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RECORDS 

of the 

INDIAN MUSEUM 

(A JOURNAL OF INDIAN ZOOLOGY) 

Vol. XV, 1918. 



EDITED BY 

THE DIRECTOR. 
ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



CaUutta : 

PUBLISHED BY THE DIRECTOR. ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 



1919. 



CONTENTS. 



Part \ .^-Pvhlished 30th March, 1918. 

Page. 

I. Rhynchota from Barkiida Island ... ... 1 

II. Some undescribed Tadpoles from the hills of Southern 

India ... ... ... ... 17 

III. The Tadpoles of the families Ranidae and Bufonidae 

found in the plains of India ... ... 25 

IV. Notes on the Tadpoles of Indian Engystomatidae ... 41 

V. On two abnormal specimens of Ducks in the collection 

of the Zoological Survey of India ... ... 47 

Part U.— Published 30th April, 1918. 

VI. A new race of Hare from the Persian Frontier of Meso- 
potamia ... ... ... ... 49 

VII. Further observations on Rana tigrina ... ... 51 

VIII. The Lymph Glands in the genus Pheretima with a note 

on the coelomic organ of Beddard ... ... 69 

IX. Notes from the Bengal Fisheries Laboratory. No. 4. 

Cestode Parasites of Hilsa ... ... 77 

X. Notes on some Hares in the Indian Museum with des- 
criptions of two new forms ... ... 89 

Part III.— Published 30th August, 1918. 

XL The Middle Ear of Indian Frogs ... ... 97 

XII. A note on the skeletons of Balaenoptera edeni, Ander- 
son, in the Indian Museum, Calcutta ... 105 

XIII. On the Anatomy of certain Indian Unionidae ... 109 

XIV, The Description and Life-history of a new species of 

.4wojo/«eZe5 that breeds in holes in trees ... ... 123 

XV. Studies on Infusoria ... ... ... 129 

XVI. The evolution of the caudal fins of Fishes ... ... 135 

XVII. Studies on the Anatomy of Indian Mollusca, No. 2 ... 143 

XVIII. New species of Slug-like Molluscs belonging to the 
Family Zonitidae from the Dawna Hills, Tenas- 
serim ... ... ■•• ••• 149 

XIX. Contributions to the Anatomv of Aquatic Diptera, 

No. 1 ... ..'. ... - 153 

XX. Freshwater shells from Mesopotamia ... ... 159 



ii Contents. 

Part 1Y.— Published 10th October, 1918. 

Page. 
XXI. A nominal list of the Sciuridae of the Oriental Region 
with a list of specimens in the collection of the 
Zoological Survey of India ... ... ... 171 

Part V. — Published 9th November, 1918. 

XXII. Revision of the Oriental Tipulidae with descriptions of 

new species, Part II. ... ... ... 255 

XXIII. Notes from the Bengal Fisheries Laboratory. No. 5. 
Parasites of Indian Fishes, with a note on Carcinoma 
in the Climbing Perch ... ... ... 341 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate 1 (Tadpoles) 

Plate II ,, ... 

Plate III (Ducks)... 

Plates IV— V (Cestode Parasites) 

Plate VI (Oligochaeta) 

Plates VII— VIII (Tipulidae) 

Plate IX (Frogs) ... 

Plates X— XIV (Parasites of Fish) 

Plate XV (Cetacea) 

Plate XVI (Unionidae) 

Plate XVII {Anopheles) 

Plate XVIII (Mollusca) 

Plate XIX (Diptera) 

Plate XX (Shells) 



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24 




40 




48 




88 




76 




. 340 




. 104 




. 356 




. 108 




. 122 




. 128 




. 152 




. 158 




. 170 



ERRATUM. 



In explanation of plate XIX following p. 158 : Fig. 2 for " Lateral 
view of the larva of C. )nanilensis " 7-ead " Labrum of the same." 



LIST OF AUTHORS. 

Page. 
Andrews, R. C, A.M. 

A note on the .skeletons of Balacnopteru edeni, Anderson, in 

the Indian Museum, Calcutta ... ... ... 105 

Annandale, N., D.tSc. 

Some undescribed Tadpoles lioiu the hills of Soiitheni India 17 
The Tadpoles of the families Ranidae and Bufonidae found 
in the plains of India, {hi coUabumtiou wilh C. R .Narayan 
Rao) ... ... ... ... ' ... 25 

Further notes on Rana tigrina and allied forms ... 59 

Freshwater shells from Mesopotamia ... ... 159 

BOULENGER, G. A. 

Remarks on Rana tigrina and its varieties ... ...51 & 65 

Brunetti, E. 

Revision of the Oriental Tii>ulidae with descriptions of new 

species, Part II. ..." ... ... ... 255 

God WIN- Austen, H. H., F.R.S. 

New species of slug-hke Molluscs belonging to the family 

Zonitidae from the Dawna Hills, Tenasserim ... ... 149 

Ghosh, Ekendranath, M.Sc, 31. D. 

On the Anatomy of certain Indian Unionidac ... ... 109 

Studies on Infusoria ... ... ... ... 129 

Kloss, C. Boden, F.Z.S. 

Notes on some Hares in the Indiaji Museum with descrip- 
tions of two new forms ... ... ... 89 

A nominal list of the Sciuridae of the Oriental Region with a 
list of specimens in the collection of the Zoological Survey 
of India. {In collaboration with H. C. Robinsun) ... 171 

Narayan Rao, C. R., M.A., L.T. 

The Tadpoles of the families Ranidae and Bufonidae found 
in the plains of India. {In collaboration with N. Annan- 
dale) ... ... - - - 25 

Notes on the Tadpoles of Indian Engystomatidae ... 41 

Paiva, C. a. 

Rhynchota from Barkuda Island ... ... •-. 1 



VI List of Authors. 



Page- 



PRASHAD, BaINI, M.Sc. 

Notes from the Bengal Fisheries Laboi-atory. No. 4. Cestode 
Parasites of Hilsa, Hilsa ilisha (Ham. Buch.) {In colla- 
boration with T. SoutJnvell) ... ... ... 77 

The Middle Ear of Indian Frogs ... ... ... 97 

The description and life-history of a new species of Anopheles 

that breeds in holes in trees ... ... ... 123 

Studies in the Anatomy of Indian Mollusca. No. 2. The 
marsupium and glochidium of some Unionidae and on the 
Indian species hitherto assigned to the genus Nodularia 143 

Contributions to the Anatomy of Aquatic Diptera. No. 1. 

Larval and pupal stages of an Indian Chaoborus and Dixa 153 

Notes from the Bengal Fisheries Laboratory. No. 5. Para- 
sites of Indian Fishes with a note on Carcinoma in the 
Climbing Perch. [In collaboration with T. Southwell) ... 341 

Robinson, H. C, M.B.O.U., C.M.Z.S. 

On two abnormal specimens of Ducks in the collection of the 

Zoological Survey of India ... ... ... 47 

A new race of Hare from the Persian frontier of Mesopotamia 49 
A nominal list of the Sciuridae of the Oriental Region with a 
list of specimens in the collection of the Zoological Survey 
of India. {In collaboration with C. Boden Kloss) ... 171 

Southwell, T., A.R.C.Sc, F.Z.S. 

Notes from the Bengal Fisheries Laboratory : — 

No. 4. Cestode Parasites of Hilsa, Hilsa ilisha (Ham. 

Buch.). {In collaboration with Baini Prashad) ... 77 

No. 5. Parasites of Indian Fishes with a note on Carcinoma 
in the Climbing Perch. {In collaboration with Baini 
Prashad) ... ... ... ... 341 

Thapar, G. S., M.Sc. 

The Lymph Glands in the genus Pheretima with a note on the 

coelomic organ of Beddard ... ... ... 69 

Whitehouse, R. H., M.Sc. 

The evolution of the caudal fins of Fishes ... ... 135 



INDEX. 



N.B.~An asterisk (*) preceding a line denotes a new variety or subspecies: 
a dagger (t) indicates a new species ; a double dagger (J) a new genus or sub- 
genus ; synonyms are jirinted in italics. 



Page. 



Acanthaspis fulvipes ... 

quadrinotata 

quadrist Hiatus ... 
Acanthias ... 
A canthocoris obscura . . . 

scaber 
Acipenser ... 
Acocephalus porrectus ... 
Acyphona fenestrata ... 
Aeromys ... 

phaeomelas 

tephromelas 

thomasi 
Aethiis aequalis 

cyrtomenoides ... 

indicus 

subaeneus 

iHirians 
Amalopini 
Amalopis ... 

elegans 

glabripennis 

"fspectralis 
Amphibia ... 
Amia 

Anabas scandens 
Anas bimaculata 

boschas 
|Anchimongoma 

f simplex 
Anguilla 
Anisomerini 
A n isops ciliatus 

hyalinus 

natalensis 

nivea 

niveus 

pellucens 

proditctvs 

sardea 

scutellaris 
Anodonta ... 
Anopheles ... 

■fannandalci 

asiatica 

atratipes 

barbirostris 

culiciformis 

lindesayi 

nursei 

plumbeus 

wellingtonianus 
Anopheles (I'yretophor 
tipensis ... 





.. 2,9 




9 




9 




141 




4 




4 


136, 


139. 141 




16 




.. 310 




183 




183 




.. 183 




183 




3 




3 




3 




3 




3 




271, 320 




297, 321 




.. 321 




.. 321 




.. 321 




97 




136 




341, 354 




48 




.. 47, 48 




312, 316 




.. 316 




.. 141 




.. 332 




13 




13 




13 




13 




.. 2, 13 




13 




13 




1, 2, 13 




13 


119- 


-122, 145 


23, 126 


127, 1.58 




123, 126 




126 




126 




... 126 


12.'-,, 


126, 127 



us) pales- 



126 
126 
125 
126 

126 





Page. 


Anophelinae 


127 


Anophelini 


127 


Anoplophrya 


129 


aegitensis 


131 


alluri 


... 130 


brasilii 


... 130 


clavata 


130 


cochleariformis 


... 130 


convexa 


130 


filum 


... 130 


inermis 


130 


tlloydii 


129, 131 


maupasi 


129 


minima 


129 


naidos 


130 


nodulata 


130 


notei 


... 131 


ovata 


... 130 


pachydrili 


... 130 


paranoides 


130 


simplex 


131 


socialis 


... 131 


striata 


129, 131 


vermicularis 


130 


Antocha ... 


... 309 


indica 


... 309 


javanensis 


... 309 


unilineata 


... 309 


Aporosa 


... 288 


faurantia 


... 289 


Appasiis molestum 


13 


Aspidocotylea 


... .350 


Aspilocoryphus guttiger 


... 2,7 


Atarba 


308, 309. 311 


diffusa 


... 309 


flava 


... 308 


fuscicornis 


... 308 


javanica 


... .308 


lamellaris 


... 309 


nebulosa 


... 309 


pallidicornis 


... 308 


pilifera 


... 309 


Atypophthalmus 


... 294 


Austenia ... 


149 


■["dawnaensis 


150, 151 



B 

Bagauda decortis 

splendens 
Balaenoptera borealis .. 

brydei 

edeni 

schlegeli 



9 

2 9 

105, 106, 107 

105, 107 

105, 106. 107 

106 



Vlll 





Page. 




Page. 


Balanus 


164 


Callosciurus caniceps epomophonis 208 


amphitrite 


... 160 


fallax 


.. 208 


Barbus jerdoni 


... 148 


inexpectatus 


.. 207 


malabaricus 


... 148 


lancavensis 


.. 209 


ticto 


... 148 


lucas 


.. 208 


Barilius barna 


... 348 


matthaeus 


.. 207 


Belomys ... 


179 


milleri 


.. 208 


kaleensis 


... 179 


samuiensis 


.. 208 


pearsoni 


179, 180 


sullivanus ... 


.. 207 


trichotis 


179, 180 


terutavensis 


.. 209 


villosus 


179, 180 


erythraens ... 196, 


199, 2.50 


Belone 


... 141 


bonhotei ... 


.. 200 


Belostomatidae 


... 2, 13 


bhutanensis 


.. 197 


Bibionidae 


... 321 


castaneoventris 


... 199 


Bilharzia haematobium 


... 168 


centralis ... 


... 201 


Bithinella palmyrae ... 


160, 162 


crotalius . . . 


... 198 


Bithynia badiella 


160, 162 


crumpi 


... 201 


Box 


... 141 


erythraeus 


196 


Brevoortia 


82 


erythrogaster 


... 197 


Brithura ... 


... 273 


gordoni ... 198, 


200, 250 


conifrons 


... 273 


griseopectus 


199 


crassa 


... 273 


haemobaphes 


... 200 


Bufo 


26, 37, 102 


hyperithrus 


199 


andersoni 


40 


intermedins 


197 


asper 


... 23, 38 


kinneari 


198 


fergusoni 


... 37, 38 


michianus 


... 200 


himalyanum 


... 102 


nagarum . . . 


197 


melanostictus ... 


... 37, 38 


ningpoensis 


... 200 


microtympanum 


... 37,39 


pnnctatatissimus 


... 197 


penangensis 


... 23, 38 


roberti 


... 201 


stomaticus 


37, 38, 39, 40 


rubeculus ... 


199, 201 


viridis 


37. 38, 40 


styani 


... 200 


Bufonidae ... 


2.^. 27, 28, 37, 102 


thaiwanensis 


... 200 


Buliniis 


167 


youngi 


199 


BuUinus ... 


167, 168 


ferrugineus 


... 202 


contortus 


159, 160, 167, 168 


cinnamomeus 


... 203 


senegalensis 


... 167 


ferrugineus 


... 202 


, 




f randseni . . . 


... 203 






finlaysoni 


... 203 


c 




finlaysoni ... 


... 203 






folletti 


... 203 


Cacopus ... 


42, 101 


tachardi 


... 203 


systoma 


42, 45, 101 


trotteri 


... 203 


Cal'osciurus 


... 196 


gerraaini 


... 204 


atrodorsalis 


199, 205 


albivexilli ... 


205 


atrodorsalis 


... 205 


germaini ... 


... 204 


pranis 


... 206 


nox 


205 


shanicus .. 


... 206 


griseimamis 


209 


tachin 


... 206 


griseimanus 


209 


thai 


... 205 


leucopus ... 


... 210 


zimmcensis 


... 206 


vassali 


... 210 


bocourti 


... 204 


nigrovittatus ... 


222 228 


bocourti ... 


... 204 


bilimitatus. . . 


... ' 222 


dextralis .. 


... 204 


bocki 


... 222 


flowed 


... 204 


johorensis ... 


222 


gruti 


... 204 


klossii 


223 


harmandi .. 


204 


microrhynchus 


... 222 


lylei 


... 204 


nigrovittatus 


... 222 


sinistralis .. 


... 204 


orestes 


223 


caniceps 


206, 231 


notatus 


... 221 


adangensis 


... 209 


balstoni 


221 


altinsularis 


... 208 


madurae ... 


... 221 


bentincanus 


... 207 


microtis 


... 222 


caniceps .. 


... 206 


notatus 


... 221 


casensis 


... 208 


stresemanni 


... 221 


concolor .. 


... 209 


prevosti ... 210 


, 215, 227 


davisoni 


... 207 


armalis 


... 212 


domelicus .. 


... 207 


atricapillus 


... 213 



IX 







Page. 








Page. 


c 


dllosciurus prevosti atrox 


... 213 


Callosciiirus vittatus plasticus 


... 


220 




baluensis ... 


... 214 


l>retiosus ... 






215 




bangkanus 


... 212 


proteus 




... 


221 




borneoensis 


... 212 


rubidiventris 




... 


219 




carimatae ... 


... 212 


rupatius ... 






216 




carimonensis 


... 212 


rutiliventris 




... 


219 




caroli 


... 213 


saturatus ... 




... 


215 




condurensis 


... 211 


scotti 






220 




crythromelas 


... 214 


scraiae 




... 


219 




griseicauda 


... 213 


serutus 






218 




harrisoni . . . 


... 211 


singapurensis 




... 


216 




liumei 


... 211 


siriensis 






218 




kuchingensis 


... 213 


subluteus ... 




... 


216 




melanops ... 


... 211 


tapanulius 




... 


216 




mondananus 


... 212 


tcdongus ... 




... 


220 




mimiculus ... 


... 215 


tenuirostris 






217 




mimelus 


... 215 


ubericolor ... 






216 




navigator ... 


... 215 


vittatus 






215 




nyx 


... 215 


watsoni 




... 


221 




palustris . . . 


... 213 


Calophrynus pleurostigma 






101 




pelapis 


... 212 


Carcharias gangeticus . . . 




... 


81 




penialius . . . 


... 211 


Carcharinus gangeticus 77, 


78, 7 


9, 81 


, 351 




piceus 


... 214 


Carcliarius gangeticus ... 






77 




pluto 


210, 214 


obscurus 




... 


78 




prevosti 


... 210 


Carcinoma 


341 


, 344 


,348 




prosei'ijinae 


... 213 


Centrisous ... 






141 




rafflesii 


... 211 


Centrolas fiexicorne 




<•• 


15 




ruf oniger . . . 


... 214 


minuius 




... 


15 




sanggaus ... 


... 213 


obUquus 




• .. 


15 




sarawakensis 


... 214 


S'ubstitututi 




• •• 


15 




schlegeli 


... 212 


Ceratocheilinae 




• •• 


304 




suft'usus 


... 214 


Ceratoclieilus 






304 




wi'ayi 


... 211 


Ceratostcphanus anleniMlun 




... 


294 




■sladeni 


201, 202 


Cercaria 






350 




bartoni 


... 202 


Cercariac ... 




• •■ 


351 




careyi 


... 202 


Cerithiidae... 




• •. 


164 




fryanus 


... 202 


Cerilhuom fluvlatilis ... 






164 




haringtoni 


202 


Cestoda ... ... 81 


,82, 


83, 87, 88 




midas 


... 201 


Cestoidca ... 






86 




millardi 


... 202 


Cetacea 






105 




rubex 


... 201 


Chaoborus 


153 


154 


157 




shortridgei 


202 


manilcnsis 


153 


154 


155 




sladeni 


... 201 


Cliaulclasmus 






47 




vittatus 


... 215 


strepcrus 




... 47, 48 




abbottii 


... 217 


Chela boopis 






148 




albescens ... 


... 219 


Ghir lllus ■marginutun . . . 






10 




anambensis 


... 217 


Chironomus 






155 




aoris 


... 217 


Cicadidae ... 




... '. 


.', 14 




arcndsis 


... 218 


Cicindelidac 






1 




billitonus ... 


220 


Cimex clavimun us 






7 




conipus 


... 219 


forsteri 






7 




datus 


... 218 


Cirrhina roba 






148 




dilutus 


... 219 


Cladura 




319, 


320 




director 


... 218 


fiavcscens 






319 




dulitensis . . . 


... 219 


finterrupta 






319 




famulus 


... 217 


Cldduroide.s 




'li-io, 


322 




ictericus ... 


... 218 


Clinostoinum 


348 


49, 


350 




lamucotanus 


... 218 


marginatum 






350 




lautcnsis ... 


... 219 


tpiscitijum 




348, 


349 




lutescens . . . 


... 218 


Clydonodozos 






318 




maporensis 


... 216 


griseiceps 






318 




marinsularis 


... 218 


multistriatus ... 






318 




miniatus ... 


... 220 


punctulatus 






318 




nesiotes 


... 216 


Cocco.sterpliuH minutus 




... i 


15 




pannovianus 


... 217 


Conchopiithirus 


131, 


132, 


133 




pemangilensis 


... 217 


actiiiarium 






131 




peninsularis 


... 216 


anodontao 


131. 


i'32 


,134 




perhentiani 


... 220 


antcdonis 






134 



160, 
161, 



Conclinphthini.s curte-s 131, 132, 
disco2)horiis 
telongatus 

flamellidens ... 132, 

magna 

metschnikofli ... 
steenstrupei 
Conger 
Conithorax 

tbrevifrons 

flatifrons ... 298, 

Conosia 

irrorata 
Copepoda ... 
Copepoda Calanoida ... 
Cophophryne sikkiraensis 
Coptosoma indicuni 
Corbie ula ... 

cor ... 159, 160, 

crassula 

fluminalis ...159, 

Corbula 

pf eff eri 
fCorbula (Erodona) mesoiJolamica 
Corbulidae 
Coreidao ... 
Corethra ... 
asiatica 
manilensis 
Corixidae ... 
Crapitula ... 
Crotolaria striata 
Crustacea ... 
Ctenacrviscelis 

dohrinianus 
rex ... 
sikkimensis 
sumatranus 
Ctenophoravilis 
Ctenophorini 
Culicidae ... 
Cycloph yllidea 
Cydjius subaeneus ... ... 3 

varians ... ... 2, 3 

Cylindrotoma ... 280, 281, 282 

americana ... ... 280 

distinetissima ... 280, 281 

4-cellula ... ... 280 

glabrata ... ... 280 

latefurcata ... ... 280 

nodicornis ... ... 280 

quadricellula ... ... 280 

Cylindrotomini ... 279, 280 

Cypraea (Aricia) moncla ... 159 

Cyprinus carpio ... ... 348 

Cyrenidae ... ... 159, 168 

Cystignathidae ... ... 23 



D 

Danio aequipinnatus ... ... 148 

Dapanoptcra ... ... 294 

fascipcnnis ... ... 294 

lorentzi ... ... 294 

pallida ... ... 294 

perdecora ... ... 294 

pulchra ... ... 294 



Page. 
133. 134 

... 134 
132, 134 
133, 134 

... 131 

... 134 
131, 133 

... 141 
297, 298 
299, 300 
299, 300 
.. 318 

... 319 
354, 355 

... 355 
.. 102 
.. 2, 3 
168 
168, 169 

168. 169 
16.8, 169 

164. 170 
170 

160, 170 

.. 170 

... 2,4 

153, 154 

... 153 

153 

... 2, 14 

... 321 

15 

... 160 

261, 262, 263 

... 261 

... 261 

... 261 

... 261 

... 332 

257 

127, 156 



126. 



Dasymallonijia 

fratcrna 

maculipleura 

nigrescens 

signata 
Datura stramonium 
Dermntinus centralis ... 
Dibothriorhynchidac ... 
Dibothriorhynchinae ... 
Dichoptcra hyalinata ... 
Dicranomyia 

absens 

albitarsis 

alta 

alticola 

approximata 

atrescens 

bicinctipes 

tbicolor 

carneotincta 

cinctiventris 

cinerascens 

columbina 

cuneiformis 

debeauforti 

delicata 

dem areata 

crythrina 

excelsa 

fascipennis 

flavobrunnea . . . 

f ortis 

f raterna 

fullowayi 

innocens 

marmoripennis 

nigrithorax 

fniveiapicalis ... 

nongkodjadjarensis 

novae-guineae ... 

ornatipes 

tpictipes 

tprominens 

pulchripennis ... 

puncticosta 

simplex 

simplissima 

sordida 

subfascipennis ... 

subtessellata 

tenella 

tinctipennis 

Dicranophragma 

gracilis 

fmultipunctipennis 

pidchripennis ... 

remota 
Dietiche.s alternahis 

femoralis 
Dijdonychvs molesium . . . 

subrhomhcus 
Dipnoi 
Diptera 

Discocephalum pilcatum 
Distomidae 



Pa^e. 
318 
318 
318 
318 
318 
1,4 
7 



Dixa 



montana 



78 
... 2, 14 

283, 286, 289 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 285 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 

284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 

284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
284, 285 
... 285 
... 284 

284 

284 
... 286 

285 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 
... 284 

284 

285 
... 284 
... 329 
... 329 
... 329 
... 329 

329 

7 

... 2,7 

13 

13 

136, 141 

153 
78. 81, 341, 351 
... 350 
153, 154, 157, 158 
164, 156, 158 



x:i 





Page. 




Page. 


t)olichopeza 


... 277 


Eriocera badia 


... 3.34 


fcostalis 


... 277 


basilaris 


333, 334 


gracilis 


278 


bicolor 


... 334 


inf uscata 


277 


fcaliginosa 


335, 339 


ob,scuia 


... 277 


cincta 


... 333 


oriontalis 


277 


cingulata 


... 333 


pallidithorax 


277 


combinata 


... 334 


postica 


277 


crassipes 


... 333 


Dolichopczini 


271. 276 


crystalloptora ... 


... 334 


Dorosoma ... 


82 


ctcnoiihoroides 


332, 334 


Dromomys... 


... 234 


fdccorata 


335, 337 


cverctti 


... 236 


dichroa 


... 334 


lokriah 


... 235 


diluta 


... 334 


bhotia 


... 235 


elongatissinia ... 


332, 335 


lokriah 


... 235 


fenestra ta 


... ,334 


macmillani 


... 236 


flavipcs 


332, 333. 335 


owstoni 


... 236 


I'usca 


332. 335 


l)eriiyi 


... 234 


gamma 


332, 335 


calidior 


... 235 


f gravely i 


334, 337 


chintalis 


... 235 


green i 


... 335 


flavior 


... 234 


humberti 


... 334 


griselda 


... 234 


infixa 


... 334 


modestus ... 


... 235 


"fkempi 


335, 339 


pernyi 


... 234 


lativentris 


... 333 


senex 


... 235 


leucotelus 


... 334 


rufigenis 


... 236 


lunata 


... 334 


adamsoni ... 


... 237 


lunigera 


... 335 


belfieldi 


... 236 


fmaculiventris ... 


334, 340 


fusciis 


... 236 


mansueta 


334 


opimus 


... 237 


melcagris 


... 334 


ornatus 


... 237 


mesopyrrha 


333, 334 


pyrrhomerus 


... 237 


morosa 


... 335 


riudonensis 


... 237 


nepalensis 


... 335 


rufigenis 


... 236 


nigerrima 


... 333 






nigrina 


... 333 






nigripennis 


333, 335 


E 




Inigroapicalis ... 


334, 335 






optabilis 


... 334 


Ectomocoris cordiger ... 


... 2. 10 


pachyrhina 


... 334 


Elephantomyja 297, 298, 


300, 301, 302, 


paenulata 


332, 334 




303, 304 


pannosa 


332, 334 


egregia 


... .300 


perennis 


334, 340 


fuscomarginata 


... 300 


plecioides 


... 334 


westwoodi 


300, 302 


plumbicinota 


... 334 


Empeda ... 


310, 311 


Ipulchritliorax ... 


334, 336 


inconspicua 


310,311 


pyrrhochroma ... 


... ,334 


Empysurus j ohni 


1. 2, 3 


rubrescens 


... 334 


Endobranoliiae 


144. 146 


rubriceps 


... 333 


Engystomatidae 


27,28.41,101 


rufibasis 


... 335 


Entozoa 


82, 83, 350 


rufithorax 


332, 333, 334 


Eoglaucomys fimbriatus 


... 184 


frnfiventris 


334, 336 


Ephelia 


... 329 


sauteriana 


332. 333. 335 


fascipemiis 


... 329 


scutellala 


332, 334 


ornata 


... 329 


selene 


... 334 


Epiphragma kcmpi 


330, 331, 332 


semilimpida 


... 334 


fklossi 


... 330 


simalurensis 


333, 334 


signata 


... 330 


sumatrensis 


... 335 


fvicina 


330, 331 


tenuis 


332, 335 


Ergasilidae 


... 355 


tcstacea 


333, 334, 336 


tErgasilus bengalensis 


... 352 


triangularis 


... 333 


thamiltoni 


... 353 


ftripunctipennis 


334, 338 


Eriocera 


332, 334 


tuberculif era 


332. 334 


acrostacta 


333, 334 


unicolor 


333, 334 


albipuncta 


... 335 


vcrticalis 


333, 335 


albonotata 


... 334 


xanthopyga 


... 3.33 


angiLstipennis ... 


332. 334 


Erioptera ... 


... 309 


aterrima 


332, 335 


alboguttata 


... 310 


faurantia 


334, 335 


brevior 


310,311 



1. 
Xll 



Ertoptara aloplera 
distans 
ferruginea 
flava 
fusca 
genitalis 
grandior 
hajterata 
incerta 
insignis 
nigripalpis 
orientalis 
parallcia 
punctipennis 
subtincta 
veimsta 

Eriopterini 

Erodona ... 

Esox lucius 

Eunet ta 

falcata 

Eupetaurus 

cineraceus 
cinereus 

Eurliampliidia 

Eutettix phycitis 

tEutlictus insularis 

Exobranchiae 



Page. 
310 
309 



G 



Page. 



Ficus Runiphii ... 

Fierasfcr ... 

Plata hyalinata 

Foettingeria 

Fidgora hi/ulinuta ... 

Fulgoridae 

Eunambulus 

kathleenae 
layardi 

dravidianus 

layardi 
palnianim 

bcllariciis ... 

bengalensis 

brodiei 

comorinus ... 

favonicus ... 

kelaarti 

olympius ... 

palm a rum ... 

robertsoni ... 
pennanti 

argentesccns 

lutescens . . . 

pennanti ... 
sublineatus 

obscurus ... 

sublineatus 
tristriatus 

annandalei... 

numarius ... 

tristriatua ... 
wronghtoni 



... 309 


Gabillotia euphratica . 


159, 169 


... 310 


Gadiculus ... 


... 141 


... 310 


Gadidae 


... 140 


.. 310 


Gadus 


... 141 


.. 310 


Galeus 


141 


.. 310 


Gastropoda 


144, 159, 160, 162 


., 309 


Geranomyia 


287, 288, 297, 301 


.. 310 


brasiliensis 


... 297 


.. 310 


brunncscens 


... 287 


.. 310 


circipunctata .. 


287, 288 


.. 309 


cornigera 


... 287 


.. 309 


fiavicosta 


... 287 


.. 310 


fflaviventris 


288 


.. 310 


genitalis 


... 287 


309, 320 


10-guttata 


... 287 


170 


javanica 


... 287 


.. 348 


linearis 


... 287 


47 


tnigronotata 


... 287 


.. 47, 48 


7-notata 


... 287 


.. 178 


notatipennis 


... 287 


.. 178 


pulchripennis .. 


... 287 


.. 175 


tridens 


287, 288 


.. 297 


Gerris tristan 


1,2,8 


2, 15, 16 


Girasia 


149, 150 


.. 2,6 


tgravelyi 


150 


.. 144 


peguensis 


149, 150 




sikkimensis 


... 150 




tsukliensis 


... 149 




Glyphoglossus 


... 101 




molossus 


45 




molosus 


... 101 




Glyphotcs ... 


... 238 




simus 


... 239 


3 


Gnophomyia 


318, 322 


.. 136 


apcrta 


318 


14 


furcata 


... 318 


.. 131 


genitalis 


... 318 


14 


incomplcta 


... 318 


.. 2, 14 


longipennis 


318, 322 


.. 242 


nigra 


318 


.. 248 


orientalis 


... 318 


247, 248 


ornafipennis 


307, 318 


.. 247 


similis 


... 318 


.. 247 


strcnua 


... 318 


242, 245 


Gnophomyiae 


... 318 


.. 242 


Gobius 


140 


.. 244 


bombaycnsis 


... 148 


.. 243 


Gonomyia ... 


... 311 


242, 246 


affinis 


311 


.. 242 


antica 


311 


.. 243 


aperta 


... 311 


.. 243 


bryanti 


... 311 


242, 244 


flavomarginata 


311 


.. 243 


incomplcta 


... 311 


244, 245 


nebulosa 


311 


.. 244 


proxima 


... 311 


.. 244 


Gymnastcs 


305, 307, 318 


.. 244 


biannulata 


307 


.. 247 


fbistriatiijennis 


... 307 


.. 247 


cyanea 


307, 308 


.. 247 


f encstrata 


307 


.. 245 


insignis 


... 307 


.. 246 


ornatipennis 


... 307 


245, 246 


tpennijies 


307, 308 


245, 246 


pictipcnnis 


307 


.. 246 


violaceus .j 


307 



Xlll 



Gynoplistia occipitalis 
Gyraulus ... . 



H 

Harpactor bicoloratus ... 

fiiscipes 

marginatu.s 

squalus 

fvarians 
Hecalus kirschhaumii ... 
Heleophryne natalensis 
Helicidae ... 
Heterodontus 
Heferogaster ceylnn kits 
Heteroptera 
Hilsa 

ilisha 
Holorusia ... 
Homoeocerus albiguttulus 

((nlfiinatKs 
Homoptera 

Hoplobatrachus ceylanicus 
Hydrobiidae 
Hydrometridae 
Hyla annectens 
Hylidae 
Hylopetes ... 

alboniger 

amoenus 

aurantiacus 

belone 

everetti 

?harrisoni 

?lepidus 

nigripes 

phayrei 

laotum 
phayrei 
probus 

platyurus 

?sagitta 

spadiceus 
Hj'rinae 



Page. 
332 
166 



11 

... 2, 11 

... 2, 10 

... 2, 10 

... 2, 11 

16 

23 

159 

... 141 

7 

1 

77, 82, 83 

... 77, 88 

... 261 

... 2,5 

5 

1 

52 

162 

... 1,2.8 

... 102 

102 

181 

... 182 

181 

181 

181 

181 

182 

... 182 

181 

... 181 

182 

... 181 

... 182 

... 181 

182 

182 

144, 146 



lllisha tparthenogenptica 




... 


88 


JIndonaia ... 


... 143, 


144, 


146 


147 


caerulea 








147 


caerulea gaudic 


haudi 




147 


148 


pachysoraa 






147, 


148 


pugio 








147 


Infusoria . . . 




129, 


131, 


134 


lomys horsfieldi 








178 


davisoni 








179 


horsfieldi 








178 


lepidus 








179 


thomsoni 








179 


Isidora 








167 


broochii 








167 


contorfa 








168 


forskalii 








167 


hemprichii 








167 


laidorella ... 








167 



Ixalus glandulosus 
leucorhinus 



Jassidae 



Kaloiila 

obscura 
pulchra 
triangularis 
variegata 



Page. 
101 
101 



2, 15, 16 



41, 101 

42, 43, 101 

41, 42, 43, 45, 101 

41, 42, 44 

41, 43, 45 



Labeo rohita ... 344,346.347 

Laccotrephes griseus ... ... 2,12 

maculatus ... ... 12 

Lamellidens 109—122, 143, 144, 145, 146 
consobrinus ... ... 144 

marginalis 109—112, 114—117, 

121, 132, 144 



marginalis obesa 
Lariscus 

hosei 
insignis 

castaneus ... 
di versus 
fornicatus ... 
insignis 
jalorensis ... 
javanus 
meridionalis 
niobe 

obscurus ... 
rostra tus ... 
javanus 
niobe 
obscurus 
rostratus 
Lechria 

bengalensis 
leucopeza 
tnepalensis 
Leguniinosae 
Leiponeura 
Leptobrachium 
Leptocentrus substitutus 
Leptodactylus 
Lepus 

aryabertensis 
cra.spedoii.s 
fcutchensis 
dayanus 



145, 146 
... 232 

232, 234 
... 233 



... 233 

... 233 

... 233 

... 233 

... 233 

... 234 

... 233 

... 233 

... 234 

... 234 

... 232 

... 232 

... 232 

... 232 

317 

317, 318 

317 

317, 318 

1 

308, 311 

102 

... 2, 15 

23 

95 

93 

49, 90, 91, 92, 96 

91, 92, 96 

49, 50, 90, 91, 92, 96 



*dayanus connori ... 49 

dayanus craspedotis ... 49, 50 

kurgosa ... ... 93 

riiacrotuH ... ... 91 

peguensis ... 92, 94, 95, 96 

ruficaudatus ... 91, 92, 93, 95, 96. 
fsadiya ... 92, 95, 96 

siamensis ... ... §9 



XIV 







Page. 








Page. 


Lepiis sinensis 


92, 


94, 9 


5. 90 


Ivimnobiorhynchus canadens 


is 


301, 302 


tytl^ri 






94 




tragilis 




297, 298 


yaikandensis .. 


. 89, 90, 


91,9 


2. 90 




ineerta 




... 298 


Leuciscus rutilus 






348 




incertus 




... 298 


Libnotes ... 


291 


293 


294 




magna 




... 298 


aflfinis 






295 




ninliebris 




... 298 


fuscinervis 






295 




westwoodi 




297, 298 


liinpida 






295 


Lininocnida 




... 153 


hi tea 






295 


Limnophila 318, 322, 323 


324, 


328, 329 


marginalis 






295 




arnica 




... 323 


montivagans 






295 




fannulipes 




323, 324 


nigricornis 






295 




apicalis 




... 323 


notatinervis 






295 




claripennis 




323, 324 


opaca 






295 




contingens 




... 323 


poeciloptera 






294 




fflavipennis 




323, 327 


punctatissinia .. 






295 




furcata 




322, 324 


punctipennis 






295 




ffusca 




324, 326 


regalis 






295 




genitalis 


322, 


323, 324 


scutellata 






295 




fglabra 


324, 


325, 327 


stantoni 






295 




honesta 




... 323 


thwaitesiana 






294 




fincompleta 




323, 320 


transversalis 






295 




javana 




... 323 


T.imnaea ... 


159, 100, 


"I'oi 


104 




tinconsequens ... 




323, 326 


axiaca 






105 




nndtipunctata ... 




... 323 


euphrntica 






105 




fornatipennis ... 




323, 328 


lagotis 




105 


100 




pallidicoxa 




322, 324 


lagotopsis 






105 




palmeri 




... 323 


ovalis 






2 




fparvicellula 


323, 


324, .325 


ovata 






105 




quartarius 




... 323 


peregra 




105, 


100 




selectissima 




... 323 


peregriformis .. 


100, 


105, 


100 




simplex 




323, 324 


reneana 






165 




Irisignata 




... 323 


stagnalis 






165 


Lininophilini 


320, 


322, 329 


subpersica 




100 


160 


Liogma 


280, 


281, 282 


tenera 




100, 


1(5 




glabrata 




280 


Limnaeidae 






104 




nodicornis 




280, 282 


Limnaeus tener 






165 


Lipo 


phleps 




... 311 


Limnobia ... 284, 


289, 291, 


293, 


294 


Lith 


oglyphus 




163 


annulifemur 






289 


Longurio rubriceps 




... 273 


aterrima 






293 




testaceus 




... 273 


"fbipunctata 






291 


Lygaeidae ... 




... 2,7 


centralis 






289 


Lyga 


ens deusUtfi 




7 


cinctiventris 






289 




giittiger 




7 


■fconfinis 






290 










costalis 






290 




M 






crocea 






289 








f estiva 






289 


Man 


•oscyt us japonen sis 




3 


•fflavocincta 






289 




javanus 




3 


indica 




289, 


290 




svbaevens 




... 2, 3 


longincrvis 




289, 


293 


Malacocotylea 




350 


flongipennis 




... 


292 


Margur liana euphraika 




169 


■fmarginata 






290 


Megalophrys 


27 


, 42, 102 


nigra 






289 




carinense 




102 


■{■nigreseens 






293 


Megi 


■itocera 




.. 333 


nitobei 






289 


Melania 




160 


niveipes 






289 




tuberculata 


159, 


160, 163 


t5-notata 




... 


292 


Melaniidae 




.. 163 


fpunctithorax .. 






293 


Melanopsis 




.. 160 


tinctinervis 






289 




costata 




163, 164 


trentepohlii 






315 




nodosa 159, 


100, 


163, 164 


triangularis 






289 




saulcyi 




.. 164 


trimaculata 






289 




subtingitana 




160, 163 


ftritincta 






291 




tingitana 




164 


vitripenvis 




284 


289 


Mem 


bracidae 




.. 2, 15 


Limnobiinae 


271 272 


,279 


280 


Memhracis minutus 




15 


Limnobiini 






283 


Menetes berdniorei 




.. 231 


Lininobiurhynchus 


. 297, 298 


,299 


301 




amotus 




.. 231 


brasiliensis 




298, 


301 




berdniorei ... 




.. 231 



XV 







Page. 




Page. 


Menetes consularis 




232 


Nannobatrachus beddomii 


101 


decoratus . . . 




232 


Nannosciurinac 


... 248 


koratensis ... 




.. 231 


NannoKciuriis 


... 248 


moerescens 




.. 232 


exilis 


... 248 


mouhoti 




.. 232 


concinnus ... 


... 248 


rufescens . . 




.. 232 


exilis 


... 248 


umbrosus .. 




.. 232 


rctectus 


... 248 


fMesocyphona gracilis 




.. 310 


inelanotis 


... 248 


nigripes 




.. 310 


bancannK . . . 


... 249 


Mesogenae 




144 


borncanus ... 


... 249 


Mesovelia bisignala 




8 


inelanotis ... 


... 248 


mulsanti 




.. 2, 8 


pulcher 


249 


orientalis 




8 


sumatranus 


... 249 


Mesozoa 




88 


whiteheadi 


... 248 


Micrixalus silvaticus .. 




101 


Neniachihis anguilla ... 


148 


Microhyla ... 


4] 


42, 101 


savona 


... 148 


achatina 




.. 41,42 


Nematocera 


153 


berdmorei 




.. 41,42 


Nemertini ... 


88 


butleri 




4.5 


Nemoccra ... 


... 255 


ornata 




7, 41.42 


Nepagriseim 


12 


pulchra 




.. 41,43 


Nepidae 


... 2, 12 


lubra 


41 


, 42, 101 


Neritidae ... 


... 162 


Micronecta dione 




... 2, 14 


Neritina ... 


160, 162 


Microvelia diluta 




... 2, 8 


cinctella 


162 


Mitopeza nitidiro.stris .. 




... 276 


euphratica 


162 


Mollusca ... 




143, 144 


jordani ...159, 


160, 161, 162 


Molophilus a.ssamensis 




... 309 


jordani turris ... 


162 


costalis 




... 309 


mesopotamica ... 


... 162 


inconspicua 




... 309 


Nervinops rusticus 


13 


Molva 




141 


Nesopeza ... ... - 


... 278 


Mongoma ... 


311, 312, 


314, 315 


falbitarsis 


278, 279 


albipennis 




312, 313 


tlongicornis 


... 278 


australasiae 




311,312 


tpicticornia 


... 279 


carinicep.-i 




312,313 


Nodularia ... ...143, 


144, 146 ,147 


disjuncta 




... 312 


aequitaria 


144, 146 


exornata 




... 315 


caerulea 


147 


fflava 


312, 


313, 314 


japanensis 


144, 146 


f ragillima 




... 312 


Notonecta alba 


13 


fkempi 




312, 313 


ciliata 


13 


obscura 




312, 313 


nanula 


13 


pallidiierUris .. 




312,313 


7iivea 


13 


pennipes 




... 312 


Notonectidae 


... 2, 13 


fsplendida 




312, 313 


Nyctibatrachus 


101 


tenera 




312, 313 


pygmaeus 


... 17,21 


Mongomella 




... 314 


maj or 


23, 101 


Mongomioides 




... 315 


Nysius ceylanicus 


... 2, 7 


Mongomyiae 




... 312 






Monochlys 




... 154 






Monocysitis 




... 73, 74 







Motella 




... 141 






Mussafira johni 




3 


Oligochaeta 


69 


Myxobolidae 




... 340 


Ophiocephalus gachua 


148 


Myxobolus... 


'. 344, 


346, 348 


marulius 


... .351 


fuhrmanni 




... 346 


striatus 


351 


tnodularis 




... 347 


Orimarga javana 


309 


oculi-leucisci 




... 346 


peregrina 


309 


pf eiflFeri 




... 348 


Uxydiscus nebulosus ... 


319 


piriformis 




... 346 


umbrosus 


319 


trohitae 


; 344, 


346, 347 


Oxyglossis 


27 


fseni 




... 347 


Oxyglossus 


28, 100 


toyamai 


345 


346, 348 


laevis 


100 


unicapsulatus .. 




... 346 


lima 


28, 29, 100 


Myxosporidia 


341 


, 344 ,348 


P 




N 
Nandus niarmoratus . 




... .348 


Pachyrhina 


273, 274 


nandus 




348, 350 


bombayensis ... 


... 274 



XVI 





Page. 








Page. 


PacLyrliina citrina 


... 274 


Pete 


lurista magniticus 


... 


175 


concolori thorax 


... 273 




melanoptcrus ... 




176 


consimilis 


... 275 




nobilis 


... 


175 


deinarcata 


... 273 




pectoralis 




176 


tlorsopunctata ... 


275, 27G 




petaurista 




172 


formosensis 


... 274 




batuanus . . . 


... 


173 


ffuscoflava 


... 275 




cicur 




172 


gamma 


273, 275 




marchio 


... 


173 


thypocrites 


263, 276 




melanotus ... 




172 


javensis 


... 274 




mimicus 




173 


ochripleuris 


... 273 




nigricadautus 


... 


172 


parva 


... 274 




nitudulus ... 


... 


173 


tparvinotata ... 


... 276 




petaurista ... 




172 


pleurinotata 


273, 274 




rajah 




172 


puncticornis 


... 273 




terutaus . . . 




173 


serricornis 


273, 274 




philippensis 




177 


speculata 


... 273 




Cinderella ... 




177 


virgat a 


... 275 




lanka 




177 


Palamnaeiis 


43 




oral 




177 


Paracladura 


... 320 




philippensis 




177 


Paramongoma 311, 3 IJ 


,314,316,317 




punctatus 




178 


albitarsis 


... 314 




marica 




178 


extensa 


... 312 




punctatus ... 




178 


longif usa 


... 312 




sybilla 




178 


manca 


... 312 




taylori 


173 


, 175 


niveitarsis 


... 312 




yunnanensis 


173 


,249 


pallida 


... 312 


Petauristinae 


... 


171 


Paratropeza 


... 318 


Petinomys 




183 


Parreyssia 


143, 144, 145 




fuscocapillus 




184 


corrugata 


145, 146 




genibarbis 




183 


corrugata nagpoorensis 145, 146 




borneonensis 


... 


183 


favidens 


145, 146 




genibarbis ... 




183 


favidens assamensis 


145, 146 




malaccanus 




183 


favidens tripartitus 


145, 146 




hageni 




184 


favidens viridula 


145, 146 




lugens 




183 


wynegungaensis 


... 144 




niaerens 




183 


Pectinibranchiata 


... 162 




phipsoni 




184 


Pediciinae ... 


... 271 




■setosus 


... 


184 


Pelecypoda 144, 


159, 160, 168 




vordermauni 




184 


Pelobatidae 


... 102 


Phalacrocera 


280, 281 


282 


Pelodytes punctatus . . . 


65 




replicata 




280 


Pendulinus anteiuiatus 


... 2,5 




tipulina 




280 


Pentatomidae 


... 2,3 


Plieietima ... 


69, 7 


0,73 


Perca fluviatilis 


... 348 




barbadensis 




69 


Perichaetidae 


69 




dyeri 




69 


Petalochirus burmanus 


... 2,9 




hawayana 


69^ 71, 73 


Petalocnemis obscura ... 


1, 2, 4 




heterochaeta 


69, 71, 73 


Petaurillus 


180 




indica 


... 


69 


cmiliac. 


... 180 




posthunia ... 69, 


71,73,74 


129 


hosei 


... 180 




rodcriconsis 




69 


kinlochi 


... 181 


Pliyllorhyncliinae 




78 


Petaurista 


... 171 


Phyn 


hocorisjorderl 




7 


albiventer 


175 


Phy.^c 






167 


alborufus 


174, 178 




contorta 




168 


annamensis 


174, 178 




natalensis 




168 


annamensis 


... 174 




xrncgalcnisl'i 




167 


barroni 


... 174 


Phy.sc 


(Isidora) brochil appruxi- 




birrelli 


... 176 




mans 


... 


168 


candidulus 


... 174 


Physecrania 




332 


caniceps 


... 176 


Physunio ... 109—122 


143, 144, 


146 


cineraceus 


174, 175 




ferrugineus 109, 110 


114, 115, 


117 


elegans 


... 177 




micropteroides ... 


109, 110, 


114 


fulvinus 


... 176 


Piestocystis hoplocephali 




87 


inornatus 


... 176 




Kalis 


... 


87 


Ipucogenys 


... 176 


Pirate 


s' adjunctus 




10 


lylei 


174, 249 


Plagio 


pyla nasuta marina 


... 


131 


lylei 


174, 249 


Plagiotoinaactinariam 


... 


131 


venningi ... 


174, 249 




uminata 


••• 


131 



XVll 



Planorbidae 
Planorbis ... 

compressus 

convexiusculus ... 

exustus 

saigonensis 

velif er 
ciliata 
Platyhelmia 
Platymeris fulvipes 
Platymetopius Uneolatus 
Plea pallescens 
Plecia 

Pleciomyia melanaspis 
Plectromyia 
JPlesiomongoma 

fvenosa 
PIeuronecte.s 
Plotosus 

Plumatella longigeininis 
Polyodon ... 
Polypedilum 
Pomolobus 
Potamides 

fluviatilis 
Pata in ides [T ympaiiotonos) 
Presby tes potenziani . . . 
Prionocera flaviceps 
Prionota 
Protozoa ... 
Pselliophora 

fapproximata . . . 

|aurantia 

ctenophorina . . . 

divisa 

elongata 

fflavofasciata ... 

f umiplena 

gaudens 

laeta 

tiatifascipennis 

Inctuosa 

praefica 

semiruf a 

speciosa 

strigipennis 

suspirans 

suspirans hilaris 

tripudians 
Pneudophana hyalinala 
Psilorliynchiis tentaculatiu 
Pteromiinae 
Pteromys ... 

alboniger 

alboruf us 
Pteromyscus 

pulverulentus ... 
borneanus ... 
pulverulentus 
Ptychoptera 

tannandalei 

(ttr it arsis 

tibialis 
Ptycliopterinae 
Pulmonata 

Pycnocrepis anntdipes ... 
Pyrrhocoridae 
Pyrrhocoris clavimanus 



Page. 

166, 167 

166, 167 

166 

159, 160, 166 

2 

... 166 

... 166 

166 

... 86, 88 

9 

16 

1, 2, 13 

... 321 

... 321 

322 

312, 314 

... 314 

... 141 

... 141 

2 

136. 139. 141 

... 153 

82 

... 161 

160, 164 

fiuviatilis 164 

... 214 

... 261 

... 261 

131, 134, 348 

... 257 

... 259 

... 260 

... 258 

... 258 

... 258 

... 259 

... 258 

258, 259 

... 257 

260 

... 258 

... 258 

... 258 

... 258 

... 258 

... 258 

2.58 

258 

14 

148 

178 

171 

177 

173, 175 

180 

180 

180 

180 

255 

256 

256 

... 256 

... 255 

164 

... 304 

... 2, 7 

7 



Q 



Querquedula crccca 



Page. 



48 



R 



Rana 



angustopalmata 
beddomei 


28, 65, 101 
58 
18 


breviceps 
brevipalmata ... 
hurkilli 


28, 32, 45 
... 28, 29 
... 52,60 



cancrivora 52, 55, 58, 59, 61 63, 64, 

65,, 66, 67 

ceylanica ... ... 51 

corrugata ... ... 30 

crassa 28, 34, 35, 51, 52, 60, 61, 62, 
63, 66 



curtipes 

eyanophlyctis ... 

dobsoni 

esculenta 

esculenta lessonae 

fodiens 

hexadactyla 

leptodactyla 

liebigii 

limnocharis 



occipitalis 
pleskii 



27 

2, 28, 30, 31 

25 

52, 58, 66. 98 

... 52, 66 

51 

28, 30. 31 

19, 20, 21 

... 101 

18, 28, 29. 32, 34, 58, 

59, 63, 64 

... 55, .58 

... 26,36 

rugulosa 34, 35, 52, 60, 61, 62, 63, 

64, 67 

schlueteri ... ... 65 

semipalmata ... ... 19, 20 

sternosignata ... ... 29, 36 

strachani ... ... 25 

temporaria ... ... 97, 98 

tigrina 28, 34, 35, 51, 52, 53, 55, 57, 

58, 59, 60. 61, 62, 63, 64, 

65, 66, 67, 98. 99, loO, 

102 

angustopalmata 

burkilli 



(jancnvora 

crassa 

occipitalis 

travaticorica 

tytleri 

verrucosa 

vittigera 
Ranatra 

filiform is 
Ranidae ... 25, 

Rasbora daniconius 
Ratuf a 

affinis 

affinis 
arusinus 
aureiventer 
balac 

catemaua . 
fern oralis . 
iiypoleuca . 
johorensis . 
niasae 
nigrcscons . 



... 63,65 
54, 55, 58, 61 
52, 55, 56, 58 
52, 53, 57, 66 



23 

28. 33, 34 

17, 20. 21 

52, 60, 65, 67 

•» 

... 2, 12 

27, 28, 100, 101, 102 

148,347 

177, 185, 196, 210 

191 

... 191 

... 192 

191 

192 

... 191 

... 192 

... 191 

... 191 

... 192 

... 192 



XVlll 





Page. 




I 


"age. 


Eatufa afJinis piniensis 




192 


Rhacoj)liorus 




101 


pyrsonota ... 




192 


iiiaculatiis 


28, 36, 37 


bicolor 


iW 


191 


himalayensis 


... 36, 37 


baliensis 




187 


leucomystax 


... 36,37 


batuana 




188 


lualabaricus 


2 


3,37 


bicolor 




187 


niaximus 




101 


laenata 




188 


pleurostictus 




27 


major 




187 


liliamphidia 


295 


297 


palliata 


,,, 


188 


tabnormalis 




296 


ephi])pium 




189 


apicalis 




296 


bancaiia 




190 


ferruginosa 


295, 


296 


baramensis 




189 


ff ratella 


... 


296 


bunguranensis 




190 


inconspicua 




295 


cothurnata 




189 


kampangani 




296 


ophippium 




189 


nigriceps 




296 


gri.seicoUis ... 




190 


. niveitarsis 




297 


uanogigas ... 




1 90 


rufescens 




296 


polia 




1 90 


unicolor 


295 


296 


sandakanensis 




189 


Rlianipiiidini 


295 


311 


isirhassenensis 




190 


Rhampholimnobia reticularis 




297 


vittata 




190 


Rhaphidolabis ... 318 


,320, 


322 


gigantea ...177, 192. 194, 


249 


aperta 




322 


fellii 




193 


brunetti 




322 


gigantea 


'l92 


249 


fascipennis 


318 


322 


iiainana 




194 


incompleta 




322 


lutrina 


193 


19(i 


indica 




322 


inacruroidcs 




193 


sordida 




322 


indica 




186 


Rlieitlirosciurus nuicrotis 


... 


238 


bengalensis 


186 


187 


Rhinosciurus 




237 


centralis 




186 


laticaudatus 




237 


dealbata . , . 




187 


incultus 




238 


indica 




186 


laticaudata' 




237 


maxima 




187 


leo 


... 


238 


superans . . . 




186 


rliionis 




238 


acroura 




185 


robinsoni ... 




238 


albipes 




185 


tupaioides ... 




238 


dandolcna ... 




185 


pe racer 


... 


238 


macroura ... 




185 


Rhipidia bioculata ... 




294 


melanochroa 




185 


rostrif era 
Rhynchobothridac 
Rhynchobothrius 

filisha ... 77, 




294 

82 


melanopepla 

anambae ... 


194 


195 
196 


".'.'. 78, 80 

8. 81. 82 


angusticeps 

celaenopepla 

decolorata 


194 


196 
195 
195 


Rhynchota 
Rhyparochronmti unticun 


... 


1 

7 

7 

309 

309 


f retensis 
melanopepla 


194 


195 
195 


siamicus 
Rhypholophus geniculatus 
pulcher 


... 


penangensis 


194 


195 








peninsulae 




195 








tiomanensis 




196 


s 






notabilis 




188 






bulana 




188 


Saccobranchus fossilis 




351 


carimonensis 




188 








condurensis 
confinis 




189 
189 
189 

188 


Scamboiieura 

quadrata 
(Scantius f orsteri 


... 


279 
279 

2, 7 


conspicua ... 
notabili.s ... 




vohicrifi 
Scaphula minutuii 


... 


7 
15 


phaeopepla 


194 


195 


Sciuridae ... 




171 


leucogenys 




194 


Sciurinae ... 




185 


mar ana 




194 


Sciurus albiceps 




191 


phaeopepla 




194 


atristriatud 




223 


sinus 




194 


heebei 




225 


Keduviidae 




2,9 


bicolor 




196 


Eeduvius coUaris 




12 


bicolor typicus ... 


... 


196 


corallinus 




11 


castaneoventris ... 


... 


199 


fuscipes 




11 


chrysonotus 


... 


206 


marginatus 




10 


ciphinstonii 


... 


186 


ianguinolentUK ... 




11 


epoinophorus fluminalis 


... 


207 



XIX 







Pane. 




Page. 


Sciurus erebus 




214 


Tamiops macclellandi riudon 


i ... 241 


erythraeus insularis 






199 


rodolphi ... 


... 241 


erythraeus intermedia 






197 


sauteri 


... 241 


finlaysoni partus 






203 


swinhoei 


... 241 


haringtoni sohitus 






202 


Tanyderus forcipatus ... 


... 255 


insignis 






232 


mirabilis 


... 255 


macrourus 






185 


ornatissimiis 


... 255 


pembertoni 






239 


pictus 


... 255 


piceus 






214 


Tanypremna 


... 277 


pyrrocephalus . . . 






232 


omissinervis 


262, 277 


rufi venter 






197 


Teleostei ... 


... 141 


subflaviventris ... 






236 


Tenebrionidae 


1 


teanantii 






185 


Terpnosia jenkinsi 


... 2, 14 


trilineatus 






248 


Tetrarhynchidae 


... 78.81 


villosus 






179 


Tetrarhynchus 


78 


vittatus tarussanus 






215 


erinaceus 


82 


Scomber ... 






138 


gangeticus 


81 


Solea 






140 


perideraeus 


81 


Solenaia ... 


log- 


-122 


Tencholabis 


304, 306, 307 


soleniformis 109, 110, 


in, 115 


116 


fangusticapitis 


... 305 


Sphaerodema molestiini 


... 


2,13 


biannulata 


... 305 


Sphaerospora 


.344. Ml 


348 


cyanea 


305, 307 


Spongilla alba 




2 


femoratus 


... 305 


Sporozoa ... 




348 


fenestrata 


... 304 


Stegasmonotus 




277 


glabripea 


... 305 


Stibadocera 279, 280, 


281, 282 


283 


insignis 


305, 306 


bullans 


279 


282 


nigerrima 


... 305 


4-cellula 




281 


tornata 


... 305 


metalUca 


280 


282 


*assamensis 


... 306 


|Stibadocerella 


281, 282 


283 


plecioides 


... 305 


•f pristina 


281 


283 


Thomsonia kirschbaumii 


16 


Stygeropis ... 




261 


lineolatus 


16 


Styringomyia 




304 


Thomsoniella kirschbaumii 


16 


ceylonica 




304 


porrecta 


... 2, 16 


crassicosta 




304 


Thrypticomyia 


284, 287 


formosana 




304 


Tillina 


... 132 


f ryeri 




304 


magna 


... 131 


himalayana 




304 


Tipula ... 261,262, 


270, 271, 272 


jacobsoni 




304 


aetherea 


... 263 


javana 




304 


borneensis 


... 263 


nepalensis 




304 


fbrevis 


... 270 


nigrofemorata ... 




304 


brunnicosta 


... 262 


obscura 




304 


carmichaeli 


261, 263 


venusta 




304 


cinctipes 


262, 271 


Styringomyia (Idiophlebia] 


cras- 




cinctoterminalia 


... 262 


sicosta ... 




304 


cinerea 


... 274 


Sycanus collaris 




2, 12 


cinereifrons 


... 262 


militaris 




10 


fcontigua 


26.5, 271, 272 


Syndesmobothrium filicolle 


77', 80, 82 


continuata 


... 262 


Synodontis 




141 


coquUletti 
dentata 


... 263 
... 263 


T 






divergens 


... 263 






dives 


262 


Taeneoidea 




88 


elegans 


262, 274 


Taenia serrata 




81 


elegantula 


... 262 


solium 




81 


ffasciculata 


269 


Tamias leucotis 




241 


ffilicornis 


... 267 


Tamiops ... 




239 


flava 


267 


macclellandi 


2.39 


241 


flavescens 


262 


barbel 


... 


240 


fflavithorax 


268 


formosanus 


240 


241 


fflavoides 


267 


hainanus . . . 




241 


fulvolateralis ... 


263 


kongensis ... 




240 


tfumicosta 


26(t 


macclellandi 




239 


•j-fumifascipcnnis 


26»> 


manipurensis 
maritimus ... 




239 
240 


fuscinervis 
gedehana 


262 
... 262 


monticolua... 




240 


gracillima ... 262 


265,271,273 


povemUneatus 






240 


tgravelyi 


264 



XX 









Page. 






Page. 


Tipnla griseipcnnia 






262 


Toraeiites melanogaster 






227 


himalayensis . 






262 


atratus 


. 




228 


imperfecta 






263 


melanogaster 




227 


inconspiciia 






... 262 


phayrei 


. 




225 


inordinans 






... 271 


blanfordi .. 


. 




226 


klossi 






... 263 


phayrei 


, 




225 


marmoratipennis 




... 262 


pryeri 






227 


raelanomera 






263, 276 


inquinatus 






227 


munda 






... 262 


pryeri 






227 


nigrotibialis 






262 


pygerythrus 






226 


novae guineae . 






... 263 


janetta 






226 


nubifera 






... 263 


pygerythrus 






226 


pallida 






... 263 


q u inquef asciatus 






225 


patricia 


262 


265, 


271, 272 


robinsoni alacris 






230 


pedata 


270 


271, 


272, 273 


quinquestriatus 






225 


praepotens 






261, 262 


rubriventer 






227 


princeps 






... 262 


stevensi 






225 


pulcherrima 






... 262 


tenuis 






228 


pumila 






... 263 


altitudinis .. 






229 


qiiadrinotata 






... 262 


bancarus .. 






229 


quasimarmoratipenni 


3 


... 262 


batus 






229 


frufiventriR 






... 268 


gunong 






228 


ruf om edia 






... 264 


mansalaris 






229 


serricornis 






262, 267 


modestus . . 




,, 


229 


shirakii 






... 264 


parvus 






229 


sinabangensis . 






... 263 


pumilus 






229 


splendens 






262 


sordidus .. 






228 


fsimillima 




265, 


271, 273 


surdus 




,, 


228 


striatipennis 






... 262 


tahan 






228 


subtincta 






... 262 


tenuis 






228 


tenuipes 






... 262 


tiomanicus 






228 


tesseUatipennis 






... 262 


Torpedo ... 






142 


tropica 






... 263 


ocellata 






141 


umbrinus 






... 263 


Toxorhina 297, 298, 300 


,301,302, 


303 


,304 


venusta 




271, 


272, 273 


brevipalpa 






302 


Tipulae 




271, 


272, 322 


f ragilis 


'. 301, 


302 


, 303 


Tipulidae ... 126, 255, 


261, 


280, 


297, 301, 


incerta 






298 




302, 


303, 


311, 333 


longirostris 


300, 


302 


,304 


Tipulinae ... 


257, 


271, 


272, 280 


pulchella 






302 


Tipulini 






261 


Toxorrhina 






300 


Tipulodina 




270, 


271, 322 


Trematoda 




86 


,341 


magnicornis 
Tomeutes ... 




223, 


271, 272 
227, 228 


Trentipohlia 

albogeniculata .. 


312, 


315 


,316 
315 


brookei 






231 


exornata 






312 


helgei 






... 231 


gracilis 






312 


hippurus 






226, 227 


leucozona 






312 


grayi 






... 227 


metatarsata 






312 


hippurellus 






... 227 


raarmorata 






315 


hippurosus 






... 227 


nigroapicalis 






315 


hippurus . 






... 226 


fornatipennis .. 






315 


jentinki 






... 231 


pictipennis 






315 


lokroides 






... 223 


saucia 






315 


lokroides . 






223 


speiseri 






315 


owenai 






224 


trentipohlii 






315 


lowii 






229 


zambesiae 






312 


balae 






... 230 


Trichocera 






320 


bangueyae 






... 230 


flava 






321 


humilis 






230 


maculipennis 






274 


lowii 






229 


montana 






321 


natunensis 






230 


punctipennis .. 




.. 


320 


piniensis . 






... 230 


Trichogaster f asciatus 


348, 349, 


350 


,351 


robinsoni . 






230 


Tricyphona 




.. 


321 


seimundi . 






... 230 


Triogma ... 


.' 280, . 


281, 


282 


vanakeni . 






230 


Trypanorhyncha 






78 


mearsi 






223, 224 


Typhlocybinae 






16 


bellona 






... 224 










mearsi 






... 224 


u 








virgo 






... 224 


Ula javanica 


. 


.. 


m 



XXI 



Unio 



caeruleus 

calliopsis 

ciconius 

dignatus semiramidis 

mossulensis 

tigridis 

Uuionidae 109, 12L 143, 144, 147, 159, 169 
Unioninae ... ... 144, 147 



Page. 

121, 160, 161 

... 147 

159, 169 

169, 169 

160, 169 

... 160 

159, 169 



w 



Wailago attu 



353 



fXiphura indica 



Page. 



257 



Zetis 
Zeus 
Zonitidae 



.. 234 
140, 141 
... 149 



SQPI— No. 21 DZ8— 13-2-19— 375. 



I. RHYNCHOTA FROM BARKUDA ISLAND, 

By C. A. Paiva, Assistant, Zoological Survey of India, 

Introductory Note. 

I have already described Barkuda I. in these " Records. "^ Here 
it will be sufficient to repeat that it is a rocky or rather stony island 

abnnt o np. n^ j lp. long hv thrpp-miflrfpra of o ^^^^1^ !-« ^ ----"• 



ERRATUM. 

In the sixth line of the second paragraph on page 23 for 
"new genua of the family as recoriied," 

READ 
"no genus of the family is recorded." 



maeed, all tnose species of either Homoptera or Heteroptera that live 
by sucking leaves or stems of plants are very scarce, the few that occur 
beiny found mainly on introduced Leguminosae. The phytophagous 
species of the island live in most instances by sucking seeds or berries, 
but the most conspicuous form {E^npysurus johni) sucks the fruit and 
young leaves of a fig, and the most abundant (Petalocnemis ohscura) the 
stems of the Poison Apple Datura stramonium, Linn., — both plants that 
are not as a rule attractive to insects. Other groups of insects, with the 
exception of certain families of beetles, notably the Tenebrionidae and 
Cicindelidae, are just as poorly represented on the island as the Rhyn- 
chota. A factor that may have been of importance in the scarcity of 
species is the strong breeze that blows across the island almost daily. 
Insectivorous birds and lizards are, however, few. 

There is a small pond in the middle of the island. It is dug in laterite 
rock and the water has a depth of about five or six feet in the middle, 
but naturally varies with the rainfall. The pool is roughly circular 
and about 12 yards in diameter. The bottom is covered with black 
mud. There are no true water-plants, but a fairly dense growth of sedges 
springs up round the margin in wet weather. The water is very slightly 
brackish, opaque and muddy. In this pond certain aquatic Rhynchota 
abound. The commonest are Anisops sardea and Plea palescens ; other 
species are much less so. The Hydrometridae are as a rule scarce, 
but Gerris tristan, though not always present, sometimes appears in 
considerable numbers. Apart from Rhynchota and water-beetles, of 
which a certain number of species are abundant, the fauna of 
the pond is by no means rich. The only vertebrate is the frog Rana 



iRec. Ind. Mus. XIII, p. 171 (1917). 



I. RHYNCHOTA FROM BARKUDA ISLAND. 

By C. A. Paiva, Assistant, Zoological Survey of India. 

Introductory Note. 

I have already described Barkuda I. in these " Records."^ Here 
it will be siifl&cient to repeat that it is a rocky or rather stony island 
about one mile long by three-quarters of a mile broad, and lies, about a 
mile offshore, in the Chilka Lake some five miles from the southern end. 
It is thus situated in the extreme north-eastern corner of the Madras 
Presidency, in the Ganjam District. 

The peculiar features that have influenced its Rhynchotal fauna may 
be considered a little more fully. The most important of these is the 
sclerophytic nature of the vegetation. The island is rather densely 
wooded, but all the trees and bushes have hard glossy foliage, and ordinary 
succulent vegetation is practically confined to a few^ creepers and one or 
two weeds that have established themselves at spots where the jungle 
has been felled. With these facts is correlated a great scarcity of the 
smaller Homoptera such as abound in grass and among soft herbage. 
Indeed, all those species of either Homoptera or Heteroptera that live 
by sucking leaves or stems of plants are very scarce, the few that occur 
being found mainly on introduced Leguminosae. The phytophagous 
species of the island live in most instances by sucking seeds or berries, 
but the most conspicuous form {Empysurus johni) sucks the fruit and 
young leaves of a fig, and the most abundant {Petalocnemis ohscura) the 
stems of the Poison Apple Datura stramonium, Linn., — both plants that 
are not as a rule attractive to insects. Other groups of insects, with the 
exception of certain families of beetles, notably the Tenebrionidae and 
Cicindelidae, are just as poorly represented on the island as the Rhyn- 
chota. A factor that may have been of importance in the scarcity of 
species is the strong breeze that blows across the island almost daily. 
Insectivorous birds and lizards are, however, few. 

There is a small pond in the middle of the island. It is dug in laterite 
rock and the water has a depth of about five or six feet in the middle, 
but naturally varies with the rainfall. The pool is roughly circular 
and about 12 yards in diameter. The bottom is covered with black 
mud. There are no true water-plants, but a fairly dense growth of sedges 
springs up round the margin in wet weather. The water is very slightly 
brackish, opaque and muddy. In this pond certain aquatic Rhynchota 
abound. The commonest are Anisops sardea and Plea palescens ; other 
species are much less so. The Hydrometridae are as a rule scarce, 
but Gerris tristan, though not always present, sometimes appears in 
considerable numbers. Apart from Rhynchota and water-beetles, of 
which a certain number of species are abundant, the fauna of 
the pond is by no means rich. The only vertebrate is the frog Rana 



iRec. hid. Mus. XIII, p. 171 (1917] 



Records of Hie IncUnn Mvseum. 



[Vol. XV, 



cyanophlyctis, Avhicli breeds there, the 011I3' molluscs are Planorhis 
exustus, which is abundant, and Limnaea ovalis, which is scarce. A few 
Chironomid and Culicid larvae occur, and a water-mite, parasitic in its 
younger stages on Ranatra, is common. In the latter part of the " rains " 
the rocks near the edge become covered with a sponge {SyotnjiUa alhay 
and a Polyzoon {Plumatella longigem.mis).^ 

The collections on which these notes are based were made on seven 
different visits to the island, some of which lasted for a week or more, 
between 1914 and 1917. They were obtained by different members 
of the Zoological Section of the Indian Museum, now the Zoological 
Survey of India. The most lengthy of our visits, which took place at all 
seasons, were made in July and the first week of August, that is to say, 
in the earlier part of the " rains," which is thus the season best represented 
in the collection ; but there is comparatively little seasonal variation 
in the insect life of the island, the climate of which, for purely local 
reasons, is more uniform than that of most places in Peninsular India. 

I have added certain ecological notes to Mr. Paiva's manuscript. 
They are enclosed in parentheses. 

N. ANNANDALE, 
Director, Zoological Survey of India. 



List of Species. 



Fam. Pentatoniidae. 

Coptosoma indicum, Dist. 

Macroscytus subaeneus (Dall.) 

Cydnus varians, Fabr. 

Eynjiysiirus jolini (Oshan.) 
Fam. Coreidae. 

Pefalocnemis obscura (Dall.) 

Homoeocerus albiguttuhts, Stal. 

Pendulinus antennatus (Kiiby). 

Eusthetus insularis, sp. nov. 
Fam. Lygaeidae. 

Aspilocoryphvs guttiger (Dall.). 

Dieuches femoralis, Dohin. 

Nysius ceylanicus (Motsch ) 
Fam. Pyrrhocoridae. 

Sea ntiii s forsferi ( Fa br. ) 
Fam. Hydrometridae. 

Mesovelia rmtlsanti, Buch. White. 

Microvelia dilufa, Dist. 

Gerris tristan. Kirk. 
Fam. Reduviidae. 

Bagauda splendens, Dist. 

Petalochirus burmanus, Dist. 

Acanthaspis fulvipes (Dall.) 

Ecfoniocoris cordiger, Stal. 

Harpactor marginahts {Fahr. ) 



Harpactor squalus, Dist. 

Harpactor fuscipes ( Fab?-. ) 

Harpactor varians, sp. nov. 

Sycanus collaris (Fabr.) 
Fam. Nepidae. 

LaccotrepJies grisexis (Gucr.) 

Ranatra ? filiformis, Fabr. 
Fam. Belostomatidae. 

Sphaerodema molestvni (Diif.) 
Fam. Notonectidae. 

Anisops sardea, Herr.-vScliaff. 

Anisops niveus (Fabr.) 

Plea pallescens, Dist. 
Fam. Corixidae. 

Mieronecta dione, Dist. 

Fam. Cicadidae. 

Terjmosia jenltinsi, Distant, var 
Fam. Fulgoridae. 

Dichopitera hyalinata (Fabr.) 
Fam. Membracidae. 

Leptocentrus substitutus (Walk.) 

Coccosterphus minutus (Fabr.) 
Fam. Jassidae. 

Thomsoniella porrecta (Walk.) 

Eutettix phycitis, Dist. 



1 See Annandale, Mem. Ind. Mus. V, p. 25 (1915). 

8 See Annandale, Bee. Ind. Mus. XI, pp. 166, 168 (1915). 



1918.] C. A. Paiva : Rhyncliota from Barkuda I. ' 3 

Family PENTATOMIDAE. 

[The members of this family, except Empysurus johni (Oshan.), are 
all very scarce on the island. I have occasionally seen Macroscyius 
suhaeneus (Dall.) on the wing a few inches above the ground. In flight 
it closely resembles beetles of the family Histeridae.] 

Coptosoma indicum. Distant. 

1902. Coptosoma indicum. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. I, p. 33. 

Barkuda, 21-vii-14. 

Originally described from Point de Galle, Ceylon. Represented in 
the collection of the Zoological Survey of India from Calcutta ; Medha. 
Yenna Valley, Satara district, ca. 2,200 ft., Bombay Presidency ; and 
Vizagapatam, Madras Presidency. 

Macroscytus subaeneus (Dall.) 

1851. Aetlius subaeneus, Dallas, List Hem. I, p. 116. 

1866. Macroscytus javanus, Mayr, Verh. zool. bot. Ges. Wien., p. 361. 

1867. Aetlius aequalis. Walker, Cat. Het. I, p. 159. 

1868. Aethus indicus, Vollenhoven, Faun. Ind. Neerl. I, p. 17. 

1874. Macroscytus japonensis, Scott, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) XIV, p. 294. 
1893. Macroscytus javanus, Lethierry and Severin, Cat. Gen. Hem. I, p. 71. 
1893. Cydnus subaeneus, Lethierry and Severin, tom. cit., p. 68. 
1899. Macroscytus subaeneus. Distant, Ann. Mag. A'at. Hist. (7) IV, p. 222. 
1902. Alacroscytus suhaeneus. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. I, p. 96. 

Barkuda, at light, 20— 21-vii-14, 25-vii— 4-viii-17. 

Recorded by Distant from Bombay ; Deccan ; Burma ; Kaiennee, 
Katha, Schwego-Myo, Palon ; Tenasserim; Thagata, Kawkareet. Widely 
distributed throughout the Malay Archipelago and found in Japan 
(Distant.) Represented in the collection of the Zoological Survey of 
India from Gopkuda Island, Chilka Lake. 

Cydnus varians, Fabr. 

1803. Cydnus varians, Fabricius, Sysf. Rhyng. p. 187. 

1860. Aetlius cyrtomenoides, Dohm, Siett. ent. Zeit. XXI, p. 400. 

1868. Aethus varians, Stal, Hem. Fabr. I, p. 6. 

1882. Cydnus varians, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (6) II, p. 155, t. vi, f. 92. 

1902. Cydnus varians, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. T, p. 92. 

Barkuda, vii-14 and 25-vii — 4-viii-1917. 

Recorded from Bengal ; Bombay ; Ceylon ; Burma ; Mandalay ; 
Tenasserim. Represented in the collection of the Zoological Survey 
of India from Habarane, Ceylon. 

Empysurus johni (Oshan.) 

1907. Mussa.fira johni, Oshanin, Ann. Mus. Zool. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Pitersb. 

XII, p. 416. 

1908. Empysurus johni, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. IV (Appendix), p- 460. 

text-fig. 272. 

Barkuda, 17-vii-14, 15— 22-vii-16, 25-vii— 4-viii-17. 

[ This species is by no means uncommon on the island. It is gregarious 
in habits and feeds on the fruit and young leaves of the fig Ficus Rimphii, 
Bl, on which small companies of young and adults together may often 

b2 



4 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

be discovered. The flight, though by no means strong, is less weak than 
might be expected from the shape of the body. Even females fly readily 
from tree to tree. The natural colour, though not the shape, closely 
approaches that of the young leaves on which the insect feeds. The 
colour in life is pale leaf-green ; antennae (except the base of the first 
joint), eyes and ocelli brick-red; tarsi tinged with brown, a brownish 
blotch on the dorsal surface of the 2nd joint of the 2nd and 3rd tarsi ; 
claws white at the base, black at the tip ; membraneous part of the 
hemelytron colourless, transparent ; edge of abdomen dark brown, a 
reddish-brown line along lower surface oi rostrum.] 

In addition to the above characters it may be mentioned that there is 
a distinct tubercle wdthin each posterior angle of the pronotum ; of the 
two black lines which are mentioned in the original description as border- 
ing the inner and outer margins of the lateral gutta of the connexivum, 
the one on the inner border is very faint and sometimes entirely absent. 
The anal appendage of the male is almost pentagonal in shape, the 
anterior, lateral and posterior angles being rounded ; it is inserted at the 
apex of the deeply cleft apical margin of the sixth abdominal segment ; 
it is deeply excavate dorsally and slightly convex ventrally. The male 
is much smaller and narrower than the female, the sexes being respec- 
tively 22 and 26 millim. in length and 14-5 and 18 millim. in greatest 
breadth. 

In the earlier stages the dorsal surface of the thorax and abdomen 
is marked with some irregular patches of bright red. A distinct narrow 
black border runs along the external margins of the head, thorax and 
abdominal segments. This species was originally described from Kandy, 
Ceylon, and was not previously represented in the collection of the Zoolo- 
gical Survey of India. It does not appear to be represented in the British 
Museum collection. 

Family COEEIDAE. 

[In this family again only one species is common, namely Petalo- 
cnemis ohscura (Dall.)] 

Petalocnemis obscura (Dall.) 

1852. Accmthocoris obscura, Dallas, List Hem. II, p. 518. 

1902. Petalocnemis obscura, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. I, p. 38(). 

Barkuda, 17-vii-14. 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

[ This species is by far the commonest bug on the island. It resembles 
the Malayan Acanthocoris scaber (Linn.) in habits, feeding on the poison 
apple Datura stramonium, Linn. The eggs are laid on the lower surface 
of the leaves in batches of from 17 to 42. Several females usually lay 
together or in succession, and the young insects of different clutches 
mingle in a common crowd. Shortly after hatching they migrate as 
a rule to the stems of the plant, on which they crowd together. Both 
adults and young in different stages may be discovered in a single crowd. 
Owing to their mottled colouration they are by no means conspicuous 
in the broken shadows thrown by the leaves of the plant.] 

In the description of the species the dilatation of the apex of the 
3rd joint of the antennae has been omitted. This is visible only when 



1918.] C. A, Paiva : Rhynchota from Barkuda I. 5 

the insect is viewed from the side, as the dilatation is vertical. In the 
earlier stages the insect is of a very pale colour, with only a few brown 
markings on its dorsal surface ; the dilatation of the 3rd joint of the 
antennae does not become apparent till about the last but one moult. 

It has been recorded from North Bengal ; Khasi Hills ; Bombay ; 
Poona ; and Ceylon. It was not previously represented in the collection 
of the Zoological Survey of India. 

Homoeocerus albiguttulus, Stal. 

1873. Homoeocerus albiguttulus, Stal, JSn. Hem. Ill, p. 61. 

1902. Homoeocerus albiguttulus. Distant, Faun. Brit. hid. Rhijn. I, p. 301. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

I have compared the only specimen from Barkuda with some speci- 
mens of this species in the collection which have been identified by 
Distant and I find they agree almost exactly in structure. The only 
very marked difference is the size of the pale luteous spot at the inner 
angle of the corium, which in the typical form is transverse and broadly 
margined posteriorly with piceous, while in the Barkuda specimen it is 
much smaller, being confined to the subquadrate cell of the corium, and 
without any piceous margin posteriorly. Antennae pale ochraceous with 
the basal joint greenish ochraceous and the apical half of the distal joint 
faintly brownish ochraceous. Apical area of the head also tinged with 
green. Pronotum thickly covered with minute brown punctures, those 
near the margins being smaller and paler ; the anterior and lateral margins 
greenish, the posterior margin pale ochraceous, impunctate, and the 
posterior pronotal area obscurely transversely striate. Scutellum 
ochraceous, rugosely, transversely striate, sparingly punctured, its 
apex pale and impunctate. Hemelytra. ochraceous with the punctures 
on the clavus arranged almost in regular lines. Underside greenish 
ochraceous. Length 19 mm., breadth 5 mm. The green colouration in 
specimens of this genus invariably fades, becoming pale yellow or ochra- 
ceous. 

Recorded from Sikkim ; Khasi Hills ; Sibsagar ; Burma ; Ruby 

Mines, Karen-ni, and Palon. The type was described from Cochin China ; 

Mr. Distant possesses specimens from the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. 

The specimens in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India 

are from Sikkim ; Arakan ; Sibsagar ; and Soondrijal, Nepal Valley. 

Pendulinus antennatus (Kirby). 

1891. Homoeocerus antennatus, Kirby, .Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXI\ , p. 90, 

pi. iv, f. 6. 
1902. Pendulinus antennatus, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Kliyn. I, p. 389. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — ;4-viii-17. 

A specimen of this species in the collection of the Zoological Survey 
of India from Kandy, Ceylon, is identical with the Barkuda specimen, 
but as members of this genus also have a tendency to lose their natural 
colour, if preserved dry for any length of time, a few remarks may be 
made on the colouration of a comparatively fresh specimen. The first, 
second and third joints of the antennae are olivaceous green, thickly 
covered with numerous minute black dots, the " ring " at the base of the 



6 Records of the Indian Mtiseuni. [Vol. XV, 

third joint is very pale green without any black dots, the fourth joint 
is reddish-brown with a broad pale basal band. The anterior area of the 
pronotiim, besides having four black dots, has also a distinct black, 
transverse, irregular fascia. The membrane is shining hyaline, but 
appears to be fuscous, when at rest, on the dark dorsal surface of the 
abdomen. 

Recorded only from Ceylon. 

Eusthetus insularis, sp. no v. 

Described from a single specimen taken at Barkuda on 20-vii-1914. 

Head black with the lateral lobes, apex of central lobe, an irregular 
transverse band between eyes, a rather broad band bordering the inner 
margins of the eyes and extending posteriorly to the basal margin of 
the head, a linear longitudinal streak between the ocelli and a somewhat 
broad, medially interrupted fascia on each side of the head, below the 
antennae and the eyes, brownish ochraceous. Antennae light brown 
with the apices of the first, second and third joints narrowly piceous ; 
first and third joints subequal in length, second shortest, about half 
the length of the fourth, which is longest ; some short stiff black bristles 
on the first, second and third joints. Underside of head with a broad 
central, longitudinal, shining black fascia. Rostrum w4th the basal 
joint incrassate, black, the remaining joints brown, with the apical half 
of the last joint piceous. Rostrum reaching the middle of the meso- 
notum. 

Pronotum brown with three discal, longitudinal, piceous bands, 
of which the central is broadest, and most distinct. Anterior area with 
a shallow transverse depression a little behind anterior margin, covered 
with short silky hairs and with a short, longitudinal, ochraceous line ; 
posterior area slightly raised, with numerous, small, black punctures 
on disk. Anterior angles rounded, posterior angles acute ; posterior 
margin concavely sinuate before scutellum, obliquely ascending at the 
sides. Scutellum black, with a central longitudinal line and the apex 
broadly luteous ; disk with some rather long, decumbent hairs. 
Hemelytra very dark brown, thickly punctured with black ; a few linear 
spots on disk of corium a little beyond middle, luteous ; costal margin 
paler ; membrane fuscous, thickly speckled with greyish-white. 

Underside shining black, clothed with very fine silvery hairs, which 
are most dense on the sides of the sternum ; a large patch on each lateral 
area of the prosternum, the apices of the coxal cavities, a spot on the 
anterior margin of the mesosternum, the lateral and basal margins of the 
raetasternum, a broad oblique lateral fascia on each side of the third 
abdominal segment and a small spot at the external basal angle of the 
fourth segment, luteous. Abdomen above black, with a broad longi- 
tudinal reddish ochraceous band extending from the basal segment 
to the apex of the fifth segment, the apical margin of the fifth segment 
narrowly and the centre of the remaining segments luteous ; connexivum 
black and luteous alternately, the luteous markings less distinct on the 
underside of the fifth and posterior segments. 

Legs ochraceous above, thickly mottled with black, underside of 
femora blackish ; apices of tibiae and tarsi black.; intermediate and 



1918.] C. A. Paiva : Rhynchota from Barkuda 1. 7 

posterior femora black with a subapical pale annulation ; apices of 
intermediate femora luteous. Length 10-5 millim. 

Type No. 7242/H.I. in the collection of the Zoological Survey of 
India. 

Family LYGAEIDAE. 

Aspilocoryphus guttiger (Dall.) 

1852. Lygaeus guttiger, Dallas, List Hem. II, p. 574. 

1904. Aspilocoryphus guttiger. Distant, Faun. Brit. I ml. Rlvjn. II, p. 11. 

Barkuda, 13— 18-iv-14, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

[Single individuals of this species are not infrequently seen on the 
ground in the more open parts of the jungle.] 

Recorded from North Bengal. Represented in the collection of the 
Zoological Survey of India from Calcutta ; Ranchi ; Dharampur (under 
stone), ca. 5,000 ft., Simla hills ; and Kufri, near Simla, W. Himalayas, 
8,000 ft. 

Nysius ceylanicus (Motsch.) 

1863. Heterogaster ceylanicus. Motsch., Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc, p. 78. 
1904. Nysius ceylanicus, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 18. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

Recorded from East Himalayas : Mungphu ; Chota Nagpur, Ranchi ; 
Ceylon. A very widely distributed species. 

Dieuches femoralis, Dohrn. 

I860. Dieuches femoralis, Dolun, Stett. eni. Zeit. XXI, p. 405. 
1872. Rhyparochrovnus anticus. Walker, Cat. Het. V, p. 100. 
1872. Rhyparochromus siamicus. Walker, Cat. Het. V, p. 102. 
1889. Dieuches alternatus, Horvatli, Termesz. Fiizefek, p. 36. 
1904. Dieuches femoralis, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 84. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

Recorded from Assam : Margherita, Naga Hills ; Sikkim ; Kashmir ; 
Ceylon ; Burma : Palon, Bhamo ; Tenasserim, Malewoon ; Batchian. 
Represented in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India from 
Siliguri, base of E. Himalayas, Bengal ; Kurseong, ca. 5,000 ft., Darjiling 
district, and Pashok, 3,500 ft., Darjiling district, E. Himalayas. 



Family PYRRHOCORIDAE. 
Scantius forsteri (Fabr.) 

1781. Cimex forsteri, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. II, p. 368. 

1781. Cimex clavimanus, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. II, p. 368. 

1822. Lygaeus deustus, Thunberg, Hem. Rostr. Cap. IV, p. 3. 

1848. Pyrrhocoris clavimanus, Herrich-SchafEer, Wanz. Ins. VIII, p. 102, f. 871. 

1848. Pyrrhocoris forsteri, Herrich-Schaffer, Wanz. Ins. VIII, p. 102, f. 872. 

1860. Dermatinus centralis, Signorct, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. p. 952. 

1865. Scantius forsteri, Stal, Hem. Afr. Ill, p. 10. 

? 1873. Scayitius volucris, Gerstaecker, in V. d. Decken's Reise, III, p. 413. 

1904. Scantius volucris. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 117. 

1910. Scantius forsteri. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. V (Appendix), p 98- 

Barkuda, 15— 22-vii-16, 25-vii— 4-viii-l 7. 



8 Records of ihe Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

[This species is entirely terrestrial in habits, hiding under stones and 
recumbent tree trunks.] 

Recorded from ? Madras ; ? Coonoor ; Purneah, Bihar ; S. Africa ; 
Madagascar ; Seychelle Islands. Represented in the collection of the 
Zoological Survey of India from Meerut, United Provinces of Agra and 
Oudh ; Purneah district, Bihar ; and on board ship off Coconada, Madras 
Coast. 

Family HYDROMETRIDAE. 

[G^erm /^mto??, Kirk., is the only species of this family that I have 
seen in large numbers on the pond in the middle of the island. It is 
not, however, a constant inhabitant, though it was common in July, 
1916. I could not find a single specimen in July, 1917.] 

Mesovelia mulsanti, Buch. White. 

1879. Mesovelia mulsanti, Buchanan White, Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond., p. 268. 

1884. Mesovelia bisignata, Uhler, in Kingsley's Stand. Nat. Hist. II, p. 273, f. 324. 

1893. Mesovelia bisignata, Uhler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1893, p. 706. 

1898. Mesovelia mtdsanii, Champion, Biol. Centr. Amer. Rhyn. II, p. 123, pi. vui, 

ff. 10 and 11. 
1900. Mesovelia orientalis, Kirkaldy, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XL, p. 808. 
1904. Mesovelia mulsanti. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 169. 
1910. Mesovelia mulsanti. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. V (Appendix), p. 137. 
1915. Mesovelia mulsanti, Annandale and Kemp, Mem. Ind. Mus. V, p. 181. 

Barkuda, on pond in the middle of the island, 15 — ^22-vii-16, '25-vii — 
4-viii-17. 

Recorded from Bengal : Calcutta (at light), Port Canning (brackish 
pools), Rajshahi ; Puri, Orissa Coast ; Lucknow, United Provinces ; 
Peradeniya, Tangalla, Ceylon ; Sumatra ; also found in North and Central 
America, and in the x\ntilles. Represented in the collection of the Zoolo- 
gical Survey of India from Bengal : Calcutta and Port Canning. Orissa : 
Puri and Barkul. United Provinces : Lucknow\ Kumaon : Naini Tal, 
ca. 6,400 ft. Madras : Ganta Sila hill near Rambha, Chilka Lake. South 
India : Bangalore. Tenasserim : Kawkareik, Amherst district. Anda- 
mans : Port Blair. 

Microvelia diluta, Dist. 

1909. Microvelia diluta. Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) III, p. 500. 

1910. Microvelia diluta. Distant, Fa^m. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. V (Appendix), p. 139. 

Barkuda, on pond in the middle of the island, 25-vii — l-viii-17. 

Recorded from Calcutta and Rajshahi, Bengal, and represented in 
the collection of the Zoological Survey of India from Calcutta and 
Rajshahi, Bengal ; Lucknow, United Provinces ; Puri, Orissa Coast ; 
Rambha, Ganjam district, Madras Presidency. 

Gerris tristan, Kirk. 

1899. Gerris tristan, Kirkaldy, Rev. Ent. p. 88. 

1904. Gerris tristan. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 179. 

1910. Gerris tristan. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. V (Appendix), p. 144. 

1915. Geris tristan, Annandale and Kemp, Mem. Ind. Mus. V, p. 182. 

Barkuda. on pond in the middle of the island, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 



1918.] C. A. Paiva : Rhynchota from Barkuda 1. 9 

Recorded from Benoal : Port Canning, Dhappa, near Calcutta, 
Rajshahi. Orissa : Sur Lake, Puri district. United Provinces : Naini 
Tal, Kumaon. Burma : Moulmein. Ceylon. Represented in the col- 
lection of the Zoological Survey of India from Bengal : Calcutta, Dhappa, 
Port Canning, Rajshahi, Berhampore Court. United Provinces : Naini 
Tal 6,400 ft.*, Malwa Tal. 3,600 ft.. Sat Tal, 4,500 ft., Bhim Tal, 4,450 ft., 
and Kathgodam, 1,200 ft., all in Kumaon. Orissa : Bhubaneswar, 
Barkul, Sur Lake, Puri district. Madras : on surface of Chilka Lake, 
among rocks at edge of Chilka Lake, base of Ganta Sila hill near 
Rambha. 

Family REDUVIIDAE. 

[All the members of this family found on the island are apparently 
of terrestrial habits and probably predaceous. None of them, however, 
are at all common, and in most cases only single specimens were cap- 
tured.] 

Bagauda splendens, Dist. 

1906. Bagauda splendens. Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) XVIII, p. 364. 

1909. Bagauda decorus, Breddin, A7in. Soc. Eyit. Belg. 1909, p. 301. 

1910. Bagauda splendens. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. V (Appendix), p. 176. 

Barkuda, 15 — 22-vii-16, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

Recorded only from Ceylon and not previously represented in the 
collection of the Zoological Survey of India. 

[This species lives amongst vegetation at the edge of water.] 

Petalochirus burmanus, Dist. 

1903. Petalochirus burmanus. Distant, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1903, p. 55. 

1904. Petalochirus burmanus, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 242. 

Barkuda, 15-22-vii-16. 

Recorded from Burma, Bhamo, and not previously represented in 
the collection of the Zoological Survey of India. 

Acanthaspis fulvipes (Dall.) 

1850. Platymeris fulvipes, Dallas, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1850, p. 6, pi. ii, fig. 3. 
1863. Acanthaspis fulvipes, Stal, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1863, p. 149. 
1873. Acanthaspis quadrinotata. Walker, Cat. Het. VII, p. 175. 

? Acanthaspis quadristillatus, Stal, MS. 
1902. Acanthaspis fulvipes. Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) X, p. 183. 
1904. Acanthaspis fulvipes. Distant, Faun. Brit. ind. Ryhn. II, p. 259. 

Barkuda, at light, 19-vii-14 and 15-22-vii-16. 

Recorded from Bhutan ; Sikkim ; Sibsagar, Assam ; East Bengal ; 
and represented in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India from 
Bengal : Rangamati, Chittagong Hill Tracts ; Darjiling district : Sukna, 
500 ft., Sevoke, in stable at Kalijhora, Teesta Valley. Chota Nagpur : 
Ranchi. Assam : Cachar and Sibsagar. 

On the 19th of September, 1916 the Rev. Dr. Sutherland of Kalim- 
pong gave us a larva of a Reduviid bug covered all over with dust and 
dirt, which he had caught crawling about the floor of a stable at Kali- 
jhora, on the Teesta-Kalimpong Road. It was kept alive in a breed- 
ing cage, being fed occasionally with small flies, chiefly Muscids. On 
the 1st of November it cast its skin. This probably took place during 



iO Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

the night, as when it was observed on the morning of the 2nd November 
it was seen to have covered its new skin with a very thick coating 
of dnst and dirt, mnch thicker even than in its earlier stage. As the days 
went on, several dead flies, together with other rubbish, were found 
collected on the back of the bug, presumably placed there by it after it 
had sucked them dry. It was also noticed that it seldom attacked 
the flies by day unless it had had no food for several days. These bugs 
have a habit of seeking dark corners in houses and crevices in trees and 
probably never feed in bright sunshine. Our larva was, however, always 
on the alert during the day and when disturbed it would make a sudden 
dart from one place to another, remaining perfectly still for some time, 
thus giving itself the appearance of a piece of rubbish being blown about 
by the wind. It continued to add fresh rubbish to its cloak and thus 
seemed to grow bigger daily until it emerged as an adult on the 10th 
of March, 1917. It is probable that a whole year is occupied in its com- 
plete life-cycle. 

The two cast skins and the adult are preserved in the collection of 
the Zoological Survey of India. 

Ectomocoris cordiger, Stal. 

181)1). Ectomocoris cordiger, Stal, Ofv. Vei.-Ak. Forh. 186(j, p. 256. 

1873. Pirates adjunctus. Walker, Cat. Het. VII, p. 114. 

1902. Ectomocoris cordiger. Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) X, p. 283. 
190-1. Ectomocoris cordiger. Distant, Faun. Brit. hid. Rhyn. II, p. 295. 

Barkuda, 15— 25-vii-16. 

Kecorded from North Bengal ; Sylhet ; Bombay ; Bor Ghat ; Ceylon ; 
Persian Gulf. Represented in the collection of the Zoological Survey of 
India from Bengal : Calcutta (at light), Madhupur (at light), Tinpahar, 
near Rajmahal. Behar : Purneah. Chota Nagpur : Ranchi and base 
of hills, Chakradharpur, Singhbhum district. United Provinces : 
Meerut, Almora, 5,500 ft., Kumaon. S. India : Nilgiris, 3,500 ft. 
Lower Burma : Kawkareik to third camp, Amherst district. 

Harpactor marginatus (Fabr.) 

1794. Reduriiis iii'inii Nfiliis, Fabric-iu.s, Eiit. Syst. IV, p. 196. 

1874. Cliirillus margi iiatus, Stal, Ent. Hem. IV, p. 39. 

1881. Harjiactor marginatum. Renter, .Ic. Soc. Sc. Fenri. XII, p. 29.-{. 
1891. Si/caniis ? militaris, Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV, p. 119. 

1903. Harpactor m.arginatus. Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) XI, p. 205. 

1904. Harpactor marginatus. Distant, Faun. Brit. hid. Rhyn. II. p. 332. 

Barkuda, 21-vii-14. 

Recorded from " North India ; "' Vizagapatam ; Ceylon. Repre- 
sented in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India from Bengal : 
Calcutta ; Tinpahar, near Rajmahal. Chota Nagpur : Chaibassa. 
United Provinces : Hardwar and Lucknow. Bombay : Dhom, Krishna 
Valley, ca. 2,400 ft. ; Beyt, Dwarka, Kathiawar ; Uparkot, Janagadh. 
Kathiawar ; Sasan, Kathiawar. Madras : Vizagapatam. South India : 
Bangalore. 

Harpactor squalus, Dist. 

1904. Harpactor squalus. Distant, Fau)i. lirit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 333. 

Barkuda, xi-14 and 15 — 22-vii-16. 



1918.] C. A. Paiva : RJiynchoia from Barkudti I. ll 

Kecorded only from Sikkini ; Punkabari. Represented in the collec- 
tion of the Zoological Survey of India from Bengal : Manbhum. 
Chota Nagpur : Chakradharpur ; pass between Chaibassa and Chakra- 
dharpur. Orissa : Balugaon and Dhauli, Puri district ; Hill above 
Barkul, Puri district, — 1,000 ft. Madras : under stone on hill near 
Rambha, and at Rambha, Ganjam district. 

Harpactor fuscipes (Fabr.) 

17S7. Jieduviu.s fuscipes, Fabricius, Mant. Ins. II, p. 312. 

1803. Reduvius fuscij^es, Fabricius, Syst. Bki/ng., p. 278. 

1804. Reduvius sanguinolentus, Wolff, Ic. Cim. IV, p. 16G, f. 160. 
182.5. Reduvius corallinus, Lo Foletier et Serville, Enc. Mith. X, p. 279. 
18()8. Reduvius fuscipes, Stal, Hem. Fabr. I, p. 110. 

1891. Hdipctctor bicoloratus, Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. XXIV, p. 120. 

1903. Hdrpuctor fuscipes. Distant". Ann. Miuj. Sat. Hist., (7) XI, p. 20."). 

1904. Hnrjinctor fuscipes. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. II, p. 333. 

Barkuda, 17— 21-vii-14, 15— 22-vii-16. 

Recorded from Bombay, Bor Ghat ; Ceylon. Represented in the 
collection of the Zoological Survey of India from Bengal : Calcutta ; 
Siliguri ; Punkhabari, Darjiling district, and Bombay. 

Harpactor varians, sp. no v. 

Barkuda, 21-vii-U. 

Head, pronotum, scutellum and legs shining black, with some short 
stiff hairs on the legs and the margins of the pronotum. A spot at the 
inner margin of each eye, posteriorly, a lateral spot before each eye, a 
linear spot between the ocelli on disk, and a central longitudinal fascia 
on the underside of the head, luteous ; (these markings are liable to 
variation) ; head deeply impressed behind eyes. Antennae light brown, 
the base of the fii'st joint shinitig black, its apex and the whole of the 
second joint dark brown ; first joint longest, equal in length to the 
second and third together, second shortest, third and fourth subequal. 
Anteocular area of head a little shorter than the postocular. 

Rostrum reaching the anterior coxae ; the first joint longer than 
anteocular area of head, equal to the second joint, third joint shortest. 
Pronotum with the anterior lobe convex, centrally longitudinally 
sulcate, the anterior angles produced into two short obtuse spines 
directed slightly backwards ; posterior lobe with the disk slightly 
rounded ; the sides depressed, lateral angles rounded and obliquely 
suberect, posterior margin straight before the scutellum, obliquely 
ascendant at the sides. Sometimes there are three very pale luteous 
spots on the disk of the posterior lobe, two on the anterior area and one 
on the posterior margin. Scutellum with its apex cretaceous-white. 
Hemelytra very pale luteous, transparent, the inner margin of the 
clavus slightly fuscous, apical angle of corium longly produced ; mem- 
brane shining, hyaline. Abdomen above and beneath luteous, the 
central portion of the disk above dark brown ; connexivum with linear 
brown marks on the third to the fifth segments. Legs with the femora 
nodulosely incrassate. 

Length 7-8 millim. 

Ty'pe No. 3924/H.I. in the collection of the Zoological Survey of 
India. 



i2 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Sycanus collaris (Fabr.) 

1781. Ee.duvius collaris, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. II, p. 380. 

1874. Sycanus collaris, Stal. Ent. Hem. IV, p. 28. 

1904. Sycanus collaris. Distant (part.). Faun. Brit. I ml. Rlii/n. il, p. 351. 

1910. Sycanus collaris. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rkyn. V (Appendix), p. 208. 

Barkuda, 15— 22-vii-16. 

Recorded from Bengal ; Ceylon ; Malacca. Represented in the col- 
lection of the Zoological Survey of India from Bengal : Sahebganj ; 
Darjiling, ca. 7,000 ft., Punkabari, Darjiling district, E. Himalayas. 
Chota Nagpur : Ranchi. Orissa : Angul. Madras. South India : 
Teppukadu, Nilgiri hills, 3,000 ft. 

Family NEPIDAE. 
Laccotreplies griseus (Guer.) 

1829 — 1838. Nepa griseus, Guerin, Jronoyr. Regne Anim., Ins., p. 352, pi. Ivii, f. 7. 
18()8. L((rrof re plies maculatus, Stal (part.), Hem. Fabr. I, p. 135. 
190(i. Lnrciiln plies maculatus. Distant (part.). Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. Ill, p. 19. 
1910. Liirriitn plies griseus, Montandon, Ann. Mus. Zool. Xapoli, III, n. 10, p. 3. 
1910. Laccotreplies griseus, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rylin. V (Appendix), p. 314. 

Barkuda, 15 — 22-vii-16, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

Recorded from Bengal ; Madras ; Pondicherry ; Ceylon : Burma ; 
Malacca ; Seychelles ; Mahe. Represented in the collection of the 
Zoological Survey of India from Punjab : Rawalpindi. W. Hima- 
layas •. Dharampur Kooa, Patiala State, base of Simla hills ; Lobha, 
Garhwal district. United Provinces : Bhimtal, 4,450 ft. ; Kumaon ; 
Gorakhpur ; Lucknow ; Mowai, Bara Banki ; Chukri Mukri. Nepal 
Terai. Behar : Siripur, Saran. Bengal : Manbhum ; Berhampore 
Court ; Calcutta ; Durgapur, near Calcutta (sitting on a reed at edge of 
brackish water canal. N. A.) ; Rajshahi ; Siliguri. Orissa : Puri ; 
Satpura, Puri district. Bombay : Bandra ; Dhankal, near Helvak, 
Satara district, 2,400-2,600 ft. ; Kathiawar ; Porbandar. Madras : 
south end of Lake Chilka. Cochin State : Kavalai, 1,300-3,000 ft. 
Travancore : Tenmalai, W. Ghats (west side). Ceylon : Colombo ; 
Peradeniya. Siam : Pak Raw, Tale Sap (in small creek). 

In his Appendix Distant states that the difference between Lacco- 
frephes maculatus (Fab.) and Laccotrephes griseus (Guer.) is that the 
anterior area of the prosternum in the former is entirely straight and 
non-tuberculous, while in the latter this area has a strong acute tubercle. 
I have examined several specimens in the collection of the Zoological 
Survey of India including one from Lobha and find that the tubercle is 
present in all of them and there is no specimen, agreeing in size with 
L. griseus, which is without this acute tubercle. L. maculatus, therefore, 
does not appear to be represented in this collection. 

Ranatra ? filiformis, Fabr. 

1790. Ranatra filiformis, Fabriciu.s, Skrivt. af Naturh. Selsk. 1, i, p. 228.3. 

1794. Ranatra filiformis, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. IV, p. 64. 

1868. Ranatra filiformis, vStal, Hem. Fabr. I, p. 135. 

1906. Ranatra filiformis. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhi/n. Ill, p. 2J. 

A very badly preserved specimen from Barkuda, 15- — 22-vii-16. 



1918.] C. A. Paiva : RliyncJiota from Barhuda I. ' 13 

Owing- to its bad condition I am not quite sure of the identity of this 
specimen. Structurally it agrees with the description giyen by Distant. 

Recorded from Quetta ; Karachi ; Behar ; Assam : Sibsagar ; 
Tranquebar ; Bombay ; Johore ; Phillippines. 

Family BELOSTOMATIDAE. 
Sphaerodema molestum (Duf.) 

1863. A'pjMsus molediiim, Dufour, An7i. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1863, p. 395. 

1863. Nervinojis ruslicus, Dufour, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1863, p. 399. 

1871. Diplonychus molestum, Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, XXI. p. 437. 

1871. Diplonychus subrhombeus, Mayr, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, XXI, p. 437. 

1906. Sphaerodema molestum, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. Ill, p. 36. 

Barkuda, in small pond in the middle of the island, 15-22-vii-16. 
Recorded from Kashmir ; Calcutta tanks ; Malacca. 

Family NOTONECTIDAE. 

[All the species represented in the collection are abundant in the pond, 
but Anisops niveiis is less so than the other two.] 

Anisops sardea, Herr.-Schaff. 

1775. ? Notonecta alba, Forskal, Descr. Amin. Orient., p. xxiii. 
1837. Anisops nivea, Spinoret, nee Fabricius, Ess. Hem., p. 58. 

1851. Anisopis productus, Fieber, Rhynchotogr., p. 60. 

1852. Atiisops sardea, Herrich-Sehaffer, Wanz. Ins. IX, p. 40, f. 904. 
1855. Anisops nalalensis, Stal, OJv. Vet.-Ak. Fork. XII, p. 89. 
1865. Anisops j^roductus, Stal, Hem. Afr. Ill, p. 191. 

1870. Notonecta nanula. Walker, Zoologist, 1870, p. 2381. 

1904. Anisops sardea, Kirkaldy, Wien. ent. Zeit. XXIII, p. 1 14 et syn. 

1906. Anisops sardea. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. Ill, p. 45. 

Barkuda, in small pond in the middle of the island, 16-17-vii-14 
15— 22-vii-1916, 25-vii— 4-viii-17. 

Recorded from Bombay ; Burma : Minhla. Widely distributed in 
S. Palaearctic and Ethiopian Regions. 

Anisops niveus (Fabr.) 

1775. Notonecta nivea, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 690. 

1798. Notonecta ciliata, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Siq^jjl, p. 524. 

1851. Anisops hyalinus, Fieber, Abh. hohm. Ges. Wiss. (5) VII, p. 482. 

1868. Anisoj)s ciliatus, Stal, Vet.-Ak. Handl. VII, 11, p. 137. 

1873. Anisops pellucens, Gerstaecker, Van der Decken's Reise, III, 2, p. 424. 

1895. Anisops scutellaris, de Carlini, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. XXXV, p. 123. 

1899. Anisojis niveus, Kirkaldy, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1899, p. 105. 

1904. Anisops niveus, Kirkaldy, Wien. ent. Zeit. XXIII, p. 118. 

1906. Anisopts nireus, Distant, Faun. Brit. hid. Rhyn. Ill, p. 46. 

Barkuda, in small pond in the middle of the island, 16-vii-14, 25- 
vii — ■4-viii-17. 

Plea palleseens, Dist. 

1906. Plea palleseens. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. Til, p. 48. 

1910. Plea palleseens. Distant, var. Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. V (Appendix), p. 336. 

Barkuda, in small pond in the middle of the island, 15-22-vii- 
1916, 25-vii— 4-viii-1917. 



14 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

Recorded from Bengal : Calcutta (in tanks) ; Rajshahi. United 
Provinces : Lucknow. Cochin State : Ernakulam. 



Family CORIXIDAE. 
Micronecta dione, Dist. 

1910. Micronecta dione. Distant, Faun. Brit. lad. Rhi/n. V (Appendix), p. 348. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

Recorded from Bengal : Asansol ; Calcutta (at light). 

Family CICADIDAE. 
Terpnosia jenkinsi. Distant, var. 

1912. Terpnosia jenkinsi. Distant, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) IX, p. 183. 
1916. Terpnosia jenkinsi, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. VI (Appendix), p. 9. 

A single male from Ganta Sila hill near Rambha, Ganjam district, 
Madras Presidency, 22-vii-16. 

This specimen agrees structurally with a specimen in the collection 
of the Zoological Survey of India from Paresnath hill, 4,000-4,400 ft., 
Bengal (v-1909), identified by Distant, except that it is slightly smaller 
and narrower. The markings on the body, both above and beneath, 
although similar in position and shape, are much smaller and narrower, 
giving the insect a paler appearance. It is probably a pale variety of 
T. jenkinsi and like it there is an abnormality in the tegmen, where 
there is a distinct small cell at its apical margin between the first and 
second apical areas, the one on the right tegmen being larger than the 
one on the left. 

[This Cicada is rare on Barkuda, but common on a neighbouring 
island and on the hill Ganta Sila near Rambha. It is diurnal in habits 
and always lives amidst a dense growth of trees or shrubs. Its song 
is very harsh and never prolonged for more than a few minutes at 
a time. It commonly settles on tree-trunks, on which it is most 
inconspicuous. The male begins to sing as soon as he is settled, and 
as a rule flies off to another tree as soon as his song is finished. 
Although the species was heard daily in July and August, and frequently 
seen, as it flew from tree to tree, we succeeded in catching only one 
specimen.] 

Family FULGORIDAE. 
Dichoptera hyalinata (Fabr.) 

1781. Fulgora hyalinata, Fabricius, Spec. Ins. II, p. 315. 

1791. Fulgora hyalinata, Olivier, Enc. Meth. VI, p. 572. 

1800. Fulgora hyalinata, Donovan, his. Ind. t. vii, f. 3. 

1818. Flatu hyalinata, Germar, Mag. Ent. Ill, p. 190. 

1834. Pseudophana hyalinata, Burmiester, Handb. Ent. II (1), p. 160. 

1839. Dichoptera hyalinata, Spinoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1839, p. 289, t. xiii, f. 3^ 

1886. Dichoptera hyalinata, Atkinson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal LV, p. 23. 

1906. Dichoptera hyalinata. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. Ill, p. 238. 

Barkuda, 15— 22-vii-16, 25-vii— 4-viii-17. 



1918.] C. A. Paiva : Rhyncliota from Barhuda I. 15 

[This species usually rests on the bark of trees, on which it is very 
inconspicuous. It is not at all rare on Barkuda.] 

In one sex, probably the female, the tegmina have, besides the 
piceous transverse fascia at apices of ulnar veins, another piceous 
transverse fascia between this fascia and the base. 

Recorded from Bengal ; Calcutta ; Bombay ; Bangalore ; Ceylon : 
Tangalla ; Andamans. 

Family MEMBRACIDAE. 

[I doubt whether any species of this family breeds on the island.] 

Leptocentrus substitutus (Walk.) 

1851. Centrotus substitutus. Walker, List Horn. II, p. 605. 

1858. Centrotus obliquus, Walker, Ins. t^aund., Horn. p. 79. 

1858. Centrotus flexicorne. Walker, Ins. Saund., Ham. p. 78. 

1885. Leptocentrus substitutus, Atkin.son, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal LIV, p. 87. 

1886. ? Centrotus flexicorne, Atkinson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal LV, p. 197. 
1886. ? Centrotus obliquus, id. ibid. LV, p. 197. 

1908. Lejjtocentrus substitutus. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. IV, p. 29. 
1916. Leptocentrus substitutus, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. VI (Appendix), 
p. 154. 

Barkuda, 15— 22-vii-16, 25-vii— 4-viii-17. 

Recorded from Bengal : Calcutta, Rajmahal. Behar : Bhogaon, 
Purneah district, Orissa : Puri. Bombay. Madras : Gopkuda Island, 
Chilka Lake, Ganjam district. S. India : Mysore. Ceylon : Pera- 
deniya, Elephant Pass, Balangoda, Colombo, Yatiyantota, Kelan 
Valley. 

[This is a very common insect on diverse plants in many parts of 
India. On Barkuda I have only seen it on the leguminous shrub 
Crotolaria striata, D. C, and have never succeeded in finding the young, 
which in other parts of India are usually to be found with the adult.] 

Coccosterphus minutus (Fabr.) 

1798. Membracis minutus, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. Suppl., p. 514. 
1803. Centrotus minutus, Fabricius, Syst. Ryhng., p. 22. 
1846. ? Scaphula minutus, Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Fnt. Fr. 1846, p. 495. 
1869. Coccosterphus minutus, Stal, Hem. Fnbr. II, p. 51. 
1885. Coccosterjihus minutus, Atkinson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. LIV, j). 89. 
1903. Coccosterphus minutus, Melichar, Horn. Faun. Ceylon, p. 121. 
1908. Coccosterphus minutus. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. IV, p. 71. 
1916. Coccosterphus minutus, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Rhyn. VI (Appendix), 
p. 175. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — 4-viii-17, also one specimen identified by Distant 
from the Chilka Survey, 21-vii-14. 

Stal recorded it from " Tranquebar." 



Family JASSIDAE. 

[The members of this family are very scarce on this island. I have 
observed Eutettix phycitis, Dist., feeding on Crotolaria striata, D. C, 
but with this exception, the few specimens we obtained flew to light in 
the evening.] 



iG Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Thomsoniella porrecta (Walk.) 

1858. Acocephahis jjorrectus. Walker, List Hon. Suppl., p. 262. 

1859. Platymetopius lineolatus, Motsch., £tud. Ent. VIII, p. 114. 
1870. Hecalus hirschbaum.ii, Stal, OJv. Vet.-Ak. Fork., 1870, p. 737. 

1880. Thomsoniella kirschbaumii, Signoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1880, p. 52, 

t. i, f. 44. 
1885. Thomsoniella kirschbaumii, Atkinson, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. LIV, p. 104. 
1903. Thomsoniella porrecta, Melichar (part.) Horn. Faun. Ceylon, jj. 173. 
1906. Thomsonia lineolatus, Kirkaldy, Bej). Exp. Stat. Hav\ Plant. Assoc, pt. IX, 

p. 337. 
1906. Thomsonia kirschbaumii, Kirlvaldy, Bep. Exp. Stat. Haw. Plant. Assoc, 

pt. IX, p. 338. 
1908. Thomsoniella porrecta. Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Bhyn. IV, p. 278. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — 4-viii-17. 

Recorded from Bengal : Calcutta. Behar : Pusa. Burma : N. Shan 
Hills. Maldive Islands : Minikoi. Ceylon : Peradeniya, Newara Eliya, 
Puttalam, Negombo, Bandarawella. Phillippines. Queensland : Cairns. 

Eutettix phycitis. Distant. 

1908. Eutettix 2)hycitis, Distant, Faun. Brit. Ind. Bhyn. IV, p. 303. 

Barkuda, 25-vii — 4-viii-19. 

Recorded from Bengal : Calcutta. Behar : Pusa ; Purneah. 
Ceylon : Kandy. 

Also three specimens representing three species of Jassidae. They 
all belong to very minute species which appear to fall into the sub- 
family Typhlocybinae. 



II. SOME UNDESCRIBED TADPOLES FROM 
THE HILLS OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., Director, Zoological 
Survey of India. 

(Plate I.) 

With one exception the tadpoles here described were found in the 
hills of Cochin, in most cases with young frogs of their species, by Dr. 
F. H. Gravely and Mr. B. Sundara Raj in September, 1914. The tadpole 
of Nyctihatrachus pygmaeus was, however, obtained by Capt. R. B. S. 
Sewell, I. M.S., in a small lake in the Nilgiris. The species from Cochin 
are particularly interesting as illustrating peculiar adaptations in tad- 
poles that live in hill-streams. 

Rana verrucosa, Glinther. 

(Plate I, figs. 1, la.) 
Boulenger, Faun. Brit. Ind., Bept., p. 448 (1890). 

The tadpole is small, by no means stout ; the head and body are 
rather narrowly ovoid and somewhat depressed ; the snout is bluntly 
pointed and declivous ; the nostrils as seen from above appear to be 
nearer the tip of the snout than to the eyes ; the distance between them 
is about half that between the eyes, which are situated on the dorsal 
surface but directed outwards and are evidently prominent in life. The 
spiracle is situated a little below the eye, nearer to it than to the 
posterior end of the body ; it is tubular in form and points backwards 
and a little upwards. The ventral surface is convex. 

The mouth-disk is very small and of the normal type, directed down- 
wards and a little forwards, distinctly transverse in form, with a lateral 
emargination on either iside ; the anterior margin of the upper lip is 
fringed with teeth and devoid of papillae ; the lateral margins are fringed 
with papillae, which become rather longer at the sides of the posterior 
margin ; the middle part of this margin is smooth. The dental formula 
is 1 : 1 + 1/3. The upper beak is crescentic and slender ; the lower beak 
broadly V-shaped. The margins of both parts are very minutely 
serrated ; the basal half of the lower beak is colourless. 

The tail is relatively short and slender, tapering gradually, sharply 
pointed, with the fin-membranes relatively broad and the upper one 
commencing on the posterior part of the body. The anus is directed 
to the right. 

The dorsal surface of the body is blackish, indistinctly mottled and 
marbled with white ; on the snout and sides the colourless markings 
are of greater extent and more conspicuous ; a dark spot occurs over 
each nostril ; the ventral surface is colourless and transparent ; the 
tail is whitish with conspicuous dark brown spots and irregular mark- 
ings. 



18 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Measurements of a specimen with the hind legs well-developed : — 



Total length 

Length of head and body 
Breadth of head and body 
Depth of body . 
Greatest depth of tail 



mm. 
27-5 
11 

7 

5 

4 



Specimens of this tadpole were found in an isolated pool in a rock 
beside a stream in the Cochin forests in September, 1914. Although 
it occurs in hill-country, the species probably does not breed as a rule 
in streams, for the larva is normal and not of any of the tvpes 
commonly associated with life in running water. 

In oeneral appearance and structure the tadpole resembles that 
of Rana limnocharis, but it is stouter and has a relatively shorter tail. 

Distribution. — Jungles of the southern part of the Malabar zone. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17659-60. Parambikulam, 1700-3200 ft.. Cochin State {F. H. Gravely). 

Rana beddomei (Giinther) 

(Plate I, figs. 4, 4a, 46.) 
Boulenger, op. cit., p. 453. 

