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RECORDS 



of tb( 



INDIAN MUSEUM 



(TV JOURNAL OF INDIAN ZOOLOGY) 



Vol. I, 1907. 



EDITED BY 

THE SUPERINTENDENT, 

INDIAN MUSEUM, NATURAL HISTORY SECTION. 



Calcutta : 

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE INDIAN MUSEUM. 
BAPTIST MISSION PRESS. 



IQO7. 



^ 



1 



3Jr3 



CONTENTvS. 

Part I, Tttne. „ 

Pa^e 

I. Contributions to the Fauna of the Arabian vSea . . i 

IT. Records of Hemiptera and Hymenoptera from the 

Himalayas . . . . . . • • 13 

ITT. Further notes on Indian Freshwater Entomostraca . . 21 

TV. The Fauna of Brackish Ponds at Port Canning, Tyower 
Bengal — 

Part I. — Introduction and Preliminary Account of 
the Fauna . . . . . . • • 35 

Part II. — A new Nematode of the genus Oncholai- 
mus . . . . . . • • 45 

Part ITT. — An Isolated Race of the Actinian 
Metridiuni schilleriannm . . . . 47 

V. A Sporozoon from the heart of a Cow . . . . 77 

Miscellanea (pp. 79 — 83) : — 

The appendicular skeleton of the Dugong ... . . 79 

An egg laid in captivity by a Goshawk . . . . 80 

Melanic specimens of Barhtis ticto . . . . 81 

Two barnacles new to Indian Seas . . . . 81 

Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles from Port Canning 81 

Anopheles larvae in brackish water . . . . 82 

Mosquitoes from Kumaon . . . . • • 83 

Peculiar habit of an Earthworm , . . . 83 

. \ 

Part IT, August. 

VT . I^evision of the Oriental Stratiomyidse . . 85 

VTT. Description of an Oligochaete Worm allied to ChcBiogasler 133 
VITT, The Fauna of Brackish Ponds at Port Canning, I^ower 
Bengal — 

Part TV.— Hydrozoa • • • • I39 

IX. Further note on a Polyzoon from the Himalayas . . 145 
X. Reports on a collection of Batrachia, Reptiles and Fish 

from Nepal and the Western Himalayas . . 149 

XT. The T^auna of Brackish Ponds at Port Canning, TyOwer 
Bengal — 

Part V. — Definition of a new genus of Amphipoda, 
and description of the typical species . . 159 



Contents. 

XII. Notes on Oriental Diptera — Page 
No. I. — Note on Sphyraccphala hearseyana , with a 

list of the Oriental species of Diopsinae . . 163 

No. II. — Preliminary report on a collection from 

Simla . . . . . . . . 166 

Miscellanea (pp. 171 — 178) :— 

The occurrence of Gecko verticillatiis in Calcutta . . 171 

The distribution of Kachuga sylhetensis . . . . 171 

The distribution of Bitfo andersom . . . . 171 

Note on Ridilia nitens . . . . . . 172 

Records of some Indian Cerambycidje . . . . 172 

Notes on some Indian Hemiptera . . • • ^74 

A preoccupied specific name in Macrothrix . . 176 

An enemy of certain Pearl Oysters in the Persian Gulf 176 
The distribution in India of the African Snail, Achatina 

fitUca . . . . . . . . 176 

Statoblasts from the surface of a Himalayan Pond . . 177 

Notes on HisJopia lacustris . . . . . . 177 



Part III, October. 

XIII. Report on the Marine Polyzoa in the collection of the 

Indian Museum . . . . . . . . 179 

XIV. The Fauna of Brackish Ponds at Port Canning, Lower 

Bengal — 

Part VI. — Observations on the Polyzoa, with fur- 
ther notes on the ponds . . . . . . iq; 

XV. A third note on Earwigs (Dermaptera) in the Indian 

Museum, with the description of a new species . . 207 

XVI. Notes on Oriental Diptera — 

No. III. — Review of the Oriental species of Sepe- 
don, with descriptions of two new species . . 211 

XVII. Description of a New Snake from Nepal . . . . 217 

XVIII. Notes on a collection of marketable fish from Akyab, 

with a description of a new species of Lactarius . 219 

XIX. Description of two freshwater Oligochsete Worms from 

the Punjab . . . . . . . . 233 

XX. Notes on Phosphorescence in Marine Animals . . 257 

XXI. Notes on the Rats of Dacca, Eastern Bengal . . 263 

XXII. Notes on Freshwater vSponges^ — 

No. I. — The hnds oi Spongilla proliferens .. 267 

,, II. — Gemmules of Trochospongilla phillottiana 269 

269 
270 



,, III. — Embryos of Ephydatia hlemhingia 
., IV. — The nature of the pores in Spongilla 
,, V. — The systematic position of Ephydatia 
nieyeni and E. indica 

Miscellanea (pp. 275—280) : — 

The original home of Mus decumamis 
Colour change in Hylohates hoolock 



272 



275 
276 



Contents . 



Ill 



Eggs of Tylototriton verrucosus 

The hosts of Tachcsa spongillicola .', 

A second species of DicJtelaspis from Bathynomus gigmi- 



Page 

278 
279 

279 



Part IV, December. 



XXIII. 



XXIV 

XXV 
XXVI, 



XXVII 



XXVIII 



Nudiclava monocanthi, the type of a new genus of Hy- 
droids parasitic on Fish 

Preliminary descriptions of three new Nycteribiidse 
from India 

Annotated catalogue of Oriental Culicidc^ . . 
Notes on Oriental Diptera — 

No. IV.— On some Indian species of Limnophora 
and Anthomyia, with a desciiption of a new 
species of the former genus 
Notes on Freshwater Sponges — 

No. VI.— The midday siesta of Spongilla in the 
Tropics 

'= VII.— Description of two new Freshwater 
Sponges from Eastern Bengal, with remarks on 
allied forms 

Description of a new Cyprinid Fish of the genus Danio 
from Upper Burma 

Miscellanea (pp. 397, 398) :— 

A colour variety of Typhlops bra minus . . 
Reptiles and a Batrachian from an island in the Chilka 
I^ake, Orissa 



281 

295 

297 



3«i 

3«7 

387 
395 

397 
397 



IvIST OF PIvATES. 



Plates I and II (Freshwater Entomostraca ) 

Plates III and IV (Metridium schillerianum) 

Plate V {ChcBtogaster pnnjabcnsis) . . 

Plate VI (Himalayan Lizards) 

Plate VII {Q uadrivisio bengalensis) 

Plate VIII {MolosomUy sp.) 

Plates IX and X (Chalogastey pellucidus) 

Plates XI, XII and XIII (Oriental vSyrphida? 

Plate XIV (Freshwater Sponges,- . . 

Plate XV (Anthornyid Flies) 

Plate XVI {Nudiclava monocanthi) 

Plate XVII (Nudiddva monocanthi) 



Follow page 

34 
76 

138 
158 
162 

254 
256 
380 

394 

386 

2Q2 
294 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 



Annandale, N., R.A., D.vSc. 



Boulenger, G. A., F.R.S. 



Brunetti, E. 



Burr, Malcolm, B.A. 
F.Z.vS. 



The Fauna of Brackish Ponds at Port Can- 
ning, Ivower Bengal : Part I, p. 35 ; Part 

III, p. 47; Part IV, p. 139; Part VI, p. 
197- — The appendicular skeleton of the 
Dugong, p, 79. — Melanic specimens of 
Barbus ticto, p. 81. — Two barnacles new 
to Indian Seas, p. 81. — Mosquitoes from 
Kumaon, p. 83, — Peculiar habit of an 
Earthworm, p. d>-^. — Further note on a 
Polyzoon from the Himalayas, p. 145. — 
Reports on a collection of Batrachia, 
Reptiles and Fish from Nepal and the 
Western Himalayas, Introductory note, 
p. 149, and Lacertilia, p. 151.— The 
occurrence of Gecko verticillatus in 
Calcutta, p. 171.— The distribution of 
Kachuga sylhetensis, p. 171. — The distri- 
bution of Bufo andersoni, p. 171. — An 
enemy of certain Pearl Oysters in the 
Persian Gulf, p. 176.— The distribution 
in India of the African vSnail, Aclmtina 
fulica, p. 176. — Statoblasts from the 
surface of a Himalayan Pond, p. 177. — 
Notes on Freshwater Sponges, Nos. I — 
V, p. 267; Nos. VI, VII, p. 387.— 
Eggs of Tylototriton verrucosus, p. 278. 
— The hosts of Tachcea spongilUcola, 
p. 279. — A second species of Dichelaspis 
from Bathynomus giganteus, p. 279. — 
A colour variety of Typhi ops hraminus, 
p. 397. — Reptiles and a Batrachian from 
an island in the Chilka Lake, Orissa, 

P- 397- 

Reports on a collection of Batrachia, Rep- 
tiles and Fish from Nepal and the 
Western Himalayas, Batrachia, p. 149. — 
Description of a New Snake from Nepal, 
p. 217. 

Revision of the Oriental Stratiomyidse, p. 
85. — Notes on Oriental Diptera, Nos. 
I and II, p. 163; No. Ill, p. 211; No. 

IV, p. 381. — Note on Rutilia nitens, 
p. 172. — Annotated Catalogue of Oriental 
Culicidse, p. 297. 

A third note on Earwigs (Dermaptera) in 
the Indian Museum, with the description 
of a new species, p. 207. 



Vlll 



List of Authors. 



Chatterjee, G. C, M.B. . . 



Gourlay, C. A., Capt., 

I.M.S. 
Gurney, Robert 



Hossack, W. C, M.D. 

Ivinstow, O. von, M.D. . . 

Uoyd, R. E., M.H., B.Sc. 
Capt., I.M.S. 



Paiva, C. A. 



Phillott, D. C, U.-Col. . . 

Sanyal, R. B., Rai Bahadur. 
.Speiser, P., M.D. 

vStebbing, Revd. T. R. R., 

M.A., F.R.S. 
vStepheuson, J., Major, 

I.M.S. 



Tate Regan, C, M.A. 



Thornely, I^aura R. 

Wall, F., Major, I.M.S., 
C.M.Z.S. 

Walton, H. J., Capt., 
I.M.S. 



A Sporozoon from the heart of a Cow, p. 
77, — Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles 
from Port Canning, p. 81. — Anopheles 
larvae in brackish water, p. 82. 

Notes on the Rats of Dacca, Eastern 
Bengal, p. 263. 

Further notes on Indian Freshwater En- 
tomostraca, p. 21. — A preoccupied speci- 
fic name in Macrothrix, p. 176. 

The original home of Mus deciimanus, p. 
275. 

The Fauna of Brackish Ponds at Port Can- 
ning, lyower Bengal, Part II, p. 45. 

Contributions to the Fauna of the Arabian 
Sea, p. I. — Notes on a collection of 
marketable fish from Akyab, with a 
description of a new species of Lactarius, 
p. 219. — Notes on Phosphorescence in 
Marine Animals, p. 257. — Nudiclava 
monocanthi, the type of a new genus of 
Hydroids parasitic on fish, p. 281. 

Records of Hemiptera and Hymenoptera 
from the Himalayas, p. 13. — Records of 
some Indian Cerambycidse, p. 172. — 
Notes on some Indian Hemiptera, p. 174. 

An egg laid in captivity b}^ a Goshawk, p. 
80. 

Colour change in Hylobates hoolock, p. 276. 

Preliminary descriptions of three new Nyc- 
teribiidae from India, p. 295. 

The Fauna of Brackish Ponds at Port Can- 
ning, Lower Bengal, Part V, p. 159, 

Description of an Oligochsete Worm allied 
to Chcetogaster , p. 133. — Description of 
two freshwater Oligochsete Worms from 
the Punjab, p. 233. 

Reports on a collection of Batrachia, Rep- 
tiles and Fish from Nepal and the 
Western Himalayas, Fishes, p. 157. — 
Description of a new Cyprinid fish of the 
genus Danio from Upper Burma, p. 395. 

Report on the Marine Polyzoa in the col- 
lection of the Indian Museum, p. 179. 

Reports on a collection of Batrachia, Rep- 
tiles and Fish from Nepal and the 
Western Himalayas, Ophidia, p. 155. 

Notes on Hislopia lacustris, p. 177. 



ERRATA AND CORRIGENDA. 

Page 22, line 24. Elide "var. sciilptiis" after " Chvdoriis glohosiis, 

Baird." 
,, 20, Hue 5. For " Thyocyyptiis" yead " Ilyocryptus." 
,, 39, line 6 from foot of page. For '' schidizei" read " schidtzei.'" 
,, 52, line 4. For "fig. 5" read "fig. 3." 
,, 69, line II from foot of page, and page 82, line 8 I'roni foot of 

page. For ''0"22" read " i"2." 

Plate iv, below figures. For " Sagartia schilleriana" read " Metridium 
schillerianum." 

Page 80, line 13. For "used" read "fused." 

,, 100, footnote, and page 132, line 2. For " Acanthina argentea " 
read " Acanthina argentihirta." 

,, 145, line 7, page 146, line ir, page 147, lines 4 and 17 from foot 
of page, and page 148, lines 20, 21 and 29. For 
" Lophopits ledcnjeldi" read " Lophopus leiiden- 
feldir 
148, line 21. For "indica" read '^ him al ay anus." 
148, last line. Before "lacks" intercalate "often." 
176, line 19. For " Evans " read " Galletly." 
337, line 20. For " Huleccetomyia" read " Hiileccefeomyia." 
356, line 28. Change " d " to " 9 ." 
362, line 27. For "p. 80" read "p. no." 
385, line (3. Add "of Anthomyia" after "species." 



INDEX. 



♦- 



[N .B. — Au asterisk (*) precediug a line denotes a new variety : a dagger (f) in- 
dicates a new species ; and a double-dagger (J), a new genus : synonyms are 
printed in Italics with page numbers in bold-faced type.] 



Page 



Page 



r~% 








Algae, filamentous 




38 


Acalypterata 


169, 


170 


AUodahlia 




209 


Acanthephj'ra armata 




4 


ancylura 




209 


Acanthina . . . . 9c 


. 92, 


100 


coriacea 




209 


largentihirta 


100, 


132 


Alonella excisa . . 23 


, M 


, 26 


auricollis . . 




100 


Amathia distans 




195 


azurea 




100 


Ambassis urotaenia 




226 


Acanthocoris scabrator 




18 


Amblypharyngodon microlepis 




41 


Acanthomeridse 




86 


Ammophila atripes 




15 


Acanthophorus serraticornis 




172 


punctata . . 




15 


Acanthopterygii 


225. 


228 


Ampeliscidse 




159 


Acanthosaura dymondi 




153 


Amphibia 




42 


fkumaonensis 




152 


Amphiblestrum 




185 


major . . 


152, 


153 


Amphipod 


. 22 


, 38 


tricarinata 




153 


Amphipoda gammaridia 




159 


Achatina fulica 




176 


Ampsalis 


'21, 


124 


Achias 




164 


geniata . ; 




124 


Acraspidea . . 


. . 90, 96 


AmpuUaria sp. 




39 


felderi 




96 


Amussium sp. 




4 


J A cyocholidia phthisica 




295 


Anabas scandens 




41 


Actinia 




38 


Ancistrodon himalayanuni 




157 


mesembryanthemuni 




65 


Andrena mephistophelica 




16 


Adeonella distoma 


180, 


19s 


Anechura 




209 


platalea 


r8o, 


194 


f eae 




209 


subsulcata 




194 


metallica 




209 


Adeonidae 




194 


Anguillidse . . 




223 


Adraga 


• . 90, 94 


Anguillulae . . 




242 


univitta 




94 


Anisocheleomyia 




363 


-Edeomyia 




366 


alboannulata 




363 


squamipenna 




366 


albitarsis 




363 


squammipemiis 




366 


Anisolabis 




209 


^deomyina 300, ^02 


'362, 


367 


annandalei 




209 


•Edes . . . . ^ 




367 


annulipes 




209 


butleri . . 




367 


Anisops sp. . . 




41 


squammipenna . . 




366 


Ankyroderma sp. 


•4, 


5. 7 


squammipennis . . 




368 


Annelida 




39 


^liomorpha lineaticollis 




18 


Anopheles . . 297, 300, 


322 


364 


-S)olesthes holosericea 




^73 


aitkenii 




303 


sarta 




173 


annularis . . 




314 


^olosoma headleyi 






236 


arabiensis . . 




303 


sp. 




^33 


236 


barbirostns 


82 


, 314 


iEtea recta . . 




179 


180 


christophersi 




308 


^teidae 






180. 


culicifacies 


305 


, 311 


.^thusa indica 






2, 6 


ciiliciformis 


312 


3^3 


-Etobatis narinaria 






220 


deceptor 




322 


Agama himalayana 






1 54 


dthali 




303 


tuberculata 




151 


154 


elegans 




306 


Agonoscelis nubila 






18 


fluviatilis . . 




308 


Alcyonaria . . 




259 


260 


formosaensis 




323 


Aldrichia 






322 


fuliginosus 




317 


error 






322 


funesta 




306 







Page 






Page 


Anopheles funestus 




307 


Aphrcditidee 


260 


gigas 




303 


Apidae 




16 


immaculatiis 




304 


Apis dorsata 




17 


indica 




306 


indica . . 




17 


indiciis 




306 


Apociyptes lauceolatiis 




41 


jamesii 


82, 317 


31-^ 


Apodes 




223 


jeyporensis 


306 


313 


Apterygida . ., 




209 


karwari 




318 


arachides . 




200 


kochi 




321 


bipartita vai 


-. macrolabia 209 


kumasii 




307 


Arachnidiidae 


199, 200 


leucopiis 




317 


Arctiis orientalis 


6 


leucosphynis 


307 


309 


Aricia 


169 


lindesayii . . 


S3 


304 


Aristeus crassipes 


2, 3, 4, 7 


listoni 


306 


308 


semidentatus 


.. 6, 258 


maculatus . . 




318 


Arius ccElatus 


223 


maculipalpis 




319 


gagora 


223 


. metaboles . . 




320 


Armigeres 


327 


minimus 




313 


nbturbans . 


328 


nigerrimus 


82 


314 


panalectnros 


328 


ocellatus 




321 


t>entralis 


328 


philippinensis 




319 


Artemita 


97 


piclus 




315 


Asiius (sensu lato) 


168 


plumiger 




315 


Ispongopiis obscurus . 


18 


pulcherrima 




321 


Asterids 


259 


piinctulatus 


82, 309 


311 


Astiir pahimbarius 


80 


rossii . .4C 


, 82, 309 


3^0 


Asyla feae 


. . 18, 20 


sensu lato . . 


300 


322 


Ateleopns indicus 


.. 258 


sensu stricto 




302 


Atya sp. 


22 


sinensis 




315 


Atylidse 


160 


sub-species 


annularis 316 


Aulana 


114, 117 


sp. 




168 


confirmata 


117 


stephensi 




319 


Avicvda macroptera 


. . 176 


subpictus . . 




323 






tessellatus . . 


309, 


311 






theobaldi 




320 


B 




turkhndi 




311 






vagus 




310 


Bagrada picta 


174 


vanus 




316 


Balanus amphitrite 


.. 38. 40 


vincenti 




322 


var. 


commnnis 40 


wellcomei . . 




304 


patellaris 


40 


Anophelina . . 


300, 302, 


303 


Balbiana sianiensis 


78 


Anthomyia albicornis 




38s 


Barbus chela 


41 


bibax 




385 


stigma 


41 


bina 




38s 


ticto 


81, 158 


bisetosa . . 




383 


Barnacles 


379 


calens 




385 


tBasiUa bathybothyra 


2q6 


concana . . 




38s 


Basilius bendelesis 


.. I'sS 


exigua 




38s 


Bathygadus furvescens 


I, 3, 4. 6, 7 


flexa 




385 


Bathynomus 


280 


illocata 




38s 


giganteus 


I, 4, 279 


lenticeps 




38s 


Batoidea 


320 


lobalis 




381 


Batrachia .. 149, 171, 278, 397 


manillensis 




385 


Belgrandia miliacea 


39 


metallica 




38s 


Belone cancila 


224 


perae 




385 


Bembrops caudimarula 


5 


peshawarensis 




385 


Benthobatis moresbyi. 


4 


plwvialis . . 




383 


Berinae 


.. 88, 89 


procellaria 


, , 


38s 


Beris 


85 


quadrata . . 


. . 


38s 


Beris javana 


89 


tonitrui . . 




381 


Biastes 


92 


trina 




38"; 


indicus 


92 


Anthomyidae 




169 


Bibio obscuripennis 


.. 167 


Anthophora ringulata 




16 


sp. . . 


167 


zonata 




16 


Bicellariidae . . 


.. 183 


Aniidoxion . . 




88 


Bifaxaria (?) sp. 


180, 187 


fulvicovnis . . 




88 


Bimeria 


.. 141 


Aphrocallistes beatrix 




250 


restita 


39, 


139, 141 



Ill 



Birds 
Bironella 

gracilis 
Bithynella caningensis 

sp. 
Blythinia sp. 
Boleophthalmus dentatus 

viridis 
Bombus eximius 

flavescens 
funerarius 
hsemorrhoidalis 
orientalis 
trifasciatus 
timicatus 
vallestris 
Bombylius major 

sp. 
Borborinae 
Bowerbankia 

caudata 40, i 
196 — 198 
imbricata 
Brachycara . . 

veutralis 
Brachycera . . 
Brachypalpus 
Brada sp. 

Branchinecta orientalis 
Branchiocerianthus imperator 
Bregmacercs macclellandi 
Brisinga sp. . . 
Brown rat 
Bufo audersoni 
himalayaniis 
melanostictus 
Bugula ditrupae 
neritina 



80, 
. 203, 



42, 
179, 



Page 

80 
322 
322 
144 
39 
39 
229 

41 

17 

17 
17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

168 

168 

I/O 

199 

204 

203 

, 104 

104 

169 

2 

177 

I, 2 

4 

-75 
17^ 
150 
149 
183 
183 

183 ; 



Caberia lata . . 

retiformis 
Caenocoris marginatus . . 
Calliactis parasitica 
Callionymus carebares 
Calliphora erythrocephala 

vomitoria 
CalochcBtis hi color 
Calotes versicolor 
Calyptoblastea 
Campeprosopa 

flavipes 

munda 

Camptocercus austraHs 

Canda 

tpecten 
retiformis 
Cantao ocellatus 
Canthecona f urcellata 
Capsidae 
Carangidae 
Caranx gallus 
ire 



17c). iS^ 

182 

19 

58 

5 

169 

169 

■ . 93, 94 

153. 398 

•• .139 

121, 124 

124 

124 

. . 23, 26 

179 

1S2 

182 

17 

18 

19 

. . 27^ 

228 

308 



Caranx sansnn 

Carbasea cribriformis 

pisciformis . . 

Carbula indica 

Carcharias gangeticus 
laticaudatus 

Carchariidae . . 

Carchesium polypinum 

Caridina sp. . . 

Catageiomyia 

Catenariadae 

Catenaria lafontii 

Cellaria tenuirostris 

Cellariidae 

Cellepora albirostris . . 
cidaris 
I cylindriformis 

megasoma . . 

Celleporidae . . 

CeUia . . [[ 

kochi 
pixlcherrima 

Cellulariadae . . 

Ceradocus rubromaculattis 

Cerambycidae 

Ceratina sexmaculata 

Cerberus rhynchops 
i Cerceris instabilis 

Cerebratuhis .sp. 

Ceriagrion coromandelianum 

Ceriauthus 

Ceriodaphnia rigaudi . . 

Chaetodontidae 

Chsetogaster 

bengalensis 

crystallinus 

diastroplius 

gulosus . . 

tpellucidiis 

punjabensis 

~Z7- -43 
sp. 

spongillag 246 
Chaetouotus schultzei . . 
Chaetopterus 
Cheilostomata 
Chelisoches 

melanocephalns 

simulans 
Chelisochidae 
Cbilosia sp. . . 
Chimarrhichthys 
Chirocentridae 
Chirocentrus dorab 

hypselosoma 
Chironomidae 
Chirononiid larvae 
Chloromyia . . 

sapphirina 

stigmatica 
Chloropinae 
Chorinemus lysan 
Chorizopora brongniartii 
Cbortophila 

ciUcrura 
Chortophilae 
Chrj'sochlora 



Page 

228 

180, 184 

184 

18 

220 

220 

220 

■• 37,38 

23 

■• 33^ 
180 
180 

iSo, 184 
184 
18S 

195 
I So, 195 
195 
195 
321 
321 
321 
180 
160 
172 
. . 16, «o 

398 
15 

7 

308 

• • 63, 70 

21—24, 40 
227 

^2,7 
246 — 251 
247 
246 — 24S 
247 
237—251 
133—138, 
245—249 
248—251 
248 — 251 
39 
4, 7 
180 
209 
209 
209 
210 
169 
158 
222 
222 
222 
168 

• 38, 41 
102, 104 

104 
104 
170 
228 
188 

• i&i 
385 
169 

102, 113 



iv 



Chrysochlora baccoides 
vitripennis 

Chrysocoris f ascialis 
grandis 

Chrysogaster sp 

Chrysomyia 

sapphirina 

Chrysonotus calopus 

Chrysophrys datnia 

Chthamalus stellatus 

Chydorus globosus 
sphaericus 

Cicadidae 

Cidaris sp. 

Ciliata 

Cirrotheuthis 

Cladocera 

Clarius magur 

Clava 

Clavigralla gibbosa 

Cletus punctulatus 

Clione 

Clitellaria 

bivittata 

cmereum 

flaviceps 

gavasum 

heminopla 

notabilis 

obesa 

responsale 

tenebrica 

tibialis 

varia 

Clitellarinse . . 

Clupea chapta 
ilisha 
lile 
variegata 

Clupeidse 

Clypeaster sp. 

Cobra 

Coelenterata 

Ccenocephalus 



95 
nielaiiarius 



Coenomyia . . 

Coenomyidse 

Coilia ramcarati 

Coleoptera, aquatic 

Coloconger raniceps 

Copepoda 

Coptosoma nazirae 

nepalense 
var. a 

Corbula .spp. 

Corethra 

asiatica 
confordi 
manilensis 

Corethrina 

Corixa sp. 

Coryne 

Crabro buddha 

Cribrilina radiata 

Crisia holdsworthii 

Crisiidse 

Crocisa emarginata 



Page 

113 
113 

17 

17 

168 

103 

104 

103 

228 

40 

. . 22, 27 

^3. 24, 26 

19 

•• 4, 6 

242 

7 

24 

222 

381 

174 

18 

176 

114, 119 

115 

116 

119, 120 

116 

114, 119, 120 

no, 120 

100, 100 

116 

lie 

98 

119, 120 

89, 113 
. . 221 
221 
221 
22 1 
22 1 
6 
157 
38 

120, 121 
121 

• 85, 86 

86 

221 

41 

258 

27 

17 

17 

17 

38, 39, 63 

367, 368 

368 

368 

368 

367, 368 

22 

281 

IS 

. 187 

195 

195 

16 



,96, 



303, 



Page 
Crustacea 40, 81, 176, 242, 35S, 259, 279 
Cryptodon sp. . . 3, 4, 7. 
Cryptotympana acuta . . 19, 20 
intermedia 19 
Ctenostomata 196, 198 — 200, 203 
Culcua . . . . 90, 100 



Culex 



simulans 




100 


•• 300, 306, 322, 


339 


364 


(restricted) 




342 


acer . . 




357 


cBstuans 




344 


affinis 




339 


albolineatus 




342 


albopictus 




83 


amboinensis 




323 


angulata 




342 


annnlata 




339 


annidatHs 




339 


annulifera 




343 


annuliferus 




343 


annulipes 




359 


anniilitarsis 




330 


annulus 




343 


anxifer 




344 


arabiensis 




3.55 


aureostriatus . . (?) 


348 


, 355 


bancrofti 




330 


biroi . . 




343 


hitcpniorhynchus 




357 


brevipalpis 




329 


caecus . . 




343 


calopus 




330 


cantans 




343 


cingulatus 




354 


conimovens 




326 


concolor . . 343, 


344 


352 


confirmatus 




34^^ 


eras sip es 




329 


dives . . 




359 


doleschalli 




354 


domesticus 




350 


elegans 




330 


exagitans 




330 


excitans 




330 


fasciata 




330 


var. mosqiiito 


330 


331 


fatigaus .. 331, 


342 


344 


sub-sp. lute 


0- 




annulatus 




345 


sub-sp. trilinea 


tus 


345 


filipes . . 




354 


foochowensis 




345 


formosits 




330 


fragilis 




345 


fiimipennis 




343 


fuscanus 


44- 


-346 


gelidus 




346 


cuneatus 




347 


sub-sp. cuneatus 




346 


var. sinensis 




34*5 


gnopliodus 




347 


halifaxii 




347 


hirsuteron 




347 


liirsutcros 




347 


hirsutum 




347 


hispidosus 




326 


hyrcanns (?) 




349 



Culex impatahilis 
impellens 
impiger . . 
implacahilis 
imprimens 

incidens (non-Oriental) 
inexorabilis 
infiictus (?) 
infula 
japonicus 
kochi 
konoupi 
lanigey 
longipalpis 
longipes 
liiciensis 
luridus 
luteolateralis 
macleayi (?) 
maculatus 
niaciilicrura 
marinns 
mediolineatus 
microannulatus 



347 



inicropterus 
luimeticus 
molestus 
mosquito 
mucidiis 
nero 
uigripes 
iiotoscripta 
obturbans 
pallidithorax 
pallipes 
penetrans 
pipiens 
piilchriventer 
puUus 
pungens 
quasipipiens 
quasiunivittatus 
queenslandensis 
reesii . . 
regius . . 
rizali 
r OS sit 

rubrithorax 
scutellaris 
sericeus 
setulosus 
sitiens 
skusii . . 
spathipalpis 
spp. . . 
spenceyi 
splendens 
stimulans 
subiilifev 
sugens 
tcBniatus 
'tigripes 
tipuliformis 
titillans 
toxorhynchus 
trimaculatus 



348, ?,<^2 



347—349, 



168, 

(?) 354, 

330, 



35o(?), 



344 (?), 



34^, 349, 



3 54 1 



330 

, 349 
350 
350 
348 
3SP 
330 
355 
348 

, 355 
361 
330 
326 
348 
349 
330 
355 
349 
344 
343. 
353 
82 
349 

352, 
354 
332 

349 

35 5 

331 

327 

359 

350 

336 

328 

350 

344 

339 

351 

351 

351 

345 

351 

351 

330 

35} 

325 

352 

330 

352 

333 

352 

355 

352 

344 

340 

355 

341 

324 

344 

323 

337 

33a 

352 

353 
360 
330 

353 



Culex tritajuiorhynchus 
imcus 
univittatus 
vagans 
variegatus 
ventralis 
viridifroHs 
viridiventer 
vishnui 
zonatipes 
Culicina . . 300, 302, 
Cybister convexus 
Cyclestheria hislopi 
Cyclogaster detracta 
radians 
fCyclopodia amiculata 

ferrarii 
Cyclops diaphanus 
fimbriatus 
leuckarti 
oithonoides 
phaleratus 
prasinus 
serrulatus 
varicans 
Cyclostomata 
CylindroeciidEe 
Cylindroecium dilatatum 
Cynoglossus carpenter! 

lingua 
Cyprinidse 



343, 349, 



303, 



Page 

355, 356 
353 

351, 353 
353 

333, 339 
328, 356, 356 
330 
354 

354, 356 
330 

326, 362 
41 
24 
118 
118 
296 
29s 

• 24, 32 

22, 31 
31, 40 

23, 31 



21 — 24 



21—23, 32 
22—24, 31 
22, 23, 32 

195 
196, 199 

196 

3 

229 

.. 158 



Dalpada affinis 

versicolor 
Danielsia 

albotaeniata. . 
fDanio browni 

kakhiensis 
Datnioides polota 
Decapod cephalopod . . 
Dendromyia . . 
Dentalium 

magnificum 
sp. 
Derseocoris patulus 
Dermaptera . . 
Dermatinus lugubris . . 
Desvoidea 

obturbans . . 
panalectoros 
Desvoidya 

fusca 

joloensis . . 
obturbans 
panalectoros 
Dexiid 

Diachoris intermedia . . 
Diaphanosoma sarsi 

singalensis 
sp. 
Diaptonius blanci 

fcinctus . . 23, 
fcontortus . . 22— 





V 




17 




33^ 




3i^ 




395 




395 




227 




258 


365 


366 




259 




3 




3,7 




19 




207 




175 




327 




328 




328 




327 




327 




327 


328, 


356 




328 




172 




184 


■ • 23 


, 24 




24 


. . 22 


, 24 


.. 24 


. 29 


24, 29 


, 33 


24, 28 


, 33 



VI 





Page 






L'a^e 


Diaptomus doriai 


23, 24, 30 


Elasipod holothurian . . 




3 


•fpulcher 


23, 29, 33 


Elasraa 


9 


2, 92 


similis 


• • 24, 30 


acanthuioides . . 




92 


tstrigilipes . 


23, 30, i^ 


Elasmobranchia 




220 


Diasemopsis . . 


.. 163 


Elasmomia granulipes. . 




18 


fenestrata . 


165 


Elis annulata 




14 


fenestratus 


164 


asiatica 




14 


rufithorax 


164 


fimbriata 




14 


Dichelaspis . . 


279 


hirsuta . . 




14 


bathynomi 


■• 4, 279 


prismatica 




14 


occlusa 


279 


thoracica . . 




14 


Dicrolene intronigra , 


6 


Empidse 




168 


Dieuches femoralis 


19 


Emyda granosa . ; 




397 


leucoceras 


19 


vittata 




397 


Dilophus febrilis 


.. 167 


Engonia aurata 




115 


sp. . . 


.. 167 


Engraulis breviceps 




221 


Diopsjds, Oriental 


• ■ 163 


indicus 




221 


Diopsinai, Oriental 


• • 163 


sp. 




221 


Diopsis . . 


164 


taty 




221 


apicalis 


165 


Knoplomyia . . 


90, 94 


arabica 


164 


cothurnata 




94 


argentifera 


164 


Epliemerid larvae 


2: 


, 41 


attenuata 


163, 164 


Ephippiomyia .. 113, 


115 


beelzebuth 


165 


biliueata 




116 


circularis 


164 


bilineatum 115, 


II 


6(?) 


confusa 


164 


cinerea 




115 


cothurnata 


166 


cinereum 1 1 5 


116 


dalmanni 


163, 164 


gavasum 1 1 5 


116 


detrahens 


165 


nigerrimum 115, 


117 


discrepans 


■■ 165 


responsale 115, 


116 


fallax 


165 


thoracica 






ferruginea 


.. 165 


(non-Oriental) 




"5 


graminicola 


165 


Kphippium . . 




115 


ichneumonea . 


164 


angustimi . . 




115 


indica 


164 


spinigerum 




116 


latimana 


164 


Ephydatia . . . . 




270 


lativola 


164 


blembingia 




269 


quadriguttata 


164, i6i; 


crateriformis 




273 


quinqueguttatJ 


1 . . 165 


fluviatilis . . 




272 


subfasciata 


164 


var. meyeni 2 


72 


390 


subnotata 


164 


indica 272, 273, 279, ^ 


588 


,391 


sykesii 


161, 165 


meyeni 




272 


trentepohlii 


166 


miilleri 




272 


villosa 


165 


robusta 




272 


westwoodi 


165 


Epidaus atrispinus 




19 


•j-Diplacanthopoma squ 


amiceps . . 6, 10 


Epizoanthus 




259 


Diplatys 


207 


sp. 




2 


gladiator 


207 


Equula edentula 




228 


siva 


207 


Eretmapodites 




3i7 


Diploecium simplex 


•• 183 


Eristalis solitus 




169 


Dipsadomorphus multii 


"asciatus is 7 


tenax 




169 


■j"Diptychus annandalei 


.. 158 


Erthesina fuUo 




17 


Dolichopus sp. 


168 


Eschara fuegensis 




190 


Dragon-fly larvae 


• • 38, 40 


Escharidse 




190 


Drepane punctata 


227 


Etorleptiomyia 




368 


Drepanidse 


227 


luzouensis 




368 


Dryomyza formosa 


169 


Euceromyia . . . . i 


24, 


131 


mac 


ntlipennis 1 69 


nexura 




131 


Dunhevedia crassa 


. . 22, 27 


Euchiloglanis 




158 


setigera . 


27 


blythii . . 




158 


Dysdercus cingulatus . 


19 


Eudmeta . . . . i 


20, 


123 


evauescens 


19 


bruunea 
flavida 




123 
123 


E 




marginata 




123 




Eumenes afiinissima . . 




IS 


Ectoprocta . . 


180 


conica 




15 


Edwardsia 


70 


esuriens 




15 



Vll 



Euiuenes petiolata 
Kumenidae 
Eunicids 
Euphria aurantia 
Eusarcocoris guttiger 
Euspongilla . . 
Eusthenes eurytus 
Evaza 

argyroceps 

bipars 

flavipes 

fortis 

fulviventris 

impendens 

indica 

mollis 

pallipes 

pictipes 

scenopinoides 

tibialis 
Exostoma 



Farrella atlantica 
Ficalbia 

minima 

simplex 

Filaria bancrofti 

sanguinis-hominis 
Pinlaya 

anopheloides 
aranetana 
flavipennis 
kochi 

melanoptera 
poicilia 
Fish .. 41, 8 1 

Flustra dentigera 
foliacea 
pisciformis 
rhizophora 
securifrons 
Flustridse 

FoUiculina ampulla 
Forcipula 

decolyi 
trispinosa 
Porficula 

acer 

beelzebub 
planicollis 
Forficulidse . . 
Fulgora clavata 
spinolse 
Fulgoridae 



Gabasa argentea 
Gsana festiva 

sulphurea 
Gammaridse . . 
Garveia 
Gastropod 



Page 

15 
15 
2, 3 
19 
l8 

387 



89, 90, 97 

■• 97, 98 

97—99 

97, 98, i8 

98, 99 

98, 99 

97, 98 

98, 99 
98, 99 

99 

99 

98, 99 

97, 98 

158 



196 
362 
363 
363 
315 
310, 316 
360 
361 
361 
361 
361 
361 
361 
157, 258, 259 

179, 183 
184 

180, 184 
180, 184 

184 
. 183 

37. 143 

207 

207 

207 

208, 210 

210 

210 

210 

210 

19 

19 

19 



101 

19 

19 

40, 159 

141 

. 178 



Page 



Gastrotricha . . 

Gemmellipora glabra form striatula 

Geomyza (?) . . 

Geomyzinae 

Gerbilius ornatus 

Gerridse 

Gerris sp. 

Gibbons, hoolock 

Gismunda chelonia 

Glyphocrangon investigatoris 

Gobiidae 

Gobiiformes . . 

Gobioides rubicundus 

Gobius acutipennis 

alcocki . . 41 

i giuris 

I spp. 

viridipunctatus 
Gouia 

Gorgouacea . . 
Grabhamia . . 

ambiguus 

deniedmanni 

ochracea 

soUicitans 

spenceri 

var. idahoensis 
Graptostethus dixoni . . ..18 

servus 
Grasia 
Grassia 

Gymnoblastic hydrozoon 
Gymnodactylns himalayicus 



39 
190 
170 
170 

175 
228 

41 

278 

19 
2,6 
229 
229 
329 

41 

42, 68 

41 

41 

229 

169 

2 

341 

341 

341 

341 

341 

341 

341 

) 20 

18 

30s 

305 

139 

152, 15s 



H 

Halicore dugong . . . . 79 

Halictus lucidiusculus . . 16. 20 

Halys dentatus .. .. 17 

Hamadryad .. .. .. 157 

Haplochilus melauostigma .. 41, 68 

panchax . . . . 41 

Haplomi . . . . . . 223 

Haploporella lepida . . . . 188 

Harpactor marginellus . . 19 

Harpodon nehereus . . . . 223 

Heinzmannia . . . . 366 

scintillans . . 366 

Helopetlis theivora . . . . 19 

Hemidactylus brookii . . 397 

frenatus . . 397 

garnotii . . 151 

fnepalensis .. 151, 155 

platyurus . . 151 

Hemiptera .. .. 17, 20, 174 

Heptaphlebomyiuae . . . . 300 

Hermetia .. .. 120, 121 

albitarsis . . 121, 122 

armata . . 122, 123 

batjanensis . . . . 1 22 

cereoides .. 121, 122 

cingulata . . 123 

fenestrata .. 121, 122 

Iseta . . . . 122 

laglaizei 121, 122 

marginata . . 123 



Vlll 



Page 



Page 



Hernietia remittens . . 


121, 


122 


Labidura 




207 


rufiventris . . 


121, 


122 


bengalensis 




307 


Hermetiinae . . . . 8g 


,95, 


120 


lividipes 


208 


209 


Heterocarpus alphonsi 




259 


fnepalensis . . 




208 


Isevigatus 




258 


riparia 




207 


Heteronycha dolosa 




3)4 


var. inermis 




207 


Hexactinellidte 




259 


tenuicornis 




208 


Hexechopsis . . . . " 




163 


Laccotrephes sp. 




41 


Hilara 




168 


I,acertilia 




151 


" Hilsa " (vernacular term) 




221 


Lachesis graminens 




157 


Himalayan diptera 




166 


monticola 




157 


lizards 




151 


Lactariidse . . 




227 


Hirondella trioculata . . 




159 


f Lactarius burmauicus 219,22 


7, 2 


29— 


Hislopia . . . . 199, 


200, 


203 






231 


lacustris 


177, 


200 


delicatulus 227, 


229 


230 


Hislopiidae 




200 


fl/seops uigrescens 




5, 9 


Hodgesia 




367 


I,agenipora socialis 


180 


188 


sanguinea 




367 


spinulosa . . 




188 


Honialoniyia canalicularis 




169 


tuberculata 




188 


Homoeocerus albiguttulus 




18 


I,amprocoris roylii 




17 


Homola megalops 


6', 7, 


258 


spiniger 




17 


Hoolock gibbons 




278 


Lamprogrammus fragilis 


3, 


4,6 


Hoplistodera virescens 




18 


niger 




259 


Howardia 




312 


L,arra maura 




15 


Howardina . . 




338 


Lasiopa . . . . 1 14, 


117 


131 


greeuii 


"338. 


366 


detracta 


117 


118 


himalayana 




338 


infera 


117 


118 


Hiilecoeteomyia 




3Z7 


radians 


117 


118 


pseudotaeniata 




337 


*villosa var. himalayensis 


117 


trilineata 




338 


Lates calcarifer 




225 


Hyalinella 


147 


148 


I^anxania duplicans 




214 


Hyalinoecia tubicola . . 




3, 57 


Laverania 




317 


Hydractinea 283, 


285 


286 


Ivcicesteria 


336 


337 


Hydrichthys mirus . . 282, 


28s- 


-288 


longipalpis . . 




337 


Hydrobia miliacea 




39 


Lelia octopunctata 




174 


Hydrometra sp. 




41 


I/epidasthenia 




257 


Hydrotsea 




382 


fstylolepis 




260 


Hylobates hoolock 


276- 


-278 


Lepidotomyia 




339 


Hymenaster . . 




259 


alboscutellata 




339 


Hymenoptera 


. . 14, 20 


magna 




339 








I<epidotrigla spiloptera var. lonj 


li- 




1 






pennis 




5 


1 






I<epralia adpressa 




190 


Icaria ferrugiuea 




16 


cucuUata 
di stoma 




190 
195 


marginata 

variegata 
Idmonea milneana 
Ilyocryptus longiremis . . 23 
Insects . . . . 40, 81 
Irene ceylonensis 2i7 — 39> i39) 142 
Ischneura senegalensis ' . . 
Isopod . . . . 38, 


16 
16 

196 
, 26 

172 

197 
40 

279 


fuegensis 

megasoma 

multidentata 

poissonii 

turrita 
Leptidae 

I/eptobrachium monticola 
lycptocorisa acuta 


'. 8 


190 
195 

190 
190 
190 
5,86 
149 
18 








varicornis 




18 


J 






L,eptosomatomyia 

lateralis 




362 
362 


Joblotinee 




300 


Iveydigia acanthocercoides 


• 2^ 


i, 26 








australis 


. 24, 26 


K 






Ivimicolae 




250 






Limuobiinse . . 




168 


Kachuga sylhetensis . . 




171 


I/imnophora . . 

bengalensis 
fhimalayensis 


381, 


38s 
383 
382 


L 






macei 




383 


I^abia 






nigripennis 




383 




209 


prominens 




383 


sp. (?) .. 




209 


tonitrui . . 381, 


382, 


385 



IX 



Page 



Liris aurata . . 




IS 


Martesia sp. . . 


39 


I/ithodomus malaccanus 




176 


Massicyta 


120, 123 


Lituaria sp. . . 




7 


bicolor 


122, 123 


Lobotes surinamensis . . 




227 


cereoides 


122 


Lobotidae 




227 


inflata 


123 


Lohita grandis 


19, 


17s 


Mata kama . . 


19 


IvOphiiis 




288 


Med i aster sp. 


2 


indicus 




5 


Megachile conjuncta . . 


16 


lugubris 




5 


disjuncta . . 


16 


I/Ophocelomyia 




316 


monticola . . 


16 


asiatica 




317 


Megalops cyprinoides . . 


221 


lyophoceratomyia 




341 


Megaluropus 


159 


brevipalpis 




342 


Megarhinse 


300 


fraudatrix 




342 


Megarhina immisericors 


324 


uniformis 




342 


Megarhinus . . 


323, 326 


L/ophopodella thomasi 




147 


amboinensis 


323,325 


Lop hop us 


147, 


148 


gilesii 


324, 325 


carter! 


147, 


148 


immisericors 323, ; 


524, 324, 


crystallinus . . 


14s, 


148 




325 


jheringi 




148 


innrnaius . . 


325 


lendenfeldi . . 145, 


147, 


148 


lewaldii . . 


324 


*var. hiina 




minimus . . 


324 


layaniis 


146— 


-148 


splendens 


324 


lyophosteruus f alco 




173 ! 


subulifer 


323, 325 


>indicus . . 




172 


Megyinenum severini . . 


18 


Lutianus johnii 




226 


Melania spp. 


39 


Lycodon aulicus 




156 


Melanoconion 


360 


Lycorma delicatula 


. . 19, 20 


ornatus 


360 


Lygaeidse 




18 


pallidiceps 


360 


Lygseus equestris 




174 


Melanostoma ambiguum 


168 


militaris 




18 


dubium 


168 


Lygosoma himalayanum 1 5 1 


154 


155 


mellinuni 


168 


sikkimense . . 151, 


154, 


155 


scalare . . 


168 


Lynceus cambouei 


.. 23, 26 


Meleagrina margaritifera 


176 


guttatus 


. . 22, 26 


var. per.sica I7C> 


rectangulus . . 


.. 22, 23 


vulgaris 


.. 176 


Lyreideus channeri 


•• 3 


6,7 


Melita obtusata 
Membranipora bengalensis 

180, 


160 

39, 4O' 
186, 198 


M 






coronata 


186 






delicatula 


186 


Mabuia macularia 




154 


radicifera 


180 


Macacus arctoides 




278 


var. 


in- 


Macleaya 


336- 


-338 


termedia 186 


Macrones gulio 




41 


tenuirostris 


180, i»s 


Macropes dilutus 




174 


tuberculata 


180, 185 


Macrorhynchits longirostris 




365 


Membraniporidae 


185 


Macrothrix . . 




176 


Mesovelia sp. 


41 


goeldi 


. . 22, 25 


Metridium schillerianuni 


38,47 


fodiosa 23, 25, 32 


. 33. 


176 1 


var. exul48, 197 


rosea 




176 


Microchrysa . . 


102 


triserialis . . 


23, 2 


5, 33 


affinis 


103 


Macrurus investigatoris 




258 


annulipes 


103 


macrolophus 




6,7 


bipars 


102, 103 


Malacopterygii 




221 


calopus . . 


103 


Malcus scutellatus 




19 


flaviventris 


102 — 104 


Mammals 


79 


, 275 


gemma 


103 


Mansonia 




358 


Microporella ciliata 


186 


africana 




339 


malusii . . 


180, 188 


annulifera . . 


359, 360 


violacea form pla- 


annulipes . . 




359 


giopora 


186 


anopheloides 




331 


Microporellidse 


186 
186 


septempunctata 




359 


Microporidae . . 


uniformis . . 




359 


Micro velia sp. 


41 


var. revevsiis 


360 


Mictis macra 


174 



Originally Macrothrix tenuicornis : see p. 176. 



Page 



Mimomyia 

chamberlaini 
splendens (non 
Minous inermis 
MoUusca . . 39) 

Monocanthus tomentosus 
Monoporella albicans . . 

lepida 
Monoporellidse 
Mucidus 

alternans 
laniger 
mucidus 
scatophagoides 
Mucronella 

aviculifera 
canalifera . . 
fformidabilis 
f maculata . . 
tubulosa . . 
vultur 
Mugil dussumieri 
Mugilida? 
Mvigil planiceps 

sp. 
" Mtihar " (veni. term) 
Munida andamanica . . 

militaris 
Munidopsis regia 

scobrina 
|spinihirsuta 
trifida 
wardeni 
Muuita 

Mursena macrura 
Mursenesox talabonoides 
Muraenidse 
Mursia bicristimaua 
IMus alexandrinus 
decumanus 
hibernici:s 
mvisculus 
rattus . 
sylvaticus 
Musama 

paupera 
Musca domestica 
Muscidae 
Muscina; verse 
Mutilla antennata 
decora 
emergenda 
funeraria 
subanalis 
Mutillidae 
Mycetophilidte 
Mydsea 

Myliobatida; . . 
Myractis tubicola 
Myriozoidse . . 
Mytilus striatulus 
My zinc anthracina 
dimidiata 
fuscipeunis 
madraspatana 
Myzoinyia 

aconita 



364 

364 
-Oriental) 364 
285, 287, 288 
176, 258, 259 
281 
188 
188 
188 
326 
326 
326 
327 
327 
179 
192 
180, 191 
191 
192 
191 
192 
225 
224 
225 
224 
176 
2, 6 

4 

. . 258 

. . 2 

. . 2,12 

2 

6 

193 

223 

223 

223 

6 

275, 276 

275, 276 

275, 276 

275 

75, 276 

275 

14, IT7 

117 

69, 381 

172 

169 

14 
. 14, 20 
. 14, 20 

14 

• 14: 20 

14 

167 

• :,^^ 
220 

59 
189 

14 

14 

14 

. 14, 20 

305 

305 



Myzoinyia albirostris 
azriki 
culicifacies 



263 — 266, 



305, 311 
305 
305, 306, 

308 (?), 313 

elegans . . 3<~'6, 308 

funesta . . . . 306 

var. subumbrosa 307 

var. umbrosa 307 





fiinesius 


307 




jehafi 


3<^7 




jeyporensis (?) 


308 




kumasii (?) 


307 




leptomeres 


307 




leucosphyrus 


306, 307 




listoni . . 307 > 


308, 313 




ludlowi 


309 




mangyana 


309 




punctulata 


30^ 




rossii 


305, 309 




sub-sp. indefinita 310 




superpictus 


.. 305 




tessellata . . 


309, 311 




thorntoni . . 


.. 311 




tibani 


.. 305 




turkhudi . . 


3'^S> 311 


Myzorhy 


ichus 


.. 313 




alboannulatus 


.. 315 




albotseniatus 


313 




annularis 


314 




barbirostris 


314 




indiensis 


315 




minutus 


314, 315 




nigerrimus 


314, 315 




plumiger 


.. 31S 


- 


pseudobarbirostris 315 




pseudopictus 


• • 315 




sinensis 


314, 31S 




annulari 


s 315, 316 




umbrosus 


.. 316 



; 14— 316 



N 



Naididse 


137, 


247 


Nais 




2';0 


fNarcine mollis 




5," 8 


Nectocoris sp. 




41 


Neda sp. (?) • • 




4 


Negritomyia 


113, 


114 


albitarsis 


114, 


IIS 


bilineata . . 




116 


consobrina 


114, 


115 


festinans 


114, 


ii.S 


maculipennis 




114 


Nellia oculata 




185 


Nematocarcinus cursor 




2 


gracilis 




259 


Nematoda 




39 


Nemotelus 


114 


117 


albiventris . . 




117 


pits ilia 




128 


Neocerambyx paris 




172 


Nephrops andamanica . . 




258 


Nephropsis ensirostris 




4 


stewartii . . 




3, & 


Nerua 




97 



XI 



Pa^e 

99 
99 

263 — 266, 276 
16 



16 

16 

16 

200 

200 

183 

173 

18 

iS, 20 

85 

IS 

15, 20 

222 
222 

222 
160 



41 

296 

295 

29s 

29s 

41 

19 

316, 317, 323 



Nerua mollis . . 

scenopiiioid.es 
Nesokia bengalensis 
Nonia aurifrons 
curvipes 
terminata 
thoracica 
Norodonia cambodgiensis 

sinensis 
Notamiidae 

Nothopeus hemiptera . . 
Notobitus marginalis . . 

meleagris 
Notocantha . . 
Notogonia subtessellata 

tristis 
Notopteridae 
Notopterus <chitala 
kapirat 
Nototropis swammerdamei 
Nucula fultoui 
sp. . . 
Nurica danrica 
Nycteribia biarticulata 
jenynsii 
minuta 
tphthisica 
Nymphula sp. 
Nysius ceylanicus 
Nyssorhynchus 

fnliginosus 317, 318 

var. pal- 
lida 317 
jamesii .. 318 

karwari . . 318 

maculatus 304, 

318, 319, 321 
maculipalpis 315, 

318, 319 
var. indiensis 31 9 
uivipes .. 319 

philippinensis . . 319 
stephensi 319, 321 

theobaldi 31S — 320 

tibani . . 320 

willmorei . . 321 



Obrapa . . . . 90, 100 

argentata . . 100, loi 

celyphoides . . 100, loi 

perilampoides. . 100, loi 

Ochrochira albiditarsis .. 18 

Odontomyia .. .. 124, 126 

sequalis . . 126, 128 

atraria . . 126, 128 

bifascia . . 126, 128 

cinctilinea 126, 128 

cinerea . . . . 115 

claripennis 127, 129 

consobrina 127, 129 

diffusa . . 127, 129 

finalis . . 126, 128 

garatus . . 127, 130 

timmaculata 127, 130 



Odontomyia inimiscens 
incompleta 
lutatius . . 
minuta 
mutica 
tochracea 
ochropa 
pusilla 
restricta 
rubrithorax 
siderogaster 
solennis . . 
staurophora 
tsubmutica 

127, 
viridana . . 

Odynerus ceylonicus . . 
punctum 
sichelii 
sikliimensis 

Oligochaeta . . 

fOligodon erythrogaster 
venustus 

Onchidium spp. 

fOncholaimus indicus . . 

Ophichthys boro 

Ophidia 

Ophiocephalidae 

Ophiocephalus punctatus 
striatus 

Ophiurids 

Oreillia Imonensis 

Oreinus richardsonii 

Ortalinae 

Orthopodomyia 

albipes 

Orthoptera . . 

Osteriopliysi 

Ostracoda 

Otolithus maculatus 

Oxybelus canescens 

Oxycera . . 89, 

indica 



Pagt 
127, 130 

.. I28(?) 

129 
126 — 128, 130 

127, 131 
127, 129 
127, 130 

126, 128 

127, 130 
127, 128 

126, 128 

127, 129 
127, 130 

. 128, 130, 131 
126, 128, 130 

IS 
15 

IS 
IS 

83. 133, 2^7, 

217 

217 

39 

•• 39,45 

223 

ISS 

158, 225 

41, 42, IS8 

225 

2 

.. 368 

•• 1S8 
164 
362 
362 

97 

222 

32 

226 

15 

1 14, 116, 118 

119 

118, 1 19 



9S, 



Pachygaster . . 

albipes 

lativentris 

limbipennis 

rufitarsis 
Pachygastrinae H, ^ 

Pachymeria . . 
Palinurus angulatus 
Palomena reuteri 

viridissima 
Paludicella 

miilleri 
Paludicellidae . . 198 — 

Paludina 

Pamera pallicornis 
Pandalus alcocki . . 6, 

martius 
Pangasius buchanani 
Pa}wplites 



90, 


lOI 


lOI, 


102 


lOI, 


102 


lOI, 


102 




lOI 


102, 


121 




168 




5 




174 




18 


198, 


203 




202 


200, 


205 




178 




19 


2S8, 


259 


• • 4 


258 




222 




368 



xu 



Pa no put es africanus 

annulifera . . 

annulipes 

australiensis 

dives 

uniformis 

Paralia alcocki 

Paramoecia . . 

Peachia 

Pearl oysters 

Pecomyia 

maculata 

Pectinatella carteri 

davenporti 

gelatinosa 

magnifica 

Pelona indica 

Petnphredon fuscipennis 

Penicillidia . . 

Pennatiila 

pendula 

Pennatulid 

Pentacheles phosphorus 

Pentatomidae 

Perionyx excavatus 
sp. . . 

Periophthalmus koelreuteri 

fPeristethus adeni 

Peri+^echus aeruginosus 

Persephonaster sp. 

Persoces 

Persona sp. . . 

Phagomyia . . 

gubernatoris 

Pharella sp. . . 

Phoniomj/ia . . 

bimaculipes 
indica 

Phora sp. 

Phoridae 

Phormosoma sp. 

Phylactolsematous polyzoa 

Phyllochaetopterus sp. 

Phyllophora . . 

angusta . . 
hispinosa 

Phyllopoda . . 

Phyllopod Crustacea 

Physcosoma . . 

Physomerus grcssipes . . 

Physopelta gutta 

schlanbuschi 

Pipizella sp. . . 

Pirula investigatoris . . 
sp. . . 

Platycephalidae 

Platycephalus 

insidiator 

Platychirus albimanus 

Platylomia saturata 

Plautia fimbriata 

Plea sp. 

Plecia fluvicolHs 
melanaspis 

Phsionika martrus 

Pleuronectidse 

Pleurophyllidea sp. 



Page 






Page 


319 


Pleurotoma spp. 




7 


339 


symbiotes 




259 


3>9 


Plotosus canuis 




222 


3 


Plumatella . . . . 147 


, ■i'78 


, 198 


3i^ 


emarginata 


148 


. 177 


359, 3:0 


javanica . . 




148 


3 


philippinensis 




148 


242 


polymorpha 




148 


70 


princeps 




148 


.. 176 


punctata . . 


146 


, 148 


340 


repens 




148 


340 


Poecilasma eburneum . . 




81 


14.=;, 147 


gracile 




81 


148 


Poecilocoris drura^i 




17 


148 


interruptus 




17 


148 


purpurescens 




17 


221 


rufigenis . . 




17 


IS 


Polistes adustns 




16 


295 


hebra»us 




16 


6 


maculipennis . . 




16 


259, 260 


Sagittarius 




16 


3 


schach 




16 


6 


stigma 




16 


17 


Polybia orientalis 


. . I 


5, 20 


83 


Polychaeta . . . . 4, 


7, 39 


258 


83 


Polycheles phosphorus . . 




259 


41 


Polylepidomyia 




366 


•• 5,8 


argenteiventris 




366 


19 


Polynemus indicus 




224 


4 


paradiseus 




224 


224 


tetradactylus 




224 


6 


Polynoids 




2, 3 


• • 33^ 


Polyzoa 


39 


177 


■• 338 


Pompilidae 




14 


39 


Pompilid hymenopteron 




173 


365, 3^6 


Pompilus analis 




15 


• • 36s 


maculipes . . 




IS 


•• 365 


pedestris 




15 


170 


reflexus 




IS 


170 


Popea 




360 


■■3, 4, 6 


lutea . . 




360 


198 


Porella malleolus 




190 


4, 7 


Porifera 




38 


90, 92, 97 


Porina subsulcata 




194 


.. 92, 97 


Porinidae 




18S 


92 


Potsiella 


198, 


203 


24 


Priassus exemptus 


. . 18, 20 


177 


Prionus elliotti 




173 


197 


Pristidae 




220 


18 


Pristina 




250 


19 


Pristis cuspidatus 




220 


19 


Pristopomatidae 




228 


168 


Protohydra . . 




282 


3,7 


Protozoa 




37 


6 


Pselliophora chrysophila 




83 


229 


sp. 




168 


288 


Psen orientalis 




15 


229 


Psettus argenteus 




227 


169 


fPseudodiaptomus lobipes 23, 


27, 32 


>33 


19 


Psendograbhamia 




340 


18 


maculata 




340 


41 


Ptecticus 


102, 


108 


.. 167 


apicalis . . 108, 


no, 


III 


.. 167 


aurifer . . 108, 


no, 


III 


4 


australis 


109, 


113 


229 


brevipennis . . 


109, 


113 


6 


cingulatus 


109, 


II! 



XUl 



Ptecticus complens 
doleschalli 
ferrugineus . 
illucens 
latifascia 
leoninus 
quadrifasciatus 
remeans 
repen?ans 
rogans 
rufescens 
rufus 
taisalis 
tenebrifer 
tricolor 

wulpii (uom. nov. 
Pterois 

Pteroplatea micrura 
Ptilocera 

amethystina . . 
continua 
fastuosa 
quadridentata 
smaragdifera 
smaragdina . . 
Purohita arundinacea 
" Putia " fvern. term) 
Pycna repanda 
Pygolampis unicolor . . 
Pyretophorus 

freerae . . 
jeyporensis 
minimus 
philippinensis 
pitchfordj 
Pyrrhocoridae 
Pyrrhopeplus pictus . . 
Python molurus 



jifQuadrivisio bengalensis 

JQuadrivisio 

" Quetta borer " 



R 

Rachionotomy ia 

ceylonensis 
Raia philipi . . 
Rana blanfordi 

breviceps 

cyanophlyctis . . 42, 

formosa 

liebigii 

limnocharis 

tigrma 

vicina 
Raphiocera spinithorax 
Reduviidae 
Reedomyia . . 

niveoscutellata 
pampangensis 
Reptiles . . . . ^2, 

Retepora marsupiata 



Page 

109, 112 

109, 112, 113 

109, 112 

108, no 
109, 112, 113 

109 — III 

109, 112 

108, 109 

109, 112 
109, 112 

108, no 
112 

109, 112 

108, no 

109, 112 
) 109, III 

288 

220 

. . 89, 90 

.. 91, 92 

• • 9O1 91 
. . 90 — 92 
.. 90, 91 

•• 90, 91 
90, 91, 92 

19 

81 

19 

19 

312 

312 

313 

313 

313 

313 

19 

19 

155 



Retepora monilifera . . 
philippinensis 
pocillum 
producta 
tubulata 
Reteporella (?) sp. 
Rhachicerus 

fulvicornis 

nigrinus . . 

zonatus . . 

Rhacophorus maculatus 

Rhingia sp. 

Rhinolophns euryotis . . 
Rhynchium argentatum 
brunneum 
flavomarginatum 
hsemorrhoidalis 
metallicum 
Rhyncozoon incisor 
Rhyphomorpha 

bilinea 
Rhyphus fenestralis 
Riptortus fiiscus 
Rosalia lateritia 
Rosapha 

bicolor 

bimaculata . . 
habilis 
Rossia 

Rostellaria delicatula . . 
Rotifers 
Ruba 

inflata 
opponens 
Runchomyia 

philippinensis 
Russell's viper 
Rutilia nitens 



Page 
180, 193 
193 

180, 193 

193 

180, 194 

86, 88 

88 

88 

88 

39^ 

169 

295 

IS 

15 

IS 

15 

IS 

190 

86, 88 

88 

168 

18 

173 

90, 93 

93, 94 

93, 94 

93, 94 

313 

3 

39, 242 

114, 118 

118 

118 

365 

365 

157 

172 





160 


Saccobranchus lossilis 




159 


" Sadiii " (vern. term) 




173 


Sagartia nivea 

schilleriana 
troglodytes 63, 

Salda dixoni . . 

Salduba . . 90, 94, 95 




369 


areolaris 




369 


diphysoides . . 




5 


exigua 




150 


gradiens 




172 


hilaris 


150 


172 


lugubris 




151 


melanaria 




150 


melanarius 


iSi, 


172 


scapularis 


42, 


151 


signatipennis 


151, 


172 


singularis 




116 


Salicornaria tenitirostris 




19 


Salius fenestratus 




362 


flavus . . 




362 


madraspatanus. . 




362 


sycophanta 


171, 


397 


Sarcocystis miescheriana 




194 


niuris 



158, 222 

176 

70 

•• 35, 47 

65, 70, 71 

174 

, 102, 121 

• • 94—96 
•■ 95, 96 
•■ 95, 96 
..94—96 

• • 94, 96 
•• 95, 96 

95. 121 

121 

•• 95, 96 

•• 95, 96 

• • 94, 95 

184 

14 

14 

173 

.. 14, 20 

7& 

78 



XIV 



Paoc 



Sarcocystis platydactyli 




78 


Scisenidse 






226 


siamensis . . 




78 


Scisenoides microdon . . 




226 


, 227 


sp. 




77 


pama 






226 


tenella 


•• 77, 78 


Scieroptera splendidula 






19 


Sarcophaga . . 




169 


Sciocoris indicus 






18 


Sarginae . . . . 89 


, 95 


102 


Scleroparei 






229 


Sargus 


102 


104 


Scolia aureipennis 






14 


affinis 


. 


103 


capitata 






14 


albopilosus 


los 


107 


cyanipennis 




. . I 


\, 20 


aurifer 


110, 


112 


quadripustu 1 ata 






14 


brevipenm's 




113 


rubiginosa 






14 


complens 




112 


Scoliidae 






14 


concisus 


105 


107 


Scombresocidae 






224 


debilis 


105 


108 


Scombriformes 






228 


ferrugineiis 




112 


Scopelidae 






223 


flavipes (non-Oriental) 




107 


Scorpididae . . 






227 


flaviventfis 




103 


Scrupocellaria 






179 


formiccBformis 




106 


cervicornis 






181 


fortis . . 




99 


diadenia 






181 


gemmifer 


104 


106 


ferox 




181 


182 


inactus 


105, 


106 


tgaspari 






181 


inficitus 


105, 


108 


macandrei 






182 


Isetiis . . 


los, 


107 


scrupea 






180 


latifascia 




113 


Scutomyia 




337 


338 


leoninus 




111 


albolineata 






336 


longipennis 


105, 


106 


albop ictus . . 




334 


336 


longipes 


105, 


108 


nivea 




329 


336 


luridus 




110 


notoscripta 




334 


33^ 


mactans 


105, 


107 


sub 


-sp. sama- 




magnificus 


105, 


106 


rensis 


336 


mandarinus 


105, 


106 


sugens 




. . 


i37 


metallinus . . 1 


05- 


-107 


Selachii 






220 


pallipes 


10s, 


106 


Semnopithecus pileatus 






278 


papuanus 


105, 


108 


Sepedon 






211 


pubescens 


104, 


106 


aenescens 


211 


212 


213 


qiiadrifasciatus 




112 


batjanensis (nom 








redliibens .. 103, 


107, 


108 


nov.) 


211 


212 


214 


remeans 




109 


costalis ( I ) 


211- 


-213 


216 


repensans 




112 


costalis (2) 


211 


212 


214 


rogans 




112 


crishna 169, 


211- 


-214 


216 


yufescens . 




110 


duplicans 






214 


rufus 


104, 


105 


ferruginosus . . 




211— 


-216 


tarsalis 




112 


tfusciuervis . . 


21 1 


212, 


215 


tenebrifer 


109, 


110 


imbutus 






216 


tibialis 


105, 


107 


javana 






214 


Saruga 


114, 


117 


javanensis 


211 


212, 


214 


conifera 




117 


plumbellus 


169, 


211— 


-213 


Saurenchelys taeniola . . 




6 


fsanguinipes . . 




211— 


-215 


Sayomyia 




368 


senex 






216 


cornfordi 




368 


Sepsis 






170 


manilensis . . 




368 


Sergestes bisulcatus 






3 


Scalpellum bengalense. . 




4 


Serinetha augur 




'.'. li 


!, 20 


Scapholeberis kingi .. 21 


, 22 


, 25 


Seriola zonata 






285 


Scatophaga stercoraria 167, 


170, 


381 


Serrauidse . . 






22s 


Scatophagus argus 




227 


Serranus sp. . . 






22s 


Sceliphron formosum 




15 


Sigalion sp. . . 






5 


madraspatanum 




15 


Silaginidae 






228 


violaceum . . 




IS 


Sillago domina 






228 


Schizoporella aperta . . 




189 


Siluridse 




158, 


222 


cecilii 




189 


Simosa elizabethae 




. .21- 


—24 


incrassata 




189 


Simulium indicuni 






168 


nivea 




189 


Sinuata 






193 


spongitis 




189 


Siphonophora 






286 


tenuis 


180, 


189 


Sipunculid genus 






197 


Scisena aneus 




226 


Skusea 




335, 


362 


bleckeri 




226 


culiciformis 






335 


miles 




226 


diurna 






335 



XV 









Page 








Page 


Skusea funerea 






335 


Stegomyia nivea amesii 




329 


var. ornata 






335 


periskelata 




332 


multiplex 




33S, 


336 


pipersalata 




332 


Smittia marniorea 






180, 


190 


pseudonivea 




332 


rostriformis 








191 


pseudotcBuiata 




337 


trispinosa 








191 


punctolateralis 




333 


vSolariella sp. 








7 


scutellaris 83, ^t,, 


334 


336 


Solea umbratilis 








5 


form albo- 




Solinoinyia sp. 








4 


pictus 




334 


Solva 








86 


sub-sp. 


sa- 




hybatoides 








87 


marensis 


333 


,334 


inamcena 








87 


sexlineata . . 




334 


Solynemidse . . 








224 


striocrura . . 




33S 


Sparidae 








228 


thomsoni 




335 


Sphserodenia sp 








41 


W-alba 




335 


Sphserophoria sp 








169 


Steuocypris malcolmsoui 2 


I, 24, 32 


Sphedanolestes iudicus 






19 


Stenothyra blanfordiana 




39 


pubinotum 






19 


Stethomyia . . 




312 


Sphegidae 






15 


culiciformis 




312 


Sphenopus areuaceus 








70 


fragilis 




312 


Sphex luteipennis 








15 


nimba 




312 


nigripes 








15 


pallida 




312 


Sphyracephala 








160 


Stibaropus minor 




17 


cothurnata 




163, 


166 


Stizus prismaticus 




15 


hearseyana 






166 


vespiformis 




15 


Sphyrsena jello 






225 


Stolonifera 




198 


Sphyraenidae . . 






225 


Stratiomyia . . 


124 


125 


SpongiUa alba ^o, 198, 2 


79> 


388- 


-390 


apicalis . . 




125 


var. beugalensis 




389 


barca 




125 


var. marina 






389 


confertissima 




125 


carteri 25, 38, 1 


.70, 


279, 


i^7. 


ciiprina . . 




128 






^90 


391 


flavoscutellata 


125 


126 


cerebellata . . 


38 ,"6.^, 


389 


inanimis . . 




125 


fcrassior 




389- 


-391 


parallela . . 




125 


crassissima 271, 


^^7 


390 


391 


Stratiomyidae 


85- 


-132 


var. bigemmulata 


391 


Stratiomyinse 


89, 


124 


decipiens 




390, 


391 


Stratioinys 




125 


fragilis 




390, 


391 


bilineatuiii . . 




115 


lacustris t,^, 269, 


279 


,388 


389 


mi)inta 




127 


var. bengalensis 38, 


389 


nexitra 




131 


proliferens : 


67, 


268, 


271, 


Stromateidae 




225 






387 


389 


Stromateus cinereus . . 




225 


treticulata (?) 




387- 


-389 


sinensis 




225 


Sporozoon 






77 


Stylactis minoi .. 285, 


287, 


288 


tSquilla investigatoris 




■ * / 


•, 10 


Stylidia biarticiilata 




296 


sp. . . 






258 


Subula 


• 8. 


;, 86 


Statoblasts . . 






177 


fiavipes 




87 


Steganomus nodicornis 






16 


•' Surmulot " 




275 


Steganoporella simplex 






186 


Symbranchus bengalensis 




41 


sulcata 






186 


fSyncoryne filamentata 




139 


Stegomyia 


3^« 


336, 


339 


sp. 






39 


albop ictus . . 






334 


Synnotum aviculare 




179, 


183 


amesii 




329, 


iZ6 


Synopia 






159 


annulirostris 






^29 


Synopiida? 






159 


aurostriata 






329 
329 
329 


Syrphidae 




179, 


380 


brevipalpis 
crassipes . . 






Syrphus albostriatus . 
balteatus 






169 
169 


desmotes . . 






335 


luniger 






169 


fasciata 




^^0 


331 


pyrastri 






169 


. sub.-sp 
tans 


. persis- 


?,i'^ 


torvus 
imibellatarum 






169 
169 


gardneri . . 






331 








gubernatoris 






338 


T 






ieucomeres 






3SS 






' mediopunc 


tata 






331 


Tabanidae 




■ 8. 


5,86 



microptera . . 332 

nivea . . 329. 336, 33S 



Table of genera, Clitellarinae .. 113 
Hermetiinae . . 120 



XVI 





Page 








Page 


Table of genera, Pachygastriiice 


89 


Therapon jarbua 




226 


Sarginse 


102 


Thereva annulata 






168 


Stratiomyinse 


124 


sp. 






168 


Xylomyinae 


86 


Thylacosoma amboinense 






118 


Table of species, Clitellaria 


119 


Tinda . . 89, 92, 95, 


97, 


102 


, 121 


Ephippiomyia 


115 


acanthinoides . . 






92 


Eudmeta 


123 


indica 






92 


Evaza 


97 


modifera 






92 


Hermetia 


121 


recedens 






92 


Lasiopa 


117 


Tiphia aureipennis 






14 


Microchrysa 


102 


compressa 






14 


Negritomyia 


114 


implicata 






14 


Obrapa 


100 


incisa 






14 


Odontomyia . 


126 


rufo-femorata . . 






14 


Pachygaster . 


lOI 


Tipulidae 






168 


Ptecticus 


108 


Tironidae 






ISS^ 


Ptilocera 


90 


Tosena mearesiana 






19 


Ruba 


118 


Toxocera limbiventris 






123 


Salduba 


95 


Toxorhynchites 


324 


> 326 


Sargus 


104 


immisericors 


83.324 


,325 


Stratiomyia 


124 


inornatus 




325 


Tinda 


92 


leicesteri 




325 


Xylomyia 


87 


metallica 




325 


Table of sub-families, Stratiomy 


ida; 88 


Toxorhynchitinae 




300 


Tachsea spongillicola . . 


279 


Tracana 


121 


, 124 


Tachinid 


381 


iterabilis 




124 


Tachinidae 


i6q 


Trachischium tenuiceps 




156 


Tachydromia 


. 168 


Trichiuridae . . 




228 


Tseniorhynchus 


• 356 


Trichiurus haumela 




228 


acer . . 


357 


muticus 




228 


ager .. 


357 


Trichocera 




168 


annulioris 


358 


Trichochseta . . 


114 


120 


argenteiis 


357 


nemoteloides 




120 


aurites . . 


357, 358 


Tricbogaster fasciatus 




10 


brevicellulus 


357 


Trichoprononiyia 




354 


coiiopas 


358 


annulata 




356 


faSciolatus (non- 


Orien- 


Trichorhynchus 




356 


tal).. 


357 


fuscus 




356 


lineatopennis . 


• 358 


Trigonidae 




226 


maculipes arabiensis .^^8 


Trochospongilla latouchiana 




390 


ochraceus 


• 358 


phillottiana 


'269 


390 


tenax 


• 358 


Trophoma sp. 




2 


whitmorei 


• 358 


Tropicoris punctipes . . 




18 


Taphozous longimanus 


296 


Tropidonotus chrysargus 




156 


Taukte lizard 


171 


piscator 


..42 


156 


Teleopsis 


. 165 


platyceps 




156 


beelzebuth 


165 


stolatus 




156 


breviscopiuni 


• 165 


Trygon uarnak 




220 


fallax 


. 165 


walga 




220 


fulviventris . . 


165 


Trypoxylon intrudens . . 




15 


longiscopium 


. i6s 


Tubucellaria cereoides . . 


180, 


183 


raotatrix 


165 


Tubucellarians 




235 


rubicunda 


166 


Tubucellariidae 




185 


selecta 


166 


Tylototriton verrucosus 




278 


sykesii 


63, 165 


Typhlops acutus 




398 


Teleostii 


221 








Terebellid 


2 








Teredo sp. (?) 


39 


u 






Tettigids 


41 








Thalamoporella smittii 


180, 187 


Umbellularia . . 




6 


Thalanessa sp. 


3, 7 


Uranoscopus 




288 


Thenus orientalis 


280 


crassiceps 




5 


Theobaldia . . 


339 


Uranotaenia 


362- 


-364 


annulata . . 


339 


atra 




363 


longiareolatus 


340 


caeruleocephala 




363 


spathipalpis 


340 


vay. later- 


36a 


Theora sp. . . 


39 




alis 





xvu 







Page 


Uranotaenia falcipes . . 


• 364 


malayi 


364 


minima . . 


363 


a itido venter 


364 


testacea . . 


364 


Urochela bimaculata . . 


18 


ferrugiiiea 


18 


Urodele 


. 278 


Urolabida histrionica . . 


18 


tenera 


18 


uniloba 


18 


Urostylus gracilis 


18 


V 


Valkeria caudata . . . . 1 96 


Valvata (?) microscopica 


39 


Varanus nebulosus 




398 


Varuna spp. . . 




40 


Velella 




286 


Velutina sp. . . 




7 


Veretillum sp. 




• 6,7 


Verrallina 




. 362 


Verticordia eburnea 




• 7, 258 


Vesbius purpureus 




175 


Vesiculariidse 




[96, 203 


Vespa auraria 




16 


basalis . . 




16 


cincta . . 




16 


flaviceps 




16 


magnifica 




16 


Vespertilio muricata . 




296 


Vespidae 




16 


Victorella 


198, 202, 205 


pavida38,4o, 197 — 201, 203, 


204 


Virgularia sp. . . . . 7 


Vorticellid protozoon . 




140 



w 



Page 



Wallacea 




90, lOI 


argentea 
Worcesteria . . 




lOI 

. 326 


grata 




• 326 


Wyeomyia 




• 36s 


aranoides 




• 36s 


green ii 




. 366 


(?) micropterus 


. 332 



Xenomystax trucidans 




6 


Xenophora pallidula 




258 


Xylocopa acutipennis 




16 


aestuans 




16 


dissimilis 




17 


fenestrata 


■ '16, 


174 


iridipennis 




16 


latipes 




16 


tenuiscapa 




16 


Xyloniyia 


.'.'ss 


,86 


calopodata 




87 


flavipes 




^7 


hybotoides 




87 


inamcena 




87 


vittata 




3; 


Xyloniyinae . . 




86 


Xylophagidse 




85 


Xylophagus . . 


: :: 8s 


,86 



Zamenis mucosus 
" Zanni " (vern. term) 
Zicrona caerulea 
Zoroaster sp. 



IS7 
176 

18 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FAUNA OF THE 

ARABIAN SEA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS 

OF NEW FISHES AND CRUSTACEA. 

By R. E. IvLOYD, M.B., B.Sc, Capt. I. M.S., Surgeon Naturalist, 
Marine Survey of India. 

During the early part of 1906, the Indian Marine Survey- Ship 
' Investigator ' proceeded from Muscat to Aden along the south 
coast of Arabia and returned by the same route. On both passages 
the trawl was used almost ever}' da}-, so that ten hauls were ob- 
tained, three from less than 200 fathoms, and seven from about 500 
fathoms or over. The results were for the most part good. Since 
this is the first time that the ' Investigator ' or, I believe, any 
other ship has trawled in deep water along this coast, it seems 
well, to publish a general account of the material obtained. So 
far it has only been possible to identify the Fish and Crustacea, 
but the greater part of the specimens fall within these two groups. 
The identification of species has been facilitated b}' the fine collec- 
tion of types of Indian deep-sea Fish and Crustacea in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

On the present collection, as a whole, the following observa- 
tions may be made, and it is in these that its chief interest seems 
to lie : — 

I. The number of new species met with is remarkably 
small considering that the ground was being investi- 
gated for the first time. Only two new Crustacea 
and five new Fish, all species of well-known genera, 
were obtained. Of these seven species five are from 
the three stations in less than 200 fathoms, while 
the seven stations in about 500 fathoms or over only 
contributed two new species, one Fish and one Crus- 
tacean. 
II. The repeated occurrence of man}' of the species at several 
different stations is remarkable. Thus, of the seven 
deeper stations, one fish, Bathygadus furvescens, was 
found at four, while several species were found at 
three, although the seven stations were distributed 
irregularly along a line 1,000 miles or more in length. 
III. The occurrence of the giant Isopod Bathy nonius giganteus 
and the large bilaterally symmetrical Hydroid Bran- 
chiocerianthus imperator (which is here recorded from 
Indian seas for the first time) is noteworthy. 

The details of the various stations are as follows : — 



2. R. E. Ll.OYD : The Fauna of the Arabian Sea. [VOL. I, 

vSTATION No. 355. 

Depth 492 fathoms. Lat. 21° 49 50" N. Long. 59° 48' 00" E. 
Surface temperature 78° F. Bottom, green sandy mud with many 
Foraminifera. 

The trawl came up with the iron beam bent nearly double and 
the net badl}" torn ; in spite of this many things were obtained from 
the swabs and from the extreme end of the bag, which was intact. 

Fish. 
None obtained ; any caught must have escaped. 

Crustacea. 

Glyphocrangon investigatoris . . (Three typical specimens). 

Munida andamanica . . (Several specimens. The spines at 

the side of the rostrum are 
about one-third of the length 
of the rostrum, i.e., rather 
shorter than in the type ; but 
this character is very variable). 

Munidopsis trifida . . (Several specimens). 

,, scohrina . . (Several specimens). 

,, spinihirsuta, sp. n. (Three small males. Described 

Postea, p. 12). 

Nematocarcinus cursor .. (Several specimens). 

Aristeus crassipes . . (Two specimens). 

Aethusa indica . . (One specimen). 

Entangled in the net were two specimens of a most beauti- 
fully reddish orange Hydroid, which were found to agree almost 
exactly with the form figured by Merk and subsequently b^' 
Miyajima, who named it Branchiocerianthus imperator. Similar 
specimens were subsequently obtained in deep water off the coast 
of Baluchistan ; these will be more fully described elsewhere. 

At this station a large number of Polychsetes were obtained. 
Among them were representatives of the Chlorohaemid genera 
Trophonia and Brada, two Polynoids (one of which was a large 
blood-red species about three inches long) and a small Terebellid. 
A Eunicid contained in a branched parchment tube with openings 
at regular intervals was also present, and to this tube a colony of 
Epizoanthus was attached. 

Besides these forms several bivalve Molluscs of the genus 
Nucula, probably N. fultoni, were taken, and the Asterid Mcdiaster, 
five species of Ophiurids and some Gorgonacea. 

STATION No. 356. 

Depth 156 — 200 fathoms. Lat. 17° 59' 00" N. Long. 57° 
22' 30" E. Bottom temperature 58° F. Surface temperature 77° F. 
Bottom probably firm, hard sand ; no sample was obtained in the 
sounding tube and the specimens in the trawl were all quite clean. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 3 

Fish. 

Cynoglossus carpenteri . . (Seven specimens of this Sole. 

They were distinctly bathy- 
bial in appearance, being of a 
very dark sepia colour and of 
a flabby consistency). 

Crustacea. 

Paraliaalcocki .. (Over fifty specimens, including 

two giant males). 

Many specimens of the Molluscs Rostellaria delicahda and 
Pirula investigatoris. These specimens are generally found to- 
gether and have been met with several times in the Bay of Bengal 
and off the West Coast of India, always from about the 200-fathom 
line. 

A small Eunicid in a sandy tube was also obtained. 

STATION No. 357. 

Depth 555 fathoms. Ivat. 16° 51' 00" N. Long. 54° 55' 00" B. 
Bottom temperature 48*5° F. Surface temperature 78° F. Bot- 
tom, finely divided greenish mud. 

Fish. 

Lamprogrammus fragilis . . (One specimen). 

Bathygadus furvescens . . (One specimen), 

Crustacea. 

Nephropsis stewartii . . (One specimen). 

Aristeus crassipes .. (Three specimens). 

Sergestes bisulcatus . . ,One specimen). 

Lyreideus channeri . . (One specimen). 

Besides these species the following Polychsetes were obtained : — 
two large specimens of Hyalinoecia tubicola, the tubes of which were 
about 10 inches in length, and an interesting genus which comes 
under the group Sigalionima and is perhaps Thalanessa. Its most 
remarkable features are a pair of large pink eyes and a median 
tentacle on the extensible proboscis. Also two small blood-red 
Polynoids, which were embedded in the outer skin of an Elasipod 
Holothurian. Also several large Dentalia, probably D. magnificum ; 
the empty shells of a species of Cryptodon ; a species of Phormosoma, 
and a Pennatulid with a quadrangular rachis bearing polyps on 
one side only. 

STATION No. 358. 

Depth 585 fathoms. Lat. 15° 55' 30" N. Long. 52° 38' 30" E. 
Bottom temperature 47' 5° F. Surface temperature 77° F. Bottom, 
green sandy mud. 



R. E. Lloyd : The Fauna of the Arabian Sea. [Vol. I. 



Fish. 



. LampYogrammus fragilis 
Bathygadus furvescens 
Benthobatis moresbyi 



(Three specimens). 

(Two specimens). 

(One small specimen of this in- 
teresting bathybial Torpedo, 
which is now found for the third 
time). 



Crustacea. 



Bathynomus giganteus 



A risteus crassipes 
Acanthcphyra arniaia 
Pandal'us {Plcsionika) inartius 
Munida niilitaris ■ 
Nephropsis ensirostris 
Scalpellum hengalense 



(Two specimens, a female 7 inches 
long and a male 4 inches ; gener- 
ative apparatus was not present 
in either specimen. The female 
had undeveloped oostegites to 
the thoracic legs. Both speci- 
mens were alive when taken 
from the trawl. The pleopods 
were covered with a small Bar- 
nacle described by Annandale 
under the name Dichelaspis 
hathynomi [Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
ser. 7, vol. xviii, July, 1906].) 

(One specimen). 

(One specimen). 

(One incomplete specimen). 

(Several specimens). 

(One specimen). 

(Several specimens). 



Many other species were obtained at this station, e.g., Asterids 
of the genera Persephonaster and Zoroaster, with portions of a 
Brisiuga including two central disks showing facets for sixteen arms. 
Also representatives of the Echinoid genera Phormosoma and 
Cidaris or allied genera. Also the MoWmscs A mussium and Cryptodon 
and a shell-less Tectibranchiate form probably belonging to the 
genus Neda ; Holothurians of the genus A nkyroderma ; and a 
large quantit}^ of a thin parchment-like tubing having the calibre 
of a crow's quill and bearing occasional side branches. These 
tubes contained an interesting little Polychsete of a dark green 
colour and resembling ChcBtopterus in its general form, but bearing 
two long white cephalic tentacles. Most probably it comes into 
the genus Phyllochcstopterus. 



STATION No. 359. 

Depth 674 fathoms. Lat. 14° 41' 30" N. Long. 50° ^^ 15" E. 
Bottom temperature 47-2° F. Surface temperature 78° F. Bottom, 
green mud. 

A poor result. One line specimen of the Prawn Acanthcphyra 
armata : the Molluscs Amussium and Solenomya : the Holothurian 



iQoy.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



Ankyroderma : the Polych^etes Hyalinoecia tubicola and an interest- 
ing form with over one hundred segments all bearing elytra. This 
is probably a species of Sigalion. 



STATION No. 360. 

Depth 130 fathoms. Lat. 13° 36' 00" N. I^ong. 47° 32' 00" E. 
Temperature not taken. Bottom probably firm sand ; no sample 
obtained in the tube and all the specimens quite clean. 



A good haul containing four 
Raia philipi^ sp. n. 



Uranoscopus crassiceps 
Peristethus adeni, sp. n. 

Bregmaceros macclellandi 
Lophius lugubris 
,, indicus 
Bembrops caudimacula 



are 
the 
and 



CaUionyimis carebares 
Narcine mollis^ sp. n. 

Solea umbratilis 



LcBops nigrescens, sp. n. 

Lepidotrigla spiloptera var. 
longipennis 



Fish. 
new species. 

. . (One smah male. Described in 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7^ 
vol. xviii, Oct. 1906). 
(Four specimens). 
. . (One specimen. Described postca 
p. 8). 
(One specimen). 
(Three specimens). 
(One specimen). 
(Many specimens. These 
slightly unlike the type ; 
eye is relatively smaller 
the cutaneous appendages on 
the lower end of the maxilla 
are longer). 
(Man}^ specimens). 
. . (Two specimens. Described pos- 

tea, p. 8). 
. . (Many specimens. These seem 
darker in colour than the tj^pe 
and the skin feels rougher owing 
to the spinelets which project 
over the posterior border of the 
scales being somewhat stronger 
and more prominent). 
. . Many specimens. Described pos- 
tea, p. 9). 

(Many specimens). 



Crustacea. 
Only three species, but the numbers obtained were very large. 
Palinurus angulatus . . (Seventy-five of these Crayfish 

were taken. They made a loud 
creaking noise with their sound- 
producing apparatus as the net 
was hauled in). 



R. E. Llov[) : The Fauna of the Arabian Sea. [VOL. I. 



Arctus orientalis 
Mursia bicristimana 



(Forty-five specimens). 
(Twenty-five specimens). 



The Molluscan genera Persona and Pirula (a species of the latter 
closely allied to P. investigatoris) and the Nudibranch Pleurophyl- 
lidea were represented. Also the Echinoderm genera Cidaris, 
Clypcaster and Zoroaster ; and the Pennatulids Vcretillum, Umhcl- 
lularia, and Pennatula, all in great numbers. 



STATION No. 361. 

Depth 540 fathoms. Bottom temperature Si'S'^ F, vSurface 
temperature 82° F. Bottom, green mud. 
Another good result. 

Fish. 



Macrurus macrolopJms 



Dicrolene intronigra 
Xenomystax trucidans 
Bathygadns furvcscens 
Saurenchclys tceniola 
Diplacanthopoma squamiceps 
sp. n. 



(One specimen. Almost typical 
but differs from the type in two 
respects : {a) the spinelets on 
the scales are longer, {b) the 
barbels are minute. These two 
characters, the reduction of the 
barbels and the increase of the 
spinelets, are the principal 
features which separate M. mac- 
rolophus from M. investigatoris. 
This specimen goes somewhat 
further along the same line of 
variation), 

(One specimen). 

(One specimen). 

(Two specimens). 

(One specimen). 



Larnprogr animus jragilis 



(Two specimens. 

tea, p. 10). 
(Two specimens). 



Described pos- 



Crustacea. 



Glyphocrangon investigatoris 
Lyreideus channeri 
Pentacheles phosphorus 
Pandalus alcocki 
A risteus semidentatus 
Homola megalops 
Aethusa indica 
Nephropsis stewartii . 
Munidopsis wardeni 
Munida andamanica 

The Echinoderm genera 



(Two specimens). 
(Two specimens). 
(One specimen). 
(Many specimens). 
(One specimen). 
(Many specimens). 
(Five specimens). 
(One specimen). 
(Many specimens). 
(Three specimens). 

Zoroaster and Phormosoma are repre- 



IQ07-] Records of the Indian Miiseum. ■ 7 

sented. Also the Mollusc Verticordia eburnea and a species of the 
Cephalopod genus Cirrotheuthis. 

STATION No. 362. 

Depth 480 fathoms. Lat. 13° 50' 00" N. Long. 48° 18' 00" E. 
Bottom temperature 55° F. Surface temperature 79° F. Bottom, 
green sandy mud. 



Fish. 



Macrurus macrolophus . . (One specimen). 

Bathygadus furvescens . . (Two specimens). 

Crustacea. 

Homola megalops . . (Three specimens). 

Lyreideus channeri . . (One specimen). 

Besides these^ the Holothurian Ankyroderma, some Poly- 
chsetes of the same species as were obtained at Station No. 357 
(Thalenessa sp.), and several empty shells belonging to the genera 
Cryptodon, Dentalium, Pleurotorna (three species), Solariella and 
Vehitina. 

STATION No. 363. 

Depth 810 fathoms. Lat. 14° 28' 45" N. Long. 50° o' 15" E. 
Bottom temperature 43° F. Surface temperature 80° F. Bottom, 
green mud with many shells. 

Crustacea. 
Aristeus crassipes. 

Also the Holothurian Ankyroderma and the Polychsetes 
Hyalinoecia tuhicola , Phyllochcetoptorus sp., and Thalenessa sp., 
the two latter belonging to the species obtained before. A large 
Schizonemertine, most probably of the genus Cerehratulus, was 
also taken. 

STATION No. 364. 

Depth no fathoms. Lat. 15° 8' 30" N. Long. 51° 52' 15" E. 
Bottom temperature 63' 5° F. Surface temperature 80° F. Bot- 
tom, sandy mud. 

Crustacea. 

Squilla investigatoris , sp. n . . (Over five hundred specimens of 

this new species were the prin- 
cipal feature of this haul. 
Described postea, p. 10). 

Also the Mollusc Pirula investigatoris and Pennatulids of the 
genera Veretillum, Lituaria and Virgularia. 



8 R. E. LlOVD : The Fauna of the Arabian Sea. [VOL. I, 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 

Fish. 
Pcristethus a dent, sp. nov. 
Br.r. 7 | a.D. 7 | p.D. 14 | v. 5 | P. 12 2 j L.L. 24 j L.tr. 4 | A. 14 

The length of the prseorbital process is equal to one-third of the 
distance between its extremity and the anterior border of the 
orbit. The prseocular ridge has a prominent, finely serrated border ; 
it ends behind in a sharp spine, which is nearly as long as the 
eye. The inner borders of the prseorbital processes are parallel, 
their outer borders, if prolonged, would meet in front at an angle 
of 40°. The prseorbital processes therefore appear to converge. 
The length of each labial tentacle is equal to the width of the 
mouth. 

The osseous plates between the ventral fins are unusually 
thick. The greatest length of each anterior ventral plate is equal 
to the greatest breadth of both combined. The greatest length 
of the posterior ventral plates is half that of the anterior ones. 
The greatest length, in both cases, is to one side of the middle line. 
A quadrangular portion of the posterior plates fits into a correspond- 
ing hiatus in the anterior plates. Throughout the length of the 
body, on either side, there are four rows of plates, each with a 
large spine shaped somewhat like a rose- thorn, their points curving 
backwards. The lowest row is much less conspicuous than the 
others. 

There are large postorbital, occipital, post-temporal, and two 
opercular spines, a small upper and a large lower one, on either 
side. There is one small median spine, an orbit's length in front 
of the orbits. 

The greatest height is one-fifth the total length. Total length 
of the single specimen 6^ inches : greatest length of the head three 
inches. 

Colour — Reddish yellow ; pectorals grey ; dorsals tipped with 
black. 

Habitat — Gulf of Aden ; 130 fathoms. 

Narcine mollis, sp. nov. 

The vent is slightly nearer the anterior margin of the snout 
than the tip of the tail. The disc is evenly rounded, it is slightly 
broader than long. The margin of the flap formed by the confluent 
nasal valves is most prominent at the sides, unlike N. tivilei, the 
other Indian species. The whole quadrangular space which lies 
between the two nasal clefts is nearly as long as it is broad. In 
N. timlei this space is three times as broad as it is long. 

The anterior dorsal is slightly smaller than the posterior ; 
it commences just behind the ventrals. The dorsal and caudal 
fins have blunt pointed ends and the folds of skin along the sides 



iQoy.] Records of the Indian Museinn. g 

of the tail are obvious, but not prominent. The dorsal and ventral 
parts of the caudal fin are confluent. 

The teeth are in lo to 12 rows in both jaws ; the front row 
has only 3 or 4 teeth ; behind this the number gradually increases 
in succeeding rows up to about 16. The teeth of the front rows 
have triangular, flat surfaces ; behind, the teeth bear a sharp me- 
dian cusp. 

The spiracle is immediately behind the eye and is the same 
size as the eye. 

The electric organs seem well developed. The fish gave no 
perceptible shock to the hand and died soon after capture. 

Round the margin of the disc, and along the sides of the tail, 
and over the snout, are the openings of mucous pores symmetri- 
cally arranged. 

Consistency and general appearance distinctly bathybial. 

Colour — Dark brown above, greyish brown below. 
Habitat — Gulf of Aden ; 130 fathoms. 



LcBops nigrescens ^ sp. nov. 
D. 95 i A. 82 C. 17. I P.d. & 5.13. I V.d. & s. 6. 

This species is closely allied to L. guentheri and L. parviceps. 
It differs from these in the following respects : — 

It is bathybial in appearance. The pectoral fins are longer than 
the head. The head is ;^th the length without the caudal fin ; 
the height without the fins is 2f in the total length. The pectoral 
fins are better developed on the left side ; the length of the left 
pectoral is longer than the entire head in most specimens ; it is 
never less than the length of the head. The left pectoral fin is 
much longer than the right, in some specimens nearly twice as 
long. The ventral fins are about equal : the left is in a line with 
the anal. The caudal fin is pointed, its length is 6 in the total. 
The length of the dorsal and anal fin rays are about equal and are 
about 2^ in the body height. The lateral line forms a strong 
pectoral curve ; the scales are small and deciduous. The snout is 
half the major diameter of the eye, the lower eye is in advance of 
the upper ; the eyes are separated by a prominent ridge. 

The major diameter of the eye is one- third the length of the 
head. 

Teeth on the blind side only. 

Vomer prominent, devoid of teeth. 

Seven specimens, the longest 6|- inches in length. 

Colour — lycft side dark sepia, with irregular patches of a 
darker sooty tone, fins nearly black. The colour resembles that 
of Lceops macropthalmatus from 100 fathoms and differs widely 
from that of L. guentheri and L. parviceps from shallow water. 

Habitat — Gulf of Aden ; 130 fathoms. 

9 



10 R. E. Lloyd : The Fauna of the Arabian Sea. [VOL. I, 

Diplacanthopoma squamiceps , sp. no v. 

Corresponds with the generic definition in the following res- 
pects : — the form and arrangement of the fins, of the teeth and the 
gills, in the number of the branchiostegals (8), in the absence of 
pseudobranchise and pyloric cseca, in the obscurity of the lateral 
line, and in the presence of radiating spines on the opercles. It 
differs from all known species in this important respect : — there 
are scales on the head as far forward as the posterior limit of the 
eyes and on the opercles and sides of the head as far forward as a 
line dropped vertically from the posterior border of the eyes. The 
head is much depressed and the eyes are close together and look 
upwards to a great extent, being separated by less than their dia- 
meter ; this gives the head a very different appearance from that 
of the other three known Indian species of the genus, in all of which 
the eyes are separated by about if- times their diameter. 

There are deep mucus pits on the head and in a semicircle 
below the orbits. 

There are no pseudobranchise, but in the position of these 
organs there are two very short and slender filaments which are 
vestiges of this organ. I find that the type specimens of D. rivers- 
andersoni and D. raniceps have precisely similar vestiges. This 
seems to be a strong argument for including this new species 
under the genus Diplacanthopoma. 

The length of the head is 3^ in the total without the cau- 
dal fin. 

The greatest height is one-sixth the length without the cau- 
dal fin. 

The length of the eyes is a little less than the length of the 
snout. 

There are 19 rays in the pectoral fins. 

The filaments composing the ventral fins are composed of 
two rays. 

The male has a well-developed penis. 

Two specimens, a male and a female, both about five inches 
long. 

Habitat — Off the S.-E. coast of Arabia ; 540 fathoms. 

Crustacea. 
Squilla investigatoris , sp. nov. 

Eyes large, consisting of two subequal lobes. The carneal axis 
is slightly oblique to, and a little longer than, the peduncular 
axis. 

The rostrum s ovate, and is a little longer than its breadth at 
the base, without a carina, but with raised lateral margins. 

There are five carinse on the carapace ; the median one be- 
comes flattened out and obscured anteriorly, and a little less than a 
rostrum's length behind the rostrum, it bifurcates. The antero- 
lateral angles of the carapace bear spines, which do not extend 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 11 

as far forward as the level of the rostral base. The postero-lateral 
angles are smoothly rounded. 

The first free thoracic segment bears two lateral spines, a long 
anterior one, curving downwards and forwards, and a short posterior 
blunter spine proj ecting transversely outwards ; there are no ventral 
spines. The second free thoracic segment has a bilobed lateral 
margin, the anterior lobe being smaller and more pointed than the 
posterior. The lateral margin of the third thoracic segment is also 
bilobed, the anterior lobe being much the smaller. 

Excepting the first, each of the free thoracic segments bears 
four carinse, the sub median ones being somewhat obscure. All the 
abdominal segments excepting the last bear eight carinae, the sub- 
median pair are obscure. On the upper surface of the second to 
the fifth abdominal segments there is a small dorsal tubercle which 
is duplicated by a transverse groove. The lateral carinae of the first 
to the sixth, the sublateral carinae of the third to the sixth, and the 
submedian carinae of the fifth and sixth end in a spine posteriorly. 

The length of the telson is slightly greater than its breadth. 
The margin bears four large spines, a pair of submedian and 
a pair of sublateral ; anterior to each sublateral are two lesser mar- 
ginal spines, the posterior of these bears a small tubercle at its 
hinder angle. Between the submedian spines there are 8 to 10 
teeth. Between the submedian and sublateral spines on each 
side there are 9 to 10 teeth. The telson bears a mid-dorsal ridge 
and a ventral tuberculated keel, the dorsal ridge ends posteriorly 
in a spine, beneath which there are, in some specimens, two or 
three other spines. At the anterior end of the dorsal ridge is 
another blunt spine. The basal prolongation of the uropod is 
finely serrated on its inner margin, the inner division is by far the 
larger and bears a sharp spine in the middle of its outer edge. 
The proximal joint of the exopodite is a little longer than the 
distal and bears seven moveable spines on its outer border. 

(Up to this point in the description this species differs only 
on minor points from 5. nepa, S. stridulans and several other 
species.) 

In the raptatorial claw we find the most distinctive feature. 
The dactylus bears about fifteen long, delicate curved teeth, the 
number varying within wide limits. The number of teeth in sixteen 
counted specimens was as follows : — 13, 17, 16, 16, 14, 18, 14, 14, 
13, 10, 16, 13, 17, 15, 17, 16. 

This variation has no relation to sex. Not only does the num- 
ber vary, but the length of the teeth and the amount of their 
curvature is very variable. 

The opposing border of the propodite is finely serrated and 
bears three moveable denticles near its base ; of these the middle 
one is much the smallest. The carpus bears three stout blunt 
spines. The posterior angle of the claw, when folded up, does 
not reach as far as the posterior angle of the carapace. 

Numerous specimens ; sexes about equally distributed. 

Colour — Very variable, thorax and abdomen sand-colour with 



12 R. E. Lloyd : The Fauna of the Arabian Sea. [Vol. 1,1907.] 

minute black spots ; telson and uropodites show a blue-black 
colouration irregular in its distribution. 

Habitat — S.-E. coast of iVrabia, no fathoms. 

Munidopsis spinihirsuta , sp. nov. 

The length of the carapace is ver^^ slightly greater than the 
breadth. 

The rostrum, which is less than half the length of the cara- 
pace, curves upwards especially towards the tip, is carinate and 
bears an obscurely serrated lateral margin. The entire upper 
surface and lateral margins of the carapace are covered with large 
pointed spines which curve forwards ; these spines are arranged 
with some approach to symmetry ; they are most numerous over 
the gastric regions ; they all bear long hairs. 

There are six spines on the posterior border of the carapace. 
The upper surfaces of the first three abdominal segments bear 
hairy spines. 

The eyes are colourless, egg-shaped, and one-third the length 
of the rostrum ; they are surmounted by a flat, curved, hirsute 
spine. 

There is a small spine on the anterior border of the carapace 
between the eye and the second antenna forming the boundary of 
an orbit. 

The chelipeds are nearly equal and are about as long as the 
entire body in the male (female unknown). The merus and carpus 
are covered with spines ; there is a row of small spinules on the 
inner border of the propodite ; the fingers are shorter than the 
palm. From the second to the fourth thoracic leg, the mero-, 
carpo-, and propodite are covered with small spines on their upper 
surfaces ; the dactylus in these appendages is half the length of 
the propodite. There are no epipodites on the chelipeds or any of the 
walking legs. The basal joint of the peduncle of the second antenna 
has an external and an internal spine of equa size. The flagellum 
is about the same length as the body. 

Three small males ; largest i^ inch from telson to rostrum. 

Colour — Pinkish yellow. 

Habitat — Off S.-E. coast of Arabia ; 492 fathoms. 



RECORDS OF HE M IP T ERA AND H Y^M E- 
NOPTERA FROM THE HIMALAYAS. 

By C. A. Paiva^ Entomological Assistant, Indian Museum. 

A considerable number of Hymenoptera and Hemiptera were 
added to the Indian Museum collection during the year 1906, and 
a very large proportion of these were collected in localities situated 
on the Himala3^as and at their base. I propose to give a list of 
those species which I have been able to identify^ restricting m3^self 
to Himalayan and sub-Himalayan specimens. This will not be a 
complete, or anywhere near complete, list of all the species which 
have up to the present been recorded from these tracts, but 
merely some of those which were collected during the years 1905 
and 1906 by four or five collectors. 

I have not attempted to deal with the Non-aculeate forms, 
the Ants and the Chrysididae among the Hymenoptera ; nor with the 
Jassids and other inconspicuous families among the Homoptera, 
nor the aquatic families of the Heteroptera. 

The importance of such a list is that the localities are quite 
definite and that at least the approximate altitude of each place is 
given. The date of capture is also of interest. 

The principal localities from which the collections have been 
received are : — 

Mussoorie, 7,000 feet, May to August 1905. 

Naini Tal, Kumaon, 6,400 feet, October 1906. 

Bhim Tal, Kumaon, 4,500 feet, September 1906. 

Chandragiri, Nepal, circa 8,000 feet, October 1906. 

Nagarkote, Nepal, circa 6,000 feet, October 1906. 

Thankote, Nepal, circa 5,000 feet, October 1906. 

Pharping, Nepal, circa 5,000 feet, October 1906. 

Katmandu, Nepal Valley, 4,500 feet, October 1906. 

Soondrijal, Nepal Valley, October 1906. 

Chitlong, Little Nepal Valley, October 1906. 

Ghoom, 7,200 feet (Darjiling district), December 1906. 

Darjiling, 7,000 feet, October 1905. 

Sureil, 5,000 feet (Darjiling district), April 1905. 

Pussumbing, 4,700 feet (Darjiling district), December 1906. 

Tukvar, 4,500 feet (Darjiling district), October 1906. 

Barnesbeg, 3,000 feet (Darjiling district), October 1906. 

Kurseong, 5,000 feet (Darjiling district), May 1906. 

Tindharia, 2,800 feet "^ .„ , ., "^ 

Rungtong, 1,400 feet l^\ ^^^ ^he railway I 

Sookna, 540 feet C ^^^TX^'\., . ^^^^§^^^ \ ^^^^^ ^^06 

Gyabari, 350 feet J and Darjilmg. J 



14 



C. A. Paiva : Himalayan Honiptct-a and Hyuienoptcra. [VOL. I, 



Siliguri, at the foot of the Eastern Himalayas, June 1906. 
Tonglu, 9,000 feet, September 1906. ^ 



Phallut, 11,000 feet, 

Kahpokri, 10,000 feet, ,, ,, 1 

Sandakphu, 10,500 feet, October 1906. J 



All on the border between 
British Sikhim and Nepal. 



The nomenclature adopted is that of Col. C. T. Bingham, as regards the Hy- 
menoptera, and Mr. W. L. Distant, as regards the Hemiptera, in the " Fauna of 
British India and Ceylon. ' ' Specimens of numerous obscure Himalayan species 
not recorded in this list have been sent to these gentlemen for identification. 



Name. 

Mutilla emergenda, Magr. 
,, decora, Smith 
,, funeraria, Smith 
,, antennata, Smith 

>> >' " 

,, subanalis, Magr. 



HYMENOPTERA. 

Fam, Mutili^id^. 

Locality. Collector. 

Siliguri, N, Bengal (June igo6) J. B. Richardson. 

Chandragiri, Nepal (Oct. 1906) R. A. Hodgart. 
Katmandu, Nepal ,, ,, 

Soondrijal, Nepal ,, ,, 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905). . E. Brunetti. 

Nagarkote, Nepal (Oct. 1906). . R. A. Hodgart. 



Tiphia incisa, Cam. 
,, implicata, Cam. 

,, compressa, vSmith 

" " . ". 

,, aureipennis, Bingh. 

,, rufo-femorata, Smith . 

Myzine dimidiata, Guer. 

,, madraspatana, Smith. 

,, anthracina, vSmith 

,, fuscipennis, vSmith 

Scolia quadripustulata, Fabr. . 

,, capitata, Guer. 

,, rubiginosa, Fabr. 

,, aureipennis, Lepel. 

,, cyanipennis, Fabr. 

Elis thoracica (Fabr.) 

,, annulata (Fabr.) 

,, hirsuta, Sauss. 

,, fimbriata (Burni.) 

,, asiatica, Sauss. 

,, prismatica (vSmith) 



Fam. Scoliid.^. 

Darjihng (Oct. 1905) 
Nagarkote Nepal (Oct. 1:06) 
Darjiling (Oct. 1905) 

Gowchar, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Darjiling (Oct. 1905) 

It ) > 

Siliguri (June 1906) 

Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 



Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Darjiling (Oct. 1905) 

Fam. Pompilid^. 



Salius flavus (Fabr.) 

,, sycophanta (Gribodo) 
,, fenestratus (Smith) 



. . Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
. . Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
. . Nagarkote ,, ,, 



E. Brunetti. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
E. Brunetti. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
E. Brunetti. 

> ) 
J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 

J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
N. Annandale. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 



R. A. Hodgart. 
E. Brunetti. 



J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



15 



Name. 
Pompilus pedestris, Smith 
,, analis, Fabr. 
,, maculipes, Smith 
,, reflexus, vSmith 



Ivarra maura (Fabr.) 
Notogonia subtessellata (Smith) 

,, tristis (Smith) 

lyiris aurata (Fabr.) 
Trypoxylon intrudens, vSmith 
Ammophila atripes, vSmith 



punctata (Smith) 



SceHphron violaceum (Fabr. 



,, madraspatanmn (Fabr.) 



,, formosmn (Smith) 

Sphex luteipennis, Mocs. 

,, nigripes, Smith 
Psen oricntalis, Cam. 

Pemphredon fuscipennis, Cam 
vStizus vespiformis (Fabr.) 
,, prismaticus (Smith) 
Cerceris instabihs, Smith 
Oxybelus canescens, Cam. 
Crabro buddha, Cam. 



Kumenes conica, Fabr. 

,, esuriens, Fabr. 

,, petiolata, Fabr. 

,, affinissima, Sauss. . . 
Rhynchium brunneum (Fabr.) 

,, 1 semorrhoidale 

(Fabr.) 
,, argentatum (Fabr.) 

j» 11 ) > • • 

,, flavomarginatmti, 

Smith 
,, metalHcum, Sauss. 

Odynerus ceylonicus, vSauss. . . 
,, punctum (Fabr.) 
,, sichehi, vSauss. 
,, sikhimensis, Bingh. 



Locality. 
Sihguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 



Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . 

Fam. Sphegid.?^.. 
Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 



Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
vSoondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . . 

Nagarkote ,, ,, 

Chitlong 

Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Siliguri (June 1906) 
Tindharia ,, 

Nagarkote, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . . 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Siliguri (June 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Soondrijal, ,, ,, 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
N. of Tonglu, 9,000' (Oct. 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905). . 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . . 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

Fam. Eumenid^,. 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 



Collector. 
J. B. Richardson. 



Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

Tindharia ,, >> • 

Siliguri, N. Bengal ,, 

Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 



R. A. Hodgart. 



J. B. Richardson. 



E. Brunetti. 

J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 



N. Annandale. 

K. Brunetti. 

J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 

) > 
J. B. Richardson. 
E. Brunetti. 
R. A. Hodgart. 

E. Brunetti. 
I. H. Burkill. 
E. Brunetti. 
J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 



J. B. Richardson. 

>> 

> > 
E. Brunetti. 

J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 



Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) R. A. Hodgart. 



i6 



C. A. Paiva : Himalayan Hcmiptera and Hymenoptcra. [VOL. I, 



'Name. 
Polybia orientalis, vSauss. 



Icaria ferruginea (Fabr.) 
,, margiuata (Ivcpel.) 
,, variegata (vSmith) 

Polistes schach (Fabr.) 



Sagittarius, Sauss. 
stigma (Fabr.) 
maculipennis, vSauss, 



adustus, Bingh. 



,, hebr^us (Fal^r. 
Vespa magnifica, vSmith 

,, cincta, Fabr. 

,, basalis, Smith 
,, flaviceps, Smith 

,, auraria, vSmith 



Hahctus hicidiusculus, Vachal 
Andrena mephistophehca, Cam 
Nomia curvipes, Fabr. 
,, thoracica, Smith 
,, aurifrons, vSmith 

») > ' " . 

,, terminata, Smith 
Steganomus nodicornis, Smith 
Megachile conjuncta, Smith 
,, disjmicta (Fabr.) 

,, monticola, Smith 

Ceratina sexmaculata, Smith 
Crocisa emarginata, lycpeh 
Anthophora cingulata (Fabr.) 

,, )) _ »> 

,, zonata (lyinn.) 

11 11 " 

Xylocopa latipes (Drury) 

,, tenuiscapa, Westw. 

