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tihvaxy of Che trheological ^eminarjo 



Rev. C.W. Mateer, 
Tungchow, China^ 
Oct. 1^ '78 

BV 3415 .P78 1878 ^ 

General Conference of the 

Protestant Missionaries of 
Records of the General 

Conference of the 


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^^on/cic/icc , /oc afj/icAu/cofi fn/io/fy /Ae tcaa= 
(n^ Q/A/:oAoruca^ (2/6^Hcnaccf\> ana ^oi/facj^ od 
^uioAo ana Gcjnciica. Q/A aecoiaance w//A 

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iifcP 19 1975 




Shanghai, May 10-24, 1877 

S H A X G 11 A I : 



ri^HE General Conference of Missionaries which held its session in 
-*- Shanghai from the 10th to the 24th May, 1877, resolved to publish 
its proceedings in a book, and appointed a Committee of iive to edit it. 

Two members of the Conference, — Rev. M. T. Yates, D.D., and Rev, 
C. W. !Mateer, — having volunteered to assume the whole expense of pub- 
lication, and to trust to the sale of the book for their reimbursement, one 
great difficulty was thereby disposed of, and the way paved for carrying 
on the work. Accordingly, ari*angements wei-e made at the Presbyterian 
Mission Press in Shanghai, to proceed with the publication as early 
and rapidly as practicable. 

As only three members of the Editorial Committee resided in Shang- 
hai, the details of preparing the manuscripts for the press and correcting 
the proofs necessarily devolved on them. The quantity and variety of 
these manuscripts and the condition of some of them made it requisite 
that not only time and care should be expended on them, but that some 
responsibility also should be assumed in order to do justice to the book. 

There are t^-pographical errors which must be charged to the Shang- 
hai members of the Editorial Committee, not to the compositors or printers, 
all of whom are Chinese, — a fact, by the way, which though very inter- 
esting in itself, did not tend to insure freedom from errors in English type 

The time taken for the publication of these Records may to some 
persons seem long, and therefore it is right to say, that the paper on 
which this book is printed had not only to be ordei-ed from England, 
but to be made after it was ordered ; and, further, that many of the man- 
uscripts, which were carried away from the Conference by their owners 
to be perfected and returned, were late in getting back to Shanghai; 
(five essays and forty-one speeches were not returned ; ) and lastly, the 
lithographing of the maps with which the volume is illustrated required 
more time than had been anticipated. 

For the drafting of those maps, which add much to the interest and 
value of the book, we are indebted to the handy skill of the Rev. L. W. 
Kip, of Amoy. 

To the Rev. S. L. Baldwin, of Foochow, one of the Secretaries of the 
late Conference, and the Rev. C. W. Mateer of Tungchow we owe the 
preparation of the Introduction, and, to the former of these two, other 
useful items of the book. 


To tlie Rev. J. W. M. Faruliam of Shanghai, aided by Mr. Dyer, 
must be credited most of the tabulated statistics of Protestant Missions, 
which are the result of no little patient and painstaking- labour. 

To the Rev. W. S. Holt, Superintendent of the Press, we would make 
our acknowledgments for his uniform courtesy and accommodation in 
helping on the work. 

And now that the work is done and our trust has been discharged, 
the book is sent out in the earnest hope that it may, by God's blessing 
be made to serve the cause of Christian Missions among the heathen, and 
thus give ample proof that the time which we have spent on it has not 
been spent in vain. 

M. T. Yates. ^ 

R. Nelson. [• Editorial Committee. 

E. R. Barrett. ) 

Shanghai, Febm-nry 1st, 1878. 


Page 203 Line 42, For "Rev. S. L. Baldwin, A. M. E. M. Foo- 
CHOW," read "Rev. C. C. Baldwin, D.D., A.B.C.F.M. Foochow." 
The first Line of Page 245, should be the first Line of Page 248. 
Page 240 Line 1, before "Holy Ghost," insert "have been sur- 
rounded on every hand, by temptations and trials far beyond." 
„ 304, For "Mat 19th," read "May 18th," and for "Morning 

Session," read "Afternoon Session." 
„ 466, Line 15, for 37th, read 47th. 



Preliminary Committees. 
List of Members of Conference 

Absti'act of Proceedings 

Committees appointed 

Resolutions passed 








Sermon ■ 

The Holy Spirit in connection with our work. ... 
Entire Consecration essential to Missionary Success, 

The Field in all its Magnitude 

Buddhism and Taoism in their Popular Aspects, ... 


Preaching to the Heathen, Matter and Manner. 


Itineration far and near 


Medical Missions 


Feet Binding 


Woman's work for woman 


.. 32 

.. 45 

.. 55 

.. 62 

.. 71 

.. 1Q 

.. 83 

.. 93 

... 107 

.. 114 

.. 126 

.. 132 

.. 137 


.. 152 



"^ Relation of Protestant Missions to education IGOi- 

Day Schools 180 

Boys' Boarding Schools 188 

Discussion 196 

Christian Literature, what has been done and what is needed . . . 203 

^ Importance of a Vernacular Cliristian Literature 213 

Discussion 219 

Secular Literature 227 

Discussion ..^. ^^ 235 

Standard of Admission to full Church Membership 241 

Discussion. 251 

The Best Means of Elevating the Moral and Spiritual Tone of the 

Native Church 255 

Discussion 267 

The Duty of the Foreign Residents aiding in the Evangelization of 

China, and the Best Means of doing so 272 

Discussion 279 

Self-Support of the Native Church 283 

Discussion 203 

The Native Pastorate 299 

Discussion 315 

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Employment of Native 

Assistants 323 

Discussion 333 

How shall the Native Church be stimulated to more aggressive 

Christian work 338 

Discussion 347 

The Use of Opium and its Bearing on the Spread of Christianity 

in China.... 352 

Discussion. 362 

Ancestral Worship 367 

Questionable Practices connected witli J^Iarriiige and Funeral 

Cei'emonies „;. ., 387 

Discussion 396 

The Treaty rights of native Christians, and the duty of J^lissionaries 

in regard to their vindication 407 

Discussion ... 413 

Principles of Translation into Chinese 418 

Discussion 426 

Should the native Churches in China be united Ecclesiastically and 

Independent of Foreign churches and Societies 429 



Indequacy of the present means for the Evangelization of China, and 


the necessity of co-operation on the part of the d 


The Training of a Native Agency 


Closing Exercises of the Conference, 





I. — Girls' Boarding Schools, 

II. — Reports of Committees, 

III. — Statistical Tables of Protestant Missions in China, 
IV. — Statistical Tables of Roman Catholic Missions in China 



' ,, -^^y Of 



The Conference whoso proceedings are contained in the following 
pages had its origin in connection with the meeting of the Presbyterian 
Synod of China at Chefoo, in August 1871i. There were present on that 
occasion, not only the members of the Synod, but also delegates from 
several of the other Presbyterian bodies represented in China, who came 
together for the purpose of consulting as to the propriety of bringing 
about a closer union between the several members of the Presbyterian 
family in China. 

This gathering, together with the resident missionaries of different 
missions, and a few others who were in Chefoo for the purpose of recruit- 
ing their health, made a goodly assembly of missionaries from the differ- 
ent parts of China, and the occasion was improved for holding a series of 
evening meetings, partly to hear reports of the work from different mis- 
sion stations, and partly for the discussion of questions of common inter- 
est connected with the mission work. 

It was during these meetings that the subject of a General Confer- 
ence of all the Protestant Missionaries in China came up. The proposi- 
tion met with the hearty approval of nearly all the missionaries then pre- 
sent in Chefoo. Several meetings were held for the discussion of the 
subject. The result of these discussions was that a Committee, consist- 
ing of Rev. J. L. Nevius D.D., Rev. A. Williamson, LL.D, and Rev. J. 
B. Hartwoll, was appointed, with instructions to draw up a circular and 
send it to all the Protestant Missionaries in China, stating the object 
proposed, and requesting their views as to the propriety and practicabil- 
ity of such a Conference, the time and place most convenient for holding 
it, the subjects most suitable for discussion, and the names of persons 
best qualified to write on given subjects. The circular was issued in due 
time, and in addition to the above, it recommended tlie local Conferences 
throughout China to take up the subject, and if the proposal was favour- 
ably received by them, to appoint a person to act on a Committee of 
Arrangements to be composed of one from each coast province and one 
from the Mission Stations on the Tangtsze. 

The answers to their circular, received by the Chefoo Committee 
brought before them a great variety of views and suggestions bearing on 
the whole subject, including an extensive list of subjects proposed for 
discussion. Some opposed the Conference, others were doubtful of any 
good results commensurate with the time and expense involved, but the 
majority strongly favored the project. Some stations, however, failed to 
respond and others misunderstood some points in the circular. The 
Committee felt unable to decide the matter and bo issued another circular 


containing a summary of replies, and subjects suggested, and asked a new 
and full vote. When replies to this circular were received they published 
a summary of the result in the May-June number of the Chinese Recorder 
for 1875, in which they advised the holding of the Conference and 
eummoned the Committee of Arrangements to meet. 
The Committee of Ari'angements consisted of 

A. Wylie, Esq., representing Hongkong and the Province of Canton^ 
Rev. C. Douglas , LL.D, representing Formosa and the Province 
of Fokien. 
,, J. Butler, representing the Province of Chekiang. 

„ W. Muirhead, ,, „ ,, ,, Kiangsu. 

,, G. John, „ ,, Yangtsze Porta. 

,, C. W. Mateer, ,, Newchwang and the Province of 

,, J. Edkins, „ the Province of Chihli. 

Five of the seven members of this Committee met according to ap. 
pointment in Shanghai, on the 25th of October, 1875. After examining 
the materials in their possession, consisting of a large amount of public 
and private coi-respoudence handed over to them by the Provisional Com- 
mittee, and availing themselves of the personal knowledge of the differ- 
ent members of the Committee, it was found that fully two thirds of all 
who had expressed their views on the subject, were in favor of the Conference. 
In view of this fact, the Committee unanimously resolved to invite the Pro- 
testant Missionaries in China to meet in a General Conference at Shanghai 
on the 10th day of May, 1877, and proceeded to make arrangements ac- 
cordingly. They drew up a programme of exercises extending over a 
period of eleven days, consisting of the subjects for each day and the 
names of persons selected to write upon them. The programme thus drawn 
up was substantially carried out. For various reasons a few changes, 
especially in the names of writers, were subsequently made by correspond- 
ence between the several members of the Committee. 

They aopointed local Committees to consult the Missionaries in 
Shanghai and make with them suitable arrangements for the entertain- 
ment of the Conference — also to procure if possible a reduction of fare 
from the several steamship Companies — also to procure a suitable place 
for holding the meetings, and to make provision for defraying the 
expenses of the Conference. In all these matters the local Committees 
were eminently successful, and their labors, seconded by the generous 
hospitality of the Shanghai missionary community, contributed much 
towards Becuring a large attendance, and making the Conference a 

They also appointed a Committee representing the two parts of the 
long standing controversy on the terms for God and Spirit, to whom 
they committed the whole subject with instructions to report to the 
Conference This Committee ooueisted of Right Rer. Bishop Rnseell, T).D. 


Rov. J. L. Ncvins, D.D., and Rev. JI. IJlodgct, D.D., of tlio one part, and 
Rev. Johu Chalmers, Rev. R. Lcchler and Rev. Chas. Hartwell of 
the other. 

Tlie Committee also drew up an address to the several lioards and 
Missionary (Societies represented in China, setting forth the desirableness 
of the Conference, and asking their co-operation and assistance. 

Having made these arrangements the Committee drew up a circular 
letter addressed to their constituent-!, detailing their action and then ad- 
journed to meet five days before the Conference, to make any further pre- 
liminary arrangements that seemed necessary. 

As Roou as the holding of the Conference was announced and the 
programme published, a perceptible change came over the attitude of those 
who had hitherto stood aloof from the undertaking. Many who took no 
interest in the project at first, now seconded it warmly and did all in their 
power to promote the object in A'iew. 

At many of the mission stations, long before the time of meeting, the 
Conference was made a subject of special prayer, that the spirit of har- 
mony and love might prevail in all its deliberations, and that the occasion 
might be made a season of rich spiritual blessing to all in attendance. 
Much time was also given to public and private prayer during the 
sessions, and to this prayerful spirit, more than to any other cause, we 
may a.scribe the delightful harmony and real brotherly kindness which 
pervaded all the meetings of the Conference. 

Subjects upon which there existed a wide ditference of opinion, and 
the discussion of which many feared would create unpleasant feelings, 
and disturb the harmony of the body, were brought forward and dis- 
cussed in a calm and Chi-istian spirit, to the delight and edification of all. 

The Conference has now passed into history, but its iiiHuence for 
good will continue to be felt for many years in the laission work in China, 
and will we trust and believe, greatly redound to the glory of God. The 
delightful fraternal intercourse to which it gave occasion, and the many 
endearing friendships then formed, will long be cherished as a sacred 
memory by all who were present. The substantial result of the Con- 
ference is this goodly volume of essays and discussions. It is believed 
that these Records of the first General Conference of Protestant Mission- 
aries in China, comprising, as they do, so many essays by able and exper- 
ienced missionaries, together with the discussions on the same, giving 
the varying, sometimes opposing, views of others equally interested in 
the common work, will constitute a treasury of materials from which 
present and future missionaries may draw stores of valuable information ; 
also that the circulation of these Records at home will disseminate much 
important information and be instrumental in creating a deeper interest 
in China as a mission field. 


I. — The Chef 00 Committee. 

[Appointed by a meeting of Missionaries at the time of the session 
of the Presbyterian Synod at Chefoo, August, 1874.] 

The Rev. J. L. Nevius, D.D. 

The Rev. Alex. Williamson, LL.D. 

The Rev. J. B. Hartwell. 

II. — The Goviinittec of Arrangements. 

[Chosen by the J^Iissionaries of the Different Provinces in response 
to the invitation of the Chefoo Committee.] 

The Rev. Carstairs Douglas, LL.D., Fokien, (Chairman.) 

The Rev. John Butler, Chekiang, (Secretary.) 

The Rev. William Muirhead, Kiangsu. 

The Rev. Griffith John, Hupeh. 

The Rev. C. W. Mateer, Shantung. 

The Rev. J. Edkins, D.D., Chili. 

Alexander Wylie, Esq., acting for Kwantnng. 

III. — The Committee on 2'erms. 

[Appointed by the Committee of Arrangements.] 

The Rt. Rev. W. A. Russell, D.D. 
The Rev. R. Lechler. 
The Rev. H. Blodget, D.D. 
The Rev. Charles Hartwell. 
The Rev. John Chalmers.* 
The Rev. J. L. Nevius, D.D. 

Eev. J. Chalmers subsequently declined to net and the remaining two members of 
the same part appointed Rev. J. Edkins, D.D., to take his place. Rev. J. L. Nevius, 
D.D., was providentially prevented from attending the Conference, and when 
during the sessions of the Conference the Committee were about to meet to pro- 
pare tlieir report, the remaining two members of the eamo part appointed Rev. 
C. W. Mateer to act in his place. 

E F. C O Pt D S 


0")cmTal (Conference of the |;int Pifi.'ii onirics of Chimt, 


SH-A-I^C3-ia:-A.I, l^J^l^ 10-24, 1877. 

jViEMBERS OF Conference. 


S. P. Barchct. M.D., ... 
Rev. M. A. Churchill,... 
Miss A. M. Fielde, 
Rev. J. R. Goddard, ... 

„ E. C. Lord, D.D., 

„ S. B. Partridge, .. 


Rev. L. H. Guli<k. M.D., 






Rev. H. Blodget, D.D., 
„ C'hauiicey Goodrich, 
,, Charles Uartwell, 

Mrs. Hartwell, .. A. M. Pavsou, 

Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, 
„ C. A. Stanley, 
„ S. F. Woodin, 


Rev. S. L. Baldwin, 

„ V. C. Hart, 
Mrs. Hart, 
Rev. N. J. Plumb, 
Mrs. Plumb, 
Miss B. Woolston, 

„ S. H. Woolston, 


Miss L. M. Fav, 
Rev. R. Nelson, D.I)., 
Mrs. Nelson, 
Miss Mary C. Nelson, 
Rev. E. H. Thomson, . 
Mrs. Thomson, .. 


Rev. John Butler. 











Rev. Samnel Dodd, 

Mrs. Dodd, 

Miss C. B. Powiiing, 

Rev. J. M. ^Y. Farnliam 

Mrs. Farnhiua,... 

Rev. a. F. Ii'itch, 

Mrs. Fitch, 

A. Gordon, Esq., 

Miss F. E. Harshberger, 

Rev. W. S. Holt, 

Mrs. Holt, 

Miss A. P. Ketchum, .. 
Rev. C. Leaman, 

„ J. A. Leyeirberger 

„ I). ]Sr. Lyon, 
Mrs. Lyon, 
Rev. C. W. Mateer, .. 

„ C. R. Mills, 

,, J. S. Roberts, 
Mrs. Roberts, ... 

,, Shaw, 
Rev. A. Whiting, 
Mrs. Whiting, . . . 


Rev. J. V. X. Talmage, D.D., 



Rev. T. P. Crawford, ... 

Mrs. Crawford, 

Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., 

„ M. T. Yates, D.D., 
Mrs. Yates, 









Uangclwiv . 







Gatiion . 


Rev. Y. J. Allen, 
Mrs. Allen, 
Rev. J. W. Lambuth, 
Mrs. Lambuth,... 
Rev. A. P. Parker, 


Rev. H. C. DuBose, 
Mrs. DuBose, .. 
Rev. B. Helm, ... 
Miss Kirkland, 
G. W. Painter, Esq., 
Mrs. Randolph, 
Miss A. C. Safford, 
Rev. J. L. Stuart, 
Mrs. Stuart, ... 









Rev. R. Lechler, 



A. Wylii-, Ks.[.. 


Mr. F. W. Haller. 
Mrs. BfiUer, 
'Mr. A. W. Donthwaite, 
Mrs. DoiitliWiiito, 
.\Ii.'<s HulHTty, 

,, Knight, 

., J. H. Miniav. 
Mr. G. Parker. " 

.. K. IVarsf, 
^Irs. Pearsc, 
Mr. G. Stoft. 
Mm. Stott, 

Kov. J. H. Tavlor, M.D., 
Mr. M. H. Taylor, 
Miss ^Vilsoll, 


Kc'v. J. Bates. 

,, F. F. Gougli, 
Mrs. Goui^h, 
Rov. J. d Hoare, 
Miss M. Laurence, 
Rev. A. K. Moule, 

„ R. Palmer, 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Russell, 
Rev. R. W. Stewart, ... 
Mrs. Stewart, ... 
Rev. .1. 1). Valentine, .. 
Mi's. Valentine, 


Rev. Thomas Barclay,... ... 

Rev. Cai'stairs Douglas, LL.D. 
H. L. Matkenzie, 


Rev. R. Swallow 

Mrs. Swallow, .. 


Rev. 1). lliU, 

A. W. Nightingale, 







Honan Province. 







Tai-wan, Foinosa. 





Rev. E. R. Barrett, 

Mrs. BaiTett, ... 

!Miss Bear, 

Rev. Thomas Bryson, . 
,, E. J. Dukes, 
„ J. Edkins, D.D.,. 

Mrs. EdkinB, 







Rev. A. Foster, 

,, Griffith Jolin, 
Mrs. John, 

Rev. William Muirhead, 
Mrs. Muirhead, 


Rev. Alexander Williamson, LL.D.,... 


Mr. S. Dyer, . . . 
Mrs. Dyer, 
Miss Mary Jones, 
Miss Fannie Lord, 





Alphabetical List of M.embehs. 

The following abbreviations are nsed in this List : — 
A. B. C. F. M. — American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 

A. B. M. U. — American Baptist Missionary Union. 

A. B. S. — American Bible Society. 

A. M. E. ]\I. — American Methodist Episcopal Mission. 

A. P. E. M. — American Protestant Episcopal Mission. 

A. P. M. — American Presbyterian Mission. 

A. R. C. M. — American Reformed Church Mission. 

A. S. B. C— American Southern Baptist Convention. 

A. S. M. E. M. — American Southern JNFethodist Episcopal Mission. 

A. S. P. M. — American Southeni rresbytcrian Mission. 

B. M. S, — Basel Missionary Society. 

C. I. M. — China Inland Mission. 

C. M. S. — Church Missionary Soci'jty. 

E. P. M. — English Presbyterian Mission. 

E. U. M. F. C— English United Methodist Free Churcli. 

E. W. M. — English Wesleyan Mission. 

L. M. S. — London Missionary Society. 

S. P. G. — Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

S. U. P. M. — Scotch United Presbyterian Mission. 






Allen, Rev. T. J 


A. S.M.E.M. 






Baldwin, Rev. S. L. 


A. M. E. M. 


Bailer, P. W 


C. I. M. 


„ Mrs 




Barchet, S. P., M.D 


A. B. M. U. 


Barclay, Rev. T. ... 


E. P. M. 


Barrett, Rev. E. R 


L.M. S. 


„ Mrs 











Bates, Rev. J 


C. M. S. 


Bear, Miss 


L. M. S. 


Blodget, Rev. H.. D.l) 


A.B. C. F.M. 


Brvsoii, Rev. T. 


L. M. S. 


Butler, Rev. J 


A. P. M. 


Chuirhill, Rov. M. .\ 


A. B. M. U. 

Slid II king. 

Cmwfonl, Rev. J. 1* 


A. S. B. C. 





Dodd, Rev. S 


A. P. M. 


„ Mrs 




Douglas, Rev. C, LL.l)., 


E. P. M. 

A may. 

Douthwaite, A. W 


Downing, Miss C. B 


C. I. M. 

J a- chow. 


A. P. M. 


DuBose, Rev. H. C 


A. S. P. M. 






Dukes, Rev. E. J 


L. M. S. 


Dyer, S 




„ Mrs 




Edkins, Rev. J., D.D 


L. M. S. 






Famham, Rev. J. M. W 


A. P. M. 





Fay, Miss L. M 


A. P.'e. M. 


Fielde, Miss A. M 


A. B. M. U. 


Fitch. Rev. G. F 


A. P. M. 


„ Mrs 

Foster, Rev. A 


L. M. S. 


Goddard, Rev. J. R 


A. B. M. U. 


Goodrirh, Rev. C 


A. B.C. F.M. 


Gordon, A 


A. P. M. 


Gough, Rev. F. F 


C. M. S. 


„' Mi-s 




Graves, Rev. R. IJ., M.D 


A. S. B. C. 


Gulick, Rev. L. H., M.D 


A. B. S. 


Harshberger, F. E 


A. P. M. 


Hart, Rev. V. C 


A. M. E. M. 


„ Mrs 

Hartwell, Rev. C 


A.B. C. F.M. 


„ !Mrs 




Helm, Rev. B 


A. S. P. M. 


Hill, Rev. D ... 


e. W. M. 


Uoai-e, Rev. J. C 


C. M. S. 


Holt, Rev. W. S 


A- P. M. 


» Mrs 




Huberty, Miss 


C. I. M. 


ali'Uauktioal list of membkus. 


John, Rev. G 

„ Mrs 

Jones, Miss Mary 

Ketchiim, Miss A. P 

Kirklaiid, Miss 

Knight, Miss 

Lambuth, Rev. J. W. 

,, Mrs 

Laurence, Miss M 

Leaman, Rev. C 

Lec'hler, Rev. R 

Levenberger, Rev. J. A 

LoVd, Rev. E. C, D.I) 

Lord, Miss Fannie, 

Lvon, Rev. D. X 

'„ Mrs 

Mackenzie, Rev. H. L 

Mateer, Rev. C. W 

Mills, Rev. C. R 

Monle, Rev. A. E 

^luirhead, Rev. AV 


Murray, Miss J. H 

Nelson, Rev. R., D.D 


„ Miss Mary, 

Nightingale, Rev.' E. W 

Painter, G. W 

Palmer, Rev. R 

Parker, Rev. A. P 

Parker, G 

Partridge, Rev. S. B 

Pay.son, ]\[iss A. M 

Pearse, K 

„ Mrs 

Plumb, Rev. N. J 

,, Mrs 

Randolph, Mrs. A. E. 
Roberts, Rev. J. »S. 


Russell, Rt. Rev. W. A., D.D. 

SafEord, Miss A. C 

Scott, Rev. C. P 

Shaw, Mrs. M. H 

Sheffield, Rev. D. Z. 





















L. M. S. 

A. P. M. 

A. S. P. M. 

C. I. M. 

A. S. M.E.M 

C. M. S. 

A. P. M. 

B. M. S. 
A. P. M. 

A. B. M. U. 


A. P. M. 

E. P. M. 
A. P. M. 

C. M. S. 

L. M. S. 

C. i'. M. 
A. P. E. M. 

E. W. M. 

A. S. P. M. 

C. M. S. 

A. S. M. E. M. 

C. I. M. 

A. B. M. U. 

A. B. C. P. M. 

C. I. M. 

A. M."e. M. 

A. S. P. M. 
A. P. M. 

C. M. S. 

A. S. P. M. 

S. P. G. 

A. P. M. 

A. B. C. F. M. 
















Shcfn glial. 















AI.rilAHhlK'Ar, fJST nf MK.M(!i:i;S. 


Stanley, R^v. C. A. .. 
Stewart, Rev. R. W. 

„ Mrs 

Stott, G 

„ Mrs 

Stuart, Rev. J. L. ... 

„ Mrs 

Swallow, Rev. R. 


Talniage, Rev. J. V. X.. 
Taylor, Rev. J. H., M.I). 

TaVlor, M. H 

Thomson, Rev. E. H. 

Valentine, Rev. J. D. 


Whiting, Rev. A. ... 


Williamson, Rev. A., LL 

Wilson, Miss 

Woodin, Rev. S. F. ... 

AVoolston, Miss B. ... 

,, Miss S. H. 

Wylie, A 

Yates, Rev. M. T., D.D. 
„ Mi's 




IS csmA. 






1862. A. B. 0. F. M. 

1870. r. ^l. s. 

c. i. y\. 

A. .S.'V. M. 




1875. 1 

1874. JE. U. xM. F. C. 


A. R. C". ^r. 
C. 1. M. 

A. P. K. M. 
1864. ' C. M. S. 

A. V. ^\. 






Jl'iinich >>r. 





Sici iihinij. 



S. U. P. M. 

C. J. ]\r. 
A. B.C. F.M. 
A. M. E. M. 





B. F."b. S. 



A. S. B. C. 










Baldwin, Rev. C. C, D.D 


A. B. C. F. M. 


Butcher, Very Ucv. C. H., D.D. ... 


Brit. Chaplain 


Corbett, Rev. H 


A. P. M. 


Gauld, W., M.D 


E. P. M. 


Happer, Rev. A. P., D.D 


A. P. M. 


Kerr, J. G., M.D 



OaJdaml, C. 

Legge, J.. D.D., LL.D 


L. M. S. 


Macgregor, Rev. W. 


E. P. M. 


:Martin. Rev. W. A. P.. D.D. LL.D. 


Peking Univ. 

T eking. 

f>ites, Rev. X ... ... 

« — ^».* 


A. M. E. M. 



-[Honorary ^embers. 

C. P. Bletlien, Esq., 

D. Cranston, Esq., 
Mi's. Cranston, 
J. Fryer, Esq., . .. 
J. Johnston, M.D., 
J. Kavanagli, Es^q., 
D. B. McCartee, M.D., 
Mrs. McCartee, 

D. J. Macgovvan, M.D., 
Mrs. Mac go wan, 
C. Sclimidt, Esq., 
Rev. Wang Chai, 
T. Weir, Esq.,... 
Mrs. Weir, 

E. Wheatlej, Esq., 

Analysis of M.embers Attending the Conference, 

Total number of members — Gentlemen, 

Ladies, ... 

Honorary members, ... 

Grand Total, 








American Presbyterian, 

,, Southern Presbyterian, 

,, Board, 

,, Methodist Episcopal, 

,, Protestant Episcopal, 

„ Baptist, 

,, Southern Baptist, ... 

,, Methodist Episcopal Church South, 

,, Reformed Church, .. 

,, Bible Society, 


China Inland, ,.,., 

Church Missionary Society,' ... ., 
London Missionary Society, ... 

English Presbyterian, 

,, Wesleyan, 

United Methodist Free Church, 
Society for Propagation of Gospel, 
United Presbyterian Church of Scotland, 
British and Foreign Bible Society, 
Unconnected with any Society, 








52 I 126 


















































Presbyterians, ... 

Episcopalians, ... 





Unconnected, . . . 




American Societies, 
English Do. 

Gei-man J)o. 

Unconnected, ... 











Shanghai, May lOfh, 1877. 
The General Conference of the Protestant Missionaries of China as- 
sembled at Temperance Hall, Shanghai, at 11 A.M., when the opening 
sermon was preached by the Rev. J. V. N. Talmage, D.D., of jSmioy, 
from Matt. 28 : 18-20. 


2.30 P.M. 

The Conferenco met for organization. The Rev. Carstairs Douglas, 
LL.D., of Amoy, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, called the 


meeting to order, and requested the Rev. John Butler, of Ningpo, Secret- 
ary of the Committee, to call the roll of members. (See the List of 

In accordance with the recommendation of the Committee of Arrange- 
ments two Chairmen, two Secretaries and a Treasurer wei'e chosen. The 
following persons were duly elected : — 

CHAiEMEN.^The Rev. 'Robert Nelson, D.D., of Shanghai. 
The Rev. Carstairs Douglas, LL.D., of Amoy. 

Secketaeies.— The Rev. S. L. Baldwin, of Foochow. 
The Rev. John Butler, of Ningpo. 

Treasurer. — The Rev. William Muirhead, of Shanghai. 

Rules for the Guidance of Business were adopted, the appointment 
of Committees ordered, and a resolution of thanks to the Committee of 
Arrangements passed. (See Res. I.). 

The Rev. William Muirhead then read resolutions of welcome to the 
Conference, which had been adopted by the missionaries of Shajjghai. 

The organization of the Conference being completed, the Rev. 
Griffith John, of Hankow, read a paper on "the Holy Spirit in Connection 
with our work," which was followed by appropriate devotional exercises. 


The Conference met at Union Chapel, and the Rev. Robert Nelson, 
D.D., of Shanghai, read a paper on " Entire Consecration essential to 
Missionary Success." 

The Chairman announced the names of the Committees on Business 
and Devotional Services. (See Committees I. and II.). 


Eev. Dr. Douglas presided. Friday, May 11th. — 9.30 A.M. 

Devotional exercises conducted by the Rev. C. R. Mills, of Tung- 
chow. A paper on "The Field of Labor in all its Magnitude" was read 
by the Rev. Alexander Williamson, LL.D., of Chefoo. 

This was followed by a paper on "Confucianism, in its relation to 
Christianity," by the Rev. James Legge, D.D., LL.D., of Oxford Univer- 
sity, which was read by the Rev. William Muirhead, and discussed until 
the hour of adjournment. 

I'lev. Dr. Nelson 2-1 resided. 2.30 P.M. 

The subject of Confucianism was further discussed. 

A paper on "The Popular Aspects of Tauism and Buddhism" was 
read by the Rev. J. Edkins, D.D., of Peking. A general discussion of 
the subjects presented in the paper followed. 

Requests were presented for prayer on behalf of our brethren laboring 
among the sufferers from the famine in Shantung, and for the blessing 
of God upon the work in which they are engaged ; and the Conference 
joined in earnest prayer for those objects. 


liev. Dr. Douglas presided. Saturday, May 12th. — 9.30 A.M. 

Devotional exercises conducted by the Rev. R, Lechler, of Hongkong. 


On motion of tlie Rev. Dr. Talniage, a Committee of seven was 
ordered on tlie division of the field of labor. 

On motion of the Rev. Dr. Williamson a Committee on a system of 
representinfT^ Chinese sounds was ordered. 

A paper on " Preach ing^ to the Heathen" was then read by the Rev. 
William Muirhead, of Shanghai, and was discussed until the hour of 

JRer. Dr. Kt'ls<m ]>res;derJ. 2.30 P.M. 

Papers on the subject of "Itineration" w^ere read by the Rev. B- 
Helm, of Hangc'how, and the Rev. J. H. Taylor, M.D., of Chinkiang; 
and the subject was di.scussed by vai-ious members of the Conference. 

Bev. Dr. Doug] a.f presided 7.30 P.M. 

Devotional e.tei'cises conducted by the Rev. G. John, of Hankow. 

The evening was occupied with further discussion of the subject of 
" Preaching to the Heathen." 

Rev. Dr. Dunghd! prciiJed MoNDAY, May 14^//.— 9.30 A.M. 

Devotional exercises conducted by the Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, M.D., 
of Chinkiang. 

A paper on " ^ledical Missions," by J. G. Kerr, M.D., now of San 
Francisco, was read by the Rev. J. S. Roberts; and a paper on the same 
subject by William Gauld, M.D., of Swatow, was read by the Rev. H. L. 
Mackenzie. The subject was then discussed by several members. 

A paper on the subject of "Feet Binding," by Miss S. H. Woolston, 
of Foochow, was then read by the Rev. S, L. iialdwin, and discus.sed 
until tlie hour of adjournment. 

liec. Dr. Nehton j^re.'iiJcfl. 4.30 P.M. 

Devotions conducted bv the Rev. D. N. ]-yon, of Hangchow. 

The Rev. :Messr8. F. W. Bailer, E. R. Barrett, Thos. Bryson, A. W. 
Douthwaite, A. Foster, D. Hill, C. Leaman, A. W. Nightiiigale, A. P. 
Parker and K. Pearse were appointed Conference Reporters. 

The Rev. Dr. Yates offered resolutions in regard to an appeal to the 
Churches in behalf of China, which wete referred to the Business 

A paper on " Woman's Work for Women," by the Rev. A. P. 
Happer, D.D., of Canton, was then read by the Rev. W. S. Holt. 

Another paper on the same subject, by Mrs. Crawford, of Tnngchow, 
•was read b}- the Rev. T. P. Crawford, and was followed by a general 
discussion of the subject. 

The Chairman announced the Committees on the Division of the 
Field, and on a System for representing Chinese .sounds. (See Commit- 
tees III. and IV.). 

The Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., offered resolutions in regard to meet- 
ings for prayer, which were adopted. (See Res. II.). 



Bev. Dr. Nelson presided. Tuesday, May Ibth. — 9.30 A.M. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. S. L. Baldwin, of Foochow. A 
letter of salutation from the Native Assistants of the American Baptist 
Mission at Swatow was presented. 

Papers on "The Relation of Protestant Missions to Education" were 
read by the Rev. R. Lechier, of Hongkong, and the Rev. C. W. Mateer, 
of Tung-chow. 

A paper on Day Schools was read by the Rev. E. H. Thomson, of 


Bev. Dr. Douglas predded. 4.30 p.m. 

Devotional exercises conducted by the Rev. H. L. Mackenzie, of 

A paper on Girls' Day Schools hj Mrs. Gough, of Ningpo, was read 
by the Rev. E. F. Gough. 

A paper on Boys' Boarding Schools was read by the Rev. S. Dodd, 
of Hargchow. 

A paper on Girls' Boarding Schools, by Miss M. Laurence, of Ning- 
po, was read by the Rev. A. E. Moule. 

The whole subject of education was then discussed. 

The session closed with prayer by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Russell. 


Bev. D>: Nelson presided. Wednesday, May 16th. — 9 A.M. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. D. Hill, of Wu-sueh. 

A paper on "Christian Literature — what has been done, and what is 
needed," by the Rev. C. C. Baldwin, D.D., of Foochow, was read by 
the Rev. S. F. Woodin. 

A paper on "The Importance of a Vernacular Christian Literature, 
with especial reference to the Mandarin," was read by the Rev. Chauncey 
Goodrich, of Peking. 

General discussion of these subjects followed. 

The Rev. S. L. Baldwin offered resolutions concerning the appoint- 
ment of a Committee on Literature, which were referred to the Business 

The Business Committee reported back Dr. Yates' resolutions in 
regard to an appeal to the churches, and they were unanimously adopted. 
(See Res. III.) 

Bev. Dr. Douglas presided. 4.30 p.m. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. R. H. Graves, M. D., of Canton. 

A paper on "Secular Literature," by the Rev. W. A. P. Martin, 
D.D., LL.D., of Peking, was then read by the Rev. William Muirhead. 

The Rev. Y. J. Allen, of Shanghai, delivered an address on the same 
subject, which was then generally discussed. 

A resolution, passed by the ladies of the Conference at their meeting 
to-day, in regard to Homes for Single Ladies, was ordered to be entered 
upon the records. (See Res. IV.) 

AllSiUACr OF l-l!(iOF:i;iiI\(iS. 13 

Ht'solntions of n-speet to tlic memory of (lie lato Mrs. T. C. Doremus, 
of >i'e\v York, passinl hy tlic liulios at tlieir mt-otiiig, were presented to 
the Coiifeivnce, and adopted liy the wliole body. (See Res. V.) 

]!fV. ])r. Xi-lscll pnsnlnJ. 8.30 I'.M. 

The .<<ession was devoted to tlie diseiission of Medieal ^lissions. 


J?av. J)r. Jh'iijhai ].>n'xi'dt'iL Thursday, ^f'll/ IT///. — 9 a.m_ 

Devotions condiu-ted by the Rvv. A. E. Moule, of Hangchow. 

'J'he Jiusiness Committee reported back the resolutions in regard to 
the appointment of a Committee on Literature, and they were unanimous- 
ly ad< pted. (See Res. VI.") 

Tlie Committee on Terms niaile tlieir report, wliieli was unanimously 
adoj)ted. (See Iveport I.) 

T'apers on "The standard of adiiiissidn io Clnneli ]\r{Mnl)ersliip"" were 
rend by the "Kev. .1. W. Lambutli, of Shanjihai. and the Kev. C. A. Stan- 
lev, of Tientsin: and were followed by a general disiussion of the subject. 

Papers on '"The Pest Means of Elevating the Moral and Spiritual 
Tone of the Native Churcli" were read by the Rev. F. ¥. Gongli, of 
Ningpu, and the Jvev. H. L. Mackenzie, of Swatovv. 

Ecv. Dr. prc.<;,h;l 7.30 P.M. 

The subject of elevating the moral and sjiiritual tone of tlie native 
cluirch was generally discu.ssed. 

A ])aper on "The Duty of the Foi"eign Residents to aid in the 
I'lvangeliication of China, and the best means of doing so,"' by the Very 
Rev. Dean Putchcr, of Shanghai, wjis then read by the Rev. A. E. Moule; 
and the subject was discussed until the hour of adjournment. 

J?c'f. Dr. D '« //'t* preo!iI-<J. Fiuday, Mxi/ I8th.~9 A.M. 

Devotional exercises conducted by the Rev. L. II. Gulick, M.D. 

A paper on the subject of "The Self-Support of the native Churches" 
was read by the Rev. S. L. Baldwin, of Foochow ; and was followed b}"- 
geueral discussion. 

A paper on "The Native Pastorate," by the Rev. Hunter Corbett, of 
Chefoo, was then read by the Rev. C. R. Mills. 

A paj)er on the same subject, by the Rev. John Butler, of Ningpo, 
was read in part. 

l{ev. Dr. Xchon presl,hil. 4.30 P.M. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. C. A. Stanley, of T'ientsin. 

On motion of the Rev. Dr. Williamson, a Committee of Three on 
Periodical Literature was ordered ; and the Chairman announced the 
names of said committee. (See Com. VI.) 

The Rev. J. Butler tinished the reading of his paper on "The Native 
Pastorate," and the subject was generally discussed. 


Tlie Committee on a System of Representing Chinese Sounds report- 
ed a resolution, which was unanimously adopted, appointing a Committee 
to arrange such a system. (See Com. VII.) 

On motion of the Rev. B. Helm, tlie preparation of a tract on self- 
support was requested. (See Res. VII.) 


B'r. Dr. Bo^ijlas preshlel. Saturday, Mmj \9th. — 9. a.m. 

Devotions conducted hj Rev. T. Bryson, of Wu-chang. 

The Rev. Dr. Douglas announced the Committee on Literature and 
Statistics. (See Com. VIII.) 

A paper on "The Advantages and Disadvantages of Native Assis- 
tants" was read by the Rev. T. P. Crawford, of Tung-chow. 

A paper on the same subject by the Rev. IST. Sites, of Foochow, was 
read by the Rev. S. L. Baldwin; after whijh a general discussion of the 
subject followed. 

A paper on the question, "How shall the native church be stimulat- 
ed to more aggressive work?"' was then read by the Rev. R. H. Graves, 
M.D., of Canton. 

afternoon session. 
Bev. Dr. Nehoii 2yrcsided. 4.30 p.m. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. E. Pearse, of ]S"ganking. 

The subject of stimulating the native church to more aggressive work 
was generally discussed. 

A paper on "Opium, and its Bearing on the spread of Christianity in 
China," was then read by the Rev. A. E. Moule, of Hangchow. 

A letter from the Rev. A. P. Happer, D. D., of Canton, urging ac- 
tion on this subject, was read. 

The subject was then generally discussed. 

On motion of the Rev. C. A. Stanley, a Committee was ordered, to 
consider and report what action the Conference should take in the mat- 
ter. (See Com. IX.) 


Eev. Dr. Nelson j:) resided. Monday, May 21sf. — 9 a.m. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. J. V. IST. Talmage, D. D., of Amoy. 

A paper on "Ancestral Worship " was read by the Rev. M. T. Yates, 
D. D., of Shanghai. 

A paper on "Questionable Practices connected with Marriage and 
Funeral Ceremonies" was read by the Rev. Charles Hartwell, of Foochow. 

A paper on the same subject by the Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, of T'ung- 
chow, was read by the Rev. Chauncey Goodrich. 

The subjects presented by these papers were then discussed until the 
hour of adjournment. 


Bev. Dr. Douglas ^presided. 430 p.m. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. F. F. Gough, of Ningpo. 

The discussion on ancestral worship, and marriage and funeral cere- 
monies was continued. 

A paper on "the Treaty Rights of Native Christians, and.the Duty 


of MiHsionaries in Heganl to their Vimlicatloii," was read by the Kov. J. 
A. Leyenborger, of Ningpo; and was followed by a general discussion of 
the subject. 


Jiev. Dr. Buuylas in-eiiidc'l. Tl'K.hday, May 22/u/. — ^9 A.M. 

Devotions conducted by the Hev. J. L. Stuart, of Ilangchow. 

A paper on "Principles of Translation into Chinese" was read by 
the Rev. J. S. Roberts, of Shanghai; and was followed by discussion. 

A paj>er on the question, " Should the native churches in China be 
united ecclesiastically, and independent of foreign churches and socie- 
ties?" Was then read by the Rev. J. V. N. Talmage, D.U., of Amoy; and 
was followed by discussion. 

On motion of the Rev. G. F. Fitch, the Rev. William Muirhead was 
appointed a Committee to receive subscriptions in behalf of the Shantung 

Jlev. Dr. Ndson j^resuleiJ. 4.30 P.M. 

Devotions conducted by the Rev. V. C. Hart, of Kiakiang. 

The discussion on the ecclesiastical relations of the native churches 
was continued. 

A pajier on "The Inadequacy of tlic present means for the Evange- 
lization of China, and the necessity' for far greater effort and more 
systematic co-operatimi on the part of different societies, so as to occupy 
tlie whole field," was then read by the Rev. Carstairs Douglas, LL.D., 
of Amoy. 

The subject was then generally discussed. 

The Committee on the division of the field of labor made their 
report, which was unanimously adopted. (See Report II.) 


Jiev. Dr. NiUon. presided. Wednesday, May 2Zrd. — 9 a.m. 

Devotional e.xercises conducted by the Rev. J. R. Goddard, of Ningpo. 

A paper on the '"Training of iS^ative Agents" by the Rev. Wm. 
Maogregor, of Amoy, was then read by the Rev. T. Barclay, of T'ai-wan- 
fu, Formosa; after which the subject was generally discussed. 

A i-esolntion proposed by the Rev. S. L. Baldwin, in regard to the 
omission of the essay and di.scussion on Confucianism from the publish- 
ed recoi'ds, was adopted without a dissenting voice. (See Res. VIII.) 

Resolutions offered by the Rev. Dr. Yates, in regard to the publica- 
tion of the records, were adopted. (See Res. IX.) 

Resolutions offered by the Rev. C. R. Mills, in regard to a map of 
China and statistical tables, were adopted. (See Res. X.) 

liev. Dr. Di>iiijla.t presided. 3 I'.M. 

Devotions coiulucted by^the Rev. S. B. Partridge, of Swatow. 

On motion of the Rev.Y. J. Allen, a Committee was appointed to 
prepare a Tract to set Protestant missionaries and their work in the 
proper light before Chinese officials and literati. (See Com. XII.) 

The Committee on the Opium Trade presented their report, wliich 
was amended aud adopted. (See Report III.) 


On motion of tLc Rev. C. W. Mateer, it was ordered that this report 
be sent bj the Committee on an appeal to the churches, to the various 
cliurch papers, and to the Secretary of the Anglo- Oriental Society for the 
suppression of the Opium Trade. 

The Committee on Literature and Statistics made their report, 
which was adopted. (See Report IV.) 

The Committee on Periodicals made their report, and it was nn- 
animonslv adopted. (See Report V.) 

TheRev. C. W. Mateer and the Eev. M. T. Yates, D.D., proposed 
to the Conference to assume the iinancial responsibility of printing the 
records of the Conference; and their proposition was gratefully accepted. 

The Rev. Dr. Douglas stated that three friends in Great Britain had 
authorized him to draw for $250 in aid of the expenses of the Conference, 
and that he would now place that amount at the disposal of the 

On motion of the Rev. C. W. Mateer, it was resolved that this sura 
be handed to the Editorial Committee, to be used in sending the printed 
records to the principal colleges in Europe and America, and to 
Theological seminaries. 

Her. Dr. NeUoi presided. 8 P.M. 

And conducted the devotional exercises. 

A resolution offered by the Rev. T. P. Crawford, in regard to secur- 
ing from the Bible Societies the printing of Bibles in Chiua, Avifh a 
preface and brief notes, was adopted. (See Res. XI.) 

A resolution offered by the Rev. C. Douglas, LL.D., asking that 
Bible colporteurs be allowed also to sell Tracts was adopted. (See 
Res. XII.) 

The Rev. Dr. Talmage offered a resolution in regard to the papers 
on Native Assistants, which was adopted. (See Res. XIII.) 

The Rev. Dr. Yates offered a lesolution in reference to the appeal to 
the churches, which was adopted. (See Res. XIV.) 

The Rev. B. Helm offered a resolution in regard to Foot-binding, 
which was adopted. (See Res. XV.) 

The Rev. C. R. Mills offered resolutions of thanks, which were 
adopted. (See Res. XIX.) 

The Rev. S. L. JBaldwin offered a resolution to place on record our 
gratitude for the Conference, and the blessings attending it. (See Res. XX.) 

The Rev. C. Douglas, LL.D., offered a resolution in regard to an- 
other Greneral Conference, which was adopted. (See Res. XVIII.) 


Thursday, Maij 24///.— 9.30 a.m. 

Conference held a closing session for united prayer, which was con- 
ducted by Chairmen Nelson and Douglas, and was a specially solemn 
and pi'oiitable .servire. 

A resolution offered by the Rev. G. John, in regard to special united 
prayer on Saturday evenings, was adoiited by unanimous rising vote. 
(See Res. XVI.) 

A resolution offered by the Rev. R. H. Graves, M. D., in regard to a 
day of special prayer for a revival of the work of God in] China, was 
also adopted by unanimous rising vote. (See Res. XVII.) 



Aftt'i- soluitm clusiiig j)r!iy<i- In tlic H(!v. ,1. V. N. Taliuage, D.D., 
the sinfjinrj of the doxolngy, niul (ho 1)enL'(licHon by Chairman Dong-las, 
the First General Cimfeienco of the Protestant Missionaries of China 
adj >mrieil sn'nc die. 


I. -On thk (jr,\Ki:\L MwAGiiMKNi' Of THE Business of the Confer- 
enl'K. — The Kev. William Muirhead, the Rev. Alexander Williamson, 
LL.D., and the Rev. C. W. Mateer. 

II. — Ox Devotioxai, Services. — The Rev. Griffith John and the 
Rev. J. V. N. Talrnage, D. D. 

III. — Ox the Divisiox OF the Field of Labor. — The Rev. Alexander 
Williamson, LL.D., the Rev. R. H. Graves, M. D., the Rev. H. L. Mac 
kenzie, the Rev. Griffith Jolin, the Rev. Henry Blodget, D.D., the Rev. 
S. L. Baldwin and the Rev. F. F. Gough. 


Letters.— The Kev.iS. Edkins, D.D., Mr.A. Wylie, the Rev. F. F. Gough 
and the Rev. S. Dodd.* 

V. — To Prepare an Appeal to the Home Churches : — 
Mr. A. Wylie, of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
Rev. L. H. Guliek, M. D., of the American Bible Society. 
Rev. A.Williamson, LL.D., of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. 
Rev. C. Douglas, LL.D., of the English Presbyteinan Church. 
Rev. C.Goodrich, of the American Board of Commissioners for F. Mission. 
Rev. G. John, of the London Missionary Society. 

Rev. M. T. Yates, D.D., of the Southern Baptist Convention, U. S. A. 
Rev. J. 11. Taylor, M. D., of the China Ldand Mission. 
Rev. J. W. Lambuth, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, U. S. A. 
Rev. E. H. Thomson, of the Protestant Episcopal Church, U. S. A. 
Rev. S. L. Baldwin, of the Metliodist Episcopal Church, U. S. A. 
Rev. J. V. N. Talrnage, D.U., of the Reformed Church, U. S. A. 
Rev. J. R. Goddard, of the I3aptist Missionary Union, U. S. A. 
Rev. C. R. Mills, of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. 
Rev. J3. Helm, of the Southen Presbyterian Chui'ch, U. S. A. 
Rev. D. Hill, of the English Wesleyan Mission. 
Rev. V. V. (Tongh, of the Chnvch ^Missionary Society. 
Hcv. R. Lechler, of the Basel Mission. 

Rev. C. P. Scott, of the Society for th(^ Propagation of the Gospel. 
Rev. W. N. Hall, oF the Methodist New Connection, England. 
Rev. R. Swallow, of the United Methodist Free Church. England. 

VI.— Ox Peimopicat, Litkr.vture.- The Rev. Alexander Williamson, 
LL.D., the Kev. J. Edkins, D.D., and the Rev. Y. J. Allen. 

* This Comm't ten was nppointed to cdD.sider and rcjiorb upon the subject of ;i. 
imiforjn system for rtprcseutin^ Chincso Bouuds in lloaiau letters. Upon their 
recommendation, the Committct.- nuinl>orod VJI was Jippoinuil as a stanfUnp 
Committpp to iirrangr snrh a pynU-m. 


VII. — To Arrange a Uniform System for Representing Chinese 
Sounds with Roman Letters. — The Rt. Rev. J. S. Burdon, D.D., the 
Rev. J. Chalmers, the Rev. C. Doughis, LL.D., the Rev. J. Edkins, D.D., 
the Rev. C. Goodrich, the Rev. R. Lechler and the Rev. S. I. J. Scheres- 
chewsky, D.D. 

VIII. — On General Literature and Statistics : — 

For Shantung. — Rev. Alexander Williamson, LL.D. 

For Chihli.— Rev. C. A. Stan%. 

For Hnpeh. — Rev. Griffith John. 

For Kiangsi. — Rev. V. C. Hart. 

For Kiangsn. — Rev. J. M. W. Farnham. 

For Chehkiang.— Rev. John Biatler. 

For Fookien. — Rev. S. F. Woodin. 

For Kwangtung. — Rev. R. H. Graves, M. D. 
IX. — On the Opium Trade. — The Rev. C. W. Mateer, the Rev. 
Griffith John, the Rev. R. Lechler, the Rev. A. E. Moule, and the Rev. 
Carstairs Douglas, LL.D. 

X. — To Receive Subscriptions for the Shantung Sufferers. — The 
Rev. William Muirhead. 

XL — To Edit the Records of the Conference. — The Rev. R. 
Nelson, D.D., the Rev. E. R. Barrett, the Rev. F. F. Gough, the Rev. 
M. T. Yates, D.D., the Rev. John Butler, and the Rev. C. W. Mateer. 

XII. — To Prepare a Tract to set Protestant Missionaries, theik 
Doctrines and their Work, in the Right Light Before the Chinese 
Officials, Literati and People. — The Rev. Alexander Williamson,LL.D., 
the Rev. Y. J. Allen, the Rev. Griffith John and the Rev. M. T. 
Yates, D.D. 

XIII. — To Present Resolution of Conference to the Bible So- 
cieties. — Mr. A. Wylie, Rev. Alexander Williamson, LL.D., and Rev. L. 
H. Gulick, M. D. 

XIV. — To Prepare a Series of School Books. — Tlae Rev. W. A. P. 
Martin, D.D., LL.D., the Rev. Alexander Williamson, LL.D., the Rev. 
C. W. Mateer, the Rev. Y. J. Allen, the Rev. R. Lechler, and Mr. 
J. Fryer. 


I. — Of thcmhs to the Committee of Arramjements. 

Resolved, That the most hearty thanks of this Conference are due, 
and are hereby tendered, to the Committee of Arrangements, for the 
thorough and painstaking cai'e v^dth which they have discharged all their 
duties, and for bringing their arduous work to a satisfactory conclasion 
in the gathering of this assemblage. 

II. — In regard to Meetings for Praijer. 
Resolved. 1st, That we endeavor to meet together in little companies fre- 
quently for prayer dui-ing our Conference. 

Resolved. 2nd. That when the business of the Conference shall have 
been finished, there be a final session, to be spent in united prayer that we 
may be filled with the Holy Spirit, and that our word may be with power 


III. — In rei((Xrd to an Appeal to the Howe Chnrche^. 

Ill view of the magnitiido of the field of labor, and of the inadequacy 
of the present mission force in China to occupy the fields now white unto 
the harvest, therefore — 

Resolved, Int. That a Committee be appointed, consisting of the fol- 
lowing named persons : (For names see Committee, No. V.) 

Rjsoh-ed, 2h 7. That said Committee prepare in behalf of this Con- 
ference of over one hundred missionaries, a fervid and earnest appeal to 
the various Mission Boards, Colleges and ChurJies of the world for more 
men and women for China. 

Refnlveil, SriL That an edition of four thousand copies of the Pro- 
gramme of this Conference, these resolutions and the appeal be printed, 
to be circulated by the missionaries of the different Mission Boai'ds among 
all the centres of influence in their respective connexions. 

IV. — In re(iard to Homes for Shv/Ie Ladies. 

The following resolution, passed unanimously at a meeting of the 
ladies of the Conference, was ordered to be entered on the Journal as an 
expression of the ladies of the Conference : — 

Resolved, That the ladies of this Conference recommend to the 
various Boards, Societies and Churches, sending single ladies to work as 
missionaries in China, that they send such missionaries to reside in the 
families of married missionaries, only until such time as provision can be 
made for them to have a separate residence, should they so desire. We 
do not advise the institution of homes for more than two single ladies to- 
gether in a ^lission, but recommend that each lady should be free to make 
such domestic arrangements as may conduce to the effectiveness of her 
individual work. 

V. — 0/ Respect to the Memory of Mrs. T. C. Doremus. 

The following resolutions, passed by the ladies at their meeting, on 
being presented to the Conference, were also adopted by the Conference : — 

Whereas, God has lately taken to himself Mrs. T. C. Doremus, of 
New York, after a long life of usefulness. 

Resolved, 1st. That whilst we mourn our loss, we thank God for the 
efficient manner in which she advanced so many and such varied forms of 
Christian work, to the glory of God and the good of man. 

Re'ifdved, 2nd. That we thank God for the rare and beautiful catholic- 
ity of spirit which shone forth in her lovely Christian life. 

Residved, 'Srd. That we gratefully lemember her visits to ship and 
steamer, welcoming the returning, and speeding the departing missionary; 
we remember her parting gifts to beguile the tedium of the voyage, and 
to cheer the far distant home, and the loving care and Ihoughtfulness 
with which she followed her missionary fiieiids. These works < f love 
made her, at the time of her death, more widely and intimately acquaint- 
ed with American missionaries than any other individual then living. 

Restdred, ^fh. That we honor her for her devotion to woman's work 
for heathen women, and testify our sense of its value and usefulness. 

Resolved, 5th. That we hereby evpress the sense of personal sorrow 
of very many of our members at the loss of one whom, living, we most 
tenderly loved, and whose death afflicts us as a personal bereavement. 

Resolved, Qth. That we recognize her natural endowments, provident- 
ial opportunities, and holy zeal, as special gifts from God. To Him we 
give our hearty thank-; for the good evamples of all those His servants 
who, having finished their coui-se in faith, do now rest from their labors 
in joy and felicity with Him. 


Ee^olved, 7th. That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be sent by 
the officers of this Conference to the family of our deceased sister. 

VI. — Provid.'ncj for a Standlmj Committee on Literature. 

Besolved, That a Committee on Literature, consisting of one mis- 
sionary from each province here represented, be appointed by the Chair- 
men, whose duty it shall be : — - 

1. — To ascertain what books are now published at the various mis- 
sion stations that are available for general use. 

2. — To ascertain what books are in the course of preparation at the 
various stations. 

3. — To secure the preparation of a suitable series of books for use in 
Mission Schools (including arithmetic, geography, astronomy, natural 
philosophy, &c.,) by using such books already published as are suitable, 
land by calling upon competent persons to j^i'epare such others as are 

4. — To make known to the whole missionary body what is done, and 
what is being done, by publishing and circulating a catalogue containing 
ail the necessary information. 

5. — To send to each station a copy of each new book published in 
Wen-li or Mandarin — to which end every missionary is requested to put 
into the hands of the member of the Committee for his Province a suf- 
ficient number of copies for this purpose. 

VII. — In regard to a Tract on Self-. support. 

Besolved, That the Rev. S. L. Baldwin be requested to prepare a 
Tract on Self-support, in plain Wen-li, for general circulation among na- 
tive Christians. 

VITI. — To omit from the Records the essay and the discussion on Con- 

Whereas, There was an understanding that the question of the pro- 
per term for Grod should not be discussed at the Conference, therefore 

Benolved, That it is deemed best by the Conference to omit from the 
publication of the Records of this Conference the essay by the Rev. James 
Legge, D.D., LL.D., on Confucianism, inasmuch as it touched upon the 
term question ; and also to omit the discussion that followed. No fault 
is imputed to Dr. Legge in the matter, as it is not supposed that he was 
aware of the understanding that existed upon the subjact. 

IX. — Providing for the Publication of the Records. 

Jie'iolved, \st. That the papers read before this Conference, and the 
discussions on the same, be printed in a volume to be styled, "Records of 
the General Conference of the Protestant Missionaries of China, held at 
Shanghai, May 10//i— 24^A, 1877. 

Resolved, 2nd. That an Editorial Committee, consisting of the R«v. 
R. Nelson, D.D., the Rev. E, R. Barrett, the Rev. F. F. Grough, the 
Rev. M. T. Yates, D.D., the Rev. C. W. Mateer and the Rev. John 
Butler, be appointed to edit the said book, and to procure its publication 
at as low a rate as possible. 

Resolved, 3rd. That the two Secretaries of the Conference, the Rev. S. 
L. Baldwin and the Rev. John Butler, be appointed a Commit' ee to prepare 
a brief abstract of the business of the Conference, including the Com- 
mittees appointed, and the resolutions adopted, and also to prepare a 
short account of the origin of the Conference, and tlie steps taken to 
bring it about, to be printed as an introduction tn the book. 


X. -fu reijiird !■' n }fiip (tu<l Stuliatirnl Ttible:!. 

L'r solved, i<t. That tho Editorial Committee bo instruct ud to tako 
into consideration the preparation of a good map of China, maiking the 
Mission JStations imw occupied, and in case provision can bo made for its 
expense, that Huch a miip be bound up with tlio published Records of the 

yi'j.s'o/rtJ, 2iul. That the Editorial Committee be instructed to prepare 
and j)nblish three Statistical Tables— viz., for 1837, 1857, and 1877; that 
the lirst shall indicate the number of stations, tho number of Societ- 
i'.'S rejiresented, the number of missionaries, and the nund^er of converts; 
that the second shall indicate the same with such further facts of interest 
as are ac essible: aid that the third present the full statistics of the mis- 
sions according to the foimula already agreed upon, 

XI. — Jn reijaril to pr'nttlinj Bibles with a Preface and Comments. 

Jii^ohel, 1st. That since, in the opinion of the General Conference, 
it is highly desirable that the Holy Serij>tures designed for circulation in 
China should be accompanied with a short preface, captions and brief, 
nnsectarian notes, therefore we do most earnestly i-equest the various Bi- 
ble Societies in Europe and America to secure, if possible, a in 
their rules or constitutions, so as to permit these to be added to their fut- 
ure editions, subject to the supervision of their respective Committees in 

ne^\dved,2Hd. That :Mr. A. Wylie, the Rev. Alex. Williamson, LL,D., 
and the Rev. L. H. Gulick, M. D., be appointed a Committee to pre- 
sent this resolution to the Briti!^h, Scottish and American Bible Societies, 
and to secure such editions from them, or from any other Societies that 
will print them. 

XII. — In reqnrd to tie sale of Tracts in convexion with Scripttires. 

JUsolved, Tliat in the opinion of this Conference, the sale of Tracts 
and other religious works, along with Bibles and Testaments, very much 
increases their usefulness ; and therefore we request any Bible Societies 
which forbid the distribution f)f such works by their Agents along with 
tho Bible, to alter their rules to that effect, so far as China is con- 
ge rned. 

XIII. — In regiird to a note to be appended to the Papers on Native 

liesoh-ed, That the P'ditorial Committee be requested to append a 
note to the papers on Native Assistants, stating that unintentionally, both 
the papers piovided for by the Committee of Arraiigements had taken the 
side of oppo.sition to paid native agency ; but that it is not therefore to be 
inferred that the Conference is opposed to tho use of such agency. 

XIV. — In regard to the Appeal to tho Churches. 

lie^olveil, That the Conference authorizes the Committee on an appeal 
to the Churches in behalf of China to complete their appeal in due form, 
and to jtublish it with the sanction of the Confei'ence. 

XV.— On Foot Binding. 

E ■solved, That in view of (he manifold evils resulting from foot 
binding, we urge all missionaries to discountenance and discourage the 

XVI. — In regard to Special United Prayer. 

lie.<solved, That we remember each other in special prayer each 
Saturday evening hereafter. 


XVTI. — Appointing a Day of Special Prayer. 

Rji^otverl, That we call upon all the missionaries and the native 
chnrches of China to set apart the first Sabbath in October next as a day 
of special prayer for the reviv^al of the work of God throughout the 
empire, and thxt we earnestly request all the churches of Europe and 
America to unite with us in the observance of this day. 

XVIII. — R icnmmendinq the II>ldl)i'i of another General Conference. 

liaoloe^. That we recommend that another General Conference of 
the Pr>te^tant Missionaries in China be held ten years from this date. 

XIX.— 0/ Th<mh^. 

Risolued, l^t. That the thanks of this Conference be tendered to 
Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co., Messrs. Douglas Lapraik & Co., Messrs. 
Butterfield and Swire, and the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, who by a liberal redaction of fare, have greatly promoted the full 
gathering of missionaries at this place for the objacts of this Conference. 

Resolved, 2u,d. That the thanks of this body be given to our Chairmen 
and other officers for the vigor, zeal and impartiality which have so 
largely promoted the comfort and usefulness of our discussions ; and to 
the staff of reporters for the patient industry which has collected and em- 
bodied the same in a fit form for publication. 

Re'iolued, Srd. That the thanks of the Conference be most cordially 
tendered to the Shanghai Te npsrance Sojiety for their liberality in freely 
granting us the use of this Hall for our meetings; to the ladies who have 
regaled us with the sweet melody of song ; and last, but not least, to our 
hosts, who have shown us such kind and large-hearted hospitality. We 
shall remember our sojourn in their families with the purest sJitisfaction, 
and shall follow them with earnest prayers for their health, happiness and 

Re<?olved, 4^h. That we tender our thanks to Messrs. Miiller and 
Fisher for so regulatin their work in the adjoining building as to secure 
as great a degree of quiet for our meetings as possible. 

XX. — To place on record our Gratitude for Blessings connected, with the 

Rs^olved, That we desire to record our gratitude to our Heavenly 
Father for the spirit of harmony which has characterized the proceedings 
of this Conference, for the delightful seasons of Christian and social inter- 
course wc have enjoyed, and for the great advantages we have gained 
fi'om the papers and discussions, to increase the efficiency of our work. 

[For Resolutions on the Division of the Field of Labor, on the Opium 
Trade, and on Literature and Statistics, see Reports of Committees.] 


May 10th, 11 a.m. Sermon, The Missionary Woik, Rev. J.V.N. Talmage, 
D.D. — 2.30 P.M. Election of Officers. Address, Prayer for the 
Sdy Spirit in Connection with our wuik. — 7.30 P.M. Prayer 
Meeting; subJ3ct, Entire Cunsecratioii essential to Missionary 
.niccess. Rev. R. Nelson. D.D. 


May 11th. P.30 A.M. Tlie fJehi nf labour in all its MagnitiK^e, Rov. A. 
Williamson, LL.U.; Ginfiiclani^in In relaHon tn Chri<tiniiitij, 
Rev. Jamos Legge, D.D., FjL.D., Rjv. C. llobo-nba. — 2.3) p.m. 
T'Loui^ni a id BiiLlUism, Fopidar A'pe:t<, Rev. J. ICdkiivs, D.D. 

,, 12tb, 9.30 A.M. Preachinj to tjie Heithcii, Mitter and M inner, Rev. 
W. Muirhead ; Ithieration, far and near, <is an Evamjcliziiig 
aijency ; Rev. B. Helm; Rev. J. H. Taylor. 

„ 1.4th, 9.30 A.M. Medical Mission^, J. G. Kerr, M.D., W. (iauld, 
M.D. Feet Bindinij, Miss S. H. Woolston. — 2.30 P.M. Wmnan's 
Wo>k for Woman, Rev. A. P. Mapper, D.D., Mrs. M. F. 

,, 15th, 9.30 A.M. li'latlon if Frote'-iant Mlsslo7is to Educatiov, Rev. 
R. Lechler, Rev. C. W. Mateer. D nj ani B >'irdln.q SchwU, 
Mile and Fjni.ile, Rev. K. H. Thomson. 2.30 p.m. Mrs. F. F. 
Gough, Rev. S. Dodd, Miss M. Laurence. 

„ 16th, 9.30 A.M. Glirldian L'feratitre, What haa been done and ivhat is 
ueed-ed, Rev. C. C. lialdwin, D.D. Importance of a Vernacular 
Clirhtian Literature tcitli special reference to the Mandarin, Rev. 
C. Goodri h.— 2.30 p.m. S3cnla'r Literature, Rev. W. A. P. 
Martin, D.D., LL.D., Rev. Y. J. Allen. 

„ 17th, 9.30 A.M. Standard of Admi.'<sion to full Church membership. 
Rev. J. W. Larabuth, Rev. C. A. Stanley. Tie Best Means of 
Elevatn'i the Mural and Spiritual Taie of the Native G'lurch, 
Rev. F.F. Gough, Rev. H. L. Mackenzie.— 7.30 p.m. On tlie 
Dufi/ of the Foreiijn jResidents Aiding in the Evangelizatiim of 
Chi}ia, and the bed means of doing so. Very Rev. Dean 
Butcher, D.D. 

„ 18th, 9.30 A.M. S'f-sKppnrb ofth'j Nitivi Church, Rjv. J. Goddard, 
Rev. S. L. 1 aldwin. Tlie Native Fastorate, Rev. H. Corbett, 
Rev. J. Butler. — 2.30 P.M. The Training of Native Agents, Rev. 
W. McGregor. 

„ 19th, 9.30 A.M. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Employment of 
Native Assistants, Rev. T. P. Crawford, Rev. N. Sites. Hjiv 
shall the Native Church be stimulated to more aggressive Christian 
tvork ? Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D.— 2.30 P.M. The wse of Opium, 
a7id its bearing on the spread of Christianity in China, Rev. A. E. 
Moule, J. Dudgeon, M.D. 

„ 2l8t, 9.30 A.M. Ancestral Worship, Rev. M. T. Yates, D.D. Ques- 
tionable Fractice'> ccnnectcd uu'th Murriaje and, Funeral Ceremonies, 
Rev. C. Hartwell, Rev. D. Z. Sheffield.— 2.30 p.m. The Treaty 
Rights of Native Christians and the Dutg of Missionaries in regard 
to their Vindication, Rev. J. A. Leyeiiberger. 

,, 22nd, 9.30 A.M. Principle's of Translation into Chinese, Rev. J. S. 
Roberts. Should the Native Church la China be united ecclesiasti- 
cally, aiui independent of Foreign Churches and Sjcietief, Rev. J. 
V. N. Taliuage, D.D. — 2.30 p.m. Inadequacy of the present 
means for the Erangelization of China, and the necessity for far 
greater effort and more systematic Co-operation on the part of 
different S'icieties, so as to occupy tlie wlu)le field, Rev. C. 
Douglas, LL.D. 

Preached at the opening of the Missionary Conference 
Mat 10^/^ 1877— Br Rev. J. V. X. Talmage, DD., A. R. C. M. Amot. 

And Jesus came, and spahs unto them, so.ying. All power is given unto 
me inheaven and in earth. Go ye, therefore, ami teach all nations, bap- 
tizing them in the nams of the Father, and of the San, and of the Holy 
Ghost, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded 
yon ; and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Matt. 
''Z8. 18-20. 

"All power is given unto me in heavea and in earth. Gro ye there- 
fore and teach all nations, — better, as in the margin of our larger Bibles, 
make disciples, or make Christians of all nations; — "Gro ye therefore and 
make disciples, of all nations, baptizing them in the name," — more accur- 
ately, into the name, — baptizing them into the name (not name', bat 
name, implying the n/iitg of the psi'sons), — ^"into the name of the Father 
and of the Sou, and of the Holy Grhost., teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I have commanded you, and Ic. I am with you alway, 
even unto the end of the world." 

" T/te Worh of missions^' is the theme assigned me for my discourse 
this day. I know of no more suitable text then this, our great commis- 
sion. It may be called the parting message of our Lord to His disciples. 
It gives the authority, the comnuuvl, and the encouragement for the work 
of evangelizing our whole race. It makes tliis the work of the whole 
church and of every individual Christian. Hence it is a theme that can 
never be exhausted — a subject that is never out of place, and is especially 
adapted to an occasion like the present. 

Our Lord before His death gave notice to His disciples of a future 
meeting with them after His resui-rection. This was to be in Galilee, 
where the most of His followers wei'e. Because of the importance of this 
meeting, the notice of it was twice repeated on the morning of the resur- 
reL;tion. It was to be His great public manifestation. All His other 
manifestations may be called private. He appearing only to a few, and 
without pi'evious notice. Hence, Matthew, in his succinct account, only 
tells us of this one public manifestation of our Loi'd, and of His previous 
appearance to the women, repeating the notice of it. 

How the notice of this meeting would pass from mouth to moutb, 
and rapidly spread among all His followers ! Eagerly would they look 
forward to the appointed time, and, as it drew near, speed them to the ap- 
pointed place. Think you that one of them would willingly be absent ? 
It seems more than probable that our Lord reserved this message for 
that one lai-ge public gathering of all His followers. Most of them were 
Galileans. Some of them doubtless were fro.m Samaria, some from 
Judea, and some from beyond Jordan. Possibly, even the Syi-ophenician 
woman and her daughter and other Canaanites were there. 

The most of them had not seen Him .since His resurrection. They 
had heard of His cruel death, and their hearts and hopes had been crush- 
ed by the dreadful news. Then they had heard the strange report of His 
resurrection, and that he had appeared to one favored one, and then to 
another, and still to others, and again and again to His assembled 
apostles. Some, perhaps, had only heard of a few of these facts, or had 

May lutli. aKRMii.N. 25 

heard of thom only as flyino; ruiuoui's. To others these facts hail bccu 
WL'Il-authenticatt'd, and they liad heard of other facts which have not 
como down to us. Bat all had baea informed of the time and place of 
this promised manifestation. Can you iraaj^ine the various and conflict- 
ing thoughts, feelings and emotions with wliich they wended their way 
singly, in pairs, in small companies to that blessed trysting place, and to 
most of them solemn and tinal parti iii^ place ? Do you wonder that some 
(not of the eleven apostles, but of this large assembly) still doubted ? 

lUit all doubt is soon taken away. They see and hear Him for them- 
selves. From His previous works and words they had believed that Ho 
was the Son of God. They see him the same Jesus still, and yet how 
different ! The days of His humiliation are past. In his appearance, 
now Victor over death, — in His manner, already constituted Lord of all 
things, — in his ma^^ai/v, spoken as from the throne of the univei'se, they 
get vastly higher views of His character, — of what is meant by being The 
Son of God. 

Our business is now with the vic-tsage. It has three parts : the As- 
gertum, "all power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth ;" — the Co-in- 
inand, "Go ye therefore and make discij)les of all nations, baptizing them 
etc.;" — the Promise, "lo, I am with you alway even unto the end of the 
■world." Every part of it is full of divinity. It makes one tremble lest 
he incur the charge of temerity in attempting to discuss it. 

What language to come from a man who had so recently been des- 
pised and rejected, and condemned to the most ignominious of deaths, — 
the scorn of the rulers, the sport of the soldiers, the derision of the 
mob. — Himself in the midst of all apparently helpless! Now, here He 
stands, calmly asserting supreme authority over angels and men, over 
nature animate and inanimate, over heaven and earth, claiming equality 
and unity with the Father and the Holy Spirit, giving command to take 
possession of the whole world in His name, and pledging the power and 
grace of His omnipotence and omnipresence to make the mission suc- 
cessful ! 

Imagine any mere man coming to yon with such a,ssuraptions. At 
once you would pronounce him a blasphemous impostor, or a raving 
maniac. Superlative wickedness, or superlative madness! How is it 
that these words of Jesus had no such effect on that assembly ? At its 
commencement there were some who doubted. Not one doubted now. 
Not one to pronounce Him either wicked or insane. It was because the 
mes.sage corresponded with all that they knew, and fully explained and 
harmonized the many things which previously they could not understand 
and reconcile, in His birth and His character. His history and His life, 
His teaching and His works. His death and His resurrection. 

Our Lord claims "all power," both "in heaven and in earth." 
However much the first part of this claim may in itself excel in glory, it 
is here asserted because of its bearing on the second part. If the first 
part be admitted, the second can never be denied. In reference to the 
first part, I will now merely remark, that a few days afterward He made 
His claim good. He ascended and took possession. All principalities 
and powers became subject unto Him. It is with the second part of the 
claim that we now especially have to do. 

The u-holc tvorhl belon'is to our Lord Jesus Christ. It belongs to Him 
because He made it. It belongs to Him because He stt-sfains it. It belongs 
to Him because He has redeemei it. On all these points we have abund- 
ant Scripture testimony. It is the last point that is bi'ought forward in 
our text. It is " yiveti unto'' Him. It is given Him a<,-cording to the 

26 SERMON. May lOtli- 

conditions of the covenant of redemption, — given Him as a reward of 
His humiliation, His labours and His suilerings. " Ask of Me, and I 
shall give Thee the heathen for Thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts 
of the earth for Thy possession." 

Therefore every man who does not yield obedience to the Lord Jesus 
Christ is living in rebellion against his rightful Sovereign. Some men 
have strange views on this subject. They regard religion as altogether 
a voluntary matter, concerning which they may do as they please. Is 
there one such here ? Let me ask you, my f i-iend, do you forget that 
this is God's universe, and that you are in it, and cannot get oat of it. 
His law governs here. That law you have broken. If you will not 
accept of pardon on the terms of His Gospel then you must submit 
to penalty on the terms of His law. His right to govern He will 
never yield. Aye, it would be a sad thing for the universe if He should 
yield ! What would beeome of this phj^sical universe if God should sus- 
pend, say, the great law of gravitation, by which, all the worlds, and all 
things in them, are kept in their courses and in their places ? Sadder 
still would it be if God were to suspend His moral laws. But there is 
no danger of this. He will never suspend them. Then why, not you 
yield ? There will be no sadness for the universe in that, and for your- 
self there will be infinite blessedness. 

Christ asserts His claim to the whole world, and He is able to make 
it good. All power is His. He means to make it good. Hence His 
command, go and reclaim it. "Go," — it is imperative, a command from 
the Absolute Sovereign. The logic is, I am sovereign in heaven and in 
earth, — then 7je are mine. To send you, to command you is my prerogative, 
to obey is yours — therefore. Go. I am sovereign in heaven and in 
earth, then this world is mine, and it must be reclaimed, therefore. Go 
and reclaim it. Is there any defect in this logic ? Is not the foundation 
deep enough, and broad enough, and firm enough, for the whole super- 
structure? Universal authority, then universal dominion. 

I may here remark that the Apostles and early Christians were very 
much like men of the present day. It was as easy for them to find 
arguments that home should have the preference over foreign lands, as it 
is for men now. They loved their cou.ntT'y and their people as dearly as 
we do ours, and with as much reason. Gladly would they have remained 
in their own land all their days. It was a hard lesson for them to learn 
that the world, and not Palestine, was to be the field of their labours. 
But the Lord meant them to learn it, and when the gentle teaching of 
His simple command proved insufficient, He tried the teaching of His 
Providence, which was not so gentle. Then they learned the lesson, and 
they learned it so thoroughly that the Gospel was soon published through- 
out the whole world then accessible. 

The commission then embraces the whole habitable globe. "All the 
world," — wherever man is found, — no matter how near or how far away, 
no matter how high or how low in social position, — no matter how 
■'^^S^lilj civilized or how rudely savage, — "preach the Gospel to every 

For a man in that age of the world, living among the Jews of Pales- 
tine, brought up and educated in an uncultivated part of that land, and 
moving in the humble walks of life, to conceive an idea so grand as the 
reclaiming of this whole world from its barbarism and heathenism and 
pantheism and materialism and atheism, all kinds of error and wicked- 
ness and misery, — to conceive a revolution affecting all human conduct, 
character, condition, philosophies, governments, religions, — all humanity, 
and to command the accomplishment of it, — it proclaims His divinity. 

May 10th. sermok. 27 

And who were the agent. ■i, by whom He proposed to accomplish this 
universal revolution ? Then conipftrntively a " little tlotk," among them 
** not many wise men after the tlesli, not many mighty, not many noble," 
but 8ome who had been blind, beggars, or lepers, or paralytics, or maniacs 
or demoniacs, — the poor of this world. According to human views not 
a likely company for any great enterprise. Cliief among theni were the 
eleven apostles, who were to be the leadens. And even these had nothing 
to recommend them either from their social position or human learning. 
Aye. even their strength of character had recently been put to the test, 
aiid had signally failed. In the hour of trial they had all forsaken Him 
and tied. If He expected to revolutionize the world by such agents, 
either He was a very weak and foolish man — (and alas for the weakness 
and folly of any one who can harbor such a thought) or He was the 
Almighty and all-wise God. 

And hoic shall the work be accomplished ? What are the mea7is to 
be employed? With all the powers of nature in His hands. He yet 
auihoi ised the use of no physical force, or carnal weapons. The revolution 
He designed was too dithcult to be accomplished by such means. Mere 
physical omnipotence, if we could conceive of such a force, would be 
utterly inadequate. All the evil in the world results from the ruin of 
roan's spiritual nature. This spiritual nature must be restored, and all 
other desired revolutions will follow as a necessary consequence. Hence 
He authorises only spiritual weapons. According to the record in !Mark, 
it is simply "preach the Gospel." According to the record of Luke, it 
is simply bear testimony concerning Christ (Acts 1.8). " The weapons 
of our warfare are not carnal," but they are "mighty through God to the 
pulling down of strongholds" (2 Cor. jO. 4). 

The language of our text includes all this, and tells us something of 
the fundamental doctrines of His Gospel, and the meaning of its sacra- 
ments. Aye, it lays the foundation for our creeds and confessions, and if 
you please fur our systems of theology. A man, in order to claim the 
name of Christian, must accept the doctrines of the blessed Trinity, — 
of the Father and His sovereign love, — of the Son and His mediatorial 
work, — and of the Holy Spirit and His renewing and sanctifying intiuences 
and all the doctrines that legitimately flow therefrom, and must make 
public profession of the same. " Baptising them into the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

Some men tell us that it is practice, and not doctrine, that Christ- 
ianity requires. I was in New York, at the meeting of the Evangelical 
Alliance in 1873, and remember reading the remarks of men who deny 
some of these fundamental doctrines, finding fault with the Alliance for 
not admitting them as members. Now, if the Alliance should take in such, 
it would lose its essential character. It might still be an Alliance, but it 
would be neither Evangelical nor Christian. Shall not Christ Himself be 
authority as to what constitutes Christianity ? It is He that places this 
confession at the entrance of the Christian church, and places it there as 
the foundation of all Christian practice. 

The language of our text goes further still. It more than implies 
power behind the proclamation of the Gospel, — that divine power of which 
this commission is so full, — power to make the preaching effectual. 
" Make disciples ! " "What!" we might exclaim, " Christ command us 
to make disciples, make men Christians ! This is beyond human power ! " 
Yes, Christ knew this better than we do, yet He gave the command. It 
was because He had the power and the will to make eft'ectnal the work 

28 SERMON. May 10th. 

Men, having become Christians, and been gathered into the chnrches, 
must be "built up" in the faith : "teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I have commanded you." When we go into new places and 
meet with success we must hold on to it, and follow it up, either by re- 
maining with the converts, or frequently visiting them, or making other 
arrangements for their continual instruction. Unless we follow this 
direction of our Lord much of our work will come to naught. When a 
child is born into the world, do you expect it to live and grow, without 
constant care and nourishment ? 

It is here that I find authority for pastoral work in Christian coun- 
tries also. It is commanded by our Lord. But it springs out of, rather 
is included in, the command to Christianise the nations. Some seem to take 
for granted that the i^astoral work at home is the great work command- 
ed, and that the ')nissionary work is incidental. Does this tally with the 
commission? But I need not dwell on this point in an assembly like this. 
So much for the means by which this world is to be reclaimed. 
Preach the Gospel, administer the sacraments, and teach the people Grod's 
Word. Do men call these means foolishness and utterly inadequate ? If 
Jesus Christ be not God, then we, too, would pronounce them utterly in- 
adequate, the very acme of folly. To originate a system of doctrines 
false in themselves, and which strike at the root of all human pride, and 
run counter to every man's natural feelings and passions, and to imagine 
that the simple promulgation and reiteration of them will secure the as- 
sent of all men, overturn all contrary beliefs, and revolutionise the world, 
would be worse than folly. But if Jesus Christ is God, then the work 
can be done and shall be done, for the means He ordains are the wisdom of 
God, and will pi'ove themselves the power of God. He will assuredly 
accomplish by them all that He intends. 

The duty of evangelising the whole world is explicit. But duty may 
he performed as drudgery. Better so, infinitely better, than that it be 
not performed at all. From the performance of duty there can be no ab- 
Bolution. Yet our Lord does not mean us so to perform our. duties to 
Him, especially the most blessed of all duties, the duty of saving men, of 
saving the world. Hence this commission is not simple assertion of 
authority, followed by imperative command. It closes with promise xnost 
gracious. "Lo, I am with you alway." I shall be with you to comfort 
and protect you, to support and further you, to make effectual my work 
in you, and the work I have given you to do. I will remain with you, 
and with all who shall suci eed you, age after age, till the whole work be 
accomplished, and time shall be no more. "Lo, I am with you alway, even 
unto the end of the world." What more could we ask to make our work 
pleasant or successful ? What more could be given us ? The gracious 
presence, and the efficient help of our Lord ! Christ with us, — we can bear 
all things ! Christ wdh us, — we can do all things ! 

You remember the inimitable description of unconquerable will and 
hate, as given by Milton in his portrait of Satan addressing Beelzebub, 
after their terrible overthrow. A venerable Christian lady once remarked 
to me that she never could read that description without admiration of 
the character of Satan thus portrayed. In the same sense we might say 
that there is something admirable in the persistent opposition of some men 
to the Gospel of our Lord. No matter how often and how complete the 
ovei-tkrow of their arguments, their opposition still remains invincible. 
Eighteen hundred years of failure do not discourage them. The doctrines 
of the Divinity and Mediatorship of Christ must be got rid of at all 

May 10th. SERMox. 29 

They have called ITim a ^Fiith. lint what then hecomes of all history ? 
A mvthi 'al personap;e exert more influcnee on the world than any real 
person who ever lived! They have dared to call Him a vlchi'd impostor. 
lint a sentiment so revolting to the moral sense of men is inlinitcly more 
injnnons to the repntation of any men nttering it, then to His against 
Whom it is nttered. 'J'herefore such hardihood is now to be met with 
only in the lowest strata of human depravity. More recently we have 
been told (and this sentiment is sometimes still expressed), that He was 
an rnfhu<iast, with more or less of human imperfection, lint surely this, 
if possible, is still more nntenable. If Jesus Christ be not God, the word 
entliii.<ias-t)i can by no means describe His character. 

Just contemplate His language in this coinniission. "All power 
is given unto Me in heaven and in earth." Is this the language of an "Baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the 
Son (/. e. of ^fe), and of the Holy Ghost." Is that the language of an 
enthusiast? "1 am with you alway, even unto the end of the world." 
7. e., "Though 1 am now ascending to ray heavenly throne, I shall nhvays 
be with you in all parts of the world at the same time, and throughout all 
ages to the end of time." Is that the language of an enthusiast? No: 
with reverence let me say it, He is Satan-incarnate, or He is God- 

But assaults againsi the Gospel, resting on alleged blemishes in the 
character of its Author, or on defects in its record, have spent their force. 
We shall not probably have much further trouble in that direction, except 
perhaps from little guerrilla attacks. It seems that the great assault is now 
to be, and has already begun against the foundations of all religion and all 
morality. We are gravely told that there is no such Being as the Christ- 
ian calls God, — or if there be, we can never know Him or the fact of His 
existence, — that there is no such existence as we understand by spirit, 
no such thing as mind, in the old acceptation of that word, — that matter 
is all and in all, — containing in itself "the promise and potency of every 
form and quality of life," and that the individiuil man is only a "cons- 
cious automaton," " without spirit or spontaneity," a mere physical com- 
pound of "carbonic acid, water and ammonia," info which he soon "breaks 
np" again, and that is the end of him(!) ; that there are no such moral 
qualities as holiness .and sin, and consequently no moral responsibility, in 
the Scriptural sense of these terms! 

Let me ask you, my friends, are you all mere automata, brought to 
this Convention from all parts of China on this lOth day of May, in the 
year of onr Lord 1877, by the irresistible laws of matter, without any 
spirit or spontaneity of your own ? Especially, was the man who could 
issue such a commission as we are now considering, and who by it has 
already transformed so large a portion of our world, a mere automaton ? 
Bnt I do not propose to answer these assertions. We have no time for 
this, and beside they are mere assertions ; for though their advocates 
claim that they are the teaching of science, the ablest of them admit tho 
impossibility of any scientific demonstration of them. I only mention 
them to show the forlorn hope of the enemy, and the deep and dark abyss 
to which Infidelity would sink us. Aniifhlvfj, — vofhing, — rather than the 
Gospel of onr Lord Jesus Christ, which alone " brings life and immortal- 
ity to light!" Worse than Satan to Beelzebub, "Better to reign in hell 
than serve in heaven ! " 

But have we anything more to fear from this than from former as- 
saults ? I think not; — not so long as man has consrioustiess, for he Jcnous 
that he is something more than matter; — not so long as man has a vioral 

30 SERMON. Maj 10th. 

seyi^e, for until his conscience becomes seared, he feels his moral accounta- 
bility ; — not so long as idea^ of cattsatioio are inherent in the human mind. 
Hume called these "ideas" "inveterate prejadices of mankind." Whether 
they be rightly called prejudices or not, they certainly are inveterate in 
the sense of deep-seated, and existing from all antiquity. And they be- 
long to mankind, and therefore are not to be eradicated until humanity is 
changed. Until then, the mass of thinking men will continue to hold 
that the order and beauty and intelligence they find in the universe 
around, demand an intelligent First Cause. And in regard to the doc- 
trine that if there be such a Being, He must be unknowable, I will merely 
ask, is it possible to conceive of ani ntelligent Creator unable to make 
Himself known to His intelligent creatures? We have no doubt as to 
what is truth on these points, and no doubt as to its final triumph. 
Mere human philosophy gives us as much assurance as this. 

But we have something more than human philosophy. We have the 
Gospel of our Lord Jesus Chi'ist summed up in this commission. Though 
we cannot discern in primal matter, whether "star-dust," " nebular haze," 
or "Cosmic vapor," or whatever else it may be supposed to be, "the pro- 
mise and the potency" which some think they find there, — yet in the 
assertion and command and promise of this commission so fall of divinity, 
standing as it does between the death for sin and the resurrection by the 
power of God on the one side, and on the other side the glorious ascension 
to the Mediatorial throne on high, "far above all principality, and power, 
and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this 
world, bat also in that which is to come," we do discern the potency and 
the promise of the full accomplishment of the whole work which the Son 
of God undertook for our lost race, and which is nothing less than the 
world's salvation. 

The bearing of this whole subject on our work in China is so manifest 
that I need say bat few words on that particular theme. It is no strange 
thing to hear insinuations concerning the uselessness of missionary effort 
in China. "Do you expect the Chinese to be converted? " "Yes, certainly." 
They shake their heads. Now, I suppose that none have a keener sense 
of the difficulties in our way in this land, than have we the missionaries. 

1 look upon China as the most difficult missionary field in the w^orld, 
and therefore to mere human calculation the most hopeless. This, I think, 
is the reason why God, when rekindling the missionary spirit in His 
church in modeim times, allowed China to be so long closed against mis- 
sionary effort. The Church was not ready immediately to grapple with 
such a foe as she should meet here. But by her efforts and experiments 
in other fields she has both learned and unlearned much. Her plans have 
more and more been conformed to those laid down for her guidance in 
God's word, especially in that great missionary journal, the Acts of the 
Apostles. And if in anything we are still astray, God will also reveal 
that unto us (Phil. 3. 15). 

But however great the difficulties, they do not at all dishearten us. 
See what God in His providence and grace has done for this land during 
one generation. I remember well when the burden of prayer for China 
.was that God would break down the great wall which kept the Gospel 
out of this land. That prayer has been answered. When I arrived in 
China, thirty years age, there were only five places open to missionary 
effort, and only about the same number of Christian converts. Now, 
preaching places are numbered by the thousand, and Chinese Christians 
by tens of thousands, and still progression geometrical. If the present 
generation has seen all this, what may not the next generation see ? 

Maj 10th. SKRMON. 31 

See also •what is inipli'pd in the assembling in this land of a Conven- 
tion for the purposes which have brought us together. What proof of 
advancement already made, and of e.xpettation of fiitnre progress ! 
Whether our assembling shall accelerate or retard this progress depends 
on the spirit in which we conduct our discussions. " Let us therefore 
follow after the things which make for peace, and things wherewith one 
may edify another," and allow no "root of bitterness" to spritig up and 
trouble us. If we can forget self, and set ourselves wholly to seek the 
glory of our Master, and the advancement of His cause, then will He be 
present with us in all our meetings, and an impetus shall be given to the 
work of evangelising this laud, for which we shall bless His name for 
ever and ever. 

But our great encouragement is derived from the doctrines and 
commands, promises and prophecies, such as ax'e summed up in this com- 
mission. Among the '' all nations" given to the Son in covenant and 
which He has commanded us to Christianise, we know that China,, the 
most populous of all, must be included, and therefore all the encourage- 
ments we have found in e.^a'uiniiig our com-nis-iiou are in the fullest 
sense applicable to our work among this people. Is failure possible ? 

And now, my brethren, look forward a moment to the work a com- 
plished. China Christiainsed ! And not only China, but iTidia also, yea, 
all of Asia and Europe and Africa and America, and tiie Islands of the 
Bea. — Tlie ichule world Christianised ! Not wuninalUj merely, but really ! 
No more savage races, no barbarous tribes, no heathen idolatry, no 
Mohammedan delusion, no Christian superstition, no materialism, pan- 
theism, or atheism. Jehovah one, and HIk name one ! No armies and no 
navies because no wars, no capital punishment because no murders, no 
police and no prisons because no criminals. "Nothing to hurt or destroy 
in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord." Truth shall spi-ing out of the 
earth, and righteousness look down from heaven," and the ivorld shall 
be sard! 

Shall all this ever be accomplished ? Eighteen hundred years have 
passed away since the issuing of this commission, and still the larger 
portion of our race is in rebellion. Why is this ? Because the Church, 
has failed in obedience. Without obedience to the command, we may 
not claim the fulfilment of the promise. Fulfilment has always kept full 
pace with obedience. Wherever there is full obedience to the command 
there will be full performance of the promise. 

Oh that the Lord would make us faithful, and His whole Church 
faithful, then should the Go.cpcl soon be preached to every creature, and 
the preaching be made effectual, and all the nations Christianised. With 
our present mastery of, and translations of the word of God into, almost 
all the languages spoken by the inhabitants of the earth, if the whole 
Christian Church were to direct her energies to tliis her proper work, 
as men of the world, yea, Christian man too, direct their energies to 
the accomplishment of any desirable worldly undertakirg, how long would 
it be before the Gospel is preached to every creature? The years 
might easily be numbered on one's fingers. With such devotion on the 
part of the Church to the fulfilment of her engagements, think you 
that her Lord would be behindhand in fulfilling His ? 

Shall the Church of Christ ever come up to this standard of duty? 
Yes, I thiiik so. He who gave the command to preach the Gospel has 
power to give eflica>y to the command as well as to the ])rea<.hing. Sure- 
ly He will do it. He has begun to do it already. Look at the signs of 
tke times. See you not the angel flying in the midst of heaven, having 

■J2 ADDRESS. May lUtli. 

the everlastla;^ Go-ipjl to pi-eacli uilta theiu that dwell on the earth, arid 
to every nation and kindred and people and tongue ? Never, since the 
days of the ajwstles, has this vision been so plain as during this present 
generation. What Christ begins, be sure He will carry through. Was 
He manifested to destroy the works of the devil, and will He not do it ? 
He will do it, aud His na;ne shall have the praise for ever. 

Afternoon Session. 

The Holy Spirit in Connection with our Work. 


Ret. Griffith John, L. M. S. Han-kow. 

^' If ye then, being evil, hnow how to give good gifts unto your children, how 
much more shall your heavenly Father give the Suly Spirit to them, 
that ash him?" — Luke si: 13. 

The subject before us is not one of mere speculative interest. It is, 
on the contrary, one in which we are deeply concerned ; for the relation of 
the Holy Spirit to our work is es'sential and vital. 

As missionaries we believe that we ai'e in China in obedience to the 
command of our Lord; and the purpose of our mission is to disciple, or 
make Christians of, this great nation. Whatever others may do, this is 
our work. We are liei'e, not to develope the resources of the country, not 
for the advancement of commerce, not for the mere promotion of civiliza- 
tion; but to do battle with the powei^s of darkness, to save men from sin, 
and conquer China for Christ. Commerce and science are good in their 
place. We do not underrate their importance. They might develope in 
China a new and higher form of civilization — a civilization that would 
bring with it abundant wealth, rich stores of knowledge, and many con- 
trivances to ligliten the burden of existence, and make life more happy 
than it is. But they cannot meet a single spiritual want, still a single 
spiritual craving, or infuse the life of God into a single soul. The Gospel 
alone is the power of God unto salvation ; and salvation from the guilt 
and dominion of sin — from moral and spiritual miser — is the great need 
of the Chinese. Believing this, we devote ourselves to the supreme work 
of makirg known to them the truth as it is in Jesus as fully as we 
can, and of commending it to their hearts and consciences in every 
possible way. 

This is a great spiritual woi-k; and to sectire success in it, we need 
the abiding presence of the Spirit, and, through the Spirit, such a full 
baptism of power as will perfectly fit each one of us for the special work 
which God has given him to do. Wc are assembled now to pray for 
power, for spiritual power, and for the maximum of this power. We do 
not disparage other kinds of power. Natural gifts and graces are valua- 
ble talents. Superior intellectual power, for example, is a precious gift. 
It lifts its possessor to a position of imperial eminence above ordinary 
men, and assures him a commanding influence over their minds. There 
is, also, a sort of magnetic power with M^hich some men are richly endow- 

M:i\ li»(ll. A1IM5ESS. 'Mi 

fil by il:ituiv. It g'ivca thciu the pn^-oinitioiico in every circle in wliieh 
tlicy liaj)j)on to move, ami elotlie.s their words with a peculiar charm. 
These an; valuable ^ifts, ami great spiritual forces, likewise, when sub- 
sidized ami sauctiticul by the .Spirit of God. Jiiit there are comparat- 
ively few men who possess them in an eminent and eommandinu; degree. 
There is, however, a power accessible to every missionary, and to every 
convert, with which every one may be completely filled, and through 
which the weakest may be girded Avith everlasting strengih. This is 
spiritual power, for the endowment of which we are entirely dependent 
on the Spirit of (jod. " J^ut ye shall receive ])ower, after that the Holy 
(ihost is come upon you." 

Let us now try and realize our dependence on the Holy Spirit for 
every spiritual power essential to the accomplishment of our work. 

In the tirst place consider our dependence ujion the Holy (Ihost as 
the sonrec of all spiritual illumination. In ancient times, " Holy men of 
God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." The Bible is our 
only authoritative record or standard of revealed truth. The "things of 
God," as tacts and doctrines, are fully revealed in this blessed Book. 
That anything essentially new in Cliristianity, in this sense, is essentially- 
false, is a maxim of orthodoxy. Still the Bil>le is not enough for us. 
The vital question is. How are we iolcnow "the things that arc freely given 
us of (lod •'" How are we to reach the sunlit summits of full assurance 
in regard to them ? As teachers of a religion which claims to be alone 
divine in its origin, and absolutely true, the power of clear vision and 
deep conviction in regard to its eternal verities is indispensably necessary 
to us. Without this jwwer the missionary must be weak and sickly. 
His words will not have in them the clear and emphatic ring of the 
earnest man of God ; his work will be pei'formed in a listless perfunctory 
manner; the heathen will listen to his message unmoved and unconvinc- 
ed ; and the churches under his charge will be devoid of light and power. 
The missionary, of all men, needs to be able to say — I kiiow. Doubt to 
Inm means nothing less than paralysis. He has constantly to deal with 
the very foundation truths of the religion which he is attempting to in- 
troduce ; and if his eye is not clear, if his convictions are not absolute, 
and if his heart is not full in regard to these, his work will be to him 
a fruitless, joyless, burdensome task. But it is not easy in these days to 
abide in the region of absolute certainty and cloudless vision in respect to 
the verities of religion. The age in which we live is intensely atheistic and 
materialistic in its tendencies. The spii'it of scepticism is abroad, and 
the citadel of our faith is persistently and furiously assailed. Miracles 
are declared to be incredible, and belief in the supernatural is denounced 
as gross superstition. Even creation is denied; and under the i-eign of 
Law, God Him.self is bowed out of his own universe. JMeu hardly 
know what to believe, and what not to believe; and hence the feeble 
faith, the shallow conviction, and the extreme that char- 
acterize even the Chui-ch of God these days. "Mr. John," said one 
of our ablest ministers to me when I was at home, "the spirit of 
Bcepticism is carrying everything before it. It is everywhere in our 
churches, and actually creeping up our j)alpit stairs. AVe have broken 
off from our old moorings, and God only knows whither we are drift- 
ing." Brethren, how are we to keep ourselves imtaintcd by this noxious 
element with which the intellectual atmosphere of our age is so thoi'ough- 
ly impregnated? And how are we to obtain that clear vision of divine 
things that shall absolutely exclude all doubt as to their reality, enlarge 
the faculties of our minds in respect to their deep significance, and intcn- 

34 ADDRESS. May lOtli. 

sify our sense of their overwlielmiug importauce? Moreover, we have to 
repeat these truths day after day in their most elementary forms, and 
that to a people who seem almost incapable of apprehending and assimi- 
lating non-materialistic ideas. And hence there is a constant danger of 
these momentous realities losing their freshness and interest to o^ir own 
minds, and their power over our own hearts. How is this danger to be 
averted ? 

Then look at our converts. They are not psycliical men; the things 
of the Spirit of God are not foolishness unto them. I^either can we call 
them spiritual. As yet hj far the majority of them are in that state 
which the Apostle would designate as carnal. The ease vnih which raany 
of them acquire a knowledge of the facts and doctrines of the Bible is 
simply astonishing. But where is the missionary who does not lament 
the lack of sjnritnal discernment on the part of the great bulk of his con- 
verts ? The truths that are lodged in their intellects, and which they 
accept as unquestionable verities, do not appear to move them deeply. Their 
spiritual nature is not intensely quickened and greatly expanded by "the 
things of the Spirit of Grod," neither are their moral activities powerfully 
energized by them. They lack that divinely-illumined, soul trans-form- 
ing apprehension of spiritual truth, essential to the development of a 
strong manly, noble Chi'istian character. 

Again I ask, how are we to attain to, or abide in, the region of full 
assurance and clear vision in regard to " the things freely given us of 
Grod," and how ai*e our converts to be led into the enjoyment of the same 
unspeakable blessing ? There can be but one answer to this question : 
We must all he filled with the Spirit. Before the Pentecost the apostles 
themselves were mere babes in this respect. Their appi-ehensions of 
truth were extremely dull, their vision limited, and their convictions 
feeble. When filled, however, with the Holy Ghost all this was com- 
pletely reversed. In a moment their souls were bathed in the light of 
Heaven ; all doubts passed away ; and they themselves were so trans- 
formed that they became "a spectacle to the world, and to angels, and to 
men." The Spirit that guided holy men of old in recording Divine truths 
is the Spirit that reveals them to the mind of the reader in their intrinsic 
reality, deep significance, and matchless beauty. The natural and normal 
condition of the human soul is that of one filled with the Spirit of God, 
and consequently full of light ; and it is only in so far as the soul enjoys 
this fulness that it can apprehend spiritual realities as they are. The 
fully divinely illumined soul is bej^ond the reach of doubt in regard to 
these things ; for the Spirit takes of the things of Christ, and so shows 
them to such a soul that the inward eye shall behold them with direct 
and open vision. Under this blessed illumination the eternal verities of 
the Gospel become clear divine revelations to the mind, faith becomes a 
spiritual vision, and preaching becomes a description of what is seen and 
felt. The distant is brought near, the vague becomes distinct, and truths 
lying cold and dead in the intellect become instinct with quickening, 
vitalizing, invigorating power. And, above all, Jesus Christ Himself, in 
whom all spiritual truth is centred, is fully revealed to the inmost soul as 
a living, personal, ever-present Saviour. "He shall not speak of himself; 
he shall glorify me." Let us all be /(t^/ of the Spirit, and our converts 
will be full of Divine light and power, and our little churches will become 
at once what they ought to be, the lights of Heaven in this dark land. 

Consider, again, our dependence on the Holy Ghost as the immediate 
source of all holiness. As missionaries we are in China, not only to preach 
tmths and teach doctrines, but to represent Christ, and to build up a 

May lOtll. ADDRESS. 35 

lioly spiritual cluirch, and for this purpose we need tlie power of holiness. 
Holiness is a mighty ])owor ; and tlie missionary cannot dispense with it. 
In this land, especially, is this jiower required in an eminent degree. Our 
every movement, our whole spirit and temper, our entire life are narrowly 
watched and criticized hy this peoj)le ; and our intluenco for good or for 
evil depends more upon our lives than upon our words. The ideal teacher 
of the C-hincsc is a holy man. " He is entirely sincere, and pci-fect in 
love. Ue is magnanimous, generous, benign, -and full of forbearance. He 
is pare in heart, free from selfishness, and never swerves from tlie path of 
duty in his conduct. He is deep and active like a fountaiii, sending forth 
liis virtues in due season. He is seen, and men revere liini; he speaks, 
and men believe him ; he acts, and men are gladdened by him. He pos- all Heavenly virtues. He is one with Heaven." Tliis is a lofty 
ideal; but the Chinese do not look upon it as existing in fancy or imag- 
ination only. They believe tliat it has been realized in some instances at 
least; and I am convinced that no Christian teacher can be a (jreat spirit- 
nal power in China, in whom this ideal is not embodied and manifested 
in an eminent degree. He must be more than a good man {shaii jen ) ■; 
he must be a holy man (■ilieinj jen), exhibiting " the vigour of every right 
purpose, and the intensity of every devout aiJectioTi." He must be a man 
full of the Holy Ghost, and the divinity within must energize mightily 
through him. He must be a man who will take time, not only to master 
the language and litei'ature of this people, but to be holy. It is not our- 
selves — our poor selves — the Chinese want to see, but God in us. 