The tadpole is small and very slender ; the branchial region is pro- 
minent on either side ; the head and body are narrowly oval ; the snout 
is pointed and declivous ; the eyes are situated on the dorsal surface 
and directed upwards ; they are very large and prominent ; the nostril, 
which is small and inconspicuous, is nearer to the eye than to the tip 
of the snout. The spiracle, which is not at all tubular but small and 
slit-like, is situated on the lower part of the left side of the body and is 
directed outwards and a little backwards ; it is rather nearer to the eye 
than to the posterior edge of the body. On the dorsal surface a narrow 
groove extends inwards in a slanting direction from near the middle 
of each eye to meet its fellow on the opposite side ; the combined groove 
extends backwards from a line joining the posterior third of the eyes 
as far as the base of the dorsal fin. 

The mouth-disk is broadly triangular, entirely ventral in position ; 
the upper lip, which is devoid of tubercles, is very distinct from the 
lower ; it is narrowly but deeply notched in the middle line ; the lower 
lip has a marginal fringe of minute tubercles. The dental formula is 
1 + 1: 1:2-1-2/2+2:2; the outermost row of teeth on the upper lip 
is situated on its margin ; the beak is narrow and prominent, strongly 
hooked like that of a parrot ; both the upper and the lower beaks are 
entirely black and have smooth edges. 

The tail is extremely long and slender, and has, even in the young 
tadpole, the fin-membranes very poorly developed ; the muscular part 
tapers gradually to a fine point ; the dorsal membrane consists of a low 
ridge very inconspicuous on the anterior half of the tail ; the ventral 
membrane is slightly better developed but also vestigial. The amis 



tnm. 


mm. 


14-5 


34 


3 


11 


2-5 


7 


2 


4 


1-5 


1-5 



1^1^. ] N. Annandale: tadpoles from S. India. 1^ 

is dextral, but not very strongly so ; it does not form a prominent 
tubercle or tube. 

The dorsal surface of the head and body is of a dark purplish-brown, 
minutely speckled with white and somewhat marbled on the snout. 
The lateral surface of the tail is also purplish-brown marbled with 
white ; the whole of the ventral surface is colourless. 

The hind limbs appear at an early stage of development and attain 
a large size and well-developed condition long before the appearance 
of the fore limbs. 

The following are measurements of (A) of a specimen in which the 
hind limbs appear as small but elongated buds, and (B) of one in which 
they are fully developed. 

A. B. 

Total length .... 
Length of head and body . 
Breadth of head and body 
Depth of body .... 
Greatest depth of tail 

A large series of this remarkable tadpole and of young frogs was 
taken by Dr. F. H. Gravely at the edge of a rocky stream on the Cochin 
hills in September, 1914. He describes the larger individuals (in which 
the fore limbs had not appeared) as skipping rapidly over damp rocks 
when disturbed. It is very curious that a frog so closely allied to R. 
leptodactyla and R. setnipahnata should possess a larva so different, but it 
is clear that the tadpoles of all these forms are very highly modified. 

Specimens of laevae in the collection of the Indian Museum :— 

17671. Parambikulam, 1700-3200 ft., Cochin State (F. H. Gravely). 

Rana leptodactyla, Boulenger. 
(Plate I, figs. 2, 2a, 2&.) 
Boulenger, op. cit., p. 454. 

The tadpole is moderately small ; the head and body are moderately 
stout, oval ; the snout is narrowly rounded in front, somewhat con- 
stricted laterally, declivous ; the eyes are situated far forward, directed 
forwards and outwards, lateral rather than dorsal, probably very pro- 
minent in life ; nostrils about half way between eye and tip of snout, 
further apart than their distance from the eyes ; the interorbital breadth 
nearly twice the internasal ; a row of minute white glands runs round 
the outer and upper margins of the orbit, passing along above the nostril 
on each side to meet its fellow in the middle line a short distance from 
the tip of the snout. The spiracle is small, sinistral, situated nearer the 
dorsal surface than the ventral and nearer the eye than the base of the 
hind limb. The ventral surface is strongly convex. 

The mouth-disk is small, directed downwards and a little forwards, 
without horny teeth ; the upper lip is very distinct, forming a crescentic 
membrane which can be closed down over the mouth, fringed with short, 
pointed papillae and bearing two or three rows of similar papillae at its 



20 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

base just above the upper beak ; the lower lip is divided into five lobes, 
of which two are lateral in position and much larger than the Other 
three, which occupy the posterior margin of the disk ; the upper 
one-third of these lateral lobes, each of which is half as broad as the upper 
lip, is capable of being folded backwards ; the three posterior lobes of 
the lower lip are sub-equal, pointed below and edged with short pro- 
cesses ; similar processes are scattered on the base of the three lobes 
near the lower beak ; both parts of the beak are slender, the upper beak 
relatively broader than the lower, which is a little stouter and V-shaped ; 
both parts are minutely serrated and the upper is entirely black ; the 
basal part of the lower beak is white. 

The tail is powerful, tapering gradually to a rather blunt point ; 
both membranes and muscular part are well-developed, the latter about 
twice as deep as either membrane at its base, both membranes reaching 
the posterior extremity of the body. 

The dorsal surface of the head and body are yellow, with boldly 
contrasting black marks, which extend on to the lateral surfaces ; the 
ventral surface is shaded with black, the pigment being distributed in 
minute, short hair-like lines ; the colour of the tail is similar to that of 
the dorsal surface of the head and body. 

Measurements of a specimen in which the hind limbs are just making 
their appearance : — 

mm. 

Total length .31 

Length of head and body . . . . . . .12-5 

Breadth of head and body ....... 7*5 

Depth of body .......... 6 

Greatest depth of tail ........ 5 

1 have examined only two specimens of this tadpole. Although 
they are accompanied by young frogs of the species, as well as by tiose 
of R. semipalmata and R. verrucosa, the series is by no means complete 
and I rely for the identification rather on circumstantial evidence and 
on the resemblance between the specimens and those of the larva of R. 
semipalmata than on any more definite grounds. 

The specimens were obtained in a small pool at the edge of a jungle- 
stream in the hills in September. Unfortunately no information is 
available that would cast light on the peculiar structure of the mouth- 
parts in this and the next species. 

Distribution. — Hills of the southern part of the Malabar zone and the 
neighbouring districts. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17698. Kavalai, 1300-3000 ft., Cochin State {F. H. Gravely). 

Rana semipalmata, Boulenger. 
(Plate I, figs. 3, 3a, 3b.) 

Boulenger, op. cil., p. 454. 

This tadpole closely resembles that of R. leptodactyla, from which 
it differs in the following particulars : — 

1. The whole animal is slighter and smaller., 



1918. j N. Annandale : Tadpoles from S. India. <SA 

2. The tail is a little longer in proportion to the head and body, 

its length being more than five times its greatest depth. 

3. The upper lip is relatively much broader, being more than three 

times the breadth of one of the lateral lobes of the lower lip, 

4. The beak is relatively broader and stouter. 

5. The markings are less conspicuous and the ventral surface is 

colourless. 

Mr. Gravely obtained a complete series of this larva, with many 
young frogs, in the same circumstances as those in which he found the 
tadpoles of R. leptodactyla and R. verrucosa. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17702. Parambikulam, 1700-3200 ft.. Cochin State {F. H. Gravely). 

Nyctibatrachus pygmaeus (Giinther). 
(Plate I, figs. 5, So.) 
Boulenger, op, cit., p. 467. 

The tadpoles are of moderately large size ; the head and body rather 
narrowly oval, flattened moderately, the ventral surface being distinctly 
convex ; the snout is rounded, the nostrils rather widely separated, 
nearer to one another and to the eyes than to the tip of the snout, the 
distance between them being much more than half the interorbital 
breadth ; the eyes are dorsal but directed outwards, situated at about 
one-third the distance between the tip of the snout and the base of 
the hind limbs. The spiracle is lateral, sinistral, somewhat tubular, 
pointing upwards and backwards. 

The mouth-disk is large and somewhat sucker-like, entirely ventral, 
but with opposible lips and a lateral emargination on either side. The 
lower lip is edged with minute finger-like processes, the lateral region 
of the disk, which is produced in two lobules, is densely covered with 
similar processes ; the upper beak is shallow, broadly U-shaped, 
entirely black, with smooth or almost smooth margins, the lower 
beak much narrower, V-shaped, distinctly but minutely serrated on 
the margins, white at the base for at least half its depth. The dental 
formula is 2 : 5+5/1 + 1 : 5, the three upper tooth-rows being equal 
and the interruption in the third being very slight ; the five upper tooth- 
rows of the lower lip are equal and the sixth rather shorter ; the 
interruption in the first row of this lip is very slight. 

The tail is long and slender, narrowly lanceolate, the muscular part 
relatively deep in the middle, the whole tapering to a fine point ; both 
membranes arise a considerable distance behind the base of the hind 
limbs. 

The dorsal and lateral surfaces of the head and body are purplish- 
brown with a few dark spots, becoming paler between the eyes, the 
ventral surface yellowish, the proximal third of the tail brown with a few 
dark spots, the distal two-thirds as a rule more deeply pigmented, 
marbled with purplish-brown and buff or almost entirely of the former 
colour, the membranes bearing scattered pigment-cells. 



22 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Measurements of a specimen with the hind limbs fairly well developed : — 

mm. 
Total length .......... 51 

Length ot head and body . . . . . . . 19 

Breadth of head and body . . . . . • • 10 

Depth of body .......... 7 

Greatest depth of tail ........ 6 

The specimens in the Indian Museum Avere collected in a small lake 
in June, 1912. They include a young frog with the tail still unabsorbed. 
Distribution. — Anamalai and Nilgiri Hills, South India. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 
17248. Coonoor, Nilgiri district, Madras {Capt. R. B- 8. Sewell, I. M.S.) 

Species Incertae Sedis. 

(Plate I, figs, 6, 6a.) 

Annandale and Narayan Rao, Proc. As. Soc. Bengal (n. s,) XIII, p. clxxxvi 
(1917). 

The tadpole is large ; the head and body massive but flattened, 
broadly rounded in front, relatively very large ; the eyes and nostrils 
are situated far back, the latter about half way between the hind 
limbs and the tip of the snout ; the distance between the nostrils is 
much less than that between them and the eyes, about half the inter- 
orbital breadth ; the eyes are small, entirely dorsal ; the distance from 
the tip of the snout to the nostrils is more than twice that from 
nostril to eye. 

The ventral surface is flattened. The spiracle is sinistral, laterally 
tubular, pointing upwards and backwards, situated rather nearer the 
anus than to the tip of the snout. 

The mouth-disk is ventral, transversely oval, sucker-like, surrounded 
entirely by a margin covered with small rounded tubercles, occupying 
(when the mouth is open) about one-third of the ventral surface ; the 
upper and lower lips are not opposible ; the dental formula is 2/3 or 
2/1-f 1 : 2 ; the two upper tooth-rows are equal and a little longer 
than the three lower rows, which are also equal ; the upper and lower 
beaks are each in a single piece, rather shallow (especially the lower 
beak), moderately stout, with their margins very minutely serrated ; 
they are white with black margin. 

The tail is relatively short and feeble, shallow, sharply pointed ; the 
fin-membranes moderate both above and below, each of about the same 
depth as the muscular portion in the middle of the tail, the upper mem- 
brane commencing some little distance behind the base of the hind legs. 

The colour of the dorsal and lateral surfaces is dark grey with small 
black spots, the tail is marbled with dirty white ; the ventral surface 
is colourless except for a few scattered pigment-cells. 

The anus opens by a transverse slit, which extends right across the 
base of the tail on to a little flattened leaf-shaped membrane, which 
extends backwards on the ventral surface and is situated to the right 
of the middle line. 



1918.] 



N. Annandale : Tadpoles from S. India. 



23 



Measurements of a specimen which has the hind limbs fairly well- 
developed : — 



Total length 

Length of head and body 
Breadth of head and body 
Depth of body . 
Greatest depth of tail 



mm. 
62 
24 
15 

9 

S 



The inner metatarsal tubercle on the feet makes its appearance 
at an early stage and is spade-like and very conspicuous, being almost 
white while the sole of the foot is black. 

The pectoral girdle, which has been dissected out from a nearly 
adult tadpole by Mr. C. R. Narayan Rao, closely resembles that of 
Leptodactylus,^ except that the sternum is poorly developed, and the 
frog possibly belongs to the Cystignathidae as we suggested in the 
paper cited. It is improbable that it belongs to any species of which 
the adult has been described, and new genus of the family as recorded 
from India. I thought at first that it was the larva of Nyctibatrachus 
major, ^ but have since received a series of tadpoles and young frogs of 
that species in hardly good enough condition for description. They 
are quite different. In some respects this tadpole bears a close resem- 
blance to that of Heleophryne natalensis. a South African Cystignathid 
recently described by J. Hewitt.^ It differs from those of Bufo 
penangensis^ and Bufo asper^, both of which have greatly enlarged lips 
modified to form an organ of adhesion, in that both the lips are 
equally enlarged, instead of the lower lip being much the greater of 
the two. The tadpoles in the collection of the Indian Museum were 
collected in September, 1914 ; they were found clinging to rocks by 
means of their oral suckers in rapid-running streams in the neighbour- 
hood of waterfalls. The larvae of H. natalensis were observed in similar 
situations in the valley of the Krantz KlofF in October, 1912. 

Specimens of LARyAE in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 



17709. Kavalai, 1,300-3,000 ft.. Cochin S ate . 

17719. Parambikulam, 1,700-3,200 ft., Cochin State [ {F. H. Gravely). 

17720. Forest Tramway, mi. 10-14, 0-300 ft., Cochin) 



I 



1 See Boulenger, Cat. Batr. Sal. Brit. Mus. p. 238, fig. (1882). 

2 My Rana travnncorica {Eec. Ind. Mus. V, p. 191 : 1910) is synonymous with N. major. 

3 Ann. Natal 3his. II, p. 478, pi. xxxix, figs. 5, 6, 7 (1913). 

* Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1899, p. 909, pi. Ix, figs. 3, 3a. 
^ Van Kanipen, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. LXIX, p. 30, pi. ii, fig. 2. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 
South Indian Tadpoles. 

Rana verrucosa, Giinther. 

Fig. 1.— Tadpole, x 2. 
^^ la. — ^Mouth-disk of tadpole with mouth open, x 8. 

Rana leptodactyla, Boulenger. 

Fig. 2.— Tadpole, x 2. 
„ 2a. — Mouth-disk of tadpole with mouth open, x 16. 
,, 26. — The same with the mouth closed. 

Rana semipalmata, Boulenger. 

Fig. 3.— Tapdole, x 2. 
,, 3a. — Mouth-disk of tadpole with mouth open, x IG. 
„ 36. — The same with the mouth closed. 

Rana beddomei (Giinther). 

Fig. 4. — Young tadpole, x 4. 
,, 4«. — Older tadpole, x 1|. 
„ 46. — Mouth-disk of tadpole, x 8. 

Nyctibatrachus pygmaeus (Giinther). 

Fig. .5.— Tadpole, x l]. 
,, 5a. — Mouth-disk of tadpole, x 8. 

Species incertae sedis. 

Fig. 6. — Tadpole (nat. size). 
„ 6a —Mouth-disk of tadpole, x 2. 



Rec Ind.Mus.,Vol.Xl^,1918. 



Plate I 





'%^ \ 



5<2»<8. 








Z a--xu 




^^'^'■^■■kii^^^% 









,2 ^ A 1 6'. 



4^X6. 





6 a/x2. 




Y^\/Mti^'^ 




/^%i^i/¥^ 



.3^;<.'6. 




o-^-e. 






SOUTH INDIAN TADPOLES 



III. THE TADPOLES OF THE FAMILIES RANIDAE 

AND BUFONIDAE FOUND IN THE 

PLAINS OF INDIA. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., Director, Zoological Survey of Indta^ 
and C. R. Narayan Rao, M.A., L.T., Mysore University, Bangalore. 

(Plate II.) 

In his admirable account of the larvae of the European toads and 
frogs Dr. G. A. Boulenger^ discussed the differential characters 
proper to species, genera and families. He was, however, dealing with 
a fauna comparatively little specialized, in which the Batrachian larvae 
were not highly modified in correlation with different modes of life. In 
a short note ^ published in the Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the 
Indian Science Congress we have pointed out the extreme complexity 
of evolution in the Indian tadpoles, due both to convergence and to 
divergence in structure as well as in habits. Before a satisfactory 
account can be given of those that live in hill-streams and in pools on 
the Indian plateaux — and the majority of the Indian frogs inhabit 
hill-jungles — further investigations are necessary, more particularly 
in Southern India. The tadpoles of the plains, however, living in open 
country and as a rule in still water, do not exhibit the same diversity of 
structure or the same degree of specialization. With the exception of 
a few rare and apparently geographically restricted species such as 
Rana strachani from Malar in Sind and Rana dohsoni from Mangalore 
on the West Coast of Madras, they are well-known ; we have been able 
to examine fresh or at least fairly well-preserved material of all the 
species except the two mentioned by name. In the present paper, 
therefore, we propose to give a succinct taxonomic account of the tad- 
poles of the great majority of the toads and frogs of the families Bufo- 
nidae and Ranidae that are found in the plains of India and Assam ; 
material is not yet forthcoming that would enable us to deal with the 
species peculiar to Burma and Ceylon. When good descriptions are 
already available in readily accessible journals such as the Proceedings 
of the Zoological Society of London, the Journal of the Bombay Natural 
History Society, the Records of the Indian Museum or the Memoirs of the 
Asiatic Society of Betigal it is unnecessary, at a time when paper and 
printing are so expensive, to duplicate them. We have, therefore, 
contented ourselves with a reference and such explanatory remarks 
as seem necessary. Our object is merely to facilitate future work on 
the anatomy and bionomics of the species. 

Animals so soft as tadpoles, even when preserved with great care, 
are very apt to be distorted owing to pressure or shrinkage. We have, 
therefore, relied in our descriptions on definite structural characters, 
such as those connected with the mouth, rather than on comparative 



» Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 593-626, pis. xlv-xlvii (1891). 
* Proc. As. Soc. Bengal (n. s.) 1917, p. clxxxv. 



2g Recunis of the Iiiiluin Museum. [\ oi-. X\ , 

measurements or proportions, except when the differences are very 
!!iLt^ In dealing with certain tadpoles, however, especially those 
ofthe oenus Bujl it is often impossible to find diff'erential structural 
characters, and we have been obliged to accept less satisfactory methods 
oi diagnosis. The larva of each species has probably a characteristic 
anoearance in life, but the differences are hard to define and often some- 
Siat evanescent. Allowance must be made for these facts m naming 
specimens. 

Bibliography of the Indian Tadpoles. 

Anderson .1 " On a Collection of Eeptiles and Batrachia made by 

Colonel Yerbur)^ at Aden and its Neighbourhood. — 

Proc. Zool Soc, London. 1895, pp. 635-663. pis. 

xxxvi and xxxvii (1895). 

\NNXNDXLE N. "On abnormal Ranid Larvae from North-EasteTn 

■ India."— Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1905 (I), pp. 08-6I . 

pi. vi (1905). ^ ^ 

" Some Himalayan Tadpoles.""— Jo^fn*. As. boc. 
Bengal (n. s.) II, pp. 289-292 (1906). . 

" Descriptions of the tadpoles of Rana pleshi with 
notes on allied forms.""— Pf'C. Lnd. Mus. II. pp. 34;>- 

346 (1908). ^ , 

" Contributions to the fauna of Yunnan based on 
collections made by J. Coggin Brown, B.Sc., 1909- 
1910 Part VI. Batrachia and Eeptiles.' —i?('c. /w^- 
Mus.Yh pp. 215-218 (1911). . 

" Zoological Results of the Abor Expedition. 1911-12, 
Batrachia.'"-7?^c. lnd. Mus. VIII. PP- 7-36. pis. 

ii-iv (1912). 

" Zoolooical Results of a Tour in the Far East. Batra- 

ehia.""-Me;>^ As. Soc. Bcmjal VI. pp. 122-155, pis. 

- Some undescribed Tadpoles from the Hills of South- 
ern India."-P.c. lnd. Mm. XV, pp. 17-23, pi. 1 (1918). 

Annandale. N. and C. R. Narayan Rao. -Indian Tadpoles^ -■ 
Proc. As. Soc. Benqcd. 1916. pp. clxxxv, clxxxvi (191 /). 

BoiKAY vox S. "Die Larven der m Ungarn Einheimischen Batra- 
chier."— .4wn. Mm. Nat. Hun,,. VII. pp. M-U/, 
pis. i, ii (1909). ^ ^. ^ 

BouLENOER. G. A. "British Museum Catalogue of Batrachia Sa- 
Hentia." Second edition (1882). 

■' The synopsis of the Tadpoles of the European 
Batrachians.'"— Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1891, pp. 
.593-626, pis. xlv-xlvii (1891). 

- Descriptions of new Reptiles and Batracluans 
obtained in Borneo by Mr. A. Everett and Mr. C. 
Hose."'— Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1893. pp. •)22-o28. 

pis. xlii-xliv (1893). . T. . 1- .f 

"A Catalogue of the Reptiles and Batrachians ot 
Celebes, etc."— Proc.) Zoo/. Sac. London. 1897, pp. 
193-237. pis. vii-xvi (].^97). 



1918.] N. AjVnandale & C. R. Narayan Rao: Tadpoles. 27. 

BouLENGER, Gr. A. " A Revision of the Oriental Pelobatid Batra- 

chians (Me(/aIopJirjjs)."-—Proc. ZooJ. Soc. London, 

1908 (1). pp. 407-430. pis. xxii-xxv (1908). 

■■ Fauna of the Malav Peninsula. Reptilia and 

Batrachia "" (1912). 
Butler, A. L. '"A list of the Batrachians known to inhabit the Malay 

Peninsula,"" etc. — Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. XV. 

pp. 193-205 and 387-402 (1903-1904). 
PRR(a'.so.\. FT. S. " A list of Travancore Batrachia."" — Journ. Bombay 

Nat. Hist. Soc. XV, pp. 499-509, pis. A. B. C. (1904). 
Flower. 8. S. " Notes on a Collection of Reptiles and Batrachians 

made in the Malay Peninsula in 1895—1896 ; etc." — 

Proc. Zool Soc. London. 1896, pp. 856-914. pis. 

xliv-xlvi (1896). 
■■ Notes on a Second Collection of Batrachians made 

in the Malay Peninsula and Siam, etc.'" — Proc. Zool. 

Soc. London, 1899, pp. 885-916, pis. lix and Ix (1899). 
Rao. (\ R. Narayan. " Larva of Rana curtipes, Boiilenger." — Pec. 

hid. Mus. X, pp. 265-267, figs. A. B. (1914). 

" Notes on some South Indian Batrachia."' — 

Rec. Ind. Mus. XI, pp. 31-38, figs. 1-2 (1915). 

" The larva of Rhacophorus 'pleurostictus. Bou- 

lenger. "—i^ec. Ind. Mus. XI, pp. 349-351. fig. 1 (1915). 
,, "On the occurrence of Iridocytes in the larva 

of Microhyla ornata, Boulenger." — Rec. Ind. Mus. 

XIII, pp. 281-292, pi. xi (1917). 
Smith, Malcolm. "Description of five tadpoles from Siam."' — Journ. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam,. II, No. 1, pp. 37-43 ; with two 

plates (1916). 
,, " On a Collection of Reptiles and Batrachians from 

Peninsular Siam." — Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, 

No. 2, pp. 148-171 (1916). 
,, " On the frogs of the genus Oxyglossis." — Journ. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, No. 2, pp. 172-175, pi. (1916). 
Van Kampen, P. N. " Amphibien des Indischen Archipels." — In 

Webers Zool. Ergebn. Neid. Ost.-Ind., IV, pp. 383- 

418, pi. xvi (1907). 

" Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Amphibien larven 

des Indischen Archipels." — Natuurh. Tijdsch. Ned.- 

Ind. LXIX, pp. 25-48, pi. ii, figs. 1-9 (1909). 
Our references under the name of each species are to descriptions 
of or notes on the larva. 

Key to the Families of Batrachian Larvae found in the Plains 

OF India. 

I. Mouth-di.e:k nioie or le?s developed; transverse rows of 
horny teeth usually, and an upper and lower horny 
beak always present ; spiracle on the left side. 

A. Anus (in the natural position) directed towards 

the right Ranidae. 

B. Anus (in the natural position) directed backwards . Bxtpontdae. 
J I. Mcuth-disk not developed; no horny teeth or beak; 

spiracle in th? mid-ventral line .... Engystomatidah. 

d2 



28 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

In using this key care must be taken that the anus is correctly iden- 
tified and that its natural position is ascertained. In some species of 
Ranid larvae its dextral direction is not very strongly marked, while 
in the Bufonidae it is usually situated at the end of a more or less tubular 
sheath which is apt to be twisted "post mortem to one side or the other. 
The only Ranid larva likely to be found in the plains of India in which 
the horny teeth are absent is that of Oxyglossus lima, a species said to 
occur in Bengal. In the tadpole of this genus the mouth-disk is very 
feebly developed and the closed mouth appears as a vertical slit. 

The Engystomatidae will be dealt with in another paper (pp. 41- 
45, fostea). 

Family RANIDAE. 

It does not seem possible (except in the case of Oxyglossus, the tad- 
poles of which differ from those of all other Ranidae^ in the vestigial 
character of the upper lip and in the absence of horny teeth on the 
mouth-disk) to distinguish the larvae of the different genera of this 
family. 

Key to the Ranid Larvae found in the Plains of India. 

I. Mouth-disk poorly developed ; lower lip horseshoe- 

shaped ; no horny teeth ..... Oxyglossus lima, 

II. Mouth-disk well-developed ; at least three transverse 

rows of teeth (as a rule at least one of them in'er- 
rupted in the middle-line) present on the disk. 

A. Three rows of teeth on the mouth-disk. 

1. Beaks shallow ; long finger-shaped processes on the 

lower lip .......? Rana hrevipalmat'j . 

2. Beaks stout ; processes on lower lip short. 

(a) Habit stout; tail spotted with blick, not more 

than twice as long as head and body . . R. cyanophlyctis. 

(6) Habit rather slender; tail wi h )ut black spot?, 

more than twice as long as head and body . R. hexadactyla. 

B. More than three transverse rows of teeth on disk. 

1. Five transverse rows of teeth on disk. 

(a) Habit very stout; snout broadly rounded; fringe 
on margin of lower lip widely interrupted in 
the middle line . . . . . , R. breviceps. 

(h) Habit slender ; snout bluntly pointed ; fringe 
on margin of lower lip not or slightly inter- 
rupted, 
(i) Dorsal profile of tail strongly sinuate ; fringe on 
margin of lower lip papilliform^ uninter- 
rupted ....... R. limnocharis. 

(ii) Dorsal profile of tail not sinuate ; fringe on 
margin of lower lip digitiform, slightly 
interrupted in the middle . . . . R. tytleri. 

2. Seven rows of teeth on mouth-disk . . . Rhacophorus 

macxdatus. 

3. More than seven rows of teeth on mouth-disk. 

(a) Interior of mouth inside beaks armed with a 

horny plate on the palate and a hornj' tubercle 

on each side ; not more than five tooth-rows 

on upper-lip ; lips rather feebly developed, 
(i) Abdomen nearly flat ..... Rana tigrina. 
(ii) Abdomen distinctly convex . . , . R. crassa. 

^ In those of two species of Rana from the hills of Southern India there are no horny 
teeth, but the disk and beaks are well developed. See pp. 19. -20 of this volume. 



1918.] '^. Annandale & C. E. Naeayan Eao : Tadpotes. 29 

(b) Interior of mouth unarmed ; seven rows of teeth 
on upper lip. 
(i) Lips enlarged, forming a cup-like structure . R, sternosignata. 

(ii) Lips not enlarged Bhacophorus ma'ia' 

haricus. 

Oxyglossus lima, Gravenh. 

1916. Oxyglossus lima. Smith, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, p. 173, pi. 

An excellent description of this peculiar tadpole has recently been 
given by Smith in the paper cited, which is not always accessible to 
naturalists in India. As we have not been able to examine fresh speci- 
mens, we quote his description. 

" Head and body, length twice, or nearly twice its breadth, snout 
long, obtusely pointed. Nostrils equidistant between the eyes and the 
tip of the snout. Eyes towards the upper surface of the head, looking 
outwards and upwards, twice as far apart as the nostrils. Spiraculum 
sinistral, directed straight backwards, nearer the vent than the eye, 
long and prominent in life. Anal tube very short, median. Mouth 
small, terminal, without papillae ; lower lip vertically horse-shoe shaped, 
upper lip, a small rounded flap ; no teeth ; beak entirely black, lower 
mandible deeply semilunar in shape. The lower lip, which occupies 
the greater part of the mouth, itself projects from a sheath of skin, 
which is formed by, and is part of, the skin of the rest of the body. 

Tail sharply pointed, very high at its commencement where it rises 
almost abruptly from the base of the tail, diminishing gradually as it 
passes backwards ; at its highest point about four times as deep as the 
lower crest, which is very shallow. Toes webbed as in the adult. 

Colour {in life). — Light olive above, with darker markings ; a dark 
streak through the eye passing backwards, and dark patches at the base 
of the tail. Caudal membranes handsomely veined and marbled with 
shades of brown. Below, white. 

Dimensions. — Total length, 33 mm., head and body 11. 

A feature of the tadpole is its high, festooned upper crest, which gives 
it a very handsome appearance." 

Geographical distribution. — The species is said to occur in Bengal, 
but it is doubtful whether it is to be found in the plains. Boulenger 
(Faun. Malay Penin., Rept., p. 225) gives the distribution as " Bengal 
and Southern China to the Malay Archipelago." 

Smith's tadpoles were from Siam. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

18291. Bangkok, Siam. Dr. Malcolm Smith. 

? Rana brevipalmata, Peters. 

? 1904. Rana limnocharis, Ferguson, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XV, p. 601, 
pi. A., fig. 3. 

1917. ? Rana brevipalmata, Annandale, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal VI, p. 134, ? pi. 

vi, fig. 6. 

There is considerable doubt as to the tadpole of this species, which 
appears to be found both in Pegu and Tenasserim to the east and in the 
Malabar Zone to the west of India. Without further material than 
we possess it is useless to attempt to give a detailed description. 



30 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17708. Chalakudi, Cochin State. Dr. F. H. Gravely. 

17730. Kawkareik, Amhrst district, Tenass»rim. Dr. F. H. Gravely. 

Rana cyanophlyctis, SchncMdei-. 
(Plate II. fi,u. 1.) 

1895. Rana cyanophlyctis, Anderson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1S95, p. 660, pi. 
xxxvii, fig. 2. 

An excellent description and figures of Arabian specimens of this 
tadpole were given by the late Dr. J. Anderson in the paper cited above. 
Through the kindness of Dr. Boulenger we have been able to compare 
some of these specimens with Indian examples. They are larger and 
stouter than any we have seen from this country, but there is consider- 
able difference in this respect between specimens from different Indian 
localities. 

The tadpole mav be distinguished from all other Oriental larvae with 
which we are acquainted, except that of Rana hexadactyla , by the arma- 




Fic. 1. — Mouth-disk of a tadpole of i?rt«a c(/i'//*o;)/?/yr//.'( with the upper tooth-row greatly 
reduced (considerably enlarged). 

ture of its mouth. Its beak, though stouter than that of most species, 
is less stout and less prominent than that of the tadpole of Rana corru- 
yata} in which there is no horny pad on the mouth-disk below the beak. 
The condition of the inner row of teeth on the upper lip is variable. 
Sometimes it extends right across the disk, but it is usually interrupted 
more or less broadly in the middle line. Occasionally it is almost com- 
pletely absent. 

Full-grown Indian speeirnens are usually about 65 to 75 mm. long ; 
the tail is less than twice as long as the head and body ; its dorsal mem- 
brane rises more or less abruptly a little in front of the posterior extrem- 
ity of the body, and the top of the head is flat. 



1 Mem. As. Soc, Bengal, VI, pt. 11, p. 149, fig. 7A and B. 



1918. J ?s^ AxxANDALE & C. R. IS'arayan Kao: Tadpoles. ^M 

• Measurenie)its of full grown speciDiens icitli the hind leys weU-deve-^ 
loped : — 

A. I?, 

mm. mm. 

Total length 65 71 

Length of head and body ..... 24 25 

Breadth of head and body ..... 15 14 

Greatest depth of tail ..... 17 14 

Specimen A is from an island in tlie Chilka Lake, specimen B from 
Kashmir. 

Geographical distrihution of the species. — The species occurs in Bahi- 
chistan and all over India proper : also in Southern Ai'abia, Ceylon 
and the northern part of the Malay Peninsula. It ascends the Hima- 
layas to a height of at least 6.000 ft. 

Specimens of larvae ix the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

16532. Hardramaut, South Arabia. Brit. Mus. (Ex.). 
18281. Kashmir. Uol. H. T. Pease, I.CV.D. 
17247. Junagara, Katbiawar. S. P. Agharkar. 

17736. Rausali, Naini Tal district., W. Himalayas. Mus. Coll. 

17737. Kalka, alt. 2,400 ft., base of 8ii'ila Hills. Mus. Coll. 

17739. Mirzapur, United Provinces. Mrs. .Johnstone. 

17194. Marihan, Mirzapur district. United Provinces. Capt. R. B. tS. Sewell, 
I.M.S. 

17740. Hamirpur Road, United Province ^. J. W. Gaunter. 
17735. Chupra, Saran district, Bihar. M. Mackenzie. 

17738. Puri, Orissa. Dr. N. Annandale. 

18470. Barkuda Island, Chilka Lake, Ganjam district, Madras. Dr. N. Annan- 
dale. 

Rana hexadactyla. Lesson. 

(Plate II. hgs. 2. 2a. 26.) 

1904. Rana hexadactyla, Ferguson, op. cit., p. 500, pi. A., fig. 2. 

In structure this tadpole resembles that of Rana cyanophlyctis, but 
it is much smaller and more slender and has the tail shallower and longer 
in proportion, the snout is more produced and the mouth is rather 
smaller, with the beak shallower. There is a deep groove, with its 
sides and base sometimes cornified. across the lower lip ; the margin 
of the upper beak fits into this groove when the mouth is shut. There 
are no dark spots on the tail, the ventral surface of the head and body 
is silvery and there are usually silvery spots on the sides of the head, 
body and tail. The colouration is. however, variable. 

Measurements of a specimen in irhich the hind legs are not quite fully 
developed : — 

mm. 

Total length 35 

Length of head and body . . . . . . . 12 

Breadth of head and body ....... 6 

Greatest depth of tail ........ 7 

Geographical distrihution of tlie species. — South Peninsulai' India 
and Ceylon. The most northern recoid with which we are acquainted 
is from Puri in Orissa. 



32 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17722. Pari, Orissa Coast. Dr. N. Annandale. 

17726. Madras (town). Museum Coll. 

17665-66. Chalakudi, Cochin State. Dr. F. H. Gravely. 

17727. Kandy, Ceylon. Dr. F. H. Gravely. 



Rana breviceps, Schneider. 

1904. Rana breviceps, Ferguson, op. cit., p. 502, pi. B., fig. 1. 

1915. Rana breviceps, Narayan Rao, Rec. Ind. Mus., XI, p. 34, figs. 2A, 2B. 

This tadpole has been described by Ferguson and by Naravan Rao, 
who points out certain differences between the specimens examined 
by him and those described by the former author. 

Geographical distribution of the species. — The Punjab (including the 
Kashmir Valley) ; the Himalayas up to 7,000 ft. ; the Indo-Gangetic 
plain ; Peninsular India ; Assam. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

16534. Trivandrum, Travancore. Brit. Mus. (Ex.). 
16633. Bangalore, South India. C. R. Narayan Rao. 
17676. Coorg, South India. C. R. Narayan Rao. 



Rana limnocharis, Weigm. 

1909. Rana limnocharis, van Kampen, Natuurh. Tijdsch. Ned.-Ind., LXIX, 
p. 35. 

1916. Rana limnocharis, Smith, op. cit., pp. 165-166. 

1917. Rana limnocharis, Annandale, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal VI, p. 132, figs. 2B, 

(p. 124), 3B (p. 132), pi. vi, fig, 2. 

Tadpole usually small, but variable in size ; head and body broadly 
oval, somewhat depressed, snout bluntly pointed, declivous ; nostrils 
as seen from above much nearer tip of snout than to eyes, the distance 
between them not quite half that between the eyes ; interorbital space 
about as wide as distance between eye and nostril ; eyes lateral, directed 
outwards, but protruding above in the living animal. Spiracle tubular, 
its opening hardly below the level of the eye, nearer to the eye than to 
the posterior extremity of the body. Ventral surface slightly convex. 

Mouth-disk small, transverse ; upper lip edged with teeth, lower 
lip, the lateral lobes of which are not well developed, with papillae. 
Dental formula 1 : 1 + 1/13, the uppermost tooth-row much the longest, 
the first and second rows on the lower lip sub-equal ; beak black, slender, 
not serrated on the margins, the upper part V-shaped, with a distinct 
convexity in the middle, the lower part simply V-shaped. 

Colouration whitish, more or less densely covered with black pig- 
ment-cells on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the head and body and a- 
more or less distinct dark Y-shaped mark on the top of the head. 
Ventral surface almost colourless ; tail whitish blotched with black. 

Tail relatively slender, sharply and gradually pointed, with the 
membranes particularly well-developed ; dorsal membrane arising almost 
on a level with the posterior extremity of the body, distinctly deeper 
than the lower membrane, its margin sinuous. 



1918.] N. Annandale & C. E. ^abayan Eao : Tadpoles. S3 

Measurements of a large specimen ivith the hind legs ivell-dereloped : — 

mm. 

Total length 51 

Length of head and body . ..... 17'5 

Breadth of head and body ....... 10 

Greatest depth of tail ........ 8-5 

Geographical distribution of the species. — The plains of India ; the 
Himalayas up to 7,000 ft. ; Burma up to 6.000 ft. ; Siam ; China ; Japan ; 
the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

Specimens of lakvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17265-731. Gangtok, 6,150 ft., Sikkim. Museum Coll. 

17729. River Tista, Jalpaiguri district, East Bengal. Dr. N. Annandale. 

17724. Mirzapur, United Provinces. Mrs. Johnstone. 

17723. Khemsa, 2,650 ft., Bombay Presidency. S. P. Agharkar. 

17732. Nechal, Western Ghats, Satara district. Dr. F. H. Gravely. 

17721. Madras (town). Dr. .T. R. Henderson. 

18303. Prae, Siam. Dr. Malcolm Smith. 

16288. Batavia, Java. Dr. P. N. van Kampen. 

Rana tytleri (Theobald). 
(Plate II, figs. 3, 3a.) 

Tadpole moderately large, but of graceful shape ; head and body 
narrowly ovoid, flattened above but not depressed ; snout rather broadly 
rounded, slightly declivous ; eyes lateral, but situated close to the dorsal 
surface ; nostrils situated nearer the tip of the snout than the eyes, 
the distance between them much less than the interorbital space or the 
distance from eye to nostril. Spiracle tubular, directed upwards and 
backwards, situated much nearer eye than to posterior extremity of 
the body ; throat somewhat flattened, abdomen convex. 

■ Mouth-disk small, pointing forwards rather than downwards, dis- 
tinctly transverse ; the upper lip nearly straight, edged with teeth : 
the lower lip with a distinct lateral lobe on either side, which is con- 
stricted in the middle ; the lateral lobes edged with rather broad and 
blunt papillae, which extend inwards at the constriction ; the posterior 
lobe fringed with two rows of finger-like processes, which are interrupted 
for a short distance in the middle ; dental formula 1 : l-|-l/3 or 
1 : l-f-l/l-j-l : 2 ; the anterior tooth-row relatively broad ; the two 
halves of the divided row on the upper lip very short and widely separ- 
ated ; first and second rows on the lower lip sub-equal, third row much 
shorter ; the first row on this lip very shghtly interrupted, perhaps 
by accident ; beak wide and shallow, both the upper and the lower 
parts white, with black edges ; the middle part of the upper beak almost 
straight. 

Tail powerful, of graceful shape, sharply pointed, with both mus- 
cular and membranous portions well-developed ; dorsal membrane 
arising well in front of the posterior extremity of the body, the dorsal 
and ventral margins almost straight and parallel for the first half of their 

1 Possibly these specimens represent a distinct local race. 



34 l^econls of lhr Indian }iiisevni. [Vol. XV, 

length, then approaching one another rather abruptly. Anus directed 
to the right. 

Dorsal and lateral surfaces chestnut-brown ; a dark longitudinal 
streak extending back along the body from the eye, edged with white 
above ; ventral surface of throat chestnut-brown, of abdomen M'^hitish ; 
tail with small white and dark brown spots. 

Measurement of a spechnen with the hitid legs iveU-develojjed : — 

mm. 

Total length 61 

Length of bead and body ....... 21 

Breadth of head and body . . . . . . .12-6 

Greatest depth of tail . . . . . . . .11-5 

We have seen a single specimen of this tadpole, which one of us 
obtained in June, 1911, together with a tadpole of R. limnocliaris, in a 
small weedy pool some miles from the base of the Eastern Himalayas 
near Siliguri. The hind legs are well developed and agree with those 
of the type specimen of R. tytleri, the only species found in tlie district 
to which this larva could belong. 

The tadpole somewhat resembles that of R. limvocharis. from which 
it is easily distinguished by its colouration, by the shape of its tail and 
by the formation of its mouth-disk. 



Rana tigrina, Daud. 

1917. Bana tigrina, Annandale, Mem, As. Soc. Bengal, VI, p. 125, fig. 2A, pi. vi» 
figs. 1, Irt. 

The tadpole of this species has recently been described and figTired 
from living specimens by Annandale. Attention may, however, be 
directed to an error in his account of the mouth-disk. The dental 
formula of the lower lip in normal specimens is usually 2-f2 ; 2 or 3-f 3 : 2 
and the third row of teeth appears to be divided only in degenerate 
specimens. In individuals kept in captivity some or all of the teeth 
on both lips are apt to disappear. 

Measurements : — 



Total length 

Length of head and body 
Breadth of head and body . 
Greatest depth of tail 

Specimen A is from Calcutta and has the hind legs about half deve- 
loped. Specimen B is from Damukdia Ghat on the Ganges, and has 
the hind legs in almost the same condition as specimen A. Specimen 
C is from Khoolna in the Gangetic delta and has the hind legs fully 
developed. 

"We give here for comparison measurements of tadpoles of the closely 
related species Rana nujidosa (from Bangkok. Siam) and R. erassa (from 
Madras). In both cases the hind legs are fully developed. 



A. 


B, 


C. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


35 


45 


50 


13-5 


16 


16 


8 


9-75 


11 


5-5 


8 


6-5 



1918.] IST. Annandale & C. R. ISakayax Rao: Tadpoles 



35 



Measurements 



Total length 

Length of head and body 
Breadth of head and body 
Greatest depth of tail 



R. rugidosa. 

mm. 
62-5 
22-5 
14-5 

12 



R. crassa^. 

mm. 

6S-5 

24-5 

16 

11-5 



Geographical distribution of the species. — The plains of the whole of 
Northern and Peninsular India, with the exception of a few localities 
in Madras ; the Nepal Valley ; Assam ; Burma and Yunnan. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17733. Siliguri, base of East Himalayas. J. B. Richardson. 

16096. Damukdia Ghat, River Ganges, Bengal. R. H. Hodgart. 
15718. Sara Ghat, River Ganges, Bengal. R. H. Hodgart. 

16097. Khoolna, Eastern Bengal. J. W, Gaunter. 
17162-8, 9004. Calcutta Dr. .Jerdon. 
1080.3-10810-11. No history. 

Rana crassa, Jerdon^ 

Bonlenger - has recently shown that this frog, which he regards 
as a variety of R. figrina. is at any rate racially distinct. It is 
distinguished by its very short hind limbs and by the peculiar 
structure of the internal metatarsal tubercle. 

The tadpoles differ from that of the true R. tigrina in the following 
particulars : — 

They are larger and of stouter build, with the abdomen more convex ; 
the dorsal surface is more densely pigmented and there is a pale band 
extending backwards in an oblique direction from the nostril to a pale 
space surrounding the eye. This band probably cov^ers a glandular 
channel. 

The tadpole very closely resembles that of R. rugulosa, Wiegmann,'* 
except that the dorsal membrane of the tail is not so elevated and that 
the colouration of the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the head and bodv 
are less uniform. 

We have been able to examine only two tadpoles that can be as- 
signed to this species. In one of them the hind legs are fairly well- 
developed, while in the other the toes are already differentiated. 

Geographical distribution of the species. — The frog is said to occur to 
the exclusion of the true Rana tigrina in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the town of Madras. Jerdon gives its distribution as '" a few tanks 
in the Carnatic "" and Boulenger records specimens from Benares as well 
as from various localities in South India and Ceylon. There are speci- 
mens in the Indian Museum from Colombo. Madras. Chandballv in 
Orissa and Agra in the United Provinces. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17734. Madras (town). Dr. J, R. Henderson. 



^ Rana crassa, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, XXII, p. 531. 

• Ttec. Ind. Mtis., XV (1918). 

•' P. tigriiui, Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 891, pi. hx, tigs. 2, 2a (1899). 



36 Uecords of the Indian Miiseum. [Vol. XV, 

Rana sternosignata, Murray. 

The tadpoles of this species that we have examined are not in 
good condition. In general facies they appear to resemble those of 
Rana pleskii ' but the build is stouter and the head and body are dis- 
tinctly broader and probably flatter. The mouth-disk is transverse, 
and large ; the margin of the upper lip is beset with horny teeth except 
at its lower extremities, which bear a double or triple row of elongate 
tubercles. A similar fringe of somewhat larger tubercles runs round 
the edge of the lower lip and there is also at its upper extremity, near 
the ends of the tooth-rows, a patch of similar structures. There are 
about seven rows on the upper lip and three on the lower lip ; the most 
anterior of the latter is usually divided in the middle, while the others 
are complete. The nostril is nearer the tip of the snout than to the eye. 
The spiracle is nearer to the eye than to the posterior extremity of the 
body. It is prominent and tubular and is situated about half way up 
the left side. The anus, which is provided with a large triangular flap, 
is distinctly dextral. The tail, which is acutely pointed, is apparently 
more than twice as long as the head and body and has both the mus- 
cular and membranous portions well-developed. The upper tail mem- 
brane commences as a low ridge above the posterior extremity of the 
body. Specimens in which the legs are beginning to appear are at 
least 75 mm. long. The tail is apparently marked with large black or 
brown blotches, but no detailed description of the colouration can be 
given. 

Geographical distribution of the species. — Kashmir at moderate alti- 
tudes ; Baluchistan ; Sind. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

14719. Quetta. Major C. G. Nurse 

Rhacophorus maculatus (Gray). 

1912. Rhicophonts miculatus, Annandale, Rec. Ind. Mus. VIII, p. 14. 

This tadpole is an extremely variable one. It seems to be readily 
affected by life in different types of environment and to become much 
paler and smaller in muddy water. It is possible that differences due 
to environment are greater than racial differences. Three local races of 
the species are distinguished by Annandale. 

Geographical distribution : — 

1. Rhacophorus maculatus (Giinther) {forma typica). — Peninsular 

India and Ceylon. 

2. Rhacophorus maculatus himalayensis, Annandale. — The East- 

ern Himalayas, Assam, Western China. 

3. Rhacophorus maculatus leucomystax (Gravenhagen).' — Lower 

Burma, Tenasserim, the Malay Peninsula and the 
Malay Islands ; ? Bengal east of the Bay (Chittagong). 

1 Annandale, Rec. Ind. Mus., II, p. 345 (1908) and XIII, p. 417, figs. 1,2 (1917). 



1918.] N. Annandale & C. E. Narayan Rao: Tadpoles. 37 

Flower's ^ excellent description of the tadpoles from Bangkok applies 
to some Indian specimens. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum • — 

Rhacophorus macnlafiis (Giinther). 

16461. Sukna, base of Eastern Himalayas. Museum ColL 

17717. Balighai, near Puri, Orissa. Dr. N. Annandale. 
17767. Madras (Museum compound). Dr. J. R. Henderson. 
18295. ) -r, 1 a 4-u T T C C. R. Narayan Rao. 

17718. S Bangalore, South India. ^ ^^ ^_ Annandale. 

12607-10. Calcutta Zoological Gardens. Dr. J. Anderson. 

Rhacophorus maculatus himalayensis, Annandale. 

17774. Pashok, Darjpcling district, Eastern Himalayas, alt. 2,500-3,500 ft. Dr. 

F. H. Gravely. 
16098. ) 

17706. [ Kurseong, 5,000 ft., Eastern Himalayas. Museum Coll., Dr. N. Annandale. 
17068, ) 

? Rhacophorus maculatus ieucomystax, Gravenhagen. 

18267. Rangamati, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bengal. R. Hodgart. 

Rhacophorus malabaricus, Jerdon. 

1904. Rhacophorus malabaricus, Ferguson, op. ciL, p. 503, pi. B, fig. 3, pi. C. 

We have no personal acquaintance with the tadpole, which has been 
described and figured by Ferguson. 

Geographical distribution of the species. — Southern part of the Malabar 
zone and the forests of Mysore. 

Family BUFONIDAE 
Key to the Bufonid Larvae found in the Plains of India. 

I. Colour almost uniform black or brown ; only slightly 

paler on the fin-membranes and ventral surface. 

A. Nostril half as 1 irge as eye .... Bufo fergusoni. 

B. Nostril less than half as large as eye. . . Bufo mdanostictus. 

C. Nostril more than three-fourths as l.irge as eye . Bufo microtympa- 

num. 

II. Colour more or less mottled or speckled ; ventral 

surface distinctly paler than dorsal surface, at any 
rate anteriorly. 

1. Dorsal profile of tail with a low and gradual con- 

vexity : habit rather slender ; dorsal surface 

of head and body with minute white specks . Bufo stomaticus. 

2. Dorsal tail fin elevated immediately behind the 

body ; habit stouter . colouration dark . . Bufo viridis. 

The only genus known from the plains of India is the universally 
distributed genus Bufo. The tadpoles of most species of this genus 
resemble one another very closely and can only be distinguished by 
slight differences in proportions, in colouration and in the relative 
lengths of the rows of teeth on the disk. In all those found in the plains 

1 Flower, Proc. Zool. Sac. London, 1896, p. 905, pi. xliv, fig. 2, 



38 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

of India the dental formula is either 2/3 or 1-|-1 : ly.'l the lips 
are poorly developed and only tubercuiate on the lateral margins, and 
the beaks are weak. In two Oriental species that live in hill-streams, 
viz., Bufo asper ^ and Bufo penangensis, ^ however, the lips are greatly 
enlarged and modified to foi'm an apparatus for clinging tn rocks. 

So far as the species of the plains are concerned it is difficult to dis- 
tinguish the larvae specifically unless extremely well-preserved material 
is available. The tadpole of Bufo melanostictus, however, and that 
assigned provisionally to B. fergusoni can be separated from those of B. 
stomaticus and B. viridis by their uniform colouration. B. fergusoni 
apparently occurs only in the southern part of the Peninsula and it 
is doubtful whether B. viridis descends into the plains at all ; if so. it 
only does so in the north-west. Any black Bufonid tadpole from the 
Indo-Gangetic plain or the northern part of Peninsular India is, 
therefore, almost certaiii to be that of B. melanostictus. 

Bufo melanostictus, Schneider. 

1896. Bufo melanostictus. Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. London. ISOti, p. 911, pi. xliv, 

fig. 3. 
1899. Bufo melanostictus, id., ibid., p. 910. 
1906. Bufo melanostic'.us, Annaudale, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, II, p. 289. 

Flower has published an admirable description of the tadpole. His 
figure also is good, but is considerably larger than the normal size. 
Individuals, however, sometimes grow very large in abnormal condi- 
tions. 

The toad is found all over the Oriental Region. 

Specimens of l.arvae in the collection of the Indian Museum :— 

16104. Naini Tal, Western Himalayas. R. Hodgart. 

17784. Patari, Naini Tal district, Western Himalayas. Museum Coll. 

17794. Mashobra, Simla Hills, Western Himalayas. Baini Parsad. 

17750. Bhim Tal, alt. 4,450 ft., Western Himalayas. S. W. Kemp. 

17746. Tista River, 4,500 ft.. Eastern Himalayas. Dr. L. L. Termor. 

17747. Jalpaiguri (Tista River), North Bengal. Dr. N. Annandale. 

17999. Hevok, Darjeeling district. Eastern Himalayas. H. E. Lord Carmichael. 

17751. Lucknow, United Provinces. S. W- Kemp. 

17753. Siripur, Saran, Bihar. M. Mackenzie. 
17752. Calcutta. Dr. B. L. Chaudhuri. 

17754. Tribeni, Gangetic delta. Dr. B. L. Chaudhuri. 

17755. Madras (town). Dr. N. Annandale. 

16102. Mandalay, Upper Burma. Dr. N. Annandale. 

18479. Old Valley of Kalaw River, East of Ngot, ca. 3,500 ft.. Southern Shan 

States. Dr. F. H. Gravely. 
18178. Singgora, Siam. Dr. N. Annandale. 

Bulo fergusoni, Boulenger. 

(Plate II, figs. 4. 4o.) 

AVe assign provisionally to this species a number of tadpoles from 
small pools on the Travancore coast, where the toad is abundant. These 
tadpoles are very like those of Bufo melanostictus but smaller, of brown- 
ish instead of blackish colour and with the nostrils relatively much 



1 Van Kampen, Natuurh. Tijdsch. Ned-Ind , LXIX, p. 30, pi. ii, fig. 2 (1909). 
= Flower, Proc. Zool, Soc. London, 1899, p. 908, pi. Ix, fig. 3, 3a. 



1918.] I^. AxNAXDALE «Jc G. 11. Nahayan lh\o: Tadpoles. 39 

larger. The teeth also are smaller, especially on the last row on the 
lower lip, and the beak even less powerful and with the margin of the 
upper part nearly straight. Our specimens are not in sufficiently good 
condition to provide material for a detailed statement as to proportions 
but we believe that our figure gives an adequate idea of the outline. 

Geographical distribution of the species. — Plains of Southern India 
and Ceylon. 

Specimens of laevae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

17771. Varkallai, Travaucore. Dr. N. Annandale. 

Bufo microtympanum, Boulenger. 

The tadpoles can be recognised by the obcardate body whose great- 
est width is about the pectoral region. The snout slopes, is blunt and 
rounded. The eyes and nostrils are dorso-lateral in position ; the latter 
nearly five-sixths as long as the eye, looking upwards and outwards. 
The internasal space equals the distance between the nares and eyes 
and the width of the mouth. The mouth is fairly large, the lower 
lip being better developed. The papillae are confined to the corner 
of the mouth and slightly extend to the margin of the lips. Dental 
formula 1 : 1 + 1/3. The three series on the lower disc are subequal. 
The skin is smooth. A preorbital or lachrymal gland may be fre- 
quently present, as also series of sensory pits on the dorsum and about 
the flanks of the body. A frontal gland is faintly marked. The 
spiraculum is a conspicuous tube, visible from below, directed back- 
wards, nearer to vent. The length of the tail slightly more than 
3| times the total depth. The dorsal lobe is more strongly arched, 
the tip rounded. The colour of the dorsal surface is deep black, 
the throat bronzed. The abdomen and fin membranes are white, 
immaculate. 

The followiiiu' are the dimensions of a fullv urown larva :--- 



Total length 

Length of head and body 
Length of tail . 
Maximnm breadth of body 
Maximum depth of body . 
Maximum depth of tail 



mm. 
27 
11 
16 

8 



Geographical distribution of the species. — Fairly common in southern 
Peninsular India. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

18786. Bangalore, South India. C. R. Narayan Rao. 

Bufo stomaticus, Liitken. 
(Plate 11. tigs. ."). rya.) 

A series of tadpoles and toads from Rawalpindi in the nottli of the 
Punjab belong to this species. 

The tadpoles are very small, not exceeding 20 mm. in length when 
full orown. The head and bodv are moderatelv flat, rathei' narrow! v 



40 Records of the Indian Museum. [Yol. XT, 

oval in shape ; the snout is narrowly and evenly rounded ; the nostrils 
are large and situated about half way between the eye and the tip of 
the snout. The spiracle is situated at some considerable distance 
behind the eye. The mouth is ventral ; the dental formula is 1 : 1 + 1/3, 
the lower row on the upper lip being moderately interrupted ; the teeth 
are rather long and of a black colour ; the margin of the upper beak 
is feebly convex and minutely denticulate. The lower beak, which is 
situated far within the upper, is broad and almost U-shaped, with its 
margin minutely serrated. The tail, which is less than twice as long 
as the head and body, is bluntly pointed and has both the fiu-membranes 
well developed. The upper membrane starts in front of the posterior 
extremity of the body and rises rather gradually. 

The dorsal surface of the head and body is dark, densely covered 
with silvery white and black dots. The fleshy part of the tail is mottled 
with dark markings and is darker above than below. The fin-mem- 
branes are almost colourless, but with a few scattered black and white 
pigment-cells. The ventral surface is colourless, but densely covered 
with minute silvery dots. 

The specimens on which this description is based agree very closely 
with Anderson's description and figures of the larva of B. andersoni 
from Arabia, except that the first row of teeth is not divided— a probable 
abnormal condition. It is very doubtful whether the two species are 
distinct. Specimens of toads from India assigned to B. andersoni are 
certainly identical with the species from Eastern Bengal named Bufo 
sfontaticus by Liitken, ^ whose name has priority. 

Geographical distribution of the species. — Bufo stomaticus is found all 
over the Indo-Gangetic plains ; in the Western and Eastern Himalayas 
up to an altitude of at least 6,000 ft. in Nepal, and occasionally in those 
parts of Bengal and Bihar that lie south of the Ganges Valley. Sclater's 
record ^ of specimens from Burma was apparently based on a wrong 
identification. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum ; — 

18526. Rawalpindi, Punjab. R. Hodgart. 

Bufo viridis, Laur. 

1891. Bufo viridis, Boulenger, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 189], p. 612, pi. xlvi, fig. 5. 
1899. Bufo viridis, Bolkay, Jww. Mus. Nat. Hung., VII, pp. 85 and 106, pi. i, 
fig. 5. 

It is doubtful whether this Palaearctic species is found in the plains 
of India, but it is common in the Kashmir Valley and in many districts 
north and west of the Punjab. An excellent description is given by 
Boulenger in his account of the European tadpoles. Specimens from 
Srinagar agree in every respect with this descri})tion. 

Specimens of larvae in the collection of the Indian Museum : — 

18473. Srinagar, Kashmir. F. J. Mitchell. 

1 Liitken (1862) ? See also Boulenger, '.4 **/^ Maq.^Nat. Hist. (6), VII, p. 463 (1891). 
and Annandale, Rec. Ind. Mus., Ill, p. 2S3 (1909). 
? Prjc. Zool. Soc. London, 1892,^p. 347- 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Rana cyanophlyctis, Schneider. 
Fig. 1. — Tadpole from Barkuda I., Chilka Lake (nat. size). 

Rana hexadactyla, Lesson. 

Fig. 2. — Tadpole from Cochin, x 1|. 
„ 2a. — Mouth-disk of tadpole with mouth open, x 16. 
,, 26. — The same with the mouth closed. 

Rana tytleri (Theobald). 

Fig. 3. — Tadpole from northern Bengal (nat. size). 
„ 3a. — Mouth-disk of tadpole, x 8. 

Bufo fergusoni, Boulenoer. 

Fig. 4. — Tadpole from Travancore, x 4. 
„ — Mouth- disk of tadpole, x 30. 

Bufo stomaticus, Liitken. 

Fig. 5. — Tadpole from the Punjab, x 4. 
„ 5a. — Mouth-disk of tadpole, x 24. 



Hec . Ind. Mus,Vol.XV,1918. 



Plate II. 





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1. 



INDIAN TADPOLES. 



A .Chov/dha.ly,liih. 



IV. NOTES ON THE TADPOLES OF INDIAN 
ENGYSTOMATIDAE. 

By C. R. Narayan Rao, M.A., L.T., Mysore University, Bangalore. 

The main object of this paper is to bring together all that is 
known about the larvae belonging to this family found in India 
and the Malay Peninsula, in order to facilitate further investigation 
being undertaken. Of the species reported to occur in India, Burma, 
and the Malay Peninsula, the life-history of only ten species 
has been worked out and it is the experience of herpetologists that to 
obtain the larvae of some of these and other forms is by no means 
easy, owing to the special modes of life adopted by the great majority 
of them. I am indebted to Dr. Annandale for the courtesy of allowing 
me to examine the tadpoles belonging to the species Microhyla 
achatina, ? M. berdmorei and Kaloula pulchra contained in the Indian 
Museum collection. The larvae of eight species have been described 
and annotated by different authors and only two^ are described here 
for the first time. 

The following is the bibliography on the subject : — 

Annandale, N., Mem. As. Soc. Beng., Vol. VI, pp. 150-153 

(1917). 
Butler, A. L., Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XV, pp. 387- 

392 (1903-1904). 
Ferguson, H. S., Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. XV, pp. 

505-508 (1903-1904). 
Flower, S. S., Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1899, pp. 902-903. 
Narayan Rao, C. R., Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XI, p. 31 (1915). 
Narayan Rao, C. R., Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XIII, p. 281 (1917). 
Smith, M., Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, Vol. II, pp. 37 and 40 

(1916). 

Key for the identification of the larvae discussed below : — 

Spiracle median, ventral ; mouth without beak or horny 

teeth ......... Engystomatidae. 

A. Tip of tail ends in flagellum ; lower caudal lobe twice 

the dorsal at the base ..... Microhyla. 

1. Head two-thirds of the body, former squarish. 

Body transparent, but not the sides . . M. ornata. 

2. Head less tlian half the body ; snout rounded, 

not squarish. Body not transparent . . M. rubra. 

3. Mouth surrounded by a float .... M. achatina. 

4. Body broader than long ; snout abbreviated and 

truncate ? M. berdmorei. 

5. Body less regularly oval ; snout shorter ; tint green M. pulchra. 

B. Tip of tail not flagellate, but pointed ; caudal fin 

membranes of equal depth . . . . • Kaloula. 

6. Spiracle a very large tube, nicked posteriorly. 

Body elongated, elliptical . . . ■ J<^- variegata. 



1 They belong to the species K. variegata and A', triangnlaris. Dr. Annandale tells 
me that Dr. F. H. Gravely recently collected specimens of K. variegata at Chakradhaipur 
in Chota Nagpur 



4:2 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

7. Spiracle an inconspicuous transparent tube, not 

nicked. Body perfectly transparent, with a 
horseshoe-shaped mark on the head . . K. triangularis. 

8. Spiracle almost forms a sheath for the root of 

the anal tube. Body densely pigmented . K. pulchra. 

9. Spiracle not forming a sheath for the anal tube : 

length of body more than one and a half 

times the width K. obscura.^ 

C. Tip of tail obtusely rounded. Tail lobes delicate and 
at greatest depth individually three-fourths of the 
muscular portion ...... Cucopus. 

10. Spiracle a conical tube opening almost iuter- 
femorally. Body and muscular part of tail 
densely pigmented . . . . . C. systoma. 

Microhyla rubra (Jerd). 
Larva. 

1904. Ferguson, Joiini. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XV, p. 506. 

1915. Narayan Rao, Eec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XI, p. 31. 
1917. Narayan Rao, Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XIII, p. 282. 

1 have shown that Mr. Ferguson has mixed up these larvae with those 
©f M. ornata. 

Microhyla ornata. (Dum and Bibrou). 

Laeva. 

1899. Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 902. 

1903-1904. Ferguson, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XV, p. 500. 
1903-1904. Butler, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XV, p. 387. 
1917. Narayan Rao, Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XIII, p. 282. 

Butler remarks " the tadpoles of this and other species of Microhyla 
are very peculiar, being almost perfectly transparent, with the viscera 
showing through conspicuously." The larvae of M. ornata have an 
opaque reflecting tissue on the sides and the only organ that shows 
through is the heart. Further down he observes " owing to their extra- 
ordinary delicacy I never managed to keep them alive." In my aqua- 
rium they thrive quite as well as any of the hardiest of the Ranid larvae. 

Microhyla achatina (Boie). 
Larva. 

1916. Smith, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, Vol. II, p. 37. 

1917. Annandale, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. VI, p. 150. 

The modification of the lower lip into a float-like structure resembling 
that met with in certain species of Megalophrys is an interesting fact. 

? Microhyla berdmorei, Blyth. 
Larva. 

1899. Flower, Proc Zool. Soc London, p. 902. 

1917. Annandale, Mem. As. Soc Bengal, Vol. VI, p. 151. 

Dr. N. Annandale^ has shown that the ' transparent larvae ' 
described by Flower are probably those of M. herdmorei. 

^ I have not had an opportunity to examine the larva and have had to rely on the 
description of Ferguson (op. cit., p. 506). 

2 Mem. As. Soc Bengal, VI, p. 151 (1917). 



19l8.] C. U. Narayan Rao : Indian Engystomatidae. 43 

Microhyla pulchra (Hallow). 
Larva. 

1917. Microhyla pulchra, Smith, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam II. p. 229. 

Kaloula obscura, Glinth. 
Larva. 

1903-04. Ferguson, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hid. Soc, Vol. XV, p. 507. 

Kaloula pulchra. Gray. 
Larva. 

1917. Annandale, Mem. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. VI, p. 152. 
1916. Smith, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, Vol. II, p. 40. 
1903-04. Butler, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XV, p. 391. 

Kaloula variegata (Stoliczka). 

This is a veiy common frog in South India, whose presence after a 
heavy shower (not less than two inches) is detected by the peculiar cry 
represented by the syllables " Qhauy, Qhuay, Qhauy." It has been 
taken in the termites' nest in company with the black scorpion Palam- 
naeus} 

Larva. 

Body oval, flat on both surfaces ; length to breadth as 3 is to 2, snout 
rounded, truncate. Nostrils close to the median line, equidistant 




Fig. 1. — Larva of Kaloula variegata. 
A. Side view. B. Ventral view. C. Mouth-parts, 
a = vent ; h = spiracular hood ; h.r. = homy ridge ; m = mouth ; mp = muciferous 
pits ; p = papillae ; s = spiracular opening. 

1 am indebted for this information to Dr. J. R. Henderson of the Madras Museum. 



44 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



between snout and eyes. Internasal space about one-seventh the 
interorbital. Mouth terminal, both Hps contractile and the lower 
occasionally with a horny rim and microscopic papillae which may 
extend to the corners of the mouth. A sensory groove connecting nos- 
trils and eye. 

Spiracle a large tube, notched behind ; anal tube median. Tip of 
tail pointed but not flagellate ; both lobes of equal depth, and arched. 
Greatest depth of tail about one-third the total length. 

Body brownish, or gray with minute black spots ; occasionally a 
blue spot in the groin ; muscular part of tail blotched. 

The following are the measurements of a fully grown tadpole : — 



Total length 
Length of body 
Length of tail . 
Maximum width of body 
Maximum dejjth of body 
Maximum depth of tail 



mm. 
45 
15 
30 
10 
8 
10 



In the aquarium these tadpoles were noticed to hide themselves 
under stones and avoid the lighted portion and in ponds they secrete 
themselves in the deeper recesses, darting to the surface periodically 
for the purpose of breathing. The metamorphosis is completed in 20 to 
30 days in the aquarium, but in nature I have noticed it is over in a 
fortnight. 

Kaloula triangularis (Giinther.). 

In South India this frog is more common in the hills^, but is also 
frequently met with in the plains under a heap of dried leaves or other 
suitable cover in close proximity to pools of rain-water. Little is known 
about the habits of the adult. 




Fig. 2. — Larva of Kaloula trianqularis. 
A. Side view. B. Ventral view, C. Mouth-parts. 



^ Ferguson, c/oMrw. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. .XV, p. 507. 



1918.] C. R, Narayan Rao: Indian Engystomatidae. 45 

Larva. 

Body oval, flat ; breadth about three-quarters of the length. Snout 
acumiate, slightly truncated ; nostrils equidistant between the snout 
and eyes. Interorbital space about one-sixth the distance between 
eyes. Mouth small, without a horny rim or papillae. A naso-orbital 
sensory groove present. 

Spiracle inconspicuous, the free hind edge not notched. Vent in- 
conspicuous, median. 

Tail very delicate, tip pointed. The muscular part deeper than the 
lobes. 

Larvae perfectly transparent, with the viscera showing through. 
They become brown^ when the front limbs sprout. A dark oval or 
horseshoe-shaped mark on the back which develops into a triangular 
blackish spot, occupying nearly the whole length of the back as meta- 
morphosis progresses. 

The following are the dimensions of a fully grown tadpole : — 

mm. 

Total length 32 

Length of body ......... 13 

Length of tail .......... 19 

Maximum breadth of body ....... 9J 

Maximum depth of body ........ 6 

Maximum depth of tail ........ 7 

The development is more rapid in this species than in K. variegata ; 
it was completed in the aquarium within two weeks ; the larvae when 
introduced measured about 22 mm. If it is assumed that the larvae 
take about a week to attain this size, then the whole metamorphosis 
occupies about three weeks. 

Cacopus systoma, Schneider. 
The adults, which are very common during the monsoon, are great 
burro wers. They emit a very characteristic sound by which their 
presence is easily detected. The cry^ is not unlike the bleating of a 
goat. 

Larva. 

Ferguson, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XV, p. 507. 



Addendum. 

Dr. Malcolm A. Smith has just pubUshed an account of tadpoles 
from Siam in which he describes the larva of Glyphoglossus molossus, 
Giinther, and shows that Flower's " transparent tadpoles "' are those 
of Microhyla butleri, Boulenger. See Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam II, 
p. 261 ; 1917. 

Ed.— 21-2-1918. 

^ Butler makes a similar remark in connection with the larvae of K. jyidchra {.Journ. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. \V, p. 392). 

2 I am informed by Dr. .J. R. Henderson that in captivity, which they stand very 
well, they feed on termites in large numbers. This habit, coupled with their burrowing 
tendencies, must account for the small size of the mouth and the hind limbs armed with 
powerful metatarsal tubercles, a character shared by species like Rana breviceps 
belonging to a different family which have also similar habits. 



V. ON TWO ABNORMAL SPECIMENS OF DUCKS IN 

THE COLLECTION OF THE ZOOLOGICAL 

SURVEY OF INDIA. 

By Herbert C. Kobinson, M.jB.O.U. 

Amongst some six hundred duck shot on a swamp near Pathshala iu 
Assam, near the Bhutan Hills, in April, 1917 by Mr. A. Milton were two 
somewhat uncommon specimens which were presented by him to the 
Indian Museum. 

One of these (25450, Z.S.I.) is a typical male Gadwall Chaulelasmus 
streperus (Linn.) and calls for no special remark. 

The other (25451, Z. S. I.), also a male, caused me some consider- 
able trouble in its identification, and until recently I was inclined to 
consider it as a hybrid between the Common Mallard Anas boschas, 
(Linn.) and the Gadwall Chaulelaswus streperus (Linn.). 

Comparison of the specimen with other skins and further consulta- 
tion of the literature has convinced me that I was in error in this iden- 
tification and that the bird is a hybrid between Eunetta falcata (Georgi) 
and Chaulelasmus streperus (Linn.), in which the characters of the first 
mentioned species are dominant. 

The bird is not in full plumage and the highly elongate occipital 
feathers and strongly decurved and gickle-shaped tertiaries characteristic 
of the fully adult male Falcated Teal are not strongly in evidence. 
The following is a full description of the bird : — 
Tail, apparently of sixteen and not fourteen feathers, therein agree- 
ing with Chaulelasmus and not Eunetta. Upper and lower tail coverts 
as long as rectrices. Occipital feathers produced, forming a slight 
" mane." 

Anterior lores and an ill-defined frontal patch and a small subocular 
spot dirty white ; top of the head dull chestnut, sides of the head and 
occipital mane bronzy green, the feathers faintly tipped with whitish ; 
chin, throat and an interrupted collar white, narrowly bordered above 
with blackish ; a broad bronze green collar succeeded by a narrower 
white one, interrupted behind. 

Mantle, hind-neck and breast with broad V-shaped vermiculations of 
white and brownish-black, with a bronzy tint, the white element narrow- 
est. Scapulars and flanks the same, but the vermiculations finer and 
straighter. A black spot on the outer webs of the outer elongated 
scapulars. Upper back brownish, faintly vermiculated with white, 
lower back and upper tail coverts black. 

Tail feathers greyish above, whitish beneath, the outer webs with 
dark edges. Under tail coverts black, the outermost with a large median 
spot of buff. Belly whitish, finely vermiculated with greyish-black. 

Lesser wing coverts dove grey, the innermost vermiculated with 
whitish ; median coverts grey, the median portion of each feather 
whitish with the tips of the outer webs broadly chestnut, forming a 
■double wing bar. Outer secondaries black on their outer webs, the inner 



48 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

secondaries largely white, the inner webs brownish. Elongated terti- 
aries brownish with white shafts, the outermost with an oily green 
tinge, edges buft". 

Primaries brownish, darker at the tips ; inner aspect of wing whitish, 
axillaries white. 

Bill apparently uniform black, feet dull yellowish-brown (in skin). 

Wing 248 mm. ; culmen 45 mm. 

The Gadwall is of course a very common duck in India during the 
winter, though it is not known to breed within the Empire. Eunetta 
falcata on the other hand is very rare indeed within Indian limits, being 
normally an East Asiatic species. Individuals have, however, been 
recorded from localities so far apart as Bhamo, Burma and Narra, Sind. 
Several obtained in the Calcutta bazaar by Mr. F. Finn are in the 
collection of the Zoological Survey of India and full details of other 
occurrences are given by E. C. Stewart Baker {Indian Ducks and their 
Allies, p. 143. et seq.,'London, 1908). 

In 1891 Mr. W. L. Sclater {Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891, p. 313) 
described a male duck (20505, Z.S.I.) brought in alive to the Indian 
Museum which he considered to be a hybrid between the Mallard and 
Gadwall (Avias hoschas x Chaulelasmus streperus). 

There is nothing to add to his very full description, but it would 
appear probable that the bird is a hybrid between Anas hoschas and 
Querquedula crecca rather than with Ch. streperus. The sides of the 
head are rich brown and the breast has a distinctly spotted appearance, 
both of which features occur in Q. crecca, but cannot be said to be repre- 
sented in Ch. streperus. 

The cross is well known and numerous references to it occur in 
ornithological literature generallv under the name of Anas himaculata 
(Bp.). 

The attached plate gives a good idea of the general appearance of 
the two specimens. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IIL 

Abnormal Indian Ducks. 

Figs. 1, la. — Hybrid between Eunetta falcata (Georgi) and Chaulelasmus 
streperus (Linn.). 2545, Z.S.I. 

„ 2, 2a. — Hybrid between Anas hoschas, Linu. and Querquedvla 
crecca (Linn,). 20505, Z.S.L 



EEC. IND. MUS., VOL. XV, 1918. 



Plate III. 





S. C. Moiidul, I'hot. 



Abnormal Indian Ducks. 



VI. A NEW RACE OF HARE FROM THE PERSIAN 
FRONTIER OF MESOPOTAMIA. 

By H. C. Robinson, C.M.Z.S. 

Lepus day anus connori, subsp. no v. 

Lepus craspedotis, Thomas {nee Blanford), Proc. Zool. Soc. 1905 (2), p. 527. 

Co-types : — Adult male skin without skull and adult skull unsexed, 
between Ahwaz and Mohammerali, Karun R., Persia, collected on 
October 30tli, 1917, by Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor, I.M.S. Ind. Mus. Nos. 
10278 (skin) ; 10279 (skull). 

^ f^T-1 11 hplnnpino- to the section dm/anus^ with long broad ears and 



EREATUM 
Figs. 1 and 2 have been accideu tally transposed. Fig. 1 repre- 
sents the skull of Lepus day anus crasptdotis; fig. 2 that of Lepus 
dayanus dayanus. 




'\^U\J^:P 









Figs. 1, \a. — Nasal bones and auditory bullae of Lepus dayanus, Blanford, from Narra, 

Sind. 
Figs. 2, 2a. — Hrx^q hones, oiiyTjye oi Lepus dayanus craspedotis, Blanford, from Pisliin, 

Persian Baluchistan. 
Figs. 3, 3a. — Same bones of co-type of Lepus dayanus connori, nov., from Karun R., 

S. W. Persia. 



1 Proc. Zool. sSoc. 1874, p. G33 ; type from Sukkur, Sind. 

2 Blanford, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) XVI, p. 313 (1875) ; id., Zool. East. Persia, II. 
p 80, pi. viii (1875) ; type from Pishin, S. Baluchistan, examined. 



VI. A NEW RACE OF HARE FROM THE PERSIAN 
FRONTIER OF MESOPOTAMIA. 



By H. C. Robinson, C.M.Z.S. 
Lepus day anus connori, subsp. no v. 

Lepus craspedotis, Thomas [nee Blanford), Proc. Zool. Soc. 1905 (2), p. 527. 

Co-types : — Adult male skiu without skull and adult skull unsexed, 
between Ahwaz and Mohammerah, Karun R., Persia, collected on 
October SOth, 1917, by Lt.-Col. F. P. Connor, I.M.S. Ind. Mus. Nos. 
10278 (skin) ; 10279 (skull). 

A form belonging to the section dayanus^ with long broad ears and 
soft pelage. Larger than L. d. craspedotis ^ from Baluchistan (type 






Figs. 1, la. — Nasal bones and auditory bullae of Lepus daynnus, Blanford, from Narra, 

Sind. 
Figs. 2, 2a. — Same bones of type of Lepus dayanus craspedotis, Blanford, from Pishin, 

Persian Baluchistan. 
Figs. 3, 3a. — Same bones of co-type of Lepus dayanus connori, nov., from Karun R., 

S. W. Persia. 



1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 633 ; type from Sukkur, Sind. 

« Blanford, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) XVI, p. 313 (1875) ; id., Zool. East. Persia, II, 
p 80, pi. viii (1875) ; type from Pishin, S. Baluchistan, examined. 



50 Records of the Indian Museum. [Yol. XV, 

examined). Nasals decidedly broader than in L. d. dayanus, much 
produced posteriorly on their outer margins, not truncate as in L. d. 
craspedotis. 

Colouration. — Upper surface very pale salmon-bufE, the hairs of the 
back and upper flanks usually with short black tips. Base of the fur 
pale smoky-grey, lighter on the flanks, succeeded by a broad clearly 
defined band of black, most pronounced on the back, and then by a 
salmon-buff subterminal band and a short black tip, often absent. Chest 
and nape and anterior flanks pale isabelline-buff, the hind limbs more 
salmon-buff. Chin, inner surface of limbs and under surface of tail pure 
white. Upper surface of tail deep clear black. 

Ears : external half of upper surface clad with fine sa)mon-buff hau', 
slightly intermixed with black, the proximal two-thirds of the upper edge 
fringed with coarse yellowish-buff hairs finely edged with black at the 
tips ; internal half of upper surface almost pure silvery-white with a 
large patch of black at the tip ; this patch edged with buff, the 
remainder with pure white. Ears internally thinly clad with buffy- 
white, deeper in tint towards the tips. 

Measurements. — Hindfoot (dry) 120 mm. ; ear 110 mm. 

Skull. — Larger than that of L. d. craspedotis or than an equally aged 
skull of L. d. dayanus. Palatal foramina longer and relatively narrower 
than in either of the allied forms ; nasals broad and parallel-sided, much 
produced posteriorly on their outer margins ; cranial region broad. 
Teeth as in L. d. dayanus. Bullae slightly smaller than in L. d. dayanus, 
very much smaller than in L. d. craspedotis. 

Measurements of the typical skull : greatest length 87 (81-2)^ ; basal 
length 67 (63-5) ; greatest length of nasals 39 (31) ; palatal foramina 23 
(20) ; upper molar series (alveolar) 16 (14-5). 

Remarks. — The affinities of this hare, so far as can be judged from 
descriptions and from the available specimens in the Indian Museum, 
are almost certainly with the Indian races, of which L. dayanus is the 
best known, rather than with Palaearctic forms. It does not seem in any 
way connected with forms from Arabia proper and from Muscat, which 
have been described by Hemprich and Ehrenburg and by Thomas. 

^ Measurements in parentheses are those of the type of L. d. craspedotis. 



VII. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON RANA TIGRINA. 

By G. A. BouLENGER, LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., and 
N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B. 

1. REMARKS ON RANA TIGRINA AND ITS VARIETIES. 

By G. A. BoULENGER. 

{Published by permission of the Trustees of the British M.usev)H.) 

Needless to say, I have been keenly interested in reading Dr. Annan- 
dale's attempt to solve the problem of the species, the races or varieties 
I should call them, that have been grouped together under the name 
of Rana tigrina} 

I cannot help thinking that with a more extensive material, Dr. 
Annandale would have reached somewhat different conclusions, and 
the object of these notes is to show on what points his definitions require 
emendation. I will first discuss the various ' species ' under the names 
assigned to them by him, and in the same order, and then wind up with 
my own definition of R. tigrifia and of the varieties into which it may be 
divided. 

Rana tigrina, Daud. 

There can be no doubt as to the application of this name in the 
restricted sense, and on this point we are in agreement. But I am sur- 
prised not to find any allusion to the two forms, strikingly different in 
their extremes, which are found in India and Ceylon. Dr. Annandale 
tells us that the inner metatarsal tubercle varies greatly in size and shape, 
a variation which, according to him, seems to be individual rather thau 
racial, but he appears to me to be mistaken when he adds that this 
variation is not correlated with other differences and that it occurs at 
many or all points in the geographical range of the species. The two 
forms which I think should be distinguished are : — 

(1) The typical R. tigrina, with smaller and blunter inner meta- 
tarsal tubercle (If to 3 times in length of inner toe, 7| to 12| times in 
length of tibia), ' habit rather slender than stout, but moderate rather 
than extreme in either direction,' and ' the tibia about half as long as 
head and body.' 

(2) The much stouter, often more toad-like R. crassa, Jerdon (fodiens, 
Peters nee Jerdon, ceylanica, Peters) with very large, shovel-shaped 
inner metatarsal tubercle (1 to 1| times in length of inner toe, 5 to 7 
times in length of tibia), and the tibia 2f to 2A times in length of head 
and body. Further, when the hind limbs are folded at right angles to 
the body, the heels overlap in the former but do not in the latter ; the 
tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the eye or between the eye and the nos- 
tril in the former, the tympanum or the eye in the latter. 

1 Mem. As. Soc. Bengal, VI, p. 121 (1917). 



52 Records of the Indian Museuvi. [Vol. XV, 

The differences between these two forms are quite as great as between 
the typical R. esculenta and the var. lessonae, and, to judge from the 
rather scanty material at my disposal, there is not the same overlap. 

As regards the distribution, although both forms appear to occur 
together in some localities (Benares, Malabar, Ceylon), it does not seem 
to be so generally, and I was assured some years ago by Dr. Henderson 
that the var. crassa is the only one found near Madras town, where its 
fossorial habits distinguish it so sharply from the true R. tigrina as to 
have raised doubts in his mind as to the propriety of uniting both under 
the same specific name. 

From the following table of measurements it will be seen that the 
width of the head may considerably exceed its length in both the typical 
form and the variety. It has been stated that " when the foot is 
stretched out the margin of the web is slightly convex ^ between the 
fourth and fifth toes." If R. crassa is to be included in R. tigrina, this 
statement requires modification, as Peters in his description of Hoylo- 
hatrachus ceylanicus ascribes to it a rather deeply emarginate web, as is 
confirmed by a few of the specimens in the British Museum. 

I have another correction to make to Dr. Annandale's definition 
of R. tigrina. The granular nature of the skin in some specimens may 
extend to the back of the head, as far as the eyes (Benares, Ceylon). 
Narrow, interrupted, but well defined glandular folds, 6 to 14 in number, 
are nearly always present on the back, and their number and regularity 
constitute a fairly good though not absolutely constant character for 
distinguishing the typical form and the var. crassa from the other 
varieties. 

Some specimen of the var. crassa (Benares, Malabar) have large 
black spots on the gular region. 

There is often a narrow light vertebral streak or fine line, which ma}^ 
be accompanied by another along the calf, as in the type figured by 
Daudin ; a broad vertebral band, as in the var. cancrivora, I have never 
seen. 

Rana rugulosa, Annand. nee Wiegm. 

Wiegmann's figures of R. rugulosa and R. vittigera are excellent 
and may be relied upon. They demonstrate that these two supposed 
species, founded on the coloration, are identical, even in a racial sense, 
and as both show a decidedly pointed snout, the tibia half the length of 
head and body, and the web between the toes strongly emarginate and 
not reaching beyond the penultimate phalanx, they answer the defini- 
tion of R. cancrivora and not that of Annandale's R. rugulosa. 

The name R. burkilli, Annand., should therefore be revived for the 
form, from Burma, Siam, and China, which differs from R. tigrina, 
s. sir., in the generally shorter hind limb, the length of the tibia being 
contained 2^ to 2| times in that of head and body, the heels not or but 
slightly overlapping, and the tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the 
shoulder, the tympanum, or the posterior border of the eye. The fourth 



^ No doubt a lapsiis for ' concave'. 



191S.J a. A. BouLE.>fGER & N. Annandale: Rana tigrina. 



^ 



53 



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54 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



toe is usually, but not constantly, shorter ; sometimes the third toe 
reaches the distal subarticular tubercle of the fourth, sometimes it does 
not ; there is no constant difference in the degree or emargination of 
the web, the large specimen from Toungoo, of which measurements are 
given in the following table, having the web as full and as feebly notched 
as in any Indian specimen I have seen. The inner metatarsal tubercle 
is blunt and its length is 2| to 4 times in that of the inner toe and 8| to 
14 times in that of the tibia. 

Although usually more rounded than in the typical form, the shape 
of the snout cannot be used for the distinction of this variety since it is 
more pointed and prominent in some specimens from China (Shanghai) 
than in others from India (Madras). 

The folds on the back, if present, are short and in many cases they 
are more correctly described as elongate warts. 

The absence of any trace of a light streak above the upper lip, which 
is marked with vertical dark bars, one or two of which may extend to 
the eye, distinguishes this form, but the presence of black spots or 
marblings on the lower parts is not constant ; a specimen from Pegu 
is without any spots on the throat and belly, and others from Thayet- 
myo, Ayuthei, and Shanghai have the markings reduced to a streak in 
the middle of the throat. A light vertebral streak or band is absent 
in all the specimens examined by me. 

The size often exceeds 110 millimetres from snout to vent (Toungoo, 
Siam, Shanghai). 

Measurements in millimetres. 

var. hurkilU. 



From snout to vent 

Head 

Width of head . 

Snout 

Eye . 

Interorbtal width 

Tympanum 

Fore limb 

1st linger 

2nd „ 

3rd 

4th „ . 

Hind limb 

Tibia 

Foot 

:ird toe 

4th „ 

5th „ 

1st „ 

Inner metat. tuberrle 



159 128 
I 40 



133 

44 
53 
16 
12 
5 
9 
70 
13 
10 
14 
10 
192 
62 
64 
35 
54 
38 
16 



85 

28 

32 

12 

8 

4 

7 

45 

10 

8 

10 

7 

120 

38 

42 

23 

34 

24 

12 

3 



49 



10 



12 13 14 15 



? 


? 


91 


90 


28 


29 


31 


33 


12 


12 


9 


9 


3 


3 


7 


7 


45 


46 


9 


9 


7 


8 


10 


10 


7 


7 


123 


125 


37 


39 


43 


42 


22 


23 


34 


34 


24 


24 


11 


10 


3 


4 



89 

29 

31 

11 

9 

3 

7 

46 

10 

8 

10 

7 

125 

38 

42 

23 

34 

25 

11 

4 



1918.] G. A. BouLENGER & N. Annan DALE : Rana tigrina. 55 

This form is hardly to be distinguished from the African R. occi- 
pitalis, Gthr., the range of which extends from the Egyptian Soudan 
and Uganda to the Senegal and other parts of West Africa as far south as 
Angola. 1 am not sure I could always tell a Burmese frog from an 
African, and the tadpoles are identical. Although I have examined 
over forty specimens of R. occipitalis, I have never seen one with a light 
vertebral streak. It reaches a length of 130 millimetre from snout to 
vent. 

Rana cancrivora, Gravenh. 

I have a large material from the Indo-Malay Archipelago which 
shows that although the toes vary considerably in length, the w^eb 
between them is always strongly emarginate ; in some specimens even 
the two last phalanges of the fourth toe are free from the web, and such 
may be described as having the toes three-fourths webbed. The length 
of the tibia is If to 2J times in the length of head and body, the heels 
strongly overlap, and the tibio-tarsal articulation reaches the eye or 
between the eye and the nostril ; the longer hind limb thus distinguishes 
the var, cancrivora from the var. hurkilli. The inner metatarsal tubercle 
is blunt and its length is contained 2| to 3 times in that of the inner toe, 
8^ to 12 times in that of the tibia. 

The shape of the head varies greatly ; it is often quite as long as 
broad, and it may even be slightly longer (Padas, N. Borneo) ; the snout 
may be broadly rounded or as pointed as in any specimen of R. tigrina 
typica ; when the snout is pointed, the nostril is as a rule equidistant 
from the eye and the tip of the snout. 

The distance between the eye and the tympanum measures | to | 
the diameter of the latter (|- to f in the typical form). 

The vomerine teeth vary considerably and often differ from those 
of the typical form in being disposed in rather short oblique series, well 
separated from the anterior borders of the choanae ; but some speci- 
mens (Borneo, .Java, Celebes) have longer and stronger series, which 
agree entirely with the usual description. 

The longitudinal dermal folds, in the strict sense, are often absent 
on the body ; if present, they are reduced to 2 or 3 pairs. 

The coloration is much as in the var. hurkilli, but there may be, 
rather exceptionally, a light streak along the side of the body, as in the 
typical form (specimens from the Phillippines and Celebes) ; a light 
vertebral line or broad band is sometimes also present, but it is very 
rarely accompanied by a light line along the calf (specimens from the 
Philippines). This is a small form, not exceeding the length of 90 milli- 
metres from snout to vent assigned to it by Dr. Annandale. 

I will now give a definition of Rana tigrina and of the forms into which 
it may be divided. 

Rana tigrina, Daud. 

Vomerine teeth in strong or very strong oblique, straight or slightly 
curved series narrowly separated from each other, originating close to 
or at a short distance from the anterior border of the choanae and usually 
extending beyond the level of their posterior borders. Head as long as 



96 



Uecords of the Indian Mnseam. [Vol. XV, 



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From snout tc 

vent. 
Head . 
^V idth of liead 
Snout . 
Eye 
Jnterorbital 

width. 
Tympanum 
Fore limb 
1st finiirer 
2nd „ 
3rd 
4th 

Hind limb 
Tibia 
Foot 
3rd toe 
4th „ . 
5th „ . 
1st „ . 
Inner nietat. 

tubercle. 



iOiS.] (jr. A. BouLENGER & N. Annandale : Rana iigriha. 57 

broad or broader than long, rarely slightly longer than broad ; snout 
rounded or pointed, projecting more or less beyond the mouth, longer 
than the eye in the adult ; canthus rostralis obtuse ; loreal region 
very oblique, more or less concave ; nostril equidistant from the eyie 
and the tip of the snout or nearer the latter ; interorbital space much 
narrower than the upper eyelid ; tympanum very distinct, | to once the 
diameter of the eye, its distance from the latter |- to f its diameter. 
Fingers obtusely pointed, first longer than second ; subarticular tubercles 
rather small and feebly prominent. Hind limb variable in length, 
but tibio-tarsal articulation never reaching the tip of the snout ; heels 
meeting or overlapping when the limbs are folded at right angles to the 
body ; tibia If to 2| times in length from snout to vent, as long as, 
or shorter than the foot, usually shorter than the fore lim.b. Toes 
obtuse or somewhat swollen at the end, at least f webbed, often webbed 
to the tips ; subarticular tubercles rather small ; a more or less deve- 
loped dermal fold on the outer side of the fifth toe and usually a feeble 
one on the inner side of the first and of the tarsus, interrupted by the 
inner metatarsal tubercle, which may be small and blunt or large and 
sharp-edged ; no outer metatarsal tubercle. Upper parts rarely nearly 
smooth, usually with large, more or less prominent warts forming longi- 
tudinal series on the back, or with more or less regular longitudinal 
glandular folds ; usually a strong fold across the head, behind the eyes 
continued as a curved glandular fold from the eye to above the shovdder ; 
lower parts smooth. 

Male with a white or grey external vocal sac on each side of the throat, 
forming longitudinal folds ; fore limb moderately thickened ; a strong 
pad on the inner side of the first finger, covered, during the breeding 
season, with a greyish-brown velvet-like horny layer. 

Nasal bones large, in contact with each other and with the fronto- 
parietals ; ethmoid hidden or only a small portion uncovered ; fronto- 
parietals narrow, feebly grooved along the median line, sometimes 
fused ; zygomatic process of squamosal long. Coracoids more or less 
distinctly overlapping with their proximal extremities ; clavicles strong 
and horizontal ; omosternum and sternum with a moderately long bony 
style, the former forked at the base. Terminal phalanges obtusely 
pointed. 

Tadpole with the tail attenuate to a fine point, about t\sdce as long 
as the body. Circular lip entirely bordered with papillae ; back entirely 
black, the upper mandible with a strong median cusp, the lower with 
two ; horny teeth in 3 or 4 upper and 4 or 5 lower series, the outer upper 
long and uninterrupted, the outer lower short and uninterrupted, the 
outer but one lower long and uninterrupted. 

A. Regular glandular folds, 6 to 14 in number, usually 
present on the back ; toes webbed to the tips. 
Tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the eye or between 

the eye and the nostril ; heels overlapping ; tibia 

ly% to 2i times in length of head and body ; 

metatarsal tubercle ^ to"| length of inner toe . Forma typica 
Tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the tympanum or the 

eye ; heels not overlapping ; tibia 24 to 2| times 

in length of head and body ; metatarsal tubercle | 

to once length of inner toe .... var. crassa, Jerd. 



58 Records of the Indian Museum. [YOl. XV, 

B. Glandular folds much broken up or absent ; if long, 

fewer in number ; inner metatarsal tubercle ^ to 

I length of inner toe. 

(t. Toes webbed to the tips or at least to the base of the 

last phalanx of the fourth ; tibia 2\ to 2| times 

in length of head and body ; heels not or but 

slightly overlapping. 

Tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the eye or between 

the eye and the nostril ..... var. occipitalis, Gthr. 
Tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the shoulder, the 

tympanum, or the posterior border of the eye . var. burkilli, Annand. 
b. Toes incompletely webbed, one or two phalanges 
of fourth free ; tibia If to 2^ times in length of 
head and body ; heels strongly overlapping ; 
tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the eye or 
between the eye and the nostril .... var. cancrivora, 

Gravh. 

In uniting these different forms under one species, I am simply 
adhering to the standard adopted in the case of R. esculenta, in which 
we find the same amount of variation in the shape of the head, in the 
proportions of the hind limb, in the development of the inner meta- 
tarsal tubercle and, nearly though not quite, in the extent of the web 
between the toes ; and as I have not the slightest doubt as to the justi- 
fication of the course followed in dealing with that highly variable and 
widely distributed species, of which I have carefully studied a very large 
material, I feel satisfied that the conclusion adopted in the analogous 
case of R. tigrina serves best the purposes of exact systematics. It has 
always been my firm conviction that the multiplication of specific names 
on differences which break down when put to the test of a large material 
is not conducive to an advance in our knowledge, whilst the recognition 
of forms to which subordinate rank is assigned fulfils all requirements 
and leads to a truer appreciation of the state of things in Nature. 

It is, however, with diffidence and provisionally that I include R. 
cmicrivora among the varieties of R. tigrina. 

I have not seen examples of van Kampen's R. angustopalmata, 
from Macassar, but if its tadpole is practically identical with that of 
R. limnocharis, as he states, may it not be a distinct species ? As to 
the tadpoles described from Java, is a confusion with R. limnocliaris 
absolutely out of question ? Dr. van Kampen himself, when alluding 
to Flower's identification of Siamese tadpoles, regarded it as almost 
incredible that the Malay frog, so difficult to distinguish from the Burmo- 
Siamese, should differ to that extent in the larval condition. I there- 
fore believe the question of the specific rank of R. cancrivora should 
remain open until Dr. van Kampen adduces further proof of the correct- 
ness of his identification of the Javan tadpoles. 

I hope I may be pardoned for raising these doubts, in view of the 
fact that, even in so geographically remote a form as R. occipitalis, the 
Very striking buccal characters of the tadpole of R. tigrina have 
remained unchanged. 

If, however, it should be established beyond doubt that R. cancrivora 
passes through a larval stage so difterent from that of R. tigrina, I would 
then unhesitatingly endorse Dr. Annandale's conclusion as to the speci- 
fic distinction. 



1918.] G. A. BouLENGER & N. AnnajNdale : Rana tigrina. 59 

II. FURTHER NOTES ON RANA TIGRINA AND ALLIED FORMS. 

By N. x4nnandale. 

Rana tigrina is one of the commonest Indian frogs and is used for 
dissection in all the North Indian colleges in which practical zoology 
is taught. Its identity is therefore a matter of more than usual interest 
to naturalists in India. I have recently expressed the opinion ^ that 
the species should be divided into three forms, which I have treated as 
specifically distinct. I have, however, pointed out that one of these 
forms {R. cancrirora, Gravenhorst) stands on a somewhat different 
footing from the other two (o/;. cit., p. 136). Dr. G. A. Boulenger has 
replied to my observations in a paper printed immediately before this 
one. He holds that not three but five forms must be recognized. In this 
I am in agreement with him, but he differs from me in regarding all 
these forms as varieties or races of a single species. I am glad that my 
remarks have at any rate called his vast experience to bear on the 
problem, but there are still certain points both general and particular 
in which I find myself unable to accept his decision. 

In the first place he expresses the opinion that if I had had a larger 
collection before me I would probably have come to conclusions other 
than those I arrived at with only the specimens in the Indian Museum 
to examine. This may be true, but only with qualifications. If I had 
had both this and the British Museum collections before me at the 
same time I would certainly have recognized the Madras form as dis- 
tinct, but I do not think from what he says that I would have had reason 
to alter my views as to either the geographical or, \Aith the exception 
stated, the taxonomic limits of the three forms that I recognized. The 
correct names (specific or racial) of the forms discussed (as distinct from 
their identity) depend, in the absence of adequate original descriptions, 
not on the examination of a large number of specimens from different 
localities, but rather on geographical considerations and on the inter- 
pretation of published figures. 

The question whether the forms under discussion should be called 
species or races depends on one's concept of these terms — a subject on 
which a difference of opinion is perhaps legitimate. I have called cer- 
tain forms allied to R. limnocharis " races or sub-species,'' though Dr. 
Boulenger recognizes them as distinct species. My reason for this has 
been that the forms which I regard as mere races are to some extent 
isolated geographically and that a considerable proportion of the in- 
dividuals representing each differ from the forma iypica in relatively 
unimportant characters such as size and colour. On the other hand 
I call forms included under the specific name Rana tigrina by Dr. 
Boulenger " species," because they are not isolated geographically but 
occur over large areas together, and because I do not think that indivi- 
duals intermediate in character ordinarily occur. 

The following notes on the four forms that occur in the Indian Empire 
and the Malay Peninsula are based mainly on the examination of living 

1 Mtm. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. VI, part II, 1917. 



60 



Records of ili,e Jiulion Mjisckih. 



[Vol. XV, 



or freshly preserved specimens examined since I have had the advantage 
of readino- Dr. Boulenser's notes. 



Rana tigrina, Daudin. 

I have little to add to Dr. Boulenger's notes on this frog except in 
reference to its geographical distribution. 1 will, however, discuss the 
form and structure of its inner metatarsal tubercle in dealing with Rana 
crassa. 




Figs. 1, la. — Right foot of Rana tigrina from Calcutta, with metatarsal tubercle 
enlarged. 

Geographical distribution. — I have made a careful examination of 
the specimens in the Indian Museum referred to in my original paper 
[op. cit., pp. 125-126) and find no reason to change my opinion as to the 
great majority of them. The form certainly occurs not only in North- 
ern India, but also at many places in the south of Peninsular India, 
as well as in Assam, Burma and Yunnan. Its range thus overlaps that 
of both R. crassa and R. rugulosa. Apparently it differs in habits from 
both these forms, being feebly or not at all possessed of powers of 
burrowing. 

Rana rugulosa, Wiegmann. 

The name of this species depends entirely on the interpretation of 
Wiegmann's figure. ^ I have great hesitation in differing from Dr. 
Boulenger on a point of interpretation, but cannot agree with him that 
the snout is represented as being pointed ; indeed, Wiegmann says 
" Schnautze stumpf." Nor can I agree that the feet are meant to be 
webbed in exactly the same way as in the figure of Rana vittigera on the 
same plate. I have no doubt, therefore, that the types of my Rana 
burkilli, which are in very good condition, and also the series of speci- 
mens sent to me by Dr. Malcolm Smith from Siam are specifically iden- 
tical with the specimen that Wiegmann selected to be figured as typical 
of his R. rugulosa. 



1 Nov. Ac. Ac. Leop., XVII, pL xxi, fig. 2 (1835). 



1918.] G. A, i3ouLENGEE, & N. Annandale : Rana iigrina. 61 

Dr. Smith ^ has recently sent nie three tadpoles, which agree well 
with Flower's figures. 

Geographical distribution. — The species appears to be widely distri- 
buted in Burma, Siam and China. In Burma it is found commonly 
with Rana tigrina, s. s. and in Southern Siam with R. cancrivora, but 
apparently it does not penetrate far south into the Malay Peninsula. 

According to Burkill ^ both this species and R. tigrina are eaten by 
the Burmese. At Prome the former is said to be distinguished from 
R. tigrina (which the Burmese call Hpa Zang under the name Hpa 
Boung-she. It is stated by them to differ also in habits, in which 
apparently it resembles R. crassa, although the inner metatarsal tubercle 
is usually small and resembles that of R. tigrina in structure. The 
tubercle is perhaps, however, somewhat more prominent than in the 
latter. 

Rana crassa, Jerdon. 

1854. Rann crassa, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc, Bengal, XXII, p. 531. 

Jerdon's original description of this species is' very short and is not 
accompanied by a figure. The frog is, how-ever, in my opinion quite 
distinct. The reason why I did not recognize it was that the only speci- 
mens I had examined w^ere very old and all more or less distorted. Dr. 
J. R. Henderson has been kind enough to send me five living frogs from 
Madras. A comparison of these specimens with those already pre- 
served in the Indian Museum has convinced me that there is much less 
variation within the limits of Rana tigrina, s.s. than I formerly thought 
to be the case.'^ 

The most important difference to be recognized in preserved material 
lies not so much in the size as in the structure of the inner metatarsal 
tubercle, and this character is very liable to be obscured. In R. crassa 
the tubercle is usually larger than in R. tigrina, s. s., but my original 
statement that its size is not correlated with other characters is literally 
correct so far as either form is concerned. In R. tigrina, however, it is 
a simple broad longitudinal ridge rounded on the inner surface and 
situated at some little distance behind the base of the fifth toe ; whereas 
in R. crassa it is much more prominent (at any rate in the living frog) 
and is distinctly concave on the inner surface, with a strong blunt carina 
running along its lower margin. It is also situated further forward 



1 Dr. Smith has just pubUshed further figures of the tadpole. See Jont. Nat. Hist' 
Soc, Siam II, p. 263, pi. iv, figs. 2, 2a. 

2 AgricuU. Ledg., No. 2, pp. 13 and 15 (1911). 

3 Since Dr. Boulenger saw this note Dr. Henderson has sent me twelve further speci- 
mens of R. crassa well preserved in spirit. So far as the immediate neighbourhood 
of Madras is concerned they bear out the views expressed above. There is, however, 
one very important fact connected with them, viz., that Dr. Henderson captured at the 
same time a single specimen to which he drew my attention and which I cannot dis- 
tinguish from R. rugulosa from Burma. The occurrence of a single individual of thi.s 
form, so far from its proper home, suggests the question, may not R. rugulosa (or R. 
tigrina var. burkilli as Dr. Boulenger calls it) have arisen as a mutation of R. crassa F 
The fact that specimens of R. crassa itseK have been found aporadically in Northern India, 
would further suggest that it also may have arisen as a mutation, ivom the typical 
R. tigrina. Further evidence is, however, necessary before attempting to answer this 
question. In any case it has no bearing on the taxonomic position of R. cancrivora. 



62 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



on the foot, almost parallel to the basal part of the toe, and has a much 
stiffer consistency, being strongly cornified in old frogs. When speci- 
mens are preserved in spirit, however, the tubercle is apt, owing to the 
shrinkage of the soft tissues of the foot, to collapse in such a way that 
its concave surface lies flat on the sole and is thus entirely concealed. 
This has occurred in all the old specimens that I have examined. 





^a. 




2b. 

Figs. 2, 2rt, 26. — Right foot of Rana cmssa from Madras (x 2), with metatarsal 
tubercle further enlarged. 



The colour of living specimens from Madras is similar to that of R. 
tigrina, but much duller, a dull brown being substituted for the greens 
and yellows, and with the exception that the throat is spotted with 
black. In general appearance the frog seems to be very like R. rugulosa, 
and Indian specimens that I referred to as being intermediate between 
that species and R. tigrina actually belong to R. cras^a. 

I have been able to examine only two tadpoles that can be assigned 
to this species. In one of them the hind legs are fairly well-developed, 
while in the other the toes are alreadv differentiated. So far as it is 



1918.] G. A. BouLENGER & N. Annandale: Rana ttgrina. 63 

possible to make a definite statement on the basis of this material, they 
dif?er from those of the true R. tigrina in the following particulars : — 

They are larger and of stouter build, with the abdomen more 
convex ; the dorsal surface is more densely pigmented and there is a pale 
band extending backwards in an oblique direction from the nostril to a 
pale space surrounding the eye. They very closely resemble those 
of R. rugulosa, except that the dorsal membrane of the tail is not so 
elevated and that the coloration of the dorsal and lateral surfaces of 
the head and body is less uniformly mottled. 

Geographical distributioti. — The following specimens in the collection 
of the Indian Museum must be transferred to this species : — 

9025. Agra, United Provmces. Agra Mus. (Ex.). 

12572. ChandbaUy, Orissa. C. H. Dreyer. 

9074-5: 9071. Ceylon. Dr. Kelaart. 

9017 : 9057 : 9060. Colombo, Ceylon. Dr. J. Anderson. 

Combining my records with those of Dr. Boulenger, we find, there- 
fore, that R. crassa is by no means confined to South India, in some part 
of which it probably occurs together with R. tigrina, s.s., and Ceylon, 
where it may occur alone. It is known from Agra and Benares in the 
United Provinces, from Orissa, from the town of Madras and from 
several other localities on both coasts of the Indian Peninsula, as well as 
from several localities in Ceylon. 

The behaviour of the living specimens sent to me from Madras 
differed totally from that of individuals of Rana tigrina, s. s. The former 
when placed in a vivarium the bottom of which was covered with sand, 
burrowed immediately and concealed themselves below the surface. 
This I have never known R. tigrina to do. Moreover, they did not 
possess anything like the same power of leaping. 

Rana cancrivora, Gravenhorst. 

Dr. Boulenger's notes rather lead me to think that there may be in 
the Malay Archipelago several races or species closely allied to this form. 
Dr. Van Kampen's var. angustopalmata^ may perhaps be distinct after 
all. My chief reason for including it in the synonymy of R. cancrivora 
was a letter from him in which he wrote as follows : — " My angusto- 
folmata has a still somewhat shorter web than this R. cancrivora, but 
this diiTerence does not occur in all specimens from Celebes, and as it is 
very difficult to describe it is perhaps better to drop the name." 

It is important, therefore, that I should make it quite clear that my 
description was based almost entirely on specimens from Siam, one of 
which Dr. van Kampen had kindly compared with specimens from 
Java, the type locality of the species. I had also examined a series of 
old and sodden specimens from North Borneo, but had paid, in accord- 
ance with my usual rule, comparatively little attention to them. 

Doubt has been cast by Dr. Boulenger on the identification of the 
tadpole of this frog by Dr. van Kampen. R. caficrivora is a very common 
frog in the plains of Java, where R. limnocharis is, according to 

1 In Weber's Zool. Ergebn. Neid. Ost.-Ind., IV, p. 388, pi. xvi, fig. 3c. 



64 



Records of the Indian Mnseuvi. 



[YoL. XV, 



Barbour, 1 scarce. Dr. van Kampen paid great attention to the Batrachian 
larvae of the island when resident there for some years and it seems to 
me improbable that a tadpole so peculiar as that of the R. tvjrina type, 
had it been at all common, would have escaped his notice. Moreover, 
Dr. Malcolm Smith of Bangkok has sent me tadpoles from Siam that 





3a. 

Figs. 3, 3a. — Tadpole of B. cancrivora from Siarn (x2), with mouth-disk further 
enlarged. 

conform, with minor differences, to the R. limnocJiaris type, and which 
he identifies as those of R. cancrivora. About them he writes : — 

" The specimens that I sent you last week are I think without 
doubt cancrivora. My men brought in a large number from 
the mouth of the Chumpon River (P. Siam), where the frog 
was common, and with young ones just leaving the water 
from which I have made the diagnosis. They differ from 
van Kampen's description only in the 3rd or lowest tooth 
row of the lower lip. In cancrivora this is nearly or quite as 
long as the row above, whilst in limnocharis it is only half 
the length. Koh Lah specimens confirm this, but I will get 
some living tadpoles and confirm the frog." ^ 

The chief differences between these tadpoles and the larvae of R. 
limnocharis are that (1) the dorsal membrane of the tail is much less 
sinuate in outline ; (2) the tail is shorter and less pointed, and (3) the 



1 Memoirs of the Muaeurn of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Vol. XLIV, 
No. 1, p. 65. 

2 Dr. Smith has recently (October 10th, 1917) sent me the following additional 
note : — " There is other evidence, however, by which I am quite sure that B. rugnlosa 
and B. cancrivora are distinct. Their breeding calls are entirely different. That of the 
former is a deep " wrnk, wrnk, wrnk (WRNK) " of the latter a loud bleat, something 
like the noise })roduced by a goat. 1 have kept them both and am sure on this ])<)int." 
I understand that Dr. Boulenger now accepts B. cancrivora as distinct. Dr. Smith 
[Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc, Siam II, 264) has just published a note on the tadpole. 



1918.] G. A. BouLENGER & N. Annandale : Rana tigrina. 65 

dorsal coloration is darker and more uniform. The mouth-disk and its 
armature are closely similar except that the lowest tooth-row on the 
lower lip is broader and the teeth larger, and that the fringe of papillae 
is interrupted on the middle below. 

Geographical distribution. — The only point precisely ascertained 
as to the general range of this species is that it occurs in South Siam, 
including the provinces of Singgora and Patani in the Malay Peninsula, 
as well as in Java. It is apparently synonymous with R. scJdueteri, 
Werner, from North Borneo, but there is a possibility that the var. 
angustopalmata of van Kampen from Celebes may be distinct, if it is not 
synonymous with R. vittigera, Wiegmann, from the Philippines. 

III. POST-SCRIPTUM. 

By Gr. A. BoULENGER. 

Dr. Annan dale having most courteously communicated to me his 
reply to the suggestions contained in the first paper, I will add a few 
words rather than make any alteration to my original draft. 

As I say in the last paragraph, my opinion on the rank to be assigned 
to R. cancrivora stands or falls on the question of the tadpole, and as 
Dr. Annandale appears to have proved his case, I have no further reason 
to disagree with him, except from the theoretical point of view. 

The old conception of the frog in its development climbing up its 
own genealogical tree must be abandoned. As I pointed out twenty 
years ago,^ " larval forms such as the tadpoles are outside the cycle of 
recapitulation, the ontogeny being broken by the intercalation of the 
larval phasis. The horny beak, the circular lip with its horny armature, 
the spiraculum, the enclosure of the fore limbs in diverticula of the bran- 
chial chambers, and such special adaptations as the ventral disc or sucker 
of certain mountain forms, clearly point to tadpoles having had a develop- 
mental history of their own. We need, therefore, not be surprised 
at occasionally finding, wntliin the same genus, very different types of 
tadpoles, or even a total suppression of the larval stages, as is actually 
the case in the large and widely distributed genus Rana." That adap- 
tational gyrinal polymorphism occurs has been pointed out by Camer- 
ano,^ and I have myself drawn attention to a very remarkable 
dimorphism, apparently non-adaptive, in Pelodytes punctatus.^ 

Our progress in the knowledge of the metamorphoses of Batrachians 
has most decidedly invalidated the prediction of my late chief Dr. 
GUnther who, in his Preface to my Catalogue of 1882, expressed the 
opinion that probably the next step in perfecting the system of clas- 
sification would be marked by a consideration of the larval stages. 

I conclude, from the close agreement of R. cancrivora with the other 
forms grouped under R. tigrina, that the differentiation of the tadpole 
has arisen independently from that of the adult, the cuspidate beak 
and other buccal features of the R. tigrina tadpole being, of course, as 

1 Tailless Batrachians of Europe, p. 110. 

2 Aiti. Ace. Toriru, XXVI, 1890, p. 72. 

3 Proc. Zool. Soc, 1891, p. fil7, pi. xlvii, figs, 1, 2. 



66 Records of the Indian Miiseum. [Vol. XY, 

Dr. Annandale admits, deviations from the more normal pattern pre- 
served in R. cancrivora ; and therefore I do not think that the case in 
question points to forms originally distinct having converged to resemble 
each other in the adult condition. My opinion is supported by various 
examples, drawn from other types of animals, which Giard (1891-1892) 
has grouped together under the term poecilogony, the list of which is 
constantly being increased. 

I am glad my remarks have led Dr. Annandale to procure further 
material of the Bull-frog which occurs commonly in India and Ceylon ; 
I only regret he has not had more before expressing a decided opinion 
on the two forms the distinction of which I have pointed out. These 
he now regards as valid species, a divergence of view which may appear 
to some to be merely a matter of opinion. I wish, however, to observe 
that I feel sure a larger series would have convinced him that inter- 
mediate specimens fill up the gap between the extremes shown by his 
text-figures. To mention only one example, the specimen from Ceylon 
of which measurements are given in column 10 of my table under R. 
tigrina typica has the metatarsal tubercle in an exactly intermediate 
condition as regards shape and size. 

I have only seen a few living specimens of the Indian frogs, but in 
dealing with the European R. esculenta I have carefully studied enormous 
numbers, many caught by myself, and I may appeal to experience thus 
gained, as the distinction between the typical R. esculenta and the var. 
lessonae is a perfect parallel to the case of R. tigrina and R. crassa. The 
difference between the two extremes, in the proportions of the hind limbs 
and in the size and shape of the metatarsal tubercle is the same, as may 
be realized from the following measurements (a, length from snout to 
vent ; h, length of tibia ; c, inner toe, measured from the metatarsal 
tubercle ; d, length of metatarsal tubercle ; e, perpendicular diameter 
of the tubercle) : — 

a. b. c. d. e. 

R. esculenta typica, Nice ... 74 37 10 4 1 

li. esculenta var. lessonae, Norfolk 72 29 8 6 2-5 

I add the same measurements of a R. crassa, from the Madras Presi- 
sency, presented under that name to the British Museum by Dr. Jerdon, 
which show the inner metatarsal tubercle to be even smaller, in propor- 
tion, than that in the R. escidenta var. lessonae, from Norfolk : — 

E. tigrina var. crassa ... ... 90 42 9 6 2-5 

Now it is perfectly well known that there is so complete a gradation 
between the two extremes indicated by the above measurements that 
not even the extremists in species multiplication, of which we have a 
few among European herpetologists, have ventured to separate the form 
lessonae as a species. I have not the least doubt that if a large number 
of specimens could be obtained, from Ceylon for instance, and carefully 
measured, the distinction between R. tigriyia and R. crassa would present 
the same difficulties and fully justify the course I have followed, and 
prove that, as in the European frogs, geographical non-isolation cannot 
be appealed to as a safe criterion in deciding what warrants specific 
rank. 



1918.] G. A. BouLENGER & N. Ak^nandale : liana tigrina. 67 

I have one more remark to make, and that is on Wiegmann's figure 
of R. rugulosa. I have re-examined this figure, and, with all deference 
to Dr. Annandale's opinion, I can only repeat my statement that I 
regard the snout as pointed, as much so as in Dr. Annandale's figures 
of R. tigrina,^ and the web between the toes incomplete and deeply 
notched.^ It must be borne in mind that the types of R. rugulosa and 
R. vittigera have been compared by no less an authority than the late 
Professor Peters, and pronounced by him to be specifically identical 
{Mon. Bed. Ac. 1863, p. 78). 

1 Dr. Annandalc mentioned as one of the characters of his B. rvgulosa the less pointed 
snout as compared to R. tifjrina, and that is why I draw attention to the shape of the 
snout in Wiegmann's figure. I therefore request a comparison of the latter with the 
heads figured on Plate V of the Mem. As. Soc. Btng., Vol. VI. 

2 I have not said that the feet "' are meant to be webbed in exactly the same way as 
in the figure of R. vittigera on the same plate," and I know how greatly the extent of 
the web varies in R. cancrivora (see my remarks under that heading). 1 was alluding to 
Dr. Annandale's definition on p. 122 of his paper, where R. rvgvlosa is stated to have the 
feet almost fully webbed and the web very little emarginate. 



VIII. THE LYMPH GLANDS IN THE GENUS P//ERE- 

TIMA WITH A NOTE ON THE COELOMIC 

ORGAN OF BEDDARD. 

By GoBiND Singh Thapar, M.Sc, Professor of Biology, 

Islamia College, Peshawar. {From the Zoological Laboratory, 

Government College, Lahore.) 

(Plate VI.) 

In the common Indian species of earthworms of the genus Pheretima 
there occur on either side of the dorsal vessel throughout the intestinal 
region a series of segmentally arranged whitish structures which con- 
stitute a prominent feature in the ordinary dissection of the animal. 
Since this genus is usually taken as a type for study in the Colleges of 
Northern India, and since but little has been published on these organs, 
I determined, at the suggestion of my Professor, Lieutenant-Colonel J. 
Stephenson, to investigate them in the three common species of Phere- 
tima which occur in Lahore, P. posthuma (L. Vaill.), P. heterochaeta 
(Mchlsn.), and P. hawayana (Eosa). My grateful acknowledgments are 
due to Colonel Stephenson for the help and suggestions which I received 
from him in the course of my work. 

Beddard, whose monograph sums up what was know^i on the Oligo- 
chaeta prior to 1895, speaks of these structures along with certain others 
in other worms as " Coelomic Organs of problematic nature " ; "in 
certain Perichaetidae there are a series of minute paired whitish bodies 
lying one on either side of the dorsal vessel in the middle region of the 
body, and springing from the septa (in P. indica), or from the dorsal 
vessel itself (P. dyeri). These bodies are quite solid, consisting of a 
mass of cells surrounding a few muscular fibres." P. indica is pro- 
bably the species now known as Pheretima heterochaeta, and P. dyeri a 
synonym for P. rodericensis. 