,, acutipennis, Smith 

,, fenestrata (Fabr.) 

,, iridipennis, Ivcpel. 

,, gestuans (lyinn.) 



Fam. Vespid^. 

Locality. 
Tindharia (June igo6) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . . 
Soondrijal ,, ,, 

SiHguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Tindharia (June 1906) 
Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

11 11 11 

Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Soondrijal ,, ,, 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 
Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Nagarkote, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Katmandu, Nepal ,, 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 

> ) 11 11 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 

> > 11 

Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Soondrijal, Nepal ,, 

Fam. Apid^. 

Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 

11 11 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Katmandu ,, ,, 

Nagarkote ,, ,, 

Sureil (April 1905) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1903) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Gowchar, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) . 
Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . 
Katmandu, Nepal ,, 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

11 11 11 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905). 
Tindharia (June 1906) 

11 11 

Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . , 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 



Collector. 
J. B. Richardson. 
N. Annandale. 
R. A. Hodgart. 

) 1 
J. B. Richardson. 

11 

1 1 
N. Annandale 
R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 

1 1 
E. Brunetti. 
N. Annandale. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 
N. Annandale. 
R. A. Hodgart. 

J. B, Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 

» 1 
E. Brunetti. 

R. A. Hodgart. 



N. Annandale. 

J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 



A. Alcock. 
E. Brunetti. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
E. Brunetti. 
R. A. Hodgart. 

11 
J. B. Richardson. 

» 1 
E. Brunetti. 
J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 



[Qoy.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



n 



Name. 

Xylocopa dissimilis, IvCpel. 

Bombus trifasciatus, Smith 
,, tunicatus, Smith 
,, eximius, vSmith 
,, flavescens, Smith 

,, funerarius, Smith 



vallestris, Smith 
hiemorrhoidahs, Smith 



orientahs, Smith 
»> » ) 

> » 5 5 

> » > > 

dorsata, Fabr. 
indica, Fabr. 



Apis 



Locality. 

Nagarkote, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . . 
Phallut, 11,000' (vSept. igo6) . . 
Mussoorie (May. to Aug. 1905) 
Sureil (April 1905) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906). . 
Soondrij al , , , , 

Kalipokri, 10,000' (Sept. 1906) 
N. side of Tonglu, 8,000 — 

10,000' (Sept. 1906) 
Sandakphu, 10,500' (Oct. 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Naitii Tal (Oct. 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) . . 
Tindharia (June 1906) 
Chandragiri, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Katmandu ,, ,, 

Chitlong ,, ,, 

Soondrij al ,, ,, 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905). . 
Tindharia (June 1906) 
Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 

Pharping, Nepal ,, 

Nagarkote, Nepal ,, 

Katmandu, Nepal ,, 

Naini Tal (Oct. 1906) 

Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) . . 



Collector. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
I. H. Burkill. 
E. Brunetti. 
A. Alcock. 
R. A. Hodgart. 

I. H. Burkill. 



N. Annandale. 

>> 
E. Brunetti. 
J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 



J. B. Richardson. 
E. Brunetti. 
J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 



N. Annandale. 

> » 
E. Brunetti. 



HEMIPTERA. 
Fam. Pentatomid^. 



Coptosoma W. var. a. Montand. 
,, nepalense, Westw. 

,, nazirae, Atk. 

Cantao ocellatus (Thunb.) 
Poecilocoris druraei (Linn.) 

,, purpurascens (Westw.) 

,, interruptus (Westw.) . . 

,, rufigenis Dall. 
Chrysocoris grandis (Thunb.) . . 

,, fascialis (White) . . 

Lamprocoris roylii (Westw.) . . 

> » » > > » 

,, spiniger (Dall.) . . 

Stibaropus minor. Walk. 

Dalpada affinis, Dall. 



,, versicolor (Herr.-Schaeff. 
Erthesina fullo (Thunb.) 
Halys dentatus (Fabr.) 



Tindharia (June 1906) 
Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 



J. B. Richardson. 
H. H. Mann. 



Tukvar (Oct. 1906) . . ,, 

Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906). . R. A. Hodgart. 

Chitlong, Nepal ,, . . ,, 

Soondrijal ,, ,, . . ,, 

Nagarkote ,, ,, 

Kurseong (May 1906) 

Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 

Kurseong (May 1906) 

Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 

Kurseong (May 1906) 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 

Katmandu (Oct. 1906) 

Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905). 

Nagarkote, Nepal (Oct. 1906) . 

vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 



N. Annandale. 



J. B. Richardson. 
N. Annandale. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
H H. Mann. 
E. Brunetti. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 



i8 



C. A. Pai\'A : Huiialayan Heinipfera and Hyineiioptera. [VOL. f, 



Name. 

Asyla feae, Dist. 
Sciocoris indicus, Dall. 
/Eliomorpha 1 i n e a t i c o 1 1 i s 

(Westw.) 
Palomena viridissima (Pod a) . . 
Eusarcocoris guttiger (Thunb.) 
Carbula indica (Westw.) 

Hoplistodera virescens, Dall. . . 
Plautia fimbriata (Fabr.) 
Agonoscelis nubila (Fabr.) 
Tropicoris punctipes, vStal. 
Priassus exeniptus (Walk.) 
Canthecona furcellata (Wolff) . . 

)) )j >> • • 

Zicrona caerulea (Ivinii.) 
Eusthenes eurytus, Dist. 
Aspongopus obscurus (Fabr.) . . 
Megymenum severini, Bergr. . . 
Urolabida histrionica (Westw.) 

)) »> >> 

,, tenera, Westw. 

,, viniloba, Stal. 

Urostylis gracilis, Dall. 

>> )) )) 

Urochela bimaculata, Dall. 
,, ferruginea,'Dist. 



Locality. 

Near Ghoom (Dec. 1906) 
Alussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 

vSookna (June 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
vSookna (June 1906) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 
Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Rungtong (June 1906) 
Nagarkote, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Bhirn Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Chowbal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Gyabari (June 1906) 
Sookna (June 1906) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 



Elasmornia granulipes (Westw.) 

Ochrochira albiditarsis (Westw.) 
Homoeocerus alb igu ttulus , 
' Stal. 
Notobitus meleagris (Fabr.) 

,, marginalis (Westw. 
Physomerus grossipes (Fabr.) 
Acanthocoris scabrator (Fabr. 

Cletus punctulatus (Westw.) 



Leptocorisa varicornis (Fabr.) 
,, acuta (Thunb.) 

Riptortus fuscus (Fabr.) 
Serinetha augur (Fabr.) 



Pussumbing (Dec 1906) 
Naini Tal (Oct. 1906) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 

Fam. Coreid.^. 

Kurseong (May 1906) 
Rungtong (June 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 

Soondrijal, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 
Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Chitlong, Nepal ,, 

Kurseong (vSept. 1906) 
Mussoorie (Ma)^ to Aug. 1905) 
Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 

It ) > 

Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Katmandu, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906 
Naini Tal (Oct. 1906) 

Fam. DYG^iDiU. 



lyygseus militaris (Fabr.) 
Graptostethus servus (Fabr, 
,, dixoni, Dist. 



. . Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 

. . Siliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 

. . Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 



Collector. 

H. H. Mann. 
E. Brunetti. 

J. B. Richardson. 

E. Brunetti. 

J. B. Richardson. 

N. Annandale 

E. Brunetti. 

H. H. Mann. 

J. B. Richardson. 

R. A. Hodgart 
E. Brunetti. 
N. Annandale. 
R. Hodgart. 
E. Brunetti. 
J. B. Richardson. 

N. Annandale. 

E. Brunetti. 
N. Annandale. 



H. H. Mann. 
N. Annandale. 
R. A Hodgart. 



N. Annandale. 
J. B. Richardson. 

N. Annandale. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
N. Annandale. 
H. H. Mann. 
N. Annandale. 

R. A. Hodgart. 

N, Annandale. 
E. Brunetti. 
H. H. Mann. 

J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 
N. Annandale. 



N. Annandale. 
J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 



lyoy.J 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



19 



Name. 

Caenocoris marginatus (Thuiil 
Nysius ceylanicus (Motsch.) 
Malcus scutellatus, Dist. 
Pamera pallicoriiis (Dall.) 
Peritrechus aeruginosus, Dist. 
Dieuches leucoceras (Walk.) 
,, femoralis, Dohrn. 



Locality. 

Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1905) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1904) 
Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 
Katmandu (July 1906) 
Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 
Kurseong (Ma^^ 1906) 



E. 

N. 



Collector. 

Brunetti. 
Annan dale. 



H. H. Mann. 
J. Manners-Smith. 
H. H. Mann. 
N. Ann an dale. 



lyohita grandis (Gray) 
Physopelta gutta (Burm.) 

,, schlanbusclii (Fabr 

Pyrrhopeplus pictus, Dist. 

Dysdercu^ cingulatus (Fabr.) 
,, evanescens, Dist. 



Pygolampis unicolor, Walk. 
Harpactor marginellus (Fabr.) 

Sphedanolestes pubi notum , 
Rent. 

,, indicus, Reut. 

Epidaus atrispinus, Dist. 



Helopetlis theivora, Waterh. 
Gismunda chelonia, Dist. 
Derasocoris patulus (Walk.) 



Fam. Pyrrhocorid^. 

vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906; 
Katmandu (Oct. 1906) 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 
Pussumbing (Dec. 1906) 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
Chitlong, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 

Fam. Reduviid^. 

Kurseong (May 1906) 
vSiliguri, N. Bengal (June 1906) 
Mussoorie (May to Aug. 1906) . 

Kurseong (May 1906) 
Sureil (April 1905) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 

Fam. Capsid^. 

Tukvar (Oct. 1906) 
Kurseong (May 1906) 



Pycna repanda (Einn.) 
Tosena mearesiana (Westw.; . 
Cryptotympana intermedia 
(Sign.) 

Cryptotympana acuta (Sign.) 
Platylomia saturata (Walk.) 
Mata kama, Dist. 
Gaeana sulphurea (Hope) 

,, f estiva (FalDr.) 
Scieroptera splendidula (Fabr.) 



Fulgora spinolae, West. 

,, clavata, Westw. 
Eycorma delicatula (White) 
Euphria aurantia (Hope) 
Purohita arundinacea, Dist. 



J. B. Richardson. 
R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 
N. Annandale. 
H. H. Mann. 
J. B. Richardson. 
N. Annandale. 
R. A. Hodgart. 



Annandale. 
B. Richardson. 
Brunetti. 



N. Annandale. 

A. Alcock. 

N. Annandale. 



H. H. Mann. 

N. Annandale. 



Fam. Cicadid^. 

. Gowchar, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
. Tindharia (June 1906) 

Kumaon, probably Bhim Tal 
(Sept. 1905) 
. Bhim Tal (Sept. 1906) 
. Naini Tal (Oct. 1906) 
. Nagarkote, Nepal (Oct. 1906) 
. Sureil (April 1905) 

>) > > 

Rungtong (June 1906) 

Fam. Fulgorid^. 

. Kurseong (May 1906) 

. Tukvar (Oct. 1906). 

. Kahmpong, Darjiling (Nov. 06) 

. Tukvar (Oct. 1906) 

. Barnesbeg ,, 



R. A. Hodgart. 
J. B. Richardson. 



E. E. Fermor. 

N. Annandale. 

R. A. Hodgart. 
A. Alcock. 

> » 
J. B. Richardson. 



N. Annandale. 
H. H. Mann. 



20 C. A. Paiva : Himalayan Hemiptera and Hymenoptera. [VOL. 1, 1907.] 



The following species do not appear to have been previously recorded from the 
Himalayas : — 

Hymenoptera. 



Mutilla emergenda, Magr. recorded only from 
Mutiila decora, Smith ,, ,, 



,, subanalis, Magr. 
Myzine madraspatana, Smith 
Scolia cyanipennis, Fabr. 
Sahus sycophanta (Gribodo) 

Notogonia tristis (Smith) 

Polybia orientalis, Sauss. 
Halictus lucidiusculus, Vachal 
Ceratina sexmaculata, Smith 



Asyla feae, Dist. 

Priassus exemptus (Walk.) 

Notobitus meleagris (Fabr. 
Serinetha augur (Fabr.) 



Graptostethus dixoni, Dist. 
Cryptotympana acuta, Sign 



Lycorma delicatula (White 



Upper Burma. 

Penang, Bhamo, Upper Burma, 
Rangoon Distr., Ivower Burma, 

Upper Burma. 

S. India. 

Ceylon and Java. 

S. India, Ceylon (?), Burma, 
Tenasserim. 

Tenasserim to the Malay Region 
and Borneo. 

Pegu Hills, Tenasserim, China. 

Karen Hills, Burma. 

Hong Kong, Upper Burma, 
Tenasserim and Eastern Siam- 
ese Malay States. 

Hemiptera. 

recorded only from Burma ; Kakhyen, Kauri. 

,, ,, Naga Hills, Tenasserim, Mt. 

Mooleyit. 
I ,, ,, Nilgiri Hills, E. Siamese Malay 

States, China and several 
islands in the Malay Archi- 
pelago. 
,, ,, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Cey- 

lon, Assam, Upper Tenasse- 
rim, West Yunnan, the Malay 
Peninsula and Hainan. 
Bombay ; Khandela. 
Bhutan Duars, Java, Borneo, 

Lombok, Philippines, Timor. 
Assam, Sibsagar (?) ; China. 



FURTHER NOTES ON INDIAN FRESH- 
WATER ENTOMOSTRACA. 

By Robert Gurney. 

In a short paper published last year in the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, I gave an account of certain Entomostraca n the 
collection of the Indian Museum. Dr. Annandale has been good 
enough to send me further collections of freshwater Entomostraca, 
and it was my intention to continue to work at the Indian species 
from material supplied by him. Unfortunately pressure of work 
and other engagements prevents me from fulfilling my part of the 
task, so that I think it advisable to communicate now the results 
so far achieved. 

The material with which the following notes are concerned 
consists of twelve bottles containing collections made in Lower 
Bengal and Chota Nagpur. As my work may subsequently be 
incorporated in the extended study on the Bengal tanks which, I 
understand, Dr. Annandale has in hand, I think it best to give 
the full list of the contents of each sample, together with those of 
certain others received before, and already mentioned in my pre- 
vious paper. 

Feb. ^th, 1907. 

LIST OF THE COLLECTIONS. 

1. Calcutta — Museum {Kyd Street) tank. Deep at centre, shallow 

at sides ; stiff clay bottom ; much vegetation. April 5, 1905. 
Simosa elizabethcB (King) (abundant). 

2. CaIvCutta — Museum tank. Jan. 21, 1906. 

S mosa elizabethcB (K'ng) (rareK 
Scapholeberis kingi, Sars (abundant). 
Cyclops leuckarti, Claus (common). 

,, prasinus, Fischer (common). 

,, phaleratus , Koch (one specimen). 

3. CaIvCutta — Aquarium in the Museum. Oct. 16, 1904. 

Stenocypris malcolmsoni, Brady 

4. The same. April 10, 1905. 

Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard. 

5. Port Canning, Ganges delta — Edge of a brackish pond, water 

very dirty ; vegetation scanty. Jan. 29, 1906. 
Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard. 
Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 



22 R. GURNEY : Indian Freshwater Entomostraca. [VOL. I, 

6. Port Canning, Ganges delta — Edge of a small brackish pond. 

Naias and Lemna fairly abundant. Jan. 28, 1906. 

Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard (a few ; some females with 

ephippia ; no males). 
Cyclops leuckarti, Claus (abundant). 

Also many Amphipods, a few Bphemerid larvse and 
Corixa. 

7. CAI.CUTTA — Museum tank. Feb. 8, 1906. 

Simosa elizabethcB (King) (common). 

Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard (abundant). 

Scapholeheris kingi, Sars (abundant ; some females with 

ephippia). 
Dunhevedia crassa, King (one specimen). 
Cyclops prasinus, Fischer (a few). 
Diaptomus contortus, n. sp. (common). 
Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 

8. Cai^cutta — Museum tank. Nearly dried up at edges. Feb. 20, 

1906. 
Diaphanosoma, sp. 
Simosa elizabethcB (King) (common). 
Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard. 
Scapholeheris kingi, Sars (abundant ; some females with 

ephippia). 
Chydorus globosus, Baird, var. sculptus. 
Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 

,, prasinus, Fischer. 
Diaptomus contortus, n. sp. 
Atya, sp. 

9. Calcutta — Museum tank. March 3, 1906. 

Diaphanosoma, sp. 

Simosa elizaheihce (King). 

Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard (common). 

Scapholeheris kingi, Sars (common). 

Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 

Diaptomus contortus, n. sp. 

10. Calcutta — Museum tank. Washings of Spongilla carteri. 

Macrothrix goeld' , Richard. 
Cyclops fimbriatus , Fischer. 
,, varicans, Sars. 

11. Calcutta — Small artificial tank on the Maidan ; vegetation 
rather scanty. Feb. 23, 1906. 

Scapholeheris kingi, Sars (one specimen). 
Cyclops leuckarti, Claus 
,, serrulatus, Fischer. 

12. Calcutta — Tank on the Maidan. Feb. 26, 1906. 

Lynceus guttatus (Sars) (rare). 
,, rectangulus (Sars) (rare). 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 



23 



Cyclops leuckarti, Claus (common). 
,, varicans, Sars (rare). 
,, prasinus, Fischer (a few). 
Diaptomus contortus, n. sp. (several young, but only two 

adults). 
Pseudodiaptomus lobipes, n. sp. (common, but all females). 
Caridina, sp. 

13. Calcutta— The Zoological Gardens A small tank with little 

vegetation ; shallow. 

Siniosa elizabethcB (King) (one specimen). 

Ilyocryptus longiremis, Sars (?) (one decayed young specimen). 

Lynceus rectangulus, Sars (common). 

Leydigia acanfhocercoides, Fischer (?) (one cast skin). 

Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 

,, prasinus, Fischer (common). 

,, V art cans, Sars (rare). 

,, serrulatus, Fischer (rare). 
Pseudodiaptomus lobipes, n. sp. (common, but only one male). 

14. Chakradharpur, Chaibassa district, Chota Nagpur — 
Swamp without shade ; not many plants. March 3, 1906. 

Diaphanosoma sarsi, Richard (one specimen). 
Simosa elizabethcs (King) (common). 
Macrothrix triserialis, Brady (a few). 

,, tenuicornis, n. sp. (one specimen), 

Camptocercus australis, Sars (one specimen), 
Lynceus cambouei, De Guerne and Richard (two specimens). 
Alonella excisa (Fischer) (rare). 
Chydorus sphcericus (O. F. Miiller) (rare), 
Cyclops oitJwnoides , Sars (rare), 
„ leuckarti, Claus, 
,, varicans, Sars (rare), 
,, serrulatus, Fischer (rare). 
Diaptomus doriai, Richard. 

,, ductus, n. sp. 

,, pulcher, n. sp. 

,, strigilipes, n. sp. 

15. Chakradharpur— Pool in small stream, in open among water 
plants ; pool small, shallow, without shade, March 3, igo6, 

Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 
,, serrulatus, Fischer. 

16. Chakradharpur — lyarge, shallow tank without shade ; weeds 

abundant. March 6, 1906, 

Diaphanosoma sarsi, Richard (common). 

Simosa elizabethce (King) (abundant ; some females with 

ephippia). 
Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard. 
Macrothrix triserialis, Brady (rare). 
,, tenuicornis^ n. sp. 



24 R- GURNEY : I ndlan Freshwater E}itoi)iostraca. [V'OL I, 

Leydigia australis, Sars (two specimens). 
Alonella excisa (Fischer). 
Chydorus sphcBricus (O. F. M.). 
Cyclops serrulatus , Fischer. 
,, diaphanus, Fischer 
Diaptomus doriai, Richard (common). 

,, contortus, n. sp. (rare). 

,, cindus, n. sp. (rare). 

Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird) (one specimen). 
Stenocypris malcolmsoni (Brad}^). 

17. Chakradharpur — The same as preceding. March 5, iQc6. 
Diaphanosoma sarsi, Richard. 
Simosa elizahethcB (King). 
Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard. 
Chydorus splicer icus (O. F. M.). 
Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 
Diaptomus contortus, n. sp. 

^, hlanci, De Guerne and Richard. 

J, similis, Baird. 

LIST OF SPECIES. 

Phyi^lopoda. 

I. Cyclestheria hislopi (Baird). 

In my first paper I recorded a single specimen of this interesting 
species from a tank in Calcutta. Another was found in a collection 
from Chakradharpur (No. 16). 

C1.ADOCERA. 

2. Diaphanosoma sarsi, Richard. 

Chakradharpur (Nos. 14, 16, 17). 

A species widely distributed in the Oriental Region, and also 
recorded from New Guinea and Brazil. 

3, Diaphanosoma, sp. 

Some specimens taken in the Museum tank (Nos. 8, 9). 

This is a species which has certain resemblances to D. singalen- 
sis, Daday, but which appears to be distinct. I prefer for the present 
to leave it undetermined. 

4. Ceriodaphnia rigaudi, Richard. 

This species occurs in several collections from Chakradharpur 
and Calcutta (Nos. 6, y, 8, 9, 16, 17). 

5. Simosa elizahethce (King). 

This species appears to be the commonest Daphnid in the lo- 
cahties in which the collections were made, though Ceriodaphnia 



iqoy.] Records of tJic I ndian Museum. 25 

rigaudi is a good second. (Occurs in collections Nos. 7, 8, 9, 13, 
14, 16, 17.) 

6. Scapholeberis kingi, Sars. 

Abundant in the Museum tank in Februar}^ and at that time 
a few of the females bore ephippia. In a collection taken in March 
the numbers had somewhat decreased. (Nos. y , 8, 9, 11.) 

So far this species had only been found in Sumatra and Siam. 

7. Macrothrix triserialis, Brady. 

A few specimens taken at Chakradharpur (Nos. 14, 16). 

The ventral margin of the shell is closely serrated anteriorly ^ 
but posteriorly the teeth are arranged, as described by Prof. Brady 
(1886), in groups of three. These grouped teeth are of a somewhat 
remarkable nature. They appear to me to be of the nature of 
small hyaline scales overlapping each other somewhat in the 
manner of a hood. The sculpture of the shell is not alluded to 
by Prof. Brady, but in the figures given b}' Prof. Daday (1898), 
the shell is shown covered with lines enclosing lozenge-shaped 
areas. In my specimens the shell is marked with conspicuous 
ridges which do not intersect at all, though the}" may bifurcate 
here and there. The form of the upper lip, with its transverse 
ridges, is characteristic (fig. 21). 

8. Macrothrix tenuicornis , n. sp. 

Carapace of the female nearly round in outline, the posterior 
angle very slight or altogether absent (fig. i). The shell is 
marked with hexagonal or pentagonal reticulations which are so 
faint as to be seen only with great difficulty. The dorsal margin of 
the shell is quite smooth. The ventral margin is slightly serrated 
anteriorly, but posteriori)" is rendered uneven by minute, blunt 
teeth, rather irregularly disposed, and is fringed with long seta?. 
The head is erect and rounded, with a conspicuous ridge over the 
eye (fig. 22). The large upper lip begins anteriorly with a marked 
ridge and is ridged transversel}^ as is the case in M . triserialis. 
The eye and ocellus are small. The first pair of antennae are long 
and nearly straight, not dilated at their extremity ; along the inner 
edge are three large spines, while at the extremity there are two 
semi-rings of small spines. The tail is of the usual shape, the part 
anterior to the anus densely setiferous, the setse apparenth^ not 
arranged in any definite plan (fig. 2). The anus is guarded by a 
pair of peculiar flaps. Posterior to the anus the ventral edge of 
the tail is armed with a row of very minute teeth. 

Length of female, '8 — "95 mm. 

Width, -55— -65 mm. ' • 

Found at Chakradharpur (Nos. 14, 16), 

9. Macrothrix goeldi, Richard. 

A single specimen of a Macrothrix was found in some wash- 
ings from Spongilla carteri taken in the Museum tank, Calcutta, 



26 k. (il'RXKV : / iidtaii Freshwater E)ito))iostraca. [VOL. I, 

It agrees in all respects with the description given by Richard ex- 
cept in point of size, my specimen, which has no eggs in its brood- 
pouch and is perhaps not fully grown, being smaller than the type. 
The species has only been recorded from Chili (Richard, 1897). 

10. Thy ocry plus longireinis, Sars. 

A ver)' decayed young specimen, which I refer doubtfully to 
this species, occurred in a collection in Calcutta (No. 13). 

11. Camptocercus australis, Sars. 

A single female specimen was contained in one of the collections 
from Chakradharpur (No. 14). 

Distribution. — Sumatra, Australia, South America (Argentine 
and Patagonia). 

12. Lynceus cambouei (De Guerne and Richard). 

Two specimens onlv in a collection from Chakradharpur 
(No. 14). 

Distribution. — Madagascar, German East Africa, Palestine, 
Tonkin, Hawaii, Chih, Patagonia. 

13. Lynceus guttatus (vSars). 

A few specimens from the Calcutta maidan and Zoological 
Gardens (Nos. 12, 13). 

Distribution. — Europe, North and South America, Asia and 
North Africa. 

Not uncommon in Calcutta (Nos. 12, 13). 

14. Leydigia australis, Sars. 

Two specimens of this species were taken at Chakradharpur 
(No. 16). 

Distribution. — Ceylon and Austraha (Queensland). 

15. Leydigia acanthocercoides , Fischer. 

With some doubt I refer to this species portions of a moulted 
skin found in a collection from a tank in the Zoological Gardens 
at Calcutta (No. 13). The form of the postabdomen is in agree- 
ment, but I cannot speak for the rest of the body. 

16. Alonella excisa (Fischer). 

A few specimens only, found at Chakradharpur (Nos. 14, 16). 
This species appears to occur in every part of the world ex- 
cept Africa. 

17. Chydorus sphcericus (O. F. Miiller). 

A very few specimens of this species were taken at Chakradhar- 
pur (Nos. 14, 16, 17). 



iQoy-] Records of the I ndian Museum.. 27 

18. Chydorus glohosus, Baird. 

Two somewhat immature specimens of this species were found 
in a collection from the Museum tank at Calcutta (No. 8). 

rg. Dunhevedia crassa, King. 

A single specimen was found in the Museum tank. 
If the identity of this species with D. sctigera (Birge) is accepted 
(Stingelin, 1904), then its distribution is ])ractically world-wide. 

COPEPODA. J 

20. Pseudodiaptomus lobipes, n. sp. 

Body slender and more or less cylindrical, the head fused 
completely with the first thoracic segment (fig. 3). The last seg- 
ment of the thorax is rounded at the angles and bears on each side 
a small spine, but no cilia. The abdomen, in the female, consists 
of four segments ; the genital segment is scarcely at all dilated. 
Dorsally it bears minute spines arranged in three transverse rows, 
the two anterior rows broken in the middle (figures 23 and 24). 
Laterally there are two groups of larger spines, about four in each 
group. The posterior edges of the two succeeding segments bear 
each a row of teeth. The last segment is much shorter than the 
preceding ones. The f ureal rami are divergent, and about four 
times as long as wide, with long cilia fringing the inner edge. In the 
male the abdomen consists of five segments, the second, third and 
fourth toothed along their posterior edge. 

The antennae are scarceh^ as long as the thorax and consist 
of twent3^-one joints. In the male the terminal section of the 
prehensile antenna consists of three joints, the line of division 
between the second and third not ver}^ distinct. 

The fifth foot of the female is one-branched and made up of 
three joints (fig. 4). The second joint, which is the longest, is 
produced at its distal external angle into a strong spine. On its 
inner face, towards the end, it bears two h5^aHne membranes the 
distal one very large. The last joint is produced distally into a 
long strong spine, and at the base of it there are three short ones. 
Of these three one is stouter than the others and is toothed on each 
side ; the other two are toothed along one side only. 

In the male the right foot of the fifth pair is one-branched and 
consists of six joints in all, apparently a two-jointed basal part and 
a four-jointed exopodite (fig. 6). The second joint of the exopodite 
is produced into a strong spine. The terminal joint is broad and 
flattened at the base, but continued as a curved spine (fig. 7). The 
left foot (fig. 8) consists of a basal portion bearing a long laminal 
process corresponding to the endopodite, and a distal part of two 
joints representing the exopodite. The second joint of the exo- 
podite is broad and flattened, with a small hyaline membrane on 
its outer edge. 

Length of female, "35 mm. 
,, male, -95 mm. 



28 R. (il'RXEN' : I ndinii Frcslrn'afcr Entomostraca. [\'()L. [, 

Numerous females of this species were found in two collections 
made in Calcutta (Nos. 12, 13), but it was only after prolonged 
search that I was able to find a single male. This is all the more 
remarkable inasmuch as most of the females bore long, slender 
spermatophores. 

21. Diaptonms contortus, n. sp. 

The form of the body in both sexes is slender, tapering con- 
siderably in front, and with the greatest breadth somewhat behind 
the middle (fig. 9) In the female the division between the 
fourth and fifth segments of the thorax is marked by a ring of fine 
denticles. In the male the ring is incomplete dorsally. The 
fifth segment is scarcely at all expanded laterally and is armed on 
either side with two teeth, those on the left being larger than those 
on the right. The first segment of the abdomen is very short, 
scarcely longer than the second, and bears a long and very stout 
spine on the left and a shorter and smaller one on the right. In 
the male the first segment bears a long, slender spine on the right 
side. The antennae of the female reach, when reflexed, consider- 
ably beyond the end of the f ureal setse. In the male the antepen- 
ultimate joint of the prehensile antenna is produced into a short 
process, recurved at the end, less than half the length of the suc- 
ceeding joint The last joint has no process. 

In the last pair of legs of the female the basal joint bears a very 
large, spine-like, cuticular process, which appears to be generally 
larger on the right leg than on the left (fig. 10). The endopodite 
reaches nearly to the end of the first joint of the exopodite, and is 
pointed at the end, with a ring of cilia, but no setse. The second 
joint of the exopodite bears a very large lateral tooth, at the base 
of which the vestigial third joint may be detected in the form of a 
minute tubercle bearing two setse, one long and one short. 

In the male the right leg of the fifth pair is conspicuous 
for the number and arrangement of the hyaline membranes 
borne by it. The basal joint bears one pointed process ; the second 
basal joint bears a large rounded hyaline membrane on its inner 
face, while the first joint of the exopodite bears two hyaline mem- 
branes, one of which has a peculiar semi-lunar outline. The endo- 
podite is slender and cylindrical, longer than the first joint of the 
exopodite. The second joint of the exopodite bears a large lateral 
spine rather proximal of the middle. The apical claw is long and 
much curved, being swollen at the base and peculiarly twisted. 
In the left leg the terminal joint of the exopodite has a peculiar 
chela-like shape, owing to the long spine borne by it opposing itself 
to the very much produced joint itself. 

lycngth of female, i'25 mm. 
,, ,, male, I'o mm. 

This species occurs in considerable numbers in several collec- 
tions both from Calcutta and Chakradharpur (Nos. 7, 8, q, 16, 
17)- 



igoy] Recor(/s of flic Indian Museum. 29 

22. Diapioiiiiis ciiic/fts, n. sp. 

Form of the body slender, of almost equal width throughout, 
the head marked off from the thorax by a constriction (fig. 11). 
The line of division between the last two thoracic segments is 
marked by a ring of minute teeth. In some specimens the ring 
appears to be incomplete, no denticles being visible on the 
dorsal surface. In the female the last thoracic segment is asym- 
metrical ; on the. right it is simply rounded and bears a single 
small spine, while on the left it is produced into a peculiar rounded 
lappet bearing two short spines. In the male this segment is also 
slightly asymmetrical, being somewhat produced on the right, 
bearing a spine on this side, but being simph^ rounded on 
the left. The abdomen of the female consists of three seg- 
ments, of which the first is as long as the other two and the furca 
together. This segment is not much dilated and bears a spine on 
each side, that on the left being a little posterior to and larger 
than that on the right. In the male the first abdominal segment 
bears a long, slender spine on the right side. 

The antennae reach, when reflexed, considerabl}^ beyond the 
furcal setae. The prehensile antenna of the male is scarcely at all 
dilated; the antepenultimate joint has a narrow h3^aline lamella, 
and is prolonged into a curved process about two-thirds as long 
as the succeeding segment and minuteh^ bifid at the tip. 

The fifth leg of the female has the endopodite about three 
quarters the length of the first joint of the exopodite, one-jointed 
and slender fig. 12). The third joint of the exopodite is absent, 
its place being taken b}" two short spines with a seta between them. 
The second joint seems to be variable in length, in some specimens, 
and in one case in one leg of the two, it is shorter and stouter than 
in the one regarded as typical. In the male the basal joint of 
each leg bears a hyaline lamella on its inner face. The endopo- 
dite of the right leg is short and conical, longer than the first 
joint of the exopodite The endopodite of the left leg is rather 
long and slender and the exopodite is finger-shaped, with a long 
inner seta. The second joint of the exopodite of the right leg 
bears a short lateral spine ver^^ near its base. The terminal spine 
is relatively short and blunt at the tip. 

lycngth of female, i'i5 mm. 
,, ,, male, i"0 mm. 

A few females and two males occurred in a swamp at Chakra- 
dharpur and one or two specimens in a tank at the same place 
(Nos. 14, 16). 

23. Diaptomus blanci, De Guerne and Richard. 
Several specimens taken at Chakradharpur (No. 17). 

24. Diaptomus pulcher, n. sp. 

Body rather stout, the greatest width about the middle, 
tapering anteriorly (fig. 13). The last thoracic segment of the 



30 R. GlTRNKN' : India)i Frrshwal cr F.iiio]]iosl raca. [Vol.. I, 

female but little expanded, and slightly asymmetrical in both 
sexes. In the female the left side is produced rather more than 
the right, the reverse being the case in the male. In the male each 
wing of this segment ends in a sharp point. The abdomen of the 
female consists of three segments, the first being longer than the 
last two and the furca combined. It is of nearh' equal width 
throughout and bears on either side, a short delicate spine. In 
the male the abdomen consists of five segments. The first bears 
a rather long, slender spine on the right side, while the fourth 
is slightly as^mimetrical, being produced somewhat backwards to 
overlap the succeeding segment on the right, in this respect 
resembling D. doriai, Richard. The f ureal rami are not divergent 
and are ciliated in the female on both sides. 

The antennae extend, when refiexed^ somewhat beyond the 
furcal setae. In the male the prehensile antenna is not much 
expanded (fig. 14). The antepenultimate joint has a narrow hyaline 
lamella and a series of teeth (fig. 15). Of these teeth one is large 
and directed forward and outward beyond the end of the joint. 
Behind this tooth there are three or four smaller ones springing 
from the edge of the joint. In one specimen the two posterior 
teeth appeared to form part of the hyaline lamella, and not to 
spring from the joint itself. 

In the fifth foot of the female (fig. 16) the basal joint has a 
large spine on its external face ; the endopodite is little more than 
half as long as the first joint of the exopodite, and its end is fringed 
with hairs. The third joint of the exopodite is quite distinct and 
bears two setae. 

The right leg of the fifth pair in the male (fig. 17) has a small 
hyaline lamella on the second basal joint, and the endopodite is 
barely as long as the first joint of the exopodite. The second joint 
of the latter is narrow and curved, bearing a large lateral spine 
very near its base. The left leg has two small hyaline lamellae 
on the second basal joint ; the endopodite is relatively long, about 
two- thirds as long as the exopodite. 

Length of female, i'q — 1"95 mm. 
,, ,, male, i'75 mm. 

Occurrence. — Swamp at Chakradharpur (No. 14). 

25. Diaptomus doriai, Richard. 

Fairly common at Chakradharpur (Nos. 14, 16). 
A species so far only known from the Oriental Region, but 
widely distributed within that Region. 

26. Diaptomus similis, Baird. 

A few specimens found at Chakradharpur (No. 17). 
Distribution. — Palestine and Turkestan. 

27. Diaptomus strigilipes, n. sp. 

Body stout and cylindrical, the last two segments of the thorax 
completely fused (fig. 18). In the female the last segment of the 



igoj.~\ Records of the Indian Museum. 31 

thorax is expanded into rather large wings ^ each with two very 
small, blunt teeth. In the male this segment bears a slender 
sensory spine on either side. The abdomen of the female consists 
of three segments, of which the first, or genital, segment is longer 
than the rest of the abdomen. It is somewhat asymmetrical, bear- 
ing a short sensor}' spine on the left, but being produced on the 
right (fig. 18a) into a finger-shaped process bearing a minute sen- 
sory tooth at the apex and one on the dorsal face. 

The antennae are ver^^ much longer than the whole body. The 
prehensile antenna of the male is not much expanded ; the ante- 
penultimate joint has no hyaline lamella and is produced into a 
long, slighth^ curved process. 

In the fifth leg of the female (fig. 19) the basal joint bears a 
very large tooth on its external face : the endopodite is nearly the 
same length as the first joint of the exopodite, pointed and ciliated 
at its extremity. The second joint of the exopodite, or claw, has 
a conspicuous jagged edge, with a variable number of teeth, and 
may have, in addition, two little teeth on its external face. The 
third joint is distinct and bears two slender spines. 

In the male the second basal joint of the fifth pair of legs bears 
a small hyaline lamella (fig. 20). The endopodite of the right 
leg is very much longer than the first joint of the exopodite and is 
constricted at the end. The second joint of the exopodite is curved 
and tapering, with a very large lateral spine. The terminal joint 
is long and sickle-shaped. In the left leg the endopodite is long 
and slender and the exopodite terminates in a rounded knob bear- 
ing an inner short process. 

lyength of female^ i'3 — 1'4 mm. 
,, male, 1-25— 1-3 mm. 

Found at Chakradharpur (No. 14). 

28. Cyclops oithonoides , Sars. 

A few specimens taken at Chakradharpur (No. 14). 

Distrihution. — ^Europe, Asia Minor, Central Asia, Malay 
Archipelago, New Guinea, Egypt, North America, 

29. Cyclops leuckarti, Claus. 

By far the commonest C3'^clops in these districts. 
Collections Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17. 

30. Cyclops serrulakis , Fischer. 

This species appears in several collections (Nos. 11, 13, 14. 15, 
16) but does not seem to be abundant. It is a species of world- 
wide distribution. 

31. Cyclops fimbriatus, Fischer 

Only found in the Museum tank (No, 10), It seems to occur 
in every part of the world. 



32 R. GURNEV : I iidinii Freshwater I^iifomosfrtica . [VOL. 1, 

32 Cyclops prasinus, Fischer. 

Common both in Calcutta and Chakradharpur (Nos. 10, 12, 

13, 14)- 

33. Cyclops diaphanus, Fischer. 

A few specimens found at Chakradharpur (No. 16). 
Distribution. — Europe, Palestine and Central Asia. 

34. Cyclops varicans, Sars. 
Calcutta and Chakradharpur (Nos. 10, 13, 14, 16). 

Distribution. — Europe, Palestine, North and South America, 
Patagonia. 

OSTRACODA. 

35. Stenocypris malcolmsoni, Brady. 
Chakradharpur (No. 16). 

LIST OF REFERENCES. 

Brady, G. S. — " Notes on Entomostraca collected by Mr. Haly in 
Ce5don," Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool.^ xix, 1886, p. 293. 

Daday , E. — " Mikroskopische Siisswaser-Thier aus Ceylon," Ternies. 
Fiizetek. Auhangrheft Zum, xxi, Bd. 1898. 

Daday, E. — '' Unteruchungen liber die Copepoden-fauna von Hinter- 

indien, Sumatra and Java," Zool. Jahrb. Syst., xxiv, heft 3, 

1906. 
Gurney R. — " On some freshwater Entomostraca in the collection 

of the Indian Museum, Calcutta," Journ. and Proc. Asiat. Soc. 

Bengal, N. S. ii, No. 7, 1906. 

Richard, T. — " Entomostraces de I'Amerique du Sud, recueillis par 
Mm. Deiters von Thering, G. W. Miiller et C. O. Poppe," 
Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, x, 1897, pp. 263 — 301. 

Stingelin, Th. — " Untersuchungen iiber die Cladoceren — Fauna 
von Hinterindien, Sumatra and Java," Zool. Jahrb Syst., 
xxi, heft 3, 1904. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES I and II. 

Fig. I. Macroihrix tenuicornis, n. sp. — Side view of female, x 482 
Fig. 2. ,, ,, Postabdomen x 150 

Fig. 3. Pseudodiapiomus lobipes, n.sp. — ^Dorsal view of female, x 51 
Fig. 4. ,, ,, Fifth foot of female. X 260 

Fig. 5. ,, ,, M a X i 1 1 i pede of 

female. x 260 

Fig. ^6 ,, „ Right fifth foot of 

male. x 260 

Fig. 7 ,, ,, Terminal joint of same. 

Fig. 8. „ „ Left fifth foot of 

male. x 260 



1907. 



Records of the Indian Mtiscnm. 



33 



Fig. 
Fig. 

Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig 
Fig. 

Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 

Fig. 

Fig- 
Fig. 

Fig. 
Fig. 
Figs 



9- 
10 

II. 
12. 

13- 
14. 

15- 

16. 

I/- 
18. 

i8rt. 

19. 
20. 



DiapUuiius contovi 
Diap/oiiius cnictus 
Didpfoiiuis pulchcr 



X 26 
>■ 260 
X 70 
X 260 
X 48 



IS, 11. sp. — Dorsal view of female. 
Fifth foot of female. 
1. sp — Dorsal view of female. 

Fifth foot of female, 
n. sp. — Dorsal view of female. 

Prehensile antenna of male x 100 
Terminal joints of the 

same. x 440 

Fifth foot of female. x 260 

Fifth feet of male. x 150 

strigilipcs, n. sp. — Dorsal view of female, x 64 

Right-hand process of 

genital segment. 
Fifth leg of female. 
Fifth feet of male. 

21. Macrothix tyiscrialis, Brady. — Head. 
2i«. ,, ,, ,, Margin of shell. 

22. ,, tenuicornis, n. sp. — Head. 
. 23, 24. Pseudodiaptomus lobipcs, sp. n. — Genital 



X 260 
X150 
X 150 
X260 
X 150 
segment 



highly magnified. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. I, 1907. 



PLATE I. 




R. Qurney del. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. I, 1907. 



Plate li 




k. Gurney del. 



THE FAUNA OF BRACKISH PONDS AT 
PORT CANNING, LOWER BENGAL. 

Part I. — Introduction and Preliminary Account of the 

Fauna. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent, 
Indian Museum. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The settlement of Port Canning is situated on the Matla rivei , 
one of the numerous creeks which run up into the delta of the Ganges, 
about sixty miles from the open sea. Partly at any rate in con- 
nection with the Port Canning Improvement Scheme,' which was 
believed some fort}^ years ago to be about to transform the place 
into a port rivalling that of Calcutta, a high embankment has been 
built up along the bank of the estuary, protecting the low-lying 
land in the neighbourhood from all but exceptional floods. The 
earth out of which this embankment was formed was apparently 
dug from a series of pits situated at a short distance, var^'ing up 
to about a quarter of a mile, from the present edge. These pits 
are further supplemented b}' a number of smaller ones immediately 
behind the embankment, which is repaired with earth dug from the 
latter when it is injured by an unusually high flood. The original 
pits vary in size, but all have an area of something approaching 
half an acre. They are now filled with water and are the ponds 
dealt with in this paper. Judging from maps in the office of 
the Port Commissioners, Calcutta, they did not exist in 1855. 
It is evident from Stoliczka's account,^ however, that at any rate 
some of them existed thirty- nine years ago, and he does not say 
that they had then been dug recently. 

The account referred to deals in particular with an Actinian 
and a Polyzoon taken in the ponds ; but it is by no means clear 
in which pond Stoliczka found his Sagartia schilleriana, as there are 
several ponds " close to the railway station." This point is of im- 
portance, because he was only able to find the Actinian in one pond, 
the position of which he describes in the manner indicated. One 
factor in the environment of forty years ago, however, has certainly 
changed ; for he gives as one reason why the Actinian was not to 
be found in the other ponds that the one close to the station alone 



1 See Hunter, A Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. i, pp. 9I— 98 (/London, 1875,). 
■2 In yourn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, part ii. 1869. P- 5-- 



36 N. Annaxdai.k : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VoL. I, 

contained logs of wood to which the animal could attach itself^ 
and now these logs are no longer to be found, either in the 
pond which is nearest to the railway station or in any other in 
the neighbourhood ; they have evidently been removed by human 
agency or else have rotted awa}'. The bottom of all the ponds now 
consists of soft mud, which is devoid of any hard substances 
except an occasional twig, small tree-stump, or brick, and as there 
are very few trees in the vicinity, twigs are rare and tree-stumps 
still more so. The bricks are also scarce, being derived from 
ruined drains and wells, and there are no stones in this part 
of Bengal. The ponds are all shallow (probably at no point more 
than ten feet deep when full) but the depth of the mud at their 
bottom is considerable. It is black beneath the surface, contains 
a large amount of organic matter and smells foul when disturbed. 

The flora of the ponds consists chiefly of filamentous and uni- 
cellular algse ; but in some cases two or three species of Phanero- 
gams occur, notably at least two of Naias, a duckweed and a true 
water-lily, the last being rare, the first abundant in some of the 
ponds. 

An important factor in the environment is the nature of the 
water. I have described the ponds as brackish, but at some time of 
the year the water may contain the same proportion of soluble salts 
as the sea, at others it may even be more strongly saline, and 
again at others it is much more nearly fresh. As a rule the ponds 
are completely isolated both from one another and from the 
estuary. During the cold weather they are exposed to evaporation, 
which becomes intensified during the hot weather. During the rainy 
season, on the other hand, they become filled up with fresh water 
and probably often coalesce. They are also liable to be placed in 
temporary communication with the estuary occasionally, owing to a 
flood bursting the embankment ; but this does not occur b}^ any 
means every 3^ear. When it does happen, it happens owing to the 
estuary being swollen with fresh water, which is flowing down from 
up-country ; so that the ponds, even under these conditions, are 
practically cut off from the .sea. 

Stoliczka, apparently in 1868 or 1869, had the water of the 
ponds anal^'sed ; but he does not say at what time of year his samples 
were obtained. He found that the proportion of soluble solids 
was 1 2 '87 per thousand, sea- water containing from 32 to 39 per 
thousand. Mr. D. Hooper, Curator of the Industrial Section of the 
Indian Museum, has kindly examined samples taken b^' myself in 
December and March last. Two samples came from a pond in 
which the Hydrozoon Irene ccyloncnsis , as well as the Actinian, 
was reproducing its species, and in which the plant Naias was 
abundant. A sample taken from this pond at the beginning of 
December, a few weeks after the end of the rainy season, was found 
to contain 12*13 per thousand of soluble salts, while another taken 
on March 17th contained 20"22 per thousand. At the latter 
date water from the edge of the Matla at Port Canning contained 
25 "46 per thousand, and that from a second pond near the first 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



37 



23 'lb. This second pond had a fauna almost identical with that 
of the first except in the absence of the Hydrozoon ; but its flora 
was entirel}^ cryptogamic. 

I am indebted to Capt. J. A. Black, I. M.S., Chemical Examiner 
to the Government of India, for a more detailed analj^sis of a sample 
from the second pond taken on Januar}^ 6th. It is as follows : — 

13 "8 parts per thousand. 



Chloride of Sodium 


.. 13-8 


, , , , Magnesium 


. . 0-6 


Sulphate of Magnesium 


. . 07 


,, ,, Calcium 


2"I 


Nitrates, etc. 


0-3 



Total 



17 '5 



Stoliczka's analysis was, in detail, as follows :- 

" Chloride of Sodium (including Potassium) 
,, ,, Calcium . . 

,, ,, Magnesium 
Sulphate of Magnesium . . . . 

Carbonic acid, etc. 



9-81 
0*46 

0-93 
I-I7 
0-50 " ; 
the soluble substances being also calculated in parts per 1,000. 

Stoliczka noted that the water in the ponds was almost fresh 
during the rains, and in the tank from which my first sample 
was taken the water-level had sunk only a short distance below 
the top of the bank, the dry weather having been of no more 
than a few weeks' duration. All that can be said, therefore, as re- 
gards the salinity of the water in the ponds, is that it varies con- 
siderably at different times of the year. The range in variation 
which the members of the fauna are able to survive, is perhaps more 
remarkable than what may be regarded in different instances either 
as the deficiency or the excess of salt in the medium in which they 
live, 

THE FAUNA OF THE PONDS. 

I do not propose at present to attempt more than a general 
description of the fauna of these ponds, with notes on some parti- 
cularly striking species. Specimens of several important groups 
are now in the hands of specialists in Europe, whose determinations 
will make a more detailed discussion of greater value after their re- 
searches are complete. 

Pyotozoa. — The most conspicuous representatives of the Pro- 
tozoa found in the ponds are Carchesium polypinuni and Folliculina 
ampulla. The latter of these is commonl}' found in salt water but 
also occurs in fresh, while the Carchesmin is commonl}^ an inhabitant 
of fresh water. In the ponds, F. ampulla occurs most frequently 
in close association with the Hydroid stage of Irene ceylonensis. 
Indeed, so frequently is this the case that I was able in almost 
all instances to detect the presence of the Hydroid^ itself almost 



38 N. Ann ANDALE: T//e Fan //a of Brackis// Po/i(h. [VoL. I, 

invisible to the naked e^^e, by the dark spots due to groups of the 
Protozoon among the branches of its hyclrorhiza. The Protozoon 
also occurs independently in the ponds, but rarely. Carchcsium 
polypinum is just as frequentl}^ found attached to colonies of the 
Polyzoon Victor clla pavida, but is also common apart from this 
animal. 

Many other representatives of the Protozoa were taken in the 
ponds ; they have been submitted, together with other microscopic 
organisms, to Prof, von Daday, of Buda-Pesth. 

Port f era. — It was in the same ponds that my types of Spongilla 
Uicustris var. bengalensis (i) were taken in the winter of 1905-6, 
but in that of 1906-7 this form was entirely replaced by another 
agreeing closely with Bowerbank's description of his 5. ccrehellata (2). 
Other specimens, taken near Calcutta and in northern Bengal and 
sent me from the Chilka Lake in Orissa, convince me that the two 
forms are identical as regards taxonomic position, being no more 
than temporary phases of 5. alba, Carter (3), which in its turn may 
be no more than an Oriental race of the widely distributed 
5. laciistris. This is a point, however, which I hope to discuss more 
fully on another occasion. All the sponges in the ponds had per- 
ished and most had completely disintegrated by the middle of 
March. 

A notable point as regards these Sponges growing in brackish 
ponds is the number of animals which take temporary or permanent 
shelter in their canals. Not only do several species of Amphipods 
common in the ponds use these canals as temporary resting-places, 
but an Isopod of distinctly marine facies is common in them and 
is apparently not found elsewhere in the same habitat. Several 
small Lamellibranch Molluscs {Corbula, spp.), young individuals 
of the Actinian to be described later, a larval Dragon Fly, 
and several species of Chironomid larvae were also found in 
the canals of the Sponge, while a Cirripede {B. aniphitrite) was 
taken buried in the substance of one specimen. In my account 
of 5. lacustris var. bengalensis , I noticed that those specimens of 
the Sponge which had any definite colour were dark green owing to 
the presence in them of a filamentous alga. A similar case of ap- 
parent symbiosis has been recorded from Celebes by Professor and 
Mme. Weber (4) ; but I am now confident that in such cases the 
alga should be regarded as a parasite of the Sponge. In keeping 
certain species of freshwater Sponge, e.g., S. carteri, alive in an 
aquarium in Calcutta, one of the difficulties to be contended with is 
the rapid growth of just such filamentous algse, which block up the 
canals and finall}^ kill the organism. In the Port Canning ponds 
Sponges infested with the alga are evidently in an unhealthy con- 
dition and are usuall}^ found towards the end of the season. 

Crelenterates. — Besides the form of Metridiuin schillerianiini 
(Stol.) to be described in a subsequent paper of this series, I have onh' 
found one Coelenterate in the ponds, namely the Hydrozoon Irene 
ceylonensis (5) ; and that only in one pond. The Medusae were 
abundant from the end of November till the beginniiig of January, 



igoy.] Records of the I ndian Museum. 39 

At the beginning of December they were not sexually mature ; 
at Christmas G. C. Chatterjee found speoimens in which he could 
detect ova ; at the beginning of January onh^ spent individuals^ 
dead or moribund, could be procured, their umbrellas persisting 
for some da^^s after the sense-organs and gonads had disappeared. 
At the last date, however, specimens of the Hydroid were taken 
in which the gonophores still bore gonosomes half developed. A 
second brood was sexually mature in March. I have already de- 
scribed the Hydrozoon of this species briefly, and hope to do so 
more fuU}^ in the present series ; the Medusa was described by 
Browne from the seas of Ceylon. Both Medusa and Hydroid 
show a power of resisting unfavourable conditions (especially 
lack of aeration of the water) remarkable in their order and 
contrasting markedly with the feeble nature of this power displayed 
by Hydra in India. A large number of the Medusae lived for 
over 48 hours in a small corked tube of water in which a single 
Hydra would hardly have survived for an hour. 

In the smaller ponds near the embankment I found two other 
Hydrozoa, one of which appears to be specifically identical with the 
European Bimeria vestita, which has recently been recorded from 
South America (6), while the other represents a new species of 
Syncoryne. None of these genera have representatives in fresh 
water, but all. belong to the littoral zone. 

Mollusca. — Stoliczka (7) stated that most of the Mollusca in the 
ponds belonged to marine types ; but this is putting the matter a little 
too strongly, for many of the species belong to characteristic lacus- 
trine genera, while others are common in estuaries. Nevill (8) des- 
cribes Hydrobia {Bclgra^tdia) miliacea as occurring in " brackish- water 
ponds (at Port Canning), associated with Valvata {}) microscopica , 
Nev., new species of Blythinia, Martesia, Teredo (?), Pharella, 
Theora, Stenothyra blanfordiana, etc." Preston (9) has recently 
described five new species of Corbula and one of Bithinella from my 
own collection, and I have also found an Ampullaria and two 
species of Melania. Although several species of Onchidhmi are 
not uncommon on the banks of the Matla, while at least one occurs 
in ditches and pools of brackish water as far inland as Calcutta, 
I have not found any in the Port Canning ponds. 

Nematode. — Dr. von lyinstow (10) has described a new Nematode 
of the genus Oncholaimus from the ponds. All previously known 
species of this genus are marine. 

Rotifers and Gastrotricha. — The Rotifers have been submitted 
to Prof, von Daday. In January, 1906, I took among filamentous 
algse from the ponds a representative of the Gastrotricha which 
agrees very closely with Zelinka's (11) figure and description of Chce- 
tonotus schulizei, which I have also seen in a similar situation in 
freshwater tanks in Calcutta and Chota Nagpur. 

A nnelid. — The only Annelid seen was a small Poh^chaete which 
burrows in the mud in great numbers. 

Polyzoa. — -Stoliczka (7) took the Cheilo.stome Membranipora 
bengalensis in the Port Canning ponds thirty-eight years ago, but 



40 N. Annandale: Tlic Fauna of Brackis]i Ponds. [\'oi.. I, 

notwithstanding a very diligent search, I have been unaljle to 
find it in them now, although it still occurs in the estuary at the 
same place. The only common form in the ponds at present is 
a Ctenostome which I take to be specifically identical with the Euro- 
pean Victor clla pavida. The Indian form, however, grows more 
luxurianth' than the European, and often covers large areas on 
grass-roots and the like ; the zooecia often arise ver}- close together on 
the stolon and comparatively seldom produce buds. All the indi- 
viduals I have seen expanded have had eight tentacles. Vidorella 
is essentialh' a brackish- water form, and even Mcmbranipora 
occurs elsewhere in marshes the water of which contains consider- 
ably less salt than that of the sea. Miss L- Thornely has lately 
identified a species found incrusting a brick in one of the ponds 
as Bowerhankia caudata (Hincks) ; this species also belongs to a 
genus common in estuaries. 

Crustacea. — Of the higher Crustacea all that I can say at present 
is that the crabs, which are common among the Sponges in the 
ponds, belong to the genus Varuna, which is generally found in the 
neighbourhood of estuaries, whence it is liable to be carried out to 
sea (Alcock, A Naturalist in Indian Seas, p. 75). Dr. J. de Man 
has kindly promised to examine specimens of the Decapods, while 
the Rev. T. R. R. vStebbing has alread}^ reported a new genus of 
Gammarids (which will be described in a future number of these 
" Records") among the Amphipods. 

Gurney (12) has identified the Daphniid Ceriodaphnia rigaudi 
and Copepod Cyclops leuckartii, both freshwater species, among the 
Entomostraca. To these I can add two species of the marine 
order Cirripedia. A single specimen of Balanus was found deeply 
buried in the tissues of a Spongilla and attached to the grass-root 
to which the Sponge had also affixed itself, in December, 1906. The 
specimen was small and distorted, probably owing to the nature of 
its support, but it could be readily identified with Balanus amphi- 
trite, a species common at the mouth of the Ganges and having an 
extraordinarily wide bathymetric range in the Indian seas, for Gruvel 
(13) has recently recorded examples of the variety communis , with 
which the Port Canning specimen should perhaps be identified, 
from a depth of over 1,000 fathoms. In another of the ponds I 
found a brick to which several specimens of B. patellaris were 
attached. This species is abundant in the Matla, occurring with 
B. amphitrite and Chthamalus stellatus. 

Insects — G. C. Chatterjee (14) found the larva of the Mos- 
quito Anopheles rossi abundant in the ponds at the beginning of 
December and less so towards the end of the same month. Though 
somewhat scarce, relativeh^ speaking, they were still to be found at 
the beginning of January ; in March I could only find one indi- 
vidual. At all periods between December and the end of March 
I took several Dragon Fh" ^ larvae, of which Ischneura senegalensis 



I For observations on Dragon Fly larva; in brackish water in America see Osburn 
in the American Naturalist, vol. xl, p. 395 (1906). 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 41 

a common species throughout India, was the most abundant. I 
also took larvae of an Ephemerid and of at least two Chironomid 
flies in December and January ; they sheltered themselves indiffer- 
ently in the canals of Sponges or among the zooecia of Polyzoa. 
During the winter months, at any rate, adult insects of a large 
number of species are abundant in the ponds. Among the Hemi- 
pterous genera represented the following may be mentioned : (sur- 
face forms) Gerris, Hydrometra, Microvelia and Mesovelia ; (forms 
which live below the surface) Laccotrephes , Nedocoris Anisops ; the 
only common genus not so well represented in the ponds as in the 
freshwater tanks of Calcutta being P/ea, with the possible addition 
of Sphcerodema. Both these genera, however, very frequently rest 
among the hanging roots of Pistia stratiotes {thQWdXtr Plantain), 
which does not occur in the ponds at Port Canning. Most of the 
aquatic Coleoptera collected were minute forms, and no Gyrinidse 
were seen ; but a few common species of large size {e.g., Cy bister 
convexus) were taken. Several small Tettigids (Orthoptera) were 
observed swimming on the surface of the ponds- — a habit shared 
by a large number of the members of this family ; and in March a 
lycpidopterous larva (apparently a species of Nymphula) is common 
on Naias, making a cylindrical case like that of a Caddis-worm. 

Fish. — Specimens of the following Fish were taken in the 
ponds : — 

Symhranchus bengalensis (one young specimen). 
Amblypharyngodon microlepis. 
Macrones gulio. 
Barbus chola. 

,, stigma. 
Nuria danrica. 
Haplochikis melanostigma. 

,, panchax. 

Gobius acutipennis. 

, , giuris. 

,, alcockii. 
Apocryptes lanceolatus. 
Ophiocephalus punctatus. 
Anabas scandens. 
Trichogaster jasciatus. 

There are also one or two minute Gobies, which, if they are 
adult, represent new species. Mr. Hodgart, who collected for the 
Museum at Port Canning, further reports Periophthalmus koelreuieri 
and Boleophthalmus viridis from the ponds ; but although these 
species are common on the shore of the estuary, I have not seen 
them in any of the ponds. None of these fish can be called 
essentially marine ; but most of them are commonly found in 
brackish water in the neighbourhood of estuaries. Barbus chola is 
usually found in fresh water, and so is Haplochilus panchax, 
which in the ponds is less abundant than H. melanostigma ; I have 

6 



42 



N. AnnandalE: The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 



recently taken Gobius alcockii in a tank at Rajshahi^ 150 miles 
north of Calcutta. vSome of the species {e.g., 0. piinctatus) extend 
inland even as far as mountain tarns in the Himalaj'as. 

Reptiles and Amphibia. — The only Reptile taken in the ponds 
was the common Water-snake Tropidonotus piscator, and the only 
Amphibians the equally common Rana cyanophlyctis and R. tigvina. 
The Indian Toad, Bufo inclanostictus , is abundant at the edge of 
the ponds, in which it possibl}^ breeds ; Gardiner (15) has recently 
recorded this species as inhabiting brackish pools in the Maldives. 
The range in altitude of these Amphibians, and especially of 
R. cyanophlyctis and B, melanostictus, shows that they are very 
adaptable species. 



1. Annandale, N. 

2. Bowerbank, J vS . . 
. Carter, H. J. 

4. Weber, M. M. and A. 

5. Annandale, N. 

6. Hartlaub, C. 

7. vStoHczka, F. 

8. Nevill, G. 
Q. Preston, H. B. 

10. lyinstow, O. von . . 

11. Zelinka. C. 



LITERATURE. 

" Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of In- 
dia, No. I " {Spongilla lacustris 
var. bengalensis) ^ Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Beng. (New Ser.), vol. ii, 1906, p 55. 
"Monograph of the SpongillidcB," 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1863, p. 440; 
His tor}', etc., of known species of 
Spongilla," Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(5), vii, p. 77 (1881). 
Ouelques nouveaux cas de Symbiose," 
Ergeb. Nied. Ost-Ind. vol. i, p. 48 
(1890). 
' Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of 
India, No. XI " (the Hydroid of 
Irene ceylonensis) , Journ. Asiat. 
Soc. Beng. (New Ser.), vol. iii, 1907, 
p. 79. 
Die Hydroiden der magalhaenischen 
Region," etc., Zool. Jahrb , suppl. 

vi, p. 534 (1905)- 
Anatomy of Sagartia schilleriana and 

Membranipora Bengalcnsis," Journ. 

Asiat. Soc. Bengal, part 2, vol. 

xxxviii, p. 28 (1869). 
New species of Brackish- water Mol- 

lusks," Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

part 2, xlix, p. 159 (1880). 
Diagnoses of new Species of Corbula," 

etc., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 

xix, p. 215 (1907). 
A new Nematode of the genus On- 

cholaimus," Rec. Ind. Mus., i, p. 45 

(1907). 
Die Gastrotrichen," Zeitschr . /. Wiss. 

Zool., xlix, p. 209, 1890. 



1 90 7 • ] i^f^co rds of the In dia n Museu in 

12. Gurney R. 



43 



13. Gruvel, A. 

14. Chatterjee, G. C. 
15 Gardiner, J. S. 



" Some Indian Freshwater Entomos- 
traca," J own. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
1906, p. 273. 
" Cirrhipedes Opercules," etc., Mem. 

Asiat. Soc. Bengal, ii, p. i (1907). 
" Anopheles larvae/' Rec. Ind. Mus., i, 

p. 82 (1907). 
The Fauna and Geography of the Mal- 
dive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, 
vol. ii, suppl. ii, p. 1049. 



THE FAUNA OF BRACKISH PONDS AT 
PORT CANNING, LOWER BENGAL. 

Part II. — A new Nematode of the genus Oncholaimus. 
By Dr. O. von Linstow, Gottingen. 

The Nematode here described was found among filamentous 
alg^ in a pool of brackish water at Port Canning, which is situated 
on the Matla estuary in Lower Bengal. 




Fig. I. — Posterior extremity of the male, from the right. 

Oncholaimus indicus, sp. nov. 

Cuticle smooth, without annular rings. At the anterior extrem- 
ity there is a large oral cavity measuring 0'036 mm. in length and 
0'0I4 mm. in transverse diameter ; in front of this on the ventral 
surface there is a conical tooth. The caudal end is thickened and 
narrows abruptly a short distance behind the anus into a caudal 
appendage, which measures 0*075 mm. in length and 0*0078 mm. 
in breadth, and is curved inwards slightly towards the belly and 
rounded posteriorly. This form of tail is identical in the two sexes. 
Both in the male and in the female the oesophagus measures one- 
sixth of the total length of the body. 

The male is 2*71 mm. long and 0*053 mm. broad, the caudal end 
occupying 1/25*6 of the length of the whole animal. The spicula are 
equal, being strongly curved ; they measure 0*034 ^^t^- in length. 
Dorsal to them lies a very short supporting structure. 

The female is 2*71 mm. long and 0*057 nim. broad, and in this 
sex the caudal end measures one twenty-eighth of the total length. 
The vulva is situated somewhat posterior to the middle of the 
body and divides the length anterior to it and that posterior in the 



46 



O. VON LiNSTOW : A New Nematode. [VOL. I, 1907.] 



proportion of 31 to 29. One branch of the uterus stretches for- 
wards, the other backwards. Two eggs are produced, each measur- 
ing 078 mm. in length and 0-047 mm. in transverse diameter. 
The thirty-three known species of Oncholaimus live in the sea. 




Fig. 2. — Anterior extremity, dorsal view. 

{Oncholaimus indiciis was found in large numbers in the habitat 
indicated during December, January and March. In the first of these 
months the water of the pool in which it occurred contained 1-23 per 
cent, of soluble solids ; in January the salinity had increased consider- 
ably owing to evaporation ; while in March the percentage of soluble 
soUds was 2-022. — N. Annandale.] 



THE FAUNA OF BRACKISH PONDvS AT 
PORT CANNING, LOWER BEN GAL. 

Part III. — An Isoi^ated Race of the Actinian Metridiuni 
schillerianum (Stoliczka). 

By N. AnnandaIvE, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent, 
Indian Museum. 

METRIDIUM SCHILLERIANUM (Stoliczka). 

Sagartia schillcriana , Stoliczka, Journ Asiat. Soc. Bengal, part 
2, vol. xxxviii, 1869, p 28 ; plates x, xi ; R. Hertwig, Zool. Rep. 
H.M.S "Challenger," vol. vi, 1882, Actiniaria, p. 71. 

Although Stoliczka 's description of the typical form of the 
species is very detailed, the imperfect knowledge of the structure of 
the Actinians possessed thirty-nine years ago by students of the 
Ccelenterates, misled him as regards certain important characters 
while the fact that he cut no sections prevented him from detecting 
others. His types are now in a bad state of preservation, the tissues 
being shrunk and partly decomposed, and have assumed a dark 
brown colour of which I have been unable to get rid. I have how- 
ever, cut sections of two of these specimens, which proved to be so 
far intact that the arrangement of the mesenteries could be detected. 
Further, I have made vertical and transverse sections of two fresh 
examples of this form, and have dissected two others, as well as 
sectioning four specimens of the new variety, dissecting six, and 
examining a very much larger number externally. The following 
description of the species and its variety is based on the material 
thus used. Although it differs considerably from Stoliczka 's written 
description, it will be found to be in most respects, so far as the 
t3'pical form is concerned, in accord with his figures, which, for the 
reasons given above, he appears to have misinterpreted in spite of 
the accuracy of his observations. 

Description of the Typical Form of the Species. 

Colourless in spirit ; in life translucent, the column being more 
or less deeply tinged w4th green and having a variable number of 
semi -opaque vertical stripes arranged in multiples of six and repre- 
senting the better developed of the intramesenterial spaces ; parts 



48 N. Annandale : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

of the mesenteries often of a deep purple ^ which may be visible exter- 
nally ; tentacles semi-opaque, often with irregular transverse bars of 
opaque white. Column cylindrical, as broad or almost as broad as 
high when normally expanded, broader than high when contracted ; 
in the latter condition mound-shaped, with a considerable oval 
aperture as a rule remaining open above the tentacles. Tentacles 
elongated, tapering, perforate at the distal extremity, arranged in 
five cycles ; the innermost cycle with six tentacles, the next with 
twelve the third with twenty-four, the fourth with forty-eight, the 
fifth with ninety-six : i86 in all (approximately). Disk ample, oval, 
not separated from the column when expanded ; the mouth large, 
elongated and narrow ; the lips protuberant, with six folds on either 
side of the mouth ; the stomodseum extending more than half way 
down the column ; the gonadial grooves distinct. External surface 
of the column smooth, generally with rows of suckets arranged ver- 
tically; the cinclides, which are difficult to detect in preserved speci- 
mens, scattered. Basal disk variable in outline, often extending be- 
yond the periphery of the column, provided with a distinct sphinc- 
ter, which is visible in living specimens as a thin, semi-opaque ring 
Circular muscles of the column well developed, confined to the 
mesoderm ; the sphincter elongate in vertical section, consisting of 
comparatively feeble folds without muscle spaces ; radial muscles 
of the disk and tentacles situated at the base of the ectoderm 
and not encroaching on the mesoderm. The six primary (complete) 
pairs of mesenteries fertile ; sometimes the first and rarely also the 
second secondary cycles fertile ; the number of secondary cycles 
from three to five, each consisting of twelve mesenteries ; some 
mesenteries in one or more of the cycles rudimentary, without fully 
developed retractor muscles and devoid of filaments ; acontia very 
long. Gonads protogynous, the two elements being produced at 
different times and in different parts of the mesenteries, the ovaries 
above the testes. 

Description of an Isolated Race (var. exul) of the Species. 

Column several times as long as broad, vermiform when extended 
in young specimens sausage or barrel-shaped when contracted. 
The walls of the column very thin, allowing forty-eight mesenteries 
to be visible externally as narrow, semi-opaque vertical stripes. 
Tentacles as in the typical form, except that there are never more 
than four cycles ; the disk in old specimens much reduced, 
divided into twelve distinct parts. The stomodseum extending 
less than half way down the column. Basal disk devoid of a 
sphincter, its periphery merging gradually into the column. The 
folds of the subtentacular sphincter markedl}' deeper above than 
below, with a few oval muscle spaces above. The six pairs of 
primary mesenteries alone fully developed, the others as a rule lack- 
ing retractor muscles and filaments, but the first c^^cle, or some of 
its members, sometimes being fertile though feebly muscular. 
Cinclides in vertical rows on the upper part of the column. 



1907.] 



Rccor</s of the Indian Museum. 



49 



In all other respects, so far as its taxonomic features are con 
cerned, the characters of the variety may be regarded as identical 
with those of the typical form. 




F"i(;. I — Thick transverse section of the column of .1/ schillerianum var. exiil in 
the region of the stomodpeum, showing the arrangement of the mesenteries, the form of 
tiie retractor muscles and the muscular strands of the wall. 



Comparison between the Structure of the Typical 
Form and that of the Variety. 

The above is a general account of the physical characters in 
which the two forms agree with and differ from one another. In 
order to explain the manner in which it is probable that these differ- 
ences have come about , it will be necessary first to compare the 
structure of the two forms in further detail, and then to give an ac- 
count of their respective modes of life. 

Column. — 

The main differences between the typical form and variety are 
])lainly connected with the differences in the form of the column. In 
the new variety of the species this part of the organism is a thin- 
walled muscular sac with a bulky lumen ; in the typical form the walls 
are thicker and the coelenteron very much less spacious. The thin- 
ness of the walls in the variety is due to two causes, viz., the nature 
of the ectodermal layer and the comparatively poor development of 
the mesoderm. In both forms the ectodermal layer consists of the 
usual elements, namely, epithelial and glandular cells, sense cells, 
and nematocysts. The cells do not differ in any feature of import- 
ance as regards form or structure from those found in the same layer 
in other Actniians. vStolic/ka has already described and figured 

7 



50 N. Annandale: The Fauna of Brackish Potids. [Vol. I, 

the nematocysts (o/). ci7., plate xi). The secretion of the gland 
cells mixed with the threads of the nematocysts forms a cover- 
ing for the column, which, however, is only temporary, and has 
not the characters of the so-called cuticle found in some Actinians. 
Unless specimens are very carefully preserved, the whole of the nem- 
atocysts of the column and tentacles are forced out of the ectoderm 
without rupturing, and appear in transverse section to form a sep- 
arate layer, bound together by slime secreted by the gland cells but 
external to and distinct from the ectoderm. If living specimens are 
examined, it will be found that there is no such layer under natural 
conditions, but that the nematoc^'sts are interspersed with the epi- 
thelial and glandular cells. The temporary protective covering is 
not formed of the nematocysts, but only of their threads and of 
slime, often with foreign bodies enclosed. In the isolated race the 
ectoderm consists of a layer of cells parallel to the mesoderm. 
In the typical form, however, this layer is thrown, all round the 
periphery of the column, into a series of transverse folds, the func- 
tion of which I will discuss later. The number of nematocysts and 
also of gland cells present in this region is perhaps greater in the 
typical form than in the variety. The suckers, which are as a rule 
absent in young individuals, consist, in both forms, of relatively 
deep folds of the ectoderm separated by a space from the meso- 
derm ; they are oval in outline, their main axis being at right 
angles to that of the column. It is very difficult to detect the cin- 
clides in preserved material, but in life they are easily distinguished 
as transversely elongated sHts with tumid lips. In structure they 
closely resemble the suckers except that they are perforate ; the 
mesogloea beneath them is much vacuolated. The vertical rows 
of suckers, at any rate in the variety, usually correspond to the 
inter-, those of the cinclides to the intramesenterial spaces ; but 
I have been unable to convince myself that this arrangement is 
absolutely constant. In the typical form of the species cincUdes 
and suckers occur on all parts of the column, the former being 
particularly numerous near the two disks ; but in the new race 
both structures are confined to the upper half of the column below 
the region of the sphincter. 

The thickness of the mesoderm is not more than moderate in the 
typical form ; in the variety it is rather less, but the mesogloea swells 
out somewhat irregularly in many of the inter- and intramesen- 
terial spaces in such a way that the whole of the layer in such spaces 
has a roughly spindle-shaped outline in transverse section. In both 
forms the nerve cells situated towards the external limits of the 
mesoderm are large and numerous, and in both the mesogloea itself 
has a distinctly reticulo-fibrillar structure and contains, especially 
externall}^, a number of irregularly placed vertical spaces and 
channels. In the typical form of the species, the wider folds of 
the ectoderm rest on slight projections and concavities in the 
mesoderm, while in both forms broad mesodermal " bays " occur 
on the endodermal surface. 

The endoderm of the column in both forms consists of consider- 



igoy.] Records of the I ndiayi Museum. 5I 

ably elongated epithelial cells provided with cilia, which are parti- 
cularly long and active towards the upper limits of the column. In 
the typical form, the number of gland cells interspersed in the epi- 
thelium is perhaps greater than in the variety. In the former, the 
cells lining the intermesenterial spaces are markedly longer, and 
contain more zooxanthella^, than those lining the intramesenterial 
spaces. This difference is not so clear in the variety but appears to 
exist to a slight extent. In both forms the zooxanthellce do not 
encroach upon the basal part of the cells. 

An important point to be noted is that the differences in struc- 
ture of the column are much more marked in the case of full-grown 
individuals of the two forms than they are in that of very young in- 
dividuals of the variety and adults of the typical form. As can be 
seen from the figures on plate iv, young individuals of the variety 
measuring about 10 mm. in length when contracted, are only about 
four times as long as broad, their proportions being, however some- 
what variable. In full-grown specimens of the same form, however, 
the length is at least ten times the transverse diameter. When 
strongly contracted the column of the young individuals assumes a 
barrel-shaped outline wliich does not differ very greatly from the 
conical outline of the typical form in same state, and the younger the 
individual is, so far as my experience goes, the less is the lerigth in 
excess of the transverse diameter. It is only well-grown individuals, 
of over 4 cm. in length when they are contracted, which can be called 
wormlike, and as will be shown later, contraction takes a dift'erent 
course in full-grown examples of the variety than that which occurs 
in young examples of the variety or full-grown individuals of the 
original form. In the typical form and in the young of the variety, 
the column is able to stand vertically upright, but in larger indi- 
viduals of the variety this is impossible without artificial support. 

Muscles. — 

The circular muscular layer of the mesoderm of the column lies 
within the nervous layer of the same structure and, in the variety, 
occupies the greater part of the mesogloea. In the typical form it 
is relatively less extensive. In the typical form, moreover, the 
muscle fibres appear to form a continuous sheet, but I am not 
quite confident as regards this point. In the variety, however, it 
is easy to see in living and even in well-preserved specimens that 
this muscle consists of a large number of parallel strands lying 
closely adjacent to one another in a vertical series. I am not 
referring to the sphincter, which is formed by a folding of the 
muscle accompanied by a parallel folding of the whole mesoderm, 
but to the circular muscle of the column below the sphincter. 

In the typical form of the species the sphincter is not visible 
externally and its folds are so shallow and commence so gradually 
below, that it is difficult to say at what point it begins to become 
differentiated. This is also the case as regards young specnnens 
of the variety less than five millimetres long : but even m these it 
is more powerfully developed. In full-grown specimens of the 



52 N. Annandai.E: The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [Vol.. I, 

variety, however, the sphincter region can be distinctly recognized 
externally, forming a somewhat corrugated and rather opaque 
band beneath the disk, and measuring about one-twelfth of the 
whole column in length. It is well shown in fig. 5, pi. iii. 

The basal sphincter is formed b}" a few comparatively deep folds 
in the circular muscle at the base of the column round the periphery 
of the basal disk. I can find no trace of it in the variety. 

Longitudinal muscle fibres can occasionally be detected in the 
mesoderm of the column in the typical form ; in the variet}'^ they are 
fairly abundant in the spindle-shaped swellings of the mesoderm 
referred to in a preceding paragraph. 

In both forms of the species, the basilar muscles of the mesen- 
teries are well developed, surrounding outgrowths of the mesoderm 
at the base of these organs and having a dendritic outline in 
transverse section. ks a rule they are developed almost equally- 
on the two sides of the mesentery ; but their exact outline varies 
greatl}^ even in different mesenteries of the same individual. The 
basilo-retr actor muscles are on the other hand somewhat feebly 
developed, accompanying a relatively slight folding of the meso- 
derm often almost indistinguishable. They, too, are very variable. 
The retractor muscles are stout and somewhat short in trans- 
verse section in both forms In the variety it is possible to 
distinguish these belonging to the directive mesenteries from the 
others by their shape as well as by their position and orientation. 
In transverse section all have a reniform outline but those of 
the directive mesenteries are shorter and more nearly circular. 
In the typical form of the species this characteristic is not so 
marked as in the variety, but in the latter there is more space for 
the muscles to retain their natural outline than there is in the 
former. The retractor muscles in the variety become gradually 
more slender near the base of the column, and practically disappear 
before the base is reached. In the typical form, however, they 
extend along the basal disk almost to its centre, and play an 
important part in the muscularity of that structure. 

The radial muscles of the disk and tentacles are at first sight 
difiicult to detect, owing to the fact that they form a relatively 
narrow band in transverse section. In .suitable longitudinal 
sections of the tentacles, however, they appear to be powerful and 
are easily distinguished. 

Tentacles and disk. — 

The arrangement of the tentacles is closely similar in the two 
forms, but the variet}^ generall}^ has one cycle fewer than the typical 
form, full-grown individuals of both being examined. Stoliczka said 
that he could distinguish the six primary tentacles from the others 
by their shape ; this I have been unable to do, but, at any rate 
in young individuals , their position surrounding the mouth is quite 
distinct and the}^ are separated from the other cycles. Typically 
each cycle, commencing from the primary- cycle and going out- 
wards, has twice as many tentacles as the one immediatel}' within 



1907. 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



S3 



it, as Stoliczka's diagram {o-p. cit., pi. xi, fig. 2) shows very 
clearly ; but although this holds good as a general rule, there are 
many exceptions, which arise either from the suppression of some 
of the tentacles of a cycle or by the appearance of supernumerary 
tentacles. The latter phenomenon may occur in one of two ways : 
not infrequently an extra tentacle makes its appearance at the 
base of one already fully formed than which it is at first consider- 
ably smaller, and less frequently a tentacle splits longitudinally 
into two. I have seen both these methods of multiplication in 




V\G. 2. — PIxpanded disk of M. schillerianum var. exul, oblique lateral view, nat.size. 



progress in the variety, and have little doubt that they also occur 
in the typical form, judging from the slight divergencies from regu- 
larity which I have found in specimens. 

As regards the individual tentacles I can find no difference 
between the two forms. In both they are elongated and tapering 
and are perforate at the free extremity. I have on one occasion 
seen an acontium protruded through the pore. The nervous layer 
of the ectoderm is clearh' marked in transverse sections and the 
layers are generalh* of t3'pical form and structure. 

The wall of the disk is thinner in the variety than in the 
t3^pical form. In the latter, when the disk is fully expanded its edge 
makes a right angle with the column and is entire. This is also the 
case as regards individuals of the new race of all ages, when 
their disks are fully expanded. When the disk of the typical form 
is partly contracted, however a fold of the wall of the column 
containing the upper extremity of the sphincter makes its appear- 
ance, and this is also the case in young individuals of the new 
race less than about 2 cm. long. Even after the appearance of this 
"collar," the margin of the disk is entire. In larger individuals 
of the isolated race, for reasons to be di.scussed immediately-, the 



54 



M. AnnANDALE : The Fauna of Brackish Poiids. [VOL. I, 



collar does not appear in any circumstance, and the margin of the 
disk is broken up by deep furrows into twelve lobes, each containing 
seven tentacles and every two corresponding to one of the six 
primary tentacles. As lobulation of the disk is generally re- 
garded as a character of generic value in the group to which Me- 
tridium belongs, this is a matter of some importance. It must be 
noted, however, that the lobulation is not a permanent feature of 
the species or even of the new race, but only occurs in specimens 
of the latter which have attained a large size. Probably it is 
brought about by the nature of the radial muscles and the thinness 
of the wall. It is not in any way comparable to the shallower 
lobulation of the disk which characterizes many Actinians, but may 
be of interest in considering the question of the manner in which 
such permanent lobulation has come about. 




p,G 2- — Expanded disk of M. schillerianum var. exul. from above, nat. size. Only ihe 
outermost cycle of tentacles is represented. 

I have already referred to the fact that no fold makes its appear- 
ance round the disk of full-grown individuals of the var. exul when 
they are in the act of contracting, and also that contraction takes a 
different course in such individuals from that followed in the case of 
younger examples of the same variety or of either young or old ex- 
amples of the typical form. When a full-grown typical individual is 
irritated, the whole disk is drawn downwards by the contraction of 
the contractor muscles, and at the same time, or a little later, the 
sphincter, by contracting, draws in the upper part of the column 
above the disk, while the diameter of the disk and the length of the 
tentacles are reduced by contraction of the radial muscles, and the 
mouth is tightly closed. The tips of the tentacles are bent inwards 
in a broad arc. In young individuals of the variety the process 



1907] Records of the Indian Museum. 55 

is similar, but the sphincter contracts more strongly. The space in 
which the disk is to be contained is therefore less, and the tentacles 
are forced to dispose themselves in a different manner. The outer 
cycles draw together in such a way that their tips are in contact or 
almost in contact , while the inner cycles bend downwards and enter 
the mouth and stomodaeum. The difference between the two ways 
in which space is found for the bestowal of the tentacles during con- 
traction of the disk is strikingly illustrated in bisected specimens of 
the two forms. In full-grown individuals of the new race, on the 
other hand, the tentacles and the disk are not withdrawn entirely 
into the column when the animal is irritated, but, after partial re- 
traction of the disk and contraction of the tentacles, the sphincter 
contracts below the disk and the mouth is closed, not always very 
tightly. This difference is connected with a change in habits which 
will be discussed later. 

Basal disk. — 

Not the least striking difference between the two forms is 
that connected with the basal disk ; but as in other characters, 
the difference in this respect is more marked in fully grown in- 
dividuals than it is in the young. The base of the typical form 
is strongly muscular, that of the variety much more feebly so ; but 
that of young examples of the variety resembles, in its general 
characters, except in the absence of a sphincter, that of the typical 
form. In the typical form, the main axis of the base forms a right 
angle with that of the column, and the edge dividing them is 
sharply defined. It is possible, however, for the basal disk to be 
extended beyond the column under certain conditions, as when 
the animal is stationed in a cavit}^ the diameter of which is 
greater, but not very much greater than that of its column. The 
lower surface of the basal disk is always flat as a whole. In young 
examples of the new race the lower surface of the basal disk 
is also flat ; but the edges do not appear to be extensile. In well- 
grown individuals of this form, however, the lower surface 
of the basal disk is not flat, but either concave or convex in 
accordance with external circumstances. In fact, it has to a great 
extent lost its functions as an organ of adhesion, in accordance with 
the change of habits already alluded to. In both forms of the 
species, there is a pore in the centre of the basal disk, communicat- 
ing on the one hand with the ccelenteron and on the other with 
the exterior. 

In young examples of the new race there is a distinct folding 
of the ectoderm in the neighbourhood of the basal disk, comparable 
to that which occurs all over the column of the tj^pical form ; while 
a trace of folding can even be discovered in the former position in the 
adult of the isolated form. The arrangement of the inferior termi- 
nation of the mesenteries is very variable in the new race, -in which 
the two mesenteries of a pair often join together and end before 
reaching the centre of the basal disk, while sometimes they do not 
meet at all and run right to the edge of the central pore. 



56 N. Annandale : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [\'f)L. I, 

Mesenteries. — 

The arrangement of the mesenteries in the typical form is, 
as is frequently the case in the famil}^ subject to many minor 
irregularities ; but it seems to be a fixed rule in the species that onl}' 
six pairs of mesenteries are complete, and that they are all, occasion- 
ally with one or two individual exceptions, fertile. The number of 
fertile secondar}- mesenteries is variable ; often none of them are 
fertile, so that Stoliczka was right when he described specimens as 
having twelve ovaries. The mesenteries of the secondar}- C3'cles in 
this form are alwaA's smaller than those of the primary cycles, and 
the retractor muscles of the latter are so feebly developed that as a 
rule the}" are not visible to the naked e3'e. Mesenterial filaments, 
more or less perfect in structure, are usually present in those cases 
in which it is possible to recognize the retractor muscles ; but some 
of the mesenteries J in all the specimens I have examined, consist 
merely of the basilar portion, with which they terminate, neither 
the membranous part between the proximal termination and the 
retractor, the retractor itself, nor the filament being represented. 
In the typical form of the species such imperfect mesenteries 
occur irregularly ; in one specimen a pair was noted which 
seemed to represent by itself a cycle of which the other mesen- 
teries were absent. In the new race, on the other hand, it is the 
rule for all the mesenteries except the six primary pairs to be in 
this rudimentary, or possibly vestigial condition. Only exception- 
ally do any of the secondary mesenteries bear retractor muscles, 
filaments or gonads. This condition of affairs considerabl}" in- 
creases the lumen of the coelenteron, which is further enlarged by 
another peculiarity nameh^ the thinness of the mesoderm in the 
mesenteries. In the typical form of the species, this layer rather 
increases in transverse diameter as it juts out into the mesen- 
teries, and maintains a porportionately considerable breadth the 
whole way between the basilar and retractor muscles. In the new 
race, however, although it bulges out and takes on a dendritic 
form in the region in which it supports the basilar muscles, it de- 
creases greatl}^ in thickness between the distal extremity of the latter 
and the base of the retractors. Indeed, to such an extent is this the 
case that in what may be called the membranous part of the 
mesentery, the mesoderm appears in transverse sections as an ex- 
tremely delicate filament. There are, of course, differences in the 
transverse diameter of this layer, so far as the mesenteries are 
concerned, in different regions of the column ; but the differences 
just described are very much more conspicuous than any of a local 
nature. 

Both internal and external mesenterial stomata are present in 
both forms. 

The structure of the mesenterial filaments calls for no special 
remark either as regards the species as a whole or as regards the 
two forms thereof. It agrees closely with that which has been des- 
cribed by O. and R. Hertwig (3), and subsequently by others, in the 
cases of different members of the Sagartiidse. The onh' points in 



rgoy.] Records of f he India)! Museum. 57 

which these organs appear to exhibit specific interest so far as M. 
schillerianum is concerned, are the extent and number of the folds 
into which the^' are thrown both horizontally and vertically, and 
the great length of the acontia. I can detect no diiTerence, except 
those alread}' noted, as regards the structure of the mesenteries in 
the two forms of the species. 

Gonads. — 

The nature of the gonads in this species is interesting. In most 




Photo by L, L, Fermor.] 

Fig. 4. — Part of the mesentery of M. schillerianum var. exul, from a preparation 
in Canada balsam, highly magnified. w = mesenterial filament; ;' = unripe testis; = 
ovary; « = membranous part of the mesentery; rt = retractor muscle. 

of the Actinians one or other of two conditions is found — either 
the male and female organs are borne by different individuals, or the 
two are borne in the same part of the same mesentery of one in- 
dividual, one sex generally taking precedence in time of the other. 
In M. schillerianum^ however, neither of these conditions prevails. 
In specimens of the variety examined at the beginning of December, 
only ovaries (which were present in all individuals measuring more 
than about 15 mm. in length) could be found ; they occupied the 
distal part of the mesentery, extending from the lower extremity of 
the stomodaeum vertically downwards as far as the point at which 
the structure of the mesenterial filament first underwent a change. 
Their position on the complete mesenteries corresponded exactly, 
therefore, with that of the part of the filament which was trilo- 
bate in transverse section, and their lower extremity was .situated 
exactly opposite the point at which the ciliated tracts of the 
filament disappeared. The lower part of the coiled portion of 



58 N. Annandalf : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. 1, 

the filament, on the other hand, corresponded with a region of 
the mesentery containing, at that date, cells with all the char- 
acters of sexual cells but as yet of an indeterminate nature. 
These cells were situated at the base of the endoderm covering the 
mesenter}-. The ova were already far advanced in the part of the 
mesenter)^ occupied by the ovary, and this part of the mesentery 
had lost its purple colour ; but the lower part, below the ovary, was 
still of a very deep purple. The structure of the ovary closely re- 
sembled (except that the whole structure was strongl}^ folded) 
that of the ovary of Calliactis parasitica as figured by O. and R. 
Hertwig (3). In specimens of the new race of M. schillerianum 
killed in January, however, the condition of the gonads had altered 
completely. The upper part of the mesenter}^ was now devoid of 
ova and was thin and colourless ; the lower part, in which the 
indeterminate sexual cells had occurred in other individuals a month 
earlier, was now distended with spermatozoa arranged in approxi- 
mately quadrangular follicules. Although they were already ripe, 
the development of the testes had not destroyed the purple colour 
of this part of the mesentery. The structure of the organs was 
identical (except for a folding similar to that of the ovaries but 
even more marked) with that of the testes of Calliactis parasitica. 
In a few individual mesenteries the testes appeared to have in- 
vaded that region which had been previously occupied by the ova- 
ries, but the two regions were as a rule distinct, and corresponded 
to those parts of the mesenterial filaments which I have referred to 
above. In individuals killed towards the end of March the gonads 
were again in the same condition as in those killed in December. 

Stoliczka states that the eggs have a chitinous covering when 
emitted, and that there is a dark layer beneath this covering. If 
his statements are correct, both these structures must come into 
existence at a very late stage of development, for ova which appear 
to be of nearly full size show no trace of either. The spermatozoa, 
as Stoliczka noted, have a round head and a tail of somewhat mod- 
erate dimensions. In the testes they are arranged with their heads 
pointing outwards towards the endoderm which encloses them, and 
it appears that the movements of their tails prove sufficient to drive 
them through this endoderm , probably between the cells. Stoliczka's 
specimen, which threw out part of the gonad, was evidently living 
under unfavourable conditions, and the process appears to have been 
pathological. In individuals of the form he described living in my 
aquarium the gonads degenerated altogether. These individuals 
were obtained, together with others which were killed and dissected, 
in the Matla estuary at the beginning of January. The gonads of 
those which were examined were, at that date, in exactly the same 
condition as examples of the isolated race from the ponds. 

Skeleton. — 

In his account of the species Stoliczka stated that it was 
remarkable in the possession of a skeleton consisting of both cal- 
careous and silicious elements. I have examined both his own 



1907.] Records of the I nd'uDi Museitui. fi9 

specimens and fresh ones, in order to be in a position to discuss 
this skeleton ; but in vain. All that I find is that in some of the 
individuals examined the coelenteron is to some extent lined with 
extraneous particles of silica, which also occur in the mud of the 
ponds and estuary, and that these particles have occasionally been 
taken into the cells of the endoderm or even into the mesoderm. 
It is well known that many Actinians protect themselves by ab- 
sorbing solid extraneous particles in this way, e.g., the Indian 
species Myradis tubicola, Haddon (6). The calcareous spicule 
figured by Stoliczka looks very much like that of an Alcyonarian, 
and some of my specimens of M. schillerianum var. exul, which 
were taken from the canals of a Sponge, contain undoubted sponge 
spicules. 

Colour. — 

Such coloration as the two forms of the species possess is practi- 
cally identical and is due to three factors ; two of these can be 
readily explained, while the origin of the third is still obscure. 

The most general cause of colour is the presence of zooxanthellae 
in the cells of the endoderm of the column and tentacles and of the 
ectoderm of the stomodseum. These bodies agree in form and struc- 
ture with those found in other Actinians, In the new race of M. 
schillerianum, and probably also in the typical form, they are not 
always present. I found at Port Canning in December that they 
were fairly abundant in individuals from one of the ponds, but 
were absent from others living in a second pond only divided from 
the first by a narrow bank. At the same time they were very abun- 
dant in examples of the typical form from the estuary ; they be 
came far less numerous in the course of a few weeks in the same 
individuals, which were placed in an aquarium, but again re- 
appeared in large numbers in their tissues before two months were 
past. The distribution of the zooxanthellse in the tissues was found 
to be by no means constant. In individuals living buried in mud it 
was not surprising to find them practically confined to the tenta- 
cles and the upper part of the column. They were also noted occa- 
sionally in the mesoderm and even the ectoderm of these regions, 
and I have seen them on several occasions, as did also Stoliczka, ni 
the cloud of slime and stinging threads shot out from the external 
surface when the animal was irritated. In the last instance there 
can be little doubt that they had been squeezed out accidentally. In 
individuals of the typical form they are as a rule more numerous 
in the endoderm underlying the sphincter and in that lining the 
interseptal spaces than elsewhere. They are not altogether absent 
from the intraseptal spaces, but are sparsely scattered in the cells. 
To this fact is due in part the presence of the semi-opaque vertical 
stripes which, in the typical form, represent the intraseptal spaces 
externally ; but the difference between the character of the endo- 
derm of these spaces and that of the interseptal ones is also, to 
some extent, responsible for this element in the coloration. In the 
pond race, the scarcity of zooxanthellse in the column renders the 



6o N. \\\.\K\)M.v.: The Fauna of Brackish Poiiiis. [Vol.. I, 

wall of this region more transparent and makes it possible to distin- 
guish the position of the mesenteries externally. The zooxanthellee 
are always more numerous towards the distal end of the endoderm 
cells than at their base, from which, indeed, they are practically 
absent. 

The second factor is not very important so far as coloration is 
concerned. It consists of irregularly shaped solid particles and 
globular masses of liquid, both very minute, occurring in the cells of 
the ectoderm of the stomodseum and the endoderm of the mesenterial 
filaments. Other particles, possibly of an excretor}- nature and of a 
shining white colour, are present in certain cells of the endoderm 
of the tentacles, giving rise to transverse bars. I can find no con- 
firmation of StoHczka's statement that these bars are due to accu- 
mulations of nematocysts, for nematoc3^sts are equally numerous 
throughout the ectoderm of the tentacles. When zooxanthellse are 
absent from an individual, the solid particles and liquid globules 
in the mesenteries and stomodseum give these organs a faint pinkish 
tinge during life. There can be little doubt that such intracellular 
accumulations of matter are direct products of metabolism. 

The third factor is the cause of the purplish colour noted by 
Stohczka in the mesenteries of the t3'pical form, and equally con- 
spicuous in some individuals of the new race, but not always pres- 
ent either in the tjq^ical form or the other. If any part of the 
endoderm of an individual with purple mesenteries be examined 
microscopicall}' , it will be seen to contain numerous bodies of a deep 
violet colour. With the aid of a fairly powerful objective such as 
Zeiss' apochromatic D these bodies will be seen to vary consider- 
ably in shape and size and each to be enclosed in a green and 
apparently structureless capsule, the colour of which does not dis- 
appear in spirit. An oil-immersion lens is necessary- to throw any 
light on their structure, and even under the highest powers they 
are minute. Under favourable conditions each body can, however, 
be seen to contain a large number of smaller, densely pigmented 
spherical structures, evidently spores, surrounding a colourless cen- 
tral core. I have not succeeded in investigating the structure of 
the spores owing to their minute size and to the fact that their 
dense pigmentation is extremely stable. The capsule is pear-shaped 
or subspherical in most of the bodies, but in the largest its outline 
becomes irregular; in some cases it is no longer intact and the spores 
are scattered round it. An examination of a considerable number 
of sections and other preparations has elicited the following facts 
as regards these violet bodies. 

After the spores have been set free among the cells of the endo- 
derm, they increase in size, and a small, comparatively clear circular 
space appears in the middle of each. In the centre of this space is a 
dot so minute that I have not been able to make out its structure. 
At first it is difficult to ascertain the nature of the envelope in 
which each of the spores is enclosed, but after they have increased 
slightly in size it is possible to see that each lies in a capsule 
resembling that of the parent but exceedingly delicate and only 



iqo].] Records of the I ndian Museum. 6i 

faintly tinged with green; At a slightly later period the capsule 
commences to bulge out at one pole, and finally forms a projec- 
tion which may be either pointed or blunt at the free extrem- 
ity, and is nearly as wide as, and several times as long as the 
body to which it is attached. It is apparently hollow, and a 
slight fold or constriction in its wall can generally be detected 
a short distance from the proximal end. The coloured contents of 
the capsule are still confined within their original limits, and as yet 
show no sign of subdivision. The main part of the capsule next 
increases in size and its contents split up, apparently by fragmenta- 
tion, into numerous smaller bodies resembling the spore from which 
the whole structure originated but rather less minute, a colourless 
residue remaining. Some of these smaller bodies make their way 
into the hollow projection, and the main part of the capsule gradually 
becomes less distinct from the projection, which increases in girth ; 
so that the whole structure assumes a pear-shaped or subspherical 
outline. During this process the products of division divide and 
become smaller by subdivision. Finall}^ the capsule ruptures and a 
new generation of spores is set free. 

It is obvious that much further study would be necessary before 
it would be possible to give a name to these violet bodies, and such 
study would have little bearing, so far as it is possible to see, on the 
subject of this paper. All that can be said is, that the}' appear to 
represent an asexual cycle in the life-history of some minute alga. 
It is of interest to note that if they are not phases of the same or- 
ganism as the zooxanthellge , two s^^mbiotic, or at any rate inquiline, 
organisms occur together in the inner tissues of the same Act- 
inian. 

The position of the violet bodies in these tissues is practically the 
same as that of the zooxanthellse, except that the former are inter- 
not intracellular. They are not, however, sufficiently numerous in 
the column to give a visible colour eft'ect, and even in the mesenteries, 
in which they are far more numerous , they only colour the thin mem- 
branous part. Stoliczka believed that the deep purple, often seen in 
the region of the gonads, was directly due to the sexual products. So 
far from this being the case, I find that when the ovaries are ripe or 
nearly so, they lose their colour almost completely. The loss of 
colour, however, is due not to the entire disappearance of the violet 
bodies, but to the fact they are more widely separated from one 
another as the eggs increase in bulk and so stretch the endoderm in 
which the bodies are scattered. It is possible, however, that the 
growth of the eggs has some direct effect on these bodies, which are 
so scarce in the spent ovaries that the mesenteries have little colour 
in this region after the eggs are set free. I have not seen an im- 
mature individual with purple ovaries, and the violet bodies are 
always absent from the acontia. 

From what has been said it is clear that neither form of Metri- 
dmm schillerianum owes its coloration to pigment produced by its 
own metabolism. In both forms the colours are due to independent 
or semi-independent organisms, and the difference of distribution 



62 N. AnnandALE : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

of these organisms in the bodies of the Actinians is probablj^ con- 
nected with biological differences in the hosts. 

Biology. 

Relations to environment. — 

Stoliczka found the original specimens of the species living 
attached to logs of wood ; he therefore suggested that the}^ should 
be called Lignacalephse. I have recently found specimens of the 
typical form ensconsed in the dead shells of barnacles fixed to 
iron posts in the Matla estuary. Stoliczka noted that the species, 
as he knew it, frequently inserted its basal disk into cavities in the 
logs to which it attached ; both in the case of my specimens and 
of his, the basal disk was extended somewhat beyond the periphery 
of the column to cover the base of the cavity in which the animal 
was stationed. In circumstances in which it is impossible for the 
Actinian to protect itself by entering a cavit}^ already formed, for 
example when it is in a glass vessel, it constructs a protecting 
sheath for itself out of such objects as filaments of the alga; 
which grow in its natural habitat. This habit has been exemplified 
by individuals of both forms recently living in captivit}^ in 
Calcutta, especially by full}^ grown individuals of the typical form 
and b}^ young individuals of the new race. I was able, in the 
case of one example of the latter, to observe the production of the 
sheath. The animal had been removed from the aquarium and 
placed in a watchglass full of water, and was being examined 
under a fairly high power of the microscope. After a few minutes 
of complete contraction its column grew slightly longer and at 
the same time a large number of stinging- threads were emitted 
from the upper part of this region of the body. These were 
of simple structure, devoid of barbs. The}^ did not remain still 
after being set free, but displa3^ed a rapid corkscrew motion 
closely resembling that of many spermatozoa and were thus carried 
through the water for a short distance round the Actinian, from 
which they did not recede. A quantity of mucus was also 
secreted from the exterior of the column. The rapid movements of 
the threads did not last for more than a few minutes, but, as the}' 
ceased, the threads became matted together with the slime, which 
retained any extraneous substances that chanced to come in contact 
with it. Larger examples of the new race, examined as the}' 
were taken, had particles of the mud from which they had been 
removed adhering to them, probably for the same reason ; but 
in all cases the external coating thus formed was of an extremely 
evanescent and flimsy nature. 

As I have already pointed out, there are few solid bodies at pre- 
sent to be found in the ponds at Port Canning I have searched 
them in vain for specimens of the typical form of the species, 
which was living in one of them thirty-nine years ago, when the 
logs of wood were there. Representatives of the new race now 
abound, however, in the ponds, with the exception of the two 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 63 

ponds nearest the railway station, both of which are used by the 
people of the settlement for such purposes as washing domestic 
utensils and clothes. (There is at Port Canning one large pond 
which is only separated from the brackish ones by a few hundred 
yards and yet contains fresh water ; but as the fauna of this pond 
is of normal character and does not include marine elements, I 
have not referred to it hitherto and need not do so again.) 

Although the typical and the new forms of M. schillerianum 
are alike in producing a temporary sheath of matter secreted by 
their own cells and mixed with extraneous substances, the new 
form is not in the habit as a rule of attaching itself by its base to 
the few inanimate solid bodies to be found in the ponds. SpongiUa 
cerehellata, however, often occurs in masses of considerable size in 
the ponds, and in its canals I have found enormous numbers of 
young individuals of the Actinian. In the majority of cases these 
were situated in such a way that their long axes were parallel to 
those of the canals, to the walls of which they adhered by means 
of the external surface of their columns. In some cases, however, 
their basal disks were attached to the shells of small Lamellibranchs 
{Corbula spp.) which also frequent the canals of the Sponge. In 
situations in which no Sponges were present, the young of the 
Actinian were generally found attached to the filaments of algse 
which formed more or less dense cloud-like masses, and many were 
also found among the matted roots of grasses. None, however, 
were found attached to the stems or branches of upright plants 
such as Naias, and it was clear that among the algae and grass 
roots a considerable amount of lateral support was given them. 
When they were placed in a vessel of water without any such 
artificial support, they proved able to adfix themselves to the 
bottom by their bases and to stand upright with fully expanded 
tentacles. In this position they closely resembled the young of the 
common European Sagartia troglodytes and could onh' be distin- 
guished from small examples of the typical M. schillerianum by 
the greater elongation of their columns and by the thinness of the 
walls of this region — a feature quite apparent owing to the trans- 
parency of the tissues, which permitted the exact position of the 
internal organs and the movements of the acontia to be observed 
with ease. Individuals even in this stage, however, rarely lived for 
long in an aquarium, and at once gathered round them filaments 
of algse. 

The full-grown individuals of this new race were invariably found 
buried in mud, in which they were sunk as far as the base of the 
tentacles, and into which they retreated completely on being dis- 
turbed. When removed from the mud their long, vermiform 
columns were unable to support them in an upright position, 
and they lay in a glass vessel with their main axes parallel to the 
bottom, but with the extreme distal end of the column slightly 
curved upwards. Their attitude and appearance were in fact 
closely similar to those of many .species of Cerianthus in similar 
circumstances. And yet every intermediate stage was to be found 



64 N. AnnANDALR: The Fauna of Brackish Pouth. [VOL. I, 

between the typical SagaYtia-X\\^Q young and the Ccrianthus-like 
adult, while the internal anatomy, allowing for differences due to 
maturity, was found to be identical in large and small individuals. 
Moreover, although the basal disk had almost disappeared, it had 
not altogether lost its function as an organ of adhesion, for man}' 
large individuals dug from the mud were found on close examina- 
tion to be adherent by their bases to shells and other small objects. 
In preserved specimens it would often appear on superficial ex- 
amination that the basal disk is in much the same condition 
of atrophy as it is in Edivardsia and other burrowing forms, but 
in living examples it is always clear that this is not the case ; 
in fact, a distinct disk is present (plate iii, lig. 3), but it is rela- 
tively small and in other respects degenerate. 

Stoliczka noted that the typical form of the species was able 
to survive exposure to the sun out of water for some hours — a pheno- 
menon which has been recorded in other Actinians — and I am able to 
confirm his observation. When exposed at low tide the animals 
remain with their tentacles extruded, and the whole organism has 
a particularly flabby appearance. A close examination of hving 
specimens under these and other conditions, and a comparison 
with dead and carefully preserved material, enables me to suggest a 
reason for the powers of endurance possessed by the typical 
M . schillerianum ; possibly this explanation will be found to 
appl}' to other species also. I have alread}" remarked on the com- 
paratively thin walls of the column of the new race of M . schil- 
lerianum as compared with those of the same part of the body in 
the typical form of the species, and on the fact that it is possible to 
gauge the thickness of the wall in small living specimens of the 
former owing to its transparency. The wall of the column in the 
typical form is usuall}^ less transparent than it is in the variet}^, 
owing to the large number of zooxanthellse present in the endo- 
derm ; but this very fact makes it possible to estimate the extent 
to which the thickness of the wall is due to the layers other than 
the endoderm. This can be done most easily by watching an 
acontium which is being thrust out of one of the cinclides. It is 
not difficult to see that the thin white thread has to traverse a con- 
siderabh' greater extent of transparent tissue outside the coloured 
endoderm than could be accounted for if the thickness of the ecto- 
derm and mesoderm seen in a transverse section of a preserved 
specimen were the same as the thickness of these same layers 
during life. The shrinkage, which is inevitable in preserved speci- 
mens, is very much more marked in the case of the typical form 
than in that of the pond race ; it is less evident, in the case of the 
former, if specimens are killed and preserved in weak formol than 
if they are treated with reagents, such as corrosive sublimate and 
alcohol, which give a more satisfactory result as regards cellular 
histology. The reason for this apparently is that an aqueous solu- 
tion of formol while causing intense muscular contraction during 
life, does not dehydrate the tissues after death. If a specimen of 
th -' typical form which has been preserved in formol be cut in two 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Mt(scu)n. 65 

with a razor, so as to disturb the tissues as little as possible, it will 
be found that the ectoderm is not closely folded as it is in a speci- 
men preserved in spirit or even in one which has been killed in 
formol and then dehydrated in alcohol and embedded in paraffin ; 
but that there are large spaces between this layer and the meso- 
derm, the two layers being only in contact at widely separated 
points and there being a considerable amount of liquid enclosed 
between them. The same condition, but not nearl3' to the same 
extent, will be found to exist in young individuals of the new form, 
while, except in the lower part of the column, it will not be de- 
tected in full-grown examples of this form. In the neighbourhood 
of the basal disk of these, however, it exists to a slight extent. In 
specimens of the typical form which have been long in alcohol, as I 
found in the types of the species, the ectoderm shrinks very greatly 
(apparently more so than the mesoderm does) and therefore comes 
to be nearly smooth again, lying parallel to the mesoderm. From 
these considerations I conclude that there is naturally a layer of 
water between the ectoderm and the mesoderm in the typical but 
not in the new form of M. schillenanum — there are traces of it even in 
the adult, and much more clearly in the young, of the latter — and 
further that the folds of the ectoderm which are so striking a feature 
of this layer in sections of the typical form (plate iii, figs. 5, 6) of 
the species, are artificial. 

As to the function of this layer of water, which is confined to the 
column : I would suggest that it is to enable the Actinian to endure 
exposure to the sun out of water. The form is one which haunts 
tidal waters and, as Stoliczka noted, has a great tendency to rnain- 
tain its position near the surface and to return to that position if re- 
moved from it. In the small cavities in which it is frequently fourid 
ensconced, a certain amount of water remains when the object in 
which they occur is left dry as a whole by the retreating tide.^ If 
the animal is able to make use of this water by drawing t into 
its body, as it may do by means of the cinclides, the habit of 
living in such cavities must benefit it in more wa^^-s than one. My 
reason for saying that it is possible that other species make use of 
subectodermal spaces in the same way as the typical form of M . 
schillerianuni is that I have observed in specimens both of this 
form and of Sagartia troglodytes, Actinia mesembryanthemum and 
other British species (especially when they are Hving under un- 
natural conditions in foul water) that bUster-like projections 
appear on the column, most commonly towards its base, and that 
in the case of the Indian form these projections, which remain in 
specimens preserved in formol, are due to accumulations of liquid 
below the ectoderm. It is difficult to make observations as regards 
the exact relation of one layer of the body to another on hving 
materia^ , for the whole organism is so highly contractile that such 
relations are distorted immediately on the application of a sharp 
instrument to the external surface ; but water certainly exudes in 
considerable quantities from the wall of the column of a living 
example of the typical M. schillerianiim which is cut with a razor. 



66 N. Annandale : The FaiDia of Brackish Ponds. [Yol.. I, 

The pond race of the Actinian is not subject to the same 
periodical exposure as the t^'pical form of the species, for under 
ordinary conditions it Hves bej'ond the reach of the tides. It is, how- 
ever, exposed to gradual changes in the salinity of the water to which 
it is restricted. To what extent it is able to survive such vicissi- 
tudes is still uncertain ^ ; if Stoliczka is right as regards the chitinous 
nature of the membrane which covers the egg of the typical form, 
and if the egg of the pond race has a similar covering, the egg is 
well fitted to withstand chemical changes in the environment, and 
even desiccation. Adults of the pond race are able to live for 
some hours lying on the ground exposed to the sun. Under such 
conditions their behaviour is totally different from that of ex- 
amples of the typical form. I have found individuals of moderate 
size lying on the mud at the edge of a tank. Their tentacles were 
completely retracted and the sphincter was tightly closed ; their 
columns were, however, distended with water, which was contained 
in the coelenteron. 

Under natural conditions both forms of the species are diurnal 
in habit, the typical form remaining with its disk fully expanded 
when exposed to the direct rays of the sun. The new race, however, 
is usually found below or among floating algse according to its age, 
and these provide considerable shade. Young and half-grown in- 
cHviduals in my aquarium became practicall}' nocturnal after a few 
days' exposure to bright light in a glass vessel. At night and early 
in the morning they expanded their tentacles, which were withdrawn 
as soon as the day became warm (c/. Fleure and Walton (12), 
p. 217). Individuals of the typical form living under identical con- 
ditions exhibited a similar tendency, but to a less marked degree ; 
full-grown examples of the race never lived for at most more than 
three days in these conditions. Young examples of this form showed 
less power of resistance to the unnatural conditions of a small 
aquarium than did adults of the typical form, the latter living 
for over three months in water which was always kept ol the same 
salinity, while those from the pools, in the same vessel, as a rule died 
in about a fortnight. The water in which they were, was taken 
from one of the ponds at Port Canning and was brought to Calcutta 
in a stoppered bottle. 

Movements. — 

Notwithstanding what appears to be an avoidance of bright 
light in the case of the variety, neither form of the species exhibits 
any marked heliotropism, negative or positive, in its movements. 
When individuals are placed in a glass vessel lighted from one side, 
they remain, other conditions being suitable, where they are placed, 
neither moving towards the light nor away from it. Stoliczka 
noticed, however, that his specimens showed a tendency to move 
upwards towards the surface of the water, and I find that mine prefer 



1 Almost at the end of the hot weather, the Artinian is still abundant in the ponds. 
May 27th, 1907. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Musetnii. 67 

to become stationary on the sides rather than at the bottom of the 
aquarium, unless they are given empty shells, in which they ensconce 
themselves at the bottom. 

Both forms possess considerable powers of progression, but they 
do not habitually move in the same way. The only method I have 
seen the typical form adopt is that observed by Stoliczka viz., by 
crawHng slowly on the basal disk along a vertical or horizontal sur- 
face. This method of progression is effected partly by alternate 
contractions and expansions of the disk, and partly by a copious 
secretion of very tenacious mucus from the glandular cells which 
abound on this disk and round the base of the column. It is a slow 
and feeble one, as it generally is in Actinians ; Stoliczka records that 
a specimen in his aquarium moved 7 inches in 24 hours, while one in 
mine took three days and nights to move half the distance. 