This lofty character, however, has been looked upon in this land as 
the heritage of the chosen few. As a people the Chinese have not sup- 
posed the attainment of it to be possible to men generall3^ The New 
Testament, on the contrary, presents us with a divinely revealed model 
of Christian character, to which every-one wlio names himself by the 
name of Christ is required to conform. The "new man in Christ" is 
not the holy man of Confucianism. In n:any particulars they differ 
widely. The Christian ideal, however, beirg absolutely true, embraces 
all that is real in the Confucian. 1 cannot uwell upon this ideal now ; 
but I may just state that holiness is ats grand essential element and all- 
comprehending requirement. The ideial Chri>tian of the New Testament 
is a "saint," that is, a holy man, entirely consecrated to God, and devot- 
ed to and truth; and the ideal Church of the New Testa- 
ment is a spiritual temple built up of such living stones. Now, it is 
perfectly clear to my mind that as long as this ideal is not fairly embodi- 
ed in the character of the church in this lend, is not made real and 
visible in the lives of its members, our progre- s must be slow and unsatis- 
factory. The Chinese must be convinced thfit Chi-i.stianity is a practical 
realitv, and not a mere system of belief, before they will accept it 
generallv. They must first see it as a power, changing the hearts of men, 
and transforming their lives, and then they will accept it as a religion. 
The question of thoughtful men in China is similar to that put by the 
Jews to Christ — "Who art thou .^ What sign shewest thou then, that 
we may see and believe thee ? " "Thou claimest to be from God, and the 
power of God unto salvation. But how are we to know that thou art not 
an imposture ? Where are the proofs of thy celestial birth ? " Brethren, 
what shall we give them as a reply ? The Bil le ? Books on the evidences 
of Christianity? The probability is that th( y would never read them — 
it is certain that few would be convinced by them. There is an argument, 
however, that would eorimand th^ir serious attention and profound 

36 ADDEESS. May lOtll. 

respect if it could only be presented with clearness and force, and tlmt 
aro-ument is the hlai))eles.'<, Itolij lives of our converts. It would be useless 
i o supply them with books recording the lives of the saints of other days 
and other lands. We must be able to point to the saints of our own 
churches, and say, "Behold a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a 
holy nation." We must be able to say with that old servant of Christ, 
who lived about two hundred years after the apostles : — " Give me a 
man," said he, "passionate, slanderous, and ungovernable; and 1 will 
make him one of God's lambs. Give me a man greedy, grasping, and 
close ; and I will give him back to you munificent. Give me a man who 
shrinks from pain and death ; and he shall presently despise the gibbet, 
the lance, and the lion. Give me a man who is intemperate, impure, and 
a rake ; and jou shall see him sober, chaste, and abstemious. Give mo a 
man addicted to imposture, injustice, folly, and crime ; and he shall with- 
out delay become just, prudent, and harmless." When we are able to 
face the proud Confucianist and address him in burning words like these, 
pointing to our converts as unanswerable witnesses for Christ, we shall 
have an argument for the divinity of our religion such as none can 
o-ainsay. But how long are we to wait for this unanswerable argument 
for the Divine origin and power of Ohristianity in China? Looking 
down, it appears as if we might have to wait many a generation. Look- 
ing up, however, there is no reason why we should wait at all. The Holy 
Spirit is the author of all holiness. Everj^ holy thought, every holy 
emotion, and every holy act are inspired by Him. He is both able and 
willing to make these babes in Christ, as well as ourselves, " holy and 
without blame before him in love." Let us believe that a baptism of the 
Spirit is possible for them ; and let us seek it on their behalf, and teach 
them to seek it, with intense and persistent earnestness. Let its do this, 
and ere long the heavens will open ; and the Heavenly Dove, as a spirit 
of jjurity, will descend upon them, and consecrate them as a " holy temple 
for an habitation of God." Then the infant Church in China will become 
an embodiment of the mighty power, and an incarnation of the divine 
genius, of our blessed religion. 

Consider again our dependence upon the Holy Spirit as the source of 
our spiritual unity. Unity is an element of power which we cannot dis- 
pense with. I am not speaking of uniformity but of "the unity of the 
Spirit." Uniformity is not possible to us; and I am not at all siire that it 
would be desirable even if it were possible. The unity which we seek is 
that which we behold in all the works of God — ^unity in variety, the unity 
of life clothing itself in manifold forms. Humanity is one ; but the races 
are many. The human body is one ; but every member is not an eye. The 
landscape is one ; but its beauty consists in a mixture of colours and 
forms. So it is in the spiritual world. "There are diversities of gifts, 
but the same Spirit ; and there are differences of administrations, but the 
same Lord. And there are diversities of operations, but the same God 
which worketh all in all." With reg-ard to our education, relig-ious train- 
ing, and mental powers and idiosyncrasis we differ widely. We cannot 
be brought to see things precisely in the same light, adopt the same 
methods, and prosecute the same line of work. Neither is it necessary that 
we should. The right principle is for every man to make up his mind as 
to what is right and best for Idm, and throw all the soul that he has 
into it. 

Then we are connected with different sections of the Christian 
Church, and are representatives of different societies. This is an inevi- 
table source of a certain amount of diversity in the outward aspect of our 

y\i\\ Idili. Ani>i;i;si5. S7 

wovk. AiTiii". "iPii nvc (>fton thrown ioi>'( tlicr in llic same inissioii. aiul 
coni|Hlk'd to work in association with t-ach otluT, bclwi-un wlioni tliero 
exists the least possible imtuml aHiiiity. This is a real soxirce t)f 

To enable lis to dwell tocr(>ili(>r in unity in our jX'Vsonal intercourse 
one with another, and to present an nnbrokeii front to tlie common enemy 
ill our work, the very (5od of peace and love must dwell in oiii hearts, 
and consecrate onr nature as his everlasting teni])U'. I'.eing all in Christ 
v,v are one in spiritual life: and we aie so we recognize and ac- 
knowledge the fact or not. But what is neccssaiy is that this clement of 
oneness should Ijccome so full in each heart, and so clearly recognized and 
powerfully e\presseil by all, that our differences would be completely 
overshadowed by it. AVhat docs it matter to this ])eople that I am a 
Ccnigregationalist, and my biother yonder is an P'piscopalian, if they 
l)ehold in us both the same Christ-like spirit, and see that we are botli 
walking in the same light of God, and having divine fellowship one with 
another? In such a case outward difi'ercnces only act as a foil to set off 
the essential unity. The unity we need, then, is the unity which is in- 
duced and ]ierpetuated by the fullcss of the indwelling of the Holy 
Spirit, and is productive of peace, mutual love, and, as far as practicable, 
hearty co-oj)eriition in work. We need the unity that would make it im- 
possible for the demons of envy, jealousy, and unholy rivalry to show 
their heads between the different missions; and that would put a perpetual 
end to all uncharitable speaking and unbrotherly acting among the mis- 
sionaries themselves. "Where the Holy Ghost dwells and reigns, such 
things cannot exist. Before the descent of the S])irit upon the disciples, 
they had their i-ivalries, and their Jjetty jealousies, and their unseemly 
disputations as to who should be the greatest in the kingdom; but the 
bajjtism of fire burned all that out of them, and they became one in 
Christ, and simply anxious to serve Him. Their mutual fellowship became 
uidji-okcn ; and all men knew that they were the disciples of Jesus by the 
love which they had one toward another. "Neither pray I for these alone, 
but for them also that shall believe on mc throi;gh their word ; that they 
all may be one ; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also 
ma} be one in us ; that the world may believe that thou hast sent me." 
" Men's hearts," says Carlyle, " ought not to be set against one another, 
but set with one another, and all against the evil thing only." 

Consider again our dependence on the Holy Ghost as the source 
of spiritual joy. " The joy of the Lord is your strength." There are 
three kinds of joy. There is the natural, which has its source in 
purely natural causes. It may be ethical J03-, inspired by an approving 
conscience. It may be intellectual joy, which springs from the conscious 
possession of superior mental gifts and culture, or from the achievements 
of intellectual triumphs. It may be mere animal joy, flowing from a ful- 
ness of bodily health, or an exuberance of the animal spirits. Or it may 
be the joy of harvest, the result of success in worldly pursuits. Then 
there is the nnnalurnJ, which consists in the exhilaration produced by 
stimulants of various kinds. This is the joy of the cup and the narcotic, 
on which the inebriate depends for his intoxicating delights, the opium- 
smoker for his day-dreams, and many a thinker and orator for his mental 
elevation and the animation of his powers. But there is another kind of 
joy — the spiritual. This is the joy of the Holy Ghosts— a joy which 
differs entirely from all other joys, and surpasses them infinitely. It is 
the joy of conscious pardon, assured by the w'itness of the Spirit in the 
heart crying Abba, Father. It is the joy of deliverance from the power 

38 ADDRESS. May loth. 

and dominion of sin. It is tlie joy which flows from soul-health and a 
fulness of spiritual life. It is the joy which springs fi'om an inward 
realization of the fact that the Father and the Son have come to abide 
forever in the breast. It is joy in God — gladness in Jesus. 

The apostle contrasts the fulness of the Spirit with the fulness of 
wine. "Be not drunk with wine, but be filled with the Spirit." On the 
day of Pentecost, the people seeing the effect of the out-pouring of the 
Spirit on the disciples, said, "They ai*e filled with new wine." The 
Apostolic Church enjoyed a wonderful fulness of the Holy Spirit ; and 
as a consequence the element of joy was a very powerful one in it. The 
Chx'istians rejoiced with joy unspeakable, and took joyfully the spoiling 
of their goods. And thus inspired with holy joy, they spoke the truth 
with boldness, and the word of the Lord sounded out from them. 

We as missionaries need the fulness of this joy. Without it our work 
will be a burden to us, and we shall toil on with the hearts of slaves ; and the 
hearts of slaves ai*e never strong. But especially do our native brethren need 
it. They had their pleasures in their heathen condition, both religious and 
sensuous. We have taken these away from them. How are they to be kept 
from falling a lusting for the flesh-pots of Eg}'pt — for the leeks, and 
onions, and garlic of their pagan life r' There can be only one way. The 
new religion must be made a joy to them. It is said of the sirens that 
their tenure of life was dependent on the successful exercise of their 
charms. They sang with bewitching sweetness, and so entranced any 
one who heard them that he died in an ecstacy of delight. It is fabled 
that Ulysses, when he approached these enchantresses, staffed the ears of 
his companions with wax, and lashed himself to the mast, and thus 
escaped. When the Argonauts, however, passed the sirens, it is said that 
Jason oi'dered Orpheus to strike his lyre. The enchantment of his sing- 
ing surpassed theirs, and the Ai-gonauts sailed safely by ; whereupon the 
sirens cast themselves into the sea, and became transformed into rocks. 
This was music conquering music, melody surpassing melody, joy exceed- 
ing j'^y- It is something like this our converts must find in Chinstianity 
if they are to be kept from the power of temptation, grow in grace, and 
become valiant for Christ. The highest and best service we can render 
them is not to stuff their ears, and lash them to the mast. Let us rather 
teach them to drink copiously of the joy of the Holy Ghost, and they 
will thirst no more for the pleasures of their former life. 

I wish I had time to dwell upon our dependence 'upon the Holy 
Spirit as a source of another power of unspeakable value to the mission- 
ary, namely, the power of dealing with human souls, both in public and 
private. Some men are richly endowed with this priceless gift. They 
seem to be able to look into the very souls of those with whom they have 
to deal, read them, understand their wants, sympathize with them, and 
talk to them with wonderful directness and instantaneous effect. They 
may, or may not, be profound thinkers or powerful speakers. But they 
are earnest, large-hearted men, and full of divine force. They yearn for 
the salvation of souls; and their whole nature seems surcharged with an 
energy which they cannot call their own. When they speak, their 
hearers feel that a supernatural power is grappling with them, and forc- 
ing them to yield or set up a conscious resistance. People are often at a 
loss to account for the influence which such men possess. As men they 
sec nothing in them to account for it; but they are compelled io feel and 
conpsa that mysterious something with which their entire being is sur- 
charged. Mr. Carpenter, of New Jersey, a Presbyterian layman, who 
lived many years ago, presents a most striking'instance of this wonderful 

M;iy Idtll. ADHRKSS. 39 

power. His education was very limited, ancl his mental ondowraeuts 
were of the most ordinary kind. Till anointed of the Holy Ghost, ho was a 
cipher in the ehiirch. As soon, however, as ho received that anointing, 
he heranie « man of marvellous spiritual power. The hardest sinners 
melted under his appeals, and yieklod to Ciirist. At his dcatl>, it was 
stated that, by a very careful iiujuiry, it had been ascertained that more 
than ten thousand souls had been converted through his direct instru- 
mentality. Finney is anotiier instance. "Soon after his conversion," 
we are told, "he received a wonderful baptivsra of the Spirit, which was 
followed bv marvellous cH'eets. His words uttered in private conversa- 
tion. t\>rgotten by himsidf, fell tike live coals on the hearts of men, and 
awakened a sense of guilt, which would not let them rest till the blood of 
spriiiking was ajjplied. At his pi-esenee, before he op(;ned his lips, the 
operatives in a mill began to fall on their knees, aiul cry for mercy. 
When ti-avei-sing western and central Xew York, he came to the village 
of Rome in a time of spiritual slumber. He luid not been in the house of 
the pastor an hour before he had conversed with all the family, and brought 
them all to their knees seeking pirdon or the fulness of the Spirit. In a 
few days every man, woman, and child in the village and vicinity was 
converted, and work ceased from laek of material to transform ; and the 
evangelist passed on to other fields to behold new triumphs of the Gospel 
thn)ugh his instrumentality." This is a wonderful gift. Would to God 
that every missionary in China possessed it in the highest degree. 

I wisli I had time to dv^-ell, also, on our dependence upon the Holy 
Spirit as the in.spirer of every true prayer. But v^'hy should I multiply 
particulars. Are we not dependent upon Him for every spiritual qualiti- 
eatioJi necessary for our work, and for every real success in it ? Do we 
want native pastors, teachers, evangelists, or deacons? It is the Holy 
Ghost who calls the right men to office, and tits them for the successful 
discharge of their duties. Do we long to see this people turn fi-om their 
dumb idols and sins to the living God ? It is the Holy Ghost alone that 
can convince them of sin, reveal Christ to their inmost consciousness, re- 
generate their souls, and lead them to faith and repentance. l)o we wish 
to build up a holy s])iritual Church in this land? Do we wish to sec the 
Churches become self-supporting, self-governing, self-propagating ? The 
Holy Ghost is the source of all power and efficiency, whether in the mem- 
bers individually, or in the Church collectively, lirethren, we will thank 
God for the natural gifts and the intellectual culture which any of us 
may possess. We cannot attach too much importance to a thorough 
knowledge of the language and literature of this people, and to an exten- 
sive a-qnaintance with their religious customs, their modes of thought, 
and social habits. Would that every missionary spoke the language like 
a native, and were a Han-lin with regard to his literary attainments. We 
cannot be too fit for the Master's use in these respects. But all such 
gifts and attainments are useless in this spiritual work without the 
accompanying power of God's Spirit. A man of oi'dinary intellect 
and education, if baptized with the Holy Ghost, is a vastly greater 
spiritual power, than the intellectual giant in whom the Divine Spirit 
but feebly energises. 

Now there are three questions which I wish to put. The first is 
this: Are we, /?7/»v/ with the Holy Ghost, and do our converts enjoy a 
fulness of the Sj)irit that can be compared with that enjoyed by the Chris- 
tians of the Apostolic age ? The question is not : Have we the Holy 
Ghost? For we certainly have him in more or less fulness. The dis- 
ciples had the Holy Ghost before the day of Pentecost; for they were 

40 Ai>i>KK:i.s. Mny lOtli. 

regenerate men, and true followers of tJie Lord Jesus. But it was oil 
that day the Holy Ghost entered their spiritual natui^e and jilhcl them. 
It was on that day they were so purified with his holy fire that they 
became in a special manner his consecrated temples, and f-o endued with 
power from on high that they became mighty tlirough God for the pull- 
ing down of strongholds. It was on that day that they receiveil the 
Holy Ghost as an all-illuminating, all-sanctifying, and an all-strengLhen- 
ing pre^oice. Their intellects on that day became full of divine light, 
their hearts throbbed with divine sympathies, and their tongues spake 
with divine power. They were simply Jill ed with the Holy Ghost ; and 
they realized all that the Master had promised them in connection with 
the advent of the other Comforter. Christ had told them that it v/as 
ei;2^eci/eH/ for them that He should go away, because the presence of the 
Spirit would be more to them than his own personal presence could be. 
With the coming of the Comforter they were to be so endued with power 
that they should do greater works than he did ; they were to be so replete 
with spiritual life that out of their hearts should flow rivers of living 
water : and they were to have such a realization of the presence of the 
Father and the Son, that their joy would be alwaya full. All this was to 
them now a glorious reality. 

And this blessed experience did not piss away with the day of 
Pentecost. The celestial Dove did not descend to pay a transient visit 
and wing its way again. The Spirit remained vltlt them and in them. 
It is impossible to read the history of the Apostolic church without 
seeing and feeling that it was full of the Holy Ghost. The Holy Ghost 
was everything to the Christians of the Apostolic age. The gift was 
sought and obtained by them as a distinct blessing. In Samaria, a 
number of peojile were converted under the preaching of Philip. After- 
ward Peter and John wei'e sent unto them, and we read that " they 
prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost. Then laid 
they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost." The all 
important question put by the Apostle Paul to certain disci [)les at 
Ephesus was — "Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed?" 
Paul urges the converts to be _/iZ/e-i with the! Spirit; and he prays that 
the Ephesian Christians might " be strengthened with might by his 
Spirit in the inner man, that Christ might dwell in their hearts by faith; 
that they being rooted and grounded in love, might be able to comprehend 
with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height, 
and know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge, that they might 
be tilled with all the fulness of God." A wonderful prayer, when you 
think of it. Only a man full of the spirit of God 'could have conceived 
such a prayer; and only such a man could have had the courage to offer 
it up in faith and v>-ith. j^erfect sinceritij. If the Apostle had not believed 
it possible for the Ephesian Christians to realize all this in their personal 
experience, he would not have prayed thus for them. 

Yes, the Apostles were men full of the Holy Ghost ; and the presence 
of the Spirit in the church of that age was a distinct, palpable, mighty 
reality. Again, I ask, are we filled with the Holy Ghost in the sense 
in which the Apostles were filled on and after the day of Pentecost ? and 
has the Church in China a realization of the witness of the Spirit that 
can at all compare with what the church of the first century had ? Have 
we been endued with this power from on high? Is our joy full ? Would 
it be the plain unvarnished truth to speak [of the Divine life realized in 
our inward experience, as ?^ fountain ever springing up in the soul, and as 
r/i-e;-s of living water ever flowing forth to bless ? "It is expedient for 

.\l:iy l(tili. Aniii;i;s.s. 41 

von tliat I irn iisviiv." is om- ri'iili/.at ion ol' llu* iiulwellinj^ ])ivsc'iu.e of 
lliL> C'oiafovtcr so viviil, so lull, so satisi'viiig. and so personal tliai wr lan 
truly say: 

'• "I'ls Tliiiu- own i^fiif'iiiiH ]iVf>iiiiso. l,i)i'tl ! 
Tliv stiiiits have provt-d tlic f-.iillifiil ^v'l^ll." 

Mv secoiul (]iu'stiou is this: Is a now Pentecost ]K)Ssible tons? 
Then' can bo but one answer to this question. It must be possible. We 
urc still in the dispensation of the .Spirit. The might of («od was not ex- 
liansted on that day. That baptism was only an earnest and a jiledge of 
of still fulU-r manifestation of (iod to mem. '"And it shall eome to pixss 
afterward that 1 will ])our out my Spirit on all llesh."" Did the Apostles 
need to be tilled with the Spirit r* So do we. Was their oiderprise a 
great and diHieult one i' So is ours. Were they dear to the heart of 
Christ, and oi)jei'ts of the Father s love? So are we. We often speak 
and aet as if it were the most dilhcult thing in the world to obtain the 
gift of the Moly Ghost. es])eeially in any; and yet it is eertain that 
tliere is no blessing which the Father is more ready to bestow npon those 
who lusk Him than this very gift. "If ye then, being evil, know how to 
give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your lieaveuly 
Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him l-' " It is the promise of 
the Futlicr. We are His children ; and He loves lis with an unspeakable 
love. He would have us be just like Himself; and for this purpose he is not 
only willing but seeking to till us with his Holy Spirit. He has given us a 
great and glm-ious work to do. and is waiting to clothe us with the neces- 
sarv power. In all ages there have been men who have luul the faith to ask 
the Father for this fulness of the Spirit, and have obtained it. The pro- 
mise is, '"ye shall seek me and find me, when ye shall .search for me with 
all your heart." " 1 beseech thee," said jVloses, '-showMne thy glory." And 
the" Lord said, "I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and I will 
inxnlaim the name of the Lord bei'ore thee." So it is in these days. Let 
m<' give you one instance. The following are ^Mr. iSloody's own words: 
"When i was ]M-eaching in Farwell Jfall, in Chicago, 1 never worked 
harder to prepare my sermcms than I did tluMi. 1 preached and preaeh- 
t'd; but it was bea ing against the air. A good woman used to say: ' Mr. 
Mooily, you don't seem to have power in yoiir preaching.' Oh, my desire 
was tiiat I might have a fresh anointing. I requested this woman and a 
few others to come to pray with me every Friday at four oV-lock. Oh, 
bow piteously J prayed that (Iod might till the empty vessel. Alter the 
tire in Chicago, I was in New York city, and going into the liank on 
Wall street, it seemed as If I felt a straiigo and mighty ptnver coming 
•)ver me. I went up to the Hotel, and there in my room 1 wept before 
(}od, and cried: ' (Jh my God, slay thy hand.' lie gave me such fulness 
that it seemed more than I could contain. May (uxl forgive me if J 
should speak in a boastful way ; but 1 do not know that 1 have preached 
a sermon since, but God has given me some soul. (Jh, 1 would not be 
ba( k where I was four years ago for all the wealth of this world. If you 
would roll it at my feet, 1 would kick it away like a foot ball. 1 seem a 
wonder to some of you ; but 1 am a greater womler to myself than to any 
one else. These are the very same sermons I ])reachcd in Chicago word 
for word. It is not new .sermons; but (he power f)f God, It is not a new 
Gospel; but the old Gospel with the Holy Ghost of power." Brethren, 
why should this fulness of the Divine Spirit bo deemed impn.ssiblo to us 
also ? It is not necessary that the baptism should come to us io precisely 
the same f'jrm that it came to this groat evangelist, or even to the 

42 ADDKES.?. May lOtli. 

Apostles. The Spirit may come as a miglity rusliing wind, or descend as 
the Slimmer shower, or distil as the gentle dew ; but in either form He 
can fill the soul with His own life, light, and power. Then, although 
neither of us might be a Paul or a Peter or even a Finney or a Moody, 
every one of us would be inspired to the maximum of effort possible to 
him, and enabled to accomplish all the work that God had given him to 
do. God never intended that we should enter upon ovir life work, or 
attempt to carry it on, without being endued w4th power from on high. 
It is not only our privilege, but our solemn duty to seek it and obtain it. 
If there be a Holy Ghost, if there be an Infinite Spirit in us and around 
us, and if this Spirit is both able and willing to satisf\^ our deepest long- 
ings, and meet and supply our every need — if this be true, then we ought 
to reckon it a sin — not a misfortune, but a siii — to offer up a single prayer, 
to preach a single sermon, or speak to a single soul unfilled with His 
conscious presence. Brethren, do we believe in the Holy Ghost ? No 
doubt we do theoreticaHij ; but do w'e practically ? Have you observed 
how little is written and said about the Holy Ghost as compared with 
other themes ? God the Father is a constant theme ; God the Son is a 
constant theme; the morality of the Gospel is ever preached ; but God the 
Holy Ghost is comparatively forgotten, and Christians are seldom urged 
to seek the fulness of His indwelling as a diritinct and available blessing. 
And how little is said about this special endowment of power in our col- 
leges and universities ! Whilst the student is ever stimulated to seek 
every other qualification for his work, how seldom is his attention directed 
to this, the most essential qualification of all ! And, then, when a young 
man offers his services to a missionary society, how seldom is he made to 
feel that every other endowment is absolutely nothing as compared with 
this ! He will be asked how much Latin, Greek, and Hebrew he knows ; 
liow many books on theology he has read ; and what reasons he has for 
believing that he is a converted man, and called to be a missionary. But 
how seldom is this question put : "Are you endued with power from on 
high ? " And how seldom is a man told to go and tarry with his God, 
until the promise of the Father shall have descended upon him ? Whilst 
our creed is, "I believe in the Holy Ghost," there is unquestionably a 
real amount of atheism in our practice ; and this is the reason why we are 
not filled with His mighty power, and why the progress of our work is so 
slow. We have grieved the Spirit of God ; and hence our leanness of 
soul, and feebleness of arm. 

" Dear Paraclete ! how hast Thou waited, 
While our hearts were slowly turned ! . 
How often hath Thy love been slighted, 
While for us it grieved and burned." 

My third question is : How is this fulness of the Spirit to be obtain- 
ed ? We are told that the disciples " continued with one accord in prayer 
and siipplication." Let us look at that wonderful prayer meeting for a 
moment. The disciples, though scattered by the crucifixion, were all 
present. Peter was there, but a wiser and stronger man. Incredulous 
Thomas was there, but with his faith firmly established. Mary, the 
mother of Jesus, was there, praying for the first time in the name of her 
glorified Son. They were all with one accord. This is a term of music. 
Theirs was not a meeting of bodies only, but a concert of souls — souls 
musical with one sentiment, one purpose, one desire. They continued 
with one accord. There was a spirit of perseverance as well as union in 
their prayers. They were commanded to tarry until endued with power ; 

and they simply olx\>xnl. But tliey did not tarry in idlenosB ; tliey " con- 
tinuotl with one accord in pniifer and supplicdtiuii.^' And they did this 
in faith — implicit iiiitli in their living Lord and in the word of His 
j>romise. Tlicy knew that He would not disappoint them. The world 
WDuld have knocked in vain at the door of the Church during these ten 
days Df prayer. As yet they were not fit to face the world. Conscious 
of their utter helplessness, and feeling their absolute dependence upon 
God for power, they were oimj'dh'd to tarry in prayer, l^ut they knew 
that they wore not taiT\-iug in vain ; for He had said, "Whatsoever ye 
shall ask the Father in vnj name, lie will give it you." Thej used the 
name of Jesus, ami put their su}>plications into ]lis golden censer; their 
pravers ascended to the throne of the Father, authorised and accredited 
by the irame of the oidy begotten Son ; and i'entecost crowned their 
devotion. This is what the Ajiostlcs did, and this is what we must do. 
Pi-ayer is the indispensable condition. "There in the heavens is the 
residue of the Spirit ; prayer taps the reservoir, and the outlet widens as 
we pray." But our prayers must be earnest, united, believing, and im- 
jiortunate. They must spring from a profound sense of a great want, 
and an unwavering assurance of the availableness and adequacy of the 
Holy Ghost to meet it. AVe must pray much icitli our converts for this 
unspeakable gift, believing that our Father, who gave the Spirit to Jesus 
without measure, will do for us exceeding abundantly above all we ask or 
think. But especially must we spend much time alone with God. Sj^iri- 
tual work involves the expenditure of spiritual power; and the soul can 
be replenished only by dwelling in the secret place of the most High. 
" Nothing but waiting at the throne," says some one, "nothing but keep- 
ing the heart under the eyes of the Lamb, to be again penetrated by his 
Spirit, can put the soul into the condition in which it is a meet instru- 
ment to impart the light and power of God to other men." The man who 
takes his affairs on his own shoulders, works oi-dinarily like an atheist, 
and begins to pray only when he is in extremity, is necessarily weak, and 
doomed to failure. He will be left to himself, and God will allow him to 
be smitten with his own weapons. But that man wields a mighty power 
who has learnt the secret of inatantly and diredhj going to God, and of 
holding face to face communion with Him. The enemies of Luther wore 
wont to say that he could obtain anything from God. And Mary, queen 
of Scots, was accustomed to say, that she feared the prayers of John 
Knox more than she did the fleets and armies of Elizabeth. What think 
you. Brethren, would be the result in China, if we as a body of mission- 
aries wei-e to resolve to make proof of the last ])ossible efficacy of prayer 
on behalf of ourselves, our converts, Jind the heathen around us? "i have 
intimated my fear," says John Foster, "that it is visionary to expect an 
unusual success in the human administration of religion unless there 
were unusual omens. Now, an enqjJintir spirit nf prai/er irouhl he siich an 
omen. If the whole, or greater number, of the disciples of Christianity were, 
with an earnest, unfailing resolution of each, to combine that Heaven 
should not withhold one single infliience which the very latmost effort of 
conspiring and persevering supj)lication could obtain, it would be a sign 
of the revolution of the world being at hand." lirethren, why should we 
not have such an oinen in this Conference ? But to obtain such an omen — 
to pray for such a blessing in such a spirit of resolve — the consecration 
of ourselves to (aod must be absolute. We cannot, we dare not, ask for 
the Spirit's highest gifts while conscious of the existence and influence 
of secret ambitions and half con.secrated pui-poses in our hearts and lives. 
We must be emptied of self, if we would be filled with God. Self-will 

44 ADDRKS.'S. May lOtli. 

mnst perisli, and tlie soul become perfectly pliuble in tlie Lands of tlie 
Spirit, ere we can, as a ]irince, lia^e power with God and witli men, and 
prevail. A7e must be willing to be nothing. howcA-er painful the hum- 
bling may be. 

'■ ! to be notliiiip;, iiotliiiig, 

Only to lie at His feet: 

A broken and emptied ves,scl 

For the Master's use made meet."' 

Brethren, we do well to leave our respective stations for a season, 
and meet here for tlie purpose of conferring on matters of importance 
connected with our work. China is open now as it never was before; the 
Churches under our charge are multiplying and increasing: and it is a 
pressing question how this immense field may be more fully occupied, and 
this growing work more effectually compassed. Moreover, methods of 
operation have been tried for a long period, and we want to obtain full 
and reliable information in respect to their intrinsic and compai-ative 
A^alue. But I do feel in my inmost soul that our pressing need is a bap- 
tism of Divine power. I want to return from this Conference, not only 
stimiilated in mind, and enriched with a store of valuable information, 
but filled with the Holy Ghost, China is de<al — terriUii dead. Our plans 
and organizations can do very little for this great people. They want 
life. Chi'ist came to give life; and He is not the 1 uv/.s- but the I am. 
"Lo, I am with you alway, even ^^nto the end of the world." The secret 
of the success of the Apostles lay not in what they did and said, but in the 
presence of Christ in them and with ihera. They saw with the C3-es of 
Christ, felt with His heart, and worked with His energies. They were 
nothing, Christ was everything. Christ was living, breathing, and 
triumphing in their personal lives. Their entire nature being replete 
with His life, their spirits bathed in His light, and their souls kindled 
with the tires of His love, they moved in the midst of men as embodi- 
ments of supei'natural power. They spake with the demonsti-ation of the 
Spirit ; when they came into contact with men, a mysterious energy went 
out of them; and under their vitalizing touch dead souls started into life. 
The Spirit had taken hold of the highest faculties of their nature, and 
was working with them according to His own will. Brethren, this is 
■what we must be, if this mighty Empire is to be moved through us. 
But to be this, the throne of grace miist be our refuge — the secret place 
of the most High must be our daily, and hourly habitation. We must 
fa/i"e ^Z7»e to become intimately acquainted with God; we must tahe time 
to become filled with His ])ower; we must taks time to be holij. May God 
help us during' the days of this Conference to wait upon Him in earnest 
persevering prayer. Let us put our desires into one heart-felt petition 
for a baptism of the Holy Ghost, and not cease to present it until we 
have prevailed. So Elijah prayed ; he threw himself on the ground, 
resolved not to rise again till his request was granted. So Jacob 
WRESTLED with the angel. So Daniel set his face unto the Lord his 
God. So the disciples continued witli one accord in prayer and 

"Faith, mighty faith, the jiromise sees 

And looks to that alone ; 

Laughs at impossibilities, 

And cries, "It shall be done ! " 

-\l:i_V ln(i), l.SSAr. 4o 

^VENING SE?;sinN. 

Entire Consecration Essential to Missionary Success. 

HkV. R. XKI..S..N-, D.I).. A. p. ]■:. .M., SllANCIl.U. 

The ilioinc wliicli is here ])rc-s(Mii('(1, iii;iy scorn to coutiiiii a more 
(rnisni, as ajipliiahlo to any utlicr calliii;; as io tlial of a ^lissionarv. 
And cortaiiily. in jii-oportinn to niio's dovotion to any oallinj^, will be liis 
fitness for it. anil llie likelihood that it's didies will he well ])oifovmed . 
JJnt it is espo-ially true of CMjiistian ^Missions, as \\ ill herein appear. — 

And we must distinirnish this from all worldiv vocations, ])y the 
fact that in them the oiVtu-ts made and ends aimed at are within tlie range 
of what is earthly and hnman, whereas, in this, the consecration largelv 
and the results wholly are to be sout^ht of (lod. 

The requirem(»nts of the sul)ject will be best met by fully answering' 
two que.'ittriiis, viz : — 

First. Wlmt is "JJiifire C' nyccrafidv," in a C'hiistian Missionary? and 
seeoiul, WJiitt is '^ Misfionon/ Success /"' 



It may, in few words, be delined, as the best and fullest and broadest 
and longest application of all one's faculties and ])Owers to giving the 
Cospel of Christ to the heathen. 

JJut, in detail, what element.s make nj) this c^n^i.^ecration ? A jnimc 
element in order both of time and of importance is faith in the Lord 
who sends, — in His wisdom to devise the })lan and means, and in His 
power to secure the end. Whole consecration to this work rests on the 
belief that's chosen plan for bringing in the gentiles to Himself is 
both efficient and suHieieid for the purpose, through the life-giving power 
of His grace attending and actuating it. It is to say, 1 believe that 
Christ's provision of Gospel truth, commissioned ministry and instituted 
sacraments is adequate to the end. J believe in His purpose and power 
to make this provision etlicacious. and that we need expect no other. 

And who can doubt, that if Christian people would awake to the 
importance of this work among the heathen and do their duty in it, it 
woidd start forward with an impetus, and progress with a speed which 
would make the world stand amazed and heaven resound with joy. 

If the projihecies of "holy men of old, who spake as they were 
moved by the Holy Ghost" mean any thing, — if the commission and 
promises given by our Lord to His ajiostles mean any thing,— if the acts 
of those ajiostles, as towards the heathen, mean any thing,— we cannot 
doubt that if the Church of Christ would work for Christ and live for 
(.■hrist as the children of this world live and work for the world, — wo 
fihould .see wonderful thing.'^. in our day, in the turning of the gentiles 
to the Lord. 

4G ESSAY. May lOtli. 

Wlien we read such Scriptures as, "From tlie rising of the sun 
unto the going down of the same My name shall be great among the 
o-entiles," (Mai. T. 11), "My word shall not return unto me void, but it 
shall accomplish that which I please and prosper in the thing whereto I 
sent it," (Is. 56, 11.) "Go ye into all theworld and preach the Gospel," — 
"lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the world" (Mat. 28, 20), 
and "The Gospel is the power of God unto salvation to every one that 
believeth," Rom. 1, 16), — when we read these and believe them with a 
faith like Peter's, we may even say, "though we have toiled all the 
night and have taken nothing," — though eighteen centuries have passed 
away, and a large portion of theworld is still in heathenism, "Never- 
theless, Master, at thy word, we will let down the net." 

Could we order this miatter to our liking, we should have the whole 
of Clmstendom at once imbued with this spirit of consecration, pouring 
their offerings into the treasury of the Lord, and sending and sustaining 
labourers in the harvest tields of heatbenism. But we cannot so order 
it, — nor is the responsibility for failure in others necessarily on us. The 
harmonizing of the faithlessness of men with the times and seasons of the 
Lord is, happily, not required of us. But, neither, on the other hand, is 
the failure of Christian people elsewhere, to come up to the measure of 
their duty any justification for those in the heathen field to come short in 
theirs. And this consideration gi\'es a practical importance to the ques- 
tion here before us. 

We are not warranted by the indifference of the churches in Chris- 
tian lands, nor by the great disparity between the millions to be reached 
and the agency for reaching them, to be disheartened and faithlessly say, 
"What are these among so many? " Let us rather be encouraged by the 
faith of Carey, that good and great man, who when, under circumstances 
most unpromising to the eye of sense, he was about to go as a Mission- 
ary to India, — said to his friends, "we go down into the hole, you hold 
on to the rope." Here was faith, even in the dark that Christ would 
make His instrumentality effectual at both ends of the rope. This was 
in 1793, when the prospect of evangelizing India was a very different 
thing from what it is at this day. 

Romance and religious sentimental i^m must not be mistaken for this 
faith. They may resemble it closely, but the resemblance is oidy on the 
surface. They are counterfeits, and worse than worthless as elements of 
consecration. The former faints away at the fii'st disgusting sight or 
smell or contact of the evil for which the Missionary comes to bring the 
remedy. The latter is without foundation in principle, — without heart 
interest in the work of saving souls depraved by sin, — without such love 
for Christ and dying men as to breath and bear the atmosphere tainted 
by moral corruption, and patiently learn to apply the remedy, and, having 
learned how, then to apply it well. It thei-efore fails to sustain the Mis- 
sionary in any persistent effort to do a worthy work, and is most likely 
to meet with disappointment from sense of failure and mistake, and end in 
abandonment of the field, with consequent waste of means and damping 
influence on the interest of others ; or, still worse, in a sham continuance 
in the field oidy to appear consistent. 

Even enthusiasm, as brilliant and attractive in the Mission field as in 
any other department of human action, is apt, like seed sown in stony 
ground, to want sufficient depth of soil and strength of root to stand the 
scorching suns of heathenism. And the yet sturdier quality, zeal, needs 
to be well tempered with discretion to make it permanently useful. 

May Imli. KSSAV. 47 

The truth ia, no enterprise on eartli, proves, in its prosecution, more 
practical, and requires more everyday, cnininon-pluce, ploddiiif^ work 
than do Missions to the heathen. "The spirit of power and love and of 
a sound mind" is the desideratum here. Strong? faith in Christ's pi>wer 
and and j)lan to save sinners, — •stronj^ resolutkni to do one's very 
best as a co-worker with Christ, — tender compassion for the lost and 
ignorant and out of the way, — ami desire to win their souls to Christ, — 
and the determination with God's help so to carry out this purpose as 
shall best accord with sound judLrement, practical wisdom and coraraon- 
sense,^ — such "faith that works," — such aims and efforts to spend and lie 
spent, with whatever ability of mind and body the blaster njay vouchsafe, 
— such may be certainly counted elements of a Missionary's consecration. 

Another constituent necessary to this c(msecration, is sounilum.'; in 
the fnith, " as the truth is in Jesus", — a right understanding and belief of 
the Revelation contained in the holy Scriptures, <as the Word of God. 
Christian Missions are simply God's plan for spreading the Gospel of 
Christ, as revealed in the l^ible ; and therefore, whoever does not well 
know and heartily believe this Gospel, cannot teach it. And, no matter 
■what else he may know and teach, ho cannot be a Christian Missionary. 
Ignorance here, or unbelief is fatal. One may be A'ery wise, learned and 
u.seful, in other respects, — he may instruct, enlighten and attract,-; — he 
may gather followers, make disciples and inform the ignorant, — but can- 
not bo a consecrated Christian Missionary. This implies a reverent 
acceptance and hclief of the Bible as containing all truth necessary to 
salvation, and God's sole provision for the redemption of fallen men. It 
implies the belief that the iJible is from Go<l, as well as a belief in the 
God of the Bible. That is to say, that the l^ible contains God's revela- 
tion of Himself and of His will, — that therein He has revealed Himself 
as God the Father, who hath made us and all the world, — God the Son, 
who hath redemed us and all mankind, — and God the Holy Ghost, who 
sanctifieth us and all the people of God ; — that in the nnitij of the Divine 
nature there are three persons of one substance, power and eternity, — the 
Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost; — that the eternal Son took our 
Aw?«a7i(7)/ of the substance of the Virgin Mary, so that two whole and 
perfect natures, the Divine and the human, were joined together in one 
person called in Scripture, Jesus Christ ; — that He, in his humanity, 
lived among men, — died for men and was buried, — and, by His Divine 
power, rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven, and ever liveth to 
make intercession for us ; — furthermore, that the llohj Ohost is very and 
eternal GoJ, of one substance. Majesty and Glory with the Father and the 
Son, — that He, b}- His Almighty grace renews the hearts of sinful men, 
and inclines and enables them to l^elieve in Jesus Christ, the Saviour. 
These Scriptures also teach that all the race of men, who are naturally 
descended from Adam are born with a depraved nature, inclined to evil, 
and which of its corruption and taint of sin, is exposed to the 
wrath of God, — but, for which a (omplete remedy is provided in the 
atonement made by Jesus Christ. And the Christian Missionary holds, 
that as the heathen are included in this taint of sin and its fearful conse- 
quences hereafter and are liable, like other sinners, to suffer eternal 
banishment to the nether side of that "great gulf," from which no man- 
constructed bridge of sentimental mercy can pass the sinner back to 
heaven,— it is his blessed Mission to carry them the offer of salvation 
through Christ Jesus. 

This hearty acceptance of and soundness in the verity, sufficiency 
and necessity of the Christian faith as Ixjaring on the salvation of the 


^h^^- loth. 

lieatlieu is doubtless a lai-o-o ingrodicnt of wliulo consecM-atloii in a Chris- 
tian Missionuvv. 

Anotli-^r essential element, — which is ]int after citliers. not by any 
mean-i bueaiisc of its secondary importance, hut rather as tlie k-aven to 
pervade and vitalizo all other elements, is the r(Arc,*n/. cultivation, of per- 
sonal holine>^-'<. It is not to be presumed that the calling of a Missionary 
among the heathen has any inherent tendency or capacity to promote 
holiness of heart and life. Woe to the Missionary who acts on such pre- 
sumption ! Riither on the contrary, every thing about him is pestilential 
with the rank malaria of heathenism. Nowhere on earth dtjes the Chris- 
tian more need to bo perpetually chid in the whole armour of God, that 
he mav be able to stand a.nd withstand. Contact with tilth does not pro- 
mote cleanliness. An infected atmosphere does not promote health. 
They whose diities lie in such surroundings, should not spare to use pre- 
ventives, disinfectants and correctives. Habitual aud long continued con- 
tact with the low impurities and immoralities of heathenism, tend.s to 
impair the aeuteness and delicacy of moral perception, and the purity 
of Christian taste. And for this reason, Christian Missionaries need 
the Apostle's warnings "watch thou in all things," — "Keep thyself 
pure," — "Take heed to thyself and to the doctrine, — continue in them, 
for in doino- this thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear thee." — 
It is indeed the Missionary among the heathen who can best appi'eciate 
these special charges of the great Apostle of the gentiles to his younger 
brother in the Gospel, whose trials and temptations he so well knew. — 
Such Avords might seem unealletl for, or even imputations against the 
chai-acter of Timothy, — whereas they were tlie kindest warnings and the 
wisest cautions against the dangers which beset him. And if Timothy 
were but human, so also are Missionaries of the ])resent day. 

Herein is the very pith and marrow of true consecration, — the r/ivinrj 
of self to Christ and His W'ork, and, the cultivation of a Ghrid liki life and 
Spirit. And it may be repeated Avith emphasis, that in no iield of Christ- 
ian duty is thei-e greater if so great need of constant, faithful use of 
means of grace as in a heathen field. In Christian lands, how'ever much, 
■unhappily, wickedness may abound, there are nevertheless many and 
fcitrong influences for good which are invaluable as aids and suppoi'ts to 
piet3\ — There are many earnest, godly people who, individually arul col- 
lectively hold up a high standard of Cln'istian living, and give a tone of 
puritv and elevation to opinion and society. In the heathen world, 
there is no help but from the giver of all grace, and hence, the greater 
is the need to seek directly from this source that help without which 
there is no real consecration. 

Having thus presented the three cJtief clement.'^ of Missionary con- 
secration, — viz: — a liviwj faith in the Lord of Missions, a sound scriptural 
creed, — and earnest personal Jioliness, — we may consider some other points, 
closely related to it. 

a. — The first point suggested is the heariiuj of entire con' e: ration on 
a missionary's engaging in Literary lahovrs as such. 

The largest attainments and highest mental culture are not too ricli 
or precious to be expended in Missions to the heathen. No worthier ob- 
ject for their bestowal can be found. And of human acquisitions none 
tend more than these to tit the Missionary for his work. And yet there 
is, no doubt, an exti-eme in this direction incompatible with consecration 
to this i\fission work, and against which some jiersons of strong literary 
bent, or love of books in some special department, or, of indolent liabit of 
body and fond of the quiet of the study,- need to be on tlicir guard. 

May loth. essay. 49 

K.K -opt RO fnr as it is actuTlly .su1)5i(H!iry to flic great work of sock- 
ing' to win souls to Christ, literary labour of givat cost in time and 
Btivngth, ean not be countetl in the line of entire consecration. A Mis- 
sionary's time and strength are due of course, to the work of his high 
calling. Whatever now, may tend to Ht him the better for his propter 
otfice of preacliing and teaching tlie Gospel, and more eH'cetualls' coin- 
rnending its truth or convincing gainsayers and " instructing those that 
oppose tliemselves," is, of couise, both legitimate and desirable. But, 
Btiil the means ^hould be kept ever subordinate to the end. 

b. — The next point proposed, is the relation of Afissionarij C'Usecra- 
tiin to engaging in any lui-mii'Sf rocidiint of the world. 

Theie are times in the lives of some Missionaries when such a course 
becomes a sheer necessity, and must be followed. "These hands have 
ministered to ray necessities," said St. Paul. Nor was he alone in siich 
experience. Others have had the same. Missionaries in China from the 
U. S. A. and possibly from other countries also, in consequence of war 
at home have been thrown on their own resources for support to them- 
selves and families. But, of itself, such a course is not to be desired 
by a Missionary as conducive to his proper work. It does not tend to 
consecration, but rather to secularize one=? habits of thought and to 
detract from spiritual mindedness. And, besides feeding on the Mission- 
ary's spirituil vitaU, it coasumes large p rtions of his prejious time, 
which aie thus lost to the great business of his higher calling. 

Of the importance ami value of Medical J/,N-.s('n?»v, both as a direct 
work of mercy, and as a means of bringing the heathen within reach of 
the (jo-pol, there can b:j no question, and yet, it is equally true that as 
a general rule, the woik of the physician and that of the minister of the/ 
Gospel cannot, with advantage, be united in the same missionary. luther) 
of these vocations requires that whoever undertakes it should give him- 
self wholly to it, as worthy of his best elTorts and time. It docs not 
commend itself to p?ople in Christian countries that one man should be 
both clergyman and physician. And there is no good reason why the 
case should be different in heathen lands. The experience of two persons, 
well known as Missionaries to China in former years, is worth citing in 
this connection. Dr. Fetcr Porlcjr came to China as a Missionary of the 
A. B. C. F. M. in 1834. He was also a Doctor of Medicine. I have been 
informed that after long effort to combine the cure of bodies and of souls 
in his Missionary work, he became convinced that to accomplish either 
one well, he must give his whole attention to that one. And he judged 
that it was best to devote himself to the medical work which was press- 
ed upon his hands. 

The other case is that of Bis-hop Boone who, before coming to the 
East, was persuaded that a knowledge of Medicine was essential to a 
^Missionary's success. He accordingly was graduated as a physi ian 
and then came on his Mis-ion. But after reaching the heathen field he 
soon discovered that the direct Missionary work to which he had given 
himself with "entire consecration" demanded all his time and strength. 
Nor would he ever prescribe for a patient except when no physician, in 
practice, could be obtained in reasonable time. His principle was that, 
whoever undertook the responsibility of the care of human life was bound j 
to give it his whole attention. And will a lower standard serve for 
human sonls ! 

c. — We may consider, here, also, the connection between a Mission 
ary's C'^mccrntion mid his uncial rt'lations. As unremitting confinement to 
any work requiring strain of bodily powere is eihaubtiug to Bfcrengtband 

50 ESSAY. Maj 10th. 

wearing' to physical health, so is unremitting mental tension damaging to 
mental health. "Non semper arcum Tendit Apollo." Relief and relaxa- 
tion sufficient for repair are necessary. And. social intercourse with 
family and friends is rest and tonic for the wearied mind. 

"It is not good for man to be alone," is a jadgment that comes to us 
from a far antiquity and clothed with the highest authority. The sol.tary 
life, — which is a very different thing from seasons of retirement for com- 
munion with God, — is not consecration. Now has it any support in either 
the doctrine or practice of our Lord or His Apostles. As a scheme of 
consecration or of fancied superior sanctity, it is wholly the device of 
of uninspired men. The holy Scriptures, far from teaching us to break 
our family ties or deny our human relations, teach us specially to cherish 
them, and to cultivate close and tender sympathies with our kind. The 
violation of these is as damaging to soundness of mind as it is unscrip- 
tural and unnatural. 

A physician who practised many years on some of the Roman Catho- 
lic priests in China, found various instances of those who had lived in 
remote sections becoming .mentally deranged from the utter blank of so- 
cial intercourse in the current of their lives. Some years since, at Hako- 
date in Japan, I became acquainted with two young French Priests 
whose suffering from this very want of social intercourse was painful to 
observe. Occasionally during several weeks I met them at their residence 
and in their lonely seaside walks, and had some opportunity of learning 
their state of mind. Their anxious question ever was "when will a 
steamer come and bring the mail ? " The painful loneliness and heart 
longings of those two interesting young priests for the left and lost at 
what was once their home made an indelible impression on my mind. 
The ties with which our gracious God had bound them to their fathers, 
mothers, brothers and sisters, — were bi^oken, and, like severed nerves 
within the human body, were reaching for re-union. The wounds were 
bleeding still. And when those wounds are healed and hardened, then 
all the gentlest, purest, loveliest elements of their humanity will be dried 
up at their source. 

And what kind of social intercourse is likely to serve the end desired 
so well as that found in the heaven-ordained relation of family and 
home? Ce^'iac^ is not consecration. When free from vows of perma- 
nency it has no logical or Scriptural connection with a higher holiness. 
As a system, under vows, it may stop the flow of the gentler, tenderer 
feeling of humanity, but no system can stop the flow of that stream which 
runs perennially from the impure fountain of a sinful human heart. 
Though it may petrify it cannot purify. It will destroy the human to 
promote the ecclesiastical life. 

It was the remark of a profound thinker, that "the Inquisition 
would have been an impossibility with men, who had the hearts of 
fathers." And, though there be exceptions to the rule, yet as a general 
rule it is true that human sympathies are kept more quick and deep and 
pure in the heaven-appointed family relations, than when they are sup- 
pressed under a system of celibacy. Grant whatever force there may be 
in the idea of hindrance to a Missionary's work and movements, now and 
then, from the care of his family — yet, that he may accomplish a long 
life-work among the heathen, the influence and rest and attachments of 
his family are inestimably helpful, wholesome and sustaining. They 
&VQ also, in God's providence, a g•rea^ protection against evils to which a 
vowed celibacy is exposed, and which are not to be ignored or made light 
of in a large view of Missions in a heathen field. Missionaries are men 

May luth. kssat. 51 

"eubjeci to like passions" as others, and not to recognize this trutli and 
act upon it is not wise. 

Nor. should we fail to note how indispensable an agenecy for promot- 
ing Christian Missions among the heathen is the Miffsionary faniili/ orija- 
tiizativii and oi'der. For wliat can the heathen learn practi ally, of 
farnily-ix^ligioa fmni exclusively celibate ^Missionaries ? — And without 
di-jpanigenient to any, it may be justly said, that no more iinjiortant 
Christian inlluence has been or can be exercised on heathen families than 
that oi JenKtlt' ))uirrit'(l Missionaries. 

IJoth as regards the Missionaries themselves, therefore, anrl the 
heathen among whom they dwell, the maintenance of social and family 
relations must be held as generally conducive to Missionary consecration. 
And it is a strong contirmation of this position, that St. Paul in his 
specific directions as to the qualifications requisite for the Ministers of 
Christ, is as specific in his directions as to the character and conduct of 
their wives and children. 


"what is missionary success?" 

"NVe proceed now to consider the second question proposed, viz : — 
'^ What is Missicmai-ij Success ?'^ 

If we could stand upon the walls of the heavenly city, and looking 
among the blissful citizens, note the starry crowns of the successful 
workers from the great harvest of souls, we might gather evidence, per- 
haps, for a different view of this question from that we are accustomed to 
take. We might see there many a one brilliant with the glorious results 
of his labours, on whom we had set little value, — and others whom we 
had held in highest estimation not so accounted there. 

Or, if we look at our fellow labourers now in the Mission field, bear- 
ing the burden and heat of the day, it is by no means ea^y to jidge who 
among then should be; called the most successful. Some certainly seem 
to work more rapidly than others, and to bring more sheaves into the 
garner. But what relative proportion of tares may be in the several 
parts brought in, we, surely, cannot judge. Of those building the 
great edifice of Christ's church on earth, who are working most success- 
fully can only be determined by the great Head himself. The work 
of some, according to our gauge, shows to more advantage, (as we say,) 
than that of others. But He who "lays jidgment to the line and 
righteousness to the plummet" may not take it at our valuation.. Stones 
may be worked in, which, though when judged "according to the 
appearance" they seem all well enough, — may not be solid through, and 
must be taken out. 

Some workmen think they may supplement,— inlay with other 
matter, — or else, in some way change the "foundation that is laid in Jesus 
Christ." Others may build on "tliis foundation " /'wood, hay or stubble, 
instead of gold, silver or precious stones." And such work will not stand 
the fire that is to "try what sort it is." 

But although with mortal eye we may not see who in heaven wear 
the brightest crowns, nor test as from the judgment day, what workers 
in the Mission fields are most successful, we may yet with profit to our- 
selves, study well the question, — ]V/iuf. is the highest Missiutiary success 
that can with some certainty be attained ? 

52 ESSAY. May lOtli. 

The answer to tlie first question drawn from our subject, " What is 
Missionary Consecration," — is, in part at least an answer to this one. — 
Entire consecration is not only a pre-reqoisite to success, it is also, 
itself, a great success. But this answer is not satisfactory nor exhaustive. 
It is in a sense, too elevated, too refined and transcendental. We must 
come down to our earthly plane and look at it fi'om our human point of • 
view. And from this point, we seek results. 

Yet, after all, with our naked eyes, unaided by the tele=!Cop9 of faith, 
we cannot see very far. Nor, without the raiL'r()scop3 of faith, can we see 
what wondrous things in embryo may be all about us. — To the eye of 
fsense, what was Christ's own life on earth, but rao^t unpromising of great 
results ! — And "the disciple is not above his Lord." 

But, pi-actically, — Missionary success looks to work, long and con- 
tinued woi-k, and work that attains an end. 

What, now, is that end so worthy of the highest effort and most 
entire consecration of body and mind, soul, and strength, — and which is 
to be, in some appreciable and intelligible sense, proportionate to such 
efforts and consecration ? 

It is- not coiivjrt'^. We cannot make them, any of us, nor all together. 
The power to make couvei'ts the Lofd hxth kapfc iu His own hands. 
Should that be our aim, the temptation would be ever present and often 
irresistible to count more than are made. And mistake here, far from 
success would be sad failure. 

It is not the (jatherinq of cjrent congrejationv and making on them 
great impressions of the Missionary's learning, eloquence and power. 

But it ift the vtof^t thorow/h ftettinrj forth to the heathiH of the G->«f^el of 
Chrid — who is therein revealed as the atonement for sin, their Saviour 
from etei-nal death, their complete redemption and eternal life. 

This, I believe to be the highest attainable "Missionary success, ' — 
the thorongh setting forth arid holding np to the heathen, and keeping 
before them Jesus Christ and Him crucified, with all the heaven revealed 
truths that attach to His blessed name, — His Mission for man's redemp- 
tion, His Deity and humanity. His power to save and love for .sinners, 
His atoning merit and forgiving grace. His heavenly teaching, wond- 
rous works and holy life. His blessed passion and pi'eeious death, His 
mighty resurrection and glorious ascension. His perpetual and prevailing 
intercession for sinful men, and iLis sending the Holy Ghost to convince, 
enlighten and sanctify men's hearts. 

Let it not be thought that this is a low or inadequate idea of Mission 
ary success, or, an end easy to attain, or one unworthy of, our best and life- 
long efforts. If a Missionary can only attain to this, little need he fear that 
God will fail to add His blessing. At least He must be trusted with 
His own part of this great work. We are but the instruments to do His 
gracious will. Little danger is there, however, of His disowning His 
own ministers or faulting JEis own word. But we must leave times and 
seasons and results to Him. "The work to be performed is ours." 

How then, shallit be done? Shall we assume that as the power is 
all of God, it therefore matters little how our work is done? By no 
means. To set Christ before the heathen as their Saviour is to glorify 
God, to bring honour to our blessed Lord, besides that this is God's own 
o-racious plan of bringing the gentiles to Himself, — and j ist as natural 
for auo-ht we kuow, as the germination of a seed sown iu the earth, and 
as necessary to the result after it's kind, as the sowing of the seed to the 
fruit after it's kind. 

May lUth. KSSAT. 53 

Well may the Mi^sionnry. then, count this nii o'ul wniiliv of nil he 
is iiMil has and tan do, and i liniiely ruoro,— to pica'h the Cio pel lo tlie 
heathen; — yea. with St. Paid, to eoiint it a jie. ial grace to him that 
he is railed to p;r,i h among the gjutile.s tiio iinseanhul)! • lii lie^ of 

In this view of Missionary success, we look at our work as one that 
if it please (loil. may be a long and continuous one, — and we exiject that 
this success will be in proportion to eti'orts made to attain it. \\ e do not 
expe .t to work miracles, or to have them worked for us. We have no 
gitis of tongues, — and, to give the (Jo^pel to a sirai g.' pc( pic of stia g* 
langnage requires, in most of us eertaiidy,— a great deal of time, patiei e 
and perseverance. 

And heix\ it is manifest, that, what we call Iminni Iciniin / is a "-rcat 
and valuable aid to a Missionaiy. 

Mental training and culture, knowledge of l,mgaa;.;es, knovvlei'g ■ in 
any dcpirtment, habits of study, — all may be limed ri Idy to account 
in titii ig the Mis ionary the better to give the Go pjltothe heathen, l^or 
while it is nut by might nor by power, by wisdom nor by learning, in the 
instrn nent. that the sinner's .salvation can be secured, yet i< it rea-ionable 
that the better the instrument and more fitted to the end desi^'ued, the 
more good may be expected to result fi-om ii's use. 

And though " neither wit nor words nor wortli, action nor utter- 
ance nor the power of s[ieech" can win mens' hearts from sin to holiness, 

yet, when possessed, they may all be consecrated to God's service, and by 
His hle-!sing, may become effectual means of Missionary success. The 
same is true aUo, of any gift, a^ qiirement or accomplishment, or skill iu 
any tine or me hanical art, in man or woman. 

Nor shotdd we underrate '/"oij mnnnor^ and ge die bearing towards 
the heathen, as means of I ommending the Go«pel to thjm. St. Peter did jiot 
deem the i j uu tion to " be courteous" unworthy ot a place in a CalhoHo 
Epistle. — St. Paul, too, frequently exhorts to "Kindness, humbleness of 
mind," — that men "give no offence in any thing," and "in honour prefer 
one another." And our Lord himself gives the golden rule of good 
manners and true politeness, "do unto all men as ye would they should 
do unto you." 

And \-et another quality in perfect harmony with these, and which 
in a long Mi.ssionary life, may often stand it's owner in good stead is 
Ghrii^tinii M ml >!:'<"'. The courage that will "dare do all that may be- 
come a man," and bear with fortitude and pitieiu e, diflicnlties and trials 
that may lie in one's path, that will even roll up sleeves and lend a vi^-or- 
ous heljung hand to those in need, — this spirit and stroi'g mental tibro 
will keep a man at his po-t and sustain him there, many a time when 
without it he would break down, give up and go away. This good quali- 
ty is doubtless very clo>ely linked with the "mens saua in cor])ore .sano," 
and that may, mediately, depend largely on wholesome food for body 
and mijid, aiid on healthv association with mankind, as well as dire.tly 
on God's help. And it is very unlikely to be improved by goii'g down 
to the level of the heathen, in their mode.s of living, with the idea of thus 
"becomii'g all things to all men." Nor is it piormted by getting out of 
the society of the world, and maintaining a sort of non-i with 
it, as though that were a higher life, aiul evidence of more eitire eonse -ra- 
tion to the Mastei-'s cause. Such was not the Master's way of giving the 
Gospel to the world. Rather, it was notorious that he was "the friend of 
publican and sinners." "This ina'i receive! h siiiners and eaLelh with 
them," was the taunting charge of the pharisees against Him. 

54 ESSAY. May lOth. 

Yes, — a liealtliy, courageous, manly Christianity, gently yet firmly 
manifesting its conscious elevation and superiority to the heathenism it 
meets, — expressing itself in kind words and gentle manners, will tend to 
command the respect and win the favour of the heathen, and thus open a 
way of a 'cess for the Messenger of Christ to present to them the Gospel. 

And most powerful, of coarse, among means of securing Missionary 
success are a huly life and Chridian example. Bj' these may a Missionary 
"commend himself even to heathen conscien es, in the sight of God." If 
God give him some length of service, he may pass through evil report a 
well as good, — through dishonour as well as honour. — But if in all he 
shall "by pureness, knowledge, long-suffering and kindness, by the Holy 
Ghost, by love unfeigned, by the word of truth and by the power of 
God, and by the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the 
left, approve himself as a Minister of God," — even the heathen will judge 
the Missionary's doctrine by his life, and the Master by His disciple. 

And the Missionary who by all or any of such means opens the way 
for setting the Gospel fully before the heathen, and does thus set it before 
them, undoubledly achieves a great success. 

Shall it now be said, that such an idea of Missionary success is not 
to be received? That any thing short of the actual visible gathering in 
of the heathen to the church of Christ is inadequate and unsatisfactory, 
as a result of Missionary consecration ? Let us consider on the other 
hand, that in many a case of long and faithful devotion to this cause such 
resuUs have not been seen by the Missionary. Shall we therefore con- 
clude that such consecration was in vain, and that God failed of His 
promises? Should any one be put out of his faith and hope in God, by such 
apparent want of success, and end his days in disappointment? God 
forbid ! To work for and with our Lord, to spread His blessed Gospel, 
this is our high vocation, — the time, manner and measure of the blessing- 
are not ours to know or to control. But we are assured that "in due 
season we shall reap, if we faint not." Time is an element in God's 
plans, and whether the thousand years or the one day is the measure for 
the visible effects of this or that part of his great work of saving men, 
we cannot determine. And so too, in this work, " one man sows and an- 
other reaps," as our Lord said, "I sent you to reap that whereon ye 
bestowed no labour;— other men laboured, and ye have entered into their 

Yet, after all, we do see with our own eyes evidences enough and 
clear enough that God does bless the work of His devoted servants. We 
do see heathen brought from darkness to light, in connection with the 
ministrations of the Gospel. God has not left himself without witness. 
The hurch and the world see the proof of this in the results of Missions 
to the heathen during the past fifty years, in India, China, Africa, and 
many Islands of the sea. But still we must wait God's time. Disappoint- 
ments, trials and discouragement we probably all have and will have. 
We must trust God and work. What lessons we may learn from the seem- 
ing failure, but real success of many who have finished their c ourse and 
gone to their account and their reward ! We see their success fore- 
shadowed in their consecration. We see it guaranteed in their work in 
the Go-pel for Christ and those to whom. He sent them. And we now 
see it, as they did not then, fully realized in the souls saved through 
their instrumentality. If I name such men as Sioirtz and Hsury Mirtijn. 
and CjIeri(Jj/e Patte^on, how do they seem to rise like high towers along 
the line of Missions to the heathen, telegraphing as with blazing fires of 
Gospel light from age to age and from country to country, — from India 

May lltk. BSSAt. 55 

to Persia and through the Tslcs of the sea, the power of ^Fissionary Con- 
secration to win lost souls to Christ. Like the ancient worthie-i, of whom 
we read in the 1 1th ch. of Hebrews, — " these all died in taith, not havinp 
received the promises, bnt having seen them afar off, and were persuaded 
of them," — notwithstanding the small amount of visible result in all their 
earthly dij. Yet, in the^o very men, a'ld iu tluir vvoi'k-; wiii h follow 
them, wo tind our most encouraging examples of Missionary success, and 
see the dire.t dependence of that success on their "entire cousejratiou" 
to the work of Christian Missions. 

Morning Session. 


The Field in All its Magnitude. 


Rev. a. Williamson, LL.D., S. U. P. M., Chefoo. 

Had T, sa}', ten daj's, and strength to speak day and night, I might 
hope to convey to 3-our minds so ue idea of the Field of Missionary 
Labour in China iu all its magnitude : but li nited to half an hour, 1 am 
at a loss how to proceed. There is one consolation. You all know more 
or less of the Field — some of you more than 1 do. My aim therefore 
clearly must be, not description, not statistics, but i-ather sug^-e-;tion. • 

I shall not therefore attempt details, but only seek to pla e certain 
facts and topics of retiection before you, and address myself not so much 
to your heads as to your hearts, — that the great facts we all know, may, 
in all their due proportions, sink down deep into our being, awaken there 
new fervour and a determination to reconsecrate ourselves afresh, living 
sacrifices to God, which is our most reasonable service. 

I have sometimes likened China to a polygon of a thousand sides — 
and the comparison is not exaggerated : for the aspects under which the 
Field may be viewed are innumerable ; and each side is worthy of our 
most careful study: and is capable of the most powerful elucidation. To- 
day, however, I shall confine myself to two or three. 

I. — First, then, let us look at the 

Physical aspect of the Field. 

Each province is about as large as Great Pritain ; so that China 
proper, may be compared to eighteen Great Britains, placed side by side. 
But when we include Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, Thibet and other 
dependencies, we find that the vermilion pencil lays down the law for a 
territory as large as Europe and about one third more. Moreover, 
extending southwards several degrees within the tropics, and penetrating 
to the limit of the temperate zone, possessing every description of soil 
and degree of altitude from the sea level to the line of perpetual snow, 
China produces everything necessary not only for the daily wants, but 
also for the luxury of man. Perhaps there is nothing, animal, or veget- 
able, which grows in any part of the world that would not also flourish 
in some part or other of this great country. 

66 ESSAY. May lltli. 

Tlie proflu ts of the soil however wane in iraporfance when coi-npared 
Axiih the rninei'al re-oiiive'^ of the eiiipii-e. I have writ ten p etty fully on 
thi- siihj.'ct el-ewhere, and so will merely allude to it here. 

Minerals of all kind litei-ally" abound — not in some puts of China 
CI ]\-, but in every province. One sentence will give you some idea of the 
snbj M't. The aggregate of all the coal lield-s in Europe, accordi \g to the 
oHii ial catalogne of the Great Exhibition of 1851, is 2 J, 720 .'square miles: 
wherea; in China alone the e-timale is 419,0OJ square miles or 'more 
hvitiity t.'vie." (?s (jreat. Side by side with the coal is iron ore of all kind^, 
not a little of it of the very richest description. But coal and iron are 
the great material powers on earth. The country which possesses the 
large t share of ihem, other ihii gs beirg equal, will play Ihe most prom- 
inent part in the woilcl. It is therefore clear that there is a momentous 
future before China. 

So much in general for the area and resonrces of the country. 

There are other and most iuiportant considerations. Is the soil worn 
out? Is the country effete ? Are the people decreasing in numbers or 
degeneratir.g in quality ? What is the character of the field in these 
I'espects ? 

This opens up the most commanding aspo t of all: for it i^ in the 
future of China we see the true mag dtude of our enterprise, and tint! our 
grai d enc ouragemei t to per e\ ere even amid manifcld di'-nppointments. 

In reference to thi-i q le-ition, therefore, our i-e|)ly' i-i that in the 
Eastern Hemisphere, at all events f jr variety and fertility, it stands not 
only unrivalled but unapp 'oached. 

And it will continue so: for such countries grow in rihness in pro- 
portion as they are cultivated. 

As the Chine-e advan-e therefore in a quai itance with the laws of 
agriculture and h(n-ti idture, & ., and, the higher the a pliances they use, 
ihe more ri -h atid valuable will b^ the yield in every dep\rtment. The 
mi'iei-al resources alone — as yet all but untouched — j istify us in believing 
that the Sun of this country's great destiny is j ist arising — hai'dly yet 
above the horizon. The-:e stores of mineral wealth have not been reserv- 
ed to this age of the woild without some parp')se ; and I think that they 
intimate clearly, the designs of Providence. With the exception of the 
We-tern States of America there is no pirt of the woild which can for 
one moment be placed in compaiison with China. I therefore believe 
that the two great countries of the future, will be the We.stern States of 
Ameria, and the Provinces of the 1 lowery Land. 

There is a trait in the Chinese charajter, not so often attended to, but 
■which demands special notice at the present moment. I refer to the fact 
that they are the great colonizers of the East. 

Every one knows what inmense ti'acts of country, both continental 
and insular, remain comparatively untouched — in a state of natui'e — the 
home of wild beasts. By far the greater, part of Anam, Cambodia, Siam, 
Burmah, Sumatra, Java, Philippine islands, Timor, Borneo, the Celebes, 
Papua, the Sandwich Islands, and others — literally millions of square 
miles — about as much as our largest continent, yet remain covered with 
jungle. The natives are comnai'atively a lazy and hopeless ra e. Euro- 
peans fall before the insalubrity of some of these cli nates. The Chinese 
alone have proved themselves able to maintain vigorous physical life in 
these unwholesome regions. They are entering these districts by thou- 
sands, and every year they ai'e extending their points of emigration. 
There is hardly a tiny islet visited by our naturalists in any part of 
seas, but Chinamen are found. The probability is, this will increase: 

Ma_\ lltli. KSSAY. 01 

and the nutivos will cithoi- fall before tlicin, oi' hoPoiiU! incorporated with 
them. It is cleiir, the Chinese will uUiiuiitely becoJiie the ruling spirits 
in these lands. TIic same liulds good in reference to Thibet, Mongolia, 
Manehnria, the north of the Amoor, and iVsiatic Russia. 

Our lield, therefore, is not eontiued to China proper. The religion 
we impart, the education we communicate, the influence we exert, and 
the books we publi.^^h, will tell in all direetif)ns: and every year more and 
more. They alone, as far as we can see, are fitted by Providence for do- 
mination and permanence in these stupendous regions. As we evange- 
lise them, they will carry the torch of truth to dark, benighted races, 
which inhabit these countries. 

Hut leaving this line of thought, there is another in which the mag- 
nitude of our work . omes powerfully before us. T refer to the histori- 
c.\L ASPECTS OF THE couxTRY. We have to deal with the oldest nation in 
the world ; one whose history extends back four thousand years — whose 
roots are deep and strong — whose mighty trunk, gnarled with age, is yet 
fat and full of sap, and as flouri-^hing as ever. A people whose preposses- 
sions and ]>rejudices and cherished judgments are the outgrowth of millen- 
niums. Whose literature, ancient and vast, is as powerful as ever with 
the people. We have to meet and overthrow many of their deepest con- 
victions ; or rather to cut down the ancient branches; graft new ideas on 
the old stock, and infuse new life into it. They oppose us manfully. They 
saj that priiK iples which have prevailed among them and governed and 
preserveil their nation in the Past, can do so also in the Future, and so on. 

A wonderful proportion among the people in all parts of the country 
can read. 

They are therefore prepared to meet us with our own weapons — 
newspaper against newspaper, literature against literature. When we 
think over this aspect of the field, and the disadvantages under which 
we labour, we cannot but exclaim: — "Who is sufficient for these things?" 
Yet here, as in the other aspects of the field, the elements of hope prc- 
pondt^rate. Their written language is one ; so our strength need not be 
fretted away on a multitude of dialects. A book written in the simple, 
yet most beautiful, style of their commentaries, is intelligible, not merely 
to scholars, but to the great mass of shop-keepers and dealers throuuhoufc 
all the eighteen Provinces; and not only so, but is equally intelligible to 
all educated Chinamen in Manchuria, Mongolia, Thibet, Corea, Japan, 
Cambodia, in tlie islands of the sea, and in whatever part of the earth 
Chinamen dwell. Our power therefore of reaching this enormous mass 
of human beings is. in Gods Providence, singularly simplified. 

But it is time to look at 


1 need not dilate to you upon the capacities of the Chinese, — their 
patience, perseverance, ingenuity, power of observation, application and 
endurance ; nor need I tell you, that not a few of them have mastered 
every new art and science we have set before them. You all know that 
inteilectually they are fit for anything. Here again, the magnitude of 
the work comes out in all its arduous proportions. In all important 
aspects they are quite equal to ourselves; they have proved themselves 
so — in diplomacy, mercantile enterprise, and in many other ways. But 
here too we have an element of hope. The nation with which we have to 
deal is not a dull, unappreciating people— but a keen, inquisitive race, 
ready to examine everything we place before them, adapted to receive our 
highest education, and able to utilise it. Thoy arc cot so terribly wed- 

68 ESSAY. May lltli. 

clecl to the past as tliey have been often represented to be. They respect 
the past, but so far as the private people are concerned, they are prepai'ed 
to adopt whatever improvements will lessen labour, cheapen materials, or 
improve their own position. They are as ready for this as the Japanese ; 
and, were they as free, would leave the Japanese far behind. Tl»e great 
drawback is the immobility of their Government. When once this is re- 
moved they will commence a career which will yield most wondrous 
results. They are men, and have all the chai'acteristics of hnmanity. I 
think, therefore, we may reasonably indulge the hope that the time is 
coming when their wretched roads shall be superseded by splendid high- 
ways ; when their noble plains, placed nnder systematic irrigation, shall 
yield yet more luxuriant crops of far finer qualities : when their rude 
implements shall be displaced by efficient machineiy ; when human sinews 
and human hearts, at present ground to earth by labour more severe and 
heart-rending than that endured by the beasts of burden, shall be reliev- 
ed by steam, and men set free to rejoice in their work ; when railways — 
our Via Victoria— ir-ae both of the era and the issue, shall cover the 
country, and thus local starvation be for ever unknown ; wlien the trunk 
lines shall connect with northern and southern Europe : the telegraphic 
wire shall flash intelligence to every town and village ; and China shall, in 
reality, be embi^aced in the sisterhood of nations. I therefore anticipate a 
glorious career for Cliina, and look forward to the time when the Chinese 
will join the Anglo-Saxon in carrying forward the destinies of the world. 
But the magnitude of our work can on\y be duly estimated when we 


What pen can describe this ? The highest power of the highest 
archangel would pale before such a task. The world sneers at this aspect ; 
but I greatly misjudge you, if jon will not thank me for drawing j'our 
attention, at the beginning of our Conference, to the most arousing- and 
solemn of all considerations which can be contemplated by us. The mind 
of man is the most wonderful thing under Heaven. It has been said that 
one soul is worth all the efforts of all the workers, in all parts of the 
world, from the beginning of time to the present, and on to the end. 
And this has been esteemed "sentiment." But it is not so. It is the 
hio-hest and most indubitable truth. The more we study the wondrous 
capacities of man, the more profoundly are we impressed with the truth 
of the remark. We are accustomed to speak of the limitation of our 
faculties ; but this is a mistake : they in themselves are capable of most 
extraordinary extension. Apply a telescope to the eye, and our powers 
of vision are increased a hundredfold or a thousandfold, as the case may 
be. So with the ear : and so with all our powers. The limitation does 
not lie in the mind, but in the instrument : and with a glorified body like 
unto Christ's glorious bodj^, who can foretell the power of the- vision, or 
hearing, or action, of which man may become capable? We can see no 
limit so far as our intelligence goes, to accomplishing almost anything. 
We have penetrated the mysteries of nature and know how things have 
been made. We could almost construct a world or a system if we had 
only the ability to put materials together. So far as knowing how to do 
it goes, the intelligence of man is sufficient. Archimedes said he could 
move the world if he only had a lever of sufficient length, and a fulcrum 
on which to rest it. But this is nothing. The great Syracusan philo- 
sopher might have gone much fiirther. There are many mathematicians 
of our own day who coiald work out problems almost infinitely more 

^Nfay llth. ESSAY. 69 

startling. Tlie faculties of the human mind are, in fact, of the most 
limitless kind — limited only by physieal suiTOundings. 

But that is not all. There is another feature in this connection, 
which adds immensely to the unspeakable importance of inan. Not only 
are his faculties of the most varied and m^-stcrious character, but they 
are inten.siticd by the fact that tliey are not stationary powers; far less 
decaying powers; but powers under the law of endless development. The 
more we learn, the better adapted we become to take in more. Tlie greater 
the variety of circumstances through whiih we pass, or studies in which 
we engage, the greater our experience and the higher our abilities for 
weightier tasks. So also with our sensitive nature ; each factor thought 
brings with it, its own burden of joy or sorrow. Tlie wider therefore our 
knowledge or range of intelligence, the greater our jo}-. And this widen- 
ing and dei'pening will go on for ever ! 

Who then can estimate the magnitude of our work ? Yes, tliese are 
the sort of things we .seek to save — sovds of men ! — not things which cau 
bo weighed ajid measured hut souls! Not things which cau be estimated at 
such and such a value — hut suuls ! Not dead things, but things that can 
think and feel and act, — things that can understand us, love us, aid us, 
cheer us in our work and be our com}»auions forever more ; or themselves 
work works of wonder, and cover earth with beauty. Not things whose 
parentage is nature ; but spirits created in the image of God, — spiritual 
beiufjs, whose cajjacities surpass all investigation, — and whose greatest 
glory is, that these capacities are under the law of never-ceasing progression 
in knowledge, power and joy, — anl u-hose c.ridence runs parallt-l with GucVs. 
These are the things we come to save — lost souls — men out of the way, 
that we may lead them into the kingdom of God, and thus enable them to 
shine as the brightness of the firmament and as the stars for ever and ever! 

When we tliink of all this : of the limitless and ever progressive 
character of the capacities of the human mind, we feel constrained to 
exclaim : — No wonder Christ died to save man I 

Here then we are face to face with a country whose resources are a.s 
yet intact, and of infinite promise ; a people which, if scattered over the 
whole earth, would so occupy the world that every third man we met, in 
any part of the globe, would be a Chinaman, and every third house a 
Chinese dwelling : a race po.sses.sing the most vigorous physical powers, 
unwearying patience, and the most dogged perseverance, destined to 
domination all over tlie East and the Islands of the sea. A people whose 
intellect is, in all important aspects, quite equal to our own — and who ai-e 
just awakening to life, — like some mighty giant from a long sleep, arous- 
ing himself, shaking his hoary locks, rubbing his dim eyes, surveying his 
position, feeling he must act, but not knowing how. Not a giant! 1 am 
wrong. But three hundred millions of immortal s])irits made in the 
image of God — aroused from the dead past, and looking all around for 

1'he Church of f!od all the world over, has long prayed for the 
opening of China. Clod has more than answered our prayers ! The evan- 
gelisation of the Empire is now thrown upon this generation. The 
church must either accept the responsibility or answer for it. 

We are here as representatives of the church to direct them into the 
paths of truth, righteousness and salvation — alas ! how few, and inade- 
quate I a handful of men and women at the various ports, on tlie outskirts 
of this great Empire, with one or two i.solated individuals here and there 
in the interior, — in all, a fev\' men, overwhelmed in the crowd around 
thera. What can we do ? 

60 sssAT. May lltb. 

Gideon and his lamp-bearers ; the priests marching round about 
Jericho ; Jonathan and his armour-bearer before the hosts of the Philis- 
tines; are nothing- to our position. Yet we falter not. We know that 
"He who is for us, is more than all they who are against us." We are the 
pioneers of Eternal Truth. Ignorance and sin and misery cannot prevail 
for ever. The Infinite One cannot brook defeat. We are His messeugei^s. 
We are preparing the way of the Lord ; and just as sure as there is a 
God in Heaven, the foundation of Whose throne is righteousness, so 
shall the time come when His will shall be done in all these plains of 
China as it is done in Heaven. Our cause must triumph, there can be no 
question about this. Therefore we falter not. We are nothing ; but God 
works by means of nothings, that no flesh may glory in His presence. 
Nothings full of the Holi/ Ghost, who are then mighty, through God, to the 
pulling down of the strong-holds of sin and Satan. Let us therefore bow 
before Him in the dust. 

God however uses means; and He expects ns, His "stewards," to be 
faithful. In view therefore of the magnitude of the work, it becomes us 
most solemnly, earnestly and seai'chingly, to examine ourselves and see 
whether we 2? er son all if are fiilly occupying our talents; and, a^ a body of 
men, whether we are in the highest measure utilizing those gifts which 
God has distributed among i\s. 

This is one great object of this Conference — to delibei^ate regarding 
the position and prospects of the kingdom. At the Lord's command we 
are here as invaders of the oldest and mightiest of all the strong-holds 
Satan has ever held on earth. The Master expects every man to do his 
duty. No army goeth to war without the most careful inquiries into the 
character of the enemy's country ; the amount of his forces ; how best to 
meet them, &c. Above all, the greatest care is taken that each contin- 
gent has its proper work, and the men best adapted for special services 
are told off for those services. Thus the whole available forces are utiliz- 
ed in the highest possible way. 

Engaged in a far more subtle warfare, are we at liberty to go on 
each man for himself, without preconcert or mutual unilerstauding ? Is 
not combined and wisely considered effort, our most solemn and mani- 
fest duty? 

Our warfare is the most real of all. Visible things are evanescent. 
The invisible alone is permanent. 

All energy, work, influence, opposition to truth, sin, misery, — every 
evil of every form we meet with under Heaven, has its seat and vigour in 
spiritual beings. Spirits alone are real. Spirits alone are powerful. The 
line of iron-clads is nothing; artillery is nothing; the serrated ranks are 
nothing. It is the spirit which is behind them and moves them, that is 
everything. This is the kind of Power we have to contend against. We 
Avrestle not against flesh and blood but against wicked sjjirits. It is not 
enthusiasm, still less fanaticism, which animates us; but sound common 
sense and the highest discernment. Our foes ai'e the most formidable of 
all. We fight with wicked spirits. Wo are not at liberty, therefore, to 
mar our work by our petty differences. Schism is sin : schism is weakness : 
schism is folly. 

By meeting together here in Conference, we have assented to this 
principle ; alas ! too long neglected. Let us therefore brethren, lay aside, 
as far as we can, all private interests and prejudices. Union multiplies 
strength. Union makes units into armies. Union forms weak indivi- 
dual men into unconquerable phalanxes. Union is omnijMtent. " If two of 
you shall agree on earth as touching anything that they shall ask, it shall 

.May llth. tssAV. 01 

he tlono for llu-m (if my Fatlior who is in hciiven." Ifow much moro if 
two linii(h'cd iiu:roe! Let us, tliLToloro, try, if possil)li', with (.iod's help, 
to obtain a mori- intellii^eiit idea of our woi-k in its manifokl branches, 
and ascertain if we cannot in a hii^her dej^rec economise our means and 
iiccomplish more towards the salvation of China. 

Jiitherto there has been a tremendous waste of power. Many do not 
know what others are dt»in,<;! Two, three are engajj^ed in the very same 
work — wliich would be as well, porha])-; better, done by one. Not a few, 
in their zeal, have undertaken important duties for which there are other.s 
far better (lualilicd. In shoi-t, there is no unity of action and no reason- 
able division of labour. Meagre as our force is, not a little of it is abso- 
lutely thrown away. 

Let us endeavour at this Conference to remove this oppi'ubrium. 
Let us conscientiously review our whole position, re-examine our work, 
fore-ca-st, fore-arm, and redodel if possible, our array. Let ns ti-y, if we 
can find out what each man is best adapted for, and give liim tlic work he 
is best qualiiied to perform. 

I do not forget that we belong to ditTcrent denominations, and that 
our churches at home expect us to acquiesce to some degree in their 
wislies. J rejt)ice to know that the spirit of union now prevails among 
many of our authorities at home. But whether or not, we all belong to 
Christ Jesus. AVe are all members of tlie same churcli. And so I ven- 
ture to submit that those of ns who can unite should unite, with all due 
respect to those who do not yet .see their way. No one can be a strict 
denominationalist in this heathen hind. Congregationalists are forced to 
adopt lessor moie Presbyterian usages. Presbyteiiansare obliged to "rule" 
in many re-peots more like Episcopalians. We must conform to the re- 
quirements of our converts; and so taking the great principles laid down 
for our guidance in the New Tc'-tament we may have dil'lerent "forms" 
and "pi-aetices"' but substantial unity. I believe therefore that Jenununa' 
tiirnulisiii as far an possible, should </o to the iviiids. Holding fast that form 
of faith which is commoidy received among us, I, tor my part, shall 
never consent to aid in transplanting the sects and sectarianism of the 
west into this country. Let the dead bury their dead. Be it ours to 
prejich the Gospel, and rear a new united and glorious church in this 
land, — TuE CuLRCU OF God, is China. And not denominationalism 
only, but let ■nationality go to the toindn. British prejudices, and Ameri- 
can prejudices, have played far too fatal a part in our work to go on 
any longer. 

"One people in onr early prime, 

One in our stormy youth, 
Drinking one stream of human thought 

One spring of heavenly Truth; — 

One lanpruape at our mother's knee, 

Uue in our Saviour's prayer, 
One glorious heritage is oars : 

OneJ'uture let us share. 

There are too many fallen men 

Far in the ancient East 
To be won back to God and truth — 

Fi'om bonds released. 

There is too much good work to do, 

And wrong to lie undone : 
Too many strongiiolds from tlic foe 

That must be forced and won, 

62 ESSAY. May lltli 

That we should leave our mission 
So high, and wide, and gi-eafc, 

On minor points of policy 
To wrangle and debate. 

Nay ! side by side, in east and west, 
In wild and lieathen lands, 

One prayer on our hearts and lips 
One Bible in our hands. 

One in our earlier home on earth 
One in our Heavenly home. 

We'll fight the battles of our Lord 
Until His Kingdom come." 

Afternoon Session. 

Buddhism and Tauism in Their Popular Aspects. 


Rev. J. Edkins D.D., L.M. S., Peking. 

Tlie popular aspects of these two religions I take to mean tlieir 
aspects at the present time in as far as they exercise an influence on the 
popular mind. They were popular formerly in a sense different from 
that in which they are popular at present. Thus preaching was common 
among Buddhists in the early ages of their religion. The principal duty 
of a shaven monk was to explain the doctrine of Shakyamuni as a delive- 
rance from the misery of life. At present the popularity of Buddhism 
certainly does not rest on any activity in expounding the doctrines of 
their faith that we have the opportunity of witnessing. It rests rather 
on the supposed magical powers of the priests, on the merit believed to 
attach to gifts presented for the support of monks, monasteries and litui'- 
gical services, and on the widespread belief that such merit will be 
followed by all kinds of happiness. The earlj^ books of Buddhism abound 
in beautiful moral precepts, proceeding from the lips of a man who 
through a long life was animated by a pure and lofty asceticism. They 
are tinged with a proud scorn of worldly glory and with a firm conscious- 
ness that there is nothing so good for a man as to listen to the teaching 
of his own better nature while he shuts his'ears closely to the siren voices 
of all sins and all temptations. Assuredly this is not what makes 
Buddhism popular now. For these early books are never, or almost 
never, read in the liturgical services ; and as to trying to be good, the 
Buddhists do not evince much indication that this aim is vital and vigor- 
ous among them. The sharp ej'es of the Coufucianists are upon them, 
and the judgment they pass on them is unfavourable. The Confucianists 
represent them as drones in the community. They describe them as not 
like the useful silkworm which gives the man the material of the textile 
fabric, but as being like the moth which destroys that fabric. Then, 
why is Buddhism still believed by the people ? the answer is that they 
believe in the magical efficacy of Buddhist prayers, and in moral causa- 
tion ; or, in other words, the law of moral retribution which Buddhism 

:Mav llth. KssAV. 63 

teaches. It is on tlit-se at'coniits that monoy (lows into ihv Buddhist 
treasury for the erection and repair of temples and pagodas and for the 
support of innumeral)lt* priests. If I give money to gild sacred images 
the law of causation will give me y)ack lia]ipiness, — y/j//.vr.i jjm nici. 

The history of Tauism has been similar. What has come now of the 
philosojihv of Lau-kiiin and Chuang-cheu ? It is much too for 
the modern Tauist mind. The Tauists of the present day do not occupy 
their attention with mysterious speculations on the pure and the true. 
Nor yet do they give attention to the alchemy of the Han dynasty. They 
have ceased to experiment on the elixir of life or the transmutation of 
all metals into gold. Instead of this they occupy themselves with writ- 
ing charms for driving demons out of houses, and with reading prayers 
for the removal of calamities. When you meet a Tauist of this genera- 
tion yoa do not meet with either an alchemist or a philosopher. The 
man you see claims, however, to be able to do very great things. He will 
imdertake to drive out a demon from the body of a madman and from a 
haunted house, to cure the sick by magic, and to bring rain in time of 
drought by his prayers. He will protect by his charms the quiet citizen 
and the adventurous traveller from all sorts of dang-ei^s, and when there 
is mourning in the honse he will, like the Budflhist monk, liiro out hi.s 
services to read j);vssages from the liturgies of his religion which shall by 
their magic power quickly transfer the soul of the dead to the land of 
happiness on high. 

A Chinese writer says in a characteristic way " The three religions 
"differ in tlieir doctrines. Yet as to the aim, to save mankind, they are 
"atone. In Jiuddhism no personage holds so large a place in saving 
" mankind as Kwan-shi-yin. In Tauism thei'e is no one equal to Li'i- 
" c'hun-yaug. In the J u-kiau there is no one to l>e compared with Con- 
"fucius and ^Mencius." In this extract* Kwan-yin is rejjresented as 
more prominent in saving men than Buddha himself. Such is the 
modern development of Buddhism, and it is the popular Buddhism of 
the day. Kwan-yin was introduced into Indian Buddhism not long 
before the Christian eitv. In China Kwan-3'in was worshipped pi'obably 
in the Han dynasty, but was not so popular as afterwards. A modern 
change has taken place in the image of Kwan-yin. Down to the early 
part of the l'2th centuiy Kwan-yin was represented as a man. In a Txtok 
of drawings of the time fo 8iuen-ho and in the works remaining of famous 
painters of the Tang and Sung dynasties, Kwan-yin is always a man. 
In later times it has become the custom to represent Kwan-yin frequently 
as a woman. This has been the custom for alxjut six hundred years. 
Kwan-yin is in masculine costume in temples where great attention is 
paid to precedent, but the popular taste is in favour of a goddess rather 
than a god. Hence the appellation in English " Goddess of ^Mercy " 
founded on the phrases commonly applied to her Ta-t^si, ta-jiei, Kieu-k^tc 
kieu-nan " Great " mercy, great pity." " Salvation from misery, salva- 
tion from "woe." That one of the many raotamorphoses of Kwan-yin 
should have become a very common, in fact the most common image of 
this divinity, may be taken as an indication that in deifying ideas the 
Buddhist mind in China delights to assign feminine attributes to that of 
mercy. It is to understand how the Sn7ii/-tsi Kwan-yin, or Kwan-yin 
the giver of sons, should become extremely popular. 

The salvation of mankind by teaching is a conception veiy character- 
istic of Chinese Buddhism. This belongs to all those fancied personages 

• From 7K ^ 1^ |^. 

C4 KbSAy. May litk. 

called Fo and F'a-sa. For example, tke mission of Kwan-yiu is the 
sahaiioii of men. It is ay)nbolized by liei* 32 metaniorplioses. In these 
shapes she enters various kingxloms as a saviour. Among these repre- 
sentations are seen the 84,000 arms and hand^ with which she guides the 
ignorant and the lost. The doctrines taught by Kwan-yiu ai'e the non- 
existence of matter and the iuhniteness of knowledge and mercy of 
Buddha. All evils are summed np in ignorance. To acquire knowledge 
of the emptiness of existing things is to become saved. It is this that 
is meant by the salvation of men through the agency of the goddess of 
mercy. In accordance with a vow she assumes some one of her 32 shapes 
and proceeds to the various kingxloms of the world to convert men, 
and to the regions where gods, giants, demons, aud fairies reside 
to protect, instruct, and save all. King^, governors, and people are re- 
novated by the power of mercy. They are said to lose their fear, to be 
extricated from the thrall of delusion, to become perfect and to have 
the power of aiding themselves or others. Kwan-yiu is represented as 
being able by uttering charms to assume numberless shapes for the sake 
of savang. She saves by mercy, by wisdom, by entering into a state. 
She obtains the great self reliant power by which she can ensure that 
those who pray for sons, and those who pray for the state of S imadhl 
shall attain it, and those who pray for deliverance from dangers, or for 
old age shall also secure them. She is able to give Nirvana to her peti- 
tioners by the same power. This is said to be her great mercy aud pity. 
All the Buddhas and Bodhisattwas have powers analogous to these. But 
none are so prominent, perhaps in this respect as Kwan-yin. Manjusiri 
(Wenshu) whose seat of worship is Wu-tai Shan in Shansi is, eveu in 
North China where his worship most prevails, much lass thought of than 
Kwan-yin. Probably Pu-hien the seat of whose worship is Wo-mei Shan 
in the province of Si-ch'wen, is even less esteemed than Manjusiri and a 
fortiori than Kwan-yin. It would seem then to be a fact important in 
modern Buddhist history that the most popular of the divinities of this 
religion should be presented first with male and afterwards with female 
attributes, and that the change of sex in the images should have been 
accomplished witliin the last few centuries. 

Yet it should not be forgotten that Kwan-yin is properly speaking 
to be regarded as masculine even at the present time. The feminine form 
is a specially popular metamoiphosis. If we wish to go farther back and 
to be still more careful in our analysis, Kwan-yin is but a form of Buddha, 
coming into the world of suffering mankind in a lower position than 
Buddha, in order more effectually to instruct and save the ignorant. 
Thus Pu-hien and Wen-shu are in the same way said to be ancient Bud- 
dhas appealing among men as the two helpers of Shakyamuni who styles 
one of them chuntj-f^'i "eldest son," and the other siau-nan, "little boy." 
Wen-shu is the God of wisdom, and Pu-hien of action. Wen-shu rides a 
lion, Pu-hicn an elephant. The lion symbolizes boldness, bravery, and a 
fresh, eager, and advancing spirit. Th^s elephant indicates care, caution, 
gentleness, and a weighty dignity. This is Buddhist symbolism. It is 
interesting in itself because it explains the images. The object of the 
images is partly instruction and pai'tly the awakening of decent feelings 
in the minds of worshippers. The image of a Fo and a P'usa is intended 
to combine in its appearance wisdom, benevolence, and victory; the 
wisdom of a philosopher, the benevolence of a redeemer, the triumph of a 
hero. All perfections are collected in the holy image ; perfect power, 
perfect virtue, inhnite compassion, infinite boldness, infinite knowledge. 
These are intended to be represented in the images. This symbolism is 

May 11 til. KSSAV. ,fto 

however not exactly what exeites faith and dovotion in the rich sup- 
porters of tlie Ihuhlhist reliy;ion. It is rather a belief in the magical 
power of the Jhuhlliist divinities and priests, and eontidencc in tlie 
doctrine of retribution for the bestowinent of liberal gifts.. 

Priests are invited to perform a liturgical service for the dead. It is 
railed liiohi-ti', "merit.' Its object is to give the deceased a better posi- 
tion in the next life tlian he would otherwise enjoy. This is founded on 
the metempsychosis. Souls may be re-born in a better or worse state of 
oxistrnre. The magical power of Jhiddha may exalt a man from a birth 
into hell to a birth into the world once more. IBuddha's power may 
canse a poor man to be born in the next life as a rich man. The choir of 
priests wield this power. They profess to have the power to ch\ni.tu liiuj 
h'uu, "to save the .<;oul." This means to transfer the soul from an undcs- 
iral)le abode in the next life to a very happy one. The peo])lo believe 
that the priests by beating cymbals and drums, knocking the wooden fish 
and chanting prayers can redeem the deceased person from the punish- 
ment due to his sins. This is expressed by tlie phrase shu tsni, "redeem 
from guilt." 

For a service of one day in the house of the dead person, the name 
f.<!0 Jcutuj fe is used. For a service of three days pai, fs^av. is often used. 
The favourite name (much may be learned from favourite names) " Omi 
to Fo" tells of an expected paradise. It speaks t)f the longing for a happy 
hereafter. Here I^uddliism has abandoned the legitimate Nirvana of 
Shakyarnuni and preferred to allow the peo])le"s craving for immoiialitj 
to dominate the pliilosoplier's dogma of a return to the al)solutc. A favoiir- 
ite title of Oraito Fo is Tsie yin Fo, "the guiding Buddiia." He guides 
from earth to the Western Paradise. The legend of Omito is connected 
with that of Kwan-yin. The .school which teaches it is called that of "the 
peaceful land." In China and Japan this school has always been a popular 
one. It is so especially in Japan. I was much struck while in that country 
with inscriptions on tombs. A large number of the inscriptions in 
ordinary cemeteries indicate that the person there buried died in hope of 
being taken to "the peaceful land." It is different in China, where Con- 
fucianism has jn-evented IJuddhism from taking a firm hold on the hearts 
of the people. No such inscriptions occur in Chinese cemeteries. Japan 
has been moi-e thoroughly penetrated with Buddhism than China. Yet 
in China the funeral procession for the dead bears many maiks of Bud- 
dhist iuHuence, though the ordinary cemeteries do not. Thus the hvun 
fan, or soul's bainier, carried before a cofhn in such a procession has on 
the top a lotus-flower, and below tliree strips of cloth, the middle one of 
which contains the characters ^^ -^ pan yi which imply faith in the 
departure of the soul to the Western Heaven. The portrait of the dead 
shell ninivj is placed beside it in what is called the ^ ^ t'<n finr/. Below 
the portrait is a tablet to be worshipped. On the right hand is another 
banner called ^ 1j^ utiiuj tsituj, on which are recorded the titles of the 
deceased. Now it will be noticed lu're that the wooden frame like a 
baldachiuo holding the picture is Buddhist. It contains the stool on 
which a Buddhist monk sits cross-legged when living, and on wliich lie 
is placed sitting in the same attitude when dead. Five Buddhist priests 
and live Tauists read prayers at tlie grave of jpersons who are rich and 
high in oUice. The liturgies read are such as the Sin king (Heart 
classic), the Kwau-yiu king. In reference to use in funeral processions, 
these liturgies are called Chwen-ts'ui king, — Liturgy for turning (or 
•guiding) the coffin ,9uits path to the grave. The Nirvana is too absti'U.'..e 

60 ESSAY. May 11th 

for the popular faith. It has been replaced by the Paradise of the Wes- 
tern Heaven. 

The belief in the existence of hermit heroes and of various malevo- 
lent spii'its and demons is a marked characteristic of popular Tauism. 
Haunted houses are avoided in all parts of China. The power of expell- 
ing demons from haunted houses and localities is believed to belong 
chiefly to the hereditary chief of Tauists, Chang T'ien-shi, and subordiu- 
ately to any Tauist priest. To expel demons he wields the sword that is 
said to have come down, a priceless heirloom, from his ancestors of the 
Han dynasty. All demons fear this sword. He who wields it, the great 
Tauist magician, can catch demons and shut them up in jars. These jars 
are sealed with a charm (Fu). I have heard that at the home of this 
chief of wizards on the Dragon and Tiger mountain in the province of 
Kiang-si, there are many rows of such jars, all of them supposed to hold 
demons in captivity. The wizard himself is believed to be a power. The 
charm is a power. The sword he wields is a power. The efficacy of a 
chai-m is increased by the supposed magical gifts of the Tauist wizard 
from whom it is obtained. To secure the services of the great Kiang-si 
wizard is very expensive. Only the wealthy who can expend 1,000 taels 
of silver without being pinched can afford the luxury of feeling quite 
sure that by the agency of this wizard the demons who trouble them are 
completely subjugated. The residence of this wizard is called Chen-jen 
Fu M: A M' In giving him the title cJien-jen the meaning is that he is 
regarded as having attained perfect power and virtue. He is the ideal 
man. Men under the domination of the passions are not called chen-jen. 
The Tauist discipline gives a man the rule over himself and over nature. 
He who possesses this is called a true man. The word chen "true" can- 
not be fully translated into English in such cases as this without embrac- 
ing the ideas "real," "perfect," "ideal," "most elevated." It is higher 
than sien "immortal," but not so high as sheng "holy." 

The pi'esent chief wizard is like his predecessors. His wife belongs 
to a Kiang-si family. Tauism in the persons of its wizards retains mar- 
riage. Buddhism introduced the disuse of marriage. Tauism being an- 
terior to that much more ascetic and self-denj-ing system knew nothing 
of celibacy. 

It may be asked from whence came the wizards and their charms 
and their supposed power to subdue the bad influences of demons in dis- 
turbing neighbourhoods by apparitions, uncanny noises, and in causing 
sickness and death? It may be answered that before the introduction of 
Buddhism, but especially in the Han dynasty this folly was rife in the 
popular belief and has continued so till now. There were wizards in the 
Shang dynasty, but no details remain of what they did. In the Han dy- 
nasty the wizards stand out in their completeness. They were greatly 
honoured by prince and people, and have continued to be so in the person 
of the Chang T'ien-shi till the present day. 

This personage assumes a state which mimics the imperial regime. 
He confers buttons like the emperor. He has about 30 persons constitu- 
ting his courtiers and high officers. Tauists come to hira from various 
cities and temples to receive pi'omotion. He invests them with certain 
titles and gives seals of office to those Tauists wdio are invested. They 
have similar powers to his, and can for example like him subdue demons 
by pasting charms on doors, wdiich prevent them from entering. The 
Chang T'ien-shi in his capacity as a sort of spiritual emperor ad- 
dresses memorials to Yu-ti in heaven. His position will be understood 
from this circumstance. He is chief official on earth of Yu-hwang-ti in 

M:iy llth. ESSAY. 67 

heaven, and as such is in the habit of addressing to him memorials called 
"piau." His duty is defined as the driving away and expulsion of de- 
mons by chaims and tlu-ir dt'struction by the magic sword. 

In all parts of China the charms scon pasted on the doors of houses 
testify to the dominant idea of popular Tauism, and to the universal fear 
of demons, whith Tauism encourages. Certainly it is not Confucianism 
that maintains in rigour this absurd dread of evil sj)irits wandering 
tlirough the air, disturbing the public tranquillity, occasioning alarms 
which sometimes spread like an epidemic from city to city, and leading 
the uninstructed populace to tnice fevers, madness, ague, drowning, acci- 
dental death of travellers, suicide, and any sort of unaccountable iliscom- 
fort to the imaginary agency of invisible and malevolent beings. To 
subdue them is the office of the Tauist magician. The person honoured 
with the credit of having invented the charm is Chang Tau-ling. It was 
called Fu /j^ because w^ritten on bamboo tallies such as were anciently 
used by officers of government, and which are made to fit in shape one 
with another as a security against imposture, in accordance with the 
meaning of the verb fu. They are to be seen pasted on door lintels, the 
occupants of the house believing that the sight of the magical characters 
written on the charm will prevent evil spirits from entering. 

The magicians were in the Han dynasty called the feathered scholars 
(Yii-shi) as being able to fly. The legend of Chang Tau-ling, ancestor of 
the Chang Tien-slu, head of the Tauist hierarchy at the present time, is 
sometimes stated as follows. In the latter part of the second century this 
I'ope of the Tauists, if he may be so called, was engaged in the province 
now called S'i-chwen in the llo-ming Shan, ("Mountain where the crane" 
Sien-ho ''calls") in manipulating the elixir of the dragon and tiger, 
Lung-hu Tan. He met a spirit who said "in the Pe-sung mountain 
" 4b ^ lil is a stone where may be found writings of the three 
" emperors and a liturgical book. By getting these you may ascend to 
" heaven if you pass through the course of discipline which they enjoin." 
He dug and found them. 13y means of them he was able to fly, to hear 
distant sounds and to leave his body. Lau-kiiiu then came down to him 
on the night of the feast of lanterns and ordered him to subdue the de- 
mons of the Shu country (Si-chwen) in order to confer blessings on hu- 
manity. Lau-kiiin gave him a powerful and secret charm, (lu) a liturgy 
(king) a composition in A'crse or measured, (kiue), a sword (kien), 
and a seal (yin). After going through a thousand days of discipline and 
receiving instructions from a certain goddess, called Yii-nu, who taught 
liim to walk about among the stars, he proceeded to fight with the king of 
the demons, to divide mountains and seas, and to command the wind and 
thunder to come and go. All the demons fled before him, leaving not a 
tmce behind of their retreating footsteps. On account of the prodigious 
slaughter of demons by this hero, the wind and thunder were reduced to 
subjection, and various divinities came with eager haste to acknowledge 
their faults. In nine years he gained the power to ascend to heaven and 
prostrate himself before the first in rank of the Three Pure Ones. A 
temple in Ch'eng-tu is said to have been the place where Lau-kiun dis- 
coursed to Chang Tau-ling. He afterwards went eastward and settled his 
residence on the mountain Lung-hu Shan where his descendants have 
ever since resided in possession of great honour and emolument as his 
liereditary representative. The present occupant of the patriarchate had 
to fly at the time of the T'ai-p'ing rebellion and the temple where he 
resides was partially destroyed. The repairs of the buildings are now 
nearly completed. 