G.'Schneider published {Zeit. /. iviss. Zool., LXI, 1896) a paper en- 
titled " Ueber phagocytare Organ e und Chloragogenzellen der Oligo- 
chaten " (I have not seen his preliminary account, published in Eussian 
with a German abstract in C. R. Sac. Natural. Petersbourg of the previous 
year). He also investigated P. indica and P. dyeri, and in addition P. 
barbadensis {a subspecies of P. haumjana). According to Schneider 
. the dorsal vessel, at the place of origin of the glands in each segment, 
lies in a sheath, which is a funnel-shaped forwardly directed diverti- 
culum of the septum ; the glands arise from this sheath. The sheath 
is deficient at a small opening on each side, and from the margins of this 
opening muscular fibres branch out into the gland ; the adjoining seg- 
ments communicate with each other through this opening. The mus- 
cular fibres form the frame-work of the gland, which is not a solid mass, 
as Beddard states, but a tree-like branching structure, whose twigs in 
older examples lie so close that the whole gives the impression of a lobed 

E 



70 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

cell-mass penetrated by numerous canals and lacunae. The cells are 
thickened peritoneal epithelium ; their nuclei are similar to those of 
the peritoneal cells on the one hand, and those of the leucocytes on the 
other ; the outer cells of the gland form rounded projections into the 
peritoneal cavity. Foreign bodies and parasites are found in the glands, 
and also setae covered with a thick layer of leucocytes ; in addition to 
the leucocytes, which make up the bulk of the cells of the glands, there 
are also large clear cells, with small deeply staining and apparently 
shrivelled nucleus ; these are sometimes full of small round refractile 
granules, and mostly occur in small aggregates surrounded by leucocytes ; 
they are probably dead chloragogen cells. Fresh chloragogen cells are 
also present in the glands. The author obviously considers the gland- 
cells to be merely heaped around the supposed opening in the septum. 
He also describes similar organs in certain Lumbricidae, and performed a 
number of interesting physiological experiments in order to ascertain 
the function of the glands ; he comes to the conclusion that they 
are phagocytic organs. 

Schneider introduced the name " lymph-glands " for these struc- 
tures, which is quite appropriate. 

Lloyd {An Introduction to Biology for Students in India, 1910) after 
describing the naked-eye characters of the organs, says " The function 
of these glands is unknown ; they consist of a mass of nucleated cells, 
which may be blood cells, or phagocytes in a state of development." 
He calls them " blood glands," an unsuitable term, which had better be 
dropped, especially as there are definite blood glands in some species of 
Pheretima (Lloyd's " oesophageal glands "). 

METHODS. 

The technique employed was the following : — The dissections made 
in order to describe the form and situation of the glands were made under 
the binocular dissecting microscope. The worms for sectioning were 
kept for a week and fed during this time on damp blotting paper renewed 
daily ; they were then narcotized, and fixed in 10 per cent, formalin 
for 24 hours, then washed and passed through graded alcohols ; some were 
cut into pieces and fixed in warm sublimate and acetic for an hour, 
then washed several times in distilled water and passed through graded 
alcohols. 

The sections were first overstained with Delafield's haematoxylin 
and then differentiated in acidulated water (five drops HCl to 100 cc. 
distilled water ; I used acidulated water in preference to acid alcohol 
because in the latter case there is no graduated and regular transference 
of the sections from a watery to an alcoholic medium). After passing 
through graded alcohols up to 90 per cent, the sections were counter- 
stained in alcoholic eosin (1 per cent, eosin in 90 per cent, alcohol for one 
minute), then dehydrated and cleared in the usual way. 

I also used Dobell's iron-haematein method {Arch. Protistenkunde, 
XXXIV, 1914). Films of the coelomic fluid, which I examined in the 
course of my work, were fixed in either sublimate or absolute alcohol, 
and stained in a similar manner to the sections. 



1918.] G. S. Thapae ; The Lym'ph Glands in Pheretima. 71 

THE GLANDS AS SEEN IN DISSECTION. 

Pheretima hawayana. — The lympli glands are a double series of whit- 
ish bodies, situated on either side of the dorsal vessel, lobulated, segment- 
ally arranged, beginning in segm. xxvi. In the anterior portion of 
their extent they occupy the posterior third of each segment, and extend 
from the dorsal vessel outwards about half way towards the lateral 
margin of the intestine. As we pass backwards they enlarge, until in 
the middle region they cover the greater part oi the intestine in each 
segment (fig. I). Still further back they diminish again, and ultimately 
they totally disappear in the last two or three segments. Each consists 
of a large number of very closely set small lobules. 

The septa are pouched forwards where they cross the dorsal vessel 
so that the dorsal vessel is here enclosed in a tube-like sheath, the cavity 
of which is part of the cavity of the segment behind the septum. It is 
to the walls of this pouch that the glands are connected. 

On some of the glands a number of small white bodies are to be seen, 
which on examination are found to be the cysts of the spores of a Gre- 
garine, — probably of the Moviocystis found in the seminal vesicles. 

Pheretima heterochaeta. — The glands begin in segm. xvii. In the 
anterior part of their extent they appear attached by a short stalk ; 
behind, the glands enlarge and a stalk is not to be distinguished ; at the 
hinder end the glands of a pair meet and fuse over the dorsal vessel and 
below it, so that the vessel is enclosed by the glands. The glands are of 
simpler form than in P. hawayana, — not lobulated in the same way ; 
though towards the hinder end a number of lobes, with a digitate arrange- 
ment, may be present (fig. 2). 

Pheretima fosthuma. — The glands begin, as in P. hawayana, in segm. 
xxvi ; the lobulation and variations in size correspond to what was 
found in that species ; some of the glands also show the spore cysts of 
Gregarines. 

HISTOLOGY OF THE GLANDS. 

A detailed description need only be given for one species ; for this 
purpose I choose P. hawayana. 

The lobules of the gland surround a central cavity, and this cavity 
opens into the cavity of the sheath round the dorsal vessel at this region ; 
the interior of the gland is therefore morphologically in connection with 
the cavity of the segment behind that in which the gland itself lies. 
Fig. 3, actually drawn from P. fosthuma, will illustrate this relation. 

The boundary of the gland consists of an extremely fine membrane, 
in which nuclei appear at intervals as flattened swellings ; these ovoid 
nuclei contain a deeply staining granule (" pseudonucleolus "), as well 
as fine irregularly distributed chromatin particles ; the protoplasm sur- 
rounding the nucleus appears to be fibrillar in structure, and is continued 
into the membrane which forms the boundary of the gland. 

Besides this bounding membrane, the interior of the gland is tra- 
versed by a reticulum, sometimes comparatively sparse, of the same 
character, — much flattened cells joined end to end, — and continuous 
with the limiting membrane, or capsule, as it may be called. In the 
centre of the gland this reticulum is almost or quite absent, so that there 



72 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

is there an uninterrupted space, containing more or fewer of the cells 
to be described ; this space, as has been mentioned above, opens into the 
cavity of the sheath round the dorsal vessel. 

From the margins of this opening, i.e., from what may be called the 
mouth of the gland, a number of muscular fibres take origin, as has been 
described by Schneider ; these pass into the gland, and then branch 
and radiate ; they are perfectly distinct from the reticulum. 

Within the gland are contained numerous cells, of irregular shape, 
with rounded nucleus containing a pseudonucleolus ; their processes 
may resemble pseudopodia, and the nucleus may be excentric. These 
are leucocytes, and as their characters are well known, they need not be 
further described. 

These cells are more compactly aggregated at the periphery of the 
gland, where they form fairly solid masses corresponding to the lobula- 
tions seen on the surface ; each such lobule is surrounded by a corre- 
sponding outward bulging of the enveloping membrane or capsule. The 
cells are also contained in the meshes of the reticulum of the gland, 
but are here more loosely aggregated ; in the centre of the gland towards 
the opening into the sheath of the dorsal vessel they are still more 
scattered. 

The cells are to be looked on as proliferated from the inner surface 
of the capsule within the peripheral lobulations ; thence they travel 
into the central part of the gland, and ultimately they reach the general 
body-cavity through the sheath around the dorsal vessel, which, as 
already explained, communicates with the cavity of the next posterior 
segment. 

From what has been said, it will be seen that I regard the capsule 
as peritoneal in origin ; it is indeed, as fig. 3 shows, continuous with the 
septum, and may be looked on as in fact an irregular sac-like forward 
bulging of the septum, which has become extremely thin by the loss of 
all muscular elements, — which has been indeed reduced to a thin sheet 
of peritoneal cells only. No doubt this sheet is morphologically double, 
and results from the coalescence of the two layers of peritoneum cover- 
ing the two faces of the septum, but its double character is not to be 
made out in the actual specimens. 

I differ, therefore, from both Beddard and Schneider in the concep- 
tion of the essential nature of these organs ; neither author seems to 
have recognised the capsule, or bulging of the septum within which the 
cells are contained. Beddard's idea is that the organ is a mass of cells 
surrounding a few muscular fibres ; while Schneider speaks of a definite 
opening in the sheath of the dorsal vessel, through which the cavity of 
one segment communicates with that of the next adjacent, and the 
gland is a tree-like branching structure originating from the margins 
of the opening. 

I must guard myself from saying that the capsule is to be made out 
as a complete investment over the whole periphery of the gland in every 
section ; it seldom is so, in this species at any rate. At places the cells 
of the gland are closely adherent, so that the capsule does not stand off 
as a separate structure, and frequently the capsule is absolutely conti- 
nuous with the cells. This of course necessarily follows from the 



1918.] G. S. Thafar: Tke Lyinijli Glands m rheretima. 73 

fact that the cells are budded off from the inner surface of the capsule. 
It is possible also that some cells are budded from the outer surface 
of the membrane ; or the cells which may be seen there may perhaps 
be leucocytes of the coelomic fluid which have become temporarily 
adherent. 

In Pheretima heterochaeta the lobulation of the glands is less marked 
than in P. hawayana, and the outline of the glands in sections is com- 
paratively smooth ; there is consequently not the same massing together 
of the newly formed and forming cells within the lobules, and the texture 
of the gland seems on the whole to be looser ; the capsule is as a rule 
more easily traced, and its connection with the reticulum within the 
gland is easily made out. 

In P. posthuma the lobulation is similar to that of P. hawayana, 
and the relation of the capsule to the cells also is as described for that 
species. 

OTHER CONTENTS OF THE GLANDS. 

That the main mass of the cells of the glands are leucocytes with a 
phagocytic function has been established by the experiments of 
Schneider. 

In addition I have seen the cells described by Schneider as contain- 
ing small round refractile granules ; the cells may be partially or even 
entirely filled by the granules. Chloragogen cells are also to be seen, 
and may be met with in various stages of degeneration. Cysts and 
pseudonavicellae of Monocystis, which may be surrounded by an almost 
epithelial arrangement of leucocytes, are present. Setae and fragments 
of setae, similarly surrounded by leucocytes, are also found. 

THE COELOMIC FLUID IN PHERETIMA. 

I add a few notes on the coelomic fluid in this genus. 

The fluid is of a yellowish colour, which varies according to the nature 
of its cellular contents. Its consistency also varies ; it is thick and gela- 
tinous in specimens coming from a dry locality, thinner in those from 
places where there is abundant moisture. As is well known, it is co- 
agulable by alcohol. 

Its cellular constituents are of four chief kinds : — 

(1) Leucocytes, granular and colourless, of various sizes ; the nu- 
cleus is usually spherical, and excentrically placed ; the chromatin is 
distributed as irregular granules, while in the middle of the nucleus is 
a larger aggregate, which may be called the pseudonucleolus. In 
normal salt solution these cells are seen to be actively putting out pseu- 
dopodia, fine filiform processes extending in various directions, which 
may anastomose with similar pseudopodia of other cells and lead to the 
production of plasmodia. The cells may sometimes become pear-shaped, 
with a fine filiform process which gives the appearance of a flagellated 
Protozoon till the movements are observed. 

(2) Minute colourless nongranular cells, mostly spherical, but some- 
times becoming elongated and pointed at the ends ; they are numerous, 
and may also form plasmodia. In stained preparations the clear proto- 
plasm readily takes up the eosin stain ; the nucleus when present is 



74 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

excentric, spherical, and contains a pseiidonucleolus ; there is a large 
clear vacuole in the middle of each. 

(3) The cells described in the account of the lymphatic glands as 
containing a number of refractile granules or globules are also seen. 

(4) Yellow cells, — the chloragogen cells, — in various stages of de- 
generation are found. 

In addition, numerous rod-like bacteria are present ; and also the 
sporozoite stage in the development of Monocystis. 

THE COELOMIC ORGAN OF BEDDARD AND FEDARB. 

Beddard and Fedarb have described ("On a new Coelomic Organ 
in an Earthworm," Proc. Zool. Sac, 1902), in specimens of Pheretima 
posthuma sent from Calcutta by Mr. F. Finn when Deputy Superinten- 
dent of the Indian Museum, a number of pouches or tunnels on the 
inner surface of the body- wall. These, which were visible in the ordinary 
dissection of the worms, were found in a number of specimens, — it is not 
stated that they were absent in any. Their direction is transverse 
on the lateral and ventro-lateral body- wall ; they occur on both sides, 
from segment xxii to the hinder end of the animal, being largest from 
about segment xl for about twenty segments onwards. Extending 
outwards and upw^ards from near the ventral nerve cord, they present 
the appearance of tunnels open at both ends, considerably constricted 
in the middle of their extent ; or the two halves may be quite separate, 
i.e., the constriction may be complete, resulting in the formation of two 
pouches on each side, those on the same side having their mouths facing 
in opposite directions, their narrow closed ends close together. The 
roof of the tunnels or pouches is thin and membranous, — merely an 
extension of the peritoneum. The structures are not equally marked 
in all specimens ; but, as stated above, they are not said to have been 
absent in any of the specimens examined. 

In a large number of dissections of P. posthuma I was unable to see 
these organs, even with the binocular dissecting microscope. I also 
prepared several series of sections for the same purpose, but the results 
were here also negative, except in one case, in a few segments taken from 
a little in front of the middle of the body. Here the tunnel was present, 
as described by the authors ; while reaching to not very far from the 
ventral nerve cord below, they terminated above a little dorsal to the 
lateral line of the body. 

The organs are therefore not found in all specimens of the species ; 
in some localities, as at Lahore, they appear to be of rare occurrence. 

A point not noticed by the previous authors is the modification of 
certain cells of the roof of the tunnel. A section across the tunnel, — 
such as is obtained in a longitudinal vertical series where it passes 
through the lowest part of the tunnel on the ventral body-wall, — shows 
the floor to be flat, and the roof a semicircular arch, just as in an ordinary 
railway tunnel (fig. 4). The floor is carpeted by ordinary peritoneal 
cells, clear and squarish ; the sides of the arching roof consists of flat- 
tened cells joined at their edges, as in the case of the capsule of the 
lymph glands, previously described. The vertex of the roof is peculiar ; 
it consists of cells which are much elongated vertically, joined together 



1918.] G. S. Thapar : The Lymph Glands in Pheretima. 75 

at their bases, and projecting downwards into the tunnel, with their 
free ends, which are narrower than the bases, separate from each other, 
and so giving a ragged appearance to the lower side of the roof ; the 
length of these downwardly projecting cells may be more than one- 
third of the height of the tunnel ; they have a fibrillated structure, 
the fibrils running in the direction of the long axis of the cells. 

In the tunnels numerous leucocytes are seen, and many nephridia, 
as mentioned by Beddard and Fedarb. I have no suggestions to offer 
as to the function of these organs. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VL 

Fig. 1. — Dissection in the middle region of Pheretima hawayana ; b. w., 
body-wall ; c, spore cysts of Monocystis ; d. v., dorsal 
vessel ; int., intestine ; l.g., lymph gland. 
„ 2. — Dissection in the posterior region of Pheretima heterochaeta ; 
letters as before. 

,, 3. — Horizontal longitudinal section through a lymph gland of 
Plierefiyna fosthuma, showing relations to the septum and 
dorsal vessel ; only a fe'w cells are shown in the interior 
of the gland, and the reticulum and branching muscular 
fibres are omitted ; a, a leucocyte ; ac, one of the peri- 
pheral lobules of the gland ; d.v., the dorsal vessel ; m, 
encapsuling membrane of the gland ; feri., peritoneum ; 
sejp., septum ; v, valve in dorsal vessel. 

., 4. — Vertical longitudinal section passing through the lower end 
of Beddard and Fedarb's organ ; c, leucocyte ; cm., 
circular muscular layer ; cp., coelomic organ ; cu., cuticle ; 
e'p., epithelium ; l.m., longitudinal muscular layer ; neph., 
nephridium ; peri., peritoneum. The epithelium is shown 
as a thick black line only. 

Figs. .3 and 4 are semidiagrammatic. 



Rec. Ind Mus.,Vol.XV, 1918. 



PI ate VI. 


















IX. NOTES FROM THE BENGAL FISHERIES 
LABORATORY. 

No. 4. CESTODE PARASITES OF HILSA, HILSA ILISHA 
(Ham. Buch.). 

By T. Southwell, A.R.C.Sc. [Lond.), F.Z.S., Director of Fisheries, 
Bengal and Bihar and Orissa ; Honorary Assistant, Indian Museum, 
Calcutfq,, and Baini Prashad, M.Sc., Superintendent of Fisheries, 

(Plates IV, V.) 

CONTENTS, Page. 

(1) The anatomy and life-history of Rhyndiobothrius ilisha, n. sp., from the intes- 

tine of a shark, Carcharinus gangeticus (Mlill. and Henle) ... ... 77 

(2) A note on the cysts of Syndesmohotlwiumfilicolle, Linton, parasitic in the lateral 

muscles of Hilsa ... ... ... ... ... 82 

(3) A description of a Cestode parasite of doubtful systematic position, from the 

mesentery and liver of Hilsa. ... ... ... ... 83 

I. THE ANATOMY AND LIFE-HISTORY OF BHYNCHOBOTH- 
RIUS ILISHA, N. SP., FROM THE INTESTINE OF CARCHA- 
■ RINUS GANGETICUS (Mull, and Henle).i 

During September and October, 1917 observations were made by 
us in the Pusser river, district Khuhia, on the habits of Hilsa, Hilsa 
ilisha (Ham. Buch.). This anadromous fish ascends the Bengal rivers, 
during the rains, for the purpose of breeding. Two methods of catching 
the fish are practised by the Bengal fishermen : — 

(1) Small canoes drift down stream, broadside on, trailing behind 
them a shangla jal. This is a small purse-like net which can be mani- 
pulated easily by one man. The moment a Hilsa is caught, the mouth 
of the net is closed, the net is hauled aboard, the fish removed, and the 
net cast over again. By this method it is very rare for more than 
one fish to be caught at a time. 

(2) A large gill-net, often measuring 300 feet in length, is shot by 
one, or between two, boats, and allowed to drift downstream for perhaps 
two miles or so. It is then hauled. The catch varies between two 
or three fishes and two hundred. 

In both cases, the boats return to the starting point, picking their 
way close to the bank of the river, aided by the wind, which fills a big 
sail of fantastic sha])e and colour. In both the above methods of 
fishing the entry of a fish into the net is most easily detected. Whilst 
working with the gill-net, we frequently noticed that fish entered the 
net, but somehow escaped. On hauling the net it was in every case 
found to be torn. The fishermen assured us that the damage had been 

^ Carcharius gangeticus (Miill. and Henle) in Day's Fishes in the "' Fauna of British 
fnclia," 



78 Records oj tite Indian Museum . [YoL. XV, 

done by a shark, and that sharks frequently attacked and ate Hilsa 
irom the large net. A few days later we were fortunate in catching a 
shark in one of the small shangla jals. It proved to be a specimen of 
Carcharinus gangeficus (Miill. and Henle), which measured a little over 
6 feet. The stomach contained a Hilsa, partly digested, and also a 
portion of the net. On examining, carefully, the partly digested 
Hilsa, it was found that the flesh of this fish contained numbers of 
club-shaped Cestode cysts, which, as a result of the partial digestion of 
the fish, were actively emerging from the flesh into the stomach of 
the shark. These cysts, which occurred in the muscles, had not been 
noticed previously. The large intestine of the shark contained num- 
bers of adult Cestodes, but the spiral valve was clean. These para- 
sites were found, ultimately, to be of two species, viz., (1) Discoceph- 
alum pilecUum, Linton. The only species of the genus was recorded 
by Linton from the spiral valve of the dusky shark Carcharius ohscurus ? 
Woods Hole, Mass., July 19th, 1886 ; it has not been recorded since. 
(2) RhyncJiohothrins ilislia, n. sp., which forms the subject of this paper. 
All the cysts seen emerging from the partly digested Hilsa were found 
to contain larvae of Rhyrtchohofhrius ilislia. No cysts were obtained 
which contained larval forms of Discocephalum fileatum, Linton. De, 
in his report on the " Fisheries of Eastern Bengal and Assam," 
Shillong, 1910, mentions that sharks and saw-fishes follow the Hilsa 
up the rivers of Eastern Bengal and Assam. This is certainly true 
of Carcharinus gangedcus. 

Systematic position. 

Family Tetrarhynchidae. 
Sub-tribe Trypanorhyncha, Diesing. 
Sub-family Phyllorhynchinae, Van Beneden. 
Sub-family L Dibothriorhynchinae. 
Family Dibothriorhynchidae, Diesing. 
Genus Rhynchohothrius, Rudolphi. 
{Tetrarhynchus of authors.) 

Generic characters : — Body taeniform. Neck tubular. Head con- 
tinuous with neck, with two opposite bothria, parallel or converging 
at the apices, lateral or marginal, entire or undivided, or, either 
bilocular with a longitudinal partition, or bilobed or divided. Probo- 
scides four, terminal, filiform, armed, retractile in the neck, for the 
most part longer than the head. Genital apertures marginal, female 
lateral, or male and female marginal approximate. ^ 

Rhynchobothrius ilisha, n. sp. 
(Plate iv, figs. 1—7.) 
Bothria two, lateral, entire, rounded, external face hollowed to form 
a sucking disc ; widely separated posteriorly, and approximated ante- 
riorly. Neck shorter than the head, flat. Proboscides filiform and 
armed with four kinds of hooks, arranged in oblique circles, the larger 

1 After Linton (2). 



— «^ • "lui^mp^mr. 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. Prasiiad : Parasites of Hil-a. 79 

hooks being distributed principally on the outer surface. Anterior 
segments shallow and numerous. Last segment much longer than 
head. Total number of segments about 232. Genital apertures ir- 
regularly alternate, and situated about the posterior third of the prog- 
lottid. Length of worm 11-5 cms. Posterior segments separating in 
two's and three's. 

Habitat. — The large intestine of Carcharinus ganr/eticvs (Miill. and 
Henle). Khulna, district Khulna, Bengal, 21st October 1917. Eleven 
adult specimens, several young forms just emerged from the cyst, 
and three cystic forms. No. Z.E.V. "—^ in the collection of the 
Indian Museum. 

Observations were made on the adult living worms and also on the 
free proglottides, in fresh water. Later on, these were preserved in 
corrosive acetic solution. Specimens were mounted stained whole 
with borax carmine, and also unstained. Sections were not found 
necessary as the anatomy could easily be determined from the mounted 
specimens. The head is large compared with the size of the worm and 
measures 4-2 mm. in length. The breadth of the anterior extremity 
is 2-6 mm., and of the posterior extremity 1-4 mm. Length of both- 
ridia 1-8 mm. Length of proboscides 2-1 mm. Length of proboscis 
sacs 1-6 mm. 

The bothridia (B) are paired, approximated anteriorly and widely 
separated posteriorly (plate iv, fig. 2). They are round in shape, 
having entire margins, and sucker-like external surfaces. The probos- 
cides (P) are four in number ; the armed portion is very short, with 
an equal length unarmed and very long tubes connecting them to 
the proboscis sacs (P. S). The hooks (plate iv, fig. 2 a — e) are of four 
types arranged in oblique rings, the larger ones being disposed along 
the outer margins. As usual, the hooks towards the base of the pro- 
boscides are much smaller than the rest. 

The neck is short, measuring only 2-2 mm. It is flattened and not 
cyhndrical. The anterior proglottides are shallow and numerous. 
The posterior proglottides are much longer than broad, measuring 5-1 
mm. by 1-3 mm. The total number of proglottides is about 232. The 
male genital organs appear first. The female organs are to be seen only 
in the last few proglottides. Of the male organs, the testes are first 
visible about the middle of the w^orm. The genital aperture is situated 
about the posterior third of the proglottis, and the male aperture is 
immediately in front of that of the female. 

Male organs (plate iv, fig. 4). — These consist of a large number of 
testes (T) occupying the greater part of the mature proglottid. They 
first appear laterally. From each of these is given off a minute tubule ; 
these unite later to form the vas deferens (V. D). This is a thick coiled 
tube originating a little in front of the ovaries and opening directly into 
the cirrus sac (C). The vesicula seminalis (V. S) is a bag-like structure 
which opens close to the junction of the vas deferens and the cirrus 
sac. The penis is fairly long and lies coiled up in the spacious cirrus 
sac. We could not distinguish any armature. 

Female organs (plate iv, fig. 4). — The ovaries (Ov) are paired and 
lie one on each side of the centre line, posteriorly. From each is 

f2 



80 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

given off, anteriorly, a very small oviduct (O.d). The two oviducts 
unite in the middle-line and receive, at the point of junction, the duct 
of the shell-gland (S. G). This organ lies between the ovaries, in 
the centre line. The uterus (Ut) originates, anteriorly, from the 
point of union of the two oviducts. It runs forward in the middle-line 
as a blind diverticulum, practically to the anterior termination of the 
proglottid, narrowing as it goes. The vagina (V) also originates 
close to the mouth of the uterus and is continued as a narrow coiled 
tube to near its opening. It then widens to form a barrel-shaped 
receptaculum seminalis (R.S). 

Water-vascular system (plate iv, fig. 3). — This consists of a single 
pair of wide tubes (W. T), situated one on each side, internal to the 
excretory vessel and nerve. These two tubes communicate with each 
other by a wide transverse vessel situated at the posterior margin of 
each segment. In the head, the two tubes break up into a series of fine 
vessels distributed throughout the substance of the head. 

Excretory system (plate iv, fig. 3). — This consists of a pair of very 
fine tubes (E. D) situated, one on each side, between the water- 
vascular vessel and the nerve. In the proglottides, they do not unite, 
but in the head they are united by a single transverse vessel. 

Nervous system (plate iv, fig. 3). — In each proglottid this consists of 
a single fine nerve (N) on each side, external to the water-vascular 
and excretory duct. No attempt was made to follow the distribution 
of the nervous system in the head. 

The larva. — We have already referred to the fact that numbers of 
tadpole-like cysts were found in the lateral muscles of the partly digested 
Hilsa, Previous to this record no cysts had been noticed in the flesh of 
Hilsa, although some time ago larval forms of Syndesmohothrium fiUcolle, 
Linton, were recorded by one of us from the mesenteries of this fish 
(5 & 6). The Rhynchohothrius cysts were, as noted, tadpole-shaped 
(plate iv, fig. 5). They consisted of a club-like head, and a long tail- 
like structure which was capable of considerable movement, and ap- 
peared to us to serve the purpose of mooring the larva in the intestine 
of the shark, during the digestive processes. 

The head, in one specimen, measured 4-8 mm. by 3-6 mm. The tail 
tapers to a point and measured 51-8 mm. in length. On opening out 
the " head," the larva (Y) was seen to be a massive structure occupying 
the greater part of the head and lying in a coiled position (plate iv, fig. 6). 
The tips of the four proboscides were just everted, and the spines 
could be clearly seen. Many young worms (plate iv, fig. 7) were also 
obtained from the lumen of the intestine. These had not had time to 
attach themselves to the intestine of the host. 

Life-history. — The Cestodes usually complete their life-histories in 
two separate hosts, the larval form occurring in an animal which is 
devoured wholly, or in part, by the final host of the worm. In a great 
number of cases the larval forms of adult worms have not been re- 
corded. In fewer instances larval forms have been described, but the 
adult worm developing therefrom is not known. The circumstances 
under which we are able to follow the life-history of this worm are un- 
doubtedly unique. In the present instance, the larval form of Rhyn- 



1918.J t. Southwell & B. Prashad : Parasites of HtUa. 81 

chohothrius ilisha occurs in the lateral muscles of Hilsa. This fish is 
eaten by the shark Carcharinus yangeticiis, and practically all stages 
between the cystic form and the adult worms are to be found in the 
intestine of the shark in question. 

Three points arise for consideration : — 

(1) We have already called attention to the fact that the tail of the 
tadpole-like cyst is mobile. It appeared to us on examining the living 
material, in situ, that the movements of the tail were directed toward 
retaining the cyst in the lumen of the shark's intestine, until the larva 
had had time to emerge and attach itself to the wall of the gut. 

(2) We have no information as to the exact manner in which the Hilsa 
become infected. The eggs of the adult worm are obviously shed 
into the water. Most probably they are swallowed accidentally by the 
Hilsa, in which case the larva would be liberated and carried to the 
muscles, via the lymph or the blood stream. It is further possible that 
the larvae hatch out in water, and, attaching themselves to the Hilsa, 
bore their way to the lateral muscles ; but as we know nothing regarding 
the structure of the larva, we can only hazard a guess as to the initial 
mode of infection of the Hilsa. 

(3) It will be clear that parasites occurring in the intestines of fish 
are removed with the entrails of the fish, before the fish is cooked and 
eaten. But when these parasites occur in the flesh, their removal is 
impossible. 

RhyncJiohothrius ilisha, n. sp., is the first example of an Indian Ces- 
tode whose life-history has actually been worked out. It is true that 
in the cosmopolitan forms of tapeworms, such as Taenia solium, Taenia 
serrata, etc., the life-history is well known. In India, owing to the 
occurrence of these species in. precisely similar hosts, the same life-his- 
tory has been inferred ; but so far as w^e are aware no experimental 
work of this kind has been attempted. 

Shipley and Hornell (4) described two species of tapeworms from 
Carcharias gangeticus (now Carcharinus gangeticus) obtained in Dutch 
Bay, Ceylon (salt water), 3rd January 1905, viz., Tertrarhynchus peri- 
deraeus and Tetrarhynchus gangeticus. Our species is totally dissimilar 
to the former and differs in the following particulars from Tetra- 
rhynchus gangeticus : — 

1. Our worms are 17 times longer. 

2. A distinct neck is present. 

3. The arrangement of the proboscis tubes is quite different. 

4. The hooks are different. 

As nothing has been stated by the authors regarding the anatomy 
of their species we have no means of carrying the comparison further. 
Our species is quite different from other species of this genus. 

Four species of Cestoda have now been recorded from this shark, 
viz., Tetrarhynchus perideraeus, Rhynchobothrius ilisha, Tetrarhynchus 
gangeticus, and Discocephalum pileatum. 

Classification. — As a result of some years' observations on the Tetra- 
rhynchidae we are of opinion that this family requires revision, parti- 
cularly with reference to the anatomy of the reproductive organs. 
Fortunately, we have a fairly extensive and representative collection 



82 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

at\d we are hoping, at no distant date, to be able to determine, in 
detail, the exact relationships of the various genera included in this 
family. 

The anatomy of the reproductive organs in our species is quite unlike 
that given by Linton (2) for the various species of Rhynchobothridae 
recorded by him. On the otlier hand, it resembles very closely the figure 
of an immature proglottid of Tetrarlujnchus erinaceus, Ben., figured by 
Johnstone (1). It differs only in the absence of vitellaria and a few 
minor details. 

Literature cited — 

(1) Johnstone, J. — Tetrarhynchus erinaceus, Van Beneden. 

Parasitology, Vol. IV, No. 4, Cambridge, 
1912. 

(2) Linton, E. — Notes on Entozoa of marine fishes of New 

England, with descriptions of several new 
species. United States Fish Commissioners^ 
Report, 1887. 

(3) Regan, C. T. — A revision of the Clupeoid Fishes of the 

genera Pomolobus, Brevoortia, and Doro- 
soma and their allies. Ann. Mar/. Nat. 
Hist., Vol. XIX, No. 112, April, 1917. 

(4) Shipley and Hornell. — Cestode and Nematode parasites from 

the marine fishes of Ceylon. Ceylon Pearl 
Oyster Report, Vol. V, Royal Society, 
London, 1906. 

(5) Southwell, T. — On some Indian Cestoda. Part I. Rec. 

Ind. Mus., Vol. IX, Part V, December, 
1913. 

(6) Southwell, T. — Notes from the Bengal Fisheries Laboratory. 

Parasites from Fish. Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. 
IX, Part V, 1913. 



II. A NOTE ON THE CYSTS OF SYNDESMOBOTHRIUM FILI- 
COLLE, LINTON, PARASITIC IN THE LATERAL MUSCLES 
OF HILSA. 

Specimens of Hilsa purchased from the Calcutta market during 
October, 1917 were found, on careful examination, to contain cysts of 
Syndesmohothrium fMcolle, Linton, in their flesh (lateral muscles). 

Southwell (3) recorded specimens of this cyst from the mesenteries 
of Hilsa in 1913. This parasite is, of course, distinct from the cysts of 
Rhynchobothrius ilisha, Southwell and Prashad, described in the first 
part of this paper. 

The cysts, when removed from the muscles, showed a considerable 
amount of movement and remained alive in normal salt solution for a 
few hours. Both the head and tail of the tadpole-shaped cysts (plate iv, 
fig. 8) were mobile. The head, in addition, showed contractile 
movements, owing to which its shape exhibited great variation in form. 



. ■ew'^rrnxyii^mmrtlf^ 



1918.] T. SouTHWEl.L & B. Prashad: Parasites of HiJsa. 8^ 

The cysts measured about 64 mm. in length, the head being 5-7 mm. 
long by 3-1 mm. broad, whilst the tail varied in length from 58 mm. to 
60 mm. The tail was an elongated tapering structure. The cysts 
were of a milky-white colour, the head being formed of stout fibrous 
tissue, whilst the tail portion consists of a thin membrane enclosing an 
albuminous fluid. 

On one of these cysts being dissected out it was seen that the head 
portion contained a second cyst (Y), almost cylindrical in shape, trans- 
parent, and 3 mm. in length. 

This second cyst, on being opened, was found to contain the worm 
(plate iv, fig. 9), which showed four fully developed bothridia and 
four proboscides, with a neck and an undifferentiated part posteriorly, 
which terminated in a vesicle. 

The parasites were not very numerous in the specimens of Hilsa 
which we examined. 

Literature cited — 

(1) Linton, E.' — Notes on Entozoa of marine fishes. Report 

U. S. Fish Coimn. for 1887. Washington, 
1891. 

(2) Southwell, T." — Ceylon Marine Biological Reports, Part VL 

Colombo, 1912. 

(3) Southwell, T.' — On some Indian Cestoda, Part L Rec. Ind^ 

Mus., Vol. IX, Part V, 1913. 



HI. A DESCRIPTION OF A CESTODE PARASITE OF DOUBTFUL 
SYSTEMATIC POSITION, FROM THE MESENTERY AND 
LIVER OF HILSA. 

I. Introdx'ction. 

In the following paper we propose describing a parasite which, though 
of small size, appears to be of very great systematic importance, and 
which further reproduces itself in a manner not before known amongst 
the Cestoda. 

The parasites were found first at Khulna in the mesentery of 
Hilsa. The mesentery (m), binding up the various coils of the intes- 
tine, was infected so very heavily as to appear something like a massive 
liver-like organ in which the various coils of the intestine appeared 
merely as tubes embedded therein. The infection had further spread 
to the liver [L (i)] which, in most specimens examined, was also heavily 
infected, though only in part (plate v, fig. 1). 

Since the initial observations were made, the parasites have been 
found to be widespread. They were formd in Hilsa examined by us 
from Goalundo, Sahebgunj, Kalna, and Calcutta. The infection is of 
such a heavy nature that, although more than a hundred specimens 
have been examined, not a single one was found which was not similarly 
infected. Continuous observations on living and preserved material 
were made at Khulna and Kalna and in the Fisheries Laboratory 
in the Indian Museum, over a considerable length of time. It has thus 



84 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

been possible not only to make exact observations on the parasite, but 
also to refer to all the literature found necessary. The adult parasites, 
as found in the mesentery, lie in elongated cysts of a creamy-yellow 
colour. The cysts measure 2-5 to 3 mm. in length. The younger 
stages are found scattered in the mesentery, the cyst not having been 
secreted at this stage. 

II. Technique. 

Living worms are dissected out of the cyst in normal salt solution, 
under a binocular microscope, and are examined alive on a slide with 
the highest powers available. They are best preserved for whole mounts 
in an alcoholic solution of Schaudinn's corrosive acetic solution. The 
salt solution containing these dissected out worms on the slide is first 
drained off and a few drops of the fixative added to cover them. After 
about half an hour the fixative is drained off and the usual method of 
staining and mounting adopted. We found that Heidenhain's iron 
haematoxylin gave the best results. Serial sections of the worms were 
cut with a Minot's rotatory microtome and stained with Heidenhain's 
iron haematoxylin. 

III. The anatomy and development of the adult worm. 

(1) The Cyst (plate v, fig. 2). — The worm occurs, as we have 
already remarked, in an elongated cyst which varies from 2-5 to 3 mm. 
in length. Its width is usually -4 to -5 mm. The cyst is cylindrical 
and rounded at both ends. It is made up of strong fibrous tissue. 
On opening out the cyst it is found to consist of a single adult worm, 
with a few young worms which have been produced pathenogenetically 
in a manner to be described later on. The worm is attached to the 
internal wall of one of the rounded ends of the cyst by four suckers, 
which occur at the anterior end of the worm. The anterior extremity 
of the cyst, which is the same as that of the animal, can easily be dis- 
tinguished under a lens, or the binocular microscope, owing to a reddish- 
orange pigment shining through the cyst at this end. It may be stated 
here that the cyst is in no way secreted by the parasite, but is formed 
by the tissues of the host itself undergoing a change. Besides the worm, 
the cyst contains a large number of fat globules and fat cells, which 
appear to serve as food for the parent worm. 

(2) The adult worm (plate v, fig. 3). — The adult worm is a leaf- 
like animal resembling a small liver-fluke. It measures 2-4 mm. long 
and -38 mm. broad. These measurements refer only to the fully grown 
animals found in the cyst. It is of a milky-white colour, with two more 
or less triangular patches of orange-red pigment (P.O.) situated near the 
anterior end, just posterior to the suckers, one on either side. The 
worm, on examination under a microscope, is seen to consist of an 
anterior and a posterior extremity. Anteriorly there is a median 
rostellum-like structure (K), devoid of any armature. Immediately 
posterior to it are four typical suckers (plate v, fig. 4), arranged sym- 
metrically round the base of the rostellum. These are circular, having 
deep concavities, with thick raised, entire, margins. The usual three 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. PrashAd : Pamdtes of Hilui. 85 

kinds of mviscles can be distinguished as forming the structures in ques- 
tion. The posterior extremity of the worm is rounded. No opening 
whatsoever is to be seen at this extremity. The outer cuticle is some- 
what thickened. 

(3) Internal structure of the worm. — On examining the worm with the 
high power it is seen to consist of a homogeneous substance in which no 
differentiation into separate organs is to be observed. In fact, the 
structure is of a most primitive character. All that can be distinguished 
besides the egg-cells (E) and the coloured corpuscles, in both living 
and stained specimens and in sections, is a tube, slightly coiled, which 
runs round the worm, close to, and parallel with, the margin of the 
leaf-shaped worm. Anteriorly, near the suckers, the two ends curve 
inwards for a short distance towards the centre of the worm. This is 
the excretory tube (E.t.), and from it are given off a large number of 
minute tubules which end in typical flame cells. The flame can, with 
an oil-immersion lens, be seen moving in these cells, in the livins 
worm. The whole of the homogeneous substance referred to above 
is filled up with enormous numbers of minute egg-cells. Besides the 
eggs, morulae [(E (i)] and other higher stages in the development of 
the young were also present in the intima. 

The orange-red coloured corpuscles (P. C.) are arranged in two 
triangular patches, one on each side, immediately behind the suckers. 
Each of these patches is formed of a large number of nearly rounded 
corpuscles measuring 23-25 /x in diameter. We are unable to say 
anything regarding the function of these corpuscles. When the worms 
die, or are preserved, the pigment disappears. 

(4) Egg-cells. — The egg-cells (plate v, fig. 5) are elliptical, measuring 
17 i^L by 12 \.L. The structures of the egg-cells is the same as that of a 
typical ovum with little yolk, and they probably originate in the same 
way as the parthenogenetic egg-cells in the sporocysts (and other larval 
stages) of the Trematodes. Some of these egg-cells were seen to be in 
different stages of development (plate v, fig. 6). They develop in the 
body of the parent to form young worms identical in structure and 
appearance with the parent. These will be fully described later on. 
Under ordinary circumstances the anterior extremity, or rostellum, of 
the adult worm shows no opening, but, when the development of the 
parthenogenetic young worms is complete, it is seen that the young 
worms have gradually worked their way to the anterior extremity of 
the adult. They now escape through a temporary aperture which is 
formed in the middle of the rostellum, anteriorly. In plate v, fig. 7 
one such young worm is shown in the act of escaping. We were fortu- 
nate in being able to observe two such cases, on different occasions, 
in living animals under microscopic observation. After the parent form 
has produced numbers of such young, the cyst breaks up and the young 
escape into the mesentery of the host. The parent form now dies and 
many empty cysts can always be seen in the mesentery of the host. 

(5) The young worms (plate v, fig. 8). — These vary in size from -3 mm. 
to -35 mm. in length by -1 to -12 mm. in breadth. They, like the adult 
worm, possess four suckers, a rostellum, imperfectly developed excretory 
tube, and a few eggs, but are devoid of pigment. 



86 Records of the Indian Mxiseani. [Vol. XY, 

IV. Systematic position of the worm. 

It will be clear from the preceding description that the parasite 
presents many unique characters. Our first impressions were that 
the parasite was a Trematode, but subsequent investigation showed 
that this was not the case. The entire absence of an alimentary canal, 
and the presence and arrangement of the four suckers, suggested the 
probability of the parasite being a Cestode, and it was only after care- 
ful examination that we concluded, definitely, that the animal belonged 
to the Cestoda. 

Benham (1) defines the characters of the Cestoidea and the Trematoda 
as follows : — 

(1) Cestoidea. — ^Platyhelminths in which an internal parasitic habit 
has led to the disappearance of the alimentary canal from every stage in the 
life-history.^ The ciliated covering, as well as definite organs of sense, 
are likewise absent in the adult. The epidermis, which has sunk into 
the parenchyma, secretes a thick cuticle as in the Trematoda. In the 
parenchyma, certain lime-secreting cells are developed in greater or less 
number. Organs of fixation are developed in a characteristic, but 
varied form, at one extremity of the worm. 

(2) Trematoda. — Parasitic Platyhelmia which retain the mouth and 
alimentary tract of the ancestor, but in which the epidermis not only 
loses its cilia during embryogeny but is apparently absent in the adult 
as a distinct continuous cellular layer, having sunk into the mesoblastic 
tissue after secreting a thick, stratified, chitinous cuticle. Further, in 
relation to their parasitic habits, suckers are developed at, or near, the 
posterior end on the ventral surface and also in the region of the mouth. 

In considering the classification of the worm just described, three 
points are to be considered, viz. : — 

(1) Is the animal a Trematode or a Cestode ? 

(2) Is it a larval form or an adult ? 

(3) If an adult, then is it a primitive or a degenerate form ? 

(1) Is the animal a Trematode or a Cestode ? 

The entire absence of all traces of an alimentary tract, the disposi- 
tion of the suckers, and the absence of ventral posterior suckers are 
definite Cestode characters which, in our opinion, show that the worm 
is not a Trematode. The absence of an alimentary canal alone is con- 
sidered by Luhe, and other leading helminthologists, to be the chief 
distinguishing character between Cestodes and Trematodes, although 
in some stages of the life-history of a few Trematodes, owing to 
degeneration, all traces of an alimentary canal disappear. We were 
unable to establish, by experiment, the actual presence of calcareous 
bodies, although under the microscope, typical calcareous bodies appeared 
to be present. The occurrence of orange-red corpuscles is an incidental 
character which it shares in common with many adult Tetrarhynchids, 
but we are not aware of any record of such coloured bodies being 
found in the Trematodes. Although the parasite seems to us to be 
undoubtedly a Cestode, we are aware that it differs very widely from 

^ The italics are ours. 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. Prashad : Parasites of HUm. ^7 

any larval or adult Cestode hitherto described. These differences, as 
we shall see, are so great and so fundamental as to merit very careful 
consideration before coming to a conclusion. 

(2) Is the parasite a larval or an adult form ? 

Assuming it to be a larval form the following facts have to be 
considered : — 

(a) The parasite exhibits, in common with the larval liver-flukes, 
the peculiar method of parthenogenetic development, but we know of no 
case among the Trematodes in which such active larval stages are passed 
in a vertebrate host. Further, nowhere does this type of partheno- 
genetic development take place within a cyst. Besides this, as the 
parasite in question has absolutely no trace of a digestive tract, we have 
no hesitation in concluding that it is not a Trematode larva. 

Turning now to the Cestoda we find that the reproductive process 
is absolutely unique, whether the parasite be an adult or a larval form. 
It is unlike any Cestode larva we are acquainted with in being parasitic, 
absorbing food, reproducing itself, and in the progeny reinfecting the 
same host. Further, a combination of such adult structural characters 
as suckers, reproductive organs of whatever kind, and the excretory 
duct, is not to be seen in any larval Cestode. We are aware of the 
conditions existing in various species of the genus Piestocystis (3). We 
have seen Villot's account (6) of this form, as well as Hill's description 
of his species of Piestocystis hoplocephali and Piestocystis lialis (4). 
Although our form bears a superficial resemblance to Piestocystis lialis 
with the head evaginated, in having an unarmed rostellum and 
four suckers, yet our species, though encysted, has the rostellum and 
suckers always everted as in adult tape- worms ; this is so even in the 
young individuals of our species. Moreover, the excretory system in 
Piestocystis liaUs and other species is open posteriorly, while in the 
parasite in question it is closed in all stages of its life-history. Also 
in Piestocystis lialis the buds are produced directly by a proliferation of 
the internal wall of the cyst. This is a typical larval condition, but in 
this worm which certainly appears to be an adult, the young are 
developed by a typical method of parthenogenesis (Lipospermia) in the 
body of the worm and not form the wall of the cyst. 

For the above reasons w^e have to conclude that the parasite is an 
adult cestode, though the following facts might be urged against this 
assumption, viz., (a) Absence of sexual genital organs, both male and 
female ; (b) the encysted condition of the adult parasite ; but the 
young parasites, as has been mentioned before, find their way out of the 
parent cyst, after they have grown to a fair size. They then lie in the 
mesentery for some time before themselves becoming encysted and 
repeating the same life-history ; (c) the entire absence of the nervous 
and water-vascular systems. The absence of these characters, however, 
in no way interferes wath the acceptance of the form as a Cestode parasite^ 
which is highly degenerate — a condition which perhaps is to be corre- 
lated wuth a changed life-history, completed in one host only, as appears 
to be the case with the form in question. This is further borne out by 
the extensive infection of the host which results in a very large progeny. 
(3) If an adult, then is it a primitive or a degenerate form ? 



^8 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

We cannot consider the parasite to be a simple primitive form be- 
cause of its structure, particularly the structure and disposition of the 
suckers, the excretory vessel, the specialised cyst, and the partheno- 
genetic method of reproduction. 

Systematic position :— Owing to the degenerate nature, and the 
peculiar reproductive phase of the parasite in question, there is very 
great difficulty in assigning it to its true position amongst the 
Cestoda, but the presence of four unarmed suckers, as well as an unarmed 
rostellum, would suggest affinities with the Taeneoidea (CyclophylHdea). 
For this peculiar worm we propose the name Ilisha farthenogenetica, 
n. g., n. sp. 

The generic characters would be as follows : — 

Small parasitic leaf -like worms occurring in cyhndrical cysts. 
Anteriorly there is a rostellum and four suckers, which latter are 
arranged symmetrically round the base of the rostellum. All these 
are unarmed. Sexual organs and genital pores absent. Parthenogenetic 
development. The young are quite like the adult and find their way out 
of the parent, and later on repeat the same life-history. 

Of doubtful affinity. 

Habitat. — The mesentery and liver of Hilsa ilisha (Ham. Buch.) 
from various places in Bengal ; September and October, 1917. 

A very large number of specimens. No. Z.E.V. -y^ in the collec- 
tion of the Indian Museum. 

Literature cited— 

(1) Benham, W. B. — Platyhelmia, Mesozoa and Nemertini, in 

Lankester's Zoology, Part IV. London, 
1901. 

(2) Braun, M. — Cestoda in Bronn's Klassen and Ordnungen des 

Their-Reichs. Leipzig, 1879-1893. 

(3) Diesing, K. M. — Systema Helminthmn, Vol. I. Vienna, 1850. 

(4) Hill, T. P. — A contribution to a further knowledge of the 

cystic Cestodes. Proc. Livn. Soc. N. 
S. W., Sydney, 1894. 

(5) Liihe, M. — Susswasserfauna Deutschlands . II. Parasitische 

Plattwurmer. II. Cestodes. Jena, 1910. 

(6) Villot, F. C. A. — Memoire siir les Cestique des Tenias. Ann. 

des Sci. Nat. (Zool), VI. Paris, 1882. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. — RkynchobotJirius ilisha, n. sp. Whole worm. 

2. — Head of the same showing its internal anatomy. 

2 (a) — (e). — Various types of hooks found on the proboscides of 
R. ilisha. 

3. — Two proglottids of the same showing the excretory, water 
vascular and nervous systems. 

4. — Anatomy of a proglottid of the same. 

5. — Cyst of R. ilisha from the lateral muscles of Hilsa. 

6. — Young of R. ilisha dissected out of the cyst. 

7. — Young individual of R. ilisha from the stomach of the shark. 

8. — Cyst of Syndesmohothrium filicolle from the lateral muscles 
of Hilsa. 

9. — Young of S. filicolle dissected out of the cyst with the anatomy. 
Reference Lettering. 

B-, Bothridium. C, Cirrus-sac. E.D., Excretory duct. N., Nerve cord. O.d., 
Oviduct. Ov., Ovary. P., Proboscid. P.S., Proboscis sac. i?..S'., Receptaculum 
seminis. S.G., Shell gland. T., Testis. Vt., Uterus. V., Vagina. V.D., Vas deferens 
V-S., Vesicula seminalis. W.7\, Water-vascular tube. Y., Larva in the Cyst. 



mai'^irmrmimilf^' 



Rec . Ind. Mus., Vol.XV, 1918 . 



PI ate. IV. 




B.Pra^jhad, del. 



2(&). 



CESTODE PARASITES OF HILSA 



■xg'di: ,.lvth. 



wmxi i .mm i'lWWM— u ii ' i ww w r - 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. — Lateral view of a dissected female Hilsa to show the infected 
mesentery and liver, and the other viscera. The heart and 
ovary of the left side are removed. 

2. — A cyst of Ilisha 'parthenogenetica n. g., n. sp. 

3. — An adult individual of I. parthenogenetica dissected out of the 
cyst. 

4. — Surface view of the rostellum and the four suckers on the 
anterior extremity of an individual of /. parthenogenetica. 

5. — Parthenogenetic eggs of /. parthenogenetica. 

6. — Morula stages in the development of the parthenogenetic 
eggs of /. parthenogenetica. 

7. — Anterior extremity of an adult individual of I. partheno- 
genetica with a young one escaping out of it. 

8. — A young individual of I. parthenogenetica lying free in the 
mesentery of Hilsa, before the formation of the cyst. 

Reference Lettering. 

E., Eggs. E{i)., Morula stage in the development of eggs. E.t., Excretory tube. 
Int., Intestine. L-, Liver. L{i), Part of the liver infected with cysts of 1. 2^a>'fheno- 
genetica. La., Larva escaping out of the mother individual. M., Mesentery infected 
with /. parthenogenetica. Ov., Ovary. B.C., Pigment corpuscles, i?., Rostellum. 
S., Sucker. 



Rec. Ind.Mus.,Vol.XV, 1S18, 



Plate V 




B.Pra.shaci,del. 
<5rA. Chow-anary. 



A.Chowdhary.lith. 



CESTODE PARASITES OF HIL3A 



iawfW^SipiAM 



X. NOTES ON SOME HARES IN THE INDIAN 

MUSEUM WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO 

NEW FORMS. 

By C. BoDEN Kloss, F.Z.S. 

I owe to the authorities of the Indian Museum the opportunity of 
examining a number of the hares in their collection and while studying 
the material lent me have put together the following notes. Unfor- 
tunately many of the skins are old and deteriorated and in some 
instances the skulls are very imperfect so that many features are 
obscured : but on the other hand little detailed information seems to 
have been published about the hares of the Indian Empire and many 
of the older descriptions are very sketchy according to modern ideas. 

Though I think but little weight can be attached to the form of the 
cement groove, or enamel folding, of the upper incisors except for broad 
distinctions I have described and figured all the examples in the present 
series. Forsyth-Major states : — " Specimens of the same species may 
vary slightly owing partly to individual variation. But the shape of 
the enamel fold varies equally at different stages in the age of the animal ; 
species whose incisors show the most complicated pattern in the adult 
have as yet no trace of this in very young animals ; and vice rersd in 
very old specimens complication tends to disappear again." {Trans. 
Linn. Soc. Zoology, 2nd Ser., VII, p. 466 ; 1899.) 

The examination of a sufficient series from one place (which is re- 
quired in order to show what the degree of variation is) still remains to 
be made, but judging from a set in my possession of Lepus siamensts, 
Bonhote, obtained from localities in North, Central, Eastern and South- 
western Siam, — even after making allowance for age — species or races 
seem to have an incisor groove only definable within wide limits : L. 
siamensis, for instance, possesses a furcate groove but the number and 
shape of the branches are very variable. 

As regards hares of the Indian Empire those with some form of 
triangular groove only occur just within northern limits and the 
branched-grooved group includes the majority of its forms ; for though 
in one or two of those examined the groove is squarish, in them the 
branches have probably aborted. The present series does not show 
any gradation or connection between the furcate and triangular forms 
of groove and these two patterns seem of value for grouping purposes. 

It has seemed most convenient to deal with the material geographi- 
cally beginning with the north-western races. Two new forms are 
described. 

Lepus yarkandensis. 

GihitluT. Aim. Ma;,. Nat- Hist. (4), XVI, p. 229 (187.3). 

No. 3782. Sub-adult skull from Katti-ilik, Fyzabad, Eastern Turke- 
stan (F. Stoliczka coll.). Upper incisors with the grooves triangular 

G 



90 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

in section and well filled with cement (fig. 1) : very like those of 
" Lepus yarkandensis ? " from Koko Nor figured by Forsyth-Major 
{Trans. Linn. Sac, Zool, 2nd Ser., Vol. VII, p. 468, "fig. vii ; 1899); 
and another specimen from Eastern Turkestan figured by Lyon {Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. XLV, p. 351, fig. 8 ; 1904). 

Lepus craspedotis. 

Blanfordj Eastern Persia, II, p. SO, pi. viii. 

No. 1322a. Nearly adult female (skin and skull) from Pishin, Balu- 
chistan (W. T. Blanford coll.). Type of L. craspedotis. 

Pelage very soft, apparently greyish-buf5 speckled with blackish, 
the rump greyest ; a pale area about the eye ; nape fulvous. Fore- 
limbs brighter and more ochraceous than the body ; hind-feet whitish 
or buffy white above, ochraceous below. Tail clear black above, 
ungrizzled. Underparts white except the foreneck which is fulvous ; 
lower abdomen clad with long hair. Ears apparently very large with a 
long fringe of hair along their upper edge. Groove in upper incisors in 
shape a rather acute isosceles triangle about half filled with cement 
(% 2). 

The skulls of this animal and of L. yarkandensis (No. 3782 antea) 
differ from all the following in the relative narrowness of their palatal 
bridges and in the large size of their bullae, those of L. yarkandensis 
being very big indeed, round and dilated ; of L. craspedotis rather 
longer though not so broad but with even larger external auditory 
meatus : craspedotis has also rather larger palatal foramina and the 
anterior " foot " of the zygomatic arch is hardly expanded at all, while 
in yarkandensis the foot is smaller than in any of the following 
specimens. 

Both have the nasals truncate posteriorly, those of craspedotis ])eing 
quite square-ended, also its post-orbital processes are much larger, 
broader, and almost touch the frontals behind — often they probably 
do as there are distinctly rough-tipped projections on the latter bones 
which seem to indicate complete contact : in both species the processes 
are relatively larger than in any of the following. 

Lepus dayanus. 

Blanford, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1874, p. (jtio. 

No. 1293b. Adult skin and skull from Nara-Nai Hills, west of 
Sehwan on the Indus, Sind (W. T. Blanford coll.). 

Pelage harsher than craspedotis but not so harsh as in the following 
species : apparently agreeing with the description of the types of 
dayanus which came from Sukkur on the Indus, about 100 miles N. N. E. 
of Sehwan. Hairs of upper side of tail with dark bases almost concealed 
by fulvous tips. 

The specimen is apparently a female as the lower abdomen is clad 
with Very long hair. 

Upper incisors with cement-grooves completely filled and almost 
square in section but the posterior border and the sides slightly concave 
and the corners rounded (fig. 3), less elongate than those of the cotype 



1918.] C. BoDEN Kloss : Notes on Hares. 91 

figured by Forsyth-Major (/. c. s., fig. xviii) and not so forked 
posteriorly. 

The skull has considerably smaller bullae but larger palatal foramina 
than yarlrindensis and craspedotis, with the palatal bridge a trifle broader : 
the inter-orbital width is greater ; there is a well-developed anterior 
foot to the zygomata ; the nasals are rounded posteriorly towards their 
outer sides and the post-orbital processes are joined to the frontals 
behind. 

Lepus cutchensis, sp. no v. 

No. 9827. Type. — Nearly adult male (skin and skull) from Bhuj, 
Kntch, collected on 17th August 1911 by the Bombay Natural History 
Society's Mammal Survey. Original No. 401. 

Characters. — Pelage very Hke that of L. dayanus from Sehwan but 
perhaps a Httle harsher ; tail darker and less grizzled : bullae smaller. 
Skull like that of riificaudatus in the broad sense, but pelage duller and 
tail dark. 

Colour. — Upper parts a grizzle of pale buffy and dark brown, the 
former predominating, but distinctly greyish above the base of the tail. 
Limbs and top of muzzle ochraceous-buff, the hind feet rather paler 
above. Sides of muzzle and area about the eyes whitish ; nape and 
foreneck nearly avellaneous-buff, not blackened. Throat, underside 
of body and tail and inner sides of thighs white. Hair beneath the 
digits of all limbs ta\\aiy. Ears finely grizzled buff and brown and 
edged with buff, the lower edge paler ; the tips blackish posteriorly ; 
the bases whitish below. Tail bone-brown above, slightly grizzled with 
ochraceous-buff. 

ShiU and Tee//?.— Skull very like that of ruficaiidatus (s. g.), having 
sm^aller bullae than dayanus, as small or smaller than ruficaudatus : 
palatal bridge broader but palatal foramina narrower than in dayanus, 
zygomatic feet equally developed ; nasals similarly rounded posteriorly; 
inter-orbital breadth less ; post-orbital processes considerably smaller 
and short, showing no sign of posterior contact with the frontals. 

The grooves of the incisors, though of the same bifurcate pattern as 
in the cotype of dayanus figured by Forsyth-Major (/. c. s., fig. xviii), 
have the branches longer and more distinct and more divergent ; they 
are completely filled with cement (fig. 4). 

Measurements. — Collector's external measurements : — Head and body, 
415; tail, 80; hind foot, 101; ear, 93. For other measurements see 
table, p. 96. 

Lepus ruficaudatus. 

GeoHroy, Diet. Class. Hi.^f. Nat.. ^X, p. 3Sl {lS2Ci). 

Lepvs macrotus, Hodgson, Jovrn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, IX, p. 1183 (1840) (Gangetic 
Plains and sub-Himalayas). 

No. 10172. Adult skin and imperfect skull from Thankot, Nepal 
(J. Scully coll.). 

Apparently a brightly coloured animal, ochraceous and black above, 
the lower portions of the limbs ochraceous to ochraceous-tawny 
throughout : the upper surface of the tail ochraceous, some of the 



92 



Records of the Indian Mv.teum. 



[Vol. XV, 



hairs tipped with black but all without dark bases. A pale patch in 
front of and about the eye. Ears apparently rather small. 

The incisor grooves are of the same general form as No. 9827 {L. 
cutchensis) ; the principal difference being that the posterior edge is 



AJ 



-5tJ 




V^>^^ 





2. 




^^ih^ ^b^ 



12 





13 



Fig. 



Anterior end of upper Leporine incisors from below, 
(Enlarged : not to scale.) 



Lepiis y irkanclensis. 
,, cruspedotis. Type. 
,, dayarnis 
„ cutchensis. Ty))e. 



Pigs. .5-10. Lcjius rvficfindatus. 

Fig. 11. „ peguensis. Type. 

,, 12. ., s'ldiya Type. 

,, 13. ,, sinensis 



sharply angular instead of regularly cxu-ved : the inner side of the tooth 
projects forward considerably so that the groove appears to be not fully 
filled with cement (fig. 5) : the molars are small. 

Nasals short, irregularly rounded posteriorly, inter-orbital breadth 
small, palatal bridge of medium width, 



1918.] C. BoDEN Kloss : Notes on Hares. 93 

The skull, thouoh fully adult, ^ indicates an animal so much smaller 
than the last and following; that, if typical, it might be regarded as sub- 
specifically distinct in which case Hodgson's name aryuheftersis would 
apply {Calcutta Jounwl of Natural History, IV, p. 293 — Nepal). 

No. 10327a. Old mounted male from Agra District much faded 
and worn. 

Tail ochraceous above throughout. 

Upper incisors large, the groove bifurcating fairly regularly, the 
posterior edge concave, branches of medium length, stem moderately 
broad (fig. 6). 

No. 7244. Adult skin and skull from Gaya District, Bihar (F. 
Field coll.). 

Colour less bright than the Nepal specimen, back and sides approach- 
ing buf? ; a considerable amount of whitish on the sides of the head ; 
both sides of the hind feet also pale. Hairs of the upper side of tail 
ochraceous distally, dark brown basally. 

Skull large, nasals somewhat rounded posteriorly, post-orbital 
processes of medium size and not touching the frontals behind : palatal 
foramina large and palate bridge broad, anterior feet of zygomata very 
large (12-5 mm. long). 

Incisor grooves showing greater development than the last : the 
stem is narrower in proportion to the spread of the branches of which 
the right incisor exhibits two and the left three, the extra branch being 
median and small (fig. 7). 

No. 10174b. Skin from Manbhum, Bengal (R. C. Beavan coll.). 

In every way as brightly coloured as the Nepal specimen with the 
hairs of the upper side of the tail ochraceous throughout except for 
some dark tips. The hair below the digits is dark tawny, in marked 
contrast to the ochraceous limbs ; but this feature is probably fortuitous. 

No. 10328a. Skin from Manbhum, Bengal (R. C. Beavan coll.). As 
the last except that the hair beneath the digits is not dark. 

No. 7317. Portion of skin with perfect skull from Calcutta. 

The fragmentary skin indicates an animal nearly as bright as the 
Manbhum individuals. 

Skull with nasals pointed posteriorly, and rather small post-orbital 
processes not approaching the frontals. Palatal bridge narrow with 
a posterior median spine, mesopterygoid space broad, bullae like the 
last but more globose ; molars small. 

Incisor grooves bifurcating with well developed branches completely 
filled with cement (fig. 8) : Very like those of a specimen from the 
Jumna River figured by Lyon {I. c. s., fig. 10) but branches more elongate. 

Lepus ruficaudatvs seems to be a species in which the incisor grooves 
are normally bifurcate but also develop three and four branches as in 
the animals from the Punjab and Rajputana figured by Forsyth-Major 
(I. c. s., figs, xxiii and xxiv) : for Punjab material the name hircjosa has 
apparently been proposed by Gray. 



* Specimens are here regarded as fully adult when tlic frontal suture is largely obli- 
terated : otherwise they are called nearly adult or sub-adult. 



94 Records of the Indian Mvseum. [Vol. XV, 

No. 10004. Adult skin and imperfect skull from Satpara, Puri 
District, Orissa (S. W. Kemp coll.). 

Colour not markedly differing from the Gaya exam})le (No. 7244) 
with muzzle and top of head ochraceous I lit the sides of the head and 
hind feet less white. Hairs of upper side of tail ochraceous distally, 
greyish-brown basally. 

Skull large with the nasals broadly rounded posteriorly, palatal 
bridge narrower than in No. 7244. 

The groove of the right incisor (left missing) well filled with cement, 
of simple form almost square in section, the posterior angles projecting 
very slightly (fig. 9). 

No. 10173. Nearly adult skin and imperfect skull from the Naga 
Hdls, Assam (A. W. Chennel coll.). 

Colour like the last but a little less bright. A ring round the eye 
buffy instead of whitish : hairs of upper side of tail without dark bases. 

A smaller skull than the last with the nasals narrower posteriorly, 
frontals much narrower and narrower palatal bridge. 

Incisor grooves of essentially the same type but their posterior 
angles sharper and more projecting (fig. 10). 

The difference between this individual and the last does not appear 
to be great and the incisor grooves are similar. If the latter were typical 
Tythrs name tytleri {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2), XIV, p. 176;" 1854) 
based on material from Dacca, an intermediate locality, might possibly 
applv. But the presence of the above recorded specimen No. 7317 from 
Calcutta (fig. 8), also an intermediate locality, renders such a course 
impossible until more is known of the hares ranging from the Bengal 
Coast to Assam. It is of course highly probable that the Calcutta 
specimen was obtained in the Bazaar and came from up-country. 

Lepus peguensis. 

Blyth, ■Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bewinl, XXIV. p. 471 (IS-'io). 

No. 435a. Mounted skin and imperfect skull (scarcely fully adult) 
from Upper Pegu (Sir A. Phayre coll.). Type of L. pegueiisis.^ 

The skin has suffered much from exposure but exhibits clearly the 
white upper surfaces of the hind metapodials and small pale patches on 
the forefeet ; and also the pure dark upper surface of the tail (now 
altered to " seal brown "). 

Nasals pointed posteriorly, frontals broad, post-orbital processes 
not touching behind ; palatal foramina broad, palate bridge medium. 

Groove of left incisor (right damaged) very similar to those figured 
by Forsyth-Major {I. c. s., fig. xx), consisting essentially of a two- 
branched groove with the outer branch bifurcating and the stem fairly 
narrow : well filled with cement (fig. 11). 



^ The first example of L. peguensis seen by Blyth and recorded as identical with 
sinensis Gray (Joiirn. Asiat. Soc Bengal, XXI, 1852, p. 359) was a hare from Arakan : 
it was evidently not made the type of the species for its ears liad been destroyed whereas 
in the present specimen they are perfect, and there is no black on the underside of the 
])aws as was stated to be the case with the first animal. 



1918,] C. BoDEN Kloss : Notes on Hares. 95 

Lepus sadiya, sp. nov. 

Le-jHis sp., Robinson, Eec. Ind. Mas., VIII, p. 90 (191:5). 

No. 9165. Type. — 'Adult skin and skull from Kobo about 15 miles 
west of Sadiya, N.-E. Assam. Collected during the course of the Abor 
Expedition by Mr. S. W. Kemp. 

Characters. — Pelage somewhat as in L. pegucnsis Blyth, with meta- 
podials of hind feet whitish, but colour generally paler and duller, and 
tail suffused with ochraceous. Grooves of incisors roughly triangular. 

Colour. — Upper parts mingled buff and black, top of face tinged 
with ochraceous, sides of head rather paler buff, some white on the 
sides of muzzle and areas round eyes, sides of body bufEy-white with a 
few black tips to the hairs. Nape ochraceous-tawny slightly grizzled 
with black. Fore-limbs ochraceous-buff ; forefeet dull buff above with 
a few white hairs above the claws, below greyish-buff ; hind feet white 
above with some buff hairs over the digits, below and at sides greyish- 
buff. Tail above superficially ochraceous but the hairs with dark brown 
bases (" seal brown "') most visible near the tip : throat, under parts 
of body, back of fore-limbs, front and inner aspect of hind-limbs and 
under-surface of tail white, gradually blending on the under-body wirh 
the colour of the sides. Extremity of chin grey ; fore-neck like the 
fore-limbs, the hairs faintly tipped with black. Ears finely grizzled 
blackish and buff', the former in excess ; the edges fringed with buff' 
except the tip externally which is brownish-black. 

Skull and Teeth. — Skull rather smaller than the type of peguensis, 
the posterior termination of the nasals rounded ; frontals narrower 
and post-orbital processes larger, not, however, touching the skull 
behind. Palatal foramina relatively narrower, palate bridge broader 
with a pronounced posterior spine, mesopterygoid space very narrow ; 
anterior feet of zygomata moderate ; bullae about as in ruficaudatus 
(they are missing in the type of peguensis). 

Incisor grooves triangular (thus approximating towards sinensis, 
Gray) but well filled with cement and the inner borders slightly sinuate ; 
inner side of incisor very narrow and projecting considerably (fig. 12). 

Measurements. — See table, p. 96. 

Remarhs. — I have no skins of Lepus sinensis or other Chinese hares 
to compare this animal with, but judging from descriptions it is quite 
distinct. While the shape of the incisor groove shows that it is allied 
to the northern animals the white hind-feet connect it with peguensis. 

Lepus sinensis. 

Gray, 111. Ind. Zuul, II, pi. xx (1S34). 

No. 436c. Imperfect skull of young adult from Amoy, South China. 

Skull small, rostrum slender, nasals obliquely truncate, frontals 
broad, post-orbital constriction narrow ; palatal bridge relatively broad 
a id mesopterygoid space wide. 

Incisor grooves triangular much as figured by Forsyth-Major (/. c. s., 
fig. vii) but with less cement therein, the groove being practically empty 
except at the extreme apex (fig. 13). 



96 



Records of the Indian Miiaeuni. 



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XI. THE MIDDLE EAR OF INDIAN FROGS. 
By Baini Prashad, M.Sc. 

(With Plate IX.) 

On each side of the head of the common frog the skin in the middle 
of the temporal patch is distinguished as the tympanic membrane or 
tympanum. The description of this structure in Rana temqioraria 
may be given in the words of Marshall (13) : " Behind the eye on either 
side is an obliquely placed elongated patch of a dark colour, in the middle 
of which is a circular area — the tympanic membrane — supported by a 
marginal ring." Other text books of Zoology in their accounts of R. 
femporaria describe the condition in the same way as Marshall, while 
soine say that the tympanic membrane is close to the surface and only 
covered over with skin. 

Claus-Sedgwick (5) in the general account of the amphibia try to 
get over the difficulty in the following way : " In the Eatrachians alone 

there is a tympanic cavity which is closed externally 

by a tympanic membrane, which is sometimes freely exposed on the 
surface and sometimes covered by the skin." Boulenger (2 — 4) in his 
systematic works describes the tympanum as distinct, indistinct or 
hidden under the skin, according as the area of skin is marked off 
from the surrounding skin or otherwise. Hoffman (12) is not definite 
as to whether the tympanum is a structure distinct from the skin 
covering it. Cope (6) states that there is a dermal membrana tympani 
connected with the stapes through a chain of ossicula auditis ; evi- 
dently he considers the tympanum to be a distinct structure from 
the skin covering it, though he does not definitely say so. Crombie 
(7) deals with the function and tension of the membrana tympani 
of the mammals only. Fox (8) in his paper on the development of 
the tympano-eustachian passage of the common American toad deals 
with the development of the tympanic cavity, the eustachian tubes 
and the ossicula auditis, but says nothing about the tympanum. 
ViJly's admirable paper (16) on the development of the ear of the 
European frog does not contain any reference as to the development of 
this structure or its relations with the skin. Hasse in his two papers 
(10, 11) deals with the structure of the internal ear of the frog only. 
Norris (14) does not try to clear the problem. Retzius (15) is the 
only author who has definitely stated that there is a distinct tympanic 
membrane underlying the skin. Haslam in his translation of Ecker's 
" Anatomy of the Frog " (9) has rewritten the whole section on the 
ear from Retzius' paper cited above. 

From the review of literature on the subject it will be clear that a 
great deal of confusion exists regarding the tympanum being a structure 
distinct from the skin or otherwise. It was with a view to do something 



98 Beco7'ds of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

towards the solution of this problem that the present work was under- 
taken. 

Material and Methods. 

' I have investigated in detail the structure of the middle ear of the 
large Indian frog Rana tigrina, Daud.^ There are several forms 
closely alhed to this frog in India, but the form common in Lahore 
where the work was done is the typical one, as was ascertained by send- 
ing some specimens to Dr. Boulenger in London. Besides a large num- 
ber of dissections of this frog I cut sections of decalcified specimens 
of both young and adult frogs ; these sections were found to be very 
useful in clearing up the doubtful points and indicating the exact relation- 
ships of the various parts. 

Through the kindness of Dr. N. Annandale, Director of the Zoological 
Survey of India, Calcutta, I was able to examine the large collections 
of frogs in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and so am able to add an 
account of the structure as it occurs in a large number of other Indian 
frogs. I am also deeply indebted to Lt.-Col. J. Stephenson, D. Sc... 
I. M.S., Professor of Zoology and Principal, Government College, Lahore, 
for kindly giving me leave to go to Calcutta to work in the Indian 
Museum, and for sanctioning a special grant towards the expenses. 

Rana tigrina. 

The structure of the middle ear in this frog will be described in the 
following order : — 

(1) The tympanic area. 

(2) The tympanic membrane. 

(3) The tympanic cavity and associated skeletal structures. 

The Tym/panic area (fig. 1). — I have reluctantly changed the 
widely accepted nomenclature in order to remove the existing con- 
fusion, and have given the name of tympanic area {T. a.) to the area 
of skin situated in the temporal patch on the side of the head. This 
area is continuous with the skin, but is tightly stretched over the marginal 
ring of the annulus tympanicus, and is slightly more depressed than the 
skin all round it. It is nearly circular in outhne and is a little smaller 
than the eye. About the middle of this structure the attachment of 
the columella auris can be seen as a nodular protrusion. 

The histological structure of this portion of the skin is quite similar 
to that of other parts of the skin, except that the number of cutaneous 
glands is much smaller ; about the middle no cutaneous glands are to 
be seen {text fig. 1). 

The Tympanic memhrane (figs. 2, 3, and 4). — This is quite a dis- 
tinct structure lying immediately underneath the so-called tympanic 
membrane of authors. It can be easily separated from the skin 
covering it. On the skin being reflexed by a cut, the tympanic mem- 
brane (T. m.) is seen to be of a rounded-oval form shghtly notched 
at the upper side, and produced into a httle projection on its lower. 

1 I have satisfied myself by examination of specimens of R. esculenta and R. tem- 
poraria that the structure in these frogs is also essentially similar to that of R. tigrina, 



1918.] Bai]s-i Peashad : Middle Ear of Indian Frogs. 99 

It is attached all along the circumference to the slightly up and in- 
turned edges of the annulus tympanicus. The tympanic membrane 
is thin along the margin but is specially thickened in the middle on 
its inner side for the attachment of the distal end of the columella auris. 
The membrane is formed of connective tissue fibres which radiate 
from the central point of attachment of the columella to the periphery. 
A few blood vessels, nerve cells and a large number of pigment cor- 
puscles are also found scattered in the connective tissue. Along the 
margin some unstriated muscle fibres are also to be seen. Internally 
the tympanic membrane is lined by columnar epithelium {text fig. 2) 
which is continuous lower down with the mucous membrane hning of 
the tympanic cavity. 




Fig. 1. — Transverse section of the ear of R. ti(jrin(i. 

The Tympanic cavity and associated skeletal structures. — After the 
removal of the tympanic membrane the tympanic cavity is seen to be 
a funnel-shaped structure. The upper margin of the funnel is slightly 
turned inwards for the attachment of the tympanic membrane 
as seen in a transverse section {text fig. 1). The funnel-shaped 
tympanic cavity has its longer axis directed downwards and backwards 
from the anterior and upper side. This upper or outer portion of the 
tympanic cavity is formed by the annulus tympanicus {A. T.) ; from the 
lower end of the annulus tympanicus the tympanic cavity becomes 
very much reduced and continues as a slightly depressed tubular struc- 
ture, the cross section of it hence is not circular but slightly elongated. 
The beginning of this second or inner portion of the tympanic cavity 
may be termed the tympanic recess {T. r.), while the opening by which 
it communicates with the internal ear is known as the fenestra oralis 
(fig. 4, /. o.). From the ventral surface of this deeper portion of the 
tympanic cavity a short wide eustachian tube puts the tympanic cavity 
of each side into communication with the pharyngo-oral cavity. The 
deeper portion of the tympanic cavity is bounded by the squamosal 
and prootic bones anteriorly, by the prootic dorsally, by the carti- 
laginous portion between the prootics and exoccipitals internally and 
by muscles posteriorly. 

b2 



100 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV. 

The tympanic cavity is lined all alonj^ by mucous membrane which 
is very vascular and pigmented. 

The annulus tympanicus (figs. 4, 5, A. T.) is a cartilaginous frame- 
work of the shape of a short truncated cone, broad outwards and nar- 
rowing towards the inner side. The frame is not a complete structure, 
but is interrupted on the dorsal surface, the space between the two 
parts being occupied by a cartilaginous process («', Parker's swpra- 
stapedial) of the extrastapedial cartilage of the columella auris. The 
annulus tympanicus is supported on the anterior, dorsal and ventral 
surfaces by the squamosal bone, while posteriorly by muscles. The 
columella auris (fig. 6) has the oval outer surface of the extrastapedial 
cartilaginous portion (a) embedded in the tympanic membrane {text 
fig. 2), wdiilst the suprastapedial processes [a') from its posterior surface 

A.T- 



■^Kf^A^-^ 




-fjxy. 

T. '^^' 



P^' 



// 






^^m ■% ¥te^»'* 




Fig. 2. — Transverse section of the ear of R. tigrina through the region of the cohimella. 

goes to complete the annulus tympanicus as has been described above. 
The middle bony portion or the mediostapedial {h) after passing through 
the tympanic recess continues through the deeper portion of the tympanic 
cavity, to end in the cartilaginous interstapedial (c), which fits into the 
fenestra ovalis (fig. 4, /. o.). 

Having described in detail the structure in R. tigrma, I will now 
describe the condition of the tympanic area of some other Indian frogs. 

FiRMISTERNIA. 

Family Eanidae. — 

Oxyglossus. — According to Boulenger (3) the tympanum ^ is indis- 
tinct in this genus. Tn specimens of 0. lima and 0. Icevis the tym- 
panic area is not distinctly marked off, but the attachment of the colu- 

^ The word tpnijinvmn used here and further on is used in the sense in which it is 
used by Boulenger and is equal to lytvpanic area of the suggested nomenclature. 



1918.] BaIiM Prashad : Middle Ear of Indian Frofjs. 101 

mella is visible as a distinct nodule raising up the skin. The tympanic 
membrane is quite a distinct structure underneath the skin. 

Rana. — The tympanum in most species is distinct, but in a few may 
be hidden. The condition in R. ligrina has been described in detail. 
In R. liebigii^ the tympanic area is not distinct, but the tympanic 
membrane is seen to be quite a distinct structure lying- under the skin. 

Micrixalus. — The tympanum may be indistinct or hidden. In 
a large series of specimens of M. silvaticus of different ages it was seen, 
that the tympanic area is quite distinct in the young, becoming in- 
distinct in older specimens, and in the fully adult it is not to be dis- 
tinguished. The tympanic membrane is quite a distinct structure. 

Nyctibatrachus. — The tympanum in this genus is described as 
hidden. In some well preserved specimens of N . major the tympanic 
area was distinctly marked off as a light-brown patch of skin ; in the 
other poorly preserved specimens however it was not distinct. 

Nannobatrachus. — The tympanum for this genus also is described 
as hidden. The condition in specimens of N. heddomii examined was 
the same as described for Nyctibatrachus inajor ; and the distinctness 
of the tympanic area depended largely on the condition of preservation. 

Rhacophorus. — The tympanum is usually distinct. In 7^. maxi- 
nms it is distinctly depressed and is overhung on the upper side by a 
fold of skin, which makes the structure very prominent. 

Ixalus. — The tympanum may be distinct or hidden. In the two 
species 7. glandidosus and I. leucorhinus, examined by me it was quite 
distinct. 

Family Engystomatidae. — This family is peculiar in having the 
tympanic area shifted to a much more forward position than in the 
Ranidae ; it lies quite close to and at a much lower level than the eyes, 
in some it lies just below the eyes. 

Calophrynus. — The tympanum is distinct. In C. pleurostigma 
tympanic area was found to be definitely marked off, and covering 
over the tympanic membrane lying under it. 

Microhyla. — The tympanum is described as hidden. In specimens 
of M. rubra examined by me the condition (fig. 10) was the same as in 
Calophri/nus described above. 

Kaloula. — The tympanum according to Boulenger is hidden. In 
three specimens of K. obscura, the tympanic area was not a distinctly 
marked off portion, but in two better preserved specimens it was quite 
distinct. In K. fulchra (fig. 9) the tympanic area was slightly depressed 
and so better marked. 

Cacopus. — The tympanic area in specimens of C. systoma is quite 
indistinguishable externally (fig. 7) but on removal of the skin (fig. 8) 
the tympanic membrane is seen to lie under the skin quite close to the 
eye. 

Glyphoglossus. — The tympanum is described as hidden. In two 
well preserved specimens of G. molosus the tympanic area was seen 
as a slightly depressed circular area with raised edges, and lying just 

^ Dr. iVnnandale informs me that there is a very great confusion about this species, 
several species being confused under the name, but the form referred to is the true 
B. liebigii, Gthr, 



102 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

below the eyes. The colour was the same as that of the skin covering 
the rest of the body. 

Arcifera. 

Famil}'' Bufonidae. — The conditions are essentially similar to those 
in the Ranidae. 

Bufo. — The tympaimm is distinct or hidden, seldom absent. In 
B. himalyanum (fig. 11) the tympanic area is a comparatively small 
structure, in some specimens it was partially covered over by the well 
developed parotid gland arching over it. 

Cophophryne. — In C. sikkimensis no tympanic area is marked of? 
externally, but on removal of the skin the tympanic membrane is seen 
to be quite distinct. 

Family Hylidae. — 

Hyla. — In H. annectens (fig. 12) there is a distinct tympanic area, 
but in some other species it is absent. 

Family Pelobatidae. — Boulenger described the condition of the 
tympanum for the only Indian genus Leptohrachium (now united with 
Meyalophrys) in his original account (3) as indistinct or hidden ; in a 
later paper (4) for Megalophrys he says " distinct or hidden under 
the skin." In M. carinense (fig. 13) the tympanic area was seen 
to be quite distinct, lying very far back. The tympanic membrane was 
found to lie underneath it, and the annulus tympanicus was found to 
have shifted to a much lower position, being now supported by the 
vertical limb of the T shaped squamosal. This position is due to the 
greatly depressed condition of the head, and with it the great forward 
inclination of the squamosal bone. 

Summary. 

The structure of the middle ear of R. tigrina is described in detail. 
A change of the usually accepted names is proposed in view of the pre- 
sent work. The name of the so-called " tympanic membrane " has 
been changed to " tympanic area," because the " tympanic mem- 
brane " is a distinct structure lying underneath the tympanic area 
stretched over the annulus tympanicus. An account of the tympanic 
area as seen in a large number of Indian frogs of the various families is 
also given. 

The condition of preservation of the specimens was often found to be 
responsible for the distinctness with which the tympanic area was 
marked off from the rest of the skin ; whereas it was quite well seen in 
well preserved specimens, it could hardly be distinguished in poorly 
preserved ones. 

References to Literature. 

1. Ayres, H. — " Vertebrate Cephalogenesis II. A contribution to 
the morphology of the vertebrate ear with a recon- 
sideration of its functions." J. Morphology, Vol. 
VI, 1892. 



l9.i8.] Baini Parshad : Middle Ear of Indian Fro(js. 10a 

2. BouLENGER, G. A. — " Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia s. 

Ecaudata in the Collection of the British Museum," 
London, 1882. 

3. BouLENGER, G. A. — " The Fauna of British India including Ceylon 

and Burma." " Reptilia and Batrachia," London, 
1890. 

4. ,, "A revision of the Oriental Pelobatid Batra- 

chians." P. Z. S., 1908. 

5. Claus, C. and A. Sedgwick. — " Elementary Text book of Zoo- 

logy." Vol. II, London, 1891. 

6. Cope, E. D. — " On the relations of the Hyoid and Otic skeleton 

of the Batrachia." J. Morphology, Vol. II, 1888. 

7. Crombie, J. M. — " On the membrana tympani." Journ. Anat. 

and Fhijs., Vol. XVIII, 1883. 

8. Fox, H. — " The development of the Tympano-Eustachian passage 

and associated structures of the common toad {B. 
lentiginosus)." P. Ac. Philadelphia, Vol. LIII, 1901. 

9. Haslam, G. — Translation of Ecker's " Anatomy of the Frog." 

Oxford, 1899. 

10. Hasse, C. — " Das Gehororgander Frosche." Zeit. /. Wiss. Zool., 

Vol. XVIII, 1868. 

11. ,, " Die Histologic des Bogenappartes und des steinsacks 

der Frosche." Zeit. /. Wiss. Zool, Vol. XVIII, 
1868. 

12. Hoffmann, C. K. — "Amphibia" in Bronn's " Klassen und 

ordungen des Thierreichs." Leipzig und Heidelberg, 
1873-f878. 

13. Marshall, A. M. — " The Frog. An Introduction to Anatomy, 

Histology and Embryology " London, 1896. 

14. NoRRis, H. W. — " The morphology and function of the Amphibian 

ear." P. Iowa Academy of Sciences, Vol. VIII, 
1902. 

15. Retzius, G. — " Das Gehororgan der Wirbelthiere. 1. Das Gehor- 

organ der Fishes und Amphibien." Stockholm, 1881. 

16. ViLLY, F. — " The development of the ear and accessory organs in 

the common frog." Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. (N. S.), 
Vol. 30, 1890. ' 



_-*«-».. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. ^ 

Fig. 1. — Rana tigrina, head of an adult female specimen. 

„ 2. — Head of R. tigrina with the skin over the tympanic membrane 
and the side of the head reflexed. 

„ 3. — Skull of R. tigrina showing the attachment of the tympanic 
membrane, side view. 

„ 4. — Skull of R. tigrina showing the attachment of the annulus 
tympanicus, the tympanic membrane and the columella 
auris, seen from behind. 

„ 5. — Annulus tympanicus of R. tigrina, seen from above. 

„ 6. — Columella auris of R. tigrina, seen from the posterior side. 

„ 7. — Cacopus systoma, head of an adult male. 

., 8. — Head of a Cacopus systoma with the skin over the side of the 
head reflexed. 

,. 9. — Kaloula pulchra, head of a young specimen showing the tym- 
panic area. 

„ 10. — Microhyla rubra, head of an adult specimen. 

,, ]L- — Bufo himalyanum, side view of the head. 

„ 12. — Hyla annectens, side view of the head. 

,, 13. — Megalophrys carinense, side view of the head of an adult 
specimen. 

Keference lettering. 

a. Extrastapedial portion of the columella, u'. Suprastapedial process of the extra- 
stapedial. A. t. Annulus tympanicus. b. Mediostapedial portion of the columella. 
G. Intcrstapedial portion of the columella, eu. Exoccipital. /. v. Fenestra ovalis. 
fjT. Frontoparietal. //(. Maxilla. n. Nasal. jnn. Preniaxilla. ^j^. Pterygoid. 

q, (Quadrate. qj. (^uadratojugal. s. Squamosal. se. Sphenethmoid. sm. Septo- 
maxillary. T, a. Tympanic area, T. m. Tympanic membrane. T. r. Tympanie 
recess. 



Rec . Ind. Mus ..VoLXV, 1918 



Plate IX. 



se-. 



,..fp- 



n.. 




rn.. 






T. 



7- 



rrv 



T.co. 





T. 



a-. 




,al. T.r. 



T. 



5. 



T.vrv. 



V/ 9. 



T'. a.. 




A.Chowdhar/ lith. 



MIDDLE EAR or INDIAN FROGS. 



XII. A NOTE ON THE SKELETONS OF 
BALAENOPTERA EDEN I, ANDERSON, 
IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM, CALCUTTA. 

By Roy Chapman Andrews, A.M., Associate Curator of Mammals, 
American Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

(With Plate XV.) 

In 1871 a whale was stranded m an inlet off the Gull" of Maitaban. 
The skull and a portion of the skeleton were recovered and deposited 
in the Indian Museum where they were sulisequently examined by Dr. 
John Anderson and described by him under the name Balaenojdera 
edeni^. 

Since Dr. Anderson's paper there has been no critical study of this 
skeleton until my monograph- published in March, 1916, where it was 
considered in relation to Balaenoptera horealis, Lesson, which had been 
discovered in the Pacific Ocean in 1910. 

After a detailed discussion of Anderson's account, I concluded my 
remarks upon the species in the following v/ords : " While from the 
foregoing discussion of B. edeni it is evident that this species is either 
identical with, or closely allied to, B. horealis, I feel that without further 
information no positive assertions can be made regarding it. The 
characters of the skull and atlas which have already been pointed out are 
certainly of importance and to my mind cannot be disregarded or ex- 
plained upon the grounds of individual variation. Since Dr. Anderson 
especially noted them from the specimen itself it would appear that 
they have not been exaggerated in the published figures. It is highly 
desirable that this skeleton be reexamined in the light of present know- 
ledge of the large Cetacea, but until this is done, or other specimens have 
been obtained from the same waters, it appears to me that it is wisest 
to leave Balaenoptera edeni as a very doubtfully established species. 

" It is especially unfortunate that Mr. Orjan Olsen, who has recently 
described Balaenoptera hrydei from South African waters, did not furnish 
osteological details with his external descriptions. Further information 
regarding both these whales will be awaited with interest since it is not 
improbable that the two may prove identical, or both the synonyms 
of B. horealis. At present, however, the wisest course is to leave them 
as they are " {I. c, p. 378). 

In July, 1917, while en route to New York after a year of zoological 
exploration in Yun-nan province, China, I reached Calcutta and 



^ Anatomical and Zoological Researches : comprising an account of the Zoological 
Results of the Two Expeditions to Western Yunnan in 1S08 and 1875. London, 1878, 
pp. 551-564, pi. xliv. 

* Monographs of the Pacific Cetacea. II, — The Sei Whale {Balaenoptera borealis. 
Lesson). Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. New Scries, Vol. I, 
Part VI, March 1916, pp. 376-378. 



10() Records of ihc Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

through the courtesy of Dr. N. Annanclalc, Superintendent of the Zoolo- 
gical Department of the Indian Museum, was given the opportunity to 
examine the type specimen of Bcdaenoptera edeni as well as a skeleton^ 
referred to the same species which was secured on January 21, 1890, 
at Sidhi Island, Noahkolly (Noakhali), Bengal, by C. E. F. Tonnerre, 
Esq. The latter, I believe, has not been reported upon. Unfortunately 
I had to leave Calcutta rather hastily and was not able to examine the 
Sidhi Island skeleton in detail but several of the bones were removed 
from the storage case for my inspection. 

The most important characters in which B. edeni differs from other 
species according to Anderson are in the skull and atlas. He says that 
the skull of this species is remarkable for the " little downward shelving 
of the upper surface of the maxillae ;" also " in the character of its beak, 
which is long and slender, and much more forwardly directed than the 
beak of B. schlegeW (=-S. borealis). 

These characters appeared to me to be of considerable importance 
from a study of Dr. Anderson's figures and I find that they truly 
represent the condition of the specimen. They are borne out, in a some- 
what less degree, by a skull from Arakan (which was reported upon by 
Anderson) and in the Sidhi Island skull ; unfortunately when I examined 
the latter the premaxillae were not in position but the bones appeared 
to be similar to those of the type. 

The beaks of all three skulls are narrower at the base in proportion 
to the length and the breadth at the middle than are those of B. 
borealis and consequently the beak has a somewhat different shape. 
These characters a]»pear to me to be of considerable importance but the 
others which Dr. Anderson mentions in his description are probably not 
beyond the limits of individual variation. 

The atlas (pi. XV, figs. 1, 2) of this species is very interesting. 
Dr. Anderson remarks " The neural canal has considerable breadth 
(3 inches) and is much broader tnan high. The notch for the reception 
of the odontoid swelling of the axis lying below it is much contracted. 
The transverse process of the atlas is well-defined, rather long, but 
basally shallow ; very different from the deep wing-like twisted trans- 
verse process of B. schlegeli, as figured and described by Flovs^er. The 
articular surfaces of the axis practically meet below, being separated 
from each other by 0-25 inch in the dried bone, and have thus no facet 
between them as in B. schlegeli {—B. borealis), {I. c, p. 558). 

I verified Dr. Anderson's observations and drawings of the atlas 
from the type specimen and they are substantiated by the atlas of the 
Sidhi Island skeleton, figures of which are represented herewith. Com- 
parison of the atlas of either of these spec^'mens with any published 
figures of the corresponding bone of B. borealis will show immediately 
that the differences are just those which are pointed out by Dr. Anderson 
in the paragraph quoted above. 

All of the skeletons of B. borealis upon which observations have been 
recorded, with one exception, have possessed cervical ribs ankylosed 
with the first thoracic ribs. Dr. Anderson remarks that a fragment of 

1 Specimen b in Sclater's Cat, Mamm, Ind. Mas., II, p. 311 (1891). 



1918.] il. C. Andeews : Balaenoptera edeni. 107 

the first left rib of the type of B. edeni was preserved and that it was 
" single-headed." The Sidhi Island skeleton exhibits a bifurcated first 
rib exactly as in B. horcalis as may be seen from the accompanying 
figures (figs. 3, 4). While the presence or absence of a cervical rib has 
no specific value, nevertheless it is interesting since in B. borealis its 
presence is almost universal (see Andrews, I. c, pp. 367-368). 

The Sidhi Island skeleton, so far as I was able to examine it, appears 
to substantiate the characters pointed out by Dr. Anderson in the type 
specimen of B. edeni. While in almost any other group of mammals 
these would be deemed sufficient reason for separation from even closely 
allied forms, yet any naturalist who is familiar with the extraordinary 
individual variation among cetaceans will realize that it is unwise to 
make positive statements based upon a limited amount of material. 

It is difficult for me to believe that the differences exhibited by these 
skeletons can be individual, and yet they must be strengthened by a 
knowledge of the external anatomy before the species can be said to rest 
upon a firm foundation. There is no doubt that it is a form very closely 
allied to B. borealis and it may possibly prove to be identical with the 
recently described Balaenoptera brydei from South Africa of which only 
the external characters are known. 



■ra» 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

Bones from specimen of Balaenoptera from head of Bay of J3engal 
(Noakliali). 

Fig. 1. — Articular surface of atlas vertebra. 

,, 2. — Lateral view of atlas vertebra. 

Figs. 3 & 4.— First rib. 

Specimen (b), Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Iiid. Mus., II, ]). 314. 



REC. IND. MUS., VOL. XV, 1918. 



Plate XV. 




S. C. Moiiiliil,i,li,,t 



Balaenopteea edeni, Andebson. 



Photo.-eiigraved & printed at, liie (iffli-cs o{ tlic Sm \ ,■> cit liidiM. Ciilcutia. IhIi^ 



XIII. ON THE ANATOMY OF CERTAIN INDIAN 
UNIONIDAE. 

By Ekendranath Ghosh, M.Sc, M.D. 
(With Plate XVI.) 

Introduction. 

The genera and species of Unionidae discussed in this paper are : — 
Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck), Solenaia solenijormis (Benson), 
Physunio ferrugineus and Ph. micropfer aides, Annandale. These species 
resemble one another so closely in anatomical structure that I have 
considered it best to treat them together in a comparative manner. 

The method of study was (1) simple dissection of the soft parts of the 
animals after removal from the valves, checked by (2) longitudinal 
(sagittal) section of the entire animal and (3) serial transverse section 
of the whole animal (into thin slices, 2-4 mm. thick) from one end to 
the other. The gills were studied microscopically after sectioning by 
the usual paraffin method. They have been specially studied with 
reference to the formation of the marsupium. 

As regards the materials, the specimens of Lamellidens were procured 
from tanks about Calcutta, while the others were received from the 
Zoological Survey of India through the kindness of Dr. Annandale. 

I. Mantle-lobes. 

The mantle-lobes are free from each other from the antero-dorsal 
aspect of the anterior adductor muscle down along the ventral 
margins to the posterior margin as high as the postero-dorsal aspect 
of the posterior adductor muscle. Behind, the two lobes are joined 
to one another between the exhalent and inhalent apertures by a 
horizontal shelf formed by their fusion with the free dorsal margins 
of the outer lamellae of the outer gills and of the other lamellae of the 
gills to one another. The point, of fusion of the mantle-lobes is placed 
just at the antero-dorsal aspect of the anterior adductor muscle in 
Lamellidens and Solenaia, but at a higher level in P. jerrmjinens and less 
so in P. micropteroides ; further, this point forms the most anterior 
end of the lobes, and in the case of Lamellidens and Solenaia is placed 
at the level of the ventral border of the anterior adductor muscle. A 
small gap between the margins of the mantle-lobes is left above the 
posterior adductor muscle, exposing the dorsal wall of the rectum in 
both Lamellidens marginalis and Solenaia solenifonnis. This gap is 
absent in both species of Physunio. 

Above, each mantle-lobe is fused with the body-wall, the line of 
separation passing along the ventral aspect of the anterior adductor 
muscle, the base of the anterior lip of the mouth, and the attached 
dorsal margin of the anterior half of the outer labial palp ; the line of 



110 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

separation is then reflected forwards in an acute angle along the ventral 
aspect of a triangular membrane attaching the dorsal margin of the 
labial palps to the side of the visceral mass, and ultimately curves back- 
wards round the anterior end of the inner and then the outer gill (the line 
of curvature forming about | the circumference of a circle). It then 
passes obliquely downwards and backwards nearly in a straight line 
along the ventro-lateral aspect of the non-glandular portion of the 
kidney. Behind the foot, a canal ^ intervenes between the non-glandular 
portion of the kidney and the line of separation. In Laniellidens the 
line is placed on the dorsal aspect of the canal, whereas in both Solenaia 
and Physunio it lies on the outer side of the canal itself. Furthermore, 
the line of attachment of the outer lamella of the outer gill is placed 
below the line of separation in Lamellidens and Solenaia, but in Phy- 
sunio in this line. This line is oblique and situated on the outer side of 
the kidney ; it forms an acute angle with another line drawn from the 
anterior end of the outer gill to the posterior end of the attachment of 
the labial palps on their dorsal aspect in Physunio (more so in P. ferru- 
gineus than in P. micropteroides), a right angle in Lamellidens marginalis 
and an obtuse angle in Solenaia soleniformis. Lastly, the line of separa- 
tion passes along the ventral margin of the posterior adductor muscle 
to its posterior aspect, where it is joined to the opposite mantle-lobe 
through the intervention of the gills. It then curves round the posterior 
aspect of the posterior adductor muscle to join its fellow at the postero- 
dorsal aspect of the muscle. 

The inhalent and exhalent apertures are bounded by the thick, 
pigmented margins of the mantle-lobes. The inhalent aperture is twice 
the exhalent aperture in height. The margin of the inhalent aperture is 
beset with tentacles in all the genera here described ; in Lamellidens 
and Solenaia the tentacles are short and stout and are nearly of the same 
size, and are arranged in a single row, but in Physunio they are elongate 
and conical and of three sizes which are arranged irregularly in three 
rows, the largest ones (larger than those in Lamellidens and Solenaia) 
being placed internally. 

The exhalent aperture is smooth in Solenaia and Physunio, but pro- 
vided with a row of minute tubercles in its extreme lateral margins in 
Lamellidens. The margins of the aperture extend further downwards 
in Physunio than in Lamellidens and Solenaia. 

II. Labial palps. 

The lahial pal/ps, outer and inner, are continuous in front with the 
anterior and posterior lips of the mouth ; they are elliptical in Lamelli- 
dens and Solenaia, but a little more elongate in Physunio. The point at 
which they are fused with the lips of the mouth forms a shallow con- 
cavity on the ventral margin in Lamellidens and Solenaia, but presents a 
slight flattening in Physunio. The labial palps are free from one another 
except in three-fourths the length of the dorsal margin from the anterior 
end ; they are connected with the body by a triangular membrane 
attached to their fused dorsal margin. The apex of the membrane 

^ To be described witl) the kidney. 



1918.] Ekendranatii Giiosii : Anatomy of Unionidae. Ill 

is directed forwards and the base forms a free margin behind ; the side 
fused with the wall of the visceral mass is overlapped by a small portion 
of the ventral margin of the inner gill. 

III. Muscles. 

(1) The anterior adductor muscle is irregularly triangular in shape in 
Lamellidens and Physunio, and rather obliquely pyriform in Solenaia. 
The relative position of the muscle and the pseudocardinal tooth or teeth 
in the intact animal varies with the different species described. In 
Lamellidens the anterior end of the tooth or teeth is placed just above 
the middle of the attachment of the anterior adductor muscle, while in 
Physunio it extends to the antero-dorsal angle of the muscle with a gap 
between the two. 

In all the species described here tlie muscle is divided into an upper 
and lower portion by an oblique septum extending between the two 
valves. 

(2) The posterior adductor muscle is triangular (with the apex above 
and the angles rounded) in Lamellidens and Physunio. In Solenaia it 
is elongated horizontally, with nearly parallel upper and lower borders 
and rounded ends ; in the anterior and upper corner there is a notch to 
receive the posterior end of the muscle. 

(3) The anterior retractor muscle of the foot arises from the base of 
the foot on its side, just behind the mouth ; it passes obliquely upwards 
and forwards beneath the posterior lip of the mouth and on the inner 
side of the lower portion of the protractor muscle to be inserted into the 
valve just behind the anterior adductor muscle. In Lamellidens the 
surface of attachment lies along the lower two-thirds or more of the 
posterior margin of the adductor muscle, being widest below and taper- 
ing above. In Solenaia it is placed behind the upper third of the pos- 
terior margin of the adductor muscle, and is nearly circular in shape. 
Lastly, in Physunio it is elongately triangular with the apex below, and 
is placed behind the upper half of the posterior margin of the anterior 
adductor muscle. 

(4) The protractor muscle of the foot arises on each side from the 
visceral mass above the base of the muscular foot. The fibres radiate 
from an obliquely placed triangular area and are collected into a very 
short column, which passes obliquely downwards and forwards to be 
inserted into the valve near the anterior adductor muscle. In Lamel- 
lidens marginalis the muscle is placed below^ and behind the adductor 
at a little distance from it ; in Solenaia it is placed behind and a little 
below the anterior retractor, at a distance behind its ventral aspect. 
In Physunio it is placed behind the adductor at the level of its lower 
end and also at a distance from it. 

(5) The posterior refractor muscle of the foot on each side arises from 
the extreme posterior and dorsal aspect of the visceral mass ; the two 
muscles lie side by side in the middle line, pass obliquely upwards and 
backwards between the two kidneys (at their posterior portions) and 
are inserted into the valves above the level of the upper border of the 
kidneys and in front of the posterior adductor nuisclc. In Lamellidens 
marginalis the surface of attachment is more or less triangular in shape, 



112 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

lying in contact with the upper end of the anterior aspect of the adductor 
muscle. In Solenaia also, it is triangular, but lies in contact with 
the notch in the posterior adductor muscle. In Physunio again it is 
triangular, but is placed above and in front of the dorsal aspect of the 
adductor muscle. 

(6) The elevator muscles are arranged in two patches one on each 
side, on the dorso-lateral aspect of the visceral mass. 

In Lmnellidens marqinalis each patch is placed at the junction of 
the anterior one-third and posterior two-thirds of the body length and 
consists of very short columns of muscles 5 — 7 or more in number and 
arranged irregularly ; they are at once inserted into that portion of the 
valve lying in front of the umbonal cavity. In Solenaia they are placed 
behind the region of the umbo. In Physunio they are placed above and 
behind the anterior adductor muscle far forward in position as compared 
with those of Lamellidens or Solenaia. 

IV. Gills. 

The gills are more or less similar in Lamellidens and Physunio. They 
are elongated and placed obliquely, and are approximately 4 times as 
long as broad. The inner gill is wider and longer, and extends a little 
more forward than the outer one. The outer gill is narrow and pointed 
in front, narrow and tapering behind. The inner gill is wider than the 
outer and extends below the outer gill. In Lamellidens the outer gill 
is nearly of the same width all through except at the tapering posterior 
and rather abruptly narrowed anterior end. The inner gill projects 
downwards beneath the outer one more in the anterior two-thirds of its 
length than in its posterior one-third. In Physunio the outer gill is 
comparatively narrow, being widest near the middle of its length and 
tapering at both ends ; it presents a notch in the ventral margin near 
the anterior end ; the inner gill projects downwards most in front, 
slightly behind and least in the middle. 

In Solenaia the gills are much narrowed and elongated, being about 
ten times or more as long as they are broad ; the inner gill extends a 
little more forward than the outer, as in the other species, and projects 
a little below the outer gill equally in its entire length except at the 
anterior end ; the anterior and posterior ends of the outer gills are 
narrower and more pointed than those of the inner gill. 

Attachments of the cills : — 

(1) The outer lamella of the outer gill is attached to the inner surface 
of the mantle-lobe. In Lamellidens the line of attachment lies a little 
below the separation of the mantle-lobes from the body-wall, so that the 
outer wall of the outer suprabranchial chamber is formed by a portion 
of the mantle-lobe ; the case is similar in Solenaia. In Physunio, how- 
ever, the line of attachment lies at the line of separation of the mantle- 
lobe from the body-wall. The attached margin of the outer lamella 
is placed on a higher level than that of the inner lamella in Lamellidens 
and Physunio, but at a lower level (or at least in the same level) in 
Solenaia. 

(2) The inner lamrlln of the outer gill is attached to the side of the 
visceral mass, at its anterior end, tlu; ventro-lateral aspect of the non- 



1918.] Ekendranatti Giiosit : Anatoiny of Unionidae. 113 

glandular portion of the kidney and to the outer lamella of the inner 
2,111 behind the visceral mass and foot, from beneath the posterior ad- 
ductor muscle. 

(3) The outer lamella of the mner gill is similar to the preceding in 
its mode of attachment. 

(4) The inner lamella of the inner (/ill is attached to the side of the 
base of the visceral mass and behind it to the inner lamella of the oppo- 
site inner gill to form the floor of the cloacal chamber. In Lamcllidcns 
the attached dorsal margin of the inner lamella is placed just below the 
glandular portion of the kidney, but towards the posterior end of the 
visceral mass it is displaced downwards from the kidney, so that the 
inner wall of the inner suprabranchial chamber in this region is formed 
by a portion of the side wall of the visceral mass ; in Solenaia the case 
is exactly similar to that in Lamellidens. In Physunio the attached 
margin is placed beneath the glandular portion of the kidney near the 
posterior end of the visceral mass, where it is suddenly displaced down- 
wards, as in the other forms. 

Suprabranchial canals. — (a) The outer suprabranchial canal is placed 
on a higher level than the inner in Lamellidens and Physunio, but on a 
lower level in Solenaia. In Lamellidens the canal is small in the bccin- 
ning, but gradually widens out posteriorly and opens into the cloacal 
chamber on the undersurface of the posterior adductor muscle in the 
middle of its antero-posterior thickness. Elongately triangular ante- 
riorly, it widens out into an equilateral triangle behind in transverse 
section. In Physunio the canal is elongated and slit-like in front, but 
elongately triangular (with base directed upwards) behind the visceral 
mass in transverse section ; it ends in the cloacal chamber at the anterior 
end of the ventral aspect of the posterior adductor muscle. 

In Solenaia the canal is triangular in front, but quadrilateral at the 
posterior end of the visceral mass in transverse section, and terminates 
in the cloacal chamber in the middle of the antero-posterior length of 
the ventral aspect of the posterior adductor muscle. 

ih) The inner suprabranchial canal in both Lamellidens and Physunio 
is slit-like in the beginning, becomes triangular posteriorly in transverse 
section and is nearly of the same height in its entire length. In Solenaia 
the canal is also slit-like in the beginning but becomes quadrilateral in 
transverse section at the end of the visceral mass ; it is, however, of 
greatest width (from above downwards) anteriorly, forming about half 
the width of the inner gill, but becomes less so posteriorly. 

The rencd aperture is placed in the inner suprabranchial canal ; in 
Lamellidens and Physunio at about the junction of the anterior one- 
third and posterior two-thirds of the line drawn from the anterior end 
of the inner gill to the posterior end of the visceral mass. In Lamellidens 
the aperture is slit-like and placed longitudinally, with a thick white rim ; 
in Physunio it is rounded and without any thick white margin. In 
Solenaia it is slit-like and placed longitudinally some distance behind 
the middle of the length of the visceral mass. 

The genital aperture is placed below and a little in front of the renal 
aperture in the same canal in both Lamellidens and Physunio. In 
Solenaia the aperture could not be made out. 

c 



114 



Records of the Inclinn Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



The common canal, formed by the union of tlie two suprabranchial 
canals behind the visceral mass, is shorter than the antero-posterior 
len,o;th of the cloacal chamber in Lamellidens and Solenaia, but nearly 
of the same length in Physunio. 

Structuke of the gills. — The specimens of Solenaia soleniformis, 
Benson, and Lamellidens marginalis, Lam., supplied me with gravid 
females, while the specimens of the two species of Physunio were all 
sterile. In Solenaia all the four gills act as marsupia, while in Lamelli- 
dens the outer gills only give rise to ovisacs. In Physunio the structure 
of the gills seems to show that the outer gills are concerned in carrying 
the embryos. The arrangement of the gill filaments and the formation 
of lateral tubes are shown in the followinti table : — 



Number of gill-filaments corresponding to 
one water tube or lateral tube. 



Solenaia — 

Outer gill, 20—22 
Inner gill, 12—18 

Lamellidens — 

Outer gill, 10—20 
Inner gill, 12 — 15 

Physunio — 

P. ferrugineus — 

Outer gill, 25—28. 

Inner gill, 14 — 16. 
P. micropteroides — ■ 

Outer gill, 20. 

Inner gill, 15 — 16. 



Lateral tube. 



Only outer lateral tube. 
Only inner lateral tube. 



"^ Outer tube much more deve- 
3 lo23ed than the inner tube. 



V. Alimentary Canal. 

(«) The mouth is a transverse slit-like aperture bounded in front and 
behind by anterior and posterior lips continuous with the outer and 
inner labial palps respectively. 

(b) Oesophagus. — The course of the oesophagus is different in the three 
forms : in Lamellidens it is slightly curved or broadly S-shaped, passing 
obliquely upwards and backwards through the digestive glands. In 
Solenaia it consists of a short nearly vertical portion (wide in the middle 
and narrow at both ends) and an elongated horizontal portion conti- 
nuous behind with the stomach. In Physunio it consists of a vertical 
portion lying behind the anterior adductor muscle and a short horizontal 
portion (half as long as the vertical portion) continuous with the 
stomach behind. 

(c) The stomach is surrounded by a digestive gland ; its cavity is 
very irregular with folds and furrows which are fairly constant in ar- 
rangement. 

Behind the opening of the oesophagus and in the floor of the stomach 
is a transverse fold (tongue-like in Lamellidens, but rather conical and 
papilla-like in Solenaia and Physunio), with a furrow behind ; the fold is 
directed upwards and backwards from below and produced laterally 
to the lateral walls of the stomach. In Solenaia and Physunio there is 
another fold in front of the conical elevation at the junction of the 
oesophagus and stomach, which in Solenaia extends backwards and up- 



19.18.] Ekendranath Ghosh: Anatomy of TJnionidae, 115 

wards from below, and in Physunio only marked in the right side. Be- 
hind the conical elevation is another slight eminence which receives the 
opening of the intestine in Solenaia. In LameUidens the opening lies on 
or behind the eminence, while in Physunio it is placed behind it at the 
bottom of a cup-shaped depression itself surrounded by a raised margin. 
In all cases the opening of the intestine is placed to the left side of the 
middle line. 

The posterior wall of the stomach is raised into a transverse fold iu 
the middle of its width giving rise to two blind pouches ; the fold is 
continued into the lateral wall of the stomach, more in the case of Lamel- 
lidens than in the two other genera. The dorsal pouch is directed 
upwards and backwards, while the ventral pouch is directed transversely 
backwards. 

In Solenaia there is another fold in the backwall of the dorsal pouch 
above the transverse one which passes obliquely outwards and down- 
wards to meet the transverse fold at the side ; this ridge is faintly marked 
or absent in LameUidens, but in Physunio ferrugineus a similar ridge, 
arising from the dorso-lateral corner of the dorsal sac, passes downwards 
and forwards to meet the transverse ridge at the postero-lateral wall 
of the stomach ; it is present only on the left side but a faint trace of it 
can also be made out on the right side. In this species also a fold arises 
from the right side of the cup-like depression (in which the opening of the 
intestine is placed), which passes obliquely upwards and to the right on 
the posterior wall of the stomach and ends below the transverse fold 
in the postero-lateral corner ; two other smaller and less prominent 
ridges are seen, one arising from the postero-lateral aspect of the margin 
of the same cup-like depression to the right and the other a little above 
the preceding from the oblique ridge, both passing to the left. Another 
strongly marked ridge is also found in the right lateral w^all of the sto- 
mach at the level of the margin of the cup-shaped depression, continued 
behind to the origin of the oblique ridge from the margin of the cup. 
It forms a deep pouch on the ventro-lateral aspect of the stomach, the 
lower boundary of which is formed by the raised lateral margin of the 
cup-shaped depression. 

In all the three genera the transverse ridge from the posterior wall 
of the stomach, as it passes to the left side, fuses with one from the antero- 
dorsal wall above and with another from the ventral wall of the stomach 
at its junction with the oesophagus, with the formation of a separate 
portion of the dorsal pouch on the left side. 

(d) Intestine. — The coils of the intestine in the visceral mass are 
similar in fundamental arrangement in all the genera considered here. 
They may be best described in a tabular form : — 

Loop of the Intestine. L. marginalis. Solenaia soleniformis. Physunio. 

(1) First loop, from Course backward Much more bacli- Much more down- 
the stomach to and downward. ward than down- ward than back- 

tlie posterior end ward. ward, 

of the visceral 
mass (course 
backward and 
downward on 
the left side of 
the middle line). 



11^') Records of the Indian Miiseuvi. [Vol. XV, 

Loop of tlio Intestine. L. mnrgiiialis. Solcnaia solcniformis. Physunio 



(2) Second loop, pass- 
ing forwards and 
upwards to the 
dorsal aspect of 
the visceral mass. 



(3) Third loop, pass- 
ing downward 
and backward 
aiid lying behind 
the second loop. 



Course nearly 

straight, half the 
first loop in length. 



Course slightly curv- 
ed, about half the 
length of the first 
loop. 



Course curved with 
convexity up- 
ward and back- 
ward, about the 
same length as 
the first loop. 



Course like that of the second loop and slightly longer than the 
same. 



(4) Fourth loop, pass- 
ing forward and 
lying beneath the 
posterior portion 
of the first looj). 



(r>) 



Fifth loop, pass- 
ing backward and 
downward. The 
junction between 
the fourth and 
fifth loops cross- 
ing the first loojj. 



Course straight, 
slightly upward 
and al)out half 
the length of the 
first loop, lies be- 
low the first loop. 

Course straight, 
slightly shorter 
than the fourth 
loop, lying above 
the first loop. 



Like Lmndlidens but Course rather short, 
nob upward (or less than half 

very slightly so). the length of the 

first loop. 



Course straight, 
about half the 
length of the 
fourth loop, ly- 
ing above the 
first loop. 



f'ourse about half 
the length of the 
fourth loop. 



(6) Sixth loop, pass- 
ing uj^ward and 
forwai'd to end 
in the rectum. 



Al)out the same 
length as the fifth 
loop, lying above 
the fifth loop. 



Very short, about half the length of the 
fifth loop. 



(e) The rectum, is recoonised by a thick, prominent typhlosole from 
the ventral wall Beginning in the visceral mass, it passes forwards 
and upwards to reach the space between the digestive gland and the 
stomach i)i front and the pericardial sac behind. It then passes verti- 
cally upwards and at once bends backwards to enter the pericardial 
chamber ; it passes through the chamber, being surrounded by the 
ventricle, and leaves the chamber at its posterior end. Lastly, the 
rectum passes backwards along the dorsal aspect of the posterior adductor 
muscle and ends in the anus placed at the summit of a conical papilla 
projecting into the cloacal chamber from above the posterior adductor 
muscle. Tn LnmeUide7is the course of the rectum through the pericardial 
chamber is straight and horizontal ; furthermore, it presents two bulb- 
like swellings in front of and behind the ventricle ; the conical papilla 
is flattened from side to side and the anus is a longitudinal slit with two 
lateral dentate margins which ordinarily keep the aperture closed. In 
Solenaia it is similar to that in Lamellidens in all respects except that 
the swellings are absent. In Physunio the course through the peri- 
cardial chamber is oblique (upwards and backwards from in front) and 
is slightly curved posteriorly with the convexity upward after it has 
left the pericardium ; there is no bulbous swelling in the wall and the 
amis is more or less rounded, being surrounded by a fringe specially 
prominent on the dorsal aspect. 



1918.] Ekendranath Ghosh: Anatomy of Uniunidae. 117 

VI. Digestive Gland. 

The digestive gland forms a brownish mass round the stomach ; it 
extends above and in front from the antero-dorsal aspect of the stomach 
to the postero-dorsal angle of the anterior adductor muscle above the 
oesophagus, and above and behind from the postero-dorsal aspect of the 
stomach to the rectum ventrally ; the gland extends from the oesophagus 
in front to the first loop of the intestine behind. In all species, except 
Physunio ferrugivieus, the ducts of the gland are not clearly seen under 
a magnification of ten diameters ; there are numerous tubular crypts 
in the wall of the stomach into which the gland seems to open. 
In Physunio ferrugineus the racemose nature of the gland is quite dis- 
tinguishable under a magnification of 10 diameters, and the gland is 
divisible into 4 lobes — one antero-dorsal, one postero-dorsal, and 2 
ventral. A long duct from each lobe is distinctly seen to open into 
the cavity of the stomach. 

VII. Vascular System. 

The vascular system has been studied in LanK'llide'ns marginalis by 
injecting the blood vessels with a coloured fluid through the ventricle, 
as living and fresh specimens are available. In other forms only the 
heart, the vena cava, and a few other vessels could be studied properly. 

(a) Pericardium. — In Lamellidens and Physunio the pericardial 
sac is elongately oval, with rounded ends ; the sac is slightly more 
flattened in Lamellidens than in Physunio. In Solenaia the sac is 
narrow and elongated, the anterior end being flattened from above down- 
wards. A distinct gap is seen between the posterior end of the peri- 
cardial sac and the dorsal aspect of the posterior adductor muscle in 
which the rectum is placed, being surrounded by connective tissue. In 
all a longitudinal fold of integument rises vertically upwards from the 
inid-dorsal line of the wall of the pericardium ; this is only slightly 
marked in the case of Lamellidens and Solenaia, being more prominent 
in the latter behind the pericardium and over the posterior retractor 
and anterior half of the posterior adductor muscle. In Physunio this 
membrane is extraordinarily developed, and is prolonged as a thin 
median flap between the dorsal wings of the two valves. The reno- 
pericardial aperture is placed on the ventro-lateral aspect of the rectum 
as the latter enters the pericardial sac. 

