Synagogue and the cemetery, to the fury of the savage mob. On 
Good Friday, the 7th of April, 1615, the roof of the Synagogue was torn off, the 
cemetery was laid waste, and the tombstones, regardless of their antiquity, were 
broken to pieces. The Rabbi, Samuel, fled to Gernsheim on the Rhine. By the 
24th of April, the Electoral Prince Palatine of Heidelberg had indeed suppressed 
the riot by force, but the victims who had fallen could not be restored to life ; 
among them was R. Samuel. He died upon foreign soil in his fortieth year, 
and on the 26th of May, 1615, he was buried in the cemetery of Alsbach on 
S 129 



Records of the Franklin Family 

the Bergstrasse. Although he died young, he left behind some valuable and 
learned writings, which, as they treat both of mathematics and astronomy, 
differ considerably from the usual tendency of works of that age. Thoroughly 
acquainted with the Uterature of the Talmud, and known as a widely sought 
authority in answering Rabbinical questions, he laboured with great industry 
in a field generally neglected, viz. in preparing new critical commentaries to 
the works of Maimuni upon the Jewish calendar, to the astronomical book of 
Abraham b. Chiya upon the form of the earth, and to other works of Jewish 
astronomers. 

His unhappy wife, the high-minded and pious Eve, left Worms with her 
children, who were stiU of tender years, and returned to her parents and 
relatives in Prague. It was with a boy, eight years old, named Samson, and, 
as far as I can ascertain, with three daughters, that the young widow sought 
her parents' home. Completely absorbed in the education of her children, 
she passed her years of mourning in pious works and study, ever cherishing 
in undying love the fond memory of her deceased husband. No less a person 
than Isaiah Hurwitz, the famous author of the Two Tables of the Covenant 
[n'h'ii), who was revered almost as a saint, proposed in vain for her hand, 
and deeply deplored the fact of his being deemed unworthy of so holy a union. 
Loved by all, and treated with the greatest reverence by her learned brothers, 
Eve chose to pass her life as a widow, and as a mother devoted to her children. 
R. Chayim Cohen, her brother, the grandson of the High Rabbi Low, who had 
married Bella, the daughter of the Primator of Prague, Samuel b. Bezalel, 
his cousin, became the teacher of Samuel (Samson ?), in whom the talents 
of his father already displayed themselves. According to the custom of the 
time, he was chosen to be the son-in-law of some rich man, and went to 
Ungarisch-Brod, in Moravia, where, in 1627, he married Dobrusch, the 
daughter of the wealthy and distinguished Isaac b. Phoebus, who, so as not 
to be confused with his brother-in-law, the Moravian district magistrate, 
Fat-Isaac, was called Thin-Isaac. He had not yet intended to accept a 
Rabbinate, when the sufferings of the war of 1627 disturbed his new home ; 
his father-in-law, as the head of the community, was dragged to prison, and 
could only be hberated upon the payment of a ransom of 10,000 gulden for 
himself and a fellow-prisoner. Beneath the weight of these calamities his 
pecuniary resources began to fail, and Samson was compelled to accept the 
post of Rabbi at Coding, in Moravia, which was offered him. An inscription, 

130 



Jair Chayim Bacharach 



dated 1629, written upon an inner wall of the synagogue, and composed in 
the form of an acrostic of forty-three words, gives the full name of the Rabbi, 
who was then twenty-two years of age, and who seems to have inherited the 
art of making acrostics from his grandfather, R. Isaac b. Samson Cohen. An 
insight into the untroubled state of his inner family life, in spite of his varying 
fortunes, is afforded us by a hymn that he composed for his wife on Purim, 
1629, and which, being in a musical form, was sung and played by her every 
week on the coming in of the Sabbath. Bereaved of gifted and promising 
children in their early years, Samson's life was not of the happiest. In 1635 
we find him in the ancient and famous Moravian congregation of Leipnik, 
paying diligent attention to perfecting his knowledge in Rabbinical learning. 

It was in this town and in this year that he was admonished by his uncle, 
R. Naphtali Cohen, of Lublin, not to let the study of the law absorb him to 
the neglect of the claims of secular life and of his still unmarried sister. His 
mother, Eve, had remained behind in Prague, where she had already given 
two of her daughters in marriage. The names of her sons-in-law are known. 
They are Liepmann Giinzburg, of Prague, whose full name was Liebermann b. 
Lob Darschan (his occupation was that of writer of scrolls of the Law), whose 
wife, Hindel, died at Prague in 1641, and Moses Perez, called Sabele, Rabbi 
of Schnaittach, in Bavaria, whose wife Tebzel, was buried in 1669, in Prague. 
The children of the last-named daughter of Eve afterwards settled in Prague, 
where they and their descendants deservedly enjoyed the highest esteem of 
their neighbours. Thus Simeon, the son of Sabele, had a son, Isaac Lovotiz 
(which name he adopted from that of his father-in-law, David Lovotiz), who 
became Primator of Prague. Simeon was famed for his complete mastery 
over the whole Mishna, which he was able to recite by heart. He died in 
Adar II., 1729, at the age of eighty-two. 

But the real star of the family was yet to rise. In 1638, a child was born 
in Leipnik to R. Samson, who was called Chayim, probably after his grand- 
uncle, the celebrated Rabbi of Posen, who had but recently died. The name 
of Jair was added afterwards during a dangerous iUness. The period of his 
childhood was a dreary time, full of sorrow and trouble. The horrors of the 
Swedish war came to a chmax for Leipnik in 1643. In a letter to Axel Oxen- 
stierna from the camp at Dobitschau, dated July 3rd, 1643, Torstensohn 
reckons " Leypenik " among the Moravian places he wishes to " impound " ; 
shortly afterwards it was really invested by his Major-General Mortaigne. 

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Records of the Franklin Family 

After being reduced to a state of starvation by a ten weeks' siege, the town 
was stormed and the inhabitants declared prisoners of war. But the people 
were so disheartened and harassed that bare existence seemed a gain to them, 
and R. Samson composed penitential hymns for his congregation that had 
escaped destruction, which to the present day are recited there on the 17th 
of Tammuz. In 1643, however, when these terrible sufferings had come 
to an end, he left Leipnik in order to fill the post of preacher in Prague, the 
home of his family, where his own youth had been passed. The promising 
son of Samson was six years of age, when he was taken to Prague, where 
Eve was made happy by witnessing the gradual intellectual development of 
the most talented of all her descendants. But the distress caused by the Thirty 
Years' War, that ended so disastrously for Prague, played sad havoc with the 
happiness of this peaceful family. They fled from the town during the 
pestilence that broke out after the dreadful siege of the old and new town of 
Prague, lasting from the 26th of July to the 2nd of November, 1648, and for 
six months sought shelter in a small Bohemian village. For six years and a 
half R. Samson continued to perform his functions as preacher week after 
week in Prague, until, in the summer of 1650, he achieved the highest happi- 
ness of his Ufe — that of becoming the successor of his father, as chosen Rabbi 
of the community of Worms. Eve's daughters were now all either dead or 
married, and she had no longer any reason for remaining in Prague. She 
therefore accompanied her son to his new home, where she had passed her 
young days with the husband whose memory she still cherished, and whose 
prosperous activity she had there witnessed. But it seemed as if she had 
only been desirous of awaiting her grandson's thirteenth birthday and its 
attendant festivities, before carrying into effect a desire she had long enter- 
tained — a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Thus, after remaining scarcely a 
year in Worms, we see her, a weak and aged woman, parting from her family 
with an heroic spirit to undertake a pilgrimage to Palestine. But she who had 
undergone so many trials through life was denied her last wish ; in the middle 
of her journey death overtook her, and she was buried in the Bulgarian city 
of Sofia. 

Chayim Bacharach was thus thirteen years of age when he came to the 
famous town of Worms, about which he had heard his grandmother and his 
parents speak so much. His earliest impressions, however, which formed the 
germs of his ideals, took their root in Prague. He always remembered how, 

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standing by the south wall of the Ancient Synagogue, near the Ark, where the 
seat of his father was, he used to have as a neighbour the revered R. Pinchas 
Hurwitz, the great student and interpreter of Asheri, who, as the President 
of the Rabbinate in Prague, and a colleague of R. Simeon Spira, ended his 
days there, after having been Rabbi in the imperial town of Fulda. This 
special devotion to Asheri's compendium of the Talmud was a tradition in 
Prague, which was a great help to studies and discoveries in the vast field of 
Talmudical lore. R. Samson was also a commentator of Asheri, whilst another 
great-grandson of the High Rabbi Low, named Simeon Brandeis, was so 
thoroughly conversant with the writings of this renowned jurist that he was 
able to repeat them all off by heart. (This Simeon was an uncle of the worthy 
R. Meir Perles, of Prague, the chronicler of the family of R. Low.) The young 
Chayim Bacharach followed in their footsteps. Carefully instructed by his 
father, as well as other teachers, in the Bible, Mishna and Talmud, he had at 
the early age of thirteen already discovered the secret, that a dihgent study 
of Alfasi, and further an intimate acquaintance with Asheri, would cause 
the gates of the Talmud to open wide before him. Even after he reached 
manhood, R. Chayim was still so thoroughly accustomed to the abridged 
Talmud by Asheri, that he marked at the side of his copv of this compilation, 
which was less handy an edition than that which we now possess, the cor- 
responding pages of the Talmud, so that he could in an instant refer to the 
source of any extract contained in this his favourite work. In his father, who 
excelled no less as a distinguished scholar in the Halacha than as an eminent 
preacher, he had a splendid teacher, whose side he appears not to have left 
until, when still a youth, he entered the house of his future father-in-law. 
At the beginning of the year 1653, he married in Fulda, Sarlan, the daughter 
of Sussman Brilin, who, after the death of R. Samuel Aaron b. Eliakim, 
which had but recently taken place, was elected Rabbi in his stead. Through 
this union the descendant of the High Rabbi Low became closely related to the 
most distinguished family in Germany, that had off-shoots in all directions, 
viz. the family of Oppenheim. His brother-in-law, Isaac Brilin, the coura- 
geous and learned Rabbi, first of Hammelburg, and after the expulsion of the 
Jews from that town in the year 1670, of Mannheim, was the son-in-law of 
Simeon Wolf Oppenheim in Worms, so that Abraham, the father of R. David 
Oppenheim, and Samuel, the richest and most powerful financier among 
the Jews of Germany, who was the chief agent at the court of the Emperor 