68 ESSAY. May 11th. 

The popular divinity Yii-liwang Shang-ti is an ancient magician, 
exalted to this dignity probably by the Tauist writers of tlie Tang 
dynasty.* In the /$i fT ^ Pen-hing-king of the Tauist collection it is 
said that a magician of the Chang family was the son of a king in a 
former kalpa, who instead of succeeding his father became a hermit, and 
after eight hundred kalpas and much patient endurance of injuries at- 
tained to the rank of the Golden Immortals (Kin-sien) and at the same 
time a Buddha with a special title j^ ?^ § ^ ^ ^D 2l^ "the pure, calm 
and spontaneously perceiving Ju-lai." After a million more kalpas he 
became Yii-ti, or ^ .^ ;/<C '^' Yii-hvvang Ta-ti, emperor of all the im- 
mortals. In the same way Ts'i-wei Ta-ti, " God of the stars round the 
north pole " is the emperor who rules over the presiding gods of all the 
stars according to the one account. The magician Chang and the magician 
Liu mounted dragons and rode up through the sky towards heaven, and 
Chang gained in the race. 

In the Tsin dynasty A.D. 300 Cheu-hing is reported to have died 
and risen again. He is said to have related what he saw when dead. He 
saw ^ '^ Tien-ti the " Heavenly Emperor " enter the chief hall of his 
palace. Clouds, purple in colour, dense and dark, obstructed the view 
above him. His face was a square foot in size. Cheu-hing was told by 
those on his right and left, this is the heavenly emperor Chang. His 
palace is the Yii-ts'ing Kung, which is represented in temples hy a build- 
ing beneath the abode of the Three Pare Ones. It is the heaven to which 
the soul flies wheJi Tauist prayers are supposed to help the dead to reach 
the Tauist heaven. The expressions are Hwun-fei Ch'ung-siau, the soul 
ilies to the high firmament, Ling-t'eng T'ien-kung, the soul ascends to the 
heavenly palace. These passages are the earliest I have yet found giving 
the family name Chang to Yii-ti. This magician or god Chang is to be 
distinguished from Chang Tau-ling as already described, ancestor of the 
present Chang Tien-shi, and from the medical divinity Chang-sien, who 
was in fact a distinguished physician of the Sung dynasty. The person- 
ao-e called Chang-sien in common Chinese paintings with bow and arrow 
shooting at the moon is this physician, who lived about seven hundred 
years ago. 

In the tail-cutting delusion which is now dying out after spreading 
over the country like an epidemic, we see an example of Tauist ideas. 
The fairy that cuts oif hair is checked and prevented by a charm. A 
written charm curled up in the plaited queue at the back of the head is a 
protective shield against all the assaults of witchcraft. Tauism attempts 
to soothe the fears of the people by this artitice. In Peking lately I heard 
that a writer of charms hired men to go along the streets shouting to peo- 
ple that for safety they should place charms in their hair, and detailing 
cases of the loss of queues in the night or while men were sleeping in the 
day time. These hired men brought to the writers of charms a great 
increase of custom. Every one wished to buy one. There must be some- 
thing in it, for every one talked of it. We must, they said to themselves, 
buy a charm. The charm used in Peking against the danger of waking 
without a queue consists of four mj^sterious characters, which are all 

* The title Yii-ti ^ *i^ occurs in Tauist books earlier tlian the Tang dynasty but 
not the full title with four characters. This belongs evidently to the Tang dyuasty, 
the acre of Buddhist influence, and to the belief in metamorphoses and a former 
life borrowed from India. 

I asked the Tauist patriarch when in Shanghai how long it was since Chang t'ien-ti 
tirst received his title. He only replied "from the beginning of the universe." 

May Ihli. ESSAY. 69 

found ill Kang-lii's dictionary. 'I'lii'V wciv, wcarr tlioiv told, used ai^ainst 
a similar delusion in the Ming dynasty. 

1'he Ta\iisni of to-day meets us with tliis special eliaracteristic. Yd, 
it is but one ])art of the ])o])ular 'I'auism, wliicli in yieat ])art consists of a 
raonastie institute for reading liturgical books afti-r the Huddliist fashion. 

Dr. Yates savs in his lecture on ancestral worship and Fung-shui 
that liuddhisni borrowed from Tauisni. J}iit in fact it is rather tin; 
other way in the main. Tiuddhism indeed borrowed from Tauism the 
•woi'ship of Kwan-ti as it has boi-rowed from Confucianism the use of 
ancestral tablets for the worship of the priests of a monastery, lint there 
is no room for doubt that the general programme of the arrangements of 
a Tauist monastery, with the oecupations of the inmates, is J5uddhi.stic. 
The whole scheme of jirayers for the dead is so. As to jnayers for rain, 
they are es.sential u\ China in every religion. For popular and for state 
reasons it is essential to have them, the reason being the same in all 
Jhnldhist countries. When therefore the Hindoos and other Ikiddhists 
came to China, and found prayers for rain already existing in the Confu- 
cian, the imperial, and the popular worsliip, tliey would in offering 
prayei"s for the same object be only doing what they were accustomed to 
do in their own country. They can scarcely be said to be borrowed by 
any religion. The popular cliaracter of the prayers of the Tauists for 
the dead is difFerent in some respects fi"om tlie J^uddhist, but in the chief 
features it is evidently imitated. The old cla'^sical word i^.-<iau for 
example is not used in describing the services of the Tauists for the dead. 
The phrase pai-fsini is used. One is called C'hau-t'ien-t'san, or "Prayer 
of hwking toward heaven." Another is Yii-hvvang-t'san, "Prayer of 
" Yii hwang." This word "t'san " is Buddhist. The object of reciting books is to save the souls of the dead by affording tliem a speedy 
ascent to the palace of Yii hwang. The hell of the Buddhists is repeated 
by the Tauists in their descriptions of the future state. The variety of 
torments and punishments to be inflicted on criminals in the next world 
may be seen with all the harrowing details in the temples of Tnnri-yo-tn-ti, 
the God of Ttti-.thati, a mountain God who is supposed to rule the under 
world. He corresponds in attributes somewhat to Tt-ttninij-vaiiri-p'u-f^x, 
the Buddhist deliverer from hell. Like this Buddhist God he rules only 
as a Saviour and shares liis authority with a lai-ge group of inferior 
divinities, whose ofliices as ministers of punishment to those who deserve 
chastisement are illustrated on the walls by rough paintings, or by clay 
images moulded, and painted, in the Chinese method, in the temples of 
Tun<j->io-tn-ti. Among statements which I made years ago and have now 
to correct as imperfect or erroneous is this, that the Tauists have no hell 
but only a heaven. In fact they have both, for the rough wall drawings 
and clay mouldings found in the east and west buildings of the temples 
of Titnij-ijij prove it. These are not, however, many centuries old, and 
they form a part of the mass of legend and myth which they have unscru- 
pulously borrowed from the Buddhists. Yavui, God of Death in India, 
the Yen-1o-ir,iiifi of China, with the ten courts of judgment which rule 
over the guilty, sentences tliem to punishment and has it administered 
after death. This forms the basis of the Tauist hell. 

Modern Chinese art is very much pervaded with Tauist ideas. The 
eight genii meet us everywhere. The manufacturers of porcelain, bronze, 
and carved bamboo ornaments are never weary of representing these 
eifrht personaares. Thev belonjr to the class of hermits. The love of 
external nature was very much developed in the Tang dynasty. 1 oetry 
was the favourite occupation of the literati. They gave attention to no 

70 ESSAY. May lltli. 

severe studies. Every beautiful spot among lakes, waterfalls and moun- 
tains was selected for a hermitage or a monastery. Buddhism and 
Tauisra received a wonderful expansion. It was just the era for the 
legends of the eight genii to spring into existence. It was an age of 
sentimental feeling. The great national poets flourished in the same 
dynasty as the eight Tauist hermits. Li T"ai-pe and Tu-fu gained their 
fame at the same time that the 16 and afterwards 18 Lo-hans became 
popular. These Lo-hans are the Buddhist equivalents of the fairies and 
hermits of Tauism. The 16 were Hindoos, while the two added names 
were those of Chinese Buddhists. All the eight genii were Tauists of 
the Tang dynast}^. 

We see the eiJect of Buddhist and Tauist teaching in the present 
race of Chinese. The Tauist religion especially is responsible for those 
supei'stitions which have a dangerous character. The epidemic of the fairy 
powder was fatal to the peace of communities. The absurd charges 
brought against the martyred Sisters of Mercy in Tientsin were based on 
ideas which although usually represented as popular and as the native 
growth of the CJhinese mind are in fact correctly placed to the account of 
Tauism. It is dangerous to the state that religious teachings should be 
encouraged which tend to foster and originate popular delusions entail- 
ing such frightful results. Every man, whether a Christian or not, ought 
on moral grounds and on the greatest happiness principle itself, if he 
thinks that is a safer basis, to desii'e the extinction of a religious 
system which encoui'ages dangerous and lying delusions. Then there is 
the tail-cutting. The Tauists accept and endorse the whole system of 
popular delusion which originated the tail-cutting. They believe in the 
existence of just such fairies as are said to cut oif men's queues. They 
make money by selling the charms which are represented to be a protec- 
tion against such demons. Popular Tauism then is worthy of decided 
condemnation from every Christian and every enlightened lover of man- 
kind whatever be his belief. There are beliefs in the Tauist religion which 
not only need to be attacked by books written from the Christian stand- 
point of thought, but which may very properly be condemned in the pro- 
clamations of magistrates on account of their tendency to jjroduce daiag- 
erous tumults and lamentable breaches of the peace. What a field is here 
presented for the teaching of science, and the spread of a practical system 
of improved education in China ! Dense intellectual darkness clouds the 
people's minds. There is pressing need for the extension of a system of 
education which should strike at the root of superstition and enable the 
rising youth of the country to avoid falling into the thrall of those delu- 
sive imaginations which have grown up under the fostering care of the 
Tauists during the last two hundred years. 

It is a great misfortune for a nation to have an extensive sacerdotal 
caste whose interest it is to continue generation after generation the 
belief in deceptive fancies which check the free growth of true ideas and 
all healthy habits of thought. Their livelihood depends on the people 
continiiing to believe in demons, fairies and charms. The missionary 
and the schoolmaster, the magazine and the newspaper are all needed to 
check these bad influences and replace dangerous and injurious popular 
notions by heaLliy and useful knowledge to be gatliered from God's two 
books, that of jSTature and that of Revelation. Then as to the effects of 
Buddhism it may be said to have been good in some respects. It bears a 
consistent testimony to the vanity of the world, and the essential 
and immense superiority of soul purity to earthly grandeur. But in 
founding on this a monastic institute it has followed a wrong plan and 

Alay lltll. DISCUSSION. 71 

failed to attain tlie puiily (U'siivd. It tciuhos tlio net'd of a personal 
Redeemer to rescue from the moral evils a< (endaiit on our present existence. 
Jiut this Redeemer is a liuddlia or a lioilhisattvva, a man or heiiiy' posse.s- 
Rintj none of the ])o\vers at trihiited to him. Amoii<r the ])romiuenfc and 
most pernicious evils forwhic;h thepo[)ular Buildhism of the present day is 
re.sponsihle is idolatry. It is an enormous evil that IJnddhism has placed 
the Buddhas ami Rodhi.saltwns in the position in the reverence of the 
people that ouii^ht to bo held oidy by tlie Creator and l''ather of the world' 
Idolatry puts iiction in the stead of truth, ami as we every day see in China 
renders the mind indiii'erent to truth. This too is a vast evil. Confu- 
cianism makes everything- of morality, and the worship of Buddhist 
images when it is complied with becomes a moral duty on the part of the 
emperor or the magistrate only because it is // (ceremonial duty), not be- 
cause the Buddhist religion itself can have any just claim to it. But 
Buddhism by putting forward the image debases and misleads the na- 
tional mind by drawing it away from the proper object of human wor- 
ship. Our great contest as Christian missionaries is with Confucianism. 
There is found the intellect, the thoug-ht, the literature, the heart of the 
nation. But we have also a preliminary struggle with liuddhisra and 
Tauism. These constitute three mighty fortresses erected by satanic art 
to impede the progress of Christianity. Confucianism is the citadel of 
the enemy raising its battlements high into the clouds and manned by 
multitudes who are animated by a belief in their superiority and their 
invincible stretigth. The taking of this fortress is the conclusion of the 
Wiar. But Buddhism and Tanism each represents a fortress which ratxst 
also be captured and destroyed. So far as argument and intellect are 
concerned these fortresses ai'e weakly manned. But think of the num- 
bers, the millions on millions, who are deceived by these superstitions, and 
held fast by chains of spiritual darkness. Let the Christian host of sol- 
diers press on atid detail its battalions first to overthrow these strong 
holds of sin and Satan, and vv'hen they are destroyed let another earnest 
effort be made to destroy the last and strong-ost of the towers of the 
enemy. Then, when all these three fortresses are overthrown and China 
becomes a subject kingdom under the ^Messiah's peaceful reign it will be 
the greatest triumph ever achieved for Christianity since the time when 
the Emperor Constantine became a Christian and the Roman religion and 
power and the Greek philosophy were dragged as captives behind the 
car of the victorious Redeemer. 


RkV. W. !^rUIUHE.^.D, L. M. S., SUANGUAI, Said : — 

In regard to the religion of the Chinese, every man and woman claimed 
to belong to Confucius. This arose from the celebrity of the sage, and 
the indebtedness of the whole nation to him for their litei"ature and 
learning. For religions purposes, however, the system was altogether 
too secular for general use. It did not meet the instinctive cravings of 
human nature. Man will worship, and from the inadequacy of Confu- 
cianism, Buddhism and Taouism have come into extensive operation. 
Indeed whatever may be said of the power and prevalence of the one, it 
conflicted little with the popularity of the other. These two sy.stems met 

72 DISCUSSION. May lltli. 

the wants and feolings of all classes, and thong-li the priests and supersti- 
tions connected with tliem were of the most ignorant and stupid kind, 
they formed the only supply to the religious appetite of the nation. From 
the very dawn of their being the Chinese were taught at home and in the 
temples to pay honour and respect to the idols, and to attach the highest 
importance to them in all the affairs of life. The present world and the 
next were alike nnder their control in some mysterious manner, and it was 
nniversally considei'ed to be the wisest and safest thing to secure their 
favour and protection. The secret of the whole was, no doubt, tlie maternal 
habit of instructing the children in public and private in acts of idolatrous 
woi'ship. This was evei'ywhere to be seen, and was one of the most 
affecting sights to be witnessed in China. The juvenile head dresses 
were adorned with emblems of idolatry, and the young were largely 
brought into contact with similar associations. Indeed it was the mothers 
of China who were the chief upholders of the system, and apart 
from them it would soon become effete and powerless. All honour there- 
fore to our Missionary sisters who have come hither specially to benetit 
this important class. Their influence is calculated to be most useful, 
and in proportion to their success among their own sex, in that degree 
shall we be prepared to see the downfall of idolatry, and the establish- 
ment of a purer and better state of things. I cannot agree with the idea 
that either Buddhism or Taouism are practically dead in the social life or 
sentiments of the people. They wield the power which the native mind 
is capable of in the matter of religion, and which as religious systems 
they are fitted to exert, modified by the supi'eme influence of Coiifu- 
cianism. All around we have abundant proof of their existence and 
operation, and it will i*equire much labour on our part, under Grod, to 
supplant them by the more healthy and vital principles of Chi'istianity. 

Rev. S. B. Partridge A. B. M., Swatow, said : — 

I have had some practical experience in regard to the influence of 
Buddhism in Siam where I laboured four years before coming to China, 
and I thank Grod that it exercises less control here than in Siain. In that 
country it enters every family and affects every relation in life. I know 
of no language sti'ong enough to express the feelings that have been 
aroused by what I have witnessed of the workings of this oppressive 
system. Crowds of lazy, yellow-robed priests swarm in the temples and 
do nothing but eat the rice and fruits with which they are abundantly 
supplied by deluded devotees. Nothing would have suited me better 
than to have been appointed overseer, with authority from the king to 
work the entire lazy herd. The king himself must be a Buddhist and 
before he can be crowned he must for three months have worn the 
yellow robes and studied in the temples. 

Packs of vicious dogs are fed with rice that ought to g-o to the child- 
ren, because the people fear to kill them, lest they disturb the souls of 
some of their ancestors. 

Fish is one of the principle articles of food in Siam. When asked how 
they reconcile their views in regard to the destruction of animal life with 
their conduct towards the fish, these Buddhist sophists reply, " we don't 
kill the fish, we take them in our nets and they die a natural death." 
Buddhism is the gi-eat obstacle in the way of Christianity in Siam. It 
has blinded the eyes of the peojjle and crushed out all desire for any thing- 
better than they now possess. 

.\1 11 V 1 1 1 1 1 . J 1 1 Si; f ,ss I M \ . 73 

1 piwy (tod that Hnddliism may uevur gain kqcIi ;i fool hold in Ciiiiia 
as it uow has in Siani. 

Rkv. C. Douca.vs, LL.D., E. P. M., Amoy, said: — 

Onlv one or two other missionaries had dived into the depths of 
Buddhism and Tauism as Dr. Edkins hud done : he was thankful that 
they had done so, and thought it was enough for two or three to dire for 
the rest, as very little of pi'uetical use was to be found there. He thought 
Confucianism a far grea^e^ enr-my to Christianity than Buddhism, or 
Tauism, just as Mohammedanism in India and Africa is agreater enemy than 
Heathenism ; in each case for the same reason, because of the large amount 
of truth it contained, ^rissionaries ought to study Confucianism carefully, 
and thankfully use all that is good in it, pointing out its great deficiencies 
and wisely corecting its errors. But to spend much labour of that sort 
on Buddhism and Tauism would be unnecessary, for as f;i/.^fems of flioujht 
they are dead. At least in Southern Fuh-kien one scarcely ever meets 
with an intelligent Buddhist or Tauist. These systems have become 
viere superstitious. Though Buddliism teaches the immortality of the soul, 
yet that doctrine is much distorted, and scarcely any other truth is to be 
found in its popular form, and none at all of any importance, that he 
knew of, in Tauism. 

Rev. C. "W. Mateer, A. P. M.,, said : — 

I wish to file one charge against Buddhism, viz. — the doctrine of 
Metempsychosis. With the e.xception of Confucianism, Christianity finds 
no greater obstacle in China than tliis doctrine. It meets us at every 
turn, and modifies and neutralizes our preaching. We preach a future 
life with its rewards and punishments, but our hearers understand it all 
in accordance with their preconceived ideas of transmigration. I rarely 
preach to the heathen without trying to disabuse their minds on this 
subject. Practically they all believe it in China, Confucianists just as 
much as others. Properly speaking there are not three sects in China. 
There is only one, which is a conglomeration of the three. The of 
the Chinese are alike, Buddhists, Tauists, and Confucianists. 

Another evil with which 13uddhism is chiefly chargeable is tlie idea, 
universally prevalent in China, that every one who enters any sect, should 
live b\' it. None are accounted Jiuddhists in the full and proper sense 
except the priests, who live by their religion. When a Chinaman becomes 
a Christian he expects to live by his Christianity, not because the practice 
of employing converts has fostered this idea, but because thjs idea has for 
ages been associated with every kind of religion in China. We find it 
already deep in the minds of the Chinese people. It is, and will long 
continue to be, a prolific source of trouble and embarrassment in our 
Missionary work. 

The stronghold of Tauism is no doubt, as the c ;sayist has told us, 
the belief of the people in the efficacy of charms. To uproot this super, 
stition, Christianity will find an effective ally in the general diifusion of 
scientific truth. The true philosophy of mind and matter, will go far 
towards destroying the foundations on wliich such superstitions rest. 

7f Discussiox. May lltli. 

Rev. G. Johx, L. M. S., Hankow, said: — 

We might be thankful for the influence which the other great reli- 
gions of China had exerted upon one another, each helping in some mea- 
sure to neuti'alize the injurious tendencies of the other. Confucianism 
has made it impossible for Buddhism to become the mighty power which 
it is in Siam and other regions where it reigns supi'eme. On the other 
hand, Buddhism has stayed the hand of Confucianism in its attempt to 
annihilate the religious instinct in man. Had it not been for Buddhism 
and Tauism a belief in the invisible world and the future existence of the 
soul would have died out. l^either of these beliefs receives any coun- 
tenance from Confucianism. The sage himself discouraged any inquiry 
into these matters. He clung to the seen, the temporal, and physical 
with a tenacious grasp. He would attempt no replies to questions regard- 
ing man's spiritual relations and destiny. And this stolid indilference 
to everything beyond the present and physical has been fully inherited by 
his disciple. The consistent Confueianist needs neither a hell for the 
wicked nor a heaven for the righteous, for the souls of both, according to 
his creed, perish with their bodies. This belief the early Buddhists were 
compelled to attack in order to establish the doctrine of a future state. 
We are told that discussions were sometimes held in the presence of the 
Emperor for and against the Buddhist doctrines of the immatei'iality 
and immortality of the soul. Similarly with regard to redemption from 
sin. The Confueianist has but a faint conception of sin, and no idea at 
all of redemption from its g'uilt. Buddhism, on the other hand, keeps 
these two ideas constantly before the mind. Its theory may be false, and 
its representations absurd; but it is something to have these two great 
facts kept alive in the popular mind. The very expi'ession slmh tsuei, 
which we use in speaking of redemj^tion from sin, we have derived from 
a Buddhistic source. Then look at the idea of the supernatural. How- 
ever low and base the belief in the supernatural which Buddhism and 
Tauism encourage, still they do encourage such a belief, whilst Confu- 
cianism is essentially materialistic — of the earth earthy. Had the Chi- 
nese been left exclusively to Confueianist teaching they would probably 
have been far harder to convert than they are at present. In dealing 
with the people the missionary finds no sj^iritKal element in their Confu- 
cian training to which he can appeal, for C<:)nfucianism has never in any 
way quickened their religious instincts. We may believe, however, that 
God in His wise providence has thus been preparing China for the Gos- 
pel of His Son. Confucianism has kept human morality before the minds 
of the people, while Buddhism and Tauism have not allowed them to for- 
get eiatirely the claims of religion upon them. Christianity takes up all 
that is true, beautiful, and good in the three, and imbues it with its own 
spirit. But it does more — infinitely more. It sheds a steady light on 
those dark problems wliich they have attempted in vain to solve. For in- 
stance, the central doctrine of Buddhism is that existence is misery and a 
curse, and that therefore the aim of every man should be to get out of it 
as soon as possible by the total annihilation of the individual soul. And 
is not existence as realized by the majority of the race misery and a curse? 
In the Bible it is not called life at all, but death. And is the religious life 
as realized by very many a much higher and better thing ? "0 wretch- 
ed man that I am! Who shall deliver me from the body of this death ? " 
When uttering these, or such words as these, under a deep sense of the 
tyranny of inward sin, have we not felt that the Nirvana of Buddhism 
w-Quld he preferable to the continuation of such an existence? Many a 

May 11 til. DISCUSSION'. 

fimo have I laiel my lieiid on luy pillow wishing that I might never wako 
up again to conscious existence. Existence out of Christ is misery to a 
thoughtful man. The Buddhist cannot see the end of it, and conse- 
quently longs for the Nirvana. The Christian who has found rest in 
Jesus lias come to the end of the misery and the curse, and his languago 
is — "I thank (rod through Jesus Christ our Lord." "Life in Christ" is 
the Gospel whic-li (he Buddhist needs. The Gospel is mighty enough to 
overcome the atheistic and mateiialistic power of Confucianism, as well 
as the superstitions and false beliefs of both the Buddhist and Tauist re- 
ligions. But i( is of vital importance that it should lie exempliiied in 
the lives of our converts. It is not by argument and discussion it is to 
win i(s way in China, but by pointing to the spiritual change eliected 
through faith in the living Christ in those who jirofess it. 

Rkv. a. Wiij,iam.son, LL.D., — S. U. P. M., CnKFOO, said: — 

The great doctrine of Buddhism is renunciation of self and property 
and this was wonderfulh' practiced b}^ early Buddhists. Instead of 
living by their religion, their religion lived by them. Again there was no 
atonement in Buddhism. Do good and gain proportionate merit, or evil 
and suffer. The doctrine of charms and prayers for the dead were 
modern inventions. The legend of the Western Heavens and immor- 
tality was a direct negation of the Nirvana and was in fact taken from 
the 'Jlst and 22nd chapters of the Book of Revelation. The best way 
therefore for missionaries to meet such ideas as were under discussion, 
was to make themselves masters of the history of the false religions 
around them. 

Ret. T. p. Crawford, A. S. B. M., Tuxg-chow, said : — 

He fully sustained the charge of Mr. Mateer against Buddhism. It 
had indeed established the idea of living by religion long before the 
arrival of Protestant missionaries in China. Its priests had put religion 
into the pot, and we must put it out. 

Christianity is a religion of personal sacrifice, and we must not 
allow it to become one of " rice." With the Chinese the philosophy of 
life is to eat. 

It is a common saying among them, that Buddhism, Tauism, and 
Confucianism agree in one. Yes, in a bowl of rice with two chopsticks 
in it. This is t/ie aspiration of every class of the people, both for the 
pi-e.sent, and for the future world. 

It is the mission of Christianity to beget higher and holier aims and 
thereby overthrow the foundation of all their systems. 

76 ESSAY. May 12tli. 

M.ORNING Session. 

Preaching to the Heathen,— Matter and Manner . 


Rev. W. Muirhead, L. M. S., Shanghai. 

We liaye contemplated our Missionary work. We have considered 
the ap-encies human and divine, in connection with it. We have surveyed 
the field of labour, and some of the chief difficulties with which we have 
to contend. 

We now enter on a discussion of the means to be employed in the 
prosecution of our work, and first among them is preaching to the 
heathen, what we ought to preach and how to do it. The importance of 
it cannot be overrated. It is the subject of express divine command. 
It is the great commission with which we are charged, and we may well 
be most deeply concerned as to the best way of cai-rying it out. Oar theme 
is one of special interest, and were such light thrown upon it here as 
would fit us more fully for the work, we should feel devoutly thankful, 
and reo-ard the present convention as an occasion of signal blessing. This 
is a thought that profoundly impresses me, conscious as I am even after 
many years of active experience, that it is still a serious question in what 
way can a Missionary most efficiently engage in his sacred calling. It 
was a feeling of this kind that led the apostle to exclaim, in view of the 
magnitude and extent of his labours, — ■" and who is sufficient for these 

Happily we are not left in doubt as to the modm ojyernncK. We are 
not sent a warfare at our own charges. Direction and example are 
furnished to us abundantly in relation to the course we ought to pursue, 
and the qualifications we ought to possess. We need only turn to the 
first pages of the Christian record, and we shall there see in the character 
and life of our Blessed Lord, in the promises He made to His followers, 
in the manner of their fulfilment, and in the effect of the whole on their 
personal ministry, the spirit with which it is ours to be imbued, and the 
means by which alone we can rightly prosecute the end in view. The same 
has held good in the onward history of Christianity. Wherever men's hearts 
have been toiiched by Divine grace, and filled with the Divine Spirit, a 
very inspiration has taken hold of them, and so they were fitted for great 
anduseful service. It is this inspiration that we want in the first place, in 
keeping with the promise of Christ to his disciples, for which they were to 
wait in faith and prayer, and by which they were to be endued with power 
from on high. And no sooner was this accomplished in their experience, 
than they became signally equipped for the work given them to do, both 
in the matter and the manner of their Chinstian teaching. It was in this 
way the language of their IMaster was confirmed, that they should do 
greater things than ever He had done, by the indwdling of His Spirit, and 
the wonderful manifestation of His power through their instrumentality. 
And this same spirit needs to possess and fill our souls in a corresponding 
manner. However important other qualifications may be, this is the 

.Mhv I--lll. ES8A.T. 77 

finiclaiiuMital aiul \ital onr wliicli sanctitios and orders all tin; r(\st, making- 
the wiak as J)avid, and David as an angel of Iho J^oid. We believe in 
tlie reality of this Divine eomnuniication, tliis lieli bajttisni of tlic Uoly 
Cihost, and the means of its seciirenient are at our disposal. If there is any 
truth in Chiists })rt)iuise witli regard to it, and if there is any applica- 
bility in it to His servants in these days, there are none who require its 
fuUilinent more tlian the niissionaries of the cross in heathen hinds. 
"Without me ye can do nothing" was said by our Lord to His apostles, 
in their t)llicial capacity, and on the other hand, it was declared by the 
most eminent among them, from deep and delighted experience, "I can 
do all things througli Christ that strengtlieneth me." Only let this 
Kentiment and conviction be ours, and we shall be enabled in the highest 
degree to do our part faithfull}' and with the greatest amount of 
sat i.-- faction and success. 

Proceeding on this as the very life and soul of our ^lissiou work, we 
beg to suggest a few leading ideas on the subject of preajhing to the 
heathen, — the matter and the njanner of it, intending thereby to include 
all forms of preaching whatever, alike in the widest and in the most 
limited sense. 

1. French the Gosjoel. 

This is naturally our first thought as it is the one specific thing we 
Lave to do, as it is easily compi'chcnsive of the whole range of Christian 
knowledge. However it is approached, as we shall have occasion to show, 
only let it be the distinctive feature of our work, and so far we shall 
prove faithful to our high calling, " workmen that need not be ashamed, 
rightly dividing the word of truth." 

Its anth'n-itif. It is to be expected that we should at the outset insist 
on our credentials. We come amongst this heathen people as strangers, 
declaring to them a strange message, a primary characteristic of which is 
that it is Divine. This will lead ns to announce the fact of the 
Divine existence, His infinite perfections, His wonders of creation and 
providence, and the various relations He sustains to us. In doing so, the 
revelation of His will may be shown to be antecedently probable, and to 
have actually taken place, as may be confirmed by all appropriate argu- 
ments and illustrations, and that we are engaged in making it known. 
Purstiing this method after the example of our Lord himself, and his 
immediate followers, we can readily diverge to the exclusion of all the 
false objects of worship, and meH every difficulty in the minds of a 
heathen audience. Hence there will be opportunity not only for the direct 
statements of the word of God, but of an ajipcal to the reason and conscience 
of our hearers on the one hand, and to their own standard writings on the 
other, which may be made useful in exciting conviction of the tmth and 
ci edibility of what we say. 

Il-o nccessittj. The idea is to persuade our hearers of tlie great need 
of such a Divine and authoritative revelation as we proclaim to them. 
This can be done by a review of the ac-tual condition of human nature. 
Ample tvidence is at hand in the case of individuals, society and the 
world at large. Numerous points can be adduced in proof of the de- 
pravity and corruption of the human heart and life, even after making full 
allowance for all the varied indications of moral excellence that may be met 
with, and the whole will be readily responded to by a people like the 
Chinese. However highly virtue is commended in the native sys- 
tems and in common sentiment, the want of it is universally admitted, 
as well as the prevalence of the opposite line of things, even in an 
earthly |X)int of view. If we proceed to higher ground, the claims and 

78 KSSAT. May 12th. 

obligations of the Divine, and the grievous defects and violations of these 
in thought and feeling and practice that everywhere abound, we have an 
xinassaiiable basis to go upon in pressing home on the conscience, the sin 
and evil and ill desert of one and all. Then the inadequacy of human 
effort to meet the facts of the case, whether according to the teaching of 
the ancient sages, or the observances of idolatrous worship may be en- 
forced in the strongest terms. The experience of the Chinese may be here 
confidently appealed to. Their intellectaal and moral nature needs only 
to be informed and quickened by such truths, as it is in our power to 
br-ing before them, and in contact with which such a deep sense of want 
and guilt and danger wall be awakened, as will lead up to the felt neces- 
sity of a nobler and diviner system than they have hitherto been ac- 
quainted with, suited to every possible requirement, and of which the full 
manifestation has been made in the Gospel of Christ. 

Its import. What a theme is this, and how is it to be presented ? 
It has to do, in the first place, with the infinite love of God in the gift of 
His Son, His Mission to our world. His incaimation, His life and char- 
acter. His Divine teachings. His sufferings and death. His resurrection, 
ascension and heaveidy gloiy, and all this for us and for our salvation ! 
These are the sublime and ineffable truths, on which we are called to ex- 
patiate in preaching to the heathen, and they are wonderfully adapted, 
under God, to stir their hearts and ininds from their very depths. They 
are the special trutlis, which the nature of the case demands, and the only 
efficient means of life and salvation to sinful men. Contemplating them 
in their own character, and practical bearing in their transforming and 
renewing power, how supei'ior to all the speculations of human wisdom 
andphilosophy, and how suited to the moral and spiritual condition of man- 
kind at large ! What a revelation of Divine love is thus contained in the 
Gospel ! What a rich provision of Divine grace and mercy, what a grand 
and glorious method of pardon, reconciliation with God, and conformity 
to His image and eternal life ! How worthy, and how demonstrative of a 
Divine origin ! It is in these lights that the Gospel is to be proclaimed, 
in its own tender and loving spii'it, its earnest and cordial invitations, its 
serious aud solemn warnings, in a word as a faithful representation of 
its great and gracious author. 

T.'ii ohll'jatioiii ariiliuf from it. In pi'oportion to its authority, necessity 
and importance, it has claims and requirements of the highest kind. Re- 
pentance, faith, love and obedience are to be demanded at the hands of 
those who hear the message of salvation, and it is ours to present it in 
such a way as shall reasonably lead to this result. Our office and respon- 
sibility as ambassadoi's for Christ thus appear in the clearest manner and 
may well deeply impress us in the course of our work. The acceptance or 
rejection of the Gospel may gi'eatly depend on our mode of preach- 
ing it, and this is a consideration that ought to have its appropriate 
effect upon us. 

Such we conceive are the main outlines and charactei-istics of the 
Christian ministry with which we ai'e charged. Time and place make no 
difference in its grand and distinguishing features, its vital and funda- 
mental truths. No change of circumstance and situation can alter these 
in any degree, and the anxiety felt in one sphere, as to how best to 
preach the Gospel and adapt it to the condition of one class of people 
exactly corresponds to the anxiety felt in another sphere and in relation 
to another class. The whole wx)rld is kin and like sympathies exist in every 
heart, which admit of being touched, awakened and called into ac- 
tion by the Gospel of Christ. The one and the other spring from the 

May IJlli. tssAT. 7y 

same scinpilonml sounc. 'J'lioro is a comiiion adaptaliou bctwi-cn tlieiu 
and it is only uoi-L'^sary lliat tlio (.ios|)el should ha preached with jjowei* 
from on high, and in a way suited to the reiiuirements ol' the case, to 
make it eDeclual for ihe end iu view. 

2. rrtdcU in ihe heat Mminii j^'i:-sil,l,>. 

The subject and the occasion equally demand this. Its own J^ivino 
character, and tlie grand and glorious designs contenijilalod ])y it should 
ever lead us to magnify our otlice, and seek to fulfil its duties to the ut- 
most of our piwer. However apt or ready we may ba in the woi-k 
itself from our familiarity witli the language or the easy suggestion of 
thought and sentiment, tliat will not excuse us at any time for engaging 
in it in a perfunctory way. Let us indicate what appeai-s to be the best 
style of preaching to the heathen. 

It should be simple, cli'nr, and plain, this refers to the whole foi*m and 
manner of expression. We ought to consider the profound ignorance 
of onr hearers in regard to divine things, and that thoy need, in the 
words of scripture, "line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little and 
there a little." We are apt to forget this and haiaiigue them as if they 
perfectly u7iderstood all we said. But how often are we met by the state- 
ment, Full toong "I don't understand ' and this not so much, perhaps, 
from the strangeness of the subject, or their listlessness and inditference 
to it, as from our not coming down to the capacities of our audience, in 
short, pi'eaching over their head. Let us learn the divine art of sim- 
plicity, in our mode and style oP address, giving tliem the very alphabet 
of Gospel truth, not in a childish way indeed, but in a form that even a 
child could understand. Alike the sentiment and the language that we 
employ many not oidy be unusual to them but convey a different or at an inadequate idea to their minds, as compared with what they do 
to us, and we ought to act accordingly. "Stoop to conquer" is a motto 
that we might do well to remember in our preaching, aiid however diffi- 
cult, it is absolutely necessary to learn and jiractice it. 

It .should be earnest and affcctionafe. How intensely should we feel 
were we fully alive to the actual state of thing-s, which iu theory at 
least are familiar to us. We are called by all possible considerations to 
throw our whole hearts and souls into the work, and plead as " dying 
men with dying men," that they may be "reconciled to liod." The na- 
tural disposition of the Chinese is one of coldness and reserve, and they 
are not accustomed to warmth of manner and expre=?sion. Hut the}'' are ca- 
pable of giving' utterance to these when occasion demands, eqna'ly with 
other men. Still there is no necessity or propriety in our giving way 
to passionate demonstration or to an impetuous and fiery style of preach- 
ing, as it is more likely to awaken suspicion or dislike in the minds of 
the Chinese, while they can readily appreciate the case of one who is 
deeply and honestly in earnest for their welfare, when he furnishes satis- 
factory proof of his being so, in a calm, gentle and persua'^ive manner. Let 
our souls be penetrated by tlie motives and principles of the Gospel of (Jhrist 
let us speak in the kindly, serious tone of a man inpelled by the Master's 
spirit, and we shall be understood and regarded in this light b}^ our 
hearers. Often have I listened to them in their ideas on this point, and they 
have shown a vivid apprehension, both as to the character of the preacher 
and the style of his pi-eaching. O that love to Christ and love for souls 
were in a far higher degree the prevailing feature of our missionary 
work. It would guide us in our conduct and in our manner as no other 
principle could possibly do, and in this way we should follow most 

80 ESSAY. May 12tli. 

closely tlie footsteps of Him we serve, and of those who liave in all ages 
most nobly served Him. 

It should be infellir/eiit and appropn'dte, i. e. in adaptation to the 
circumstances in which we are placed. Who and what are they with 
whom we come in contact from day to day ? Some are scholars imbued 
with the sentiments of their schools, full of pi'ide and prejudice, and 
armed against the teachers and the teachings of Christianity. Sorre are 
addicted to idolatry, and have all the superstitious notions and ideas of their 
country, which exert a mighty influence on the whole social life of the 
nation. Others again are concerned only about the earth and earthly things, 
and have no heart for or understanding of the Divine. This latter class is 
doubtless the most common one with which we have to do, and the more 
we have we are made more keenly aware of the ignorance and indiffer- 
ence, the stolidity and perversity of the Chinese mind and heart. There 
may be some of our he arers too, under deep impression of sin and desire 
for salvation, oi" in whom it may be awakened even then and who need 
the dii'cction and comfort which Christianity alone can supply. Now it is 
the special duty of a missionaiy to enter into all these phases of the 
native chai'acter, and endeavour to meet them in the course of his work. 
It is important for a minister at home to apprehend the various a pects 
of human nature, and the current sentiments and conduct of the people 
around him, as it increases his usefuluess in an amazing degree, by 
enabling him to adapt his preaching to the actual requirements of the 
time and place. No less is it necessary that the foreign missionary should 
preach in a similar style, and so to regard the standpoint of his hearers 
as to meet their respective wants, and show, in the most convincing 
manner, the hollowness and insufficiency of the systems and observances 
in which they have hitherto trusted. An acquaintance with the order 
of things in China, the morality, philosophy, the religions, the tone of 
thought and feeling, the pi^overbial sayings, the prevailing customs and 
habits of the people and more akindly consideration of their[circumstances 
and condition, their lifelong training, and the difficulties in the way of 
their conversion, with an open, candid acknowledgement of what may 
be good and useful and true in their cherished institutions these are all 
of high value, calculated to be of eminent service to a missionary in the 
prosecution of his work. They would place him so far on common 
ground with his hearers, and enable him to point out, in a form that 
w^ould readly be appreciated, the diiference or agreement between his 
views and theirs a matter indeed of very great advantage. By doing so, 
he would insure their confidence and respect in regard to himself and his 
work, much more than if he showed no right apprehension of those he 
was addressing, and no cordial sympathy with them in their social, in- 
tellectual or moral life. 

It should be direcf, pointed, practical. The Chinese ai'e as ready as 
other people to evade the direct application of a sermon, and the more so 
as they, in particular, are apt to speak and to be spoken to in a compli- 
mentary and round-about way, not often calculated to rouse them to 
thought and action. It is of high importance that we should seek to stir 
up our hearers from their usual lethargy and indifference, and as in the 
case of the most useful ministers elsewhere, we shall do the best .service 
by following this course. Don't let our hearers sleep under our ministra- 
tion either in body or in mind. Let them stand in no doubt as to what we 
want them to do and to be, and it will requii-e all the energy and variety 
and interest of which we are capable in order to secure this end. They 
ordinarily supjDose we are merely exhorting them to the practice of virtue, 

May 1-iii. ESSAY. 81 

a verv pood tliiup in their view, l)iil as f(jr anvtliiiig liiglicr and better, 
iljey have no idea of it. How tlien may this ohjoi-t be best attained ? 
We suggest that the conversational, the catechelieal or Socratic method 
ought to be far more fully ad ptcd in our preaching to the heathen. They 
are not aeeiistomed to a lengthened style of address in their social life, 
and the subjects on which we are called to address them are such as thev 
tind it hard to follow. Uy in questicm, they would be brought 
into more hearty accord with ns than they generally are. Speak to them 
in the form of question and answer, and make those searching, pointed, 
practical appeals to them, which they will be less able to resist, and by 
which their attention and interest will be aroused and maintained. The 
Socratic system is of the utmost value to a Missionary, and as it is made to 
bear both in the line of the prevailing sentiments and opinions of the peo- 
ple, and of the teachings and obligations of Christianity, we can proceed in 
it to any length, with all the force of a complete demonstration. On the one 
hand, the negative side of truth would be brought out, and the fallacies 
and absurdities of heathenism elicited in the case of their adherents, and 
on the other, the positive and certain side of it would be proved in the most 
logical and satisfactory form, with the duties arising out of it in both ins- 
tances. It requires long and careful training and practice to be able to 
do this in an effectual way mucli more so than the common system of 
detailed preaching. It implies snch a mastery of the subject, such a readi- 
ness in reply, and such an aptness in enforcing the matter, as would com- 
mand the assent of the hearers, and fasten the arrow of conviction in their 
minds. We notice that Christ himself largely availed of this style of 
address, and so have the most successful pi'eachers of the Gospel. There is 
a power, a force in it for combating error and correcting it, wdiich though 
often irritating to an opponent, is capable of being used to great advantage, 
and will well repay the labour of studying and following it out. One other 
thought hero is, that we should seek to come into contact with the hopeful 
inquirers at our various services. By such a line as we have suggested, 
these may frequently be found and their numbers increased. Encourage 
them to come into conversation with us, whenever convenient, and seek 
to lead them then and there to decide for Christ, and accept the great 
salvation. Our solicitude and concern for them in this way, will per- 
haps bo appreciated by some at least, and by direct personal intercoui'se 
and prayer, they may be led to make the choice they would not othei*- 
wise have done. 

It should bo experim-ental. There is no proof so convincing as this. 
It is oar part to appeal to the native converts and others, who have felt 
and tasted and testified to the power of Christian truth, and we ought no 
less to speak confidently, as occasion requires, of our own experience in 
the matter. W"e can refer to the facts of our conversion, repentaTice and 
faith, peace and joy, fellowship with Grod, realization of the new life and 
hope of heaven, — ^all in corroboration of what we are pressing on the 
attention and acceptance of our hearers. This is what Paul and men of 
like stamp have ever done, and it is calculated to have the happiest efPect. 
Such things detailed as matters of e.'sperience, as practical evidences of 
the power of religion, would tell in a form and to a degree that no mere 
theoretical statement could possibly do. The rehearsal of miracles, prophe- 
cies and other proofs of Christianity to a heathen audience, however valu- 
able and important, cannot be easily apprehended, and may not be looked 
on as credible, while the moral argument, the personal consciousness is at 
once appreciated by the Chinese, as in striking contrast to their own case 
" We cannot but speak the things we have seen and heard." We are called. 

82 BstiAir. Ma J 12th. 

to " give a reason of the hope that is in ns," and this is to be done by 
bearing witness to the truth from the intlnence which it has over our own 
hearts and lives. And it is of no small importance in this connection, that 
we should identify ourselves with what Christian and compassionate work 
m.ay lie in our way for the benefit of those around us. We allude specially 
to such a noble undertaking as onr brethren in Shantung are now engaged 
in. It is sufficient merely to refer to it, and to expi'ess our intense admi- 
ration of the energy and self sacrifice they have evinced in ministering 
to the wants of the perishing multitudes. Such efforts in the very spiiit 
and footsteps of Christ himself are most becoming on the part of the 
Christian Missionary, and form a beautiful and consistent exemplification 
of what Christianity is. 

It should be interesting and attractive. By this we mean that it ought 
largely to consist of illustration in various forms and details. How 
characteristically was this the case in the teaching of our Lord, and 
many have imitated Him in this refpsct to gi-eat advantage. Their preach- 
ing is mai'ked by this peculiarity in a high degree and it serves to rivet 
attention and fix upon the memory, the coiiscience, and the heart, the 
important truths it was intended to teach, and which otherwise have been 
lost sight of or forgotten. It is in great measure a natural gift, but may 
be cultivated by careful study and preparation. The more we can appeal 
to analogy, or illustration, or pictorial narrative, fi'om nature, or social life, 
or personal experience, or imagination, in proof of what we are saying, and 
in adaptation to the views and feelings of our hearei's, the more we shall 
impart an interest, a pathos and a power to our addresses that might 
without them fall flat and cold and dead. 

Once more hea'e, it should be Scriptural. The Chinese value their 
native classics as standard authorities, and think it well to quote from or 
appeal to them, when occasion calls for it. So should it be with us in 
our pi-eaching. By constant reference to the word of God, we shall dii'ect 
the attention of our hearers to it, and give variety and force to our re- 
marks. We have the example of Christ and his apostles in this matter, 
and it is not out of place to do the same in the case of the heatlien. The 
fact is they expect such authority at our hands as the ground and war- 
rant of our preaching. A text, or passage, or a general and frequent use 
of the sacred writings will not only give sanction to the truth we utter, 
but an honour and value to them of the greatest consequence. As they 
contain the pith and marrow of our discourses, these may be rendered all 
the more profitable and powerful in the estimation of our hearers, by our 
placing them in the foreground, and urging their supreme authoi'ity and 
Divine claims. 

Lastly and briefly. Preach everyiohere, preach always, and preach in 
tlie confident expectation of the Divine hlessing. 

What is our commission? What ai'e our marching orders? " Go into 
all the world and preach the Gospel to eveiy creature." This was ad- 
dressed to the first messengers of the cross, and applies to the servants of 
Christ now in their several spheres, and according to their several 
capacities. Not that each and every one can compass the world or go 
hither and thither, as if their individual range were boundless, but that 
simply the whole earth has been assigned to the church, as the sphere of 
its evangelistic labour, and the scope of its Missionary enterprise. At the 
outset, the heralds of the Gospel were confined within certain limits, 
sufficiently large for their operations, but as opportunity offered and 
means were at hand, the full range of their commission became more 
appai'ent, and was taken up in ever increasing measui-e. In virtue of 

May 12th. discussion. 83 

tlu'ir zoal and devotedness and the blessing^ of God upon their labours, 
they extended the Gospel far and wide, and in a brief period thousands 
and tens of thousands were eon verted to the fai(h. Tlio same course 
is open to xis. It is ours to be filled with the same Spirit, and to be 
marked by the same apostolic zeal and activity. There is equal necessity 
as in the early days of the church, with this addition that the ends of the 
earth now form our field of labour in the fullest and widest sense. 
AVhatever be our special department of Missionary service, there is occa- 
sion enough and work enough for earnest, persevering, constant efFort. 
Multitudes are still perishing for lack of knowledge, and in season and 
out of season, in every possible tVn'm, we are called to proclaim to them the 
word of life. Singly and unitedly, we possess powers and resources that 
admit of our carrying out the command of Christ, in a manner and to a 
degree that in other ages was unknown. Looking at the numbers con- 
stituting the Missionary band in the vast heathen empire, and the faci- 
lities enjoyed by us in preaching the Gospel, it can truly be said that we 
far surpass in these respects the circumstances and position of the early 
disciples, when they first received the baptism of the Spirit, and began to 
fulfil their great commission. It is ours to labour accordingly, and by a 
right use of our varied means to imitate their example and seek to at- 
tain like i-esnlts. Everywhere we have opportunity for faithful and 
devoted work. The city, the town, the village, the country, furnish ample 
scope for the one thing given us to do, and to us is accorded the high 
honour of making known the Gospel to the millions of this laud. 

" Sow in the morn tliy scod, 
At eve hold not thy hand, 
To doubt and fear give thou no heed, 
Broadcast it o'er the land." 

Thus fulfilling our duty, we may be assured that "we shall not 
labour in vain." " In due time, we shall reap if we faint not." " They 
that sow in tears shall reap in joy." Our faith and hope are no small 
measure and indication of final success. Resting on the Divine word, 
and sustained by earnest and availing prayer, we believe that " His word 
shall not return to Him void, but shall prosper in the thing whereto He 
has sent it." Already many encouraging tokens of God's ble.ssing have 
been realized in connection with faithful Missionary work in China, 
which are only the foretastes of still greater blessing. Let us go on in 
the confident and prayerful anticipation of it, and in that proportion we 
may look for a rich baptism of Divine grace when this vast empire shall 
be awakened from the slumber of ages, in response to the one only 
effectual means of accomplishing this end, — the preaching of the Gospel. 


Rev. H. Blodget, D.D., A. B. C. F. M., Peking, said :— 

I am not content to preach without looking for results. To do so 
is like a general who should storm a fort without any e.Kpectation of 
taking it. After preaching I endeavor in someway " to draw the net." 
For the last ^-ear or more, when preaching on the afternoon of the 
Sabbath day to the people at large, I have uniformly closed the exercises 
with an "After Meeting." The congregation are invited to remain; 
are told that the church members are about to have a prayer meeting 
in which all are at liberty to join ; that by joining in this, they also may 

84 DISCUSSION. May 12th. 

learn how to pray, and may take the first step towards embracing the 
religion they so mach approve ; that the doors are to be closed, not because 
anything secret or wrong is to be done, but simply that those within 
may be qaiet and free from the noise and disturbances on the street ; that 
they would all kneel down together, not in reverence to the preacher, or 
to any one present, but in reverence to God ; and that those who remain 
to join in the meeting are expected to kneel with the others. 

As the doors are closing, the hearers may be seen looking about 
with a frightened air. Sometimes all who are not church members leave. 
At other times there remain two, or five, or ten, or twenty even, of the 
hearers. When prayer is offered, directions are first given to them 
how and where to kneel, and individuals who seem to hesitate, are 
urged to kneel down with the others. Then it is seen that those who 
have so often kneeled to their gods of wood and stone find it exceedingly 
difficult to kneel for the first time to the Lord of all. Not unfrequently 
they wish to leave. This they are always allowed to do. 

In the course of the meeting they are instructed how to pray in 
secret, and are urged to commence secret prayer without delay. A few 
short sentences, like the prayer of the publican, are taught them, so that 
they may offer them for their first prayer. 

Before the close of the meeting any of them who wish to turn to 
God are invited to rise. Thus they may signify their intent, and others 
may be moved to pray for them. This invitation is adapted in its form 
to the supposed knowledge and mental state of those who are thus 

Of course it is a very easy thing for bad men to kneel, or to avow 
themselves determined to become Christians. It is not easy for a sincere 
man. Some such there are among the many. Individuals have stood 
Tip in these meetings to indicate their desire to turn to God, and believe 
in the Lord Jesus, who are now worthy members of the church, and who 
have brought in others also. 

Such is one way of " drawing the net." I shall be glad to learn 
of other and better ways. 

Rev. C. Habtwell, A. B. C. F. M., Fog-chow, said: — 

In preaching to the Chinese, the first object is to give them Christian 
ideas. We all know that ideas move men. We all know how hard it has 
been to remove the impression from the minds of the Chinese that for- 
eigners are inferior to themselves. The same thing is shown by the power 
of their superstitions. Some thirteen years ago we rented premises in the 
centre of the city of Foochow for a chapel. But the gentry opposed our 
occupancy of the place, claiming that as it was in the heart of the city and 
the city was the capital of the Province, to have a chapel there would ruin 
not only the Fung-sJmi of the city but of the whole Province, and so at 
last we had to give up the premises. In one of their communications, the 
officials stated that there was no need of discussing the truth or falsity of 
the doctrines of Fimg-shui : but as foreign nations believe in Christianity, 
so the Chinese believe in geomancy ; and as in other countries it is impos- 
sible to force people to disbelieve what they really believe, so it is in 
China. Of the Christian ideas which we should try to impress on the 
minds of the Chinese I may mention first, the idea of a personal God. 
There may be some difference of opinion among us as to^ how far the 
Chinese conceive of their objects of worship as personal beings. I have 

May 12tli. Discussiox. 86 

found it difficult to make them understand about personal spiritual beinjrs. 
Their hitjhcst coiu'cption of deity seems to be a sort of aofgregate of all 
tlie self-(i])enitinsx powers of nature, and to have little or no j)ersonality. 
The next thing to tt-aeh them is that (u»d has made man an immortal 
personal being. 1 have found myself frequently mistaken as to the 
supposed amount of knowledge I had conveyed when speaking on this 
Bubjei't. The usual phrase for eternal life has been understood by them 
to mean that this life consists in an uninterrupted line of descendants in 
all ages to come. J have recently therefore felt the necessity of being 
more careful to explain my meaning. Then come the ideas of man's need 
of a Saviour, and that (iod has graiiou.sly provided a Saviour for him. 

AVhen 1 first came to China i tried to preach Christ and Him cruci- 
fied. In ISoO the late Rev. W. C. Burns came to Foochow, and after 
becoming a little familiar with our dialect, he remarked to me that he 
thougl)t we were too evangeliial in our preaching. In his opinion we 
dwelt too much on Christ too little on the nature of God. He thought 
there could be no logical foundation in the minds of the Chinese to lead 
them to appreciate the knowledge of Christ, until they had first a 
clear perception of the idea of a personal God to whom they are 

Latterly, in addressing heathen audiences, 1 have frequently begun 
with the idea of the immortality of the soul, and tried to lead them on to 
personal conceptions of God and of all spii'itual beings. 

Rev. R. Lechlek, B. M. S., Hongkong, said: — 

It is difficult to arrest the thoughtful attention of a heathen 
congregation to the Gospel. The irrelevant remaiks sometimes made 
by the Chinese to a foreign Missionary at the close of his 
show how little they often actually grasp his meaning. Yet at times 
striking instances occur of the Gospel proving itself to be the power of 
God to salvation. I may mention the case of a Confucianist who has been 
converted through the agency of T'ai Ping Wong, the Leader of the 
T'ai Ping rebellion. The man had resolved on becoming a Buddhist 
priest with the hope of finding an inward peace, which he did not then 
enjoy. At this time he met with T'ai Ping Wong who told him that the 
step from Confucianism to Buddhism was a step from bad to worse and 
counselled him to seek rest in Christ. He acted on the advice and is now 
a consistent Christian and a valuable assistant in the Church. How 
many such longing souls may there be in China! Let us cast out the net 
of the Gospel, that we may bring them in. 

Rev. D. N. Lyon, A. P. M., Hangchow, said: — 

This seems to me to be the crowning topic of the programme. With- 
out intending to disparage other departments of labor, 1 think, that of a 
hundred ordained missionaries, ninety-eight should devote their whole 
strength to the direct preaching of the Gospel to the heathen. Of the 
remaining two, one might be a philologist, and the other a school teacher. 

Our commission is, to "go into all the world and preach the Gospel 
to every creature." We are exhorted to ''jjrcach the word, be instant in 
season, out of season." 

86 DISCUSSION. May 12tli. 

We have tlie example of the apostles. When the lemporal affairs 
of the church began to infringe iipon their time and strength they 
said, "look ye out other men whora^ we may appoint over this business. 
But v:e will give ourselves continually to prayer and to the ministry of the 
word.'''' So much as to the paramount importance of preaching. 

As to the manner, doubtless every man has a manner of his own, and 
any attempt to imitate others, will usually fail. Every one has some gift, 
it may be peculiarly his own, which the Holy Spirit may use iii bringing 
the truth to bear upon the heathen. There are two points, not noticed 
by other speakers, which seem quite essential. (1). The preacher must 
keep his temper. This seems a very commonplace remark, but my ex- 
pei'ience has been, that it is no easy matter. The moment a man loses 
his temper, he loses the respect of his hearers. (2). The preacher ought 
to be candid. There is danger of being over careful lest we offend the 
feelings of the Chinese. Direct questions, had, as a general thing, better 
be answered directly. For instance a person asks "are the idols we 
worship true or false." Shall we evade the question, by a round-about 
line of discourse on the folly of idolatry ? No ! Let us be candid and 
say "your idols are all false every one of them." Or, if a man puts the 
question, " which is the greater, Confucius or Christ? " Shall we begin 
hf explaining the excellencies of Confucius and his teaching, and tell 
them how Jesus makes up what Confucius lacks ? No ! never ! Jesus 
is the great king of kings, and Lord of Lords. 

As to the matter of preach itir/, I have thought that, perhaps, we have 
an order indicated, and some topics suggested in the IGth. chapter of John 
the 8th, 9th, and 10th verses. There are the three great topics of which 
the world is ignorant, and of which the Holj^ Spirit is to convince men, 
viz., sin, rig]deousness, and judgment to come. The Chinese have no proper 
idea of sin. They regard it as something to be avoided for its inconveni- 
ence, or because it is unprofitable; we must, therefoi"e, teach them that 
sin is sin, because there is a Great and Good Being above, to whom all 
men owe obedience, and who is pleased or displeased, according as we 
obey or disregard Him. Then they must be taught, that men cannot be 
saved by any rigldeotiness of their own. Jesus has lived, and died, 
and lives again, woi'king out a coaiplete righteousness, on which alone 
men can depend for salvation. And last of all, we have the great truth 
of a final jud'/inent, which, we may hold over thtir heads, until they 
tremble as did Felix under the words of Paul. 

One more remark. We should accompany every discourse with 
some very simple instruction on the subject of pi'ayer. Men cannot go 
to heaven without praying. I feel thankful for the suggestions we have 
received from Dr. Blodget on this subject. I always make it a point, 
before dismissing a heathen audience, to urge upon them the importance 
of going immediately home, kneeling down, and, asking Jesus to forgive 
their sins, renew their hearts, and save their souls from hell. 

Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, A. B. C. F. M., T'uxg-chow, said : — 

I wish to emphasize certain important points already brought 
before us. 

First : — We should aim at a high standard in our attainment of the 
spoken language. It is to be feared that many missionaries set their 
standard too low. and so, with imperfect mastery of the language, speak 
without point and force. 

May li'tli. UISCU8SIIJX. 87 

Second : — We should become thoronsfhly ncqnninted with the ctiptoms 
of tlie j»cojile. with Ihcir iiuidcs of Jhonyht, and with their liteiature, that 
we may adapt our })rea(.liiiifr to their uudcistaudinir, and illustrate the 
truth by allusions to familiar things. 

Third : — We out^lit to make our preparation for preaehiug ft^iorlfir. 
It is not snflicient that we liave a general training in the knowledge of 
the truths of the Kihle. We must make a special preparation, or else 
our preaching will la<k in living power. Truth must go forth fresh and 
warm fiom t)ur own hearts, if we would have it melt and mould the 
hearts of others. 

Fourth: — We need above all the eiulownu-nt of power from on high. 
The seci'et of success with Finney and with Moody was that they were 
filled with the Holy Ghost. Through the teaching of the Spirit in our 
heart we shall know how to preach a specific Go.-pel, rightly dividing the 
truth to the different needs of our hearers. We shall then be like a wise 
physician, who discriminates, and gives a specilio medicine for each 
special disease. We shall theu yearn after souls and seek in every way 
to win men to Christ. 

Our strength will fail us in grappling with the powers of darkness 
around us save as we are clothed with power from on high. 

Rev. C. Goodrich, A. B. C. F.M., T'ungchow, said : — 

I wish to speak a few words upon a single point, that of apedal jire- 
paraticm before preaching. And I do so because I feel there is great need 
of emphasizing this subject. I am not unaware that I am not myself a 
model of what I desire to urge, though I am striving, with more or less 
of faithfulness, toirard such a model. 

When we go to preach in our chapels, we want at least one great 
tlwvjht bullet, rammed down with argument and illustration, and, behind 
all, the power of feeling, the power of the Holy Ghost, to can-y the 
thought straight into the hearts of men. And this is impossible without 
special preparation, preparation in the study, and preparation in the 
closet. As to the former, we cannot become effective preachers to the 
heathen, if we constantly trust to preparation made in the pist, or to 
inspiration coming at the moment. Besides the tjeneral study of the 
Bible, and other general preparation, new, careful, and, to a degree 
thorough preparation must be made, to get such pos.scssion of some truth 
that it begins to take j^osseasioti of us, and then we are prepared to go and 

Before I came to China, I heard a Missionary say, — "I began to 
preach to the heathen with one Sermon, and that sermon I have preach- 
ed ever since." 1 thought he meant that he began with telling the 
story of the cross, and, that, day by day, he told the same story to the 
end. And so the idea impressed me as beautiful. But since I came to 
China, and have become acquainted with the preaching of Missionaries, 
I have wondered whether the good man's statement were not too nearly 
and exactly true. There is great danger of getting into rtits of prca<;hing 
the Glorious Gospel, causing it to lose, in part, its power. If our preach- 
ing is really the same: if to-day, and to-morrow, and next day we tell 
the same story in nearly the same words, it can neither take possession of 
oni'selves nor of our hearers. 

g8 DISCUSSION. May 12th. 

But I am met with the thought, — we have Dot time for such pre- 
paration. The days are short, our bodies are not iron, and our time is 
tilled with a multiplicity of duties, crowding upon us, and precluding the 
possibility of preparation. This is a very real difficulty, and I wish, in 
connection with it, to make a very practical suggestion. Do not make 
careful preparation each day in the week. It is probably too much to 
attempt. 1 have often made a rule with myself to make new and special 
preparation two days (week days) in the week. Upon those days I com- 
mence, and the native helper follows me. Another two days the order is 
reversed, the native helper commencing, and myself following with a 
short address, suggested generally hj thought in his own address. By 
some such method, we may grow as pi-eachers, telling the same story, the 
" Old Old Story," but in ever new and varying forms, and with it reach- 
ing men's hearts. 

If our subject were upon pi'eaching to the church, I should like to 
speak a few words upon that: to suggest, 1st. that we choose a subject, 
and think through the haart of it, and, 2nd. that zvs ivork throwjh the Chi- 
nese of it, so that we may not need to make circuits of thought where 
single sentences might be found to express our thought exactly. Strike 
through the heart of your subject in thinking. Strike through the heart 
of your thought in speaking. 

Rev. J. Edkins, D.D., L. M. S. Peking, said : — 

The time has now come, when we may expect the greatest possible 
success to attend the preaching of the Gospel in China. 

For the help of younger men, I will suggest one or two practical 
rules: — Besides previous prayer, and careful preparation, I would say; — 
'Have always some Chinese work (it might belong to any of the three 
religions) on hand, and in course of i-eading, froiu which to cull suitable 
forms of expression, and apt illustrations. Evea heathen books might thus 
be turned against the systems they were intended to uphold. Cai'efully 
study the customs of the country. Cultivate too the poetic faculty, and 
seize on passing circumstances for variety and vividness of illustration. 
I may here cite'|the case of a native preacher in Peking, who one even- 
ing after preaching and talking three or four hours, kept the attention of 
his congregation still longer by the aptness of ati illustration drawn from 
his former life among the coal nines near Peking. In the case of the 
Foreign Missionary however, a still wider field of illustration was opened 
up in Western literature, customs and civilization. Much attention 
should also be paid to the instruction of native preachers. Faithfully 
point out their errors, and urge them never to preach without an intel- 
lectual effort and an outflow of spiritual feeling, for thus the Foreign 
Missionary having under his direction a band of helpers might multiply 
himself twenty times. 

Rev. a. Foster, L. M. S., Shanghai, said : — 

As Christian missionaries, it is well for us always to bear in mind 
that the greatest enemies we have to contend with in China are not 
Confucianism, Buddhism, or Tauism, but the Devil and unrighteousness. 
We live in almost complete seclusion from Chinese social life, and it is 
difficult for us to realize how utterly polluted and impure heathen 

M:iy 1-Jtll. DISCL'SSION. 80 

society is. Yot only in as far as wt- do realize this, will our teachinjif bj 
to the point. A qrc' deal of ])reachin2^ ami a LTi'LMt many tracts deal 
with heathenism, rather as a system incideatini^ a false i)hiloso[)hy, than 
as a sv'stem leadiucf to an unholy life. The Chinese ou«jfht to under.stand 
that we are first and foremost the enemies of unrif^liteousness, and that 
ill this we are one with all rii^ht thinking people of every creed. Three 
j,'rcat subjects should form the backbone of our teaching, (i) The exist- 
ence of a living aTul righteous Clod, fii) The future judg.nent of the 
world by God, according to wliat men have done — nob simply accoriling to 
what they have believed, (iii) Faith in the Lin-d Jesus Christ as the oue 
oidv mi'ans to living the life of which (rod approves. We have a practical 
evil and not merely a theoretical one to contend with. The majority of 
mankind are in their daily manner of life and in their enjoyments, find- 
ing their athnities with the beasts that perish. It is our part to raise their 
eyes to heaven, to show them that they are made in order that they 
mieht '* glorify God and enjoy Him for ever," and that they can only 
attain to this end thi'ough the mediation of Jesus Christ. Idolatry must 
be attacked not as a silly superstition, but as a gross .^.'h. You may per- 
haps laugh a man out of a superstitious practice, but you cannot laugh 
him into a right attitude of heart towards God. Until however, we have 
led a man to this point, the harmonizing of his will and of his inner life 
with the will and the purposes of God, we have not really done much for 
him. Idolatry is a representative sin. It is the grossest and most debased 
form of creature worship, the sin which exalts the creature above the 
Creator. The gods whom the heathen worship are beings who for the 
most part have no moral sympathies and no moral antipathies. We have 
to preach God as a Holy Being whose great demand upon men is that 
they should be holy, even as He is holy, and we have to declare the good 
tidings that in Jesus ("hrist provision has been made for our becoming 
what God would have us be. 

Kev. M. T. Yates, DD., A. S. B. M., Sh.^xgh.u, said :— 

We have heard much to-day about preaching, both as to its matter 
and manner. Too much importance cannot be placed upon preaching, as 
a means of converting the heathen. And first of all, a Missionary, to be 
a successful preacher must be well up in the use of tlie spoken language 
of the locality whei'e he resides, in order that he may be able to speak 
with fluency, and be ready to controvert any point that may arise, Avith- 
out premeditation. 

Again ; it is necessary that he become thoroughly well acquainted 
with the religious systems, which he aims to overturn. We have had 
essays and di.scussions on Confucianism, Tauism, and Buddhism, but 
none yet on ancestral worship. This should be well understood, in order 
that we may know the Chinese method of thought, and the secret motives 
by which they are actuated. The physician should know not only the 
disease but the constitution of his patient. Now ancestral worship is, 
so to speak, the constitution or soul, of all the other religious .system. 

Again, in preaching to a Chinese church, or to a stated congrega- 
tion of heathen, tkoroiijh preparation in our sermons, is of the highest 
iinpoi'tance if we expect them to be effective. In my judgment, we 
should strive, in ea<ih sermon, to make one distinct impression upon our 
hearers. To do this it will require preparation, in order to make all the 
divisions of a sermon converge to one point, so as to enforce an impor- 

90 DISCUSSION. May 12th. 

tant trutli upon tlie minds of our audiences. In this way, we may hope 
that they will go away with a distinct impression of one truth upon their 
minds. And when we preach to a church, or a stated congregation, we 
might arrange to present, from time to time a system of cardinal truths, 
that we wish them to remember. Without this preparation we shall probab- 
ly leave no definite impression upon the minds of our hearers. But, well 
directed efforts, put forth with reference to the real condition of our 
hearers — being entirely destitute of religious knowledge, may be relied 
upon to convince the Chinese that Christianity is different from their 
own religious systems. A diffuse style of pi'eaching, ranging from 
Genesis to Revelations in one sermon leaves no definite impression. The 
Chinese may supj^ose that we are exhorting them to be good, and that 
too, according to their own ideas of goodness. Missionaries who preach 
every day in the week, and, sometimes half a dozen times a day, are 
liable to didft into this vapory style of haranguing the people. 

Again ; let us avoid facetiousness and rudeness when we have occa- 
sion to animadvert upon their religious systems. We will gain nothing 
by it, and may lose much. We should not forget that the systems we 
wish to supplant have been cherished by the people for ages ; therefore 
the arguments we use against them, should be addressed to the reason. 
Our great work, in preaching, is to present the love of God in Christ 
Jesus, as the only antidote for all the fears and woes of this people. 
Preach Christ and Him crucified, (and not Confucian philosophy) as the 
all powerful and only Saviour. And while we should teach daily, as we 
have opportunity, in the Church and by the way side, I think three or 
four services per week, when the missionary takes the pulpit and preaches 
a well prepared sermon, are about as many as any preacher or congregation 
will bear. Any Missionary who attempts daily pulpit services is liable to 
drift into a diffuse style, and in a few months, lose his congregation. 
This is the result of my observation and experience. I am satisfied that 
by preaching three times a week, in the same pulpit, I preach to more 
people, during the month, than I would do by preaching daily. 

Rev. S. F. Woodin, A. B. C.F. M., Foochow, said: — 

In Foochow we have three words to express the personal pronoun 
first person (singular). One expresses a strong ego, one a moderate ego, 
and the third is your humble servant, your slave. I have found it of great 
advantage to use the last term, in addressing native audiences. Not to 
claim superiority, nor to assume that of course they ought to defer to me. 

I often speak apologetically, for coming to teach them when they 
have the teaching of Confucius ; then I tell them that since they and 
I are alike sinners and have the same need of a Saviour, I have come to 
tell them of Him. 

I never tell them that they are worse sinners than foreigners, but 
put them on the same footing with myself. I speak of my former fears, 
and of the peace that resulted when I believed in Clmst. That I know 
they have the same fears, and that I wish them to have the same hope of 

I tell our native preachers, never to knock a man down with argu- 
ment, so as to put him to shame, to triumph over him. But be willing 
to be overcome by a man in argument, if only you can convince him 
that you love his soul, and really desire to save him. I do not believe 
that a man can be di'iven to heaven by thi'eatening, but he may be won 
there by love. 

May l-ili. niscDSSiON. 91 

There are oceasions when we must speak that awful word ''hell," 
but this shnuhl always be done in a spirit ol" earnest love. I was preach- 
intr one day in a ehapel at a j)laee about seventy miles from Foochow, 
and 1 think the Saviour was witli me. When the serviees elosed, a man 
who had listened very attentively, I'emained after the rest had gone. He 
had smoked (ipium for more than twenty years, was a seller of opium, 
kept a iranddiny; shop, and had been grossly immoral. In the Spirit of 
Cliri-it, 1 said to him. "Elder IJrotlier Six, as far as 1 eau see, you must 
2ii'ris/i, i/nn are llelTs rliiliiy 

That word never left liini. He left olf his opium, shut up liis opium 
shop and gand)ling den and has been iov several years an hund^le earnest 
Christian. Several times he has told me that that word led him to seek 
Christ. He said. " your words were harsh, but you spoke them in love." 

Rev. G. John-, L. M. S., Hankow, said : — 

I agree in the main with wdiat has been said on this subject. But 
there are two or three points to which I wish to call special attention. 
The tirst point is the importance of taJkim/ to the congregation. To 
preach is to evangelize, or make known the Gospel, and this can be done 
more effectively by means of familiar conversation can'ied on in tlie 
midst of the congregation then by making proclamations from pulpits 
and platfoi-ms. For two years I have tried this plan and have found it 
to work admirably. ^ly plan is to get into the very midst of my hearers, 
and begin my work ])y catecliising them. In this way I find out what 
they know and what they do not know. The same questions are put 
again and again till a few truths are fairly deposited in the minds of 
some at least. When satisfied on this ])oint I pi'oceed to enforce these 
truths with all the power I can command. The preliminary part gene- 
rally takes up most of the time ; for it appears to me now little else than 
waste of time to begin to iMmiufue before some among my audience have 
got a glimpse of the fundamental truths we preach. Others at Hankow 
have tried this plan, and it has been found to be a great improvement on 
the old. A friend recently made this remark to me; — " Thei-e was a 
time," said he, " when I used to think a great deal of the size of my 
congregation. That troubles me but little now, I feel that to deposit two 
or three great truths in one soul is worth my utmost effort." The best 
year in connection with our Mission at Hankow was the last, and I as- 
cribe the fact in a great measure to the persistent carrying out of this 
method of direct personal dealing with men. By adopting this method 
we have no ditiiculty in preaching twice or three times a day, I differ 
entirely from Dr. Yates in regard to the number of times a Missionary 
onffht to preach in the week. I would say preach every day, and more 
than once a day. Preach ! Preach ! Preach ! The more you preach the 
more you will want to ])reach, and the larger your congregations will be. 
True we cannot luirntupie from the pulpit or the platform three or four 
times a day all the year round ; but if a plan similar to that to which I 
have just referred be adopted, it will be found not only a possible but an 
enjoyable work to preach daily. 

The next point is the importance of preaching a fall salvation. Wo 
must preach a Christ who can save not only from the condemnation of 
sin, but from sin itself. Let me give one example of the value of this 
kind of preaching. At the close of one of my services, a man followed 
me into the vestry, and addressed me thus ; — "I have just heard you say 

92 PTSCussiox. May 12tli. 

that Chi'ist can save a mau from liis sins. Can He save me ? " " What 
sins have jou ? " I asked. " Every sin you can think of," was the reply. 
Then i^eckoning his sins on the tips of his lingers, he said, " I am an 
opium smoker, gambler, fornicator, and everything that is bad. Can 
Christ save me ? " I said, "Yes, Christ can save you."' "When?" he 
asked again. "Now," was the emphatic reply, "if you will but trust 
Him for this salvation." We both prayed — -I leading and he following. 
He was converted there and then I believe, and at once became one of the 
most earnest Christians I have ever known. Thoiigh not employed as a 
native agent, he is ever making known the way of salvation to his 
acquaintances. His Gospel is Christ the Saviour from sin ; and the evid- 
ence of Christ's power to save adduced by him is the fact that he himself 
has been thus delivered from the dominion of his own sins by simple 
faith in the Redeemer. Several have been brought into the Church 
through the instrumentality of this man. 

This leads me to refer to another point, namely, the importance of 
appealing to our own experience in preaching to the heathen. We cannot 
demonstrate to them the truths we proclaim by logical argument ; but we 
can say — ■" I hnotn that 1 have realized this or tha.t ; " and a positive, 
emphatic utterance of this kind always carries with it a certain weight. 
In order to do this with effect we must realize the power of the Gospel 
in our own heart, giving us complete victory over our inward sins, and 
filling us with life, light, and purity. The man who can say, "Christ has 
saved me from envy, jealousy, personal ambition, pride, bad temper and 
other inward sins," has a glorious Gospel to preach ; and men will listen 
to his message as to that of a teacher sent from God. For sometime past 
the gi'eat question with me has been, " Has Christ saved me ? 

Another point is the importance of finding out the effects of our 
preaching, and gathering up the results. This can be done by putting 
questions to the congregation at the end of our sermons. The discovery 
is sometimes most humiliating. A Missionary friend, and one of our 
best speakers in Central China, related the following incident in his ex- 
perience not long since. He had spoken at length on the fundamental 
truths of the Gospel to an attentive audience. There was one man who 
seemed specially interested in the truth. At the close of the service he 
invited this man into the vestry in order that he might have an oppor- 
tunity of speaking to him personally, and of praying with him. To his 
astonishment however, he found that the man had been labouring all the 
time under the impression that he had been endeavouring to teach that 
heaven, earth, and pai^ents are the supreme objects of worship. The 
man understood every word that had been spoken but his mind was pre- 
occupied. Most of us know what it is to pass through experiences similar 
to this. Sometimes, however, the result is most gratifying, and the 
missionary returns from his day's work thanking God for what he has 
seen and heard. If you see a man who seems to be interested in the truth 
lay hold of him take him to the vestry, pray with him, and try and bring 
him to a decision there and then. If the man cannot wait to the close of 
the service, hand over the preaching to one of the native agents, and on 
no occount let him go before you have dealt personally with him. This 
I have done again and again, and that with blessed results. I attach the 
greatest impoi-tance to prayer in such cases. I don't shut the dooi*s and 
windows for this purpose, but invite those who seem at all impressed into 
the vestry. As a rule I find them quite willing to comply with my re- 
quest. We should aim at immediate conversions in China as well as 
elsewhere, and work and pray with this end in view. 

.\lav ll'lll. ESSAY. 93 

Li't us bt' carnost. At one time J used to tliiiik that, if I could make 
my audience lau<;li by ridiculing their superstitituis, or turn the tables on 
a scholar by (inutiny the classics, 1 had done a good work. Now, how- 
(ner, i look upon all this as entirely wrong and injurious. If we would 
impress the hearts of our hearers with the importance of our message we 
must be deo])ly earnest and intensely serious. Sometime ago 1 saw a 
!Missioiuiry sui-itiuiided by a large crowd of heathen. He was preaching 
with all hi.< might aiul they were laughing with all their might. 1 thought 
it was one of the saddest spectacles 1 had ever witnessed. 

Rky. J. S. RoBK.iiTS, A. P. M., SiiAXGu.vr, said: — 

T wo-.'.ld say that our preparation for the work of preaching oualif: to 
be both general and special. We must continually furnish ourselves in 
every way |)racticable. We should not preach too often, but give plenty 
of time for thorough preparation — The tjenentl preparation .should be 
mainly in the language. 

Our .■•■pcciuJ preparation consists in prayer. "Pray unto thy Father in 
secret, <tc.'" The secret of pnlltr success is private fidelity. 

We should also prepare faithfully the matter of our sermon, and then 
go forth in the .Spirit, and our mouth will bo opened — The stores of our 
general preparation in language will then, under the thawing influence 
of a fervid heart, flow out in a way that will astonish ourselves. 



Itineration Far and Near, 

Rkv. 13. Hi:lm, A. S. P. ]\r., Haxgchow. 

The growth of the C'hnrch is by a development from within accord- 
ing to the laws of its own life which may be found in operation in every 
stage of its growth. And one of the forms of development is itinerary 
labor. The vurraid and example then for this branch of church work 
will be found in the inspired account of the church. Christ had not 
where to lay his head. After he began his ministry he was constantly 
on the move, and in three or thi'e<> and a half years he not only three 
times made the cinuit of (ialilee with it.s 3,UU0,UUU inhabitants but was 
also as often, ]ierhaps, at Jeiu.salcm and in the coasts of Judea. 

And on his way to and from Jerusalem not only did he preach to the 
multitudes, which attended him, but ho tii'st gathered a disciple at the 
wi'll of Samaria, then abode two days gathering many more in that city. 
When his disciples said unto him "All men seek for thee," instead of 
settling down in Capernaum and regularly preaching in the synagogue, 
or opening a chapel in Simon's or Matthew's houses, lie said "Let us go 
into the next towns that I may preach unto them also." 

94 ESSAY. May 12th. 

And so we see him, the great Apostle fi'om heaven, the misrionarj 
to a lost world, teaching in the temple at Jerusalem in the synagogues 
at N'azareth and Capernaum, on the sea shore of Gralilee, by the well of 
Samaria, on the mountain slopes and by the wayside. And these were 
the theological seminary in which he ti'ained disciples who preached 
Christianity from Jerusalem to the Pillars of Hercules, Cape Commorin and 
probably to this Land of sinim. And his commission to the apostle of the 
Gentiles was aroviug one, "to bear his name before the Gentiles and kings 
and the children of Israel." And when he desired to tarry and preach 
at Jerusalum, because he considered himself peculiarly fitted for such 
work the command was, "Arise and get thee hence." The church when 
endued with the Spirit from on high and fitted for her woi'k still tarried 
in Jerusalem. And where so fit a field for resident Missionary work ? An- 
nually once, twice, thrice came crowds up to the feasts from all parts of 
the Roman world. But while leaving James and others thei'e, the Lord 
shook the little church with persecution "as an eagle shaketh her nest," 
and we read that the disciples "went every where pi'eaching the word." 
The disciples again became itinerating missionaries and fast germinated 
the seed of life in fields whose fallow gi'ound had been made ready by 
the preaching of the Baptist and by our Lord. 

For in the kingdom of grace the same laws seem to hold as in the 
kingdom of nature, the pervading unity of both proving them the work 
of the one Creator. And Christ's superiority as a preacher, which made 
the people hear him gladly, lay in a great measure, in his Divine insight 
into this unity that enabled him to select from the visible and tangible 
province illustrations and parables eminently suited to impart the more 
abstract spiritual truth which had been cast by their Divine Author in 
the same inould. Thus in the parable of the sower we find the charac- 
teristics still viarkinij our work. Some seed plucked away by satan; 
some strangled by the love of this world, as when a promising young man 
leaves the school or the chapel, to seek the things of this life ; some fall- 
in o- awaj^ in times of trial, at times tares sown among the wheat, by 
satan, and again the humble fruit yielding converts. Thus we find three 
stao-es in spiritual agriculture as well as in the phj^sical. I. The bi'eaking 
up and preparing the fallow ground. As when John the Baptist made 
i-eady the way of the Lord. II. The sowing and cultivating, as in the 
work of Christ, who strewed the seed of life broad cast over the land 
of Israel and probably other lands through those coming up to the feasts. 
And III. The reaping of those fields which he had pointed out to his dis- 
ciples, when by the voice of persecution he sends out his bands of reapers. 
Soon the disciples hear that Samaria has received the Gospel; now, 
Philip is seen huiuying olf on an evangelistic trip toward Gaza to gather 
in one who, but for this trip, would, probably never have known of whom 
the prophet spake. — -An itineration of tens of miles on foot for one soul ! 
Who would not gladly forsake his study for such trips. Again we find 
the Apostle Paul, a few days in Cyprus, a few weeks in Pamphylia, &c , 
Z\ j-ears at Ephesus doubtless preaching far and near till "all Asia had 
heard the Gospel," a few days or weeks at Philippi and Thessalonica 
gathering a few sheaves, then a year and six months at Corinth till in 
that hot bod of moral pollution the seed sprang up and brought forth 
fruit unto life eternal, and then desiring to pass by Rome to preach Christ- 
ianity in Spaiti. In all Scripture we read much of itineration and of the 
evangelist and but comparatively little of the pastorate now declared in 
some church standards to be the first in the church, both for dignity and 
usefulness. And was not the wonderful spread of Christianity in the 

:M!iy 1-tli. ESSAT. 96 

first ceut my, \vlion tliirty-four yojir.s liail soon t ho Gospel "preached to 
every creature uiuler heaven, owin^;, in groat part, to the superioi* conse- 
cration of Christianity wliicli made them as preachers, travellers, or 
traders, itinerating missionaries. 

Again there is a wonderful justitication of this mode of woik in 
modern times. I allude to Methoilisni as .seen in tlic U. S. Within the 
hist eight years an old lady died in lialtimore who united with that 
Church when it nund)ered but 3uOU and ere she joined the Chureh of the 
first born on high, she had seen these oOUU become 3,UUU,000,— this hand- 
ful of corn on the mountain shake like Lebanon. To what does Me- 
thodism owe this wondeHul Not to her erudite ministry, for 
other denominations probably surjiassed her in culture. Not to her 
standard recognizing the oltice of evangelist ; for other churches do this 
also. But to the fact that her ministry became evangelists ; and for a 
time the seat of her Bishopric was the saddle, the diocese extending from 
Maine to Florida. I write no panegyric on Methodism, but, in the 
language of the Chinese proverb, take tlie boat ahead for my guide. 

Again it has been tried and approved in India as an important 
branch of their work. The Liverpool Conference with representatives 
from missions to Lidia, China and nine other nationalities adopted a very 
strong resolution in favor of itineration to this effect: "While recognising 
the necessity of maintaining fixed stations in important localities, they 
consider that a missionaiy should not tie himself down to pastoral work , 
except in the infancy of a mission, and that he should always aim to 
maki' his labours tell upon the heathenism of the country. W^hile he 
pi'eaches constantly in a fixed station, they think it well, that at favorable 
seasons, he should itinerate in the retired and ill instructed districts. 
Such itinerances they reckon as of high value in spreading sound Scrip- 
tural knowledge and preparing the way for future extension of the 
mission by the establishment of new stations, but to be effective they 
must be systematic, limited to a comparatively small district, carefully 
carried out and repeated again and again." 

Now with the command "Go ye into all the world, preach the Gos- 
pel to every ci'eature," and the interpretation of that word by the Apos- 
tolic Church, and the seal of God upon its labors, it is a plain duty of the 
Church to engage heartily in this branch of work, even if it yield not all 
the riaiblc fruits we could desire. 

Let us notice in the second place the advcmtarfes and encourarjcvients of 
this mode of work together with its discourarjempitts. One of the chief 
advantages of itineration is the pn.-jHi rata ri/ irork that it performs. In the 
spiritual, as in the natural field, the reaper must follow the sower. ' Tis 
true some lands are so prolific that they are said but to need "tickling 
with a hoe to smile with a harvest." And Christ speaks of .seed that 
falls into good ground, and it can not be denied that some lands like the 
Sandwich Islands that had just cast off their old religion before the 
missionaries arrived, and the Karens who were expecting some to come and 
teach them the true way, do show a peculiar preparedness for the Gospel. 
tStill the rale holds that the reaping is almod always in proportion 
to the preparatortj work modified bij the obstacles to be overcome. 

Hence in aboriginjil tribes, where Christianity, with her refinement 
and benevolence, comes in contact with barbarism, the same amount of labor 
produces more apparent results than when it encounters not unpreten- 
tious civilizations and elaborate religious systems, entrenched behind the 
veneration and prejudice of centuries. But to the eye of Him who 
seeth the end from the beginning the apparently fruitless field is yielding 

OG ESSAY. May 12tli. 

equally as iraportant results in view of tlieir effect on tlio final redemp- 
tion of tlie land. And wliere prejudice against foreigners, sometimes too 
justly incurred ; and self-sufficiency, fostered by Confucianism, with 
Tauism appealing to the natural superstition of our fallen natures, and 
the counterfeits of the truth furnished by Buddhism, to satisfy the spirit- 
ual longing of mati's heart, exist, no small amount of preparatory work 
is necessary to any extensive reaping. 

Itineration by bringing the foreign missionarj'- and native Christ- 
ians in fiiendly contact with the people all through the country tends to 
tnodifij 'prejvdice. Those who began to itinerate through the northern 
parts of the Chehkiang Province, eight to twelve years since, can bear wit- 
ness to a vast improvement in this respect. We now often hear the greeting. 
"Ah, you come twice a year, — you are an old book distributor." At 
first, all kind of vague ideas existed as to our object, gradually they get 
an idea that we come to do meritorious acts. And though not altogether 
in their approved methods, yet it gives us a favoi'able hearing. 

Again they hear the truth preached or secure a book. It may be 
they go away saying: "Yes, doctrine all under heaven is the same." 
Here then is a gain, they no longer regard it as the black arts of "foreign 
devils." Soon they get a vague idea, it may be, that your worship is not 
just an honoring of heaven and earth, father and mother; and a clear one, 
that we regard idols as false, and not infrequently a mental and a verbal 
consent that such worship is vain. Thus at length many become able to 
comprehend the fact that Grod is not heaven and that we preavh one God 
and Jesus a saviour from sin and hell, to heaven and eternal happiness. 
What a gain this is any one knows who has tried to preach to an 
audience the first time they hear the truth. Here then are some prepared 
to be converted by the Holy Spirit operating through the truth. Again 
this mode of work affords favorahle opportunities for book distribution. 
And here itineration has one of its great encouragements in China. 
AVhile in India the educated portion of the population including all "that 
hsiYe ohtsLiTied any hind or degree of instruction" amounts to but 7j per 
cent; in China there is probably a large per cent that can read either 
mandai'in or simple wen-li. And from observation, I have no access to 
statistics, I mistake not a larger per cent read in China than in Spain or 
Mexico according to newspaper accounts of their ignorance ? This ivorh 
prepares for the establishment of chapels and prepares p)eople to come and 
listen when once chapels are opened. It also enables many of the old and 
the young and many women also to hear the word of life who might 
never be near the regular preaching places. When Dr. Nevius spent a 
short time in Hangchow some fifteen or raore years ago a man, and also a 
woman there heard the word, and after some years waiting the woman 
had the pleasure of seeing Christianity come to her home, in answer to 
prayer as she justly thought, and as the result, a church exists there to 
day. The man's hearing eventually led to the establishment of the Sin-z 
church. Thus while some complain of having seen no fruits, another 
brother here present can point to two of his best native helpers as results 
of itinei-ating labors. Last year in Hang-choiv-fu, shih men (^ P^) hien, 
a native Chi-istian found an old man who had only received two books 
and yet was woi'shipping God ; and during the "paper men " excitement 
endured persecution, saying he did not believe in the "foreign devils," 
as accused, but in Jesus. And 1 doubt not in the great day of revelation 
many will be found whose names had thus been written in the Lamb's 
book of life, though not in any church record. In no land, perhaps do 

May l::!lli. L\SSAT. 97 

fnrih'h'es of locomotiim, the chararfcristt'c tea simp, and tlio S'lrial hahifs of 
the people afford so nuiTiy eTiconrag-prafnts to <liis mode of work. 

The only serious objcftioiis to remote itinerafion arc tlie desultory 
nature of the wurk, yicldint,' little fruit as compared with stated labor; 
and secondly the differences of dialect. 

As to the former, it has been before intimated that results are not 
always to be gauged by sight. lUows disseminated over a wide surface 
do not produce the same visible effect, and yet vo cause is without its 
proportionate effect whether in the moral or physical world. The rain 
criming down over a vast surface disappears with less show than the pail 
of wiiter poured on one spot, but its silent effect is eventually seen in the 
waving harvest : and '"so shall my word be that goeth out of my mouth," 
said he who secth not as man seetli. Were the salvation of just so many 
raon in a given time the commission of the Church then she might be 
justified in spending all her strength in one spot, l^ut where the sub- 
jugation of the whole land is the end contemplated, like the farseeing 
general we can forego immediate results for the final success of the entire 
campaign. Let us sow beside all waters. AVith reference to dialectic 
difficulties, — few nnevangelized lands have been so free from thera. 
Where Christianity has given a nation High German, or English, one 
may reach an entire people in one language. But after all probably as 
many can be reached in China by one speaking ^landarin, or one of 
several other dialects. In spite of real difficulties in this respect one speak- 
ing his own dialect well, with sufficient acquaintance with kindred ones 
to be eclectic in the use of his language, can reach tens of millions of 
people, so that they can grasp his meaTiing. And inside of some Fu 
city walls he can itinerate among more people than constituted any 
of the tribes of N. A. Indians, or inhabited the Hawaian Kingdom, or any 
of the three hundred isles of the Pacific, deemed large enough for separate 
missions ; and, within the limits of almost any prominent dialect, he can 
reach more people than dwell in any South American, African or Asiatic 
.conntry, with the exception of Japan and India. And, I understand that 
in India over twenty languages rather than dialects are used. Of all lands 
China presents one of the fairest fields for itineration. And by no other 
means, I fear, is it possible to evangelize this nation, for many genera- 
tions. If New Yoik with nearly four hundred churches and all its 
Christians and Christian agencies at work is unable to overtake its des- 
titutions, what are three hundred Missionaries among as many millions 
of Chinese. 

Again. Itineration oiahles Diiaaionarie-'^ to reside onlij in the iirincipal 
centres: This is doubtless the original plan of work in the times of the 
early church which accounts for the growth of Bisluiprics and metropol- 
itan sees. And the terms pagan and heathen, derived as we learn 
from those dwelling in the villages (pagns) and on the heath, show that 
heathenism lingered longest there, even when the gi'cat centres had be- 
come evangelized. 

And not only is this the natural order, which necessitates itineration 
to evangelize the towns, villages and countr\' but it also has advantages 
not to be overlooked. Experience teaches I believe that those churches where 
the foreign raissionary resides are, as a rule, the most backward in deiielop- 
Dient (f self reliance, and in becoming self supporting and aggressive churches. 
As long as the missionary is present, preaching will be provided whether 
they pay or not ; and his position and superior training makes him as- 
sume the responsibility, while they look to him too much, rather than to 
God and thcmselvcB. By a thorough anfl judicious syr.tem r.f itineration 

98 ES^AT. May 12tli. 

as few churclies as possible enjoy the donbtful blessing of the constant 
presence of a missionary, while they are yet aided and instructed by his 
A'isits and counsels. 

III. I wish to notice in the third place some of the ravdes of itiner- 
ating. The proposition is divided into two headings. Itineration far 
and near. If " near" means from house to house as far as I have seen, it 
raust for the most part be relegated to the ladies and should be discxissed 
by others, for gentlemen are not welcomed into many houses, and the 
native Christians are even less welcome except among acquaintances. 
Hence I have not strictly adhered to the subject as printed but have 
treated it under the general head of "itineration." 

a. — In the first stages of itineration remote and moderately rapid trips 
are, as indicated above, a mode and a necessary mode of work, notwith- 
standing some are disposed to censure those whom they regard as 
running about over the country, while the}" are in their schools, or at 
their chapels, plodding away gathering a small church. But there are 
diversities of gifts and the working hand can not say to the itinerating 
foot " I have no need of thee." Such trips derive nuich of their value 
from their advertising the chapels, thus reaching those afar off, and from 
the element of colpoi'tage which they embrace. And in this latter branch 
of the work, the distribution of books by sale is to be commended. In a 
promiscuoiis crowd eager to obtain a book because it can be had, it makes 
a distinction in favor of those more likely to read them. And instead of 
decreasing a healthy demand for books it has been found in India to in- 
crease it by leading the native to set a higher value on the books ; till 
they can now, in some parts, I believe, be sold almost at cost value. And 
the proceeds of such snles, to some extent, increase the ability of the 
church to enlarge this branch of their work. Some think it a waste to 
sell books indiscriminately, and I have often felt unwilling to sell to 
an old opium smoker or a child. But no sinner is too hardened to be 
saved. And even the child or illiterate person may be the instriimeiit of 
putting the knowledge in families or houses which it would otherwise not 
reach. The sower that deals with a stingy hand, because some of his 
seed may perish, will reap accordingly. "In the morning sow thy seed 
and in the evening withhold not thy hand, for thou knowest not whether 
shall prosper this or that, or whether both shall be alike good." I be- 
lieve the church gathered at Glu'-rirl, in Shantung, owes its origin, under 
God, to books or news taken from the street chapel by one not bene- 
fitted himself thereby', unless at a future date. Two Chinese who 
were converted and united with the church in Little Rock Ark. had 
with them Christian books given them in North China. Dr. Medhurst 
in 1835 landed on the island of Lam-yit, near Foochow, and left 
books. In 1868 a native preacher visited that island and was preach- 
ing on the sea shore when two men said, " Come up to the village, 
we have books that contain the same doctrine. Our father charged us 
befoT-e his death to take good care of these books, for by and by some one 
would come to explain them." In six months, more than sixty persons 
were baptised in that isle. Recently when preaching under a tent at the 
town of JJ-tsen I heard an old man telling of the mii'acles, death and 
resurrection of Christ. I asked him if he had seen this, — holding up the 
Gospel of Mark. He replied, "Yes, I have the entire book, (the New Testa- 
ment) I got it from you (some missionary) four years ago ; and at night when 
I ca,n't sleep I read it, and it gives rest (peace) to my heart." Who can 
tell but it may be that peace of which our Lord spake, " My peace I give 
unto you." 

.M;iy 12tli. F.SSAT. 99 

Again, Chinese custom siinotions pasting tracts on walls in conspicuous 
places. Tlius the missionary l)j carrying a box of paste can put up a leaf, 
and, as the crowd gathers to read it, preach to tlieni witli his printed 
text before their eyes, explaining the Gospel of Christ; and, passing on 
to gather another audience, leave this tract to preach after he has gone on 
liis way. 

The first convert in the Presbyterian Cliunli at Yii-yao read the 
'14 i Jl(i l^.f Ivyin-Tso Ya-su pasted on the city wall, and, not relishing 
the position assigned Confucius in the comparison, came to the chapel 
as soon as one was opened to dispute with the native helper, and "he who 
came to scott' remained to pray." 

I have employed this method of posting tracts on the Sabbath when 
I do not sell books. On such days it is my custom to rest most of the 
day, for not only does the body need rest, but, like the disciples whom 
their Lord called apart into a desert place to rest, we need on such trips 
to renew our own strength and secure the presence of the Holy Spirit who 
alone can make our work successful. 

b. — The time will come when books will not find so i-eady a sale and 
crowds will not gather on the street from curiosity to see the foreigner. 
He will now feel the necessity for what I would term the second stage 
of itineration. Seed has been cast, the field must be culfii-ated, if one 
e.Kpects to reap. Let him now select certain towns and regions of country 
in this vast field antl concentrate labor and prayers on tliis district. Go 
several times a year and spend days or weeks preaching there. It will 
require faith, bat reaping will follow if he seek and expect it. Tent 
preaching will now be found useful. It gives fi-Keduess to the place of 
preaching; and the natives recognize one as having a kind of right under 
his own tent. The tent may be a light awning much like that of a 
travelling doctor, easily set up or transported. On going to a town 
select the most eligible site, or sites, and there abide till you go thence. 

Have posters with blanks to be filled in with the time and place of 
preaching. Go around the town, first selling books and putting up your 
notices, and. when thus advertised, retire to your tent to speak to those 
■who may collect. Thus ]-»eople will come to know that when you are in 
town there will be preaching at such and such a ])lace. The same persons 
are reached oftener, and any desiring to inquire more fully the way 
know where to find you. Thus, as has been found in India, impressions 
made are deepened and fixed by repeated visits, till the hearer becomes 
an inquirer, and the inquirer a believer. In remote itineration I would 
not sending natives alone. As a rule, I fear they can only work 
su cessfully wliere they are known unless they have a foreigner with them. 
]hit it will be well to send them, and get the church members also to go, to 
the villages and (jountrj' around the station and talk with the neighbors, 
and invite them to the chapel. 

It might be well if the Sabbath afternoon were devoted to this kind 
of work by all the church members suited for it. For you all know how 
it quickens one's own spiritual life to try to impart it to others. 

c. — "When a person becomes a believer in any town, or when a native 
Christian, in pursuing his or her occupation, moves into a new place, or 
when a chapel is opened in charge of a helper, we have what forms the 
basis of the third stage of itineration, viz., risifiiuj out sfafinns and chiirchen. 
It is sometimes the case that a native Christian moves into a new loca- 
lity and pursues his trade expressly to work for Christ. And un- 
paid workers are sometimes more blest than more learned helpers in for- 
eign pay. A member of the C. M. Society near Hangchow prepared quite 

•100 ESSAY. May 12th. 

a number of persons for clmrcli naembersliip, though lie had been consi- 
dered too illiterate to be employed as a helper. When native assistants 
and out stations multiply, the missionary becomes of necessity, in some 
sense, an itinerating' siiperior or, if you like. Bishop. And much of his 
time will be taken up in visits to stir up the native brother, instruct him, 
and strengthen, advise and correct his members till a trained pastor is left 
in full charge. And from these stations visits with the native brother to 
distant members and to the villages around may eventually originate 
other churches. Then, following the Apostolic example, set over them 
the best person you have there, though he be not yet all you could wish. 
Let the native pastor at the older station take this under his charge and 
in turn become an itinerant preacher, spending certain portions of his 
time in instructing and catechising the chui'ches of which he has the over- 
sight. Thus a net work of churches may be established over the country 
before we have pastors for each. Those placed over these churches, if 
faithful in the study of God's word, and in availing themselves of the in- 
struction of the native and foreign ministers in their stated visits, may 
"purchase for themselves a good degree" and finally become helpers or 
pastors. At first they may continue at their usual avocations, rendering 
their services for love of God and souls. When the size of the Church 
demands all their time let it pay for it and let them then give themselves 
wholly to the word of God and to prayer. While I thiiik that, in order to 
a successful prosecution of itinerating labor, one man in each central 
station should be free from settled work, still it would, be well for each 
one to engage in it at times. It refreshes the body, gets men out of the 
rut they are apt to get into at their regular work, and stirs them to 
renewed efforts as they see entire districts lying in the darkness and 
shadow of death. 

And though I have dwelt upon the subject from the standpoint of 
the male missionar}^, the field is no less open to the lady itinerant, and to 
her must her heathen sisters look, in great part, for that glad tidings 
which not only elevates her position in this life, but gives peace and hope 
in death, and joy eternal in heaven. Now in concluding these crude 
views of this important branch of our work I would remark that itinera- 
tion far and near is but the response to the command " Go ye into all 
the world and preach the Gospel to exerj ci'eature." It means preaching 
everywhere, and continuously. It is not the work of the translator, or the 
professor, but of the preacher. And in the words of another, "What 
ever the commendation of o-ther modes of presenting the Gospel, the 
preaching of the word has an honor that is put upon no other instru- 
mentality : in its having been the form of our Lord's own labors while 
on earth, and in its selection by him as the means which He commanded 
the church to employ, and which, in His promises. He specifically bound 
Himself to bless. It was in its use that Christianity won its earliest and 

most glorious victories Philosophy had her lectures given in the grove, 

or the garden, or porch, to her select auditors ' fit and few ' and given only 
for pay. But by what the wise of this world deemed eminently the foo- 
lishness oi -^veiMAxing the new religion overturned their power and scat- 
tered their dreams. The church of the first century was not comparat- 
ively a church of writers, hence the remains of primitive antiquity ai'e 

scanty in amount, and often breathe a rude simplicity but the devout 

and fearless preacher was every where, and hence it was that one of the 
Fathers spoke soon of the Christian Church as being found eveiy where, 
in the city and in the village, in the army, the Senate, and the P(n'um." 
May we imitate them in their self-denying labour in preaching Christ and 

May liilh. K.SSAY. 101 

Him crucitied till in this land, it shall bo, as in some of the South Sea 
islands, from one of which recently a y*Jiith upon beinpf shown an idol 
from his native land in one of theSocieties' rooms — thanked them saying 
it was the tirst idol he had ever seen. May it he thus in China! "Even 
so come Lord Jesus. " 

Itineration Far and Near as an Evangelizing Agency. 


Rkt. J. Hudson Tavluh, M. D., C. I. M., Cuixkiang. 

Three passages of Scripture suggest to my mind the leading thoughts 
to wliich I would draw your attention, on tlie ueccssitj/ and value, the place 
among the agencies, and t/ic viude of Itineration. To these thoughts I 
•wo\dd add a few remaiks on tlie ajjents for and cx2JC)ises of Itineration. 
The passages are as follows : — 

" Jesus went through all the cities and villages, feaching in their 
synagogues, und jireacliimj the Gospel of the kingdom and healing every 
sickness and every disease among the people." Matt. ix. 35. "Let us go 
into the next towns, that I may preach there also ; for therefore came I 
forth." Mk. i. 38. " Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to 
every creature." Mk. xvi. 15. 

If the subject of my paper were localized missionary and pastoral 
work, I should be found second to none in my estimation of its import- 
ance and value. It is not proposed, however, to discuss in this paper the 
relative merits of itinerant and localized missionary work— as well might 
we discuss the relative merits of land and water, of mountain and plains, 
of animals and vegetables. All exist, all are indispensable ; the one does 
not supercede the other, but supplements it, and is its necessary comple- 
ment. The questions now before us therefore, are : — 

I. — What is the necessity for, and the actual value of, itinerant mis- 
sionar}' work ? 

II. — What is its place amongst the various agencies for spreading 
the Gospel in populous and extensive comitries ? 

III. — The missionary journeys: (I) how may they best be carried 
on? — by going over a large tract of country? or by' more thoroughly and 
repeatedly visiting through a smaller area? in other words, far or near? 
and (2) what should be attempted on such journeys? 

IV. — By whom may itinerant work be profitably pro.secuted ? 
and may the expenstes be kept within moderate limits, and monies be 
safely remitted to the interior or conveyed from place to place? 