Possibly the young of the pond race may adopt the same 
method of progression occasionally, but as a rule they drag them- 
selves along by their tentacles — a much more rapid method. A ten- 
tacle is stretched out to its greatest length, until it becomes fila- 
mentous. Some part of its surface is then applied to a fixed object, 
and a gland cell in the neighbourhood secretes a drop of mucous 
secretion, which fixes the tentacle to the object. The tentacle thus 
fixed contracts, dragging the whole animal forward as it does so ; 
the strain on its surface being considerable, the cells in the neigh- 
bourhood of the gland are drawn out into irregular projections at the 
points at which the}^ are held by the mucus. Latel}' I have ob- 
served the same phenomenon in the tentacle? of Hydra, and I have 
little doubt that this is the true explanation of Zykoff's statement 
that the ectoderm cells of the tentacles of Hydra put out pseudopo- 
dia which are used in progression {Biol. Centralhlat., xviii, p. 272, 
i8g8). When the tentacle is dragged away after a forward move- 
ment of the organism, the false pseudopodia naturall}' appear in an 
exaggerated form ; the}^ are not due directl}" to movements of the 
protoplasm of the cells, but to a mechanical strain on the external 
surface of these cells. I have been able to observe this method of 
progression in the case of very young individuals of the Actinian 
under a fairly high power of the microscope. Although the tentacles 
play in it the most important part, the walls of the -column are also 
adherent to the surface along which the animal is travelling, and if 
it is moving vertically up the walls of an aquarium, as I have 
occasionally observed it to do, the ''suckers" can be seen to be 
applied to the glass very closely. They do not appear to be at all 
markedly concave on the surface, however, as would be the case if 
they actually functioned as suckers. 

In addition to this mode of- progression with the aid of the 
tentacles and the surface of the column, individuals of the variety 
exhibit, at all ages, strongly marked muscular movements of the col- 
umn wall. It is evident that the separation of the circular muscle of 
this region into separate circular strands is physiological as well as 
anatomical, for it is possible for each strand to contract independently 
of the others, so that the column appears just as though an extremely 



68 N. AnnaNDALE: The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

fine thread were drawn tightly round it at one point (see plate iv, 
figs. 3,4). Although any one of the strands can contract in this way 
without affecting the others, I have observed under the microscope 
that they very frequently contract rhythmically and in regular suc- 
cession from below upwards. What happens is this : The pore in 
the centre of the basal disk is opened and water is drawn into the 
lumen of the disk, which becomes bulbular, the circular muscle 
strands at the base of the column being strongl}^ contracted above it. 
Then the pore is closed, the lowest muscle strand relaxes and the 
second one above it contracts. Then the second strand relaxes and 
the first contracts again, and, as the process is continued up the 
column, the water is gradually driven up towards the mouth, just 
as though it were being squeezed upwards in an indiarubber bag by 
drawing tight and loosening in regular succession a series of elastic 
rings. I have Httle doubt that it is by such means that the Actinian 
is able to rise to the surface again after it has sunk into the mud ; 
but I have only been able to observe such movements in the case 
of young individuals which had not yet begun to burrow. In their 
case the movements assisted them in making their way through a 
tangled mass of alga filaments. The foot of adult individuals of 
this variety is probably used for burrowing, aided by contractions 
both of the circular and the retractor muscles ; but owing to the 
difficulty experienced in keeping such individuals in a healthy condi- 
tion after they have been removed from their natural habitat, I 
have no direct observations to offer on this point. When large in- 
dividuals are removed from the mud, the contractions of the column 
which take place are very marked, but entirely lack co-ordination. 

Food. — 

Judging from dissected specimens, the food of the pond race 
consists very largely of minute univalve Molluscs , the shells of which 
are ejected after the animal has been absorbed, and of small fish such 
as Haplochilus melanostigma and Gobius alcockii. Stoliczka found 
that the typical form eat Crustacea in captivity, but I have no 
information as to its natural food. 

Relations of the Variety to the Typical Form. 

In order to make this question clear it will be well to commence 
its discussion by summarizing the resemblances and differences 
between the two forms {a) as regards their physical structure, and 
(/^) as regards their habits. 

Physical resemblances between the two forms. 

1. The coloration is practically identical. 

2. The arrangement of the tentacles and mesenteries is the 



same. 

The position of the circular and radial muscles is the same. 
The structure and nature of the gonads are the same. 



5. Ihe retractor muscles are closely similar. 



1907-] Records of tlic Indian Museu»i. 6q 

6. The outline of the sphincter is almost the same. 

7. The number and position of the mesenterial foramina are 

the same. 

Physical differences between the two forms. 

1. The column is much longer in the variety than in the typical 

form. 

2. Its wall is thinner during life. 

3 There is one cycle of tentacles and mesenteries less in the 
variety than in the typical form. 

4. A larger number of mesenteries are usually rudimentary in 

the variety than in the typical form. 

5. The mesoderm of the mesenteries is thinner in transverse 

section in the variety than in the typical form and a 
larger number of mesenteries are degenerate. 

6. There is no basal sphincter in the variety. 

In these lists only the resemblances and differences which 
appear to be constant throughout life are noted. The following are 
differences which are only apparent in full-grown individuals : — 

1. There are no muscle spaces in the sphincter of the typical 

form, while these spaces occur in small numbers in the 
adult of the variety but are absent in its young. 

2. The adult of the variety is unable to withdraw its tentacles 

into its body, while the young of the same form and the 
adult of the typical form can do so. 

3. The adult of the variety is unable to stand upright on its 

base, while the adult of the typical form and the young 
of the variety can do so. 

4. The disk of the adult of the variety is broken up into 

lobes ; but this is not the case in the young of the 
same form or the adult of the typical one. 

Biological differences between tlie two forms. 

The habits of the two forms are totally unlike. The typical 
form lives in tidal waters, attached to solid objects; but it was also 
found formerly in an isolated pond. The variety is apparently con- 
fined to isolated ponds, the water of which sometimes contains as 
little as 0'22 % of soluble solids ; the young live among grass-roots 
and filamentous algae, or in the canals of Sponges, the adults buried 
in the mud. Individuals of the typical form can live in water 
of the same salinity as that of the isolated ponds in which the 
variety occurs but are not now found in these ponds, from which 
the solid objects to which they were formerly attached have 
disappeared. The movements of the variety are more active 
than those of the typical form, in accordance with the different 
mode of life adopted. 

The most striking differences externally visible between the 
two forms are the great relative length of the column and the 



70 N. AnnANDALE : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [YOL. I, 

degeneracy of the basal disk in the pond race. I do not know of 
any other form of the genus in which these characters are so 
strongly marked; but many instances among the Actiniaria could 
be adduced in which there is a considerable tendency to variation 
as regards them. Anyone who has observed living examples of 
the common British Sagartia troglo4ytes from different parts of 
the country, or even from different situations in the same loca- 
lity, must have been struck by the differences they exhibit as 
regards the form of the column and the relative proportions of 
its base. Those individuals which have been extracted from small 
crevices in rocks have a long, thin column and a base with a 
small transverse diameter, while those from pools with smooth 
bottoms are short and squat. In Gosse's History of the British 
Sea- Anemones (i) figures are given of the species in the latter 
condition. As regards outline at any rate, these figures are ac- 
curate ; but they are as unlike as they could well be to some in- 
dividuals I have seen. Moreover, I have noticed that in such cases 
the column cannot adapt itself, except to a limited extent, to new 
conditions, even although the individuals may be kept alive for 
many years in captivity. Those individuals which have been 
living in small round holes such as are a favourite station for the 
species, cannot assume the depressed conical form that character- 
izes those which have been fixed to a smooth surface ; but 
those which have been taken from the latter situation are able to 
elongate their columns considerably^ and to draw in the project- 
ing margin of their bases. In other British species differences, 
which may be local, have been recorded, e.g., Dixon (5) states that 
specimens of 5. nivca from the east coast of Ireland are much 
longer and more attenuated than those described from Torquay, 
on the south coast of England, by Gosse. From Indian seas 
Alcock (7) has described a variety of Sphenopus arenaceus in which 
the base of the column is drawn out into a relatively long and 
narrow peduncle. 

In none of these cases has the basal disk become degenerate to 
the same extent as it has done in the tank form of M. schillerianum , 
for there is no basal disk in the genus Sphenopus ; but in other 
respects the variation seems to be of a similar nature. It must 
be remembered, moreover, that there is a great difference, in res- 
pect to the condition of the base, between the young and the adult 
of M. schillerianum var. exul, as well as in respect to the proportions 
of the column. It must further be borne in mind that this Actinian 
lives in a medium the chemical constitution of which is different 
from that of the medium proper to its class, and there is ver}^ 
good reason to believe that a chemical stimulus may be a powerful 
one in matters of variation. The particular direction which evolu- 
tion has taken in respect to this isolated race, moreover, is one 
which has not been uncommon in the history of the sub-class to 
which M. schillerianum belongs, for we get forms as distinct from 
one another morphologically as Edwardsia, Cerianthus and Peachia 
all adapted in a similar manner to become burrowing animals, and 



igoy.] Records of tlie I ndian Museu))i. 71 

all in consequence having a considerable external resemblance both 
to one another and to the form under consideration. 

The differences which the two forms of M . schillerianum exhibit 
as regards their muscles and mesenteries are perhaps of more 
importance, from the point of view of the systematist, than the dif- 
ferences in the general appearance and shape of the animals. The 
muscular differences, however, all seem to be what may be called 
rather d3'namical than morphological. The position of the muscles 
as regards the layers of the body is identical in the two forms, 
but in var. exul they appear to have become strengthened in cer- 
tain directions and weakened in others, in accordance with a com- 
plete change in the mode of life. Although the mesoderm of the 
mesenteries is much thinner in the new than in the typical race, 
and the secondarj^ mesenteries are in a much earlier stage of de- 
velopment as regards their whole form and structure, I think that 
a similar explanation is possible, for this change is, like that of the 
muscles, one of development. The mesenteries have not evolved 
new characters in the isolated race but remain throughout life in 
a condition through which the}^ pass at an early age in the tj^pical 
form, and it is obviously a convenient condition as regards the 
bionomics of the race. This explanation does not quite apply to 
the thinness of the mesoderm in mesenteries which are just as long 
as they are in the typical form of the species ; but seeing that one 
of the most striking biological modifications of the isolated race is 
the use to which it puts the liquid contained in its ccelenteric 
cavity, it is not difficult to see that the pressure of this liquid 
must have, in the case of the individual, considerable influence on 
the growth of the mesenteries. 

It is noteworthy that those structures which have the same 
function in the two forms have undergone ver}- little change in 
the isolated race. This is particularly true of the tentacles and 
stomodaeum. Indeed, the last-named structure offers so little of 
interest in connection with the special line of study embodied 
in this paper, that I have bareh^ referred to it except in the brief 
systematical description of the two forms. I ought to say, however, 
that while it is actually longer in the case of a full-grown example 
of var. exul than it is in one of the typical form of the species, 
the elongation is by no means proportionate to that of the columns 
as a whole. The reduction in the number of tentacles and mesen- 
teries exhibited b}^ the isolated race, is clearly related to its narrow, 
elongated form. 

In dealing with the question of the modifications which the 
Actinian of the Port Canning ponds has undergone, it is not by any 
means easy to apportion the degrees in which these modifications 
have affected {a) the individual and (&) the race. It is known 
that individuals of the same isLmily [e.g., in S agar ti a troglodytes) 
have lived for over fifty 3^ears (see Ash worth and Annandale [9]), 
but such instances, as Hickson (11) has recently pointed out, 
are only known in the case of captive specimens, which have re- 
ceived regular food and lived a sheltered life. Considering the 



72 N. AnnandaLE : The Fauna of Brackish Po)ids. [VOL. I, 

vicissitudes to which they are exposed in the ponds at Port Canning, 
it is very improbable that any of the individuals now living in 
these ponds have survived for so long a period, while the presence 
of numerous young in the ponds and of ripe gonads in the adults 
proves that we are dealing with a race and not merely a collection 
of infertile individuals. The modifications are undoubtedl}^ less 
marked in the young than they are in their parents, between which 
and the typical form the young are intermediate. Tliis is true as 
regards biological as well as structural characters. The youngest 
individuals of the t^^pical form I have seen (measuring about 4 mm. 
in height) have had a considerably shorter column than examples 
of the isolated race with disks of a smaller diameter. 

Variation has been little studied in the Actinians, which do 
not make satisfactor}^ specimens either for the museum or the 
laboratory ; but the stony corals, in which the skeleton preserves 
in mau}^ respects a complete diagram of the living tissues, prove 
how variable certain genera and species of Zoantharia can be (for 
example see Bernard on Pontes in the Catalogue of the Madrepo- 
rarian Corals in the British Museum, vol. v, 1905). I doubt whe- 
ther Gosse was so far from the truth as later systematists believe 
him to have been when he laid stress on the importance of the study 
of the living organism in the case of the Actinians. It is worthy 
of note that, at any rate as regards the Sagartiidse, the descriptions 
of genera have recently shown a tendency to become more rather 
than less indefinite. Compare, for example, Hertwig's (4) defi- 
nition of Sagartia, published in 1882, with Haddon's (8), published 
in 1898, or with McMurrich's (10), published in 1905, having regard 
to the fact that these authors are in substantial agreement as to the 
species which should be included in the genus. As the three diag- 
noses are short, they may be quoted in full : — 

" Sagartiidce with smooth walls and numerous powerful ten- 
tacles arranged in several rows ; with circular oral disk ; 
without anatomically perceptible cinclides." (Hertwig, 
1882.) 

" SagartiincB with a smooth body- wall, or with small verrucae 
in the upper portion of the column ; moderately long ten- 
tacles in several cycles around the margin of the oral 
disk, which is not greatly expanded." (Haddon, 1898.) 

' ' Sagartiince with the column smooth or provided with verrucae 
in its upper portion ; cinclides more or less scattered ; 
acrorhagi wanting ; margin not lobed." (McMurrich, 1905.) 

The diagnoses of the family and sub-family given by these 
authors are still more diverse, but the point I wish to bring out 
is the way in which various descriptions illustrate the necessity 
felt by recent authorities for broadening the diagnoses of Actinian 
genera. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 73 

Granted that Metridium schillerianum var. exul is an isolated 
race of the species to which I have referred it, it still remains to be 
discussed whether this race has become differentiated in the ponds 
at Port Canning, and how long the process of its evolution has 
taken to reach the present stage. The historical evidence on these 
points, although it cannot be called absolutely conclusive, is 
much stronger than such evidence usually is. Stoliczka's account 
of the typical form of the species was written in 1868 (at which 
date the extent and number of the ponds were probably not the 
same as they are today) and was more detailed than any dealing 
with the Sagartiidse which had previously appeared, although it 
contained a number of misconceptions rather than errors of obser- 
vation. Its author was a trained and cautious observer and appa- 
rently examined the ponds at more than one time of year. It is 
improbable that he only did so on occasions when the water had 
been rendered turbid by rain. Except under these conditions he 
could not have failed to see the Actinians, had they occurred in 
the ponds ; nowadays they are the most characteristic feature of 
the fauna to which they belong, and strike even a casual observer. 
Native fishermen at Port Canning volunteered the information, 
when I asked them about the fish in the ponds, that there was in 
the mud " an animal just like a flower." It is unfortunate that we 
do not know in which of the ponds StoHczka found the Actinian, but 
I suspect that it was the one nearest to the railway station. Its 
usage for domestic purposes has now rendered the water of this 
pond foul. Stoliczka said that the Actinian did not live in the 
other ponds at Port Canning because they did not contain logs 
of wood, and because their water was unsuitable. The last state- 
ment is not explained. The logs of wood no longer exist, and their 
place has not been taken by other solid substances to which the 
animals might have attached themselves. It has been shown that 
the race of the Actinian now found in the ponds does not attach 
itself to fixed bodies, but has become adapted for a burrowing life. 
So far as the neighbourhood of Port Canning is concerned, I feel 
sure that this new race is only to be found in the ponds ; but our 
ignorance of the Actiniarian fauna of the Indian seas makes it 
impossible to deny that an identical form may occur elsewhere. 
Even should this prove to be the case, however, it would not 
necessarily be uncritical to argue that similar causes have produced 
convergence among the offspring of different individuals. 

However, it is perhaps better not to introduce questions of pos- 
sibility ; my object in this paper has been to give an unbiassed 
account of the differences and resemblances between two Actinians 
which I take to be no more than races of a single species. One of 
these races has been isolated in certain small ponds, in which it 
appears to have responded to its environment to such an extent 
as to have altered very considerably both its structure and its mode 
of life. 



10 



74 N. Annandale : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. 1, 1907.] 

LITERATURE. 



1. Gosse,P. H. 

2. Stoliczka, F. 

3. Hertwig, O. and R. . 

4. Hertwig, R. 

5. Dixon, G. Y. 

6. Haddon, A. C. 

7. Alcock, A. 

8. Haddon, A. C. 

9. Ashworth, J. H., and 

Annandale, N. 

10. McMurrich, J. P. 

11. Hickson, J. J. 

12. Fleure, H. J., and . 
Walton, C. Iv. 



"A History of the British Sea-Ane- 
mones," i860. 

" On the Anatomy of Sagartia schil- 
leriana," etc., Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, part 2, xxxviii, 1869. 

" Die Actinien," Jen. Zeitschr. /. wiss. 
ZooL, xiii, p. 457, 1879. 

" Actiniaria," Zool. Rep. H.M.S. "Chal- 
lenger," vol. vi, 1882. 

" Remarks on Sagartia vcnusta and 
Sagartia nivea," Proc. Roy. Dublin 
Soc, vi (N.S.), 1888. 

" Two species of Actiniae from the 
Mergui Archipelago," Journ. Linn. 
Soc., xxi, 1889. 

" Some Actiniaria from Indian Seas," 
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, part 2, 
Ixii, 1893. 

" The Actiniaria of the Torres Straits," 
Sc. Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc. (2), 
1898. 

"Observations on some aged specimens 
of Sagartia troglodytes," etc., Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Edin., xxv, 1904. 

" The Actiniae of the Plate Collection," 
Zool. Jahrb., Suppl vi, 1905. 

" Coelenterata and Ctenophora," Cam- 
bridge Natural History, vol. i, 1906. 

'' Notes on the Habits of some Sea- 
Anemones," Zool. Anz., xxxi, 1907. 



(Only those works which are directly referred to in the text 
are noted in this list. Full bibliographies on the group will be 
found in papers Nos. 8 and 10, while several species are recorded 
for the first time from Indian seas by Southwell in Herdman's 
" Faunistic Results " in Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries and Marine 
Biology, part v, p. 441 (1906)). 



PI.ATK III. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IIL 

Figs. I, 2. — Typical form of Metridium schillerianum, xi (after 
Stoliczka). 

Fig. 3. — Pond race of Metridium schillerianum in a contracted con- 
dition, X I {ad nat.). 

Fig. 4. — Transverse section of wall of column of M. schillerianum 
var. exul in the region of stomodseum (magnified). 

Fig. 5. — Transverse section of wall of column of the typical form of 
M . schillerianum (at the same magnification as fig. 4). 

Fig. 6. — Ditto (less highly magnified). 

Figs. 7-12. — Stages in the development of the violet bodies of M. 
schillerianum (enormously magnified). Figs. 7-11 
are diagrammatic, 

ii6.=ectoderm : ew.=endoderm : m.=mesoderm. The endo- 
derm in the figures is apparently divided into two layers, but this 
is due to the almost complete absence of zooxanthellse in the 
basal part of the cells. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. I, 1907. 



Plate hi 




Hec. Ind. Mus., Vol. I. 



Plate IV. 



n n o< 
5? n; r^ 5' 

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Cnh-j t3 (JO 

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'^3 








A SPOROZOON {SARCOCYSTIS, S P. ) FROM 
THE HEART OF A COW IN CALCUTTA. 

By G. C. ChatterjeE, M.B., Assisiani Professor of Pathology 
Calcutta Medical College. 

In searching for Pirosoma in a blood-smear from the heart of a 
cow killed m Calcutta, I lately found numerous sickle-shaped 
bodies which were at first sight very puzzling. These bodies took 
the Leisiiman stam, with which the smear was stained very well 
One end however, took no stain, this end being pointed The 
other end was rounded and stained deeply, taking the blue stain 
in this end a not very definite nucleus could be made out and a 
number of red-stained chromatic dots. The middle of the body 
stained red deeply. The appearance of these bodies suggested that 
they were spores of some Coccidium, and on referring to Minchin's 
(A) account of the Sporozoa in I^ankester's Treatise on Zoology 
the resemblance between them and the spores of Sarcocystis tenella 
[op. cit., p. 305, fig. 122) was at once evident. 

In part of the smear a considerable number of straight forms 
were seen, and in addition to these, two varieties of spores could 
be made out, being differentiated from one another by the arrange- 
ment of the chromatic dots. In a few cases the capsule was found 
to have burst and the contents were escaping 

On making a section of the heart muscle of the same animal as 
that from which the smear had been made, and on staining this 
section with thionin and eosin, my supposition that the bodies 
were spores of some Sporozoon was confirmed, for numerous cysts 
were found occupying the substance of the muscle. These took 
the blue stam, while the rest of the tissue took the eosin On 
examining the sections under a high power, I found that the cysts 
occupied the substance of the muscle fibres, displacing the nucleus 
A distinct capsule was a noticeable feature of the cyst No fine 
radiation, however, such as is found round the capsule of Sarcocystis 
tenella, could be detected. The identity between the spores 
numbers ot which occurred in each cyst, and those seen in the smea^ 
was evident. The spores were found grouped in loculi, but no 
distinct alveolar partition could be made out. All the cysts were 
found ^^""^ ^^^^^ °^ development, and no intermediary stages were 

Representatives of the Sarcosporidia are not very uncommonly 
found m the striated muscle-fibres of Mammals, especially in those 
ot the pig and the sheep. That found in the sheep goes by the 
name ot Sarcocystis tenella. One has been found by Hessling in th© 
skeletal muscle of Bos taurus. VuiUemin (B) reports a ?ase of 



78 G. C. ChaTTERJEE : A Sporozoon from the cow. [VOL. I, 1907.] 

infection in the muscle of a man and is of the opinion that the parasite 
was S, tcndla. Von lyinstow (C) has described a form {Balhiana 
{Sarcocystis) siamcnsis) from the tongue of a buffalo in Lower Siam, 
and Shipley (D) has figured this form. Shipley (B) has also des- 
cribed another form from the muscle of a cow in Ceylon, regarding 
it as identical with 5. tenella. Wille}^ Chalmers and Phillip (F) 
report frequently infection in the voluntary muscles of buffaloes 
which are apparently healthy. They found the parasite in 5" 8 
per cent, of the individuals slaughtered in Colombo. 

Regarding the classification and nomenclature of the Sarco- 
sporidia found in dift'erent animals, there is a great deal of confusion, 
as an illustration of which I cannot do better than quote Minchin's 
remarks {op. cit., p. 308) on the subject. " Sarcocystis, Ray Lan- 
kester, 1882," he says, " represents the characters of the order. 
A great number of forms have been seen in different animals, many 
of which are probably distinct species, but only a few have received 
specific designation : such are 5. miescheriana (Kiihn) from the pig ; 
5. tenella, Raillet, from the sheep ; S. platydactyli, Bertram, from 
the gecko ; 5. muris, Blanchard, from the mouse, etc." 

21st February, 1907. 

LITERATURE. 

A. Minchin on the Sporozoa in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, 

part i, fasc. ii, 1903. 

B. Vuillemin, Compt. Rend, de I'Acad. des. Sci. Paris, cxxxiv. 

No. 20, p. 1132, noted in Baumgarten's Jahreshericht for 

^905- 

C. Von lyinstow, " Parasiten, meisten Helminthes, aus Siam," 

Archiv. f. Micr. Anat., Bel. Ixxii, 1903. 

D. Shipley, on the Ento-parasites collected by the Skeat Expe- 

dition in the year 1899-1900, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1903 (2). 

E. Idem, "Some Parasites from Ceylon," Spolia Zeylanica, vol. 

i, 1903- 

F. Willey, Chalmers and Phillip, " Report on parasites in the 

carcases of buffaloes at the Colombo Slaughter-house/' 
Spolia Zeylanica, vol. ii, 1905. 



MISCEIylvANKA. 
MAMMALS. 

The appendicular skeleton of the Dugong {Halicore 
dugong). — In a recent note on the Dugong of the Gulf of Manaar 
{Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1905, p. 238) I expressed an intention 
of dealing with certain anatomical points in a subsequent com- 
munication. As, however, most of these points have since been 
elucidated in a series of memoirs by Messrs. H. Dexler and L. 
Freund (see Wiegmann's Archiv fur Naturgeschicte for 1906, vol. i, 
p. 77, and the American Naturalist, vol. xi, pp. 49 and 567, 
1906), further descriptions are unnecessary : these authors' observa- 
tions were made on Australian specimens, but I cannot detect any 
constant difference between the races of Halicore found in Australian 
and in Indian seas. There are two features in the skeleton, how- 
ever, to which I would like to invite attention, namely {a) the 
presence of three distinct bones in the pelvic girdle, and [h) the 
variability of the manus. 

{a) In recent accounts of the vestigial pelvic girdle of the species 
two bones are said to be present (see Weber's Die Saugetiere, p. 732, 
fig. 526). I^ a large Australian s skeleton, however, and in an 
individual of the same sex and approximately the same size 
dissected by myself on the Madras coast, I find that there is a 
third bone, which lies at the distal extremity of the lower of the two 




Fig. I, xl. 

already recognized. It is compressed and nail-shaped, measuring 
about 15 mm. in length and 6 mm. at the proximal end in breadth. 
The relations of the three bones to one another are represented in the 
accompanying diagram (fig. i). There is probably a considerable 
amount of variation as regards the form and size of the three bones, 
but this is a question on which the material at my disposal affords 
little information. 

(6) I have examined the manus of the two specimens already 
referred to, as well as that of several other individuals in which it is 
imperfect, while I am indebted to Sir William Turner and Prof. D. J. 
Cunningham for photographs of a specimen in the Anatomical Mus- 
eimi of the University of Edinburgh and to Dr. A. Willey for a sketch 
(fig. 4) of the hand of an adult female in the Colombo Museum. An 
examination of this material proves, as is well shown in figs. 2, 3 
and 4, that the bones vary in number and relative development 



8o 



Miscellanea. 



[Vol. I, 



Although all the specimens I have seen, or regarding which I have 
deceived detailed information, have been fully adult, probably mea- 
suring between nine and ten feet in length in the flesh, the degree to 
which ossification has progressed is very variable and the hand seems 
to be smaller in some individuals than in others of the same size. 
The first digit is always less well- developed than the others. In some 
individuals it consists of a short oblong or triangular bone, often more 
or less irregular in outline ; in others in which it is represented by 



c::^ 






Fig. 2, i 



Fig. 3, x \ 



Fig 4, x \. 



a single bone, this bone is long and styliform ; while in others again 
there are two bones, the distal one being short and nail-shaped. The 
other digits show similar variations but not to the same extent. The 
bones of the carpus vary chiefly as regards anchylosis. Those in the 
distal row are used together, probably in all cases ; but in the proximal 
row there may be either two or three bones present. In the latter case 
it is the scaphoid which is distinct from the lunate bone. The figures, 
which are outlines of actual specimens reduced to one-sixth the 
natural size, illustrate these variations very clearly, fig. 3 showing, 
further, the actual relations between the fourth and fifth digits — a 
feature which is not always correctly represented. 

N. Annandale. 
BIRDS. 

Egg laid by a captive Goshawk {Astur palumharius). — 
Lieutenant-Colonel Phillott has recently sent to the Museum the 
egg described in the following note. It measures 50 mm. in length 
and 40 mm. in greatest transverse diameter ; the colour is a clear, 
pale green, the outline regular. 

" My friend Miyan Mahmiid Sahib-zada of Taunsa, Dera Ghazi 
Khan, has sent me a Goshawk's egg laid by a trained bird which 
had been in confinement for sixteen years and was, when caught, a 
* hagard ' or mature bird. This is the first egg she has laid in 
captivity. It is very like a heron's egg and has a coarse shell, 
being without markings. 

D. C. Phillott." 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum-, 81 

FISH. 

Melanic specimens of the Putia {Barbtis iicto). — The Putia is 
a small Cyprinine fish very common in ponds thioughout India. 
The normal coloration is given by Day {Faun. Ind., Fishes, i, p. 
325) as " silvery, sometimes stained with red, a black spot on the 
side of the tail before the base of the caudal fin and immediately 
behind the anal ; a smaller one (frequently absent) at the commence- 
ment of the lateral line. Fins often black, sometimes orange." A 
number of specimens recently obtained from a tank at Rampur 
Bhoolia in the Rajshahi district of Eastern Bengal, show a varying 
tendency towards melanism. In some individuals this is barely 
perceptible, but in some the edges of the lateral and the whole of the 
ventral scales, the dorsal surface of the head and the fins (especially 
the pelvic, anal and dorsal) are more or less densel}^ suffused with 
black. This is less noticeable in the region between the anal fin 
and the caudal spot, which is faintly ringed both in these and in 
normal specimens with cream-colour. The region below the caudal 
spot can be seen to be slightly paler than the rest of the bod}^ even 
in normal individuals, if they are examined alive ; but its paleness 
is more striking in melanic examples. In none of those from Raj- 
shahi can the anterior spot be distinguished ; the fins of the paler 
individuals are almost colourless. 

Day gives the number of horny rays in the dorsal fin as 8 ; it 
is just as frequently 7. 

N. Annandale. 
CRUSTACEA. 

Two Barnacles new to Indian seas. — The following Cirri- 
pedes do not appear to have been recorded hitherto from the seas 
of India : — 

Pcecilasma gracile, Hoek. 

Several specimens from the spines of an Irregular Echinoid 
dredged by the Indian Marine Surve}^ off the extreme south of India 
(Lat. 8° 37' N., Long. 75° 37' 30" E.) from a depth of between 224 
and 283 fathoms. The species was originally obtained by the 
' Challenger ' off Australia from a depth of 410 fathoms. 

Pcecilasma eburneum, Hinds 

Several specimens from the spines of an Echinoid of the family 
Cidaridge, dredged by the Indian Marine Survey in the Pers'an Gulf 
from a depth of between 48 and 49 fathoms. The species was 
described from New Guinea. The specimens here recorded, as well 
as those of P. gracile, were attached to the spines surrounding the 
mouth of the Echinoid on which they occurred. 

N. Annandale. 
INSECTS. 

Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles from Port Canning, 
Lower Bengal. — At Port Canning, on account of the presence of 

II 



^2 Miscellanea. [VOL. I, 

many small accumulations of water in pools and ditches, the houses 
are infested with Anopheles : so much so that in December last I 
•collected no less than 250 specimens within three hours in the 
rest-house alone. These specimens belonged to the following 
species : — 

A. nigerrimus (the most abundant), A. barbirostris, A. rossi^ 
A. jamesi, and a species which is probably new. The last may be 
described as follows : — 

A small mosquito about the size of A. jamesi. Palpi with five 
nearly equal white bands ; the terminal band white, all distinct. 
Proboscis whitish, with a dark band near the middle. Legs — The 
femora and tibiae of all the legs striped alternately with white and dark 
bands ; all the joints capped with white ; the remaining part of 
the legs, including the tarsi, dark. Wings — The costal vein with 
three large, dark bands and four small ones ; the first longitudinal 
vein with three large bands and two small ones ; the second with 
■one band on the main trunk and two on the branches ; the third 
with three bands ; the fourth with four bands on the main trunk, 
three on the anterior and two on the posterior branch ; the sixth 
with three bands. 

This species does not agree with any of the fifteen described in 
James and Liston's Monograph of the Anopheles Mosquitoes of India, 
being distinguished b}' the peculiar markings on the palpi wings 
and legs. From the descriptions and figures in Theobald's Mono- 
graph of the Culicidce of the World, so far as I can make them out, 
it seems very much like A. punctulatus ^ Donitz, from the Malay 
Peninsula, but I cannot be sure of the identity. 

G. C. Chatterjee. 

Anopheles larvae in Brackish Water. — James and Liston do 
not mention the occurrence of Anopheles larvae in salt water in 
India, and recently several observers have suggested as a means 
of destruction of these 'arvse that sea water might be admitted 
into pools containing them. But Mosquito larvae have been found, 
though rarely, inhabiting salt water; for example, Theobald 
{Mon. Cul., i, p. 36) mentions that Dr. Bancroft found larvae of 
Culex marinus in salt-water marshes in Australia. The brackish 
tanks at Port Canning, which also contain marine animals such as 
Medusae and sea anemones, are full of Anopheles larvae, which are 
found amongst filamentous algae. On examination specimens 
proved, w'thout exception, to be larvae oi Anophel s rossi. They 
were very abundant at the beginning of Decemlaer, the water then 
<:ontaining 0'22 per cent, of soluble matter, but were much less so at 
the end of the same month. I noticed that when these larvae were 
transferred to fresh water, they at once sank and crawled about the 
bottom of the vessel for some time. Then, by a series of muscular 
movements, they came to the surface. There was always a ten- 
dency for them to sink again ; whereas individuals from fresh 
water rise to the surface by their own buoyancy, not by muscular 
action, and do not remain at the bottom long if they sink. I 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 83 

obained some larvae from fresh water and placed them in water 
from the Port Canning pools : they died within a few hours. 

G. C. Chatter J EE. 

Mosquitoes from Kumaon. — Mosquitoes are very abundant in 
the lower parts of Kumaon at the end of September ; during a 
visit to Bhim Tal (4,500 ft.) at that time of year the following 
species were collected : Anopheles Undesayi (Giles), Toxorhynchitcs 
imniisericors (Walker), and Stegomyia scutellaris (Walker). (The 
last = Culex albopictus, Skuse.) All these were abundant, especially 
the first and the last. The Anopheles and the Stegomyia were 
breeding in water-butts by the side of European houses, and the 
latter also in cavities in jungle trees which had become full of 
rain-water. 

N. Annandale. 

OLIGOCH^TE WORMS. 

Peculiar habit of an Earthworm. — In the jungle at Bhim 
T^al I was surprised to find that hollows in trees which had become 
filled with dead leaves and rain-water, contained enormous numbers 
of small earthworms, all belonging to the same species. Dr. W. 
Micheelsen, of Hamburg, has kindly examined specimens and says 
that they belong to the genus Perionyx and probably to the widely 
distributed species P. excavatus. All the specimens sent him proved 
to be immature, and although I made a careful search for indivi- 
duals with the clitellum developed, I could not find any. The 
specific identification, therefore, is a little uncertain. The worms 
lay at the edge of the cavities, with the posterior half of the body 
sunk in the water and the anterior half closely applied to the wood ; 
when touched they retreated among the dead leaves below the water. 
They occurred in large masses, which, owing to their bright coral- 
red coloiu: and apparently filamentous structure, I mistook at first 
sight for fungi. I noticed that on a wet day the worms left 
the cavities and crawled about on the tree-trunks. Apparently 
they did so also at night, for I found many of them on the trunks 
early in the morning, while others were observed at this time of 
day crawling across paths and even roads. Those which were 
caught by the sun in such positions were killed, and almost every 
morning dead individuals, which apparently had perished because 
they had not reached a damp situation early enough, could be 
found on the exposed road surrounding the lake. I have noticed 
in the Malay Peninsula that certain species of Scorpion are subject 
to the same danger. 

Together with the worm, I took in the tree-hollows numerous 
larvae of the Mosquito Stegomyia scutellaris and of a beetle (probably 
an Elaterid), while I observed a handsome Tipulid, which Mr. 
E. Brunetti has identified as Pselliophora chrysophila (Walker), 
laying its eggs on the wood at the edge. 

N. Annandai£. 



VI. REVIvSION OF THE ORIENTAL S T R A- 
T I M Y I D ^, WITH X Y LO M Y I A AND 
I T S A L L I E S. 



ERRATUM. 

Page 148, line 21. For ''indica'" read •■ himalayaniis.''' 



genera of the Notacantha, and he objected (to use his own words) 
to " the juxtaposition of Subula and Xylophagus in the same ulti- 
mate subdivision." 

By structural characters, and by their metamorphoses, Xyi- 
omyia {Subula is preoccupied by Schummell in MoUusca, 1817) is 
much more related to the Stratiomyidce than to Xylophagus, which 
latter genus is distinctly related to the Leptidce and, in a less degree, 
to the TabanidcB also. 

In Aldrich's recent Catalogue of North American Diptera 
Xylophagidce ^ as a family, is sunk bodily in Leptidce, and Ccsnomyia 
with its allies added also. My own hesitation has been partly due 
to the costal vein in these genera being continued all round the edge 
of the wing, as in most other Brachycera, instead of terminating 
suddenly at the tip of the wing or just beyond it, which latter 
characteristic is peculiar to the Stratiomyidce : also partly, to the 
variation from the typical venation, a character in which the 
Stratiomyidce are strikingly consistent. Without expressing any 
definite opinion, having only casually studied the question of 



VI. REVISION OF THE ORIENTAL S T R A- 
T I M Y I D M, WITH XYLOMYIA AND 
ITSALLIES. 

By E. Brunetti. 



CORRIGENDUM. 

Change 

Acanthina argentea mihi (preoccupied) 

to 
Acanthina arsentihirta mihi. 



genera of the Notacantha, and he objected (to use his own words) 
to " the juxtaposition of Subula and Xylophagus in the same ulti- 
mate subdivision." 

By structural characters, and by their metamorphoses, Xyl- 
omyia {Subula is preoccupied by Schummell in MoUusca, 1817) is 
much more related to the Stratiomyidce than to Xylophagus, which 
latter genus is distinctly related to the Leptidce and, in a less degree, 
to the TahanidcB also. 

In Aldrich's recent Catalogue of North American Diptera 
Xylophagidce , as a family, is sunk bodily in Leptidce, and Ccenomyia 
with its allies added also. My own hesitation has been partly due 
to the costal vein in these genera being continued all round the edge 
of the wing, as in most other Brachycera, instead of terminating 
suddenly at the tip of the wing or just beyond it, which latter 
characteristic is peculiar to the Stratiomyidce : also partly, to the 
variation from the typical venation, a character in which the 
Stratiomyidce are strikingly consistent. Without expressing any 
definite opinion, having only casually studied the question of 



VI. REVIvSION OF THE ORIENTAL S T R A- 
TIOMYIDM, WITH XYLOMYIA AND 
ITS ALLIES. 

By E. Brunetti. 

Fof some time I have been studying the Stratiomyidce of the 
Oriental Region and the neighbouring parts of the Austrahan, 
partly for the purpose of revising the Indian Museum Collection in 
this group, and partly to enable me to identify my own captures 
during the last two years in India and other parts of the East, and 
the notes accumulated seem to be worth recording. 

I intended including as Stratiomyidce those genera which, 
under the older system of classification, would be placed in Xylo- 
phagidcB ; but this would differ from the latest authorities, as in 
the elaborate new Catalogue of Palsearctic Diptera by Kertesz, 
Becker, Bezzi and Stein this latter group is still retained as a 
separate family. Some authors have disbanded it, relegating species 
of the Xylomyia [Subula) group to the Stratiomyidce , and the re- 
mainder {Xylophagus group) to the LeptidcB, with which they un- 
doubtedly have strong affinities. Xylomyia approximates to Beris 
in many respects. Baron Osten Sacken noted this in 1882 in his 
critical remarks on Dr. Brauer's paper on the characteristics of the 
genera of the Notacantha, and he objected (to use his own words) 
to " the juxtaposition of Subula and Xylophagus in the same ulti- 
mate subdivision." 

By structural characters, and by their metamorphoses, Xyl- 
omyia {Subula is preoccupied by Schummell in Mollusca, 1817) is 
much more related to the Stratiomyidce than to Xylophagus , which 
latter genus is distinctly related to the Leptidce and, in a less degree, 
to the Tabanidce also. 

In Aldrich's recent Catalogue of North American Diptera 
XylophagidcB ^ as a family, is sunk bodily in Leptidce, and Ccenomyia 
with its allies added also. My own hesitation has been parti}- due 
to the costal vein in these genera being continued all round the edge 
of the wing, as in most other Brachycera, instead of terminating 
suddenly at the tip of the wing or just beyond it, which latter 
characteristic is peculiar to the Stratiomyidce : also partly, to the 
variation from the typical venation, a character in which the 
Stratiomyidce are strikingly consistent. Without expressing any 
definite opinion, having only casually studied the question of 



86 E. Brunetti : The Oriental Stratiomyida. [VOL. I, 

affinities, it seems to me that Xylomyia and its allies would be best 
placed with Ccenomyidce, the family name of the latter retained, 
and the group placed next to the Stratiomyidce, followed by the 
AcanthomeHdcB as a family, followed again by the Tahanidce and 
Leptidce (including Xylophagus and its allies). 

However, so far as this paper is concerned, I retain Xylomyia 
and the allied genera as a separate group. 

The material in the Indian Museum in this family is not abun- 
dant in either species or specimens, and my own labours have 
only resulted in a limited number of both. For this reason it is to 
be regretted the more that a personal reference to Walker's types 
in the British Museum has been impossible, since about half the 
species in the family are his. Baron Osten Sacken's view to the 
effect that writings on the fauna of a region imperfectly known 
should be considered as preparatory and not final results seems 
correct, and his opinion that a writer is not " called upon to des- 
cribe as new every specimen that he cannot identify " is echoed by 
my own. Therefore I am not sure whether analytical tables of 
genera and species should have been presented, for owing to my 
inability to obtain specimens of the majority of the species, the 
tables have had to be drawn up mainly from descriptions, and will 
be open to improvement on a better personal acquaintance with 
a larger proportion of the species. 

Group Xyi^omyin^. 

Tabic of genera. 

3rd and 4th externo-medial veins not united Xylomyia Rond. 
3rd and 4th externo-medial veins united 
just before the border of the wing. 
Thorax elongo-quadrate, discal cell 3 

times as long as broad . . Rhachicerus Wlk. 

Thorax much longer than broad, 
discal cell 4 times as long as 
broad . . . . . . Rhyphomorpha Wlk. 



Xylomyia Rond,, 1861. 

Subula Mg., 1820; Sys. Besch., ii, 15. 
(Preoccupied by Schummell in Mollusca, 1817.) 
Solva Wlk., i860, Proc. Linn. So., Lond., iv, 98. 

Osten Sacken, in 1880, in his " Enumeration of the Diptera of 
the Malay Archipelago," says, " There is no necessity for a new 
genus Solva Wlk. ; it is simply a Subula closely resembling in 
structure and colouring the European and North American species"; 
and as he has examined Walker's type in the British Museum_, 
the identity may be held proved. 



1907.] Records of the I ndian Museum. 87 

Tabic of species. 

Posterior femora normal, not thickened. 
I^egs without black markings. 

Abdomen luteous, with dorsal 

darker spots . . Long. 4 mm.' flavipes Dol. 

Abdomen cinereous black, 
testaceous at sides and on 
posterior borders each seg- 
ment . . Long. 5^ — 6 mm. inamoena Wlk. 
Legs with black markings. 

Abdomen uniformly blackish- 
brown . . Long. 3^ mm. vittata Dol. 
Abdomen black with yellow 

testaceous marks. . Long. 10 mm. calopodata Big. 
Posterior femora incrassated Long. 6 — 8 mm. hybotoides Wlk. 

X. flavipes Dol., 1858. 
(Subula) Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvii, 85. 

Amboina. Closely allied to inamoena Wlk., for which Osten 
Sacken would have taken it, except for the brown antennae of the 
latter. Having seen neither species, it appears to me that the 
difference in size and abdominal markings (though these latter are 
not so real as would appear on a first reading) would be a better 
means of separation. 

Van der Wulp reports 'b $ $ from New Guinea. 

X. inamoena Wlk., i860. 

{Solva) Pr. Linn, So., iv, 98. 

5 Java, Celebes. Osten Sacken records two 2 5 from 
Kandari (Celebes), taken in April 1874. 

X. vittata Dol., 1858. 
Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvii, 86. 
'b Amboina. i 'b . April. 

X. calopodata Big., 1879. 
Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), I95- 
5 Ternate. Type in the Bigot Collection — now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Verrall, the English dipterologist. 

X. hybotoides Wlk., 1862. 

{Solva) Pr. Linn. So., vi, 5. 

h 2 Gilolo. The type of this species is said to be in the 
British Museum, but Osten Sacken did not find it there. 



i All lengths given in this paper are in millimetres. 



8.^. E. BRUNpyn 1 : The Oriental Stratiomyidce. [Vol I, 

Rhachicerus Hal, in Wlk., 1848, 

List Dipt. Brit. Mus., i, 124 {nomcn nudum) and v, 103 
(1854) description. 

No description is given in the first reference, but a mil des- 
cription of the b only is given in the second. I think, therefore, 
the date of the genus ought to be altered to 1854, but I have followed 
precedent in keeping it 1848. Only three oriental species are 
known ; all closely allied. 

Larger sp. Thorax and abdomen more 

reddish — wings more brownish, and 

cloud in wings much larger . . julvciornis Sn. v. Voll. 

Long. 12' 13 mm. Thorax brownish yellow 

• — wings with less brown . . . . zonatus O.S. 

R. fulvicornis Sn. v. Voll., 1863. 

{Antidoxion Versl. en Meded. Kon. Acad. v. Weten xv, i, 
figs. I — 3. ? Java. Type in Leyden Museum. 

Antidoxion of Voll. (1863) was recognised by Gerstaecke in the 
same year (Entom. Bericht, 1863, p. 410) as a synonym of Rhachi- 
cerus and Osten Sacken sees no, justification in their separation. 
I have not seen a description of this species. 

R. zonatus O. S., 1880. 

Ann. Mus. Gen., xvi, 408. 

5 Mt. Singalang (Sumatra), July 1878. Long, (without ovi- 
positor) 1 2-13 mm. 

R. nigrinus WandoUeck, 1897. 

Bnt. Nach., xxiii, 290. 

This species is described from Sumatra. 

Rhyphomorpha, Wlk., i86i. 

Pr. Linn, So., v, 275. 
R. hilinca Wlk., 186 1. 
Pr. Linn, So., v, 275. 

5 Batjan. Long. 6 mm. The type should be in the British 
Museum, but Osten Sacken has not found it there. 

FAMILY STRATIOMYID^. 

Table of sub-families. 

A Abdomen of 7 segments . . BcrincB. 

AA Abdomen of 5 or 6 segments. 
B Discal cell , or this and the anterior basal 
cell together, emitting 3 veins. Abdo- 
men short, often shorter than thorax 
and nearly always much wider . . Pachygastrince. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum.. 89 

BB Discal cell, or this and the anterior basal 
cell together, emitting 4 veins. Abdo- 
men nearly always much longer than 
thorax and generally only slightly 
wider. When much broader, abdo- 
men quadrate {StratiomyincB only). 
C Abdomen linear, oval or elliptical, not 
quadrate, antenucC of various forms. 
D Antennae always setiform, scutellum 
unspined, species nearly always of 
bright metallic colour . . . , SafgincE. 

DD Antennae mostly stylate rarely setiform 

{e.g., in Oxycera, etc.) Scutellum 

spined or not. Species rarely metallic. 

E Abdomen oval, sometimes very short, 

often broader than thorax . . ClitdlarincB. 

BE Abdomen elongate and always longer 

than thorax — barely wider . . HermeiilncB. 

CC Abdomen always approximately or 
nearly quadrate. Antennae of three 
distinct joints, cylindrical . . StratiomyincB. 

SuB-FAMii,Y I. — Bering. 

There is only one oriental species of this sub-family, namely 
Beris javana, V. d. Wulp, 1892, Dipt, Mid. Sumatra, 13. The 
author mentioned a 5 as that of the Beris javanx described by Mac- 
quart in Dipt. Exot., i, pt. 2, 188 ; but Osten Sacken having seen the 
type in the Paris Museum wrote to Van der Wulp, saying that the 
species was " either an Evaza or a Tinda, at any rate not a Beris ; 
Beris javana V. d. Wulp must be a different species." The name 
therefore stands good for Van der Wulp's 9 from Sumatra (taken at 
Rawas), it being impossible for the latter entomologist to mistake 
a Beris for a species of any other sub-family, 

SUB-FAMIIvY II. — PaCHYGASTRIN^. 

Table of genera. 

A Antennae sprayed . . . . Ptilocera Wied. 

A A Antennae of various forms, but not 
sprayed. 

B Body elongate, nearly linear ; abdomen 
not much broader than thorax. 

C Scutellum 4-spined. 

D Antennal style narrow, not distinctly 
plumose. Scutellar spines small, of 
equal length. Small transverse vein 
absent . . . . . . Tinda Wlk. 

DD Antennal style long, feathered, dis- 
tinctly plumose on both sides. Inner 



go E. Brunetti : The Oriental Strntiomyidce. [Vol. I, 

pair of scutellar spines much longer 
than outer. Small transverse vein 
present . . . . Rosapha Wlk. 

CC Scutellum unspined. 
B Posterior femora elongated, thickened, 

with spines below at tip . . Enoplomyia Big. 

KB Posterior femora not thickened, nor 
elongated. 
F Antennae long and linear, thin. 
G Abdomen distinctly longer than 

thorax . . . . . . Salduba Wlk. 

GG Abdomen short and round .. Ac/aspidea^r2i\iQ.r. 

FF Antennae very short, 3rd joint round . . Adraga Wlk. 
BB Body short, transverse. Abdomen 
generally much broader than thorax. 
H Scutellum 4-spined. • 

I Abdomen only slightly longer or slightly 

shorter than thorax ; scutellum 

normal. 
J Bast antennal joint leaf-shaped . . PhyLlophora Mcq. 

J J Bast antennal joint not leaf-shaped. 
K Abdomen rather flat, elliptical, nearly 

bare, little longer but hardly broader 

than thorax . . . . Evaza Wlk. 

KK Abdomen thick, nearly round. 

B 3rd antennal joint round . . Culcua Wlk. 

BB 3rd antennal joint cylindrical . . Acanthina Wied. 

II Abdomen only about half the length of 

thorax. Scutellum large, with margi- 
nal suture . . . . Ohrapa Wlk. 
HH Scutellum with 2 short spines . . Wallacca Dol. 
HHH Scutellum unspined . . . . Pachygastcr Meig. 

Ptilocera Wied., 1830. 

Ausser. Zwiefl., ii, 58. 

Tabic of species. 

Thorax with well-defined bright green stripes. 
4 stripes ; wings brownish with abbre- 
viated testaceous fascia . , Bong. 7 mm. fastuosa Gerst. 
2 stripes ; wings nearly clear. Bong. 10 mm. smaragdifcra Wlk. 
Thorax without well-defined stripes. 
Thorax with gold pubescence in front 

and at sides . . Bong. 8 mm. quadridcntata F. 

Thorax without such gold pubescence 
Antennae (presumably) all black 

Bong. 8 mm. smaragdina Wlk. 
Antennae with the tip white . .Bong. 7 mm. continua Wlk. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Musetnn. gi 

1^ .B. — From the description of amethystina Sn. v. Voll. I can 
find no characters to separate it from jastuosa Gerst. , so cannot 
include it in above table. 

Pt. quadridentata Fab., 1805. 
Sys. Antl., 86. 

Fabricius describes the 5 only. 

In his Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 59 _, Wiedemann gives a better and 
longer description of both sexes. This species is generally dis- 
tributed in the East : Malacca, Singapore, Amboina, Sumatra, 
Philippine and Aru Islands, Djokjokarta (Java), Makessar (Celebes), 
Papua. 

Pt. jastuosa Gerst., 1857. 

I/inn. Kntom., xi, 332. 

{smaragdina Sn. v. Voll.) 

Gerstaecker described it from a 9 from Ceylon. Schiner re- 
cords 3 'b 'b from Tellschong (Nicobar Islands) which agree well 
with the species, and Meijere received 2 ? ? from Mafiokwari 
(Papua) taken at the end of May. 

Pt. smaragdifera Wlk., 1859. 
Pr. Linn. So., iv, 94. 
Makessar (Celebes), Philippine Islands. 

Pt. continua Wlk., 185 1. 

Ins. Saunds. Dipt., II, 84, pi. iii, 2. 

9 Java. Two 9 9 named by Bigot, from the Andaman Islands 
are included in the Indian Museum Collection. 

Pt. smaragdina Wlk., 1849. 

List Dip. Br. Mus., iii, 525. 

Ceylon, Celebes, Philippine Islands. Osten Sacken examined a 
series of 30 from Celebes, 3 from Ternate, 3 from Papua and i from 
Amboina, thinking Pt. amethystina Sn. v. Voll. the same species ; 
he added, " In 2 9 9 from Amboina and Papua, the greater part of 
the anal cell, and a portion of the 4th posterior are almost hyaline, 
while the interval between the anal cell and the costal margin is 
much darker brown than the distal half of the wing." 

Pt. amethystina Sn. v. Voll., 1858. 

Tijd. V. Knt., i, 92. 

Java, Celebes, Philippine Islands. Three of each sex from 
the PhiHppine Islands are referred by Osten Sacken to this species ; 
which he thought hardly to be separated from smaragdina Sn. v. 



92 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

Voll. This latter species is considered a synonym of fastuosa Gerst. 
by Van der Wulp in his recent Cat. Dip. S. Asia, and as he prob- 
ably had material on which to form a definite opinion, I follow 
him both in the synonymy and also in admitting amethystina 
Sn. V. Voll. as a distinct species, but with an impression that the 
latter form is but fastuosa Gerst. 

Tinda Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So,, iv, loi. 

Table of species. 

Antennal style 3 times as long as rest of 

3rd joint . . . . . . lyong. 6 mm. indicaWW^. 

Antennal style twice as long as rest of 3rd 
joint. 

Scutellum with yellow posterior border Long. 6 mm. acanthi- 

noides Jaen. 
Scutellum black, legs reddish, posterior 

femora black marked . . Long. 6 mm. recedens Wlk. 

T. indica Wlk., 185 1. 

{Biastes indicus Saunds. Dip., II, 81, pi. iii, i and la.) 

( 5 Tinda modifera, Wlk., Pr. Linn So., iv, loi.) 

{Phyllophora bispinosa, Thoms., Eugen Reise, 454.) 

h . Locality not given by Walker. Celebes, Manila. This, 
the first species described of those now included in Tinda, was des- 
cribed under Biastes, created b}^ Walker for it, but Biastes being 
preoccupied in Hymenoptera, Tinda must stand. Osten Sacken in 
his " Enumeration, etc." speaks of 4 'b 'b from Kandari (Celebes) 
taken in April 1874 and remarks that the scutellum {" even in the 
type specimen ") has 4 and not 6 spines as Walker sa3^s ; but 
Walker queried his assertion as to the number of spines in his 
genus Tinda. Regarding Biastes Walker plainly says, " armed with 
4 short tawny teeth," and his excellent figure shews but 4. Osten 
Sacken, whilst not sinking the genus Phyllophora Mcq., suspects 
that Walker's P. angusta from Singapore may be a Tinda. I find 
2 'b "b in the Indian Museum Collection from Calcutta and Marghe- 
rita (Assam). 

T. acanthinoides Jaen., 1868. 

{Elasma) Neue Exot. Dipt., 15, pi. i, 3. 

? Java. The author placed this genus {Elasma) between 
Acanthina and Phyllophora. Type in the Heyden Collection which, 
I believe, is now in the Frankfort Museum. 

T. recedens Wlk., 1861. 
Pr. Linn. So., v 233. 
b Dorey (Papua). 



igoy.] Records of the I iidiaii Mitseiim. 93 

Rosapha Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So., iv, 100. 

Osten Sacken corrects the author's error in saying 2 instead of 
4 spines to the scutellum, and Meijere's splendid coloured plate 
of bimaculata shews 4, the inner pair much the longer. 

R. hahilis Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So., iv, 100. 

h 9- Long. 7 mm., Makessar (Celebes). Osten Sacken reports 

a 5 from Kandari (Celebes) dated April 1874, and observes that 

the extent of black in the abdomen varies, and that the black mark 

on the thorax is sometimes wanting. 

R. bicolor Big., 1879. 

{CalochcEtis) Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 189. 

{Calochoetis, misprinted Calcochcetis) Big,, Bull, So. Ent. Fr. 
(1879), p, Ixxiv. 

9 Manila. Type in Bigot's Collection. 

R. bimaculata Meij., 1904. 
Bijd. Dierk., xviii, 96 ; pi. viii, 13, 14. 

'b Java. Long. 6 mm. Gunong Tji Salimar. W. Preanger 
(Java). 

I should not be surprised to find that the three just mentioned 
represent but a single species. Walker describes both sexes, men- 
tioning that the abdomen is clear tawny in the 'b and with the 
centre blackish in 5 . Bigot says " centre of abdomen blackish" 
(a $ ) and Meijere differentiates his species from Bigot's by the clear, 
reddish yellow abdomen. His type is a b and perhaps he had not 
seen Walker's description of sexual differences. 

The three descriptions read surprisingly alike, and the only 
character I can find that may separate the species is that bicolor 
and bimaculata have the brownish cloud towards the tip of wings 
separated by a clear hyaline space from the dark stigma, which 
clear space is not mentioned in Walker's species. 

Osten Sacken has specimens from the PhiHppines shewing the 
hyaline space referred to by Bigot, Walker speaks of an elongated 
black spot on the front of the thorax in haUlis, which seems only 
another way of describing Bigot's species bicolor — '' longitudinal 
band from anterior to middle of disc " ; this black mark, Osten 
Sacken announces to be variable. 

Should my surmise be correct, the wing marks would be the 
best means of separating the species, as follows : — 

Wings with darker cloud around stigma 
extending towards tip. Stigma fer- 
ruginous brown, b Abdomen uni- 
colorous tawny : in 9 centre of abdo- 
men blackish . . . . habilis Wlk. 



94 E. Brunetti : The Oriental Strntwn^yidcB. [VOL. I, 

Wings with subapical brown cloud 
separated from the blackish stigma 
by a clear hyaline space. % abdomen 
clear reddish yellow. 5 dark in centre 

{Calochcetis) . . hicolor Big, 
(Syn. Rosapha himaculata Meij. 'b •) 

Osten Sacken (in his " Enumeration ") regards bicolor Big. as a 
doubtful synonym of habilis, and Meijere notices the resemblance 
of his species to Bigot's. I fear Meijere's distinctions of colour in 
the proboscis and the halteres is insufficient to build a species on in 
a variable group. This being so, it is a question of the two species 
above being distinct, unless all are the same species, in which case 
hahilis stands. 

Enoplomyia Big., 1878. 

Ann. Ent. vSo. Fr. (5) VIII Bull., p. xxii. 
E. cothurnata Big., 1878. 
Bull. Ent. vSo. Fr. (1878), p. 44. 
9 Batjan. Long. 10 mm. Bigot Collection. 

Adraga Wlk., 1859. 

Pr. lyinn. So., iii, 82. ' 

A. univitta Wlk., 1859 ', ^•'^•> ^2. 
t) M^^sol, Aru. Islands. Long. 6 mm. 

Salduba Wlk., 1859. 

Pr. Linn. So., iii, 79. 

Table of species. 

A Moderate sized species, 6 to 11 mm. long. 

B Scutellum unarmed, antennae not placed on a protuberance. 

Thorax striped, abdomen linear. 
C Abdomen nearly twice as long as thorax. Femora red, posterior 

femora incrassated . . Long. 6 — 9 mm. singularis Wlk. 

CC Abdomen a little longer than thorax. Femora yellow, black 

or brown (reddish in gradiens only). Femora not incrassated. 
I Legs red or yellowish. 

Abdomen normal, length of body 6 — 9 mm. 

Thorax with 2 indistinct cinereous stripes. Legs 

mainly reddish . . Long. 6 — 8 mm. gradiens Wlk. 

Thorax with 4 gilded tomentum stripes. Legs mainly 

luteous . . Long. 6 — 9 mm. hilaris Wlk. 

Abdomen clavate. Length of body 11 mm. Thorax with 

4 cinereous stripes, centre pair joined on scutellum. 

Legs mainly yellow . . Long. 11 mm. areolaris Wlk. 



igoy.] Records of flic I iiduDi M Hscu III. 95 

2. I^egs mainly whitish. Thorax with 4 gilded tomentum^ 

stripes . . . . lyong. 9 mm. diphysoides Wlk. 

3. Legs all black, except white base of tarsi. Thorax with a 

cinereous stripe each side . . lyong. 7 mm. lugubris Wlk. 
BB Scutellum with 4 minute teeth. Antennae placed on a protu- 
berance. Thorax (presumably) all black. Abdomen fusi- 
form . . . . Long. 6 mm. scapularis Wlk. 
A A Small species 3 to 4 mm. 

3rd antennal joint elliptical, anterior femora with black traces. 

Long. 3|- mm. signatipcnnis V. Wulp. 
3rd antennal joint round, legs all pale yellow. 
Long. 3 mm. exigua V. Wulp. 

This genus was placed by Walker in the subfamily Sargince 
and puzzled me for a long time, the nearly uniform black colour 
of all the species being such a contrast to the usual brilliant metallic 
colours in this group. Not being able to obtain a specimen, I 
was about to leave it where it was, when I obtained Van der 
Wulp's paper on New Guinea Diptera, in which he not only des- 
cribes two new species (which may both be removed later owing 
to formation of the antennae) but gives a diagram of the wing of 
Salduha shewing only three veins issuing from the discal and 
basal cells combined, thus placing it at once in the PachygastrincB.^ 
Walker made no mention of this venation, nor had I any informa- 
tion on the point. The species 5. melanaria Wlk., formed by Van 
der Wulp into a new genus Ccenocephalus, has 4 veins instead of 3 
and therefore cannot be placed in PachygastrincB. This new genus 
seems by its linear abdomen and form of antennae to approach 
nearest to the HermetiincB, where I bring it for the present. 

Three other species of the restricted Salduha shew aberrant 
forms of abdomen — scapularis with fusiform abdomen and 4 minute 
teeth on the scutellum ; while singularis with incrassated posterior 
femora minutely spined below, and the abdomen double the usual 
length may easily form the type of a new genus. 5. areolaris, with 
its clavate abdomen, may also be regarded later as generically 
distinct. 

S. singularis Wlk., 1861, 

Pr. Linn. So., v, 271. 

'b 'b Batjan. A 'b is recorded from Ramoi (Papua). Osten 
Sacken thinks it differs from gradicns Wlk. only by less white at the 
base of the posterior tarsi and much more distinct spines on the 
hind femora. The incrassated posterior femora and abdomen of 
nearly double the usual length might entitle this species to generic 
separation. 



1 Van der Wulp also expressed his opinion of its affinity with Tinda. 



96 E. Brunetti : The Oriental Stratiomyida. [VOL. I, 

5. gradiens Wlk,, 1864, 

Pr. lyinii. So., vii, 203. 

9 Mysol. Type in British Museum Collection. Osten Sacken 
doubtfully refers to this species a single 'b from Ramoi (Papua) 
taken February, 1875. 

5. hilaris Wlk., 1861. 

Pr. Linn, So., v, 271. 

h 5 Bat] an. Has been queried as a var. of diphysoides. 

S. areolaris Wlk., 1864. 
Pr. lyinn. So., vii, 204. 
b Mysol. Allied to hilaris and diphysoides. 

S. diphysoides Wlk,, 1859. 

Pr. Linn. So., iii, 79. 
b Aru Islands. 

S. lugubris Wlk., 1861. 

Pr. Linn. So., v, 271, 
Bat Jan. 

5, scapularis Wlk., 1861 ; I.e., 271. 

'b Bat] an. It has been suggested that this may belong to 
Van der Wulp's new genus Ccenoeephalus, but this depends on its 
venation. Its fusiform abdomen and minutely spined scutellum 
might, however, entitle it to generic or subgeneric rank. 

S. signaiipennis V. d. Wulp, 1898. 
Termes. Fuzet., xxi, 412, pi. xx, fig. 2 (head), fig. 2« (wing). 
t) 9 Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua). 

S. exigua V. d. Wulp, 1898. 

Loc. ctt., 413 ; pi. XX, fig. 3 (head). 

^ One from Erima, Astrolabe Bay (Papua). The author 
rather doubts its right to a place in this genus, owing to the round- 
ness of the 3rd antennal joint. This joint in signaiipennis being 
elliptical instead of cylindrical forms a link between exigua and 
the other species and perhaps justifies them both remaining. 

Acraspidea Brauer, 1882. 

Denk. Kais. Acad. Wissens. Wien, xliv, 75. 
A.jelderi Brauer, 1882, /.c, 75. 
"b Rambodde (Ceylon). Long. 5 — 6 mm. 



igoy-] Records of tlic Indian Museion. 97 

Phyllophora Mcq., 1838. 
Dip. Ex., i, pt. i, 178. 
This generic name pre-occupied by Thunberg in Orthoptera. 

P. angusta Wlk., 1857. 

Pr. Linn. So., i, 7. 

'b Singapore. Long. 5 mm. This may be a Tinda, according 
to Osten Sacken. 

Evaza Wlk., 1857. 

Pr. Linn. So., i, 109. 

{Nerua — sometimes misprinted Nenia — Wlk., 1858.) 

Pr. Linn. So., ii, 81. 

Most authors have been spelHng this genus fyasrt, but Kertesz 
in his recent monograph of the genus in Ann. Mus. Hong., vol. 
iv, 276, reverts to the original form. He alludes also to a closely 
allied genus of Walker's, Artemita, from S. America, differentiated 
from Evaza by having pubescent eyes. 

Table of species. 

Legs principally blackish brown (anterior femora blackish brown, 
with more or less pale tips). 

Scutellum with yellowish border Long. 8 — 8| mm. argyroceps 

Big. 
Scutellum all black, spines only 

yellowish . . Long. 5^^ — 7 mm. impcndens Wlk. 

Legs principally yellow (anterior femora 
yellow or yellowish brown). 
Legs all yellow. 

Scutellum black, with yellow spines, 
dorsum of thorax and scutel- 
lum distinctly arched, with 

yellow hair . . . . Long. 7 mm. flavipes Big. 

Scutellum with posterior border 
partly black, dorsum of tho- 
rax and scutellum fiat, with 

yellowish white hair . . Long. 7 mm. bipars Wlk. 

Legs not all yellow. 

Wing tips clear, all tibiae all black 

or blackish brown . . Long. 9 mm. tibialis Wlk. 

Wing tips not clear, tibiae not 
throughout unicolorous. 

Abdomen reddish brown, 
partly blackish brown. 
Wings hyaline, fore- 
border brown from 



g8 E. BkunETTI : The Oriental Sirationiyidce. [VOL. I, 

subcostal cell to 

apex . . Long. 5 — 6 mm. mollis O. Sack. 

Wings very pale brown ; 
only subcostal cell 

brown . . Long. 5^ — 7^ mm. fulvivcnlris Big. 
Abdomen principally black 
or blackish brown. 

Tibiae of middle and pos- 
terior legs brown or 
blackish brown at api- 
cal half . . Long. 9 mm. for lis Wlk. 
Tibiae of middle and pos- 
terior legs all yellow . . 
Anterior radial cell 

clear . . Long. 6^ mm. mdica Kert. 

Anterior radial cell 

brownish Long. 6 mm. scenopinoides 

Wlk. 

E. argyroccps Big., 1879. 

Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 219. 

5 Moluccas. Bigot Collection. The author describes the h 
only, but Kertesz's description applies to both sexes, from 3 1? 'b 
and a 5 in the Bigot Collection. 

E. impendens Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So., iv, 197. 

'b 9 Makessar (Celebes), Aru Islands. Osten Sacken mentions 
9 'b 'b I 2 from Kandari (Celebes), April, 1874. 

E. flavipcs Big., 1879. 

Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 219. 

2 India. Bigot Collection (badly preserved). Van der Wulp 
gives a h from Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua). 

E. bipars Wlk., 1857. 
Pr. Linn. So., i, no ; pi. vi, 2. 

{E. flavipcs V. d. Wulp, Termes. Fuzet., xxi, 416, nee flavipes 
Big. (Ann.), 1879.) 

"b Sarawak (Borneo) ; Papua. Kertesz also records it and des- 
cribes the 5 from a New South Wales (badly preserved ) specimen 
in the Hermann Collection. 

E. tibialis Wlk., 1861. 

{Clitellaria) Pr. Linn. So., i, 57. 

b Manado (Celebes). In his Cat. Dipt. S. Asia, Van der Wulp 
mentioned that, having 4 spines to the scutelltun, this species 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 99 

" might require a generic separation," and Kertesz refers it now 
to Evaza with the support of Mr. K. E. Austen of the British 
Museum, who has examined the type. 

E. mollis Os. Sacken, 1880. 

(Nerua) Ann. Mus. Gen., xiv, 415. 

b ? Sumatra ; Papua. The author differentiates his species 
from fuhnventris Big. and bipars Wlk., to which it is alHed. 

E. fulvivcntris Big., 1879. 

Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 220. 

'b Mokiccas. Bigot Collection. Kertesz describes both sexes, 
recording it in the Hungarian National Museum from Papua, dated 
14th July and 24th December. 

E. fortis Wlk., 1865. 

(Sargus) Pr. I^inn. So., viii, 107. 

E. pidipes Big., 1879, Ann, So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 221. 

-b Papua. 

Kertesz, after Mr. E. E. Austen's corroboration from an exami- 
nation of the type, places this species here, and sinks pidipes as a 
synonym. 

The Hungarian Museum possesses specimens from Papuan 
localities (Bali, Mafor, Stephansort, Simbang, Erima, Sakelberg). 
Van der Wulp also records a ? from Erima, Astrolabe Bay, 
Papua, and Meijere mentions a 'b from " Oberes Jamur Gebiet," 
dated August 6th. 

E. indica Kert., 1906. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iv, 289, 

h ? Bombay, taken by Mr. Biro, 3rd July 1902. 

E. scenopinoides Wlk., 1859. 

{Nerua) Pr. Linn. So., iii, 81. 

{E. pallipes Big., 1879 ; Annales, 220.) 

9 Aru Islands, N. Ceram, Waigion, Gilolo, Dorey, Batjan, 
Papua. 

The Hungarian Museum has it from Papua taken in April 
and September. Van der Wulp gives a h from Friedrich Wilhelms- 
hafen (Papua) and Osten vSacken mentions i 'b 2 ? $ from Dorei 
Hum (Papua), February 1875, also from Andai (Papua). 



100 E. BrunettI: The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

Culcua Wlk., 1857. 

Pr. Linn. So., i, 109. 

C. simulans Wlk., 1857 J ^•^•' ^09- 

'b Malacca, Sarawak. 

A specimen in the Indian Museum Collection seems to form 
an undescribed species of this genus from Tennasserim. 

Acanthina Wied., 1830.* 

Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 50. 

The two oriental species may be distinguished as follows : — 

Thorax marked with a cross. Abdomen with a basal, 
and 2 posterior silvery hair spots . . azurea Gerst. 

Thorax unmarked, but with bright gold hair in front 
Abdomen unmarked . . . . auricollis Big. 

A. azurea Gerst., 1875. 

lyinn. Entom., xi, 335. 

{Clitellaria obesa Wlk.) 

lyong. 7 mm. b Ceylon, Ceram, Dorey (Papua), Batjan, 
Philippine Islands, Ramai and Andai in Papua (4 b b taken 
February 1875) also June and August 1872. Osten Sacken records 
the species as C. obesa Wlk., adding " very like azurea Gerst.," but 
mentions differences He again (Dipt. Phil. Is., 1882) expresses 
doubt as to the identity of this species with 3 specimens ex- 
amined by him from those Islands collected by Dr. Carl Semper. 

A. auricollis Big. 

b Kohima (Assam), Sadiya (Assam). Long. 8 mm. Type in 
Indian Museum. 

I can find no reference to the description of this species, 
which appears distinct from azurea Gerst. 

Obrapa Wlk., 1859. 

Pr. Linn. So., iii, 82. 

Table of species. 
Body black. 

Shining black ; body of normal width ; 

wings clear . . . . Long. 5 mm. perilampoides Wlk. 

' Dull black ; body narrower ; wings with 

cloudy spot . . Long. 44 mm. celyphoides Wlk. 

Body with shining silvery hair . . Long. 33 mm. argentata V. Wulp. 



* See end of paper for A. argentea, sp. nov. 



igoj.] Records of the Indian Museum. loi 

0. perilampoides Wlk., 1859 ; l.c , 82. 
9 Am Islands, Batjan, Kaisaa, Mysol, Dorei. 

0. celyphoides Wlk., 1859 ; I.e., 83. 

9 Aru Islands, Batjan, Dorei. Walker adds further characters 
in the same journal, vol. v, 273, and separates it from perilam- 
poides by the characters given above. 

0. argentata V. d. Wulp, 1898. 
Termes. Fuzet,, xxi, 417 ; pi. xx, 5. 
I b from Tamara Berlinhafen (Papua). 

Wallacca Dol., 1858. 

Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvii, 82. 
W. argentea Dol,, 1858 ; /.c, 82. 
Gahasa argentea Wlk., Pr. Linn. So., iii, 80. 

Amboina, not rare in April. 

In the Indian Museum are 9 9 from Calcutta, taken 8.1.06 
and 14.3.07 — also a 9 from Mergui (Lower Burma). On 21.3.07 I 
took in Calcutta what is no doubt the h of this species and 
which I think has not previously been noted. It resembles the 
9 in every way except that the tibiae are a little browner. The 
eyes are sub-contiguous immediately above the antennae, diverging 
thence upwards to the vertex, which is wholly occupied by the 
ocelli. The antennal style instead of being thick is quite fila- 
mentous. 

Pachygaster Mcig., 1803. 

Illig. Mag., ii, 266. 

Table of species. 

Legs mostly black, tips of tibiae and the 

tarsi pale . . . . Long. 3 mm. rufitarsis Mcq. 

Legs mostly yellowish or whitish. 

1. Legs yellow, femora with apical ^ 

brown . . Long. 2^ mm. limbipennis V. d. Wulp. 

2. Legs brownish yellow. Femora and 

anterior tibiae blackish brown . . Long. 3 mm. lativentris 

V. d. Wulp. 

3. Legs quite white, tarsi tips faintly 

blackish . . Long. 2 — 2^ mm. albipes mihi sp. nov. 

P. rufitarsis Mcq., 1846. 

Dip. Ex. Supp., i, 57 ; pi. vi, 3. 

b Pondicherry. Macquart Collection (now in the Paris 
Museum). 

3 



I02 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidoB. [VOL. I, 

j,^ P. limhipennis V. d. Wulp, 1898. 

Termes. Fuzet., xxi, 417. 
2 t) t) Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua). 

P. lativentris V. d. Wulp, 1898 ; /.c.,416. 
I ? Seleo, Berlinhafen (Papua). 

P. alhipes mihi sp. nov. 

9 Calcutta. Head and front shining black, a brilliant white 
streak each side of lower part of head. Antennse and proboscis 
pale yellow. Thorax and abdomen shining black with short, sparse, 
silvery-grey hair, which is a little thicker and mixed with gold hairs 
on dorsum of thorax. Belly uniforml}^ black. Legs uniformly 
dirty white, the tarsi tips faintly blackish. Wings quite clear, 
veins on foreborder pale yellowish. Halteres white. Described from 
4 9 9 in the Indian Museum taken in Calcutta. Long. 2 — 2^ mm. 

SuB-FAMIIvY III. — SaRGIN^. 

Eyes in male not contiguous, approximate only, leaving a 
very narrow frontal space from vertex to antennse. 

Table of genera. 

Antennal arista apical . . . . Chrysochlora Latr. 

Antennal arista dofSal. 
2nd antennal joint projecting over base 
of 3rd on inner side. Species non- 
metallic, generally more or less 
yellowish . . . . . . Ptecticus Loew. 

2nd antennal joint not projecting over 
3rd. Species nearly always bright 
metallic blue or green . . . . Sargus Fab. 

Eyes in male absolutely contiguous. 

Eyes pubescent in both sexes . . Chloromyia Dune. 

Eyes quite or practically bare in both sexes. 

3rd antennal joint 6-ringed . . Brachycara Thoms. 

3rd antennal joint 4-ringed . . Microchrysa Loew. 

Salduba, hitherto placed amongst the Sargince, I relegated 
to the Pachygastrifus immediately I saw a figure of the wings ; 
supported by Van der Wulp's authority for its affinity with Tinda. 

Microchrysa Loew, 1855. 

Verh. Zool. Botan., v, 146. 
Table of species. 

Abdomen honey yellow. 

Long. 5 mm. Post. fem. ringed flaviventris Wied, -b 
3 ,, Post. fem. pale, bipars Wlk. 



igoy.] Records of tJie Indian Museum. 103 

Abdomen metallic ; never yellow. 
Abdomen unicolorous. 

Middle femora and tibise all pale 

Abdomen bluish violet . . flaviventris Wied. $ 
Abdomen blackish, with pur- 
ple reflections . . Long. 4 mm. affinis Wied. 
Middle femora and tibiae indis- 
tinctly brown-ringed . . I/ong. 3 mm. gemma Big. 
Abdomen violet ; edges distinctly pale 

yellow . . Long. 2f mm. calopus Big. 

M. flaviventris Wied. 

{Sargus) Analec. Entom., 31, 5 . 

{annulipes Thoms. , Eugenie Reise, 461.) 

h East India. Type in Royal Museum, Copenhagen. 

Osten Sacken records a h from Java, and I took one 'b 
at Bareilly, ist September 1905, and if I have determined the 2 
rightly I have taken 3 specimens, respectively at Mussoorie, June 
26 ; Meerut, July (13 to 19) ; and Lucknow, August 8 ; all during 
1905. From Papua Van der Wulp records 2 'b 'b i $ . 

M. bipars Wlk., 1861. 

(Chrysomyia) Pr. Linn, So., v, 273. 

'b Batjan. Walker says allied to Sargus rcdhibens, but I 
fail to see where. 

M. affinis Weid. 

(Sargus) Analec. Entom., 31. 

? East India. Types in Copenhagen Museum and Wiede- 
mann's Collection. Wiedemann (Auss. Zweif., ii, 41) suspects that 
this is the ? of flaviventris , and I am inclined to think so to. 

M. gemma Big., 1879. 

Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 231. 

$ Ceylon. Bigot Collection. Bigot emphasizes the very broad 
front in this species, and speaks of the middle femora and tibiae 
being indistinctly brown-ringed, yet I would not be surprised to 
find it only the ? of flaviventris Wied. 

M. calopus Big. 

I $ Margherita (Assam). I cannot trace the reference. (Inci- 
dentally I may add that Bigot described a Chrysonotus calopus 
5 in 1879 from Natal, but this is a different species.) Type in In- 
dian Museum Collection. It is certainly a very distinct species. 

In addition to the species mentioned I possess 3 specimens 
taken by myself at Mussoorie from Jtme 18 to 26, 1905, in which 
the last antennal joint is entirely and quite black, the species other- 



I04 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [Vol. I, 

wise agreeing with fiaviventris. All the other species have entirely 
yellow antennae, so I believe them to be new, but refrain from des- 
cribing them as such until I obtain a more extended experience 
of the Eastern species. 

Brachycara Thorns., 1868. 

Eugenie Freg. Reise, 460. 

B. ventralis Thoms., 1868 ; I.e., 641, pi. ix, 4, 

'' Isl. Rossi." Van der Wulp infers he means an isle of this 
name in the Andamans. Ross Island is the one on which Port 
Blair, the seat of government in the islands, is situated. Both 
sexes are recorded by Van der W^ulp from Seleo, Berlinhafen 
(Papua). 

Chloromyia Dune, 1837. 

Mag. Zool. Bot. 

The only two oriental species are easily separated. 
lyCgs blue, with shining hoary hair Long. 8 mm. sapfhirina Wlk. 
lyCgs pale yellow, apical half of anterior 

legs black . . . . Long. 8 mm. stigmatica V. d. Wulp. 

C. stigmatica V. d. Wulp, 1898. 
Termes. Fazet., xxi, 411. 
2 $ ? from Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua). 

C. sapphirina Wlk., 1849, 
{Chrysomyia) List Dip. Brit. Museum, iii, 519. 
2 East Indies. British Museum Collection. 

Sargus Fab., 1798. 

Ent. Sys. Supp., 566. 
Tabic of species. 

A Large species 14 to 18 mm. long. 

B Abdomen rusty red, with dorsal black- 
ish stripe ; wings nearly clear . . Long. 14 mm. rufus Dol. 

BB Abdomen metallic — no stripe, wings 
rather deeply blackish 

1. Front piceous, legs tawny, streaked with 

pitch. Thorax blue-green, abdomen 

brilliant violet . . . . Long. 18 mm. genimifer Wlk. 

2. Front chalybeate, supra-antennal tri- 

angle pale green. Thorax blue-green, 
abdomen metallic violet, stigma 
testaceous . . . . Long. 15 mm. pubescens V.W. 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 105 

3. Front brilliant, metallic blue-green, 
triangle yellow, stigma unicolorous, 
thorax blue-green, abdomen copper, 
violet reflections . . Long. 14 mm. magnificus Big. 

AA Moderate sized species 7 to 10 mm. 
{Icetus 12 mm.). 

C Wings very long, each 14 mm. long 

Long. 12 mm. longipennis Wied. 

CC Wings normal. 

D Abdomen metallic blue-green, or there- 
abouts. Base not whitish ; legs nor- 
mally long, 

E Legs all yellow (reddish yellow or yel- 
lowish white), no black in them : at 
most, tarsi lips darker or blackish. 

F Stigma dark brown. 

G Wing cinereous ; whitish species. Disc of 

thorax and scutellum tip purple Long. 10 mm. inadus Wlk. 

OG Wing clear, posterior half a little grey. 
Thorax and scutellum brilliant gold- 
green. Abdomen brilliant metallic 
violet . . . . . . Long. 8 mm. pallipcs Big. 

FF Stigma pale yellow h eyes contiguous. 

H h eyes contiguous . . Long. 8 — 10 mm. mdallinus F. 

HH h eyes not contiguous . . Long. 7 — 9 mm. mandarinus Sch. 

EE Legs with distinct black rings, streaks, 
or more or less black. 

1. Femora with black streak above, near 

tip . . . . Long. 7 — 8 mm. redhibens Wlk. 

2. Base of posterior femora black and 

slender . . Long. 12 mm. Icetus V. W. 

3. Femora and tibiae partly piceous . . Long. 9 mm. concisus Wlk. 

4. Posterior half of posterior femora black . . 

Long. 9 mm. albopilosus Meij. 

5. Anterior femora black at tip and posterior 

tarsi at base. Posterior femora and 

tibise black . . . . Long. 7 mm. tibialis Wlk. 

6. Posterior tibise with blackish basal half 

Long. 9 mm. mactans Wlk. 

7. Legs mostly brown marked, not black . . 

Long, (without head) 9 mm. papuanus Big. 
DD Abdomen purple, white at base, legs , 

extra long . . . . Long. 11 mm. longipcs Wlk. 

AAA Small species. 

Long. 5 mm. black shining , . Long. 5 mm. debilis Wlk. 

Long. 3 mm. pale tawny shining Long. 3 mm. inficitus Wlk. 

S. rufus Dol., 1858. 
Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvii, ^Z- 
Amboina. Rare, during dry season. 



io6 E. Brunetti : The Oriental Stratiomyidce. [Vol. I, 

5. gemmifer Wlk., 1849. 
lyist Dip. Brit. Mus., iii, 516. 
Sylhet. Type in British Museum. 

S. pubcscens V. der Wulp, 1885. 
Notes Ley den Mus., vii, 67. 
5 Gorontolo. 

S. magnificus Big., 1879. 
Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 222. 

Assam. Bigot Collection. Head and middle legs (except 
femora) missing from the type when described. In spite of this, 
I feel sure that 4 b 'b in the Indian Museum from Tenasserim 
are of this species. 

The three species above must be closely allied, but from the 
descriptions appear to be truly distinct. 

5. longipennis Wied., 1824. 

Analec. Bntom., 31. 

h Java. Type in Westermann's Collection. Also recorded 
from Malacca ; and a h named thus by Bigot exists in the Indian 
Museum, labelled Sadiya (Assam). 

S. inactus Wlk., i860. 
Pr. lyinn. So., iv, 97. 
? Makessar (Celebes). 

5. pallipes Big., 1879. 
Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 222. 
$ Ceylon. Type in Bigot's Collection. 

5. metallimis F , 1805. 

Sys. Antl., 258. 

{S. jormicceformis Dol., Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xiv, 403; pi. iii, 5.) 

The commonest of all Stratiomyidce throughout the Orient and 
a widely distributed species. Walker reports it from Borneo, India, 
Java and the Aru Islands ; the Indian Museum possesses specimens 
from Katmandu (Nepal), Calcutta, Siliguri, Dehra Dun and Naini 
Tal, the dates varying from June to August. It has, outside of 
India, a much wider range of appearance, as it has fallen to my 
net at Rangoon (January), Singapore (17th February 1906), Shan- 
ghai and Calcutta (both in May), Mussoorie (June), Meerut (July), 
and lyucknow (August and September). 



igoy.] Records of the I ndian Museum. 107 

5. mandarinus Sch., 1868. 

Reise der Novaia, 62. 

t) One example. Hong Kong, allied to the European flavipes. 
Schiner says the eyes quite touch, which may require it a generic 
separation^ as in Sargus the eyes are approximate, not contiguous. 

5. redhihens Wlk., i860. 

Pr. lyinn. So., iv, 97. 

9 Makessar (Celebes). He mentions a variety with green 
thorax and purple vertex, and thinks it may be a local variety of 
metallinus F., but as he mentions dark markings on its hind legs, 
it could hardly be metallinus. I took one % at Rangoon between 
23rd December 1904 and 3rd January 1905, also a 9 at Singapore, 
17th February 1906, both certainly this species ; but the posterior 
tibiae have a black streak at the base and not at the tip. 

5. IcBtus V. der Wulp, 1885. 

Notes I^eyden Mus., vii, 66. 

'b Sumatra. The author notes it near mactans Wlk., and 
would have considered it the male of that species but for the 
pattern and coloration of the abdomen. 

5. concisus Wlk., 186 1. 
Pr. lyinn. So., v, 273. 
'b Batjan, near redhihens Wlk. 

5. albopilosus Meij. 

Nova Guinea Res. L'Exp. Sci. Neerl. N. Guinea, Dipt., 73. 
h Mahokwari (Papua). 

S. tibialis Wlk., 1861. 

Pr. Linn. So., v, 273. 

-b Batjan, Gilolo. Near redhihens Wlk. 

5. mactans Wlk. , i860. 
Pr. Linn. So., iv, 97. 

'b Makessar (Celebes), Amboina, Borneo, Ceylon. Osten 
Sacken saw three from Kandari (Celebes) taken April 1874, and 
one from Ternate, and pertinently adds : " There may be several 
conflicting species here, or else they vary in the extent of black 
on the legs, and in the colour of the stigma." 

I think it probable that several of the species in this group 
may prove varieties, but described as most of them are, from single 
specimens, and these types not being available for examination 
in India, I cannot further our knowledge of the group. 



io8 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

Three "b 'b in the Indian Museum Collection from Nepal (4,500 
feet) taken in October, agree pretty closely with Walker's descrip- 
tion, as does a b in the same collection captured by Dr. Annan- 
dale at Bhim Tal, 19th to 22nd September 1906, also at an 
altitude of 4,500 feet. From this height to the plains and so low 
a latitude as Singapore and the East India Islands would be by 
no means an excessive range for a Dipteron, 

Van der Wulp mentions 2 b 'b from Papua, 

S, fapuanns Big., 1879. 
Ann. Soc. Ent Fr. (1879), 223. 
9 Bigot Collection. 

S. longipes Wlk., 1861. 

Pr. Linn. So., v, 232. 

h Dorey (Papua). A male from Erima (Astrolabe Bay) 
Papua, is recorded by Van der Wulp. 

S. dehilis Wlk., 1861 ; /.c, v, 274. 
'b Batjan. Near redhibens Wlk. 

5. inficitus Wlk., 1861 ; I.e., v, 274. 
b Batjan. 

Ptecticus Loew., 1855. 

. i ,, Verh. Zool. Bot., v, 142. 

Table of species. 

A Black species ; wings blackish (slightly 
tawny in front in tenebrifer). 

lyong. 18 mm. . . . . remeans Wlk, 

,, 14 mm. . . , . illucens Sch. 

,, 10 to 12 mm. .. .. tenebrifer Wlk, 

A A Yellow species (sometimes much marked 

with black). 
B Wing with basal half yellow tawny, re- 
mainder blackish or grey. 
Posterior femora black . . Long, about 15-16 mm, rufes- 

cens V. d. Wulp. 
Posterior femora reddish yellow, 

1. Disc of thorax ferruginous, 3 indistinct darker 

lines. Abdomen with shining black dorsal 
bands. Posterior tibiae in b with brown 
' band . , . . Long. 14-15 mm. aurifer Wlk. 

2. Male genitalia black. 4th abdominal segment 

with a very large brown spot. 5th all black- 
ish. Thorax all tawny, unmarked. Long 15 mm. 

apicalis Lw. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 109 

3. % genitalia black. 2nd to 6th abdominal seg- 

ments, with broad black cross bands reaching 
the side border. Posterior tibiae blackish 
brown . . . . Long. 16 mm. cingulatus Lw. 

4. h genitalia black ; disc of thorax ferruginous. 

Body reddish yellow. lyast abdominal seg- 
ment black. Apical half of posterior tibiae 
brown . . lyong. 12-14 "i^- l^oninus Rond. 

5. h genitalia fulvous, very large and complex. 

Long. 15-16 mm. Wulpii V. d. W. nom. nov. 
BB Wings with distinct black or black- 
ish parts : — not yellow. 
Long. 18 mm. 

Abdomen all testaceous . . 18 repensans Wlk. 

Abdominal last 2 segments black 18 tricolor Meij. 
Long. 8 to 12 mm. 

All tibiae and tarsi blackish, abdo- 
men subclavate, lengthened . . 8 quadrijasciatus Wlk. 
Only posterior tibiae black marked. Abdomen normal. 
I Posterior tibiae and tarsi all black. Abdomen with 
a brown spot on segments 2 to 5 . . 10 rogans Wlk. 

2. Posterior tibiae black, tawny marked apically. 

Abdomen with 4 broad, abbreviated piceous 
bands . . 12 complcns Wlk. 

3. Posterior tibiae black, posterior tarsi whitish. 

Thorax indistinctly striped. Abdomen with 
abbreviated dilated black band on each 
segment . . . . 12 tar salts Wlk. 

BBB Wings nearly or quite clear, or pale 
grey. (Anterior margin yellowish in ferru- 
gineus Dol.) 

Anterior margin of wing yellow. . Long. 10 mm. ferruginous Dol. 
Anterior margin of wing not yellow. 
Thorax with 3 stripes, species partly 

black . . . . Long. 11-12 mm. hrevipennis R. 

Thorax unstriped, species mostly yellow. 
Abdomen black above with 

narrow lighter bands. . Long. 8 mm. australis Sch. 
Abdomen tawny with broad 
black bands. 

Posterior femora striped 

with black . . Long. 10 mm. latifascia Wlk. 
Posterior femora testa- 
ceous tawny . . Long. 10 mm. doleschalli Big. 

Pt. remeans Wlk., i860. 

(Sargus) Pr. Linn. So., iv, 96. 

9 Makessar (Celebes) ? " allied to S. tenehrifer " Walker says. 
Head wanting in the type. Osten vSacken notes 14 'b 'b and I 9 from 

4 



no E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

Kandari (Celebes) taken April 1874, but is hardly positive as to 
identity. Walker describes a perfect specimen of what he takes to 
be the male, but selects the headless female as the type ! 



Pt. illucens Sch., il 

Reise No vara, 65. 

One example ; sex ? Hong Kong. A large handsome species, 
I took a 'b 2 «w cop. and a separate ? at Yokohama, 21st to 26th 
May 1906, thus fixing the sexes and species. Schiner queried the 
sex of his type specimen. I think it was a h , because he men- 
tions " front broad behind" and this is apparently the case (but 
not really so, proportionately) in this sex, owing to the eyes almost 
touching in front just above the frontal raised triangle. The 
front in the ? is slightly but distinctly wider. In the 2 taken in 
cop., the white 2nd translucent abdominal segment is much ob- 
scured. Van der Wulp mentions the occurrence of the species in 
Japan, from which land it also figures in the recent Catalogue of 
Palaearctic Diptera. 

Pt. tenehrifer Wlk., 1849. 

{Sargus) List Dip. Brit. Mus., iii, 517. 

2 China. Brit. Mus. Coll. 



PL rufescens V. d. Wulp, i^ 

(Sargus) Tijd. Ent., xi, 104 ; pi. iii, 7 to 9. 

By Van der Wulp's remark referring to his apicalis " close to 
rufescens V. W." I have presumed this species to be of the same size, 
and therefore enter it in my table as 15 to 16 mm. 

Pt. aurifer Wlk., 1854. 

(Sargus) lyist Dip. Brit. Mus., v, 96. 

h 2 India. N, China. Walker compares it to 5. cuprarius 
L., differing from that species in venation. 

Pt. apicalis Lw., 1855. 
Verh. Zool. Bot., v, 142 ; pi. x, 3 — 4. 
[Sargus luridus Wlk. ; Pr. lyinn. So., i, 8.) 

t. Pulo Penang. Type in Westermann's Coll. 

There are six more or less closely allied species in this group, 
and I have had some difficulty in understanding them All seem 
distinguished from all other species in the genus by the basal half 
of the wing being brightly yellow, and the remaining half blackish — 
commencing at or just beyond the discal cell to the tip of the wing. 
Two species (aurifer Wlk., and leoninus R.) are said to have the disc 
of the thorax ferruginous, that is, darker than the general reddish 
yellow colour of the whole body — the former bearing, in addition, 



igoj.] Records 0/ f he Indian Museum. in 

traces of three longitudinal lines. In apicalis Lw., the spot on the 
4th abdominal segment is large, distinct and separate from the all 
black 5th segment. In a few specimens I captured in August 1895 
at Mussoorie, which seem, almost undoubtedly, this species, I find 
faint traces of a blackish dorsal band on the 2nd and 3rd segments, 
and the posterior tibiae are black at the tip and not at the 
base. A smaller specimen similarly marked, I refer to this species, 
although it answers fairly to leoninus Rond., except that the disc 
of the thorax is not darker, nor are the tarsi tips blackish. How- 
ever, in size (12 mm.) and the apical black posterior tibiae, it agrees 
with leoninus better than with apicalis. 

Apicalis V. der Wulp (for which, apicalis being preoccupied by 
Loew, I take the liberty and pleasure in proposing the name of 
its illustrious author Wulpii) stands out from apicalis lyW. , cingula- 
tus lyW., and leoninus Rond., by its very prominent and compli- 
cated fulvous genitals , which are black in the other three species. In 
cingulatus the abdominal bands are broad, and transverse, extend- 
ing to the border ; in aurifer the band is dorsal ; in apicalis lyW. , 
the 4th segment is occupied by a large, black, oval, distinct spot, 
whilst in leoninus the whole last segment only of the abdomen is 
black — wherein it differs from Wulpii, which has the last two or 
three segments purplish brown. These various markings, if con- 
sistent would sufficiently separate the species — and in the only two 
species I recognise with certainty, from actual specimens, the con- 
sistency seems sufficiently present. These are the 4 or 5 apicalis 
IvW. in my own collection and 5 or 6 damaged Wulpii (one specimen 
named by Bigot) in the Indian Museum. 

Pt. cingulatus Lw., 1855. 
Verh. Zool. Bot., v^ 143. 
h Penang. Westermann's Coll. 

Pt. leoninus Rond., 1875. 
(Sargus) Ann. Mus. Gen., vii, 454. 
b lyocality not given. 

Pt. wulpii nom. nov. 
{Pt. apicalis V. d. Wulp nom bis lectum.) 
Notes Ley den Mus., vii, 62, 1885. 

b Sumatra, Borneo. Near leoninus Rond., but genitalia 
fulvous, conspicuous and complex instead of black. 

The Indian Museum specimens {vide note on Pt. apicalis Lw.) 
are from Margherita (Upper Assam). 



112 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

Pi. repensans Wlk. , i860. 

[Sargus) Pr. lyinn. So., iv, 96. 

'b Makessar (Celebes). Walker says, allied to 5. aurifcr Wlk.^ 
Osten Sacken in reporting 9 'b 'b and a 2 from Kandari 
(Celebes), April 1874, adds, " Walker should not have called the 
wing cinereous — otherwise, the description is recognisable." 

Pt. tricolor Meij., 1904. 

Bijd. Dierk., xviii, 95 ; pi. viii, 11. 

I b Sukabumi (Java). The author adds "V. der Wulp 
descr." The coloured illustrations in this paper by Meijere are 
most excellent. 

Pt. quadrifasciatus Wlk., 1861. 

{Sargus) Pr. I^inn. So., v, 146. 

^ Amboina, Batjan. The author adds further characters 
and a description of the $ in his article on Batjan Diptera. Osten 
Sacken records i b from Dorei Hum (Papua), February 1875, 
and, suspecting variability in the black on the abdomen, places 
here also a $ from Ternate. 

Pt. rogans Wlk., 1859. 

{Sargus) Pr. I^inn. So., iii, 81. 

2 Aru Isles. Type in British Museum much damaged. Osten 
Sacken saw a 'b from Dorei Hum (Papua) marked February 1875 
and adds that fcrrugineus Dol. is near it, but has no brown spots 
on the abdomen, nor brown cloud at wing tip. Pt. doleschalli 
Big. from Mysol is probably this species. Osten Sacken has seen 
a specimen from the Philippines named by Walker as this species, 
I took a few ? 2 at lyUcknow, 7th September 1905, which agree, 
except that the posterior tarsi are yellow, not black, but in one 
'b they are blackish at the base. 



Pt. complens Wlk., 1859. 
{Sargus) Pr. L^inn. So., iii, 81. 



2 Aru Isles. 



Pt. tarsalis Wlk., 1861. 
{Sargus) Pr. I^inn. So., v, 274. 
2 Batjan, Gilolo. 

Pt. jerrugincus Dol., 1858. 

{Sargus) Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvii, 83. 

Amboina. Rare during dry season. Van der Wulp records 5 
2 2 from Papua allied to rogans Wlk. , ru/us Dol., and latifascia Wlk. 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 113 

Pt. hrevipennis Rond, 1875. 
(Sargus) Ann. Mus, Gen., vii, 454. 

Pt. austyalis Sch., 1868. 

Reise Novara, 65. 

One 2 Fani Is. (Nicobars). In the Indian Museum 2 'b 1^ and 
2 ? $ from Assam (Sadiya and Margherita) and also from Dehra 
Dun, the species determined by Bigot. 

Pt. lati fascia Wlk., 1857. 
(Sargus) Pr. lyinn. So., i, no. 
h Java, Sumatra. 

Pt. doleschalli Big., 1879. 

Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 231. 

h Mysol. Bigot Coll. May be the same species as rogans 
Wlk., according to Osten Sacken in Ann. Mus. Genova, xvi, 416. 
Van der Wulp mentions 4 ^ b from Tamara and Berlinhafen 
(Papua). 

Chrysochlora Latr,, 1825, 

Fam. Nat. du regne anim., 494. 

The two species recorded from the East vary enormously in 
size, that of Doleschall being only 3 mm. in length, whilst C. bac- 
coides is 17. 

Ch. vitripennis Dol,, 1856. 

Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., x, 408 ; pi. xi, 2. 

Djokjokarta (Java). 

Ch. baccoides Rond., 1875. 

Ann. Mus. Gen., vii, 454. 
5 Borneo. 

Sub-family IV. — Ci.iTEi.i.ARiNie. 

Table of genera. 

A Thorax with a strong side spine. 

Antennal style thickly pilose . . Negritomyia B g. 

Antennal style bare . . . . Ephippiomyia lyatr. 

A A Thorax with no side spine. 

Scutellum very gibbous, abdomen 
always shorter than thorax. 
Scutellum unspined. 

Abdomen little broader than 
long, much shorter than 



114 E. Brunetti : The Oriental Stratiomyidce. [Vol. I, 

thorax ; antennae very 
short . . , . Saruga Wlk. 

Abdomen much broader but not 
longer than thorax ; an- 
tennae nearly as long as 
thorax . . . . Aulana Wlk. 

Scutellum 2-spined . . . . Musama Wlk. 

Scutellum normal, abdomen shorter or 
longer than thorax. 

1. Scutellum bare. 

Face produced into a snout . . Nemotelus Geoff. 
Face not so produced. 

Abdomen elliptical, elon- 
gated a little . . Lasiopa Brulle. 
Abdomen globose, very 
much broader, and a 
little longer than thorax Ruha Wlk. ' 

2. Scutellum with 2 spines. 

Spines very distinct, abdomen 

short, round, very arched . . Oxycera Meig. 

Spines often small or indistinct, 
abdomen elongated, less 
arched . . . . Clitellaria Meig. 

3. Scutellum 4-spined . . . . Trichochceta Big. 

Negritomyia Big,, 1879. 

Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 190. 

The species are closely allied in markings, coloration and size ; 
and a rough table for their identification is all that can be drawn 
up in the absence of specimens of any of the species. 

1. Femora black, base pale : large brown 

spot above discal cell. lyong. 10 mm. maculipennis Macq. 

2. Legs luteous ; wings cinereous — costa 

luteous . . . . Long. 12 mm. festinans Wlk. 

3. Legs pale tawny testaceous ; wing 

brownish, base clearer . . Long. 11 mm. alhitarsis Big. 

4. Legs brown, base of femora pale, 

wing nearly clear, brown stigma, 
diffused band near tip, reddish 
spot on lower edge of wing Long. 9 mm. consobrina Big. 

' • N. maculipennis Macq., 1851. 

Dipt. Bxot. Supp. 4, 54. 

h 5 Manila, Ternate, Papua, near Clitellaria heminopla Wied. 
Type in Paris Museum. In his " Enumeration " OstenSacken re- 
cords I 'b and 4 $ 9 from Ramoi and Dorei Hum (Papua) taken 
February 1875, and from Ternate ; also 12 'b 'b ? $ from Manila, 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. iic 

the abdomen in these latter being more bluish than in the East 
Indian Islands specimens. Meijere announces a ? from Mafiokwari 
(Papua), taken May 2nd. In 1880 Osten Sacken queried " Odon- 
tomyia cinerea " Dol. {=Ephippiomyia id) from Amboina as a 
synonym of this species, but Van der Wulp keeps them genetically 
divided in his Catalogue. 

N. festinans Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So., iv, 95. 

{Engonia aurata Sch.) 

'b Makessar, Amboina. The author also adds what he con- 
siders the 2 . Osten Sacken records 3 'b 'b i 9 from Kandari, 
April 1874. 

N. alhitarsis Big., 1879. 
Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1879), 207. 
? Papua. Bigot Coll. Also known from Australia. 

A'', consohrina Big., 1879 ; I.e., 208. 
^ Papua. Bigot Coll. 

Ephippiomyia Latr., 1809. 

Gen. Crust. Ins., iv, 276. 

Emended from Ephippium Latr. by Bezzi, 1902, Zeits. Hym. 
Dip., ii, 191. 

Ephippium being preoccupied by Bolten in Mollusca 1798, the 
change of name is merely an emendation. I believe no change of 
generic characters attaches to Ephippiomyia, but I have not seen 
the work. I mention this because the new Palsearctic Catalogue 
attributes the genus to Bezzi, as though newly created. 

Table of species. 

Rather large sized species 10 to 14 mm. 

Femora black . . . . Long. 12-14 mm. bilineatum F. 

Femora livid, except towards tips Long. 10 mm. responsale Wlk. 
Moderate sized species, 7 mm. 

Thorax with two stripes of gilded tomen- 

tum . . . . . . Long. 7 mm. gavasum Wlk, 

Thorax with two indistinct whitish 

stripes . , . . Long. 7 mm. cinereum Dol. 

Quite small species . . . . Long. 4 mm. nigerrimum Dol. 

E. bilineatum F,, 1805. 

{Stratiomys) Sys. Antl., 79. 

Clitellaria hivittata Wied., Auss,, ii, 46. 
Ephippium augustum Macq,, Dipt., i, 252. 



Ii6 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

Raphiocera spinithorax Macq., Dip. Ex. vSup., 3, 

17 ; pi. i, 7. 
C lit ellari a tenebrica W\k. ; List Dip. Brit. Mus., 

vii, 522. 
Ephippium spinigerum Dol., Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., 

X, 407. 
N egritomyia hilineata V. d. Wulp, Notes Leyd. 

Mus., vii, 59. 

Reported to be common in Java and to occur in Amboina. 
I did not come across it although collecting in Java in five locali- 
ties. Also occurs in Japan. 

Two specimens from Tenasserim are in the Indian Museum, of 
which one, with contiguous eyes, is certainly a h . The other has 
the eyes very slightly but distinctly apart. It is not a 2 , because 
in this genus the eyes in the $ should be widely apart, yet the 
specimen is undoubtedly of the same species as the first one. 

Another specimen also from Tenasserim in the Indian Museum 
Collection varies in nothing but size, and is a fine Ephippiomyia 
with absolutely contiguous eyes, whilst an interesting fourth speci- 
men (unfortunately minus its antennae), likewise from Tenasserim, 
appears to belong to the same genus, but has no side spines. The 
abdomen is much wider than the thorax as in the typical European 
species thoracica Latr., whereas in hilineata it is ovately elongated, 
and this latter species does not strike one at first as an Ephip- 
piomyia at all. Without thoracic spines (of which there is no 
trace whatever) the Tenasserim specimen becomes an Oxycera, 
but its size (7 mm.), general facies, and black colour approximates 
it more to the present genus. Regarding the species with linear ab- 
domens not wider than the thorax, I think a separate genus should 
be established for them. This would include hilineata F., and 
Ephippiomyia would be reserved for species in which the abdo- 
men is much broader than the thorax, also comparatively much 
shorter, thicker and more convex. 

E. responsale Wlk., 1865. 

{Clitellaria) Pr. Linn. So., viii, 106. 

h Papua. Allied to bivittata, but with broader antennae. 

E. gavasum Wlk., i860. 

{Clitellaria) Pr. Linn. So. iv., 95. 

.^ Makessar (Celebes). The author also describes what he 
thinks is the 9 . 

E. cinercum Dol., 1857. 

{Clitellaria) Nat. Tijd. Ned., xiv, 403. 

Amboina. In Van der Wulp's Catalogue, he doubts if an 
Ephippiomyia , and questions the form of its antennae. 



iQoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 117 

E. nigerrimum Dol., 1858. 

Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvii, 81. 

Amboina. A mountain species taken in April^ no sex men- 
tioned. 

Saruga Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So., iv, loi. 
5. conifera Wlk,, i860 ; I.e., 103. 
'b Makessar (Celebes). 

Aulana Wlk., 1864. 

Pr, Linn. So., vii, 204. 
A. confirmata Wlk. ; I.e., 204. 
9 My sol. 

Musama Wlk., 1864. 

Pr. Linn. So., vii, 205. 

M. paupera Wlk., 1864; I.e., 205. 

9 Mysol. In Carl Semper's collection of Diptera from the 
Philippines, reported on by Osten Sacken in 1882, was a specimen 
identified as paupera by Walker himself, but Osten Sacken finds it 
disagrees with the description in several points. 

Nemotclus Geoff., 1764. 

Hist. d. Insects, ii, 542. 
N. albiventris Thorns., 1868. 
% Manila. 

Lasiopa Brulle', 1832. 

Exped. a Moree, iii, 307. 

Table of species. 

Moderate sized species .. .. Long. 10 mm. w7/osa F., 

var. nov. himalayensis mihi. 
Small species 4 to 6 mm. 
Antennae tawny. 

Long. 6 mm. . . . . . . radians Wlk. 

4 mm. . . . . . . detracta Wlk. 

Antennae black . . . . Long. 4 mm. infer a Wlk. 

L. villosa F., var. nov. himalayensis mihi. 

At Mussoorie in May 1905 (12th and 31st) I took 3 $ 5 which 
hardly differ from the typical form of this European species. The 



ii8 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StrationiyidcB. [VOL. I, 

abdominal spots are slightl}^ narrower and not quite curved up- 
wards so much at the inner ends, 

L. radians Wlk., 1857. 
(Cyclogaster) Pr. Linn. So., i, 7. 
? Singapore. 

L. detracta Wlk., 1857. 
■ {Cyclogaster id) I.e., 108. 
? Sarawak. 

L. infera Wlk., 1857 ', ^-C- ^o?- 
$ Sarawak. 

Ruba Wlk,, i860, 

Pr, lyinn. So., iv, 100. 

Walker gives his description of the $ , but the only species 
mentioned is a 'b ! 

Body wholly testaceous . . Ivong. 8 mm. infiata Wlk. 
Abdomen black, with whitish pubes- 
cence . . . . lyong. 6 mm. opponens Wlk. 

7?. m^a^a Wlk., i860. 
Pr. lyinn. So., iv, loi. 

Dr. Brauer in Denks. Kais. Ac. Wiss. Wien., xliv, 77, thinks 
that Schiner's Thylacosoma amboinense from that island may be 
a synonym. 

A specimen in the Indian Museum Collection from Kohima 
(Assam) agrees rather well with this species, but is rather larger 
(10 mm.) and shews abnormal expanse of wing (12 mm. from 
centre of thorax to tip of wing — the other wing is missing, also 
the antennae). In other respects there are differences ; it may be 
a new species. 

R. opponens Wlk., 1865. 

* Pr. Ivinn. So., viii, 107. 

'b Papua. Van der Wulp also records it from Friedrich Wil- 
helmshafen in Papua. 

Oxyccra Meig., 1803. 

Illig. Mag., ii, 265. 

0. manens '^\\i. , i860. 

Pr. lyinn. So., iv, 96. 
% 2 Makessar (Celebes). 



1907-] Records of the I ndiaii Museum. iig 

Oxycera indica mihi, sp. nov. 

5 N.W. India. Long. ^\ mm. Head entirely lemon yellow, 
except a rather wide black band on the vertex reaching from eye to 
eye. Four small black spots arranged in the form of a square, all 
placed at an equal distance from the base of the antennae, which 
latter are tawny brown, darker at the tip. lyower part of head 
yellow behind, a moderately wide yellow band encircling the head 
— passing behind the vertex. The whole head, including the 
eyes, sparsely pubescent with short pale yellow hairs. Proboscis 
prominent, black. Thorax aenus black above, with short, rather 
close yellowish white hair ; underside black. Sides lemon yellow 
from anterior corners of dorsum to beyond root of wings. 
Scutellum lemon yellow, base narrowly black ; two very small 
spines. Abdomen pale yellow, with very short yellowish white 
hairs and black marked as follows : a large diamond-shaped spot 
spread over the centre of the ist and 2nd segments, a minute 
spot on each side of the base of the 2nd segment ; rather more 
than the basal half of 3rd, 4th and 5th segments black, — these 
bands being joined to one another in their centres and the upper 
one to the large diamond spot on 2nd segment. Belly yellow. 
Legs lemon yellow, pubescence yellow, minute ; a black ring 
on all the femora and the posterior tibiae. Wings colour- 
less, veins pale yellow on anterior portion. Halteres pale yellow. 

Described from 2 ? ? in perfect condition in the Indian 
Museum Collection. Type from Bareilly, United Provinces (15th 
to 22nd March 1907); the second specimen from Rampur Chaka 
(23rd to 31st January 1907). In the type the upper pair of spots 
on the front are larger than the lower ones ; in the other example, 
all four are of uniform size. A larger specimen taken at Calcutta 
(June 22nd) has four complete black abdominal bands, the first 
being basal. 

This species differs from 0. manens Wlk. by the latter having 
the abdomen entirely black. 

Clitellaria Mcig., 1803. 

Illig. Mag., ii, 265. 

Tabic of species. 
Antennae black. 

Thorax with three green stripes . . Long. 5 — 7 mm. flavi- 

ccps Wlk. 
Thorax " with a band and stripe of 

grey tomentum " . . Long. 10 mm. notabilis Wlk. 

Antennae tawny red. 

Thorax with yellowish hairs on 

dorsum . . Long. 7 mm. heminopla Wied. 

Thorax with 3 interrupted downy 

bands . . Long. 8 mm. varia Wlk, 



I20 E. BrunetTI : The Oriental Stratiomyidre. [VOL. I, 

C. flaviceps Wlk., 1857. 
Pr. Linn. So., i, 7. 
? Singapore, Sarawak. 

C. notaUlis Wlk., 1857. 
Pr. Linn. So., i, 108. 
? Borneo. 

C. heminopla Wied. 
Zool. Mag., iii, 30. 

cT 9 Tranquebar. 

Not uncommon in India. I took several of each sex at Meerut, 
25th April 1905 ; and odd specimens at Calcutta, i8th to 24th 
November 1905 ; Jhansi, 31st March 1905 ; Jullundur, 5th May 
1905 ; and Lucknow, 7th September 1905. The Indian Museum 
possesses it from Karachi and Calcutta. 

Two rT f? I took at Meerut, 13th to 19th July 1905, have the 
femora pale at the base. 

C. varia Wlk., 1854. 

List Dipt. Br. Mus., v, 63. 

d' Java, Sarawak, Malacca. 

Trichochaeta Big., 1879. 

Bull. So. Ent. Fr., 26 ; Annales (1879), P- 190 
(published first in pt. 3, p. 6, 1878). 

T. nemotcloides Big., 1879 J ^-^-y IQI- 
$ Ternate. Bigot Coll. 

SUB-FAMII,Y V. — HERMKTIIN^. 

Table of genera. 

Scutellum unspined. 

Abdomen elongated, not linear. 

Head produced horizontally, anten- 
nae long, almost filiform, horizon- 
tal . . . . . . Ccenocefhalus V. d. Wulp. 

Head normally vertical. 

Antennae apparently of 3 dis- 
tinct joints, not of uniform 
width; last joint of 8 dvi- 
si ns . . . , Hcrmetia Latr. 