(6) Heart. — The ventricle in Lamellidens seems to be biloljcd when 
it is fully expanded and placed in the middle of the pericardial sac 
(occupying about the middle-third of the entire length of the sac) ; it is 
bounded in front and behind by the bulbous swelling round the rectum. 
In Physmiio the ventricle is placed close to the posterior end of the 
pericardial sac. in Solenaia it is about half the length of the pericar- 
dium and is placed in the middle of the sac. 

The auricles, right and left, are placed at the sides of the ventricle. 
Each auricle in Lamellidens is triangular in shape, with the apex directed 
forwards. The outer side is attached to the conjoined margin of the 
inner lamella of the outer and outer lamella of the inner gill, just external 
to the dorsal aspect of the kidney. It is attached to the ventricle in 



118 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

the middle third of its length. The auriculo-ventricular opening is a 
slit-like aperture guarded by 2 semilunar valves, above and below. 
There are 3 to 4 apertures inside the outer border of the auricle to receive 
blood from the efferent branchial vessel. In Solenaia the auricle is 
trapizoid in shape ; of the two parallel sides the short one is attached to 
the ventricle and the long one to the gills. There seems to be a single 
aperture to receive blood from the gills. In Physunio the shape of the 
auricles is similar to that in Lamellidens ; the apertures inside the outer 
side to receive blood from the gills are 4 or 5 (?) in number. 

The following blood vessels have been traced in Lamellideris by in- 
jecting them with carmine (suspended in water) through the ventricle. 

The anterior aorta passes forwards along the dorsal aspect of the 
rectum and reaches the posterior end of the digestive gland where it 
divides into right and left viscero-pedal arteries. Each viscero-pedal 
artery runs forward and a little outward into the substance of the super- 
ficial portion of the digestive gland, and then curving downwards and 
forwards gradually comes to reach the postero-ventral aspect of the 
anterior adductor muscle at the corner of the mouth, where it divides 
into two branches, pallial and palpal arteries. The pallial artery passes 
forward in the substance of the mantle-lobe along the ventral margin 
of the anterior adductor muscle to reach the antero-ventral angle of the 
latter, where it divides into two branches again : the first, the dorsal 
pallial artery, curves upwards and backwards along the anterior margin 
of the anterior adductor muscle (in the substance of the mantle lobe), 
supplying small arteries to that portion of the mantle which lies in front 
of the muscle and to the muscle itself ; the other, the anterior pallial 
artery, curves downwards and backwards and then runs backwards along 
the dorsal aspect of the thick rim of the mantle lobe, to the posterior end 
near the inhalent margin where it seems to divide into a net-work of 
capillaries ; it gives rise to numerous branches from both sides in its 
course along the mantle margin. 

The palpal artery passes through the anterior lip of the mouth to the 
outer side and divides into outer and inner palpal branches ; the outer 
branch passes into the outer labial palp in a conspicuously sinuous course 
lying in the outer lamella of the two, of which each palp is composed ; 
the inner branch passes into the inner labial palp in a slightly undulating 
manner lying in the inner lamella. 

The anterior aorta in its course through the visceral mass gives off 
minute branches to the stomach, and the digestive gland ; it also gives 
rise to a large pedal artery near the posterior end of the stomach. 

The pedal artery passes downwards and forwards through the visceral 
mass and reaches the muscular foot at the junction of the anterior and 
middle thirds of its length and then passes nearly to the extreme margin ; 
it supplies branches to the intestine, rectum and the genital organs. 

The posterior aorta is a very small artery arising from the ventral 
aspect of the posterior end of the ventricle beneath the rectum. It 
passes along the ventral surface of the rectum between the two posterior 
retractor muscles of the foot where it divides into 2 branches, one on 
either side. Each branch gradually passes outwards along the posterior 
retractor muscle and reaches the posterior surface of the posterior 



1918.] Ekendranatii Ghosh : Anafumy of Umoiiidac. 119 

adductor muscle. Each supplies the corresponding half of the pos- 
terior adductor muscle, the posterior retractor muscle of its side and 
the posterior portion of the rectum. 

The pallial sinus (vein) begins in the substance of the mantle flap 
at the level of the inhalent aperture just behind the thick rim of the 
lobe. It passes upwards and forwards in a curved manner below the 
posterior adductor muscle and ultimately opens into the auricle of its 
side at the postero-external corner. This sinus is also present in the 
other two genera. 

The vena cava {median ventral sinus) at first lies between the two 
glandular portions of the kidneys, but gradually shifts downwards in 
its posterior course so as to lie at the point of union of the two glandular 
and non-glandular sacs ; the ventro-lateral wall of the vena cava on either 
side is perforated with a row of apertures, the openings of vessels from 
the wall of the glandular portion of the kidneys ; they are distinctly 
seen under a magnification of 10 diameters. In Solenaia and Phi/sunio 
the relation between the vena cava and the kidney is similar to that in 
Lamellidens. In Lamellidens and Solenaia the transverse section of 
the vena cava is oval, with the short diameter vertical ; in Physunio 
it is also oval but with the short diameter horizontal. 

The two afferent branchial veins lie along the line of attachment of 
the inner lamella of the outer and outer lamella of the inner gill — in all 
the three genera. 

The single afferent branchial vein lies along the base of the inner 
lamella of the inner gill in all the three genera. It is interesting to note 
that in Anodonta it lies along the base of the outer lamella of the outer 
gill. 

VIII. Excretory System. 

The Jcidney is doubled on itself, as usual, and is divisible into (a) 
glandular and (b) non-glandular portions. 

The glandular 'portion of the kidney lies beneath the non-glandular ; 
at its anterior end it communicates with the pericardium and is separate 
from its fellow by a distinct interval, and further behind by the inter- 
position of the vena cava. In Lamellidens the sac is flattened from 
above downwards in front, lying on the ventral aspect of the non-glan- 
dular sac. Then the sac becomes oval in transverse section and, lastly, 
towards the posterior end of the visceral mass it is twisted on itself 
coming to lie on the inner side of the ureter, at first obliquely {i.e., with 
the long diameter in a section placed downwards and outwards from 
above) and then vertically. The vena cava is now placed beneath the 
pericardial sac, with a small portion of the inner wall of ureter and 
glandular sac laterally and further back with the glandular sac only, 
the ureter being displaced to the outer side. 

In Solenaia the glandular sac is separated at first from its fellow of 
the opposite side by the vena cava, and behind by the foot, which inter- 
venes between the two. The inner wall of the sac is fused with the upper 
portion of the side of the foot, while the non-glandular portion placed 
dorsally at first is displaced to the outer side. 

In Physunio the glandular sac lies beneath the non-glandular portion 
in the beginning, but is gradually placed on its inner side between it 



120 Records of the Indian, Muscuin. [Vol. XV. 

aud the lout aud the posterior retractor muscle of the foot of its side , 
the glandular sac is comparatively wider than the non-glandular. The 
walls of the non-glandular sac are generally seen applied to one another. 

The glandular sac ends in front of the posterior adductor muscle. 
The nature of the communication between the glandular and non- 
glandular sac is rather different in the three genera. 

In Lamellidens the glandular sac opens into the non-glandular by 
means of a slit-like aperture on the dorsal aspect at its posterior end ; 
a pigmented sac is found at the beginning of the ureter, open in front 
but blind behind ; it lies on the outer side, having its outer wall fused 
with the outer wall of the ureter and its inner wall lying free in the 
cavity of the same ; the blind posterior end of the sac lies just in front 
of the posterior adductor muscle, the inner surface of the sac is thrown 
into irregular folds and gives the appearance of a broad meshed spongy 
structure. 

In Solenaia the glandular portion is placed on the inner side of the 
non-glandular sac. Towards the posterior end of the foot we get the 
beginning of a canal bounded externally by the mantle, internally by 
the non-glandular sac, above by the pericardial chamber and below by 
the outer suprabranchial chamber ; the canal widens out as it passes 
backwards. Behind the foot it forms a big sac lying on the outer side 
of the glandular sac, while the non-glandular sac narrows down into a 
small canal lying on the outer side of the posterior retractor nmscle of 
the foot above the canal. Further backwards, the non-glandular sac 
terminates in a small blind sac just in front of the posterior adductor 
muscle. On reaching the under surface of the posterior adductor muscle 
the canal comes to lie on its ventro-lateral aspect and ultimately becomes 
continuous with the glandular sac by the disappearance of the septum 
between the two. In the lumen of the canal, as it lies at the level of the 
posterior retractors of the foot, there is an obliquely vertical septum, 
attached above to the outer wall of the canal a little below the dorsal 
aspect, and below to the inner wall a little above the ventral aspect. 
The free anterior and posterior borders of the septum is deeply concave. 
Above the upper attachment of the septum is an elongated aperture 
through which the ureter comnrunicates with the canal. A similar 
arrangement but rather different in details has been described in 
Anodonta. 

In Physunio the glandular portion is placed on the inner side of the 
ureter behind and both are flattened from side to side and slightly curved 
on themselves, with the convexity outwards ; in this situation it is 
separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the posterior retractor 
muscles of the foot. The glandular sac communicates with the non- 
glandular by an elongated aperture on its dorsal aspect, near the pos- 
terior end. The glandular sac in this situation is divided into two 
portions by an oblique partition, attached on the inner side to the ventro- 
internal corner, on the outer side to the outer wall a little below the 
dorsal aspect and behind to the outer wall just in front of the posterior 
end of the sac ; it is free anteriorly. Of the two sacs thus formed the 
upper one communicates with the ureter, while the lower one ends 
blindly. 



1!J18.] Ekendkajvahi Giio.sii : Anutonty of U niunidae. 121 

(6) The 'non-(jlandular portion passes forwards beneath the peri- 
cardial chamber. The relation of the non-glandular to the glandular sac 
has already been described. At the anterior end, the non-glandular 
sac is separated from its fellow by the vertical portion of the rectum. 
The excretory aperture is placed at the outer ventro-lateral aspect of 
the sac. The interrenal aperture is elongated in Laniellidens and Hole- 
naia, but is less so in Physunio. 

IX. Reproductive System. 

The gonads are placed as usual amongst the coils of the intestine and 
a porticju of the rectum in the visceral mass. In Lamellidens manjinalis 
male specimens were available. The head of the spermatozoon is 
rod-shaped, about thrice as long as broad, rounded anteriorly, truncate 
or slightly concave, and widest posteriorly ; there is a slight constriction 
in the middle. The tail is very fine and is about 3 or 4 times as long as 
the head. 

X. Nervous System. 

The position of the ganglia is practically the same as that in Ano- 
donta. The ganglia and the connectives could not be dissected out in 
Solenaia. 

The cerehro-jjleural (janglion of each side gives oft" (1) an inter cerebral 
connective in front of the mouth, (2) a pallial nerve from the antero- 
lateral aspect, (3) a cerebro-visceral commissure and (4) a cerehro-yedal 
commissure. No other nerve was found arising directly from the cerebro- 
pleural ganglion. 

The pedal ganglion, on each side, gives oft 6 nerves from, the side and 
receives the cerebro-pleural commissure. The otocyst lies inside the 
pedal ganglion. 

The visceral ganglion, on each side, receives the cerebro-visceral 
commissure and gives oft' 3 nerves, a branchial, a })osterior pallial nerve, 
and a small nerve to the posterior adductor muscle. 

In Lamellidens the branchial nerve passes along the conjoined margin 
of the inner lamella of the outer and the outer lamella of the inner gill. 
It divides into two branches, one passing along the same margin and the 
(jther along the fused margins of the inner lamellae of the inner gills. 
The posterior pallial nerve divides into 3 branches : — (1) a small nerve 
to the mantle-lobe which passes to the attached margin of the outer 
lamella of the outer gill, a little in front of its posterior end ; (2) a 
nerve to the mantle-lobe at the posterior end of the attached outer 
lamella of the outer gill ; (3) a nerve to that portion of the mantle-lobe 
which forms the lateral wall of the cloacal chamber. 

The cerebro-visceral commissures are placed side by side between the 
two glandular portions of the kidneys beneath the vena cava in Lamelli- 
dens. They are separated from one another by the lower end of the 
vena cava in Physunio. 

SUMMARY. 

The anatomy of the three genera of llnionidae dealt with in this 
paper agrees in general structure with that of Anodonta and Unio as 



122 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV", 

already described by various malacologists. The difference observed 
between the three genera and others consists mainly in the relative 
position of the different organs, a remarkable point being the arrange- 
ment of the various loops of the intestine which are practically 
identical in four species described here. Further, the main differences 
in general structure between the three genera described here are only due 
to the elongation of the body in the antero-posterior direction, this being 
greatest in Solenaia and least in Physunio, with LamelUdens occupying 
an intermediate position between the two. Considering the individual 
organs, it is important to note that in Solenaia all the four gills seem 
to give rise to ovisacs, and the kidneys also are more complicated than 
in the other two, somewhat resembling those of Aviodonta. 

Reference. 

1. Lloyd, R. E. — An Introduction to Biology, 1910. Longmans, Green 

& Co. 

2. Marshall and Hurst. — Practical Zoology, 1905. Smith, Elder & 

Co., London. 

3. Ortmann. — Mem. Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa., Vol. 4, 1911, pp. 

279-347. 

4. Pelseneer, p. — Mollusca, in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVL 

Fici. I. Lainellidens marginalis, showing the various organs diagram- 
matically. Nat. size. 

,, 2. Solenaia soleniformis, showing the various organs diagram- 
matically. Nat. size. 

,, 2 a-d. Vertical sections through Solenaia solenijormis showing the 
relation of the glandular and non-glandular sacs (dia- 
grannuatic). 

„ 2 c. Diagram of the communication of the glandular and non- 
glandular sacs — 

1. Opening of the non-glandular sac into the accessory canal. 

2. Cut edge of the mantle lobe. 

3. Attached margin of the membrane to the outer wall of the 

canal. 

4. Attached margin of the membrane to the inner wall of the 

canal. 

5. Cut edge of the mantle. 

,, 3. Phf/sunio jernKjineus, nat. size, shell and mouth of the left side 
removed. 

,, 3 rt. P. ferrugineus, showing the various organs diagrammatically. 

,, 4. P. micro'pter aides, nat. size, shell and mantle of the left side 
removed. 

The attachments of the gills are represented by interrupted lines. 



Rec..Ind,Mus.,Vol.XV,1918, 



Rate XVI. 




XIV. THE DESCRIPTION AND LIFE-HISTORY OF A 

NEW SPECIES OF ANOPHELES THAT BREEDS 

IN HOLES IN TREES. 

By B. Prashad, B.Sc. 

(Plate XVII.) 

Though it may not be considered right to describe a species of mos- 
quito from a single specimen and that specimen a male one, yet the 
specimen on which I base the following description possesses some very 
distinctive features. It is these features together with its breeding 
habitat and the presence of well preserved larval and pupal stages 
which have decided me to describe the form in question. 

I have very great pleasure in naming it Anopheles annandalei^ aftei' 
Dr. N. Annandale, Director of the Zoological Survey of India, as a mark 
of regard and gratitude which I always feel for him. 

The Imago. 

Detailed description of the male specimen : A medium sized mos- 
quito ; wing measured 2-9 mm. General colouration light. 

The antennae have the basal joint of a light brown colour ; in the 
succeeding joints the proximal portion from which the hairs arise is dirty 
yelloAv, and the distal portion is of a creamy colour ; the hairs themselves 
are pale yellowish ; the last joint is densely covered with small hairs, 
there being no definite terminal hair. Pa^ii (fij]^ 1) 1-7 of length of 
thorax, -6 of that of wing, distinctly smaller than the proboscis ; they 
have a distinctly banded appearance. Basal segment with large black 
scales on the outer and smaller ones on the inner side ; the penultimare 
segment has the base and the apex creamy white, the rest of the 
segment being dark brown ; the terminal segment has the base, the outer 
and upper surfaces brownish, the rest being yellowish white ; the club 
has the inner and lower surfaces of a much lighter tinge, appearing cream}' 
white. The club is well developed, having a swollen terminal portion, 
and is covered by large scales \\ ith a few hairs. Proboscis dark-.?caled : 
labellae whitish. Clyfeus not covered by scales ; vertex with long hair- 
like scales of a whitish colour ; further back these hair-like scales are 
much darker in colour ; besides the hair-like scales there are broad 
truncated squames of a snow-white colour on the posterior portion of 
the vertex ; the najje is covered by black scales of the usual anopheline 
type. 

Prothoraeic lobes pointed anteriorly with a tuft of dark brown scales 
on their anterior edge, and with a few yellow chaetae. Mesonotmn 
ashy grey all over except for a black line in the middle of the posterior 
third ; but for a few white spatulate scales on its anterior edge it is 
covered by long golden yellow bristles arranged in a median and two 
dorso-lateral areas, the rest of the surface being without any scales or 



124 Records of fire Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

hairs ; each of the areas mentioned above has three to four distinct 
rows of bristles arising from black rounded spots. A few bristles also 
arise from the dorso-pleural suture. Scutelluni whitish except for a 
black band in the middle. Postscutellum with alternating bands of 
grey and brown in a longitudinal direction. Laterally the thorax is 
dark brown except at the sutures, which are light yellow. 

Wing (fig. 2) 2-7 the length of thorax, base to subcostal junction -61, 
anterior forked cell -23, posterior forked cell -15 of the whole wing. Wing 
veins densely covered with spatulate scales. Costa dark-scaled all along 
except at the base near the junction of the humeral cross- vein, where 
there is a yellow-scaled spot involving the base of the first longitudinal 
also. The second yellow spot is a large one at the apex of the wing 
opposite the termination of the first longitudinal and extending more 
than half the length of the anterior forked cell. All the veins clothed 
with dark yellow scales except for the following five patches of black 
scales : (1) at the base of the second longitudinal vein, (2) at the 
forking of the second longitudinal vein, (3) at the base of the third longi- 
tudinal and at the same position on the second and fourth longitudinal 
veins, covering the cross- veins as well, (4) at the origin of the fourth 
longitudinal vein and (5) at the forking of the fourth longitudinal vein. 
The wing-fringe is of a darkish hue with jet black j)atches at the tij)s of 
the posterior branch of the second longitudinal and the anterior branch 
of the fourth longitudinal veins ; between these two dark patches the 
fringe is of a yellow colour. The arrangement of large and small 
scales m the fringe is quite normal. 

Halferes with the capitellum of a dark brown colour, the scape and 
scabellum being yellowish. 

Coxae scaleless, of a creamy colour with a few hairs ; trochanters also 
with a few hairs and of the same colour as coxae. Fore legs uniformly 
brown except for the white spots at the femoro-tibial and the tibio- 
tarsal joints. The femur of the middle legs has a three-coloured band 
owing to the arrangement of the scales ; it is formed of white scales 
in the middle, black above and brownish at the tip of the femur. In the 
hind legs the femur (fig. 3) has, just below the middle, a large tuft of 
black scales surrounding it entirely ; below this tuft there is a very pro- 
minent tuft of snow-white scales reaching to the knee-joint, the condition 
appears to be simply a much more exaggerated one than that found in 
the femur of the mid-legs, except that the brown band at the tip of the 
femora of the middle pair of legs is absent. The tibial and tarsal 
portions of the mid and hind pairs of legs are uniformly brown except 
for a whitish band at the tibio-tarsal joints. Ungues simple. 

Abdomen dark brown, without any scales except a few black ones 
on the last segment and on the genitalia ; it is covered by a large 
number of golden yellow bristles. 

The structure and form of the egg is not known. 

The Larva (fig. 4.) 

The head is of a dark brownish colour with three pairs of branched 
hairs on its dorsal surface. The clypeal hairs are rather small, the inner 



1918.] B. Prashad: A Netv Anoijheles, 125 

pair being unbranched and lying close together ; the distance between 
them being about half that between each external and the corresponding 
internal hair of the side ; the inner hair is more than one and a half 
times the length of the outer branched hair. The antennae are long (little 
less than half the length of the head) cylindrical structures broader at the 
base, with minute spines on the shaft, with the processes at the apex 
well developed with a branched terminal hair arising from amidst them. 
From close to the base of the antenna tliere arises on the outer side a 
much branched basal hair of the type described for A. culiciformis by 
Christophers and Khazan Chand (6). Mandibles (fig. 5) with a single 
pointed and shghtly curved, and three comb-like spines at the apex 
externally, a well developed anterior and a much smaller internal buccal 
fan of setae ; four main teeth and seven accessory small ones ; a brush- 
like large spine external to these and a prominent row of small tooth- 
like structures on the inner side ; on the main lobe near the outer side 
a large number of small setae are present on the upper surface, and a 
number of hairs arising from near the base probably representing the 
branched basal hair. Maxillae of the ordinary pattern, with large 
curved hairs on their anterior margins, the inner edge ending on the top 
in a curved hook-like structure ; on the main plates two minute papillae 
are present and the upper surface is covered by a large number of hairs. 
The maxillary palp is a prominent structure with five spines at its upper 
end, and a large much branched hair external to the processes a little 
below the tip. The submental plate shows nine well developed teeth. 

Thoracic hairs as in other anopheline larvae. The svbtnediah 
hairs consist of two branched hairs on each side, an external and an 
internal one. There are no palmate hairs on the thorax. 

The first and second abdominal segments carry on each side two large 
and a small feathered hair ; the third segment has one large and a single 
small feathered hair laterally and two small simple hairs dorso-laterally ; 
the fourth and the fifth segments have one large and three small feathered 
hairs on each side besides two simple hairs as in the third segment ; the 
sixth segment has a single large and two small feathered hairs and two 
unbranched ones as on the fifth segment ; the seventh and the eighth 
have only two small feathered hairs on each side. 

Pahnate hairs are present on the abdominal segments 2 — 7 only. 
Each palmate hair (fig. 6) consists of 15 — 18 leaflets ; the leaflets are long 
and pointed with one or two serrations on each side. The pecfen (fig. 7) 
is short and broad with teeth of different lengths irregularly alternate, 
and with a few hairy projections on the basal parts only. 

The Nymph. 

The nymphal trumpets (fig. 8) are rather elongated structures some- 
what triangular in shape, and with a broad opening. The dorsal plumose 
hairs of the ordinary shape are present on the first abdominal segment. 
There is a lateral spine on segments 2 — 8 ; the one on the last segment 
being plumose. Besides the spines mentioned above there is a long 
plumose seta, about the length of the segment bearing it, on the seg- 
ments 5 — 7 ; the one on the fifth segment is a little smaller than the 
others. The tail-fins (fig. 9) are much longer than broad ; they have 



126 Records of flic Jiulian Mnscvm. [Vol. XV, 

a well marked fringe of fine hairs, and a long terminaJ hair which is i- 
of the tail-fins in length. 

Habits. 

The only adult specimen was hatched from larvae collected by Dr. 
N. Annandale and Dr. F. H. Gravely from a tree hole at Sureil (altitude 
about 5,000 ft.) in the Darjeeling district, Eastern Himalayas on 
October 28th, 1917. The tree was in dense jungle close to the source 
of the water supply of the Sureil bungalow. The water, which was of a 
brownish colour, contained a large number of dead leaves, and besides 
the anopheline larvae there were in it some culicine larvae as vv^ell. Only 
two other Indian anopheline mosquitoes have been described as breed- 
ing in tree-holes, these are A. plumbeus, Haliday (5) and A. culicifnnnis. 
Cogil (()). 

Remarks, 

The present species belongs to the group of anophelines in which 
Alcock (1) included A. nsiafica, Leicester, A. barbirosiris, Van der Wulp, 
and A. welUnglonianus, Alcock (2) ; Christophers, however, in his admir- 
able revision of the anophelines (3) includes in this group A. asisfka, 
A. lindesayi, Giles, A. wellingtonianus, and doubtfully A. afratipes, 
Skuse, and thinks that A. barbirosiris has no relations with this group. 
A. annnndalei though closely related to A. asiatica (6), differs from it 
in the following important characters among many others : — 

1. Wing markings. 

2. Palpi being banded, 

3. Markings of the legs, 

4. General colouration. 

The larva is quite different from that of A. asiatica as described 
by Strickland {Parasitology, Vol. VII, pp. 12—17, 1914). 

Type specimen in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India, 
No. 8061/H. I. Larvae and pupa No. 8062/H., I. 

I would here call attention to a paper by F. W. Edwards of the 
British Museum on " Tipulidae and Culicidae from the lake of 
Tiberias and Damascus " published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, new series, Vol. IX, pp. 47 — 51, in which he has, after careful 
comparison of the types come to the conclusion that Anopheles nursei, 
Theob. is only a synonym of Anopheles (Pyrefophortis) palestinensis, 
Theob., and not a valid species. The paper has unfortunately been 
overlooked by all workers on Indian Culicidae. 

LITERATURE. 

1. Alcook, a. — Remarks on the Classification of Culicidae with parti 

cular reference to the Constitution of the Genus 
Anopheles. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Series 8, Vol, 
VIII, 1911. 

2. ,, Description of a new species of Anopheles from the 

Malay Peninsula. Jonrn. London Sc. Trap. Med., 
Vol. "ll, Part I, December 1912. 



1918.] B. Prasiiad : A New Annpheles. 127 

3. Christophers, S. R. — Contributions to the study of colour mark- 

ing and other variable characters of Anopholiuac, etc. 
Ann. of Trop. Med. and Parasitology, Vol. VII, No 1 
1913. 

4. ,, A revision of the Nomenclature of Indian 

Anophelini. Ind. Journ. Med. Research, Vol. Ill, 
No. 3, 1916. 

5. „ On a Tree-hole breeding species of Anopheles 

{A. phmibeus, Haliday). Ind. Journ. Med. Research 
Vol. Ill, No. 3, 1916. 

6. Christophers, S. R. and Khazan Chand. — A Tree-hole breeding 

Anopheles from Southern India : {A. euUeiformis, 
Cogill). Ind. Journ. Med. Research, V(tl. Ill, No. 4, 
1916. 

7. Theobald, F. V. — New Culicidae from the Federated Malay States. 

The Entomologist, Vol. XXXVII, 1904. (Leicester's 
original description of A. asiatica.) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIL 

Fig. 1. — Palp of the male A. annandalei. 
2. — Left wing of the same. 
3. — Hind femur of the same. 
4. — Larva of the same, dorsal view. 
5. — Mandible of the larva. 
6. — Palmate hair of the larva. 
7. — Pecten of the larva. 
8. — Breathing trumpet of the nymjih. 
9. — Tail-fins of the nymph. 



Rec. Ind. Mus.. Vol XV. 1918. 



Plate XVII. 




B. P. & D. Bagch>. del. 



ANOPHELES ANNANDALEI. 



XV. STUDIES ON INFUSORIA. 

By Ekendranath Ghosh, M.Sc, M.D. 

I. On a new species of A^wplophya, Stein, emend. CErEDE. 

The genus AnopJo'jjhya, Stein, as restricted by Cepede (2) may be 
diagnosed as follows :- — Infusoria with flattened ribbon-shaped body 
(cylindrical in one species) entirely and uniformly covered with cilia 
arranged on longitudinal striae close to one another (rarely distant) ; 
no cytostome ; with well defined macro- and micro-nuclei ; c. v. in 
single or double longitudinal rows, or rarely scattered, or very rarely 
absent. Division by transverse fission, sometimes with formation of 
chains {i.e., with satellites) due to incomplete and retarded separation 
of the daughter individuals. Endoparasites of various annelids. 

Anoplophrya lloydii, sp. nov. 

The species may be diagnosed thus : Elongately oval with sub- 
truncate posterior end ; curved longitudinally with the dorsal side con- 
vex and the v^entral concave ; macronucleus irregularly ribbon-shaped, 
extending to nearly the whole length of the animal ; micronucleus small, 




Fig. 1. — Anoploiilirya lloyiii, sp, nov. 

spherical, placed at the side of the macronucleus ; c. v. 3, on the 
right side. In seminal vesicles of an earthworm {Pheretima jQosthvma). 
Unfortunately the measurements are not noted. 

The species comes nearest to A. slriata in many respects. 
Up to the year 1915, the number of well recognised species of Ano- 
jjlophrya was IG, making a total of 17 with the present one. 

These species of Ano2ilo]jh ya may be tabulated in the following 
synopsis : — 

a. No c. V. 

a^. Body elongately oval, pointed anteriorly, truncate (when with satellites) 
or tapering and pointed posteriorly; niacionucleus ribbon-shaped, 
with a knobbed end. 

1. A. mav.pasi, Cei>ede (2), p. 411. 

b^ Body ovoid or uniform ; rounded anteriorly, swollen and acuminate 
posteriorly ; only 4 or 6 longitudinal ciliary striae ; macronucleus 
spherical or ovoid, in posterior body half. 

2. A, rnininia, Leger and Duboscq (3) ; 
Cepede (2). 

d2 



130 Record?; of ihe Indian Muf^euw. [Vol. XV, 

b. With C. V. 

a^. ('. V. in a single row. 
a". Body oval. 

a^. Body straight dorse -ventrally. 

a'*. Body (^ongately oval, length = 3 to 5 times the breadth ; sometimes 
obliquely truncate posteriorly. C. V. 9-10 or more ; macronucleus 
elongated and axial. 

.3. A. naidos. Stein (A. ivermis, Kent.) 

b*. Body elongately oval with rounded ends ; length equal to or les.' than 
twice the breadth ; 0. V. large, 3-5 in number ; raacionucleus elongately 
oval. 

4. A. ovata. Clap. 

b'. Body curved dorso- ventrally in a longitudinal direction, oval with rounded 
ends; C. V. 4-6 in number; long ribbon-shaped macronucleus with 
rounded ends. 

5. A. cojivexa. Clap, 
b'-. Body not oval in shape. 

a*. Body bilobed with a constricted portion in the middle ; anterior lobe 
swollen and oval ; posterior lobe less so and pointed behind ; C. V. 
4-7 in number ; macronucleus oval and placed at the anterior end. 

G. A. ccchJcariformis, Leidy. 

b^. Body not bilobed. 

a*. Body elongately club-shaped ; dilated anteriorly and obliquely trun- 
cate ; posterior end attenuate, rounded or acuminate ; V. V. or 7 ; 
longitudinal striae lew in i vimber with distinct intervals. 

7. A. davnia, Leidy. 

b*. Body elongated and vermiform. 

a^. Body cylindrical, little or not flattened, rounded anteriorly and 
acutely pointed posteriorly ; cilia long ; C. V. 7 ; macronucleus 
with club-shaped anterior end. 

S. A. qxtranoides, Pierantoni (5). 

b^. Body flattened ; macronucleus ribbon-shaped ; C. V. numerous (about 
30 in number). 

a^ Animal free-swimming with ordinary movement, mieronucleus 
spherical and granular. 

9. A. filnm. Clap.* 

b^. Animal moving by vermicular contractions of the body ; micro- 
nucleus inconspicuous. 

10. A. vermuiiJaria, Leidj'.* 

b^. C V. in 2 rows. 

a^. Body oval in shape, 

a^. Body oval, more pointed anteriorly than posteriorly, sometimes both 
ends rounded • macronucleus with lateral expansions (not distinctly 
branched) and with a distinct nucleus membrane ; mieronucleus fusi- 
form and placed obliquely in the outermost layer of endojalasm at a 
distance from the macronucleus. 

11. A. ulhiri, Cepede. 

}>^. Body elongately oval, widest anteriorly, often with a number of satellites 
{A. prolifera), macronucleus axial, band-like ; mieronucleus fusiform in 
posterior body half. 

12. A. modulata, Miiller. 
{A. brasilii, Leg. and D^lbosc•q). 

c^ Body triangular, narrow and rounded anteriorly, truncate posteriorly. 

13. A. jxicJn/drili, Clap, 
c^. C. V. scattered irregularly. 

a^. Body curved dorso -ventrally in a longitudinal direction. 



* The species A . filvm and A . vermicularis are considered identical by Schewiakoff (6), 
but are taken to be distinct and separate by Cepede (2). 



1918. J E. Ghosh; Studies on Infusona. 131 

a*. Body elongaloly oval ; Icngtii equal to or less tlian twice the breadth : 
longitudinal ciliary striae at distant intervals ; macronucleus with lateral 
expansions and approaching the concave face ; fusiform micronucleus 
placed obliquely near the left border. 

14. A. utrial'i, Duj. 

b^. Body elongately oval with subtruncate posterior end ; longitudinal 
striae close ; macronucleus iriegularly ribbon-shaped ; micronucleus 
spherical and placed at the sidt; of the macronucleus ; C. V. 3, on the 
right side. 

15. ^-1. lloydii, n. sp. 
b'. Body sti'aight in profile. 

a^. Body oval in shape ; C. V. 10 in number. 

1(3. A. aegifensis, Cepedo (2), p. 54;{. 

b^. Body irregularly oval, tapering and rounded anteriorly, wide and trun- 
cate posteriorly ; C. V. 2, on one sitle, one in the middle and one near the 
posterior end ; macronucleus irregularly oval, placed transversely ; 
longitudinal striae close. 

17. A. simplex, Andre (1). 
Insufficiently described species : — 

1. A. sociaUs, Leidy. Oval, cordioform, fusiform or globular in shape; 

C. V. numerous. 

2. .4. notei, Foulke, 1885 (J we/-. ./. Sci. XXIII, pp. 377-378), resembling A 

socialis, but without ciliary striae, cilia long and mucli thickened. 

LITERATURE. 

1. Andre.— i^ev. Suiss. Zool, Vol. XXIII (1915), p. 102. 

2. Cepede.— ^fcA. Zool Paris, ser. 5, Vol. Ill, pp. 341-609, 1910. 

3. Leger and Duboscq. — C. R. Acad. Sci., Vol. CXLVIII, p. 365. 

4. Kent, — A Manual of Infusoria, 1880-1882, 

5. PiERANTONi.— ^rcA. Pfotist., Vol. XVI, 1909, pp. 81-106. 

6. ScHEWiAKOFF.— Mew, Ac. St. Petersby., Vol. VII (i), pp. 379-382. 

II. Two NEW SPECIES OF ConchojjJuhirus, Stein. 

The genus Conchophthirus, Stein, may be diagnosed by the following 
characters : Body coloui'less and non-contractile, strongly compressed, 
generally oval in shape (sometimes elongated), with ventral sm'face 
usually more convex than the dorsal and somewhat notched in the 
ventral region ; right side (back) more arched than the left ; peristome 
a cup-shaped, funnel-shaped or short tubular cavity, sometimes pro- 
longed into a long, recurved, tubular cytopharynx (non-ciliate) ; ciliary 
striae distinct ; cilia uniform, moderately long and mostly tufted, some- 
times a strong adoral zone in the anterior peristomial margin. C. V. 
mostly one, subcentral or postero-terminal, macronucleus spherical 
oval, or irregularly triangular, one, rarely seven in number, subcentral 
or terminal. Anus terminal. Ectoparasites in mantle chamber of 
various molluscs. 

The genus included 3 species in Kent's Manual of Infusoria (1880- 
1882), viz. : — C. anodontae, C. steenstrwpei and C. ciirtes. Plagiotoma 
acuminata Clap, and Lach. seems to be identical with C. anodontae. 

Biitschli (2) in Protozoa, Broun's Thierreich (p. 1720) included three 
more species : C. actinarium [Plagiotoma actinarium Clap. (5)], C. magna 
[Tillina magna, Gruber (7)] and Plagiopijla nasuta var. marina Gourret 
and Rocser (6). The first species is now made the type of a new genus 
FoetUnycria by Caullery and Mesnil (3) and is also noted by Andre (1), 



132 Records of the Indian Museum,. [Vol. XV, 

The second one is not recognised by Scliuberg (10) as a species of 
ConcJiophthirus the cytophaiynx of Tillina being ciliated. The third 
species also cannot be considered to belong to the present genus. 

Schuberg also refused to admit C. curies as a distinct and separate 
species from C. anodontae as they were found in the same host ; he 
considered the former as a variety of C. anodontae. But as C. curies 
has only been found in Lamellidens tnarginalis with two new species 
of Conchophthirus (to be presently described), it cannot be considered 
to be the same species as C. anodontae. 

Lastly three other species have been described by Certes (4), Andre 
(1) and Mermod (9), raising the number to 6 in all. 

The two new species of Conchophthirus have been found in the 
mantle chamber of Lamellidens marginalis with C. curtes in the same 
specimens, the latter being exceedingly rare in occurrence. 



Conchophthirus elongatus, sp. nov. 

id, about 2J times as long as broad 

aded and sloj)ing to the back ( 

abruptly tapering and bluntly pointed at the posterior end ; right 

side nearly straight, slightly convex in front and behind, and faintly 



Body elongated, about 2J times as long as broad, wide anteriorly, 
anterior end rounded and sloj)ing to the back (left side) ; rather 




Fig. 2. — Conchophthirus dongalus, sp. nov. 

concave in the middle ; left side with a shallow notch just behind the 
anterior one-third of the body-length, where the peristome is situated ; 
peristome small, elongately conical, directed forwards and to the 
right ; longitudinal ciliary striae very marked at the anterior end, less 
so on the remainder of the body. Macronucleus oval, posterior and 
subterminal. C. V. single at the junction of the middle and posterior 
one-third of the body-length, sometimes slightly displaced. Length 
0-05 mm. 

Conchophthirus lamellidens, sp. nov. 

Body ovate, about 11 times as long as broad, bluntly pointed at 
both ends ; right side strongly convex, left side, convex and minutely 



1918.] 



E. Ghosh: Studieii on Infusoria. 



133 



dentate in the anterior and slightly notched in the posterior half. 
Peristome in the anterior portion of the notch, short and tubular, 
being directed forwards, and to the left. Generally a dark granular 
zone in the anterior one-third of the endoplasm. Longitudinal striae 




Fig. 3. — Coiuhophlhirus luniclliden-:, sp. nov. 

very distinct, specially in the anterior half of the left margin. 
Macronucleus oval or triangular, posterior and subterminal, C. V. one, 
subcentral, generally in the middle third of the body-length at its pos- 
terior end. Length 0-09 mm. 

Conchophthirus curtes, Engelmann. 

My specimens differ from the specimens described by Engelmann 

in the following points : The oval 
macronucleus is mostly j)laced with 
its long axis in the same line as the 
long axis of the body. C. V. without 
accessory vesicles. The cytopharynx 
is not only directed backwards (to 
the right side) but also curves pos- 
teriorly at a little distance behind the 
macronucleus. 

Fig. 4. — Conchophthirus curies, Engelm. 

The species of Conchophthirus are thus raised to 8 in number. They 
may be tabulated in the following synopsis : — 

a. Peristome in the anterior body half far removed forward from the middle of 
the body-length. 

a^. Peristome widely cup-shaped, at the anterior end of the left side ; a 
small fascicle of bristles anteriorly ; macronucici 7 in number (monili- 
form 1) ; C. V. sub-central ; body oval, body length^l j times the width, 
length 0-13 to 0-093 mm. 

1. C. skenstrupeh Stein. 




134 Recall] s of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

b' Peristome small, near the anterior end ; no fascicle of bristles anteriorly ; 
macronucleus sing'e. 

a-. Peristome ending in a short recurved cytopharynx ; macronucleus 
spherical or oval, subcentral ; C. V posterior ; body clongately oval, 
length = twice the breadth, length 0-07 mm. — O-lIO mm. 

2. C anledunis, Andre. 

b'. Peristome small and conical, at about the junction of the anterior and 
middle thirds of the body length ; macronucleus oval, posterior ; C. V. 
at about the junction of the middle and posterior thirds of the body 
length ; body elongated, length = 2| times the breadth ; length 
0-05 mm. 

3. G. elomjatus, sp. n. 

b. Peristome in or near the middle of the left side. 

a^. Peristome ending in a long recurved cytopharynx passing to the right side, 
a^. Surface of the body smooth. 

a^. Body clongately oval, rounded at both ends ; length = twice the 
breadth ; macronucleus spherical and posterior ; C. V. subcentral. 

■1. C. anodontae, Ehrbg. 

b^. Body broadly oval or rounded with dorsal surface strongly convex and 
ventral surface flattened ; macronucleus oval, subcentral ; C. V. one, 
near the macronucleus, with or without accessory vesicles. 

.5. C curies, Engelm. 

b-. Surface of body with longitudinal ridges in its middle two-thirds ; body 
ovate, narrow anteriorly ; macronucleus reniform ; C. V. posterior and 
subterminal. 

<). C. inetschnikoffi, Ceites. 

b^. Peristome not ending in a long recurved cytopharynx. 

a-. No adhesive disc ; body oval with a notch in the posterior half of the left 

margin ; body length = 1| times the width ; body length 0-09 mm. ; 

peristome tubular ; macronucleus oval and posterior ; C. V. in posterior 

body-half. 

7. C. lameUidens, sp. n, 

b^. An adhesive disc occupying |rds of the ventral surface ; peristome oval, 
bt>hind the middle of the left side ; body oval, rounded at both ends ; 
right side convex ; ventral surface flat and dorsal surface convex ; C. V. 
in posterior body- half; macronucleus splierical or ovoid. Length 
0-092— 0-127 mm! 

8. C. discophurus, Mermod. 



LITERATURE. 

1. Andre.— i^ev. Smss. Zool, XVIII, p. 179, 1910. 

2. BiJTSCHLi. — Protozoa, Bioiin's Thier-reich, p. 1720. 

3. Caullery and Mesnil.— C. R. Soc. biol, Pans, LV, 1903, pp. 806-809. 

4. Certes. — Mem. Soc. Zool., France, IV, 1891, p. 6, pi. i. 

5. Claparede. — BeobacM Diyen uber Anat. und Entwicklungsgesch . 

wirbeloser Tiere (Leipzig, 18G1), p. 2. 

6. GouRHET AND RoESER. — Afck. Zool. Erpcrim., 1886, IV, pp. 443-534. 

7. Gruber. — Zeitschr. f. wissenschafl. Zool., XXXIII, 1879, p. 454. 

8. Kent.— ^ Manual of Infusoria, 1880-1882. 

9. Mermod.— Z^ev. .Sim. Zool., XXII, pp. 82-90, 1914. 

10. Schuberg. — Arbeiten aus den Zool.-Zoot. Institute in Wiinberg, 

1889, IX, p. 83. 



XVI. THE EVOLUTION OF THE CAUDAL FINS O^ 

FISHES. 

By R. H. Whitehouse, M.Sc, Professor of Zoology, 
Government College, Lahore. 

(With text-figures 1—3.) 

There is ample justification for the assumption that the most spe- 
cialized of caudal fins among fishes have been evolved from a simple 
type which formed a part only of a once continuous median fin-system, 
extending from immediately behind the head on the dorsal side round 
the posterior end of the body to the vent on the ventral side ; thus there 
was no caudal fin as a differentiated structure. The whole of this pri- 
mitive median fin- system was almost certainly provided with similar 
skeletal elements throughout, probably of the nature of interspinous 
bones or radials, not unlike those now found to support the dorsal and 
anal fins of modern fishes. The caudal extremity was therefore per- 
fectly symmetrical both externally and internally, the dorsal contri- 
bution meeting the ventral in a line continuous with the chordal axis. 
Such a type of caudal fin is referred to as ' protocercal.' 

Embryology is not of much assistance in verifying the exact details 
of skeletal structure in the primitive caudal fin, for modifications oi 
this primitively symmetrical type set in very early before skeletal 
elements are properly laid down. Yet it is reasonable to suppose that 
no specializations were present in the primitive caudal fin ; the early 
fishes undoubtedly moved by serpentine action, undulations of the whole 
body producing a forward motion resembling the progress of the modern 
eel. Thus the posterior extremity of the body had no special demands 
made upon it as a propulsive organ beyond those shared by the rest 
of the body. 

Before proceeding further it will be advisable to describe the types 
of caudal fin now met with among fishes. It is probably quite safe to 
say that no fish at the present time possesses a protocercal caudal fin ; 
hence any tail fins which shew perfect symmetry both externally and as 
regards internal skeletal supports will be secondarily symmetrical, that 
is gephyrocercal. When, however, it would not be safe dogmatically 
to assert the primary or secondary nature of caudal symmetry, it is con- 
venient to employ a non-committal term signifying symmetry only ; 
diphy cereal is the term which conveys such a meaning, thus protocercv 
will be synonymous with primitive diphycercy and gephyrocercy with 
secondary diphycercy. 

Now undoubtedly the protocercal fin is the earliest in evolutionary 
order ; heterocercal forms no doubt succeeded the jirotocerca in the 
ascending scale towards the highly specialized tail fin of the Teleosts. 
Heterocercy is characteristic of the Elasmobranchs and the Ganoids ; 
it differs from protocercy in one important feature, viz., that synnnetry 
has been disturbed. In general, the asymmetry affecta l)oth t he external 



136 Records nf the Imluni Museum. [Vol.. XV, 

form and the inner skeleton, though modification of the latter may not 
always be very strongly marked. The ventral contribution to the 
caudal fin is larger than the dorsal, and in most cases markedly so, as 
illustrated in the Ganoids Aciyenser, Polyodon and Amia. Associated 
with this, as would be expected, the skeletal supports of the ventral 
fin-rays are more strongly developed than those on the dorsal side. 

Though often less marked in Elasmobranchs than in the Ganoids, 
from the base of the fin there is an upward bend of the axis which is 
continued to the extremity, and when centra are present, they remain 
distinct tliroughout this upwardly directed part. We thus see that 
the main characteristics of the heterocercal tail are (1) an enlarged 
ventral lobe compared with the dorsal ; (2) a bending upward of the 
axis at its end ; (3) the retention of individual centra, when present, 
to the end of the axis. 

Turning now to the homocercal type, there can be no question as to 
its having succeeded directly the heterocercal form. Reference to the 
skeletal structure of the caudal fin of Amia will readily shew that this 
particular fin requires but slight modification to convert it into a homo- 
cercal form, for homocercy is characterized by (1) external symmetry ; 
(2) strongly asymmetrical internal skeletal structure by which the 
majority of the fin-rays are always supported by ventral elements ; 
and (3) the presence in the larval or adult stage of a urostyle which re- 
presents a much shortened axis. 

The caudal fin of Amia has always been recognized as deserving of 
some special distinctive designation, and it has usually been referred to 
as hemi-heterocercal ; however since its distinctive feature is its close 
approach to the homocercal form, I have elsewhere^ proposed that a 
better term would be hemi-homocercal. 

It is well known that the earliest fishes of the Devonian period pos- 
sessed heterocercal tail fins and that diphycercal forms appeared later. 
Thus the evidences of embryology have been said to be at variance with 
those of palaeontology ; it is true that the evidences mentioned do not 
agree, but it would seem that there is no ground for denying that the 
embryological data are indicative of the sequence of forms in the evo- 
lution of the caudal fin. Professor Dollo^ in dealing with the Dipnoi 
recognized the difTerence between the embryological and palaeonto- 
logical evidences and suggested a way out of the difficulty. He argues 
that since the caudal fins of the earliest fossil fishes found are heterocercal, 
and later forms diphycercal, these later forms are secondarily diphy- 
cercal, i.e., gephyrocercal. 

Now gephyrocercy implies the complete loss of the original caudal 
fin elements, a great reduction of the axis having brought this about ; 
and also that the new tail fin is in reality the result of a " bridging over " 
of the gap thus produced, by the dorsal and anal fins, each having an 
equal share in the formation of the new fin. Fierasfer is the best illus- 
tration of a gephyrocercal fin ; the larva is known to possess a long 
filamentous termination to the chordal axis, which is entirely lost in the 

1 Proc Zool. Soc. London, October 1910, where most of the caudal fins mentioned in 
this paper are figured. 

2 The Phylogeny of the Diimoi. 



I9l8.] E. H. WiiiTEiioirsE : The, Caudal Fins of Fishes. 1137 

adult fish ; in tlie adult, tlie dorsal and anal fins have not completely- 
joined round the extremity and the vertebral column has exactly the 
appearance of having been artificially abbreviated. 

It does not, however, necessarily follow that all the symmetrical forms 
of the tail which follow the asymmetrical have once been heterocercal 
and that this fin has been lost entirely to be replaced by a gephyrocercal 
form. It is possible that something of this nature occurred : both the 
later heterocercal and diphycercal forms were descendants of a primi- 
tively symmetrical (protocercal) type ; at a certain period, a divergence 
took place, some forms adopting the heterocercal tendency, while others 
continued in the line of their ancestors and retained their symmetry. 
This may be represented by a simj)le diagram (fig. 1). 




Fig. 1. 

It should be noticed that this does not necessarily regard all diphy- 
cercal fins as protocercal ; a reduction of the terminal axial elements 
might proceed by which the original caudal element might be eliminated 
and the dorsal and anal elements made to contribute to the new caudal 
fin. Thus the question of the symmetrical fin is left open, and the fossil 
diphycercal forms might be regarded either as protocercal or as gephyro- 
cercal. 

This interpretation would appear to be a perfectly natural one ; 
an order of things which might easily have occurred, for the modification 
of such an organ is only the result of a change in habit ; it cannot be 
expected that all fishes adopted the same form of locomotion in early 
times, since it is not likely that all adopted the same change of habit. 

I have said that the development of heterocercy was due to a change 
of habit, and it is necessary to enquire what change was consequent on 
the adoption of the heterocercal caudal fin, or rather how heterocercy 
could bring about any change. An explanation is not easy even if 
possible. In this connection we may recall Ryder's theory of the use 
of heterocercy ; he likens the use of the tail fin to the sculling action 
of the boatman, who propels his boat by a side to side motion of a single 
oar from the hinder end. The analogy is a good one and explains the 
use of the tail as a propeller, but it still leaves it uncertain why the axis 
turned upward and not downward ; why the ventral side was chosen 
for enlargement and not the dorsal. It is a question mainly for the 
physicist to answer, and innumerable enquiries I have addressed on the 
point to physicists have all failed to obtain an answer. 

It is thought that early fishes were bottom dwellers, and that in the 
attempt to explore the upper waters there was a mechanical stimulus, 
the response to w^iich caused the ventral lobe to increase in order to cope 
with the demand made upon it. The rearing of the trunk to reach 



138 licconls of the Indian Museuni. [Vol. XV, 

upward, causing a bend in the body convex to the bottom, would be 
accompanied by a hish of the tail ; it would be an advantage to have 
the propelling force more or less in line with the anterior end of the body, 
and thus the ventral side of the caudal fin would have a greater demand 
made upon it than the dorsal. 

If the fish is represented as rising from the bottom by the bent arrow 
in the diagram (iiu. 2), the broken line will indicate the posterior conti- 
nuation of the line of progress after the tail has completed a lash ; the 
dotted lines would represent the form of fin useful for this purpose. 
This is merely a suggestion put forward until a better one is forth- 
coming, but correct or no mechanically, certain it is that all fishes with 
heterocercal tendencies developed the lower lobe of the caudal fin and 
never the upper. 




Fig. 2. 

Having discussed the probable stimulus effecting heterocercy, there 
still remains the question as to why it was at all necessary to develop 
this asymmetry. When we remember that heterocercy is but a stage in 
the production of homocercy, it is clear that external symmetry was the 
ideal to be reached ; why then was the symmetry of protocercy aban- 
doned only to be again attained ? Again the answer is one of mechanics ; 
had the protocercal form been merely expanded, the internal skeletal 
supports of this fin could not have met the demand made upon them. 
The epural and hypural elements would have been long and practically 
parallel with the axis ; this in itself would not have been mechanically 
strong. Moreover, the centre of the caudal fin would have been weak, 
there being no direct support for the fin-rays in the middle line, and it 
is here that streiigth is most needed. An essential, therefore, for a 
strong caudal fin is a firm support for the dermotrichia forming the 
greater part of the fin especially near the centre. 

It is in the final product of homocercy that one must look for an 
interpretation of the meaning of heterocercy. The examination of such 
a caudal fin as that of Scoiiiber, well known as one of the fastest of swim- 
mers, shews how the result has been attained ; the upturned axis pro- 
vides the supports of the fin-rays with a firm attachment, and the sup- 
ports are seen to radiate from a centre which is in line with that of the 
axis. In the majority of Teleosts the hypurals, which always support 
the greater number, and sometimes even the whole of the caudal fin- 
rays, are firmly fused to the vertebral elements. It will therefore be 
seen that the reason for the heterocercal stage is that the ventral fin- 
ray supports may be brought into the same line as that of the axis, and 
at the same time afford a strong attachment for them. It was the only 
way these ends could be achieved ; symmetry had to be abandoned 



1918.] R. H. WniTEiTousF. : The Cdmhil Fins of Fishr.'i. i:>.9 

during beterncerc)^ in orrlcr again to restore an external syriTmetrv of a 
more efficient type. 

There is still another morphological question that the above evolu- 
tionary process involves. What is the true nature of the homocercal 
caudal fin ? Is it a true modified caudal or is it an anal fin which has 
come to occupy a relatively posterior position ? If we examine almost 
any heterocercal caudal fin, such as that of Acipenser or Polyodon, we 
see that the greater part of the fin is supported by hyjDurals some con- 
siderable distance from the end of the chordal axis. Should the axis 
again be straightened, this portion would certainly be regarded as anal 
fin from its very position. That the vertebral axis of Teleosts, and it 
may be of all fishes, has been very much reduced in length is certain ; 
the continuation of the spinal cord beyond the last centrum is sufficient 
proof of this, and with this reduction the original caudal rays have gone 
too, unless a few dorsal rays associated with the opisthure are the last 
remnants. The upturning of the chorda therefore almost certainly 
involved the bringing of a more anterior fin, an anal, into a relatively 
posterior terminal position. 

The question as to whether separate median fins had been yet differ- 
entiated need not seriously affect this view, for during development 
it can be seen that the skeletal elements of the differentiated fins are 
laid down before heterocercy sets in, and thus differentiated fins might 
be regarded as having been established during the protocercal condition 
in some cases at least. Differentiation, however, may not have been 
developed in all cases, and then it is only a matter of extended growth 
of a part of a continuous fin. Thus this question is not one of primary 
importance since certainly dorsal, caudal and anal fins are only names 
for portions of a once continuous series. 

The supporting elements for the caudal dermotrichia are of three 
kinds : firstly hypurals ; secondly epurals ; and thirdly radials, either 
dorsal or ventral. These terms are here used according to the defini- 
tions given by me in an earlier work,^ and it may be useful to quote 
them briefly. A hypural is defined as any hypaxial element having 
direct connection with the chordal axis, and bearing one or more caudal 
fin-rays distally ; an epural is the corresponding epaxial element ; a 
radial is synonymous with ' somactid ' and ' interspinous bone.' 

One constantly sees statements which refer to hypurals as haemal 
arches ; Sedgwick writes ^ " In all fishes the ventral part of the caudal 
differs from the other median fins in the fact that the dermotrichia 
(fin-rays) are supported directly by the haemal arches," Such a refer- 
ence is typical of text-books in general concerning caudal fins, but the 
matter is one deserving of discussion. As far back as 1851 Stannius 
in his text-book on the Vertebrata clearly stated that the fin-ray sup- 
ports were compound structures, consisting of arch and radial combined. 
Ryder^ in 1884 seems to have come to the same conclusion but this inter- 
pretation seems to have been ignored in more recent works. 

^ Loc. cit. 

2 Stvrlent.'i" TexlhooJc of Zoology, 190.5. 

^ " Evolution of tlie Fins of Fislies," Jiej). Cowm. Fish and Fis/trries, Washington, 
1884, imblished 188(5. 



140 Records of the Indian Musevm. [Vol. XV, 

Before entering into the question, I would again draw attention 
to the presence of independent radials as supports of caudal fin-rays. 
Dorsal caudal radials as I have called them are usually present, and are 
the bones referred to by Huxley^ as epurals ; ventral caudal radials 
are also frequently present though much less than their corresponding 
dorsal homologues. In all Gadidae, Solea, Zeus, Gobius and others, 
radials persist ventrally. 

Now since radials are the normal supports of the dermotrichia in 
other median fins, we may assume that they once were in the caudal, 
which is merely a part of the same system. Haemal arches, therefore, 
cannot be regarded as the original supports of fin-rays, and if they are 
considered to have taken over this function, they must be regarded as 
having lengthened and expanded distally with a view effectively to fulfil 
their new function. On the other hand, radials are the natural supports 
of fin-rays. It is also interesting to notice which of the two elements, 
radials and arches, are the more persistent when subjected to eliminating 
influences. The flexion of the extremity of the chorda affected the 
dorsal and ventral side of the fin differently ; epaxial elements had less 
room assigned to them, while the hypaxial structures were afforded 
scope for extended development. The response to this influence is very 
marked ; on the ventral side fin-ray supports have expanded to fill 
the widening cleft between them, but dorsally suppression has resulted. 
But which structures dorsally have succumbed to this crowding-out 
process ? Not the radials but the neural arches ; as long as dorsal fin- 
rays remain to be supported, the radials retain their function, while 
neural arches have disappeared or been reduced. We are forced there- 
fore to regard radials as more persistent than arches. 

When the caudal fin became a definitely propulsive organ, more rigid 
support was required for the fin-rays ; to accomplish this there were 
clearly two ways open ; (1) by the transference of the supporting func- 
tion from radials to haemal spines, and (2) by the mere fusion of the 
radials with the haemal spines. The first alternative involves, one 
might almost say, a preconceived purpose on the part of the s^Dines to 
acquire a new function ; they must lengthen, expand and, in so doing, 
eliminate structures already performing the work they are to take over. 
Such a change of function is usually accompanied by a stimulus, in 
response to which the change takes place ; but it is difficult to see what 
stimulus could have been applied to the haemal arches to initiate a 
change. The radials clearly had a stimulus, a mechanical one, and one 
cannot avoid concluding that they responded thereto, thus obtaining 
as it were a start on any other competitor. 

It has been shewn that radials are more persistent than arches dor- 
sally ; is it likely therefore that in a region where extended scope for 
development is afforded, as is the case ventrally, that structures already 
well adapted for the support of fin-rays, and indeed actually fulfilling 
that role, should abandon their function in favour of structures in no 
way so fitted, especially when, under adverse conditions, as dorsally, 
they tenaciously retain that function ? It is inconceivable, and one is 
tempted to ask what would happen during the period of transference. 

I " On Some Parts of the Skeleton of Fishes/'. 9. J. M. S., 1859 



1918.] E. H. WiiiTETiOTTSE : The Caudal Fins of Fishes. 141 

It is far easier to conceive of the very simple process of fusion of radial 
with the rigidly attached haemal spine, for this is exactly what would 
be expected. Without labouring the theoretical aspect further, it may 
be mentioned that there is abundant evidence among Teleostean fishes, 
as well as Elasmobranchs and Ganoids that such fusion has occurred ; 
the following examples may be quoted as affording evidence : Acanthias, 
Galeus, Heterodontus, Acipenser, Poli/odon, Synodontis, Plotosus, An- 
guiUa, Conger, Gadus, Gadiculus, Molva, Motella, Centriscus, Belone 
(Stannius' example), Box, Ze^is, and Pleuronecfes. In all these cases 
the line of fusion between arch and radial can still be seen. 

There is. however, another aspect worth mentioning ; it has been 
maintained that radials are derived in the first place from neural and 
haemal arches by segmentation, a view which receives support from the 
Dipnoi, where the radials rest directly upon the spines. But the most 
favoured opinion does not lend support to this view since, except for the 
caudal, in the median fins of Elasmobranchs radials are so far removed 
from the axis. Were this segmentation theory correct, it might have 
been argued that the caudal region retains the primitive condition, but 
in this connection the presence of radials in the caudal fin would present 
a difficulty. Thus the study of the caudal fin-structure entirely supports 
the view that radials are elements developed independently of the axial 
structures. 




Fig. 3. — C-audal extremity of Torpedo ocellata. 
hy., liypural ; 1. v., last centrum ; n., neural arcli ; n'., neural arches of centra now 
suppressed ; r., radial. 

In concluding these remarks on homocercy, I would like to refer 
to the internal structure of the caudal fin of the electric torpedo, Torjwdo 
ocellata (fig. 3) ; this fin has never to my knowledge been previously 
described, and I have refrained from discussing it earlier, because material 
has not been available to allow me to examine more than a single 
specimen. But even if this particular specimen was abnormal, which 
I doubt, it certainly is extremely useful in shewing that tendencies to the 
homocercal type may occur among the Elasmobranchs ; indeed more 
than mere tendencies, in fact a homocercy which, had it been found in 
the Teleostei, would not have been considered strange. 

The specimen was dissected by me some years ago and I believe 
affords the only instance of homocercy yet recorded among the Elasmo- 



\4?. Records of ihc Indian Museum. [VoT,. XA'', 

branclis. As is well kno's\Ti, the external form of the tail fin of Torpedo 
is symmetrical ; internally, however, the ventral fin-rays are directly 
borne by hypurals, the two terminal ones being strongly developed, 
fused at their bases both to one another and to the last centrum. Above 
the last hypural are to be seen the remains of the neural arches of vanished 
centra, occasioned by the abbreviation of the vertebral column ; they are 
still to be found because they are necessary to provide protection for the 
terminal portion of the spinal cord. All the ventral supports are hy- 
purals, while dorsally the rays are borne exclusively by radials which 
have not fused with the neural arches. 

It is possible that an investigation into the tail fin of the Rays may 
prove to be of considerable value ; while Torpedo thus possesses what 
may be regarded as a fairly specialized type of horaocercy, others may 
shew a simpler tendency in that direction. 



XVII. STUDIES ON THE ANATOMY OF INDIAN 
MOLLUSCA. 

2. THE MARSUPIUM AND GLOCHIDIUM OF SOME UNIONIDAE 
AND ON THE INDIAN SPECIES HITHERTO ASSIGNED TO 
THE GENUS NODULAR! A. 

By B. Prashad, D.Sc, Superintendent of Fisheries, Beyigal, Bihar and 
Orissa, Calcidta. {Communicated by permission of the Director of 
Fisheries, Bengal.) 

(With text-figures 1-3.) 

In part one^ of this series I described the structure of the marsupium 
and the glochidium of two species of the genus Physunio, Simpson. 
Tlie present communication consists of two parts, the first of which 
deals with the same structures in two of the common genera of Indian 
Unionidae Lamellidens, Simpson, and Parreyssia, Conrad, while in the 
second an account of the soft parts of the animal of an Indian genus 
hitherto confounded with the genus Nodularia, Conrad, is given. A 
new generic name, Indonaia is, therefore, proposed for the Indian species. 
An account of the structure of the glochidium of two of the species of 
this genus is also included. Further, a few records of the occurrence of 
encysted glochidia on the fins of some Indian fishes are given. 

A full histological account of the structure of the gills in these genera 
is not included as I hope to come to this subject later and to deal with the 
Indian Unionidae as a whole. 

The material for this investigation consists of a collection made by 
Babu D. N, Sen, Zoological Assistant, Bengal Fisheries Department, 
and the various collections made on different occasions by the officers 
of the Zoological Survey of India ; these latter collections were very 
kindly placed at my disposal by the Director of the Zoological Survey of 
India. 

I have also to express my indebtedness to Mr. T. Southwell, the 
Director of Fisheries, for the kind encouragement and the generous 
way in which he has met with my wishes at all times. To Babu D. N. 
Sen my thanks are due for the careful records of locality, preservation 
of specimens and wiUing help whilst working with me in the Fisheries 
Laboratory. 

General. 

The marsupium is of very great importance in the classification 
and natural grouping of the genera of the Unionidae, but unfor- 
tunately at the time of Simpson's- revision the anatomy of the 
Indian genera was not known in most cases. He, however, from a 



^ Rec. Ind. 3Ius. XV, p. 1S3-1S5, pi. xxii (lOlS). 
? Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXIT, p. 501-107r> (1!)(H)). 



144 Records of the Indian Mvscvw. [YoL, XV, 

study of the shell characters alone, placed the genera in the groups 
established by him primarily on the structure of the marsupium. This 
tentative classification has necessarily proved to be wrong in many cases. 
It was shown in the first paper of this series, that the genus Physunio 
should be placed in the sub-group Mesogenae of the group Exobranchiae 
and not in the Endobranchiae as was done by Simpson. As a result of 
my investigations on three of the common'^r Indian genera, it has been 
found that these also have been assigned wrong places, Lamellidens 
and Parreyssia were placed in the sub-family Hyrinae, which are, accord- 
ing to Simpson, primitive forms, and carry the glochidia in the inner 
pair of gills (Endobranchiae) Preston in the official " Fauna of British 
India "^ has followed Simpson, loc. cit., adding nothing new so far as the 
anatomy was concerned, and even neglected the various important 
contributions on the anatomy of some of the Indian Unionidae published 
since Simpson's revision was issued. These observations of mine are, in 
part, a confirmation of what was found by Ortmann- as a result of his 
study of the animals of Parreyssia wynegungaensis (Lea) and LameUidens 
consohrinus, Lea. Preston on page 180 of the volume cited above 
considers the latter to be only a subspecies of Law,ellidens marginalis 
(Lamarck). Ortm_ann found that the position assigned by Simpson 
to the genera Parreyssia and Latnellidens was quite wrong. Both these 
genera were, from the structure of the marsupium, found to be exo- 
branchous, and in his revision he placed them in the sub-family Unioninae 
of the family Unionidae. This sub-family he characterised as having the 
" Marsupium formed by all four gills or by the outer gills only ; edge of 
marsupium always sharp and not distending ; water-tubes not divided 
in the gravid female." Unfortunately the material which Ortmann had 
at his disposal was very small and consisted of sterile or unripe females 
from Bombay. 

In the case of the third genus Nodidaria, Conrad, it was found that in 
the two Indian species investigated the animal was quite dift'erent from 
that of N. aequitaria (Morelet), and N. japanensis (Lea), and that the 
Indian forms of this genus unlike the Japanese and the African endo- 
branchous forms should be placed in the Exobranchiae. This subject 
is treated in detail further on in the account of the genus, which has for 
this reason been separated from the genus Nodidaria and called Indonaia. 

Lamellidens. 

Two varieties of the common Indian species L. marginalis (Lamarck) 
were studied. The first is a variety very little different from the typical 
form and may for the purpose of the present paper be considered as such. 
The nomenclature of the varieties and subspecies of L. marginalis is in 
a very confused condition. Gravid specimens of this form were collected 
in a tank at Bora near Serampur in the Hughly district, Bengal, on the 
1st of April, 1918. The outer pair of gills, which alone formed the 
marsupium, were found to contain large numbers of unripe glochidia. 
Specimens were kept in large bowls in muddy water, but no further 

^ Mollusca, Gastropoda and Pelecypoda, p. 134 (1915). 

2 Ann. Carnegie Mus. VIII, pp. 222-3G5, pis. jvViii-xx (1911-12). 



1918.] B. Prashad : The Anatomy of Indian Mollusca, 



145 



development took place. In the other variety ohesa (H. and T.) also 
only the outer pair of gills serve as the marsupium. I have found by a 
study of sections of the gills of males, gravid and sterile females that the 
differences in the structure of the respiratory and marsupial gills, origin- 
ally described by Peck^ for the gills of Anodonta and later on found by 
Ortmann'- to be constant in a large number of other genera as well, are 
the same in Lamellidens and Parreyssia, and so need not be detailed here. 
In the marsupial gills the inter-lamellar junctions are more numerous 
than in the respiratory gills, the epithelial covering of the lamellar 
junctions is modified ; whereas in the purely respiratory gills of the 
female and those of the male the inter-lamellar junctions are fewer and 
the epithelial covering is of the ordinary type. As expected by Ortmann 
the gills do not swell very much when full of glochidia and their lower 
margins are always sharp and distended. In the firsc variety no glo- 
chidia were found but the embryos were found to be agglutinated 
together to form a flat more or less elliptic plate, thick and broad above, 
thin and tapering below. 

The glochidia of the second variety obesa (H. and T.) may be de- 
scribed as semi-elliptic (fig. la) with a rounded ventral margin, the hinge- 
line rather long and nearly straight and measuring -248 mm. by -210 mm. 



Parreyssia. 

The number of species and varieties of this genus which was studied 
was much larger than of the others. In the following table I give the 
locality, date on which collected, the gills in which the glochidia were 
found and the size of the glochidia. It is of interest to note that the 
specimens were from such widely separate localities as Eastern Bengal, 
Chota Nagpur and the Western Ghats in the Bombay Presidency. One 
of the forms which I have marked with a query seems to be either an 
undescribed variety of P. favidens, or possibly a distinct species. 



Name. 


Locality. 


Date of collection. 


Gills with glochidia. 


Size of glochidia. 


P. favidens (Benson) 


Mirpur, E. 
BengaL 


1st week of 
June, 1917. 


All four gills 


•210 mm. X -153 
mm. (fig. 16). 


P. favidens var ? 


Do. 


Do. 


Right inner gill 


•190 mm. X -073 mm. 
(flg^ Ic). 


P. favidens var. 
assarnensis, Preston. 


Do. 


Do. 


Inner pair of gills , 


•172 mm. X 142 mm. 
(fig. Id). 


P. favidens var. 
tripartitus (Lea). 


Do. 


Do. 


All four gills with 
embryos. 


•t 


P. favidens var. 
viridula (Benson). 


C'hakradhar- 
pur, Cliota 
Nagpur. 


3rd February, 
1918. 


All four gills 


■229 mm. X '190 mm. 
(fig. 1<^). 


P. corrugala (Miiller) 


Medha, Bom- 
bay Presi- 
dency. 


27th February, 
1918. 


Do. 


•191 mm. X •159 mm. 
(fig^ !/)• 


P. corrugata var. 
nagpoorensis (Lea). 


Mirpur, E. 
Bengal. 


1st week of 
June, 1917. 


Outer left full, outer 
right with a few 
only. 


•174 mm. X^153 mm. 
(flg^ !;/)• 



1 Q. J. Microsc. Sci. XVII, pp. 43-66 (1877). 

2 Mem. Carnegie Mus. IV, pp. 279-347, pis. Ixxxvi-lxxxix (1911). 



E 2 



146 



Records of the Ivdian Mvseitm. 



[Vol. XY, 



Though the glochidia were not found in all cases to fill up all the four 
gills, yet in P. favidens var. friportilus all the four gills were full of em- 
bryos, and in the typical form of favidens, P. favidens var. viridula, 
and P. corruf/ala all the four gills contained glochidia. In the other 
varieties the structure of all the four gills was modified for a marsujjial 
function and the absence of glochidia in some of the gills seems to be due 
to their having been shed before the specimens were collected. 

The structure of the gills and the water-tubes is very similar to that 
in the genus LameUidens described above. 



CL 









Fig.l. 



Glochidia of (a) L. mnrginalis var. obesa, (b) P. favidens, (c) P. favidens var. ? (d) P. 
favidens var. assamensis, (e) P. favidens var. viridula, (f) P. currugata, (g) P. corrugnta 
var. nag'poorensis. 

The glochidia, as will be seen from the figures (fig. 1 h — g) all of which 
are drawn magnified 75 times, are semi-circular or semi-elliptic. In 
their structure, sculpture of the shell and the nature of the flange on the 
inner and lower surface of the shells they are quite like those of the genus 
Physunio described in my paper, loc cit. 

Indonaia, gen. nov. 

Simpson in the paper cited above included in the genus Nodularia , 
Conrad, a number of groups of shells of such wide range as Japan, China, 
Siam, India and Africa. The anatomy of some of the members was 
known, but the others like the Indian forms were included because of 
the shells having a close resemblance to those of the genus Nodularia. 
Haas^ in his account of the genus Nodularia included only the species 
found in Siam, Cambodia, Amiam, China, the Amur region, Korea and 
Japan, apparently considering the Indian species to belong to a distinct 
genus. As a result of my investigations of the soft parts of the animals 
of some of the Indian species, it was found that these species had no 
relationships with those that proj)erly belong to the genus. Whereas 
the species N. jajianensis (Lea), a Japanese form, and N . aequitoria 
(Morelet), an African one. carry the glochidia in the inner pair of gills 
(endobranchiae) and belong to the sub-family Hyrinae of the family 



' Martini iind Chcmitz, Conch. Cab., (id. Kustcr) IX, Abth. 2, pt. 2, Die Unioniden 
(MtIO). 



1918.] B. Peashad : The Anatomij of Indian Mollusca. 147 

Unionidae of Simpson ; the Indian species investigated carry the 
glochidia in all the four gills (endobranchiae), and will have to be placed 
in the sub-family Unioninae of Simpson or according to the later classi- 
fication of Ortmann^ in the restricted sub-family Unioninae, Ortmann. 
None of the older names being available, the generic name Indonaia is 
proposed for the Indian species with Unio caeruleus, Lea, as its type. I 
have as yet been able to examine the animals of /. caerulea, I. caerulea 
var. gaudichaudi, I. pachysoma and I. pugio. In these the description 
of the soft parts given below was found to be constant. It is to be 
expected that the structure of the animal in the other Indian species, 
hitherto assigned to the genus Nodularia, would be similar, and the 
genus Indonaia would therefore include all the species described by 
Preston, loc. cit., pp. 135-146. 

I have nothing to add to the following description of the shell given 
by Simpson for the group of N. caerulea, " shell elliptical, inflated, 
pointed about midway up behind, the post basal region produced, with a 
well developed posterior ridge ; beaks sculptured with numerous fine, 
radiating riblets, the central ones of which join below, the whole often 
more or less zigzagged, and extending well over the disk ; epidermis 
generally bluish-green." 

The animal (fig. 2) may be described as having the inner gills much 
wider than the outer both in front and behind. The inner lamellae of 
the inner gills are not free but united with the abdominal sac throughout 
and with each other behind to the end. The palpi are rather large ; 



O.G. 




Animal of Indonaia caerulea var. gamUclmudi. F.^iooi, I. G. -Inner gill, 0. G.= 
Outer gill, P. = Palp, S. .4. = supra -anal opening. 

the mantle has the margin simple and not toothed ; the branchial open- 
ing is large with three to four rows of pointed papillae ; the anal opening 
smaller than the branchial of a light brown colour without any tubercles ; 
the supra-anal opening separated from the anal by a distinct mantle 
connection which is rather short. The supra-anal opening itself is 



Ann. Carnegie Mus. VIII, pp. 223-224 (1911-12). 



148 tlecords of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

smaller than the anal and of a brownish colour. The glochidia are 
carried in all the four gills. 

The glochidia are nearly ovoid, with a very small, straight hinge-line 
and a small hook on each shell (figs. 3 a-c). Gravid specimens of two 
species were obtained, /. caerulea var. gaudichaudi and /. pacliysoma. 
Females of /. pachysoma were collected on the 14th of January 1912, 
in a lake nine miles from Berhampur, Bengal ; the glochidia (fig. 3 









(ilocliidia of (a) I. pachysoma, side view, (b) Inner view of the lower portion of 
the shell of the glochidium of /. pachysoma, showing the hook, (c) Glochidium of /. 
cterulea var. gaudichaudi. 

a, h) are -248 mm. by -115 mm. in size. The specimens of I. caerulea 
var. gaudichaudi were collected on the 1st of April 1918, from a pond 
four miles from Serampur, in the District of Hughly, Bengal. The glo- 
chidia (fig. 3c) measure -289 mm. by -182 mm. ; they are of the same type 
as that of 7. jjachysoma except that they are bigger. 

The glochidia of this genus are very different from those of the other 
known Indian genera. They differ in shape and show a distinct advance 
in that the flange on the lower margin of the shell of each side is becoming 
more highly evolved and is restricted to a hook in the centre. 

Fish hosts. 

In this section I do not attempt at any specific identification of the 
glochidia, which were found encysted on the fins of a large collection of 
fishes from the Satara and Poona districts of the Bombay Presidency. 
The localities and the conditions under which these fishes were collected 
are fully discussed by Dr. Annandale in the systematic account of these 
fishes to be published shortly in the •' Records,'' and I need no more 
than give a list of the various species which were found to have 
glochidia on their fins. 

Nemachilus savona (Ham. Buch.). 

Nemachilus anguilla, Annandale. 

Psilorhynchus tentacidafus, Annandale. 

Cir hina reba (Ham. Buch.). 

Barbus malabaricus, Jerdon. 

Barbus jerdoni, Day. 

Barbus ticto, Day. 

Rasbora daniconius (Ham. Buch.). 

Danio aequipinnatus (McCl.). 

Chela booins, Day. > 

Oj)hiocephalus gachua (Ham. Buch.). 

Gobius bombayensis, Annandale. 



XVIII. NEW SPECIES OF SLUG-LIKE MOLLUSCS 

BELONGING TO THE FAMILY ZONITIDAE 

FROM THE DAWNA HILLS, TENASSERIM, 

COLLECTED BY Dr. F. H. GRAVELY. 

By Lieut. -Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S. 

(Plate XVIII.) 

So long ago as 1912 I received a collection of shells made in the 
winter of 1911 in the Amherst District, Tenasserim, by Dr. F. H. Gravely 
of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Undoubtedly the most interesting 
new species obtained are those I now describe, slug-like forms belonging 
to the genera Anstenia and Girasia. I am much indebted to Dr. 
Gravely for seeing them, and I have much pleasure in naming one 
Girasia after its discoverer. Unfortunately there are few examples to 
deal with, and I have hesitated to cut w^ type specimens to see the 
internal anatomy. It is, I know, very difficult at certain seasons to 
find many specimens of these molluscs ; if it be possible 6 at least should 
be collected, the whole anatomy can then be seen and a couple reserved 
for the Museum. 

The photographs have been made by my friend Mr. J. S. Gladstone, 
they are very good and my best thanks are due to him. 

These and allied genera are very abundant at the wettest season 
of the year, but with diligent search under stones and logs of wood 
they may be found at any time. Their preservation in alcohol is a 
difficulty and the collector must be prepared to face leeches and 
malaria. From the malacological point of view they form a most in- 
teresting group. Their exact distribution specifically is little known. 
Take for instance Girasii peguensis. Theobold.^ Nothing is known of 
those inhabiting Hill Tipperah, the Chin Hills, Northern Burma and the 
Shan States, this large forest- clad area would yield many many species, 
probably even new jjenera. 

This paper would have been published before now, but the large 
Abor collection took \\\) much of my time. The times besides have been 
against and affected work of this kind. 

Girasia ? sukliensis, n. sp. 
(PI. XVIII, figs. 1—3.) 

Locality.— ^\Mi, Dawna Hills, 900-2,300 ft., Tenasserim, November, 
1911 (F. H. Gravely). 

Shell extremely thin, filmy and undeveloped ; colour near the 
rounded apex white, rest pale green. 

Size. — Major diameter about 9 mm. 



1 Moll. India, vol. I, p. 227, pi. lix, figs. 6, 6a, 66 animal, 6c, (xl shell. 



150 Records of the Indian Museum. [VoL. XV, 

Animal (figs. 1 and 2). — About 26 mm. in length, contracted, pale 
grey in colour, with rather large scattered spots of black with smaller 
spots along the peripodial margin ; mantle and head dark grey. 

The side of the foot has a papillate surface, the oblique grooves from 
the margin close and distinct ; foot sharply keeled up to the depression 
in which the shell rests, square at extremity, the mucous gland being a 
very narrow slit. Sole of the foot narrow with a well marked central 
area, bordered on each side by a very finely segmented one. 

Right shell lobe very small, oblong, narrow, romided at the posterior 
end. Cicatrical line well marked. Left shell lobe broadly covering the 
edge of the peristome. Right dorsal lobe small, the left large, spreading 
over the neck and round to the left posterior side, thus similar to G. 
peguensis (tig. 3). 

The visceral sac extends far back to near the extremity of the foot. 
The short oesophagus passes into a very capacious stomach and then 
continues into the lobes of the liver. The generative organs were 
atrophied, but sufficiently developed to show they are like those of 
Girasia. Only the amatorial organ was conspicuous. 

Girasia gravelyi, n. sp. 
(PI. XVIII, tigs. 7, 8.) 

Locality. — Sukli, Dawna Hills (east side), Tenasserim {F. H. Gravely). 

Shell polished, shiny ; apex very small, with the very slightest sign 
of a coil. 

/Size.— Major diameter 10 mm. 

Animal (figs. 7 and 8). — -Length contracted in alcohol 28 mm., 
of a general dark grey colour with distinct irregular blackish spots on 
the side of the foot, peripodial (the fringed) margin narrow with two 
grooves above, its segmentation tine, and this applies to the foot above, 
the usual oblique grooves being indistinct and close together with the 
surface broken up into minute quadrate and pentacular areas, becoming 
almost papillate. The foot behind is square to the sole, with a slit-like 
mucous gland, it is sharply keeled up to the depression in which the 
shell and visceral sac rests. The sole of the foot has a central area, but 
is not crossed by segmental grooves. The mantle is very dark, rather 
smooth ; a distinct cicatrix proceeds from the respiratory oritice upwards 
and backwards separating the narrow oblong right shell lobe, its rounded 
end just covering the anterior margin of the shell. The dividing line 
between these shell lobes and the right dorsal and left dorsal lobes is 
well seen. 

In its general form this species comes nearest to G. siklmnetisis, G.-A., 
Moll. Ind., Vol. I, p. 239, plate lix, figs. 2-2a (animal), 26 (shell). 

Austeiiia dawnaensis, n. sp. 
(PI. XVIII, figs. 1-6.) 

Locality. — Dawna Hills (west base), at 1,400 ft., only one .specimen 
(/'. //. Graoely). 



1918.] H. H. GoDWiN-AusTKJN- : New Slutj-like Moll uses. 101 

Shell spatulate, coil of apex fine ; sculpture none, surface smooth 
and shining ; colour ochraceous with a green tinge ; suture short im- 
pressed ; whorls 1|. 

Size. — Major diameter 15-5 ; minor diameter 9-5 mm. 

Animal (figs. 4 and 5). — Spirit specimen much contracted, 39 mm. 
in length. Two peri])odal grooves lie above the edge of the foot, the 
area between them regularly segmented, the segments of the fringed 
margin extending beneath the foot, but do not cross the median area of 
the sole of the foot. 

Mucous gland a narrow slit, nearly vertical and very slightly over- 
hanging above, extremity of foot keeled for a short distance, then 
rounded as it approaches the shell, the apical part of which rests in a 
depression. Regular segmental grooves becoming close-set extend 
from the irregular upper peripodial groove to the keel. 

The right shell lobe is very small, the left extends all round the 
peristome as a narrow band, leaving much of the shell exposed, a short 
cicatrix divides them running to the respiratory orifice ; the right dorsal 
lobe is small, the left is very broad and ample up to the posterior margin. 

The frontal side of the animal (fig. 6), although much contracted, 
gives an interesting view of the mouth, and shows the segmented sides 
of the foot and its plain central area. 

Austenia ? dawnaensis, young. 

Locality. — Dawna Hills, Tenasserim {F. H. Graveh/). 

Shell broken by sudden contraction in the spirit, very thin and 
spatulate. 

Size. — Major diameter 13-0 mm. 

Animal. — Pale coloured, dark on head and neck, and darkish on the 
forepart of the mantle. 

The margin of the foot is fringed, but the usual grooves above it can- 
not be discerned, in fact the whole body is quite smooth, from some 
change, probably after being put into alcohol. Sole of foot similarly 
quite plain. 

There is a small right shell lobe, while the left shell lobe overlaps the 
edge of the peristome right round from the respiratory orifice to the left 
side. The right dorsal lobe is very small, the left very ample. The 
extremity of the foot is truncate, the mucous gland a narrow slit. 

This specimen may be compared with A. dawnaensis (No. 6063) in 
its general external characters and may possibly be a young specimen. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII. 

Fig, l.—Girasia sukliensis, n. sp., view of right side. X 2. 

,, 2. „ „ ,, view of dorsal side, x 2. 

,,3. ,, ,, ,, mantle seen from above, v/ith visceral 

saC; shell removed. X 4-5. 

„ 4. — Austenia dawnaensis, n. sp., view of right side, x 1-5. 

,, 5. — ,, ,, ,, view of dorsal side. X 1-5. 

„ 6. — „ ,, ,, view of frontal side. X 3-25. 

,, 7. — Girasia gravelyi, n. sp., view of right side. X 2. 

,, 8. — ,, „ „ view of dorsal side. X 2. 



EEC. IND. MUS., VOL. XV, 1918. 



Plate XVIII. 











Plioto.-engraved & printed at the Offices of th.^ Survey of India, Culeniia, iiii 



XIX. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANATOMY OF 
AQUATIC DIPTERA. 

1. LARVAL AND PUPAL STAGES OF AN INDIAN 
CHAOBORUS AND DIXA. 

By Baini Prashad, D.Sc, Superintendent of Fisheries, Bengal Fisheries 
Laboratory, Indian Museum, Calcutta. {Comrnunicated by permission 
of the Director of Fisheries, Bengal.) 

(With Plate XIX.) 

In a previous communication ^ I described the anatomy of an Indian 
Chironomid larva of the genus Polyjjedilum. The present paper 
deals with the larval and pupal stages of two other Nematocera— 
Chaoborus and Dixa. It is hoped that it may be followed by others on 
various aquatic Diptera, our knowledge of the Indian forms being in a 
very unsatisfactory condition. Most of the material for the present 
investigation was put at my disposal by the Director of the Zoological 
Survey of India ; some I had collected myself. 

The larvae and pupae of the Corethrid Chaoborus were collected 
by Dr. Annandale in the Limnociiida pool in the river Yenna, at Medha 
in the Satara district, Bombay Presidency, during the first week of 
March, 1918 ; the material was well preserved, and both larvae and 
pupae were found in abundance. Besides this I had a large number of 
larvae collected in the third week of April, 1912, at the same place 
by Dr. F. H. Gravely. No pupae were obtained on this occasion, 
though larvae were abundant. I also had for comparison a single 
specimen collected by myself in a shady pool in the Lawrence 
Gardens, Lahore, in the month of November, 1916 ; observations were 
made on this living larva whilst it was kept in a small aquarium in the 
Zoological Laboratory of the Government College, Lahore, for a period 
of over two months ; the larva even after this long period did not pupate 
and was preserved in formalin. A few remarks about the name of the 
fly to which the larvae and pupae belong would not be out of place 
here. Giles^ in 1910 described the fly as Corethra asiatiea as a new 
species from Shahjahanpur, and it was referred to as such by Theobald.^ 
Edwards, however, has recently * shown that the form is specifically 
identical with the one described by Schiner in 1868 as Corethra mani- 
lensis {Reise Novara, Diptera, p. 30). Further, the species does not belong 
to the genus Corethra as now restricted, but is a Chaoborus. The name 
of the fly must, therefore, be Chaoborus manilensis (Schiner). 

The larvae and pupae of Dixa were collected by Major S. R. Christo- 
phers, I.M.S., from the hill streams at Kasauli in February. 1914. A 
large number of flies was reared by him, and the whole collection of 



1 Rec. Ind. Mus., XIV, pp. 71-74, pi. xxiii (1918). 

2 Journ. Bombay Nat. Hiat. Soc, XIII, p. (510 (1910). 
* Genera Insectoruui, Diptera, p. 43 (1905). 

4 Bull. Ent. lies., IV, p. 242 (1U13-14). 



154 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

larvae, pupae and flies presented to the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
The fly has been identified as Dixa montana, Brun., by Dr. Annandale 
after comparison with the type-specimen. Mrs. Adie ^ has recorded 
the finding of a large immber of larvae of a species of Dixa, in a pond 
in the Lawrence Gardens, Lahore. On many occasions I tried in the 
same place to obtain specimens but without success. 

LaEVA of ChAOJWRUS AIANILENSIS. 

The larvae at Medha were found in seven to twelve metres of water, 
over a hard rock bottom covered with a thin layer of vegetable debris 
and fine gravel, the water was muddy and opaque, and a slight trickle of 
water was running in and out of the pool. The pond at Lahore is an 
artificial one, overhung by large trees, and is about twenty feet across 
and three to five feet deep ; it is full of dead leaves and the water is of a 
muddy darkish colour ; it is every now and then replenished from a 
canal. 

Observations made on the living larva at Lahore showed that its 
habits are identical with those of the European species described by 
Miall.^ It may be mentioned, however, that those described by him 
{op. cit.) and by Wiesmann'^ as Corethra belong, like the form considered 
in this paper, to the genus Chaoborus, Lichtenstein. The larva of the 
genus Corethra, Meigen, is quite distinct, and is what is described by 
Miall on page 121, as the larva of Monochlys. Very good figures of the 
larvae of Chaoborus and Corethra are given by Howard, Dyar and Knab."* 

The full grown larvae are 7 — 8 mm. long. When living they are 
transparent with the four air-sacs opaque and coppery. The alimentary 
canal has a faint reddish tinge, especially in the middle region of the 
abdomen. In older larvae the mass below the abdomen was tinged with 
orange. The preserved specimens are milky white, the air-sacs brown- 
ish black, the head round the eyes dark brown, elsewhere of the same 
colour as the body ; the eyes themselves are of a dense black colour. 
The division of the body into head, thorax and abdomen is very 
distinct ; the neck is very small and in many specimens, owing to the 
head being drawn underneath the thorax, cannot be seen. The head 
is a very small structure, narrower than any of the body segments except 
the last abdominal. Seen in a side view it is more or less triangular, 
while in a dorsal view the basal part appears quadrangular with the eyes 
at the anterior angles. The anterior part of the clypeus is of the shape 
of a very much elongated and vertically flattened process, with the 
extremity of which the antennae are articulated ; there being no pre- 
antennal portion of the head. On the ventral side a little behind the 
point of attachment of the antennae there is a large bunch of setae 
hanging down from the vertical process of the clypeus mentioned above. 
Behind the group of setae there are two elongated triangular flaps at- 
tached to the same process ; these flaps are mobile and have their pos- 

1 Patton and Cragg, Eniomohxjy, p. 190 (1913). 

2 The Natural HiMory of Aquatic Insects, pp. 113-122 (1903). 

3 Zeits f. Wiss. ZooL, XVI, pp. 45-127, pis. iii-vii (ISGG). 

* The Mosquitoes oj' North and Central America and the West Indies, 1, j). l(iS, 
pl. viii(iyi2). 



1918.] Baini Prasiiad : The Anatomy of Aqifatic Diptera. 155 

terior margin fringed with minute hairs. Further back is the labrum. 
(fig. 2), which is an elongated structure and has a large number of setae 
arranged in a brush-like manner at its tip. The mandibles (fig. 3) are 
large, plate-like, with a narrow base, and have six large teeth on their 
anterior and upper margin and five small rounded serrations on the 
inner ; besides there is near the upper margin on the outer side a small 
projection with six very long and broad bristles arising from its surface. 
The first pair of maxillae are reduced to small protuberances, each with 
two setae at the tip, and the labium is only a very small plate. The 
eyes are rather ovoid structures with a single large ocellus lying in a 
depression on the posterior margin of the eye. The antennae are large 
prehensile organs, consisting of a single joint; the line of attachment 
to the head is nearly straight ; the outer margin of the antennae is con- 
cave ; along the inner margin there is a deep notch close to the base, 
beyond which the line is straight ; the tip is armed with four very long 
bristles. A few scattered setae are to be seen on the clypeus and just 
behind the eyes. 

The thorax is a fairly massive structure ; in full grown specimens it is 
thrice as broad as the head. On the dorsal surface of the thorax there 
are three groups of setae on each side ; the first or the prothoracic group 
has two plumed setae, the second a simple and three plumed and the 
third only three plumed ones. The air-sacs are more or less kidney- 
shaped with the pigment arranged in small triangular or squarish areas ; 
they are rather small as compared with those of the common Eurojiean 
and American forms, bemg about one-sixth of the total thoracic length. 

The abdomen consists of nine segments. The first six segments 
increase regularly in length and breadth, and the seventh and eighth 
gradually taper to the ninth segment. Each of the segments I — \ III 
bears a single plumed seta on each side dorsally and two plumed setae 
ventrally. The air-sacs on the seventh segment are, like those of the 
thorax, of a comparatively small size. The ninth segment has, close to 
its base, a papilla in the mid-dorsal line with two setae arising from it ; 
posterior to it are two more papillae but without any setae ; ventrally 
there is the large fin formed of nineteen long fringed bristles of the same 
type as described by Miall, op. cit. At the tip of the abdomen (fig. 4) 
there are four small triangular gills close to the anus. Above the 
gills are four very long feathered bristles arising in groups of two ; below 
the gills is a large area something like the abdominal feet of Chironomiis, 
and covered like these with two kinds of hooks (fig. 5), which are arranged, 
the larger and slightly curved ones in the centre and the smaller and 
more curved ones at the edges. 

Pupa of CHAOnoRUS ]\iantlensis. 

A point in which the habits of these pupae differed from those of 
Palaearctic species was that they did not rise to the surface but remained 
floating in a vertical position close to the bottom ; the large baloon- 
shaped breathing trumpets keeping them in this attitude. The very 
minute openings of the breathing trumpets, to be described later, seem 
to be due to the peculiar habitat in which they live, as finely powdered 
mud would choke up open trumpets, there being no large setae to guard 



156 Records of flic Indian Mtisciim. [Vol. XY, 

the openings as there are in other CuHcidae ; and the gradual closing 
of the openings of the trumpets seems to have been evolved as a direct 
response to the surroundings in which these pupae are found. In cap- 
tivity the adults were hatched only late at night and no observations 
were therefore made on the manner in which they rose to the surface. 
The pupa (fig. 6) is easily distinguished by the very long abdomen, and 
the comparatively small cephalo-thoracic mass, the peculiar breathing 
trumpets and the well-developed tail-fins. 

The pupa is 6-9 mm. long, and the size of the cephalo-thoracic mass is 
2-1 mm. by 1-7 mm. 

In the cephalo-thoracic mass of the advanced pupae the large com- 
pound eye of each side with the single ocellus behind it and the antennae 
can be distinguished. The legs, the wing and the halter of each side 
can also be seen in their envelopes. Near the upper edge, arising from 
the dorso-lateral margins, a single seta is present on each of the pro-, 
meso- and metathoracic regions. The nymphal breathing trum/pets 
are large swollen structures appearing baloon-shaped in the living pupae. 
They are broadest in the middle gradually narrowing to the point of 
attachment. The wall of the trumpet is formed of small quadrilateral 
areas. The outer openings are very mimite slits on the upper margin. 

In the abdominal portion, the segments regularly increase in length 
from the thorax onwards, except for the last one, which is very small. 
Dorsally each segment bears two setae one on each side, and there is a 
similar arrangement ventrally. From the last segment two triangular 
flaps hang out below the tail-fins. The tail-fins (fig. 7) are large, broad 
structures with a very thick inner margin owing to a tracheal tube 
running along the edge ; this edge is setose ; the outer edge is thinner 
and has no setae ; in the substance of the tail-fins of each side four other 
thickenings due to tracheal tubes can be distinguished. 

Larva of Dixa Montana. 

The larvae were collected in mountain streams at Kasauli in the 
Western Himalayas. 

Full-grown larvae (fig. 8) measure about 9 mm. in length, smaller 
ones from 3 — 6 mm. are also present in the collection. The general colour 
of the preserved specimens is brownish-black alternating with paler 
areas on the dorsal surface, while the ventral surface is light yellow. 
The head and the tail-fins are dark brown. 

The head is a small but massive structure formed of thick chitin. 
The post-antennal portion is quadrilateral, the anterior pre-antennal, 
which is much darker in colour, being triangular with the apex rounded 
off. The eyes are rather small, ovoidal, situated ventro-laterally behind 
the point of insertion of the antennae. The antennae (fig. 9) are slightly 
curved single- jointed structures about two-thirds of the length of the 
head, with the shaft and tip covered with closely-set minute spines. 

Month-j)arfs. — The pre-antennal portion of the head ends in the 
large labrum which, with its very well developed pair of feeding brushes, 
overhangs the mouth-opening. The mandibles (fig. 10) are large and 
elaborate in structure ; from the outer angle of the upper margin arises 



1918.] Baini Prasiiad : The Anntomy of Aqiiafic Diytera. 157 

a stout curved bristle hanging freely forwards. Internally the apex of 
the margin, which in the natural position faces that of the mandible of 
the other side, bears a large fringe of setae arranged on a crescentic 
ridge a little behind the edge ; these setae together with the feeding 
brushes of the labrum are constantly in motion and sweep the food 
particles into the buccal cavity. A little above the middle there are two 
large teeth while the lower half is finely serrated. The first pair of 
maxiUae (fig. 11) are quadrangular in outline with a well developed 
palp inserted near the base on the outer side ; the palp like the antennae 
is spinose and of the same shape, though a little smaller. The inner 
margin of the plate of the maxillae is beset with long hairs, those at the 
apex being specially well developed and curved. The second pair of 
maxillae are united to form a triangular labium, which forms the floor 
of the buccal cavity. 

The three segments constituting the thorax are cpiite distinct. Seen 
from above the segments are rectangular in outline. The middle se<^- 
ment is the largest of the three. The first segment has five simple setae 
on each side, arising near the anterior edge, and a single one behind 
this group. The second bears laterally two setae on each side ; the 
third has no setae. 

The eight segments of the abdomen are quite distinct. The first and 
second segments are peculiar in having two small feet, one on each side ; 
these feet bear two types of hooks, the arrangement of which is the same 
as those described in Chaoborus, the larger ones in the centre and the 
smaller ones along the edges. The second to the seventh abdominal 
segments bear the so-called " shields " (Miall, op. cit.) on their dorsal 
surface. These are only the dorsal surfaces of the segments marked 
ofF as ovoid or nearly circular structures by the setae arranged alono- 
their margins. The setae are both simple and plumose, and are 
of use in supporting the surface-films of water, when in the looping 
movements the larva brings it above the surface. The absence of these 
shields in certain other species of Dixa larva suggests that they, together 
with the setae, may be efhcient suckers of use to larvae living in rapid 
torrents in the hills, but I have no definite facts to support this assertion. 
On the ventral surface of segments five to seven there is, in addition 
to the shields mentioned above, a comb-shaped structure formed of 
minute brown spines attached in a transverse axis near the posterior 
margin of the segments. The structure of the eighth segment is 
very peculiar, having special bearings on the relationships of Dixa, 
and has, so far as I know, not been adequately described for any 
species. The segment itself is very large, the basal part being rec- 
tangular, with an elongated conical portion of a brownish colour 
projecting from the basal part. The tip of this conical portion bears 
three long setae on each side. On the two sides, and arising from 
the hind edge of the rectangular portion, are two triangular chitinous 
plates of a dark brown colour ; these will be referred to again in the 
account of the respiratory or breathing portion. With each of these 
plates a rather elongated ovoid fin of a dark brown colour articulates ; 
both the plates and the fins have a fringe of long setae along the inner 
and outer margins. 



158 7\*rco7'f]s of the Jndian Miisrinn. [Vol-. XV 

The spiracles, or the openings of the respiratory system of the larva 
are two in number, one on each side, situated in a slight depression on 
the dorsal surface of the eighth segment near the posterior margin of 
its rectangular portion. The spiracles are surrounded by six chitinous 
plates. When the larva is floating on the surface, the plates are spread 
out (fig. 8), and expose the spiracles to the air ; when, however, the 
larva goes down from the surface, the plates, as in the larva of Anopheles, 
fold and with the fringes on their margins form a nearly closed cavity 
over the spiracles, enclosing air, which prevents water from entering 
the spiracles. The arrangement and shape of these plates is as follows : 
Anteriorly there is a large transverse plate bearing seven or eight 
groups of four to five setae each ; from its position and the attachment 
of setae this thick plate appears capable of being turned over the spiracles, 
which from their situation would then be drawn underneath it. Arising 
behind the spiracle on each side is a chitinous plate of the shape of a 
tennis-racket ; it is attached by the base of its handle ; the broader 
portion, which stands free outside, is setose all along the margin. The 
chitinous plates further behind consist of a large crescentic plate, broad 
in the middle and drawn out along the two edges ; these drawn-out 
portions are supported by the triangular plates with which the fins 
articulate. 

This arrangement of the breathing mechanism of Dixa appears to be 
homologous with that of Anopheles, only it is on a lower grade of 
organization, all the essentials being the same. Both the mouth-parts 
and the breathing apparatus of Anopheles can be very easily derived 
from those of Dixa ; and the resemblances do not seem to be of the nature 
of convergence, but rather to show a near relationship. 

Pupa of BiXA MONTANA. 

The pupa (fig. 13) is comma-like in appearance owing to the abdomen 
being bent under the large cephalo-thoracic mass. It is of a dark 
yellowish colour. 

The cephalo-thorax measures 2 mm. by 9 ram. The divisional lines 
between the various abdominal segments are very well marked, and 
there are well developed ridges on the abdominal segments ; there being 
no hairs or setae anywhere. The opening of the breathing trumpets 
is small, more or less squarish and lateral in position as usual. The 
tail-fins (fig. 14) are peculiar in being very much reduced triangular 
flaps, which are produced into a long regularly tapering spine a little 
smaller than the fins. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

Fig. I. — Lateral view of the larva of Chaohorus manilensis. 

5 5 2. — Lateral view of the larva of C. manilensis. 

,, 3. — Mandible of the same. 

,5 4. — Portion of the last abdominal segment of the larva more 
highly magnified. 

5. — The two types of hooks from the abdomen. 

6. — Pupa of C. manilensis, lateral view. 

7. — Tail-fins of the pupa as seen from above. 

8. — Larva of Dixa montana, dorsal view. 

9. — Antenna of the same. 
10. — Left mandible of the same as seen from above. 
11. — First maxilla of the left side as seen from above. 
12. — Two types of hooks from the abdominal feet. 
13. — Pupa of D. montana, lateral view. 
14. — Tail-fins of the pupa as seen in a dorsal view. 



Rec , Tnd. Mus,Vol.XV, J9I8 . 



Plate XIX. 




-i^^^-M 




BP- StD.BagGhi del. 




XX. FRESHWATER SHELLS FROM MESOPOTAMIA. 

By N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., Director, 
Zoological Survey of India. 

(With Plate XX.) 

The shells discussed in this paper were found for the most part in 
what may be called a subfossil condition. Some of them may now be 
extinct in the districts in which they were collected, but this seems to 
be improbable in most cases, and some have certainly been deposited by 
recent inundations. The collection was made at two localities ; in the 
neighbourhood of Nasariyeh on the Euphrates, near where it now joins 
the Tigris, and at Samara on the latter river. For most of the speci- 
mens I have to thank Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Lane, whose valuable 
notes have been of great use in considering the environment in which the 
different species lived ; for others I have to thank Bombardier E. 
Hodgart, who in civil life is a collector attached to the Zoological Survey 
of India, and while on active service has not neglected to obtain speci- 
mens for presentation to the Indian Museum. 

The specimens from the neighbourhood of Nasariyeh are from three 
different deposits probably of different age but in no case of great geo- 
logical antiquity. Some are from a place annually inundated by the 
Euphrates, others from an almost superficial deposit now separated 
from the bank of the river but once probably the bed of a poOl or back- 
water connected with it in the floods if not perpetually, while others 
again are from the bed of a shallow lake that has been filled from time to 
time with sand. There is some evidence that this last deposit was 
laid down in water that was or had recently been bracki.sh. The 
specimens from Samara were found in the dry bed of an ancient tank 
and all the shells are white and opaque. Amongst the freshwater 
forms I found a number of mone}'" cowries {Cypraea (Aricia) nionefa , L.), 
the presence of which is evidently fortuitous and due to man, and also 
shells of at least two species of Helicidae, which I shall not attempt to 
name. 

The shells from the most recent deposit on the banks of the Euphrates 
at Nasariyeh belong to the following species : — 

Gastropoda. Pelecypoda. 

Neritina jordnni Corhicida fluminalis 

Melania tuhercidata Corhicida cor 

Melanopsis nodosa JJnio calliopsis 

Limnaea spp. Unio tigridis 

Planorbis convexiuscuhis Unio ciconius 

Bullinus contortus Gahillolia euphratica 

All these shells, except those of the Unionidae and Cyrenidae, are 
for the most part white and opaque. Some of those of Pulraonates, 

f2 



160 'Records nf fJic Indian JHuscum. [Vol. XV, 

however, retain a certain transliicency ; those of the Melania have 
often vestiges of epidermis, while those of Neritina retain their colour 
to some extent. Those of the Melanopsis are particularly white and 
chalky. 

The shells from the swamp deposit in the same neighbourhood, 
separated from the Euphrates by a narrow stretch of flat land and the 
remains of an old embankment, belong to the following species : — 

Ga,stropoda. Pelecypoda. 

Neritina jordani Unio sp. 

Bithynia badiella 

Melania tuberculata 

Melanopsis nodosa 

Limnaea tenera 

Limnaea sp. 

Bullinus contortus 

Except the Unio, all the specimens of which are white, broken and 
crumbling, the shells are in much the same condition as those from 
recently inundated land. 

The collection from the lacustrine deposit at Nasariyeh, to which 
Colonel Lane paid particular attention, includes specimens of the fol- 
lowing : — 

Gastropoda. Pelecypoda. 

■ Neritina jordani Unio sp. 

Bithynia badiella Corbicula fluminalis 

Bithinella palmyrae Corbicula cor 

Melania tuber ciilata, Corbula {Erodona) mesopofa- 

Melanopsis subtingitana, mica, sp. nov. 

Nevill, Ms. 
Melanopsis nodosa 
P of amides fluviatilis 
Limnaea per egr if or mis 
Limnaea suhpersica 
Limnaea sp. 
Planorbis convexiusculus 
Bullinus contortus 

There is also a single shell of the barnacle Balanus ampTiitrite, and 
many tests of Ostracod Crustacea. 

The collection of freshwater shells from Samara is a small one ; only 
the following species are included : — 

Gastropoda. Pelecypoda. 

Melanopsis nodosa Corbicula fluminalis 

Limnaea sp. Unio dignatus var. semi- 

Bullinus contortus ramidis 

Unio mossulensis 



1918.] N. Annandale : Shells from Mesopotamia. 



161 



The shells had all been dead for some time and were quite opaque. 

The most interesting of these deposits, and also the most fully inves- 
tigated, is that of the lake-bed near Nasariyeh, Colonel Lane has sent 
me several diagrams to illustrate its position and structure, I reproduce 
(in a slightly modified form) one of his drawings, which is of a section 
of the deposit as seen in a trench. The sandy layers evidently represent 
the sudden and repeated filhng in of the lake by sand-storms, the 



3 ft. 3 in 




6 in. 
lin. 

8m. 



//////////////J///////////////J////) 




layers of clay (shaded) the bottom at different periods. There has 
probably been some denudation of the surface. In the sandy layers 
the shells are well preserved, while in those of clay conditions were un- 
favourable for preservation and the only recognizable remains are those 
of thick and heavy shells such as TJnio and the tests of Ostracods. 
Fragments of vegetable matter are abundant in the clay. There is 
some uncertainty as to which sandy layer many of the specimens are 
from, but there is sufficient evidence that some of the species came 
from all these layers ; the Potaniides and the Corbiila, brackish-water 
forms, ^yere certainly found in the upper as well as the lower ones ; 
most of these shells are probably from the 6 inch layer. All the thinner 
shells from the deposit are dwarfed and many of those of Limnaea are 
distorted, but this is also the case with many specimens from recently 
inundated land in the same neighbourhood. Without examining fresh 
specimens it is impossible to say whether all of the latter are recent. 

From a geographical point of view the most interesting feature of the 
collection is the additional evidence it affords of the close relationship 
between the aquatic fauna of lower Mesopotamia and that of the Jordan 
valley. The abundant occurrence of Neritina jordani in the former 
district is particularly significant in this connexion. 



162 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

GASTROPODA. 

Order PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 
Family NERITIDAE. 

Genus Neritina, Montfort. 

Three species of this genus have been described from Mesopotamia 
and I have here to put on record the occurrence of a fourth hitherto 
known from Palestine. The four species are easily distinguislied. They 
are N. mesopotmnica, Mousson, N. cincteUa, Martens, N. euphratica, 
Mousson and A', jordani, Sowerby. The first two are only known 
from upper Mesopotamia, but although N. euphratica is stated to be 
widely distributed through the whole country, none of the specimens I 
have examined can be assigned to it. 

The four species may be distinguished as follows : — 

1. Shell witii an obtuse ridge on the body-wliovl N. cincteUa. 

II. Shell with a broad, shallow constriction running round 
the main whorl, distinctly taller than broad, marked 
with dark and pale zig-zag lines ; the inner lip without 
denticulation or emargination ... ... N. jordditi. 

III. Shell without transverse constriction or ridge — 

A. Shell slightly taller than wide, of a uniform 

blackish colour ; inner lip entire ... N. incsopotamlcu. 

B. Shell wider than tall, marked with dark and 

pale zig-zag lines, with a slight emargination 

in the middle of the inner lip ... ... N. cuiihratica. 

Neritina jordani, vSowerby. 

1899. Neritinn jordani, Kobelt in Rossmiissler's Icon. Land-ii. Sussiv. Moll. (n. f.) 

VIII, p. 2, pi. ccxi, fig. 1319. 
1899. Neritina jordani var. turris, id., ibid., p. 3, pi. ccxi, fig. 1320. 

There are numerous shells of this species in collections from the bank 
of the Euphrates at Nasariyeh and from both lacustrine and paludine 
deposits in the same neighbourhood. They agree very closely, except 
in being rather smaller, with shells of the var. turris of Mousson collected 
by myself in the Lake of Tiberias. All are variegated, but there is con- 
siderable variation in the relative breadth of the dark and the pale 
zig-zag markings. 

Family HYDROBIIDAE. 

Bithynia badiella, Parreyss. 

1874. Bithynia badiella, IMousson, .Jowrn. de Conch. XXI, p. 45. 

Shells are abundant in lacustrine and paludine deposits at Nasariyeh. 
They agree well with specimens from northern Palestine. The species 
is common in Syria, the Lake of Tiberias and Lower Mesopotamia. 

Bithinella palmyrae, Dautzenberg. 

1894. BilhincUa 2>ulinyrae, Uautzenbcrg, Rev. biol. Nord France VI, p. 348, 
fig. 4. 

Several shells, of which only one is complete, from the old lake-basin 
at Nasariyeh seem to agree with Dautzenberg's figure. The species is 
otherwise known only from Palmyra in the Syrian desert. 



1918.] ]\ . Annandale : Shells from, Mesoijotainia. 163 

? Genus Lithoglyphus, Miihl. 

A single broken shell from the same deposit perhaps belongs to this 
genus. 

Family MELANIIDAE. 
Melania tuberculata (Miiller). 

1918. Jlcld/iifi luherculata, Annandale, Eec. Ind. Mui). XIV, pp. 114, 15G, fig. 0, 
pi. xii, figs. 1, 2. 

This common mollusc is well represented in all the deposits from 
which I have seen specimens. Most of the shells are of the typical 
form and of rather small size (not longer than 25 nun.). Mr. Hodgart 
has, however, sent some very large ones from the banks of the Euphrates 
at Nasariyeh, the largest of which must have been at least 45 mm. long 
by 16 broad when complete. Some of these large shells retain vestiges 
of their epidermis, but most are denuded and broken. 



Melanopsis nodosa, Ferassac. 

1874. Mdanopsis nodosa, Biot, " Die Melaniaceen," in Chemnitz's Conch.' 
Cab. (ed. Kiistcr), p. 432, pi. xlvi, figs. 17-24. 

This is apparently by far the commonest species of its genus in lower 
Mesopotamia. It is represented by numerous specimens from all the 
deposits at Nasariyeh and by a single much worn shell from Samara. 
All the shells I have examined have lost their epidermis and are white 
and chalky. 

Melanopsis subtingitana, Nevill, Ms. 

(Plate XX, figs. 1, 2.) 

1884. Mddnojjsis costata, var.. Nevill, Hand-List Moll. Ind. Mas. II, i>. 2(J2. 

The shell is thick, of a very regular ovato-conical shape, narrow, 
sharply pointed at the apex, from which it increases gradually and 
evenly. The spire is conical, unbroken, with the suture little impressed 
and the whorls not at all swollen. Seven or seven and a half whorls 
persist in the two adult shells examined. The first three whorls are 
small and almost smooth ; the others are decorated with broad and 
prominent, slightly sinuous longitudinal ridges, of which there are about 
fifteen. These ridges may become obsolete at the base of the body- 
whorl or may be divided into two longitudinal tubercles by a deep 
groove running round this whorl. The mouth of the shell is narrowly 
ellipsoidal and is produced backwards in the form of a narrow slit which 
is at first straight and then curves inwards and is not protected by an 
overhanging lip. The columella is almost straight and pointed at its 
extremity, which does not project or hardly projects beyond the lip ; 
the callus is poorly developed. 



15 


14 


7-4 


7-5 


Hf) 


8-3 


3-5 


3-2 



164 Records of the J ndiaii Muscain. [Vol. XV, 

Measurements of shells {in, ntiUhnefres). 

Specimen A is the type-specimen from Basra (?) : specimen B is 
the adult shell from Nasariyeh. 

A. B. 

Length of hIu'II 

Breadth of shell ... 

Length of aperture (iacludiiig slit) 

Breadth of aperture 

Type-specimen. — No, 1139()/2M, Zoological Survey of India {Ind. 
Mus). 

Localities. — Nevill gave the Ms. name here adopted to three shells 
labelled " Basrah, Biluchistan " from the collection of the late 
Dr. W. T. Blanford. The " Biluchistan " was probably a mistake. 
Two of these shells are very young and one of them appears to be merely 
a young shell of M. nodosa. The adult specimen I have made the type 
of the species. In Colonel Lane's collection from the old lake-bed at 
Nasariyeh I found two other shells, only one of them adult. They differ 
from Dr. Blanford's adult specimen in having the longitudinal ridges 
undivided and obsolete at the base on the body-whorl, but, considering 
the variability habitual in the genus, must belong to the same species. 
All four specimens were jjrobably subfossil. 

The s])ecies is closely related to M. lingitana, Morelet, which is pro- 
bably confined to the western parts of the Mediterranean basin. It 
differs in its more regular form, narrower body-whorl, more conical 
spire and narrower aperture. It differs still more considerably in shape 
and proportions from any form of M. costata, of which I have examined 
a very large series of shells from Palestine, Spain, etc. From M. saulcyi, 
Bourguignat, it differs in sculpture as well as in the shape of the body- 
whorl. 

Family CERITHIIDAE. 

Potamides fluviatilis (Pott. & Mich.). 

1838. Ccrithuniii jlKuiatil is, I'otiez et Michaud, Gull. Moll., \). 303, pi. xxxi, figs. 

19, 2U. ■ 
1910. Potamides (Ti/mpanolonos) fluviatilis, Annandale and Kemj), Mem. Ind. 

iMus. V, p. '344. 

Several worn and broken shells of this common estuarine species, 
the range of which extends from the Persian Gulf to the seas of China, 
Japan and Australia, are present in the collection from the sandy beds 
in the lake deposit at Nasariyeh. So far as I am aware, P. fluviatilis, 
though often abundant in water of low salinity, never lives in pure fresh 
water. The specimens, therefore, must represent, with those of Corbula 
and Balanus, a brackish-water element in this deposit. 

Order PULMONATA. 

Family LIMNAEIDAE. 

Genus Limnaea, Lamarck. 
The material at my disposal does not make it possible to deal in at 
all a satisfactory manner with the species or forms of this genus that 



1918.] N. Annandale : Shells from Mesopotamia. 165 

occur in lower Mesopotamia. A large proportion of the shells I have 
examined are immature or broken ; all are very small and many seem 
to be distorted or abnormal. Some species of the genus are extra- 
ordinarily plastic and an enormous number of forms have received 
varietal or specific names. Indeed, it is doubtful whether a final diag- 
nosis is possible in many cases without an examination of the radula 
and genital system. I have not attempted, therefore, to name the 
majority of specimens in the collection. They include representatives 
of curious races or varieties that may belong to such species as L. lagotis 
and L. ovata but, except in a few instances, I have not been able to 
identify them with described forms. All are certainly different from 
any of the forms from central Asia and from Baluchistan, Persia or 
Palestine represented by specimens in the collection of the Zoological 
Survey of India. In three cases I have been able to select series of 
shells that agree tairly well with published figures of supposed species. 
To these I give the appropriate names, but in so doing I wish it to be 
understood that I do not intend to express an opinion as to the specific 
validity of the forms. 

Limnaea tenera (Parreyss), Kiister. 
(Plate XX, fig. 3.) 

1862. Limnaeus tener, Kiister, " Die Gattungen Limnaeus," etc., in Chemnitz's 

Conch.-Cab. (ed. Kiister), p. 54, pi. xii, figs. 1, 2. 
1S65. Limnaeus tener, Tristram, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, }). 540. 
1874. Limnara EuphnUka. Mousson, Journ. <le Conch. XXI, p. 40. 
1894. Limnaea tenera, Dautzenberg, Rev. hiol. Nord France VI, p. .335. 

This may be no more than an Asiatic race of L. ovata, which in its turn 
is probably no more than a phase of L. peregra. It was described from 
Persia and according to Dautzenberg is common in swamps and lakes in 
Syria. I have selected a series of shells from the specimens collected by 
Colonel Lane in a swamp-deposit at Nasariyeh. The larger specimens, 
though considerably smaller than Kiister' s figures, agree with them 
otherwise in every respect except that the mouth is slightly narrower. 

Limnaea peregriformis, Locard. 
(Plate XX, fig. 4.) 

1883. Limnaea peregriformis, Locard, Arch. Mas. d'' Hist. Nut. Li/on 111, p. 28(), 
pi. xxiii, Hgs. 41-43. 

Several specimens from the lake-deposit at Nasariyeh agree fairly 
closely with Locard's figures, except that they are much smaller (not 
longer than 10-5 mm.) and that the body-whorl is sometimes not quite 
so elongate. I am not at all sure that the form is specifically distinct 
from the same author's L. lagotojjsis and L. reneana, and Kobelt^ is 
inclined to regard the former as no more than an individual aberration 
of L. lagotis and the latter as a young form of Locard's L. axiaca, which 
Westerlund calls a variety of L. stagnalib. According to Kobelt, however, 



1 Kobelt in Rossmassler's Icon. Land-u. Siissw.-MoU. (new edition) XVIII, pp. 
4,5. 



1G6 RecorJ'i of the Indian 3Iuseu>ii. [Vol. XV, 

Westerlund calls L. jieregriformis merely " L. jjeregra var. " L. peregri- 
fonnis, whatever its precise status may be, lias hitherto been recorded 
only from the Lake of Horns in Asia Minor. 

Limnaea subpersica, Locard. 
(Plate XX, fig. 5.) 

1883. Limnaea suhjKrsica, Locard, oj^. cit., p. 285, pi. xxiii, figs. 38-40. 

Some still smaller shells (greatest length 9 mm.) from the same 
deposit agree fairly well with Locard's figure, but show considerable 
variation in the form of the aperture. Westerlund (fide Kobelt, op. cit., 
p. 7) regards the form as a variety of L. lagotis. It was found with L. 
peregriformis in the Lake of Homs. 

Family PLANOEBIDAE. 

1906. PlaiKubidac, Pelseneer, "MoUusca" iu Laiikestcr's Trealise. on Zooloyy, 
Vol. V, p. 185. 

Genus Planorbis, Guttard. 

The only species of this genus represented in the collection belongs 
to the section or subgenus Gyraulus, Agassiz. 

Planorbis convexiusculus, Hatton. 

187(5. Planorbis convexiusciduti, Hauley and Theobald, ConcJt. Iiid., pi. xcix, figs. 

8, 9, 10. 
1918. Planorbis saigoncmis {".), Aunandale, Rec. Incl. Mus. XIV, p. 112, pi. xi, 

fig. 1. 