That it is both necessary and of great value might well be assumed 
from the prominence given to it by our Lord Himself, and also by the 
Apostles. How else, indeed, could the few disciples hope to fultil their 
Lord's command and go into all the world, to preach the Gospel to every 

102 KSSAT. May 12tli. 

creature? Only by spending' a very short time in many places could 
they within the compass of a lifetime reach the vast and needy regions in 
which they were to plant the Gospel. Tt might well have been asked then, 
would such visits accomplish anything of permanent value, when the work 
extended beyond the limits of Palestine to the heathen woi'ld, where the 
darkness around was so great, and difficulties to be overcome weve so 
stupendous? But history now proves that the work thus attempted was 
actually accomplished, and quickly accomplished; and we do well to in- 
quire, Js there ANY reason to assume that similar ivorh now done in China 
ivoiiJd be attended with re^iilts less valuable and enauraijing ? My own 
firm belief is that as great effects would be now seen in China from simi- 
lar labours as were seen 1800 years ago in Asia Minor and in Euroi^e ; 
and that our difficulty lies, and lies only, in the obstacles which exist to 
our doing similar work. 

The Gospel we have to preach is the same as that proclaimed by the 
Apostles of old. It is said in the word to be ''seed," "incorruptible" 
i. e. imperishable "seed." Scatter it where you will, it will not die — it 
may lie dormant, and lie long, like the wheat found in the Egyptian 
sarcophagus, but die it cannot, it liveth and abideth for ever. But what 
is this seed ? It is not the printed Scrijjturcs, or any portions of them, 
valuable as these ai'e to believers, to whom alone, I believe, they were 
given by God. It is not Christian books and tracts, useful as they are 
in their place, and much more adapted as they undoubtedly are to benefit 
the heathen. This seed is the prcncJied. Gospel the orally proclaimed good 
news of something which the heathen as they are can appreciate — the per- 
sonal testimony of living witnesses to the Lord Jesus Christ as an. 
almighty and immediate Deliverer from the fewer of sin, and also from 
its eternal consequences. Talk theory to the heathen, and they are gener- 
ally unmoved ; tell them merely of blessings in store for the future, and 
they are often too sceptical or too occupied with the pressure of present 
necessities to heed what you have to say. But, as I remarked yesterday, 
tell your audience that you have an infallible help for every opium 
sinoker among them, for every drunkard, for every fornicator, for every 
gambler — that you proclaim a vSaviour who has never once failed to save 
immediately any soul that really trusted in Him both from the power of 
sin and from its eternal consequences, and you will soon see that 
Gospel is good news to your hearers, can command attention, and will 
accomplish the mightiest changes of which the mind of man can conceive 
or which the hearts of men can desire. 

But so to preach Christ we must our-selves be filled with the Spirit, 
be abiding in Christ, be conscious of the fulness and greatness of His 
great salvation. The man who is consciously overcome by sin, who 
habitually succumbs to temptation, who is only half saved himself, cannot 
preach this Gospel — and this, brethreii, I confess wit,h shame* was the ex- 
perience of half my life. But when conscious of the indwelling of an 
almighty Saviour, we can preach Christ, and are not afraid to speak good 
of HIS name. 

I may tiot tarry to enumerate many instances of the effect of this 
kind of preaching in China, but I will refer to one. A few years ago this 
kind of personal testimony, given on a missionary journey by my friend 
Mr. Stevenson, (then of Shao-hing, now in Bhamo,) was blessed to the 
conversion of a Siu-tsai of more than ordinary ability. He went out and 
preached the truth in his own native district with undoubting faith and 
in the power of the Holy Ghost. No half-and-half gospel did he pro- 
claim — an immediate, and perfect, and eternal salvation to the worst of 

sinners was liis mcssaGfc. It liappeiiod iliat a notorious clmracter was 
passinjif by — a man who was the terror of the ncig'hhouihood — tlie liead 
of the cfaniblors of the district. His house, or ratlier houses, were indeed 
a gambling' hell— sin in all its forms was practised there. He made 
much money by his business, and none cared or dared to in{(!ifere with it. 
But this message reached his heart: he said if Jesus can, do tliis for me, 
He shdll. 'J'hcie and tlien he accepted Him, and went liome, closed his 
place, sent the bad characters away, and never another ga re of chance, 
1 believe, was played there. The conversion of that one man, has been a 
well understood testimony in the neighbourhood and for miles ronnd, and 
many other needy ones have come, not m vain, to the same Fountain, 
and drank of its life-giving streams. ! my brethi-en, we want more 
faith in Christ, and in His glorious Gospel — it is yet the power of God 
unto salvation to every one that believeth. 

Time warns me to proceed, or I could mention cases of persons 
brought to God during- vcnj fhort evangelistic tours, some now present 
with the Lord, others whose lives here prove His presence with them ; 
many of you I feel sure could give similar instances. Such cases establish 
beyond a doubt the actual value of itinerant missionary labour and show 
it to be very great. 


The correct reply to this question will, I conceive, go far to remove 
some misconceptions which have existed about such v^'ork, and to correct 
mistakes which have sometimes been made in its prosecution. Here, as 
in every other part of our work, the Word of God must be our guide, and 
the example of our Lord and of His apostles, as recorded theie, our ex- 
amples ; while history shows the success of their efforts. Itinerant work, 
Bhould be looked on, (1) as a most important preliminanj to localized 
work, (2) as principally valuable as a, preparatory agency — not as being 
in any sense a final work, and, (3) as necessary so Iviuj as there is any 
region without the stated preaching of the Gospel. 

(1) It is a most important p/'e^/urma;-?/ ; for it tends to open the way 
for localized work. The missionary who has frequently itinerated through 
a district is looked on by many with kindly feelings. His occa'^ional 
presence has removed many misconceptions : he has made many friends. 
His character and olijct;t are becoming understood, and though he may 
not in (/// cases escape opposition, he will do so in some, and in others, 
the help he has .secured will go far to carry him through it. 

But in a far higher sense it is iinportanf, I should almost say enaential, 
nr, if this be thought too strong a word, at least, ecfmnnu'cal, of time, and 
labour, and money, to a Jii'/h dcjrec. The history of almost all missions 
proves that live, ten, or twenty years of labour are required before any 
large ingathering is made, and the constitution of the human mind fully ac- 
counts for this. No matter how strong the evidence, how clear the state- 
ments of truth, the eye can only see what it is capable of seeing, the mind 
can only grasp what it is capable of grasping. All education must be 
gradual, — cramming may be sudden, not education. Do not we ourselves 
confess that we are slow scholars in the divine life? Well, that is the 
state of tlie Chinese ? They have, as a mass, lost the idea of one living 
personal God. Of His holy nature, holy law, they know nothing; and 
knowing notbine can have no true ideas of sin. or of themselves as sinners. 

104 ESSAY. May 12tli. 

This knowledge of God and of sin must precede true repentance, and earnest 
desire for salvation; and in minds not given to rapid thought, time, often 
much time, must be given for it to strike its roots deep into the inner man, 
before a Saviour is either desired or welcomed. Then, the knowledge of 
a Saviour and the offer of salvation need to be understood, mentally ac- 
cepted, before men will seek by prayer for a personal interest in them, 
will grasp them by faith for their soul's salvation. The Jew knew Grod 
and His law, and yet the work of John the Baptist pi'eceded that of the 
Saviour. He sent the Twelve and the Seventy before His face to every 
place whither He Himself would come. His own work was but an itin- 
erant and preparatory one — no Church was formed till after Pentecost. 
The persecuted Christians preceded the Apostles in Samaria ; of those 
collected from every part to Jerusalem at Pentecost, many doubtless 
returned and preceded the Apostles to the regions beyond. N^ow it 
is my firm belief that during the 10 or 20 years which generally 
elapse between the first visitation of a province and the larger ingather- 
ings, ividesprend itineration.^ would not only lose no time, but would gain 
much time — that whole prefectures, or even provinces, might in that ti-me 
hear, and bo mentally digesting, the elementary truths of God's existence 
and personality; of His holiness, law, and judgment; and of Christ and 
His salvation. Look on widespread itinerant work as independent and 
final, and it fails to meet our expectations. But as a preparatory work 
it succeeds, always has succeeded,— especially in China, — and from the 
design of God, and the nature of things, it must ever succeed every- 
where. I appeal to the experience of every missionar3'- who has worked 
first in a somewhat prepared and then, subsequently, in an unprepared' 
field for confirmation. 

The time allotted me forbids my dwelling more at length on the 2nd. 
point, that the pi'incipal value of itinerant work lies in its jjreparatory- 
character, and on the 3rd. that the needs of this agency will continue so 
long as there is any region without the stated preaching of the Gospel. 
Some will be converted by the first promulgation of Christianity, others 
will be more gradually drawn into the fold ; but many, many more will 
be prepared, and preparing, for the pastoral labours that always shmold, 
and in the providence of God usually do, follow the first itinerant efforts. 






1. In answer to the first question — far or near — I would say — as to 
different regions, first near then far. — "Ye shall receive power in the 
coming of the Holy Ghost upon you, and ye shall be witnesses unto mk 
both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the utter- 
most part of the earth." The natural and reasonable order exhibited in 
this passage needs no further comment. 

But as to any particular region, (I mean unevangelized region) I be- 
lieve we shall wisely reverse the order and itinerate first far, then near for 
the reasons already given. Too long a stay in a Chinese city or town, on 
the occasion of the missionary's first visit, is not only unnecessary, it may 
he eyen prejudicial. Several short visits will accomplish more than one 

May 12ili. ESSAT. 105 

long one, aiid may do it without the alarm and o])])()siti(in of the litei-uti, 
to w'hifh tli« lattLT uiitxlit give rise. And, tlioret'ore, we may pr. ifitably 
visit all the cities and important towns of a province in circuits, fre- 
quently passing throu<;h, but not staying long in, the more important 
centres — preaching and selling books, contining ourselves to the sinijdest 
truths of our holy faith, and not perplexing our hearers by the discussion 
of doctrines ft)r whiih they are «>• yet unprepared. two men, 
A and ii, thus to spend two years in itineration and colportage all over a 
province ; and then to separate, each taking a new companion with him, 
and contining himself to half a province. These companions we will call 
C and 1>. After the third year A and C, divide their half province; 
and e;xch, again taking another companion, itinerates more and more 
thoronghly over a quarter of a province : JJ and 1) have been working in 
the same way. Is it not reasonable to suppose that four years of such 
labour would prepare the way for the more localized efforts of the resident 
missionary, and bring into the fold the firstlings of a flock, needing and 
prepared for, all the shepherd's care 't 

(2.) Whitt .-should he attempted on mch mi.sxwnary journeys ? On those 
which for brevity we may call "/t^'"," little can be done besides preaching 
and colportage. Let me i-epeat, preaching and colj^ortage — not colpor- 
tage and preaching. I left England for China neai-ly 24 years ago be- 
lieving in colportage. A million testaments — distribute them ! Experi- 
ence — that of older and wi.ser men, fully confirmed by my own, taught 
rae that colportage and preaching were both needed. Further experience 
has reversed in my mind the order, and now I would say, preaching and 
colportage. If yon muat leave either out, let it be the latter. If either 
must be abridged, let it be the latter and not the former. Of all Chris- 
tian effort, the non-scriptural plan * of putting a whole Bible or Testa- 
ment into the hands of an unconverted and uninstructed heathen, in an 
unconverted language you will (xinderstand me, my brethren), without 
printed note or comment or preface, without preached note and comment, 
without explanatory tract, and without the comment of Christian life, is 
the most unsuccessful, and is, .so far as my experience goes, sometimes 
even hurtful. 

One of the most able and devoted native Christians T ever knew — a 
Siu-tsai (literary graduate) once said to me on this subject, " If you 
want to hinder a literary man from coming to Christ put a whole New 
Testament into his hands. It was a wonder that I was saved, for the 
first Christian book I ever had was a New Testament." The people with 
whom I have had the greatest difficulty in gaining an attentive hearing 
have been those who could produce a New Testament which they had 
tried to read with interest but in vain. We are all greatly indebted to 
the British and Foreign and American Bible Societies. 1 have special 
cause to be grateful to them for their help. But as they must look to 
missionaries for their information ; and as their action will doubtless be 
greatly influenced by the judgment of this important Conference, I hope 
that the sentiments of able and experienced brethren will during this 
Conference be plainly uttered on this question, and that the hands of 
those societies which would circulate the Scripture with comments and 
tracts may be greatly- strengthened thereby. 

• This protest, I would remark, is only iigaiust f^ivlng or selling large portions 
of Scripmre, without suitable fxplii nations, written or spoken, to the nnin- 

106 ESSAT. May 12th. 

But to revert — as the journeys become shorter, and the districts 
traversed smaller, the work done will naturally alter somewhat in char- 
acter. Our preaching will become fuller, enquirers will occupy a larger 
proportion of our time — the dispensing of a few simple remedies and in 
time of need perhaps the distribution of food and clothing will become 
part of our work. Then in some instances the jilanting of native agents, 
the ingathering of converts, and the organization of native churches 
may follow, even before many missionaries have settled in such province. 

And here let me say a word, in anticipation of my nest poirit, on 
FEMALE AGENCY. We cannot leave the inillions of our sisters in 
China to perish — we need not do so. Like Peter, I have travelled much 
with a "sister, a wife," — and have been helped and not hindered in so 
doing. She has found as good opportunities of work among women as I 
have among men. A Female Missionary in travelling can also do much for 
the sick of her own sex; and, with prudence and care, and previous 
hioiclechje of the resources of a district (a very im|iortant matter in some 
cases), I have found no insuperable diSiculty even in overland journeys. 
On this topic I may not further enlarge. 

IV. Lastly. BT WHOM mat such itinerant wore be most profitably pro- 

I need not say that if there were able and experienced men in suffi- 
cient numbers to undertake such work all over China and its dependen- 
cies, without robbing stations already opened and neglecting churches 
already gathered, they would find ample scope for all their talents and 
attainments. But ice have no superabundance of such men. Further it 
would be only in very exceptional cases that such work could be under- 
taken by married missionaries with families. Grod has other work for them 
— work which they only can do, and plenty of it. . As a rule, single young- 
men must commence such work and they should commence it as soon 
after their arrival in the field as possible, before their health and strength 
are too much worn down. The physical strain of months and years spent 
in such labours is very great. 

For this itinerant work China is wonderfully open. Members of our 
own mission have recently traversed considerable districts of Kan-suh, 
Shen-si, Shan-si and Ho-nan — have been through Hu-nan, and Kwei- 
chau, and have crossed part of Si-ch'uen. Some are now in Hu-nan on 
their way to Kwang-si, and possibly our friends from Bhamo may have 
entered Yun-nan. Most of these provinces have been previously visited 
by experienced agents of other societies — but I draw attention to the fact 
that young men of limited experience may safely attempt this kind of 
work, for which the proclamations posted in several provinces, in accord- 
ance with the Che-foo Convention, give increasing facilities. Moreover 
China is not merely opened to a certain extent, it is opening, opening with 
gi'eat rapidity; and long before we are ready for it, the whole land may 
be fully opened. 

As to expense, this need not be very great. The sales of books may be 
made to go far towards meeting the expenses of their carriage. Books 
will be bought, by those who really value them, at a near approach to their 
cost, and will be more valued if not too cheap. And if the evangelists 
walic; and slowly traverse the country, spending most of their time in 

Mi\y llilll. DISCUSSION. 107 

preacliiiig-, and jounieyiiig but a few miles a clay, their expenses will be 
small — if their comforts are few, and their accommodations scanty, they 
will not have much to pay for them. 

As to money. The carriage of silver is both cumbersome and dan- 
gerous ; but the admirable system of banking that prevails all over China 
greatly lessens the ditliculty. Sums of Tls. lOU and more can be remitted 
to any provincial capital in the empire by the ordinary banker's draft ; 
and what is still more important and valuable, Ten Tael notes, payable 
in any important city in the empire may be procured, I am credibly in- 
formed, at a commission of only one per cent. If there prove to be no 
nnforeseen drawback on their, they will leave nothing to be desired 
in this way. In conclusion. Let us ever bear in mind that the whole 
work is the irarJ: of Qnd and not of man. p]ach agent performs but a 
small 2>art, yet he is not isolated. If God the Holy Ghost regenerate a 
soul, He will carry on His own work to completion in some way or other. 
The Alaster prepares one to take up, what He calls another to lay down, 
and no soul is gnvcd but by GoD. If He use one of His servants as His 
agent in planting. He who has begun the good work will use another, if 
not the same, in watering. Paul, the planter, may not be able himself to 
watch over all (he fruits of his labours but God will send Apollos to 
water. " Therefore my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast, unmovable, 
al\va3-s abounding in the work of the Lord, for as much as ye know that 
your labour is not in vain in the Lord." 



Rkv. D. Hill, E. W. M., Woo-sueh, said : — 

After expressing sympathy with the aggressive measures of the 
China Inland ^Mission, I shall confine myself to a few practical sug- 
gestions on ^Missionary itineration. In the first place, with regard 
to the selection of a field. The Apostolic plan was to seek and follow 
the guidance of the Spirit of God. This principle we should adopt. 
Going forth tinder Divine guidance and asking where God is moving on 
men's hearts, we should there locate ourselves — not, as is now too fre- 
quently the plan, first selecting a comfortable home in a treaty port and 
then expecting the Spirit of God to follow our movements. That is 
reversing God's order. Having thus decided on the field we should next 
take a thorough survey of the whole, and that especially with regard to 
the operations of the Roman Catholic missionaries, should they have been 
beforehand in the field. Then, special attention should be paid to those 
towns from which a large proportion of the natives are known to leave 
home for trading pui-poses, and— where there is no danger of exciting 
disturbance — the occasion of Fu and Hien literary examinations should 
be taken for the visitation of those cities and thus whole districts would 
be brought under Christian influence from one single point of attack. 
In visiting a town for the first time it is well not to stay too long. It is 
better to repeat your visit at short intervals, prolonging the stay on each 
succeeding occasion. It is a good thing, wherever it is posible, to put up 
at a native inn ; this gives greater influence in the town and affords a 
centre to which hearers met with in street preaching may be invited. The 
value of medical agency is perhaps seen to gi-eatest advantage in itinerant 
work. It is the plan laid down by our Lord Himself in the instructions 
He gave to His apostles. The whole of the instructions given by our 
Ijord in St. ^fatthew X. and cspi-cially the principlef? which underlie 

108 DISCUSSION. May 12tli. 

them demand the closest study and most faithful following from all mis- 
sionaries engaged in itinerant work. 

Eev. De. Williamson, S. U. P. M., Chefoo, 

Agreed with Mr. Hill that in itinerating the most important matter 
was to seek carefully and for some length of time the guidance of the 
Holy Spirit. He was convinced that his safety in his many and long- 
journeys — the fact that he had never met with any injury to his own per- 
son or assistants or even mules, and had often found the way wonderfully 
opened up before him, was due to this — that he was accustomed to seek 
for some time previous dii'ection from God. He agreed with Mr. Taylor 
that preaching should come first, and colportage second. He had always 
found it advisable to state clearly who he was, why he had come, and 
that the book he had to sell was God's "letter" to man, etc., whenever he 
entered any town. After this he would mention three or four of the 
principal doctrines contained in the Bible, and then commence selling his 
books — interrupting the sale to preach occasionally. 

With regard to selling the Bible without note or comment he had 
obtained permission from the Scottish Bible Society to sell tracts or books 
with it ; and he therefore almost invariably inserted a short tract or book 
inside every Bible or portion he sold. He believed that to interdict a 
colporteur or missionary from selling books or tracts was like sending a 
man to work with one arm tied behind his back. 

In itinerating it was neccessary to adapt ourselves to the intellectual 
condition of the people ; and here, with a people whose minds were so 
little cultivated as the masses of the Chinese are, we might in walking 
along by the side of the cart as well as in preaching draw many valuable 
lessons from nature, the humam body or even a flower to teach the truth 
of a Creator. In trying to bring home the existence of the soul he would 
sometimes playfully put his hand on the ear of any boy who might be 
standing near him and ask was it the ear which heard, or what ? In this 
way be brought home the spirituality of our nature and then taught the 
immortality of the soul. They could not gainsay such arguments. The 
great evil in China was the want of any sense of sin. Great care and 
even ingenuity must be exercised to arouse this consciousness. Here you 
had the conscience to appeal to ; and the colporteur and missionary 
should arm himself with all sorts of methods to . bring home the idea of 
sin to the people. Without this all labour was vain. 

E-Bv. Dr. Talmage, A. R. C. M., Amot, 

Agreed with Mr. Taylor in regarding preaching of greater importance 
than colportage, and said that in the training of Native agents to which 
his mission gave special attention the subject of preaching was made very 
prominent. They are not accustomed to any wide distribution of large 
tracts, and especially not of the Scriptures. He did not think that the 
Scriptures ("without note or comment") could be understood by the 
heathen Chinese. They are accustomed however to distribute pi'etty 
widely sheet tracts, which could be done with great economy. One of 
these tracts was a Sabbath Calendar. It told what days of each month 
were Sabbaths. It contained the Fourth Commandment. It also gave a 
list of the places thoughout the region of Amoy where chapels might be 
found and the Gospel might be heard. 

Another of these tracts contained the Ten Commandments with brief 
notes, followed by bi-ief statements of Gospel truths. 

!May li'ili. DISCUSSION. 109 

Rkv. Samukl Dodd, a. P. .M., ilANOciiow, said: — 

There are two Scripture texts wliich appear to mc to have a close 
connection -svith tliis subject. One was spoken 'by the Master to the 
earlv disciples and is "Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel 
till "the Son of man be come." I believe we may safely infer from this 
that the disciples had not gone over Israel before the great catastrophe 
which gave Judaism its death blow come upon the land. This however 
is in the past and has not much to do with us: but a similar and related 
text that remains for us is. "This Gospel of the kingdom shall bo 
preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations, and tlien shall 
the end come." 1 believe that this will be the case; and that in China 
the Gospel will be ])reac]ied not only in every province and city, but in 
every village and hamlet before the coming of the gi-eat event that is to 
give heathenism its death blow. And as it is at present beyond our 
power to station men in all the large cities of China, the work can only 
be done by itineration. 

Colportage in connection with preaching may be of great service : 
and while heartily agreeing with ^Ir. Taylor in disapproving of that ex- 
clusive policy of the Bible societies that forbids distributing any thing 
but tlie very words of the Holy Scriptures, yet I cannot agree with 
him in thinking that copies of the Scriptures should not be given to the 
heathen, ^fr. Taylor himself refers to a Christian Chinaman whose first 
contact with Christianity was in coming across a copy of the New 

In street preaching we must take care not to interfere with the busi- 
ness of the shop keepers and others. We should not gather a crowd in 
busy thoroughfares and thus obstruct the pas.sage ways. It is a good 
plan to walk quietly through a street, distributing books till we come to 
an open space, when we pretty generally find ourselves surrounded with 
a crowd to whom we may preach without interfering with the rights of 
any one. 

Rev. H. C. Du Bose, A. S. P. M., Soochow, said : — 

I should like to say a few words as to the mnr/nitude of the work of 
itineration. One never returns from a preaching tour in the towns and 
country places without being deeply impressed with the insufficiency of 
the means employed to i-each the teeming population "of the regions 

I u-sed to say that within a radius of 30 miles of Soochow were about 
30 large towns but now know theie are a hundred. Sometime ago 1 took 
a trip North of Soochow, in a section 40 miles long by 30 broad, visit- 
ing the large cities of Chang-soh and Wu-seih and 21 market towns. 
Two or three of these towns had oidv 3,000 or 5,000 inhabitants, the rest 
10.000 to 2o,000 to 40,0U0 each. Within view at any point were hundreds 
of farm hamlets. Some of the farms consist of two iiKnr; a lai-ge farm of 
fourteen inow, or about an average of an acre to a family ; so to a square 
mile G-iO families or 3000 souls. 

In many parts of this region within an area of 25 or 30 miles square 
there is a po])ulation of a million. Now what amount of good can we 
expect to result from an occasional visit to a district like this ? Of course 
it is our duty to go and we know not which may prosper this or that, and 
■we leave the results with ITim that sent us. In manv of the states of 

110 DISCUSSION. May 12th, 

the United States witli two liundrecl ministers of one denomination they 
say they are altogether inadequate to the work, but this one province of 
Kiaiig-su contains a popuhition equal to the whole United States. We ai'e 
but cipliers in the midst of these millions by whom we are surrounded. 

Rev. H. L. Mackenzie, E. P. M., Swatow, said: — 

In connection with this subject there are two texts of Seriptni'e 
which it would be well for us to keep in view. Our Lord in sending 
foi-th His disciples "sent them two and two before His face into every 
city and j^lace, whither He Himself would come." Our praj^er should be 
that He would send us whither He himself will come, wither He will 
follow us. If Christ does not come with us, if He does not come, so to 
speak, after us, to visit in His saving grace the places where we make 
His word known, how shall our labours result in the salvation of souls ? 
Let us then see to it that in this work of going to and fro to preach the 
Gospel we wait upon our Lord that He may send us whither He Himself 
will come, Avhither He will come in the saving might of His Spirit to 
quicken dead souls to life and open the heai'ts of those to whom we pro- 
claim the glad tidings of salva,tion. 

Again, we read that when the Apostles returned they "told Jesus all 
things both what they had done and what they had taught." Let us 
make a practice of doing this when we return from our preaching among 
this people. Whether we preach in towns and villages near at hand, or 
go forth to those at a distance, let us not fail on our return to tell The 
Lord both what we have done and what we have taught. Let us lay 
these things before Him in prayer, acknowledging our sins and short- 
comings and asking forgiveness for them ; telling Him of our difficulties 
and asking wisdom and patience that we may meet and overcome them ; 
telling of our encouragements and giving Him thanks for them, and 
above all, beseeching Him for His Name's sake to follow with His bles- 
sing the work in which we have been engaged. Thus shall we be gi'eatly 
helped in this blessed work of preaching the Gospel and be encouraged 
to look for fruit to the praise of His grace. 

The present time is favourable for itineration. Who knows how 
long this may continue ? During the last thirty j'ears what an opening 
up of China, and more especially during these last few years how widely 
has God in His providence opened doors by which His servants may enter 
in to make known His Word ? For aught we can tell, He may in His 
inscrutable providence soon close doors now so invitingly open. Let us 
therefore, ounr, while we have opportunity, press in and bend all our 
energies to this work of making the Gospel known far and near. I 
heartily sympathise with the remarks that have just been made as to the 
fewness of the labourers in this densely-peopled land. Who has not felt 
his heart pained as he returns from preaching among the innumei-able 
towns and villages of China, and sees many of them in which as yet 
no preacher has made known the glad tidings, when as yet the blessed 
Name of Jesus has never been heard r' We need not expect that there will 
ever be foreign missionaries in sufficient numbers for this work. While 
therefore, doing what we can to preach, "in season and out of season" be- 
ing instant in this our great work, let us also do all we can to raise up, by 
God's help and blessing, a powerful Native Agency, men of faith and 
prayer, men mighty in the Scriptures and having zeal for the glory of 
God and compassion for their benighted countrjinen. 

Only thus can China be evangelized, only thus can this vast heathen 
land bo won for Christ. 

Miiy l-Jth. DISCUSSION. Ill 

Rkv. J. W. Lamhitii, a. S. jNI. K. M. SiixNciriAi, said : — 

I have apLMit a lari^o proportion of my iiine in itincraiT work, and 
uot without i'heerin<^ results. At Hi-st my ohjrct was (o spi-eacl my hibours 
over a wide area, but of hite year.s I have con lined them lo more narrow 
limits and done the work more thorouji^hly. Tiiis plan T strouf^ly recom- 
mend. liil)les and traets should ba lart^oly disti-ibuted, but tlie former 
with comments attached. I have found it of gi-eat advantage on many 
occasions to have my owu tent, and re nain a week or more in one phiee. 
Many persons are brought together to hear the Gospel atid many books 
are sold. ]\iere passing and isolated visits are {productive of but little good, 
for they are soon forgotten and the effect is not permanent. Such work 
must be followed up ami the seed sown should be carefully watched and 
cultivated. But whatever we may be able to do, we should remember, 
that the power is of God and we are but instruments in his hands. We 
are not without instances of success in this itinerary work among the 
Chinese. Two of our most e(fi.:;ient native preachers now in active sei*- 
vice, wei'e brought to know Christ by means of this agency. While 
preaching in a large village on the Grand Canal a man came forward 
and advocated the truths of the Christian religion. He was not a church 
membei', but had heard street preaching on many occasions, and had in 
his possession portions of the Gospel. He had a fair understanding of 
many vital points of Christian faith. T might mention other instances of 
good being ixccoraplished by means of this agency but will uot do so now. 

Rkv. Dr. Yates, A. S. B. M., Sh.^ncjuai, said : — 

I think we should look at both sides of this question — the dark as 
well as the bright featui-es of it. Many yeai's ago I devoted some time to 
itinerating work preaching and distributing religious books in new fields. 
The people came in crowds to see me and get books ; but I am not aware 
that I ever received aiiy material fruit from such labours. 

I think we should uot, because the people favor us with a smile of 
approbation, be too .sanguine of the good effect of our preaL>hing on these 
itinerating tours. It is no evidence that they appre.-iate the truths 
presented. They are often amused at hearing us speak, but are 
not impressed by what we sa}-. Interrogate them, and they will give 
you a favorable answer ; for it would not be complimentary to say they 
did not understand you. Ask them to tell you what you have been 
talking about, and they will be silent. 

Neither should we be too sanguine of good results from all the books 
we distribute. The people will not destroy a Chinese book, but they 
will sell them to book scavengers, who are employed by a class of men, 
who show their revei'ence for the Chinese character, by collecting and 
burning all the paper they can hnd, having characters on it. For many 
years, it was a marvel to me, what became of all the religious books 
distributed by missionaries; for I coidd hnd none where I knevy they 
had been circulated; and I resolved, if possible, to find out. I distributed 
a tract in every shop in a long street. A month or so afterwards, I went 
through that street enquiring after my tracts. And, strange to say, I 
could not find a single copy. Some said the books were so good that 
after reading them they had given them away to friends, who were 
anxious to read them. Well, I did not care for this, if the statement 
were true; but 1 did not believe it; for no one could tell me anything 

112 DISCUSSION. May 12th. 

about the coutents of the tracts. My difficulty was not .solved. Some 
days affcei-wards, while in conversation with a Cliinese friend on the 
subject, he told me, that if I would go to a certain small temple early in 
the morning I would be able to learn what became of our religious books, 
or a large portion of them. I did so ; and soon after I arrived at the 
temple seven or eight coolies came in with as many sacks of books and 
paper, with characters on it. I discharged one sack on the floor, and 
found it was tilled, mainly, with religious books and tracts from most of 
the Treaty Ports. Among the books, were some of those, I could not 
find where I had distributed them. I looked into the other sacks and 
found them filled with similar material. These loads of books were to be 
burned before the idol, and some of the ashes distributed on the waters 
of the canals and rivers, to furnish the spirits of the departed with read- 
ing matter, and the balance, mixed with oil, would be used to make the 
paste of which the smooth surfaces of sign boards and lacquered wai*e 
are made. There is quite a business in the ashes of paper, for these two 
branches of trade. I am happy to say that all books are not now so 
treated ; for indiscriminate distribution has been discontinued. Notwith- 
standing the many disappointments, itinerate preaching and a judicious 
circulation of books must continue to be the means of aggressive work. 

I have felt the importance of concentrated work, in order to educate 
and train a church, to serve as a model for others; and, if possible, 
secure a congregation of persons who come regularly to hear, and learn 
the Gospel ; and thus accomplish as much at one meeting, as I would in a 
week of itineration. In the matter of a congregation I have succeeded 
beyond my expectations. I find that it is not enough to teach our na- 
tive pastors 'ivhat they should do ; we need to do it befoi-e them, in order 
that they may see ho-w it is to be done. In this stationary work, we all 
need to be on our guard against designing men, who have been deeply 
impressed with a single sentence in a sermon, or by the way; such 
susceptible characters usually have an eye to business. I have usually 
found them to be men out of employment. 

Rev. Dr. Douglas, E. P. M. Amot, said: — ■ 

Three sentences in Mr. Taylor's paper should be written in letters of 
gold, viz. "First near, then far;" "Pirst preachin.g, then colijortage;^' 
and " We have no superabundance of men for this work." 

But I object to the statement that we have to consider the ques- 
tion of Itineracy in itself. We must consider it in relation to the other 
parts of our work : for we must remember that we are a very small body 
comparatively, only some two or three hundred men among three or four 
hundred millions. The question is not — Is itineracy a good work, but 
Is it the he^t ; and How shall we, with our small numbers, best and most 
efficiently accomplish the work we have to do. 

I also object to the interpretation in the paper, of I Pet. 1. 23. 
"the incorruptible or imperishable (as it was rendered) "seed of the 
word." That passage refers not to the word as heard hij all, but to the 
word planted by Gnd's Spirit in the heart of believers. The truth as to 
the word preached to all can best be learned from the express teaching of 
our Lord, who tells us of some seed that was devoui'ed by the fowls, some 
scorched, some choked, while only one portion brought forth fruit, antl 
that was what fell into well prepared soU, While we preach the word with 

May I'itli. DISCUSSION. J 13 

all iMiorf:jv and boldiies<^, lot ns not deltulo onrsflvos with the tliouirlit that 
iK)!ic' of it sliiill ptM-ish. Let us take cai-e that (so far as our care can 
avail) as little of the word and of our labour about it, as is possible, may 
be lost. 

He also objected to tlie comparison of our work in China with that 
of the A])ostles. Chiim was in no i'es])eet like Asia Minor, Crrcece, &c., 
in the time of the Apostles. Jewish colonies had been \o\\<r planted in all 
these countries, and the knowledge of the Old Testament Revelation, and 
of Jehovah the only living God had preceded the Apostles wherever they 
went. The ground was thus prepared f<n' the preaching of tlie Gospel; 
ami the New Testament proves that tlie Apostles iilmost entirely confined 
their labours to the parts of the field thus prepared. Thus the real 
lensiin from Apostolic example is that wo should choose the most Qtting 
part.s of the field for our work. 

Some say that far too much work comparatively is done at and near 
the Treaty Ports. In answer he would quote the text "When thev per- 
secute you in one city, flee ye to another." It is at the ports that to the 
fullest extent we have the protection of the law; and the spirit of the text 
quoted teaches us that we should endeavour to avoid those places where 
there is S])ecial danger, e. ij. very distant regions, so long at least as there 
are tens of millions near at hand, easily and safel}^ accessible, waiting to 
be evangelised. 

The experience of all the missions at Amoy shewed that the limits 
within whi' h itiiierary labours could be advantageously cai'ried on were 
very small indeed : and that in general the shorter tours were the most 
beneficial. It was a waste of time and strength (which might be much 
better employed in other parts of the work) to take long and distant 
journeys, except on rare occasions. 

We must concentrate our efforts to produce the greatest possible re- 
sult. The God of ijrace works by means: let us use the best possible 
means that the effect of onr work may not be lost. Napoleon used to 
conquer by concentrating his troops on one point. Pour shot and shell 
into the most assailable part of the earthwork; that taken, we shall be able 
to follow up our success. 

Rev. C. Goodkich, A. B. C. F. M., T'uxg-chow, said : — 

As I .sat here, and looked upon the face of Brother Taylor, I found 
the tears starting to my eyes. Is it because, with one exception, I 
have not seen an Anglo-Chinese (a western man in Chinese costume, ) 
since Brother Burns was taken up? But chiefly it is that, during these 
years, my heart has reached across the Provinces to Bi-other Taylor. I 
know far less of the work of the China Inland Mission than I wish. But 
I know this, that there is in that Mission a great desire to plant the 
Gospel all over China. 

It is an amazing fact that, until within a very few j-ears, a line could 
be drawn about a territory occupied by two hundred millions of men, — 
one sixth of the population of the globe — where there was not a single 
Protestant Missionary! Three years ago, I made a missionary tour 
through the Provinces of Sbansi and Shensi to Singanfu, the capital of 
Shensi. As the crowd seethed and surged about us, — not about me, but 
my friends in foreign costiime, — so my heart seethed and surged within 
me, to think that in all that province, and the surrounding provinces, 
there were absoluichj nctne but Komish Missionai-ies to give them the 

114 ESSAY, May l-4tb. 

I wisli here briefly to sjDeak of two points. 1st. What can each of its 
personally do in the work of itineration ? I fear there is in ns too much 
inertia ; that we become too fixed in our homes, and find it too difficult to 
leave them. It is an immense benefit, both to ourselves and to the woi'k, 
to go out two, three, or more times in a year, making evangelistic tours. 
I believe in literary work. 1 believe in carrying on faithfully all the 
departments of work at the station. But I do not believe in being so 
2)lanted in any place that we cannot move out of it. I know it costs 
sacrifice, and sometimes we must needs make a new consecration before 
■we can do it. In )ny own experience, when the question of moving away 
from the capital and farther into the interior came to me, 1 had to search 
my own heart to see whether I were honestly and thoroughly w-illing to 
go. We ought always to have the willingness to go anywhere that the 
Lord may call us. 

I believe in itinerating labor as fruit bearing. No work in cur own 
Mission has produced so great results with so great economy of labor and 
money. I wish to add, as an item, that I believe in including a Tract in 
the Bible, in the circulation of the latter. It takes, in some sense, the 
place of the living preacher, shedding light on the sacred W'Ord. 

Let us inquire 2nd. What can toe d.o in reference to the churches at 
home ? This great territory inland is still unoccupied, and the churches 
at home are willing that it should be so. When I was at Salem, near 
Boston, at a meeting of the American Board, and when the meetings 
overflowed into two other churches, I was suddenly startled by hearing 
my name called from the platform. A moment more, and Dr. Clark, our 
Foreign Secretary, saw me and said, " Go over, Goodrich, and pour in 
red hot shot." I answered, " I have nothing to say, sir." '' Go, and 
pour in red hot shot." I %oish this whole body of missionaries could pour in 
a STORM of rattling red hot shot upon the churches at home. It is wrong, 
utterly wrong, that almost at the close of this 19th century, the churches 
at home are willing — God forgive me for saying it— that one, tw^o, or 
three generations in these inland provinces shall go down to death, before 
a straggling Missionary or two is sent to begin the work of evangelization. 

M.ORNING Session. 

Medical Missions. 


J. G. Kerb, M. D. A. P. M., Canton, (now of San Francisco.) 

In order to appreciate the importance of Medical missions it is 
necessary to have some knowledge of the condition of semi-civilized nations 
as to their medical practice and the agents they employ in the cure of 
disease. It can thus be made to appear that there has been the most im- 
perative demand for what has been done, and that theix is urgent neces- 
sity for the extension of medical missions, pari fassu with the moi'e direct 
departments of evangelistic work. Our Lord showed compassion to the 
sick and suffering, and He "gave his disciples power to heal all manner of 
sickness and all manner of disease." Matt. X. 1. Although physicians 
now are not endued with supernatural power, they possess means of re- 
lieving suffering of which heathen nations are destitute, and it is as much 

May l-ith. essat. 115 

a Christian dnty to relieve bodily suffering as to minister to spiritual 
necessities. The latter may be the more important duty of the two, but 
the obligation to discharge both is equally binding. The command to 
love our ntughbor as ourselves, requin^s care for the body as well as the 
soul. Mediial Missionary work has g(?norally been regarded as important 
and oI>ligatorv in so far as it was auxiliary to (he spread of the (lospel, 
but this is a limited view, not only of the obligation but of the beneti- 
cett results. 

It is unnecessary to present an elaborate array of fa^ts to show that 
a large part of our race is in a most deplorable condition as to all those 
means and institutions which modern sci(mce and philanthropy have 
devised for the prevention and cure of disease. A short review of the state 
of medical knowledge and practice among Eastern nations will exhibit in 
a slight degree the miseries to which they are subject, because of the 
want of that knowledge and skill which confer so many blessings on us. 
The following items will be sutiicient for our purpose. 

I. — The physicians of all semi-civilized nations are entirely ignorant 
of anatomy and physiology. Not only so, but they have siibstituted for 
a true knowledge, the most absui'd theories, which have been developed 
in a wonderful minuteness of description. Their anatomical plates present 
an arraugeniLMit of organs which does not e.vist, and for natural laws, they 
have substituted arbitraiy and imaginary theories, by whi(>h they explain 
all the occult processes of nature and all vital action, whether healthy 
or morbid. These false notions of structure and function have been 
received for ages, and during the succession of a hundred genei'ations 
there has been no mind capable of rising above the traditions of the past, 
and of instituting such investigations as would lead to the discovery of 
the truth. 

II. — The nature of disease is unknown. Its invasion is attributed to 
cau503 which hive no existence and its progress and effects are explained 
by theories the most absurd and unfounded. The influence of the planets; 
of the live elements, tire, air, earth, wood and water ; and the disturbance 
of the equilibi'ium between the ^ Yam and the |^ Yeung — the two uni- 
vei*sally prevalent male and female powers of nature — may be mentioned 
as causes to which diseases are referred and which control their progress. 

III. — The properties of medicines are, to a great extent, unknovvni. 
Wonderful virtues are attributed to inert substances, such as dragons' 
toeth, fossil bones of tigers, pearls, stalactites, deei*'s horns, ginseng, &c; 
and many offensive substances, as well as all articles of food and drink 
are (.-redited with great medicinal efficacy. The real virtues of active me- 
dicines are not understood, and in so far as the properties of the more 
common and simple medicines are known, their administration cannot be 
guided by any rational principle. The special relation of any given 
medicine to one of the five elements above enumerated, and to the 
organ supposed to be diseased, determines the selection. This single 
example is sufficient to show how false and absurd are their systems of 

IV. — The practice of surgery among barbarous and semi-civilized 
peoples is of the most primitive and rude kind. It is strange that such 
is the case in so old a country as China, where the people are skilled in 
the mechanic arts, and where they have traditions of extraordinary opera- 
tions performed bv ancient mythical surgeons. The highest prai-e they 
can bestow on a foreign surgeon who has given them relief with the 
knife, is to call him a living VVa-toh. It is true, however, that pievious 
to the advent of surgfeons from the west, there was no one in all the 

116 ESSAY. May 14th. 

Empire, who would venttire to puncture an abscess, or to remove the 
simplest tumor. Although some dentists do use a rude pair of forceps, 
or a hook for the extraction of teeth, it must be done secretl}^ for the loss 
of would be the penalty of confessing that it was not. all accom- 
plished by medicine. All the numerous diseases and accidents which are 
capable of being remedied by the surgeon's art, are either maltreated, or 
allowed to run their course, in either case a long train of evils being the 
resiilt. A moment's thought will bring to your minds a catalogue of 
painful and distressing diseases, which run havoc over a lai-ge part of 
the globe. 

V. — Midwifery is a department of medicine in which science and 
skill have devised most successful means of relieving suffering and pro- 
longing life. In the countries of which we are speaking not only are 
absurd theories prevalent, but barbarous practices are employed where 
the ui'gency of the case demands that something be done, even when the 
attendants do not know what to do. In such a vast population, hundreds 
of cases occur every year, in which both mother and child are sacrificed 
for the want of that knowledge and skill which have been a heaven-sent 
boon to woman in Christian lands in the hour of her sore trial. If the 
statistics of 100 years, in a country so populous as China, could be pre- 
sented to us to-day, what a fearful amount of suffering and loss of life 
would be revealed. The scenes 1 have witnessed in the lying-in chambers 
of both rich and poor in Canton, would afford an apology, if any were 
needed, for the anxious desire I feel that the beneficent principles of our 
profession may be universally disseminated. 

VI. — Superstitious notions and practices control and pervei't medi- 
cine in all unenlightened countries. The idols, astrologers and fortune- 
tellers are consulted in almost all cases of sickness. Disease is consider- 
ed to be the visitation of evil spirits, or is attributed to the anger of the 
gods. To expel the one and pacify the other, charms and amulets are in 
general use, and superstitious and idolatrous practices are employed. 
The deafening noise of gongs and fire crackers, are of necessity injuri- 
ous to a person whose nervous system is made sensitive by fever or who 
is weakened by disease. Charms, written in hieroglyphits by stupid 
priests, some of which are to be pasted about the sick room, the ash of 
others to be drunk in medicinal decoctions, are specimens of the means 
relied on by all classes for the remedy of disease. The diffusion of sound 
knowledge will not only dissipate all such foolish and injurious customs, 
but will elevate the minds of the people to a perception of the natural 
causes which are in operation around and within them and which are con- 
trolled by the Supreme Being. 

VII. — The ignorance of infantile hygiene and of infantile diseases, is 
one of the most fruitful sources of suffering and death in barbarous and 
semi-civilized countries. We know how great the mortality among 
children is under the most favorable circumstances, but where parents 
and doctors are both ignorant and are the dupes of siiperstitions, we can 
imagine what an increase there would be of disease and death. Add to 
this the low sense of moral obligation, and the blunting of the natural 
affections, which is the result of heathenish and superstitious beliefs and 
customs, and we have a state of things most unfavorable to the protec- 
tion of human life at the period when it is most fragile, and most depend- 
ent on the care of others. 

VIII. — Laws of hj-giene are entirely disregarded. There are no laws 
conservative of public health, and no attention by the authorities to sani- 
tary arrangements. There is no isolation of contagious diseases, no 

• May Ikh. kssat. 117 

tlrainacro, or removal of ofTi-nsivo or deli'lorioiia substances, exeept as 
thi>y Ix'coiue vahml)le to tlie a^riciiltini^t. iS'o attontioii is paid to caves 
of iK'aili, nor is ihoro any invt'stiyatiou into the (avisos of death unless 
thcMV be eviilout proof of murder; and sui'<i;eoiis ai"e not employed in the 
army or navy. 

IX. — In unenliglitoned and uneliristianized countries, tliere are no 
benevolent insliiutions for the care of the Kick anil afliicted.* It is a 
remaikable and sijLrniticant fact, that in no land on the face of the earth, 
where the Chiistian religion does not prevail, are there any hospitals or 
asylums for the ])()or who ar^' diseased in body or mind. In China there 
are thousands who perish annually in the streets of her great cities from 
disease, starvation and cold ; aiul there is reason to believe that the insane 
are often made away with, when they become troublesome. Let any one 
add up the statistics of the cen.sus of any Protestant country and note the 
acrirregate of persons relieved in the almshouses, hospitals and asylums, 
public and piivate, and then reHect how many human beings in a heathen 
country, many-fold more populous, have need of the same provident care, 
and he may form some idea of tlie necessity thei*e is for the benevolent 
work and intluences of Christianity in many lands. The multiplication 
of our benevolent institutions is the glory of our religion, and herein is 
exhibited its superiority over all the pngan religions v\ hicli have existed 
in any age or country. 

This short review of the phy.sical sufferings and disabilities of unen- 
lightened nations from tiieir ignorance of the nature of disease and of 
rational modes of treatment, and from the entire absence of charit- 
able institutions whicli are the out-growth of Christianized scientiKc 
medicine, show that the healing art must be the handuiaid of religion in 
the great work of evangelizing the heathen. 

It was a divinely instituted adjunct when our Savior was on earth ; 
it is a powerful aid in introducing Christianity, and on the development 
of principles of charity to the poor aiul suifering, will depend the health- 
ful action and pei-manency of Christian life in lands wlaere it is newly 
established. It becomes therefore not merely a matter of policy, but an 
obligation which may not be evaded to establish and maintain institutions 
for healing in connection with moi-e direct missionary work. 


To who are aware of the widespread and beneficent influence 
of a well-conducted raedi al agency, it nriy seem strange that this depart- 
ment has not been more extensively prosecuted. Perhaps the chief ex- 
planation of this is the expense connected with tlie maintenance of the 
work. It becomes, therefore, a matter of importance to consider the ways 
and means by which the solution of this difUculty may be accomplished. 
It should be understood by our Jioards that Mission hos[)itals are con- 
ducted on a far more economical scale than ho pitals at home, and that they 
are not more e- pensive than some other departments of \iission work ; 
and considering the amount of good they do, they are worth all they cost, 
independently of any aid they may be in the evangelization of the 
heathen. The question of the expense should not be an obstacle to their 
establishment in suitable pla es. 

Some societies have sent out well-qualified and capable medical 
men, and then failed to give them the means necessary to make their 

•This statement slioii'.d be moditjcd, as to its bcariug ou some of the cities of China. 

118 ESSAY. May 14th.* 

woi'k effective and satisfactory. This is a short-sighted policy, and if 
oxxr Boards and Churches could be made to realize, as I have attempted to 
poi'tray, the vast amount of human suffering which exists because of the 
want of that knowledge which promotes the temporal well-being of 
man, I think they would be more liberal in sending out and supporting 
medical missionaries. 

In some places, notably in the open ports of China where there are 
communities of foreign merchants, mission hospitals have been supported, 
in whole or in part by their liberality, and the aid thus given by intel- 
ligent men on the ground, who were witnesses of the benevolent work 
done by these hospitals, has done much to place them in the position of 
usefulness and of public confidence which they now maintain. 

But the local support of resident merchants must be confined to a 
limited number of places, and there are numerous cities in China having 
no foreign population where hospitals and dispensaries should be esta- 
blished. In these places, the funds must come chiefly from the societies 
at home. Where two or more societies are represented in one city, it 
would be well for them to unite in the support of the medical work, 
because the influence on the people, in removing prejudice and gaining 
their good-will, is as much in favor of one mission as another. 

It is very desirable to obtain a pai't of the amount needed from those 
who are the recipients of the benefits thus brought to them. They would 
appreciate more what they pay for, and a small fee from all except the 
poorest would amount in the aggregate to .a considerable sum. Special 
fees might be charged for the cure of deformities, such as harelip, or for 
the restoration of sight, which is especially valuable to the patient, or for 
the cui^e of diseases brought on by wicked practices, or for the cure of 
opium smoking, which results in an immediate saving of several dollars 
per month. Charges might be made for the use of separate w^ards by the 
better class of patients, and mauj'' are willing to pay if they can avoid 
being put in the common ward with all kinds of patients. 

Contributions should be solicited from wealthy native merchants and 
from officials. Now and then persons of these classes will have occasion 
to avail themselves of the skill of the foreign physician, and they can be 
made acquainted with the objects of the hospital and the mode of its 
working, and they can often be induced to contribute to its support. Dr. 
Berry of Japan has been mncii favoi^ed in this respect, and he has found 
the natives i^eady to give all the support required. Where this can be 
done without yielding the control of the institution to heathen managers, 
it is most satisfactory. In China, however, no such liberality has been 
displayed, and in general the contributions from Chinese have been ob- 
tained by persevering effort, and they have come mostly from persons 
whose business connection was with Europeans. 

As an aid to missionary societies, the expenses of medical work at 
mission stations might be defrayed by hospitals at home. Some of these 
hospitals ai-e well endowed and have incomes of from ^30,000 to .$50,000, 
and as the expenses of missionary hospitals average, perhaps not more 
than §1000, a year, one or more of the latter might be adopted as 
branches of one of the former without any very heavy draft on its funds. 
There are hospitals in Europe and America founded on Christian pi-inci- 
ples, and some of these have a denominational basis; so that it would be 
appropriate for them to extend their plans so as to establish branches at 
mission stations of their own deuomitiation, furnishing them with me- 
dical supplies, and funds to meet local expenses. It would also be appi'o- 
priate for these hospitals to aid in the education and training of young 

May 14th. kssat. 119 

men for inedical work in tlic forc'i<;n fifld, and they conhl thus send out 
tlieir own pupils to tako char<re of the work. In this way the physi- 
cians, trustees and patrons of the parent institution wouhl beiome deeply 
interested in a woi-k carried on by themselves in a foreign land, in con- 
nection with and auxiliary to the great work of evangelizing and civiliz- 
ing the race. The rejjort of the foreign work would foi-m a part of the 
report of the home institution and the increased interest of the patrons of 
the hospital, thus extended, would more than counterbalance the addi- 
tional expenditure required for the foreign work. 

Medical Missions. 

"Wm. Ctal'ld, M. D., Snvatow. 

It is not my purpose in this paper to enter into the claims of Medical 
Missions to be u.sed by the Christian church as an auxiliary to her evan- 
gelistic efforts among the heathen. That this agency is more and more 
commending itself, is evident from the ever increasing use made of it. 
In all parts of the heathen world, the medical niissionar}' is to be found 
working side-by-side with the brethren who "minister iu the w'ord and 
doctrine;" thus between them carrying out in fullest measure the com- 
mand of our Lord and Master, Who said, " Heal the sick, and, say unto 
them, the Kingdom of God is come nigh unto you." 

What I have to say refers more to the practical v:orJclng of medical 
Eiissions in China, and may be arranged as follows : — 

I. — The suitableness of China as a lield for the medical missionary. 

II. — The work and aim of the medical missionary. 

III. — The means best calculated to secure his success. 

I. — The suitableness of the field. Several circumstances combine to 
make China a specially suitable field for the exercise of the healing art in 
aid of the Gospel. The Chinese treatment of is far behind that 
of western nation.s. It proceeds on false principles, the result of almost 
entire ignorance of anatomy and physi»)logy. Though the Chinese phar- 
macopoeia contains many valuable remedies, and not a few of the native 
practitioners have a certain empirical skill in the use of them, yet iu a 
country where doctors are self-constituted on the slenderest qualifications, 
the mischief done must be great. Any man destitute of other means to 
secure a livelihood, but with learning enough to read a medical book and 
to copy its piescriptions, is free to practice. To a vast extent the people 
are in the hands of quacks, whose main desire is to secure the fee of their 
patients let the result be what it may. In a Chinese pictorial primer 
reccTitly issued, the position of the native d )ctor is well indicated by 
placing him between the heathen priest and the fortune teller. The 
superiority of the thoroughly qualified medical missionary to this branch 
of his art may not at once be manifest to the ; especially as the 
cases he is likely to meet with at the outset, are those which have been 
given up by the native faculty; either as incurable or because the patient 
has no more money to spend. Even here, however, he will in time gain 
the confidence of the people as one who honestly desires their welfare, 
and who can command means more effective for the cure of their maladies 
than they themselves possess. 

120 ESSAY. May 14th. 

In tlie domain of Surgery, however, the medical missionary lias the 
field almost entirely to hi^nself, and here the direct and often immediate 
results are so sti-iking to the Chinese, that there is no question as to 
supremacy. That little their own surgeons attempt, I can honestly say 
from personal observation, they had much better have let alone for the 
most part. In eije diseases ag-xin, whioh are so prevalent in China, the 
native doctors are helpless, and the people turn readily and anxiouslv to 
the foreigner for the preservation or restoration of a sense so i;npirtant 
to them as that of sight. The difficulty, indeed, in our surgical pi-aotice 
among the Chinese, is not so much to get them to believe we can help 
them, as to make them understand that there is a limit to our power. 

The dew^n'ty of the population in China, makes the medical missionaiy 
practice tell to advantage, while the supply of cases needing his help is 
always at hand. No difficulties of caste prevent full access to all classes 
of the peojjle. 

In the well known hof^tilitij of the Ghinef^e to foreignei's and to the 
Gospel they preach, there is ample need aiid scope for the acknowledged 
influence of the medical mission in allaying hostility, removing prej idice, 
and conciliating the people, so as to incline them to a favourable hearing 
of the truths of Christianity. 

II. — The work and aim of the Medical Missionary. 

A clear understanding on this point is of the utmost importance. It 
is not simply the advance of science. That in its own place is important, 
and if, without interfering with the higher work for which he is sent, the 
medical missionary can contribute to the furthering of the science and 
art of medicine in China, he does a good and much needed work, 
the value of which we would not for a moment seek to underrate. But 
this is by no means his distinctive work. Nor is it merely 2^hUan'hroplc. 
To be the means, in God's hands, of restoring the health or alleviating the 
sufferings of thousands of our fellow creatures, in many cases giving the 
blind their sight, and enabling the lame to walk, this is a blessed 
work, and not unworthy to be the life service of any man. The establish- 
ing, moreover, of mission hospitals and dispensaries is stimulating the 
Chinese to similar philanthropic efforts, and it is difficult to say how great 
and widespread may ultimately be the benefit to the si"k and suffering of 
the nation in this way. But it is not even for philanthropic ends merely, 
that Christian churches and missionarj'- societies send out their medical 
agents ; their object is essentially a Christ tan one. It is to make the 
medical work an auxiliary to the spread of the gospel. In proportion as 
it becomes a direct help in this, just in that proportion is it sucressful as 
a mission agency. The medical practice in connection with a mis.sion' is 
eminently cahmlated to smooth the way for the truth, and experience in 
many fields proves that it has done so. But there is still a farther and 
greater good to be attained, and in the attaining of it, all the other 
advantages will accrue as a matter of course. I mean the covversion of 
the patients to Christianity, or in ether words the saving of their souls. 
We need to realise the importance of this, as the highest good that can be 
conferred on our patients. Nothing short of this should, I conceive, be the 
aim of the medical missionary.* Dr. Maxwell, whose ex"ellent service in the 

(commencement of the Formosan missions well entitles him to be heard on 
the subject, says, "The aim of the medical missionary should be to 
^ bring all his strength to bear on those aspects of his work which have the 

» Only by keep'ng it in view will he do justice to his noble calling, and truly follow 
the example of the great Physician of body and soul. 

Way 14tb. kssay. 121 

closest relation to the iiibringing of souls and the leavening of a re^^ioii . 
with the Gosjxl. The pliilanthvopic and scientilic aspeets have, it appears i 
to me, jtroved somewhat of a snare to not a few of onr brethren, and ex- 
cept as tliev are associated with the proper iiil.-<sliniiiri/ work, might well 
he kept within jiretty rigid limits. There are philantliropie and scicntitio 
men wlio are not missionaries, and the latter might roasoTiahly decline 
to do the work of the former, except as it was necessarily involved in j 
his own." 

III. — The means best calculated to secure success. 

1. V roper attention to thr Imili'l)/ ftilments ofthepntientn. — In directing 
onr efforts to the spiritual welfare of the patients, are we, it may be asked, 
to neglect their bodily diseases, for the treatment of which they have 
come to us, — or to pass these slightly over? By no means. Rather is 
it all the more necessary that we should do our best honestly to treat 
their cases, and cure them if possible. Sham work here would simply 
bring contempt on the whole, and defeat the object we have in view. It 
will not do to pass the patients rapidly along with a mouthful of medi- 
cine, or with some external ajiplication, on their visits to the dispensary, 
making no provision for their cure in the intervals. It is difficult to 
conceive what benefit could come from such a course, seeing that the 
diseases are usually of a kind requiring continuous treatment for their 
alleviation or cure. A practice whicli we have found to work well has 
been to poivide the patients with medicines twice a week, enough being 
given on the one dispensing day to last till the next. To every 
patient is given a paper on which his prescription is written, and this 
he is expected to produce at each visit. Thus the effect of remedies on his 
disease may be watched, and the treatment be continued or varied so as, 
if possible, to obtain a successful result. — When changes of medicine are 
necessary among the hospital patients, they can be made, of course, at 
any time. — If any patient fail to give the treatment a fair trial, the fault 
is his own, the medical missionary has honestly done what he could. 

2. A ji.ted location verstis itinernncij, ami an hospital verstc^ ilispensarij. 
Should the medical missionary be permanently located at one place, or, 
should he itinerate through the country, seeing patients and dispensing 
medicines as he goes? While the latter system has its advantages, it 
Avill b«! found I think on the whole decidedly better to adopt the other as 
the rule. The itinerating plan is in some respects attractive. It brings 
the missionary into contact witli larger numbers of the people, and exerts 
apparently a more widespread influence. It is also more stimulating to 
the worker than the daily routine of the ho.spital or dispensary. The 
real good done, however, in this way, I believe to be much less than what 
may be obtained by quiet, steady working at one station. In a inediral 
point of view, the benefits bestowed on patients by a passing visit must 
in too many cases be very slight, — prolonged treatment being necessary, 
or an operation required which at the time cannot be performed. Such 
patients must be dissatisfied with finding themselves little or no better of 
their application to the foreign doctor, and are likely to suppose that the 
failure arises, not from the impossibility of doing more under the circum- 
stances, but from his inability. — In the hospital, on the other hand, with 
all necessary appliances at command, the patients may be properly cared 
for, and real permanent good effected in the case of most. The genuine 
nature of the work thus done, eventually creates inore widespread satis- 
faction than can be secured by the other method. Again, looking at the 
matter from its viis.iionarj/ ^fi-pect, though in itinerating, more of the peo- 
ple may hear the Gospel, yet the effect i.s superficial and ephemeral; 

122 ESSAY. May 14th. 

whereas the patients in the hospital liave the oppoi-tnnitj, day after day, 
of hearing the Christian doctrine in its varied details. They are thus 
more likely to be influenced by it themselves, and better fitted to 
carry home a correct report of the nature of Christianity. In the influ- 
ence exerted for the truth by 7nany such patients, over a wide region of 
country, we have, it may be, a far more valuable result, and the seed of 
much more abundant fruit, than the present conversion and baptism of a 
fe-w. The extent of country thus influenced by an hospital or dispensary 
located in one place, may be judged from the fact that, in one year, we 
r had patients from five hundred different towns and villages, ranging over 
[ more than a hundred miles of seacoast, and fifty to eighty miles inland. 
A dispell. '^ari/ practice as compared with an hospital one, is open to 
somewhat similar objections to those brought forvvaixl against itinerating. 
In the treatment of their diseases the outpatients are at a disadvantage, 
while it is, I believe, the common experience in China that converts are 
rarely found among them. In our medical missions in Amoy, Swatow, 
and iFormosa, those led to embrace the truth have been almost entirely 
• from among the inpatients. Hospital work, then, I hold to be the most 
j satisfactory of any, as regards the benefit done both to the bodies and 
souls of our patients, and as regards the favourable effect pi-oduced on the 
general pojnilation of the districts reached by its influence. 

With this may, however, be combined an occasional tour in the 
country, when the mission stations, if there be such, may be made the 
basis from which some good work may be done. Sliglit cases can be 
attended to on the spot, and the moi-e severe ones advised to go to the 
hospital for treatment. We have been in the habit of doing so, choosing 
the season at which the hospital attendance is at its lowest, and when it 
can be best left in charge of the native assitants. The itinerating thus 
serves to make the hospital better known, and to increase the attendance 
there; while the change is refreshing to the spirit, and invigoi-ating to 
the body of the Medical missionary himself. 

3. The use of native assistaids. — It is perhaps scarcely necessary to 
remark that the medical missionary should direct the treatment of all 
new patients himself, rather than leave it to his native assistants. While 
the assistance of natives is essential, they should in general be as hands 
to the missionary, he himself being the head. However well fitted they 
may be, by experience in pi'aetice and by systematic teaching, to do the 
general work of dispensing, performing operations, dressing wounds, &c., 
they need to be closely superintended, as they are apt to become remiss, 
and do their work in a perfunctory way. As yet the Chinaman, even 
though a Chi'istian, does not show the same practical interest in his fellow 
countrymen as the Christian foreigner. He requires the example and 

I precept of the latter to stimulate hiru to a proper consideration for the 
j well being of the patients. Without this, in addition to the irjury done 
I to them, the work is likely to be brought into general disrepute. On this 
ac ount, as well as to husband the medical missionai-y's strength, the 
hospital or dispensary should be near enough his dwelling to be of easy 
access to him at any time. All assisting in the work should be Christians, 
members of the Church, — -so that as far as possible they may be in full 
sympathy with its spiritual objects, and may, by a kindly bearing to the 
patients, and attention to their wants, as well as in more direct ways, 
commend the Gospel to their hearts. — Not a little of the success of the 
work depends on this. 

4. The coivniuii.ication of the Goxpel to , tie patients. — How and by 
whom ? Assuming then that there is an hospital with dispensary at the 

May l-ith. essat. 123 

central station of the mission, wo come to the consideration of how the 
truth may be most elTectuaily brought to bear on the patients. It is the 
invariable rule, so far as 1 know, to have diily torship with then, at 
which the exposition of Christian doctrine has a prominent pla 'C. As to 
attendiiire at these meetings, some leave it to the patients' free will, others 
make it the order of the institution. Practically, 1 think there need be 
IK) diiiiculty in the matter, when it is clearly understood by the pxtienta 
that they are exj)i'cted to attend if able, and usually the great majority 
are so, 1 have rarely found them unwilling. Who is to coiuluct the meet- 
ings ? It is a great mistake to leave them almost wholly in the hands of 
uative helpers. The missionary should take a leading part in them. An, 
liowever, the chief strength of the medical missionary is required for his 
own special work of healing, the hel]) of his oidained colleagues becomes 
necessary. They on their part, ai'e presumably best fitted for imparting 
Chiistian instruction ; and if they recognise in the meetings with the 
patietit.s, a most valuable opportunity for evangelistic effort, and for 
spreading the truth in places where they themselves may not be able to 
go, they will not be backward to lend a helping hand. Some may be 
disposed to think slightingly of hospi al patients, and consider them 
scarcely worth the effort required. 1 believe, however, that these patients 
are generally composed of the very classes from which the first converts 
of a mission are obtained. The labouring and agricultural population 
we find most su.sceptible to the influence of the Gospel, and form 
the staple of liospital patients. The interests of the ordained and the 
medical nii.ssionaries ought to be identical, and the advantage of thorough 
sympathy and heart}- co-operation between them , it would be difficult to 
overestimate. Without these, much spiritual fruit is not .likely to be 
gathered in. For myself, I have been greatly favoured in having had 
colleagues from the hrst, who fully appreciated, and were ever ready to 
enibra-e the opportunities given among the patients for making known 
the truth. To them instrumeutally, is due much of the spiritual results 
of the work here. 

It is of great importance, on the other hand, that the medical mis- 
sionary should himself take a share in the services, for his own sake as 
well as for the sake of the patients. In thus showing his interest in 
their spiritual well-being, he is taking the best means to sustain that 
interest, while the patients are likely to listen to his exhortations with 
all the more attention, that he is doing his best to relieve their bodily 
ailments. How much he should share in these stated meetings, must 
depend on circumstances, such as the measure of help his brethren can 
give, the amount of medical work required of him, and the state of his 
own health and strength. 

Here the question of numbers meets us. The patients may be so 
numerous as to make it physicially impossible that tlie medical mission- 
ary can give them propar attention, either as a doctor or as a mi«.sionary. 
The large attendance may look well on paper, but it is more of a loss than 
a gain. The medical work is apt to engross our whole niintl and strength. 
I tind it so here, where the numbers are comparatively few. Much more 
must it be the case when the ])atients are counted by tens of thousands 
annually. At the same time, the diih.'ulty of controlling the attendance 
is very great. The more carefully the patients are treated, the more 
likely are they to come in increased numbers. Still it is well to be alive 
to. and as far as passible to guard against the danger of being j^revented 
by the multitude of patients from doing justice to them, to ourselves, and 
to the highest interests of the work. 

124 ESSAY. May 14tli. 

In the early years of the mission in Swatow, the hospital meetings 
were almost entirely conducted by the missionaries, ordained and medical. 
As the general work of the mission increased, however, and tlie countiy 
stations multiplied, this became impracticable. ISTow, our plan is to take 
the daily morning meeling in turn. At this meeting the outpatients 
are present twice a week. The evening worship is conducted by one or 
other of the hospital assistants. On Sundays an additional service is 
held in the afternoon. — Besides these stated meetings there are of 
course opportunities, ad lihitum, for quiet conversation with the patients 
on religious truth, and much good may be done in this way. By mcU- 
vidiial dealing, an attention is secured, and an interest aroused, which in 
the crowded meeting we too often miss. While talking to one in the 
ward, others usually gather round to listen. The native Chiistians on the 
' premises, assistants or others, should be encouraged to help in this kind 
of work. As a rule, patients are pleased with being taken notice of, 
rather than offended with such efforts to lead them to Christianity. 

5. Gathering iip the fruits — The Applicant''s meeting. In order to 
1 I ascertain and gather up the fruits of the preaching of the Grospei, as well 

ij ' as to biing the duty of a decision before any who may be interested in 
I , the truth and inclined to follow if, we have from time to time an en- 
j ^ quirers' or applicants' meeting. It may take the place of one of the ordinary 
I meetings, say once a week, or even less frequently, and is conducted by 
I one of the missionaries. Those who wish to become Christians and enter 
I the church, and seldom ai'e there none such, are examined as to their 
■ knowledge, &c., before the others or by themselves according to conveni- 
ence. Although most of these applicants return to their homes before it 
seems good to baptize them, yet we are satisfied the method here noted is 
beneficial in more ways than one. If we hope for a blessing from the 
Christian instruction given, we shall be anxious to find out the extent of 
it, and be led by the knowledge to more prayer or praise or both. In 
regai'd to the patients, it shows them in definite form the object aimed 
at in the daily meetings, while the decided attitude towards the truth 
taken by the applicant for baptism, helps to confirm his new and pei'haps 
wavering faith. Of course some may come forward with no adequate 
idea of what they seek, and in ignorance of the requii-ements of the Gospel 
but these can be dealt with at discretion. As to the baptism of applicants, 
it is now practically the rule with us, that those whose homes ai-e within 
reach of a mission station should not be baptized in the hospital. They 
are requested to apply, on their return home, at the station nearest them, 
and, if their case warrants it, be baptized there. We have thus a valuable 
guarantee of the sincerity of their desire to become Christians. When 
patients come from places far distant from any station of the mission, 
they may be baptized in the hospital. 

6. No 'private p)ractice among Europeans. — From what has been said, 
it must be evident that the medical missionary has enough in his mission 
work to task all his strength and energies, without the addition of pri- 
vate practice among the Europeans of the port at which he may be sta- 
tioned. Where there is a medical practitioner whose special business it 
is to attend to such practice, the participation of the other in it is un- 
necessary and hurtful. As the foreign practice increases, his interest in 
the mission work is likely to decrease, while he places himself in a false 
position before both Europeans and Chinese, Christians and heathen. 
Nothing is more calculated to injure the medical missionary's cause, than 
this turning aside from the work for which he avowedly left his native 
land to labour in the heathen field. It is pleasant to think, however, that 

May Utii. ESSAY. 125 

tho evil is boioniint; of more rare occurrence. — Of when no other 
raeilical man is witliin reach, the medical mi.s.sionary must attend to 
nnv who require his services, but this is a necessity to which my remarks 
do not aj)ply. 1 am not unaware f>t' the dilUculty sometimes experienced 
in keeping clear of outside medical practice, or of the pressing tempta- 
tions to it whi h occasionally come in the way, but I believe that when 
the mind of the missionary is clear as to his duty, he may avoid it. with- 
out injury to others, with very great benefit to his mission, and with 
much peace and satisfaction to himself. 

There are many practical details in regard to the management of the 
medical work on which I refrain from entering. One of tlicse to which I 
mav refer is this, should the patients pay for their accommodation in the 
hospital and for the medicines given them? For myself, I have never seen 
my way clear to make any charge. Our patients here, are chiefly country- 
peasantry and small tradesmen or labourers, who come from greater or 
less distances to the hospital. They have to feed themselves while with 
us, and that, together with the expenses of travelling and of being cut 
off for the time their means of livelihood, proves a sufficiently severe 
strain on their, as a rule. Those who can afford it are free to give 
a contribution to the hospital funds, and substantial tokens of gratitude 
for favours conferred are occasionally received from such. When the 
blaster sent forth the twelve to preach and to heal, he told them, 
" Freely ye have received, freely give," and we need not be afraid of 
being taken advantage of in following this precept, while we seek by the 
healing of their diseases to commend the Gospel to the heathen. 

In the foregoing pages, I have sketched what I conceive to be the 
best means of making the medical mission a successful auxiliary to the 
spread of the Gospel in China, based on an experience of nearly fourteen 
years. Circumstances have often arisen to prevent us from carrying out 
all the details, but the more fully we have been able to do so, the better 
cause have we had to be satisfied with the result. While fully convinced 
that the medical mission is a most valuable agency for "preparing the way 
of the Lord" in a heathen land, it must not be forgotten that we ^vetntirely 
dependent on Gud for the blessing, and that the medical missionary, as 
much as his ordained colleague, needs to exercise j^n-ayer and faith to 
obtain it. On this point, I cannot do better than quote part of a paper 
written over ten years ago, urging union for prayer on behalf of medical 
missions: — "The medical mission principle, which recommends itself at 
once to the minds and hearts of all, might lead us theoretically to expect 
that the poor suffering heathen, whom his native doctors, with all their 
complicated remedies and superstitious ob.servances, have failed to heal, 
would nf) sooner find relief and cure for his l)odily disease at the hand of 
the medical missionary, tlian he would hang with greateful reverence 
■upon the lips of his benefactor, and gladly receive the message of salva- 
tion from him, even although he should turn a deaf ear to every other 
teacher. JJut is this a common experience H Alas, no ! It may be said 
noxr, as in the time of our Lord himself, "Were there not ten cleansed, but 
where are the nine." This very partial success in his evangelistic work 
teaches the true medical missionary, and all who take an interest in his 
proceedings, the oft-repeated and oft-forgotten lesson, that no outward 
means however appropriate, no human agency however able and accept- 
able, no mere machinery of any kind, will sufKce for turning a single soul 
from the .service of sin and Satan, to that of righteousness and the living 
God. In fact, the more promising the means employed, — and what can 
surpass in that respect the healing of diseases when associated with the 

126 DISCUSSION. May 14th. 

pveaeLing of the Gospel, the more clearly will it be seen that the want 
of palpable results, the lack of souh converted to Chri-;t, points to the 
absolute necessity for a power iufinitely g'reater than that of man, even 
the eifectual operation of the Spirit of God." The truth of these words 
we all experience, but for our encouragement, God has given us ample 
assurance of His willingness to "give the Holy Spirit to them that ask 
Him." With such help, our work, arduous though it may be, and trying 
at times to flesh and blood, can never bring the disappointment of failure, 
but must yield a rich recompense here, and a glorious reward hereafter. 



Rev. R. H. Grates, M. D.— A. S. B. C., Canton, said :— 

There could be no doubt that medical missionary work- has the 
authority of the Bible, for it rests upon the example and woi'k of Jesus 
himself, and he proceeded to adduce quotations in support there of. Dr. 
Lockhart and othei's had nbjacted to missionaries undertaking medical 
■work, but he would rather agree with Dr. Kerr who encouraged mission- 
aries to learn all they could of medicine. He had found medijal work 
especially useful in opening new stations and in overcoming the opposi- 
tion of the people. He had in this way obtained access to places in the 
interior which would otherwise have remained closed. Many cases could 
be treated in the dispensaries in the country, while the more serious ones 
were .sent to the hosj^ital in Canton. Great caution was needed in under- 
taking any serious case in tours ; he had known of very calumnious 
reports being circulated and obstacles to mission work raised through the 
unsuccessful treatment of unpromising cases. When a hospital has been 
established a wide held of usefulness is opened to ladies and Bible 
women ; much of this work has been done in Canton. He held that 
medical work was an important adjunct to missionary woi'k. We must 
heal the bodies as well as the souls of men if we would walk in the 
footsteps of the Master. 

Rev. S. L. Baldwin,'"A. M. E. M., Foochow. said : — 

I have been requested to say a few words about the medical work at 
Foochow. Dr. Osgood, who has been thei'e now seven years, although 
hampered by very imperfect accommodations, has done a good work, 
and is not without evidences of conversions in connexion with hospital 
work. In some cases native Christians in his hospital have coiiver.sed 
with other patients, read the Scriptures, and engaged in prayer, and 
have thus led some to the Saviour. Just before I left Foochow for this 
Conference, Dr. Osgood told me of a man who had been cured in the 
hospital, and who expressed a desire to have some one .sent to preach tlie 
Gospel at his home in the interior. In many such ways, medical missions 
aid the great work. 

I am glad, also, to bear witness to the great usefulness of female 
ph\'Ricians. ]\lis3 Trask entered our mission only two years ago, but by 
having some one to interpret for her, she began work at once, and has 
treated a large number of cases very successfully. At the outset, she 

Maj 12th. Discussio.^. 127 

was asked to treat a case of droji^y tliat ser-ened so nttoily Impcless timfc 
I we!it to the fiieuds of the patient, and tohl them that there was no 
hope of effeetinji; a eure ; that all wo could hope to do was to give some 
relief to the sulVerer, who mij^ht pi-ohahly pass away in a few hours. 
They said they know there was no liope of recovery, but would be grate- 
ful for any measure of relief that might be afforded. With this under- 
standing, Dr. Trask undertook the ease, and treated it so suceessfully 
that the patient i-< still alive, and has come more than once to express her 
gratitude to the physician. One result of this is that, whereas we mis- 
sionaries passed through the street where this woman lives for years 
without attracting any other attention than that of the dogs that come 
out to bark at us, when Miss Trask has gone to that neighborhood, the 
people have risen up to show civility to her. 

She has wow a hospital capable of receiving 40 patients, with all 
the necessary medicines and surgical appliances. At the opening of this 
Hospital, the Fantai honored us with his pi-esence, and at the close of the said that he understood perfectly the circumstances of his case, 
and would give the matter his seirous attention. This sounded very 
much like the language of an oHi:ial despatch ; but we have no reason to 
doubt that the Fantai is well disposed toward the Institution. Misa 
Trask has been called to attend the wives of mandarins, and to go along 
distance into the country to attend poor women, and has responded to all 
such calls as far as possible. The whole work has a most excellent influ- 
ence ; and this branch of missionary science cannot be too strongly 

Rev. W. ;Muirhead, L. M. S., Shanghai, said: — 

He had been intimately acquainted with the working of the Chi- 
nese Hospital in Shanghai for nearly thirty years. It was established 
by Dr. Lockhart, and had been continued without intermission, and is 
now Kuperinteuded by Dr. Johnston. The institution is in exjellent 
working order, and is well and widely known, as appears from the num- 
bers that come from day to day to avail of its benefits. It has been all 
along supported by the foreign community, aided in some degree by na- 
tive contributions. The religious element has been uniformly maintain- 
ed both by the services of a native ch iplain and by the oversight of the 
missionaries. In this way many are brought within the hearing of the 
Gospel alike in the wards and the waiting room. The direct results in- 
deed have not been numerous, bat of interest and conversion have 
oceured, and we attach high importance to the institution in a Christ- 
ian point of view. "While valuing such a ]ilace as a field for medical 
work, the employment of suitaljlo native Christians in the country, who 
can medicate in the native fashion has been found useful. It has been 
tried with considerable advantage in some quarters though there is 
danger of its being done in a discreditable form. It has been stated there 
was an entire absence of benevolent institutions in heathen countries. 
Certainly this cannot be said of China which for centuries has possessed 
pla'-es ')f this kind in almost every town and city. Though far inferior 
to what obtains in Christian lands, the certainly de.serve credit 
for what they have done in this way, and the number, variety and eftici- 
ency of them are in a high degree worthy of commendation. It is inter- 
esting to know that not a few well qualitied native assistants are now to 
be found in connection with the different medical missions, and in a num- 

128 DXSCDS3I0N. May 14th. 

ber of instances considerable aptitude is shown by them for the work. 
Indeed in this respect, as in regard to missionary operations in general, 
we have reason for thankfulness that so much assistance can be derived 
from the native element. 

Rev. L. H. Gulick, M.D., A. B. S., Yokohama, said : — 

It is my experience that it is not best to attempt to combine fall 
ministerial duties with an active practice of medicine in the same man. 
There is great danger that in administering medicine gratuitously to our 
patients we pauperize then. In the Micronesian Islands, in my early 
missionary experience, 1 found the people who had received gratuitous 
medical help felt little gratitude until I called upon them to do what 
they could in meeting the cost of the medicines. — There is a gradually 
widening sphere for woman's work in connection with medical missions, 
and there may be a great deal of medical work done by non-professional 
ladies in the way of nursing the sick and teaching how to nurse. The 
work of medical missions should always be subordinated to the preaching 
of the Grospel. Every thing should be secondary to this. Medical missions 
should be engaged in only as they are subservient to the great work of 
salvation of souls. 

Dr. Barchet, A. B. M. U., ISTingpo, said: — 

That the danger mentioned by Dr. Grulick of pampering those who 
receive gratuitous relief might be overcome. Let the patient pay a fee 
for admission to the hospital. It need not be large but sufficient to 
make them feel that they are paying something for the assistance needed. 
The missionary physician should be thoroughly educated in his own pi'o- 
fession, but no one will deny that even a man of oi'dinary education, will 
know a great deal more than the quacks of this land. 

In cases of dislocation and broken bones, the Chinese doctors do 
not know what to do. He recently met with a man who had borne a 
plaster for two years over a fracture that had been united without having 
been properly set. 

Maltreatment was frequently met with both external and internal. 

And missionaries could do very much to relieve such cases of distress. 

He said also that in the way of Hygiene a great deal may be done. 

Simple cerates may take the place of hurtful substances with this 
plaster and blister loving people. 

De. Johnston L. M. S. Hospital, Shanghai, said: — 

The differences of opinion in regard to medical work arose, he be- 
lieved, from differences of opinion as to the exact work of the medical 
missionary. On this point, his view was, that the duty of the Medical 
Missionary is both Medical and Evangelistic, but principally the former. 
— The Evangelistic work should be carried on by conversation, and in an 
informal way, rather than by public preaching. The Medical Missionary 
would thus have more time to keep abreast of the Medical Science of the 
day or to translate into Chinese the best Medical works of the west, both 
matters indispensable. 

The medical missionary should never heg the Chinese to attend the 
Hospital— he has but to deal kindly and straightforwardly with them 
when they do come. 

Muy Utb. DiscLssiox. 129 

Rev. J. Hi-i)so\ T.wr.ou, C. 1 M., ChixkiaN(;. said: — 

llu liad seen a good deal of medical missions and believed (hoy were 
ft great advantage, especially in the early steps of a mission. A striking 
illustration of their usefulness had been lately supplied by the medical 
missionary work done by Dr. Harvey and Mr. Soltau in Bhamo. An 
epidemic had broken out there, and the missionaries had devoted them- 
selves to administering food and medicines to those vsho were attacked. 
The effect on the Burmese and the K'ah-chens, the wild tribes of that 
district, was marvellous. They found the foreign Christians willing to 
])erform acts of service to their sick, which they themselves would not 
perform. Their prejudices against the foreigners were thus disarmed, 
and two of the missionaries went by special invitation of the chiefs into 
villages two days' distance olY, and lived for some weeks with them. 
Gradually they established friendly relations with all the villages up to 
the very borders of Cliina ; and they might probaldy have entered China 
on the west, but that they were under a promise to the British Besident' 
at Bhamo, not to make the attempt. 

Lfr. Taylor strongly deprecated medical missionaries undertaking 
genei-al practice amongst foreigners. This may have been no.essary in 
the past, l)ut it was not so at present. He considered that it was unfair to 
the medical profession, and that the cours6 was open to other objections. 
Emergencies might arise when the medical missionary was the only me- 
dical man at hand and then, of course, it was his duty to do what lay in 
his power. Such services, however, should be performed gratuitously, 
and the patient should as soon as possible be handed over to a regular 

Dr. Macgowan, Shanguai, said : — 

The importance of medical missions can not be overstiited and I 
should be glad to see them great I3' extended. If denominational hospitals 
at home would send medical men to China and receive pupils from China, 
the work of medical missions in this country might soon be largely 
increased. I differ h'nm an opinion expressed in one of the papers read 
to the Conference as to the undesirability of medical missionaries pi-escrib- 
ing for the public at large. It is the physician's business to attack 
disease wherever he finds it, and on the ground of humanity he should 
do whatever lies in his power to alleviate all the suffering he can. In 
regard to teaching, I doubt the propriety of medical missionaries restrict- 
ing their teaching to the subject of religion. I think they should as far 
as they have opportunity scientific knowledge. The society would 
no doubt be acceptable to their hearers and the information would be 
of great practical value to them. 

Mr. a. W. DorTHWAiTE, C. I. M., Jcchow, said : — 

Much has been said about the impracticability of combining two 
things satisfactorily, but I cannot quite agree with that view. I think 
if the things are good things, the oftener they go together, the better, as 
we can scarcely liave too much good. I'rrttrliiiiij <?»'/ hcalinrf are certainly 
both good things, and my experience has been that by combining the two 
the result has been better and more satisfactory than it would have been 
had onl}- one of the two boon adhered to. My plan of working is as 

130 Pisoussiox. Mar 14tli, 

follovrs. Twice ereiy week I let it be understood that I am ready to 
receive any who may wish to be cured, (I attend only eye diseases), and 
I have usually an attendance of at least one hundred each day. They 
come from all sides, many from a distance of 13 or 14 miles and while I 
examine their ailments, the native preacher and others are engaged in 
private conversation and preaching, and each one hears the Gospel of 
Christ, as simply and faithfully as man can tell it. Thus there are 
hundreds reached who never could be by itinerating, as they live in 
scattered hamlets and, during the day, the male part at large are engaged 
in out door labour. I ■cannot help feeling convinced that God has blessed 
the work thus commenced. I can put my finger now, so to speak, on 
at least six members of the church who were in the first place brought 
for medical treatment, and humanly speaking would not have come but 
for that. 

1 think, that if a man has it in his power he should preach the 
Go?pel and heal the sick, and, if faithfully done, God will assui-edly bless 
his labours. It has ever been my aim while trying to cure the bodies to 
make of the first importance the preaching of a loving and all-powerf al 
Saviour to lost and ruined sinners. 

Rev. G. John. L. M. S., Hankow, said: — 

When I went to Hankow many years ago I resolved that I would 
get a medical missionary to join me as soon as possible. I wrote to the 
Directors of our Society at once, and a young man of great pi'omise was 
sent out to Hankow. Unfortunatelv, however, he died on the way. Then 
Dr. Reid offered his services gratuitously to the mis.sion. The medical 
work in connection with our society at Hankow was commenced and 
carried on for several years by him in a voluntary manner. We had 
been feeling that, in order to do justice to the medical missionary work 
that was to be done at an immense centre like Hankow, a man should be 
sent out to devote himself wholly and exclusively to it. In writing home 
we gave the Directors a list of the qualifications we deemed necessary in 
a medical missionary, and made a special request that the}' should not 
send us a man at all, unless he possessed most if not all of them. We also 
earnestly prayed God that He would give tis the light man. About two 
years since Dr. Mackenzie arrived, and we have every reason to look upon 
him as given to us in answer to prayer. For many years I have had in 
my mind an ideal medical missionary. (1) He is a man who looks on 
the medical missionary work as his life work. Just as the ordinary mission- 
ary is expected to spend his life in the mission field, so ought the medical 
missionary to come out with the distinct understanding that nothing 
less than a life long consecration is expected from him. I am convinced 
that the five or six years' system is an utter mistake. (2) He is a man 
who is prepared to live and work on the same footing as the ordained 
missionary — ready to endure the same privations and satisfied to sliai'e in 
the same privileges. He does not expect, and would not receive, a larger 
salary than his clerical brethi'en. He, like them, makes a deliberate choice 
of the missionaiy life as one of self-sacrifice, and accepts the principle 
that the remuneration in his case, as well as in theirs, cannot be deter- 
mined by the value of his service. I am convinced that it is wrong in 
principle as well as false in policy to give a medical man a larger salary 
on account of his professional education, or in order to keep him from 
foreign practice. It is not fair and respectful to the ordained missionaries, 

May l4th. DiscL'SSlon. 131 

and it can (In liim no good in the liigliost and best sense. (3) lie is a 
man wlioHy devoted to his lii<i;h calling as a medical iin'sniojinr)/, and conse- 
quently esc-hews foreign ])ractice as incompatible with the spirit of his 
conseiM-ation and the grand aim of his life. While always ready to 
stretch forth the helj)ing hand to alleviate suffering uheinnr and irJurcver 
his aid may be needed, he will never fail to so manifest his svmpathy a.s 
to jmt the disinterestedness of his motives aiid the simplieitv of his iiiten- 
tion beyond nil suspicion, (i) He is a man whose principal aim in all that 
he does is to bring men to Christ, and who makes his medical practice 
subservient to this end. He combines the spiritual and the physical, and 
holds the latter element in subordination to the former. He prays witli his 
patients, and delights to speak to them about the tilings that' pertain to 
their eternal peace. Whilst the medical df^partment does nccossarilv take 
up most of his time, 3-et, feeling it to be his duty to combine the preach- 
ing of the Gospel with the healing of the sick, he does find time to pay 
some attention to religion. Some tell us that this cannot be done. 
But we know that it hus been done. Dr. Hob.son told me liimself that he 
preached every day to his patients before he commenced to treat them, 
and I was told by a missionary friend that the most flourishino- little 
church at Canton in those days was the one under the charge of Dr. 
Hobson. If a medical missionary can lind tinic for foro'rpi practice, whr 
should he not find time "to preach the kiiigdom of God ? " But medical 
missionaries, we are told, are men who liave not received a theolo^-ical 
training, and are therefore unfit to preach and teach. The reply to tliis 
objection is very simple, namely that 710 one should come out as a medical 1 
mijsionarj- who does not know his Bible, aiul who is not full of the mis- 
sionary spirit, and that the man who these two qualifications 
will not lack for material iu his attempts to enlighten the heathen and to 
instruct ordinary converts in Divine tilings. The medical missionary, if a 
man of God, cannot fail to acquire a certain amount of moral influence 
over his patient, which ought to be brought to bear on the direct mission- 
ary woik ; and I don't see how this can be done fully, except by a happy 
combination of the physician and the missionary in his own person. (5) 
Once more, my ideal medical missionary is a man who will not rest satisfied 
with anything slioi't of a thorough knowledge of the language. He will 
strive for this in order to be able to translate or compose medical works 
for the Chinese, to train medical students, and above all, to preach the 
Gospel. I would go a step further, and suggest that the medical 
missionary should be an ordained num, so that he might he able to per- 1 
form all duties that pertain to that sacred oflice. It is not enou"-h, how-| 
ever, to have the right man at the hc(td of the medical department, thej 
assistants at the hospital must also be genuine Christians — must be men' 
of piety and humanity — if the institution is to prove a spiritual power. 
Often do these assistants undo all tlie good attempted by the missionary 
by their rough and unkind ways. It requires much patience and forbear- 
ance on the part of the native helpers to deal gently and lovinglvwith the 
patients ; for tlieir tempers are sometimes sorely tried. But without these 
Chnstian graces they are than useless as spiritual helpers. The 
assistants ought also to take an active interest in the religious work of the 
hospital. I am happy to be able to say that our hospital at Hankow is at 
the present tijue a thoroughly Christian institution. Kvery lielper is so far '■ 
as we are able to jndofe a genuine disciple of the Lord Jesus Christ, and in 
perfect sympathy with ourselves with regard to the higher aim of the estab- 
lishment. From end to end, and from top to bottom the atmosphere of the 
boHpital is a purely religious one. So actively engaged are thc3 aasigtants 

132 ESSAY. May 14th. 

in making known the truth to the patients, that it is ahnost impossible 
for any one to spend three or four days within the buikliiig without ob- 
taining a fair knowledge of the fundamental truths of tlie Gospel. I 
never enter the hospital now without feeling that the institution is a 
great spiritual power, and that it is destined to accomplish a mighty work 
for God in the centre of China. We deem it essential that our native 
preachers should be converted men of blameless character, and devoted 
to God. These qualifications are equally necessary in our medical assis- 
tants. One word more. It is of vital importance that harmony should 
exist between the ordained and the medical missionary. Without it the 
hospital will prove a cui'se rather than a blessing to the work. It must 
be confessed that it has not always prevailed. The combination would 
seem to tend to bring with it a disturbing element. In order to maintain 
perfect cordiality and co-operation, both must esteem each other for their 
work's sake, and manifest heart-felt sympathy with each other in their 
respective spheres of labour. There must be perfect equality, perfect 
confidence, and perfect good-will. They must look on the enterprise as 
one, and work hand-in-hand and heart-in-heart. With this harmony 
and co-operation between the labourers, the value of medical missions, 
conducted by the right men and in the right spirit, cannot be over- 
estimated. But this is essential. 

Rev. H. L. Mackenzie, E. P. M., Swatow, said :^ 

I have much pleasure in confirming what Dr. Johnston has just said 
against medical missionaries engaging in private practice, from the case 
of Dr. Gauld of Swatow. He confines himself strictly to his own work 
as a medical missionary, leaving the other to the ordinary practitioner. 
His time and strength are given up to that for which he came to China, 
the furtherance of the cause of Chi'ist by the healing of the sick. Of 
course when asked to consult upon any special case by the Foreign Com- 
munity's physician, or when his services are required in cases of em- 
ergency, he has no hesitation in rendering whatever help is in his power ; 
but since he came to China nearly fourteen years ago he has received no fees 
from foreign practice, whether as a consulting physician or otherwise, 
that have not been devoted by hiin to the maintenance of his missionary 
work among the Chinese. Such fees are put down to the hospital ac- 
count. The discussion cannot be prolonged at this late hour, but did 
time permit, I could give not a few instances in which Dr. Gauld's work 
has been of manifest service both in the conversion of his patients and in 
opening up the way for the wide spread of the Gospel in the Swatow 
region. It is a woi'k on which the Divine blessing has rested, so that it 
has been fruitful of s:ood. 

Morning Session. 

Feet Binding. 


Miss S. H. WooLSTON, A. M. E. M., Foochow, 
Ton will allow me to preface viy say, by saying, I can only speak of 
bound feet as they are at Foochow% simply toiiching upon the subject, 
then leaving it for the observation, experience and wisdom gathered here 

May Ikh. l^say. 133 

to enlarge upon, rcrhap/j iu no place througbout the whole empire do 
the two extremes of tiny-footed hulies and huge-footed woiking-women 
meet in So marked coTitrast as with us. The one works in the rice-tield, 
wading round on her bare knees, gutliering out llie wocds and mellowing 
tlie eartli, her own rough hands serving for agricultural implements. 
The other sits and embroiders her mite of a shoe, gossip-i, gauibles or 
does notliing — unless she is poor as well as crippled, and then her lot is 
hard indeed. 

Note the dress, so dear to every woman's heart. The working 
■woman must content lierself with a coarse blue garment, or at tlie best 
black, trimmed with blue; ungaiidy eai'-riugs making up in quantity 
what is lacking in quality ; the awkward horn and uncomely pins in her 
hair olfset by the largest of dowers ; the shortest of pants leave her uu- 
stockinged feet to clumsy, though embroidered and tasseled shoes. 
These with a scant apron, not forgetting her plaited skirt, short and 
black, compiise all the finery she is allowed. Ilow unlike is the owner of 
the "golden lilies." ])elicate flowers, pretty hair ornaments and plenty of 
of them, silk, satin, crape and fur, a scarlet petticoat hidden in its em- 
broidery and gold thread, countless rings and bracelets, trinkets dangling 
from the topmost button and her garment and the coveted nail sheaths. 
Most of all, how unlike are her feet cased in less than baby shoes, painful 
to be sure, useless as well, but the mark of a lady. It is but just to add, 
sometimes the only mark. I have seen persons robed in all these fine 
things behave as rudely as the roughest in big shoes, and I have seen 
large-footed women deport themselves as modestly and becomingly as the 
best of the small-footed, 

While to some these little feet and their accompaniments come al- 
most as an inheritance, is it to be wondered at that man}' aspire to what 
they consider an improvement of their position if not a bettering of their 
condition ! The hope of escaping the exposure, the roughness, the hard 
■work, the anticipation of the easier lot and the admiration that goes 
■with it, go far even with children iu helping them to endure the agony 
and loss of freedom attendant upon bound feet. 

Though this foot-binding is no law it is an iron custom. As a rule, 
the more exalted make for themselves small feet. We hear of a few 
illustrious exceptions, but what are they among so many. It is upon the 
ambitious poor this self-inflicted curse falls the heaviest. They have not 
only to do much of the rough work which they consider the rightful in- 
heritance of a lower caste, but at the .same time to endure gratis the 
misery of distorted feet. If it is ridiculous to .see a grand lady unable to 
hobble about on her three inch shoe soles without a servant's supporting 
shoulder, and if slie is slightly stout or getting aged, needing a strong 
staff as well, it is pitiful to see a poor woman witli feet not very much 
largfer thrashing out rice at one of the large graves, raking up fuel on the 
hills, or tottering round in shabby garments with a baby strapped to her 
back, doing the scanty work recjuired in her dirty house. 

How much of China's poverty and dirt are owing to this cramping 
custom. A boat woman though she has hardly room to turn round on 
her sampan, "three boards," keeps them clean and neat. I have seen a 
woman rowing a passengei'-boat with nine lazy men for passengers, she 
at the same time watching a baby at her feet; 1 have seen a woman 
woiking in a quarry, carrying a sedan, tracking a boat against the tide. are not every day sights, but surely a country where such enter- is found ought rapidly to increase iu wealth and prosperity if this 
•anboarable burden were once lifted. 

134 ES3AT. May 14th. 

It lias always been a puzzle to me tliat natural feet are not regarded 
with more favor, especially in Peking, since the empi-esses never crush 
their feet. Perhaps the surprise should go farther back and we should 
rather wonder why the Manchus, in setting up their rule in China, at 
once brought men's heads into subjection, shaving their pates and 
plaiting their cues to prove it, but did not even attempt to control 
women's feet. 

It may be worth our while to hear what some of the native preachers 
say about it. One, a litei-aiy man, nevertheless married to a large footed 
woman and whose daughters are like unto their mother, says, " The 
Middle Kingdom has bad customs very many, I cannot name them all. 
A very perverse one is foot binding. In Hing-hwa from three to four- 
tenths are small-footed. Those who have unbound feet dress in black 
and work in the fields, plough, hoe, wear rain-cloaks, umbrella-hats, 
carry burdens and do just such work as their husbands. This truly is 
following God's way, He made woman for man's helpmate. The rich re- 
gard lightly these large-footed field-women and slave girls. Therefore 
the bound-footed says, 'I myself being thus small-footed am exalted, I 
am very polished.' She does not see bound feet ai-e monstrous, she 
thinks they are comely. This custom of a thousand years is established 
and cannot be done away with." He goes on to talk learnedly of the origin 
of the custom, repeating scraps of ancient song to show perhaps it may 
have sprung up even earlier than he before said. He says of those who 
follow it — "They rebel against God's will in injuring their daughters' 
feet, truly their hearts «are stern." Adding, "Alas! this custom is bad, 
man cannot change it to good, I would change it but have not the power. 
May the Gospel spread and abound till this bad custom is abolished." 

Another preacher, after reraai'king that only from seven to eight- 
tenths of Hok-ch'iang- girls are spared alive, says, seven-tenths of these 
have bound feet. 

A third gives seven reasons why it is desirable to bind girls' feet 
and to bind them .s/iyr^. 

"1st. — If a girl's feet are not bound people say she is not like a 
woman but like a man ; they langh at hor, calling her names and her 
parents are ashamed of her. 

2nd. — Girls are like flowers, like the willow. It is very important 
that their feet should be bound short so they can walk beautifully, with 
mincing steps, sw\ying gi-acefully, thus .showing they are persoiis of res- 
pectability. People praise them. If not bound short, they say the 
mother has not trained her daughter carefully. She goes from house to 
house with noisy steps and is called names, therefore careful persons bind 

3rd. — One of a good family does not wish to marry a woman with 
long feet. She is commiserated because her feet are not perfect. If be- 
trothed and the size of her feet is not discovered till after marriage, her 
husband and mother-iu-law are displeased, her sisters-in-law laugh at her 
and she herself is .sad. 

4th.— The large-footed has to do rough work, does not sit in a sedan 
when she goes out, walks in the street barefooted, has no red clothes, does 
not eat thn best food. She i-^ wet by the rain, taimed by the sun, blown 
upon by the wind. If unwilling to do all the rough work of the house 
she is called 'gormandizing and lazy.' Perhaps she de-ides to go out as 
a servant. She has no fame and honor. To e.scape all this her parents 
bind her feet. 

May 1 Uli. ESSAT. 135 

5tli. — There arc tlin«e with unbound feet wlio do no lieavy work, 
woiir gay elotliiiiii;', ride 'in a sedan, eall oiliers to wait upon th<-ui. Al- 
though so tine they ai'o low and mean. If a girl's feet are unbound, she 
cauuot be distinguished fi-oni one of these. 

(>th. — Girl-; are like gold, like gera.s. They ought to stay in their 
own hoa>o. If their feet are not bouiul thi'V go here and ^o there with 
unfitting a^.so.-iates, they have no good luinie. They are like defective 
gems that are rejected. 

7th. — Parents are covetons. They think small feet are pleasing and 
•will command a high price for a bride. This is treating daughters like 
merchandise. It is bad and 1 will not talk about it." 

lie speaks of the disadvantages of the practice and notices that small- 
footed women have leisure for pernicious reading, are apt to get involve d 
in quarrels, and if obliged to work, often rest upon their knees because 
their feet are weak, lie says, " If tight shoes are so painful when only 
worn for a short time, what must it be to have the feet cramped day 
and night. A |)risoner longs to ])ut oif his fetters for a single day ; bow 
severe then is this punishment that a girl has to endure for a lifetime." 

Still another preacher, whose wife has the tiniest of feet, says, "At 
Yeng-ping, botli in the city and in the country around, all have bound 
feet excepting a few w ho have come from other places. Men's hearts 
wish for extraordinary things, they like customs perverse, for instance 
the bad custom of binding feet. The older it becomes, the moic con- 
firmed it is. and the more you think of it the more incomprehensible. 
This calamity has come down to the present making it difficult for 
women to do whatever they have to do. 

Although many generations of sages, emperors and philosophers have 
established wise laws, they did not condemn this custom ; therefore those 
coming after them have not known how to change it. High and low all 
follow it. If a child is deaf, dumb, lame or has any ailment, the parents, 
hearing of a skillful jjhysician, do not say he is far away, but at once 
carry it to be cured and are sad if there can be no relief. Why do not; 
those who maim feet thiiik tin's of importance? While a girl is not yet 
grown her parents force her to this. If she will not assent, they beat her, 
she ciies much and calls upon some one to save her; there is none to 
save, there is no help. She patiently submit imtil the flesh ulcer- 
ates, and the veins are bent out of their course. Uer parents are hard- 
hearted. The ferocious tiger will not eat its offspring, the poisonous 
snake does not bite its young. !Man, of such ability, why does he so 
torture liis child ? lie is not at all as merciful as the tiger or snake. 
He corrects God's perfectly made foot, changing it to the form of a bow, 
shaping it like unto a triangle, thus saying his ability is greater than 
God's. This sin is very great. Again, the mother loves not her daugh- 
ter, or the daughter herself, stupidly wishing for a pretty foot and 
■willing to bear the pain, takes cloth and draws it every day tighter and 
tighter only fearing if it is not short it will not be elegant; she wishes 
people to praise her." After talking a while longer in this strain, he 
says, " A woman with bound feet cannot help her husband nor care for 
her children. She cannot visit the sick ; if overtaken by calamity she 
cannot escape ; her very good feet are of no use because like broken feet. 
I desire all small-footed persons to hear my words — at once leave off 
following this bad custom." 

One, not a Christian and yet he can hardly be called a heathen, says, 
*' Parents, how can you find it in j-our hearts to compress your girl's feet Y 
You say, to make them good-looking. When first bound she cannot 

136 KSSAT. Mav 14tb. 

walk, cannot stand, many difficulties follow. Witli sobs she clasps her 
aching feet ; tlie skin is broken, the flesh torn, they bleed ; she cannot 
sleep at night, cannot eat, often sickness and weakness follow. People 
who don't know about it, think the g'irl has committed some criaie 
and her parents will not let her die quietly, but are torturing her 
slowly to death. It is not so, because they wish her to be beautiful they 
do this. 

The Emperor allows no bound feet within the palace. The mothers 
of the Emperor rule the affairs of the whole kingdom, the Emperor and 
all the people obey them, they are not bound-footed, why so exalted ?" 

But to oome to the point, what shall be done about it ? 

When our Boarding school was but a few days old, the members of 
the Mission said, " Now we are going to have no era nped feet in this 
school," and stx'aightway called together the preachers and influential 
members, scarcely half a dozen in all. The result was, a few days afterwards 
there were but three of our six girls left. Of these, one was of the large- 
footed class ; the second a preacher's daughter whose feet were so hope- 
lessly crushed it was utterly useless to think of unbinding them ; and the 
third, a sister of the same preacher, remained, on condition we would 
furnish her with white stockings and foreign slippers. We at once con- 
cluded the feet were not of the first importance, and if they were, it was a 
matter beyond our control. Those foreign shoes and stockings did not 
answer at all. After a year or so the jnother stole the child away and 
bound up her feet. She now has feet "like the new moon " but ha^dng 
grown up to be a sensible woman, declares her children shall not have 
cramped feet. 

Allowing the Christians are taught that foot-binding is wrong, it can 
hardl)'' be ccpeoted that all will be willing to be considered of the work- 
ing class on account of their feet. Tliere must of necessity arise in time 
a third class^a class considered respectable — of Christian women, who 
can if they like wear the much ad'uired dre^s, still having natural feet. 
Indeed, such a class may be said to have already sprung up. There are a 
few in each of the three Missions at Foochow. 

Years ago our school matron came to us of her own accord saying 
she thought it wrong to bind feet and she intended to undo hers. Hav- 
ing had such an unsuccessful experience to begin with, we did not advise 
her to do so at once, but told her to consider the matter thoroughly for 
herself, and if she decided to unbind them she must on no account bind 
them again. She was a woman of a great deal of character, unbound 
her feet and wore a shoe about six inches long. Though her larger feet 
were more painful than her small ones had been she abided by the 
decision. She has two adopted daughters, and never contemplated bind- 
ing their feet. 