An ennae appa ently filiform, 
not o un form w d h ; last 
joint o mo^t 6 div ions. Eudmeta W ed. 
Abdomen linear, cont ac ed at base . . Massicyta Wlk. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 121 

Scutellum 2-spined, antennae filiform. 

Discal cell elongated, and attenuated 

posteriorly . . . . . . Ampsalis Wlk. 

Discal cell (presumably) normal. 

Abdomen elongated, as wide as 

thorax . . . . Campeprosopa Macq. 

Abdomen elongate-elliptical ; at- 
tenuated at base, a little broad- 
er and longer than thorax .. TracanaV\l\\i. 

Caenocephalus V, der Wulp, iSgSt 

Termes. Fuzet., xxi, 413. 

Van der Wulp in separating Salduba melanaria Wlk., from the 
rest of the genus and creating the above genus for it, recognised 
at once that the venation placed this species in a different sub- 
family supplemented by a most unusual form of head. Moreover, 
he recognised Salduba's true position {PachygastrincB sub-family) 
by his remarks as to its affinities with Tinda. 

C. melanarius Wlk., 186 1. 
{Salduba) Pr. Linn. So., v, 271. 
'b Batjan. 

Hermctia Latr., 1805* 

Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins., xiv, 238. 

Tabic of species. 

Scutellum unspined. 

Legs all or mainly black or blackish brown. 
Wings clear, tip a little darker, , 

stigma black brown . . Long. 14 mm. fcncstrata Meij . 
Wings blackish. 

Long. 10 to 12 mm. 

Posterior borders of 
abdominal segment 

bright yellow. Long, 10-12 mm. cerioidcs Wlk. 
Posterior borders of 
abdominal segments 

whitish. Long. io|- mm. albitarsis V. d. Wulp. 
Long. 14 to 16 mm. 

Thorax with 3 in- 
distinct cinereous 

stripes Long. 14-16 mm. remittens Wlk. 
Thorax with pale yel- 
low marks . . Long. 14 mm. Inglaizel Big. 
Legs yellow or reddish 

Wings b'ackish. Thorax with 3 

indistinct gold stripes. . Long. 12 mm. rufiventris Wlk. 



122 E. BrunETTI : The Oriental Stratiomyidcd. [VOL. I, 

Wings clear. Thorax with i in- 
distinct white hne . . Long. 13 mm. Iceta Meij. 
Scutellum 2-spined . . Long. 17-19 mm. armata V. d. Wulp. 

H. fenestrata, Meij., 1904. 
Bijd. Dierk., xviii, 93 ; pi. viii, 9. 
I 'b Palembang. 

H. cerioidcs Wlk., 1859. 
{Massicyta) Pr. Linn. So., iii, 78. 
H. batjanensis V. d. Wulp, 1885 ; Notes Leyd. Mus., vii, 67. 

2 Moluccas, Aru Isles, Gilolo, Batjan, South Halmaheira. 

Walker described this under his genus Massicyta , distinguished 
from Hermetia by a subpetiolate abdomen and more elongated and 
linear body, but I agree with Van der Wulp in keeping it in Hermetia, 
a genus in which all degrees of slight contractions of the first abdo- 
minal segments occur. Massicyta must be reserved for distinctly 
subpetiolated species such as bicolor Wlk. 

A series of 5 ? exists in the Indian Museum Collection, but 
they bear no data. Van der Wulp had 2 9 5 from Seles, Astro- 
labe Bay (Papua). 

H. albitarsis V. der Wulp, 1898. 
Termes. Fuzet., xxi, 419. 
5 Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua). 

H. remittens Wlk., i860. 
Pr. Linn. So., iv, 94. 
$ Makessar (Celebes). 

H. laglaizei Big., 1887. 
Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1887), 21. 
9 Amberbek (Papua). Type much damaged. 

H. rufiventris Wlk., 1861. 
Pr. Linn. So., v, 145. 
2 Amboina. 

H. IcBta Meij., 1904. 

Bijd. Dierk., xviii, 93 ; pi. viii, 8, 

5 Bengal, near cerioidcs. This is true, for, from the excellent 
plate I immediately recognised one 2 which I had eliminated from 
the series of 2 cerioidcs in the Indian Museum as distinct. 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 123 

R. armata V. d. Wulp, 1885. 

Notes Leyd. Mus., vii, 68. 

? Morotai, In possessing two spines on the scutellum this 
species differs from all others in the genus, and, I think, entitles it 
to generic rank. 

Massicyta Wlk., 1857. 

Pr. Linn. So., i, 8. 

There are only two oriental species, the former 12 — 14 mm. 
in length, the latter 22. 

M. hicolor Wlk., 1857. 
Pr. lyinn. So., i, 8 ; pi. i, i. 
2 Singapore. The plate given is excellent. 

M. inflata Wlk., 1859. 
Pr. lyinn. So., iii, 78. 
? Aru Isles. 

Eudmeta Wied., 1830. 

Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 43. 
Table of species. 

Large species . . . . Long. 14 mm. hrunnea Meij. 

Smaller species. 

Black species with green markings. Long. 9 mm. marginata F. 

Ferruginous luteous species . . Long. 7 mm. flavida Big. 

E. hrunnea Meij., 1904. 

Bijd. Dierk., xviii, 94 ; pi. viii, 10. 

h 2 Darjeeling. One ? from Kohima, Assam, answers well to 
Meijere's description. 

E. marginata F., 1805. 
Sys. Antl., 63. (Hermetia.) 
{Hermetia cingulata) Guer. Voy. Coquille. 
{Toxocera limhiventris) Macq. Dip, Bx. Supp. 4, 45 ; pi. v, 3. 

'b India, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Amboina. Macquart in 
Dipt. Bxot. Supp. iii, 176, describes the ? , pi. i, 9 (figures of head 
and wing). 

In the Indian Museum a 5 example, without data, is probably 
this species. 



124 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

Campeprosopa Macq., 1851. 

Dipt. Exot. Supp. 4, 46. 

Of the two oriental species, flavipes has a black thorax, with 
lighter coloured pile, whilst munda possesses a metallic blue-green 
thorax. 

C. flavipes Macq., 1851. 

Dipt. Kxot. Supp. 4, 46 ; pi. V, 4. 

? Java. Long. 12 mm. Bigot Coll. 

C. munda Os. Sack., 1880. 
Ann. Mus. Gen., xvi, 409. 
'b Sumatra. I^ong. 8—9 mm. 

Ampsalis Wlk., i860. 

Pr. lyinn. So., iv, 98. 
A. geniata Wlk., i860 ; I.e., 99. 
$ Makessar (Celebes). ^ 

Tracana "Wlk., i860, 

Pr. lyinn. So., iv, 99. 
T. iterahilis Wlk., i860 ; I.e., 99. 

-b $ Makessar. 

The descriptions of Campeprosopa, Ampsalis and Tracana 
all read so much alike to me that, I believe, they represent but a 
single genus. Walker calls the discal cell in Ampsalis " elongated 
and attenuated exteriorly,' which is not mentioned in the other 
genera ; and he differs his Tracana from Ampsalis by the abdomen 
being " elongate, elliptical, attenuated at base, a little broader 
and longer than thorax " compared with " abdomen elliptical, a 
little broader but not longer than thorax." 

Following Van der Wulp I have retained the genera separately, 
and hope that a visit to England a little later on will enable me to 
settle the question by an examination of all three types. 

SUB-FAMIIvY VI. — STRATIOMYIIN^. 

■ . Table of genera. 

First antennal joint 3 to 4 times as long as 

2nd . . . . • • • . Straliomyia Geoff. 

First antennal joint at most twice as long 

as 2nd . . . . . . . . Odontomyia Meig. 

First antennal joint shorter than 2nd . . Euceromyia Big. 



1907*] Records of the I ndia7i Museum. 125 

Stratiomyia Geoff., 1764. 

(Stratiomys) Hist. d. Ins., ii, 475. 

Tabic of species. 

Antennae unusually long — ist joint six times 

length of 2nd . . I^ong. 10-14 mm. apicalis Wlk. 

Antennae of moderate length. 
lyCgs principally black. 

Abdomen tawny, with broad black 
dilated dorsal band, ist two 

antennal joints red . . I^ong. 12 mm. parallela Wlk. 

Abdomen black — no dorsal band ; 
pale marks on posterior borders of 
segments — near sides. Antennae 

black .. .. I^ong. 10-12 mm. ^wc« Wlk. 

lyCgs principally yellow. 

Abdomen tawny. Thorax 2-striped, 

antennae pale . . I^ong. 8 mm. inanimis Wlk. 

Abdomen black. 

Thorax 4 gold striped, base of 

antennae pale . . lyong. 8 mm. confertissima Wlk. 
Thorax unstriped, densely pu- 
bescent. A n t e n n ae 
black. Ivong. 15 mm, flavoscutellata V. d. Wulp. 



9 Shanghai. 



'b Papua. 



5. apicalis Wlk., 1854. 
List. Dip. Brit. Mus.,v, 53. 

5. parallela Wlk., 1865. 
Pr. lyinn. So., viii, 107. 

S. barca Wlk., 1849. 
List. Dip. Brit. Mus., iii, 530, 



'b China. I took a h each at Hankow, 22nd April 1906, and 
Shanghai, 9th May 1906. 

5. inanimis Wlk., 1856. 

Tr. Kntom. So. (new ser.), iv, 121. 

China. 

5. confertissima Wlk., 1859. 

Pr. lyinn. So., iii, 79. 

9 Aru Isles. 
6 



126 E. Brunetti : The Oriental Stratiomyida. [VOL. I, 

5. ftavoscutellata V. d. Wulp, 1885. 

Notes Leyd. Mus., vii, 60. 
'b Java. 

The genus is poorly represented in the Bast apparently. Three 
out of the six known species come fiom semi-Palsearctic regions. 
I have never taken a specimen myself in the Bast proper, nor is 
there one in the Indian Museum, nor do other authors mention 
any species except the three original descriptions mentioned here. 
I mention this because Odontomyia, the kindred genus, is far from 
uncommon. 

Odontomyia Meig., 1804. 

Klass. i., 128. 

Table of species. 

A Scutellum spined (generic character). 
B Abdomen black, with lighter dorsal 
bands, or edges of abdominal disc pale. 
C Legs mostly black. 

Abdomen, with pale dorsal band. Long. 5 mm. minuta Fab. 
Abdomen, with only the edges 

pale . . . . Long. 8 mm. airaria Wlk. 

CC Legs mostly yellow, with or without 
darker bands. Abdomen black with 
pale edges. 

Legs all yellow; smaller species. Long. 6 mm. bifascia Wlk. 
Legs with or without black bands, 
little larger species. 

Femora and tibiae with black 

bands . . . . Long. 8 mm. cequalis Wlk. 

Femora and tibiae all yellow. 

Antennae all reddish yellow. Thorax gold 
striped ; abdomen with greenish yellow 
side spots . . Long. 8 mm. viridana Wied. 
Antennae with base only yellow. Thorax 
with gold pubescence ; abdomen with nar- 
row pale border. Long. 8 mm. cinctilinea Wlk, 
BB Abdomen pale ; yellow, green, or tawny, 
with or without black dorsal stripe 
or bands. 
D Legs mostly black. 

Thorax unstriped . . . . Long. 5 mm. pusilla Fab. 

Thorax with 2 silvery stripes. Long. 9 mm. siderogaster Wied. 
DD Legs mostly pale, or slightly marked 

with black. 
B Abdomen uniformly pale, without dor- 
sal or transverse black bands. 

I. Thorax black with light hair ; 
3 black stripes . . . . Long. 8 mm. finalis Wlk, 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 127 

2. Thorax black with bright red 

brassy pile . . Long. 5 mm. rubrithorax Macq. 

3. Thorax black with light hair, 
unstriped. 

lyegs entirely yellow . . I^ong. 8 mm. diffusa Wlk. 
lyCgs not entirely yellow. 

Posterior femora and tips 

of tibiae brown . . Long. 7 mm. claripennis 

Thoms.^ 
Femora and tibiae tawny, 
coxse more or less 

black . . lyong. 10 mm. lutatius Wlk. 

EB Abdomen pale, with black dorsal stripe 

or transverse bands. 
F Legs partly black, or with distinct black rings. 

1. " Posterior legs black, testaceous 

at base " . . Long. 9 mm. consohrina Macq. 

2. Legs pale. 4 posterior femora 

and tibiae with broad black 

rings . . Long. 5 mm. ochracea Bru. sp. nov. 

FF Legs all pale (femora narrowly ringed in immaculata) . 

1. Thorax brassy . . Long. 6 mm. solennis Wlk. 

2. Thorax pale green with yellow 

hair, legs reddish. . . Long. 12 mm. ochropa Thom. 

3. Thorax black, with lighter hair, 
(a) Small species, indistinct brown 

bands on femora . . Long. 5 mm. immaculata 

Bru. sp. nov. 
{aa) Larger species — 

1. Thorax with bright 

tawny hair. Long. 9-1 1 mm. garatas Wlk. 

2. Thorax with whit- 

ish down. Long. 12 mm. immiscens Wlk. 

3. Thorax with short, 

golden yellow hair. Long. 8 mm. restricta\\[\\i. 

4. Thorax with silver 

tomentum. Long. 10 mm. staurophora Sch. 
AA Scutellum with two exceedingly minute 

spines . . . . Long. 5 mm. suhmutica Bru. sp. nov. 

AAA Scutellum unspined . . Long. 11 mm. mutica V. d. Wulp. 

0. minuta Fab., 1792. 

(Stratiomys) Ent. Sys., iv, 268. 

5 Tranquebar, East India. Type in Fab. Coll. 
In the Indian Museum Collection I find i $ taken at the end 
of June, and have taken 2 $ 2 myself in Calcutta. 

i I am not quite sure that this species belongs to my sub-division E — the author's 
description reading " abdomen pailide flavum, limbo prasino," yet this hardly reads 
like a distinct dorsal stripe, or wide transverse bands. 



128 E. BrunETTI : The Oriental Stratiomyidse. [VOL. I, 

0. atraria Wlk., 1865. 
Pr. Linn. So., viii, 106. 
'b $ Papua. 

0. bifascia Wlk., 1861. 
Pr. Linn. So., v, 232. 
h Dorey (Papua). 

0. csqualis Wlk., 1861. 
Pr. Linn. So., v, 271. 
$ Batjan. 

0. viridana Wied., 1824. 
Analec. Entom., 29. 
Bengal, Ternate, Tibet, 

0. cindilinea Wlk., 1862. 
Pr. Linn. So., vi, 4. 
$ Gilolo. 

0. pusilla Fab., 1792. 
(Nemotelus) Ent. Sys., iv, 268. 

Tranquebar. Allied to minuta F. and to my new species 

submutica and incompleta. 

0. siderogaster Wied., 1830. 
Ausser. Zweifl.. ii, 65. 
$ Java. Type in Westermann's Coll. Also in Leyden Museum. 

0. fmalis Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So., iv, 94. 

$ Makessar and Manado (both Celebes). I took one $ at Ran- 
goon, i8th August 1906. The abdomen (if the species is cor- 
rectly identified) is "dirty tawny black " lo use a Walkerian expres- 
sion, and the specimen is only 7 mm. long. 

0. ruby, thorax Macq., 1838 " 

Dip. Exot., vol. i, 185. 

'b Bengal. Macquart says it resembles Stratiomyia cuprina 
Wied, from Brazil, but that species is much larger. 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 129 

0. diffusa Wlk., 1854. 

List. Dip. Brit. Mus., v, 53. 

9 Java, Sumatra. I am in much doubt as to the limits of this 
species. 

0. claripennis Thoms., 1868. 

Eugenie Reise, 456. 

h Manila. Said to be near Macquart's albipennis. 

0. lutatius Wlk., 1849. 
Ivist. Dip. Brit. Mus., iii, 532. 

$ Malacca. 

A 5 from SiHguri, N. Bengal, in the Indian Museum dated 
30th June 1906 is undoubtedly this species. The legs are all 
yellow, whereas Walker says " hips " black. 

0. consobrina Macq., 1847. 

Dip. Exot. Supp. 3, 16 ; pi. i, 8. 

^ Java, Sumatra. Macquart's diagram of the antenna shews 
it rather thicker than is usual in this genus. 

0. ochracea mihi, sp. no v. 

'b Calcutta. Vertex and front, shining black ; lower part 
of head, yellowish white ; mouth black ; eyes practically, but 
not absolutely contiguous just above frontal triangle, diverging 
thence to vertex. Antennae brown, 3rd joint black, the ist joint 
a little longer than the 2nd. Thorax shining, dark aenus black, 
with sparse verj^ short gold hair. Scutellum pale, base black, 
spines small, pale yellow. Abdomen in life — peach colour, after 
death — pale ochreous tawny, with a dorsal row of 4 black spots, 
of which the basal one is largest and triangular, the 2nd very 
small and round, the 3rd large and transversely oral, the 4th 
much smaller and of the same shape. Belly unicolorous, the last 
two dorsal spots being visible from below. Legs pale yellow tawny, 
all the femora with a broad brown ring in the middle ; posterior 
tibiae and upper side of posterior tarsi dark brown. Wings quite 
limpid, veins invisible, except along the fore border. Long. 4 mm. 

Described from 2 'b 'b in the Indian Museum Collection (in- 
cluding the t3^e specimen) and 2 'b 'b in my own Collection — all 
taken in Calcutta. 

0. solennis Wlk., 185 1. 
'b East India. Ins. Saunds. Dip., 79. 



130 E. Brunetti : The Oriental StratiomyidcB. [VOL. I, 

0. ochropa Thorns.^ 1868. 

Eugenie Reise, 456. 

Manila. Very near 0. viridana Wied. There are several spe- 
cimens ( 'b 'b ? 2 ) of a species near this one in the Indian Museum 
Collection, from Bangalore and Calcutta. 

0. immaculata mihi, sp. no v. 

h N. India. Long. 5 mm., length of wing 5 mm. Type in 
Indian Museum Collection. Head black, with very short pale hair 
below, a shining black tubercle immediately below antennae, which 
are black, ist and 2nd joints tawny. Eyes contiguous for a short dis- 
tance thus forming a small triangle above antennae, and another on 
the black vertex. Eyes large, upper facets much larger. Thorax 
dull black with short, meagre goldish pubescence, black below with a 
little short white hair at the sides. Scutellum all black, spines very 
short. Abdomen pale greenish or tawny, with more or less distinct 
traces of a pale brownish coloration on apical half; this spot may not 
be a natural coloration, but due to the contents of the body. Wings 
quite clear, veins invisible except those on foreborder, which are 
tawny. Discal cell so minute as to be almost invisible : alulae bright 
yellow. Legs tawny yellow, anterior femora with a narrow, brown 
ring in middle ; intermediate femora with a brown ring near tip. 
Tarsi tips slightly darker. One 'b from Bhim Tal,^ 4,5oo feet, 
captured by Dr. Annandale, 22nd to 27th September 1906. 
What I believe to be the 2 of this species, is represented in the 
Indian Museum Collection by a single specimen taken in Calcutta, 
5th April 1907. 

0. garatus Wlk., 1849. 

List Dip. Brit. Mus., iii, 532. 
2 China. 

0. immiscens Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So., iv, 94. 
% Makessar. Osten Sacken describes a 2 from Kandari 
(Celebes) taken April 1874, adding that he has seen Walker's type 
in the British Museum and believes it to be the same species, 
although not agreeing entirely with the description. 

0. restrida Wlk., 1864. 

Pr. Linn. So., vii, 203. 
% My sol. 

0. staurophora Sch., 1868. 

Novara Reise, 59. 

2 2 2 Hong Kong. 

0. suhmutica mihi, sp. nov. 
2 Bengal. In minuta F. group. Head above, below, front, and 

1 Also in Indian Museum collection from Bareilly and from Calcutta (June 6th). I 
took one cf at Calcutta (31st March 1907). 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 131 

a wide band behind eyes, bright yellow. Eyes rather small, black 
facets of uniform size. A blackish brown band stretches across 
the vertex from eye to eye, with a central larger spot. Two large 
round spots on front, below vertex, two much smaller ones just 
below antennae, a small spot immediately below base of antennae, 
and the proboscis, black. Thorax black, with very short silvery 
cinereous pubescence, sides black, pleurae pale yellow. Scutellum 
yellow, base black, bearing two almost microscopic spines. Abdo- 
men pale yellow, tinged with grey, ist segment 3"ellow, posterior 
border black in centre ; 2nd, yellow, occupied by a black band 
not reaching the sides, placed along the foreborder, and extended 
posteriorly in the centre, and at the sides ; 3rd, 4th and 5th with 
black bands from anterior border, nearly to posterior border, 
and not reaching sides of segments ; last segment very small, all 
yellow. Wings quite clear, veins, costal cell and stigma pale yel- 
low. Legs yellow, femora with broad brown band about the 
middle, tips of posterior tibiae, and tips of tarsi, blackish. Hal- 
teres pale green. Of the three specimens (?) I have seen, one is 
in the Indian Museum, from Siliguri, and the other two I took 
myself in Calcutta, 5th March 1905, and ist February 1907, in 
grass near ponds at Tollygunge. 

0. mutica V. der Wulp, 1885. 
Notes Leyd. Mus., vii, 62. 

t) Ternate. The author compares this to the North American 
species nigirostris Lw., a species which, in general facies, seems to 
have some resemblance to a Lasiopa. 

This species having an unspined scutellum may perhaps be 
placed in a new genus, in which my suhmutica might also enter. 

Euceromyia Big,, 1877. 

Bull. So. Ent. Fr. (1877), P- Ixxiv. 
E. nexura Wlk,, 1859. {Stratiomys) Pr. Linn. So., iii, 80. 
I 'b $ Aru Isles ; also from Mysol. Long. 7 mm. 

In concluding these notes I wish to thank Dr. Annandale, Offi- 
ciating Superintendent of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, for his 
kindness in affording me access to the Museum Collection and 
Library. They were originally intended only as a revised list of 
Oriental species of Stratiomyidae for my own use, but gradually 
extended to their present form, and I must again attribute to the 
paucity of material at my command any errors or deficiencies that 
may be found. 

I hope to visit England shortly, and shall then be able to 
correct any errors, at least as far as Walker's species are con- 
cerned, by an examination of his types at the British Museum. 
Such corrections will be incorporated in a supplementary paper 
and published in this journal. 



132 E. Brunetti : The Oriental Stratiomyidx. [VOL. I, 1907.] 

ADDENDUM. 

Acanthina argentea, mihi, sp. nov. 

rf Calcutta. Long. 3 mm. Eyes extending the whole height 
of the head shortly but not thickly pubescent, subcontiguous 
at nearest point of approach as the frons at this point is receding 
but attains the surface of the eyes towards the vertex, which is 
considerably raised and occupied by the ocelli ; facets rather 
large, of uniform size, Frons, both above and below the nearest 
approach of the eyes, shining white. Back of head and under- 
side of head black, inner orbit of eyes below antennae white. 
Antennae, structurally, exactly as in Wiedemann's generic des- 
cription, with first two joints black, third reddish-brown with 
blackish marks: style thick. Proboscis short, yellowish, with 
a few hairs. Thorax, dorsum and sides, and scutellum black, 
both uniformly covered with short silvery-grey pubescence. 
Scutellum with four rather large whitish spines. Abdomen black, 
covered like the thorax with short silvery-grey pubescence. No 
signs of any marks or pattern on either thorax or abdomen. 
Belly black, with short grey hairs. Legs yellowish- white ; femora 
black, extreme base and tips pale ; tibiae with a broad black band, 
leaving only the basal fourth and the tip pale. Wings and stigma 
absolutely colourless, but veins distinct, though pale : alulae very 
small, brownish-white ; halteres brownish-yellow, knob white. 

Described from a perfect h* in the Indian Museum Collection, 
taken at Calcutta on 22nd May, 1907. The small size of this 
species will easily distinguish it from the other two species men- 
tioned. 



V I I .— D ESCRIPTION OF AN OLIGOCH^TE 
WORM ALLIED TO CH^TOGASTER. 

By J. Stephenson, Major, I. M.S., Professor of Biology, 

Government College, Lahore. 

The worm described below was found in water taken from a 
tank in the pleasure-gardens at Shalimar, near Lahore, in the 
early part of February, 1907. It lives well in water kept in small 
vessels with a little green alga in the laboratory, and appears to 
propagate itself asexually with freedom. Specimens have been 
under observation at various times during the last month. 

External characters. — In length the animal measures from 
I to 2 mm. ; the variations are considerable, and depend principally 
on the stage which the asexual reproductive process has reached 
{v. inf.). There is a short blunt prostomium, followed by a region 
slightly swollen in an ovoid manner and corresponding to the 
pharynx ; the rest of the body is of uniform diameter, showing a 
wrinkling corresponding to the degree of contraction of the animal, 
but no regular annulation. The anterior end of the body is studded 
with a few fine hairs ; and similar hairs also occur posteriorly in 
the neighbourhood of the anus. The whole animal is very trans- 
parent. 

Segmentation. — As just said, there is no external annulation ; 
the segmentation is, however, indicated externally to some extent 
by the bundles of setae. The first setae are placed ventro-laterally 
on the slightly swollen anterior region, and may be taken to belong 
to the second body-segment ; the next bundles are placed some 
distance further back, this achaetous interval being in length equal 
to about three of the immediately following segments. The bundles 
then succeed each other regularly, being placed, however, closer to- 
gether at the posterior end of the animal. 

Internally the segmentation is defined by the septa, of which 
the first occurs at the posterior end of the pharynx, behind the level 
of the first bundle of setse, and may be taken to be the posterior limit 
of the second segment : the next septum occurs at the posterior end 
of the oesophagus, similarly delimiting the third segment ; in the 
region of the crop there are three septa, the first of these about the 
junction of the anterior and middle, the second about the junction of 
the middle and posterior thirds, and the last near the hinder end of 
the crop. The second bundle of setae occurs at the level of the 
posterior part of the crop, in the sixth body-segment according to 
the limits established by the septa. Segmentation is also evident 
internally in connection with the ganglia of the ventral nerve-cord 
and with the nephridia (v. inf.). 



134 J- Stephenson: Description of an Oligochcete Worm. [Vol. I, 

SetcB. — There are two bundles of setae in each segment in which 
they occur, and there are about six setse in each bundle ; five and 
seven are also met with. They are ventro-lateral in position ; the 
portion which projects externall}^ is approximately equal in length 
to the portion within the body ; and the whole length of a seta 
is equal to about two-thirds the diameter of the body when the latter 
is in the condition of moderate extension. Each seta has the form 

of an elongated / , the end is unequally forked, and there is a 

small nodulus {v. plate v, fig. 2). 

When the animal is at rest, most of the setse project at about 
a right angle ; those of the most anterior bundles, however, lie flat 
against the surface of the body, their free ends forwards. The 
somewhat hooked free ends of the setae may point either forwards 
or backwards (I do not refer to the direction of the seta as a 
whole) ; in the setae of a single bundle, the hooks of some may 
point forwards, of others backwards ; and a bundle of setae, the 
hooks of which are pointing forwards, may be seen shortly after- 
ward with hooks pointing backwards ; some of the muscular fibres 
attached to the setae have, therefore, the power of rotating the setae 
about their longitudinal axes. A common arrangement is for the 
hooks to point backwards in the anterior, forwards in the posterior 
segments. Backward-pointing hooks are presumably of use in for- 
ward progression, forward-pointing hooks in backward progression. 
The first bundles, however, appear always to have their hooks 
pointing backwards. 

The distribution of setal bundles in the anterior part of the 
body is apparently subject to slight variation ; on one occasion a 
few small setae were noted in the third body-segment ; in another 
case those of the sixth segment were fewer and smaller than normal. 
Asexual reproduction. — The smallest number of segments ob- 
served was eight [v. plate v, fig. 3 a) ; the body, that is, came to an 
end at the end of what I have called the " stomach," and comprised 
only four pairs of setal bundles ; there was, in addition a commenc- 
ing constriction visible, which if completed would separate off the 
posterior two segments. This specimen may have been pathologi- 
cal ; the body-cavity contained numerous clear, oval or irregular 
corpuscles, apparently non-nucleated, which were seen in no other 
specimens ; it was in this animal also that the setae of the sixth 
segment were fewer and smaller than usual. 

All the other animals examined were divided by a well-marked 
constriction into two parts, an anterior, of at least eight body-seg- 
ments, and a posterior, of varying length ; these two principal 
divisions of the worm were usually again divided by slighter con- 
strictions. Thus the anterior portion might consist of eight body- 
segments, the posterior of four setigerous segments (plate v, fig. 
36); or the anterior of eight body-segments, the posterior of six 
setigerous segments (c) ; or the anterior of eleven body-segments, 
the posterior of seven setigerous {d) ; or the posterior portion might 
comprise eight setigerous segments, and be again divided into two 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Mtiseiim. 135 

parts each bearing four pairs of bundles, the four posterior segments 
of the anterior part of the body being also separated by a distinct 
constriction from those in front {c) ; finally, in a specimen where a 
deep constriction divided off an anterior portion of eleven body- 
segments from a posterior of eight chsetigerous segments, the new 
prostomium, mouth, buccal cavity and cerebral ganglion of the 
posterior half could be distinctly seen {v. plate v, fig. 4). The 
regions of the alimentary canal which I have called '^ crop," and 
'' stomach " are, however, differentiated in the posterior half of the 
dividing worm at an earlier stage than this. It may be noted here 
that the seat of the constrictions, secondary as well as primary, is 
always marked in addition by a conspicuous extension laterally of 
the nervous matter of the ventral chain ; these lateral extensions 
spread so far as almost to meet dorsally, and this takes place on the 
anterior as well as on the posterior side of the actual site of con- 
striction (y. plate v, fig. 5). 

Figure 6 represents the site of constriction in one of the speci- 
mens examined. The anterior setal bundles of the posterior worm 
are seen to be developing ; they thus arise as new formations, and 
from the first point forwards, not perpendicularly outwards. If the 
groups of setae already existing posterior to these (originally the first 
pair behind the constriction) persist as the setae of the sixth segment 
of the second worm, then each act of fission involves the intercalation 
of five newly formed body-segments behind the site of constriction. 
The same figure shows also a group of developing setse immediately 
in front of the constriction ; new segments are therefore formed on 
both sides of the site of constriction. 

Alimentary system. — The mouth is ventral, and leads into a 
buccal cavity of small extent. This is succeeded by the pharynx, 
a thick- walled tube, which extends backwards as far as the septum 
between the second and third segments, and is attached to the 
body-wall by numerous fine, short, sometimes Y-shaped muscular 
fibres. The oesophagus occupies the third segment, it is narrower 
behind than in front, and is usually short, about half as long as the 
pharynx ; in the specimen mentioned previously as being perhaps 
pathological, it was of a length about equal to that of the pharynx. 
The crop, which follows, is a dilated portion of the canal, occupying 
a little more than three segments, the fourth, fifth and sixth, its 
posterior end being in the seventh segment ; its walls are clear, and 
one cell in thickness ; the degree of its distension varies ; it may 
be ballooned so as to occupy the whole of the body-cavity in its 
own segments. 

A well-marked and constant constriction separates the crop 
from a second dilated region of the alimentary tract, which is dis- 
tinguished by being sHghtly pigmented, of a hght yellowish-brown 
colour, and by containing a large number of refractile globules like 
minute drops of oil in its walls. It is situated in the seventh and 
eighth segments. The intestine occupies the remainder of the body ; 
its diameter is less than that of the stomach but varies somewhat ; 
the anus is terminal. 



136 J. Stephenson: Description of an OligochcBte Worm. [VOL. I, 

The body-cavity is extensive, and (with the exception already 
noted) was not seen to contain corpuscles. The septa are delicate 
partitions showing swellings indicative of nuclei [v. fig. 7). 

Circulatory system (fig. 8) — The dorsal vessel extends from 
the hinder end of the body to the prostomium, and is pulsatile 
along its whole length except for a very short distance in front, 
anterior, that is, to the level of the refractile particle of the cerebral 
ganglion {v. inf.) close to which it runs ; the contractions proceed 
from behind forwards. There are two lateral vessels, of calibre 
approximately equal to that of the dorsal vessel, which encircle the 
oesophagus, uniting ventrally with the ventral vessel ; they are also 
contractile, the contractions progressing from above downwards. 
The ventral vessel cannot be traced quite as far forward as the 
dorsal ; it is of about the same calibre, and is nowhere pulsatile. 
There appears to be a fine plexus of capillaries on the external 
surface of the crop and stomach {v. fig. 9). The blood is colour- 
less and contains no corpuscles. 

The Nephridia aie much-coiled fine tubes, which, however, be- 
come thicker, with more granular walls , near their external opening ; 
this is situated a short distance in front of the bundle of setse of the 
same segment. The canal is somewhat dilated just before it opens 
to the exterior. I could not distmguish the beginning of the tube ; 
no ciliary action was visible in any part of it ; nor did the nephridia 
appear to be connected with the septum in front of them. Nephridia 
are constantly found in the seventh and eighth segments at the 
sides of the stomach ; for the rest, their distribution varies {v. fig. 
10 a and b). They are not found in any of the segments that have 
recently formed. 

Nervous system. — The cerebral ganglion is situated far for- 
wards, just behind the prostomium, occupying a space correspond- 
ing to the buccal cavity and anterior part of the pharynx. It is 
not distinctly bifid, but rather irregularly lobulated in shape {v. fig. 
7). One particular portion, spherical in shape, slightly more re- 
fractile than the rest, and situated at the level of the junction of 
buccal cavity and pharynx, stands out in all specimens ; posteriorly 
there is closely opposed to it a bright, somewhat granular mass, 
semilunar in shape as seen sideways {v fig. 7). I am unacquainted 
with a similar structure in other forms, and have no suggestions to 
make as to its function, unless it be a degenerate otocyst. 

The circumbuccal commissures are situated at the level where 
the buccal cavity passes into the pharynx. The subpharyngeal 
ganglionic mass is irregularly lobulated, broad from side to side, 
narrowing posteriorly to become the ventral nerve-cord. Some 
small lobes frequently appear entirely detached from the main 
nerve-mass. The ganglia of the ventral cord are placed at the level 
of the setae in each segment ; in the achsetous interval (3-5 segm.) 
there are irregular swellings on the cord, which do not appear to have ' 
the definiteness of the ganglia in the following segments. The ventral 
cord is of considerable thickness and is always very easily seen ; it is 
not united with the epidermis. Its double origin is perhaps indicated 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 137 

by its bifid anterior end and the median row of buttonliole-like per- 
forations in its anterior portion which are shown in fig. 11. 

The upward growths of nervous matter within the body-wall 
at the site of the constrictions have already been mentioned. The 
cerebral ganglion can be distinguished in the posterior portion some 
time before this is ready to separate. 

Under an oil-immersion lens the nodulations on the ventral cord, 
which aggregated together form the ganglia, are seen to consist of 
spherical hyaline cells with nuclei, placed mostly in the dorsal sides 
of the cord. 

Sense organs are represented by the tactile hairs, and possibly 
by the refractile particle in the cerebral ganglion. 

No sexual organs have so far been observed. 

The mode of examination adopted throughout has been the ob- 
servation of the living animal under the microscope ; its transpar- 
ency renders this easy. A stained specimen revealed comparatively 
little of the structure of the animal. 

The predominance of asexual reproduction, together with the 
presence of a nervous system unconnected with the epidermis, 
places this form at once among the Naididae. The total absence of 
hair-setae, of dorsal setae altogether, and of ventral setae also in the 
third, fourth and fifth segments, would seem further to assign it to 
the genus ChcBtogaster . The definition of this genus, however, 
includes a reference to the third segment, which is much elongated in 
all forms hitherto recognised as belonging to the genus ; while 
in the form now described the third segment is commensurate with 
the oesophagus, and of no greater length than the two succeeding 
segments. In Chcetogaster , also, the longitudinal commissures of 
the ventral cord are separate from each other in the anterior part 
of the body ; this can hardly be said of the form now described 
{v. fig. 11). The definitions of genera include no reference to the 
alimentary canal, and I cannot say whether or not the' differentia- 
tion of the parts of the tract which I have called ''crop" and 
" stomach" occurs in the various species of ChcBtogaster. 

If, in consideration of the similarity in other respects of this 
form to the species of ChcBtogaster , it should be thought advisable 
to widen the definition of the genus so as to include it, I would 
suggest punjahensis as a suitable specific name ; since , besides the 
characters mentioned above, it differs in its length, or transparency 
or extent of the oesophagus, or the characters of the circum-cesopha- 
geal vascular ring, or the number of setae in each bundle, or in more 
than one of these points, from the several species described by 
Michaelsen {Olii^ochcBta, 1900) as belonging to the genus. 



138 



EXPLANATION OF PlyATE V. 

Fig. I. — General view of the animal from ventral surface. 

an. Anus. an. h. Anal hairs, c. Constriction, cr. Crop. 
i. Intestine, m. Mouth, ce. (Esophagus ph. Pharynx. 
pr. Prostomium. s^, s^, s^ First, second and third 
bundles of setae, sg'^-''. Third to seventh body-seg- 
ments, s. h, Sensory hairs on anterior part of body, 
s/)'-^. Septa in the anterior part of body. st. Stomach. 

Fig. 2. — A seta. 

Fig. 3. — a-e. Diagrams illustrating asexual reproduction. 

Fig. 4. — Site of division. 

b.c. Buccal cavity, e.g. Cerebral ganglion, int. Intes- 
tine of anterior animal, sph. g. Subpharyngeal ganglion. 
Other letters as before ; all except int. have reference to 
the posterior animal. 

Fig. 5. — Lateral view of the site of constriction, showing lateral 
extension of nerve-cord in this situation. 
int. Intestine, I.e. Lateral extension of nerve-cord. 
v.n.c. Ventral nerve-cord. 

Fig. 6. — Growth of seta bundles near the site of a constriction. 

Fig. 7. — Lateral view of anterior part of body. 

b. cav. Buccal cavity, h. comm. Buccal commissure. 
/. Fibres attaching pharynx to body- wall. n. First 

? nephridium. r. p. Refractile particle in the cerebral 
ganglion, s. m. Setal muscle fibres, sp. Septum, show- 
ing a projection due to a nucleus in its substance. 
Other letters as before. 

Fig. 8. — Diagram illustrating chief blood-vessels. The arrows 
show the direction of the contractions. 

Fig. 9. — Part of wall of crop, showing capillary blood-spaces 
outside the crop epithelium. 

c. Capillary blood-space, n. Nucleus, ep. Epithelium 
of crop. 

Fig. 10. — Diagram illustrating distribution of nephridia : parts of 

the aUmentary canal are outlined. 

w'-''. The nephridia. st'^. Stomach of anterior animal. 

pfi^j cs^, CY^ , sf^. Pharynx, oesophagus, crop, and sto- 
mach of posterior animal. 
Fig. II. — Anterior part of nerve-cord, seen from the ventral surface. 

is. Islands of nerve- tissue isolated from the rest. pj. 

Perforations along the median line of the subpharyngeal 

ganglion. Other letters as before. 



Rec. Ind, Mus., Vol. I, 1907. 



Plate V. 




J. Stephenson del. 



Ch.5iTOGASTER (?) PUNJABENSIS, 



nTSis, sp. nov. 



VIII —THE 
AT PORT 



FAUNA OF BRACKISH PONDS 
CANNING, I.OWER BENGAL. 

Part IV. — Hydrozoa. 



By N. AnnandaIvE, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent, Indian 

Museum. 

Only one species of Hydrozoon, Irene ceylonensis , occurs at 
present in the ponds themselves, but two others have been found 
in one of the small pits close to the embankment of the river, 
and might easily be carried into the ponds by a flood. As the 
smaller pits dry up completely before the end of winter, the pres- 
ence in them of these hydroids is probably accidental, coming 
about only when the embankment is broken and water enters from 
the estuary, bringing with it eggs, larvae or medusse. Considering 
the three species found in brackish water at Port Canning together, 
Irene ceylonensis is the only representative of the Calyptoblastea, 
the two from the pit being both Gymnoblastic ; of these latter, one 
is an undescribed species of Syncoryne or possibly of a new genus, 
while the other must be regarded at present as identical with the 
European Bimeria vestita, from which, however, further research 
may ultimately prove it specifically distinct. 

Syncoryne filamentata, sp. nov. 




Fig. I. — Trophosome of S. filanientata, x 21. Hydranth and free filament (the 
latter in optical section), n = nematocyst : g ^gonosome -. h = hydrorhiza. 

Trophosome — 

Colony glistening white in colour. Hydrorhiza branches spar- 
ingly, does not anastomose, gives rise at intervals to single upright 
polyps, and is produced at the extremities of the ultimate branches 
into long, free filaments, the distal ends of which are often slightly 



140 N. AnnandalE: The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

clubbed. The stem of the hydranths is obscurely annulated, their 
bases are surrounded by loose sheaths of the perisarc. The distal 
extremity of the filaments is free from the perisarc and contains 
nematocysts in the ectoderm. The hydranths are spindle-shaped 
and bear ten to fourteen capitate tentacles, which are arranged in 
two distinct whorls. 

Gonosome — 

The medusae are borne only at the base of the inferior whorl 
of tentacles on the hydranths ; they are minute, subquadrate in 
transverse section, somewhat elongate, regularly and profusely 
tuberculate externally, colourless. The manubrium is conical, 
short, incapable of being extended as far as the opening of the 
bell ; the velum extensive ; the four tentacles short and stout, 
capitate, without swellings except at the extremities. (This des- 
cription refers only to the young medusse before the appearance of 
the gonads for the later stages have not been observed.) 




Fig. 2. — Young free gonosome of S. filamentata, highly magnified. 

I found only one example of this species ; it surrounded a grass- 
stem at the edge of the pit in which the next form was also taken. 
The spaces left vacant between the branches were filled by large 
numbers of a gregarious Vorticellid Protozoon, the bases of the 
individuals of which were inserted in a common covering of mucus 
and sand grains. Numerous medusse were set free in a glass of 
water in December and were kept under observation for two days, 
at the end of which they died. Their manubria appeared to be 
imperforate and their tentacles remained short and stout. They 
moved through the water both vertically and horizontally by regular 
pulsations of the bell. Some specimens were killed and preserved 
in two per cent, formol ; they became longer in proportion to their 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



141 



girth than was the case with Hving individuals in a position of rest, 
owing to the fact that they died with the velum in a state of con- 
traction. The figure (fig. 2) was drawn from a living specimen ; it 
represents the tubercles on the external surface as rather larger and 
more conspicuous than they really are, and only shows one of the 
four radial canals. 

The free filaments of the trophosome are flaccid and incapable 
of independent movement. 

Bimeria vestita, Wright. 
From bricks in the river at Port Canning and from a pit of 

brackish water at the same place ; previously recorded from northern 

Europe and South America. 

My specimens differ injone important character from those des- 
cribed from Europe, namely in 
the extent and nature of the 
chitinous investment of the peri- 
sarc. Allman {Mon. Gymn. 
Hydr., p. 298) describes "the 
chitinous sheaths which invest 
the bases of the tentacles" as 
" suggesting the idea of a half- 
gloved hand " and being of a 
brown colour. This is not the 
case in the specimens from Port 
Canning , in which the perisarc is 
of a pale horn-colour and the 
chitin disappears at the base of 
the tentacles so gradually that 
it is impossible to say exactly 
at what point it ceases. In 
specimens from the Matla, how- 
ever, it is darker and extends 
further upwards than in the one 
from the pit. Torrey {Pub. 
Univ. California, Zool., i, p. 27) 
has pointed out that the extent 
and thickness of the chitinous 
perisarc, which was formerly re- 
garded as a generic character se- 
parating Bimeria from Garveia, 
is liable to considerable varia- 
tion in North American species, 
of which several have been 
described. Another but less 
noteworthy point in which my 
specimens differ from the typical 
form, is the irregular and often 

Fig, 3.-5. .../z7«; part of a colony from indistiuct aunulatiou of the 
pit of brackish water, Ganges delta, x i6. stalks (^f the gOUOSOmCS ; but 




142 N. Annandale : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

this cannot be regarded as a constant character. Judging from 
Hartlaub's figure {Zool. Jahrh., 1905, suppl. vi, p. 534), his South 
American specimens represented a depauperated form. The Port 
Canning colonies, however, are vigorous, the upright stems branch- 
ing freely and attaining a height of about 15 mm. All the gono- 
somes (in December) were female, each bearing a single egg, round 
which the spadix, which was simple, had coiled itself. 



Irene ceylonensis, Browne. 

From one of the brackish ponds at Port Canning ; the medusa 
originally described from off the coast of Ceylon. 

Trophosome — ■ 

Colony minute, barely visible to the naked eye, colourless; peri- 
sarc extremely delicate. Hydrorhiza strongly adherent, branches 
sparingly, does not anastomose, gives rise at intervals to single 
upright polyps. Hydrotheca nearly cylindrical, with a short pedi- 
cel, which is about one-seventh as long as the cup and bears more or 
less distinct annulations ; an operculum present, consisting of a 
number of triangular flaps which close together above the contracted 
hydranth. Hydranths highly contractile, with about fourteen ten- 
tacles , which are capable of great elongation ; the disk shallow ; the 
hypostome inconspicuous. 

Gonosome — 

Gonosome borne on a long, more or less distinctly annulated 
stalk, which as a rule carries a single medusa. Two or more younger 
medusae are, however, occasionally produced at the base of and at 
right angles to the first, the main axis of which is 
that of the pedicel. Each medusa is contained 
in a separate gonotheca, which is ovoid 
variable in size, always larger than the hydro- 
theca, and has a single aperture produced by the 
rupture of the membrane above ; the gonophore 
is a simple cylindrical body. Medusa at first 
almost hydra-like in appearance, with the umbrella 
feebly developed and with four stout, tapering 
tentacles, by means of which progression is 
effected. Adult medusa measuring 20 — 25 mm. 
in diameter, the depth of the bell being less than 
the breadth. No cirri ; tentacles about 100, some 
of them often represented by small tubercles; 
otoliths from one to four in each sense-organ, 
a sense-organ occurring between each pair of 
tentacles ; four radial canals ; manubrium stout, 
conical, colourless ; stomach small ; mouth surrounded by four 
fringed lobes ; gonads colourless, consisting of linear bands and 
extending when mature from the base of the manubrium to the peri- 
phery of the bell. 




Fig. 4. — Gonotheca 
of /. ceylonensis, x 140. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 143 

The whole perisarc of the hydroid of this species is so delicate 
that the thecse can only be seen with difficulty even in the living 
colony ; in preserved specimens their outlines are always distorted. 
The constant presence among them, in the pond, of the very much 
stouter and less transparent thecae of the Protozoon FoUicuUna 
ampulla was at first a source of confusion to me, until I saw both 
organisms expanded. 

The gonosomes are produced in November, December and Janu- 
ary. At the beginning of December (1906) the medusae in the pond 
were still immature, although many of them had almost attained 
their full size ; towards the end of the same month their gonads 
were ripe, while at the beginning of the next month only dead or 
dying medusae could be found By March 17th another brood had 
reached maturity, having probably been produced by the young 
gonophores observed on the colonies in January, In March, how- 
ever, no hydroids were found ; probably they had been killed by the 
increased temperature of the water, which was perceptibly warm 
to the hand in the middle of the day. In my aquarium they soon 
perished unless the glass was shaded from the direct rays of the 
sun. Neither medusae nor hydroids could be found in the pond at 
the end of May. 

A peculiarity, which may have been due to the rise in tempera- 
ture, was noted in the March brood of medusae. Those which reached 
maturity in December agreed with the original specimens from 
Ceylon in not having more than two otoliths in each sense-organ, 
but those taken in March had either three, four, six or eight. When 
three or four were present, they were arranged in a single series 
approximately at right angles to the periphery of the bell ; but 
when the number was six or eight, they formed two parallel series 
oriented in the same manner. In some instances it was possible to 
see that the otoliths of smaller series were actually dividing to pro- 
duce larger ones, the direction of division being always the main 
axis of the series. The size of the cyst was always larger when 
six or eight otoliths were present, and in several cases a partition 
had been formed between the two parallel series, dividing the cyst 
into two compartments. It was clear, therefore, that the cysts were 
multiplying by fission. Numerous new tentacles were also being 
produced, every stage occurring between small rounded swellings of 
the periphery and fully elongated tentacles. Browne (in Herdman's 
Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries and Marine Biology, part iv, p. 140) 
remarked on these swellings and suggested that they were young 
tentacles, as has proved to be the case. He also observed that 
while the normal number of otoliths in a cyst was one, two were 
sometimes present. He thought it probable that this was a case of 
twinning, but in the light of the observations just recorded it seems 
more probable that it was one of division. 

I have commented in the preliminary paper of this series on the 
survival of both hydroid and medusa in small masses of water from 
which a fresh supply of air was practically excluded. This was as 
noticeable in the March brood of medusae as in the December one. 



144 N. AnnaNDALE : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 1907.] 

I did not find, however, that individuals of either brood lived for 
more than a few days in my aquarium, although they fed readily. 
Judging from the succession of broods in the pond, the life of the 
medusa, as might be expected, is short ; while the hydroid probably 
does not survive for more than one cold season. 

The medusae are sluggish in their movements. As a rtde they 
do not swim at the surface but rise up to it occasionally by a rapid 
succession of pulsations, and then sink again with the dorsal surface 
of the umbrella downwards. On reaching the bottom they gene- 
rally lie still for a few minutes and then rise obliquely sufficiently 
high to right themselves. When this has been effected, they often 
make another ascent to the surface, and the manoeuvre may be 
carried out several times in succession. While they are sinking, the 
velum remains expanded and the tentacles maintain their position 
parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bell, except when they be- 
come entangled together. The manubrium is, however, in almost 
constant motion, twisting in all directions and apparently remov- 
ing microscopic particles from the tentacles and the ventral surface 
of the velum. Occasionally the medusae move through the water 
obliquely for a short distance by a regular series of slow pulsa- 
tions, and more frequently they float along just above the bottom, 
on which the tentacles and manubrium trail, in an upright position. 

Although the tentacles may be used in retaining microscopic 
organisms, which the manubrium removes from them, larger prey 
is captured directly by the mouth, which picks it up from the bottom. 
I have on several occasions observed young examples of the small 
univalve mollusc Bithinella cmiingensis, Preston, which is enor- 
mously abundant in the ponds, being seized in this way. A long 
struggle always ensued before the medusa was able to detach and 
lift the prey, which, however, was finally taken into the stomach, 
distending it greatly. The empty shell was ejected after a few 
hours. Another method of feeding was also observed, in this case 
on a filamentous alga. The medusa attached itself by its mouth 
to a filament of the alga and sucked out the contents, its stomach 
becoming perceptibly green in the process, which lasted for some 
hours. 

These observations were of course made on captive specimens, 
but there is no reason to think that the actions recorded were in any 
way abnormal; so little is known about the movements and feed- 
ing of medusae that any notes of the kind have considerable interest. 
I could not detect evidence of either negative or positive heliotrop- 
ism in the medusae, but their powers of progression are so feeble 
that perhaps this was hardly to be expected. Their position in the 
pond appeared to be due entirely to the direction of the wind ; if 
there was no wind, they remained close to the plants of Nats on 
which the hydroid was growing, and on which Bithinella was very 
abundant. 



IX.— FURTHER NOTE ON A POLYZOON 
FROIM THE HIMALAYAS. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent , 
Indian Museum. 

In a recent note on the Indian freshwater Polyzoa (Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, IQ07, p. 92) I referred specimens from 
Kumaon to Ridley's Lophopus ledenfeldi, basing my diagnosis 
chiefly on the form of the statoblast. Having recently had 
occasion to re-examine a collection of debris from the surface 
of the lake (Bhim Tal) in which the specimens were taken, I have 
found several statoblasts which evidently belong to the same 
species but differ in a remarkable manner from those already 
described, showing close affinities to Hyatt's Pectinatella carteri. 
As intermediate forms occur I see no reason to change my 
opinion as regards the specific or generic identity of the Hima- 
layan species, but it will be as well to give a more detailed des- 
cription in order to avoid possible confusion in the future. 

The Polyzoon occurred in small, transparent patches on the 
leaves and stems of water-plants, the colonies being easily detached 
from their support and probably having the power of chang- 
ing their position. The ectocyst had all the characters of that of 
Lophopus, being swollen and hyaline, filling up the spaces be- 
tween the cavities in which the polypides are placed, and com- 
pletely investing the whole colony. Its external layer consisted of 
" star-shaped " and circular cells closely resembling those figured 
by Ridley {Journ. Linn. Soc, ZooL, xx, pi. 2). Similar cells occur 
in L. crystallinus, the smaller kind being in both species rather 
sub-rectangular than " star-shaped," but having the corners more 
or less definitely produced and the shorter extremities irregularly 
sinuate. The polypides were arranged on one or both sides of a 
single longitudinal axis, the colony being as a rule much longer 
than broad ; but probably the regularity of this arrangement 
disappears in older colonies. When the polypides were retracted 
the external surface of the colony was smooth but slightly 
lobate. The tentacles were relatively very long ; in a specimen 
preserved in formol the longest measured i'3 mm. by 0"03 mm. ; 
they generally numbered about thirty but were sometimes fewer. 
The stomach was of a bright yellow colour and was rounded at 
its inferior extremity. The polypides were small, as also were the 
colonies ; the latter measured about 3 — 5 mm. in length, 2 — 3 mm. 



146 N. AnnandaLE : A Polyzoon from the Himalayas. [VOL. I, 

in breadth, and the same in vertical length. The cavities in 
which the polypides were contained terminated bluntly below. 
All the statoblasts found in situ were rounded or truncate at the 
extremities, one end being often blunter than the other. As a 
rule they bore no processes or projections of any sort, but the 
whole structure was slightly curved, so that the one face was 
convex, the other concave ; the sides were not folded in towards 
either face ; the annulus projected very little from the surface, 
and the whole structure was very thin. 

In a few of the statoblasts still in position in the colonies a 






Fig. I. Fig. 3. Fig. 2. 

Figs, i and 2 =statoblasts of L. ledenfeldi var. hinialayanus, x 42. Fig. 3 = stato- 
blast of P. punctata from Calcutta (June), x 84. 

very careful examination has revealed a few short, truncate pro- 
cesses of the membrane joining together the valves at the extremi- 
ties ; but these processes are minute and have not a very definite 
form. The fact that their distal extremities are distinctly ex- 
panded proves that they have not been broken. The majority 
of the statoblasts taken on the surface of the lake were broken 
round the edges and especially at the ends ; but a few were 
intact. Of these the majority were in the same condition as 
those still contained in the synoecium ; but in a few cases pro- 
cesses similar to those already mentioned were found, while in 
one or two examples the processes were larger and better devel- 
oped, although they always varied in size and number. The 
smallest were simply truncate and slightly expanded, but the 
larger ones bore at their free end a circle of minute, curved, blunt, 
relatively rather stout filaments, while the largest processes also 
bore one or two similar filaments arranged irregularly nearer the 
statoblasts. The processes were all flattened in the same plane as 
the statoblasts, and bent inwardly towards its concave face. The 
number of processes at the two ends of the statoblast was gener- 
ally different ; but in every case in which they were well developed 
they were arranged at either end in a graduated series, the 
largest in the middle and the smaller processes at either side, the 
largest occupying the extremity of the major axis of the valve. 



igoy.] Records of the hidian Museum. 147 

As a rule the processes at one end were larger than those at the 
other. I have not seen more than nine or less than three pro- 
cesses together. Each series was enveloped in a delicate mem- 
brane. The central capsule of the statoblast was almost circular 
and occupied a considerable area as compared with the air-cells, 
being relatively larger, so far as can be judged from Carter's figure 
{Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), iii, p. 341, pi. 8, 1859), than that of 
Hyatt's Indian species. The colour of the capsule was dark 
brown, the air-cells being yellowish. Rousselet {Journ. Quekett 
Microsc. Club, 1904, p. 49) has lately placed Pectinatella carteri, 
which was found by Carter in Bombay, in a new genus {Lopho- 
podella) created for an East African species, L. thomasi ; Carter 
having originally assigned the former to the genus Lophopus. One 
of the most important characters of Rousselet's new genus, and 
indeed the only one on which he had to rely as regards the Indian 
species, was the nature of the processes at the extremities of the 
statoblast ; but the absence of these processes from some stato- 
blasts of the Himalayan species and their presence on others, forms 
a good ground for keeping both this species and the Bombay one 
in the genus to which Carter assigned the latter. 

The Himalayan form agrees in every other respect with defi- 
nitions of Lophopus ; but Carter states that the specimens he 
found in Bombay did not have, as far as he could see, the synoe- 
cium extending to the base of the colony. Unless or until fresh 
specimens are foimd which prove divergent from the genus in 
other respects, I would therefore call the species Lophopus carteri 
(Hyatt). Statoblasts agreeing with Carter's description have 
been found in East Africa and it may therefore be expected that 
the species, having a wide range, will be rediscovered before 
very long. The Himalayan statoblasts differ from those from 
Bombay in the irregularity or absence of the terminal processes 
and the relatively greater size of the central capsule, while the 
syncecium of the colony appears to be more highly developed. I 
think it will be well to name the Kumaon form Lophopus ledenfeldi 
var. himalayanus, as it differs from the typical Australian variety 
in the following points : {a) the tentacles are not so numerous ; (&) 
the statoblast is more irregular in outline ; (c) the central capsule 
is almost circular instead of being rather elongate ; and {d) term- 
inal processes bearing curled, blunt hooks sometimes occur on the 
statoblasts. Another seemingly important difference, namely, the 
relatively poor development of the ectocyst in the type speci- 
men, may very well be artificial, for structures of the kind, how- 
ever carefully they may be preserved, invariably shrink in spirit. 
The fact that the colony described from Australia was more com- 
plex and larger than those I found in Bhim Tal, may be simply a 
question of age or nutrition. 

Rousselet {op. cit.) has proposed to put t. ledenfeldi in Ju- 
lien's genus Hyalinella, the status of which is very doubtful, my 
own opinion being that it is unnecessary to separate this genus 
from Plumatella. If Kraepelin {Deutschen Siisswasser-Bryozoen, 



148 N. Annandale : A Polyzoon from the Himalayas. [VOL. I, 1907. 

1887) is right, as I believe him to be, in regarding the forms consti- 
tuting Hyalindla as synonyms of Plumatella punctata, Hancock, 
Rousselet's proposal is open to very grave objections. One of the 
most characteristic differences between Lophopus and Plumatella 
is the comparatively large size of the statoblasts of the former. 
This is well illustrated by the following table : — 

; Free Statobi,asts. 

I^ength. Breadth. 

1. Plumatella princeps, Krae-'j 

pelin = same author ' s Co-36 — 0-37 mm. 0-2 — 0*3 mm. 
" emarginata, Reihe " . . J 

2. Plumatella polymorpha, Kiae-"^^ 

^^ pelin = same a u t h o r's ^0-214 — 0*53 ,, 9-2 — 0"4i3 

'' repens, Reihe " . , J 

3. Plumatella philippinensis, ) 

Kraepelin .. ;[o-4-o-47i „ o-2-o-4i3 

4. Plumatella javanica, Krae- > 

pelin .. _ ^ o" 347— 0-420 , , c 2— 0*260 

5. Plumatella punctata, Hancock 0*4 — 0*54 ,, 0*27 — o"4i 

6. Lophopus crystallinus (Pallas) i — 1*3 ,, o'6 — 0*7 

7. Lophopus ledenfeldi, Ridley. . 0*85 — ©'95 ,, 0*7 

8. Lophopus ledenfeldi var. indi- > ^ 

t^ t- > \ 0-9 — i-i ,, o'5 — o*6 

ca, var. nov. . . ^ ^ ?> ^ 

9. Lophopus carteri (Hyatt) . . (approx.) o'S ,,{approx.) 0-63 
10. Lophopus jheringi, Meissner i ,, o'8 

For the figures as regards species i, 2, 3, 5 and 6 I am in- 
debted to Kraepelin's Deutschen Siisswasser-Bryozoen, and as re- 
gards 4 to the same author's account of a new species in Mitt. 
Naturh. Museum Hamburg, xxiii, p. 146 ; the measurements of the 
statoblast of the typical L. ledenfeldi are taken from Ridley's 
original description, those of that of L. carteri deduced from 
Carter's figure, and those of L. jheringi derived from Meissner's 
description in the Sitzh. Nat. Freund. Berlin, 1892, p. 260. 
P. punctata is not uncommon in Calcutta and its statoblasts here 
are generally smaller than those from Europe, although their 
form and proportions agree well with Kraepelin's figures. I have 
been unable to detect in the ectocyst of this species any trace of 
the cells characteristic of that of Lophopus. 

I take the opportunity to note a description of a new Asiatic 
freshwater Polyzoon, viz., Pectinatella davenporti , Oka, described 
from Japan in the Zoologische Anzeiger, vol. xxxi. No, 23, 
May, 1907. It is noteworthy that in the genus Pectinatella one 
species (P. magnifica, I^eidy, from America and Europe) has 
hooked processes on the statoblast ; one (P. davenporti. Oka, from 
Japan) has simple processes, while the third (P. gelatinosa, Oka, 
also from Japan) lacks processes altogether. 



X.— R E P O R T'S ON A COLLECTION OF 
BATRACHIA, REPTILES AND FIvSH 
FRO]\I NEPAL AND THE WEvSTERN 
HIMALAYAS. 

By G. A. BouLENGER, F.R.S. ; N. Annandai^e, D.Sc. ; F. Wai.1., 
Major, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. ; and C. Tate Regan, B.A. 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

The specimens from Nepal recorded in these Reports were 
collected by Mr. R. Hodgart on behalf of the Indian Museum, which 
is much indebted to Major J. Manners-Smith, V.C, CJ.E., Resident 
in Nepal, for the assistance given. The specimens from Kumaon 
were collected at the same season as those from Nepal (in 
September and October, igo6) by myself, while those from the 
Simla district were obtained by a native collector and myself in 
April and May, 1907. The Nepalese localities mentioned are, for the 
most part, not to be found on any map. They are situated either 
in the neighbourhood of Katmandu, the capital of the state ; in 
the Little Nepal Valley, which lies between that in which the 
capital is situated and the outermost range of hills ; or in the 
Terai or sub-Himalayan plain. Only one or two specimens come 
from the last district, the majority being from the first. The 
specimens from Kumaon represent only two localities, Bhim Tal 
and Naini Tal, situated respectively at 4,500 and 6,400 feet ; while 
the Reptiles and Batrachia from the Simla district were caught, 
within fifty miles of the town, between 5,000 and 9,000 feet, 
mostly at 5,000 and at 8,000 feet. — N. Annandai^e. 

BATRACHIA. 
By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 
I. Leptohrachium monticola, Gthr. 
Locality — Soondrijal, Nepal. 

2. Bufo melanosHctus , Schn. 

Localities — Chitlong and Soondrijal, Nepal ; Bhim Tal and 
Naini Tal, Kumaon ; Kathgodam, foot of the Kumaon hills. 

[This is the common Toad m the Nepal Valley, from which 
there are other specimens in the Museum, and in Kumaon up 



150 G. A. BOULENGER : Himalayan Batrachia. [Vol. \, 

to 7,000 feet. I took a solitary tadpole of unusual size in a small 
pool above Naini Tal in October. As regards shape and dental 
formula it agreed closely with Flower's figure of a Malayan specimen 
[Proc. Zool. Soc, 1896, p. 911, pi. xliv, fig. 3). Although this 
species has been recorded from 10,000 feet in Sikhim, the closely 
allied B. himalayanus is much more abundant in the Darjiling dis- 
trict between 5,000 and 7,000 feet. — N. A.] 



J 3. Rana cyanophlyctis, Schn. 

Localities — Soondrijal and Pharping, Nepal ; Bhim Tal and the 
valley of the Balaya, Kumaon. 

[This species is very abundant at the edge of the Bhim Tal {tal= 
lake) and in ditches by the roadside in the lower Balaya valley. In 
the Naini Tal its place appears to be taken by R. vicina. R. 
cyanophlyctis was seen in large numbers at Dharampur (altitude 
circa 5,000 feet) in the Simla hills at the beginning of May and 
several specimens were captured by my native collector. It has 
the habit of skipping over the surface of the water when alarmed 
{cf. Boulenger, Faun. Brit. Ind., Rept., p. 450), and although it is 
usually stated to be an aquatic species , it is only so by da^dight ; at 
night it makes considerable journeys by land. When excavations 
are made during building operations in Calcutta and are filled by 
rain water, this frog makes its appearance in them almost at once, 
even when they are at a considerable distance from any permanent 
pool. — N. A.] 

4. Rana vicina^ Stol. 

Localities — Naini Tal and the upper valley of the Balaya. 

The series of specimens collected by Dr. Annandale removes 
all my doubts as to the identity of R. hlanfordi, Blgr. , and this species 
{cf. Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xvi, p. 640, 1905). The 
web between the toes may extend, as a fringe, to the disc of the 
fourth toe ; the tympanum ma^^ be more or less distinct ; the 
tongue is but feebly notched behind, as noticed by Stoliczka ; 
internal vocal sacks are present in the male. 

[Common at the edge of the Naini Tal and in pools by the 
roadside in the Balaya Valley above 5,000 feet. It is largely 
aquatic in its habits, at any rate during the daytime. Specimens 
taken at the beginning of October appeared to be breeding ; the 
females contained large ova, while the throats and thighs of the 
males were suffused with a bright claret-colour, which soon 
disappeared in spirit. In no example seen were nuptial excres- 
cences developed. Specimens were also taken at the end of April 
in a small pool of a stream, the greater part of which had dried 
up, at Matiana (altitude 8,000 feet) in the Simla district. With 
them were tadpoles, probably of the same species. The tadpoles 
had large suctorial lips similar to those of the tadpole of R. liebigii, 
from which, however, they differed in dental formula. — N. A.] 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 151 

5. Ranatigrina, Daud. 

Localitic s—SoondriiaX and Katmandu, Nepal (4,000 to 5,000 
feet), 

"6. Rana limnocharis , Boie. 

Localities—Soondrijal, Nepal ; Bhim Tal, Kumaon. 
[A specimen was also taken at Dharampur in the Simla hills 
in May.— N. A.] 

7. Rana formosa, Gthr. 

Locality — Soondrijal, Nepal. ■ 

LACERTILIA. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc. 

The collection includes examples of nine species of this group, 
of which species two are new. The others are common Himalayan 
forms, the distribution of which is rendered considerably clearer by 
these specimens. The occurrence of the two allied skinks Lygosoma 
himalayanmn and L. sikkimense in the same locality is of interest ; 
while the eastern Umits of the range of Agama tuber culaia can now 
be fixed with tolerable certainty. 

I. Hemidactylus nepalensis , sp. no v. 

One male specimen from Katmandu, Nepal : altitude 4,500 
feet. Reg. No. Ind. Mus. Reptiles, 15779. 

Diagnosis — 

Allied to Hemidactylus platyurus (Schneid.) and to some extent 
intermediate between this species and H. garnotii, D. and B. 

Head and body depressed ; tail slender, flat, tapering, denti- 
culated at the edges. A distinct fold of skin along the sides, mea- 
suring about I mm. in breadth, and another along the hind limbs 
posteriorly. Head long, slender, the length of the snout slightly 
exceeding the distance between the eye and the external ear ; the 
extremity of the snout rounded, Toes webbed at the base ; all the 
digits well developed. Dorsal surface of head and body covered 
with minute rounded tubercles which are almost homogeneous, but 
are smaller on the snout than elsewhere ; dorsal surface of tail 
covered with minute imbricating scales ; subcaudals large ; ventral 
surface of belly covered with small imbricating leaf-shaped scales 
(about thirty in a transverse Hne across the middle of the body) 
changing gradually into minute tubercles on the throat. Nostril 
between the rostral and three small scales ; eight upper and eight 
lower labials ; one pair of chin shields meeting behind the mental 
and followed by several small scales on either side. An almost 
straight series of thirty femoral and prseanal pores interrupted in the 
middle line. Three lamellee under the inner, and seven under the 
middle posterior digit ; four under the inner, and six under the 



152 



N. Annandale : Himalayan Lizards. 



[Vol. I, 



middle anterior digit. The dorsal surface pale grey, marbled with 
a darker shade ; the ventral surface immaculate white. 



lycngth of head . . 
Breadth of head . . 
I^ength of body 
I/ength of tail 
Breadth of tail at base 
Length of anterior limb 
lycngth of posterior limb 



13 mm. 



33 

45 

5 

12 
18 



I take this opportunity to figure another Himalayan Gecko 
{Gymnodactylus himalayicus) recently described by me {Journ. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal, 1906, p. 287). 

2. Acanthosaura major (Jerd.). 

I took a fine male of this rare species just outside the town of 
Simla at an altitude of about 8,000 feet. The coloration was very 
bright but otherwise agreed with the published descriptions ; there 
was a patch of pale lilac scales under the throat. The lizard was 
surming itself on a bare bank by the roadside and appeared to be 
very sluggish. 



I 3. Acanthosaura kumaonensis , sp. nov. 

Several specimens of both sexes from Naini Tal and Mussoorie. 
Type Reg. No. Ind. Mus. Reptiles, 15755. 

Diagnosis — 

Small, slight ; the body feebly compressed ; the tail more 
than twice as long as the head and body, hardly compressed ; the 
adpressed hind limb reaching the tympanum. Snout slightly 
longer than the diameter of the orbit ; canthus rostralis and super- 
ciliary ridges angular ; forehead sloping, slightly concave. Dorsal 
and medial crests continuous, reduced in both sexes to a single row 
of strongly keeled scales ; no parallel rows of keeled scales on the 
back or sides. Scales on dorsal surface of head of different sizes, 
strongly keeled, not enlarged oh the superciHary regions ; six or 
seven upper and six lower labials ; dorsal and lateral scales of two 
kinds, VIZ., large, lozenge-shaped, strongly keeled tubercles and 
smaller imbricating scales with much feebler keels, the two being 
mingled irregularly ; ventrals leaf-shaped, imbricate, strongly keeled, 
larger than throat scales ; caudals strongly keeled, imbricate, of 
different sizes above, sHghtly enlarged below. Dorsal surface and 
sides marbled and blotched with various shades of grey and brown, 
with a series of large, dark angular marks on the mid-dorsal line ; 
a broad, dark triangular band extending from the eye to the ear, 
its apex directed towards the eye ; upper and lower lips vermi- 
culated with black, belly white, sometimes sprinkled with minute 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 153 

black dots ; a small triangular patch of bright blue on the throat 
of the male (in October). 



Length of head 


18 mm. 15 mm 


Breadth of head 


12 ,, 10 ,, 


Length of body 


•• 44 ,. 37 ,, 


Length of tail 


126 ,, no ,, 


Length of hind limb 


•• 40 ,, 35 ,. 


Length of fore limb . . 


26 ,, 22 ,, 



Remarks — 

I have known this lizard, which appears to be not uncommon in 
the neighbourhood of Naini Tal and Mussoorie, for some time but 
have hitherto regarded it as the young of A. major, from which it 
is really quite distinct. It is allied to A. dymondi, Boulenger, 
from which it is readily distinguished by the absence of parallel 
rows of keeled scales on the back. There are female specimens 
in the Museum, taken at Mussoorie in September or October, 
containing eggs. The only individual 1 have seen in life was a 
male , it was caught climbing a tree in a garden in the town 
of Naini Tal. Another male was taken by Mr. L. L. Fermor 
at an altitude of about 6,000 feet in the same district. The 
species has evidently a restricted range, which probably does not 
extend beyond those parts of Kumaon and the Mussoorie district 
situated at moderate elevations. 

4. Acanthosaura tricarinata (Blyth). 

A single specimen from Chandragiri, Nepal : altitude 8,000 feet. 

The dorsal surface of fresh specimens of this lizard has a livid 
green colour, which generally fades in spirit to greyish blue. The 
species is not uncommon at an altitude of 5,000 to 6,000 feet in 
British Sikhim. 

5. Calotes versicolor (Daud.). 

Several specimens from Katmandu. 

This common species has a somewhat extensive range in the 
Himalayas. In British Sikhim it occurs at least as high as 7,000 
feet, and I have seen it at about the same altitude in Kumaon. It is 
common at 5,000 feet in the Darjiling district and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bhim Tal at a slightly lower altitude. Specimens from 
the Himalayas are generally small and have a somewhat depaupera- 
ted appearance, the sexual characters being rather feebly developed; 
but it is not always possible to distinguish between such specimens 
and examples from Lower Bengal. A female was found in May at 
Kurseong (5,000 feet) whose oviduct contained large eggs still devoid 
of a shell. In Calcutta the young are hatched at the beginning of the 
rains and apparently take at least two years to reach sexual ma- 
turity. The breeding season is in progress as early as April . 



154 N. Ann AND ALE ; Himalayan Lizards. [Vol. I, 

6, Agama tuberculata, Gray. 

Several specimens from Chitlong, I^ittle Nepal Valley, and two 
from near Simla (8,000 feet). 

In Kumaon this species is common as low as 4,000 feet, and I 
have seen it even lower. It has been taken, however, in the western 
Himalayas as high as 12,000 feet. It would appear to range con- 
siderably further east in the Himalayas than any other species of the 
genus ; but Agama himalayana, which was originally described from 
Ladak, is found, north of the hills, in the Lhasa district. Despite 
the fact that it must be able to endure a very low temperature when 
hibernating during winter, A. tuberculata is sensitive to cold while 
active. It is found as a rule on bare rocks, and even on the walls of 
houses, on which the sun is shining. Even a passing cloud causes 
it to retire immediately. The posterior surface of the thighs and 
the throat were suffused with sky-blue in male specimens taken 
(both in Nepal and in Kumaon) in September and October. The 
young are apparently hatched at that time of year in Nepal. 

We have long had in the Museum specimens of the species from 
Kashmir and from Quetta. The species is abundant in the Simla 
hills, but specimens from this district differ in colour from those 
taken in Kumaon and Nepal. In the eastern race the dorsal surface 
is of a very dark slate-colour, with numerous spots and blotches of 
yellow ; while in the Simla form the back is of a rather pale 
brownish-grey with fewer and less conspicuous spots. The Simla 
form is more wary and agile than the eastern one. 

7. Mabuia macularia (Blyth). 

A single specimen from the Terai (sub-Himalayan plain) near 
Raxaul. 

8. Lygosoma sikkimense, Blyth, 

Numerous specimens from Chitlong, Little Nepal Valley, and 
one from Katmandu. 

This species appears to be as common in the Little Nepal Valley 
as it is in British Sikhim. There is no evidence that it ranges further 
west than Nepal and it is certainly replaced in Kumaon by Lygosoma 
himalayanum. I recently recorded a specimen from Simla {Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1905, pp. 146, 149), but a re-examination of this 
specimen which is in a bad state of preservation , convinces me that 
I was wrong in my identification. L. sikkimense is fond of sunning 
itself on stonej and dry paths. 

9. Lygosoma himalayanum (Giinth.). 

A single specimen from Chitlong. 

This specimen (plate vi, fig. 3) is not quite typical. Its total 
length is 168 mm., of which the tail accounts for 108 mm. ; the 
colours are brighter than usual and the longitudinal streaks more 
conspicuous, but it is difficult to find any very definite difference 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 155 

in this respect. There are no projecting lobules or granules at the 
edge of the ear opening. On the whole, I cannot say that there is 
any distinction between this specimen and others from further west 
which would justify its being regarded as representing even a local 
race; but it is certainly larger and brighter than the majority of speci- 
mens I have examined. It has thirty scales round the middle of 
the body. The '' obscure dark edging " of the ventral scales of 
this species to which I have referred in the paper cited above, ap- 
pears to be entirely due to bad preservation of the specimens ex- 
amined, L. himalayanum is by far the commonest skink in Kumaon 
between 4,000 and 7,000 feet. There are specimens in the Indian 
Museum said to come from the plains, but their history is one 
which has proved untrustworthy in other instances and I think that 
the locality attributed to them is incorrect. The habits of L. hima- 
layanum differ somewhat from those of L. sikkiniense, as the former 
appears to avoid the sun and is often found in rather damp situations. 
It is very abundant on the banks of the lake at Naini Tal (6,400 
feet) and in gardens in the town of Simla, in the neighbourhood of 
which it is common at least as high as 9,000 feet. Males taken in 
this district in April and May had a lateral stripe of orange or bright 
reddish-brown running along the body below the dark lateral band. 
This conspicuous stripe was absent from females taken at the same 
season and from specimens of both sexes examined in Kumaon in 
autumn. The oviducts of the females contained eggs in May but 
not in September. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

Fig. I. — Gymnodactylus himalayicus, Annandale. 

Fig. 2. — Hemidactylus nepalensis, sp. nov. 

Fig. 3. — Lygosoma himalayanum (Giinther), from the Little Nepal 

Valley. 
Fig. 4. — Lygosoma sikkimense, Blyth, from the same locality. 

OPHIDIA. 
By F. Wall, Major, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 

I am indebted to Dr. N. Annandale for giving me an opportunity 
of examining a small collection of snakes from Nepal, and per- 
mitting me to make the following remarks upon them. 

Among the twenty specimens, eleven species are represented, 
most of which are common. 

The names used are those applied by Boulenger in his Catalogue 
of Snakes in the British Museum, 1893-96. 

The specimens are as follows : — 

I. Python molurus. 

The head and part of the body are preserved of a small ex- 
ample from Bichiakoh, Nepal Terai. 



156 F. Wall: Himalayan Snakes. [Vol. I, 

[Occurs at least as high as 5,000 feet in Kumaon, and is said to 
be found occasionaUy at Darjihng (6,000 feet)^ — N. A.] 

2. Tropidonotus piscator. 

There are two examples from Pharping (5,000 feet). These are 
greenish olive, and somewhat indistinctly chequered, the darkish 
spots being ill defined and smaller than the interspaces. 

[Common in the Bhim Tal.— N. A.] 

3. Tropidonotus platyceps. 
An example from Pharping (5,000 feet). Quite typical. 

4. Tropidonotus stolatus. 

Four examples from Gowchar and Pharping (5,000 feet). 
Quite typical. 

[Common at Bhim Tal. — N. A.] 

5. Tropidonotus chrysargus. 

Two small specimens from Chitlong, Little Nepal Valley, I have 
little hesitation in referring to this species. They are nearly uniform 
olive-green in colour, with two white dots on the head, one on each 
parietal shield. The upper lip is white, abruptly defined above. 
The labial sutures are not pigmented. In A specimen the chin 
shields are finely specked with grey ; in B purely white. There are 
some shield differences between the two specimens which, however, 
I do not consider sufficient to separate them, as they agree in other 
respects. 

A specimen. — Ventrals 173. Subcaudals 80. Nasal shields 
touch the first supralabial only. Temporals 2 + 2 . 

B specimen. — Ventrals 184 ? Subcaudals 88. Nasal shields 
touch the first and second supralabials Temporals 1 + i. 

The scales in both are 19 in anterior and midbody, 17 at a point 
two headslengths before the vent. The labials are 8, with the 
third, fourth and fifth touching the eye in both specimens. 

6. Trachischium tenuiceps. 
Two quite typical specimens are from Chandragiri (8,000 feet). 

7, Lycodon aulicus. 

One example of Boulenger's Variety D {Catalogue^ vol. i, 
p. 353) from Katmandu, Nepal Valley (4,500 feet). 



1 Rai Bahadur R. B. Saiiyal tells ine that he has seen a .specimen killed near 
the town of Darjiling. — N. A. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 157 

8. Zamenis mucosus. 

There are two specimens, one from Gowchar, the other from 
Kakani, Nepal. 

9. Dipsadomor-phus muUifasciatus. 

With little hesitation I refer two specimens obtained from 
Chitlong to this species. 

Both agree in the following ways : The scales are 21 in anterior 
and midbody, 15 at a point two headslengths before the vent. The 
vertebral row at midbody is but moderately enlarged. The prse- 
ocular is well separated from the frontal. The supralabials eight, 
with the third, fourth, and fifth touching the eye. Temporals two 
anterior. Posterior sublinguals quite separated by two small pairs 
of scales. The horizontal diameter of the eye equals its distance 
from the anterior edge of the nostril. They are both marked with 
oblique, equidistant, costal dark lines. 

A specimen is pinkish-brown, almost dove coloured. The 
ventrals are 233 and the subcaudals 106 ? 

B specimen is pink. The ventrals are 232 and subcaudals 102. 

10. Lachesis monticola. 

Two good examples are from Kakani and Chitlong, and quite 
typical. In A specimen the scales are 23 in the anterior and mid- 
body, 21 at a point two headslengths before the vent. The ventrals 
are 153, subcaudals more than 40 (tail imperfect). 

B specimen has the scales 23 in the anterior and middle parts 
of the body, 19 at a point two headslengths before the vent. The 
ventrals are 148 and subcaudals 48. 

II. Lachesis gramineus. 

One example from Katmandu (4,500 feet). It is uniform green 
dorsally, with a white flank line continued well on to the tail. The 
belly is green^'sh posteriorly, white anteriorly. The ventrals are 
170, and subcaudals 57. Scales 21 in midbody. 

[Major Manners-Smith tells me that it is a common belief in 
Nepal that there are no poisonous snakes in that country. In Sikhim 
and Kumaon, however, the cobra, the hamadryad, and Russell's 
viper are known to range to a considerable altitude. The only 
snake which I saw in the Simla district was Ancistrodon hima- 
layanum, a specimen of which was killed by my companion Mr. 
I, H. Burkill at an altitude of about 9,000 feet near Matiana — 
N. A.] 

FISHES. 

By C. Tate Regan, B.A. 

The fishes sent by Dr. N. Annandale have been referred to 
seven species, one of which is new to science. 
10 



158 C. Tate Regan : Himalayan Fishes. [VOL. I, 1907.] 

Cyprinid^. 

1. Barbus ticto, Ham. Buch., BhimTal (lake), Kumaon, 4,500 
feet. 

2. Oreinus richardsonii, Gray and Hardw., Soondrijal, Nepal. 

3. Diptychus annandalei , sp. n. 

Depth of body 3f to 4 in the length ; length of head 3| to 4. 
Snout as long as or shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 3 
(young) to 3f in the length of head, and nearly equal to the inter- 
orbital width. Two barbels on each side, the anterior much shorter 
than the posterior, which is not, or scarcely longer, than half the dia- 
meter of eye. Body nearly entirely naked. Dorsal II 8 ; origin 
equidistant from snout (young) or middle of eye and base of caudal, 
longest ray about \ the length of head ; free edge of the fin straight. 
Anal II 6, when laid back not reaching the caudal ; free edge slightly 
convex. Pectoral f the length of head, not reaching the ventrals, 
which are inserted below the origin of the dorsal. Caudal forked. 
Caudal peduncle 1^ to t^ as long as deep. Greyish ; a few dark 
spots on the sides ; a dark lateral stripe ; dorsal and caudal dusky, 
lower fins pale. 

Total length, 70 mm. 

Pharping, Nepal. 

The description is based on three specimens ; the species differs 
from others of the genus in having two pairs of barbels. 

4. Basilius hendelisis, Ham. Buch., Bhim Tal (lake). 

SlI^IIRID^. 

5. Saccobranchus fossilis, Bl., Katmandu. 

6. Euchiloglanis blythii, Day, Pharping. 

In a recent paper (Ann. Mag. N. H. (7), xv, 1905, pp. 182-185) 
I have' shown that the fishes which have been usually placed 
in the genus Exostoma, Blyth, fall into three very distinct groups 
which should be regarded as genera. For one of these I revived 
the name Chimarrhichthys , Sauv., 1874, but as was pointed out by 
O'Shaughnessy {Zool. Record, 1874) this is preoccupied, and I 
therefore propose to substitute for it the new generic name 
Euchiloglanis. 

OpHIOCEPH AUD^ . 

7. Ophiocephalus punctatus, Bl., BhimTal (lake), Pharping and 
Katmandu. 



AecorSsofthe Indian Museum 



Vol.1, Plate VI, 1907 







A.C.Chowdliary, rlel&Lilli. 



'IhxZ. 



14T>./f A T A^^A^T T Try A r^r^n 



XI.— THE FAUNA OF BRACKISH PONDS 
AT PORT CANNING, LOWER BENGAL. 



Part V. — Definition of a New Genus of Amphipoda, and 
Description of the typicai. Species. 

By the Rev. Thomas R. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 



AMPHIPODA gammaridea. 

Family GammaridcB. 

1906. GammaridcB, Stebbing, in Das Tierreich, Lieferung 21, 
pp. 364, 729. 

Quadrivisio, n. g. 

Eyes four, separate, well developed. First antennae the shorter, 
with elongate accessory flagellum. Upper lip with rounded distal 
border. Mandibles with slender palp, the second joint longer than 
the first, but not longer than the third. First maxillae having i he 
inner plate fringed with numerous setae, the second joint of the palp 
large. The second maxillae fringed along the inner margin of the 
inner plate. Gnathopods subchelate, first pair small, second very 
large in the male, small and differently constructed in the female. 
Third uropods much produced, the rami subequal, foliaceous. Tel- 
son smaU, cleft to the base. 

By the character, though not by the number, of its eyes, the 
species for which this genus is instituted, appears at present to be 
unique. In the Ampeliscidae four eyes are common, but they are 
externally sunple. In the Synopiidae and Tironidae there are spe- 
cies with four eyes, but in both cases the lateral pair are minute, 
and in Synopia the dorsal pair coalesce at the top of the head. In 
Hirondellea trioculata, Chevreux, the nmnber is definitely only 
three, the dorsal breadth of the head being occupied by one large 
oval eye, not as in the present instance, finding room for two well 
separated organs of vision to supplement the fully developed lateral 
pair. 

In other respects the genus has characters already known in 
the family Gammaridae, though not in precisely the same combina- 
tion. The third uropods resemble those m Megaluropus, Norman, 
a genus in several other features very distinct from the present. 
Sexual difference is here marked by the smaller size of the female 
and characters affecting the antennae as well as the gnathopods. 



i6o T. R. R. StebbinG: The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

Quadrivisio bengalensis , n.sp. 
(Plate VII.) 

Head much longer than first segment of peraeon, rostral projec- 
tion minute, ocular lobes rounded. Second and third side-plates 
rather deeper than first and fourth, the fourth excavate behind for 
the anterior margin of the bi-lobed fifth. Postero-lateral angles in 
the large pleon segments i — 3 produced into a very minute tooth. 
The fourth and one or two other of the pleon segments carry on the 
hind margin a widely spaced pair of denticles, very small and difficult 
to observe. The telson is small, not so long as broad, divided to the 
base, each lobe having several little spines down the inner margin, 
and some of those round the apex close-set. 

Eyes dark, placed near the margin of the head, all with numerous 
lenses, the lateral pair rounded, the dorsal pair crescent-shaped, with 
the concavity in front. 

First antenncB. — First joint rather stout and long, second much 
thinner, in male longer than the first, in female subequal to it; 
third joint small, flagellum nearly as long as peduncle, having in 
the male more than twenty joints, the long and slender accessory 
flagellum ten-jointed. 

Second antenncB. — Peduncle very elongate, especially in the 
male, gland-cone prominent, fifth joint in male considerably longer 
than the long fourth joint, both slightly curved; in the female 
the fifth joint straight, not longer than the fourth, the flagellum 
shorter than the peduncle, attaining the number of 17 joints, which 
is slightly exceeded in the other sex. 

Mandibles. — Cutting edge six-dentate, accessory plate stronger 
on the left than on the right mandible, spines of spine row numerous, 
molar strong, palp slight as in Melita ohtusata (Montagu) and, among 
the Atylidse, in Nototropis swammerdamei (Milne-Edwards) ; the 
third joint slightly longer than the second, tipped with two long setae. 

First and second maxillcB. — These show a remarkable resem- 
blance to those of Ceradocus rubromaculatus (Stimpson), and present 
the same difficulty in counting the spines on the outer plate of the 
first pair, which are not fewer than nine, but may be eleven. 

Maxillipeds. — Outer plate not reaching end of palp's long second 
joint. The third joint of the palp appears to be less elongate in 
the female than it is in the male. 

First gnatho pods. —"The fifth joint is considerably larger than 
the sixth, strongly fringed on and near the hind margin with groups 
of spines planted on the inner surface ; the sixth joint oblong oval, 
with scale-like spinules along the hind margin, and seven rows of 
spines on the inner surface adjacent to the front margin, the palm 
very short transversely rounded, not overlapped by the small finger. 

Second gnathopods. — In the male the fourth joint has the 
hind margin produced to a sharp apex, the fifth joint distally 
cup-like, not longer than broad, the sixth longer and much broader 
than the second, with smooth nearly straight front margin, the hind 
margin slightly setose and denticulate till it meets the very oblique 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. i6i 

palm, over which the powerful finger closes, leaving two gaps, a 
small one near the hinge, a long one near the hind margin, with a 
squared denticulate process between them. In the female the fifth 
joint is not cup-like, longer than broad, densely fringed on the hind 
margin ; the sixth joint is not longer than the second, the hind mar- 
gin and most of the front carrying numerous spines, the palm 
spinulose, oblique, leaving no gaps between it and the closed finger. 

PercBopods. — The first and second pairs are slender, the fourth 
joint longer than the fifth or sixth. The third pair is shorter than 
the fourth or fifth ; in each the second joint is expanded, but more 
so in the upper part of the last pair, this joint also having its sinuous 
hind margin rather more strongly serrate than is the case in the third 
and fourth perseopods. The fingers are not very large, each with a 
distinct unguis. The branchial vesicles are simple, large in the 
second gnathoj>ods and first and second perseopods, diminishing 
successively in the next two pairs. The marsupial plates are narrow. 

Pleopods. — These are narrow, with elongate rami, the inner rami 
of each pair closely contiguous. 

Uropods. — The first pair have the peduncles slightly longer than 
the equal rami, with a strong spine near the base of the outer margin, 
and two longitudinal rows of spines ; the shorter second uropods 
have the peduncles about as long as the subequal rami ; the third 
pair extend back much beyond the second, the elongate oval rami 
being only a little unequal and fringed with numerous little spines 
and setules ; this pair is very easily detachable. Length of male, 
if straightened out, about 12 mm., female considerably smaller. 

Locality. — Port Canning, Lower Bengal, brackish pools. The 
generic name refers to the fourfold organs of vision, the specific 
name to the province in which Dr. Annandale discovered this 
notable species. 



l62 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Quadrivisio hengalensis. 

n.s. Line indicating natural size of specimen figured in lateral 

view. 
a.s., a.i. ; a.i. 9 . First and second antennae of male ; second 

antenna of female. 
oc. Front of head flattened to show the four eyes. 
Is.- m.9 ., l.i.9; mx. i, mx. 2; mxp. Upper lip; mandi- 
" ' bles and lower lip of female ; first and second maxillae, 

and maxillipeds. 
gn. 1, gn. 2; gn. 2 9 ; prp. 2, 3, 4, 5- I^i^st and second 

gnathopods of male ; second gnathopod of female ; perseo- 

pods, second to fifth, second and fifth incomplete. 
T. urp. 3. Telson and third uropod. 

The mouth-organs, with part of gn. 2 and the telson, are 
magnified on a higher scale than the other details, and parts of 
the mandibles more highly still. 



Rec. Ind. Mus, Vol. I 



Plate Vn 




.-^.-^-^ (© 



\j 



Bel T. R. R. StebbiTi^. 



"P "" urp. 

QUADRIVISIO BENGALENSIS,n.|. et.n.sp. 




"^f J 



J T Rtnnie Reid. Litli-EdinT 



XII.— NOTES ON ORIENTAL DIPTERA. 

I. —NOTE ON SPHYRACEPHALA HEARSEYANA WEST- 
WOOD, WITH A LIST OF THE ORIENTAL 
SPECIES OF DIOPSIN^. 

By E. Brunetti. 

The capture by Dr. Annandale at Lucknow on April 26th this 
year of Sphyracephala hearseyana in great abundance on the roof 
of a dry drain, brings it to my memory that on December 4th, 1904, 
I found the same species in the utmost profusion at the old Residency 
at that city, where the specimens were clustered very thickly toge- 
ther on the inside walls of the ground floor of that deserted building. 
On being disturbed, they hovered for a moment or two, and 
then settled again. The same species was found by me at Cawn- 
pore a few days earlier, there too in extreme profusion, on the 
shady side of, and beneath, a low arch spanning a nearly dry ditch 
by the main road. I thought the blackness on the wall was only 
dirt, until my native servant called my attention to the insects, of 
which I took a large supply, — this species being the only one I 
have myself taken in the East. 

The short thick eye-stalks easily separate this species (and 
genus) from all other Oriental Diopsids, except the congeneric 
cothurnata Big., which is separated from it by its wings being 
marked instead of quite clear as in hearseyana. 

It would appear that the species of this family are addicted to 
collecting in swarms on occasion, as Doleschall, writing in 1856, 
mentions Diopsis dalmanni Wied. {attenuata Dol.) as swarming 
over stagnant water at Djokjokarta, Java ; while Westwood, 
still earlier (1837), speaks of Teleopsis sykesii Gray {Diopsis id. of 
Westwood) as swarming at Hurreechunderghur, in the Western 
Ghauts of the Deccan (altitude 3,900 feet) ; its habitat being 
woody spots in ravines or woody hillsides, where the flies were to 
be found clustering together on the rocks illumined by the sun 
or hovering in such sun rays as pierced the foliage. 

Twenty- three species appear to be Oriental, distributed amongst 
Diopsis, Teleopsis and Sphyracephala, all of which are legitimate 
genera ; but it appears to me impossible, or at any rate inadvisable, 
to subdivide Diopsis or Tdeopsis, especially on such variable and 
difficult characters to estimate with certainty as the length of the 
eye-stalks, thoracic and scutellar spines, etc., as has been done by 
Rondani in establishing Diasemopsis and Hexechopsis. 



164 E. Brunetti : Notes on Oriental Diptera. [VOL. I, 

One of the above-mentioned twenty-three species is Diasem- 
opsis rufithorax Big., represented by a single example in the Indian 
Museum Collection ; its name appears to be merely a " nomen 
nudum," as I can find no description of it anywhere. 

A second species by the same author, the description of which 
is also untraceable, is Diascmopsis fenestratus, likewise in the Indian 
Museum Collection, but this latter species is certainly only Diopsis 
quadriguttata Wlk. 

Besides the truly Oriental species, Diopsis arabica, from 
Arabia, is described by Westwood. 

To those who desire to study this very interesting group may be 
recommended Westwood's monograph of the species known up to 
1837 (including Achias, a genus now removed from this sub-family 
to the Ortalince), published in the Trans. Linnean Soc, lyond., vol. 
xvii, which volume also contains a short supplement by the same 
author, giving a few additional species. 

In the " Annales " of the French Entomological Society, vol. 
iv (series 5), Bigot gives a list of the known species up to 1874. 

Van der Wulp describes the Javan species in Tijd. voor Bnt., 
vol. xl, 181, with a plate. A revision of the synonymy shows some 
alterations from this author's South Asian Catalogue, and the 
following list of species incorporates, I think, the latest results : — 



Diopsis L., 1775, Diss. Upsal. 

1. dalmanni Wied., 1830. Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 560 ; pi. x-a, 4. 

Also figured by Westwood, Tr. Linn. So., xvii, 309 ; pi. 
ix, 17 ; and pi. xxviii, 8. 

{attenuata Dol.) 1856, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., x, 413 ; pi, viii, 2. 
{latimana R.) 1875, Ann. Mus. Gen., vii, 445. 
{lativola R.) 1875, Ann. Mus. Gen., vii, 446. 
Java, Sumatra Borneo. 

2. confusa Wied., 1830. Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 563. 

{ichneumonea F.) 1805, Antl., 201. 
nee D. ichneumonea L. , which is an African species. 
Sumatra. Also occurs on the Congo and in Angola. 

3. circularis Macq., 1835. Hist. Dipt., ii, 486. 

Figured by same author in his Dip. Ex., ii, 3, 239 ; pi, 

xxxii, I, 
Java, 

4. subfasciata Macq., 1843. Dip. Ex., ii, 3, 238; pi. xxxii, 3, 
Java. 

5. subnotata Westw., 1848. Cab. Or. Ent., 37; pi. xviii, 2. 

[argentifera Big.) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5), iv, 112. 
Celebes, Philippines. 

Four specimens of this species are in the Indian Museum Col- 
lection (one being named by Bigot as his argentifera) from Tenas- 
serim, Margherita and Sadiya. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 165 

6. indica Westw., 1837. Tr. Linn. Soc. , xvii, 299 ; pi. ix, 6. 

{westwoodi De Hann in Westw.) Cab. Or. Ent., 37 ; pi. xvii, I. 
{apicalis Dol.) Nat. Tijd. Ned Ind., x, 413 ; pi. ix, 3. 
{graminicola Dol.) loc. cit., xiv, 417. 
Java. 

7. quinqueguttata Wlk., 1857. Proc. Linn. Soc, i, 36; pi. ii, 7. 
Mount Ophir ; Borneo. 

8. quadriguttata Wlk., 1857. Proc. Linn. Soc, i, 37 ; pi. ii, 6. 

Specimens of this species are in the Indian Museum Collection 
from Tenasserim, Margherita, Kurseong and Bhim Tal (4,500 feet), 
the two specimens from the last locality having been captured by 
Dr. Annandale between September 19th and 22nd, 1906. Dr. 
Annandale tells me that the individuals of this and probably other 
species hover over broad-leaved plants in shady places in the jungle 
and often alight singly or in pairs on the leaves, on which they 
run about very much like ants. 

Diasemopsis fenestrata Big., the type of which is in the Indian 
Museum Collection, from Margherita, appears to be a ^* nomen 
nudum " and in any case it is a synonym of quadriguttata Wlk. 

9. discrepans Wlk., 1857. Proc Linn. Soc, i, 134. 

Borneo. 

10. detr aliens Wlk., i860. Proc. Linn. Soc, iv, 161. 
Macassar (Celebes). 

11. villosa Big., 1874. Ann. Soc Ent. Fr. (5), iv, 114. 

Borneo. 

12. ferruginea Roder., 1893. Ent. Nach,, xix, 235. 

Ceylon. 

TeIvEOPSIS Rond., 1875. Ann. Mus. Gen., vii, 443. 

1. sykesii Westw., 1837. I'r. Linn. Soc, xvii, 310 ; pi. ix, 18, 19. 

{Diopsis id. rf 9 .) 

2. fallax Big., 1874. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5), iv, iii. (Diopsis.) 

Borneo. 

3. belzebuth Big., 1874. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5), iv, 113. (Diopsis.) 

Borneo. 

4. breviscopium Rond., 1875. Ann. Mus. Gen., vii, 443. 
Borneo. 

5. longiscopium Rond., 1875. Ann. Mus. Gen., vii, 444. 

Borneo. A specimen in the Indian Museum Collection from 
Tenasserim is probably this species. 

6. fulviventris Big., 1880. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5^ x, 94. 
India. Type in the Bigot Collection. 

7. motatrix Ost. Sack., 1882. Berl. Ent. Teit., xxvi, 236, fig. 13 

(wing). 
Philippines. t 



1 66 



E. Brunetti: Notes on Oriental Diptera. [VOL. I, 



8. selecta Ost. Sack., 1882. Berl. Ent. Teit., xxvi, 236, fig. 13 

(wing). 
Philippines. 

9. rubicunda V. der Wulp, 1897. Tijd. v. Ent., xl, 196 ; pi. viii, 6. 
Nias (Java). 

In the Indian Museum Collection is a specimen of Teleopsis 
from Tenasserim which does not appear to be any of the described 
species. 

SPHYRACEPHAI.A Say., 1828. Amer. Entom., iii, pi. 52. 

1. hearscyana Westw., 1884. Tr. Entom. Soc. Figured by him 

in Cab. Or. Ent., pi. xviii, 4. 

Bengal ; Lucknow ; Cawnpore. A single specimen from Bhim 
Tal, taken by Dr. Annandale between September 22nd and 
27th, 1906, is in the Indian Museum Collection. 

2. cothurnata Big., 1874. (5) iv, 115. (Diopsis.) 
Celebes ; Philippines. 

Diopsis trentepohlii Westw. in Trans. Linn. Soc, xvii, 546; 
pi. xxviii, 6, introduced into Van der Wulp's Catalogue as from 
East India, is an African species (Guinea), as noted in the 
author's corrections to his Catalogue in Tijd. v. Ent., xlii. 



II.— PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A COLLECTION 
FROM SIMLA 

made in April and May 1907. 

By E. Brunetti. 

The specimens dealt with in this report are from places of 
various altitude in the vicinity of Simla, and were captured by 
Dr. Annandale and his native assistant this year between April 24th 
and May 8th. In all, there are about 130 species, and, considering 
the late season, snow still persisting in sheltered spots, this seems 
a very satisfactory result for a fortnight's work. 

The more I see of the Himalayan Diptera, the more I am 
inclined to consider that it belongs faunistically to the Palaearctic 
Region, and not to the Oriental, except as regards the lesser heights 
on the southern side. 

I collected a fair amount of material in 1905 and 1906 during 
two visits to Mussoorie and one to Darjiling, and the Simla material 
now under examination strikingly resembles my Diptera from 
the other two localities, all the collections containing a considerable 
proportion of European species, these latter, moreover, retaining 
in most cases their typical form. This is conspicuously the case 
in the present instance as regards the family Syrphidse, of which, 
out of twenty-five species captured, I have identified positively 
ten as commonly distributed European species, showing no varia- 



igoy.] Records of tJij; Indian Museum. iQq 

tion whatever, whilst among the unnamed remainder some will in 
all probability prove to be European also. Scatophaga stercoraria 
ly., the very common dung fly of Europe and North America, is not 
recorded from the East proper, yet it is as common at Mussoorie, 
Darjiling and Simla as in accepted Palsearctic localities like Hong- 
kong, Shanghai, Hankow and Japan, in all of which places I found 
it as abundant as in Europe. 

I am hoping to make more extensive studies on the Diptero- 
logical hill fauna of India at no distant date, but at present it seems 
to me that at an altitude of 5,000 or 6,000 feet (almost certainly 
at 7,000) the Dipterous fauna at least, is much more Palsearctic 
than Oriental. 

The exact localities with altitudes and dates referred to in this 
report are given first, to avoid repetition after the various species 
mentioned. 

Simla, 7,000 feet, April 24th to 26th and May 4th to 8th. 
Theog, 8,000 feet, April 27th and May ist to 3rd. 
Matiana, 8,000 feet, April 28th to 30th. 
Phagu, 8,700 feet, May 3rd to 4th. 
Dharampur,' 5,000 feet, May 6th to 8th. 

Of Mycetophilidce about a dozen specimens, representing nearly 
this number of species. 

Bibio obscuripennis Meij. Matiana. In large numbers, first 
appearing on April 30th near flowering crab-apple trees, on which, 
however, they did not settle. I found the same species abundant at 
Darjiling one day in October, 1906, and there is a series from Nepal, 
also taken in October, in the Indian Museum. This raises the 
question of the species being possibly two-brooded. 

Bibio sp. Three males of a second smaller species, black with 
reddish legs, black body and clear wings with black stigma. 

Plecia melanaspis Wied. One specimen from Theog. 

PleciafulvicollisV. Theog, Phagu. Two females are apparently 
this species, but the short vein running from the third longitudi- 
nal vein to the costa is not so upright as usual, but intermediate 
between being nearly upright and parallel with the third longitudi- 
nal vein. This makes me doubt the identity of these specimens 
with this species, which is essentially a tropical one, though I have 
taken it as far north as Meerut. Moreover, the original description 
says " ales obscurcB nigrcB," but Wiedemann in redescribing the 
species says " wings blackish-brown." The wings of all the speci- 
mens I have seen alive or soon after death were obscurely black : 
perhaps the brown colour is due to age. The old specimens of 
both this and the previous species in the Indian Museum Collection, 
have brown wings. 

Dilophus, sp. (two specimens). Theog, Phagu. Barely the size 
of febrilis, reddish-brown, with a thin dorsal thoracic stripe and 

' The specimens from Dharampur were collected by my insect-setter. — N. A. 



i68 £. BrunettI: Notes on Oriental Diptera. [VOL. I, 

blackish abdomen above ; black legs with coxae and basal half of 
femora (anterior pair, wholly) red. 

Siniulium indicum Becher. One specimen from Simla is this 
species, whilst a second, from Phagu, appears to be an undescribed 
species. 

Anopheles sp. (one specimen), 

Culex mimeticus Noe. One example, determined by Dr. 
Annandale. Theog, 2nd May. 

Of ChironomidcB , which were rather common around water 
tanks, at least ten species are present, amongst the males ; these 
being distributed over twenty specimens of both sexes. 

' The TipulidcB are represented by ten specimens of a prettily 
wing-marked Trichocera and three or four other Limnobiince , in fair 
condition. Also by Pselliophora, sp. (two specimens), Dharampur ; 
a large handsome species which is already in the Indian Museum 
Collection from Nepal, Bhim Tal and Shillong. Though it is so 
conspicuous a species, I have been unable to identify it with any 
of the published descriptions. 

Rhyphus fenestralis Scop. ^ d d 4 ? 9 ; one from Matiana 
the rest from Simla. Agreeing with the European form of this 
common species, which occurs generally on windows ; the specimens 
are slightly larger than usual. 

Bombylius major ly. 3 $ ? ; Matiana and Kodiali (8,400 feet). 
Two of the specimens (the abdomen of the third is denuded of hair) 
show a very faint pale dorsal line from the tip of the abdomen nearly 
to the base. Otherwise they agree exactly with Palsearctic specimens. 

Bombylius sp. Dharampur. i d with clear wings. The ab- 
domen is denuded, which precludes the possibility of naming the 
species. 

Thereva sp. Theog. i 9 near the European annulata but 
differing sufficiently to make it specifically distinct. 

Asilus {sensu latu) 3 cf a' , 2 2 2 ; Theog and Simla. A moder- 
ate-sized grey species which might belong to any one of the con- 
siderable number of European and Oriental genera described under 
this genus in its widest sense. Dr. Annandale also took a 2 of 
the same species at Lucknow, 21st April, 1907. 

In EmpidcB, three specimens appear to represent Pachymeria, 
Hilar a and Tachydromia respectively. 

Dolichopus , sp. 2 2 2 ; Matiana. 

Pipizella ; a & and 2 from Matiana probably of the same 
species. 

Chrysogaster sp. 2 cf d^ ; Matiana. 

Melanostoma mellinum L. 2 ct' a' ; Theog and Simla. 

M. scalar e F. i a' ; Matiana. A series of thirteen females 
from Simla, Theog and Matiana al o appear to be the true scaL.re. 

M. ambiguum Flu. i a" ; Mat.ana. 

M dubium Lett, i 2 Matiana. I named this species from 
" VeriaL's British Flies," havmg no European species at hand 
to compare it with, bu. it is notxeable that Verrah records it 
from an a.tilude of 3,000 feet in Scotland. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 169 

Platychirus albimanus F. 4 5 2 ; Theog and Matiana. The 
anterior legs are in most cases a little darker than in normal 
European forms, but one specimen has them almost entirely 
pale. 

Syrphus Pyrastri L. ^ a" cf 1 2 ; Simla and Theog. 

5. balteatus De Geer 10 a' a' 3 ? $ ; Simla, Matiana, Theog. 

5. towns Ost. Sack. 2 a' a' 2 $ 9 ; Matiana. 

5. lunigey Mg. icf ; Theog. 

5. umhellatarum F. i a' ; Matiana. 
The specimens of the above five species are absolutely identical with 
European ones. Besides these, there are three c^ a* of a species near 
albostriatus Flu., but certainly not that species — two of them are 
from Matiana, the other from Simla Again, there are 9 other 
specimens of Syrphus representing 6 or 7 species, which I have not 
yet identified. 

Chilosia sp. i ct' ; Matiana. 

SphcBYOphoria sp. 6 cf cf 4 2 $ . 

Eristalis tenax L. i a' 2 2 $ ; Matiana and Theog. Common 
everywhere, these specimens are of normal type. 

Eristalis solitus Wlk. 2 c a' 3 2 2 ; Matiana and Theog. 
Whether I have correctly identified the species or not I am not 
sure, but I have taken it commonly at Mussoorie, Darjiling, in 
China and Japan, while the Indian Museum Collection contains a 
good series from various localities in the East (Sikkim, Shillong and 
Mussoorie). 

Rhingia sp. nov. One of each sex of a new species of this 
genus which I am describing in a subsequent paper on this group. 
A cT of this species exists in the Indian Museum Collection from 
Darjiling (7,000 — 12,000 feet). 

In addition to the above species there is a single cf from Kodiali 
(8,400 feet) which I am unable to place generically. It is nearest 
to Br achy palpus, but lacks the enlarged posterior femora with 
spines beneath. 

In Tachinidce 13 examples represent 11 species, amongst which 
one is apparently a Gonia. 

Sarcophaga is represented by 2 specimens. 
i ^ In MuscincB vercB, there are Calliphora vomitoria 1^. {1 cf 4 2 2 ) 
from Matiana and Simla ; C. crythrocephala Mg. (4 specimens) from 
Simla and Theog ; Musca domestica L. , cr' 2 from Matiana and 
Phagu respectively. 

AnthomyidcB. — I find Homalomyia canalicularis L. {5 ^ ^ ] 
Matiana and Theog) ; an Aricia (222; Theog) with all black legs, 
and a dozen other species amongst the remaining 44 specimens, 
mostly small Chortophilce. 

In Aca.ypierata I re:ognise the handsome Dryomyza maculi- 
Pennis Macq. (allied to the D. jormosa of Japan) ; one specimen 
having been taken at Simla. I took several of this species near a 
water tank on the jungly hillside ac Mussoorie. 

Sepedon plumbelcus Wied. ^Dharampur). 

5. crishna Wlk. Matiana ; a male (28th to 30th April, 1907). 



lyo E. Brunetti: Notes on Oriental Diptcra. [Vol. I, 1907.] 

Of Sepsis three species are present, a larger one with quite 
clear wings (3 examples from Phagu), a smaller species with red 
legs, unfortunately headless (i example from Matiana), and a 
third (small) species (10 examples from Matiana, Theog, Dharam- 
pur) which Dr. Annandale says is quite common in the district. 

Scatophaga stercoraria I,, 8 cf cT and numerous $ 9 , all from 
Simla. These show no variation from European specimens. 

Amongst the remaining Acalypterata there are Chlor opines, 
4 spp. ; BorborincB , 3 or 4 spp,, Gcomyzince (? Geomyza, 3 examples 
of a species with 3 small spots on the wing) ; whilst fifty other 
specimens represent probably quite half that number of species. 

Phoridce. — 2 specimens (i species) of Phora. 



MISCELI.ANEA. 

REPTILES. 

The occurrence of the Taukte' Lizard {Gecko verticillatus) 
IN Calcutta. — In Boulenger's volume on the Reptiles and Batra- 
chians in the Fauna of British India the distribution of Gecko 
verticillatus is given as " Eastern Bengal to Southern China and the 
Malay Archipelago," while Anderson, in his account of the Reptiles 
of Upper Burma and Yunnan, says that it is found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Calcutta. It has taken me two years to obtain de- 
finite confirmation of the latter record by obtaining a specimen, 
although Rai Bahadur R. B. Sanyal, the Superintendent of the 
Calcutta Zoological Gardens, tells me that it is not uncommon in 
certain large and shady trees in these gardens, in which several 
specimens have recently been captured for exhibition to the public. 
My own specimen was taken by my assistant, Mr. C. Vaillant, in 
another part of the suburbs. The species differs very greatly in 
its habits in different localities ; for while in Bangkok and in some 
parts of Burma it is common inside even brick dwelling-houses, in 
the northern part of the Malay Peninsula it is practically confined 
to the trunks of palm trees in the village groves, and in Calcutta 
it is extremely shy and wary, hiding itself in the densest foliage. 
In Singapore, from which several specimens are recorded, the 
species appears to have been introduced accidentally, probably on 
ships, as it does not occur in the southern part of the Malay 
Peninsula, and it is very possible that its occurrence in Calcutta is 
equally fortuitous. 

N. AnnandaIvE. 

The distribution of Kachuga sylhetensis. — This tortoise 
appears to have been recorded hitherto only from Assam, but a 
specimen was brought me last winter at Rajshahi, a place situated 
in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam but lying almost 
due north of Calcutta. This extends the known range of K. syl- 
hetensis considerably further to the west. 

N. Annandale. 

BATRACHIA. 

The distribution of Bufo andersoni. — This toad appears to 
occur over the whole of northern peninsular India as well as in 
Arabia, although the localities given by Boulenger, viz., Agra, 
Rajputana and Sind, are all towards the north-west, in which 
it is most abundant. I recently took a specimen at Rajshahi in 
Eastern Bengal and there is another in the Indian Museum (quite' 



172 Miscellanea. [VOL. I, 

characteristic) from Purneah. The species is very common at 
Lucknow, where I found numerous adults and young, many of 
the latter still with remnants of a tail, towards the end of April, 
B. andersoni is the only toad which I have seen from the Simla 
hills, in which, above 7,000 feet, the only common Batrachian 
appears to be Rana vicina ; R. breviceps, R. cyanophlyctis and R. 
limnocharis, occurring at lower altitudes. I have no informa- 
tion how high the present species ranges, but there is a specimen 
labelled Simla (the town, 7,000 feet ?) in the Museum, I did not 
see it myself in the district, and natives of Theog (8,000 feet) told 
me that the only frog (or toad) they knew lived in the water. 

N. Annandai^e. 

INSECTS. 