Records of the Franklin Family 

Leopold in Vienna, were his brothers-in-law. R. Isaac, moreover, through 
his eldest daughter Hennele, became the father-in-law of Wolf Oppenheim 
of Worms, and through his second, Frumet, of Samson Wertheimer, the chief 
agent and district Rabbi of Vienna. These illustrious relationships, however, 
were only to produce their effect in the future ; for the immediate present, 
directly after his marriage, it was the erudition of the new family which he 
had joined rather than their brilliant relatives that was of service to Bacharach. 
We learn from R. Wolf Traub, the Rabbi of Witzenhausen, Mainz and Wiirz- 
burg, that the young son-in-law of Sussman Brilin became his most zealous 
pupil, and for many years continued to perfect his already marvellous know- 
ledge under his guidance and in his house. Through his father-in-law and 
brothers-in-law, the inclination of Bacharach to obtain a mastery over the 
Talmud by the help of Alfasi and Asheri, became strengthened. Through 
R. Sussman, Chayim became also the nephew of the learned Rabbi of Heidings- 
feld, R. Azriel Brilin. More than six years were passed in study at the house 
of R. Sussman. Bacharach then felt himself sufficiently strong in his ac- 
quaintance with rabbinical literature to be independent, to desire author- 
isation to fill the post of Rabbi from one of the authorities of the time, and 
to leave his home to seek for a rabbinate. In the winter of 1659-60 he there- 
fore made his way from the house of his father-in-law, in Fulda, back to the 
home of his parents in Worms. As he himself tells us, he was slightly built, 
and of a weak constitution. In 1660 he was ordained a Rabbi, by the cele- 
brated Rabbi of Frankfurt, R. Mendel Bass, of Cracow, also called R. Mendel 
R. Isaac R. Abigdors. From that time Bacharach, by means of regular 
correspondence, maintained a warm friendship with the son-in-law of R. 
Mendel, R. Meir Stern, Rabbinats-assessor in Frankfurt, and afterwards 
Rabbi of Fulda and Amsterdam. At the fairs held in Frankfurt, the public 
sermons of the young twenty-two-year-old Rabbi attracted a large amount 
of attention. It was most probably about this time that Bacharach, after 
delivering several sermons by invitation in different towns of Germany, was 
appointed to the post of Rabbi in Mainz. On the nth of Adar, 1662, he lost 
his mother, who departed this life after an illness that had lasted ten years. 
Her husband, R. Samson, had for many years in vain prayed for her recovery 
in the propitiatory hymn which he had himself composed, and which he 
recited on every day before the new moon ; he stood now alone on the thresh- 
old of old age. Most of her children were already married when she died. 

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Her daughter Fogele, who bore the name of her great -grandmother, was 
already wedded, before her parents went to reside in Worms, to the Rabbinats- 
assessor of Prague, Salman Schulhof, surnamed Moschels, who was one of the 
victims in the burning of Prague, in 1689. Two of the most prominent 
rabbinical families in Germany were united in bonds of kinship by the marriage 
of Salman's son, Isaac, to the daughter of R. Ephraim Cohen, the far-famed 
Rabbi of Ofen. Isaac was taken prisoner in the storming of the town, in 
1686, and after being ransomed by his relative, Samuel Oppenheim, in Vienna, 
became a Rabbi in Prague, from 1697 till 1733, when he died. 

The numerous branches of the family of R. Chayim Bacharach received 
an addition, when his father entered into a second marriage on Thursday, the 
i6th of Shebat, 1664, with Phega, the widow of Moses Cohen, Rabbi of Metz, 
and formerly of Nerol. He thus became the brother-in-law of Dr. Tobias 
Cohen, surnamed Moschides, who afterwards grew to be so renowned as a 
doctor and an author, and related to some of the best Polish families, which 
connections were destined in later years to tempt Bacharach to exchange 
Germany for Poland. But every soon afterwards, in the year 1666, Phega was 
snatched away by death from her second husband in an epidemic that raged 
in Worms, and to which a daughter of Bacharach also fell a victim. 

In this year R. Samson had the pleasure of seeing his son promoted to the 
Rabbinate of Coblentz. They were disturbed times when R. Chayim began 
his new ministry. The waves of the Sabbatian movement now ran very high ; 
there was not a single place in Germany but was affected by it. Just as on 
stormy nights the billows of the sea dash up even against the lighthouses, 
so the clearest intellects were obscured in this fearful spiritual excitement. R. 
Chayim Bacharach had penetrated too far into the mysteries of the Cabbala 
to remain indifferent to, or to oppose, its victorious progress now that it was 
actively at work. The calculations based on the number of the verses in the 
Bible, the astounding revelations and prophecies that were extracted from the 
numerical value, and other combinations, permutations, and supposed coin- 
cidences of certain important Hebrew words, were no longer an academic 
sport, a pleasant exercise of harmless ingenuity, but life and reahty, actual 
history strengthened by signs and wonders. With throbbing hearts the 
people listened to tidings from the East about the doings of Sabbatai the 
Messiah, and his prophet Nathan. From the South, from the scene of what 
was happening, from every place through which the news sped on as far as 

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Amsterdam, where a veritable moral earthquake had turned every head, the 
tidings came to Worms. Here a complete series of records of the Sabbatian 
movement, in the originals and in copies, was collected in the house of R. 
Samson Bacharach and his son R. Chayim. In these papers might be read 
all the wonderful devices and verbal calculations by means of which the year 
of the appearance of the new Messiah and his exact name were ascertained 
beyond all manner of doubt. All the Cabbalistic productions, the pious 
penitential prayers and utterances of Nathan Gazati, as they were promul- 
gated through letters which he sent from Corfu to the Island of Zante and 
to Jassy, and even to Amsterdam, found their way hither. The report of 
the famous Polish preacher, R. Berech Darshan, who had betaken himself 
to Turkey in order to look upon the Messiah with his own eyes, and who gave 
his personal impressions of him in a very circumstantial pamphlet, was in the 
possession of Bacharach. Like his father before him, he kept up a corre- 
spondence with R. Eisik Deggingen, the Rabbi of the German community in 
Amsterdam, who sent faithful accounts of the letters that arrived there daily 
with news of the miracles performed in the south. Things had come to such 
a pass there, that a special prayer for the King Messiah was offered up in the 
synagogues. The town of Ofen, owing to its connection with Turkey and 
Austria, became a focus of the new agitation, and maintained a regular 
service of couriers in consequence of these events. R. Moses Halevi had 
addressed a letter from Cracow to his brother-in-law Meir Isserls in Vienna, 
on the subject of the Messiah, for the son and stepson of R. David Halevi, 
of Lemberg, had actually been with Sabbatai, and had returned to their 
father with a present and autograph letters from the Messiah. R. Lob b. 
Zechariah, Rabbi of Cracow, and previously of Vienna, himself copied the 
letter that the Cabbalist Abraham Cohen had despatched to the Messiah. 
All these letters and pamphlets, that form a complete collection of the whole 
epistolary literature of this movement, and which must have been at the 
disposal of R. Jacob Sasportas, when writing his Zizat Nobel Zehi (The Fading 
Flower of the Messiah, Zebi), were in the possession of Bacharach, a testimony 
to his all-absorbing interest and personal participation in this affair. All the 
papers that we now possess form only an insignificant fraction of the mass of 
Sabbatian literature that he stored up in the course of these events. I have 
only been able to glance at a few pieces, which he bound up in the thirty- 
fifth volume of his collection of manuscripts, when the greater number of them 

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had been lost or burnt. But these few well suffice to prove that he was not 
merely an observer, an annalist of this movement, but a participator in it — 
even one of its victims. The fact that, even when he had arrived at years 
of maturity, long after these occurrences, he never wrote the name of the 
Messiah without calhng him Rabenu Sabbatei Zebi, is quite sufficient to show 
us his sentiments with regard to the originator of those sad events. But, 
besides this, he distinctly relates how thirteen scholars of the Talmud, in 
Coblentz, bound themselves to him by a written agreement to occupy them- 
selves daily under his guidance in sanctifying themselves by pious study to 
receive the joyous news of the Redemption, and in preparing themselves in 
a becoming manner for the great event. He who knows what part " the 
thirteen " played in the cult of the Sabbatians will see that there was no 
accidental circumstance in the choice of this number. Finally, when we 
remember how one of the historians of this epidemic, the physician and step- 
brother of R. Chayim, Tobias Moschides, laments that even learned Rabbis, 
whom he had much rather not name, were drawn into the net of this Sabbatian 
folly, the thought cannot help occurring to the mind that he was alluding to 
the son of his stepfather when he broke out into this complaint. Just as 
after a devastating inundation, the highest point the waters of the flood 
reached in the distressed city is marked in order to be remembered by posterity, 
so history must place the high-water mark of the Sabbatian movement at 
the name of R. Jair Chayim Bacharach. 

The new office to which R. Jair had been appointed was both a distin- 
guished and a lucrative one. The Rabbinate of Coblentz in the Lower Arch- 
deaconry of Trier was one of the two Rabbinates which controlled the spiritual 
affairs of all the Jews in the lands of the Electorate of Trier. The Electoral 
Prince and Archbishop of the district was Karl Caspar von der Leyen, whose 
endeavour it was to heal the wounds that had been infficted upon the land by 
the rule of his quarrelsome and intriguing predecessor, Philipp Christopher 
von Soetern. A period of good fortune seemed to await Bacharach in his new 
post. As in Mannheim and Heidelberg, so also elsewhere, the condition of 
the Jews had so much improved that neither in Coblentz nor Trier was there 
a Ghetto, and the people there breathed the air of freedom. Ardently devoted 
to his Rabbinical functions and to the increase of his learning, free from all 
material cares, he had begun to feel used to the possession of ample means 
in the present, and to the prospect of an assured income for his family in the 



Records of the Franklin Family 

future, when all too suddenly a severe blow reminded him of the instability 
of the human lot. It was the custom in Coblentz, as well as in other commu- 
nities on the Rhine, that the Rabbi had to be re-elected every three years, or 
at least his appointment had to be again confirmed. This law — which had 
been enforced by avaricious non- Jewish authorities, who exercised this power 
because certain taxes were attached to the office, a law by which the influence 
of the Rabbi was degraded and subverted — was now to be applied in all its 
force against Bacharach. His term of three years had barely closed, when the 
ratification of his reappointment was refused, and he was suddenly left 
without a livelihood. He has not told us the names of his enemies and the 
exact circumstances of his humiliation. Only one incident of his work in this 
community is preserved in his writings. Ehrenbreitenstein, also called Thai, 
a town opposite Coblentz, on the west bank of the Rhine, had then no con- 
gregation. The only Jewish inhabitant was Barmann Thai, a pious, respect- 
able, and well-educated man, who was a butcher by trade, an occupation 
which, while prohibited to Jews in the towns of the Electorate of Trier, was 
permitted them in the country. He was in the habit of crossing the ship- 
bridge, when the Rhine was not frozen over, every Sabbath to come to divine 
service at the synagogue in Coblentz. Bacharach forbade him to make the 
passage in a boat on a Sabbath when the bridge was removed, in this decision 
following the practice of older authorities of the place. Moreover, he refused 
to allow him to kill the animals himself, although he was well acquainted with 
the laws of Shechita (Jewish method of slaughtering animals), and though 
the governor of the fortress in Ehrenbreitenstein had commissioned him, 
under certain penalties, to provide meat for the inhabitants of the place, on 
the ground that for the requirements of Christians animals that were not killed 
in the strictly legal manner could also be used as food. 