It is well understood in the Foochow Missions — in two of them at 
least — that preachers and Church members are not to bind the feet of 
their daughters. In one Mission the first ordained preacher persisted in 
binding the feet of his daughter, but finally unbound them on being 
required to do so. In the Methodist Mission one of the best preachers 
bound his little daughter's feet, or rather his wife did, for it had become 
a subject of contention between them. One of the missionary ladies ex- 
postulated with her and she was finally prevailed upon to unbind them. 
Soon after this the preachers themselves made a rule prohibiting the 
practice among Church members. There still remains a difficulty, the 
want of a suitable shoe. Not long since the father of these little girls 
said he should be satisfied if he could only fix upoa a proper shoe. 

Ma}- 14th. DISCUSSION. 137 

We have found it much easier in tlio suliurbs of Foochow to keep up 
day schooLs with the sniiill, ralhor than the hir^-o-footed children. The 
latter are ready on the slightest opening to go oil' to work, while the for- 
mer on account of their general helplessness have time to read. Although 
her lady-feet give the little girl an opjjortunity of learning to read, they 
are the greatest obstacle in the way of the C'liristian woman. iSlie can- 
not go to church because it is not secluded enough, and she is disabled 
for taking so long a journey. She thereby not only fails to receive need- 
ed instruction for her.self, but liinders by lier example other women from 
gathering with those who assemble themselves together. She is unlitted 
for becoming a liible woman. She cannot, or ivill not, go from house to 
house teaching her friends and neighbors, for /jers- are not the "beauti- 
ful feet" that bring good tidings, that publish salvation. 

But what is to be done ? Shall we say it is so difficult to do any- 
thing for their souls we will not meddle with their feet ? Shall we com- 
pare this custom with that more dangerous western one of compression, 
hardly yet out of favor with those not counted heathen, and therefore 
excuse it ? Shall we hope that by steadily discountenancing the prac- 
tice, the good sense of the Christians will in time bring them to a right 
decision ? Or, shall we agree with one, not yet a Christian, who thus 
expresses himself.— Now I think when the Holy Spirit comes down on 
China giving men and women to know the 'Jesus Doctrines ' tins custom 
of binding feet will of itself disappear ? 



Rev. Dr. Talmage, A. R. C. M., Amot, said : — 

The practice of feet-binding in universal among, the heathen in the 
region of Araoy. Tlie wife always has bound feet. Only the secondary 
wives and slave girls have unbound feet. One of the papers read thi.s 
morning says that in a certain district only seven tenths of the female 
children are kept alive. In some part of the region around Amoy the 
proportion is much less than this. I know of one region, in which we 
have two small congregations, where so many have been destroyed, that, 
notwithstanding the emigration of males which is very great, there are 
not nearly enough women for wnves to the men that are left. I believe 
that feet-binding is one great of this terrible infanticide. The abi- 
lity of girls to earn their living is greatly lessened by tins pi'actice, and 
parents regard them as a useless burden, except for the money to be at- 
tained through the daughter's marriage. 

The best way to counteract the evil is frequently to preach against it. 
"We have too often neglected this through forgetfulness. In Amoy there is 
an anti-foot-binding society which is doing good by frequently bringing 
the matter to our attention, and by the moral support it gives to those 
parents who wish to obey the manifest laws of the God of nature and 
leave the feet of their daughters unbound. 

Rev. Mr. Crawford, A. S. B. C. Tuxgchow, said : — 

In Shantung all classes of women without exception, bind their feet. 
It is the home of the peculiar custom. We have found it very difficult 
to know what to do with it. Their reasons for continuing the custom 
are deep seated and of the most stubborn character, involving a whole 
class of sentiments too delicate to mention. 


We rely on moral influences to overthrow it rather than on church 
discipline. We are trying to persuade our best sisters to set the proper 
examples by unbinding their own feet first, for we believe a Christian 
woman should have a Christian foot. 

Our church is divided into radicals and conservatives, which, in 
Chinese, we call "old and new roots." Among them there is a woman 
-who persistently opposed every effort to change the custom, and by so 
doing gave us no little trouble. Finally I called her into my study and 
said : " You are a good Christian sister, an old member of the church. 
You have learned to read very well, and possess good speaking talents. 
We therefore think of making you a preacher — we will give you six 
dollars a month, the same as our teachers receive, you can preach 
when and where you like, and just do pretty much as you choose." She 
seemed delighted with the proposal, her face literally shining. I waited 
a moment, and then said : " You will not be expected to preach the 
Gospel of salvation, only the Gospel of foot-binding ! " She was thorough- 
ly cured. We have not since heard from her on the subject. I have 
found a little irony occasionally very effective in such cases. 

Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, A. B. C. F. M., T'ungchow, said: — 

That he was very glad this question had been agitated in this Con- 
ference. There was a danger from a long residence in China, and an in- 
creasing familiarity with the customs and habits of the people, of becom- 
ing too conservative on this, as well as on other questions of social re- 
form. The subject had been before the missionaries of his station. He 
felt that missionaries ought to take strong grounds against the continu- 
ance of the evil in the native Church. He deprecated the tendency of 
some missionaries to look too leniently on the subject, and felt that their 
influence was_against the speedy correction of the abuse. 

Rev. S. L. Baldwin, A. M. E. M., Foochow, said : — 

With regard to foot-binding, I believe the most beneficial influence 
can be exerted by missionary ladies who are in earnest in the matter. In 
our mission, a lady first wrote earnestly to the wife of a preacher, who was 
binding her daughter's feet, and persuaded her to give it up. Afterward 
the same lady wrote to the Annual Meeting, and with kind but forcible 
words argued that the practice ought to be abolished among Christians. 
The native preachers composing the meeting thanked her for the letter, 
and approved of measures to stop the practice. Last year they resolved 
in Annual Meeting that it should be the rule of the church that foot bind- 
ing should not be allowed. Should any member infringe this rule, he 
comes under discipline, and is first to be exhorted. If he refuses to 
listen to exhoi'tation, the matter is to be brought before the church. If 
he still remains obstinate, he is to be expelled. It is not likely that any 
one will need to be expelled on this account, as a veiy strong sentiment 
is being formed in the church against the practice. 

Rev. Dr. Williamson, S. U. P. M., Chefoo, said : — 

This matter has important bearings. We should be extremely care- 
ful about interfering with the customs of the country when no moral 
question is involved. We have plenty to do without exciting a new 
opposition among the Literati and mercantile classes, ^e fully believed 

May 14tli. essay. 139 

in discountonanciug it, but would take exception to making it a condition 
of church membex'ship ov discipline. Tt has not anytliing to do with the 
Go-spcl whtitevor. He spoke so that the other side might have careful 
consideration and in ciuse any one should go too far. 

Rkv. C. W. Mateer, a. r. M., Tungchow, said: — 

T rise to mention a fact apparenily not known to the writer of the 
paper. The Emperor K'ang He of the present Manchu dynasty, upon his 
acces.sion to the throne made a determined effort to destroy foot binding. 
After one edict had proved ineii'ectual, he was about to issue another, 
accompanied by stringent regulations and severe penalties, when his 
advisers warned him that it woiild produce rebellion and perhaps over- 
turn his throne, upon which he gave up the attempt. This fact should 
be noted to the credit of the present Manchu dynasty. What the greatest 
Manchu emperor could not do Christianity will do in due time. 


*' Woman's Work for Woman." 


Rev. a. p. Happek, D.D., A. P. M., Canton :— 

The statement of the subject for this paper, as thus expressed, is 
only a neic form of expression for designating an old subject. Another 
manner of expressing it, is, " Woman's work for her Saviour." Another, 
and a clearer statement of the subject, is the following. " Woman's work 
in making known the precious salvation through Jesus Christ to her 
sisters in heathen lands." The new form of expressing the subject has 
originated from a recent increased interest in the subject among Christian 
women, and the commencement of new organizations for canying on the 
work. By reason of this new departure, in latter j'eai'S, in conducting 
the work, and the enlarged plans for its accomplishment, there has gone 
abroad an idea among some portions of the community that it is a neto 
work for women ; and hence the new form of speaking of the subject as 
given in the programme. That this is a new work for woman is a great 
misconception. Woman has alwnys had a very particular interest in 
every thing connected with the redemption througli Jesus Christ. 

By this new form of expression, "Woman's Work for Woman," in this 
programme, 1 suppose, is specially meant the work of making known the 
blessed Gospel of salvation to the women in heathen lands. 

The providence and Spirit of God, which guide his church and 
people in their work for the Master, as the cloud by day and the pillar of 
tire by night guided the Israelites in their journey though the wilderness, 
has guided the women of Christian lands to this special work in these last 
days ; and their so largely engaging in it, is one of the most remarkable 
signs which betoken tlie near approach of the Millenium. The provid- 
ences which call them tu this work are so clear and manifest, that properly 
considered, it calls the church to a yet more vigorous and self denying 
prosecution of the work. 

140 ESSAY. May 14th. 

Some of the providences which call upon women in Chinstian lands 
to enter, with earnestness and consecration, upon the work of making 
known the Gospel to women in heathen lands are these. 1st. It is 'noiv 
practicable for single women to reside in safety and peace in the midst of 
the women in these lands. Fifty years ago, however, it was not safe for 
Christian women to reside in any of the great cities of China, India, 
Turkey or Japan, except with their husbands or the families of relations. 
But now, in all the principal towns and cities of these populous countries, 
single women, in companies of two or three in Christian Homes, can 
dwell securely and in peace, and can carry on the various agencies and 
means for making known the Gospel of the Kingdom among the women 
and girls, and it is becoming more safe and practicable for women from 
Christian lands thus to reside in the great centres of population and in- 
fluence in heathen lands for missionary work year by year. 2ncl. Another 
providence which indicates the will of God, is this. It is now safe and 
practicable for single women to journey to and from these lands. Fifty 
years ago it was not practicable for them to travel thus to any extent and 
only to a few places. Now, however, such are the facilities of travel by 
steamers and rail roads that it is entirely practicable for single women to 
journey safely and comfortably to all these countries, the inhabitants of 
which are sitting in darkness. Indeed the facilities of travel are such, 
that not only may earnest Christian women safely go by these convey- 
ances to their fields of Christian work, but even tourist ladies are found 
visiting these various lands in the pursuit of pleasure. 

3rd. Through the great extension and the increase of the facilities 
of obtaining an education in Christian lands, and in connection with the 
numerous and glorious revivals of religion, there are a greatly increased 
number of Christian women who are prepared by education and the en- 
dowments of grace to go forth and labor for the enlightenment of the 
ignorant and the salvation of the perishing. How wonderfully is the 
providence of Him "who only doetli wondrous things," seen in this, that 
while the preparation of the various nations for the residence of Christian 
women in their midst is being accomplished, such institutions for the 
education and training of women as Mt. Holyoke Seminary and other 
sister institutions have been established. 

4th. While these wonderful external changes have been in progress, 
and while the laborers have been preparing, a yet more wonderful change 
has been effected in the public sentiments of the people of all these differ- 
ent lands. Thirty or forty years ago such was the state of public opinion 
in these lands, that there was no desire for female education ; and there 
was no access to the houses of the people of any class. But by reason 
of various wide spread and widely different influences which have been at 
work, — such as the diffusion of Western education and science among the 
men of these several countries, their intercourse with the people of other 
lands the introduction of steamers and rail roads and the diffusion of 
some glimmerings of the glorious light of the Gospel by many agencies, — 
there is now a general and wide spread readiness to admit the ingress of 
Christian women to the houses of all classes and conditions ; and there is 
a readiness on the part of women and girls to attend Christian schools 
vastly beyond the present means pi-ovided for their instruction. It is 
very difficult for those who have not been observant of these changes to 
realize how great and wonderful they are. They have not occun*ed in 
one place or country only, but in almost every land all over the world. So 
that it is literally true nmr, that there is scarely a land where there is not 

May 1 Uli, ESSAT, 141 

at this time an open door for women to work for women in making known 
the Gospel of Jesus. 

A still dearer indication uf the will of God in tliis matter is this: 
The 7teccs.<lhi of woman's work for woman in heathen lands. It is a fun- 
damental truth of Christianity that Jesus is the only name given among 
men whci-eby they ean bo saved: and hence the women in heathen lands, 
who are without the knowledge of Jesus are perishin<i. This Gospel of 
salvation can only be made known to these wtmien who are thus perish- 
ing bif i'hrL<:tiaii wovieii. 13y reason of the customs of society which pre- 
vail in these lands, the heathen women are not permitted to attend upon 
the preaching of the Gospel, nor can they be reached by other Christian- 
izing intluenees and efforts as put forth by men;* hence it is manifest 
that if they are ever reached by the Gospel, it must be made known to 
them by Christ'nn iromen. 

Another consideration bearing upon the point of woman's duty and 
privilege to labor in the work of making known the Gospel, is the 
importance of woman's work for woman as connected with the great work 
of the conversion of the world to Christ. The glorious enterprise whieh 
is set before the church to inflame her zeal and call forth her unwearied 
efforts, is this, that "the kingdoms of the world should become the king- 
doms of our Lord and his Christ," that "the ends of the earth should see 
his salvation." JJut this glorious result, the great and grand object of 
all missionary effort can only be fully and effectually accomplished by 
the conversion of the rvomen in heathen lands. 

It has passed into an axiom that mothers preiiminently mold and 
form the character of their children. This is just as true of mothers in 
heathen lands as it is true of mothers in Chirstian lands. And hence so 
long as there are heathen mothers there will be heathen children. It is 
equally so in all the other relations of society. It is by some supposed 
that because the women in heathen lands are spoken of as ignorant and 
degraded that therefore their influence is but small. This is not, how- 
ever, the case. In these great heathen lands the women in their homes 
give character to the usages and customs of society. The form and ser- 
vice of idol worship, the hold and influence of superstition upon the peo- 
ple old and young, are largeli/ established and perpetuated by the influ- 
ence of women. No community can be purged of the leaven of heathen 
superstitions and idolatrous customs till the ivotnen of said community be- 
come Christianized. Hence as the heathen women of these lands can only 
be reached through Christian women, no words can adequately portray 
the vast and increasing importance of woman's work in making known 
the Gospel of salvation to their own sex in heathen lands. It is most in- 
timately connected with all successful efforts for permanent results in 
the work of the conversion of this world. But time will not permit me 
to enlarge further upon the Scriptural warrant, or the importance and 
necessity of their work. It is a cause of rejoicing and thanksgiving that 
the way is open and the facilities are so great in so many lands for the 
dissemination of the Gospel among the women of these lands. But as 
Missionaries in China, it more pertains to our present purpose to consi- 
der the facilities for their work which are now enjoyed in this land. In 
this view we may well rejoice that there are such tine opportunities for 
making known the Gospel to the daughters of China. These facilities, 
besides the other considerations above referred to, come from the consti- 
tution of the family relationship in this land, and from the character of 

* This statement is not eqnally applicable to all parts of China. (Ed.i.) 

142 ESSAY. May 14th. 

tlie civilization that prevails among them. There are few heathen coun- 
tries where woman occupies such a favorable position in the social and 
family circle as she does among this people. Whilst the seclusion of the 
sex prevails to a certain degree, it is at the present time a great preser- 
vation to her character, and it in no way interferes with efforts made for 
her evangelization by Christian women. So far from there being any 
prejadice against the education of women existing in the minds of this 
people, their education is highly esteemed, and a literary woman is held 
in high honor. The names of such are handed down from generation to 
generation. The sentiment prevailing in the community is most favora- 
ble to the establishment of schools for teaching girls, and also for teach- 
ing women. When missionary ladies have the charge of schools it is at 
once a passport to the respect of the community in the midst of which 
they are opened. And such is the desire of all, even the poorest, that 
their children should be able to read, that the purpose to open a school 
for teaching girls is always received with favor ; and in this way an op- 
portunity for teaching the Gospel is found, when perhaps other means 
would not succeed. The quiet and orderly character of the people also 
affords facilities for holding meetings for women both in the cities and 
in the villages without hindrance. The intelligence of the women and 
the readiness with which they apjjrehend religious truth make such meet- 
ings to be of the greatest interest and importance as the means of com- 
municating to them a knowledge of the Gospel. So that in view of all 
the circumstances, we have the greatest encouragement for using all the 
means in our power for Christianizing the women of this land. 

I come last to consider what means shall be employed to make 
known the way of salvation to the women of this populous Empire. In 
general, it may be remarked, there is the opportunity and necessity 
of using the same means here as have been found useful any where else, 
and which are adapted to effect tbe desired result. In this widely ex- 
tended country, some kinds of labor will be found better adapted to one 
place than to another. In some places there will be found the necessity 
of using some kinds of effort which are not needed in another place. 
Practical wisdom is needed in this, as well as in all other parts of mission- 
ary work, to select the particular means which are best suited to each 
particular community. And when that or this plan of labor has been 
selected, each one will pursue it with prayerful and laborious effort to the 
desired result. But, of coui'se, all means will be successful only as they 
are blessed and made effectual by the Holy Spirit operating upon the 
hearts of those who are reached by them. I will notice in succession 
these various means. 

1st. Day schools for girls or women — to teach them to read their 
own language ; and in connection with that, giving them daily instruc- 
tions in the doctrines of the Gospel. In teaching them to read their own 
language, the Chinese character may be used, or the romanized colloquial, 
as experience at different places and with different dialects may render 
expedient. But general experience in China, teaches that the instruc- 
tion should be given in theii- own language, and not through the English 
or any other foreign tongue. The great object in the establishment of 
such schools is to communicate to the pupils, and through them to their 
parents and friends a knowledge of the blessed Gospel. In most places 
there will be no difficulty in getting girls to come into such schools when 
the Christian Scriptures are read as a text book. In some places married 
women will avail of such opportunities to learn to read ; and they should 
be welcomed to the advantages of such schools. The extent to which 

May Uth. kssay. 143 

such schools may be opened in some parts of the Canton Province is only 
limited by the means at command to meet (lie expense, and the Christian 
women to superintend them. The advantii^es wliich such schools afford 
for introducing the Cospcl into the families in their vicinity, and of 
getting the women of the neighborhood to attend religious service at the 
school-rooms is obvious to all. For the full benefit of the school as an 
agency for this purpose, there ought to be a room in connection with each 
school suitable for holding meetings for the women and girls of the 
neighborhood, who w^ould at stated times assemble for religious instruc- 
tion. These meetings of course should be conducted by the female mis- 
sionary, or the native Bible woman. 

271(1. The second instrumentality I wonld mention, is Boarding 
Schools for girls. In a wide range of experience during the last fifty 
years in many different countries such schools have proved to be of great 
importance as a means of introducing the Gospel, and molding and elevat- 
ing the character of the people in whose midst they have been established. 
Time will not admit of my giving details of the results of such institutions 
in Ceylon, in India, in Burmah, in Persia, in Turkey, in Syria, in Sou- 
thern Africa and in the Sandwich Islands. Neither is it necessary, as 
many of the members of the Conference are familiar with the wonderful 
results that have been secured thereby. The objects to be se;*ured by them 
are to train up fully qualified teachers for the native schools, to prepare 
Christian and enlightened women to be the wives of the native pastoi's 
and evangelists, and to be helpers to them in the pastoral work, in the 
elevation and chrisfianization of the Christian women among the natives. 
Such work, which is intimately connected with the permanence of mis- 
sionary labors, and which affects the very foundations of Christian society 
in heathen lands, can only be done by native -women who have been 
thoroughly trained in a Christian family, such as these boarding schools 
are to their inmates. But in order that such schools should bo efficient 
for their objects, the pupils must be received into them under proper re- 
gulations. None should be received who are already bethrothed to a 
heathen youth, unless he is also to be received into a Christian school for 
boys. None should be received unless the parents enter into a written 
agreement that the betrothal of the girls shall be with the consent and 
approval of those who have charge of the school. Unless there are such 
regulations as these established for the control of the pupils, many of 
the girls so educated will be married to heathen husbands ; and thus the 
great object of their education in these schools as it concerns the cause of 
Christ will be lost. In view of the expense in money, and the toil 
and labor to those who bear the cares which such schools involve, it does 
not seem to be a wise expenditure of means and labor, except under such 
regulations. And when such ai-rangements can be secured and carried 
into effect, the best, result, with the divine blessing, may be expected in 
China from such schools if properly conducted. 

3/y/. Is the establishment of boarding schools for the training of 
Bible women. The plan and aim of schools for training Bible women are 
in several particulars quite different from those for girls. The aim of these 
training schools is to train Christian women so as to fit and prepare them 
to go from house to house to instruct the women in some knowledge of 
the way of salvation, read to them out of the Bible or suitable Christian 
books, and hold meetings for prayer with them, or train some of them to 
be teachers of the day schools. Adult women who are widows without 
children or any other persons dependent upon them, and who would 
therefore be at liberty to give themselves to Christian work arc those 

144 ESSAY. May 14th. 

most desirable to be received into such schools. But, of course, at an early 
stage of mission work at any place, and under particular cricumstances 
the doors of such schools might be widely opened to the wives of native 
assistants who have not previously received a Christian training, and who 
could be spared from home duties for a while ; and also to other married 
women whose character and abilities give j^romise of usefulness in 
Christian work, if they had the requisite knowledge. Of course, those 
who are already members of the church, and have the character and 
disposition which promise usefulness as Bible women or Teachers, will 
have the prior claim to admission. For the efhcient prosecution of Christian 
work among this numerous people, it must be evident to all that one of 
the most important labors devolving upon those who come from Christian 
lands will be the training of Bible women, who, with the love of Jesus 
glowing in their hearts and with the earnest desire to lead their country 
women to the knowledge of this precious salvation, will go from house 
to house in the cities and in the villages to tell them of the allcompas- 
sionate and loving Saviour who will save them from hell. 

The training of Bible women for evangelistic labor among the peo- 
ple will in most parts of China be the most feasible and economical plan 
of Christian work. The Chinese women have sufficient mental powers 
and intelligence to fit them for such work. There are every where large 
numbers of middle aged widows, with no children requiring their care, 
and having no mothers-in-law to restrain them, who after conversion can 
be prepared for such Christian work. In most places the class of persons, 
who can engage in such work will be glad to come to the school, if they 
are supplied with food and insti'uction, they furnishing their own cloth- 
ing. The time which they spend in the school will give the opportunity 
to study their character and to judge of their adaptedness for any parti- 
cular work or place of labor. Besides the instruction given to them in 
the Gospel and the way of salvation, special instruction should be given 
to them as to the duties of Bible women and the best way of performing 
them. This form of work for women admits of the most indefinite ex- 
pansion under the care of women from other lands. And it is one which 
the native church can at an early day take up and carry on, for, and of 

4i/i. Industrial classes. Another form of regular class instruction is 
called by this name. Its main feature, and theme from which it takes 
its name is this ; that a number of woman are induced to come together 
at the same time and place when work is given to them to do, for which 
they are paid. And while they are thus working, they ave instructed in 
the way of salvation. The method is useful where for any reason the 
women cannot, in any other way, be got together for instruction ; or 
when they are so poor that however willing they might be to come to a 
Gospel meeting they cannot spare the time to come. It has this special 
advantage, that the members of such a class will be generally regular in 
their attendance. Such classes, I have no doubt from the statements 
made by those who have tried them, may be the means of reaching those 
w^ho would not be otherwise reached. There are places where such classes 
are not needed, as the women can be reached by other means ; there are also 
places where such classes would be highly useful and appropriate. In the 
use thereof, as in all other kinds of labor, " the wisdom which cometh 
from above and which is profitable in all things to direct " is needed. 

hth. A most efficient and important manner of work is the visiting 
from house to house. The customs of society in many parts of the 
country do not admit of women going much from home. And even when 

:Miiy Ikh. UH^xY. 145 

other reasons do not forbiil llu'ii* t^oing from home, their crippled feet do 
not permit them to walk far to attend meetings. Jieeanse of their seelu- 
sion, a visitor is neiirly ulwa^-s weleomed as breaking up the monotony of 
daily life. In most parts of the conntry a foreign woman will readily 
tind admission into every house, and have an opportunity of telling or 
reading of Jesus to the oceupants. This mode of labor has been tried at 
Canton botli in the city and in the country with the very best results. 
It is here found entirely feasible for the native Hible women to find ready 
access to the houses of those in the middle and humbler ranks of life. 
While the woman from abroad will of course have special advantages in 
this work over the native women, yet, as it is entirely impossible for such 
a work to be carried on by foreign agency alone, it is specially favoi-able 
that the native women find such ready access to the houses of the people 
to "tell the old old story" of a Saviour and His love. And here one very 
important branch of instruction to be given to Bible women comes in, 
and that is, to instruct them particularly how to guide inquiring sinners' 
to Christ, and that they may be " made wise to win souls." In Canton 
city, five native Bible women visited during last year in the aggregate, 
some 2,'.*;^2 houses, in which they saw 15,701 women, to whom they had 
the c>pportunity of speaking of Jesus and his salvation. Of course the 
result of such visitation will depend greatly upon the manner in which 
the work is done. But every one must see that such visiting by women 
" who are wise to win souls" affords the \cvy best opportunity of com- 
municating a knowledge of the way of salvation. 

6/A. The great and central work, to which all these others should 
converge, is the work of holding meetings for women and children by 
women. In order to secure the attendance of the Cliinese women, these 
meetings should be held in small chapels in different places, rather than 
in one large church for an extensive community. The best arrangement 
might be, when practicable, to have several small chapels for meetings 
for women in the week days, and then a church to which the women from 
the whole district might come together in one place for the Sabbath 
worship. Of course the men are excluded from the smaller meetings which 
ai-e appointed for the women. The advantages of having many small 
chapels are that the poor women in the vicinity of each chapel can at- 
tend the service. They will meet their near neighbors there, and thus 
become acquainted with each other as attendants upon Chi-istian service. 
When these meetings are held in the same building with a day school for 
girls, the mothers and other relatives of the j^upils will come in, and thus 
different members of the same family will come more fully under reli- 
gions instruction. It will also greatly contribute to the efficiency of 
these means, if there could be a Bible woman connected with each chapel, 
who could seek to gather in as ma7iy of the women of the neighborhood 
as she can to the service, and then follow up the impressions made upon 
them in the chapel, by visiting them at their own homes, and instruct- 
ing them more fully in the leading truths of the Gospel, liy the bless- 
ing of God, it will bo found in the great day of account that this and 
that one was born again in some of these humble chapels. When the 
circumstances are favorable, it will be found very advantageous to have a 
chui'ch at some central place to the chapels, in which as many of the 
women as possible can come together for Christian worship on the Sabbath, 
or at other stated times. The influence of members is always felt upon 
the audience itself, and it is also felt in the community around. In such 
assemblies the influences of the Holy Spirit are felt in the great-' 
est power. 

146 ESSAY. May 14th. 

7 til. In connection with these varied agencies one more only remains 
to be mentioned by me. This is the use of medical relief among the 
women by female physicians. It is well known that women and children 
are the great sufferers from "the ills that flesh is heir to." All the con- 
siderations that cause medical missions as conducted by missionary prac- 
titioners to be regarded of so much importance, apply with inci'eased 
cogency to this instrumentality as used by female physicians among 
heathen women. That the various Missionary Societies have so lately 
commenced its use, and that as yet so few have come forth to these lands, 
where their sisters are such terrible sufferers from disease, shows how 
slow mankind is disposed to adopt any new plan of work. It might be 
well for those who have the opportunity of seeing the results as manifest 
in actual experience, to let them be widely known ; and that some well 
considered expression of opinion should be sent forth in reference to this 
kind of woman's work for woman. It is my opinion that it is very 
greatly needed. There is every facility for engaging in it by qualified 
persons among the women of these great and populous lands ; and 
as an instrumentality in ameliorating the condition of woman, and of 
facilitating the dissemination of the Gospel of salvation it is second to 
none. It is therefore most desirable that a female physician should be 
connected with each company of female missionaries as soon as possible. 
By using the chapels for women as places for dispensing medicines, 
the efficiency of all these other means would be greatly extended, and a 
much greater number of hearers would be brought under the sound of 
the Grospel. All these various means have been tried at Canton excepttwo, 
viz., the industrial classes and medical practice. As there has been every 
facility for all the other kind of effort here, there has been no occasion 
to resort to industrial classes. The experience in the other forms of labors 
only deepens the convictions of the great importance of having a female 
physician to help in the great work for women at Canton. There are 
now in connection with the American Presbyterian Mission seven day 
schools for girls, with some 150 pupils, a boarding school for girls with 
20 pupils, and a training school for women with ten women as students. 
There are six Bible women, and there are 24 meetings weekly at the six 
small chapels. While a great deal of this work is preparatory work, 
which promises a very abundant harvest in the near future, yet the 
gathered results thus far have been most gratifying. The number of 
women and girls which have been received into the Presbyterian church 
at Canton during the last six years on profession of their faith in Christ 
has been eighty. 

In considering the signs of the times, and in looking over the whole 
line of missionary progress, there is no one indication to me so full of 
promise of the future rapid extension of the Gospel and of the permanency 
of the results of missionary labor, as the great increase in the number of 
women laborers during the last eight years. The statistics of all the 
missionary societies are not before me, so that I cannot give the exact 
statement of the increase during these years. But the statistics of the 
American Board of Commissioners, show that while the whole number of 
single women who have been sent forth during the 64 years of the Board 
has been 236, of this number 97 have gone forth during the last eicjlit 
years, i. e. three eighths of the number have gone in one eighth of the 
time. I suppose the increase has been nearly the same on the part of 
most of the missionary Boards in the United States during this time. 
And within this period nearly every denomination of Christians which is 
engaged in foreign missionary work, has organized a Woman's Board of 

May 1-ith. essay. 147 

missions in connection with the General Board to develope and direct 
the efforts of women for women in heathen hinds. It must be evident to 
every intelligent observer, that this new departure in the missionary 
work has but begun in its great and blessed work for the Master; and 
that among the women of Christian lands there is the capability of almost 
indefinite enlargement and expansion in this great work. It is equally 
evident that the coTidition of women in heathen lands presents the most 
pressing and urgent calls to Christian women to use their most strenuous 
efforts to communicate to them the knowledge of the blessed Gospel of 
our Lord. Just in proportion as their labors are increased and extended, 
will these wastes of heathenism "bud and blossom as the rose," and 
"these desolations become as the gai'den of the Lord." 

May the Great Captain of our Salvation, as He leads forth the 
ransomed hosts of the Lord to the conversion of the world, greatly mul- 
tiply from every land the number of women workers for women, and 
crown their labors with ever increasing success, till "the kingdoms of 
this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ;" and 
" the glory of the Lord fills the whole earth as the waters fill the mighty 
deep." Amen and Amen. 



"Woman's Work for Woman." 


Mrs. T. p. Crawford, A. S. B. C, Tungchow. 

Woman's work for woman in China, without including the many 
little streams of Christian influence sent forth in everj day life, may be 
clas.sed under live gentiral divisions. 

Int. Boarding and day schools. 

This seems to be the favorite, and perhaps easiest department of 
missionary work. Easiest not because it involves less labor, less care, 
perplexity, or disappointment ; but because it is more accessible and 
regular with more immediate results. At the first opening of a mission 
it may be difficult to induce parents to entrust their daughters to the 
care of foreigners, — but prejudice soon wears away and for the considera- 
tion of food and clothing a sufficient number may be readily obtained for 
boarding schools. It is generally much longer before their education is 
sutficiently appreciated to secure them for day schools. Even this point 
has been attained at the older ports. In both kinds however, systematic 
instruction may be imparted and the moral and intellectual character to a 
great extent moulded. To these schools we must mainly look for intell- 
igent workers, and for wives for the rising ministry. Few ladies are 
able to give themselves to regular personal teaching in day schools. 
The best that can be done is to make frequent, careful examinations of 
the classes, keep a watch over the moral and religious influences 
exerted, and the kind of books to be studied. Though the pupils may 
be less under the immediate training of the missionary lady, yet a large 
number can be superintended by her, and many of the evils connected 
with boarding schools avoided. 

148 ES3AT. May 14tli- 

In BoardiBg schools, the bad effect of relieving parents from the 
support of their daughters is strikingly manifest, and the missionary 
should endeavor by all means to counteract it. In the beginning it may 
be necessary to furnish both food and clothing ; but this is so demoraliz- 
ing that it should be withdrawn as rapidly as possible, by first requiring 
the clothing, and then gradually, increasing help for other expenses. 
Few of the pupils may go so far as a certain Christian girl in one of these 
schools, who said; "I am wearing my own clothes — the American 
Churches sent the money for me, and it is mine." Yet a kindred feeling 
is not uncommon among them. Throwing the responsibility upon their 
parents has been seen to have a marked good effect, causiag them to take 
better care of their clothing, and more highly appreciate the advantages 
of the school. Care must be constantly taken to conduct everything on 
an economical scale, both for the sake of the churches contributing the 
money, and for its influence upon all connected with schools. 

Whatever may be urged in regard to teaching the Chinese classics 
to boys, it is certainly undesirable to teach them to girls. For them, 
there is as yet no fixed standard of education — the making of it is wdth 
us — and let us be careful what we make. A fair tveii U style may be ac- 
quired from other sources ; and while there is far more useful knowledge 
and mental training to be gained from the Bible, the sciences, history 
and other books already translated than they can obtain, it is surely an 
unwise expenditure of time, labor, and money to make Confucianists of 
them. It is these classics mainly, that mould the national character as 
we see it — non-religious, anti-progressive, self-conceited, narrow-minded. 
To supply a w-ant created by their rejection, it is to be hoped some com- 
petent person wdll soon prepare an epitome of Chinese history and litera- 
ture in an easy, attractive style. Any one conversant with early ecclesi- 
astical history cannot fail to look forward with the most serious appre- 
hension to the heresies and divisions that threaten the churches in 
China from the adherents of her philosophy "falsely so called" — even 
from men trained in our schools, and supported by our mission funds. 
Why should these dangers be increased by giving the women a similar 
mould wdien there is no demand for it ? 

Those who have tried the experiment will not need to have urged 
upon them the advantages of pei'sonal teaching, and a close supervision 
of mission schools. The native-trained teachers are mostly inefficient. It 
is difficult to get even those educated by ourselves to appreciate any 
mental exercise except memoi'izing. In their efforts, at our promptings, 
to teach others to think, they signally fail to impart the vigor, emphasis, 
and freshness, which charactei'ize European teaching. The relujiuus in- 
struction should form a larger element than is necesary in Christian 
lands, and be mostly in the hands of the missionary, who will strive, by 
all means, to stimulate the conscience, cultivate the fear of God, reverence 
for holy things, and a strict regard for truthfulness ; — remembering that 
however sedulously we cultivate these things theoretically, if we fail in 
discipline through our own neglect, or the unfaithfulness of those under 
us, we shall be in danger of rearing a class of sycophants, whose only 
religion wrill be cant, and whose pi'ime object will be gain. In the conduct 
of schools, as in other departments, experience is the only sure and 
efficient guide. 

2nd. Another mode of labor is visiting from house to house. 

This department has thus far, at Tungchow, I'equired more patience, 
courage, and self-denial than any other — with less apparent results. Soon 
after the arrival of the first missionaries here, the gentry held a meeting 

May 1 Itli. KSSAY. 140 

to consult as to how they should receive the foreigners. They decided to 
ostracise them socially; and, thenceforth, most of the respectable houses 
wore closed against us. Some wnuld admit us when we knocked at their 
doors, but even this was occasionally refused. The poorer classes, having 
less social position to forfeit, were more tolerant ; j'et they often showed 
by their manners tluxt they did not wish our visits repeated. Curiosity 
brought a giuxl many to our houses; but of these, Duly a few wished 
their calls returned. They would watch their opportunity, and slip in 
quietly to see us without the knowledge of their husbands or neighbors, 
but our going to tlu'ir houses could not be so easily concealed. Tlie few 
simple medical remedies at our command, however, made one opening for 
us, and during several years we ficely availed ourselves of it. In process 
of time a few women joined the church, and by their aid the work grad- 
ually grew easier. They had various acquaintances to whose houses they 
could take us, and there was less reluctance to admit us at other places 
■when accompanied by a native woman. Now and then a lady of wealth 
■would embrace :in occasion, when the men of the family were absent, to 
send for us. Whatever the circumstances of our visit, we alwaj's made 
it a point to teach them Christianity. 

It was necessary to use discretion both as to the time and frequency 
of our visits, avoiding inconvenient hours of the day, and desisting for a 
Bca.'jon whenever perceiving impatience. Where we could go regularl}-, we 
tried to induce them to learn to read such books as "Peep of Day," 
Catechisms, hymns &c. Experience has shown that religious truth takes 
readier, and stronger hold upon the mind when learned in this way, than 
simply from oral instruction. To others who were indisposed to read, 
■we either read, or told over several times Bible stories, parables, or 
other sayings of Christ — usually questioning them on our next visit to 
see how much they remembered. To the majority however we could 
only talk of a Saviour, hoping the truth might find lodgment in their 

For many years, labouring in the villages was very difficult. Where 
we had an acquaintance at whose house we could stop, we could reach his 
neighbours— but such places were few. In strange villages the people were 
generally shy, shutting themselves indoors, so we could not get many 
listeners. More recently, their fears are passing away, and much of this 
kind of work is being done. When in company with a missionai'y gentle- 
man, or a native preacher, our presence will induce the women to come 
out and listen to the Gospel. Besides this, we also lind opportunities for 
teaching them quietly in groups. We often go, however, without gentle- 
men, and our object is now so well understood that we sometimes hear 
persons calling out, "Come you women, here are the ladies to teach 
you." Our plan is to find a seat on a stone, an embankment, or, in our 
open chairs, in some shady spot where the women and children will soon 
collect around us. We then teach them the cardinal doctrines of Christ- 
ianity — as man's lost condition, the heinousncss of sin, especially idolatry 
— the resurrection of the dead — salvation through Christ, using familiar 
illustrations, interspersed with reading. From the city we go out two or 
three together, taking lunch with us, (and visit live or six villages in a 
day, avoiding market towns and public places. On longer country tours, 
we make our headquartei's at a temple, an inn, or the house of a native 
Cliristian, going out by day among the surrounding hamlets: or when 
pi*actical)le, giving systematic instruction to regular classes: — weeks, and 
even month.s, being sometimes spent in this way. During the heat of 
summer, instead of visiting in the city, 'we generally go to some of the 

150 ESSAY. May t-'4th. 

nearer villages, sit tinder the trees, and teacli the women and children 
while enjoying the refreshing breezes. 

Thus, by the most persistent effoi'ts in the face of stubborn obstacles, 
this work has been prosecuted until it may be safely said to be far easier 
now than foi'merly. The native Christian women also, imitating our ex- 
ample, have disseminated much religious knowledge, both on the city and 
in the surrotinding country. 

3rd. Teaching visitors, and aiding in the training of the enquirers 
and Christians. 

The Chinese are a social people, fond of visiting. Many are anxious 
to see foreign houses and furniture, and to hear us talk. By taking ad- 
vantage of this disposition, a wide field of usefulness is secured. In most 
cases it is desirable to have a room fitted up for their reception. It may 
not be possible to have regular hours for receiving them, but if a faithful 
native Christian can be found who will combine the .duties of a servant, 
or seamstress, with a readiness to teach her sisters, a missionary can 
choose her own time to see such visitors. The teaching however should 
not be left entirely to the natives. We must remember that our object is 
not so much to accomplish a specific work in its appropriate hour, as by 
all means, in season and out of season, to lead souls to Christ. Like Ed- 
ward Payson, instead of being impatient of interruptions we should feel 
that wherever a person is ready to hear the Gospel, there is our work. 

It often occurs that a few women get a habit of coming for the sake 
of the variety it gives to the monotonous routine of their lives, or for 
even better reasons, affording opportunities for imparting religious in- 
struction. Relatives of teachers, servants and pupils may also often be 
reached and taught individually, or formed into classes, making a nucleus 
for a Sunday school. Children are quite ready to learn from us, especial- 
ly when the teaching is made interesting by hymns, Bible stories, 
pictures, and books suited to their capacity. In these classes, however, 
as in every other department of missionary labor, great care should be 
taken not to foster the prevailing idea that " godliness is gain" — not to 
excite the desire to take advantage of the foreigner, and not to confirm 
the Buddhist notion that to enter a sect is to be supported by it. 

Where a Sunday school is already organ ized this kind of teaching 
is easier. Meetings at the houses of native Christians, or in connection 
with day schools have been productive of good, especially where the 
Christians exert themselves to bring in their neighbors. By making a 
large cii'cle of acquaintances, and conversing with each individual as 
opportunity offers, a bond of sympathy is formed which will be most 
available for good, and as women will naturally talk more freely with 
those of their own sex, the training of female enquirers and recent con- 
verts will be most effectively done by female missionaries. It should 
also be a settled line of policy that all the members of the church be 
taught to read, at least in the colloquial. It may not be possible to carry 
this out in every individual case, but keeping the plan always in view, it 
will be found practicable with only rare exceptions. It will also be found 
that the careful instruction of the Christian women is one of the best 
methods of reaching the heathen, and of stirring up the church to aid 
voluntarily in the work. 

4ith. Regular attendance of Ladies at public services in Chinese. 
As experiments in philosophy are more informing than abstract 
teaching, as example is more powerful than precept, so is the embodi- 
ment of Christianity in a church essential to its life and propagation. 
Further, religion, when presented by the public formal worship in the 

May I4ili. ESSAY. 151 

house of God, lias more ofFect npon the mind tlian in any other way. It 
is almost impossible for a ro<;nIar attendant at church, unless a hypiicrite, 
to remain a heatlien. The importance of foreign ladies jiiding by their 
presence in formini'' a habit of church going among the natives c.ninwt he 
(werattlmateil. Not only in the early stages of a mission, the example will 
always be needed, both by the licatlien, and by the Christians. No amount 
of individual labor upon individuals can make them religious unless they 
are led to church, nor can we induce them to go unless we go oui-selves. — 
The habitual ab.sence of one missionary lady has been known to tix the 
too easily accepted conclusion that women with families are not expected 
to attend church, ex:cept on communion or other great oeeasion.s. 

The spoken language, at least, should be acquired by eveiy mission- 
ary's wife, for the sake of her husband and children, as well as for the 
sake of the heathen. Otherwise she will deprive her husband of her 
much needed sympathy, counsel, and aid, in his life work; while she will 
allow her children to grow up under side intluences of which she cannot 
but be ignorant and which she will be unable to counteract. Thus those, 
who on account of feeble health or family care ma}' not be able to engage 
systematically in any department, may yet greatly help forward the work 
of building up Christian churches; which, after all, is tlte worlc for which 
we come to this land. J3esides, while all the duties of wife and mother 
can be better performed through a knowledge of the language, thousands 
of opportunities will offer in every day life, to recommend by precept and 
example the glorious Gospel to the perishing. Many a missionary has 
failed, perhaps, because his wife neglected to acquire the language. 

I m.ay be pardoned for mentioning, in this connection, the many 
Christian ladies at various ports, wives of merchants, ofHcials, physicians, 
and others, who often manifest their desire for the conversion of the 
heathen by contributions of money. Mauj' of them have much leisure 
and might easily acquire the language with great advantage to them- 
selves, as well as to the cause of Chirst. They would thus feel more 
sympathy for the people, take a more lively interest in their spiritual con- 
dition, and by occasional attendance at the Chinese Church, produce the 
happiest results in forwarding the work of the Lord among them. 

btli. Preparing Books. 

No little attention has been paid to this department. At present, 
teaching the books already issued is far more urgent than the making of 
new ones, still others are needed. These might be prepared as occasion 
demands without interfering with more active Gospel labors. Those 
who are engaged in schools will generally know best how to prepare text 
books for students, and so it may be said of every other branch of the 
work. It is doubtful whether, except for special reasons, bookmaking 
should ever become the principal occupation of a missionary lady. 

I have said nothing in regard to prayer, not because its importance 
is under-estimated, but because it is taken for granted that none engage 
in this enterprise relying on their own strength, and that all are fully 
persuaded that without the Holy Spirit's influence our labors will be in 
vain. To the prayer hearing (iod wc must look for aid, day by da3% and 
hour by hour, knowing that with all our planting and watering. He alone 
can give the increase. 

Let us then reconsecrate ourselves and go forward in this glorious 
work, determining like Paul, to know nothing among the heathen but 
Christ, and Him crucitied. Nothing can lift this nation from its present 
condition but the Gospel. Though secular education and many other 
blessings follow in its train, yet let it be over present before our minds, 

152 DISCUSSION. May l-ith. 

that the chief want of this people is the Gospel; and also that the men can 
never be Christianized unless the women also are Christianized. Let no 
side issues hide this from our view — no cultivating of the physical, 
social, or intellectual ever cause us to throw into the back ground the 
moral and religious. Differing circumstances will necessarily modify the 
details of labors ; but at every station, it only needs a determination to 
save the lost and a constant watching for openings, to find more than 
any of us can do. Let us then, with fresh zeal and courage, relying upon 
the sure word of promise, cultivate the spirit of the Master, "Who made 
himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant;" and 
of the Apostle Paul, who became "all things to all men, that by all 
means, he might save some." 



Rev. H. C. Du Bose A. S. P. M., Soochow, said : — 

The work among the women of China requires more than any other 
the exercise of faith and love ; it also more fully exemplifies the life of 
Him "Who came to seek and to save the lost." In India it is called the 
" Zenana work"; here it is ivorlc in hut and hovel. I was intensely in- 
terested in the paper of our sister, Mrs. Crawford, for we all know of her 
"work of faith and labor of love"; visiting from house to house and from 
village to village. I will only mention two thoughts ; 1st. It is the counter- 
part and com'plement of the ministerial office. In a foreign land the 
preacher has the double vocation of the pulpit and the pastorate. Here 
he may daily have a large congregation in his chapel but he can perform 
almost no pastoral work. A lady, however, accompanied by a Chinese 
woman can find access into as many houses as she desires. 

There is a directness about this work, when brought face to face. 
Often at the evening meal when we talk over the events of the day there 
comes an indescribable longing — oh ! that I could gain such near access ! 
Our appeal is to the head ; theirs to the heart. 

2nd. By this work you get insight into the social life of the Chinese. 
We pass along the street but only see the front doors ; we ask our teachers, 
but they are ashamed to tell us what the people think. The women are 
garrulous and will tell you all about their superstitions, their family 
history &c. It is like turning a garment wrong side out. 

And is this work without effect ? Mr. Chairman, once a shadow 
crossed our threshold, and when our friends and acquaintances came 
bv twos and threes, and sixes and tens " to weep with those that wept," 
it raised the heathen women of Soochow in my estimation, and made me 
feel that hearts so capable of human affection might under the influences 
of the Holy Spirit be made fit for the throne of Jesus. 

In every land more women believe than men and when the Lord 
"opens the heart" as He did that of Lydia, multitudes will be gathered 
into the Church and hasten in the glorious kingdom of the Lord Jesus. 

Mav Ikh. DiscrssioN. li>y 

Ukv. C. ii. .\lii,i,s A. r. .M. Tlngcuow, said: — 

Thorc arc great difficulties in this work. 

1. Tho tirst dilliciilty I mention is suggested by tlie preliminary 
advice of Sir Astley L'oopur to liis dissec^ting classes: "Young gentle- 
men my advice to each of you is, learn to disregard your nose." This 
suggests a real and serious difficulty. 

2. Tiio illogical character of the minds of the ignorant Chinese 
women. Tlie men of China have had same sort of mental training. The 
women have had none. Here is a mighty difficulty. 

3. The dissipating effect of household cares. This difficulty I am 
satisfied men could never overcome : leaving ill health quite out of the 

Hut look at the practical Ufiefulness of woman's work. 

Some seven yeai's ago two unmarried women of the American Pres- 
byterian ^lission in Shantung went to the village of Sa Yow, about a 
hundred English milea from Tungchow ; and there gathered a class of 
women, to whom they gave systematic instruction for I think six weeks, 
perhaps something less. We have several small chui'ches in that region. 
Four years ago I visited these churches. I found in them a very great 
excess of male membei's : some churches with a membership of twenty or 
up wards had scarcely one female member. The Sa Yow church was a 
notable exception. Full half of the members were women. And that 
church alone of five or six similarly situated fully and promptly pay their 
subscriptions to the Pastor's Salary. 

You all know something of the work of our P]nglish Methodist 
brethren in the district of Lao Ling, on the northern border of Shantung, 
where about a hundred converts were brought in at one time at the very 
outset of the work. I visited Lao Ling some years since. I found there' 
a lai'ge proportion of female members. And, Mr. Innocent assured me 
that the most efficient agent in that work was a woman the wife of a na- 
tive preacher. 

Rev. S. B. PAinitiDGE, A. B. M. U. Swatow, said : — 

Should I speak that which I know and testifj'- that which I have' 
seen of !Miss Fielde's work you might accuse our mission circle of 
having formed a mutual admiration society. We have not formed such 
a society, but this we do; — the six persons forming our circle meet eveiy 
Wednesday evening and pray for each others' success. We pray for 
unity and that we may lay aside all envy and all jealousy and that we 
may be able to work together in a true spirit of Christian harmony. 

The Bible women, employed by Miss Fielde, go out two and two. 

They reach those wliom we ourselves could not reach and do a good 
work in following up the work begun by the native evangelists. 

Allow me to ini'ution an incident or two connected with tliis work. 

Some months since, two women desired to unite with the church. 
One of them, on being asked where .she tirst heard the Gospel, replied that 
she heard it first at the Hospital of Dr. Gauld (who.';e admirable paper 
we heard this morning). She went home from the hospital, threw away 
her idols and persuaded one of her neighbors, the woman who was by 
her side, to do the same. From that time they did not hear the Gospel 
again, until the Bible women visited their village. At another tiraf , 
when questioning a woman who desired to unite with us, we learned that 

164 DISCUSSION. May 14tli. 

she had heard the gospel ten years before at one of our chapels, but never 
again until she was visited by Bible women in her own house, when 
she recognized the Gospel as that which she had heard so long before, 
and which her heart was now prepared to receive. 

On the Sunday before I left Swatow twenty persons were received 
into the church. Nine of these were women, of whom three were from 
the girls school. 

We were gratified with the clearness of their statements and with 
their evident knowledge of Christian truth. 

We used to think it was not necessary to question the women very 
closely, but since the Bible women began their work we have been more 
particular. We expect more from the women now than formerly and we 
are not disappointed. 

Rev. Dr. Blodget, A. B. C. F. M., Peking, said: — 

Pai-ents who may be parting with their daughters to go to China, as 
unmarried missionaries, will naturally be very anxious as to their welfare. 
They will wish to know in what manner, and with whom they are 
to live. 

There are missions in which unmarried ladies live in what is called 
" a home." In other missions they live in the families of married mis- 
sionaries. T much desire that the ladies here present, should prepare a 
statement of their views as to the best way in which unmarried mission- 
ary ladies can be situated, so as with happiness and usefulness to prose- 
cute their work. 

While speaking I may add that no one has a deeper sense of the 
value of woman's work in missions than myself. One of the most useful 
missionaries of the American Board in China was the late Mrs. Bridgman. 
Her successors have been in every way worthy to follow in her footsteps. 

Rev. Dk. Douglas, E. P. M., Amot, 

Wished to correct a serious error in Dr. Happer's paper, viz.; that 
female labourers were alone able to reach the women in China. Whatever 
it might be iiT Canton, they had already heard that it was not so in 
Shantung and Swatow; and certainly it was not so at Amoy. A large 
number of female members had been gathered into the Church in the sta- 
tions in the interior round Amoy, without any use of female labourers. 

He also desired to protest against a suggestion in the same paper, 
which he considered highly dangerous, namely that separate chapels 
should be set apart for female converts. However careful we ought to 
be not to interfere unnecessarily with the customs of the people, yet we 
ought to guard most strenuously against perpetuating, and much more 
against strengthing, customs opposed to the spirit of the Scriptures. 
Now the seclusion of women in China is not nearly so strict as it is 
sometimes said to be. With due care, we could gradually increase their 
liberty : and at any cost we must not perpetuate the injurious distinction 
between men and women in public worship. In many places it may for 
some time remain necessary to have a light partition ; but by no means 
have separate chapels. 

Mjiy Ikli. DISCUSSION. 155 

Rkv. Du. Talmauk, a. R. C. M., said :— 

In the main 1 agree witli l^r. Douglas. Perliaps on one point liig 
language needs just a little qualilieation. As ho says, women in the 
region of Amoj arc reached by the (Jospel without the omploynieut of 
Hihle-women, but then it should be remembered that in connection with 
all the churches in Amoy there are, and liave been for many years, (al- 
most from the beginniug.) classes for the instruction of women conducted 
by the ladies of the missions. These classes are of immense value. In 
the country churches it is different, and there the ignorance of the 
womeu is most lamentable. We find it almost impossible to instruct 
them. Of course in preaching we use the simplest language we can com- 
mand. In order to gain their attention and, if possible, impress truth on 
their minds, I am accustomed in the midst of my preaching frequently to 
ask them questions. SititaOle ]?iblo women would be of great use, but wo 
have not yet been able to find any such, and we fear that the employment 
of unsuitable ones would do more injury than good. Therefore we have 
never employed any. 

There are defects in tlie arrangement of many of our chapels. 
Screens are used to separate the women from the men. Often they are 
so arranged as to place the women behind the preacher. This interferes 
greatly with their understanding of the preaching. But on account of 
the state of society and the feelings of the people throughout our whole 
region we cannot yet dispense with the screens. 

Our schools are all for children connected with Christians. We do 
not absolutely refuse the admission of heathen children to the scliools, 
but do not seek after them and only receive a very few. 

Rev. J. S. Roberts, A. P. M., Shanghai. 

Wished to emphasise that part of Mrs. [Crawford's Paper which 
referred to the necessity of dealing with Chinese women on the principles 
of common sense. 

The same principles would admit of a wider application to the 
Chinese in general. There is danger of our pampering them, of laying 
ourselves open to imposition by persons who show an interest in religion 
only with a view to worldly gain. ^tr. Roberts felt that the topic of the 
essay was the central one, the most important that the Conference had to 
consider, because evei'ywhere woman was fundamental, and exerted a 
controlling influence in society, none the less so because modest and un- 
obtrusive. When moved, she carried with her the whole framework of 
society. He cited an instance that had lately come under his own observa- 
tion, of a woman who was affected to tears by the manifastation of the 
truth in that passage of Matt. VIII., which narrates the cleansing of the 
leper. In such cases as her's, or when any interest at all was exhibited, 
his plan was to follow them up by his j[assistants to their houses, and 
keep up their acquaintance ; and, thus, lead them to regular attendance 
upon the house and ordinances of God. He did not go in person, at first, 
for fear of frightening them off entirely. 

The Rev. J. Hci>t;oN Taylor, C. I. M. Chingkiang, said : — 

I feel so much interested in this important work that I should be glad 
if a whole day could be devoted to its discussion. I wish that some of our 
sisters here could be induced to speak of their own work, and as our 
meeting is a Conference and not a church meeting, I think this would be 
as unobjectionable as it is desirable. 

jS6 DISCUSSION. May 14th. 

Scriphtre Pictures liave been found by ladies in our mission to be 
very helpful. They have found that, after explaining them, leading ques- 
sions, stimulating thought and drawing replies from the women themselves 
have instructed some who were unable to follow a consecutive address. 

Singing for Jesus has become quite a recognized branch of evange- 
listic effort in Great Britain since the recent spiritual quickenings. God 
has bestowed this talent pre-eminently on ladies and they are wise in 
using it for Christ. Some members of our mission have found it attrac- 
tive and helpful in house to house visitation to a degree far beyond 
their expectation. Such a hymn as. 

■' Jesus loves me ; this I kuow, 
" For the Bible tells me so," 

repeated, explained, and sung has greatly pleased and interested women, 
and has fixed the words " Jesus loves me," indelibly, I think, in some 
minds. Chinese ladies have invited female friends to meet the mission- 
ary ladies, and they have found 20, 30 or even 40 women waiting to hear 
the Gospel sung. Where it has been tried it has almost invariably led 
to repeated invitations; and at each visit the singing is eagerly asked for. 
Hospitality is also useful. A missionary wife who has a large family, 
and who would keep them as far as possible unpolluted by heathenisin 
cannot go out much, or engage in much direct effort. But one of the 
ladies of our mission thus circumstanced, has done much by inviting the 
wives of native Christians and their female relatives to visit her for one 
or several weeks. Chinese women and ladies from considerable distances — 
70 miles or so, in one case — have been brought under the sound of the 
Gospel, and under the influence of Christian fantihj life. To my know- 
ledge some have learned to read the Bible, and some have been brought 
to Christ. One was long the only witness — a witness under sore perse- 
cution — for Christ in a dark and wholly unevangelized district. Re- 
cently two souls have been given her, the fruit of her prayers and labours, 
as companions in the heavenly journey. 

Miss A. M. Fields, A. B. M. U., Swatow, said : — 

She came to the Conference with no intention of speaking in it, but 
just now feeling that speaking was a part of the work she had to do for 
her Lord, she would relate her personal experience in teaching Bible- 

"I went" she said, "to Swatow four years ago, and having pre- 
viously acquired some knowledge of the language, was able to enter upon 
my work at once. There were then about one hundred female members 
in our church, and I resolved that I would teach them, and jwepare from 
among them a class of evangelists who should go out and labor in the 
villages. Only two of the whole number of female members could read. 
I began with five old, wrinkled, ignorant women. And here let me advise 
any lady who wishes to do work of a similar kind, not to wait until veiy 
suitable persons are found , not to be over-particular about the quality of 
the material she takes in hand, but to make use of whatever God has 
provided. The women may be old, blind, bound-footed, degraded, stupid, 
yet if God has stamped them as His, if they show by their lives that tliey 
have been called by Him into His church, then take what He has given 
you and make the best of them, and He will afterward furnish you 
with better. 

May Mill. discussion. loT 

The foinale membei's vi tlie cliuivh resided in dilTerent villages, 
scattered over seven districts of tlie Department, and in order to become 
a( quainted with tlie cir<'umstunees of eacli, i was obliged to visit these 
villages. Aly ]ilan was to lodge in the chapels, and spend the day in 
visitijig from house to house, meeting the women together at the ihapel 
on Sunday. In this way 1 became somewhat acquainted with the indivi- 
dual character, surn)undings and family of every woman, and thus 
gathered all those who were able to leave lu)me, with the view of being 
trained as iJible-womeu. 

I never ask any one with a family of young children to become a 
Bible-woman, nor allow any woman to enter upon this work without her 
husband's consent ; but 1 endeavour to impress upon those who are 
widows, aiul those whom Providence has made free from domestic cares, 
that their circumstances constitute a call to this work. These are asked to 
leave home and come to my house for two months to learn to lead. This 
gives mo further opportunity for studying the character and testing the 
ability of the women, and at the end of two months, or in four or six 
months, all those who are found to be incompetent are sent back to their 
homes. Thirty-three have been thus taught, and of this number, seventeen 
have proven incompetent and sixteen who have shown fair ability have 
been for a year or more employed as Bible-women. I always A'isit the 
stations to which the liible-women go, and never .send them to places 
where I have not ntyself been. They bring me a report of their work once 
in two months, and it is only by having personal knowledge of the 
locality and its people that 1 can properly understand the report. The 
constant personal superintendence of the foreign missionary lady is of the 
utmost importance. Without this there will be mis-directed effort, waste 
of money, discouragement and failure. 

If circumstances do not permit this regular superintendence of the 
women's work, the next best thing is to merely teach the women of the 
church to read, give them an impetus in telling to their heathen neigh- 
bours what they know of the Gospel, and leave the work to be done with- 
out paid agents, letting the women all remain at their own homes. I do 
not pay the women any wages except when they go from home, and many 
of them do go forty or fifty miles from home to places where all are 
heathen strangers. 

In teaching them to road I employ a nativ^e Christian teacher, for I 
never do for the Chinese what they can do for themselves quite as well. I 
teach them by going over all the lessons with them, and explaining and 
illustrating what they learn to read. The truest teaching I give them is 
wholly practical. I watch their daily lives, and bring them in common- 
est things to deliberately choose between their own way and their Lord's 
way. 1'his is a laying on of hands by which we impart to them the 
spirit of oI)edience, and communicate to them our own love and faith. 
When they know Christ, and arc in Christ they become willing to sulfer 
for Christ. We must bring them where He himself will touch them, and 
make them His apostles. They must be able to truly say "We have 
heard him ourselves — and know that this is indeed tlie Saviour of the 
world." Until they have attained this, it were far better not to send 
tliem out at all as Bible-women. 

For the successful training and use of female evangelists in a mis- 
sion, the cooperation of our brother missionaries is very necessaiy. 
Whatever success I have had hitherto is in large measure due to the 
steady and hearty sympathy of the male members of our mission. And if 
any of my sisters finds this help wanting. T think she should stop her 

ir>8 Discussioi^. MayMth. 

work and devote lierself to praying for the conversion of lier male 
associates ! 

One word abont money. People at home are ready to give for the 
support of this work. We have only to draw up a definite plan and lay 
it before our acquaintances, and the money wherewith to carry it out 
will come to us. When we lack money, then it is time for us to look to 
our methods, and see if we have not in some degree departed from the 
Gospel pattern in our manner of working. He who sends us on the 
Great Commission will not let ns lack any equipment needful for doing 
the woi-k, so long as we work in His way. This way, which is a plain 
and direct fulfillment of His command to preach the Gospel to every crea- 
ture, will never be closed for want of funds. 

Another important point, is that it should not be taken up as a mere- 
ly incidental work. The idea has too much prevailed in our missions, 
that Bible-women, if we have them at all, must be raised up in a super- 
natual way, and without direct labor on our part, and the work of mak- 
ing them has been left to unassisted nature and grace. But it should 
have in every mission the separate care of one who has no other cares, 
one who is specially set apart for this duty, and who will devote herself 
body, soul and spirit to its accomplishment. 

Chinese women, by their mental constitution and general character 
are eminently fitted for being trained as evangelists. Under the teach- 
ing of the missionary, and the Holy Spirit, they are capable of becoming 
holy, upright, faithful, zealous Christian laborers. They are of the stuff 
of which martyrs have from the beginning of the world been made, and 
they are destined to become a great j)ower in the future evangelization of 

And as to the work of preparing them for their destiny — it is one 
fit for the hands of angels, and the joy ^of success in it is such as is fit 
for the hearts of ansrels. 

Rev. Dr. Edkixs, L. M. S., Pekixg, said : — 

There is one point in Mrs. Crawford's essay w'hicli I wish to speak of . 
I heard it said that there is no settled standard for female education and 
that therefore we must make one. 

1 went lately into the bookshops of Peking to look for books em- 
ployed to teach girls and found one called Nil sze shoo, " the girls' four 
books." About this book I will say a word. 

First there is the work of Ts'itoW ta koo, of the Han d^masty. She 
was the most eminent of the learned women that have adorned the annals 
of Chinese literature. The book treats of morals. Then comes a book 
written by one of a family of seven sisters of the T'ang dynasty, who 
agreed not to marry, and that they would spend their lives in the study 
of literature. This book also treats of morals. 

This is followed by a work containing anecdotes of wise and virtuous 
women in the order of the dynasties. 

Lastly, there is a treatise written by one of the earliest empresses of 
the Ming dynasty. It is the longest and most complete of them all. 

The whole work is in two thin volumes and I recommend it 
as an example of what the Chinese think as to the proper standard of 
female educatioji. The whole of it is in the book language, explained 
bv a commentarv. 

lliiy 1 kh. lascussio.v. l-VJ 

On this book 1 would grouiul u wtiruiiiL,^ to tlioso wlio think woinairs 
work for woman in China has only to do with the colloquial and that we 
must teach only the poor, in fact wo must embrace the poor and the rich, 
and must have books suitable for the families of the literati as well as for 
the ignorant who need to be taught to read. 

Let me remind you of the grand daughter of Sii Kwang k'i, minister 
of state in tlie ^ling dynasty and the most eminent of lioman Catholic; 
converts. Her name was Candace. It is said of her in the history of the 
Roman Catholic Christianity of those times that she was accustomed to 
Kcnd out poor blind persons through the villages in this great plain (for 
she was a resident of Shanghai.) that they might teach the simple ])oor 
the Gospel by singing it with an accompaniment on a rude musical in- 
strument. 1 suppose this has something to do with the sti'iking success 
of the Koman Catholic missions is this region. It is a most important 
point to have women of ardent piety engaged in missionary labour, and 
to ensure success it is essential that they should be tilled with love for 
the Redeemer and compassion for the souls of those they teach. 

Twenty years ago when we heard definite particulars of the condition 
of the Jews in Kai feng foo, and received in Shanghai a collection of the 
Pentateuch and other Hebrew books we searched them to know if the 
Jews in that city were still in possession of their peculiar doctrines and 
there was one jjoint in which I remember feeling deeply interested. They 
speak of the tree of life in the Paradise of God, and they say that under 
it there are the seven holy men and seven holy women famed in antiquity. 
This was the solitary relic of the belief in immortality which we could 
find in these writings of the Jews. Xow it must be for us to strive that 
we may have not seven only but a myriad voiced multitude of the people 
of this land, women, and men, gathered under the tree of life in the 
Paradise of God. For this we must labour and for this we must pray. 

Rev. T. p. Ciuwfoed, A. S. B. C, Tungchow, said : — 

I rise to explain a i-emark in Mrs. Crawford's essay which I fear 
has been misunderstood by some. She did not mean that the missionary 
Ladies should have separate chajjels for the women, or in any sense ad- 
vocate the idea of separating the sexes in worship and other religious 
matters — such a course she, as well as myself, would thoroughly deprecate. 
She meant that every lady should have a well furnished " n'om " — a sort 
of special parlor — in connection with her dwelling house, where she could 
receive the women for instruction and prayer. Still, like Dr. Graves, 
we would not object to occasional services for them in the chapels, should 
circumstances require it. 

For wise reasons the Bible has withheld both the Priesthood and 
the ministry from woman but nothing else. She still has great liberty 
and a wide field of usefulness left lier, which we should fully recognize 
and respect — when the native sisters reach the high pla<.-e on which our 
missionary sisters stand, then they will receive the same generous 

Rev. Dr. Williamson, S. U. P. M., CnKFOo, said: — 

That a small room opened in villages, where women could slip^ in 
and out without being much seen, where it was well known a Bible 
woman would be found, and where services could be held, was an im- 
mense advantage in cariying on this kind of work. 

160 ESSAY. May 15th. 

Thei'e was an objection to taking'into scliools girls wlio were betrothed, 
but in Shantung unless they did so they would have no girls at all, as 
they were all betrothed at a very early age in that province. But he had 
found that in almost all cases these girls had held their own after leaving 
the schools, and had been of great good in their familes and villages. 
He therefore did not much object to previous bethrothal. 

Eev. W. S. Holt, A. P. M., Shanghai, said : — 

I wish to say a few words to counteract the impression conveyed by 
Dr. Happer's Paper, that girls schools can be readily opened and provid- 
ed with attendants. The opposite of this is true in the Soochow dis- 
trict where I have lived. It is almost an impossibility to secui'e the atten- 
dance of girls in our Day schools. Boarding schools have not been tried. 
In our experience we have eight boys to one giid in the school opened foi' 
the girls. Doubtless the same is true of other places than Soo Chow. 

M.ORNING Session. 


On the Relation of Protestant Missions to Education. 


Rev. R. Lechler, B. M. S., Hongkong. 

The first point to be established will be that there is such a relation, 
and subsequently it will have to be shown, what the practical working of 
that relation should be. 

It is said tliat when the Duke of Wellington was asked his opinion 
on missions, he answered : "The Church knows her marching orders, 
let the church act up to them." 

The noble Duke referred to Matthew 28, 19 where we read the fol- 
lowing words of Christ. " Go ye therefore and teach, or make disciples 
of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the Son 
and of the Holy Ghost, teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever 
I have commanded you ; and lo, I am with you alway, even to the end of 
the world." 

There Christ gave to his disciples their commission, prescribed to 
them their duties and gave to them the promise of his pei-petual presence. 
The Church may never lose sight of this, but is bound to heed the Masters 
command, even to the end of the world. It is the glory of a Protestant 
Missionary to go to the heathen with the Bible in his hand, in order to 
teach them the truths contained in the Divine volume. The Chinese ai*e 
mindful of it, and say that we preach, whilst the Roman Catholic mission- 
aries rehearse prayers. The command of Christ is to make disciples of all 
nations by baptising and teaching. Baptism is to be administered in the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost. The Greek 
text reads eig- to ovojua so that the name of the Triune Jehovah is the ob- 
ject into which the individual is to be baptised or immersed. That is to 
say, that he is to be planted into communion of the life of God, to be 

ilay l.'.tli. KSSAY. Itil 

owned by (1<hI, and to lu' ablr to realise God as Father, Ilcdeeraer and 
Sanctifier. Tliereft)re the individual wants instnielion in order to learn 
liow to make use of the graee of (jod, whieb has been put witliin his 
rcfteh l)v the aet of God in baptism. Thus edueatiou comes in as a solemn 
duty from whieh the mission cannot withdraw. Our Lord even points 
out the objeit of instruction by the words : "Teaching them to observe 
all things, whatsoever I have commanded you." 

How the Apostles understood the command of Jesus will be best seen 
from the words of St. Panl in Acts 20, 18-:21, where he says: "Ye 
know from the first day that I came into Asia, after what manner I have 
been with you at all seasons, serving the Lord with all humility of mind, 
and with many tears and temptations, and how I kept back nothing that 
was profitable unto you, but have shewed j'ou, and have taught you, 
publicly, and from house to house testifying both to the Jews and 
also to the Greeks repentance toward God, and faith toward our 
Lord Jesus Christ." We can see from this that the Apostle lays stress 
on his own exam2:)le as well as on his teaching, and indeed he may do so, 
for the words of Jesus, "whatsoever I have commanded you," natural- 
ly apjilied in the first instance to the Apostles them.selves, that they 
should keep the commands of their Master, being doers of the word and 
not prcixchers only. The nations require instruction by example. The 
holy life of a preacher of the Gospel is the open book which all will be 
able to read, and blessed is the man wdio can say wdth the Apostle Paul : 
'* Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them which walk, so 
as ye have us for an example." Phil. 3, 17. It will be evident, that 
the teachings of the Apostles were not intended to impart science, to set 
up a new system of philosophy, or in any way to gratify that Athenian 
curiosity, which ever asks to hear a new thing. On the contrary, the 
effect was to enforce obedience to the faith, as is plainly stated in Rom. 
1, 5, and ch. 16, 25, 2(3. " By whom we have received grace and Apostle- 
ship for obedience to the faith among all nations." 

The Apostles were the less hampered in the performance of this 
their work as the nations to whom they then addressed themselves, were 
highly civilised nations to whom there was no necessit}'^ of bringing any 
Jewish culture or science, since Jews and Gentiles at that time stood 
essentially on the same level of civilisation. The teachings of the Apost- 
les could therefore be concentrated on the testimony of God's plan of 
salvation from sin and damnation through Jesus Christ. 

It is further to be rcmendiered, that the surrounding nations of Judica 
liad by the design of God been subject to a course of preliminary educa- 
tion for nearly three centuries. The Scriptures were translated into 
Greek, Jews were congregated in every city of the Roman Empire, Syna- 
gogues were everywhere established, in which the true God was wor- 
shipped and his word expounded. Hundreds and thou.sands of devout 
Pro.selytes were gathered from among the heathen, and taught to look for 
the salvation that was to come out of Zion, and thus a broad foundation 
for the Christian Church was laid in evei'y part of the then civilised 
world and the Apostles found already done to their hands a preparatory 
work, which we in our time have to do ourselves. 

Nevertheless it is a fact, that the Church from the beginning of the 
world has by Divine appointment been an educational institute. This is 
her distinctive character and it is her duty to preserve it even unto the end 
of the world. With the oracles of God committed to the ancient church, 
the whole ritual service, the Sa])baths and festivals, the order of priests 
and Levites and the religious literature of tlie Hebrews — is it po.ssiblc for 

162 ESSAY. May IStli. 

us to conceive of a set of institutions, better adapted to imbue a whole 
nation with religious knowledge than those ordained of God under the 
old dispensation ? 

As then God made the Church under the old dispensation an educa- 
tional institute, and prepai'ed the way for the dissemination of the Gospel 
by previously causing Judaism to be extensively diffused, so also in the 
organization of the Christian Church, He gave it the same distinctive 
educational character. He appointed the Apostles to go forth and teach. 
They in their turn appointed presbyters and teachers in the churches 
which were established of whom it was specially required, that they 
should be SidanriKOi i.e. apt to teach. Having thus established the first 
point of the relation of Protestant missions to education and shown that 
there is the solemn duty incumbent upon us to teach the nations, I shall 
now proceed to show, what the practical woi'king of this duty is to be. 

It has been asserted, and with great truth, that knowledge lies at the 
foundation of all religion. How pitiful is the complete ignorance of the 
heathen, even in matters of their own religion. On almost every in- 
quiry made regarding the reason why they worship their gods, you 
invariably get the answer : "We do not know. We do as we do because 
our fathers and forefathers have done so too." This ignorance engenders 
indifference and spiritual death just as the knowledge of God brings 
man into the life of communion with God, as Christ said : "And this is 
life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus 
Christ, whom thou hast sent." 

This is the knowledge which we have to impart to this nation 
in which our lot has been cast, and the question is, which is the best 
method to set to work ? Let ns first take a glance at the individuals 
M'ith whom we have to do. The Chinese are not a barbarous nation. 
They have attained to such a degree of civilisation, that we must readily 
acknowledge thein to be superior to any other heathen nation. What — 
with their history extending over a space of four thousand years, with 
their government based on the principle of the relation of a parent to his 
children, with their high appreciation of the duty of filial piety, the high 
estimation in which they hold their Classics and their love for learning, 
their acknowledgment of the Supreme Ruler on High, rewarding the 
virtuous and punishing the wicked — we have before us a nation, that 
stands out prominently from among the rest of the nations of this world. 
Common sense distinguishes the Chinese as a people, and therefore the 
teachings of Confucius obtained with them such universal acceptance, 
whilst the deeper philosophy of Lau-tze did not suit their taste. In their 
social lift! they avoided the disastrous error of ci'eating castes, and in their 
religious life they did not fall into the still more grievous crime of deify- 
ing vice. 

Nevertheless they are heathen, and in the same degree as their con- 
ceptions of God are defective, so they have also erroneous notions of the 
world, of maia in his present state of sin and apostacy from God, and of 
the means whereby they can escape misery and be restored to happiness 
and eteimal life. Their mind is filled with superstition, and must be 
emptied of the foul and deformed images which have accumulated therein, 
before it is possible, that the forms of purity and truth can enter and 
dwell in them. They have a great deal to unlearn, before they can learn 
anything aright. We must remember, that the mind is never empty and 
if it has not right views concerning God, the Universe and itself, it has 
wrong ones. These noxious weeds must be pulled np, that the seeds of 
Divine truth may the better take root and grow. From this it will be 

May Ifith. ESSAY. 1C3 

seen, wliat a stupendous task of education is to be performed, and wo 
must do it. 

It must appear i'0!n]>aralivclv a small matter to introduce tlic human 
sciences ijito a country, to teach the heathen a foreign lanf^uago, and to 
induce them to adoj)t the civil and social institutions of Christian coun- 
tries, when compared with these profoundest themes of human thought 
about God, his being, liis attributes and his relation to the woi'ld, about 
man's origin, fall, present state and future destiny, about the way of sal- 
vation through Jesus Christ, and about the nature and oflice of the Holy 
Spirit. It will be evident from this, that we must take a large view of 
our duty in regard to education, and not confine it to mere school work, 
which nevertheless finds its place in proper order. In fact, we must pay 
proper attention to all the thi-ee agencies at our command for the dis- 
semination of the truth to enlighten the heathen. These are — the pulpit, 
the schoolroom and the press, and there is scarcely another country in 
the world where there is more scope for an efficient application of all of 
these agencies than China. Let us consider them seriatim. Every ono 
will admit, I presume, thaf the oral preaching of the woi*d of God is the 
first duty of a missionary. To be able to do so, he has first of all to learn 
the language of the people he is sent to teach. The safest way to gain 
this point, is by a close intercourse with the people, by which means he 
will not only acquire the proper idiom of the language, but make him- 
self at the same time acquainted with their mode of thought and their 
peculiar views. It is from this vantage ground, the missionary has to 
combat their errors and superstitions, and to lead them gradually to the 
truth. If he can so ojwn his mouth as to discourse intelligibly on religi- 
ous subjects, he will never be at a loss for an audience in this country, as 
he has neither to travel through large tracts of land before he can meet 
a human being as in Africa, nor is he shunned by people like the Brah- 
mins in India, who fear to become defiled by contact with any one 
who is not of their caste. The social habits of the Chinese greatly 
facilitate intercourse with them, and it would be the missionary's own 
fault, if he choose to confine himself to a chapel or preaching place, in- 
stead of imitating our heavenly Master who at one time made a boat his 
pulpit, and at another time sat on a mountain having his audience gathered 
round him, who indeed spoke to the people in the temple or in the syna- 
gogues, but taught also Mary in her own house, or Simon at his table. 
Let him also not make elaborate speeches, but let him lay God's plan of 
salvation in plain language before his hearers chiefly narrating the his- 
torical events given in the Bible from the time of creation to the time of 
the accomplishment of the work of redemption through Jesus Christ. 

When by this mode of preaching souls have been awakened, it will 
be time to commence with them a different mode of instruction, feeding 
them not oidy with the milk of the Gospel, but giving them also stronger 
food, keepiTig back nothing from them, that is 2)rofitablo unto them for 
the spiritual life. 

After the formation of a church by baptism the members are still to 
be considered as disciples, who have to continue to learn, and who have 
a claim on the missionary for continued instruction, in order that they 
ma}' become perfect as to their own knowledge, and also be able to do 
what St. Peter required from his Christians, when he says : " Be ready 
alwaj-s, to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the 
hope that is in you with meekness and fear." I. Peter 3, 15. 

The schoolroom comes into requisition chiefly when a congregation 
has been formed and there are children who must be educated. 

164 ESSAY. May I5tli. 

I will, liowever, not deny, that circumstances may make it advisable, 
to open scliools even for the admittance of lieatlien cliildren, and I should 
bring the schools under the follow^ing heads. 

First, Heathen Scliools, — as the means of diffusing general religious 
knowledge, with the hope of bringing the children under the influence of 
the Christian religion, and of sowing the seeds of truth into their youth- 
ful hearts ; yea, even with a hope of thus reaching the parents. 

Secondly, Christian Schools, or schools in the congi'egation, as a 
means of giving a Christian education to the young, in order to build up 
and strengthen the church. 

Thirdly, Training Schools, with a view to obtain native assistants 
who in course of time may be able to take upon themselves the charge of 
the congregations as native pastors, or to do duty as teachei's of schools, 
and as evangelists among their heathen countrymen. 

By way of supplement I would also mention. 

Industrial Schools, Sunday Schools, and Infant Schools. 

It might further be asked, what attitude Christian missionaries 
ought to assume in view of the progressive movement already apparent 
among the Chinese in the establishment of Government schools, news- 
papei's, and other agencies not bearing directly on Christian missions but 
powei'ful engines for the advancement of general culture. 

In answer to this I shall qiiote a passage from a sermon preached by 
the Rev. Ch. Hodge, D.D., in New York, a good while ago. He proposes 
the question : Is the Church to teach secular knowledge ? And says : 
/' The proper answer to this question undoubtedly is, that the Church is 
bound to teach the Bible, and other things only as far as they are neces- 
sary or imjDortant to the right understanding of the Bible. This exception 
however covers the whole field of human knowledge. The Bible is a 
wonderful book, it brings every thing within its sweep, its truths radiate 
in every direction, and become implicated with all other truths, so that no 
form of knowledge, nothing which serves to illustrate the nature of God, 
the constitution of the Universe, or the powers of the human soul fails to 
do homage and render service to the book of God. We cannot teach the 
doctrines of creation and providence, without teaching the true theory of 
the universe, and the proper office of the laws of nature. We can not teach 
the laws of God without teaching moral philosophy. We can not teach 
the doctrines of sin and regeneration without teaching the nature and 
faculties of the soul. Christianity as the highest form of knowledge, 
comprehends all forms of truth. Whilst, therefore, the Church is mindful 
that her vocation is to teach the Bible, she cannot forget that the Bible 
is the friend of all truth and the enemy of all error. The Church is the 
light of the world. She has the right to subsidise all departments of 
knowledge, those principalities and powers, and force them to do homage 
to Him, to whom everything that has power must be made subservient." 

After these general remarks, I shall now go into details and endea- 
vour to discuss the different schools. 

As regards First, the Heatlien Schools, the question must be, are 
they available as an evangelising agency ? For if not, we can have no- 
thing to do with them. I am prepared to answer this question in the 
affirmative, under the following conditions : — 

1. That there be Christian masters to conduct such schools. 

2. That there should be sufficient supei'intending power on the part 
of the missionaries. 

3.^ That mission funds be not too lai'gely drawn upon for an object, 
the result of which must always be more or less indirect. 

May l^tli. ESSAY. lOo 

If utulor tliose conditions Heathen schools can be opened, tlieve can 
be no objection to llieni, and we may liojjo tliat direct as well as indiieit 
pood will result from them ; for — direi-tly, the children received into such 
schools will be benefitted by being taiii,dit to read and wiite their own 
lan<rua«^e, and by receiving instruction in Christian truths; indirectly 
the parents may be reached, and the way become j)aved for introducing 
Christian knowledge into the homes of the children. 

Jt should be understood, that in these schools one half of the time 
is to be devoted to Christian, and the other half to purely Chinese teach- 
ing. Ample room will thus be given for the exercise of Christian in- 
fluence on the minds of the scholars, whilst at the same time due deference 
is paid to their national I'equirements. We must make it a point, not to 
denationalise the scholars, but to bring them the truth in as much of a 
national garb as possible. I should not advocate the introduction of a 
foreign language or of western sciences into such schools, but would have 
them conducted on the same principle as Chinese schools generally are, 
with the exccpticm only that Christianity be taught in them. 

The Kev. Z. A. Hanspach of the lierlin ^Mission tried the experiment 
of such schools on the largest scale, and had at one time no fewer than 
188 schools with an attendance of about 1500 scholars. The way in 
which he set to work, was this. 

He visited a good many villages over a wide area in the province of 
Quangtung and made his calls in the established schools. Whenever he 
found the schoolmasters accessible he proposed to them to let their 
scholars read Christian books part of the day. When they consented, 
Mr. Hanspach provided the books for the scholai's, and promised the 
teachers to pay them by results. In some instances Mr. Hanspach es- 
tablished schools, where there had been none before, and appointed 
Christian teachers to them, and it was his aim, to gradually supply 
Christian masters for all of these schools, if he could possibly get the 
men. The scholars learnt the Christian "Three character classic" and 
" Four character classic," the Catechism and Bible histories, and Mr. 
Hanspach made his regular round in the schools, in order to ascertain 
what the scholars had learnt. He then explained the books to them, and 
made much use of Biblical pictures, with entire sets of which he had 
furnished several of the schools in order to teach Bible history by object 
lessons. The scheme seemed to work well for a time, both directly and 
indirectly. Mr. Hanspach was full of hopes to draft from schools 
the most talented of the boys and to gather them into a sort of centi-al 
school where he might train them to become native assistants. He like- 
wise found access to the villagers, who welcomed him as a benefactor to 
their children, and he succeeded in establishing several little churches 
here and thei-e, which were the fruit of his exertions in this line of mis- 
sion work. But the want of Christian teachers, the want of superintend- 
ing power, and the want of funds caused the schools to fail, and the suc- 
cessors of Mr. Hanspach did not continue them to the same extent, but 
directed their attention more to Christian Schoolx. 

As regards these, SvcomUi/, thei-e can be no question of expediency, 
as Christian schools form part of our duty. If we desire to see our work 
prospering and progressing, we must have schools to educate the children 
of the members of the Church, in order to teach them the word of God 
from their earliest youth and to train them up in Christian knowledge. As 
the religious atmosphere in the Christian family will support the labours 
of the schools, better results can be counted upon here, than in the case 
of heathen schools. 

166 ESSAT. May 15th. 

It ought to be made obligatory for Christian parents, to send their 
children to school. Experience has shown that time-worn customs still 
exercise some influence over the minds of Chinese Christians, and as, for 
instance, the education of the female sex is not considered a necessity by 
many Chinese, even Christians have been found reluctant to bear the 
inconvenience of sending their girls to school, instead of having them 
tend the cattle, or do other menial work. 

The Mission Board in Basel has always laid great stress on the 
educational part of mission work, and lest the poor should complain of 
hardship, the mission has been always willing, to take upon itself the 
onus of providing for the children, by establishing boarding schools for 
boys and for girls, merely charging a nominal sum to the parents for the 
support of their children, in order to remind them of their duty. 

Boys and girls might under some circumstances and up to a certain 
age visit the Christian school together, as is the case at home. But as the 
girls need not know all that the boys have to learn, and have besides to 
learn woman's work, the separation of boys and girls schools is to be 

The girls should I'eceive an ordinary education in reading and writ- 
ing the Chinese cliaracters, as well as the Roman Alphabet. By the 
latter, the means of expressing their thoughts in writing, and of reading 
books, printed in this style, is much sooner put within their reach and 
therefore they are benefitted by it. The method of teaching the Chinese 
characters is from the beginning to be a rational one, and by no means 
an imitation of the Chinese method, by which a mass of indigestible stuff 
is crammed into the minds of the children, which entirely prevents 
reflection, and does not draw out the mind, nor develope the spiritual 

As no Chinese schoolbooks are available for such a purpose, they 
have to be made by the missionaries themselves, beginning with a Primer, 
and continuing in methodical gradation. 

Besides the religious instruction, the girls should learn arithmetic, 
geography, history and singing, as well as composition. Of woman's 
work they ought to be taught that which will be most useful to them in 
their future homes. No servants ought to be allowed in girls' schools, as 
the girls ought to get nsed to doing all the work themselves, and learn 
cooking, washing and cleaning as well as sewing, knitting, spinning and 
embroidery. When at an average the girls remain six years in such a 
school, they have had a good chance to lay a solid foundation for their 
future welfare, and may be expected to fulfil their duties in life as 
Christian wives and mothers, to the glory of God and to the benefit of 
the Church. 

As regards boys' schools, our object should be not only to fit them 
for life, but also to give them such an education as will qualify them in 
future to give their services to the Church, that is, as many as may be 
called, to become teachers, evangelists or native pastors. The Basel mis- 
sion has for this purpose a gradation of schools, beginning with the ele- 
mentary school and ascending to the secondaiy, the middle school, and 
the theological seminary. Of coui'se, not every boy is either gifted 
eliough for, nor may he have a calling to such an ofiice. From among six- 
ty boys of an elementary school, there may perhaps only six be sifted 
out, who are finally able to take ofiice. Dui'ing the number of years 
wkich are required for a scholar to pass all the above schools, it will be- 
come apparent what he is fit for, not only on the score of talent he may 
have, but also from his character and his inclinations. I do, however, 

May [.'■til. K8SAY. 167 

not mean to say, that such schools are our only resources to rely on for 
getting native a^ssistaiits. TIrm-o may be cases, where .apart from a pro- 
longed training through a number of years, the Lord may call a man to 
His work even from the plough or from tending cattle, as He calleil the 
prophets in the time of the old dispensation. 

I rejoice to say, that the Basel mission has several such men in the 
woi'k, who are doing good service. If any member of the congregation 
is truly converted, and the love of Christ is so shed abroad in his lieart, 
as to constrain him to devote his life to the service of Christ, such a man 
may be employed, even without special training. Still it has been our 
custom to take such men in for one year, and to help them on to a deeper 
knowledge of the Bible, so that they themselves may the better under- 
stand God's word and also be better able to speak of the truth to others. 
But although such men may be very useful in doing pioneering work, 
there is certainly also a want of more educated men, in order to meet all 
the requirements of mission work. For this purpose, Thirdly, Training 
schools are indispensable. 

After the boys have received an elementary instruction, they must be 
initiated in sciences which are usually not taught in Chinese schools, but 
are very essential to a sound education. They must not be kept in that 
lamentable ignoi-ance of everj'thing else, except the Classics, and Chinese 
com|x)sition. Of course these things must also be taught in Christian 
schools, and even in the elementary schools the scholars cannot be 
entirely spared the task of committing the Classics to memor}^. There 
should, however, a selection be made of the most useful or necessary from 
the classical books, and an anthology should be got up for the special use 
of Christian schools. It must always be kept in view, that the young 
men whom we wish to train for mission work, ought to bo able to 
meet their educated countrymen on their own ground of acquaintance 
with the Classi s, only that they do not have that idolatrous veneration 
for the sayings of Confucius and ^Mencius, as the heathen Chinese have, 
but learn to look into their classical books from the light of Divine truth, 
and know how to discern truth from error. If by the use of an anthology 
this aim has been gained, it might be left to their private industry to 
make themselves masters of the rest. 

A very desirable thing would be a comraentaiy on the Four Books 
from a Christian point of view. Any missionary having time, and the 
ability to execute such a work, would lay Christiaii schools under great 
obligation. Such a commentary would have to point out not only what 
is inadmi.ssible in the teachings of the great philosophers of China, when 
compared with the word of God, but also what other learned men in 
China objected to, or diifered from, although they were silenced by 
higher command, and Choo Foo-tze alone was acknowledged as the ortho- 
dox interpreter of the classics. 

The point has been mooted, whether it was not advisable, to leave 
out entirely the Chinese Classics, yea even the characters from the time 
table of Christian schools, on account of the waste of time, which prevents 
a more effective teaching of western sciences. Experience has also shown 
that the attention of the scholars was chiefly directed to their Chinese 
studies, and these seemed to engage their interest a gi-eat deal more, than 
all the other lessons. It was feared that the influence which Confucius 
was thus gaining over the youthful minds would act injuriously on them, 
and hinder their progress in their theological training, i should, however, 
look upon such a step as a wrong measure. If it happen, that such fears 
were realised, it would of course be unfortunate, and I will admit that a 

IGS ESSAY. May 15tli. 

scholar wliose inclinations lean too much to Chinese learning, is not like- 
ly to become a good native missionary. But we must also look at the 
other side of the question, and remember to what sort of a battle our 
young men are to go forth and what enemies they will have to combat. 
We desire to give them a good theological training, and thus put into 
their hands the sword of the Spirit which is the word of God and is 
mighty to overcome. But their adversaries, the leaimed among the 
Chinese, will also attack them with their weapons and they would find 
themselves in a very awkward position without a knowledge of the 
Chinese Classics, by which to defend themselves and if it become ap- 
parent, that the Chinese literature is an unknown ground to the native 
missionary, he will get no influence over the litei-ati, as they will scorn 
the idea of being taught anything by an illiterate man. There is cer- 
tainly a difficulty to find out the right proportion of time and labour to 
be bestowed on Chinese and on Western learning, nor is it an easy task 
for a missionary to whose lot the educational duties have fallen, to exe- 
cute them in such an interesting and engaging manner, that the scholars 
get a taste for it, and gradually learn to appreciate the real wisdom which 
is imparted to them. 

I happened to visit our middle school last year, which is under the 
superintendence of the Rev. G. Gussmann, in Nyen-hang-li, in the dis- 
trict of Chonglok. Having learnt that there was some feeling of discon- 
tent among the scholars, because they thought they were not allowed 
sufficient time for the prosecution of their Chinese studies, I had a 
special meeting with them on the subject. I showed them, how neces- 
sary it was that they should get right views of things, and not continue 
in those ludicrous errors, of which the very learned of their countrymen 
were guilty. Do not they believe that China is the Middle Kingdom, round 
which the ocean flows, with some little islands on the East and West, 
indicating the existence of Japan and England or of Java in the South. 
How much better do you know by being taught geography ! Do not 
the Chinese boast themselves to be the favorites of Heaven, whilst other 
nations are looked upon as Barbarians, living in the ^ "^ Kwei fong, 
regions of the Demons ? We teach you history, that you may know how 
God has taken care of all the nations, and has revealed himself not to 
the Chinese first, but to the people of Israel. We teach you astronomy, 
in order to dispel the stupid notions, that eclipses are caused by the 
heaA-enly dog eating out a piece from the sun or moon, and to show you 
the real cause of such natural events. What a bane is Ftmg-shui to your 
country, resting as it does on mistaken notions of the elements and of 
natural science in general. We desire to teach you true notions, because 
truth makes a man noble and free, whilst error degrades and enslaves 

They seemed to see the reality of the case and only objected to 
geometry, as they could not see any use of learning the rules of right 
angles. Two pupils had actually left the school on account of their dis- 
like to this science. But as geometry affords such excellent means of 
teaching boys to think, and of checking the great propensity of the Chi- 
nese to do every thing mechanically, the lessons in it are still continued. 
The whole course in the middle school is four years, during which time, 
besides the above mentioned lessons, the Bible is explained to the schol- 
ars, and they are also taught Bible history, as well as vocal and instru- 
mental music. A Chinese graduate superintends their studies of the 
Classics and teaches them composition. At the end of four years they 
liave to pass an examination and are then transferi-ed to the theological 

May l.'.th. KSSAT. 169 

«eminary which is at Li h)ii<^ in tho Sin on distiict. If there arc any who 
pivfer to boi'oino teacliors, instoail of pivacliors of the Gospul, duo rcj^ard 
is had to tluMr inclinations and an appropriate course of training is insti- 
tuted for them. 

In the theological seminary the real sciences give place to purely 
theological and classical learning. It would not be amiss if tho sciiolar.s 
had learnt a foreign language, in order to get access to foreign literature. 
Several attempts have been made with (lerman, English and Greek, bub 
the scheme lias not been very successful hitherto, chiefly on account of 
want of teaching power on tlie part of the missionaries, but also on ac- 
count of want of time on the part of the scholars. 

The cour.-<e of instruction in the theological seminary extends afraiu 
over four years during which time the students are initiated into the 
tlifferent branches of theological science, continuing at the same timo 
their Cliinese studies. 

Some of the students have tried to join tlie public examinations in 
the district city, but finding out that they could not exactly compete with 
their countrymen who had been devoting all their enei'gy to the solo 
object of writing essays, in order to get a degree of Siu-tsai, they did noti 
repeat the attempt. 

It is of coui-se not our plan, to educate our young men with a view 
of fitting them for an official cai-eer under their own government, but we 
want tliem to enlist as soldiei's of the cross. 

For this purpose they require to be well grounded in Scriptures. 
It is advisable to put various versions in their hands. The text of thd 
Old and New Testament must be well explained to them. They must 
get wlntt is called 'Introduction to the Old and New Testament,' history 
of revelation, and the system of faith. Church history will serve them 
as a warning against heresy, and as a guide in the organisation and 
management of Churches. Kthics, Homiletics, Catechetics and Mcthodics 
are likewise to come in as necessarj- sciences, and also the history of the 
religions of China. I need scarcely mention that devotional exercises are 
not to be neglected, as the cultivation of the heart of the young men is to 
be aimed at as much as the cultivation of their intellect. 

The task of teaching would l)e greatly facilitated, if there wei'e the 
necessary text books at hand. Such however is not the case yet, and 
the missionaries at the head of the educational establishments have to 
work out their own manuscripts for the different sciences they have to 
teach. The students get copies of these manuscripts but nothing has as 
yet appeared in print. What was available in this line of books, has 
been made use of, but there is a great want of good school and doctrinal 
text books. 

Befoi'e the students leave the seminary opportunities must be given 
them for practical work, not merely in the shape of preaching exercises 
in the seminary, but leading* them abroad,- so that they may address 
ci-owds of heathen, and try their skill and coui-age in debating. Should 
any one wish to know what results can be shown from the woi'k of schools 
done hitherto, I am able to point to twelve Catechists who have had a 
thorough education, and are repaying the labour bestowed on them by a 
satisfactory discharge of the duties entrusted to them. There are besides 
six men, who have not had the same training, having devoted themselves 
to the work in later years, and doing duty as Evangelists. There are 
farther, six teachere of schools who have been trained for their work, and 
give valuable assistance to the missionaries at tho head of th? educational 
institutions. There are also six Christian teachers, conducting heathen, 

170 ESSAY. May IStLi. 

or mixed scliools, wlio have not had a special training. Two ordained 
native missionaries had commenced their education in our schools in 
China, but completed their studies in the Mission C'ollege at Basel. They 
■were ordained in Germany, and stand on the same footing with a Eui'opean 
missionary except the salary, which is one half. There are at present 
three Chinese students in the college in Basel. 

Industrial schools might now be mentioned as a supplement of train- 
ing schools, in order that such of the pupils, who have not sufficient 
talent to enter on a literary career might not be thrown out into the 
world, and be exposed to all the temptations in the midst of the heathen. 
The want has often been keenly felt of Christian tradesmen, to whom 
boys might be entrusted as apprentices. The Basel Mission has got ex- 
tensive industrial establishments in India, which seem to answer their 
purpose very well, as opportunity is given not only to boys, but to adults, 
who by becoming Christians lose caste, and their means of support, to 
learn a trade in order that they may provide for themselves. We have 
applied to the board to allow ns to try the scheme in China too, but 
capital is required to begin with, and the board has not seen its way 
clear yet for such an undertaking here. In the mean time we have to 
put up with the inconvenience of seeing many of our schoolboys going off 
as ships boys or table boys or in some such capacity, trying to earn some- 
thing for the maintenance of their body, whereby their Christian life is 
not always benefitted. 

Sunday schools come in here as useful institutions for boys who 
have left school, and are obliged to do six days labour. If they get a 
chance to refresh their minds a little on what they have leai'nt in school, 
on a Sunday, it must act beneficially on them, and prevent them from 
falling into spiritual lethargy, to which the Chinese have so much incli- 
nation. Even for uneducated adults Sunday schools may be very useful. 
If men or women in more advanced years who have never been to school 
become Christians, they ought still to learn reading, in order to make 
themselves acquainted with the Bible, the Catechism and the Hymnbook. 
What an appropriate occupation would it be for them to spend the 
Sabbath thus between the hours of Divine service. A difficulty will arise 
however from the question who is to superintend such schools ? The 
missionary who is hard at work du.ring the six days of the week, and 
gets no rest for his body on the Sabbath, will scarcely be up to the task 
of doing extra school work besides the conducting of his Sunday services. 
The same will apply to the ordinary school masters. But where there is 
sufficient teaching power Sunday schools are highly to be recommended. 
And so are Infant schools. We all know how much good is done by 
such at home, and if we .remember how much more need there is in 
heathen lands, to take care of the little ones, lest they be offended, no 
one will dispute the usefulness and necessity of establishing schools for 
them. Now at home the mistresses of such schools are ^trained for the 
purpose, and wisdom as well as devotion to their work is required, to 
give any hope of success. We may not have the means on hand yet, 
to carry out every thing that is good and requisite for the body as well 
as for the soul of our Christians young and old. But let ns keep our 
task in view and press forward towards the goal praying God to use us 
as instruments in his hand , to the carrying out of his gracious purpose 
for the salvation of this great people. 

I have mentioned the pi-ess as the third agency of disseminating 
education, but as there are special papers on the list treating of press- 
work, and my paper has already reached the stipulated length, I shall 

May loth. essay. 171 

conclude witli the prayer to God, that it may ploase him to make known 
his holy name to the Chinese, and to all the nations of the world, that 
they might be freed from error and becojne educated in the truth. 

Morning Session. 

The Relation of Protestant Missions to Education. 


Rev. C. W. Mateer, A. P. M., Tdngchow. 

Christianity and education are in tliemselves entirely distinct, yet 
they have such strong natural affinities that they have always been closely 
associated. The training of the mental faculties of necessity involves the 
moral. All truth also is related, and both history and science have many 
points of contact witli religion. Education moi-eover is carried on during 
youtii, the time when chai'acter is fixed and opinions formed. Hence the 
education of youth has ever been an impoi-tant part of the church's w^ork. 
She has well judged that she could not afford to leave the great work of 
education to the world. 

In all ages, and in all the nations to which Christianity has gone, 
she has been the friend and patron of learning, and has numbered among 
her sons most of the great names in every department of knowledge. 
Most of the noted fathers of the early church were learned men, and 
during the middle ages the monks and priests possessed most of the 
learning there was. As the dark ages came on, religion and learning 
declined together, and when the great reformation roused Europe to a 
new life, religion and learning revived together, and to-day wherever the 
purest form of Christianity prevails there learning and general education, 
have made the greatest pi'ogress. The philosophy of all this is not, that 
Christianity is dependent on learning, but that she fosters learning as her 
natural ally. 

Not only is this alliance true in general, but it is preeminently true 
in respect to the reconstructed science of the nineteenth century. The 
sciences have not yet reached jierfection, yet we fully believe that their 
great principles are established on an immoveable basis of truth, — as 
different from the superficial theories of early times as day is from night. 
These true sciences of mind and matter, which are in fact but an exposi- 
tion of the unwritten laws of God, Christianity had a prime agency in 
discovering. Slie justly claims them as her own, and finds in them an 
instrumentality which she is neither afraid nor ashamed to use in the 
cause of truth. 

In view of these things it might be inferred, a priori, that Protestant 
missions would make education an important branch of their work. This 
they have in fact done, as their history sufliciently shows. Notwith- 
standing this however, considerable difference of opinion exists on the 
subject. While some advocate schools, others them, and even go so 
far as to denounce them as a misuse of consecrated funds, and as a degrad- 
ing of the ministerial office. A just estimate of the utility of schools will 

172 ESSAY. May loth. 

depend largely on the view taken of their object. By those who advocate 
schools, two diverse views are taken of their object. Some advocate them 
as a means of getting- so many heathen boys and girls under the influence 
of Christian truth, in the hope that they maybe converted, and especially 
that they may become preachers of the Gospel. Others advocate schools 
as an indirect agency, litted to break up the fallow ground, and prepare 
the way for the good seed of divine truth. 

Both these views seem to me partial and incomplete. The first is 
the view I suppose to be most commonly held. It is however a superfi^cial 
view, which will generally be modified on a deeper consideration of the 
subject. The prevalence of this view has caused Mission Schools in China 
to be largely of a primary class, and the instruction to be confined largely 
to relio-ious books. This same view has also given rise to most of the 
objections commonly urged against schools. The following considerations 
seem to me conclusive against this view. First, it is making the education 
a mere cat's-paw to induce pupils to come, while the real object is not 
to educate them but to Christianize them. Consistency to this view would 
require, that as soon as pupils are converted they should be dismissed, 
■unless they avowed their purpose to become preachers, and this practice has 
actually prevailed to some extent in some places. Second, if conversion be 
the end, education is not the means which Grod has appointed to effect it. 
There is nothing in Chinese characters or in Arithmetic or Geography to 
renew the heart. The preaching of Christ and Him crucified is the agency 
which God has appointed for the conversion of men, and whoever substi- 
tutes other means is sure to be disappointed. It is no wonder that those 
who have conducted and estimated schools on this theory ai-e ready to 
pronounce them a failure. Let me not however be understood to say that 
the conversion of the pupils is a matter of indifference. It is on the con- 
trary a capital object of desire and effort. It is to be sought however, 
not so much as the result of school studies as of Sabbath instruction, and 
of moral influences brought to bear in the intercourse of teacher and 
pupil. The school is not the direct means for conversion, but it affords 
an admirable opportunity to secure that result — a rpsult which is not 
only highly desirable in itself, but essential to the right use of the educa- 
tion received. 

The other theory viz. — that education is an indirect agency, intend- 
ed to produce only indirect results, is much nearer the truth, though it 
does not contain all the truth in the premises. The object of Mission 
Schools I take to be the education of the pupils mentally, morally and re- 
ligiously, not only that they may be converted, but that being con- 
verted they may become effective agents in the hands of God, for de- 
fending and advancing the cause of truth. Schools also which give a 
knowledge of western science and civilization cannot fail to do great good 
both physically and socially. That indirect agencies as such are legiti- 
mate, and even necessary, is easily proved, and is practically allowed by 
all. Few Missionaries feel bound to speak only and solely of religion 
even in their chapels. Many I know do often, in order to make friends 
and remove prejudices, allow themselves to be led by the questions of 
their heai-ers to talk about foreign countries, and about Philosophy and 
Geography and Astronomy, and to spend large portions of time and 
strength. Others who have already gathered together native churches, 
often spend a large amount of time planning and consulting for the tem- 
poralities of their converts. Most Missionaries also spend more or less 
time and money in dispensing medicine, and ministering to the sick, and 
extensive medical missions are carried on for the same purpose. All 

M:,V l.Mh. ESSAY. 173 

those ftTencit'S arc indirect, yettlicv iire in tluni- yilaco botli wise and 
fft'eelive. The i-Dniinaml to disciple all nations is not. so Riiiiple and in- 
divisible as is often supposeci. It was not given to the apostles merely, 
but to the whole Cluiivh, and it includes nf)t only preaching, but all the 
means which are in any way either directly or indirectly adapted to 
promote the end. These means are both nunuM-ous and various. Some 
are more important and some Some produce immediate and -some 
remote results. Some act ahme, others are only effective in combina- 
tion. But all means and agencies, which do not contravene the princi- 
ples of (Jhristian tnorality, are legitimate, and their use to l)c dcternaincd 
solely on the princi])les of expediency. 