I have been in some doubt whether this form was more than a variety 
of P. saigonensis, Crosse & Fischer (=P. campressus, Hutton), but, 
having recently had an opportunity of examining good series of fresh 
specimens of both, I am now convinced that they are specifically distinct. 
P. saigonensis is a more constant species than P. convexiusculus, which 
exhibits considerable individual variability in the form of the shell. 
In most individuals of the latter species there is no peripheral keel or 
angulation, but it is not uncommon for a distinct angulation to be 
present. P. saigonensis has a larger, flatter, coarser and more irregularly 
sculptured shell, which is distinctly carinate. There is also a difference 
in the shape of the aperture. I have recently seen a number of speci- 
mens of P. sm^rowcHSis from Lahore which have traces of the bacterial 
velum so noticeable in P. velifer^ ; some also possess spiral rows of 
epidermal cilia as in the var. ciliata of that species, from which both 
P. convexiusculus and P. saigonensis differ considerably in the shape 
of the mouth of the shell. 

Shells of P. convexiusculus very like those from deposits in the Shan 
States are abundant in the samples from all the deposits at Nasariyeh 
and Samara. The species was described from Afghanistan and is common 
in northern India. 



1 Annandalc, Rcc. Ind. Mus. XIV, p. 112, pi. xi, figs. 7-11 (1918). 



1918.] N. Annandale: Slielh from Mesoiwtamia. 167 

Genus Bullinus, Adanson. 

1757. Bulinus, Adanson, Voy. Senegal, Coquillages, p. 5, pi. i, figs. 

1S15. BaUinas, Oken, Lelirbuch Natunjesch. Ill, ji. 'M):i {fide Hcdk^v). 

1830. Isidora, Ehrenberg, Symh. Phyn. II (unpaged). 

1802. Ididom (in part), Kiistcr, " Die Gatt. Limnaeus," etc., in Chemnitz's- 

Conch. -Cub. (ed. Kiister), ]>. 69. 
1SS6. Physa (in part), Clessin, " Limnaeiden," in Chemnitz's 6'0Hc/t.-C«6. (cd. 

Kiister and Dunker), p. 236. 
1917. Bullinus, Hcdlcy, Eec Austr. Mus. XII, p. 3. 

As this genus has now assumed a certain practical sanitary import- 
ance it may be well to discuss its synonomy and systematic position. 
It was originally described, from a AVest African form, by Adanson in 
1757. He spelt the name with one " 1," but as he derived it from 
" bulle " or bulla was evidently in error in so doing.^ Apart, therefore, 
from any question of date, or from the fact that Adanson did not desig- 
nate the species, Oken in 1815 was justified in changing the name to 
Bullinus. Oken's work is inaccessible to me, but 1 gather from recent 
writers that he merely adopted Adanson's description without seeing 
his species. This description is clear and adequate ; the figures that 
accompany it, though a little crude, illustrate the form of the shell and 
the external anatomy of the animal with sufficient accuracy. They prove 
that in the species known to him, which was described by Bourguignat 
in 1856 as Physa senegalensis, the mantle did not extend over the shell 
and that the tentacles were filiform. These are characters which separ- 
ate the living Bullinus from the living Physa at a glance. 

In 1830 Ehrenberg erected for certain Egyptian and Syrian forms 
a new genus, which he called Isidora or the " Gift of Isis." He appears 
to have been ignorant of Adanson and Oken's genus and his description, 
which is fairly full both in reference to the shell and to the external 
soft parts, coincides closely with Adanson's. Moreover, the first two of 
the three species'^ he assigned to Isidora {I. hemprichii, I. brocchii and 
I. forskalii) are probably no more than varieties or phases of Bullinus 
contortus, which closely resembles B. senegalensis except in the poor 
development of the columellar callus. Isidora, therefore, seems to me 
to be an absolute synonym of Bullinus.''^ Germain,^ however, treats 
it as a subgenus of that genus in his recent list of the molluscs of Syria 
and Palestine. 

Pelseneer {op. cit., 1906) places Bullinus with Planorbis in the family 
Planorbidae, which he defines thus : " Visceral mass and shell sinistrally 
coiled ; inferior pallial lobe very prominent and transformed into a 
branchia ; tentacles tapering." Planorbis he distinguishes thus : " shell 
discoid ; branchia not folded " : Bullinus thus, " shell ovoid with 
prominent spire ; branchia folded." There is never any difficulty in 
distinguishing the flattened discoid adult shells of Planorbis from those 

^ He says, " Je donne Ic nom de Bulin a un petit coquillagc d' cau douce 

Cetto denomination m'a paru kii convenir, parcequo I' animal pendant sa vie nage presquo 
continuellcment a fleur d'eau, et qu'apres sa mort sa eociuille ilotte comme uno petite 
bulle d'air transparentc." 

- The third species [i.e., the tliird to be described) I . forslcal ii , is quite distinct. 

^ Hedley {op. cit., 1917) revives the name Isidora for certain Australian species 
in supersession of Isidordla, Tate ; but in view of what is said above this cannot stand. 

* Germain, Ball. Mus. Hist. Nut. {Paris) 1912, p. -±50. 



168 Records of tin- Imlion Musctnii. [VoL. XV; 

of BuUinus, but very young shells' are in some species almost indistin- 
guishable. 

Bullinus con tortus (Mich.). 

(Plate XX, figs. 6—11.) 

1874. Ifiidura coiilorlfi, Jickoli, Nov. Act. Leo2)-Carol. Ak. Natur. XXXVII (1), 

p. 20.'J, pi. iii, fig. 4, pi. vii, fig. 14. 
1S74. Physa (Isidora) Bruchii, var. approxinmns, Muusson, Journ. de Conch. XXI, 

p. 42. 
1886. Physa contortu, Clcssin, op. cit., p. 314, pi. i, figs. 9-11. 
18S(). Physa natulensis, id. ibid., p. 8, pi. i, figs. 12-14. 
11)10. Bullinus contortus, Leiper, Journ. B. A. M. C. XXVII, p. 117, fig. 66. 

Jickeli has discussed the synonomy and Leiper proved the sanitary 
importance of this species, which, with two closely allied forms, is the 
intermediate host of the human parasite, Bilharzia haenuilobtmn. The 
shell is extremely variable (see figs. 6 — 11, pi. XX) and it is possible 
that further study will extend the synonomy. 

Specimens were obtained both in the swamp-deposit at Nasariyeh 
and at the edge of the Euphrates at the same place ; also at Samara. 
The shells are small, ratlier thick, and extremely variable as regards 
both the form of the spire and the shape of the body- whorl. There are 
shells in the Indian Museum from Portugal, Corsica, Algeria, Egypt, 
Abyssinia, Natal and Palestine. The species is also known from tropical 
W. Africa, from the upper waters of the Euphrates, and from Syria. 

PELECYPODA. 

Family CYRENIDAE. 

Genus Corbicula, Megerle. 
A considerable number of species of this genus have been described 
from Western Asia, but the synonomy of these is obscure. I have dis- 
tinguished two forms, which seem to be specifically distinct ; others 
I have left unnamed, 

Corbicula fluminalis (Midler). 

r.)i:5. Corbicula Jluminalis, CJcuiiuihi, Bull. JIus. ilisl. Nal. (Paris), p. 472. 

This is perhaps the commonest species of the genus in Western 
Asia. It has a wide range in Asia and Africa. Specimens, both recent 
and subfossil, from Nasariyeh seem to be typical. 

Corbicula cor, Lk. 

l'J14. Corbicula cor, Prcstuu, Journ. As. tSoc. Bciajal (ii. s.) IX, ]). 474. 

Specimens from Nasariyeh seem to be interijiediate between this form 
and C. cmssula, Mousson, which is probably, as Preston points out, a 
variety of it. They differ very little from shells from the Lake of Tiberias 
identified by the latter conchologist as C. crassula. The species, if the 
two be united, is common in Syria and there are specimens from Persia 

' Suu Annaiulale, Rec. hid. Mus. XIV, pi. xi, fig. 1 (i'Jl8; 



1918.] N. Annandale: Shells from Mesojjotamia. 169 

in the collection of the Indian Museum. These are perhaps more like 
the typical cor. Germain {Inc. cil.) treats ('. crassuUi as a variety of 
C fluminalis. 

Family UNIONIDAE. 

The Western Asiatic species of this family are described and figured 
piecemeal by Kobelt in the new edition of Rossmassler's " Iconographie," 
on which I have relied mainly in the following identifications. 
Volumes XVIII and XIX (1912-1913) contain most of the descriptions. 
There seems to be much confusion among the named shells from Meso- 
potamia in the Indian Museum. 

Unio calliopsis (Bourg.), Kobelt, 

1913. Unio calliopfiis, Kobelt in Rossmassler's Iron. Land-n. Sussw. MoU in f ) 
XIX, p. 15, pi. dxix, fig. 2703. 

There are a number of fresh shells in Mr. Hodgart's collection from the 
banks of the Euphrates at Nasariyeh. Most of them are rather smaller 
than Kobelt's figure, but a single worn valve which has the character- 
istic hinge is larger : 62 mm. x 31 mm. The shell is thinner than 
the other Unionid shells in the collection and its epidermis is paler than 
that of other fresh specimens. 

The species was described from Baghdad. 

Unio tigridis, Bourguignat. 

1912. Unio tigridis, Kobelt, oji. cit., XVIII, p. 62, pi. dx, figs. 268.'}, 2684. 

Fresh shells from the same collection as the last species show consider- 
able variation in outline and have the epidermis darker than it is shown 
in Kobelt's figures. 

The species occurs in both the Tigris and the Euphrates. 

Unio dignatus var. semiramidis, Kobelt. 

1913. Unio dignnlus semiramidis, Kobelt, op. cit., XIX, p. 11, pi. dviii. fio-. 2698. 

Dead shells from Samara agree with Kobelt's figures. The variety 
was described from " the Euphrates near Baghdad." 

Unio ciconius (Bourg.), Kobelt. 

1913. Unio ciconius, Kobelt, lorn, cit., p. 11, [)1. dvii, fig. 2607. 

Shells were found, with those of the last species at Samara by Colonel 
Lane. The type-specimens were collected near Mossul. 

Gabillotia euphratica (Bourguignat). 

1886. Margariliina ciiphraticd, Kobelt, op. cit., II, j). 26, pi. xlv, fig. 266. 

A single fresh valve from the Euphrates at Nasariyeh agrees well 
with Kobelt's figure. The species has been found in the Tigris as well 
as the Euphrates. 



170 Records of the Ivdinn Mvseum. [Vol. XV. 

Family CORBULIDAE. 

Genus Corbula, Brugiere. 

The majority of the species of this family are marine, but a few make 
their way up the larger rivers of South America and southern Asia into 
water that is nearly if not quite fresh. Their range, however, never 
extends much beyond the limits of tidal influence. The shells of these 
brackish water forms are small, fragile and colourless, with prominent 
single hinge-teeth. The Asiatic and American species are probably 
convergent, but it may be convenient to group all the characteristic 
estuarine forms under the subgeneric name Erodona, Daudin, Preston^ 
has described several species from the delta of the Ganges. 

Corbula (Erodona) mesopotamica, sp. nov. 
(Plate XX, figs. 12, 13.) 

Shell small, thin, inaequivalve, inaequilateral, about 1 J times as long 
as high, rounded in front, subtruncate and produced behind, moderately 
swollen in the central region ; umbones pointed, small, slightly pro- 
minent, not at all introverted, situated slightly nearer the anterior 
than the posterior extremity ; dorsal margin from umbo to upper end 
of anterior margin slightly convex, not interrupted, from umbo to pos- 
terior margin straight, sloping, hardly at all concave ; lower margin 
convex, evenly curved ; surface of upper part of shell with fine irregular 
transverse concentric striae ; striae coarser near lower margin ; no 
sloping ridges on posterior region. The form of the hinge is shown in 
figs. 12f/, 13a, plate XX . 

Measurements of shells {in millimetres). 

Right valve. Left valve. 

Breadth ... ... 8-5 8 

Height .... ... 5-5 .5-4 

Type specimen. — No. 11404/2M, Zoological Survey of India {Ind. 
Mils.). 

Locality. — Nasariyeh, Mesopotamia ; subfossil in sandy beds of 
lacustrine deposit near the Euphrates. 

The fresh shell was probably translucent, but a thin brownish epi- 
dermis, of which traces possibly persist, may have been present. 
The species comes nearest among described forms to C. i^fefferi, 
Preston, from the Gangetic delta, but the shell is larger, proportionately 
broader and more produced posteriorly ; the umbo is also more acute. 



1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) XIX, ]>. I'l.'") (IHOT). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX. 

Freshwater Shells from Mesopotamia. 

Melanopsis subtingitana, sp. nov. 

Fig. 1. — Type-specimen (? subfossil), probably from Basra, x2. 
„ 2. — Subfossil shell from lacustrine deposit at Nasariyeb, x2. 

Limnaea tenera (Parreyss), Mousson. 

., 3. — A series of subfossil shells from paludine deposit at Nasariyeh, 

x2. 

Limnaea feregriformis, Locard. 
„ 4. — Subfossil shell from lacustrine deposit at Nasariyeh, X 2. 

Limnaea suhpersica, Locard. 
„ 5. — Subfossil shell from the same deposit, x2. 

BulUnus contortus (Michaud). 

,, 6. — A series of shells from Nasariyeh, x2. a — c, shells from 
lacustrine deposit : d, shell from bank of Euphrates. 

Fius. T-IL — Ventral view (further enlarged but not drawn to scale) 
of a series of shells from Nasariyeh and Samara. Figs. 
7, 8, shells from bed of old tank at Samara ; figs. 9, 10 
(66, 6c), from lacustrine deposit at Nasariyeh ; fig. 11 {Qxl), 
from bank of Euphrates at same place. 

CorhuJa [Erodomi) mesnpoUmiica, sp. nov. 

Fig. 12. — Eight valve of type-specimen (subfossil) from lacustrine 
deposit at Nasariyeh, x4. 

,, 12a. — Hinge of same, further enlarged. 

„ 13. — ^Left valve of type-specimen, x4. 

,, 13a. — Hinge of same, further enlarged. 



/ 



EEC. IND. MUS., VOL. XV, 1918. 



Plate XX. 











s 






% % 




a 



6 




12 




• 



d 






Mesopotamian Shells. 

Plioto..en(?mve,l & |,rj„„.,i ■,, ,|„. offl.-e.« of tin- Survey of hulla. Calcutta, 1»18. 



XXI. A NOMINAL LIST OF THE SCIURIDAE OF 

THE ORIENTAL REGION WITH A LIST OF 

SPECIMENS IN THE COLLECTION OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 

By Herbert C. Robinson, C.M.Z.S., 

and 

Cecil Boden Kloss, F.Z.S. 

We owe to the kindness of Dr. N. Annandale the opportunity of 
examining the whole collection of Oriental Sciuridae in the possession 
of the Zoological Survey of India, a collection which is of great interest 
to Mammalogists as containing the material on which the work of 
Blyth and Anderson was based. In the course of our work we have 
reviewed the whole recent literature of the group which, owine laryelv 



ERRATA. 

P. 193, line 7 for " Telbongo Peak " read " Tellizo Peak." 

P. 193, line 9 for " Dunsiris " read " Dunsiri." 

P. 193, line 16 for " Dirjung ''read " Diyung." 

P. 197, line 14 for " Dinapur " read " Dimapur." 

P. 224, line 25 for " Harmuth Dikrang " read " Harmutti, Dikrang R., 

Dafla." 
P. 239, line 20 for '* Naga Hills " read " Dafla Hills." 



„„^ xx^.^*.-. iv^iiv^ rY.^v,i. iij-i. xt. V. rt iv^ui:,uuuii xii 1110 papt*l Uli 

" Oriental Flying Squirrels of the Pteromys group " ^ and like him have 
been compelled for the greater number of the forms to use a binomial 
nomenclature, though there is not the slightest doubt that the rela- 
tionships of by far the larger proportion are merely subspecific and that, 
when a sufficient number of properly authenticated specimens are 
available, we shall be able to sort them" out from the present unwieldy 

1 See also HoUister, N. H., List of the Mammals of the Philippine Islands, exclusive 
of the Cetacea. Philippine Journ. Sci. sec. D., vol. vii, no. 1, pp. 1-64 (1912). 
« Journ, Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomhay, XX, pp. 1012-23 (1911). 



XXI. A NOMINAL LIST OF THE SCIURIDAE OF 

THE ORIENTAL REGION WITH A LIST OF 

SPECIMENS IN THE COLLECTION OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. 

By Herbert C. Robinson, C.M.Z.S., 

and 

Cecil Boden Kloss, F.Z.S. 

We owe to the kindness of Dr. N. Annandale the opportunity of 
examining the whole collection of Oriental Sciuridae in the possession 
of the Zoological Survey of India, a collection which is of great interest 
to Mammalooists as containino- the material on which the work of 
Blyth and Anderson was based. In the course of our work we have 
reviewed the whole recent literature of the group which, owing largely 
to the exertions of the veteran American Field Naturalist Dr. W. L. 
Abbott and the collectors of the Bombay Natural History Society's 
Mammal Survey, is now very extensive. We have, therefore, attempted 
to give a list of all known forms from the Oriental Region proper, ex- 
cluding Celebes and the Philippines, with the species of which we are 
not familiar, though those interested in the latter country will find an 
exhaustive list by Hollister ^ in the " Proceedings of the United 
States National Museum," vol. 46, pp. 299-341 (1913). Certain Chinese 
and Japanese species are included, but the list does not pretend 
to comprise all the forms from these areas, which are mainly Palaearctic. 

The nomenclature used is as far as possible trinomial as best in- 
dicating natural relationships, but in many groups this has not been 
adopted, owing to paucity of material. 

Family SCIURIDAE. 
Subfamily PETAURISTINAE. 

Genus PETAURISTA, Pallas, 1792. 

In cataloguing the specimens of this genus in the Indian Museum 
we have in the main followed Mr. R. C. Wroughton in his paper on 
" Oriental Flying Squirrels of the Pteromys group " ^ and like him have 
been compelled for the greater number of the forms to use a binomial 
nomenclature, though there is not the slightest doubt that the rela- 
tionships of by far the larger proportion are merely subspecific and that, 
when a sufficient number of properly authenticated specimens are 
available, we shall be able to sort them" out from the present unwieldy 

1 See also Hollister, N. H., List of the Mammals of the Philippine Islands, exclusive 
of the Cetacea. Philippine Journ. Sci. sec. D., vol. vii, no. 1, pp. 1-64 (1912). 
? Journ, Nat, Hist. Soc. Bombaij, XX, pp. 1012-23 (1911). 



172 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

mass of names into a comparatively few groups. At present the only 
division that has been sufficiently studied is that represented in the 
Malay Peninsula and the Indo-Malayan Islands, which has been reduced 
to order by Mr. Oldfield Thomas.^ 

Petaurista petaurista. 

a. petaurista petaurista (Pall.). 

Zuol. Misc. p. r)4 (176(5). 

Typical locality. — West Java. 
Type. — Not in existence. 

b. petaurista nigricaudatus, Kobinson and Kloss, 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., VII, p. 224 (1918). 

Typical locality. — Idjen Massif, near Banjoewangi, East Java. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

(J Sodong Jerok, Idjen Massif, near Banjoewangi, East Java, 3,900 ft., 30th 
March 1916. Mus. Coll. [C] ; skin and skull ; Federated Malay States 
Museum [P.]. 

c. petaurista melanotus (Gray). 

Charles worth's Mag. Nat. Hist., I, p. 584 (1837). 

Typical locality. — Nepal (error). Malay Peninsula substituted. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9745-6. [Siam] (Dr. Finlayson) [C] ; skins and skulls ; ex India Museum, 
London. 

It is practically certain that these specimens were not procured in 
Siam proper, where the form that occurs will probably be P. p. cicur, 
R. and K., but from some portion of the Malay Peninsula. Many of 
Finlayson's specimens labelled " Siam " are certainly not from that 
country. 

d. petaurista cicur, Robinson and Kloss. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), XIII, p. 223 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Ban Kok Klap, Bandon, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

(J Ban Kok Ivlap, Bandon, Siamese Malaya, 2nd July, 1913 ; skin and skull, 
H. C. Robinson and E. Seiraund [C.] ; Federated Malay States Museum 
fP. ]. A paratypc of the subspecies. 

e. petaurista rajah, Thos. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), I, p. 251 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Mount Dulit, Baram, Borneo, 2,000 ft. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), I, pp. 249-252 (1908). 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 173 

f. petaurista nitidulus (Tlios.). 

Nov. Zool. VII, p. 592 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Bunguran, North Natuna Islands. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

g. petaurista batuanus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Alisc. Coll. XLV, p. 21 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Tana Bala, Batu Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

h. petaurista terutaus (Lyon). 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XX, p. 17 (1907). 

Typical locality. — Terutau Island, Northern Straits of Malacca. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

i. petaurista mimieus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll. LXI, No. 21, p. 27 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Rupat, East Sumatra. 
Tijpe. — In United States National Museum, 

j. petaurista marchio (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), I, p. 251 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Si Kambi, Sumatra. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Petaurista yunnanensis (Anderson). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), XVI, p. 282 (1875) ; id., Anat. Zool. Bes., p. 282, pi. 
xxii. 

Typical locality. — Momein, Yunnan. 
Type. — In Indian Museum. 

9486. Momein, Yunnan, June 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skin only. 
9725-7. Momein, Yunnan, June 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skin only. 

No. 9486 is marked as type of species and of figure, but I think it 
probable that No. 9725 is at any rate the specimen figured. 

Petaurista taylori, Thos. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIII, p. 205 (1914) ; Kioss, Journ. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Siam, II, pp. 33-35 (1916). 

9721. V Mergui (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skin and skull. 
Tenasserim (Rev. J. Barbe) [C.] ; skin and skull. 

The second specimen which is listed as " A: " under Pteromys alborufus 
by Sclater (Cat Mamm. Ind. Mus. II, p. 35 ; 1891) is so faded as to be 
difficult to recognize but is apparently this form. It is, however, much 
less speckled than the specimen from Mergui. It is specimen No. 292-C 
of Blyth's catalogue. 

b2 



174 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Petaurista annamensis, Thos. 

a. annamensis annamensis, Thos. 

Loc. cit. sKjjra., p. 204. 

Typical locality. — Bali, Nha-trang, South Annam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

b. annamensis barroni, Kloss. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, p. 33 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Hup Bon, Sriracha, South-east Siam. 
Type. — In private possession. 

7949. $ Hue Tarn Din, Nampat, Monthon Pitsanoluk, Central Siam ; 26th 
March 1902 (H. B. G. Garrett) [C] ; skin only, tail missing. 

Petaurista candidulus, Wrought on. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XX, p. 1014 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Kindat, Upper Chindwin, Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9717. Assam (F. Day) ; skin and skull. 

9718. Naga Hills, Assam (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9719. Samagooting, Assam (J. Butler) [C] ; skin and skuU. 
801.5. (J Zoological Gardens, Calcutta ; skin and skull. 
9722. [Arakan] (Zoological Gardens, Calcutta) ; skin only. 

9723 inim. Skin and skull. 

9724 imni. (A. S. B. 292D.). Cherrapunji, Assam (W. Laidlay) ; skin and skull. 

9720. Pegu (Revd. J. Barbe) [C] ; skin and skull. 

The first specimen from Assam is unusually dark and the last from 
Pegu, which is a very old and much deteriorated specimen dating from 
18''1:4, differs from the rest in being browner and less rufous above with 
little or no darkening of any part of the tuft of hairs behind the ears. 
It possibly represents a transitional form to P. cineraceus (Blyth), but 
on the existing material is not describable. 

Petaurista lylei, Bonh. 

a. lylei lylei, Bonh. 

P. Z. S., 1900, p. 192. 

Typical locality. — Doi Sritepe, Chiengmai, N. Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

b. lylei venningi, Thos. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIII, p. 26 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Kalaw, Southern Shan States, Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Petaurista alborufus (Milne-Edw.). 

Cornpt. Rend., LXX, p. 342 (1870). 

Typical locality. — Moupin, Eastern Tibet. 
Type. -In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 175 

Petaurista cineraceus (Blyth). 

Journ. Asint. Soc. Bengal, XXI, p. 865 (1847). 

Typical locality. — Arakan. 

Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9485,— . Arakan (.Sir A. Phayre) [C] ; skins and skull. Nos. 292A, B ; A. S. B. 
The types of tlie species. 

9715. juv. Arakan (Sir A. Phayre) [C] ; skin and skull. One of the types of the 

species. 

Blyth described this form on two adults and a small young specimen 
from Arakan, which are listed above, and another adult in worn pelage 
and unusually rufescent with darker tail than ordinary, from Tenasserim, 
which is the second specimen of Petaurista taylon [cf., supra). Specimen 
292B. (A. S. B.), one of the types of the species, is that listed as spra. " j " 
of Pteromys alborufus (Sclater, loc. cit.). In this stuffed specimen the 
tail is whitish. 

9714. (J Arakan (Museum Collector) ; skin and skull. 

3805, 3808. Menagerie specimens (W. Rutledge) [P.]; skins and skulls. 

9716. ? juv. (W. Rutledge) [P.] ; skull only. 
9764. (?) skin and skull. 

The last specimen was identified in the previous catalogue as 
Eupetaums cinereus, Thomas, to which species it has some slight 
superficial resemblance. 

Petaurista magnificus (Hodgs.). 

Journ. Askd. Soc. Bengal, V, p. 231 (1836). 

Typical locality. — Nepal. 

Type. — Co-types in British Museum and in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9728. Nepal (Hodgson) [C] ; India Museum, London [P.]; skin and skuU. 

9729-30. Sikkim (L. Mandelli) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

9733. Zoological Gardens, Calcutta ; skin and skull. 

7551. Menagerie specimen ; skin and skull. 

7268. Menagerie specimen (W. Rutledge) ; skin and skull. 

9732. DarjiUng (W. Earle) [C] ; skull. 

In this small series all gradations from a form with a clearly defined 
median stripe on the back to one with no stripe at all are present. In 
view of Hodgson's specimen above which has the upper surface un- 
grizzled I have used his name for the species rather than the later one 
P. nohilis, Gray, which has been adopted by Wroughton {Journ. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Bombay, XX, p. 1020; 1911) who has transferred P. magni- 
ficus as a synonym to the larger grizzled form to which he has applied 
the name P. alhiventer, Gray. 



Petaurista albiventer, Gray. 

111. Ind. Zool, II, pi. xviii (1834). 

Typical locality. — " Nepal." 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9731 (A. S. B.). Cherrapunji, Assam (F. Skipwith) [C.J ; skin only. 



176 Records of the Indian Mvseum. [Vol. XV, 

Petaurista fulvinus, Wroughton. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XX, p. 1021 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Simla, Western Himalayas. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Petaurista inornatus (Is. Geoffr.). 

In.Jacqueniont's Voyage, IV, Mamm., p. 62, Atlas, ii, pi. iv (1844). 

Typical locality. — North India. 
Type. — In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

9734. Ladakh (J. Biddulph) [C] ; skin and skull. 

973.5. Sonamarg, Kashmir, August 1878 (F. Stoliczka) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9736. Kashmir (Dr. J. E. T. Aitchison) [C] ; skin and skull. 

7408. Mussoorie (Miss K. Southon) [CJ ; skin and skull. 

9737-8. Sikkim (L. Mandelli) [0] ; skins and skulls. 

7632. (J juv. Zoological Gardens, Calcutta ; skin and skull. 

Petaurista birrelli, Wroughton. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XX, p. 1019 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Murree, Hazara, Punjab. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Petaurista melanopterus, Milne-Edw. 

Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool, VIII, p. 375 (1867). 

Typical locality. — Tcheli, China. 
Type.— In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

Petaurista canieeps (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, p. 262 (1842). 

Typical locality. — Sikkim. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9740 (A. S. B.). Landour, North-Westem Himalayas (1854) (L. E. Stewart) 

[C] ; skin and skull. 
9741-3. Sikkim (L. Mandelli) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

9744. Gumphar, near Darjiling, 2,000 ft. (J. Knight) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9739 imm. ? Sikkim ; skin only. 

Petaurista pectoralis (Swinh.). 

p. Z. S., 1870, p. 654. 

Typical locality. — Takow, South- West Formosa. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Petaurista leucogenys (Temm.). 

Man. Mamm. Tab. Method., I. p. 27 (1827). 

Typical locality. — Japan. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae, 177 

Petaurista elegans (Temm.). 

Mueller and Schlegel, Verhandl. Nat. Gesch., 1839-44, pp. 107, 112, pi. xvi, figs. 1-3. 

Typical locality. — Island south of Nusa Kumbang, South Java. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 



Petaurista philippensis. 

a. philippensis philippensis (Elhot). 

Madras Journ. Lit. and Sc, p. 217 (1839). 

Typical locality. — Near Madras. 
Type. — ? In British Museum. 

9708-9. Travancore ; skins and skulls. 

9805 imm. Hulekal, Sirsi, Kanara, 1,.500 ft., AprQ 1912; G. C. Shortridge, Bom- 
bay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey [P.] ; skin and skull. 

b. philippensis oral (Tick.). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Calcutta, II, p. 401, pi. xi (1842). 

Typical locality. — Singhbhum district, Bengal. 
Type. — ?. 

9711, 9712 (A. S. B.). No locality; skulls only. 
Juv. Midnapur 

The allocation of these skulls, without any provenance, to this form 
is of course quite hypothetical. They are considerably smaller than those 
of P. p. philippensis from Travancore. A third skull also marked 
as oral is that of a species of Ratufa, probably R. gigantea. 

9043. Zoological Gardens, Calcutta ; skin and skull. 

This is only a one-third grown specimen and is marked as coming 
from Assam ; this however is probably only the locality of the species, 
Hy. alhoniger, with which it has been identified. 

c. philippensis Cinderella, Wroughton. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombaij, XX, p. 1018 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Surat District. Bombay. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

7311. Rourkel district, Nagpur (B. D. Whiffen) [P.] ; skin only. 

d. philippensis lanka, Wroughton. 

Op. cit. supra, p. 1017 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Ceylon. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9710. Ceylon (Colombo Museum) [P] ; skin and skull. 



l'?8 Records of the Indion Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Petaurista punctatus. 

a. punctatus punctatus (Clray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XVIIl, p. 211 (1846). 

Typical locality. — Malacca. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

Also collected by Fea on the Karin Hills. 

b. punctatus marica, Thos. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), IX, p. 627 (1912). 

Typical locality. — Yunnan (probably near Mong-tze). 
Type. — -In British Museum. 

c. punctatus sybilla, Thos. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 424 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Chin Hills (near Kindat, Upper Burma). 
Type.— In British Museum. 

Sp. incert. 

9057. Yung Ping, Helen, Yunnan, 22nd February 1909 (J. Coggin Brown) [C] ; 
skin and skull. 

This specimen, which is far too young to describe, probably represents 
a new form allied to the annamensis-alborufus section, if indeed it does 
not belong to the latter form, of which we have seen no authentic 
specimens. 

Genus EUPETAURUS, Thomas, 1888. 
Eupetaurus cineraceus, Thos. 

Journ. Asial. Soc. Bengal, LVII, p. 258, jils. xxii, xxiii (1888). 

Typical locality. — Gilgit Valley. 

Type. — In British Museum. Co-type in Indian Museum. 

9492. Gilgit Valley, 5,000 ft. (G. M. Giles) [C] ; skin and skull. Co-type of the 
species. 

Subfamily PTEROMIINAE. 

Genus lOMYS, Thomas, 1908. 
lomys horsfieldi. 
a. horsfieldi horsfieldi (Waterhouse). 

P. Z. S., 1837, p. 87. 

Typical locality. — Java (or Sumatra) 
Type. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. RoiUNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 179 

b. horsfieldi davisoni (Thos.). 

P. Z. S., 1886, p. 74, pi. vi. 

Typical locality. — Malacca. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. horsfieldi thomsoni (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), V, p. 275. 

Typical locality. — Baram, Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d. horsfieldi lepidus, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu-s., XL, p. 78 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Kendawanoan River, South-west Borneo, 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Genus BELOMYS, Thomas, 1908. 
Belomys pearsoni (Gray). 

Anil. May. Nat. Hid., X, p. 203 (1842). 

Typical locality. — Darjiling, Sikkim. 
Type. — In British Museum ?. 

9786. Darjiling (W. Theobald) ; skull only. 

Belomys villosus (Blythj. 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVI, p. 866 (1847). 

Typical locality. — Upper Assam (Singpho country). 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9488. North Assam (F. Bonynge), co-type of Sc. villosus ; skin only. 

9489. North Assam (F. Bonynge), cotype of Sc. villosus ; skin and skull. 
? 9770. Naga Hills (H. H. Godwin-Austen) ; skin and skull. 

? 9771. Cachar (Mus. Coll.); skin and skull. 

? 9769. Assam (A. W. Chennell) ; skin and skull. 

Belomys trichotis, Thos. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, p. 7 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Machi, Manipur. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

? 9758. Momein (J. Anderson) ; skin and skull. 
? 9772. Momein (J. Anderson) ; skull only. 

Belomys kaleensis (Swinh.). 

P. Z. S., 1862, p. 359. 

Typical locality. — North Formosa. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Of the above examples of the genus Belomys the skull of pearsoni 
(9786, Darjiling) agrees with the characters given by Thomas (Ann. 



180 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol, XV, 

Mag. (8), I, p. 7) in having the palate breadth between the large pre- 
molars {pm. — ) only equal to the length of 2JW*+| tn^- 

The Assam example (9489, cotype of villosus : 9488 having no skull) 
has rather smaller teeth' and possesses the characters given for tricliotis, 
Thomas, of Manipur, in having the palate breadth equal to the length 
of "pm^^m^, as does that of the Cachar specimen (9771) which resembles 
it generally ; but the second Assam skull (9769), which also has about 
the same ratio of palate breadth to tooth row, is otherwise very different 
from all the rest in being larger with a much heavier, blunter rostrum ; 
considerably greater breadth in general and larger, markedly broader 
teeth ; it is however the oldest of the lot. 

The Naga Hill skull (9770) more nearly resembles 'pearsoni. 

The only Momein skull (9758) agrees with the majority in form, 
except that the bullae seem smaller, but it has the proportion of palate 
breadth to teeth as in pearsoni ; it has however teeth nearly as broad as 
No. 9769 of Assam, with the longest tooth row of all and prn^ very large 
indeed — larger than in pearsoni. 

The skins are in poor condition but do not seem separable on colour ; 
either, however, too many forms have been recognised, or not enough. 



Genus PTEROMYSCUS, Thomas, 1908. 
Pteromyscus pulverulentus. 

a. pulverulentus pulverulentus (Gunther). 

p. Z. S., 1873, p. 413, pi. xxxviii. 

Typical locality. — Penang. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

b. pulverulentus borneanus, Thos. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, p. 17 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Baram, Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Genus PETAURILLUS, Thomas, 1908. 
Petaurillus hosei (Thos). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), V, p. 275 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Baram, Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Petaurillus emlliae, Thos. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, p. 8 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Baram, Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 181 

Petaurillus kinlochi, Robinson and Kloss. 

Journ. Fed. Malay States 31 us., IV, p. 171 ( 1911 ). 

Typical locality. ~Be\8ino^oT, Malay Peninsula. 
lype.—ln Federated Malay States Museum. 

Genus HYLOPETES, Thomas, 1908. 
Hylopetes everetti (Thos). 

Nov. Zool., II, p. 27 (1895). 

Typical locality. —Bnngumn Island, South China Sea 
lype.~-ln British Museum. 

Hylopetes nigripes (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XII, p. 30 (1893). 

Typical /oca/%.— Palawan Island. 
Type.~In British Museum ? 

Hylopetes aurantiacus (Wagn.). 

Munch. Gel. Anz., XII, jx 438 (1841). 

Typical locality. -Island of Banka, East of Sumatra 
i ^^e.— Presumably in Munich Museum. 

Hylopetes belone (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), II, p. 305 (IflOS). 

ry?.zm/ /om%.--Terutau Island, Northern Straits of Malacca 
Type.~In British Museum. ^i<t^cci. 

Hylopetes amoenus (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. XXXI, p. 264 (1907). 

Tmncal locality. -Kundm Island, Rhio Archipelago, near Singapore 
Type.-In United States National Museum. n^apore. 

Hylopetes platyurus (Jent.). 

Notes Leyden Museum, XII, pp. 145, 147, pi. vii, figs. 7, 8 (1890). 

Typical localify.—Beli, North-east Sumatra. 
Type.~ln Leyden Museum. 

Hylopetes phayrei. 
a. phayrei phayrei (Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XXVIII, p. 278 (1859). 

Typical locality. —Rangoon, Burma. 
Type.— In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9490. Rangoon Burma ; .skin and skuU. Cotvpe. 

?232- JeTYonlls^-crL'^F '"^ ""'Tu ^^^^"^^^ ^'''y^'^ '' '^^ ^^^'y- 
n^^:;" 5,?" ioma.s. U. L. Fraser ; skull only. "^ 

9/67. Skin only. •' 

9768. Skin and skuU. 



182 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

b. phayrei probus (Thomas). 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XXIII, p. 27 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Mount Popa, Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. phayrei laotum (Thomas). 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XXIII, p. 28 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Laos Mountains. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Hylopetes spadiceus (Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVI, jj. 867 (1847). 

Typical locality. — Arakan. 

Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9765. Arakan. Sir A. Phayre, type of the species ; skin and skull. 

9766. Moulmein, Tenasserim. J. Davis ; skin and skull. 

Hylopetes alboniger (Hodgson). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, V, p. 231 (1836). 

Typical locality. — Nepal. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

8428. Nepal. R. A. Hodgert ; skin and skull imni. 

9755. Darjiling. Mrs. Gates ; skin and skull iram. 

9756. Garo Hills. H. L. Haughton ; skin and skull imm. 
9763. Shillong. T. la Touche ; skin only. 

9757. Cachar Hills ; skin and skull. 

9762. Naga Hills. A. W. Chennell ; skin only. 

9759. Momein. J. Anderson ; skin only. 

9760. W. Rutledge ; skin and skull. 

9761. Skin and skull. 

The validity and generic position of the following three races are 
doubtful. 

? sagitta (Linn.). 

Syst. Nat., 1, p. 88 (1766). 

Typical locality. — Western (?) Java. 
Type. — Disappeared. 

? lepidus (Horsf.). 

? [Synonym of sa^i/Ita, of Thos. and Wr., p. Z. <S'., 1909, p. 387] j Zool. Res. in 
Java, 1824 (description and plate). 

Typical locality. — Java. 
Type. — Disappeared. 

? harrisoni (Stone). 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, XLII, p. 462 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Borneo. 

Type. — In Philadelphia Academy of Sciences. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNsoN & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. l83 

Genus iEROMYS, Robinson and Kloss, 1915. 
^rorays tephromelas (Gunther). 

P. Z. S., 1873, p. 413, pi. xxxvii. 

Typical locality. — Penang. 
Type.— In British Museum. 

^romys phaeomelas (Gunther). 

P. Z. S., 1873, p. 413. 

Typical locality. — Borneo. 
Type.— In British Museum. 

? ^romys thomasi (Hose). 

Ann. Mag. Not. Hist., (7), V, p. 214 (1900). 

Typical locality.— Barani, Sarawak. 
Type.— In British Museum. 

Genus PETINOMYS, Thomas, 1908. 
Petinomys lugens (Thos.). 

Ann. Mus. Stor. Nat. Genova, XIV, p. 666 (1894). 

Typical locality.— Ishnd of Sipora, West Sumatra. 
Type.— In Genoa Museum. 

Petinomys maerens (Miller). 

Smithso7iian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 26 (1903). 

Typical locality.— ^oTth. Pagi Island, West of Sumatra. 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

Petinomys genibarbis. 

a. genibarbis genibarbis (Horsf.). 

Zool. Res. in Java, 1824 (description and plate). 

Typical locality .—Eastern Java. 
Type.— In British Museum. 

b. genibarbis malaccanus (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), II, p. 304 (1918). 

Typical locality.— M.a\acQa. 
Type.— In British Museum. 

c. genibarbis borneonensis (Thos.). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 304. 

Typical locality.— Bakong River, East Sarawak, Borneo. 
Type.— In British Museum, 



184 Records of the Indian Museum. [^oi^- XV, 

Petinomys vordermanni (Jent.). 

Notes Leyden Museum, 1890, p. 150, pi. vii, figs. 13 and 14. 

Typical locality. — Island of Billiton, East Sumatra. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum, 

Petinomys setosus (Temm. and Schlegel). 

Faun. Japan., 1847, Mamm., p. 49. 

Typical locality. — Padang, Sumatra. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

Petinomys hageni (Jent.). 

Notes Leyden Museum, XI, p. 26 (1888). 

Typical locality. — Deli, Sumatra. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

Petinomys phipsoni, Thomas. 

Jotirn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 422 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Tenasserim town, Tenasserim. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Petinomys £uscocapiIlus (Jerdon in Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVI, p. 867 (1847). 

Typical locality. — South India (Nilgiri Hills ?). 
Type. — Apparently not in existence ? 



Genus EOGLAUCOMYS, Howell, 1915. 
Eoglaueomys fimbriatus (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., I, p. 584 (1837). 

Typical locality. — Western Himalayas. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

8990. Kashmir, 10,000 ft., J. Scully [C] ; skin and skull. 

9747. Chitral, 5,000 ft., G. M. Giles [C] ; skin and skull juv. 

9748. Nultar Valley, Gilgit (A. E. Ward) [C] ; skin only. 

9749. Nultar Valley, Gilgit ; skin and skull. 

9750. Chaprot, Gilgit ; skin and skull. 

9751. Gilgit, 6,000 ft. ; skin and skull. 

9752. Ladak. J. Biddulph [C] ; skin and skull. 

9753. Kashmir. J. Anderson [C] ; skin only. 

9754. Simla, L. C. Stewart [C.] ; skin only. 

Not to be regarded as an Oriental species. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 185 

Subfamily SCIURINAE. 

Genus RATUFA, Gray, 1867. 

Ratufa macroura. 

a. macroura macroura (Pennant). 

Ind. Zool., I, pi. i (1769), 

Typical locality. — Highlands of Ceylon. 
Type. — Not in existence. 

9472 (A. S. B.). Ceylon (Dr. Kelaart) ; skin only. 

This specimen, though marked as the type of Sc. teanantii {sic.) 
Layard (Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc, Bengal, XVIII, p. 600 ; 1849) cannot 
I think so be regarded. The present specimen is that referred to by 
Blyth two years later [op. cit., XX, p. 165 (1851)]. 

9283 (A. S. B.). Ceylon (Dr. Kelaart); skull only. 

b. macroura melanochroa, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, pp. 36, 90 (1915). 

Typical locality. — Southern Ceylon (Kottawa). 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9278. Ceylon (Colombo Museum) [P.] ; skin and skull. 

9280. Ceylon (Zoological Gardens) ; skin only. 

c. macroura albipes (Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XXVIII, p. 287 (1859). 
Typical locality. — Unkno\\ai. 

Type. — Once in the Medical College, Calcutta ; probably now not 
in existence. 

9281. Nilgiris, Southern India (R. Rolls) 1845 ; skin. 

9279. (J Shevaroy Hills, Madras (W. Daly) ; skin and skull. 

Thomas and Wroughton have apparently overlooked the existence 
of this form, which, however, is well characterised by Blyth. In view 
of the fact that the continental and insular races of squirrels are almost 
invariably distinct I have allowed the succeeding form to stand. 

d. macroura dandolena, Thos. and Wrought. 

Loc. cit. sujira, pp. 36, 90. 

Typical locality. — Lowland Ceylon, Wellawaya, Uva. 
Type. — In British Museum, 

9779, 9785. Ceylon (E. L. Lavard) ; skins and skulls. 

9282. Ceylon (Dr. R. Templeton) ; skin and skull. 

The latter number is evidently the specimen described and figured 
by Blyth as Sciurus macrourus {J. A. S. B., XVI, p. 869, pi. xxxvi, 
fig. 2; 1847). 

It is, as stated in the description, a decidedly smaller animal. 
Greatest length of present skull 67 as against 70 mm. in 9283. In colour 



186 Records of the India)) Musenw. [Vol. XV, 

it is rather dark, with grizzled sides and a black line from behind the 
ear down the cheeks, 

Ratufa indica. 

a. indica indica (Erxleben). 

Syst. Regn. An., p. 420 (1777). 

Typical locality. — Bombay Presidency. 
Type. — Not in existence. 

Deccan (Sykes). India Mus., London [P], skia and skull. 

Probably a paratype of Sciurus elphinstonii, Sykes (P. Z. S., 1831, p. 103). 

9787. cJ Samasgi," Kanara border, South-West Dharwar, 2,000 ft., March 1912 ; 

(G. C. Shortridge) [C], Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey [P.] ; 

skin and skull. 
9788 <^ Devikop, South Mahratta country. 2,000 ft., November 1911 : (G. C. 

Shortridge) rC.]. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey [P.] ; skin 

and skull. 

b. indica superans, Ryley. 

Jourri. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXII, p. 436 (1813).] 

Typical locality. — Wotekolli, South Coorg. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9972. Wotekolli, 2,000 ft.. South Coorg, January 1913 (G. C. Shortridge) [C.]. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey [P.]. Paratype of the sub- 
species. 

c. indica bengalensis (Blanf.). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XI, p. 303, pi. B, fig. 2 (1897). 

Typical locality. — Not precisely specified. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9605, 9606. 2,^ Menagerie specimens (W. Rutledge) ; skins. 
9612 (A. S. B.). Barrackpore Menagerie; skin and skull. 
9602-3. (J. Anderson) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9604. (Lord Northbrook) [P.] ; skin. 
9587 (A. S. B.). No history; skull only. 

d. indica centralis, Ryley. 

Loc. cit. suiwa, p. 436. 

Typical locality. — Hosengabad, Central Provinces. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9789-90. c? ? Bori, Hosengabad, 1800 ft.. Central Provinces ; February 1912; 

(C. M. Crump) [C] ; Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey [P.] ; 

skins and skulls. 
Skins almost destroyed by pests. Topotypes. 
9597. Malabar (Alston). 
Like that of many specimens derived from this source this locality is probably 

incorrect. 
9600-1 (A. S. B.). 9 No history ; skins and skulls. 
9784. No history ; skin and skull. 

9607-9. 2(^ $ Menagerie specimens (Rutledge) ; skins. 
9611, 9613 (A. S. B.). No history ; skin and two skulls. 
7954. S No history ; skin and skull. 
9593. Cuttack, Orissa (Ball) [C] ; skm and skull. 
9614-5. o ? Tenmalai, South Arcot (W. P. Howell) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

The material is somewhat indifferent and the allotment of skulls 
unaccompanied by skins to this subspecies is not a matter of absolute 



1918.] H. C. EomNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 187 

certainty. The specimen from Orissa has distinctly black shoulders 
and is not therefore true R. i. centralis. Those from Arcot have the 
red colour paler, the black rump and shoulders more sharply differ- 
entiated from the red portions of the pelage. 

e. indica maxima (Schreb.). 

Sancfth., IV, p. 784, pi. ccxxii, B (1784). 

Typical locality. — Malabar. 
Type. — In Paris Museum. 

9594, 9598. Travancore ; skins. 

9616-9617. Travancore (Travancore Museum) [P.] ; skins and skulls. 

9595. South Malabar. Revd. J. Baker [C] ; .skin and skull. 

9595 (A. S. B. 307A). South Malabar. 

9596 (A. S. B. 307B). South Malabar ; skin and skull. 

7102. $ Calathorpulay, Travancore (Mus. Coll.) ; skin and skull. 
9610. South Malabar ; skull only. 

e. indica dealbata (Blanf.). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XI, p. 299 pi. A, fig. 1 (1897). 

Typical locality. — Surat Dangs. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



Ratufa bicolor. 
a. bicolor bicolor (Sparrm.). 

Gotheb. Wet. Sevensk. Handl., I, p. 70 (1778). 

Typical locality. — Anjer, West Java. 
Type. — Not in existence. 

7785 iinm. No locality ; skin and skull. 

cJ Tjibodas, Gedeh, 5,000 ft.. West Java, 2nd March 1916 ; skin and skull 
(H. C. Robinson) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.]. 

Miller {Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, XXIV, p. 28; 1911) has de- 
scribed from the above locality a mountain race of this species as Batuja 
bicolor major, but the measurements of a large series do not confirm his 
conclusions and we have not therefore recognised his subspecies. 



b. bicolor baliensis, Thos. 

Ann. Maij. Nat Hist., (8), XI, p. 506 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Tjetoekambawang, Bali. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

? Sodong Jerok, Idjen Massif, 3,900 ft., near Banjocwangi, East Java, 9th 
April 1916 ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

Though originally described from Bali, this is merely the eastern 
Java form of the preceding and is the one on which Horsfield's descrip- 
tions have been founded. 



188 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

c. bicolor palliata (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Set. Philadelphia, LIV, p. 147 (1902). 

Typical locality. — Indragiri River. East Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

cj Simgei Kumbang, Korinchi, West Sumatra, 4,500 ft., 11th April 1914. H. C. 
Robinson and C. B. Kloss [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; 
skin and skull. 

d. bicolor laenata, Miller. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu.s., XXVI, p. 4.59 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Tuangku, Banjak Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

e. bicolor batuana, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mvs., LIT, p. 445 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Tana Bala, Batu Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Ratufa notabilis. 

a. notabilis notabilis. Miller. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1902, p. 150. 

Typical locality. — Lingga Island, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

b. notabilis insignis. Miller. 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 4 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Sugi, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

c. notabilis bulana, Lyon. 

Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., XXXVI, p. 482 (1909). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Bulan, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

d. notabilis carimonensis, Miller. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Ahis., XXXI, p. 257 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Great Karimon Island, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(J Tanjong Sebatak, Great Karimon Island, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago ; 25th 
August 1908 ; E. Seimund [C] ; skin and skull. Federated Malay 
States Museum [P.]. 



1918.] H. C. BoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. J 89 

e. notabilis condurensis. Miller. 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 258. 

Typical localiti/. — Pulaii Kundiir, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

f. notabilis confinis. Miller. 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 2.58. 

Typical locality. — Sinkep Island, Rhio-Linega Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g. notabilis conspicua. Miller. 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 5 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Bintang, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 



Ratufa epliippium. 

a. ephippium ephippium (S. Muell.). 

Tijd. Nat. Gesch. Physiol, V, p. 147 (1838-9). 

Typical locality. — South-East Borneo (low country). 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

9549 (A. S. B.). Borneo (Batavian Society), 1844, imperfect skull. 

It is of course impossible to allocate this specimen to any particular 
subspecies with any certainty, but from its data it is probably this 
race. 

b. ephippium cothurnata, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, p. 93 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Mount Palung, near Sukadana, West Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

9544. Borneo (Alston) ; skin and skull. 

c. ephippium baramensis, Bonh. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), V, p. 496 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Baram district, Sarawak, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d. ephippium sandakanensis, Bonh. 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 497. 

Typical locality. — Sandakan, British North Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9550. Borneo (Alston) ; skin and skull. 

c2 



190 Records of the Indian Museum. [Yol, XV, 

e. ephippium griseicollis, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, p. 94 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Panebangan Island, West Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

f. ephippium vittata, Lyon. 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 94. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Laut, South-East Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g. ephippium vittatula, Lyon. 

Loc. cit. sujira, p. 95. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Sebuku, South-East Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

h. ephippium bunguranensis (Thos. and Hart.). 

Nov. ZooL, I, p. 058 (1894). 

Typical locality. — Bunguran Island, Natunas. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

i. ephippium sirhassenensis, Bonh. 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 498. 

Typical locality. — Sirhassen Island, Natunas. 
'fype. — In British Museum. 

j. ephippium nanogigas (Thos. and Hart.). 

Nov. Zool, II, p. 491 (1895). 

Typical locality — Pulau Laut, North Natunas. 
Type — -In British Museum, 

k. ephippium poha, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mris., XXXI, p. 585 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Billiton Island. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

1. ephippium baneana, Lyon. 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 587. 

Typical locality. — Banka Island. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 191 

Ratufa affinis. 

a. affinis affinis (Raffles). 

Trans. Linn. Soc, XIII, p. 258 (1822). 

Typical locality. — Singapore. 
Type. — Doubtfully in existence. 

9545 $ Singapore (Rutledge) ; skull only. 

The identification of this skull subspecifically is doubtful, but the 
specimen agrees with authentic examples from the type locality. 

b. affinis hypoleuca (Horsf.). 

Zool. Ben. in Jcua (1824). 

Typical locality. — Bencoolen, West Sumatra. 
Type. — Doubtfully in existence. 

9543. Java (Horsfiekl) [C] <.v India Museum, London ; skin and skull. 

The localities attached to specimens from the old India Museum 
were notoriously incorrect, and I therefore am practically certain that 
the present one is incorrect, insomuch as no squirrel of this type is 
known from Java, neither Shortridge nor myself nor any recent collector 
having met with it.^ I have therefore assigned it to the present race 
with the descriptions of which by Lyon and others it very fairly well 
agrees. 

c. affinis catemana, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. yat. 31 us., XXXII, p. 443 (1907). 

Typical locality. — Kateman river, South-East Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

d. affinis johorensis, Robinson and Kloss. 

Journ. Fed. Malay States 3his., IV, p. 244 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Padang Tuan, Segamat, North-west Johore. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

e. affinis aurei venter (Is. Geoftr.). 

Mag. Zool. CL, I, pi. v (1832). 

Typical locality. — Java (in error) substitute " Malacca." 
Type.— In Mus. Nat. Hist., Paris. 

9100, 9101. Nyalas Malacca, October, 1910 ; Federated Malay States Museum 

[P.] ; skins and skulls. 
9542. Malacca (Alston) ; skin and skull. 
9546-7, 9780 (A. S. B.). Malay Peninsula (E. Linstedt and R. W. G. Frith) [C] 

1846 ; imperfect skulls. 
9548. [Java] (Mrs. TurnbuU) 1857 ; skull. 

^ There is, however, one in the Leyden Museum labelled " Java Teysmann, .1878," 
vide Jentink, Notes Leyden Mus., V, p. 112 (1883) under Sciurus ulbiceps. No. 29. It 
is not imirossibly a much bleached example of R, bicolor. ,,-, 



192 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

The locality for this last skull must be erroneous. I have placed it 
under this form, but its subspecific identification is, of course, in the 
absence of the skin, rather uncertain. 

f. afiinis arusinus, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. 3Ius., XXXII, p. 442 (1907). 

Typical locality. — Aru Bay, North-East Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g. affinis pyrsonota, Miller. 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, II, p. 75 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Trang, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

7071. Taiping, Perak, Malay Peninsula, 1889 (Mus. Coll.) ; skin and skull. 

h. affinis Jemoralis, Miller, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, p. 447 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Tuangku, Banjak Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

i. affinis nigrescens, Miller. 

Op. cit. supra, p. 448. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Mansalar, near Tapanuli Bay, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

j. affinis balae, Miller. 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. (1903). 

Typical locality. — Tana Bala, Batu Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

k. affinis masae, Miller. 

op. cit. supra, p. 7. 

Typical locality. — Tana Masa, Batu Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

1. affinis piniensis (Miller). 

Op. cit. supr I, p. 7. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Pinie, Batu Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

Ratufa gigantea. 
a. gigantea gigantea (McClell.). 

p. Z. 8., 1839, p. 150. 

Typical locality. — Assam. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 1^3 

Type. — Formerly in the India Museum, London, but a[)parently 
no longer in existence. 

9166. ? Upper Renging, Abor Hills, 2,1.50 ft. (Capt. de Courcy) [C] ; skin and 

skull. 
9570-1. Naga Hills, Assam (A. W. Chennell) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9564. Garo Hills, Assam (Dr. J.' Anderson) [0.], 1879 ; skin and skull. 
9572. Telbongo Peak, Naga Hills, Assam (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C.J ; skin and 

skull. 
9573-6. Dunsiris Valley, Assam, August 1873 (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C] ; 

skin and skull. 
9578-9, 9585. Sibsagar, Assam, July 1868 (S. E. Peel) [C] ; two skins and skulls. 
9584 Juv. Goalpara, Assam, August 1868 (A. L. Haughton) [C.J ; skin and skull. 
9565-9, 9586. Samagooting, Assam (J. Butler) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9575. Assam, 1859 (Capt. E. F. Smith) [C] ; skin. 
9303-5. Mangaldai, Assam (Pv. Frith) [C.]; skins. 
9577. Dirjung River, North Cachar, May 1879 (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C] ; 

skin and skull. 
9580. Momein, Yunnan border, 6,000 ft., May 1868 (J. Anderson) [C] ; skin. 
9591 Juv. Momein, Yunnan border, 6,000 ft.. May 1868 (J. Anderson ) [C] ; skin. 
9583. Menagerie specimen (VV. Rutledge) [P.]; skin and skull. 
9582. [Borneo] (Alston) ; skin and skidl. 

The locality of the last specimen is certainly erroneous ; no squirrel 
of this type is known to occur in Borneo. The tufted ears shoAv that it 
is not one of the Malayan forms. The Momein skins though rather 
dark are quite typical ; they too have tufted ears. 

b. gigantea lutrina, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 226 (1916). 

Typical locality. — West Bank of Upper Chindwin, Upper Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. gigantea macruroides (Hodgs.). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVIII, p. 775 (1849). 

Typical locality. — Bengal. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

7297. ? Sukna, Darjiling Terai (W. Partridge) [C] ; skin and sknU. 
9563. ? Darjiling Terai, 1869 (J. Anderson) [C.] ; skin and skull. 
9.560-1. (J $ Darjiling, 6,000 ft. (W. G. Masson) [C] ; skins and tkuUs. 

9588. (J Darjiling. 8,000 ft. (W. G. Masson) [C.]; skin and skull. 

9589. $ Darjiling, 8,000 ft. (W. G. Darling) [C.]; skin and skiiH. 

9590. $ Rungbee, Darjiling (J. Munro) [C.]; skin and skull. 
9562. c? Sikkim (H. J. Elwes) [E.]; skin and skull. 
9574. c? Sikkim (W. T. Blanford) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9551-9. Sikkim (L, Mandelli) [C.]; skin and eight skulls. 

d. gigantea fellii, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 226 (1916), 

Typical locality. — Yin, Lower Chindwin, Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9541. Pegu (W. T. Blanford) [C] ; skin and skull. 

We are a little doubtful about this identification, but the small size 
of the skull, under 70 mm. in greatest length, induces us to place the 



194 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

specimen, which is in faded pelage, nnder this race which appears 
to form a connecting link between gigantea and vielanopepla. 

e. gigantea hainana, Allen. 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat Hist., XXII, p. 472 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Cheteriang, Hainan. 

Type. — In American Mus. of Natural History, New York. 

Except for the fact that the single specimen obtained is stated to 
have tufted ears we should be inclined to place this race near the 
island forms of B. melanopepla, viz., R. m. fretensis and R. m. penang- 
ensis. 

Ratufa phaeopepla. 

a. phaeopepla phaeopepla, Miller. 

S»iit}i.sonian Mwc. Coll., LXL p. 25 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Sungei Balik, South Tenasserim. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

3534-5. Amherst, Tenasserim (Dr. J. Armstrons) |C.] ; skins and skulls. 
9529. Ye, Tenasserim, 1886 (G. M. Giles) [C.J; skin and skull. 

9539 (A. S. B.). Tenasserim ; skin and skull. 

9540 Juv. (A. S. B.). Tenasserim (Major Berdmore) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9592 (A. S. E.). Tenasserim, 1845 (F. Jenkins) [C] ; skin. 

9530-1. S ? Pilai, Elphinstone Island, Mergui, March, 1882 (Dr. J. Anderson) 

[C.] ; skins and slvulls. 
9533. ^ Mergui, December, 1881 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C.J ; skin and skull. 
9532. Thaing, King Island, Mergui, December, 1881 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C.J ; s' in 

and skiUl. 

Nos. 9530-1 and to a less extent No. 9532 are not typical ; the black 
is more intense on the upper surface and the rufous ferruginous colour 
below much richer, while the size is also rather large. They are 
probably referable to R. t)t. calaenopepla, Miller, or an undescribed 
form, but the material is not adequate for description or determina- 
tion within very narrow limits. 

b. phaeopepla marana, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 227 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Mount Popa. Dry zone of Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9581. Upper Burma (Dr. Williams) [C.J; skin and skuU. 

c. phaeopepla leucogenys, Kloss, 

Froc. Zool. Soc. London, 1916, p. 43. 

Typical locality. — Lem Ngop, South-east Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d. phaeopepla sinus, Kloss. . 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 44. 

Typical locality. — Koh Kut Island, South-east Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridne. 195- 

If R. 'phaeo'pepla is to be regarded as other than a subspecies of R. 
melanoyepla, which is a very moot point, these two races are better 
classed as subspecies of it and not of R. melanopepla as has been done 
in the first instance. 

Ratufa melanopepla. 

a. melanopepla melanopepla. Miller. 

Pror. Acad. Set. Wd-shinglon, II, p. 71 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Telibon Island, Trang, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

b. melanopepla peninsulae, Miller. 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., LXI, No. 21, p. 25 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Lay Song Hong, Trang, Siamese Malaya. 
Typ)e. — In United States National Museum. 

9538. o Malay Peninsula (Rutledge) ; skull only. 

$ Ginting Bidai, Selangor, Malay Peninsula, 7th September, 1914 ; Federated 
Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

c. melanopepla decolorata, Robinson and Kloss. 

Ann. Mug. Nat. Hist., (8), XIII, p. 227 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Koh Samui Island, Bandon Bight, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

$ West side, Koh Samui, Bandon Bight, Siamese Malaya, 7th May, 1913 (H.C. 
Eobinson) [(A J ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

d. melanopepla celaenopepla, Miller. 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., LXI, p. 26 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

e. melanopepla fretensis, Thos. and Wrought. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), IV, ji. 535 (1909). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Langkawi. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

o Sungei Udang, Pulau Terutau, Straits of Malacca, 9th March, 1909 ; Fede- 
rated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

f. melanopepla penangensis, Robinson and Kloss. 

Jouni. Fed. Malay States Museum, IV, p. 245 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Telok Bahang, Penang Island. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

9536-7. No locality ; skins and skulls. 
These specimens agree perfectly with the types. 

Telok Bahang, Penang Island, 11th March, 1911; one of the typical series. 
Federated Malay States Museum [P.] i skin and skull. 



196 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

g. melanopepla tiomanensis, Miller. 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, II, p. 216 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Piilau Tioman, South China Sea. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(5 Juara Bay, Pulau Tioman, East Coast Malay Peninsula, 22nd June 191H (H. C. 
Robinson). Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

h. melanopepla anambae, Miller. 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, II, p. 215 (1900). 

Typical locali/y.~Tu\ai\ Jimaja, Anamba Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

i. melanopepla angusticeps, Miller. 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, III, p. 130 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Lingung, Natuna Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

sp. incert. sedis. 

A mounted specimen of Ratufa from Ramree Island, Aracan, collected 
by Capt. Abbott in 1844 (Blyth Cat. Sciurus hicolor No. 309 D., p. 99 : 
Sclat. Cat. p. 9, Sciurus hicolor typicus spm. p.) is now, though in good 
external condition, bleached to a uniform liver brown above, hairs with 
no annulations, forehead slightly paler, grizzled, hands and feet white, 
tail above as body, paler at tip, the whole of the vertebral area beneath 
and the basal portion of the hairs white. Ears not tufted. 

This specimen almost certainly represents a quite distinct un- 
described form possibly allied to R, g. lutrina, but in view of the fact 
that it has been exposed to light for 75 years we do not care to describe it. 

Genus CALLOSCIURUS, G. R. Gray, 1867. 

Attn. Mag. Nat. Hist.>{3), XX, p. 277 (1867). 
Cf. Thomas, op. til (8)^ XV, p. 385 (1915). 

Callosciurus erythraeus. 
a. erythraeus erythraeus (Pallas). 

OliHs, p. 377 (1778). 

Typical locality. — (?) 
Type.— (?) 

10196-10199, 10201, 10203, 1026. Above Tura, Garo Hills, Assam (S W. 

Kemp) [C] ; skins? and skulls. 
9235-6. Giiro Hills, Assam (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

9237. Garo Hills, Assam (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C.] ; skin and skull. 

9238. Dorengo, Garo Hills (Museum Collector) ; skin and skull. 
9239-40. (t) (A. W. Chcmiell) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

9276. Shillong, Assam (T. La Touclie) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9274-75. Upper Burma ; skulls only. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kt.oss : Sciuridae. 197 

b. erythraeus bhutanensis (Bonhote). 

Ann. Mag. Nal. Hist., (7), VII p. 161 (1901). 

Typical local if y.—JMuita,n. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

The Indian Museum does not possess a specimen of this race which 
is of somewhat doubtful authenticity. 

c. erythraeus nagarum, Thos. 

Joimi. Aat. Hist 8oc, Bombay, XXIV, p. 228 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Sadiya, Assam. 
Ty2)e. — In British Museum. 

9241-4. East Naga Hills, August, 1875 (H. H. Godwin-Austen) ; skins and skull. 
9249-52. 3 c^ ? Naga Hills, December, 1875 (A. W. Chennell) ; skins and skulls. 
9248. Saraagooting, Assam (Capt. Butler) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9245. 3 Dinapur, Naga Hills, April, 1875 (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C] ; skin 

and skull. 
9246-7. r? 9 (?) (Godwin-Austen) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9150. S Between Kalek and Misshing, Abor Hills, March, 1912 (S. W. Kemp) 

[C] ; skins and skulls. 
9157. 3 Between Kalek and Misshing, Abor Hills, March, 1912 (S. W. Kemp) 

[C] ; (grading towards C e. intermedius) ; skin and skull. 
9153. ? Pasighat, Abor Hills, 400 ft., March, 1912 (S. W. Kemp) [C] ; skin and 

skull. 

d. erythraeus erythrogaster (Blyth), 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XI, p. 970 (1842). 

Typical locality. — Manipur. 
Type. — In Indian Museum. 

9262 (A. S. B. 320a.). Manipur (Col. C. S. Guthrie) [C] ; type of the species; 
skin and skull. Also type of Sciurus rufiventer, Blyth {nee Desm.. 1822), 
Jonrn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVI, p. 871 (1847). 

9253. " Assam " (A. W. ChenneU) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9254. 1^ Sylhot (Zoological Gardens) ; skin. 

9256. Chittagong (.J. M. Lister) [C.] ; skin and skull. 

e. erythraeus punctatatissimus (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (3), XX, p. 283 (1867). 

Typical locality.' — Cachar. 
Type.—ln British Museum. 

9255. S Sylhet (Zoological Gardens) ; skin and skull. 

C. e. punctatatissimus dii^&T^ from the preceding form by the exceed- 
ingly fine, almost obsolete, speckling of the upper surface and the darker 
chestnut of the belly. If this specimen and No. 9254 were really both 
got in exactly the same district it is evident that the present forni is 
only a phase of C. 6. erythrogaster, but having been a menagerie specimen 
the exact locality is open to much doubt. 

f. erythraeus intermedius (Anderson). 

Zool. and Anat. Res., p. 241 (1879)^. 



198 Records of the Indian MuseuTn. [Vol. XV, 

Typical locality. — Assam. 
Type. — In Indian Museum. 

9260-1.1 '2$ Dikrang Valley, Assam (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C] ; skins and 
skulls. 

9263. <J Toruputu, Duffla Hills, Assam (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C] ; skin and 

skull. 

9264. $ (?) (H 11. Godwin-Austen) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9265. 9272. " Assam " (Dr. Day) ; skins and skulls. 

9158. Sii-po Valley, Abor Hills (Capt. M. de Courcy) ; skin. 

9156. $ Kobo, Abor Hills, 400 ft., December, 1911 (iS. W. Kemp) [O.J ; skin and 

skull. 
9159-62. J 3 4? Kobo, Abor Hills, 400 ft., December 1911 and March 1912 ; skins 

and skull. 

Callosciurus erythraeus crotalius, Thos. and Wrought. {Journ. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 227 ; 1916), types from Hkamti, Upper 
Chindwin, appears to be synonymous with this form, which, owing to 
tlie pernicious custom of describing species casually in the text, has 
largely escaped notice though the description is quite recognisable. 

g. erythraeus gordoni (Anderson). 

p. Z. S., 1871, p. 140. 

Typical locality. — Bhamo, Upper Burma. 
Types. — In Indian Museum. 

9268. '^ Bhamo, Upper Burma, February, 1868 ; Types ; skin and skull. 

9257. Bhamo, Upper Burma, September, 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) ; Types ; skin 

and skull. 
9267. Bhamo, Upper Burma, February, 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skin and 

skuU. 

9266. $ Bhamo, Upper Burma, February, 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skin and 

skuU. 
9258-9. (^ ? Bhamo, Upper Burma, March, 1875 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skins 
and skulls. 

9270. cj Bhamo, Upper Burma, March, 1875 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C.J ; skins and 

skulls. 
9273, 77. 2^ Second defile of Irrawaddy, Upper Burma, March, 1875 (Dr. J. 
Anderson) [C.J ; skins and one skull. 

9269. (J Sagaing, IJpper Burma, October, 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) [O.J ; skin only. 

9271. $ Sawaddy, Upper Burma, January, 1875 (Dr. J. Anderson) [O.J; skin and 

skuU. 

This squirrel varies in the intensity of the median grizzled streak 
on the belly, which is very much fainter in some specimens than in others. 
Two specimens shot in September have the under-surface pale yellow- 
ish instead of rusty chestnut. 

h. erythraeus kinneari, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 229 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Tathon, Kindat, Southern part of Upper Chind- 
win. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

1 No particular specimen having been designated as the type by Dr. Anderson, I 
have fixed on No. 9260 as having a precise locality and sex attached. The form may be 
recognised by the absence of a grizzled median Une on the belly and by having no black 
tip to the tail which has the terminal hairs broadly banded with yellowish- buff. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 199 

i. erythraeus hyperythrus (Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XXIV, p. 474 (1855). 

Typical locality. — Tenasserim (? Moulmein). 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9478. Tenasserim, 1852 (Major Berdmore) [C] ; Type of the subspecies ; skin 
and skull. 

We are quite convinced that this subspecies, which has generally been 
referred to a " non-black-backed form of C. atridorsalis," comes in 
with C. erythraeus and castaneiventris and has nothing to do with C. 
atridorsalis . It is with difficulty separated from C. e. rubeculus (Miller) 
and C. e. youngi (Robinson and Kloss) principally by its deeper coloured 
belly, smaller size and absence of any trace of median ventral streak. 

j. erythraeus rubeculus (Miller). 

Typical locality. — Kao Sai Dao, Trang, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(J Kao Nawng, Bandon, Siamese Malaya, 3,500 ft., June, 1913 (H.C. Robinson 
and E. Siemund) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin 
and skull. 

k. erythraeus youngi (Robinson and Kloss). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), XIII, p. 225 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Gunong Tahan, 5 — 6,000 ft., Northern Pahang. 
Type. — In the Federated Malay States Museum. 

cj $ Wray's Camp, Gunong Tahan. 3,000ft., Northern Pahang, June and July, 
ion (H. C. Robinson and C. B. Kloss) [C] ; Federated Malay States 
Museum [P.] ; skins and skulls. 

1. erythraeus castaneoventris (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, p. 263 (1842). 

Typical locality. — " China " substitute Hainan. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

In 1910 Mr. R. C. Wroughton and one of us made the following note 
on this form. " Sc. castaneoventris " was described by Gray from a 
specimen collected by Mr. J. R. Reeves and labelled " China." Amongst 
the many varying allied forms from China in the Natural History Museum 
only one, viz., that from Hainan, at all resembles the type of castaneo- 
ventris ; at first the strong resemblance was not very evident, but on 
washing the tail of the type specimen the characteristic long white tips 
of the hairs at the end became evident and there can be doubt that the 
form described by Allen as Sc. erythraeus insularis from Hainan is this 
form sensu strictu." 

m. erythraeus griseopeetus (Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVI, p. 873 (1847). 

Typical locality. — Unknown. 

Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9369. (Raja MuUick) [P.] ; Type of the subspecies ; skin only. 



200 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

I do not know on what authority W. L. Sclater {Cat. Mamm. Ind. 
Mus., II, p. 17 : 1891) has given the locality China as the locality of this 
specimen which was unknown to its clescriber. The species, however, 
undoubtedly has the facies of the Chinese forms, and I cannot agree 
with Mr. Bonhote that it should be considered identical with C. e. gor- 
doni (Anderson). 

9370. Amoy, China, 1860 (R. Swinhoe) [C] ; skin and skull. 

7370-1. Foochow, China, April, 1892 (R. Rickett) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

These last three specimens are all rather richer coloured specimens 
than the type, probably to be accounted for by the age of the former, 
and have the median ventral stripe less in evidence, though this has been 
possibly obscured in skinning. 

n. erythraeus ningpoensis (Bonh.). 

Ann. May. Nat. Hi.^t.. (7), Vll, p. 163 (1901). 

Typical locality.— NmgY)o, China. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

0. erythraeus styani (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), XIII, p. 363 (1894). 

Typical locality. — Between Shanghai and Hangchow. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

p. erythraeus bonhotei (Rob. and Wrought.). 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., IV, p. 234 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Chen Chien San, Szechuen, China. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

q. erythraeus miehianus (Rob. and Wrought.). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 235. 

Typical locality. — Mee-Chee, Yunnan, South China. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9058. c? Haikom, near Tengyueh, Yunnan, May, 1909 (J. Coggin Brown) [C] ; 
skin and skull. 

r. erythraeus haemobaphes, Allen. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washinyton, XXV, p. 177 (1912). 

Typical locality. — Chih-ping, South-East Yunnan. 

Type. — In Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, U. S. A. 

s. erythraeus thaiwanensis (Bonh.). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 166. 

Typical locality. — South Formosa (Baksa, October). 
Type. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 201 

t. erythraeus centralis (Bonh.). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. l(i(j. 

Typical locality. — Lak-ku-li, Central Formosa. 
Type. — In British Musenm. 

u. erythraeus roberti (Bonh.). 

Loc. cit. s^ipra, p. 166. 

Typical locality. — North- West Formosa. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

I have inserted all three of these races from Formosa, but in view 
of the variability in the amount of chestnut on the underparts in C. e. 
ruheculus, I have strono doubts as to the validity of all, two being pro- 
bably merely seasonal forms. 

V. erythraeus erumpi, Wroughton. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomhay, XXIV, p. 42.5 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Sedonchen, Sikkim, 6500 ft. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

This species also is almost certain to possess a red-bellied summer 
form. (The type series w^ere collected in November.) 

Calloseiurus sladeni. 

a. sladeni sladeni (Anderson). 

P. Z. 8., 1871, p. 139. 

Typical locality. — ^Thigyain, Upper Burma. 
Type. — ^In Indian Museum. 

9371. (J Thigyain, Upper Burma, 18th January, 1868 (J. Andersoa) [C] ; 

Type of the species : skin and skull. 
9374, 9783. ^ Thigyain, Upper Burma, 18th January, 1868 (J. Anderson) 

[C] ; Type of the species : skin and 2 skulls. 
9372-3 (A. S. B.). Upper Burma, 1864 (Dr. C. Williams) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

The specimens collected by Dr. Williams, unfortunately without 
precise locality, show an approach to the succeeding form in having the 
ferruginous of the forehead less extensive. They are probably not 
strictly conspecific with Anderson's types but cannot be more precisely 
identified. 

b. sladeni midas (Thos.). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIII, p. 198 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Myitkyina, Upper Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. sladeni rubex (Thos.). 

Loc. cit. swpra, p. 198. 

Typical locality. — Lonkin, Myitkina District, Upper Burma. 
Typ)e. — In British Museum. 



202 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

d. sladeni bartoni (Thos.). 

hoc. cit. -sirprii, p. 198. 

Typical localify.—Vyn River, 50 miles east of Homalin, Upper 
Chindwin. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

In a later paper (op. cit., XXIV, p. 234 ; 1916) Mr. Thomas expresses 
some doubts as to the distinctness of this form from true sladeni. 

6. sladeni shortridgei, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 232, pi. fig. 1 (1916). 

Typical locality.— Rksunti. Upper Chindwin. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

f. sladeni Jryanus, Thos. and Wrought. 

Op. cit. sujmi, p. 232, pi. fig. 2. 

Typical locality. — Minsin, Upper Chindwin. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

g. sladeni careyi, Thos. and Wrought. 

Op. cit. supra, p. 233, pi. fig. 3. 

Typical locality. — Tamanthe, Upper Chindwin. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

h. sladeni haringtoni (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), XVI, p. 314 (190o). 

Typical locality. — Moungkan, Upper Chindwin. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9970. No history ; .skin only. 

This specimen is to be referred to that form described as Sc. haring- 
toni solutus, Thomas {Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIII, p. 199 ; 
1914) which the author has later, on a revision of the whole grouj) 
with large material, withdrawn (Thos. and Wroughton, op. cit. supra, p. 
233, pi. fig. 4). 

i. sladeni millardi, Thos. and Wrought. 

Op. cit. supra, p. 233, pi. fig. 5. 

Typical locality.— Vynmio^hyin, 40 miles north of Kindat, Upper 
Chindwin. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

Callosciurus ferrugineus. 
a. ferrugineus ferrugineus (F. Cuv.). 

Hist. Nat. Mamm. Ill, pi. 238 (1829). 

Typical locality. — Pegu, 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 203 

Type. —In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

9464. Rangoon (H. Fielden) [C] ; skin and skull. 

946.5-6 (A. S. B.). Burma, 1865 (Dr. C. Williams) [C.]; skins and skulls. 

9469, 9470. ? Syriam, Pegu, 1876 (.J. Armstrong) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

9468 (A. S. B.)." No history; skin and skull. 

9467. No history (E. R. Alston) [P.] ; skin and skull. 

b. ferrugineus cinnamomeus (Temm.). 

Esq. Zool. Gvine, p. 250 (1853). 

Typical locality. — Cambodia . 
Type.- — In Leyden Museum. 

c. ferrugineus frandseni (Kloss). 

P. Z. S., 1916, p. 46. 

Typical locality. — Koh Chang Island, South-east Siam. 
Type.- — In British Museum. 



Callosciurus finlaysoni. 

a. finlaysoni finlaysoni (Hoisf.). 

Zool. Re,9. Java, unpaged (1824). 

Typical locality. — Koh Si Chang Islands. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

Sciurus finlayso7ii portiis, Kloss {Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, I, p. 158 ; 
1915) from the above locaHty is in the opinion of the senior author of 
this catalogue a pure synonym of this form (c/. Thomas, Journ. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Siam, II, p. 343 ; 1917). 

b. finlaysoni folletti (Kloss). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, I, p. 159 (1915). 

Typical locality. — Koh Phai, Inner Gulf of Siam. 
Type. — In private possession. 

c. finlaysoni trotteri (Kloss). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, p. 178 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Koh Lan Island, Inner Gulf of Siam. 
Type. — In private possession. 

d. finlaysoni tachardi (Robinson). 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., VII, p. 35 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Krabin. Central Siam. 
Type. — In private possession, 



204 Records of tlie Indian Museurii. IXoh. XV, 

Callosciurus bocourti. • 

a. bocourti bocourii (A. Milne-Edw.). 

Rev. Zool, p. 193 (1867). 

Typical locality. — Ayuthia, Siam. 
Type.~ln Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

b. bocourti harmandi (A. Milne-Edw.). 

Bull. Soc. Philomath., (6), XII, p. 8 (1876). 

Typical locality. — Island Phu Quoc, off Chantabun. 
Type.— In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

c. bocourti sinistrals (Wroughton). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), II, p. 399 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Picliit, Menam River, Central Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d. bocourti dextralis (Wroughton). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 400. 

Typical locality. — Lower Me-Ping Valley, Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

e. bocourti lylei (Wroughton). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 401 

Typical locality. — Chiengmai, North Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

f. bocourti gruti (Gyldenstolpe). 

Kungl. SvensJca Vet. Akad. Hundl, LVII, No. 2, p. 37 (1917). 

Typical locality. — Bang Hue Pong, North Siam. 
Type. — In Natural History Museum, Stockholm. 

g. bocourti floweri (Bonh.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 455. 

Typical locality. — Klong Morn (near Bangkok), Siam. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

We are unable to place this species with certainty but in all pro- 
bability it is a form of hocourti and possibly in view of its locality quite 
identical with the typical race. Recent collectors do not appear to have 
met with it. 

Callosciurus germaini. 

a. germaini germaini (A. Milne-Edw.). 

Rev. Zool, p. 193 (1867). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Condor, off Cambodian coast. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 205 

Type. — In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

9471. Pulau Condor (A. Germame) [C] ; Museum of Natural History, Paris [E.] ; 
A paratype of the species ; skin and skull. 

b. germaini albivexilli (Kloss), 

P. Z. S., 1916, p. 47. 

Typical locality. — Koh Kiit Island, South-east Siam. 
Typ)e. — In British Museum. 

c. germaini nox (Wroughton). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), 11, p. .397 (1918). 

Typical locality. — Sea coast, south-east of Bangkok, Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Collosciurus atrodorsalis. 

a. atrodorsalis atrodorsalis (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, p. 26.3 (1842). 

Typical locality. — Bhutan (in error) substitute Moulmein. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9330-4. South of Irrawaddy (T. H. Hood and Mus. Coll.) ; five skins only. 

9335-9. Moulmein. March, *1873 (T. H. Hood); five skins only. 

9360. Moulmein, March, 1873 (T. H. Hood) ; skm and skull. 

9340-53. 3 ? Moulmein, October 1872 (T. H. Hood) ; 14 skins arirf ^ skulls. 

9354. Moidmein, October 1873 (T. H. Hood) ; skin only. 

9355. (J Moulmein, October 1872 (T. H. Hood) ; skin and skull. 

9361-67. 2^ 49 Moulmein. August 1872 (T. H. Hood) [C] ; 7 skins, 6 skulls, 

9368. Skull only. 

9357-8. Muleyit Eange, Tenasserim ; skins and skulls. 

9356. Muleyit Eange, Tenasserim, 1870 (,J. Anderson) [C] ; skin and skull. 
7592. Schwaygvvyin, January 1898 (A. R. S. Anderson) ; skin and skull. 

The large majority of these specimens are very typical, about half 
with the black back patch highly developed and nearly all with the 
vibrissae mainly yellowish- white. Those from Muleyit are much 
colder greyish-yellow above, the tail much less richly coloured and the 
vibrissae mainly black. Possibly they represent a seasonal phase or 
more probably another subspecies which for the present I prefer not 
to name. Nos. 9330, 9331 marked vaguely south of the Irrawaddy 
have the back patch obsolescent and the tail mainly black, though the 
others from the same locality are quite similar to those from Moulmein. 

b. atrodorsalis thai (Kloss). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 11, p. 285 (1917). 

Typical locality. — Raheng, Central Siam. 

Type. — In private possession. 

The last four specimens recorded above are almost certainly to be 
referred to this form. Pending direct comparison we have however 
left them under the typical race as some doubt exists as to the seasonal 
phases of these squirrels. 

D 2 



206 Records of flic Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

c. atrodorsalis shanicus (Ryley). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXII, p. 603 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Gokteik, North Shan States, Upper Burma. 
Type. — In British Mnseum. 

8431. Mong Ha, North Shan States, April 1907 (J. Coggin Brown) [C] ; skin and 
skull (fragments). 

d. atrodorsalis zimmeensis (Rob. and Wrought.). 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., VII, p. 91 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Chiengmai, North Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

7595-6. Kolado, Salwin Hill tracts, Siamese border, January 1898 (Dr. A. R. S. 
Anderson) [C.l ; skins and skulls. 

At present I am incHned to regard these specimens as in the " eclipse " 
pelage of the above race though at one time both Mr. Wroughton and 
myself took the view that similar specimens from near the same locality 
represented yet another form. 

Above a fairly uniform grizzle of black and buffy olivaceous more 
yellowish on the hands and feet. Sides of the face and back of the ears 
rufescent, vibrissae black. Tail regularly barred black and buffy ochra- 
ceous with an indication of a black tip. Beneath a drabby buff more 
rufescent in the axillary and inguinal region not very sharply defined 
from the sides. 

e. atrodorsalis tachin (Kloss). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, p. 178 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Tachin, Central Siam. 
Type. — In private possession. 

f. atrodorsalis pranis (Kloss). 

Loc. cit. supra, 11, p. 178 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Koh Lak, South-west Siam. 
Type. — In private possession. 

Callosciurus caniceps. 
a. caniceps caniceps (Gray). 

Typical locality. — Bhutan (erroneous) substitute North Tenasserim. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9308-15. S 2 o Moulmein District, Lower Burma (T. H. Hood) [C.]; 9 skins 
and 2 skulls. 

9474-7 (A. S. B.). Amherst, Tenasserim, 1846 (Revd. J. Barbe and E. O'Ryley) 
fP.l ; Types ot Sciurus rhrt/so)iotus (Blyth) (Journ. Asiat. Sor. Bengal, 
XVI, p! 873, pi. xxxvii, fig. 1 ; 1847) "; skins and skulls. 

9329. No history ; skin and skull. 

7672. Probably Salwin Hill Tracts (A. R. S. Anderson) [C] ; skin only. 

Comparison of these specimens and of others from Central and West- 
ern Siam in the possession of one of us have convinced us that the 



1918.] H. C. EoBiKSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 207 

form described as Scitirus epomophorus fluminalis by Wroughton 
and Robinson {Journ. Fed. Malay States Miis., IV, p. 233 ; 1911) from 
the Meping Rapids, North Siam, is only this race in its dull pelage. 

b. caniceps davisoni (Bonh.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 273 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Bankachon, South Teuasserim. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9316. Mergui, Lower Burma, 1854 (Major Berdmore) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9322-5. <S , 2 ^ Mergui, October and December 1881, and March 1882 (Dr. J. 

Anderson) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

c. caniceps inexpectatus (Kloss). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, p. 178 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Koh Lak, South-west Siam. 
Type. — In private possession. 

d. caniceps suUivanus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 17 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Sullivan Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

9317. Lampei, Sullivan Island or King Island, Mergui (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; 

skin and skull. 
9319. $ Padang Tebu, Sullivan Island or King Island, Mergui, February 1882 
(Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9318. 9320-1, 3. $ Pilai, Elphinstone Island, Mergui, March 1882 (Dr. J. Ander- 

son) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

The series listed under this race probably includes t^yo forms but 
more precise identification is not feasible in view of the condition of the 
specimens. 

e. caniceps domelicus (Miller). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 18. 

Typical locality. — Doniel Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

f. caniceps bentincanus (Miller). 

Loc. cit. siijjra, p. 19. 

Typical locality. — Bentinck Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g. caniceps matthaeus (Miller). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 19. 

Typical locality. — St. Matthew Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 



208 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

li. caniceps lucas (Miller). 

Loc. cii. s>ij)ra, p. 20. 

Typical locality. — St. Luke Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

i. caniceps casensis (Miller). 

Op. cit. supra, p. 20. 

Typical locality. — Chance Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — ^In United States National Museum. 

j. caniceps altinsularis (Miller). 

Op. cit. supra, p. 21. 

Typical locality. — High Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

k. caniceps epomophorus (Bonh.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 272 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Salanga or Junk Ceylon Island, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

1. caniceps milleri (Robinson and Wroughton). 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., IV, p. 233 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Trang, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

(J Lamra, Trang, Siamese Malaya, January 1910 (Mus. Coll.) ; skin and skuU. 
$ Krongmon, Trang, Siamese Malaya, February 1910 (Mus. Coll.); Federated 
Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

m. caniceps samuiensis (Rob. and Kloss). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), XIII, p. 233 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Koh Samui Bandon, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

(J $ Koh Samui Island, Bandon Bight, Siamese Malaya, May 1913 (H. C. 
Robinson and E. Siemund) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; 
skins and skulls. 

n. caniceps fallax (Robinson and Kloss). 

Tom. cit. supra, p. 225. 

Typical locality. — Koh Pennan, Bandon, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

$ Koh Pennan Island, Bandon Bight, Siamese Malaya, May 1913 (H. C. 
Robinson and E. Siemund) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] 
ekins and skulls. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 209 

o. caniceps lancavensis (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 16 (1903). 

Tyfical locality. — Pulau Langkawi, Straits of Malacca. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(J $ Pulau Langkawi, Straits of Malacca, February — March 1908 (Mus. Coll.) ; 
Fedei-ated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skins and skulls. 

p. caniceps adangensis (Miller). 

Loc. cit. sujira, p. 17. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Adang, Butang Archipelago, Straits of 
Malacca. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

$ Pulau Rawi, Butang Islands, Straits of Malacca, April 1911 (H. C. Robinson 

and E. Seimund) [C] ; skin and skull. 
(J Pulau Adang, Butang Archipelago, Straits of Malacca ; Federated Malay 

States Museum [P.] : skin and skull. 

q. caniceps terutavensis (Thos. and Wrought,), 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), IV, p. 535 (1909). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Terutau, Straits of Malacca. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

(J $ Pulau Terutau, Straits of Malacca, December 1907 and February 1909 
(H. C. Robinson) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skins 
and skulls. 



r. caniceps concolor (Blyth). 

Joiirn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XXIV, p. 263 (1855). 

Typical locality. — Malacca. 

Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9328. Malacca, 1847 (G. Moxon) [C] ; type of the sub-species ; skin and skull. 

9326-7. Perak (Mus. Coll.) ; skins and skulls. 

9108-9. 2 $ Bukit Jong, Trengganu, September 1910 (C. B. Kloss) [C] ; skins 

and skulls. 
9110, 9111. ,S ^ Bentong, Pahang (Mus. Coll.) ; skins and skulls. 
9112. $ Nyalas, Malacca, October 1910 (Mus. Coll.); Topotype ; skin and 

skull. 
cj Klang Gates, Selangor, January 1908 (Mus. Coll.) ; skin and skull. 
$ Telom, Perak-Pahang border, 3,500 ft., December 1908 (H. C. Robinson and 

C. B. Kloss) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.J; skin and 

skull. 



Callosciurus griseimanus. 
a. griseimanus griseimanus (A. Milne-Edw.). 

Rev. Zool., 1867, p. 195. 

Typical locality. — Cambodia. 
Xype,—ln Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 



210 Records of the Indian Museum. [YoL. X\ , 

b. griseimanus leucopus (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nal. Hist., (3), XX, p. 282 (1867). 

Typiccd locaUtij. — Cochin China. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9305-7. Coshia Chiua (.Julien) [0.] ; Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris [E.] ; skins and one 
skull. 

c. griseimanus vassali (Bonh.). 

p. Z. S., 1907, p. 9. 

Typical locality. — Ninh Hoa, Annam. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

The relationship and pelage of this species, which is rare in collec- 
tions, are by no means properly understood. It is by no means im- 
probable that all three forms have one pelage in which the undersurface 
is more or less chestnut and another in which it is buff. The forms as 
named from such widely separated localities may nevertheless be ex- 
pected to prove separable. 

Callosciurus prevosti. 

In view of the fact that there is an almost complete gradation from 
foi'nis with a broad white stripe from nose to hip to others with no stripe 
at all, we have considered it more correct to regard all the races here 
listed as merely subspecies, though there is apparently a far greater 
difference between those occupying the extremes of the series, as for 
example Sc. prevosti j^revosti and Sc. p. 2)luto. than there is between 
many others generally regarded as perfectly distinct species. More- 
over, the arrangement has the practical convenience of bringing to the 
notice of the student at a glance what races have been described, where- 
as the use of binomial nomenclature such as is adopted by Miller and 
Lyon causes an unnecessary amount of labour in searching the literature. 
So far as is known the large majority of forms in this group undergo 
no seasonal change of pelage nor does the pelage of the young differ 
materially from that of the adult, though Anderson in his monograph 
of the genus states the contrary. As with Ratufa, however, the pelage 
bleaches considerably generally on the back and tail, thereby occasion- 
ally obscuring differential characters. As a rule, however, there is little 
difficulty in determining the race to which a specimen should be as- 
signed, the characters within the local limits being fairly constant, 
though in the case of the Bornean forms there appears to be some 
intergradation. 

a. prevosti prevosti (Desm.). 

McDiuii., p. 335 (1822). 

Typical locality. — Settlement of Malacca, Malay Peninsula. 
Type.— In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

^ Nyalas, Malacca, 24th October, 1910 ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; 

skin and skull. 
3653. Malacca (E. R. Alston) [P.] ; skin. 
9658. Malacca (A. Charlton) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9659 (A. S. B.). Malacca (Revd. R. W. G. Frith) [('.] ; skin and skull. 
2948 (A, S. B.). 9 Menagerie specimen (W. Rutledgc) [P.] ; skin and skull. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 211 

b. prevosti wrayi (Kloss). 

Jount. Fed. Malay States Mus., IV, p. 148 (1910). 

Typical locality. — Kuala Lipis, Pahang. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

(J Temengoh, Upper Perak, Malay Peninsula, 12th July, 1909 (H. C P.obin«on) 
[C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

c. prevosti humei (Bonhote). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 170 (1901). 

Typical locality.— Khng, Selangor, Malay Peninsula. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

? Tanjong Malim, Perak -Selangor boundary, Malay Peninsula 19th April 
1908 ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

d. prevosti rafflesii (Vig. and Horsf.). 

Zool. Joitrn., IV, p. 115, pi. iv (1828). 

Typical locality. — Sumatra (probably Beneoolen). 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9657. Menagerie specimen (Zoological Garden, Calcutta) ; skin and fskulll 
7529, 7880 [7487]. 2 ? Menagerie specimens (W. Rutledge) [P.] ; skins and skulls. 

e. prevosti melanops (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Xaf. Sci. PhiladeliMa, 1902, p. 151. 

Typical fecrt%.— Indragiri River, South-east Sumatra. 
Tyj)e.~In United States National Museum. 

lilt' Itll' 'i<i^''''^Serie specimens (W Rutledge) [P.]; skins and skulls. 
7b85, 7922.^^-^ Menagerie specnnens (Zoological Garden, Calcutta) ; skins and 

r490-l, [7395] 7489 2 o% 2 ? Menagerie specimens (W. Rutledge) [P.] • skins 
and skulls. o / l j . ^ ^o 

f. prevosti penialius (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, p. 456 (1903). 

Typical locality. —Pulsiu Penjalei, East Sumatra. 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

g. prevosti harrisoni (Stone and Rehn.). 

Proc. Acad. Nat. jScI. Philadelphia, 1902, p. 132. 

Typical locality.— Gunong Sugi, Lamponys. South-east Sumatra 
Type.— In Coll. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. 

h. prevosti condurensis (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., XXXI, p. 260 (1906). 

Typical locality.— Fuhu Kundur, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type.—ln United States National Museum. 

? Bliah, Pulau Kundur. Rhio-Lingga Archii)elago, 22nd August 1908 (E. Seimund) 
[L:]; Federated Malay States Museum [P.]. 



2l2 Records of the hidian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

i. prevosti carimonensis (Miller). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 261. 

Typical locality. — Great Karimon Island, Hhio-Linoga Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(J Pemeral, Great Karimon Island, Ehio-Lingga Archipelago, 13th August 1908 
(E. Siemund) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and 
skull. 

j, prevosti bangkanus (Sclilegel). 

Ned. Tijd. Dierk., I, p. 26, pi. i, fig. 2 (1863). 

Typical locality. — Bangka Island, East Sumatra. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

k. prevosti mendanauus (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXI, p. 589 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Mendanau, West of Billiton. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

1. prevosti carimatae (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXI, p. 57 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Karimata Island, off Bornean coast. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

m. prevosti sanggaus (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. 3Ius., XXXIII, p. 554 (1907). 

Typical locality. — Sanggau, Western Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

n. prevosti armalis (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mvs., XL, p. 821 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Panebangan, West coast of Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

o. prevosti pelapis (Lyon). 

Loc. cit. supra. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Pelapis, West coast of Borneo. 
Tyj)e. — In United States National Museum. 

p. prevosti borneoensis (Mueller and Schlegel). 

Verhandl., p. 86 (1839-44). 

Typical locality. — Pontianak, Borneo. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

9660. Borneo, 1844 (Batavian Society) [P.] ; skm and [skull]. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSox & C. B. Kloss .- Sciuridae. 213 

q. prevosti palustris (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., XXXIII, p. 552 (1907). 

Typical locality. — North bank of Kapuas River, Western Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

r. prevosti proserpinae (Lyon). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLVIII, p. 275 (1907). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Ternajau, Western Borneo. 
Type. — In Unitpd States National Museum. 

s. prevosti sarawakensis (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, p. 277 (1867). 

Typical locality. — Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

t. prevosti kuchingensis (Bonhote). 

Ann. Muij. Xat. Hi^t., (7), VII, p. 170 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Kuching, Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9654. Matang, Sarawak, 1870 (E. R. Alston) [P.] ; skin and skull, 

u. prevosti atricapillus (Schlegel). 

Ned. Tijd. Dierlc, I, p. 27, pi. ii, fig. 1 (1863). 

Typical locality. — Kapuas River, Western Borneo. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

(^ Ulu Anyut, Paku Saribas, Sarawak, Borneo, 5th Aueust 1915 (H. C. Robinson) 
[P.] ; skin and skull. 

V. prevosti atrox (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., LXI, No. 21, p. 23 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Talisaian Mountain, Dutch South-East Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

w. prevosti caroli (Bonhote). 

Ami. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 173 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Baram, Borneo (low country). 
Type. — In British Museum. 

X. prevosti griseicauda (Bonhote). 

Loc. cit. siqjra, p. 174. 

Typical locality. — Mount Kalulong, Baram, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9655. " Borneo" (E. R. Alston) [P.] ; skin and skull. 



214 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

y. prevosti erythromelas (Temm.). 

Esq. Zool. Guin., p. 248 (1853). 

Typical locality. — Menado, North-West Celebes. 
Type. — In Ley den Museum. 

z. prevosti schlegeli (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, p. 278 (1867). 

Typical locality. — Koma, Celebes. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

a^. prevosti baluensis (Bonhote). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 174 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Mount Kina Balu, North Borneo. 1,000 ft. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

b^. prevosti sufhisus (Bonhote). 

Loc. cit. sujjra, p. 175. 

Ttjpical locality. — Tutong Eiver, North-West Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c^. prevosti rufoniger (Gray). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., X, p. 263 (1842). 

Typical locality. — Uncertain. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d^ prevosti pluto (Gray). 

Anyi. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, p. 283 (1842). 

Typical locality. — Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9656. " Borneo " (E. R. Alston) [P.] ; skin and [skull]. 

e^. prevosti piceus * (Peters). 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1866, p. 429. 

Typical locality. — Uncertain. 
Type. — In Berlin Museum. 



* This species is attributed by the describer to Tenasserim which is certainly an 
erroneous locality. It was received at the museum with specimens of Presbytes paten- 
ziani, whose true localit.y has since been ascertained to be Mentawci Islands, off the 
Coast of Sumatra. The species was later described as Sc. erehiis. Miller (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., XXVI, p. 456 ; 1903) from Tapanuli Bay, North-West Sumatra, but the author 
now considers his specimens as identical with S. piceus. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 215 

V-. prevosti nyx (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXIV, p. 638 (1907). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Rupat. East Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g^. prevosti navigator (Bonhote). 

A7in. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 171 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Sirhassen, Natuna Islands. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

h^. prevosti mimelus (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, II, p. 18 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Wai, Tambelan Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

i^. prevosti mimiculus (Miller). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 219. 

Typical locality. — Sainte Barbe Island, South China Sea. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

The three preceding races are placed apart from the other forms of 
prevosti and are perhaps not in their proper sequence. They are verj^ 
dwarfed forms inhabiting small islands but there is no reason to suppose 
that they are of any higher value than the other races listed. 



Callosciurus vittatus. 

a. vittatus vittatus* (Raffles). 

Trayis. Linn. Sac, XIII, p. 259 (1822). 

Typical locality. — Bencoolen, West Sumatra. 
Ty2)e. — In British Museum. 

b. vittatus saturatus (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, p. 453 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Mansalar, off Tapanuli Bay, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

c. vittatus pretiosus (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, p. 454 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Bangkaru, Banjak Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 



* Sciurus vittatus tarussanus, Lyon {SmitTis. Misc. Coll. XLVIII, p, 279 ; 1907) from 
Tarussan Bay, West Sumatra, is a pure synonym of this form. 



216 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

d. vittatus ubericolor (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. 3Ius., XXVI, p. 455 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Tuangku, Banjak Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

e. vittatus tapanulius (Lyon). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLVIII, p. 280 (1907). 

Typical locality. — Tapanuli Bay, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

f. vittatus peninsularis (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 10 (1903). 

Typical locality. — North bank of Endau River, South-East Pahang. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g. vittatus rupatius (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXIV, p. 640 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Rupat, East Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

h. vittatus subluteus (Thos. and Wrought.). 

Ann. Mag. Nut. Hist., (8), III, p. 440 (1809). 

Typical locality. — Si Karang, South-East Johore. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

$ Tanjong Surat, .Johore, 26th July 1908 (H. C. Robinson and E. Seimund) 
[C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skuU. 

i. vittatus singapurensis (Robinson). 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., VII, p. 73 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Changi, Singapore Island. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

]. vittatis maporensis (Robinson). 

.Journ. Fed. Malay States Mns., VII, p. 64 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Mapor, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Tijpe. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

k. vittatus nesiotes (Thos. and Wrought). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), III, p. 439 (1909). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Batam, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
T}jpe. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. Ill 

1. vittatus tenuirostris (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Set. Washington, III, p. 221 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Tioman Island, ofE coast of Pahangi, 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(J $ Juara Bay, Piilau Tioman, South China Sea, 9th September 1907 
15th June 1912 (H. C. Robinson and E. Seimund) [C] ; Federated 
Malay States Museums [P.] ; skins and skulls. 

m. vittatus anambensis (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, III, p. 223 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Siantan, Anamba Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

n. vittatus abbottii (Miller). 

Typical locality. — Big Tambelan Island. South China Sea. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

0. vittatus aoris (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 10 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Aor, near Pulau Tioman. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(J $ Pulau Aor, South China Sea, 12th June 1912, l4th June 1912 (H C 
Robinson and E. Seimund) [C.] ; Federated Malay States ^Museum* 
[P.] ; skins and skulls. 

p. vittatus famulus (Robinson). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. His!., (8), X, p. 592 (1912). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Dayang, near Pulau Aor, South China Sea. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

cJ Pulau Dayang, near P. Aor, S. China Sea, 13th June 1912 (H. C. Robinson and 
E. Seimund) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] j skin and 
skull. 

q. vittatus pannovianus (Miller). 

Smithsonian 3Iisc. Coll., XLV, p. 11 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Panau, Atas Islands, South China Sea. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

r. vittatus pemangilensis (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 9 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pemanggil Island, near Pulau Tioman. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

(5 $ Pulau Pemanggil, Johore Archipelago, 7th July, 12th July 1915 (H. C. 
Robinson) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.]; skins and 
skulls. 



218 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

s. vittatus ictericus (Miller). 

Swith.scniian Mi.sc. Coll., XLV, p. 12 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Tana Bala, Batu Island, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

t. vittatus serutus (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mm., XXXI, p. 58 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Serutn, Karimata Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

u. vittatus director (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mvs., XXXVI, p. 509 (1909). 

Typical locality. — Direction Island, South China Sea. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

V. vittatus lutescens (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washingion, III, p. 124 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Sirhassen Island, Natunas. 
Type.- — -In United States National Museum. 

w. vittatus lamucotanus (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, p. 85 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Lamukotan, West Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

X. vittatus datus (Lyon). 

Loc. cit. sii-pra, p. 86. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Dato, West Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

y. vittatus siriensis (Lyon). 

Loc. cit. sujjra, p. 87. 

Typical loccdity. — Pulau Mata Siri, Java Sea. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

z. vittatus arendsis (Lyon). 

Loc. cit. .supra, p. 87. 

Typical locality. — Arends Island, Java Sea. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

a^ vittatus marinsularis (Lyon). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 89. 

Typical locality. — Pulau Laut, off South-east Borneo. 
Type.- — In United States National Museum, 



1918.] H. C. EoiiiNSOxV & C. B. KlosS : Scimidae. 219 

b^ vittatus lautensis (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. WaMm/lon, Ul, p. 128 (1901). 

Typical localiiy. — Piilau Laut, North Natuna Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

c^. vittatus rubidiventris (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, III, p. 127 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Bunguran, Natuna Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

di. vittatus rutiliventris (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, III, p. 126 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Midei, South Natuna Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

e^. vittatus seraiae (Miller). 

Ptoc. Acad. Sci. Washington, III, p. 125 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Seraia, Natuna Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

f^. vittatus albescens (Bonh.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 446 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Acheen, North Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g^. vittatus dulitensis (Bonh.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 451 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Mount Dulit, Baram, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

o >Sungei Pelandok, Paku Saribas, Sarawak, Octob(!r 1915 (Mus. Coll.); skins and 

skulls. 
J Ulu Anyut, Paku Saribas, Sarawak (Mus. Coll.) ; skins and skulls. 
(j Kuala Selanoi, Paku Saribas, Sarawak (Mus. Coll.) ; skins and skulls. 
9.502. (^ Sarawak (Wallace) [C] ; skin and skull. 

hi. vittatus dilutus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. CoU.,'LXl, No. 21, p. 23 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Tanjong Batu, South-east Borneo. 
Tyjje. — In United States National Museum. 

i^. vittatus conipus (Lyon). 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XXIV, p. 98 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Pamukang Bay, Southern Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 



220 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

ji. ■vittatus tedongus (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. 3Ius., XXXI, p. 591 (190G). 

Typical locality. — Tanjong Tedong, Banka. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

k^. vittatus billitonus (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Xat. Mas., XXXI, p. .593 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Buding Bay, Billiton. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

1^. vittatus miniatus (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Set. Waslmujlon., II, p. 79 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Trang, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

9102, (^ Chong, Trang, Siamese Malaya ; Topotjrpe of the species ; skins and 

skull. 

9103, 5, 6. (J, 2 9 Bukit Jong, Trengganu, East Malay Peninsula ; skins and 

skulls. 

9104, 7. 2 9 Nyalas, Malacca ; Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skins and 

skulls. 
9512. o Zoological Gardens [P.] ; skin only. 
9510, 11. Malay Peninsula (E. Linstedt) [C.] ; skins and skulls. 
9509 (A. S. E.). Malay Peninsula (G. Moxon) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9498. Malacca (F. Stoliczka) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9503. (J (E. R. Alston) [P.l ; skin and skull. 

9504. S (W. Rutledge) [P.] ; skin and skull. 

$ Bukit Kutu, Selangor. 3,400 ft., August 1915 (0. B. Kloss) [C] ; Federated 
Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

m^. vittatus scotti (Kloss). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), XV, p. 117 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Bedung Island, off Trengganu, East Malay Penin- 
sula. 

Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

(^ Redang Island, off Trengganu, East Malay Peninsula, August 1910 ; Paratype ; 
skin and skull. 

n^ vittatus plasticus (Kloss). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 117 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Great Redang Island, off Trengganu, East Malay 
Peninsula. 

Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

^ O Great Redang Island, off Trengganu, East Malay Peninsula ; Paratypes ; 
skins and skulls. 

o'. vittatus perhentiani (Kloss). 

.Ann.. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), VII, p. 118 (1911). 

Typical localify. — West Perhentian Island, oft" Trengganu, East 
Malav Peninsula. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 221 

Ty2)e. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

(J $ West Perhentian I.slancl, off Trengganu, East Malay Peninsula; (September 
1910 (C. B. Kloss) [G.] ; Paratypes ; Federated Malay States Museum 
[P.] ; skins and skulls. 

pi. vittatus proteus (Kloss). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 118 (1911). 

Tyjncal locality. — East Perhentian Island, off Trengganu, East Malay 
Peninsula. 

Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

(J $ East Perhentian Island, off Trengganu, East Malay Peninsula ; skins and 
skulls. 

qi. vittatus watsoni (Kloss). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 118. 

Typical locality. — Lantinga Island, off Trengganu, East Malay 
Peninsula. 

Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

$ Lantinga Island, off Trengganu, East Malay Peninsula, September 1910 ; 
skin and skull. 



Callosciurus notatus. 
ii. notatus notatus (Bodd.). 

Elench. Mamm., p. 119 (1775). 

Typical locality. — West Java. 
Type. — Not in existence. 

9500-1. West Java (A. R. Wallace) [0.] ; skins and skulls. 

b. notatus madurae (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist., (8), V, p. 386 (1910). 

Typical locality. — East part of Madura Island. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. notatus balstoni (Robinson and Wroughton), 

Journ. Fed. Malaij States Museum, IV, p. 234 (1911). 

Typical locality. — South Central Java. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d. notatus stresemanni (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), XI, p. 505 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Baleling, Bali. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

e2 



222 Records of flie Inclidn Miiseuni. [Vol. XV, 

e. notatus microtis (Jentink). 

yotes Leyden Museum, I, p. 40 (1879). 

Typical locality. — Saleyer Island, Java Sea. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

Callosciurus nigrovittatus. 

a. nigrovittatus nigrovittatus (Horsf.)- 

Zool. Res. Jam, (182-t). 

Typical locality. — Java (probably East central parts). 
Type. — ? In British Museum. 

S ? Tjibodas, West Java, 5,000 ft., February 1916 (Miis. Coll.) ; Federated 
Malay States Museum [P.] ; skins and skulls. 

b. nigrovittatus bilimitatus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 2 (1903). 
Typical locality. — Tanjon^- Labolia, Trengoanu, East Malay Penin- 
sula. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

$ Ulu Selama, North-East Perak, May 1909 (Mus. Coll.); Federated Malay 
States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

c. nigrovittatus johorensis (Rob. and Wrought.). 

Jo-urn. Fed. Malay Stales Mus., IV, p. 167 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Pelepak, Johore. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9499. Malay Peninsula (Revd. J. Lindstedt) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9505. $ Zoological Gardens ; skin only. 

9507-8. Malay Peninsula (G. Moxon) [C] ; skins and one skull. 

(J Batu Caves, near Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, January 1912 (Mus. Coll.) ; skins 

and skulls. 
? Ti-iang, North-West Pahang, September 1912 (Mus. Coll.) ; Federated Malay 

States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

9506. Skull only. 

d. rigrovittatus microrhynchus (Kloss). 

Oj). ci.l. supra, II, p. 144 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Juara Bay, Pulau Tioman, Coast of Pahang. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

(J $ Juara Bay, Pulau Tioman, Coast of Pahang, June, July 1915 
(H. C. Robinson) [('.] ; Topotypes ; Federated Malay States Museum 
[P.] ; skins and skulls. 

e. nigrovittatus bocki (Rob. and Wrought.). 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Miis., IV, p. 167 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Pajo, Padang Highlands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

(^ ? Sungei Kumbang, Korinchi, 4,500 ft., West Sumatra, April, 1914 (H. C. 
Robinson and C. B. Kloss) [C] ; Federated Malay States Museum 
[P.] ; skins and skulls. 



1918.] H. C. EoMNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 223 

f. nigrovittatus orestes (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), V, p. 529 (1895). 

Typical locality. — Mount Dulit, Baram, Borneo. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

Pending the statement of differential characters we cannot rer-ard 
Sciurus atristriatus , Miller, described from a half-grown female from Lo 
Bon Bon, Dutch South-East Borneo [Smithsonian Misc. Coll., ^o. 21, 
Vol. 61, p. 22 (1913)] as other than this form, which is not mentioned 
in the text and has possibly been overlooked by Mr. Miller. 

g. nigrovittatus klossii (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, II, p. 225 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Saddle Island, Tambelan Group. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Genus TOMEUTES, Thomas, 1915. 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8) XV, p. 386 (1915). 

lokroides and mearsi. 

This group is so difficult that fresh specimens properly dated and 
with measurements are required to deal with it satisfactorily. The 
specimens in the Indian Museum appear mainly to belong to two forms 
in winter and in summer pelage. Adequate material would doubtless 
enable separations to be made. 

Tomeutes lokroides. 
a. lokroides lokroides (Hodgson). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, V, p. 232 (lS3(i). 

Typical locality. — Sikkim. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

8404-6. Khatmandu, Nepal (Major Maiiuers-Smith). 

9377. Below Bhimphed, Nepal (J. (Scidly) ; skin and skull. 

9378. Hetowra, Nepal (.J. Scully). 

9381-2. Darjiling (W. T. Blanford) ; skins and skulls. 
9384-6. Darjiling, 4,000 ft. (G. Masson) ; skins and skulls. 

9393. Darjiling (J. Anderson) ; skin and skull. 

9394, 9430. Darjiling (C. J. Bonieri) ; skins and skulls. 
9431. Darjiling (E. Blyth) ; skin and skull. 

7300. Sukna, 2,000 ft. (Base of Darjiling Himalayas) ; skin and skull. 

9387-91. Darjiling (Terai) (J. Anderson); (9387, 90 skins and skulls). 

9380. Sikkim (H. J. Elwes). 

? Sikkim (H. J. Elwes). 

9392. Sikkim Himalayas (J. Anderson) ; skin and skull.. 

9428. Sikkim (L. Mandelli) ; skin and skull. 

9379. Sikkim (H. J. Elwes); skin and skull. 
9437. Darjeeling (A. S. B.) ; skull onfy. 
9438-9. ? (A. S. B.); skulls only. 
9436. (A. Grote) ; skin and skuU. 

Black specimens juv. germaini ? 
8042. ? ? skin and skull. 

9383. Sikkim (L. Mandelli) ; skin and skull. 



224 Records of the Indifiii Muscaiii. [Vol. XV, 

b. lokroides owensi (Thos. and Wrought.)- 

Journ. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc, XXIV, p. 3:36 (191(5). 

Typical locality. — Minsin (East Bank), Upper Chindwin. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Tomeutes mearsi, 

a. mearsi mearsi (Bonhote). 

Aim. Mug. Nat. Hist., (7), XVIII, p. 338 (190(5). 

Typical locality. — Chinbyit, Lower Chindwin. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

b. mearsi bellona, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XXIV, p. 420 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Kin, Middle Chindwin. 
Tiipe. — In British Museum. 

10051. ^ Rangamatti, Chittagong Hill Tracts (Mus. Coll.) ; skin and skull. 

c. mearsi virgo, Thos. and Wrought. 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XXIV, p. 421 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Tatken, Upper Chindwin. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

10200, 12207-8. Above Tura, Garo Hills, Assam, 13-1400 feet, June 1917 (S. W. 

Kemp [C]. 
9398-9400. Garo Hills, Assam (Dr. J. Anderson) ; (9400 no skull) ; skin and 

skull. 
9442 Nongjuri, Khasi Hills, Cherrapunji (B. Warren) ; skin and skull. 
9432-3. Assam (Col. Jenkins) ; skins and skulls. 

9418. Harmuth Dikrang, Assam (H. H. C4odwin-Austen) ; skin and skull. 
9407-9. Samagooting, Assam (Capt. Butler) ; skins and skulls. 

9410-13 juv. Samagooting, Assam (Capt. Butler) ; (9413 hind foot only) ; skins 

and skulls. 
9401-4, 9429. Naga Hills (H. H. Godwin-Austen) (9401 no skull) ; skins and skulls. 
9405-6. Naga Hills (A. W. Chennell) ; skins and skulls. 
942. Naga Hills (A. W. Chennell). 
9414-7. Manipur Hills (H. H. Godwin- Austen) (9416-7 no skulls) ; skins and skulls. 

9419. Bhamo, Burma (Dr. J. Anderson) ; skin and skull. 

9395. Dacca (Mus. Coll.) ; skin and skull. 

9396, 7. Lushai Country (Mus. Coll.) ; skins and skulls. 
9434-5. Arakan (Sir A. Phayre) (9434 no skull). 

9420. 2. Arakan (Mus. Coll.) ; (21, 22 no skulls). 

9426-7. Amherst Isle, Arakan (J. Armstrong) ; skins and skulls. 

9423. Jergo Isle, Arakan (Marine Survey) ; skin and skull, 
subsp. nov. ? 

9424. Preparis Island (V. Ball) ; skin and skull. 

9425. Preparis Island (F. Stoticzka) ; skin only. 



WIS.] H. C. RouixsoN & C. B. Eloss : Sciaridae. ^25 

Tomeutes stevensi (Thomas). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. 8oc. Bombay, XVllI, p. 246 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Beni-chaug, Abor-Miri Hills, Upper Assam, 4,000. 
Ty^^e. — In British Museum. 

9139, 9140, 9143. 3 $ Balck, Abor Hills, March 1912 (S. AV. Kemp) [C] ; skins 

and skulls. 
9141, 9146. 2 $ Rotung, 1,300 ft., Abor Hills, March 1912 (S. W. Kemp) [C] ; 

skins and skulls. 
9147. (J Between Kalek and Misshing, March 1912 (S. W. Kemp) [C] ; skiu and 

skuU. 
9440. East Naga Hills (H. H. Godwin-Austen). 

Tomeutes quinauestriatus (Anderson). 

P. Z. S., 1871, p. 142, pi. X. 

Typical locality. — Ponsee, Kakhyen Hills. 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9463. Ponsee, Kakhyen HiUs, 3,200 ft., Yunnan Border, 24th February 1868 (J. 

Anderson) [C] ; Type of the species ; skin and skull. 
9461-2 and 10163. Ponsee, Kakhyen Hills, 3,200 ft., Yunnan Border, March 

and April 1868 ; skins and two skulls. 
7558. No locality (Capt. E. Pottinger) [C. ] ; skin and skull. 

Sciurus beehei, Allen {Bull. Afner. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXX, p. 338 ; 
1911) described from a single specimen without skull from Kuching, 
Sarawak, is obviously this species. It is significant that Mr. Beebe also 
obtained specimens of the true quinquestratus in the vicinity of 
the type locality so that some transposition of labels has evidently 
taken place. 

Tomeutes phayrei. 
a. phayrei phayrei (Blyth). 

Journ. Aaiat. Soc. Bengal, XXIV, pp. 472, 476 (1855). 

Typical locality. — Sent from Moulmein. 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9300, 9301 (A. S. B. 330, 330c). Martaban, Lower Burma, 1861 (E. Blyth) 

[C.]; skins and skulls. 
9302 (A. S. B. 330a). Martaban, Lower Burma, 1861 (E. Blyth) [C] ; skull 

only. 
9473 (A. S. B'. 330b). [Martaban, Lower Burma, 1861 (E. Blyth) [C] ]; skin 

and skull. 

Though marked as from the above locality and date the specimen 
(No. 9473) which has once been mounted and now lacks its tail is pro- 
bably the specimen sent by Sir A. Phayre (then Captain) to Blyth and 
IS therefore the type of the species. In any event all four specimens 
mentioned above are lectotypes. 

7593-4. J $ Kollado, Salwin Hill Tracts, 22nd Januaiy, 1873 ; (Dr. A. R. S. 
Anderson) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

10178. cJ Heho, Southern Shan States, March 1917 (Dr. N. Annandalc) [C] ; 

skin and skull. 

10179, 10181-2. 2 (J 2 ? Port Stcdmaii, Southern Shan States, March 1917 ; 

(Dr. N. Annandale) [C] ; skins and skulls. 



226 Uecorcls of the Indian Muscinn. [Vol. XV, 

1). phayrei blanfordi (Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Benr/nl, XXXI, p. 3:5;} (1862). 

Typical locality. — Ava, Upper Burma. 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9298. o Ava, Upper Burma (W. T. Blanford) [C] ; type of the .subspecies ; 

skiu and skull. 

9299. i' Pudeepyo, Upper Burma, lUth January 1875 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; 

skin and skeleton. 