Owing to his short stay in Coblentz, he was unable to carry on any un- 
interrupted activity. At the outbreak of the plague he had to depart from the 
town, and to withdraw to Limburg on the Lahn, leaving behind a valuable 
and indispensable part of his property, viz. his collection of books. This, 
however, did not hinder him from giving full expression from his store of 
knowledge to his views upon the disputed question about the inheritance of 
the rich Sanvel Kann, his opinion upon this point having been sohcited. 

If there was any consolation for the sudden way in which he had been 
deprived of his Rabbinate, where he had worked with all his heart and strength, 

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it laj' in the thought that, by returning to Worms, he would again be brought 
nearer to his father. At the end of the year 1669, when the winter had just 
begun, he again took up his residence in Worms. But R. Samson was not 
long to experience the pain of seeing his son, who was worthy of any Rab- 
binical post in Israel, grieving for the loss of his office. On the 19th of April, 
1670, after having ministered to the community at Worms for twenty years, 
he was gathered unto his fathers. What animated him even in his dying 
moments was the hope and assurance that his son would be chosen his suc- 
cessor. Before his death he expressly prayed and adjured his congregation, 
both in writing and by word of mouth, to let their choice fall upon his son, 
whom he could declare before God himself to be worthy and fitted to succeed 
him. It was in vain. Even the great reverence in which the High Rabbi Low 
was held in Prague could not secure the election of his son R. Bezalel as his 
successor, and the son of his great-grandson was now to learn in Worms, that 
all the respect and obedience to authority could not establish a hereditary 
Rabbinate in Judaism. 

Perhaps the settlement of R. Jair in Worms destroyed his chances of 
election ; at least it seemed to be the impression that a native of a place, 
who resided there, could not be appointed Rabbi. Again, their eyes were 
turned to Prague, where R. Aaron Teomim, the descendant of a famous 
family, had, for the last eleven years, been making a great name for himself 
as a preacher. Unanimously elected by the community of Worms to be their 
Rabbi, R. Aaron forthwith entered upon his new office, where he at once 
found favour by his great powers of eloquence. Additional means of uniting 
him with his new home was afforded by a marriage. Aaron Frankel, of Fiirth, 
the brother of R. Barmann Frankel, and nephew of R. Israel Frankel, like 
Teomim a native of Vienna, became his son-in-law. Bacharach had the 
pain of beholding a stranger dealing at his own will and pleasure with the 
regulations instituted by his father, and of being compelled as a private 
person to hold his peace and to obey another, when he himself should have 
been issuing commands. 

But this was not the only pang that the year of suffering, 1670, caused 
him. The expulsion of the Jews from Vienna was contemporaneous with 
their exile from Hammelburg and Fulda. In the former town lived his 
brother-in-law, R. Isaac Brilin, and in the latter his friend, R. Meir Stern, 
who was chief of the Rabbinate. R. Isaac fled to Worms, whence he was 

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summoned to the post of Rabbi in Mannheim. R. Meir made his way to 
Frankfurt, where he remained for many years before the German community 
in Amsterdam elected him to be their ecclesiastical head. 

Meanwhile, Bacharach's friend, R. Meir b. Judah Selke Grotwohl, of 
Frankfurt, had taken his place in Coblentz. This friendship ended in becoming 
a source of great comfort to Bacharach when his son Samuel Sanvel wedded 
the daughter of Grotwohl. The wound that had been inflicted upon the 
heart of R. Jair was still fresh when this marriage was solemnised. Sad and 
full of grief, surrounded, or imagining himself surrounded by foes, and ap- 
parently forsaken by all, he eagerly grasped at the hand of friendship ex- 
tended lovingly and reverently to him by his successor Grotwohl. As in 
the days when they had promised in Frankfurt to interchange letters at least 
once a week, and R. Meir had always heard news of Bacharach through R. 
Meir b. R. Moses Sofer and R. Meir Stern, so now a hvely correspondence 
was kept up between the two friends drawn closer to each other by family 
ties. The intimacy with so great a scholar in the Talmud, the Cabbala and 
other branches of learning as R. Meir Stern, who took deep interest in his 
misfortunes, could also only tend to encourage R. Jair. 

But the true balm for his wounds was the unremitting study in which he 
persevered, learning and teaching at the same time with undiminished zeal. 
The post of teacher in Israel, that had been denied him in a congregation, 
was now to be granted to him by his writings : as he was prevented from 
bringing into play his activity in the sphere to which he thought he was born, 
he felt himself led to labour in another field for the benefit of the general 
public ; he was, in short, impelled by the desire to become known by his 
literary labours. Study became his consolation and his revenge, his weapons 
and his passion. Engaged in research and writing, he spent his time at 
Worms as an ordinary private person, being only connected with the external 
world by his pupils and his Responsa, which were asked of him both by friends 
and strangers. His house was a house of learning — a retreat whither men 
of the community eager for knowledge resorted, and pupils crowded round 
to drink in deep draughts from the well of his full scholarship. There was 
formed a society of the members of the community to whom he delivered 
daily lectures upon the Code of the Law by R. Joseph Karo, and a second 
one which he instructed in the Mishna. In the evening he held a class to 
a third society upon the interpretation of the liturgy, which lesson alternated 

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Jair Chayim Bacharach 



with the explanation of a passage from Rashi or the Prophets or Psalms. He 
also imparted instruction to a certain religious student of the mystic doctrines 
of the Cabbala. But the flower of his time was devoted to the composition 
of the work that was to be called after his name Ez Chayim (the Tree of 
Life) to be divided into three parts, each containing three, or, more accurately, 
six sub-divisions, and embracing eighteen different topics of Jewish learning. 
But as he saw that this encyclopaedia would require more than two hundred 
sheets, and there was no possibility of his being able to publish so large a 
work, he devoted his attention to his notes upon the first volume of the 
Code of Jacob b. Asher, the Orach Chayim, so as to present a specimen of the 
whole by the publication of this portion, which dealt with the ritual practices 
of Judaism. Thus through his misfortune, Bacharach was destined to be 
the first author of his family. But in spite of having good cause for his doings, 
he held a confirmed opinion that it would savour too much of egotism to allow 
his literary productions to appear in his own name, whilst nothing that had 
been written by his grandfather or father had ever been published. He, 
therefore, set to work collecting the Responsa of R. Samuel and R. Samson 
Bacharach, which he resolved to issue, together with his own, as a Threefold 
Cord. But even this placing of his own works, as signified in the title, upon a 
par with the others, seemed to him improper, so that he determined to remain 
silent about himself, and name the Responsa of his grandfather and father, 
the Twofold Cord (1679), letting his own contributions pass unnamed and 
unnoticed. To the initiated, however, his part in the book was so evident, 
that it caused his erudition to appear in the brightest light. As soon as the 
book was published, an invitation to go to Poland, where ample scope for 
spreading his fame could easily be afforded, was held out to Bacharach by 
Moses b. Shalom Friedmann, a brother-in-law of Tobias Moschides, the half- 
brother of R. Jair, who in his youth had been a pupil of R. Samson Bacharach 
in Worms, and, on returning to Poland, the home of his father, was appointed 
director of the schools by the nine communities in the district of Chelm. But 
Bacharach was not willing to leave Worms upon empty promises. He knew 
well that if anyone wanted him, they would find him easily enough. The 
community of Lissa, in Poland, had invited (1677) R. Aaron Teomim, who, 
in this respect, too, was more fortunate than he, to transfer his Rabbinate to 
their midst, but in vain. For many years Bacharach had buoyed himself 
up with the hope that some day the choice of some community would fall 

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upon him, and often must his courage have risen when in his heart he compared 
himself with his spiritual chief ; but now he saw how he had deceived himself, 
and on whose side fortune fought. Full of quiet resignation, he hstened to 
R. Aaron, and although the tendency of his sermons was almost unbearable 
to him, yet he had to endure them, and to look on as fame spread his name 
upon her wings. But now Teomim became desirous of making an attempt 
at authorship. In 1675, when, immediately after the celebration of the first 
eve of Passover, he was stricken with an almost fatal illness, he had vowed 
if he recovered, to write an exhaustive commentary to the Seder-hagada for 
his children, which should clear up all difficult points, and should bear the 
title of the Rod of Aaron. In 1678 the book really appeared. AU the methods 
that so much displeased Bacharach in the sermons of the author, an in- 
genuity that betrayed its own weakness, and in which general allusions took 
the place of truth, frivolous questions, untenable premises, distorted quotations, 
vague references to the most unknown and undiscoverable passages from 
ancient literature, in fact, all the strange devices which disfigured his labours 
in the pulpit, found a place in this work. The simphcity of the text that was 
being explained contrasted sharply with the extraordinary style of the ex- 
planations : the art of rendering simple words inexplicable was carried to 
perfection in this book. But the untenable theories and the unnaturalness 
of the whole method, nay, even the introduction of the Pilpul into the region 
of sermons and explanations, were not the chief causes of annoyance to Bac- 
harach. His keenest indignation was directed against R. Aaron's manner 
of supporting his statements by references to passages from other authors 
that he either misunderstood or wilfully perverted, and by quotations that 
were often utterly incorrect. This would have made him unhesitatingly 
throw down the gauntlet of challenge to R. Aaron, relying upon the example 
of the most noted men, who, out of their love for truth, did not shun a con- 
flict. But again the thought of the position of the chief of the community 
restrained him. He would certainly not have feared the excommunication 
which R. Aaron could have fulminated against his assailant ; he was man 
enough to oppose it, and to reply with a counterban ; but then R. Aaron was 
the Rabbi of Worms, and Bacharach a humble private person, who had to 
be cautious in his behaviour. The possible suggestion that it was all through 
jealousy of the successful head of the Rabbinate, and that the assertion of 
his incapacity as a preacher, was a case of " sour grapes," hke the fox in the 