There is a grand comprehensiveness in the command to disciple all 
nations. He who thinks it simply calls Christians without plan or or- 
ganization, to seek the conversion of the largest number in the shortest 
time, has a very inadequate idea of its scope. It means not oidy to make 
disciples, but to make the H'ltloiLs Christian nations, to destroy heathen- 
ism and to cause Christian faith and morals to interpenetrate the whole 
structure of society. It means to go to the distant, as well as the near. 
It means to reach the rich as well as the poor, the learned as well as the 
ignoi-ant. In a word it means to give to the whole world all the bless- 
ings which ChiMstianity has to bestow. 

The work of the Christian Church has been aptly compared to that 
of an army. The object with an army, is not merely to kill, wound or 
<-apture as many as possible of the enemy, but to conrjuer them. Hence- 
it is not generally thought the best policy for all to rush at once on the 
enemy, and each with hi.s single hand to kill as many as possible, but 
rather to make a proper organization of cavalry, artillery and infantry, 
with conmiissanat and medical stalf, and then by cutting oi¥ resources 
and desti-OA-ing the fortifications of the enemy, as well as by killing 
them, gain a victory. So with the church, her object is not only to con- 
vert as many individuals as possililc, but also to subdue the nations as 
a whole to Christ, to pull down the fortitieations of heathenism, destroy 
the faith which supjtorts it, and summon its emancipated votaries to 
submit to the captain of our salvation. The same figure holds in another 
point. In organizing an effective army, mere nund>ers is not the only, 
nor the chief consideration. (Quality, drill and generalship are equall}'^ 
important. So with the Church, the mere number of Church members 
is not the only object. Quality and qualifications to do effective service 
in securing the conversion of others are equally important. This is 
unquestionably the true view of the vocation of the Church, audit shows 
us how comj)n'hensive is her work, and how various the means for its 
accomplishment. Amongst these means as possessing a rank of no mean 
importance is conhdently ]ilaced the education of the young. 

Apostolic example is confidentlv appealed to by those who 
Mission Schools. They never tire of reminding us that the apostles did 
not open Schools to te:ich science, but preached the Gospel. This argu- 
ment is plausible and taking, but it is not by any means conclusive. 
There are more reasons than one, wliv our means and methods at the present 
day may differ from, and go bevond those of the apostles, and yet be both 
legitimate and wise. The apostles did not organize Sabbath Schools, nor 
found theological seminaries, nor build churches, yet these things are 
not therefore condemned. The truth in regard to this matter 1 take to 
he this, the apo.^tles used the means which God put in their hands, and 
were governed by the times and circumstances in which they lived. God 
did not give them a science or education in any respect superior to tliose 

174 ESSAT. May IStli 

to wliom lie sent tliera, lience they did not open schools. He did give 
them however the power to work miracles, and this power they used 
freely — not because hetding a viaas lamenesi^, or opening his ei/es, would save 
his soul, but because it would attest their divine commission, and give 
them authority and influence and so indirectly conduce to the salvation 
of souls. God has not given to his church in this day the power to work 
miracles, by which to attest their message and influence the heathen to 
hear and Iselieve it, but he has by the direct inspiration of his Spirit, as 
we believe, given them a true science, which lie intends them to use 
in the same way, as an agency to gain the ears of the people, and prepare 
a way for the belief of the Gospel. It is, to say the least, highly signi- 
ficant that all the grand discoveries of science have been vouchsafed to 
Christian nations, and that too just at the time when God by his Spirit 
is rousing his church as never before to the great work of evangelizing 
the world. All this science belongs legitimately to the church, and is 
what God has specially given her as a means of opening the doors of 
of heathenism, and preparing the way for the belief of the Gospel. The 
Chinese look upon the wonders which modern science has wrought as 
nearly akin to the miraculous, and well they may, for so indeed they are. 
I argue hence that Protestant missionaries are not only authorized to 
open schools for the teaching of science, but that Providence calls them 
so to do. 

It has been said by some that they are not opposed to education as 
part of mission work, but only to its being done by ordained mission- 
aries. In other words they hold teaching to be inconsistent with the 
proper discharge of ministerial obligations. I have not time to argue 
this point at length in regard to ministers in general. It is sufiicient to 
say, that such has not been, and is not now, the view taken by many of the 
wisest and best men in the ministry. As already said the church has 
always been an active promoter of education, and she has done so chiefly 
through the agency of her ministers. Many of the brightest lights which 
the church has had from the early fathers to the present day, have been 
eno-aged more or less in the work of teaching. I cannot speak so posi- 
tively for Britain, but in America I risk nothing in saying that nine 
tenths of colleges and universities have ministers for presidents, and at 
least three fourths of all the professors are ministers, while of the acade- 
mies and female seminaries, more than half are superintended by minis- 
ters. All these ministers are engaged more or less in the work of teach- 
ing. Are those who make this objection ready to condemn all these, as 
untrue to their ministerial character and obligations, including such 
men as Drs. Wayland, Woosley, Hopkins, McCosh, &c ? But there are 
special and important reasons why missionaries should establish and carry 
on schools. Save a few Colporteurs and medical man, they are the only 
agents in heathen lands for the propagation of Christianity, so that they 
must do the work if it is done at all. Some think they cut the knot by 
saying, send out professional teachers to teach. But the fact is they are 
not sent. The effort has been made in some cases, but it has not gener- 
ally been a success. It is exceedingly diflicult to find suitable men for 
the reason that qualified men having the right kind of missionary Spirit, 
almost always seek ordination before going to heathen soil. Ladies have 
been sent to some extent of late years to teach girls schools, but this 
proves nothing as to the main question. The truth is the work of educa- 
tion falls naturally into the hands of the missionary. He has the confi- 
dence of the native churches, he sees the need of well educated native 
preachers, and his intercourse with the people shows him the great need 

May l.'illi. ESSAY. 175 

of the trne philosophy of mind and nialtcM" to break the powei' of heathen 
Knperstitioi), and thus he is led as naturally as ])()ssible to orfranize a 
school. More than one man has landed on heathen soil prejudiced 
against schools, who before ten years has been found at the head of one 
organized by himself. In general the ottice of the missionary is more 
comprehensive than that of the pastor at home, lie goes as the sole re- ' 
presentative of Christianity, and his oflice includes all the agencies in the 
hands of the church for the overthrow of heathenism. It may include, 
beside public preaching, private conversation, distribution of books, 
making of grammars and dictionaries, teaching schools, making school 
books, writing for and editing newspapers, and in same cases even teach- 
ing the common arts of civilized life. 

Some have tried to condemn mission schools by gatlicring statistics 
to show their want of result. It is freely admitted that if it could be 
shown by a fair and full summary of results, that mission schools were 
greatly inferior in this respect to other agencies, then it w'ould be our 
duty to abandon them. This however has never been done, and I am 
persuaded it cannot be done. Arrays of statistics for this purpose almost 
always proceed on the assumption, that the great object of the schools 
is to make preachers of the pupils. Hence the oidy result tabulated is 
the number of preachers turned out. This mode of procedure I hesitate 
not to pronounce utterly unfair and inconclusive. It takes no account of 
the superior abilities, and wider influence of the men who arc thus turned 
out. It ignores entirely the pupils who have engaged in teaching or 
other callings, and whose influence for good may be as great as who 
have become preachers. It pa.sses by also, the great influence which is 
generally exerted on the families and friends of the pupils while they are 
in .school, and finally it leaves out of view entirely the far reaching in- 
fluence which a superior education and knowledge of science is bound to 
exert in the midst of a superstitious heathen community. These things it 
is impossible to tabulate in the form of statistics, yet without them the 
argument from results is preeminently unfair and inconclusive. Such a 
style of argument applied to other agencies would probably condemn the 
most of them. 

Having as I think sufficiently shown that education is a legitimate 
branch of ^Mission work, and answered the arguments commoidy urged 
against it, I shall offer some considerations to show^ the capital impor- 
tiuice of education in China, as an agency for the overthrow of heathenism. 

It should be premised however, that while education, as a mission 
agency, is highly important, it is not the must important. It cannot be 
made to take the place of preaching, which without controversy stands 
first in importance. No man I take it should give his whole time to 
teaching, to the neglect and abandonment of preaching. Education, as 
already shown, is for the most pai't an indirect agency, and as such must 
be subsidiary to more important direct agencies. Education moreover is 
not equally important at all times, nor are all men equally called to 
engage in it. Different men have different gifts, and different circum- 
stances call for different plans of work. 1 do not to be misunderstood. 
The object of this essay is not to exalt education, as the one great means 
of christianizing China, but simply to show its great importance, and 
claim for it its legitimate plaoe. 

Ifi^. Education is imjiortant to provide an elective and reliable native 
ministry. It is not possible or perhaps desirable that all native ministers 
should be men of high education. There are churches where men of 
lower attainments will do quite as well, yet that the mass of the native 

176 ESSAY. May l.jtli. 

ministry should be educated men can scarcely be questioned. Education 
is gn-eatly honored in China, and a man of no education can ordinarily 
exert but little influence in a community. The character of Chinese 
classical education is such, that it is neither practicable nor desirable 
that Christian ministers should excel in it, and depend upon it for posi- 
tion and influence. It is better every way that they should depend for 
their reputation and influence with the people, upon a knowledge of 
western science. Western learning though as yet but little known in 
China, has yet a great reputation, so that a native pastor who has a good 
knowledge of Geography, Natural Philosoph}', Chemistry and Astronomy, 
will have a reputation and an influence which he could secure in no other 
way. Thus furnished he will be more than a match for the village 
magnates, who are the chief agency in holding the minds of the people 
in bondage to heathenism. Having at command a knowledge of science 
and of facts, which the haughty scholars of China can neither gainsay 
nor resist, he would compel their respect and secure the confidence of the 
people. Not only is such an education A^aluable as a means of influence, 
but it is the very best means of eradicating the remnants of superstition 
from the mind of the preacher himself, and making him a safe and 
reliable expositor of Scripture truth. Christianity is trutli, and all truth 
is related. Hence a true philosophy of mind and matter is the best 
adjunct and support of Christianity. It will preserve from extravagance 
in doctrine, and from the insidious encroachments of heathen supersti- 
tion. That Chinese pastor who has the best knowledge of true science 
will be, other things being equal, the best and safest expounder of the 
Bible, as well as its ablest defender. 

27id. Edueatlon is {mportaut to 'proiylde teaejiers to teach Christian 
Schools, and tJirour/h them to introduce in GIdna the superior education of the 
West. — There are good reasons why the children of Christians should not 
go to heathen schools. Christians also wish their children taught more 
than is taught in heathen schools. This desire is perfectly natural and 
proper, and it will increase more and more as Christianity grows in 
numbers and wealth. As fast as churches are formed, there will be a 
desire to open schools, and there will be a demand for teachers, who can 
not only teach Chinese classics, but also the common bi'anches of a true 
education, such as Geography, Arithmetic, Music, General History, and 
the elements of Natural Philosophy. At first these schools will be more 
or less charity schools, but they will gradually come to be self supporting. 
Heathen who desire their children to understand the much talked of 
learning of the West, will send their children to them in increasing num- 
bers, and the day is not very far distant when there will be a demand 
amongst the heathen for teachers who can teach these branches. The 
power of such schools in destroying heathen superstition, and giving a 
correct idea of God and nature will be immense. Such teachers can only 
be supplied by first class mission schools. No other agency is at hand to 
train them ; besides, the work falls naturally into the hands of missionaries, 
as a legitimate and important branch of their work. Science is not in- 
deed a part of religion, nor is teaching it the special business of the 
church, yet it can made so effectually to subserve the cause of truth, that 
the church cannot afford to neglect or ignore it, Christianity in its very 
nature stimulates the mind, and creates a desire to learn. It comes into 
China also inseparably associated with western secience and civilization. 
That Christian converts should seek for their children a broader and 
truer education than their classics afford, is a natural and necessary re- 
sult. They, and otliers who are taught in Christian schools, will no 

May KSSAV. 177 

doubt be the first (o ohtaiii 'l\\i' superior scicncf! aini cdufation of the: 
west, and tliron<;h thcin chieHy thcsu thiiij^s will he given to the masses of 
China. That it should be so, is one of the grand opportunities which 
God in his providence is giving to his church. 

\ Sid. Eduoitiun is iiiiportant to ])rep<(re inrn to tiilcn tlic lead in intro- 

Wucm^ into Chinit the ncicnre and arts of wesfcni ririli-nlion. The days of 
lUhina's seclusion from the rest of the world are nuinbered. Whethex- 
she will or not the tide of westren civilization and progress is rolling in 
ujwn her. and its resistless might will certainly overflow the land. Not 
only so, but many of her own jteople are inquiring after, and eager jto 
learn the science which has made the west so gi-eat, and \yhose fame has 
ali-eadv filled China to its remotest corner. There are two sufficient rea- 
sons why Christian Missionaries shoixld strive to prepare men to lead in 
the great transformation which is bound to be wrought in China. First, 
it is a good thing in itself. It will bring to China unnumbered bless- 
ings, physical, social, and political. Moreover true science and the arts 
which jjroceed from it, will effectually uproot heathen snpcx'stition, and 
if rightly controlled and directed, prepare a highway for the general 
triumph of Christianity. This leads to the second reason, which is, that 
if conscientious and Christian men are not forthcoming to control and 
direct this movement, it will be controlled by heathen and intidal men. 
Science and art and material improvement, will fall into the hands of the 
enemies of Christianity, and will be used by them as a mighty engine to 
hinder the progress of truth and righteousness. Science is either the 
ally of religion, or lier most dangerous enemy. It is a grand opportunity 
which the Christian Church has, to train up the men who shall take the 
lead in, and leaven with Christian truth the great mental and physical 
ti-ausi'ormation, which western science and civilization is soon to make in 
China. Christian ^Missionaries are tlie first on the ground. They have 
the talents, the education, the enterprize, and by far the best facilities to" 
train and educate tlie right style of men for this work. I iiold it to be 
their duty and their privilege, in the circumstances, not only to ti-ain 
preachers and evangelists, but also to educate men who shall find their 
calling as teachers. Engineers, Surveyers, Mechanics, Artizans, &c. Shall 
the Church allow satan to furnish the men, and boiTOw^ the engine which 
the grand Christian civilization of the west has furuislied, and stand by 
while he fills China with skepticism and irreligion, and all because her 
agents and ambassadors in China are afraid of degrading and seculariz- 
ing their office. Not so — let her rather by her enterprise and energy 
ride the crest of the incoming wave, and by trainijig the suitable agents, 
give to it a Christian direction and effect. 

4:th. Education a fords the bent means of rjaivimj acress to the hlfjher 
classes in China. — In the providence of God western science has already 
an immense reputation in China. Though hating it because it is foreign, 
and different fi-om their own, they are yet compelled by the force of facts 
to acknowledge its superiority. Ileiice many of the higher classes are 
anxious to learn what foreign science is, and almost all the intercourse 
which missionaries have with natives of the higher classes, is dependent 
on the fact that they understand western science, and are qualified to 
speak of it. The influence thus exerted is but small liowcver, owing to 
the limited number of missionaries, and to the numerous obstacles to the 
free intercourse of foreigners with wealthy Chinese. AVith properly 
educated natives however, the case is different. Their acquaintance is 
often sought, and almost always welcomed, and as science spreads in 
China, their services will be sought as teachers and expounders of the' 

17s tSSAY. May 15tlx. 

new science of the west. We are commanded to preach the Grospel to 
every creature, and this, I take it, implies all the means which may be 
necessary to get an opportunity to speak, and to gain a favorable hearing 
for the message. The ruling classes in China are not I admit the most 
hopeful subjects, yet the comprehensiveness of the commission will not 
allow lis to neglect them. Besides they lead and control the masses, and 
to gain one of them is more as a means to the great end, than to gain a 
score of those who follow them. Just as in a battle, it is more important 
to kill or capture a major general, than a thousand common soldiers. 

hth. Education is vmjjortant to give to the native Church self reliance, 
and to fortify her against the encroachments of superstition from tvithin, and 
the attachs of educated shepticism from ivithout. So loug as all the Chris- 
tian literature of China is the work of foreigners, so long will the Chinese 
Church be weak and dependent. She needs as speedily as possible a class 
of ministers, with well trained and well furnished minds, who will be 
able to write books defending and enforcing the doctrines of Christianity, 
and applying them to the circumstances of the Church in China. It is 
remarkable that thus far there has been almost nothing of this kind 
done. The only satisfactory explanation is that they have not been 
properly educated and stimulated to original thought. The Chinese are 
by no means wanting in capacity. What they want is the right kind 
and quantity of mental furniture and training. 

Again as native Christians increase in numbers, and spread into the 
interior, they will pass more and more from under the direct teaching 
and control of foreigners. Then will ai'ise danger from the encroach- 
ments of heathen superstition, and from the baneful influence of the 
Chinese Classics. Superstitions of all kinds find a congenial soil in the 
liuman heart, and they often change their forms, without changing their 
nature. The multiform superstitions of China will not die easily. And 
unless they are constantly resisted, and intelligently ferreted out and ex- 
posed, they will commingle with Christianity and defile it. History shows 
us how the whole early chiirch was gradually defiled by superstition, and 
her life destroyed. Among other causes of this sad fact, stands preemi- 
nent the want of the true philosophy of mind and matter as her hand- 
maid and ally. 1 do not believe that Christianity will ever again fall a 
prey to superstition. God in his providence has in this latter day given 
her a light, which superstition cannot withstand. Christianity and true 
science neither can nor should be separated. 

The day is not far distant when the skepticism of the west will find 
its way into China. The infidel theories of Hume and Voltaire, and the 
destructive criticism of Strauss and Renan, will certainly be reproduced 
in China, and it is of the veiy first importance that the Church in China 
should be ready to meet and repel the attacks which will be made with 
,such weapons as these. Let no one say it will be time enough by and by. 
The day when the skepticism of the west will be rampant in China, is 
not so distant as might be supposed. Error is generally as fleetfooted as 
truth. To repel these attacks, and vindicate the truth in the face of 
lieathen unbelief, will require a high order of education. An uneducated 
Christianity may hold its own against an uneducated heathenism, but it 
cannot against an educated heathenism. We want in a word to do more 
than introduce naked Christianity into China, we want to introduce it 
in such a form, and with such weapon and supports as will enable it to 
go forward alone, maintain its own purity, and defend itself from all foes. 
With this in view, the true policy is to educate, and as fast as possible to 
put into the hands of Chinese Christians the means of educating them- 

May l.-.lli. v.ssAY. 179 

solve.s. The mon who aiv iiocdcd cannot be made to order, nor raised up 
in a day. Education is a gradual process, and time must be given to 
work it out. lieginning with jiriuuu-y school.'^, let us pre.sently work up 
to the liigher, praviiig and believing, that Ciod will raise up from amongst 
those thus educated, the men needed by the native Church for the great 
work before her. 

Time will only permit me to offer in conclusion, a few remarks on 
the kind of schools best adapted to produce the results already indicated. 

Ls-^ Thoy should be advanced rather than primary schools. By this 
I mean that a high standard should be set, the aim should be not merely 
to teach the ]{ibic, and a smattering of Chinese classics, but to make good 
classical scholars, aud in addition to teach, Geography, ]\[athematics, 
History, and Science, and thus make truly educated men. Considerable 
abatement must of course be made in the case of girl's schools. The plans 
and principles applying to boy's and girls schools differ in some irapoi't- 
ant respects. 1 have had chief reference in this pa])er to boy's schools, 
for the reason that they cannot well be considei'ed together, and the limits 
of this paper precluded a separate treatment of girl's schools. A high 
standard will give the school character among the Chinese, and fit its 
graduates to take an intlnential position amongst their countrymen. 
The time required will in a great measure prevent pupils from coming 
raerelv for tlieir board. It will also give the teacher time to form the 
characters of his pupils, and to inspire them with something of his own 
spirit. I do not mean that there sliould be no schools of a lower gi'ade, 
but that such should for the most part be preparatory to the higher. Day 
schools will naturally be for the most part primary, and as such they will 
serve an important purpose as feeders to the higher schools, and will 
enable the standard of admission to such schools to be gradually raised. 
Boarding Schools, however, whose prime aim is to give Christian instruc- 
tion, are in my opinion defective in principle, and will not pay. Such 
schools are generally composed of the \ery poor, who come for their rice. 
The pupils are generally too small to understand fully what they learn, 
and the time is too short to impress the truth and develope a character. 
When they leave school heathen friends and heathen customs presently 
crush out the truth learned by rote, and the hopes of those who had 
trusted to the school as a means of saving so many souls, are largely 

2/((7. The natural sciences should be made a prominent branch of 
instruction. The power of education to counteract superstition lies chiefly 
in the natural sciences. They develope and explain the laws of nature, 
and by so doing destroy the chief foundation of superstition. Such studies 
will do more than any other to increase the reputation of the school, and 
give to its graduates character and influence. And, lastly, such studies 
will help in no small degree to prepai'e the way for the practical inti'O- 
duction into China of the numerous beneficial applications of science to 
the arts of life. 

3r(l. ^Mission schools should be composed of the children of Christian 
parents rather than of heathen. It is of prime importance that the pupils 
in a school should come for the education, not for the rice. This is far 
more likely to be the case with the children of Christians. They desire 
and appreciate a true education for their children. They pray for them, 
and oftentimes con.secrate them to God for the work of the ministry. 
They will second and sustain the efforts of the teacher, and will allow 
their sons to remain until fully educated. I would by no means e:cclude 
heathen, especially in the beginning of a mission, when no others are 

180 ESSAY. May loth. 

obtainable, but I would take pains to insui'e as fai* as possible that they 
desired the education I'aiher than the rice, and that they would remain 
until their education was completed. 

4^/;. The pupils or their parents sliould be required, except in some 
rare cases, to do something for their support, and this should be increased 
as circumstances will allow, till full support is attained. Partial suppoi't 
may not be pi^acticable at the tirst starting of a school, before there is 
any native church, or the character of the school is known, but by proper 
management it will very soon become practicable. This will be the best 
guarantee that the education is the thing sought for. It will promote 
ideas and habits of economy, and secure strength and independence of 
character. These are objects of prime importance, and they can be secured 
in no other way. As native Christians of means increase, and the value 
of the education furnished by these schools comes to be better appreciated, 
entii'e support will be gradually appi'oximated. This result however will 
not probably be fully attained until China is in a good measure Christ- 
ianized, and the schools pass into the hands of the Chinese. 

Finally, to attain the best results cooperation and division of labor 
are necessaiy. It is a great waste of strength to multiply small schools of 
the same grade in the same vicinity. Better if possible, and so far as pos- 
sible, to combine and cooperate, so as to have schools of different grades, 
which shall supplement each other. This would greatly promote effi- 
ciency, and naturally lead to the raising of the fittest to a school of a 
high grade — a college if you please. It is impossible for one man to 
teach propeily all the branches which should be taught in schools of high 
rank, hence the propriety of colleges, in which a division of labor should 
secure able and efficient instruction. The influence of a number of pro- 
perly manned Christian high schools or colleges in the different sections 
of China, would come in time to be incalculable. The government is 
educating to some extent for its own purposes, but it is educating against 
Christianity rather than for it, and so u-lll all schools which are not ex- 
pressly Ghristian schools. If Christiaxi Missionaries are wise and awake to 
the apportunity which providence is funishing, they will not long delay 
taking steps to build up in China a number of schools of a high grade. 

Morning Session. 

Day Schools. 

Rev. E. H. Thomson, A. P. E. M., Shanghai. 

The subject of day schools both male and female was assigned me 
by the General Committee of this Conference. 

In speaking of male and female schools I have deemed it best not to 
separate them, as their object, their uses, the more of teaching and the 
difficulties met with are much the same in both. 

In this paper there is no need that I remark on the general subject 
of education as that has been assigned to others ; nor need I before this 
assembly enter into any definition of a day school. 

May i:.lli. KSSAY. 181 

r pmc'ocd at 01100 to tlio consitlonitioii of tlio siibjuft as one familiar 
to you all. 

The day school is almost the only educational institution known to 
the Chinese. The fact ■which gives peculiar interest to the native or 
heathen day school is that it is one of the great means for imparting and 
maintaining the Confucian system in China. 

Wo tind these day schools in every city, town and hamlet. Every 
teacher in thoni expounds the doetines or teachings of Confucius and 
c-vhorts his pupils to obey the precepts of the sfige. school teachers are a part of the great body of the littcrati 
which really rules the empire. They arc the chief upholders of Ancestral 
woi-ship and of the pride and unchangeable conservatism of the nation. 
It is owing largely to teachers, that the heathenism of China is 
kept live and vigorous. 

It is one of the aims of the Christian day school, to grasp this power 
for heathenism and error and it for Christianity and truth. 

In a land where the religions if not exactly formulated, are yet 
taught by drill, we arc in a measure driven to use somewhat correspond- 
ing means in our endeavours to implant the truth, or 1 should say, to uso 
some of the methods of education in vogue with them, as adapted to the 
genius and culture of the people. 

We adopt iu a good measure this method of drill with our adult con- 
verts, as is seen in our catechisms, forms of praj'er, hymns, and even 
liturgies proposed by some who would not use them elsewhere. 

With the millions of children being trained up and drilled in 
heathenism around him, what is the teacher of Christianity to do? Shall 
be wait until they are adults and hope then to reach them by preaching ? 
If there is any possible means by wliich even a portion of this great 
mass can be reached, I think we would with one voice exclaim, let us not 
wait for a moment. 

Is there then any thing being done to rescue these lambs that are 
ready to be dovoured ? Does the ordinary mode of preaching roach them? 
To whom does the preacher in the street chapel, in the temple yards or 
on the way side speak? When he preachers he speaks to the adult; 
when he distributes the printed page, it is to the adult. The children are 
Bcarely touched, 1 should rather say are not touched or reached by either 
of these means. Shall we not stretch out a helping hand to pluck them 
from the destroyer's gi-asp ? Allow me here to add one word, lest 1 bo 
supposed in any degree to depreciate the preached word. Far be this 
from me, I believe in preaching as the great means by the power of God 
for the salvation of the world, but our Saviour not only said " go preach" 
but He also said " go teach." I do not stop to the original word 
used. Do not let us clip one of our wings in our admiration of the other. 
I have said the ordinary preaching and means used do not reach the 
childreu of China, except in the most limited degi-ee and in the least 
efficient manner. 

In answer to the question ; how can we i-each them ? I should 
say we can do so to a vastly greater extent and more efficient manner 
through the day school tlian yet has been done by other means. As far as 
I am aware the conditions are much the same in all parts of China wliere 
mission stations and missionary residences are firmly established. This 
being the case what a field is opened up before the Church of Christ for 
this work. 

How vast must its influence be, if done with faith, with love, with 
care and with diligence. Nor has this door of access been entirely dis- 

182 ESSAY. May 1.5th. 

regarded by the Cliristian Missionary. At an early date this work was 
begun. I regret to say however it has been very difficult to get any def- 
inite information on the subject or to learn by whom the first day schools 
were opened and how they were conducted. 

The earliest of which I have any inforination were opened by the 
English Chui'ch Missionary Society at Shanghai in 1849. 

Dr. Happer of Canton in 1850 opened the first day school which was 
successful in that city. Since that time nearly all the various Mission- 
ary Societies have engaged more or less in this work. 

By our latest reports nineteen of the Societies now labouring in this 
field have day schools at thii-ty-two of their chief stations. 

But notwithstanding all this, it would appear on closer inquiry that 
day schools are hardly regarded with favour. We find of the twenty 
seven reports of the different mission stations published in " Chinese Re- 
corder only two or three mention day schools at all and that in a most 
cursory manner. Why is this? Day Schools are slow. It is too much 
of the "casting thy bread" upon the waters that is not to "be found" 
till "many days." The desire is so strong to see immediate results and 
the pressure of the home church crying after the Missionary is to the 
same effect. Further a want of appreciation of the day school, may arise 
from a misapprehension of its place and object. 

One of the great objects of the day school, is to supply a want which 
the ordinary preaching fails to meet. It takes the Gospel to another 
class of persons, in another form. In fulfilling this object, it will be 
found a much more useful instrument, perhaps than we are wont to 

That we may enter ruore fi^lly into this object and in order that we 
may see the exact place and use of a day school, let us take an ordinary 

We will say in a certain town, village or hamlet some circumstance 
leads to the opening of a school. It may be a feeling of compassion on 
the part of the passing missionary at seeing the great number of children 
in idleness learning only evil, or it may be the offer of a room for a 
school from some well disposed person in the village. The school is opened 
and fifteen or twenty children are gathered in from as many families. 

Each scholar is provided with some primary Christian book. This 
book he can use day after day shouting out we will say, the first article 
of the creed, " I believe in one Grod the Father Almighty, Maker of hea- 
ven and earth." 

The scholars take these books to their homes, and they are looked 
over and examined by the family. If any member of _ the household un- 
derstands a few characters, he reads the book aloud to the others. 

The great truths of Christianity are thus placed before their minds, 
and most probably for the first time. As the scholars advance they 
continue to take their new books to their homes and thus other funda- 
mental truths are brought forward. The '^scholars thus become in a mea- 
sure truth-bearers to their own homes. 

From time to time the school is visited by the missionaiy or the na- 
tive minister in charge. His arrival is soon known to all the villagers or 
neighbours. They come in to see and hear. He expounds and impresses 
upon the pupils, all the truths which they have thus far only learned by 
rote. As he speaks to them, he is also teaching the adult visitors in a 
manner he could scarcely hope to do without the aid of the school and 
scholars . Thus the school in more ways than one, becomes a centre of 
light to the village and the neighbourhood. The scholars are well 

Miiy l.>lll. ESSAY. 183 

gi-onnilecl in Christian truth, and the ■wliolo working of the Rchool be- 
comes an enlightoniiig and olovating one. As mcnihers of a Christian 
school, they all attonil the servieo of the Church or Chapel on tJie Lord's 
dav, where it is prueticable, or else a s])ecial service is held in the Kchool- 
room itself. By means of these day schools the women of the families 
are reached, many of whom wonld never otherwise hear the word. Some 
interesting instances might be given, where the children have taken the 
truth to their homes, but this is not the place to do it. Another part of 
the working of day schools is that, wherein ihey prove the training 
schools of the teachers themselves for higher splieres of labour. Some of 
our most ellicient preachers have begun as day school teachers. The 
intimate contact with the truth, has led many to receive it and others to 
preach it. 

Under the present system of our Boarding and training schools, the 
day scliools prove one of the best sources from which to obtain suitable 
scholars lor our purpose, scholars whose character is somewhat known 
and whose ability has 'been tried. 

There is still another important -Qse of day schools, one which I 
think is not availed of as much as it should be. I refer to the access 
which these schools give to the homes of the schohirs, and- especially the 
opportunity of reaching and influencing the women of these homes. 

1 need only allude to the fact that these schools form a center to 
which the preacher in the surrounding district can point the inquirer for 
further information. 

The object and uses of day schools may be stated in brief as 'follows: 

1. To take hold of one of the great means used for strengthening 
heathenism and it for emplanting and strengthening Christianitv. 

2. They are one of the best means for reaching the young of the 
heathen families and grounding them in Christian truth. 

3. They are an efhcient means of reaching the families and es- 
pecially women. 

4. They are a means for training up men for higher spheres of 

6. They form a center from which to work, and are sources of light 
to the districts in wliich they are placed. 

6. They are a source from which to draw better material for our 
training and boarding scliools. 

The principal objections to day schools are, first, their expensivenes.^, 
secondly, the want of more tangible results. As regards both of these, 
■we are at great disadvantage from want of statistics. Those to which I 
have had access are very meagre and there is great absence of the partic- 
ulars necessary to make a satisfactory estimate of the cost per annum 
of a scholar. I have however, from the statistics which were collected 
with a view of making up some statements for the United States 
Centennial, made an approximate estimate of the cost of a da}- school 
scholar in China. It would appear to be about J3,50 per annum. This 
would make a day school of twenty children cost about §70. Is then 
a well worked school considered in all its aspects as above enumerated 
not so good a use of this amount of money as any other object to 
which it might be applied ? It is of a well worked school I would 
speak. An inefticintly worked school is an expensive thing ; so is 
any branch of mission work if inefficiently done. Even an inefficient 
missionary is an expensive article. In the opinion of the writer, a well 
•worked day school is fully worth the labour and money expended upon 
it. The second objection, is the want of more tangible results. On this 

184 ESSAY. JVIaj lotli. 

point our statistics are even more meagre than on tlie first. In some res- 
pects, how could it be otherwise. We might as well be asked to give the 
results of every sermon that is preached. This objection is very nigh 
akin, to the oft repeated objection to all missionary work, by those who 
do not care to look carefully at what has been or what is being done. I 
would say however, that want of moi'e full and clearly known results 
in day schools, arises, not only from the difficulty of grasping some of 
them but also from the want of carefully preserved statistics of what 
might be known. 

I know there are results, great and good ones from day schools, but 
they are placed in the general results of the mission work. There are 
numbers who are now preachers, teachers, and lay members of the 
church, who received their earliest knowledge of the turth from the day 
school. If the twenty-seven reports seferred to above, could have given 
every prencher, teacher, theolagical student, church member, and board- 
ing school scholar, who was brought in through the influence of the day 
school, I rather think we would be amazed, at the result ; but this would 
be an exceedingly difficult thing to do. 

Let each of us call to mind the instances we may know of such 
results, and with some I am sure they will not be a few. 

Turning- now to the difficulties with which day schools have to con- 
tend, we will find them very considerable. It has been asked in some of 
the papers, in connection with this Conference, who should be the teachers 
of day schools ? The answer is emphatically, if it is possible, none but 
faithful Christian men and women. This is the greatest diiticulty under 
which the day school labours, the want of teachers who enter with their 
hearts into the work ; teachers who desire that their scholai's should 
become thoroughly acquainted with the truth as it is in Jesus ; teachers 
who desire that the truth should reach the families of their pupils ; not 
merely teachei's of Christianity but themselves thorough Christians, 
believing and loving what they teach. 

Ordinarily the teacher is formal, half hearted, carelees, whose per- 
sonal influence is almost worse than nothing. 

Another great difficulty, is the influence of the heathen home, and 
the lack of a strong religious element in the Chinese character. 

There are also discouragements ; such as the early withdrawal of the 
scholars by their parents, that they may be put to some trade. Again, 
the want of interest in the parents for the education of their children, 
and as a consequence irregularity of school attendance. These can only 
be met by the zeal and effort of the teacher. If he has a love of the 
work at heart these discouragements can in a great measure be evercome. 

The mode of instruction has been that asually followed in the native 
schools and requires no desci-iption in this paper. It is very defective 
and needs radical change. There should be some system adapted to the 
difficulties of acquiring the Chinese written character, which will at the 
same time teach the pupil to think. 

As regards the course of study and the day schools, very little has 
been taught except the inculcation of Christian truth, and such histori- 
cal and geographical studies as necessarily accompany the study of the 
Bible. The Chinese Four Book and Five Classics are generally taught as 
part but only a secondary part of the course. A few have introduced the 
the study of geography and other primary books of secular knowledge, 
but this has only been done to a limited degree. 

The use of Chinese sounds v^a-itten in the Roman character has been 
largely introduced by come missions with marked success. This being 

May loth. K?s\T. 18o 

easilv loarnocl, is particularly anitedto meet 5?omo of tlio diiHculties of the 
day Sfhoiil; such as the early wilhdnnval of Iho scholars and the habit of 
learninp; the sound of tlic chanurter without kiiowin;^ tlicir significance. 
With this brief {glance at some of tlio uses and the some of the dillicul- 
ties of da-)' schools, the writer woidd add, from what he has seen and 
heard of dav schools in China, they are rarely so conducted as to j^ivc tiio 
fidl results" which a thoroughly worked school could and under Grod'tJ 
blessino'. would produce. 

A da\- school should be an intea^ral part of tho work of a nii-!sion in 
preaohinfT the (losp.d. To this end, the lirst ele aont of a good day school 
is an elHjient Christian teacher man or woman. The school room should 
be kept clean and white. The e'cercises of each day should begin with a 
short praver; no long spun address, an utter weariness to the souls and 
bodies of the poor little scholar.s. 

Commencing with the first principles of Christianity, they should 
be brought step b\' step through a series of primary books and catechisms 
up to the study oi" the Holy Scriptures. 

Geography, natural philosophy, and universal history are exceed- 
ingly helpful; indeed 1 consider the study of them very important as 
tending to elevate and enlighten the scholars and free them from many 
superstitions; not regardiug these so much as secular studies, but as a 
substratum for further religious truth to work upon and as aiding them 
in the ell'ort of learning to think. 

Where singing can be taught it is a most desirable addition to tlie of a school, in connection with the study of the Bible, the 
Chinese Four Books and some of the Chinese classics may be taken up 
with a sim])le pointing out of the good as well as the evil which they 
contain ; dwelliug on them as the teaching of men without Divine 

In all respects the aim and standard of the school should be high. 
Oar schools ami our Churches have suJlered much from the low standard 
that is often held for the day school. 

In connection with the regular examination of his school by the 
missionary in charge, he should if possible, see that the family of every 
scholar is reached in some way either by the teacher peivsonally or by a 
Bible Reader or home visitor. He should see also to the regular attend- 
ance at public worship, when pi'a^ticable, of both teacher and scholars. 

I have said the day school should be thoroughly a part of tho 
system of the work of a mission. Do not pat it oil: as a side work to 
be slurred over. 

The teacher should be taught and made to feel that his work is ap- 
preciated not only by his special minister but by the whole mission, that 
all .sympithize with him. 

The native Christian .should also be led to take a personal interest in 
the school of their chapel or church. Let the Christian families rally 
around the school and recommend it to their hciathen neighbours. 

If we would seek to reach the little ones of whom our loving Saviour 
has .said "suffer the little ones to come unto me" let us use the day 
school in the way I have bat partially suggested and we will find it a 
power, of present, anil far-reaching influence. 

May we never put any one part of tho great work for Christ in 
conflict with another, nor judge of another branch of tho work from any 
preconceived views or coustitutloned bias of our own. 

We will preach the word, we will teach the word, we will print tho 
woi'd bearing each his standard for Christ, going forth as an army with 

186 ESSAY. May 15th. 

banners. Never fearing for results, tlie work is ours, tlie resnlts are 
God's. "Always abounding in the work of the Lord." We can count no 
work done for Christ in faith and love as done in vain, anv more than 
we can count as useless any one atom of the universe. 


Day-Scliools. Male and Female. 


Mrs. F. F. Gough, C. M. S., Nixgpo. 

In bringing forward the subject of Girls day schools, I do it with 
much diffidence ; and regret that I cannot do justice to it. 

To my own mind, it is a branch of the Mission Work of the greatest 
importance, and one in accordance with the mind of our dear Loving 
Lord; who Himself "took up" little children "in His arms, and blessed 
them;" and in those woi'ds so dear to the hearts of Christian parents, 
said " Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of 
such is the kingdom of Heaven. 

Soon after my arrival in Ningpo, in the year 1855, one day looking 
out of my sittingroom window, (which overlooked the premises of a small 
Mandarin, where there was a shrine with three idols) I saw the servants 
busy lighting candles, and making arrangements for worship; presently, a 
little boy of about two years of age, was brought in, in full dress, and 
made to bow down to each of these idols in turn. My heart was pained 
within me ; and with tears and prayers, I consecrated myself to the Lord, 
for this woi'k ; viz, to try and rescue some of these poor little children 
from idolatry. For if our Loving Master could show such love for little 
ones ; how surely would He own and bless oiir efforts to win them to 
Him. In taking up this subject, I would, relying on His Help, consider 
it briefly under two heads. 

1st. The advantages of Day schools. 
2nd. The best method of carrying them on. 

First division of ray subject. The advantages of Day-schools. There 
are very many. The first great obvious one, is bringing these girls under 
the sound of the Gospel, and under Christian influence. We all know 
from the way in which Chinese girls are brought up (not being allowed 
to go about and from very eaily years, having to earn a little money by 
making " sih-boh " (Paper money), braid, and other things) how impos- 
sible it is for girls to come to our churches, or houses, even if they 
wished it: — but induce them to come to school and all is altered. Daily 
they hear the Scriptures and are taught to pray ; on the Lord's day, 
they are taken to chiirch, and are taught to keep that day holy ; and we 
may hope and believe, that many, through these instructions, may 
believe and become members of Christian churches. 

The second advantage I w^ould mention is the removing fi'om the 
minds of these girls the prejudice against and fear of foreigners; hitherto 
they have probablj^ looked upon us with dread, but attending our schools, 
they soon begin to look on us with love and confidence. What mission- 
ary lady has not been saddened, when going out visiting the women at 
their houses or elsewhere, with hearts yearning with loA^e to them and 

Mav 16th, ESSAY. 187 

tliL-ir c-liildren, to liefir the chiklren ci-yiiip: out with terror 'Ong-mao- 
nying ! 'OiijUf-inao-iiyirg ! wo ts'6 ! we ts'6 ! (the red-haired luaii ! red- 
liaired man ! will catrh us ! will catch as ! Or, what Lady has not had 
tears till her eyes, when she has hoeii noticing a Chinese hah}', a few 
months old, to see it turn away its little face with a shriek of liorror, at 
the sight of the foreign lady ! lint look at the contrast with tlic girls in 
our schools — see their loving faces looking towards you, watching for 
your smile, and their little hands quietly slipped into yours; hear thera, 
instead of calling you 'ong-raao-nyiug call you "S-nieo" or, perhaps if you 
are in years, calling you " Nga-bo " (maternal gi-and-mothor). Will these 
little ones, when they grow up, teach their children to be afraid of us? 
We trust not, and surely this will be oue great advantage, resulting from 
our schools. 

A third advantage ] would speak of is, that these young minds are 
more impressible; more guileless; less filled with superstition; more 
ready to receive the love of Jesus, than they ever will be again. Is not 
this implied in our dear Lord's words, " Except ye be converted and 
become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of Heaven." 

A fourth advantage is, that these little ones will in many cases, take 
home to their friends the truths they daily hear, and the seed thus scat- 
tered will eventually take root, and bring forth fi'uit to the pi-aise and 
glory of Ciod; or the seed lying dormant in their own hearts, in times of 
of sorrow will bring them to repentance and faith in the Lord Jesus, I 
will venture to mention two instaiices. On my i-eturn to Ningpo, in the 
beginning of 1869, after an absence of nearly six years, when visiting 
some women whom I had formerly known one, whose daughter had 
been previously under my instruction told me that this daughter had 
married and gone into the country, but was soon after taken ver}- ill, and 
t/iai wanted to learn more about this Jesus of whom I had told her, that 
she called out constantly "Jesus, Jesus" — and then for me, to come and 
tell her more of Jiivi, her mother came up to Ningpo, to find me, but 
could hear nothing of me, (I was at that time in England.) She died; 
lier desire of seeing me was not realized : but ^may we not hope her fee- 
ble earnest cries for Jesus were not in vain. Another case was told mo 
by the late Dr. Knowlton, just after onr return from England. During 
the rebellion at Ningpo about 1861, when maiiy were fleeing to Shang- 
hai for refuge, one giid (formerly a day scholar at the school of a beloved 
Missionary 'who had already departed to be with Christ') and her 
mother were in great distress, and the mother said, "we will now pray 
to this Jesus of whom your teacher told you and if He saves us we will 
worship Jlim ;" they reached Shanghai in safety and inquired for a 
Chi-istian Church, where they after a time both became members; and at 
the time our beloved and honoured brother told me, they were both liv- 
ing, consistent members of that Church. But the beloved earnest teach- 
er, as 1 have already said, was with her Saviour, and not permitted to 
know on earth the result of her labours. Beloved sisters ! shall we not 
take encouragement? we may and shall be oft times f-addened and dis- 
appointed, but the promise is "My word shall jio^ return into me void, 
but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in tha 
thing whereto I sent it." 

A tifth advantage of these day schools is, that the expense is small 
compared with boarding schools, so many more girls may lome under the 
influence of tiie Gospel at the same expenditure of money, and, what is 
still more important, of time and strength on the part of the superinten- 
dent female missionary. 

188 ESSAY. May 15th. 

A sixth advantage is that of elevatirig and raising the position and 
character of Chinese women, by giving* them the capacity of I'eading for 
themselves, and obtaining some general knowledge. I -nill not dwell on 
it ; though that too is great, but this of course is more efficiently done by 
Boarding schools. 

II. And now to speak of my 2nd head, viz : the best method of 
canying them on. And here I would say we must have the spirit and 
mind of Jesus who left His throne of glory, made Himself of no reputa- 
tion for us, — for nil ri.h or poor, wretched and vile as we were. The 
habits of the Chinese children are such, and there is such a want of 
cleanliness amongst them, that when they first come to our day schools, 
we are prone to feel them repulsive, and care not to put a caressing hand 
on them, but, my beloved sisters, we too must lovingly take these little 
children, caress, fondle them, e\-en as our own children, — be Lhe Jesus to 
them, — and we shall win their hearts to Him. 

2iidly. — I think that the great object of our teaching must be, to fill 
their minds with Scripture truths ! The life and teachings of Jesus must 
be the most prominent feature in our teaching, and His deep tender love 
and compassion must be continually set before them — other teaching, other 
books and plans, must be I think, according to the different ideas of mis- 
sionary sisters, but our main object must be to teach them to love Jesvs. 
'irJl ij. — I would touch on one point, with regard to the method of 
conducting girls schools, that has been, and is still, a point of diificulty 
with many of our dear missionary friends, that is the pinang of girls for 
coming to school. I would premise, that in Niugpo and its neighbour- 
hood, the education of girls is not valued by the parents, as it appeal's to 
be in Canton ; there is real difficulty in getting mothers to let their child- 
ren come without any payment. When I tix'st came to China, I con- 
demned the plan entirely, and it was not for some time and after failure 
in getting girls without, that I began to give money, but when I found 
parents would not let their girls come to school because they could earn 
a few cash at home, I felt it was better to give in, and let them have a 
few cash a day, than allow the poor girls to perish without hearing of a 
Saviour's love. And although I have met with many discouragements 
and disappointments, thank Crod I am sure some of the dear young girls 
in my day schools have given their hearts to Jesus, and I yet trust others 
too may be gathered in when my work on earth is done, and I (through 
grace) have entered into rest. 

Afternoon Session. 

Boys Boarding Scliools, 


Rev. Samuel Dodd, A. P. M., Hakgchow. 

I am well aware that the question, whether Boarding Schools are a 
legitimate undertaking, is one on which foreign missionaries are by no 
means agreed ; and if we explain the Saviour's commission, to go and 
disciple all nations, by the example set, whether by Himself or his 
apostles, it must be owned at once that the mission Boarding School, as 

May ICth. ESSAY. 189 

(at present known, foiMnoil no p:xrt of tlio raacliinery that he oi* <hoy eni- 
1 ployed. It is llienco, not uiuiL'(.'ouMtaI)ly, hehl that the lUL-aiis being with- 
out Scripture exauiple shoiiUl be abandoned. Whatever may be found to 
be wise and warranted in thi-; respert, it will be safe for us to give it at 
least a somewhat fair examination before jumping too readily at any 

If we apply the rule uniformly to Christianity in its modern modes 
of operation we shall encounter much at pre.scut highly prized that vvoidd 
need also to disappear. We never hear of our Lord or of any of his 
apostles having preached in a Christian church building; they made their 
message known ou the roadside, in temples whether heathen or dedicated 
to the service of the true (iod; on sliipboard and elsewhere, as they found 
opportunity; and were not at all careful to enj )in on their hearers the 
wisdom of taking steps as soon as possible towards procuring hou.sea 
where Christian worship might be statedly performed. We are not to 
think for a moment that if there were no church buildings there would 
be no Christianity; and yet we regard with unspeakably more confidence 
the heaven pointing spires and sounds of the churchgoing bells found 
everywhere in Christendom as a defence against foreign aggression and 
internal disorder, than the armies and navies of which we are by no 
means unjustly proud. If thou the erection of church building-;, even 
without any apostolic injunction, may be regaided as a proper channel 
for Christian activity and liberality ; it would be, to say the least, incon- 
sistent to aliirm that there remained no other channel in whidi God's 
people )uight safely expend sacred fuTids and sacred time, and reasoimbly 
expect the divine blessing, even though it had no express warrant in the 
Bible. The best methods of receiving funds for the pr(;secution of Christ- 
ian work ; of appointing men to take chai-ge of said funds ; whether it is 
best to endow, or leave ur.endowed institutions for religion and benevolence; 
whether Bible and religious book societies should receive church nurture; 
and many kindred subjects are all alike passed over without any minute 
directions. We may very safely conclude then that even though we be 
unable to find an e.xpress warrant for Boarding Schools in the Sacred 
Scriptures, the wisdom or otherwise of the institution is by no means 
vouched by that fact. If we are in a measure left at sea on the subject 
by the apostles, we might examine whether their successors and fellow 
servants of the present day could help us in our perplexity. And if we 
may draw light from this source we may safely conclude that unless there 
is something in the nature of the case peculiar to the fields regarded as 
foreign mission fields, these schools are not only probably necessary, but 
certainly and unavoidably so. The fact is that at the present day there 
is no Christian church that any influence, worthy of mention, on 
the thought and culture of the world that has not schools from which 
wisely or otherwise they draw the great bulk of those who are their 
ministers, priests or bishops. The argument against the use of schools, as we 
have heard it boldly stated, is put somewhat as follows: — God is Almighty, 
and he can raise np workmen when and how he pleases; and it is therefore 
taking the power out of his hands if we establish schools to train men for 
Christian usefulness. Moreover the Master ordained men who were fulF 
grown; and the apostles selected such men as Timothy and Titus from 
among their converts, and ordained them to the work of the ministry, 
and let the foreign missionary of the present day do the same." If this 
is God's law it holds universally, and should by no means be confined to 
the foreign fields of the Church's efTorts; it applies at home as well, 
where it should immediately close up all those institutions of learning so 

190 KSSAY. May 15tli. 

liberally supported by sacred funds ; and that contribute so largely to- 
wards making the Christian Church, especially through its teachers, the 
controlling power in the world that it is at present. And if it would be 
reo-arded as simple suicide or folly to close up all Christian institutions at 
home, trusting to Timothies and Tituses to hll up the ranks of the minis- 
try, even though without previous training, with that end in view, — we 
I cannot see why it should not he regarded a ten fold greater folly to attempt 
to perpetuate or establish Christianity in heathendom without them. 
Communions do survive at home that have no endowed institutions of 
learning; the same is true of the foreign field, but such institutions are 
indispensable for the developement and activity of any church. And this 
to my mind seems so clear that I am persuaded that sooner or later either 
we or our successors will feel that the necessity of Boarding Schools has 
ceased to be a question; because they are pai't of the machinery which 
no mission can affoi'd to be without. Of course we do not advocate the 
necessity of every mission establishing a Boarding School the first thing- 
after securing a station : nor that all schools shall be on the same model. 
The attempt need not be made the first day or month or year; but it must 
come to it in the end, and the sooner the better. The school secures at very 
small expense the exclusion of the boj's from the influence of heathen 
homes and a bringing up under influences, in the main. Christian, that 
can be secui-ed at present in scarcely any other way. Believing as we do 
then that schools are a legitimate part of Foreign Mission work, a second 
question is — ■ 

Should they be free ? 

It may as well be owned here at the outset that the objections raised 
to free schools, especially Boarding Schools, are not without apparent 
force in theory at least. Come easy go easy, what costs nothing to obtain 
may be squandered without regret. Establish an institution in which 
lads are educated without money and without price to themselves ; and 
the probabilities are that the education will not be very highly prized. 
Such statements as the above might be multiplied ad i'lijiuituni, and 
would scarcely seem to need discussion but to be admitted as axioms ; 
and yet after all, they are not conclusive against free schools. The point 
at which those who are put in trust of the Grospel should cease their 
efforts for the welfare of those who do not make a fair remuneration for 
the benefits they receive is very difficult to determine. Thi^oaghout 
Christendom literaiy and religious educational institutions are endowed 
to such an extent that only a very small proportion of those who receive 
their benefits can be said to make an adequate return in money. 

The fees received from students form bat a very small proportion of 
the expenditures. And this will be found to hold not only with educa- 
tional institutions ; but with hospitals, asylums, and the nnraeroixs other 
charitable and benevolent enterprizes that are the strength and glory as 
well as the hedge of evangelical Christendom. A man may therefore give 
a very hearty assent to the truth that the laborer is worthy of his hire ; 
that those who preach or teach the Gospel should live of it ; and that those 
who are taught should support those who teach them, without believing 
that all or any of the institutions that aim at establishing the Gospel 
among the heathen should be self supporting from the beginning. The 
efforts put forth in the mission hospital, in the very nature of things, 
bear fruit that can be appreciated by the Chinese mucli earlier than those 
in the school or chapel, and yet we find even now after half a century's 
trial of the mission hospital, that the missionary physician is perfectly 
willing to give advice and, to a large extent, medicines gratis. 

May l.jlli. ESSAT. 191 

Aiul \>-e have boon told too that men are still living who actually 
paid thoiv Chinose jialioiits for perraittinj^ tlii-m to pei-form the tirst. 
surgical (iperatious. Such a noci'ssity doubtless no longer exists in some 
parts of China; but the mission hospital is still, as a rule, far from beino* 
supjMorted by the natives Ixjnclitted in it. So with every other under- 
taking for the purpose of bringing the truth of the Gospel to bear on the 
Chinese mind. Had the preacher refused to preach at the beginning; or 
should be refuse to continue it now, unless all hi.s expenses are defrayed 
by those who hear him, he might just alxmt as well have staid at home. 
Or had missionaries refused to establish J3oarding Scliools till thev were 
assured that all the necessary expenditures should be defrayed \>y tlie 
pupils, the experiment of Boarding Schools would be far in the remote 
future. The time may now be come in some places when wholly gratuit- 
ous 13oarding Schools .should be in a greater or less degree dispensed with ; 
just as the time may have come when some patients pay in part at least 
for their medical attendance ; and some congregations of Christians pay 
their pastors salaries, in whole or in part ; but such a fact does not touch 
in the slightest degree the wisdom of free schools in the beginning of 
mission wook ; because; of their necessity. 

What should be the aim in schools? 

Kot to save as great a number as possible of heathen children from 
destitution. Orphanages and Foundling asylums may be perfectly le<n- 
timate channels for the exercise of Christian philanthrophy ; but they do 
not fall within the scope of Boarding Schools. Neither should the aim 
be to raise up clerks, interpreters, &c. for mercantile and other interna- 
tional service : such men may be needed and till an important sphere, and 
yet these need not be supplied by the contributions from the home 
churches. Neither need the aim be to bring a certain number of heathen 
pupils together, and after having kept them for a prescribed time and 
submitted them to a prescribed course of training turn them out Christ- 
ians. Such an expectation might he very pleasing but I am persuaded 
that where entertained it is doomed to bitter disappointment. There is 
no such royal road to (he evangelization of China or any other heathen 
land. Neither should the aim be to keep a number of boys till they are 
fifteen or sixteen years of age and then bind them out to useful trades in 
the hope of C'liristianizing* China by means of colonies of such Christian 
workmen. The mechanical and other useful arts are at such an advanc- 
ed state in China that the Church at home may A-ery well leave them as 
tliey are. For ourselves we would not recommend the work and expen- 
diture of the time and money requisite to conduct Boarding Schools were 
it not that we may reasonal')ly expect from them a class of native teachers, 
preachers, &c. who having Ix^en brought up from childhood trained in 
the Holy Scriptures, and under Chri-;tian intluence, and separated from 
heathen influence, may become helpei'S in the Gospel, whose equals can 
scai'ccly bo expected from other sources. This then should be the aim — 
to raise up native laborers. 
What should be taught? 

Of course this question will depend entirely upin the preceding for 
an answer. If the aim is to show what Chinese nature is capable of when 
instructed, then any branch or branches whatever may be taught ; music, 
painting, dancing, &c. Or if the aim is to test the truth of the Confucian 
statement that all men are by nature very much alike, we might take the 
branches taught in a school at home, and teach them here ; and then by 
means of examinations, exhibitions, &c., show how much Chinese boys 
and girls resembled other boys and girls. Or if the aim is to procure 

192 ESSAY. May 15th. 

clevks, interpreters, &c., we oiiglit to teacL. English, French, German, 
reading, arithmetic, & -., as -well as Chinese. 

Thi^ should not be the aim and the above should not be the studies. 
But as it is no part of our object to do any damage whatever to any class 
of the Chinese, this thought should exercise a controlling influence on the 
education we endeavor to impart ; and as it cannot be determined, when 
a class of boys enter school, what their moral or mental character may be 
five or ten years hence, it should steadily be borne in mind that they may 
be required to procure their own subsistence from their own people after 
that time ; and the education, to say the least, should not unht them for 
this. Whatever will fairly help them in this struggle for existence as 
Chinamen among Chinamen, may be imparted ; what will not is not 
needed ; which would thus confiue us to the common brariches of a Chinese 
education. And if we were sure that the boys would become assistants, 
even in that case the rule need not be far departed from. The combat- 
ants in a duel at forty paces do not need to be armed with broadswords or 
rapiers, and heavy cavalry or artillery would make but an indilfei'ent 
impi'ession on the wandering Bedouins mounted on fleet Arab steeds. So 
the man who endeavours to raise up a Christian ministry will feel that 
different intellectual garniture is needed for different fields. A minister 
at honae, e. g. should know something of evolutionism, materialism and 
various other branches of knowledge believed by many to furnish impor- 
tant weapons for the defense or overthrow of Bible truth. While a 
preacher among the Chinese might spend a life time without once feeling 
the necessity of such studies, a minister at home may be in comparative 
ignorance of the opinions of king Wan and Wu or the Duke of Chow. 
Whether Confucius did or did not claim to be sinless, originally, and per- 
fectly endowed with knowledge, ai'e questions the solution of which can 
scarcely he said to affect in the slightest degree the usefulness of any 
Minister in Britain or America; but these are subjects which no preacher 
to the Chinese can afford to ignore which brings us back very neai'ly to 
the point at which we sent away the unconverted youth from the mission 
schools. What is needed, at the present, is Christian Chinese schools. 
The teachings of the natives sages are received as law throughout the 
empire; but those who hear and have believed the Gospel care vei'v little 
whether the man who preaches to them is or is not furnished with what in 
the West would be called a liberal education; and western science furnishes 
only a very secondary pnrt of the weapons requisite at present to under- 
mine Chinese superstition and impiety. Of coui'se when we speak of 
Western science in such light, the Bible and all religious subjects are en- 
tirely e.xcluded. So it may safely be said that one who has studied a 
common school geography can never afterwards believe that China is the 
great central kingdom, or all under heaven, and that all other countries 
are but indifferent jottings on the outside. He may remain in many 
respects just as much a heathen as ever he was, but the claim of belong- 
ing to the great central kingdom is gone for ever. Something similar 
might be said of a knowledge of astronomy and some other western 
studies ; but notwithstanding such exceptions it holds that what we 
need at present is Christian native schools in which together with a 
Christian training the pupils are made as efficient as possible in Chinese 

Conducted on such principles we see no reason why schools should 
not fulfil reasonable expectations. As said above we need not expect to 
put a number of heathen children into a school and keep them there for 
a number of years at the end of which time we can turn them out Christ- 

May I 'til. KSSAY. ly3 

ians. JJiit \vf may cxpcft tliat tlic care aiul tcafliiiig bestowed will not 
be in vain; that llie word of God will biiug a remnant at all events to a 
knowled<;e of (he truth and when such boys give indications of hopeful 
piety tliey furnish perhaps the only elass available at ])resent for assist- 
tants who have known the Holy Scriptures from childhood. The above 
theory is fullv IjDrne out by observation. ] have been .somewhat intima- 
tely connected with a school conducted on the above principles for a little 
over twenty years. The entire expenditure per annum for food, cloth- 
ing, outtit, teachers, salaries and everything else is about a thousand 
dollars; the number of pupils is from twenty to thirty. The plan is to 
admit almost any lad of about twelve years of age who makes application 
if there is i-ooni for him; and after a trial of a few weeks or months 
either dismiss him, or retain him as a regular scholar to stay till he is 
about twenty years of age. 'J'he whole number of those who have become 
permanently connected with the school np till the present time is one 
hundred and forty-four this is exclusive of an almost equal number 
who were dismissed after trial and whose names were not entered on the 
roll of the si-hool ; of the permanent s. holars sixty-four have become 
Christians, of whom eleven have been ordained to the full work of 
the Gospel ministry, and ten others have been received as candidates for 
the ministry, and five others have been employed as Christian school 
teacliers and other a.ssistants. 

The character of the school has changed considi'vably in the twenty 
years. At the beginning of that time the pupils were of necessity almost 
all from heathen families : and all indentured in order to keep them their 
full time. 

By referring to an old report of some sixteen years or .so ago I find 
that out of forty pupils four were professing Christians ; at present 
all of the pupils are from Christian families; indentures have ceased to 
be nece.s.sarv ; and about half of the pupils are professing Christians. 

My acquaintance with the institution has enabled me to answer some 
questions that I could not have answered when I came to China; ai\d in 
fact, that, without the gift of ])rophecy, could not have been answered in 
the early years of the undertaking. 

It has been asked, what are you going to do with the boys after theii* 
term in the school expires? Jf they turn out badly, and you find your- 
self compelled to supp(n-t them for life what will you do ? Of course if 
it were a.scertained that all the pujnls would turn out badly; and if the 
neces.sity existed that the institution was bound to support them for life 
in case they did so, we might at once the doors, liut, not only oi 
the school ; for hospitals, homes, orphanages, and all other benevolent 
and eleemosynary institutions whether in Christendom or heathendom 
should submit to the same rule, lint as neither the probability in the one 
case, nor the necessity in the other exists, the answer may fairly be, 
'Wait and see.' 

If the boys turn out good and trustworthy Christians, there is no 
doubt that they will find both work and livelihood in preat hiiig the Go.s- 
pel to their fellow couiitrynuiri. And if they turn out badly, they must 
take the consequences and find a livelihood by whatever means they can. 
The institution is by no means bound to furnish sujiport to either the 
one or the other. 

It is said again, however, that the pupils are made hot house plants; 
and are unfitted for earning a livelihood among their own countrymen, 
and are taught to look to the Church for support whetiier worthy of it 
or not. Such a ^^tatcment would have been much more of a bugbear io 

194 F.SK.VT. May ir)tli. 

me ten or a dozen years ago tlian now. The truth of the surmise is es- 
tablished if at all in only a very fractional degree by observation. As 
said above, the school has been in operation for twenty years or more; at 
the end of that time there is not one pupil supported as a work of cha- 
rity ; there is not the slightest reason for saying that the boys who have 
left the school unconverted are as a rule any worse off, whether financi- 
ally or otherwise, then they would have been had they never entered it. 
Some of them are school teachers among tlieir own ]ieople; some of them 
are in arsenals, printing presses, some are clerks, tradesmen, mechanics 
and servants. And some of them of course are not well off whether in 
morals or in means. 

It is said that those who become assistants are married for life to 
the church's rice ; and whether needed or not must be supported ; espe- 
cially as they have no trade to fall back upon. This surmise is specious; 
not substantiated by observation. It is found true of assistants brought 
from Boarding Schools to precisely the same extent that it is of assistants 
brought from an}^ other quarter. 

Take any of the missions represented in this meeting; some doubt- 
less having some tens or scores perhaps of native Christian helpers who 
are treated on the principle that the workman is worthy of his hire; and 
it would be a real hardship to those natives as a class to be told to-mor- 
row that at the expiration of a month more or less they would be requir- 
ed to find other means of support for themselves and families than they 
had been having for the past dozen or score of years. Such a piece of in- 
telligence might bear pretty hard even npon ns foreigners; but if we 
could get home we might surviv^e it even without a miracle or being for- 
ced to leave the ministry. It is not probable that our native brethren 
could, because Christian instruction is at a terrible discount in China. 
And neither is it probable that those who have been brought from schools 
would find themselves much worse off as a class than those who have en- 
tered the church's service from other fields. I believe the reverse would 
be found true. 

It is sometimes said, in reference to the pioneering- work which 
needs at present and long will need to be done in China, that men who 
have been mechanics and field hands are more willing to bear such bur- 
dens than those who have been brought up from boyhood in schools. If 
the statement were true, there is room for both. But here again the re- 
sult of observation does not justify the theory. I am acquainted with both 
classes; and as far as my observation has extended, I believe it would be 
against rather than in favour of the theory. I he men who have been 
brought up in the school are quite as willing and as ready to leave home 
on itinerations of any requisite length as those who were clerks or me- 
chanics before becoming preachers. 

It is objected again, that as we cannot make men ministers of the 
Gospel, and as only the Holy Spirit can, it would be better to bind the 
lazy out to trades at the age of sixteen or so, and, if after having learned 
a trade they give evidence of hopeful piety, and proinise of becoming 
such ministers as are made of the Holy Spirit, they should be used as 
teachers and preachers. I would by no means unconditionally condemn 
the trial, if any one chooses to make it. But I know that it will not 
afford a solution of all, nor of even a very small percentage of the difficul- 
ties connected with mission Boarding Schools. Atid the result of obser- 
vation does not encourage one either to make the trial or advise others to 
make it. I know some boys who have been treated just so : they stayed 
in school till it was time to learn a trade, and then went to some kind of 

.M;iy »;ssvT. 195 

busiiu'ss; uiul alter Imving spi'nl soiuo yi-iirs at the business were employ- 
etl us assistant proadiei's, and as far as human C30S can sen tliey are by 
no means more indepcMnlent as regards money, nor useful as regards 
workmen than those who spent their whole time in the school and then 
loft to become teachers and have continued so ascending in the scale 
of usefulness and activity. I know some, too, who were admitted to the 
school at an early age, taught no trade ; and on account of immorality, or 
for like reasons were dismissed fi-om mission employ when between tlurty 
and forty vears of age, and yet were able to find a livelihood among their 
own people — as good tixi, as they who never were in a mission school. 

The objection is sometimes made in this form : — The probabilities 
are that a school will bring a great many unworthy men into missiou 
eniplov- In school the lads were no doubt fairly well behaved, and no 
crime rould be proven against them. But it may reasonably be feared 
(hat when made paid agents in the employ of the mission they will make 
clear what was concealed before, viz : that they professed Christianity 
onlv as a matter of course and became preachers only for the sake of a 
living. AVe have of course all repeatedly heard remarks precisely similar 
made concerning the whole missionary body ; and for that matter the 
whole ministerial body — "the black coats earn their money easily" — "if 
there were no paying there would be no praying " — and much more of 
the same sort. We may remark in reference to this, 1st. There should 
be a pretty fair opportunity to detect what is in the moral make-up of a 
boy who spends five or ten years in a Christian school: Avhether he is 
truthful, honest, &c., or their contraries, are subjects that should not at 
the end of that time be entirely unknown quantities; and, 2nd. The 
school with which 1 am best acquainted has been in operation now for 
about twenty years. 1 would feel exceedingly glad if every scholar 
who ever left it was now a trusted and trustworthy teacher or preacher 
of Christianity; in that case there would be some ground for the suspicion; 
as it is, however, the unworthy natives have been wonderfully powerless, 
as, out of 142 only sixty-one have professed connexion ; and of those 
sixty-one only about thirty are in mission employ. 

The above is about all I have to offer on the subject assigned me by 
the Committee of Arrangements ; and it may be summed up as follows : — 
I liy no means affirm that there are no difficulties and drawbacks connect- 
ed with mission 13oarding Schools ; but in this respect they are not 
peculiar. There is no phase of mission work that has not humiliations, 
difficulties^ drawbacks and disappointments in abundance. But : — 

Ist. The fact that the apostles and the Master said nothing about 
schools is neither here nor there. They left them where they left build- 
ing churches ; a settled ministry ; the mode of supporting the Gospel 
where it is, and sending it where it is not, alms houses, religious publica- 
tions, societies and numberless other undertakings in which Christians 
engage for the spread of the truth. 

2ud. It is found in lands where Christianity is established that 
schools under Christian or exclusively church influence are a necessity : 
\ there is no known reason why they should not be equally indispensable 
in the foreign fields of the church's efforts. 

8rd. Whether they should be free in whole or in part is to be an- 
swered precisely as the same question asked about any other means of 
introducing the Gospel among a heathen people. Should itineration, 
preaching, chapels, &c., &c., be entirely free at the first; or should the 
Christian ministry in all cases wait till those who are perishing for lack 
of knowledge pay all expenses before tliey are instructed ? 

19G Mscussiox. May 15tli. 

4tli. Tliey sliould be Christian native schools ; and the branches 
taught shonld be su3h as the pupils can use to advantage among their 
own countrymen whether they do or do not become Christians. 

5th. The aim should be to raise up a native ministry, with native 
modes of thought and life. 

6th. There is no a priori reason why sucli schools should not be 
expected to do fairly well : observation shows that they do. 

7th. The objection that the pupils become hot house plants ; and 
that assistants from the schools enter the service of the church from 
mercenary motives ; that they are unwilling to bear hardships, &c., is no 
more true of assistants from Boarding Scliools than from any other source 
and cannot be proven to hold uniformly against either. 


Rev. J. M. W. Farxham, A. P. M., Shaxghai, said : — 

A Pennsylvanian Judge, it is said, iised to think while listening to 
the counsel for the prosecution that he would easily give him the case. 
But upon hearing the defendant he always changed his mind. I presume 
many of us have been like the Pennsylvanian Judge ; while listening to 
the able defence of one part of the work, we have felt that it was the only 
thing worth a thought. The next day another branch came before us and 
then it seemed that this was the most important. When Itineration was 
so clearly and cleverly set forth we felt as though we would start without 
a moment's delay to itinerate in the utmost parts of China. Then in 
eloquent tones another pleaded the importance of preaching, and we began 
to feel as though after all we had come to China to preach the Gospel. 
But to-day it has been clearly and conclusively proven that after all we 
are only teachers. ,And the same great connnission is appealed to in 
proof. "Go ye therefm'e, and teach all nations baptizing, &c." 

" Teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever 1 have commanded 
you, and lo, I am with vfith you alway, &c." 

If baptized with the Holy Ghost, all our teaching will be with a view 
to bringing souls to Christ. Mr. Mateer, has well said that these are all 
but departments of the one great work. As to day-schools one cannot 
help wishing that such a scheme as Mr. Hanspach had elaborated might 
have been carried out and even enlarged. 

I would venture to suggest that a committee be appointed to take up 
such hints as that dropped by Mr. Lechler, as to the importance of a 
Christian commentary on the classics. The recommendation of such a 
body as this would incline a man to consider whether it was not his duty 
to engage in such a work. 

Kinder Gartens might find a suitable field in China. Many poor 
mothers would gladly have their little ones in a kinder garten Mdiile they 
went to the cultivation of some other garden or other labors. Object lessons 
are well calculated to arouse these phlegmatic Chinese and make those 
who have never been used to it, think. 

That noble Missionary Dr. Duii in his work on India argues strongly 
in favor of concentration ; we ought to make a strong impression upon a 
few minds, that there might be some fit to represent us and carry on the 
work when we are yone. 

:May l.'.tli. PisccssiojT. 197 

Ui;v. Di;. Yaiis, A. S. U. C, Sha.nuhai, suid: — 

I wish to say ii word in favor of schools as a means of eradii-atln*^ 

Tho Chiiu'SO aro uoaily all idolaters, and yot I have lu-vt'v been al)le 
to tind a man who could tell me when, or why, he l)ecame sucli. They 
all say they cannot remember the time when they did not worship idols. 
Many years ai^o I resolved to lind out the secret by which so many mill- 
ions were made of inie mind. A C'liinese friend, who would not give me 
the desired information, informed me that it" i would go to a certain tem- 
ple in the city on the tirst and tifteeuth of the month, 1 could hnd out for 
myself. 1 went and took a position, in the temple in the rear of the 
main hall, wdiere I could see what was done before the idol. Soon, a 
■well dressed Chinese lady came in with three cliildren of about three, five 
and seven years of age. The i wo elder boys ran forwards, and perfcn-med 
their pi'ostrations in the usual way, and then called their younger bro- 
ther to come forward and do as they had done; but this was evidently his 
first visit to the temple, for he was very much frightened at the sight of 
the idol, which had been screened so as to show only the face, and thus 
rendered less hideous. The mother dragged her child into position and 
there standing behind it, and holding it fast by both arms, forced it to 
bow slightly, three times; and then adroitly exti-aeted from her commodi- 
ous sleeve a variety of toys, candies, &c., wdiich she gave the child, saying 
the god had given him these nice things because he was a good boy, and 
asked him to thank the god, which he did. 

I remained at the temple most of the day, and witnessed the induc- 
tion of many children into the mysteries of idolatry, and was oppressed 
with the thought, — ^what a lesson for mothers in Christian lands. 

On the loth of the month I was in my old position again. Soon the 
mother with the three children I had seen on the first occasion entered. The 
youngest was not so frightened as on the former occasion. He went, of 
his own accord into position, and said to his mother, "I don't know how 
to do it." He was assisted, and rewarded as before. The other boys wished 
to know why they were not rewarded and got the answer "because 
you are bad boys." From that time, that child was an idolater: the fright 
and the presents had welded the chain. Think of a mother deceiving her 
child in this way. 

Now schools for children provide for their religious education, till 
they are too old to be deceived in this way. And tliere is every reason to 
hope that the children which have spent a few years in a Foreign School, 
when they become mothers, w ill not deceive their oflspring before an idol. 

Rev. J. Butler, A. P. M., Nixoi'O, said: — 

The two excellent essays to which we have listened were taken up 
almost exclusively, with setting forth the advantages of education — but 
one important point was overlooked by both the writers, viz.: the tiiiie 
when education is the most necessary. 

Neither of the essayists came out boldly to put education in the 
pla<"e of religion, but still both seemed to me to imply, in tlieir discussion 
of the subject, that religion vitliont educatiim would not amount to much. 

I venture to criticise both of the papers in this particular, viz : that 
they failed to bring out the truth that religion in its natural order comes 
first, that the human mind takes in religious knowledge tirst and easiest 
of all. 

198 Discussiox. Miiy]r.tli. 

It needs no demonstration when you tell a people about God, and that 
they are sinners. Their knowledge it is true raay be dim, but still they 
have some little idea of what you are speaking about. The case is quite 
diiferent when you bring science before a heathen mind. You may tell 
the heathen of the secrets of Chemistry and Philosophy, or demonstrate 
some proposition in Geometry, but they will not understand you. You 
must put into him that which will enable hira to understand. But 
God has so made man after his own image in knowledge, righteousness 
and holiness, that a discourse about God, is in some degree intelligible to 
him, even in his most degraded state. 

This clearly shows that the place of education is after religion. Man 
can know God and understand that he himself is a sinner and that Christ 
is a Savioui', without knowing anything of education in our sense of 
that word. 

The order of history corresponds with the order of nature ; the re- 
formation came first, then came the quickening of the intellect, and by 
degrees all the achievements of Modern Science. Religion gives a desire 
for education, but the contrary is not true, viz : that education gives a 
desire for religion. Witness India and Japan, whei'e the educated heathen 
are the greatest opponents of religion. I am not veiy enthusiastic for 
education as a Missionary agency, unless, there is first a good basis of 
religion laid and then let education come in as it is needed. Religion 
cannot injure a people, education can, and does. 

It is a dangerous weapon, and ought to be wielded only by a Christ- 
ian arm. 

Rkv. L. H. GuLicic, M. D., A. 13. S., Yokohama, said :— 

I have long since lost all faith in science as a converting power. 
There are men in Ceylon who have re::eived a high secular education, who 
still remain ^lominal Buddhists. A volume in the English language on 
the evidences of Christianity was not long since published by a Wesleyan 
Missionary for the benefit of English-speaking Buddhists. Scientific 
education in modern p]urope, and the scientific ardors of the rapidly ex- 
panding Japanese mind, are in themselves no preparation of the heart for 
receiving the Gospel. Education is one of the outcomes from and aux- 
iliaries to, Christianity ; but it is the business of the missionary to spread 
the Gospel, and onlj^ to employ education so far as it can be directly sub- 
sidized to this end, — as for instance in the raising up of native teachers 
and jireachers. Science must, and will, be taught, but the missionary as 
such has something better to do than to impart scientific knowledge save 
as it bears directly on teaching and preaching the Gospel of Christ, which 
is his special province and privilege. 

REt. S. B. Partridge, A. B. M. U., Swatow, said :— 

We wei'e all interested in the able paper which Mr. Lechler present- 
ed this morning. I am personally acquainted with the two native pastors 
mentioned by him. Last winter I visited Nyenhangli — a station of the 
Basel Mission about 145 miles west of Swatow. 

Just before reaching the place, we were overtaken by a scholarly 
appearing Chinaman. We si)oke to him and he replied in very good 
English with a German accent. This Chinaman was Mr. Kong the native 
pastor of Nyenhangli. I saw him exery day for five days and I found 

May l.'jtli. r>!scus<sioK. 199 

liim a most exci-llenl Jiian. He sju'iit six yciivs in Ciirmany and it is now 
live or six yt'in's since his retnrn. 1 brlicvi' J needed to see just such a 
man, in order to increase iny faith in the cajiabilities of tlie Cliineso. He 
seems a humble, sincere, earnest, hard-workini^ pastor, havinj::^ at heart 
the hi^liest interests of his eonntrymen. Jiad the hibors of all the mis- 
sionaries in China up to this time, resulted in the conversion of Mr. 
Kono- oiilv, I should say mission work in China had been a success. 

MiJ. tJ. W. Paistkr, a. S. p. M., H.vngomow, said.— 

(5od calls men to tea "h as clearly as Ho does to prcajli ; in fact, who- 
ever eufr:\u:o.s in any work for whi^di God has fitted him, may be consider- 
ed called to that work, as truly as a mini -iter to his ; nor, can he neglect 
such a call and bo blameless. On mission ground, the kind of teaching 
in which a missionary may properly spend his time and the money of the 
Church is really a mode of preaching. Those who engage in it think it 
a most iujportant and necessary kind of preaching. They feel called to 
it, and both they themselves and the Church have applied the same tests 
in judging of that call, as are thought proper in judging of a call to the 
ministry at home. They cannot neglect such a call if they desired to do 
so. And it is rather daring in any ono to fix limits to the number of 
teachers and say only such a proportion of missionaries should be so em- 
ployed. If now this be the correct view, — /. e. if Missionary schools ai-e 
really a mode of preaching and men are called of GoJ tq engage in that 
work, the question whether ordained men should teach or not is un- 
necessary. Not only does ordination not disqualify them for such work, 
but if we hold to the strict view, it is probably best that none but or- 
dained men should be so employed. 

This view also helps to settle the question what books must be used. 
The end iu view should be, to raise up native helpers. Hence the study 
of the Sacred Scriptures and other moral and religious books, must take 
the precedence ; care being taken not to allow them to be degraded to the 
level of other text books by the pupils. "We must also aim to make 
scholars who will be recognized as such by the Chinese. Hence we must 
give much attention to the native Classics. The growing favor in which 
the Western Sciences are held, makes it right to introduce these as rapidly 
as books can be prepared. No native helper is well equipped for his 
work, until he is acquainted with these, and he should also be thoroughly 
drilled in native books. This is a different work and full of discourage- 
ments, so that those engaged iu teaching need the hearty sympathy, co- 
operation and prayers of their brethren. 

Ri:v. C. R. Mills, A. P. M., Tuxgchow, said: — 

v; The establishment of a school in which English is taught has been 
referred to with approval. Without pretending to speak for other parts of 
the tield I would simply state that in our region it has not been deemed 
advisable and has never been attempted. 

1 fully agree with Mr. Painter in the Holy Ghost calling men to this 
work of teaching. Take ray colleague ^Mr. Mateer and l»is good lady : I 
am i)erfectly satisfied that Mr. Alateer is called of God to teach a high 
school ; and Mrs. Mateer is a born teacher. 

20() ' DISCUSSION. May loth. 

On one point wliicli lias been refeiTed to I have very decided convic- 
tions. The foreign teaclier must himself pei'sonally attend to the details 
of school instruction ; and his influence must be paramount in the school. 
I mean this especially of Boarding Schools. 

As to Grirls' Day schools. 1 think tlie conditions on which girls 
may be got for such schools are considerably different in Canton and perhaps 
elsewhere from our region in the North. In our region girls cannot be 
got for daj' schools without the payment of money. Tlie experinrent has 
been tried in Tungchow but it has failed. And we are of one mind, that 
it is better not to have such schools thaii to pay the scholars for their 

Rev. Dr. Talmage, A. R. C. M., Amoy, said: — ■ 

I was exceedingly pleased with the ability and clearness of the pa- 
pers read. Their great ability, however, makes me a little afraid of their 

I like the remark of Mr. Wylie that education is the outgrowth 
of Christianity. The danger, which I fear from the papers, as well as 
from some remai-ks made during this discussion, is that this oi'der will be 
reversed in this land, and Christianity be looked for as the outgrowth 
of education. 

Dr. Yates told us very touchingly of haathen mothers teaching their 
young children to worship idols, and hence he re^omniends infantile 
schools taught by missionary ladies in order to eradicate the^^e heathen 
ideas from the minds of the children. This is very good, yet I think 
the better way (both more efficient and more economical) would be for 
these missionary ladies to endeavor to lead these heathen mothers to 
Christ, and they will make the best teachers of their little children in 
this matter. 

Rev. B. Helm, A. S. P. M., Hangchow, said :^ 

I most heartily sympathize with all the workers in the mission fieli 
whatever their special calling may be. It is not with me to presume to 
limit the Holy Spirit in His calling. With regard to the higher bi'anches 
of education I should rejoice to see colleges established, not Presbyterian, 
not Wesleyan, not Baptist nor of any particular denomination, but Glirld- 
ian colleges where Christian students from the higher mission schools, 
could receive a thorough vernacular education in all the higher branches, 
native and foreign. If I mistake not the signs of the times. Science will 
very soon become a desideratum in China. Much has been said about 
the failure of schools. It is quite true they do sometimes fail. In fact I 
have seen Day-schools ruined, not only by heathen teachei's, but also by 
incompetent Christian teachers. But if the foreign missionary enters 
them with the burning love that actuated Stoddard, and Miss Fiske in 
their work in Persia, they can and will make them a success in spite of 
the evils that do attend Boarding Schools. Thei'e must be direct living 
labor and prayer with individual scholars. Wliat we want, whether it 
be in Day or Boarding schools, are educated Christian teachers who will 
feel that they are not to teach merely to obtain %4<, to %S, a month but with 
a single purpose of winning souls to Jesus ; and Boarding schools are 
needed to raise up these. As to Day schools for the heathen these may 
for the most part be entrusted to the ladies for they possess tha 
magnetism of sympathy which draws the children to them. And when 

Miiv loth. MscussfiOK. 201 

gentlemen take sueli schools, tliey must learn of the l.irlies that lovo 
whirh can ivaeh a CMiiiii'sc cliilil even tiirough its tilth. If sueh schools 
must have a lieatlien teacher, then set to work at once by faith and pray- 
er to secure liis conversion. 

New modes (>f teaching tlie Chinese character are wanled, sonictliing 
like tliat of Mr. Stcvart of Hongkong, as that chihlren on h'aving school 
after two or tlin c years, to engage in business, can not oidy pronounce 
the ehamcters, but be prepared to read (lie Scriptures — be converted, and 
become Chn.«tian workers. 

Children carry home the truths to their parents, and lead the ladies 
to their homes, and so open many doors for direct labor among the 
women. Tiius a mission may be brought into a real connection with the 
people. Children should be trained to sing and brought to Sabbath 
School. Thus they will love to come to Church in after life and be acces- 
sible to the (lospel even when they have left the schools. Children, if boys, 
ehould be required to furnish at least their native books, pen, desks, &c. 
The more they are required to do in reasonable limits, the more they 
will value the school. 

Rkv. W. ]\fuiRHKAD, L. M. S., Shanghai, said : — 

He was thankful that so much prominence had been given to the re- 
ligious element in the .systems of education advocated by previous sy)eakers. 
There was a movement at present in England to exclude the J5ible from 
the national schools, but if this were ever to be the rule in China, if the 
teaching uf the Bible should be separated from the ordinary teaching the 
consequences would be of the most disastrous character. 

Keference had been made to the noble work done by Dr. Duff in 
India. ]hit there was one thing which ought to be remembered in con- 
nexii)n with his experience. Dr. Duff commenced by teaching entirely in 
the Vernacular languages which he afterwards found to be incomplete and 
insullicient for his purpose. He resolved therefore to teaeli English. A 
gentleman called on one occasion to see his schools and to leiirn his plan 
uf education, and after a inspection expressed his astonishment at the 
high standard attained by the pupils. He enquired how this point had 
been reached, and Dr. Duff took his visitor into a side room where was a 
black-board with the letters A. Ji. C. on it. "The present high standard 
has been gained ' .said Dr. Duff by beginning with the A. B. C And it 
could never have been reached without that." 

So in China. The English language will liave to be taught in our 
!Missif)n schools, and the Chinese are being gradually prepared for this. 
Mr. Muirhead rejoiced in the educatiouiil instruction which had been 
opened through the influences of Bishop Russell in Shangliai, where 
4U or oO boys are receiving an English education and fully pay their own He would be glad to see not 4U or 50 but lUO hoys in that 

Rf.v. N. J. I'limu. a. M. E. M., Foocnow, said : — 

I rise to advocate no theoiy, but to give briefly a statement of our 
experience in Foocliow. In our mission I think there have been more 
phases of .school work than I have heard of in any other field. They 
may be enumerated as follows, viz., a boys boarding s(;hool, a girls board- 
ing school, day schools for boys, day schools for girls, a Theological 
school or seminary and a school for boys called a high school. Some of 
these form" of scliool work have proved moi'e ejicourasfing tlnn others 

202 Discussioy. iLaj 15tli. 

and naturally those which we have fonnd in our experience to be least 
profitable have been given up. 

During the earlier years of our mission we had a boys boarding 
school. Heathen boys were taken ijito the school and their every want 
supplied, and great pains taken with their education, one of the mission- 
aries giving a large portion of his time and attention to this school ; but 
among all the forms of school woik this was found by experience to be 
the least encouraging and was coiisequently long ago given up. To the 
almost entire fruitlessness and sore discouragement of educating heathen 
boys in a boarding school, as an evangelizing agency, the missions at 
Foochow can bear their united testimony. 

The boys' day schools as at first instituted with heathen teachers 
were also soon abandoned. 

The girls' boarding school, commenced many years ago and still con- 
tinued, is considered very important as a means of training teachers for 
girls' schools and preachers' wives. 

The High school is an encouraging feature of our mission woi'k. It 
is composed of the sons of our preachers and church members, ranging 
from ten to fifteen years of age. They are provided with furnished room, 
teacher and books, but not otherwise provided for by the mission. They 
are taught the common branches of reading, writing, arithmetic, &c. 
This school serves in some degi'ee as a feeder to the Theological school, 
and although of i-ecent establishment some of the more advanced of these 
boys have already expressed their desire to enter the w^ork of the min- 
istry and have been advanced to the training school. 

The Theological school has in our experience proved the most prof- 
itable. Our object is to get Chi'istian young men who feel that they are 
called to enter the ministry, those who are more or less clearly impressed 
with the idea that it is their duty to become preachei-s of the Gospel and 
who have shown themselves useful to the church in a private capacity. 
While these young men are in the school they are paid a small sum per 
month, barely suliicient for their support, and supplied with room, 
teacher, books, etc. 

The native teacher instructs them in the classical language and writ- 
ing, while the missionaries take turns in giving them lectures twice each 
week, on the Old and New Testaments, Astronomj^ Geography, Mathe- 
matics, and such other studies as we deem most useful in their future 
calling, as well as an occasional lecture in Homiletics. At present Ave have 
some fifteen young men under training for the ministry. This school has 
been established about five years, and the manifest good results of our 
labors in this department have been most gratifying. 

Rev. H. Mackenzie, E. P. M., Swato^v, said :— 

It seems to me that mission schools should follow and spring out 

from Mission Churches, and that in the way of natural development. As 

missionaries, let us h?ixe first, the Church or Christian congregation, then 

the «(>hnol 'or the children of the Church-members. Wherever a Church 

is planted there should a school be established. This was the principle 

/ on which Knox in Scotland and the Pilgrim Fathers in New England 

/ acted, and we know with what good and enduring results. We should 

\ impress on the native Church the duty of setting up a school in connec- 

' tion with every congregation ; only thus can the children of the Church 

be instructed in Christian truth and be guarded in some measure from 

the Gounllese evil influences of heathenism. 

May llith. KSbAf. 20» 

At Swatow \vc fouiid thai it was butter to dispense with congrega- 
tional schools altogetlKT than to c:nploy hLVvthcn tcarhor-i over whom we 
could not exercisL' sulhcient oversight. Thus, from the lack of Christian 
teachers and well qualilied Native Assistants, we have not yet attained 
to whut we so niiuh desire — the establishment of a Christian school at 
every one of our stations. 

In regard to Mv. Mateer's Pa])er T may say that I was delighted 
with the far-seeing views he so forcibly expressed. I agree with him 
that it is the dutv of the missionaries to do their utmost to secui-o that 
the Chunh now growing up and spreading in China slrill be a well edu- 
cated, intelligent Church. Therefore let us by all tiie means in our 
power provitle, itml hulp llie Nutive Cliurch to provide, a liberal Chridian 
education for the children now growing up in the Church. The better 
instructed, the more intelligent the Cliurch is, the greater will be her 
power, ca-len's paribus, to influence for good the whole nation. We are 
not working simpl}' for the present generation. Let us keep in view the 
growth and extension of the Church throughout all China, and now at the 
commencement do what we can to provide for the spread of general 
knowledge (that kind of knowledge in which the Chinese are miserably 
lacking) vithin the C/iurrh wi it is now growlmj up. We shall thus help to 
fit it for becoming a beneficent power and the source of Christian, civiliz- 
ation and enlightenment to the whole land. 

Rev. D. Z. Sheffield, A. B. C. F. M., T-'uxgchow, said : 

He was in thorough sympathy with the work of education; yet his 
feelings with regard to the ])n])ers that liad been read were similar to those 
of Dr. Talraagc. He questioned whether these papers represented the 
convictions of this body of missionaries. He had come to the Conference 
expecting to learn something of the difficulties and discouragements iu 
the work of education, from those who had had longer experience than 
himself. 'I'he American Board, after an experience of tifty years, had 
considerably moditied its position in regxrd to educational work, now 
imaking but sparing appropriations for the support of secular schools. 
'Experience in some of the oldest tidds had tauglit the missionaries that 
secular education did not of itself bring n)en nearer to Christ ; and it had 
been found that men simply taught in Westei*n science were harder to bo 
reached by the Gospel than the heathen. 

M.ORNING Session. 


Christian Literature What has been done 
and what is needed. 

Rev. S. L. Baldwin, A. M. E. M., Foochow. 

The theme is broadly stated and pcmiits a reference to the remote past. 

In early ages the Unity and Perfections of God have been made 

known in China. There is credible evidence that the Jews entered the 

204 E3SAY. May lOtli. 

country overland, B. C. 206 or 258, bringing witli the7H their sacred 
books (Edinb. Cyclop. Vol. iv, p. 484, and Vol. vi, p. 98.) Far down the 
stream of time, in the beginning of the 17th century, the Jewish colony 
at Kaif ling was discovered b^^ the Jesuits with its synagogue, inscinptions 
and Hebrew Scriptures. This leaf of history intimates that Truth is divine 
and is never wholly or hopelessly bound. Those Scriptures contain the 
living germ and promise of Christianity. God worked toward a wise end, 
when he guarded so long those grand inscriptions in Kaifung and perhaps 
in other centers, as vestiges of the sublime tabernacle and temple 
worship. " Hear, O Israel ! the Lord, our God is one Lord." " In- 
effable is His name, for Jehovah is the God of gods." Thus during 
twenty centuries has Judaism witnessed for monotheism in the heart of 
the empire. 

The early advent in China of distinctive Christianity by the living 
voice and sacred page also rests on good authority. Mosheim says " the 
Christian faith was carried to China, if not by the apostle Thomas, by the 
first teachei's of Christianity." Arnobius, A.D. 300, speaks of "Christian 
deeds done in India, and among the Seres, Persians and Medes:" and these 
Seres are supposed to meaii the inhabitants of the region embracing the 
present Sheusi. Passing on to the 6th century, we reach still firmer 
ground. Nestorian missionaries, probably from the schools of Edessa and 
Nesibis, entei'ed China as early as A.D. 505. The era of their labors was 
largely an illustrious one. There were Christian dwellings, and churches, 
and a Christian Literature in those distant ages. But the sole monument, 
on which visible evidence comes to us, is the inscription graven on the 
celebrated tablet at Singan in Shensi, bearing date A.D. 781 and dis- 
covered in A.D. 1625. In a style ornate and oriental it states the prin- 
ciples of the Christian religion and sketches its progress through imperial 
favor. Its light streams down through the ages to cheer and assure us. 
Oars is an affiliating faith. We join hands with the Nestoinans across 
the centuries. 

The annals of the Roman Catholic Missions in China begin with the 
arrival of John De Monte Corvino, A.D. 1292. Their Literature has been 
very extensive, and a large proportion of it, according to the testimony 
of critics, shows marked ability. Neai'ly two centuries ago, Magaillan's 
History (London, 1688) stated that the number of books, made in the 
space of 93 years, concerning the Christian religion and all sciences and 
subjects was above 500 tomes printed, besides M.S.S., and the worthy 
father adds that this could not have been done had not the Chinese 
language been very easy. 

But the special theme of this Paper is — the Christian Literature of 
our own Protestant Missions in China, what has been done and what is 

This is a very wide subject, but the limits prescribed by our Com- 
mittee of Arrangements to writers of papers preclude any extended 
written discussion. An outline only can be given. There can be no roam- 
ing at pleasure in the rich field before us. 


This is the historical side of the subject. The era of Protestant 
Missions dates from the arrival of Dr. Morrison, A. D. 1807. The first 
Scriphire publication, of which we have record, is the Acts of the Apostles, 

May loih. RSSAV. 205 

revised by hiiu from an old M.S. brnuu^lit out from Kugliiud, aiul printed 
intlieyear iJ^lo : and the i\r:<i C/iristinu Tract was prepared and published 
at Canton in the year ISl I, by the same author. It was a broclmre of six 
leaves on the lieijig and Unity of Cuid and the essentials of evangel- 
ical faith and praetice, and eoncluded with a form of prayer. These 
introduced an extensive C'iiristian Literature, which has kept pace 
with other dejxirtments of work and proved one of its most powerful 

The Statistical authorities in regard to this liiterature are, (1) a 
book publi-^hed at Shanghai A.D. 18tJ7, entitled Memorials of Protestant 
Missionaries to the Chinese, comprising also a List of their Publications 
with suitable comments and explanations in regard to each work, (2) a 
List of Publications by Protestant missionaries in China, in the form of 
an "Appendix" to the Catalogue of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Cus- 
toms' Collection at the U. S. International Exhibition at Philadelphia, 
A. 1). 1870. These valuable works — the Memorials and the two Lists of 
Publication.s — were compiled and edited by our fellow-laborer in Christ- 
ian service, Alexander Wylie, Esquire, of Shanghai, though not pub- 
lished under his name. They are clear, thorough, and comprehensive, 
and they furnish, in addition to mere statistics, many interesting details 
in regard to both the secular and religious Litei'ature of Protestant mis- 
sionaries to China. 

Kefening now to the Exhibition List, we find the Publications in two 
Prime Divisions — one, which is by far the largest and most important, 
comprising works in Chinese and a few others in the Manchu, Mongolian, 
^lalay and Japanese; tlie other comprising works mostly in the English 

The publications in Chinese, etc., are arranged according to lan- 
guages and dialects, and each of these linguistic classes is subdivided by 
general subjects or lieadings. The works in eacli of these subdivisions 
are tabuhited chronologically according to date of publication, with the 
various particulars of title, author, size of page, number of leaves, mode 
of printing, and the place and date of publication. It is a matter of hon- 
est congratulation, as well as of historic interest, that over one thousand 
brochures and volumes were placed at an International Exhibition in 
187G, and surely there was ground for the hope, expressed in the 
Preface to the List, that the collection would show that one mighty 
agent of civilization — the Press — had not been neglected in the 
recent opening up of this great Empire to the intercourse of Western 

To meet now the inquiry 'what has been done in Christian Litera- 
ture,' we introduce the following particulars: — - 

1. — The number of separate puhliratio)is, with tlicir form, size, and 
mode of printinj. We use the Exhibition List, referred to above, to 
supplement the Memorials' List of 1807, thus bringing our estimate down 
to the clo.^e of 187.^, which will embrace a period of sixty five years from 
the date of the 6rst Publication A. D. 1810. In making the estimate, a 
thi-ee-fold rule his been carefully observed — to avoid counting twice over 
the works found in both Lists, to include revisiuns of works by other 
than the original authors, and to exclule repeated editions of the same 
woi-k. We arrange the publications in groups of classes, as is done in 
the Lists by ^Ir. Wylie, iriviii<r the total numbers under tivo dii:i>!ions, 
viz., those in the general language and those lu the eleven dialects 

206 K33AT. May l(3th 

Bcliijiouf! Publications m Chinese by Protestant 
Missionaries, A. D. 1810-1875. 

In general lang. In 11 dialects Totals. 

(1) Sacred Scriptures 27 99 126 

(2) Commentaries and notes 43 43 

(3) Theoloc^^y and narrative 399 122 521 

(4) Sacred" 'biography 28 1 29 

(5) Catechisms. 44 38 82 

(6) Prayer books, rituals, etc 34 20 54 

(7) Hymn books 26 ...37 63 

(8) Periodicals 4 3 7 

(9) Sheet tracts 101 10 Ill 

Totals, 706 330 1036 

The above estimate shows that the number of Christian v^'orks in Chi- 
nese, so far as statistical authorities inform ns, is 1036. To give a com- 
plete view of the the literary labors of missionaries, and for reasons 
pertinent to the theme, as will appear in the sequel, we add to this sum 
the following 14 publications in Manchu, Mongolian and Malay (in a 
part of which the Chinese is combined with these languages), 222 
publications classed as Secular Literature, in Chinese, 227 brochures 
and volumes in English, and 14 in Gei'man and Dutch. This gives an 
aggregate of 1513 Publications of Protestant missionaries to the Chinese 
A. D. 1810—1875. 

It appears further from this estimate that our Christian Literature 
comprises about two thirds of all publications by missionaries. These, 
arranged in nine groups only, admit of subdivi-^ions which would show 
conclusively the great range of our Chirstian Literature. 

The books and tracts have been issued in various forms and sizes 
from the duodecimo to the folio, and from the single page sheet and bro- 
chure of two or three leaves to the thick volumes of Sacred Scriptuz-es and 
Theological Treatise. The printing has been b}* xylograpli and type, 
with lithographs in a few instances. Great improvements in typography 
have enabled our foreign pi-esses in Cliina to make large issues of books. 
By this means the Bible has been widely distributed in the interior of 
the Empire as well as on the .seaboard. 

II. The Lanqnage and Pialcet of the Publications. About two 
thirds of the books have been in the general language, with a style vary- 
ing from that which approximates the classic Chinese in terseness down 
to that which resembles in some respects the vernaculars. The remain- 
ing one third of the books have been in 11 dialects, viz.. Mandarin, 
Shanghai, Ningpo, Poochow, Amoy, Swatow, Canton, Hakka, Kinhwa, 
Hangchow, and Soochow. The subject of our vernacular Literature is the 
theme of a separate paper. But we briefly refer to it here, as it is an 
important item in our estimate of what has been done in a comprehen- 
sive view of the subject. It gives a conception of the immense labor 
undertaken by missionaries, as also of the great breadth of the founda- 
tions laid in order to a full success. These veimaculars must be conquer- 
ed so as to declare God's word by the living voice and printed page in 
chapels and heathen homes. Those who have made trial of southern 
dialects with their seven or eight distinct tones can best comprehend the 
force of the statement, and will be most ready to doubt whether Father 

May huh. YS»\\. 20/ 

Mnpnillans einbaiTOil all (lu- clemeTits of (lifTu'iilfy in his view ^vll('^ he 
Raid tliat the Lan«^nai,a' is easy oF acquisifion. These <lialects liave been 
expressed vaiiously in Chinese eharaetev, in l{o7nan letters, and to some 
extent in jihoneties. 'I'his lias required jnnch time and palience and has 
been attended with some failnivs uhith led in the issue to success. Thus 
we have books, not o\\]\: in £jood literary style, on which even the Liteiati 
of China need iu>t look with disdain, but also in tlie simjjler forms suit- 
able for the comparatively humble and urdettered. 

111. The sulijt'cf nidffer or coti'eutu of tlic puhlication.v. "Wo take 
only a very cursory view in the oider of the groups given above. (1) 
Fii*st in this body of Christian Literature are the Sacred Scriptures in 
Translatnuis aud Revisions, entire or in portions. Their grand subject 
is tl:e Word or AVill of God, expressed in the language and dialects of the 
people to whom we are sent — in the general language 27, in the dialects 
99 publications. Of the entire Bible, tliere have been seven versions or 
revisions — Marshman's 182'2, Morrison's 1822, Medhurst's 183.5, Gutzlaff's 
183o, London ^lission and Delegates' 1855, Bridgman and Culbortson's 
18t>.L Mandarin version |875. Besides these, there have been nine 
versions of the whole New Testament — one in the general language, 
Ningpo 1853, one in the general language, Hongkong 1870, one in the 
Mandarin 185t), one in the Shanghai dialect (Roman letter) 1872, two in 
the Ningpo dialect (Roman letter) 18G8 and 1874, two in the Foochow 
dialect (Chinese character) 1863 and 18G6, and one in the Amoy 
dialect (Roman letter) 1873. The rest of the translations or revisions 
are single books or larger portions in the Old and New Testaments. 
These extensive works have employed some of the best missionary 
talent: and, when we estimate the deta( hed portions of time takeii often 
from the multifarious occupations of missionary life, they have consumed 
many yeai*s of labor. (2) Next in importance are Commentaries and 
Notes on the Scriptures, 43 in number. These are wholly ( ontined to 
the general language, are limited in number, and are mostly on parts of 
the New Testament. Tlie list, for conveTiience takes in throe Reference 
New Testaments, of which two were published in Foochow and one in 
Shanghai. (3) The department of Theology and Narrative is much the 
largest, liaving 521 treatises and covering a great variety of subjects. It 
is safe to say that all of the essential Christian trutlis liave received dis- 
tinct notice. A mere glance at the list, quickened and directed by long 
and well treasured experience, shows that the Saviour Christ (O pre* ions 
name!) is the great and frequent theme, in His adorable Person and in 
those vital truths which bring llim close to human liearts and human 
need. The grand thoughts of Him, glow under many brilliant lights 
from the Bible and sanctified reason. Salvation by Him from sin unto 
holiness is the end sought in the books, as in school, chapel and dis])ens- 
ary. There are some works in this department that are wholly coiitro- 
versial, while many of them are necessarily so by implication or inference. 
The reason is that scarcely any topic can be touched without bringing 
into inevitable contrast or conflict some false ideas from heathen doct- 
rine and life on the same or kindred subjects. (4) The important depart- 
ment of Sacred Biography has only 29 works. (5) Catechisms of all 
Borts, full of the kernels of truth, both simple and profound, are favorites, 
and very deservedly so — 44 in the gcTieral language, and 38 in the 
dialects. ((3) Prayer book.s, Rituals, etc., are fairly represented by 34 
Works in the general language and 20 in the dialects. (7) In Uyranology 
■wo have 26 works in the general language and 37 in the dialects. Much 
and richly remunerative labor has been expended on Hymns, original 

208 ESSAT. May 16th. 

and translated. Success has been attained in simplicity of expression 
and ill poetic beauty of thought and I'hythin. There are Cliristian lyrics 
in Cliinese, which in the qualities of glow and subtile movement of ideas, 
" the thoughts that breathe and words that burn," will compare favor- 
ably with the best in othei- lands. It has been found hard to teach the 
Chinese to sing tliem. Still we have some good choirs, especially in our 
schools. (8) In regard to Periodicals and Newspapers, devoted mainly 
to religious subjects, the record gives us only 7 in all. (9) The Sheet 
tracts number only 111 according to our statistics. Probably very many 
more have been issued. A glance over the List shows that these leaflets 
are designed to be at once dootrinal and practical. They aim to give 
truth in a simple, compact, and direct form, and to secure, if possible, 
immediate conviction and practice in right directions on the part of 
the reader. 