The latter specimen shows faint indications of dark lateral bands. 



Tomeutes pygerythrus. 

a. pygerythrus pygerythrus (Is. Geoff.). 

Mag. Zool. CI. 1 (1832); Belanger, Voyage ZooL, p. 145, pi. vii (1847). 

Typical locality. — Pegu. 
2<ijpe.—ln Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

9782 (A. iS. B.). Lower Pegu (Berdmore) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9284 (A. S. B.). Burma, 1865 (Dr. ('. Williams) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9285, 9286 (A. S. B.). Rangoon (Sir J. Fayrer) [C] ; skin only. 

Rangoon (Sir A. Phayre) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9287-90. 2 (J Rangoon, January 1876 (J. Armstrong) [C ] ; skins and skulls. 

b. pygerythrus janetta (Thos.). 

Joitni. Xut. Hid. Sac. Bonibui/, XXlll, p. 203 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Mandalay, Upper Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

10163. Mandalay, Upper Burma ; skin and skull. 

9291. Upper Burma, 1865 (Dr. C. Williams) [C] ; skin and skull- 

9292-4. (J cj ? Sagaing, Upper Burma, October 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) [C] ; 

skins and skulls. 
9295-6. S ? Ava, Upper Burma, October 1868 (Dr. J. Anderson) [0.] ; skins 

and skulls. 
9297. $ Kabuet, Upper Burma, January 1875 (Dr. J. Anderson) [O.J; skin and 

.skull. 

Agree well with the characters as given for this pale Upper Burma 
race by Thomas {loc. cit. supra). 



Tomeutes hippurus. 
a. hippurus hippurus (Is. Geoft'r.). 

May. de ZooL, 01. 8, No. 6, pi. vi (1832). 

Typical locality. — Java (almost certainly erroneous) ; Malacca sub- 
stitvited. 

Type.—h\ Mus. Nat. Hist., Paris. 

9376 (A. S. B.). Malacca, 1844 (^V. JMith) : skin and skull. 
$ Taiping, Perak, September 1913 ; skin and skidl. 

(5 Bukit Tangga, 1,300 ft., Negri Sembilan, April 1914 (Mus. Ooll.) ; Federated 
Malay States Museum [P.]. 



1918.] H. C. E()]!iNSo>' & C. B. Ki.oss : Sciuildae. 227 

b. hippurus hippurosus (Lyon). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., L, p. 2G (1907). 

Typical locality. — Tarussan Bay, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

c. hippurus hippurellus (Lyon). 

Loc. cit. siijira, p. 27. 

Typical locality. — Batu Ampar, Landak River, West Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

d. hippurus grayi (Bonh.). 

Atm. Macj. Nat. Hist., (7), VII, p. 171 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Sarawak, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9375. Borneo (Dr. J. Anderson) [P.] ; skin and skull, 

Tomeutes pryeri. 

a. pryeri pryeri (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (b), X, p. 214 (1892). 

Typical locality. — Near Sandakan, British North Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

b. pryeri inquinatus (Thos.). 

Jotini. Nat. Hist. Soc. BonJxiy, XVlll, p. 247 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Lawas River, North-West Borneo. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

These two forms hippurus and pryeri do not appear to us to be 
naturally placed with Tomeutes. On external and cranial characters 
their alliances would seem rather with Callosciurus prevosti. 

Tomeutes rubriventer (Forsten). 

Mueller and Selilegel, Verhandl. Nat. Gesch., p. 86 (1839-44 1. 

Typical locality. — Minahassa, North Celebes. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

Tomeutes melanogaster. 
a. melanogaster melanogaster (Thos.). 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen., XIV, p. 068 (1896). 

Typical locality. — Sipora, Mentawei Ids., W. Sumatra. 
Type. — In Genoa Museum ; cotype in British Museum. 



228 Records of tlte Indian Museum. [Vol, XV, 

b. melanogaster atratus (Miller). 

Smiths. Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 13 (1903). 

Typical locality. — North Pagi Island, W. Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

But for the fact that Thomas categorically states {Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (8), XV, p. 38G ; 1915) that the penis bone of these forms is that 
of Tomeutes we should have placed them as somewhat abnormal 
forms of Callosciurus nigrovittatus. 

Tomeutes tenuis. 

a. tenuis tenuis (Horsf.). 

Zuol. Researches in Java, 1824. 

Typical locality. — Singapore Island. 

Type. — In British Museum ; probably not now extant. 

9457. Malacca (A. R. Wallace) [C.]; skin. 
7075. $ Perak (Mus. Coll.), [C] ; skin. 

Perak specimens show an approach to the northern form T. t. surdua 

(Mill). 

b. tenuis surdus (Miller). 

Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II, p. SO (1900). 

Typical locality. — Trang, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

c. tenuis sordidus (Kloss). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), VII, p. 119 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Great Redang Island, of! Trengganu, Eastern 
Malay Peninsula. 

Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

d. tenuis tiomanicus, Robinson. 

Juurn. Fed. Malay States Musewm, VII, p. 103 (19171. 

Typical locality. — Tioman Island, East Coast, Malay Peninsula. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

c. tenuis tahan (Bonhote). 

Journ. Fed- Malay States Museum, III, p. (1908). 

Typical locality. — Mount Tahan, Pahang, Malay Peninsula, 3,(i00 ft. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

f. tenuis gunong (Robinson and Kloss). 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Museum, V, p. 119 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Kao Nong, Bandon, Siamese Malaya, 3,000 ft. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 



1918.] H. C. RoMNSON & C. B. Kt.oss : Sciuridae. 229 

g. tenuis modestus (S. Miiller). 

Temminck's Vcrhunddingen, Zooloyie, Inleidung, p. 55 (183!J). 

Typical locality.— Monnt Singgalang, Sumatra, 3,000 ft. 
Type. — In Ley den . Museum. 

h. tenuis altitudinis (Robinson and Kloss). 

Journ. Striiils Branch Roy. Asiaf. Soc, No. 7.'}, p. 270 (19 Hi). 

Typical locality .—Kov\\\c\i\ Peak, Sumatra, 7,300 ft. 
Type.~ln Federated Malay States Museum. 

i. tenuis mansalaris (Miller). 

Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mas., XXVI, p. 451 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Mansalar Island, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

j. tenuis batus (Lyon). 

Proc. U. S. Naf. Mu.s., LII, p. 443 (1916). 

Typical local ity.~T aim Bala, Batu Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

k. tenuis bancams (Miller). 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVI, p. 451 (1903). 

Typical locality.— BrnvrksiTu Island, Banjak Islands. West Sumatra 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

1. tenuis pumilus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, XLV, p. 15 (1903). 

Typical locality.— ^outh Pagi Island. West Sumatra. 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

m. tenuis parvus (Miller). 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XIV, p. 33 (1901). 

Typical locality. — Sarawak, Borneo. 
Type.— In United States National Museum. 

We are unable to precisely identify the follow ing specimen on 
account of its poor condition. 

045S. (329-A. S. B.) Java (Batavian Society) (P). 

No squirrel of this type is known from Java ; the present specimen 
probably came from South Borneo and is provisionally referred to 
this race. 

Tomeutes lowii. 
a. lowii lowii (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (0), IX, p. 253 (1892). 

Typical locality. — Sarawak, Borneo. 
Type.— In British Museum. 



230 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

1). lowii bangueyae (Thomas). 

Ann. Mug. Nat. Hist, (8), V, p. 386 (1910). 

Typical localitij. — Banguey Island, North Borneo. 
Ti/pe. — In British Museum. 

c. lowii natunensis (Thomas). 

Nov. Zool., II, p. 26 (1895). 

Typical locality. — Sirhassen Island, Natuna Group, South C-'hina 
Sea. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

d. lowii robinsoni (Bonhote). 

Fasciculi Malayenses, Zool., I, p. 24, pi. i (1903). 
(Synonym robinsoni alacris, Thomas.) 

Typical locality.— Bvikit Bssar, Patani, Malay Peninsula. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

e. lowii humilis (Miller). 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, LXI, p. 24 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Kateman Kiver district, East Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

f. lowii vanakeni (Robinson and Kloss). 

Journ. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Sac, No. 73, p. 270 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Barisan Range, Korinchi, Sumatra, 4,000 ft. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum, 

g. lowii piniensis (Miller). 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, XLV, p. 14 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Pinie Island, Batu Group, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

h. lowii balae (Miller). 

Op. cU. supra, XLV, p. 14 (1903). 

Typical locality. — Tana Bala Island, Batu Group, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

i. lowii seimundi (Thomas and Wroughton). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), III, p. 440 (1909). 

Typical locality.— Kundui Island, Rhio-Lingga Archipelago, East 
Sumatra. 

Type. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Scinvidae. 231 

Tomeutes brookei (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hwi., (G), IX, p. 253 (1892). 

Typical locality. — Sarawak, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Tomeutes jentinki (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., XX, p. 128 (1887). 

Typical locality. — Kinabalu, North Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

7233. Kinabahi (J. Whitehead) [C] ; skin and skull. 

Tomeutes (?) helgei (Gyldenstolpe). 

Kungl. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., LVII, No. 2, p. 34, pi. vi, figs. 3 and 4 (1017). 

Typical locality. — South of Koh Lak, South-west Siam. 

Type. — In Natural History Museum, Stockholm. 

(Underparts slaty grey ; oreatest length of skull 50-51 mm. We are 
quite unable to place this form which is perhaps best regarded as a race 
of Callosciurus caniceps). 

Genus MENETES, Thomas, 1908. 

Menetes berdmorei. 

a. berdmorei berdmorei (Blyth). 

Journ. Asiat. Sac. Bengal, XVIII, p. 603 (1849). 

Typical locality. — Thoungyeen District, Lower Burma. 
Type. — Apparently not in existence unless the skull 9669 belongs 
to it. 

9665-6. (A. S. B. 338a, b). Martaban, Burma (E. Blyth) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9667-8. (J $ Thaing, King Island, Mergui, January 1882 (Dr. J. Anderson) [(!".]• 

skins and one skull. 
9669. (?) Skull. 
(J Ban Kok Klap, Bandon, Siamese Malaya, July 4th, 1913 (H. V. Robinson) 

[C] ; Federated Malay States Museum. 

b. berdmorei amotus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, LXI, p. 24 (1913). . 

Typical locality. — Domel Island, Mergui Archipelago. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

c. berdmorei koratensis (Gyldenstolpe). 

Kungl. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl, LVII, No. 2. p. 39 (1917). 

Typical locality. — Sakerat, near, Korat. Eastern Siam. 
Type. — -In Natural History Museum, Stockholm, 



232 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

d. berdmorei mouhoti^ (Gray). 

p. Z. S., 18(51, p. 137. 

Typical locality. — -Cambodia. 
Type.— In British Museum. 

e. berdmorei decoratus (Thomas). 

Jouni. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomhmj, XXIII, p. 23 (1914). 

Typical locality. — Mount Popa, Burma (dry zone). 
Type. — In British Museum. 

f. berdmorei moerescens (Thomas). 

Loc. cit. isitpra, p. 24. 

Typical locality. — Bali, near Nhatrang, Annam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

g. berdmorei consularis (Thomas). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 24. 

Typical locality. — Nan, Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

h. berdmorei umbrosus (Kloss). 

Proc. ZooL Soc. London, 1916, p. 49. 

Typical locality. — Koh Chang Island, South-east Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

i. berdmorei rufeseens (Kloss). 

Loc. cd. supra, p. 50. 

Typical locality. — Koh Kut Island, South-east Siam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



Genus LARISCUS, Thomas and Wroughton, 1909. 

Proc. Znol. Hoc. London, 1909, p. 389. 

With the exception of L. hosei, which on account of its brilliant and 
striking colouration and the possession of four stripes on the back has 
strong claims to be regarded as specifically distinct, we have arranged 
all the races of this genus as subspecies of the original " Sciurns insignis, 
F. Cuv. " from Sumatra. All are closely allied to each other though it 
might be possible and convenient to regard L. niobe (Thomas) and 
javanus (Thomas and Wrought.) and possibly rostratus and obscurus, 
which we have not seen, as belonging to a different specific group. 

1 Synonym : Sciurus pyrrocephalus, Milne-Edwards, ii'ev. et Mag. de Zool. (2), XIX, 
p. 225 (1867), Cochin China. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 233 

The genus is apparently confined to the Malay Peninsula and greater 
Sunda Islands and is not as yet known to occur within the limits of the 
Indian Empire or in Indo-China. 

Lariscus insignis. 
a. insignis insignis (Cuv.). 

Mamm. pi. 233 (1818). 

Typical locality. — Sumatra. 

Tijpe. — In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

b. insignis jalorensis (Bonhote). 

Fascic. Malay., Zool. I, p. 24 (19031 
Typical locality. — Jalor, North Malay Peninsula. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9670. ^ Malacca, Malay Peninsula (E. R. Alston) [P.]; skin and skull. 

9 Benom Foothills, Pahang, Malay Peninsula, 2nd November, 1913. 

$ Ayer Kring, Negri Sembilan -Pahang border, 17th March, 1918; skin and 

skuU. 
(J Bukit Tangga, Negri Sembilan, Malay Peninsula, 13th January, 1914. 
cJ Batu Tegor, Taiping, Perak, Malay Peninsula, 31st October, 1908 ; Federated 

Malay States Museum [P.]. 

c. insignis meridionalis (Robinson and Kloss). 

Journ. Fed. Malay. States Mus., IV, p. 172 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Changi, Singapore Island. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d. insignis fornicatus, Robinson. 

Op. cit. supra, V IT, p. 102 (1917). 

Typical locality .—Tionian Island, East Coast, Malay Peninsula. 
Type. — In Federated Malay States Museum. 

e. insignis diversus (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), II, p. 248 (1898). 

Typical locality. — Baram District, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

f. insignis castaneus (Miller). 

Proc. Acad. Sci. Washington, II, p. 217 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Siantan, Anamba Islands. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

g. insignis niobe (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. HiM., (7), II, p. 249 (1898). 

Typical locality. — Pajo, Highlands of West Sumatra. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

$ Sungei Kumbang, Korinchi, West Sumatra, loth April, 1914 ; Federated 
Malay States Museum (H. C. Robinson and C. B. Klo.ss) [C] ; skin 
and skull. 



234 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

h. insignis javanus, Thomas and Wroughtoii. 

P. Z. S. (Abstract) 1909, p. 19 ; id., torn, cif., p. 38-^ 

Typical locality. — Buitenzorg. West Javr 
Type. — In British Museum. 

2 Tjibodas, West Java, 29th February, 1916 (H. C. Bobinson) [C] ; Federated 
Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 

i. insignis obscurus (Miller). 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., XLV, p. 23, pi. i, fig. 2 (1903). 

Typical locality. — South Pa,t!,i Island, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

j. insignis rostratus (Miller). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 24. 

Typical locality. — Tana Bala. Batu Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Lariscus hosei (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), X, pp. 215, 216 (1892). 

Typical locality. — Mount Dulit, Baram District, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Genus DREMOMYS, Heude, 1898. 

Mem. Hist. Nat. Empire Chinois, IV, pt. 2, p. 54 (1898). 

Zetis, Thomas, Journ. Nat. Hist. Sac. Bombay, XVIII, p. 244 (1908). 

Dremomys pernyi. 

a. pernyi pernyi ( Milne- Ed w.). 

Rev. et. Maij. de Zool, 1867, p. 230, ]>]. xix. 

Typical locality. — Sze-chwan, China. 
Type. — In Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris. 

9138. Sh-po Valley, Abor Hills (Capt. I. Burn Murdoclil [C] and [P-l; skiu and 
skull. ■ 

b. pernyi flavior, Allen. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XXV, p. 178 (1912). 

Typical locality. — South-east Yunnan. 

Tyjie. — In Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, U. S. A. 

c. pernyi griselda, Thos. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), XVII, p. 392 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Western Sze-chwan (Na.ochuka). 
Type. — In British Museum, 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridne. 235 

d. pernyi modestus, Thos. 

Luc. cit. /itiprn, jj. 393. 

Typical locality. — Kwei-chow (Sui-yaiio), China. 
Tt/pe.~In British Museum. 

e. pernyi senex, Allen. 

Mem. 31 us. Harvard, XL, No. 4, p. 229 (1912). 
Typical locality. — Ichang, China. 
Type. — In Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, U. 8. A. 

f. pernyi chintalis, Thos. 

Loc. cil. supra, p. 394. 

Typical localif y.~An-hwei (Chinteh), China. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

g. pernyi calidior, Thos. 

Loc. ril. .^ujtra. p. 394. 

Typical locality. —J^ovth-'W est Fokien (Kuatun). C'hina. 
Type.~ln British Museum. 

Dremomys lokriah. 

a. lokriah lokriah (Hodgs.). 

Jourii. Asiat. Sot. Bengal, V, p. 232 (1836). 
Typical locality. — Nepal. 
Type.—lix British Museum. Co-type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9447. Nepal (Brian Hodgson) [C] ; India Museum, London [P.] ; cn-type of tlie 

spec:es ; skin and skull. 
9443-5. 2 ,5', $ Sheopuri Ridge, Nepal Valley, February-June 1878 (J Scully) 

[C] ; skins and skull. ^ 

9446. Sisagutu, Nepal, December 1877 (J. Scully) [C] ; skin and skull 

9448. Darjilinji, (IJr. J. Anderson) [C] ; skin and skull. 

nt?n ^^-OM ^- ^-"^•^- '^''^- I>arjiling (Mrs. Oakes) [P.]; skin and skull. 

9449. 9 Sikkun (L. Mandelli) [C] ; skin and skull. 
94.53 Uncertain skull only. 

b. lokriah bhotia, Thos. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 426 (1916). 

Typical locality.— ^edonchen, East Sikkim. 
Type.~In British Museum. 

10202, 10204-5. ^, ? Above Tura, Garo Hills, Assam, 3,900 feet, August 1917, 
(S. W. Kemp) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

9451. Naga Hills (H. H. Godwin -Austen) [C] ; skin. 

9452. Naga Hills (A. W. Chennell) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9455. Shillong, Assam (T. la louche) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9441. (J Nongjuri, Khasi Hills, f'herrapunji, Assam, May 1909 (B. Warren) 

[C] ; skin and skull. 
9149. $ Komsing, Abor Hills, February 1912 (S. W. Kemp) [C] ; skin and skull. 

F 



236 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

These specimens which are more ochraceous and less ferrnginous 
below than most specimens from Nepal have been referred to in the 
literature as Sc. subflavivetitris, G. K. Gr. {Hand-list Mamm. Brit. Mus., 
p. 144 ; 1843), a form which has never been properly described and nmst 
therefore be regarded as a nomen nudum. 

Arakan specimens referred to this species by Blyth and others do not, 
so far as can be judged from the skins in the collection which are now 
in an excessively bad state of preservation, belong to this genus at all. 

Dremomys macmillani (Thos.). 

Jovm. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 238 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Kindat, Chindwin River, Upper Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Dremomys owstoni (Thos.). 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XVIII, p. 248 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Mount Arizan, Central Formosa. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Dremomys everetti (Thos.). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6), VI. p. 171 (1890). 

Typical locality. — Penrisen, Sarawak, Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Dremomys rufigenis. 

a. rufigenis rufigenis (Blanford). 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XLVII (2), p. 156, pi. viii (1878). 

Typical locality. — Mount Mooleyit, Central Tenasserim. 
Type. — In British Museum. Co-type m Indian Museum. 

7167. $ Mount Mooleyit, Central Tenasserim, 5,500 ft., January 1877 (W. 
Davison) [C.] ; skin and skull. 

b. rufigenis belfieldi (Bonhote). 

Joimi. Fed. Malay States Mvs.;JIl, p. 9, pi. i (1908). 

Typical locality. —Movintsims of Selangor (4,800-5,800 ft.), Malay 
Peninsula. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

c. rufigenis fuseus (Bonhote). 

F. Z. S. (Abstr.) 1907, p. 2 ; F. Z. S. id. 1907 (i), p. 10. 

Typical locality. — Bali, Annam. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. RoBiNsoj^ & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 237 

d. rufigenis adamsoni, Tlios. 

Joitrn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomhay, XXIII. p. 25 (1914). 

Typical localitf/.— Ma.y my o, Upper Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



e. rufigenis ornatus, Thos. 

Lor. cit. supra, p. 26. 

Typical locality. — Yumian (?). near Mong-tze. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

f. rufigenis opimus, Thos. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombaij, XXIV, p. 237 (1910). 

Typical locality. — Hkamti, Upper Chindwin, Burma. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

8432. Mong-ha, Noith Shan States, Uf per Burma, April, 1907 (J. Coggin Brown) 
[C] ; skin and skull. 

This specimen agrees in colour more with this subspecies than with 
D. r. adamsoni but is smaller than the type specimen of opimus. It 
has the appearance of having been in spirit and we therefore prefer not 
to describe it. Greatest length of skull about 52 mm., agreeing with 
adamsoni in this respect, but much smaller than the Yunnan foim. 
The specimen is adult but not old. 

g. rufigenis pyrrhomerus (Thos.). 

Ann. May. Nat. Hist., (6), XVI, p. 242 (1895). 

Typical locality. — Ichang, China. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



h. rufigenis riudonensis (Allen). 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nut. H st., XXII, p. 472 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Eiudon, Hainan. 

Type.- — In American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

Genus RHINOSCIURUS, Gray, 1843. 
Rhinoseiurus laticaudatus. 
a. laticaudatus laticaudatus (Muell. and Schleg.). 

Verhandl., p. 100, pi. xv, figs. 1, 2, 3 (1839-44). 



Typical locality. — Pontianak, Borneo. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 



f2 



238 Records of the Indian Museuvi. [Vol. XV, 

b. laticaudatus tupaioides^ (l^lytli). 

Journ. Asidl. Sor. Bengal, XXIV, ]). 477 (1855). 

Typical locality. — Malacca, Malay Peninsula. 
Type. — In Indian Museum. 

9664 (A. S. B.). Malacca, Malay Peninsula, 1851 (J. Moxon) [C] ; Type; skin 

only. 
(J Kao Nawng, Bandon, Siamese Malaya, 16tli June 1913 (H. C. Robinson) [C] : 

Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skin and skull. 
^ Parit, Perak, 16th September 1911, Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; 

skin and skull. 

c. laticaudatus leo, Thomas and Wroughton. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8) III, p. 440 (1909). 

Typical locality. — Changi, Singapore Island. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

d. laticaudatus rhionis, Thomas and Wroughton. 

Loc. cit. supra, ]>. 441. 

Typical locality. — Karimon Island. Rhio-Lingga Archipelago. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

e. laticaudatus robinsoni, Thomas. 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus., II, p. 104 (1908). 

Typical locality. — Tioman Island, East Coast, Malay Peninsula. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

cJ $ Juara Bay, Pulau Tioman, June-July 1915 (H. C. Robinson) [t!.] ; 
Federated Malay States Museum [P.] ; skins and skulls. 

f. laticaudatus incultus, Lyon. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., LII, p. 444 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Pulau Tuanku, Banjak Islands, West Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Genus RHEITHROSCIURUS, Gray, 1867. 

Ann. Mag. Na.t. Hist., XX, p. 272 (1867). 

Rheithrosciurus macrotis (Gray). 

p. Z. S., 1856, p. 341, pi. xlvi. 

Typical locality. — Sarawak. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Genus GLYPHOTES, Thomas, 1898. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), II. p. 251 (1898). 



^ Rhinosciunis peracer, Thos. and Wrought. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), III, p. 440 ; 
1909) cannot be separated with certainty from this form. 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 239 

Glyphotes simus, Thomas. 

op. cif. siijyra. 

Typical localitij. — Kinabalii, North Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Genus TAMIOPS, Allen. 

Bull. Am?r. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, p. 475 (1908). 

Tamiops macclellandi. 

a. macclellandi macclellandi (Horsf.). 

p. Z. S. 1839, p. 1.52. 

Typical locality. — " Assam". 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9671-4. Sikkim (L. Mandelli) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9675-6. Sikkim (H. J. Ehves) [E.] ; skins and skulls. 

9677. Rinok, Sikkim, 5,000 ft., Aug. 1870 (W. T. Blanford) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9678. Darjiling (W. G. Masson) [P.] : skin and skull. 

9679-80 (A. S. B. 34Ja, b.). Darjiling (Mrs. Cakes) [P.] ; skins and skulls. 
9681-82. ^ Naga Hills (H. H, Godwin- Austen) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9683-5. East Naga Hills, August 1875 (H. H. Godwin- Austen) [C] ; skins and 
skulls. 

9686. o* Near Peak 24, Naga Hills, February 1875 (H. H. Godwin -Austen) [C] ; 

skin and skull. 

The specimen 9686 differs from all others of this race in having three 
distinct black stripes on the back, the lateral ones quite as well marked 
as the median one. 

9687. S Ghota Naga Hills, December 1875 (A. W. Chennell) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9688. ? Naga Hills, April 1876 (A. W. Chennell) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9691-2. $ Duffla Hills, Assam (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [G] ; skin and skull. 
9689-90. Asalu, North Cachar, May 1876 (H. H. Godwin -Austen) [C] ; skins and 

skulls. 

One of these specimens (9690) in being lighter and greyer above 
shows an approach to the succeeding subspecies. 

9135-6. ^ Kobo, Abor Hills, 400 ft. (S. W. Kemp) [C] ; skins and skulls 
9142 ? Rotung, Abor Hills, 1,300 ft. (S. W. Kemp) [C ] ; skin and skull. 

The types of Sciurus pembertoni, Blyth {Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
XI. p. 887 ; 1842) from Bhutan, Avhich is probably a pure synonym 
of this race, do not now appear to be in existence. 

b. macclellandi manipurensis (Bonhote). 

Ann. Mag. Xaf. Hid., (7), V, p. 51 (1900). 

Typical locality. — Aimole, Manipur. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9693. Ponsee, Kakhyen Hills, 3,500 ft., Upiier Burma (Dr. J. Andorsoa) [C] ; 
skin and skull. 

Probably belonging to this form but the specimen is not in very 
"ood condition. 



240 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

c. macclellandi maritimus (Boiihote). 

Loc. cil. eupra, p. 51. 

Typicrd locality. — Foochow, China. 
Typs- — In British Museum. 

7372. Foo.'ho.v. China. April 1892 (C. B. Rickett) [C] ; (Topotype) ; skin and 
skull. 

d. macclellanli m3ntic3la3 (Bonhote). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 52. 

Typical locality .—Ching Feng Ling, 2000 ft. 
Typs.—ln British Museum. 

e. macclellanii formosanus (Bonhote). 

Loc. cit. supra, p. 52. 

Typical locality. — North Formosa. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9701. Formosa (R. Swinhoe) [C], (A. R. Alston) [P.] ; skin and skull. 

f. macclellanii barbel (Blyth). 

Jouni. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XVI, p. 875 (1847). 
Typical locality. — Ye, Tenasserim. 
Type. — In Indian Museum. 

9482-3 (A. S. B. 343a, b.). Ye, Tenasserim (Revd. J. Barbe) [C] ; (typss of the 

subspecies) ; skins and skulls. 
9898 (A. S. B. 343c). Tenasserim (Major Berdmore) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9094-7. Moulmein, October 1872 (Museum Collector) [C] ; skins and two skulls. 

g. maoclellanii kongensis (Bonhote). 

p. Z. S., 19!)1 (i), p. 55. 

Typical loccdity. — -Eaheng, Siam. 
Typ3. — In British Museum. 

9702. 9 Yebok, 3,003 It., Southern Shan States, December (Col. Bingham) 

[C] ; skin and skull. 

If we are right in assigning the above specimen to this race its 
affinities are rather with the Malayan novemlineatus from which it 
differs only in the narrower internal pale stripes on the back than with 
barbsi from Tenasserim All three forms are, however, exceedingly 
closely allied. 

h. macclellanii novemlineatus (Miller). 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XVI, p. 147 (1903). 

Typicil loo'dity. — Traug, Siamese Malaya. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

9778. No history ; skin and skull. 

901819. ^ ? Selingor-Pahang border, 4,030 ft., Milay Peains ila, Ojfcob3r 

1909 (F. M. S. Museum) [E.] ; skias and skulls. 
? Menuang Casing, Ulu Langat, Selangor, 3,000 ft., 28th Miy 1911 (F. M. S. 

Museum [P.] ; skins and skulls. 
cJ Biikit Kutu, Ulu Selangor, 3,400 ft., 21st August 1915. 



1918.] 11. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 241 

We have not used Teniminck's name for this species [Tamias leucotis, 
Zool. sur la Cote de Guenee, p. 252 (1853)] as adopted by Bonhote see- 
ing that as pointed out by Miller {he. cit.) the description does not fit 
the Malayan animal. 

There is no ambiguity about Miller's descri])tion and failing a re- 
examination of Temminck's type Miller's name has been adopted. 

i. macclellandi rodolphi (Milne-Edwards). 

Rev. et Mag. de Zool., XIX, p. 227 (1867) 

Typical locality. — Cochin China. 
Type. — In Paris Museum. 

j. macclellandi hainanus, Allen. 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXII, p. 476 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Lei-Mui Mon, Hainan (mountains). 

Type. — In American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

k. macclellandi riudoni, Allen. 

Loc. cit., supra, p. 477. 

Typical locality. — Riudon, Hainan (plains). 

Type. — In American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

1. macclellandi sauteri, Allen. 

Op. cit., XXX, p. 339 (1911). 

Typical locality. — Chip Chip, Northern Formosa. 

Type.— In American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

We are not acquainted with these three races and are therefore 
unable to place them in their correct positions ; the last race is 
recorded as having been collected in the same place on the same dates 
as a series of T. m. formosanus. 

Tamiops swinhoei (Milne-Edw.). 

Reck. des. Mamm., p. 308 (1874). 

Typical locality. — Moupin, C'hina. 
Type.— In Mus. Nat. Hist., Paris. 

9700. Miwan, Kiangsi, (!hina (Pere David) [E. | ; skin. 
9699. Moupin, W. China (Pere David) ; skin and skull. 

This Chinese form is we think snfficiently distinct from the races of 
T. macclellandi to merit specific distinction. 

The two specimens listed above from very widely separated localities 
are very different in appearance and probably represent distinct sub- 
species though possibly they are seasonal phases. That from Moupin 
has the dorsal stripes inconspicuous and almost obsolete, while the 
Kiangsi specimen has them very conspicuous, the two inner pale 
stripes being almost the colour of the back, while the outer ones are buff 
white. The three black stripes are broad and strongly marked. 



242 Records of fJie Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Genus FUNAMBULUS, Lesson, 183(5. 

Funambulus palmarum. 

a. palmarum palmarum (Linn.). 

8y8t. Nat., I, p. 86 (1766). 

Typical locality. — Madras (by selection). 
Type. — Not in existence. 

9642-6. 3S 2$ Madras Museum compound, 27th November, 1908 (Dr. N An- 

nandale) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9636-41. 4^, $ Shencottah, east side of Western Ghats, Travancore, 24th 

November. 1908 (Dr. N- Annandale) [C] ; skins and skulls. 

9514 (A. S. B. 340A). Midnapur, Bengal (E. Blyth) |C.] ; skin and skull. 

9515 (A. S. B. 340B). Midnapur, Bengal (E. Blyth) fC] ; skin and skull. 

9524. No history (Dr. Day) ; skin and skull. 

9525. No history (Dr. Day) skin only. 

9517. Trombay Island, Bombay, 28th January 1875 (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [C.] ; 

skin and skull. 
8081. d Mandapan, Ramancid, South India (Dr. N. Annandale) [C] ; skin and 

skull. 
9777. o Kalakhul, February 1875 ; skin and skull. 

b. palmarum comorinus, Wroughton. 

JotiDi. Nat. Hi'it. Sue. Bombay, XVI. p. 411 (1905). 

Typical locality. — -Trivandrum, Travancore. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9773-6. inim. Western side of Western Ghats, Travancore (Dr. N. Annandale) 
[C] ; skins snd skulls. 

We are rather doubtful about the validity of this subspecies, which 
would appear to be confined to the western side of the Western Ghats, 
as specimens from Shencottah on the eastern side are richer in colour 
and smaller and agree closely with typical specimens from Madras. 

We have, however, listed them under Wroughton "s name as the 
largest specimen has a maximum skull length of 42 mm. 

c. palmarum bellaricus, Wroughton. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Sor. Bombay, XXIV, p. 647 (1916). 

Typical locality.- — A^i/ayanagar. Bellary, South India. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9792-5. Vizayanagar, Bellary, S. India. 1 ..KiO feet. July 1912 (G. G. iShortridge) 

[C.] ; skins and skulls. 
9794. Houslayi, South Dharwar, South Mahratta Country, 2,000 feet, 18th 

February 1912 (G. G. Shortridge) [C. | ; skin and'skull. 
9791. Dharwar, South Mahratta Country, 29th October 1911 (G. C. Shortridge) 

[C] ; skin and skull. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey |P.J 

(1, palmarum favonicus, Thos. and W roughton. 

Jouni. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay. XXIV, p. 39 (1!I15). 

Typical locality. — LTdugama, Southern Piovince, Ceylon. 
Type. — In British Museum. 



1918.] H. C. fioJUNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciandae. 243 

e. palmarum kelaarti (Layaid). 

Blyth, Juarii. Asiul. Soc. Bengal, XVIII, p. 002 footnote (1849), id., oj). cit., XX 
p. 166 (1852): 

Typical locality. — Hambalotte. fJeylon. 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9479. Hambalotte, Ceylon (E. L. Layard) [C] ; skin and portions of skull. 

This specimen is evidently Layard's type but is so deteriorated that 
but little can be made out of it. The head to level of ears is ferruginous 
and the dorsal stripes very clearly defined and rather broad, the central 
one narrower. The face, however, does not appear to be ferruginous 
as stated in Thomas and Wroughton's key (loc. cit. supra.). 

9.52.3. Ceylon (Colombo Mus.) [P.] , skin and skull. 

This specimen agrees with the above type but has the ferruginous 
cap not quite so pronounced. All three back stripes buffy white, the 
median one paler. Midrib of tail rufous nearly to the tip. 

f. palmarum brodiei (Blyth). 

Jouni. Adial. Soc. Bengal, XVIII, p. 602 (1849). 

Typical locality. — Point Pedro, Ceylon. 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9480. Point Pedro, Cevlon (E, L. Layard) [C.J; type of the sub.species ; skin 

and imperfect skull. 

Not much can be made out of tfiis specimen which has been exposed 
to light mounted in a gallery for 60 years. 

9522. Ceylon (Dr. Kelaart) [C.J; skin and fragmentary skull. 

g. palmarum olympius, Thos. and Wrought. 

0]). cit. supra, p. 41. 

Typical locality. — Unugalla, Highlands of Central Ceylon. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9521 (A. S. B.). Ceylon (R. Templeton) ; skin and fragmentary skull, also an- 
other skull with this number. 

This specimen recorded by W. L. Sclater {Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus., 
II, p. 25 ; 1891) as one of the types of F. p. kelaarti is obviously not so. 
It is, allowing for deterioration in both specimens, a much darker, richer 
coloured specimen than Layard's type, with broader bufTy stripes and 
with no ferruginous cap. AVe have therefore assigned it to this race. 

h. palmarum robertsoni (Wroughton). 

Loc. cit. siipra, p. 647. 

Typical locality. — Pachmarhi, Hosengabad, Central Provinces. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9793-6. Pachmarhi, Hosengabad, Central Provinces, 3,000 feet, March 1912, 

skins and skulls : Topotypc<. 
C. M. Crump [C] ; Bombay'Nat. Hist. Soc. Mamm. Survey (P.J 



244 Records of the Indian Museum. ["^^L. XV, 

i. palmarum bengalensis (Wrouohton). 

Loc. cil. supra, p. 6iS. 

Typical localiti/. — ^Hazaribagh, Bengal (now Bihar). 

Type. — In Biitish Museum. 

The specimens from Midnapur, listed above under F. palmarum 
palmarum, presumably belong to this form but for the present we prefer 
to leave them under the original name as we have not been able to 
compare them with the description. 



Funambulus pennanti. 

a. pennanti argentescens, Wrought on. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XVI, p. 413 (1905), 

Typical locality. — Eawalpindi. 
Tyj)e. — In British Museum. 

10210. c? Rawalpindi, Punjab, June 1917 (R. A. Hodgart) [C] ; skin and skull. 

9618. $ Pishiii, Persian Baluchistan, 7tli February 1872 (\V. T. Blanford) [C] ; 

skin and skull. 
9799. (J Bhuj, Cutch, 1st August 1911 (C. H. Crump) [C] ; Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Mammal Survey [P.] ; skin and skull. 

Though Mr. Wroughton {Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, XXI, p. 
839 ; 1912) has identified this last specimen as typical F. p. pennanti, 
it must, we think on account of its pale colour, small size and narrowed 
skull, be regarded as belonging to this desert form. 

b. pennanti lutescens, Wroughton. 

Jovrn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 429 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Deesa, Palanpur. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. pennanti pennanti, Wroughton. 

Typical locality. — Mandvi Taluka, Surat District, Bombay. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9635. (S Agra Fort, 10th January 1908 (R. A. Hodgart) [C] ; skin only. 
9631-3. cJ, 2$ Lucknow, 17th January 1908 (R. A. Hodgart) [C] ; skins and 

two skulls. 
9630, 8433, 8435. 2^^, $ Bareilli, March 1907 ; skins and skulls. 
9634, 8434, 8436. 3$ Bijnor, January 1907 (R. A. Hodgart) [C] ; skins and 

skulls. 

9619. Bichiakoh, Nepal Terai. 21st December, 1877 (J. Scully) [C.J ; skhi and 

skull. 
9622-6. 3(J Calcutta, 1869-70 (J. Anderson) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
9493-6. (J, 3$ Calcutta, August, 1911 (R. A. Hodgart) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
7562 imm. Albino, Calcutta ; skin and skull. 
9652. Sita Nullah, Paresnath Hill, Bengal, 11th April 1909 (Drs. N. Annanilale 

and J. T. Jenkins) [C] ; skin and skull. 
9649-51. 2(3' Balur, Lower Bengal, November 1908 (J. Caunter) [C] ; skins and 

skulls. 
9620-1. 2(^ Manbhoom. Bengal (Mus. Coll.) ; skin and one skull. 
9516. Ranchi, Cbota Natipur, May 1870 (W. T. Blanford) [C.]; skin. 



1918.] H. C. KoiuNSON & C. B. Kloss: Sciuridae. -245 

These last three specimens are unusually dark with the final lateral 
light stripe poorly developed. They probably represent a distinct 
form as yet unnamed. 

9647-8. 2? Balighai, Puri District, Orissa, 23rd Octobc-r 1008 (Dr. N. Annan - 

dale) [C] ; skins. 
9497. S Balighai, Puri District, Orissa, 17th August 1911 (Dr. N. Annandale 

and F. H. Graveley) [C] ; skin and skull, 
9046. Rambha State, Lake Cbilka, Ganjam District (Dr. N. Annandale) [C] ; 

skin and skull. 

These four specimens come from the meetino place of pemicmti and 
pcdmcirum and while one is indis23utably the former race, the last-men- 
tioned skin would, but for its locality, be assignable to the latter. Per- 
haps there has been some transposition of labels. 

9628. Hyderabad, 1855 (Dr. H. Gould) [P.] ; a sandy coloured form, by no means 

typical ; skin only. 

9629. No locality (E. R. Alston) ; skin and skull. 

9627. $ Chanda, Central Provinces, 6th May 1867 (Mus. Coll.); skin and skull. 

9798. (j Chanda, Central Provinces, 800 ft., June 1912 , skin and skull. 

9797. $ Chichpalli, Chanda, Central Provinces, June 1912, 1,300 ft. (C. M. 

Crump) [C] ; Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey [P.] ; skin 

and skull. 

Funambulus tristriatus. 

a. tristriatus tristriatus (Waterh.), 

Charlesworth's Mag. Xat. Hist., I, pp. 496-9 (1837). 

Typical locality. — Non-cited. Madras by subsequent designation. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

9800. Dharwar, South Mahratta Country, 31st October 1911 ; skin and skuU. 
9803. Devikop, South Mahratta Country, 2,000 ft., 27th November 1911; skm 

and skull. 

9801. Sirsi, Kanara, 1,500 ft., 6th April 1912 ; skhi and skull. 

9802. Potoi, North Kanara, 1,800 ft., 18th January 1912 (G. C. Shortridgc) [C] 

Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Mammal Survey [P.] ; skin and skull. 
9518. Kalakhul (H. H. Godwin-Austen) [P.] ; skin only. 
9528. No history ; skin only. 
9526. No history ; skin only. 
9520, 9519. Travancore (probably eastern side of the Ghats) ; skins only. 

b. tristriatus numarius, Wroughton. 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, p. 646 (1916). 

Typical locality. — Helwak, Satara Dist., W. Ghats, Bombay. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. tristriatus, subsp. nov ? 

9513. Sikkim (H. J. Elwes) [E.] ; skin only. 

This specimen is obviously subspecifically distinct from others of 
the group but as there is no skull vr measurements we prefer not to name 
it. It differs from all others of the group in the great reduction of the 
longitudinal white stripes on the back, the median one being almost 
obsolete. The general colour above is darker and the "" saddle " is not 
specially marked. It is possible that it is not referable to this genus at 
all but in the absence of a skull nothing can be definitely stated. 



246 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

d. tristriatus annandalei,^ Eobinson. 

Rec. Ind. Mus. XIII, p. 41 (1917). 

Type. — Adult female. Indian Museum No. 8498, skin and skull 
(lower mandible missing), collected at Shasthancotta, west side of 
Western Ghats, Travancore, on 8tli November 1908, by Dr. N. Annan- 
dale. 

Diagnosis. — A large richly coloured form allied to F. t. tristriatus 
(Waterh.), but larger, smaller than F. wroughtoni, Ryley. from Coorg.^ 
Longitudinal stripes on back narro^v, whitish, traceable to neck. Saddle 
black, tail with white tips to hairs exceptionally well developed, anal 
region and midrib to tip rich chestnut. 

Colour. — Head and cheeks to behind the eye ferruginous, speckled 
with black, richest on top of head ; rest of upper surface speckled black 
greyish and fulvous, the rump with a strong ferruginous suffusion, the 
longitudinal stripes almost pure white, narrow and well defined except 
on the back of the neck, " saddle "' almost pure black ; hands speckled 
greyish-black, feet with a more fulvous tint. Tail black, with broad 
white tips to the hairs and a buff basal and sub-basal band when viewed 
from above, beneath rufous chestnut basally, black mesially with the 
apical part broadly white, anal region chestnut, undersurface pure 
white. 

Dimensions. — External measurements, taken in the flesh : head and 
body, 170 (195)3 ; tail, 161 (172) ; hindfoot, 35 (46)* ; ear, 20 (18) mm. 

Skull.—Tot&l length, 43-2 (48) ; condylo-basilar length, 37-8 (44-2) ; 
diastema, 10-4 (11*6) ; length of upper molar series including pm., 8-4 
(9-5) ; zygomatic breadth, 24-5 (26-7) ; median length of nasals, 14-0. 

Specimens examined. — Five skins and skulls, four from the type 
locality and one from an unknown locality. 

Remarks. — In default of authenticated specimens from Madras, 
we have taken modern skins from Kanara as typical of F. t. tristriatus, 
Waterh. though it is by no means impossible that these will prove to 
represent yet another form.^ The present race will probably prove to 
be confined to the forest country west of the Ghats in Travancore being 
the analogue of F. palmarum comorinus. The differences in size have 
already been noted by Wroughton {Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomhay, 
XVI, p. 411 ; 1905). 

8496-9. 2^, 2J Sasthaucotta, west side of Western Ghats, Travancore, Novem- 
ber 1908 (Dr. N. Annandale) [C] ; skins and skulls. 
No. 8498 type of the subspecies. 
9527. No particulars (Dr. Day) ; skin and skull. 

Funambulus wroughtoni, Ryley. 

.Joiirn. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXll, p. 437 (1913). 

Typical locality. — Makut, South Coorg. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

1 It is .this form apparently that Wroughton (Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXIV, 
p. 645 ; l9l6) regards as typical F. tristriatus. 

2 Ryley, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bombay, XXII, p. 437 (1913). 

* Measurements in parentheses those of the type of Funambulus wroughtoni. 

* 40 mm. measured dry. 

* F. t. numarius, antea. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. -247 

Funambulus layardi. 

a. layardi layardi (Blyth). 

Journ. A-siaf. Soc. Bengal, XVIII, p. 602 (1849). 

Typical locality. — Ambegamoa Hills, Ceylon. 
Type. — In Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

9481. Ambegamoa Hills, Ceylon (E. L. Layard) [f'.] ; type of the species; skin 
and skull. 

b. layardi dravidianus, Robinson. 

Rec. Ind. Mus. XIII, p. 42 (1917). 

Tijpe of the subspecies. — Immature skin and skull. Indian Museum 
No. 9773, collected by Dr. N. Annandale on the western side of the 
Western Ghats, Travancore. 

Diagnosis. — 'Differs from the type in havino- the top of the head and 
cheeks rich rufous orange and the undersurface yellowish-orange instead 
of dull chestnut. Area between the light bands on the back deep 
lustrous black. 

Skull. — The specimen is quite immature with the deciduous pre- 
molars in place and is much damaged so it is useless giving any measure- 
ments. 

Remarks. — It is unfortunate that there is no original lable attached 
to this specimen and that there are therefore no measurements to be 
quoted. It, however, serves to confirm Jerdon's statement that the 
species is found in Southern India and I have therefore ventured to 
name it. It is to be hoped that further specimens may shortly be avail- 
able. 

9773 imm. West side of Western Ghats, Travancore (Dr. N. Annandale) [C] • 
type of the subspecies ; skin and imperfect skull. 

Funambulus sublineatus. 

a. sublineatus sublineatus (Waterhouse). 

P. Z. S., 1838, p. 19. 

Typical locality. — Unknown. Nilgiris by subsequent designation. ^ 
Type. — Originally in Zool. Soc. Coll. 

7242. Panmudi, Travancore, December 1890 (H. S. Ferguson) [C] ; skin and skull 

9661 (A. S. B. 342a). Nilgiris, 1844 (T. C. Jerdon) [C] ; skin and skuU 

9662 (A. S. B. 342b). Malabar, 1859 (Revd. H. Baker, junr.) [C] ; skin and 

skuU. 

b. sublineatus obseurus (Pelz. and Kohl.). 

Verh. Zool. Bat. Ges. Wien., XXXV, p. 525 (1886). 

Typical locality. — I'plands of Ceylon. 
Type. — In A^ienna Museum. 

9663 (A. S. B. 342c). Ceylon, 1859 (Dr. Kelaart) ; skin and skull. 

1 Blyth, Journ. Asiit. Soc. Bengal, XVI, p. 87-5. 



248 Records of the Indian Museum. ly^^- ^^j 

The Ceylon race of this squirrel to which the above name mnst pro- 
bably be ascribed appears to differ from the Southern Indian form 
in having the general colour darker and the back stripes much less 

disti net. 

The specimen listed may be regarded as the type of Sciurvs trili- 
neatus, Kelaart {Prodr. Faun. Zeylon, p. 52 ; 1854), a name which had 
been inadvertently used by Blyth in speaking of F. layardi, thus render- 
ino- it inavailable. Under these circumstances the form has been re-named 
by Thomas Funamhulus kathleenae {Journ. Nat. Hist. Sac. Bombay, 
XXIV, p. 38; 1915), which in its turn is preoccupied by the name at the 
head of this section. 

Subfamily NANNOSCWRINAE. 

Genus NANNOSCIURUS, Tionessart, 1880. 

Le Naturalise, 1880, p. 290. 

Nannosciurus exilis. 

a. exilis exilis (Mueller and Schlegel). 

Tids. Natur. Ges., 1838, p. 148. 

Typical locality. — Batang Singalang, Sumatra. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 

b. exilis retectus, Thomas. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), V, p. 387 (1910). 

Typical locality. — Banguey Island, North Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

c. exilis concinnus, Thomas. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ((3), II, p. 407 (1888). 

Typical locality. — Basilan Island, Sulu Group. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

Nannosciuras whiteheadi (Thomas). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (.5), XX, p. 127 (1887). 
P. Z. S., 1889, pi. xxiv. 

Typical locality. — Mount Kinabalu, North Borneo. 
Type. — In British Museum. 

7234, Kinabalu, North Borneo (J. Whitehead) [C] ; skin and skull. 

Nannosciurus melanotis. 
a. melanotis melanotis, Mueller and Schlegel. 

Teniminck's Verhandelingen, Zoolorjie, p. 98, pi. xiv, fig. 4 (1830-44). 

Typical locality. — Java. 
Type. — In Leyden Museum. 



1918.] H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 249 

b. melanotis sumatranus, Lyon. 

Fror. liiul. Soc. Wa-slungton, XIX, p. 5.3 (1906). 

Typical locality. — Tarussan Bay, West Sumatra. 
T'y2)e. — In United States National Museum. 

c. melanotis pulcher, Lyon. 

Oj). cit. swpra, p. 53. 

Typical locality. — Singkep Island, near Sumatra. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

d. melanotis baneanus, Lyon. 

Op. cit. siipm, p. 55. 

Typical locality. — Klabat Bay, Bangka Island. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

c. melanotis borneanus, Lyon. 

Op. cit. supra, p. 54. 

Typical locality. — Sanggau, West Borneo. 
Type. — In United States National Museum. 

9460. Sarawak, Borneo (A. E. Wallace) [C] ; skin and skull. 

ADDENDA. 

p. 173. Petaurista yunnanensis (Anderson). 

10335. Nam Tamai Valley, Putao, N.-E. Burma, 4,500 ft., 27° 50' N., 97° 
50' E., 29tli June 1918 ; skull and rostrum. 

Though this specimen is not quite typical it is best referred to this 
species until better specimens are obtained. It is more profusely 
speckled with white above than the original typical series and the general 
colour is a less deep maroon. 

p. 174. Petaurista lylei, Bonh. 
b. lylei venningi, Thos. 

10339. Kalaw, Southern Shan States (G. Lee Tuppen) [C] ; skin and skull. 

Agrees fairly well with the original description, being a generally 
darker animal than the typical F. I. lylei from Siam with four speci- 
mens of which it has been compared. 

p. 192. Ratufa gigantea. 
a. gigantea gigantea (McClell.) 

10336-7. Putao Road (Hkamti Long), N.-E. Burma, Lat. 27° 30' N ; 26th June 
1918 (Dr. Murray Stuart) [C] ; skins only (remade). 

These specimens appear to be referable to R. gigantea gigantea 
(McClell.), which has also been obtained at Hkamti on the Upper 



250 Rec:)t(h of flte liuliau Miis(uiii. [Vol. XV, 

Chindwin {Jour. Nat. Hist. Soc. Bomhay. XXIV, p. 226) and is known 
from N. Siara and the N. Shan States. 

No. 10366 has an obscurely speckled appearance due to narrow 
liazel terminal annulations. 

p. 198. Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas). 
o. erythraeus gordoni (Anderson). 

103.34. Nam Tisang Valley, Putao (Hkamti Long), N -E. Burma, 2.000 ft., 
Lat. 27° 30' N.^ April 1918 (Dr. Murray Stuart) [C] ; skin. 



1918.] 



H. C. Robinson & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 



251 



INDEX TO LIST OF ORIENTAL SCIURIDAE. 



The entries are arranged under the names of genera, of species and of subspecies. 



Page. 

abbottii (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 217 

adamsoni (Dremomys rufigenis) ... 237 

adangensis (Callosciurus canicejjs) 209 

Aeromys ... ... ... 183 

affinis (Ratufa affinis) ... ... 191 

albescens (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 219 

albipes (Ratufa macroura) ... 185 

albiventer (Petaurista) ... 175 

albivexilli (Callosciurus germaini) ... 205 

alboniger (Hylopetes) ... ... 182 

alboruf us (Petaurista) ... 174 

altinsularis (Callosciurus caniceps) 208 

altitudinis (Tomeutes tenuis) ... 229 

amoenus (Hylopetes) ... ... 181 

amotus (Menetes berdmorei) ... 231 

anambae (Ratufa melanopepla) ... 196 

anambensis (Callosciurus vittatus) 217 

angusticeps (Ratufa melanopepla) 196 

annamensis (Petaurista annamensis) 174 

annandalei (Funambulus tristriatus) 246 

aoris (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 217 

arendsis (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 218 

argentescens (Funambulus pennanti) 244 

armalis (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 212 

arusinus (Ratufa affinis) ... 192 

atratus (Tomeutes melanogaster) ... 228 

atricapillus (Callosciurus prevosti)... 213 

atrodorsalis (Callosciurus atrodorsalis) 205 

atrox (Callosciurus jarevosti) ... 213 

aurantiacus (Hylopetes) ... 181 

aureiventer (Ratufa affinis) ... 191 

balae (Ratufa affinis) ... ... 192 

balae (Tomeutes lowii) ... 230 

baliensis (Ratufa bicolor) ... 187 

balstoni (Callosciurus notatus) ... 221 

baluensis (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 214 

bancana (Ratufa ephippium) ... 190 

bancanus (Nannosciurus melanotis) 249 [ 

bancarus (Tomeutes tenuis) ... 229 

bangkanus (Callosciurus prevosti) 212 

bangueyae (Tomeutes lowii) ... 230 

baramensis (Ratufa ephippium) ... 189 

barbel (Tamiops macclellandi) ... 240 

barroni (Petaurista annamensis) ... 174 

bartoni (Callosciurus sladeni) ... 202 

batuana (Ratufa bicolor) ... 188 

batuanus (Petaurista petaurista) ... 173 

batus (Tomeutes tenuis) ... 229 

belfieldi (Dremomys rufigenis) ... 236 

bellaricus (Funambulus ])almarum) 242 

bellona (Tomeutes mearsi) ... 224 

Belomys ... ... ... 179 

belone (Hylopetes) ... ... 181 

bengalensis (Funambulus palmarum) 244 

bengalensis (Ratufa indica) ... 186 

bentincanus (Callosciurus caniceps) 207 



Page. 

berdmorei (Menetes berdmorei) ... 231 

bhotia (Dremomys lokriah) ... 235 

bhutanensis (Callosciurus erythraeus) 197 

bicolor (Ratufa bicolor) ... 187 
bilimitatus (Callosciurus nigro- 

vittatus) ... ... 222 

billitonus (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 220 

birrelli (Petaurista) ... ... 176 

blanfordi (Tomeutes phayrei) ... 226 

bocki (Callosciurus nigro vittatus) ... 222 

bocourti (Callosciurus bocourti) ... 204 

bonhotei (Callosciurus erythraeus) 200 

borneanus (Nannosciurus melanotis) 249 
borneanus (Pteromyscus pul- 

verulentus) ... ... 180 

borneoensis (Callosciurus prevosti) 212 

borneonensis (Petinomys genibarbis) 183 

brodiei (Funambulus palmarum) ... 243 

brookei (Tomeutes) ... ... 231 

bulana (Ratufa notabilis) ... 188 

bunguranensis (Ratufa ej^hippium) 190 

calidior (Dremomys pernj'i) ... 235 

Callosciurus ... ... 196 

candidulus (Petaurista) ... 174 

caniceps (Callosciurus caniceps) ... 206 

caniceps (Petauristar) ... ... 176 

careyi (Callosciurus sladeni) ... 202 
carimatae (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 212 
carimonensis (Callosciurus prevosti) 212 
carimonensis (Ratufa notabilis) ... 188 
caroli (Callosciurus prevosti) .,, 213 
casensis (Callosciurus caniceps) ... 208 
castaneoventris (Callosciurus ery- 
thraeus) ... ... 199 

catemana (Ratufa affinis) ... 191 

celaenoi3epla (Ratufa melanopepla) 195 

centralis (Callosciurus erythraeus) 201 

centralis (Ratufa indica) ... 186 

chintalis (Dremomys i)ernyi) ... 235 

cicur (Petaurista petaurista) ... 172 

Cinderella (Petaurista philippensis) 177 

cineraceus (Eupetaurus) ... 178 

cineraceus (Petaurista) ... 175 
cinnamomeus (Callosciurus ferru- 

gmeus) ... ... ... 203 

comorinus (Funambulus palmarum) 242 

concinnus (Nannosciurus exilis) ... 248 

concolor (Callosciurus caniceps) ... 209 

condurensis (Callosciurus prevosti) 211 

condurensis (Ratufa notabilis) ... 189 

confinis (Ratufa notabilis) ... 189 

conipus (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 219 

conspicua (Ratufa notabilis) ... 189 

consularis (Menetes berdmorei) ... 232 

cothurnata (Ratufa ephippium) ... 189 

crumpi (Callosciurus erythraeus) ... 201 

G 



252 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



dandolena (Ratufa macroura) 
datus (Callosciurus vittatus) 
davisoni (Callosciurus caniceps) 
davisoni (lomys horsfieldi) 
dealbata (Ratufa indica) 
decolorata (Ratufa melanopepla) ... 
decoratus (Menetes berdmorei) 
dextralis (Callosciurus bocourti) . . 
dilutais (Callosciurus vittatus) 
director (Callosciurus vittatus) 
diversus (Lariscus insignis) 
domelicus (Callosciurus caniceps) ... 
dravidianus (Funambulus layrdia) 
Dremomys 
dulitensis (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 

elegans (Petaurista) 
emiliae (Petaurillus) ... 
Eoglaucomys 

ephippium (Ratufa ephippium) 
epomophorus (Callosciurus caniceps) 
erythraeus (Callosciurus erythreaus) 
erythrogaster (Callosciurus ery- 
thraeus) 
erythromelas (Callosciurus prevosti) 
Eupetaurus 

everetti (Dremomys) ... 
everetti ( Hylopetes) 
exilis (Nannosciurus exilis) 

fallax (Callosciurus caniceps) 
famulus (Callosciurus vittatus) 
favonicus (Funambulus palmarum) 
fellii (Ratufa gigantea) 
femoralis (Ratufa aiiinis) 
ferrugineus (Callosciurus ferru- 

gineus) ... 
fimbriatus (Eoglaucomys) 
finlaysoni (Callosciurus finlaysoni) 
flavior (Dremomys pernyi) 
flowed (Callosciurus bocourti) 
folletti (Callosciurus finlaysoni) ... 
formosanus (Tamiops macclellandi) 
fornicatus (Lariscus insignis) 
frandseni (Callosciurus ferrugineus) 
fryanus (Callosciurus sladeni) 
fretensis (Ratufa melanopepla) 
fulvinus (Petaurista) ... 
Funambulus 

fuscocapillus (Petinomys) 
fuscus (Dremomys rufigenis) 



Page. 
185 
218 
207 
179 
187 
19.3 
232 
204 
219 
218 
233 
207 
247 
234 
219 



177 

180 
184 
189 
20S 
195 

197 
214 

178 
236 
181 

248 

208 
217 
242 
193 
192 

202 
184 
203 
234 
204 
203 
240 
233 
203 
202 
195 
176 
242 
184 
236 



genibarbis ( Petinomys genibarbis) ... 183 

germaini (Callosciurus germaini) ... 204 

gigantea (Ratufa gigantea) 192, 249 

Glyphotes ... ... ... 238 

gordoni (Callosciurus erythraeus) 198, 2.50 

grayi (Tomeutes hippurus) ... 227 

griseicauda (Callosciurus prevosti)... 213 

griseicollis (Ratufa ephippium) ... 190 
griseimanus (Callosciurus grisei- 

manus) ... ... ... 209 

griselda (Dremomys pernyi) ... 234 
griseopectus (Callosciurus ery- 
thraeus) ... ... 199 

gruti (Callosciurus bocourti) ... 204 

gunong (Tomeutes tenuis) ... 228 



Page. 
haemobaphes (Callosciurus ery- 
thraeus) ... ... 200 

hageni (Petinomys) ... ... 184 

hainana (Ratufa gigantea) ... 194 

hainanus (Tamiops macclellandi) ... 241 

haringtoni (Callosciurus sladeni) ... 202 

harmandi (Callosciurus bocourti) ... 204 

harrisoni (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 211 

harrisoni ( ? Hylojietes) ... 182 

helgei ? (Tomeutes) ... ... 231 

hippurellus (Tomeutes hippurus) ... 227 

hippurosus (Tomeutes hippurus) ... 227 

hippurus (Tomeutes hippurus) ... 226 

horsfieldi (lomys horsfieldi) ... 178 

hosei (Lariscus) ... ... 2.34 

hosei (Petaurillus) ... ... 180 

humei (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 211 

humilis (Tomeutes lowii) ... 2.30 

Hylopetes ... ... ... 181 

hyperythrus (Callosciurus ery- 

"thraeus) ... ... 199 

hypoleuca (Ratufa affinis) ... 191 

ictericus (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 218 
incultus (Rhinosciurus laticaudatus) 238 
indica (Ratufa indica) ... 186 
inexpectatus (Callosciurus caniceps) 207 
inornatus (Petaurista) ... 176 
inquinatus (Tomeutes pryeri) ... 227 
insignis (Lariscus insignis) ... 233 
insignis (Ratufa notabilis) ... 188 
intermedins (Callosciurus ery- 
thraeus) ... ' ... 197 
lomys ... ... ... 178 

jalorensis (Lariscus insignis) ... 233 

janetta (Tomeutes pygerythrus) ... 226 

javanus (Lariscus insignis) ... 234 

jentinki (Tomeutes) ... ... 231 

johorensis (Callosciurus nigro- 

vittatus) ... ... 222 

johorensis (Ratufa affinis) ... 191 

kaleensis (Belomys) ... ... 179 

kelaarti (Funambulus palmarum) 243 

kinlochi (Petaurillus) ... ... 181 

kinneari (Callosciurus erythraeus) 198 

klossii (Callosciurus nigrovittatus) 223 

kongensis (Tamiops macclellandi) 240 

koratensis (Menetes berdmorei) ... 231 

kuchingensis (Callosciurus prevosti) 213 

laenata (Ratufa bicolor) ... 188 

lamucotanus (Callosciurus vittatus) 218 

lancaveirsis (Callosciurus caniceps) 209 

lanka (Petaurista philippensis) ... 177 

laotum (Hylopetes phayrei) ... 182 

Lariscus ... ... ... 232 

laticaudatus (Rhinosciurus lati- 
caudatus) ... ... 237 

lautensis (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 219 

layardi (Funambulus layardi) ... 247 

leo (Rhinosciurus laticaudatus) ... 238 

lepidus(? Hylopetes) ... ... 182 

lepidus (lomys horsfieldi) ... 179 

leucogenys (Petaurista) ... 176 

leucogenys (Ratufa phaeopepla) ... 194 

leucopus (Callosciurus griseimanus) 210 



1918.] H. C. EoBiNSON & C. B. Kloss : Sciuridae. 



253 



lokriah (Dremomys lokriah) 
lokroides (Tomeutes) ... 
lokroides (Tomeutes lokroides) 
lowii (Tomeutes lowii) 
lucas (Callosciurus caniceps) 
lugens (Petinomys) 
lutescens (Callosciurus vittatus) 
lutescens (Funambulus pennanti) 
lutrina (Ratufa gigantea) 
lylei (Callosciurus bocourti) 
lylei ( Petaurista lylei) ... 

macclellandi (Tamiops macclellandi) 
macmillani (Dremomys) 
macrotis (Rheithrosciurus) 
macroura (Ratufa macroura) 
macruroides (Ratufa gigantea) 
madurae (Callosciurus notatus) 
maerens (Petinomys) ... 
magnificus (Petaurista) 
malaccanus (Petinomys genibarbis) 
manipurensis (Tamiops mac- 
clellandi) 
mansalaris (Tomeutes tenuis) 
jnaporensis (Callosciurus vittatus) 
marana (Ratufa phaeopepla) 
marchio (Petaurista petaurista) 
marica (Petaurista j^unctatus) 
marinsularis (Callosciurus vittatus) 
maritimus (Tamiops macclellandi) 
niasae (Ratufa affinis) 
matthaeus (Callosciurus caniceps) 
maxima (Ratufa indica) 
meaisi (Tomeutes) 
niearsi (Tomeutes mearsi) 
melanochroa (Ratufa macroura) ... 
molanogaster (Tomeutes melano- 

gaster) ... 
melanopepla (Ratufa melanopepla) 
nielanops (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 
melanopterus (Petaurista) 
melanotis (Nannosciurus melanotis) 
melanotus (Petaurista petaurista) 
mendananus (Callosciurus prevosti) 
Menetes 

meridionalis (Lariscus insignis) 
raichianus (Callosciurus erythraeus) 
microrhynchus (Callosciurus nigro- 

vittatus) 
microtis (Callosciurus notatus) 
midas (Callosciurus sladeni) 
millardi (Callosciurus sladeni) 
milleri (Callosciurus caniceps) 
mimelus (Callosciurus prevosti) 
mimiculus (Callosciurus prevosti) .. 
mimicus (Petaurista petaurista) 
miniatus (Callosciurus vittatus) 
modestus (Dremomys pernyi) 
modestus (Tomeutes tenuis) 
moerescens (Menetes berdmorei) .. 
monticolus (Tamiops macclellandi) 
mouhoti (Menetes berdmorei) 

nagarum (Callosciurus erythraeus) 

nanogigas (Ratufa ephippium) 

Nannosciurinae 

Nannosciurus 

Jiatunensis (Tomeutes lowii) 



235 
223 
223 

229 
208 
183 
218 
244 
193 
204 
174 

239 
236 
238 
185 
193 
221 
183 
175 
183 

239 
229 
216 
194 
173 i 
178 ; 
218 
240 

192 ; 

207 I 

187 

223 

224 

185 

227 
195 
211 
176 
248 
172 
212 
231 
233 
200 

222 
222 
201 
202 
208 
215 
215 
173 
220 
235 
229 
232 
240 
232 

197 
190 
248 
248 
230 



Page. 
navigator (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 215 
nesiotes (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 216 
nigrescens (Ratufa affinis) ... 192 
nigricaudatus (Petaurista petau- 
rista) "... ... ... 172 

nigripes (Hylopetes) ... ... 181 

nigrovittatus (Callosciurus nigro- 

vittatus) ... ... 222 

ningpoensia (Callosciurus ery- 
thraeus) ... ... 200 

niobe (Lariscus insignis) ... 233 
nitidulus (Petaurista petaurista) ... 173 
notabilis (Ratufa notabilis) ... 188 
notatus (Callosciurus notatus) ... 221 
novemlineatus (Tamiops mac- 
clellandi) ... ... 240 

nox (Callosciurus germaini) ... 205 

numarius (Funambulus tristriatus) 245 

nyx (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 215 

obscurus (Funambulus sublineatus) 247 

obscurus (Lariscus insignis) ... 234 

olympius (Funambulus palmarum) 243 

opimus (Dremomys rufigenis) ... 237 

oral (Petaurista philippensis) ... 177 

orestes (Callosciurus nigrovittatus) 223 

ornatus (Dremomys rufigenis) ... 237 

owstoni (Dremomys) ... ... 233 

owensi (Tomeutes lokroides) ... 224 

palliata (Ratufa bicolor) ... 188 

palmarum (Funambulus palmarum) 242 

palustris (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 213 

pannovianus (Callosciurus vittatus) 217 

parvus (Tomeutes tenuis) ... 229 

pearsoni (Belomys) ... ... 179 

pectoralis (Petaurista) ... 176 
pelapis (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 212 
pemangilensis (Callosciurus vitta- 
tus) ... ... ... 217 

penangensis (Ratufa melanopepla) 195 

penialius (Callosciurus prevosti) 211 

peninsulae (Ratufa melanopepla) ... 195 

peninsularis (Callosciurus vittatus) 216 

pennanti (Funambulus pennanti) ... 244 

peril entiani (Callosciurus vittatus) 220 

pernyi (Dremomys pemyi) ... 234 

Petaurillus ... ... 180 

Petaurista ... ... 171 

petaurista (Petaurista petaurista) 172 

Petauristinae ... ... 171 

Petinomys ... ... 183 

phaeopepla (Ratufa phaeopepla) ... 194 
phaeomelas (Aeromys) ... 183 
phayrei (Hylopetes phayrei) ... 181 
phayrei (Tomeutes phayrei) ... 225 
philippensis (Petaurista philip- 
pensis) ... ... ... 177 

phipsoni (Petinomys) ... ... 184 

piceus (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 214 

piniensis (Ratufa affinis) ... 192 

piniensis (Tomeutes lowii) ... 230 

plasticus (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 220 

platyurus (Hylopetes) ... 181 

pluto (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 214 

polia (Ratufa ephippium) ... 190 

pranis (Callosciurus atrodorsalis) ... 206 

pretiosus (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 215 



254 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



prevosti (Callosciurus prevosti) 

probus ( H ylopetes phayrei) 

proserpinae (Callosciurus prevosti) 

proteus (Callosciurus vittatus) 

pryeri (Tomeutes pryeri) 

Pteromiinae 

Pteromyscus 

pulcher (Nannosciurus mclanotis) 

pulverulentus (Pteromyscus pul- 

verulentus) 
pumilus (Tomeutes tenuis) 
puntatatissimus (Callosciurus ery- 

thraeus) 
punctatus (Petaurista punctatus) 
pygerythius (Tomeutes pygery- 

thrus) 
pyrrhomerus (Dreraomys rufigenis) 
pyrsonota (Ratufa affinis) 

quinquestriatus (Tomeutes) 

rafflesii (Callosciurus prevosti) 
rajah (Petaurista petaurista) 
Ratufa 

retcctus (Nannosciurus exilis) 
Rheithrosciurus 

rliionis (Rhinosciurus laticaudatus) 
Rhinosciurus 

riudonensis (Dremomys rufigenis) 
riudoni (Tamiops macclellandi) 
roberti (Callosciurus erythraeus) ... 
robertsoni (Funambulus palmarum) 
robinsoni (Rhinosciurus laticau- 
datus) ... 
robinsoni (Tomeutes lowii) 
rodolphi (Tamiops macclellandi) ... 
rostra tus (Lariscus insignis) 
rubeculus (Callosciurus erythraeus) 
rubex (Callosciurus sladeni) 
rubidiventris (Callosciurus vittatus) 
rubriventer (Tomeutes) 
rufescens (Menetes berdmorei) 
rufigenis ( Dremomys rufigenis) 
rufoniger (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 
rupatius (Callosciurus vittatus) 
rutiliventris (Callosciurus vittatus) 

sagitta ( ? Hylopetes) ... 
samuiensis (Callosciurus caniceps) 
sandakanensis (Ratufa ephippium) 
sanggaus (Callosciurus prevosti) ... 
sarawakensis (Callosciurus prevosti) 
saturatus (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 
sauteri (Tamiops macclellandi) ... 
schlegeli (Callosciurus prevosti) 
Sciurinae ... 

scotti (Callosciurus vittatus) 
seimundi (Tomeutes lowii) 
senex (Dremomys pernyi) 
seraiae (Callosciurus vittatus) 
serutus (Callosciurus vittatus) 
setosus (Petinomys) 
shanicus (Callosciurus atrodorsalis) 
shortridgei (Callosciurus sladeni) ... 
simus (Glyphotes) 

singapurensis (Callosciurus vittatus) 
sinistralis (Callosciurus bocourti) ... 
sinus (Ratufa phaeopepla) 



Page. 
210 
182 
213 
221 
227 
178 
180 
249 

180 
229 

197 
178 

226 
237 
192 



211 
172 
18.5 
248 
238 
238 
237 
237 
241 
201 
243 

238 
230 
241 
234 
199 
201 
219 
227 
232 
236 
214 
216 
219 

182 
20S 
189 
212 
213 
215 
241 
214 
185 
220 
230 
235 
219 
218 
184 
206 
202 
239 
216 
204 
194 



sirhassenensis (Ratufa ephippium) 

siriensis (Callosciurus vittatus) 

sladeni (Callosciurus sladeni) 

sordidus (Tomeutes tenuis) 

spadiceus (Hylopetes) 

stevensi (Tomeutes) 

stresemanni (Callosciurus notatus) 

styani (Callosciurus erythraeus) 

sublineatus (Funambulus subli- 
neatus) ... 

subluteus (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 

suffusus (Callosciurus prevosti) 

sullivanus (Callosciurus caniceps) ... 

sumatranus (Nannosciurus mclan- 
otis) 

superans (Ratufa indica) 

surdus (Tomeutes tenuis) 

swinhoei (Tamiops) 

sybilla (Petaurista jiunctatus) 

tachardi (Callosciurus finlaysoni) ... 
tachin (Callosciurus atrodorsalis) 
tahan (Tomeutes tenuis) 
Tamiops 

tapanulius (Callosciurus vittatus) ... 
taylori (Petaurista) 
tedongus (Callosciurus vittatus) 
tenuirostris (Callosciurus vittatus) 
tenuis (Tomeutes tenuis) 
tephromelas (Aeromys) 
terutaus (Petaurista petaurista) 
terutavensis (Callosciurus caniceps) 
thai (Callosciurus atrodorsalis) 
thaiwanensis (Callosciurus ery- 
thraeus) 
thomasi (? Aeromys) ... 
thomsoni (lomys horsfieldi) 
tiomanensis (Ratufa melanopepla) 
tiomanicus (Tomeutes tenuis) 
Tomeutes ... 
trichotis (Belomys) 
tristriatus (Funambulus tristriatus) 
trotteri (Callosciurus finlaysoni) 
tupaioides (Rhinosciurus laticau- 
datus) ... 



ubericolor (Callosciurus vittatus) 
umbrosus (Menetes berdmorei) 

vanakeni (Tomeutes lowii) 
vassali (Callosciurus griseimanus) ... 
venningi (Petaurista lylei) 
villosus (Belomys) 
virgo (Tomeutes mearsi) 
vittata (Ratufa ephippium) 
vittatula (Ratufa ephippium) 
vittatus (Callosciurus vittatus) 
vordermanni (Petinomys) 

watsoni (Callosciurus vittatus) 
whiteheadi (Nannosciurus) 
wrayi (Callosciurus prevosti) 
wroughtoni (Funambulus) 

youngi (Callosciurus erythraeus) 
yunnanensis (Petaurista) 

atrodor- 



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218 
201 
228 
182 
225 
221 
200 

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216 
214 
207 

249 

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228 
241 

178 

203 

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216 
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173 
209 
205 

200 
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203 

233 

216 
232 

230 
210 
174, 249 
179 
224 
190 
190 
215 
184 

221 
248 
211 
246 



zimmeensis (Callosciurus 
salis) 



... 199 
173, 249 

206 



XXII. REVISION OF THE ORIENTAL TIPULIDAE 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 

PART II. 

By E. Brunetti. 

(With Plates VII, VIII.) 

Late in 1911 1 published a revision of the Oriental Tipulidae, Hsting 
all the species known at that date, with notes that appeared of interest 
and descriptions of over fifty new species. Since then my volume 
including this family in the " i'^rt^m^ of British India'' series has betn 
published, containing descriptions of considerably over one hundred 
and twenty new species ; whilst papers by de Meijere, Alexander, 
Enderlein and others of recent date have appeared, containing further 
descriptions and many synonymic notes of importance. In the present 
paper it is my endeavour to record all species set up since my first paper, 
to incorporate all corrections and to describe over seventy new species. 
Mere records of localities are not included as they will figure in my 
forthcoming catalogue of Oriental ISTemocera, but the species taken 
recently by Dr. Annandale in Japan and Siam are mentioned. 

Special appreciation is due to Mr. S. Kemp for his collecting of a 
very large number of Tipulidae from Goa in Portuguese India, the 
Garo Hills, Assam and elsewhere, including a considerable number of 
new species, all the specimens being in exceptionally good condition and 
perfectly pinned. In this work also Mrs. Kemp deserves special mention 
for her energetic collaboration. 

Unless otherwise stated, the types of all the new species are in the 
Inlian Museum collection. 

The total number of species in this family now known from the 
Oriental and South Asiatic Region, as far as I can ascertain, is nearly 
six hundred. 

Subfamily PTYCHOPTERINAE. 

TANYDERUS, Phil. 

To the only previously known oriental species {ornatissimus, Dol.) 
de Meijere has added a second, juimhihs, (Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, 104, 
fig. 1, wing, 191-5) from Papua. The (presumably) 3rd submarginal 
cell is not bisected at the middle by a crossvein as it is in the genotype 
pictus, Phil, from Chili. The only remaining Icnown species is forcipatus, 
Os. Sac. from New Zealand. 

PTYCHOPTERA, Mg. 

A c? of what is possibly an undescribed species was taken by Dr. 
Annandale at Otsu, near Kyoto, Japan, x-W,. 



256 Records of the Ivdinn Museum. [Vor,. XV, 

Ptychoptera tibialis, Brun. 

p. alrltarsis, Hnin.. Rer. Iiul. Mus., VI, p. 234 $ (1911). 

My atritarsis is only the 9 of tibialis. I took a long series of this 
species at Darjiling in June, 1917 and it shows some variation in the 
coloration of the legs. In the (^ the anterior tibiae are mainly black, 
the apical half of the middle pair being more or less yellowish ; in the 9. 
the anterior tibiae are wholly yellow, at most the basal part of the 
middle pair a little blackish. As regards the hind femora in the $, all 
grades are present from a distinct black basal half to wholly orange 
yellow. The antennae are certainly only IS-jointed but the last joint, 
though attenuated, is only from slightly longer than to one and a half 
times as long as the penultimate, and not twice as long as stated in 
my description. 



Ptychoptera annandalei, sp. nov. 

^. Southsm Shan States. Long. 6 mm. 

Head and palpi pale brownish-yellow ; frons, vertex and upper part 
of occiput brilhantly shining dark blue ; antennae about as long as 
abdomxcn ; scape bright yellow, about basal half of first flagellar joint 
yellowish, rest of antennae black with microscopic greyish pubescence 
and a few longer hairs. 

Thorax. — Dorsum brilliantly shining dark blue, the colour extending 
posteriorly over the whole of the metanotum except for a large oblong 
yellow spot in the centre, the blue colour everywhere very sharply 
delineated from the pale yellow sides of the thorax and the very small 
bright yellow scutellum. 

Abdomen brownish-yellow, hind margins of segments with more 
or less narrow black bands, broadest on last segment, very narrow on 
penultimate segment. Genitalia large, conspicuous and complex, 
consisting apparently of two pairs of large cl&spers, the second joint 
of the upper pair provided on the upper side with a comb-like organ 
of stiff black bristles. A small ventral plate, produced into two 
long style-like hairy fingers, curved upwards and ending in sharp 
points. 

Legs yellowish, femora and tibiae narrowly black towards tips ; tarsi 
black. 

Wings pale grey, costal cell yellowish ; two narrow pale blackish 
transverse bands of varying intensity (as in the second specimen they 
are much paler) ; the first across the middle of the wing, over the " cross 
veins," the second from the rather small black o^'al stigma, across the 
bases of the " forked cells." Halteres black, extreme base of stems 
yellowish. 

Described from two (^ ^ in the Indian Museum from Kalaw, 4,000— 
4,500 ft.. Southern Shan States, Burma lO-iii-1917 (Gravely). Not 
uncommon at the roots of grass at dusk, but difficult to capture. 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental TipuUdae. -257 

Subfamily TIPULTNAE. 

Section CTENOPHORINI. 

Xiphura indica, sp. nov. 

(Plate viii, fig. 1.) 
(^. Darjiling. Long. 12 mm. 

Head blackish-grey with yello-s\ash hairs, more or less white dusted on 
frons, face, and lower part of head ; a well defined yellow circle on frons 
around base of each antenna ; scape of latter black, tips of both joints 
yellowish, 1st flagellar joint of same length as the rest, with two thumb- 
like prolongations on under side ; 2nd to 12th joints with a bisinuate 
ray on inner and outer sides, placed at base of each joint, and a 
thumb- like prolongation on under side of each at about the middle ; 
13th joint without rays, slightly longer than 12th, with a slight 
thickening in middle of under side. Each ray has a single verticil on 
upper side at about one-third of its length and each joint one on upper 
side in middle ; in addition, each ray is microscopically pubescent. 
Proboscis blackish-brown, pubescent, bright yellow for a short space 
on each side near base : palpi blackish brown ; occiput black. 

Thorax bright shining yellow ; collare conspicuous. Three coales- 
cent shining black spots in middle of dorsum, taking the form of a median 
broad band with parallel sides, not reaching anterior margin, and two 
oval contiguous spots on each side barely interrupted by suture, prac- 
tically forming one spot on each side of the short median stripe. Scu- 
tellum and metanotum yellow^ ; latter with two round blackish spots 
on hinder side. 

Abdomen shining yellowish ; a more or less distinct median shining 
black stripe, and hind borders of segments black, the colour spreading 
over greater part of apical half of abdomen. Genitalia large, black. 

Legs shining black or (tibia ) blackish brown ; under side of femora 
yellowish except at tips ; basal half of fore femora, which are distinctly 
thickened towards tips, shining yellowish brown. 

Wings distinctly yellowish, shining, iridescent ; stigma brown ; 
most of the veins sHghtly grey suffused, also wing tip ; halteres yellow, 
clubs dark brown. 

Deseribed from a single perfect (^ in my own collection, taken by me 
at Darjiling, 6,900 ft., i-vi-1917. The first species of this genus known 
from the East. 

PSELLIOPHORA, Os. Sac. 

Pselliophora laeta, F. 

A ^ fi-om Castle Rock, Xorth Kanara District, differs from the 
typical form by the head, thorax and femora being wholly black. The 
two large spots on the wing are paler yellow and do not quite reach the 
costa, whilst the basal pale spot (normally united more or less to the 
proximal large spot narrowly along the costa) is absent. 

p2 



258 Records of fJir liulidii Mui^cuin. [Vol. XV, 

Pselliophora gaudens, Walk. 

A $ in the Indian Museum, from Singla, Darjiling District, 1,500 
ft. (Lord rarmicliaeVs coll.) June, 1913 is probably this species, as the 
only discrepancies are the absence of any yellow at the base of the dark 
brown wings, and the colour of the transverse band on the wings, which 
is yellow, r_ot whitish. Described from Celebes, from whence other 
specimens are known, but the species is not recorded from elsewhere 
than that island. 

Pseiiiophora fumiplena, Walk. 

Mr. Edwards notes some specimens of this in the British Museum 
from " North China." This species is possibly out of place in Oriental 
lists. 

Pselliophora divisa, Brun. 

A $ from Pashok Spur, Darjiling District (R. S. Lister) in the Indian 
Museum agrees exactly with my description. The type is in the Vienna 
Museum labelled " East Indies." Edwards records {Ann. M((g. Nat. 
Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 254) a ^ in the British Museum from Sikkim, 2,000 
ft.. May 189G, and a ^ from Bhutan, adding some interesting sexual 
notes. 

Pselliphora elongata, Edw. 

Ann. Marj. Nat. ///.sV. (8) xii, p. 202 $ (1913). 

From Hakgala, Ceylon, 4,500 ft., v-lOll. The unique type in 
the British Museum. 

Pselliophora suspirans, Os. 8ac. 

Bezzi describes a new variety of this, Jiilaris, from three localities 
in Luzon {Phil. Jour. Sci. XII, Sect. D, p. 109 c^ $ (1917). 

ctenophorina, Riedel, Ent. Mitt. II, p. 274 (1913). 
Kankau (Koshun), Formosa, v, vi, vii, ix, 1912. Edwards records 
a (^ in the British Museum from Koannania, S. Formosa, 15-vi-06 
{Wileman). Types and cotypes in Deuts. Ent. Mus. ; cotypes in Riedel 
collection. 

strigipennis, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, Supp. p. 5 ? 1913 (Mar. 

1914). Java. 
speeiosa, Edwards, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 254 ^ 
(191G). Khasi Hills, Assam. Unique type in British Museum. 
semirufa, id., he. cit., p. 255 $ (1916). Taihoku, xi-1909 {Nitohe). 

Unique type in British Museum. 
luctuosa, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LIX, p. 199 $ (1910). Gunnung 

Susuruh, Preanger, Java {Corporaal). 
praefica, Bezzi, Phil. Jour. Sci., XII, Sect. D, p. 110 ^. Min- 
danao, Phil. Is. {Baker). 
tripudians, id., he. cit., p. Ill $ {='^praefica $). Laguna, Phil. Is. 
{Baker). 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tipulidae. ,259 

Pselliophora approximata, sp. no v. 

$. S. W. India. Long. 12i mm. 

Head and thorax wholly and uniformly bright orange ; dorsum of 
antennae just perceptibly darker ; palpi slightly duller. 

Abdomen brownish-orange, last segment and genitaha shining black. 

Legs. — Coxae and femora orange, latter with moderately broad apical 
ring ; rest of legs black ; hind tibiae with yellowish ring at base, a bare 
trace of similar rings on anterior tibiae. 

Wings blackish : both basal cells, basal half of costal cell, marginal 
cell (the colour extending to the costa), basal parts of discal, 4th and 5th 
posterior cells, and basal half of anal and of both axillary cells brif^ht 
orange yellow. Halteres orange. 

Described from a single 9 in the Indian Museum. Talewadi, near 
Castle Rock, N. Kanara District, 3 — lO-x-16 {Kemj)). 

This must be very hke gaudens, Walk, described from Celebes, but 
that species presumably has a white basal ring on all the tibiae and the 
blackish wings have a " whitish " exterior band which is attenuated 
hiudward. It is also distinctly larger, 7 to 10, lines. The black and 
yellow colours in the wing are so evenly divided that it is impossible 
to correctly assign it to either my group B or BB in the table of species 
given in my previous paper on this family. Assuming the wing to be 
" principally black " it will separate from gaudens, Walk, on the cha- 
rasters given above. 

Pselliophora flavofasciata, sp. nov. 
(Plate viii, figs. 2, 3.) 

(^ $. Assam. Long. (^ 10 mm. ; § 12 mm. to tip of 

ovipositor. 

Head. — Occiput much flattened, upper half shining dark brown ; 
antennae placed practically on vertex, black, except 1st scapal joint 
pale yellow ; rest of head mainly moderately dark brown ; yellowish 
below antennae and rather bright pale yellow on lower half of back of 
head ; nasus and palpi with black hairs. 

Thorax. — ^Dorsum very shining dark brown, just perceptibly lighter 
at ends of suture : collare conspicuously bright orange ; pleurae pale 
yellowish, nearly white ; sternopleura and ptero pleura dull black ; 
scutellum dull yellow ; metanotum dark shining brown. 

Abdomen. — 1st and 2nd segments bright chrome yellow ; apical 
half of 1st and nearly apical half of 2nd black ; 3rd, 4th and 5th bright 
chrome yellow with a black stripe at middle of both sides, extending 
upwards from the all black belly (these stripes much shorter in (^) ; 
rest of abdomen black, hind margin of 6th segment yellowish. Genitalia 
in ,^ black, the large basal joint of claspers shining yellowish-brown , 
in 9 ovipositor shining mahogany brown. Belly of 1st and 2nd seg- 
ments as upper side, rest black, hind margins narrowly yellow. 

Legs very dark brown ; a broad white ring at base of all tibiae. 

Wings dark blackish-brown, shining ; a pale yellow stiipe including 
basal half of marginal cell, nearly apical half of 2nd basal cell and all 



260 Records of flic I/uJid)) Museum. [Vol. XV, 

the 5tli posterior cell, except that the posterior cross vein is rather 
broadly brown suffused. Basal third of anal and 1st axillary cells 
nearly clear. Halteres blackish, tips of clubs whitish. 

Described from 2 (^ (^ and 2 $ $ from above Tura, Garo Hills, Assam, 
3,500-^3,900 ft., vii-17 {Kemp). 

Pselliophora aurantia, sp. nov. 

9. Assam. Long. r2|- ram. to tip of ovipositor. 

Head bright orange yellow ; nasus with concolorous rather long 
hair : antennal scape dark brown ; flagellum black ; palpi with 1st 
and 2nd joints yellowish or brownish yellow ; rest dark brown. 

Thorax, scutellum and metanotum orange yellow ; pleurae lemon 
yellow ; pteropleura more orange yellowish. 

Abdomen orange yellow ; a median black stripe on basal half of 
2nd segment, and a black transverse band beyond middle ; a similar 
band on base of 3rd segment, both more or less indefinite, evidently 
variable ; tip of abdomen dark brown, extent of colour evidently vari- 
able ; ovipositor shining dark brown. Belly orange yellow except the 
blackish tip. 

Legs. — Femora orange yellow exc3pt extreme tips of anterior pair 
aid a sub-apical black ring on hind pair ; tibiae dirty brownish yellow 
with a distinct though not conspicuous narrow white ring just beyond 
base on all thiee pairs, broadest on hind pair : tarsi black. 

Wings yellowish-grey, shining, iridescent ; stigma small, dark brown, 
clear cut ; halteres yellow, inner side of clubs blackish. 

Described from two ? ? in Indian Museum from above Tura, 3,500— 
3,900 ft., viii-17 {Kemp). 

Pselliophora latifascipennis, sp. nov. 

9. South India. Long. 20 mm. to tip of ovipositor. 

Head. — Occiput and frons dark blackish-grey with stiff hairs round 
sides ; face brown, nasus brownish yellow, hairy, with short golden 
hairs on upper side ; labella large, brownish-yellow, hairy. Palpi black- 
ish brown, hairy, 2nd joint smooth, pale, with fine hairs ; 4th joint with 
a knotted appearance. Antennae wholly black. 

Thorax barely shining, dark olive green, nearly blackish ; dorsum 
with almost microscopic sparse yellow hairs in places. Marginal space 
between dorsum and underside yellowish-brown, the colour extending 
narrowly between the prothorax and mesothorax and carried down- 
wards in front of the steniopleura. Mesonotum black. 

Abdo7nen practically bare, 1st segment wholly, nearly the apical half 
of 2nd, 3rd except hind margin, 5th except at sides, 6th, 7th and 8th 
wholly black, the remainder of the abdomen orange yellow. Belly 
much the same as upper side. Ovipositor black, valves shining reddish- 
brown. 

Legs (middle pair missing). — -Coxae dark olive brown, fore pair yel- 
lowish brown in front : femora brownish -yellow, fore pair black on 
nearly apical half, hind pair with broad black apical ring. Tibiae and 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental TipuUdae. 261 

tarsi all black, a sub-basal narrow white ring on former. Legs micro- 
scopically pubescent. 

Wings almost equally divided into yellow and black. They can be 
best described as yellowish with the tip broadly blackish brown from 
costa to hind margin, the colour fiUing the 2nd submarginal, 1st, 2nd and 
3rd posterior cells and encroaching on about half of the discal cell and a 
little way into the 4th posterior cell. A broad median blackish-brown 
band from the costa (where it is fainter) extending across the wng 
to the hind margin, where it runs along the margin narrowly to the 
base of the wing, extending also along some part of the 7th longitudinal 
vein. Its breadth is approximately uniform and covers about the 
middle third of the basal cells. No stigma ; halteres blackish. 

Described from a unique $ from Pollibetta, Coorg South India, 
24-x— 16-xi-15 (Fletcher). Type presented by Mr. T. B. Fletcher to the 
British Museum. 

Section TIPULINL 

PRIONOCERA, Loew. 

Steti. Eld. Zcit. V, p. 17U (1844). 

Prionota, Wulp, Notes Leijd. Mas. VI F, p. 1 (1885). 

Stygeropis. Losw, Berl. Ent. Zeits. VII, p. 298 (1863). 

One new species, P. flavicejys, Ender. {Zool. JaJir. XXXII, p. 28 ; 
1912). The unique $ type from Sumatra in Stettin Zoological Museum. 



CTENACROSCELIS, Ender. 

Zool. Ja'ir. XXXI J, j). I (1912). 

Genotype : C. dohrnianus, Ender., by original designation. 

Enderlein describes three new species on which he founds this genus, 
dohrnianus {loc. cit., p. 1, $ fig. A, mng. from Sumatra) ; sikkimensis 
{I. c, p. 4, (^, from Darjihng ; and sumatranus (l. c, p. 5, $, from Su- 
matra). The three unique types in Stettin Zoological Museum. 

He also removes Tipida jyraeyotens, Wied. liere. The genus is cha- 
racterised by a row of black spines on the upper side of all the femora 
towards the tip. Alexander regarded the genus as synonymous \^ath 
Holomsia, Loew. ; in his subsequent paper on Javan Tipuhdae he 
recognised it as valid, but he compares the characters of the two genera 
and with those of Tipula. 

At the moment of going to press I receive information (through the 
kindness of Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher) of the following gigantic new 
species described by Alexander. 

rex, Alex., Insec. Insit. Menst. V, p. 21, cJ (1917). 

Two ^ ^ from Taungoo District, Burma. Type in American 
Entomological collection, Philadelphia ; cotype in Alexander's collec- 
tion. He claims it to be possibly the largest species of the family in the 
world, eich wing measuring 40 mm., but the full expanse of my Tipida 
carmichaeli is 91 mm. and is also a ^. There cannot, therefore, be much 
difference between them and th- females of both are probably larger. 



262 Records of the Indian Maseiini. [Vol. XV, 

TIPULA, L. 

One species, praepotens, W. has been removed to his new genus 
Clenacroscelis by Enderlein. 

The following new species have been described by Dr. de Meijere : 
T. cincti'pes, Tijd. v. Ent. (1911) LIV, p. 64 ^, Borneo ; gedehana, I. c., 
p. 66, $, pi. iv, 47, wing, Java ; cinereifrons, I. c, p. 68, (^, pi. iv, 48, 
wing, Java^ ; inconspicua, I. c, p. 70, J, pi. iv, 49, wing, Java. Types 
of first three species in Leyden Museum ; the unique type of inconsjncua 
m Amsterdam Museum. 

He also removes to Tipula his Tanypreimia omissinervis. 

In my Fauna volume (1912) the following new species are described. 
T. gracillima, p. 302 $, Ceylon ; princeps, p. 306 ^ 9? Kurseong ; 
dives, p. 307 (^, Kurseong ; serricornis, p. 309 (^ $, Naini Tal ; ^jm^ 
cherrima, p. 310 (^ '^, E. and W. Himalayas ; fuscinervis, p. 312 $, 
Kurseong ; patricia, p. 313 $, Kurseong ; splendens. p. 314 (^, Gahrwal 
District ; tessellatipennis, p. 317 (^ $, Naini Tal ; marmoratipcmiis, 
p, 319 (^, Darjiling ; quasimarmoratipennis, p. 320 ^, Darjihng, Kur- 
seong ; griseipennis, p. 321 3^, pi. v, 15, wing ; nigrotibialis, p. 324 (^, Dar- 
jiling ; siriatipe7inis, p. 325 $, Kurseong ; subtincta, p. 326 (^, Kur- 
seong ; continuata, p. 328 <^ $, Darjiling ; quadrinotata, p. 330 9» 
Manipur ; brunnicosta, p. 332 (^ $, Simla ; tenuipes, p. 333 $, Sylhet ; 
flavescem, p. 334 $, Cejdon ; munda, p. 336 (^ $, Mussoorie ; cincto- 
terminalis, p. 338 $, Kurseong ; elegantida,^ p. 339 r^, Assam. The 
types of all these species, many represented by unique specimens only, 
are in the Indian Museum. 

Tipula marmoratipennis, Brun. 
One $, Darjihng, 7,000 ft., lO-vi-17 {Brimelti). 

Tipula quasimarmoratipennis, Jjruu. 

Five (^ (^ and a $, all in splendid condition, from above Tura, (Jaro 
Hills, Assam, 3,500—3,900 ft., ix-17 {Mrs. Kemp), in conjunction with 
the three $ $ in the Indian Museum fix this species definitely as quite 
valid, as are also my marmoratipennis, griseipennis and tessellatip)ennis, 
all of which are represented by further specimens of each since their 
descrijJtion. Though so closely allied the small distinctions appear 
quite constant. 

T. Jmnalayensis varies most in this group but is easily recognised 
by the yellow subapical femoral ring which is absent in all the others 
with marmorated wings except elegans, of which I have seen no speci- 
men except the original type. 

Tipula gracillima, Brun. 

Described from a single $ from Peradeniya, a second $ coming from 
Cochin State. Four (^ ^ from Castle Rock, N. Canara District, taken 



1 Enck'ilein records it from Sumatra. 

■■' The figure of a wing attributed to elegantula in the Fauna volume is not this species, 
nor am I able to say what species it does represent. 



1U18.J E. Bkunetti : Uncntal Ti/mlulue. -263 

by Mr. Kemp are apparently of the same species. The median dorsal 
stripe on the thorax has a very fine line on each side of it, and each of the 
usual outer stripes is replaced by a pair of narrower stripes. The abdo- 
minal markings are more distinct, especially the apical black band and 
basal whitish one ; the genitalia are of considerable size, and the 2nd 
tarsal joint is broadly black instead of wholly snow white as in the $. 

Tipula Julvolateralis, Brun. 

Alexander thinks this is probably synonymous with T. iimbrinus, 
W., but as he puts this species in Ctenacroscelis, Ender., a genus charac- 
terized by spines on the femora, they cannot be identical as there are 
certainly no femoral spines in my species. It is the commonest of the 
very large species in the Himalayas. 



Tipula borneensis, nom. nov. 

Tipula p'tlliilii, Walk., (ISfio). 

The specific name pallida being preoccuj)ied by Loew in 1863 for a 
North American species, the name borneensis is herewith proposed for 
Walker's species. 

Tipula melanomera, Walk. 

One (^ of what is probably this species from Sureil, Darjiling Dis- 
trict, 5,000 ft., iv-v-lT {Kemp). The thorax is uniformly orange. The 
species was described from Sikkim. An extraordinary resemblance 
exists between this species and my new one PachyrJiina hypocrites 
taken in the same locality. 

coquilletti, Ender., ZooL ,/(//<>•. XXXII, p. 7 (1912). Noui. noi. 
for nuhifera, Coc|. 1898 preocc. Wulp, 1881. Arisan, Formosa, 
8,000 ft., lO-x-12 (Nitobe). Also occurs in Japan. 
carmichaeli, Brun., Rec. Ind. Mas. IX, p. 257, (^ (1913). A 
unique specimen captured by Lord Carmichael at Sureil, 
Daijiling District, June 1913. Type in Indian Museum. 
imperfecta, id., he. cit., p. 260, $ (1913). Unique type from 

Darjiling in Indian Museum. 
tropica, de Meij., Nova Gain. Res. IX, p. 311, $ (1913). 
novae guineae, id., he. cit., p. 313, (^ $ (1913). 
divergens, id., loc. cit., p. 312, ^ $ (1913). 
dentata, id., loc. cit., p. 313, ^ o (1913). 
The above four species from Papua, the types in Amsterdam Museum. 
aetherea, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, Supp., p. 7, 1915, 

$ (Mar. 1, 1916). 
sinabangensis, id., loc. cit., p. 9, (^ $ (Mar. 1, 1916). 
pumila, id., loc. cit., p. 9, (^ (Mar. 1, 1916). 
The above three species from Simalur Island, near Sumatra ; the 
types (presumablv) in Amsterdam Museum. 

klossi, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVII, p. 351, ? (1915). 
Kedah Peak, 3,200 ft., Malay Peninsula {Dr. Stanton). 



264 Records of the Indian Museunu [Vol. XV, 

Type in British Museum, paratype in Kuala Lumpur Museum. 
shirakii, Edw., he. c.it., XVIII, p. 258, $ (1916). Arisan, 
Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 (Nitohe). Kliasi Hills. Assam. 
The latter specimen in the British Museum, the type is not. 
ruiomedia, id., loc. cit., p. 259, (^ $, pi. xii, 5-7, genitalia (1916). 
Horisha, Formosa {Mahi) ; Formosa (a second specimen). 
Types in British Museum. 

Tipula gravelyi, sp. nov. 

^. Darjiling. Long, about 32 mm. from tip of nasus to tip of 

genitaha. 

Head very dark velvet brown, nearly black ; nasus dark brown ; 
antennae black, seen to be grey dusted in certain lights ; verticillate 
hairs pale yellowish ; 2nd basal joint reddish-brown : palpi brown, 
tips black, a httle pale at base of each joint. 

Thorax dark velvet brown, a little darker towards sides of dorsum. 
Pleurae less dark than dorsum, whitish dusted on sternopleura, ptero- 
pleura and hypopleura. Scutellum dark brown ; with a little silvery 
shimmer, which extends forwards between the post sutural callosities 
and along the suture itself each side for a short distance ; also along the 
frenulum and over part of the posterior calli. Metapleura well defined, 
brownish yellow. Some soft, moderately short dark pubescence along 
sides of dorsum and a few fine pale hairs on hind margin of scutellum. 

Abdomen moderately pale brown, last segment darker ; 1st segment 
at base with a little whitish shimmer, remaining segments with a pale 
brownish yellow transverse streak, — interrupted in the middle, — to- 
wards base, except on 2nd segment, in which it hes approximately across 
the middle. Extreme sides of dorsal plates narrowly black, the hind 
angles pale, as are also the extreme margins of 5th and 6th segments. 
(Possibly in individuals margins of other segments also pale.) A few 
very short pale yellowish hairs at sides of segments and along hind 
margins. Genitalia very large and conspicuous, shining dark brown. 
A very large curved dorsal plate, with a little golden yellow pubescence 
towards sides and tip ; a pair of claspers with the usual large basal joint, 
the 2nd joint being long, irregularly conical, slightly curved, horny, 
shininty bright brown, with long bright yellow hairs on outer side. A 
large lower piece is present, and apparently some inner organs ; the 
ventral plate is very small, subquadrate. 

Legs brownish -yellow, coxae and tarsi tips darker ; a practically 
apical yellow ring on femora with a narrow black ring immediately 
preceding it. Extreme base of tibiae just perceptibly paler yellowish. 

Wings dark grey ; costal, stigmatic and discal cell regions distinctly 
yellow. Costa slightly bulging out in front of the stigma, which, with a 
short distance around it, is very dark brown, as is also a spot over base 
of 2nd longitudinal vein. A small pale yellow spot occurs towards tip of 
2nd submarginal cell, and in the centre of the margin of all five posterior 
cells. A similar spot on wing margin immediately behind 6th vein, a 
small one in front of 7th vein. In the 1st basal cell a pale yellowish 
space just before origin of 2nd vein ; in 2nd basal cell a similar spot 
like a " 7 " backwards, continuing into anal cell A very small pale 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Onental Tijmlidae. .265 

yellowish spot just beyond middle i i 1st posterior cell ; another near 
base of 4th posterior cell ; another just beyond base of anal cell ; an- 
other a httle further on in Isl axillary cell. Base of 1st and in a less 
degree the 2nd basal cell darker brown. Halteres brownish-yellow 
with dark brown knobs. 

Described from a unique ^ in the Indian Museum. Darjiling, 7,000 
ft., 13-vi-14, in perfect condition {Gravel >/). 

Tipula contigua, sp. nov. 
.^. Assam. Long. 13 mm. 

Head. — Occiput and frons blackish-grey, rest of head brownish- 
yellow with whitish reflections ; proboscis, labella and palpi moderately 
dark brown, latter with last joint yellow. Antennae with 1st scapal 
joint yellowy 2nd brown, fiagellum black. 

Tliorax light grey with three blackish longitudinal stripes, the outer 
ones very much foreshortened ; dorsum behind suture, also scutellum 
and metanotum blackish. Pleurae pale brownish-yellow with whitish 
reflections. 

Abdomen yellowish-brown ; segments narrowly blackish towards 
hind margins but extreme margins pale ; last two or three segments 
mainly blackish. Genitalia of moderate size, brown, apparently normal. 

Leg^. — -Femora dirty brownish-yellow, hind pair darker. Anterior 
tibiae blackish-brown, a little hghter towards tips with a snow white 
ring just beyond middle ; hind pair black, with a broad sub-basal white 
ring and a very broad one just beyond middle. Fore tarsi brownish- 
yellow, middle pair dark brown, hind pair snow white except basal 
fifth of metatarsus. 

Wings pale grey ; stigma distinct, black, the colour extending over 
base of 2nd submarginal cell and 1st posterior cell ; basal side of discal 
cell, posterior cross vein and apical section of 5th vein blackish suffused. 
Apical half of both submarginal cells pale smoky black, the colour ex- 
tending indistinctly and indefinitely along wing border. Halteres 
black. 

Described from a single (^ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
Gm-o Hills, Assa n, 3,500—3,900 ft., vlii-17 {Kzmp). 

This species bears a general resemblance to my palricia but the 
yellowish and brown fore and middle tarsi respectively easily separate 
the species from all others in this group. 

Tipula simillima, sp. nov. 
^. West India. Long. 12-13 mm. 

Differs from my ^mci//i>wrt only in three minor characters but which 
appear to be constant. The stigma fills only the apical half of the 
marginal cell instead of all of it ; the femoral rings are twice as broad 
as in gracillima and rather more yellowish ; but the principal character 
is that the 2nd joint of the tarsi is broadly black on the anterior pairs 
and more narrowly so on the hind pair, whilst in gracillima the tarsi are 
all white except the base of the metatarsus. 

Three (^ <^ in the Indian Museum, taken by Mr. Kemp at Castle 
Rock, N. Kanara District, 11 — 26-X-16. 



266 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Tipula fumifascipennis, sp. nov. 

^ 5. Darjiling. Long. ^ 17, $ 25 mm. excl. ovipositor. 

Read. — Frons and occiput mouse grey, latter with numerous short 
black hairs ; rest of head, proboscis and labella brownish-yellow, latter 
dark brown above ; palpi dark brown, pale at emarginations, last joint 
black. Antennae brow^nish-yellow, flagellar joints, except 1st, more or 
less blackish at base. 

Thorax brownish-yellow, prothorax a little darker, dorsum light 
brownish-grey ; configuration of the usual three stripes slightly darker. 
Scutellum darker brown ; metanotum pale yellowish, with grey dorsum. 
Pleurae paler brownish-yellow. 

Ahdome7i in (^ mainly yellowish, two basal segments j)rincipally 
brownish-yellow above, hinder part of 1st segment obscured. Who e 
upper surface of abdomen with very short yellow hairs except at 
emarginations. In the $ darker grey, actual sides with a distinct 
black stripe from base and tip. Dorsum of 1st segment mainly yellow- 
ish. Belly grey in <^ and $. 

Legs. — Coxae brownish -yellow : femora brownish-yellow at base, 
gradually darkening to dark brown at tips where the colour appears 
as a broad apical black band, ill defined proximally. Tibiae and 
tarsi dark brownish-yellow, rather hghter in $. 

Wings distinctly grey, darker brownish-grey from the slightly yellow- 
ish grey costa to the 4th longitudinal vein, except towards wing tip, 
but the brownish colour extending over apical tliird of 2nd basal cell 
except at its tip. There is also a shght brownish suffusion across the 
anal cell, just before the middle. A nearly clear space from inner side 
of the inconspicuous, barely darker brown stigma, downwards, embrac- 
\\\ff tips of both basal cells and proximal half of discal cell, below which 
it diffuses somewhat along bases of 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th posterior cells. 
Basal two-thirds of 2nd basal cell and basal half of anal cell (except for 
the brownish spot) clearer than ground colour of wing. Halteres black. 

Described from a ^ and $ in good condition in the Indian Museum 
from DarjiUng, 6,000—7,000 ft. ll-vi-14, type .J ; 12-vi-14, type ? (both 
Gravely) ; a second ^ from Darjiling taken by me, 7,000 ft., 28-v-lO. 

Tipula fumicosta, sp. nov. 

^. Assam. Long. 15 mm. 

}{ead. — Occiput and frons dark grey ; proboscis brownish-yellow, 
hairy ; labella broadly brown margined ; palpi blackish -brown, pubes- 
cent base of 2nd and 3rd joints narrowly pale. Antennae brownish- 
yellow, base of each joint except 1st (and perhaps 2nd) narrowly black. 

Thorax pale brownish-yellow, dorsum shghtly grey, with the con- 
figuration of the three usual stripes ; prothorax and neck rather darker 
brown. Scutellum greyish, with some bright yellow hairs on posterior 

margin. 

Abdomen brownish-yellow, becoming brown towards tip of 2nd seg- 
ment and gradually darkening to black at tip. 2nd segment in type 
with a narrow, transverse black line (interrupted in centre) across middle 
of segment, giving the appearance of two segments. Genitalia composed 



1918.] E. ]iRUNETTi: Orirnfal Ti^mlidac . 267 

of a thick large black square barely curved dorsal plate with scattered 
dark golden brown hairs and a fringe of golden ones on hind margin 
1st joint of claspers large, blackish, 2nd brownish yellow, its exact shape 
indeterminable ; a narrowly keeled ventral plate. 

Legs brownish-yellow, tibiae sometimes darker {tyj)e) : femora with 
a moderately broad black apical ring. 

Wings uniformly pale grey; costal cell brownish yellow sti^rma 
small, inconspicuous, brownish, restricted to outer half of marginal 
cell. A faint darker grey spot in 2nd basal cell towards end, contiguous 
to 5th longitudinal vein, and a similar one before middle of anal cell. 
Halteres blackish. 

Described from two (^ ^ in the Indian Museum from Shillong, 5,.500 
-6,400 ft. 28-viii— 5-ix-15, fype {Kemq)) ; and Shillong, 4,900 'ft.', 10 
— 12-X-14 [Ketnp). In the second specimen the abdomen is wholly 
moderately dark blackish-brown, and the tibiae no darker than the rest 
of the legs. A barely perceptibly paler streak runs through the 2nd 
basal, discal, and 2nd, 3rd and 4th posterior cells. A third ^^ comes 
froniTura, Garo Hills, Assam, 1,400 ft., ix-17 {Mrs. Kemp) and in it the 
faint dark spots in the 2nd basal and anal cells are absent. 



Tipula flavoides, sp. 



nov. 



(^ ?. Assam. Long, tip of nasus to tip of genitalia, ^ 

about 24, $ about 28 mm. 

Closely allied to my flava and serricornis but certainly distinct. The 
first flagellar joint is narrow, as long as 1st scapal, the 2nd rather shorter, 
3rd rather shorter still, all subcylindrical, barely deeper in middle, the 
remaining joints except the last one or two distinctly convex on 
lower sides. In serricornis the 1st flagellar joint is cylindrical, not quite 
so long as 1st scapal, but the remaining joints (except the apical joint) 
are subtriangidar, the upper side nearly horizontal, all well separated. 
In flava the joints are presumably normally tipuliform (I have no speci- 
men of it to compare). Flavoides has the palpi black, the flagellum 
similar but slightly pale at base. The abdomen is uniformly dark 
velvet brown on the dorsum in the (^, less dark in $ and less uniformly 
coloured. Legs except coxae and trochanters blackish brown, verv 
slightly pale about base of femora. The dorsal plate in the (^ geiiitalia 
is quadrate whereas in both fiava and serricornis it is distinctly bilobed. 

Described from one ^^ and two ? ? from above Tura. Garo Hills Assain 
3,500^3,900 ft., ix-17 {Mrs. Kemp). 

Tipula filicornis, sp. nov. 

<^' Darjihng. Extreme length 14 mm. 

Head yellowish-grey ; proboscis more brownish ; palpi pale yellow- 
ish. ^ Antennal scape brownish-yellow ; flagellum very long and slender, 
the joints much longer and narrower than usual in this genus ; rather 
dark brown, verticils long and numerous. 

Thorax. — Dorsum not very dark brown grey ; two narrow paler 
median stripes anteriorly, rather close together. " Under side very pale 
yellowish : metanotum yellowish-grey. 



268 llecordu of the Indian Museum. [Vofi. XV- 

Abdomen yellowisli- brown, blackish towards tip. Genitalia brown- 
ish-yellow, the claspers small ; a moderate sized, curved dorsal plate 
fringed apically with bright yellow hairs ; 

Legs proportionately long and thin, black, coxae and base of femora 
a Httle yellowish. 

Wings pale grey ; stigma obvious but irregular, blackish, moderate 
in size. 

Described from a perfect unique ^^ in the Indian Museum from Pashok, 
Darjiling District, 3,000 ft., 26-v — 14-vi-16 {Gravely). 

The extremely attenuated form of the antennae distinguishes this 
species from all others occurring in India. 

Tipula rufiventris, sp. nov. 

$. Darjihng. Long, about 18 mm. from tip of nasus to tip of 
ovipositor. 

Head, thorax and scutellum wholly deep velvet black ; antennae 
and palpi in certain lights shewing a little grey dust ; a little sparse 
dark pubescence towards margins of thoracic dorsum. 

Abdomen. — 1st segment and base of 2nd black ; rest of 2nd and from 
the 3rd to the 7th inclusive bright brownish yellow with almost a red 
tinge ; sides narrowly blackish from 3rd segment onwards, the black 
colour gradually widening ; 8th segment all black. Belly black, with 
very fine black pubescence, 3rd, 4th and 5th segments mainly reddish 
or brownish-yellow, the colour extending obscurely over the centres of 
the next two segments. Ovipositor exhibiting only the two small 
black terminal lamellae. 

Wings dark grey ; stigma rather small, yellowish ; petiole of 2nd 
posterior cell about one-third as long as the cell : veins brownish-black ; 
halteres black. 

Described from a type ^, Pashok, Darjiling District, vi-16 {L. C. 
Hariless), and a type $ taken in long grass from Soom, Darjiling Dis- 
trict, 3,000—3,500 ft., 15-vi-14 {Gravely) ; also from two more $ $ from 
Pashok, vi-16, and three (^ ^ and four $ $ from above Tura, 3,500 — 
3,900 ft., ix-17 {Kemp and Mrs. Kemp). 

Types in Indian Museum. 

Tipula flavithorax, sp. nov. 

^. Cochin State. Long. 14 mm. from tip of nasus to tip of 

genitalia. 

Head, proboscis and palpi brownish- yellow, latter slightly paler ; 
nasus and palpi with numerous black hairs. Antennae bright yellow, 
base of all segments except 1st scapal jet black, the colour gradually 
fading away before the middle of each segment. Occiput greenish- 
grey. 

Thorax and scutellum wholly bright brownish yellow. 

Abdomen similar, 7th and 8th segments black. Belly similar, a little 
darker towards hind part of each segment. Genitaha large, conspicuous, 
brownish-yellow, with some concolorous pubescence ; the moderate 
sized dorsal plate cut away in centre of hind margin, ending in two 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Ti/mlidae. 269 

points rather turned down ; 2nd joint of claspers in the shape of a long 
curved tooth, drawn out into a very long slender horny point. 

Legs brownish-yellow ; femora with a rather broad brown apical 
ring, indistinctly defined proximally. 

Wings yellowish-grey ; costal cell yellow : stigma yellowish-brown ; 
veins very distinct, dark brownish-black : 2nd posterior cell long and 
narrow, twice as long as its petiole, which latter is subequal in length 
to the discal cell : halteres yellow, clubs blackish. 

Described from a single (^ in the Indian Museum from Parambiku- 
1am, Cochin State, South India, 1,700—3,200 ft., 16— 24-ix-14 (Gravely). 

Tipula fasciculata, sp. nov. 
(^ $. DarjiHng. Long. 14 mm. 

^ Head.- — Front of head and proboscis yellowish or yellowish-grey ; 
occiput and frons dull greenish-grey, the colour extending forward in 
a point to between the antennae ; occiput bearing some black hairs. 
Palpi brownish-yellow, last joint black. Antennal scape yellow, 1st 
flagellar joint yellowish, the remainder black. 

Thorax dull yellowish or greyish ; three dorsal stripes of the usual 
pattern, the median one narrowly divided, and the dorsal surface behind 
the suture pale dirty brownish-grey. Pleurae dull yellowish-grey, 
with almost a greenish reflection, a little yellowish contiguous to dorsum. 
Scutellum more wliitish-grey, metanotum dull greenish with whitish- 
grey reflections. 

Abdomen. — 1st segment and from the 5th to the 8th blackish ; 2nd, 
3rd and 4th yellowish with a median dark stripe and a narrow side 
stripe. Belly mainly as dorsum. Genitalia rather large, a large square, 
curved dark brown dorsal plate with a pointed black piece bearing bright 
yellow hairs on each side, projecting below it. The claspers are tightly 
closed, the basal joint blackish grey with scattered bright yellow short 
hairs, the 2nd joint is brownish-yellow and there is a keel-shaped ventral 
plate. 

Legs. — Coxae brownish- yellow, more or less grey in front, especially 
on fore pair ; femora brownish-yellow, with a rather broad apical black 
ring ; tibiae rather darker than femora ; tarsi blackish. 

Wings distinctly brownish, slightly darker along 5th longitudinal 
vein, no darker anteriorly ; stigma almost imperceptibly darker. A 
pale curved streak from costa just before stigma and anterior cross 
vein, over basal half of discal cell, thence curving outwards along bases 
of 2nd, 3rd and 4th posterior cells, and faintly continuing along veinlet 
dividing 4th and 5tli posterior cells. A similar streak embracing the 
6th vein throughout its length. Halteres black. 

$. Body more greyish, nearly wholly so — including the whole ab- 
domen ; ovipositor shining chestnut brown with long yellow terminal 
sheaths. 

Described chiefly from a type ^ from Darjiling, 7,000 ft., 25-v-lO 
[Brunetti). A second <^ is from Tonglu, Darjiling District, 10,000 ft., 
21-iv-lO (Beebe) ; a third from Senchal, Darjihng District, 8,000 ft., v-13 
(Lord Carmi chad's coll.). A single (type) $ from the latter locality. 
AU specimens in the Indian Museum. 



270 Rpcnrdx nf tlir Indian MusriDn. [Vol. XV, 

Tipula brevis, sp. nov. 

(^ 9. Shillong, Assam. Long. (^ 12 mm. ; $ 15 mm. from tip of 

nasus to tip of ovipositor. Length of 
each wing 15 mm. 

Head and proboscis brownish-yellow ; labella with dark brown 
margins ; palpi dirty yellow, gradually darkening to black at tips, black 
pubescent. Antennae yellowish, base of all scapal joints except 1st 
jet black, the colour fading away at about middle of each segment. In 
the $ the black is confined to a narrow basal ring. Occiput brownish- 
yellow, with narrow brown median stripe and some black pubescence 
towards eye margins. 

Thorax. — Ground colour pale brownish-yellow ; three olive brown 
stripes of the usual form, the centre one narrowly divided except on 
anterior margin ; side stripes shorter anteriorly but extending to pos- 
terior margin. An obscure stripe extends in the $ from the neck to just 
below the wnng base. 

Abdomen in (^ brownish-yellow, with a narrow blackish irregular dorsal 
stripe dying away at about middle of abdomen (type (^) ; or dark 
mahogany brown with the dorsal part nearly black, and the last two or 
three segments wholly so. Belly browni>>h-ye]low, tip blackish. 

In $ abdomen brow^nish-yellow, with distinct and complete dorsal 
black stripe without well defined edges. Belly darker brownish-yellow. 
Genitalia in ^ brownish-yellow, dorsal plate V-shaped with rounded 
edges bearing yellow pubescence ; 2nd joint of claspers ending in a pair 
of broad thumb-like processes ; ventral plate reduced to a long narrow 
style-like piece with yellow pubescence at tip. 

Legs in (^ : coxae and femora yellowish, latter with a broad dark 
brown apical ring ; tibiae and tarsi dark brown. In $, tibiae concolor- 
ous with femora, the apical ring on latter barely perceptible. 

Wings pale grey ; stigma brownish, ill defined ; a barely perceptible 
pale streak just beyond stigmatic suffusion reaching from costa to 
di'scal cell ; similar barely perceptible paler patches in 1st basal cell 
dividing it approximately into three parts ; two or three similar pale 
spots on hind border of wing (two in 1st axillary and one in 2nd axillary 
cell). Costal cell very shghtly yellowish. A small, just perceptibly 
darker grey spot at base of 2nd longitudinal vein and another conti- 
guous proximally to the stigmatic suffusion. Halteres yellow, knobs 
blackish. 