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fable, Bacharach could have afforded to disregard, being justly confident 
in the truth of his cause and his well-recognised and assured ability as a 
preacher ; but the fear of personal motives being considered the source of 
his opposition withheld the brave man from taking pubhc steps. He there- 
fore determined to give vent to his anger in secret, but to hold his lance in 
readiness to defend the truth. Suppose it were again his fortune to leave 
Worms and be appointed to a Rabbinate ! But even if this was not to be, 
still the time when truth would conquer must come, and then the seal that 
kept this book closed would be removed, and his testimony against falsehood 
prove no idle word. Scarcely a year had passed after the publication of the 
Rod of Aaron, when the work of Bacharach attacking it was written. It was 
to bear the same name, but rather as a rod for the back of the perverse Rabbi, 
and to serve as a work in which the true meaning of tradition was to be set 
forth. The coincidence that the numerical value of this Hebrew title, and 
of his name, Chayim Bacharach, amounted to the same, was only a further 
reason for copying this title. In the first part of his reply, Bacharach collects 
the passages in Teomim's book, which he attacks, quoting them accurately, 
but concisely, and in addition stating his real objections ; whilst in the second 
part he undertakes the correction of the misunderstood references, and the 
proof that many of the citations adduced are either nowhere to be found or 
attributed to wrong sources. Only a man so marvellously well versed in 
ancient hterature could have ventured to assert that a certain quotation was 
not to be found in the whole of the Midrash or the Zohar. The Rod of Aaron 
blossomed in secret. The object of its criticism was probably unaware of 
its existence. It remained hidden in the possession of its author, who con- 
tinually polished and improved it, and also made its tone gentler, and less 
severe. For, if he found nothing in the actual remarks of his attack that re- 
quired alteration, he was displeased by the vigour and violence of his own 
language, especially when the terrible fate of his opponent was made known 
to him. Ten years after he had composed his reply, Bacharach was informed 
that Teomim, who had advanced step by step, and had ultimately succeeded 
in being elected preacher to the great community of Cracow, had fallen a 
victim to a murderous assault. When he wrote an account of this sad event 
upon the margin of his book he may at the same moment have struck out the 
bitter observations that he had been led to make in the zeal for his cause, 
and have thus tacitly adjured posterity to leave all his violent expressions 

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unpublished. Thus the relations between the two men never changed. If 
it was only a hollow peace that existed between them, at least it never broke 
out into open acts of hostihty. R. Jair did not pass over his spiritual chief 
when, according to the custom of the time, he was seeking from the authorities 
in Germany letters of approbation for his book, Mekor Chayim, that he 
intended to issue after his work of Responsa ; and the approval of R. Aaron, 
though given in somewhat measured terms, yet contained sufficiently 
genuine and hearty praise and recognition of the author's merits. Nor 
did R. Jair lack appreciation and encouragement from other quarters. 
He had the pleasure of receiving the most honoured rabbis of Germany 
and other countries in his house at Worms. Thus, in 1679, he was visited 
by the most distinguished Talmudical scholar of his age, R. Gershon 
Ashkenazi, Rabbi of Metz. The aged Rabbi of Bingen, Joseph Josel b. 
Abraham and R. Mordecai Susskind Rothenburg, Rabbi of Witzenhausen, 
in Hessen, were his guests in 1681, when he was thinking of publishing his 
book. In connection with this work, he also appears to have left Worms at 
that time, and on his journey to have shown specimens of it to various friends, 
as, for instance, R. Enoch Frankel, Rabbi of Hanau, and R. Jeremiah b. 
Judah, the District-Rabbi of Ansbach, in Gunzenhausen. He was so deter- 
mined to wait no longer before printing this work, that, in spite of a death 
in his family, he resolved, directly after the time of mourning was concluded, 
to journey to Amsterdam, and there superintend the printing. In the col- 
lection of testimonials of approval that he possessed we have a full description 
of the way he was appreciated by the highest authorities, as well as of his 
connections with learned men. 

It is no wonder, then, that his whole heart was intent upon the publication 
of this book. He had no other hope of greatness than the fame that this 
work would found for him ; it was his consolation, this confident expectancy 
for the future. When the trials and disillusions that he had experienced in 
life threatened to overwhelm him, when he was filled with grief at the thought 
that he was isolated among all his children, having no one to continue his 
hfe's work — the study of the law, then the longing to see his intellectual heri- 
tage saved from destruction, and to come forward with what he hoped would 
be a great and enduring work, naturally grew all the fiercer within him. He 
might well be pleased with the choice of his subject. With his accurate 
powers of observation, he had discovered a public literary want, inasmuch 

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as he aimed at expounding and exhaustively deahng with the ritual code of 
Jacob ben Asher, which had hitherto been rather neglected and cast aside. 
It may have suggested itself to him as an ideal in which his more fortunate 
rival in the same field, R. Abraham Abele Gumbinner, afterwards succeeded 
so well, namely, to put into the hands of his co-religionists a book, by means 
of which his name would be continually connected with their daily ritual 
life. But he seemed fated never to succeed. Was it, perhaps, the tidings 
that in 1681 Samuel b. Joseph had anticipated him with a commentary to 
the same book that appeared in Amsterdam, or was there another reason 
that stopped his journey and the giving of his book to the Press ? At any rate 
he was again the poorer for a hope, and the richer for a book that remained 
unprinted. How many things would he have said better than those who wrote 
after him ; how many errors and misunderstandings others would have 
been able to avoid if his book had seen the light of day ! But it was, at the 
best, a doubtful satisfaction that the consciousness of this thought awoke 
to him, a source of ever fresh displeasure, a continually repeated outbreaking 
of the wound of his ill success. He had not, however, altogether given up 
the idea of publication. For more than ten years he continued to hope in 
silence that his book would after all be printed. The number of letters of 
approval in his possession meantime went on increasing, and among them 
was that of the youngest of his friends, his compatriot and relative, R. David 
Oppenheim. 

Like a joyous promise, the gentle hght of this rising star fell upon 
Bacharach's clouded life. The high esteem in which Oppenheim, when still 
at home, had always held the famous and revered scholar only increased 
during the years he spent as a student in Metz, in the Talmudic school of 
R. Gershon Ashkenazi, who was bound to Bacharach in indissoluble bonds 
of friendship. There thus arose between these two men, who were separated 
from each other in age by the space of a generation, an intimacy that was 
maintained and strengthened by a learned correspondence. Oppenheim's 
questions and opinions were a source of interest and deep enjoyment to 
Bacharach, as well as an opportunity for developing his own powers and exer- 
cising his intellect. It must have afforded him no little satisfaction to be 
able to instil rich seed into the mind of his younger friend, and to find him 
able, owing to his unlimited means, to make a reaUty of that to which he him- 
self could only aspire with ardent zeal and all-embracing intellect — the 

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foundation of a collection* of manuscripts and books of Jewish writings in 
every branch of knowledge. 

Besides this correspondence, that already in 1683 had become a very 
active one, the numerous Rabbinical questions that he was incessantly re- 
ceiving occupied the time of Bacharach, and showed him that, even in his 
position as a private person, he had risen to the rank of a Rabbinical authority 
in Germany. In this way he had the opportunity of engaging in a frequent 
interchange of opinions with such diligent students of the Talmud as R. 
Gershon Ashkenazi, in Metz, and R. Isaiah Hurwitz, in Frankfurt-on-the- 
Main. He even held communications of this sort with the Rabbi of his 
community, R. Aaron Teomim, as they both often had occasion to express 
their opinions about the same matter, even as late as the year 1687. 

Thus, year after year of Bacharach's life was spent in useless waiting and 
deceptive hopes, until a change in the state of public affairs, which had 
hitherto brought him but httle advantage, now threatened to destroy the 
little home of the hermit, who had seemed forgotten by the world. The 
French had forced their way into the Palatinate ; every day brought the 
dreadful tidings of new conquests and struggles. All the cities in turn opened 
their gates to the invaders ; all resistance was futile ; and when so many 
stronger fortresses had been compelled to surrender, no choice remained for 
Worms but to do the same. On the ist of October, 1688, the enemy appeared 
before the city ; the terms of capitulation were signed, and Worms became 
a French town. For the Jewish community this conquest brought special 
dangers, besides the distress that was felt by all alike. Every dealing of the 
Jews with the enemy was looked upon as treachery, which seemed to be com- 
pletely proved by the more humane treatment that they received from them. 

In this storm-charged atmosphere it was more a dehverance than a 
promotion for R. Aaron Teomim, the Rabbi of a congregation now in such 
a precarious condition, when one of the largest Jewish communities, that of 
Cracow, just at this time invited him to become their Rabbi. He had wit- 
nessed enough misery in his rabbinate, but he was spared the worst part. A 
general depreciation in the value of goods set in, and those who could obtain 
purchasers for half the usual price might consider themselves fortunate. 
The consternation that was caused by the sudden predatory inroad of the 
enemy produced a wild state of confusion. Everyone began to try to rescue 

* This collection is now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
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Jair Chayim Bacharach 



and hide all the movable property he could snatch from the plunderers ; 
panic seized the inhabitants of the villages, who hurried into the towns, 
whither they had often conveyed their goods, with bundles on their backs, 
without having even received the customary permission to enter. But loss 
of property and panic were only the forerunners of complete destruction. 
And in all this no one was more unfortunate than Bacharach, whose last 
hope was now frustrated. If after the departure of R. Aaron he might have 
indulged for a moment in a vision of hope, seeing that in the absence of a 
Rabbi all rabbinical questions upon communal matters were submitted to 
him, his expectations of the fulfilment of his desire that now seemed so close 
at hand were utterly shattered when annihilation began to threaten his con- 
gregation. Louvois had issued the command, that all towns that could not 
be held by troops should be converted into a heap of ruins. The Palatinate 
became a scene of desolation ; so many blossoming lives, so many famous 
reminiscences, so much human fortune and industry, culture and art — all 
found a grave in the flames that rose to heaven. Whit-Tuesday, the 31st 
of May, 1689, was the fateful day for Worms. In the afternoon, when the 
hour of four had struck, the signal for the destruction of the town was given, 
and it was set fire to from all sides. In the general ruin the Judengasse, with 
its historical memorials, the jewels of its past that had been preserved with 
so much pious care, also sank in the flames. The synagogue, with its so- 
called prayer-chamber of Rashi, became a heap of ashes. The congregation 
was scattered in all possible directions. Each one fled to the place where he 
hoped to find shelter and maintenance, some even over the Rhine, although 
the enemy had only indicated the towns outside of France that might serve 
as an asylum. In the first moment of terror Bacharach had fled with his 
family to Metz, where he hoped to find shelter with his friend, R. Gershon 
Ashkenazi, and his kinsman, Grotwohl. His younger son, Samson, who 
was named after his father, must have left Worms before the invasion, as 
we find R. Jair composing for him a poetical narrative of this sad period and 
its calamities. 