Note on Rutilia nitens, Macq. — Seven specimens of this bril- 
liant Dexiid (including only one d ) in excellent condition were 
captured by the Museum Collector at Phularia, Nepal Terai, on 
May 5th, 6th and 7th, this year. The genus is the handsomest of 
all the Muscidse and contains some of the largest species, eighteen 
of which are recorded from the Orient, but only the present one 
from India. It was not known hitherto from what part of India 
R. nitens came. The specimens agree almost exactly with Macquart's 
description. Rutilia is mainly an Australasian genus, but extends 
to some of the East Indian islands. From Victoria and Queensland 
I possess several splendid species of very large size, but at present 
I have not attempted to identify them. 

E. Brunetti. 

Records of some Indian Cerambycid^. — The recent pub- 
lication of Mr. C. J. Gahan's volume on the Cerambycidae in the 
Fauna of British India has made it possible to identify some of the 
more conspicuous specimens of that family lately acquired by the 
Indian Museum. 

The large Acanthophorus serraticornis, Oliv., is recorded by 
Mr. Gahan only from Southern India. It is, however, far more 
widely distributed. In the Indian Museum Collection there are 
specimens from Sikkim ; Nowgong ; Ramanad (South India) ; 
Singhbhoom Forest, Chota Nagpur, where it has been reported to 
be destructive to Sal {Shorea robusta) ; and also from the Andamans. 
It is quite possible that this beetle may be found in any part of 
India and also in Burma, although there are yet no records of it 
from the latter country. 

Neocerambyx Paris, Wied., another comparatively large beetle 
of the same family, is by the same authority recorded from Mysore, 
Bangalore, Burma, Siam and Singapore. In November 1906 a 
characteristic specimen was obtained in Calcutta by the Museum 
Collector. The Indian Museum now possesses specimens from Cal- 
cutta, Maldah and Bangalore. 

Lophosternus indicus, Hope, was obtained by me in May 1966 
in the Purneah District. This is the only specimen yet recorded 



igoy.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



173 



from the plains. Those recorded by Mr. Gahan are from Nepal, 
Bhutan and Sikkim. Similarly Lophosternus falco, Thoms., which 
I obtained in the Purneah District in May 1906, has been recorded 
only from Darjiling. 

A single specimen of Prionus elliotti, Gahan, was obtained by 
Mr. E. Vredenburg of the Geological Survey of India in the Nushki 
District, Baluchistan, in May. The specimen recorded by Mr. 
Gahan is from Baluchistan, near Quetta (C. Elliott). 

Three specimens of Molesthes holoscricea, Fabr., were obtained 
by the Museum Collector in Calcutta in January 1907. Mr. Gahan 
records the species from North-West India, Bombay, the Nilgiris, 
Ceylon, Assam, Tenasserim, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 
Siam, and the Malay Peninsula. It apparently is a very widely 
distributed species. 

Molesthes sarta, Solsky, has hitherto been recorded from 
Quetta {E. P. Stebbing), Turkestan and Western Tibet. The Indian 
Museum possesses one specimen collected by Mr. E. Vredenburg 
in the Nushki District, Baluchistan. In the Annual Report of the 
Board of Scientific Advice for India for the year 1905-06, p. 108, 
there is a short account, by Mr. E. P. Stebbing, of the damage 
done by the larvae of this beetle to the trees forming the avenues in 
Quetta, where it is doubtless exceedingly common. Mr. Stebbing 
gives an interesting life-history of this beetle in his pamphlet en- 
titled the ''Quetta Borer." He also records it from Chagai, Chaman 
and Seistan. 

One specimen of Rosalia lateritia, Hope, was presented to the 
Indian Museum by Mr. L. L. Fermor of the Geological Survey, who 
obtained it in Kumaon in October, 1906. There was only one 
other specimen in the Museum Collection, from Kulu. Mr. Gahan 
records it from the Himalayas, Travancore, Burma, Indo-China. 

Another Cerambycid Beetle, Nothopeus hemiptera, Oliv., is 
worthy of note, not only on account of its distribution, but also on 




Nothopeus hemiptera and Salius madraspatanus. 

account of its close resemblance to certain other insects. It 
resembles the common Pompilid Hymenopteron Salius madras- 



174 Miscellanea. [\'0L. I, 

patanus. Smith, in a very striking manner, especially when its 
wings are spread out. It also resembles the boring bee Xylocopa 
fenestraia Fabr., not in form and size but in colour. Mr. Gahan 
records it from North India, Burma, Java. The specimen in 
the Indian Museum Collection was obtained in Calcutta in 1905. 

C. A. Paiva. 

Notes on some Indian Hemiptera. — Dr. N. Annandale, dur- 
ing a recent visit to Simla, obtained one specimen oi Bagrada picta, 
Fabr., at Theog, 8,000 feet, Simla hills, on the 2nd May 1907. 
He states that it is rather scarce in the Simla district. A few 
specimens were found by the collector who accompanied him, at 
Dharampur (5,000 feet) in the same district and month. Mr. 
Hodgart obtained one specimen at Nagla in the Naini Tal district 
in March 1907. It appears to be found all over India. 

On April 28th a specimen of Palomena renteri, Dist., was found 
b}^ Dr. N. x\nnandale feeding on a Poplar tree at Matiana, 8,000 
feet, Simla hills. 

The only specimen now in the Indian Museum Collection of 
Lelia octopimctata , Dall., was obtained b}' Dr. N. Annandale at 
3Iatiana, 8,000 feet, Simla hills, on the 30th April 1907. It has 
been hitherto recorded from Bhutan {British Museum) and the 
Khasi Hills {Chennell). 

One specimen of Mictis macra, Stal., which has hitherto been 
represented in the Indian Museum Collection b}' five specimens from 
^lergui, was obtained by ]\Ir. R Hodgart at Phularia, Nepal Terai, 
in May 1907. Mr. Distant, in his volume on the Rhynchota in the 
Fauna of British India, records it from S3ihet {Stockholm Museum) 
and mentions that it is also found in the Malay Peninsula. It ap- 
pears to be rather rare in India. 

In March 1907 quite a number of specimens of Clavigralla 
gibbosa, Spin., were brought to the ^Museum by the Museum Collector. 
This species seems to abound on a plant which Mr. I. H. Burkill 
has identified as the composite herb Blumea wightiana, DC. Cla- 
vigralla gibbosa is recorded by Mr. Distant from Bombay {Distant 
Collection) ; Bangalore {Cameron) ; Tenasserim, Myitta {Doherty). 
Mr. R. Hodgart collected a specimen at Bijaura, Nepal Terai, in 
May 1907. It is apparently widel}^ distributed. 

Several specimens of Lygceus equestris, Linn., from Murree, 
Punjab, are in the ]\Iuseum Collection. Dr. N. Annandale found 
it very common on bare and grass}- hillsides in the Simla district, 
above 7,000 feet. It is very active on the wing. The specimens 
obtained b}' Dr. Annandale are from Theog, 8,000 feet (27th April 
1907), and Matiana, 8,000 feet (28th April 1907). 

Macropes dilntits, Dist., was hitherto unrepresented in the 
Indian Museum Collection, but in January 1907 Mr. R. Hodgart 
obtained three specimens at Bijnor, United Provinces. This 
appears to be the onh' definite locality in India proper from which 
the species has yet been recorded. Mr. Distant records it from 
"North India" {Distant Collection); Burma: Bhamo (Fea). 



igoy-] Rtxords of the Indian Museum. 175 

In February 1907 the Museum Collector obtained a young 
specimen of the Giant Cotton Bug, Lohiia grandis . Gray, with a 
seed-like object, about the size of an ordinary pea, attached to its 
rostrum ; and although the insect received a good deal of handling, 
the object remained suspended to the rostrum. Mr. I. H. Burkill, 




Young Lohita grandis sucking seed of Ipomcea. 

of the Industrial Section of the Indian Museum, identified the 
seed as that of a species of Ipomoea. Its shell is very hard ; no 
impression can be made on it with an ordinary knife, and it appears 
wonderful how such a smaU insect could have thrust its proboscis 
into the seed. On careful examination of several seeds of the same 
kind, I found, on one side of the seed, a very small raised spot, with 
a slight depression in the centre. This is the only penetrable part 
in the seed and is doubtless the part the bug chooses for the inser- 
tion of its proboscis. 

A few specimens of Dermatinus luguhris, Dist., were collected 
by Mr. R. Hodgart at BareiUy, United Provinces, and at Songara, 
Gonda district, in March 1907. Hitherto there was only one 
specimen of this species in the ^Museum Collection, from Chatrapur, 
Ganjam district. Madras and Pondicherry are the only localities 
recorded by Mr. Distant. 

One specimen of Gerbilius ornatus, Dist., was obtained by Mr. 
R. Hodgart at Nagla, Naini Tal district, in March 1907. This 
is the only specimen now in the ]\Iuseum Collection. Mr. Distant 
records it from Bor Ghat [Dixon) and Ceylon (Green). 

Vesbius purpureus, Thunb., is recorded by Mr. Distant from 
Assam, Khasi Hills (Distant Collection) ; Ceylon (Green) ; Burma : 
Bhamo (Fea) ; Java ; Philippines. On the 3rd March 1907 the 
Museum Collector obtained one specimen in Calcutta. There are 
two others in the Museum Collection, one from Calcutta and the 
other from Margherita, Upper Assam. 

Specimens of Salda dixoni, Dist. , were found to be very common 
at Theog, 8,000 feet, Simla hills, at the beginning of May 1907, 
by Dr. N. Annandale, who states that they are abundant there at 
the edge of a pond, and are verv active, jumping about and taking 
to the wing readily, but never flying far. They are able to run 
and leap on the surface of the water. :Mr. Distant considered 
this species rare, as he says in his volume on the Rhynchota m 



176 Miscellanea. [VOL. I, 

the Fauna of British India, that he had seen but two specimens, 
one sent him by Mr. R. M. Dixon from Bor Ghat, Bombay, and 
another collected by Signor Fea at Rangoon. 

C. A. Paiva. 

CRUSTACEA. 

A PREOCCUPIED SPECIFIC NAME IN MacYothnx. — In reference 
to a species described in his recent paper {Rec. Ind. Mus., I, p. 25, 
June, 1907) on Indian Freshwater Entomostraca, Mr. R. Gurney 
writes under date June 7th, 1907, as follows : " L find that I have 
used in my last paper a name already used, viz. Macrothrix tenui- 
cornis. Kurz used it many years ago for M. rosea. If possible, 
will you change the name of my species to Macrothrix odiosa." 
Unfortunately the letter arrived after the paper had been issued, 
but Macrothrix odiosa should stand as a correction. 

MOLLUSCA. 

An enemy of certain Pearl Oysters in the Persian 
GuEF. — A number of specimens of Pearl Oysters from the Persian 
Gulf have recently been sent to the Indian Museum for identifica- 
tion ; they belong to the three species mentioned by Evans in the 
Proc. Roy. Phys. Sac. Edinburgh for 1892, namely, Avicula macroptcra 
(local name zanni), Meleagrina vulgaris (local name muhar), and 
M. margaritifera (local name sadifi), the last representing Jamie- 
son's var. pcrsica. Nearly all the shells of A. macroptcra and a few 
of those of M. margaritifera had been injured by the burrows of a 
mussel, which Mr, H. B. Preston has identified as Lithodomus 
malaccanus , Reeve. The burrows in the shells were not vertical, 
but nearly horizontal ; they were cylindrical, rounded at the end 
and not much longer than the mussel. Their diameter was, how- 
ever, sufhciently great to have injured the inner layers of the pearl 
shell in many instances and to have caused the deposit of irregular 
masses of dark nacre on the internal surface. The outer layer 
was generally more or less broken above the burrows and in such 
places had almost invariably been attacked by the boring sponge 
Clione. The mussel itself had in some cases been attacked by 
another borer, which had made comparatively large circular holes 
in one of its valves. Lithodomus malaccanus is not mentioned by 
Hardman among the enemies of the Ceylon Pearl Oyster, although 
it is known to occur in the Gulf of Manaar ; it is recorded doubt- 
fully by Melvill in his list of the shells of the Persian Gulf. 

N. AnnandaeE. 

The distribution in India of the African snail Achatina 
fulica, Fer. — It is well known that this gigantic snail, introduced 
from Mauritius, is common in the gardens of Calcutta and the neigh- 
bourhood. As it is said to be spreading to other parts of India, I 
should be very glad of specimens from any part ot the country not 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Calcutta. The species is easily 



I go 7 . ] ■ Reco rds of th e I n dia n Miiseii m. 177 

recognized by its large conical shell, which measures about 4^ 
inches in length and is marked with more or less confused longitu- 
dinal chocolate stripes. 

N. Annandale. 

POLYZOA. 

Statoblasts from the surface of a Himalayan pond. — 
During a recent visit (in April and May) to the Simla district in the 
Western Himalayas I made a careful examination of the surface of 
all ponds, wells and streams I came across, in the hope of finding 
floating sponge gemmules or polyzoon statoblasts. So much dust 
is blown up from the plains of the Punjab into the hills that I rather 
expected to find these bodies on the water, even if the organisms 
which produce them did not occur. In almost ever}^ case but one, 
however, my search was fruitless, although at first sight I took for 
gemmules certain bodies which were probably the egg-shells of the 
Phyllopod Crustacean Branchinecta orientalis, Sars. On the horse- 
pond at Theog, a village situated at an altitude of 8,000 feet about 
seventeen miles beyond the town of Simla, I found in a scum of 
animal and vegetable debris numerous statoblasts agreeing in every 
respect with those of the typical Pluniatella emarginata, and although 
I was unable to find living colonies of this animal, it is possible that 
they existed on certain stones near the centre of the pond that I 
was unable to reach. Together with the statoblasts were certain 
other bodies which may be those of some unknown species. Each 
contained two brownish capsules, which were approximately circular 
in outline and were enclosed in a mass of air-cells. One edge of the 
whole structure was straight while the other was curved. I know 
of no species to which they can belong. Similar bodies were also 
found on the surface of a small pond above the village of Phagu, 
at a point about five hundred feet higher than Theog and five miles 
nearer Simla. 

N. Annandale. 

Notes on Hislopia lacustris, Carter. — Through the kindness 
of Dr. N. Annandale, I have recently had the opportunity of 
comparing a specimen of Hislopia lacustris from Calcutta with the 
same species as it occurs in the United Provinces at Bulandshahr. 
Dr. Annandale has so fully described this Polyzoon as met with 
in Calcutta [Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. ii, No. 3, March 1906, 
diudi id. , vol. iii, No. 2, February 1907), that I shall content myself 
with pointing out in what respects specimens from the United Prov- 
inces of India differ from those found, some 700 miles further east, 
at Calcutta. 

Dr. Annandale's observations were made in Januar}^ and Febru- 
ary {i.e., in the " cold weather ") at Calcutta, and mine were made 
in April and May {i.e., at the beginning of the " hot weather ") at 
Bulandshahr ; but Dr. Annandale tells me that he has recently ex- 
amined specimens taken in Calcutta in June and that they do not 
differ from those taken in February in the same tank. 



ijS Miscellanea. [VoL. I, 1907.] 

In Calcutta the species has only been found on the leaves of 
Valisneria spiralis. 

In describing the form of the colonies, Dr. Annandale says 
that, in Calcutta " the linear arrangement is far commoner than any 
other, but occasionally several zocecia are adjacent to one another 
in a transverse series " A somewhat similar arrangement to this 
" linear " one also occurs at Bulandshahr, though it is much rarer 
than that next to be described. I have found a few small colonies, 
of perhaps twenty to thirty zooecia growing in this way on slender 
submerged leaves and twigs, where the colony has not room to 
extend much laterally. But in this part of India (the United 
Provinces) Hislopia is far more frequently found in the form of a 
flattened encrusting sheath on the outer surface of the shells of 
Paludina and at least one other freshwater Gastropod. This was 
the condition described originally by Carter {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(3), i, page 169). 

The colony consists of a single layer of zooecia, and completely 
covers the whole surface of the shell with the exception of the narrow 
surface which lies in contact with the upper part of the protruded 
" foot " of the Mollusc. Almost every Paludina that I have ex- 
amined carries Hislopia about with it, and as Paludina occurs very 
abundantly, Hislopia is by far the commonest of the Polyzoa met 
with in this part of India. 

The zooecium of the encrusting form is of a darker brown 
colour than the other ; in both varieties the colour is most marked 
at the margin of the orifice. 

Carter describes the shape of the zooecium as " irregularly 
ovate." This oval shape is decidedly more marked in the encrusting 
than in the linear form. The orifice always occurs nearer the broad 
than the narrow end of the oval, and projects further above the 
surface of the zooecium in the encrusting form. Very few of my 
specimens show spines at the orifice, and those that do bear spines 
have them in a more or less rudimentary condition. As this occurs 
in large zooecia, which contain eggs, I cannot think that the absence 
of spinesiis a sign of immaturity. 

I fully agree with Dr. Annandale' s remarks about the nature of 
the " valves/' and my observations do not confirm the statement 
made by Carter (quoted by Annandale, loc. cii.) that the posterior 
" valve " is larger than the others. 

As noticed by Carter and Dr. Annandale, the " collar " is a 
very conspicuous part of the polypide. 

Although when reduced to writing, the differences between the 
two forms of Hislopia do not appear to be very great, I think that if 
only the dried colonies were available for examination, there would 
be a strong tendency to regard them as distinct species at least. 
But the living polypides appear to be identical in form, and 
there is little doubt that the two quite distinct phases in which 
Hislopia occurs are merely another example of that variability 
which is well known to occur in other Polyzoa, such as Plumatella. 

H. J. WAI.TON, Capt., I. M.S. 



XIIL— REPORT ON THE MARINE POlvYZOA 

IN THE COLIvECTlON OF THE 

INDIAN MUSEUM. 

By I^AURA R. ThorneIvY, 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Polyzoa here described are derived from various sources, 
chiefly from the collections made by the Indian Marine Survey 
(R.I.M.S. " Investigator "), the late Mr. J. Wood-Mason, the late 
Dr. J. Anderson, and a few private donors. With the exception of 
a small number of specimens from Gaspar Straits and the Straits 
of Malacca, the whole of the material is from Indian seas. 

The following is a list of the ' ' Investigator ' ' stations from 
which specimens are recorded : — 

Ivat. N. Long. E. 



Station No 


. 58 . 


. 16° 30' 


72° 


15 fathoms. 


M 


>i 


59 • 


. 6° 6'30" 


81° 23' 


32 


)» 


»> 


>> 


61 . 


• 14° 54' 30" 


93° 51' 


41 


» > 


>> 


>i 


77 ■ 


. Off Ganjam 


Coast 13 miles 












E.S.E. 


. Barwa 


35 


J t 


>> 


»> 


79 ■ 


Off Ganjam 


Coast 10 miles 












E.S.E. 


Kawita 


33 


tt 


)> 


i> 


90 . 


. Off Ganjam 
E.S.E. 


Coast 8 miles 
Kalingapatam 


28-30 


f > 


f) 


5> 


148 . 


.... 


.... 


15-30 


> J 


it 


>> 


197 . 


9° 26' 30" 


75° 36' 30" 


406 


>» 


>> 


»» 


255 • 


9° 26' 30" 


91° 56' 30" 


869-913 


> ' 


>i 


>> 


327 • 


• 17° 7' 30" 


94° 5' 30" 


419 


>» 


it 


>t 


331 • 


. 11° 46' 30" 


93° 16' 


569 


> > 


ti 


It 


333 • 


. 6° 31' 


79° 38' 45" 


401 


> ; 


»' 


>t 


346 . 


• 26° 37' 30" 


53° 3' 30" 


47 


" 



There are 81 species represented, four of which (a Scrupocellaria , 
a Canda, and two species of Mucronella) I consider new to science, 
while the following twenty-four are new to Indian waters : Mtea 
recta ^ Caherea lata, Bugula ditrupcs, Synnotum aviculare, Flustra 



iSo Laura R. Thornely : Report on Marine Polyzoa. [VOL. I, 

dentigera, F. rhizophora ^ F. pisciformis , Carhasea crihriformis, Cel- 
laria tenuirostris , Memhranipora tenuirostris , M. tuherculata^ M. 
radicifera, Thalamoporclla smittii, Microporclla malusii, Lagenipora 
socialis, Schizoporella tenuis, Smittia marmorea, Mucronella canali- 
fera, Retepora producta, R. monilifera, Adeonella platalea, A. dis- 
tonia, Celkpora cylindriformis , Bowerhankia caudata. Many of 
these species have been found in AustraUan waters. 

Two species {Bifaxaria ? and Reteporella ? ) are doubtful ; 
while twenty-one have been alread}^ found in Indian seas. Of the 
latter, four were included in a list of fourteen species collected by 
Mr. Thurston in the Gulf of Manaar and described {Madras Gov. 
Mus. Bull , No. 3, 1905) by Mr. Kirkpatrick ; six were in the late 
Dr. J. Anderson's Mergui collection, named by Hincks in 1887 
ijourn. Linn. Soc. ZooL, vol. xxi) ; six were identified by Hincks 
in a list of various collections from India, Singapore and Ce3don, 
recorded by him in his ' ' Contribution towards a General History 
of the Marine Polyzoa " in the Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. 
vi, and subsequent volumes ; while one, Memhranipora bengalensis , 
was described by the late Dr. F. Stoliczka in the Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, part 2, vol. xxxviii, p. 55, 1869. All these species, with 
the exception of the last and of Thalamoporella smittii, were re- 
corded by me, with thirty-eight others, in my report on the Polyzoa 
collected by Professor Herdman off the coast of Ceylon in 1902 
(Suppl. Report XXVI to Herdman 's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries, 
pt. iv). 

Order ECTOPROCTA. 
Sub-order CHEILOSTOMATA. 

Family ^teid.^. 

I. Mtea recta , Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 3, vol. ix, p. 25, 1862. 
Locality. — Andamans, growing on Tubucellaria cereoides. 

, , Family Catenariad^. 

2. Catenaria lafontii, Aud. 

Localities. — Ye, Burma ; Marshall Channel, Andamans ; Stations 59 
and 77, Indian Marine Survey. 

Family Cellulariad^. 

3. Scrupocellaria scrupea, Busk. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 2, vol. vii, p. 83, 185 1. 

Locality. — Off Mangalore, 26-31 fathoms (Indian Marine Survey). 



1907] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



181 



4. Scrupocellaria ccrvicornis, Busk. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. i, page 24. 
Locality. — Pedro Shoal, 25 fathoms (Wood-Mason). 

There is very Uttle of this lovely species, but the glassy texture, 
the antler-like spines and the tracery on the fornix, also the per- 
forated ooecia, are all beautifully represented. 

5. Scrupocellaria diadema. Busk. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. i, p. 24. 

Localities.— 0& Cheduba, 28-30 fathoms (Armstrong) ; vStation 
90, Indian Marine Survey. 

6. Scrupocellaria gaspari, sp, nov. 




Fig. \ .— Scrupocellaria gaspaii, sp. nov. 

Zooecium with oral aperture occup^'ing two-thirds of its front 
wall, having a thick, smooth margin and four spines above. The 
open space below the aperture is narrowed downwards, supporting 
on one side a small, raised avicularium pointing outwards. This 
avicularium is replaced by a ver}^ large one on each of those zooecia 
situated next below the fork of a branch. Lateral avicularia, small 
vibraculse, no fornix. Ocecia perforated. Radical tubes serrated. 

The present species resembles 5. ferox, Busk {Brit. Mus. Cat. 
Mar. Pol., pt. i) in the small lateral avicularia and the serrated 
radical tubes, but in 5. ferox each zooecium has a large avicularium 
below the aperture, while here they are small except on the zooecia 
situated below the fork of a branch. Also, the zooecia are armed, 
while those of 5. ferox are unarmed. 



i82 Laura R. Thornely : Report on Marine Polyzoa. [VOL. I, 

Localities. — Caspar Straits, Malay Archipelago ; Andamans ; Sta- 
tions 59, ^'j ^ 90, Indian Marine Survey. 

7. Canda rctiformis, Pourtales. 

(Caberia retiformis) Smitt, " Floridan Bryozoa," pt. i, p. 16, in 

Vetensk. Akad. Handl., vol. xi, 1872. 
Localities. — Off Ceylon Coast, 32-34 fathoms ; Andamans, 20-30 

fathoms (Indian Marine Survey) ; Ye, Burma ; Stations 59, 

yj, 148, Indian Marine Survey. 

8. Canda pecten, sp. nov. 




Fig. 2. — Canda pecten, sp. nov. 

Zooecia oval, elongated, with thin, raised margin and a spine, 
rarely two, on either side above. Membranous area reaching half 
way down the front wall, a thin, calcareous, diagonal sheet covering 
the rest, no fornix or medium avicularium, except an enormous avi- 
cularium at the base of each fork of a branch which is raised on a 
large prominence, having frilled edges, and is long, narrow and 
pointed, directed downwards and inwards. Grooves of the vibra- 
cular reach beyond the edge of the zocecia, behind. The junction 
of the connecting fibres is seen below these, and there are serrated 
rootlets near the bases of the colonies as in Scrupocellaria ferox and 
5. macandrei. Ooecia lie back on the median line of the stem, one 
above the other, alternately, from their positions rather to one side 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 183 

of the top of the zooecia to which they belong. They have a rounded , 
membranous portion in front and a sort of umbo, sometimes, above. 
Localities. — Coast of Cheduba, 28-30 fathoms (Armstrong) ; Sta- 
tion 61, Indian Marine Survey. 

9. Caherea lata, Busk. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. i, p. 39. 
Locality. — Gaspar Straits (J. S. Gardner) 

Family BiceIvI^ariid^. 

10. Diplcecium simplex, Kirkpatrick. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 6, vol. i, p. 73, 1888. 
Locality — Off Passage Island, Andamans, 17 fathoms. 

11. Bugula ditrupcs. Busk. 

Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., old series, vol. vi, p. 261, 1858. 
Locality. — Andamans, 35 fathoms. 

12. Bugula neritina, lyinn. 

These specimens have avicularia as in those mentioned in 
my report on the Polyzoa from Ceylon (Suppl. Report XXVI 
to Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries, pt. iv). 
Locality. — Ye, Burma (Indian Marine Survey). 

13. Bugula sinuosa. Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger," pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 39 
Localities. — Eight miles S.E. of Cinque Island, 500 fathoms ; Anda- 
mans, 780 fathoms. 

Family Notamiid^. 

14. Synnotum aviculare, Pieper. 

Hincks, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. xvii, p. 257, 1886. 
Localities. — Marshall Channel, Andamans ; Stations 59, 77, Indian 
Marine Survey. 

Family Fi^ustrid^. 
15. F lustra dentigera, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. ix, p. 116, 1882. 

A beautiful fan-shaped colony half an inch high by one and a 
quarter inches wide. Unfortunately no ooecia are present. 
Locality. — Andamans (Wood-Mason). 



184 Laura R. Thornely : Report on Marine Polyzoa. [VOL. I, 

16. Flustra rhizophora, Ortman 

Die Japanische Bryozoen Fauna. 

As in Ortman's description, there are no internal or lateral 
denticles. There are two, rarely four, spines above. Avicularia 
have the long, pointed mandibles which lie along one side of the 
zooecia, beneath which is the area they originate from. Ooecia with 
the usual calcareous bar across the front are present. There are 
only a few fragmentary tips of branches of this species ; they re- 
semble the palmate form of F. foliacea, measuring three-fourths of 
an inch across. 
Locality. — Off Mangalore. 26-31 fathoms (Indian Marine Survey). 

17. Flustra pisciformis , Busk. 

(Carbasea pisciformis) Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. i, p. 50. 

This small colony agrees with Busk's description of the zooecia 
and ooecia but has an occasional avicularium which has the same 
form as that of F. securifrons ; the zooecia are larger, however, than 
those of the British F. securifrons , and the species is altogether more 
like the description of F. pisciformis. 

18. Diachoris intermedia, Hincks. 

Amt. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. viii, p. 133, 1881. 
Localities. — vStations 59, yy, Indian Marine Survey. 

19. Carbasea cribriformis, Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger," pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 58. 

There are only a few fragments of this species in the collection, 
so that the spiral growth at the bases of fenestra cannot be seen ; 
otherwise the characters agree with Busk's description. 
Localities. — Stations 59, 61, 77, (72, 15, 34 fathoms,) Indian Marine 

Survey. 

Family Cei^lariid^. 

20. Cellaria tenuirostris , Busk. 

(Salicornaria tenuirostris) Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol, pt. i, p. 17. 

There is only one specimen of this form, measuring about one 
inch in height and being well branched. Avicularia have shorter 
mandibles mentioned by Busk [Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger," 
pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 92). The internodes are swollen with the 
number of ooecia present, and the opening to these, above the ori- 
fice is oval with a spade-shaped operculum. The knots of radical 
tubes, alluded to by Smitt (" Floridan Bryozoa," pt. ii, p. 4, in 
Vetensk. Akad. HandL, vol. xi, 1872), are to be seen where each 
branch is given ofT. 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Muse 



um. 



^H 



21. Nellia oculata. Busk. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. i p 18 

^"^ WeT^S" ^''"™/ ^i?f°\59' 77, 90, Indian Marine 
^iirve> , Andamans (Wood-Mason). 



Family Tubuckllariid^. 
22. Tubiicellaria ccreoides, Ellis and Sol. 

MacGillivray, Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xxi, p. 107 1884 
Local^t^es.-0& Table Island, Andamans (Indian Marine Survey) • 
Maso^^""'^ ''^''"^^° fathoms; west coast Andamans (Wood- 
Family Membraniporid^ 
23. Membranipora tenuirostris, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. vi p 70 1880 
L...^^y.--Lat. 6° i' N. Long. 81° 16' E.; 34 fathoms (Indian 
.Marnie Survey) ; Andamans (Wood-Mason). 

24. Membranipora tuberculata, Busk. 
Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., old series, vol. vi, p. 126, 1858 

There is a point that makes me hesi- 
tate in considering this species to be 
M. tuberculata. The blunt tubercles 
are hollowed in a cave-like manner on 
the side nearest the basis of the zooe- 
cia, and the membrane of the front 
wall of the zooecium can be sometimes 
seen extending below the aperture 
over the margin, which has become 
widened and attached to the tubercles 
above the hollowed portions. These 
tubercles with age become united to 
form a transversely elongated tubercle 
as described by Busk for M. tubercu- 
lata. This species should probably be 
called Amphiblestrum instead of Mem- 
branipora. 

Locality. —Station 327, Indian Marine 
Survey. 




F"in. 3.—Membr<7nipoia fuhercu- 
lata, Busk 



1 86 Laura R. Thornely : Report on Marine Polyzoa. [Vol. I, 

25. Membranipora hengalensis, Stoliczka. 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 55, 1869. 

The spines described by Stoliczka as pro- 
ceeding downwards from the lower lip are 
in these specimens situated on the opercu- 
lum ; they appear as if proceeding from 
the lower lip when the operculum is open, 
but stand upright when it is closed. There 
are no lateral spines present on these spe- 
cimens, but on either side of the usual 
basal spine there is one not mentioned in 
the original description. 

Locality. — Snod Island. 

26. Membranipora radicifera var. 
intermedia, Kirkpatrick. 

Proc. Roy. Dub. Soc., vol. vi, new series, 
p. 615, 1890. 

Locality. — Cheduba, 6 fathoms. 

27. Membranipora coronata, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. vii, p. 
147, 1881. 

Localities. — Lat. 6° i' N., Long. 81° 16' E., 
34 fathoms ; off Port Blair, 100 fathoms 
(Indian Marine Survey) ; Marshall 
Channel, Andamans (Indian Marine 
Survey). 




Fig. 4. — Membranipora 
hengalensis, Stol. 



28. Membranipora delicatula, Busk. 

Hincks, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. vi, p. 86, 1880. 

A small colony closely adhering to a stick. 
Locality. — Off Mangalore, 26-31 fathoms. 

Family Microporid.^. 

29. Steganoporella simplex, Harmer. 

Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. xliii, p. 253, 1900. 
Locality. — Lat. 6' i' N., Long. 81° 16' E., 34 fathoms (Indian 
Marine Survey). 



30, Steganoporella sulcata, Harmer. 

Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. xliii, p. 246, 1900. 
Locality.^OE Table Island, Andamans (Indian Marine Survey). 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 
31. Thalamopo'clla smittii, Hincks. 



18' 



Journ. Linn. Soc, vol. xxi p. 123, 1889. 
Locality — Pedro Shoal, 25 fathoms. 

32. Bijaxaria ? sp. 





/ 

Fig. 5. — Bifaxaria'-! sp. 

A fragment, measuring half an inch in height, probably belong- 
ing to this genus, has a continuous, branched, calcareous zoarium, 
composed of zooecia united back to back, divisions between them 
very indistinctly seen. Orifice rounded with a loop-shaped sinus 
deeply sunk, but its primary form continuous up to the surface of 
the zoarium. A few, scattered, rounded avicularia round the mar- 
gins of the zooecia. 

Locality.— \^^t. 5^ 56' N., Long. 91° 05' E., 1,590 fathoms (Wood- 
Mason). 



33. Cribrilina radiata, Moll. 



Localities. — Lat. 6" i' N., Long. 81° 16' E. 
Cheduba, 28-30 fathoms (Armstrong) ; 
Station 90, Indian Marine Survey. 



, 34 fathoms ; coast of 
Cheduba, 6 fathoms ; 



Family MicroporeIvUD^. 

34. Microporella ciliata, Pallas. 

These specimens have the wing-like modification of the avicu- 
laria mentioned by Hincks {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. ix, p. 24, 
1882) as having been found by Captain Cawne Warren on the 
coast of Ceylon. 
Localities. — Stations 59 and 77, Indian Marine Survey. 



i88 Laura R. Thornei.v. Report on Marine Polyzoa. [Vol. I, 

35. Microporella violacea form p'agiopora, John. 

Hincks, Brit. Marine Pol., vol. i, p. 216. 
Locality. — Cheduba, 6 fathoms. 

36. Microporellii malusii, Aud. 

Locality.— Lai. 6° i' N., Long. 81° 16' B., 34 fathoms (Indian 
Marine Survey). 

37. Chorizopora hrongniartii , Aud. 

Localities.— 'hat. 6° i' N., Long. 81° 16' E., 34 fathom^ ; Cheduba, 
6 fathoms. 

Family Porinid^. 

38. Lagenipora spinulosa, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. xiii, pp. 57 and 210, 1884. 
Locality. — Andamans (Wood-Mason) . 

39. Lagenipora socialis, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 4, vol. xx, p. 215, 1877. 

The colonies of this species are in the form of little caps which 
appear to have encrusted some round body and from which they are 
broken off. The zooecia radiate from a hole in the centre which is 
occupied in some cases by the stem of a branching red coral. The 
tubular orifice of the zooecium has often spinous processes behind. 
The specimens differ from Hinck's description in having a roughened 
instead of a smooth wall to the ocecia, and in having perforations 
scattered over the whole front wall of the zooecium. 
Locality. — Andamans . 

40. Lagenipora tuherciilata, MacGil. 

McCoy, Prodromus Zool. Vict., decade xvi, vol.ii, p. 209. 
Locality. — Lat. 6" i' N., Long. 81' 16' E. (Indian Marine Survey). 

Family Monoporeu.id^. 

41. Monoporella albicans, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. ix, p. 123, 1882. 

There is a purplish tinge to these colonies, caused by the dark 
colour of the operculae as in Cellepora alhirostris (Smitt ' ' Floridan 
Bryozoa," pt. ii, p. 70, in Vetensk. Akad. HandL, vol. xi, 1872). 
Locality. — Marshall Channel, Andamans (Indian Marine Survey). 

42. Monoporella lepida, Hincks. 

(Haploporella lepida) ^;^w. Mag. AT't^^. ^?'s^., series 5 vol viii p 11 
1881. ' ' ' ' 

Locality.— hdX. 6' i' N., Long. 81' 16' E , 34 fathoms (Indian Marine 
Survey). 



igoy-i Records of the Indian AJuseiiin. 189 

Family Myriozoid^. 

43. Schizoporella tenuis, Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger," pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 165. 

The present specimens must be much finer colonies than those 
described by Busk. The zoarium u free, forming hollow tubular 
branches which expand into funnel-shaped ends whose sides some- 
times fall in, forming various convolutions, and as growth proceeds 
the branches meet and unite so as to make a confused^ interlaced col- 
ony. These colonies are of very delicate texture and pearly white in 
early stages of growth, becoming more substantial and of a shiny, 
pinkish colour with age. Ooecia are present very large, each nearly 
covering the zooecium above the one to which it belongs. The 
orifices of fertile zooecia are about twice as large as those of ordinary 
zocecia. 
Localities. — Off Passage Island, Andamans, 17 fathoms; Marshall 

Slrait, Table Island. 

44. Schizoporella nivea, Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger," pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 163. 
Locality. — Andamans (Wood-Mason). 

45. Sc'iizoporella aperta, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. ix, p. 126, 1882. 

These specimens correspond with those brought by Professor 
Herdman from Ceylon and recorded by me (in Suppl. Report 
XXVI to Herdman 's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries, pt. iv). They 
have two spines on the upper margin of the orifice not mentioned 
b)^ Busk. Ooecia are present here, not in the Ceylon collection. 
The beaks of the large avicularia are not serrated as described by 
Hincks {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. ix). 
Localities. — Coast of Cheduba, 28-30 fathoms (Armstrong) ; 8 miles 

E.S.E. Kalingapatam, 28-30 fathoms. 

46. Schizoporella spongitis, Pallas. 
Locality. — Pedro Shoal, 25 fathoms. 

47. Schizoporella incrassata, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. ix, p. 124, 1882. 

The frontal, large avicularia have on this specimen forked 
mandibles instead of pointed. Other characters correspond with 
Hincks' description, but there are no ooecia to help in the identifica- 
tion of the species. 
Locality. — Off Ceylon coast, 32-34 fathoms (Indian Marine Survey). 

48. Schizoporella cecilii, Aud. 

Hincks, Brit. Marine Pol., vol. i, p. 269. 
Locality. — Pedro Shoal, 25 fathoms. 



IQO Laura R. Thornely -. Report on Marine Polyzoa. [VoL. I, 

49. Rhyncozoon incisor, Thornely. 

Suppl. Report XXVI to Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries, 

pt. iv. 
Locality. — Lat. 6° i' N., Long. 81° 16' E., 34 fathoms (Indian Marine 
Survey). 

50. Gemellipora glabra form striatula, Smitt. 

" Floridan Bryozoa," pt. ii, p. 37, in Vetensk. Akad. HandL, voL 

xi, 1872. 
Locality. — Cheduba, 6 fathoms. 

Family Escharid^. 

51. Lepralia cucullata, Busk. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. PoL, pt. ii, p. 81. 

Localities. — Galle (Dr. J. Anderson) ; Cheduba, 6 fathoms. 

52. I^epralia fuegensis, Busk. 

(Eschara fuegensis) Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. ii, p. 90. 
Locality. — Marshall Channel, Andamans (Indian Marine Survey). 

53. Lepralia adpressa, Busk. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. ii, p. 82. 

Locality. — Lat. 6° i' N. , Long. 81° 16' E., 34 fathoms (Indian 
Marine vSurvey). 

54. Lepralia multidentata, Thornely. 

Suppl. Report XXVI to Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries, 

pt. iv, p. 120. 
Locality. — Lat. 6° i' N., Long. 81° 16' E., 34 fathoms (Indian 

Marine Survey). 

55. Lepralia turrita, Smitt. 

'' Floridan Bryozoa," pt. ii, p. 65, in Vetensk. Akad. Handl., vol. 

xi, 1872. 
Locality. — Station 58, Indian Marine Survey 

56. Lepralia poissonii, Aud. 

Hincks, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. viii, p. 122, 1881. 
Locality. — Andamans, 120 fathoms (Indian Marine Survey). 

57. Porclla malleolus, Hinck'. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5 vol. xiii, p. 361, 1884. 
Locality. — Pedro Shoal, 25 fathoms. 

58. Smitlia marniorca, Hincks, 

Brit. Marine Pol., vol. i, p. 350. 

Locality. — Coast of Cheduba, 28-30 fathoms (Armstrong). 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 
59. Smittia rosiriformis, Kirkpatrick. 



191 



Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 6, vol. i, p. 80, i 
Locality. — Station 90, Indian Marine Survey. 

60. Smittia trispinosa, Johnston. 

Several varieties of this species. 
Localities. — Kilakarai, Gulf of Manaar (Annandale) ; Station 90, 
Indian Marine Survey. 

61. Mucronella canalijera, Busk. 

Waters, Voy. H.M.S. '' Challenger," pt. Ixxix (vol. xxxi), p. 24. 

I have some hesitation in considering the present specimen to 
be M. canalijera. It has the characteristic features of upright zooe- 
cia, with finely punctured surface, semiorbicular orifice, without a 
tooth, spines above and at the sides of the orifice, and a spout-like 
lower lip. This last is, however, not so prominent as in Busk's 
figure, the spines usually number four, sometimes five, but not six, 
and are jointed at their bases ; also there are, here and there, large 
pointed avicularia not described by Busk. No ooecia are present. 
Locality. — Marshall Channel, Andamans (Indian Marine Survey). 

62. Mucronella tubulosa, Hincks. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 5, vol. vi, p. 383, 1880. 

Locality. — Marshall Channel, Andamans (Indian Marine Survey). 

5. Mucronella fonnidubilis, sp. nov. 




Fig. 6.~Mnc)-oiiella forntidabilis, sp. nov. 

Zoarium incrusting, of a light brown colour. Zooecia large, 
deeply divided-, rising from the base to the orifice^ . coarsely apd 



tg2 Laura R. Th()RNRL\' : Report on Marine Polvzoa. [Vol. I, 

regularly punctured. Orifice large, arched above, contracted near 
the base, with a point there on either side below the hinge of the 
operculum. Six to eight large, jointed spines above, six of which 
show in front of the ooecium when present. Peristome rising 
below the orifice into a swollen hollow process with an avicularium 
on its inner aspect b^ing horizontally and having a tongue-shaped 
mandible. Numerous protuberances bearing small, rounded avicu- 
laria scattered over the front wall of the zooecium and round the 
margin of the orifice, sometimes reduced to two or three only, 
OcEcia finely punctured, their sides prolonged downwards, leaving 
a square opening. 

Locality. — N. Sentinel bearing N. 15 miles, W. 18 miles, 250 fath- 
oms ; growing on the cast spine of a sea-urchin. 
There are resemblances between this species and Mucronella 
vultur and M. aviculifera, but there is the great distinction here of 
no internal denticle to the orifice. 

64. Mucronella maculata , sp. nov. 




Fig. j.— Mucronella inaculata, sp. nov. 

Zoarium incrusting, loosel}^ attached to sea weed. Zocecia 
large, distinct, deeply divided. Surface finely granulated. Ori- 
fice rounded above, narrowing gradually to a point below, usually 
two spines above, a large mucro below, either in the centre or to one 
side according to the form of a prominence bearing an avicularium 
which is usuall}' large and rounded, with a horizontally placed 
avicularium and occupying a large space rather to one side of the 
centre of the orifice pushing the mucro to one side ; it is sometimes, 
however, produced into a narrow, curved process which stands 
straight up on one side of the orifice, the avicularium long and point- 
ing upwards. There is sometimes a second similar avicularium 
on the other side of the orifice. When this form of avicularium 
is present the mucro holds its central position. A third form of 



1907.] Records of the hulian I^Tuscidh. 193 

avicularium is borne on a spout-like protuberance of the front 
wall of the zooecium, and is an addition, not a substitute for 
the others. Ooecia are large and rounded and granulated, like the 
walls of the zooecia. 
Locality. — Pedro vShoal, 25 fathoms 

65. Retepora tuhulata, Busk. 

Voy. H.M S. " Challenger," pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 121. 

In the " Challenger " report, one distinction given between this 
species and R. philippinensis is that the celluliferous surface of the 
zoarium is in the latter outside, instead of inside the tubular alveolae. 
In the present specimen the first wide, vase-shaped fold of the zoa- 
rium has the celluliferous surface on its inside aspect, but the tubu- 
lar branches, rising from this, have the celluhferous surface on their 
outside surface. Ooecia are plentiful and the forked avicularia is 
present at the bases of many of the fenestrse. 
Loc«/^V^gs.— Caspar Straits (J. S. Gardner) ; Stations 59, 77, Indian 

Marine Survey ; southern portion of Malacca Straits (S.S. 

" Sherard Osborne"). 

66. Retepora prodiic^a, Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. '' Challenger" pt. xxx ivol. x), p. 108. 
Locality. — Pedro Shoal, 25 fathoms. 

67. Retepora moniUfera, MacGil. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xx, p. 105, 1883. 

A fragment, which corresponds generally with MacGillivray's 
species, as described in McCoy's Prod. Zool. Vict., vol. i, decade x, 
p. 19, has three very marked features, i. The enormous avicu- 
laria, ending in sharp points, which are placed in front and at the 
bases of most fenestrse of the zoarium. They ])ass right through 
the opening, and the rostrum has a tooth on either side of where 
the point of the mandible rests. 2. The very prominent ooecia 
which stand up almost at right angles to the orifice of the zooecia 
and end in a point, formed by the tip of the vertical portion of the 
beaded band on the front wall of the ooecium. 3. The large, raised 
avicularia with short, curved mandibles present on the front wall of 
some zooecia. Of these features the long pointed avicularia agree 
with ^MacGillivray's form Munita, except that they are situated 
at the bases of, not above, fenestrse. In the forward bend of the 
vertical beaded line on the ooecia, there is a resemblance to form 
Sinuata. There appears to be no absolute agreement with an}^ one 
form mentioned. 
Locality. — Station 148, Indian Marine Survey. 

68. Retepora pocillum, Thornely. 

Suppl. Report XXVI to Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries, 
pt. iv, p. 125. 



IQ4 Lai'RA R. 'rHOR\F.L\- : Report on Marine Po/vzoa. [YOL. I, 

Localities. — Off the coast of Ceylon, 32-34 fathoms (Indian Marine 
Surve}^ ; Lat. 6' i' N., lyong. 81° 16' E., 34 fathoms (Indian 
^larine vSurvey). 

69. Reteporella ? sp. 




Fig. di.— Reteporella'^ sp. 

Zoarium branched, surface glistening, zooecia smooth, with large 
pores here and there round the margin. The front wall rising from 
the base upwards to rather prominent shoulder-like projections on 
either side of the orifice. Primary orifice with two teeth near the 
base, sometimes meeting and leaving a pore below them. Secondarj' 
orifice with a much raised peristome, cleft in front. A large avi- 
cularium ending in two points, raised on an eminence and lying 
across the front of some zooecia. 
Locality. — Off west coast, Andamans, 290-238 fathoms (Carpenter). 

There is a general resemblance between this species and Smitt's 
{^' Floridan Bryozoa," pt. ii, p. 67) Retepora marsupiata, but the 
fragment in the present collection indicates a branched, possibly a 
reticulate zoarium but not fenestrated, and the characters of the 
primary orifice and of the avicularia do not agree with those of that 
species. 

Family ADEONiDi^. 

70. Adeonella subsulcata, Smitt. 

(Porina subsulcata) " Floridan Bryozoa," pt. ii, p. 28, in Vetensk. 

Akad. Handl., vol. xi, 1872. 
Localities. — Off Sentinel Island (?), 13 fathoms ; Marshall Channel, 

Andamans (Indian Marine Surve^^). 

71. Adeonella platalea^ Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. '' Challenger y pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 184. 
Localities. — Ye, Burma coast ; Gregory Island (Indian Marine 
Survey). 



iQoy-l Records of the Indian Museum. 195 

72. Adeonella distoma, Busk. 

(I^epralia distoma) Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., old series, vol, vi 

p. 127, 1858. 

The present specimens are old, with thick calcareous walls the 
perforated area much sunk. There are more pores in some zocecia 
than are described by Busk, and here and th.re on a separate area 
below the zocecia there is a small avicularlum, pointing downwards. 
Locality. — Station 61, Indian Marine Surve 

Family CELLEPORiD^ze. 

y^,- Cellepora cylindriformis , Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger ," pt. xxx (vol. x), p. 201. 

The base of this specimen has evidently incrusted some cylindri- 
cal object. It has all the characters described by Busk, but is a 
much larger colony, rising free and branched to the height of half 
an inch. 
Locality. — ^Andamans, 130-25 fathoms (Indian Marine Survey). 

74, Cellepora megasoma, MacGii 

(I^epralia megasoma) McCoy, Prod. Zool. Vict., decade iv, vol. i, 

p. 33. 
Localities. — -Stations 59, 79, 90, Indian Marine Survey; Pedro 
Shoal, 25 fathoms. 



75. Cellepora cidaris, MacGil 

McCoy, Prod. Zool. Vict., decade xvii, vol, ii, p. 24 >. 

There are large colonies of what I believe to be this form, 

although they have solid instead of hollow columnar processes as 

described by MacGillivray 

Localities — Off Ceylon coast, 32-34 fathoms (Indian Marine Sur- 
vey) ; off Port Blair, 100 fathoms (Indian Marine Survey) ; 
Lat. 6' I' N., Long. 81' 16' E. (Indian Marine Survey) ; Sta- 
tions 59, 77, Indian Marine Survey. 



Sub-Order CYCLOSTOMATA. 

Family Crisiid.^. 
76. Crisia holdsworthii. Busk. 

Brit. Mus. Cat. Mar. Pol., pt. iii, p. 7. 

Localities. — 01 Ceylon coast, 32-34 fathoms (Indian Marine Sur- 
vey) ; Lat, 6' I N., Long. 81' 16' E., 34 fathoms (Indian 
Marine Survey). 



igb Laura R. 'rHORNEL\ : Marine Polyzoa. [Vol. 1, 1907.] 

']']. Idmonea milneana, d'Orb. 
Locality. — vStation 148, Indian Marine Survey. 

Sub-Order CTENOSTOMATA. 

Family Vesicui^ariid^. 

78. Amathia distans^ Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger," Pt. I, (vol. xvii), p. 33. 
Localities. — Coast of Cheduba, 28-30 fathoms (Armstrong) ; Anda- 
mans (Wood-Mason). 

79. Bowerbankia caudata, Hincks. 

(Valkeria caudata) Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 4, vol. xx, p. 215, 

1877. 
Locality. — Port Canning, Ganges Delta, incrusting bricks in brackish 

pool (Annandale). 

80. Farrella atlantica, Busk. 

Voy. H.M.S. " Challenger," Pt. h (vol. xvii), p. 37. 
Locality. — Ye, Burma (Indian Marine Survey). 

Famil}^ CvLiNDRCECiiDi^ 

81. Cylindrcecium dilatatum, Hincks. 

Brit. Marine Pol., vol. i, p. 536. 

These specimens have large, spinous dilatations at their bases, 
as described by Hincks for some of his specimens. 
Locality. — Mangalore, 26-31 fathoms (Indian Marine Survey). 



XIV.— THE FAUNA OF BRACKISH PONDS 
AT PORT CANNING, IvOWER BENGAI^. 

Part VI. — Observations on the Polyzoa, with further 
Notes on the Ponds. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent, 
Indian Museum. 

Thanks to the kindness of Mr. D. Hooper, I am now able to 
give figures representing approximately the maximum and minimum 
salinity of the water of one of the ponds during the present 3^ear. 
A sample taken on May 25th (about three weeks before the be- 
ginning of the rainy season) from the pond in which the hydroid of 
Irefie ceylonensis was found, contained 22'88 per thousand of 
saline residue, while one taken from the neighbourhood of the same 
pond on July 9th contained only 9*82 per thousand. At the latter 
date the whole area containing the ponds was flooded and the 
river embankment had broken down in their vicinity. It will be 
remembered that the water of the same pond contained I2'i3 per 
thousand of saline constituents in December, and 20*22 per thousand 
in March. By an unfortunate mistake the former figure is mis- 
quoted as 0'22 per cent, on pp. 69 and 82 of pt. i of these 
" Records." 

A factor in the distribution of the pond fauna to which at- 
tention was not paid in my preliminary account (pp. 35 — 43) is the 
bore on the Matla river. Mr. Hodgart, Zoological Collector in the 
Museum, tells me that at this time of year it is often so strong that 
people in the neighbourhood of breaks in the embankment are 
obliged to take refuge on its approach in the upper storey of the 
nearest brick house. The bore of course onh^ affects the ponds 
when the embankment is broken and they are therefore put in 
communication with the river, but on such occasions it must bring 
into them many organisms from the neighbourhood of the open 
sea. Collections made in the ponds during the present month 
(July, 1907) include specimens of several forms not hitherto taken 
in the tanks, notably one of a species of the Sipunculid genus 
Physcosoma, which was found in the mud. They also include 
most of the forms already taken, notably Metridium schillerianum 
var. exul in great abundance and the Polyzoa Victorella pavida 
and Bowerhankia caudata , both in interesting stages ; Irene cey- 
lonensis was not seen. 



1 98 N. Annandale : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

POLYZOA. 

Numerous statoblasts of Plumatella were found floating on 
the surface of the ponds in July, together with gemmules of Spon- 
gilla alba ; but as a very careful search failed to reveal living colonies 
of Phylactolaematous Polyzoa at any season in the ponds, it is 
probable that the statoblasts had been brought from freshwater 
tanks in the vicinity b}'- wind or by flood. The only Polyzoa taken 
recently in the ponds in an active condition are Ctenostomes, viz., 
Victorella pavida and Bowerhankia caudata ; but the type specimens 
of Membranipora bengalensis , which are still in the Indian Museum, 
were collected from brackish ponds in the neighbourhood by the 
late Dr. Stoliczka thirty-nine years ago. Miss L. Thornely {Rec. 
Ind. Mus., i, p. i86) has recently examined specimens from Mer- 
gui, and I have nothing to add to her report, which is published 
in this number of the Records of the Indian Museum, except to sa}' 
that I have been unable to identif}^ in Stoliczka's types the " sta- 
toblasts " to which he refers (/own? . Asiat. Soc. Bengal (2), 1869, 
p. 58). It seems probable from his figures and description that 
what he saw were polypides in different stages of development 
from brown bodies, together with unripe gonads. In some species 
the gonads are well developed, after the formation of a brown body, 
while the new polypide is still in a very rudimentary condition. 

Family PaludiceIvUD^. 

Ctenostomes that die down in unfavourable conditions after the 
production of resting buds, which differ in form from the zooecia 
and are enclosed in an impermeable substance resembling 
chitin. Zooecia tubular, arising either directly from another 
zooecia, or from tubular outgrowths from the sides of other 
zooecia, or from a false stolon. The false stolon consists of 
tubular prolongations of the base of each zooecium, neither 
the false stolon nor the tubular outgrowths being always pres- 
ent. Funiculus well developed ; gizzard feebly muscular. 

I follow Jullien {Btdl. Zool. Soc. France, x, p. 174, 1885) in 
regarding Paludicella Gervais as the type of a family, to which, 
in my opinion, Victorella and, if it be generically distinct, Pot- 
siella also belong. I have, however, given a new definition of this 
family, in order to lay stress on the feature that seems to me most 
important, viz., the production of the so-called hibernacula in 
unfavourable conditions. The term hibernacula is, however, mis- 
leading, for the structures it is intended to describe are formed 
in India in summer and spring. They do not appear to have 
been hitherto described in the case of Victorella, as the " winter 
buds " that several authors have noted in this genus are buds 
very much like the ordinary zooecia. As regards the position of 
Paludicella and its allies, if the}^ are to be regarded as a distinct 
family, they are intermediate between the Stolonifera and the 
astoloniferous families of the Ctenostomes. As I have already 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



199 



indicated, their " stolon " is not a true stolon in the sense that the 
" rhizome " of a form such as Bowerhankia is one. It is not al- 
;vays distinguishable, and when it is definitely present is not sepa- 




FlG. I. 



Fig. 2. 



Figs. I .\nd 2. — Zocecia of Victorella pavida from Port Canning at the end of 
winter, x "o. (From preserved specimens ) 

6 = young resting bud; / funiculus; o = ovary ; />= plate separating the zocecia; 
/ = testes; i; = vorticellids growing on the zocecia. 



rated off from the cavities in which the polypides rest, but consists 
of prolongations of the base of the zooecia, the separating plate 
occurring in the false stolon at some little distance from the base of 
the pol3^pide (fig. 2). This is really what is meant by the statement 
of several authors that in Victorella the zooecia arise from swellings 
in a creeping stolon ; it would be more accurate to say that the 
creeping stolon consisted of the base of the zooecia produced in 
two or four directions. A rudiment of just such a false stolon is 
sometimes found in Hislopia (the type of another famih' of fresh- 
water Ctenostomes) and apparently occurs in a fully developed con- 
dition in the Arachnidiidse. The family most closely allied to the 
Paludicellidse is probably the Cylindroeciidse, to which Pennington 
(in Bousfield, op. post, cit., p. 406) thought that Victorella belonged. 



200 \. Annandale : Tlic Faioio of Brackish Ponds. \'OL. I. 

The Paludicellidce occur all over the world, but onl}' in fresh 
and brackish water, in which they are exposed to the dangers of 
desiccation and \-iolent changes of temperature. It is noteworthy, 
however, that the only other genus of Ctenostomes that occurs 
in fresh water in the Oriental Region, namely Hislopia, appears 
not to form resting buds and is capable of sexual reproduction at 
all times of year. This genus constitutes, according to Jullien, 
the type of a second family and appears to be sufficiently different 
from all other forms to merit this distinction. The family Hislo- 
piidae may be defined as follows : — 

Perennial freshwater Ctenostomes in which the zooecia are fiat 
and recumbent and arise directl}' from other zooecia in linear 
or ramif5ang series. The front of the zocecium membranous, 
the sides and the rim of the aperture (which is more or less 
raised and tubular) thickened. Funiculus practically^ absent ; 
gizzard furnished with thickened ridges internally. 

The examination of numerous specimens of Hislopia lacustris 
from Calcutta_, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh,^ and the 
Malay Peninsula convinces me that JuUien's Norodonia sinensis 
and A'^, cambodgiensis are merely phases or varieties of this species, 
which must therefore be widely distributed in the East. The form 
of the zooecia and the method of budding would suggest a relation- 
ship with the Arachnidiidse. Although Hislopia is not found in 
brackish water, the foregoing description and notes may be of use 
in distinguishing it from the Paludicellidse. 

Victor ella pavida, Kent. 

(V. pavida), Kent, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., x, p. 34, 1870 ; 
Hincks, Brit. Marine Polyzoa, p. 559, pi. 79 ; Bousfield, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (5), xvi, p. 401, 1885 , Kraepelin, Deiitsch. Siissu:. Bryo- 
zoen (part i), p. 95, 1887. 

It is unnecessary to give a formal description of this species, the 
anatomy of which has been described by Bousfield {op. cit.). Indian 
specimens agree fairly well with the descriptions of English ones, 
being readily distinguished from those of any other Ctenostome 
by their mode of budding. Possibly there are slight differences 
between the Bengal and the British races, but it is difficult to be 
sure that such differences are constant without examining a large 
number of examples from different localities, and this I have had no 
opportunity of doing. Bousfield refers to specimens he found in 
England in spring as having zooecia that were " solitary, and semi- 
reptant, colourless, and in shape much like a violin with a straight 
elongated neck ' ' ; but he describes specimens he took in the same 
locality in the month of September in the following terms : " The 
polypidom consists of slender yellow or brownish tubes, on which 
at intervals are situated swellings .... in each of which 

1 See also Walton in Rec. Ind. Mus., i, p. 177, 1907- 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



201 



a zooid is developed .... From each swelling arise two 
branches at right angles, and by the growth of these branches 
and the development of zooecia, from which again other branches 
arise, the growth of the colony continues, alwa^'s branching in a 
rectangular direction, so that a matted mass results." 





Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

Fig. 3. — Distal extremity of zooecium of V. pavida from Port Canning, with bud, 
X 70. (From preserved specimens.) 

Fig 4— Resting buds \b) of V. pavida, with remains of zooecium, x 70 : Port 
Canning, July, 1907. (From preserved specimens.) 



In the neighbourhood of Calcutta I have found specimens 
corresponding with both of the phases thus described. Specimens 
(fig. I) obtained in winter from the ponds at Port Canning, repre- 
sented a phase similar to that found in September in England, 
except that the whole of the zoarium was practically colourless. 
Man}' of the zooecia bore lateral buds, which were situated in most 
cases near the distal extremit3\ From these buds (fig. 3) originated 
tubular outgrowths, which, in a few cases, gave rise to other zocEcia. 
I did not find, however, examples that could be compared in com- 
plexity with that figured by Kraepelin on plate iii, fig. 75, of the 
work referred to under his name. The buds in my specimens w'ere, 
moreover, less distinctly c^'lindrical than those he describes, being 
shorter and more gradually rounded at the base. They were only 
produced on a relatively small number of zooecia. 

Other specimens, taken earlier in the season in a canal, the 
water of which was only slightly brackish, at Dhappa near Calcutta, 
had the zocecia partially recumbent and of the same form as those 
of the specimens taken by Bousfield in England in spring. The 



202 N. Annandale : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

zooecia were, however, closely packed together (the false stolon 
between them being very short) and in a few cases bore buds near 
the distal extremity. In these specimens, although the aperture 
was in most cases distinctly rectangular, it was occasionally almost 
circular. Kraepelin {o-p. cit., p. 158, footnote) has described under 
the name Paludicella mulleri, a somewhat similar form, which he 
regards as intermediate between Paludicella and Victorella ; but 
this form is stated never to produce buds on the distal part of the 
zooecia, always to have this region circular in cross-section, and to 
possess a circular musculature. 

Both the specimens from Dhappa and those from Port Canning 
that were taken in winter, bore ripe gonads, the testes and ovaries 
reaching maturity simultaneously in the same zooecia. The ovary 
(fig. i) consisted of a single mass, elongated in a vertical direction 
and situated on the inner wall of the zooecium some little distance 
below the aperture. The testes, on the other hand, occurred as a 
number of small rounded bodies scattered over the greater part of 
the zooecium, but particularly numerous near its distal extremity. 

At the base of the zooecia (fig. i) of several colonies obtained 
from Dhappa and Port Canning during winter, small, mound- 
shaped masses of densely granular cells of a brownish colour 
were observed occasionally, taking the place of basal buds in the 
zoarium. In a few cases, in specimens taken both in November 
and January, these masses appeared to have secreted a thin 
chitinous investment, which was not, however, very distinct at the 
edges. In specimens taken in the ponds at Port Canning in July, 
shortly after the beginning of the rainy season, " resting buds " (fig. 
4) were observed in the same position, and there could be no doubt 
that they represented a more perfect stage in the development of 
the same structures. The resting buds (fig. 4) were flattened, more 
or less oblong bodies of very variable size and outline, the upper 
surface being slightly arched and bearing a number of longitudinal 
ridges, which occasionally ramified ; the sides were produced into 
several tubular projections, on which the chitinous coat was com- 
paratively thin. The colour of the whole structure was dark brown. 
As a rule two resting buds were present at the base of each zooecium 
that produced them, but sometimes there was only one and occasion- 
ally there were three ; only a comparatively small number of zooecia 
had produced them. Such zooecia, and the majority of the others, 
contained at this season no polypides, but were either empty or 
contained brown bodies. Frequently even empty zooecia retained 
their external form, except that the aperture was tightly closed and 
the adjacent region circular in cross-section, and in many cases the 
collar persisted as a wrinkled and pleated funnel-shaped membrane 
extended from the distal extremity of the zooecium. A few poly- 
pides were active, some of them being long, th^n and very trans- 
parent, while others were short and relatively stout ; the latter 
occurring chiefly towards the periphery of the zoarium and being 
semi-recumbent. In a few cases it appeared that the long thin 
polypides had recently developed from resting buds at the base of 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 203 

dead zocEcia, but none were found actually in the course of develop- 
ment. No sexually mature zocecia were observed. 

The form of the resting buds of Vidorella pavida is not without 
a certain systematic interest, for not only do the^^ appear to exhibit 
very distinct differences from those of Paludicella and Potsiella, 
but their shape is not altogether dissimilar to that of the zocecia of 
Hislopia. It is possible, judging from the analogy of other or- 
ganisms found in stagnant water in Lower Bengal, that they are 
produced both at the end of autumn and the beginning of spring, 
both these seasons being critical periods in the life c^'-cles of many 
of the lower invertebrates of the Calcutta tanks. If this is so, it 
is probable that they do not undergo further development in the 
one case until the cold weather is well established, and in the other 
until the rains have lowered the temperature very considerably. 
The dangers to be guarded against at the two periods are different. 
In spring the approach of the hot weather not only raises the tem- 
perature of the water but also, perhaps consequently, induces an 
enormous multiplication of aquatic bacteria. Whether these bacteria 
have any specific action on other organisms is not known, but their 
rapid increase is accompanied by a simultaneous disappearance or 
depauperation of many of the common aquatic invertebrates, while 
the scum they produce on the surface certainly prevents aeration of 
the water. In autumn, on the other hand, the risk of actual desic- 
cation is great, for although evaporation is naturally more pro- 
nounced in summer, it is, at this season, to some extent counter- 
balanced by the heavy thundershowers that frequently fall ; 
whereas in winter, during which there is usually very little rain, 
the temperature is quite high enough to evaporate the water of 
many of the smaller pools. 

Family VESicui^ARnD^. 

The characters of this family have been discussed by all those 
who have dealt from a systematic point of view with the Ctenostomes 
as a whole, but the tropical species are still far from being well 
known. So far as they have been studied, they appear to be closely 
related to, or in many cases identical with European forms. In the 
East, as in Europe, members of certain genera are not averse to 
* brackish water. It is worthy of note that Vidorella pavida was 
originally found in England in the same locality as Bowerhankia 
imbricata, a species allied to the one found with it in Lower Bengal. 

Bowerhankia caudata, Hincks. 

(B. caudata) Hincks, Brit. Marine Polyzoa, p. 521, pi. 75. 

I am indebted in the first instance for the identification of this 
species to Miss L. Thornely. Mr. R. Kirkpatrick has also been 
kind enough to examine specimens and is of the opinion that they 
are identical with Hincks's species. A renewed search in the ponds 
has proved it to be at least as abundant as Vidorella pavida, the 



204 N. Annandalr : The Fauna of Brackish Ponds. [VOL. I, 

two species frequently occurring together on the same stem or 
root and their zoaria being very closely interlocked. B. caudata is, 
however, generally more restricted as to the area it covers than 
V . pavida, which as a rule surrounds it when the two are found in 
close contact. In such circumstances it is by no means easy, 
distinct as the species really are, to distinguish one from the other. 
The bases of the zoaria are almost invariably concealed by a dense 
growth of minute algae and other organisms, and, except when 
buds are being produced on the zooecia by Victorella, the distal 
ends of the zooecia are extraordinarily alike. The basal portion of 
these structures, when it is visible or if it can be freed from ex- 
ternal matter, affords the best means of diagnosis. The nature of 
this part of the organism has already been fully dealt with in the 
case of one species ; in the other, B. caudata, the zocecia adhere to 
the sides of the stolon and end in each case in a free conical " tail," 
which as a rule hangs down beneath the level of the stolon. This 
character is often to some extent obscured in old individuals, 
although very clear in some zooecia of every zoarium. 

If the polypides are alive and can be induced to expand their 
lophophpres while under observation, the readiest way to distin- 
guish Victorella from Bowerbankia is to note that whereas the gizzard 
is highly muscular in the latter, its walls are thin in the former. 
In living examples of the two forms this character is conspicuous 
when the tentacles are extruded, and can be detected with a little 
care even when they are retracted ; but in preserved material it is 
often difficult to be sure as regards the nature of the gizzard, which 
is clearly present (as Bousfield noticed) even in Victorella. 

My specimens of B. caudata agree fairl^^ well with Hincks's 
figures, but the " tail " of the zooecia is sometimes longer and occa- 
sionally forks at its free extremity, the alternate arrangement of the 
zooecia is not quite constant, and the stolon is divided by partitions 
placed at irregular intervals. When the zoarium becomes much 
matted together, the "tails " appear to grow longer than is the case 
when the colony has plenty of room for expansion, and sometimes 
secondary adhesions are formed both between the " tail " and 
another loop of the stolon and between different parts of the 
stolon. When the tails adhere to the stolon in this way they do so 
either by their sides or by their tips. 

The tentacles, which always number eight, bear at their base. a 
long sensory bristle (which slopes backwards and downwards when 
the lophophore is expanded) and a series of three or four approxim- 
ately horizontal, finer hairs on their external surface, as well as a 
bunch of still finer hairs at their tip. 

Specimens taken during winter were sexually mature, the gonads 
closely resembling those of Victorella. In most cases, however, the 
testes became mature before the ovaries. Colonies kept through 
the hot weather in an aquarium in which the salinity of the water 
was maintained at an even level, continued to produce spermatozoa 
until the end of June and did not form brown bodies. I failed 
to observe the formation of ovaries in these circumstances. It is 



igo7-] Records of the Indian Museum. 205 

evident, however, that in the ponds the pol3^ides cease to be active 
and produce brown bodies during the hot weather. In colonies 
taken from their natural habitat in July, during the floods referred 
to at the beginning of this paper, only a few zocecia were active, and 
these few appeared from their transparency to have recently been 
rejuvenated. In the majority of the zooecia new polypides were in 
the course of development from brown bodies, the tentacles in most 
cases being already visible as short digitate processes. On the walls 
of zooecia containing tentacles in this stage of rejuvenescence the 
gonads were already almost mature, both ovaries and testes being 
already far advanced and occurring together. 

An interesting observation, possibly connecting the formation 
of brown bodies with that of the resting buds of the Paludicellidse, 
was made as regards some of these zocecia, namely that their walls 
were greatly thickened and had a brownish or greenish colour not 
due to the presence of minute organisms. Other zooecia, however, 
in which thepolypides were in exactly the same condition, resembled 
the empty zooecia of Victor ella at the same time of the year, having 
thin walls and the collar protruding from their distal extremity. 



XV.— A THIRD NOTE^ ON EARWIGS {D E R- 

M AFTER A) IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM, 

WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A 

NEW SPECIES. 

By Malcolm Burr, B.A., F.Z.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.E.S. 

Genus Diplatys, Serville. 

1. siva Burr. Bhim Tal, Kumaon, 4,500 feet, 19th to 22nd 

September 1906, " feeding on jflowers of stinging nettles." 
Three larvae, which I refer with some doubt to this species. 
Nos. ^% Yr and ^ (N. Annandale). 

2. gladiator Burr. Calcutta, ' 22nd November 1906, 5 , No 

(J. Gaunter). 

Genus Forcipula, Bolivar. 



12 48 
1 5 



1. tfisptnosa Dohrn. Nepal; Chitlong, Nos. -^ and ~, & & ; 

'^ and Yr. 5 $ (R. Hodgart) ; Pharping, 'no. '-^\ 
5 ; ^% ^ (R. Hodgart). Calcutta, " at light," No. ^, 
a',and '-^, 9 (C. A. Paiva). Also the following larvae and 
immature specimens are probably to be referred to this 
species : Bhim Tal, Kumaon, 4,500 feet, 19th to 22nd 
September 1906, No. ^* (N. Annandale). Nepal ; Pharping, 
Nos. iff-° and ^ff* (R. Hodgart). Nepal; Soondrijal, Octo- 
ber 1906, Nos. m-\ m~\ ifP, i^4-% '^i-\ i^i-« i^^° i-2^1 
9 9 ; ^J-'^ to ^f^p , very small and ill-developed cf d» ; 
ifP, iff" and iff% larvae (R. Hodgart). 

2. decolyi Borm. Nepal; Soondrijal, Nos. ^fi^' and ~~ , cf cf (R. 

Hodgart). 

Genus Labidura, Leach. 

1. bengalensis Dohrn. Siliguri, N. Bengal, No. ^,9 . Chand- 

pur, District of Tipperah, No. ^% loth September 1906, 
5 (I. H. BurkiU). 

2. riparia Pall. Kathgodam, U.P., 3rd October 1906, No. ^ff-", 

one larva (N. Annandale). ComiUa, Bengal, two larvae 
(Lefroy). Pusa (I^efroy ' ). Var. inermis, Pusa, cf cf 
(Lefroy). 

^ The two previous papers on the collection were published in the Journ. Asiatic 
Soc. Bengal, 1905, p. 27; and 1906, p. 387. 

2 This and other specimens recorded as collected by Lefroy belong to the collection 
of the Imperial Entomologist, Pusa. — Ed. 



2o8 Malcolm Burr : Indian Earwigs. [Vol. I, 

3. nepalensis sp. n. 

Parva, gracilis ; pronotum angustum, longius quam latus, 
postice rotundatum ; elytra granulosa, carina exteriori distincta, 
acuta ; alse longse ; pedes testacei, fusco-annulati ; abdomen c^din- 
dricum, laeve ; segmentum ultimum & rectangulare ; pygidium 
& 9 haud perspicuum ; forcipis bracchia & basi triquetra, margine 
interne per tertiam partem longitudinis fortiter laminato-dilatato, 
hac parte dente terminata ; dehinc valde attenuata, gracilia, iner- 
mia, incurva. 

& 9 

Long, corporis . . 7'5 — 975 mm. 8*5 — 11 mm. 

,, forcipis . . 3 i'75 — 2 

Stature small and slender. 

Colour dull black ; last dorsal segment and forceps reddish 
black ; antennse gre^dsh ; feet testaceous, femora and tibiae banded 
with blackish. 

Antenna typical of genus ; 21 segments. 

Head smooth and convex ; sutures obsolete. 

Pronotum somewhat longer than broad, anterior border 
straight, posterior border rounded ; prozona somewhat tumid ; 
metazona flattened. 

EivYTRA long, truncate, granulated, carina sharp and well 
defined ; dull black. 

Wings long, same texture as elytra. 

Feet slender, typical. 

Sternum brown, typical. 

Abdomen dull chocolate black, with a pale sparse pubescence, 
which is denser and longer in the $ ; apparently smooth, exceedingly 
finely punctulated ; no lateral tubercles. 

Venter dark brown, smooth, with fine yellowish pubescence. 

Penultimate Ventral Segment & obtusangular, truncate 
apically ; 5 rounded. 

Last Ventral Segment almost hidden in both sexes, only 
the exterior angles visible. 

Last Dorsal Segment : & rectangular, reddish black, with a 
longitudinal median sulcus, and a blunt tubercle on each side at 
posterior border ; 9 , attenuate, with median depression. 

Pygidium o* 9 not apparent. 

Forceps with the branches of the c^ triquetre and stout at 
the base ; inner margin depressed into a sharp flattened plate 
along one-third of its length ; this part terminated with a small 
sharp tooth ; the edges contiguous ; then strongly attenuate, 
unarmed, gently incurved ; on the underside each branch is deeply 
furrowed. In the 9 , simple, straight, conical. 

Hab.— Nepal; Soondrijal, ^ ^««=88. «3.98. 99 ^ ^ cf o- , 6 9 9; 
Pharping, ^-^r > ^ (Indian Museum, R. Hodgart). 

Falls into the group of L. lividipes and L. tenuicornis, charac- 
terised by small size and slender build ; this is a species at once 
distinguished by the dilated forceps, recalling typical Forflcula. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 209 

4. Uvidipes Duf. Chakradharpur, Chota Nagpur, No. ^ff^, $ , 
3rd to 6th March 1906 (N. Annandale). Siliguri, North 
Bengal, No. §^, 9 ; Calcutta, No. ^ (C. A. Paiva). 

Genus Anisolabis, Fieber. 

1. annulipes Luc. Calcutta, 24th August 1906, No. ^®, cf 

(C. A. Paiva). Pusa (Lefroy). 

2. annandalei. Comilla, E. Bengal, Nos. ~ and ^, 2 9 ; Dacca, 

E. Bengal, Nos. 5^ and ^^ $ 9 . 
These specimens are much redder than the type, which is 
probably bleached ; the head and feet are uniform deep red. 

Genus Labia, Leach. 

I. sp. (?). 

This is probably a new species ; there is a single female from 
Bhim Tal, Kumaon, at 4,500 feet, 19th to 22nd September 
1906 (N. Annandale). 

Genus Chewsoches, Scudder. 

1. melanocephalus Dohrn. Pusa (Lefroy) & ; Barisal, E. Bengal, 

9 (Lefroy); Munshiganj, Bengal (Lefroy). 

2. simulans Stal. Pusa (Lefroy), 9 , Calcutta ; " at light," 14th 

November 1906 (N. Annandale). 

Genus Anechura, Scudder. 

1. jece Borm. Nepal ; Chitlong, Nos. ^^r to ^, 7 d* cf , 8 9 9 

(R. Hodgart). Naini Tal, Kumaon, 6,400 feet, ist October 
1906, No. Vt", ^ ; TT, ? (N. Annandale). 

2. metallica Dohrn. Bhim Tal, 4,500 feet, Kumaon, 19th to 22nd 

September 1906, " feeding on flowers of stinging nettles," 
Nos. V/ and ^% 9 9 (N. Annandale). Nepal; Soondrijal, 
Nos. iff-% ^ ; and ^-ff^, 9 ; Gowchar, Nos. '-f^, & ; iff\ 
9 (R. Hodgart) ; Nagorkoti. No. iff% 9 (R. Hodgart). ' 

Genus Allodahlia, Verhceff. 

1. coriacea Borm. Bhim Tal, 4,500 feet, Kumaon, " feeding on 

flowers of stinging nettles," 19th to 22nd September 1906, 

"MqS --^ 60 6 6 ' " Q Q • *> ' ^ 6 15 6 1 S 6 1 9 <5_1_1 6 2 9 6 30 

15J 15J 15 J * *J 15' IS' 155 15 J 15J 15J ISJ 

& cf and 9 9 (N. Annandale). 

2. ancylura Dohrn. Bhim Tal, 4,500 feet, Kumaon, " feeding on 

flowers of stinging nettles," 19th to 22nd September 1906, 
No. ^, a' (N. Annandale). 

Genus Apterygida, Westwood. 

I. hipartita Kirb. var. macrolabia. Mussoorie, United Provinces, 

(Lefroy). 
2 arachides Yers Bombay (Lefroy). 



210 Malcolm Burr : Indian Earwigs. [Vol. I, 1Q07.] 

Genus Forficula, lyinn. 

1. planicollis Kirb. Sandakphu, Darjeeling — Nepal border, 11,900 

feet, October igo6, " amongst firewood," Nos. ^ and ^, 
cf , 9 (I. H. Burkill). Bhim Tal, Kumaon, 4,500 feet, 
19th to 22nd September 1906, " feeding on flowers of 
stinging nettles," No. ^, ? (N. Annandale). 

2. acer Burr. Mussoorie, United Provinces, cf (Lefroy). 

3. heelzehub Burr. var. Katmandu, Nepal, Nos. -'W^ and ^~~,<^ cf 

(R. Hodgart). Nepal; Chitlong, No. ^, $ (R. Hodgart). 
These specimens agree with the type in structure, except that 
they represent the c^^clolabia form, and the colour is different ; in- 
stead of being of a uniform dull black, the elytra are clear brick red, 
the head is claret-coloured, and the abdomen is deep reddish black ; 
I cannot find a true specific distinction, and therefore, for the present 
at least, range them as a cyclolabious colour- variety of F. heelzebuh. 

4. sp. (?). Assam, Nos. ^f and ^, $ 2 . 

These are a distinct species, but I refrain from describing 
and naming them until the male is forthcoming.' — April i^th, 
1907. 

1 Since this paper was sent, to the press Mr. Burr has published a revision of the 
Forficulidse [sensii stricto) and the Cheiisochidae {Trans Ent Soc, 1907 (i), p 91). 
This revision may necessitate considerable alteration in the generic names of the 
species recorded above. — Ed., i3-viii-07. 



XVI.— NOTES ON ORIENTAL DIPTERA. 

III.— REVIEW OF THE ORIENTAL SPECIES OF 

SEPEDON LATR., WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF 

TWO NEW SPECIES. 

' fiy E. Brttnettt. 

Seven species of this genus were included in Van der Wulp's 
Catalogue (1896) of the Diptera of South Asia. Of these I believe 
I can identify four with specimens either in the Indian Museum 
collection or my own, and add two new ones taken by m3^self last 
year in Java. They all appear to be valid species and of four of 
them, plumbellus, aenescens^ ferruginosus and a new species sangui- 
nipes, I have examined a series of about a score of each. Two 
species I know from single specimens only {crishna Wlk. and 
fuscinervis mihi) and the remaining three I have not seen ; these 
being javanensis Rob. Des. (figured in Macquart's " Dipteres Exo- 
tiques "), costalis (i) Wlk., and costalis (2) Wlk., which latter, the 
name being preoccupied by the author himself in the same genus, I 
have renamed hatjanensis. 

Table of Oriental species of Sepedon. 

A Front coxse grey or blackish, 
with or without silvery 
white shimmer ; never yel- 
low. 

B Abdomen plumbeous. 
Long. 4^6|- mm. 

C Apical half (or third) of wing 
distinctly darker ; anten- 
nae nearly or quite black 
(except the reddish yellow 
1st joint); posterior 
femora generally with 
the apical half reddish 

Long. 5-6^^ mm. plumbellus Wied. 
CC Wings uniformly light grey- 
ish brown — rarely darken- 
ed towards tip (if so only 
very slightly) ; antennae 



212 



E. Brunetti : Notes on Oriental Diptera. [VOL. I. 



brown, (sometimes darker 
at tip) ; posterior femora 
always uniformly tawny 
Long. 4^6 mm. 
BB Abdomen tawny or ferrugin- 
ous Long. 6-10 mm. 
D Cinereous species ; abdomen 
tawny; thorax with 
four indistinct lines 
Long, 9 mm. 
DD Ferruginous species ; abdo- 
men ferruginous ; thorax 
with two indistinct lines 
Long. 10 mm. 

AA Front coxae (generally all the 
coxae) bright yellow or 
tawny (with little or no 
shimmer). 
E Thorax black or blackish. 
F Wings uniformly brownish ; 
four anterior tarsi in cf 
enlarged Long. 7 mm. 

FF Wings not uniformly colour- 
ed ; either apical part dis- 
tinctly darker, or a suffu- 
sion along the veins ; only 
the fore tarsi enlarged. 
G Apical part of wing distinctly 
darker Long. 7-8 mm. 
GG Wing suffused along the 
veins Long. 6 mm. 

EE Thorax ferruginous 
H Abdomen ferruginous 
Long. 5-7 mm. 
HH Abdomen plumbeous 
Long. 7 mm. 



aenescens Wied. 



costalis Wlk. 



batjanensis, nom. nov, for 
costalis Wlk. (2) preocc. 



javancnsis R. Des. 



sanguinipes Bru., sp. nov. 
fuscinervis Bru., sp. nov. 

ferruginosus Wied. 
crishna Wlk 



5. plumbellus Wied,, 1830. 

Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 577. 

This species is fairly common in grass and weeds near water 
in and around Calcutta, probably occurring throughout Bengal. 
From Calcutta the Indian Museum possesses it showing dates 
from the end of January up to July. Dr, Annandale' collector 
took one 9 early in May this year at Dharampur (5,000 feet) in 
the Simla hills. It differs from its close ally aenescens Wied, in 
several minor but generally consistent characters. Firstly, the 
wing is nearly always distinctly darker towards the tip, the basal 



igoy] Records of the Indian Museum. 213 

half often being quite clear, whereas in aenescens it is uniformly 
pale brown and never clear at the base. The second distinguish- 
ing character is the antennae, which are (exclusive of the reddish 
1st joint) always black, or very nearly so, in this species, but 
much lighter, and brown, in aenescens. In plumbellus the posterior 
femora are often reddish on the apical half (in which case the base 
is generall}^ paler yellow than the other legs), whereas in aenescens 
they are always uniformly brownish yellow, and the tips never black, 
as is often the case in this species. 

S. aenescens Wied., 1830. 

Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 579. 

Although the author says wing with a brownish tip, enclos- 
ing the cross vein, I feel sure that I have correctly identified this 
species, and think Wiedemann's specimen must have been an 
abnormal one. In one or two specimens out of the series of sixteen 
in the Indian Museum collection, there is a slight darkening towards 
the tip, which is absent in most specimens. His description of 
the shining lead front, and the femora being distinctly mentioned 
as not red, and the extreme tip of the posterior femora not being 
black, lead me to suppose the Museum specimens are this species, 
Wiedemann's line as to the posterior femora being more or less 
brown towards the tip, applies to an occasional specimen, but 
the specific character is unifo-mly brownish yellow femora, quite 
different from the distinct reddish tinge on the apical half of many 
specimens of plumbellus. The Indian Museum series is from Ban- 
galore, but I have two examples taken by myself at Shanghai on 
April i6th and May 6th, 1906. Wiedemann originally described 
both plumbellus and aenescens from China ; probably both species, 
with ferruginosus Wied. and my new species sanguinipes are all 
distributed throughout the East generally. 

S. costalis Wlk., 1859. 

Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., iii, no. 

Walker has described two species separately under this name, 
but neither has been seen by me. The author described the 
present species ( cf ) from the Am Islands. I have had to place 
it and the next species in my analytical table according to the 
somewhat short descriptions supplied. Thus I have assumed by 
" abdomen and legs tawny " that the coxae are tawny also. That 
they are good species I have no doubt, from the four spots on the 
face and frons. Both species seem to possess this number, whereas 
in ferruginosus Wied. and crishna Wlk., the only others bearing 
spots on the face, there are only two, and in crishna the mark is 
a small streak, not a "dot " as Walker terms it. In size, too, both 
this and the following species exceed their allies by two to three 
millimetres. 



214 K. Bruneih : .\flfes on Oriental Diptera. [VOL. I, 

5. hatjanensis, nom. nov. 

Nom. nov. for S. costalis Wlk. (1861) preoccupied 

Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., v, 291. 

Walker's second species under the name of costalis was des- 
cribed from Batjan, and appears quite distinct. The author calls 
it " ferruginous " as differing from " cinereous " under which 
term he described his Aru Islands species. The t^^pe is a cf . I 
fail to understand Walker's remark " allied to S. duplicans," not 
being able to trace any such species. Immediately following his 
description of S. costalis (i) is a new species of his, Lauxania dup- 
licans, which he could hardly confuse, or compare with a Sepedon. 
I presume his " hind femora denticulated " (in his Aru Islands 
species) refers to the row of spines present in all the species. 

5. javanensis R. Des., 1830. 

Essai sur les Myodaires, 677. 

Figured in Macquart's Dipt. Exot., ii, pt. 3, pi. xxiv, 2, 2a, 26. 

(Syn.) S. iavana, Macq., loc. cit., ii, pt. 3, 177. 

This species must be allied to ni}^ sanguinipes. From Mac- 
quart's plate, the wings appear to be uniformly coloured, whereas 
in my new species sanguinipes, they are quite distinctly darker to- 
wards the tip, and yellowish towards the costa. 

Moreover Macquart mentions that the fotir anterior tarsi 
are enlarged in the a" , whereas in all the examples of sanguinipes 
that I have examined, this enlargement is confined to the fore pair 
only. The longish hair below the four anterior tarsi, which Mac- 
quart mentions and figures as an additional or overlooked character 
of the species, is replaced in sanguinipes by the ordinary short 
pubescence common to all the species. As regards the dilatation 
of the fore tarsi, I find this is also the case in fenuginosus Wied. cf ; 
in both sexes in sanguinipes ; and likewise in the single example 
of crishna Wlk. that I have seen, which is a 9 ; so that the character 
appears to be common to several species in the genus, and not 
confined to the cf sex. In fact Macquart in his supp. iii, pt. 3, 
p. 219, to his previousl}^ mentioned work mentions a 9 javanensis 
R. Des. with enlarged anterior tarsi. Again, Macquart's figure 
shows the posterior femora of uniform colour, whereas in my 
species the contrast is strikingly distinct between the bright yellow 
and brilliant red, with the extreme tip distinctly black ; none of 
which characters appear in Macquart's figure. Moreover mine is a 
larger species, and lastly, Macquart shows the thorax rather lighter 
than the abdomen, with two very distinct black stripes, whereas 
in sanguinipes , the thorax is unicolorous blackish with the ab- 
domen, and (when present) the two dorsal darker stripes are very 
indistinct. 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 215 

S. sanguinipes mihi, sp. nov. 

cr 9 , Soerabaya, Java, long. 7-8 mm. 

Parous depressed, yellow, becoming brownish above, and nearly 
black on vertex, with a silvery leaden reflection seen from behind. 
Face below antennae bright yellow, unmarked, cheeks a little 
darker ; antennae, ist joint reddish yellow, bare ; 2nd joint black, 
with short stiff hairs ; 3rd black, slightly pale at base on upper 
side, with dorsal white arista. Proboscis yellowish brown with 
a few hairs. Thorax dull black, dorsum smooth and bare ; lower 
part of sides with silvery leaden reflections seen from behind. 
Abdomen blackish leaden, sometimes with brownish reflections ; 
bare, a few short hairs at tip. Legs, fore coxae yellow, four pos- 
terior coxae yellowish brown, all the coxae in certain lights showing 
silver}^ white reflections : fore femora red, with black tips ; middle 
femora generally all reddish, but sometimes yellowish for a greater 
or less part from the base, tips black ; posterior femora, basal 
two-fifths bright yellow, the rest brilliant red, tip black ; fore tibiae 
dark brown or black ; four posterior tibiae variable, brown, reddish 
brown or blackish ; tarsi dark brown or black ; the fore pair dis- 
tinctly wider than the middle and posterior pairs in both sexes. 
Wings grey, blackish towards tip , and slightly yellowish on anterior 
margin ; halteres yellowish white. Described from about 30 
specimens in the Indian Museum collection (where the type a' and 
2 are deposited) and my own. 

With the exception of one $ taken near Calcutta, May 27th, 
1907, in the Indian Museum, all the examples referred to were 
collected by me in the East and the)^ record the following data : 
Soerabaya, Java, i6th to 25th July, 1906 (in woods) ; Rangoon 
(about) February 9th, 1906 ; Hong-Kong, 5th March, 1906 ; and 
Calcutta, 22nd January, 1907 (in grass near ponds). 

5. fuscinervis mihi, sp. nov. 

$ , Soerabaya, Java, long. 6 mm. The single example of this 
species was taken by me in company with the preceding, July 25th, 
1906. 

It varies by the wings being pale grey ; without any yellowish 
colour on the anterior part ; with the three longitudinal veins 
widely suffused from the discal vein to the wing border. Although 
I have only seen this one specimen, the wing suffusions appear to 
make it quite a distinct species. In all other respects it agrees 
with sanguinipes. In my collection. 

S. ferruginosus Wied., 1830. 

Ausser. Zweifl., ii, 577. 

A common species in Calcutta and Rangoon, probably extend- 
ing over a considerable area in this region. Its uniformly light 



2i6 E. Brunetti : Notes on Oriental Diptera. [Vol. 1, 1907.] 

ferruginous colour will distinguish it from all other species except 
crishna Wlk., which latter is easily separated by its leaden black 
abdomen. The coloration of the posterior femora is variable, the 
difference between the pale yellow basal half and bright tawn^^ 
red apical half being sometimes very striking, whilst in some speci- 
mens the colour is almost uniformly tawny. In its yellow face 
it is allied to Walker's first species named costalis (from the Aru 
Islands), but costalis has four black spots on its face and four 
black lines on its thorax, whereas ferniginosus has only two black 
spots (which are on the frons) and only two narrow black thoracic 
lines, close together, which sometimes form one broad band by the 
intervening space being darkened. 

S. crishna Wlk., 1861. 

Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., v, 291. 

The only specimen that I have seen (a 2 in the Indian Museum 
collection), and that I can identify with this species was captured by 
Dr. Annandale's collector at Matiana (8,000 feet), Simla hills, on 
28th to 30th April, 1907. It agrees in every particular with 
Walker's description, except that he says the dorsum of the thorax 
is black, whereas in the present specimen it is uniforml}' light 
ferruginous with the rest of the body. I think Walker's specimen 
may have been discoloured, and that my identification is correct. 



Two other species were described by Wiedemann, senex and 
imhutus ; they are from unknown localities, and are in the Vienna 
Museum. I mention them because the author's other three species 
all occur in the East. 

S. senex Wied. is grey haired, with blackish brown antennae, 
the 3rd joint being whitish at the base ; the face is yellow, frons 
reddish yellow with two brown streaks, thorax with two blackish 
lines on dorsum, and a white shimmer on the sides and front ; 
abdomen brown, or in certain lights, blue ; wings deep yellow 
with brown tips ; legs reddish yellow, posterior pair rather reddish 
with pale base ; the fore pair and the tibiae black, cf long. <^^ mm. 

The deep yellow coloured wings mentioned by the author 
readily distinguish this species. Locality ? 

5. imbutus Wied. is dull leaden, differing from senex in the 
reddish yellow base of the 3rd antennal joint ; frons and face 
pearl bluish ; wings very lightly yellow, tips distinctly brownish, 
the darker colour extending to and enclosing the middle cross 
vein. Minor differences as regards the colour of the legs are men- 
tioned, (f long. 5 mm. Locality ? 

Either of these species ma^^ be found in the Oriental Region. 



XVII.— DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNAKE 
FROM NEPAL. 

By G. A, BouLENGER, F.R.S. 

Oligodon erythrogaster, sp. nov. 

Nasal undivided ; portion of rostral seen from above nearlj^ 
as long as its distance from the frontal ; suture between the in- 
ternasals shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal much 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter 
than the parietals ; no loreal, praefrontal in contact with the second 
upper labial ; one prse- and two postoculars ; temporals 2 -i- 2 ; six 
upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; four lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin shields ; posterior chin shields 
two-thirds the length of the anterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 
186 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 45 (end of tail injured). Back 
pale brown, sides grey ; two dark brown streaks, enclosing a yel- 
lowish vertebral streak, meeting on the tail, the prolongation extend- 
ing to between the eyes ; a dark streak and three narrow black 
lines on each side ; a a -shaped dark brown band across the snout, 
passing through the eye ; a broad dark brown oblique band on each 
side of the head, from the supraocular to the throat ; belly ver- 
milion red in the middle, white on the sides, with two regular series 
of semicircular black spots, confluent into two stripes posteriorly. 

A single specimen from Nagarkote, Nepal, altitude 6,000 feet, 
presented to the Indian Museum by Major J. Manners Smith, 
V.C., C.I.E., No. 15850, Reptiles, Indian Museum Register. 

A very distinct species, allied to 0. venustus, Jerd., but well 
distinguished by its undivided nasal, its longer tail, an*"! .«j re- 
markable coloration. 



XVIII.— NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF 

MARKETABLE FISH FROM AKYAB, 

WITH A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW 

SPECIES OF LACTARIUS. 

By R. E. Lloyd, M.B., B.Sc, Captain, I. M.S., Surgeon 
Naturalist, Mar'.nc Survey of India. 

In February this year ]\Ir. I. H. Burkill, Reporter on Economic 
Products to the Government of India, sent an agent to Akyab, 
on the Arakan Coast of Burma, to make a col ection of the fish 
exposed for sale in the market. This collection, which includes 
no less than 69 different species, was handed over to the Indian 
Museum for investigation. Dr. Annandale, who looked tlirough 
the specimens and identified some o" the species, has invited me 
to complete the identifications and to publish the results. 

The collection includes fish from both fresh and salt water, 
but even taking this fact into consideration, it is surprising to 
find so many different species of edible fish on sa'e in the market 
at one season. Their variety illustrates the great wealth of fish 
life in Indian waters. 

Most of the species have been identified from Francis Day's 
admirable monograph on the fishes of India, and also b}^ refer- 
ence to his original collection, which is available for comparison in 
the Indian IMuseum. Several of the species show sl'ght variations 
from Day's descriptions, and in one case it has been found necessary 
to describe a new species {Lactarius hiirmanicns). 

The agent who collected the fish also gathered together infor- 
mation of various kinds about them, such as their Arakanese names, 
the season of the year at which they are common, the character of 
the water in which they are found, and their market value. Some 
of his statements are at variance with those of Day ; but it must be 
remembered how difficult it is to obtain accurate information on 
such subjects. In the following list the statements in inverted 
commas are extracts from the notes of Babu Rajonl Kanta Das, 
who made the collection. All undefined references are to Day's 
Fishes of India. The class'fication adopted is that of Boulenger. 
The term " river fish " may here be taken to include all fish from 
water on the landward side of Akyab bar. 



220 R. E. Lloyd : Marketable Fish from Akyab. [Vol. I, 

ELASMOBRANCHIA (SELACHII). 

CARCHARIIDi^e. 

1. Carcharias gangeticus. 

2. ,, laticaudatus. 

" Name Nga man ; common ; the fins are purchased by China- 
men for export ; white fins fetch as much as one rupee per lib." 

ELASMOBRANCHIA (BATOIDEA). 

PRISTIDyE. 

3. Pristis cuspidatus. 

" Name Nga man sway they. Common from September to 
March ; fins exported." 

Trygonid^E. 

4. Trygon uarnak. 

" Name Lcik chout ; common in the sea." 

5. Trygon walga. 

" Name Phat shay ; common in the sea ; a favourite food 
fish." 

6. Pteroplatea micrura. 

" Name Htamanee ; common in the sea from October to March ; 
highly esteemed as a food fish by the Arakanese." 

Myliobatid.^. 
7. Aetobaiis narinari. 

" Name Swan shay ; common in the sea from October to Feb- 
ruary ; esteemed as food by the Arakanese." 

It is interesting to notice that three of these rays are said to 
be common onl}'- during the winter months. It is well known that 
many of the tropical sharks and rays are viviparous and are fre- 
quently caught pregnant during winter and spring (Alcock, Journ. 
Asiat. Soc Bengal (2) 1890, and other papers). Their frequent ap- 
pearance in the market at that season is most probably due to the 
fact that they then come close to shore to produce their young, 
winter being the season of calms in the Bay of Bengal. This view 
accords with the well-established facts that the young of most 
shore fishes are to be found close to the shore, and that they migrate 
out to deeper waters as they grow larger (Mcintosh, " Scientific 
Work on Sea Fisheries," Lecture i, The Zoologist, 1907). 



1907] Records of the Indian Museum. 221 

TELEOSTII (MALACOPTERYGII). 

Clupeid.^. 

8. Clupea variegata. 

There are 14 ventral spines in front of the pelvic fins and 12 
behind. C. variegata is defined as having 10 in front and 10 behind, 
while C. chapta, a closely allied form, has 19 before and 9 behind, 

" Name Taymi, or Nga tha tout too ; common during winter 
months in the river." 

9, Clupea ilisha. 

C' Hilsa.") 

" Name Nga thalout ; common in the river from January to 
March, rare in other months ; much esteemed as food ; salted for 
export." 

10. Clupea Hie. 

" Name Sha shari wat toung ; common in the river during the 
rains." 

II. Engraulis taty. 

" Name Nga pasha ; common throughout the year both in 
river and sea." 

12. Engraulis breviceps. 

This specimen closely resembles E. taty, but the proportion of 
the head to the body is as i : 7, and the anal fin arises in advance 
of the dorsal. The Arakanese seem to recognize the difference. 

" Name Nga ba ; generally taken from the sea ; grows to 14 
inches." 

13. Engraulis sp. 

A small damaged specimen resembling E. indicus in many 
ways ; but the eye is much too large. 

14. Pellona indica. 

" Name My at san gyai; common throughout the year in sea and 
river ; its flesh is reputed a cure for fever, among the Arakanese." 

15. Coilia ramcarati. 

Typical except that the anal fin is somewhat short, containing 
only about 85 rays. 

" Name Nga lawa ;. common throughout the year in both river 
and sea." 

16. Megalops cyprinoides. 

" Name Cha bouk han ; only occurs in tanks." 
Day also states that this fish, which is a true herring, occurs 
commonly in tanks, rarely in rivers. 



223 R. E. Lloyd : Marketable Fish from Akyab. [Vol. I, 

ClirROCENTRID.'U. 

17. Chiroccnlnis dorab. 

This is an interesting specimen as it differs from the description 
somewhat in its proportions : head to body, 1:6; height to length, 
I : 6. Day gives these proport ons as : head to body, i : 6^ — y^ ; 
height to length, i : 6^ — 9. Bleeker divides the species into two, 
C. dorab and C. hypselosoma. The present specimen agrees with 
his C. hypselosoma. 

" Name Nga darhay ; common in the sea throughout the year." 

NOTOPTERID^. 

18. Notoptcnis kapirat. 

This specimen resembles the iypa in having large scales on 
the cheeks, in having 105 rays in its anal fin, and in its proportions 
generally. It differs from the t3'pe in that the angle of the mouth 
is behind the centre of the e^-e, the dorsal profile is more convex 
than the ventral and there is a slight concavity in the profile of 
the head. In these three points it approaches the tj'pe of A'', chiiala. 
It a' so has a wide scaleless flap of sk'n attached to the margin of 
the operc e. Such a flap is not mentioned by Day in the descrip- 
tion of either species ; but it is figured in the case of N . chiiala 
alone, 

"Name Nga phay ; common in rivers from February to March." 

OSTERIOPHYSI. 

SlLURID^. 
19, Saccobraiicliits fossilis. 
" Name Nga cray ; common in rivers and tanks." 

20. Plotosiis canius. 

Both dorsal and pectoral spines are quite smooth on the ex- 
posed edge though serrated on the other ; otherwise the specimen 
is typical, 

" Name Pin lay nga khoo ; common in the sea, sometimes enters 
the river," 

21, Pangasius bnchanani. 

" Name Nga tan ; common in the river during the rains ; 
grows two feet in length," 

22. Clarias magur. 
" Name Nga khoo ; a common tank fish." 



igo/.] Records of ike Indian Museum 223 

23. Ariiis ccela'Ais. 

T5'pical, except that the ventral lins are somewhat large, 
reaching nearl}^ to the anal. 

" Name Nga soo ; common in the river and sea during the 
winter months." 

24. Ar.'iis gagora. 

I have included two specimens in this species, one of them being 
referred to in the Babu's notes as N'ga moot, the other as Nga sook. 
They do not entirely resemble one another in their proportions, nor 
is either quite tj^pical of A. gagora They both have a patch of 
globular palatine teeth on cither side, so far back that they lie 
under the eye. The " Nga sook " is 10 inches long, the length 
of its eye is contained 7 times in the length of the head, 2| times in 
the snout, and 3|- times in the interocular distance. 

The " Nga moot '. is 18 inches long, the eye diameter is con- 
tained 8 times in the head, 3 times in the snout, 4 times in the 
interocular distance. The head is somewhat flatter than that of 
the other specimen. 

In both specimens the maxillar}^ barbel is a little shorter than 
the head. They are both reported to be common in river and sea. 

APODES. 

Anguillid-^. 

25. Murccnesox ialabonoides. 

" Name Thin haichto ; found only in the river, not common ; 
attains four feet in length." 

26. Ophicihys boro. 
" Name Nga /tout pnt ; common in the river during the rains." 

MUR.^iNID.'E. 

27. MurcEiia macnira. 
" Name Nga shing gra ; river and sea, not common." 

HAPLOMI. 

SCOPELID^. 

28. Harpodon ndicrcus. 

C Bombay Duck.") 

" Name Baraiga ; common, taken from the river chiefly." 



224 R E- Lloyd : Marketable Fish from Akyab. [Vol. I, 

PERSOCES. 

ScOMBRESOCIDiE. 

29. B clone cancila. 
" Name Nga totmg nhin ; plentiful during the rains, in the river " 

POLYNEMID^. 

30. Polynenius tetradactylus. 

" Name Nga lay a ; uncommon, taken usually from the sea ; 
attains 3 feet in length." 

31. Polynemus indicus. 

(" Topsee Fish.") 

" Name Luckwa ; common in the sea during the winter 
months ; attains 40 inches." 

32. Polynemus paradiseus. 
" Name Musi rhay ; common, usually taken at sea." 

MUGIWD^. 

33. Mugil sp. 
34- ,. sp. 

These two species of mullet closely resemble one another, but 
I have not been able to identif}^ either of them with any of Day's 
species of the genus, most of which are separated by small distinc- 
tions. The two specimens resemble one another in the following 
features : — 

The greatest depth of the body is more than the length of the 
head, which is '- of the total length ; the dorsal fin commences 
half way between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal ; 
the snout is equal to the diameter of the eye, which is half the 
interocular distance ; the mandibles meet at an obtuse angle ; 
both anterior and posterior e3^elids are present. 

They differ from one another in the following points : — 

One specimen, which is called " Nga man," is 8 inches long 
and is said not to exceed this length and to be common in river and 
sea. Its anal fin commences well in front of the second dorsal ; 
the pectoral is as long as the head ; the head is convex from side 
to side, and the specimen has a yellowish tint in spirit. 

The other species, which is called " Nga cangying," is said to 
be uncommon and never to be found in the .sea ; it is also said to 
attain a length of 14 inches. The second dorsal and the anal com- 
mence at the same level ; the pectoral is not so long as the head, 
whicl^ is nearlj^ flat. 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 225 

These two forms seem to be different species. The smaller 
one is very like M. dussumieri , while the " Nga cangying " comes 
nearest to M. planiceps ; but neither is quite typical of either 
species. 

Sphyr^nid^. 

35. Sphyrcena jello. 

" Name Nga kyauk tying ; common in winter months in sea 
and river." 

Stromateid^ 

36. Stromateus sinensis. 

(" Pomfret.") * 
" Name Ruza na panat ; common in the sea ; much esteemed." 

37. Stromateus cinereus. 

" Name Ruzana ; common in the sea during the winter months ; 
much esteemed as food; dried and exported." 

Ophiocephalid^. 
38. Ophiocephalus striaius. 
" Name Nga rin ; a common river fish." 

ACANTHOPTERYGII . 

Serranid^. 

i 39. Lates calcarifer. 

(" Bekti.") 

" Name Nga tha dil ; common throughout the year in river 
and sea ; attaining 3 feet in length : a favourite food fish." 

40. S err anus sp. 

An immature fish 4 inches long. Owing to the absence of 
colour in spirit certain identification is impossible. 

"Name Nga tout too; sea and river; not common; grows 
to over 4 feet in length. The Chinese export the skin of this fish." 

It is well known that the species of S err aims attain a very 
large size, and it is interesting to see that our Indian informant 
knows that this small fish grows to over 4 feet in length. It speaks 
well for his knowledge of fish. Apart from the mere difference in 
size, there is a considerable difference in general appearance bet- 
ween the young fish 4 inches long and a giant sea perch over 4 feet 
in length, for a S err anus of this size becomes very bulky and attains 
a great weight. There is a specimen of this genus in the Indian 
Museum that was over 7 feet in length and weighed 460 ft. 



226 R. E. Llovd : Marketable Fish from Akyab. [VOL. 1, 

41. Liitianus jolmii. 

" Name Nga wat pani ; found in the sea only, not common." 

42. Thcrapon jarhtta. 

" Name Sa ba sa ; river fish, common during the rains." 

43. Ambassis urotcenia. 
" Name Nga san zat ; river fish, common in tlie rains." 

SCI^NID^. 

44. Sciccna blcckeri. 

" Name Nga pa ihon ; sea and river fisli, common in the winter 
months." 

45, Sciccna aneus. 

" Name Ba sJia ; common in river and sea throughout the 
year." 

46, ScicBiia miles. 

" Name Nga bar agar ; common in the sea throughout the 3^ear." 

47. Otolithus viaculatiis. 

" Name Taiv ba la ; sea fish, not common ; reaches 2 feet in 
length." 

48. ScicBuoides pama. 

" Name Wa niarhi ; sea fisli, common ; said to attain a 
length of 12 inches onl^^" 

49. ScicEuoides microdon. 
" Name Ro rhi ; common in tlie river ; attains 4 feet in length." 

Tliese two forms, Wa marhi and Ro rhi, each represented by a 
single specimen, resemble one another very closely, but differ in the 
following points : — 

The " Wa marhi " has ten spines in the first dorsal fin, and 
eight p^doric caeca ; its prseopercular edge has blunt, obscure 
crenulations, and the posterior angle of the maxilla falls behind the 
eye. This form agrees ver}^ closely with 5. pama. 

The " Ro rhi," on the other hand, has eight spines, four 
pyloric caeca, a finely serrated prseopercular edge, and the posterior 
angle of the maxilla falling be ow the centre of the eye. This form 
agrees fairly well with 5. microdon, which is defined, however, as 
having six pyloric cceca. 

Our Indian informant saj's that the '' Wa marhi " (5. pama) 
does not grow longer than 12 inches, while the " Ro rhi " attains a 
length of 4 feet. S. pama, however, according to Day, grows at 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 227 

least 5 feet long, while 5. microdot is a small rpec'es. There is 
evidently a mistake somewhere, but it is noteworthy that local 
observation has established the fact that one species outgrows the 
other, especially as it requires careful examination, aided by dis- 
section, to distinguish between the two, at any rate when they are 
presented in the form of museum specimens. 

Both specimens show the lateral line continued along ^he m'ddle 
of the tail to its very tip. This feature, which is very conspicuous, 
is neither remarked in the text nor illustrated in the figures of 
Day's monograph, in which (pi. xlv, fig. 2) the lateral line is 
clearly shown as ending before reaching the tail in the case of 
S. microdon. 

Ch^todontid^ . 

50. Scatophagus argiis. 

" Name Bisliat tar a ; common in the river and sea throughout 
the 3^ear ; esteemed as food " (in spite of its reputed habits). 

Drepanid^. 

51. Drepanc punctata. 

" Name Swin ma rwat ; common in the sea during winter." 

SCORPIDID^,. 

52. Psctius argenteus. 

" Name Nga than zay ; common in the sea in the winter 
months." 

LOBOTID^. 

53. Datnioidcs polota. 

" Name Nga pan lun gaing ; taken usually from the river 
throughout the year, but not common." 

54. Lobotes surinamensis. 
" Name Kyauk nag pree ; river fish, very uncommon." 

Lactariid^. 
55. Lactarius hiirmanicns, sp. nov. 

The single specimen differs so widely from L. delicatulus, the 
only other known species of the genus, that it has been necessary 
to describe it as a new species. The diagnosis is printed at the end 
of this paper. 

" Name Ah phying zar ; common throughout the year in river 
and sea." 



228 R. E. Lloyd : Marketable Fish from Akyab. [VOL. I, 

SllvAGlNlD^. 

56. Sillago domina. 

" Name Nga rivan not ; not common, taken occasionally in 
the river in the winter months," 

PrISTOPOM ATID^ . 

57, Diagramma crassispiniim. 

" Name Kyattk nga wat ; taken occasional'-y in the river during 
the winter months." 

Sparid^. 

58. Chrysophrys datnia. 

" Name Nga wat ; common in the river during the winter," 

Gerrid^. 

59. Equula edcntula. 

" Name Nga wagy ; common in river in winter months." 

ACANTHOPTERYGII (SCOMBRIFORMES). 
Carangid^. 

60. Caranx gallus. 

" Name Nga by a by ay ; common in the river in the winter." 

61. Caranx sansun. 

" Name Nga ohn •, common in the sea in the winter months." 

62. Chorinemus lysan. 
" Name Nga khm ba ; common in the sea throughout the year," 

Trichiurid^. 

63, Trichiunis haumela. 

" Name Nga tha rway mingy a ; common in the winter months 
in the sea ; its flesh is a reputed cure for fever ; attains 3 feet in 
length," 

64. Trichiunis muticus, 

" Name Nga tharway ; common throughout the year in river 
and sea ; a reputed fever cure." 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum.. 22g 

ZEORHOMBI. 

Pleuronectid^. 

65. Cynoglossus lingua. 

" Name Khwa sha ; common throughout the year in river and 
sea ; esteemed by Europeans." 

GOBITFORMES. 

GOBIID^, 

66. Gob'us viridipunctatus. 

" Name Un doat ma tha ; river fish, common in the rains." 

67. Gobioides rubicundiis. 
" Name Nga yit ni ; common river fish." 

68. Boleophthalmus dentatus. 
" Name Doung brout ; common river fish," 

SCLEROPAREI. 

Pl,ATYCEPHAI,ID.^. 

69. Platycephalus insidiator. 

" Name Nga prunkhat ; river fish, not common." 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS 

LACTARIUS. 

Ladariiis burmanicus , sp. nov. 

B 7— D 7 1-22— P 16— A 3.28. 

II 
LI. 85. Trv. T at widest point. P.C. 6. 
20 

The description has been drawn up after comparing the spe- 
cimen with four examples of L. dclicatulus (the only other known 
species of the genus) from Malabar. These examples agree with 
Day's figure and description of the species and with the earlier 
description of Cuvier and Vallance. 

The new species differs from L. delicatulus in the following 
points : — 

1. The diameter of the eye is \ of the total head length (i in 

L. delicatuhis) , and the snout is longer than the eye. 

2. The first dorsal fin is separated from the second by an m- 

terval at least as wide as the base of the first dorsal 



230 R. E. Lloyd : Marketable Fish from Akyab. [VOL. I. 

measured between the first and last spines (in L. delica- 
iulus it is considerably less). 

3. The ends of the ventral fin just touch the first anal spine. 

4. The pectoral fin is as long as the head. 

5. Perhaps the most marked difference is in the teeth of the 

upper jaw. In examples of L. delicatulus I find that in 
addition to two well-marked canines, the upper jaw has 
a single series of small pointed teeth on the biting edge 
of the premaxilla in its front half. Posteriorly these pass 
into a wide band of minute villform teeth, at least ten 
deep transversely, si uated on the inner side of the pre- 
maxilla in its posterior half. Da}^ only mentions the front 
or single series. In L. burmanicus, except for well- 
marked canines, the anterior half of the premaxilla is 
toothless, but on the inner side of this bone in its 
posterior half there is a wide band of very minute teeth. 
There are one or two minute teeth on the vomer, and a 
small band of teeth on either palatine. In the lower jaw 
there are 30 small teeth on either side and 3 canines close 
to the symphysis. 

In all other points this species resembles L. delicatulus. 