Described from 4 (^ (^ and one $ (the latter apparently rather im- 
mature) in the Indian Museum from Shillong, Assam, 4,900 ft., 10 — 12- 
x-14 (Kemp). 

On TIPULODII^A, Ender.i 

There is a small group of species of Ti/pida with snowwhite to yellow- 
ish rings on the femora or tibiae or both, and long white tarsi, and though 
closely allied I have been able to distinguish six valid forms, pedata, W., 

1 Since writing this page I have seen that Alexander noted in 1913 that Tipulodina 
was uncjucstionably a Tijiuline, but I had overlooked his paper. He does not definitely 
state whether he regards it as a good genus or not. 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental TipuUdae. 271 

venusta, Walk,, pafricia and gracillima, Brun., and two new ones, con- 
tigua and simiUima. T. morf/i/ions, Walk., cinctipes, Meij. from Borneo 
and Tipulodma magnicornis, End. also belong here. For this group 
Enderlein has set up the genus Tipulodina,''- with the type species ?nagni- 
cornis, sp. nov., from Sumatra. The venation in this group, on which 
the new genus is partly founded, is merely that of Tipula itself. 

In Tipula the auxiUary vein turns down very distinctly into the 
1st vein a little beyond the origin of the praefurca, with no cross vein 
between it and the costa, though in some species a slight darkening 
of the inner end of the stigma or a fractional thickening of both costa 
and auxiliary at the same spot creates the impression of the presence 
of such a cross vein. 

Out of many hundreds of good specimens of Tipulae examined 
I have never found any such cross vein.^ The subcostal cross vein is 
invariably absent in Tijmla. The 1st vein ends very distinctly in the 
2nd either (1) where the latter forks, (2) immediately before the fork, or 
(3) in the upper branch of the fork just beyond its base, and in 
the latter case this short basal section may be mistaken for a cross 
vein, and the rest of the upper branch mistaken for the ending of 
the 1st vein. This view is wrong and I am compelled to consider 
Enderlein's reading of the venation in Tipulodina wholly incorrect. 
The costal cross vein is normally present in Tipula but often weak, 
possibly absent. In most of the species of the group under discussion 
the auxiliary vein lies so close to the 1st vein as to be easily over- 
looked, and this is especially the case in the form I provisionally 
identify as pedata, W. In my gracillima the 2nd vein is not forked 
quite in the ordinary way, the upper branch being abortive, short, 
whitish, thickened, lying along the outer margin of the stigma, and liable 
to be overlooked. In this species the costal cross vein is weak, situated 
just before the end of the stigma. In the very closely alhed simillima 
the 2nd vein is forked in the usual way. 

As regards the relative length of the 4th palpal joint, which in Ender- 
lein's type species is said to be only a little longer than the 3rd, a better 
case is made out for the erection of a separate genus and its removal 
to another subfamily, but having carefully re-examined all the specimens 
of the six species at my disposal, I find the 4th joint in them varies from 
If to over twice the length of the 3rd, or in other words about as long as 
the 2nd and 3rd joints together, generally much thinner and always of the 
so-called " whip-lash like " or peculiarly tipuhniform nature. 

Though the Tipulinae are theoretically separated from the Limno- 
biinae by the 4th palpal joint being " as long as or longer than the other 
three together," as a matter of fact in some species it is only as long as 
the preceding two, or sHghtly longer, and this closes the gap so far as 
the palpi go between this subfamily and the Limnobiinae in which it is 
theoretically " as long as the 2nd and 3rd together or shghtly longer." 
Normally the 4th palpal joint may be regarded as as long as the preced- 

1 Zool. Jahr. XXXII, p. 30 (1912). It may be noted that Enderlein places his genus 
in the Amalopini {" Pediciinac ") Section of the subfamily Limnobiinae, and that Bezzi 
would refer it to the Dolichopezini. 

- Of course, the humeral cross vein c^fcludecl. 

P 



272 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

ing three in Tipiilinae and as long as the preceding two in Limnobiinae. 
This being so I think Tipidodina magnicornis, End. would be better 
placed in the present group of the genus Tipula as an abnormal species, 
and abnormal in the matter of the palpi only. 

Moreover, the nasus in this group of Tipulae is very pronounced and 
this character is considered one of primary importance in the Tipulinae. 

The fault of the Comstock-Needham system of venation is that it 
endeavours to enforce a similar interpretation of the veins in both Tipu- 
linae and Limnobiinae. There is nothing illogical in a certain vein nor- 
mally turning upwards at the tip in the one subfamily and normally 
downwards in the other, and il the courses of the auxiliary vein and 1 st 
vein be studied in genera where the subcostal cross vein, costal cross 
vein and marginal cross vein are absent, it will be found they both turn 
downwards at the tip in the Tipulinae and upwards in the Limnobiinae, 
exactly as stated by Osten Sacken, in spite of Needham's effort to prove 
to the contrary and his statement that the great dipterologist's termino- 
logy has " served its day and generation." Osten Sacken also parti- 
cularly warned students against forcing the same reading into different 
groups and skilfully pointed out the close analogy of the venation of 
both subfamilies ; but what is the end of a certain vein in one subfamily 
is a cross vein in the other, and vice versa. 

The species in this group may be tabulated thus ^ : — 

A. A brownish spot over both basal cells (not conspicuous 

but quite obvious and apjDarently constant). 

B. Femora without jDale rings. (Anteiior tibiae brownish 

basally, remainder black, with broad white ring 

•. owards tips ; all tarsi wholly white except basal 

third of metatarsus, but tarsi tips a little brownish 

and extreme tips black) ..... jxitricia, Erun. 
BB. Anterior femora with broad, subapical yellowish ring. 

(Ring yellowish, broader, less well defined ; ring on 

anterior tibiae broad, subapical ; tarsi wholly 

white except about basal half of anterior metatarsi 

and basal third of hind metatarsi) . . . venusta, Walk. 

AA. No brownish spot over basal cells. 

C. Femora unringed, (Anterior tibiae more uniformly 

concolorous dark brown (fore pair) or black (middle 
pair), with narrow white ring just beyond middle ; 
ant( rior tarsi wholly 1 rownish-yellow (fore pair) or 

dark brown (middle pair) ) . . . . contigua, sp. nov, 

CC. Femora ringed ; at least front pair. 

D. Front femora alone ringed. (The ring moderately 

broad, yellowish, apical ; tarsi wholly white except 
basal half of anterior and basal third of hind meta- 
tarsi black ; extreme tips of tarsi may be brown 
or black). Costal cell wholly deep black . . . ;;er/rt/rt, W.^ 

DD. Anterior femora very distinctly ringed (indistinctly 
also on hind pair, the ring subapical). Costal cell 
wholly clear. 

1 As the legs were broken off in magnicornis, Hcnd. it is impossible to include it in 
the above table. 

2 My identification of this species still requires absolnte confirmation. Meijere re- 
cognises it from Java on several occasions and says the front femora are not white ringed, 
but Osten Sacken says they have a subapical yellowish-white ring, Wiedemann noting 
only the tibial rings. The femoral ring is not conspicuous, but is obvious enough if looked 
for. Osten Sacken's note of the very close approximation of the auxiliary vein to the 
1st longitudinal will also apply to other species in this group and to some Tipulae of other 
grpups? also. 



1018.] E. Brunetti: Oriental TijruUdae. 273 

E. Origin of 2nd vein hidden by stigma filling all 

marginal cell ; upp r liranch of 2nd vein very short, 

abortive, thickened, whitish. Femoral rings very 

narrow, more whitish ; tarsi all white except basal 

part of metatarsi ..,.., grarillima, Brun. 

EE, Origin of 2nd vein easily seen, as stigma fills only 

apical half of marginal cell ; 2nd vein forked in the 

ordinary v. ay; femoral rings twice as bread as in 

graciUinia, more yellowish ; tarsi with ba e of 2nd 

joint broadly and distinctly black, more narrowh^ 

so on hind pair ....... ■simiUlma, sp. nov. 

In reading " tarsi all white ", etc., in above table it must be re- 
membered that the extreme tips may be brownish or blackish, this 
point having no material value. 

Venusta, Walk, is extremely like yedata, W. but they may be differ- 
entiated as follows : — 

Costal cell all black ; no spot over basal cells . . pedafa 

Costal cell clear ; a spot over basal cells .... venusta. 

I now consider my first impression of venusta, Walk, probably correct 
and that my figure of it ^ really represents that species. 

LONGURIO, Lw. 

Berl. Ent. Zeits. XIII, p. 3 (18(59). 

Genotype : L. testaceus, Lw., sp. nov. 

rubriceps, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 261 ^, pi. 
xii, 9, genitalia (1916). Shiuten, Formosa, 400 ft. {Shiraki). 
The unique type in the British Museum. 

BRITHURA, Edw. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 232 (1916). 

Genotype : B. conijrons, Edw., ep. nov. 

conifrons, Edw., loc. cit., p. 263, (^, pi. xii, 10, tip of abdomen, 

11, tip of wing (1916). Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 

{Nitobe). Unique type in British Museum. 
erassa, Edw., loc. cit., p. 264, ^J, pi. xii. 12, abdomen tip (1916). 

Described from a unique (^ in the British Museum labelled 

" East Indies," (? India). 

PACHYRHINA, Macq. 

In my " Fauna " volume were added the following new species, 
semcornis, p. 341 ^, India (var. Iocs.) ; piincticornis, p. 343 (^, Siliguri, 
Bengal ; pleurinotata, p. 343 ^ ^, Ceylon ; demarcata, p. 344 ^ $, Dar- 
jiling ; concoloritlwrax, p. 346 ^ $, Khasi Hills, Sylhet ; gamma, p. 347 
9, Assam-Bhutan Frootie; : the types of all (except concolorithorax ,^ 
in the Pusa coll.) being in Ihe Indian Museum. 

speculata, Meij.. Nova Guin. Res. IX, p. 314 9 (1913). Papua, 
ochripleuris, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, Supp. p. 6 (^ ?, 1913 
(Mar. 1914). Java. 



^ fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., pi. v, fig. 5, wing. 

c2 



274 Records of flic Indian Musevm. [YoL. XV, 

citrina, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 265 $, 

(1916). Tailioku. Formosa {SJiirahi). Unique type in Britisli 

Museum. 
parva, Edw., loc. cif., p. 266, ^ (1916). Arisan, Eoim.osa, 

8,000 ft., lO-x-12 [Nitohp). Unique type in Britisli Museum. 
formosensis, Edw., loc. cit., p. 267, $ (1916). Kammotu, 

Formosa, 10-iv-lO (Nitohe). Unique type in Britisli Museum. 

Tipula cinerea, Brun. and T. elegans, Brun. 

Mr. Alexander "v\Tites me that these names shoukl be altered on ac- 
count of Tiqnda cmerea, Fab. which^ TricJiocera macidi/pennis , Mg. and 
Tiqnda elegans, Fab. which is a PachyrJiina, but this seems carrying the 
principle of renaming a httle too far. 

Pachyrhina javensis, Dol. 

A $ from Coonoor, Nilgiri Hills, vi-12 {Capt. Sewell) in the Indian 
Museum differs from the three $ $ referred by me to this species by 
having a black spot on the sternopleura as in plevrinotafa. The fore 
femora are nearly black except for the pale basal fourth and a slightly 
lighter space before the tip, sufficient to give the impression of a broad 
black median ring. The posterior femora are brownish-yellow with a 
moderately broad distinct apical ring. The 2nd posterior cell is not 
petiolate. The scutellum is wholly shining black. Two further $ 9 
from the same locality (1 and 4-ix-ll, Howleit) shew other minor differ- 
ences, so the species is evidently a variable one. Three ^ ^ also from 
Coonoor (4 and 5-ix-ll, Howleit) may possibly belong here ; they are 
rather smaller than the $ and I have not seen any ^ that could definitely 
be referred to javensis. Edwards records this species with notes {Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, 266) from Kotosho Island, near Formosa, 
20-vii-12 (SUraki). 

Two $ ? from Tura, C4aro Hills, Assam, 1,400 ft., ix-17 {Mrs. Kemp) 
have the thoracic dorsum almost entirely shining black, and the front 
femora shew no trace of black, yet they are probably this species. 



Pachyrhina bombayensis, Macq. 

This species is common at Pusa, Bihar, in July, August and Sep- 
tember. 

Pachyrhina serricornis, Brun. 

A small series from Pusa, February, September and December. 
One specimen from Shillong, 19-x-ll. 

Pachyrhina pleurinotata, Brun. 

A second ^ and $ in the Indian Museum also from Namoya, Ceylon, 
the $ having an abnormal, broad, blackish band in the middle of the 
fore femora. 



1918.] E. Brdketti: Oriental Tipulidae. 275 

Pachyrhina dorsopunctata, Brun. 

A (^ from Mangaldai, Assam-Bhutan Frontier, 30, 31-xii-lO [Kemp). 
Two $ $ Dinapore, Bengal, 16-xii-14 to 23-i-15 [Caunter) ; Pusa, Bengal, 
5 — lO-ii-15 (^ 9 "^ cojj. {Gravely). 

The species is common at Pusa in February and March. 

Pachyrhina consimilis. Bran. 

Cherrapunji, Assam, 4,400 ft., 2-3-X-14 {Kemp) ; Shillong, 5,500 — ■ 
6,400 ft., 29-viii to 5-ix-15 {Kemp) ; near Ghoom, above Darjihng, 
,6,000—7,000 ft., ll-vi-14 {Gravely) ; Kurseong, 4,700—5,000 ft., 19-vi-lO ; 
4-ix-09 (both Annandale) ; Kalimpong, Darjihng District, 600 — ^4,500 ft., 
24-iv— lO-v-15 {Gravely) ; Pashok, Darjihng District, 2,000—3,500 ft., 
23-iv — ll-v-15 {Gravely). I found it abundant at Darjihng during the 
first week in June, 1917. 

Pachyrhina gamma, Brun. 

This must temporarily be regarded as an indefinite species of which 
the description may require modification as further specimens have turned 
up which may belong to it and which would give it a considerable amount 
of variation. The inverted Y-niark mentioned in the type is on the 
face and not on the frons as described. 

Pachyrhina virgata, Cocj. 

Pruc. U. ,y. Nat. Mus. XXI, p. 306 (189S). 

Edwards records tliis, with notes {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, 
p. 266) from Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 {Nitobe). 

Pachyrhina fuscoflava, sp. nov. 

$. Punjab, India. Long. 18 mm. to tip of ovipositor. 

Head. — Brownish-yellow, with a httle black pubescence ;, base of 
flagellar joints of antennae narrowly black. 

Thorax brownish-yellow, the usual three darker stripes rather in- 
distinct, the outer ones not produced forward or downward. 

Abdomen darker brownish-yellow with brownish or blackish mark- 
ings ; ovipositor shining lighter brown. 

Legs brownish -yellow ; tips of femora, of tibiae, and of 1st and 2nd 
tarsal joints blackish ; remainder of tarsi wholly black. 

Wings pale yellowish-grey ; a whitish streak from costa just 
beyond tip of 1st longitudinal vein, downwards to a httle below 
discal cell ; also a similar paleness at tip of costal cell and base of 
marginal cell. A less distinct whitish spot lying over both basal cells 
at about two-thirds of their length, with a still fainter one at about 
one-third of their length. No chstinct stigma but stigmatic region a 
little brownish. Halteres brownish-yellow, the centre of the clubs 
darker. 



276 Records of tlte Indian Mvseinn. [Vol. 'X.V. 

Described from two $ 9 sent by Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcber from the 
Hazara District, Dimgagali, 8,000 ft., 21-24-V-15. Tyj:e presented by 
Mr. Fletcher to the British Museum, cotype in the Pusa collection. 

A species quite distinct from the others but yet possessing no strik- 
ingly distinctive character. 

Pachyrhina parvinotata, sp. nov. 

^ $. N.-W. Indian Frontier. Long. 15 mm. to tip of ovipositor. 

This species bears a considerable resemblance to my dorsopunctata , 
but differs essentially as follows. 

9v The outer thoracic stripes curve distinctly downwards at their 
tips and are brown not black, in some specimens less distinct than the 
median stripe ; the abdominal marks are small and rounded, not tri- 
angular (in dorscpunctata they sometimes nearly cove^' the dorsum 
of the segment) ; the 2nd posterior cell is much shorter, barely twice as 
long as the discal cell. 

These differences appear constant in the four females before me, 
three coming from Taru, Peshawar District, 16 — 29-V-15 and one from 
Haripur Hazara, North-West Frontier 27-V-15. 

What is no doubt a male of the same species has the abdomen almost 
wholly brownish -yellow, without distinct spots, the last two segments 
being black above. It is from Taru taken in company with the females. 

Type ^ and $ presented by Mr. Fletcher to the British Museum^ 
cotypes in Pusa collection. 

Pachyrhina hypocrites, sp. nov. 

^ $. Darjiling. Long. 10-11 mm. 

Head, palpi and antennae black, but frons more or less dull brownish- 
orange. 

Thorax and abdomen bright orange, last three or fouL abdominal 
segments and geni aha black. 

Legs black ; coxae, trochanters and femora for a short distance at 
base orange. 

Wings moderately dark grey, stigma distinct but not conspicuous, 
blackish ; halteres blackish. 

Described from 3 ^ (^ and 2 $ $ from Sureil, Darjiling District, 5,000 
ft., iv-v-17 [Kan])). In the Indian Museum. 

This species is extraordinarily like a specimen taken at the same time 
which I have identified as probably Tipula melanomera, Walk, only the 
different venation and structure of the genitalia separating them. 



Section DOLICHOPEZINI. 

MITOPEZA, Edw., gen. nov. 
Ann: Mag. Xal. Hht. (8) XVII, ] p. 349 and 3.5(1, ? fig. 1, p. 3.56, genitalia (1916). 

nitidirostris, Edw., loc. cit., Kedah Peak, 3,200 ft., Malay Penin- 
sula {Dr. Stanton). Unique type in British Museum. 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental Tipulidae. .277 

Tanypremna omissinervis, Meij. 

Br. de Meij ere now refers this to Tipula. 

Alexander [Proc. U. S. N. M. XLIV, p. 487) sinks Stegasmonotus, 
Ender. {Zool. Jahr. XXXII, p. 1, fig. i ; 1912) as an absolute Synonym 
of Tanypremna. 

DOLICHOPEZA, Curt. 

orientalis, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 351 ^ ^ (1 912)i 
Kurseong. 
I found this species not uncommon at Darjiling during the .^econd 
week of July 1916, flying low and slowly over wet grass and plants on 
the hillside in the town. 

obscura, Brun., loc. cit., p. 355 (^ $ (1912). Kurseong. 
postica, id., loc. cit., App. p. 561 <^ $ (1912). Darjihng District. 
inJuscata, id., loc. cit., App. p. 565 ^ (1912). Nilgiri Hills. 
Types of above four species in Indian Museum. 

pallidithorax, Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, Supp. p. 1 ^, pi i, 3, 1913 
(Mar. 1914). Java. 

Dolichopeza costalis, sp. nov. 
(Plate viii, fig. 6.) 

^. Cochin, S. India. Long, just over 5 mm. 

Head yellowish ; frontal bump well developed. Proboscis dirty 
brownish-yellow, with a few bristly black hairs ; palpi brownish-yellow, 
paler at emarginations. Antennae pale yellowish with soft white pubes- 
cence, a httle blackish at emarginations ; 1st joint pale brownish, with 
bristly hairs. 

Thorax and scutellum wholly pale brownish-yellow 

Abdomen yellowish at base, remainder of segment smoke-brown, 
paler on basal part of each segment. Genitalia distinct, smoke-brown. 

Legs (one only remaining). Femora yellowish, tip distinctly brown, 
tibiae and carsi whitish, tip of former narrowly black ; tarsi \^ times 
as long as tibiae. 

Wings pale grey ; costa smoke -brown, the colour broadening towards 
and broadly enclosing wing tip, filling apical half of 1st and apical 
third of 2nd posterior cell. Wing brown at base ; a blob attached to 
the costal darkening placed a little beyond the basal dark part ; a 2nd 
blob over origin of 2nd longitudinal vein, a 3rd over anterior cross vein 
and bas3 of 1st posterior cell. The posterior cross vein is narrowly 
brown suffused, and there is a minute concolorous spot placed at each 
of the three hiudermost veinlets of the 4th vein, also at tips of 5th and 
6th longitudinal veins. 

A slightly paler spot than the ground colour on costa just beyond tip 
of 1st vein and one each at tips of submarginal and 1st posterior cells. 

Described from a unique ^ in the Indian Museum from Kavalai, 
1,300^-3,000 ft., Cochin State, S. India, 24— 27-ix-14 [Gravely). 

Apart from only one leg remaining the specimen is in good condition 
but I should have refrained from setting uj- a legless type if the species 



278 Records of the iiulian Mnsenm. [Vol. X~V, 

had not been such a striking one by the wing markings, and the genus 
so hmited. 

NESOPEZA, Alex. 

Can. Eiit. XLVI, p. 157 (1<J14). 

Alexander makes Meijere's DoUchopeza gracilis the type of this genus, 

Nesopeza albitarsis, sp. nov. 
(Plate vii, fig. 1.) 

(^ $. DarjiHng. Long, about 8 mm. 

Head. — Occiput and frons brownish-grey ; former with a few short 
stiff hairs and traces of a median dark stripe ; remainder of head brown- 
ish-yellow ; proboscis with some black stiff hairs above ; palpi blackish- 
grey. 

Thorax, scutellum and metanotum uniformly brownish -yellow ; 
pleurae paler and more greyish. Two well separated dorso-central 
stripes of short pale hairs. 

Abdomen blackish, wit]\ inconspicuous whitish pubescence which is 
longer and more yellowish on hinder segments. Base of abdomen and 
posterior margins of hindei- segments shghtly paler. Genitalia in ^ of 
moderate size, brownish-yellow, with yellowish pubescence, apparently 
complex ; ovipositor shining yellowish-brown. 

Legs. — Femora brownish-yellow, darker at tips ; tibiae much darker, 
pale at base, blackish at tips ; tarsi all white to extreme tips. 

Wings pale yellowish-grey ; stigma well defined, a small paler conti- 
guous spot in front of and beyond it. Halteres yellow, knobs blackish. 

Described from a unique pair in the Indian Museum from Lord Car- 
michaers collection ; the ^ from Lebong, Darjiling District, 6,000 — 
6,600 ft., L3-vi-14 (Gravely), the $ from between Darjihng and Soom, 
5,000 — -7,000 ft., 14-vi-14 (Gravely). This species apparently comes in 
Nesopeza^ although the 2nd longitudinal vein originates more distally 
than in gracilis, in fact only immediately before the origin of the 3rd, 

Nesopeza longicornis, sp. nov. 

^. Assam. Long. 9 mm. 

Body wholly dark dull nut-brown ; a Httle brownish-yellow about 
nasus and underside of head. Antennae longer than whole body, 
brown ; flagellum of ten very elongate subequal joints with very short 
erect pubescence and two moderately long verticils on each placed respec- 
tively just after the base and just beyond the middle ; 11th joint very 
minute. Traces of a divided pale median stripe on dorsum of thorax. 
Hind segments of abdomen narrowly and indistinctly black ; genitaha of 
moderate size. Femora black, tibiae pale yellowish, becoming white at 
tips ; tarsi wholly snow-white, longer than femora and tibiae together. 
Wings pale yellowish-grey ; stigma black, the ground colour of the wing 
on each side of it whitish. 2nd vein originating some distance before 3rd ; 
2ud posterior cell truncate at base, as long as 3rd ; discal cell small. 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental Tipulidae. 279 

indistinct at base, lower side wholly formed by 4th posterior cell ; 
posterior cross vein a Uttle before base of discal cell. Halteres dark 
brown. 

Described from three ^ ^ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
Garo Hills, Assam, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-1917 {Kemjj). 

Nesopeza picticornis, sp. no v. 

(^. Southern Shan States. Long. 9 mm. 

Head brownish-yellow ; a median blackish stripe on frons extending 
back across most of occiput ; nasus dirty brown, palpi blackish. An- 
tennae bright yellow, base of all flagellar joints except 1st black ringed 
at base, also slightly swollen there ; apical joint exceedingly minute, 
yellowish. 

Thorax. — Collare blackish ; dorsum yellowish with three distinct 
but not clear-cut stripes of the usual pattern ; the median one extending 
to anterior margin and continued downwards over shoulders ; posterior 
calli dark brown, the intermediate depression yellowish, as is also the 
rathei square shaped scutellum. Sides of thorax brownish-yellow ; 
an indistinct blackish streak from prothorax across the pleurae and 
joining the dark abdominal side streak. Metanotum large, shield- 
shaj)ed, brownish-yellow with black edges. 

Abdomen brownish-yellow, hind margin of each segment with a dis- 
tinct bluish-black band ; belly similar ; sides with a narrow blackish 
line from base nearly to tip. Genitaha small, brownish-yellow. 

Legs. — Coxae and femora brownish-yellow, latter dark brown tipped ; 
tibiae and tarsi very dark brown or black. 

Wings moderately dark grey ; veins distinct, black ; subcostal cell 
blackish ; stigma clear-cut, oval, black ; posterior cross vein slightly 
sufEused ; anterior, outer and hinder sides of discal cell rather faint, 
Halteres yellowish, clubs blackish with white tips. 

Described from a single ,^ in the Indian Museum from Inle, Southern 
Shan States, 3,000 ft., 18-ii-17 {Gravely). This is a more robust species 
than albitarsis, and the legs are relatively shorter. 

SCAMEONEURA, Os. Sac. 

quadrata, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, Supp. p. 8, 1913 (Mar. 
1914). Java. 

Subfamily LIMNOBIINAE. 

Section CY LIN DROTO MINI. 
STIBADOCERA, Ender. 

Zool. Jahr. XXXII, p. 8:5 (1912). 

Genotype : S. bullans, sp. nov. 

bullans, Ender., he. cit., p. 84 ^ (1912). Sumatra. The unique 
type in the Stettin Zoological Museum. 



280 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

metallica, Alex., Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 178 (1916). 
Java. 
Alexander states in this paper that my Cylindrotoma quadricellulu 
is a Stibadocera . 

Genera in CYLINDROTOMINI. 

An examination of the genera and species in this group reveals a 
remarkable elasticity of characters and substantiates its intermediate 
position between Tipulinae and Limnobiinae. 

This was quite evident to Osten Sacken who,^ in comparing the 
European Cylindrotoma distinctissima with the North American ameri- 
cana, also the European glabrata with the North American nodicornis, 
wrote " The fact is that these species represent a gradation which baffles 
every attempt at a generic arrangement." He retained Phalacrocera 
tipulina and the European P. replicata in the same genus in spite of the 
important difference that in the former the 1st vein ends in the 2nd 
vein, with the marginal cross vein absent, whilst in replicata the 1st vein 
ends in the costa with the marginal cross vein present. He kept all the 
species known at that time in the three genera recognised by Schiner, 
Cylindrotoma, Phalacrocera and Triogma " in order to avoid the estab- 
lishment of a new genus for almost every species known, which would 
probably necessitate a similai' process for every species to be discovered 
hereafter." He notes that even the absence of the anterior cross vein 
(when it is normally absent) is not always constant in the same species, 
as out of twenty-one examples of Liogma nodicornis examined it was 
absent in seventeen and present, though short, in four, so he retains 
nodicornis and glabrata (in which latter the vein is present) in the same 
genus Liogma. 

The characters of this group which exhibit such unusual variation 
are : (1) the exact manner in which the auxiliary vein terminates, 
with the presence or absence of the subcostal cross vein, or the presence 
or otherwise of a short cross vein between the tip of the auxiliary vein 
and the costa ; (2) the exact manner in which the 1st vein terminates, 
with the presence or absence of what I call in my Fauna volume the 
costal cross vein ; (3) the point at which the 2nd and 3rd veins diverge, 
and, (4) the presence or absence of the anterior cross vein. Other 
characters though variable are definite one way or the other, such as 
the number (four or five) of posterior cells, the jDunctulate nature of the 
thorax or otherwise, and some minor ones. All the tibiae are spurred 
in the three species before me. 

The material before me, apart from literature, consists of a single 
specimen of C. distinctissima (with one wing only), the three original 
specimens of my C. 4-cellula,- and four ^ ^ and one $ of my new species 
latefurcata. These exhibit the following comparative characters. 



1 Monog. N. Am. Tipulidae, p. 295. 

2 This is a Stibadocera as Alexander notes. I had not seen Eadorlein's peeper, nor an 
earlier paper by Alexander on Neotropical Limnobiinae in which he doubts the Cylindro- 
tomine character of the genus, though he admits its position here in his subsequent paper 
on Javan TipuUdae. 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental Tiimlidae. - 281 

Cylindrotoma distinctissima, Mg. — Auxiliary vein ends free, a 
trace of subcostal cross vein towards but not at tip. (Extreme tip of 
wing missing, but intact up to the point at which costal cross vein occurs 
when present, and there is no sign of it.) 2nd and 3rd veins diverge 
immediately" but distinctly before anterior cross vein. Antennae with 
moderately long verticils, inconspicuous as such. Thorax quite smooth, 
unpunctured. 

Stibaiocara 4-C3llula, Brun. — -Auxiliary vein distinctly turns 
down into 1st vein, without weakening, no trace of a cross vein uniting 
it with costa. 1st vein dark brown till near tip, where it turns down into 
2tid vein, this last section of it pale yellow. A dark brown cross vein 
(my costal cross vein) joins it to costa at the point where it suddenly 
pales. Therefore if it is contended that in this case the 1st vein ends 
in the costa, the pale apical section will be the marginal cross vein, 
but the former theory strikes me as the more correct. 2nd and 3rd 
veins diverge exactly at anterior cross vein. Thorax towards sides of 
dorsum distinctly punctulate. Antennae very long with exceptionally 
long and conspicuous verticils. 

Stibadocarella pristina, sp. nov.— Auxiliary vein may b? con- 
si lered to ond ill costa wdth subcostal cross vein present, both of 
equal strength and distinctness, though it is impossible to decide 
with certainty which is the actual ending of the vein. The 1st 
vein obviously turns down into the 2nd ; no trace of costal cross 
vein. The peculiarity of this species is that the 2nd and 3rd veins 
diverge so late, half way between anterior cross vein and wing 
tip. The 2nd vein at point of divergence turns abruptly upwards 
and then rather sharply outwards, the last section appearing to be 
the end of the 1st vein, being in a straight line with it. 3rd vein 
forming with praefurca a gently bisinuate line. Rest of veins as in 
4-ceUula. 

Antennae in i^ as in -1-cellula ; longer than whole body ; in $ less than 
half as long, very shortly and inconspicuously pubescent. Thorax 
very smooth, no trace of punctulation. 

The variation of the characters in question may be summed up as 
follows.^ 

Auxiliary vein. — Ends (1) free, with subcostal cross vein indis- 
tinctly present {Cylindrotoma) ; or (2) ends very distinctly in the 
1st vein without any cross vein above or below, and as three out of the 
six genera in this section are identical in this it may be regarded as the 
normal ending {Triogma, Liogma, Stibadocera) ; or (3) ends in costa 
with subcostal cross vein present {StibadocereUa). It may be contended 
in the latter case that it ends in the 1st vein, with a supernumerary 
cr jss vein between its tip and the costa, but such a cross vein is very 
rare in the diptera. 

1st longi^udinil vein. — Normally ends in 2nd vein.- When the 
costal cross vein is absent this fact is unimpeachable, therefore Ender- 
lein's contention that it ends in the costa with a cross vein between it 

^ Only the conclusions ara given here, as my full comparative notes on the genera 
would occupy too much space. 

2 Occasional exceptions may be admitted : vide note antea p. 280, Plialacroccra. 



282 Records of the Indian Mtiseum. [Vol. XV, 

and the 2nd vein (which would be the marginal cross vein) must be 
incorrect. 

Osten Sacken admits a " more or less indistinct cross vein connects 
the 1st vein with the costa." 

This is my costal cross vein which is present {Cylindrotoma, indis- 
tinctly ; Stibadocera) , or absent {Triogma, Liogma, Stibadocerella). 

2nd and 3rd veins. — -These diverge at varying distances, as is 
the case in many other groups, either just before, or at, or a httle beyond 
the anterior cross vein (all genera except Stibadocerella) or else half way 
between the anterior cross vein and the wing-tip as in the latter genus. 

Anterior cross vein. — ^Normally present, but absent in Triogma 
and Liogma, effectually characterising these genera though, as has been 
stated, it is not always constant even in the same species. 

Number o£ posterior cells. — Four in all genera except Cylin- 
drotoma, which has five. 

Antennae. — These have conspicuously long and copious verticils in 
Stibadocera and Stibadocerella, but they afford no characters out of the 
common in the other genera. 

Punctulation o£ thorax. — This very unusual character in Tipulidae 
exists only in Triogma, Liogma and Stibadocerella. 

On the above general conclusions the following table of genera may 
be offered : — ■ 

A. Anterior cross vein absent ^ : tliorax punctulate. 

n. Flagellar joints subglobiilar ...... Triognui. 

BB. Flagellar joints subcylindrical, elongate . . . Liogma. 

AA. Anterior cross vein present : thorax not jjunctulate 
except in Stibadocera. 

C. Five postei'ior cells ....... Cylimlrotoina. 

CC. Four posterior cells . 

D. Thorax punctulate ....... Stibadocera. 

DD. Thorax not punctulate. 

E. Verticils of antennae very short : 2nd and 3rd veins 

diverging at about anterior cross vein . . . Phalacrocera. 

EE. Verticils of antennae very long and consincuous : 
2nd and 3rd veins diverging half way between an- 
terior cross vein and wing tip .... Stibadocerella. 

In Osten Sacken's figure of his Liogma nodicornis ^ he shews the 
auxiliary vein distinctly ending free without any trace of a cross vein 
above or below, but Needham's figure of the same species shews the 
auxiliary vein as distinctly ending in the costa with a very distinct 
subcostal cross vein present. I cannot decide which is correct. 

Enderlein's interpretation of the venation in Stibadocera is open 
to doubt. He speaks of the 2nd vein being joined to the 1st by a 
cross vein (which would, of course, be the marginal cross vein, though he 
does not recognise it as such). What he considers the tip of the 1st vein 
is really the costal cross vein, the 1st vein really ending in the 2nd as 
normally in this section. Alexander's figure of S. metallica, sp. nov. 
agrees in venation with Enderlein's species, bullans, from Sumatra. 



^ Present occasionally in individual specimens in one sijecies. 

- The difference between Triogma and Liog^na is weak but no other appears to have 
been put forward. Osten Sacken gives no definite character by which to separate them. 
2 " Cylindrotoma " nodicornis., Monog., pi. i, 7. 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tiiwlidae. -283 

I contend it must be admitted that the I st vein normally and actually 
ends in the 2nd, because whenever the costal cross vein is absent it most 
obviously does so end. 

STIBADOCERELLA, gen. nov. 

Near Stibadocera, Enderl. Antennae with similar very long and 
conspicuous verticils the whole length of the flagellum, w^hich consists 
of 13 joints, the last three not so distinctly demarcated as the others ; 
scape as in Stibadocera. Thorax absolutely without trace of punctula- 
tion. All tibiae with very small spurs. Palpi comparatively short, 
all the joints apparently subequal. Auxihary vein turning up very dis- 
tinctly into costa ; subcostal cross vein distinctly present ; 1st vein 
turning down into 2nd as usual in this section ; no trace whatever of 
costal cross vein ; 2nd and 3rd veins diverging very late, half way be- 
tween anterior cross vein and wing tip. As the wing is absolutely colour- 
less (in the type and only species) all the veins stand out with striking 
clearness. 

Genotype : S. fristina, sp. nov. ^ $ from Assam. 

Stibadocerella pristina, sp. nov. 
(^ 9- Assam. Long. 10 mm. 

Head pale yellowish, face with a greenish tinge ; palpi brownish, 
paler at tip ; antenna^ scape yellowish, flagellum brown. 

Thorax pale brownish-yellow, very smooth and shining, traces of 
three shining, rather dark brown median, subcontiguous stripes, less 
distinct in $• 

Abdomen dirty brown, hind margins of segments narrowly whitish, 
more distinct in (^, and broader on the long 2nd and 3rd segments. 
(There seems no clear demarcation between what are apparently the first 
three segments.) Tip of abdomen blackish ; genitaha in ^ small but 
distinct ; in $ comparatively large, bulbous at base, the valves black, 
shining. 

Legs. — Coxae greenish (hght verdigris colour) ; rest of legs brown. 
Femora a httle pale at extreme base, and slightly thickened towards 
tips ; tibiae with a very narrow white ring at extreme base (in one ^ 
the ring is greenish) ; front tibiae with broad white ring at tip, where 
the pubescence is longer and thicker. Tarsi snow-white, anterior 
metatarsi brown except extreme tips, hind metatarsi brown to just 
beyond middle. 

Wings absolutely colourless, veins extremely distinct, in accordance 
with the generic diagnosis ; halteres black, stem comparatively long. 

Described from four (^ <^ and one $ in Indian Museum from Tura, 
Garo Hills, Assam, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-17 {Kemj)). 

Section LIMNOBIINI. 
DICRANOMYIA, Steph. 
In my Fauna volume (1912) I described the following species. 



284 Record)^ of tJie Indian Museum, [Vol. X7, 

Momwripennis, p. 369 (^ $, Darjiling ^ ; demarcata, p. 370 $, Kur- 
seong ; absens, p, 372 $, Kurseong ; pulchrijjenms, p. 376 ^J $, E. and 
W. Himalayas ; functicosta, p. 377 (^ $, Kurseong ; fraterna, p. 378 $, 
Darjiling ; fascipennis, p. 379 $, Kurseong ; subfascipennis, p. 380 (^ 5, 
Kurseong ; ornatipes, p. 380 (J, Travancore ; Puri ; Dawna Hills ; cinera- 
scens, p. 381 (^ $ Darjiling ; Kurseong ; cinctiventris,^ 382 $, Kurseong ; 
sordida, p. 382, Darjiling ; Kurseong ; delicata, p. 383 (^ 9^ Darjiling ; 
flavobrunnea, p. 384 (^ $, Calcutta ; simplex, p. 384 $, Calcutta ; /or/Zs, 
p. 385 (^, Darjiling ; nigrithorax, p. 385 (^, Darjiling ; subtessettaia , 
I. c, App. p. 565 (^ $, Ceylon ; bicindipes,^ App. p. 566 (^, Dawna 
Hills ; columbina, App. p. 567 $, Ceylon ; approximata, App. p. 567 $, 
Darjiling District ; imwcens, App. p. 568 (^ $, Kumaon District. All 
the types in the Indian Museum. 

debeauforti, de Meij., Bijd. tot. Dierk. XIX, p. 47, ^ ? (1913). 

Saonek, Indc-Australian archipelago. 
alta, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, p. 341 ^ (1913). Java, 
nongkodjadiarersis, id., I. c, p. 343 ^ (1913). Java. 
Types of the latter two species in Amsterdam Museum. 

novae-guineae, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, p. 101 {Thypti- 

ccmyia), (1915). North Papua, 
tinclipcnnis, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, Supp. p. 66, 1915 
(1916). Sumatra. 
Alexander describes the following new species frcm Java (Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, 1916) : allitarsis, p. 159 (^ ; atrescens, p. ICO (^ ; 
erythrina, p. 161 (^ ; exceJsa, p. 161 (^ $ ; simpliisima, p. 162 9 ; carneo- 
tincta, p, 162 (^. 

Dicranomyia iullowayi, Alex. 

Car). Ent. XLVII, p. 79 (1915). 

Edwards records this species (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 
245) from Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 {I. Nitobe). Described 
originally {Can. Ent. XL\ II, p. 79) f: cm Guam I., one of the Ladrones 
Islands. 

Edwards also describes in the same paper (p. 246) J), alticola, sp. 
nov. $, pi. xii, 1, $ genitalia), Arisan, lO-x-12 (/. Nitobe); Horisha, 
Formosa, v 1913 {M. Mali). Type in British Museum. 

Dicranomyia cuneiformis, de Meij. 

A few of each sex referable to this species from Castle Eock, 
Bombay, 11^ — 26-X-16 (Kemp). In addition there is a, ^ with the 
marginal cell twice as much longer tharr the submarginal as the latter 
is longer than the 1st posterior. The whole wing tip is brownish infus- 
cated as far basally as a line from the well n arked stigma through 
the discal cell to just before the tip of the 5th longitudinal vein. Two 
other specimens have the margirral cell still longer proportiorrately and 
no trace of apical infuscation of the wing. All are from Castle Rock 
or neighbourhood, taken at about the same time. 

^ This species was taken in Japan at Otsu, near Kyoto, x-15, by Dr. Annandale. 
* This is a Lim-nobla, with L. vitrijjennis, Brun. as a synonym. 

^ Also descriled as ncv/ in i?ef. Ind. Mus. VII, 447; the Fauna record ant dates 
this by about a month. 



1918.] E. BiiUNETTi: Oriental Tipulidae. 285 

Dicranomyia bicolor, sp. nov. 

(^. Assam. Long. 6| mm. 

Head, proboscis, palpi and occiput dirty dark brown ; antennae 
similar with a little pale pubescence. 

Thorax pale yellowish ; whole dorsum (except anterior margin 
broadly and the humeri), scutellum and metanotum shining black. 
Pleurae just above anterior coxae faintly blackish. 

Abdomen. — Dorsum shining black, hind margins of segments yellow- 
ish ; belly wholly yellow. Genitaha large, conspicuous, 2nd joint of 
claspers with two (if not three) hook-like appendages ; a narrow long 
ventral plate. 

Legs yellowish, gradually darkening to tarsi tips ; tips of femora 
with a moderately broad blackish ring. 

Wings pale grey very iridescent. 2nd longitudinal vein originating 
rectangularly and forming a right angle near its base, which is enclosed 
in a rather large blackish square spot. A similar spot over marginal 
cross-vein, continued narrowly over base of 3rd vein. Halteres pale 
yellow, knobs blackish. 

Described from a unique (^ in the Indian Museum, Cherrapunji, 
Assam, 4,400 ft., 2— 8-X-14 {Kern])), 

A-llied to D. nigrithorax, Brun. 

Dicranomyia prominens, sp. nov. 
(^ $. Goa. Long. 3 — 4 mm. 

Head set very low on thorax, on long neck ; yellowish, as are also 
antennae, proboscis and palpi. 

Thorax brownish-yellow, unusually humped and projecting forward 
considerably over the long neck. 

Abdomen in (^ wholly brownish-yellow, hind margins of segments 
barely darker ; in $ wholly black except tip and genitals brow^nish-y el- 
low. 

Legs brownish-yellow. 

Wings pale grey, without trace of stigma or markings ; 4th longi- 
tudinal vein with both branches unforked ; discal cell absent ; halteres 
dirty yellow. 

Described from 1 ,^ and 3 99 in the Indian Museum from Mormugao, 
Goa, ix-16 {Kenvp). 

This species is noticeable on account of the unusual convexity and 
prominence of the anterior part of the thorax which almost overhangs 
the neck. Another unusual character is the unforked nature of both 
branches of the 4th vein, which it possesses in common with D. ieneJla, 
de Meij., described from Java and not known from India, The latter has 
a chstinct stigma, blackish-brown antennae and palpi, yellowish abdomen 
in both sexes and dark brown legs. 

Dicranomyia niveiapicalis, sp. nov. 

Q. S. W. India, Long. 4 mm. 

Head yellowish -grey, vertex blackish ; scapal joints of antennae 
very large, 1st much longer than usual ; base of fiagellum forming an 



286 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

elongated cone, joints not easily separated, apical half of flagellum 
with very attennated joints, of which the verticillate hairs are very 
long. Palpi black. 

Thorax with dorsum somewhat sharply delimited from lower part, 
rather bright yellowish-grey, microscopically tomentose. A transverse 
row of four narrow vittae in front of suture, also an anterior pair towards 
front margin ; a slightly curved similar pair just behind suture, Scu- 
telluni and metanotum concolorous, latter blackish in middle. 

Abdomen blackish with a rather broad median brownish-yellow stripe 
throughout its length. Genitalia brownish-yellow. 

Legs yellowish, coxae pale whitish-yellow ; femora browner towards 
tips with a rather narrow apical snow-white ring. 

Wings yellowish-grey ; small blackish suffusions over bases of 2nd 
and 3rd veins and tip of 1st vein, anterior and posterior cross veins, proxi- 
mal and distal sides of discal cell, and tips of all veins. A much fainter 
sub-apical short stripe from costa reaching 1st posterior cell ; costal 
cell distinctly yellowish ; halteres brownish-yellow with darker tips. 

Described from a single perfect (^ in the Indian Museum from the 
North Canara District, S. W. India, II' — 26-X-16 (Kemp). 

The yellow colour of this species, with the spotted thorax and snow- 
white tipped femora make this a very conspicuous one, 

Dicranomyia, sp. 

A (^ in the Indian Museum from Mormugao, Goa, ix-lQ {Kemp) may 
represent a new species or an abnormality. It has the upper branch 
of the 4th longitudinal vein simple, the lower branch forked, aiid the 
discal cell coalescent with the 2nd posterior. 

Dicranomyia pictipes, sp. nov. 

^ $. S. W. India. Long. 3i mm. 

Head and appendages all black. 

Thorax. — Dorsum cinnamon-brown with narrow median pale stripe 
from about the suture, carried uninterruptedly over scutellum and meta- 
notum to basal segments of abdomen. Lower part of thorax all white, 
except a large oval black spot on the sternopleura. 

Abdomen blackish-brown, a narrow median pale stripe of irregular 
length on basal segments. Belly yellowish, emarginations of segments 
blackish, genitaha black. 

Legs. — Coxae white ; femora brownish yellow, tips very narrowly 
blackish ; tibiae and tarsi snow-white to tips, former with two narrow 
dark brown rings placed just before the first and the second thirds of 
the length. 

Wings grey, iridescent, veins very distinct, venation normal. Discal 
cell absent ; anterior branch of 4th vein forked, posterior branch simple. 
Anterior cross vein and posterior cross vein both in a hue with the base 
of the open discal cell, which is coalescent with the 3rd posterior cell. 
Stigma rather large, dark brown, over marginal cross vein, sometimes 
elongated downwards as far as 1st posterior cell. A small suffusion 
over base of 2nd vein, sometimes continued narrowly along the cros§ 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tipulidae. 287 

veins ; posterior cross vein often narrowly suffused. Halteres obscurely 
yellowish with black clubs. 

Described from a series (containing many immature examples) from 
Mormagao, Goa, ix-16 (Kemp). 

A very striking species easily recognised from all others by the snow- 
white tibiae with the two narrow dark rings. It seems related to the 
snowwhite-legged species forming the Thrypticomyia group, but the cells 
are not crowded towards the wing tip as in Skuse's genus. 

GERANOMYIA, Hal. 

flavicosta, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. (1912), p. 389 Q Ganges 

Delta. 
circipunctata, id., he. cit., p. 390 <^ ?. Bengal (various localities) ; 

Madras. 
tridens, id., he. cit., p. 391 <^ $. Ganges Delta. 
pulchripennis, id., he. cit., p. 393 $. Kurseong. 
Types of the above species in Indian Museum. 

notatipennis, Brun., Ree. Ind. Mus. VIII, p. 152 (^ (1913). 

N. E. Assam. The unique type in the Indian Museum. 
10-guttata, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, p. 345 ^ $ (1913). Java. 
Types in Amsterdam Museum. 

brunnescens, deMeij., he. cit., LVIII, Supp. p. 10 (;^, 1915 (1916). 

Sumatra. Unique type in Amsterdam Museum. 
7-notata, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 246 $ (1916). 
Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 (/. Nitobe). Unique type in 
British Museum. 

linearis, Alex., Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 163 c^ (1916). 

Java. 
javanica, id., he. cit., p. 164 $. Java, 
cornigera, id., Ins. Menstr. I, p. 137. Pettit Barracks, Luzon, 

Phillippine Is. {Ludhw). 

Geranomyia genitalis, Brun. 

Two ^ <^ from thePashok Spur, Darjihng District, 2,000—3,500 ft., 
23-iv — ll-v-15 {Gravely). These cannot satisfactorily be separated 
from typical specimens except that they appear less robust, the legs 
thinner and the wings clearer. 

Geranomyia nigronotata, sp. nov. 

$. Malabar district, Madras Presidency. Long, i^ mm. 

Head blackish, frons with greyish reflections ; antennae brownish- 
yellow, with grey pubescence ; proboscis and palpi blackish-brown. 

Thorax. — Dorsum bright chestnut-brown, blackish on middle of an- 
terior margin ; a rather large round dead black spot in front of each 
wing-base ; the posterior calli large, rounded, shining black. Scutellum 
and just behind wing base browiii.'.h yellow. Sides of thorax (except 
the brownish yellow sternopleurae), and metanotum with bluish-grey 
reflections. 



288 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

Abdomen dark brown, belly a little more reddisb ; ovipositor brown- 
ish yellow. 

Legs yellowish, tips of femora and tarsi barely darker. 

Wings very pale grey ; stigma oval, small, darker grey ; halteres 
brownish. 

Described from a unique $ from the Pusa collection, Cherambadi, 
Wynaad, x-13 {Howleft) " in jungle." Type presented to the British 
Museum by Mr. T. B. Fletcher. The species is easily recognised by its 
clear wings (except for the grey stigma) and the black spots on the 
thorax. 

Geranomyia flaviventris, sp. nov. 

(Plate, vii, fig. 2.) 

^. Darjiling. Long. 4| — 5 mm. 

Head blackish-grey ; antennae and proboscis black ; palpi placed 
at about middle of latter, which is about as long as the head and thorax 
together. 

Thorax brownish-yellow on dorsum, with three longitudinal blackish 
stripes. At the suture the median one becomes very narrow, but con- 
tinues more broadly over scutellum and metanotum. The outer stripes 
broaden behind the suture into a pair of large dark spots. Lower part 
of thorax dull brownish-yellow ; hinder part of pleurae and the metano- 
tum wholly blackish-grey. 

Abdomen black with short pubescence ; belly rather bright yellow ; 
genitaha conspicuous, 2nd joint of claspers of considerable length. 

Legs blackish, coxae and more or less of the femora yellowish. 

Wings pale grey with darker grey spots, a larger one over stigma, 
its centre extending downwards into the submarginal cell ; three smaller 
elongate ones placed transversely occur along the costa anterior to the 
larger stigmatic spot ; these are approximately equidistant, and extend 
more or less into the 1 st and 2nd basal cells and submarginal cell. A 
similar spot over tip of 2nd longitudinal vein ; the " cross veins " in one 
specimen are just perceptibly suffused ; a small grey spot at tip of 7th 
vein. All these spots apparently variable in size and intensity. Hal- 
teres black, stems yellowish at base. 

Described from three (^ ^ m the Indian Museum from Pashok, Dar- 
jiling District, 3,000 ft., 14-vi-16 {Gravely). 

The general appearance of this species is very hke iridens. 

GERANOMYIA Halid. and APOROSA, Macq. 

Kertesz gives the latter as synonymous with the former in his cata- 
logue, and Speiser has doubted their distinctness, but Bergroth points 
out that the true distinction is the position of the palpi, placed far from 
the tip of the proboscis in (jeranomyia, and close to the tip in Aporosa. 
Upon re-examining all my oriental species of Geranonvyia they prove to 
truly belong to that genus, the palpi in all of them being placed at about 
the middle of the proboscis. The latter is about as long as the head and 
thorax together in all the species except circipuncfata, in which it js 
barely half that length, 



1918.] E. Bruketti : Oriental Tipulidae. 289 

Aporosa aurantia, sp. nov. 

O. Assam. Long. 9 mm, to tip of ovipositor. 

Body wholly bright orange. 2nd scapal joint of antennae, flagellum 
and proboscis black, latter nearly as long as whole body, palpi at its 
extreme tip very minute. A few isolated black hairs on occiput. Fla- 
gellum of antennae with long verticils. A barely perceptible darkening 
of hind border of abdominal segments, and traces of a narrow dark line 
on extreme side edge of tergites. Halteres and legs, including basal 
two-thirds of metatarsi, black ; rest of tarsi white, tip of 4th joint and 
the 5th joint a httle brown. 

Wings very pale yellowish-grey ; stigma elongate, small, indistinct, 
brown ; venation normal, except that the 2nd vein takes a sudden 
bend upwards immediately before origin of 3rd vein. 

Described from four $ $ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
Garo Hills, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-17 {Kemrp). 

LIMNOBIA, Mg. 

My Fauna volume (1912) contains the following new species : f estiva, 
p. 400 ^, Kurseong ; tinctinervis, p. 401 $, Darjihng ; indica, p. 401 (^ 9, 
Bengal (various locahties) ; trimaculata, p. 402 ^ $, Kurseong ; longi- 
nervis, p. 403 $, Kurseong ; centralis, p. 403 (^ $, Kurseong ; niveipes, 
p. 404 $, Darjihng ; nigra, p. 404 ^ $, Travancore ; vitripennis, p. 405 
$, Darjihng ; triatigularis, p. 406 $, Simla. 
Types of all these in Indian Museum. 

annulifemur, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent., LVI, p. 344 ^^ (1913). Java. 
The unique type in Amsterdam Museum. 

crocea, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), XVII, p. 353 <^ $ 
(1916). Sungkei, Perak, 9-ii-02 {Robiyison and Annandale). 
Types in British Museum. 
nitobei, id., he. cit., (8) XVIII, p. 247 (J, pi. xii, 2, genitalia 
tip (1916). Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 (7. Nitobe). 
Unique type in British Museum, 

Limnobia festiva, Brun. 

The auxiliary vein ends distinctly though not greatly beyond the 
origin of the 2nd longitudinal vein, and not opposite to it as stated in 
my description. 

Limnobia cinctiventris, Brun. 

This was erroneously described as a Dicranomyia. Limnobia vitri' 
pennis, Brun. is synonymous. 

Limnobia flavocincta, sp. nov. 
$. W. India. Long. 5 mm. 

Closely alhed to cinctiventris but with hind margins of upper side of 
each abdominal segment broadly yellow, the whole belly being yellow 
in one specimen, the basal part of some of the segments being black in 
the type. Upper part of dorsum shining blackish-brown with a pale 

p2 



290 Records of flic ludinn M^a^einn. [Vol. XV, 

median space, which .with the rather paler transverse suture divide 
this part apparently into four subequal shining dark spaces when viewed 
from above. Two fine, well separated black lines run from the anterior 
dark spaces nearly to the front margin Humeri yellowish. Scutellum 
yellowish, metanotum shining blackish-brown, the middle third 
yellowish. Tarsi yellowish -white, except about basal two-thirds of 
metatarsi. 

Described from two $ $ in the Indian Museum from Mahabaleshwar, 
Satara District, 4,200 ft., 13— 16-iv-12 {Gravely). 

Limnobia marginata, sp. no v. 
(Plate viii, fig. 7.) 

$, Assam. Long. 8 mm. to tip of ovipositor. 

Body brownish-yellow; 1st scapal joint, proboscis, palpi and upper 
part of occiput and neck black or blackish. A large shining black spot 
at base of each abdominal segment, narrowed behind and reaching hind 
margin so that all the spots are united into a more or less angulated 
dorsal stripe, variable in extent, as in one specimen the black colour 
fills nearly all the surface and in another the spots are barely connected. 
Ovipositor rather large, brownish on upper side and basal section of lower 
valves. Femora yellowish, a broad black apical ring ; tibiae dull 
brown ; tarsi black. 

Wings pale grey ; costal and subcostal cells black, the colour carried 
round costa into submarginal cell at about which point it dies away. 
A black spot over origin of 2nd vein, over marginal cross vein and 
divergence of 2nd and 3rd veins, from which spot a narrow dark streak 
runs along the " cross veins " ending at tip of 5th vein in hind margin of 
wing. Halteres yellowish. 

Described from five (^ (^ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
Garo Hills, Assam, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-vii-17 {Keni'p). 

The very conspicuous costal black band should easily identify this 
species from all except costalis, W., and this latter species has a median 
dark line on the thorax and the legs all yellow. 

Limnobia confinis, sp. nov. 
(^ $. Assam. Long. 9 mm. 

Very near indica, Brun. in general appearance but much larger and 
more robust. No dorsal black stripe on thorax. Dorsum of abdomen 
blackish-brown. Femora yellow, with moderately broad black apical 
ring ; tibiae dull brownish-yellow ; tarsi black. Wing much as in 
indica ; auxihary vein ending much before base of 3rd vein and distinctly 
before half way between base of 2nd vein and marginal cross vein. 
In indica the auxiliary vein ends distinctly beyond base of 3rd vein and 
a Uttle beyond half way between base of 2nd vein and marginal cross 
vein. This difference in the two species is very constant. There is no 
suffusion over base of 2nd vein or only perceptible under close examina- 
tion, but in indica there is an obvious though small suffusion at this 
spot. 



1918.] E. BiiUNETTi: Oriental Ti/jiilidae. 291 

Described from four of each sex from above Tura, Garo Hills, Assam, 
3,500^3,900 ft., vii-viii-17 {Kemp). In Indian Museum. 

Limnobia bipunctata, sp. nov. 

cJ. Assam. Long, about 5^1 mm. 

Head dark grey ; proboscis, palpi and antennae dark brown ; latter 
with scape a httle paler ; flagellum with whitish pubescence. 

Thorax wholly brownish-yellow, except dorsvun, scutellum and meta- 
notum which are shining black. 

Abdomen moderately shining black ; traces of pale hind margins 
to some of the middle segments, visible sometimes only towards the 
sides. Belly blackish-grey, hind margins and sides of segments paler. 
Genitalia rather large and complex. 

Legs blackish-brown ; femora yellowish with moderately broad 
blackish apical ring. 

Wings pale grey, very shining ; a rather large dark brown spot over 
base of 2nd vein and another over the stigma ; a narrow dark streak 
from latter along the " cross veins " including outer side of discal cell. 
Auxiliary vein ending nearly half way between base of 2nd vein and 
marginal cross vein ; 3rd posterior cell and discal cell subequal in length ; 
2nd posterior cell a little longer. Anterior and posterior cross veins 
at base of discal cell ; submarginal cell very little longer than 1st pos- 
terior. 

Described from three (^ (^ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
Garo Hills, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-viii-17 {Kemp). 



Limnobia tritincta, sp. nov, 

(Plate viii, fig. 9.) 

(^ $. Assam. Long. 5 mm. 

Head blackish-grey ; antennae slightly more yellowish. 

Thorax brownish-yellow ; a distinct but not clearly outlined median 
brownish dorsal stripe ; the post-sutural swellings, scutellum and meta- 
notum obscurely brown. 

Abdo7nen blackish, paler at base ; hind margins of segments broadly 
paler, also tip of abdomen ; belly much as upper side. Genitalia in ^ 
dark brown, of moderate size ; in $ moderately short brown. 

Legs pale yellowish ; tarsi brown. 

Wings very pale grey, long, with cells in distal part very elongated, 
Libnotes-like. As the 2nd vein originates in its usual course and the 
2nd and 3rd posterior cells are erjual in length it belongs to Limnobia.^ 
Auxihary vein ending half way between base of 2nd vein and marginal 
cross vein ; endings of 2nd, 3rd and 4th veins practically parallel ; anterior 
cross vein at base of discal cell, nearly in a hne with base of 3rd vein ; 
2nd and 3rd posterior cells from l^ to If times as long as discal cell ; 
posterior cross vein at middle of discal cell. A very small brownish 

^ See note on venation under Libnotes, p. 294. 



* 2^2 tlecoids of the Indian Museum. [Vol. SV, 

suffusion over base of 2nd vein, tip of auxiliary vein and marginal cross 
vein. Halteres dark. 

Described from a pair in cop, another (^ and three other $ 2 from above 
Tura, Garo Hills, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-viii-17 (Kemp). In Indian 
Museum. 

Limnobia 5-notata, sp. nov. 

(Plate viii, fig. 8.) 

^. Assam. Long. 5 mm. 

Head blackish-grey ; antennae greyish-brown with pale pubescence. 

Thorax yellowish-brown, with three narrow median stripes from an- 
terior margin to suture, the outer ones thereat continued round the 
post-sutural swellings ; side margins of dorsum also narrowly margined. 
Scutellum and metanotum brownish-grey. 

Abdomen dull greyish brown ; genitalia blackish, the inner parts 
pale yellow. 

Legs obscure brown. 

Wings pale grey. Five small brown spots over base of 2nd vein, 
tip of auxiliary vein, marginal cross vein, tip of 2nd vein, and base of 
3rd vein. Anterior cross vein, inner and outer sides of discal cell and 
posterior cross vein very narrowly suffused. Auxiliary vein ending 
half way between base of 2nd vein and marginal cross vein, latter quite 
perpendicular, placed a considerable distance before tip of 2nd vein. 
Anterior cross vein distinctly beyond bases of both 3rd vein and discal 
cell ; 2nd posterior cell shorter than discal cell ; 3rd posterior cell much 
longer than 2nd by encroaching on discal cell ; posterior cross vein at 
base of discal cell or just beyond. Halteres black. 

Described from one ^ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, Garo 
Hills, 3,500—3,900 ft., viii-17 {Kemp). 

Limnobia longipennis, sp. nov. 

^. Assam. Long. 8 mm. 

Head. — Eyes practically contiguous above for a considerable dis- 
tance ; frons blackish ; proboscis pale dirty yellowish ; palpi black ; 
antennae dull dark brown ; occiput grey, with long hairs. 

Thorax brownish-yellowish. 

Abdomen yellowish, a blackish band at base of each segment, nar- 
rowed towards sides ; belly similar. Genitaha of moderate size, brown- 
ish yellow, black-haired ; a large square ventral plate ; a pair of brown- 
ish yellow horny cyhndrical appendages just above it ; 1st joint of 
claspers with a fiiriger-like prolongation on inner side. 

Legs. — Femora brownish-yellow with subapical black, not very well 
defined ring ; remainder of legs black. 

Wings yellowish-grey, very long, tip of genitaha barely reaching base 
oi liscal cell ; auxihary vein ending half way between base of 2nd vein 
ana marginal cross vein ; submarginal cell distinctly longer than 1st 
posterior cell ; anterior cross vein, base of discal cell and posterior 
cross vein almost in a hue ; 2nd and 3rd posterior cells and discal cell 
subequally long. Small but obvious dark suffusions placed as follows : 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental TipuUdae. 293 

at base of 2nd vein, tip of auxiliaiy vein, marginal cross vein, mth a 
narrow streak from base of 3rd vein along anterior cross vein, base of 
discal cell and posterior cross vein. Halteres black. 

Described from a (^ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, Garo 
Hills, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-17 {Kemp). 

This species is near my longinervis, in which the wings are equally 
long, but in that species the cells in the apical tliird of the wing are ex- 
tremely elongated, almost as much so as in Libnotes. When the two 
species are placed side by side their distinctness is obvious at a glance. 

Limnobia nigrescens, sp. no v. 

(^. Assam. Long, about 4| mm. 

Wholly dull black. Wings dark grey ; auxiliary vein ending half 
way between base of 2nd vein and marginal cross vein, which latter is 
at tip of 2nd vein ; anterior cross vein at base of discal cell, distinctly 
beyond base of 3rd vein ; 2nd and 3rd posterior cells subequal, a httle 
longer than discal cell ; posterior cross vein a little beyond base of discal 
cell. Halteres black. 

Described from three ^ ^ in Indian Museum from above Tura, Garo 
Hills, 3,500—3,900 ft., vii-viii-17 {Kemp). 

This must be near aterrima, Walk, but in that species the antennae 
are described as setaceous and the wings are said to be black. In 
nigrescens the antennal joints are very distinct. There is also apparently 
a discrepancy in the venation as the figure Walker refers to shows the 2nd 
vein forked, in which case aterrima cannot be a Limnobia. 

Limnobia punctithorax, sp. nov. 

(^. S. W. India. Long. 5 mm. 

Head brownish-yellow ; eyes nearly contiguous above ; antennae 
dark brown except the long 1st scapal joint brownish-yellow, the 2nd 
scapal joint being similar to the 1st flagellar. 




Fig. 1.— Thorax of Limnobia pund Ihorax, sp. nov., side view 

TJiorax rather elongate, brownish-yellow ; pleurae pale yellowish ; 
two rather large approximately oval blackish spots behind suture ; 
scutellum blackish with a median pale stripe ; metanotum blackish. 
A conspicuous feature of this species is the presence of a number of small 
more or less round black spots on the anterior and lower part of the 
thorax, situated as follows. Two, almost contiguous, on anterior mar- 
gin ; a row of four lower ones along prothorax ; one in the small pit 



294 Records of the //id inn Museum. [Vol. XV, 

behind the shoulder, another rather behind and below it ; three abov« 
front coxae ; one each on pteropleura and sternopleura. 

Abdomen brownish-yellow, basal half of all segments blackish-brown. 

Legs brownish-yellow, tarsi tips shghtly darker. 

Winys pale grey, stigma small, over marginal cross vein. 

Described from a single ^ in the Indian Museum from Talewadi, 
near Castle Rock, N. Kanara District, 9 — lO-x-16 {Kem'p). 

The conspicuous spots on the anterior part of the thorax distinguishes 
this species from all others. 

RHIPIDIA, Mg. 

Cerutoslephaiius, Bum., Re-. Inl. Mus. VI, 271 (1011). 

This synonymy is evident, and I cannot understand how I came to 
overlook Meigen's genus. 

My C. aniennatus therefore comes here. Alexander would also 
sink my Atypo-phtlialmns in Ehipidia, but it is cei'tainly distinct as the 
antennae are normally constituted, without the appendages as in Rhi- 
pidia. 

bioculata, deMeij., T?;yVi V. jE^ni. LVIII, Supp. 11, 1915 ^ (1916). 

Sumatra. 
rostrifera, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVII, p. 352 ^J 
(1916). Kedah Peak, 3,200 ft., Malay Peninsula {Dr. Stan- 
ton). The unique type in the British Museum. 

DAPANOPTERA, Walk. 
Genotype : D. perdecora, Walk, by present designation. 

lorentzi, de Meij., Nova Guin. Res. IX, p. 307 ^ 5 (1913). 
fascipennis, id., I. c, p. 307, (^ (1913). 
pallida, id., I. c., p. 307 c^ (1913). 
Types of these in Amsterdam Museum. 

pulchra, deMeij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, p. 103 ^^ (1915). North 
Papua. 

LIBNOTES, Westw. 

This genus is simply a Limnobia with the distal cells conspicuously 
elongated, but two other venational characters appear to be tolerably 
constant. The 2nd vein originates not in the usual curve as in Limnobia 
but is straight in its basal section, and the base of the submarginal cell is 
in the same straight line, and at the origin of the 3rd vein the 2nd turns 
very sharply upwards at an acute angle. The other character is that 
the 2nd posterior cell is generally considerably longer than the 3rd by 
encroaching extensively on the upper outer corner of the discal cell. 
Osten Sacken however, mentions seven species in which this is not the 
case. 

Both L. thwaitesiana, Westw. and L. poeciloptera, Meij. were in- 
advertently omitted from my " Fauna " volume. The former has been 
taken in Calcutta, 5-viii-08 {Annandale) and at Peradeniya, Ceylon, 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Orientdl Tipulidae. 295 

13 and 17-vii-lO {Gmvely) and x-xi-1911 {F. Edwards). The latter 
species has been taken by Mr. E. E. Green also at Pundaluoya. 
L. punctipennis also occurs in Darjihng, Ceylon and Assam. 
fuscinervis, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 411 ^ (1912). 

Darjiling. 
notatinervis, id., he. cit., p. 412 $ (1912). Darjiling. 
Types of both species in Indian Miisenm. 

affinis, de Meij., Nova Guin. Res. IX, p. 308 $ (1913). Papua. 
Unique type in (?) Amsterdam Museum. 

punctatissima, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, p. 102 (^ (1915). 

North Papua. Unique type in Amsterdam Museum. 
scutellata, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8), XVIII, p. 353 ^ $, 
fig. 2, p. 356, genitaha (1916). Talum, Perak, 18-i-02 {Robinson 
and Annandale). Types in British Museum. 
stantoni, id., loc. eit., p. 354 9 ; limpida, id., he. cit., p. 
355 ? ; lutea, id., loc. cit., p. 357 $. 
All these three species taken by Dr. Stanton at Kedah Peak, 3,200 ft., 
Malay Peninsula ; the unique types in the British Museum. 

regalis, id., loc. cit., (8) XVIII, p. 248 (1912). Taihoku, Formosa, 

a unique much damaged specimen. In the British Museum. 
transversalis, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LIX, p. 198 (^ (1916). 
Gedah, Java, 1,625—2,400 metres. May {Konigsberger). Type 
in (?) Amsterdam Museum. 
montivagans, Alex., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 166 ^ $ 

(1916). 
nigricornis, id., loc. cit., p. 166 (^ $. 
opaca, Bezzi, Phil. Jour. Sci. XII, Sect. D, p. 116 (;J (1917). 

Luzon {Baker). 
marginalis, id., loc. cit., p. 116 (^ (1917). Luzon {Baker). 

Libnotes fuscinervis, Brun. 
I am uncertain as to the limits of this species, which seems variable 
in the presence or absence of the additional cross vein and in the wing 
markings. In one specimen from Cochin State the veins are not at all 
suffused but the bases of all the cells, with the marginal and posterior 
cross veins, are very distinct in comparison with the rest of the veins, 
and these " cross veins " are similarly deeply outhned (though not 
tliickened) in specimens which possess the suffusions. The short sec- 
tions towards the tips of some of the veins which are also deeply outlined 
in normal forms are the same in the Cochin specimen. An example 
from the Garo Hills recently collected by Mr. Kemp has the additional 
cross vein and the exact suffusions of the normal form but all the legs 
are wholly black, whilst another from the same source has normal legs, 
and no additional cross vein nor trace of suffusions but all the veins 
deeply and uniformly outhned. 

Section RHAMPHIDINI. 

RHAMPHIDIA, Mg. 

Three new species described in my Fauna volume (1912) : ferru- 
ginosa, p. 418 J, Dawna Hills ; unicolor, p. 419 ^, Darjihng ; inconspicua, 



2&6 Keco/'ds of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

p, 419 ^, Kurseong. All described from unique types in the Indian 
Museum, but further specimens of ferniginosa have been obtained. 

kampangani, de Meij., Tijd. v. E?it. LVI, p. 346, (1913). Java. 
apicalis, Alex., Proc. U. 'S. Nat. M\is. XLIX, p. 167 <^ Q 

(1916). Java. Types in U. S. Museum. 
nigriceps, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVII, p. 358 ^ $ 

(1916). Siam. 
rufescens, id., loc. cit., p. 358 $. Selangor. 
Types of these two species in the British Museum. 

Rhamphidia unicolor, Brun. 

In this species the auxiliary vein ends distinctly in the 1st longi- 
tudinal. 

Rhamphidia fratella, sp. nov. 

Considerably Hke ferniginosa, Brun., but a smaller and more delicate 
species. The abdomen is blacker as are also the femora ; the tarsi 
nearly whitish. The veinlet between the 2nd and 4th posterior cells 
three or four times as long as the discal cell instead of only about twice 
as long as in /errM^mosrt. Discal cell relatively much smaller; posterior 
cross vein more proximal, generally just before base of discal cell, though 
its position is not quite constant in either species. 

Extreme length from frons to tip of genitalia, (J 4 mm. ; $ to tip of 
ovipositor 5j mm. 

Described from 2 (^ ^ and 2 $ $ from Castle Rock, N. Kanara Dis- 
trict, 11 — 26-X-16 {Kemp). In the Indian Museum. 

Rhamphidia abnormalis, sp. nov, 
(Plate vii, fig. 3.) 

$. Assam. Long. 4-|- mm. 

Head mainly brownish-yellow, tip of the proboscis, the paljji and 
antennae brown ; latter with long pale verticils ; basal joints of flagellum 
not incrassated ; scape less conspicuously enlarged than in the other 
Indian species. 

TJiorax and abdomen brownish-yellow, dorsum of former a httle darker, 
both with sparse pale pubescence. 

Legs long : coxae brownish-yellow ; femora and tibiae rather dark 
brown, former paler at base and narrowly snow-white at tips ; latter 
broadly snow-white at tips ; tarsi shorter than tibiae, snow-white, 
becoming yellowish at tips ; metatarsus twice as long as rest of tarsus. 

Wings clear, highly iridescent. 3rd vein originating some distance 
beyond anterior cross vein, the latter uniting 2nd vein with discal 
cell. Auxiliary vein ending in costa opposite basal end of discal cell ; 
subcostal cross vein at its tip ; posterior cross vein at middle of discal 
cell. Halteres brownish-yellow, clubs darker. 

Described from one ^ in the Indian Museum. Cherrapunji, Assam, 
4,400 ft., 2-3-X-14 {Kemp). 

The abnormality in this species consists of the peculiarly late 
origin of the 3rd vein, and the consequent connecting of the 2nd 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental TipuUdae. 297 

vein with the discal cell by means of the anterior cross- vein, a singularity 
occurring with extreme rarity in Tipulidae, and normally in only one 
oriental genus, Amalopis. It is by no means certain that a new genus 
should not be set up for the present species. 

EURHAMPHIDIA, Alex., subgen. nov. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 1(38. 

A new subgenus of Rhamphidia, with Rhamphidia niveitarsis, Skuse 
as type. Alexander records the species {loc. cit.) from two places of high 
altitude in Java. 

RHAMPHOLIMNOBIA, Alex., gen. nov. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 169. 

Near Elephantomyia ; type species R. reticularis, sp. nov., loc. cit., 
p. 169 $, Java. Type in the U. S. Museum. 

The Elephantomyia group. 

The two or three genera with enormously produced rostrums, up to 
nearly or quite as long as the body, may be considered separately from 
the rest of the sub-family though they do not necessarily form a separate 
group. Though they possess this character in common they vary in 
important other characters, in the presence or absence of the submarginal 
cell, and in the number of the antennal joints. The genera concerned 
are Toxorhina, Loew ; Elephantomyia Os. Sac. ; Limnobiorhynchus, 
Westw., and a new genus Conithorax. 

Whether the two first are synonymous I have no means of determin- 
ing but it seems probable, judging from Osten Sacken's remarks in his 
Monograj)h of the North American Tipulidae, since he referred Loew's 
three fossil species of Toxorhina to his own genus Elephantomyia. In 
the event of synonymity, Toxorhina takes precedence. The exact 
application of the name Toxorhina is discussed further on. 

If the claim of Toxorhina to stand for the fossil species be admitted 
there remains the question of a name for fragilis and its allies, and Ber- 
groth would resuscitate Limnobiorhynchus, Westw. for these. The 
justness of this seems obvious, although the name is applicable only to 
the $ of Westwood's genotype brasiliensis for which latter a new specific 
name will now be required, since the name brasiliensis must be retained 
for the ^, now referred to Geranomyia. I therefore propose westwoodi 
for the $ of Westwood's brasiliensis, and it will of course be the type 
species of Limnobiorhynchus. 

The respective characters of the genera in question may be tabulated 
thus : — 

A. Submarginal cell absent. (Antennae 12-jointecl ; long 

hairs on last two joints only ; pronotum distinctly 

produced over neck ; submarginal cell absent ; 

posterior cross vein at base of discal cell ; (itli 

vein very close to 5th for basal third of its length) Limnohiorhij nchus, 

Westw. 
AA. Submarginal cell present. 



'298 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

B. Antennae l:2-jointed. (Antennae l:2-jointed ; long 
hairs on last two joints only ; pronotum produced 
over neck ; submarginal cell present ; posterior 
cross vein at base of discal cell ; (jth vein very close 
to 5th for basal third of its length) . . . ConUhorax, gen. nov. 

BB. Antennae 15-jointed. (Antennae 15-jointed ; verti- 
cils on all joints equally long ; pronotum not pro- 
duced over neck ; submarginal cell pr<sfnt ; pos- 
terior cross vein at middle of discal cell ; Oth vein 
woHying close to 5th] ...... Elephantomyia, Os. 

Sac. and Toxo- 
rhina, Loew. 

LIMNOBIORHYNCHUS, Westw. 

Ann. S(,r. Enl. France IV, p. ()8:3, V only (1835). 

Ty2)e : L. weshvoodi, nam. nov. for L. brasiliensis, Westw. $ only. 
Eecogiiition of this genus having been given, according to the argu- 
ment adduced under Toxorhina, the following species will fall in it. 

westwoodi, nam. nov. {L. brasiliensis, Westw. $ only) from Brazil, 
h'agilis, Lw. {Toxorhina id.) from Porto Rico, 
magna, Os. Sac. from North America {Toxorhina id.). 
muliebris, Os. Sac. from North America {Toxorhina id.). 
incerta, Brun. {Toxorhina id.) from India. 
Loew'.s figure of jra<jilis {Toxorhina id.)^ shews a conical production 
of the thorax over the neck, though to a less extent than in Conithorax 
latifrons. In Needham's figure of muliebris, Os. Sac. {Toxorhina id.) 
the auxiliary and 1st longitudinal veins are shewn united though Osten 
Sacken mentions the existence of both auxiliary vein and subcostal cross 
vein. 

Limnobiorhynchus incertus, Brun. 

{Toxorhina incerta, Brun,). 

This is undoubtedly a Limnobiorhynchus although it does not possess 
every character of the genus, as the pronotum is not at all produced 
over the neck, and the posterior cross vein is at a little before the middle 
of the discal cell instead of being at its base. Only the two last antennal 
joints (not four, as stated in my description) bear very long verticils, 
the remaining joints having them very short. The discal cell is present 
in the right wing and open in the left ; the course of the single vein be- 
tween the 1st vein and upper branch of the 4th may be unscientifically 
described as composed of the praefurca and the 3rd vein, with the 2nd 
vein absent. In this it is an exact replica of " Toxorhina " {=Li7nno- 
biorhynchus) muliebris, Os. Sac. The auxiliary vein is present but almost 
coalescent with the 1st, though it is quite obvious at both base and tip, 
but it is impossible to decide whether the subcostal cross vein is present 
or not. 

CONITHORAX, gen. nov. 

Allied to Limnobiorhynchus, Westw. in the very elongated proboscis, 
about as long as the whole body, with palpi at tip ; in the 12-jointed 
antennae with very long verticils on last two joints only, the other 
joints bearing very short ones ; in the two or three basal joints of the 
flagellum being more or less united in the form of a cone ; also in the 

^ Linn. Ent. V, pi. ii, 17, full insect; IG, antenna ; 18, wing ; 22, head. 



1918.] 



E. Britnetti : Oriental Tipuliclae. 



299 



front part of the thorax being prominently produced over the neck, and 
in the posterior cross vein at the base of the discal cell and the 6th vein 
lying very close to the 5th for about one-third of its length. The radical 
difference is the presence of the submarginal cell ; the 2nd vein is short, 
turning into the costa at an angle of 45° just beyond tip of 1st vein : 
3rd vein bisinuate, more or less parallel with upper branch of 4th 
vein. AuxiHary vein very close to 1st, ending in costa opposite origin 
of praefurca ; subcostal cross vein present, a little before tip of auxi- 
liary vein. The eyes are distinctly or very widely separated on the 
Irons, contiguous or distinctly separated below. 

Type species : C. latifrons, sp. nov. 

This genus is practically a Limnohiorhynchus with the submarginal 
cell present, or in other words it possesses the typical venation of the sub- 
family with the peculiar characteristics of Limnohiorhynchus, that is, 
the enormously prolonged rostrum about as long as the whole body, 
the conically produced thorax over the neck and the long verticils on 
the last two antennal joints only. 

There are two species, distinguished by a great difference in the width 
of the frons, though they are obviously congeneric. 

Eyes separated above by a very broad frons, about one- 
third the width of the head, with parallel sides ; 
contiguous on under side of head 

Eyes separated above by a comparatively narrow frons, 
about one-eighth the width of the head with very 
convex sides ; on under side separated by one-fifth 
the width of the head ..... 



latifrons, sp. nov. 



brevifrons, sp. nov. 



ig curve of 



Conithorax latifrons, sp. nov. 
9- Malay States. Long, about 3|^ mm. aloni 

body to tip of ovipositor. 
Head. — Frons and face forming nearly one-third of head, with pa- 
rallel sides, ash grey ; eyes contiguous on lower part of head ; antennae 




Fig. 2. — Covilhomx latifrors, sp. nov., antennae. 

brownish, last two joints with a verticil of three long whitish hairs on 



300 



Records^ of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



each, rest of flagellnra with very short hairs ; proboscis black, as long 
as front femur, nearly as long as whole body. 

Thorax greyish-brown, metanotum darker with a little grey dust. 

Abdomen light brown, hinder half of segments distinctly darker ; 
ovipositor large, basal part dull yellowish ; valves long, shining brown. 

Legs dull brown, femora subapically a little blackish ; extreme tips 
pale ; tarsi black. 




Fig. 3. — Wing of Conithorax latifrons. 

Wings clear grey ; halteres yellowish. 

Described from a unique $ in the Indian Museum from Bidai, Selang- 
or-Pahang Boundary, Malay States, April 1917 (C. Boden Kloss). 

Conithorax brevifrons, sp. nov. 
$. Assam. Long. 5 mm. 

Head ash grey. Frons only one-eighth width of head, sides very 
convex ; eyes separated below by one-fifth width of head. Proboscis, 
palpi and antennae black or blackish-brown ; 1st scapal joint yellowish. 

Thorax and abdomen dark brown ; pleurae and genitalia brownish- 
yellow. Legs dark brown, under side of femora a little paler. Wings 
with 2nd longitudinal vein a little less erect than in latifrons, ending 
more distally than anterior cross vein. In latifrons it ends before the 
cross vein. Posterior cross vein just beyond base of discal cell instead of 
just before it as in latifrons. 

Described from a unique $ from above Tura, Garo Hills, Assam, 
3,500—3,900 ft., viii-17 {Kemp). Type in Indian Museum. 

ELEPHANTOMYIA, Os. Sac. 

iuscomarginata, Ender., Zool. Jahr. XXXII, p. 64 J (1912). 

Sumatra. Unique type in Stettin Zoological Museum, 
egregia, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent, LVI, p. 347 ^ (1913). Java. 
Unique type in Amsterdam Museum. 
In both the above species the wings are figured as decidedly more 
cuneiform than in Osten Sacken's E. westwoodi, and the 3rd vein is in a 
line with the praefurca, the 2nd vein appearing to emerge from it at a 
considerable angle ; the auxiliary vein being shewn distinctly in fusco- 
marginata but not in egregia. 

TOXORHINA, Loew.i 

Genotype : T. longirostris, Loew (fossil) by present designation. 

The question as to which of two groups of species this name should 
apply dates back to 1868, originating with Schiner's objection to Osten 
Sacken's application of the name. 



^ Spelt thus by Loew and Scudder. Osten Sacken and Kertcsz emend to Toxor- 
rhina, but Bergroth, the latest authority, reverts to the original spelling. 



19] 8.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tijndidae. 301 

In preparing my " Fauna " volume I relied mainly on Osten Sacken's 
decision, one in which Kertesz apparently acquiesces in his catalogue 
of the World's Diptera, but Professor Bergroth's recent plea^ for the 
retention of the name in Loew's original sense seemed so convincincr 
that I have felt constrained to examine exhaustively the whole contro- 
versy afresh. 

The argument briefly is as follows. 

Loew in 1850 - proposed the name Toxorkina for a genus (only charac- 
terised by its position in a table) of three fossil species which he named 
but did not describe. In 185P he published a paper from which 
generic characters could be drawn up as applying to one or more of 
these three species, but gave no formal generic description alone. He 
also added to the genus a living species, fragilis. 

Now Westwood in 1835 had set up Limnohiorhynchus * for hrasi- 
liensis, sp. nov. (^ $ and canadensis, sp. nov. (^. In 1859, Osten Sacken 
took what he thought to be canadensis in considerable numbers at Tren- 
ton Falls, New York, and ascertaining it could not be congeneric with 
brasiliensis, judging by the description of the latter, he set up a new 
genus for it, ElejphantomyiaJ' 

Later on, Osten Sacken wrote a further paper on North American 
Tipulidae ^ where he characterised Toxorkina, on Loew's living species 
fragilis, adding two new ones from North America. Schiner objected^ 
to the application of Toxorhina to fragilis, as he considered that Loew 
intended it primarily for his three fossil species. Osten Sacken in his 
Monograph of the North American Tipuhdae^ contests Schiner's objec- 
tion at considerable length but rightfully enough states that the fossil 
species and fragilis cannot be congeneric. He also considers Loew's 
" generic description "^ to apply almost entirely ta fragilis, as the fossil 
species possess a submarginal cell, which latter is absent in fragilis. 

By this time he had inspected the types {^^ $) of L. brasiliensis in 
Westwood's own cabinet and found that they represented different 
genera, the (^ being a Geranomyia, the $ belonging to what Osten Sacken 
called Toxorhina, that is to say, the group comprising fragilis and which 
is to-day without a name. 

The antennae in the three fossil species have fifteen joints, in fragilis 
twelve only, Loew concluding therefore that in his living species, of v/hich 
he had several specimens, the last three joints had been broken off. On 
the strength of these two important characters Osten Sacken again 

1 Ann. Mag. Naf. Hist. (8) XI, p. 580 (1913). 

2 " Bernstein V. Bernstein fauna " in Prog. Konig. Bealschule zti Meseritz, p. 26 
(Sept. 1850). 

3 Linn. Entom. V, p. 400 (1851). 

* Ann. Soc. Ent. France IV, p. 683 (1835). 

'" Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 220 (1859). Incidentally there is no positive means 
available to me of knowing whether this paper was actually published in 1859. It was 
read at the August meeting of 1859, and may have been published then, or the whole 
volume (which bears a printer's date of 1860) may have been published entire in 1860. 
It does not affect any question of synonymy. 

^ Proc. Ent. See. Philad. p. 277 (1865). I have not been able to see this paper. 

' Beise d. Novara, p. 33 (1868). 

8 ilonog. Dipt. N. Amer. IV, in Smith. Misc. Coll. VIII, p. 112 (1869). 

' Referring presumably to the table of genera (1850) or the characters distributed 
amongst the four species (1851). 



302 Jiecnrda of the Indian Musevvi. [Vol. XV, 

referred Loew's fossil species to his own genus Elephantomyia having 
also recognised his supposed canadensis, Westw. to be a different species 
from Westwood's, and calling it westwoodi, and he retained Toxorhina 
for fmgilis, including in it his two North American species. Scudder, 
comparatively recently,^ supports Schiner's view, and Kertesz in his 
" Katalog " follows Osten Sacken, but Bergroth has reopened the con- 
troversy and his view appears to be just. 

A continual difficulty in this discussion is that opposite views may be 
held at almost every stage, leading naturally to exactly opposite final 
results. According to present day standards Toxorhina was at best 
but weakly characterised, but it must be remembered that in Loew's 
time very few Tipulidae with excessively long rostrums were known 
and it could in those days be easily recognised. 

Secondly, it may certainly be claimed that as he at the erection of 
the generic name (1850) neither nominated a known species nor de- 
scribed any one of his three fossil ones the genus was simply a nomen 
nudum. 

However, in his next paper (1851), though he still gives no purely 
generic description,- he sufficiently characterises the three fossil species 
{longirostris, pulchella and brevipalpa), and from these characters those 
of the genus can be gleaned. In this paper he adds a description of a 
living species, fragilis. He says nothing about a submarginal cell being 
present or absent in the fossil species ; he figures the palpus of each 
fossil sjsecies, the tip of the proboscis of one (longirostris) and also figures 
fragilis (full insect, wing and other parts). 

Osten Sacken contended that the generic characters apply wholly 
to fragilis ^ and therefore he retained the name Toxorhina in his mono- 
graph for it, plus his two American species, and relegated Loew's three 
fossil species to Elephantomyia, Os. Sac. 

Now the whole tenor of Loew's writings on Toxorhina, convinces me 
that he intended the name to apply mainly to the three fossil species, 
firstly because when he set up the genus he mentioned no others but 
them and secondly because all these are mentioned first in his descriptive 
paper (1851), fragilis being added in a succeeding paragraph as a new 
species. Osten Sacken also notes (Monog. p. 113) that Loew, speak- 
ing at a meeting of German naturalists at Konigsberg, mentioned having 
discovered a genus which he had called Toxorhina for three fossil species, 
continuing " afterwards I became acquainted with a living represen- 
tative of the same genus." From the priority given to the fossil species 
both in his paper and his speech it is quite evident that Loew in his 
own mind regarded Toxorhina as definitely established before the discovery 
of fragilis, that is to say, established for his three fossil species. 

Though Osten Sacken did not see the fossils themselves, he examined 
drawings of them lent him by Loew, and these drawings shew the pre- 
sence of a submarginal cell, which cell is absent in fragilis. 



1 Proc. Amer. Philo.i. Soc. XXXII (1894). Roprinted as "Tertiary Tipulidae." 

2 Linn. Entomologicn, V, ]). 400. 

3 " This description applies to T. fnnjili-s only and not to the three fossil species," 
(Oslcn Sacken.) 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tijmlidae. 303 

Fragilis. therefore, cannot be congeneric with the other species and 
Loew must have not only overlooked the presence of the submarginal 
cell in his fossil species but must have necessarily been under the impres- 
sion that it was absent, from his observation that his genus was " re- 
markable ... for the abnormal venation of its wings." Such an 
observation would quite apply to a fly in which he thought the sub- 
marginal cell was absent because such an instance was certainly remark- 
able, whereas at least one submarginal cell or two such cells are normally 
present in the great majority of Tipulidae. There is no other abnor- 
mality in the venation of T. fragilis, and it could only have been by some 
unaccountable oversight that Loew regarded his fossil species as pos- 
sessing similar venation. Loew's own figure of fragilis clearly indicates 
that no submarginal cell is present in at least that species. It micrht, 
of course, be contended by those disposed to argue that even the draw- 
ings were incorrect, and the submarginal cell introduced inadvertently, 
in which case fragilis and the fossil species might venationally be c( n- 
generic, but the difference in both number and structure of the antenna] 
joints in the two groups again effectually separates them generically. 

It being thus obvious that fragilis could not be congeneric with the 
three fossil species, Osten Sacken adopted Toocorhina for the former, 
and relegated the latter to Elephantomyia, Os. Sac. with the species of 
which they possess other agreements than that of the venation only. 

Their principal character in common is that of the antennae, which 
are 1.5-jointed in the living species of Elephantomyia and also in Loew's 
fossil species, bearing verticils on all the joints. In fragilis and the 
two new North American species that Osten Sacken included under his 
Toxorhina the antennae are 12-jointed only, and bear verticils on the 
last two joints only. 

It may be as well to mention here an apparent discrepancy with 
regard to the palpal joints. Loew said that the last joint of the palpus 
was " not so long as, or scarcely longer than those which precede, taken 
together," and Scudder adopted that author's statement. Now, apart 
from whether the words " those which precede " mean only the two 
preceding joints or aU the preceding joints (4), the last joint in all the 
three fossil species is figured as considerably shorter than even the pre 
ceding joint only.^ There is evidently some oversight here that escaped 
Scudder, whilst Osten Sacken does not comment in his Monograph on 
the respective length of the joints, and liis description of these organs 
when setting up his Elephantomyia shews they are therein very close to 
Loew's figures of his fossil species. 

In conclusion, the argument adduced by Osten Sacken in favour of 
reserving Toxorhina for fragilis and its living North American allies 
does not appear sound, and if he hesitated to " differ from the eminent 
dipterologist," (Loew), I would also have experienced still more diffi- 
dence in disagreeing with Baron Osten Sacken were it not for Prof. 
Bergroth's recent concise statement of the case. 

Toxorhina, in the present interpretation of the genus, is not oriental, 
and is confined to Loew's three fossil species unless it is proved that 

^ In Loew's figures of the palpi of liis three fossil species two possess five joints aiid 
the third four joints only. 



304 Records of the Indian Mnsevm. [Yol. XV, 

Elephantomyia is synonymous with it. As longirostris is the first noted 
species by Loew it may be taken as the type of the genus. 

STYRINGOMYIA, Loew. 

Pycnocrepis, Ender., Zool. Jahr. XX XII, p. 57 (1912) : synonymy by Alex., Pr. 
V. 8. Nat. Mvs. XLIV, p. 487 (1913). 

Genotype : S. venusta, Lw. (fossil, in copal) by original designa- 
tion. 

All the known species of this genus have been recently revised by 
Edwards. 1 In that paper he finds that in my description of what I 
afterwards took to be his ceylonica ^ (though it was drawn up a year or 
more before his description was publi.shed), two or more species are 
included. The description of ceylonica, therefore, both in my Fauna 
volume and elsewhere ^ must not be relied on. Mr. Edwards also notes 
that my obscura is a $, not a (^ as stated. 

He describes the following species ■* : nigrofetnorota, p. 215 $, Taiping, 
Malay States ; unique type in British Museum : formosana, 219 (^ $, 
Formosa ; type in Dents. Ent. Mus. Berlin ; paratypes in British Mu- 
seum : javana, 220 ^, Java ; jacohsoni, 220 (^ $, Java ; types of the 
two latter species in Amsterdam Museum ; fryeri, 221 (^^, Peradeniya, 
Ceylon ; type in British Museum ; hwialayana, 221 (^ $, base of 
E. Himalayas ; ne/jjalensis, 222 q $, Nepal ; types of both species 
in Indian Museum. 

Dr. Annandale, whilst touring the East, took a (^ and $ m cop of S. 
crassicosta, Spies, {ceylonica Edw.) at Singgora, Siam, 27-i-16. Prof. 
Riedel has recorded this species from Formosa. Pycnocrepis annulipes, 
Ender. is synonymous. 

A very interesting short paper by Edwards,^ entitled " On the so- 
called new Tipulid subfamily CeratocheiHnae, Wesche," gives the rela- 
tionship between Styringon^yia and Ceratocheilus, and their difference 
from Toxorhina in Osten Sacken's sense of the latter, which I herein 
regard as Elephantmnyia, Os. Sac.^ 

TEUCHOLABIS, Os. Sac. 
Teucholabis fenestrata, Os. Sac. 

This species shews considerable variation in the thickening of the 
femora tips, in the coloration of the wing, which is sometimes almost 
entirely pale brown, and in the shape of the second posterior cell, which 
is sometimes strongly petiolate. When these three characters vary in 
the same individual they almost give the impression of specific distinct- 
ness and there are three such specimens in the Indian Museum from 
Bhim Tal. These characters, however, vary individually. 

1 Trans. Ent. Soc, 1914, pp. 206-227. 

2 Ceylonica has subsequently been admitted by Edwards as synonymous with 8. 
{I diopMebia) crassicosta, Speiser. 

3 Rec. Ind. Mus. VI, p. 298. 
* Trans. Ent. 8cc., 1914. 

5 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) VIII, p. 279 (1011), 
? See p. 303. 



1918. J E. Beunetti: Oriental Tijmlidae. ,305 

The dorsum of the thorax in two out of the three is nearly black, 
as it is sometimes in otherwise normal specimens. The species was 
common at Tura 1,200—1,500 ft. and above Tura 3,500—3,900 ft., Garo 
Hills, Assam, June to October 1917 (Kemp). 

insignis, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dip., p. 430 ^ (1912). 

Travancore. Unique type in Indian Museum. 
biannulata, id., he. cit., p. 430 ^ (1912). Kurseong ; N. E. 

Indian Frontier. Type in Indian Museum. 
plecioides, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, p. 348 $ (1913). 
glabripes, id., he. cit., p. 349 (^ (1912). 
Both species from Java ; the unique types in Amsterdam Museum. 
femoratus, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, Supp., p. 67 ^, 1915 

(1916). Sumatra. 
nigerrima, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 248, 

^ (1916). Horisha, Formosa, lO-v-13 (Maki) ; Taihoku, For 

mosa (Shiraki). Type in British Museum. 
TenchoJahis cyanea, Edw. is referred to my Gymnastes. 



Teucholabis angusticapitis, sp. no v. 

(Plate viii, fig. 11.) 

(^. Assam. Long. 5 mm. 

Head. — Neck very long, blackish ; head narrow, elongate, occiput 
and frons on same level, bluish ash grey with a few short hairs ; pro- 
boscis, palpi and antennae dark brown. 

Thorax moderately dark shining brown, a little paler in front ; 
pleurae with a suspicion of blue grey dust. 

Abdomen dark brown, considerably dark pubescent ; paler along 
median line : genitalia of moderate size, concolorous, shining. 

Legs uniformly dark brown, conspicuously pubescent. 

Wings pale blackish-grey, scarcely darker anteriorly ; two narrow 
pale cross bands reaching nearly from anterior to posterior margins, 
the first just before tips of basal cells, the second contiguous to outer 
side of discal cell. 

Described from a unique (^ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
Garo Hills, 3,500—3,900 ft., viii-17 {Kemy). 



Teucholabis ornata, sp. nov. 
^. Ceylon. Long. 6|^ mm. 

Head shining black, set on a rather long neck ; antennae black with 
a little pale pubescence. 

Thorax. — Prothorax much developed anteriorly, dark shining brown, 
bare ; mesothorax shining black, bare, with a tinge of shining brown 
behind the suture ; metanotum shining black ; pleurae blackish. 

Abdomen black, with sparse short hairs and a little longer hair at the 
sides ; hind part of 2nd and 3rd segments broadly reddish-brown, of the 
remaining segments more narrowly yellowish. Genitalia black with 
yellowish parts, 

E 2 



306 Records of the Indian Mvsciini. [Vol. XY, 

Legs. — Coxae reddish-brown ; femora and tibiae brownish-yellow, 
former broadly black at tips, latter more narrowly so ; tarsi brownish, 
darkening to black at tips. All legs with short pale pubescence. 

Wings pale yellow, a yellowish-brown suffusion over tip of 1st vein, 
carried downwards along the cross-veins as far as the 5th longitudinal 
vein ; a similar small suffusion over base of 2nd vein. Costal cell 
yellowish ; halteres bright brownish-yellow. 

Described, from a unique ^J in the Indian Museum from Peradeniya. 
Ceylon, 11-viii-lO. 

Teucholabis ornata, Brun., var. assamensis, nov. 

This differs from the typical form from Ceylon simply by the wings 
being marked only by the deep black stigma with barely a suggestion of 
suffusion along the transverse veins. The femora are black for about 
their apical third and the tibiae and tarsi wholly black. 

One ^, Shillong, 5,500-6,400 ft., 29-viii— 5-ix-15 {Kemp). 

? Teucholabis, sp. 

An interesting $ specimen in the Indian Museum from Parambi- 
kulam, Cochin State, 1,700—3,200 ft., 16— 24-ix-14 {Gravelg), presents 
the venation of this genus except that the submarginal cell is consider- 
ably longer than the 1st posterior. The antennae, apparently 16- 
jointed, differ from the TevcJwlabis form ; the basal joints of the fla- 
gellum are very indistinctly separated, and covered with minute pubes- 
cence which renders their separation more difficult ; the more distal 
ones are much longer and more easily defined. The legs (only one leg, 
a hind one, remains) are long and slender, much more so than is usual 
in this genus. The wings are yellowish, with numerous small brown 
marks, the thorax yellowish with two long median black stripes and two 
outer shorter ones ; the pleurae very dark brown with a narrow pale 
horizontal stripe along the middle. The abdomen is yellowish-brown ; 
the coxae nearly white ; the legs brownish-yellow, becoming white on 
the tarsi ; tips of hind femora white, with a narrow dark ring preceding 
it. Long, nearly 6 millim. to tip of ovipositor. 

? Teucholabis, sp. nov, 

A single damaged ^ taken by Mr. Kemp at Castle Rock, N. Canara 
District, 11 — 26-X-16, shews the pecuharity of the 2nd longitudinal vein 
being forked just beyond the marginal vein, the fork ending in the costa 
just beyond the tip of the 1st longitudinal. It is a yellow species ; the 
thorax with a rather broad deep black median stripe and a black spot 
towards each side behind the suture ; the abdomen with the basal half 
of each segment black ; the antennae black except the scape ; the wings 
as in my insignis, with the difference that the costa is clear except from 
the stripe that extends over the cross veins to the tip of the wing, which 
is broadly suffused, as far basally as the distal side of the discal cell. 
The only two remaining legs (detached) are black, the femora slightly 
thickened towards tips and with a sub-apical yellow ring. Long. 6 mm. 



1918.] E. BitUNETTi: Oriental Tipulidae. 307 

GYMNASTES, Brun. 

Alexander regards this genus as synonymous with TeHcholahis, 
Os. Sac. One of the principal characters of my genus was the absence 
of a distinct neck, which in Teucholabis is obviously elongate as stated by 
its founder. 

This is the case in the three oriental species of Teucholabis before me : 
fenestrata, Os. Sac, insignis and biannulata, mihi. Also, none of these 
species have any incrassation of the hind femora. The close approxima- 
tion of the auxiliary vein to the 1st longitudinal seems a good character 
in Gymnastes. Alexander says some species of Teucholabis approach 
my genus in venation. However, Mr. Edwards has pointed out ^ a cha- 
racter which had escaped me and on which he thinks the genus can stand 
at least provisionally, i.e., the presence of small scales covering the legs. 
My G. violaceus is synonymous with his Teucholabis cyanea, a species 
which may now be referred to Gymnastes, to which genus he also adds a 
new species and refers Gnophomyia ornatipennis, de Meij.- The species 
belonging to the genus now are as follows : 

1. cyanea, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) VIII, p. 61 (Teu- 

cholabis) July (1911). 

Gymnastes violaceus, Brun., Rec. I ml. Mus. VI, p. 282 
(Dec. 1911). India. 

2. ornatipennis, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LIV, p. 17 {Gnopho- 

myia), (1911). Java ; Formosa. Riedel records it from 
Formosa also. 

3. pictipennis, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVII, p. 358 (^ ; 

fig. 1 (p. 356), genitalia (1916). Siam. 

4. bistriatipennis, sp. nov. N. Canara. 

5. pennipes, sp. nov. Assam. 

Gymnastes bistriatipennis, sp. nov. 

(^. S. W. India. Long. 3| — 1 mm. 

Head brownish-yellow, frons with a median blackish stripe and often 
a transverse one also ; palpi and antennae black, scape brownish-yellow. 

Thorax. — Dorsum shining black ; shoulders broadly brownish-yellow, 
the colour extending more or less anteriorly and as far hindward as the 
transverse suture. Sides of thorax dull brownish-yellow with darker 
paits ; scutellum and metanotum black. 

Abdomen dull black with short dark pubescence ; genitalia con- 
colorous. The latter consist of a pair of conical dark brown, long-haired 
claspers somewhat attenuated towards tips, a large oblong slightly 
curved brownish-yellow ventral plate from the centre of the hinder 
margin of which projects a concolorous cylindrical style as long as the 
claspers. 

Legs. — Ground colour brownish-yellow with very short black pubes- 
cence, but almost entirely covered with small black scales so that they 



1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVII, p. 358 (1916). 

2 Edw., Ami. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 249. Two $ '^ from Arisan, Formosa 
8,000 ft., 10-x 12 {Nitohr). 



308 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

appear black or dark brown with a yellow (unsealed) subapical ring on 
all the femora, the latter more or less yellowish on basal half, due to the 
scales being less numerous or absent there. All the femora gradually 
thickened towards tip. 

Wings moderately dark brown with two rather narrow pale trans- 
verse bands from costa to hind margin, dividing the wing into three 
snbequal areas, base more or less pale ; halteres black with pale yellow 
tips. 

Described from a long series oi ^ <^ only taken by Mr. Kemp at 
Talewadi, near Castle Rock, North Canara District, 3 — lO-x-16. Tijpe 
and other specimens in Indian Museum ; cotypes in my collection. 

Gymnastes pennipes, sp. no v. 

(Plate viii, fig. 10.) 
^. Assam. Long. 3^ mm. 

Head. — Frons very broad, more than \ width of head, shining violet 
blue ; antennae, proboscis and palpi dark brown. 

Thorax shining violet blue ; pleurae slightly white dusted ; a milk- 
white longitudinal stripe just below dorsum. 

Abdomen shining violet blue ; genitalia also apparently constructed 
as in cyanea. 

Legs. — Coxae black ; hind pair with a conspicuous oval white spot 
in front ; femora moderately dark brown, the distinctly clubbed tips 
of hind pair broadly dark brown, preceded by a narrow bright yellow 
ring without clear edges. Anterior femora barely thickened at tips, 
the yellow ring very fajnt. Anterior tibiae and tarsi dark brown ; hind 
tibiae brownish-yellow, nearly the apical half shining violet with con- 
spicuous long stiff black pubescence. Hind metatarsus with basal 
half yellow, rest of tarsus black. Some scales towards tip on inner side 
of hind femora. 

Wings as in cyanea but 2nd vein distinctly forked, the upper branch 
short, ending in costa just beyond tip of 1st vein. The apical transverse 
band very faint. Halteres black, tip of clubs milk-white. 

Described from a single ^ from above Tura, Garo Hills, 3,500 — 3,900 
ft., vii-17 (Kemj)). 

ATARBA, Os. Sac. 

flava, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 435 (^ ? (1912). 
Darjiling. Types in Indian Museum. 

pallidicornis, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 219, $ 
(1912). Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 (Nitobe). Unique 
type in British Museum. 

luscicornis, Edw., I. c, p. 250, $, from same locality and col- 
lector. Unique type in British Museum. 

javanica, Alex., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 171 ? (1916). 
Java. Type in the U. S. Museum. 
Alexander says (loc. cit.) that A. flava, Brun. is the only other oriental 
species of the genus,^ the remainder probably belonging to Leiponeura ; 



^ That is to say, other than javanica. 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tipulidae. 309 

these being nehulosa, pilifera and diffusa (all Meij. from Java), adding 
that A. lamellaris, Spies, from Africa is also an Atarba. 

ORIMARGA, Os. Sac. 

peregrina, Brun., Faima Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 424 (^ (1912). 
Kurseong. Pashok, Darjihng District, 3,500 ft., vi-16 {L. C. 
Hartless). Type in Indian Museum. 
Two ^ (^ and 1 $ from hills near Taiping, Perak, taken by Dr. Annan- 
dale, 26— 30-xii-15. My figure of tliis species (" Fauna," pi. viii, 11) 
is somewhat incorrect, as the auxiliary vein ends just beyond half way 
between the origin of the 2nd longitudinal vein and the marginal cross 
vein, as indeed is stated in my description. 

The type specimen has darkened with age until it is now nearly 
black, but three (^ (^ from Ghumti, Darjiling District, viii-11 {Gravely) 
appear to be this species, agreeing well with the description. 

javana, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, p. 348 ^$ (1913). Java. 
The unique type in the Amsterdam Museum. 

ANTOCHA, Os. Sac. 

indica, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 426 (^ $ (1912). 

N. India ; Assam (var. Iocs.). 
unilineata, id., he. cit., p. 427 $ (1912). W. Himalayas. 

Types of both species in Indian Museum. 
javanensis, Alex., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 171 $ (1916). 

Java. Type in the U. S. Museum. 

Section ERIOPTERINI. 

RHYPHOLOPHUS, Kol. 

geniculatus, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind., Dipt., p. 441 ^^ (1912). 

Kurseong. 
pulcher, id., he. cit, p. 442 $ (1912). Simla ; Kumaon. 

Tyi^es of both species in Indian Museum. 

MOLOPHILUS, Curt. 

inconspicua, Brun., Fau7ia Brit. Ind. Dij)t., p. 444 ^ $ (1912). 

India (var. Iocs.). 
assamensis, id., he. eit., p. 445 ,^ (1912). Sylhet. 

Types of both species in Indian Museum. 
costalis, Edw., Arm. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 251 $ 

(1916). Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 {Nitobe). Unique 

type in British Museum. 

ERIOPTERA, Mg. 

My Fauna volume (1912) contains the following new species : E. 
punetipennis, p. 449 $, Kurseong ; ferruginea, p. 450 J, Travancore ; 
distans, p. 451 (^, Kuiseong ; incerla, p. 452 ^, Darjiling ; parallela. 



310 Ilcrorils of the hidian Museum. [Vol. ^^ , 

p. 453 $, Kurseong ; orientalis, p. 453 (^ $, Darjiling ; subtincta, p. 455 
(^$, Darjilino; ; flava, p. 455 (^ $, Bengal (var. Iocs.) ; grandior, p. 456 $, 
Simla ; (jenii(dis, p. 456 r^ ^. Kiimaon. 

My E. brevior (he. cit., p. 452, (^ $) must be referred to Em/peda with 
my Etnpeda inconspicua {loc. cit. p. 475 (^ $) as a synonym of it. 

My Erioptera halterata (loc. cit.. p. 457 ^^ $) is synonymous with flava. 
the halteres varying in colour, and the 7th vein being equally sinuous in 
both forms. 

Types of all in the Indian Museum, several species represented by 
uniques. 

fusca, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, p. 351 (1913). Java. 
nigripalpis, id., loc. cit., p. 351 (^ ("?" lapsus). 

The unique types in Amsterdam Museum. 
insignis, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 251 (^ $ 
(1916). Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 {Nitobe), also in 
the British Museum from Tokyo. Tijipe in British Museum. 
alboguttata, Edw., loc. cit., p. 252 (^ (1916). Arisan, Formosa, 
lO-x-12 (Nitobe). Unique type in British Museum. 



ACYPHONA, Os. Sac. 

Genotype : Erioptera venusta, Os. Sac. by present designation. 

fenestrata, de Meij., Ti^d. v. Ent. LVI, p. 352 $ (1913). Java. 
The unique type in Amsterdam Museum. 

MESOCYPHONA, Os. Sac. 

Genotype : Erioptera caloptera, Say, by personal designation. 
(Fauna, 1912). 

nigripes, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 458 ^J (1912). Kur- 
seong, Darjiling. Type in Indian Museum. 

Mesocyphona gracilis, sp. nov. 

$. Assam-Bhutan Frontier. Long. 3 mm. 

Head and thorax moderately dull blackish-brown, with slight whitish 
reflections ; pleurae with a slightly pinkish brown tinge with whitish 
reflections ; scutellum shghtly yellowish. 

Abdomen nut-brown, posterior margins slightly darker. 

Legs. — Coxae pinkish-brown, remainder brownish-yellow, tarsi a 
little darker. 

Wings clear, stigma barely perceptibly yellowish. Base of 3rd vein, 
anterior cross vein, base of (open) discal cell and posterior cross vein 
practically in a line. 1st submarginal and 2nd posterior cells subequal 
in length. Halteres dirty brown. 

Described from a unique 9 iw the Indian Museum from Bhoirakund, 
Assam-Bhutan Frontier, Darrang District, 18 — 22-x-r2 (Kemp). 

A slender, graceful species compared with nigropes, Brun. the only 
other species known from India. 



1018.^ E. 15runp:tti: Oriental TipuUclae. 311 

EMPEDA, Os. 8ac. 

My Erioptera brevior {Fauna, p. 452 ^ $, 1912) is an Empeda, and my 
Empeda inconspicua [loc. cit., p. 475(^9) i** identical. Both are from the 
Darjiling District and the types of both are in the Indian Museum. 
An additional specimen from Pashok, Darjiling District, 3,500 ft., vi-16 
(L. C. Hartless). 

Gonomijia antica, Brun. {Fauna, p. 568, 1912) is an Empeda, as pointed 
out by Bergroth. The relative positions of the tip of the auxiliary vein 
and origin of the 3rd vein vary in Gonomyia, Empeda and Leiponeura. 

GONOMYIA, Mg. 

In my Fauna volume (1912) the following new species are described : 
iHcompleta, p. 471 (^ $, Bengal (var. Iocs.) ; E. Himalayas ; flaromar- 
ginata, 472 ^ $, Darjiling District ; affinis, 472 (^ $, Darjiling District ; 
aperta, 473 ^, Bengal ; proxima, 474 ^ $, Bengal and Nepalese Hima- 
layas. Types of all the species in Indian Museum. 

In the Appendix to the above volume (p. 568) is described G. antica 
from the Darjiling District, which is an Empeda. The demarcation of 
the dorsum from the sides of the thorax in flavomarginata seems to fade 
considerably after death. A better distinction between these two 
species than that given in the " Fauna " is as follows, but the relative 
position of the posterior cross vein must not be relied upon too closelv. 

Basal section of 3rd vein very short, even punctiform, at 
most one-fourth the length of the anterior cross vein. 
1st posterior cell conspicuously narrowed at tip . incompleta. 

Basal section of 3rd vein of considerable length, from one- 
half to nearly as long as anterior cross vein. 1st 
posterior cell only slightly narrowed at tip . . flavomanjinatn. 

I am glad to see that Alexander does not remove from Gonomyia 
those species with only one submarginal cell. Some regard these as a 
separate genus {Leiponeura, Skuse) and would refer them to the 
Rhamphidini, and Bergroth would thus refer my G. incompleta and 
fiacomarginata, but Gonomyia in the wide sense forms a natural group. 

Alexander describes hryanti, sp. nov. {Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, 
p. 173 (;J, 1916) from Java. Type in the U. S. Museum. 

Edwards records G. nebidosa, de Meij. from Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 
ft., lO-x-12, two 9 $ {Nitobe), including it in the subgenus Lijiophleps.^ 

The MONGOMA group. 

It seems advisable to erect two new genera in this group for forms 
in which the 2nd longitudinal vein is unforked. The venation appears 
cjuite constant in the three genera into which Mongoma has already 
been split up. 

Alexander calls my attention to an error in my first Tipulidae paper 
{Rec. Ind. Mus. VI). On p. 291 it is stated that australasiae, Skuse is a 
strict Mongoma, and on p. 296 that it is congeneric with Paramongoma. 
The latter is an error ; it belongs to Mongoma, sensu strictu. He also 
says there are intermediate species which throw all the genera formed 

See note under Atarba, p. 308, respecting three species that Alexander would refer 
to Leiponeura. 



312 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

out of Mongoma into one. If so, well and good, but I have seen speci- 
mens or figures of most of the oriental species and figures of wings of a- 
number of others and they all fall easily into one of the five genera 
admitted in this paper. Of non-oriental species, fragillima, Westw. 
from Africa, avMralasiac, Skuse from Australia and disjuncta, Alex, from 
Brazil, belong to Mongoma (.s. sir.) ; manca and 'pallida, both Williston, 
from North America, longifusa, extensa and niveitarsis, all Alex, from 
Brazil, Panama and Porto Rico respectively belong to Paramongoma ; 
and exornata Bergr. from Africa, gracilis Ender. from Madagascar and 
zamhesiae, Alex, from the Zambesi River to Trentepohlia. 

His disjuncta has the anal cell open instead of closed, but this is not 
suggested as a generic character any more than the open or closed nature 
of the discal cell in those genera in which this character is understood 
to be variable. His metatarsaia from Panama and his leucozona ^ belong 
to Trentepohlia with open instead of closed anal cell. 

As the Mongomyiae form a definite natural group there can be no 
harm in regarding its sections as subgenera if desired. 

Table of genera. 

A. Fou posterior cells (discal cell present ; 3rd vein pre- 

sent ; anal coll closed).- 

B. 2nd longitudinal cell forked ..... Mongoma, Westw. 

{sensu str. ). 
BB. 2nd longitudinal vein simple ..... Plesiomongoma, gen. 

nov. 
AA. Three ijosterior cells. 

C. 2nd longitudinal vein forked. 

D. Discal cell present ; 3rd longitudinal vein absent or 

very short ; anal cell open ..... Paramongoma, Brun. 
D. Discal cell absent ; 3rd longitudinal vein of normal 

length ; anal cell closed or open .... Trentepohlia, Big. 
CC. 2nd longitudinal vein simple ... . Anchimongoma, gen. 

nov. 

MONGOMA Westw. 

cariniceps, Ender., Zool. Jahr. XXXII, p. 60 (^ (1912). Sumatra. 

Type in Stettin Zoological Museum. 
pallidiventris, Brun:, Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 481 $ (1912). 

Travancore. Type in Indian Museum. This is synonymous 
with tenera, Os. Sac. 
obscura, de Meij., Bijd. tot Dierk. XIX, p. 48 (^ (1913). Waigou. 
albipennis, id., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, p. 3.53 $ (1913). Java. 

Types (uniques) of both species in Amsterdam Museum. 

Table of Oriental species. 

A. ]\11ddle tibiae with conspicuously thickened tips througii 

the presence of short snow-white pubescence . . jKnyiipes, Os. Sac. 

AA. Middle tibiae not so ornamented. 

B. Tibiae snow-white except middle third black (long 

10 mm.) ........ S'plendida, sp. nov. 

iiB. Tibiae not nearly so extensively snow-white. 

C. Wings with distinct suffusion over tip of 2nd vein and 

at tip ; costal cell yellow ..... Icenipi, sp. nov, 
CC. Wings clear ; costa never yellow.^ 

1 I have seen no reference to the description of this species. 

2 Only open in one sj^ccies known to me M. diytiitcta, Alex, from Brazil. 

3 Except in flava in which the whole insect is yellow, wings as well. 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tijnilidae. 31,3 

D. Long. 13-14|-mm. ; 2nd, 3rd and 4th posterior cells 

equally long carinicep^, Ender. 

DD. Long, at most- 9 mm. ; 4th posterior cell always longer 
than :ird. 

E. Legs without any white colour. 

F. Pale brownish-white species ; long 8 mm. . . . albijiennis, de Meij 
FF. Wholly yellow species ; long 5 mm. .... fava, sp. nov. 
EE. Legs with at least the tarsi white. 

G. 2nd and 3rd posterior cells equally long, 4th always 

longer than both . tenera, Os. >Sae. {pal- 

lidiventris, Erun.) 
GG. 2nd posterio cell as long as 4th, both distinctly longer 

than 3rd obficura, de Meij. 

Mongoma splendida, sp. nov. 
^ $. Assam. Long. 10 mm. 

Head. — Occiput and the very narrow frons ash-grey ; proboscis 
yellowish ; palpi and antennae dark brown, base of former pale. 

Thorax. — Dorsum, scutellum and metanotum dark brown ; pleurae 
and space between post sutural swellings yellowish. 

Abdomen blackish-brown, hind margins of segments a little darker ; 
a little yellowish towards sides. Belly normally pale yellowish, hind 
margins of segments paler, belly sometimes dark. 

Legs. — Coxae orange ; femora dark brown, paler towards base, 
tips with moderately broad snow-white ring (one-twelfth the length) ; 
tibiae snow-white, middle third dark brown ; tarsi snow-white, extreme 
tips a little yellowish. 

Wings moderately dark grey, extreme tips barely perceptibly darker ; 
costal cell just perceptibly yellowish. Subcostal cross vein in a line with 
base of discal cell ; 2nd vein forking at or just beyond marginal cross 
vein ; 2nd posterior cell distinctly but only slightly longer than 3rd ; 
4th longer than 2nd, lengths of these three cells not exactly constant 
but very nearly so. Posterior cross vein at base of discal cell or frac- 
tionally before or after it. Halteres blackish. 

Described from several of both sexes from above Tura, Garo Hills, 
3,500—3,900 ft., vii, viii-17 (Kemp). 

A beautiful species, quite distinct from all others. 

Mongoma kempi, sp. nov. 
9. Assam. Long. 9 — -10 mm. 

Head orange-brown ; proboscis and palpi dark brown, latter paler at 
base ; antennae yellowish-brown, paler at base. 

Thorax wholly orange-yellow. 