Thus the oldest community of the German Jews disappeared from the 
face of the earth. It was a community possessed of venerable and strong 
traditions, with numerous customs peculiar to itself and marked by a vigorous 
piety, that was thus swept away. How could the sundered members of this 
ancient body regard themselves as bound to carry out its rules, if the bond 

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that had united them was broken, and no hope of their reunion seemed 
remotely possible ? There was only one man who clung to the belief in the 
reorganisation of the community, who spoke, indeed, of exile, but would 
not believe in the destruction of their ancient union. This man was R. 
Chayim Bacharach. He looked upon the preservation of the synagogue 
valuables and the communal books as a pledge of its re-establishment. The 
symbols of the existence of the old synagogue, that formed its historic centre, 
were still secure ; it was only a question of " When ? " not that all hope of 
restoration was to be abandoned. With the bold though sure glance of the 
seer he made public this conviction, and declared the traditions of the old 
congregation binding upon their children, thus preserving its separate existence 
through and beyond the period of dispersion. On the ist of January, 1691, 
we find him in Heidelberg, where soon after the time of destruction hfe began 
to move and thrive afresh at the house of the wealthy warden, Moses Oppen- 
heim, sen., whose son Solomon had married Bacharach's daughter, Dobrush. 
He most probably did not care to continue in exile in Metz, where his family 
still remained ; the necessity of procuring a permanent livelihood had caused 
him to wander about. In the summer of 1690, we meet him in Frankfurt- 
on-the-Main, in the house of Hirz Wahl, the uncle of R. David Oppenheim, 
where he perhaps for the last time enjoyed the society of his friend and 
beloved pupil, before the latter went to Nicolsburg to act as Chief Rabbi of 
Moravia. Without feeling the slightest envy against the fortunate young 
man, but full of bitter comparisons with his own unhappy lot, he makes a 
note of the fact that his friend was scarcely thirty years old when called to 
this important post. Perhaps it was on this occasion that he formed the 
resolve to betake himself to Heidelberg, where the most prominent members 
of the family of Oppenheim had already settled, or had sought refuge after 
the destruction of Worms. Samuel, the imperial chief court-agent of Vienna, 
had been denoted by the name of Heidelberg, his previous residence, even in 
later years, long after he had already settled in Austria. His brother, Moses 
Senior, who was related by marriage to Bacharach, had settled permanently 
in Heidelberg as district warden of the Jews of the Palatinate. His brother, 
Abraham, the father of R. David Oppenheim, had just fled hither from Worms. 
This was the Abraham Zur Kandten, i.e., the owner of the house that had a 
signboard with a pot painted thereon, whose duty it had been, as warden in 
Worms, to receive the French general d'Huxelles on the 2nd of December, 

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Jair Chayim Eacharach 

i68g, in the name of his congregation, and who now in his exile watched over 
the interests of his dispersed community, that was even yet in danger, with 
no less zeal than before. Bacharach, therefore, met with many friends when 
in the spring of 1691 he arrived at Heidelberg. It almost seems as if for a 
brief period he fulfilled the functions of the Rabbinate here ; at least, R. 
Hirsch Frankel, when he afterwards became Rabbi of Heidelberg, and in 
1705 had a dispute with R. David Oppenheim about a bill of divorce, appealed 
to the decisions that R. Chayim Bacharach had pronounced whilst staying 
there. But even if Heidelberg had again begun to be well populated, it had 
not yet lost all traces of the terrible ravages committed in it. People were 
still afraid to display openly their property that had been saved from the 
pillage ; if Bacharach wanted a reference-work upon Rabbinical literature, 
he could not procure a copy from any of the community ; all his decisions 
had to be arrived at from the fulness of his knowledge without the assistance 
of books. He, therefore, could not remain long in his friendly place of refuge. 
Frankfurt-on-the-Main, that had already become the natural asylum for 
every fugitive from Worms, seeing that it had afforded shelter to the magis- 
trate of that town, he resolved, should also be his permanent home, where he 
could wait hopefully for the fulfilment of his great desire, the re-establish- 
ment of his congregation and their old dwelling-place. He sent for his family 
and his property from Metz to come to him, so that, surrounded by his books 
and manuscripts, he could resume the thread of his researches and labour 
at the point where he had been compelled to break it off, owing to the invasion 
of Worms. The most intimate friend of Bacharach in this town was R. 
Samuel Schotten, formerly Rabbi in Darmstadt, and at this time head director 
of the Manes-Darmstadt Klause college. He was distinguished not only for his 
extraordinarily profound Rabbinical erudition, but also for his general culture, 
most astounding for a Rabbi of this time, and he was even, thanks to his 
knowledge of Latin, well read in Christian theological literature. It was 
probably through him that R. Chayim made the acquaintance of the Christian 
scholar, Rudolf Martin Meelfiihrer, who, notwithstanding his youth, was 
already deeply versed in Rabbinical Uterature, and who knew how to value 
the manuscript treasures in Bacharach's costly library. But, on the whole, 
the exile from Worms led a rather retired life here. Prematurely aged, 
inwardly broken by his misfortunes and mental troubles, deprived almost 
entirely of the sense of hearing, and so having to rely completely upon his 

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own resources, he was cut off from intercourse with the outer world, even 
before bodily suffering kept him to his house. Overcome by grief and melan- 
choly, he describes himself to us as one isolated and a stranger with difficulty 
crawling about with the aid of a stick, and even compelled to omit his attend- 
ance at synagogue owing to his weakness. In this situation R. Hirsch, the 
son of his friend R. Enoch Frankel of Hanau, became his faithful assistant, 
The one thought that sustained him in all his distress was to render his 
works accessible to posterity, and he found tranquillity and comfort in 
directing the work of Hirsch Frankel, as he arranged and copied his manu- 
scripts to prepare them for the press. In this town, where an excellent firm 
of Hebrew printers was established, during his enforced leisure his long- 
delayed plans for publishing his works must have been revived with renewed 
vigour. It seemed as if he had only to stretch out his hand to bring forth 
the fruits of his industrious and richly productive life from the storehouses 
where he had placed them, but in reahty he needed the powers that had been 
his in his youth to revise and set in order this over-plentiful material. Even 
his book, Mekor Chayim, that had been ready for the press some twenty 
years ago, had become so disarranged and in want of revision, owing to the 
notes which he had been obliged to add to it after the appearance of the 
commentaries of R. Abraham Gumbinner and R. David Halevi to the ritual 
Code of Joseph Karo, that he was compelled to forgo all hope of publishing 
it in his present condition, when to think out again all the material he had 
collected, and to re-write the whole work was an impossible task for him. 

Owing to the remarkable accident that, while depriving us of the writings 
of the man, has yet preserved to us the catalogue of them, we are enabled to 
obtain so perfect an idea of the method of his work that we can see that this 
scholar, who was always investigating and writing, in spite of all his pro- 
ductions, could scarcely ever lay his hands directly upon anything that he 
might show as the result of his labour, even when the harvest-time of his life 
had been reached. Just as the fruits of his all-embracing industry, that 
occupied itself with equal diligence with aU kinds of learning, were stocked 
together in his brain, so his papers bore the evidences of his many-sided 
labours, which to himself appeared clear and connected, but in reahty 
carried the distinct signs of his activity as a thinker and a collector in their 
inextricable and variegated confusion. Filled with the earnestness of the 
inquirer who takes equal interest in all matters, nothing being disregarded, 

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Jair Chayim Bacharach 



he considered everything that engaged his thoughts and came under his 
observation as worthy of being commented upon ; certainly none of his 
contemporaries was so careful in " making notes " as he was. Whether it 
was the explanation of some obscure passage, the solution of some Talmudical 
difhculty, the application of some Agadic remark, the answering of some 
legal point that was either submitted to him or raised by himself, the treat- 
ment of some ethical problem, the development of some philosophical thought, 
the proof of some article of belief, the astonishing revelation of the equality 
in numerical value of two words or groups of words, the clearing up of some 
cabbalistic mystery, the discussion of some custom or superstition, or some 
phase of Jewish life, or of an historical memorial, or of a curiosity, the com- 
menting upon some grammatical, scientific, or mathematical question, the 
copying of an old poem, or of a letter or opinion of whatsoever kind, making 
extracts from a rare book or from a manuscript, something he had himself 
experienced or that was brought under his notice, a tradition or the result 
of his own reflections — all these numerous things were carefully rescued from 
obUvion in absolutely unsystematic succession, just as they presented them- 
selves to him, and were safely secured by his ever active pen. It is principally 
in seven volumes of his manuscripts that all this immediate outcome of his 
own personal work was contained. The number of manuscript volumes in 
which, so to speak, the intellectual family hoard heaped together by the 
labours of a large circle of relatives and friends was preserved, and which R. 
Jair's activity as a collector brought together, must have amounted to nearly 
fifty ; but in these seven volumes was to be found the greater part of his own 
work — the diary of his genius — although they by no means exhausted the 
full quantity of his own productions. But they remained a worthless treasure, 
an unused harvest as long as the dense mass of these notes could not be revised 
and sorted, and, therefore, Bacharach resolved to cut a path through the 
thicket, and, under the name of Jair Nathib (the Illuminator of the Path), 
which title Isaac Nathan had also given to his Concordance to the Bible, to 
compile an index to these volumes, in which a general reference to the matter 
contained in each, and to the page on which it was to be found should be 
given. If, owing to the preservation of this work, we are led to a full con- 
sciousness of the irreparable loss literature has suffered in the destruction 
of these collections, on the other hand the knowledge of the subjects on which 
this richly endowed intellect dwelt upon with such eager interest, in addition 

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to the numerous topics to which allusion is merely made in the midst of the 
vast quantity of the material treated of by him, allows us to take the desired 
glance over the fields of learning through which he walked gathering the fruits, 
and, moreover, to obtain an unexpected insight into the history of his inner 
hfe. From this point of view the publication of this work, which affords an 
adequate idea of his intellectual activity, becomes an absolute duty demanded 
by science. How important this book had been to him is best shown by the 
fact that he had provided it with an introduction, which serves as a testimony 
to his brilliant power of thought and true scientific spirit. Whatever entered 
his mind during sleepless nights, which undermined his already delicate 
health, during lonely walks, during the hour of leisure at twilight, at public 
lectures, or during silent research, all was here to be found written down as 
a help to his own memory, entirely for his own use. Now that he was examin- 
ing this intellectual store from the standpoint of a strange reader, it must 
have seemed necessary to him to explain, and as it were to excuse, these notes, 
that might seem incomprehensible to his contemporaries, especially in the 
case of such apparently trifling or even useless things as special customs or 
superstitious notions. But the large space that he had devoted to the playing 
with numbers and curious comparisons of words according to the spirit of 
the age, also seemed to him to require some word of explanation ; they were 
only to be regarded as the children of his enforced leisure, which he had never 
allowed to grow in size at the expense of his own serious studies. 