The type of L. burmanicus is 14 inches ^ong, while Day says 
that L. delicatulus attains a length of 10 inches and Cuvier and 
Vallance one of 9 inches. The former species is said to be common 
in the river and sea at Akyab throughout the year, and to grow to 
1 6 inches long. 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



231 




tiiia 
X 



XIX.— D ESCRIPTIONS OF TWO FRESH- 
WATER OI.IGOCH.ETE WORMS FROM 
THE PUNJAB. 

By J. Stephenson, Major, I. M.S., Professor of Biology, Govern- 
ment College, Lahore. 

(l) ^OLOSOMA, sp. 

The worm of which the following is a description is very com- 
mon in and near Lahore ; it inhabits standing water, and may 
often be found in large numbers in the foul-smelling sediment at 
the bottom, and also in and amongst algse of various kinds. It 
lives well in small vessels in the laboratory ; specimens were exam- 
ined at various times during April 1907. 

Examined with a lens when moving freely at the bottom of 
the vessel, they appear to glide smoothly forward in an extended 
condition, without the numerous twists, expansions, and con- 
tractions of parts of the body that are seen in the case of other 
small Oligochgeta. On a slide and under a cover-glass they are 
seen to be extremely contractile, rapidly altering their shape, 
now short and contracted, now long and extended. They remind 
the observer somewhat of small Turbellarians. 

The individuals vary very greatly in length, according to the 
degree of extension of the body, and also according to the parti- 
cular phase of asexual reproduction in which they happen to be. 
A single individual showing no sign of axiproaching division may 
measure about 3 mm. ; usually, however, specimens are longer, 
show one, two or more constrictions, and may reach 8 mm. There 
is a well-marked prostomium, followed by a narrower pharjmgeal 
and oesophageal region ; the region of the stomach is thicker again, 
and behind this the body is uniformly cylindrical to the posterior 
end. The whole body shows a large number of spherical, ovoid, 
or irregularly shaped green bodies scattered in the surface epithe- 
lium ; their colour varies slightly ; they may be a pure bright 
green, or green with a shade of brown, or a light yellowish-green ; 
the latter shades were noticed more frequently, and the pure green 
less frequently, after the animals had lived for some time in the 
laboratory. I do not think that these bodies had themselves 
ever any tinge of blue ; there appeared to be at times a bluish 
tinge in the other parts of the skin, due to smaller, less defined, 
somewhat refractile particles of a. very faint blue colour, so faint 
as to be almost colourless. 



234 



J. Stephenson : Tuw OHgochaste Worms. [Vol. I, 



Segmentation. — The prostomium is large, broad and some- 
what shield-shaped {v. pi. viii, fig. i). It is broader than the 
following segments, and is ciliated at its rim and on its ventral 
surface. No ciliated pits were seen, but ciliary action appeared 
sometimes to be especially well marked in two grooves leading 
to the angles of the mouth ; possibly the grooves were not per- 
manent. The smallest number of serial setal bundles met with 
in a complete animal was ten ; and animals showing a larger num- 
ber than this showed also, both by the arrangement of the bundles 
and by commencing constrictions, that they were preparing to 
divide (y. diagrams in text-fig. i). The normal number of seg- 
ments for a single individual is thus probably about eleven. 








'-^v;'^r74^w=^^^44^- 



W\VvV 



x^vaI^ 



Fig. 1. — Diagrams illustrating various phases of asexual reproduction in ^■Eolosoma sp. 

Asexual multiplication. — Diagrams illustrating various phases 
are shown in text-fig. i. It will be seen that the anterior, or origi- 
nal, animal of the chain bears eight, nine, ten or eleven serial 
setal bundles ; but of these the last, or the last two or three, are 
evidently (as is indicated in the diagrams) of new formation. The 
zone of budding, therefore, seems to arise after the seventh or 
perhaps sometimes the eighth setal bundle, i.e., after the eighth 
or ninth segment ; and the intercalation of two or of three seg- 
ments in this place and subsequent fission would give us the 
" normal " individual of eleven segments referred to above. In 
the hinder part of the chain the division into individuals seems 
to be much more irregular ; thus in text-fig. i / we appear to have 
had the establishment of three zones of budding behind each of 
three originally successive segments. 

SetcB. — Both dorsal and ventral setae are of the same type, — 
long, smooth, straight, hair-like ; in both dorsal and ventral bun- 
dles, however, shorter setae may be present, sometimes alternating 
with the longer ones in their position in the bundle ; but though 



igoy.] Records of the hidian Afuseiim. 235 

varying in length all are of the same type. The ventral bundles 
contain usually from four to six setae ; the dorsal bundles contain 
from two to six and are, on the average, somewhat longer than 
the ventral. The general length of the setse may be said to be 
about equal to the diameter of the animal. Both groups of setse 
begin in the second segment. 

Body-cavity. — There are no lymph-corpuscles in the body- 
cavity. There is one very definite septum, at the sides of the 
pharynx, representing the division between first and second seg- 
ments. Besides this there are a large number of connecting strands 
between the alimentary tract and the body-wall : they are fine 
and thin in the region of the pharynx, thicker posteriorly between 
the intestine and bod}"- wall, where they have a granular proto- 
plasmic appearance. At the site of a future division they are 
thicker and more numerous, the condition almost amounting to 
a fusion between intestine and bod3"-wall. Numerous strands are 
inserted into the dorsal blood-vessel. 

Alimentary tract. — The mouth is bordered ventrally by a 
prominent lip, mobile and ciliated. There is no buccal cavity 
separate from the pharynx ; the oesophagus occupies the second 
and third segments and is of approximately uniform diameter 
throughout ; bunches of oval or spherical granular cells ma}'' be 
seen attached to it in a grape-like fashion, especially posteriorly 
{v. pi. viii, fig. 3). The stomach occupies segments 4-7 ; it is not 
very sharply delimited from the intestine ; it may contain in its 
wall a number of spherical colourless globules, or perhaps vacuoles, 
about the same size as the green bodies in the skin. The intestine, 
which follows, may also contain a number of particles in its walls ; 
but these are more refractile, less regular in shape, somewhat 
smaller, of a faint bluish tinge, and are apparently of the same 
nature as the similar bodies described in the skin ; they also occur 
in the wall of the dorsal blood-vessel. Antiperistalsis is frequently 
observed throughout the length of the alimentary canal as far for- 
wards as, and sometimes including, the stomach ; and a reversed 
ciliary action (postero-anterior) is constantl}' going on in the intes- 
tine. Diatoms and mineral particles are found in the stomach 
and intestine. 

Vascular system. — The blood is colourless and contains no 
corpuscles. The dorsal vessel is contractile ; it bifurcates in 
the prostomium in front of the mouth, and the branches unite to 
form the ventral vessel beneath the pharynx. There are no trans- 
verse commissures. 

Nephridia. — The nephridia are coiled tubes, with small ciliated 
funnels lying unattached in the bodj^-cavity. The first occurs be- 
hind the first setal bundle ; seven may sometimes be distinctly 
counted, while at other times there are apparently only six. None 
appeared to be modified in any way. 

Nervous system. — The cerebral ganglion appears under two 
shapes; sometimes as a simple, transversely placed oval mass, 
sometimes having in addition two lateral, posteriorly directed. 



23^ J- Stephenson: Two Oli^ochxte Worms. [Vol. I, 

rounded cornua. It is much easier to see in some cases than in 
others, but is never very prominent. While the two forms shown 
in fig. 4 may certainly both be recognised in different animals, the 
difference may possibly be explicable, partly at any rate, b}^ a 
difference in the degree of protrusion or retraction of the pro- 
stomium ; the effect of protrusion might be to double back the 
ends of a normally oval-shaped, transversely-placed ganglion. I 
have, however, no observations to show whether this is so, as it is 
impossible to follow the shape of the ganglion during an}^ move- 
ment of the animal. There are no pharyngeal commissures and 
no ventral cord. Fine hairs, perhaps sensory, are distributed 
over the whole body. On the under surface of the prostomium 
are certain cells which stain a deep blue on the addition of a little 
methylene blue to the water in which the animal is being examined ; 
these may perhaps be special sense-cells. 

No genital organs or clitellum were seen. 

The above described species of ^olosoma appears to have 
most affinity with ^. headleyi, Beddard, of which I transcribe the 
specific characters as given in Michaelsen's Oligochceta. " Kopf- 
lappen breiter ah die folgenden Segm. Oeldrilsen leuchtend gmn, 
manchmal ins Blduliche spielend. Borsten sdmtlich lang, haar- 
formig, S-formig geschweijt. Gehirn hinten grade abgestutzt (?). 8-9 
Nephridien-paare, erstes hinter dem i Borstenhundelpaar. Mdssig 
gross [L. ca. 2*5 mm. ?)." 

The question of colour and of the site of the element of blue 
in the species here described has been entered into above, and 
also the question of the shape of the cerebral ganglion, about 
which in M. headleyi there would appear, from Michaelsen's note 
of interrogation, to be some doubt ; I do not, however, think that 
in any case its shape could, in the species now described, be said 
to be " cut off straight behind." A greater number of nephridia 
is given for M. headleyi than those I have been able to count. The 
length is perhaps not a very important point. 

There remains only the question of the setae. I cannot find 
that in this species there is an}^ S-shaped curve ; they may, of 
course, be temporarily curved through the resistance of the water 
or pressure of the cover-glass ; but examined at rest, without a 
cover-slip, such a curve, if present at all, is of the Yoxy slightest, 
and is not S-shaped. 

The general resemblance, however, of this form to JS. headleyi 
would appear to be considerable, and it may be possible to unite 
the two under that name. 

The above species will doubtless receive formal description 
and a specific name from Dr. Michaelsen in his Monograph on the 
Indian Oligochgeta, soon to appear ; as, however, it is difficult to 
be certain of details of internal anatomy in preserved specimens, 
it seemed worth while to give a description based on examination of 
the living animal ; so that, although appearing before Dr. INIichael- 
sen's work, the above notes are really supplementary and logically 
posterior to it. 



iQoy] Records of the Indian Museum. 237 

(2) ClL^TOGASTER PELLUCIDUS, n. Sp. 

The following interesting form was obtained in the tank in the 
pleasure-gardens atShalimar, and was also found in fair numbers in 
the duck-pond in the Lahore Zoological Gardens. Specimens were 
under observation in the laboratory'' at various times during April 1907. 

External characters. — The worm is much larger and thicker 
than C. punjabensis, recently described from Shalimar. The 
ordinary length is about 5 mm., but some of the longer chains, 
especiall}^ when extended, ma}^ reach 10 mm. Its general shape 
will be immediately understood by a reference to the figures in 
plates ix and x ; fig. i, however, was drawn from a somewhat con- 
tracted specimen, and the usual shape is more accurately expressed 
by some of the other drawings. The animal is very transparent. 

It seems unnecessary to describe a prostomium, the mouth 
being large, obliquely placed ventro-anteriorly, and reaching to 
the anterior extremity of the animal. The pharyngeal region is 
beset externally with a large number of minute irregularities, pro- 
bably small chitinoid, or at least cuticular, elevations {v. fig, i), 
mostly elongated in an antero-posterior direction ; their shape and 
disposition are represented in text-fig. 2. The anus is terminal. The 
animal is very contractile, and may, in this condition, appear to 
be little more than half its normal length, and double its normal 
thickness. It moves largely by means of these contractions and 
extensions of the body assisted by its setse ; in backward progression 
the hinder end of the body may be first over-extended, then sharply 
flexed ; the setse, with their points directed forwards, are thus 
brought to impinge forcibly on an}^ subjacent object, which serves as 
a point of resistance as the animal thus jerks itself backwards. In 
anterior progression the points of the setse are directed backwards. 

Segmentation. — The rudimentary nature of the prostomium 
has been mentioned ; neither it nor any of the succeeding segments 
are marked off by any external annulation, and other means of 
delimiting the segments also fail us in the anterior part of the 
body. As elsewhere, the first group of setse may be supposed to 
mark the second segment ; but posterior to this there is a region 
of the body which is entirely achsetous, which possesses no nephridia, 
where the ventral nerve cord is not marked by distinct ganglia, 
and where the septa also are irregular or wanting. There can, 
however, be little doubt that the second group of setae belongs to 
the sixth segment, since this is the rule in the genus Chcetogaster , 
to which in other respects the present form shows a close corres- 
pondence. In C. punjabensis, for example, the segments can be 
counted by means of the septa ; and there can be no doubt of 
the close relation between that species and the present form. The 
body is continued posteriorly to a variable length, the segments 
being marked throughout this extent by definite septa, by the 
setal bundles and by nerve ganglia. The shortest animal I have 
met with (text-fig. 2) showed in all eleven segments, and this may 
be taken as the normal length of a single individual. 



238: 



J. Stephenson : Two Oligochxte Worms. 



[Vol. 1, 







it. 



Fig. 2. —An animal of eleven segments; the lateral expansions of the nerve-cord are 
well seen. The bloodvessels are indicated by cross shading. The nephridia here and 
in subsequent figures are diagrammatic. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 239 

Asexual reproduction. — The ''normal single individual" is, how- 
ever, very rarely met with ; since in the large majority of cases 
indications of approaching fission are evident. Indeed, speaking 
strictly, I believe that such indications are always to be met with, 
and that even in the specimen represented in text- fig. 2, the arrange- 
ment of the nephridia and the lateral extension of the nerve-cord 
(here unusually evident) indicate preparations for renewed division. 

Figure 3 shows a specimen which is slightly longer than the 
above, has an additional nephridium, and is producing new seg- 
ments posteriorly, as indicated b}^ the terminal minute new setae. 
This — and the same applies to several of the figures referred to 
in the following few paragraphs — was drawn originally to illus- 
trate other points ; the nerve-cord is here not represented, but an 
irregularity of the septa about the ninth and tenth segments prob- 
ably indicates the production of new segments at this place. 

Figure 4 represents a considerably longer animal. A definite 
constriction divides it into two halves, of which the anterior is in 
exactly the condition of text-fig. 2 ; the posterior contains also three 
nephridia, with an interval between the second and third, where 
a lateral extension of the nerve-cord is beginning to grow dorsal- 
wards. This posterior portion evidentl}^ only requires the elon- 
gation of its fore-part and the addition of the first setal bundles to 
bring it also into the stage of the animal represented in text- fig. 2. 

Figure 5 shows this elongation and addition of the first setal 
bundles (directed from the first forwards, not perpendicularly 
outwards) as having taken place. But in this and the subsequent 
examples the two chief components of the compound animal have, 
before separation, developed further than the already separated 
individual of text-fig. 2, which seems to have become free at an 
unusually early stage. There seems here to be a slight irregular- 
ity in the development of the nephridia. 

Figure 6 shows, as measured by the number of segments and 
the development of the nephridia, a more advanced stage than 
the last, though the actual division into two is apparently more 
remote. It shows a typical distribution of the nephridia ; and a 
number of extremely minute, newly developing setal bundles, dis- 
tinguishable only with the high power, afford a good demonstration 
of the various positions where new segments are being intercalated. 

Figure 7 illustrates again the slight irregularities which may 
occur in the time of appearance of the nephridia. This specimen 
contains one nephridium less than the last, though the most ante- 
rior setal bundle of the posterior component is better developed, 
and the minute setae at the zones of budding are — or were in the 
original specimen — rather more in evidence. In this, as well as 
figs. 5 and 6, it will be seen that attention has been paid to the 
irregularities of the skin surface at the sites of future division. 
Figure i shows a very similar stage. 

The longest animal of which I have any note, was also the 
only one in which reproductive organs were seen. Sexual and 
asexual modes of reproduction do not, therefore, exclude each other, 
Here the two chief components each consisted of three portions. 



240 



J. Stephenson : Two Oligoch^fe Worms. 



\"OL. I 



so that the whole chain was composed of six individuals or their 
rudiments. As regards the posterior of the two chief components, 
its anterior section was suificiently distinct, while a further subdivi- 
sion in front of the sixth setal group, reckoned from behind, was 
evidenced by the constriction and absence of nephridia at this 
part. The corresponding subdivision in the anterior animal was 
less evident owing to the non-development, up to that time, of 
nephridia behind the level of the slight constriction. 

We can now, I think, summarize the history' of asexual repro- 
duction in this species as follows : The normal single individual 
consists of about eleven segments, but, in the spring of the year 
at any rate, it is seldom found, and does not usually separate till 
it has attained a greater length than this. It contains, typically, 
two nephridia in the seventh and eighth segments ; it also shows 
already a zone of budding behind the eighth segment; a nephridium, 
if present in the tenth segment, will ultimately become the first 
of a posterior animal. About eight segments are intercalated at 
the zone of budding, the three anterior of which belong to the 
anterior half, and the five posterior become the anterior five seg- 
ments of the second animal ; the setse of the ninth original segment 
become the second setal bundle, i.e., the setse of the sixth segment, 
of the second animal. The posterior end of the whole animal 
produces three new segments, whereby we now have twent3^-two 
in all, eleven for each half. The animal, however, seldom divides 
at this stage, the components remaining attached until at least 
a part of the above cycle has been repeated in each of them. 

SetcB. — There are no dorsal setse. The ventral setoe are slender, 
somewhat small compared with the size of the animal, slightly 

curved in an / shape, with two unequal prongs and a small nodu- 

lus {v. text-fig. 3 A). Those of the second segment are directed 



Fig. 3. A, ventral seta of C. pellucidus ; B, genital seta. 



igoy] Records of the Indian Museum. 241 

anteriorly, and when brought into use are spread out in a fan- 
shaped manner ; the}' do not, at rest, reach the mouth, and I 
have not seen them used for prehension of food. The next bundle 
of setae belongs (y. ant.) to the sixth segment, and is situated about 
the junction of the middle and posterior thirds of the crop. The 
two following bundles are placed in the region of the stomach ; 
other bundles follow segmentally to the posterior end of the body. 

The number of setse in each bundle is ver}^ commonl^^ five ; 
or, in the second segment, six or seven ; two, three and four are 
also met with. 

In the only specimen met with which showed sexual organs, 
the setae of the sixth segment were modified {v. text-fig. 3 B). The}' 
were shorter, stouter, with well-marked nodulus, not forked, and did 
not project. In another specimen which, however, had no sexual 
organs, these setae were shorter than those of the next segment, 
and did not project as much ; the}' had the usual two prongs. 

The setal sacs are not conspicuous, the internal ends of the 
setae appearing to be merely connected with a number of fine radiat- 
ing contractile strands. The setae may be rotated ; the hooked 
free end pointing sometimes forwards and sometimes backwards, 
according to the direction of progression, except probabl}' in the 
case of the first setal bundle. 

Body-cavity . — The body-cavit}' is traversed by septa, of which 
the first is well-marked, thick and situated behind the pharynx ; 
the second is thinner and is placed at the beginning of the crop ; 
these two may be taken as delimiting the second and third segments 
posteriorly. The next definite septum is near the posterior end of 
the crop, and there is also a septum at the middle of the stomach ; 
these show the extent posteriorly of the sixth and seventh segments : 
septa occur intersegmentally in the posterior part of the animal. 

Besides the septa, there are a number of irregularly placed fine 
strands passing between alimentar}' canal and bod}"- wall, especiall}' 
numerous and perhaps contractile in the region of the pharynx. 

On one occasion a number of corpuscles were observed in the 
body-cavity; these contained a number of colourless, refractile, 
oil-like globules, of dift'erent sizes, in their substance. Usually, 
however, the body-cavit}' is free from corpuscles. 

Alimentary canal. — The mouth is large, circular, placed ventro- 
anteriorh', and reaching as far as the anterior tip of the animal. 
The buccal cavity {v. text-fig. 4 C) succeeds, with the nerve com- 
missure round its sides ; the phar^-nx is conspicuous, occupying the 
second segment, attached by strands to the bod}'- wall, and having 
normally onl}' a narrow lumen. The oesophagus (text-fig. 2, and pi. 
ix, fig. i) is a narrow tube leading to the crop ; it occupies almost 
the whole of the third segment. The crop is the dilated portion 
of the canal in the fourth, fifth, sixth and part of the seventh seg- 
ments ; it is usually empty, and its walls are clearer than is the 
case in the stomach and intestine. A constriction in the seventh 
segment separates the crop from the stomach, the latter being alsio 
distinguished from the crop by the number of yellowish , refractile , 



242 



J. Stephenson: Two Oligochsete Worms. [Vol. I. 



oil-like globules in its wall : it frequently has a somewhat 
rhomboidal shape, owing to its being pulled out laterally by the 
attachment of the septum. The intestine follows, also dilated at 
the insertions of the septa ; its walls are of the same character as 
those of the stomach. Ciliary motion may sometimes be detected 
in the intestine, but it is not of a conspicuous character, nor 
definiteh^ in a postero- anterior direction, as is commonly the case 
in small aquatic OligochcCta. 

These animals are carnivorous ; on two occasions I found two 
specimens on a dead fly in the water ; the stomach and intestine 
of others showed Paramoecia and other Ciliata, small Crustacea, 
Rotifers and Anguillulae in their interior. 

Circulatory system. — The dorsal vessel is contractile, the 
contractions progressing from behind forwards ; it is attached to 
the dorsal wall of the intestine, stomach, crop and oesophagus, 
except at the angle between oesophagus and pharynx ; it is again 
attached to the wall of the pharynx in its posterior part, and be- 
comes free anteriorly before it divides. It is continued as two 
lateral vessels at the sides of the buccal cavity, immediately pos- 
terior to the nerve-commissures {v. text-fig. 4 C), which unite 



.«5 




r 



tv if^i\ i 




c 

Fig. 4 — A, anterior part of ventral nerve cord of C. pellvcidvs. in the extended 
condition; P, cerelral ;iid 1 ureal f?rj)lia ai.d il.eir ron ini^Mires ; C, anterior end of 
animal, from the side. (Reference letters as in Matts ix and x.) 



1907-] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



243 



ventrally in the ventral vessel. This is not contractile and is not 
attached to the wall of the alimentary canal. A pair of transverse 
connecting vessels {v. text-fig. 2) which are contractile are situated in 
the oesophageal segment in front of septum f . There is a capiUary 
plexus in the wall of the crop similar to that described in C. 
'f)uniabensis {v. pi. ix, fig. 10). The blood is colourless and 
contains no corpuscles. 

Ncphridia. — The nephridia are long, finely coiled tubes, not 
attached to the septa, and without funnels; no ciliary motion is 
visible within them. Their position has been described above, 
and may be seen in the various figures. 

Nervous system. — The cerebral ganglion is situated dorsal 
to the buccal cavity ; it is indistinctly bilobed, elongated trans- 
versely, and may appear somewhat nodular in outline. The 
commissures are continued from its antero-lateral angles. The 
ganglion frequently contains a quantity of granular opaque matter ; 
this may be aggregated into an ovoid mass (text-fig. 5 A) in the 






3 ' P 



Fig 5. — A, cprebral ;?anwlion of C. pellncidits. with symmetricnl ovoid granular 
mass; B, the same, gr.iniil ir niHtt-T mainly unilateral; C. anferiur part of ventral 
nervc'Curd, in tlie usual somt^what contracted condition of the animal. 

deeper and more posterior part of the ganglion ; or it may extend 
as scattered granules some distance along the commissures ; or 
it may be confined to the right (text-fig. 5 B) or left half of the 
ganglion ; or it may be absent altogether. But even when most 
closely aggregated, the mass never has the bright shining appear- 
ance of the refractile particle in the cerebral ganglion of C. punjab- 
ensis, but is always dark and opaque. 



244 



J. Stephenson : Two Oligochste Worms. [Vol. I, 



The commissures lie at the sides of the buccal cavity and 
unite below ; about one-third of their length from the cerebral 
ganglion they each give off a branch which proceeds in a posterior 
and dorsal direction, and curving inwards unites with its fellow 
in a loop dorsal to the pharynx ; this loop shows two ganglionic 
swellings, one on each side, which are very evident in text-fig. 6, 




* <:^» 



Fig 6. — Antprior part of nervous systern of C. f>plliicidus : hnrca.\ ganglia obvious, 
buccal commissures imlistinct. ^Ketereiice letters as in Plates ix and x.) 



though the connecting strands were here scarcely discern'ble. The 
fibres appear to enter the loop from the ventral portion of the 
buccal commissure, not from the direction of the cerebral ganglion 
{v. text-fig. 4 B and C). 

The ventral nerve-cord shows the longitudinal division into 
two in its anterior portion, which is characteristic of the genus. 
This is best seen when the animal is well extended ; the separation 
between the halves then takes the form of elongated oval spaces 
with bridges passing from side to side between them. In the much 
more usual (under examination) somewhat contracted condition, 
the longitudinal division of the cord is much less marked, and 
appsars as a series of small circular buttonholes with puckered 
margins (c/. text-figs. 4 A and 5 C) ; in this condition the outline of 
the cord is irregularly nodulated. This longitudinal division extends 
almost as far as the posterior end of the pharynx. 

The ganglia are placed in each segment after the fifth at the 
level of the setal bundles. In the anterior part of the body they 
are not clearly distinguishable, though on a lateral view a slight 
thickening of the cord appears to exist anteriorly where it is formed 
by the union of the commissures, and again just behind the 
posterior limit of the pharynx. The first ganglion, however, that 
is clearly recognisable is that of the sixth segment ; all are seen 
better in a lateral view than in one from the ventral surface. 

The lateral expansions of the nerve-cord at the site of a future 
division of the animal have been already referred to, and are illus- 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 245 

trated in text-fig. 2 ; the terminal expansion in this particular 
case probably denotes that the animal has recently divided. The 
expansions are quite similar to those I have already described in 
C punjabensis ; they are more marked on the posterior side of the 
actual line of constriction, where they appear to develop into the 
nerve-commissures of the posterior animal (c/. some examples in 
figs. 5 and 6). 

Sense organs. — A few fine hairs are seen at the anterior end of 
the body. The granular matter in the cerebral ganglion doubtless 
corresponds to the refractile particle in the same situation in 
C. punjabensis. 

Reproductive organs. — I found these organs only in one specimen 
(which was also dividing asexually), although within a few days 
of this I looked through a fair number of examples with a view 
to discovering others. 

The male organs {of. fig. 9) are situated opposite the middle 
region of the crop ; a small spherical mass, in which no structure 
could be discerned, and seen only on one side, perhaps represents 
the testis ; to its outer side lies a tube, straight or doubly bent, 
ending internally in a dilated portion, and externally on the surface 
at the level of the setse of the sixth segment. A swollen part of 
this tube near its external aperture is occupied by an ovoid some- 
what granular mass, and the external aperture itself is funnel- 
shaped. I could not distinctly see an internal opening at the 
other end of the tube, nor was ciliary motion anywhere visible. 
The genital setae have already been described ; there is a develop- 
ment of hairs around the aperture ; and the skin is thickened here, 
so that seen laterally (fig. 10) there is a slight protuberance. 

Scattered throughout the body, in the posterior as well as 
in the anterior of the two as yet undivided animals, were numer- 
ous sperm-morulse ; various stages in the development of these 
are represented in fig. 8, beginning with a small globular hyaline 
mass, in which the individual ceUs are but faintly visible with the 
high power of the microscope, and ending with a wisp of enveloped 
spermatozoa. The male products would therefore seem to ripen 
while floating free in the body-cavity. 

The ovaries, of which one is shown in fig. 9, develop on the 
anterior face of septum f ; one ovum, in the figure referred to, 
is seen to be much larger than the rest ; it had a clear refractile 
germinal vesicle which was enclosed by a zone of protoplasm some- 
what clearer than that composing the mass of the egg. The recep- 
tacula seminis (as I take them to be) are two sacs, attached near 
their fundus to the septum at the anterior end of the crop (septum 
f ), and opening exteriorly as shown in fig. 9 : they were of a 
hyaline appearance, and no distinct structure could be observed. 
No oviducts were seen. No cliteUum was distinguishable. 

The specimen whose reproductive organs are here described 
was examined on April 24th ; the water concaining it had then bjen 
kept in a vessel in the laboratory for a few weeks. 



246 J. Stephenson : Tivo Oligochxte Worms. [Vol. I, 

General Remarks. 

The animal described above agrees in most points with the 
definition of the genus Chcetooaster as given by Michaelsen. It 
differs, however, in not possessing a greatly elongated third segment, 
which is a characteristic of the genus as described by him ; for 
though, as has been said, there is some difficulty in delimiting the 
anterior segments, still the third appears to be defined by septa on 
each side, and, as in C. punjabeiisis, to be practically commensurate 
with the oesophagus ; and apart from this, whatever the exact 
limits of the first six segments ma)^ be, there is hardly room for 
an}^ one of them to be " greatly elongated " without cramping 
some of the others almost out of existence. The receptacula 
seminis of this genus are also said to be in the fifth segment, while 
I have described them above as attached to the posterior face of 
septum 5- ; I would not, however, lay too much stress on the con- 
dition of the single, apparently not fully developed, specimen, 
in which these organs were found. 

On the other hand, the resemblances between this form and 
the various species of the genus Chcetogaster are many and evident ; 
such, especially, are the absence of the dorsal and the arrangement 
of the ventral setae, the single pair of lateral transverse blood- 
vessels, and the separation longitudinally of the anterior part of 
the ventral nerve-cord into two. It will be better, therefore, for 
the present to place this form in the genus Chcetogaster , as was done 
with C. punjabensis, and as Annandale has done with the allied 
species recently described by him ; and I propose the specific 
name pellucidus for it. 

Besides the presence of the cuticular prominences on the head, 
the distribution of the nephridia, the details of the asexual mode 
of reproduction, and the co-existence of asexual with sexual repro- 
duction, a few further points of interest present themselves for 
remark. 

With regard to the granular matter contained in the cerebral 
ganglion, it is interesting to recall the crescentic refractile particle 
in C. punjahensis, the sense-organ (? otocyst) in the cerebral gang- 
lion of C. hengalensis (Annandale, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng.^ New 
Ser., vol. i. No. 4, 1905, p. 117), and the definite otocyst (a relatively 
large, globular, transparent cyst) of C. spongillcs (ib. id., vol. ii, 
No, 5, 1906, p. 188). With this may perhaps be brought into 
connection the condition in C. diastyophus (Gruith.), a European 
species, in the definition of which Michaelsen says, " gehirn mit 
medianer Chitin (?)-Platte am Hinterrande." It seems possible that 
we have here a series of degenerative changes, from the fully- 
developed organ 01 C. spongillcs, through the doubtful otocyst of 
C. bengalensis, to the apparently solid aggregate in the brain of 
C. punjabensis and the chitin-like plate at the posterior part of the 
brain of C. diastrophus [cf. the position in C punjabensis) ; finally 
we have the dispersal in granular form of this so.id matter, as in 
most specimens of C. pellucidus, ox its entire absence, as in other 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. ' 247 

specimens ; the variability in amount and distribution of this 
granular matter being perhaps correlated with the fact of its being 
here a " rudimentary organ," 

What may be called the " buccal nerve commissure " does 
not appear to have been described in other species of Chcetogaster ; 
but here again C. diastrophus shows a related condition, the oesopha- 
gus being surrounded at its middle by a ganglionic ring. In 
C. cryUaUiniis (Vejd.) a similar ring surrounds the anterior end of 
the oeiophagas ; and the condition in C. pellucidus may be derived 
from this by supposing a still further forward shifting of this ring, 
which now takes origni from the commissures at the sides of the 
buccal cavity ; as might be expected on the supposition of the 
homology of these structures, the fibres of the buccal commissure 
of C. pellucidus are derived from the ventral side, not from the 
cerebral ganglion. 

Tne gemtal hairs and genital setae seem worthy of note. The 
latter appear to be modified in a direction contrary to what is 
Uiual ; tiiey abort to some extent, and cease to project. Since in 
this form the normal setae (and the same is the case in C. punjab- 
ensis) project ventrally in a vertical direction, with little or no 
lateral inclination, they could, if retained, only be a hindrance to 
copulation, and their abortion probably allows a closer appositiom, 
necessary in the case of aquatic forms. 

As to the segments in which the reproductive o-^gans are con- 
tained, the ovaiy is evidently in the sixth segment ; as, being at 
the level of the setae of this segment, is also the opening of the vas 
deferens. The anterior portion of the vas deferens and the testis 
may, following the rule for the genus, be supposed to lie in the 
fiftn segment, though there is here no means of fixing segmental 
limits. As previously said, the receptacula appear to be in the 
fourth segment ; this is unusual in the Naididae, and it may possibly 
be the case that the septa in front and behmd the oesophagus are 
septum |- and ^ respectively, not f and |- as I have assumed ; in 
tnis case the cesopnagus would occupy the fourth, not the third 
segment, and the pnarynx both second and third, there being 
then no septum between the second and third segments. My 
numbering of the anterior segments of C. punjabensis would also 
in tnis case require revision. 

Tne aosiiije of a chtellum, and the development of the sper- 
matozoa Wxiile doating in tne Oody-cavity are noteworthy. 

On thjJ Indian Species of the Genus CfLErooAsxER. 

Michaelsen (Oligochaeta) in 1900 enumerates five species of 
Chaetogaster, all fro^n Europe, Annandale, in describing C, ben- 
galensis, mentions that the genus has also been found 111 America, 
referring, pernaps, to C. gulosus, Leidy, 1852, which Michaelsen 
calls doubtful, and of wnich he gives no description. Within 
the last two years five species have been recorded from India, so 
that the extent of the genus has been doubled. The new species 



i4^ J. Stephenson : Two OUgochxte Worms. [Vol. I, 

are C. bengalensis and spon^illcs from Calcutta, described by 
Annandale {loc. cit.) ; another species not yet fully described and 
referred to by Annandale, its discoverer, in his second paper as 
C. sp. ; and C. pimjahensis and pellucidus from Lahore by me. 

The literature of the European (and American) species is 
not accessible to me ; but they appear to form a well-marked, 
homogeneous group, which, while agreeing with the Indian species 
in its broad outlines are separated from these latter b^^ the elonga- 
tion of the third segment and the absence of sense-organs or their 
rudiments. As to the first of these points, whatever be the exact 
delimitation of the segments in the anterior part of the bodies of 
the Indian specimens, it can be seen by referring to the published 
figures (as has been already mentioned for C. pellucidus) that, 
taking the first setal bundle to belong to the second segment, and 
the second setal bundle to the sixth, there really is no room in any 
of them for a greatly elongated third segment. As to the second 
point, the chitinous (?) plate in the brain of C. diastrophus may 
represent a link of connection between the two groups. Another 
connecting link between the groups may be seen in the buccal 
nerve-commissure of C. pellucidus which, as stated above, may be 
compared with the circum-oesophageal ganglionic ring of two of 
the European species. 

But whatever may be the case regarding these two geo- 
graphical groups and their relationship, the Indian species appear 
to me to be closely related and to form a well-defined assemblage. 
Besides the characters already mentioned, which differentiate 
them from the European species, the conformation of the alimen- 
tary canal and, as I hope to show, the normal number of segments 
of the animal and the mode of asexual reproduction, agree in the 
various members. The small cuticular projections on the head 
of C. pellucidus are also to be compared with the longitudinal rows 
of minute irregular tubercles on the head of C. spongillce and the 
small projections of the epidermis on the ventral surface of the 
anterior sucker of C. bengalensis ; and the peculiar shape of the 
nodulus (the projection being one-sided and more abrupt distally) 
on the setae of C. bengalensis and pellucidus — though it may be 
found not to be confined to these two specie?— seems worthy of note. 

The mere reading of the descriptions of the alimentary tract 
would lead one to suppose that there was a marked difference 
between the Punjab and Bengal forms. For examp'e, in C. ben- 
galensis Annandale speaks of a narrow slightly coiled passage 
succeeding the pharynx, and leading into the oesophagus ; the 
oesophagus being a large sac {v. fig. in text) divided by a permanent 
constriction into two : to the oesophagus (which is thus the longest 
part of the alimentary tract) succeeds the intestine. The Punjab 
species, on the other hand, are described as having a small oesopha- 
gus, large dilated crop, stomach also considerably dilated, and 
lastly the intestine. It is, however, easy to see by referring to the 
figures that Annandale's "slightly coiled passage " is my oesophagus ; 
the first dilatation of the oesophagus corresponds to the crop, and 



1907] Records of the I iidian Miiseian. 249 

the second to the stomach. I had not seen Dr. Annandale's paper 
when I wrote my description of C. punjahensis ; and in the above 
account of C. pellucidus I have followed my former nomenclature, 
since it still seems to me more convenient to have separate names 
for permanent and separate structures ; and so long as such names 
are not taken to imply homologies I think they are unobjectionable. 
Dr. Annandale, having access to the literature of the subject, 
may have used his names in accordance with the practice of Euro- 
pean writers on the genus ; though it appears that in those species 
the oesophagus is small, and never longer than the pharynx. In 
any case, if the terms " crop " and " stomach " are rejected, I 
would suggest that the division between " oesophagus " and " in- 
testine " be taken at the line between my " crop " and " stomach," 
— not behind the " stomach " ; the difference in character of the 
walls changes at this point, at least in the two species with which 
I am acquainted. Detailed descriptions of the alimentary tract 
of C. spongillce and C. sp. are not given ; but the same two dila- 
tations, in the same relative positions, are seen in the figures of 
both ; and in all five species the relation of the crop (or first dila- 
tation of the oesophagus) to the sette of the sixth segment (which 
occur about one-third the length of the crop from its posterior 
end), and of the stomach (or second dilatation of the oesophagus) 
to those of the seventh and eighth segments, is the same. 

The above is merely a question of nomenclature ; what follows 
has to do not merely with nomenclature, but also with a difference 
of interpretation, especially with regard to the appearances which 
Annandale describes in his three forms as the clitellum. It 
must always be dangerous to draw conclusions on a priori grounds 
by arguing from one form to another, however closely related ; 
and I feel that m}^ temerity is especially great when these conclu- 
sions conflict with the interpretations given by Dr. Annandale 
after his examination of the forms themselves. But I cannot help 
thinking that the appearances described and figured in his two 
papers as the clitellum of his three species are the same as those 
I have called the zones of budding ; and that the clitellum is 
really the site of a future division of the animal, and is not con- 
cerned with sexual reproduction in any way. 

Reference to Annandale's figures, and a comparison with those 
given in the present paper and those previoush^ given in the account 
of C punjabensis, will show that the clitellum corresponds in posi- 
tion to one of the sites of future division. Thus the clitellum is 
stated to occupy the tenth and eleventh segments in C. bengal- 
ensis ; the figure of this species, which shows the clitellum as 
being behind the setae of segment 10, may be compared with the 
anterior half of the as yet undivided animal shown in fig. 5 of the 

1 Not strictly in the case of C. bengalensis, in which the setae of the ninth segment 
also come into relation with the stomach ; unless indeed (which I think possible) a second, 
less permanent, constriction towards the posteiior end of the stomach in this form re- 
presents the division between stomach and intestine in the others; the relations of the 
setal bundles to the divisions of the alimentary tract would then be identical throughout. 



Z$Q J. Stephenson : Two Oligochsete Worms. [VOL. I, 

present paper ; they differ only in the fact of an extra, newly- 
developed group of setfe in front of the constricted zone in the 
latter specimen ; or, if the figure of C. hengalensis is compared with 
the posterior part of fig. 5, the correspondence is only incomplete 
as regards the number of segments at the posterior end of the 
animal. Similarly the figure of C. hengalensis resembles the ante- 
rior half of fig. 7 of the present paper, with this difference, that 
very minute new setae are beginning to form in the region under 
discussion in the latter. 

The figures of C. spongillce and C. sp. in Annandale's second 
paper may be compared with the present fig. 4 ; the bud in 
fig. 4 shows a few more segments than the buds in Annandale's 
figures, the clitellum, however, corresponds to the lateral ex- 
pansion of the nerve-cord behind the eighth segment in fig. 4 ; the 
length of the interval between this and the next and more promi- 
nent constriction appears to be two fully developed segments in 
C. spongillce, three in fig. 4, four in C. sp. 

The nature of the change at this region also appears to corres- 
pond ; the clitellum is not a specially protuberant region, as 
in other Naididae, but appears to be somewhat, if only slightly, 
constricted, and the figures appear to give evidence of a slight 
superficial transverse wrinkling of the skin. This is comparable 
with what occurs at this situation in C. pellucidus. In Annandale's 
figures, again, the alimentary tract is somewhat blurred and in- 
definite at this region ; I have found this to be the case on account 
of the lateral upgrowths of nervous matter, and also because of a 
closer connection between the tract and the body-wall. 

The statement that the clitellum exists even in young ani- 
mals just separated (in C. hengalensis) may be compared with 
what was -stated above, that even the youngest free animal {cf. 
text-fig. 2 and pi. x, fig. 3) shows the commencement of formation 
of a zone of budding behind the eighth segment. The fact that 
the clitellum is achaetous may be explained by a reference to fig. 
7 ; the extremely minute newly developing setae of this specimen 
would have been absent had it been examined a little earlier, and 
would not have been detected as it was, had not a high magni- 
fication been employed. 

I have not, even in the sexual animal, noted a clitellum ; 
the zone of budding, the nature of which is evident, occurs however 
in the same place. But I wish to guard against saying that a 
clitellum does not occur ; it probably develops later ; in Nais and 
Pristina, according to my observations, it is not present until the 
genital products are far more conspicuous than the}^ are in the 
sexual Chcetogaster above described. And I would mention, in 
conclusion, that the Limicolae have (so far as known) the clitellum 
on the genital segments themselves ; a clitellum in ChcBtogaster 
on the tenth and eleventh segments would be much posterior to 
the genital segments. 

The above comparisons seem to me to show that the structures 
described by Dr. Annandale and myself in different ways are really 



1907-] Records of the Indian Aluseum. 25 1 

the same thing ; and if I am justified in interpreting his figures in 
the above manner we have, probably, throughout the Indian 
species, the development of a zone of budding behind the eighth 
segment, and consequently a normal length for the animal some- 
what greater than this, though separation may be delayed and 
the typical single individual may possibl}^ in some species never, 
or hardly ever, be met with in practice. 

The chief differences exhibited by the Indian forms appear to 
be the following : The suckers of some forms are instances of adap- 
tation ; anterior and posterior are described in C. hengalcnsis, 
anterior only in C. spongilla. The number of setae in a bundle is 
greater in C. hengalensis than in the other forms. The first pair 
of nephridia are larger than the others in C. bengalensis and C. sp. ; 
the first nephridium appears to be in the sixth segment in C. bengal- 
ensis, in the seventh in the others (not mentioned in the account of 
C. spongilla). The nerve ganglia of C. bengalensis and C. spongillcs 
are described as being of a discrete nature, not corresponding in ar- 
rangement with the segmentation of the body ; while in the Punjab 
species the ganglia and segments correspond posteriorly at least ; 
if in C. pellucidiis the lateral branches of the anterior portion of the 
cord be taken to represent the number of fused ganglia, then here 
also we have a larger number of nervous segments than of body- 
segments. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIIl. 

^OI^OSOMA, Sp. 

Fig. I. — General view of the animal seen by transparency from 
the ventral surface. The blood-vessels are shown in 
their anterior portions only, and nephridia only on one 
side. 

Fig. 2. — Side view of the posterior portion of a chain. 

Fig. 3. — Head and oesophageal region, more highly magnified, 
seen by transparency from the ventral surface. 

Fig. 4 a and h. — Two forms of the cerebral ganglion. 

An., Anus ; c, cells round oesophagus ; con., constriction 
between successive members of a chain; d.v., dorsal vessel, seen 
through the superficial structures ; /., intestine ; /.,lip; w., mouth; 
«', n\ n\, first, second and seventh nephridia ; n.g., nerve gang- 
lion ; 0., oil-cell ; ce., oesophagus ; f)h., pharynx ; fr., prostomium ; 
s., setai ; s.h., sensory hairs; sp., septum; s.s., setal sac; st., 
stomach ; sir., strands uniting intestine and body-wall ; v. v., ventral 
vessel, dividing to encircle pharynx. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol, I. 



Plate VIII. 




EXPLANATION OF PLATES IX AND X. 

ClL^TOGASTER PEI^IyUCEDUS, n. Sp. 

Fig. I. — General view, seen (as are the others) by transparency. 

Fig. 2. — (See text-fig. 2, p. 238.) 

Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, — Semi-diagrammatic representations of succes- 
sive stages in the growth of the animal. The Roman 
numerals at the sides of the figures represent the num- 
bering of the segments : it should be noted that the 
first bundle of setae behind an}^ constriction becomes 
the bundle of the sixth segment of the posterior animal. 
Hence in these figures vi is placed opposite such setae, 
although the anterior five segments of the animal may 
not have yet grown so as to be recognisable. 

Fig. 8 a, h, c, d, e, /. — Successive stages of development of the 
sperm-mornlse. 

Fig. 9. — Region of crop, showing genital organs : ventral view. 

Fig. 10. — The region of the male aperture : lateral view. 

An., anus; b.c, buccal cavity; b. co;izm., buccal nerve com- 
missure ; b.g., buccal ganglion; e.g., cerebral ganglion ; con., con- 
striction, which will ultimately divide the animal ; cr., crop ] cr ., 
crop of second animal; d.v., dorsal blood-vessel; g.s., genital 
setae; h., genital hairs; int., intestine; int., intestine of second 
animal; l.n.c, lateral expansion of nerve-cord at sites of future 
division ; m., mouth ; n., nephridium ; n. comm., the nerve com- 
missures ; ce., oesophagus; ne ., oesophagus of second animal; 
ov., ovary; r.s., receptaculum seminis; ph., pharynx ; ph ., pharynx 
of second animal ; s ., first bundle of setse (of second segment) ; 
s ., second bundle of setae (of sixth segment) ; s.m., sperm morulae ; 
sp., septum ; s/)'., the first septum, i.e., septum | ; sp ., the second 
septum, i.e., septum |; sph. g., subpharyngeal ganglion; st., 
stomach; st ., stomach of second animal; sir., strands of tissue 
between alimentary tract and body- wall ; s.s., small setae, visible 
only with the high power at zones of budding; t., testis; i.n.c, 
terminal expansion of nerve-cord ; v. comm. , vascular commissure 
in head ; v.d., vas deferens ; y.w.c, ventral nerve-cord ; v. v., ven- 
tral vessel ; cf , male aperture with genital setae. 



Rec Ind. IVTus., Vol. I. 



Plate IX. 




Rec. Incd. Mus., Vol. I. 



Plate X. 



^.=."#?#--. 




^^^ C^ hl^ 



F^g.5. 



XX.— N OTES ON PHOSPHORESCENCE IN 
MARINE A N I j\I A L S . 

By R. E. Lloyd, M.B., B.Sc, Captain, IMS., Surgeon Naturalist, 
Marine Survey of India, 

WITH 

A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW POLYCH^TE WORM. 
By A. WiLLEY, D.Sc, F.R.S., Director, Colombo Museum. 

Towards the end of 1905, the R.I.M. Surve}^ Ship " Investi- 
gator " trawled five times in the shallow waters of the northern 
part of the Persian Gulf. On one of these occasions the trawl was 
lowered late in the afternoon, so that the process of preserving 
the specimens had to be carried out in the dusk of the evening. 
While depositing some of them in formalin, m}'' attention was 
arrested by a fine display of illumination by one of them, — a 
certain active Pol3^chsete. 

Before dropping this worm into the solution, no phosphores- 
cence was noticed, but under the stimulus of the irritant, two 
rows of brilliant points of light, one on either side of the animal's 
back, became visible, and remained so for several seconds before 
graduall}^ fading away. 

These points of light were circular in outline, and about the 
size of a small pin's head. It was noticed that they were separated 
by equal intervals, that they appeared less in number than the 
segments, that they were situated about the bases of the para- 
podia, and that they were very prominent. 

The worm was soon identified as probably belonging to the 
genus Lepidasthenia , and was sent to Dr. Willey, of Colombo, 
who confirmed it in this genus, pronounced it without hesitation 
as a new and well-marked species, and kindly gave the description 
quoted verbatim at the end of this paper as the definition of the 
species. 

In sending this definition Dr. Willey asked me to add my own 
observations and figures, and further remarked that the first pair 
of elytra required a special description. The first pair of elytra 
are about three times the size of the others, they are carried on 
peduncles which curve forwards and then inwards, so that the 
elytra of either side overlap, mid-dorsally, hiding the prostomium 
and the bases of the palps and antennae. It will be noticed in fig. i, 



258 R. E. Lloyd : Phosphorescence in JSIarine Animals. [VOL. I, 

that the second elytron of the right side and the second cirrus of 
the left side and their peduncles are missing. 

This Pol3^chaete was obtained in 25 fathoms of water about 30 
miles west of Bushire. 

In regard to the source of the phosphorescent lights observed, 
there can be no doubt that they emanated from the small elytra, 
but to say that the elytra were actually seen to be luminous would 
not be quite a true statement. The observation of the exact 
source of a phosphorescent light in such a case is a matter of great 
difficulty : to see the elytra it is necessar^^ to examine the animal 
in a light so strong that the phosphorescence is inappreciable. 
The nature and distribution of the points of light described above 
agree exactly with the nature and distribution of the elj^tra, which 
were examined after the death of the animal. For this reason it 
is safe to assume that the light actually emanated from the ely- 
tra, and it is possible that all species of the genus exhibit this inter- 
esting phenomenon which was observed in this case merely owing 
to the happy chance of the animal being consigned to formalin late 
in the evening. 

In order to make further observations on the phosphorescence 
of marine animals, the trawl was used twice this year at night 
in deep water, once off North Andaman Island in 235 fathoms, and 
once off Dondra Head, Ceylon, in 605 fathoms. The results of 
these stations may be enumerated as follows : — 

Station 374, off North Andaman Isi<e, 235 fathoms. 

Fish. 

Macrurus investigatoris . . . . . . i 

Coloconger raniceps . . . . . . 2 

Ateleopus indicus . . . . . . i j 



Crustacea 



Nephrops andamanica 

Aristeus semidentatus 

Homola megalops 

Pandalus alcocki 

Pandalus martius 
Munidopsis regia. 
Heterocarpus laevigatus. 
Squilla sp. 



I 

1 male, 
i^female. 
I 

3 females. 

2 males. 

3 



MoUusca. 



Xenophora pallidula, 
Verticordea eburnea. 
Two others ^lnidentified. 
A Decapod Cephalopod. 



1 907] Records of the Indian Museum. 259 

Hexactinellidce. 
Aphrocallistes beatrix. 

Alcyonaria. 
Pennatula pendula. 

Station 375, off Dondra Head, Ceylon, 605 fathoms. 

Fish. 
Lamprogranimus niger. 

Crustacea. 

Heterocarpus alphonsi. 
Polycheles phosphorus, 
Nematocarcinus gracilis. 

Mollusca. 

Pleurotoma symbiotes with its symbiotic Epizoanthu? 
A small species of Dentalium. 

Aster ids. 

A species of Hymenaster. 

Among these twenty-four species only three showed phospho- 
rescence. These were the prawns Heterocarpus alphonsi and Pan- 
dalus alcocki, and the A^cyonarian Pennatula pendula. Of these 
the Heterocarpus gave the most striking display of its illuminating 
powers, which have been already noted by a former " Investigator " 
naturalist (Alcock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. viii, i8gi, page t6). 
We, too, were able to observe all that this author described. While 
the prawn was in water the light floated away from its oral region 
in two streams which became extinguished about two inches from 
their source. 

The property which the secretion has of retaining its illumi- 
nating power after leaving the body was well illustrated by the 
following occurrence : When the prawn was taken out of the 
bucket, the water, dripping from the animal, was so highly lu- 
minous that a bright phosphorescent stream flowed down the 
antennae (which were five inches long) and dripped from their 
ends in globules of light that did not become extinguished until 
they intermingled with the water in the bucket. 

The other prawn which showed the same powers, but to a 
rather less marked extent, was one of the five specimens of Pandalus 
alcocki. The other four, whose tissues must have been quite dead, 
showed no light. This proves that negative evidence is of no 
value in such observations. 



26o R. E. Lloyd : Phosphorescence in Marine Animals. [VoL. I, 

The third species which showed light was the Alcyonarian 
Pennatula pendula (common in deep waters about the Andamans, 
but only recently described by Thompson and Henderson, Inves- 
tigator Alcyonarians , part i). 

This specimen merely showed faint evanescent light when 
disturbed, but when placed in formalin solution rows of brilliant 
light points at once appeared on its pinnules and remained in 
evidence for at least a minute before dying out. This brilliant 
display suggested the possibility of recording such phenomena by 
photography ; and the idea of photography, involving as it does 
the use of a dark room, helped me to see that our dredging in the 
dark, a most inconvenient procedure, was also unnecessary. The 
same results could obviously be obta ned by removing the speci- 
mens to a dark room, where any well-marked phosphorescence 
could be recorded by placing them in a bottle of formalin solution 
on which a camera with very sensitive plates had previous y been 
focussed. 

It is hoped that such experiments will be carried out in future. 
Nevertheless my thanks are due to Commander W. G. Beauchamp, 
R.I.M., for allowing trawling at night and for the skilful way in 
which it was carried out under his personal supervision. 



Description of a new Polych^te Worm. 
Family APHRODiTiDi^. 

Lepidasthenia stylolepis, Willey, sp. nov. 

" All appendages glabrous except the palps, which bear rows 
of small b unt papillse. Antennae Fub-equal, the med an slightly 
longer than the lateral and less than one-third the length of the 
palps. Elytra very small, borne upon long peduncles, which are 
somewhat shorter than the parapodia. Notopodia obsolete, with 
acicula but without setse. Neuropodial setae (fig. 4) of the anterior 
segments (and perhaps of all when unworn) with fil form tips below 
which there is a deep bidentation, as well as subterminal serrula- 
tions There are thirty-seven segments present in the specimen, 
which is incomplete behind. Segments with brownish transverse 
bands along the posterior border. Dorsum quite exposed, the 
elytra directed away from it, on their stalks. The first ventral 
cirrus as long as the parapodium, the rest very short. Dorsal 
cirri pigmented, some pale, some fallen off, borne upon long pe- 
duncles which are as long as the parapodia, the cirri being shorter 
than their peduncles. 

Elytra on segments II, IV, V, VII, IX, ... . XXI, 
XXIII, XXVI, XXIX, XXXII, XXXV. 

Both cirriophores and elytrophores penetrated by a caecal 
diverticulum of the gut arising from the latter by a very narrow 
pedicel, then widening out." 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



261 




Fig. I. — Anterior end of dorsal view of head and anterior segments. The left 
lateral antenna is shown too long. 




Fig. 2. — Segment bearing dorsal cirri. 




Fig. 3. — Segment bearing elytra. 



^^^^^^^^^^ 



Fig. 4. Neuropodial seta. 



XXI.— NOTE vS ON THE RATS OF DACCA, 
EASTERN BENGAL. 

By C, A. GoiTRLAY, Captain, IM.S. 

I forward these notes to the Indian Museum as a small con- 
tribution to a subject of considerable importance at the present 
day. 

During the month of April, 1907, an attempt was made to 
gauge the relative numbers of different species of rats in Dacca. 
During the investigation, 1,045 ^^ts were examined and of these 
1,041 were identified. 

611 proved to be specimens of Mus rattus. 

430 ,, ,, ,, ,, Nesokia bengalensis. 

No other species of rat was found. Thus of the rat population 
of Dacca, it appears that about 59 per cent, are Mus r alius and 41 
per cent, are Nesokia bengalensis. 

These specimens were trapped in houses, " kutcha " (mud) 
and " pucca " (masonry), and in grain godowns and grocers' shops 
in various parts of the town. 

Of those trapped in 



pucca " houses 68 % were M. rattus. 


32 % , 


, A^. bengalensis. 


kutcha" „ 57-7% , 


, M. rattus. 


42-3% , 


, N . bengalensis 


grocers' shops 55-3 % , 


, M. rattus. 


447% , 


, N. bengalensis 


grain godowns 44*5 % , 


, M. rattus. 


55-5% , 


, A', bengalensis 



Dacca is a city of over 90,000 inhabitants, with narrow streets, 
indifferent sanitation, a very imperfect system of surface drains, 
and only one short sewer. Many of the houses are " kutcha " 
throughout, and of the " pucca " houses many have earthen floors. 

In all cases, measurements were taken in accordance with 
Hossack's instructions and the collection was divided into three 
series of about 350 specimens each. The first series is omitted 
from these observations as, presumably, the measurements (being 
those of a novice) are not so accurate as the later ones. 

M. RATTUS. 

It was found impossible to distinguish the varieties of M. 
rattus according to the descriptions extant. All sizes show colour 
variations and the only point on which one can dogmatise, is that 
M. rattus — the black rat — does not appear to be black in Dacca. 



264 



C. A. GouRLAY : The Rats of Dacca. 



[Vol. I, 



The following table shows the variations in size and the propor- 
tionate measurements of M. rattus as found in Dacca. Judging by 
the breast development in female specimens, it appears that matu- 
rity is reached when the rat is about 14 cm. in length. Of 53 female 
specimens under 14 cm. only one was found to have developed 
breasts. 



Total length of head 
aud body in cm. 


Number 

of 
specimens. 


Percentage to length of head 

AND BODY OF 




Tail. 


Hind foot. 


Ear. 


Under 13 cm. 


52 


125-9 


24-8 


16-8 


13 and under 15 cm. 


67 


1239 


22-7 


15-5 


15 ,, ,, 16 cm. .. 


56 


I23I 


21-3 


143 


16 ,, „ 17 cm. .. 


87 


122-4 


20-1 


14-1 


17 ,, ,, 18 cm. .i 


70 


120-6 


196 


13-8 


18 ,, ,, 19 cm. 


31 


117-3 


i8-6 


13-1 


19 cm. and over 


12 


114-6 


i8-2 


12-4 



An adult M. rattus, then, measures anything from 14 cm. to 
20 cm. The largest specimens are old males, and are the only 
specimens with well-developed bristles in the fur. 

The tail is almost always considerably longer than the head and 
body. The shortest tail in my collection is 102-37 P^'^ cent, of 
the body-length, and the rat measured 21-5 cm., so that it was a 
very old specimen. 

Hind foot. — The sole is seldom uniformly purple. There is 
always some purple towards the " heel," but the fore-part of the 
sole is generally flesh-coloured. The pads are always six in number, 
the proximo-external pad being well developed. The median pads 
are cordiform. 

Ear.— By measurement, the ear does not appear to be appre- 
ciably longer than that of a Ncsokia bcngalensis of the same size, 
but the setting is characteristic. The ear is " prominent, standing 
out clearly from the head." 

Breasts. — In females, the usual distribution of the breasts is f . 
The most common variation (in G pe cent, of the specimens) is f. 
When this occurs, the third pectoral breast bears the same relative 
position to the second pectoral as the third inguinal bears to the 
second inguinal. The first inguinal breast is about 1-25 cm. in 
front of the second and the second is about '3 cm. in front of the 
third. 



1907 ] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



265 



Distribution. — Of all specimens of M. rattus. — 

43' 3 % were captured in " pucca " houses. 
28-4 „ „ "kutcha" „ 

137 „ ,, grocers' shop. 

I2'0 ,, ,, grain godowns. 

2 ,, ,, streets, etc. 

NESOKIA BENGALENSIS. 

The following table shows the variations in size and the pro- 
portionate measurements of Nesokia bcngalensis as found in Dacca. 
In this case also, judging by the breast development, it appears 
that maturity is reached when the rat is 14 cm. in length. Of 28 
female specimens under 14 cm. none have developed breasts. 



Total lengjth of head 


Number 

of 

specimens. 


Percentage to length of head 

AND BODY OF 


and body in cm. 










Tail. 


Hind foot. 


Ear. 


Under 13 cm. 


30 


79-3 


23-56 


166 


13 and under 15 cm. 


39 


7915 


21-35 


14-5 


15 ,, ,, 16 cm. 


26 


8r6 


20-1 


13-6 


16 ,, ,, 17 cm. 


40 


817 


19-5 


13-29 


17 ,, ,, 18 cm. 


59 


80 


186 


13-1 


18 ,, ,, 19 cm. 


43 


80-3 


i8-2 


12-5 


19 ,, ,, 20 cm. 


24 


76-5 


17 


12-23 


20 cm. and over 


16 


74-8 


i6-5 


11-25 



The adult N. bcngalensis measures anything from 14 cm. to 
21 cm. 

Bristles appear in the fur of adults at all stages. 

Colour. — The colour is iron grey or greyish brown. 

Tail. — The tail is from 75 — 80 per cent of the length of the 
head and body, though it may be shorter in old specimens. 

Hind foot. — The hind foot shows a regular gradation of propor- 
tionate measurements with the increase of age. The sole is purple 
throughout. The pads number five fully developed ones, and one 
(the proximo-external) which is rudimentary. In 9 per cent, of 56 
N. bcngalensis examined with special care, the proximo-external 
pad was absent. The median pads are frequently cordiform though 
smaller than in M. rattus. 



266 C. A. GOURLAY: The Rats of Dacca. [Vol. I, iQoy.] 

Ears. — The ears, though in actual measurement not appre- 
ciably shorter than those of M. rattus, are more closely set on the 
side of the head. These also show gradually diminished propor- 
tionate measurement as age advances. 

Breasts. — The commonest distribution of breasts was found to 
be ^. This arrangement was found in 61*5 per cent, of the female 
specimens with breast development. In only 8*3 per cent, was the 
arrangement f present. The arrangement is certainly much more 
variable than in M. rattus. 

Distribution. — Of all specimens of N. hengalensis— 

29 % were captured in " pucca " houses. 
29-3 „ „ „ " kutcha " „ 

15-5 „ „ ,, grocers' shops. 

2i'2 ,, ,, ,, grain godowns. 

5 „ „ „ streets, etc. 

Most of these observations agree with those of Hossack in 
Calcutta. They confirm (i) the impossibility of separating varieties 
of M. rattus by size. 

(2) The size at which maturity is attained, namely 14 cm. in 
both species. 

(3) The diminution in the proportionate measurement of 
hind foot and ear in both Mus rattus and Nesokia hengalensis ^ and of 
the tail in Mus rattus^ as maturity is reached. 

On the other hand, I do not find the distinction between cor- 
diform median pads in Mus rattus and circular median pads in 
Nesokia hengalensis holds good. The essential point of difference 
appears to me to be the rudimentary condition of the proximo- 
external pad in the hind foot of N . hengalensis. Again, Hossack 
gives the usual breast arrangement of Nesokia hengalensis as \. 
I find it is ~. 



XXII.— NOTES ON FRESHWATER SPONGES. 

By N. Annandai^e, D.Sc, Officiating Superintendent , 
Indian Museum. 



I. — The Buds of Spongilla Proliferens, mihi. 

The buds that form so characteristic a feature of this species 
arise as thickenings of the strands of cells accompanying the 
primary spicule fibres of the skeleton, which project outwards 
from the surface of the sponge. These thickenings originate 
beneath the surface and contain, at the earliest stage at which 
I have as yet examined them, all the elements of the adult or- 
ganism {i.e., flesh spicules, ciliated chambers, efferent and afferent 
canals, parenchyma cells of various sorts) except skeleton fibres, 
gemmules, and a dermal membrane. A section at this period 
closely resembles one of an adult sponge, except that the struc- 
ture is more compact, the parenchyma being relatively bulky and 
the canals of small diameter. 

As the bud grows it makes its way up the fibre, pushing 
the dermal membrane, which expands with its growth, before it. 
The skeleton fibre does not, however, continue to grow in the bud, 
in which a number of finer fibres make their appearance, radiat- 
ing from a point approximately at the centre of the mass. As 
the bud projects more and more from the surface of the sponge 
the dermal membrane contracts at its base, so as finally to separate 
it from its parent. No aperture is left when this occurs, the 
membrane closing up the gap completely. The newlj^ liberated 
bud already possesses numerous minute pores, but as 5'et no 
osculum ; its shape exhibits considerable variation, but the end 
that was farthest from the parent sponge before liberation is 
always more or less rounded, while the other end is flat. The size 
also varies considerably. Some of the buds float, others sink. 
Those that float do so either owing to their shape, which depends 
on the degree of development they have reached before libera- 
tion, or to the fact that a bubble of gas is produced in their 
interior. The latter phenomenon only occurs when the sun is shin- 
ing on the sponge at the moment they are set free, and is due to 
the action of the chlorophyl of the green bodies so abundant in 
certain of the parenchyma cells of this species. If the liberation 
of the bud is delayed rather longer than usual, numbers of flesh 



268 N. Ann AND ALE : Notes on Freshwater Sponges. [VOL. I, 

spicules are produced towards the ends of the primary skeleton 
fibres and spread out in one plane so as to have a fanlike outline ; 
in such buds the form is more flattened and the distal end less 
rounded than in others, and the superficial area is relatively 
great, so that they float more readily. Those buds that sink, 
usually fall in such a way that their proximal, flattened end 
comes in contact with the bottom or some suspended object, to 
which it adheres. Sometimes, however, owing to irregularity of 
outline in the distal end, the proximal end is uppermost. In this 
case it is the distal end that adheres. Whichever end is upper- 
most, it is in the uppermost end, or as it may now be called, the 
upper surface, that the osculum is formed. Water is drawn into 
the young sponge through the pores and, finding no outlet, accu- 
mulates under the dermal membrane, the subdermal space being at 
this stage even larger than it is in the adult sponge. Immediately 
after adhesion the young sponge flattens itself out. This process 
compresses the water in the subdermal space and apparently 
collects a large part of it at one point, which is usually situated 
near the centre of the upper surface. A transparent conical 
projection, formed of the dermal membrane, arises at this point, 
and at the tip of the cone a white spot appears. What is the 
exact cause of this spot I have not yet been able to ascertain, 
but it marks the point at which the imprisoned water breaks 
through the expanded membrane, thus forming the first osculum. 
Before the aperture is formed, it is already possible to distinguish, 
on the surface of the parenchyma, numerous channels radiating 
from the point at which the osculum will be formed to the 
periphery of the young sponge. These channels as a rule persist in 
the adult organism and result from the fact that the inhalent 
apertures are situated at the periphery, being absent from both 
the proximal and the distal ends of the bud. In the case of fioat- 
ing buds the course of development is the same, except that the 
osculum, as in the case of development from the gemmule in other 
species (see ZykoiT, Biol. Ceniralb., xii, p. 713, 1892), is usually 
formed before adhesion takes place. 

The life of the individual is very short in 5. proliferens , never 
lasting for more than a few weeks. So far as I have observed, 
sexual reproduction does not take place, but gemmules are pro- 
duced in large numbers at the same time as the buds, often when 
the sponge is less than 100 sq. mm. in superficial area. A continuous 
succession of generations takes place throughout the year. 

The above observations have been made chiefly on specimens 
in my aquarium in the Museum, but they have been corroborated, 
as far as possible, by a periodical inspection of others living in 
natural conditions in a pond. 

Buds of a somewhat different nature are sometimes produced 
by S. carteri Bwk., and appear to be identical with the repro- 
ductive bodies described in S. lacustris by Laurent (C r., Se. Ac. 
Sc. Paris, xi, p. 478, 1841) many years ago. With these I hope 
t6 deal on another occasion. 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 269 

II. — Gemmules of Trochospongilla philloUiana, mihi. 

In my original account of this species {Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, igoy, p. 22) I stated that the covering of the gemmule 
was thin. An examination of numerous specimens has shown 
me that this statement was incorrect as regards the majority of 
examples, in which the coating of granular substance is thick 
but unevenly distributed. Viewed from the external surface, the 
gemmules appear to be covered with little pits. These coincide 
with the position of the gemmule spicules and are in fact funnel- 
shaped passages leading from the external surface of the gemmule 
to the outer rotula of each spicule. So characteristic and so con- 
stant does this feature appear to be that I am inclined to think 
that in the type of the species the gemmules were not fully deve- 
loped. In my description of these gemmules " cylindrical " is a 
lapsus calami for spherical. 

III. — Embryos of Ephydatia blembingia, Evans. 

Dr. Richard Evans in his original description of this species 
{Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., 1901, p. 71) notices certain niinute 
basket-shaped bodies lying in cavities in the sponge, and is in- 
clined to regard them as examples of a parasitic species, 
although their spicules only differ from those of the adult E. blem- 
bingia in their small size. Dr. F. Harmer, of Cambridge, has 
recently sent me one of Dr. Evans's specimens, and I have been 
able, thanks to its excellent state of preservation, to examine these 
bodies. They appear to me to be embryos in different stages of 
development. The smallest consist of rounded masses of cells, 
which in some cases can be seen to be of two sorts, a number of 
smaller ones and several larger ones. The compressed form of the 
larger examples is probably due, as Dr. Evans himself suggests, to 
shrinkage in preservation. In their later stages the bodies lie m 
well-defined cavities in the sponge, each body being surrounded 
by a deUcate membrane secreted by a layer of flattened cells that 
apparently belong to the parent sponge. The body itself consists 
of an external layer of columnar cells and of an internal mass 
containing a large cavity. The cavity is situated towards the 
narrower end of the body and is enclosed at this end by a thm 
layer of cells that mostly have a starlike outline. The main bulk 
of the mass is belo v the cavity and consists of cells of several kinds, 
amongst which may be distinguished spiculiferous cells bearmg 
spicules that are smaller, as yet, than those of the adult sponge. 
In short, an optical section of the body, apart from the membrane 
in which it is enclosed, closely resembles the actual section of an 
embryo of Spongilla lacusiris figured by Evans in fig. 9, plate 
xxxvi, vol. xlii of the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Sci- 
ence, 1899. In his account ot Ephydatia blembingia he says that 
he was unable to make out the exact structure of these bodies. 



270 N. Annandale : Notes on Freshwater Sponges. [Vol. I, 

because none of his sections passed through them. If, however, a 
small piece of the sponge is teased up, stained with hsematoxylin, 
cleaied and mounted, it is not difficult to see the structures I have 
alluded to, although this method of observation does not perm.it of 
a minute examination of the cell anatomy. I have found closeh' 
similar embryos in Spongiila carieri both in summer and in spring, 
and also in an indeterminate sponge (probably an Ephydatia) taken 
by Mr. H. C. Robinson and myself at Biseiat in the Siamese Malay 
States in autumn. I am indebted to Dr. Evans for the oppor- 
tunity of re-examining, in a critical manner, the latter specimen, 
which I had handed over to him before I took up the study of the 
freshwater sponges m3^self. 

IV. — The Nature of the Pores in Spongiila. 

Th'^ exact nature and origin of the external apertures of the 
inhalenl canals in the Demospongia has been much disputed. 
Several authors claim to have established the fact that these 
apertU'.es are intracellular and that the cells which cont?in them 
are porocytes homologous with those of the Calcarea. This view 
has been opposed b}'' Minchin and others on theoretical grounds. 
An examination of fresh and well preserved specimens of the 
species of Spongiila occurring in Calcutta has convinced me that 
the structure of the pores is variable even within the limits of 
this genus. Two types can in fact be distinguibhed in the species 
examined, while from the descriptions of other species it seems 
probable that they also exemplify one or other of these t^^pes. 
Before describing the different forms of pores it will be as well 
to state the methods of investigation adopted. I find that in a 
tropical climate the best preservative for the dermal membrane 
is absolute or nearly absolute alcohol. The cutting of serial 
sections is not a satisfactory method of investigating this part 
of the sponge under any conditions, and in a climate such as that 
of Calcutta is almost impossible. If the dermal membrane does 
not adhere closel}^ to the parenchyma, a piece of it may be de- 
tached with a pair of needles, floated off, stiined — I find Ehrlich's 
acid ha?matoxylin an excellent stain — and mounted for examina- 
tion. In mam^ species, however, it is difficult to remove a large 
enough piece of the memibrane in this wa}^, and in such cases I 
find the best method is to shave the surface of the hardened sponge 
with a sharp razor. A portion of the parenchyma usually adheres 
to the membrane thus removed, but this does not very much 
matter, as sufficient clear spaces remain for the purposes of 
examination. 

The first type of pore is found in those species (e.g., S. carten) 
in which the subdermal space is small and the pores correspond in 
position more or less exactly with the distal extremities of the 
canals. Such species have comparatively large pores and as a rule 
there is no projecting collar round the osculum. The pores are 
simply gaps in the membrane, being surrounded by cells which 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 271 

do not differ from the other epithehal cells of the membrane except 
that they are often slightly attenuated in a horizontal plane. 




Outline ot a small portion of the external surface of the dermal membrane of 
S. proliferens. showing flattened epithelial cells {e c.) and pores (/>.), x about irgo. 
The membrane was taken from the edge of the sponge and stained with haematoxylin. 
The outline was drawn with a camera liicida and slightly enlarged. «. = nuclei; pc.= 
pore cell 

In the majority of Spong''llcB that occur in Calcutta, however^ 
the pores can only be detected with the aid of a fairly high power 
of the microscope and open not directly into the termination of the 
afferent canals but into the subdermal space, their exact arrange- 
ment differing in different species. In such forms the subdermal 
space is often ver^^ large. Sponges which have this form of pore 
differ widely in other respects ; those with which I am best ac- 
quainted are 5. crassissima and S. proliferens. In such forms the 
pore is as a rule surrounded by a single cell. The actual hole is 
almost circular ; the cell that surrounds it has a minutely granular 
cytoplasm and a small nucleus that stains very deeply. For the 
greater part of its circumference the cell is attenuated to a mere 
filament ; at the point at which the nucleus is situated it swells 
out considerably in both planes, while it is most attenuated at the 
opposite extremity. In all cases, so far as my observations go, the 
cell completely surrounds the pore, if onh^ one cell is present, 
without a sign of secondary fusion at any point ; but the relative 
proportions of the cell and the pore differ considerably and in some 
cases the latter is nearh^ in the centre of the former. Without 
further information it would be impossible to escape from the 
conclusion that the pore was intracellular ; but even were this the 
case, it would not be necessary to assume that the porocyte was 
homologous with that of the Calcarea. Indeed, there is one im- 
portant difference, viz., the pore-surrounding cell in Spongilla is 
not contractile, and cannot close the pore. In some cases, more- 
over — in 5. crassissima at any rate— the pore is not surrounded by 
one such cell, but by two. In such cases each cell is bent into a 
semi-circle, having a crescentic outline, and the two adhere together 



272 N. Annandale : Notes on Freshwater Sponges. [VoL. I, 

round the pore by their extremities. The nucleus and cytoplasm 
of such cells do not differ from those of cells that apparently 
contain an intracellular pore. I am inclined to believe, therefore, 
that even in the latter instance the pore is not reall}' intracellular, 
but is surrounded by an originally' crescent-shaped cell, the two ends 
of which have fused together. I have not been able to detect any 
trace of true porocytes in connection with the ciliated chambers in 
any species examined 

v.— The Systp:matic Position of Ephydatia meyeni, 
Carter, and E. indica, mihi. 

As these are the only species of the genus that I have been 
able to find in Calcutta, my conclusions as to their specific and 
generic identity, after examining a large number of specimens, 
may be useful to others studying the group. E. meyeni was des- 
cribed in 1849 by Carter, who in 1881 stated that he believed it 
to be a variety of the widely distributed E. fluviatilis. Weltner 
{Archiv. /. Nahirg., Ixvi (i), p. 124, 1895), however, assigned it to 
E. miilleri (Liebk.). During the present season I have found a form 
that agrees closely with Carter's descriptions, growing in the Museum 
tank in Calcutta. Its gemmule spicules have long shafts with 
scattered spines, but their rotulse are very irregularly serrated ; as 
a rule the spicules surround the gemmules in two rows. The 
skeleton spicules are smooth and sharp, and although the skeleton 
is rather fragile, it is hard, and spongin webs can be detected at 
its nodes. An important character was necessarily passed over by 
Weltner, who had only examined a dry specimen of this form, viz., 
the presence of large numbers of vesicular cells in the parenchyma. 
These agree closely with Weltner's figure {Archiv. f. Naturg., 
lix (i), pi. viii, fig. 14) of a cell of this kind from the parenchyma 
of E. fluviatilis, and as their presence is recognized to be diagnos- 
tic of E. fluviatilis, I believe that Carter was right in regarding E. 
meyeni as belonging to this species ; it should therefore be called 
E. fluviatilis var. meyeni. Weiy possibly E. robusta (Potts) from 
North America is identical with this form. 

E. indica, described by myself in 1907 {Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, 1907, p. 20) is an interesting form as being to some extent 
intermediate between the genera Ephydatia and Spongilla. Even 
in the best developed specimens the rotulae of the gemmule spicules 
are small and inconspicuous, consisting merely of a ring of spines 
but little difterentiated from those that occur on the shafts. The 
spicules are arranged, however, in the upright position common in 
gemmules of Ephydatia, and the whole appearance not only of the 
gemmules but of the sponge itself resembles that of other species 
of this genus. Numerous specimens were obtained b}^ Mr. R. Kirk- 
patrick and myself in a tank on the Calcutta maidan in May last. 
On examination these specimens proved to dift'er in several points 
from the types of the species. In the first place, the skeleton 
spicules were sharply pointed and distinctly inflated at the ends 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 273 

and sometimes in the middle, closely resembling those of a form 
found by Hanitsch [Irish Naturalist, 1895, p. 128, pi. iv) in Ireland 
and provisionally referred by him to E. crateriformis, Leidy. The 
gernmule spicules, moreover, were not or barely bi'rotulate ; the 
majority of them ending in a sharp, stout, vertical spine surrounded 
by a ring of transverse spines barely to be distinguished from 
those on the shaft. The spicules were, however, placed upright in 
the coat of the gemmule, and although many of the latter were 
still immature, some of them appeared to be fully formed. Large 
numbers of similar spicules occurred scattered in the parenchyma, 
and I also found a few free spicules of an irregularly massive outhne.' 
In July I obtained fresh specimens from the same tank and sub- 
mitted them to a careful examination. In these examples the 
majority of the gemmules were fully formed, their spicules being 
distinctly birotulate and agreeing with those of the type of the 
species. The skeleton spicules were no longer pointed and expanded 
at the ends, although their outlines were still rather irregular, 
but closely resembled those of the type. Numerous free birotulates 
were found in the parenchyma. From this I conclude that the 
specimens found in May were immature, and that their peculiarities 
were due to their immaturity. E. indica is, as I suggested in my 
original description, closely allied to E. crateriformis, but the aper- 
ture of the gemmule is situated on a distinct prominence and is 
not markedly crateriform. 



MISCELIv ANE A . 

MMIMALS. 

The ortginai. home of Mtis decumanus.— ln a previous 
paper on the rats of Calcutta {Mem. hid. Mus., vol. i, No, i) I 
called attention to a paper by De I'Isle on the existence of a north- 
ern negroid race in the Brown Rat {Ann. Sci. Nat. (5), Zool., 1865, 
pp. 172-222). As my memoir was already in the press before 
I discovered this paper, I had to content myself with a brief note 
on the identity of the Indian and European forms of Mns rattus. 
A fact that caused me some doubt all through the writing of the 
descriptions of the rats of Calcutta was that M. decumanus, as 
observed by me in Calcutta and as exemplified by the collection 
of skins from different parts of India in the Indian Museum, is 
characterized by a distinct though variable paleness of the lower 
surface of the tail, whereas in Great Britain the whole tail is of 
one colour. De I'Isle puts forward a theory which, though it is 
open to objection on some points, seems to afford a satisfactory 
explanation of this observation of mine, and to throw light on the 
problem of the Original home of M. decumanus. His theory, 
briefly, is that the original wild form of Mus, as exemplified both 
in M. sylvaticus and M. alexandrinus , has the underparts white 
or of a light colour and the tail bicoloured (although in the case of 
M. alexandrinus the tail is of a uniform pale brown) ; but that 
the corresponding parasitic forms, namely M. musculus and M. 
rattus, which have attached themselves to man and have there- 
fore freed themselves from the necessity of protective coloration 
to some extent, have become dark below and have developed uni- 
formly dark tails. The second part of his theory is that the change 
is also due in part to climate, and that under the grey skies of the 
north the clear and sharp differentiation between the upper and 
the lower surfaces tends to disappear, and a uniform coloration to 
be produced. The most marked instance of this is, he says, to be 
fouid in M. rattus, the northern oft'shoot of the Oriental wild parent 
form M. alexandrinus. In reference to the climatic change 
in M. decumanus he merely cites the deviation from type described 
as M. hihernicus, an occasionally black variety found in the British 
Isles. In reference to the change in this rat due to parasitism, 
he writes as follows : — 

" A parasite like the rat (M. rattus) or the mouse (M. musculus), 
and like these species of Asiatic origin, the Brown Rat C surmu- 
lot"), which was only introduced into France towards the middle 
of last century, already exhibits ver^^ evident traces of alteration in 
colour. Thus one frequently meets with individuals that have the 



276 Miscellanea. [VOL. I, 

under- surf ace no longer whitish, but ash-coloured, with scattered 
blackish hairs, and the tail not of two colours, white below, as in 
the type of the s]-)ecies, but uniformly blackish grey." 

Before discussing the pros and cons of De I'lsle's theory, it 
may be pointed out that he recognizes M. decumanus as a rat of 
eastern origin characterized by having a tail of two colours. Its 
most extreme departure from type, as found in the melanotic form 
known as M. hibcrnictts, he believes to be due to climatic environ- 
ment ; the minor alterations, shown mainly in the darkening of 
the under-surface of the tail, he credits, on the other hand, to the 
effects of parasitic life. Though this theory is a fascinating one, 
it is not to be accepted without reservations, and there are points 
in it to which exce])tion may be taken, especially in view of the facts 
and observations recently collected. The strongest point in its 
favour is that what he describes as the " wild " type of coloration 
is almost universal in wild animals of every sort and is now well 
known to have great protective value. In favour of the climatic 
part of the theory is the fact that in Calcutta, although I have 
examined thousands of specimens, I have never come across one 
that showed a tendency to general melanosis, but have frequently 
noted the ashy grey belly which he quotes as an instance of the 
parasitic type of coloration. The strongest argument against the 
whole theory is that he assumes that the typical form of M. 
alcxandrinus exhibits what he calls the " wild " type of coloration. 
This is probabl3' far from being the case, for Liston has shown that 
no less than 20 per cent, of the rats of Bomba}' are black, while 
here in Calcutta, while black rats are rare, nearly half of the speci- 
mens I have collected have grey or orange-grey bellies. Mus 
(iccumanus, if of eastern origin, should be wild in the East, but I 
have come to the conclusion that it is even more strictly parasitic 
on the banks of the Hughli than it is on the banks of the Thames. 
In Bengal, and in India generally, it is hardly to be found except 
in seaports and, occasionally, on the banks of the great navigable 
rivers that debouch at these ports ; in the interior of Bengal and 
Assam, as I learn from Capt. Gourlay, I.M.vS., and others, it is prac- 
tically unknown. Why should this be if it is living nearer to its 
original home than in Great Britain ? Again, if reliance is to be 
placed on De I'lsle's theor}^ of parasitic versus " wild " coloration, 
it might be expected that Nesokia hcngalensis, which in Calcutta is 
a parasitic rat, would show a marked difference when living under 
purely natural conditions. So far as I know, it shows no such 
difference. Doubtless this is one of the points that will be taken up 
in the proposed survey of the rats of India. Another point worthy 
of investigation would be the question whether Mus rattus exhibits 
a greater tendency of " wild " coloration when living in trees than 
it does when living in human habitations. 

W. C. HOSSACK. 

Colour change in Hylobates hoolock, Harlan. — It is generally 
believed that the variation of colour to which this species is subject 



1907.] Records of the Indian Museum. 277 

is more distinctive of the female than of the male sex, and that 
age is the chief factor in colour change. These deductions are 
evidently based upon inadequate observations. Examples of black 
male and grey female hoolocks, or black males turning light-coloured 
on arriving at maturity are well known, but these facts prove 
nothing, as contrary cases of black female and grey male hoolocks 
are equally well known. 

Observations on the numerous hoolocks [H . hoolock) obtained 
from Assam, Sylhet, Cachar, Manipur, the C ittagong Hill Tracts, 
the Irrawady Vallev, and Arracan, and exhibited in the Calcutta 
Zoological Garden during the last thirty-one years and more show 
that, considered in relation to the variation of colour, the species 
may be divided into the four following groups : — 

(i) Light-coloured female hoolocks turning grey, or even white 
with age. 

(2) Black, or grey-coloured female hoolocks, becoming lighter 

grey or white with age. 

(3) Black female hoolocks never turning grey or white. 

(4) Light-coloured, or grey males, remaining alwaj's the same 

colour. 

The following three specific cases ma}' be mentioned in reference 
to groups 2, 3 and 4 respectively : — 

T. " Maria," an adult black female, which had been for 
S0T13 years in captivity but hi:l enjoyed very considerable liberty, 
was sent to the Garden in ic)02. Her colour was not so intense 
at the time as that of some black individuals, and she has gradually 
become paler since it was necessary to cage her owing to her tem- 
per. At present (July, 1907) the hair on her back, on the outside 
of her limbs, on her face (except the eyebrows, which remain 
pure white) and on the inside of the forearm and lower leg is of a 
very pale, brownish grey colour, while the ventral surface of her 
body and the inside of the upper leg and arm is of a pale but rather 
warm purplish brown. The hair on the hands and feet is white. 
The pigment of the skin has not been affected. 

2. An adolescent black female hoolock came into the posses- 
sion of the Garden early in 1895, and was placed in the house 
usually occupied by the anthropoids. Accustomed as the animal 
was to a life of comparative freedom, it took to pining and became 
seriously ill. Careful nursing and treatment having failed to 
bring about any change for the better, it was set at l.berty. The 
effect v/as marvellous, the animal soon recovered, and, having 
regained its usual cheerfulness, enjo^'ed life for the next seven years, 
roaming about far and near, but always returning to the Garden 
at the appointed hours of feeding. It never turned grey, not even 
light coloured. 

3. In 1878, a young mile of a greyish brown colour was 
acquired from Assam. The late Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S., then 
Honorary Secretary of the Garden, was particularly interested 
in the animal, as he was anxious to determine whether it became 
black as it grew older. It lived for several years in the Garden^ and 



278 Miscellanea. [VOL. I, 

died long after arriving at maturity, but never showed any sign 
of changing from grey to black. 

The following extracts from a letter from Mr. E. v'^tuart Baker 
may throw further light on the subject of colour-changes in hoolock 
gibbons : — 

" Susan, a female gibbon got by me as a mature animal, was 

sent to Colonel Vaughan, I. M.S Colonel Vaughan kept 

her for some time and then passed her on to a Captain (now 
Colonel) Johnstone, and he again to others, and when I saw her 
many years later she was still jet black. A very large adult grey 
2 belonged to a Mr. Lewis Jones in North Cachar. It was caught 
as a grey hutcha (young one) and remained the same colour, in 
this case a dark grey, all the time I knew it. I have kept many 
black hoolocks, in one case from a few da^^s old until it was seven 
or eight years old, and never have I seen any change of colour take 
place." 

Mr. Stuart Baker, who has considerable experience of Assam 
hoolocks in their wild state, has often seen the same small com- 
munity of hoolocks to contain white, brown, and black specimens, 
and these seemed to him always to remain the same. 

The late Mr. Louis Schwendler, who will always be remembered 
in connexion with the establishment of the Calcutta Zoological 
Garden, related to me the following facts about a pet hoolock of 
his, a female of a jet black colour. She broke her arm by a fall 
from a tree and had to be kept in close confinement for over six 
weeks. During this period of enforced captivity she lost her 
black colour, and became almost grey. Change of hue, brought 
about by illness or injur}", has been known to occur in other species 
of monkeys — particularly in Semnofnthccus pileatus, and Macacits 
arctoides. 

R. B. Sanyal, Rat Bahadur. 



BATRACHIA. 

Eggs of Tylototriton verrucosus. — Mr. R. Hodgart, Zoological 
Collector in the Museum, while collecting Batrachia at Kurseong 
(5,000 feet) in the Darjiling district, recently (July, IQ07) found 
several breeding females and eggs of this, the only Indian Urodele. 
Before describing the eggs I may notice a curious observation he 
made as regards the adult. He found that if it was grasped in 
the hand by the body it lashed about vigorously with its tail and 
drew blood from the hand. An examination of his specimens 
shows th it the dorsal ridge is, at the base of the tail, exceedingly 
sharp and has a stiff and inflexible character. I have no doubt 
that this was the weapon used. Unfortunately the egg5, from one 
of which a larva is in the act of escaping, are not in a very good 
state of preservation, but the following particulars may be noted. 
They were found in small pools of rain water in an open wood and 
were attached together in pairs, each pair being separate from 



igoj.] Records of the Indian Museum. 279 

the others and not fixed to any external object. The egg;s appear 
to have measured about 10 mm. in diameter and are spherical ; they 
have an outer covering of comparatively loose jelly, the inner cover- 
ing that contains the larva being more tenacious and having a 
greater density. The escaping larva measures 9 mm. in length — 
of which 3 mm. is occupied by the tail — and 175 mm. in greatest 
d^pth ; its body is rounded owing to the large amount of yolk 
held in the belly, but its tail is laterally compressed and has 
a lanceolate outline. The head is small and round, measuring 
i"5 mm. in length ; the eyes are large bat not protuberant ; they 
appear to be covered with skin, but the eyeball can be detected 
externally. There are four deHcate external gills on either side, 
each set being arranged in a graduated series from above down- 
wards. The mouth is open externally and is transverse and rela- 
tively large ; behind it there is a conspicuous fold of the body-wall. 
The anus is still imperforate. The belly is white, but the tail and 
the back and sides of the body are grey, with large black pigment- 
cells forming almost a reticulated pattern. 



N. Annandale. 



CRUSTACEA. 



The hosts of Tachcea spongillicola, Stebbing. — This Isopod, 
recently described by the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing {Journ. Linn. 
Soc, Zool., XXX, p. 39, 1907) from Calcutta, was first found in 
smill numbers in Spongilla carteri, but, owing to a misapprehen- 
sion, the author of the species suggested in a footnote to his des- 
cription that it might have come from a form of 5. lacustris. This 
misapprehension was due to a letter of my own in which I intended 
to refer to a very different Isopod found in Spongilla alba at 
Port Canning. During the present summer, however, I have 
found numerous specimens of Tachcea spongillicola in Ephydatia 
indica, so that it is evidently not confined to one host. Ephydatia 
indica is a sponge often found on the bottom of tanks, growing 
most commonly on the roots of water-plants. Possibly this habit 
may explain the abundance of the Isopod in its canals ; as the 
latter is rare in Spongilla carteri, which generally grows near the 
surface but has very much wider apertures and canals than any 
other species common in Calcutta. 

N. Annandale. 

A SECOND SPECIES OF Dichelaspis from Bathynomus giganteus. — 
The Indian Museum is fortunate in possessing a fine series of 
specimens of the giant deep-sea Isopod Bathynomus giganteus, 
Milne-Edwards, and Barnacles of the genus Dichelaspis occur on 
the pleopods in every case. I recently described examples of these 
Barnacles from a specimen from the Arabian Sea as the types of 
a new species, D. hathynomi {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), xvii, 
p. 46), and others from specimens from the Andaman Sea and off 
the Madras coast agree with them. .Those on another specimen, 
however, from off Ceylon, closely resemble D. occlusa, Manchester, 



28o Miscellanea. [Vol. I, 1907.] 

a species described from Thenus orientalis from shallow water on the 
east coast of the Malay Peninsula {Proc. Zool. Soc, 1902, p. 373). 
As my specimens are evidently immature, I am unable to decide 
whether they are merely a variety of this species or specifi.cally 
distinct. The points in which they differ from Lanchester's speci- 
mens are the following : {a) the penis is extremely short ; (6) 
the carina extends upwards a little further and is not so markedly 
produced at its lower extremity ; (c) the tergum is larger, more 
nearly transverse and not so deeply notched at the point where 
the occludent segment of the scutum meets it ; (d) the capitulum 
is more regular in outline and is not produced above the aperture 
into a lobe ; (e) the valves are transparent and feebly calcified except 
immediately round the umbones of the scuta and terga ; (/) no 
chitinous points are visible on the peduncle even under a high 
power of the microscope. Although these differences are numerous, 
the majority may be due to extreme immaturity on the part of the 
specimens from Bathynomus. The depth at which the latter was 
taken, viz., between 225 and 594 fathoms, is, however, very differ- 
ent from that at which Lanchester's examples were collected. 

N. Annandale. 



XXlll. — N U D I C L A V A MONOCANTHI, THE 

TYPE OF A NEW GENUvS OF HYDROIDS 

PARASITIC ON FISH. 

By R. E. Lloyd, M.B., B.Sc, Captain, I.M.S., Surgeon 
Naturalist, Marine Survey of India. 

While examining some tow net material collected in 1897 from 
the Andaman Sea by the naturalist of the R.I.M. Survey Ship 
" Investigator," my attention was arrested by a small fish, to the 
side of which was attached a curious lobulated growth. The fish 
(plate xvi, fig. i), which measured only 18 mm. in length, was one 
of a number of specimens belonging to the species Monocanthus 
tomentosiis , recently recorded by Johnstone from Indian seas for 
the first time (i). A portion of this growth was detached, stained 
and mounted. On examining the specimen microscopically, the 
following details were noticed (fig. 2) : — 

(i) The most conspicuous feature was the presence of a 
large number of elongated club-shaped bodies, much 
resembling the contracted hydranths of Clava or 
Coryne, but entirely devoid of tentacles. 

(2) At the base of these bodies, usually one to each, were 

a number of small globular objects. These, from the 
type of their structure and contents, were at once 
recognised to be closed gonophores or sporosacs. 

(3) These structures arise from a basal plate, which is 

attached to the skin of the fish. This plate consists 
of a labyrinthine system of irregular spaces and 
tubules. 

As a result of this preliminary examination, the growth was 
recognised to be most probably a hydroid colony of new type. 
Other small portions were detached and mounted, others again 
were cut into serial sections. Although the amount of material 
was very limited, and its state of preservation none of the best, 
3^et it was found possible to elucidate the principal features of its 
structure. The material being so limited in quantity, in order to 
obtain sections of the male gonophore, it was found necessary to 
carry out the following procedure : A small portion of the growth 
was lightly stained and mounted in toto ; as this showed some 
good examples of the male gonophore, and no further material 
was available, the slide on which the specimen was mounted was 
placed upright in xylol. After a few hours the cover-glass became 
detached by its own weight, leaving the specimen adhering to the 
slide : the specimen itself soon after fell away from the slide. After 



282 R. E. Lloyd : A new venits of Hyd raids. [VOL. I, 

soaking it freely in fresh xylol for about six hours it was imbedded 
in paraffin and cut into sections. »Sections so obtained seemed 
quite as good as others, treated in the usual way. Owing to the 
heat of Calcutta, high-melting paraffin had to be employed in mak- 
ing these sections. Portions of the colony were placed in paraffin 
of 55° C. melting point for half an hour ; this interval of time was 
found to be long enough for complete penetration. 

The Hydranth — 

Bach hydranth is a club-shaped body measuring about "75 mm. 
in length in the contracted state. In internal structure it 
differs remarkably from other hydroid colonies, but it seems 
difficult to arrive at any other conclusion than that the form in 
question is a hydranth and part of a hydroid colony. It resembles 
the genus Protohydra (2) and the parasitic Hvdrichthys mirus (3) 
in that it is entirely devoid of tentacles or any trace thereof ; but 
apart from this, the internal structure, as seen in sections, shows 
some most unusual features. 

The ectoderm is relativel^^ thin and, owing perhaps to want of 
proper fixation, does not show much structure. The appearance 
it presents in section is that of a somewhat irregular layer of 
protoplasm, containing a single series of nuclei (plate xvii, figs, i 
and 4). This layer is easily distinguished from the mass of endo- 
derm cells, which show peculiar structural features. Careful search 
failed to demonstrate the presence of nematocysts in this ectoderm. 

The endoderm is, in these contracted specimens, verj^ much 
lobulated, so that the central cavity, which can be clearly made 
out both in optical and actual section, usually" takes a sinuous 
course. The opening of the central cavity at the distal end of 
the hydranth can be clearly seen, and there is usually a slight 
external depression at its site. The endoderm cells, which make 
up the bulk of the hydranth, are of a peculiar structure : the}^ 
are ovoid or spherical and have well-deffiied outlines. After 
staining with haematoxylin a nucleus cannot be demonstrated in 
them, but each cell contains a large number of small spherical 
granules, arranged round the periphery with great regularity. 
These granules take the stain exactly like nuclei, and they arc 
probably composed of chromatin and perform the functions of 
nuclei. These large cells do not actuall^^ line the central cavity, 
but are separated therefrom by a pavement epithelium — a single 
delicate layer of flat cells in which nuclei are easily demonstrable. 
This epithelium not only lines the central cavity but is continued 
outwards through the mass of the spherical cells and joins the 
peripheral ectoderm. Where it lines the central cavity, this 
epithelium is composed of one layer of cells, but where it passes 
out to join the ectoderm it is, like a mesentery, composed of two 
layers. This is clearly seen on examining favourable sections un- 
der a T2-inch objective (fig. 4). As shown in tigs, t to 3, the 
endoderm of the hydranth is divided by this epithelium into two 
separate parts. 



igoy.] Records of the Iiidniii Mitscuni. 283 

The bilateral symmetry thus established is further emphasized 
by the presence of what appears to be a strand of muscle-fibres 
which occupies the central axis of each half. These fibrous 
strands are clearly seen in both longitudinal and transverse sec- 
tions. They commence below, in the very base of the hydranth, 
which is largely made up of them, and pass upwards through the 
spherical cells of the endoderm nearly to its apex. Throughout 
their length they distribute fibres among the peripheral endoderm 
cells in the manner shown in figs. 3 and 4. Under a y 2-inch 
objective longitudinal sections of these structures show a fibrillated 
appearance which is well defined, and the individual fibres can be 
seen distributed between the spherical endoderm cells. These 
fibrils do not show nuclei. There can be little doubt that they 
have a muscular function. 

The simple arrangement shown in the transverse section (fig. 
i) in which the hydranth is divided into two separate halves, 
each of which contains a muscle-strand, was found in the prox- 
imal part of every individual examined in section, but in their 
distal parts the number of these " mesenteries " is increased. 
Some sections show three, others four or more. Figure 2 is of a 
somewhat oblique section showing four such mesenteries. At the 
base of the hydranth the specialised endoderm ceases abruptly in 
a sharply-defined line, which can be readily seen in optical section 
(pi. xvi, fig. 4). The central cavity is continued below into a tube 
of small dimensions composed of somewhat delicate cells. This 
tube, which usuall)^ has the form of a dice-box, its calibre being 
smallest in the middle of its length (fig. 4), opens into a long 
straight tube with thick walls composed of regular columnar cells. 
The other end of this straight tube opens into one of the irregular 
endodermal spaces of the coenosarc. 

The Basal Plate or Coenosarc — • 

The basal plate is so closely attached to the skin of the fish 
that on removing a portion of it an outer layer of the fish's skin 
is often detached with it. In structure the plate is not the same 
throughout its whole extent. As a whole it is very like the 
attachment plate or coenosarc of Hydraciinea (4), but without 
the strong chitinous element so characteristic of that genus. 
Throughout most of its extent it is composed of two layers of 
ectoderm widely separated by irregular tubules and spaces with 
endodermal walls which communicate with one another freely and 
form a complex labyrinthine structure. The outer layer of ecto- 
derm does not everywhere pass over this endodermal labyrinth 
in a smooth and unbroken fashion, but dips down between the 
layers of endoderm in places, and occasionally the cuticle is carried 
along with the ectoderm into the same situation. Although most 
of the ccenosarc has this complex structure, parts of it show the 
more primitive type consisting of an open meshwo k of irregular 
trabeculse, each of which is a tube composed of two layers — 
ectoderm and endoderm with an external cuticle. 



284 R- E. Llovd : A new genus of Hydroids. [VOL. I, 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in interpreting the 
structure of the basal plate, for although the histological detail was 
fairly well preserved, there was little or no difference in the ap- 
pearance of the endodermal and ectodermal layers ; both varied 
in thickness, to a great extent, in different parts. Figure 5 (pi. 
xvii), which was drawn with the camera lucida from a favour- 
able section, shows the principal features in the structure of the 
coenosarc. It will be noticed that the cuticle is relatively very 
thin, in some parts of the colony it is hardly recognisable. 

GonopJiores — 

The colony shows both male and female gonophores. With 
hardly an exception, one gonophore is situated at the base of each 
hydranth. Careful examination shows, however, that the endoder- 
mal layers of the gonophores are not directly connected with the 
endodermal canal at the base of the hydranth, but spring from 
the irregular endodermal spaces of the neighbouring coenosarc. 
This is shown in pi. xvi, fig. 4. The gonophores are of the closed 
type known as sporosacs. They show no traces of tentacles, radial 
canals or ectodermal invagination. 

The female gonophore was only studied in optical section, but 
as its structure was much simpler than that of the male ones, a 
comprehensible plan of the structure can be made out after study 
by this means alone. Figure 5 shows the principal features of the 
structure of these organs. They are spherical bodies, measuring 
■17 mm. in diameter, and are each attached to the coenosarc near 
the base of a hydranth. Their endodermal contents, which arise 
from the coenosarc and not from the special endodermal canal of the 
neighbouring hydranth, split into two layers on entering the gono- 
phore. The outer of these layers forms an uninterrupted sheet, 
closely applied to the ectoderm ; the inner forms a spadix of 
characteristic shape. This spadix, the walls of which are, by in- 
vagination, composed of a double layer of endoderm, forms a glo- 
bular body separated by a considerable space from the wall of the 
sporosac. There is an opening in one side of the spadix due to the 
invagination, so that in longitudinal sections it forms a character- 
istic C-shaped figure. Developing ova can be seen between the 
layers of the spadix : in at least two cases ova of larger size than 
the others can be clearly seen in the canal of the neck of the 
spadix. Perhaps this is a preliminary position before the ovum 
passes into the central cup-like hollow. When the surface of a 
large ovum is examined under a high power of the microscope, it 
shows a delicate hexagonal pattern, caused by the approximated 
ends of the long columnar cells of the spadix pressing on it. Ova 
more advanced than the one shown in fig. 5 were not found. 

The male Gonophores — 

While the part of the colony seen in fig. 3 showed female 
gonophores chiefly, other parts showed the male form. This is of 
about the same size as the female gonophore, but is shaped like a 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 285 

pointed fir cone ; it is more opaque than the female one, and con- 
sequently can only be properly studied in serial sections. Figures 
6 to 8 show three of a series of such sections. The endodermal 
contents are more complex than those of the female form and do 
not seem quite the same in ever^^ case, but like that form there is 
a spadix which shows a more or less C-shaped figure in longitudinal 
section. No male gonophore was met with in a ripe condition ; 
they mostly contained spermatoblasts. 

Theoretical considerations — 

In spite of the anomalous structure of the hydranth, this 
genus should, I think, find a place among the gymnoblastic 
hydroids, and a comparison with two hydroid genera, Hydrichthys 
niirus and Stylactis minoi, which are also parasitic on fish, leads 
to some interesting conclusions. 

Stylactis minoi was described by Alcock in 1892 (5) and has 
been since found several times in Indian seas, always attached to 
the skin of the small rock perch Minous incrmis. It is a typical 
hydroid in every way. 

The peculiar form Hydrichthys mirus discovered in 1887 by 
Fewkes growing to the carangoid fish Seriola zonata at Newport, 
U.S.A., cannot be called a typical hydroid. It resembles the 
present genus very closely in some respects, in others it differs 
widely from it. HydrichtJiys is described as follows by its dis- 
coverer : — 

'' The base of attachment to the fish is a flat, thin plate 
with ramifying tubes, by means of which the colony is fastened to 
the fish, and upon it separate clusters of sexual bodies (gonosomes) 
and filiform structures (hydranths ?) are united together." 

The author compares this basal plate to that of Hydractinea, 
without the chitinous projections, and it is obviously very like 
that of the genus described here. Hydrichthys, however, has long 
arborescent gonosomes to which medusae in all stages of develop- 
ment are attached. The fish, with its parasite, was kept alive in 
an aquarium and '' thousands of these medusae were raised. " 
The medusae swim freely, and each has four tentacles. The 
generative organs are therefore totally different from those of the 
new genus, in which these organs are represented by a few closed 
sporosacs, sessile on the basal plate. Turning now to the hydranth, 
the comparison between the two forms is of such interest that it 
seems well to quote Fewkes' s account in extenso, especially as 
the nature of the hydranth of Hydrichthys is regarded somewhat 
doubtfully by that author : — 

'■ In addition to the botryoidal clusters of gonosomes there 
also arise from the basal plate by which the colony is fastened to 
the fish, long, flask-shaped bodies, recalling in their external form 
the tasters of the Siphonophores. These bodies, like the gonosomes, 
arise from the upper walls of the basal plate of tubes attached to 
the body of the fish. I^ike the gonosomes they are numerous in 
the hydroid colony. Tiie filiform bodies are elongated flask-shaped 



286 R. E. Lloyd : A new gcinis of Hydroids. [VOL. I, 

structures, of about uniform size throughout, arising from differ- 
ent points of attachment at the base from the gonosomes They 
are, Hke the gonosomes, destitute of appendages, but they prob- 
ably have an opening at the free extremity. The walls of the fili- 
form bodies are composed of an outer thin and an inner thickened 
layer. There is a cavity within. The walls are dotted with pig- 
ment spots, which are especially numerous around the free extrem- 
ity. In one of these filiform bodies there is a spherical mass, 
which resembles half-digested food. It is doubtful whether this 
mass is food. The free end of the filiform bodies is sometimes 
trumpet-shaped, but ordinarily rounded, the opening being con- 
cealed by the contraction of the lips. The bodies of the filiform 
structures move backwards and forwards on their attachments, 
and are sometimes spirall}^ coiled in a single turn. They recall in 
general appearance the spiral zooids of Hydractinia and the 
tasters of Siphonpphora, but, unlike either of these structures, 
have an orifice at their free end. They are thought to have close 
likenesses to the ' central polyp ' of Velella." 

The difficulty of interpreting the nature of the fiask-shaped 
bodies of Hydrichthys , becomes lessened in the light of the new 
genus Nudiclava ; and the present writer is strongly of the 
opinion tnat the flask-shaped bodies of the former and the 
club-shaped bodies of the latter are both hydranths devoid of 
tentacles. Furthermore, that it is by means of these hydranths 
that the colonies obtain their food. In his description of Hydrich- 
thys, the author expresses the following view of its mode of 
nutrition, a view expressed, necessarily at that time, somewhat 
doubtfully : — 

" The absence of tentacles, or organs the function of which 
is the capture of food, would seem to deprive Hydrichthys of 
those means of capturing and drawing food to the mouth which 
are almost universal among fixed hydroids. Possibly in its 
parasitic life the hydroid obtains its sustenance from the fish on 
the sides of which it lives." 

The close resemblances in the structure of the two forms 
now under comparison make it most probable that, whatever the 
mode of nutrition, it is of a similar nature in both cases. It 
seems from the following observations, that the genus Nudiclava 
does not obtain sustenance from the fish to which it is attached. 
It was previously mentioned that on removing a portion of the 
colony, an outer layer of the fish's skin was removed with it. 
Part of this was separated from the hydroid and examined 
microscopically ; it was found to be quite intact ; there was no 
sign of perforation by any radical organs. In the absence of any 
such special organs, it does not seem likely that the fish would be 
so accommodating as to diffuse nutriment, uncompelled, through 
its own skin into the tissues of the hydroid. 

How, then, do these colonies obtain their food ? The as- 
sumption is made here, that Hydrichthys and Nudiclava obtain 
nutriment in the same way. The absence of tentacles in these 



igoy.j Records of flic Indian Museum. 287 

parasitic hydroids deprives them of the power of catching their pre}' 
in the manner common to all other hydroids. Their mode of life 
is identical in both cases. Both were found adhering like a tuft 
to the skin of small fishes which were caught near the surface of 
the sea. Judging from Fewkes's well-executed illustration of the 
fish with its parasite, the superficial appearance of both would be 
very similar. 

From the relatively large size of the hydranths of Nudiclava 
it is difficult to suppose that they are degenerate bodies of Httle 
functional value to the colony. The peculiar features of the en- 
doderm of Nudiclava, the well-developed muscle strands, and the 
special pavement epithelium lining the central cavity, suggest that 
the methods by which these hydranths obtain food is as follows : — 

It is supposed that in their natural state, they assume, by 
expansion of the mouth, the shape of a wide-spreading funnel 
(pi. xvi, fig. 2). As the host speeds through the surface waters, 
the small members of the plankton, such as copepod nauplii, etc., 
must come within the grasp of these funnel-shaped mouths. The 
well-developed muscles, situated iii the endoderm, which are pecu- 
liar to the genus, point to a special power of rapid and forceable 
retraction, an act which would be very necessary when anything 
comes within the grasp of the funnel. The special pavement epi- 
thelium is perhaps developed as a protection and covering to the 
endodermal cells which would otherwise be exposed to the water, 
when the mouth is gaping widely. 

We can ihustrate the possible efficiency of this mode of food- 
capture thus : It is not unlikely that the hydranth, which 
measures '75 mm. in length when completely contracted, could ex- 
pand its mouth into a circle '5 mm. in diameter The hydranths 
in the colony, which number about 50, would together present 
an area of about 10 square mm., which is at least as great as that 
of the gaping mouth of the fish host itself. 

In the case of Hydrichthys , the hydranths, from their size, 
must also be considered important members in the colony. And 
there is some evidence in Fewkes's account that it obtains its food 
in this manner. Thus we read above, that the free or oral ends 
of the filiform bodies of this genus are sometimes trumpet-shaped, 
and one of these bodies contained a mass resembling food. 
Hydrichthys was kept alive in an aquarium for some time, but it 
would have been impracticable to examine the colony without 
catching the fish, a procedure which would cause at least partial 
contraction of the parasite : consequently it would be very diffi- 
cult to observe the state of the oral apertures in their expanded 
condition, and the fact that some few were observed to be 
trumpet-shaped, makes it most likely that all would possess, in 
their expanded condition, a wide funnel-shaped mouth. 

Let us pass now to a consideration of the third genus 
of hydroids which is found on fish. The case of Stylactis minoi 
on the fish Minous inermis is quite different from that of 
the others. The hydranth has a well- developed circle of long 



288 R. E. Ll.OYD : A nciv genus of Hydroids. [VOL. 1, 

tentacles and a hypostome^ and clearly catches its food like other 
h3^droids. The hydrophyton is in the form of a creeping stolon 
which may almost entirely cover the fish. These differences point 
to a different mode of life from the other parasitic forms. An 
explanation of these differences seems to be found in the different 
nature of the fish. Minous inermis has been found many times in 
the Bay of Bengal in company with such teleostean genera as 
Uranoscopus , Platycephalus , Lophius, Pterois, which are essentially 
bottom fish : whereas the fish hosts of the other two genera 
under discussion were both captured in the tow net. The extent 
to which the Minous is coated with the hydroid growth, caused 
its discoverer to hold the opinion that the hydroid must benefit 
the fish by concealing it to some extent. On this assumption, we 
can imagine the Minous remaining still for considerable periods 
of time during which the Stylactis could pursue its vocation of 
catching prey, in the fashion of other h^^droids which are attached 
to rocks. 

We see, therefore, that whereas the modes of life of Hydrich- 
thys and Nudiclava seem essentially similar, they both differ 
considerably in this respect from Stylactis minoi : although all three 
forms appear to be hydroids parasitic on small teleostean fish. 

Affinities — • 

Comparison with other more normal hydroid types has not 
led to any definite conclusions as to which particular type this new 
genus may have been derived from. It undoubtedly resembles the 
abnormal genus Hydrichthys in some ways, in the structure of the 
basal plate and the absence of tentacles, and in its mode of life 
generally. Here the similarity stops, and the two genera are sepa- 
rated by the great differences in the gonophores, and in the internal 
structure of the hydranth, which in Hydrichthys is quite of the 
usual hydroid type. The conclusion arrived at is that the 
similarities have been acquired in adaptation to the circumstances 
of the peculiar life which are alike in both cases ; while the dif- 
ferences are due to the fact that the ancestors of both forms which 
took to this parasitic life were essentiall}' different, especially as 
regards the nature of the gonophores. The genus Nudiclava has, 
however become more specialised than Hydrichthys, as the result 
of this mode of life. 

Stylactis minoi presents a third example of a hydroid, which 
has scarcely been modified at all by its association with a fish. 
Being attached to the skin of a sluggish rock-haunting species, it 
is capable of obtaining food in the same manner as most other 
hydroids. Consequently its structure has not been modified. 

Definition of the genus — 

The hydrophyton is a compact plate-like structure composed 
of an irregular labyrinthine coenosarc with very poorly developed 
perisarc. 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



289 



The hydranths are claviform when contracted and totally 
devoid of tentacles ; their cavities are lined by a special layer of 
pavement epithelium, and they contain well-developed muscle- 
Qbres among the endoderm. 

The gonophores are closed sporosacs, without radial canals 
tentacles, or ectodermal invaginations. 

The species is parasitic on the skin of a surface-swimming fish 



1. Johnstone, J. 

2. Bronn, H. G. 

3. Fewkes, J. W. 

4. Collcutt, M. C. 
5- Alcock. A. 



6. Allman, G. J. 



REFERENCEvS. 

. . "Report on the Marine Fishes," 
Herdman's Ceylon Pearl Oyster 
Fisheries and Mar. Biol., pt. ii, 
1904, p. 203. 

. . Klassen und Ordnung. des Thier- 
Reichs, bd. ii, abt. 2, 1889-92, p. 
217. 

. . ''On certain Medusae from New Eng- 
land," Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
vol. xiii, 1887, p. 224. 

. '' On the structure of Hydractinea 
echinata," Quart. Journ. Micros. 
Sci., vol. xl, 1898, p. 88. 

. " A case of commensalism between a 
Gymnoblastic Anthomedusoid 
(Stylaciis minoi) and a Scorpse- 
noid Fish (Minous inermis)," 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 
vol. X, 1892, p. 207. 