IV. The hitrinslc Utemrfi value of our Cliristian Literature. The 
question "what has been done" necessarily involves this, for not quanti- 
ty alone, but quality also, is required. The degi'ees of excellence in books 
of course vary, as do the learning, genius and spirit of their authoi's. 
To ascertain therefoi^e the literarj^ value would cnll for a thorough criti- 
cal investigation by those who are competent and have the leisure needed 
for such a task. But no one is ready to do this. The ideal of investiga- 
tion remains an ideal only. There are however some considerations 
which may obviate any supposed ne; essity of a wholesale criticism. The 
authors themselves repudiate in advance all claim of perfection in their 
works. They find ample room for improvement. They freely admit that 
in some instances a woi'k poorly done would have been as well left un- 
done, and that in others there are crudities which disfigure the truth. 
They also realise, far more than by-standers who often mak3 no allow- 
ances, the dirhculties encountered in making a good book in Chinese and 
are sometimes even tempted to despair. We look over the work of even 
a few years ago, and defects stare us in the face. We perceive very 
clearly two things, how great was our deficiency in knowledge of the 
language, and how stupidly our heathen teachers allowed us to blunder. 
The discovery is good for us, and convinces us that the best can and 
ought to do better. 

V. The effectiveness of our Christian Literature. (This particular 
is designed to supplement the last.) The effectiveness of our books is 
due through God's blessing to whatever value they may possess, even 
though they are imperfect. We may humbly venture to apply to them 
the apostles logical conclusion as to a fixed law in God's spiritual rule, 
that He chooses "the weak things" to confound "the things which are 
mighty." The etfectiveness spoken of appears in two ways. (1) While 
we assume that few of our books have done no good, we are sure that 
many of them have done much good. We have positive evidence of the 
fact. And among these works ai'e some which seem to be of sterling and 
permanent value, as proved by the testimony of our native preachers and 
others, who seek for, and very highly prize them. (2) Our books are in- 
timately associated with all our other agencies in the line of their great- 
est influence, and contribute powerfully to such influence. It is the 
books which have helped to advance our work to its present stage. Our 
converts are bi'ought in by the truth of the books. The native Christ- 
ians are spiritually fed on them. The schools are trained by them. The 
Chui'ches are founded and disciplined by them. The religious work of 
hospitals and dispensaries is conducted through them. And the general 
enlightenment of the people and the undermining of idolatry are proniot- 

May IGib. E06AT. 309 

od by tlio sarao agency. TUo saying, now so much in voguo, declares 
that" nothings succeeds like success." This, .soberly interpreted, is true of 
our Christian Literature. Its actual .success proves that it has the elements 
0/ suc'^en.t, and show.s what it is by what it is doing. 

In this conncicliou it nuiy be a matter of sumo interest to suggest 
even a very rough estimate of tlie extent to wliicli Christian books have 
been ilisserninated by gift and sale among the Chinese. Tlie estimate is a 
very hypothetical one and may be taken for what it is worth. The Tabular 
View of the Foocliow Mission of the American Board for the year 
187G shows that Mie whole number of Books and Tracts (including the 
Scriptures), pablislieil "from the beginning" of the mission is about 
1,3 JU.OOO copies, containing pages 2i,oOU,0'JO. The immbcr of mission- 
aries in this mission from the lirst h is been eleven, or about 1— iSth of 531, 
which is the whole number of missionaries to the Chinese to the year 
1870. If we now assume that the work of others in the distribution of 
books has been in like proportion, it follows that the circulation has been 
about 02^ millions of copies, containing lOOU millions of pages. But let 
not this, or any similar estimates, provoke the hasty conclusion that the 
country has been flooded with Christian books. It is by no means easy 
to flood an empire of 300 to 400 millions with such perishable things as 
books in Chinese bindings. 

VI. This historical review would seem incomplete without a brief 
paragraph on tlio li publi ations in the ]\Ianchu, Mongolian, and Malay 
languages, the Secular Literature in Chinese, and the Publications in 
English, itc, which were mentioned under the tirst (I) particular. Amorg 
those 1 i publications, are Matthew's and Mark's ('<ospels in Maiichu and 
Chinese, Alatthew's Gospel and a Christian Catechism in ^Mongolian, and 
John's Gospel in Chinese and ]\Ialay. These are valuable and promising 
beginnings in a work that is .so closely connected with Chinese Missions. 
As to the Secular Literature in Chinese, from History and Geography 
down through the arts and sciences to Chemistry and Medicine, it de- 
serves prominent remark that many of them have a large Christian ele- 
ment and outlook. This is particularly so in the Serials, while all these 
works are composed in the interests of true civilization and social pro- 
gress. Even works on " G-unnery " are no exception, for good guns are 
true civilisers when aimed at the towers of despotism in a righteous 

In the list of publications in English, besides pamphlets and other 
works, we count about lifty Dictionaries, Vocabularies, Manuals, Gram- 
mars and like works, which have aided incalculably in a thorough acqui- 
sition of the Chinese language. The lists comprise also such works as 
the Middle Kingdom and various books to interest and inform Christian 
people in other lands about China and its missions. But we will not 
trench on the subject of " Secular Literature," which is the theme of a 
separate paper. Let these brief hints suflice to give just proportions to 
this resume of " what has been done in Christian Literatui*e." 

We pass to the Se.ond Part of the Theme. 


This is the practical side of the subject. It is somewhat diificult to go 
into the discussion of it deeply and yet satisfactorily, for our minds aro 
apt to be warped by our preferences, so as to magnify one department of 
Literature above another, and thus to a particular need above its 
true relative position. We will restrict our i-einarks to a few plain speci- 
fications and then invite attention to certain guiding facte and limitations 
it) the prcpiiratioii of Chr-istian books. 

210 F.srfAY. May IGth. 

I. We need a Staudard Version of tlie whole Bible in the genei*al 
book language. It is by no means intended to dis^iarage tlie versions 
now in use, which have been laboriously prepared, and whose influence 
has been so great. The standard version should be faithful to the ori- 
ginals, 3'et thoroughly idiomatic, simple and perspicuous in style, and as 
free as possible from unusual Chinese characters. Among the reasons 
for such a work are, (1) to secure uniformity in technical and theological 
terms, and in modes of expressing cardinal ti-uths, (2) to secure a fixed 
nomenclature for all the divine names, and all proper names of persons 
and places. The valuable results of such a work would be, (1) to pre- 
vent confusion and perplexity of thought on religious subjects in the 
minds of readers, (2) to cause such terms, names, and truths to become 
imbedded in the language, and find a home in the popular mind and con- 
science, (3) to manifest impressively our unity of purpose in our work, 
and thus greatly enlarge the sphere of our influence. Such i-esults would 
be measurably secured by a common standard Version. But if we cannot 
have such a version, we ought to have, at the xerj least, a common 
nomenclature for all the Divine Names in the different versions. This 
demand will press, and of right ought to press, on the missionary con- 
science till it is fully met. It is scarcely needful to add that such a result 
of this Conference would be most precious, and would be hailed with joy 
by the churches of Europe and America. 

If we could have a standard A'ei'sion of the Bible, our next need 
would be a good Goncordance, as an invaluable aid to native Christians 
in Biblical study. As an experimental work, it might be restricted to 
principal words, as verbs and nouns. 

If there is no good prospect of a Standard Bible in the literary or 
general language, then Concordances on the New Testament (at least) 
in the dialects would be useful. They may be very concise, even more 
concise than Cruden's Pocket Concordance of the New Testament in their 
general plan. It is by the Bible in the A^ernaculars and such aids as con- 
cordances, that we bring the truth closest to the popular mind, which 
draws its most clearly defined and most impressive thought from the 
mother tongues. 

II. More Commentaries are needed. The work on the New Testament 
books is well advanced, and good beginnings have been made in the 
Old Testament, as Commentary on the Psalms (Amoy, 1875). There 
are strong reasons why this department should be thoroughly w'orked at 
once, as (1) the native preachers and others call loudly for commentaries. 
We notice with delighted surprise the eagerness with which they pur- 
chase such books, (2) good commentaries on the Historical pajts of the 
Old Testament will help to give correct views of the oneness of the 
Church and to vindicate the Divine character and acts from malignant 
aspersion, (3) a faithful commeutaVy on a prophetic book, as that of 
Daniel, w^ill show the connet-tion of the Two Dispensations, and illustrate 
at once the glory of the divine purpose and the triumphs of the church. 
These are mere hints of argument to suggest the vast importance of 
this branch of diterary work. Neither let it be deemed useless in such 
commentaries to state the principles of exegesis, or the scientific and 
rational interpretation of the Word of God. We have some good 
thinkers in our native chui'ches, who will appreciate this feature of the 
work. Exegesis will cultivate their minds, show them how to collate 
Scripture with Scripture and how to connect ideas in logical sequence. 
The workman that "needs not to be ashamed" must have various food 
for his thought. 

May loth. lissAT. 211 

III. Tlicre is a lU-artli in the iin]ior(ant departments of religiouR 
biography and allegory, and of C'hureh History. Aecording to our lists 
there have been only about .SO works of those kinds from the first, and 
of these a few only seem to he in ju-tive ciniulation. The preparation of 
short Memoirs of native Christians, who have made very marked pro- 
gress in experienee of the j»reeiousness of Christ and His serviee, should 
also be encouraged. An undue multiplieation of sucli books wouhi in- 
deed be an evil, but it is still true that Memoire are peculiarly adapted 
to put religion in a practical light before a people so intensely practical 
as the Chinese. 

Tn Church History something has been done, but the field will allow 
a fuller cultivation, (xood histories of the church in all ages and coun- 
tries, from the Hebrew dispensation down to the present era, will strongly 
present the character of God in its real aspects, and show in glorious out- 
line the beauties of His moral government. 

IV. We need good religious newspapers everywhere. *Such publi- 
cations as the Shanghai Child's Paper, the Foochow Gazette, and the 
Foochow Gosjjel News (the last of which is conducted by ladies) are 
already doing a useful work. The newspapers ought not to be dry read- 
ing. Let them i-ather be simple, instructive, and entertaining, enlivened 
with anecdotes of a healthy moral tone, and full of the pith of Gospel 
truth. They ought also to be embellished, if possible, with pictorial 
illustrations, which are such good educators and are withal so pleasing to 
the Chinese. Among the reasons for such serials, are (1) they bring 
truth in its simplest and most attractive forms periodically to the level 
of the common mind and thus e.xert a strong ediicational influence, (2) 
it may be reasonably hoped that they will gradually find their way into 
heathen as well as Christian households, and help to foster a taste for 
reading good b(X)ks, (3) they will be a useful agency in schools, and in 
hospitals among the sick and feeble, whose hours drag on wearily, as also 
among comparatively illiterate people at large, who will learn something 
from crood pictures and stories, when they will learn in no other way. 

V. There is room for more works of a controversial stamp, bearing on 
idolatry and its superstitions, on wrong theories and ends of life, and on 
imperfect codes of morals. We have already some treatises of the kind, 
but othei-s will find their sphere. Wliile solid in argument, let them be 
very considerate in tone. While l(»yal to Christianity, which is the per- 
fection of truth in its wonderful adaptation to man's spiritual need, let 
them always be thoroughly sympathetic and responsive to all that is good 
and true in Chinese systems. And, for our encouragement, wo are to 
remember, on the one hand, that truth wherever found is still truth ; and 
on the other, that Christianity has a Divine life and energy, and will 
find nothing to fear in a close logical grapple, either with western science 
or with eastern ethics. Na^', we are to claim boldly that the truth in all 
these is not her enemy, but ally, in the struggle with error for dominion 
in the heart of man. 

VI. There is a call for elementary books of a decidedly Christian 
aim in the domains of art and science, such as missionaries only will bo 
likely to produce at present. Such works, while adhering strictly to their 
plan, will not ignore God, who is the fountain of all truth in art and 
science, and in many inscrutable ways has caused them to be as they are. 
We may instance treatises on such subjects as Geography, Astronomy, 
Botany, Chemistry, Natural History and Philosophy. The divine idea.s 
and relations can certainly be introduced into such works, not obtrusive- 
ly, ])ut naturnlly and even nccessarilv, to give the subject a just inter- 

212 ESSAY. MavlCth. 

pretation. When we consider that the Chinese are grossly materialistic in 
their views, it is important that our books should convey them through 
the fields of nature in such method as to show how God is revealed in 
His works. The keys to such interpretations ai-e Scriptures like Psalms 
8th, 19th, 104th, 145th, 147th and 148th, and in the New Testament 
that model discoui'se on Mai's' Hill in Acts 17th chapter, and the words 
of God-manifest-in-the-flesh, in St. Matthew's Gospel, closing in a strain 
of melting tenderness, '' If God so clothe the grass of the field. . .shall He 
not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?" Under such inspired 
and divine leadership, we have no desire to follow in the wake of the 
sceptic and materialist, and try to divorce God from His works. 

In this connection, we see the importance of the larger Serials, devot- 
ed to interests of Religion, as well as of Science and general intelligence. 
Such are the Globe Magazine and the Monthly Educator, which are well 
calculated to instruct the Chinese in various departments of Learning. 

The need of a thorough elementary treatise on Moral Science must 
be particularly mentioned. The principles of Moral Obligation, it is true, 
are broadly given by explicit statement or various implication through- 
out our Christian Literature. It would not, otherwise, be Christian. 
But we need a special and full treatment of the subject in a separate 
treatise. The reasons are such as these, (1) the subject lies at the 
foundation of our most important teachings as regards all human and 
divine relations, (2) the native ideas about conscience, accountability, 
divine judgment, and immortality, are meagre and vague in the ex- 
treme, and need rectifying on Scrijitural grounds and authority. 

VII. The Literary Style, and the spirit or tone of our Literature 
are matters of very great importance. As to the sti/Ie, we have the ideal 
in our minds. Our books ought to be very clear and forcible in their 
style. The ideas should be expressed in accoi'dance with native modes of 
thought so as to reach the native mind. At the same time there must be 
varieties to suit the different subjacts of different woi'ks, as well as to meet 
the wants of the different classes whom we address. Perhaps the vernacu- 
lars only, or mainly, can furnish a field wide enough for these varieties. 
It is also to be borne in mind that a work may be exceedingly simple in 
form and language, yet veiy logical and profound in thought, so as really 
to educate preachers and laymen, and convince even the Literati that 
there is something to be thought about besides their Chii-fah (Style). 

We can easily call up in memory our favorite authors, from whose 
pens the sentences fall like sunbeams, and through whose discourses some 
leading thought goes straight to its mark without sign of halting. We 
may learn valuable lessons, even in Chinese composition, from such fine 
models, without being servile copyists of their modes. As to the tone or 
spirit of our Literature, we surely need no prompting. Let the single 
word suffice that it ought to be pre-eminently Christian, pure, elevated, 
as the spirit of our Divine Saviour, instinct with a true spiritual 
life, freighted with the earnest, loving purpose of the authors, con- 
secrated by prayer, and sent forth on its mission in the faith of God's 
rich blessing. 

The above are a few specifications of what seems to be needed in our 
Christian Literature. They relate mostly to general classes of works, 
rather than to treatises on particular topics. By a rigid examination, as 
in the department of Theology and Narrative, the list of needs might per- 
haps be enlarged. But this is deemed unnecessary, for there are certain 
facts and limitations which serve to guide us in our efforts to supply any 
Bupposed need. 

May lOtli. R86AT. *13 

1. The first fact is thai many of tho thousand and more publieat- 
ionfl ill Chinese are nu longer extant. We have in some instances only 
the names of the hooks; in olhers, only single copies, yellow from age 
and retained as relies of the past. Many of these works were by master- 
workmen, who have finished their earthly labors, and entered upon a 
higher service. We may well ask ourselves if their rich ex|jerienco may 
not be profitably studied by us, their successors. 

2. Some of our publications have lacked adaptation 1o existing 
wants, or were originally designed to meet particular phases of the work, 
and have been allowed quietly to go out of print. Our books are a small 
working capital, not a heavy investment of stock. There are many small 
treatises, and (Comparatively few standard publications that are doing 
our work. In evidence of this, is the small number of books in actual 
use in any one missioti. These facts are instructive. They furnish cri- 
teria which may help to decide our policy as regards the range of Litera- 
ture in specific directions. 

3. It is a fact of great significance that a sound Literaiure is a 
growth, and obeys tJie laws of demand and supply. Good books cannot 
be forced into life like hot-house plants. They are not as so much mer- 
chandise, accumulated till it drugs the market and moldei's in ware- 
houses. They must come gradually, naturally, and keep pace with actual 
demand, with the available -sources of suppl}', and with growth in other 
departments. What do our churches, schools, and the peo])le about us really 
need ? That is the great question, and not how can our Literature increase 
in bulk. As many other jjarts of our field, good Literature is hard to culti- 
vate. It begins, advances, and matures by slow and laborious processes. 

4. There is a fixed rule of limitation, to be always interpreted by 
our capacity to furnish a useful Literature. This is necessarily a pei'sonal 
matter, for every missionary may well pause and consider whether or not 
he can make a valuable contribution to this Literature. A certain ablei 
scholar and author, who knew, as well as any one could know, the im-[ 
perial power of a Good Book, once clmrged a student, who was a candid- j 
ate for missionary service in China, to make it an aim to write a book.' 
But it is by no means an easy task to produce a work of real and perman- 
ent value. We are not all suited to all kinds of service, nor to write all 
kinds of books. There are wide diversities of gifts among u-i. Each 
ought to consider what lie is fitted to do. If he concludes that he can 
write a good book, let him ascertain what it should be in view of an ex- 
isting demand, and then go bravely forward under the double inspiration 
of the internal and the external call. 

M.ORNING Session. 


Importance of a Vernacular Christian Literature, 
•with Special Reference to the Mandarin, 

Rkv. C. Goodrich, A. B. C. F. M., T'ung-chow. 

I learned, in a land of, that China is a laiid of millennial 
ruts. I have learned, in a land whose flat earth still rests on the back of 
a tortoise, that China is a land of hopeless variety. Need I refer to the 
endless differences of its weights, measures, method of reckoning, ca.«!h, 

M4 K3SAY. May 16th. 

custoitis, dress, language, religions, and superstitions ; so kaleidoscopic 
in theil* changes as to be confusing, bewildering, and even annoying, not 
to say, exasperating. Or need I refer, in mission work, to the difference 
in terms, issuing in the irrepressible conflict ; in nomenclature, according 
to which, for a single instance, the Sabbath may either begin or close the 
■ week ; in the language of praj^er, closing sometimes with amen, now 
almost a -world-word, or with some word like sincere ; in spelling, where 
one is not sulre of the characters for a name ; in dialects, there being, 
besides a great number of vernacular dialects, two great dividing lines of 
the Classical and Mandarin, and between these a sliding scale, giving op- 
portunity for great variety, as also for the blending of the two. In 
respect to variety, is there another land like China under the sun ? And 
in respect to the single subject of dialect, how suggestive is it of the 
tower of Babel ! 

To the church this subject of divers dialects, these fragments from 
that tower of bad memory, is of chief interest as connected with the 
work of propagating the Gospel. The work of preaching the Gospel, 
while difficult enough in execution, is simple in conception, as it is plain 
that every Missionary must learn the vernacular of the region where he 
labors. The difiicult problem is that of a Christian literature. Shall 
Christian books, and other literature, be in the classical language, or 
must there be separate translations and renderings for the various vern- 
acular dialects ? Or may it be that there is some form of colloq uial 
which has such commanding claims, and so extended a use, as in large 
measure to solve the problem ? The subject of this paper suggests a 
comparison between two foi'ms of literature, classical and coUoqidal'^ 
especially the mandarin colloquial. In which of these, as a general rule, 
should Christian books be printed, in order that their power may be most 
widely, and diseply, and permanently felt ? 

When Walter Scott lay dying, he said to his son, — " Bring me the 
book." His son asked, "Which?" "There is but one," was the epigram- 
matic answer, and the one immortal saying of a man, who wrote many 
books. In the discussion of this subject, 'The Book' demands the first 
place. In what dialect shall it be given to the people ? We commenced 
with the classical : we followed with the vernacular. It is the old order 
of progress in Germany, Russia, Prance and England ; first the Bible for 
the educated, and afterward the Bible for the masses. ' How shall the 
Bible be translated in China? ' seems like a question of the middle ages 
asked across a chasm of five centni-ies. 

You will readily recall Wickliffes translation of the Bible into the 
English language, published in the year 1380, "A work which, says 
Neander, required a bold spirit which no danger could appall." As char- 
acteristic of the attacks made iipon him, I quote from a woi^k of Henry 
Knighton, a contemporary. Knighton sayS, — ^"Master John Wickliffe has 
translated out of Latin into English the Gospel wdiich Christ delivered 
to the clergy and the doctors of the church, that they might administer 
to the laity and the weaker persons, according to the state of the times, 
and the wants of men, in proportion to the hunger of their souls, and in 
the way which would be most attractive to them." And again,— "Thus 
was the Gospel by him laid more open to the laity, and to women, who 
could read, than in former times it had been to the most learned of the 
clergy ; and in this way the Gospel pearl is cast abroad, and trodden 
tinder foot of swine." In return Wickliffe replies ; "When so many vers- 
ions of the Bible have been made, since the beginning of the faith, for 
the advantage of the Latins, it might surely be allowed to one poor 

Ma/ loth. kSS.\Y. 215 

creature of (Jod to convert it into En<^lisli, for the benefit of Eng-lisliraen. 
*•♦* I cannot see why Knt,'lishmcn slioulil not have the same in their 
laii<,'uage, unless it be throug-h the unfaithfulness and negligence of the 
clergy, or because our jicople are unworthy of so great a blessing and 
gift of God, in punishment for their ancient sins. **** Holy Scripture is 
the faith of the church, and tlu? more fajniliar Ihey l)ecome with them in 
a right believing sense the better." (8ee Neander, vol. v. pp. 149-1 51). 
In tlie Protestant Church of the liHh century, there can scarcely arise a 
controversy as to the fitness of giving the l}ii)le to the payph.'. The Pro- 
testant Church was horn out of such controversies, and makes her boast 
that the word of God is free. There is none so poor or so low that she 
will not offer him the Gosi>el pearl. Need it be written how much 
the masses in China need the Bible in the Vernacular to unlock its sealed 

"In Germany M.artin Luther spent ten laborious years, from 1522 to 
1532, in executing that wonderful translation which has done so much 
for the Bible, and for the language (vernacular) into which it was ren- 
dered." (New Amer. Cyclo. ed. of 18G.'3, p. 233.) Of the time when 
Luther was in the Wartburg, IJ'Aubigne writes: " Tlie hour had come 
in which the Reformation, from being a mere theological question, was 
to become the life of the people, and yet the great engine by which this 
progress was to be effected was not yet in being." After speaking of un- 
successful attempts at translation, he adds: "It had even been prohib- 
ited to give the German Church the Bible in the vulgar tongue. Besides 
which, the nniuher of those irho laerc able to read did not become amsiderable, 
until there existed in the (rcrvian hn)i/Haije a boi^Tc of Jivehj and nniversal 
interest.'' Luther exclaimed : "Would that this one book were in every 
language, in every hand, before the eyes, and in the ears and hearts of 
all men." "Admirable words" says D'Aubigno, "which, after the lapse illustrious l)ody, (referring to the Bible Society,) 
translating the Bible into the mother tongnie of every nation upon earth 
has undertaken to realize." The express object of Bible Societies is 
"the circulation of the Bible in the vernacular of the people, or a lan- 
guage which they understand." God meant the light of the Bible, 
like the light of the sun, to shine down into tlie bottom of tlie valleys, as 
well as to illuminate the tops of the mountains. I think there is almost 
universal conviction among Protestant Missionaries, even in China, 
that the people must have the Bible in their vernacular. It need 
scarcely be added, in this paper, that in China we must also have a Bible 
in the xmiversal language of China. 

Next to the Bible stands the Hymn Book. Even Bunyan's immortal 
allegory cannot claim the next place after the Bible, which must be ac- 
corded to hymnology and devotional music. In what language shall 
hymns be written ? This question has had the most various answers in 
China, from hymns in the classical language, high al)Ove ordinary readers, 
to hymns in low vernacular. This is not the place for a critique upon 
hymnology, but it may be said that the need of hymns, in a language 
easily understood by the great body of church members, is at the present 
time widely felt, and has given birth to many hymns, from various sources, 
in easy colloquial, or, at least, in a style low enough to be generally 
understood by all. How shall our Christians sing with the spirit and with 
the understanding hymns meaning they cannot apprehend ? There 
is a great work yet to be accomplished in this department. 

I will add in respect to hymns, what I have written elsewhere, that 
there should be more of union, in the future, in this work. It is well 

i216 1S6A.T. Maj 16th. 

known that, throughout China, almost every mission has its hymn book, 
and so it happsns that most of our standard hynns have a larger ward- 
robe than a Saratoga balle, even in maiidaviii spaakiag districts. I will 
veuture to sugge-;t that what we need now is not a. ))t.iLlW:i(,Lle of hymns, 
but ijood hymns, hymns as good as their authors can possibly nuike them. 
If we can write better hymus, and in the Mandariu colloquial, we shall 
soon be glad to choose from each others' hymn books hymns which shall 
be in Chinese what 'My faith looks np to thee' is in English, classic and 
almost universal in use. 

After the Hymn Book I will venture to name Sunday School Liter- 
ature, not because it occupies the next place in literature, but, partly be- 
cause it occupies so important a place, and also because it is so self evid- 
ent that it should be in the vernacular. A Sunday School paper for 
children was started at this place two years ago, and when the tirst num- 
bers appeared, with simple stories lifted into stilts, and told in the lan- 
guage of the "uulearned, my mind oscillated between amusement and 
vexation. The style of the Paper suggested the old fable of the stork, 
who provided an entertainment for the fox, and served the viands in 
deep and slender necked jars. The food was abundant and savory but 
inaccessible. There was soon a change to Mandarin colloquial, and the 
Child's Paper is now welcomed by young and old, and is doing a good 
work in a new, wide, and important field. China as well as the West 
needs a Sunday School literature, and it must be in the vernacular, or 
in a language not very much above it, as the Mandarin. 

Without now referring to other departments of literature, I will 
venture to suggest two reasons why the great body of Christian literature 
should be written in the vernacular. 

First For Per>:pi,cHi,ti/. Some teacher was once asked : "What do 
3'ou consider of first importance in style? " Ho replied with emphasis, — 
"Perspicuity." "And what next in importance?" "Perspicuity." "And 
what third?" His reply was still, — "Perspicuity." I was greatly drawn 
to a book recently by this sentence in the introduction. " I believe there 
is not a dark or dull sentence in the volume." However, in this paper, 
I desire to use the word perspicuity in a somewhat wider sense, referring 
by it not merely, nor prominently, to the style, but first, and chiefly, to 
what is more fundamental in importance, the language itself as on a level 
with the comprehension of the reader. Paul wrote: "I had rather speak 
ten words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others 
also, than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue." The classical 
language of China is nearly an unknown tongue to three fourths of those 
who can read the characters. The truth of this statement will scarcely 
be questioned by those who have had experience in Missionary work, 
and especially experience in book distribution. And the reasons for this 
ignorance are equally obvious ; namely the parrot like committing to 
memory, for several years, of incomprehensible characters and books, and 
the short curriculum of student life of the great majority of those who 
learn to read. Like the eccentric Professor, I would cry, though with a 
wider meaning and a deeper reason, — Perspicuity, Ferspiculty, Pkrs- 
PICUITY. Whether we preach with our mouths or with our pens, we are 
anxious, first of all, to be understood. 

The old error that we are casting pearls before swine, when we give 
the Gospel to the masses in their vernacular, was quite worthy of an age 
which could brand Wickliife as a heretic, and burn at the stake Huss 
and Jerome, but not worthy of being seriously debated in this century, 
among a body of Protestant Missionaries, whose great desire is to lift up 

May IGtli. rsSAT. 217 

tlic masses into the light of God's truth. The vail in tlio tcmpUs of truth 
\vas loiiDf a"o rent in twain from tlu' top to tlio bottom. Wo cannot for- 
<Cot what we in tlio West owe to tlie Hiblo in the vonia(Milar, and to the 
whole bod\- of Christian literature, wliieh is the daughter of the Hible, 
and also in tho vernacular. Need 1 mention the great evangelistic move- 
ments of the present day, tho chief leaders in which would be forever hid- 
den out of sight but for a plain Bible. It is this quality of perspicuity, tirst 
of all, which makes Christian truth a leaven that can work through so-" 
ciety from the top to the bottom, lifting up the whole mass. It is this 
quality of perspicuity which makes western nations of readers and 
thinkers. Books in the vernaculai", by this single quality of perspicuity, 
are beginning to produce similar effects in China. Men and women who 
have never sat at the feet of a Gamaliel, learn to read rapidly, when 
drawn forwai'd by books which they can understand as thej read. Gos- 
pel truth, and a desire to read, and I may add to sing, quite generally 
take possession of men together. This is according to the genius of 

But there is a second reason why Christian books should be written 
in the vernacular, namely that the vernacular is the language of feeh'yuj. 
It is so, in large measure, heranse it is perspicuous. The philosophy of 
this statement seems too obvious to need explanation. Feeling feeds on 
what the mind clearly and easily apprehends, and every unintelligible 
word or statement tends to arrest and break the current. But, also, ver- 
nacular is the language of feeling because it is the language of daily life, 
and of the heart, and l)ecause it has a clear ring, and, a directness of ap- 
])lication. As a general statement, trutli must impinge on the mind 
with a sliarp percussive force to call forth a responsive echo of feeling. 
How well do we understand that in tho spiritual world, as in the natural, 
we must have heat as well as light to set the dynamic forces of the heart 
in motiim. I find far less power to produce emotion in the classical lan- 
guage tiian in the v(>rnacular. Upon a large majority of readers, the 
impression produced by the classical language is much the same as that 
j)roduced by the sun shining down through partially obscuring clouds, 
when the air is full of mist. Often, by being so high and classical, lan- 
guage is rendered as cold as an iceberg. 

I have no doul)t that the A^ernacular is preeininently the language 
which the Holy Ghost uses in tho conversion of the masses, and in their 
buil<ling up into a spiritual maidiood. 1 say of tho inasneif. Let me not 
1)0 thouglit to underestiTnate tlio importance of a higher style of literaturcf 
for a higher class of readers, who may often iind, in what is often called 
'the book language', both light and heat, perspicuity and feeling. Tho 
ma^.ses, however, — most of those who hoar tho Gospel gladly— must find 
their Gos]>el in a simpler language. That this is felt to be the truth is 
evidenced by the Christian literature already existing, and produced at 
great cost of time and labor, not only in the Mandarin, but also in every 
vernacular dialect in China. 

A word moi-e as to the language of the classics. I will be rash 
enough to assume that the chief anil proper objects for classical study in 
the oriental should be much the same as in the occidental world. Some 
of these objects are for gaining mental discipline, an elegant style, his- 
torical infornnition, a broader philosophy, and, it may bo added, a store 
of coined sayings. Ami, sus in the West, men read Caesar, Tacitu.><, and 
Horace; Plato, Aristotle, and Homer; and, all their life long, write in 
tJjeir own vernacular, so shall it be more, and nu)rc in tho China of the 
future. So above all sliall it be iu the Chri.stiau Church. Wherever the 

218 £SSAr. May 16th. 

Bible takes root — I assume that it is to take root in China — there follow 
two remarkable, because seemingly opposed phenomena ; 1st, a great 
quickening of mental activity, leading to a more varied and profound 
scholarship ; and 2nd, a lifting of the vernacular into the place formerly 
occupied by the language of the classics, the vernacular not only coming 
to be the language of Christian literature, but also of philosophy and 
poetry, itself becoming, in its purer style, a classic. 

This change in literature, from the classical to the vernacular 
language, proceeds, first, from a desire to give the truth to all, and to 
save men through an intelligent and cordial acceptance of Christian 
truth. Here is a chief point of departure between the Papist and Pro- 
testant churches, and here one of the great battle fields of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. Men who become imbued with the spirit of 
Jesus will speak like Him, and write, too, in transparently plain langu- 
age. Men with a passion for saving souls have never abandoned, and 
will never abandon the vernacular. 

I am not unaware that the use of the vernacular is by some not ac- 
cepted with favor, though possibly it may be with tolerance. And I 
think there may be at least three sources for this feeling. (1) In what the 
vernacular is supposed to be, a language of the streets and the country, 
incapable of expressing anything beyond common thoughts, and unworthy 
of being incorporated into a pei'iuament literature. (2) In the fact that 
of the books already printed in the vernacular, many have been rendet'ed 
with too little care, often without a sufficient knowledge of the language, 
or with incompetent aid. (3) In the known conteinpt of the literati of 
China toward books written in the vernacular. The feeling of scholars 
just alluded to is probably sti'onger in the South than in the North and 
West, where the Mandarin Colloquial, or court dialect, is spoken, and 
where a number of native books are already printed in that dialect, 
with generally an intermixture of the Wen-li, (wunle) or classical 

And here I wish to say with emphasis, that in advocating the use of 
Mandarin, I do not advocate a maudlin style. I was once told by an 
eminent Western scholar in China, that, from what he had heard of my 
preaching, he had supposed that I spoke the language of the streets and 
the shops. I presume it may be ti'ue of every vernacular dialect in China, 
that the purity, clearness and force with which it is spoken depend much 
on the cultivation of the speaker. Notably in the North, while the Man- 
daiin is spoken by the street laborer, and also by the scholar, the lan- 
guage of the two is widely separated, and those scholars who preach and 
write in the Mandarin, and who attain to purity and precision of lan- 
guage gain a style which, in comparison with the ordinary conversation of 
the illiterate, seems classical. It is such a style, somewhat higher or 
lower, according to the class of readers for whom books may be written, 
that 1 advocat-e. If the mandarin is not so concise in expression, nor so 
wide in its range, as the Wen-li, it is on the other hand not diffuse, and 
being, I may almost say, the daughter of the classical dialect, lacking 
characters and terms are easily grafted upon it. Within itself, it is also 
susceptible of almost unlimited development. The version of the Bible, 
recently translated in Peking, which is almost purely Mandarin, various 
Hymn Books which are largely Mandarin, (though sometimes written in 
mixed style, and, occasionally, in a style purely classical,) and sundry 
other books, though none of them having a very wide vocabulary and 
range of idiom, prove abundantly the high claim of Mandarin to a chief 
place in the Christian literature of China. 

May ICtli. PisccBStoK. 219 

Will the ^Mandarin ever become a universal lanpnape in China? I 
cannot predii't, thonp;h I soniotimes think it will. Tho fact that it is 
now spoken with more or less of purity, over perluips two thirds of 
China; its approa li to classic elegance; its athliation with the classical 
dialect, bonviwiiic; fix^m that its characters, and ninltitndes of its jihraf^es 
and idioms ; the present limited use of Mandarin books, and esj)ecially 
the Hible, at the various Mission Stations where the Mandarin is not 
spoken; the study of the Mandarin at such plai-es; and, in general, a 
tendency toward unity, noticeably in the times, and notably in Christ- 
ianitv; — all suggest the growth and extension of the Mandai-in dialect. 

How shall it be written ? This subject has been mentioned in tho 
Chinese Recoi-der, and there are members of the Conference who will 
wish to discuss it. I am not opposed to a Romanised system of spelling, 
for the use of women who may not be able to learn the character, nor for 
the use of girls in school in writing letters. I am not, however, on tho 
one hand sanguine about the character being universally abandoned, nor, 
ou the other, enthusiastic in urging its abandonment. All that we 
should lose in English by a uniform system of spelling, the Chinese lan- 
guage would lose by a Romanised system of writing. The derivation of 
worcls, which is a large part of the wealth of a language, would bo 
wholly lost. 

Moreover, the difficulty of learning the character is sometimes great- 
ly overrated. The assertion may be ventured that the labor to a child of 
learning to read and write Mandarin colloquial is not greater than the 
labor of learning to read and write English. I think that five years of 
Ktudr in the commencement of education, in either language, studying 
similar books, with similar methods, and under equally competent teach- 
ere, would be attended by somewhat similar results. It may be added 
that it is not so desirable as may sometimes appear to remove everything 
that is dithcult out of the study of a language, for these same difficulties 
furnish rare opportunities for mental discipline and training. 

Others, especially in tho mitldle and South of China, will be better 
able to speak of systems of Romanised colloquial, which I suppose have 
been employed with considerable advantage. I have, however, some 
doubt whether a system of Romanised writing for the Mandarin would 
possess much advantage. Classical Literature has an important place in 
China, but this subject will doubtless be presented in other Papei's. 
Of the work to be done, I will oidy say that it is very great, and if 
we succeed at this Conference in discovering it, and in effecting some di- 
vision of our forces, difierent members of the diifei'ent ^lissions being led 
to undertake some one woi-k or two for which each may be specially 
qualified, we shall have inaugurated a great work. 

Rev. Dk. Edkixs, L. M. S.,, said : — 

The work that has already been done in providing China with a 
Christian literature, by both Protestants and Catholics has been refei'red 
to by Dr. Baldwin. In regard to the preparation of work in the book 
language we may learn much from the example of Romish missionaries. 
If we look into books such as the Ticii Cltno Sluh yc, written by Matteo 
Ricci, we find that though there is no little false sricnce in it. it possesess 

220 Diricussiox. May lOtb. 

a style and a current of ideas which have made it popular. It, and a few 
other books, by Jewish missionaries, have been received witli great favor 
by the Chinese literati, and were included in the library of the 
Emperor K'ieng Lung. Their place in the published catalogue of that 
library shews that the most eminent Chinese scholars of last century 
approved of these books, for otherwise they would have had no place there. 
The consequence of this reputation acquired by Jewish authors is that 
when certain native scholars compare the Protestant missionaries with 
the eai'ly Romish missionaries, they affect some contempt for the modern 
class of missionaries. Seeing too that our most inveterate enemies in 
China are the literati, we surely ought to prepare a literature adapted for 
readers of that class. To all who feel called to make, in Chinese, books 
giving information on science and subjects of a generally instructive 
kind, we ought to say " Go forward." We must have a literature of our 
own, for the Romish literature is not our literature, though we may learn 
much from it. 

The question with us should be how shall we perform our duty in 
this respect ? The style, then should be the ordinary literary style, for 
whatever one may think on the advisability of a simpler style, it will be 
impossible for us to limit the use in our time of ihe ordinary literary 
language among the people. It should not be disparaged too much. There 
is more perspicuity in it than in the Mandarin. A Chinese scholar when 
reading the Mandarin books up and down the page for the words, finds 
the expletives a foe to clearness. A large proportion of our native 
catechists can, on account of habit, do better with books in the literary 
language than with the Mandarin. In seeking to obtain articles in the 
Mandarin dialect for the magazine that I assist in preparing for publica- 
tion in Shanghai, native scholars have urged me not to use Mandarin in 
it, as it would lower its character in the eyes of many Chinese readers. 
We have found this magazine very useful to native catechists. A native 
helper of ours who regulaidy visits sereval villages and towns South of 
Peking to instruct the Christians and others there, on one occasion lately 
accompanied me to these places. After we had both preached in a room 
at an inn, he related a parable describing the introduction of Opium 
smoking into a family, and comparing it to the bringing of a young wolf 
into a house as a pet. When the wolf cub grew up it devoured one after 
another the children of the family. It was found impossible to drive 
him away and complete ruin was the result. He had obtained this 
illustration from our magazine. The whole assembly listened with mai'ked 
attention. There was an opium smoker among the audience who had 
been baptized in the belief that he had conquered the habit. His con- 
science was touched and he made there and then a full confession of his 
sin and declared his determimation to abandon the vice, come what would. 
Here was a striking example of the usefulness of a book in the wen 1 1 
style when properly applied to its purpose by a catechist. 

Rev. J. Butler, A. P. M., Ningpo, said : — 

I wish to speak of some of the advantages of using the Romanized 
system for writing Chinese, not that I would wish this method to take the 
place of the Chinese mode of writing their own language, but as a help 
in conveying religious truth to certain classes of the people. Why sir, 
you would hardly believe me if I told you what we have done in Ningpo 
by tha use of this system. We have done some things that border on the 

"M:iy l')lli. blSL'LSSl'iN'. 221 

ininvculous. 1 will mention two cases to illustrate. - Some mouths ago I 
wjus ill the city ot" Zong-yii, 7t> miles South-west of Niiigpo, and I was 
sitting in the h(juse of one of our elders, when his mother eanie in with 
a hymn book in her hand, one of ourJs'ingpo hymn books ])rinteil in large 
type. 1 ii-sked her where she had been. ** O, said she 1 have been pleach- 
ing the Gospel to my neighbors," "what did you say to them ' ? "I 
read to them some t)f these hymns, (holding out the book,) and exhorted 

She had learned to read the llomanized Hymn ]3ook, and it was the 
only book she could read, ihit she was going to Heaven by the use of 
that hymn bot>k, and was going to persuade others to go along witli her. 
We have an old man in our Church in Ningpo who learned to read the 
Roman system, when he was nn)re than sixty years old. He went to one 
of the missionaries and asked him to teach him the l?oman system, and 
gave as his reason for wautiiig to learn, that he might be able to sing. 
Said he: — "The 15il)le says that the saints sing in Heaven but if a 
person is not able to sing in this world, how can he sing there ?" The 
missionary concluded after cmisidering the man's age, and ignorance, that 
he was a hopeless ca,se, and comforted him with the assurance, that even 
though one may not sing here, up there, every one will be able to join 
iu the liarmony. 

The old man was satisfied. A servant in the employ of one of the 
missionaries noticing his earnestness, took great pains to teach him and 
in six months, he was able to read the hymn book, and now he spends 
all his leisure time iu reading the hymn book and a few other Colloquial 
books in large type. Boys and girls in the schools learn it in a won- 
derfully short space of time. It need not interfere at all with those who 
want to learn the character. They can take the Koman as a voluntary 
or a pastime. 

Rev. G. Jofin, L. M. S., Hankow, said : — 

One of the difficult things in China is not to write a book. 
Every ^lissiouary on his arrival in this land seems to hear a mystic voice 
bidding him take up his pen and write, and it requires no small amount 
of grace to resist the temptation. It would be well for us all to bear in 
mind that few have the ability to prepare such books as the Chinese 
require, very^ few can translate well, and fewer still have the ability to 
compose original works. To translate well or compose well requires a 
thorough knowledge of the language and literature of the people, and an 
extensive acquaintance with their religious systems, their social customs, 
and their modes of thought. Hence none but men of some years of ex-j 
perience ought to attempt literary work. We need books of the highest' 
order — works specially adapted both iu matter and style to the wants of 
the educated and the thoughtful among this people. We cannot aifoi-d 
to ignore the existence of the literary class. Their intellect and taste 
must be respected. AVe need also books of the simplest and most ele- 
mentary character for the general reader. The style, whether in Wen-li 
or Mandarin, should be pure, perspicuous, and manly. The Mandarin 
dialect lus a medium of thought, has a decided advantage over the Wen-li 
with respect to definiteness and perspicuity, and must therefore be largely 
used in our more popular Christian Literature. A hnv Wen-li would 
probably be nearly as intelligible in itself, while it would be better under- 
stood iu non-mandarin speaking districts. High Wen-li is not in- 
telligible at all to any except the literati ; and even they are often puzzled 

2[2'3 DISCU3SI0IT. May 16tli. 

to make out the sense when the subject matter is not familiar. To the 
people generally, or those who mostly purchase our books, it is an un- 
known tongae. 1 would say let the great balk of our books be written in 
the mandarin dialect or in a luw Wen-U, whether intended for the heathen 
or for the Christians. Whilst a feio well chosen works might be pub- 
lished in hiijh Wen-li for the special benefit of the literati, we must not 
forget that for general distribution among the heathen and for the edifi- 
cation of our converts such works are almost worthless. As to the pos- 
sibility of an adult native learning to read in the mandarin, I may men- 
tion the case nf an old man employed, as a chapel keeper at Han- 
kow. He was unable to read a character when he became a Christ- 
ian, but learned to read his New Testament with great ease and accui^acy 
within a period of twelve months. And he does not stand alone, for 
othei"s among our conA^erts have succeeded equally well. On this point 
I wish to quote the following statement made by Miss Fielde. "Women 
from thirty to sixty j^ears old learn to read the Compendium of 
the Gospels (200 pages) in character Colloquial in from four to six 
months, and are then prepai^ed to read other Colloquial books with but 
little instruction." This is an impoi-tant testimony on this subject. It 
is my opinion that it does not require much time or mental effort on the 
part of either the foreign teacher or the native Christian to learn to read 
any book written in character colloquial, whilst the advantage of such 
an acquisition is very great and very obvious. Think of the vast literatare 
which a knowledge of the character opens up before the reader, and 
the command of native thonght and expression which is gained by read- 
ing native books ! In the manchirin we have an immense store of literary 
wealth ; and the missionary who possesses the key to it is a rich man. 
Then, the ability to read the native character always commands respect 
and deference. I have noticed that Mrs. John, from her knowledge of the 
Chinese character and her ability to read, commands much more respect- 
ful attention on the part of the women than it would have been possible 
for her to do without it. Before I sit down, I should like to call atten- 
tion to the value of book distribution in China. Countless volumes, both 
large and small, have been scattered over the face of this land, and I 
should like to know what has been the result. I have been in China 
more than twenty years, have sold and given away myself tens of thou- 
sands of books and tra ts, and have followed in the tracks of others who 
have done more in this line than I have done myself, but I cannot point 
to six persons who have come to me saying that they had attained to a 
knowledge of the truth, or that their hearts had been impressed, through 
the reading of books. My experience may have been an unusual one in 
this respect, and I am anxious to know whether that of my brethren is 
more encouraging. 

Rev. C. W. M.4.teer, A. P. M., Tungchow, said .— 

I wish to record my hearty concurrence in the paper read by Mr. 
Goodrich. I believe in colloquial literature, as the kind of literature for 
Christian work in China. Who believe the Gospel we preach ? Who fill 
our churches ? The unlearned and the poor. Let us not ignore the pro- 
vidence of God in this matter. Let us adapt our Bibles, hymn books, 
and religious literature generally, to the class of people he gives us. If 
colloquial language is good enough to preach the Gospel, it is good enough 
to write it aUo. There are more important ends to be served than to cater 
to the pride of Chinese scholars. I venture to take issue with my learned 

Mhj iGtb. i;iscu6SiuN. 223 

senior, Dr. Kdkins, in regard to the relative precision of the Mandarin 
and the Weii-Ii. The vagueness of the Wcn-li is proverbial, You can- 
not forniulato a scnlonce of anylongtli in Wen-li, for which a clever 
Chinaman will not give you two or three meanings. The writer, with the 
assistanc o of his teacher, says one thing, as he supposes, but the reader 
nndcrstands him to say another thing. This has been a very common 
experience in the making of Wen-li books. The mandai'in is precise and 
definite, chiefly because it two characters for each idea, where the 
Wen-li only one. These characters limit each other and so Hx the 

I wish also to call attention to the fact that our native preachers 
have as yet produced no books, or abuost none, and to urge that we 
ought to draw out their tnlents in this line. Encourage them to write. 
Give them facilities for publishing. Do not insist on their coming to our 
standard in plan and style, but let the peculiarly Chinese methods of pre- 
senting the truth come out. The Christian literature which is to rule 
China, is to be written by the Chinese themselves, and it is time they 
were making a beginning. 

Rev. Dr. Douglas, E. V. M., Amoy, said : — 

Among the " diale;;ts " or a<i he preferred to say t,he " Vernacular 
languages" of China, the "mandarin" was the only one about which it 
was possible to have a tjcnernl discussion. With regard to the Vernaculars 
of Amoy, Ningpo, Svvatow, &c., the missionaries vf each place were the 
only parties able to judge whether they should be printed in Koraan type 
or otherwise. 

What we can all discuss together is the mutual i-elation of the man- 
darin and the literary style or 11V»-//. He believed that a considerable 
literature was wanted in mandarin ; but the literary style, (an easy 
literary style) was the best for general use. We should look at the Chi- 
nese daily newspaper, — they must know the style best fitted to reach the 
people. They use a simple literary style, not mandarin. For himself, 
he could not be prejudiced against Vernacular literature, as he had printed 
a dictionary of the Amoy Vernacular, of above six hundred large octavo 
pages, all without one single Chinese character: but he was fully con- 
vinced that it was impossible to act on the great bulk of the people ex- 
cept through an easy IV'en-li : that is the universal literar}- style of Chi- 
na. The mandarin colloquial books are of no use in South China except 
for a verv small circle of readers. 

Rev. J. S. Roberts, A. P. M., Shanghai, said: — 

As the Xestoriau Inscription had been mentioned, he wished to point 
out in it a 'curiosity of literature,' which neither Mv. Wylie's able trans- 
lation nor the less satisfactory one of M. Pautier, the Parisian Sinologue, 
founded upon Mr. Wylie's, had succeeded in illustrating. 

He referred to the phrase ^-j- \j^ ^ 7^, the first character of which, 
^, had been paraphrased in a meaning quite beside the mark. 

As the "Inscription" is full of Buddhist and Tauist terminology 
Mr. Roberts ventured to suggest an idea which he thought woidd shed 
some light on the phrase in question. 

224 DISCUSSION. -Miiy IGth. 

fiv'K "^ ^^^^ priestly babble of Buddhism meant to asperge water from 
the mouth, as in sprinkling a charm [see Williams' Syllabic Diet., sub v. 
fi-] 1'li6 phrase under consideration would thus, mean "the sprinkled 
and cleansing water," or "the water of spi'inkling and cleansing." 

Mr. Roberts also wished to express his hearty agreement with Mr. 
Baldwin's paper in its enunciation of "the law of supply and 'demand" 
as the one that should regulate the amount of books prepared and 
published. He feared that this law had not been sufficiently observed 
heretofore in the printing and issuing of our Christian literatui'e, but that 
the country had been flooded with tracts and Scriptui'es before the time, 
and at a great waste of money, the works thus issued being in large mea- 
sure destroyed in the manner pointed out by Dr. Yates at a previous 

Rev. J. D. Valentine, C. M. S., Shauhing: — 

Rose to advocate the preparation of books in the Roman vernacular. 
Some were called to preach, some to teach, but all must learn the vern- 
acular, without which we cannot reach the poor and the illiterate. 

But in the books he would strongly advise the use of the Roman 
alphabet for the vernacular. It has been lai-gely used in the neighborhood 
of Ningpo and also of Amoy. The system was readily acquired by all 
and was especially useful for young preachers. Thei'e was always a diffi- 
culty in learning the Chinese characters. In six months however any one 
who used the Roman letters, would be able to preach in the villages and 
country. The Romanized system was especially valuable to ladies in 
their schools, and by it they were enabled to dispense with their native 

Rev. Samuel Dodd, H. P. M., Hangchow, said : — 

The chief advantage from the use of the Romanized colloquial was 
in the case of aged persons who had received no education in early life ; 
and for the benefit of such he believed that a large typed Romanized 
New Testament wat a gfreat desideratum. 

Rev. De. Williamson, S. U. P. M., Chefoo, said : — 

I take it upon me to say in corroboration of Mr. John's statement that 
from my personal knowledge not a few girls and others have learned the 
mandarin colloquial in the course of six months. This however was 
under the influence of a European lady. Without this aid I do not think 
any of the Chinese could learn to read mandarin in that time. Under 
direct European stimulus this attainment is possible, and even supposing 
a whole year spent on this subject, look at the wide range of literature 
placed in the power of such persons as compared with those who have 
only learned the colloquial Romanized. We therefore do wisely to teach 
the children the character. 

With refei-ence to the general question about Mandarin, Wen-li, and 
other ^ colloquials. If two thousand or twenty thousand missionaries 
were in China we might talk about Romani/.ation ; but as we number 
only about two hundred why should wo do so ? Suppose I had an in- 
strument which reached out to 300,000,000 and also to Japan, Man- 
churia, Corea, the countries around and the islands of the sea, and an- 

May lt»tli. niscussioN. 225 

other which reached only to a certain locality Ray containinfr some tens of 
millions, or a third which was limited to three tliousand, which should I 
use, ccrtaiidy the one which reaches to the ends of the earth. 

I think simple NVen-li as in the commentaries of Choo-fu-tze is the 
most nsefnl style. 

Mr. Wylic desired me to recall to your minds that our Wen-li books 
are exerting a pfreat intluence in Japan. 

About the Mandarin. I think we shoidd push the ^fandarin. These 
different dialects must sooner or later fall under a uniform language. 
The only one whicdi ]ia.s any probability of surviving is tlie Mandarin. 
We should strive to push this Mandarin over the southern dialects that 
there may be ultimately only one spoken language. It covers two thirds 
already and is extending every day. 

About a Board. I think this Conference would do well if it were to 
appoint a committee to form a permanent IJoard which would sit iu 
Shanghai. To this Board might be given in charge the books published, 
and such as ^Ir. Wylie spoke of which should not go to London. 

A reply to Bishop Russell. I am iu thorough sympathy with those 
who desire books in the ^landarin colK)quial. "We should have two versions 
of all our best books : one in Wen-li and one iu the Mandarin colloquial. 

Rev. T. p. Ciu^'ford, A. S. B. C, Tuxgcuow, asked : — 

Whether the Mandarin was understood at other places as readily as 
Mr. John had just said it was at Hankow. 

Ur. Gk.wes replied, that at Canton it was understood only by a 
few scholars. 

Du. DoL'GL.\s said, in Fokien it was wholly useless to the uneducated- 

Mr. Valentine of Chekeang said it was understood with ease. 

Mr. Crawford: — It would then seem that it may be readily employed 
in all places north of Ningpo, but not south of it. It still has an extensive 
range, and is the living medium of communication for more than a 
hundi'cd millions of people. 

The Right Rev. W. A. Russell, D.D., Bishop of Xorth China, said: — 

That no subject of greater interest or importance could be brought 
before the Conference, than that of Christian literature for the Chinese. 
After the experience of many years during which he had associated freely 
with the Chinese, he had come to the conclusion, that the wide spread 
disti-ibution of Christian books, had not produced the effect which might 
have been anticipated. 

Shortly after his arrival in China he had made a tour in the country 
in company with the Rev. R. H. Cobbold, and had been amazed at the 
avidity with which people received books and tracts. The impression left 
upon his mind was, that the circulation of Christian literature among 
the heathen would be a powerful agency in the conversion of China. 

For fifteen years he had held to that opinion and had aotcd upon it, 
circulating books wherever he could. 

Subsequently however, his belief in the value of this agency had 
been altogether shaken. He had watched in vain for any sign's of n-ood 
having been accomplished iu this way, and luLtl come at last to think that 
for some reason or other our books were not understood by the people at 

226 DISCUSSION. May 16th. 

large. On the first publication of the Peking magazine it was shown to 
some of the leading shop-keepers in Ningpo, who at once expressed their 
admiration of the pictures and promised to read it. They were asked to 
subscribe to it, but soon came back and said they could not understand 
it. On these grounds Bishop Russell said he sympathized heartily with 
those who were desirous of publishing books in the JMandarin, or in the 
vernacular of the districts where Mandarin is not understood. 

He believed that the wen U or literary style of China, holds a place 
here which may be compared to the place held by Latin in Europe, 
during the Middle ages. Latin was at one time the language of the edu- 
cated throughout Europe, but with the increase of education and general 
intelligence, a demand arose for books written in the colloquial of the 
dilfereut countries, and the use of Latin as the literary language of 
Europe has now become obsolete. He believed that n-eu li would fare in 
the same way in China, and that it was of far more importance to produce 
tracts that are generally understood by tlie people, than simply to produce 
such as will stand strict literary criticism. 

Rev. R. H. Geaves, M. D., A. S. B. C, Canton, said :— 

It has been said that books accomplish nothing ; let me relate a few 
instances of good done by tracts. Eleven years ago when on my way to 
Kwei Lin, the capital of Kwang-si, I distributed some tracts at a village 
and returned to my boat. Before long an old man came to me saying ; 
" I overheard a man next door reading one of your books aloud ; this is 
just what I have been longing for for years. My wife is dead, my children 
are dead, I am all alone and know I must soon die too, but O, I don't 
want to go to hell; I know I am full of sins, but the idols cannot help 
me. I do want to go to heaven, will you not tell me the way?" Teach- 
ing him the elementaiy truths of salvation and how to pray to Jesus, I 
gave him some books, knelt with him in prayer and committed him into 
God's hands. 

Another instance: Soon after settling at Shau King, I visited an old 
man in a village near by, and left a tract with him. On inquiring for 
him afterward his son told me "he is dead, and he died believing in 
your religion; he would not part with the tract you gave him but read 
it over and over and placed it in the shrine where the goddess of mercy 
was and pra^'cd before it. When he was sick he told us to read the book 
and said he died trusting in the God the little book told of." Who will 
say that this poor man's imperfect faith may not have been accepted of 
God ? Take another case ; I visited a town after an absence of some ten 
years and met a man who told me I had given him a copy of " The Two 
Friends " when I was there before. I questioned him and found he was 
quite familiar with the contents of the book. 

With regard to the colloquial I would like to ask the brethren in 
how many places do the Chinese print their colloquial independently of 
the missionaries. In Canton we have a native colloquial literature, 
limited it is true and yet widely circulated. In reply to a question, I 
would say a Cantonese Christian can soon learn to undei'stand a book 
written in Mandarin, but I do not think such books will do for general 

Another point. I hojie this Conference will adopt some plan by which 
we may know what books arc published in all parts of the Empire. A copy 
of each book issiied should be sent to each mission station. 

May ICtli. ESSAT. 227 

Rev. R. Lechler, B. M. S., Hongkong, said: — 

Our Cluirclius do not consist in tho main of the learned, but of tlie 
nnlearnuil. If I rend tho Scriptures to the congregation in tho book 
style, they do not understand nie, and thei'oforo 1 must translate into 
colloquial. It may be \ ery true that the book style is a more far reaching 
instrument, but i can not it to benefit tlie unlearned witli. 

As to the colloquial not being respectable, I will just mention an in- 
cident. One of our school girls, took her book in Roman Characters and 
read from the Uospel of Mattliew to some women in the neighborhood. 
There was true admiration of it for two things, hrst, that tlie girl was so 
clever as to know the foreign characters, and second, that all which sho 
read was intelligible Chinese. 

Afternoon Session. 

Secular Literature. 


Rkv. W. a. p. Martin, D.D., LL.U., Peking. 

In those good old days when ready wit and pi'onipt expression were 
more prized in the pulpit than they are in this age of written sermons, it 
•was the custom in the Kirk of Scotland to serve a candidate with a text 
just as he rose to deliver his trial discourse. On one such occasion, the 
youthful preacher received instead of a text, only a slip of blank paper. 
Holding it up before his audience, and turning it slowly around, he ex- 
claimed " On this side there is nothing, and on that side there is no- 
thing, and out of notliinf] God made the irurld.''' 

In undertaking to discuss the subject of secular literature assigned 
me by the committee, I find m^'self in a similar predicament. While 
there is no room to complain, that there is nothing on this side, and 
nothing on that, the subject is so polyhedral, that the writer is altogether 
in doubt as to the aspects under which he is expected to treat it. 

Is it native literature or foreign literature ? Is it extant, or only 
existing in the possibilities of the future? These and many more such 
questions are suggested by the studied ambiguity of the proposed theme; 
a theme which involves no proposition — a subject without a pi'cdicatel 
1 run no risk, however, in concluding that the subject was intended to bo 
of a practical character; and to have a bearing on the great question of 
missionary duty. 

This then is the sense in which I shall understand it: viz., as afford- 
ing a basis for tlie inquiry — to wliat extent it is desirable that mission- 
aries should endeavour to contribute to the creation of a new secular 
literature for China ? 

Tlie literature in question, is, I would premise, undei'stood to be a 
Christian literature, notwithstanding the descriptive prefix 'secular.' 
Not professedly religious, it is, or ought to bo, leavened w-ith religion, 
as the atmosphere is impregnated with ozone; not as an extraneous ele- 
ment, but as something evolved from itself, endowed with a higher energy, 
and enhancing its salutary influence. So far, however, is the secular 

228 ESSAY. May 16th. 

literatui'e of tlie most favoured nations of Cliristendora from realizing 
our ideal in point of purity and spiritual* elevation, that we sometimes 
doubt the propriety of calling it Christian. 

But bring it into comparison with the literature of a heathen people, 
and mark how it glows with the warm light of a higher world. Whence 
for example, come those noble sentiments which pervade every branch of 
our literature — law, philosophy, poetry, fiction and history ? The senti- 
ment of the brotherhood of mankind, so effective in checking oppression, 
and promoting international justice — whence comes it, but from that 
Grospel which teaches us that " God made of one blood all nations for to 
dwell on all the face of the earth? " That sense of duty which estends 
to the minutest affairs of daily life, and inspires the sublimest achieve- 
ments of heroism — making "duty" a watchword in the day of battle — 
whence comes it but from those lessons of responsibility to a higher 
power which constitute the Alpha and the Omega of the Christian system? 

Again the idea of rights as correlative to obligations, if not peculiar 
to Christianity, belongs at present, exclusively to the moral and political 
systems of Christendom. In China, the conception is wanting, and the 
language contains no word for its exj^ression. 

Finally, while self-sacriQce for the good of others, is not only taught, 
but beautifully illustrated in some of the religions of the pagan world, it 
was reserved for Christianity to give it a place in the hearts and homes 
of mankind — teaching the humblest of them to cherish the spirit and 
imitate the example of its divine founder. 

Such are some of the golden threads which the fingers of religion 
have wrought into the tissue of our Western thought, and they sparkle on 
every page of our standard literature. 

Mr. Troplong a learned jurist of France, has shown how Christianity 
infused itself into the body of Roman Law, and thence passed into the 
jurisprudence of Europe. Chateaubriand, in his eloquent pages, points 
out how it inspires modern art, and fills the domain of taste and imagina- 
tion with new elements of spiritual beauty. Christianity has made epic 
poetry almost exclusively her own, inspiring her Dantes, her Miltons, and 
her Klopstocks, to sing of spii-itual conflicts in loftier strains than those 
which describe the barbarous wars of ancient Greece. Cowper, Words- 
worth and Coleridge breathe the veiy essence of Christianity, and even 
Shakespeare is full of it. Ko one can fail to perceive that though he had 
"little Latin and less Greek," he was a diligent student of the English 
Bible. What a little Gospel he compresses into three lines when he 
speaks of 

"Those holy fields, 
Over whose acres walked those blessed feet, 
Which fourteen hundred years ago, were nailed 
For our advantage to the bitter cross." 

Goethe's Faust deals with the great problem of human probation ; 
and though he drew his subject from mediasval legends, — those legends 
were founded on the allegory of the book of Job. The latest poem but 
one from the pen of England's laureate, is religious, or more properly 
theological ; and one of the latest compositions of the laureate of the other 
hemisphere, the Divine Tragedy, is mei-ely a versification of the gospel 

Of the poet it may be said, that labouring under the influence of a 
kind of inspiration " Himself from God he cannot free," — he must be 
religious or irreligious; and according to the circumstances of his age, 
pagan or Christian. But there is no such necessity laid on the historian, 

May 10th. kssay. 220 

wli() may, if he choose mai-siiul his facts in tlio spirit of the piisitive 
j)hili)S()phy, and leave his notions to work out tlieirown destiny, iiidej)eu- 
dently of what is called providential control. Yet in general, w'riters of 
this class have not failed to recognize the hand of God in the rise and 
fall of empires; as where Cicero makes his douhting Acadeniit- admit its 
presence though he denies its extension to the interests of the individual 
man. Let two of the most eminent sjieak for their order. 

Says M. Guizot : " In the very nature of human reason, and of the 
relations of the human race to it, lies the idea of the destination of the 

race for a supermundane and eternal sphere It is equally clear that 

humanity can realize the idea of social perfection only as a rational society 
by the union and brotherhood of the human family. How far it may be 
the intention of divine providence that the human race shall realize this 
perfection, it may be impossible to determine. Certain it is that it can ncvei' 
be brought about by any mere political institutions — only Chi'istianity 
can elTect this universal brotherhood of nations, and bind the human 
family together in a i-ational, i.e., a free moral society." 

Says Mr. Bancroft: "That God rules in the affairs of men is as 
certain as any truth of physical science 

Eternal wisdom marshals the great procession of the nations, work- 
ing in patient continuity through the ages, never halting and never 
abrupt — encompassing all events in its oversight, and even effecting its 
will though mortals may slumber in apathy or oppose with madness." 

So much for history. — Time would fail me to indicate how com- 
pletely the entire body of our higher philosophy is pervaded with a spirit 
of religion, which in general, if not always, is distinctively Christian. 

Waving then further illustrations ; — such is the religious character 
even of the secular literature of Christendom ; a literature which with all 
its imperfections, is the fitting expression of the intellectual life of a 
Christian people; and such is my idea of the new secular literature 
which we desire to see springing up on the soil of China. 

If the missionary can do aught to bring about this result, who will 
dare to assert that his efforts are misdirected ? The missionary it will 
be said, is already labouring to bring about this result, and that in the 
most effective way. 

This, I admit, in a general sense. I woidd not have him, like one of 
the early fathers expend his energies in the vain attempt to produce 
Christian pla>'s, which shall supersede the profane productions of the 
pagan stage. Nor would 1 have him under the impulse of religious zeal 
intrude into certain other departments to which the taste of a native, and 
native genius are the only passports. Works of that kind — nascuntur 
non fiant — will spring up sjiontaneously when the soil is once pre- 
pared. Columba and Augustine were predecessors of Shakespeare and 
Milton ; and in this country, whatever works most efficiently for the im- 
planting of Christian thought in the heart of the nation, will also lead 
most speedily to the growth of a secular literature ^Yhich shall be Christ- 
ian in its essential characteristics. 

But are there not other departments of literary effort within the 
general field described as secular from which the missionary is not debar- 
red by any such irreversible decree of nature and which he is impelled to 
enter in order to insure the success of his leading enterprise ? 

That there are such, will no doubt be conceded by the great majority 
of the members of this Conference ; and what they are, I shall endeavour 
to indicate in the sequel of this paper. In the meantime permit me to 
dispose of a familiar objection, which grows out of a narrow interpreta- 

230 ESSAY. May 16tli. 

tion of tlie great commission, and fortifies itself by tlie citation of honour- 
ed but inappropriate esaniplos. The missionary it is said, is sent forth 
to preach,, und like St. Paul, he should know nothing beyond the special 
subject of his mission. 

Those who urge this objection, appear to forget that in the lapse of 
ao'es the relations of the church to the heathen world have undergone a 
complete revolution. In the days of St. Paul, the followers of Christ 
were few and despised ; now they are numerous and powerful, and hold 
in their hands the destinies of the other nations of the earth. Then they 
were less cultivated than those to whom they were sent, and had but one 
book to give to mankind. 'Sow it is they who stand upon the higher 
plane and have possession of the keys of knowledge. They ai'e no longer 
armed with the power of miracles ; but are they not clothed with other 
powers which may be made to serve as an ample substitute in the way of 
attesting and enforcing their principal message ? 

When they go to the savage tribes of Africa, or to the still ruder 
savages of the southern seas their superiority is at once recognized. 

The unlettered native worships as a fetich the chips of wood which 
the missionary has taught to talk by means of mysterious marks which 
he has traced on their surface. They are welcomed as the apostles of 
civilization, and no narrow prejudice has ever been permitted to deter 
them from instructing the natives in the arts of civilized life. 

In this country, we meet with a very different reception ; we come 
to a people who wei'e highly civilized before our forefathers had emerged 
from barbarism — a people who still assume tacitly or openly that they 
occupy a position of unquestionable superiority. Here, therefore, more 
than anywhere in the Avorld, do we need to avail ourselves of every 
circumstance that may help to turn the scale. We are required to prove 
our commission to teach men spiritual things by showing our ability to 
instruct them in worldly matters. 

It was observed by one of the Jesuit fathers a long time ago, that the 
Chinese were so advanced in culture that there was nothing in which 
Europeans could claim preeminence, save the discoveries of science and 
the verities of the Christian faith. 

The advantages derived from those two sources, have been rendered 
all the more conspicuous by the marvellous progress of the last three 
centuries ; — and where, I ask, is the necessity of renouncing those of the 
one class in order to communicate the other ? Who can doubt that the 
melancholy fact that the Nestorian missions appear to have sunk like a 
stone in the mighty waters without leaving so much as a ripple on the 
surface, was mainly owing to the circumstance that their civilization was 
of a lower type than that of China ? On the other hand, is it not equally 
evident that it is to the learned labours of her early missionaries, more 
than to anything else that the Catholic church owes her strong foothold 
in this empire ? The lesson is obvious. In the work of converting the 
nations, religion and science are, or ought to be, a wedded pair, each 
lending its aid to the other, and what Grod hath joined together let man 
not put asunder. 

This brings me to point out those departments in which it is not 
only possible, but almost imperative for the missionary to make contribu- 
tions to the secular literature of the land we live in. They may be con- 
sidered under three general heads. 

1. History and geography. 

2. The mathematical and physical sciences. 

3. The mental and social sciences, 

Mny IGlh. tpsat. 231 

]5ooks of the first class, liowcvir secular in cliarfictor, may fairly bo 
rcf^lfarded as an iiidispensablo pre])arati()M for the propasj^ation of the 
Gospel. For every fact — to borrow the langua^j^c of j^cometrical analysis — 
requires the aid of two co-ordinates to determine its position. These are 
time and ])la('e — liistory and geograpliy — and without these the statements 
of the Gospel narrative woukl be as |Vajn^ao as objects lloatinj^ iu space, 
which tiic eye is unable to refer to any dolinitc distance, or compare with 
uu}' certain standard of magnitude. 

So generally is this recognized, that missionaries have in fact, made 
sundry efforts to supply the desiderata in both divisions. A sketch of 
genei-al or universal history was prejjared by the late Dr. Gutzlalf ; but 
it was left in such a meagre, imperfect state that I am glad to be able to 
announce that two distinct enterprises in the same direction are now in 
jirogress ; one based on tlie work of the German professor Weber ; the 
other, on that of the English histoi-ian Tytler. 

Of particular histories, I may mention that of the United States by 
Dr. Bridgman ; and a history of England by a living missionary. Both 
if I mistake not, have enjoyed the honourable distinction of being re- 
printed in Japan. But what are these among so many? There are at 
least a score of otlier nations, ancient and modern, who have acted, or are 
now acting, conspicuous part-; in the great march of humanity ; and all 
these are waiting for the muse of hi.story to inspire some competent pen 
to make them known to the Chinese ; and to emphasize the providential 
lesson of tlieir national life. 

In geograph)', the first place is due to the excellent work of the late 
Seu Keyu a former governor of Fuhkien. Combining historical notices 
with topographical description, and full of valuable infoi'mation, expressed 
in the choicest style (though equally replete with minor l^lemishes) ^it 
produced a marked sensation on its first appearance nearly thirty years 
ago: and its influence has gone on extending to the present hour. Its 
liberal and appreciative views of foreign countries are reputed to have 
occasioned the dismi.ssal of the author from the public service, and the 
same qualities caused hira to be recalled after a retirement of eighteen 
years, and made a member of the Board of Foreign Affairs; by whoso 
authority an edition of his book was ])ul)lished in Peking. 

!My apology for mentioning this work, if it required any, would be 
the fact that in his introduction, the author refers in terms of high com- 
mendation to the Rev. Dr. Abeel as the chief source of his information. 
Does any one imagine, that fervent and devoted as he was, the direct, 
evangelistic labours of the lamented missionary, were ever half as 
effective as sj)are half-hours which he placed at the service of tlie 
in<{uisitive mandarin? 

Three smaller works on this subject have been prepared and publislicd 
by missionaries; not to mention in provincial dialects. Of tlieso 
two are composed in such a style as to commend tliemselves to general 
readers; and they have both enjoj'cd a wide popularity. 

But no one has thus far so hit the mark as to matter and manner, as 
to supereede the necessity of further efforts in the same line. The 
sketching of physical characteristics is comparatively easy; but the de- 
lineation of the varying phases of civilization is a task of great delicacy; 
and one, which if well performed, cannot fail to exert a profound 

2. In astronomy and mathematics all honour is due to the labours 
of the Catholic missionaries. But how much remains to be done may bo 
inferred from the fact — for which those pioneers of "Western .science are 

232 ESSAY. May IGtli. 

pai'tly answerable, that in the official lext books, tlie eartli still occupies 
the centre of the universe ; and that other fact, for whicli they are not 
responsible, that the imperial calendar continues to be encumbered by 
the rubbish of mediaeval astrology. 

For the only considerable work on what we may call modern 
astronomy, the Chinese are indebted to a Protestant missionaiy, who has 
also given them a pretty full course of modern mathematics, including 
the higher branches of analytical geometry, and the infinitesimal calculus. 

The worthy author of these excellent ti^anslations, would be the last 
to claim a monopoly of the field; and to me it appeal's that there is still 
room for a double series of works on the same subjects — one of them sim- 
ple and popular; the other more complete and extensive. 

When the literary corporation becomes inoculated with a love of 
exact science, the most salutary reforms may be anticipated in the gene- 
ral character of the national education ; but not until the new astronomy 
succeeds in expelling the eai'th from the place which belongs to the sun, 
can we ex25ect their earth-born pantheon to yield the throne to the right- 
ful sovereign of the universe. 

As to the other branches of physical science,— new to the Western 
world, it is but a few years since their very names were unknown to the 
Chinese. Yet already are there indications that China is swinging to 
the tide ; — a tide which no anchor of oriental conservatism will ever be 
able to resist. On these subjects we cannot have too many books, provid- 
ed they are good ones. 

It is to the diffusion of just ideas as to the laws of uatui'e, by means 
of scientific publications that we are to look for the abolition of that 
degrading system of geomancy, which never fails to throw its shapeless 
form athwart the pathway of material progress. 

It is from the same influence, and from that only, that we are to 
expect the extinction of popular panics, and judicial executions, connected 
with a superstitious belief in witchcraft. 

The sad tragedy of Tientsin witnesses to the danger of the one ; and 
at least four heads, — one that of a woman, — which have fallen under the 
axe of the executioner within the last four years, testify to the disgrace 
of the other. 

It was science and not religion that broke the jiower of such delu- 
sions among our own people ; rendering impossible a repetition of the 
horrible scenes in which good men like Sir Matthew Hale and Dr. Cotton 
Mather earned an unenviable notoriety. In this connection I cannot 
forbear paying a passing tribute to those periodicals, monthlies and dai- 
lies scientific and popular, which are now so actively employed in dissem- 
inating the hellebore required by the national mind. 

Medical science in particular, strikes at the roots of a host of supers- 
titious errors ; and it is not easy to overestimate the value of the books 
which our medical missionaries in the midst of their philanthropic labours 
have found time to prepare and publish. 

As yet, however, they are only on the threshold of their work. Their 
mission will not be complete until the present generation of unlicensed 
empirics shall be superseded by a native faculty, well versed in all the 
arts and sciences that belong to their profession. 

3. The group of sciences which I have comprehended under the 
general designation of mental and social, occupies a border-land so close 
on the confines of religion that one is surprised to find it almost as un- 
trodden as the arctic snows. Practical ethics, have of course, not been 
neglected j and certain metaphysical speculations haYv also come forward 

May Idlh. LSSAt. '233 

in connection with topics of tlieology ; but the scientific treatment of any 
one in the whole circle is still a desiilcriitum. 

Indeed, native scholars arc apt to insinuate that tlie whole domain of 
what they call >///'///, is in our western literature a barren waste; a sus- 
picion which, while it tlatters tlieir own pride, enables them to treat 
with ])atronizing disdain, a style of learning whose highest fruit they con- 
sider to be the production of a cunning artilicer. 

In the face of such a charge, what is more natural than that we 
should feci a desire to vindicate the credit of our Christian culture ; to' 
show the skeptical followers of Chufutze, that wc are familiar with sub- 
tleties of thought, which their language with all its boasted retinement 
is powerless to express ? 

But there is a higher motive for taking up the gage ; I mean the 
influence exercised by writers in this department over the weightier in- 
terests of human society. The cloudy heights of speculation may iudeed 
a])pear to be cold and barren ; yet from them issue streams which sweep 
over the lower plains of human life, like a desolating flood, or like the 
Nile diffuse beauty and abundance. 

In the ancient world the triumph of Epicurus was fatal to the liber- 
ties of Rome. In modern France, the guillotine reaped the harvest sown 
by the hands of an atheistic philosophy. After the restoration of the 
Stuarts, the materialism of Hobbes strenthened the tyranny and encour- 
aged the excesses of a dissolute court ; nor can it be doubted that the 
Scotch philosophy of common sense, contributed much to impart that in- 
telligent sobriety which chai'acterizes the British mind. It will be a 
sad day for Germany, when men of the stamp of Schojienhauer are ac- 
cepted as masters in her schools of philosophy. 

The Sung philosophers have made a far more complete conquest of 
China than the Encyclopaedists did of France : — the speculative atheism 
which after the lapse of a thousand years still steeps the educated mind of 
this country being mainly derived from that source. 

Books on these subjects, if well composed, would command the at- 
tention of the leading classes in the Empire. A good treatise on tho 
analysis of the mental powers, would call them away from groping among 
tho mists of ontology, and teach them to interrogate the facts of their 
own consciousness; astonishing them not less by revealing to them their 
hitherto unsuspected mental anatomy, than works of another class do, by 
unveiling tho structure of their physical frame. The grand corollary 
would be the nature and destiny of the human soul. A ti-eatise on formal 
logic would scarcely prove less fascinating by its novelty, or less revolu- 
tionary in its effect. On this point /as e*/ ab hode, &c. The late Mr. J. 
S. ^lill informs us that his father warned him against making any open 
attack on the Christian faith, as likely to prove abortive, and to recoil 
upon his own head ; but suggested that a successful assault might bo 
made from the masked batteries of a work on logic. AVith Christianity 
this method has been tried, and witliout any serious result ; but a missilo 
which rebounds harmless from the plates of an ironclad, will crush 
through the timbers of a wooden junk. It is certain that the medley of 
incompatible opinions which make up the creed of a Confucianist, however 
formidable when approached from without, could not long hold out 
ag-ainst the force of logical principles applied from within. In a word, 
with the learned classes, anything which tends to show them how to in- 
vestigate their own mental processes, to weigh arguments, and try evi- 
dence, cannot fail to contribute powerfully to their abandonment of error 
and adoption of truth. 

234 ESSAY. May IGth. 

In the field of political economy, soil was broken some five and 
twenty years ago, b^' the publication of a small brochure under the 
auspices of the Morrison school. Thus far, this effort has not been fol- 
lowed up; and yet a weighty writer in the P'ortuightly Review, referring 
to the late centennial of the Wealth of Nations, does not hesitate to 
affirm that political economy has contributed to the wealth of England a 
hundred fold more than any other science. Dr. Chalmers though the 
first preacher in Europe, clid not disdain to write a book on political 
economy, and in America, l)r. Wayland, alike eminent as a scholar and a 
pulpit orator, also prepared a text book on the same subject. A science 
which so conspicuously improves the temporal well-being of all, 
must of necessity promote their higher interests. 

While on this branch of the subject, I cannot refrain from express- 
ing the pleasure I have had in perusing two books from the pen of a 
German missionary; — one of them a view of the educational institutions 
of Germany; — ihe other, a discourse on ciA'ilization. Both are calculated 
to make a decided impression on native scholars, though the latter, may 
perhaps av\'aken a feeling of resentment by the severity of its criticism, 
appearing to assert superiority without proving it; while the former 
proves it without advancing any such irritating claim. 

Not only is it desirable that the learned classes of China should be 
made acquainted with the educational institutions of the West, it is of 
equal importance that they should obtain some idea of the nature and 
extent of our polite literature. The only satisfactory way for them to 
arrive at this is by learning to read it. Yet if the missionary in the 
intervals of more sei'ious work, would now and then translate a poem 
like Pope's Essay on Man, or a prose composition like some of the best of 
Johnson or Addison, the effect could hardly be otherwise than happy, 
especially on the translator. 

In conclusion ; we have taken a kind of balloon voyage over a wide 
region, in the course of which we have seen how the land lies without 
pausing to map down its minute features. 

We have given no names of living authors, and no catalogue of 
books ; our sole object being to ascertain in what departments of secular 
anthorship a missionaiy may engage with most advantage to the great 

Already is the triumph of that cause foreshadowed by what a secular 
writer describes as a "tendency towards homogeneity of civilization." 
Japan has openly adopted the western type; and China, without com- 
mitting herself, is slowly moving in the same direction. The growing 
demand for books on scientific subjects, is but one among many signs 
which point to an approaching intellectual revolution. 

This demand, it is true, the government is endeavouring to supply 
at its own expense ; and many excellent works are produced by the 
translators whom it employs. Bnt there is, as we have shown, still room 
for the missionary ; and a call for his labours in this department, which 
scarcely anything but conscious inability, would justify him iii declining. 
He can scarcely stop for a night, in a city of the interior, without some 
of its best inhabitants applying to him for books of science, and for 
instruction oil scientific subjects. Is it wise to turn a deaf ear to such 
appeals for intellectual food ? Can the missionary afford to do so with- 
out losing prestige as a representative of liberal culture ? His preaching 
will lose nothing in its power by the consecration of a portion of his time 
to such scientific and litei'ary labours as lie outside of the beaten path of 
pulpit duty. 


In viewof ihc intpllectual moA'cracnt now beginning to show itself 
all over this I'^nipiit". I would urge upon missionary societies to send into 
this field none but tlieir best men, and npon missionarie-; now on the 
ground, to endeavour to rise to the occasion — ^to take for their models such 
men as Chaliuers and Waylaud, and to emulate them in the breadth of 
their views, as well as in the fervour of their devotion. 


Rev. S. L. B.^ldwix, A. M. E. M., Foocnow, said :— 

I thoroughly sympathize with efforts to produce such secular liter- 
ature as that contained in the pages of the weekly Chinese pcriodi al 
^ S ^ ^fi- I believe that this jiaper has done a great deal of good and 
lias lielj)ed to create a friendly feeling toward foreigners in the minds of 
natives. In the neighbourhood of Foo;.liow it finds its way into the hands of 
many mandarins and literary men and meets with a good reception. One 
great value of the paper eoiisists in the religious tone which characterizes 
it. Together with articles bearing on science and politics, other articles 
are to be found of a distinctly Christian character, and by means of these 
religions instruction is conveyed to many quarters where it would not 
otherwise reach. Much remains to be done by missionaries in imparting 
scientitic knowledge and provided it does not withdraw them from the 
more important work of preaching the Gospel, there can be no reason 
why they should not engage in this work. 

Ri:v. J. Butler, A. P. ]\I., Ningpo, said: — 

I wish to .say a word in regard to the publication of ^fr. Allen's very 
useful paper, the "Globe ^lagazine." 

I am not authorized to speak either by the Editor or the publisher, 
hnt I venture to volunteer a few remarks, for the benefit of those who do 
not know the fci, ts. 

Mr. Allen has had a hard struggle to get his paper introduced to 
the reading publi.j in China, and the expense of printing has been heavy. 
For the tirst few years, the Presbyterian Mission Press printed the paper 
at a consideralile loss to themselves, in order to get it on a self-support- 
ing basis, and now it is printed on a purely missionary basis — the bare 
cost — an arrangement tliat could not be entered into with any other 
pnnting establishment in China, 

I wish to say this mucli in justice to the press. It has been a silent 
and nseful missionary, and like many others, too modest to speak for itself. 

Rkv. Dr. WiLr,iAMSOx, S. U. P. M., Chefoo, said : — 

I suggest that in each port tlierc should be two agents; one business, one 
literary, whose duties should be to improve and extend the periodiital press. 

This country being an educated and not a Ijarbarous luition, deinands 
that we adapt our plans to the existing state of things, and by the mighty 
jiower of the press help to dissipate tlie darkness, cruelty and social 
deginvdation which now rest on this land — for if we as missionaries 
neglect to make use of this engine, unbelievers certainly will u-;e it. The 
press rules the world and has commenced already to rule in China. We 
neglect a great power if we overlook the value of this among such a 
people as the Chinese. Its importance is beyond estimation. It is worthy 
the whole time of anv man. 


Rev. W. S. Holt, A. P. M., Shanghai, said : — 

Orders are coiistantlj setit to onr Mission Press, both by missionaries 
and Chinese gentlemen, for Scientific works, and others of an educational 
character. The edition of Dr. Martin's International Law is about ex- 
hausted. Geographies, Chemistry, Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, 
Ancient History, books on Western schools and education, works on 
Western medical science, are continually called for. Our sales of such 
books are about $500.00 per annum, which fact gives some idea of the 
demand among the Chinese for them. 

Rev. D. IST. Lton, A. P. M., Hangchow, said: — 

Lest the missionaries should all go home and become editors of 
Papers, I would say that there seems to exist very little demand for these 
periodicals among the heathen. As agent for Mr. Fryer's and Mr. 
Faimham's publications, I have been able to sell from 40 to 50 copies, 
each month, of the Child's Paper, but know of only one man who takes it 
regularly. It has been very difficult, indeed, to dispose of the " Scientific 
Magazine," even at the old price of 50 cash, and now that the price has 
been doubled, the sale will be still more difficult. Mr. Allen's Paper, so 
far as I know, is taken almost exclusively by Christians, or, at least in 
Hangcliow, has very few heathen subscribers. These periodicals are 
admirable, and the attempt to circulate them extensively, among the 
Chinese, is a laudable undertaking, bat, I fear, they reach very few of 
those whom thev are intended to benefit. 

Rev. G. John. L. M. S., Hankow, said : — 

It has been stated that there is a certain amount of inertia amongst 
the missionaries on this point. I rise to explain what is the real fact of 
the case so far as I am concerned. There is no inertia whatever on my part. 
I assure Mr. Allen and Mr. Fryer that they ha^'-e my most hearty sym- 
pathy in their efforts to promote the intellectual culture of this people. 
The fact that I do what I can to circulate their publications is a proof of 
this. I would say to them both, as well as to othei'S who are worthily 
engaged in similar work "Go on with your enterprise, I bid you God 
speed." Why is it then that some of us are not doing more in this line ? 
1 would reply to this question in the language of Moody. When asked 
why he and his associates did not give more of their time to the sciences, 
he replied, " Because we have something better to do." This is exactly the 
position of some of us. Secular Literature is good, but the Gospel is better. 
To teach the sciences may be an important work, but most of ns think 
that we have something better to do. We have been sent to China by 
the Churches and by Christ Himself not to promote secular learning, but 
to make known the truth as it is in Jesus. We have come here to deal 
with human souls and to save men from sin. This is our special work ; 
and the question is : — How is this work to be accomplished ? Is it to be 
by teaching the sciences, or by preaching the Gospel ? I want to know 
what life-giving word does Astronomy- or Geology possess for men dead in 
trespasses and sins. If our aim in China is the promotion of intellectual 
culture, then let us all go in for secular learning with might and main. 
If, however, our aim is the salvation of souls let us preach Christ. While 
I allow the value of secular litei-ature, a,nd while I would rejoice to see 
the Chinese mind enriched with a knowledge of the Arts and Sciences of 

May IGtli. discussion. 237 

the "West ; still 1 do maintain tViat the pressing need of this people is 
a knowledge of the wav of salvation, and that it is plainly unr duty 
to devote our time and energies to the supreme work of imparting 
this knowledge to them. They need to know ahont God, sin, and a 
Saviour, far niore than al)i)ut the formation of the rocks or tlie names of 
the stars. This information others miglit give them ; hut there are too 
few already devoted to the propagation of the (jospel for the energies 
of any one to be diverted to other work, uidess he has a very speeial 
calling thereto. Mr. Allen has shown himself thoroughly qualified for 
this line of work, ijet him persevere in it; and if necessary let two or 
three more, equally fitted ft)r it, join him. But let us as a body of men, 
who are supposed to bo chosen of God for the evangelization of the 
Chinese, devote ourselves to the higher calling. I am anxious that ray 
position in regard to the question should be clearly understood. I am 
not against the introduction into China of secular literature and science ; 
but I am against missionaries (jenercillij giving their time to the teaching 
of these things, and I am against anij missionary whatever dahlilinr/ in 
them. I am also against the idea that a knowledge of these things is 
necessary to prepare the minds of the to receive the Gospel, and 
that in order to Christianize China it is necessary to call in the Arts and 
Sciences, Western Literature and Western civilization to our aid. I be- 
lieve that the Gospel itself and ahme is the power of God unto salvation, 
and that it has only to be faithfully preached and exemplified in order 
to conquer the world. I must confess that I have the least possible sym- 
pathy with the spirit of Dr. Martin's essay, that is, if I have not misap- 
prehended it. His idea of the value of secular teaching as compared 
with direct missionary w^k seems to me to be wholly wrong. One word 
more. We have been reminded of the importance of influencing and ele- 
vating the nation as a nation, and there is something grand and stimulat- 
ing in the tliought. ]]ut we should never forget that Christ's plan was to 
deal with individual souls. If we forget the individual soul, we are very 
likely to go in for every thing rather than the preaching of the glorious 
Gospel of Christ. But let the idea of seeking and saving the lost soul 
take full possession of our minds and hearts, and we shall find it impos- 
sible to devote much time to ought else. There never was a fjreat mis- 
sionary who was not penetrated with an overwhelming sense of the price- 
less value of human souls, and who did not see in the salvation of one 
soul an object worthy of his highest ambition and utmost effort. 

Rev. H. C. DuBose, A. S. P. M., Soochow, said : — 

I rise to make a practical suggestion. Those who are ordained to 
preach the Go.spel feel that they ought to do nothing else, and sometimes 
they have conscientions scruples, that work outside of this is not in the 
path of duty. Now if there were no others to do the woik of teaching 
and preparing a secular literature, perhaps they might do it. But we 
ought to insist upon our Boards and vSocieties sending out a class of 
professional teachers, unordained men, to do this important work. These 
applications will probably be favourably received at home. men giving their undevided attention will do better work than 
the ordained missionary. Then as all Societies in times of prosperity 
generally send out all mini.sters who apply, it will be this much clear gain 
ia numbers. 

We who are under ordination vows, and have authority to preach, 
ought to "give ourselves wholly to prayer and the ministry of the word." 

238 DISCUSSION. May I6tli. 

Rev. De. Edeixs, L. M. S., Pekii,'g, said : — 

In the " Shen paou " last year I read two valuable articles on female 
education, which went through the history of the subject in China, and 
founded an argument for extending the education of girls on the fact 
that at the commencement of the Polytechnic Institution in Shanghai, 
Bome foreign ladies had contributed funds for promoting female education. 
Another article in last year's "Shen paou" discussed and condemned the 
practice of foot binding. There are many things in that journal which 
are adapted to be useful and the leading articles are conceived in a liberal 
spirit. Though religious articles may not be admitted by the management, 
there are many moral and social questions and niatters affecting the 
welfare of China, on which it would be well for missionaries and their 
catechists and native pastors to write in this and such like journals. 
JoiTi'nals like that of Mr. Allen, under directly Christian control have, I 
rejoice to know, done a large amount of good, and deserve our sympathy 
and aid. We shall promote the enlightenment of China, and pave the way 
for the Gospel b}^ writing in these journals on subjects which will open the 
native mind to the facts of Western civilization and the deficiencies in the 
condition of the people of this country. We may thus secure an outlet 
for our own views and those of our native assistants as taught by us, 
among a much wider circle than we can otherwise succeed in reaching. 

This branch of literaiy work may be very advantageously made to 
intertwine with school teaching. Christian schoolmasters and elder 
scholars should be encouraged to use their pens in diifusing information 
among their countrj^men, through the medium of these journals, on sub- 
jects upon which they specially need instruction. This should be done 
in the hope that they and we may be able to exercise a wider influence 
for good on the present and future age. 

J. FrteEj'^Esq., Shanghai, said : — 

I will give an account of the work done in this connection by the 
Chinese Government. Ten years ago a Translation Department was 
commenced at the Kiang-nan Arsenal, the object of which was to prepare 
a series of scientific works, to be translated and published at the Govern- 
ment expense, and to be sold at cost price. Three gentlemen were asked 
to commence this work of translation, viz : Messrs. Wylie, Macgowan and 
myself. The number of works published during these ten years amount- 
ed to about 50, — part of which was translated by other gentlemen who 
had more recently' joined the department. 

I am also engaged in publishing the Chinese Scientific Magazine in 
which the subjects of the larger works were treated in a more simple and 
popular style. Tliis was commenced upon my own responsibility and has 
been continued with some success to the present time. Several mission- 
aries have assisted very materially in promoting its sale and in the con- 
tribution of articles. To them I beg to tender my warmest thanks. 

Rev. W. Muiehead, L. M. S., Shaxghal said:— 

There has been much discussion on the style in which our literature 
should be produced. _ Some were strongly inclined to the literary, and 
others to the Mandarin or even common vernacular, as more suited to the 
class of people with whom we had to do. The fact is, however, there is a 
great variety in the order of mind in China as elsewhere, and also in 

May ll'ith. DiscussiuN. 239 

thoir rcailinpj cnpacity, and it is simply nopcssary wo slionkl adiipt the 
style i>f mir publications to meet this stale of things. The U|)pji- classes 
rule the lower in thouLjht, in giving rise to current opinions, and in those 
intellectual and social clianges that are constantly taking place, just as it 
is the higher strata of our atmosphere, where the movements are first 
produced that subsequently ail'ect those beneath. The power of the literati 
is here ])redominent, and the common people take their colour and 
cast largely from them. It is highly proper therefore, that we should 
address this in their own style, while we may not overlook the 
masses who come more directly into contact with us, and in both cases an 
intluencc may be exerted which ma}" be helpful in our work. Whatevei* 
style wo adopt, let it be in the best form possible, even the vulg-ar pdtuis 
may be given out in a dress which will commend itself to ordinary rea- 
ders, and lessen the aversion generally felt to it by more cultivated 
luinds. "With regard to secular literature, and the part Missionaries should 
take in it, it is a fact that such literature will obtain in the histor}^ of 
progress in China. If we will have nothing to do with it, others will, 
and most probably will impart to it cither a pernicious, or at a 
negative character, so far as the Christian element is concerned. There 
is no reason why so-called secular literature should be wholly of an earthly 
or godless character. It may well be baptized in a Christian spirit, and 
be made a mighty instrument for the enlightenment and regeneration of 
China. !Men of the highest standing in the religious world at home, as 
we have heard, have largely devoted their talents to what can only be re- 
garded as literature of this kind, and they have exerted a most beneficial 
effect in this department. The same may be the case in this country, 
and there may bo amongst us, men, better suited to wield the pen and to 
rule in this tield of literature, than in the more direct preaching of the 
Gospel. By all means let there be free and full scope to the powei"s that 
God has given us, for the Glory of His name and the advancement of His 
truth. China needs to be permeated by clearer and more commanding 
light in every department of knowledge, and we ought to be thankful for 
the services of such men connected with us, who may do it to the best 

Rev. J. Hudson Taylor, C. I. M., Chinki.\ng, said : — 

No one can doubt the value of secular literature, but some of us have 
very grave doubts as to the part Christian missionaries in ijencral should 
take in its ])reparation and publication. We have all cause to be thank- 
ful to those who have taken up this work, and we all wish them gi-eat 
success ; but, brethren, our great work is fo preach Christ. 

Last year I stood beside a well known and highly esteemed minister 
of Christ, the Rev. Samuel Martin, while he gave a farewell addi-ess to 
some who were about to leave for China, myself among the number. • His 
parting charge to us, which I can never forget, was, " Say among the 
heathen, Jihornh reigneth." 

We all know what Dr. Williamson meant, when he said, " The press 
rnles the world." It is a mighty p')wer but let not the expression be mis- 
understood. Brethren, the LORD JESUS rules the world. The world 
does not know it, uor recognize it ; but we know it. There is a King in 
Zion to whom all power is, yea has already been, committed. Let us 
exalt Him, preach Him, and give ourselves up wholly to that work. 

As to the periodical litei-ature to which Mr. Allen has devoted him- 
self with such success, I can b'jar witness to the appreciation by our 

240 DISCUSSION. May IGth. 

native bretkren of liis efforts. 1 do not think, however, that the fear he' 
expressed, that if missionaries neglect secular literature, religion will 
decline, and the darkness of the dai'k ages be repeated, is well founded. 
We know Him who said, " I am the Light of the world ; " "he that fol- 
loweth Me shall not walk in darkness." Let us personally keep near 
to Him, and do all we can to bring others near to Him, and dark- 
ness will never come over the church. Chuist, my brethren, is the light of 
the world. 

But it is a solemn fact that millions of Chinese are now perishing 
for lack of knowledge of that Light. O, my brethren let me exhort you to 
give your time to the preaching of the glorious Gospel of Jesus Christ ! 
Do that, and all else will folloio in due course. 

E,EV. C. "W. Mateeb, a. p. ]\t., TuNGCHOW, said : — 

I am very anxious that the relation of education and secular literat- 
ure to the preaching of the Gospel shoixld not be misrepresented, nor 
misunderstood. They are not antagonistic, nor is there any competition 
between them as agencies in the mission work. I can see no call in this 
connection, for enthusiastic declamaiion in favor of preaching as the one 
great agency for propagating the Gospel. Its only object must be to 
disparage and condemn all who do anything besides formal preaching. 
No one claims that mere intellectual cultui-e, as such, necessarily pre- 
disposes a man to believe the Gospel. What is claimed is, that science 
and secular books may be used as a most effective agent to open the door, 
and gain the ears of the people. An example will illustrate the general 
principle. I am stopping in an inn in a town or city. Some of the more 
I'espectable men of the place come to see me. What is their object ? To 
ask about religion ? Not at all, but to ask about the science and civil- 
ization of the West. This experience I have had hundreds of times. 
Shall I bluff off the questions of such men, and begin at once to preach 
sin and repentance to them ? If I do they will very soon leave, filled 
with contempt for me and my preaching. Shall I not rather turn aside 
for a time, and by talking to them of science, gain their good will and so 
put myself in an advantageous position for teaching them the Go.spel ? 

It has just been said that science is a two edged sword, that will cut 
both ways. This is quite true, and which way it cuts depends entirely 
on who has hold of the hilt. I fear to see ungodly and infidel men the 
first to wield this sword in China. If we will, we may wield it ourselves 
in the interest of truth and righteousness. Why should we not ? Why 
should we allow such a weapon to pass into the hands of others ? We 
are told that science is no help to the missionaries in Japan. Why? 
Because science got ahead of the missionaries, in the hands of others. 
Things move more slowly in China, and perhaps it is as well, that so the 
Church and the missionaries may have time to awake to the requirements 
of the hour, and not allow Satan to grasp and wield against them, the 
weapon they ought to wield for Chi'ist. As to who shall do the woi-k, I 
have simply to say, there is a diversity of gifts and of callings. Let him 
do this work who feels called of God to do it, and let not him who is not 
called, find fault with him who is called. 

May 1 rt li. ESSAY. 241 

Rev. J. S. Roberts, A. P. M., Shanghai, said : — 

I belie \-e ill a lil)ev!\l interpretation of the great commission, "Go 
ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel." 

The principles of tho Gospel are adapted to all circumstances, to the 
shifting ct)nditions of societ}' from age to age. They are i)lastic : and, a.s 
has been already remarked, Paul would, doubtless, have availed himself 
of the press, had it been in existence in his day. 

The carrying out of (he ''commission " includes both the direct and 
indirect agencies. 

The press and periodical literature are among the latter, and so are per- 
fectly legitimate to a missionary who comes to Cliina in the first instance, 
with honest intention to preach the Gospel, but who, through circum- 
stances, including his own tastes and adaptations, is led to adopt the more 
indirect method of propagating the truth. 

I deprecate any prescriptive and narrow conception of tho clerical 
missionary's function. While I myself follow a strictly evangelical line 
of action, I yet believe in allowing a wide mai'gin for other men's con- 
sciences. I do not agree with ^Ii*. Du that a body of secular men 
should be called into the Held to attend to this specific work — a plan 
which would be found impracticable, and open to objection, as restricting 
the liberty of the Spirit, being too artificial and rigid. 

On the other hand, a clerical brother, engaging in such a work, 
should consider that it i.s auxiliary and preparatory, and should not look 
lightly upon the more direct work. 

M.ORNING Session. 

Standard of Admission to Full Church Membership. 

Rev. J. W. Lambuth, A. S. M. E. M., Shanghai, said : — 

The above subject having been allotted to me, I have thrown to- 
gether a few practical remarks which I now present to this Conference for 

We shall surely all agree upon there being in the subject a field for 
much and ferious thought, and that in its relation to the church now 
forming in China, it is one of vital importance. 

The future of the Church in China depends wholly upon the plan 
pursued in laying its foundation, and it behoves us to begin this work on 
Scripture principles, laying firm and deep the base of this grand struc- 
ture, and under no consideration to allow ourselves to depart from tho 
word of God. 

This nccesitates a of men and women who shall, by a thorough 
course of training in tlie principles of our Christian religion, be prepared 
to go about teaching Gospel truths. The great mass of the people are 
sitting in the region and shadow of death. Their minds and hearts have 
been so long steeped in ignorance and supei'stition, so enfeebled by vice, 
that many are almost brought to the level of the brute creation. Their 
intellect seems to be wholly under the dominion of sin. The despotism of 
idolatry on every hand is very grievous. The heathen are without God 
and destitute of true rclisfion. 

242 ESSAY. May 17t]i. 

It should be our earnest desire to impress -upon the hearts of those 
■wh.0 would turn from evil, the great importance of strict obedience to the 
laws of God. All other aims should be subordinate to this, and if faithful 
in the use of the means, we have every reason to expect a rich blessing. 

It has never been my lot to meet with one person, who, when first 
making application for admission into the church, has been found pre- 
pared for immediate reception. Many do not even know the first princi- 
ples of Christian faith, consequently they know nothing of its require- 
ments. Even after having heard the Grospel preached for months, their 
ideas of the Atonement are found to be very crude and uncertain. Their 
faith when first realizing a desire for salvation is small, very small, and 
often mixed with a hope of temporal benefit. In that slate of mind they 
seem willing to observe anything we may see fit to propose. However, 
the fact of their being willing to make a first step even, toward the ac- 
ceptance of Christianity is a source of great encouragement. The least 
inclination manifested towards acceptance of the Gospel, gives us antici- 
pation of a brighter future ; a hope, that when better instructed they 
will rise higher, and experience clearer views of what they are required 
to believe and do. The early disciples of Christ when first called, had no 
adequate idea of the Master's oflice, but after long and repeated instruc- 
tion, they began to realize something of the nature of the religion he 
came to teach. Their thoughts of the kingdom of Christ savored much 
of the things of earth. Just so with many who come to us. If we can 
induce them to renounce idolatry, that is a very important step gained. If 
they are willing to be separated from their heathen neighbors by showing 
themselves openly receiving instruction from Christian teachers, it should 
be a source of great encouragement, leading us to seek the blessing of 
God upon even a small sign of promise. 

It is not our aim simply to teach these people a creed, to observe cer- 
tain rites, or to lay too much stress upon becoming members of this or 
that branch of the Church. Our aim should be to have pi'oduced in them 
a thorough, change of a spiritual and religious character by bringing 
them to repentance and a forsaking of sin. 

We should seek to bring them to the knowledge of God, and to love 
Him supremely and to trust, for full salvation from all sin, simply and 
alone on the merits of that atonement which was made for all men by 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. When this change is manifested in 
their lives and conduct, how can we reasonably exclude them from the 
Christian Church? We can not read the hearts of men, but, when a 
candidate for baptism has been repeatedly and patiently examined before 
the Church, and when we no longer have any doubt of his or her sinceri- 
ty, is it not in accordance with the early usage of the Church to receive 
them into Christian fellowship ? 

I. — We think such jDcrsons should be acquainted witb the first 
principles of the Christian religion. 

II. — They should renounce their sins, and pledge themselves, by the 
grace of God, faithfully to forsake idolatry in all its forms, together with 
ancient customs antagonistic to Christianity. 

III.— They should consent to meet with God's people on tbe Sabbath 
for worship and to observe the institutions of the Christian church. 

IV. — They should experience what our Saviour meant when he said 
" Ye must be born again." They should undei'stand that a change, em- 
bracing every faculty of man, working in his fallen natui'e a complete and 
perfect saving change, must be made. The understanding, the will and 
the affections must be changed. They must be required to " put ofi: the 

>rny irtli. ESSAY. 243 

old mail which is oornipt" and to " put on the now man which after 
God is cmatod in righteousness and true holiness." If any have experi- 
enced this saving cliange, they arc no longer slaves to divers lusts and 
pleasures, but arc "free from the bondage of sin and death." Wc sec the 
necessity of this change among the millions within our reach, and wo 
know that only such a turning of the heart to God can save them. 

We feel the necessity of insisting upon these points, for thereby the 
lieathen and Christian converts will be clearly separated and ancient 
customs discarded. 

The plan we as a church pursue with those who desire Christian 
instruction, is to place them on probation, until we are satisfied of their 
fitness to be received into full membership. The time specified is six 
months, and if the candidate does not give evidence of fitness, the time 
is extended indclinitely. We would not, however, make this an absolute 
necessity in all cases. It is the rule of the church in America to which 
we lielong, and we have found it to work well among the Chiuese. We 
have heard of one man in China who is believed to be an earnest Christ- 
ian and yet not admitted into the cliurch ; not of his want of 
fitness in living the life of a Christian, for he is not wanting in good 
works, nor yet is he lacking in faith ; and the longer he remains nnbapti- 
zed, the more earnest and spintually minded he becomes. But this long 
probation would not do for all. Few persons are possessed of faith and 
trust enough to carry them through life's temptations without help such 
as a Christian society can give ; hence the desirability of becoming one 
of a societj', where in unity of Spirit and by mutual sympathy, daily 
strength may be imparted to each faithful member, strengthening him for 
contact with the world. 