The merest glance at the extent of this collection gives some idea of its 
richness ; a thorough examination of the multiplicity and scientific tone of 
its contents changes our wonder to admiration. 

Thus the first volume consisted of 237 leaves, the table of contents of 
which occupies twenty-four closely written folio pages of the index. The 
headings that succeed each other in miscellaneous order are somewhat as 
follows : Talmud, Agada, Legahsm, Ritual, Bible, Homiletics, Ethics, 
Philosophy, Cabbala, History, and general Criticism. The variety of the 
contents, and the rays of Ught that break through the mental darkness of 
the period may be illustrated by a few examples from this work. Thus in 
one passage he asserts that even ethical writings in German are of more value 
than the greatest and most ingenious Talmudical works that are not based 
upon truth. Elsewhere he excuses the Polish Talmudists for their deficient 
knowledge of the Bible. The story of two women who agreed that the one 

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Jair Chayim Bacharach 



who died first should relate to the survivor her experiences after death, 
seems to him to be as well worth noting down as the impressive rebuke he 
administered to his co-rehgionists for certain defects (and their causes) that 
had crept into divine service. At one time he inveighs against the misunder- 
standing of Christian commentators of the Talmudical saying, " Keep back 
your children from reading," as well as against the reproaches levelled against 
the Jews for their ignorance of the interpretation of Holy Writ, and then 
his philosophical reflections cause him to soar aloft to a height whence he 
recognises how the Biblical verse (Ps. civ. 31) has this profound meaning, 
that God will only rejoice in the future, for at the present time each day reveals 
some new imperfection in the world. 

The exhaustive description of the second volume with its 204 leaves extends 
from page 24^ to page 406 of the Index, and shows a still more versatile 
aspect of his learning. Here we have the pious customs of the community of 
Worms copied out from an old parchment prayer-book. The sufferings at 
the destruction of Worms, the persecutions at Nordhausen, here find their 
faithful chronicler. Now we behold him dealing with the problem, how the 
numbering of the twenty-four books of the Scripture originated, and then 
reproducing the list of books named in the Kneseth Hagedola of Benveniste. 
In one place he decides the question whether it is permitted to skate on 
Sabbath, whilst in another the discussion touches upon what it is that decides 
the fate of books and the acceptance and circulation of synagogal poems. 
The enumeration of the verses of the Bible that have been misunderstood in 
a Christological sense interests him no less than the solution of the question 
whether R. Asher of Lunel or R. Asher of Toledo lived earlier, or who was the 
Greek Rabbi whom R. Abraham b. David of Posquieres mentions. Why 
the number of ten adults that is required for public worship is simply called 
" the number " (Minyan), is a point of no less importance for him than the 
striking incident that R. Gershon, the Light of the Diaspora, kept fourteen 
days of mourning for his apostate son. He enumerates the notes of the 
melody to the prayer, Baruch Sheamar, verse by verse, as carefully as he 
states his approval of the custom of applying the benedictory formula, ap- 
parently intended only for the dead, to the living as well. 

The third volume contains 191 leaves, which are described in the Index 
from page 41a to page 486. Here we have Talmudical questions that were 
put to him, for instance, by the Talmudist of Worms, Moses Oettingen, by 

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R. Joseph Drescher, and R. David Oppenheim, as well as the penitential 
hymn that his grandfather, R. Samuel, had composed for the congregation 
of Worms. Here, too, he enters into the question whether it is more meri- 
torious to spend one's time in study or in teaching one's own son, and, also, 
whether it is lawful to whitewash a synagogue a second time — an act that the 
Jews of Worms had always been averse to doing, but which they were com- 
pelled to do ten years after the catastrophe of 1689. His critical talents are 
displayed here in collecting and grouping together the liturgical poetry 
composed by Eleazar Kalir and Simon the Great for the second days of the 
holidays, as well as in his endeavours to make clear to himself the meaning 
of the observation by which, according to Abraham Ibn Baud's account, 
Moses b. Chanoch was said to have first directed the attention of the modest 
Nathan to his Talmudic erudition. He investigates the reason why Jesus, 
contrary to the Jewish law, has been crucified alive, and ascribes it to a 
Roman custom. If the Talmud praises acuteness of thought, this praise 
certainly cannot justify the Polish degeneracy into the Pilpul. His historical 
instincts are not appeased until he has placed all the heroes of Talmudical 
literature in their proper historical order. Thus he tries to fix exactly the 
position in time of R. Jonathan Hacohen, the commentator to Alfasi upon 
Erubin. 

Volume IV. with its manifold contents is treated of in the index from p. 49a 
to 563. It includes 236 leaves. Here we read the opinions to which he gave 
utterance on the 17th of Tebeth, 1668, in his effort to quell the violent dispute 
that raged at Trier, and also the narrative of the ravages committed by the 
French in Worms that he had sent to his son Samson. The curious species 
of lizard, to which the attention of R. Liepman Heller was first drawn, calls 
for a remark from him as well as the dictum of his great-great-grandfather, 
the High R. Low, that the peacock belonged to the clean birds, i.e. those that 
are lawful for food. At one time he is defending Abraham Ibn Ezra against 
the imputation that in his exegesis he disregarded Rabbinical tradition, and 
at another he traces the development of the system of hospitality among the 
ancients, and the origin of the so-called Pletten, i.e. the bills for the payment 
of the expenses of poor students and travellers to whom hospitality was shown. 
In one passage he seeks reasons for declaring the drawing and hanging up of 
one's own portrait, and that of one's relatives to be perfectly allowable ; in 
another he puzzles himself about the phenomenon that in a mirror the human 

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Jair Chayim Bacharach 



face does not seem to turn from right to left. He is as anxious to settle the 
question whether Maimuni possessed a knowledge of Hebrew grammar, 
poetry and metre, as whether the Joseph Hacohen mentioned in the Mishna 
may not be the author of Josippon. 

The 272 leaves of Vol. V. have their various contents detailed in p. 57a 
to p. 836 in the index. In this part he is engaged in questions of natural 
science, as, e.g. about objects that are visible and yet cannot be perceived 
by the sense of touch, and vice versa, or about the query, why drunken men 
often have thoughts or presentiments that are more correct than those of 
other men. He further speaks of the superstitious notions about hobgoblins, 
elves, and little fairies, as he had read of them in the popular literature of his 
time. As regards the productions of members of his family, we have copies 
of the marginal notes of his grandfather, R. Samuel, and his learned wife 
Eve, to the liturgical poems of the Machzor, the account of a conversation 
he held in a dream with his father about a Hebrew begging-letter, a poem 
that was written on the occasion of his appointment as preacher at Prague, 
and a catalogue of all the writings of the High Rabbi Low, of which only a very 
insignificant portion had appeared in print. He makes observations upon the 
ritual as contained in certain old parchment-scrolls, collects details respecting 
the communal customs of Hamburg and its environs, and passes judgment 
upon practices that had crept in, such as the so-called " Spinnholz-Sabbath," 
and the error that had spread of arbitrarily applying the formula used in 
the case of martyrs to persons killed in any manner. He is no less deeply 
interested in strange identifications of different words and ideas according 
to their equal numerical value, than in questions upon literary history, such 
as. Who was the author of the Maggid Mishna ? or. Why does Abraham Ibn 
Daud mention R. Jacob Tam in his Chronicle, but neither Rashi nor Maimuni, 
or in making extracts from a parchment copy of R. Chayim's Or Sarua. 

The sixth volume, whose 11 1 leaves are indexed from page 84a to page 
89a, contributed in a great measure to his collection of Responsa, including 
also the mathematical problem of No. 172. But, in addition to various 
important expressions of opinion and Talmudical discussions, there are also 
researches upon literary matters. Thus he deals with the corrupt and highly 
misleading state of the text of our Tosefta, and with the proof that Zerachia of 
Gerona could only have been nineteen years of age when he began his Maor, 
and not when he finished it. He records with precision the fact that his father 

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had been wont to fast regularly on the anniversary of the death of his uncle, 
R. Chayim Cohen, who had also been his teacher, as well as the curious 
coincidences of equality in value of various words, and he carefully notes the 
explanation of some obscure proverbs. 

Especially rich in material was Vol. VII., that contained 282 leaves, and 
is described in the index from p. 89fl-i04a. Here he had written out his 
father's commentary to the tractate of the Mishna, called Kinnim, with his 
own criticisms and the rephes thereto of the author. Natural science, history, 
and literature were here gathered together pell-mell. The pigmies (Alraun- 
chen) are as much a point of interest to him as the query whether the human 
race has really deteriorated in stature, strength, and longevity. The enumera- 
tion of the Messianic movements in Jewish history, is as important an object 
of solicitude as the fixing the date of the composition of the legal code of 
Joseph Karo, at the years 1522-1542. He makes a note of the supposed intro- 
duction of Hebrew words into other languages, such as the word " baar " into 
German, or the word " null," into Latin, and, Uke a harbinger of the study 
of folk-lore, he comments upon the appearance of Talmudical tales in other 
literatures. Like the Christian theologians, he raises the question, how 
America was peopled after the flood, and makes use of an opinion of Philo 
to help him to disprove that Cain married his sister. He holds in pious respect 
every Jewish custom, but nevertheless reads polemical writings against 
Judaism, and adduces remarks collected from Wagenseil's works. He is as 
much interested in the personal individuality of Bachya b. Joseph, as he is 
eager to defend Maimuni against the suspicions of Abravanel. 