. Monograph of the Gymnoblastic Hy- 
droids, 1871, p. 128. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 

Fig. I. — The fish, Monocanthus tomentosus , with the parasite at- 
tached : drawn from the spirit specimen, natural size. 

Fig. 2. — Diagram of the supposed appearance of the same, when 
the parasite is fully expanded : viewed from above 
and enlarged. 

Fig. 3. — A portion of the colony showing eleven hydranths and 
gonophores attached to the disc : drawn from mounted 
specimen under f-inch objective with the camera 
lucida. Internal structure of the disc represented 
diagrammatically. 
ST = '' Straight tube." 

Fig. 4. — View in optical section of a portion of the same, more 
highly magnified, showing the lower part of a single 
hydranth and a gonophore. 

L =:=^ The lower limit of the specialized endoderm of 
the hydranth ; this fine is very clear in the specimen, 
for the cells above it (endoderm) are somewhat opaque 
and dark. 

CT = The " connecting tube " which communicates 
on the one hand with the cavity of the hydranth and 
on the other with the '' straight tube." 
The connecting tube lies within what appears to be 
a closed spherical chamber, the thin walls of which 
are reflected on to the tube itself. This chamber was 
seen in the case of all hydranths available for exam- 
ination both in optical and actual section, but the 
quality of the material was not sufficiently good to 
enable one to elucidate this structure with certainty. 
ST =^ The " straight tube " which is embedded in the 
disc. One end of it communicates with the " connect- 
ing tube," the other opens into one of the cavernous 
spaces of the disc. 

The curved dotted lines at the upper and left-hand 
part of the figure are to indicate an appearance due 
to " muscle fibrils " lying among the specialized 
endoderm cells. 

Fig. 5. — Optical section of a female gonophore showing two ova. 
On the left side of each ovum the cell-outlines were in- 
dicated, but the " hexagonal pattern " mentioned in 
the text has been lost in the reproduction of the figure. 

Figs. 6, 7 and 8. — Three of a series of sections through a male gono- 
phore. Cell= outlines and spermatoblasts have been 
omitted in figs. 6 and 7, in order to show the arrange- 
ment of the endodermal layers with greater clearness. 
In fig. 8 the spermatoblasts and cell-outlines of the 
layers are indicated, but the detail is somewhat dia- 
grammatic. The spermatoblasts are in places merged 
into the cells of the endodermal layers, but the con- 
tinuity of the latter can be traced with assurance : 
drawn with camera lucida under |-inch objective. 



PLA.TEXVI. 



Fi^.L. 




^ / 






Fig- ff. 



-fio.6. 



Ky.7. 



^>.?. 



EXPI^ANATION OF PLATE XVII. 

Fig. I. — Transverse section of the lower part of a hydranth. 
CC ^= Central cavity. M = Muscle strands. 
The '' mesenteries " which unite the lining of the 
central cavity to the ectoderm lie in a shrinkage space. 

Fig. 2. — A somewhat oblique section at a higher level through 
another hydranth. Four '' mesenteries " are seen ; 
those on the left are cut obliquely. 

Fig. 3. — A longitudinal section of a hydranth through the oral 
aperture. 

The outlines for figs, i, 2 and 3 were drawn under 
^-inch objective with the camera lucida. The muscle 
fibres are represented conventionally by dots and black 
lines. The real appearance is of a delicate fibrillation 
more accurately portrayed in fig. 4. 

Fig. 4. — A small portion of a section from the same series as 
the one shown in fig. 2 under y'^-inch objective, 
Ec = Ectoderm. CC = Central cavity. M = Muscle 
fibrils. 

This figure shows that each " mesentery " is composed 
of two layers of delicate, nucleated cells which sepa- 
rate to form the central cavity. These features are 
best seen in the mesentery on the right ; the one on 
the left being cut somewhat obliquely. The charac- 
ters of the "^ specialized endoderm cells " are shown ; 
the well-marked outlines, the peripheral granules, and 
the absence of nuclei. 

Fig. 5. — A small portion of the disc in section under yV-inch 
objective. 

On the right a " straight tube " is seen opening into 
the common spaces of the disc. 

The ectoderm is seen dipping down among the other 
layers : this is not usual. 



Fiy.h 



PLATE XVII. 



Fiff.Q. 




Y:::^^ 



-^^' 















■-txiSi^a^^J"' 



Fi>. 2. 







Fig. 4. 




<;.ic;^ 






t, .y ■■... 




i^i> 5-. 



^ 



i' c^- 






'\ • • • - w* ■ 



XXI v.— P RELIMINARY DESCRIPTION vS OF 

THREE NEW NYCTERIBIIDM 

FROM INDIA. 

By P. vSpeiser, M.D. 

From the collection of the Indian Museum I recently ex- 
amined three NycteribiidcB which I considered to be new. But 
one of these species has already been mentioned in literature. 
Rondani gives in the Ann. Miis. Genova (1878), vol. xii, a short 
description of a parasite of the bat Rhinolophus euryotis, Temm., 
from Amboina, which he considered to be Nydenhia jenynsii, 
Westw. In my dissertation '' Uber die Nycteribiiden^ Fleder- 
mausparasiten aus der gruppe der pupiparen Dipteren " {Arch. 
Naturges., vol. Ixvii, p. 11, 1901), I have demonstrated that 
N. jenynsii, Westw., is a Penicillidia, Kol, I had examined Ron- 
dani's very badly-preserved specimen, and provisionally determined 
it as N. minuta, Wulp. This latter name, as I have since learned, 
is a mere synonym of Cyclopedia ferrarii, Rond., and I am now 
very pleased at having before me a good specimen of the parasite 
of Rhinolophus euryotis, Temrn., also from Amboina. 

I give here a short description of it under the name Nycterihia 
{Acrocholidia) phthisica, sp nov., together with short descrip- 
tions of the two other new species. The detailed descriptions 
of these will be published in a larger monograph on this 'family, 
which I have in preparation. It would be of the greatest interest 
to examine more species from India of this extraordinary family, 
especially with good notes on the species of bats which harbour 
them. There are but ver^^ few known from East India, and there 
is a wide gap between the better known regions of the Sunda 
Archipelago and the African coasts, with Madagascar. We must 
expect some very interesting discoveries from the intermediate 
regions. 

Nycteribia {Acrocholidia) phthisica, sp. nov., $ . 

Head and thorax without characteristics, the breast being 
almost twice as long as broad, being thus long and narrow 
(phthisic! ). The lateral quarters of the basal tergite are bare, the 
middle bristly. In the middle of the dorsum is an irregular hori- 
zontal row of longer bristles ; above the anal segment, a more 
chitinized rectangular shield, which bears three very long bristles 
on each of its rounded hind corners. The basal sternite has a 
linear hind margin, with a ctenidium of fine spines. Before the 
anal segment lie two band-like segments with wavy hind margins, 
the former of which has two pairs of bristles on each side of the 
middle line, and three on each side at the end ; the posterior has 
but two separate bristles on each side of the middle, and but two 



296 p. Speiser : Three neiv Nycteribiidse. [Vol. I, 1907.] 

on each side at the end. The plate above the genital opening 
bears a group of three bristles on the side lobes, and a single one 
a short distance before these. lyong. corp. 2*3 — 2*4 mm. 

Basilia bathybothyra, sp. nov., <f . 

Calcutta, 6th April 1905.' Head without characteristics. 
The thorax has conspicuous deep grooves above the halteres ; the 
breastplate is somewhat broader than long. The second tergite 
has a broad middle lobe slightly produced backwards. All the 
tergites bear on the hind margins, scattered rows of thin, moder- 
ately long bristles ; on the fourth, fifth and sixth tergite groups of 
bristles of double length occur which beset the margin a short 
distance each side from the middle. The basal sternite is large 
and long, its ctenidium having short, thin teeth;' the succeeding 
sternites are very short, except the fourth and fifth which are 
slightly longer. The hind margins of these are slightly wavy in 
the middle, and bear there a little group of very short, black 
spines, or spine-like knobs. The following ones are thin, slightly 
curved, beset with bristles. 

Cyclopodia amiculata, sp. nov., 9 , 

Calcutta, on Taphozous longimanus. This is the most slender 
Cyclopodia I have seen, its length being 2"i mm. ; the single legs 
3 mm. : the latter are thin, especially the femora, by which this 
species differs from the two other Cyclopodics. The abdomen is 
very singularly shaj^ed. Besides a basal tergite, it shows but two 
broad and long tergites, and an anal segment. The posterior 
tergite bears on its anterior half a pair of very pistilliform styles, 
with bristly tips, as in the 9 of Nyct. (Stylidia) biarticulata , Herm. 
The hind margin has, in the middle, a deep triangular notch, on 
the inner margins of which are a few bristles. The basal sternite 
bears a very dense linear ctenidium of fine spines ; the ends of all 
the following segments are well marked by rows of bristles, the 
remaining surface (except in the second sternite) being bare 

I [On Vespertilio muricola.-^^D.] 



XXV .—A NNOTATED CATALOGUE OF 
ORIENTAL CU LI C I D M . 

By E. Brunetti. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In presenting this Catalogue I desire to mention that its 
preparation has been entirely a matter of compilation^ and that 
I do not hold myself responsible for the validity of either the genera 
or species contained herein As a matter of fact, not having 
studied the Culicidce except to a most limited extent, I should not 
feel competent either to support or contest the views of such ex- 
perienced students of the group as those upon whose labours 
the present work is, in the main, compiled. A casual examination, 
however, of the slender characters upon which many of the recent 
genera and species are established, coupled with the fact that 
a large number of the latter have been described from single speci- 
mens only, leads me to the presumption that a few more years' 
careful study of the family is more likely to result in the reduction 
than otherwise of the total number of what to-day are regarded as 
distinct species. This is, of course, quite apart from new species 
to be hereafter discovered, i 

The object of the Catalogue is to provide a systematic list of 
the mosquitoes recorded from the Oriental Region, and therefore, 
the comments are confined to questions of synonymy, or notes 
of general interest, and do not touch upon either of those vast 
sides of the subject, the biological and the medical. Brief inform- 
ation regarding the life-history, if known, and bare statements 
regarding the power, or otherwise, of any particular species to 
convey malaria, will be found ; but detailed reports of experiments 
or researches of an entirely medical or bacteriological nature, would 
be out of place in a purely systematic list. Mr. Theobald's excel- 
lent monograph of this family provides a lengthy list of works and 
essays, on the medical aspect, and nearly all the recent works of 
any size afford extensive information respecting life-histories, 
generally with copious illustrations. 



1 The collection of the Indian Museum in this group has not yet been worked 
out, except as regards Anopheles, and a few species amongst the other genera. It 
is of considerable extent, and is being rapidly enlarged by continual acquisitions, 
and at present is being worked out by Mr. Theobald. 

I may add here that during my three years' sojourn in the EJast I have myself 
collected upwards of 1,500 specimens of Culicides, 



298 E. Bkunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

A general study of this family may be obtained from Robineau 
Desvoidy's " Essai sur les Culicides " (1827), and, more recently 
Ficalbi's " Rcvis. sistem. di famiglia d. Culicidce " (1896). Con- 
cerning exclusively oriental species, the following list may be found 
useful, in which is included a limited number of general works 
on the famil}', which, by reason of their importance, the student 
would do well to consult, even if interested only in oriental species. 

Literature on Oriental Culicid^. 

Adie, Major, 1905. " Mosquitoes and Malaria in the Feroze- 

pore District." Ind. Medic. Gaz. xl, 5. 
Banks, Ch. S., 1906. " A List of Philippine Culicidce, with 

descriptions of new species." Phil, 

Jour. Sci. i, pt. 2, pp. 977 to 1005. 

Id., 1906. " A new genus and species of Culicidce ^ 

Loc. cit. i, pt. 2, p. 780, with plate, 

Blanchard, R., 1905. " Les Moustiques." 

Christy, C, 1900. " Mosquitoes and Malaria, Summary of 

Knowledge on the subject." 
Ficalbi. (This author's papers are not on Oriental species, but 

will be found useful.) Bull. So. Knt. 
It. chiefly in vols, xxi, xxii. 
Id, " Revisione sistematica di famiglia della 

Culicidce Europee." 
Giles, 1900. " Handbook of Gnats and Mosquitoes.' 

1st Ed. 
Id., 1902. 2nd Ed. of same work, much enlarged. 

Id., 1901. " Six new species of Culicidce from 

India." Entom., xxxiv, 192. 
Id., 1901. " Descrip. of 4 new spp. of Anopheles 

from India." Ent. Month, Mag., 
xxxvii, 196. 
Id. 1904.' Jour. Trop. Med., vii. 

James, Capt. S. P., 1889. " The collection of Mosquitoes and 

their Larvae." Ind. Medic, Gaz,, 
xxxiv, No. 12. 
Id. id., 1902." Malaria in India." Sci. Mem. 
Ofhc. Medic, and Sanit. Dep. Gov. 
India, No. 2. 
James and Liston, 1904. " The Anopheles Mosquitoes of India." 
Liston, 1901.' Ent. Month. Mag., xxxvii. 

Id., 1901.^ Ind. Medic. Gaz. 

Ludlow, Miss C. S., 1904. " Concerning some Philippine Mos- 
quitoes." Can. Ent., xxxvi, 69. 
Id, id., 1904. " Mosquito Notes " No. i, loc. cit., 

233 ; No. 2, I.e., 297. 
Id. id,, 1905. Id. id.. No. 3, I.e., xxxvii. 

94, 129; No. 4, I.e., 385, 

' I have been unable to obtain the names of the papers thus referred to. 



1907- 



Records of the I iidian Museum. 



299 



Neveu Lemaire, 1902. 



de la famille de 



Fatten, W. S., 19(5. 



Robineau Desvoidy, 1827. 
Theobald, F. V., 1900. 



" Classification 

CulicidcB!' 
" The Culicid fauna of the Aden 
Hinterland." Jour. Bomb. Nat. 
His. So. xvi, 623 to 637 with 
4 plates and map. 
" Kssai sur la tribu des Culicidce." 

Mem. So. I'Hist. Nat. Paris, iii. 
" Report on the collections of Mos- 
quitoes received at the British 
Museum." 
" Monograph of the Culicidce of the 
World," vols, i, ii. 
Id., vol. iii. 
" A short descr. of the Culicidce of 
India ; with descr. of new spp. of 
Anopheles." Proc. Roy.So. Lond., 
Ixix, 367 to 394 with I plate. 
Jour. Trop. Medicine, v. 
" New Culicidce from the Federated 
MalayStates." Entom.xxxvi,256. 
Id. (continuation). Entom., xxxvii, 
pp. 12, 36, 77, III, 163, 211, 236' 
" Some new Mosquitoes from 
Ceylon." Jour. Bomb. Nat. His. 
So., xvi, 237 to 249 with 2 
plates. 
" A catalogue of the Culicidce in the 
Hungarian National Museum ; 
with desc. of new gen. and spp." 
Ann. Mus. Hung, iii, 61 to 120, 
with 4 plates. 
Genera Insectorum ; Fascicule 26. 
Culicidce. 
Mr. Theobald's " Monograph of the Culicidce of the World " 
(in 3 vols.), from its magnitude holds prior place in the literature 
of this family. Volumes i and ii appeared in 1901, and contained, 
besides about 400 pages each of text, liberally augmented by 
figures, ^y plates (i to xxxvii) (bound up in a separate volume), 
each plate giving coloured figures of the full insects of four species'. 
Five additional plates marked A to E gave photographic reproduc- 
tions of wing-scales. At the beginning of vol. i is shown how to 
mount and examine a mosquito. The first 60 pages give endless 
information regarding structure, life-history, food, habits, pairing, 
hybernation, natural enemies, geographical distribution, etc. From 
p. 84 the malarial aspect of the subject is treated of. On p. 97 
is a synoptic table of sub-families and genera followed by a list 
of the world's species (up to 1901) ; those present in the British 



Id., 

Id., 
Id.. 



Id., 
Id., 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



1901. 

1903. 
1902. 



1902. 
1903. 

1904. 

1905. 



1905 



1905. 



1 I have been unable to obtain the names of the papers thus referred to. 



joo E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [Vol. 1, 

Museum collection being marked. Further lists of species follow, 
arranged according to their geographical distribution. Volume iii 
(1903) gives 17 more plates of photos of wings and wing-scales ; the 
last two, however, being of larvae and pupae. 

In Fascicule No. 26 of the " Genera Insectorum " (1905), Mr. 
Theobald gives a table of sub-families, admitting eight, as follows : 
AnophelincE^McgarhincB , ToxorhynchitincB ^ CulicincB, JoblotincB,Mdeo- 
niyincs, HeptaphlehomyincB and Corethrincp. Sixty-seven genera 
(described) are recognised, containing slightly over 500 species, 
being the total number known including a few new ones. He also 
gives 2 coloured plates showing 24 full insects. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Giles's work, " Handbook of Gnats, or Mos- 
quitoes " is a valuable one. First published in 1900, it attained a 
second edition in 1902. Chapter i (2nd Ed.), concerns the position 
and terminology of the CulicidcB ; chap, ii, collecting and preserv- 
ing ; chaps, iii to vi, the anatomy of the larva, pupa and adult, 
with many figures ; chap, vii, life-history. Plate vi gives photos 
of living Anopheles and Culex resting on glass. Conditions influenc- 
ing prevalence is treated of on p. 152, and a valuable diagram is 
fig. 38 (facing p. 256), giving a key to generic distinctions based 
on the characters of the scales. 

Although confined to Anopheles (sensu latu), Messrs. James 
and Lriston's " Anopheles Mosquitoes of India " is also of great 
value, if only for the splendid plates. The earlier part deals with 
general notes, eggs, larvae (figured), habitats, collecting, mounting, 
preserving, larva-mounting, classified table of Anopheles larvae ; 
distribution and classification of Indian species, and a very excellent 
diagrammatic plate showing the structure of the various parts of 
the adult, with their technical terms. The work terminates with 
14 other splendid plates (tinted) of large size, illustrative of that 
number of Indian species. 

Mr. Banks' catalogue of the Philippine CulicidcB is most useful. 
Many of the Oriental species, if correctly determined, have an 
excessively wide range. From Africa (South and West Coast), 
Mauritius, and Australia, from China, and from Europe, certain 
species are regarded as identical with forms indigenous to the 
Orient. It will be noticed that I have included the few Arabian 
species mentioned in Mr. Patton's paper on the Aden hinterland 
Culicid fauna ; this is because, owing to their wide range of dis- 
tribution, any of those species may easily occur in India, and not 
from a desire to include Arabia in the Oriental Region. 

To avoid repetition in the catalogue, I append here a brief list 
of such localities as constantly occur, with particulars added. 

Bakloh . . 4,500 to 5,000 ft. Punjab, Lower Himalayas. 

Bhim Tal . . 4,500 ft. Kumaon Dist. , Western Himalayas. 

Canara District .. On Goa Frontier, W. Coast of India, S. of 

Bombay. 
Cavite . . Close to Manila (Luzon, Phil. Islands). 

Coonoor . . 6,000 ft. Nilgiri Hills, Madras Presidency. 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



301 



Dacca 

Bindings 

Ellichpur 

Ferozepore 

Fort McKinley 

Goa 

Gonda 

Jalpaiguri 

Jeypore 

Jhansi 

Jolo Island 

Karachi 

Karwar 
Kuala lyumpur 

Kurseong 
lyushai Hills 
Makerian 
Mian Mir 
Mussoorie 

Nagpur 
Naini Tal 
Negros (Negros 

Occidental) 
Nilgiri Hills 
Old Calabar 
Orissa 
Pampanga 
Pangasinan 
Peradeniya 
Perak 

Port Canning 
Purneah 
Quilon 

Ranikhet (Rene^ 

Rizal 

Selangor 

Shahj ahanpur 

Shaohyling 

Simla 

Sylhet 

Taiping 

Trincomalee 



Eastern Bengal. 

Straits Settlements. 

Berar^ Central India. 

Punjab. 

Ivuzon^ Phil. Islands. 

District on West Coast of India. 

N. India, S. of Nepal. 

N. Bengal, a little south of Darjiling. 

State in Madras Presidency. 

North- West Provinces, India. 

Philippines. 

City on extreme West Coast of India, near 

Baluchistan. 
Coast Town, Bombay Presidency. 
Capital of Selangor State (Federated Malay 

States). 
5,000 ft. South of Darjiling. 
On the N.-E. Indian Frontier of Assam. 
Hoshiarpur District, Punjab. 
Punjab, about 6 miles from Lahore, 
6,000 — 7,000 ft. Punjab Himalayas, near 

Simla. 
District in Central Provinces, India. 
6,400 ft. Kumaon Dist., W. Himalayas. 

Island in the Philippines. 
Madras Presidency. 
West Coast of North Africa. 
East Coast India. 
One of the Philippine Islands. 
One of the Philippine Islands. 
Ceylon. 

Federated Malay States. 
30 miles from Calcutta, on Matla River. 
North Bengal. 

Coast town in Travancore State, extreme 
S. of India, 
hat) 4,000 ft. North-West Provinces, India. 
Near Manila. 
Federated Malay States. 
North-West Provinces, India. 
China. 

7,000 ft. Western Himalayas. 
District in Assam ; adjoining Darjiling. 
Capital of Perak Federated Malay States. 
(Hot Wells) East Coast of Ceylon. 



N .B. — In Messrs. James and Liston's " Anopheles Mosquitoes of 
India," their references to Jeypore I infer to relate to that city and 
State in the Madras Presidenc}', from their spelling of the name. 



302 



E. BrunETTI : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 



There is, however, another town and state of the same name, in 
the Rajputana District of N.-W. India, but this latter place is 
usually spelt Jaipur. 

N.B. — In Mr. Theobald's Monograph, the following data 
appear, attached to a number of species : " Perak (Wray), 22nd 
November 1899 and 21st December 1899. " As it is not obvious 
whether the dates refer to two separate days only, or are intended 
to include the intervening period between them, I have omitted 
them from my catalogue. 

It will be seen that I have admitted four sub-families only, — 
AnophelincB, Culicincs, MdeoniyincB , and Corethrince^ — and I am 
strongly inclined to the opinion that the first two would be in every 
way sufficient. It has not been considered necessary to include 
every reference known, and cases where simply the name of a 
species is mentioned, have always been avoided. It has, however, 
been my object to include all possible diagrams or plates, and to 
give all the dates and localities available. 

I desire to express my obligations to Dr. Annandale of the 
Indian Museum for his permission to use the Museum I^ibrary, 
without which the compilation of this catalogue would have been 
impossible. 

CATALOGUE. 
Sub. Fam. ANOPHELIN^. 

ANOPHELES Meig., 1818. (sensu strictu) 

Sys. Besch., i, 10 ; pi. x, 5, 6. 

Macq. 1834, Hist. Nat. Dip., i, 32. 

Wlk. 1848, List Dip. Brit. Mus., i, 9. 

Sch. 1864, F. Austr., ii, 624. 

Wulp 1877, Dip. Neer., 329. 

Skuse 1889, Pr. Linn. So., N.S. Wales, p. 175 1 

Ficalbi 1896, Bull. So. Ent. It., 221. 

Theob. 1901, Mon. Culic, i, 115 (sensu latu). 

Id. 1903, Loc. cit., iii, 11 (sensu stricto). 

Giles 1902, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 283 (as restricted by 

Theobald) ; table of spp. p. 289. 

Theob. 1902, Proc. Roy. So. Lond., Ixix, 368 ; table 

of Indian spp. 

Theob. 1905, Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 6. 

Giles in '' Handbook," 2nd Ed., 283, gives as a reference of 
" Anopheles as restricted by Theobald," Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 
115 ; but this is incorrect. That reference is of the genus in its 
wide (Meigen's) sense ; as Theobald had not created his other genera 
till 1902. All the Anopheles in the first volume of the Monograph 
are placed under ''Anopheles'' genus. Theobald's first reference 
in that work to the restricted genus is in vol. iii, p. 11. Most of 
the new genera were published in the " Jour. Trop. Med." (1902), 
vol. v. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 303 

A vast amount of information on the life-histories and habits 
of the species of this genus may be obtained from the recent works. 
Mr. Theobald, in Monog. Culic, i, 115, gives general information; 
a list of districts from which various species of A nopheles have been 
received and recorded by the British Museum. On p. 118 is a map 
of the geographical distribution of the genus, on p. 120 a synoptic 
table of the world's species up to 1901. In vol. iii, p. 107, is a 
list of species arranged according to the countries they inhabit ; 
on p. I a chart, comparing the relative frequency of Anophelina 
and Culicina. Plate v gives wing-scales of Anophelina ; p. 14 the 
differences between the ova and larvae of the two groups A nophelina 
and Culicina. 

I. A. aitkenii James in Theob., 1903. 

Theob. Mono. Culic. iii, 22 5 . 

James and Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 119, pi. ix, 3, wing- 
scales; pi. xiii, larva figs, and wing. 

L0CAI.1TIES : Goa Frontier [Aitken^ Karwar [Aitken, Dr. Cogill]. 

2. A. arabiensis Patton, 1905. 
Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 623 a' $ ; pi. A, wing, palpus, egg. 

" The commonest species in the district " (Aden hinterland) 
[Patton]. 

The larva breeds in pools, streams and wells, apparently 
breeding at different times of the year in different localities. 

The adult is certainly a malaria- transmitter, and, as far as 
the writer (Patton) knows, is the only certain one under natural 
conditions in this district. 

Locality : Aden hinterland [Patton]. 

3. A. dthali Patton, 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 627 cr* 2 ; pi. A, wing, palpus, egg. 

A free biter, and probably a malaria-carrier ; found breeding 
all round the native camps (alt. 5,000 feet). 

Locality : Aden hinterland [Patton\ 

4. A. gigas Giles, i^oi. 

Bnt. Month. Mag., xxxvii, 196 cf 9 . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 308 cf 9 . 

James and Listen, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 118 (Theob. 's desc. 

copied). 
Giles Hdbk., 2nd Ed., 316 cf ? ; pi. x, 2, wing cf 9 . 

Types in British Museum. 



304 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [Vol. I, 

The larva appears to prefer clear, shallow water, and the species 
is said to be not rare in the hills, although I can only find one 
definite reference. 

Locality : Coonoor (5,000 to 6,000 feet) in the Nilgiri Hills [Price]. 

5. A. immaculatus Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 23 9 . 

James (1902) Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, 35. 
James and Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind., 120. 

This species was named b^^ James in the " Sci. Mem. Ind," 
(1902), but not described there, as the words " wings entirely- 
unspotted, legs unhanded " cannot be considered a description. 
Theobald first described it in his " Monog., iii, 23" from a single 
perfect $ , adding as a locality " India, evidently from Goa." How- 
ever, in James and Liston's " Anoph. Mosq. Ind.," they say (p. 120) 
" Mr. Theobald says the specimen is evidently from Goa, and that it 
was given him by Capt. Liston. This is incorrect. It was captured 
at Ennur, a small village on the East Coast, about ten miles from 
Madras, and sent to Mr. Theobald by Dr. Stephens." The o^ is 
unknown ; it is distinct from all other Anopheles by the unspotted, 
yellowish wings, and will probably require the erection of a new 
genus. 

Localities : Ennur (East Coast, near Madras) [James and Listen']. 

6. A, lindesayii Giles, 1900. 

Hdbk. Gnats, ist Ed., 166 2 . 

Giles I.e., 2nd Ed., 323 9 ; pi. x, 8, wing 9 . 
Theob. Mon. Culic, i., 203 ; pi. v, 19 9 . Full ins. col. 
James and Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind., 117. Col. pi. xv, full 
ins. 9 . 

I find no references to this species from other than hill local- 
ities. Dr. Christophers has studied the larva. Capt. James found 
it breeding in natural pools along with Nyssorhynchus maculatus 
Theob., at Raneghat, and Dr. Annandale found it breeding in water 
butts close to the houses of Europeans at Bhim Tal in September. 

LoCAiviTiES : Bakloh (Punjab, July, 4,585 feet) [Lindesay] ; Naini 
Tal (6,500 to 7,000 feet) [Giles] ; Kurseong, Mussoorie, Rane- 
ghat (4,000 ft.) [James] ; Bhim Tal (4,500 feet, Sept. 
1906) [Annandale]. 

7. A. wellcomei Theob., 1904. 
Theob. Rep. Gordon Coll. Labor, Sudan, p. 64. 
Localities : Aden hinterland and Sudan. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 305 

MYZOMYIA Blanchard, 1902. 

Comp. rend. Soc. Biol. Paris, xxiii, 795. -'■ 

nom. nov. for Grassia Theob. preoc. Fisch., 1885. 

There is also a Grasia Mich., 1854, in Echinodermata. 
Grassia Theob., 1902, Jour. Trop. Med., ii, 181. 
Myzomyia Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 24. 

Id. id. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 7. 

The larvae in this genus are mostly found in flowing water, 
more rarely in ponds or stagnant water, except rossii and a non- 
oriental species, superpictus Grassi. 

I. M. aconita Donitz, 1902. 

Beit. Kennt. 3, d. Anoph., p. 70, 2 . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 30, fig. (p. 31), wing 2 . 

Theobald's description is a translation of Donitz's, whose 
description was apparently drawn up from a unique 2 in spirits. 
Localities: Kajoe Tanam, WiUen Is., vSoekaboemi (Java) [Donitz]. 

2. M. albirostris Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 24 cf 2 . Fig. 11, p. 25, palpi and proboscis. 
Described from a perfect & and 2 . 

LocAUTY : Malay States (May) [Durham]. 

3. M. azriki Patton, 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 630 cf 2 . PI. C, wing, palpus. 

Patton says it is a wild species breeding in pools with tihani 
Patton, and that it is closely related to " turklandi Listen," but I 
know of no such species as the latter. Perhaps he mea.ns- turkhudi 
Listen. 

LoCAi^iTY : Azriki, (Aden hinterland, 5,000 ft.) [Patton]. 

4. M. culicifacies Giles, 1901. 
Ent. Month. Mag., xxxvii, 197 2 (Anopheles id.). 
N.B. — The cf in above reference = turkhudi Liston cf . 

Anoph. culicifacies 2 non & . Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 309 (t. Th. 

l.c, iii, 48). 
Id. id. James & Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 106, pi. ix, 

2, wing scales; pi. vih, i, larva figs.; col. 

pi. xi, full ins. 2 . 
Id. id. 2 non cf . Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 317; pi. 

ix, 12 a' 2 . 



3o6 R. Brunetti : Cntaloffite of Orieitfa! Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

Myzomyia ctilicifacies 9 Theob. Pr. Ro}^ So. Lond., Ixix, 379. 

Id. id. 9 Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 39, fig. (p. 40) 

frontal larva hairs ; pi. iii, wing, pi. viii, 
wing scales. 

Anoph.listoni Giles, 1901, Ent. Month. Mag. xxxvii, 

197 & $ . 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 319 & 9 ; pi. x, 

4, wing & 9 , head & 9 . 
Id. id. 9 Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 311 (App.). 

Id. indica Theob., 1901, Mon. Culic, i, 183 9 . 

Id. indicus Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 320 9 . 

Type in British Museum. 

A common and well distributed species throughout India, the 
larva breeding freel}^ in canals, streams, ditches and irrigation 
watercourses in the Punjab throughout the year, although the 
adults onl}" occur there (in houses) from March to December. In 
the Deccan it is commonly found throughout the year in river 
beds, and in S. India it is common in rice fields and pools. 

Experiments show that the three kinds of malaria parasites 
readily develop in it, and Dr. James states that it has been proved 
to carry malaria in Mian Mir and Ennur. 

This species assumes the characteristic position of Culex when 
at rest, and is related to listoni, and jeyporensis James. 

LoCAijTiES : Madras (Dec.) [Cornwall] ; Ferozepore, nearly all the 
year except Jan. and Feb. [Adle] ; Rajmahal (N. Bengal) 31-vii- 
1907 [Ind. Museum] ; Armageon (E. Coast, India) [James] ; 
Ellichpur (Berar, India) [Liston]; Etawah, (N.-W. Prov.) ; Hos- 
hangabad (Cent. Prov.) ; Mian Mir : Nagpur, Jeypur vState. 

5. M. elegans James in Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 51, 9 fig. 28, wing scales, cross veins ; 
fig. 29, wing. 

Anoph. elegans James and Liston. Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 82 9 . 
pi. ix, 4, wing scales : pi. xii, wing, palpus, leg, larva. 

This species is considered as only a variety of leucophyrus 
Donitz, by James and Liston, but Theobald considers it distinct. 
It has been bred by Dr. Cogill from larva from pools and jungle 
springs in Karwar. The adults are said not to frequent houses. 
The cT is unknown, and the type is in the British Museum. 

LoCAiviTY : Karwar (April) [Cogill]. 

6. M. funesta Giles, 1900. 

Jour. Trop. Med,, ii, 50 {Anopheles id.). 

Anopheles id. Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 318, c^ 9 ; pi. x, 3, 
wing r^ 9 , claws o^ , head 9 . 



igoy.] Records of the India)! Museum. 307 

Anopheles fimestus Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 178 cf 9 ; fig. (p. 53) cross 
veins ; fig. (p. 180), genitalia cf , fore ungues 
cf , cross veins ; pi. iv, 13 9 , full ins. col. 
Myzomyia id. Theob. I.e., iii, 34, pi. ii, wing 2 . 

Id. ^ id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, pi. i, 2 2 , full ins. col. 

Two varieties from West Africa (Gambia), the home of the 
species, are known, both taken by Dr. Button. 

var. umhrosa Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 34 ; pi. ii, wing 2 . 

var. suhumhrosa Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 34 ; pi. ii, wing 2 . 

This latter variety has considerable resemblance to listoni 
L/iston. 

.'' kumasii Chalmers. Lancet, 1900 (Novem.) o' 2 {Ano- 
pheles id.). 

This latter description is repeated in Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 214 
& 2 , where the author adds, " I believe to be a new species. 
It might, however, be a var. of A. funestus. " 

Practically an African species. 

Taken in dwelling-houses at Kumasi ; Ashanti, where Dr. 
Chalmers found the larvae on the margin of the marsh surrounding 
that place. -Abundant on the Gambian Coast, and at the Cape 
(near Bathurst), the larva being found in rice swamps. It occurs 
in November in Lagos and in December in Gambia, and Giles re- 
ports it from British Central Africa at an altitude of 5,600 feet. 

It figures in this Catalogue only on the authority of Banks, 
although it has been doubtfully recorded from the Philippines 
before. 
lyOCAUTY : Pampanga (Phil. Is.) [Banks]. 

7. M. jehafi Patton, 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 630 & 2 ; pi. C, wing, egg, palpus d' ? . 

The eggs were found in springs at Dthali, Arabia, and the 
species (which appears to be a local one) was bred, and found to bite 
freely. 
lyOCAUTiES : Jehaf and DthaH 5,000 ft. (Aden hinterland) [Patton]. 

8. M. leptomeres Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 38 2 . 

Described from a single 2 . 
Locality : India [Christophers]. 

9. M. leucophyrus Donitz, 1901, 

Insectenborse, v, 37 2 (Anopheles). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 307 (App.) 2 . 
James & Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind., 82. 
Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 312 ; fig. 44. wing. 



3o8 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidse. [VOL. I, 

James and Listen regard elegans James, {loc. cit.) as a variety 
of this species. However, Theobald considers elegans a vahd species. 

Localities : Kajoe Janam (Sumatra) ; Moerah Teweh (Borneo) 

[^Donitz]. 

ID. M. listoni Liston, 1901. 

Ind. Med, Gaz., xxxvi, 12 $ {Anopheles id.). 

non listoni 2 Giles. 

Theob, Mon, CuUc, iii, 27 5 ; fig. 12, palpus & and scale of 
wing ; fig. 13, wing ; p. 40, fig. 17, hairs of larva. 
Anoph. christophersi Theob,, 1902, Pr. Roy. So. Lond., Ixix, 

378 9 ; pl. V, 3, wing $ . 
Id. id. James & Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind., 

103 ; pl. vii, I, larva figs ; col, pl, x, 
full ins. 9 . 
Id. fiuviatilis Christophers, 1901, in MS, 
Id. id. James, Sci. Mem, Ind. No, 2, p, 31, fig, 9, 

" Described by me in Pr, Roy, vSo, Lond., Ixix, 378 9 as 
christophersi from 2 9 9 sent to that Society by Drs. Christophers 
and Stephens, but just previously described as Giles's ' Listoni ' by 
Capt. Liston." (Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 28.) 

The species is very near culicifacies Giles, and jeyporensis James. 

Aitken has studied the larva {vide Theob, Monog. iii, 29) 
which occurs in rice fields and small rocky streams, but abounds 
most in boggy ground near rice fields. 

James and Liston report the larva from clear streamlets with 
grassy edges, and state definitely that the species is a malaria carrier 
as proved both by experiment and under natural conditions. 

Messrs. Alcock and Adie, in the Proc. Roy. So. Lond., Ixxvi, 
319, give a short, interesting account of breeding this species 
from larvae (collected 7-11-1905) from the Indian Museum tank. 
They bred 7 adults from 26 larvae, the remaining 12 larvae (placed 
in a separate vessel) being voraciously devoured by the larva of a 
very common oriental dragon fly {Ceriagrion coroniandelianum). The 
existence of Listoni in Calcutta is important, owing to the malaria- 
carrying powers of this insect. The Malaria Commission found the 
species absent during their investigations in June, July and August, 
and attributed the absence of malaria from Calcutta, to the absence 
during those months of known malaria carriers. Messrs. Alcock 
and Adie, taking it in December and January (no adults were found 
in February), will make it desirable for the species to be searched 
for diligently by other observers. 

Localities : Ellichpur (Berar, India) ; Nagpur ; Bengal Duars ; 
Calcutta (Dec. and Jan.) [Alcock, Adie] ; Jeypur ; Goa ; Bom- 
bay ; Aurangabad (Hyderabad State) [James] ; The Duars, 
India [Christophers] ; Perak [Wright] ; North Canara District 
(Goa) [Aitken] ; Sylhet, 21-1-1905 and 2-ii-i905 [Hall]. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 309 

11. M. ludlowii Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 42. 

Fig. 19, h, palpus cf ; fig. 20, wing 2 ; fig. 21, vars. in wing 
marks and cross veins ; figs. 22, costal spots. 

By far the commonest of the malaria group in the Philippines, 
breeding readily in salt water around Manila. 
Localities : Pampanga (Phil. Is.) [Whitmore] ; Manila [Banks, 

Schultze, Wooley] ; Luzon (April) [Ludlow] ; Singapore [Biro]. 

12. M. mangyana Banks, 1906. 
Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 991 2 . 

Described from several 2 T . Type No. 3290 in the Entomo- 
logical collection, Bureau of Science, Manila. The species is near 
ludlowi Theob. 
Localities : Rio Baco, Chicago (in Mindoro, Phil. Is., May) 

[McGregor]. 

13. M. punctulata Donitz, 1901. 

Insectenborse, v, ^y. 

non Anoph. id. Theob., Mon. Culic, i, 175. 
'i Anoph. id. James & Liston Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 84 ; 
pi. xi, wing, palpus, leg. 

As the above authors {loc. cit.) give " Theob. Monog., i, 175 " 
as a synonym of their species, and as Theobald's ''Anoph. punctulata 
Don." is not that species, but a distinct one, tessellatus Theob., 
I am rather uncertain which species James and Liston had before 
them at the time of writing. 

They add, " very closely resembling leucophyrus, and may 
be a seasonable variety of that species." 
Localities : Kajoe Janam (Sumatra), Moerah Teweh (Borneo) 

[Donitz] ; Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, Stephansort, Astrolabe 

Bay and Deslac Is. (all Papua) [Biro]. 

Regarding James and Liston' s species, these authors give 
Karwar (in house), Bombay (August, in house)," Straits, Sumatra 
and Borneo." 

N.B. — Vide notes under Myzomyia tessellata Theob. 

14. M. rossii Giles, 1899. 

Jour. Trop. Med., ii, 63 cr* 2 {Anopheles). 

Anopheles id. Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 154 cf 2 . 

I'^ig- 37, wing and cross veins; fig. 38, palpus 
o* , thorax 2 , costal border cf 2 , ungues 
cf; pi. A, wing scales; pi. iii, 10 cr*, 9 2 , 
both full ins. col. 
Id. id. Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 311, cf 2 , pi. ix, 11, 

wing (f 2 , claws. 



310 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicida?. [VOL. I, 

Anopheles rossii James and Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 109 ; pi. 

vi, I, larva figs. ; pi. x, 3, wing scales ; col. 

pi. xii, full ins. 9 . 
Myzomyia id. Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 45, fig. 23, wing $ , 

figs. (pp. 46, 47) hairs of larva ; pi. iii, wing ; 

pi. vi, wing scales. 
Anoph. vagus Donitz, 1902, Beit. z. Kennt. Anoph., p. 80. 

The larva is easily noticed, often being found in great numbers 
together, and breeds anywhere in pots, puddles, pools, from running 
clear water to ver}^ foul water, and water containing 2" 8 per cent of 
salt, but Chatter] ee found that larvae from water containing less 
than half this amount of salt died on being placed in fresh 
water. The species occurs up to an altitude of 5,000 feet. In 
Madras it breeds in rice fields nearly all the year round, and James 
and Liston say the adults are in the habit of frequenting " railway 
carriages and almost every kind of road conveyance." The 
former found it abundant in October at Mian Mir, breeding in 
muddy, shallow pools and tanks, but not in the irrigation canal. 
In Perak it has been bred during February from larvae. It is 
variable and occurs apparently all over India, the Malay Peninsula, 
South China, the East India Islands and the Philippines. Captain 
James never found a specimen in a natural state infected with 
malaria, although he examined nearly 800 from various parts of 
India, but he proved, that experimentally, Filaria sanguinis-hominis 
would develop in the species {vide " Lancet" Aug. nth, 1900, p. 
451). Theobald (Pr. Roy. So. Lond. Ixix, 377) also regards it as a 
non-malaria carrier. It has been recorded from the Philippines by 
its place in Banks' Catalogue, but he gives no data, nor have I 
seen any definite record from these Islands. 

Localities : Sylhet (Jan., Feb., Apr., May, June) [Hall] ; Raj- 
mahal, Bengal (3i-vii-i907) [Ind. Museum]; Lucknow (Apr.) 
[Giles^) Mian Mir (Oct., Nov., '' very abundant ") [/awt^s] ; 
Mozufferpur (Behar) [Green'] ; Dacca [Macrae'] ; Etawah, N.-W. 
Prov., and Canara District [Aitken] ; Mukerian (Hoshiarpur, 
India) [Datta] ; Madras (Nov. to March) [Cornwall] ; Quilon 
(7-iii-i90o) [James] ; Calcutta (April) [Annandale, Daniels] ; 
Port Canning (17-111-1907, 2i-vii-i907) [Annandale, Dec, 
" common, " Chatter jee] ; Kuala I^umpur [Durham] ; Ferozepore 
(late July to mid. Dec.) [Adie] ; Perak [Wray, Wright] ; 
Penang [Freer] ; Padang (Sumatra) [Donitz] ; Singapore 
(22-vii-i899) [Hanitsch] ; Jalpaiguri (June 1907) ; Sambalpur 
(Cent. Prov.) ; Bombay. 

Sub. species indcfinita Ludlow, 1904. 
Can. Ent., xxxvi, 299 5 . 

Localities : Bayambang in May (Pangasinan, Philippine Islands) 
[Chamberlain] ; Mangarin (September), Guimaras Islands (De- 
cember) (both Philippine Islands). 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 311 

15. M. tessellata Theob., 1901. 
Mon. Culic, i, 175 $ (as Anoph. punctulatus Donitz). 

Loc. cit. fig. 49, thorax, wing, hind leg ; pi. xxxvii, 148 9 , 

full ins. col. 
Anoph. iesselatus (lapsus) Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 305 9 ; 

pi. ix, 7, wing 9 , dorsum of thorax, hind tarsus. 

Respecting this species, Mr. Theobald had prepared for his 
monograph a new species which he had named tessellatum , but which, 
just previous to publication, he considered to be synonymous 
with A. punctulata of Donitz, recenth^ published. He therefore 
used the description of his species as that of A. punctulatus Donitz 
in Mon. i, 175, and confirmed this opinion in vol. ii, 306 (Appendix), 
for the sake of those correspondents who alread}^ possessed the 
species under his MS. name. However, in vol. iii, 55, he says 
that Donitz had informed him that the two species were quite 
distinct. Therefore, Theobald's description in Mon. i, 175, for 
what he there called A. punctulatus Donitz, stands good as the 
original description and reference of his own tessellata, which now 
ranks as a good species. 

IvOCAUTiES : Taiping (Straits) in May, 22-xi-i899 and 2i-xii-i899 

[Wray]. 

16. M. thorntoni Ludlow, 1904. 
Can. Ent., xxxvi, 69 9 . 

Described from two 9 9 only, and said to be near M. alhirostris. 

L0CAI.1TIES : Cottabato (Mindanao, June, Philippine Islands) 
[Thornton']] Oras (Samar Islands, Philippine Islands). 

17. M. turkhudi Listen, 1901. 

Ind. Med. Oaz. xxxvi, 441 9 {Anopheles turkhudi). 

Anoph. turkhudi Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 320 9 (footnote). 
Id. id. James Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, p. 49., fig. 27, 

wing ; fig. 28, larval chars. 
Id. id. James & Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 115 ; 

pi. viii, 2, larva figs. ; col. pi. xiv, full 
ins. 9 . 
Myzomyia id. Theob. Mon. Culic. iii, 48 9 ; pi. iii, wing. 
Anoph. culicifacies Giles, Ent. Month. Mag., xxxvii, 197. 
Id. id. cf Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 309. 

Id. id. Theob. Pr. Roj^al So. Lond., Ixix, 379 cf , 

fig. 2 (p. 380) genitalia cf . 
Id. id. cf Giles, I-Iandbk., 2nd Ed., 317; pi. ix, 12, 

cr' 9 . 

Dr. Christophers has studied the larva and, under experimental 
conditions, hum.an malarial parasites will develop in the adult. 



312 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

IvOCAJCiTiES : Kllichpur (Berar, India), Nagpur and Cashmir 
[James] ; Andaman Islands [Maj. Anderson] ; Hoshangabad 
(Cent. Prov., India) ; Lahore ; Ferozepore, rare [Adie], 

STETHOMYIA Theob., 1902. 

Jour. Trop. Med., v, 181. 

Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 62 : pi. viii, wing scales of 5. nimha, an 

African species. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 8. 

I. S, culiciformis James and Liston, 1904. 

Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 1220', ?9 {Anopheles); pi. xv, larva figs. 

Apparently both sexes are intended to be included in the des- 
cription, although only the cf is specially mentioned. The authors 
say that Theobald would place it in this genus. Dr. Cogill bred 
the species at Karwnr from larvse. 

Locality : Karwar [Cogill]. 

2. S. fragilis Theob., 1903. 
Entom., xxxvi, 257 & . 

Described from two cf & bred by Dr. Durham from larvse 
found in a clear water jungle pool Types in British Museum, 
Locality : Kuala Lumpur in Dec. and Jan. (Fed. Malay States) 

[Durham]. 

3. S. pallida Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent. xxxvii, 129 2 . 

Described from a single 2 , " taken in the woods." 
Locality : Pampanga (Luzon) [Whitmore]. 

PYRETOPHORUS Blanchard, 1902. 

Comp. rend. So. Biol. Paris, xxiii, 795. 

nov. nom. for Howardia Theob. preoc. by Dalla Torre in 1897, 
Howardia Theob., 1902, Jour. Trop. Med., v, 181. 
Pyretophorus Theob. 1903 Mon. Culic, iii, 66, 
Id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p, 8. 

I. P. frcerae Banks, 1906. 

Phil. Jour. Sci. i, 993 2 . 

Type specimen in the Entomological Collection (Type No, 
5975) <^f the Bureau of Science, Manila. 
IvOCALIty : .Manila (Oct.) [Banks]. 



igoy.] Records of flic fiidiaii Miiseiiin. 313 

2. P. jeyporensis James, 1902. 

Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, p. 32 {Anopheles id.). 
Fig. IT, wing; fig. 12, larval characters. 
Pyretophorusid. Theob. Mon. Ciilic, iii, 66; pi. viii, wing 

scales, fig. (p. 67) palpus & . 
Anopheles id. James & Tiston Auoph. Mosq. Ind. loi ; pi. 
vii, 2, larva fi.gs. ; col. pi. ix, full ins. 2 . 

Near listoni and culicifacies ; the larva living mostly in rice 
fields, but also in streams. 

T.OCALITIKS : Jeypur State [Chrislophers and Stephens] ; Jakot (S. 
India) [Aitken]; Nagpur and Bombay. 

3. P. minimus Theob., iqoi. 

Mon. Culic, i, 186 2 {Anopheles), fig. 55, wing, thorax, cross-veins. 
Anopheles, id. Giles Handbk., 2nd Kd., 321 2 ; pi. x, 7, 

wing 2 , thorax, scale. 
Pyretophonts id. Giles, Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 365. 
Described from a unique 2 in Dr. Rees's collection. 

I/OCAi,iTiBS : Pokfulam, Hongkong [Dr. Rees] ; Pampanga (Iaizou) 
\Whitniorc^. 

4. P. philippinensis Ludlow, 1905. 
Can. Ent. xxxvii, 135. 
r.ocAUTY : Pampanga (I.uzon) [Whifn:ore]. 

5. P. pitchfordi Giles, 1904. 

Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 365. 

This species is said (by Banks) to have been reported from 
Uganda, but I find no reference to that effect. 

IvOCAWTY : Pampanga (lyUzon) [Whihuore]. 

MYZORH!: NCHUS Blanchard, 1902. 

Comp. rend. So. Biol. Paris, xxiii, 795. 

nom. nov. for Rossia Theob. preocc. Owen 1838 inMoUusca. 
Rossia Theob. Jour. Trop. Med., v, 181. 
Myzorhynchus Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 84 ; pi. v, wing scales. 
Id. Theob. gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 9. 

'I'lie larva of this genus is said to breed mostly in swampy 
ground. 

I. M. albotceniatus Theob., 1903. 

IMon. Cuhc, iii, 88 2 , pi. i, wing ; pi. v, wing scales. 
Locality : Perak [Dr. Wright]. 



314 E- Brlnetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidse. [VOL. I, 

2. M, annularis Wulp, 1884. 

Notes Leyden Museum, vi, 249 cf $ {Anopheles)^ and Tijd. 
V. Ent., xxviii, 80. PI. iv, 2 {Anopheles). 

Theobald, in ]\Ion. Culic. i, 142, makes this a sub-species of 
sinensis Wied., but in vol. iii, 90, he notes his error and states 
that his " annularis V. d. Wiilp " = vonns Wlk. 

3. M. barbirostris Wulp, 1884. 

Notes Leyden Museum, vi, 248 9 {Anopheles), a.n^Y\]&. v. 
Ent., xxviii, 79 $ ; pi. iv, i {Anopheles). 
Anopheles barbirostris Theob. Mon. Ciilic., i, 146 1 , fig. 33 head ; 

fig. 24, wing ; also see p. 151. PI. A, 
wing scales. 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 308 cf 2 ; pi 

viii, 13a, wing c' 2 . 
Id. id. Jam.es & liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. yy 9 , 

pi. X, i, wing scales ; pi. v, larva 
figs. ; col. pi. ii, full ins. 2 . 
Myzorhynchus id. Theob. Mon. Culic. iii, 86, fig. 25, larva hairs, 

pi. iii, wing. 
Id. id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26 ; pi. i, 3 

2 , full ins. col. 

Aitken found the larva amongst grass and weeds in rocky 
pools, in lily ponds, in the public gardens of Lahore. Not common 
in houses ; Capt. J amies doubts if it carries disease. 

Localities: Sylhet, Jan., Feb., May, June [Hall]; Calcutta 
[Annandale, and i3-xi-i905, bred in the Indian Museum] ; 
Port Canning, Dec. 1906 [ChaUerjee] ; Calcutta outskirts, Lahore 
and Bombay [James and Liston] ; Canara Dist. [Aitken] ; 
Selangor [TTVdjy] ; Upper Burma, June 1894, and in August 
[Watson] ; Kuala Lumpur [Dr. Durham] ; Mt. Ardjoeno (East 
Java) [Hekmeyer] ; Papua [Biro] ; Shaohyling (China) ; Pam- 
panga [Whitmore] ; Rizal [Banks, Schultze] ; Manila [Banks] ; 
Fort ]\IcKinle3^ [Craig] all in the Phil. Is. Also occurs in 
(Old Calabar in April) [Annett] West Africa, and in Japan. 

4. M. minutus Theob., 1903. 
Mon. Culic, iii, 91 2 . 

Described from a unique from Lahore, taken by Dr. Christo- 
phers. 

5. M. nigcrrimus Giles, 1900. 

Handbk., ist Ed., 161 2 {Anopheles). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 150. 
Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 306. 

James & Liston Anoph. Mosq. Ind., 79 2 ; col. pi. iii full 
ins. col. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 315 

The larva has been found in deep, shady pools, amongst grass 
and weed. The adults are said to be less common in houses, and 
James and Liston assert that the Filaria bancrofti can develop in 
this species. They also are inclined to think that, in addition to 
nigerrimus, vanus, minutus, indiensis, pseudopidus , alhoanmdatus 
and sinensis may all represent the same species. 

Localities : Naini Tal {Cues'] ; Sylhet (Jan., Feb., May, June) 
{Hall]; Calcutta (y-iv-iSgg) [Alcock and Daniels], 7-vii-i907 
iAnnandale']] 22-iii-i907 [Indian Museum:]-^ Travancore 
[James] ; Port Canning, 6-1-1907 [Annandale] ; Jalpaiguri 
[June 1907]. Dacca, Lahore, Madras. 

6. M. plumigcr Donitz, 1901. 
Insectenborse, v, 37 {Anopheles). 
Described by that author from East India and Hongkong. 

7. M. pseudobarbirostris Ludlow, 1902. 

Jour. New Yk. Ent. vSo., x, 127. 

Localities : Hagono}^ (Bulacan) in Luzon (Oct.) [Dr. Kellogg] ; 
Cottabato (June) in Mindanao [Dr. Thornton]; Pampanga 
(Luzon) [Whitniore]. 

8. M. sinensis Wied., 1828. 

Auss. Zweifl. Ins., i, 5470' 2 {Anopheles). 

Frnfld. 1867. Ver. zool. bot. Wien., xvii, 449. 
Anopheles id. Theob., ]^Lon. Culic. i, 137 2 ; fig. 30, wing scales ; 
pi. xxxvii, 146 $ , type form, full ins. col. ; 
pi. A, wing scales. 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk.,2nd Ed., 305; pi. viii, 9, wing 
9 , scales. 
Mvzorhvnchus id. Theob. :\Ion. Culic. iii, 89, fig. 53. palpus 2 . 
Id. id. Giles, Jour. Trop. Med. vii, 365- 

Mr. Theobald (who does not appear to have met withacf, 
a sex which apparently has not been seen since Wiedemann's original 
type) gave as sub-species of sinensis {vide Mon. 1, 140 et seq.), 
pseudopidus Grassi, Italy ; {Anoph. pidus Ficalbi) ; " annularis 
V. d. Wulp " & 9 { = vanus Wlk.) ; indiensis Theob. Mon. i, 145, 
and nigerrimus Giles. 

In the " Genera Insectorum " he admits pseudopidus Grassi, 
and nigerrimus Giles, as good species ; but sinks his " anmdans 
Wulp" as a synonym of vanus Wlk., whilst indiensis does not appear ; 
the only species of that name in that work being given as a variety 
of Nyssorhynchus niaculipalpis Giles, and apparently has nothing to 
do with sinensis Wied. 



3i6 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

James has shown that Filaria sanguinis honiinis will experi- 
mentall}^ develop in this species, the larvse of which were found 
b}^ the same observer in deep, natural ponds on swampy ground at 
some distance from houses in Jalpaiguri. 

Localities : Calcutta and Jalpaiguri [James] ; Ferozepore [Adie] ; 
Shaohyling in June (China) [Cornford] ; Taipo Pokfulam (China) 
[Dr. Rees] ; Foochow (August) [Rennie] ; Tamsui 2-viii- 
1899 (Formosa) [Dr. G. Mackay] ; Pampanga (Luzon) [Whit- 
more]. 

9. M. umbrosus Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic. iii, 87 $ ; fig, (p. 8y) wing. 

Taken by Dr. Durham in October at Pahang (Fed. Malay 
States). 

10. M. vanus Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. vSo. Lond. iv, 91 2 {Anopheles id.). 

lion annularis Wulp. (vera) 1884 ; Notes Leyden Mus, vi, 

249. 
" Annularis V. Wulp. " Theob. Mon. Culic. i, 142 cf $ ; 

fig. 32, head; pi. v, 18 9 , full ins. col. (as Anopheles 

sinensis Wied., sub-species " annularis v. d. Wulp ") ; 

pi. A, wing scales (as sinensis Wd., sub.-sp. annularis 

V. d. Wulp). 
Myzorhynclms sinensis annularis. Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 

90 ; vide also Theob. Mon. Culic. i, 151, for comparisons 

with other species. 

The larva of this species has been studied. (Vide Theob. Mon. 
Culic. iii, lig. 4 (p. 18).) 

" Walker's types are very damaged, but enough remains to 
identify the species." (Theob.) 

Localities : vSambalpur (Cent. Prov. Ind.) [D. O'C. Murphy] ; 
Quilon (27-vii-i90i) [James] ; Perak [Wright^ ; Taiping [Wray] ; 
Madras [Cornwall] ; Lahore [Christophers] ; Penang [Freer] ; 
Kuala Lumpur [Durham] ; Luzon, 7-ix-i90i [Ludlow] ; Bay- 
embang (Pangasinan, Phil. Is.) [Chamberlain] ; Manila [Mc- 
Gregor, Wooley] ; Dindings (Straits). 

LOPHOCELOMYIA Theob., 1904. 

Entom., xxxvii, 12. 

Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 10. 

" Near Nyssorhynchus, but so far I have seen no Anopheline 
approaching it in general appearance." (Theob.) 



I goy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 317 

I. L. asiatica Leicester, 1904. 
Entom., xxxvii, 13 a' 2 . 

Types in British Museum. Taken by Dr. Leicester in the 
" ambang " jungle at Kuala Lumpur in the Federated Malay States. 

NYSSORHYNCHUS Blanchard, 1902. 

Comp. rend. Soc. Biol. Paris, xxiii, 795. 

nom. nov. for Laverania Theob., preoc. by Grassi and 

Feletti, 1900. 
Laverania Theob., Jour. Trop. Med. 

Nyssorhynchus Theob. Mon. CuHc. iii, 92 ; pi. v, wing-scales. 
Id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 10. 

The larvcK are mostly " pot and puddle " breeding species, 
but some breed in marshes; the adults are mostly domestic, but 
some are wild. (Theob.) 

I. N. fuliginosus Giles, 1900. 

Handbk., ist Ed., 160 (Anopheles). 

Anopheles fuliginosus Giles, Handbk., 2ndEd., 298 cf 9 ; pi. viii, 

7, wing, palpus 0=' 5 , scutellum scale. 

Id. id. Theob. Mon. Culic. i, 132 5 ; fig. 27, 

scutellum and scale ; fig. 28, a, wing ; 

pi. i, 3 9 full ins. col. 

Id. id. James. Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, fig. 18 (p. 

39) larva chars. 
Id. id. James & Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 91 ; 

pi. V, 2, larva figs ; pi. x, 4, wing- 
scales ; col. pi. V, full ins. 9 . 
Anoph. jamesii Liston, Ind. Med. Gaz. (1901), p. 411. 
non jamesii Theob. I, 134. 
" Anoph. leucopus Donitz, Insectenborse v, 37. 

Nyssorhynchus fuliginosus Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 93. 
Var. pallida Theob. loc. cit. i, 134 ; fig. 28 h (p. 133) wing. 

This species is subject to great variety both in wing and leg 
markings (Theob.). In some places (Calcutta and Nagpur) it is 
common in houses, whereas in others it is said to seldom visit them. 

The larva has been observed by Capt. James and others. In 
Bombay it is often found in tanks ; in Nagpur and Madras in 
open tanks, also in grassy or weedy ponds ; in the Punjab in shady, 
weedy pools. 

Under natural conditions it is non-malarious, but experiment- 
ally, parasites have been demonstrated to develop in it (James) ; 
although Theobald (Monog., i, 134) said that up to then '' experi- 
ments with human malaria (crescent and tertian) " had failed. 



3i8 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

Localities: Sylliet (Jan., Feb., May) \llall\\ Kurseong 5,000 ft. 
[Indian Museum]; Ferozepore, all the year round except Jan. 
and Feb. [Adie] ; Lahore in June [Giles] ; Nagpur [Stephens] ; 
Goa and the "Madras Coast, several places" [James]; 
Chingelput (Madras) [Cortiwall] ; Quilon [James] ; Calcutta 
7-iv-i899 [Daniels], i3-xi-i905 [bred in Indian Museum], 
6-vii-i907 and 2-viii-i907 [Annandale] ; Dacca [Lt.-Col. 
Macrae] ; Behar [Cornwall, Green]. 

2. N. jamesii Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 134 2 {Anopheles) ; pi. i, 2 $ , full 
ins. col. 
Anopheles jamesii Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 299, 2 . 
Id. id. James Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, 41. 
Id. id. James & Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 93 ; 
col. pi. vi, full ins. 2 . 

Said to be allied to maculipalpis , theohaldi and juliginosus , and 
not to be a common species. 

The larva live amongst grass and weeds at the edges of lakes. 
Captain James reared the species from larvae in Nagpur. 

Localities : Shahjahanpur in Oct. (Punjab) [Giles] ; Feroze- 
pore, rare [Adie] ; Quilon in Feb. and 7-iii-i900 [James] ; 
Calcutta, 23-vii-i907 [Annandale] Port Canning, Dec. 1906 
[C hatter jee] ; also from Ellichpur in Feb. (Berar), Bombay, 
Deccan and Ceylon. 

3. N. karwari James in Theob., 1903. 

Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 102 2 ; I.e. fig. 61 (p. 103) 
wing. 
Anopheles karwari James & Liston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 89 ; 

pi. xiv, palpus, leg, head, larva ; p. 90, fig. of wing. 
Near maculatus. 

Localities: Karwar in June (Bombay Pres.) [CogiU]-^ Goa in 
Feb., 2,000 ft. [Aitken]. 

4. N. maculatus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 171 & 5 {Anopheles maculata). 

Fig. 48, palpus d' , header' , wing, tip of abdomen and various scales. 

Anopheles maculatus James, Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, 47, fig. 25, 

wing and leg. 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 301 & 2 ; pi. ix, 

2, head, wing & palpus 0='. 
Nyssorhynchus id. Theob. Mon. Culic iii, 96. 

Described from two 2 2 in Hongkong. Types in Dr. Rees's 
collection. 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 319 

It is ver};' near theohaldi, of which James and Listen think 
it may be a variet}^ The larva Hves in shallow pools and marshy 
grounds on granite soil near Hongkong. James bred it in March 
from larvae found in clear, sand}^ or rocky pools ; it disappearing in 
April and May ; and he considers it probably not a malaria carrier. 
In the Duars, the larva occurs in clear pools in rice fields. 

lyOCAi^iTiES : Lahore, March, A.-^r\\{Christophers] ; Kurseong [James^ ; 
Jalpaiguri (N. Bengal), i3-vii-i907 [Wallich] ; Jeypur Hill 
Districts [Jajues] ; Perak [Wright] ; Hongkong in Sept. and 
Oct. [Rees and James] also from Bindings in Nov. (vStraits). 

5. N. maculipalpis Giles, igo2. 
Handbk., 2nd Ed., 279 cf {Anopheles). 

Anopheles maculipalpis James and Liston Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 

95, pi. iv, larva figs. ; pi. x, 5, wing- 
scales ; col. pi. vii, full ins. 5 . 

Nyssorhynchus id. Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 96 2 , fig. 56, 

antenna $ , palpus 9 , cross veins 2 ; 
pi. ii, two wings 2 ; fig. p. 98, 
hairs of larva. 

Var. indiensis Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 99. 

Giles described only the cf , Theobald's description of the 2 
is from a single, nearly perfect, specimen taken by Grandpre and 
Daruty. 
L0CAI.1TIKS : India [Christophers and Stephens] ; Nagpur, Karwar, 

Goa and Travancore [t, James and Liston] ; Bayembang 

(Pangasinan, Phil. Is.) [Chamberlain]. Also frequents Mashona- 

land and Mauritius. 

6. N. nivipes Theob., 1903. 

Bntom. xxxvi, 258 & . 

Near stephensi and maculatus. 

Taken by Dr. Durham in January at Kuala Lumpur in the 
Federated Malay States. 

7, N. philippinensis Ludlow, 1902. 

Jour. New Yk. Ent. So., x, 128 {Anopheles) ; also Jour. Amer 

Med. Assn. (1902) xxxix, 426. 

Occurs at San Jose, Abra, in the Philippines [Banks]. 

8. N. stephensi Listen, 1901. 

Ind. Med. Gaz., xxxvi, 12 {Anopheles). 

Anopheles stephensi James, Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, 45; fig. 23, 

wing ; fig. 24, larva chars. 



320 E. Brunetti : Cafaloo-ne of Oriental Culicidae. [Vol. I, 

Anopheles stephensi Giles^ Handbk., 2nd Ed., 331 2 (footnote). 
Id. id. James 2 lyiston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind. 113 ; 

pi. vij 2, larva figs. ; pi. x, 6, wing 

scales ; col. pi. xiii, full ins. 2 . 
Nyssorhynchus id. Theob. Mon. Culic. iii, 93 2 ; fig. 54, 

variation in wing marks ; fig. 55, wing ; 

figs. pp. 40 and 47, larval hairs. 
Anoph. metaholes Theob. Proc. Roy. So. Lond., Ixix, 374 2 ; 

pi. V, I, wing 2 . 

Captain James found it breeding at Mian Mir in water reserves 
(used only in case of fire), also in Madras City in almost unused 
wells. 

Experimentally, human malaria parasites have been devel- 
oped in this species. 

lyOCALiTiES : Mian Mir and Madras City [James'] ; Ferozepore, 
May to mid-Nov. [Adie] ; Calcutta, i-viii-1907 [Annandale] ; 
Lushai Hills, Assam, 9-vii-i904 [Capt. Macleod]; Karachi 
" common" ; Nagpur and Ellichpur (Berar). 



9, N. theobaldi Giles, 1901. 
Ent. Month. Mag., xxxvii, 198 2 {Anopheles). 

Anopheles theobaldi Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 300 2 . 

Id. id. Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 311 (App.) 2 . 

Id. id. James & I^iston, Anoph. Mosq. Ind., 97 ; 

col. pi. viii, full ins. 2 . 
Nyssorhynchus id. Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 95. 

In the Punjab the larva occurs in rice fields and stream.s ; 
James and Liston state that experimentall}" the species will develop 
malaria parasites. 

IvOCALiTiES : Ellichpur (Berar) ^Liston] ; Shahjahanpur 19-X-1900 
(N.-W. Prov.) [ales'] ; Dacca [Macrae] ; Nagpur [Stephens] ; 
Sambalpur [Murphy] ; Lahore in October, also at Bombay and 
in the Aden hinterland. 



10. N. tibani Patton, 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 629 a* 2 ; pi. B., wing, palpus o' 2 , 
hind leg, egg, head of larva. 

The larva breeds in all the rivers and springs up to Jehaf 
(6,800 ft.), but is found neither in wells, nor near man. 
Experiments to develop " Benign tertian " failed. 
The species is closel}^ related to theobaldi. . 

LoCAijTY : Aden hinterland. 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 321 

II. N. willmori James in Theob., 1903, 

Theob. Mon. Culic.^ iii, 100 $ ; fig. 59, palpus 5 , fig. 60, 
various scales. 

lyt. Willmore found the larva in a clear puddle by a spring 
in Kashmir (4,800 ft.). It is allied to stephensi and maculaUis ; 
Dr. Christophers records it from Ivahore. 

CELLIA Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 107 9 . 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 11, 

" Easily told by their dense coating of irregular scales, totally 
unlike a typical Anopheles " [Theob.], vide Theob, Monog., iii ; 
pi. viii, wing scales. 

I. C. pulcherrima Theob., 1902. 

Proc. Roy. So. Lond., Ixix, 396 5 ; pi. v, 2 wings ? . 
Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 107. 

Anopheles pulcherrinia James & lyiston Anoph. Mosq. Ind., 86, 

col. pi. iv, full ins. 2 . 

Id. id. James Sci. Mem. Ind. No. 2, p. 48, fig. 

26, wing. 

Id. id. Giles, Handbk,, 2nd Ed., 510 9 . 

Type in British Museum. 

Theobald's descriptions are from 3 2 9 sent by Capt. James and 
Drs. Christophers and Stephens. 

The larvse have been found during September in an overflow 
pool of an irrigation watercourse at Mian Mir. 

" It appears to be one of the few species which can tide over 
the Punjab winter in the adult condition (James and Liston). 

LoCAiviTiES : Mian Mir [James] ; Eerozepore, early July to early 
Dec. [A die] ; Goa [James & Liston] ; Purneah (N. Bengal) 
7-viii-i907, in bedroom [Paiva]. 

2. C. kochi Donitz, 1901. 

Insectenborse, v, 36 {Anopheles). 

Anopheles ^oc^z Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 174 9 ; pi. iv, 16 2 , full 

ins. col. 
Anoph. ocellatus Theob. (MS.) I.e., i, 174 (t. Theob., vol. ii, 
306). 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 315 2 ; pi. ix, 5, 

wing 2 , dorsum of thorax, 

Theobald's description (in Monog. i, 174) was written to apply 
to his species in MS. named ocellatus, but Donitz's species was 



322 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicids. [VoL. I, 

published just before, and takes precedence (confirmed by Theob. 
in vol. ii). 

IvOC AMITIES : Taipang [Wray] ; Perak [Wrightl ; Singapore [Biro] ; 
Sylhet, 4-ii-i905 ; 7-vi-i905 ; 3i-vii-i905 ; and i5-xii-i905 
[Hall] ; Padang (Sumatra) and Serang Tjimahi (Java) [Donitz] ; 
Philippines. 

ALDRICHIA Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 353 (App.). 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 13. 

" One of the most marked genera of the Anophelina, the 
squamose armature of the abdomen exactly resembling Culex " 
(Theob.). 

I. A, error Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 353 9 . 
Described from a perfect unique specimen. Locality given as 
" India, probabl}' Calcutta." 

BIRONELLA Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 69. 
" Near Anopheles." 

I, B. gracilis Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 69 cf ; fig. 3, scales ; pi. ii, 
wing cf , pi. iii, wing scales cf {" 5 " lapsus). 

The photo, figure of wing scales, in pi. iii, is marked, " 9 ". 
This is an error, as in the text, the author distinctly states he could 
not find this sex present in the Hungarian Museum Collection, in 
which are the types {^cf cf) from which the description is taken. 

Taken by Biro Dec. 31st, 1900, at Muina in Papua. 

'* ANOPHELES '' sensu latu. 

In Mr. Theobald's revision of the family in Genera Insectorum 
he includes the following three species which he is unable to place 
in any of the modern genera. 

I. Anopheles vincenti Laveran, 1902. 

Comp. rend. So. Biol. Paris, xxiii, 993. 

Recorded by Laveran from Tonkin. 

Theobald's quotation " 1901, vol. 53 " is, of course, an obvious 
error for vol. xxiii. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 323 

2. Anopheles formosaensis. 

To this name, Theobald simply adds Tsuzuki — whether this 
is the author, and from what locality it comes, or where described 
he does not say. I have not met with the name of the species 
elsewhere. 

3. Anopheles deceptor Donitz, 1902. 

Beit. Kennt. 3. d. Anoph., p. 60. 

Recorded from Sumatra. May belong to Nyssorhynchus. 
There are two other species of " Anopheles " not alluded to in 
Theobald's rev^'sion ('' Gen. Ins.") ; these are : — 

4. Anopheles culiciformis Cogill, 1903. 
Jour. Bomb. So., xv, 333. 
Recorded from India. 

5. Anopheles subpictus Grassi, 1899. 

Atti. R. Accad. Lincei. Rendic, viii, i. 

" India Orientalis." So given in Kertesz's " Catalogue of 
Diptera " (I. 254), but I have not seen the species mentioned 
elsewhere. 

MEGARHINUS Rob. Desv, 1827. 

Ess. Culic. in Mem. Soc. His. Nat. Paris, iii, 412. 
Macq, 1827 Hist. Nat. Dipt. 
Wlk. 1848 List. Dip. Br. Mus., i, i. 
Skuse 1889 Pr. Linn. So. N. S. Wales, iii, p. 1720. 
Theob. 1901 Mon. CuHc, i, 215, fig. 63, various parts insect, 

fig. 64, map of distribution, p. 218, table of species. 
Theob. 1905 Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 12. 

I. M. amboinensis Doles., 1857. 

Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvi, 381 cf ; pi. v, 5 {Culex id.). 
Giles, Handbk., ist Ed., 133 (translation of Doleschall). 

Id. id., 2nd Ed., 276. 
Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 243 &■. 

Not uncommon in the bush in the dry season in Amboina, 
according to Doleschall. Osten Sacken (Berl. Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 96) 
questioned if this species was distinct from immisericors Wlk., but 
it is accepted as such by Kertesz (Cat. Dipt.) and Theobald (Gen. 
Ins.). 

An allied species suhuUfer Doleschall {Culex id.) is given by 
Kertesz as a synonym of this species, but Theobald regards it as 



324 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [Vol. I, 

the same as immisericors , and I therefore follow him as the latest 
authority in this group. Moreover he thinks the present species 
may be a Toxorhynchites. 

lyOCALiTY : Amboina 1^. Doleschall]. 

2. M. lewaldii Ludlow, 1904. 

Can. Ent., xxxvi, 223 cf . 

The type was bred in the laborator}^, but no notes were kept ; 
the specimen is a unique and is perfect. Not mentioned by Theo- 
bald in " Genera Insectorum." 

Locality : vSalog (April), Guimaras Island (Philippines) [LeWald]. 

3. M. minimus Theob., 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 237 cf; pi. A, fig. i, palpus, wing, 
abdomen tip. 

Described from a unique cf taken in March at Yatiyantota, 
Ceylon. Theobald ignores this species in the " Gen. Ins." 

4. M. splendens Wied., 1819. 

Wied. Zool. Mag., iii, 2 {Culex id.) cf . 
Wied. 1828 Auss. Zweifl., i, 3 (Culex). cf . 
Macq. Hist. Nat. Dipt., i, 33 (Culex). 
Sch. 1868 Reise Novara 31 (Megarhinus). 
Wulp. 1881 Dipt. Mid. Sumatra 8 ; pi. i, 2, wing. 
Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 235 9 ; pi. viii, 31 9 , full ins. col. 
Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 271. 

Types in Wiedemann's and Westermann's collections. 

lyOCALiTiKS : Java [Wiedemann] ; Sumatra [Schiner] ; Singapore 
[Wallace]. Rawas, (Mid. Sumatra) and Batavia [t. Wulp.]. 

TOXORHYNCHITES Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 244. 

Loc. cit. iii, 120, notes on larva, pupa, etc., of non-oriental 
species. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 13. 

I. T. immisericors Wlk., i860. 

Pr. lyinn. So., iv, 90 cf (Megarhina). 

Megarhinus id. Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 225 cf 9 ; pi. vii ; 28 
cf , full ins. col. (Megarhinus id). ; pi. ix, 
33 9 ; full ins. col. (M. gilesii). 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 273. 



iQoy-l Records of the hidiaii Mjiscidii. 325 

Toxorhynchites id. Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 123, fig. 67, larva, 

pupa. 
Megarhinus " id. or amboinensis Dol." Os. Sack. Berl. 
Ent. Zeit., xxvi, 96. 
Id. or Giles, Handbk. id., 2nd Ed., 273. 

Id. gilcsii Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 227 & $ . 
Id. subulifer Doles. 1857 Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xiv, 382 ; 

pi. Vj 2 (Culex). 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 272. 

Culex regiits Thwaites (1864) Pr. Linn. So. Lond., viii, 102. 

This very large and handsome mosquito occurs apparently all 
over the Oriental region, in parts of India being known as the 
"stinging elephant mosquito," Mr. Ernest Green of Ceylon has 
bred it from larvse living in the collected water in stems of the 
giant bamboo. The larvae prey solely on the larvae of other Culi- 
cidcB. 

The adult shows some variation, and it appears fairly common 
in Calcutta in particular spots in gardens and on walls and tree 
trunks during July and August, and both sexes have been taken 
there frequently by Dr. Annandale. I captured a specimen in a 
wine shop in Calcutta, July 1904, the only one I have seen alive. 

LoCAi.iTiRs : Calcutta, July, August [Annandale and others] ; Upper 
Burma [Watson] ; Sikhim, 1,800 feet, June [Dudgeon] ; Bhim 
Tal, Sept. 1906 [Annandale] ; Sylhet, May, June [Hall] ; 
Celebes, Mysol, North Ceram and Waigion [t. Walker] ; 
Settleberg (Huon golf) (Papua) [Biro] ; Ceylon [Hope Coll. 
Oxford] : also recorded from Trincomalee Hot Wells, Macassar 
and Travancore. 

2. T. inornatus Wlk., 1865. 

Pr. lyinn. So. Lond., viii, 102 o* (Megarhinus). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 223 o' $ ; pi. vii, 26 cf 25 ? (both 

full insects coloured, as Megarhinus id.). 
Megarhinus inornatus Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 2yi& 9 . 

Theobald's description is from two specimens in the British 
Museum of which I presume one is Walker's type {dr). 

3. T. leicesteri Theob., 1804. 
- Entom., xxxvii, 360' 5 . 

Types in British Museum. Taken by Dr. Durham at Kuala Lumpur. 

4. T. metallica Leicester in Theob., 1904. 

Entom., xxxvii, 37 cf 9 . 

Types in British Museum. Taken by Dr. Leicester at Kuala Lumpur, 



326 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [Vol. I, 

WORCESTERIA Banks, 1906. 
Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 779. 
Near both Megarhinus and Toxorhynchites, but quite distinct. 

I. W. grata Banks, 1906. 

Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 780 cf 9 ; plate, palpus cf , genitalia cf , 
cross veins cf 5 , scales, etc. 
The adult does not bite. The species was bred during June. 
Types {rf 9 No. 6071) in the Entomological Collection, Bureau 
of Science, Manila. 

Localities : Bago, (150 metres alt. ; June and July) (Negros 
Occidental Philippine Islands) [Banks] ; and Cebu [McGregor], 
both places in the Philippines. 

Sub-Fam. CULICIN^, 

Theob. Gen. Ins., Fasc. 26, p. 14. Chars, of sub-family, also 

analytical table of 30 genera. 
Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 97, table of genera. 
Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 334, table of genera. 

MUCIDUS Theob., 1901. 
Mon. Culic, i, 268. 
Theob., Gen. Ins., Fasc. 26, p. 17. 
A table of species given by Theobald. Monog., i, 269. 

I. M. alternans Westw., 1881. 

Tr. Ent. So. Lond., iii, 384. 

Mucidus alternans Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 347 cf 9 ; 

pi. xii, 2, wing 9 . 
Culex commovens Wlk. Ins. Saunds. Dipt. 432. 
C. hispidosus Skuse. Tr. Linn. So. N. S. Wales, p. 1726. 

The only oriental locality seems to be Papua [Hungarian 

Museum]. 

2. M. laniger Wiedl, 1821. 

Dipt. Exot. 9 {Culex id.) 9 . 

Auss. Zweifi., i, 5 9 . 

Culex laniger Macq. Dip. Ex., i, pt. 2, 176. 

Type in Westermann's Collection. Recorded from Java and 
Coromandel. _ . .. 



I go 7-] Records of the Indian Museum. 327 

3, M. mucidus Karsch, 1887. 

Ent. Nachr. (1887) 25 {Culex id.). 

Mucidus- mucidus Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 272 9 ; pi. xi, 
42 ? full ins. col. ; pi. B, wing scales. 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 349 5 ; pi. 

xii, 3 wing 5 . 

4. M. scatophagfoides Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 277 2 ; pi. E, wing scales ; fig. 81 
(p. 278) wing, thorax, scales. 

Giles, Handbook, 2nd Ed., 348 9 ; pi. xii, i,«, full ins. ; 
2, a, venation. 

An attempt by Major Close to breed the species from eggs laid 
by a 9 in captivit}^, failed. He records that for a week in Sep- 
tember in the Police Hospital at Moradabad (N.-W. Prov.), it bit 
viciously. It is also recorded from Myingan in Burma. 

DESVOIDYA Blanchard, 1901. 

Comp. rend. So. Biol. Paris, No. 37, liii (Desvoidea). 
nom. nov. for Armigeres Theob., preoc. 

Armigeres Theob. 1901 Mon. Culic, i, 322. 
Desvoidea id. loc. cit., iii, 134. 

Desvoidya emendation by Theob. in Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, 
p. 17. 

I. D. fusca Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 135 cf 9 . Fig. 75 mid-ungues cf , 
palpus & ; fig. 76, pupa figures. 

Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, pi. xvii, larva figs. 

Dr. Durham found the larva in a tub, and Miss Ludlow records 
it as being bred in the Philippines, " from larvae taken from the 
water-filled joints of bamboo poles in the fence." 

Localities : Kuala Lumpur {Dr. Durham'] ; Angeles (Pampanga, 
Phil. Is.) [Whitmore]. 

2. D. joloensis Ludlow, 1904. 

Can. Ent., xxxvi, 236. 

Described by Miss Ludlow as a variety of fusca, mentioning 
that the variation was constant throughout the 23 a' cf 9 9 ex- 
amined, and as Banks admits it as a good species, I follow him. 
Taken by an unrecorded collector at Jolo (Jolo Island, Philippines). 



328 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

3. D. obturbans Wlk., i860. 
Pr. lyinn. So. Lond. iv, 91 2 {Culex). 

Armigeres obturbans Theob. Mon. Culic.^ i, 323 d" $ . 
Fig. 104, wing; fig. 105, palpus cf 
(incorrect), ungues $ , a" genitalia ; 
fig. 106 cf ungues. 

Desvoidea obturbajis Theoh. Mon. Culic, iii, 138, fig. 75, i 
mid ungues cf ; fig. yy, corrected 
cf palpus ; fig. 78, (f clasper. 

Armigeres ventralis Wlk., Theob. Mon. Culic. ; pi. xv ; 57 
2 full ins. col. 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 385 & 2 ; 

pi. xiv, II venation, 12 claws. 

Culex ventralis Wlk. 1861. Pr. lyinn. So. Lond., v, 144. 

The type ( 9 ) is in the British Museum. A common species 
from the East Coast of India, through the Straits, and up the Chi- 
nese Coast. Capt. James has observed the whitish woolly larva 
breeding in pots and tubs of dirty water in the open and under 
trees. The adult is common in woods, rarely visiting houses. Miss 
lyudlow records it as having been bred in the Philippines, from 
larvae from deep pools in a clear running stream. 

Originally described from Amboina. 

4. D. panalcctoros Giles, 1901. 

Jour. Bomb. So. xiii, 608, 

and (1901) in Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 317 a" 2 {Armi- 
geres). 
Desvoidea panalectoros Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 136 ; fig. 75, 

3, palpus cr". Loc. cit. iii; pi. 
xvii, larva figs. 
Desvoidya id. Theob. Gen, Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 18. 

Armigeres id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 386 &] 

pi. xiv, 13 venation, 14 head & , 
15 claws, 16 thorax. 

The types are in the Indian Museum, and were captured by 
Col. Alcock of that Institution, at Calcutta, during the rainy season. 

Localities : Calcutta [Alcock'] ; Perak [Wright] ; Pampanga 
(Phil. Is.) [Whitmore]. 

STEGOMYIA Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 283. 

Theob. loc. cit. tab. spp,, p, 285 ; map of distribution, 

p. 284. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 18. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 368 ; table spp. 369. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 329 

I. S. amesii Ludlow 1903. 

Jour. New Yk. Ent. So., xi, 139 {Stegoynyia nivea 
amesii). 

Described from the Philippines, but I can find no definite data 
except that Banks includes it in his Catalogue. 

Note. — Banks mentions in addition to this species a " Scu- 
tomyia nivea Ludl. {Stegomyia nivea) " with exactly the same ref- 
erence as this species, and adds : " There appears to be a confusion 
of this species with Stegomyia amesii Ludl. in the Genera Insecto- 
rum." I have not seen the New York journal, but I infer that 
]Miss Ludlow described two species on the same page, viz., (i) Ste- 
gomyia nivea Ludl., which Banks places as a good species in Scuto- 
myia ; and, (2) Stegomyia nivea amesii Ludl. (probably intended, 
to judge by the triplet of names, to be a sub-species), which Banks 
also ranks as a good species under the title amesii only, in Stego- 
myia. 

2. S, annulirostris Theob., 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi., 239 5 . 

Described from a unique 2 from Peradeniya, Ceylon, taken in 
January. 

3. S. aurostriata Banks, 1906. 

Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 995, 9 . 

Type No. 6082 in the Entomological Collection, Bureau of 
Science, Manila, taken in June on the Canlaon Volcano, Negros 
Island (Philippines) at an altitude of 760 metres. 

4. S. brevipalpis Giles, 1902. 

Handbk., 2nd Ed., 384 cf $ ; pi. xiv, 17, 18, 19, 
wings, 20 head cf . 
Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 146 {Culex id.) a" 2 . 

Types in British Museum. Theobald said (Monog. iii, 146) 
that he had examined the types in the British Museum, and had 
found them to be not a Stegoynyia but a typical Culex ; but (in the 
Gen. Ins.) he replaces the species in the present genus. The 2 bites 
during the daytime in houses. 

Recorded in October from Shahjahanpur (N.-W. Prov.). 

5. S. crassipes Wulp, 1892. 

Dip. Sum, Exp. 9, pi. i, 4, head (Culex). 

Stegomyia crassipes Theob. Mon. Culic. i, 320 2 ; pi. xxxiv, 
134 2 full ins. col. 
Id. id. Giles, Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 367. 

Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 381. 

Described from 2 2 2 from Sumatra. 



330 E. BRrNKTTl : Cafa/oiTNe of Oriental Culicida:'. [\'OL. 

Localities : Soeroelangoen (Sumatra) (t. Wulp) ; Thayetmyo in 
August (Upper Burma) [Watson] ; Pampanga (Phil. Is.) 
[Whitmore]. 

6. S. fasciata F., 1805. 

Sys. Antl. 36 {Culex). 

Stegomyia fasciata "Theoh. Mon. Culic, i, 289 & 9 ; figs. 86 
to 89 . var. chars ; map of distribu- 
tion, p. 292 ; pi. xiii, 49 cf , 50 9 , 
both full ins. col. PI. B, wing scales ; 
also of a Queensland var. 
Id. id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26 ; pi. i, fig. 

II, 2 full ins. col. 

N.B. — In this plate are given two full insects, and figures of a 
thorax and a leg. The full insects figures apply to fasciata F., typical 
form & 9 , the figure of the thorax to the variety mosquito Rob. 
Desv., and the figure of the leg to Theobald's variety luciensis. 

Stegomyia fasciata Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 372 ; pi. xiv, 
2, venation ; 3 thorax. 

Synonyms ( Culex) — 

calopus Meig. 1818, Sys. Bes., i, 3. 

Desv. 1827, Ess. Culic, 407. 

tcBfiiatus Wied. 1828, Auss. Zweifl., i, 10 cf* $ . 

Konoupi BruUe 1832, Exped. Morea. Ann. So. Nat. Paris, 
xxiii. 

formosus Wlk. 1848, List Dip. Br. Mus. i, 4 9 . 

viridifrons Wlk. 1848, I.e., p. 3, 9 . 

inexorahilis Wlk. 1848, I.e., p. 4, 9 . 

excitans Wlk. 1848, I.e., p. 4, 9 . 

exagitans Wlk. 1856, I.e., p. 430, 9 . 

impatahilis Wlk. i860, Pr. Linn. So. Lond., iv, 91 o' . 

zonatipes Wlk. i860, I.e., v, 229 cr'. 

annulitarsis Macq. 1838, Dip. Ex. Supp., i, 136 9 . 

toxorhynchus Macq. I.e., i, 25. 

bancroftii Sknse 1886, Pr. Linn. So., N. S. Wales, iii, p. 1740. 

mosquito Arrib. 1891, Dipt. Argent, 60. 

elegans Ficalbi 1896, Bull. So. Ent. Ital. (1896), p. 251. 

rossii Giles 1899, Jour. Trop. Med., p. 64. 

var. mosquito Rob. Desv. 1827, Ess. Culic, 407. Theob. 
Mon. Culic. i, 295 ; pi. xiii, 50 (the 
separate figure of thorax only). 

luciensis Theob. Mon. Culic. i, 297 cf 9 ; pi. xiii, 50 (the 
separate figure of a leg only). 

queenslandensis Theob., I.e., i, 297 9 . 

Theobald in his report on the Buda Pesth Museum Culicidce 
(Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 73) mentions a var. mosquito Arribalzaga as 
occurring at Port Said and vSingapore (collected at both places 
by Biro, the specimens being in the Hungarian National Museum 



iqoy.] Records of the Indian Miisenni. ^^i^\ 

collection), but in the " Genera Insectorum " he sinks Arribalzaga's 
" mosquito "as an absolute synon^^m of fasciata F., t3^pical form, 
and gives 7nosquito R. Desv. as a good variety. 

This is one of the most variable species in the family. 

Banks says " all parts of the tropical world," but this ma^^ be 
doubted, as I can obtain onl}^ Biro's record from Oriental latitudes — 
except those of Banks. 

Australian 9 $ are said to be larger than Asiatic, East Indian 
or West Indian ones, but Australian c^ d" are of no larger size than 
usual. The eggs are laid separately' and not in rafts. Dr. Low says 
they begin to breed the first day they emerge from the pupa, one 
cf fertilising many $ 5 , and pairing by night freely as well as 
by day. The eggs possess great vitality and do not lose it, even if 
completel}^ dried for some weeks. He calls it an " essentiall}' 
domestic mosquito " breeding in any receptacle holding water 
near the house, and in company with C. fatigans Wied. 

In the West Indies it bites viciously between i and 3 p.m. 

lyOCAWTiES : Singapore and Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua) [both 
5i>o] : Pampanga (Phil. Is.) [Whitmore]. . Also occurs at Port 
Said and Muscat (Arabia). 



Sub-species persistans Banks, 1906. 
Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 996. 

The type of and $ of this variety are in the Entomological 
Jollection (Type No. 5773), Bureau of Science, Manila. 

He says it is the " most abundant day flying mosquito in this 
region and a vicious biter, appearing generally, and biting fiercely, 
just before a storm." 

L0CA1.1T1ES : Manila, Iloilo and Bago (Negros Is.) ; (all Phil. Is.) 
[Banks] ; Fort McKinley (Phil. Is.) [Craig] ; and taken by 
various collectors elsewhere in these Islands. 



7. S. gardneri Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent., xxxvii, 99 o^ $ . 

Localities : Bulaco in August (Mindoro Is. Philippines) [Gardner] ; 
Pampanga (Luzon) [W hitmore]. 

8, S. mediopunctata Theob., 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 240 2 . 

Described from a unique $ in perfect condition taken in 
November at Peradeniya (Ceylon). 



332 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

9. S. microptcra Giles in Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 281 a' $ {Wyeomyia (?) micropterus). 

Stegoniyia microptera Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 380a' 5 ; 

pi. xiv, 24, head, thorax ; 25, head ; 

26, venation. 
Id. id. Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 147 (note). 

Culex micropterus Giles Jour. Bomb. vSo., xiii, 609. 

Theobald (Monog., ii, 281 & ? , fig. 291, wing) publishes 
Giles's description with " Allahabad and Lucknow, in houses," as 
data. 

Giles suggested that the species belonged to Theobald's Wyeo- 
myia, but the latter replied, " Some mistake has been made here ; 
the insect referred to is undoubtedly a typical Culex." In vol. iii 
(Monog.), p. 147, he writes that " it is now said by Giles to be a 
Stegomyia, vide his Handbk., 2nd Ed., 380." Theobald continues 
(I.e.), " I have not seen the specimen, which appears to have 
beeii lost. Another locality is given, viz., Jhansi." Probably 
the fact of what is apparently the type being lost, accounts for 
Theobald not including the species in the " Genera Insectorum." 
Moreover he speaks of " the specimen," but from Giles's original 
description (in Theob. Monog., i, 281), the author appeared to 
have several examples. 

lyOCAiviTiES : Allahabad, Jhansi, Lucknow \Giles\ 

10. S. periskelata Giles, 1902. 
Handbk., 2nd Ed., 371 &\ pi. xiv, 22, headcf. 

Theobald in Mon. Culic, iii, 145, describes the cf , but it does 
not appear in his revision in the " Genera Insectorum." 

Recorded from Shahjahanpur (October) in the N.-W. Prov- 
inces. 

II. S. pipersalata Giles in Theob., 1901. 
Mon. Culic, ii, 316. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 372 & ; pi. xvi, ia,&, venation & . 

, ; Type in British Museum. The species is ignored by Theobald 
iri the " Genera Insectorum." 

IyOCAi,iTiES : Jhansi and Gonda (N.-W. Provinces). 

12, S. pseudonivea Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 75 $ . 

; . : DescriVjed from, a unique $ taken by Biro in January at Singa- 
pore and now m the Hinigarian Museum Collection. 



1907.] Records of the IndianMuseuni. 333 

13, S. punctolateralis Theob., 1903. 

Kntom., xxxvi, 156, cf $ . .""ui 

Giles, Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 367. 

Localities : Pampanga (rhilippiiies) [IVhitcmorc] ; Queensland 
in January [Dr. Bancroft]. 

14. S. scuiellaris Wlk., 185Q. 

Pr. Linn. So. Lond., iii, yy, cf {Culex id.). 
Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 298 & ? , fig. 91 .cf ungues; pi. 
xiv, 53, 2 , full ins. col. 

Stegomyia id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd. Ed., 374 9 ; pi. xiv, 4, 

venation, 5 head, thorax cf . 
Culex variegatus Doles. Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvii, 77. 

The larva of this species has been continually observed. 

Theobald mentions it as breeding in standing water near houses 
at 500 feet altitude ; Aitken reared it in Bombay, the larva; living 
amongst rotten leaves ; and he found it abundant in the Canara 
District, living in forest streams. 

One of the most widely distributed species. Mr. Aitken says 
it bites during the day in the Canara District, whilst Mr. B. G. 
Corney declares it disappears at night at Fiji (Bera Is.). 

Type in British Museum, in good condition. 

Mr. Theobald has omitted this species from the " Genera 
Insectorum." Presumably this is an oversight, as he does not 
account for the species in any way. 

Localities : Madras and Naini Tal [Giles and Cornwall] ; Canara 
District [Aitken] ; Sombalpur (Cent. Vrov.). [Dr. O'C. Murphy] ; 
Ceylon November and i2-xi-i899 [Bartholomen:] ; Selangor 28- 
X-1899 '' very common " [Butler] ; Upper Burma (March) 
[Watson] ; Siam (abundant) [Skeat] ; Penang [Freer] : Perak 
[Wright] ; Singapore, 4-ix-i899 [Raffles Museum], also '' 27-vi- 
1899," and from " vSingapore " [Biro]; Celebes and Aru [t. 
Walk.] ; Ins. Deslacs and Ins. Graget [Biro] ; Selve, Berlinhafen, 
Stephansort and Muina (all Papua) [Biro] ; Amboina [t. Doles.]; 
Hongkong 27-ix-i899 [Ford]; Foochow 9-viii-i900 [Rennie]; 
Shaohyling (China) {Cornford) ; Tamsvi {Formosa) 2-viii-i899 
[Mackay] ; Japan [FToo^] ; Bayambang (Pangasinan, Phil 
Is. [Chamberlain] ; North Borneo. Outside the Orient it occurs 
in Mauritius, 22-xi-i899 [Sir Ch. Bruce}; Fiji 30-xii-i899 
[Black] ; Victoria (Seychelles) [Dr. Denman] ; and on Christmas 
Island [Dr. Durham]. ' -^ 

Sub-species samarensis Ludlow, 1903. 

Jour. New Yk. But. So., xi, 138. 

also in Can. Ent., xxxvi (1904), 71 for difference 
between typical form {scuiellaris Wlk.) and this var. 



334 ^-- Bkuxetti : Catahsyuc of Oriental Culicidae. [Vol. I, 

Banks says that scutellaris Wlk. (typical) has not been seen 
by him. from the PhiUppines, but that this variety is widespread 
there, and that he has bred several varieties of it, all reared from 
the same lot of eggs. He suggests " intergradation between {scutel- 
laris and sajuarensis." 

Although Theobald places this sub-species under Scutomyia 
notoscripta, Skuse, I retain it under scutellaris Wlk., following the 
more recent authority of Banks (Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 985) who raises 
it to the dignity of a species. 

lyOCAUTiES : Samar, Leyte, Mindoro, Iloilo, Negros (all Phil. Is.) 
[t. Banks] ; Manila, Fort McKinley [Craig]. 

Note. — albopictus Skuse, Ind. Mus. Notes, iii, 20. 

I find some difficulty in deciding where to place the above 
form. 

Theobald in his Monograph (i, 298) sinks it as a synonym of 
Stegomyia scutellaris Wlk., as does Giles (Handbk., 2nd Bd., 374). 
Yet in the Genera Insectorum, Theobald omits scutellaris Wlk. 
altogether (this must surely be an omission by error), and gives 
albopictus Skuse as a synonym of Scutomyia notoscripta Skuse. 
Moreover, his reference to Skuse' s description in ' ' Ind. Mus. 
Notes " should be vol. iii, pt. 5, and not " vol. 35." 

Whether a good species or whether synonymous with scutel- 
laris or notoscripta , the form albopictus is common throughout the 
summer in Calcutta, I myself having bred it during August from 
larvae found in the bathroom. They metamorphosed quite readily 
in an empty biscuit tin, and I believe developed a second genera- 
tion therein, but I could not be quite certain that this latter was 
not due to other specimens obtaining access to the water. 

Dr. Annandale took it at Bhim Tal (Kumaon 4,500 ft.) in 
Sept. 1906, where it was freely breeding in water butts near Euro- 
pean houses, also in cavities holding water in jungle trees. From a 
comparison of the descriptions, and an examination of specimens 
it seems to be a form of scutellaris Wlk., under which specific name 
I therefore retain it. 



15. S. sexlineata Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 308 $ , fig. 94, head, thorax, abdo- 
men, ungues, wing scales, etc. 

Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 377. 
Id. Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 367. 

Described by Theobald from a unique perfect 9 , taken at 
Agua Santa (Trinidad) in December. Giles is uncertain of the 
identity of his species with Theobald's. 

Taken by Whitmore at Angeles (Pampanga, Phil. Is.). 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 335 

16. S. thomsoni Theob., 1905. 

Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 18. 

Theobald does not mention the sex of this species, which comes 
from the North-West Provinces of India. The " description " is 
confined to five Hnes. 

17. S. w-alba Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 74 5 , fig. 4, thorax, head, femur. 

Type in Hungarian Museum. Described from a perfect unique 
9 , which was taken b}^ Biro at Matheran (India, near Bombay) 
at an altitude of 800 metres. 

Note. — The following species, described as Stegoniyia are 
not accounted for by Theobald in his '' Gen. Ins. " revision. 

18. S. desmotes Giles, 1904. 

19. S. leucomeres Giles, 1904. 

20. S. striocrura Giles, 1904. 

All three species are described in the '' Jour. Trop, Med." VII, 
367, and all three were taken by Whitmore at Angeles (Pampanga, 
Phil. Is.). 

SKUSEA Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii., 291 ; 
also in Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 19. 

I. S. culiciformis Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus. Hung, iii, 77 $ ; pi. i, wing ; pi. iv, wing scales. 

Described from a unique & which is in the Hungarian Museum, 
and was collected by lyoria on the Paumomu River in Papua. 

2. S. diurna Theob., 1903. 

Bntom., xxxvi, 259 2 . 

Described from a single perfect 9 taken by Dr. Durham in 
September at the hospita reservoir at Jugra (Kuala lyumpur). 
It is a day flyer and near 5. multiplex. 

3. S. funerea Theob., 1903. 
Mon. Culic, iii, 292 9 , fig. 164 (p. 292), head, abdomen. 
Types in British Museum. 

Var. ornata Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung,, iii, 79, 9 ; pi. i, wing. 

Described from 8 9 9. Captured by Biro at Sattelberg 
(Huon Golf) and Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, both places in Papua. 



336 E. Brunpztti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. T, 

4. S. multiplex Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 293 5 , fig. 165, head ungues. 

' Original description from 3 2 2 from Australia, but Theobald 
found it in the Hungarian Museum from four Papuan localities (the 
specimens collected by Biro), viz., Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, Ste- 
phansort, Muina and Ins. Graget. 

SCUTOMYIA Theob., 1904. 
Hntom., xxxvii, 77. 
Has aihnities with Stegomyia, Macleaya and Leicesteria. 

I. S. albolineata Giles, 1901. 
Jour. Bomb. So., xiii, 609. 
India. I can find no further data. 

2. S. albolineata Theob., 1904. 
Entom., xxxvii, yy 2 . 

Apparently a case of a second species of the same name, as 
Theobald does not account for Giles' species in any way in the 
Genera Insectorum. 

Described from a unique 2 taken b}^ Dr. I^eicester during June 
in jungle, six miies from Kuala lyumpur. 

T^^pe in British Museum. " Close to scutellaris Wlk." 

3. S. nivea lyudlow, 1903. 

Jour. New Yk. Ent. So., xi, 139 {Stegomyia id.). 

Federated Malay States and Philippine Islands. 
N.B. — Vide Note under Stegomyia amesii. 

4. S. notoscripta vSkuse, 1889. 
Pr. Linn. So., N. S. Wales, iii, p. 1738 {Culex). 

Sub-species samarensis Ludl., 1903. 
Jour. N. Yk. Ent. So., xi, 138. 

Philippine Islands. 

Mr. Theobald in the " Gen. Ins." gives alhopidus Skuse as a 
synonym of notoscripta Skuse. Vide my notes under Stegomyia 
scutellaris Wlk. 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Aluseum. 337 

5. S. sugens Wied., 1828. 

Auss. Zweifl., i, 545 $ {Culex). 

Theob, Mon, Culic, i^ 300. 

Patton Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 634 ; pi. D, head of larva, 

male clasper. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 375 cf 2 . 

First described by Wiedemann from West and Central Africa, 
but it has been found quite recently by Patton in Arabia, breeding 
in tanks, barrels, wells or an}^ still water, being a very common 
species at Aden, its bite being very irritating. The cf is said not 
to bite.-;^^,^^ 

LEICESTERIA Theob., 1904. 

Entom., XXX vii, 211. 
Theob., Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 20. 

'NesLV^Eretmapodites , Macleaya, Scutomyia, etc. 

I. L. longipalpis Leicester in Theob., 1904. 

Entom., xxxvii, 211 cf 9 . 

Types in British Museum. Taken at Kuala Lumpur by Dr. 
Leicester. 

HULECOETOMYIA Theob., 1904. 

Entom., xxxvii, 163. 

Theob., Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 20. 

These CulicidcB have the appearance of Stegomyice. 

I. H. pseudotaeniata Giles, 1901. 
Entom., xxxiv (Stegomyia). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 312 5 , fig. 96, thorax, head 9 , 

wing scales. 
Larva descr. loc. cit., i, 314 ; iii, fig. 16 (p. 28), larva. 
Stegomyia id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 379 cf $ ; pi. 

xiv, 8, venation ; 9, body ; 10, larva. 

Apparently a hill species. Theobald says it occurs in May ; 
Banks found it common in Januar^^ at the Manila Waterworks at 
Rizal, and he bred the species under similar conditions to those 
of Giles, who took it in the hills. 

Localities : Bakloh (Punjab) and Lower Himalayas 6,000 to 8,000 
feet, Naini Tal [Giles] ; Manila [Banks]. 



338 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

2. H. trilineata Leicester in Theob., 1904. 

Entom., xxxvii, 163 cf 2 . 

Tj^pes in British Museum. 
Locality : Kuala Lumpur in April \Leicester\ 

PHAGOMYIA Theob., 1905. 
Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 21. 

1. P. gubernatoris Giles^ 1901. 

Entom., xxxiv, 194 2 (Stegomyia) ^ and Jour. Bomb. 
So., xiii, 607. 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 314 2 , fig. 97 (p. 315), thorax 2 . 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 380 2 . 

Recorded from Allahabad (July) and ' North India. " The 
single specimen forming the type was accidentally damaged, after 
being described [Giles]. 

HOWARDINA Theob, 1903. 
Mon. Culic, iii, 287 ; pi. xv, wing scales. 
Theob., Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 21. 

I. H. greenii Theob., 1903. 
Mon. Culic, iii, 289 2 , fig. 160 (p. 289), head, fig, 161, wing. 
Described from a unique. 
Locality : Peradeni^^a (Ceylon) in Feb. 

2. H. himalayana Giles, 1904. 
Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 384. 

Recorded from Naini Tal. 

DANIELSIA Theob., 1904. 
Entom. xxxvii, 78. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 21. 
Near Scutomyia, Macleaya and Catageiomyia. 

I, D. albotaeniata Leicester in Theob, 1904. 

Entom., xxxvii, 11 1 & 9 . 

Bred in April by Dr. Leicester from larvae taken in bamboo 
jungle six miles from Kuala Lumpur. Resembles Siegomyia 
nivea. Types in British Museum. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Miiseiiiii. 339 

LEPIDOTOMYIA Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 80, and Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 22. 
Intermediate between Culex and Stegomyia." 

I. L. alboscutellata Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung.^ iii, 80 5 

Described from two 2 9 . Types in the Hungarian National 
Museum at Buda Pesth. 

LOCAUTIES : vSimbang (Huon Golf) and Friedrich Wilhelmshafen ; 
both in Papua and collected by Biro. 

2. L. magna Theob.,^'1905. 
Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 22. 
Recorded from Bombay. 

THEOBALDIA Nev. Lemaire, 1902. 

Comp. rend. vSoc. biol. Paris (1902). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 148 ; pi. x, wing scales, var. spp. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 23. 

I. T- annulata Schrk., 1776, 

Beitr. z. Naturg. 97 (Culex). 

Culex annulatus Fab. Ent. Sys., iv, 400 (Culex). 
Id. id. Meig. Sys. Besch., i, 3. 

Id. id. Macq. Hist. Dipt., i, 35. 

Id. id. Sch. F. Austr., ii, 626. 

Id. id. Zett. Dip. Scand., ix, 3640. 

Id. id. V. Wulp. Dip. Neer, 325. 

Id. id. Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 3310" $ , fig. 108 

abd. segments, ungues cf' $ , palpus a^; 
pi. XV, 58, full ins. col. 
^^- id. Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 391; pi. xv, 

abd. seg. ; claws cf $ , wing 9 ; head 
rf ; genitalia cf . 
Theohaldia id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26 ; pi. i, 12 9 full 

ins. col. 
Culex afmis Stephens 1825, Zool. Jour. No. i (tvpe in 

Hope Coll., Oxford). 
C. variegatus Schrk. 1781, Enum. Ins. Austr. 482. 

Ficalbi says it does not bite man or animals, but feeds on plant 
juices. This author and Giles have considered Culex penetrans Rob. 
Desv. a variety of annulata, but Theobald (Monog. i, 334) thinks 



340 K. BrunETTI : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I 

it distinct, adding that both sexes hybernate, and that he has taken 
it (presumably in the adult stage) at all seasons of the year, but 
gives no data. 

LoCAi^iTiES : Punjab (November), Bakloh (Punjab), 5,000 ft. 
[Lindesay]. The species is common in Europe from April to 
October, and it also occurs in North America. 

2. T- spathipalpis Rond., 1886. 
Prod. Dipt. Ital., i, $ (Culex). 

Theob, Mon. Culic, i, 339 o^ $ ; iii, 154 $ ; pi. x, wing 

scales. 
Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 392 ct' 9 ; pi. xv, 23, wing $ , 

24, head rf; 25, genitalia &. 
Ficalbi Venti. spec. Zan. Ital., p. 146, in Bull. Soc. Ent. 

Ital. 

A south European species, occurring from Italy through Cyprus 
and Palestine to North India, being recorded from Gibraltar in Sep- 
tember and from India in June and July. Ficalbi describes the cf . 

Giles thinks this species may be identical with longiareolatus 
Macq., in which case the latter name takes precedence. 

Theobald mentions receiving a cf from India, but gives no 
locality. Dr. Grabham, writing from Madeira, says it is not found 
in houses, but that he has bred them from larvae found in great 
abundance in stagnant water, especially horse ponds. 

Giles records finding the species in a bathroom at Naini Tal 
(7,000 ft.), this being the only definite oriental locality I can find. 
Outside this region it occurs at Cyprus (5,000 ft.), S. Africa (1,300 
ft.), Algeria, Teneriffe, Madeira, etc. 

PECOMYIA Theob., 1905. 
Jour. econ. biol., i. 

I P. maculata Theob., 1905. 
Jour. econ. biol., i ; pi. iv, 7. 
Described from India. 

PSEUDOGRABHAMIA Theob., 1905 
Jour. Bomb. vSo., xvi, 243. 

I. P. maculata Theob., 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. vSo., xvi, 243 & $ . 

Described from 1 cf and 2 2 2, perfect specunens from Galga- 
muwa, Ceylon (August). 



jgoy.l Records of the Indian Museum. 341 

GRABHAMIA Theob., 1903. 
Mon. Culic.^ iii, 243 ; pi. xi, wing scales. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 23. 

I, G. ambiguus Theob., 1903. 
Mon. Culic., iii, 248 & . 

A unique, taken by Capt. James in July at Ouilon (Travan- 
core, S. India). 

2. G, dcniedmanni Ludlow, 1904. : :. 

Can. Ent., xxxvi, 234. 
Philippines. 

3. G. ochracea Theob., 1905. 
Jour. econ. biol., i, 25. 
Ind la. 

? 4. G. sollicitans Wlk., 1856. 
Ins. Saunds. Dipt., 427. 

Theob. Mon. Culic., i, 368 9 ; pi. xvi, 64 9 ; full ins. col. 
Id. id. iii, fig. 130 (p. 248), wing 9 . 

This species may possibly not be oriental, being mainl}^ a North 
American one. I include it on the ground that an example from 
Formosa received by Theobald appears to him. to be probably 
sollicitans. 

The larva breeds in brackish water and is common on the 
Atlantic seaboard of America. 

5. G. spenceri Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 99 9 ; pi. xxvi, 104, full ins. col. 
{Culex). 
rheob. loc. cit. ii, fig. 198 (p. 100) wing abdominal seg- 
ment, base of antenna.'. 
Grahhamia spenceri Theob. loc. cit. iii, 250. 
Culex id. Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 431. 

Theobald quotes this as from the Philippines, although it is 
a North American species, but Banks doubts its occurrence in those 
Islands. {Vide Phil. Jour. Sci. i, 986.) 

Theobald describes a var. idahoensis from Idaho in Monog. 
ii, 250. 

LOPHOCERATOMYIA Theob., 1905. 
Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 245, and Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 93. 



342 E. Brunktti: Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

I. L. brevipalpus Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 96 cr- , fig. 9 (p. 96), 
palpus & , proboscis base of antennae, ungues. 
A unique specimen, in the Hungarian ^luseum taken by Biro 
at Singapore. 

2. L. fraudatrix Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung, iii, 94 cf $ , fig. 7 (p. 94), 
palpus (f 5 , fig. 8, antennal organs. 

Types in Hungarian Museum, Described from a good series of 
both sexes. 
LoCAi^iTiES . Friedrich Wilhelmshafen and Stephansort (both 

Papua). 

3. L. uniformis Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 93 a' $ . 

PI. A, 3, antenna ; pi. B, 4, palpus. 

Described from 2 cf (f and several 9 9 . 
Recorded from Peradeniya (Ce^don) during Ma3^ 

CULEX Unn., 1758. 

lyinn. Sys. Naturae, Ed. x. 602. 

Meig. 1818, Sys. Besch., i, i. 
Macq. 1834, Hist. Nat., i, 33. 
Sch. 1864, Fn. Aust., ii, 625. 
V. Wulp 1877, Dip. Neer, 323. 
Theob. 1901, Mon. Culic, i, 326. 

Culex, restricted by Theobald, Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 24. 

I. C. albolineatus Giles, 1902. 

Handbk., Gnats, 2nd Ed., 430 9 ; pi. xvii, 10 a, 
venation 9 . 
Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 192 9 . 

Described from a single 9 taken in a bungalow. 
Locality : Shahjahanpur (N.-W. Prov.), Oct. 20th. 

2. C. angulata Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 324 9 . 

Very near fatigans Wied. Described from 2 9 9 in Col. Giles's 
coll., taken by him in June at Naini Tal (4,000 ft.). 



iQoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 343 

3. C. annuliferus Ludlow, 1903. 

Jour. New Yk. Ent. So., xi, 141 {annulifera). 

Theobald's reference to vol. 2 instead of xi is an error. (Gen. 
Ins.) 
LOCAUTY : Bayembang (Pangasinan Phil. Is.) [Chamberlain]. 

4. C. annulus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 358 $ . 
Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 405 ? . 

Described from several $ $ in Dr. Rees's collection. 
lyOCAUTiES ! Tai Po (Pokfulam), Hongkong, Straits (Dindings, 
Oct. to Dec), Lamma. 

5. C. biroi Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 82 cf $ ; pi. i, wing cf 9 . 

Closel}^ allied to C. vishmd Theob. Types in Hungarian 
Museum. 
LocAUTY : Bomba}' [Biro\ 

6. C. caecus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 413 $ , fig. 147, head; fig. 148, scutel- 
lum and scales ; pi. xx, 77, full ins. col. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 415 9 . 
Localities : Selangor 28-X-1899 [Butler] ; Klang Mangrove Swamps. 