Abdomen brownish orange ; an indefinite blackish dorsal stripe on 
2nd and 3rd segments with the hind margins more or less blackish ; 
hind margins of 4th to 7th segments pale yellowish. Belly brownish- 
yellow, the segments more or less blackish apically. Ovipositor orange 
yellow. 

Legs orange-yellow ; trochanters blackish in front ; tips of femora 
and extreme bases and tips of tibiae black. A row of about ten minute 
spines at base on underside of femora ; smaller and fewer spines on 
front pair. 

Wings grey, costal and subcostal cells yellow. 2nd vein forking 
immediately beyond marginal cross vein ; 2nd and 4th posterior cells 



314 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

subequal in length, 3rd slightly shorter. A blackish suffusion extending 
over tip of 1st vein and marginal cross vein. Tip of wing a little black- 
ish suffused, the colour extending inwards for less than half way to the 
discal cell. Veins distinctly black except as follows : proximal half of 
basal section of 2nd vein, its 2nd section, upper branch and basal half 
of lower branch ; tip of 5th vein, apical half of 6th vein, and all veins 
at extreme base of wing yellowish. Halteres yellow. 

Described from two $ $ from above Tura, Garo Hills, 3,900 ft., 
viii-l7 {Kemp). In Indian Museum. A very handsome species. 

Mongoma flava, sp. no v. 

9. Assam. Long. 5 mm. to tip of ovipositor. 

Body all pale brow^nish-yellow ; flagellar joints not so distinct as in 
the other species. Legs yellow, extreme tips of femora black. 

Wings yellowish, veins yellow. Costal and subcostal cells a little 
deeper yellow. 2nd vein forking at marginal cross vein ; 2nd and 4th 
posterior cells of equal length, longer than 3rd ; posterior cross vein 
fractionally before base of discal cell. Halteres yellow. 

Described from a unique $ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
Garo Hills, 3,500-3,900 ft., viii-17 {Kemp). The wholly yellow colour 
of this species distinguishes it from all others. 

PLESIOMONGOMA, gen. nov. 

Differing from Mongoma only in the 2nd longitudinal vein not being 
forked. Type-species : P. venosa, sp. nov. 

Plesiomongoma venosa, sp. nov. 
9. Shillong. Long. 9 mm. 

Head and appendages (except eyes) wholly yellowish ; occiput 
slightly brownish. Thorax wholly yellowish, a little darker towards 
sides of dorsum ; pleurae paler. 

Abdomen dark brown, hind margins of segments blackish ; base of 
abdomen dirty yellow ; belly and ovipositor yellowish. 

Legs (hind pair missing) wholly bright yellow to tips ; anterior 
femora with moderately broad black ring at tip. 

Wings pale grey. Costal cell distinctly though not deeply, yellow. 
All the veins deep black and very distinct ; transverse veins very narrow- 
ly suffused, as is also base of 2nd longitudinal vein and the whole wing 
tip somewhat narrowly. Halteres yellow, with dirty black knobs. 

Described from a unique $ in the Indian Museum from Shillong, 
5,500 — ^6,400 ft., 29-viii — 5-ix-15 {Kemp), in perfect condition except for 
the missing hind legs. A very distinct species by the prominence of 
the veins as well as the difference in venation from Mongoma. 

PARAMONGOMA, Brun. 

Enderlein's Mongomella [Zool. Jahr. XXXII, p. 61, 1912) is an abso- 
lute synonym of my genus. Albitarsis, Dol. still remains the only 
oriental species. 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tipuliclae. 315 

TRENTEPOHLIA, Big. 

Mongomioides, Brim. (1911). 

Genotype : Limnobia trentepohlh, \V. by original designation. 

Though Bigot's original description of this genus is quite valueless, 
Edwards recently noted ^ one of the true generic characters, the three 
posterior cells only, but I had overlooked his paper. 

Trentepohlia trentepohlii, W. 

Six specimens taken at Lampam, Patalung, Siam, 12-i-16, by Dr. 
Annandale. 

marmorata, Brun., Fauna Brit. hid. Dipt., p. 483 $ {Mo^k/o- 

mioides) (1912). Calcutta. 
nigroapicalis, id., loc. cit., p. 483 (^ {Mongomioides) (1912). 

Lucknow ; Ceylon. 
albogeniculata, id., loc. cit., App. p. 569 ^ {Mongo'mioides) (1912) 

and Bee. Ind. Mus. VII, p. 448 (1912).2 
speiseri, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XII, p. 204 (^ $ ; 

(1913) 7iotn. nov. for Mongoma exornata, Speiser {nee Bergr.). 

Peradeniva, Ceylon. Type in British Museum. 
saucia, Alex., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 174 $ (1910). 

Java. Type in U. S. Museum. Described under Mongoma 

with tlie note that it comes in the trentepohlii group. 
pictipennis, Bezzi, Phil. Jour. Sci., XII, Sect. D, p. 115 <^ 

(1917). Luzon {Baker). 

Trentepohlia ornatepennis, sp. nov. 

(^. 8. W. India. Long. 5 mm. 

Head, including proboscis and antennae, brownish-yellow, palpi more 
brownish. 

Thorax. — Dorsum bright brownish-yellow ; a median narrow stripe, 
the inner sides of the post sutural depression, the scutellum and meta- 
notum brown. Under side of thorax brownish. 

Abdomen blackish, an indistinct pale dorsal stripe ; belly more or less 
pale. 

Legs. — Coxae brown, tips pale yellow ; remainder of legs wholly pale 
yellow, tarsi paler still except the brownish extreme tips. 




Fig. 4. — Wing of Trentepohlia orvntipennis, sp. nov. 

Wings. — Anterior half to 4th longitudinal vein moderately dark 
brown, posterior half to 4th vein grey, the 5th vein and posterior cross 



1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hut. (8) VIII, p. 63 (1911). 

2 The first reference antedates by about a month. 



316 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

vein distinctly though narrowly suffused ; the 6th and 7th veins with 
traces of being very narrowly suffused also. On the anterior part of the 
wing are a number of pale spots placed as follows. A squarish one just 
before middle of 1 st basal cell with a small costal spot in front of it. One 
just beyond middle, and one nearly at tip of 1st basal cell, both of them 
squarish and subequal in size. A sub-triangular one in marginal cell just 
in front of the space between the two last-named spots. An oval one on 
costa at tip of 1st longitudinal vein with a small projection on hinder 
side nearly reaching a triangular spot placed with its base on the 3rd 
vein immediately in front of the inner side of the (open) discal cell. Two 
approximately equidistant smaller ones on costa placed between the last- 
named costal spot and tip of 2nd vein. Two roundish spots at tip of 
wing, subcontiguous. One at base of 2nd posterior cell, with a small 
elongate one in the cell in front of it. One at base of and one just beyond 
middle of 3rd posterior cell, both squarish. 

Described from a unique male in the Indian Museum from Castle 
Rock, N. Kanara District, 11 — 26-X-16 (Kemp). 

The tip of the 1st longitudinal vein is so extremely faint as to be 
almost invisible. The marked wings separate the species easily from all 
others in this group, 

ANCHIMONGOMA, gen. nov. 

Differing from Parcimofigomo, and Trentepohlia by the 2nd vein being 
unforked. Type-species : A. simplex, sp. nov. 

Anchimongoma simplex, sp. nov. 

(^ 9. S. W. India. Long. 5 mm. 

Head. — Frons and occiput blackish-grey ; proboscis, palpi and an- 
tennae brownish-grey. 

Thorax considerably arched and elevated, anterior part projecting 
well over neck, shining dirty brown, moderately dark ; scutellum and 
metanotum concolorous ; post-sutural dorsum divided by a rather 
deep median furrow. Lower part of thorax yellowish-white. 

Abdomen dark olive brown, hind margins of segments barely per- 
ceptibly darker ; belly in (^ pale yellowish, emarginations narrowly 
black, belly in 9 barely paler ; genitalia concolorous in f^, apical part in ^ 
shining brown, tips of valves yellowish. 

Legs. — Coxae and base of femora yellowish, rest of femora brown, 
becoming paler towards tips ; tibiae dirty yellowish, tarsi whitish. 




Fig. 5.- — Wing of AvchimoiKjuma s'm.pUx, sp. nov. 

Wings pale grey ; 2nd longitudinal vein not forked ; discal cell 
absent, coalescent with 3rd posterior cell ; anterior branch of 4th vein 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tijmlidae. 317 

forked, posterior branch simple ; 3 posterior cells ; anal cell distinctly- 
open. Halteres blackish. 

Described from a unique pair in the Indian Museum from Castle Rock, 
N. Kanara District, 11— 26-X-16 {Kemp). 

It seems necessary to erect a new genus for this species on the cha- 
racter of the unforked 2nd longitudinal vein, all the species of the three 
allied genera having it forked. 

The absence of a discal cell is not necessarily a generic distinction 
from Paramongoma. 

Lechria bengalensis, Brun. 

The thorax seems to darken with age in this species, as a specimen 
from Calcutta, 30-v-r2 {Gravely) has it wholly shining dark brown, as is 
now the case in the type 9, though the latter was described as having it 
yellowish. 

leucopeza, Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, Supp. 1913, 3 ?, pi. i, 2, 
wing (Mar. 1914). Semarang, Java. 

Lechria nepalensis, sp. no v. 

$. Nepal. Long. 21 mm. 

Head. — Frons ash-grey with a few stiff hairs ; proboscis and palpi 
brownish-yellow, joints in distal half of former considerably elongate ; 
antennal joints in apical half of flagellum long and thin. 

Thorax brownish-yellow, a little whitish shimmer below shoulders 
and on lower part of pleurae ; transverse suture deep, hind part of 
dorsum with a rather deep longitudinal suture ; scutellum blackish. 

Ahdomen dark brown, posterior margins of segments and ovipositor 
brownish-yellow. Belly yellowish. 

Legs pale yellowish. 

Wings yellowish-grey, base of 3rd vein a little before midway between 
tip of auxiliary vein and fork of 2nd vein, and in a line with and about 
as long as anterior cross vein, so that the 2nd submarginal cell and 1st 
posterior cell are about equal in length and shape. Anterior cross vein 
at base of, and posterior cross vein at middle of discal cell, which is 
wholly beyond middle of wing, with truncate base and three short outer 
sides. 1st longitudinal vein turning down into 2nd as in bengalensis. 
Halteres yellowish with dark clubs. 

Described from a unique $ in the Indian Museum from Katmandu, 
Nepal. 

This species differs radically from bengalensis by its venation, but as 
it presents the unusual generic character of the 1st vein ending in the 
2nd it is retained under Lechria. If a second species with similar vena- 
tion to nepalensis and similar antennae occurs a new genus may be 
erected. 

The venational differences from bengalensis are the angular base of 
the 3rd vein, its junction thereat with the anterior cross vein instead 
of the latter joining the praefurca, this cross vein being at the base 
instead of at the middle of the discal cell, and the position of this cell 
beyond the middle of the wing as well as its shape and shortness. 



318 Record.^ of the Indian Hlvseuni. [Vol. XT, 

In bengalensis the flagellar joints of the antennae are more or less 
uniform in size, except for the usual tapering towards the tip, but in 
nepcdensis those on the apical half are considerably attenuated and 
lengthened. 

CLYDONODOZOS, Enderl.i 

Zonl. Jahr. XXXII, p. 5 (1912). 

Genotype : C. mtdtistriatus, sp. nov., by original designation. 

multistriatus, Enderl., loc. cit., p. 57 ^J ? (1912). 
punctulatus, id., he. cit., p. 59 (sex ?) (1912). 

Both species from Sumatra ; types in Stettin Zoological Museum. 
griseiceps, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVIII, Supp. p. 11 $,1915 

(1910). Sumatra. Unique type in Amsterdam Museum. 



GNOPHOMYIA, Os. Sac. 

This genus was imperfectly understood by me in my " Fauna " 
volume, and my thanks are due to Mr. Alexander for pointing out several 
errors. G. longijpennis, Brun. — Rhaphnhlabis faseipennis, Brun. ; G. 
aperta and incomplefa belong to Rhaphidolabis ; G. genitalis and furcata 
to Limnophila. G. strenua and nigra are true Gnophomyiae.^ 

G. ornatipennis, Meij. is referred by Edwards to Gymnastes, whilst 
Alexander places it in Paratropeza, Sch. Riedel records a (^ of this 
species from Formosa. 

Edwards records {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 250, 1916) 
G. orientalis, Meij. from Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 ft., 10-x-r2 {Nitobe), 
and describes a new species similis (p. 251) from the same locality and 
collector, the unique type being in the British Museum. 

DASYMALLOMYIA, Brun. 

According to Alexander this genus is identical with a group of thick- 
set, tropical American species of Gnophomyia with sliort, hairy legs and 
some other characters. 

Mr. Edwards more recently proposes to retain the genus provision- 
ally for species of the group mentioned, and describes three new species 
from the Malay Peninsula : maculipleura {Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
(8) XVII, p. 360 ^ $, fig. 5, p. 356, genitalia, 1915) ; fraterna, 
L c, p. 361 (^, fig. 6, p. 356, genitalia, Selangor ; nigrescens, I. c, 
p. 361 9, Talum, Perak ; the types of all three species being in the 
British Museum, 

Dasymallomyia signata, Brun. 

Edwards records a $ from Horisha, Formosa, lO-v-13 {Maid). 



1 Alexander says that Edwards doubts if this is distinct from Conoma. 

2 G. longipennis, Brun., " Fauna ", p. 489, pi. ix, 17 ; aperta, p. 492, pi. x, 1 ; incom- 
plefa, p. 493, pi. X, 2 ; (jenitalis, p. 490, pi. ix, 1(> ; fumttit, p. 491, iil. ix, S ; strenua, 

492, pi. ix, 19 ; nigra, p. 494, pi. x, 3 (1912). 



191<S.] E, Brunetti : Oriental Tifmlidae. 319 

OXYDISCUS, Meij. 

Tijd. r. E)it. LVI, 350 (1913). 

Genotype : 0. nebulosus Meij. by original designation. 

nebulosus, de Meij., he. cit., p. 351 $. West Java. Unique 

type in Amsterdam Museum, 
umbrosus, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVII, p. 361 $ 

(1916). Kedah Peak, 3,200 ft. Malay Peninsula {Dr. Stanton). 

The unique type in the British Museum, 

Conosia irrorata, W. 

A $ of this widely distributed species taken by Dr. Annandale at 
Otsu, near Kyoto, Japan, x-15. Also recorded recently from Kotoslio 
I,, Formosa, 5-viii-r2 {Shiraki). 

CLADURA, Os. Sac. 

My C. flavescens is almost certainly a Cladura in Osten Sacken's sense, 
agreeing with his description and with Needham's figure of the wing, 
so I think Alexander is in error in claiming that my species is generic- 
ally wrongly placed. 

Cladura interrupta, sp. no v. 

$. Darjiling. Long. 3| — 4 mm. 

Head yellowish-grey ; antennal scape and base of flagellum yellow, 
remainder blackish. 

Thorax brownish-yellow. 

Abdomen very dark brown with short pubescence ; ovipositor long, 
brownish-yellow towards tip. 

Legs wholly pale yellow, distinctly pubescent throughout ; coxae 
black. 

Wings yellowish-grey with numerous black spots, of which the 
deepest is over the stigma, nearly oblong in shape, emarginate on hinder 
side ; a minute well defined costal spot near the base. Three narrow, 
transversely placed costal spots nearly equidistant, extending posteriorly 
to (1) hind margin of 2nd basal cell, (2) hind margin of 1st basal cell, 
and (3) to the anterior cross vein. A good sized spot at tip of upper 
branch of 2nd vein, more or less connected with round spots in the 2nd 
submarginal and 1st posterior cells, and with another at the fork of the 
upper branch of the 4th vein, and one at the tip of the 3rd posterior cell, 
forming altogether a slightly bent band across the wing. A spot at tip 
of lower branch of 2nd vein and one at tip of all the 4th vein endings, 
at tips of 5th, 6th and 7th veins, and over inner and outer sides of discal 
cell. Ground colour of wing slightly darker grey over basal half or 
thereabouts of both basal cells and of the anal and axillary cells. 
Halteres dirty yellowish. The 1st submarginal cell is divided a little 
beyond the middle by a supernumerary cross vein. 

Described from two $ $ in the Indian Museum from Pashok, 3,500 
ft,, 26-v— 14vi-16 {Gravely). 

f 



320 



Records of the Indian Museum,. 
CLADUROIDES, Biun. 



[Vol. XY, 



This will be synonymous with RhapJddolahis , Os. Sac. if the apparent 
discrepancy in the number of joints in the antennae can be satisfac- 
torily accounted for, otherwise it is a perfectly valid genus. ^ 



PARACLADURA, Brun. 

Alexander says this genus has no relationship with Cladura, Os. Sac, 
but he does not say where he would place it ; presumably in the Ama- 
lopini. 

Its characters are ; (1} no tibial spurs, the closest examination reveal- 
ing no trace of them, (2) subcostal cross vein near middle of wing, some 
distance after origin of praefurca, (3) eyes minutely but obviously pubes- 
cent,^ (4) no frontal gibbosity but the face very distinctly gibbous, 
(5) antennae with the scapal joints very short, sub-globular ; theflagellum 
of 15 elongate joints, (6) five posterior cells, the 4th distinctly pointed at 
base. 

The 17-jointed antennae makes the genus rather abnormal, wherever 
placed. The absence of tibial spurs would relegate the genus to the 
Eriopterini, but if exceptions to this character are admitted it must fall 
either in the Amalopini or the Limnophilini. 

Paracladura agrees and disagrees respectively, with the various 

characters of the Eriopterini and Amalopini as shewn in the following 

table : — 

Eriopterini. Amalopini. 

Paracladura. 



Agrees in — 

1. No tibial spurs. 

2. No frontal bump. 

3. 5 posterior cells. 

4. Position of subcostal cross vein. 
Disagrees in — 

1. Pubescent eyes. 



Agrees in — 

1. .5 posterior cells, especially in pointed 
base of 4th. 

2. Pubescent eyes. 
Disagrees in — 

1. No tibial spurs. 

2. No frontal bump. 

3. Position of subcostal cross vein.* 



As regards the Limnophilini, Paracladura has little or nothing in 
common ; the absence of tibial spurs, the position of the subcostal 
cross vein and the pubescent eyes all separate it. 

Apparently, therefore, although rather abnormal, it agrees best 
with the characters of the Eriopterini, where it may remain for the 
present. 

Section AMALOPINI. 
TRICHOCERA, Mg. 

punctipennis, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind., Dipt., p. 511, cJ ? (1912). 
Simla. 



^ See note under Rhaphiddahis, p. 322. 

2 In my description this fact was not stated, the pubescence being overlooked ; close 
examination is required to detect it. 

3 That is to say, according to Osten gacken's characterisation of the i-ection. If 
TricJtocera be allowed to remain in the Amalopini, Parachiduni will not disagree in this 

character, 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tijmlidae. 321 

flava, id., he. cit., p. 512 9 (1912). Darjilino-. 
montana, id., loc. cit., p. 513 (^ (1912). W. Himalayas. 
Types of all three species in Indian Museum. 

AMALOPIS, Hal. 

glabripennis, Bmn., Fauna Brit. hid. Dipt., p. 515 ^ (1912). 

Darjiling and North-East Indian Frontier. 
elegans, id., loc. cit., p. 516 ^ $ (1912). Kurseong. 
Types of both species in Indian Museum. 
As regards the right of Amalojns or Tricyphonn, Zett. to stand Ber- 
groth's recent argument ^ appears just and I agree with it, but it seems 
inadvisable to change generic names that give their names to families, 
sub-families or sections, and for that reason it is retained here.^ 

Amalopis spectralis, sp. nov. 

(Plate vii, fig. 4.) 

^. Darjiling. Long. 6 mm. 

A very peculiar whitish ghost-like fly. 

Whole body pale yellowish ; thorax whitish, indistinctly shewing 
a darker surface below ; proboscis and palpi dark ; antennae snow- 
white, the minute similarly coloured pubescence making determination 
of the exact number of joints impossible. Neck rather long. Abdomen 
a little darker towards tip ; genitalia large and conspicuous, pale yellow- 
ish-brown with long pale hairs ; a large curved dorsal plate ; a very 
elongate, ventral, curved plate turning upward at the tip, which is bifid ; 
claspers of moderate size. 

Legs wholly nearly snow-white except tips of femora and of tibiae 
broadly black ; tarsi tips a little brownish. 

Wings clear, very iridescent ; veins whitish. 3rd vein issuing from 
the very short space between the anterior cross vein and the fork of the 
2nd vein, and parallel with the branches of the latter, so that both sub- 
marginal cells and the 1st posterior are about subequal. Basal section 
of 2nd vein, marginal cross vein, and a line formed of the basal portion 
of upper branch of 2nd vein, the anterior and posterior cross veins, 
also the veinlet forming outer side of discal cell, very narrowly but deeply 
sufTused. Halteres yellowish- white. 

Described from a single nearlv perfect (^ in the Indian Museum. 
Pashok, Darjiling District, 3,000 ft., 26-v— 14-vi-16 {Gravehj). 

ULA, Hal. 

javanica, Alex., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XLIX, p. 176 (1916). 
Java. Type in U. S. Museum. 

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XI, p. 583 (1913). 

2 Mr. Bergroth draws attention to the use in my Fauna volume of Pleciomyia in 
place of Crapitula, Gimm. in the family Bibionidr e. This was not an arbitrary proceed- 
ing on my part, as he assumes. The description of Crapitula is not accessible in India 
and the Kertesz catalogue gives it as a synonym of Plecia. Recognising the distinct- 
ness generically of melanaspis it appeared necessary to erect a new genus for it. 

f2 



322 Records of the liulian Museum. \^^^-' ^^ > 

RHAPHIDOLABIS, Os. Sac. 

? rimhirnide.'^. Briin.. Ber. Ind. Mus. VI, p. 288 (1911). 

Five species recently described by me belong to this genus. 

sordida, Brun., Rec. Ind. Mus. VI, p. 290 ^ $ {Cladmoides) 

(1911). Simla ; Kurseong. Types in Indian Museum. 
Jascipennis, id., lac. cit., p. 289 ^ $ {Claduroides) (1911). 

Gnofhomyia longipennis, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind., p. 489 $ 
(1912). Rhaphidolabis fascipennis, id., lac. cit., p. 519 $ 
(1912). Darjiling ; Kumaon and Simla Districts. Types of 
all the forms in the Indian Museum. 
aperta, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 492 (^ {Gnophmnyia) 
(1912). Darjiling. Edwards changes the specific name {Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 254) to hrunetti, through pre- 
occupation by Coquillet. He records a $ from Arisan, For- 
mosa, 8,000 ft., lO-x-12 (Nitobe). 
incompleta, id., loc. cit., p. 493 (^ {Gnophomyia) (1912). Kur- 
seong. The types of both these species in the Indian Museum. 
Alexander has noted that incompleta would come in Plecfro- 
myia, Os. Sac, which is now generally considered synonymous 
with Rhaphidolabis or at most a subgenus of it. 
indica, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind., p. 519 (^ $ (1912). Simla District. 
Types in Indian Museum. 
It must be noted that in all the above five species before me the 
antennae contain 15 joints. Alexander, in relegating my Claduroides 
to a synonym of Rhaphidolabis, overlooks the fact that the latter genus 
has only 13-jointed antennae. I noted this discrepancy in referring my 
indica and R. fascipennis to this genus. Possibly Osten Sacken was in 
error, but this is unlikely, or possibly he wrote " antenna " in mistake 
for " flagellum " ; and possibly Williston {Manual N. Amer. Dipt.) 
merely copied him in the table of genera, but I have seen no correction 
of the original statement of a 13-jointed antenna. If Rhaphidolabis 
really has only 13-jointed antennae, Claduroides must stand as a valid 
genus. 

TIPULODINA, Ender. 

Erected for a small group of Tipulae with white-banded legs and white 
tarsi and referred by its author to this section. I have endeavoured 
(p. 270) to shew they are merely Tipulae, and the species are noted 
under that genus. 

Section LIMNOPHILINL 
LIMNOPHILA, Macq. 

Six of my recently described species belong here. 

genitalis, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 490 ^ $ {Gnopho- 
myia) (1912). Kumaon District. Only the type (^ and $ 
are known. 

furcata, h/., he. cit., p. 491 (^ '^ {Gnophomyia) (1912). Darjiling. 

pallidicoxa, id., loc. cit., p. 523 $ (1912). Kumaon and Dar- 



jihn 



o* 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental Tipulidae. 323 

simplex,! id., loc. cit., p. 523 $ (1912). Kiimaon District. 

Unique. 
multipunctata, id., loc. cit., App. p. 569, (sex ?) (1912). Darjiling 

District. 
honesta, id., loc. cit., App. p. 570 $ (1912). Kumaon District. 
claripennis, id., Rec. hid. Mus. VIII, p. 153 $ (1913). North- 

East Indian Frontier. 
quartarius, id., loc. cit., p. 154 (^ $ (1913). North-East Indian 

Frontier. 

Types oi' all above species in Indian Museum. 
apicalis, de Meij., Nova Guin. Res. IX, p. 309 $ (1915k 

Papua. 
javana, de Meij., Tijd. r. Ent. LIX, p. 198 ^ $, pi. vii, 11 

(wing) (1916). Gedeh, Java, 1,500—2,000 metres, June 

[Konigsbergcr). 
arnica, Alex., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XLIX, p. 175 cJ (1916). 

Java. 
palmeri, id., loc. cit., 175 (^. Java. 

Types of both these species in the U. S. Museum. 

Table of Oriental species of Limnophila. 

A. Wings very conspicuously marked. 

(«) Wings blackish, with base, a middle band and tip 

white ........ trisignafn. Walk. 

(6) Wings cinereous, veins black, bordered with black . A■e?ec^i5stma, Walk. 

(c) Wings brownish -yellow, with very numerous minute 

black dots ....... /nulti punctata, Brun. 

{(l) Wings brownish-grey, with numerous small white 

spots ........ oniatipennis, sp. 

nov. 

(e) Wings distinctly yellowish with brown markings . flavipeiinls,ii]}. nov. 

A A. Wings quite unmarked ; stigma present or absent. 

B. Four posterior cells. 

C. Marginal cross vein jsresent ; discal cell at least twice 

as long as broad. 

D. Marginal cross vein joining praefurca . . . honesta, Brun. 
DD. Marginal cross vein joining 2nd vein before the fork . uniicu, Alex. 
DDD. Marginal cross vein joining upper branch of 2nd 

longitudinal vein. 

E. 2nd submarginal cell as long as 1st posterior ; legs 

unringed ....... quartariuv, Biun. 

EE. 2nd submarginal cell much longer than 1st posterior. 

F. Femora with subapical yellowish ring on all femora . (iiinulipt.s, sp. nov. 
FF. Femora without such ring ..... inconsequens, sp. 

nov. 
CC. Mar.inal cross vein and stigma both absent ; discal cell 

barely longer than its greatest breadth . . . parvicellula, ap.iiov, 

CCC. Marginal cross vein absent- ; stigma present even if 

weak ......... 

G. Discal cell present ...... palmeri, Alex. 

GG. Discal cell absent ....... incompleta, sp. nov. 

BB. Five posterior cells. 

H. Larger species, 12 mm. long ..... contingent, 'WaX^. 
HH. Smaller species, at most 8 mm. long. 
I. Marginal cross vein present. 

1 The name simplex preoccupied by Alexander but as my simplex is syncnymous 
with r/enitalis, Brun. it may be allowed to lapse. 

2 Alexander does not state its absence, but it is not apparent in his figure, and he 
states its presence in the previous species, arnica. 



324 



Records of the Indian Museiim. 



[Vol. XV, 



J. 2nd longitudinal vein forking after marginal ci'oss vein ; 
posterior cross vein at base of discal cell ; thorax 
yellowish-brown ....... 

•TJ. 2nd longitudinal vein forking almost exactly at mar- 
ginal cross vein ; posterior cross vein at middle of 
discal cell ; thorax ash grey ..... 

JJJ. 2ncl longitudinal vein forking before marginal cross 
vein. 

K. 2nd posterior cell small, triangular : legs all pale yellow ; 
small delicate sjiecies with clear, slightly iridescent 
wings, stigma indistinct ; veins pale 

KK. 2nd posterior cell of normal siz >, oblong ; legs (ex- 
cept paler basal jiart of femora) all dark, especially 
towards tijis of femora. 

L. Head and thorax mainly rather bright brownish-yellow ; 
wings very glabrous, stigma black, distinct. Long 
5^ mm. ........ 

LL. Head grey, thorax yellowish-brown with thin median 
black line ; wings less glabrous, stigma practically 
absent ; long 4 mm. ...... 

II. Marginal cross vein absent (2nd vein forking soon 
after origin of 3rd, both branches parallel nearly 
to tips ; 1st submarginal cell nearly as long as 
2nd) 



pallidicoxa, Brun. 



genitalia, Brun. 
(simplex, Erun.) 



furcata, Brun. 

(jlabra, sjd. nov. 
fitsca, sj). nov. 

claripennid, Brun. 




Fig. 6. — Wings of Limnophila. spp. 
a. — L pallidicoxa, Brun 
b.—L. genitalis, Brun. 
f . — L. ficrcataj Brun. 
'C.—^L. claripennis, Brun. 
fi. — L. parvicellula, sp. nov. 
t. — -L. glabra, sp. nov. 

Limnophila annulipes, sp. nov, 

(^. S. W. India. Long. 7 mm.. 

Head and palpi rather dark brown ; antennae brownish-yellow, 
2nd scapal joint more yellowish ; 1st flagellar joint cup-shaped, next 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental Tipulidae. 325 

live joints short, cylindrical, about as long as broad, the remainder 
gradually lengthening. 

Thorax cinnamon brown, the considerably depressed humeral region 
blackish. Sides of thorax moderately light grey, with a black lateral 
stripe just below dorsum ; under side also black ; metanotal region 
a little paler. 

Abdomen cinnamon brown, sides of segments blackish, ovipositor 
brownish-yellow ; belly more or less yellowish. 

Legs. — Coxae pale yellowish-white ; femora yellowish, apical part 
blackish with a distinct subapical yellowish ring ; tibiae and tarsi 
yellomsh-brown. 

Wings brownish-grey, considerably iridescent ; 4 posterior cells ; 
stigma moderately distinct ; marginal cross vein apparently present 
though extremely faint, joined to the very short upper branch of 2nd 
longitudinal vein ; 2nd submarginal cell considerably longer than 1st 
posterior. Anterior cross vein at base of discal cell ; posterior cross 
vein at just beyond one-third ; 2nd and 3rd posterior cells rather 
longer than discal cell. 

Described from a single (^ in the Indian Museum from Talewadi, 
near Castle Rock, N. Kanara District, 3 — lO-x-16 {Kemp). 

This is the only species known to me with distinct rings on its legs. 

Limnophila parvicellula, sp. nov. 
cJ. S. W. India. Long. 3| mm. 

Head moderately dark brown ; antennae similar ; flagellar joints 
all elongate and slender, only the first two or three slightly thicker. 

Thorax, and abdomen brownish-yellow ; dorsum darker brown ; 
genitalia brownish-yellow. 

Lsgs dark brown, nearly black. 

Wings grey, iridescent ; 4 posterior cells ; marginal cross vein 
absent ; upper branch of 2nd vein short, as long as from tip of praefurca 
to fork of 2nd. Anterior cross vein exactly at origin of 3rd vein and at 
base of discal cell, the latter unusually small, about one-third as long as 
2nd posterior cell ; posterior cross vein a little before middle of discal 
cell. Halteres obscure. 

Described from a single (^ from Talewadi, near Castle Rock, N. 
Kanara District, .3- — lO-x-16 {Kemp). 

The absence of the marginal cross vein and small size of the discal 
cell are the chief characters of this species. 

Limnophila glabra, sp. nov. 
<^. S. W. India. Long. -51 mm. 

Head set on a rather long neck ; brownish-yellow below, occiput 
(bearing some rather long black hairs) and frons blackish-grey ; pro- 
boscis brownish-yellow ; palpi black ; antennae blackish-brown, basal 
half of 1st scapal joint yellowish ; flagellar joints elongate and very 
narrow except the basal two or three slightly thicker. 

Thorax rather bright brownish-yellow ; dorsum shining blackish- 
brown, metanotum shining brown with bluish-grey reflections viewed 
from behind. 



326 Records of fhe Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Abdomen. — Dorsum blackish, shiniiiu ; hellv^ wholly brii^ht brownish- 
yellow ; genitalia brownish-yellow, |)ul)escent. 

Lecjs. — Coxae bright brownish-yellow ; femora brownish-yellow 
at base, gradnally darkening to black at tips ; tibiae and tarsi dark 
yellowish-brown, nearly black. 

Wimjs grey, very shining and iridescent ; 5 posterior cells ; mar- 
ginal cross vein present, 2nd vein forking distinctly before that cross 
vein, its upper branch long and slightly diverging throughout its length 
from lower branch. 2nd submarginal cell distinctly longer than 1st 
posterior ; 2nd posterior cell rather longer than its pedicle ; discal cell 
not much longer than broad ; anterior cross vein placed at upper 
angle of that cell ; posterior cross vein just beyond its base. Halteres 
dirty yellowish-brown . 

Described from a single f^ in the Jndian Museum from Castle liock, 
N. Kanara District, 11 — 2G-X-1G {Kemp). 

Limnophila fusca, sp. nov. 
(^ $. Darjiling. Long, about 5 mm. 

Head rather dark grey ; antennal scape blackish, basal flagellar 
joint yellowish, remainder blackish, the joints considerably elongated, 
with long verticils. 

Thorax moderately dark yellowish- brown ; a narrow median dark 
line ; pleurae a little lighter here and there ; scutellum and metanotum 
concolorous. 

Abdomen. — Dorsum and belly concolorous with thorax ; segments 
very distinct ; genitalia moderate in size. 

Legs dull yellowish-brown, coxae and the femora for a considerable 
distance from base (in certain lights) paler ; legs in $ rather paler than 
in c^. 

Wings grey ; 2nd vein forked soon after origin of 3rd vein ; marginal 
cross vein a little beyond the fork ; stigma practically absent ; 2nd 
posterior cell twice as long as its petiole ; 5 posterior cells. 

Described from 2 ^ (^ and 1 $ in Indian Museum from Sureil, Dar- 
jiling District, 5,000 ft., iv, v-17 [Kemp). 

Limnophila incompleta, sp. nov. 
^. Darjiling. Long. 4 mm. 

Whole body dark brow^i ; flagellar joints of antennae oval, verticils 
rather short. Abdominal segments distinct, roughened. Legs dirty 
brown. Wings grey ; marginal cross vein absent ; 2nd vein forked at 
about usual place : discal cell open, coalescent with 3rd posterior cell ; 
2nd posterior cell considerably longer than its petiole ; 4 posterior cells. 

Described from three ^^ (^ in Indian Museum from Sureil, Darjiling 
District, 5,000 ft., iv, v-17 {Kemp). 

Limnophila inconsequens, sp. nov. 
<^. S. W. India. Long. 5 — 6 mm. 

Head brownish-yellow ; antennae and palpi dark brown, base of 
tormer more or less and to an irregular extent pale. 



J 



1918.] E. BeunetTi: Oriental Tipulidae. .327 

Thorax and abdomen brownish-yellow, hinder half of segments of 
latter blackish, sometimes all the dorsal surface of abdomen blackish ; 
genitalia brownish-yellow. 

Legs wholly dull brownish-yellow ; femora rather darker towards tij)s. 

Wings grey, shining, moderately iridescent ; four posterior cells. 
Marginal cross vein present, joined to the short oblique upper branch of 
2nd vein ; 2nd submarginal cell distinctly longer than 1st posterior. 
Anterior cross vehi at base of discal cell ; posterior cross vein at or just 
before its middle. Halteres obscurely yellowish, ti])s darker. 

Described from a short series of ^ (^ from Castle Rock, N. Kanara 
District, 1 1 — 26-x- 1 6 {Kemp). 

This species is without any special character, but may be easily re- 
cognised from the table of species. 

It bears considerable resemblance to glabra but possesses only four 
posterior cells. 

Limnophila flavipennis, sp. nov. 
(Plate viii, fig. M.) 

$. Darjiling. Long. 15| mm. to end of ovipositor. 

Head and proboscis greenish-grey with a brown irregular median 
Stripe from neck to antennae ; palpi and antennae dark brown, scapal 
joints paler. Neck and collare pale yellowish-grey with a dark brown 
stripe each side of former. 

Thorax wholly greenish -grey with the three usual dorsal stripes olive 
green. 

Abdomen dark brown with hind margins of segments and sides nar- 
rowly rather light brown ; belly similar. 

Legs. — Coxae greenish-grey, rest of legs blackish-brown, base of fore 
femora paler brown. 

Wings yellowish with dark brown markings. A transverse streak 
just beyond humeral cross vein, carried along bases of both basal cells, 
narrowing gradually ; a moderately narrow stripe from costa to 4th 
vein, situated at one-third the length of the wing ; a similar stripe 
widening hindwards, from costa to 4th vein, passing over base of 3rd 
vein ; an apparent continuation of this stripe, only narrower, begin- 
ning at 5th vein and reaching hind border of wing ; a stripe, comprising 
within it some clear spots, beginning on costa at tip of 1st vein, con- 
tinuing over the " cross veins " to 5th vein, where it turns slightly out- 
wards, ending irregularly on wing border ; this stripe being wide enough 
to include a comparatively clear narrow space on each side of the " cross 
veins".; a branch of this stripe diverging at 3rd vein, continuing over 
distal side of discal cell, where it divides, the ends reaching the wing 
border over tips of two last endings of 4th vein in the shape of spots with 
a clearer centre ; a similar spot over tip of 2nd posterior cell ; a short 
vertical stripe from costa over marginal cross vein ending at lower 
branch of 2nd vein ; a similar one over tip of 1st submarginal cell and a 
small spot at extreme wing tip. Veins dark brown ; halteres yellowish. 

Described from a unique $ in my own collection taken by me at 
Darjiling, 6,900 ft., 17-V-17. 



3^8 tlecords of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Limnophila ornatipennis, sp. no v. 

(Plate vii, fig. 5.) 

^ 9- Darjiling. Long. 8 — 9 mm. 

//mc^.— Frons, face, occiput and proboscis orange, a little darker here 
and there, and with scattered pale hairs ; a row of black stiff hairs across 
the vertex ; epistome with several rather long stiff brown hairs ; palpi 
dark brown, hairy. Antennal scape dark brown ; basal joint of fla- 
gellum enlarged, bright chrome yellow, remaining joints light brown. 

Thorax, including the distinct ring-like collare, scutellum and meta- 
notum brownish-yellow ; pleurae rather darker and more brownish ; 
a little w^hitish shimmer on mesopleura and sternopleura. 

Abdomen rather dark brow^l ochre tinged with yellow about discs 
of segments ; sparsely pale pubescent and with a whitish shimmer on 
dorsum and sides in certain lights. Genitalia in (^ dark brown ; a broad 
dorsal plate, the centre elevated sharply like an inverted V ; a large 
bright yellow basal joint with concolorous hairs and comparatively 
small brown hook-like 2nd joint. Ovipositor brownish-yellow. 

Legs brownish-yellow, hind coxae rather darker ; a just perceptible 
pre-apical darker band on all femora ; tips of tarsi brownish. 

Wings rather dark brownish-grey, rather darker over stigma, bifur- 
cation of 2nd and 3rd veins, apical two-thirds of 3rd vein and tips of 
veins in its vicinity, and along 5th vein. Small pale spots are distri- 
buted as follows. Costal cell divided by transverse dark narrow lines 
into about ten small pale spots, some quite clear, others pale grey ; 
the two largest and clearest at about middle of costa, with a similar 
spot contiguous, just below auxiliary vein. A semicircular spot just 
below stigma, nearly reaching 3rd vein, and beyond it on the costa a 
triangular one in 1st submarginal cell ; one in 2nd submarginal cell 
and one at tip of each posterior cell, and three or four in each basal 
cell. 1st posterior cell with a larger basal and two central smaller 
spots ; 2nd posterior cell with only the apical spot and a faint very 
small one at base ; 3rd posterior cell with a larger one near base ; 
4th posterior cell with a basal smaller one. Discal cell with a larger 
middle one and a smaller one at base and tip ; anal cell with three larger 
approximately equidistant ones and a small one at tip ; 1st axillary 
cell with a large basal one extending to the middle, and a rather large 
one connecting with 3rd spot in anal cell, and contiguous with wing- 
mar^dn ; 2nd axillary cell with one before the middle and one at tip. 
Halteres pale yellow with cream yellow knobs. 

Described from a type ^ from Soom, Darjiling District, 4,000-5,000 
ft., 14-vi-14 and type $ Darjiling, 7,000 ft., 12-vi-14 (both Gravely). 

The above description of the wing applies to the c;^ ; the $ shewing 
slight differences, but not enough to prevent the species being recognised 
without doubt. 

Note on 1 gen. no v. near Limno'phila from Japan. 

In addition to 7 $ $ of a Limnophila with a (^ that may belong to the 
same species which latter I am unable to identify. Dr. Annandale 
captured four (^ cJ at Otsu, near Kyoto, Japan, 6-X-15, which I fail 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental Tijmlidae. -3^9 

to place generically. These four specimens (further specimens in spirit) 
represent a conspicuous species with a very unusual venation, yet 
undoubtedly allied to Limnophila, though no tibial spurs are 
perceivable. The costa is broadly yellowish ; a narrow brownish-yellow 
curved streak from fork of 2nd vein, embracing the discal cross vein 
and reaching the hind margin of the wing. Another similar streak 
from the fork of the 2nd vein, suffusing the anterior and posterior 
cross veins. Body and legs practically wholly pale yellow. This 
s^^ecies was found by Dr. Annandale dancing in a small swarm about 
a foot and a half from the ground at dusk in a shady lane near Kyoto, 
Japan, 6-X-15. There are several genera in Limnophilini that I am 
unable to compare, the works in which they are described not beinr>- 
accessible in India. 

EPHELIA, Sch. 

Jascipennis, Brun., Fauna Brit. bid. Dipt., p. 526 (^ (1912). 
Kurseong ; Pashok, Darjiling District, 3,500 ft., vi-16 {L. C. 
Hartless). Edwards records a $ from Arisan, Formosa, 8,000 
ft. {Nitobe) as probably this species, and Mr. Kemp took one 
at Tura, Garo Hills, Assam, 1,200-1,500 ft., vi-17. The apical 
femoral rings are quite black. 

ornata, Brun., Fauna Brit. bid. Dipt., p. 527 $ (1912). 
Kumaon District. 

Types of both above species in Indian Museum. 



DICRANOPHRAGMA, Os. Sac. 

pulchripennis, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 524 (^ (1912). 
Darjiling District. 

A specimen from Bhoirakund, Assam-Bhutan Frontier, Darrang 
District, 18 — ^22-x-12 (Kemp), has the wing markings slightly different, 
al&o the legs bear much longer and more distinct pubescence. 

gracilis, id., Rec. bid. Mus. VIII, p. 156 $ (1913). N. E. 
Indian Frontier. 

Types of both species in Indian Museum. 

remota, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, Supp. 1913, 1 ^ $, pi. i, 
1, wing (Mar. 1914). Java. 



Dicranophragma multipunctipennis, sp. nov, 

(Plate viii, fig. 17.) 
^. Darjiling. Long. 7 mm. 

HeoA. — Occiput dark yellowish-grey ; frons darker brown, a narrow 
rregular median stripe along both ; proboscis and palpi dark brown ; 
antennae yellowish, 1st scapal joint dark brown. 

Thorax. — Dorsum yellowish-grey, considerably sunken on each side 
just behind anterior border, with (seen from in front) a curved dark 



330 Records of the Indian Mnsevm. [Vol. XV, 

broA\ii stripe and a small black spot below it, both in the sunken space. 
Scutellum and metanotuni yellowish-grey ; sides of thorax moderately 
tlark brown. 

Abdomen brownish-yellow with yellow [)ubescence ; hind margins 
and sides of segments broadly but rather irregularly dark brown. 
Belly similar ; genitalia concolorous. 

Legs (front and hind pair missing). Coxae dark brown, remainder 
wholly yellow. 

Wings pale grey with four larger (though still comparatively small) 
brown spots on costa and very numerous minute pale brown spots. 
The first of the larger spots placed just before one-fourth of the wing, 
reaching to hind margin of 2nd basal cell ; a similar stripe-like spot just 
before middle of wing reaching to hind margin of 1st basal cell ; a darker 
brown triangular spot over stigmatic region (the largest spot of all) 
extending, gradually narrowing, over " cross veins," disappearing at 
wing border over tip of 5th vein ; a roughly triangular preapical spot 
with its apex reaching hind margin of 2nd submarginal cell, and an 
apical spot extending from tip of 1st submarginal cell to 3rd posterior 
cell. Very numerous small paler brown elongate or oval dots or spots 
placed transversely to axis of wing in all the cells, very few being si- 
tuated actually on the veins. Halteres pale yellow. 

Described from a unique (^ in my own collection taken by me at 
Darjiling, 15— 19-V-17. 

Epiphragma kempi, Brun. 

Edwards has suggested the identity of this with signata, de Meij., 
but though closely allied the wing markings are sufficiently constant 
to warrant ranking it as distinct. Two (^ (^ and two $ 9 from the Garo 
Hills show slight differences but are obviously all of one species. In 
all of them the extra cross vein in the costal cell is distinctly though 
narrowly suffused. The new species vicina is also closely allied in the 
wing pattern but I am convinced all three are quite good species. 

Epiphragma klossi, sp. nov. 

(Plate viii, fig. 16.) 
^. Malay States. Long. 9 mm. 

Head cinereous ; 1st scapal joint cinereous, large, long, cylindrical ; 
2nd dark, short ; 1st flagellar joint longer and larger than 2nd scapal, 
orange ; rest of flagellum black ; palpi blackish-grey. 

Thorax yellowish-grey, a broad transverse blackish band in front 
of suture, not reaching sides ; a median reddish-brown narrow stripe 
from anterior margin, narrowing hindwards and reaching the transverse 
band, and on each side of this stripe a longitudinally placed oval black- 
ish spot clear of the margins, and contiguous to another similar spot on 
lower edge of dorsal margin in front of wing base ; hind part of dorsum 
yellowish-grey with darker marks ; scutellum and metanotum grey with 
tomentose yellow pubescence, former a little blackish basally. 

Abdomen dark nut-brown, extreme hind margin of each segment 
pale ; genitals concolorous. 



1918.] E. Brunetti: Oriental TipuUdae. ,331 

Wings pale grey with a brown pattern mncli resemblino- that of 
E. kempi, Brun. The general impression of this pattern is that of 
three circles with flattened tops ; the first near the base, reaching from 
the costa to the 6th vein, contiguous to the 2nd circle which extends 
from costa to 5th vein. 3rd circle more nearly oval, placed a little 
slanting, reaching from 1st to i3th veins, the upper outer part broken 
in upon by a longitudinal spot filling basal third of 2nd submarginal 
cell ; a similar spot over stigmatic region, ending at tip of 1st vein. 
Contiguous to inner end of this spot, a very small dark brown circle on 
costa, and between this small circle and the top of the 2nd large " circle " 
first described, a short transverse stripe from costa to 1st longitudinal 
vein, followed (distally) by an inverted V, similarly placed. At tips of 
upper and lower branches of 2nd longitudinal vein, a narrow spot ex- 
tending into 2nd submarginal cell ; an oval spot over outer side of discal 
cell, reaching to lower branch of 2nd longitudinal vein, extended down- 
ward and curving basally across middle of 5th posterior cell and nearly 
filling tips of anal and 1st axillary cells. Tips of 3rd vein and all endings 
of 4th vein with a small spot on each ; the first two connected with a 
spot covering base of 2nd posterior cell, which is itself joined narrowly 
to the oval spot over outer side of discal cell. Anterior cross vein and 
base of discal cell narrowly infuscated, forming a short stripe in middle 
of 3rd " circle." From the 2nd " circle " a stripe passes through anal 
cell, and bending distally broadens and ends on hind margin over tip 
of axillary vein. Basal third of 2nd axillary cell brown with a square 
spot about its middle. Extreme base of wing brown ; costa at extreme 
base clear ; humeral cross vein narrowly infuscated, and a short stripe 
between this and absolute base of costa. A minute dot here and 
there contiguous to the various spots, or isolated, apparently, of irregular 
distribution. Halteres dark grey. 

Described from a unique ^ in good condition in the Indian Museum 
from Ginting Bidai, 2,000 ft., Selangor-Pahang Frontier, Federated 
Malay States, April 1917 (C. Boden Kloss). 

Easily recognised from hemjn by the wholly black femora. 

Epiphragma vicina, sp. no v. 
(Plate viii, fig. 15.) 

$. Assam. Long. 10 mm. to tip of ovipositor. 

Head yellowish-grey ; an oval blackish transverse spot on vertex, 
continued hindwards as a gradually narrowing median stripe on occiput ; 
a post-ocular row of stiff hairs and smaller irregular hairs. Proboscis 
brownish-yellow ; palpi dark brown ; antennal 1st scapal joint grey, 
2nd black, 1st flagellar joint orange, a little longer than 2nd scapal, 
remaining joints black. 

Thorax rather bright browaiish-yellow, prothorax a little paler ; col- 
lare with transverse dark brown mark above. Dorsum with a verv 
short median dark stripe and two broader and rather longer outer stripes, 
all connected narrowly on anterior margin ; these outer stripes extend- 
ing nearly to a pair of large dark, more or less squarish spots in 
front of suture, narrowly separated from one another. Ground colour 



832 Records of the Indian Mitseum. [Yol. XV, 

behind the suture brownish-yellow, with a dark brown half-moon spot 
with its convex side hindward ; hind margin of dorsum and the scutellum 
dark bro\Ani. Sides of thorax yellowish-grey with dark brown marks ; 
metanotum yellowish-grey . 

Abdomen dark mahogany brown, hind borders of segments very 
narrowly yellowish ; belly greyish ; genitalia bright shining brown, 
basal part of lower valves dark brown. 

Leqs yellow ; coxae and trochanters marked with black ; a subapical 
moderately narrow black ring on femora. 

Wings pale grey, with a darker pattern resembling that of kempi, 
especially on basal half. In the distal half it is broken up into smaller 
spots varying slightly in the individual. Halteres dark, clubs pale grey. 

Described from two $ $ in the Indian Museum from above Tura, 
3,500-3,900 ft., vii-17 (Kemp) : viii-17 {Mrs. Kemp), and one $ from 
Sureil, Darjiling District, 5,000 ft., 11 — 31-X-17 type {Annandale and 

iTrTOyVSltJ] 

Section ANISOMERINL 
GYNOPLISTIA, Westw. 

occipitalis, de Meij., Nova Giiin. Res. IX, p. 310 (^ (1915). 
Papua. The unique type in (?) Amsterdam Museum. 
No type species appears to have been selected for this genus ; I 
therefore propose Ctenophora vilis, Walk., the first of the two species 
included by Westwood at the erection of his genus. 

ERIOCERA, Macq. 

The recent additions in new species to this genus have been very 
numerous yet probably very many oriental forms remain to be discovered. 

ctenophoroidss, Edw., Attn. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) VIII, 64 (^ $ 
(1911). Ceylon. 

scutellata, id^, lac. cit., p. 65 ^^ $ (1911). Ceylon. 

tuberculifera, id., he. cit., p. 66 $ (1911). Ceylon. 

£usca, id., he. cit., p. 66 ^^ ? (1911). Ceylon. 
Types of above four species in British Museum. 

angustipennis, Enderl., Zool. Jahr. XXXII, 33 ^J {Phy- 
secrania) (1912). Sumatra. 

pannosa, id., he. cit., p. 40 (^ $ (1912). Sumatra. 

gamma, id., he. cit., p. 42 (^ $ (1912). Sumatra. 

sauteriana,! id., he. cit., p. 42 $ (1912). South Formosa. 

paenulata, id., he. eit., p. 43 $ (1912). Sumatra. 
Types of above five species in Stettin Zoological Museum. 

rufithorax, Brun., Fauna Brit. Ind. Dipt., p. 534 ^ ? (1912) 
(pi. vii, fio-. 10). Kandy. 

tenuis, id.,^he. cit., p. 539 S (1912). Nilgiri Hills. 

aterrima, id., he. cit., p. 540 ? (1912). Travancore. 

elongatissima, id., he. cit., p. 542 ^ (1912). South India. 

flavipes, id., he. cit., p. 544 ^ (1912). Kurseong. 



1 Edwards records from Kotosho Is., Formosa, 20-vii-12 {Shiral-i} and from 
Arisan, Formosa, 8,009 ft., lO-x-12 {Nitobe), 



3918.] E. Brtjnetti : Oriental Ti/pulidae. 333 

testacea, id., he. cit., p. 548 $ (1912). Nilgiri Hills. 
nigerrima, id., he. cit., App. p. 571 $ (1912), (pi. vii, fio. K,). 

Darjiling District. 
triangularis, id., he. eit., App. p. 572 (^ (1912). Nilgiri Hills. 
Types of all species from rufithorax to triangidaris inclusive in 
Indian Museum. 

nigrina, Riedel, Entom. Mitt. II, p. 273 (1913). Kankao, 
Formosa ^J $, vii-ix-r912. Type in Deut. Ent. Mus. Cotype 
in Riedel coll. 
xanthopyga, de Meij., Tijd. v. Ent. LVI, Supp. p. 3 <^ $ (Mar. 

1914). Java. 
unicolor,^ id., he. cit., LVIII, Supp. p. 12 (^ ?, 1915 (1916). 
simalurensis, id., he. cit., p. 13 ^ $, 1915 (1916). 
Both species from Sinabang, Simalur Island, of! the west coast 
of Sumatra. Types in Amsterdam Museum. 

rubriceps, Edw., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) XVIII, p. 253 $ 

(1916). Taipin, Formosa. Unique type in British Museum. 
lativentris, Bezzi, Phil. Jour. Sei. XII, Sect. D, p. 113 <^ 

(1917). Luzon (Baker). 
crassipes, id., he. eit.; p. 114 ^J $ (1917). Luzon (Baker). 
In his paper on Javan Tipulidae Alexander notes the following five 
species : E. verticalis, W. ; aerostaeta, W., hasilaris W., mesopyrrha, W., 
and cingidata, Meij. He also gives figures of the wings of the first two 
and the last one. 

Eriocera verticalis, Wied. 

Described as a Megistocera, from Java. The prominent vertex and 
frons forming a considerable bump at the top of the head renders this 
species conspicuous, especially an conjunction with the enormously 
produced antennae, which are about three to three and a half times as 
long as the whole body. It is excellently figured by Van der Wulp 
(Tijd. V. Ent. XXXVlil, pi. ii, fig: 6, 7). One <^ from Bageshwar, 
Kumaon District, 3,500 ft., 25-V-09 (A. D. Imms), and one ^ from Pusa 
Bihar, at light, lO-ix-15, the latter in the Pusa collection. 

Eriocera cingulata, Brun. 
(Plate vii, fig. 7.) 

This species, described by me in the Fauna volume, App. 570 ^, 
(1912) must be renamed, owing to E. cingidata, Meij. The name cincta 
is therefore proposed. 

Riedel (Ent. Mitt. II) records .E. nigrifennis, Meij. and E. sauteriana, 
Ender. from Formosa. 

Eriocera flavipes, Brun. 
(Plate vii, fig. 15.) 

• A (^ from Sureil, Darjiling District, 5,000 ft., iv-v-17 (Kemp) is pro- 
bably this species. The tibiae are yellowish-brown ; the posterior 

* Edwards records from Horisha, Formosa, 1,000 ft. (Maki), 



334 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XY, 



cross vein is at the middle of the discal cell in one wing and near the base 
iu the other. There are traces of gold dust spots towards the sides 
of three of the middle abdominal segments and I am not altogether 
satisfied with the identity. 



Table shewing general grouping of oriental species of Erioceka. 

A. Thorax mainly or wholly yellow or reddish, 

as compared with black or brownish. ^ 

B. Abdomen principally yellowish or reddish 

C. Wings dark, without distinct pale mark- 

ings. 
(a) Five posterior cells 



(h) Four posterior cells 



(r) Number of posterior cells unstated , 
CC. Wings dark, always with distinct pale 
markings ...... 



BB. Abdomen principally black or brown 



AA. Thorax mainly or wholly black, black- 
ish, brown or dark grey, as compared 
with yellowish or reddish (in gmvelyi 
sometimes partly or wholly ferruginous 
red ; in pulchrithorax, ash-grey). 

D. Abdomen principally yellowish or red- 

dish. ^ 

E. Very small species, 6 mm. .... 
EE. Larger species, 12 mm. upwards. 

(a) Five posterior cells .... 

(6) Four posterior cells .... 



(r) Number of posterior cells unstated . 

DD. Abdomen principally blackish or brown ; 
the ground colour never pale (in maculi- 
ventris dorsal surface mainly orange 
except at sides and tip). 

F. Wings absolutely clear .... 

FF. Wings dark, with or without pale mark- 
ings, 
(o) Five posterior cells. 

O. Legs black or dark brown .... 



GG. Legs yellow . 
(b) Four posterior cells. 



'plecioides. Walk., angustipennis, 

Ender., aurantm, sp. nov. 

nigroapicalis, sp. nov. 
pachyrhina, Os. Sac, nibrescenfi. 

Walk., pyrrhochmma, Walk. 

jjaenulata, Ender. 
snUellata, Edw. 

acrostacta, Wied., wesopyrrJio, 
Wied., lunata, Westw., cotn- 
binata. Walk., cJiluta, Walk., 
badia, Brun. 

infixa, Walk., selene, Os. Sac, 
humberti, Os. Sac, meleagris, 
Os. Sac, pannosa, Ender., 
cfenophoroides, Edw., fenes- 
Irata, Brun., rufithorax, Brun. 



optabilis. Walk. 

bicolor, Macq., sem.iliynpida, 
Brun. 

dichroa. Walk., albonotata, Lw., 
smalurensis, Meij., testacea, 
Brun., pulclirithorax, sp. nov., 
rufiventris, sp. nov., triinincti- 
pennis, sp. nov. 

ivberrulifera, Edw. 



rrysfallnpterri, Os. Sac 



hasilaris, Wied., leurotelus. 
Walk., mansueta, Os. Sac., 
unicolor, Meij., gravelyi, sp. 
nov. 

perennis, Os, Sac, plnmhUincla , 
Brun. 



>■ The terms used in this table such as " mainly yellowish or reddish '" must not be 
taken too literally, and allowance must be made for individual variation which is not 
uncommon in this genus. 

« A considerable portion is yellowish in birolor, scmHimpkht and alhnnatala. 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental Tipiilidae. 335 

H. Wings unmarked ..... alerrima, Brun. ; mligintaa, «p. 

nov. 
HH. Wings always with yellow or whitish 
markings. 

I. Very large species, 25 to 31 mm. . . tenuis, Brun., kenrpi, sp. nov., 

elongatissintft, Brun. 

II. Species normally below 20 mm. ^ 

J. Legs yellow ...... albipuncta, Wulp., greeni, Brun., 

flavipes, Brun., decoruta, sp. 
nov. 

J J. Legs black ...... nepalemis, Westw., sumatr en- 
sis, Macq., gamma, Ender., 
iauteriana, Ender., rufibasis, 
Brun. 
(c) Number of posterior cells unstated . . uej'h'cofe, Wied., ^Mwigrera, Walk., 

morosa, Os. Sac.,, fuica, Edw., 
nigri'j^ennis , Meij. 

In the above table a fair amount of latitude must be allowed for, 
as it is only intended as a rough grouping of species on comparatively 
easy characters. If a more critical table be attempted, other and more 
important characters would be adopted. For easy reference it may, 
however, prove useful if the terms used are not construed too literally. 

Eriocera aurantia, sp. nov. 

$. Darjiling. Long. 12 mm. 

Whole body rich deep orange except tip of proboscis brownish and 
palpi black ; flagellum of antennae brown with pale pubescence ; frons 
rather prominent. Some indistinct and irregular brown markings on 
dorsum of abdomen. Legs dark brown except coxae rich orange and 
base of femora more or less yellowish. 

Wings uniformly rather dark brown ; no stigma ; anterior cross 
vein at extreme base of discal cell ; posterior cross- vein at middle of 
discal cell ; 2nd posterior cell petiolate ; 5 posterior cells ; halteres, 
stems yellowish, clubs black. 

Described from two $ 9 "^ the Indian Museum from Kalimpong, 
600-4,500 ft., 24-iv — lO-v-14 (Gravely). What is probably an immature 
(^ of this species is represented by a specimen from Darjiling, 7,000 ft 
12-vi-14 (Gravely). 

Eriocera nigroapicalis, sp. nov. 

$. Darjiling. Long. 12 mm. 

Very like aurantia but quite distinct. 

Frons very dark brown ; proboscis, palpi and occiput black, with 
scattered hairs ; antennae black, with grey reflections. Last four 
abdominal segments quite black, ovipositor orange. Legs black except 
about basal third of femora yellowish ; tibiae dark brownish-yellow 
tinged. 

Wings uniformly moderately dark brown ; stigma distinct, rather 
large, black ; 5 posterior cells. Anterior cross-vein at extreme basal 
corner of discal cell ; posterior cross- vein barely reaching its lower 
corner as the 5th posterior cell is only in punctiform contact with the 

* Nepalensis sometimes attains a length of 25 mm. 



336 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

discal cell, the lower side of which is formed wholly by the bases of the 
3rd and 4th posterior cells. 2nd posterior cell sessile. Halteres small, 
black. 

Described from a unique $ in the Indian Museum from Kalimpong, 
24-iv— 10-v-U {Gravely). 

Eriocera pulchrithorax, sp. no v. 

$. Cochin. Extreme length to tip of ovipositor 

18 mm. 

Head wholly ash-grey, including scape. Proboscis and palpi black- 
ish ; flagellum of antennae with two first joints yellowish, remainder 
black. Scape, frons and occiput with a few black hairs. 

Thorax uniformly and wholly ash-grey, with black markings, dis- 
tributed as follows. A pair of median narrow stripes, nearly conti- 
guous, from anterior margin nearly to suture ; behind the suture a large 
oval spot on each callosity with a distinct round smaller one in front of 
each. A narrow line just below sides of dorsum ; a round spot on meso- 
pleura ; a large oval transverse spot on hind margin of scutellum ; a 
large spot on each anterior corner of mesonotum, a small one on each 
posterior corner, with a narrow median line. All these spots black. 

Abdomen. — 1st joint black, remainder bright chrome yellow ; a narrow 
reddish hind margin to each segment ; last two segments deep velvet 
black ; ovipositor orange. 

Legs. — Coxae ash-grey, remainder of legs brownish-yellow, tips of 
femora, of tibiae and of tarsi joints black. 

Wings rather dark brown ; extreme tip narrowly white. Anterior 
cross vein near middle of discal cell posterior cross vein towards its tip. 
Four posterior cells ; halteres black. 

Described from a unique $ in the Indian Museum (middle legs miss- 
ing) taken on the Forest Tramway, mile 10 to 14, — 300 ft., Cochm State, 
28— 29-ix-14 (Gravely). 

Eriocera rufiventris, sp. no v. 

^ $. Cochin. Long. 17 mm. 

Bead and thorax wholly black ; pleurae with slight grey reflections 
in certain lights ; antennae and palpi thinly pilose. 

Abdomen. — 1st segment black ; remainder wholly bright reddish- 
orange ; genitalia concolorous, hypopygium with black hairs ; 2nd joint 
of claspeis long, black, hook-like ; ovipositor very long, bare. 

Legs in ^ black, coxae and about basal third of femora brownish- 
yellow ; in 9 dark brownish-yellow, passing at first sight for blackish, 
tips of femora darker. 

Wings moderately dark brown ; anterior cross vein at base of discal 
cell. Four posterior cells : halteres nearly black. 

Described from one (^ and one $ in the Indian Museum from Param- 
bikulam, Cochin State, 16 — 24-ix-14 {Gravely) ; and one belonging to 
Mr. Fletcher, taken by him at Coorg, S. India, 24-x — 16-xi-15. 

This species comes in my table next to testacea Brun. 



1918.] E. Brunetti : Oriental Tipulidae. -337 

Eriocera gravelyi, sp. no v. 

(Plate vii, fig. 9.) 

^ $. Darjiling District and Assam. Long. 14 to (extreme $) 

24 mm. 

Head blackish-grey with short bushy hairs ; proboscis shining black, 
labella dull yellowish at base ; palpi and antennae black. 

Thorax normally velvet black, including scutellum, metanotum and 
pleurae, the latter a little duller. Often ferruginous red from an- 
terior margin of dorsum for a considerable distance or even the whole 
dorsum up to the scutellum, behind which the red is duller and less 
conspicuous. In some specimens with an all black thorax there is a 
trace of red sometimes visible if viewed from a low angle in front. 

Abdomen velvet black ; basal half of 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th segments 
and to a less extent the 6th and 7th segments with a shining steel band 
which is whitish on its hinder part. Genitalia in cJ shining black, ap- 
proximately normal ; 1st joint of claspers with short grey hairs, 2nd 
pointed and curved ; a small triangular hairy-tipped ventral style, 
and a small curved emarginate dorsal plate. In the $ basal half of 
ovipositor bright orange, the remainder shining dark bro^vn. 

Legs black or very dark brown, base of femora sometimes browmish. 

Wings dark blackish-brown, with a slight violet tinge ; both axillary 
cells distinctly paler. A rather large white spot just beyond the middle 
lying over both basal cells, and a small one in the marginal cell just 
above the origin of the 3rd vein. Extreme tip of wing with a small 
white spot extending over the tips of both submarginal cells and the 1st 
posterior cell. Marginal cross vein distinctly beyond fork of 2nd 
vein. Five posterior cells. Halteres black. 

Described from several of each sex from Pashok, Darjiling District, 
1,000-2,-500 ft., 26-v— 14-vi-16 [Gravely), and from cJ (^ and ? ? from 
Tura, Garo Hills, Assam, 1,200-1,500 ft., vi, vii and x-17 {Kemp and 
Mrs. Kemp). 

Types in Indian Museum, cotypes in my collection. 

Eriocera decorata, sp. nov. 

(Plate vii, fig. 12.) 

^ Darjiling District. Long. 9 mm. 

Head. — Frons and occiput yellowish-grey with stiff black hairs ; 
proboscis and palpi blackish, labella yellov.dsh at base. 1st scapal joint 
of antennae almost bluish-grey, 2nd joint and flagellum brownish-yellow 
with black pubescence. 

Tkoraa blackish-grey, ash grey irregularly around margin of dorsum 
and sides of both scutellum and' metanotum ; pleurae mainly blackish- 
grey. 

Abdomen blackish ; basal half of 2nd and 3rd segments, 4th segment 
narrowly at base, 5th almost entirely, with grey dust, whilst on the 2nd 
and 3rd segments the anterior half of the grey band is almost steel- 
colour. AVhole abdomen and belly with soft black pubescence, 



338 



Records of the Indian Museum. 



[Vol. XV, 



Genitalia of moderate size, orange, a narrow dorsal and ventral eraar- 
ginate plate, claspers apparently normal. 

Legs. — Coxae and trochanters black ; remainder brownish-yellow 
with short black pubescence ; tips of femora broadly and rather gra- 
dually black ; tips of tibiae and of first two tarsal joints very narrowly 
black, rest of tarsi black. 

Wings. — Ground colour uniformly dark brown except base of 2nd 
axillary cell greyish. A large white spot placed just before discal 
cell, extending over both basal cells, reaching narrowly upwards into 
marginal cell and also narrowly downwards across anal cell. A 
smaller whitish spot in marginal cell just beyond marginal cross vein and 
extending slightly into the cell below. Marginal cross vein (which is 
very oblique and placed before fork of 2nd vein), anterior and posterior 
cross veins, and the inner and outer sides of discal cell suffused 
with yellowish, as is also extreme base of 2nd vein. A small whitish 
spot just beyond this latter one. A small whitish streak near base of 
wing from 1st vein, running diagonally across both basal cells. Four 
posterior cells. Halteres black. 

Described from a single r^ in the Indian Museum from Pashok, 2,000 
ft., 26-v— 14-vi-16 {Gravely). 

Eriocera tripunctipennis, sp. nov. 

(^ 9. South- West India. Long. 13 — 15 mm. 

Head. — Frons and occiput shining blue-black ; proboscis brownish- 
yellow, black tipped ; palpi and antennae black, scape of latter also 
extreme base of 1st flagellar joint orange. 

Thorax, scutellum and metanotum shining deep blue-black with slight 
grey reflections. Lower edge of dorsum with a rather narrow deep 
velvet black margin which is shortly interrupted both behind the shoulder 
(w^here the black stripe turns distinctly upwards) and in front of wing 
base. Humeri and prothorax pale livid yellow. Sides of thorax black 
with more conspicuous bluish-grey reflections, especially on sterno- 
pleura. 

Abdomen bright orange, 1st segment black on dorsum, remaining 
segments with narrow black band on posterior margin. Genitalia in 
(^ orange, claspers black tipped ; in $ reddish-brown, tip shining black, 
the extreme points orarige. 

Legs. — Coxae orange, base blackish with bluish-grey reflections ; 
femora vellowish at base gradually darkening to black at tips, tibiae 
and tarsi biack. 




Fig. 7. — Wing of Eriocera tripunctipevms, sp. nov. 

V/ings rather dark grey ; four posterior cells ; all the veins except 
Gth and 7th narrowly suffused a little darker ; costal cell blackish, a 



1918.] E. Beunetti: Oriental TipuUdae. 339 

row of three distinct moderate-sized subequal darker spots placed (1) on 
base of 2nd longitudinal vein, (2) over marginal cross vein and (3) an 
intermediate one which is sometimes extended downwards along basal 
sides of cells as far as 4th longitudinal vein. Distal side of discal 
cell and posterior cross vein also suffused. Halteres black. 

Described from a J and two ^ ? in the Indian Museum. Castle Rock, 
11 — 26-X-16, type (^ ; Talewadi, 3 — lO-x-16, type $ and second $, (both 
N. Kanara District ; Kenij)). 



Eriocera caliginosa, sp. nov. 

5. South-West India. Long. 9 — 10 mm. 

Head blackish-grey ; palpi black ; scape of antennae blackish ; 
flagellum dark brown. 

Thorax wholly black, moderately shining ; metanotum with very 
dark brown tinge. 

Abdomen black, 1st segment with transverse white basal stripe ; 
3rd and 4th segments with more than basal half of each yellowish, except 
at sides. Genitalia black. 

Legs wholly black. 

Wings moderately blackish ; four posterior cells ; halteres black. 

Described from two $ $ in Indian Museum from Talewadi, near Castle 
Rock, N. Kanara District, 3 — lO-x-16 {Kemp). 



Eriocera kempi, sp. nov, 

(^ 9. South -West India. Long. 25 — 34 mm. 

Head blackish-grey with a deep black band on inner side of eyes, 
extending over the moderate-sized frontal gibbosity. Proboscis, palpi 
and antennae black, shortly pubescent, mouth parts sometimes a trifle 
paler. 

Thorax wholly velvet black, a pair of moderately broad closely 
approximate barely discernible median stripes and also the mesonotal 
swellings just perceptibly less deep black anteriorly. Sides of thorax 
dull black, with dark grey reflections in certain lights. Scutellum and 
metanotum velvet black. 

Abdomen, (^ : velvet black ; basal third to a half of 3rd segment, 
and basal half of 4th and 5th segments bright chrome yellow. In the 
only $ present the first yellow band is absent. Genitalia black, moder- 
ately shining, small ; tip of ovipositor reddish-brown. 

Legs all black, microscopically pubescent. 

Wings moderately deep blackish ; four posterior cells ; extreme wing 
tip whitish ; halteres black. 

Described from several (^ (^ and a single ? in the Indian Museum 
from Castle Rock, N. Kanara District, 11 — 26-X-16 {Kemp). 

An exceedingly handsome species and one of the largest known from 
the orient. 



340 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Eriocera maculiventris, sp. nov. 

(Plate viii, fig. 18.) 

^ $. Assam. Long. ^ 12|, $ 15 mm. to tip of ovi- 

positor. 

Head blackish-grey with stiff black hairs ; proboscis, palpi and 
antennae blackish, tip of 2nd scapal joint narrowly pale ; flagellum black 
pubescent. 

Thorax all black, slightly shining, black pubescent, traces of grey 
dust on sternopleura. 

Abdomen black ; dorsal surface of 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th segments 
mainly orange, the colour occupying basal half of 2nd segment except 
at sides, and the whole of the 3rd, 4th and 5th segments except for a 
moderately narrow hind border and side margins. In some specimens 
the orange colour fills nearly all the dorsal surface of all four segments. 
Genitalia in (^ black, pubescent, of moderate size ; in $ orange, apical 
half shining brown. Belly black, 3rd and 4th segments considerably 
orange. 

Legs black. 

Wings blackish, central part, beginning with marginal cell and ex- 
tending without definite outline to hind margin, clearer, the pale part 
limited irregularly by the " cross veins." Traces of a very narrow 
whitish longitudinal streak in 2nd submarginal and 1st posterior cells. 
Five posterior cells. In $ the pale part more extensive, spreading over 
major part of hinder half of wing. Halteres black. 

Described from seven specimens in the Indian Museum, from Tura, 
Garo Hills, 1,200-1,500 ft., vii-17 and above Tura, 3,900 ft., vii, viii, x-17 
{Kemp and Mrs. Kemp). 

This must be near perennis, Os. Sac. by the orange abdominal bands 
but it differs by the black antennae, the black ultimate abdominal 
segment in the $, and the black femora and tibiae. In perennis also the 
wing is yellowish at the base and has a yellowish-white cross band. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIL 

Fig. 1. — Nesopeza alhitarsis, sp. nov., wing. 

,, 2. — Geranomyia flaviventris, sp. nov., wing. 

,, 3. — Rhamfhidia abnormalis, sp. nov., wing. 

,, 4. — Amalopis spectralis, sp. nov., wing. 

,, 5. — Limnophila ornatipennis, sp. nov., wing. 

,, 6. — Eriocera hicolor, Macq., wing. 

,, 7. — E. cincfa, nom. nov. {cingulata, Brun. preocc. De Meij.), win^ 

,, 8. — E. greeni, Brun., wing. 

,, 9. — E. gravelyi, sp. nov., wing. 

,, 10. — E. rufithorax, Brun., wing. 

,, 11. — E. plumbicincta, Brun., wing. 

,, 12. — E. decorata, sp. nov., wing. 

,, 13. — E. nepaleyisis, Westw., wing. 

,, 14. — E. sumatrensis, Macq., wing. 

,, 15. — E. flavipes, Brun., wing. 

,, 16. — E. nigerritna, Brun., wing. 



Rec Ind. Mus.,Vol. XV, 1918. 



PLATE VII. 














12 








D, Bagchi. del. 



Photogravure-Sm-vey of India Offices. Calcutta,1918. 



OR.IENTAL TIPULID^ 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIIL 

Fig. I. — Xiphura indica, sp. nov., antenna. 

2. — Psellio'phora flavofasciata, sp. nov., abdomen in profile. 

3. — Id., wing. 

4. — Tipula serricornis, Bruii., base of antennae. 

5. — Id., sp. nov., idem. 

6. — Dolichopeza costalis, sp. nov., wing. 

7. — Limnohia tnarginata, sp. nov., wing. 

8. — L. 5-notata, sp. nov., wing. 

9. — L. tritincta, sp. nov., wing. 

10. — Gymnastes pennipes, sp. nov., hind leg. 

11. — Teucholabis angusticapitis, sp. nov., head and thorax, dorsal 
view. 

12. — Id., head in profile. 

13. — Id., tip of proboscis. 

14. — Limnophila flavipennis, sp. nov., wing. 

15. — E^nphragma vicina, sp. nov., wing. 

16. — E. klossi, sp. nov., wing. 

17. — Dicranophragma muUipunctipennis , sp. nov., wing. 

18. — Eriocera maculiventris, sp. nov., wing. 

19. — E. acrostacta, Wied., wing. 



Rec. Ind. Mus.,Vol.XV 1918. 



PLATE VIII. 




D Ba£i<;lu, dol. 



Photogra^'ure _ Survey of luJia Offices, Cai. ; 



ORIENTAL TIPULID^ 



XXIII. NOTES FROM THE BENGAL FISHERIES 
LABORATORY. 

No. 5. PARASITES OF INDIAN FISHES, WITH A NOTE ON 
CARCINOMA IN THE CLIMBING PERCH. 

By T. Southwell, A.R.C.Sc. {Lond.), F.Z.S., Director of Fisheries. 
Bengal and Bihar and Orissa, and Honorary Assistant, Indian 
Museum ; and Baini Prashad, M.Sc., Superintendent of Fisheries. 

(Plates X-XIV.) 
CONTENTS. 

PAOE. 

1. On the occurrence of the Colloid Carcinouja on the body of the climbing- 

perch {Anabas scnndens, Dald.) 

2. On some Indian Myxosporidia 

3. Some Fish Trematodes 

4. Note on DiscocepJialum jAlmtum, Linton 

5. Two new species of Parasitic Copepods 



341 
344 

348 
351 
352 



Introduction. 

"With the exception of the first part, describing a carcinoma in the 
climbing-perch, the following paper deals with a variety of parasites 
of Indian fishes. All the material was collected in the latter half 
of the year 1917 and the early part of the year 1918, except the 
Trematoda described. 

I. ON THE OCCURRENCE OF COLLOID CARCINOMA ON THE 
BODY OF THE CLIMBING-PERCH [AN ABAS SCAN DENS, 
DALD.). 

Plate X. 

1. Introduction. — During April, 1917 investigations relating to the 
breeding habits of various fishes w^ere made by the Department, in cer- 
tain beels in the Khulna district, Bengal. On May 4th, 1917 a number 
of young specimens (about 70) of the climbing-perch {Anahas scandens, 
Dald.) roughly 1 cm . long were collected from a beel and brought 
to Calcutta. These were kept in an aquarium. No care whatever 
was taken of them. Between May 4th and the beginning of October 
the water in which the fish w^ere placed was only changed once. The 
specimens were not fed except on five or six occasions when the office 
attendant casually threw^ in a handful or so of parched paddy (khai). 
By the beginning of October only twenty fish remained, the rest having 
died and been eaten by the survivors. They had then grown to a length 
of 14 centimetres. About the beginning of August, it was noticed that 
two of the fish had developed conspicuous outsrowths on various parts 

H 



342 Becords of the Indian Museirm. [YoL. XY, 

of the body. On October 10th three fish were found to be affected. 
These were preserved. The present account deals with the natiire and 
structure of the outgrowths noted above. Observations on the remain- 
ing 17 fishes, which are still living under the same conditions (April 1st). 
are being continued. 

2. Technique. — The outgrowths were cut off from one of the living 
fish and preserved in corrosive acetic solution. This fish, along with 
the two others, was preserved in 90 per cent, alcohol. One of the 
outgrowths was teased out and permanently mounted in dilute glycerine. 
Sections of the tumour were also cut with a Minot's microtome by the 
ordinary paraffin method. These were stained with Heidenhain's iron 
haematoxylin followed by eosin. 

3. Appearance and occurrence. — The outgrowths are remarkable in 
having a mulberry-shaped appearance. They are much divided, nodular 
masses (fig. 4) attached to the body of the fish by very short stalks. 
They vary considerably in appearance and occur in various situations. 
In one fish two masses were present on the left side, one attached 
a little above the operculum and the second about half an inch in front of 
the first (fig. 1). A very small one was developing below the eye, whilst 
a fourth was present on the mid- ventral line in the region of the throat. 

In the second specimen (fig. 2) a large .outgrowth had developed 
above the right eye. A similar but very much smaller one was present 
over the left eye. A third was to be seen on the right side, about half an 
inch behind the eye. A small outgrowth was hanging pendant from the 
upper jaw on the right side ; another from the lateral edge of the oper- 
culum on the right side. A small one was also present on the fin- 
rays of the ventral fin. 

In the third fish (fig. 3) the main outgrowth was on the tip of the 
snout. A smaller one y-as attached to the ventral edge of the operculum, 
on the ventral side, near the throat. Another was situated a little in 
front of the pelvic fins, whilst still another large outgrowth was to be 
seen on the base of one of the spines of the dorsal fin. Another small 
one was also present on the upper margin of the caudal fin. 

4. Structure. — The tumours are undoubtedly infiltrating epithelial 
neoplasms, or malignant epitheliomas, designated as Carcinomas by 
Orth. They are of an alveolo-tubular type, the greater proportion 
of these being solid. On teasing out a portion of the tumour it is seen 
to consist of large polygonal cells filled up almost entirely with large 
numbers of small glistening drops of colloid substance. The nuclei 
of these cells could not be distinguished in the glycerine mounts. They 
were, however, seen in the stained sections. The greater portion of the 
carcinoma is of a regular formation. The epithelium is closely packed, 
but very extensively vacuolated. Here and there, particularly where 
the outgrowths arise from the external surface, we find that the alveoli 
have coalesced to form large tubular cavities. These tubular cavities 
.are lined by epithelium which also is vacuolated. Around the vacuoles, 
colloid material can be seen as deeply staining granules filling up the 
rest of the epithelial cells. The core of these wart-like outgrowths 
consists of connective tissue ; pigment corpuscles arc present both in 
the connective tissue and in the epithelial cells, 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. Phashad : Indian Fish Parasites. '343 

5. General covsideratior'S. — A summary of the history of this disease 
amongst fishes, and the literature relating thereto, has ah'eady been 
given by one of us (2) and need not therefore be recapitulated. These 
tumours do not occur in fishes living under natural conditions. They 
only arise when fish are placed under artificial surroundings, such as 
occur in aquariums and hatcheries. These artificial conditions react on 
the fish in such a way that anomalous tissue, of thyroid nature, arises, 
either as a single tumour (as in trout), or a series of tumours (as in the 
climbing-perch). It is impossible to say whether these tumours are 
derived directly from the cells of the thyroid gland or not. A specific 
organism is suspected, but as yet no such organism has been isolated. 

The tumours from the climbing-perch described above differ in cer- 
tain respects from similar tumours described by other writers from 
other species of fish. 

The colloid carcinomas recorded up to the present are rounded 
structures with smooth surfaces. Ours, as we have pointed out, may 
present the appearance of a series of closely approximated nodules, 
attached to each other, and to the body of the fish, by a short stalk. 
In other cases the surface of the tumour is rugose and the nodulai 
appearance is less distinct. Quite young tumours are flatfish or mush- 
room shaped. 

The colloid carcinoma described by one of us (2) from a trout caught 
in the Punjab was enclosed in a tough fibrous capsule or cyst. The 
ones described from the climbing-perch are not encapsuled but mereh' 
covered with epithelium. It is clear, therefore, that the tumours ma}' 
either be encapsuled or not, in accordance probably with their point oi 
origin. Gaylord and Marsh (1) in discussing anomalous deposits of thyroid 
nature in fishes state that : " as the thyroid is a somewhat diffuse organ 
one might expect to find instances of remotely placed deposits. We are 
therefore surprised to find the sharp delimitation to the region already 
described which appears to exist in our wild specimens, with one marked 
exception, i.e., the jugular pit to which reference has already been made. 
It has been assumed by some writers that aberrant thyroid deposits in 
some region might be frequently expected. This has been due to the 
development of tumour nodules in regions beyond the normal and usual 
seat of distribution, such as the low^er mouth parts and gill arch region. 
The only outlying tumours of this sort which may be inferred with 
certainty to arise from original deposits of thyroid are the so-called pit- 
tumours." 

The observations made on the tumors found in the climbing-perch 
show that thyroid deposits may occur anywhere in the fish, as internal 
or external growths. It is, however, impossible to decide at present 
whether such thyroid deposits are original or secondary. 

It will be obvious that in the climbing-perch, the tumors being 
disposed as masses of tissue over the surface of the body, it is not im- 
possible in some cases for the fish to remove them by rubbing the affected 
part against a solid substance. The tumors are, however, somewhat 
firmly attached. Whether removal in this manner would invariably 
result in spontaneous recovery may be doubted, since the tumours in 
question have a deep-seated origin. 

h2 



344 Record.'^ of ihe Indian Mvseum. [Vol. XV, 

Literature cited — 

1. Gaylord, H. R. and Marsh, M. C. — Carcinoma of the Thyroid 

in the Salmonoid fishes. Institute for the 
study of Malignant diseases. Serial No. 
99. Washington, 1914. 

2. Southwell, T. — Notes from Bengal Fisheries Laboratory. 

Indian Museum, No. 2. On some Indian 
parasites of fish with a note on Carcinoma in 
Trout. Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XI, Part IV, 
No. 16, August, Calcutta, 1915. 

II. ON SOME INDIAN MYXOSPORIDIA. 
Plate XI. 

Except for a short note on a species of Myxoholus by one of us (9) 
practically nothing is known about the Indian Myxosporidia, Whilst 
working out the collections made by the Bengal Fisheries Department 
during the last few months we found three new species of the genus 
Myxoholus, Biitschli. Two of the species are unicapsulate forms, whilst 
the third is bicapsulate. A short note on another Myxosporidian of the 
genus Sfhaerosfora, Thelohan, in the collection of the Zoological Survey 
of India, is also included here. 

Myxobolus rohitae, sp. nov. 

This interesting parasite was found infesting the gills of Laheo rohita 
(Ham. Buch.). The fishes in question were caught in the Turag river 
at Mirpur, district Dacca, on the 2nd of June, 1917. A second lot of 
specimens was obtained on the 22nd of January, 1918. Unfortunately 
no observations were made on the living material, but well preserved 
specimens of the gills have enabled us to make a fairly complete study 
of the parasite. The infection was of a very heavy nature, involving 
all the gills of the fish in question, and, as will be seen from fig. 1, the 
cysts were scattered all over the surface of each of the gills. In one 
case 53 such cysts were counted on one surface of a single gill. The 
infection was equally severe over the rest of the gills of both the right and 
left sides. 

Serial sections of the cyst, 3 to 4 fji thick, were cut by the ordinary 
paraffin method, and stained with Giemsa's solution, or Heidenhain's 
iron haematoxylin, followed by eosin. Besides sections, cysts were 
dissected and the spores thus removed were examined unstained, and 
also stained with Giemsa's solution. The sections of the cysts were 
found to be quite satisfactory and showed all the necessary stages. 

The cyst (fig. 1). — The cysts preserved in spirit are of a creamy- 
yellow colour, measuring 3"1- — ^3*8 mm. long and 0*8 — 1*2 mm. broad. 
They lie with the long axis of the cyst parallel to the gill-filaments. 
The cyst varies in shape from oval to cylindrical. The ends are rounded 
while the surface attached to the gill-filaments is flattened. The 
infected gill-filaments were in no way specially enlarged or different 
from the other gill-filaments. 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. Peashad : Indian Fish Parasites. 345 

The wall of the cyst is formed of a vertically striated portion showing 
no nuclei. This part takes up the cytoplasmic eosin-stain only. It is 
covered externally by an epithelium two to three layers thick. Internal 
to the vertically striated portion of the cyst there is the endoplasmic 
layer. The layer shows a coarse granular structure ; the nuclei, which 
lie scattered in the cytoplasm, are either round or elongated, and 
measure 3 to 5 /x in length. No cell limits could, however, be dis- 
covered. 

In all the cysts examined, spore formation had already proceeded 
to an advanced stage, and it was clear that the whole of the cavity in 
the middle of the cyst was occupied by mature spores, whilst the pan- 
sporoblasts and the immature spores were lying round the periphery. 
In many cases these pan-sporoblasts were seen lying amongst the nuclei 
of the endoplasm. 

Formation of the spores. — In the endoplasm two sorts of nuclei are 
to be seen, viz., the vegetative and the generative. The latter always 
occur in rounded cells, which have been variously designated as " spheres 
primitives " by Thelohan, " pan-sporoblasts " by Gurley, and " Propa- 
gation Zellen " by Keysselitz. They are, as has been described above, 
of a rounded shape, with a marginally situated nucleus (figs. 2-4). These 
cells vary in size from 6 to 11/^, and, in the nucleus, a distinct caryosom 
can easily be distinguished. The pan-sporoblasts were in all cases 
seen to divide mitotically into two (figs. 5-9). In this particular 
the present species differs from Myxobolus toyamai, Kudo, where the 
pan-sporoblasts divide into two or three daughter cells. In the division 
of the pan-sporoblasts, the chromatin was seen first to form a coiled 
thread, which later on splits up by mitosis into two parts, one for each 
of the daughter cells. The next stage that occurs is one in which two 
cells are united together (fig. 10). These cells are the micro- and macro- 
gametes, a fact which is evident from the size of the cells. No separate 
micro- or macro-gametes were found. The next stage in the union of 
these two cells is the formation of a sinuous chromation thread in the 
nucleus of the macro-gamete (fig. 12). The nuclear membrane of the 
micro-gamete was next seen to disappear. At the same time the nucleus 
of the macro-gamete showed a chromatin thread, and in the next stage 
two chromatin spiral threads were to be seen, lying in the cytoplasms 
of the micro- and macro-gametes respectively. Each of these chromatin 
threads splits up into two, and four nuclei, two large and two small, 
are formed in the united cystoplasmic substance of the micro- and macro- 
gametes (figs. 13-17). In our preparations the next stage seen is a 
pan-sporoblast cell with five fully formed nuclei, surrounded by definitely 
marked cystoplasmic areas, and a large chromatin mass lying free (fig. 
18). In the final stage ten fully formed nuclei can be distinguished 
in the mother pan-sporoblast, besides two nuclei for the pan-sporoblast 
mother cell, and reduction nuclear chromatin particles lying free in the 
cystoplasm of the mother cell. Intermediate stages are also present. 
The pan-sporoblast next divides into two daughter cells or sporoblasts, 
each with five nuclei ; two of these unite later on to form the nucleus 
of the sporoplasm portion of the spore, the one which is seen lying close 
to a vacuole forms the nucleus for the polar capsule and the other two 



346 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. X\, 

are for the spore membrane. Thus the transformation into the adult 
spore is brought about (figs. 24-25). 

Structure of the spore. — A fully formed spore is an elongated pear- 
shaped body, rounded at the posterior extremity and acutely pointed 
anteriorly (fig. 26). It is symmetrical bilaterally, but not antero- 
posteriorly. The size of the spore varies from 30 to 32 fx in length, 
and from 7 to 8 jui in breadth. The spore-wall is formed of two valves ; 
the point of junction of these valves is distinctly thickened, and can be 
seen, in a side view, as a slightly raised ridge. The ridge lies parallel 
to the long axis of the spore. Only one }iolar capsule is present in each 
spore. It is of a large size, 22 to 23 jx in length, and has the same shape 
as the parent spore. In the polar capsule a much coiled thread can be 
easily seen, as also the opening of the duct for the extrusion of the 
thread or polar filament at the anterior pointed extremity of the capsule 
and the spore (fig. 27). The length of the polar filament, in the spores 
measured, varied from 92 to 97 fJt. The nucleus of the capsulogenous 
cell is seen lying at the periphery of the polar capsule, on one side, near 
the posterior extremity, as an elongated body. In the protoplasm 
of the spore itself an iodinophilous vacuole, 3 '6 jx in diameter, is pre- 
sent. Lying just posterior to it is the nucleus of the spore. A few 
granules of chromatin were also seen lying scattered in the proto- 
plasm. 

Systematic position. — From the preceding description it will be 
clear that our form is a Myxosporidian. Following Labbe's classifica- 
tion it falls in the Family Myxobolidae, and the genus Myxoholus, 
Butschli, in having bilateral symmetry and a bi-valve shell, with the 
valve junction plane parallel to the long axis of the spore, and further 
in having an iodinophilous vacuole in the protoplasm of the spore, and a 
single polar capsule at the anterior end. 

The species of this genus are grouped under two heads, viz., one with 
a single and the other with two polar capsules. So far, only five uni- 
capsulate species of the genus Myxobolus have been recorded. These 
are : — 

M. piriformis, Thelohan. 
M. unicapsulatus, Gurley. 
M. fufirmanni, Auerbach. 
M. ocuU-leucisci, Trojan. 
M. toyamai, Kudo. 

Our form, like M. piriformis and M. toyamai, occurs on the branchiae, 
and differs in this respect from the other three unicapsulate forms. Com- 
pared with all the previously described unicapsulate forms our species 
is a very large one. Tlie size of the cyst, the spore, and the polar cap- 
sule is much larger than in any of the other forms, and these are the 
characters on which the classification is chiefly based. The shape of 
the spore slightly resembles that of M. toyamai, though the anterior 
extremity of the spore, instead of being attenuated, is sharply pointed. 
Calabash-shaped spores, recorded from M. toyamai, are not present in 
our species. For, these reasons we consider the present form to be a 
new one, and have called it Myxoholus rohitae after the name of the host. 

Habitat. — The gills of Laheo rohita (Ham. Buch). 



I9l8. j T. Southwell & B. Prashad : Indian FisJi Parasites. Ml 

Turag river, Mirpur, Dacca district, Bengal, June, 1917. Numerous 
cysts. 

Type specimens in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India 
(Indian Museum), Calcutta, numbered P \^. 

Myxobolus seni, sp. no v. 

Cyst (Fig. 28.). — Elongated, ellipsoidal, varying in length from 
J:"7 mm. to 5'4 mm. by 2*9 to 3'7 mm. in breadth. Whitish with black 
scattered granules on the surface. 

Spore (Figs. 29-31.). — Body oval, much wider behind than in front 
and pointed at the anterior end. The size of the spore varies from 
13-2 fi — 13'6 fJL in length and 10-1 [X — 10-3 ju- in breadth. The spore wall 
is formed of two valves, the point of junction of these valves is slightly 
thickened as seen in a side view\ There is a single polar capsule about 
4 ju. long ; in it there is a much coiled polar filament, which in one case 
measured as much as 43 /x in length. lodinophilous vacuole measuring 
2 '3 JUL is also to be seen. 

Habitat. — On the median and caudal fins of Laheo rohita (Ham. 
Buch.) Mirpur, Dacca, 22nd January 1918. 

Type specimens in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India, 
Calcutta, numbered P y^. 

Remarks. — This species differs very remarkably from the other species 
described in this paper as M. rohitae, in the spores being of a much 
smaller size, while the cyst is much larger. It differs from all previously 
described unicapsulate forms in the shape and size of the cyst, the spore 
and polar capsules. 

Myxobolus nodularis, sp. nov. 

Cyst (Figs. 32 and 33.). — Eounded or slightly elongated, varying 
in length from 3-5 — 3-8 mm. and 2 3 — 2 '8 mm. in breadth. Creamy 
yellow in colour, in one case appearing blackish owing to the large num- 
ber of black granules scattered in its surface. 

Spore (Figs. 34-36.). — Ovoidal. The size of a spore is 9 /x by 7-2 /x. 
The spore wall is formed of two valves, and the junction of the valves 
is very thick, as is seen in a lateral view of the spore. There are two 
capsules of equal size, measuring 3 '4 f.i in length. The polar filament 
in each of the capsules is very much coiled. In a spore in which the 
filaments were extruded, they measured 18"3 ju, in length. 

Habitat. — In the muscles of Rashora danieonius (Ham. Buch.) occur- 
ring in two fishes on the side?, and in another as a globular cyst near 
the anus. Mirpur, Dacca, 7th June 1917. 

Type specimens in the collection of the Zoological Survey of India, 
numbered P ^^ . 

Sphaerospora sp. 

We would here record the occurrence of a species of Sphaerospora, 
Thelohan, from Burma. The poor condition of the- material did not 
allow of a complete account of its structure, but the bicapsulate, 
rounded structure of its spores places it undoubtedly in the genus 



348 Records of ilic Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

Sphaerospora, Thelohan. The cysts occurred in very large numbers, 
one under each scale. They were found on a specimen of Barilius 
barna (Ham. Buch.) collected in June 1915, b}' J. Coggin Brown, Esq., 
of the Geological Survey of India, from the vicinity of the Ruby Mines, 
Burma. 

Literature cited — 

1. Auerbach, M. — Bemerkungen uber Myxosporidien. Zool. 

Anz. M. Leipzig, 1909. 

2. ,, Studien uber die Myxosporidien der Nor- 

wegischen Seefische, und ihre Verbreitung. 
Zool. Jahr., Syst. 24. Jena, 1912. 

3. Cohn Ludwig. — Uber die Myxosporidien von Esox lucius und 

Perca fluviatilis. Zool. Jahrh.. Anat. Ahfh., 
Vol. IX. Jena, 1896. 

4. Gurley, R. R. — On the classification of the Myxosporidia, a 

group of Parasites infesting fish. Bull. U. 
S. Fish Commission, Vol. XI. Washington, 
1891. 

5. Keysselitz, G. — Die Entwicklung von Myxobolus pfeifferi, 

Thel. ArcJi. f. 'Protistenk.,'Xl. Jena, 1908. 

6. Kudo, R. — Contributions to the study of Parasitic Protozoa 

II. Myxobolus toyamai, n. sp., a new Myxos- 
poridian parasite, in Cyprinus carpio, Lin. 
Journal of Parasitology, Vol. II, No. 4. 
Urbana, Illinois, U. S. A., June, 1917. 

7. Labbe, A. — Sporozoa. In " Das Tierreich." Berlin, 1899. 

8. Minchin. — Treatise on Zoology, edited by E. Ray Lankester. 

Protozoa, Part I. London, 1903. 

9. Southwell, T. — Notes from the Bengal Fisheries Laboratory, 

Indian Museum. '■ On some Indian Parasites 
of Fish with a note on Carcinoma in Trout." 
Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XI. Calcutta, 1915. 
10. Trojan, E. — Ein Myxobolus im Auge von Leuciscus rutilus. 
Zool. Anz. 34. Leipzig, 1909. 



III. SOME FISH TREMATODES. 

(Plate XII.) 

We here describe a new species of the genus Clinostomuni, Leidy. 
A small collection of encysted larval Trematodes is also described. 

(a) Clinostomum piscidium, sp. nov. 

Introduction.-- The specimens dealt with in this communication 
were first collected from the mesentery of Trichogaster fasciatus, 
on April 16, 1915, at Khulna, Bengal. Since then specimens have 
been obtained from the mesentery of Nandus nandus ^ (May 1917), 

^ Nandus iruxrmjratus of the " Fauna of British Indi'i." 



19LS.] T. Southwell & B. Pkashad : Indian Fish, Parasites. 349 

from the same place. On the latter occasion it was found that 
they were quite common in T. jasciatus as well. The specimens 
were found to be moving freely on the mesentery and were not 
encysted. 

They are fiat semi-oval worms (fig. 1), varying in size from 
2-8 mm. — 5-2 mm. in length by 1-i mm. — 1-8 mm. in breadth. The body 
is compressed, with a small circular sucker {s.i.) at the anterior end, 
and a much larger spherical sucker-like acetabulum {s.ii.) behind the 
anterior one. The mouth-opening lies within the anterior sucker. 
There is no pharynx. The alimentary canal is forked, the intestinal 
caecae {Int.) reaching the posterior extrensity. These intcfctinal caecae 
shew short lateral projections on both sides. The excretory pore {E. 0.) 
is situated at the extreme posterior end, connected with a triangular 
excretory vesicle {E. v.), which lies behind the genital organs. 
The gonads lie in the middle third of the body. The testes (T) are 
roughly pyriform structures with the margins slightly indented, the 
anterior testis is much larger than the posterior one. From the end 
of each of the testis the tubular vas deferns {r. d.) leads to the base 
of the large cirrus sac (c\ s.) situated alongside the anterior testis ; 
the two vasa deferentia here unite to form the slightly swollen vesicula 
seminalis, which is only the beginning of the much coiled tube lying 
in the cirrus-sac ; the end portion of this tube — the ejaculatory duct — • 
leads into the genital atrium {G. a.). The ovary {ov.) is an ovoidal 
structure, with entire margins, lying in between the two testes. From 
the ovary a thin tubular oviduct after making several loops in the 
space between the two testes, and receiving a duct from the yolk recep- 
tacle, is continued in a straight upward course outside the anterior 
testis, and then curves inwards to open into the uterus. The uterus 
[ut.) which is a large structure lying in the middle line, and extending 
anteriorly up to the lower margin of the posterior sucker (s. ^^.), is con- 
stricted posteriorly to open into the genital atrium. The genital atrium 
{G. a.) lies near the anterior edge of the cirrus-sac receiving in its cavity 
the openings of both the male and the female ducts. The genital ]:)ore 
{G. P.), or the opening of the genital atrium, lies in the middle line about 
the middle of the animal. 

The vitelline glands (v) lie scattered on the two limbs of the intestine. 
The vitelline duct {Vt. d.) comes from the yolk glands and is seen to be 
formed of a number of fine branches, the ducts from the two sides meet 
in the middle to form a sac-like yolk receptacle, which as stated above 
opens into the oviduct. 

A nerve collar {N . C), with two nerves running posteriorly from it, 
can be seen surrounding the alimentary canal, just before forking takes 
place. 

The hermaphrodite nature of the worm, the two suckers, the position 
of the acetabvdum, the situation of the ovary between the two testes 
(which are non-digitate), the genital pore being situated posterior to the 
acetabulum, and the intestine having short lateral projections, place the 
worm undoubtedly in the genus Clinostomum, Leidy (4). The present 
species, however, differs from all previously described species, and we 
therefore name it Clinostomum piscidium, sp. nov. 



350 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XY, 

Habitat.— -The mesentery of Trichogaster fasciatus, Bl. Schn., also 
found on the mesentery of Nandus nandus (Cuv. and Val.), Klmhia, 
district Khulna, Bengal, April 1915, and May 1917. Nmnerous speci- 
mens ; types in the collection of tiie Zoological Survey of India (Indian 
Museum), No. W \^ 

Literature cited — 

1. Braun, M. — Vermes, A. Trematodes ; Bronn's TJderreicJis, 

Bd. IV. Leipzig, 1892-93. 

2. ,, Die Arten der Gattung Clinostomum Leidy. 

Zool. Jahrb., Ahtli. f. Sijst., Bd. XIV, Heft 
I. Jena, 1900. 

3. Faust, E. E. — Notes on the Cercaria of the Bitter Root 

Valley, Montana. Journal of Parasitology, 
Vol. III. Urbana, Illinois, March, 1917. 

4. Leidy, J. — A synopsis of Entozoa, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Philadelphia, 1856. 

5. Looss, A. — Beitr. zur. Kenntn. der. Trematoden. Z. wiss. 

Zool, Vol. 41. Leipzig, 1885. 

6. Liihe, M. — Die Sussivasserfauna Deutschlands 1. Trema- 

todes. Jena, 1909. 

7. Osborn, H. L. — -On the structure of Clinostomum marginatum 

a trematode parasite of the frog, bass and 
heron. Journ Morph. XXIII, 1912. 

8. Pratt, H. S. — Synopsis of North American Invertebrates, 

"XII. The Trematodes, Part II. The As- 
pidocot3dea and the Malacocotylea, or Di- 
cenetic forms. American Naturalist, Vol. 
XXXVI, No. 431, Boston, November 1902, 
and No. 452, December 1902. 

{b) On a small collection of encysted larval Trematodes oy 

SOME Indian fishes. 

This is a record of the occurrence of encysted cercaria, of five different 
types, found in various situations in some of the commoner Indian fishes. 
As the sexual organs were not developed, and as the whole classification 
of the adult Trematodes is based on the disposition of the generative 
organs, we are unable to identify them further than to say that they 
belong to the family Distomidae. The larval characters on which the 
classification of the redia has been attempted by Liihe (3) and by Lebour 
(2) do not help in further elucidating the situation of these forms. 
The classification, according to Liihe, all depends on the different forms 
assumed by the tails. Lebour's classification depends, on the other 
hand, on whether the cercariae develop in sporocysts or in redia. As 
will be clear both these classifications are extremely artificial and are 
not, in most cases, of much assistance in identification, particularly of 
encysted forms ; in such cases the tail of the cercaria is dropped before 
encystment and the adult characters have not as yet developed. At 
the same time we know nothing as to whether the cercaria were deve- 
loped in sporocysts or in redia. 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. I^rasiiad : Indran Fish Parasites. - 351 

In all our forms we can distinguish the anterior sucker, and an ace- 
tabulum lymg near he anterior end on the ventral surface. The ali- 
mentary canal is bifurcate and ends blindly, posteriorly. No spines 
are present. In one of the forms an excretory vesicle is to be seen 
Fiom these characters it is obvious that all the forms beloni. to the 
Distomidae. We append herewith a table showing the fish-h^sts. the 
size of the parasites, and the situation where found. 




Saccobranchus foss lis, 
Bloch. 



Ojihiocephaius miru- 
lius, Ham. Buch. 



Ophiocephalus slriatus, 
Bloch. 

Do. . 



Trichocjaster fasciatus, 
BI. Schn. 



Lateral muscles 



Wall of intestine 

Lateral muscles 
Do. 
Do. 



0-5 mm. by 0-17 
mm. (Fig. 2). 



1-2 mm. by 0-3 
mm. (Figs. 3 
and 3«). 

4-1 mm. by 1-7 
mm. (Fig. 4). 

6-2 mm. by 3-6 
mm. (Fig. 5). 

1-3 mm. by 0-6 
mm. (Fig. 6). 



Beel Kola, Khulna, 
Khulna district, 
17th April, 1915. 

Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Khulna market, 
Khulna district, 
16th April, 191.5. 



Literature cited — 

1. Cort, W. W.— Some North American larval Trematodes. 

Illinois Biological Monographs, Vol. I, No. 
4. Urbana, Illinois, U. S. A., 1915 

2. Lebour, M. V.~A review of the British Marine Cercariae. 

Parasitology. Cambridge, 1912. 

3. Luhe, m.~Die Susswasser fauna Deutschlands. (I) Tremato- 

des. Jena, 1909. 



IV. NOTE ON DISCOCEPHALUM PILEAWM, LINTON. 

Our specimens of this tapeworm were collected from Carcharinus 
W«^.c.. Mull, and Henle, collected in the Pusser river, Khulna. on 
October 21st, 1917. 

We had 7 specimens. 

Length 17 cms. 

Number of proglottides in a specimen, counted— lOO 

Length of neck — 5-2 mm. 

Last proglottid — 
Length — 5-2 mm. 
Breadth — 2-1 mm. 

The specimens differed from Linton's in the following particulars •— 

1. Size. 

2. Absence of orange coloured bands. 



352 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

3. Size and shape of the proglottides. 

4. Colour being pure white. 

5. Genital pores being irregularly alternate. 
(). Uterine cavities being absent. 

V. TWO NEW SPECIES OF PARASITIC COPEPODS. 

Ergasilus bengalensis, sp. nov. 
(Plate XIII.) 

Female (Fig. 1). — Head and first thoracic segment completely 
tused, with no indication of the line of union. The resulting cephalo- 
thorax is more or less elliptical, a little arched dorsally, and about twice 
as long as broad. No rostrum. First three free thoracic segments less 
than half the width of the carapace. The third, fourth and fifth thoracic 
segments regularly diminishing in length and breadth ; all three how- 
ever are distinct. Genital segment barrel-shaped, with the sides evenly 
rounded, slightly longer than broad and about one and a half times the 
breadth of the fifth thoracic segment. Abdomen three-jointed and a 
little more than half the length of the genital segment. First segment 
longer than the second, which is slightly smaller than the third. The 
first segment is also longer than the third. Anal laminae rhomboidal, 
nuich longer than the last abdominal joint, each tipped with two setae, 
the inner seta nearly twice the length of the outer one. Egg sacs cigar- 
shaped, smaller than the animal in length, and one-fourth the breadth 
of the carapace with the six longitudinal rows of eggs. About 120 eggs 
in each sac. 

First atennae (fig. 2) six-jointed ; joints of unequal length and width, 
last three segments setose, terminal joint with four setae. Second 
antennae (fig. 3) four- jointed, first joint roughly triangular, with the 
base attached to the ventral surface of the carapace. The second 
joint is attached to the anterior upper surface of the first joint, a little 
below the apex ; it is more than twice as long as the first, and the third 
joint is attached to its chisel-shaped distal extremity. The third joint 
is slightly smaller than the second, and considerably narrower. The 
terminal fourth joint has the form of a curved claw. 

Mouth farts (Fig. 4). — Labrum {La) large, not reaching the base of 
the first maxillae. Mandibles [md.) with the cutting edge curved up- 
wards and forwards, and with a group of spines at their inner edge ; 
mandibular palps large, triangular, densely covered with setae. Basal 
portion of the first maxillae {ma-, i.) is an oval papilla with two large 
spines, of which the inner one is longer than the outer. The second 
maxillae {mx. ii.) have a broad base with a much smaller distal end, this 
end bearing a tuft of bristles on its anterior margin only. Labrum {Lb.) 
flap-like, with the ends running to the curved portion of the second 
maxillae. 

First four pairs of swimming legs (figs. 5-8) biramose, all the rami 
three-jointed, except the exopod of the fourth pair, which has two joints. 
Fifth pair much reduced, knob-like, with a single spine. Basal joint 
of all quite broad. 



1—0 


0—2 


1—4 


0—0 


0—2 


1—5 


1-0 


0—2 


11—5 


0—2 


0—2 


1—3 


1—0 


0—2 


11—5 


0—2 


0—4 


1—4 


0—0 


111—4 




0—2 


0—2 


1—3 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. Prashad : hulian Fish Parasites. 353 

The arrangement of the spines on the first four pairs is as follows : — 

First exopod 

„ endopod 
Second exopod 

„ endopod ... 
Third exopod 

„ endopod 
Fourth exopod 

„ endopod ... 

Colour of specimens preserved in spirit milky-white, with mimito 
black pigment spots scattered on the dorsal surface of the carapace. 

mm. 
Length ... ... ... ... ... 1-22 

Length of carapace ... ... ... ... 0-71 

Breadth of carapace ... ... ... ... 0-39 

Length of egg-strings ... ... ... ... 1-09 

Breadth of egg-strings ... ... ... 0-14 

From the gills of Wallago offu (Bl. Schn.), Mirpur, district Dacca, 
Bengal, 3rd June, 1917. 

Many specimens. Types in the collection of the Zoological Survey 
of India, numbered ^y^^. 

No males were obtained. 



Ergasilus hamiltoni, sp. nov. 
(Plate XIV.) 

Female tFig. 1). — Cephalothorax a little more than half the entire 
length and one and a half times as long as broad. First thoracic segment 
distinctly separated from the head by a groove. Head transversely 
elliptical, with evenly rounded anterior margin. First thoracic segment 
three times longer and a little wider than the head, quadrilateral in 
outline, with acutely rounded corners. Second, third, fourth and fifth 
thoracic segments diminishing regularly in length but about the same 
width. Sixth, or the genital segment, thrice as wide as the fifth thoracic ; 
barrel-shaped, with rounded sides. 

Abdomen three-jointed, the segments diminishing regularly in 
length and width, the terminal one deeply notched in the middle. Anal 
laminae more or less squarish, smaller in width than the last abdominal 
segment, and tipped with two setae, the inner of which is three times the 
length of the outer. Egg sacs two-thirds the length of the entire body, 
ellipsoidal ; eggs large, arranged in five longitudinal rows, 60-65 in each 
sac. 

First antennae (fig. 2) six-jointed, joints diminishing regularly in 
length and breadth ; all segments setose. The second antennae (fig. 3) 
arc attached to the ventral surface just posterior to the bases of the first 
})air. They are four-jointed, first or basal joint large and swollen, 
the second joint one and a half time as long as the first, third joint 



354 Records of the Indian Museum. [Vol. XV, 

curved and half the length of the second, the fourth or terminal joint has 
the usual claw-like appearance. 

Month parts (Fig. 4). — Labruni {La) extensively fused with the head, 
distinguishable only as a curved line reaching the bases of the mandi- 
bular palps. Mandibles {Md) with a short and broad basal joint, neck 
long and narrow, the cutting blade much longer than broad, and armed 
along the inner margin only. The mandibular palps elongated, with 
seta on the upper surface only. Basal portion of the first maxillae 
{mx. i) reduced to a circular papilla only, with two stout setae arising 
from the centre. The second maxillae {mx. ii) have a broad basal 
portion, while the distal portion (which is curved along its outer 
margin) appears as a second segment, articulating with the basal 
portion : this distal portion bears setae on its upper free surface. 
Labium {Lb) small, flap-like, and triangular in outline. 

First four pairs of swimming legs (figs. 5 — 8) biramose, all the 
rami three- jointed, except the exopod of the fourth pair, which has 
two joints. The fifth pair reduced to an elongated process only. The 
arrangement of spines on the first four pairs is as follows : — 

First exopod 
„ endopod 
Second exopod 
„ endopod 
Third exopod 

„ endopod 
Fourth exopod 
„ endopod 

Colour of specimens preserved in spirit creamy yellow, with a large 
number of black pigment spots scattered on the dorsal surface of the 
animal. Eyes blackish, trilobate, in the middle of the head. 

mm. 

Length ... ... ... ... ... 0-8 

Length of egg-strings ... ... ... 0-52 

Breadth of egg -strings ... ... ... 0-17 

From the gills of the Anahas scandens (Daldorf). Gosaba, Sunder- 
bans, Bengal, 11th December 1917. 

Three specimens. Types in the collection of the Zoological Survey 
of India, numbered j^-. This species is named in honour of Sir 
Daniel Hamilton of Gosaba, in recognition of the help given by him in 
the work of the Fisheries Department. 

Literature cited — 

1. Basett-Smith, P. W. — Some new or rare Parasitic Copepoda 

found on fish in the Indo-tropical region. 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), Vol. 2, 1898.' 

2. „ A systematic Description of Parasitic 

Copepods found on fishes, with an enu- 
meration of the known species. Prnc. Zool, 
Sac, London, 1899, 



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11—5 


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11 4 


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11—4 



1918.] T. Southwell & B. Prashau .- Indian Fish Parasites, - 355 

3. Gerstaeeker, A. D.— Bronn's Thierreicli, Bd. V, abth. 2. 

Glieder fussier. Lieferuno-, 11 — 16. Leipzig 
u. Heidelberg, 1870-1871. 

4. Sars, G. 0. — An account of the Crustacea of Norway. Vol. 

4. Copepoda Calanoida, Bergen, 1901-03. 

5. Scott, T. and Scott, A.— The British Parasitic Copepoda. 

Copepoda parasitic on Fishes. Vols. 1 
and 2, Ray Society, London, 1913. 

6. Wilson, C. B.— North American Parasitic Copepods belong- 

ing to the family Ergasilidae. Proc. U. 8. 
National Mus,, Vol. 39, Washington, 1911. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fig. 1. — Photograph of side view of Anahas scandens with Carcinoma. 

,, 2. — Photograph of the second specimen. 

,, 3. —Photograph of the third specimen. 

„ 4. — Enlarged view of the warty Carcinoma, x4. 

,, 5. — T. section of the Carcinoma, outgrowth. 



EEC. IND. MUS., VOL. XV, 1918. 




Plate X. 




//^^ 






Carcinoma of Climbing Perch. 



S. C. MiJiKliil, iihiit. 



I'hoto.-eiD-'raved & ]>riiiti-(l at ilie offlrc.^ of tin- Siirvc.v of ItKiia, Calciitia, mix 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 

ITxo, I. — Gill of Laheo rnhita with cysts of Myxoholus rohitae on the 
filaments. 
2-4. — Propaoative cells of M. roJdtae. 
5-9. — Division of propagative cells. 
10 and IL — Union of a micro- and macro-gametes. 

12-20, — Division of the micro- and macro-gametes, and the forma- 
tion of the pan-sporoblast. 
21-22. — Division of the pan-sporoblast into two sporoblast. 
23-25. — Young spores in development. 
26. — Mature spore showing the structure. 
27. — Spore with the polar filament extruded. 

28. — A portion of the caudal fin of Laheo rohita with a cyst of 

Myxoholus seni. 

29-31. — Mature spores of M. seni. 

32-33. — Side views of two specimens of Rashora danicoivius show- 
ing cysts of Myxoholus nodularis. 

34-36. — Mature sjjores of M. nodularis. 



Rec. Ind. Mus.,Vol.XV. 1918. 



PLATE XI. 




B Praahod & A.C. Chowdhajy. da. 



INDIA.N MYXOSI'UIUDIA. 



ITiotogravure _Surv«y of India Officno, C.^Icutla. I31S 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE Xll. 

Fig. 1. — Clinoslomum piscidium. Entire worm showiii,!; the anatomy. 

,, 2. — Cercaria from the lateral muscles of Saccohranchus Jossilis. 

„ 3. — A cyst containing a Cercaria from the wall of the intestine 
of OiiJiiocephalus maruUus. 

„ 3(a). — Another specimen of the same while still enclosed in the 

wall of the intestine. 
,, 4. — Cercaria from the lateral muscles of OpJiiocephalus striatus. 
,, 5. — Cercaria from the lateral muscles of OpJiiocephalus striatus. 
,, 6. — Cercaria from the lateral muscles of Trichogaster fasciatus. 

Explanation of Lettering. 

C. S. Cirrus Sac. Cy. Cyst. E. C. Encysted cercaria. E. 0. Excretory oiiening. 
E. V. Excretory vesicle. G. A. Genital atrium. I. W. Intestinal wall. Int. Intestine. 
N. C. Nerve collar. G. P. Genital pore. Ov. Ovary. 0. d. Oviduct. S(i) Anterior 
sucker. S(ii) Posterior sucker or Acetabulum. T. Testis. Ut. Uterus. V. Vitelline 
siland. V. d. vas deferens. 



Rec. Ind . Mus., Vol. AM1918 



Plate XII 





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3. 



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,-ij< I 



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I 



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\rvt 




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,- 5 0)- 




\-Siii)- 



B . P. del . 



SOME FISH TREMATODES 



--Irut 



A.Cnovydha-i;y- iitii 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIIL 

All the figures are of Ergasilus bengalensis. 
Fig. 1. — Dorsal view of the entire female animal. 
2. — First antenna, 
3. — Second antenna. 
4.— Mouth parts, x 1250. 
5. — First swimming leg. 
6. — Second swimming leg. 
7. — Third swimming leg. 
8. — Fourth swimming leg. 

Explanation of lettering. 

a. i. — a. iii. First to third abdominal, segments. A. 1. anal lamina, an. i. an. ii. 
First and second antennae. E. S. Egg sacs. G. s. Genital segment. La. Labrum. 
Lb. Labium. Md. Mandible. M. p. Mandibular palp. Mx. i., mx. ii. First and 
second maxillae. T. 2 — T. 5. Second to fifth free thoracic segments. 



Rec. Ind. Mus., Vol. XV; ISiS. 



Plate Xm. 




4^. Lb. 



mx.ii. 



B.P. del. 



D.B&gcti Kth. 



ERGASILUS BENGAL EN SIS. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

All the figures are of Ergasilns hamiUoni ; reference lettering same 
as in plate XIII. 

Fig. 1. — Dorsal view of the entire female animal. 

2. — First antenna. 

3. — Second antenna. 

4.— Mouth parts, x 1250, 

5. — First swimming leg. 

G. — Second swimming leg. 

7. — Third swimming leg. 

8. — Fourth swimming leg. 



Rea Ind. Mns., Vol. XV, 1918. 



Plate XrV". 




AL 







B. P. del. 



S.C.Monciul iiih. 



ERGASILUS HAMILTCmN 



.,,.' " =>erials 



5 WHSE 02354 




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