But even if originally Bacharach intended to make an index only to seven 
volumes of his Collectanea, he, nevertheless, soon began to do the same to 
other volumes, which were all duly numbered, and the valuable contents of 
which were as deserving of an exhaustive description as the others. By these 
means we obtain a still deeper insight into his earnest mind that was so deeply 
attached to every written memorial of the past and so careful in preserving 
every Uterary tradition. We see how his example stirred up his younger 
friend R. David Oppenheim, who, unhke himself, was favoured by oppor- 
tunity and unhmited wealth, to carry out on a large scale the scheme that had 
been to R. Jair only a longed-for and unattainable ideal, viz. the foundation 
of a collection of every work both in print and in MS. that was connected with 
Jewish literature. 

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An eighth volume, brimful of rich material, was not yet ready for indexing 
when he was busy describing in detail the others, owing to the additions that 
it received every day. 

He thought that Vol. IX. fully deserved and required an exact descrip- 
tion. Besides Talmudical treatises, it contained the discourses he delivered 
on the occasion of the conclusion of his lectures upon the single tractates of 
the Mishna and the Talmud, the Masoretic explanations of his father, and im- 
portant funeral orations. Here we find reference to the funeral orations de- 
livered by R. Samson Bacharach upon his father, upon R. Samuel Edels 
(died 1632), upon R. David, Rabbi of Dresdnitz in Moravia (died 1639), 
upon the preacher, R. Loeb, of Mayence (1644), and upon R. Jonah Teomim, 
of Metz (died 1669), as well as to memorial addresses by R. Jair himself upon 
R. Jonah Teomim, R. Jerucham, R. Isaac, of Mannheim, who was his brother- 
in-law, upon another brother-in-law, R. Moses Brilin, upon a relative named 
R. Nathan b. Jechiel, upon the warden, Baruch, upon the pious R. Sussman, 
and R. Gershon Ashkenazi. 

In Vol. XL he had gathered together the fruits of his reading, the account 
of which gives us an insight into the extent and variety of his general studies. 
Grammarians and exegetes, philosophers and historians, preachers and 
books of Responsa — all had been equally the objects of his attention. He also 
gives excerpts from manuscripts that were only temporarily in his possession. 
As it was his habit to introduce everywhere some remarks of his own, he 
frequently intermingled independent observations with his Collectanea, and 
when he did so he noted down in the Index the sources of his information. 
This list of extracts from the books of others he completes by a resume of 
the excerpts scattered throughout the seven chief volumes. 

In Vol. XVI. we are informed of the existence of a MS. which contained, 
in addition to notes by his father and grandfather, also portions from the 
pens of other authorities, such as R. Moses Cohen Narol, whose writings 
came into the possession of the family of Bacharach through his widow ; 
R. David Blum, Rabbi of Sulzburg in Baden ; and R. Elijah Loans, of 
Worms. 

A detailed index was also wanted for Vol. XVII. , which originally com- 
prised 117 pages. Having been begun when he was a youth, its contents had 
been partly passed over and partly transferred to other volumes. Thus 
afterwards whole pages of it were thrown into the fire, and others struck out. 



57 



Records of the Franklin Family 

But what remained was of sufficient value as to merit a minute description. 
In addition to remarks upon his nightly dreams, in which he continued his 
studies and speculations upon the form of the shield of David, we also find 
here the reflection that the learned students of the Law, who apparently 
were maintained by the working classes, really were the supports of the 
latter. Already there reveals itself in his youthful mind that many-sidedness 
and interest in all kinds of knowledge that afterwards so characterised him 
when in maturer years. In the midst of Talmudical studies there appears 
notices upon the ritual at Metz, and critical glosses to the editions of Jewish 
chronicles. 

In Vol. XVIII. three collections were combined, viz. his own decisions 
when a Rabbi, and forms of documents, such as bills of divorce and of chaliza ; 
secondly, items from the official actions of his father concerning the same 
subjects, and, finally, the opinions of older authorities upon similar ques- 
tions. 

Vol. XIX., according to its description, contained a large and elaborate 
work of his father upon the 613 commandments, a Will of R. Samson 
Bacharach, that is full of testimony to his profound piety, and an ethical 
letter of admonition to his children. 

In Vol. XX. he had collected his marginal notes upon certain well-known 
works, such as the Two Tables of the Covenant, of R. Isaiah Hurwitz, and the 
famous book of R. Joshua Falk Cohen, and explanatory remarks upon the 
Midrashim. 

In another section of this miscellany, to which R. Jair was especially 
attached, we become acquainted, thanks to the minute catalogue of the con- 
tents of Vol. XXII., with the poems and prayers of his father, which he inserted 
in the index, after the pattern of the author. Is it owing to its stout binding, 
or to any other external circumstance, that this book alone, among all the 
huge collection that was brought together with so much love by their owner, 
has come down to posterity ? From this favourite volume of Bacharach 
are taken the poems that he could not omit to reproduce in memory of their 
composer. 

In Vol. XXIII. there were a number of manuscripts, some his own work, 
such as the plan of the introduction to his Mekor Chayim, and of the Ez 
Chayim, and others written by his father. 

One of the pearls of the collection is Vol. XXIV., which is mainly devoted 

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to historical notes, and to original, contemporary, and ancient poems, many 
by men who were altogether unknown as poets. Here, too, we find the 
memoirs of R. Moses Cohen Narol, which R. Jair's stepmother had brought 
from Metz, and which consist of penitential prayers and accounts of the 
persecutions of 1648 and 1656, as well as of events occurring in Metz. A 
special value is attached to this volume from its dealing with family matters. 
It contains the genealogical tree of his father and mother, the memoirs of 
the unhappy year (1666) of the plague in Worms, the account of the invitation 
of the High R. Low to appear before the Emperor Rudolf II., and the text 
of the amulets that he prepared for that monarch. At the end of this volume 
were also the letters from relatives and friends that Bacharach deemed worthy 
of special description. 

Memorials of inestimable historical value were gathered together in Vol. 
XXXV. Although many of these documents had been burnt and lost, yet 
the remnant of them contained such important fragments that a detailed 
description of them seemed fully justified. The records of the Sabbatian 
agitation of the year 1666, and the correspondence that both he and his 
father carried on during this exciting time, had an especially personal interest 
for Bacharach. In this volume were also carefully collected historical notes 
of apparently slight importance, such as the affair of the confiscation of books 
in Frankfurt-on-the-Main in 1509-10, a proof of the enlightened historical 
tendencies of the collector's mind. 

Vol. XXXVII. contained a special work of his grandfather upon the 
Talmudic tractate Baba Mezia. 

In Vol. XLVI. of this collection were included the poems of his father, 
the majority of which were taken from Vol. XXII., besides other poems and 
imperfect fragments of his own composition, and poems of an historical and 
religious purport of other authorities. This section Bacharach has furnished 
with a special table of contents. Testimony to his historical bent of mind, 
which despised no source of historical information, and also extended to the 
examination of tombstones, is afforded here by his remarks upon the in- 
scriptions upon the graves of R. Meir, of Rothenburg, and his noble benefactor, 
Alexander, which were in the cemetery at Worms. We have also here the 
family-tree that R. Jair drew up, making important additions to the state- 
ments imparted to him by his father. In this part he also wrote out an 
historical work of his, in which he tried to establish a continuous chain of 

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students of the Talmud from father to son, from teacher to pupil, from the 
time of the Gaonim down to almost his own time. 

This commencement of a catalogue to his collection of MSS. continued 
by Bacharach, after he had left Worms, in his exile at Frankfurt, proves to 
us most distinctly that in spite of his hfe-long habit of constantly taking 
notes, in spite of a superabundance of productions of all kinds, in spite of 
systematic and extensive diligence in collecting— by which labour he might 
have been able to pubUsh something — in spite of all this, he never had any- 
thing ready to hand that need only have been shown in order to be printed 
at once. Stimulated by a sort of hunger for fresh knowledge, always engaged 
in collecting and writing down scientific facts and discoveries, restless in his 
gathering together notes like a student, and like a busy bee searching through 
all fields of learning, he may have almost felt that the honey was in his posses- 
sion, when the bitter experience was brought home to him that he no longer 
had the power of extracting it. 

The most striking example of this torment of Tantalus, to die of thirst 
in sight of flowing water, is offered by the work that has come down to us 
bodily, and not as a mere bibliographical shadow, viz. the manuscript of 
Mar Keshisha, which is a dictionary of the terminology and methodology of 
the Talmud, in the widest sense of the words. It can be boldly averred that 
seldom has a collection of material for any branch of knowledge been attempted 
in such magnitude, and with such comprehensive observation of all facts 
connected therewith as in this one. 

Whatever his deep research in the oft-repeated journey over the sea that 
was called the Talmud, had brought to the surface, was here collected. Every 
letter, every word, every formula, every rule that was in any way connected 
with the terminology and methods of the Talmud, was here dwelt upon, and 
elucidated with the most extensive reference to the large body of literature 
belonging thereto. Only a personal examination of this material can give any 
idea of the richness of it. Seventy-six quarto leaves are covered with his 
delicate and well-formed handwriting, that looks at first as if it were hope- 
lessly confused, but in reahty is wonderfully clear, and reveals to us the fact 
that the writer was short-sighted. In the history of the study of the Talmud, 
this work ought to have made an epoch by its truthfulness and simplicity, its 
acquaintance with scientific methods, and its merciless severity against all 
useless ingenuity and PilpuUstic disputations. But this treasury with its 

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Jair Chayim Bacharach 



almost immeasurable wealth was scarcely a useful possession even for its 
owner ; it was quite impossible for him to make it accessible to others. His 
eye hardly retained the power to penetrate this forest that had grown round 
the text in the course of years in the form of glosses ; he was too weak and 
infirm to enter once again upon the researches, the results of which were here 
hinted at with extreme brevity rather than fully described, and to re-tread 
the path which he had traversed long ago. As the ominous title foreboded, 
he had become " the old man " who no longer had the strength to lift 
up the treasures that a hfe of unceasing industry and self-denial had accumu- 
lated. 

Whilst in this condition, the only evidences of any healthy interruption 
in the progress of his activity in constantly acquiring new knowledge, were 
the public decisions, now the sole memorials of his productive labour, that 
were evoked from him by numerous questions from all sides. Through this 
channel he had an opportunity of displaying his rich store, which, thanks to 
the clearness of his index, he was easily able to extract from his Collectanea. 
In innumerable discussions, -pro and con, he had at hand, in his seven principal 
volumes that were fully indexed, the familiar materials for his work, that 
were hke a favourite garden through which he was never too tired to walk. 
With these excellent aids, it was not difficult to indicate to Hirsch Frankel 
and other copyists and amanuenses, among whom we are informed of a R. 
Elisha and R. Samuel, the passages from his Collectanea that were to be 
embodied in his miscellaneous Responsa. 