7. C. cantans Meig., 1818. 

Sys. Besch. i, 6. 

C. stimulans Wlk. List. Brit. Mus. Dip. i, 4 9 . 
C. fumipennis Steph. Zool. Jour, i, 453. 

Culex maculatus Meig. is erroneously given as a synonym by 
Theobald in Proc Roy. So. Lond., Ixix, 388. Walker's species was 
described from Nova Scotia. 

Locality : Coonoor, 6,000 ft. (Nilgiri Hills), North India [Dr. 
Price]. 

8. C. concolor Rob. Desv. 1825. 

Mem. So. His. Nat. Paris, iv, 405. 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 107 cf 9 , fig. 203 a' , palpus. 

Id. id. PI. xxviii, 109 a', no 9, both full 

ins. col. 
Giles, Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 
Id. Handbk., 2nd Ed., 454 a' 9 ; pi. xvii, 8 a,b, vena- 
tion cf 9 . 



344 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidse. [VOL. I, 

Generally distributed through India and the Straits^ common 
during the rains. Theobald says that owing to the type having 
apparently been lost, a comparison is impossible, but the species 
identified by him with it is generalh^ known as Desvoidy's concolor. 
The original description is too meagre for satisfactory determina- 
tion, and Theobald and Banks both concur in considering it must 
be removed from the genus Culex. 

Patton found it breeding in a tank in the Aden hinterland, and 
Capt. James and Aitken have also studied the larvae (Theob. Monog., 
iii, 231) which voraciously fed on other CulicidcB larvae and were, 
moreover, cannibalistic. They come from grassy pools and (oc- 
casionally) wells. A species named " C. fuscanus " amongst the 
old specimens at the British Museum is identified as concolor by 
Theobald. 

lyOCATjTTES : Sylhet i-ii-1905 and i-xii-1904 [Hall] ; Purneah (N. 
Bengal), 6-viii-T907 [Paiva] ; Rajmahal (Bengal) i-viii-1907 
[Ind. Mus. Coll.] ; Damukdia (E. Bengal) 22-vii-T907 [Ind. Mus. 
Coll.]; Calcutta, common ]uly, Aug. [A nnandale] ; Gopkuda 
Is., Chilka Lake, Orissa (E. Coast, India), August 1907 [Ind. 
Mus. Coll.] ; Canara District [Aitken] ; Ou^lon [James] ; N.-W. 
Provinces [Giles] ; Madras, 75-xi-i900 [Cornwall] ; Mozufferpur 
(Behar, Bengal) [Green] ; Upper Burm.a (August) [Watson] ; 
Selangor, 28-X-1899 [Butler] ; Kuala Lumpur [Durham] ; Perak, 
22-xi-i899 and 2i-xii-i899 [Wray and Wright]; Hongkong 
[Rees]; Pampanga (Phil. Is.), [Whitmore] ; also Foo Chow in 
China. 

9. C. fatigans Wied., 1828 
Auss. Zweifl. i, 10 cf' 5 . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 151 cf 9 , fig. 234 cf , wing, fig. 235 
a^ genitaha, fig. 236, wings ; p. 155, 
map of distribution ; pi. xxix, 114 
cf , 115 ? , both full ins. col. ; pi. D, 
wing scales. 
Id. id. ii, 156 et seq., long list vars. and Iocs.; 

fig. 238, 10 variations of wings; as an 
intermediate host, p. 161. 
Id. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26 ; pi ii, 2 2 , full ins. col. 

Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 438 rf $ fig. 45, wings, head, 
etc., p. 440, list of sub-species. 

Culex (Bstuans Wied. Auss. Zweifl., i, 11. 

? C. pungens Wied., I.e. i, 9. 

C. pallipes Meig. Sys. Besch. Suppl. (1838). 

C. anxifer Coquerel (Big.) Ann. So. Ent. Fr. (1858). 

C. skusii Giles, Handbk., ist Ed., 292. 

Heteronycha dolosa Arrib. Dipt. Argent, p. 56. 

? Culex macleayi Skuse Pr. Linn. So. N. S. Wales (1896), 
P- 1745- 



IQO/.] Records of the Indian Museum. j^c 

Sub. sp. lutcoannulatus Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 159. 
Id. trilincatus id. I.e., ii, 150. 

id. Giles Handbk., 2nd Ed., 464 5 

(Thayetmyo, Upper Burma). 

The characters of these two subspecies are defined by Theo- 
bald but no special localities are given. 

If Culex pungens of Wiedemann is identical with this species, 
that name takes precedence. Type presumably in Wiedemann's 
coll. A widely distributed, common species throughout the 
Orient, and occurs as far north as Italy. Patton reports it as very 
common in the Aden hinterland, breeding everywhere in springs, 
wells and puddles. Banks describes it as the most common night 
mosquito in the Philippines, hiding during the day in clothes. Dr. 
Low has seen them pairing b}^ night. 

Localities : Naini Tal [Giles] ; Sambalpur [Murphy] ; Etawah, 
(N.-W. Prov.) [Maj. Scotland] ; Mozufferpur (Behar, Bengal), 
[Green] ; Calcutta 6-iii-i8gg [Daniels ; also by Dr. Annandale] ; 
Madras i2-xii-i899 [Goodrich] ; Madras [Biro] ; Ouilon [James] ; 
Kurmregalla, Badulla, Balangoda and Keleni Valley (all four in 
Ceylon ; Jan., March and November, taken by Green) ; Straits 
(Bindings) [Wray]; Perak [Wright]; Singapore, 4-ix- 1899 and 
July [Hanitsch and Biro] ; Papua (Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, 
and Stephansort) [Biro] ; Hongkong, S-i-igoo and July [Ford] ; 
Foo Chow [Rennie] ; Shaohyling (China) [Corn ford]. Also 
occurs in very many places in North, Central and South 
America, many West India Islands, Africa, Fiji, etc., etc. 

10. C. foochowensis Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 137 a' $ . 
Fig. 224, wing 2 , cross veins, scutellum, ungues cf , fig. 
225, palpus and proboscis cr* , genitalia, abdomen, bristles 
and wing scales. 

An August species from Foo Chow (China) ; [Rennie]. 



II. C, fragilis Ludlow, 1903. 
Jour. New Yk. Ent. So., xi, 143 ?. 
Philippines. 

12. C. fuscanus Wied., 1828. 

Auss. Zweifl., i, 6. 

Theob., Mon. Culic, ii, 167. 

Id. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 30 (quotation incorrect). 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 455 (no sex given). 
The author gives no sex, nor any reference to the type. 



346 E. Brunetti : Catalosruc of Oriental Culicidai. [\\)L. I, 

Theobald's references to "C. fiiscanus Wied." are not at all de- 
finite. Under his accepted species of Culex {sensu strictu), he gives 
"fuscaiius Wied. 1821, Dip. Ex. p. 9," adding East India, Malacca, 
Singapore and Sarawak as localities (the latter three, probably on 
the authority of Walker). Then under his " species unidentifiable, 
except from types," he places " C. fuscanus Wied., 1838, Dip. Ex. 
4th supp., p. 9." First of all, the two quotations, by their simi- 
larity, appear to refer to the same reference, but, apart from that, 
Wiedemann in his " Auss. Zweifi." (1828), in describing the species 
(i, p. 6) does not give any earlier reference, as is usual with him 
when dealing with species previously described by him elsewhere. 
This makes me doubt the reference to " Dip. Ex.," more especially 
as Van der Wulp's Catalogue quotes the " Auss. Zweifl." description 
as the original one. By the w^ay, Theobald's 2nd quotation is not 
an error for Macquart's " Dipt. Exot.," as this latter author does not 
mention the species at all. I therefore include the species fuscanus 
as a good one under Wiedemann's " Auss. Zweifl." reference and 
under Culex. ' ' No specimen has yet been received at the British 
Museum answering to the description of this species." (Theob.) 
Localities : E. India, Singapore, Malacca, Sarawak. 

13. C. gclidus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 20 2 ; pi. xxiv, 93 $ , full ins. col. ; 
fig. 158, thorax and hind tarsus. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed,, 421 9 . 
Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 20 2 . fig. 158, thorax and hind tarsus. 

Described from a single perfect ? taken by Mr. Butler amongst 
plantains, Oct. 23rd, 1899, in Selangor. 

The species is said to be near C. confimiatus Arrib. 

What appears to be the & of the typical form (hitherto unde- 
scribed) was captured at light by Dr. Annandale in Calcutta, 30- 
vii-1907, and is now in the Indian Museum collection. During 
July and August this year (1907) this gentleman has taken both 
■sexes fairl}^ commonly on mossy walls of gardens adjoining the 
Museum. 

Localities : (T5'picalform) Purneah (N. Bengal), b-viii-igoj [Paiva] ; 
Peradeniya (July and Sept.) and Kelani Valley (both Ceylon) 
[Green'] ; Selangor [Butler] ; Dindings (Straits) in November ; 
Bayembang (Pangasinan, Phil. Is.) [Chamberlain'] ; Perak, 
Dacca, Calcutta. 

Var. sinensis Theob., 1903. Monog. (iii, 180 2 ). 
This variety taken by Mr. Cornford at Shaohyling, China. 

vSub. species cuneatus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 22 2 , fig. 159, wing, head, proboscis, 
abdomen marks. 



iQoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 347 

Culex gelidus cuneatus Giles, Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 

Banks says it is a fairly common mosquito, flying at early 
evening. 
LocAUTiES : Calcutta, July, Aug. [Annandale] ; Quilon in July 

[James] ; Ceylon [Green] ; Taipang (Perak), 2i-xii-i899 [Wray] ; 

Manila [Banks'] ; Pampanga (Phil. Is.) [Whitmore]. 

14. C. gnophodus Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 163 9 . 

Closely related to microannulatus. Described from a unique 
from Bindings (Straits), taken in November. 

15. C. halifaxii Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 231 9 . 

The t3^pe is unique, and from Bindings (Straits) in Becember. 

16, e. hirsuteron Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 98 9 ; fig. 196, ungues & , fig. 197, 
wing 9 . 

Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 27. 
Culex hirsuteros Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 451. 
Id. id. Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 

Bescribed from 4 specimens from Virginia sent by Prof. Howard 
of the United States National Museum. I include it in this Cata- 
logue provisionally. Banks includes this species from the Philip- 
pines in his Catalogue, but doubts the identity of Giles's species 
with Theobald's American species from Virginia. I find no other 
record of any oriental locahty. 
Localities : Pampanga [Wliitiiwre]. Also Virginia, U.S.A. 

17. C. hirsutum Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 392 ry' 9 ; pi. xx, 80 9 , full ins. col. ; fig. 
137, palpus cf , apex antennse o^ . 

Types in British Museum. Theobald gives the Philippines as its 
habitat (Gen. Ins.), but Banks's catalogue ignores it. 

18. C. impellens Wlk., i860. 

Pr. Linn. So. Lond., iv, 91 9 . 

Theob. Mon. Cuhc, i, 362 9 , fig. 122, head, 123, wing. 

Id. I.e. iii, 161 cr , descr. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 405 c^ 9 ; pi. xvi, 3a, head, b, 
venation o' . 



34^ E. Brun'ETTI : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VoL. I, 

Theobald feels certain of having recognised this species cor- 
rectl}', although the thorax and wings are all that is left of the t^^je. 
It is near sitiens and microannulatus ; Dr. Durham has observed 
the larva. " Bites and breeds to a moderate extent through the cold 
weather in the N.-W. Provinces and Punjab " (Giles). 

Localities : Kuala Lumpur in July [Durham] ; Perak [Wray, 
Wright] ; Kelani Valley, Batticolora in April (Ceylon) [Green] , 
N.-W. Provinces [Giles] ; Makerian (26-x-igoo) (Hoshiarpur) 
[Dr. Datta] ; Makessar (Celebes) [t. Walker] ; Pampanga, 
Philippines [Whitmore], and Calcutta. 



19. C. imprimcns Wlk., 1861. 
Pr. Linn. So. v, 144 9 . 

C. i^nprimiens Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 411 9 . 

Described from Amboina. It does not figure in Theobald's 
Monograph, but he mentions it in the " Gen. Ins." (incorrectly) as 
imprimiens. 

20, C. infula Theob., 1901. 
Mon. Ciilic. i, 370 9 . 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 407 9 . 

A unique, from Taipang, taken by Mr. Wray jun. The usual 
two dates are added by Theobald (22-xi-i899 and 2i-xii-i899) 
that appear to attend all species taken by this collector. 

21. C. japonicus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 385 9 . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 158. 
? Culex aureostriatus Doles. 

Described from a series of 9 9 from Japan. Theobald says 
it appears in June and July (Monog. i, 386), although the only 
date he gives in that work is that of the Tokio examples (March), 

Localities : Peradeniya (Ceyl.), i 9 , October [Green] ; Tokio 
(8-iii-i899) [Woods]. 
N.B. — Doleschall's species is from Amboina. 



22. C. longipalpis Wulp, 1892. 

Mid. Sum. Dipt. 9 ; pi. i, 3, head. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 423 9 . 

Described from 2 9 9 from Soeroelangoen (Sumatra). 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 340^ 

23. C. longipes Theob.^ 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 68 $ . 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 468 9 . 

Described from a unique taken by Hanitsch in a house at 
Singapore, 4-ix-i899. Since recorded from Singapore, Juh^ 27th. 

24. C. luteolatcralis Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 71 cf 2 ; pi. xxvii, 108 5 , full ins. coL 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 448 .-f $ . 

IvOCALiTiES : Perak [HVay] ; Pampanga (Phil. Is.) [Whitmore] ; 
Manila, " fairly abundant " [Banks], Also in January- at 
Durban and in March in Mashonaland. 

25. C. mediolineatus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 113 9 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 431 5 . 

A unique 5 in the British ]\luseum from Thayetmyo (Upper 
Burma) ['l]'atso}i]. 

26. C. microannulatus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. CuHc, i, ^^^ & 2 ; pi. xviii, 69 9 , full ins. col. ; 
fig. 118b, head ; d fore ungues c* . 

Described from a good series from South India taken by James. 
A vicious biter, breeding in brackish water near Manila and Cavite, 
and allied closelv to vishnui Theob., sitiens Wied., and impellens 
Wlk. 

Localities : Quilon, 7-iii-i9oo [James] ; Madras [CornwaU] ; N,-W. 
Prov., "common" [Giles]; Shahjahanpur (December) [G?7gs] ; 
Mukerian (Hoshiarpur) [Dr. Datta] , Peradeniya (Ce3d.) [Green] ; 
Manila [Banks]; Cavite (Phil. Is.), close to Manila [Stiff]; 
Pangasinan (Phil. Is.) [Chaniberlain] ; also from Calcutta and 
the Federated Malav States. 



27. C, mimeticus Xoe, 1899. 
Bull. Ent. So. Ital., xxxi, 240. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 389 ; pi. xv, 16, wing 9 ; 17- 

palpi and proboscis -y- ; 18 tarsal claws cf . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 329 9 ; pi. xvi, 63 9 ; full ins. col. 

? hyrcanus PaUas, Reisen Russ. Reich (1871), near Caspian 

Sea. 

The larva has been observed in Cyprus. Giles says it " appears 
common in the hills of India, especiall}' in the Nilgiri Hills, and also 
appears in the plains in the cooler season." 



350 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicida:^. [VOL. I. 

Localities : Punjab in March, 6,000 ft. \Lindcsay\ ; Canara District 
[Aitken] ; Theog (Simla Hills, 8.000 ft., 2-V-IQ07) [Annandale] ; 
Kuala Lumpur [Dtirhaiu] ; Perak [Wright]. 

28. C. nigripes Zett., 1838-1840. 

Ins., Lapponica, 807. 

Culex nigripes Ficalbi (1896), Bull. vSo. Ent. Ital., 292. 
Id. id. Theob. Men. Culic, ii, 93 cr* $ ; fig. 194, 
wing, ungues ; ii, fig. 260 (p. 219) map of 
distribution. 

An arctic species spreading out around the North Pole to about 
35° latitude, occurring in Lapland, Greenland, Alaska, Hudson's 
Ba}^ and many parts of North America, possibly also, California ; 
its bite being said to be almost poisonous. 

Note i. — Culex impiger Wlk., List Dipt. Br. Mus. i, 6, is regarded 
by Theobald (Gen. Ins., p. 27) as synon^-mous with nigripes Zett., 
but Giles considers that it is but pipiens ly. For wing scales see 
Theob. Monog. ; pi. D {impiger Wlk.). 

Note 2. — Culex implacabilis Wlk., List Dipt. Br. Mus., i, 7, is 
given as a synon^^m of nigripes in the Gen. Ins. (p. 27). 

Dr. Neve took nigripes Zett. (2i-viii-i899) on the Deosai 
Plateau between Kashmir and Shardo at an altitude of over 13,000 
feet. 

Note 3. — Culex incidens Thoms. (Eugenie Reise 443) was 
queried by Theobald in the ist volume of his monograph as nigripes 
Zett., but in the 3rd volume (p. 193) he definitely decides that 
they are both distinct. This latter is not oriental. 

29. C. pallidithorax Theob., 1905 

Jour. econ. biol., i, 32. 
India. 

(?) 30. C. pipiens Linn., 1758. 

Sys. Nat. Ed., x, 602. 

Sch. F. Austr., ii, 628. 
(For synonyms vide Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26.) 

I do not add all the European references and s^-nonj'ms to this 
common and tj^pical species of the famih', as it appears to me not to 
occur in the Orient at all. 

Patton records it breeding in springs, wells and rainwater pools 
round D'thala and Jehag (Arabia), at an altitude of 7,000 feet, but 
the only claim it has to being an oriental species is the Padre Casto 
Elera's " Cat. de toda la faunna Filip." (1895), ii, 490, which in- 
cludes it as part of the Philippine fauna ; as, however, no one else 
has verified the species as from this region, I include it in my cata- 
logue with a quer}'. 

Note. — Prof. Kertesz's Catalogue has Culex doniesticus Germar 
(1817, Reise nacli Dalmatien, 290) as a good species from South 



igoy.] Records of the Indian Mnseiiiii. 351 

Europe and the Orient, but Theobald (Gen. Ins., p. 28) sinks it as a 
synon3^m of pipiens Iv. It seems strange that a species quite 
common over the greater part of Europe and North America besides 
other regions, should be absent entirely from all parts of the Oriental 
Region. Possibly Theobald's quasipipiens may be an oriental 
form of this species. 

31. C. pulchrivcnter Giles, 1901 (emendation mihi). 

Jour. Bomb. So., xiii, 608 (pulcriventer). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 48 cf 9 , pi. xxiii, 92 9 , full ins. 
col. ; fig. 170 cf 2 , abdominal seg- 
ments, wing scales and ungues ; fig. 

172, wing c^; fig. 171, wing 9 ; fig. 

173, larva. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 449 c 9 ; pi. xvii, i, claws, 
a, venation, b, head 0^,0, abdomen 
9 , d, abdomen rf , e, larva. 

The larva has been observed by Giles in June at Naini Tal, 
where it breeds in clean water pools in the course of hill torrents. A 
sylvan species. 

32. C. pullus Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 8y 9 , fig. 6, head. 

Type in Hungarian Museum (a unique). Taken by Biro at 
]\Iuina in Papua. 

33. C. quasipipiens Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii 136 9 , fig. 223, head, wing veins. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 438. 

" Ver^' near pipiens L., but dift'ers in the venation, and in the 
form of the head scales, which are smaller in that species ; and in 
the larger thoracic scales " (Theob.). 

Locality : Sambalpur (Cent. Prov., India) [Mtirphy]. 

34. C. quasiunivittatus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 32 9 , fig. 164, head. 

Near univittatus. Described from a unique female from Mash- 
onaland, taken in February, but Banks now records it from Pam- 
panga in the Philippines [Whitmorei]. 

35. C. rcesii Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 145 a' 9 ; fig. 232 palpus & , thorax 
9 , ungues cf . 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 449 cr' 9 . 

Described from 2 rf rf and 2 9 9 in Dr. Rees's collection taken 
by him in October at Hongkong. " Very near pipiens." 



352 E. Brl'NETTI : Cafalogitc of Oriental Culicidae. [Vol. I, 

36. C. rizali Banks, 1906. 
Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 999 9 . 

Very near japonicus Theob. Described from two 2 9 . Type 
in Entomological Collection (No. 6083), Bureau of Science, Manila. 

Taken on Negros Island (Philippines) by Banks in June, on 
the Siya Siya Mt. of the Canlaon Volcano. 

37. C. rubrithorax Macq., 1850. 

Dip. Exot. Supp., iv, 9 9 . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 416 9 , fig. 150, thorax, head 

apex, abdomen. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 412 9 : 

Id. Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 
Skuse, Pr. Linn. So. N. S. Wales (1896), p. 1735. 

Type in Paris Museum. At one time it was considered a spotted 
variety of concolor R. Desv., but in the " Gen. Ins." Theobald ranks 
it as distinct. It has been more than once incorrectly referred 
to as ruhithorax. Really an Australian species, but Whitmore has 
taken it at Pampanga (Philippines). 

38, C. sericeus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 147 9 ; fig. 233, palpus, wing scales, 
cross veins, scutellum, thorax scale. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 452 9 . 

Described from a unique 2 in Dr. Rees's collection taken by him 
at Hongkong during October. 

39. C. sitiens Wied., 1828. 

Auss. Zweifl., i, 542 2 . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 360, fig. 121, wing, proboscis. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 400 2 . 

Theobald cannot trace the type, which, when Wiedemann 
described it, was in Dr. Trentepohl's collection. Several species 
are closely allied to this, microannulatus , for one. Giles record'- it 
as from Taiping, but gives no exact data. 

40. C» tigripes de Grandpre and de Charmay 1900. 

Planters' Gazette Press. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 407 cf 9 ; pi. xvi, 4, wingcf 2 ; 
head cf , thorax var. 
Id. Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. . 
Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, fig. 120, 121, 122, larva ^ pupa 
diagrams. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museir, 



353 



Culex maculicrura Theob., 1901, Mon. Culic, ii, 34 d» 9 ; 
pi. xxii, 85 9 , full ins. col. 

First described from Mauritius. Theobald, in a footnote on 
same page, confirms maculicrura as synonymous. 

I^QCAUTIES : Bindings in December (Straits), Pampanga (Phil. 
Is.) [Whitmore] ; also Mauritius, West Africa, Natal, Queens- 
land. 

41. C. tipuliformis Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 327 9 ; fig. 306, wing, leg, abdomen. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Kd., 443 d" . '■ 

'' A very distinct species, its long legs giving it the appearance 
of a Tipulid " (Theob.) Described from a single female taken "by 
Lindesay in March at Bakloh (N.-W. Prov., India), 5,000 ft. 

42. C. trimaculatus Theob,, 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 86 9 ; fig. 5, thoracic marks. 
A unique. Type in Hungarian Museum. Bombay [Biro]. 

43, C. uncus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 53. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Kd., 452 9 . 

In plantains in Klang Jungle (Straits). 

44. C. univittatus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 29 c^ 9 , fig. 161, head, abdomen, 
leg ; pi. xxii^ 86 9 , fuh ins. col. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 428 cf 9 {univitatus, lapsus). 
A vicious biter. Really an African species, but Hanitsch 
has taken it at Singapore. It occurs there in July and September 

45. C. vagans Wied., 1828. 

Auss. Zweifl., i, 545 9 . 

Theob. Mon. Culic, i, 411 9 , fig. 146, wing, scutellum. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 414 9 ; pi. xvi, 14, venation 9 . 
Id. Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 

The species does not appear in the " Gen. Ins." Theobald's 
description of it is from a single 9 in Giles's coll. 

LocAUTiKS : Hongkong (October) • Shanghai [Lindesay] : Pam^ 
panga (Phil, Is.) [Whitmore]. 



354 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

46. C. viridiventer Giles, 1901. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xiii, 609. 

' Theob. Moil. Culic, ii, 1280=- 5 , fig. 219, ungues cP' 5 , ab- 

dominal segs., wing scales, & palpus 
and proboscis ; fig. 220, larva ; pi. xxix, 
116 $ , full ins. col. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Bd., 445 a' 2 ; pi. xvii, 12, claw & , 
venation, abdomen, larva. 

A S3dvan species, bred by Giles in June and July at Naini Tal 
(7,000 ft.) from larvae from pools which were open to great flood- 
ings by torrents, the recorder noting that it was difficult to under- 
stand how the larvae could maintain their position. 

Localities : Naini Tal, Katmandu (Nepal) \lnd. Mus. Coll.]. 

47. C, vishnui Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, i, 355 cf 2 , fig. 119, ungues, wing tips ; 
fig. 120, wing 2 , 120a three forms 
of abdomen & 2 ; ungues & •; pi. 
xvii, 66 2 , full ins. col. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 399 cr'; pi. xvi, 5a abdomen 
vars., 56 fore tarsal claws & . 

Very near microannulatus. In rice fields at Sambalpur. 
lyOCALiTiES : Sambalpur, 26-X-1900 (Cent. Prov., India) [Murphy] ; 
Madras, Nov., Dec. [Cornwall]] Quilon, 27-vii-i900 and Feb. 
[James] ; Ceylon, Nov. and 27-xii-i899 [Bartholomew]^ also 
Dacca. 

CULEX spp. 
Unrecognisable except from types. 

48. C« doleschalli Giles, 1900. 

Handbk., ist Ed., 338. 

nom. nov. for cingulatus Doles. 1856, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., 
X, 405 ; pi. vii, 2 ; from Java. {Culex id.) 

Cingulatus was preoccupied in Culex by Fabricius (1805 in 
Sys. Antl. 36) for a species from Brazil, the type being in Copenha- 
gen Museum. Giles adds that it is very common all the year round 
in houses at Ambarawa (Java). Kertesz retains both Doleschall's 
and Fabricius's species under cingulatus (as two distinct species) 
without comment (Cat. Dipt., 1902). 

49. C. filipes Wlk., 1861. 

Pr. I/inn. So. lyond., V, 229 2. 

? = molestus Wied. 

Type in British Museum, but too decayed to be recognisable. 
Described from Dorey (Papua). 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 55 

50. C. luridus Doles., i857- 

Nat. Tijcl. Ned. Ind., xiv, 384 ; pi. v, i. 
Giles, Handbk., 2ndBd., 469. 
? inflictus Theob., 1901, Mon. Culic, ii, 115. 

Theobald ranks his inflictus as a good species (from Grenada) in 
"Gen. Ins.," but retains the queried synonymy with luridus. 

" During dry season in houses " (Doleschall, referring to Java). 
Locality : Gombong, Mid-Java {t. Doleschall). 

51, C. molestus Wied., 1821. 

Dip. Exot., i, 39, and also Auss. Zweifl., i, 542. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 470. 

Type in Dr. Trentepohl's collection (defective), Sumatra. 

52. C. setulosus Doles., 1857. 

Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xiv, 384 ; pi. v, 4. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 470. 

" During the dry season, in houses " (Doleschall), Mid-Java. 

CULEX spp. 
Not accounted for by Theobald in the ** Genera Insectorum. *' 

53' C' arabiensis Patton, 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 633 a' $ ; pi. D, a' palpus, c^ 
clasper. : 

Found breeding in rainwater tank in May on the plain near 
Ulub Camp. Also found in the Crater, Aden. 

54. C. aureostriatus Doles., 1857. 

Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xvi, 385 $ ; pi. vi, i. 
Theob., Mon. Culic, i, 387 2 . 

Included in Kertesz's " Cat. Dipt., i " ; but not in the 
'' Genera Insectorum." 

Doleschall describes it from Amboina, saying " in dwelling 
rooms." 

Theobald queries it as a possible synonym of his Culex ja- 
ponicus, but, pending a decision on its specific validity, I retain it 
as a separate species. 

55. C. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 

Entom., xxxiv, 192. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xiii, 606. , ■* 



35^ t. Bkunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. 1, 

Theob., Mon. Culic, i, 364 o' $ , fig. 124, wing & 9 . 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 401 cf 9 . 

Theobald said (Monog., i) that he had not seen a specimen him- 
self, but that he had seen a " rubbed example of visJinui " which 
had the appearance of trii ceniorhynchus ; repeating this opinion in 
Pr. Roy. So. Lond. (1902), p. 388 ; but he is silent on the species 
both in the 3rd volume of his Monograph and in the *' Genera 
Insectorum." 

LOCAUTY : Travancore (South India). 

56. C. ventralis Wlk., 1865. 

Pr. Linn. So. lyond., viii, 103 $ . 

The second species of this name in Culex by Walker. Both 
species are given as distinct in Prof. Kertesz's Catalogue of Diptera, 
and the descriptions read distinct, but Theobald does not mention 
this second species ; described from Papua. The other ventralis 
Wlk. (186 loc. cit. V, 144) is a synonym of Desvoidya obturbans Wlk. 

TRICHOPRONOMYIA Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 98. 

I. T« annulata Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 98 cf , fig. 10 apex of proboscis, scales. 
Type in Hungarian Museum (a unique). 
Locality : Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua) [Bifo], 

TRICHORHYNCHUS Theob., 1905. 
Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 241. 

I. T. fuscus Theob., 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So. xvi, 242 5 ; pi. A, fig. 2, head, 
palpus, clypeus, antenna, scutellum. 

Described from a single perfect (f taken in December at Pera- 
deniya (Ceylon). 

TAENIORHYNCHUS Arrib., 1891. 

Revista Mus. La Plata ii, 147, and Dipt. Argent, 47. 

T ceniorhynchus as modified by Theob., 1901 ; Mon. Culic, 
ii, 190 , also table of species. 
Id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 358. 

Id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Ease. 26, p. 30 



tgoy.] Records of the Indian Museum. 35^ 

The species in this genus are said to be mainly sylvan. 
Prof, Goeldi has studied the life-history of T. fasciolatus, a 
South American species. 

!♦ T. acer Wlk., 1848. 

List. Dipt. Br. Mus. , i, 8 9 {Culex). 

Localities : Friedrich Wilhelmshaf en , Mt. Hanseman (Astrolabe 
Bay)^and Yomba, all in Papua, and taken by Biro. Also occurs 
in Queensland and New Zealand. 

2. T. ager Giles, 1901, 

Bntom, xxxiv, 196 c^ {Culex bitceniorhynchus) , and 
Jour. Bomb. So., xiii, 607 {id. id.). 
Tceniorhynchus ager Giles in Theob., Mon. Culic, ii, 199 

cf ; fig. 248, abdomen, palpus, pro- 
boscis, wing scales. 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 365 cf $ . 

The larva occurs in rice fields, April and December being given 
as the periods when the imago appears. 

L0CAI.ITIES : Shahjahanpur, N.-W. Prov., Travancore, Ceylon, 
Madras [all Giles] ; Madras [Cornwall]. 

3. T. argenteus Ludlow, 1905. 
Can. Ent.j xxxvii, 98 9 . 
Pampanga (Luzon) [Whitmore], 

4, T, aurites Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 209 5 ; fig 253, proboscis, palpus, 
clypeus, scutellum, scales ; fig. 254, wing, 
wing scales ; pi. xxii, 88 9 , full ins. col. ' 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 362 9 . 
Described from a series of 9 9 in Dr. Annett's collection. 
LOCAWTIES : Dindings (December), Perak [Wright]. 

5» T. brevicellulus Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 212 cf $ ; fig. 255, wing (faulty), wing 
scales ; fig. 256 cf ungues, c^ palpus, a' 
antenna apex; pi. xxiii, 89 cf full. ins. 
col. ; vol. iii, 268 corrects error in position 
of a vein in fig. 255, vol. ii. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 363 9 . 

Described from i cf and 2 $ 9 from Burmese and Malay 
localities. 

Localities : Selangor, Perak, Thayetmyo (in August), Upper 
Burma. 



358 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VoL. t, 

6. T. conopas Frnfld., 1867. 
Ver. zool. hot. Wien., xvii, 451. 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 202 d , fig. 249, wing, wing scales, 
scutellum ; pi. xxiii, 90 $ , full ins. col. ; pi. E, wing 
scales. 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 360 a'. 

Described from a 9 taken on board ship in the China seas. 

Localities : Selangor 28-X-1899 [Butler^ ; Kuala Lumpur {Durham) ; 
Perak [Wray] ; Formosa 8-i-i900 and June [Ford] ; also 
Bindings in June and December. 

7. T. lineatopennis Ludlow, 1905. 
Can. Ent. xxxvii, 133. 

Described from 2 perfect $ 5 . 

LocAiviTiES : Bayembang in September (Pangasinan, Phil. Is.) 
[Chamberlain] ; Luzon. 

8, T. ochraceus Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 263 9 , fig. 140, scutellum. 
Very near aurites Theob. Described from 2 perfect 5 ? from 
Kuala Lumpur [Dr. Durham]. 

9. T. tcnax Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 198 2 ; pi. xvii, 65, full ins. col. 
Theob. loc. cit., iii, 259, fig. 236, wing. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 365 2 . 

Very near annulions Theob. The larva was found in springs 
and in the river by Patton in Arabia, from which land that author 
describes a variety as maculipes arahiensis. 
Localities : Perak [Wray, Wris^ht] ; Shaohyling (China) [Cornford]\ 

also from South and West Africa. 

10. T. whitmorei Giles, 1904. 
Jour. Trop, Med., vii, 367. 
Pampanga 'Phil. Is.) [Whitmore], 

MANSONIA Blanchard, 1901- 

Comp. rend. So. biol. Paris, xxiii, p. 1046. 

nom. nov. for PanopUtes Theob. preoc. Gould 1853 

in Aves, 

PanopUtes Theob., 1901, Mon, Culic, ii, 173. 
Mansonia Theob. 1903, Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 31 - 



iQOJ-l /Records of the Indian Mtiseiun. 359 

I. M. annulifera Theob,^ 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii^ 183 $ {Panoplites), fig. 224, wing; pi. 

XXX, 120 9 , full ins. col. 
Panoplites annulifera Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 356 9 ; pi. 

xiii, 8, hind leg. 
Mansonia id. Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 274. 

" Occurs all over India, the Malay Peninsula and East Indies." 
(Theob.) 

I^OCAUTiES : Behar (Bengal) [Lt.-Col. Macrae] ; Madras 12-xii- 
1899 [Goodrich] ; Quilon [James] ; Perak [Wright] ; Singapore 
[Durham] ; Ceylon [t. Banks] ; Bayembang (Pangasinan, Phil. 
Is.) [Chamberlain] ; Manila [Banks] and Araneta^; also Dacca. 

2, M. annulipes Wlk., 1857. 

Pr, Linn. So. lyond., i, 6 9 {Culex id.). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 185 9 ; pi. xxx, 119 9 , full ins. col. 

(Panoplites). 
Panoplites dives Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 356 9 . 
Culex dives Sch. Reise No vara, 31. 

Culex nero Doles. 1857, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind., xiv, 383; 
Pl- V, 3- 

Type in British Museum in fair condition. A common jungle 
species in the Straits ; abundant at Perak. 

Culex nero of Doleschall may not be synonymous, as that author 
says that his species is very troublesome in houses in Java, whereas 
annulipes is a sylvan species. 

LOCAUTIES : Selangor, 28-X-1899 and Sept. [Butler] ; Perak, " very 
abundant nocturnal species " [Wright] ; Dindings in Nov. and 
Dec [Wright] ; Kuala Lumpur [Durham] ; Batavia ^t. Schiner] ; 
Rio Baco (Mindoro, Phil. Is.) [McGregor]; Gombong (Mid- 
Java) [t. Doleschall]. 

3. M. septcmpunctata, Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 107 9 . 
Type in Hungarian Museum. 
LOCAUTY : Friedrich Wilhehnshafen in November (Papua) [Biro]. 

4, M. uniformis, Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 180 9 (Panoplites) ; pi. xxx, 118 9 , full 

ins. col. 
Theob. Mon. Culic, iii, 270, fig. 144, pupa. 
Panoplites africanus Theob., 1901 I.e., ii, 187. 
Mansonia africana id. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, pl. ii, 6 $ , 
full ins. col. 



360 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicid^e. [VOL. I, 

Panoplites australiensis Theob., in MS,, Giles, Handbk. 

2nd Ed., 355. 

var, reversus Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 189. 

Panoplites uniformis Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 353; pi. 
xiii, 3, venation cp 9 , leptoaxis of 
wing vein, & head. 

Near annulifera Theob. and titillans Wlk. The most abundant 
species of the genus in the Philippines. An abundant species in 
South India, and occurs in the Malay Peninsula. 

LOCAUTIES : Shahjahanpur (N.-W. Prov., India) early Oct. [Giles] ; 

. Quilon 7-iv-i900 [James] ; Taiping [Wray] ; Dilo, Friedrich 

Wilhelmshafen, and Ins. Graget (all Papua) [Biro] ; Bayem- 

bang, Pangasinan,^^ Phil. Is. [Chamberlain] ; Manila, Rizal, 

Ft. McKinley [Banks, SchuUze, Craig, Araneta]. 

MELANOCONION Theob., 1903. 
Mon. Culic, iii, 238 ; pi. xii, wing scales. 

Theob, Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 32. 

Described by Theobald as " small black gnats which bite 
viciously, and which occur in swamps and woods." 

I. M. ornatus, Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 100 9 . 

Type (unique) in Hungarian Museum ; taken in Dee§tnber by 
Biro at Friedrich Wilhelmshafen in Papua. 

2, M, pallidiceps Theob., 1905, 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, loi 9 . 

Type in Hungarian Museum. Taken q,t Friedrich Wilh§lpisha- 
fen (Dec.) by Biro. 

POPEA Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent., xxxvii, 95. 

Miss Ludlow says " near Finlaya "; Banks quotes it, " in- 
certa sedis." 

I. P. lutea Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent. xxxvii, 96 cf . 

A unique, perfect specimen taken amongst banana trees by 
Whitmore at Pampanga (Luzon, Phil. Is.). 

FINLAYA Theob., 1903. 
Mon. Culic, iii, 281 ; pi. xiii, wijig scglp, 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 32. 



^907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 361 

I. F. anophcloides Giles, 1903. 

Jour. Trop. Med. vi., 315 {Mansonia id.). 

I follow Theobald in this, not having seen the above paper, but 
I have seen somewhere a reference to an anopheloides Thomson. 

2. F. aranetana Banks, 1906. 

Phil. Jour. Sci., i, looi & 9 . 

Types {& $ ) No. 6066 in Entomological Coll., Bureau of Science, 
Manila. The species breeds in water in the axils of banana leaves, 
and the adujt does not bite. Taken at Bago (Negros Is.) in the 
Philippines during June at an altitude of 700 metres on the Siya 
Siya Peak of the Canlaon Volcano. 

3. F. flavipennis Giles, 1904. 

Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 366. 

Not given in the Genera Insectorum by Theobald. 
lyOCAi^iTY : Pampanga (Luzon) [TJ^/ji^mor^]. 

4. F. kochi Donitz, 1901. 

Insectenborse, v, 38 $ {Culex). 

Theobald's description of this species in Monog., ii, 217 is from 
a single damaged 9 , and he notes in vol. ii, that the erection of a new 
genus may be required for it, but in vol. iii he decides on Finlaya, 
and also retains it here in the " Gen. Ins." 

5- F. melanoptera Giles, 1904. 

Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 367. 

Not mentioned by Theobald in the " Genera Insectorum." 
L0CAI.ITY : Pampanga (Luzon) [Whitmore]. 

6. F. poicilia Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 283 9 , fig. 156, wing scales. 
poial a Giles Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 366 (lapsus). 

Described from a single, nearl}^ perfect example. 
" There is no species with which it can be confused." (Theob.) 
" The cf will shortly be described in the " Entomologist. " 
(Theob.) 

" Bred from larvae taken from banana trees." (Ludlow.) 

Localities : Penang, 24-X-1907 [Dr. Freear^ ; Friedrich Wilhelms- 
hafen, Seleo Berlinhafen, and Mt. Hansemann (Astrolabe Bay), 
all in Papua [SiVo] ; Pampanga (Luzon) [Whitmore] ; Negros Is. 
(Phil. Is.) [Banks]. 



362 E. Brunetti : Cafaloffiie of Orjcutal Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

ORTHOPODOMYIA Theob., 1904. 

Entom., xxxvii, 236. 
" Near Finlaya." 

J. O. albipes Leicester in Theob., 1904. 
Entom., xxxvii, 237 ^ 2 . 

Described from examples taken by Dr. Leicester during April 
in bamboo jungle, 5 miles from Kuala Lumpur. 

Type in British Museum. 

Note. — Neither this species nor the genus are included in the 
" Gen. Ins." 

REEDOMYIA Ludlow, 1905. ' ♦ 

Can. Ent., xxxvii, 94. 

Banks considers the genus of uncertain position in the family, 
including it, however, in the Culicince. 

1. R. niveoscutcllata Theob., 1905. 

Jour. econ. biol., i, 22 ; pi. iii, 5. 

India. 

2. R. pampangensis Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent. xxxvii, 94 9 . 

Described from 3 $ 5 " taken in the woods, and in the Military 
Quarters." 

Locality : Pampanga (Luzon), Sept. [Whitmore]. 

Sub. Fam. AEDEOMYINAE. 

Table of Genera Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 475. 
Id. id. Theob. Gen. Ins. Ease. 26, p. 34. 

LEPTOSOMATOMYIA Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 80. 

I. L. lateralis Theob., 1905. 

Ann, Mus. Hung., iii, no & ; fig. 13, head, scutellum, ungues. 
Type in Hungarian Museum. 

Locality : Muina (Papua), Dec. 31st [Biro]. 

FICALBIA Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 296. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 36. 

Allied to Skusea, Verrallina and UranotcBnia. 



igoyO Records of the Indian Museum. 363 

1. F. simplex Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 2970". 

Described from a perfect, unique specimen, taken by Mr. Green 
in September at Kurunegalla (Ceylon). 

2. F. minima Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 262 cf {UranotcBnia id.) ; fig. 281, 
wing, costal border, wing scales. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Bd., 488 o^ . 

" A very distinct species " (Theob.). Described from 2 cf cf . 
lyOCAiviTY : Quilon, 7-iii-i900 and Febr. (James). 

ANISOCHELEOMYIA Theob., 1905. 

Entom., xxxviii, 52. 

Theobald says, " near Uranotcsnia " ; Banks says, " incerta 
sedis." 

1. A. alboannulata Theob., 1905. 

Kntom., xxxviii, 55. 
India. 

2. A. (?) albitarsis Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent., xxxvii, 131 2 . 

Described from a perfect unique. In all probability it belongs 
to this genus. 

IvOCALiTY : Pampanga (Phil. Is.) [Whitmore]. 

URANOTAENIA Arrib., 1899. 
Dipt. Argent. 63 (in Revista Mus. La Plata). 

Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 241, p. 241, head fig. ; p. 242 map 
of distribution ; p. 243 table of spp.; 
pi. D, wing scales. 

Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 36. 

I. U. atra Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 114 9 . 
Type in Hungarian Museum. Described from a unique. 
LOCAUTY : Muina. (Papua) [Biro]. 

2. U. caeruleocephala Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 256 ; fig. 276, thorax, scutellum, head, 
scales, 
var. lateralis Ludlow 1905, Can. Ent. xxxvii, 385 2 . 



364 E. Brunetti : Cataloorue of Oriental Culicidse. [VOL. i, 

Described from 8 2 9 in Dr. Annett's coll. 
Of her variety Miss Ludlow remarks that if Theobald's type was 
a rubbed specimen it becomes her variety lateralis. 

LocAUTiES : Cottabatto (Mindanao) (Phil. Is.) \VcddeY\ Also 
Gambia, Sudan and old Calabar. 

3. U. falcipes Banks, 1906. 

Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 1004 cf 2 . 

Types No. 5210 in Entomological Coll., Bureau of Science, 
Manila. 

LOCAWTY : Rizal (Manila), February {Banks, Schultze]. 

4. U. malayi Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 258. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 494 9 . 
A unique. 

LocAUTY : The jungle at Selangor, 28-X-1899 (Straits). 

5. U. nitidoventer Giles, 1904. 
Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 
Not given in the " Gen. Ins." by Theobald, 
LoCAUTY : Pampanga (Luzon) [Whitmore]. 

6. U. testacea Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung.; iii, 113 9 ; fig. 14, basal seg. 
antennae ; pi. ii, wing ; pi. iii, wing scales. 

Described from two 9 9 . Types in the Hungarian Museum. 
Taken by Biro at Singapore. 

MIMOMYIA Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 304. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Ease. 26, p. 36. 

Allied to UranotcBnia. The larva of a Uganda species {splendens 
Theob.) has been observed by Dr. Low, and noticed to retain 
a position when in the water somewhat between that of Anopheles 
and Culex [Theob.). 



I. M. chamberlaini Ludlow, 1904. 

Can. Ent., xxxvi, 297 cf . 

Described from a unique cf . 

Locality : Bayambang in Pangasinan (Phil. Is.), May [CJianiber- 
lain]. 



igoy.] Records of the I ndiaii Museiiin. 365 

PHONIOMYIA Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, i i, 311; pi. xiv, xv {Macrorhynchus 
longirostris Theob.), wing scales o^ ? . 

Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 38. 

I. P. bimaculipes Theob., 1905. 
Ann. Mus, Hung., iii, 114 $ . 

Described from 3 2 9 in the Hungarian Museum (types). 

IvOCALiTiES : Moroka, July to Sept. (Papua), 1,300 metres alt. 
[Loria] ; Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua) [Biro]. 

2. P. indica Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 115 cf $ ; pi. ii, wing $ , pi. iii, 
wing scales 2 . 

Types in Hungarian Museum. Theobald says " described 
from a perfect cf , but though in his description of the species he 
does not mention the 2 (unless the abbreviated diagnosis of 6 lines 
is intended to apply to both sexes) he figures a 2 wing in pi. ii. 

RUNCHOMYIA Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 319. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 38. 

" Near Dendromyia." 

I. R. philippinensis Giles, 1904. 

Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 

Not accounted for in the " Gen. Ins." by Theobald. 
lyOCAWTY : Pampanga (Luzon) [Whitmore]. 

WYEOMYIA Theob., 1901. 

Mon, Culic, ii, 267 : vol. iii, 310 (restricted). 
Theob. Gen, Ins. Fasc, 26, p. 38. 

I. W. aranoides Theob., 1901, 

Mon. Culic, ii, 274 2 . 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 499 2 . 

Straits. A unique, damaged, but Mr. Theobald beheves it 
belongs to this genus. 



366 E. BruneTTI : Cafaloffiie of Oriental Culicida;. [VOL. I, 

2. "W. greenii Theob., 1905. 

Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 247 cf 9 ; pi. B, 5, antenna. 

Described from a perfect & and $ . The species is ignored in 
the " Gen. Ins." There is a Howardina greenii Theob. also from 
Peradeniya in February, but that appears to be a different species 

POLYLEPIDOMYIA Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 118. 
Near Dendromyia and Phoniomyia. 

I. P. argenteiventris Theob., 1905. 

Ann. Mus. Hung., iii, 118 2 , fig. 15, head, scutellum, 
bristles. 

Described from 5 $ 5 . Types in Hungarian Museum. 
Locality : Paumomu River (Papua) [Loria]. 

HEINZMANNIA Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. But., xxxvii, 130 {Heizmannia). 

Heinzmannia (Ludlow), Banks, Phil. Jour. Sci., i, 99 
emendation from Heizmannia Ludl. (lapsus). 

" Near Dendromyia Ludlow : incerta sedis." (Banks.) 

I. H. scintillans Ludlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent., xxxvii, 130 2 . 
Locality : Pampanga (Phil. Is.). 

AEDEOMYIA Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 218 ; fig. 259, scales ; f. 260, map of 
distribution. 
Theob. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 35. 

I. squamipenna Arrib., 1878. 

El. Nat. Argent., i, 151 {Aedes squamm,ipennis). 

Aedes squammipenna Arrib. 1891. Dip. Argent., 62. 

Aedeomyia squammipenna Theoh. Mon. Cnlic. ii,2i9 cf 2 , 

fig. 261, leg tuft, wing fringe, apex cf 

antenna, ungues cf 2 ; pi. xxxi, 124 2 , 

full ins. col. ; pi. E, wing scales, ol. 

iii, 307. 
Id. squammipennis Theob. Gen Ins. Fasc. 26 ; pi. 

ii, 9 2 full ins. col. 
Id. id. Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 479. 



1907-] Records of the Indian Museum. 367 

A slightly variable species, whose bite is not severe. Common 
at Manila. 

lyOCALiTiES : Madras [CoYnwaW] ; Perak [Wray] ; Seleo Berlinhafen 
and Friedrich Wilhelmshafen (Papua) [Biro] ; Manila [Banks, 
Schultze, Woolley] ; Ceylon. Also South America, West 
Indies and the Sudan. 

AEDES Meig., 1818. 

Sj^s. Besch., i, 13. 
Sch. F. Austr., ii, 630. 
Ficalbi Bull So. Ent. It. (1896), p. 299. 

I. butleri Theob., 1901. 

Mon. Culic, ii, 230 9 . 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 481 2 . 

Theobald is uncertain if the species truly belongs to this genus. 
Described from Selangor, " Jungle ; common and troublesome." 

HODGESIA Theob., 1904. 
Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 17. 

I. H. sanguinea Theob., 1904. 

Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 17. 
Giles, Jour. Trop. Med., vii, 368. 

Mr. Theobald considers the position of this genus uncertain, but 
he includes it in the Aedeomyince. Described first from Uganda, and 
said to be an annoying bloodsucker. 
Localities : Angeles (Pampanga, Phil. Is.) [Whitmore] ; Luzon. 

Sub. Fam. CORETHRIN^, 

Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 500. 

CORETHRA Meig., 1803. 

Illig. Mag., ii, 260. 

Meig. Sys. Besch., i, 14. 

Macq. Hist. Nat. i, 47. 

Sch. F. Austr., ii, 623. 

Wulp, Dip. Neer., 331, 

Theob Mon. Culic, ii, 288, figs. 294, 295, various 

parts. 
Id. id. i, 34 et seq., larva and pupa 

desc. and fig. 
Id. Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 42. 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 501 : table of spp. 



368 E. Brunetti : Cata/oo-ue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 

The larvae live in almost any water, but prefer clear water 
(Theob.). The proboscis is not formed for biting, and they occur 
usually in the open country or in woods. 

I. C. asiatica Giles, 1901. 

Entom., xxxiv, ig6 $ . 
Theob. Mon. Culic, ii, 294 9 ; fig. 296, wing, thorax.- 
Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 506 $ . 

Described from a single 2 in Giles's coll. taken in a house. 
LocAijTY : Shajahanpur (N.-W. Prov., India) \Gile^\ 

SAYOMYIA Coq., 1903. 
Can. Ent., xxxv, 189. 
Syn. Corethra Loew, non Meig. 

1. S. manilensis Sch., 1868. 
Reise der Novara Dipt. 30 & {Corethra id). 

Corethra maniliensis Th. Mon. Culic, ii, 300 (Sch.'s desc. 

transl.). 
Coreth. maniliensis Giles, Handbk., 2nd Ed., 504 (Sch.'s 

descr. transl.). 
Sayoniyia manilliensis Th. Gen. Ins. Ease. 26, p. 43. 

Manila. 

2. S. cornfordi Theob., 1903. 

Mon. Culic, iii, 339 2 {Corethra id.). 

Described from several 5 5 . 
Locality : Shaohyling (China) in May and June \Cornford']. 

ETORLEPTIOMYIA Theob., 1905. 
Gen. Ins. Fasc. 26, p. 44. 
Banks places this in his Corethrince , adding " incerta sedis." 

I, E. luzonensis Eudlow, 1905. 

Can. Ent., xxxvii, loi {Oreillia id.). 
Etorleptiomyia id. Eudlow Can. Ent., xxxviii, 185. 

Bayembang (Pangasinan, Phil. Is.) [Chamberlain}. 



iQoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 369 

RACHIONOTOMYIA Theob., 1905. 
Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 248. 

I. R. ceylonensis Theob., 1905. 
Jour. Bomb. So., xvi, 248 9 ; pi. B, 6, scutellum. 

Described from a perfect unique. This genus possesses a pe- 
culiar scutellar process that differentiates it from all others, and 
Mr. Theobald seems to regard it as holding an isolated position. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon (Oct.). 



370 E. Brunetii : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. 



[Vol. I. 



INDEX. 



-<>— 



Page 



acer Wlk. {Culex) 

aconita Donitz 

AEDEOMYINAB 

Aedeomyia Theob. 

Aedes Meig. 

aestuans Wied. 

affiiiis Steph. {Culex) 

africana Theob. 

africanus Theob. (Panoplites) 

ager Giles {Culex bitaeniorhyiichus) 

aitkenii James 

albipes I,eic. in Theob. 

albirostris Theob. 

albitarsis Ludl. 

alboannulata Theob. 

albolineata Giles 

albolineata Theob. (nom. bis. lee.) 

albolineatus Giles 

albopictus Skuse 

alboscutellata Theob. 

albotaeniata I^eic. in Theob 

albotaeniatus Theob. 

Aldrichia Theob. 

alternans West. 

ambiguus Theob. 

amboinensis Doles. {Culex) 

amesii I/Udl. (S. nivea amesii) 
angulata Theob. 
A iiisocheleomvia Theob. 
annularis Wulp {Anoph.) 
annularis (Wulp) Theob. 
annulata Schrk. {Culex) 
aunulata Theob. 
annulatus Meig. {Culex) 
annulifera lyudl. 
annulifera Theob. {Panoplites) 
annuliferus L,udl. {annulifera) 
annuUpes Theob. {Panoplites) 
annulipes Wlk. {Culex) 
annulirostris Theob. 
aiinulitarsis Macq. {Culex) 
ajinulus Theob. 
Anopheles Meig. (seusu latu) 
Anopheles Meig (sensu strictu) 
ANOPHEIylN.^ 
anopheloides Giles {Mansonia) 
anxifer Coquerel (Bigot) 
arabiensis Patton 
arabiensis Patton 
araijetana Banks 
aranoides Theob. 
argenteiventris Theob. 
argenteiis Ludl. 
Arniigeres Theob. 
asiatica Giles 
asiatica Leicester 



Tacniorhynchus 


357 


Myzomyia . . 


30s 




362 




• 366 


, . 


• 367 


=-- Culex fatigans Wied . . 


344 


= Theobaldia annulata Schrk. 


339 


= Mansonia uniformis Theob. 


359 


Id. id. . . 


359 


Taeniorhynchus 


357 


x'^nopheles 


• 303 


Orthopodomyia 


. 362 


Myzomyia 


305 


Anisocheleomyia 


. 363 


Anisocheleomyia 


363 


Scutomyia . . 


. 336 


Scutomyia . . 


. 336 


Culex 


342 




334 


I<epidotomyia 


339 


Danielsia. 


. 338 


Myzorhynchus 


313 




322 


Mucidus 


326 


Grabhamia . . 


341 


Megarhinus vide also Toxorhyn. 




immisericors Wlk. 


323 


Stegomyia 


329 


Culex 


342 




363 


Myzorhynchus 


314 


= Myzorhynchus vanus Wlk. 


. 316 


Theobaldia . . 


339 


Trichopronomyia 


• 356 


= Theobaldia annulata Schrk. 


339 


(lapsus for annuliferus) Culex 


• 343 


Mansonia 


• 359 


Culex 


• 343 


Mansonia 


• 359 


Mansonia 


• 359 


Stegomyia 


329 


^ Stegomyia fasciata F. . . 


. 330 


Culex 


. 343 




322 




302 




302 


Finlaya 


. 361 


= Culex fatigans Wied. . . 


344 


Anopheles 


303 


Culex 


. 355 


Pinlaya 


; 361 


Wyeomyia . . 


. 36s 


Polylepidomyia 


366 


Taeniorhynchus ... 


357 


= Desvoidya Blanchard . . 


327 


Corethra 


. 368 


I/Ophocelomyia . , 


• y? 



1907.] 



Records of tlie Indian Museum. 



2>n 



atra Theob. 

aureostriatus Doles. 

aiireostriatus Doles. 

aurites Theob. 

aurostriata Banks 

australiensis Theob. (Panoplites) 

azriki Patton 



Uranotaenia. . 

= ? Culex japonicus Theob. 

Culex 

Taeiiiorhynchus 

Stegomyia 

Mansonia 

Myzomyia 



Page 
363 
348 

3.S5 
357 
329 
360 

305 



bancroftii vSkuse (Culex) 
barbirostris Wulp [Anopheles) 
bimaculipes Theob. 
Bironella Theob. 
biroi Theob. 

bitaeniorhynchus Giles (Culex) 
brevicellulus Theob. 
brevipalpis Giles 
brevipalpis Theob. (Culex) 
brevipalpus Theob. 
butleri Theob. 



= Stegomyia fasciata F. . . 

Myzorhynchus 

Phoniomyia 

Culex '.'. '.'. 

= Taeiiiorhynchus ager Giles 
Taeiiiorhynchus 
Stegomyia 

= Stegomyia brevipalpis Giles 
I,ophoceratomyia 
Aedes 



314 
36s. 

322 

343 

?,S7 
357 
329 
329 
342 
367 



caecus Theob. 
caeruleocephala Theob. 
calopus Meig. (Culex) 
cantans Meig 
Cellia Theob. 
ceylonensis Theob. 
chamberlaini Ludl. 
christophersi Theob. (Anoph.) 
cingulatus Dol. 
commovens Wlk. (Culex) 
concolor Rob. Desv. 
conopas Prnfld. 
Corethra Lw. 
Covethra Meig. 

corethrinae; 

cornfordi Theob. (Corethra id.) 
crassipes Wulp (Culex) 
Culex Linn. 

Culex Theob. (restricted) 
culicifacies Giles $ 
culicifacies Giles 5 
culiciformis Cogill 
culiciformis James and L,ist. 
culiciformis Theob. 
CULICINAE 
cuneatus Theob. 



Culex 
Uranotaenia . . 

Stegomyia fasciata F. . . 
Culex 

Rhachionotomyia 

Mimomyia 

= Myzomyia listoni lyist. 

preoc. changed to Culex doleschaUi Giles 

= Mucidus alternans Wied. 

Culex 

Taeniorhynchus 

= Sayomyia Coq. 



Sayomyia 
Stegomyia 



= Myzomyia turkhudi Liston 
Myzomyia 
Anoph. (s. latu) 
Stethomyia . . 
Skusea 

sub-sp. of Culex gelidus Theob. 



343 
363 
330 

343 

321 

369 

364- 

308 

354 
326 

343 

358 

368- 

367 

367 

368 

329 
342 
342 
311 
305 
323 
312 

335 
326 

346 



Daniel sia Theob. 

deceptor Donitz 

deniedmanni Ludl. 

desmotes Giles 

Desvoidea 

Desvoidya Blanchard 

diurna Theob. 

dives Giles (Panoplites) 

dives Sch. (Ctilex) 

doleschalli Giles 

dolosa Arrib. (Heteronvcha 

dthali Patton 



Anoph. (s. latu) 
Grabhamia . . 
Stegomyia 

= Desvoidya . . 

Skusea 

= Mansonia annulipes Wlk. 
Id. id. . . 

Culex (s. latu) 
= Culex fatigaiis Wied. . . 
Anopheles 



338 
323 
341 
335 
327 
327 
335- 
359 
359 
354 
344 
.103 



elegans Ficalbi (Culex) 

elegans James aid L'stoii (Anoph.) 

elegans James in Theob. 



= Stegomyia fasciata F. 
Myzomyia 
Myzomyia 



33'' 
306 
306' 



372 E. BrunetTI : Catalogue of Oriental Culicida?. [VOL. I, 



error Theob. 
Etorleptiomyia Theob. 
exagitans Wlk. {Culex) 
excitans Wlk. {Culex) 



Aldrichia 

= Stegoinyia fasciata F. 
= Stegomyia fasciata F. 



Page 
322 
368 

330 
330 



falcipes Banks 
fasciata F. {Culex) 
fatigans Wied. 
Ficalbia Theob. 
filipes Wlk. 
Finlava Theob. 
flavipennis Giles 
fiuviatilis Chris. {Anoph.) 
foochowensis Theob. 
formosaensis 
formosus Wlk. {Culex) 
fragilis Ludl. 
fragilis Theob. 
frater Rob. Desv. {Culex) 
fraudatrix Theob. 
freer ae Banks 
fuliginosus Giles {Anoph.) 
fumipennis Steph. 
funerea Theob. 
funesta Giles {Anoph.) 
fusca Theob. 
fuscanus Wied. 
fuscus Theob. 



Uranotaenia 

Stegomyia 

Culex 

Culex (s. latu) 

Finlaya 

- Myzoniyia listoni I,ist 
Culex 
Anoph. (s. latu) 

= Stegomyia fasciata F 
Culex 

Stethomyia . . 
. = Stegomyia fasciata F. 
LfOphoceratomyia 
Pyretophorus 
Nyssorhynchus 
= Culex cantans Meig. 
Skusea 
Myzomyia 
Desvoidya 
Culex 
Trichorhynchus 



364 
330 

344 
362 

354 
360 
361 
308 

345 
323 
330 
345 
312 
330 
342 
312 

?,^7 
343 
335 
306 

327 
345 
356 



gardneri L,udl. 

gelidus Theob. 

gelidus cuneatus Giles 

gigas Giles 

gilesii Theob. {Me^ar.) 

gnophodus Theob. 

Grabhamia Theob. 

gracilis Theob. 

Grasia Mich. 

Grassia Theob. 

grata Banks 

greenii Theob. 

greenii Theob. 

gubernatoris Giles {Stegomyia) 



Stegomyia 
Culex 

= Culex gelidus Theob. . . 
Anopheles 

= Toxorhynchites immisericors Wlk. 
Culex 

Bironella 

(In Fchinodermata) 
= Myzomyia Blanch. 
Worcesteria . . 
Howardina . . 
Wyeomyia . . 
Phagomyia . . 



331 
346 
347 
303 
325 
347 
341 
322 

305 
305 
326 
338 
366 
338 



halifaxii Theob. 
Heinzmannia I/Udl. 
Heizmannia I,udl. 
himalayana Giles 
hirsuteron Theob. 
hirsuteros Giles 
hirsutum Theob. 
hispidosus Skuse {Culex) 
Hodgesia Theob. 
Howardia Theob. 
Howardina Theob. 
Hulecoetomyia Theob. 
hyrcanus Pallas 

* 
idahoensis Theob. 
immaculatus Theob. 
immisericors Wlk. {Megarhina) 
impatabilis Wlk. {Culex) 
impellens Wlk. 
impriniens Wlk. 



Culex 

(lapsus for Hienzmannia) 

Howardina . . 

Culex 

= Culex hirsuteron Theob . 

Culex 

= Mucidus alternans Wied. 

= Pyretophorus Blainch.. .. 

= ? Culex mimeticus Noe. 

var. of Grab, spenceri Theob. 
Anopheles 
Toxorhynchites 
= Stegomyia fasciata F. . . 
Culex 
Culex 



347 
366 
366 
338 
347 
347 
347 
326 

367 
312 

338 
337 
349 

341 
304 
324 
330 
347 
348 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



373 



imprimiens Giles 
indefinita Ivudl. 
indica Tlieob. (Anoph.) 
indica Theob. 
indicus Giles {Anoph.) 
indiensis Theob. 
inexorabilis Wlk. (Culex) 
infula Theob. 
inflict us Theob. 
inornatus Wlk. (Megarhinus) 



(lapsus for C. imprimens Wlk.) 
sub-sp. of Myzouiyia rossii Giles 
= Myzomyia culicif acies Giles 
Phonioinyia . . 
= Myzomyia culicifacies Giles 



Page 

348 
310 
306 

36s 
306 



var. of Nyssorhynchus inaculipalpis Giles 319 
= Stegomyia fasciata F. . . . . 330 

Culex . . . . . . 348 

= ? Culex luridus Doles. Culex (s. latu) 355 
Toxorhyuchites . . . . 325 



jamesii Liston (Anoph.) 
jatnesii Theob. (Anoph.) 
japonicus Theob. 
jehafi Patton 

jeyporensis James (Anoph.) 
joloensis I,udl. 



karwari James in Theob. 
kochi Donitz (Anoph.) 
kochi Donitz (Culex) 
konoupi Brulle (Culc^x) 
kumasii Chalmers (Anoph.) 



laniger Wied. (Culex) 
laterahs I/udl. 
later ahs Theob. 
Laverania Theob. 
leicesteri Theob. 
Leicesteria Theob. 
Lepidotomyia Theob. 
leptomeres Theob. 
Leptosomatomyia Theob. 
leucomeres Giles 
leucophyrus Donitz (Anoph.) 
leucopus Donitz (Anoph.) 
lewaldii I/udl. 
lindesayii Giles 
lineatopennis I,udl. 
listoni Giles (Anoph.) 
listoni Liston (Anoph.) 
longipalpis Leices. in Theob. 
longipalpis Wulp 
longipes Theob. 
Lophocelomyia Theob. 
Lophoceratomyia Theob. 
luciensis Theob. 
ludlowi Theob. 
luridus Doles, 
lutea Ludl. 

luteoannulatus Theob. 
luteolateraUs Theob. 
luzonensis Ludl. 



macleayi Skuse 
Macrorhynchus Theob. 
maculata Theob. 
maculata Theob. 
maculatus Theob. (Anoph.) 
maculicrura Theob. (Culex) 
maculipalpis Giles (Anoph.) 
magna Theob. 
malayi Theob. 



= Nyssorhynchus fuliginosus 


317 


Nyssorhynchus 


• 318 


Culex 


• 348 


Myzomyia 


307 


Pyretophorus 


313 


Desvoidya 


327 


Nyssorhynchus 


. 318 


Cellia 


321 


Finlaya 


. 361 


=-■ Stegomyia fasciata P. . . 


330 


vide Myzomyia fuuesta Giles 


307 


Mucidus 


326 


var. Uranotaenia caeruleocephala Theob 363 


lyeptosomatomyia 


362 


= Nyssorhynchus Blanch. 


3^7 


Toxorhyuchites 


325 


. . - 


337 




339 


Myzomyia 


307 




362 


Stegomyia 


335 


Myzomyia . . 


307 


= Nyssorhynchus fuliginosus Giles . 


317 


Megarhinus . . . . . 


324 


Anopheles . . 


304 


Taeniorhynchus 


• 358 


= Myzomyia culicifacies Giles 


306 


Myzomyia 


308 


lyeicesteria . . 


337 


Culex 


• 348 


Culex 


349 




• 316 




• 341 


= Stegomyia fasciata P. . . 


330 


Myzomyia . . 


309 


Culex (s. latu) 


• 355 


Popea 


360 


sub-sp. of Culex fatigans Wied. 


345 


Culex 


349 


Etorleptiomyia 

4c i^ 


. 368 


= ? Culex fatigans Wied. 


344 


(lapsus in Plate for Phoniomyia) 


• .365 


Pecomyia 


340 


Pseudograbhamia 


340 


Nyssorhynchus 


. 318 


= Culex tigripes De Gr. et de Char. . 


353 


Nyssorhynchus 


319 


I,epidotomyia 


339 


Uranotaenia 


364 



374 E- Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. 



[Vol. 



mangyana Banks 
manilensis Sch. (Corethra) 
maniliensis Theob. {Id.) 
mauillensis Giles {Id.) 
inanilliensis Theob. 
Maiisoiiia Blanchard. 
Mansonia Theob. 
medioHiieatus Theob. 
mediopuiictata Theob. 
Megarhina 

Megarhinus Rob. Desv. 
Melanoconion Theob. 
raelanoptera Giles, 
metaboles Theob. {Aiioph.) 
raetallica Leices. in Theob. 
microannulatus Theob. 
microptera Giles {Culex, Stegomyia 
niicropterus Giles {CAilex) 
mimeticus Noe 
Mimomyia Theob. 
minima Theob. {Uranotaenia) 
minimus Theob. 
minimus Theob. 
minutus Theob. 
molestus Wied 
mosquito Arrib. {Culex) 
mosquito Rob. Desv. {Cv-lex) 
mucidus Karsch {Culex) 
Mucidus Theob. 
multiplex Theob. 
Myzomyia Blanchard 
Myzorkynchus Blanchard 



Myzomyia 
Sayomyia 

= (lapsus) Say. manilensis Sch. 
= (lapsus) Id. id. . . 

= (lapsus) Id. id. . . 



Culex 

Stegomyia 

= Megarhinus Rob. 



Desv. 



Finlaya 

= Nyssorhynchus stephensi Liston 
Toxorhynchites 
Culex 
and Wyeoinyia) Stegomyia 

= Stegomyia microptera Giles 
Culex 

Ficalbia 
Megarhinus . . 
Pyretophorus 
Myzorhynchus 
Culex (s. latu) 
= Stegomyia irasciata F . . 
var. of Stegomyia fasciata F. 
Mucidus 



Skusea 



Page 

309 
368 
368 
368 
368 
3^8 
358 
349 
33 T 
323 
323 
360 

361 

320 

325 
349 
332 
332 
349 
364 
363 
324 
313 
314 
3SS 
330 
330 
327 
326 
336 
305 
313 



nero Doles. {Culex) 
nigerrimus Giles {Anoph.) 
nigripes Zett. 
nitidoventer Giles 
nivea I,udl. {Stegomyia) 
nivea amesii I^udl. {Stegomyia) 
niveoscutellata Theob. 
nivipes Theob. 
notcscripta Skuse {Ciiiex) 
Nyssorhynchus Blanchard 



= Mansonia annulipes Wlk. 
Myzorhynchus 
Culex 

Uranotaenia . . 
Scutomyia 

= Stegomyia amesii L,udl. 
Reedomyia 
Nyssorhynchus 
Scutomvia . . 



359 
314 
350 
364 

329 
362 

319 
336 

317 



obturbans Wlk. {Culex) 
obturbans Theob. {Armigeres) 
ocellatus Theob. {Anoph.) 
ochracea Theob. 
ochraceus Theob. 
ornata Theob. 
ornatus Theob. 
Orthopodomyia Theob. 



Desvoidya 

= Desvoidya obturbans Wlk. 

' Cellia kochi Donitz 
Grabhamia . . 
Taeniorhynchus 
var. of vSkusea funerea . . 
Melanoconion 



328 
328 
321 
341 
3?8 
335 
360 
362 



pallida I,udl. 
pallida Theob. 
pallidiceps Theob. 
pallidithorax Theob. 
pallipes Meig. 
pampangensis I^udl 
panalectoros Giles {Armigeres) 
Panoplites Theob. 
Pecomyia Theob. 
periskelata Giles 



Stethomyia . . . . . . 312 

var. of Nyssorhynchus fuliginosus Giles 317 

Melanoconion . . . . 360 

Culex . . . . . . 350 

= Culex fatigans Wied. . . . . 344 

Reedomyia . . . . . . 362 

Desvoidya . . . . . . 328 

= Mansonia Blanchard. .. .. 358 

. . 340 

Stegomyia . . . . . . 332 



1907.] 



Records of the Indian Museum 



375 



persistans Banks 
Phagomyia Theob. 
philippinensis Giles 
philippinensis Ludl. (Anoph.) 
philippinensis Ludl. 
Phoniomyia Theob. 
pipersalata Giles 
pipiens Linn, 
pitchfordi Giles 
plumiger Donitz (Anoph.) 
poialia Giles (F inlay a) 
poicilia Theob. 
Polylepidomyia Theob. 
Popea Ludl. 

pseudobarbirostri Lndl. 
Pseudograbhamia Theob. 
pseudonivea Theob. 
pseudotaeniata Giles (Stegomyia) 
pulcherrima Theob. 
pulchriventer Giles (pulcriventer) 
pulcriventer Giles 
pullus Theob. 
punctolateralis Theob. 
punctulata Donitz 
punctulatus (Don.) Theob. 
pungens Wied. 
Pyretophorus Blanchard 



sub-sp. of Stegomyia fasciata F. 

Runchomyia 

Nyssorhynchus 

Pyretophorus 

Stegomyia 

Culex 

Pyretophorus 

Myzorhynchus 

(lapsus tor poicilia Theob.) 

Finlaya 



Myzorhynchus 

Stegomyia . . 
Hulecoetomyia 
Cellia 
Culex 

(lapsus for pulchriventer) 
Culex 
Stegomyia 
Myzomyia 

= Myzomyia tessellata Theob. 
= ? Culex fatigans Wied. 



Page 

331 

338 

365 

319 

3^3 

365 

332 

350 

313 

31 S 

361 

361 

366 

360 

315 

340 

332 

337 

321 

351 
3.^1 
351 
333 
309 

311 
344 
312 



quasipipiens Theob. 
quasiunivittatus Theob. 
queenslandensis Theob. 



Culex 
Culex 
= Stegomyia fasciata P. . 



351 
351 
330 



Rachionotomyia Theob. 
Reedomyia Ludl. 
feesii Theob. 
regius Thwaites (Culex) 
re versus Theob. 
rizali Banks 
Rossia Theob. 
rossii Giles (Anoph.) 
rossii Giles (Culex) 
rossii indefinita Ludl. 
rubrithorax Macq. 
rubithorax Macq. 
Runchomyia Theob. 



Culex 

= Toxorhynchites immisericors Wlk. 
var. of Mansonia uniformis Theob. . 
Culex 

= Myzorhynchus Blanch. 
Myzomyia 

= Stegomyia fasciata F. 
sub-sp. of Myzomyia rossii Giles 
Culex 

(auct. lapsus for rubrithorax Macq.) 



369 
362 

351 
325 
360 
352 
313 
309 
330 
310 
352 
352 
365 



samarensis Ludl. 
sanguinea Theob. 
Saviimvia Coquillet 
scatophagoides Theob. 
scintihans lyudi. 
scutellaris Wlk. (Culex) 
S-^utomyia Theob. 
septempunctata Theob. 
sericeus Theob. 
setulosus Doles, 
sexlineata Theob. 
simplex Theob. 
sinensis Theob. 
sinensis Wied. (Anoph.) 
sinensis annularis Theob. 
sitiens Wied. 
Skusp.a Theob, 



sub.-sp. of Stegomyia scutellaris Wlk. 
Hodg-oia 

Mucidus 

Heinzmannia 

Stegomyia 

Mansonia 

Culex 

Culex (s. latu) 

Stegomyia 

Ficalbia 

var. of Culex gelidus Theob. 

Myzorhynchus 

- Myzorhvnchu? vanus Wlk. 

Culex 



333 
367 
368 

327 
366 

333 
336 

359 
352 
355 
334 
363 
346 
315 
316 

352 
335 



376 E. Brunetti : Catalogue of Oriental Culicidae. [VOL. I, 



skusii Giles 

soUicitans Wlk. 

pathipalpis Rond. (Culex) 

spenceri Giles (Culex) 

speticeri Theob. {Culex and Grahha 

mia ) 
splendens Wied. {Culex) 
squamipeniia Arrib. {Aede'i squammi- 

pennis) 
squamipennis Arrib. 
squammipennis Giles (Aedeomyia) 
Stegomyia Theob. 
stephensi I/iston {Anoph.) 
Stethomyia Theob. 
stimulans Wlk. 
striocrura Giles 
subulifer Doles. {Culex) 
subumbrosa Theob. 
subpictus Grassi 
sugens Wied. {Culex) 



- Culex f atigans Wied. . . 
Grabhamia . . 
Theobaldia . . 
Grabhamia . . 

Grabhamia . . 
Megarhinus . . 

Aedeomyia 

-- Aedeomyia squamipenna 
(lapsus for Aedeo. squamipenna Arrib 

Nyssorhynchus 

= Culex cantans Meig. 

Stegomyia 

= Toxorhynchites immisericors Wlk. 

var. of Myzomyia funesta Giles 

Anoph. (s. latu) 

Scutomyia 



Page 

344 
341 
340 
341 

341 
324 

366 
366 
366 
328 

319 
312 

343 
335 
325 

307 
323 
337 



taeniatus Wied. {Culex) 
Tatniorhynchus Arrib. 
T aeniorhynchus (modified by 
tenax Theob. 
tessellata Theob. 
testacea Theob. 
theobaldi Giles {Anoph.) 
Theobaldia Nev. Lemaire 
thomsoni Theob. 
thorntoni I^udl. 
tibani Patton 

ti gripes, de Grandpre and de 
tipuUformis Theob. 
Toxorhynchites Theob. 
toxorhynchus Macq. (Culex) 
Trichopronomyia Theob. 
Trichorhynchus Theob. 
trilineata L,eices. in Theob. 
trilineatus Theob. 
trimaculatus Theob. 
tritaeniorhynchus Giles 
turkhudi Liston (Anoph.) 



= Stegomyia f asciata P. . 



Theobald) 

Taeniorhynchus 
Myzomyia 
Uranotaenia . . 
Nyssorhynchus 

Stegomyia 
Myzomyia 
Nyssorhynchus 
Charmay Culex 
Culex 



: Stegomyia f asciata P. 



Hulecoetomyia 

sub-sp. of Culex f atigans Wied. 

Culex 

Culex 

Myzomyia 



330 
356 
356 
358 
3" 
364 
320 

339 
335 
3" 
320 

352 
353 
324 
330 
356 
356 
338 
345 
353 
355 
311 



umbrosa Theob. 
umbrosus Theob. 
uncus Theob. 
uniiormis Theob. 
uniformis Theob. (Panophtes) 
univitatus Giles 
univittatus Theob. 
Uranotaenia Arrib. 



var. of Myzomyia funesta Giles . . 307 

Myzorhynchus .. .. 316 

Culex .. .. ••353 

Lophoceratomyia . • • 342 

Mansonia . . . . • ■ 359 

(lapsus for univittatus Th.') . , 353 

Culex . . . . -353 

..363 



vagans Wied. 
vagus Donitz (Anoph.) 
vanus Wlk. (Anoph.) 
variegatus Doles. (Culex) 
variegatus Schrk. (Culex) 
ventralis Theob. (Armigercs) 
ventralis Wlk. (Culex) 
ventralis Wlk. 
vincenti I^averan 
viridifrons Wlk. (Culex) 



Culex 

= Myzomyia rossii Giles . . 
M5'zorhynchus 
= Stegomyia scutellaris Wlk. 
= Theobaldia annulata Schrk. 
= Desvoidya obturbans Wlk. 
= Desvoidya obturbans Wlk. 
Culex (s. latu) 
Anoph. (s. latu) 
= vStegomyia f asciata P. . . 



353 
310 
316 

333 
339 
328 
328 
356 
322 
330 



igoy.] 



Recoi'ds of the Indian Museum. 



311 



viridiventer Giles 
vishnui Theob. 



Culex 
Culex 



Page 

354 
354 



w-alba Theob. 
wellcomei Theob. 
whitmorei Giles 
willmori James in Theob. 
Worcesteria Banks 
Wyeomyia Theob. 



Stegomjna 
Anopheles 
Taeniorhynchus 
Nyssorhynchus 



335 
304 
358 
321 
326 
365 



zonat'pes Wlk. 



= Stegomyia fasciata F. 



330 



NOTEvS ON THE ORIENTAL SYRPHID^. 

By E. Brunetti. 

PART I. 

[Owing to delay in the receipt of the MS. it has been found 
necessary to postpone the publication of this paper until the next 
number of these " Records " appears. As the plates have been 
already printed, however, the}' are issued now, with the Aiithor's 
bare references to the figures. — Ed.] 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XI, XII AND XIII. 

PLATE XI. 

Fig. I. — Paragus luteus, Bru., sp. nov., 9 . 

,, 2. — Eriozona nificauda, Bru., sp. nov., 9 . 

,, 3. — Baccha robusta, Bru., sp. nov., cf $ . Abdomen. 

4.— Id. Head. 

,, 5. — B. 7iigyicosta, Bru., sp. nov. Wing. 

,, 6 — B. tinctipennis, Bru., sp. nov. Wing. 

,, 7. — Rhingia laticinda, Bru., sp. nov. a' 9 . Abdomen. 
,, 8. — Id. var. cf 9 . Abdomen. 

,, 9. — Volucella nubeculosa, Macq. Abdomen. 

,, 10. — Id. Wing. 

,, II. — V. basalts, Bru., sp. nov., 9 . Abdomen. 

,, 12. — Id. Wing. 

,, 13. — V. ruficauda, Bru., sp. nov , cf 9 . 

,, 14. — Lycastris albipes, Wlk. c^ . 

,, 15.— Id. Wing. 

,, t6. — L. flavohirta, Bru., sp. nov., & . Abdomen. 

,, 17. — Id. Wing. 



PLATE XII. 






IG. I. — HeLphilus quadrivittatus, Wied, 


cf. 


Abdomen. 


„ 2.- Id. 


? . 


Id. 


„ 3.— Id. var. 


2 . 


Id. 


,, 4. — H. bengalensis, Wied. cf . 




Id. 


„ 5.- Id. 2. 




Id. 


,, 6. — Id, var. 9 . 




Id. 


,, 7. — H. insignis, Dol cf . 




Id. 


„ 8.- Id. 9. 




Id. 


„ g.- Id. 




Posterior le; 


,, 10. — H. sp. } 9 . Abdomen. 







38o 

Fig. II. — H. sp. near pilipes, Dol. cf . Abdomen, 
,) 12. — Id. Anterior, middle and pos- 

terior leg. 
13- — H. sp., $ . Abdomen. 

14. — Id. Anterior middle and posterior leg. 

15- — H. aenous, Bru., sp. nov., $ . 
16. — H. tuberculatus , Bru., sp. nov., cf 9 . Abdomen. 
I7-— Id. Middle leg. 

18.— Bigot's " H. pilipes, Dol., " cf . Abdomen in profile. 
19- — Id- Anterior leg. 

20.— Id. M ddle leg. 

21.— H. sp., 9 . Abdomen. 



PLATE XIII. 

Fig. I. — Azpeytiabifasci'j,Bru.. ,sp. nov., cf . Abdomen. 
. 2.— . Id. Wing. 

3.— Id. Head. 

4, — Id.- Thorax and scutel- 

lum. 

5.— Id. Posterior leg. 

6. — Sericomyia himalayensis , Bru., sp. nov., & . 

7. — Id. Antenna. 

8. — Id. Posterior leg. 

9. — Chrysotoxum sexfasciatum, Bru., sp. nov.^ 2 . 
10. — Microdon annandalei , Bru., sp. nov., cf . 
II. — M. ruficaudus, Bru., sp. nov., 9 . 
12. — Ceria obscura, Bru., sp. nov., 9 . 
13. — C. compacta, Bru., sp. nov., 9 . 



Rec. Ind. Mus, Vol. 1, 1907. . 



Plate XL. 




A C.Cho-svdiia-rv, del. 



ORIENTAL SYRPHID/E. 



Rec. Ind. Mus, Vol. L 1907. 







] 4^ 




1x4- 



5 X 4 



7. 6 




A C.Cho^vvdliary, del. 





ORIENTAL SYRPHID/E 



XXVI.— NOTES ON ORIENTAL DIPTERA. 

IV.— ON SOME INDIAN SPEClEvS OF LIMNOPHORA AND 
ANTHOMYIA, WITH A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW 
SPECIES OF THE FORMER GENUS. 

By E. Brunetti. 

While passing through Lucknow in April last Dr. Annandale 
found a small, well-marked, black-and-grey Anthomyid % very 
common and troublesome in houses, having apparently supplanted 
the common Musca domestica, although a species of Musca closel}^ 
allied to M. domestica, but I think distinct, also occurred. 

On reference to descriptions I identified the Anthomyid, with 
very little doubt, as the Anthomyia tonitrui of Wiedemann. It 
would, however, now be placed in the more modern genus Limno- 
phora. The species is evidently widely distributed in the East, 
I found it common at Mhow, Central India, in the middle of 
April, 1905 ; in this locality it used to rest, motionless, on the 
flowerpots in an open-air conservatory, seldom on the plants 
themselves. At Mussoorie, towards the end of June, 1905, I also 
found it common in a churchyard garden lull of clover, in 
company with the ordinary European dung fly Scatophaga sterco- 
raria ly., a species of Chortophila, and a small Tachinid. 

I have no doubt that the A. lohalis of Thomson from China 
is the same species, my specimens answering even better to this 
description than to that of tonitrui ; and as Thomson himself says 
it is closely alUed to Wiedemann's species, the identity of the two 
is practically assured. 

I give a full description, which has been drawn up from a 
considerable number of freshly captured and well preserved speci- 
mens from various localities. 

Limnophora tonitrui Wied. (Plate xv ; fig. i, cf ; fig. 2, 9 .) 
Anthomyia tonitrui, Wied. Aus. Zweifl., ii, p. 429. 
? Anthomyia lohalis, Thorns. Eugenie Reise, p. 551. 

' Head shining silvery grey^ vertex and antennae black, frons in 
$ with a broad central black stripe, bearing a row of strong hairs 
on its borders, bending strongly inwards ; mouth with stiff bris- 
tles of different lengths; the posterior orbit of the eyes entirely 
encircled by similar bristles ; eyes subcontiguous in the & , just 
below the lengthened triangular vertex, separated only by the 
frontal white ocular orbit; proboscis short, thick, black; palpi 
not apparent. 



382 E. Brunetti : Notes on Oriental Diptera. [VOL. I, 

Thorax ash-grey, with, on the front border, two black spots 
joined together ; a wide jet-black transverse band across the meso- 
thorax, reaching the wing-insertions, where it is slightly produced 
posteriorly ; scutellum unicolorous, basal half black. The whole 
thorax and scutellum beset with isolated long stiff bristles, includ- 
ing two longer ones at the tip of the scutellum. Sides of thorax 
whitish grey, with some stiff bristles. 

Abdomen pale yellowish ; first segment semi-transparent, with 
an oblong black spot on the posterior border towards each side 
that is often indistinct or nearly absent ; second and third segments 
with a long linear spot on each side of the posterior border and a 
small oval spot in the centre of the foreborder ; fourth segment ash- 
grey, with two round black spots in the centre, these spots much 
wider in the 5 . Belly yellowish white, blackish at tip. Dorsum 
of abdomen with soft black hair, which is also present at the sides 
of the segments while at each side on the posterior border of each 
segment, placed at the extreme edge, are two long black bristles 
posteriorly deflexed. 

Legs black or dark brown ; anterior femora curved, with a 
row of stiff hairs on the upper side and another row on the out- 
side ; middle femora with a row of very short hairs below and 
a few on the upper side and one or two long bristles at the tip ; 
posterior femora very slightly curved, with a row of stiff hairs 
on the outer side above and on the inner side below ; tibiae prac- 
tically bare, with a few spiny bristles at the tip ; tarsi simple. 

Wings clear ; the third and fourth longitudinal veins distinctly 
converging at the tip (as in Hydrotcea) but at the extreme tip 
the fourth slightly deflexed ; the internal cross vein placed at two 
thirds of the distance from the base of the discal cell ; external 
cross vein nearly or quite straight, distant its own length from 
the internal cross vein and half its length from the wing border. 
Three or four short, stiff bristles at the extreme base of the costa ; 
alulae white, iridescent, the lower scale much the larger ; halteres 
pale yellowish. 

Described from 5 cf a' in the Indian Museum collection 
taken by Dr. Annandale in houses at Lucknow on April 21st, 
1907, and from a considerable number of specimens of both sexes 
taken by me at Mhow, Central India, between April nth and i6th, 
1905, and at Mussoorie between June 20th and 24th, 1905. A 
& from the Gonda district, Central India, taken between March 
3rd and 5th, 1907, is also in the Indian Museum. 

Limnophora himalayenis, sp. nov., mihi. (Plate xv, fig 3, 9 .) 

2 . This species is allied to the preceding one but quite dis- 
tinct ; it differs from L. tonit/ui in the following characters : — 

The abdominal marks consist of a pair of well separated 
spots in the centre of the posterior part of each of the first 
three segments, the first pair small and round, the second elongated, 
triangular in shape and placed lengthwise, with the bases of the 



igoy-] Records of the Indian Museum. 383 

spots approximate, the third similar but rather shorter ; fourth seg- 
ment with a row of four bristles. 

Minor characters concern the frontal black spot, of which the 
upper margin takes the form of a V ; also the scutellum, of which 
only the extreme base is black, whilst the black band in front 
of it is narrower. 

Described from 3 $ 9 in the collection of the Indian Museum, 
two taken b}' Dr. Annandale between the 28th and 30th of April, 
1907, at Theog (alt. 8,000 feet) in the Simla district, and one from 
Dharampur in the same district (alt, SjTQO feet), taken between 
May 6th and 8th. 

Types in Indian Museum collection. 

Note.— The other species of Limnophora recorded up to the 
present from the East are — 

L. bengalensis, ^. De^v. Essai sur les Myodaires, 518. Bengal. 

L. macei, R. Desv. Loc. cit., 519. Bengal. 

L. prominens, vStein. Tijd. voor Ent., xlvi, 106. Java, 

L. nigripennis, Stein. Loc. cit., 108. Java, 

Anthomyia phtvialis, L. (Plate xv, lig, 6, 2 .) 

A single male of this pretty species was taken by Dr, Annan- 
dale at Theog on May 2nd this year. It is very common through- 
out Europe and North America, and probably occurs right across 
the Palsearctic region to Japan and China, and may perhaps be 
found at many places in the Himalayas, I believe it has not 
been recorded from India before. 

Anthomyia biseiosa, Thoms. (Plate xv ; fig. 4, cf \ fig. 5^ 9 .) 
Ant'iomyia hisetosa, Thorns. Eugenie Reise, p. 555. 
Described first in the " Eugenie Reise " from China ( 9 ), this 
species has come under my notice several times lately. I took 
it myself at Mhow, nth to i6th April 1905, and at Hongkong 
5th March 1906, whilst the Indian Museum possesses specimens 
from Calcutta taken in May this year. The appearance of the 
thorax of this species is the same as that of the two species of 
Limnophora described above, while the abdomen is similar to that 
of A. pluvialis ; it is very distinct, and I do not think there can 
be much doubt about the identification of the species with that 
of Thomson. 

Head — 

In the male : eyes separated by only the narrowest possible 
silver-white dividing line, extending to the vertex ; lower part of 
face greyish white, more or less silvery seen from above, with, on 
each side of the lower part of the cheeks, a triangular black spot 
bearing one strong bristle and some smaller ones ; antennae black, 
arista bare ; a row of bristles along under part of head ; vertex 



384 E- Brunetti : Azotes on Oriental Diptera. [VOL. I, 

very small with some long bristles ; back of head grey, with a 
single row of small bristles round the eye border. In the female 
the front equals one third the width of the head, silvery grey, 
with a quadrate black spot, sometimes appearing as a thick V, 
just above the antennae ; on either side of this spot is a vertical 
row of four bristles. 

Thorax — 

Ash-grey, lower part rather more whitish, a deep black 
broad stripe runs transversely across the dorsum from the wing- 
insertions, and a narrower one immediately in front of the scutel- 
lum. The disposition of bristles is not quite consistent, but 
seems to be as follows : a lateral row of- three large ones on the 
humeral limit of the dorsum ; a transverse row of eight bristles 
immediately in front of the transverse black stripe, of which the 
two centre ones are smaller than the rest ; a row of six then 
follows, and in front of these again, a rather irregular row of quite 
small ones of va.rying number ; three or four occur on the black 
stripe, and between it and the scutellum are ten or twelve others. 
The unicolorous scutellum bears a few short ones and two long 
ones at the tip which cross one another ; a row of five bristles in 
front of each wing-insertion with three or four behind ; meta- 
notum whitish grey, bare. 

A hdomen — 

Whitish grey ; at the base of the second, third and fourth 
segments a narrow black band which is produced downwards in 
the form of three triangles, the centre ones being longest and 
narrowest, the outer ones not reaching the posterior border, nor 
the side margins. A row of bristles on posterior edge of each 
segment, the dorsum of which is covered with scattered hairs. 
Belly grey. 

Legs— 

Black ; femora with a row of bristly hairs on outer and 
under sides, longest on fore pair ; four posterior tibise with a few 
scattered bristles. Hind femora curved, a' ? . 

Wings — 

Pale grey, with the slightest yellowish tint towards base and 
foreborder ; alulae whitish, lower scale slightly the larger ; halteres 
pale yellow. 

Described from six males and four females in the Indian 
Museum collection, from Calcutta, May 1907, Mhow (India), nth 
to i6th April 1905, Hongkong, 5th March 1906, and from further 
specimens of both sexes from Mhow and Hongkong in my own 
collection, the specimens from these two localities having been 
taken by me. 



IQO/-] Records of the Indian Miiseiiiii. 



385 



Note.— These four species stand out as conspicuous ones, 
amongst the generally sombre coloured Anthomyids, yet, although 
in general appearance resembling one another, they can all be 
easily recognized. 

In Van der Wulp's Catalogue of South Asian Diptera, only 
nineteen species are given, and to these no new ones have since 
then been added. Of these, tonitrui, Wied., is a Limnophora, as 
herem shown ; albicornis, Wlk., is referred by Kertesz to Mydcea ■ 
peshawarensis, Big., is considered by Kunckel d'Herculais (to 
whom co-types have been sent from the Indian Museum) as 
synonymous with Chortophila cilicrura, Rond. ; whilst the re- 
mainder may be roughly separated into four groups : A (arista 
bare ; legs black), B (arista bare ; legs more or less pale), C (arista 
plumose; legs black), D (arista plumose; legs more or 'less pale). 
A few species in which the arista is minutely pubescent are, as is 
usual in these cases, classed with those which have the arista bare. 

Group A. metallica, Wied. ; exigua, Wied. 

Group B. hin.j, Wied. ; fiexa, Wied. ; manillensis, Frfld. 

(V. d. Wulp's quotation as to page is incorrect ; it 

should be 449). 
Group C. calens, Wied. ; concmm, Wlk. ; lenticeps, Thoms. 
Group D. quadrata, Wied. ; hibax, Wied. ; trinal Wied. " 

percB, Wlk. 

The two remaining species I cannot place, as their author 
gives no information regarding the pilosity or otherwise of the 
arista. They are illocata, Wlk., and procellaria, Wlk. 

Probably some of the above species belong ' to the more re- 
cently established genera, but this is not the place to deal with 
the question, nor have I the means at hand to form any opinion 
on the matter. 



Rec.Ind.Mus .Vol i 1907. 



'Plate XV. 




A.Chowdliary, del 



XXVII.— N O T E S ON FRESHWATER vS P O N G E S. 
By N. Annandai^e, B.A., D.Sc, Superintendent, Indian Museum 

VI. — The midday siesta of Spongilla in the Tropics. 

During last winter I was able to keep specimens of Spon- 
gilla c assissima and 5. prolif evens alive for some weeks in an 
aquarium. Accidentally, while attempting to demonstrate the 
currents set up in the water by their activit}', I discovered that 
for some hours in the middle of the day these currents ceased. 
During their cessation the oscular collars were considerabh^ con- 
tracted but not altogether closed, but I have been able to obtain 
no evidence that the cells that surround the inhalent pores have 
the power of contraction at all well developed. The cessation of 
the currents can, therefore, have been due onl}" to cessation of move- 
ment on the part of the flagellae of the collar cells. It is b3^ 
no means uncommon for coelenterates to remain in a state of 
quiescence during the heat of the day in the tropics and even 
in temperate climates, and it is not surprising that sponges should 
follow the same' course. The great majorit}" of the organisms found 
in ponds in Lower Bengal appear to be adversely affected by 
heat and, as it were, imperfectly acclimatized. Winter is the onl^?- 
time at which many of them flourish, although this is by far 
the driest season in Calcutta, and the majorit}^ are most active 
in the evening and early morning. 

VII. — Description o7 two new Freshwater Sponges from 
Eastern Bengal, with Remarks on allied Forms. 

The two new sponges here described were found at Rampur 
BhooHa (Rajshahi), Eastern Bengal, in February last. Both of 
them were abundant on reeds and twigs, together with Spongilla 
carteri, Bowerbank, in several ponds near the European quarter of 
the town. 

Spongilla reticulata, (?) sp. nov. 
Subgenus Euspongilla, Vejdovsky. 

Sponge soft, consisting of a thin layer incrusting the support, 
and of numerous transversely elongated, laterally compressed, 
delicate branches, which frequently anastomose so as to form 
a reticulated structure. Colour bright green. Surface smooth, 
minutel}" hispid ; oscula surrounded by conspicuous mem- 
branous collars, which are supported by a delicate ring of 
spongin ; pores minute. Primary radiating fibres of skeleton 
delicate, feebly coherent, never with more than a few spicules 
parallel to one another, secondary (transverse) fibres barely 
distinguishable as such, irregular ; the whole skeleton ex- 



^88 N. Annandalk : Xotiw on Freslnvafer Spoil (res. [VOL. I, 

tremely fragile, spongin being present in exceedingly small 
quantities. Skeleton spicules smooth, moderately stout, com- 
paratively large, ampioxous, gradually pointed ; flesh spicules 
numerous both in the dermal membrane and in the paren- 
chyma, slender, abruptly pointed or blunt, curved in a wide 
' arc or nearl}^ straight, covered irregularly with relatively large 
spines, which tend, especially towards the ends of the spicule, 
to be bent backwards and inwards ; gemmule spicules closely 
similar but stouter. Gemmules large, spherical, 3^ellow, 
abundant, both in the basal layer and in the branches, 
covered with a thick la3^er of granular substance, which is 
confined externally by a definite chitinous coat ; the gemmule 
spicules arranged horizontally in the latter and tangentially 
on the former ; the single aperture infundibular, not provided 
with a chitinous tube. 

This vSponge is closely related to the very variable species 
Spongilla alba, Carter, from which it may be distinguished by its 
external form, b}^ the presence of green bodies in the cells of its 
parenchyma, and by its soft consistency and fragile skeleton. 

Spongilla alba ' is, again, very closel}' allied to S. lacustris,^ of 
which S. reticulata may be no more than a specialized race. An 
examination of a considerable number of specimens from different 
parts of Bengal convinces me that the only constant differences 
between S. alba and S. lacustris are the following : — 

Spongilla alba. Spongilla lacustris. 

Branches frequently absent, Branches rarely absent, when 

when present, laterally com- present, cylindrical. Colour, in 

pressed. Colour even in a a bright light, leaf-green owing 

bright hght, white or grey, oc to the presence of chlorophyl 

casionally dark green owing to corpuscles in cells of the paren- 

the presence in the tissues of chyma. 
extracellular algse. 

The skeleton is also stouter in S. alba than in 5. lacustris, and 
this is perhaps the most important difference. 

Differences in external form and in colour are by no means 
satisfactory foundations for the creating of species in the Spong- 
illinse as a rule. The latter is liable to change from a variety of 
causes, e.g., leaden-grey examples of Ephydatia indica become 
white if kept alive in an aquarium, and it is well known that the 
chlorophyl corpuscles, which probably start life as independent 
organisms, become colourless if kept in the dark or even in a 
dull light. As regards the presence of such bodies in 5. lacustris, 
however, and their absence from 5. alba, it is not sufficient to 
suppose that the free-living organism does not occur in the 

1 Petr differentiates between the two forms (in Bohemian) in Abh. Bohmisch 
Ges., viii, p. 27, pi. i. Unfortunately I am unable to read what he says. His 
figures of the gemmules are clear, if somewhat diagrammatic, but do not, of 
course, illustrate their range of variation. (Lately I have found the typical 
5. lacustris in W. India. Dec, 1907.) 



igo-j.] Records of tlic Iiuiiaii Museum. 389 

water of Indian ponds, for the " corpuscles " are found not only 
in the closely allied S. reticulata but also in S. proliferens , a form 
that I have frequently taken in the same pond as 5. alba. Some 
peculiarity, structural or physiological, in the cells of the paren- 
chyma is argued by their absence from 5. alba. Both 5. lacus- 
tris and 5. alba vary greatly in external form ; but it is note- 
worth}' that not only is 5. alba far more frequently devoid of 
branches than 5. lacustris, but in the latter the branches appear 
never to show any tendency to be laterally compressed — ^the 
shape they always take in 5. alba, if they are present at all. 
Very often the}^ occur in this species merely as ridges or irregular 
projections on the surface, but frequently they are well developed. 
Gemmules of 5. lacustris generally have a chitinous cup surrounding 
the aperture ; such a cup is sometimes present in those of 5. alba 
but often completely absent. 

For these reasons I think it advisable to regard S. alba 
conventionally as a species distinct from S. lacustris, of which, 
however, it is a close ally. 

My S. lacustris var. bengalcnsis is a synonym of 5. alba, 
between the typical form of which and Bowerbank's S. cerebel- 
lata I can draw no line, although Carter recognized 5. cerebellata 
as a variety of his species. The arrangement, as well as the pro- 
portions, of the gemmule spicules differs even in different gem- 
mules of the same specimen, and I find that flesh spicules are 
often present in one part of a sponge and absent from another. 

Specimens of S. alba were obtained during winter in salt water 
in the Chilka Lake, Orissa, by Babu Oopal Chandra Chatterjee, 
who has presented them to the Museum. They form a thin 
layer, without a trace of branches, on and between the shells of 
mussels {Mytilus striatulus) , are devoid of flesh spicules and have 
larger and stouter skeleton spicules than any other form of the 
species with which I am acquainted. Their finder tells me that 
they were white in life. I name this form provisionally S. alba 
var. marina, but it is possible that it is only a temporary phase. 
In the Port Canning ponds 5. alba (bengalensis) was devoid of 
branches in the winter of 1905-1906, but was profusely branched 
in the succeeding cold weather, all the individuals of the first 
phase having died down in the intervening seasons. It is worth}^ 
of note that S. alba resembles S. lacustris not only in its struc- 
ture and its variability, but also in being able to live in salt 
water, a medium in which the latter species has frequently been 
found in the Northern Hemisphere. 

Spongilla crassior, sp. nov. . 
Subgenus Spongilla, Wierzejski. 

Sponge incrusting its support in a thin layer, very hard and firm, 
of a yellowish colour, the external surface smooth, without 
projecting spicules, the oscula situated on star-shaped areas, 
the pores minute. Both vertical and transverse fibres of the 



390 X. AXNANM)ALE : Notes on Frcsliivnter Sponges. [\'OL. I, 

skeleton extremeh' massive^ especially so (but irre,e;ularly 
arranged) towards the external surface ; a large amount of 
spongin present in the skeleton. vSkeleton spicules short, 
stout, smooth, straight or nearly straight, abruptly rounded 
at the ends, but often with a verj- slender and minute ter- 
minal projection ; no flesh spicules ; gemmule spicules slender, 
cyhndrical, amphistrongylous, nearly straight, uniformly 
covered with minute blunt spines ; arranged in distinct la5^ers, 
one of which lies horizontally on the external surface of the 
gemmule group, while the other is situated, with the spicules 
l5dng tangentially, immediately outside each gemmule. The 
gemmules small, spherical, grouped together in groups of 
various sizes ; the " cells " surrounding them large, poly- 
gonal in cross section ^ in many layers ; the main aperture 
of each gemmule provided with a long, trumpet-shaped, 
curved tubule, which opens outwards; subsidiary apertures 
sometimes present. The gemmules occupying the whole of 
sponge except a thin external layer, in wdiich the interstices of 
the skeleton are small. 

In external appearance this species closely resembles 5. fragilis, 
lycidy, a form widely distributed in Europe and America, recorded 
from Australia, and lately found by mj'self in the Aluseum tank in 
Calcutta, in which it was growing (together with 5. alba, S. 
carter i , Ephydatia ftuviatilis var. nieyeni, Trochospongilla phillottiana 
and T. latouchiana) on a brick wall. Spongilla crassior is, however, 
most nearly related to mj^ S. crassissima, but its skeleton spicules 
are stouter. The four Indian representatives of the subgenus are all 
very close to one another, and I have had much difficult}^ in 
separating them. As three of them are common in Calcutta and 
I have, therefore, been able to examine a considerable number 
of specimen'-, I think the following key will be found useful in dis- 
tinguish'ng them : — 

SuBGriiiNTus Spongilla (gemmui,es bound together in 

GROUPS, EACH OF WHICH IS ENCI^OSED IN A MASS 
OF POIvYGONAE " CEI.I.S "). 

A. Gsnini'.de spicules apparently not arranged in two layers — 

a. Skeleton spicules amphioxous ; fibres of skeleton 

delicate — Spongilla decipiens, Weber. 

B. Gemmule spicules clearly arranged in an outer and an inner 

layer — 

b. Framework of skeleton not very stout ; skeleton 

spicules amphioxous ; sponge incrusting — Spongilla 
jragilis , Leid}". 
b . Fibres of skeleton moderate, forming a close, hard 
reticulation ; sponge forming spherical or spindle- 
shaped masses — Spongilla crassissima, mihi. 



^^°7j ^^ronis of the Indian Museum. -^gi 

¥. Fibres of skeleton extremely massive, especially to- 
wards the external surface, skeleton spicules sausage- 
shaped, sponge incrusting— S/)o«g///« crasswr ^p 
nov. ' ^* 

Weber says in his original description of 5. decipiens that the 
gemmule tubules are short and straight, but I do not find this 
feature to be constant in Indian specimens. In the same gemmule 
group, nideed, short, straight tubules and long curved ones often 
occur, and although Potts states that in S. fragilis the tubules are 
of equal diameter throughout, I cannot regard this character as of 
specific value by itself, for in all the species of the subgenus as yet 
recorded from India the outline of the tubules is frequentlv 
irregular My examples of 5. fragilis differ from the figures of 
palaearctic specimens m having stouter skeleton spicules some of 
ious ""'^ l'""'"^^'^ ^° abruptly that they are almost amphistrongy- 

I now see reason to regard my S. crassissima var. bigemmulata 
• not as a true variety but as a temporary phase of the species I 
have only found it at the beginning of the cold season, that is to 
say, at a date at which the typical S. crassissima is still rare and 
the ver3' numerous amphioxi and comparative looseness of the 
skeleton m all my specimens point to immaturity. In several other 
species, notably in 5. carteri, I find that the skeleton is less com- 
pact at the beginning of the season than it afterwards becomes 
although I also find that in S. carteri the strengthening of the 
skeleton, due chiefly to the development of the transverse fibres 
does not go so far in some ponds as in others in the same neigh- 
bourhood. Indeed, I feel confident in stating, after examining 
a large number of examples of this species z;^ situ in different 
ponds m Calcutta at different times of the year, and on single 
occasions at Rajshahi and I^ucknow, that the strength of the 
skeleton is correlated, whether fortuitously or not I cannot as vet 
say, with the character of the vegetation of the pond : examples 
from ponds m which Phanerogamic plants are few, have, towards 
the end of the cold weather, comparatively stout skeletons, where- 
as those from ponds in which such plants grow luxuriantly are 
fragile even at this date ; specimens from both are fragile durini the 
hot weather and the rains-seasons during which few individuals 
of b. carteri ^r^ found ahve and gemmules are rarely formed 
Specimens of this species taken at these seasons are, moreover as 
a rule smooth and rounded on the surface, with the exhalent 
apertures few, large and very deep. They are of a pale flesh-colour 
rarely tinged with green in life, and have the peculiar property of 
turning spirit a dark brown and becoming brown themselves in 
alcohol, a property I have not seen in specimens taken at other 
times of the year. Although the majority of '' hot- weather " 
specimens are of this form, I have, however, taken others of a more 
typical one even at this season. 

Ephydatia indica also shows seasonal variation as regards its 



39^ N. Annandai.E : .Votes on Freshivater Sponges. [Vol. I, 1907.] 

skeleton spicules^ which in May are pointed and irregularly inflated, 
and in July and August are blunt at the extremities and much 
more nearly regular in outhne ; gemmules are found at both sea- 
sons but their spicules Ukewise differ in shape {Rec. Ind. Mus.^ i, 
part 3, p. 273). 

There can be no doubt, therefore, that considerable seasonal 
variation occurs in the freshwater sponges of the Ganges delta, 
and, indeed, this might have been expected from the plastic nature 
of these organisms and the wide range of temperature to which 
they are exposed in a district on the verge of the tropics. 



Carter, H. J. 
Potts, B. 

Weber, M. 

Weltner, W. 

Weltner, W. 
Annandale, N. 

Annandale, N. 



REFERENCES. 

Histor}^, etc., of known species of S/>ow- 
gilla/' Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), vii, 
p. 77 (1881). 

Contributions towards a Synopsis of the 
American Forms of Freshwater Spon- 
ges," etc., Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia , 
xxix,_p. 159 (1887). _ 

Spongillidse des Indischen Archipels," 
Zool. Ergehnisse einer Reise in Nieder- 
landisch ()sl Indien, vol. i, p. 30 (1890). 

Die Siisswasserschwamme," in Zacharias, 
Die Tier- und Pflanzenwelt des Siisswas- 
sers, vol. i, p. 187 (1891). 

Spongillidenstudien, III," Archiv f. Natur- 
gesch., Ixi, p. 114 (1895). 

Notes on the Freshwater Fauna of India, 
No. IX," Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
1907, p. ;5. 

The Fauna of Brackish Ponds at Port 
Canning, Lower Bengal, Part I," Rec. 
Ind. Mits., i, p. 37 (1907). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Fi . I. — Spongilla reticulata^ (?) sp. nov. (from a dried specimen) 

nat. size. 
Fig. la. — ,, ,, ,^ ,, gemmule spicules, highly 

magnified. 
Fig. 2. — ,, alha, Carter^ gemmule spicules (both from the 

same specimen) at the same magnification 
Fig. 3. — ,, crassior, sp. nov., portion of the skeleton near 

the external surface, magnified (^= external 

surface). 
Fig. 4. — ,, crassissima, Annandale, ditto. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. 1, 1907. 



Plate XIV. 








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A. CHOVvnHARY, i^e/. 



€ngravtei and pri 



XXVIII. — DESCRIPTION OF A NEW 

CYPRINID FISH OF THE GENUS 

-D AN I FROM UPPER BURMA. 

By C. Tate Regan, M.A. 

Danio browni, sp. nov. 

Depth of body 2| to 3i in the length; length of head 4. 
Snout from nearly as long as to a little longer than the diameter 
of eye, which is 3^ to 3I in the length of head ; interorbital 
width 2^ to 2| in the length of head. Four barbels, the anterior 
pair I to f the diameter of eye, the posterior pair much shorter ; 
maxillary extending to the vertical from anterior edge of eye ; 
suborbitals completel}^ covering the cheek. Thirty to 34 scales 
in a longitudinal series, 6 J to y^ in a transverse series from origin 
of dorsal to lateral line, i or 2 between lateral line and base of 
ventral fin. Dorsal of 2 or 3 simple and 9 or 10 branched rays ; 
origin equidistant from vertical limb of prseoperculum and base 
of caudal. Anal of 2 simple and 11 or 12 branched rays ; origin 
below the middle of the dorsal. Pectoral not quite reaching the 
ventrals. Three to five dark bluish longitudinal lateral stripes, 
the middle one of which broadens out anteriorly and usually be- 
comes double, forming a loop on the middle of the side above the 
ventral fins , whilst the stripe below curves upwards in front of 
the loop. 

Hab. Northern Shan States, Upper Burma. 

Nine specimens, the largest 70 mm. in total length, collected 
by J. Coggin Brown. 

This species is near to D. kakhiensis, Anderson, in which the 
body is more slender (depth 3 J to 3§ in the length), the mouth is 
more vertical and the first suborbital consequently much larger, 
and the middle lateral stripe does not broaden out or form a loop 
anteriorly. 



MISCElvIvANEA. 
REPTILES AND BATRACHIA. 

A COLOUR \^ARiETY OF Typhlofs braminus.—A peculiar Ty-b/v- 
lops was brought to me some months ago by one of the Museum 
servants, who had caught it in Calcutta. Thinking that it prob- 
ably, represented a new species, I sent it to Mr. G. A Boulen<^er 
for description. He tells me, however, that he beheves it to^be 
T braminus. The whole of the body is of a bright bluish grey 
which m life was almost blue, the head and the tip of the tail 
being white. A similar specimen was recently sent to the Museum 
from Sirsiah, Mozufferpore, Bihar, by Mrs. Bergtheil, but has un- 
fortunately been mislaid. 

N. Ann AND ALE. 

Reptiles and a Batrachian from an island in the Chilka 
Lake, Orissa.— In August, 1907, the Museum Collector Mr R A 
Hodgart spent a week on Gopkuda Island, which lies about a mile 
and a half from the shore in the ChiUca Lake, a large, shallow lagoon 
recent y (from a geological point of view) separated from the Bay of 
Bengal on the coast of Orissa. The lake is not completely shut 
ott from the sea, for a narrow channel still persists ; during the 
rains the water is rendered brackish by the large am^ount of fresh 
water brought into it by the small streams that terminate in the 
lake but during winter it becomes much Salter. The following 
reptiles and frog were obtained on Gopkuda Island by Mr R A 
Hodgart : — 

I. Emyda vittata, Peters. 

Three half-grown specimens from the shores of the island 
As I have already pointed out {Journ. Asiat. Soc. Benml 1006' 
p 203), this form is no more than a race of E. granosa, Schoepff ' 
the typical form of which apparently replaces it in the valleys of 
the Ganges and the Indus. Two of the three specimens have an 
irregular reticulation of narrow dark lines on their carapace-a 
common feature of the form-and all have longitudinal dark lines 
on the head and neck. 

2. Hemidactylus frenatus, D. and B. 

A single male with two longitudinal rows of pink spots on the 
ventral surface of the tail. The species occurs all over Bengal. 

3. Hemidactylus brookh, Gray. 

A single male with fourteen praeanal pores— not an unusual 
number — on either side. 



39^ Miscellanea. [Vol. I, 1907.] 

4. Calotes versicolor (Daud.). 
One young specimen, 

5. Varanus nebulosus (Gray). 
One small specimen. 

6. Typhlops acutus (D. and B.). 
One small specimen. 

7. Cerberus rhynchops (Schneid.). 

A specimen was caught off the island holding a small horse- 
mackerel {Caranx ire) by the belly in its jaws. 

8. Rhacophorus maculatus (Gray). 

A single specimen, taken on the wall of a house. 

N. Ann AND ALE. 



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