We need to be careful about admitting persons into the Church, lest 
it be filled with nnconvei-ted professors. We should prove the candidates 
and see if there is any evidence of their conversion, lest they bnng dis- 
honor on the worthy name of our Lord and blaster. When any one applies 
for baptism, we at once put him under instruction, and meet with him 
at stated times for j^rayer and scripture I'cading. We require of those 
applying for admission into the Church, that they should give some 
reason of their hope in Christ, and testify to any change they may have 
experienced by the aid of the Hol^^ Spirit. Where it is possible, wc urge 
th«>se who desire to join our .society, to learn to read the word of God for 
themselves, if they have not done so. If they are not willing to do this, 
we think it is good evidence they are not in earnest about the salvation 
of their souls, or desirous of worshiping with Christians. There is how- 
ever, no specified amount of reading the Scriptures inquired of candidates. 

If any one refuses to observe the sabbath, it would be a serious 
objection ; indeed the rules of our branch of the Christian Church are 
imperative on this point, and wc feel sure it is best so. We have no 
authority to set aside any of the commandments. It is the rule with us, 
that every member shall observe the Sabbath by ceasing from unnecessary 
labor, attending divine service and reading the Scriptures, thus keeping 
the day as a day of sacred worship. 

Again, wc think before a person is brought into the church a promise 
should be exacted of him, that he should regularly contribute something 
to support the Gospel, even as the Lord has prospered him. Some, when 
broutjht into the church feel thev have nothintr more to do; but I am 
happy to say many native Christians are gradually opening their eyes to 
the importance of each member helping in the matter of church extension. 
We have invariably noticed, that when a man felt the grace of God in his 

244 KSSAV. May 17th. 

heart, he was not only converted in mind, but pocket also. The Christian 
religion in a man's heart is such, that he is constrained to love his neigh- 
bor, and the love he feels in his heart urges him to go and tell to others 
of the blessed Saviour he has found. 

I will hei-e give the words of another with reference to the work in 
his own church. " AVe have" sa^ys this brother, "from the first (1868) 
admitted forty-one into church fellowship, two of whom came from other 
churches, leaving thirty-nine adults and infants. Of these, thirty-three 
came on profession of faith. From these four have been suspended. One 
of them claims still to live as a Christian, but his conduct respecting the 
Sabbath and his iuordinate love of money do not change. He was sus.» 
pended for covetousness and Sabbath desecration. One man has moved 
off — we know not where, — and one other I fear will have to be disciplined 
for Sabbath violation, and neglect of the sanctuary; but we have quite a 
number, say, from six to eight, of whom we have hopes, and several of whom 
we trust, are genuine Christians who are not yet members of the church. 

Another indispensable condition of admission into the church should 
be entire abstinence from the use of opiiim. We who live among these 
people and come directly into daily contact with tlie dreadful evils caused 
by the usS of opium, and have seen what complete control it has Over 
those wdio use it, and the sad condition to which they are reduced by it 
in body, mind and soul, can alone conceive the extent and power of this 
dreadful scourge. It is sweeping over the land like a dreadful hurricane, 
destroying the very life blood of the people. If allowed in the church it 
will in the end most surely make sad havoc of her members, and cause a 
blight worse than death to enter the flock of Christ. 

We know that a person when once fully under the influence of this 
deadly drug, seldom has the moral power to resist its influence, and is 
forced down, down with rapid speed to certain destruction. Cases have 
been but rare where they have ever recovered from the habit once formed. 
We, who see so clearly the evils of its use, cannot too strongly oppose its 
entering the pale of the church. We may be looked upon as extreme in 
our views and too severe in our judgments, but we are convinced if the 
views of our native brethren were taken on this important subject, that 
they would heartily coincide with us, and urge the non-use of opium in 
any shape whatever as being one of the conditions of admission into the 
Christian Chui'ch. We know that, if such an action were taken by us, 
it would be approved by the native Church, and that the home societies 
w^ould most heartily indorse it. We can not conceive of anything more 
pernicious in its effects upon society, and if allowed in the Church, there 
is nothing more dangerous to vital piety and godliness. A man given to 
the use of this drug is, in our estimation wholly untrustworthy. In the 
estimation of the natives themselves, a man given to the use of opium is 
not believed, neither is he trusted in any important matter. 

We cannot be too watchful of the interests of the Church in China 
while in its infancy. The solemn requirements of Scripture are as bind- 
ing now as they were in the early ages of the Christian dispensation. 
Christians are no more allowed to "walk according to the course of this 
world" now, than were believers at that early day, but are exhorted 
" come out and be ye separate from them." They may be ignorant of 
many things in religion and yet be saved. But to be ignorant of the 
new birth and salvation by faith in the Son of Cod, is to be in the broad 
way which leadeth to eternal death. 

In the early period of the Christian dispensation, converts were 
miraculously "called out of darkness into the marvelous light of the 

3klay 17th. eass^. '245 

niaiuls. they were broutjfht into new relations to God, to ChHsfc, to the 
(lospel" and by tlie endiracinc;' of this Jicw faith, Ihey were exposed to 
pei-secntion, rcpmarh and often to death. Tliey liad to strive against the 
workl, against principalities and jiowers, and the devotedness to God, 
which was required of tlicni at that time, is also i-equired of the converts 
cf the present day brought out from amo)ig the heathen. 

As their faith called thciu to self-denial and the renunciation of all 
earthly things, so are we to expect that the faith of converts to Christ- 
ianity from among this people, will also subject them to the enmity aud 
hatred of all those around them who still live in sin and cling to the cor- 
ruptions of their natures. The requirements of tlie Clu'istian religion 
are the same now as they were when the Saviour was upon earth 
for the spirit of the woi'ld is the same. Believers were not called to live 
more holily, or more devotedly, or to attain to greater degrees of purity 
and humility then than now. The promises of God were not limited to- 
the early f)eriod of the Chuivh ; neither was the aid and blessed influence 
of the Holy Spirit confined to those who received it on the day of Pen- 
tecost. It was declared by St. Peter, that the Spirit was promised not 
oidy to them and their children, but "to all that are afar off, even as 
many as the Lord our God should call." Christianity has no individual 
immunities, and there is no way for a king, a philosopher or a peasant 
to be saved exi-ept in the way prescribed ; and for that reason the great 
and the wise of this world have often rejected it. There is but one 
"gate," and that a "strait" one, but one "way" and that a " narrovk^ " 
one. Christianity in China is but in its infancy. Guided by the teach- 
ing of the New Testament, native Christians should be brought to that 
standard where they will be able to maintain pure doctrine, and holy 
lives, and to exhibit active zeal in Christianizing their heathen coun- 

The present number of native Christians in China should be a cause 
of great rejoicing. We know there are some who have not felt the power 
of the Gospel. But there is a large number, who are seeking, not merely 
an external union with Christ, but are hungering and thirsting for a 
deeper and closer walk with God. We have good evidences from their 
daily life and conduct, that, at heart, they are humble followers of the 
Lord Jesus. 

They may and do fall far short of what is required of them in the 
word of God. The piety aud faithfulnesss of some is not so deep and 
abiding as we should like to sec, but with juany their piety and strong 
faith in God is of a noble and exalted character. The earnestness and 
faithfulness of some will compare favorably with many noble minded 
Christians in other lands. With many, a love for the word of God is 
increasing, and there is aLso an increasing desire for the work of salvation 
to be made known. 

This is a healthy sign and one we are glad to see. It is a sure sign 
of life and power, and is absolutely necessary to the success of the Gospel, 
and the very existence of the Church depends upon it. If they possess 
this aggressive spirit there will be life and spirituality in the Chnrcli, 
and its effect upon the unconverted will be according to that life. In 
order that this may be the case, it is necessary that all native Christians 
should be familiar with the truths of the Gospel, and have a clear under- 
standing of their relation to God through the atonement of the Lord Jesus. 

They have been brought out, it may be very recently, from a most 
deplorable state of idolatry, sin and ignorance. AVe have had to teach 
and lead them as little children. When brought to a state of grace they 

240 ESSAY. May 17tli. 

wliat it is possible for any one in Christian lands to surmise. So lately 
brouglit to Clirist many of tliem are very weak, and need the constant 
care and teaching of those who are firm and steadfast in their faith. 

In the 3rd chapter of our Lord's Gospel accoi'ding to St. John, we 
have an instance of how weak a Christian may bo when first beginning 
the Christian life, and yet become a living example of the truth and 
power of the religion of the Lord Jesus. The history of Nicodemus should 
teach us a very important lesson while laboring among this people. Let 
us not " despise the day of small things" in the Christian religion as pro- 
fessed by many around us. Let us imitate the example of our Lord, who 
would not "break the bruised reed, or quench the smoking flax." Let 
us do as did the blessed Jesus, take inquirers by the hand, and deal with 
them firmly and yet in a gentle, loving spirit. They must have a begin- 
ning and that beginning may be very feeble. 

Among the number brought into the Church, we see all stages of 
enlightenment, conviction of sin, and trust in Christ. Some hope they 
have been born again — some have no doubt of their acceptance — others 
are shallow, self-righteous and entirely ignorant of themselves. 

Seeing this, we realize afresh the necessity of laying broad and deep 
the foundations in evangelizing a people whose character and tempera- 
ment differ so widely from all other nations. Simply surface work will 
not do in China. The work must be thorough and complete. There 
must be a deep consciousness of guilt. There must be felt an exceeding 
bitterness of sin in all its forms, before there will be any permanent 
change in heart, or in the life and conduct of the person. If we give 
them a Gospel of all love and no law, no justice, we could have additions 
to our chui'ches by the hundreds. But this sort of Gospel will not do for 
a people who have been for centuries under the paralyzing influences of 
idolatry, superstition and vice of every form. It is the word of G od alone 
which can bi'ing light and life to the soul enveloped in spiritual darkness 
and steeped in the foulest crimes. 

As in the first creation the Spirit of God moved over the dark waters 
and reduced chaos to order, so the Spirit of the living God is moving 
over this vast land of dry bones ; carrying with it those blessed influences 
which will bring forth the new creation that can never wax old, but will 
go on widening and extending", becoming brighter and more lovely, prais- 
ing and adoring the precious Lamb of God through all eteimity. 

Standard of Admission to full Churcli Membership. 


Rev. C. a. Stanley, A. B. C. P. M., Tientsin. 

Dig deep, lay well your foundations ; such are the instructions of 
the wise Master-bailder. In laying the foundations of the future Church 
of regenerated China, it is important that we exclude all vestiges of the 
superstitions, idolati-ies and idolatrous customs of the country, and use 
only the great truths of the everlasting Gospel of Jesus Christ ; otherwise 
our present membership cannot consist of " lively stones ;" nor will the 
Church of the future be that solid fortress of impregnable truth which can 
successfully meet and overthrow surrounding error, superstition and sin. 

Mi\v irtli. ESSAY. 247 

Our Saviour atfomptod no orcfanization; lie loft no formula or rulo 
bcarinj? on the ortjani/atiini or qovcrnniont of His Church, but only do- 
clarativo stati'inents involving j^reat principles with illustrations of tho 
same. After his ascension as tho distinct ion between tho law and tho 
GosjHjl, Judaism and Christianity became more apparent, and the sep- 
aration between Jews and Christians became wider, and the disciples 
weiv driven closer together and became more united, an orgiinization 
sprang up almost as a matter of coui-se; at fii'st wholly informal and un- 
jiremeditatcd, but as occasion required assuming more of form and 

Concei'ning this first church of Christ we read Acts 2 : 41,42. 
'' They that gladly received His word were baptized, .... and they con- 
tinued in tlic Apostles' doctrine and fellowship and in breaking of bread, 
and in prayers." 

That which constitutes a Christian chi;rch, with the only essential 
conditions of church communion, are here set before us. 

Previous to this there was only a small company of believers, now it 
was greatly enlarged by the addition of those who gladly' received Christ's 
word. The conditions of this communion are thus stated by a writer iu 
Smith's Bible Dictionary, viz. 

1st. JJaiJfism, which implies repentance toward God and faith in 
Christ, as Peter had said, " Repent and be baptized in the name of 
Jesus Christ for the remission of sins ; " by so doing they were entitled 
to all the privileges of the Christian church. 

2)1(1. Adiiereiice to the Apostolic doctrine, — i.e. the doctrine of repent- 
ance, faith and obedience preached by the Apostles. 

3r(Z. Fclhm-shi'p zvith the Apostles. 

4th. The observance of the Lord's supp>cr. 

Utli. The maintaining of public icorship. 

These last two acts indicate the intimate union and close fellowship 
of those early Christians. 

This same writer further says, " Every requisite for church member- 
ship is here enumerated, not only for the Apostolic days but for future 
ages. The conditions ai'e exclusive as well as inclusive, negative as well 
as positive. St. Luke's definition of the church then would be the con- 
gregation of the baptized in which the faith of the Apostles is main- 
tained, connection with the Apostles is preserved, the sacraments are duly 
administered, and public worship is kept up. To this body St. Luke 
aj)plies the name of 'The Church' (the first time the word is used as 
denoting an existing thing) and to it, constituted as it was, he states that 
there were daily added such as were being saved." 

Throughout the New Testament wo find nothing more laid upon tho 
converts, whether from Judaism or heathenism, than was laid upon those 
first converts. The whole requirement was contained in, repent, believe 
lie baptized. Compliance with this requirement secured the gift of tho 
Holy Ghost, and in the beginning constituted membership in the Christ- 
ian Church, and a right to all its privileges and blessings. Baptism was 
a symbolic ivct and implied all that was contained in the other terms. 
Full compliance and obedience were rendered in receiving the symbol, 
which secured to the recipient, the possession, and enjoyment of all the 
privileges promised by Christ to his disciples, and to such are applied, 
either individually, collectively or both, certain appellations descriptive 
of tliem in some one or more of the following respects, viz., their past 
condition, their present state, or their future prospects, applied because 
by virtue of repentance and faith in Christ, and obedience to His com- 

248 ESSAT. May 17tli. 

Holy Ghost, to the world, to sin, to heaven, and to hell. In these Scrip- 
ture descriptions there is recognized, 1st, A former condition of impurity. 
They were sinners, lost, undone, ruined. 2nd, A subsequent condition of 
righteousness is equally manifest. Hence they are new creatures cleansed, 
sanctified, holy. 3rd, This change is effected by Christ, and so they are 
sinners redeemed by His blood, and thereby introduced to special privi- 
leges, hence, "heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ." 

All these Scripture references have an important bearing on the ques- 
tion in hand, inasmuch as they bring before us the character which the 
church of Christ should possess, and so aid us in deciding what should 
be required of those seeking connection with it. 

They indicate that those who compose this church, should be persons 
who trust in Christ alone for salvation, that sin in every form, and wher- 
ever met with, should be a matter of aversion to them ; that they should 
not be indifferent to its evils, nor cease in their efforts to eradicate it 
from their own hearts, and to expel it from the world ; that they should 
strive to live in accordance with the teachings of God's woi'd, and a con- 
science eidightened thereby. In a word they are sinners, who have 
repented of sin, who are exercising faith in Christ as a personal Saviour 
from sin, and its consequences, and who are striving in reliance on His 
grace and from love to Him, to walk in His precepts, and being baptized 
into the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, are associated for the 
observance of the ordinances of Christ. 

It is scarcely to be expected that we can formulate better rules or 
standards of admission to the church, than those laid down by the 
Apostles. What they have left on record, however, are very brief state- 
ments of great principles, which, doubtless, were often expanded and 
explained in their application to individual cases. As before stated the 
onl}^ requirement is, repent, believe, be baptized, no more, no less. 

It is necessar}- everywhere and especially among a heathen people, that 
the teacher of the Christian religion should expand and apply the princi- 
ples of the Chi'istian system. He must not simply specify the meaning 
of repent as relating to all sin in the abstract, but sin must be defined; 
individual sins must be specified. He must show how repentance refei-s 
to one's entire conduct and manner of life in all its relations; to the 
thoughts of the heart, to the utterance of the lips, and the connection ex- 
isting between the external action and the internal feeling and experience. 
He must show how Bible repentance affects one's intercourse in the 
family and social circle; how in many respects business relations are 
completely changed by it, how in the shop and on the street a new walk 
is to be maintained. 

• It is not enough to forbid image worship; idolatry must be defined. 
It is not sufficient to exclude from the objects of worship all save the 
self-existent Jehovah, but with clear and unmistakable language he 
must specify the objects of worship and forms of idolatry ; showing that 
from the highest object of worship to the lowest, through all the grades 
of gods, demons, genii, heaven, earth, all animate, and inanimate things, 
ancestors, tablets, images, and representations of all kinds, each and all 
must be set aside, without exception, "for all the gods of tlie nations are 
emptiness," all these, as well as all manner of sin must be forsaken; and 
it is necessary that instruction descend to particular minuteness of 
specification, before there can be any assurance that the doctrine of 
repentance is understood, or at all likely to be acted upon. 

If now we tui-n to the positive life of goodness, of obedience to God, 
of love to men, of gentleness, of aneekuess, of temperance, and of forbear. 

yiay 17th. ESSAt. 2 10 

uf love to men, of gentleness, of meekness, of temperance, and of forbear- 
ance, wliieh tlic (iospi'l requires as evidencing the genuineness of the 
heart. change, still more, if possible, must we go into particulars. With 
all this care, even then there will be many falls and failures, l^ut witk 
the plain teachings of Scripture for our guide, with the example of Christ 
and his Apostles before us, can we require less than an honest and persistent 
effort to abandon all sin, idolatry, and idolatrous customs, and to enter upon 
a new life of conformity to the commands and preceptd of God's law ^ 

Among the rations of heathendom, probably none surpass the Chi- 
nese in the number and variety of their superstitions, or in the hold 
which they have upon the populace, and the influence they exert on the 
daily life of the people. They are much as Paul found the Athenians of 
old,' "in all things too religious," while yet devoid of the elements of a 
genuine religious character. Not knowing the Lord Jehovah, they find 
a god everywhere, and in every thing. And just as every fountain, 
stream, hill, valley, cave, tree and glen, has its presiding deity, so every 
event and circumstance of one's life is supposed to be related in some 
way to a god, genius or demon. Belief in these things exerts a control- 
ling influence in every man's life; and yet their motives are of the most 
sordid kind, there is little heart in anything they do. 

This legion of false objects of faith together with the superstitions 
connected with marriage and ancestral worsliip and belief in transmigra- 
tion, and works of merit as the means of salvation, all must be abandoned 
for tnist in God's word as the infallible guide to botli knowledge and 
duty, for an implicit reliance on the merits of Christ for salvation, and 
on the Holy Spirit for guidance, enlightenment and sanctification. But 
beyond these repentance and faith imply a ready conformity to God's will 
and the teachings of our Saviour; for, as the Apostle James well argues, 
only by can faith be exemplified. This will of God is summarized. 
in the Ten Commandments and more briefly still in our Saviour's words, 
"Thou shalt love the Lord, thy God w^ith all thy heart, and with all thy 
soul, and with all thy mind and with all thy strength; and thy neighbour 
as thyself." commands, illustrative explanations of which fill the 
word of God, are binding on all men for all time. In opposition to these 
the Apostle Paul states, that, "The works of the flesh are adultery, forni- 
cation, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, 
emulation, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murdei-s, drunken- 
ness, revellings, and such like." — 

This "and such like," means a legion of things in every heathen and 
nnregenerate heart, that must be forsaken when repentance, faith and 
obedience are rendered to God. 

It cannot be expected that converts will lay hold of these pi'inciplcs 
at once, — nor indeed for a long time after it may be advisable to admit 
them to church fellowship. They rathcir set before us, what the Christ- 
ian church should be in its best earthly estate, that unto which every 
Christian and every body of Christians should strive to attain, through 
Christ helping them. 

The Church of Christ is not an association of perfect individuals. 
It more nearly resembles a hospital in which the sick and weak are to bo 
helped to overcome their sicknesses, and weakne.sses, "until they come 
to the stature of perfect men in Christ Jesus." Converts are just starting 
on this new life, and we can expect from them only its beginnings. Much 
patience must be exercised, with their failures, shortcomings and iguoi'- 
anco, and we may say dullness too, to apprehend the application of the 
principles of the Gospel to the affairs of every day life. 

250 ESSAT. May 17tli. 

I have thus stated in the main the undei-lying principles which 
should govern the decision of this question. Before proceeding to their 
application two modifying circumstances should be mentioned. 1st, In 
addition to the ignorance of the people there is a great urant of moral 
character. Little or no sense of sin, or working of conscience is found, no 
basis ready for us, on which to build, as in Christian lands. 2nd, Disho- 
nesty of purpose, which we find so frequently cropping out in the Chinese 
character. They do not go straight to the mark. When one in a Christ- 
ian land desires to connect himself with the church, the presumption is, 
that the motive is an honest desire to follow Christ. Here a degree of 
uncertainty is always felt, because of the proneness of the people to strive 
to attain one object, by seeming to woi'k for another. Doubtless you all 
know of such cases and I will not enlarge. It is difficult to fix rules that 
shall be applicable in all cases, but generally we may say, 

1st. A degree of knowledge should be required, knowledge concern, 
ing sin, concerning Grod, concerning the atonement through Christ, and 
concerning the work of the Holy Spirit. The amount of knowledge re- 
quired will not always be the same, the circumstances of each case must 
decide this. 

2nd. The abandonment of sin in every form and shape. The teach- 
ing of Scripture is " Depart ye; go ye out from thence," "be ye clean, 
that bear the vessels of the Lord." Lying, deception, covetousness, the 
vice of, and traSic in opium, idolatry and idolatrous customs and busi- 
ness, these are a feiv of the more prominent things that the Chinese 
convert must leave behind him, when he sets his face Zionward. 

3rd. We must require that God be accepted with all the 
heart, i. e. that God be received as the only object of worship and obe- 
dience ; Christ as the only Saviour for sinners and equal with the Father, 
and the Holy Spirit as man's regenerator and one with the Father and 
the Son. And here it will often happen that while the poor unlearned 
peasant may be received almost immediately, the proud pharisee must be 
kept for long weeks and months without, learning instead of believing 
that the Bible is superior to the Classics, — that Christ is infinitely above 

Such an acceptance of God means an unqualified obedience to His 
commands, among which, for the Chinese, there is none more difficult to 
observe than this "Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy." How 
many fail to remember it to their eternal hurt ! and history shows that a 
lax Sabbath, makes a loose Christian and a looser Church. 

But need I say more? Brethren, we are not working for time or 
numbers ; but in our adherents, be they many or few, we do want obe- 
dience, which is better than sacrifice. We do not seek for experiences of 
time and place and wondei'ful manifestations, but souls must know the 
being born from above. We want a converted membership, not baptized 
heathen ; we want a regenerated Church, to be God's peculiar people. 
Were the ten thousand and more Christians in China renewed to the 
very core, were their every thought and desire and impulse under the 
unrestrained direction of the Holy Spirit, and their every word and deed 
in implicit obedience to God, and moved by faith and love to Christ, 
think you, my brethren, China could long withstand the power of their 
prayers? With the smooth even flow of the deep rolling river, they 
would ere long bear this entire empire on the bosom of their prayers into 
the great ocean of God's redeeming grace. 

"Mny irtli. DISCU39IOX. 251 


Rkv. a. E. Modle, C. M. S., Hangchow, said : — 

Sunday observance is of the utmost importance ; and at tlio same 
time it is a question of vorj' great difficulty. I Lave known a man de- 
tained for fifteen years before be could make up liia mind to shut his shop 
and keep Sunday holy. lie did so at last, and was baptized ; but he has 
since relapsed again into a la.K and imperfect observance of the day. 

I understand from ^Ir. Lambuth that he has been accustomed to re- 
quire as prerequisites, before admission to full membership, "some 
monev and no opium." I cannot believe that we have any Scripture 
warrant for requiring the promise of money contributions, in the of 
applicants for baptism. I fear also that cases will be met with, in which, 
from long habit, total abstinence from the opium pipe will imply fatal 
consequences ; and it may become necessary to adopt the practice of the 
Roman Catholic Missionaries who make exception in such cases aloue. 

Ret. B. Helm, A. S. P. M., Hangchow, said : — 

With reference to the Sabbath I can say in 5 minutes but a few 
words, and most of the thoughts are taken from a small tract on the 
Sabbath by Rev. Jas. Tracy. We require the native Christians to keep 
the Sabbath just as we do any other part of the moral law. It has been 
said that " man may liave ditiiculty in distinguishing between moral and 
ceremonial things, but God certainly knows the difference." And He 
wi-ote the law of the Sabbath on tables of stone (indicating its perpetuity) 
in the midst of recognized moral pi'ecepts. 

God has legislated about the sanctity of man's life, honor, property 
and good name; and if there were no legislation respecting his time, one 
of the most valuable of all his possessions, I should be led to doubt whe- 
ther, after all, the law was really from His hand. 

" Tlie Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath." Now God is not the 
God of the dead here, any more than in the case of Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob. 'J'he Sabbath is an existing institution of which He is Lord. The 
Sabbath was made for mn)i, not for the Jew, and is therefore no Jewish 
ceremonial. It was given to the head of the race ; and, as we are men 
descended from him, it is still our's as much as it was the Jew's. 

In the Xew Testament the Sabbath stands as a type of the eternal 
Sabbatizing on high. (Heb. 4th Ch.) Now, no type can be abolished ex- 
cept in its fulfilment. Christ says " I came not to destroy the law but 
to fulHl the law," And to us is still held out the promise of the eternal 
Sabbatizing (Heb. 4: 9.) And the once given type, the Sabbath, is still 
onr type and pledge of that rest, and can never be abolished except by 
being tnltilled in our eternal Sabbatizing in the New Jeru.salera. If it 
was necessary for man's good and God's honor in the unfallen state, it is 
still more so now, when every thought of man's heart is by natui'e, away 
from (lod and toward the beggarly elements of this world. 

It is objected that we lay a hnrden on Christians. To the regener- 
ated soul it is a privilege, and nothing so tends to advance spiritual life 
as a proper observance of it. Only to him whose heart is on the world, 
and who prefers to think his own thoughts, and do his own deeds in- 
stead of Communing with his God, can it be called a burden. When 
considered as one of the blessings left from the unfallen estate of man, 

252 DISCUSSION. May 17tli. 

tlie objection to it as a ceremonial yoke vanishes. It is found beneficial 
to man physically, mentally, morally and spiritually ; and, as such, was 
retained, through the mercy of Him who left, even after the fall all that 
he deemed best for his predestinated heirs. And if under the law this 
beneficent ordinance was permitted man, much more is it vouchsafed him 
under the Gospel which, retains all that belonged to the old economy tbat 
is found pei^manentl}^ useful to him. The Gospel may add blessings, but 
never abolished any enjoyed by man under the law. 

In receiving members we onlyjrequire credible evidence of conversion. 
In this heathen land it is hard to get this because conscience has been 
dormant so long. Conscience, somewhat like mental gifts, seems handed 
down from father to son, being quicker in Christian lands and families 
than among the heathen. Hence we sometimes keep them waiting till 
they learn to read not only to test their sincerity, but to stimulate them 
to learn so as to be able to study the Scripture and gi-ow thereby. 

Now we need to pi'each the law as well as the Gospel to arouse their 
consciences and get a clear evidence of conversion. When in the semin- 
ary studying I was surprised at the length of time catechumens were 
kept by the early Church waiting before admission to full church member- 
ship. I think in the light of experience oh a mission field, we can under- 
stand it. 

Among Jews, trained from their youth in the law and the propliets, 
they could be admitted at once upon repentance and confession of Jesus 
as the promised Messiah. But in heathen lands no such evidence can be 
readily obtained. They must be taught the alphabet of Christianity, and 
kept waiting to see in their lives evidence of intelligent acceptance of the 
plan of salvation resulting in faith in Christ. 

Hence we too, sometimes, keep them waiting under instruction for' 
months or years before admitting them to membership. 

Rev. T. p. Crawford, A. S. B. C, Tungchow, said: — 

I fully agree with the Papers just read, that the root of personal 
holiness or real Christianity is a new heart, a regeneration of the soul by 
the Spirit of God. Nothing else will do. Only those who have this 
should be received into the Church. We judge of an applicant's state by 
his feelings, not by his knowledge or his words. 

The new birth being a conscious change of the soul, the right kind 
of feelings necessarily imply the right kind of knowledge. The converse 
of this, however is far from ^true. 

With me, the final examination of a candidate for baptism is before 
the whole Church. The question for their decision being, 'is the indi- 
vidual a new creature in Christ Jesus, and can you receive him into your 
fellowship as a child of God?' If the vote be unanimous he is received, 
but if there be even one in the negative his case is deferred [ior further 
investigation. The principle works well. It cultivates individual res- 
ponsibility and prevents one member from throwing blame on another. 
We do not ask whether be has debts or law suits, but leave all moral 
matters for future decision. If he cannot live according to the Gospel, 
we exclude him from the Church. We try to maintain strict discipline 
among the members, believing that religion is ordained to work the 
fear of God and the elevation of conscience. This is the great need of 
the Chinese. Education and science utterly fail in this particular. 
Success is small and growth slow here, but eveiy thing else is fallacious. 
We must teach them to fear God and keep his commandments, not only 

:Mny 17th. DISCUSSION. 2^3 

for wrath but for conscience sake. Such tcachin<y 'can never fail of its 
object. Alercliants may break and steamers explode; but moral and reli- 
gious instruction will remain for ever. 

Rtv. Dr. Talmage, A. R. C. M., Amoy, said : — 

The duty of enforcing a strict observance of the Sabbath (just alluded 
to) depends on the question, Is the requirement a law of God ? If it is, 
then insist on its being kept. Let there be no lowering of the require- 
ments of God's law. It was just now said, "keep it in the spirit," "keep 
it interualli/." Yes, certainly. But this can no more free a man from the 
duty of external observance, than praying internally can absolve a man 
from ]>erforming external acts of worship. 

There are some at Amoy who have been called to pass through severe 
trials in order to keep God's law. The grace of God has enabled them 
to endure, and the}' have come through the furnace purified. 

In reference to the period of probation. — We do not have at Amoy 
the definite period of six months probation, spoken of by our i\lethodist 
brethren. Yet wc have something a little like it. We usually keep our 
candidates for baptism several months, sometimes several years. We 
have had instances where we have kept them ten years and more, before 
receiving them. I think we should not receive them until we have 
reasonable (not positive, for this wc cannot have, but 7-casonahJe^ evid- 
ence of a change of heart. This is to be found in the change of their 
external conduct, (of which the native Christians are much better judges 
than we can be,) and in the testimony they give concerning their reli- 
gious experience. This experience will vary according to their mental 
capacities and the opportunities they have had for receiving instruction. 
We may not expect, in those who have been brought up in heathenism, 
that deep sense of sinfulness which is found in the children of the church 
in Christian lands. It has been my observation that this sense of sinful- 
ness increases in the native Christians as they grow in Scripture know- 
ledge, especially as they get clearer views of the meaning of the death of 
Chi-ist on the cross. 

Two of the churches in Amoy, formerly under the care of our mis- 
sion, have for many years had native pastors, and thus been thrown 
entirely on their own responsibility. I think, at first they were not quite 
so strict, (at in a few instances,) as we had been, in the receiving of 
members. But they have learned from their mistakes. I believe they are 
now ver}' careful in this respect and strict in the exercise of discipline. 

Rev. S. B. Partridge, A. B. M. U., Swatow, said : — 

We have heard brethren express their views as to what should be done. 

Now I should like to have them tell us what they d-o, how they do it 
and with what success. In Swatow we require of candidates for admission 
to the church, that they should give good evidence of conversion ; that 
they should possess some definite knowledge of the more important 
doctrines of the Bible ; that they should observe the Sabbath, and that 
they make no use of opium in any form. If an opium-smoker should 
desire to unite with us, we would as.sist him to overcome the habit, but 
should tell him that until he had conquered his enemy we could not admit 
him to the fellowship, of the church. 

254 niscrssiON. May 17tli. 

We also require that all outstanding debts be paid before admission, 
lest the debtor be tempted to use the name of the church to overawe his 

We do not receive candidates on the strength of our own observation 
alone, but require the native preachers to learn all possible particulars 
concernii)g their life and circumstances. 

We i-equire also that there be no case with the officials either in pro- 
gress or impending. 

Rev. R. H. Graves, M.D., A. S. B. C, Canton, said : — 

All are agreed that the standard of admission to full membership in 
a Christian Church should be a high one; the real difficulty lie^ in indivi- 
dual cases. In dealing with these we have great need of a sanctified 
common sense. We must know men. To gain this knowledge we must 
1st, miingle with men ; it is not gained from books in our studies, but in 
daily contact with the people. 2nd, We must pray earnestly for the 
" discernment of spirits," the power to penetrate below the surface and 
weigh the motives of men. Another practical point is to avoid receiving 
as a candidate for baptism a man who has been unsuccessful in applying 
for admission to any other church. 

With regard to Opium I think that for the sake of the church if not 
of the individual it should be entirely abandoned before baptism. 

Rev. R. Lechler, B. M. S., Hongkong, said: — ■ 

In regard to the admission of members of the Church, our practice 
has been to find out whether there is a real desire in them to come out 
from darkness, and become children of God. As far as probation is con- 
cerned our practice differs according to the circumstances of the case. 
We have no fixed period how long they should wait. Their faith is the 
test, and the faith that is in us must be the probe that sounds the 
faith in the enquirer. There must be sympathy between us. If an en- 
quirer is sincere in seeking the kingdom of God, the desire of his inner- 
most heart will report itself to my lieart. This does not however, exclude 
the assistance of the Presbyteiy. They know best the details of an en- 
quirer's daily life, and can form their judgement from personal observa- 
tion. We wish our Christians to keep the Sabbath but hold that the 
Sabbath ought not to be put on tliem as a law, but that they should en- 
joy it as a grace. We must help them to pass the Sabbath profitably. If 
left to themselves they do not know what to do between the services, es- 
pecially those who can not read. Sunday schools singing, lessons, vi.siting 
the sick, or private meetings to talk over the sermon they have heard, 
might be useful helps. 

We have hitherto been able to keep Opium-smoking out of the 
Church. Two cases came under Church discipline last year, and the 
offenders had finally to be dismissed. 

Mav ITth. KSSAT. 

Morning Session. 


"The Best Means of elevating the Moral and 
Spiritual tone of the native chnrch." 


Rev. F. F. Gotjgh, C. M. S., Ningpo. 

The word tV-KAT/CTm, rendered "Church," meant at Athen.s "an as- 
sembly of the citizens .summoned by the Crier ;" in the Septuagint, " the 
conprepation of Lsrael," and it i.s so used even in the New Testament. But 
in the New Testament it is a company composeil of tliose who are noir 
the Israel of God, those who have credibly professed repentance towards 
God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ ; and who are associated 
together for Christ's ordinances and especially for the observance of His 
command to eat that bread and drink that cup, in remembrance of Him. 
But I speak not of the whole aggregate of such ; but of any congregation 
or congregations of such natire Christians of whom we may have the 
charge, whether immediately or indirectly. It is a very wide, as well as 
important subject : — what is the best means of elevating the spiritual 
and moral tone of tho native Chun h ? 

A. Indirectly indeed, but essentially conducive to this, is the raising 
of our own moral and spiritual tone. Noah and Enoch were preachers ; 
and both walked with God. We must be able to say to them. " Be yo 
imitators of me" I. Cor. xi : 1. (this is no doubt a truer rendering than 
the common version "Be ye folloicers of me.") St. Paul in another 
place finishes his beautiful photograph of his own spiritual experience 
and his own spiritual aims, with these words. "Brethren, be imitators 
together of me." (avfiiu/iTjrat) Yes, our own spiritual .and moral tone ivill 
be imitated whether we desire it or not — let us take care that it be for good. 

B. What I have mentioned is indirect influence; we must also seek 
directly to raise the Church's standard, and to do this we must raise that 
of the individual mendiers. A brief extract from an article iu a Church 
Missionary periodical (quoted in the Illustrated Missionary News of 
March) will express what I mean. "The true strength of the Church of 
Christ resides in the depth and purity of the faith of individual members ; 
in 60 far as it is an aggregate of such persons it is strong. It is these 
persons, and only, who can disseminate effectually what will con- 
duce to the salvation of their fellow men. A Church composed of other 
materials is little better than the image which the King of Babylon saw 
in his dream." 

Hence suggestions, seeming merely to apply to the individual, may 
have to do with the aggregate. 

The first direct means to be used, then is : — 

Let the native Christians be well instructed in the word of God. 
Let it be "the sincere milk of the word," that word by which they were 
born again. The new-born babes will long for it; have it, that 
they may grow; their new life will .wither away without it. We must 
preach the word to them, we must have Bible with them, we must 
have them taught, if necessary, how to read it, and encourage and help 
them to read it constantly for themselves, and tho word dwelling in them 
richly, they will teach and admonish one another. 

25(5 ESSAY. May 17tli. 

Let tliem learn well the Gospels, that they may know the certainty of 
those things wherein they have been instructed ; learn the Epistles which 
are "to be read unto all the holy brethren," and the Revelation, the 
readers and hearers of which have a special blessing. Yes, and "all 
scripture, which is given by insj^iration of God and is profitable for 
doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." 
" That the man of God may be perfect; thoroughly furnished unto all 
good works." 

But some native Christians will not like om(-ch of this, I know that 
very well, alas, too well ! Those who do not, are either not new born 
babes at all, or are sickly ones, and for them, thank God, His word is 
medicine as well as milk. 

Thus using the word they will feed on Christ Jesus — They will learn 
to hold the head, from which all the body by joints and bands having 
nourishment ministered, and knit together increaseth with the increase 
of God." (Cot. II. 19). This brings me to another (the 2nd) direct 
means to be used. 

Encourage in the Native Church a high standard of mutual love, 
real self-denying love, overcoming pride and selfishness ; this is the Savi- 
our's new commandment, the best proof of discipleship to the world 
(which cannot appreciate faith and hojie), this will be the best proof to 
themselves also. But they must be like the Thessalonians, to whom 
St. Paul says, " as touching brotherly love, ye need not that I write 
unto you, for ye yourselves are taught of GOD to love another. And 
indeed ye do it towards all the brethren which are in all Macedonia." 
Let there be love towards brethren of neighbouring Churches, as well as 
their own ; those of other denominations as well as their own. If not, 
their love will not be commended by Christ Himself the Head of all 
the Churches. 

3. — They must come together for holy fellowship, especially on the 
fi^rst day of the week, the Christian Sabbath. "ISTot forsaking the assem- 
bling of yourselves together." They must come together into one place 
to eat the Lord's Supper, to fulfil the command "Do this in remem- 
brence of me." And it is well, I think, for the different Churches to 
meet, monthly, quarterly, or yearly. We had a monthly meeting at 
Ningpo for prayer, held at the large Presbyterian place of worship in 
the city, where all the different Churches thus meet. I sometimes think 
that when the Lord Jesus comes to reviA^e us. He will find us there. 

4. — They must be much in prayer, like their Lord. In the midst of all 
His labours of love, in Gethsemane, and even on the cross. He prayed. 
Earnestly and repeatedly too. He pressed this on His disciples. In time 
of opposition and danger, the company of Christians lifted up their voice 
to "God with one accord" (I need not repeat the prayer Acts, iv). 
"And when they had prayed, the place was shaken, where they were as- 
sembled together, and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and they 

epake the word of God with boldness." Thus the speaking God's 

word with boldness was just what they had been together asking the 
Lord to grant to them. 

" I exhort, (wrote the Apostle) i\ia,t, first of all, supplications, pray- 
ers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men." "I will 
that (the) men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath 
and doubting.' " 

My four suggestions as to the Native Churoh are just a fiUing-in 
slightly of the inspired sketch of the Church in Acts, ii. 42, "they con- 
tinued steadfastly in the Apostles' docti'ine, and ?n " (this " in " should 

May I ah. essay. 2ii7 

not be omitted) "fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers" 
(four things, not only throe). 

But 1 will proci'od. 

5. — All spiritual gifts in Church members must be used for the 
edification of other members. 1 fear we are losers in this. Of the spiritual 
gifts described in f Cor. xii.atid elsewhere, .fci?/ic'are removed, but the most 
precious remain, the gift of the ascended Saviour to His church, the 
operation of His Holy Spirit, "dividing to every man severally, as He 
will ; and all for tiie perfeeting of the Saints, for the edifying of the body 
of Christ." Now these gifts must be properly acknowledged and used; if 
not, the Holy Spirit is so far quenched ; the Head of the church is not 
honoured as He ought to be; and that particular churcli is so far deprived 
of means specially given for its edification. 

6. — Those who have the care of native churches must watchfully 
and earnestly help the members against the besetting sins of their former 
heathen state. For instance lijinj. Let us say to them. " Putting away 
lying; speak every man truth with his neighbour ; for we are members 
one of another." 

-4// impurity, and bitterness of language must be put away : or, 
the Holy Spirit of God will be grieved. They will be tempted to make 
compromises to avoid losses for conscience sake. Very much of the 
property at Ningpo has sacrifices to ancestors entailed upon it. Now the 
question will be put "Cannot we make a compromise, have that so done by 
another, as that we may not lose the year's rent, &c., when it happens to 
fall to us ?" If they do so, then Christ will be having concord with 
Belial. Moreover we must be quick to discern dangerous error whether 
doctrinal or practical ; the Epistles to tlte Galatians and Colossians may 
be specially needed, the heresies of former centuries are in danger of 
being repeated here. 

7. — They must be taught to practise a loving watchfulness over one 
another. " Looking diligently (/. e. exercising mutual oversight) lest 
any man fail of the griice of God ; lest any root of bitterness springing 
up, trouble you." 

Bat further, 

8. — DifcipliHc (church discipline), must bo used, according to the' 
word of Gnd, whenever it becomes necessary. This was authoritatively 
commanded by our Lord when on earth (Mt. xviii. 16, 17.) as to thy 
brother who "will not hear," when fully admonished, "let him be to theo' 
as a heathen man and a publican." St. Paul says " Put away from 
yourselves that wicked person." And the Lord Jesus speaking from 
heaven to the church of Thyatira says, "I have a few things against thee 
because thnn suffereab that woman Jezebel which, calleth herself a pro- 
phetess, to teach and to seduce my servants, to commit fornication and 
to eat things offered to idols." 

AVithout discipline the Church will be as a garden without a fence, 
or rather like a man dying from the gangrene of a mortified limb, which 
ought to have been cut off. 

i^— The Church must be as soon as possible, if not from the first, self- 
supporting. They will have weak ones amongst themselves, they 
try to support these ; they should have a native pastor and they must 
"communicate unto him m all good things," that is liberally give of their 
own good things to him ; and they must bear their own church expenses. 
But 1 forbear, for this snbjoct will be better treated by-and-bye. I will 
only say that rising to these duties and responsibilities, their ou-n spiritual 
and moral standard will be elevated. 

268 ESSAY. May 17th. 

10. — They must be acting upon the world outside, the world around 
them. Watering others, they will be watered themselves. If they are 
not a salt to purify the land, they will soon be salt "that has lost its 
savour," to be " trodden under foot." They must reprove sin; or else 
become partakers with the sins they ought to have reproved, and so be 
fought against with the sword of His mouth. But, in doing this, they 
will go from strength to sti'ength ; like the accession of physical strength, 
in a well exercised limb. The rule of Christ's kingdom is, " Unto every 
one which hath shall be given, (and he shall have abundance) and from 
him that hath not, even that he hath shall be taken away from him." 

11. — Finally, there is one fault above all to be attended to: describ- 
ed in the last and saddest of the seven Epistles to the Churches — the 
Laodicean state of soul — the want of earnest love to the Lord Jesus. Good 
old Matthew Henry (or his representative) says, on this Epistle, "an open 
enemy shall have fairer quarter than a perfidious neuter. Christ expects 
that men should declare themselves in earnest, either for Him, or against 

We must warn the native Church against this evil, we must do more 
than warn, we must save them " with fear," for this coldness is very 
catching, and very deadly. 

If ever material prosperity (which may be a means of doing good,) 
or an imposing ritual (too miich imitating Rome, as some, alas, are do- 
ing,) or an elaborate confession of Faith (an excellent thing, in itself) — - 
if any of these should have the effect of making that Church practically 
say — " I have need of nothing," can do without the fulness of the Holy 
Ghost, without realized communion with the loving Jesus, then, instead 
of its spiritual and moral tone being elevated, it will sink so low as to be 
included in those awful words of the great Head and Lord of the 
Churches, " I will spue thee out of my mouth." 


The Best Means of Elevating the Moral and 
Spiritual Tone of the Native Church, 


Rev. H. L. Mackenzie, M.A., E. P. M., Swatow. 

I need not enlarge on the importance of the subject on which I have 
been asked to wi'ite. Nor need I prove to you, who have been at work 
among converts gathered from heathenism, that the moral and spiritual 
tone of the native Church requires to be elevated. If even in lands 
where for centuries the light of the Gospel has been shining and where 
there is a rich inheritance of Christian knowledge and experience, there 
is a manifest lack of spiritual life aiid pure morality in the Chuch, much 
more is this the case in such a country as China and in a Church as yet 
in its infancy, most of whose members grew up from childhood in the pol- 
luted atmosphere of heathenism. We all feel, and probably the longer we 
are at work the more deeply, that the moral and spiritual tone of the 
[Native Church needs to be raised. With a few introductory remarks, I 
would now consider the question, How, ly what means, shall this be done ? 

It is of the first importance that we keep in mind that it is the tone of 

May I7ih. fssat. 259 

tlie Cliitirh that is to be raised. We aim at raising the moral character 
and the spiritual life of tlioso who profess to be believers in the Lord 
Jesns Christ and members of His church. In this let us at once, with 
liopeful, yea with glad, expectant hearts recognise the vantage ground on 
which we stand. For we are here dealing witli those who, if their profes- 
8ion of Cliristianity be a true one, liave a new, a Divine life within them, 
however fable and rudimentary it may be. It may be but as the smoking 
tlax, yet that may by due care be kindled into bright flame: it may be but 
as the feeble germ of life in the springing seed, yet tluit may grow up 
into the goodly and fruitful ti'ce. For there is life, a new life given 
from Above, in the Cliurch. This it is that gives us hope and courage 
for the great work that is to be done. We are not dealing with men as 
they are by nature. We are not trying to galvaiiizc and prop up into a 
seeming goodliness masses of men, the multitudinous masses of this 
ancient land still dead in trespasses and sins ; for then indeed we should 
be found labouring in vain and spending our strength for nought. 
No; we are dealing with those who are alive unto God, quickened together 
with Christ by His almighty power. There is here something from 
which to start', there is a solid foundation for hopeful effort ; for already 
there is, as regards us and our work, foine sympathy, ,so//ic receptivity, some 
response, feeble often and inadequate, but real, in those whom we seek to 
raise. There is a Spirit in them, a living almighty power, that can make 
our efforts efficacious. Their eyes have been opened to look unto tlie Highest, 
and, as they look, all such means as are adapted to raise them to higher 
degrees of moral and spiritual life become really serviceable in doing so. 

The terms of the subject allotted to me distinctly indicate that; we 
are now to consider, not the best means of raising the moral and spiritual 
tone of the Chinese in general, but of the Xative Chitrch. I attach veiy 
special importance to tliis. For though it is most true that in China, as 
elsewhere, a vigorous Xative Chuix-h will by degrees tell for good, both 
directly and indirectly, on the nation as a whole, yea, is the only hope 
of its luoral regeneration and true prosperity, yet meanwhile, it is with 
the Church as such that we have to do. We are considering how we 
shall best raise who are already converts, those who have turned to 
God from idols, who accept the Scriptures as the word of God and the 
only rule of faith and conduct, who are brethren in the Lord, and members 
with us of the one IJody whose Head is in heaven. 

This being so, we may well address ourselves to the work of raising 
their moral and spiritual tone with thankful remembrance of those things 
that are litted to encourage us. And truly we need all the encouragement 
we can get in prosecuting tliis arduous work. Can we forget the im- 
mense, the fearful odds that are against us ? We cannot, if we would, 
shut our eyes to the deeply njoted and prevailing insensibility to " what- 
Koever things are true, whatsoever things are h<»uest, whatsoever things are 
just, what.soever things are pure, whatsoever tilings are lovely, whatsoever 
things are of good report," which too manifestly characterize those whom 
we would lead to the love and practice of such things. Deep indeed is 
the to which centuries, nuiy 1 not rather say, millenniums of idolatry 
have sunk this uidiappy people. "The whole head is sick, and the whole 
heart faint. From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no 
soundness in it." If we would heal China we must know and take into 
acc<nint the nature and extent of that moral disease which has made hei- so 
sick. While then thankfully considering that there is more on our side 
than against us and that in Ibis tight and battle with moral and spiritual 
disease we are on the winning side, it is well to consider also the character 

260 ESSAY. May 17tb. 

and symptoms of the sickness we set ourselves, under Grod, to cure. 
There is something appalling in the spectacle of a vast population gathered 
into one nation, and all under the gross darkness and debasing influences 
of idolatry. The force, the momentum of evil, is vaster and more difficult 
of resistance when it pervades and permeates an immense society. And 
when, moreover, for more than a hundred generations, it has had almost 
unlimited scope for influencing and becoming, as it were, a part and parcel 
of the whole social system, affecting century by century, ever more inju- 
riously, all that it touched, all that came under its influence, who can 
fully estimate the havoc it has wrought ? Who can fully understand the 
difficulty of escaping from it, of contending against and overcoming it ? 
In the midst of tliis evil most of the members of the native Church were 
born and grew up. In its manifold operation it has poisoned the very 
springs of their being, strengthening in every direction the natural enmity 
of the human heart to God and all that is holy, weakening and pervert- 
ing such moral sensibilities and powers as remain to man even in his 
fallen state. I care not to speak of the Chinese as worse than other 
heathen nations, nor do I suppose that they are sinners above all men that 
dwell in the earth. But taking the estimate of the heathen given in the 
I^^'ew Testament, an estimate true of the Chinese and of all other nations 
that know not the living and true God and Jesus Christ whom He hath 
sent, there is surely ample evidence that they have sunk low indeed into 
the depths of sin. And there is in China that which, while in some 
measure it may seem to alleviate and redeem, yet really aggravates their 
evil case. For the Chinese have in their literature, in the opinions and 
teaching of many of their sages, in moral maxims and rules of conduct 
universally accepted, that which, though excellent in itself, yet tends 
through the perverse working of human depravity to make their charac- 
ter all the worse. And this sad, this frightful result comes about through 
that almost universal insincerity and deceitfulness which are too truly 
regarded as the chiefest vice and sin of China. She boasts of a civiliza- 
tion that can be traced back for centui'ies before Christendom arose. 
She points with pride to her vast literature, to the sages whose names 
she fondly imagines to be highest in the annals of time and in the world's 
temple of fame, and from that literature, from the lips of these sages her 
people even to this day delight to quote commendations of virtue and to 
speak of the benevolence, the righteousness, the sincerity and truth Avhich, 
in the Middle Kingdom at least, are and ever have been the acknowledged 
rule of intercourse between man and man. Alas for that land whether it 
be Judea of old or China in these latter days which makes her boast of 
that in which she is most wanting. If it were blind, it should have no 
sin; but now it says it sees; therefore its sin remaineth. This intellectual 
acquaintance with and commendation of what is right and good, this 
glib readiness to admit the beauty of virtuous conduct, is what appals us 
when we are brought face to face with the abounding iniquity of this 
vast nation. This vice of insincerity, this hollow, this false, this uncons- 
cionable parade and commendation of virtue is that which eats out and 
destroys the very foundations on which a virtuous character must be 
reared. It has told injuriously on every class and grade of the people. 
The converts are infected by it, and it makes the raising of the moral 
and spiritual tone of the Native Church a work of more than ordinary- 

By the sovereign, almighty grace of God the members of that 
church have leen rescued from the depths of ignorance and ungodliness 
in which, in common with their countrymen, they once lived. Once help- 

May 17th. essat. 201 

lessly sniik in the horrible pit and miry clay, their feet now stand npon 
the Keck ; once under a coverin<( ot" gross darkness they now are the 
children of light and of the day; once sick nigh unto death, yea dead in 
sin, now they are alive with life from God Himself and the tide of moral 
and spiritual health luis begun to flow thn)Ugh their whole being. But 
all this is only the beginning of the mighty change which they are to 
tindergo. Though separated from, they are still surrounded by the vast 
mass of evil of every kind and form which was but lately their own 
native element. That they have escapjd from it at all is a wonder : it is 
no wonder if its hurtful, debasing, and weakening effects cleave to them 
and render complete recovery and cleansing slow and difficult. They 
live in the clear light of Divine truth, but what purging their dim 
bleared eyes, so long dark, need I They are in the way of life, but what 
wonder if their walk is feeble and halting in paths so new and so steep 
and straight. The disease which still preys on their countrymen, unmit- 
igated in its virulence, has left them weak and wounded, with moral 
sensibilities well nigh dead and capacities for the reception and develop- 
ment of spiritual life almost wholly lost. We have then a ditficult task 
before us : it is more than time that I should consider how we shall best 
fulfil it. 

And, seeing that the end to be attained is moral and spiritual, we 
must see to it that the means we use are raoi-al and spiritual too. No 
mere intellectual culture, no mere extension of knowledge can secui-e the 
end proposed. The history of some of the most gifted indi\idnals of our 
race, as well as the history of nations, furnishes sad and abundant proof 
that wide and varied attainments in knowledge are not only tio guarantee 
for moi-al excellence, but even furnish no safeguai-d against gross corrup- 
tion of morals and impiety of life. We know that this is so in respect of 
merely secular knowledge and intellectual acquaintance with moral truth 
in those who do not pix)fess to be Christian. But the history of the 
church itself presents us with too many examples of periods of no little 
knowledge of doctrine and general intelligence on religious topics, while 
the moral and spiritual tone of professing Christians was far from high. 
One of the complaints oftenest heard regarding the Church in what may 
be called Christian lands is, that while the means of grace abound and 
there Ls much knowledge and even much activity of a religious sort ; 
there is no corresjX)nding elevation of the moral and spiritual tone in the 
mass of those who profess to be members of the Church. A few here and 
there give fortli the sweet light of a saintly life, but these are few com- 
pared with the great numbers of professing Christians. And let us 
specially note that in some of these cases, while the moral and .spiritual 
tone is high, there is comparatively little general intelligence and 
culture. Poor, unlettered, ignorant children of God often shine forth 
conspicuous among their fellow Christians as men of pure morality and 
high spiritual attainment. From which we learn that, while intelligence 
and culture are in themselves valuable and to be desired, it is not the 
case that they are necessary to, much less that they insure, the possession 
of superior moral character and spirituality of mind. 

1 would comprehend under three divisions what seem to me to be the 
best, the chief means of elevating the moral and spiritual tone of the Na- 
tive Church: — First, Painstaking and stated instruction in the word of 
God; ticcuiul, !Much earnest and affectionate pi'ayer on behalf of the con- 
verts; and Tliird, A high raoi-al and spiritual tone in ourselves in all our 
intercourse with and labours on behalf of the Chinese. 

I- — .^8 to the instruction of the native Church in those Scriptures 

262 ESSAt. May l7tli. 

wliicli are "profitable for doctrine, for I'eproof, for correction, for insti-uc- 
tion in righteousness" tliat it "may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto 
all good works." This is a very wide question, but I shall only attempt 
to consider it in regard to what bears specially on the subject in hand. 
In a Conference of Protestant Missionaries there can be no debate as to 
the duty and importance of doing all that can be done to instruct the 
converts in the Word of God. If we would produce moral and spiritual 
results it ynnst he by means of that word brought home in power and in 
the Holy Ghost to the hearts and con.sciences of men. By taking heed 
thereto and not otherwise, can the ways of men be cleansed. Use what 
means we may, so long as this means is neglected, we shall fail in raising 
the Native Church to a morality that is truly Christian and to that spirit- 
uality of niind which is life and peace. We aim at a morality of which 
the world knows nothing save by hearsay. It is something more, some- 
thing better, som.ething higher than the natural man can possibly attain 
to ; for it springs from a mind renewed and a heart at peace with God. 
In its outward manifestation it may be much the same as the morality of 
men who know not God and lay no claim to being Christians. With 
their morality we, as Christians, cannot be content, nor can we be con- 
tent that the Chinese whom God has committed to our care should think 
it enough. Therefore let us affectionately ply them with motives, with 
arguments, with examples from the quick and powerful word of God 
teaciiing them that in that full and complete armoury, and thei*e only, 
can they find all weapons, both of offence and defence, needful for them 
in their fight and straggle against all that is evil and towards all that is 
good. To get the converts, and especially tlie native pastoi's and preach- 
ers, to feel this ; to get them to see that in the word of God, they have a 
rule of conduct for heart, speech, and behaviour in all the relations of 
life better, higher, and more comprehensive than all that their sages have 
ever taught, a rule of spotless purity and perfection and of Divine au- 
thority — to get them, I say, to see and feel this will be a,n important step 
towards the end we have in view. In that word they will find Jesus 
Christ, the all sufficient Savioui', evidently set forth for their acceptance; 
in that word the promise of the Spirit of all grace is freely made to all 
believing, seeking souls; these, love to God and love to man are taught as 
the sum of all duty and the fulfilment of all Law; and life and immor- 
talitv are brouo-fit to lio'ht. Let our chief reliance then be on the dili- 
gent and prayerful use of this Divinely adapted instrument. Let us, m 
humble dependence upon God, wield this mighty lever, and all odds 
against us notwithstanding, we shall succeed in raising the moral and 
spiritual tone of the Church. It is by means of "the word of truth" that 
men are born again and become members of the Chui'ch of God; and it is 
by means of that same word of truth that they can grow up into the like- 
ness of their Father in heaven. As soon expect the little infant to grow 
up into the strong man without the food suited to its various stages of 
growth, as expect newly baptized converts to grow in spiritual life and 
in holiness without the ministry of the word. Therefore let our great 
aim be to be unto them ministers of that word, using every available 
means for making it tell upon the Church, for bringing it to bear on the 
converts in regard to their individual, their family, their social life. 
Let our aim be to get them so instructed in that word as that it shall 
become a lamp unto their feet and a light unto their path, the "man of 
their counsel " and their stay and strength in their conflict with 
sin. In thus instructing tliem, in thus commending to them the M^ord 
of God as the one, the only perfect rule of life and means of moral 

May ITth. essay. 2G3 

discipline and spiiitnal growtli, K-t us not forget tliat it is %vitli Chi- 
nese we are dealine;. Let us keep in view their national idiosvn- 
ei-asics, their mental habitudes, the forec of their long-derived cus- 
toms and prncti es, and the by-no-nieans meagre inheritance of moral 
teaching which they possess. We ought to study what I may call the 
})hih'Si>p/ii/ of life innn a, Chinese point of view and try to estimate the 
value and force of its various elements, ascertaining its root-principles 
and marking their development in the national life as a whole. What is 
good and true in all these, in other words what will stand the test of 
God's word fairly applied, let us I'cadily acknowledge. Wisely used, we 
shall tiiid it very hclpfnl in leading the Chinese to a deeper and clearer 
knowledge of the Bible, and, what is of more irnportance in .some re.^pects, 
to a better understanding of how the Bible is to bear on their e very-day 
life, to guide, and purify, and ennoble it. It is hci'o that the unlitness of 
the Classical Books of China for the purposes of moral discipline appear. 
The long-tried, the amply-tested experiment has surely proved that even 
the best and purest of their books, the most honoured and most studied, 
are \;ntit to jn-oduce and conserve even a very moderate degree of moral 
excellence, whether in those who study them or in the masses of the people 
who are influenced by their lessons at second-hand. Tell us not that merely 
moral teaching, tell us not that the well-put maxims, the beauti- 
fully expressed sentiments of the sages in regard to truth, and right- 
eousness, and benevolence and the various duties of men in their several 
relations one to another, have power to purify and elevate the char- 
acter. Look at China after moi'e than 2000 years' experience of tho 
force and efficacy that such teachings have to raise the character 
of a people. Have not such centuries of trial proved the vaunted 
wisdom and philosophy of man to be unfit to do this ? They have 
been weighed in the balances and found wanting. Let them, then, 
come in humbly following the word of God, the Gospel of man's salvation, 
to 1x3 tested and purified by it, and so adapted for their proper place as 
secondary and subsidiary handmaids to the Truth in her work of blessing 
men, by saving them from their sins and raising thorn to a new, a super- 
natural, a holy life. There is not a little that wo have to correct and 
supplement in the teaching of the Chinese sages if we would use it for 
the end we are now considering. And, even what is true and unexcept- 
ionable, and indeed very choi e and admirable in itself, has yet no virtue 
in it, no force and living energy to transform the charactei', to uproot 
the bad and instil and cherish the good. Of the deep-seated malady of 
sin, of the moral disease which preys upon man, and which is the origin 
and root of all the evil which they saw, Confucius and the les.ser sages of 
China had little or no conception ; nay, they for the most part ignored 
or denied it. Xo wonder that their cure for the evil is insufficient, and 
that their teachings have so lamentably failed to heal their sin-sick land. 
In vain do the Chinese extol their morality ; it is a morality of the dead, 
of the past, and it has no renewing, no purifying cfFicacy on the hearts and 
lives of those whose boast it is. It is in their books as a still, I had said, a stagnant pool of water. It flows not through their hearts 
and lives to purify them and enrich them with the fair fruits of righteous- 
ness. Now we bring to them the word of God which liveth and abidetli 
for ever, that "pure river of water of life," whose streams "make glad the 
city of God." And wherever the waters of that river flow there shall bo 
life, and on its banks spring up goodly trees, green and fruitbearing. 
For we not only have that Wcjrd " in the letter, but, by tlie grace of 
God, in the Spirit also. Herein is the essential difference between, and the 

264 KSSAY. May I7ih. 

infinite superioi'ity of Christianity to all otlier systems of religion and 
morality. We make known to the Chinese the Living Ohrid, present in 
and by His word to all who accept it as the Gospel of their salvation. 
He is present with all who receive Him, as their Redeemer to forgive, as 
their Lord and Master to teach and rnle them. He gives them His Spirit 
to dwell in them, to enlighten, and renew them, so that old things pass 
away all things become new. When, by God's blessing. His word is 
understood by the Chinese converts, when its fulness of grace and truth 
are in some measui'e apprehended by them, and when through it, by the 
gracious operation of the Holy Spirit, they are brought into living fellow- 
ship with God the Father and His Son Jesus Christ, then, hut not before, will 
there be an elevation of their moral and spiritual tone. For their sin will 
become hateful, there will spring up a growing hunger and thirst after 
righteousness, and prayer to their Father in heaven will be as the very 
breath of life to them. That word of God will be as a hammer to break 
their hard and stony hearts, as a fire to burn up their all too pi'evalent 
earthly-mindedness, as a stream of living water to cleanse away their 
pride and deceitfulness, and lust of gain. They must be brought low 
before they can be elevated ; and what can so effectually hiimble men as a 
deep in-wrought sense of their own vileness and helplessness on the one 
hand, and of the unspeakable grace and mercy of God in Christ on the 
other, whence can this come save through the word of God shining into the 
soul ? Therefore, I say again, let us do our utmost to instruct the Native 
Church in that word, assured that this is an indispensable means to her 
moral and spiritual growth. Let us teach the Chinese Christians to sit 
at the feet of Christ, not Confucius, and learn of Him. So shall much 
that now hinders their growth be broken down and dispelled, much that 
is erroneous in opinion and wrong in practice. So shall insincerity and 
pride, and a vain conceit of moral ability, give place to truth and lowli- 
ness of mind. So shall indifference towards things unseen and eternal, 
and that Sadducean scepticism which falls as a blight on the souls of 
men, give place to an assured belief in and blessed hope of that life and 
immortality brought to light in the Gospel. So shall that heartless for- 
malism and slavish yet hollow regard for traditional observances, which 
have done so much to cut up by the very roots all moral earnestness and 
spiritual longings in tliis people, give place to that devout regard for the 
will of God and that worship of Him in spirit and in truth which, iu 
their reflex influence, are so mighty a means of parifying and elevating 
the character. 

Thus teaching thein, thus by patient, careful instruction provid- 
ing that the word of Christ shall dwell in them richly, we shall lead 
them on to higher and higher attainment in moral excellence and spiri- 
tuality of life. As to what means we shall use to secure this instruction 
of the Native Church in the word of God, it is not needful that I should 
enlarge. Nor need 1 refer specially to the various ways in which the re- 
sults of this instruction shall manifest themselves in such matters as the 
self-support, self- propagation, and self-government of the Church. I am 
more concerned to show that it is bij means of the Word of God, explained 
and applied in the jJoioer of The S-pirit, that wo must educate the members 
of the Church in regard to this matter. It is only in so far as that 
word, by the Divine blessing, produces its appropriate effects on their 
hearts and lives that we are entitled to expect satisfactory results in re- 
gard to self-support, &c, — results which in their turn shall tend greatly 
to strengthen and develope the spiritual life and Chi-istian activities of 
the Church. It is only from hearts subdued and purified by that word, 

yiny irili. ESSAY. 205 

it is only from miiuls ami conscicnros cnliglitcncJ and made tciulor by 
that word, that we can look for sufh results. Papers have already been 
read ami others are yet to follow on subjects bearing more or less direcdy 
on what I am now considering. It will therefore be enough to mention, 
and very l)rieHy, some of the means whereby we shall most effectually 
bring the word of (iod to bear on the Native Church in order to elevate 
its moral and sjiiritual (one. Chief among these are the stated Preach- 
ing of the Word in all its fulness from Sabbath to Sabbath, with admi- 
nistration of the sacranumts and due exercise of Church Discipline: Cate- 
chetical instruction of old and young: the eslablishmcnfc of botli Day and 
Boarding Schools, especially insisting on the duty of every CJiristian 
congregation having its own Christian school: the establishment of well- 
equipped 'J'raining Institutions for Native Pastors and Preachers, and a 
diligent use of the Press for disseminating moral and religious truth 
throughout the Church, in a form and style that shall make it intelligi- 
ble to the great bulk of her membt>rs. If, depending upon God who 
alone giveth the increase, we faithfully use these and such like means to 
edify the Church by His word and so to raise it to a higher and purer 
life, we shall not labour in vain. 

II. — ^[nch earnest and affectionate prayer on behalf of the converts. 

Need I prove this to be, need I commend this as, one of the best 
means of elevating the Native Church? Is it not that we might give 
ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word for the salvation of 
this people that we left our native lands? In whatever way, under 
whatever form we may be to the native Church the ministers of that 
word, whether, by direct preaching, or by Christian instruction in schools, 
or by Church discipline, or by the press, let us never forget that no way 
or form of our ministry can succeed apart from the gracious work of the 
Holy Spirit, and that we have no right or rea.son to expect that blessing 
unless we pray for it. O that I felt, that we all felt more deeply, more 
constantly, the word of earnest prater in connection with every branch 
and department of our laboui's for the good of the Native Church. Can 
we doubt that our Lord and Master, when once and again He spent 
whole nights in prayer out on the lone hill-side, prayed much for His 
people ? And do we not all remember how the beloved Apostle of us 
gentiles again and again and yet again tells the Churches liow he pi'ayed 
for them, how he ceased not to pray for them, how always in every prayer 
of his for them all he made request with joy, and witJi thanksgiving ? 
And can we forget the fulness, the comprehensiveness, the lofty spiritual 
tone which characterize these prayers ? They are brief, but who can ex- 
haust the full meaning of even the shortest of them ; who, save by grow- 
ing experience, can understand what treasures of grace and spiritual 
blessing they make request for? I have often thought that it would b3 
McU for all missionaries who have the care of Native Churches devolving 
on them, and whose hearts yearn for their spiritual growth and pros- 
perity, to copy out the prayers of St. Paul on behalf of the Chui'ches 
he cared for and make that their Liturgy, their guide and help, 
in praying for the Churches. And it will be well to remember Epaphras 
too, wliom St. Paul so highly commended, writing thus of him, "Epaphras, 
a servant of Christ, saluteth you, always labouring fervently for you in 
prayers, that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God."' 
Tluit is the way to raise the moral and spiritual tone of the Native 
Chnrcli — pray for tlicm sis St. Paul prayed, a.s Epaphras prayed, labour- 
ing fervently for them in prayers and continuing thus to do with all 
importunity. .As T suld nf the first means 1 noticed, painstaking instruc- 

260 KSSAY. May 17tli. 

tion in the word of God, so I would now say of prayer. Use wliat means 
we may, so long as this means is neglected, or nsed in a half-hearted, 
perfunctory, or remiss way, we need not expect to be instrumental in 
raising the moral and spiritual tone of the converts. IMany of them ai'e, 
in a sense, the children whom God hath given to us, they are God's child- 
ren committed to our care. Shall we not then with a fatherly pity yearn 
over them, looking on them with a loving, tender, Christ-like spirit, and 
cherishing them even as a nurse cherisheth her children ? If we do thus 
regard them, it cannot, it cannot be but that we shall pray much and 
pray affectionately for them. brethren, I would fain have my own 
heart, I would fain have the hearts of us all ever full, full to overflowing 
with this Divine love to the Chinese Christians — so shall we preach to 
them and instruct them and pray for them to some good purpose, and 
our hearts would rejoice in seeing a steady growth and progress in 
spiritual life. Let our prayers for them be special, at times minutely so. 
Let us pray for them man by man so long as this is possible ; and may 
God speed the day when we foreigners shall have, through iiicrease of 
members and the wide extension of the Native Church, to devolve this 
blessed duty and privilege on the Native Pastors. Let us also train and 
encourage our Native Assistants and Preachers to cultivate, through God's 
help, this habit of prayer on behalf of the members of the Church. Thus 
by the mighty power of prayer shall we, under God, elevate the moral and 
spiritual tone of the Native Church. 

III. — A high moral and spiritual tone in ourselves in all our inter- 
course with and labours on behalf of the Chinese. 

When I received the letter asking me to write on this subject my 
first thought was, God help us ! to raise others, we must ourselves 
have a high moral and spiritual tone. I need not stay to prove this ; 
we all admit it. It is the teaching of Scripture, of reason, and of 
experience. A great, a solemn responsibility rests on us, for we are 
entrusted with a work that may well make us tremble as we think 
of the issues involved. We are, under God, giving a tone and chai'acter, 
a direction and tendency, to the Church of Christ in this most populous 
of ^all lands, which may affect for good or evil, for weal or woe, the 
character and destinies of multitudes yet unborn. How shall we best 
promote its growth in grace and in holiness of life ? Certainly one 
of the best means, and second in importance to none, is the good 
example of a holy life, the manifestation in our daily, hourly conduct of 
a God-fearing, Christ-like spirit. This is a means of influencing the 
Native Church which the Chinese themselves will fully recognize. Their 
gi'eat teachers "insist on personal excellence in all who have authority in 
the family, the state, and the empire." Nay they go further still and 
" require that such excellence be rooted in the state of the heart and be 
the natural outgrowth of inteimal sincerity." For such teaching on their 
part let us thank God, and let us not be slow to take advantage of it in 
seeking to influence them. But their teachers, even the greatest of them, 
were manifestly lacking in some of the prime essentials of moral excel- 
lence, in truthfulness, in humilit}', in meekness, and in a forgiving, tender 
and unselfish spirit. Their ideal was a high one, but not so high as ours, 
not perfect with a Divine perfection as ours is. To that high ideal not 
one in all their history ever attained, not one of their sages, not one of 
their rulers. The new life, that which the regenerating Spirit of God 
produces, was wanting. Nor were they blessed as we are, — for our ears 
have heard, our eyes have seen the salvation of God, and we look in 
jvdoring faith and love to the Living Son of God, our Kedeemer, our 

May 17th. PTScussiON. 267 

TeacluM". our One povfoct, lovely, fjlorions Exaniplo. O, then, let us tako 
full advantaufe of our position and privilege; let us continue looking unto 
Jesus that we may he transformed into Ifis likeness, and so, hy the 
niiglify force of a godly example, raise the (Miineso to higher ideas of 
nioi;d exct'Uence and s])i ritual life. When all else may seem to fail, this 
will toll. Many nf the mend)ers of the Native Church may be slow to 
take in our teaching, and through dullness of perception and lack of 
spiritual insight, lose much of what wc would fain impart to them in our 
Rtatetl meetings for instruction in the word of (iod. But wc may depend 
on it that if we ourselves walk with God, if the life of Jesus is made 
manifest in our daily life, if we each one of us can with good conscience 
say to them, " Be ye followei's of me even as I am also of Christ," then 
we are using a mighty, a most effectual means for raising their moral 
and spiritual tone. St, Paul could say, " Those things which ye havo 
both learned and ixjceived, and heard and seen in me, do :" let us strive 
so to live, so to teach, so to speak day by day in our intercourse with this 
peo{)le that we too may with good conscience be able to say this to them. 
Alas I who of us all has attained to this ? Are we not all ready to humble 
ourselves in Gods sight that we have come so far short of the glorious 
example that is set before us, and that therefore we have ourselves so 
imperfectly exemplitied Christianity to this people? 

"We all know tluit the Chinese arc not slow to notice and remark on 
our failings or inconsistencies. They are a sagacious, keen-sighted peo- 
ple, and generally "take our measure" pretty correctly. They will speak 
too of the example we set ihem, and of our failing — if we do fail^to ex- 
emplify that which we teach and ixjquire of tliem. Let us then see to it 
thai they shall not see us, in our temper, speech, and whole manner and 
course of life anything that would hinder them. Let us strive so to live 
among them as that they shall be constrained to acknowledge that we what we preach. 

Such then, to recapitulate, are the chief means whereby we must the moral and spiritual tone of the Native Church, Puinstaking ins- 
t ruction, in tlie Word, of God, I'raijer, and Godlij Example. It will be well 
for us to remember that these are only means to an end, and that of and by 
them.selves the\' cannot secure the end in view, viz., the glory of God in 
the edification and moral and spiritual well-being of His people. We 
must ab.solutely depend on Him both for grace to use them and for His 
blessing to make them eifectual. If, howevei', we approve ourselves to 
Him as "good and faithful" servants in the use of them and humbly de- 
pend on His sovericgn, His promised grace to give them efficacy, we may 
confidently look for fruit to the praise of His Name. And, whether now, 
amid the toils of our spiritual hu.sbandry, or in the coming rest of that 
bettor world where both he that soweth and he that reapeth rejoice to- 
gctlai-. wc shall lind that our labour was not in vain in Tlie Lord. 



Rev. C. K. Mills, Tu.ngchow, said : — 

How shall we best elevate the moral and spiritual tone of the native 
church members r I answer. 

1. Bii iticinrj them ninch and full, vot purtial or one sided Scriptural 
fevchiihi. ^Nlr. Burns is said to have told the brethren at one of the 
btatious in the .south "Your preac-hing is too evangelind." Tlie remark 

268 DISCUSSION. May 17th. 

should be pondered well. All Scripture is profitable for doctrine. Let 
the ten commandments be read frequently in the Sabbath services, also 
parts of the Old Testament as well as the New. Thus for example read 
the Book of Deuteronomy. 

2. By much dlscqdine. Observe the Etymology, and remember the 
command of the Saviour, Disciple all nations. The standard of discipline 
is not of course absolutely uniform in all the mission. All the members 
of the Presbytery of Shantung hold that labor on the Lord's day is sin, 
and exercise discipline accordingly. We also discipline for the use of 
opium and in short for the habitual indulgence in any known sin. 

3. By securing from them Much giving. Our people are poor, all 
poor. AVe have in our Presbytery four hundred and seventy-four membei-s. 
they o-ave last year (a famine year remember) four hundred and seventy- 
four thousand cash. To them a thousand cash a year is much giving. By 
an article in the last Recorder I see the native Christians in the province 
of Che-kiang gave last year much less per member. The only exception 
is the Inland Mission. The Px'esbyterian mission members as previously 
reported give much the same. Some Missions report less than five 
hundred cash per member. 

4. By stimulating them to much 'prcujiruj. Regular attendance at 
prayer meetings is very important. Another very important matter is 
family praj'cr, a duty I fear sadly neglected by a majority of our Christ- 
ians, I should like to know how many of our (say) twelve thousand 
Protestant Christians in China pray in the family. 

5. By securing from them much worh for Christ. This is not the 
time to discuss that subject in detail. When the proper time comes I may 
say something as to methods by which aggressive Christian work may be 
promoted. Wliat I insist on at present, is the general principle, that eve7-y 
Christian should be brought to engage in some form of aggressive work 
for Chi-ist. 

Finally Strive to develope in our Christians a m-arhej individuality 
The prevalent patriarchal social system of the Chinese, is all against this. 
The Spirit of Christianity as also of sound morality is opposed to this 
venerable system. Without a strong sense of individuality, we shall 
never raise the moral or spiritual tone of our Native Christians very high. 
There will be neither much praying, or giving, or working, without it. 
Every man must be master of his own conscience, his own time, and his 
own property, whatever his father or grandfather may think on the subject. 

Rey. S. L. Baldwin, A. M. E. M., Foochow, said : — 

That in all matters of church discipline we must carry with us the 
convictions of the native church. Take for example the Opium Question; 
in Foochow they had no difficulty at all in the matter, simply because the 
1200 members of the church were all of one mind that no opium-smoker 
should be admitted. In Ku Cheng 14 out of the first 17 Christians there 
had been opium smokers, but eveiy one had abandoned the habit, and 
now they would not think of receiving any one who did not. The regu- 
lations with regard to foot-binding, which some had thoug-ht severe, were 
made by the native church, not by foreigers ; and so in all similar matters 
we should be careful not to force our own views on the Chinese, but state 
clearly and calmly the reasons for them, and the native church would, if 
such views were Scriptural, come round to them. With regard to Sabbath 
observance he would add that in Foochow the rule of the church is to 
strictly require it. 

;May 17tli. Discussiox. 2GU 

Rkv. G. John, ]j. ^l. S., Hankow, said: — 

Tliu iiiipoilance of this sulgott caiiiiot be overestimated. To raise 
the tone of the Native Church it is absolutely necessary that our native 
brethren should be brought to believe in the Holy Ci host — in His personal 
jiresence and conscious indwelling. We must teach them to hold close 
and constant communion with God. They are apt to look to the mis- 
sionary ft)r everything- — to lean upon him as childicn. The}' depend npou 
him for instructitjn, guidance, and inspiration in everytliing. Whilst 
this is the case they will never to a high plane in the Christian life. 
Ere they can become strong men in Christ, they must be brought to be- 
lieve in, and cast themselves upon the living, ever pre.sent God. I shall 
never forget what I witnessed about two years since when the Spirit was 
"poured out from ou high" on some of the Native Christians at 
Hankow. Feeling intensely my own lack of spiritual power, I spent the 
whole of a Saturday in earnest prayer for a baptism of the Holy Ghost. 
While thus praying the question suggested itself to me. "Why not pray 
for the same blessing in behalf of the Native Church ?" I then felt for 
the lirst time that 1 could ask in faith that the converts might receive a 
baptism of the Holy Ghost, and be filled with all the fulness of God. 
Ou the following morning I preached on the subject. The inspiration of 
that service I shall never forget. At the close of the service J propo.sed 
that we should meet for an hour on every day of the ensuing week to 
pray for a baptism of the Holy Ghost, and to my great joy I found that 
the converts were just as anxious for it as I was myself. From 50 to 
70 of them met day by day, and, confessing their sins with tears pleaded 
for the outpouring of the Spirit of God upon themselves, the Christian 
Chxirch in Chiiui generally, and upon the nation at large. The Native 
Church at Hankow i-eceived an im[)ulse then, the force of which continues 
to this day. The Holy Ghost became a mighty reality to many. Even the 
religious vocabular}' of the Church underwent a change, becoming at 
once less full of the human element and more replete with the Divine. 
!Mauy of the brethren became much more bold to speak the word without 
fear. Where once other things were preached, Christ and His pow- 
er to save is now the theme. Some months after these Meetings were held 
one of the converts addressed me thus: — Teacher, when I was an idolater I 
was an oiit-ajid-out idolater. I fully believed in the idols; aud worshipped 
them with all my heart. When I became a Christian my belief in God 
was as thorough as my former belief in the idols had been, and I gave 
idolatry up entirely. ]3ut (Jlirist was never very real to me till that week 
of prayer, and 1 was consequently a very timid Christian, and dared not 
to confess Him before my friends. I learnt then, however, to believe as 
thoroughly in Jesus, and He has made me very courageous. I now 
love to speak of Him to all whom I meet and I fear no one." " He shall 
not speak of Himself ;" "He shall glorify me." The Christians for the 
most part are carnal, ami consequently weak and sickly. How are they 
to become spiritual? This is the vital question, ^luch must depend 
upon ourselves. H we as Missionaries would help them in this respect, 
we ourselves must seek the baptism of fire and be filled with the Spirit. 
We cannot reasonably expect them to rise above ourselves. Some of us 
seem to wonder that the C!hinese Christians are so slow to rise to a high 
standard c>f Christian excellence, though perhaps conscious of a terrible 
void in our own sjiiritual life. Let iis be what we wialt, them to be, aud 
they will spontaneously catch the inspiration; for there is something 
contagious about the life of God as fully realized and powerfully express- 
ed in the life of man. lu our teaching and prcivching we must con- 

270 Disctssio^f. May 17th. 

stall tJy lay before tlie N'ative Christians the highest ideal of a Christian man 
and Christian Cluireh, and nrge them in every possible way to realize it. 
It is of the utmost inportance that those -whom we employ as native assis- 
tants shoiTld fairly represent this ideal. It is the ruin of spiritual work 
to employ unspiritual men to carry it on. The converts themselves take 
the key note of their religions life from the men whom we employ more 
than from ourselves; and outsidei's judge of Christianity more from the 
lives of our native pastors and preachers than from their words. The 
whole work rises or sinks with them. How needful then it is that they be 
men full of the Holy Clhost and of faith! One point more. The mer- 
cenary element should be strictly and conscientiously kept out of 
the Church. No good can accrue from employing men void of know- 
ledge, zeal, earnestness, and adaptation. We had better work with- 
out native assistants than employ men simply because they are the 
best to be found. We should never employ a inan because he has nothing 
else to do. We should never employ a man that is not really needed. 
We should never employ doubtful men in order to carry out certain schemes 
of our own, such, for example, as establishing new stations. If God has 
not given the men, we may rest assured that He does not want ns to at- 
tempt the worh. High salaries should not be given; because they lead to 
worldliuess on the part of those who ar-e employed. They awaken wrong 
motives in their minds, and neutralize their influence among both the 
Christians and the heathen. A native assistant should never be retained 
when once he has proved himself to be unworthy of his post. Moreover, 
money and rice should never be given to induce people to attend divine 
services, Bible Classes, &c. I believe that money has been a tremendous 
curse to the Missionary work in China ; and I believe, also, that the 
moral and spiritual tone of our Churches will never rise whilst the mer- 
cenary element has any place among the forces employed by ns. It is 
not money that we want, but God. More of His inspiring and indvrell- 
ing Spirit. We would do well to keep the staff of paid agents as low as 
possible, and encourage the private members to do Christian work. Make 
them preachers ; but don't p>'-'-y them for their sermons, and don't engage 
them as paid agents as soon as they evince evangelistic gifts and graces. 
At Hankow we have a number of voluntary workei's, who are doing 
an earnest and successful work though not in the receipt of a cash of 

Rev. C. Goodrich, A. B. C. F. M., T'uxgchow, said : — 

With Mr. Gough I would say, Ist, Example. By a holy and blameless 
life shall we draw our Church members most powerfully toward a higher 
life. When a rainbow is bright enough, then a secondary rainbow is 
born out of the heavens. And when the first becomes still brighter, 
lu,m!nout<lij bright — the secondary rainbow appears almost as bright as the 
primaiy. It is thus, first of all, that we are to make the lives of our 
Native Christians more radiant with the beauty of holiness, by lichnj 
radiant and beautiful lives before them. Do we desire them to keep the 
Sabbath ? Let ns keep the Sabbath, not after a constrained and conven- 
tional method, but just as if a bit of heaven had dropped out of it, 
making the day a great joy and blessing to ourselves. In I'espect to the 
Sabbath, let lis be more careful of our example. 

I mention, 2nd, Ckristlan Fellowship. We need to mingle with our 
Chinese brethren so much, and on such terms of loving sympathy, as to 

May ITth. iHSCCSSio.v. 271 

make them foel and know that wc have a fj^enuino and Iioarfy l<ne for 
them. My this means we shall gain a great leverage ujxin ilieni, uikI help 
to lift them up. 

And, ;{rd, We must tenrh Iheni the Jlililr. And in sueli a manner as 
constantly to bring out new and unexjx'cted fiashos of truth. It was said 
of MeCheyne, that, in reading the Biblo at family prayers, ho seemed 
like a person looking for pearls. When we teaeh our Chinese brethren 
from the Bible, wo ought constantly to be bringing up pearls. 13y our 
own deep love for, and constant cuit amove study of the J3ible, and also 
by our enthusiastic faithfulness in teaching from it, we shall do much 
toward leading our convci'ts to a love for, and study of the Bible. 

Others will speak of prayer, giving, and other branches of the 

Ei:v. Dr. Edkins, L. M. S., Pekixg, said : — 

I wish to say a word as to how we conduct ^lissionary operation s 
in Peking. 

1st. We keep enquirers three months on probation. There are cases 
in which we admit ^thera sooner. Our rule is capable of expansion iu 
both directions. 

With regard to Sabbath observance, opium smoking and other kind- 
red subjects which seem to be important to us all. I think we should 
teach the native Christians from the Scriptures and allow them to legis- 
late on these points. Let them be chiefly responsible, we are not called 
upon to legislate. They have in the Bible clear directions with regard 
to all these questions, and, I rejoice to be able to place the chief respon- 
sibility in their hands. I regard the native ChristiaJi as one who believes 
as we do in the Lord Jesus Chi-ist, let Jiira only study carefully the Gospels 
and Epistles and he is then in a position to judge for him.self on these 
points. With regard to the best means of elevating the moral and spi- 
ritual tone of the Native Church I would say, set all the converts to 
work. Let every one have soiuething to do for Christ. They must not 
be allowed to be idle. Let there be opportunity given for the outflow of 
Christian love and zeal. This will do much to raise the character of the 
native Christian; further, we should not leave the Native Chui'ch without 
the benefit to be derived through the use of special elforts for the revival 
and growth of spiritual feeling, such as have been employed of late, in 
the Church of England and other denominations, and also by the Amer- 
ican Evangelists in Crreat Britian, the beueticial effects of which are 
admitted to be very great. In China the men are the same and the 
Gospel is the same, we ought not then to leave our native churches with 
onhj the ordinary means of grace, special means should be used. Wo 
should bring before them the fact of modern revivals, in which Burns and 
!Moody have been agents used of God. 

In bi'inging fiicts befoi'e them we should urge them to much 
prayer. Thus will the moral and spiritual tone of the Chui'ch bo 

272 ESSAY. May 17th. 

EVENING Session. 


The Duty of the Foreign Residents aiding in the Evan- 
gelization of China and the best means of doing so, 

The Vert Rev. Dean Butcher, D.D. 

"Two tliirds of the humaii race" says* Dr. Dollhigcr "that is to say 
800,000,000 persons in all have still to be gained for Christianity and 
European civilization." When we keep this fact before ns we cannot 
help feeling the overpowering importance of any question connected with 
Missionary labour. To be asked to take any pai-t in a discussion like 
this is a high and peculiar privilege, but it is at the same time a privilege 
■weighted with the heaviest responsibility. The contributor of even a 
humble suggestion to this meeting is sensible of risk lest he should not 
say the right thing, lest he should say the right thiiig in the wrong way, 
lest he should bring one point of a question into undue prominence and 
unintentionally leave some matter of equal interest in the background 
but at least he is sure of a fair and friendly hearing and pardon for 
fults of omission and commission if only, as I hope is the case to-day, 
his hearers, believe 1st in his sincerity of purpose and 2nd in his profound 
and penetrating consciousness of the gravity of the subject. What is 
that subject? We are to consider the duty of the foreign residents aiding 
in the evangelization of China and the best means of doing so. 

Concerning the duty very little need be said. It is' obviously the 
work of the Church to obey the injunctions of its Divine Head. "Go 
and teach all nations" is as emphatic a command as "Do this in i-emem- 
brance of Me." Besides, if we really and truly believe in Christ ourselves 
we must be anxious to diffuse the knowledge of Christ amongst othei's. 
A man is said to "use" material wealth only when he employs it for the 
good of others, and in like manner the ti'easures of spiritual truth are 
not to be kept to ourselves but are to be diff ued and distributed. " Free- 
ly ye have received freely give." It falls to my lot next to consisder the 
means whereby the natives are to be reached '.by the Gospel Message, 
and the various instrumentalities that the residents have at their com- 
mand to effect their object. Now here, as the Scripture says, there are 
"diversities of gifts." Some of the residents have more influence than 
others. We must distinguish between the different classes, and strive to 
point out what weapons for the Holy War are at the disposal of each 
class. Consider what means can be used by 

(a) Diplomatists and Officials, (b) Sailors, (c) Medical men, 
(d) Journalists, (e) Merchants, (f) Foreigners in the employ of the 
Chinese, (g) Missionaries, respectively to aid in making China Christian. 

Blplomatlftts and Officials. 

It is obvious at the first glance that the reisresentatives of Foreign 
Governments have the powder if they have the will to forward the cause 
of true religion in the country {to which they ai-e sent. We have re- 
cently seen how a great blow to the spread of Christianity in China has 
been averted by the action of Diplomacy. Had Great Britain hurried 
into war after the unfortunate catastrophe in Yunnan, general disturbance 

* Address reported in The Guardian, January, 1872. 

May 17tli. essat. 273- 

would have followed, and missinnarv work would have been put ba "k for 
tiftv years. ]Iad a war been fomented instead of diseourag^ed between 
this eountry and Jap:ui an unsettled state of atfairs eminently unfavour- 
able to the quiet ])rogress of CMiristianity would have resulted. Tho 
Teaeher would have found it very dillieult to pursue his task in peace. 
In the one case the Foreigner wouhl have been direetly chargeable with 
tho trouble in the minds of the Chinese, and in the other he would have 
been closely associated with it. The natural distaste for evei-ything 
tionnected with the men who so literally and truly come to turn the world 
upside down would have been strengthened into aversion and the religion 
of the Prince of Peace vvindd have been linked in men's minds as it has 
tt)o often been in past years with war and bloodshed. At present we 
stand in a very much more advantageous position than we should other- 
wise have done, and I cannot avoid saying that during the recent crisis 
the policy of H. B. M.'s Representative appears to me to have been 
dii*ected towards those objects which religious men and those who have 
the interests of their fellow creatures at heart should most earnestly 
desire, and most thoroughly approve... The Consuls have much in their 
power and without " warrior statesmanship " they may keep the impor- 
tant truth in mind that a man by becoming a missionary does not cease 
to be a citizen, and that as missionaries as a rule present European 
diameter in a favourable light and are engaged in efforts to become ac- 
quainted with the Literature and modes of thought of the natives, they 
are well worthy of support even on other grounds than those spiritual 
ones on which they would themselves probably base their appeal for 

Lawyers and judges have a difficult task. Dean Stanley preaching 
on tho day of intercession for missions from Rev- x. 15 "The kingdoms 
of this world arc become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ" 
referred as an instance of our imperfect but hopeful realization of the' 
Highest Ideal to "the purity of our Judicial Lench as compared with 
the practice which prevailed two centuries since of judges receiving 
bribes from suitors, thus corrupting justice at its very soui'ce; the godlike 
attribute of mercy abolishing the punishment of death for various minor 
offences and forbidding the tortures which were formerly inflicted with- 
out scruple as well on the innocent as on the guilty."' It would be well 
if the Chinese could be brought to understand that these wholesome and 
excellent customs flow from our Religion. It would be well if they could 
understand that justice is " truth at work " but alas ! the Parable of the 
mote and the beam applies in this instance with trencliant force, and we 
know that when the Chinese officials wei'e reproached with the tedious 
length of the judicial enquiry into the cii-cumstances of Mr. Margary's 
murder they referred with a ])oignant accuracy of retort to the intermin- 
able length of the Tichborne Trial. 

Tlo' Sailon. 

European civilization first greets Asiatic eyes in the bodily shape of 
a British sailor. After awhile the Oriental learns to become acquainted 
with this rough and ready missionary and possibly he often finds that 
the object of his awe, di.saj)points him on intimate acquaintance. The 
spectacle of a drunken sailor reeling through the streets of a Chinese 
town is demoralizing and shameful Ijut it must be admitted that in the 
British navy the temperance movement which has been set on foot 
in recent years has been productive of the happiest results. Officers 
following tlie e.xanqile of good Charles Parry, the Uedley Vicars of the 
navy have also done great good by interesting tliemselves in the spiritual 

274 ESSAY. May 17tli. 

Tvelfat'e of the men under their command and when the master vice of 
drunkenness is once fairly got tinder we may hope that a favourable 
rather than unfavourable impression will be made by a class of men whose 
characteristic qualities, courage, love of fair plaj-, and frankness are 
really good specimens of virtues grea.tly needed by Asiatics. The sailors 
have much in their power and naval officers are doing far more good 
than they imagine when they look after their men, and try to keep them 
in good ways.* The captain of the gun-boat who at some self sacrifice 
strives to make his crew sober and godfearing specimens, rough perhaps 
but genuine, of what our religion is Avhen carried out in daily life, does a 
real service to Christianity, and discharges his duty as a foreign resident 
in aiding in the Evangelization of China. 

Medical Men. 

Medical men have done and are doing much to assist in the Evange- 
lization of China. The efforts of the physicians and surgeons to relieve 
the sufferings of sick and injured natives are most praiseworthy. No one 
can walk through the wards of the hospital in the Shantung Road, 
Shanghai, for instance, without seeing how tlie devoted labours of the 
medical officer and the visiting surgeons exhibit the very best side of 
2)ractical Chritianity, when we read of five or sis hundred patients being 
treated in the wards in one year and thirteen thousand out patients be- 
ing prescribed for we see what an amount of physical misery must be 
alleviated by the various hospitals and dispensaries in connection with 
the Great Missionary Societies and when we reflect that tlie patients are 
visited by kind and earnest ministers and have the message of salvation 
simply and affectionately expounded to them we see at once what prac- 
tical help to the preacher is afforded by the phj'sician. The Missionary 
Hospital is the best sermon on the Parable of the Good Samaritan that 
can possibly be preached. 

The JournaUsi». 

In a recent though unauthorized version of the English Litany a 
petition is interpolated to this effect. "That it may please Thee to help 
all literary persons, and editors of the Public Press that they may use all 
their powers in the cause of Truth and Righteousness and rise above the 
praise and blame of men. "...The propriety of introducing such a pet- 
tion may be doubted but its presence even in the Liturgy of a single 
congregation witnesses to the importance that the press has now as- 
sumed as a channel of good or evil. The foreign press in China might 
be made an engine of immense usefulness if it were conducted with 
vigour and singleness of aim, and I am by no means pi'epared to deny 
that it has done good service in past years. Still it seems to me that 
probably from faults on both sides a want of sympathy with missionary 
cnterj^rise was perceptible in the newspapers published at the treaty ports 
up to a recent date. I think this was an unfortunate circumstance for 
the missionaries, for the communities, and especially for the journalists 
themselves. The missionaries suffered less damage from the actual 
violence of the assaults than they did from the smarting sense of un- 
merited censure which these assaults engendered and from a feeling of 
estrangement and suspicion which grew out of the opinion that the 
effusions of an inexperienced newspaper editor repi'esented the deliberate 
convictions of the foreign residents. The communities were discredited 
at home when their commercial and moral character was assailed in the 

* May I instance the work (lone lately by Connnauder Bax, E.N. of the " Siilvla" 
whose loss we have had lately to deplore ? 

May 17th. essat. 275 

British Parliament and elsewhere and the hostility shown by our Press 
to the only men who were labourint; unsollislily to befriend the Chinese 
condemned us out of our own mouLlis. J Jut the journalists themselves 
suifered most severely from the line they were thoughtlessly betrayed into 
takint^ as they lost well informed and trust-wortliy eorrespondeuts in the 
interior and thus impoverished the literary character of their organs. 
Had experienced mi.ssionaries been encouraged to contribute the stores of 
knowledge they possessed the value of the newspapers published here and 
at other ports would ha^•e been vastly increased. I recognise with pleasure 
however a very great improvement in this respect. The journalists have 
awakened to a sense of their responsibilities and a better tone altogether 
is observable in their treatment of religious topics. 

I cannot leave this subject without saying how much good I think 
nuiy be done in tiiis country by Chinese newspapers. I recollect on one 
occasion hearing Sir Thomas Wade say that he thought "a picture paper," 
a Chinese "illustrated News" in fact, would be a most valuable 
organ in the regeneration of China. The attempts made at Peking by 
Dr. ^Martin and others and here by Mr. Farnham are most creditable. 
Why should not the great Missionary Societies unite in 'publishing an 
entertaining and instructive magazine for the Chinese with woodcuts of 
places which exist and events that have occurred outside the Middlo 
Kingdom. It would penetrate into the interior, and enkindle a spirit of 
enquiry, and lead tlie natives to ask the why and the wherefore of per- 
plexing phenomena in natural history and science. It would tell them of 
the achievements of western nations in arts and manufactures and gra- 
dually extend amongst the millions of the Flowery Land that spirit of 
intelligent dissatisfaction with the present which when guided aright is 
the guaraTitee of all progress, and when neglected the germ of revolution 
and anarchy. Sucli a periodical without containing essays on dogmatic 
theology might be pervaded and suffused with the spirit of our religion, 
and the reader while fanc^'ing himself enamoured of civilization would 
find himself learning to love Christianity. 

Fum'ipiers /» fJti^ emploij of the CJiinese. 

This large and increasing class of persons have many opportunities 
of forwarding the cause of Christianity. They have the great advantage 
of familiarit}- with the language and they are on terms more or less con- 
fidential with influential natives. The Chinese naturally refer to them 
for ijiformation and they can do much good by "putting in a word " for 
Christ. When questioned as to western progress they can ever bear iu 
mind the connection between Christianity and Civilization. Their posi- 
tion of couisc is peculiar and requires tact and judgment but I am 
assuretl that a European who displayed a constant reverence for his 
religion would gain and not lose thereby the re.ipect of his Chinese 

Tim Merchanf.i. 

1 recollect when I first arrived in China I received a visit from au 
estimable and exjx^rienced missionary. He asked me "How 1 liked 
Shanghai?" a time honoured conventional question. I returned an 
equally time honored and conventional answer that "it was larger than 
I had been led to expect" or "more European than I had been led to 
expect" or something of the sort. Ho replied with a look of solemn 
rebuke wliicli impressed me painfully. "You must not forget that you 
are in Satan's seat." It was a revelation of a state of things of which 
I then knew nothing. It revealed to me that the merchant and the 
missionary were in an attitude of antagonism. This state of affairs I 

276 ESSAY. May 17th. 

rejoice to say is mending. Both parties now understand each other better 
and in a few years I have every reason to think we shall find earnest 
laymen engaged in trade doing much to civilize the Chinese and to help 
on the cause of Christianity. We must front a great and formidable 
difficulty which the merchant has to get over, viz., the Chinese language. 
It has been alleged that much evil would have been avoided if the mer- 
chants had at the outset mastered the language of the country. They 
have not done so, and I cannot help thinking that perhaps it will turn 
out that things have been ordered for the best. At present the Chinese 
are busy learning English, and if we may judge from the difficulty which 
appears to exist in finding a proper word for Grod in Chinese, it is obvious 
that if any large number of the black-haired race succeed in mastering 
English they will have a far more convenient vehicle for the conveyance 
of ideas distinctively Christian than is presented by their own cumbrous 
tongue. They may be induced to learn the great language of the Western 
world from motives purely secular, but this is a matter of little conse- 
quence. We may be sure they will learn it, nay : they are learning it 
already, and we may be sure they will soon find how impossible it is to 
detach European civilization from Christianity. Alexander's conquests 
made Grreek understanded of the people in the East, rendered the transla- 
tion of the Septuagint necessary and so placed Greek, a tongue of singu- 
lar copiousness and beauty, ready in the mouths of the first promulgators 
of Christianity, and an important aid to them in the work of evangeliza- 
tion. In like manner may not our English tongue be honoured by ser- 
ving as the medium which shall convey to the Chinese not only the 
treasures of literature and science, but the good tidings of Great Joy, 
the Gospel of Jesus ? 

I am, however, perhaps going beyond the scope of this paper, when 
I venture to expi'ess a hope which to many here will seem romantic. I 
proceed to safer and surer ground. The mei-chants can all pi'each Christ 
by living as Christians. We know that in India in the early days of 
British intercourse the li'S'es of the foreign residents were a scandal and 
a shame to the religion they nominally professed. There is still room for 
improvement, and it is to be feared that there is much truth in the des- 
cription of European life in India given by an ordained native, Mr. Goi-eh 
at a recent Church Conference.* " Moreover, the Christianity generally 
presented by the lives of Englishmen in India seems to have of devotion 
as little as possible and of comfort and enjoyment as much as possible. 
And I cannot help feeling that such an aspect of Christianity is not only 
calculated to suppress all high aspirations in the hearts of native converts 
after heroic acts of religion and self-denial for which my countrymen have 
always been very famous, but it also makes the conversion of the 
unconverted more difficult." In China in the earlier days of foreign 
intercourse there was much to condemn. Men left the ties of home 
behind them and led lives that could not be expected to prejudice the 
natives in their favour. The social life of our settlements is even now 
disfigured by staring vices. But I hope and believe the worst is over. 
Now manv settle and resolve to live in these China ports for the best 
years of their lives, and I cannot help feeling that they present in the 
order and decency of their domestic lives examples that the natives may 
copy, not pictures of recklessness that even an imperfectly educated hea- 
then conscience refused to accept as a model. Further the merchants 

* Report of speech of Rev. Neliemiah Goreh at Grantham Conference in Church 
Missionary Intelligencer for February, 1877. 

Mfty 17tb. KSSAT. 277 

exercise wide iiitlucnce by showing liow Christian Law and Education 
affect their business transacticms. The spirit of wliat we call "fairness" 
is the growth of Christian education though we are apt to forget that it 
is so. The principles of mercantile honour proceed mainly from the 
teachings of Christianity. A heathen has little beyond mere expediency 
to govern business transactions and it must be of use for merchants to 
set a good example of upright dealing to the Chinese. I suggest four 
poiuts that have to be aiuended : — 

1.- — That the foreign merchant not only for his own sake but for the 
sake of those that are without should be regular in his attendance at 
Public Worship. 

2. — The foreign merchant would do well to interest himself in 
schools where the natives are taught English. 

3. — The foi'eign merchant should avoid ridiculing the religious 
observances of the natives. It is no sign of true religion to affront 
a false. 

4. — The foreign merchants' wives might possibly with advantage 
strive to become acquainted with the inner life of the Chinese women — 
and thus pave the way for efforts akin to those of the Zenana Missions 
in India. 

This subject really deserves a whole paper to itself and I oidy indicate 
it here as a topic which may be profitably enlarged upon and pressed with 
cmpha.sis on the attention of the Foreign residents. 

I should be guilty of an unpardonable omission if I did not refer to 
a recent occasion in which the merchants at all the ports in China not- 
ably in this great city community have indeed shown what spirit they 
ai'e of in no uncertain or lukewai'm manner. The princely generosity to 
the sufferers from the Shantung Famine is a practical proof that the les- 
sons of the parable of the Good Samaritan are living realities amongst 
us. In the presence of this active charity I see a power greater than 
that of a thousand sermons to win the hearts of the Chinese to recognize 
the beauty of the practice of unselfishness and haply in the fulness of 
time to seek to understand the principles whence Christian Benevo- 
lence flows. 

There is one consideration yet which is full of hopeful augury. The 
misunderstanding between the missionary and merchant grew out of mu- 
tual ignorance. As this ignorance is dispelled we may look forward with 
confidence to a better time. Increased facilities for communicating with 
the interior will reveal to the merchant how much the missionary has 
done. When the Woosung Railway was first opened, the Shanghai i"e- 
sidents were surprised to find a floui'ishing little Church of the American 
Episcopal ^Mission at Kong-wan. Many like surprises await them. They 
will find the Chajjel and the School where they little expect to 
meet with either, and they will learn that these missionaries have been 
predisposing the Chinese in favour of foreigners, and so preparing the 
way for their kindly reception in many towns and villages of which they 
scarcely know the name. 

The Missiunaries. 

The framers of the Question wdiich I have been so kindly requested 
to undertake possibly had exclusively in view the religious work which 
should occupy the leisure of the foreigners engaged in secular professions 
and trades, but I think that the missionaries themselves are in the 
most distinct sense of the word "foreign residents" and therefore that I 
may include them in my remarks. To do so is a task of delicacy and 
difficulty. Because I may be c