This collection was to comprise 635 Responsa, the title of which, Chavoth 
Jair, was to equal that number in the numerical value of its letters, and was 
to have the further advantage of combining within itself other noteworthy 
plays upon words. Thus, in contrast to the old works of Responsa that were 
like fortified cities, his modest expressions of opinion were only to be " the 
villages of Jair," and besides alluding to his name Chayim, were to preserve 
the memory of the learned granddaughte r of the High Rabbi Low, the female 
founder of his house, by denoting the author as " the Jair of Eve (Chava)." 
But when only a third part of his Responsa had been printed, and he saw that 
they already formed a goodly volume, he resolved, in consequence of some 
deep-meaning allusions, to issue in the first volume only 238, the numerical 
value of his family name (though on closer inspection, it really amounted to 
242), to which, at the last moment, he added some especially important 
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Records of the Franklin Family 

newly received Responsa of his friend, R. David Oppenheim. The in- 
clusion of the prefaces to his original larger works, as well as of the letters of 
approbation to the Mekor Chayini, and of several references to his Col- 
lectanea, and to the Mar Keshisha, was to furnish some idea of the sum total 
of his hfe's work, even though he was prevented from making public the 
whole of it. 

But it did not require this external indication to enable every clear- 
sighted person to see that with this work a scholar had come forward who was 
thoroughly conversant with every possible branch of learning, and every 
page of whose book bristled with proofs of the fulness of knowledge that was 
at the disposal of the author. What now appeared was something quite new 
and original, a collection of opinions that struck out a line for itself, that was 
independent and exhaustive in the solution of questions, highly suggestive 
in its manner of propounding problems, possessed of a thorough mastery 
over the sources of information, and supported by a remarkable knowledge 
of general literature. A series of auxiliary sciences had here been pressed 
into the service of the study of the Talmud : the spirit of R. Leipman Heller 
was now resuscitated. The general tendency of the whole was no longer 
a display of quibbhng ingenuity, but a dignified erudition, that drew its 
origin from the most hidden sources. Emulating the example of Estori 
Parchi in his knowledge of the historical sciences, he again discussed the coins 
and weights and measures of the Talmud ; following Joseph del Medigo he 
treated of mathematics and astronomy with the acumen of the specialist, 
and through the thoroughness and richness of his observations he started 
a new school in the study of the Talmud. In the midst of these Talmudic 
Responsa, he revealed a mind that was equally at home in problems of rehgious 
philosophy as in the mysteries of the Cabbala, and that had passed the school 
of secular culture in general and the study of natural science in particular. 
An implacable enemy to Pilpul, he disarmed all opposition by his profound 
knowledge of the sources of his statements, a knowledge that enabled 
him to point out, even to great scholars, what they had overlooked or said 
incorrectly. 

A glance through his volumes of Collectanea suggested all sorts of important 
additions, some of which he determined to subjoin to his first volume, but 
of which he decided to reserve the greater part for the second, that was 
to include the remainder of his Responsa, but which never appeared. The 

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Jair Chayim Bacharach 



house of Oppenheim in Vienna, Samuel Oppenheim and his sons Emanuel 
and Wolf, in conjunction with Samson Wertheimer, defrayed the expenses 
of printing ; and in the spring of 1699 the work issued from the press of the 
Frankfurt printer Johannes Wust. 

Owing to his feeble health and consequent need of rest Bacharach had not 
troubled to obtain testimonials from strangers, though he could readily have 
procured them from all sides. He limited himself to his friends in Frankfurt. 
R. Gabriel Eskeles, of Metz, who, as a descendant of the High Rabbi Low, was 
his kinsman, and who was just then staying in Frankfurt (1698) whilst on a 
journey ; R. David Oppenheim, in Nicolburg, and R. Samson Wertheimer, in 
Vienna, both of whom had heard of his work of Responsa from Worms — 
these were the only strangers whose warm expressions of approval he prefixed 
to his book. Joseph Samuel b. Zebi, the Rabbi in Frankfurt, led the way, 
and R. Samuel Cohen Schotten and Naphtali Herz Gans ended the list of 
friends who signified their esteem for Bacharach by giving their letters of 
approbation to his work. 

It was characteristic of the fate of this man, hardened in misfortunes, 
that the sun just began to rise in the heaven of his life when evening was 
drawing nigh. Now, when his renown was being spread abroad on the wings 
of his book, he had become a prematurely aged man, who had surrendered 
all his once fondly cherished hopes, and had learned that resignation which 
is too often the only guerdon of conscientious toil. Had he been still young 
and strong, he would not have had to wait long for a summons from some 
important community, a reahsation of his hopes, for which he had hitherto 
been fruitlessly longing. For we need not seek the causes of his isolation 
and ill-success in any traits in his character, which the all-effacing hand of 
time might have obliterated. It is at once obvious that this man, whom 
unknown circumstances had condemned to the obscurity of private life, 
after a too brief period of public activity, has been unable to rise again, in 
spite of the appreciation of the best of his contemporaries, without the support 
afforded him by literary fame. His distinguished descent and personal talents 
had not been sufficient to procure for the obscure German a post worthy of 
his merits, at a time when the most eminent Jewish communities chose for 
their Rabbis none but Polish scholars, whose studies began and ended with 
the Talmud. But he had already become reconciled to his fate, and had 
humbly and quietly given up all expectations for the future. If there was any- 

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thing that disturbed him, it was the thought that the continuance of learned 
tradition, the chain of the study of the Law, which had descended in his family 
from father to son, would cease with him, and his intellectual heritage would 
be wasted, and have nobody to accept it. It was for this reason alone, and 
not with any desire for fame, that he rejoiced in the thought that the publi- 
cation of the first volume of his Responsa had secured the safety of at least 
a part of his life's work. 

But his day was not yet destined to draw to a close before he had scattered 
the seeds of his genius in the same furrows in which his father and grand- 
father had laboured. The belief in the re-establishment of the community 
at Worms, that he had foretold and continually nourished, did not prove 
an idle one ; he was to be rewarded for the force of his faithful confidence. 
The Peace of Ryswick had been concluded, and the dispersed citizens and the 
Council that had been deliberating in exile now hurried together to recon- 
stitute a new community from the ruins and desolation of the city. In vain 
had the Lord Palatine and ruling chief justice, Johann Friedrich Seidenbender, 
attempted to keep out all who were not Lutherans from the new town, and 
in the thirty-nine articles of his memorial-letter had especially devised plans 
against the Jews, " how they should be allowed to die out quietly." On the 
13th of June, 1699, the treaty that sealed the admission of the Reformers 
was concluded. Nor could this permission be withheld from the Jews, who, 
thanks to the energetic and influential support they received from Samuel 
Oppenheimer, the Imperial Chief Court-Agent at Vienna, were moreover 
confirmed in all their privileges. With revived courage and warm zeal the 
Jewish community accordingly set about re-establishing themselves. The 
old synagogue, that had become a stable for the horses of the brutal soldiery 
who had burnt the town, and afterwards a granary for the provisions of the 
populace who had taken refuge therein, had first to be attended to, and it 
was even whitewashed inside — an act that their pious scruples had prevented 
them from performing at any other time. The selection of a Rabbi for the 
new community, which was their foremost care, could scarcely have caused 
any serious doubt, or have been open to dispute. They might well consider 
themselves fortunate in having a shepherd close at hand who would take 
charge of the once more assembled flock, and to whom an old debt was still 
owing. With what feehngs must Bacharach have accepted the post to which 
a generation before he had been dedicated by the blessing of his dying father, 

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Jair Chayim Bacharach 

towards which he had in vain brought forward his highest aspirations and 
fullest strength, and which was now bestowed upon him when a mere shadow, 
a wreck of his former self ! Certainly he must have recognised the hand of 
Providence in all this, that allowed him, though late in the day, yet with his 
own eyes to behold the chair of authority that had been sanctified for him by 
the legacy of his father. 

Thus, he had the satisfaction of knowing that not in vain had he dreamed 
of the re-consolidation of the revered and ancient congregation of Worms, 
and of being a witness of its vigorous resurrection, thanks to the resolute 
guidance of its leaders. The spirit of intolerance that was breathed forth, 
both from the council-chamber and the pulpit, against the Jews, could not 
check the process of their re-settlement in the town ; the wardens of the 
synagogue had even the courage in the year 1700 to lodge a complaint with 
the magistrates against the inflammatory sermons of the parish priest, Johann 
Heinrich Mehl, and thus to preserve at least the appearance of justice, though 
so far from obtaining the reahty, they were compelled by the Government 
to apologise to the clergyman in question. 

But it was to be sufficient for Bacharach to have passed the borders of 
his promised land, and to see only the beginning of the realisation of that 
which he had so earnestly longed for. After a short period of activity, on 
the ist of January, 1702, in the sixty-fifth year of his age, death withdrew 
him from his congregation. Enfeebled by illness from his childhood, his 
strength consumed by grief, having been almost compelled to still his biting 
sorrow by incessant and exhausting mental labour, he had grown aged, before 
he had reached advanced years, and had spent all his powers by the time he 
had begun to require them for prosperous activity. True it is that both his 
epitaph, and the " memorial for his soul " that was set up for him in Worms, 
prove that people began, after his death, to recognise what they had lost in 
him, though they had not known how to keep possession of him, but the 
ill-fated star that had shed such a gloomy light over his whole hfe pursued 
him even beyond the grave. The distressing anxiety about the writings he 
would leave behind him, that had disturbed his last years, has proved itself 
to be well founded, for the rich intellectual treasures that all his life long he 
had accumulated and guarded with so much affection, have been scattered 
to the four winds, and become a prey to the destructive elements. But even 
if he has not come down to posterity with all the ripe produce of his life's 

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Records of the Franklin Family 

work, nevertheless he has become so deeply impressed upon their memory 
as to have his name preserved as one of the most prominent men of genius, 
one of the most important phenomena among the German Jews of the seven- 
teenth century, who, though having his nature deeply rooted in the past, 
was still in advance of his time, and who will always be regarded as the fore- 
runner of the study of Judaism in a historical and scientific spirit. 

David Kaufmann.